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LIBRARY OF 






1685-1056 



^^ 



AECANA ENTOMOLOGICA; 

OR 

fiUttsttatuins 

OF 

NEW, RARE, AND INTERESTING 

INSECTS. 



BY J. 0. WESTWOOD, F.L.S., 

Hon. Mem. Hist. Soc. Quebec; Soc. Nat. Hist. Boston, U.S.; Mem. Soe. Caes. Nat. Cur. Moscow; Physiogr. Soc. Lund; 

Soc. Roy. Scienc. Lille; Soc. Hist. Nat. Mauritius; Soc. Cuvierr. and Philomat. Paris; Lit. Phil. 

and Nat. Hist. Soc. Belfast, Richmond, Sheffield; Mem. Soe.Entomol. de France; 

Secretary Ent. Soc. London, &c. &c. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



-These waved their limber fans 



For >vings and smallest lineaments exact, 

In all the liveries decked of summer's pride, 

With spots of gold and purple, azure and green." — Milton. 



LONDON: 
WILLIAM SMITH, 113, FLEET STREET. 






LONDON : • 
BIIADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS. 




ARCANA ENTOMOLOGTCA. 



PLATE I. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME ASIATIC CORNUTED SPECIES OF 
CETONIIDjE. 



No group of insects has attracted so much observation as the 
large species of Cetoniidae, in which the head of males is armed with 
horns, and which compose the genus Goliathus * of Lamarck, 
their extreme variety and singular formation having rendered them 
objects of attention. In its original condition, as established by 
Lamarck, this genus was characterised chiefly by the circumstance 
that the head was armed with horns. A stricter analysis of the 
family to which the genus belongs, however, appears to prove that 
many of the species which had been thus associated together belong 
to distinct groups, whilst the species which still constitute the group 
have been distributed into various sub-genera. We accordingly find 
that Gory and Percheron, in their " Monographic des Cetoines," 
have separated Goliathus rhinophyllus of Weidemann (placing it in 
the genus Macronata) ; they have also adopted the genus Ynca for 
the Brazilian species, as proposed in the Encyclopedic Methodique. 
All the other species peculiar to the Old World (including also G. 
Hoepfneri, Desj., an American insect) remain together under the 
generic name of Goliathus. Mr. Hope, however, in the first part 
of his Coleopterist's Manual, relying chiefly on the form of the pro- 
thorax and toothing of the legs, has separated G. Polyphemus 
under the name of Mecynorhina f, G. micans under that of Dicro- 

* Dr. Thaddeus W. Harris, one of the most acute American Entomologists, in some recent 
" Remarks upon Scarabseus Goliatus and other African Beetles allied to it," published ia the 
1st Volume of the Journal of the Essex county (U. S.) Natural History Society, proposes the 
name of Hegemon in lieu of Goliathus for this genus, iu order to restore to the typical species 
its true specific name of Goliatus. 

-f- The second species of this genus, stated by i\Ir. Hope to be in the possession of Mr. 
Joseph Hoolier, is the male of G. torqiiatus, of which species Mr. Hope has recently received 
a specimen from Mr. Slrahan, who also possesses a fine male, wliicli has been described and 
figured by Mr. ^Vaterhouse, in the Magazine of Natural History. 

B 



CORNUTED CETONIID^. 



norhina, G. Heros, &c. under that of Rhomborhina, and G. Hoepf- 
neri as an unnamed new genus. The same author, in a previous 
work, had proposed the genus Dicranocephalus for the G. Walli- 
chii, whilst Mr. W. W. Saunders described another remarkable 
Indian form under the name of Jumnos Ruckeri, in the Transactions 
of tlie Entomological Society of London, and M. Dupont two other 
Indian species under the generic name of Narycius. 

Still more recently, Mr. W. S. Mac Leay, in his memoir on the 
Cetoniidse, published in Dr. A. Smith*'s work on African Zoology, 
has given the G. Rhynophyllus as a new sub-genus (Philistina) of the 
genus Gymnetinus (Gymnetis). Narycius olivaceus, Dup. ; G.Hard- 
wickii, Gory; G. opalinus, Gory (Trigonophorus op., Hope[olim]), 
and Jumnos Ruckeri are given as separate sections of Coryphe ; 
whilst G. torquatus, G. Polyphemus, G. micans, G. Smithii, G, 
4-maculatus, G. Hoepfneri, G. Drurii, G. Inca, G. Wallichii, and 
Narycius opalus of Dupont, are given as the respective types of so 
many distinct sections of Goliathus, to one of which, typified by G. 
Smithii, Mr. A. White has applied the name of Eudacilla, adding a 
new species named E. Morgani. Two species of Goliathus, from 
Madagascar, are also described by Messrs. Gory and Percheron in 
the 15th number of Silbermann*'s Revue Entomologique, and a fine 
new species from the Neilgherries (forming a distinct section), by 
M. Guerin Meneville, in the Revue Zoologique, 1839, p. 230. 

Such is a sketch of the chief modifications which have been made 
by recent authors in the genus Goliathus, and which I have intro- 
duced into this place, not only in illustration of the insects figured 
in the accompanying plate, but also because it will be further re- 
quisite on a future occasion to refer to it. 

The Goliathus rhinophyllus of Wiedemann (Zool. Mag. vol. 2, p. 
82) *, is an insect of great rarity, found in the interior of Java, 
which Latreille first asserted to possess "tous les caracteres 
essentiels des Cetoines," except that the prothorax is more rounded 
and narrowed behind. Messrs. Gory and Percheron, therefore, 
detached it, as already mentioned, from Goliathus, and gave it as a 
Macronata (Monogr. d. Cetoines, pi. 62, fig. 5.). Their figure of 
this insect is, however, so slightly recognizable that I have not 
hesitated in refiguring it (pi. J , fig. 8), adding, also, figures of the 
essential parts of the mouth, with the view to enable us to judge of 
the true relations of the species. Mr. Mac Leay, who divides the 
great family Cetoniidse into five genera, places this insect in his 

* " Cupreus, clypeo conui eitcto, apice dilatato emarginato, thorace cornu dcclinato." 



(fORNUTED rETONIin/E. 3 

fourth genus Gymnetinus fGyninetis], which he distinguishes from 
his genus Cetoninus, merely by having the middle of the thorax 
produced behind into a lobe that conceals the scutellum in a greater 
or less degree. This, however, appears to me to be far too trivial 
a character to separate species which agree in other important re- 
spects, especially as we find that the form of the hind margin of the 
thorax is liable to several variations even in Goliathus, sub-gene- 
rically restricted as it is by Mr. Mac Leay, The characters which 
Mr. Mac Leay gives of the sub-genus which he forms for this 
insect, namely, " Maxillse armed with corneous teeth, scutellum 
distinct, male clypeus porrect and bifid at the apex, female clypeus 
quadrate, entire," are in effedl as applicable to Goliathus as they are 
to Philistina, the sub-generic name given by Mr. Mac Leay to this 
species, but which must be changed, in favour of that of Mycteristes 
of Laporte— Hist. Nat. An. Art. vol. 2. p. 162. 

It is further requisite to observe that my dissections have been 
made with the greatest care, inasmuch as they materially differ 
from Mr. Mac Leay's description. This gentleman observes, that 
this group differs from Goliathus, which he places in his genus 
Cetoninus, " in the long corneous part of the mandibles, in the 
maxillae being armed with corneous teeth, in the mentum being very 
slightly emarginate " (p. 25), in the thorax being cornuted (p. 31), 
and other particulars. In the specimen of G. rhinophyllus which 
I dissected however, I found the lanceolate part of the mandibles 
(fig. 3 a) not more than one-fourth longer, instead of being " twice 
as long as the square membranaceous part." The maxillge (fig. 3 b) 
are father long and slender, instead of being short and prismatic, 
the apical lobe being armed vi'ith at least five teeth. Moreover 
this character of the toothing of the maxillse, which is so rare 
amongst the Cetoniidse, exists in a remarkable degree in the typical 
Goliathi, as I discovered in making the dissections for Mr. Hope's 
Coleopterist's Manual, but not in Macronata, nor Gymnetis. Mr. 
Mac Leay further describes the mentum as " quadrate, truncated 
in front, and very little emarginate," a description which ill accords 
with my figure 3 c. The mesosternum (fig. 3d), as Mr. Mac Leay 
says, is not produced, that is porrected anteriorly, but it is pro- 
duced downwards, extending lower than the front of the meta- 
sternum. 

The specimen figured in the plate enriches the collection of the 
Rev. F. W. Hope, and is a male. The female differs in having the 
front of the head square and unarmed ; the front of the thorax is 

B 2 



CORNUTEU CETONIID.E. 



also unarmed, and the anterior tarsi are much shorter than in the 
male * ; the anterior tibise are externally tridentate, as in the 
opposite sex. 

As M. rhinophyllus is the only species hitherto described be- 
longing to the group JNIycteristes, I consider myself very fortunate 
in being enabled, by the kindness of H. Cuming, Esq., to commence 
the present work with a description and figures of both sexes of a 
now species brought by him from the Philippine Islands. A pair 
only of this beautiful species were taken, and they are destined for 
the cabinet of the British Museum. From rhinophyllus, however, 
they differ in several respects. The body in the male (fig. 1 and 1 a) 
is shorter, broader at the base of the elytra, which are more flat- 
tened and triangular behind, and destitute of the scales which orna- 
ment rhinophyllus ; the thorax is exceedingly brilliant and polished, 
and the horn at its fore part is much deflexed and strongly notched 
at the tip, with a tubercle within ; the horn of the clypeus is also 
furnished with a tubercle in front. The female (fig. 2) is smaller, 
and has the head and thorax unarmed, the elytra flatter, and not so 
triangular. The mesosternum (fig. 1 f) is slightly porrected in 
front, and does not extend lower than the front of the metasternum. 
The parts of the mouth (fig. 1 b, mandible of the female, 1 c, max- 
illa, 1 d, instrumenta labialia of the male, 1 e, ditto of the female) 
scarcely differ from those of rhinophyllus ; the horny, lanceolate 
part of the mandibles is, however, shorter ; there appears to me no 
difference between the palpi of the two sexes. The legs of the 
male are larger than those of the female, but the anterior pair are 
not so long as in rhinophyllus, and the foi'e tarsi are not so long as 
the tibiae. All the tibise in the male are clothed for about half 
their apical portion on the inside with fine hairs. They are all un- 
armed with teeth ; a very slight angular prominence on the outside 
of the four posterior tibiae obscurely indicates the place of the ordi- 
nary teeth. The ungues are particularly large, and between them 
at the base is a very small plantula, with two very short pseud- 
onychise. The anterior tibiae of the female are armed with three teeth, 
and the four posterior with one on the middle, and two at the tip, 
with two calcaria. 

As it has been thought convenient to name the divisions of 
Goliathus proper, which differ in the toothing of the fore legs, the 
present insect may be regarded as a division of Mycteristes, and 
I am indebted to my friend G. R. Waterhouse, Esq., who first 

* In both figures 3 and 4 tlie fore tarsi are represented scarcely long enough. 



TORN U r ED C RTO M 1 1 » . f-: 



directed my attention to this intoivsting nov<ltv, for the followino- 
description and name : — 

MYCTERISTES (PHAEDIMUs) CUMINGII. 
M. viridis, nitore resplendens, elytris pedibus et corpoie subtus flavp=;ceiite 
lavatis, corpore subtus paullo pubescente; capite cornu erectum exhibeute (hoc 
quoad caput longitudinem sequante) ad apicem latum et paullo emarLrinatum, 
postice concavum. antice tuberculo uno obsitum ; thorace convexo postire au"-us- 
tiore quam ad mediam, marginibus lateralibus pone mediam fererectis, antice con- 
stricto, margineposteriore in medio paullo pri ducto, antice porrectoin cornii validum 
ad apicem bifidum super caput impendente; scutello mediocri triangulari, elytris 
longioribus quam latis, postice attenuatis, disco piano, apice subtruncato ; pedibus 
validis, tibiis scopula pilorum subtus instructis et externe baud denticulaiis. tarsis 
quam tibiae paullo brevioribus. unguibiis permagnis. $ I^ong. corp. lin 12^. 
Differt foemina corpore minore capite thoraceque baud cornutis, pedibus medio- 
cribus, tibiis anticis externe tridentatis, reliquis denticulo externo parvo infra 
medium instructis, unguibus mediocribus. Elytra in foemina quasi flavescentia 
aureo-viridi lavata apparent, sutura et linea longitudinali prope marginem intense 
viridibus. 

In the two species above described, tlie middle of the front of 
the head is produced into a single upright horn ; but in the two 
other species figured in plate 1, each side of the clypeus, or front 
of the head, is produced into a horn, giving the insects a greater 
resemblance to certain cornuted quadrupeds. 

Dicranocephaliis WalUchii (fig. 4) is an exceedingly I'are insect, 
first brought to Europe from Nepaul by the late Major-General 
Hardwicke, and shortly characterised by the Rev. F. W. Hope in 
Gray's Zoological Miscellany (1831, p. 24). The male is well 
figured in Gory and Percheron's Monographie des Cetoines, tab. 
26, fig. 1, under the name of Goliathus Wellech, The specimen, 
however, which they figure, has the horns of the head of small size ; 
whilst in those of the fine specimen represented in my plate (pre- 
served in the Cabinet of the British Museum), they are very 
greatly elongated and recurved *. The parts of the mouth are 
represented in figures 4 a (one of the mandibles), 4 b (one of the 
maxillae), 4 c (instrumenta labialia), and 4d (labrum). The meso- 
sternum (fig. 4 e) is prominent but deflexed, extending lower than 
the front part of the metasternum. 

The female has the fore tibiae spined, as in the male ; and the 
head, instead of being cornuted, has each of the front angles pro- 
duced into a tooth. 

The outline, fig. 5, represents the Narycius opalus of Dupont, a 
species from Madras, of which I believe no specimen exists in this 
country ; figured in Guerin's Magazin de Zoologie, Insectes, pi. 128 : 

* This specimen affords another instance of the great development of the horns in certain 
individiuils of cornuted species, which are almost invariably (as in this instance) of larger size 
than the ordinary individuals. 



CORNUTED CETONIID.E. 



it is of a golden green colour, the thorax being coppery green. 
Mr. MacLeay forms it and Dicranocephalus Wallichii into sub- 
sections, but I have no doubt that when its female is known, and 
the structure of the mouth investigated, each will be found to form 
a section of equal rank with the gigantic and Smithian Goliaths ; the 
metallic colour, size of the fore feet, form of the horns of the head, 
bidentate anterior tibise, and especially the very prominent porrected 
mesosternum of N. opalus, being its distinguishing external peculia- 
rities. In this case, it will be proper to restore to this insect the name 
of Narycius, which Mr. MacLeay has applied to a section of Coryphe, 
containing, as he supposes, Dupont's second species N. olivaceus. 

With the view of facilitating the consideration of the preceding 
remarks, as well as other future ones, upon the relations of the 
Goliath-beetles, a sketch of the distribution of the Cetoniidae, given 
by Mr. Mac Leay in the work above referred to, will be a useful 
supplement to the present memoir. It will be scarcely needful to 
add that the quinarian distribution and parallelism, or analogy of 
groups, form the principal peculiarities of Mr. Mac Leay's arrange- 
ment. The family Cetoniidse is therefore divided into five genera, 
each of which contains five sub-genera, which analogically represent 
each other, thus : — 



Gen. I. Trichinus. 


n. Cetoninus. 


HI. Gymnetinus. 


IV. Macrominus. 


V. Cryptodinus. 


Sub.Gen. 1. Osinoderma 


Schizorhina . . 


Lomaptera . . . 


Op!ostoi>u(s . . 


Gemichus. 


2. Valaiis . . 


Corvphe .... 


Agestrata .... 


Anoplocheiliis . 


Cyelidius. 


3. Trichius . 


Qulialhus . . . 


Philistina . . . 


Diplognatha . . 


Cremastocheilus. 


4. CampuUpus 


Ischnostoma . . 


Macronata . . . 


Gnathocera . . . 


Cryptodus 


5. Platygenia. 


Cetonia .... 


Gymnetis .... 


Macroma .... 


Cymophorus. 



(Tlie Genera printed in italics are those by which the passage is made from one Genus to another.) 

Goliathus, the third sub-genus of the genus Cetoninus, is arranged 
in the following manner : — 

Sect. I. Smithii, M'L. 

Sub-Sect. 1. ...... G. torquatus. 

— 2. (Mecynorhina, Hope) . . . G. Polyphemus. 

— 3. (Dicronorhina, Hope) . . G. micans and G. splendens.* 

— 4. (Eudacilla, White) G. Smithii, Gr.allii, Daphnis, [and Morgani.] 

— 5. ...... G. 4-maculatus. 

Hopfueri, M'L G. Ilopfneri. 

Gigautei, M'L. . . . . G. Drurii, giganteus, rcgius, caciciis, and princeps. 

Inca, Lap. and Serv. . . L Ynca, and four oiher Soutli American species. 

Dicrouocephali [Dicranocephalus, Hope] 

Sub-Sect. I. Unknown. 

— 2. [Dicranocephalus proper] . . G. Wallichii. 

— 3. Unknown. 

— 4. Unknown. 

— 5. [Narycius, typ. verus] . . . G. opalus, Dup. 
The singular leafless plant figured is the jEginetia Indica. 

* Mr. Strahan's specimen from Sierra Leone, mentioned by Mr. Mac Leay as another species 
of this section, is certainly nothing else than G. micans. 



Sect. 2. 
Sect. 3. 
Sect. 4. 
Sect. 5. 



PLATE 11. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF THE HETEROPTEROUS GENUS 
PHYLLOMORPHA. 



When Sparrman first published his account * of the Cimex 
paradoxus, a lively degree of interest was excited by his description 
of the singular creature, which at once found its way into all the 
popular treatises upon natural history. His paper (Swedish 
Transactions, 1777) was illustrated by three figures of the insect 
of the natural size (one seen from above, copied in my plate 2, fig. 
1*, and the other two profiles). He likewise mentions, that the 
insect was captured at a considerable distance ("250 timars 
reise ") from Cape Town. About ten years afterwards Stoll figured 
an insect from the Cape of Good Hope, which, judging from its 
natural size, and the nearly equal size of the fourth and fifth lobes 
of the abdomen, is evidently identical with Sparrman"'s. As other 
species were discovered, they were, however, referred at once to the 
Cimex paradoxus. Thus Wolff", Dumeril, and Duncan (Introd. to 
Ent. in Nat. Library pi. 20, fig. 1), have figured a European species 
under that name; whilst, still more recently, a smaller species, 
brought by M. Verreaux from the Cape of Good Hope, has been 
described under the same name. As I possess a specimen of the 
latter insect, from M. Verreaux, and as there is a specimen of 
Sparrman's insect in the British Museum, and which agrees in size 
&c. with Sparrman"'s figures, I am happy in being enabled to exhibit 
the differences between the two South African species. 
Phyllomorpha, Lap. (Syromastes p. Latr.) 

Section I. — Prothorax with its posterior margin not produced into two long lobes, nor pro- 
longed over the base of the Hemelytra. 

Species I. — Ph. paradoxa, Plate 2, fig. 1 and 1*. Lutea, fusco et sanguineo varia, pro- 
thoracis laciniis antice poriectis abdominis laciniis 4 et 5 fere sequalibus, his ad apicem 
vix emarginatis. Long. corp. lin. 5f. 

* Sparrman relates that when at the Cape, he observed this insect at noontide as he sought 
for shelter among the branches of a shrub from the intolerable heat of the sun. Though the 
air was extremely still and calm, so as hardly to have shaken an aspen leaf, yet he thought he 
saw a little withered, pale, crumpled leaf, eaten as it were by caterpillars, fluttering from the 
tree. This appeared to him so very extraordinary, that he thought it worth his while sud- 
denly to quit his verdant bower in order to contemplate it ; and he could scarcely believe his 
eyes when he saw a live insect, in shape and colour resembling the fragment of a withered leaf, 
with the edges turned up, and eaten away as it were by caterpillars, and at the same time beset 
all over with prickles creeping on the ground. 



8 I'HYLLOMORPHA. 

Syn. — Cimex paradoxus, Sparrmau, {StuU. Punaises, fig. 101 ?) nee Guerin, Dumeril, 

Duncan. 
II:ibitat in Africa aiistrali. Miis. Brit. (D. Smith). 

Obs. — Dr. Smith's specimen was taken at a considerable distance 
from Cape Town, inland. Fig. 1* is copied from Sparrman's 
original figure. 

Species II. — Ph. Capicola, W., Plate 2, fig. 2, and 2*. Lutca, laciniis prothoracis et 
abdominalibus 4ti paris bninneo et sanguineo variis, duabus sequentibus albidis apice 
obscurioribiis minoribus et ad apicem acute emarginatis. Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Syn.—Fh. paradoxa, Guerin, Revue Zool. 1839, p. 232 ; Diet. Pitt. d'Hisl. Nat., pi. 673, 
fig. 5. (Burmeister, Handb. d, Ent. 2, p. 310 ?) 

Habitat apud Caput Bonse Spei. D. Verreaux. Mus. Hope, nostr. 

Species III. — Ph. Laireillii, Plate 2, fig. 3. Albida, fusco-venosa, breviter spinosa, lacinia- 
rum angulis anticis obseurioribus, laciniis maximis, abdominalibus figuram oblongo-trans- 
versam efBeientibus ; antennarum articulo 2do, 3tio fere diniidio breviore. Long. eoip. 
lin. 4i. 

Syn. — Coreus (Syroinastes) phyllomorphus, Latreille, R. An. 2nd edit. t. 3, p. 438, pi. 19, 
fig. 3 : Phyllomorpba Latreillii, Guerin, Diet. Pittor. d'Hist. Nat., pi. 673, fig. 6 ; Rev. 
Zool. 18.39, p. 233: Syromastes hystrix, Burm., Handb. d. Ent. 2, p. 310 (nee 
hystrix, Latreille). 

Habitat apud Senegalliam. Mus. nostr. 

I am indebted to Messrs. Audouin and Guerin Meneville (by the 
latter of whom they were also supplied to Latreille) for my speci- 
mens of this species, which are, I believe, the only ones in this 
country. The latter author describes the species (loc. cit.) as being 
1 1 millemetres, or rather more than 5^ lines long ; which is consi- 
derably larger than my specimens, although agreeing in all other 
respects. 

Species IV. — Ph. Persica, W., Plate 2, fig. 4. Pallida albida, longe spinosissima, laciniis 
conieis, apice obtusis antennarum articulo 3tio 2do fere duplo longiori. Long. corp. lin. 5. 
Habitat in Persia, prope oppidum " Teheran " dictum. 

Obs. — I am indebted to M. V. Audouin for my specimen of this 
new species (which is I believe the only one in this country). The 
species is also und escribed by Burmeister, Guerin, or any recent 
hemipterologists. It was collected near Teheran most probably by 
Olivier. 

Sfction II. — Prothorax with its posterior margin produced into two long lobes extending 
over the base of the Hemelytra. 

Species V. — Ph. /acmiato, Vill., Brulle', Burm., Gner. ; Cor. hystrix, Latr., nee Burm. ; 
Cim. paradoxus, Wolflr, Dumer, Duncan, H. Schaff. 

Species VI.— PA. lacerata, H. Schaff. Nom. Ent. p. 41. (Piedmont.) 

Species VII.— PA. ^/firmca, Guer. Diet. Pitt. d'H. N. ; Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 232. 

Species VIII. — Unnamed. (Erichson, Wicgm. Arch. 1840, vol. 2, p. 317. Balkan moun- 
tains.) The plant figured from the Cape of Good Hope is the Lobelia gracilis. 



PLATE III. 

THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF PAPILIO HECTOR ILLUSTRATED. 

The genus Papilio, even in its most restricted modern state, 
comprises a very numerous assemblage of species — nearly 250 being 
known — differing greatly, not only in the imago, but also in the 
preparatory states. The larvae of many Indian species have the 
body smooth, with the two segments succeeding the head slender 
and retractile beneath the third segment, which is dilated and 
ocellated ; thus resembling the caterpillars of some of the Sphin- 
gidse, (P. Memnon, Arjuna, Cresphontes, Polites, and Pammon). 
The larvae of others have the tail bifid (P. Agamemnon, Pompilius, 
as well as P. Demoleus, according to Fabricius). Others again 
have the body armed with fleshy tubercles, as in P. Polydorus and 
Hector, and P. (Ornithopterus) Amphrisius ; whilst in P. dissimilis, 
these warts are replaced by recurved spines *. The chrysalides of 
the tuberculated larvae are remarkable for having the abdominal 
part of the body much curved, and armed with several strong 
dorsal prominences. 

Our knowledge of the transformations of the Indian Lepidoptera 
is almost exclusively derived from the researches of Dr. Horsfield 
in Java, and Major-General Hardwicke in India. The former of 
these authors has representated the larva and pupa of P. Polydorus 
in his Lepidoptera Javanica ; and the similarity of the preparatory 
states of P. Hector with that species is mentioned by Boisduval 
and De Haan. The figures illustrating the latter species (con- 
tained amongst Major-General Hardwicke's Zoological drawings in 
the library of the Linnaean Society) have not, however, been 
published f ; and as it is essential in determining the relations of the 
species of this intricate genus that every fact should be brought 
under notice, I have thought it not unnecessary to publish a copy of 

* Mr. Swainson has reiigured as the larva of Papilio Protesilaus, Linn., the caterpillar of 
one of the Nymphalidaj from Madame Marian, who gave it as the preparatory state of that 
Papilio, adding however, that the chrysalis is suspended hy the tail ; which is the case with no 
species of Papilionidae, and ought to have induced Mi'. Swainson to hesitate in adopting it, as he 
has done, as an illustration of the merits of his " Natural System." 

t It is proper to observe, that Boisduval states that " La chenille est figuree par Esper^ mais 
probablement si inexactcment que nous n'osons pas la decrire d'apr^s cet auteur," Hist. Nat. 
Lepid. i., p. 270. 



10 PAPILIO HECTOR, 

the figures of the preparatory states, adding an original figure of 
the perfect state of this Indian butterfly. 

Fig. ], Papilio Hector, LimicBus, Syst. Nat. 2, p. 745 ; Cramer, 
pi. 143, fig. A ; Clerck, Icones, tab. 33, fig- 1,2; Sulzer, Gesch., 
pi. 12, fig. 1. 

The plant figured, upon which the larva feeds, is the Aristolochia 
Indica. 

The chrysalis differs from that of P. Polydorus, figured by 
Dr. Horsfield, in having the dorsal protuberances much smaller. 

M. De Haan, in his elaborate memoir on the Papilionidse of the 
Dutch-Indian Settlements, just published, has given Papilio 
Mutius as the female of this species. 

Fig. 2. Caterpillar of P. Hector. Fig. 3. Chrysalis— ventral 
aspect. Fig. 4. Chrysalis— dorsal aspect. 



Emongst the leaves she made a butterfly, 
With excellent device and wondrous slight. 

Fluttering among the olives wantonly, 

That seem'd to live, so like it was in sight— 

The velvet nap which on his wings doth lie, 
The silken down with which his back is dight ; 

His broad outstretched horns, his airy thighs. 

His glorious colours, and his glistening eyes. 

His head two deadly weapons fixed bore, 
Strongly out-lanced towards either side. 

Like two sharp spears, his enemies to gore : 
Like as a warlike brigandine applide 

To fight, lays forth her threatful pikes afore 
The engines which in them sad death do hide ; 

So did this fly outstretch his fearful horns. 

Yet so as him their terrour more adorns. 

What more felicity can fall to creature 

Than to enjoy delight with liberty ; 
And to be lord of all the works of Nature, 

To reign in th' air from earth to highest sky ; 

* * ♦ * 51 

To take whatever thing doth please the eye ! 
Who rests not pleased with such happiness. 
Well worthy he to taste of wretchedness. (Spenser.) 



11 



PLATE IV. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS BELONGING TO THE FAMILY OF 

THE LOCUSTS. 



The family of the locusts, LocusTioiE, Leach ; (^Acridites, Latr., 
Serv. ; Acridiodea, Burm. ;) is one of very great extent, and con- 
tains many species remarkable for their extraordinary powers of 
devastation, (it being now ascertained that other species besides 
the L. migratoria migrate in vast swarms, spreading alarm through- 
out their route,) as well as many others, which, from their remarkable 
forms and brilliant colours, do not fail to atti'act attention. 

The distribution of the family into sub-families and genera has 
been but comparatively little attended to ; and it is greatly to be 
regretted that the works of Burmeister and Serville appeared almost 
simultaneously, so that a considerable diversity exists between them, 
not only in the nomenclature of the genera and species, but also in 
their classification and the limits of the genera. Two of Serville's 
sub-families, namely, the Truxalides * and the Conophori f , appear 
to blend together very naturally : the genus Pfekilocera, Serv., 
(Pcecilocera, Burm.,) which is placed by Serville amongst the 
Truxalides, being considered by Burmeister as referable to the 
Conophori ; indeed, the last-named author unites Serville's genera 
Psekilocera, Petasia, and Phymatea, into one genus. 

The remarkable insects here figured constitute a new genus, 
which still more closely unites these two sub-families. We have in 
fact the pyramidal head, with the oblique face, of the Truxalides, 
and the flattened and dilated basal joints of the antennae, and the 
forehead produced into an obtuse point between the antennae, of 
the Conophori. The remarkable distinction which exists in the 
structure of the antennae of the opposite sexes is a peculiarity 
which exists, as far as I recollect, in no other species of this family. 
Another striking peculiarity consists in the form of the wung-covers. 
In the typical species, these represent a broad, fresh leaf ; while in 
the Chinese species, they are narrower, and resemble a withered 

* Distinguished by haviug the head pyramidal in front, \Titb the face more or less oblique 
and the antennae often cnsiform, with prismatic joints. 

t Distinguished by having the face vertical, the antenn£e but rarely ensiform, wth the joints 
distinct; the forehead produced between the antenuae in a thick joint, with a deep groove 
bcncaih to receive the base of each of the antenna;. 



12 NEW GEXrs OF LOCUSTS. 

leaf. No other instance of this kind of .analogy occurs to my recol- 
lection amongst the Locustidse, although it is of constant occur- 
rence amongst the grasshoppers with long antennre. 

From the very compressed form of the body (another remarkable 
character) the genus may be named 

SYSTELLA, \V. 

Corpus compressissimum. Caput, ante oculos et inter antennas productum, 
facie valde obliquaconvexa integra sc. baud carinata. Clypeus distinctus. Labrum 
antice in medio fissum. Palpi breves filiformes, labiales minores. Antennae 
secundum sexum formae vari;e ; in fossula tuberculi frontalis utrinque insertse, 
articulis 2bus basalibus distinctis, sequentibus 4 aut 5 arete coalitis, deplanatis mar- 
gins interne crassiori, externo acuto, in q multo latioribus ; articulis reliquis 
distinctis gracilioribus (in $ multo longioribus), apicali attenuate. Prothorax 
compressus, dorso piano integro, lateribus angulatis. Presternum tuberculo acuto 
armacum. Abdomen compressum alis brevius, segmento ultimo ventrali in <J 
niaximo infiato. Pedes i antici breves, 2 postici saltatorii ; tibiis serie duplici 
spinarum aequalium extus armatis ; tarsi 3-articulati unguibus acutis, pulvillo 
raagno. Tegmina magna foliiformia, supra dorsum horizontaliter elevata, angulo 
externo antico emarginato. 

This genus appears to me, from the structure of its antennee, to 
be most nearly allied to Akicera and Porthetis, Serville, (Pam- 
phagus, Burm.,) and to Xipliicera. From these, however, as well 
as all the other genera of the family, it is separated by the peculiar 
characters above noticed. 

Species I. — Systella Rafflesii, W. Luteo-viridis, tegminibus viridibiis latissimis, 
ocello magno fusco in area costali notatis. Long. corp. $ lin. IS^, ? 18. Espans. 
tegmin. lin. 34^. 

Autenna 15-articulatae in $, 14 in $ ; articulis 3 — 7 in $ , 3 — 6 in $, coalitis dilatatis 
subprismaticis, in $ multo latioribus, 8 reliquis in $ fere equalibus et filiformibus, in $ 
vero aniculis 7 et 8 sensim angustatis, reliquis 6 distinctis irregularibus. Vena postcostalis 
tegminum ramos 5 simplices punctatos emittit ; vena mediana duos tantum. Apex 
marginis costalis in ^ valde, in ^ parum, emarginatus. Tibise 4anticae fusco-annulatse. 

A single female specimen of this species is in the collection of 
the Zoological Society, and was presented by Sir Stamford Raffles, 
by whom it was most probably collected in Sumatra. I also 
detected a male in the collection formed by H. Cuming, Esq., in 
the Philippine Islands, and destined for the British Museum. 

Species II. — Systella Hopei, W. Fnsca, tegminibus fusco luteo albidoque variis, angus- 
tioribus; emarginatura apicali marginis antici vix conspicua. Expans. tcgmin. lin. 35. 

Prsecedenti multo tenuior, fusca, dorso prothoracis et capitis scabro, linea tenui fulva 
inter oculos ; antennae (<J?) 17-articulatse, articulis 11 ultimis distinctis longitudine decrcs- 
centibus, luteis. Tegmina luteo-fusca nubila magna media (albido postice cincta) ad 
costam angustata maculisque quadratis minoribus marginis postici fuscis, vcnis punctatis 
punctisque nonnullis majoribus inter venas. Abdomen et pedes postici mutilati. 

This species is unique in the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, F. R. S., &c., and 
is a native of China. 

The plant figured is the Indian Ceropegeia Juncea. 



AT.CANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 13 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, NOTICES OF 
NEW WORKS, &c. 

British Museum. — The situation of the Curator of the entomo- 
logical department in the British Museum has become vacant by 
the removal of Mr. Samouelle. It is to be hoped that, for the sake 
of science, a successor of competent ability will be appointed in his 
stead. When the state of the entomological collections in this 
national establishment is taken into consideration, and when it is 
stated that in the national museums of France, Prussia, Austria, 
Holland, &c., several persons * (some of them men of renown) are 
engaged in the entomological department of each, it is not too mucli 
to express a hope that the trustees of the British Museum will again 
endeavour to follow up the recommendations of the parliamentary 
committee, by " obtaining the whole time and services of the ablest 
men," as they have already done in the appointment of the present 
chief superintendant of the entire zoological collections. 

ENCYCLOP.t;DiAs OF Natural History. — The French have long 
taken precedence over us, and indeed all other nations, in the 
publications of Dictionaries of Natural History. The entomological 
portion of the great " Encyclopedie Methodique " is a distinct part 
of the work, and alone occupies ten quarto volumes ; the " Diction- 
naire des Sciences Naturelles,"" of which the portion relative to 
insects was written by M. Dumeril (and was subsequently repub- 
lished in his " Considerations Generales "), occupied fifty-six octavo 
volumes ; the entomological articles of the " Dictionnaire d'Histoire 
Naturelle," in twenty-four octavo volumes, and the " Nouveau 
Dictionnaire d'Hist. Natur." in thirty-six octavo volumes, were 
written by Latreille, who also, in conjunction with Messrs. Audouin 
and Guerin, wrote the entomological articles of the " Dictionnaire 
Classique d'Hist. Nat.,"" in seventeen octavo volumes. More re- 
cently, M. Guerin has edited a cheap " Dictionnaire Pittoresque 
d'Hist. Nat.'"' in small folio, extending through several volumes with 
many plates, which is not yet completed ; and a new and more im- 

* At the Jaidin dcs Plantes, Messieurs Audouin, Brulle, Blanchard, Lucas, and one or 
two assistants. At the Berlin Museum, Dis. Klug and Erichson, and two assistants. At 
Vienna, M. Kiillai. At Lejdcn, M. De Haan. 



14 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

portant " Dictionnaire Universel crHistoire Naturelle," edited by 
M. D'Orbigny, assisted in the articulated portion by Messieurs 
Audouin, Blanchard, Brulle, Doyere, Desjardins, Duponchel, Lucas, 
and Milne Edwards. 

The natural history portion of the Cabinet Cyclopaedia was 
chiefly written by Mr. Swainson, with the view of developing his 
peculiar views of classification, and in which there is no attempt at 
alphabetical arrangement ; the British Cyclopaedia of Natural 
History, in three large octavo volumes, is therefore the only dic- 
tionary we yet possess upon general natural history. This work, 
of which the entomological articles, commencing with the word 
Aphodiidse, were written by me, was intended to take a generalised 
view of the operations of nature rather than to afford minute and 
technical details. The families, therefore, and chief genera were 
alone treated upon, such of the latter as afforded no materials 
beyond structural details being but slightly mentioned, and the sub- 
genera only named in the family articles. The nomenclaturist and 
collector have need, however, of more precise details relative to 
genera, sub-genera, and species ; and from the great additions re- 
cently made to this branch of the science in numerous works, the 
labour of research is so much increased as to deter many from de- 
scribing new objects, under the fear that they may have already been 
described. The announcement, therefore, of an English Encyclo- 
paedia of Natural History, in which every genus and sub-genus, and 
even synonymical names, are intended to be comprised, will be 
greeted by English zoologists — although from the great extent to 
which such a work must run (and it will be worse than useless unless 
it be carried throughout to this extent), its success as a commercial 
speculation appears highly doubtful. The public mind in fact has 
not yet been sufficiently awakened to the advantages and pleasures 
to be derived from the cultivation of the science of natural history 
in general ; nor can such a result be reasonably expected until 
natural history be made a branch of general education, as it is in 
several Continental States. 

On the Study of Natural History as a Branch of General Education 
IN Schools and Colleges. By Robert Patterson, Vice-President of the 
Natural History Society of Belfast. — Belfast, 1840, 8vo,28 pages. 

No stronger proof of the propriety of the views detailed by Mr. 
Patterson in this pamphlet can be given than in the circumstances 
stated in the preceding article. When we find, that " in the great 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 15 

majority of the Continental schools," (as stated by the American 
Professor, Dr. Bache, who inspected 278 schools in England, 
Scotland, Ireland, France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, and 
the principal states of Germany,) " Natural History forms a 
regular part of the course of instruction, and usually occupies 
from two to four hours in the week," we can at once perceive the 
reason why our countrymen are so slow in supporting works upon 
Natural History. 

Insects of the Philippine Islands. — The geographical situation 
of these islands necessarily gives to their zoological productions a 
peculiarly interesting character, whilst the number of travellers or 
naturalists who have visited them has been so small that the insects 
which inhabit them are for the most part unknown. A few indeed 
were collected by Dr. Meycn, in his voyage round the world, and 
have been described by Drs, Erichson and Burmeister ; (Nova Acta, 
vol. 16, suppl.) ; others also were collected by Eschscholtz. A noble 
collection has, however, recently been formed in those islands, by 
H. Cuming, Esq., during a visit of several years' duration, made 
expressly with the view of forming collections of Natural History. 
Since his return home the collection has been arranged ; the most 
complete series being destined for the British Museum. Another 
set has been liberally presented to the Entomological Society of 
London by Mr. Cuming, who proposes to dispose of the duplicates. 

Entomological Society of London. — The Journal of the Proceed- 
ings of this society, which has hitherto been published with the 
Transactions (whereby great delay has occurred in the publication of 
papers containing descriptions of genera and species), has, since the 
commencement of the present year, been published from time to 
time in the " Annals of Natural History," and contains, in addition 
to the accounts of the ordinary business of the meetings, abstracts 
of the memoirs and short descriptions of the new genera and 
species described in them. 

Silk, a Modification of Caoutchouc. — An acrimonious juice 
is found in almost all euphorbiaceous plants ; yet it is strange, as 
remarked by Dr. Lindley, that from such plants should be obtained 
Caoutchouc, a most innocuous substance. But what appears still 
more remarkable is the fact that silk is not improbably a modifica- 
tion of the Caoutchouc of these plants elaborated by the silk- 



16 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

worms, which, it has been maintained, feed exclusively on milky- 
juiced and caoutchouc-yielding plants. Such at least seems to be 
the legitimate inference from the extensive generalization of Dr. 
Royle, whose statement is as follows : — " In a paper read to the 
British Association at Bristol on the plants which yielded caoutchouc, 
I observed that they all belonged to the milky-juice families of 
Chicoraceae, Lobeliacese, Apocynacese, Asclepiadaceae, Euphor- 
biacese, and Artocarpeae, a tribe of Urticacese. In the first place, 
it may be observed that many of the plants of these families are 
remarkable for the strength and tenacity of the fibre they yield for 
rope-making ; secondly, that bird-lime is prepared from plants 
belonging to families which yield caoutchouc, as from the Apocyne- 
ous Voacanga in Madagascar ; and in India, from different species 
of Ficus and Artocarpus. But the most interesting fact which I 
obtained from the investigation was one most unexpected and the 
least connected with the subject. Having been previously employed 
in considering the proper means for extending the cultivation of 
silk in India, it struck me as singular that so many of the plants 
which silk-worms prefer next to the mulberry leaf should be found 
in those families which yield caoutchouc. Thus, in England, the 
lettuce and dandelion leaves belonging to Cichoraceee, and, in India, 
Ficus religiosa, belonging to Artocarpeae, have been ascertained to 
be the best substitutes for the mulberry leaves ; while the Arrindi 
silk-worm of India, Phalaena Cynthia, feeds upon those of the 
castor-oil plants, Ricinus communis, belonging to Euphorbiacese. 
Considering that a circumstance of this nature was not likely to be 
accidental, I was induced to think that it depended upon the pre- 
sence of some principle common to all these vegetables, and there- 
fore that caoutchouc (perhaps in a modified state) might really be 
contained in the juice of the mulberry, though this is described as 
not being milky. I, therefore, requested Mr. Sevier, who has 
made so many discoveries in the properties of caoutchouc, to 
ascertain whether ray conjecture was well founded. In a few days 
he informed me that the mulberry-tree sap was of a milky nature, 
and did actually contain caoutchouc, especially on dry and bright 
sunny days." 



PLATE V. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO PAPILIONIFORM MOTHS FROM ASSAM. 



Intending to illustrate in this work such species of the beautiful 
genus Papilio (as restricted by modern authors), as have not 
hitherto been described and figured (of which a considerable number 
exist in Enghsh cabinets), I selected from the collection of R. H. 
Solly, Esq., formed in Assam by IMr. Griffith, the two insects in the 
accompanying plate, which, although peculiar, in the form of the 
hind wings, I considered to be new species of that genus. The size 
of the insects, their general form, and, above all, the distribution 
of their colours, gave to them so great a similarity to various species 
of Papilio, that it was not until I examined the arrangement of the 
veins of the wings, and the structure of the feet, that I perceived 
that the two insects were, in fact, not only not Papiliones, but even 
not Diurnal Lepidoptera. The antennae, unfortunately, are wanting 
in both the specimens, but the characters noticed above at once 
prove them to be moths, which have assumed, or to speak more 
correctly, which exhibit, the general appearance of species of the 
restricted genus Papilio. These circumstances, united with the 
impossibility of arranging these insects in any of the already cha- 
racterised genera with which I am acquainted, render necessary the 
establishment of a new genus, which may be named, in allusion to 
the extraordinary incision at the outer angle of the hind wings, 

EPICOPEIA w. 

Corpus debile, magnitudine minori. Caput parvum, oculi laterales. Palpi 
minuti. supra baud conspicui, 3-articulati, articulo basali valde S(iuamoso (fig. 2 • 
palpus tectus et nudus) 3tio ad apicem subnudo. Mandibula? minutas distantes ; 
maxillae nullse. Alae magnae, valde elongate, anticas integrae, posticas incisuris 
semicircularibus inter venas, incisura externa et anali (ilia prsesertim) valde 
elongatis. Hamus et tendines omnino carent. Area discoidalis alarum anticarum 
vix pone tertiam partem alae extendit. Vena mediastina simplex ; vena postcostalis 
ante apicem arese discoidalis emittit ramum simplicem fere ad apicem costae ex- 
ten sum ; ex apicesupero et anticohujus areae ramum alterum etiam emittit, hie 
ramus ramulos duos superos ad apicem alae extensos emittit. Vena ordinaria 
transversa (aream discoidalem claudens) valde angulata, venasque duas simplices 
emittit. Vena mediana brevis triramosa. Cellula discoidalis alarum posticarum 
brevis, vena valde angulata (ramum unicum emittente), postice clausa ; vena me- 
diastina simplex, vena postcostalis bifida ramis valde elongatis, externo intra 
marginem incisionis currente ; vena mediana .3-raraosa. 

Pedes crassiusculi, longitudine mediocri. Tibiae anticae intus spina lata mobili 
instructae, apice inermes ; tibia' intermediae apice bicalcaratae, posticse vero, ante 
apicem, ut et in apice ipso, bicalcaratae. 

c 



18 PAPILIONIFORM MOTHS 

The natural relations of this singular genus are by no means easily 
to be determined. As already stated, the peculiar arrangement of 
the veins of the wings, and the number of the spurs of the tibiae, re- 
move it from the Diurnal Lepidoptera, whilst the obsolete structure 
of the spiral tongue, and the want of a bridle to the wings beneath, 
are characters which it possesses in common with several moths. 

Mr. Edward Doubleday (who has long carefully studied exotic 
Lepidoptera, and whose opinion I requested as to the group of moths 
to which it was allied), after noticing its perplexing character, 
observes " that it seems to partake of the characters of Papilio, 
Urania, and that group of the Bombyces to which B. Luna* belongs. 
This last named species has no bridle to the wings, no maxillae, and 
there is some resemblance in the neuration of the wings. But I must 
confess that I see no real connexion between the two insects. My 
impression is, that it must be nearer the Uranise, some of which, 
in form, nearly resemble it, but all these have maxillae and the dis- 
coidal cell of the posterior wings open, and two pairs of spines, I 
think, to the posterior tibiae. The one middle spine to the anterior 
tibiae is found in some Uraniae." 

The relationship suggested with B. Luna and its allies appears 
to me to be only analogical ; that with the Uraniae is certainly 
stronger ; but it appears to me that a much nearer approach is 
made to Callimorpha and some of the aberrant Arctiidae, such as 
Hypercompa Dominula, in the general weakness of structure and 
splendour of colours. There is also an extensive group of weak- 
bodied moths, chiefly natives of India, in which we find the elongated 
fore wings (some having them similarly marked with black lines 
between the veins), and a nearly similar arrangement of the veins 
of the wings, such as Gymnautocera papilionaria, Guer., and some 
splendid species, figured by Mr. Hope in the Linnaean Transactions, 
from Assam ; and even in Ph. Rhodope of Cramer (pectinicornis 
Fab.), we find an approach made to the pecuHar form of the hind 
wings. The arrangement of the veins of the wings of Agarista also 
closely resembles that of Epicopeia. It is to be feared, however, 
that, from our general ignorance of the exotic forms of Nocturnal 
Lepidoptera, it will be long before we can speak with precision on 
the relations of such insects as the present. 

The following are the specific descriptions of the two insects re- 
presented in the accompanying plate. 

* Tropsea, Hiibner. Aclaeas, Leach, Zool. Misc. Both these names were, I believe, pub- 
lished in the same year, 1816. 



• rUOM ASSAM. 19 

Species I. Epicopeia Polydora (Plate 5, fig. 1). E. alis anticis luteo-griseis nigro-lincatis, 
postieis nigiis, fascia media alba maculisque cuneatis subtuavginalibus I'ufis in medio nigris. 
Expans. alarum unc. 5. 

Habitat in agris Assamensibus. In Mus. D. Solly. 

Alae anticse elongato-tiiaiigularcs, supra et snbtiis luteo-grisese, venis lineisque tenuibus inter 
venas nigris. Posticaj basi conrolorcs, dimidioque apicali nigra;, fascia media irregulari e 
maculis sex albis, quarum mediae majores, macula transversa ad angulum analem, alteris 
4 triangularibus (medio nigris), aliaque ad angulum apicalem ovali,sanguineis supra nigro- 
irroratis, subtus vero pallidioribus ; venis etiam fasciam albam dividentibus, subtus san- 
guineo-irroratis. Corpus nigrum, capite,collo tenui,coxis, latcribus apiceque scgmentorum 
abdominalium subtus sanguineis. 

Species II. Epicopeia Philenora (Plate 5, fig. 2). E. alis anticis griseis nigro-lineatis, subtus 
ad costam macula sanguinea, postieis nigris chalybeo nitidis, subtus macula parva versus 
angulum externum lineaque tenui brevi ad angulum analem sanguineis. Expans. alar, 
unc. 4^. 

Habitat cum praecedenti. In Mus. D. Solly. 

Alae anticse elongate, multo angustiores, griseo-nigricantes basi nigra;, venis lineisque inter venas 
nigris ; subtus ad apicem purpureo-nitidae, macula costali fere ad apicem areae discoidalis 
sanguinea, Alse posticas supra nigrae chalybeo nitidas, subtus ejusdem coloris. Macula 
parva costali prope angulum externum lineaque tenui curvata ad angulum analem san- 
guineis. Corpus nigrum, capite,collo tenui, anocoxisque sanguineis, segmenta abdoniinalia 
ad latera et margines posticos subtus carneis. An mas priEcedentis? 

I have intended by the specific names applied to these two insects 
to express the relation of analogy which they respectively exhibit 
to Papilio Polydorus, and Philenor. 

As the moths represented in the plate exhibit an instance in 
which one group of insects assumes the appearance of distinct tribes, 
the beautiful moth plant of India and the Indian islands (Phalae- 
nopsis amabilis, Blume, — Epidendrum amabile, Linn)^ is also re- 
presented : affording an instance of the analogy between plants and 
insects of which the Orchidacese afford such numberless examples. 



I take this opportunity of bringing together the descriptions of 
the several genera of Indian moths alluded to in the preceding 
observations as most nearly allied to Epicopeia, and which are 
scattered in various works. 

Eterusia, Hope, Linn. Trans., vol. 18 (1840), p. 445. — Alae anguste integra;, uervo antico 
apicali trifurcato ; nervo medio etiam trifurcato, furcis fere rectis, alae posticae brc\aores, 
integras, cellula elongata apiceque nervos fere rectos emittente. Antenna* 9 gmciles vix 
uniserratse. Lingua spiralis elongata. Palpi breves ; abdomen terebra parva exserta 
insfructum. 

Eterusia tricolor, Hope, op. cit. tab. 31, fig. 4. — Alis anticis viridibus, variisque maculis albis 
notatis, postieis basi aurantiis, apicibus externe violaceis et albo maculalis. Caput atro- 
violaceum, antennis nigris, thorax nisfcr antice et postice violaeeus. Corpus infra cyaneo- 
violaceum, segmentis abdominis albo nigroque altern^ variegatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 10^. Expans. alar. 2 unc. 8 lin. Habitat in agro Assamensi. 

Erasmia, Hope, Linn. Trans, vol. 18 (1840), p. 446. — Antennae $ bipectinata;, pectinibus 
mediocribus ; ala; anteriores oblongae subovales integrse, nervis postieis paullo curvatis, cel- 
lula discoidali clausa. Alae posticae subrotundaf3P,nervis postieis curvatis. Corpus gracile 
subcyliudricum. Caput parvum. palpis parvis. Lingua spiralis et elongata. Pedes graciles. 

Erasmia pnlchella, Hope,op. cit. pi. 31, fig. .5. — .Argenteo-viridis, alis anticis nigris maculis 
viridi-cseruleo-argenteo ornatis, fciscia irregulari ante medium rufa, maculisque mnjoribus 
albis pone medium positis. Alae posticae stramiueae basi apiceque nigris, nervis viridi- 
caerulescentibus. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1. Ex])ans. alar. 3 unc. 2 lin. Habitat Assam. 

C 2 



20 PAPILIONIFORM MOTHS. 

Chelura, Hope, Linn. Trans, vol. 18 (1840), p. 444. — Caput antice angustum, posticelatiu3. 
Lingua spiralis subelongata. Palpi breves; antennae ante oculos insertse Ibipectinatae. 
Thorax connexns magnitudine mediocri. Abdomen subcylindricum, annulis ad apicem 
magnitudine decrescentibus, octono minori. Cauda forcipe acuto armata, et in parte media 
duplici hamo instructa. Alaj angustae, marginibus posticis subemarginatis. Pedes 
simplices. 

Chelura bifasciata, Hope. — Straminea, antennis nigris ; alis anticis fasciis binis aurantiis insig- 
nitis fasciisque nigris utrinque positis. Caput nigrum ; thorace glabro nitido ; abdomen 
annulis 7 primis obscure atris, octono rubropiceo ; Cauda concolori. Corpus infra nigrum. 

Long. Corp. lin. IH. Expans. alar. 3 unc. 2 lin. Habitat Assam. 

Gymnautocera, Gue'rin, Mag. d'Entomol. tab. 12 (1831). — Caracteres g^neriques — Trompe 
longue, palpes inferieures, tr^s courtes, ne depassant pas le chaperon ; antennas pectinees 
dansles deux sexes; ailes etendues. grandes, ayant souvent des formes analogues a cellos 
des papillons troyens ; les superieures et les inferieures egalement colorees ; corps allonge, 
assez mince. 

Ce nouveau genre ressemble un peu aux calliraorphes et aux ecailles, pres desquelles nous le 
placons, mais les antennas, pectinees dans les deux sexes, I'eu s^parent Men nettement. 
La forme des ailes, dans plusieurs especes, leur donne una grande ressemblance avec les 
papillons proprement dits; enfin la coloration de leurs quatre ailes etant egalement foncee 
indiquerait que les superieures ne recouvrant pas les inferieures dans la repos, comme cela 
a lieu chez les ecailles et les callimorphas. 

G. papilionaria, Guerin. — G. alis atris anticis subfalcatis, posticis disco macula alba, suturis 
divisain medio disco; singulis subtus maculis miniatis ; corpore nigro, lateribus miniatis, 
vertice rubro. Envergure 90 mill. 

On la trouve au Bengale. 

Nota. Nous rapporterons h ce genre trois especes inedites provenant des lias de la Sonde, de 
la Ciichin-chine, et du Japon, ainsi qu'una espeee figuree par Hiibnarsousle nom de N. 
tiberina. 

Campylotes, Westw., in Royle's Illustrations of the Botany, &c., of the Himalayan 
Mountains, Part XL, 1840, p. liii. 

Genus anomalum Heleonse et Anthomyzse, Sw. Gymnautoceraeque Gutr. aflBne. — Aire 
oblongae subovales integrae, nervis apicalibus valde curvatis ; anticae celluladiscoidali clausa, 
nervos duos postica emittens, quorum exterior trifurcatus, posticae etiam callala discoidali 
clausa, nervo recurrente intermadio bifurcate. Corpus parvum, abdomina gracili, pone 
alas hand protenso. Caput parvum, ocelli 2. Antennae graciles biramosee. Palpi 
brevissimi, supra baud discernendi, maxillae elongatae spirales. 

Calnpylotes histrionicus, Wastw. j^naus, alis ad costam rufo-, interne flavo-lineatis ; ma- 
culisque apicalibus albis. Tab. 10, fig. 1. Long. coip. lin. 11. Expans. alar. unc. 3. 

Habitat in Napalia, Hardwicke; in Montibus Himalayanis, Royle. 

Corpus nigro-aeneum patagiis maculisque abdominalibus latcralibus flavis. Alae anticae aenese ; 
costa fasciisque duabus discoidalibus rufis, fasciisque tribusintei'nispar totam longitudinem 
alarum currentibus flavis ; maculis 8 vel 9 (spatium inter nervos apicales occupantibus) 
albis, Alae posticEe similiter coloratae at maculae tarminales flavo ornantur. 

This remarkable insect appears to be the extreme type of a very- 
numerous Indian group of Lepidoptera, to which belong the species 
named Capys pectinicorius Thallo et Rhodope. It is impossible 
to decide upon their real affinities until we obtain a knowledge 
of the metamorphoses of some of the species. 

I have also formed Bombyx sanguiflua of Drury into the genus 
Amesia, of which the description, accompanied by a new figure 
of this remarkable Assamese type, will appear in the forthcoming 
volume of Moths in Jardine''s Naturalist's Library. 

Several other closely allied species from India with which I am 
acquainted will probably appear in a future part of this work. 



21 



PLATE VI. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF COCCID^, BELONGING TO 
THE GENUS MONOPHLEBUS. 



The family of the well-known scale insects, Coccidse, presents to 
us some of the most singular of annulose animals. Without speak- 
ing of their singular habits, we find some of them on arriving at 
their last state, so far departing from the typical characters of the 
winged insects, as to prove that Ptilota may exist, which in the 
imago state are not only wingless, but also footless, and antennae- 
less, and in which even all appearance of annulose sti-ucture is lost, 
the creature in fact becoming an inert mass of animal matter ; a 
slender seta arising from the breast, and thrust into the stem or leaf 
on which the animal is' fixed, being the only external appendage 
to the body. Such is the case with the imago state of the females 
of many of the species — the males on the other hand are small, 
active-winged creatures provided with legs, long antenn8e,and anal 
filaments ; but, as if to keep up the anomalous character of the 
group, even these males possess but a pair of wings, the wanting 
pair being represented by two small appendages, somewhat like the 
halteres of the Diptera. 

Some of the females are, indeed, more active than those 
mentioned above; they, however, undergo no change from their 
larva state, but continue to creep about with short legs and rudi- 
mental antennse, and are always destitute of wings. Such is the 
case with the females of Pseudo-coccus, Westio. (Coccus *, Burm.) 
Cacti, Adonidum, &c., and with those of the genus Monophlebus of 
Leach. In the females of the former genus, the body is covered 
with a white powder, and the sides furnished with appendages. 
These are well known to horticulturists under the name of the 
Mealy hug ; whereas in Monophlebus, the females have the body 
naked, without either lateral appendages or anal filaments. Such 
at least is the case with the European species, M. fuscipennis, 
Burrn., an insect I had the pleasure to capture, in company with 
its talented describer, Burmeister, on the trunks of fir-trees, in the 
Thiei'garten, near the Brandenburg Thor of Berlin. The males 
have very long multiarticulate verticillated antennae, which, with 

* I regard tbe Coccus of the aucieuts, the female of which is fixed and gall-like, as the true 
type of Coccus. 



22 MONOPHLEBUS. 

the possession of only a pair of wings, led Fabricius to place one of 
the species in company with the Dipterous Cecidomyise. 

Species I. — Monophlebus Fabricii, W. 

M. thorace atro nitido, inargine sanguineo, abdomine nigro, apice piano bifido rufo, lobis setis 

tribus poi-rectis elongatis ; alls atris, lineis duabus albo-liyalinis ; pedibus nigris. $ . 
Syn. — Chiiononuis dubius. Fabr. Syst. Antl. p. 46. 
Habitat in Sijmatra. 

Qj)s. — The insect, described by Fabricius as the male of this 
species, being nearly half as small and with the setae of the abdomen 
short, was evidently the male of a distinct species. 

Species II. — Monophlebus atripennis, King. Burm. (Handb. 2. 80. exclus. syn. Chir. 
dubius, Fab.) M. fusco-ater, abdomine scutello alarumque basi obscure-coccineis, sub- 
pruindsis, antennis corpore longioribus hirsutissimis ; alispiceis, lineis duabus albo-hyalinis ; 
abdomine piano hirto, incisionibus profundis inter segmenta, appendiculisque duobus 
carnosis hirtis ( ^ lin. long.) apicalibus. Long. corp. 3^ lin. 

Habitat in Java. 

Species III.— Monophlebus Leachii, Westw. (Zool. Jl. No. 20, p. 452.) Plate 6, fig. 1. 
M. piceo-niger, abdomine prothoraceque fusco-carneis, scutello albido ; alis piceis, lineis 
duabus albo-byalinis ; antennis longissimis 25-articulatis ; abdomine plauo, apice inciso, seg- 
mentis 5 ultimis ramum longum (longitudine cresceutes) pilosum utiinque emittentibus. 
Long. coip. lin. 3^. Long, rami ultimi lin. 1 ; long, antenn. lin. 4 ; expans. alar, lin. 8. 

Habitat in Malabaria — In Mus. nostr. 

Species IV. — Monophlebus Bur meisteri, Westw. (Plate 6, fig. 2.) M. piceo-niger, protbo- 
race abdomineque fusco-carneis, scutello fasciaque inter alas albidis ; alis latioribus piceis, 
basi parum pallidioribus lineisque duabus albo-hyalinis ; antennis corpore longioribus ; 
abdomine ntiiuque ramos 5 longiores et piloses emittente. 

E piaecedenti ditfert alis brevioribus latioribus, margine postico magis rotundato ; et filamentis 
abdominalibus longioribus. 

Habitat — ? In Mus. nostr. Long. corp. lin. 2^. Expans. alar. lin. 6^. 

Species V. — Monophlebus Saundersii, Westw., M. Burmeisteri afEnis at multo minor, 
albo-farinosus ramisque abdominalibus brevioribus, caput antennae pedes et dorsum thoracis 
brunneo-fusca, thoracis lateribus abdomineque testaceo-carneis, hoc ad latera ramis brevi- 
oribus hirtis instructo duobusque apicalibus longioribus. Also fuscse margine postico 
dilatato, lineis duabus albo-hyalinis. Penis ex ano prodiens, crassus cylindricus curvatus, 
ramis posticis longior, apice crassior truncatus. Long. corp. lin. 1^. Expans. alar. lin. 4. 

Habitat in partibus septentrion. Indiae orientalis, D. Campbell. In. Mus. D. W. W. Saunders. 

Species VI. — Monophlebus Raddoni. Westw., (Plate 6, fig. 3.) M. fulvo-carneus, antennis 
pedibiisque eoncoloribus, his articulis circiter 20 ; thoracis dorso piceo ; alis apice subacutis, 
margine postico magis rotundato, fuscis lineis duabus albo-hyalinis (antica fere ad apicem 
alarum ducta), costa fulvo-carnea, vena postcostali sanguinea ; abdominis lateribus lobis 
parvis hirtis instructis, segmento ultimo appendiculis duabus majoribus ovalibus. Long. 
Corp. lin. 2f . Expans. alar, lin 7§. 

Habitat apud " the Gold coast " Africae occidentalis. In Mus. nostr. communic. D. Raddon. 

Species VII. — Monophlebus Illigeri, Westw. (Plate 6, fig. 4.) M. nigricans, capite margi- 
nibus thoracis abdomineque sanguineo-fuscis ; antennis (corpore paullo longioribus 22-arti- 
culatis) pedibusque nigris ; alis elongatis angustioribus, apice rotundatis, fuscis ; costa obscu- 
riori ; vena postcostali sanguinea, vena mediana abbreviata, lineisque duabus tenuibus 
albo-hyalinis ; abdomine impressionibus profundis inter segmenta, lateribusque lobis 
parvis ovatis hirtis instructis. Long. corp. lin. 1^. Expans. alar. lin. 5. 
$ .' depressa coccinea albo-farinosa, pedibus 6 crassis, anteunisque duabus longitudine 
tibiarum eoncoloribus. Long. corp. lin. 2^. 

Habitat in Terra Van Diemenii. D. Ewing, $ $. In. Mus. nostr. 

Species VIII. — Monophlebus fuscipennis, Buim. (Handb. d. Ent. 2, p. 80, pi. 2, fig. 46.) 
M. ex coccinco auratitiacus, $ antennis articulis 25. Capite thorace pedibusque fuscis ; 
alis lineis duabus hyalinis ; $ undique subpubcscens, antennarum articulis 1 1 pedibusque 
fuscis. Expans. alar. .J, lin. 4. • 

Habitat in Germania supra truncos quercuum, pinorum, &c. In. Mus. nostr. $ . '^ . Dedit. 
D. D. Buimeistcr. 

The plant represented in the plate is the Indian Periploca 
esculenta. 



23 



PLATE VII. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME EXOTIC SPECIES OF SAWFLIKS. 



The family Tenthredinidse is one of great extent, and is distin- 
guished by the peculiar structure of the ovipositor, which is con- 
structed so as to act like a pair of saws in forming channels in the 
bark of twigs and ribs of leaves, in which the eggs are deposited. 
The caterpillars are also remarkable as being the only Hymeno- 
pterous larvte furnished with prolegs, thus resembling the caterpillars 
of the Lepidoptera. The insects figured on the opposite plate present 
some striking instances of departure from the general characteristics 
of the family or those particular groups to which they belong. 

Figure 1 represents the female of Perga Lewisii, Westio. (Trans, 
Ent. Soc. 1. p. 234), a species discovered in Van Diemens Land, 
by Mr. R,. H. Lewis, who observed its singular economy. " The 
maternal solicitude of insects for their offspring," observes the 
writer, " has been seldom observed to extend beyond the various 
contrivances which instinct directs them to make at the time of the 
deposition of the egg, the female insect dying in most cases im- 
mediately after*." The female Perga, on the contrary, after de- 
positing her eggs in a longitudinal incision between the two surfaces 
of the leaves of one of the gum trees (Eucalyptus), sits on the spot 
until the exclusion of her young, upon which, when hatched, she sits 
with outstretched legs, preserving them from the heat of the sun, 
and protecting them from the attacks of enemies, with admirable 
perseverance. From the various experiments with the insects and 
their broods, described by Mr. Lewis in his paper in the Transac- 
tions of the Entomological Society, it is quite evident that the 
female insect constantly watches over the young until death termi- 
nates her own existence. 

HYLOTOMA (Schizocera) australis, W. (Plate 7, fig. 2. ) Lsete cyanea, ore maculisque 
duabus pone oculos fulvis ; alis fascia lata pone medium fuscis ; abdomine transverse 
striatulo, alis anticis et posticis cellula marginal! appendiculata ; tibiis posticis calcari medio 
instructis, pedibus nigris, tibiis tarsisquc anticis anoque fulvis ; anteunis nigris. Long. 
Corp. liu. 3. 

Habitat in Australasia occidentali. D. Gould. In Mus. D. Hope. 

This species differs from all the Schizocerous Hylotomse described 

* In social insects, tlie lioncy-bcc, for example, the care of the young devolves upon a parti- 
cular portion of the cuinmunity allotted for that purpose (the neuters or workers), which are 
incapacitated by their structure from having any otfspriug of their own. 



24 EXOTIC SAW-FLIES. 

by Dr. Klug (Jahrbuch. d. Entom.) in the appendiculated mar- 
ginal cells of the wings and the middle-spurred hind tibiae. In 
these respects, the insect is a true Hylotoma, thus confirming Dr. 
Klug's union of Schizocera with Hylotoma. 

PACHYLOTA, Westic. (Plate 7, fig. 3.) 

Corpus breve crassum, capita ma^o quadrato piano. Ocellus medius parvus. Antennae 
capite vix longiores 3-articulatsB, articulo 2ndo minute, 3tio longo fere cylindiico. 
Clvpeus transversus brevis in medio emarginatus. Labnim transversum breve, in 
medio eniarginatum ciliatum; mandibulse (fig. a) magnae crassas apice acutae, extus 
curvatae intus sub apiceoi rectas, margine acuto. Maxillae et labium membranaceae 
parvffi, maxillae (b in situ et b *) lobo apicali magno tenui apice dilatato et reflexo, lobo 
interno minuto attenuate. Palpi maxillares breves 4-articulati, articulo Imo minuto 
intus appendiculo triangulari instructo ; 4to mngno ovato. Mentum (c) basi quadratum, 
supra dilatato-rotundatum gibbum, palpi labiales (c*) ad, ejus angulos anticos inserts, 
brevissimi 4-articulati, articulisbasalibusbrevibu?,4totamen tenui longiori. Labium e iobis 
tribus brevissimis formatum. 

Alae anticae(fig. d) cellula unica marginali apice appendiculata, 4 submarginales, Ima brevissima, 
2nda longiori venas duas recurrentes excipiente, Scia parva, 4ta apicem alse attingente, 
alae posticae cellula marginali baud appendiculata. Pedes breves crassissimi subdepressi, 
tibiis apice omnino ecalcaratis, tarsis omnibus dilatatis (e), articulis basalibus subtus lobo 
minuto instructis, unguibus minutis distantibus pulvilloque transverse brevissimo. 

Obs. Cbaracteres e foemina desumpti. 

This is one of the most anomalous forms yet described amongst 
the Tenthredinidse. It is most nearly allied to Hylotoma in the 
antennae and wings ; but differs from that as well as from every yet 
known species in the family, in the remarkable structure of the 
dilated feet destitute of tibial spurs. The structure of the mouth 
is also equally unlike that of every known sawfly. In the Australian 
genus Perga we, however, met with 4-jointed maxillary palpi. 

Pachylota Audouinii, Westw. P. nigro-cyanea, capite antennis prothorace pedibusque 
anticis luteis; pedibus 4 posticis nigris; alis fuscis, anticis macula triangulari subcostali, 
apiceque maculaque ovata in cellula marginali posticarum pallidis ; costa stigmateque 
nigris. Long. corp. lin. 7. Expans. alar. lin. 15. 

Habitat in Africa (tropicali V) In Mus. nestr. 

I have great pleasure in dedicating this most interesting insect 
to my friend Professor Audouin, by whose kindness I received it 
from the Jardin des Plantes. 

DICTYNNA, Westw. Plate 7, fig. 4. 

Antennae capite cum thorace breviores 9-articulatae, articulo 3tio longiori, seqnentibus sensim 
crassioribus ; alos anticae cellula unica marginali magna, appendiculata, 4 submarginales, 
2da et 3tia venam recurrentem recipiunt. Alae posticae cellula marginali appendiculata. 
Corpus breve robustum. Tibiae 4 posticae medio inermes. 

This genus connects Athalia with Hylotoma. The species figured 
is, in fact, an Athalia with the wings of Hylotoma. Its beautiful 
colour is met with in no other species of the great section of the 
family which have multi-articulate antennae. 

Dictynna lata VK. (Plate 7, fig. 4.) Viridis nitida, abdomine subsericea ; antennis nigris ; 

pedibus testaceis tarsorum apice (praesertim posticorum) fusco ; alis fusco nonnihiltiuttis ; 

costa stigmateque nigris. Long, coi-p. lin. 3A. 
Habitat in Terra Van Diemenii. In. Mus. nestr. Cemmun. D. Lewis, M. E. S. 

The plant figured is the Australian Eucalyptus robusta, Smith. 



25 



PLATE VIII. 

ILLUSTRATION OF A LARGE SPECIES OF WINGLESS PHASMA. 



The family of Phasmidse comprises numerous singular species 
of Orthopterous insects, which, from their striking resemblance to 
shrivelled leaves and pieces of dried stricks, have received the 
ordinary names of walking-leaves and walking-stick-insects. If 
therefore, in a former plate (5) we have given an instance in which 
flowers assume the appearance of insects, we here find the analogy 
reversed by perceiving that insects may assume the exact appear- 
ance of parts of plants ; indeed, so close is the resemblance in the 
genus Phyllium, or Folium ambulans, as the type of that genus 
used to be named, that we find even a Fellow of the Royal Society 
( Dr. Bradley) gravely endeavouring to explain the singular produc- 
tion by informing us that " the insect is nourished by the juices of 
the tree, and grows together with the leaves till all the body is 
perfected, and at the fall of the leaf drops from the tree with the 
leaves growing to its body like wings, and then walks about." 
Another division of the family (composed of the stick-insects) has 
received the systematic name of Phasma, from the spectre-like 
appearance of the creatures, compared with the ordinary form of 
the insect tribes, and in many of these the wings are wanting in 
both or one of the sexes. 

The insect before us, one of the largest in the family, belongs to 
the last-named group, but differs from all the genera and sub- 
genera recently proposed by Gray, Burmeister, and Serville. It 
approaches the Phasma dilatata (Heteropteryx d. Gray) and 
Diapherodes Gigas, of the West Indies, but differs from both in 
the ovipositor, tarsi, and very minute state of the wings, (* and -f*), 
of which only the slightest rudiments are visible. I therefore pro- 
pose to regard it as a separate intermediate sub-genus, under the 
name of 

CRASPEDONIA. 

$ .Corpus magnum planum subapterum. Caputocellisdestitutum. Antennaelongje, 
articulo Imo crasso, 2ndobrevi, 3tio et sequentibus (longioribus) Eequalibus, apica- 
libus longioribus. Prothorax longitudine capitis. Mesothorax prothorace tripio 
longior, postice sensim dilatatus, lateribus utrinqiie spinis nonnullis bievissimis 
arniatis. Alae anticae rudimentales minutae, ad apicem mesothoracis affixee*. Meta- 
thorax mesothoraci longitudine sequalis sed latior, lateribus spinosis ; alse posticae 
minutissima;, in medio metathoiacis vix distinguendaef- Abdomen thorace toto fere 
dimidio longius, supra segmentis 9 constans, basi metathorace latius, sensim vero 



26 WINGLESS PHASMA. 

angustatum, segmentis basal ibus utrinque membrana tenui semicirculari instructis, 
oviductus brevis baud exserta (fig. a, segmenta tria postica abdominalia subtus 
visa,* oviductus,t lobi duo plani laterales). Pedes antici simplices, tarsis 4-articu- 
latis. Femora 4 postica triquetro-trigona subtus parum aerrulata, tibiae 2 posticEB 
intus spinosae. Tarsi 4 postici crassi 5-articulati. 

Phasma (^Craspedonia) gibbosa. Prasina, lateribus thoracis pedibusque magis luteo-brun- 

neis. Long. corp. unc. 5^. 
Habitat. — Brasilia teste Burmeistero. In. mus. nostr, 
Syn. Diapherodes gibbosa. Burm. Handb. d. Ent 2, p. 575. 

This fine insect is remarkable for having only four joints in the 
anterior tarsi, differing in this respect from all the known species 
of the family to which it belongs. The details of the mouth of this 
insect are figured in my " Introduction to the Modern Classification 
of Insects," vol. 1, p. 431, fig. 53, 2—6. 

Ohs. — Dr. Burmeister unites this insect with Heteropteryx dila- 
tata, Diapherodes Gigas (M. angulata Fabr.)^ and some others, 
into the genus Diapherodes. 



The Insect legions, prank'd with gaudiest hues, 
Pearl, gold, and purple, swarm'd into existence. 
Minute and marvellous Creations these ! 
Infinite multitudes on every leaf, 
In every drop, by me discern"' d at pleasure. 
Were yet too fine for unenlightened eye. 
Some barely visible ; some proudly shone 
Like living jewels ; some grotesque, uncouth. 
And hideous — giants of a race of pigmies. 
These burrow'd in the ground, and fed on garbage ; 
Those lived deliciously on honey-dews. 
And dwelt in palaces of blossom'd bells. 
Millions on millions, wing'd and plumed in front. 
And arm'd with stings for vengeance or assault, 
FilPd the dim atmosphere with hum and hurry. 
Children of light, and air, and fire, they seem'd ; 
Their lives all extacy and quick cross motion. 

Montgomery's Pelican Island. 



ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 27 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, NOTICES OF 
NEW WORKS, &c. 

( No. II. ) 



SociiTi Entomologique de France. — English entomologists will, 
I am sure, be as much gratified as myself in learning that the 
Entomological Society of France, whose proceedings were for a time 
suspended owing to the too great expense incurred in the publica- 
tion of its transactions as well as to dissensions amongst some of 
its leading members — and which led to the idea in this country that 
the society was in fact broken up — has again resumed its former 
vigour, and that its " Annales "" are not only being again published 
quarterly, but that the parts which had been delayed have, owing 
to the generous assistance offered to the society by several of the 
members, also been published. The usefulness of the society has 
been so long acknowledged, that it now behoves English members 
who had delayed paying their " cotisations "" to do so without 
further delay ; as the society, in consequence of the deficiency 
caused by the delay in these payments during the last year or two, 
has not yet entirely disburdened itself of its engagement to the 
publishers of its "Annales." In the part of the "Annales" 
recently published, may be mentioned the continuation of Solier's 
memoir on the Heteromera, and descriptions of numerous new and 
interesting species of different orders ; particularly very long and 
elaborate articles, by the Marquis Spinola, upon the Hymenoptera 
of Egypt and Cayenne, and upon the family Fulgoridse. These 
parts also present to us a far greater number of memoirs upon the 
economy and habits of various insects than are to be found in the 
earlier volumes. 

Popular information relative to the habits of insects obnoxious 
TO VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. — Tlio rcproacli wliicli lias so often been 
made against the entomologist, that his attention is not sufficiently 
devoted to the investigation of obnoxious insects, and to the dis- 
covery of beneficial remedies for destroying them or preventing 
their attacks, has now lost much of its weight. In Germany, works 
expressly addressed to the horticulturist, agriculturist, and arbori- 
culturist, have long been numerous and valuable ; the greater number 
however being devoted to forest insects, as the great extent and 
value of the German forests necessarily induce a greater degree of 



28 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

attention to the insects which attack trees. It would occupy far 
too great a space to give even the names of the German works upon 
obnoxious insects, but the work of Ratzeburg, of which two quarto 
volumes devoted to the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera have appeared, 
illustrated with numerous exquisite plates representing the insects 
in all their states and the modes of their attack upon vegetable 
productions, is too iniportant a work to be passed over in silence. 
Bouche's " Naturgescliichte der Schadlichen und Nlitzlichen Garten- 
insekten," and the elaborate report of KoUar, made to the Royal 
and Imperial Agricultural Society of Vienna, on the insects injuri- 
ous to gardeners, foresters, and farmers (whereof a translation by 
the Misses Loudon was lately published by the publisher of this 
work) ought not also to be forgotten. 

In France, M. F. Audouin has especially devoted his attention to 
the natural history of obnoxious insects, and in the series of lectures 
which he annually delivers at the Jardin des Plantes, he especially 
illustrates their natural history, although the greater portion of his 
researches are as yet unpublished. Of course as the vine is an impor- 
tant object of culture in France, the insects which attack that plant 
have been especially studied, and the first part of a very elaborate 
work by M. Audouin, with numerous plates, giving a complete illus- 
tration of one of the species of Tortricidse, which is especially 
destructive, has recently appeared under the auspices of govern- 
ment. The Baron Walckenaer has also published a treatise on the 
insects which attack the vine, in the Annales of the French Entomo- 
logical Society. In the south of France and Italy, where the olive 
is greatly cultivated, numerous memoirs have from time to time 
been published on the insects which attack that tree, the greater 
number of which have been enumerated by Costa in the first part 
of his " Corrispondenza Zoologica," published at Naples, in 1839. 

In England but few works of merit have appeared illustrating 
the habits of obnoxious insects. In J 829," A Treatise on the Insects 
most prevalent on Fruit-trees and Garden produce," was published 
by Joshua Major, a landscape gardener, whose knowledge of insects 
appears to have been very slight ; and, in 1840, a work appeared 
under the title of " Blight on Flowers, or figures and descriptions 
of the insects infesting the flower-garden," by Samuel Hereman, 
(London, Cradock) in 8vo, with numerous gaudily coloured plates, 
in which are representations of many species of insects which seem 
to me to have no other existence than in the fancy of the delineator. 

Of a very different character are the treatises published by the 
late Mr. Knight in the transactions of the Horticultural Society 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 



29 



upon various species of insects which attack fruit trees ; such as 
the American bhght, the pear-leaf blister moth, &c. 

The Entomological Society of London also, desirous of acquiring 
public support by giving proofs of a desire to render its labours 
useful, instituted prizes for memoirs on destructive insects, and if no 
other good had originated from the society than the publication of 
Mr. Le Keux's memoir on the turnip Haltica, and Mr. Newport's 
on the Athalia Centifolise, it would have amply merited the support 
it has received. 

A series' of papers appeared in the early volumes of the 
Entomological Magazine, by an anonymous writer, on different 
species of obnoxious insects, and in 1887, I commenced the 
following series of articles in Loudon"'s Gardener's Magazine : — 

No. 9. The Slimy Grub of the Pear, &c. 
( Selandria JEth iops). 

10. Caterpillar of the Apricot-bud (^Di- 
iula angustiorana). 

11. The Wire Worm (^Elater lineatus). 

12. The Codling Moth (Carpocapsa 
pon}onella). 

13. The Elm destroying Beetle(5'co/j'^M5 
destructor). 

14. Apple insects {Anthonomus Pomo- 
rum and others). 

15. Celery and Chrysanthemum Leaf 
Miner (Tephrites CetdauricB et 
Artemisia). 



No. 1. The Turnip Flea-beetle {Haltica 
nemorum) , including descriptions of 
two new British species. 

2. Oliorhynchvs sulcatus. 

3. The Turnip Saw-fly {Athalia Centi- 
folicB). 

4. The Onion Fly {Anthomyia Cepa- 
runi). 

5. Wheat Flies {Chlorops glabra, &c.) 

6. The Asparagus Beetle {Crioceiis 
Aspnrngi). 

7. Rose Moths {Argyrotoza Bergman- 
niana). 

8. The Small Ermine Moth {Ypono- 

menta padella). 

Moreover, in Loudon's Arboretum Britannicum, I have given an 
account of the insects which attack the principal genera of English 
trees. 

In Scotland, Mr. J. Duncan has also published a series of 
articles in the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, on obnoxious 
insects, of which the following is a list, together with references to 
the volumes in which they are described : — 



COLEOPTERA. 



Cataphagus lineatus . . . Vol. viii. p. 101 
„ obscurus . , . do. . p. 348 
Haltica nemorum . . . . do. . p. 353 
Calandra gianaria .... Vol. ix. p. 3 
Anthonomus Pomorum . . do. 
Phyllobius Mali ... do. 
Balaninus Nucum .... do. 
Otiorhynchus sulcatus . . . do. 
Apion apricans do. 

„ assimile do. 

„ flavipes do. 

Orchestes Fagi do. . p. 395 

Ceutorhynchus contractus . . do. . p. 395 
Cryptorhynchus Lapathi . . do. . p. 396 



Hylobius Abietis . . . Vol.xi. 
Scolytus destructor .... do. . 
Hylurgus piniperda .... do. . 

Tomicus do. . 

Hylesinus do. . 

Ptinus do. . 

Anobium do. . 

Melolontha vulgaris . . . do. . 
Amphimalla solstitialis . . . do. . 
Sinodendron cylindricum . . do. . 
Prionus-Clytus-Callidium . . do. . 
Crioceris Asparagi .... do. . 
Phsedon Vitellinse . . . . do. . 
Bruchus sranarius .... do. . 



396 
399 
404 
406 
407 
408 
408 
566 
572 
573 
575 
576 
578 
579 



30 



ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 



DIPTERA. 



All the species of CEstridse* Vol. x. p. 

Tabanidae, &c do. .p. 

Forest-flies (Hippobosca) . Vol. x[. p. 50 

Sheep Spider-fly .... do. . p. 54 

Bird Spider-fly do. . p. 57 

Blow-flies do. . p. 60 

Musca carnoria do. . p. 61 

„ Coesar do. . p. 62 

J, vomitoria do. . p. 63 



Anthomyia lardaria . . . .Vol. xi. p. 63 
,, Cepai'utn . . . . do. . p. 3fi2 
,, Brassicae . . . do. . p. 366 

Psila Rosae do. . p. .367 

Tipula Oleracea .... do. . p. 3^8 
Cecidoniyia Tritici . . . . do. .p. 372 
Chlorops Pumilionis . . Vol. xii. p. 120 
Tephritis Onopordinis . . . do. . p. 124 
Piophila Casei do. .p. 125 



HYMENOPTERA. 

Lophyrus Pini .... Vol. xii. p. 129 | Lophyrus riifus 

Athalia Centifolias . . . Vol. vii. p. 558. 



Vol. XII. p. 134 



Still more recently Mr. Curtis has commenced the publication of 
a similar series in Dr. Lindley's weekly newspaper, the Gardener's 
Chronicle. The articles which have hitherto appeared are the 
the following: — Scseva Ribesii in No. 4 ; Scale insects in No. 9 ; 
The Red Spider (Acarus telarius) in No. 11 ; The Snake Millepe- 
des (Julus) in No. ]3; Thrips pliysapus in No. 15; Pear-tree 
Blister Moth {Tinea Clerckella) in No. 17 ; Black and Clay coloured 
Vine Weevils {Pachygaster sulcatus et picipes) in No. 19 ; The 
Rocket Tinea (Cerostoma porrectella) in No. 21 ; and the Lettuce 
fly {Anthomyia LacfMccB) in No. 23. 

The Heteropterous Genus Phyllomorpha (illustrated in plate 
2) oifers an instance of the want of uniformity in the principles 
which regulate the modern generic nomenclature of insects, and 
which it is to be regretted are not more universally recognised 
amongst naturalists in general. The genus was proposed, with the 
name which I have adopted, in Guerin's Magasin de Zoologie, and 
as the two terminal syllables are formed from the feminine Greek 
word iJ.op(f)r], the feminine Latin termination was given to the word 
Phyllomorpha. Dr. Burmeister, however, adopting the principle 
that the generic names in each family should follow the sex of the 
primitive, or typical genus, altered the name to Phyllomorphus, to 
accord with the sex of the name of the typical genus, Coreus. Still 
more recently M. Rambur, (in his work on the Entomology of 
Andalusia,) on the principle that no name which had been used 
specifically should afterwards be given to the genus in which that 
species so named was introduced (a new specific name being in such 
case required for the species in question), has altered the name 



* The papers include insects hurtful to animals as well as vegetables. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 31 

Phyllomorplia to Craspediura, from the neuter Greek Kpaa-n^hov, 
thus restoring the specific name Phyllomorphus to P. Latreillii. 
Without, however, entering into the question of the propriety of 
giving the name in the neuter, because the Greek derivative is also 
neuter, M. Rambur's name cannot be adopted, being already used 
by M. Macquart for a fine genus of Diptera, allied to Asilus *. 
(Dipteres Exot. tom. 1, part. 2, p. 32.) Without also desiring to 
uphold the nomenclature of genera taken from the names of species, 
a custom which has been carried to too great an extent, it appears 
to me that, as in this case, where the name given to a species 
expresses a generic character (and no name could be devised for 
these insects more expressive than Phyllomorpha) and not a specific 
one, and where there can be no possibility of confusion of idea as 
to the insect intended by the new specific name proposed for the 
insect (as by giving the name of Latreillii to Latreille's species), we 
may adopt the principle employed by Laporte in naming this genus. 
S. S. Saunders, Esq., has captured one of the species of the 2nd 
section of this genus, under stones on a mountain near Yanina, in 
Albania, and the Rev. F. W. Hope has obtained specimens of Ph. 
algirica, two of which ( $ and $ ) are very pale grey, slightly marked 
with dark brown, without any tinge of red,- whilst another is some- 
what larger and of a duller colour, with dark red markings. I do 
not, however, perceive any other absolute specific distinctions 
between them. 

Genera Insectorum iconibus illustravit et descripsit Hermannus 
BuRMEiSTER. Nos. 1 to 7, large 8vo, Berlin. 

This work mostly amply answers to its title. It is in fact a more 
complete illustration of the genera which are given in it, than has 
been given in any previous work — the various organs 'and parts of 
the body being elaborately detailed. The early numbers were 
entirely devoted to the Homopterous insects, but in the recent ones 
the selection has been more miscellaneous. The genera of Homo- 
ptera represented are the following : -^Xystra (L. auricoma, Burm. 
figured), a remarkable species from Mexico, with the white floccose 
matter at the extremity of the body produced into a great number 

* In his plate 8, M. Macquart had named this genus Blepharis, which he changed in his 
text to Craspedia. The typical species is Asilus coriarius of Weidemann. The second 
species, Crasp. Audouinii, is identical witli the insect which I described and figured in Jardine's 
Nat. Library-, Entomol., vol. 1, p. 329, pi. 35, fig. I, under the name of Asilus (Blepharotes) 
abdominalis. AVben I described the species I had only seen males of this and females 
of A. coriarius, and considered that these might prove to be the sexes of one species; I am 
now, however, acquainted with the sexes of both. 



32 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

of long filaments, some of which, in a specimen which I possess, are 
at least four -inches long), Acocephalus, Bythoscopus,'' Eurymela, 
^ Selenocephalus C?elidia, Eupelix, Jassus;MJlopa,'^Cephalelus (C. 
infumatus, Perc/iffDorydium paradoxum, Burm. Handb. der Ent. 2. 
106X^Dorydium (a new genus analogous td^Cephalelus, but most 
nearly allied to Eupelix, to which Burmeister now applies this 
generic name, which had become a synonym of Cephalelus) ; the 
species, D. lanceolata, is from Sicily (and is remarkable for the very 
long head, pointed into a snout like a Fulgora) ; Ledra (I possess a 
second undescribed species from the East Indies); Xerophlsea, 
^^ C'Gypona, and Typhlocyba (Eupterix, Curtis.) 

In the order Coleoptera, the Lamellicorn beetles are chiefly 
illustrated. An entire synopsis is given of a group of the Macleayian 
Dynastidse (consisting of the genera Chalcosoma, Megasoma K 
(Megalosoma, Burm.) ; Xylotrupes, Hope.^ Golofa, Hope, and 
Augosoma, Burm.., (Centaurus, Jephtha and Ganymedes), Dynastes, 
M'L., also belongs to this group. The following isolated genera 
are also represented : — Eudinopus, a new genus of Scarabseidse, 
M'L., founded upon a large South American species (of which I 
had prepared a figure for this work, which the author gives as new, 
but which was described by Schreibers in the Linnsean Transactions, 
under the name of Scarabseus Dytiscoides.) 

Platygenia barbata, S and 9 ; and Hypselogenia, Burm.., 
(composed of two African Cetoniidse, Dipl. concava, and albo- 
punctata, G. P., which M'Leay unites with Ischnostoma of Gory 
and Percheron, from which, however, they are stated by Burmeister 
to differ in almost every character). 

Acropis, Burm.., is another Coleopterous genus from South Ame- 
rica, founded upon a small xylophagous beetle, in which the eyes 
are placed upon lateral prolongations of the head as in Diopsis. 

Opsomala Serv., is the only Orthopterous genus figured. The 
genera Thrips, Phlseothrips Hal.., and Heliothrips, and the Pediculi- 
deous genera Phthirus and Pediculus, are also elaborately illustrated. 

The work is entirely written in Latin, which renders it still more 
valuable, as well as indespensable to all who desire to possess beau- 
tiful figures united with correct structural details of rare and 
interesting genera. The two forthcoming numbers will be chiefly 
devoted to the Lamellicorn beetles, including a figure of the male 
of Mr. Cuming's new Eucheirus (E. quadrilineatus, Waterh.) The 
genera Fulgora and Pyrops will also be illustrated in them. 



33 



PLATE IX. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS OF MANTIDEOUS ORTHOPTERA. 



It is amongst the Orthoptera that we find some of the most 
striking and ugly-formed insects ; this is especially the case with 
many of the soothsayer or praying mantides ; such as M. strumaria, 
Linn., M. cancellata, Fabr., etc. ; in which we find the prothorax 
developed on each side into a very broad thin membrane of variable 
form, resembling a leaf. These species, except in respect to this 
prothoracic membrane, agree in general character with the genuine 
species of the restricted genus Mantis ; and consequently we find 
that Professor Burraeister has rejected the generic name of Chsera- 
dodis, which M. Serville had proposed for them, using it only as a 
sectional or subgeneric name, and giving the subgeneric names of 
Rhombodera and Craurusa to other allied analogous species. 
Other species in the same family are distinguished by having a' 
small membranous appendage at the extremity of the four poste- 
rior thighs ; but in these the head is either cornuted or tubercled, 
as in Empusa, Blepharis, Vates, Burm., etc. 

The species figured in the accompanying plate are intermediate 
between these two groups, agreeing with Vates, &c., in the foliolets 
at the extremity of the hind thighs, and with Chseradodis, &c., in 
the crown of the head not being cornuted, and in the dilated 
membrane of the prothorax. I accordingly form them into the 
genus 

DEROPLATYS. 

Caput vertice transverse inermi piano. Oculi rotundati. Antennae gracillimae. 
Prothorax elongatus, membrana maxima formae varise utrinque instructus. Abdo- 
men breve segmentis apicalibus latis et ad latera lobatis. Pedes quatuor postici 
graciles longi, femoribus ad apicem postice membrana parva instructis. Alse et 
tegmina formae variae. Insecta Asiatica. 

Species I. Deroplatys desiccata, Westw. (in Jardine's Naturalist's Library, Insects, Introd. 
pi. 9.) 

Fusca, prothorace (tab. nostr. 9, fig. 3) membrana maxima tenuissima (postice utrinque valde 
incisa) instructo ; tegminibus brevibus latis, apice obtusis subtus versus apicem oculo 
magno albo, pupilla nigra ; alls nigris apice et costa fuscis. Long. corp. 3 unc. Expane. 
alar. 3^ unc. 

Habitat in Malacca. In Mus. D. F. W. Hope. 

Obs. Larva thoracem ejusdem forma; possidet. 

D 



34 NEW GENUS OP MANTlDyE. 

Spfxies it. Deroplatys lohata (Clucr.idodis 1. Guerin. Mag. d. Zool. Ins. pi. 234, et Voy. 

de 1' Astrolabe, p. 69) — Tab. uostr. 9, fig. 4, prothorax. 
Habitat ignota. 

Species III. — Deroplatys angvstata, W. pi. 9, fig. 2. 

Elougata, fusca tegtninibus obscurioribus macula pavva pallida subcostali ; prothorace rliom- 
biformi, angulis lotiindatis, marginibus lateralibus subsinuatis, fenioribus tibiisque 
posticis nigro annulatis, pedibus anticis externe fuscis, coxis interne albidis apice nigris, 
femoribus albidis macula media nigra. 

Long. Corp. unc. 2. 

Habitat ill insula Java, D. Horsfield. In Mus. Soc. Merc. Ind. Orient. Londini. 

Species IV. — Deroplatys arida, Westw. plate 9, fig. 1. 

Fusco-ferruginea, prothoracis membrana postice angiistata (folium quercus nigras, Linn. Loudon. 
Arboret. Britann. p. 1891, exacte referenti) tfgminibus alisque elongatis ad apicem 
attenuato-angulatis, his plaga magna baseos nigra nitida, illis subtus maculis sex nigris 
colore albo separatis : femoribus anticis extus fuscis macula parva fulva ad marginem 
superiorem versus apicem, intus ferrugineis margine infero flavo, nigro maculate ; tibiis 
anticis extus fuscus, intus nigris. 

Long. Corp. 2^ unc. Expans. tegmin. 5 unc. Long, prothor. lin. lOJ- (mens, angl.) Lat. 
proth, lin. 10. 

Habitat in Aurea Chersoneso vel in insula Jabadii (Sumatra). In Mus. D. D. Fortnum et 
Newman. 

The plant of which a small portion is represented is Spathoglottis 
pubescens, LindL, one of the Indian Orchidaceae, figured by 
WalHch in his Plants Asiatics Rariores, vol. 3, pi. 203. 



35 



PLATE X. 

THE COLEOPTEROUS GENUS HYPOCEPHALUS ILLUSTRATED. 



The genus Hypocephalus was first proposed by M. Desmarest, 
in Guerin's " Magasin de Zoologie'*'' for 1832 (vol. 1, pi. 24), being 
founded upon a most anomalous beetle of large size from the 
province of the mines in the interior of Brazil, whose natural rela- 
tions have perplexed all subsequent entomologists. The insect is 
described in detail, and outline figures are given of the dorsal and 
lateral aspect of the insect, with a front and side view of the head 
and figures of the palpi detached. My figure 2 is copied from 
Desmarest's figure of his insect seen from above. 

Five years afterwards, Gistl, a German entomologist, unac- 
quainted with Desmaresfs figure, published another description 
and figure of evidently the same insect, in the first number of 
his " Faunus," under the name of Mesoclastus paradoxus, forming 
it into a new and distinct family of the Pentamerous Coleoptera, 
named Xenomorphse. The upper and under sides of the insect 
and the front of the head are represented ; my figure 3 being 
copied from his first figure. 

For the insect represented in my figure 1, I have to return my 
best thanks to A. Melly, Esq. who has thus enabled me to dissect 
this singular insect, and give a correct description of the parts of 
its mouth. Notwithstanding the differences observable in the 
three figures, I consider that they are all representations of the 
same insect ; perhaps a variation in the sex of M. Desmarest's 
insect may account for the great difference between his and the 
other two figures. 

The insect exhibits, as M. Desmarest well observes, a certain 
analogy with the mole cricket in the large size of the prothorax, 
thick hind legs and short antennae. The large size of the hind 
feet, and especially of the posterior coxae, have rendered necessary 
an extra-development of the mesosternum, which is pushed so far 
backwards that the abdomen is reduced to a very small size. The 
head is of a curious form, its lateral posterior angles being extended 
backwards, forming somewhat acute and prominent points ; on each 
side beneath the antennae the head is produced into a conical 

D 2 



33 HYPOCEPHALUS. 

deflexed horn, heaving a tubercle near its tip on the inside ; these 
two horns are mistaken by Gistl for the maxillae ; an elevated ridge 
runs across the middle of the head on the upper side ; the eyes are 
oval, and placed obliquely behind the base of the antennse, the 
anterior part or clypeus (mistaken by Gistl for the labrum) 
having two deep impressions. The true labrum (mistaken by Gistl 
for the labium, and incorrectly described by Desmarest as trian- 
gular) is small, oblong, emarginate in front, and setose. The 
mandibles are large, horny, straight, prominent, and of an elongate 
conical form, with a large tubercle near the base on the outside. 
The maxillae (overlooked by Desmarest) are small, and but slightly 
produced, the base horny, the apical lobe small and hairy, the 
lower lobe very minute, the maxillary palpi about as long as the 
mandibles, 4-jointed, the basal joint longest, the 4th larger than 
the 8rd, and securiform. The mentum (overlooked by Dr. Gistl, 
and described by Desmarest as the ' levre') is of a transversely oval 
form, flat and horny, originating above a line drawn between the 
two deflexed horns of the head. The labium (or ligula) is very 
minute and setose, not appearing beyond the two short scapes of 
the labial palpi, which are as long as those of the maxillae, and 
S-jointed (the 2nd joint being equal in length to the 2nd and Srd 
joints of the maxillary palpi united). The ord joint is equal and 
similar to the last joint of the maxillary palpi. The antennae are 
short, and constructed exactly as in Spondylus, the second joint 
shortest, and the last rather flat and obtuse. The elytra are 
partially soldered together. The two anterior tibiae have two 
unequal-sized spurs at the tip, the middle tibiae are also two-spurred, 
but the spurs are of equal size ; the hind tibiae are not spurred. 
The presternum is channelled, and produced between the anterior 
coxae, terminating in an obtuse point. The tarsi are 5-jointed, the 
four basal joints gradually decreasing in size, their terminal angles 
produced but not bilobed ; these joints on the under side are fur- 
nished with two narrow rows of short hairs. Between the ungues is 
a very short plantula, which is most prominent in the fore legs, but 
is not terminated by bristles. The basal joint of the hind tarsi is 
much shorter than in the middle feet. The general colour of the 
insect is very dark chesnut, the thorax, head, and feet being very 
shining, and covered with fine punctures, and the elytra are rather 
redder chesnut, and very rugose ; the prothorax is marked behind 
with several slight circular impressions, arranged in a semicircle ; 
and there are two others near its anterior angles. 



HYPOCEPHALUS. " 3/ 

The following are the dimensions of my specimen (which is, 
I believe, the only one existing in any of the Metropolitan 
cabinets *). 

LINES (ENGLISH.) f 

Length of the Mandibles ....... 3 

— — Head 5^ 

— — Piothorax 13 

— — Elytra (and Scutellum) . . . . . . 15 

36J- 

Length of the Antennae ....... 4 

Breadth of the Prothorax (across the middle) . . . . 10^ 

— — Elytra 10 

M. Desmarest's specimen is only 2~ inches or 55J millemetres 
long, whilst that described by Gistl is still smaller, being 2-^^ 
inches long. 

From the large size of the hind legs, we might at first consider 
the insect to be capable of leaping, but its whole form contradicts 
such a notion, and leads us to conjecture that it is a slow and sluggish 
creature ; indeed Dr. Erichson states that he had been informed 
by the late Prince of Neuwied, that he had taken the insect creep- 
ing on the ground. Mr. Melly, on the contrary, informs me that 
three specimens be had received were reported to have been found 
in the carcase of a dead horse. From the formidable appearance 
of the mouth-organs, we might also at first consider the insect to 
be highly rapacious ; but when we examine them in detail, we find 
a formation evidently unfitted for carnivorous habits ; indeed the 
mandibles are so formed that if their inner edges are brought 
together they meet in a nearly straight line, or rather the tips are 
slightly hent outwards, so as to lead to the idea that the creature 
cannot by any possibility bite. Again, the maxillae and labium are 
very minute, whilst the two deflexed horns at the sides of the 
mouth appear quite in the way, were the insect a rapacious one. 

INIy friend, Professor Burmeister, having examined my specimen 
of the insect and the accompanying figures, has favoured me with the 
following observations upon its natural relations. 

London, 14th June, 1841. 

" According to your desire I give you the following remarks 
upon the natural afiinity of the curious animal Hypocephalus, which 



* A specimen (which is, I believe, the only one in Paris) has recently been purchased for 
the Museum d'Hist. Nat, at the price of 700 francs. 

•f- I employ the English length measure, i.e. 12 lines to the inch. My specimen is, there- 
fore, 3 inches and ^ a line long. It is shorter in my figure by 2 lines, but allowance must be 
made for the curve of the body. 

+ An inch is equal to 25 French millemetres. 



38 HYPOCEPHALUS. 

I yesterday suggested to you in your own library, and which I now 
have more fully detailed. Having now examined the genera most 
nearly allied to Hypocephalus in Mr. Hope's collection, I am quite 
convinced that Hypocephalus is a Longicorn, and belongs to the 
sub-family of the Prionidse, in the vicinity of Dorysthenes [Cyrto- 
gnathus Falcl. Prion, rostratus and Pr. paradoxus] — Spondylus, 
Trictenotoma and Amallopodes, Dup. (Acanthinodera Cumingii, 
Hope) ; from all which genera Hypocephalus borrows some of the 
characters. 

" Commencing with the antennae, I find the greatest resemblance 
between those organs of Hypocephalus and Spondylus, owing to 
their shortness and moniliform figure, which we observe not only in 
Spondylus, but also in a new curious prionideous insect from 
Cordofan, communicated to me by Mr. Kollar, under the name of 
Prionus Spondyloides, and which I have also seen to-day in 
Mr. Hope's collection *. The whole structure of the head is still 
more nearly alike in Hypocephalus and Dorysthenes ; and I find 
no other difference except the curious mode of articulation of the 
head with the prothorax in the former genus. The mandibles 
moreover in Hypocephalus are shorter and broader than in 
Dorysthenes, although the large prominent teeth behind the man- 
dibles (which are by no means articulated as might be conceived 
from M. Desmarest's figure) are more developed in Hypocephalus 
than in Dorysthenes. The other parts of the mouth in both genera 
are entirely similar; and you perceive from the very minute mando 
(or inner lobe of the maxillse) that Hypocephalus must be prioni- 
deous, because the form of that part is the first family character 
of the Prionidse. 

" As to the prothorax, there is also a great resemblance between 
Hypocephalus and Dorysthenes ; and the greatest difference is 
merely its increased length, whilst in all other Prionidse the 
prothorax is broader than long. With this character the short- 
ness of the elytra is in opposition, these organs being as much 
abridged as the prothorax is elongated. This relation, I confess, 
is very abnormal, but not exclusively peculiar among the Longi- 
corns, as proved by the genus Gnoma. Eespecting the sculpture 
of the surface, it is the same as in most Prionidse, as well as the 
colour and texture, which has in all parts the appearance of a coria- 



* I believe this is identical with Coptocephalus brasiliensis, figured in Griffith's "Animal 
Kingdom" — Metopocoilus maculicoUis, Serville. J. O. W. 



HYPOCEPHALUS. 39 

ceous tegument so well exhibited in most species of Prionidse. I 
assert that an entomologist who knows nothing of the whole animal 
except an elytrura, must be convinced by the sculpture that it is 
part of a prionideous insect. I regret that we have not examined 
the wings, because these organs, according to my observations, 
afford the best family characters in the majority of the Coleoptera, 
and I recommend you to examine them*. 

" The legs present stronger grounds of disputation ; and I con- 
cede that the incrassated femora and incurved tibise are different 
from the type of the family ; but this single character will not 
suffice to remove Hypocephalus from Prionus, because we find 
in other genera singular forms of legs as in Psalidognathus, Amallo- 
podes and Trictenotoma. From this last genus, which in my 
opinion is also prionideous, Hypocephalus derives its tarsi, except 
those of the posterior legs, which are only four-jointed in Tricteno- 
toma. The tarsi of Amallopodes are still more like those of 
Hypocephalus, except that the penultimate joint is much smaller, 
thus scarcely receding from the type of the family, as is the case 
in Trictenotoma and Hypocephalus. 

" In the last place the observation that Hypocephalus lives in 
rotten wood, upon the ground in forests, accords with my opinion of 
its natural affinities." 

Since the arrival of Professor Burmeister in Paris, he has 
informed me that M. Guerin Meneville had likewise already 
entertained the same opinion relative to its relation with the 
Prionidse, and had prepared a series of figures illustrating its 
various organs in detail. Notwithstanding the various anomalies 
exhibited by the genus noticed by Burmeister (to which we may 
add the want of emargination in the eyes), I must confess that the 
relation pointed out in the preceding communication appears to me 
to be the correct one t. It may further be mentioned that the 
peculiar toothing of the anterior tibise occurs in the Australian Pri- 

* The insect is totally destitute of wings. — J. O. W. 

■j- Destnarest thinks it nearest to Necrophorus amongst the Clavicorn Pentamera (such also 
Mr. Melly informs me is the opinion of Dr. Klug), whilst Gistl considers it as forming the 
passage between the Lamellicorns and Melasomatous Heteromera. In my " Introduction " I 
suggested that the nearest relations appeared to be such genera as Passandra, Catogeuus, 
Rhysodes, and Calodromus, which appear to me to connect the Cuciijidoe with the Brenthidae. 
In these genera the formation of the tarsi is more or less anomalous, so that we are not on that 
account to reject this relation. In Passandra, &c., the sides of the head beneath are developed 
into two flat plates (analogous to the deflexed horns of Hypocephalus). There is also an 
apparent approximation to the general form of this genus exhibited by various male Brenthidae, 
which have thick'denticulated feet and short moniliform antennas, but the structure of the mouth 
and of the tarsi is very different. 



40 HYPOCEPHALUS.. 

onus pilosicollis (Hope in Trans. Ent. Sec. vol. 1, pi. 2, fig. 1.), and 
in Caritharocnemis Spondyloides, Dupont, an uncharacterised genus 
from Senegal. Another curious character, to which perhaps but 
little weight ought to be given, is the great length of the basal, and 
the shortness and triangular form of the terminal joint of the palpi. 
I have, however, found securiform maxillary and labial palpi in a 
curious Prionus, obtained by Mr, Raddon from raw turpentine 
(Hoplopteryxdenticulatus, Westw. ined.). The minuteness of the 
labium or ligula is also to be noticed, since in almost all other 
Longicorns it is visible beyond the base of the labial palpi. 

Having elsewhere suggested that Spondylis is more nearly allied 
(from its larva) to the Lepturidae than to the Prionidse, and Hypo- 
cephalus, being more allied to Spondylis and Cantharocnemis than 
to the other genera mentioned by Burraeister, it becomes interesting 
to speculate on the degree of relation which Sagra (so nearly allied 
to Lepkura) bears to Hypocephalus. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE X. 

Fig. ]. My specimen of Hypocephalus armatus. 

la. Under side of the head, lb. One of the maxillse. 
Ic. The labrum, 

2. Copy of Desmarest's figure of Hypocephalus armatus. 

3. Copy of Gistl's figure of Mesoclastus paradoxus. 



41 



PLATE XI. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF PAPILIO FROM 
NORTHERN INDIA. 



In the fine collection of Assamese insects, collected by Mr, 
Griffith, already alluded to in p. 17, and which has supplied mate- 
rials for two very interesting memoirs published by the Rev. F. W, 
Hope, in the Transactions of the Linnsean Society, are several 
new species of Papilio, amongst which that represented in the two 
lower figures in plate 2 is especially worthy of notice on account 
of the very peculiar character of the markings of the under surface 
of the wings. It may thus be characterized : — 

PAPILIO GYAS, W. Plate 11, fig. 1 & 1. 
P. alls anticia subhamatis posticis caudatis ; supra fuscis margine obscuriori luteo subniaculatis, 

macula parva cserulea aii angulum ani ; subtus brunneis medio pallidis lunulisque Bub- 

argenteis notatis. 
Expans. alar. unc. 4|. Habitat Assam. D. Griffith. In Mus. D. Solly. 

The wings above are of a dull brown colour, the anterior having 
a dark brown triangular spot about the middle, extending across 
the discoidal cell, at the extremity of which is a second similar 
spot ; the outer margin is darker, with six luteous submarginal 
patches ; between the apex of the wing and the extremity of the 
discoidal cell are three indistinct oval patches of a similar colour. 
The hind wings are similarly coloured, but the margin is darker 
brown and wider, and the luteous spots assume the appearance of 
indistinct lunules ; at the anal angle is a small patch of blue scales. 
The body above is clothed with greenish hairs ; on the under side 
the colours are much brighter and more varied. The base is occu- 
pied by a large space of rich dark red-brown, or maroon, of which 
there is also a patch at the extremity of the discoidal cell. This 
is succeeded by a bar of whitish fleshy-coloured tint which passes 
gradually to brown and purple ; near the apex of the fore wings is a 
large patch of pale opaline colour, from which extends a bar of 
fulvous brown, terminating above in white angles preceded by 
purplish and obscure brown arches, the margin is brown, within 
which is an obscure bar of luteous. The extremity of the discoidal 
cell in the hind wings is occupied by a dark brown patch preceded 
by a white opaline arch edged with black ; a bar of the former 



42 NEW SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

colour extends also to the anal angle, and adjoining the tail are 
several luteous spots preceded by opaline-white lunules ; the space 
between them and the discoidal cell being rich dark brown. The 
whole under side has a glossy appearance. The body beneath is 
brown, the abdomen yellowish. The legs are red brown. The 
specimen represented is a male. 

The species is most nearly allied to P. Peranthus. I have been 
very careful in giving the precise shape of the wings, both in this 
and the following species. 

PAPILIO CLOANTHUS, W. Plate II, fig. 2. 

P. alis elongatis, anticis apice acutis, posticis caudatis ; nigris, fascia media commiini subnuda 
argenteo-virescenti, versus apicem anticaruni in maculas 4 divisa, posticis maculis submar- 
ginatibus concoloribus. 

Expans. alar. unc. 3^. Habitat in partibus septentrionalibus Indise orien talis. 

The wings above are almost black, the centre marked with a very 
broad fascia, common to each, of a whitish-green tint, but almost 
transparent. The extremity of this bar is broken in the apical 
half of the fore wings into four patches of unequal size, the first 
divided transversely and the second longitudinally by the veins. The 
hind wings are moreover ornamented with four unequal-sized 
patches of similar colour, and the incisions between the tail and 
anal angle are edged with white. 

The under side is paler brown, with similar silvery green semi- 
transparent spots. In addition to which the base of all the wings 
is also slightly green, and the fore wings have a pale line near to the 
outer margin; near the base of the hind wings are also three small 
and slender red lunules edged with black. At the extremity of the 
discoidal cell are also several black spots edged with dull pinkish- 
red, a similar spot is at the anal angle, and another at the side of 
the first green patch. The body beneath is pale greyish-green. 
The abdomen whitish with a black bar on each side. 

I have seen this species in the cabinets of F. J. Parry and 
W. W. Saunders, Esqrs., the British Museum, as well as in several 
other collections. 

This insect is most nearly allied to P. Sarpedon and the neigh- 
bouring species, but is at once distinguished by being tailed, as well 
as by its acute fore wings, and the semi- transparency of its delicate 
silvery-green markings. 

" Amidst the loud applauses of the shore, 
Gyas outstripp'd the rest, and sprang before ; 
Cloanthus, better mann'd, pursued him fast." 

Dryden's Virgil. 



43 



PLATE XII. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW GENERA OF AUSTRALIAN HETEROMEROUS 
BEETLES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE REV. F. W. HOPE. 



CYPHALEUS, Hope. 

Corpus oblongo-ovatum, elytris convexis rugosis lateribus parallelis. Caput 
mediocre, clypeo ante oculos utrinque prominente, basin antennarum tamen vix 
obtegente. Antennte longitudine capitis cum dimidio thoracis, articulis apicalibus 
parum crassioribus et brevioribus. Mandibuls subtrigonge, externe rotundatae, 
apice bifidae, intus membrana in cavitate recepta.instructBe. Maxillae lobo interno 
in hamum corneum acutum producto, lobo externo magno inermi setoso. Palpi 
max. articulo ultimo magno securiformi. Mentum subquadratum, antice latius 
angulis antice rotundatis : labium subquadratum angulis etiam rotundatis. Palpi 
lab. breves, in scapos parvos insidentes, articulo 3tio subsecuriformi. Prothorax 
postice latior, angulis acutis. Elytra magna, prothorace multo latiora, convexa, 
valde punctato-rugosa. Pedes longi simplices. 

Species I. Cyphaleus formosus, Hope. Niger, nigro-setosus, supra punctatus, elytroruru 
dimidio basali viiidi, purpureo cincto, apice violaceo-nigricante, punctis elytrorum majori- 
bus, et saspe confluentibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 11^. 

Ohs. — The splendid purple oval edging to the green base of the 
elytra is a very peculiar character in this insect. 

Species II. Cyphaleus iopterus, Hope. Niger, nigro-setosus, supra punctatus, punctis 

elytrorum majoribus distinciis, apiceiu versus obliteratis ; elytris nitide violaceis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 10. 

Obs. — The smaller size, more regular, and slighter punctation of 
the elytra, which are smooth behind, and their uniform violet- 
purple colour, are the chief differences between the two preceding 
insects. 

Species III. Ci/phnleus rugosus. Totus ater, elytris rugoso-punctatis. 

Helops ? rugosus, G. R. Gray, in Griffith, An. K. Iiis. pi. 80, f. 5. 

Helops aterrimus, G. R. Gray in ditto, pi. 74, fig. 5 (details), and Part 31, 
p. 22. 
Long. Corp. lin. II. 

CHARTOPTERYX, Hope. 

Corpus ovatum convexum, antice attenuatum. Antenna* capita cum thorace 
longiores, graciles, articulis 4 apicalibus brevibus et vix crassioribus. Mandibulae 
crassae, apice acutse, curvatte, intus apicem bifidaB, spatio marginis interni mem- 
brana repleto. Maxillae parvs, lobo interno apice hamo parvo acuto corneo inflexo 
armato. Palpi max. articulo ultimo securiformi, mentum subcordato-truncatum, 
labium integrum ciliatum. Palpi lab. breves, articulo ultimo subsecuriformi. Pro- 
thorax sub-planus postice latior, lateribus rectismarginatis. Elytra basi vix pronoto 
latiora, gradatim dilatata convexa, postice areolata, apice acuto. Pedes longi graciles. 

Obs. — The generic name is proposed in allusion to the map-like 
markings of the hind part of the elytra. 



44 NEW AUSTRALIAN HELOPID^. 

Species I. Chartopteryx Childrenii, Hope. jEneo-niger nitidus, capite thoraceque 
tenuissime punctatis villoso-lineatis, elytris magis seneis punctatis, parte postica in areas 
Iseves clialybasas formae varias liiieis punctatissimis et villosis divisa. 

Long. Corp. lin. 8. 

HEMICYCLUS, HopS. 

Corpus haemisphericum, marginatum, glabrum ; Cassidas varias simulans. 
Antennae capite cum thorace vix longiores, articulis 5 terminalibus brevioribus et 
parum dilatatis. Mandibulae, maxillae, palpi et instrumenta labialia ut in genera 
praecedente. Pronotura lunatum postice multo latior, lateribus fere rectis, angulis 
parum rotundatis. Elytra maxima fere rotundata, marginata, gibbosa, glaberrima. 
Pedes longitudine mediocres, graciles, simplices, tarsis angustis, articulis subtus 
productis. 

Obs — This genus, although so different in form, is more nearly 
allied to the preceding than to Helseus, or the hemispheric 
metallic Diaperidse. 

Species I. Hemicyclus grandis, Hope. jEneo-niger, nitidissimus, capitis parte postica sub 
lente punctata ; elytris metallicis, dorso purpurascente, lateribus magis viiescenti-nitidis ; 
pedibus antennisque nigris. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^. 

Species IL Hemicyclus metallicus, Hope. Niger, nitidissimus, elytrorum dorso purpureo- 

nitido, tarsis quatuor anticis subdilatatis. An mas praecedentis.* 
Long. Corp. lin. b^. 

LEPispiLus, Hope. 

Corpus oblongo-ovatum, squamoso-punctatum. Antennae prothorace longiores, 
articulis quaque ultimis crassioribus brevioribus. Mandibulae crassae, apice in 
dentera obtusura terminate, intus membrana ciliata instructae. Maxillae lobo 
interno baud unco corneo instructse. Palpi max. articulo ultimo vix securiformi. 
Mentum transversum lateribus rotundatis ciliatis. Labium integrum ; palpi lab. 
articulo ultimo securiformi. Prothorax transversus, lateribus rotundatis, angulis 
posticis acutis, dorso longitudinaliter canalicalutus. Elytra elongato-ovata, punctis 
majoribus sed parum impressis et villosis. Pedes mediocres, simplices, tibiis parum 
curvatis, unguibus longis. 

Species L Lepispilus sulcicollis,lio^e. Niger, elytris magis brunneo-purpureis, albo-villosis 
maculaque majori in medio marginis lateralis ejusdem colons; capite thoraceque 
punctatis, hoc impressiouibus duabus versus angulos posticos, lineaque impressa media 
longitudinali. 

Long. Corp. lin. 7. 

Obs. — This insect is probably identical with the Helops a corselet 
sillonne of Boisduval, in the Voyage de TAstrolable Col. pi. 7, fig. 5, 
but the figures in that work are so execrable, that it is impossible 
to determine the species with precision. 

Obs. — The four genera above described belong to the great family 
Helopidse, and are here published with the view of affording materials 
towards a revision of that group. 

The plant figured in the plate is Australian Epacris nivalis. 



45 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, NOTICES OF 
NEW WORKS, &c. 

(No. III.) 

Zoological Works Published under Government Patronage. 

In no one particular do we find the great distinction between 
England and the Continental nations more strikingly illustrated 
than in the publication of works of science, and particularly upon 
Natural History. In England all our finest works have been produced 
either at the cost of individuals, whose purse-strings have been 
opened with a liberal hand by their zeal for the science — witness Mr. 
Lambert's magnificent work on the genus Pinus, the Lepidoptera 
of Georgia of Abbot and Smith, the Exotic Insects of Drury, 
the Malacostraca Podopthalma of Dr, Leach — or by the spirited 
exertions of pubhshers, as in the case of the Translation of the 
Animal Kingdom by Griffith, the splendid works on Ornithology 
by Mr. Gould, or the works on British Entomology by Messrs. 
Curtis and Stephens. With very few exceptions government has 
afforded no assistance to the publication of such works. On 
the Continent, however, the case is entirely reversed, the finest 
works having been produced under the auspices of the respective 
governments of the countries in which they have been published. 

That the direction unquestionably given to the public mind in such 
countries by the course of public education, must have a material 
effect in producing such a result, is unquestionable ; nor can we 
expect that the case will be altered here until physical science in 
general, including Natural History as a necessary branch, is fostered 
by the State for her own sake, independent of the shop-keeping 
spirit of the country, and is insisted upon as a branch of public 
education as material as the Classics, Mathematics, &c. * 

* Since the publication of the last number of this work I have had the pleasure of visiting 
Oxford, iu company with Professor Burmeister ; but how can I explain the mingled feelings I 
experienced at being compelled to answer his question, " Who is the Professor of Zoology 
here?" by informing him that there was no such Professorship in this, the most magnificent 
University in the world — in more forcible language than was employed by Mr. MacLeay upon 
this very subject twenty years ago ? 

" Unfortunately in those classic scenes which derive no small portion of their fame from a 
Ray and a Lister, the existence of Zoology as a science is in these days scarcely suspected. 
Well may the foreigner who beholds our learned establishments so splendidly endowed, note, 
among the most remarkable circumstances attending them, that in none whatever should 
there be a Zoological chair. It is not for me to enter into the causes of this, else it were 
desirable to know why plants should have been deemed worthy of attention, while animals have 



46 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

It may indeed be urged that the taste for such pursuits in the 
minds of persons in authority may have in some degree contributed 
to such a result, but it appears to me that it is quite independent of 
such consideration. How, in fact, were it not so, can we account 
for the non-pubhcation of such works in this country, when it is 
well known that the Royal Family are and have long been interested 
in these pursuits, the Princess Charlotte, for instance, having 
possessed a cabinet of exotic insects, and her present Majesty as 
well as her Consort being understood to have a strong predilection 
for Natural History. 

It will be sufficient to prove the correctness of these observations, 
to mention a few of the works published under the direction of 
Continental States, which throw into deep shade all that the 
government of this country has ever aided in producing. 

The great work on Egypt, undertaken by the direction of 
Napoleon, would alone be a " raonumentum sere perennius." Its 
magnificent plates (of which those of the Annulose animals are 
perhaps the most elaborate, and which cost the eye-sight of the 
inimitable Savigny) are on a par with all the undertakings of the 
gigantic-minded Emperor. More recently, under the auspices of 
the present King and his government, we have the Expedition 
scientifique de Moree, the Voyage de la Coquille, those of the 
Astrolabe, of D'Orbigny, and others, each of which surpasses any 
of the government Natural History works of this country. 

In Prussia may be mentioned the splendid Symbolae Physicse of 
Elirenberg and Hemprich, the insects of which were edited by 

been utterly neglected. I can only acknowledge with regrret that such has been the case. If 
it be said that lectures on natural affinities are included in some course of comparative anatomy, 
1 am truly glad to hear it ; but if it be urged that the knowledge of comparative anatomy 
implies that of the animal kingdom, I deny it totally, since comparative anatomy is only the 
instrument of Zoology; and while no man can be versed in natural affinities without some 
acquaintance with comparative anatomy, examples may easily be specified of comparative 
anatomists who know nothing of natural history. A Professorship of Natural History 
is necessarily charged with duties that give ample employment in Paris to thirteen 
professors with their numerous assistants, [Since this was written another professor- 
ship has been established for the investigation of the Annulose animals in particular.] I 
have ventured to give this humiliating picture of the state of Zoological instruction in Great 
Britain, because there are persons who affect surprise that in that science which relates to the 
animated works of God, France should be the predecessor over a nation comparatively more 
religious." — Horse Entomologicas, p. 457. 

Entertaining as I do the opinion that other and far higher considerations are involved in the 
study of Zoology than the elucidation of natural affinities, I cannot discover the slightest 
shadow of reason why Zoology should be neglected where Botany, Geology, and Comparative 
Anatomy are introduced. The very notion of such an arrangement is ridiculous, even in the 
truly English ciii bono view of the question. 

If the establishment of such a professorship rests with the Universities, and does not depend 
upon private endowment, it behoves the Zoologists of the country to bring the subject in a 
proper manner before the Senatus Academicus. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 47 

Dr. Klug ; and in liussia, the Oryctographie du Gouvernement de 
Moscou, the Entomology of the Trans-Caucasian Regions, and of 
the Embassy to North China. 

It is not, however, in these great states alone that we find this 
fostering care of science, for the national works undertaken by 
the Dutch are not behind the majority of those mentioned above. 
The Fauna Japonica of Siebold, assisted by Temminck, Schlegel 
and De Haan, " jussu et auspiciis superiorura qui summura in India 
Batava imperium tenent," would do honour to any country. And we 
have now the commencement of a similar work on the Natural 
History of the Dutch Settlements in India, in large folio ; the 
third part of which is devoted to a complete illustration of the 
Indian species of the modern genus Papilio, occupying nine plates, 
with descriptions by De Haan. The title of the work is as follows : 

Verhandelingen over de Natuuilijke Geschiedenis der Ncdeilandscho overzeesche bezittingen 
door de laden der Natuuikundige Commissie in Oost-Iudie en andeie Schiijvens. — 
Leiden, 1840. 

In addition to illustrations of numerous previously-described 
species, of which various beautiful varieties are represented, one 
plate is devoted to an elaborate series of anatomical details of 
the genera composing the modern family Papilionidse, in which 
we find the characters afforded by the variations in the male 
organs of generation, and the veining of the wings, to be extensively 
employed. There is also a considerable number of new species 
figured, one of which is closely allied to the splendid Priamus, 
which it even exceeds in beauty. 

Having illustrated in the present number of this work two new 
additional species of Papilio from the same quarter of the globe, 
I thought it a fit opportunity to notice this new work, which adds 
fresh fame to the name of its talented author, whilst the circum- 
stances under which it has appeared naturally led to the foregoing 
remarks. 

The Entomologist, conducted by Edward Newman, F.L.S., &c., Nos. 1 to 8, 8vo. 
January — June, 1841. London, Van Voorst. 

This work may be considered as a continuation of the Entomo- 
logical Magazine. It consists for the most part of a series of papers 
by the editor, in which a great number of new genera and species of 
Longicorn Coleoptera, various American Hispse, and Cryptocephali, 
and a number of Australian Cleridee and Brachinidae are too concisely 
described. A paper with descriptions of some very interesting 



48 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

Bombycidffi, by Mr. Doubleday, with an outline plate engraved by 
W.Raddon,Esq., from original drawings by Abbot, and a memoir on 
the Aulacidffi, and some allied Hymenoptera by Mr. Shuckard, are 
also introduced. Abstracts are also given of the Volume of Insects 
in the Cabinet Cyclopaedia ; the transactions of the Entomological 
Society, the Annals of Natural History, the Canadian Naturalist, 
and of the first number of this work. A number of short commu- 
nications of minor importance are also introduced, as well as a few 
woodcuts ; and in each of the two last numbers is given an out- 
line plate of various genera of Chalcididse, described in the 
Entomological Magazine. 

Investigation of the Myriapoda. — This long-neglected but 
highly curious group of Annulose animals has recently received 
much attention by Dr. Brandt of Petersburgh, and M. Gervais of 
Paris. In our own country, Mr. G. Newport has also undertaken 
their investigation, and it is with great pleasure that I mention 
that a paper by him upon the development and growth of the large 
English lulus has been selected by the Royal Society for the 
Bakerian lecture of the present year; and that an elaborate 
memoir by him on the entire group, with copious illustrations, may 
shortly be expected. 



49 



PLATES XIII. AND XIV. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE DIPTEROUS FAMILY MIDASIDiE, AVITH DESCRIPTIONS 
OF NUMEROUS NEW SPECIES. 



This family, having for its type the genus Midas*, comprises some 
of the most gigantic species of Dipterous insects, remarkable for the 
great elongation of the antennae, the dark or coloured wings in 
many of the species, and occasionally the metallic appearance of the 
body ; in all which respects we find a singular analogy to the gigantic 
Sphegidse belonging to the tribe of fossorial Hymenoptera, which 
inhabit the same regions as are frequented by the Midasidse. 

The antennae, which in some species are nearly as long as the 
thorax, appear in reality to be formed of only four joints, the third 
being occasionally bi- or tri-annulate, and the fourth sometimes 
biannulate ; so that, as in M. lusitanicus (Meig. vol. 6, t. 66, f. 2), 
the antennae appear seven-jointed. If the minute, and, indeed, 
often obsolete, style at the extremity of the antennae be taken into 
consideration, we have a five-jointed antenna analogous to that of 
Dasypogon, &c. 

ISIuch confusion exists in the works of Dipterologists as to the 
structure of the mouth, and Macquart acknowledges his inability to 
determine its structure, by observing which, he had hoped to have 
determined the real situation of this anomalous group. I have been 
more fortunate, and having extracted the different parts, have repre- 
sented them in pi. 13, fig. a — e. The proboscis is terminated by 
two large lips, and the haustellum consists of a labrum, long, slender, 
channelled beneath, and notched at the tip (d), inclosing beneath a 
short acute seta or lingua (e) ; a little in advance of the base of the 
labrum arises a pair of slender curved setae, which Fabricius 
evidently regarded as palpi, but which I consider as the analogues 
of the maxillae of the Asilidae, and as destitute of palpi. Latreille 
indeed adds,'' Palpi brevissimi V (Gen. Cr. 4. 294) ; but I have seen 
nothing of them. If we regard them as palpi, we have a mouth 
analogous to that of the Muscidae, whilst it is evident from the 
remainder of the characters of the group that the Midasidae really 
belong to the Tanystomatous division of the order. 

* I have adopted the orthographj- of the generic name Midas, given by AViedemann (in his 
monograph in the Nova Acta, vol. xv. pt. 2), in correction of the Fabrician name Mjdas, the 
term being evidently proposed in allusion to the long-eared King Midas. 



50 SYNOPSIS OP THE DIPTEROUS 

We find an almost identical arrangement of the veins of the 
wings exhibited by this group and by Nemestrina amongst the 
Anthracidse *. 

Olivier, evidently from personal observation of the species which 
he found in Egypt, thus describes their habits, which resemble 
those of Asilus and Dasypogon. " lis vivent de rapine et font une 
guerre continuelle aux autres insectes, qu''ils attrapent en volant, 
et dont ils retirent tons les sues au moyen de leur trompe. On les 
voit attaquer les Hymenopteres les plus fortes et les mieux armes, 
et les emporter entre leurs longues pattes, sans que Taiguillon de 
ceux-ci puisse les atteindre. Leurs larves nous sont inconnues." 

To this account I am able to add, from information given to me 
by Mr. MacLeay, that the larvae of M. tricolor (which he observed 
in Cuba) are parasitic upon the larvse of the giant Prionidse. 

Wiedemann described all the species known to him under the 
genus Midas; but Latreille separated from them a sub-genus, 
having the proboscis long and porrected, named Cephalocera ; and 
Macquart added a third, Rhopalia, differing only in the alteration 
in the veining of the wings and the thickened mass at the extremity 
of the antennae. If, however, this be admitted, it will become 
necessary to form another for my M. auripennis, which would, I 
consider, be unnatural. Six years ago I described another genus 
from Australia, which I refer to this family, on account of the 
similarity in the veining of its wings, although it is perhaps doubtful 
whether it is not more nearly related to the Nemestrinides. 

Genus MIDAS, Wied. (Mydas, Fabr.) 

Species I. — M. heros, Perty. (Del. Anim. Art. Braz. t. 36, f. 11.) Ater, antennis 
ferrugineis, abdominis segmento Imo sulphureo-hirto, alis antice testaceis costa et venis 
fusco-nigiis. Long. lin. 26. Expans. alar. lin. 42. Brasilia. 

Species II. — M. giganteus, Thuuherg. (Sw, Trans. 1818, p. 246, Wied. Mon. Mid. 
tab. 52, fig. 1, <J 9*) Ater, tiiorace vittis dilutioribus ; abdomine $ chalybfeo, $ 
vix cserulescente ; alis in $ cothurnatis vel fuscanis, in $ nigris ; margine interno 
apiceque fuscano-flavidis. Long. Corp. lin. 15 — 18 ^, 20 $. Brasilia, 

Obs. 1. — M. ccsrulescens, Oliv. Enc. Meth. 8, p. 81, is regarded by 
Wiedemann as identical with the male of this species. Olivier, 
however, says, " L'abdomenest d'un bleu tres-brillant," which will 
scarcely agree with it. The Rev. F. W. Hope possesses a variety 
of the male with the abdomen black, and the front margin of the 
wings pale brown, scarcely darker than the hind margin. 

Species III. — M. dives, Westw. n. sp. PI. 13, fig. 1. Niger, tborace vittis cinerascenlibus, 
abdominis segmento Imo aureo pilose, 2do aureo-scricauti, reliquis la;te purpurco- 
caeruleis ; antennis, articulis 2us basalibus exceptis, alisque fiilvis, harum basi obscuriori 
margineque postico translucente, pedibus longis $ . Long. Corp. lin. 18. Exp. alar, 
unc. 3^. In Mus. D. Hope. 

* Latreille refers to Pangonia, but evidently in mistake for Nemestrina (R. A. 5. 480). 



FAMILY MIDASID^. 51 

Specif.s IV. — M.rubidapex, Wied. (Mon. Mid.pl. 52, f. 2.) Niger antennis apice rubris 
alis rubido-flavis extrema basi nigris. Long. lin. 17 — 19. Mexico. 

Species V. — M. mystaceus, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 52, f. 3.) Ater antennis rubidis, 
epistomate utrinque albo-piloso $ . Long. lin. 16. Surinam. 

Species VI. — M. annuUcornis, Westw. u. sp. PL 13, flg. 2. Niger barba epistomatis 
nigi-a, .antennis (nisi .articulis 2bus b.asaIibus)fulvo-rnbris, annulo nigro ad apicem articuli 
3tii ; thoracc vix cinereo vittato, abdominis segmcnto 2do nigro-viiidescenti, 3bus 
ultimis nigro-cserulescentibus. Alis fusco-nigricantibus, basi venis obscurioribus, margine 
postico pallidius infumato $ . Long. Corp. lin. 16. Exp. alar. 2 una. 8 lin. 

Habitat in Brasilia. Mas. D. Miers. 

Species VII. — M. Bonariensis, Serville, Guer. Icon. R. An. Ins. pi. 97, f. -5. (Buenos 
Ayres.) 

The description of this species has not yet been pubHshed. 

Species VIIL— i»f. nitidulus, Oliv. (Enc. Me'tli. 8, p. 83. Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 52, f. 4.) 
Tliorace nigro albido-vittato ; abdomine subcupreo, utrinque viridi-aureis maculis, alis 
translucidis fusco nonnihil ad costam tinctis. Long. lin. 16. 

(Syn. M. nitida. Lichteust. Mus. Holthuys. p. 213). 

Species IX. — M. crassipes, Westw. n. sp. PI. 13, f. 3. Totus niger, thorace abdomineque 
nitidis, antennis brevioribus, pedibus brevibus femoribus posticis incrassatis deiitatis,alis sub- 
pellucidis, vena 3tia longitudinali apiceque fusco tinctis. $ • Long. corp. lia. 16. Exp. 
alar. 2\ unc. 

Habitat in America septentr. ? Mus. Hope, e Mus. Cliildren. 

Species X. — M. tricolor, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, f. 5.) Thorace femoribusque posticis 
rubidis ; epistomate aurato : abdomine chalj'bajo. Long. corp. lin. 13 ^. . 

Habitat in insula Cuba. 

Species XL — M. tibialis, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, fig. 6.) Niger tibiis tai-sisque flavis 
alis fuscanis. Long. lin. 13. $ . Ex Baltimore. 

Species XII. — M. politus, 'Wied. fMon. Mid. pi. 53, f. 7.) Thorace nigro glabro, abdomine 
cupreo ; alis nigris, pedibus ferruginosis. Long. lin. 13. ^ . 

Habitat — ? 

Species XIII. — M. auripennis, Westw. (in Lond. and Edinb. Phil, Mag. April, 1835), 
PI. 14, fig. 1. Niger, capite, antennis, coUo, angulis anticis thoracis, abdomine (segmento 
basali marginibusque 3tii segmenti supra et segraentis tribus intermediis subtus) pedibus- 
que (nisi femoribus ad basin) la;te fulvis ; alis auricoloribus macula versus apicem costa; 
nigra margineque i»terno pellucido ; mesosterni iateribus unispinosis. Long. corp. lin. 11. 
Expans. alar. lin. 19. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia. Mus. Hope et nostr. 

Obs. — The veins of the wings in this species diiFer from those of 
all the others, the anterior branch of the fourth longitudinal vein 
dividing and forming a small closed oval cell (appendiculated at its 
extremity, but wanting the small oblique appendiculated vein at its 
base above) near the apex of the wing, whilst the long closed cell 
near the middle of the hind margin is not pedunculated at the 
extremity most distant from the body, as in almost every other 
species. 

Species XIV. — M. clavatus. Niger, abdominis segmento 2do aurantiaco ; alis nigris. 

Long. lin. 10—12. 
Habit in Amer. Boreali. 
Syn. Musca clavata, Drury. 111. vol. 1, pi. 44, f. 1. App. vol. 2 (1773). 

Nemotelus asiloides, De Geer, Mem. v. 6, t. 29, f. 6. 

Bibio Jilata, FahT. Mantissa, Ins. ii. p. 328. 1. (1787.) 

Mydasf., Fabr. Syst. Antl. Midas f. Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 53, f. 8. 

Bibio illucens, Fabricius. Syst. Ent. 756. 1. 

Species XV M. atratus,Ma.c([. (Dipt. Exot. t. 1, 'pars 2, p. 11.) Niger, abdomine 

depresso $ , segmento ultimo supra macula rufescenti, alis fuscis venis obscurius margi- 
natis. Long. corp. 11 lin. $ $. 

Habitat — ? An var. prfficedentis? 

£ 2 



52 SYNOPSIS OF THE DIPTEROUS 

Species XVI M. brevicornis, "Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, f. 9.) Niger, politus abdominis 

segmentis 3, 4, flavido-diaphanis. Long. lin. 11. $ . 
Habitat in Brasilia. 

Ql)s. 1. — Cellula media marginis postici ramum nullum ad 
marginem posticum currentem emittit. 

Q^g^ 2. — M. iopterus, Wied. Auss. Zw. Ins. 1. 241. 4. Var. 
differt segmentis o, 4 abdominis utrinque macula parva sub- 
quadrata flavida notatis et alis ubique fuscis chalybseo resplen- 
dentibus. 

Species XVII M. leucops, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, f. 10.) Thorace nigro, vittis 

epistomateque albopilosisj abdomine chalybseo, alis sinuato-fuscano-flavis. Long. lin. 11 $. 

Habitat in Brasilia. 

Species XVIII.— M. gracilis, Macq. (Hist. Nat. Ins. Dipt. 1, p. 274, pi. 7, fig. 1.) Niger, 
barba et frontis laleiibus albidis aut flavidis, thorace lineis 4 albis, intermediis duabus 
antice paullo dilatatis, vitta nigra dorsali velutina, lateralibus duabus laevibus brunneis, 
metathorace maculis duabus albis, abdomine violaceo metallico segmento Imo nigro 
albopiloso reliquis fulvo tenuiter raarginatis, pedibus nigris fenioribus tibiisque posticis 
obscure testaceis, alis brunnescentibus. $ $ . Long. corp. lin. 10. 

Habitat in America meridionali. 

Species XIX. — il/. n</icomis, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, fig. 11.) Niger thorace antice 
melleo-fuscano, anlennis ferrugineis alis fuscis. Long. lin. 9. Ex Tranquebar. 

Species XX. — M. interruptus, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, f. 12. $ ^.) Niger, abdomine 
fasciis tribus flavis ; 1 ma utrinque interrupta. Long. lin. 9 — 10. $ $ . 

Habitat in Mexico. 

Species XXI. — M. senilis, Westw. n. sp. Totus niger griseo-setosus, barba epistomatis 
grisea alis fuscanis costa magis fulvescenti venis posticis fusco-marginatis, cellula media 
versus marginem posticum venam brevemad marginem currentem hand emittenti. Long, 
corp. lin. 6. Expans. alar. lin. 16. 

Habitat in Mexico. Tacubaya nostr. D. Coffin. Mus. West. 

Species XXII. — M. viduatus, Westw. (in Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag., April 1835), 
PI. 14, fig. 2. Niger, faciei et thoracis lateiibus maculaque triaugulari ad basin segmeiito- 
rum 3 et 4 abdominis scricie argentea obsitis, alis pallidis in medio fuscantibus, venis 
fu CO marginatis. Long. corp. lin. 10. Exp. alar. lin. 16. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia. Mus. nostr, 

Obs. — In this, and the two other Australian species of this genus 
described below, the fifth longitudinal vein extends to the costa a 
little before the extremity of the wing, instead of joining the 
extremity of the second longitudinal vein ; moreover the long 
closed middle cell near the hind margin of the wing is not 
appendiculated (or petiolated) at its extremity most remote from 
the body, but extends to the next cell, which runs to the tip of 
the wing. 

Species XXIII. — M. fulvifronis, llliger. (Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 53, fig. 13.) Niger, abdo- 
minis medio flavo, epistomate fulvo-hirto, antennis nigris, clava rubiginosa, alis saturate 
flavidis, pedibus nigris, tibiis subrubido-fuscis. Long. lin. 9^. 

Habitat in Georgia Americana. 

Obs. — In the collection of drawings of Georgian insects, made by 
Abbot in the library of the British Museum *, are two figures ; one 
of which I consider to represent this insect. It is numbered 65, 
and represents the first segment of the abdomen as black; the 2nd, 
Srd, and 4th, fulvous with a pale hind margin; the 5th with a 
fulvous margin alone ; the remaining segments black. 

* Vol. 13, Diptcra, Cat.ilogue mark 7956, Plutarch 126 E. 



FAMILY MIDASID^. 53 

Species XXIV. — M. pachygaster, Wcstw. n. sp. (pi. 13, fig. 4.) Rubiginosus, antennarum 
articulo 3tio fiilvo, 4to uigric.iuti, oculis nigris iutus scricie albicanti marginatis ; 
thoracis dorso nigio vittato, abdomine tborace lalioii, segmcnto Irao et ultimo fulvescon- 
tibus, Imo basi obscuro, iutcrnjcdiis nigris marginc tenui postico flavo, pcdibus rubigi- 
• nosis ; alis fuscantibus ad costatu lucUeo tinctis venis obscurius margiuatis. ^ Long. 
Corp. Hn. y|. Expans. alar. lin. 20. 

Habitat in Georgia Aruericana. In Mus. D. Hope. 

Species XXV. — M. basalis, Wcstw. n. sp. Niger, facie fulva, antcnnis nigris, articulis duobus 
basalibus fulvis, thoracis dorso obscure ferniginoso vitta media nigra, abdomine crasso seg- 
mentis 2 — 7 flavo marginatis, pedibus fulvis, coxis fcmoribusque 4 anticis basi nigris, alis 
flavido-fuscanis, venis fulvis. $. Loug.corp.lin.il. Expans. alar. liu. 20. 

Habitat in Mexico. Tacubaya. D. CofBn. Mas. nostr. 

Obs. — The middle cell near the hind margin of the wing does not 
emit the short transverse vein runninof to the marojin. 

Species XXVI. — 31. ntaciiliventris, W^estw. (in Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. June 1835, 
PI. 13, fig. 5). Obscure niger ; abdomine testaceo fuscanti ; segmentis apice pallidis et 
(nisi segmentis duobus basalibus) macula triangulari nigra in medio notatis, bis maculis 
versus apicem abdominis magnitudine crescentibus, segmento anali fusco ; abdomine toto 
subtus coucolori ; alis flavido-fuscantibus, venis in parte postica obscurius marginatis ; 
epistomate nigro birto, pedibus piceo-nigris. 

Long. Corp. lin. 11. Expans. alar, lin, 19. Habitat in Georgia Americana. Mus. Hope 
et nostr. 

Obs. — Abbot's drawings of Diptera, No. 66, represents a probable 
variety of this species, in which the second segment of the abdomen 
has the sides and hind margin (except in the centre, where the 
band is interrupted) fulvous-coloured ; the third segment has also 
a subapical fascia interrupted in the middle of the same colour. 

Species XXVII. — M. incisus, Macquart (Dipt. Exot. Nouv. v. l,pt. ii. p. U, pi. 1, fig. 1). 
Niger, abdomine incisuris flavis, segmento basali omnino nigro, alis fuscis, cellulis 4 pos- 
ticis. Long. corp. lin. 9. 

Habitat Carolina. 

Species XXVIII. — M. parvuhis, Westw. n. sp. (PI. 13, fig. 6). Obscure fulvus, antennis 
uigricantibus, basi subluteis, oculis nigris intus sericie alba marginatis, tborace vittis 
4 uigricantibus, 2bus lateralibus antice, intermediis 2 postice, abbreviatis ; abdomine flavo, 
nitido punctato, segmentis 2do et sequentibus nigro fasciatis, fasciis in segmentis posticis 
multo latioribus, pedibus fulvis, alis fuscauis costa magis lutescenti. Long. corp. lin. 63. 
Expans. alar. lin. 11. 

Habitat in America Septentr. D. Doubleday. Mus. Newman. 

Species XXIX 31. apicalis, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 53, fig. 14.) Niger, abdomine chaly- 

beo, medio nigro, antennis apice rubris, alis sinuate nigris, margine interno flavido $. 
Long. corp. lin. 9. 

Habitat in Brasilia. 

Species XXX. — 31. virgatus, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 19.) Niger, tborace vittis 
albo micantibus, alis infumatis. Long. lin. 7i, 

Habitat in Brasilia. 

Species XXXI. — 31. stenogaster, Westw. n. sp. (PL 14, fig. 3). Niger, albido setosns, 
facie barba densa albida obsita, thorace maculis duabus parvis in margine antico albo 
squamosis, alterisque duabus versus basin alarum, abdomine valde elongato, segmento 
antico albo-piloso, 2do nigro, 3tio obscure rufo, lateribus nigris albo maculatis ; caeteris 
sanguineis, singulo ad basin utrinque macula parva alba ; pedibus piceo sanguineis ; alis 
subhyalinis. Long. corp. lin. 9. Expans. alar. lin. 13. 

Habitat Swan River, Australasia. Mus. Hope. 

Obs. — The veins of the wings of this species agree with those of 
M. viduatus. 

Species XXXII. — 31. bicolor, Westw. n. sp. (PI. 14, fig. 2). Niger, albo-pilosus, facie barba 
densa albida, abdomine segmentis 5 posticis, pedibusque sanguineo-rufis, tarsis paullo 
obscurioribus, alis hyalinis, venis flavido-fuscanti marginatis. Long, coi-p. lin. 9^. 
Expans. alar, lin. 16. 

Habitat in Australasia Occidentals Mus. Hope. 



54 SYNOPSIS OF THE DIPTEROUS 

Obs. — The veins of the wings are arranged in the same manner 
as in the last species. 

Species XXXIII. — M. lusitanicus, Wied. (in Meig. Syst. Beschr. 2, 130, and 6, pi. C6, fig. 
1 2 • and in Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 18 i^ $ .) Niger, thorace albo-vittato, abdomine albo 
annulate, in $ nigro, in 9 luteo ; alis flavidis, pedibus nigris. Long. lin. 8, 9. 

Habitat in Lusitauia. 

Species XXXIV.— M. cinctus, Macq. (Hist. Nat. Dipt. 2, p. 655, pi. 24, fig. 19). Obscure 
niger, facie et fronte albido-pilosis. Antennis nigris, thorace vittis 4 griseo — villosis, 
lateralibus subtus fulvis, parapteris fulvis, lateribus testaceis, sterno nigricanti, scutello 
minutotestaceo, abdomine cylindrico, segmentis fulvo-marginatis lateribus fulvis, singuli 
disco fascia nigra angusta abbreviata, pedibus fulvis, femoribus posticis subclavatis, apice 
brunneis, subtus duplici serie spinai-uni brevium armatis, tibiis etiam bieviter spinosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 8^. 

Habitat Algeria, Oran. 

Species XXXV. — M. rufipes, Westw. n. sp. Fusco-niger, segmento basali abdominis 
nigro, c£Bteris fulvis, apice subfusco, alis fuscis ; pedibus fusco-rufis, antennis vix capite 
longioribus. Magnitudo Rhagionis scolopacei. 

Habitat Sicilia.' 

Species XXXVL— M. notospilus, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pL 54, fig. 20 ; Walk, in Linn. 

Trans. 17, 339.) Niger, tborace maculis 6 albis, abdominis fasciis pedibusque flavis. 

Long. lin. 7 $ . 
Habitat Monte- Video, Brasilia. 

Species XXXVII. — M. vittatus, Wied. (Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 23.) Canus, thorace vittis 
nigellis, abdomine brunneo, albo-fasciato, antennis nigris, pedibus brunneis, femoribus pos- 
ticis baud spinosis, alis limpidissimis. Long. Corp. lin. 6^ $. 

Habitat in Nubia. 

Obs. The veining of the wings in this species is similar to that 
of M. brevicornis ; the long closed central cell which runs parallel 
with the hind margin of the wing, not emitting the small transverse 
vein from near its apex to the hind margin. The small closed dis- 
coidal cell near the extremity of the wing, is also represented (Wied. 
fig. 23 d) as destitute of the short oblique spur which exists in all 
the other species, and w^iich is in fact figured in fig. 23, and 23 a. 

Species XXXVIII. — M. lineaius, Olivier (Enc. Meth. torn. 8, p. 33). Niger, thorace cinereo 
4-lineato, pedibus abdomineque nigricantibus, hujus segmentis albis, antennis nigris, 
femoribus posticis Iteviter spinosis vix incrassatis ; alis pellucidis ; venis nigris obscurius 
nonnihil marginatis. 

Habitat in ^gypto, Sakbara ; Olivier. 

Obs. — I do not think Olivier's description accords sufficiently 
with that of M. vittatus to induce us to regard them as descriptive of 
the same insect. If however identical, we "must employ the name of 
lineatus for the species, instead of Wiedemann's name vittatus. 

Species XXXIX. — M. OUvieri, Macq. (Dipt. Exot. Nouv. t. 1, part 2, p. 12, Rhopalia 0.) 
Niger, pedibus rufis, facie capiteque subtus albo-pilosis, antennis nigris, sericie subgrisea 
indutis, clava maxima, thoracis lateribus supra originem alarum testaceis. Alis sub- 
fuscis. Long. corp. lin. 4^. 

Habitat in jEgypto. In Mus. Reg. Paris. Olivier. An idem cum praecedente .' 

Obs. — The hind tibiae in this species terminate in two very minute 
spurs, scarcely visible. The wings agree with those of M. vittatus, 
in wanting the short appendiculated vein in the second submarginal 
cell, and in the absence of the short transverse vein in the middle 
of the hind margin. 



FAMILY MIDASID^. 55 

Genus CEPHALOCERA, Latr. Macq. 

This genus differs from the preceding not only in the length and 
slenderness of the porrected proboscis, but also in being generally 
destitute of the short transverse vein at the middle of the hind 
margin of the wing ; the hind tibia? also possess two minute slender 
spurs. 

Species I. (XL.) — C. riifithorax (Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 15, Mid. ruf.) Nigra, 

thorace rufo-hirto, abdominis incisuris flavidis. Long. lin. 8 $ . 
Habitat Cap. Bon. Spei. 
Species IL (XLI.)— C. Westermanni (Wied. Mon. Mid. pL 54, fig. 16, Mid. West.) 

Nigra, thorace abdominisque basi flavido-villosis ; reliquo abdomine nigro birto. Long. 

lin. 74— 9i $ $ . 
Habitat Cap. Bon. Sp. 
Species IH. {'KJAl.)—C.fasciatus (Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 17 ^ $, Mid. f.) Nigra, 

thoracis hirsutie, pedibus antennarumque apice ferruginosis, alis flavis. Long. lin. 

7,8, $ $. 
Habitat Cap. Bon. Sp. Mus. Hope, nostr. 

Of two specimens now before me, both from the Cape, one 
has the antennae black, the tip of the club alone ferruginous, and 
the other has the third and fourth joints ferruginous, the tip of the 
club being black ; in the second of these specimens the vittse of the 
thorax are scarcely discernible. 

Species IV. (XLin.)_C. longirostris (Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 21,^ $, Mid. long.) 
Nigra, thorace flavido vittato ; abdomine fasciis albis $ , flavis J ; antennis nigris, clava 
medio rufo-flava, alis costa fasciaque longitudinali submediana nigris, femoribus posticis 
basi flavis, apice obscuris. Long. lin. 6-J-. 

Habitat Promont. Bon. Spei. 

Var. $ alis omnino brunneis, cellula 2da submarginali subaperta venaque brevis transversa in 
medio marginis postici adest. (Macquart 1. c.) 

Species V. (XLIV.) — C.fascipennis, Mcq. (Dipt. Exot. Nouv, 1. 2, p. 13). Nigra, abdo- 
mine maculis albis ^ , pedibus rufis, alis fascia fuscana, cellula postica Imaclausa. Long, 
lin. 5i $. 

Habitat Cap. Bon. Spei. 

Species VI. (XLV.) — C. nigra, Macq. (Op. cit. p. 14.) Nigra, pedibus alisque fuscis, 
cellula postica Ima clausa, barba alba, antennis articulo 3tio medio ferrugineo. Long, 
lin. 5 $ . Habitat Cap. Bon, Spei. 

Species VIL (XLVI.)—C. ca//os« (Wied. Mon. Mid. pi. 54, fig. 22 ^ ^ . Mid. call.) 
Nigra, abdomine pedibusque fuscano-flavis, abdomine $ nigro, alis brunneis. Long. lin. 
4—3. 

Habitat Prom. Bon. Spei. 

Species VIII. (XLVII.) — C. maculipen7iis,Westw. n. sp. (pi. 14, fig. 5.) Capite cum 
oculis et proboscide nigro, antennis fulvis, articulo 4to valde clavato, apice in tuberculo 
contracto, thorace ferrugineo, vitta lata media (supra et subtus) segmentis Imo, 5, 6 et 
7mo abdominis nigris, tribus intermediis rufis, singulo macula parva dorsali, pedibus 
testaceo — rufis, spiuis femorum posticorum nigris, alis hyalinis, laetissime iridescentibus, 
costa fulva, macula magna media, vittaque ad basin ducta, apiceque marginis antici nigris. 
Long. Corp. lin. 9. Expans. alar. lin. 13^. 

Habitat in Australasia Occidentali. D. Gould. Mus. Hope. 

Obs. — The veins of the wings accord with the typical species of 
Midas, except that the penultimate longitudinal vein extends to 
the costa of the wing as in M. bicolor and several other species 
from New Holland. The nasus is extremely prominent (fig. 5*) 
and the hind tibiae terminate in a horny acute point within which 
are two very slender spurs. 



56 SYNOPSIS OF MIDASID^E. 

Genus APIOCERA, fVestw. 
•(Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. June, 1835.) 

The head is transverse, the antennae (see plate 14, fig. 6*) shorter 
than the head ; the first joint thick, the second minute, both clothed 
with long rigid setse ; the third, rather small, pear-shaped ; the 
fourth, minute and stylate ; the proboscis is exserted, as long as the 
head, terminated by two large lips, and furnished with two broad 
spatulated palpi. The thorax is oblong, the scutellum produced, 
the abdomen conical, smallest in the male, but terminated in that 
sex by a thick exserted appendage. The legs are moderately long 
and slender, the hind thighs small, the hind tibiae bicalcarated, and 
the tarsi bipulvillate. The wing-veins are arranged nearly as in 
Midas ; the fourth longitudinal vein is however straight, and is 
considerably elongated before it becomes furcate, the upper branch 
of this furcation not emitting the short spur-like appendiculated 
vein found in most of the preceding insects, but wanting in those 
from Egypt. The discoidal cell beyond the middle of the wing is 
dilated at its apex, and emits a vein v/hich runs to the hind margin, 
so that in conjunction with the minute transverse vein emitted by 
the adjacent cell, as in most species of Midas, (but which cell is 
greatly reduced in size,) there are four cells along the hind margin 
of the wing. The sides of the thorax, scutellum, and legs are 
armed with long black bristles. 

Species 1. (XLVIII.) — Apiocera mterfjiA-jWestw. n. sp. (PI. 14, fig. 6). Obscure nigra, facie 
coiporeque siibtus pills cinereo-albis valde obsitis, thorace vitta angusta media aliisque 
tribus utrinque in medio disci abbreviatis cinereo-albis, abdominis segmeutis 2, 3, et 4 
lateribus et maculis duabiis triangulaiibus ad marginem posticum magnitudine decrescen- 
tibus, 5toque maculis duabus basalibus, cinereo-albis, alls hyalinis, venis nigris ^. Long. 
Corp. lin. 10. Expans. alar. liu. 14. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia. Mas. Newman. 

Species II. (XLIX.) — Apiocera asilica, Westw. (Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. June 1835.) 
Nigra, vertice et thoracis lateribus piceis, palpis albidis, alarum venis nigris ^ . Long. 
Corp. lin. 10^. Expans. alar. liu. 17. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia. Mas. nostr. 

Species III. (L.) — • Apiocera fuscicoUis, Wt-stw. (Op. cit.) Obscure fusca, thorace 
cinereo subvittato, palpis albidis, alarum venis internis pallidis, corpore subtus albido 
villoso. Expans. alar. lin. 17. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia? Mus. Hope. 

Obs. — I am by no means satisfied of the specific diversity of 
these three insects; my specimen of A. asilica being in a very 
mutilated state. 

Obs. — Mydas bilineata, Fabr., Ent. Syst. 4, p. 253, a native of 
New Zealand, described from the Banksian Cabinet, and now in 
the collection of the Linnsean Society, is a large species of Thereva. 

The orchidaceous plant figured in Plate 14, is the Australian 
Thelymitra Ixiodes, Swartz ; all the insects on this plate being 
natives of New Holland. 



57 



PLATE XV. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW LONGICORN BEETLES FROM THE INDIAN 

ARCHIPELAGO. 



In the magnificent collection of insects made in the Philippine 
Islands by H. Cmning, Esq., (a complete series of which, including 
all the unique species, has been secured for the British Museum), 
were contained single specimens of each of the insects repre- 
sented in the three upper figures of the accompanying plate, and 
which, from their great singularity, beauty, and rarity, will be 
deemed valuable subjects for illustration in this work. 

The first species has been described by Mr. G. R. Waterhouse 
in a paper read before the Entomological Society, under the name 
of DoLiops Cujxulionoides, from the extraordinary resemblance 
which it bears to a certain species of the Curculionideous genus 
Pachyrhynchus, also found by Mr. Cuming in the same country. The 
following are the characters of the genus given by Mr. Waterhouse : — 

DOLIOPS, Wateih. 

Caput quam thorax angustius, paulo productum et posticc cylindraceum, oculi reniforoies, 
palpi mediocres, articiilis terminalibus obloDgo-ovatis, et subtruncatis. Antenna3 11- 
articulatae, breves et graciles, articulo 3tio perlongo et ad apicem dilatato. Thorax 
subglobosus postice constrictus. Elytra perbrevia, valde convexa humeris prominulis. 
Pedes paulo grandes, femoribus in medio sensim clavatis, tibiis latis compressis, tarsis 
brevibus latis. 

Doliops Curculionoides. Obscure viridi-geneus, indistincte crerulescenti relucens, palpis 
nigris, autennis articulis 3tio et sequentibus griseis ad apicem nigris, capite linea alba 
longitudinaliti notato, elytris 14 guttis flavescenti — albis adspersis, maculis eodem colore 
corpus subtus ornantibus, tarsis cinereis, articulo terminali uigro. Long corp. an. 02. 

PI. I a. natural size ; 1. magnified ; 1 b. mouth magnified, and seen from beneath. 

Although apparently allied to Dorcadion in the short ovate form 
of the body ; the form of the head, and structure of the antennae, 
legs, and particularly of the prothorax, give this genus a nearer 
relation to certain Saperdse, and especially the genera Colobothea 
and Mesosa. 

COLOBOTHEA, Dejean. 

Colobothea leucospilota, Westw. pi. 15, fig. 2. Laste ererulea aureo eeneoque tincta, rude 
punctata, thorace macula alba in medio marginis postici, elytris guttis 10, fascia abbrevi- 
ata angulataante medium altcraque postica curvata ad suturam interrupta, albo-squamosis 
antennis pedibusque cyaueis ; corporc subtus nigro-ameo, sterno marginibusque seg- 
mentorum abdouiinalium squamis albis variis. Long corp. lin. lO-^. 



58 NEW L0NC4IC0RN BEETLES. 

UROCALYMMA, Westw. 

Corpus gi'acile depressum punctatum. Caput antice perpendiculariter deflexum (fig 3 a). 
Antennae gracillima;. Prothorax subquadratus antice et postice margiuatus, lateribus dente 
parvo in medio armatis. Elytra elongata depressa, subparallela apicem versus attenuata et 
in $ in caudas duas longas producta, apicibus in ^ hiantibus etacuminatis. Pedes longi 
tenues prsesertim antici maris, qui longissimi sunt, tibiisque anticis ante apicem in hoc sexu 
intus, 4 que posticis extus tenuissime penicillatis. Palpi graciles breves (fig. 3 b MaxillaB 
et labium). 

The singular insects composing this genus exhibit several 
characters belonging to very different groups of Longicorn beetles. 
The elongated fore legs are analogous to those of Acrocinus longi- 
manus, although in their delicate structure they more nearly resemble 
those of Gerania Boscii ; in the last-named insect, however, all the 
legs are elongated. 

In having the tips of the elytra produced into two long tails in the 
supposed male, these insects are analogous to Cercoptera Banoni, 
Spin, (in Guer. Mag. Zool. Ins. 1839, pi. 12); and to the male of 
Enicodes Fichtelii, Sclireib. (in Linn. Trans., and Griff. Anim. King. 
Ins. pi. Q5, f. 1, and pi. 73, f. 2*) ; but in both these insects the 
thorax has not the sides armed with a spine, whence I consider 
that Urocalymma has a nearer relation to Tmesisternus. 

Urocalymma longimana, Westw. (PI. 15, f. S, male ; f . ^ , female). Fusco-nigricans, 
luteo sericans, punctata, elytris punctato-striatis, basi irregulariter punctatis, guttis 10 
minutis albido-sciicantibus adspersis ornatis (2bus posticis in $ obliteratis.) Long. 
Corp. $ lin. 14, $ lin. 10. • 

The remarkable orchidaceous plant represented in the plate is 
the Cirrhopetalon Thouarsii (Bot. Reg. vol. xxiv. p. 11), a native 
of Java, Manilla, the Society Islands, &c. 

* Hitherto the male of Enicodes Fichtelii (plate 15, fig. 4 ^ .) has alone been figured and 
described. The Rev. F. "W. Hope, however, possesses the other sex, which he obtained from 
the Haworthian collection, in whicb it was ticketed " Ind. or. " although New Holland is the 
recorded country of the rare species in question. The female is accordingly now figured for 
the first time, plate 15, fig. 4 ^ . It agrees with the male in its colours, but the sides of the 
head are much less produced, and the elytra are not elongated into a pair of tails, although 
they terminate acutely. 



59 



PLATE XVI. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF TWO HITHERTO UNFIGURED SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 



Papilio Rhetenor, Wcstw. n. sp. (PL 16, fig. 1 and I a). Alls supra nigro-cyanco nitidis, 
posticis oculo incompleto ad angulum ani albo supra rufo ; subtus anticis griseis nigro 
striatis, basi sanguineis; posticis aterrimis margine omni anali late sanguiueo nigro maculato 
angulo ani albo irrorato. Expans. alar. unc. 5^. 

This fine species is a native of Assam, where it was collected by 
Mr. Griffith, and now forms part of Mr. Solly's collection, alluded 
to in the last number of this work. On the upper side the wings 
are of a black colour, tinged with very dark blue, especially towards 
the outer angle of the hind wings, being there increased by a number 
of minute, slender, elongated, blue scales. At the anal angle is an 
incomplete eye, formed of a black spot, partially surrounded on the 
inside with a whitish crescent, the upper part of which is tinged 
with sanguineous. The fore wings beneath are of a grey colour, 
darker towards the base and along the outer edge, with the veins 
and intermediate longitudinal fasciae black, the base being blood 
red ; which colour extends broadly along the whole of the anal 
margin of the hind wings (except in the anal fold), marked with a 
black spot at the anal angle, which is much irrorated with white. 
The sanguineous colour in the next area of the wing is marked with 
three black spots, the middle one being the largest. The head and 
neck above ai'e spotted with dirty white, and the antennae and legs 
are black. The abdomen is wanting in the unique specimen now 
before me. 

This species is most nearly alhed to the Chinese P. Protenor, but 
differs in the anal eye, in the extent of the sanguineous colour 
along the whole anal margin of the hind wings, and in wanting the 
spots along the hind margin of the same wings. 

Papilio Agestor, Plate 16, fig. 2. (Gray in Zool. Misc. p. 32, Boisduv, Hist. Nat. Lep. 
1. p. 376.) " Alis griseis venis margineque exteriore nigris griseo punctatis ; posticis 
corticinis disco punctate griseis." Expans. alar. Sj, 4 unc. 

This curious species is described by Mr. G. R. Gray as a native 
of Sumatra, but the specimen now figured was obtained from India 
by W. W. Saunders, Esq., F.L.S., President of the Entomological 



60 PAPILIO. 

Society. The upper wings are of a dirty greyish white colour, 
caused by the pale ground being entirely and thickly irrorated with 
minute black scales, the costa, veins, and a broad apical margin 
(dilated at the tip) black, the latter spotted with dirty white ; the 
discoidal cell is marked near the tip with an oblique black bar, 
which extends to the black mai-gin. 

The hind wings are very slightly sinuated, the base being of a 
paler greyish white, gradually running into a fulvous red. Between 
the discoidal cell and the hind margin is a row of white spots, 
varying in size, the four next the outer angle being preceded and 
followed by patches of black atoms, forming marginal, triangular 
patches of dark colour. The underside of the wings is paler 
coloured than the upper, the tips of the fore wings being fulvous 
brown, and the hind wings having a submarginal row of white 
crescents, and wanting the patches of black scales. The head, 
neck, thorax, breast, and abdomen, both above and below, are 
much spotted with white. 

The orchidaceous plant represented in the plate is the Indian 
Dendrobium pulchellum of Roxburgh, a native of woods in the 
district of Sylhet. 



HABITS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 



Mr. Edward Doubleday, whose notices of the Natural History 
of North America (observed during an excursion undertaken solely 
from a zeal for the subject as exhibited in wild nature) possess 
the greater interest, has favoured me with a series of notes of the 
habits of the species of Papilio which he met with, from which 
the following passages are extracted : — 

OF THE PAPILIONES IN BOISDUVAl's ICONES. 

I have seen'all, save three, alive ; and of these three there are two, 
the grounds for admitting which into that work I am unacquainted 
with. These two are Polydamas and Villersii, both probabi?/ found 
in the extreme south of E. Florida, where Catagramma Clyraene 
occurs. The other, P. Sinon, being from a drawing by Abbot, I 
doubt not, does occur in the U. S. By the by, this is not the same 



HABITS, OF AMERICAN PAPILIONES. 61 

as Drury's Protesilaus, a Jamaica insect, of which I have a specimen, 
perfectly agreeing with Drury''s figure. 

The first species I will mention is Pap. AJax, undoubtedly, I 
think, the P. Marcellus of Cramer. This is, I believe, found chiefly 
in the lower country of the southern States, east of the Allegha- 
nies ; its range, I believe, is from Virginia to Florida inclusive. In 
Florida it was not very rare from April to June, but like most of 
the sicallou fails was often imperfect, the tails being torn off. I 
rarely saw it alight on flowers, never that I recollect on the ground. 
Now and then it would alight on the flowers of Annona grandiflora, 
on which and An. (Porcelia) pygmsea, I have no doubt the larvse 
feed there. Abbot gives it on An. (Uvaria) triloba, a shrub not 
growing in the part of Florida I collected in. Its flight low, rapid 
(not sailing with its wings expanded as P. Thoas and others). It 
flies in and around the low scattered brushwood, by the sides of clear- 
ings, old deserted cotton fields, and similar situations, often returning 
to the same spots ; in fact so regular did the round seem to be 
taken, that I often have waited behind a bush for a few minutes for 
the return of an individual I had seen pass, and rarely failed by this 
means to capture it. It is a shy insect, and darts out of its course 
at the least motion. I think the remark in Boisduval of its 
alighting on fruit-trees must belong to some other species, probably 
the error has arisen from some confusion in Leconte or Abbot's 
notes. 

P. Marcelhis. Boisd. — I first saw this lovely butterfly in the 
streets of Wheeling (Virginia), on the 10th of September, 1837. 
It was very numerous there. I afterwards took it in Portsmouth 
(Ohio), about J 60 miles lower down the Ohio river. I think it did 
not occur to me in the perfect state at Cincinnati, where I found the 
larva on Uvaria triloba. Cincinnati is the westernmost point north 
of the Ohio that I observed it. Foster took it in the easternmost 
part of Ohio, and I observed it south of the Ohio, along the slopes 
of the Alleghanies, in Kentucky, and Tennessee, in July, 1838, in 
tolerable numbers. Its flight is rather more graceful than that of 
P. Ajax. It sometimes alights in the muddy places by the roadsides 
where little streamlets cross, especially during the heat of the day. 
This and P. Ajax, when perfect and fresh from the pupa, are of a 
lovely pale green, which, however, soon fades to the dirty white of 
Boisduval's figures. My specimens are fast fading, but still retain 
a good deal of the green. 



62 HABITS OP AMERICAN PAPILIONES. 

P. Asterias is the most widely- diffused species of the genus, as far 
as I know, in North America, being found very far north, in Canada, 
in Newfoundland, and as far south as the middle of Mexico. It 
seems little affected by climate, for though varying much in size, 
you will find all sizes both in the north and south. It is in all 
respects a variable insect. You know the difference in the sexes, 
each sex differs much in different individuals, in colour especially, in 
the amount of blue and yellow on the hinder wings. The anterior 
wings in some indeed are all but falcate, in others almost rounded. It 
is a common species everywhere, appearing in the south early in 
spring, nay in the winter months. These are hybernated or hybernat- 
ing specimens, for they evidently have long been out of the pupa, being 
all worn. I think Boisduval is probably wrong in its being three- 
brooded. Two broods, the latter hybernating, and appearing the 
first warm days of spring, I think, is the true state of the case. 
It flies in gardens, fields, highways, &c., frequently alighting in the 
mud in hot weather. When settled down in the mud-holes of an 
Ohio road, or beside the streamlets of the Alleghany roads, it is very 
easy to take. (Flight, like our Machaon.) It is fond of flowers, 
especially of some of the thistles (as Cnicus porridulus), and of 
Cephalanthus occidentalis. Its larva I have seen in gardens on 
Umbelliferse. 

( To be continued.) 



63 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, NOTICES OF 
NEW WORKS, &c. 

(No. IV.) 

Information respecting the habits of exotic insects. — It so rarely 
occurs that the entomologist is able to obtain any satisfactory re- 
marks on the habits of exotic insects from travellers competent from 
their knowledge of entomology, combined with enlarged views on 
the general laws of nature, that I presume no apology is needed in 
offering to the student, from time to time, extracts from the works 
of authors whose acquirements stamp a sterling value upon their 
observations. The writings of Burchell, Darwin, Gosse, and 
Doubleday, especially merit attentive perusal on this account. The 
journal and remarks during the years 1832 — 1836, made by Charles 
Darwin, Esq., M.A., Sec. Geol. Soc, published as the 3rd Volume 
of the " Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty ""s Ships 
Adventure and Beagle," afford numerous passages relative to insects 
from which the following is extracted. 

" At Port San Julian, in Patagonia, although we could nowhere 
find, during our whole visit, a single drop of fresh water, yet some 
must exist, for by odd chance I found on the surface of the sea- 
water, near the head of the bay, a Colymbetes, not quite dead, 
which, in all probability, had lived in some not far distant pool. 
Three other kinds of insects — a Cincindela-like hybrida, Cymindis 
and a Harpalus, which all live on muddy flats, occasionally over- 
flowed by the sea — and one other beetle, found dead on the plain, 
complete the list of Coleoptera. A good-sized fly (Tabanus) was 
extremely numerous, and tormented us by its painful bite. We 
have here the puzzle that so frequently occurs in the case of 
mosquitoes — On the blood of what animals do these insects com- 
monly feed? The guanaco is nearly the only warm-blooded 
quadruped, and they are present in numbers quite inconsiderable 
compared to the multitude of flies," p. 200. 

It is a curious circumstance in the economy of nature that the 
gnat and mosquito are also found in the greatest profusion in 
damp situations, where they can find but few opportunities of 
indulging their blood-thirsty propensities (see Introd. to Modern. 
Class, of Ins. vol. ii. p. 511). The comparatively rare occurrence 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE AND NOTICES. 

also of the Chigoe or Jigger in the human foot, although during 
the dry season it multiplies incredibly in sandy and dusty places, 
evidently proves that the ordinary development of the majority of 
the individuals is elsewhere than in the foot, and consequently that 
its burrowing into the flesh is but an occasional habit. 

Land insects observed on the ocean. — " Several times, when the 
ship has been some miles off the mouth of the Plata, and at other 
times, when off the shores of Northern Patagonia, we have been 
surrounded by insects. One evening, when we were about ten 
miles from the Bay of San Bias, vast numbers of butterflies, in bands 
or flocks of countless myriads, extended as far as the eye could 
range. Even by the aid of a glass it was not possible to see a space 
free from butterflies. The seamen cried out, ' It was snowing with 
butterflies ! ' and such in fact was the appearance. More than one 
species were present, but the main part belonged to a kind very 
similar to, but not identical with, the common English Colias 
edusa * . Some moths and hy menoptera accompanied the butterflies ; 
and a fine Calosoma flew on board. Other instances are known of 
this beetle having been caught far out at sea ; and this is the more 
remarkable, as the greater number of the Carahida seldom or never 
take wing. The day had been fine and calm, and the one previous 
to it equally so, with light and variable airs. Hence we cannot 
suppose that the insects were blown off the land, but we must con- 
clude that they voluntarily took flight. The great bands of the 
Colias seem at first to afford an instance like those on record of the 
mio-rations of Vanessa Cardui f ; but the presence of other insects 
makes the case distinct, and not so easily intelligible. Before sun- 
set, a strong breeze sprung up from the north, and this must have 
been the cause of tens of thousands of the butterflies and other 
insects having perished." (Darwin s Journal, p. 185.) 

Species et Iconogbaphie GENimQUE des Animaux articules. — 
Under this title M. Guerin Meneville announces the publication of 
a new work, to appear in parts, at the beginning of 1842, consist- 
ing of a series of illustrated monographs of insects, which will 
doubtless maintain the scientific reputation of their author. 

* " I aui indebted to Mr. Waterhouse for naming these and other insects." 
t Lyell's Geology, vol. iii. p. 63. 



65 



PLATE XVII. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF TWO ROSTRATED LOCUSTIDyE. 



The insects represented in the opposite plate exhibit a singular 
departure from the ordinary form of the Locusts, in the front of the 
head being produced into a long rostrum somewhat like that of the 
typical Fulgorse. Amongst the grasshoppers with long antennae there 
is a genus, Copiophora, in which the head is elevated into an erect 
and pointed horn, and in Mesops and Proscopia, two genera of 
Locusts, we find an approximation to these two insects. 

Notwithstanding the great elongation of the head in front of the 
eyes, I refer the unique insect represented in the upper figure to 
the genus Opsomala of Serville rather than to his genus Mesops, 
because the antennas are inserted near the eyes, whereas in the 
latter genus (which has much more the habit of Truxalis) the eyes 
are " places assez loin des antennes," and because the same organs 
are not ensiform, thus assigning the insect to Serville's second divi- 
sion of Opsomala with the "antennes composees d'articles pen aplatis 
et point elargis." 

OPSOMALA GLADIATOR, WesUv. (PI. 17, fig. I). 

Luteo-fusca, virescente parum tincta, capite antice in rostrum (prothorace duplo lougius) pro- 
ducto, antennis rostro brevioiibus gracilibus, alls bjaliuis vix incoloratis, abdomine 
longissimo, pedibus 4 anticis brevissimis. 

Long. Corp. (rostro incl.) unc, 3^ ; long capitis unc. 1, ante oculos unc. J. Expans. tegm. 
unc. 3f . 

Habitat Sierram Leonam. In Mus. D. Hope. 

This is a giant in the genus Opsomala, being nearly twice as long as the largest described 
species. It is entirely of a luteous brown colour, slightly varied with darlcer browu, with a paler 
oblong patch on each side of the upper surface of the prothorax. The head is produced into 
a rostrum nearly three-fourths of an inch long, its upper surface being nearly continuous with 
the dislc of the head, and gradually narrowed from the eyes to the tip ; the upper surface flat 
along the middle, but with the sides towards the eyes deflexed ; the under surface of the 
rostrum forms a very sharp edge, and is slightly curved, the tip being obliquely truncate. 
The eyes are oval and slightly elevated ; the antennsB are placed at the base of the lateral 
channel which extends from the base to the apex at the sides of the rostrum ; they are slender, 
filiform, and not so long as the rostrum. The prothorax is sliglitly rugose, with the dorsal 
carina scarcely elevated, and with three transverse very slight impressed lines across tlie middle 
of the back. The tegmina are narrow, not so long as the abdomen, with the apex almost 
rounded ; they are of a pale luteous-brown colour, with the veins varied with darl<er brown ; 
the wings are almost colourless ; the middle of many of the cells is, however, rather clouded 
with a tinge of pale brown. The abdomen is very compressed and shining, with the anal ap- 
pendages whitish. The four fore legs are very short, and the hind pair are scarcely longer 
than the abdomen ; tlie femora terminating on the outside in an elongated spine. The pro- 
sternum is armed with a short spine, and the meso- and metasteraums are broad. 

NO. V. 1st JANUARY, 1842. p 



66 NEW ROSTRATED LOCUSTIDvE. 

The insect represented in the lower figure constitutes a new 
genus, which, notwithstanding the great size of the frontal pro- 
minence, I arrange in Serville's section Conophori, and to which 
may be applied the generic name of 

BACTROPHORA, W. 

Corpus elongatum subcylindricutn ; caput magnum, oculis magnis prominentibus, fronte in 
baculum (capite fere duplo longioiem) cylindricum, infra carinatum producto. Antennae 
prothoracis longitudine, 24-articulat.in, parum compressae, articulis 3tio et proximis bre- 
vissimis et tenuioribus ; inter ct prope oculos ad basin rostri insertee. Fades infra 
valde turaida ; labrum maximum bilobum. Protborax tuberculatus, absque carina 
dorsali, canalibus duobus transversis impressus. Pedes 4 antici breves. Prosternum 
dente brevi obtuso armatum. 

BACTROPHORA DOMINANS, JV. (PL 17, fig. 2.) 
Tota luteo-fulva, antennis (articulis 2us basalibus cxceptis) nigris, tegminibus fusco-nebulosis 

alis apice fuscis. 
Lone. Corp. rostro incluso unc. 3^. Long, rostri ante oculos -^ unc. Expans. tegm. 

unc. 4. 
Habitat—? In Mus. Soc. Zool. Lond. 

The produced front, of the bead forms a snout somewhat like that of some species of Fulgora, 
ascending a little from the impressed arched channel between the eyes ; the under side is rather 
ru<Tose, and along the centre runs a carina which terminates in the acute arched, rather dilated 
apex : this carina at its base is furcate, each branch extending to the base of one of the an- 
tenna ; the pronotum is covered with small tubercles, which even extend along the anterior 
margin, two being of larger size in the middle. The tcgmina are opake and very closely reti- 
culated ; they are of the same colour as the rest of the body, but are clouded with many small 
patches of brown ; the wings are pale fulvous at the base, with the apex dark brown. 

I regret that the locality of this extraordinary and unique insect 
is unknown. 

The plant figured is part of a twig of Combretum comosum, a 
splendid species found at Sierra Leone. 



67 



PLATE XVIII. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF TWO SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 



The two upper figures in this plate represent a butterfly de- 
scribed by Fabricius fifty years ago under the name of 

PAPILIO PELAUS, 
(Fabr. Ent. Syst. vol. iii. part 1, p. 5), but of which no figure has 
hitherto been published ; indeed the insect appears to be of the 
greatest scarcity, since Godart and Boisduval are acquainted with 
it only from the Fabrician description ; whilst from Fabricius 
having referred it to the Papilio torquatus of Cramer (Ins. 15, 1. 177, 
fig. ABJ,' with a mark of doubt, its rank as a species has been 
questioned*. I am indebted to E. Doubleday, Esq. for an opportu- 
nity of figuring a specimen which accords with the Fabrician descrip- 
tion, except in having one white detached lunule near the anal angle 
above, and two beneath. There cannot, however, I think, be a 
doubt that it is the true Pelaus, and that it is abundantly distinct 
from P. torquatus. Mr. Doubleday is unfortunately unacquainted 
witH the locality of his specimen. Fabricius says, " Habitat in 
India," but the habit of the species, as Boisduval suggests, is 
rather that of a New World — most probably South American or 
West Indian — species. 

The lower figure represents a new species, allied to P. Thymbrieus, 
and especially to P. Perrhebus ; for an opportunity of figuring 
w4iich I am also indebted to Edward Doubleday, Esq., in whose col- 
lection it is unique. Being a native of Mexico, I propose to give it 
the name of 

PAPILIO MONTEZUMA, W. 

p. alls latis cyaneo-nigris, anticis punctis minutis marginalibus albis, posticis obtuse dentatis 
lunulis marginalibus albis, lunulisque sex subniarginalibus maculaque ad angulum ani 
sanguineis. 

This species measures about four inches in the expansion of the 
wings, which are comparatively of great breadth ; the fore pair 
having the apical margin' slightly rounded and divided into slight 
scallops ; the hind pair are obtusely dentate, the middle tooth being 

* p. Pelaus Herbst, (P. Peleides Es^J-t Boisduval,) is distinct, if indeed it really exist in 
nature. 

F 2 



68 IIADITS OF AMERICAN PAPILIONES. 

produced into a very short tail. On the upper side the disk of the 
wings is of a fine raven bhie-black ; the apical margin of the fore wings 
marked with small whitish spots between the longitudinal veins ; 
the hind wings have whitish marginal scallops, and a row of six crim- 
son-pink submarginal lunules, and an irregularly squarish spot of 
the same colour within the anal angle. 

The under side (represented in fig. 3) is similar to the upper, 
except that the disk is not so intensely raven black, and the red 
lunules of the hind wings are rather smaller. The body is black, 
with the palpi and sides of the head, thorax, and abdomen 
crimson pink. 

The orchidaceous plant represented in the plate is the Maxillaria 
tenuifolia of Lindley (Bot. Heg. v. 25, pi. 8), a native of Mexico, 
recently introduced into this country. 



MK. DOUBLEDAY'S NOTES ON THE HABITS OF THE NORTH 
AMERICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

[Continued from page 62.) 



P. Calchas is quite a southern species. I do not know its northern 
limit pi'ecisely, but am not aware of its occurring farther north than 
N. Carolina; Cramer I think says Virginia ; but his localities are not 
to be depended on, any more than Boisduval, who mistakes states as 
large as England for towns. I only saw it in E. Florida, where I 
found the larva on the Red Bay, Laurus Carolinensis. The perfect 
insect I savv first early in February, when I captured a worn speci- 
men on the flowers of Gelsemium sempervirens. This had of course 
hybernated. I found it in profusion at St. John's Blufi", chiefly in 
an open spot near the river, and in old cotton fields, where it fre- 
quented the flowers of Cnicus horridulus, and was then very easy 
to take. Sometimes it sails up and down the pathways in the 
woods, its flight then is easy and almost majestic. 

P. Philenor. See Harris for its northern limit. I know of its 
occurrence in different localities from N. York to E. Florida. It 
there (E. F.) frequented the flowers of Annona grandiflora. It is 
fond of alighting in the mud, like Turnus &c. My western specimens 
are infinitely finer both in size and colour than any 1 have seen from 
the Atlantic states, be they northern or southern. Flight not very 
powerful, generally low. 



69 



PLATE XIX. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME CETONIID^ FROM TROPICAL AFRICA. 



MECYNORHINA POLYPHEMUS.— Fig. 1. 

This insect (of which the female is here figured) is of such extreme 
rarity that hitherto no other examples have been recorded than the 
male, which was described by Fabricius from the Banksian Cabinet, 
bequeathed to the Linnsean Society by Sir J. Banks (but which 
v,'as stolen from thence between the years 1826 and 1836) ; and the 
male, which Mr. Gory now possesses in his cabinet *. The account 
given of the habitat of the latter specimen, by Messrs. Gory and 
Percheron, in their (Monographic des Cetoines), is very vague, and 
it is due to the scientific world that a precise statement should be 
made by the former of these gentlemen as to the manner in which 
his specimen came into his possession, especially as it is known that 
several French Entomologists were allowed to inspect the Banksian 
collection during the period above-mentioned. 

The male differs from the female in having the head singularly 
cornuted (fig. 1 d), and in having the anterior tibiae internally 
dilated at the base and armed with several teeth, the outside beins: 
also S-dentate (fig. 1 e), the middle tibiae having one small middle 
tooth ; and the hind tibiae destitute of teeth. The female, on the 
other hand, has the head rather emarginate in the front and not cor- 
nuted ; the fore tibiae are only 3-dentate on the outside, the middle 
tibiae bi-dentate, and the hind tibiae 1-dentate in the middle. I have 
been extremely careful in the delineation of the pale spots and 
markings, for the purpose of showing that in this respect the species is 
variable, and consequently if M. Gory's or any other specimen shall 
be found to correspond tvith Olivier sjigure draxcn from the Banksian 
specimen, in the position of the spots and markings, it will be 
impossible to arrive at any other conclusion than that such specimen 
is the identical one stolen from the Banksian Cabinet. 

I am indebted to J. Turner, Esq., of Manchester, for an oppor- 
tunity of making known, for the first time, the female of this 

* Dr. Burmeister informs mc (14th of November, 1841,) that M. Dupout possesses a male. 



70 AFRICAN CETONIID^. 

beautiful insect, which is a native of the Gold Coast, Africa. 
Fig. 1 a represents its maxilla, both lobes of which are furnished 
with a strong tooth ; fig. 1 5, the extremity of the deeply-cleft 
mentum and the labial palpi ; and 1 e, the mesosternum. 

The Rev. F. W. Hope first proposed the genus ISIecynorhina in 
his " Coleopterist's Manual,"" part 1, p. 60, 1837. He, however, 
added Goliathus micans, Daphnis, and Grallii, to Polyphemus ; but 
in the Supplement to that work, p. 119, he restricted it to the last- 
named insect, stating that a second species is in the possession of 
Mr. Joseph Hooker, of Glasgow, which he considered as undescribed ; 
but which, I am able to state, is the male of Goliathus torquatus *. 
Mr. MacLeay has, however, separated Polyphemus and Torquatus 
into distinct subsections (as shown in his arrangement of the Goliathi f , 
abstracted at page 6 of this work,) in consequence of the diiference 
in the armature of the head of the males. The male of G. torquatus, 
however, lias tioo short horns in front of the eyes, although the 
extremity of the middle horn is not forked. The two species, how- 
ever, precisely agree in the armature of the tibiae in both sexes, and, 
which is of more importance, in the structure of the maxillse and 
mentum, as well as in the velvety clothing of the upper surface. 
These two insects, therefore, constitute a group of precisely equal 
rank with DicronorhinaJ, Hope {Atlas, Lap. Hist. Nat. An. Art. 
Col. v. 2, p. 1G2) ;— Eudicella, White (Gol. GralHi, Daphnis, 
Smithii, Morgani, &c., in which the males have the mando 
toothless, although in the females it is armed with a strong 
tooth, and the fore tibiaa toothed only on the outside in the males) ; 
and Coelorrhina, Burmeister MSS. (Gol. 4. maculatus, Olivier) ; 
the last-named group being distinguished by the male having the 
anterior tibiae entirely destitute of teeth, and the clypeus concave in 
front with a short central recurved horn dilated at the tip, like a 

* Scbonherr evidently cliauged the name of this species to avoid confusion witli Cetonia 
torquata of Fabricius, a different species. In the male of JM, torquata (as appears from Mr. 
Joseph Hooker's drawings, and Dr. Burmeister's manuscripts) the mando is unarmed ; in the 
female, however, in Mr. Hope's collection I find it furnished with a strong tooth. Mecynor- 
liina thus differs from Eudicella, chiefly in the armature of the fore tibiae of the males. 

"I" The various facts stated in the first article of this work and in the present paper, together 
with the circumstances that Goliathus Hopfneri is most nearly allied to Ischnostoma (accord- 
ing to the manuscripts and figures of Dr. Burmeister), and that the Coryphe (Narycius) olivaceus 
of MacLeay and the Goliathus (Dicronocephalus) opalus of MacLeay, are sexes of the same 
species, (Dr. Burmeister having shown me M. Dupont's original specimens) will render neces- 
sary an entire revision of the Goliathideous Cetoniida?, whilst the removal of Cryptodus to the 
Dynastidae, Macroma to the Cremastocheilides, and Philistina (or Mycteristes) to the Goliathides, 
will render equally necessary a revision of the classification of the entire family of Cetoniidae. 

X A more important character of this group than has hitherto been noticed has been sug- 
gested to me by Professor Burmeister, namely, the want of a tooth to the lower lobe of the 
maxilla. This I find to be the case in both sexes. 



AFRICAN CETONIIDJE. 71 

reversed triangle ; and the female having the head broad and nearly- 
quadrate, the fore tibice externally 3-dentate, the four posterior with 
one tooth in the middle, and both lobes of the maxilla armed with 
a strong tooth*. 

The three other insects figured in this plate will be deemed 
highly interesting additions to this ftimily, not only because 
they are not included in the work of Gory and Percheron, or 
Mr. MacLeay's Memoir on the African Cetoniidre, but from their 
structural characters. The two upper ones were regarded by Dr. Bur- 
meister, whilst in this country, as congenerous with Ccelorrhina 
4-maculata. They, however, certainly belong to a different group, 
which appears to me to be intermediate between Coryphe of Mac- 
Leay (Gnathocera, G. and P., but not of Kirby), and the more aber- 
rant Schizorhinse -f-, and for which may be proposed the sub-generic 
name of 

TMESORRHINA, W. 

Caput maris baud cornutum, clypeo in utroque sexu emarginato. Maxilla 
lobo interno apice obtuso vel in denteni brevissimuin et obtusum producto ; lobo 
apicali brevi obtuso supra dense ciliato. JMentum apice valde incisum. Prothorax 
subtrigonus postice latissimus margine postico in medio emarginato. Elytra basi 
latiora, interdum ad apicem suturae spinosa. ]\Iesosternum breve, porrectum 
latum rotundatuni. Pedes antici maris longitudine variant, tibiis externe (nisi 
in apice) baud vel vix dentatis. Tibiie intermedise maris in medio inernies,postic8e 
vero in medio dente minuto instructse. Pedes fcemince breviores latiores, tibiis anticis 
extus 3-dentatis, intermediis in medio vix dentatis; posticis in medio 1-dentatis, 
ungues appendiculo brevi bisetoso instructi. Color metallicus nitidissimus. 

In respect to the unarmed head of the males, these insects may 
be considered as the African representatives of Coryphe Iseta of 
Java, and C. nigritarsis of India ; the maxillae, anterior tibise, and 
cl}^eus are, however, not similar ; the latter character would 
indeed induce us to refer these insects to Schizorhina, but we find 
an emarginato clypeus in the females of Coryphe umbonata and 
■ C. flavomaculata, whilst the metallic colouring is more especially 
the character of Coryphe. 

Species I. — Tmesorrhina amabilis, W. (PI. 19, fig. 2.) Smaragdina, nitida, nigro-punctulata, 
autennis nigro-piceis, femoribus tibiisque roseo-opalinis, taisis nigiis, prothoiacis latcribus 
(nisi versus angulos posticos) marginatis — ^ . 

SyN. — Gnathocera amabilis, Bainbridge (in Proc. Eat. Soc. p. 5, March 2, 1840). 

Long, corporis, lin. 10. Habitat Sierram Leonam, D. Straclian. In Musseo D. Hope. 

* I am indebted to the Rev. F. W. Hope for permission to dissect a great number of bis 
rare and unique Cetoniidse, including a female of Ca'l. 4-mnculata. 

f Such as S. cyanea, Oliv., -nhich is a native of Siena Leone, although Mr. MacLeay says 
that no Schizorhinae occur in Africa (Get. So. Afr. p. 28). It has the apical lobe of the 
maxillfe terminating in an acute spine, the inner lobe unarmed, the male fore tibiae narrow and 
terminated externally by two spines ; and the female fore tibise broad and tridentate. Mr. Mac- 
Leay gives this as the type of his section of Schizorhina which he named lusulares (I presume 
after Sch. insularis), which is, however, very unlike Sch. cyanea, in many respects. 



72 AFRICAN CETONIIDJi:. 

The fore legs in the unique male of this species in Mr. Hope's collection are shorter than in 
Tm. simillima, with the tibiae slightly indicating the existence of two teeth in addition to the 
apical one, which is separated from the next by a deep incision. The middle tibiae are straight, 
but the hind ones are slightly bent at the middle, with a minute tooth on the outer edge. The 
maxilla; have the inner lobe terminated by a short black horny point. The elytra are not 
spinous at the extremity of the suture. Fig. 2 a, maxilla ; 2 6, extremity of the anterior 
tibiae ; 2 c, ungues. 

Species II. — Tmesorrhina concolor, W. (PI. 19, fig. 3.) Aureo-smaragdina, punctulata, 
antennis tarsisque 4 anticis nigris, posticis duobus aureo-viridibus, elytris lineis duabus 
lono-itudinalibus Ijevibus, humerisque macula triangulari nigra notatis, segmentis ventralibus 
medio opalinis $ . 

Syn. — Calorrhina concolor, Burm. Hope (in Proc. Ent. Soc. , July, 1841). 

Lone. Corp. lin. 12=1 unc. Habitat Sierram Leonam. 

In Mus. Britann. et Hope. 

We are acquainted only with the female of this species, which may at once be known from 
the preceding by its splendid golden green colour, larger size, and by the prothorax having the 
sides entirely margined almost to the hinder angles. The colour of the feet is also different. 
Fig. 3 a, represents the mandible ; 3 b, the maxilla, the mando of which terminates in a very 
minute point, and the galea is thick, horny, and obtuse ; 3 c, the mentum and labial palpus ; 
3 d, the mesosternum seen sideways ; 3 e, ditto, seen from beneath. 

Species III. — Tmesorrhina simillima, "W. pi. 19, fig. 4. Late viridis, nigro punctulata 
clypeo antennis pedibusque fulvis viridi-nonnihil tinctis, elytris guttis 1 8 minutis albis 
notatis, prothorace ante scutellum rubro-marginato ^ . Long. corp. lin. 12. 
Habitat Sierram Leonam. In Mus. Britann. (sub nomine Coelorih. s. Burm.) 

The unique male of this species in the British Museum is of a narrower form, and the legs 
are longer than in Tm. amabilis. The anterior tibiae are slender, with the outer margin not 
dentate, but terminating in an apical spine, being rather narrowed beyond the middle, and their 
inner margin is hairy. The middle tibise are unarmed on the outside, but slightly hairy on 
the inner margin at the apex; and the hind tibiae are straight, with a minute central tooth on 
the outside. The suture of the elytra terminates in two short spines ; the mando of the maxilla 
is unarmed. 

The extraordinary plant represented in the plate is the Angrseeum 
caudatum of Lindley, one of the Orchidacese, at once distinguished 
by the singular elongation of its spur, which Dr. L. informs me 
sometimes reaches a foot in length. It is a native of western 
tropical Africa. 



73 



PLATE XX. 

MONOGRAPH OF THE HYMENOPTEROUS GROUP, DORYLIDES. 



The group Dorylides, composed of the four genera Dorylus, 
Rhogmus, Labidus, and J5nictus, presents to us a series of insects, 
now of considerable extent, of which we still remain in entire 
isrnorance of the females, as well as of the natural habits of the 
group ; our knowledge being at present confined to the characters 
of the male sex, and to the facts that the males are often 
captured flying by night, and are so rare that out of a dozen species 
of Labidus collected in Brazil, by W. Burchell, Esq., single 
individuals were only found of nearly every species. Mr. Shuckard, 
in his IMonograph upon this family, has suggested that my genus 
Typhlopone is composed of the females of Labidus, and has conse- 
quently removed Typhlopone from the family of the ants, in which, 
as I have endeavoured to prove in a memoir subsequently published 
in the Annals of Natural History, he appears to me to have violated 
nature, Typhlopone possessing a far greater majority of the 
characters of the Formicidse than of any other family. Latreille 
considered the Dorylides as aberrant Mutillidse, deeming them to 
be solitary insects ; whilst St.-Fargeau and Haliday place them in 
the family of the social ants ; Shuckard however considers them as 
an oscillant family between the Mutillidse and Formicidse, on account 
of their possessing — -firstly, only a single recurrent vein to the fore 
wings; secondly, a single calcar to all the tibise (characters of 
the Formicidse) ; thirdly, a labrum closely shutting the mouth (a 
character of both families) ; fourthly, the curtailed structure of the 
palpi (which is stated to " separate them peculiarly from both 
tribes ") ; and fifthly, the enormous size of the male genital organ, 
in which Mr. Shuckard states they exclusively resemble several of 
the solitary Heterogyna. The curtailed structure of the palpi and 
the large size of the male genital organ are, however, characters of 
some of the Formicidffi, as particularised in my observations on 
Typhlopone, and thus in every one of these chai'acters the Dorylides 
are seen to resemble the Formicidse, with which they also agree in 



74 MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES, 

the distinct basal segment of the abdomen *. Considering, therefore, 
the Dorylides as a section of the Formicidse, and having shown 
that Typhlopone also belongs to the same family, it may be urged 
that there are good grounds for considering with Mr. Shuckard that 
Typhlopone is composed of female Labidi. I do not think that this 
is the case, for the reasons which I have given in my observations on 
that genus above referred to, but I am far from willing to assert 
that such may not ultimately prove to be the case. 

Labidus, Jur. 
Of this genus, composed, as it was supposed to be until last 
year, of only a single species, Mr. Shuckard gave an excellent 
Monograph, including descriptions of ten species (exclusive of 
L. mediatus). By the kindness of W. Burchell and J. Miers, Esqrs., 
I am, however, en&,bled to double the number of species ; several 
of my new species possessing curious characters not hitherto 
noticed. I may likewise add, that, with the exception of Forty's 
wretched figure of the species he named Labidus Latreillii, no 
illustration has yet been published of the genus, nor do we find in the 
latest works the internal organs of the mouth correctly described. 
These I have figured under the letters A and B, and they will be 
found to resemble the corresponding parts in Typhlopone, as figured 
by me in my " Introduction to the Modern Classification of 
Insects," vol. ii. p. 226, fig. 86, 19, 20. 

Section A. — Peduncle subtriangular, with the sides elevated. 

Species'I. — Labidus Fargeavii, Slik. (Mon. Dor. p. 11.) fiufo-fusco-hirtus ; capite, autennis, 
thorace femoribusque uigris, cajtera rufo-fuscus, abdomine supra rufo-sericeo, pedunculo 
supra canaliculato, venis alarum fulvo-rufis. Loug. Corp. euviroa 14 lig. = 17 lin. angl. 
mens. fere. 

Syn Labidus Latreillii, Saint-Farg. H. N. Hym. 1. 229. nee Jurine. 

Inhabits the province of St. Catherine, Brazil, on the sea-coast. 

Species II. — Labidus Burcliellli, W. (Plate 20, fig. 1.) Piceo-niger, pubescens et pilosus, 
abdomine fulvo-brunneo, pcdunculi lateribus valde elevatis mandibulis subrectis, tibiis 
tarsisque posticis gracilibus. Long. Corp. lin. 9.j. Espans. alar. lin. 18^. 

Taken at Santos, Brazil, by AV. Burchell, Esq., on the 30th October, 1826, at"9 o'clock p.m. 

This very distinct species has the head and thorax of a dirty brown colour and pubescent, and 
the abdomen fulvous-brown and not shining, the body beneath and at the sides clothed with 
long slender reddish hairs. The head is large, and the ocelli minute. Tiie mandibles are long, 
nearly straight, the tips only being bent round, (Fig. 1 o). The thorax is clothed with a dirty 
luteous pubescence, it is scarcely broader than the head, and not gibbous in front ; the abdo- 
minal peduncle is subtriangular, the sides very much elevated, the hind angles acute and 
produced ; the extremity of the abdomen is defiexed ; the antenna; and legs are long and 
slender ; the femora blackish ; the tibiae pitchy, but on the upper side reddish ; the tarsi testa- 
ceous, the posterior tibiae and tarsi slender, the tarsi having a minute tubercle at the base ; 
within (fig. \ b ; 1 c, ungues) ; the wings are very slightly stained with brown, and almost 
hyaline, the veins brown ; the marginal cell is angulated behind, and the cubital vein is not 
thickened behind the second submarginal cell. 

* Other characters which these insects possess in common with the Formicidae are detailed 
by St.-Fargeau and Haliday. 



MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES. 75 

Species III. — Lahidus Jurinii, Slik. (Mon. Dov. p. 11.) " Rufo-testaceus, pubescens ; 

ciipite (mandibulis antenuisque cxccptis) nigro ; pedunculo abdominis subtrigono, supra 

valde concavo ; pedibus longissimis," tibiis posticis articuloque basali tarsorum posticorum 

compressis ; .alis subfulvis. Long. Corp. lin. lO.J. Expans. alar. lin. 20. 

Supposed by Mr. Sliuckaid to be an inhabitant of Demerara. Mr. Miers has brought it 

from Brazil. 

Species IV. — Lahidus Latreillii, Jurine, (Latr. Shk.). Rufo-testaceus pubescens, pedunculo 
abdominis subtrigono, supra in medio piano, ad latera elevato ; alis l:ete fulvis venis fuscis 
Long. Corp. lig. 8 9^ mens. angl. 

Inhabits Cayenne. 

Species V. — Labidus Servillei, W. (Plate 20, fig, 2.) Testacco-fulvus breviter pilosus, capite 
nigro, pedunculo subtrigono, lateribus valde elcvatis, tibiis basique tarsorum posticorum latia 
compressis, alis infuscatis, venis fulvo-fuscis. Long. Corp. lin. 85-. Expans. alar, 
lin. 14. 

Taken at Para, in Brazil, by W. Burchell, Esq., on the 1st February, 1830, at 11 o'clock p.m. 

The head small and black, the ocelli large, and placed in a triangle ; the space between 
each of the hind ones and the eyes equal to the space between these two ocelli ; facial carinas 
strong, terminating beneath the front ocelli ; mandibles large, curved, alarge space being left be- 
tween them and the clypeus ; antenna; long, slender, and fulvous ; basal joint thicker than the 
terminal part. Thorax not very convex in front ; peduncle of the abdomen much narrower than 
the next joint, subtriangular, truncated in front, with the fore angles rounded ; hinder angles 
prominent and acute ; sides very much elevated, shining ; remainder of abdomen pubescent, 
deflexed at the extremity ; anal plate not deeply notched, the two angles acute ; legs long, 
fulvous ; hind tibiae flat, attenuated along the basal half; basal joint of tarsi dilated and emargi- 
nate within near the base to receive the spur of the tibiaj ; wings dusky, the veins dark fulvous 
brown ; fore wings shorter, and more truncate at the tip than usual. 

Section B. — Peduncle with the sides parallel and not elevated, 
t. — Peduncle shorter than broad. 
:{:. — Legs moderately long. 

Species VI Labidus Hartigii, W. (Plate 20, fig. 3.) Rufo-brunneus, abdomine fasciculato, 

pilosissimo, pilis longis fulvis, pedunculo angusto. Long. corp. lin. 8. Expans. alar, 
lin. 19. 

Inhabits Brazil, Rio Janeiro, J. Miers, Esq. ; also taken at Sape, in Brazil, by VV. Burchell, Esq., 
on the 14th of October, 1828, at 10 o'clock p.m. 

Entirely of a brown-red colour and not shining, except at the junction of the abdominal 
segments ; front of the body with very short hairs ; metathorax and abdomen clothed at the 
sides above with very long fulvous hairs, and forming a thick brush at the extremity of the 
body. The antennae are moderately long and slender, the basal joint rather thicker ; mandibles 
long and much curved; facial carinas but little elevated, but with a deep fossula between them, 
extending to the front ocellus. Thorax very gibbous in front, metathorax narrower than the 
mesothorax, its hind angles rounded off. Peduncle narrow, with the hind angles acute. 
Extremity of abdomen deflexed ; fore legs short, hind legs rather long, with the tibiae and tarsi 
simple ; wings stained light honey-colour, with the stigma and veins fulvous, the submarginal 
cell lanceolate, not acuminated from the apex of the second submarginal cell, nearly as large as 
the first two submarginal cells united ; the first of these is somewhat larger than the second, 
and is divided from it by a curved vein, the second receives the recurrent vein rather before 
the middle of its length, beyond which the cubital vein is not thickened. 

Species VII. — Labidus Esenbeckii, W. (Plate 20, fig. 4.) Rufo-brunneus, abdomine lineis 
duabus dorsalibus pilorum rufo-brunneorum, pedunculo thoracis latitudine. Long. corp. 
lin. 7^. Expans. alar. lin. 19. 

Taken at Rio Vendinha, in Brazil, by W. Burchell, Esq., on the 10th of September, 1828, in 
the evening. 

Entirely of a brown-red, not shining; mandibles very long and curved ; facial caiinse scarcely 
extending above the base of the antenna; ; the front of the thorax very gibbous, metathorax as 
broad behind as the front of the thorax, acutely truncate ; peduncle as broad as the meta- 
thorax, its hind angles acute ; the other abdominal segments with two rows of red-brown hairs, 
few in number on the anterior segments, but forming two thick pencils at the extremity, which 



76 MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES. 

is deflexed ; hind legs longer than in the preceding, tibia? and tarsi simple ; wings almost hya- 
line, very slightly stained with fulvous, which is the colour of the veins ; stigma darker, 
marginal cell large, acutely angled behind, the second transverso-cubital vein being very short : 
the recurrent vein is inserted near the base of the second submarginal cell, the cubital nervure 
beyond it not being dilated. 

J J Legs very short. 

Species VIII. — Lalidus llligeri, Shk. (Mon. Dor. App. p. 43.) Fuscus, subpubescens ; 
vertice, prothorace, extremitate mesothoracis, scutello, nietathorace et pedunculi disco 
nigris ; abdomine rufo-testaceo subnitido. Long. corp. lin. 7. Expans. alar. lin. I5i. 

Inhabits Brazil. In Mus. Shk. 

Species IX, — Lalidus Halidaii, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 13.) Rufo-testaceus, pubescenR,capite 
(clypeo, mandibulis antennisque exceptis) nigro, stigmate alarum brunneo et abdominis 
pedunculo transverso-quadrato, supra in medio convexo. Long. corp. lin. 7. Expans. 
alar. lin. 14^. 
Syn. — Lab. Latreillii, Hal. Linn. Trans. 17, p. 328. 

Inhabits Brazil, St. Paul. In Mus. D. D. Curtis et King. 

Species X. — Labidus Fonscolombii,W. Totus brunneo-testaceus, pubescens, abdomine sub- 
nitido, stigmate alarum rufo-testaceo, pedibus brevissimis. Long. corp. lin. 7. Expans. 
alar. lin. 16j. 

Inhabits Brazil. D. Miers. 

Entirely of a brownish-red, finely pubescent, the abdomen brighter coloured and rather 
shining. Head small ; mandibles short and slightly curved, very hairy ; face with a central 
channel extending to the front ocellus ; ocelli placed in a curved line. Thorax very gibbous in 
front and at the scutellum. Abdomen with the peduncle nearly as broad as the following seg- 
ment, its posterior angles rounded off, its upper surface entire and slightly convex, the ventral 
portion slightly angulated ; abdomen with the intermediate segments slightly constructed at the 
base ; anal plate with a very deep notch, the lateral processes very acute. Wings very slightly 
tinged with cinereous, more fulvous towards the costa. Stigma fulvous brown; marginal cell 
evidently acuminate beyond the apex of the second submarginal cell, the first transverso- 
cubital vein curved, and the second cubital cell receiving the recurrent vein nearer the base than 
the middle of its length, beyond which the cubital vein is strongly thickened. The legs are 
exceedingly short. 

Obs Most of the characters given above will distinguish this species from L. Halidaii, 

whilst the colour of the head, thorax, and peduncle, the shorter scape to the antenna, and the 
more villose and more robust thorax, distinguish it from L. llligeri, and its considerably larger 
size from L, Swainsonii, 

Species XI. — Labidus Swainsonii, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 14.) Rufo-testaceus, pubescens, 
capite (mandibulis antennisque exceptis) castaneo ; pedunculo abdominis transverso-quad- 
rato, supra subconvexo, pedibus brevibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 6A. Expans. alar. lin. 13. 

Habitat in Brasilia. (Mus. D. Shuckard.) Para in Brasilia, D. Burchell (capt. 17 Decemb. 
1829, ad 11 hor, p,m,) Etiam in Mexico, Mus. Westwood. 

Species XII. — Labidus Hopei, Shk. (Mon. Dor, p. 15). Rufo-testaceus, pubescens ; capite 
(mandibulis antennisque exceptis) atro ; thorace fusco, scutello in medio sulcato, et pedun- 
culo abdominis transverso-quadrato, supra subconvexo. Long, corp, lin, 6, Elxpans. 
alar. lin. 12. 

Habitat in Brasilia. In Mus, Hope, Shuckard et nostr. Comm. D. Melly. 

Species XIII. — Labidus Gravenhorstii, W. Testaceo-fulvus, capite (antennis mandibulisque 
exceptis) atro, thoracis doiso fusco, abdomine longo cylindrico. Long. corp. lin. 7. 
Expans. alar. lin. 12^, 
Taken at Rio Vendinha in Brazil on the 10th of September, 1828, in the evening, by 

W, Burchell, Esq, 

The head is rather small and black, the ocelli large and wide apart, the clypeus casta- 
neous, the mandibles rather short and curved, the antenna; slender ; the thorax brown, 
above pubescent, beneath more testaceous, not very gibbous in front ; scutellum entire, 
not sulcated ; peduncle as broad as the abdomen, and shortly transverse-quadrate, flat above, 
with the posterior angles produced backwards and acute ; the sides obliquely truncate towards 
the hind angles, beneath scarcely angulated ; the remainder of the abdomen almost cylindrical, 
the legs short and testaceous, red, the hind tibiae and tarsi simple, tibial spur straight and not 



MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES. 77 

dilated at the base ; wings slightly dusky, with a fulvous tint towards the base, apex, and costa; 
wings and stigma fulvous ; marginal cell conical at the tip, second submarginal cell larger than 
the first, and separated from it by a nearly straight vein, the recurrent vein received in the 
middle of the second submarginal cell, beyond which the cubital vein is slightly thickened ; 
abdomen with the last joint compressed above at the tip ; anal plate deeply emarginate, the 
lateral processes acute. 

Obs — This species approaches nearest to L. Hopei, but is distinguished from it by many of 
the charactcis given above. 

Obs. — Mr. Burchell also captured a specimen at Guardamor, in Brazil, on the 8th of 
September, 1828, at midniirht, which differs from the above in having the wings rather more 
dusky, with tlie stigma darker and brown at the base, the vein separating the first and second 
submarginal cells, straight, and the anal plate not exposed. 

Species XIV. — Labidus Spinolce, W. Fuscus,cylindricus, capite atro, abdomine fulvo-fusco, 
pedunculo transverso, lateribus subrotundatis, alis infumatis, venis stigmateqxie subfuscis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 6\. Expans. alar. lin. \\\. 

Taken at Meia Ponte, in Brazil, on the 16th of October, 1827, by W. Burchell, Esq. 
Very similar to L. Gravenhorstii, from which it differs in its darker-coloured wings and stigma ; 
the two basal submarginal cells are not so long, the vein separating them being less oblique, 
the legs darker coloured, the peduncle broader and not so square, the sides being rather 
rounded, the central surface scarcely angulated. 

]\[r. Burchell also captured another specimen at Caisara, in Brazil, on the 23d of October, 
1827, which although greatly mutilated appears to belong to this species. 

Species XV. — Labidus Guerinii, Sbk. (iNIon. Dor. App. p. 44). Fuscus, subpubescens ; 

capite atro, scapo antennarum incrassato, clypeo tuberculis binis acutis, recurvis, instructo ; 

mesothorace antice valde convexo, abdomine pedibusque magis rufescentibus. Long. corp. 

lin. 5|-. Expans. alar. lin. 12. 
Habitat in Brasilia. In JNIus. D. Shuckard. 

Species XVI. — Labidus D'Orbignii, W. (Shk. Mon. Dor. p. 15.) Niger, brunnco-holose- 
riceus, pedunculo abdominis semicirculato, supra subconvcxo, nervis alarum brunneo- 
testaceis, ocellis parvis, cellula marginali brevi postice acute angulata. Long. corp. lin. 
6^. Expans. alar. lin. 12. 

Habitat in America Meridionali, D. D'Orbigny. In Mus. nostr., e Mus. Eeg. Paris, 
communic. 

Species XVII. — Labidus Walkerii, W. Castaneo-fuscus, marginibus segmentorum abdo- 
minis lucidioribus, alis infumatis, venis fuscis, pedunculo transverso-quadrato, subtus baud 
angulato. Long. corp. lin. 5. Expans. alar. lin. 9^. 

Taken at Meia Ponte, in Brazil, on the 16th of October, 1827, by W. Burchell, Esq. 
Body long, cylindrical, and of a dark brown colour, with the head darker and the margins of 
the abdominal segments brighter coloured, pubescent ; jaws rather short and curved, facial 
carinse extended along the outside of the front ocellus ; ocelli large, lateral ones placed close to 
the eyes. Thorax gibbous before and behind. Peduncle transverse-quadrate, the sides 
slightly elevated, posterior angles not acute, ventral surface not angulated. Legs short and 
very slender ; wings dusky, with brown veins and a dark brown stigma ; marginal cell lanceo- 
late, two first submarginal cells larger, separated by a curved vein, the vein separating the 
second and third submarginal cells straight and much longer than in L. D'Orbignii, the cubital 
vein closing the second submarginal cell behind not thickened ; the legs are very short and of 
a brick brown colour. 

Most like L. D'Orbignii, but smaller and of a browner colour ; the marginal cell differently 
shaped ; the legs not black, the wings darker coloured, with the second submarginal cell of 
equal breadth throughout. 

Species XVIII. — Labidus Klugii, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 16). Rufo-castaneus, pubescens, 
vertice, thoracis dorso, et stigmate alarum badiis ; clypeo tuberculis binis, acutis, instructo, 
et pedunculo transverso-quadrato, subconvexo. Long. corp. lin. 4|. Expans. alar. lin. 8-J. 

Habitat iu insula St. Vincentii, D. L. Guilding. In Mus. D. Shuckard. 

Species XIX. — Labidus Erichsonii, AV. Longus, cylindricus, rufo-testaceus, capite badio ; 

clypeo integro ; pedunculo subtransvcrso, angulis acutis ; stigmate mngnonigricanti. Long. 

corp. lin. 5. Expans. alar. lin. 9. 
Habitat in Brasilia, D. Miers. 



78 MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES. 

Entirely of a fulvous red colour (except the head, which is dark chesnut) and shining, being 
but slightly pubescent ; the jaws of moderate size, the clypeus entire, the ocelli very large, 
the facial carinoe very strong, and extending on each side of the front ocellus, forming a strong 
angle beneath it ; the antennae are long and slender, the basal joint longer than in L. Klugii ; 
the thorax is not very gibbous in front, the peduncle is narrower than the thorax or abdomen, 
and of a squarer form than in any of the preceding, with the angles acute ; the abdomen is 
very long and cylindric, not thickened towards the tip as in L. Klugii. The wings are broad 
and almost colourless, with thin brown veins ; the stigma large and blackish ; the marginal cell 
is slightly attenuated towards the tip ; the first and second submarginal cells are large, separated 
by a slightly curved vein ; the recurrent vein is received at the middle of the second sub- 
marginal cell, beyond which the cubital vein is thickened ; the anal plate is deeply and widely 
emai'ginate ; the lateral processes very acute. 

t f Peduncle as long as broad. 

Species XX. — Labidus Romandi, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 17). Rufo-testaceus ; vertice badio, 

stigmate alarum brunneo-fusco, et pedunculo abdominis quadrato-convexo ; mandibulis 

brevibus, tenuibus ; abdominis segmentis posticis, subcompressis. Long. corp. lin. 4^^. 

Expans. alar. lin. 7f. 

Inhabits Brazil (Mus. D. Shuckard). Also taken at Canga, in Brazil, on the 4th of November, 

1838, during the night, by W. Burchell, Esq. Mr. Burchell possesses a specimen 4 lines 

long, and with the wings expanding only 7 lines, which I refer to this species, although the 

anal plate is not exposed, and the wing-veins exhibit the following distinctions, which are, 

I apprehend, to be regarded as irregularities :- — The right fore-wing has four sulimarginal cells, 

a small supplemental one (forming a third) being interposed between the ordinary second and 

terminal cells. This little cell is very narrow in front, but broader behind. The left fore- 

Tving has also four submarginal cells, but here the small supplemental cell is interposed betM'een 

the ordinary first and second ; it is of a triangular form, and does not extend upwards to the 

marginal cell, tlie second transverse-cubital vein being in fact furcate at a little distance from 

the marginal cell. 

UNKNOWN SPECIES. 

Species XXI. — Labidus Pertii, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 18). 

Syn Lab. Latreillii, Perty, Del. An. Art. Br. p. 138, t. 27, f. 11. 



Obs. — Dorylus mediatus, Fabr. Syst. Prez., p. 428. (Labidus? mediatus, Shk. Mon. 
Dor. p. 18.) preserved in the Royal Museum of Copenhagen, has been examined by 
Dr. Erichson, who informs me that it is a male Mutilla, having the third joint of the 
antennae (instead of the base of the second, as described by Fabricius) ferruginous. 



tEnictus, Shk. 

This genus differs from Labidus in the venation of the wings, and 
geographical situation ; and from Doryhis in the small size of the 
body, the long curved mandibles, and the slender cylindrical thighs ; 
whilst it is at once separated from Rhogmus by possessing only 
one recurrent vein. 

Mr. Shuckard founded the genus in his Monograph on the 
Dorylidse upon two specimens of a single species brought from 
Poonah, in Bombay, by Col. Sykes. I have, however, long had a 
note of a second species in the Cabinet of the Linnsean Society, and 
now possess, by the kindness of W. W. Saunders, Esq., President 
of the Entomological Society, F.L.S., &c., a specimen of the species 
described by Mr. Shuckard, taken in Northern India, by Lieut. 
Campbell. 



MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES. 79 

Species I. — JEnictus ambiguus, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 24). Rufo-testaccus, piibescens, 
capite (antennis mandibulisquc cxccptis) ct thorace nigi'o, mandibulis longissimis ; facie 
carina media subtus furcata, alarum vcnis stigmateque fuscis, pedunculo profunde cana- 
liculate. Long. Corp. fere lin. 4. Expans. alar. lin. 7^. (PI. 20, fig. C, head.) 

Habitat India Oricntali, Poonah. In Mas. Sykcs, Saunders, ct Westw. 

Species II. — Mnictus certus, W. Rufo-fulvescens, pubcscens, capite brunneo-nigi'o, mandi- 
bulis sub-bievibus, stigniate alarum fusco, venis fulvo-fuscis, pedunculo antice angustiori, 
disco subplano. Long. corp. (abdom. iucurv.) lin. Sw. Expans. alar. lin. 7^. 

Habitat.' la Mus. Soc. Linn. Lend. 

Head pitchy or brunncous black, the face redder brown ; the antennae fulvous, with long 
slender hairs ; mandibles short, falcate, and fulvous. The thorax is fulvous, finely setose. 
The abdominal peduncle is somewhat triangular ; the sides ratlier rounded, and the posterior 
angles not acute ; the sides are slightly elevated, and the disk is nearly flat and not channelled 
in the middle ; the second, third, and fourth segments of the abdomen are of nearly equal size, 
the fifth is much longer than cither of these segments, the sixth is much shorter, and the 
seventh is about as long as the sixth. The male organs are concealed. The wings are 
throughout more stained with a light fulvous tint than in JExi. ambiguus. The stigma is 
fulvous, and the veins are fulvous-brown. There is considerable difference in the position of 
these veins in the two known species. The cubital vein arises very near the postcostal in Mn. 
certus, but at a distance from it in iE. ambiguus, in consequence of which the first cubital cell 
is smaller than the second discoidal cell in the former, whereas they are of equal size in the 
latter ; this is further increased by the vein whicli separates the first and second discoidal cells 
being deflexed at its extremity in iE. certus, whereas it is straight in j^n. ambiguus, termi- 
nating at a greater distance from the extremity of the anal vein ; moreover the transverse veins 
which close the extremity of the cubital and discoidal cells are much more angulated in 
jEn. ambiguus than they arc in iEn. certus. 

DoEYLus, Fahr. 
The species of this genus are confined to Africa and Asia. 
They are distinguished by possessing very short feet, with com- 
pressed femora, two submarginal cells, and only one recurrent vein 
in the fore wings. 

A. — Peduncle cup-shaped, nearly as large as the following segment. 

Species I. — Dorylus nigricans, Illiger (Fabr, Shk. Mon. Dor. p. 28). Nigricans, brunneo- 
holosericeus, capite magno, abdominis petiole acetabuliformi, segmento 2do pauUo 
minori, oculis minutis. Long. corp. lin. 13. E.xpans. alar. lin. 2\\. 

Inhabits Sierra Leone. 

B. — Peduncle cup-shaped, mach smaller than the second segment. 

Species II. — Dorylus helvolus, Linnaeus, &c. (Shk. Mon. Dor. p. 29). Helvolus pilosus ; 

capite rufo, facie opalina convexa, petiole acetabuliformi, 2do segmento multo minori. 

Long. corp. lin. 12^. Expans. alar. lin. 21y- 
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. 

Species III. — Dorylus affinis, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 30). Helvolus pilosus ; capite rufo- 
castaneo ; facie plana, petiole acetabuliformi, 2do segmento multo minori. Long. corp. 
lin. 10^. Expans. alar. lin. 19. 

Inhabits the vicinity of the river Gambia. Differs from the preceding in its smaller size, in 
the cubital nervuro being slightly undulated (instead of straight), as far as the separation 
of the two submarginal cells and the recurrent nervure, inserted aX fully one -half oi the 
length of the first of the latter. 
C. — Peduncle quadrate, mandibles slender and much acuminated. 

Species IV. — Dorylus glabratus, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 31). Rufo-brunneus, glaber, sub- 
robustus, venis alarum nigris, vertice valde prominente. facie in medio sulcata, mandibulis 
attenuatis, labro tuberculis binis obtusis instructo et pedunculo abdominis transverso- 
quadrato. Long. corp. lin, \i^. Expans. alar. lin. 23^. 

Inhabits the vicinity of the river Gambia. 



80 MONOGRAPH OF THE DORYLIDES. 

Species V. — Dorylus juvenculus, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 32). Rufo-fuscus, glaber, subattenu- 
atus ; capite (antennis mandibulisque castaneis exceptis), et venis alarum nigris, vertice 
valde prominente, facie in medio sulcata, labro tuberculis binis instructo et pedunculo 
abdominis quadrato-convexo. Long. Corp. lin. 15|. Expans. alar. lin. 24. 

Inhabits Barbary. 

Species VI Dorylus labialus , Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 33). Pallide brunneus, seu'rufo-testaceus 

glaber, facie pilosa, subtuherculata, prominula, in medio profunde sulcata, mandibulis 
attenuatis, labro tuberculis binis magnis instructo et pedunculo abdominis quadrate vel 
potius subgloboso. Long. Corp. lin. 14^. Expans. alar. lin. 23. 

Inhabits Poonah and Assam. 

D. — Peduncle quadrate, mandibles broad and nearly triangular. 

Species YII. — Dorylus orietitalis, Westvvood. (Proc. Z. Soc. 1835, p. 72, Shk. Mon. Dor. 
p. 34). Helvolus pilosiis, abdomine glabro, capite rufo, facie in medio sulcata, mandibi^is 
subtrigonis, vena cubitali valde sinuosa, pleuris sericeis et pedunculo abdominis qu.idrato 
gibboso ; venis binis internis alarum posticarum venis duabus transversis convexis. Long. 
Corp. lin. 125-. Expans. alar. lin. 19. 

Inhabits Bengal. 

Species VIII. — Dorylus longicornis, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 35). Helvolus subpubescens, capite 
nigro convexo, facie in medio sulcata, mandibulis subtrigonis, pleuris obscuris, vena 
cubitali siibrecta, petiolo abdominis quadrato gibboso. Long. Corp. lin. 11^. Expans. 
alar. lin. 18. 

Inhabits Bengal. 

Species IX. — Dorylus attenuatiis, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 36). Helvolus vel testaceus sub- 
pubescens, capite nigro vel rufo, facie in medio sulcata, mandibulis subtrigonis, venis 
■ alarum brunneis vel testaceis, pedunculo quadrato gibboso. Long. corp. lin 10^. Expans. 
alar. lin. 15. 

Supposed to inhabit the vicinity of the river Gambia. 

Species X. — Dorylus atriceps, Shk. (Mon. Dor. pi. 37.) Sordide helvolus, glaber, 

capite (antennis mandibulisque badiis exceptis) atro, facie valde prominente in medio 

subsulcata, pedunculo abdominis quadrato-gibboso. Long. corp. lin. 9^. Expans. alar. lin.lSJ. 

From the vicinity of the river Gambia. The mandibles are very broad, with a large obtuse 

triangular projection at the base within, leaving no space between them when closed, their 

inner edge acute. 

Rhogmus, Shk. 
This group has been proposed as a genus by Mr. Shuckard, for 
the reception of a species which differs from the other Doryh, by 
possessing two recurrent veins in the fore wings, which have only 
two submarginal cells ; the mandibles are triangular, the feet very 
short with the thighs broad and compressed, and the abdomen very 
long and clavate. From the irregularities which so frequently occur 
in the position of the veins of the wings of the other Doryli, I 
consider that the first of these characters, which Mr. Shuckard con- 
siders as of primary importance and employs in his synoptic table, 
of too trivial a nature to warrant the generic separation of Rhogmus 
from Dorylus, whilst its other characters appear to me but specific 
distinctions. 

Species I. — Rhogmus fimbriatus, Shk. (Mon. Dor. p. 39.) Helvolus pilosus ; abdomine 
glabro, segmento ultimo supra et duobus ultimis subtus fimbriatis ; capite (clypeo anten- 
nis mandibulisque castaneis exceptis) nigro, venis alarum brunneis el pedunculo abdominis 
transverso-quadrato, convexo. Long. corp. lin. 17^. Expans. alar. lin. 22. 

Inhabits the Gold coast and the vicinity of the river Gambia. 

The splendid Orchidaceous plant figured is the Cattleya Aclandias of Lindley, Bot. Reg. 

V. 26, pi. 48, a recently discovered species inhabiting Brazil. 



PLATES XXI, XXII, AND XXIIT. 

ON THE SCARITIDEOUS BEETLES OF NEW HOLLAND. 

TiiE insects represented in these three plates are referable to 
the section of the Carabidse, which Latreille denominated Bipartiti 
or Fossores, and Dejean Scaritides, and which was characterised by 
having the elytra not truncate at the tips (as in the Brachinides) ; 
the antennae often elbowed, the thorax generally almost semicircu- 
lar, and separated from the abdomen by a narrowed peduncle and 
the legs generally rather short, with the fore tarsi not dilated in 
the males, and the fore tibise palmated. 

In the second edition of the " Regno Animal " we find the genus 
Carenum, of Bonelli (composed of a single species, Sc. cyaneus, 
Fab., from New Holland), placed in conjunction with Enceladusand 
Siagona, on account of the large triangular form of the last joint 
of its labial palpi. To these succeed the majority of the genera 
having palmated fore feet and a long second joint of the antennae, the 
section being terminated by a second subdivision, composed of the 
genera Morio, Ozsena, Ditomus, and Apotomus, in which the fore 
tibiae are not palmated, and the second joint of the antennae com- 
paratively short. 

It is impossible, on studying this arrangement, not to arrive at 
the conclusion that it is entirely artificial : thus, the Australian 
Carenum (which is the more immediate object of our observations) 
has no further character in common with Enceladus and Siagona, 
than in having the dilated terminal joint of the labial palpi ; whereas 
in its general structure, palmated tibiae, and elongated second 
joint to the antennae, it unquestionably belongs to the group typified 
by Scarites proper. We find, however, in the structure of the 
mouth, another character, which occurring in an organ of peculiar 
importance in the classification of the Coleoptera, adds far greater 
weight to the relation of Carenum with the last-named genus and 
its immediate relations *. Latreille himself had observed this 



* Boisduval (Voy. de I' Astrolabe, p. 23), states tliat Cart-num " a una grande analogie avec 
les Scarites, les Encelades, les Pasiniaches, les Oza;na, les Clivina et les JNIorio." He does not, 
however, desciibe in what the analogy with which such discrepant genera consists. 
NO. VI. 1st MARCH, 1842, G 



82 AUSTRALIAN kSCARITID^. 

cliaracter, ncamch', the want of a terminal hook to the maxillse in 
Carenum and Pasiniachus, which latter, he observes, "se rapproche 
dn dernier (Carenum) relativement aux machoircs, qui sent droites et 
sans crochet terminal" (Regne An. iv., p. 38'2) ; but he describes 
Acanthoscelis, Scarites, Oxygnathus, and the remainder of his first 
subdivision as having the " machoires arquees et croehues aubout." 
This is however erroneous, although no subsequent writer on the 
predaceous beetles has corrected it. I have before me Latreille's own 
dissections of several of these genera, in all which the maxillse 
are obtuse at the tip ; and in all the true Scaritides (composing 
his first subdivision, except Siagona and Enceladus) which I have 
dissected, I have found the same character * ; except in Clivina, 
which is thus proved (contrary to the arrangements of most Con- 
tinental authors) to differ from Dyschirius in this important 
respect. 

Until very recently, only one true Scaritideous insect (or rather 
two species confounded together) had been described by entomolo- 
gists from New Holland — namely, the Scarites cyaneus of Fabricius, 
Carenum cyaneum Bonelli. Within the last few years, however, 
descriptions of three other species have been published — namely, 
Arnidius marginatus Leach (described by M. Boisduval); Eutoma 
tinctil.'itus, described by Mr. Newman ; and Carenum perplexum, 
by Mr. A. White. Fifteen species are described in the present paper 
belonging to the first subdivision of Latreille, in addition to three 
other species which approximate closely to them. 

The chief cause of this want of descriptions of Australian 
Scaritidse is evidently the great rarity of the insects themselves in 
that portion of the globe. Dejean, the late possessor of the most 
extensive collection of Coleoptera formed up to that period, did 
not possess a single species belonging to this section from Australasia, 
and of the species now figured in the accompanying plates, the 
majority are represented from unique specimens ; of these also the 
majority are from the new settlements in the south-western and 
north-western portions of New Holland ; so that we are, I think, 
fully justified, from the large collections of Coleoptera which have 
been sent to this country from the older settlements on the south- 
eastern part of Australia without any Scaritideous insect amongst 
them, in believing that these insects are either not indigenous to 
the latter district, or are of extreme rarity. 



* Consitlciing the pir-cniiiicntlj' predaceous liiibits of the tiue Scsiiitiilos, it seems remarkable 
that iLe tooth of the undtrjaws should not be dovclopcfl. 



AHSTRALIAN Sf MUTID^. 83 

The species now figured oxlilbit several peculiarities of import- 
ance as contrasted with the other Scaritideous insects. The singular 
and occasionally brilliant metallic tints of some of the species have 
hitherto been almost unknown in this section ; the dilated form and 
large size of the three species represented at the bottom of plate 

22, and the singular characters of the three insects figured in plate 

23, fig. 2, 3, and 4, are also especially worthy of notice. 

I now proceed to the description of the Australian species of this 
section. 

CARENUM, Eonelli. 
(Syn. — Ainidiiis, Lcach, Bdv. Eutoma, Neivm.) 

This genus was founded by Bonelli (^Ohserv. Entomol. 2nd part, 
p. 47, and Turin Trans. 1813, p. 479), upon a species which ho 
examined in the collection of the Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, and 
which he considered as identical with the Scarites cyaneus of Fabri- 
cius, from which, however, it is quite distinct. The chief character 
of the genus, as detailed by Bonelli, consists in the enlarged and 
triangular form of the terminal joint of the labial palpi, whilst the 
maxillary palpi are nearly cylindrical. The antcnnte are short, with 
the first joint apparently* not longer than the second [which is about 
as long as the third] ; the antei-ior tibiae are externally dentated ; 
the elytra oblong or oval, soldered together without wings beneath 
them ; the mandibles are also strongly toothed on the inside, the 
mentum toothed in the centre of its deep emargination. The 
labrum is transverse but differs in form in different species, being 
sometimes horizontal, as in Scarites, but sometimes deflexed in front, 
as in pi. 22, fig. 3 a. The antennae are variable in length, as well 
as in the relative thickness of the terminal joints ; the fore feet also 
differ in the number of the digit ations, and there is also consider- 
able difference in the form and sculpture of the elytra. As however 
all these insects agree in their more essential characters, I have 
reduced the genera Arnidius and Eutoma to synonymes, because 
almost every species presents characters of variation as important 
as those possessed by the types of the two last-mentioned groups. 

Species I. — Carenum Bonellii,'\y. Nigrum, pionoto ct clvtiis viriJi late marginritis, lioriim 
carina margiiiali viulacca ; disco la;vi, punctis duobus versus basin alteiisqiic duobus sub- 
ajjicalibus, pronoto in medio fossula loiigitudmali et transverse slriato, basi utrinque 
obliqu^ impresso ; tibiis anticis cxtenie bidcntatis. Long. Corp. (sec. fig. Brullei) lin. 10, 
lat lin. 3. Mus. Jard. des Plantes. 

* I say apparently^ bicanse in most of tlie species the anterior lateral angles of the head are 
produced over the base of the basal ynnl of the antennte, causing it to appear shorter than it 
really is. 

G 2 



84 AUSTRALIAN SCARITID^. 

Syn. — Carenvm cv^f'/w, Bonelli, op. cit. (cxclus. syn. Fabr.) BruUe, Hist. Nat. 
Ins. t. 5, p. 63, pi. 2, fig. 6 (figured from the original Bpeciiuen described by Bonelli). 
Doisduval, Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, texte p. 25. 

Spfcifs II. — Carenum marginatum, W. (Plate 21, fig. 1.) Nigrum, nitidum, leeve ; pronoto 
elytrisque marginatis, margine viridi ; palpis piceis, elytris ovalibus punctis duobus sub- 
apicalibus, tibiis anticis externe dentibus duobus magnis altcrisque duobus minutis mediis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 10 (=izlin. 12, mens, gall.), lat. elytr. lin. 4. Mus. Brit. Hope. Dupont. 
Syn. — Arnidius marginatus, Leach's MSS. in Mus. Brit. Boisduval Voy. 
de I'Astrol. part. 2, p. 23. Laporte, Hist, Nat. Ins. Col. vol. 1, p. 66. 

This is closely allied to the preceding species, from which it is distinguished by its longer 
and broader form, and by linving only one pair of deep punctures on the elytra, near the tip. 
The head has two deep longitudinal impressions between the eyes, each forked in front with a 
small puncture near the middle of the fork ; the hind part of these impressions is directed out- 
wards. The lahrum has three sinuses along its front edge, the middle one being the widest, 
but not so deep as the two lateral ones. The right mandible has three teeth in the middle, the 
left one two ; the labial palpi have the middle joint furnished with many short bristles. The 
antennoe are rather long and slender, the basal joint largest, the second slightly shorter than 
the thiid. The pronotum is very much rounded at the sides, the hind edge scarcely produced, 
and witli a very slight dorsal impression; the elytra are smooth, not very shining, with slight 
traces (under a lens) of rows of punctures, and each is marked near the tip with a deep punc- 
ture. The slender margin of the pronotum and elytra is briglit green, and witliin it, in the 
elytra, are a series of punctures; the humeral angles are rounded off, with a sliglitly-elevated 
angle. The anterior tihiashave two large, and two or three very minute spines on the outside. 

Specifs hi. — Carenum perph'xum. (PI. 21, fig. 2.) C. nigro-cyaneum, elytris subviri- 
descentibus, basi subquadratis, ..orso impunctatis ; tibiis anticis extus bispinosis. Long. 
Corp. lin. 8. Lat. elytr. lin. 1^. Mus. Brit. (Inhabits King George's Sound.) 
Syn. — C. perplexum, White, in App. to Grey's Voy. 2, p. 4£6. 

This species differs from C. Bonellii, marginatum and Fabricii (cyaneum F.), in having no 
deep punctures on the disc of the elytra. The head is broad, with the anterior angles very 
prominent. Tlie eyes very globose, between which are two deeply-impressed striae (posteriorly 
converging), and suddenly bent into an angle, the front part running towards tlie outer base of 
the mandibles, with a deep setigerous puncture on each side. The prouotum is much narrowed 
behind, and the elytra long, ovate, and sub-depressed, nearly truncate at the base, the humeral 
angle forming a kind of tooth ; within the dilated margin of tlie elytra are a series of punctures. 
The fore tibiae are externally armed with two strong teeth. The head is black, the pronotum 
blue-black, and the elytra tinged with greenish blue. The antennae are as long as the prono- 
tum and half of the head, and the labial palpi have the last joint small and triangular. 

Species IV. — Carenum politum^Ho^e, INISS. (PI. 21, fig. 3.) C. nigrum nitidum ; pronoto 
lato, dorso longitudinalitcr canaliculato basique bi-inipresso lateribus rotundatis et cum 
elytris marginatis, margine laete caeruleo ; horum disco impunctato. Long. corp. lin. 7f . 
Lat. elytr. lin. 3. Mus. Hope, and Entomol. Club, (Inhabits Van Diemeu's Land,) 

This species differs from the last (with which it agrees in the impunctate disc of the elytra) 
in the broad and rounded outline of the pronotum and elytra, as well as in its colours, being 
shiny black, except the reflexed margins of the pronotum and elytra, which are of a bright blue. 
The head has two deep channels on the crown (posteriorly diverging), and forked in front ; 
the right mandible has three, and the left one two obtuse teeth in the middle. The antennae 
are slender but compressed. The pronotum is broad, with the sides margined and rounded, the 
posterior angles being slightly emarginate, as well as the middle of the hind margin. The 
disc has a deeply-impressed longitudinal line, and near the hinder angles is an oblique impres- 
sion. In one specimen there are also two round impressions near the front margin which are 
sometimes wanting. The elytra are broadly ovate with the anterior angles rounded oft", very 
shining, the disc impunctate, but with a series of impressions within the lateral margins. The 
fore tibia; have two large teeth on the outside, beneath which are two minute ones. 

Species V Carenum smaragduluvi,\lo^c, MSS. (PI. 21, fig, 4.) C. pronoto transverse 

elytrisque nitidissime caeruleo viridibus, his versus apicem bipunctatis, tibiis anticis extus 
tridentatis. Long. corp. lin. 8^. Lat, pronoti lin. 3. Mus, Hope, (Inhabits the Swan 
River.) 

This very handsome species has the head flatter than any of the preceding, and black, except 
towards the neck, which is slightly tinged with green, which colour is splendidly exhibited by 



AUSTRALIAN SCARITID/t:. 85 

the pronotum and elvtra, the margins of which are more elevated with a bright golden green 
hue. The head has two deeply-impressed lines on the crown forked in front ; the right man- 
dible has two teeth in the middle, the lower one being veiy large, and composed of three united 
together ; the left mandible has two teeth within, between which is a very small one. The 
antennae are as long as the pronotum ami half of the head, slender and not compressed, with 
the second joint a little shorter tiiun the third. The pronotum is very hioad and short, 
with the sides slraightcr than in any of the preceding species, and more strongly margined, the 
hind margin almost forming a regular curve. The elytra are ovate, with the humeral angles 
rounded, but with a small elevated obtuse tooth-like angle; within the lateral margin is a 
series of punctures. The legs are black, the anterior tibia; with three teeth on the outside. 

Species VI. — Carenum (cyaneum) Fabricii (PI. 21, fig. 5). C. nigro-cyanenm glabeni- 
mum, elytris suhpurpurasceutibu-:, et versus basin et apicem bipunctatis, tibiis anticis 
extus tridentatis. Long. Corp. lin. 5|. lat. elytr. lin. 2. Mus. Soc. Linn. Lond. 
(olim. Banks.) 

S\is.—Scariles cijaneus, Fabr, Ent. Svst. 1, p. 95. Syst. El. 1, p. I'iS. Oliv. 
•Ent. 3, No. 36, p. 11, pi. 2, fig. 17. Laporte, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col. 1. p. 66. 
(Carenum c.) Boisduval, Voy. de I'Astrol. p. 23, excl. syn. Bonellii et Brullei. 
" Caput magnum, exsertum, cyaneum, fronte lineis duabus impressis," postice divergentibus. 
" Mandibulx exsert», nigra;, dentatae ; antennae uigrw ; thorax canaliculatus, cyaneus, postice 
ix)tundatus," marginatus, angulis posticis parum emarginatus. " Elytra thorace addito 
capite breviora, counata," puiiiurascenti — " cyanea, glaberrima, basi retnsa," disco versus basin 
et apicem bipunctata, marginata ; intra marginem lateralem parum virescentia, serieque 
puuctorum imprcssa. " Pedes uigri tibiis anticis" extus tri-" dentatis." 

The above additions to the original Fabrician description (which is inclosed in inverted 
commas) are supplied, together with the accompanying figure, from the original unique specimen 
still in the possession of the Linna3an Society. The s;)ecies described by Bonelli, and sup- 
posed by him to be identical with the present species, being quite distinct, I have applied to 
it the name of C. Bonellii ; and in order to avoid any further confusion between the two 
species which have received the same specific name, I have also designated the present species 
with the name of its original describer. 

Species VII. — Carenum Spencii (PI. 21, fig. 6, C.) Nigrum, subopacum, tibiis anticis 
extus tridentatis, elytris excavationibus numerosis rotundatis, triplice seiie in singulo 
elytro ordinatis, spatiis intermediis elevatis. Long. corp. lin. 9. Mus. Melly. cum 
hoc nomine inscriptum. Inhabits New Holland. 

Syn Carenum Spencii, Westw. in Taylor's Annals of Nat. Hist. Oct. 1841, p. 123. 

The head in this very distinct species has two impressed lines on the crown, the pronotum 
has the posterior angles rather strongly emarginate, the disc with a deep impressed line, and 
near the fore margin is a row of fine longitudinal striga;. The elytra have an indistinct row 
of punctures on each side of the suture, succeeded by three rows of large deeply excavated 
round but irregular impressions, the space between the rows being elevated ; the sides are 
margined, and within the margin is a row of deep small punctures. The fore tibiae are very 
strongly palmate, having three teeth on the outside. 

Species VIII.— Carenum gemmalum, Hope, MSS. (Plate 21, fig. 7, 7 a, 7 b, and 7 c.) 
C. viride, elytris cupreo-tinctis, punctis mngnis distantibus triplice serie in singulo elytro 
ordinatis, tibiis anticis dentibus duobus magnis alteroque minuto externis. Long. corp. 
lin. 4^ ; lat. elyir. lin. l^. Mus. Hope. Inhabits Port Essington. 

This beautiful little insect is most nearly allied to C. Spencii, but is, however, quite dis- 
tinct. The head is black in front but green behind ; it has two deep impressed lines 
diverging behind, united with a slightly-waved impressed line which runs across the head 
behind the eyes; behind the labrurn the two lines are strongly angulated witli a small 
puncture near the angle ; the labrum is horizontal, with the middle emarginatiou rather deep 
(7 a, front of head ; 7 b, maxilla ; 7 c, labium). The right mandible has three nearly equal 
teeth in the middle ; the left one has also three, but the middle one is very small. The 
antennae are very short, with the terminal joints broad and compressed ; the second and third 
joints are very nearly equal in lengtii. The thorax has the lateral margins not much rounded, 
and the hind margin nearly forms a regular curve ; the disc has a central impressed line, and 
tliere is an oblique impression near the posterior angles ; the elytra are more oblong tlian in 
the preceding species; the suture is deeply impressed, and each elytron has three rows of 
deep round impressions placed at unequal distances apart ; the two rows ne.xt the suture 
having four, and the one next the sides only two impressions : the fore tibife have two large 
and one very minute teeth on the outside. 



86 AUSTRALIAN SCARITID.E. 

Speciks IX. — Caremtm sumptuobum, Hope MS. (Plate 22, fig. 1, and 1 .i, 1 b, ami 1 c.) 
C. angustius nigrum, ignco colore varium, elytiia Isevibus pwiictis duobiis veisus basin 
alteiisque duobus subapicalibus, tibiis antice externe bidentatis. Long. corp. lin. 10; 
lat. elytr. lin. 3. Mus. Hope. (Inhabits Port Essington, on the north coast of New 
Holland.) 

This is the most splendid Scaritideous insect hitherto discovered. It is of a much nariower 
form than any of the preceding species. Tiie head is broad, the middle and fore margin of the 
upper side blue-black, with a fiery copi>er-coloiired patch on each side changing to green ; the 
narrow hind part of tiie head is also fiery copper-coloured. The crown of the head has two 
deeply-impressed simple lines much diverging behind, where each unites with another 
impressed Ime margining the eyes. The labruni (fig. I a) has the middle lobe prominent. 
Tlie right mandible has four teeth, the first and second distant, with a minute tubercle 
between them, and tlie third tooth is small. The left mandible has three teeth, the middle 
one being small. The pronotum is about as broad as long, with the hind angles and the 
middle of the hind margin somewhat emargitiate; tiie disc is blue-black, with an impressed 
line, but each side, and behind, is coloured with igneous copper, margined with golden- 
green, which colours expend inwards from the front angles to a point. The elytra ;iie 
elongate subcylindric, with the suture deeply impressed, the anterior angles rounded off, the 
disc smooth, with two deep punctures near the base and apex ; they are of a similar igneous 
copper-colour, margined with green, having a large blue-black central patch ; within the lateral 
margins of the elytra are a series of small elevated punctures. The legs are short, with the 
fore tibia; externally bidentate. The head beneath, and two patches on each of the abdominal 
segments, are copper}' and golden-green. 

Species X. — Caretmm megacephalum, Hope, I\ISS. (Plate 22, fig. 3, and 3 a). C. cylin- 
dricum nigrum nitidum, capite maximo, pronoto viridi, elytris isevibus cupreo-viridibus, 
tibiis anticis dente unico apicali externo. Long. corp. lin. 8, lat. elytr. lin. I'^. Mus. 
'Hope. (Inhabits Port Essington.) 

Tiiis species is remarkable for the large size of its nearly square head, of a shining black 
colour, with a deeply-impressed short line on each side, nmning from the anterior angle 
towards the crown, and witli a circular impression on each siile between the eyes ; behind 
which the head is suddenly contracted into a neck ; the mandibles have three or four not 
very strong and irregular teeth ; the labrum is di-flexcd in front (fig. 3 a), its free margin 
being produced in the centre and slightly notched ; the outer maxillary p:ilpi are scarcely 
longer than the inner ones, rather thick, with the last joint very short and triangular; the 
mentum and labial palpus is like that of C. gemmatum. The antennae are rather long, with 
the terminal joints slightly compressed, the terminal joint being longer than any of the 
preceding. The pronotum is considerably longer than broad, the sides parallel in front, but 
narrowed off behind; it is cylindrical, and of a bright green colour, with a slight dorsal 
impressed line. The elytra are narrowed in front, gradually but slightly increasing in breadth 
nearly to the tips. They are of a splendid coppery green, with the suture much depressed, 
the sides margined, the disc suiooth ; close to tlic base are a fevv punctures, forming a small 
oblique line. The legs are shoit and biack, the fore tibiaj having only a long single apical 
spine on the outside, a slight bulging out of the edge of the limb indicating the situation of 
the second ordinary spine. 

Species XI. — Carenum tinclUatum. (Plate 2'2, fig. 2.) C. cylindricum nigrum,elytri8 
lateribus cseruleis, punctisque duobus subapicalibus, tibiis anticis extus bidentatis. Long, 
corp. lin. 8, lat. elytr. lin. 2. Mus. Entoniol. Club. 

Syn. — Euloina tinctilatus, Newman. F.nt. Mag. 5, 171. 

This is the most regularly cylindrical species of the genus. It is of a shining black colour, 
with the margins of the elytra brilliant blue. The liead has two deep channels on the crown 
posteriorly diverging, and anteriorly furcate, with a miniile puncture in the fork. The 
anterior angles of the head are obliquely truncate, and behind the eyes the head is gradually 
narrowed into a neck ; the antenna; are considerably longer than the head, being about equal 
to it and the mandibles in lengtli ; the terminal joints are compressed and gradually dilated, 
the terminal joint being the largest and oval. The clypeus terminates in two small central 
and two large lateral teeth, the labrum being deflexed and not visible from above. Each 
mandible has three obtuse teeth in the middle. The maxillary palpi have the terminal joint 
but slightly securiform ; the terminal lobe of the maxillae is not furnished with an apical 
curved tooth. The labial palpi have the terminal joint securiform. The pronotum is smooth, 
Avith tlie front margin straight ; the sides are also parallel for about two-thirds of the length of 
the pronotum ; they then become gradually narrowed and rounlcd off, the lateral and hind 



AUSTRALIAN SCAlllTID^. 87 

margins being margined, with two or tlirce setigeroiis punctures wide apart witliiii the mar^'in. 
The disc of tlie ])ronotiuu is niaikcd hy a slender iujpressed line. Tlie meso-tlioracic 
peduncle is slender and narrowed behind ; the elytra are as broad as the widest part of the 
head; they are smooth and shiny, wiili the suture sliglitly impressed, the anterior and 
posterior angles being equally and gradually rounded off; each elytron is marked with a deep 
puncture near the tip, and is margined wiili a beautiful blue tinge ; the margin itself is raised, 
and within it is a series of small setigerous punctures. The legs arc short, and the antciior 
tibioe have two very strong teeth on the outside. 

SCARITES, Fabricius. 

Species I. (XII.) — Scariles Bacchus, IIop;?, MSS. (Plate 22, tig. 4). Sc. niger nitidus 
latissimus, capito piincto circulari medio foveisque duabus latcralibus impressis, elytris 
circularibus tibiisque interniediis dente acuto subapirali c.xterue armatis. Long. corp. 
(e labro ad anum) lin. 19, lat. elytr. lin. 9. Mus. Hope. (Inliabits Swan River.) 

This fine species entirely recedes from the ordinary form of the genus in its broad outline 
and circular elytra. It is black and shining. The head is broad, and jnoduetd into an angle 
outside the eyes. It has a round impression on tlie crown, wilh an oval fovea on each side 
extending nearly to the base of the mandibles, tcrniiuating in a point on the crown. There are 
aUo two smaller impressions in the front of the clypeus ; the right mandible is 3-dentate, 
the inner tooth almost obliterated ; tlie left mandible is 4-dentate, the inner tooth large ; the 
pronotum is broad, .and margined with a rather deep central longitudinal sulcus, terminating 
in a cordate impression, and with an oblique impression at each hinder angle. The elytra are 
circular subconvex, with the suture impressed; each is marked with six almost obsolete simple 
striae; within the raised lateral margins is a numerous series of small punctures, and at a small 
distance from the sides, another row of six punctures placed wide apart ; and there are thres 
other punctures forming an oblique line towards the extremity of the suture. The anterior 
tibiae are externally 3-dentate, and the middle tibi;B are furnished on the outside near the tip 
with a strong sharp slightly-curved spur, above which the limb is finely serrated on the 
outside. 

Species II. (XIII.) — Scariles Lenoeus, Vi'astw. (Plate 22, fig. 5). Sc. niger nitidus latus, 
capite inter oculos foveis duabus ovalibus impressis et strigosis, pronoto utrinque versus 
angulos anticos puucto iinpresso, elytris obovatis, tibiisque intermediis dente magno curvato 
oblique truncate subapicali armatis. Long, e labra ad anum lia. 14 J. Lat. elytr. 
lin. 5^. Mus. Soc. Linn. Loud. (Inhabits New Holland.) 

This species is much smaller and narrower than the preceding; the head is angulated outside 
the eyes, between which are two oval impressed fovese, which, as well as the front of the head, 
are strongly crcnulated. The right mandible has two compound teeth, the front one formed of 
two projections, and the liind one of three, of which the middle one is very small. The left 
mandible has three teeth, the middle one small, and has a small projection in front of the large 
anterior tooth. The pronotum has a longitudinal sulcus transvcisely crenulated, and has a 
small impression on each side towards the anterior angles, and an oblique fovea at each of the 
hinder ones. The elytra are obovate, eich having seven slightly punctated stria; ; there is 
also a numerous series of punctures within the lateral margin, at a short distance from which 
is another row of six punctures at unequal distances apart, and with tliree otlier punctures form- 
ing a nearly straight line towards the extremity of the suture on each side. The anterior tibiae 
are tridentate, and the middle tibiae are armed near the tip on the outside with a thick curved 
spur obliquely truncate at the tip. 

Species III. (XIY.)— Scariles Silenus, Hope, MSS. (PI. 22, lig. G.) S. niger nitidus 

latus, capite inter oculos foveis duabus profundis punctoque uliinque pone oculos ; pronoto 

vix foveato, elytris obovalibus sublasvibus, tibiisque intermediis dente acuto subapicali 

externe armatis. Long. corp. (maud, cxcl.) lin. 13| — 15f ; lat. elytr. liu. of — 65. 

Mus. Hope. (Inhabits Swan River.) 

This S])ccies is closely allied to the last, but difters from it in the strong but acute tooth on 

the outside of the middle tibias, and in the want of crenulations 011 the forehead, pronotum, 

the punctures of the elytra, &c. It is black and shining, the head not angulated beyond the 

outline of the eyes. The crown of the head in front has two deep oblique oval impressions 

extending nearly to the base of the mandibles, and two punctures close to the fore margin 

of the clypeus, and one on each side near the hind angles of tlic eyes. The pronotum has a 

central sulcus terminating at a short distance in front of the liind margin, and the hind anjles 

are scarcely foveated. The elytra are broad and obovate, with the rudiments of three or four 

very slight stria: on each, which arc lost at a distance from the apex of the elytra. Close t« 



83 AUSTRALIAN SCARITID^. 

tilt' lateral margin is a row of luiuieioiis minute punctures, and witliin these another row formed 
of six punctures placed at irregular distances, with two other punctures on the disc of each, 
near the extreniit_v. The anterior tibiae are externally 3-dentate, and the middle tibiae armed 
on the outside with a long acute and slightly-curved spur. 

Species IV. (XV..) — Scarites sculptilis, Westw. (PI. 23, fig. I.) C. niger subnitidus, 
pronoto subquanrato, angulis posticis rotundatis, elytris oblongo-ovalibus, sin^ulo striis 
5 ])rorundis siniplicihus, a[)icib\is inter strias punctatis. Long. corp. (capitc omisso) lin. T\, 
lat. elytr. fere lin. 3. Mus. Sue. Linn, Lond. (Inhabits Van Diemen's Land.) 

This species is elongated and black. The head is wanting in the only specimen I have seen. 
The pronotum is subquadrate, with the hind angles rounded off, and with a longitudinal central 
sulcus ; the elytra are oblong-subovate, each with five deep simple striae, of which the second 
and fifth and tlie third and fourth are united together at the tips, where they are dilated 
and where the spaces between the striae are marked with deep impressed round punctures ; there 
is also a fine raised submarginal line, outside of which is a row of minute punctures. 

If the Carenums with their splendid colours and dilated palpi, 
and the broad forms of the Scarites above described, have not 
sufficiently indicated an Entomological Fauna quite distinct from 
that of any other portion of the globe, the two insects next to be 
described will, at least, abundantly prove this. It is true that in 
Oxystomus, Oxygnathus, &c., genera belonging to the typical group 
of Scaritidae, we find the mandibles not furnished with teeth ; but 
in all other respects these insects do not differ from the others. The 
two insects in question, however, not only possess unarmed mandi- 
bles, but the structure of the upper lip, maxillse and labium are 
those of Feronideous insects. It is true that the antennae are 
very short, with the second joint as long as the third ; the anterior 
tibiae externally palmate, the intermediate tibise externally angu- 
lated at the tip, and the abdomen partially pedunculated ; in all 
which respects they agree with the absolute characters of the true 
Scaritidae. It is also true that we find a porrected labrum and 
maxillae with the tips acute in Siagona and its allies, but they have 
a depressed body, short dentate mandibles, and securiform labial 
palpi, long antennae, with a short second joint, and simple anterior 
tibise, &c. Ditonms and its allies, which constitute another aber- 
rant section in the family, have also very acutely-lobed maxillae, 
unarmed mandibles, a convex body, and subpedunculated abdomen ; 
but these have also long antennae with the second joint short, very 
minute bilobed labrum, and simple fore feet, whilst the remaining 
aberrant section of the family typified by Morio (to which figure 4, 
in plate 23, also belongs), in its flattened form, unpalmated feet, 
dentate mandibles, strongly bilobed labrum, short second joint to 
the antennae, narrowed neck, &c., offers still stronger distinctions 
from the two insects in question, which appear tome to constitute a 
distinct section, as well as genus, in the family, which may be thus 
characterised. 



- AUSTRALIAN SC'ARITIU^. 89 



GNATHOXYS. 

Caput pronoto niulto angustius, pone oculos sensim paullo latius, ante oculos 
parum attenuatum ; labruni (tig. 2 a) porrectum angustum, angulis anticis rotun- 
datis, in medio plus minusve emarginatum. Mandibulse capite paullo breviores 
subcurvata? margine interno acute, edentate, apiceque acuto. Maxilla? (fig. "2 b), 
elongativ lobo apicali acuto curvato, intus setoso, palpi maxiliares breves, articulo 
ultimo praecedenti parum crassiori. Mentum (fig. 2 c), dente medio nullo arma- 
tum, palpi labiales maxillaribuslongitudiiie tiequales, articulo ultimo vix prsecedenti 
crassiori ; antenna? (fig. 2), capite vix longiores, gracillimas, articulis 2do. et 3tio., 
suba^qualibus et sequentibus longioribus. Pronotum convexum, postice parum loba- 
tum. Elytra e pronoto pedunculo brevi subremota, convexa, apice baud truncata. 
Pedes breves, sat robusti; tibiis anticis exlus dentati.s, intus emarginatis et 
calcaratis, tibiis interinediis ad apicem in spinam externe productis. 

Species \.— Gnathoxijs granidaris. Hope, MSS. (PI. 23, fig. 2 and 2 «, 2 6 and 2 c.) 
Niger subnitidns, aeneo parum tinctus, pronoto subquadrato, elytrorum lateribus et apicc 
granulatis, disco baud striato-punctato. Long. covp. mand. exchis. lin. 13. Lat. elytr. 
lin. 5. Mas. Hope. (Inhabits Port Essington.) 

The general colour is black, tinged, especially at the sides of the elytra, with brassy. The 
labnim is formed of two lobes rounded in front (fig. 2 a). The clypeus has an arched impres- 
sion in front, succeeded by a transverse line, from which run two straight longitudinal 
impressions, which do not extend to the middle of the crown of the head. The antennfe are 
very slender. The pronotum has the sides nearly straight and parallel ; the anterior angles 
somewhat advanced in fiout and narrowed off, as well as the hind angles, which are rounded 
off; the hind margin forms a lobe, and is separated by a transverse impression ; it has a slight 
impressed middle line, its sides are margined and crenulated ; the elytra are rather dilated 
behind, with the base, sides, and apex thickly covered with minute raised granules, which also 
reach a short distance along the suture, the disc not being marked with stria>, or punctures. 
The fore legs are externally 3-dentate, the 3rd tooth being near the base, and the middle one 
nearly in the centre of the limb ; the two basal joints of the fore tarsi have the outer angles 
produced into an acute point, the two following joints have the fore angles equally acute. The 
middle libis have the apical external angles produced into an obtuse spine, above which the 
outer edge of the limb is serrulated. The middle and hind tarsi are alike, and not dilated. 

Species U.— Gnathoxi/s irregularis, Hope, MSS. (PI. 23, fig. 3.) Niger subnilidus, 
pronoto rotnndato, angulis anticis baud porrectis, elytris irregularitcr punctato-slriatis apice- 
que granulatis. Long. corp. lin. 8:^ (excl. mand.). Lat. elytr. lin. 3^. Mus. Hope. 
(Inhabits Port Essington.) 

This species is black with a slight cyaneous tint. The labrum is but slightly emarginate in 
the centre in front, with the sides rounded ; the antennas arc very short and more moniliform 
than in the preceding ; the clypeus has a rather deep, short central sulcus, terminating in a 
transverse line, behind which are two longitudinal impressions not reaching to tiie middle of 
the crown of the head. There is also a transverse slightly-impressed line running across the head 
behind the e.\es. Tlie pronotum has the sidt^ rounded, the anterior angles not poirected, and 
the hind margin not so much produced as in the preceding; there is a slight impressed line 
down the centre of the pronotum. The elytra are short, with the sides parallel, the humeral 
angles rounded off ; on each side of the suture is a row of impressed punctures placed irregu- 
larly ; tlien follow^ three double, but interrupted, rows of irregular punctures, the margin 
itself bein? more closely punctured, and the apex granulated. The anterior tibiae are not so 
strongly dentate as in the preceding, and the apical tooth of the middle tibiae is not so large. 

The remaining figure in Plate 23 (fig. 4, and 4 a, and 4 h) repre- 
sents a gigantic Australian species which has been already figured 
and described by Schreibers, in the " Transactions of the Linnsean 
Society," vol. vi. pi. 19, figs. 15- J9 (details), and pi. 21, fig. 10, 
under the name of Scarites Schroeteri ; and by Laporte, in his 
"Etudes Entomologiqiies ■" and " Histoire Naturelle dcs Insectes 



90 AUSTRALIAN SCAHITIO.i;. 

Coleopteres," vol. i. p. 69, pi. 5, %. 1, under the name of Hyperion 
Schroteri. As, however, that generic name had been long pre- 
viously used by Macleay for another Carabideous genus in the 
" Annulosa Javanica,"and as Latreille had also previously employed 
the name of Heteroscelis (which was given to it by Dupont and 
Boisduval) for a genus of Cimicidse, I proposed to name it in my 
" Modern Classification of Insects " (vol. i. p. 88), 

CAMPYLOCNEMIS SCHROETERI, W., 

in allusion to the singular character of the hind tibiae being curved. 
The figures which have been given of this insect are so rude and 
the trophi so indistinctly represented, that I have thought it would 
add to the interest of this paper to refigure it with details from a 
fine specimen, now, I believe, in the collection of Mr. Norris. Its 
form is very interesting, being most nearly related to Morio of 
all the hitherto described Scaritideous genera ; from this genus, 
however, it difffers in the smaller-sized mentum, and in the much 
more strongly toothed mandibles. We, however, find in Morio 
traces of the structure of the apex of the anterior tibiae repre- 
sented in figure 4. Catadromus, which also occurs in New Holland, 
seems also more nearly allied to it than Stomis and Poecilus, 
between which it was arranged by Laporte in his " Etudes 
Entomologiques." 

The Australian plants represented in Plates 21, 22, and 23, 
are Bossiaea rufa, Dipodium punctatum (one of the Orchidaceae) 
and Chorizema cordatum ; the last species having been recently 
imported from Swan River. 



91 



PLATE X IV. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF SOME GENERA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY 
CICADID^. 

In the later works of Latreille the species of the genus Cicada, 
as restricted by Olivier to the well-known musical species (or the 
^Tettigonia of Fabricius), were proposed to be divided into two 
genera, viz.," Cicada, in which the musical apparatus of the males is 
concealed by plates ; and Tibicen, in which the first segment of the 
abdomen exhibits on the upper side two slits exposing this apparatus, 
composed of ^C. hsematodes, Oliv., and some other species. All 
these insects are at once distinguished from the remainder of the 
Linnsean Cicadse by having three ocelli on the crown of the head, 
and antennae composed of at least six joints. 

Dr. Burmeister, in the volume of his valuable " Handbuch der 
Entomologie " treating upon the Linnsean Hemipiera, has not 
adopted the arrangement of Latreille, but unites all the Cicadae into 
one genus distributed into various divisions and subdivisions ; to one 
of the latter of which, composed entirely of American species, he 
has applied the name of Tibicen, with the character " Fusse 
zweigliedrig," whilst C. hsematodes (the true type of Latreille's 
proposed genus), and other species having the tarsi 3-jointed, he 
has arranged in other divisions. Dr. Burmeister has also described 
a new and most interesting insect, under the name of 

'^ HEMIDICTYA FRONDOSA (Plate 24, fig. 3), '/ i^~^ 

constituting the passage between the typical Fulgorse and the 
true'^Cicadrc, agreeing with the former in having the hind part of the 
fore wings very much reticulated, and with the latter in having the 
basal portion like parchment, and with vei-y few veins. The species 
is a native of Brazil, the unique specimen in the Royal Museum of 
Berlin having been collected by Langsdorf, in the neighbourhood of 
Rio. The accompanying figure is from a slight sketch made by 
myself, at Berlin, in J 835, from the specimen in question. It is not 
so precise in its details as I could have wished, but is correct in its 
general character. With the exception of this and the species 
described below, we find the veins of the foi'e wings in all tlie~Cicadac 
thus distributed : — A simple vein is emitted from the place of the stigma, 
beyond which another much sliorter, also simple, vein is perceived- 
The mediastinal vein is united with the costa. The postcostal vein is 



92 NEW GENERA OF CICADIU.E. 

furcate at a short distance from the base of the wing, each furcation 
also becoming furcate beyond the middle of the wing ; the median 
vein is single, but emits a branch, which runs to the extremity of 
the anal vein ; a few short transverse or oblique veins connect seve- 
ral of these longitudinal veins together, forming but a very small 
number of cells. 

There is, however, a fine species which inhabits Nepaul (where it 
wasdiscovered by the late Major-General Hardwicke), and other parts 
of India, which although agreeing with the typical Cicadse in general 
form and structure, has the fore wings very much reticulated, the 
postcostal and median veins being multifurcate, not only in the 
apical part, but also in the more coriaceous basal portion, the furca- 
tions being frequently united by short transverse veins. In the 
formation of the musical apparatus of the male and its opercula, this 
species does not differ from C. fasciata; but on account of the differ- 
ence which it exhibits in the structure of its wings from the true 
Cicadse, I have regarded it as a distinct sub-genus, under the 
name of — 

^ POLYNEURA DUCALIS, Westw. (Plate 24, fig. 2.) 

C. (P.) nigra, pronoti marginibus antico et postico (latiori) flavidis ; alls anticis branneis 
flavo-venosis, postiris fulvis ; pedibus iiigris femoribus (nisi apice) rufis. Long. corp. 
unc. ]i2- ExpaiiS. alar. ant. iinc. 4^. 

Mus. Brit. Hope. Westw. (Inhabits the East Indies.) 

A figiiie of this insect, with the wings expanded, has been published in Jardine's Naturalist's 

Library (Introduction to Eutouiology, pi. 18, fig. 1). 

The two insects above described agree in having the basal portion 
of the fore wings separated from the apical and more membranaceous 
part. The remaining insect, figured in plate 24, differs from them 
both in having homogeneous fore wings, although in the slight vein- 
ing of the basal part of these wings, and the somewhat hexagon ally 
areolated apical part, it agrees with^Hemidictya. 

I am indebted to J. Curtis, Esq., F.L.S., for a knowledge of this 
interesting Australian novelty, by whom it has been proposed to be 
named — 

^ CYSTOSOMA SAUNDERSII. (Plate 24, fig. ],and details.) 

Caput parvuni, antennae mulilatEe. Piomuscis ad basin fenioriini interniedioruin e.^tensa. Pro-et 
meso- thoracis dorsum fere u tin Cicada maculata formatum. Epimera nietathoracicamediocria, 
medium segmenti basalis abdominis infra baud tegentia (fig. 1 e). Tympana musicalia late- 
ralia (fig. 1 d), omnino detecta valde convexa, transverse striata. Abdomen maris maxi- 
mum valde inflatum, organa genitalia maris parva exserta (fig. 1 ff, segmenta apicalia 
alidominis infra visa ; 1 i, genitalia subtus ; 1 c, eadem e latere vita). Pedes breves. 
. Alaj anticae homogenea;, subopacse ultra medium valde subhexagonalittr areolatse. 
/ ^ incognita. 
^C. Saundersii. Pallide lutca costa alarum anticariini albida. Long. corp. fere unc. 2. 
Expans. alar. unc. 3J. Mus. Curli;;. (Inhabits New Holland.) 
The ])lant is the Lobelia h) pocrateriforniis /Z. ^r., a native of the South Ci):ist of New 
Holland. Lob. ramosa Bentli. (figured in my second plate under the name of 
L. gracilis) is a native of y wan Rivei-, whence it was introduced in 1837. 



93 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, &< . 

(No. V.) 
Di^ATEi OF Professor AuoouiN.-It is with the most unfeigned regret that I 
record the decease of my friend Jeun Victor Audouin, M. D., Member of the 
Institute of France (Academic des Sciences) and of the Legion of Honour; 
Professor at the Museum of the Jardin des Piantes : Member of the Societe Royale 
d'A-ricultnre ; of the Philomatic and Entomological Societies of Pans; of the 
Aca^lemy of Sciences of Stockhohn ; of the Imperial Society of Naturahsts of 
Moscow; of the Royal Academy of Turin ; of the Lyceum of New York ; oi 
the Society of Natural Sciences of Geneva ; of the Academy of Philadelphia ; of 
the Natural History Societies of Hartford, Mauritius, and Hall ; of the Academy 
of Geor-ofili, of Florence; of the Agricultural Society of Turin ; and of nume- 
rous pro^'vincial French Societies for the promotion of Natural Sciences ; of the 
Geological Society of London, and Honorary Member of the Entomological Society 

"" ThirTstinguished naturalist departed this life on the 0th of November, 1841, 
in the prime of life, aged U years, having been born on the 27th of April, 1797, 

of P3.T*is 

Destined by his family for the profession of the law, his zeal for the cultivation 
of natural history induced him to turn his attention to the more congenial study 
of medicine, which however served only as a more ample base for the anatomical 
investigations of the Annulose Animals which he undertook, and which were at 
once duly appreciated by Cuvier, GeofFroy Saint-Hilaire, and Latreille, and which 
naturally led to still more elaborate researches. 

His first memoir on the anatomy of the parasitic Laiva of Conops appeared in 
1818, he being then 21 years old. The memoirs which he pubhshed between 
this time and 1823 manifested a more profound generalised knowledge of the 
structure of the whole annulose sub-kingdom than is to be met with in the works 
of any previous writer, not even excepting Savigny (Memoires sur les Ammaux 
Invertebres), Latreille (Memoires pubUshed in the Annales and Memoires du 
Museum), Cuvier, and Saint-Hilaire. . , ,, 

In 1826 he commenced the publication of a series of anatomical Memoirs on 
various portions of the structure of the Crustacea, AnneUda, &c., in conjunction 
with his friend Milne Edwards, which has been continued until his decease. 

He became attached, in 18-26, to the Jardin des Piantes, as assistant to Lamarck 
and Latreille ; and on the death of the latter, in 1833, he was elected Professor of 
Entomology, in his stead. It was in this capacity that he annually dehvered a 
series of lectures, in which, in later years, he especially illustrated the natural 
history of the insects most injurious to vegetable productions ; and in prosecuting 
his researches upon these and other subjects, which he investigated with the most 
minute precision, he amassed together manuscript observations filhng not fewer 
than fourteen thick quarto volumes, accompanied by a vast number of original 
drawin-s, and a collection of illustrations of the natural history of the insects he 
studied, their modes of attack upon plants, transformations, &c., arranged 
with the utmost care, every specimen being authenticated by references to his 
manuscripts. 



94 DEATH OF AlIDOUIN. 

The value of these collections and manuscripts cannot be appreciated except 
by those who have studied them. For myself, who have long enjoyed the friend- 
ship of this distinguished Entomologist, and by whom I was allowed uncontrolled 
liberty of examining these precious collections *, I hesitate not to say that were his 
manuscripts published, naturalists would not hesitate to place Audouin in the 
same rank as Reaumur: as it is, justice cannot be accorded to his merits, although 
the numerous Memoirs which he from time to time published sufficiently indi- 
cate the correctness of this statement, which might otherwise be deemed the 
remark of a person too favourably impressed with the talents of a now lost friend. 
These memoirs exhibit in the highest degree the spirit of observation, surprising 
sagacity, indefatigable patience, and a fixed determination to acquire a complete 
knowledge of the subjects of his investigation. The concise list which I have 
added, of these memoirs, at the end of this article, will sufficiently show the 
peculiar genius of M. Audouin. 

By those who enjoyed a personal acquaintance with Audouin, will his loss be 
most severely felt. In their memories will long survive his deep-searching 
remarks and precision of observation. In our rambles together on the banks of 
the Rhine and Seine, his conversation struck me as resembling a mine of practical 
intelligence; and his tact in seizing upon the pecuharities of the objects which 
presented themselves to our notice was most extraordinary. 

The non-publication of his manuscripts offi)rs, in fact, a complete clue to 
Audouin's character; namely — a constant and too ardent desire to obtain fresh 
stores of knowledge, rather than a determination to occupy any of the present 
time in preparing for publication facts, the knowledge of which he had already 
acquired. 

M. Milne Edwards excellently expresses this characteristic in the observation 
which he made in his discourse at the tomb of Audouin : — " Cette surexcitation 
de I'intelligence succedant a une surexcitation du coeur" (occasioned by circum- 
stances unconnected with Entomology) "devait avoir des suites funestes." Most 
sad indeed has been the suite. Surrounded by an attached family f and a circle 
of devoted friends, and at a time when his researches were about to be given to 
the world, he died of apoplexy, induced by indisposition, contracted during a 
journey to the South of France, undertaken in his official capacity to investi- 
gate the natural history of the insects which infest the olive plantations, — a 
martyr to his favourite science. 

Funeral orations were delivered at his tomb by M. Serres, President of the 
Academy of Sciences; M. Chevreul, Director of the Museum of Natural History ; 
M. Edwards, Member of the Institute and President of the Philomatic Society ; 
and by M. Blanchard, Assistant Entomologist at the Jardin des Plantes. I un- 
derstand from M. Gervais that his collections have been transferred to the Jardin 
des Plantes, and that his library (exceedingly rich in detached entomological 
articles, and most liberally opened to the entomologists of Paris) will most pro- 
bably be sold by auction. 

The vacant professorship at the Jardin des Plantes has been conferred on M. 
Milne Edwards. 

* A uumber of statements derived from these mamiscripts and collections add considerable 
interest to my Modern Classification of Insects, in which 1 have published notices of them. 
-f- He married a dauglitcr of the elder and sister of the younger Brongniart. 



9.1 



A CONCISE LIST OF THE CHIEF ENTOMOLOGICAL WORKS 

OF J. V. AUDOUIN 

(kxclusive op those upon the Annelida). 

— » — 

1818. Anatomy of the Larva of Conops (with Lachat), (In Mem. Soc. N. H. Paris, 
t. i., and Journ. de Phys. t. Ixxxvili.) 

18-20. On the Natural Relations which exist between the masticating and locomo- 
tive organs of Crustacea, Hexapod Insects, and Arachnida. (Abstracted 
in Cuvier's Analysis of the Academy of Sciences, 1820.) 

1820. On the Thorax of Articulated Animals, particularly Insects. (Partly 

published in Ann. Sci. Nat. t. i.) 

1821. On Achlysia [now proved to be the immature state of Hydrachna]. (In 

Mem. Soc. d'H. N. tom. i.) 
1821. On the Natural Relations between the Trilobites and Articulated Animals. 

(In Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys. t. viii.) 
1821. On the Copulative Organs of male Bombi. (In ditto.) 
1824. Letter on the Generation of Insects. (In Ann. Sc. Nat. tom. ii.) 
1824. Anatomy of Drilus flavescens. (In ditto.) 

1824. Note on a new species of Achlysia. (In ditto.) 

1825. Description of the Plates of Annulosa in the great work upon Egypt. 

1826. On Nicothoe, parasitic on the Lobster (with M. Edwards). (In Ann. Sc 

Nat. tom. ix.) 
1826. On a small Isopodous parasite upon Callianassa. (In ditto.) 

1826. Researches upon the natural history of the Cantharides (in ditto), augmented 

and subsequently published as his medical Thesis. 

1827. Researches upon the Circulation of the Crustacea (with M. Edwards) ; two 

Memoirs. (In Ann. Sc. Nat. tom. xi.) 

1827. Researches upon the Nervous System of Crustacea (with M. Edwards). (In 

ditto, tom. xiv.) 

1828. On Respiration of Crustacea (with M, Edwards). (In ditto, tom. xv.) 

1829. On Anatomy of Crustacea (with M. Edwards). (In ditto, torn, xxi.) 
18;W. Resume d'Entoraologie, 2 v., 32mo(with M. Edwards). 

1830. Note on Nervous System of Crustacea (with M. Edwards). (Ann. Sc. 

Nat. tom.xx.) 
18-32. Description of Cicindela 4-maculata, in Guerin's Mag. Zool. 

1832. Memoir on various Acaridae (In Ann. Sc. Nat. t. xxv.) 
18.33. On the Nest of Mygale fodiens. (In Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2.) 

1833. On a Coleopterous Insect which passes a great portion of its life under 

water (yEpus fulvescens). (In Nouv. Ann. du Mus. t. iii.) 
1833. On the Metamorphoses of Dosithea and its parasitic Ichneumon. (In 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. tom. iii.) 
1833. On the Habits of Sitaris huraeralis. (In ditto, tom. iv.) 
1825. Description of Meloe collegialis. (Guerin, Mag. Zool.) 
1835. Analysis of two Calculi found in the biliary canals of Insects. (In Ann. 

Sc, Nat. 2 Ser. t. v.) 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL WRITINGS OF AUDOUIN. 

1836. Researches upon Muscardine, (In Ann. Sc. Nat. 2 Ser. t. v.) 

1837. New Experiments on Muscardine. (In ditto.) 

1837. Observations on Cyz»cus. n. g. Entomostraca [Estheria, Riipp]. (Ann. Soc. 

Ent. Fr. t. vi.) 
1837. On the Nest of a Brazilian Mygale. (Ann. Sc. Nat., Apl. 1837.) 
1837. On the Ravages of the Pyralis of the Vine. (Ditto, torn, viii.) 
1837. On Scolytus, in Loudon's Arboretum, p. 1387, &c. 
1839. Exposition of various Observations upon Insects injurious to Agriculture. 

(Ann. Sc. Nat 2 Ser. t. ix.) 
1839. Entomological Instructions for a Traveller in Abyssinia. (Comptes rendus, 

t. ix. p. 570.) 

1839. On the Habits of Odynerus. (In Ami. Sc. Nat. 2 Ser. torn, xi.) 

1840. Observations on various Insects which attack Timber. (In Ann. Sc. Nat. 

2 Ser. tom. xiv.) 
1 840. On a specimen of Bombyx Cecropia, reared at Paris. (In Comptes rendus, 

tom. ii. p. 96.) 
1840. On the Phosphorescence of some Articulata. (In ditto, p. 757.) 
1840. History of Insects injurious to the Vine, especially the Pyralis, 1 vol. 4to. 

Part 1. Part 2 is in the press, and the completion of the work "sera 

proptement acheve," according to M. M. Edwards. 

1840. Description of new Cicindelidse in the collection of the Jardin des Plantes 

(with M. Brulle). (Archives du Museum, tom. i.) 

1841. Description of new Crustacea in the same collection (Serolis, &c.), (with 

M. Edwards). (In ditto, tom. ii.) 



M. Audouin also contributed a great number of verbal notices, especially relative 
to destructive insects, to the Entomological Society of France, of which abstracts 
are published in the Bulletin of Proceedings of that Society. He also published a 
great number of Entomological articles in the Encyclopedie Methodique, the 
Dictionnaire Classitjue d'Histoire Naturelle ; and his name appears also as a contri- 
butor to the Dictionnaire Universel d'Hist. Nat. He likewise wrote the article 
Arachnida in the 'Cyclopsediaof Anatomy and Physiology', and edited the Annu- 
lose portion of the beautiful edition of the Regne Animal, now publishing by 
Crochard. He also contributed many notes on the structure of insects to 
M. Brulle, for those volumes of the Histoire Naturelle des Insectes which have 
appeared. 



97 



J( 

PLATE XXV. I'- 



ON THE OPAQUE-WINGED SPECIES OF CICADA. 



Having in the description of the preceding plate shortly noticed 
the generic distribution of the family Cicadidse, I shall here confine 
myself to those species of Cicada which have the fore wings opaque *^ 
and coloured, with the base more coriaceous. These species form 
the second section of the genus as proposed by Dr. Germar, in his 
Memoir in the second volume of Silbermann's " Revue Entomo- 
logiquer * Dr. Burmeister comprises them in his sub-section 6, of 
his first division of the genus. 

The beautiful species of this group hitherto described are the 
following: all being natives of Asia, or the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago. 

Species l.—C. speciosa, Illig. (Wied. Arch. 1, p. 145 ; pi. 2. Fabricius. Westw. in 
Donov. Ins. Ind. 2d Edit. Lap. and Blanch. Hist. nat. ans. art.) 
*SL Syn. C. Indica, Dtnov. Itis. Ind. 1st Edit. 
Species li.—C.fasciata, Fabr. StoU. Cig. tab. 4, fig. 16. 
Species IW.—^C.maculata^ Drury, vol. 2, App. pi. 37, fig. 1. Fabricius, &c. 
Species IV.-GC. <Aa/assina, Percheron, Gen. d. Ins. Hemipt. pi. 2. Giier. Voy. Coq. p..l83. 
Note. — The figure above referred to gives but a faint idea of the beauty of this species, 
which is in the collection of the Liunaian Society of London. 

Species Y.—^C. pulchella, 'Wtiiw. in Royle's Himalaya, pi. 10, fig. 2. [Nigra, capite , 
thoraceque sulpliureo-maculatis; alarum dimidio basali sulphureo (in alis anticis fascia /y*- 
nigricanti obliqua in medio diviso) apicibus flavescentibus. Expans. alar. unc. 3^. 
Himalaya.] 

Species VI.^C. sanguinea, De Geer. StoU. Cig. fig. 62. Donov. Ins. China, pi. 16, fig. I. 
1st Edit. AVestw. in ditto, 2nd Edit. Guerin, Voy. de la Favorite, (Mag. Zool. Ins. 
pi. 237, fig. 1). 

Syk. C 'philcemata, Fabricius, Germar, Burm. 

Species VII. — C. sanguine lent a, Fabr, &c. (Fronte rufo, linea longitudinali nigra alisque 
posticis fuscis.) 

Species VIII.^C. incarnata, Germar. Guerin. 

SvN. Cig. sanguinol. Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. t. x., pi. 5, fig. 2. 
Species IX.— C. Germarii, Guer. Men. Voy. Favorite (Mag. Zool. Ins. pi. 237, fig. 2). 
Species X. — C. phcBnicura, Germar, in Silb. Rev. Ent. 2, p. 76. Guer. 1. c. 

* Dr. Germar had previously published an excellent Monograph of the genus, with 
descriptions of 106 species, in Thon's Entomologisches Archiv. vol. 2. M. Guerin Meneville 
has also described numerous species in the text of the Voyage de la Coquille, and Vo^yagc de 
Belanger. 

NO. VII. — 1st MAY, 1842. H 



98 



OPAQUE-WINGED CICADA. 



Species XI. — C. testacea, Fabr. Stoll. Cig. pi. 8, fig. 31, Guer.l. c. 

Species XII. — C. traheata, Germar, in Thon's Arch. 2, fasc 2. Gu6r. 1. c. 

Species XIII €. splendidula, Fabr., Germ., Guer., Donovan. Ins. China, pi. 16, fig. 4 , 

(ex individuo Druriano delineata). 

Species XIV. — C. crocea, Guer.Voy. Favorite (Mag. Zool. Ins. pi. 237, fig. 3, and Vov. Coq. 
p. 182). 

I am enabled to figure, in addition to the above, the two beautifu 1 
nondescript species represented in the accompanying plate. 

(^ 

Species XY.—C. Mearesiana, W. (PI. 25, fig. 1.) Nigra, pronoti margine postico flavo ; 

rnesothorace postice utrinque puncto ohlongo ferrugineo ; metathorace fulvo marginato ; 

alis anticis nigro-fuscis venis nigris ; posticis Ifete testaleis ; area anali margineque tenui 

apicali fuscis, venis nigris. Long. corp. unc. If. Expans. alar. unc. 5^. 

A unique specimen of this fine species (which should be placed between' C. speciosa and 

^ fasciata) is in the collection of F. Parry, Esq. It is a native of the Himalayas, whence it was 

sent by Meares, Esq., with whose name it is inscribed. 

Species XVI. — C. dives, W. (PI. 25, fig. 2.) Nigra, alis anticis nigris venis rubris, fascia 

media transversa albida, posticis testaceis,'dimidio apicali iiigro. Long. corp. lin. r2. 

Expans. alar. unc. 3. 

A unique specimen of this beautiful insect was sent from Sylhet, by the brother of the Rev. 

Mr. Stainforth, who allowed me to figure it for this work. It is now in the collection of the 

Rev. F. W. Hope. 



A translation of Anacreon's ode to the Cicada, will form a 
pleasant supplement to the preceding technicalities. 



Happy creature ! what below 
Can more happy live than thou ? 
Seated on thy leafy throne, 
(Summer weaves thy verdant crown,) 
Sipping o'er the pearly lawn 
The fragrant nectar of the dawn ; 
Mirthful tales thou lov'st to sing, 
" Every inch " an insect king : 
Thine the treasures of the field, 
All thy own the seasons yield ; 
Nature plants for thee the year, 
Songster to the shepherds dear : 
Innocent, of placid fame, 
Who of men can boast the same ? 



Thine the lavished voice of praise, 
Harbinger of fruitful days ; 
Darling of the tuneful nine, 
Phoebus is thy sire divine ; 
Phoebus to thy notes has given 
Music from the spheres of heaven 
Happy most, as first of earth ; 
All thy hours are peace and mirtli 
Cares nor'pains to thee belong, 
Thou alone art ever young ; 
Thine the pure immortal vein. 
Blood nor flesh thy life sustain ; 
Rich in spirits — health thy feast ; 
Thou'rt a demigod at least. 



The beautiful plant represented in the plate is the Dendrobium 
Pierardi (Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 21, pi. 175), of Roxburgli, a native of 
Chittagong, and various parts of the Delta of the Ganges, which has 
flowered beautifully in the Botanic Gardens at Kew this spring ; the 
flowers being, however, paler-coloured than represented in the figure. 



99 



PLATE XXVI. 

MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS MASTAX, BELONGING TO THE FAMILY OP 
THE TRUE LOCUSTS. 



The insects of the genus Mastax, of Perty, illustrate a peculiarity 
in Entomo-geography, which does not appear to me to have been 
sufficiently noticed, namely, the occurrence of species belonging to 
aberrant and anomalous genera, in very distant localities, often 
indeed in different quarters, of the globe. The Mole-crickets offer 
a striking instance of this peculiarity. The genus is very anoma- 
lous in many of its characters, yet we find species in each of 
the five continents (including New Holland). The two species of 
Mastax hitherto described (from unique individuals), are natives of 
the New World, whilst the three additional ones represented in 
the accompanying plate, are natives of the Islands of the Indian 
Archipelago. 

The genus (in addition to the great rarity of the species) is 
especially interesting on account of various structural peculiarities. 
The fore wings are in some species quite hyaline and almost colour- 
less, which gives the insects an appearance quite unlike the rest of 
the family. The head is very much elevated above the level of the 
prothorax. The antennse are composed of very few joints ; the 
three ocelli are placed between the eyes ; the palpi are very short ; 
the three sternums are simple, the hind-legs long, the tarsi 3- 
jointed, with a moderate sized pulvillus between the ungues. The 
anal appendages in M. mutilata are described by Serville as 
"courts et droits,'' but in the males of M. apicalis and M. guttata 
they are dilated and contorted in a singular manner quite unlike 
any of the rest of the family. 

As to the natural relations of the genus, Burmeister (who how- 
ever had not seen it in nature) places it between Gomphocerus and 
Ommexecha, whilst Serville (who had two species before him) 
introduces it (with several other curious genera) between Gom- 
phocerus and Tetrix. It appears to me, however, much more 
closely allied to Proscopia of Klug, with which it agrees in the 
elevated head and short few-jointed antennse. 

II 2 



100 MAST AX. 

Species I. — Mastax virescens, Perty (Del. An. Art. Bras. t. 24, f. 3. Serville H. n. Ins. 
Orth. p. 751. Burm. Handb. d. Eut. 2, p. 653). Virescens, seu fuscus, facie et 
pedibus testaceis, elytiis et alis diapbania. Long, fere 10 lin. (teste Serv.) Brazil. 

Species II. — Mastax mutilata, Serv. Ins. Orth. p. 751 . Laevis glaber, brunneus, facie antice 
ocbracea, prothoracis lateribus fulvis, tegminibus fere, alisque omnino, obsoletis, abdo- 
minis segmentis 6 et 7 fulvis, $ . Long. lin. 5 (teste Serv.). Colombia. 

Species III. — Mastax apicalis, Westw.J (Plate 26, fig. 1). Luteus, capite supra, thoracis et 
abdominis dorso nigricantibus, hoc fascia pone medium apiceque extremo luteis, pedibus 
luteis nigro-maculatis, tegminibus et alis hyalinis ad apicem tenuiter fusco coloratis $ . 
(Plate 26, fig. 1 a, head seen in front ; I b, extremity of abdomen seen from the side; 

1 c, the same seen from below ; 1 d, natural length.) 

Long. corp. unc. f . Expans. tegmin. unc. 1|. Sumatra ; Sir S. Raffles. Mus. Zool. Soc. 
London. 

Species IV. — Mastax vitrea, Westw. (Plate 26, fig. 2). Fuscus, facie fulvescente, abdomine 
in medio pallidiori, pedibus fuscis, femoribus posticis pallidius fasciatis ; tegminibus et 
alis hyalinis parum infumatis. $ 
Plate 26, fig. 2 a, apex of abdomen seen sideways ; 2 6, natural length. 

Long. corp. unc. I. Expans. tegmin. unc. 1|. Java, Mus. Hope. 

Species V. Mastax guttata, Westw. (Plate 26, fig. 3.) Nigricans, subtus pauUo pallidior 

facie genisque luteis, vertice angulato, abdomine $ ad apicem valde inflato ; femoribus 
posticis fulvo oblique bifusciatis, tegminibus fuscis nitidis, guttis duabus versus apicem 
hyalinis, postica majori et ad marginem posticum extensa ; alis hyalinis margine 
postico fusco. $ 
Plate 26, fig. 3 a, natural size ; 3 b, antenna ; 3 c, head and prothorax seen sideways ; 

3 d, head seen in front ; 3 e, apex of abdomen seen from beneath ; 3 /, ditto seen laterally. 

Long. corp. lin. 7. Expans. tegm. lin. 14^. Sumatra, Sir S. Raffles, Mus. Zool. Soc. 
Lond. ; and Philippine Islands, H. Cuming, Esq. Mus. Brit. 



The curious plant figured is the Stapelia adscendens of Roxburgh : Plants of Coromandel, 
vol. i. pi. 30. 



101 



PLATE XXVII. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW INDIAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

The Papilio Paris of Linnaeus may be considered as the type of 
a small group of Asiatic species of Papilio, distinguished by having 
the upper surface of the wings thickly irrorated with golden green 
atoms, the hind wings being marked by a large patch of shining 
blue or green near the outer angle. The species of this little section 
form portion of BoisduvaFs " Groupe IV." which also includes 
P. Ulysses, P. Peranthus, and P. Palinurus and its allies. 
P. Paris, Arjuna, and Polyctor, belong to the little group first 
mentioned, as well as several other species of equal rank which I 
have seen in the collections of the East India House, British 
Museum, &c. These species appear to be respectively confined to 
distinct districts, and in the opinion of some authors may be 
deemed geographical sub-species— a name involving considerations 
of great difiiculty. 

The species represented in the accompanying plate is certainly 
the most splendid of aU these butterflies. It is indeed absolutely 
impossible to give a correct idea, by colouring, of the beauty of its 
hues, and especially of the varying lustre of the blue patch on the 
hind wings ; some of the blood -red lunules have a beautiful purplish 
tinge, produced by blue atoms scattered over them, whilst others are 
powdered with the golden-green spangles ; in fact, the only correct 
idea of the species can be obtained by calling to mind the showers 
of coloured fire on a Vauxhall night. 

PAPILIO ARCTURUS, W., PL 27. 

P. alls nigris, viridi-atomosis ; posticis obtuse dentatis et late caudatis ; anticis striga interrupta 
macnlarum ex atorais viridibus formala, ex angulo postico ad partem dimidiam alarum 
ducta et cum margine subparallela; posticis supra, plaga magnitudine mediocri, versus 
angulum externum late ca;rulea. strigaque ejusdcQi colons ex ejusapicemad marginem 
alarum extensa, lunulis tribus sanguineis, maciilaque ocellari (medio nigro) et linea trans- 
versa sanguineis ad angulum analcm, ilia cum striga curvata viridi-atomosa coronata ; alis 
subtus nigricantibus basi albido atomosis, anticis striga lata subapicali cinerca, venis lineis- 
que intermediis nigris ; posticis lunulis 5 rubro-fulvis (caeruleo pulverosis) maculisque 
duabus magnis rubro-fulvis (medio nigris et lunula supera ca>rulea ornatis) ad angulum 
iiiialeni. 

Expans. alar, antic, unc. 5. 

Iiiliabits the Himalayan mountains, Sylhet, and the adjacent parts of India. 

Mus. Parry, Hojie, Brit. &c. 



102 PAPILIO. 



The plant represented in the plate is Vanda teres (Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. vol. 2], pi. 1809), one of the most beautiful Orchidaceous 
plants hitherto found in India, having been originally discovered in 
Sylhet by Dr. Wallich, and subsequently found in the Burmese 
Empire, by Mi;. W. Griffith. 



PAPILIO. 

Ah sim Papilio natus in flosculo, 
Rosse ubi liliaque et violse patent ; 
Floribus advolans, avolans, osculo 
Gemniulas tangens, quae suave olent ! 
Regna et opes ego neutiquam postulo, 
Nolo ego ad pedes qui se volutent — 
Ah sim Papilio natus in flosculo, 
Osculans gemmas quae suave olent ! 

Magicam si possem virgam furari, 

Alas has pulchras aptem mi, eheu ! 

^stivis actis diebus in aere, 

Rosa cubant Philomelae cantu. 

Opes quid afFerunt ? Curas, somnum rare ; 

Regna nil prseter aerumnas, eheu ! 

Ah sim Papilio, die volans aere, 

Rosa Cubans Philomelae cantu. 

Quemque horum vagulum dicis horrore 
Frigora Autumni ferire suo ; 
^stas quando abiit, raallem ego mori, 
Omni quod dulce est cadente pulchro. 
Brumse qui cupiunt captent labore 
Gaudia, et moras breves trahunto — 
Ah sim Papilio ; vivam in errore 
Concidamque omni cadente pulchro. 

The preceding singular and beautiful specimen of rhyming Latin 
verse, from the pen of a highly distinguished scholar and dignitary 
of the Church of England (understood to be Archdeacon Wrang- 
ham), appeared in the Athenaeum of July 16th, 1828, at the time 
when the pretty song " I'd be a Butterfly" was so much in fashion. 



103 



PLATE XXVIII. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF CETONIIDjE, FROM 
AUSTRALIA, ASIA, AND THE ASIATIC ISLANDS. 

Genus SCHIZORHINA, Kirhy (Linn. Trans, vol. 14, p. 570). 

This genus is arranged by Mr. MacLeay as the head of the 
group which he names Cetoninus, and is regarded as approximating 
to Lomaptera, especially by means of Sch, Brownii, K, which pre- 
sents vestiges of the lobate thorax of that genus. The following 
are Mr. MacLeay 's divisions of the genus. . 

A. Elytra broader at the base, 

1. Brunonice, M'L. Mesosteinum produced, narrow, flat; elytra spinose at the apex. 

Type, S. Brownii, K. 
'2. PhillipsitB, M'L. Mesostcnium broad, flat, lanciform ; elytra with subsinuated sides and 

spinose at apex. Type S. Phillipsii, Schreibers. 

B. Elytra not broader at the base. 

,'i. IntegreB, M'L. Mesostcrnum short, flat ; clypeus rather entire ; elytra with sinuated sides, 
and no spines at apex. Type, S. frontalis, Don. 

4. Gymnopleurte, M'L. Mesosternum produced, flat ; clypeus emarginate ; elytra with 

sinuated sides, and no spines at the apex. Type, S. punctata, Don. 

5. Jnsulares,M'h. Mesosternum produced, narrow, cylindrical ; clypeus emarginate ; elytra 

spinous at apex, and with parallel sides. Type, S. cyanea, Oliv. 

The last section receives its name Insulares, because the species 
" are in general natives of Madagascar, or of the islands adjacent 
to New Holland." The typical species is, however, a native of 
tropical Western Africa*. The species of which this last section 
is composed in their peculiar colours, and various other particulars, 
" show us how we may pass to " the genus Coryphe, M'L. ; 
Gnathocera, G. and P. 

Schizorhina ohliqiiata, W. (Plate 28, fig. 1.) — Supra lajte aurantia, pronoto maculis 
duabus lateralibus alterisquc duabus magnis obliquis irregularibus, in medio connexis, 
nigris ; elytris sutura, humeris, maculis duabus parvis ad basin sutura;, fascia obliqua 
pone medium singuli maculaque sub-apicali nigris vcl piceo-nigris, podice flavo, medio 
castaneo, punetis 4 nigris ; corpore subtus antennis pedibusque rufo-bruuneis, mesosterno 
abdomiuequeiu medio flavo. 

Obs. Mesosternum (fig. 1 a, 1 J,) vix. porrectum, fere rotundatum J . Long. corp. lin, 7. 
Inhabits New Holland. In the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope. 

Note. This species is most nearly related to Sch. punctata, but diff"ers from it in the form of 
the prothorax, of which the hinder angles are rounded off, the more exposed epimcra, the 
less sinuated elytra, ditterently-formed mesosternum, &c. 

Schizorhina Bestii, Parry, MSS. (Plate 28, fig. 2.) — Nigi-a, capite punetis 3 minutis fulvis, 
medio bilobo, prothorace marginibus lateralibus et antico flavis, marulis duabus nigris, 
elytris viridauis sutura margineque tenui, macula triangulari humcrali, macula quadrata 
(iiscoidali, fasciaque lata subapicali nigris ; pygidio nigro maculis duabus flavis, abdomine 
infra guttis fulvis mediis duplici serie ordinatis punetisque lateralibus flavis. $. 

OIjs. Mesosternum paullo porrectum latum (fig. 2 6, 2 c,) fig. 2 a, maxilla. 

Long. Corp. lin. 12. Inhabits Norfolk Island. Captain Best, Mus. D. Parry. Allied 
to Sch. frontalis. 

* Sec p. 71, note f, as to the true locality of the species. 



10 i fETONllD^. 

Genus MACRONOTA, Wiedemann. 

This genus is at once distinguished by the posteriorly lobed 
])rothorax, which does not however conceal the scutellum, which is 
the case both in Lomaptera and Gymnetis. The suture of the 
elytra and the centre of the prothorax are also generally deeply 
impressed, and the clypeus is commonly deeply emarginate. There 
is considerable diversity in the different species still retained in the 
genus ; thus the males in ^I, sraaragdina have curved anterior 
tibiae externally destitute of teeth, and in this species the meso- 
sternuin is very much porrected and curved upwards at the tip. In 
M. 3-salcata, De. H., closely allied to M. Diardi, the raesosternum is 
very thick and not much porrected. M. segregia has the meso- 
sternum still less porrected, and the fore tibisc of the males straight 
and externally 3-dentate. M. calcarata, Klug, (G. Doryscelis, 
Dej.) has also the fore tibise in both sexes 3-dentate. 

Macroiiola Mearesii, Parrij, MSS. (Plate 28, fig. 3.) — Nigro-asnea, nitida, elytiis nigiis, 
ctipite panim emarginato, vertice utrinqiie macula sericea, protliorace in medio valde 
sulcato, lateribus plagaque magna mediana punctata scutelloque sericeis ; elj-tris maculis 
10, (duabus in medio elytrorum versus suturam majoribus et stiiatis) sericeis, sericie 
aloido-virescenti, corpore siibtus maculis lateralibus albido-virescentibus, antennarum 
c.i|iitnlo fusco, podice fuivo-hirto. ^ 

Obs. Alesostenium parum poncctum lalissimum (figs. 3 a, 3 h). Long. corp. lin. 9^. 

Rtccivud by F. Parry, Esq. in a collection formed by Meares, Esq., near Darjeeling, 

an invalid station in tlie Himalayan mountains, near the Nepaul frontier, about 50 
miles from nhawalagiri, the highest mountain in the world. It is very closely allied 
to the Macronata dives, G. and P. Mon. Get. p. 314, pi. 61, fig. 6, which is from 
the coast of AJalahar and which seems to be identical with the Coilodcra penicillata, 
Hope's Synops. Nep. Col. (Zool. Misc. p. 2.5.) 

Macronota Raffiesiana, JV. (Plate 28, fig. 4.) — Nigra opaca, capite parum emarginato, 
prothorace elytiis niulto angustion subhexagono baud sulcato, linea tenui albida cum 
mavgine antico et lateribus parallela angulos posticos baud attingente ; clytris basi latis 
postice attenuatis, ad suturam vix sulcatis ; nigris basi maculaque media in singulo 
nifis, linea tenui albida ad marginem scutelli, duabus transversis mediis alterisque duabus 
subapicalibus punctisque nonnuUis (magnitudine variis) lateralibus albidis ; segmentis 
abdominis (supra visis) albido marginaiis, corpore subtus albido nigroque vario. f. 

Long. corp. lin. 8^. ; lat. burner, lin. 4^2-. luhabits Sumatra: SirS. Raffles. In Mus. Soc. 
Zool. Loudon. Nearly allied to M. Malabariensis, Gory and Perch, Mon. Get. p. 320, 
pi. 63, fig. 3, which is described as a native of Ceylon. 

Macronota tristis^ Horsfield, MSS. (Plate 28, fie. 5.) — Nigro-virescensnitidissima, clypeo 
parum emarginato, antice sulcato punctato, palpis lougis, (5 a, maxilla) prothorace angusto, 
lateribus defle.xis et punctatis, margine antico in medio valde elevate, dorso vi.x sulcato ; 
clytris ad basin prothorace fere duplo latioribus, sutura valde sulcata humeris elevatis, 
lateribus rugose punctulatis, singulo in medio spatio circulari parum impresso oblique 
striolato, podice striolato, pedibus lougioribus, coxis posticis valde proraiuentibus ; corpore 
subtus concolore lateribus striato-punctulatis ; mesosterno brevi rotundato ; (figs. 5 6, 
S c\) unguibus onychiis distinctis (fig. 5, d). 

Long. corp. feie lin. 15. ^ . Inhabits Java. In the collection of the East India House, 
formed by Dr. Horsfield, to whom I am indebted for an opportunity of describing this fine 
and singular species. 

Macronota vitligera, Hope (Proc. Ent. Soc. July 1841). (Plate 28, fig. 6.) — Nigra 
nitida, clyjjco valde emarginato, linea aurantia media e margine antico per prothoracem 
et scutellum ducta, prothorace vi.x sulcato, postice fere elytrorum latitudine, aurantio 
marginato ; elytris versus suturam profunde impressis nigris lineato-punctatis, singulo vitta 
aurantia parum curvata, e basi fere ad apicem extcnsa, corpore subtus nigro nitido 
lateribus aurantio niaciilatis, podice maculis duabus magnis aurantiis ; pedibus brevi- 
bus, dcntibus tibiaruui anticarum brevibus, mesosterno longo porrecto apice acuto 
(figs. 6 rf, 6 e, — 6 a mandible, (J b maxilla, 6 C raentum). 

Long. corp. lin. IS^. $. Inhabits the Mysore district of India. In the collection of the 
Rev. F. W. Jlope. 
This species makes a very near apprnach to the genus Lomaptera in several respects, 

especially the deeply emarginate clypeus, porrected mcbostcrnum, &c. 



105 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, &c. 

(No. VII.) 

Harmonies of nature existing between plants and insects. — 
In reference to the circumstances stated in a preceding number, 
from which it has been inferred that silk is a modification of 
caoutchouc, it is mentioned in the "Botanist " (vol. ii. No. 69) that 
'■ a species of Scorzonera, which belongs to the natural order of 
plants Cichoracese, has been found a good substitute for the 
mulberry leaf in France. We have also been informed that a 
caterpillar which forms a very large cocoon and spins a tough but 
coarse kind of silk, feeds on the leaves of the South American 
caoutchouc tree, Siphonia elastica. Led away by the apparent 
simplicity of an artificial arrangement of plants, botanists neglected 
the strong proofs furnished by the instinctive propensities of the 
whole animal kingdom, that plants which agree in structure gene- 
rally possess similar pi'opensities. It was long known that certain 
animals fed on particular plants, and both during the last century 
and the present this fact has been adduced as an evidence of the 
paternal care of the Creator in providing food for all his creatures, so 
that each should have its allotted portion ; but it is available also 
to show the correctness of botanical analogies. In this way has 
Decandolle applied it in his " Essai sur les proprietes medicales des 
plantes," from which a few examples may be quoted. The Cynips 
Rosse and Cynips Salicis, the Cionus Scrophularise and Hypera 
Rumicis, feed upon several^ sometimes all the species of the genera 
of plants, from which they derive their specific names ; but upon 
no species belonging to any other tribe of plants ; and indeed the 
fact of the Cionus Scrophularise feeding on species of Verbascum 
may be allowed to decide the point of the genus Verbascum belong- 
ing to the Scrophulariacese, and not to the Solanaceae, as some 
think it does. The Meloe vesicatoria (Spanish blistering-fly) gives 
the preference to the ash, then to the lilac, or privet, and last to the 
olive, all members of the tribe Oleacete. The insect is never found 
on any plant of the Jasminacese, though it is not uncommon on 
willows, from which it is remarkable that manna may be obtained, 
as well as from the Ornus Europaa, or flowering ash. The Pontia 
Brassiese, or cabbage butterfly, feeds only on cruciferous plants, 
with the solitary exception of the Tropseolura majus, or Indian 



106 ARCANA ENTOMOJ.OGICA. 

creiss, the similarity existing between which and some cruciferous 
plants has procured for it the name of the Nasturtium ; while the 
Tinea flavella of Reaumur, the natural food of which is the Astra- 
galus glycyphyllus, in the absence of that, whatever variety may be 
presented to it, will feed only on some other leguminous plant," 

Shortly previous to the publication of these observations I had 
made some remarks in Mr. Loudon's Arboretum Britannicum, 
under the genus Quercus (p. 1815) nearly to the same effect. In 
making out the lists of the species of insects which attack our chief 
forest trees, I had noticed that although many are exclusively con- 
fined either to the oak, beech, birch, or hazel, yet many species 
feed indiscriminately upon any of these trees ; some species of a 
genus would also be found to inhabit one of these kind of trees, and 
other species one or more of the other kinds ; '' thus clearly proving 
not only the very natural character of the order Amentacea?, but 
also the equally natural distribution of the insects themselves into 
genera consisting of species, all of which are either generally amen- 
taceous in their food, or are confined to the oak or the birch alone." 
I am happy to find these observations confirmed and explained, 
believing as I do that the views here suggested are capable of a far 
wider extension than has yet been given to them. 

Insects observed at sea (see ante, p. 64). — " On another occasion, 
when seventeen miles off Cape Corrientes, I had a net overboard to 
catch pelagic animals. Upon drawing it up, to my surprise, I found a 
considerable number of beetles in it, and although in the open sea, 
they did not appear much injured by the salt water. I lost some 
of the specimens, but those which I preserved belonged to the 
genera Colymbetes, Hydroporus, Hydrobius (two species), Notaphus, 
Synuchus, Adimonia, and Scarabgeus. At first, I thought that these 
insects had been blown from the shore ; but on reflecting that out 
of the eight species, four were aquatic, and two others partly so in 
their habits, it appeared to me most probable that they were floated 
into the sea by a small stream which drains a lake near Cape Cor- 
rientes. On any supposition, it is an interesting circumstance to 
find insects, quite alive, swimming in the open ocean, seventeen 
miles from the nearest point of land. There are several accounts 
of insects having been blown off" the Patagonian shore. Captain 
Cook observed it, as did more lately Captain King, in the Adven- 
ture. The cause probably is due to the want of shelter, both of 
trees and hills, so that an insect on the wing, with an off'-shore 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, El'C. 107 

breeze, would be very apt to be blown out to sea. The most 
remarkable instance I ever knew of an insect being caught far from 
the land, was that of a large grasshopper (Acrydium), which flew on 
board, when the Beagle was to windward of the Cape de Verd 
Islands, and when the nearest point of land, not directly opposed 
to the trade wind, was Cape Blanco, on the west of Africa, 370 
miles distant.* "—(Darwin's Journal, pp. 185, 186.) 

Papilio Pelaus (Plate 16, fig. 1, 2). — Figures of this species, 
doubtless derived from Drury's specimen described by Fabricius, 
are contained in Jones's Series of Drawings (vol. 1, pi. 32), so 
often refei'red to by that author. They agree with my figures 
except that the upper surface of the wings is darker (blacker) 
in Jones's drawings — the evident result of his figure hav- 
ing been made from a recent specimen and mine from an old one. 
The minute anterior whitish, transverse striga near the extremity 
of the abdomen in the anal area of the hind wings, is also not 
represented in Jones's drawing. It is not improbable that 
Mr. Doubleday's specimen, from which my figures were drawn, may 
be the original insect described by Fabricius, from Drury's specimen, 
which was, I believe, purchased at the sale of his collection by the 
late Mr. Haworth. 

Cetonia Iris, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. 2, 144. Oliv. 1, 6, tab. 8, 
f. 77. — Deceived by the locality of Surinam given by Fabricius to 
this species (the typical specimen of which is still contained in the 
Banksian Collection at the Linnean Society), and knowing that no 
Gnathocerse of Gory andPercheron (Coryphe, MacL.), nor indeed 
any insect closely allied thereto, inhabit the New World, I did not 
think of comparing the Gnathocera amabilis, Bainb. (Tmesor- 
rhina a. Westw. ante, p. 71), with the Banksian insect. My friend 
Burmeister having however suggested to me, by letter, the possi- 
bility that the two supposed species were identical, I have compared 
them together, and find that Mr. Hope's specimen differs only from 
the Banksian one in such characters as are sexual, the latter being 
a female with tridentate anterior tibise. The name Iris, Fab., must, 
therefore, be substituted for that of amabilis, Bainbr. Dr. Schaum 
has united Iris with Schizorhina cyanea, G. and P. ; Sch. Swartzii, 



* The flies which frequentl}' accompany a ship for some days on its passage from harbour to 
harbour, wandering from the vessel, are soon lost, and all disappear. 



108 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

Schaum (C. punctata, Schonh nee Donov.), and Sch. Thoreyi 
Schaum (n. sp.), into a small group distinguished by their tropical 
African habitat, and the elongated form of their bodies ; the tibiae of 
the males being bidentate, and those of the females tridentate. 
There is, however, considerable difference between the form of the 
clypeus, mesosternum, and fore tibiae of the males of Iris and 
cyanea ; the apex of the suture of the elytra in the latter species is 
also bispinose, whilst it is rounded off in the former. 

Tmesorrhina simillima (pi. 19, fig. 4, p. 72). — In addition to 
the structural differences noticed in the description and figure above 
referred to, it should be added that the mesosternum instead of 
terminating in a short rounded process (as in Tm. Iris and concolor, 
pi. 19, fig. 8 e), is long, acute, and slightly bent upwards at the tip. 
It must be left for a more detailed revision of the entire group to 
determine whether this character (which has just been stated to 
differ also in Sch. cyanea) will render it necessary to remove Tm. 
simillima from the other two species. 

Analecta Entomologica, Dissertatio inauguralis, auctore Dr. Herm. Rud. Schaum, 
cum tab. senea. Halis, Sax. 1841, pp. 49. 

In a former page I have dwelt upon and lamented the wide distinc- 
tion which exists between our own and Continental nations in regard 
to the patronage offered by their respective governments to works of 
natural history. The little work at the head of this article offers 
another equally striking proof of the advantages enj oyed by Continental 
naturalists far exceeding those which English students possess. Na- 
tural history being one of the branches of education taught in all the 
German burgher schools, gymnasiums, and universities — there being 
a professor of zoology in each of the latter — it follows that whenever a 
student manifests a decided predilection for any particular branch of 
the subject, his professor encourages him in it, and under his good 
directions the tyro launches forth his " dissertatio inauguralis,"" — in a 
style as far superior to the feeble efforts of English debutants as can 
well be conceived. The inaugural dissertation of Goldfuss on the 
Coleoptera of the Cape of Good Hope, that of Burmeister " De 
insectorum systemate naturali," that by Erichson on the Dyticidse, 
that of Schmidt on the Pselaphidse, that of Runde on the Brach- 
clytra, and Dr. Schaum's dissertation, amply confirm the truth of 
these remarks ; all of them being works of talent, which will cause 
them to be always cited, and which, it is needless to suggest, have 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 109 

evidently been prepared under the presiding direction of the pro- 
fessor of the university where these authors studied. 

The Httle work which has given rise to these observations 
consists of four excellent treatises. The first is a monograph of 
the genus Scydmsenus, in which we find due justice done to the 
writings of Kunze, Stephens, Erichson, Sturm, &c., and numerous 
new species added — forty-six species are described, including 
a number from North America, West India, East India, 
Madagascar, Brazil, Columbia, and also including two species of the 
little group which Waterhouse has named Eutheia. 

The second paper contains some observations on the characters 
of the Cremastochilides — amongst which we find it stated that 
the mesosternum is never porrected in this group, but that when 
there is a sternal process it consists of the porrected metasternum. 

The third treatise contains a great number of critical remarks 
on the nomenclature of the Cetoniidse. 

The fourth comprises descriptions of ten new species of Cetoniidse 
— namely, Dicranorhina [Eudicella, White] Nireus, from Guinea ; 
Gnathocera trivittata, from Caffraria ; Schizorhina Thoreyi, from 
Guinea ; Cetonia spectabilis, from Java ; Cetonia Stahelini, from 
Abyssinia ; Cetonia iridescens, from Guatemala ; Cetonia vulnerata, 
from Java ; Cetonia thoracica, from Arabia ; Ischnostoma Raeu- 
peri, from Caffraria ; and Gyranetis atropurpurea, from Brazil. 

Species et Iconographie GENERiauE des animaux articules. Par 
M. F. E. Guerin Meneville. 

By a letter recently received from M. Guerin Meneville, I learn 
that the commencement of this useful work has been delayed in 
consequence of the great exertions which have been required for 
the completion of the text of the[" Iconographie du Regno Animal," 
and the " Traite elementaire d'Histoire Naturelle." It is now many 
months since M. Guerin kindly sent me a considerable portion of 
the text of the Insect portion of the Iconographie, and if the 
whole is executed on the same plan as the sheets before me, the 
text will be as full of new matter as the plates of that excellent 
work. 

The genera intended to be described in the early numbers of the 
" Species et Iconographie Generique," are Rhipicera, Cebrio, San- 
dalus, Atopa, Cladon, Ptilodactyla, Epicyrtus, Eurypalpus [not in 
Dejean's catalogue], Cyphon, Eubria, Scyrtes, Nycteus, Atela 
Phengodes, Amydetes, Rabdota, Nyctocharis, Dadophora, Selas, 



no ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

Auge, Actenista, Nematopbora, Lychnuris, and Spentliera. The 
genera Lycus, Lygistopterus, Charactus, Dyctiopterus, Eurycerus, 
and Omalisus, will be described by the Marquis de Breme. 

Sale of M. Audouin's library. — I have just received the cata- 
logue of the library of M. V. Audouin, which will be sold by auction, 
at Paris, on 10th to the 25th of May. The catalogue itself forms a 
volume of 176 pages, and forms a most valuable addition to 
entomological bibliography. The works are arranged systematic- 
ally instead of alphabetically, and certainly constitute a far more 
complete entomological library than has ever before been offered for 
sale. This may be easily conceived when it is mentioned that there 
are not fewer than seventy-four separate treatises on the honey-bee, 
and more than one hundred and fifty on the silkworm and silk 
culture. In addition to the works strictly on entomology and general 
comparative anatomy and physiology, there are numerous works on 
the other classes of animals. Copies of the catalogue may be seen 
at the Linnsean, Zoological, and Entomological Societies. 

Insects of Central India. — I have been favoured by Lieutenant 
Colonel Hearsey, a gentleman who for more than thirty years has 
been stationed in the very centre of India (Saugor), with a sight of 
his very extensive and valuable collection of insects formed in that 
part of our Eastern territories. The collection is especially rich in 
Sphingidse and nocturnal Lepidoptera — vast numbers of which 
were reared from the caterpillar state. The species of the modern 
genus Papilio are but few in number and well known. P. Hector 
(extremely rare), Pammon, Polytes: respecting the specific identity 
of the two last-mentioned insects, Colonel H. partially confirms the 
statement of Boisduval, having observed one chasing the other con 
amove. I was surprised not to find a single species of Lucanus, nor 
Fulgora, in the],collection ; which, however, includes a new species of 
Paussus, and of Diopsis, a very minute species of Apotomus, 
specimens of both sexes of the interesting Hymenopterous genus 
Trirogma, a number of very English-looking Harpalidse. various 
Bolboceri and Athyrei, as well as most of the species described and 
figured by Mr. Saunders, in the Transactions of the Entomological 
Society (vol- iii. part 1, plate 5) ; Colonel Hearsey having commu- 
nicated them to Mr. Prinsep, from whom Mr. Saunders received 
them. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. Ill 

Hypocephalus armatus (Plate 10). — In my observations on this 
curious genus (p. 39), it was mentioned that M. Gucrin Meneville 
entertained the same opinion as Professor Burmeister relative to 
the natural relations of this anomalous genus. The views of 
M. Guerin have appeared in the " Revue Zoologique," 1841 , p. 217 ; 
and it is curious to perceive that many of the points of relation 
suggested by him are identical with those noticed in my article on 
the genus ; he likewise mentions a new genus, Anoploderma, from 
the Andes of Peru, (described by him in the Rev. Zool. 1840, 
p. 276,) which, like Hypocephalus, possesses short and robust tibia, 
dilated at the tips and armed with spines and teeth, and adds, 
that the person from whom M. Marc received his specimens of 
Hypocephalus found two individuals in the earth, or decayed wood, 
at the foot of a deep sht in the trunk of a tree. 

Since the publication of my memoir on this genus, I have received 
communications from several entomologists, some of whom, whose 
opinions will be read with respect, differ from the views above de- 
tailed : thus the Marquis Maximilian Spinola, in a letter dated Genoa^ 
11th February, 1842, writes to me, " Your drawing of the Hypoce- 
phalus has changed my previous opinions on that anomalous genus. 
I cannot, however, resolve on admitting it among the Prioniti ; and 
I have stated my doubts on the subject in my memoir on the 
Prioniti, which I have transmitted to the Academy of Sciences of 
Turin, and which will be inserted in the third volume of the Trans- 
actions of that Academy. I think all the inconvenience arises from 
laying it down as a necessity that every insect must be placed in a 
determinate family ; but if the family has no circumscribed 
characters, we should call it a ' Familioides,' and not a Family, 
and if it has any, the insect deprived of those characters, must stay 
at the door, but out of the family. If no other door is opened, it 
will remain without a family — and no matter for that, since Nature 
would have it so. Let it remain alone, until Nature, and not the 
love of system, grant it good company." Mr. Newman also, in a 
letter to me, has adopted the opinion which I expressed in my 
" Modern Classification of Insects," v. i., p. J50 ; observing, that 
" Hypocephalus is not a Longicorn, unless the term extends to the 
Cucujites, to which it properly belongs ; this group intervenes 
between Cerambyx and Lucanus." [Thus taking up the relation of 
the Cucujidse pointed out by me in the Zoological Journal. 3 
Spondylus appears to me to be related to Callidium, Prionus and 
Leptura." [By which relations it would, as it appears to me, be 



112 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA, 

unnaturally separated from Hypocephalus.] Mr. Newman has 
subsequently published a proposed distribution of the Coleoptera 
into four, or rather seven, stirpes ; one, Coleoptera Macrocera, 
composed of four divisions ; Cerambycites, an entire group ; Curcu- 
lionites, Criocerites, and Cucujites, each of the last three being 
stated to be composed of two sub-groups ; making seven in all. 
The Cucujites being composed of Trogosita, Passandra, Cucujus, 
Palsestes, Brontes, Parandra, /^/'ocep/jaZ2fs, Rhysodes and Cupes,and 
leading to Trictenotoma, Lucanus, and Passalus, among the Coleo- 
ptera Schisraatocera (Lamellicornes, Latr.). Entomologist, p. 244. 

CoLOBOTHEA LEUCospiLOTA (Plate 15, fig. 2). — Mr. Newman (who 
has been long engaged upon the investigation of the Longicorn 
beetles, and who has undertaken the description of the species 
of that group, brought from the Phihppine Islands by Mr. H. 
Cuming, and now in the collection of the British Museum), has sug- 
gested to me that the name of this species cannot be maintained, 
there being already an insect of the genus with the same name, f See 
Lap. Hist. Nat. Col. 2, p. 459, C. leucospila,] I, therefore, propose 
to alter the name of the Philippine species to C. albo-notata. 



113 



PLATES XXIX AND XXX. 

ON THE GOLTATHIDEOUS CETONIID^ OF ASIA. 
Part I. 

On reviewing the characters of the primary groups into which 
the great family Cetoniidse is divisible, we soon find that the 
extraordinary horns with which the heads of the male Goliathi are 
armed ought to receive only a secondary consideration in determin- 
ing the limits of groups ; other characters being found of greater 
importance. Hence it is that, after removing the Trichiides 
(which have the sides of the elytra straight), the Cremastocheilides 
(including Macroma, as Dr. Burmeister * satisfactorily shows, and 
distinguished by the curved horny blade of the mandibles, and the 
naked or nearly naked upper lobe of the maxillse), and the 
Gymnetides (which have the pronotum produced backwards, and 
more or less covering the scutellum, we find the remaining groups 
much more closely approximating together. The Ischnostomides and 
some of the Cetoniides are distinguished however by the membranous 
lobe of the maxillse, whilst the remainder of the Cetoniides do not 
exhibit any striking external sexual distinctions. 

The species which still remain to be noticed are distinguished, 
therefore, from all the preceding by the following characters : 

The sexes are distinguished by the variation in the form of the 
clypeus, or of the feet, the upper lobe of the maxillae is corneous, the 
horny part of the mandibles forms a straight blade, the scutellum 
is not covered by a produced lobe of the hind part of the pronotum, 
and the sides of the elytra are deeply sinuated near the base. The 
insects thus characterised constitute the groups which have been 
called Goliathus, Gnathocera, G. and P. (Coryphe, M'L.), and 
Schizorhina, together with several others, which are more properly 
referable to them. These groups appear to me to constitute two 
sections. 

Ist. The GoLiATHiDEous Cetoniid^, in which the clypeus is not 
emarginate in both sexes, and is often cornuted. 

2nd. The Schizorhinous CExoNiiDiE, in which the clypeus is 
always deeply emarginate in both sexes, and is never cornuted. 

• Zeitschrift fiir die Entociologie, vol. 3, p. 275. (1841.) 
NO. VIH. \st JULY, 1842. 1 



J 14 ASIATIC CETONIID^. 

It is impossible on referring to the former of tliese two sections, 
not to be convinced that the gigantic Goliathi of Africa are its 
types. They exhibit in the highest degree the male cornuted 
character of the section, but they are distinguished by two 
characters which are not found in the majority of the group — 
namely, the pronotum widest across the middle, and the upper 
lobe of the maxillse dentated ; they are, however, found in several 
eastern forms, with which our review will naturally commence. 

NARYCIUS, Dupont. 
(Guerin Mag. de iioologie — Insectes, pi. 128.) 

As originally described by M. Dupont, this genus comprised two 
species N. opalus and N. olivaceus, both from Madras ; but, as 
already alluded to in pp. 5 and 70 (note -f-), they are but the sexes of 
a single species, for which the name of N. opalus should be retained 
as being that of the male. 

By the kindness of M. Dupont, during my recent visit to Paris, 
(May and June, 1842,) I have been enabled to study this most 
interesting species in detail. The male *, of which an outline, 
copied fi'om Guerin's " Magasin," was given in my plate 1, fig. 5, 
is distinguished by two long and very robust horns in front of 
the head. The mandibles (Plate 83, fig. 1 a) have the horny blade 
sharp and angularly dilated in the middle on the outside ; the 
maxillae (fig. 1 b and 1 J f) have the upper lobe short, and much 
curved, with the apex 8-dentate, and the outside strongly hairy ; 
the inner lobe is produced at the tip into an acute point, and the 
palpi are short ; the mentum (fig. 1 c) is short and broad, much 
narrowed in front and deeply eraarginate with the labial palpi very 
short. The pronotum is broadest across the middle. The meso- 
sternum (fig. 1 d,l e) is conical, acute, and porrected ; the anterior 
tibiae (fig. iy)are rather broad, with one strong tooth on the outside 
below the acute apex ; the ungues (fig. 1 (/) are furnished with a 
very short bisetose plantula, and the abdomen is channeled beneath. 

The female f (Plate 33, fig. 1, copied from Guerin's figure) is more 
robust than the male, with the head produced into two short horns 
— a most singular character ; the maxillae are formed as in the 
male ; the fore tibise (fig. 1 h) are externally furnished with three 
obtuse teeth ; the middle and posterior tibiae are much more 
strongly toothed than in the male ; the abdomen is not channeled 

* Cetoninus (Goliathus, Dicronocephalus, 5,) opalus, MacLeay. 
t Cetoninus (Coryphe, Narycius, .5), olivaceus, Mac Leay. 



ASIATIC CETONIID^. 115 

beneath, and the mesosternumis porrected, conical, and acute, but 
rather broader at the base than in the male. 

The differences between this genus and the true Goliathi consist 
in the sides, and not the centre, of the clypeus being cornuted ; 
the armature of the fore tibise in the males, the different form 
of the mentum, maxillte, and pronotum, and the cornuted head of 
the female. 



It is to the genus Narycius, but forming a subgenus distinct 
from the type, that I refer a new and beautiful unique insect 
which has been communicated to me by that assiduous entomolo- 
gist G. H. K. Thvvaites, Esq., of Bristol, whilst this sheet is pass- 
ing through the press (14th June, 1842), on which account the 
figures in illustration of it will not appear until the following num- 
ber is published. 

NARYCIUS, SUBGENUS CYPIIONOCEPHALUS, Weslw. 

CHARACTERES EX INDIVIDUO MASCt'LINO DESUMPTI. 

Corpus sublatum, caput breve, transversum, supra semicirculariter excavatum, clypeo piano 
valde deflexo, capitis lateribus iu cornua duo elongata elevata apice curvata et postice 
furcata, productis (plate 33, fig. 2 a, caput supra, 2 6, e latere, 2 c, antice visum); anten- 
narum clava subelongata. MaxilljB (fig. 2d) lobo interno ad apicem in dentetu acutum 
producto ; lobo externo curvato, ajiice 3-dentato. Mentum (fig. 2 e) latum antice 
angustatum, margine antico valde incise. Pronotum latum, valde gibbosum, margine 
antico supra caput rotundato, angulis anticis rotundatis ; lateribus pone medium fere 
ad angulos posticos parallelis ; elytra vix pronoto latiora, versus a])icem parum angustata. 
Pedes antici subelongati, tibiis inermibus, tarsis tibiis brevioribus ; unguibus maxiniis, 
onycbiis distinctis (fig. 2h); tibiae 4 posticse medio inermes; mesosternum subconicum 
porrectum (fig. 2/, 2ff) ; abdomen valde canaliculatum. 

In the more important of these characters the insect approaches 
the typical Narycius, differing chiefly in the form of the horns of the 
head and fore legs; whilst in the sub-elongatedfore legs, and especially 
in the form of the horns of the head, it bears a nearer resemblance 
to Dicronocephalus ; from which, however, the structure of the 
maxillae, mesosternum, and anterior tibiae, and its beautiful emerald 
colour, remove it. 

NARYCIUS (CYPHONOCEPHALUS) SMARAGDULUS, Weslw. 
(Plate 33, fig. 2, and details.) 

Lsetissime viridis, clypeo et cornubus capitis tarsisque brunneis, femoribus tibiisque opalinis ; 
supra sub lente tenuissime punctatus, pnnctisque majoribus distantibus, seriequc puncto- 
rum versus suturam alterisque in disco elytrorum ; his in medio ad lateres rugosis ; corpore 
Bubtus magis aurato, jugulo nigro, metasterni linea longitudinali tenui brunnea, mar- 
ginibusque segmentorum abdominalium auratis. Long. corp. (absque corn, capit.) unc. 1. 
lat. ad basin elytr. lin. 6. Inhabits the East Indies. In the Museum of the Bristol 
Philosophical Institution, presented by Capt. D. Roberts. 

MYCTERISTES, proper, Laporle. (PHILISTINA, MacL.) 

Having figured and described the male of the only known species 

I 2 



/ 



116 ASIATIC CETONIID.E. 

of this genus, M. rhinophyllus (plate 1, fig. S, and details), it will 
here be necessary only to notice the peculiarities of the female 
(Plate 29, fig. 1), which I had not seen when the first plate of this 
work was published. The only specimen which I have seen is con- 
tained in Dr. Horsfield's Javanese Collection at the East India 
House, and I have to return my thanks to that gentleman for an 
opportunity of examining and figuring it. Unfortunately the lower 
parts of the mouth have been removed by some previous observer, 
so that I cannot describe the mentum and labial palpi. The head 
is rather quadrate in front, with the angles slightly produced, the 
space between them being somewhat emarginate. The maxillae 
(fig. 1 a) resemble those of the male, and have the upper lobe armed 
with four short teeth ; the inner lobe is unarmed and rounded ; 
the pronotum is unarmed in front and not elevated ; the fore legs 
are much shorter than in the males, and externally 3-dentate, and 
the four hind tibiae are strongly spurred beyond the middle. The 
general colour is much more obscure than in the male, scarcely 
shinins:, and clothed with luteous setose scales. The female was 
first described by M. Buquet (Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ISSfi, p. 
208), from whom I have received a splendidly coloured male. 



MYCTERISTES. (Sub-G- PHiEDIMUS.) Waterhouse. 

Both the sexes of the only known species, M. (P.) Cumingii, having 
been fully described and figured, with their details in the first plate 
of this work, it will be only necessary to notice, that in the elonga- 
tion of the fore legs of the male of this and the preceding species, 
and in the unporrected mesosternum, they lead to 

DICRONOCEPHALUS *, Hope. 

Like Narycius, the sides and not the centre of the clypeus are 
here cornuted, and like Mycteristes proper, the fore legs of the 
males are greatly elongated with the tibise tridentate ; the pronotum 
is broadest across the middle, but the terminal lobe of the maxillae 
is unarmed — affording the first approach to the following groups. 
The male only of the unique species composing this group is known, 
and is represented with its details in the first plate of this work 
(figure 4, 4 a — 4e). 

* This name was spelt Dicranoceplialus in the Synopsis of General Hardwicke's Nepalese 
Coleopleiu ; but in the Coleopterist's Manual (p. 116) it is correctly written Dicronocephalus, 
— a name given in allusioa to the two sickle-like horns of the head, (5ij et Kpwuiov.) 



ASIATIC CKTONIID^. lit 

In all the following groups we find the pronotum widest behind, 
or, at least, with the hind part not narrower than the middle, 
accompanied by the simple structure of the outer lobe of the 
maxillae. 

JUJINOS, Saunders. 
This genus was proposed in the Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of London, (vol. ii., p. 176, pi. 16, fig. 1,) for the reception 
of a splendid male insect from the East Indies, Jiimnos Ruckeri^ 
characterised by the following peculiarities : The head square in 
front, and not cornuted, with the lateral margins tuberculated ; the 
pronotum broad and very gibbous in front, the lateral margins 
beyond the middle nearly parallel ; mesosternura porrected and 
oval ; the fore legs very long and externally bidentate, and with the 
internal margin deflexed and denticulated; the fore tarsi long, 
with a brush of hairs on the underside of the terminal joint at 
the tip. 

The female of a second species was described by the Rev. F. W. 
Hope, in Professor Royle's work on the Botany, &c., of the 
Himalayas, under the name of Cetonia Roylii, (Insects, pi. 1, fig. 1,). 
I am indebted to A. Melly, Esq., for the male of|this species, 
which proves to be very closely allied to J. Ruckeri, as will be seen 
on comparing my plate 29, fig. 2, with Mr. Saunders's figure. The 
head of the female, (fig. 2 a,) like that of the male, is unarmed, with 
the clypeus nearly truncate in front; the maxilla of tae male 
(fig. 2 d), has the inner lobe nearly simple, but in the female it is 
armed with a sharp hook (fig. 2 h) ; the mesosternum (fig. 2 e and 
2y), is much less produced than in J. Ruckeri, and is much broader 
than long, with the front margin rounded. The fore legs of the 
male are moderately long, and both internally and externally 
toothed and serrated, as in J. Ruckeri, except that they want the 
brush of hairs on the underside of the last joint of the tra'si. The 
fore tibiae of the female (pi. 29, fig. 2 c), are also externally biden- 
tate, but they are simple on the inside. The four hind tibiae are 
slightly spurred beyond the middle in the male, and strongly in the 
female, they are thickly clothed within with fulvous hairs. 

RHOMBORHINA, Hope (Col. Man. 1, p. 120 *). 

In the unarmed quadrate form of the clypeus of both sexes, and 
the bidentate tibiae of the females, this genus approaches Jumnos, but 

* Mr. MacLeay (Cet. So. Africa, p. 30), has ingeniously transposed l\Ir. Hope's types of 
his two genera, giving Hardwickii as the type of Rhomboihina and Up;ilina as that of, 
Trigonophora (as he misternis it). 



118 ASIATIC CETONllD^. 

the simple tibiae of the males of these insects at once distinguish 
them from the last-mentioned group. The antennae do not materially 
differ in the sexes ; the inner lobe of the maxillae of the female of 
Rh. opalina (pi. 30, fig. 5 a), is armed with a strong horny hook, 
which is much less strong in the males (Rh. hyacinthina <? , e. g.). 
The mentura is deeply cleft in front, its hind part being rather 
broader than the front (pi. SO, fig. 5 h). The club of the antennae 
does not vary in size in the opposite sexes, and the mesosternal pro- 
cess is generally porrected, broad, and blunt, but it differs in shape 
in the different species. The fore tibiae of the females are bidentate ; 
the hind tibije in the same individuals are much more strongly 
spurred beyond the middle than in the males. The following are 
the species of this genus : — 

Species I.— Rhomborhina resplendens. Rh. " aureo-viridis nitidissima, versicolor, elytris 
subtilissime seriato-punctatis ; basi, limbo scutellari, sutura tarsisque nigro-violaceis." 
Schdn. 
Syn.—Cetonia resplendens, Swartz, in Scb. Syn. Ins. vol. i. part 3,app. p. 51, (1817.) 
Golialhus Heros, Latreille, Gory, and Percheron, Mon. Get. pi. 26, fig. 3. 

Obs. The abdomen of tlie male is not longitudinally impressed beneath, and the fore tibiss 

have a vestige of a tooth below the apex on the outside. 

Species 11.— Rhomborhina MelUi, Gory and Percheron, Mou. Get. pi. 26, fig. 4. 
Species 111. — Rhomborhina dislincta, Hope, in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. iii., p. <)3. 

Ql)S^ —This species was described from a specimen sent from Assam, which appears to me to 
be specifically identical with Eh. Mellii. 

Species IV. — Rhomborhina opalina. 

SYV.—Cetonia opalina, Hope, in Syn. Nepal. Gol. p. 24, Gory and Percheron, Mon. Get. 
pi. 26, fig. 5. (Goliathus op.) 
Obs. The male is narrower than the female. The scutellum is sometimes only dark- 
coloured at the apex ; the hairs of the four posterior tibiae and abdomen are fulvous, and the 
mesosternum is porrected and broad in front, almost as in Rh. hyacinthiua (pi. 30, fig. 1 «). 
Captain Parry has received it both from Nepaul and the Himalayas. 

Species V Rhomborhina apicalis, Westw. (Plate 30, fig. 2.) Laete cupreo-fulva, elytris 

apice scabris et nigris, tibiis tarsisque nigris et nigro-setosis, thorace subtus nigro, abdomine- 
que cum femoribus Eeneo. Long. corp. liu. 15. 
Habitat in Nepalia, D. Hardwicke ; et Assam ? 
In Mus. Soc. Linn, Lond. et Soc. Merc. Ind. Orient. 

Obs. — The ulypeus is alike in both sexes — large and rounded in front. The sides of the 
pronotum and the disc of the elytra are finely punctured, some of the punctures on the latter 
forming irregular lines. The apex and sides of the abdominal segments are clothed with short 
black hairs. The fore tibia; of the females are not so strongly spurred as in some of the species. 
There is an impression on each elytra beyond the middle ; the mesosternum is very broad and 
rounded iu front (fig. 2 a, 2 b). The male has the abdomen broadly but very shallowly 
impressed. 

Species VI. — Rhomborhina Japonica. (Plate 30, fig. 4.) Hope, in Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond., vol. iii. p. 64. In Mus. D. Hope et Dupont. 
Obs. — The short broad form of this species together with its large-sized head distinguishes it 
from the rest of the genus. The hairs on the hind tibise and abdomen are short and fulvous. 
The scutellum is concolorous with the pronotum and elytra, the mesosternal process is of 
moderate size, nearly as long as broad, rounded, and slightly dilated in front (pi. 30, fig. 4 a 
and 4 b, the former figure, representing the apical portion, scarcely elongate enough). The fore 
tibise of the females are very broad and strongly bidentate. 



* ASIATIC CETONIID.E. 119 

Species VII. — Rhomborhina microcephala, AVestw. (Plate 30, fig. 3.) Rli. biunneo- 

olivacea uitidissiina, capite parvo, clypeo subqiiadrato, tibiis auticis $ angustis mediocriter 

biJentatis ; pedibus cyaneo-nigris, nigro-setosis $. Long. corp. lin. 13 — 14. Habitat 

in Montibus Himalayanis, D. Meares. lu Mus. D. Parry. 

Obs. — This very robust species has a remarkably small head, and the fore tibiae in tho 

female are also very narrow, and but slightly bidentate. The upper side of the body is of a 

dark olivaceous brown colour inclining to a deep copper in certain lights ; the scutellum and 

suture of the elytra being concolorous, but their slioulders are marked with a dark patch : the 

underside is of a dark aeneous colour tinged with blue; the abdomen being blacker. The 

mesosternal process is narrow and not dilated in front, with the apex rounded (fig. 3 a and 

3 6). The hairs of the hind feet and abdomen are short and black. 

Species VIII. — Rhomborhina hi/acinthina, (p\a.\.e 30, fig. 1,) Hope, in Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. vol. iii. p. 62 *. 

This very distinct species was received by Mr. Hope from Assam; 
Captain Parry has since received it from Sylhet ; specimens are 
also contained in the fine collection recently received by the Ento- 
mological Society from Miss Sealy, forwarded by Mr. M'Clelland. 
The latter specimens are entirely jet black, except the feet, but Mr. 
Parry's have the front and hind parts of the body slightly tinged 
with green and blue above, and more particularly beneath. They 
do not, however, appear to me to be specifically distinct. The hairs 
on the hind tibiae and abdomen are short and black. The meso- 
sternal process (fig. 1 a, 1 5,) is large and transverse, the sides 
being rather more angulated in the middle than in fig. 1 a. The 
female has the fore legs broad and acutely bidentate, and the hind 
tibiae acutely spurred beyond the middle, the spurs being, however, 
small ; in the male, (as in the rest of the genus in this sex,) they 
are almost obliterated. The abdomen of the male is not longitudi- 
nally impressed beneath. 

Species IX. — Rhomborhina clypeata, Dupont's MSS. (Plate 33, fig. 3.) Rh. viridis 
punctulatus, thoracis lateribus elytrorumque disco postice magis auratis, clypeo magno, 
antice subtruncato, mesosterno fere circulari basi truncate, pedibus posticis fulvo-setosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 12^. Habitat in Japonia. Mus. Dupont et Buquet, Parisiis. 

This is the smallest species of the genus, and is distinguished by 
its comparatively large quadrate clypeus with the front angles 
rounded off", and its short elytra ; the disc of the head and sides of 
the pronotum are very finely granuloso-punctate ; the fore tibiae in 
the females (I have not seen the male) are broad and strongly 
bidentate ; the mesosternal process is porrected and almost 
rounded, but scarcely broader than the porrected front of the 
metasternum on which it is placed, with its base truncated. The 
tips of the tibiae and the tarsi are black ; the under side of the 
thoracic region is more golden than above. M. Buquet's speci- 
men is labelled Japonica, from which species, however, it is abun- 
dantly distinct. 

* Mr. Hope's memoir having been read in 1839, his name is retained in preference to the 
manuscript one of azuripes, Burm., which I find attached to Mr. Hope's typical specimen. 



]20 ASlATtC CETONIID^. 

Species X. — Rhomborhina pilipes. Melly's MSS. 

I regret that, owing to Mr. Melly's absence from England, I am 
unable to give a description and figure of this fine species which I 
saw last year in his rich cabinet : Dr. Burmeister, however, made a 
detailed description of it, which will, I believe, be shortly published. 

Obs. — In addition to the typical RhoniborliinaB above described, Mr. Hope (Col. Manual, 
1, p. 120), adds Gol. Hardwickii, H., Gol. Roylii, Hope, and Cetonia cincta, Zool. Journ. at 
the end of the genus. The first of these three species is the type of his own genus Trigono- 
phorus. G. Roylii is a Jumnos, and C. cincta is referable to the African group to which 
C taenia, depressa, &c. belong. 



ANOMALOCERA, Hope. 

As Mr. Hope''s account of this curious group was recently read 
before the Linnsean Society, accompanied by figures of the male of 
the typical species and ample structural details, I shall here only 
mention that in its simple clypeus in both sexes, and in the forma- 
tion of the fore tibiae in the opposite sexes, as well as in the structure 
of the trophi it agrees with Rhomborhina ; from which it is sepa- 
rated by the great elongation of the club of the antennae of the 
male, the deep longitudinal impression of the under side of the 
abdomen in the same sex, and the elongated narrowed mesosternum. 
The genus is also closely allied to the quadrate-clypeated Gnatho- 
cerse G and P, such as Gn. Iseta, &c. By the kindness of 
Captain Parry, I am enabled to complete the illustration of this 
genus by giving a figure of the female (Plate SO, fig. 6), the head 
and antennae of the male (fig. 6 c), the mesosternal process (fig. 6 a 
6 b), and the fore tibia and tarsus of the male. Captain Parry 
fortunately possesses a single specimen of each sex of the only 
known species {A. Parrii, Hope), which he received from the Him- 
alayas in a collection formed by — Meares, Esq. 



TRIGONOPHORUS, Hope (Syn. Nepal. Col. in Gray's Zool. Miscell. p. 24, 1831). 

This genus was simply indicated by name, in the work above 
quoted, for the Cetonia Hardwickii ; — an insect which, in the struc- 
ture of the fore legs in the opposite sexes, (those of the males being 
longer than those of the female, with the tibiae unarmed in the 
former and bidentate in the latter,) and in the want of a longitudinal 
impression on the under side of the abdomen of the males, agrees 
with the typical Rhomborhinse. But here we find not only the 
clypeus but the hind part of the head cornuted, and that too, 
singularly enough, in both sexes ; the distinction of sexes in this 



ASIATIC CETONIID^K. 121 

respect consisting in the shape of the hinder horn of the head. 
Here, however, we also find a curious distinction ; for this horn in 
the female of Tr. Delessertii is of the same acute shape as in the 
males of the two other species ; the hind tibia of the males have 
the spur beyond the middle of the limb more distinct than in the 
Trigonophorse. Another distinguishing character, separating these 
insects from the last-named genus, is the narrow elongated form of 
the mesosternal process. As there are now several species known 
agreeing together, I have retained the generic name. The maxillae 
offer the same sexual distinction which has been already noticed 
in some of the preceding groups. The mentum is broad and very 
deeply incised in the front. 

Sprcies I. — Trigonophorus Nepalensis. (Plate 29, fig. Z $ ■) 
SvN. — Cetonia Nepalensis, Hope, in op. sup. cit. $ . 
Cetonia Hardwickii, Hope, in op. sup. cit $ . 

Gnathocera Hardwich, Gory and Perch. Mon. Cet. PL ] 9, fig. 1 ^ . 
Cetoninus {Cort/phe, Rhomborhitm, 1,) Hardwickii, MacLeay. Cet. Soc. 
Afr. p. 30. 

This handsome insect has the posterior horn of the head acutely 
triangular in the males, but oblong and truncate at the tip in the 
females. The species is liable to considerable variation in colour on 
the upper surface, the female being sometimes (as figured by Gory 
and Percheron) black or seneous black, and sometimes of the same 
dark green colour as the male represented in my figure S. The 
rich orange colour of the femora and tibiae (except at the tips), and 
of the posterior coxse, is a very distinguishing character of the 
species. Plate 29, fig. 3 a, represents the head of the female from 
above, and 3 b seen sideways ; 3 c, the maxilla of the male, and 3 d, 
that of the female ; 3 e, the mandible ; 3/^ the mentum ; 3 g, the 
fore tibiae of the female ; 3 A, the mesosternum seen sideways ; and 
3 i, the same seen from beneath. As usual in such cases, the specific 
name which had been applied to the male insect is here retained. 

Spkcies.!* II. — Trigonophorus Cantori. 

S\v.~Rhomborhitia ? Cantori. Hope in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. 3, p. 63. 

Having examined the typical specimen described by Mr. Hope, 
I am able to state that the front of the head is mutilated and 
covered with dirt, and that there is therefore no longer reason for 
doubting that the frontal horn was present, and of the same form 
as in the other species of the genus. In other respects (except in 
being broader) it agrees with the female of Tr. Nepalensis, from 
which I do not consider it to be specifically distinct. Mr. Hope 
has not mentioned the rich orange colour of the posterior coxse, 
and which are visible beyond the sides of the elytra. 



122 ASIATIC CETONIIDuE. 

Species III. — Trigonophorus Saundersii, Westw. (Plate 29, fig. 5). Tr. aureo-viridis, 
elytris tenuissime rugosulis et punctatis, cornu frontali capitis brevi trigone ; postico acuto, 
$ , truncato, ^ ; capite et abdomine subtus pedibuaque brunneo-castaneis, metathorace 
subtus viridi. Long. corp. lin. 12. Habitat in India Orientali, In Mus. D. Saunders et 
Merc. Ind. Orient. Londini. 

This is smaller than any of the other species, and is distinguished 
from Tr. Nepalensis by the much shorter horn at the front of the 
head ; the upper surface of the head is olivaceous green and punc- 
tured, the angles in front of the eyes forming obtuse elevated 
tubercles, instead of being acute as in Tr. Nepalensis; the hind 
horn of the head is nearly flat, broad, and truncated in front in the 
female, but acute in the males ; the sides of the pronotum are much 
more thickly punctured than the disc ; the elytra are more strongly 
punctate than in Tr. Nepalensis, with the disc slightly rugose, 
giving it a silky appearance according to the play of light. The 
podex is green. The legs, as well as the underside of the head and 
abdomen, are of a rich marroon colour, the fore feet being formed 
as in the other species. The tarsi are black. The mesosternum 
is long, narrow, porrected, and bent rather downwards. The hairs 
on the hind feet and sides of the abdomen are few in number, thin 
and dark-coloured ; the entire metasternum is green, forming a 
strong contrast with the rich colour of the other parts of the under- 
side of the body. 

Species IV. — Trigonophorus Delessertii. (Plate 30, fig. 4). 

Syn. — Goliathus Delessertii, Gueriu. Revue Zoologique par la See. Cuvier., 1839 
No. 8, p. 229. 

This magnificent species was kindly sent to me from Paris by 
M. Guerin Meneville, for illustration in this work. The detailed 
description will be found in the Revue Zoologique, above referred 
to; — a work containing descriptions of a vast number of new species 
of insects, as well as notices of many works of Entomology, which 
are almost unknown to English Entomologists. The species was 
found upon the plateau of the Neilgherries near Otacamund and 
Kotirghery, by the zealous traveller in honour of whom it has been 
named. M. Guerin describes the posterior horn of the head as 
being " plate, dirigee en avant et en bas, aplatie ;" not noticing its 
triangular shape, which is most singular, when it is considered that 
the insect is a female, and that the females of the other species of 
the genus have this horn truncate. 

The plants figured in Plates 29 and 30 are two fine species of Cypripedium ; that in the 
former Plate being C. venustum, (a native of Nepaul) drawn from a specimen which blos- 
somed finely in the Botanic Gardens at Kew, at the beginning of the present year ; and Plate 
30, representing the Indian Cyp. insigne. 



123 



PLATE XXXI. 

ILLUSTRATION OP A NEW INDIAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

The beautiful species of Papilio figured in the acccompanying 
plate belongs to BoisduvaFs seventeenth group of the genus ; but 
is distinguished from the majority by the great elongation and 
narrowness of the wings, and the very broad and spatulated tail ; 
and from all, by the bright red base of all the wings on the under- 
side. It is most nearly related to the two species P. Philoxenus 
and P. Minereus of Gray (Zool. Misc. p. 82), which were de- 
scribed from unique specimens contained in General Hardwicke's 
collection now at the British Museum, namely, a male of the for- 
mer and a female of the latter species. From this circumstance, 
united with the evident relationship between the insects, M. Bois- 
duval was induced, in his " Histoire Naturelle des Lepidopteres," 
to consider these two individuals as the sexes of one species, for 
which he retained the name of P. Philoxenus. The collection of 
Assamese insects formed by Mr. Griffith, now in the possession of 
R. H. Solly, Esq., and that forwarded from Sylhet to the Rev. 
Mr, Stainforth, now in the possession of Mr. H. Doubleday, have 
enabled me to determine the specific distinction of the two species ; 
and as there is no figure of either (except the wretched one of 
Minereus given by Donovan, Naturalist's Repos., vol. 4, pi. 140, 
which Boisduval has omitted to quote), I propose to illustrate them 
a future number of this work. The following are the characters 
of the new species figured in the accompanying plate, which was 
also contained in Mr. Stainforth's collection, above mentioned. 

PAPILIO BOOTES, Wesiw. 

P. alis nigris, valde elongatis, posticis spathulato-caudatis, harum disco plaga media alba, vena 
nigiii in duas partes divisa, macula ad augulum ani, lunulisque tribussubmarcrjnalibus rufis • 
incisionibus pallide marginatis, caudaque bimaculata ; alis subtus similibus at pallidiori- 
bus ; omnibus plaga magna basali rufa ; maculis lunulisque rufis majoribus, capita, collo 
et corpora infra rufo. Expans. alar. unc. 5. 

Inhabits Sylhet in the East Indies. D. Stainforth. In Mus. H. Doubleday. 



Since the publication of the last number of this work, I have 
been favoured with another translation of the sono- " I'd be a 



124 PAPILIO. 



Butterfly," which appeared in the " Times,"''' on the 8th of August, 
1828, shortly after the publication of that by Archdeacon Wrang- 
ham. The elegance of many of the lines will be an ample excuse 
for my introducing it into a vacant page. 



PAPILIO. ( Versio altera . ) 

Proles arbusti, Papilio ut forem, 
Violas, et lilia, et rosas halans ; 
Erraticus usque de flore ad florem, 
Quse pulchra, quae suavia sunt^ osculans ! 
Non opum sentirem, non regni furorem, 
Ut sternat se coram me nemo, curans : 
Modo proles arbusti Papilio si forem. 
Quae suavia, pulchraque sunt, osculans ! 

O, nossem caduceum Magse subtrahere, 
Has alulas pulchras induerem mi : 
^stivo sub axe vagantur in aere, 
Et rosa eubant, ubi gemis, Atthi ! 
Sit vigil et cautus, qui dives, necesse est ; 
Nil afferunt sceptra, miserias ni : 
Papilionem me ter satis esse est, 
Rosa cubantem, cum gemis, Atthi ! 

Quid quod autumni cum redit tempestas, 
Vanescunt errones hi mox parvuli : 
Multo plus praestat, cum finiit aestas, 
Morientibus omnibus pulchris, mori ! 
In hieme vitae, quels ridet hie status, 
Arcento, si poterunt, ictum leti : 
Fiam Papilio, degamque paratus, 
Morientibus omnibus pulchris, mori ! 



The plate also represents a single flower of the Indian Dendfo- 
bium moschatum of Hamilton, of which a most splendid specimen, 
with a great number of pendent branches covered with blossoms, 
formed one of the finest ornaments at the June fete at the Horti- 
cultural Society's Gardens at Chiswick, 1842. 



125 



PLATE XXXII. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF SOME SPECIES OF CETONIIDjE FROM MADAGASCAR. 



The insects of Madagascar, from the little hitherto known of 
them, appear to be almost as remarkable as those of New Holland. 
The beautiful Carabideous Euryderte, Cicindelideous Psilocerse, 
Buprestideous Polybothrides, the Lamellicorn Epilissi, and especi- 
ally the Cetoniidse, may be cited as instances of anomalous forma- 
tion. These are Coleopterous examples, but of the other orders of 
insects, (except Lepidoptera,) from Madagascar we are almost 
totally ignorant. 

Of the four Cetoniidje figured in the opposite plate, two (fig. 1 
and 4,) have been for some years past partially known by the insuffi- 
cient descriptions of Messrs. Gory and Percheron, published in 
Silbermann''s Revue Entomologique (No. 15, 1885). No figures 
of them have however yet appeared. The other two species 
(fig. 2 and 3,) are new, having been but very recently received in 
Paris from Madagascar. They are both of considerable interest, 
especially figure 8, which is, in several respects, one of the most 
singular species of the family. 

The insect represented in figure 1 was referred by Messrs. Gory 
and Percheron to the genus Goliath ; a second species, G. ochreata, 
was also described by them, which agrees with this in structural 
characters. Dr. Burmeister in his manuscripts, (of which he 
has kindly allowed me to avail myself,) has considered these two 
insects as forming a separate genus intermediate between those 
groups of Goliathideous Cetoniidee which have the head of the males 
strongly cornuted, and those in which the head is simple in both 
sexes. I have much pleasure in retaining his name, and illustrating 
it with details taken from the unique male of the species figured, 
contained in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes. The details 
of the female are taken from a specimen in the collection of 
A. Melly, Esq. In respect to the flattened horn at the hind part 
of the head, the group is analogous to the Trigonophori of India 



126 MADAGASCAR CETONIID^.. 

and the African group* typified by Get. bimaculata, De Geer. (flavo- 
mnculata, Auct.), and especially to the genus Lophorrhina, Burm. 
MSS. (Cetonia 5-lineata, F. and pentachordia, Klug), also from 
Africa, (but unknown to Mac Leay,) which, like the present genus 
possesses tridentate anterior tibise in both sexes. 

Genus PLjESIORRHINA, Burm., MSS. 

PleBsiorrhina reflexa, (Plate 32, fig. 1.) 

Syn. — Cetonia (Goliath) rejlexa, Gory and Perclieion (Descr. de quelq. noiiv. Esp. de 
Cetoinesde Madagascar, in Silb. Rev. Ent. 1835, No. 15). 

The large size of the head of the male of this species, with its 
dorsal and lateral horns, render it a very conspicuous insect. It is 
but moderately shining, and but very slightly punctured, being of 
a black colour with a greenish tinge, except the pronotum and 
elytra, which are slightly tinged with blue ; the dorsal horn of the 
head has a castaneous central line down the centre, the sides of the 
pronotum are castaneous as well as the two spots on the posterior 
margin ; the base of the metacoxae and the exposed part of the 
raesosternum are luteo-castaneous. The general colour of the under- 
surface of the body is a dark apple green. The femora and 
reflexed undersides of the pronotum luteo-fulvous, with a slightly 
greenish tinge. Fig. 1 a represents the head of male, seen from the 
side, and 1 b from beneath ; 1 c, the maxilla of the male, the lower 
lobe destitute of any tooth r, 1 d, the mentum, deeply channeled 
parallel to the tip (as in the typical Goliathi), concealing the base 
of the labial palpi ; 1 e, the mesosternum seen laterally, and ] f 
seen from beneath ; 1 (/, the head of the female, and 1 h, the fore 
tibise of the same sex. The female has the four posterior tibise also 
more strongly spurred, beyond the middle, than the males, and the 
mesosternum broader and somewhat more triangular. 

The female of Goliath ochreata, G. and P., has the sides of the 
head straight, the front part forming a short triangle with the 
point in front ; the inner lobe of the maxillae is much broader than 
in PI. reflexa <J, but without any tooth; the mentum is very 
similar in shape and structure to that of Tmesorrhina concolor 
(pi. 19, fig. 8 c), being, however rather broader, and the mesoster- 
num is considerably more porrected than in PI. reflexa. It is in the 
collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope. 

* ANISORRHINA, JVestw. 
Tibias anticae $ inermes, extus 3-dentatas. Tibiae 4 posticae $ simplices, $ latiores pone 
medium calcaratae. Maxillae lobo interno spina acuta terminate, lobo externo nonnullis 
bifido. Mesosternum porrectum conicum. Tarsi antici ij crassiores quam in $. Clypeus 
formae variabilis sc. in A. bimaculata De G. caput maris antice conico-elevatum et occipite 
spina plana obtusa armato; foeminse vero simplex ineime et antice emarginatum : in 
A. umbonata Kl. caput utriusque sexus inerme et antice fere rectum est. 



MADAGASCAU CETONIID.E. 127 

Genus SCHIZORHINA, Kirby. 

Schizorhina Guerinii, Westw. (Plate 32, fig. 2.) Nigra, prothoracis lateribus elytrisqiie 
pioeo-rufis, bis valde vaiiolosis, clvpco valde inciso, antennis pedibusque castaneis, tarsis 
lonnissimis, niesosterno baud producto. ^ Long. corp. lin. 10. Inbabits Madagascar. 
In Mils. D. Gucrin Meneville, Paiisiis. 

This interesting species will not enter into either of the five groups 
of the genus proposed by Mr. MacLeay {see p. 103 ante). The head 
is black, with the deeply cleft clypeus and antennce castaneous, it is 
clothed on the disc with fulvous hairs. The pronotum has the sides 
nearly straight, the hind part being much broader than the anterior, 
which has an elevated tubercle in the middle. The disc is very 
irregularly punctured, with a slightly raised line of punctures down 
the middle. The disc is black, with the sides of a pitchy red, tinged 
with purple. The elytra are broader at the base than the hind part 
of the pronotum ; they are very flat on the disc, the extreme 
lateral margins being, in fact, slightly elevated, and they become 
gradually narrowed from the base, the apex of the suture not being 
spined. They are very strongly variolose on the disc, the punctures 
being largest and most irregular before the middle. They are of 
the same colour as the sides of the pronotum. The legs are castaneous 
and very long. The anterior tibiae in the male, (I have not seen the 
female,) are externally bidentate, the middle tibiae spurred beyond 
the middle, and the hind tibise, with the apical portion on the inside, 
dilated. The mesosternum (fig. 2 a) is not advanced ; the maxillae 
have the inner lobe quite simple (fig. 2 b) ; and the mentum (fig. 2 c) 
is broadest and emarginate in front. The abdomen of the male is 
channeled down the middle beneath. 

Schizorhina plumigera. (Plate 32, fig. 4.) 

Syn. Cetonia plumigera, Gory and Perch, op. cit. No. 10. 

This is another anomalous species, which, from the form of the 
clypeus, must be referred to Schizorhina, from all the previously 
known types of which, however, it differs, both in form and in 
the singular clothing of hairs on the inside of the hind tai'si. The 
body is deflexed at each end, the clypeus deeply bifid, the meso- 
sternum porrected and acute, the pronotum with two, and the elytra 
with four, longitudinal carinae. The head is of a black coloui', 
pitchy in front, the antennae pitchy black, the pronotum clothed 
with very fine greenish-grey pile, with the sides and the two costae 
shining black : the elytra are also similarly coloured with the 
costae and sides black, the latter with the spots and apex white ; 
there are also two white spots on the podex above. The body is 
black beneath with white transverse lines (interrupted in the 



12 ■$ MADAGASCAR CETONlll).?:. 

middle) on the thorax and abdomen, the legs and the hairs of the 
hind tarsi are black, the tips of the hind femora and hind tibiae 
are pitchy red and curved. The anterior tibise are simple in the 
males. Specimens are in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, 
and of M. Dupont of Paris. 

Genus CHROMOPTILIA. Weslw. 

I have no hesitation in regarding the insect represented in 
figure 3, as the type of a group distinct from Schizorhina. The 
form of the prothorax is altogether unlike that of any of the 
known Cetoniidse ; and it will be remembered that the form of this 
portion of the body is one of the most important characters in the 
group. The species has, indeed, been regarded by more than one 
entomologist to whom I have shown it, as one of the Trichiides ; 
but the sinuated sides of the elytra, as well as the structure of the 
mouth, assert its claim to be considered as a Cetoniideous insect ; 
indeed the structure of the clypeus, porrected maxillary lobes, and 
hairy hind feet, point out its relation to Schizorhina, and espe- 
cially to such species as S. plumigera. Figure 3 a represents the 
mandible, 3 b the maxilla of both sexes destitute of any tooth on the 
inner lobe, and with the upper lobe entire, horny, acute, and very 
setose ; and 3 c the mentum, oval in form and deeply notched in 
front. The head is alike in both sexes, and not cornuted. The 
clava of the antennae of the male is slightly more elongated than 
in the female. The mesosternum is short, gibbose, and not at 
all produced (figs. 3 d, 3 e), the elytra are broadest at the base, 
each with a strongly elevated costa running down the centre nearly 
to the tip. The legs are long, the fore legs of the male being rather 
longer than those of the female. The anterior tibiae are 3-dentate 
in both sexes, those of the female (fig. 3 (ji) being rather broader 
than those of the male (fig. Sf) ; this is the only distinguishing 
external character which I can find, as the abdomen of the male is 
not longitudinally channeled : the hind tibiae are slightly spurred 
beyond the middle in both sexes. The hind tarsi, in both sexes, 
are long, and clothed on each side with bundles of very long hair, 
those on the outside of the last two joints of the tarsi being bright 
fulvous, whilst all the others are black. 

Species TJnica. — Chromoptilia diversipes, AVestw. Nigra, nitida, punctata, valde luteo- 
pilosa, antennis tarsisque 4 antiois piccis, vitta transversa tenui media intemipta, punctie- 
que nonniillis elytroiuQi maculisque diuibus pygidii albidis, tarsis posticis nigro et 
fulvo pilosis ; corpore infra nigro, griseo valde piloso. Long. corp. lin. 6^. 

Inhabits Madagascar. Mus. Westwood, &c. 

The plant figured in the plate is the charming Euphorbia splendens of Madagascar, diawn 

rom a specimen communicated from the Botanic Garden Kew. 



129 



PLATES XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, and XXXVI. 

ON THE GOLTATHIDEOUS CETONIID.^ OF ASIA. 
Part II. 

The first and second figures of plate 33, representing the female 
of Narycius opalus and the male of N. (C.) smaragdulus, with their 
details, have already been described in the former paper on the 
Asiatic Goliath beetles (pp. 114, 115), as has also Rhomborhina 
clypeata, described in page 119, where it was accidentally referred 
to plate 33, fig. 3, instead of plate 34, fig. 3. I now proceed, there- 
fore, with the illustrations of the remaining species, all of which 
(with the exception of those composing the group named Diceros) 
enter into the genus Gnathocera of Gory and Percheron. 

A genus thus named was first described by the Rev. Dr. Kirby 
in the 14th volume of the Linnsean Transactions (p. 571), the 
description, especially of the maxillae and gense, is however applicable 
to a very different group of African Cetoniidse, typified by Cetonia 
elata, Fabr. Considerable confusion has, indeed, subsequently 
arisen in the employment of this generic name, which has been 
attributed to indolence, or even to a still worse principle*. The 
confusion, however, appears to me to have originated from a 
misapprehension of the note appended by Mr. Kirby to his generic 
description. After stating that the type of the genus was the 
Cetonia vitticollis, Latr. MS., he adds, " Regie, Africa. Cognate 
species, Cetonia africana, elegans," &c. ; which would naturally 
lead to the opinion that the last-named species were regarded as 
congeneric with the type. That such, however, was not his view, 
is evident, not only from the Indian C. elegans being given as one of 
these cognate species, but also from the appendix to the Introduction 
to Entomology t; wherein the C. vitticollis is given under Gnathocera, 

* In this, as in numerous other respects, Mr. Mac Leay charges Messrs. Gorj' and Percheron 
with blindly following Dejean, whereas the first part of their monograph (which contained an 
entire synopsis of the genera and species) appeared in 1833, in wiiich year only was com- 
menced the 2nd Edition of Dejean's Catalogue. It is rather amusing to compare such a 
charge with the observation of Count Mannerheim upon the same authors (Observ, critiq. sur 
la Monog. des Ce'toines), " lis s'obstinent encore plus dans leur principe de ne pas adopter les 
noms de Dfjean." We are involuntarily reminded by these conflicting charges of the fable 
of the Old Man, his Son, and his Ass. 

t The evident meaning of the word Gnathocera, as employed by Kirby, is an allusion to 

NO. IX. \st SEPTEMBER, 1842. K 



130 



ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETOXIID^ 



and C. afrlcana under a new genus Chlorocala, without any 
description. jSIessrs. Gory and Perclieron, however, injudiciously 
adopting a principle far too general, and which has led to almost 
irremediable confusion in entomological nomenclature — (namely, 
that they were at liberty to select any given species as the one to 
which the old generic name might be attached when the genus 
became dismembered), retained the C. africana as the type of 
Gnathocera, and gave the insects which are the true types of 
Gnathocera under a new generic name, Amphistoros. 

Mr. MacLeay, in the Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, 
restored the name of Gnathocera to the latter of these two groups, 
whilst for the former he took up the name Complies, originally 
proposed for it by Gory and Percheron, but which he has altered 
to Coryphe. Under this name it constitutes Mr. ]\lacLeay's second 
subgenus of Cetoninus, intervening between the two other sub- 
genera, Schizorhina and Goliathus. Of Schizorhina I have not 
hitherto treated, except by giving Mr. MacLeay's divisions of it, 
and describing some new species (ante, p. 103), but his divisions 
of Goliathus will be found ante, p. 6. Mr. MacLeay observes 
upon Coryphe, that it is extremely close to Goliathus, from which 
it may be known " by the maxillae having the terminal process 
shorter, and in a line with the base, and by the mentum being more 
truncated; but, above all, by the horny part of their mandibles being 
much longer than the square membranous part. The males scarcely 
ever have any teeth on the external side of the anterior tibiae, and 
when they possess such teeth, it is merely because they belong to 
aberrant species." — Illustr. Cet. So. Afr. p. 29. 

The following are Mr. MacLeay's Sections of Coryphe : — 



B. Mentum emar- 
ginate, ^ witli an- 
terior tibicc exter. 
nally bidentate, \ 
rarely tridentate. 



f TMaxilla having the inner process unidentate. 

1. Nariciae (of McL. J Thorax not semicircular. <^ Clypeus sometimes 
but not of Dupout). I horned or bifurcate. India. Type, Cetonia 
\^Mac Leaii, K. 



Asiatic Insects. 



(Maxilla having the inner process unidentate. 
Thorax semicircular. <J Clypeus bifurcate. 
Indian Islands. Tjpc, C bicornis, Latr. 



TT ^ . ^ , Maxilla having no tooth on tlie inner process. 

Hope, misnamed rr,i , • • i < • i i 

T>. , .. , >lhorax not semicircular. ^ with clypeus gene- 

,T J >. • rally homed. Asia. Type, C. Hardwickii. 



the jaw-like horns of the head ; and hence, in the " Introduction to Entomology," vol. iii. p. 
488, he observed, " These horns have at first the aspect of a pair of open mandibles."' This is 
in no wise applicable to C. africana, &c. 



OF THE EASTERN WOULU. 131 

/■ , Q 1 u- T\T r iVFaxilla with no tooth on the inner process. $ 

It ^ Tibiae externally tridentate. Southern Africa, 

cmaiginate. ) ' [Ty^e, C. suiuralis,h\h.* 

African Insects ' f '^^"^''^^ ""'>''^ ''^ '°'i"" Process uuidcntate. $ An- 

■ I 5. Clilorocala3,K. < tcrior tibiae without teeth. Tropical Africa. Type, 
V. [C. Iris, Fab f. 

As the first of these sections comprises the majority of the 
species ilhistrated in the plates of the present Number, it will be 
further necessary to add the subsections into which it is distributed 
by Mr. MacLeay. 

{1. Cetonia elegans, Fabr. Colour green. $ Clypeiis with no liorii. 
2. Cetonia Mac Leaii, K. Colour green with black spots. $ Clypeus with a short 
vertical liorn. 

'^3. Cetonia pretiosa, Esch, Colour green with black spots. $ Clypeus with two 

lateral horns. 
4. Cetonia guttata, Oliv. Colour green and red, with white spots. $ Clypeus with 

two lateral horns. 
^5. Narycius olivaceus, Dup. Colour green. ^ Clypeus with two lateral horns. 

On reviewing these arrangements of Mr. Mac Leay, and after 
studying the numerous dissections which I have given in my illustra- 
tions of these insects, it is impossible to arrive at any other con- 
clusion than that Mr. Mac Leay's distinctions between Coryphe 
and Goliathus are of no intrinsic value, and that the distribution of 
the sections of Coryphe, and of the subsections of the first of its 
sections [Naricise Mc L.] require complete remodelling. 

The attempt to separate the African from the Asiatic species of 
Coryphe must also be considered as unsuccessful. A comparison of 
the Indian C. elegans with the African C. africana and C. stigma ; 
and of the Indian insect which has been termed Diceros Cuvera, 
with the African C. suturalis, will at once prove the unity of the 
group. The character relied upon by Mr. Mac Leay is, moreover, 
an erroneous one^ since C. Iris, Fab. (see ante, pi. 19, fig. 2, and 
p. 107), possesses a mentum more deeply emarginate than any of 
the Asiatic species. 

Again, with respect to the sub-sections of Mr. Mc Leay's first 
Asiatic section of Coryphe, it is to be observed, that C. Mac Leaii, 
K. and C. pretiosa, are identical; that C. guttata is an African insect, 
belonging to another section, and that N. olivaceus is the female 
of N. opalus, assigned, properly, by Mr. Mac Leay to another 
situation much nearer to the genuine Goliathi. 

* This insect has the anterior $ tibiee bidentate. 
\ This insect has the anterior $ tibia; tridentate. 

K 2 



132 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID^ 

The species to which our attention is now directed are the 
most aberrant of the Gohathideous Cetoniidse. They have lost the 
characters of the prothorax broadest across the middle, and the 
pluridentate and porrected upper maxillary lobe of Goliathus, 
Narycius, Cyphonocephalus, Mycteristes, and Phsedimus; and the 
dilated prothorax and elongated fore legs with 3-dentate tibiae of the 
males of Dicronocephalus. With this last, however, they agree 
in possessing a simple upper maxillary lobe. 

The remaining groups of the Asiatic Goliathideous Cetoniidse 
may be thus arranged. 

Mesosterni processus brevis latus. 

Tibias anticae $ intus serratae, extus $ $ bidentatas . . Jumnos *. 

Tibise anticae $ extus inermes . . . ... Rhomborhina. 

Mesosterni processus elongatus angustus 
Pedes antici $ elongati 

Clypeus in utroque sexu cornu obtriangulari armatus . . Trigonophorus, 

Clypeus in utroque sexu quadratus . . . . . Anomalocera. 

Pedes antici $ vix aut non longiores quam in J . Clypeus diversus Heterorhina. 
Tibiae antica; $ simplices . . C. nigritarsis, Mac Leaii, Iceta, ^c. 

Tibiae anticae ^ sub-bidentatae 

a latiores . C. elegans, Sfc.f 

b angustiores 

* Clypeus integer $ (^ . . . . C. himacula, ^c. % 

••Clj^peus $ bicornutus . . . Dicer os bicornis, SfC. 

As the toothing of the anterior tibiae affords one of the most 
satisfactory characters for the discrimination of the group of 
Goliathideous Cetoniidse, and as the different sections founded 
thereon, especially amongst the African species, have received 
generic names referring to the structure of the clypeus, I propose 
in this place to distinguish those species with bidentate tibiae in 
the females, and with tibiae either simple, or exhibiting a slight 
indication of bidentation in the males, and which, moreover, have 
generally an elongated mesosternal process, and the fore feet not 
materially unequal in size in the two sexes, under the name of 

HETERORHINA, § 

A name selected from the very variable structure and armature 
of the clypeus. If, indeed, this character were allowed to prevail 

* There is no African group precisely analogous to this, in the form of the clypeus ; Eudi- 
cella, however, represents it in respect to the internal serration of the fore tibiae of the males. 

t Represented in Africa by C. africana, stigma, &c. 

t Represented in Africa by C. suturalis. 

§ As this group is quite different in its construction from those of Gnathocera of Gory and 
Percheron, or Coryphe of Mac Leay, I have applied a new name to it. Mr. Kirby's excellent 
name of Chlorocala -would have been adopted had not the group been intended to comprise 
species which are neither green nor beautiful. 



OF THE EASTERN WORLD. 133 

for the establishment of generic and sub-generic groups, nearly 
every species would form a different group. And yet there is no 
other character which will separate Diceros (or Dicheros, as Gory 
and Percheron write the word) from the other Heterorhina3. 

In addition to the Asiatic species of this group subsequently 
noticed, the group comprises the African species C. Africana, 
Drmy, C. stigma, Pal. Beaiw., and C. suturalis *, as well as C. 
smaragdina and chloris of Gory and [Percheron's Monograph ; 
which last two species appear to be also African insects, judging, 
at least, from the specimens in Mr. Hope's collection, ticketed by 
M. Gory himself. 

A rigid investigation of the species of this group, has shown the 
relative value of the different characters employed in their classifi- 
cation. The form of the head varies almost in every species ; the 
maxillas are sometimes terminated by a simple and sometimes a bifid 
lobe, this difference sometimes occurring in the same individual ; 
and when simple, itvaries very considerably in form in the different 
species. The form of the mesosternal process is variable, but gene- 
rally very much elongated and acute ; in H. Hopei and Bengalensis 
it is, however, short and obtuse. There is considerable dif- 
ference in the amount of emargination of the anterior margin of 
the mentum ; the club of the antennse is also slightly variable in 
size in the opposite sexes of some of the species. There is 
also considerable difference in the spur at the middle of the four 
posterior tibiae ; indeed, in some species it is quite obsolete. 
The apex of the elytra is sometimes rounded, and sometimes pro- 
duced into two acute spines at the suture, and the unguiculi differ 
very much in size. The form of the body and the colouring of the 
species also differ materially. All these variations will, however, 
be more particularly noticed under each species. 

Species I. — Heterorhina nigritarsis. (Plate 30, fig. 7, 7 a and b, and 8 a, b, c, d.) 
Celonia n. Hope,Syn. Col. Nep. iu Gray's Zool. Misc. 1.24. Gnathocera n. Gory 
aud Percheron, pi. 20, fig. 3. 

This species has all the legs as well as the clava of the antennae considerably elongated in 
the male, which is the only sex I have seen, so that I am uncertain whether a corresponding 
elongation exists in the opposite sex. The clypeiis (tig. 8 d) is produced in front into a 
conical, somewhat recurved plate truncated in the front. The crown of the head is slightly 
keeled down the centre. The fore feet are quite simjiie, as are also the middle tibise, but the 
hind ones are slightly spurred below the middle. The abdomen in this sex is not channeled 
beneath. The mesosternal process is (fig. la and 7b) rather long, pointed, and nearly straight. 
The mandibles (fig. 8 a) are rather small, with the horny blade rather longer than the square 
membranous part ; the maxilla? (fig. 8 6) are considerably elongated, the inner lobe produced 
into a straight obtuse point, and tlie upper lobe large, and extending far beyond the front of 

* I have not examiued C. Feisthamel, viridi-cyanea, aud monoccros. 



134 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID^ 

the mentum (fig. 8 c), which is deeply emarginate. The femora are peculiarly coloured, being 
of a fine golden, fulvous, or opaline colour, with the inner edge of each shining green 
or blue. 

The colour of the species varies very considerably, the upper surface varying from golden- 
green to blue, slightly tinged with green, with the elytra rich lilac-purple, with a dark suture. 
Such individuals (one of which is figured in plate 30, fig. 7, from the collection of F. Parry, 
Esq.), I believe, constitute the so-called species Cetonia mutabilis, Hope (Syn., Nep. Col. 
supr. cit.), but they are structurally identical with the type of the species, except that the 
conical front of the clypeus is not so regularly truncate. 

Inhabits Nepaul and other parts of India. 

Species II. — Heterorhina Hopei (Plate 33, fig. 3, and details). 

Gnathocera Hope, Gory and Percheron, Mon. Cet. pi. 20, f. 4. 

This species has very much of the habit of the preceding, but differs from it in several 
important characters : — thus, the clypeus is entire and quadrate, with the lateral and front 
margin slightly elevated, and the crown of the head scarcely elevated in the middle. The 
antennse have a club of moderate length. The fore tibiae are simple, whence I conclude the 
specimens examined to be males, although the abdomen is not channeled beneath. The 
maxilla? (fig. 3 a) are rather short, with the inner lobe terminated by an acute, curved, horny 
point, and the upper lobe also curved and terminated by two sharp horny points ; the mentum 
is rather deeply notched in the middle of the front margin. The mesostemal process is very 
short and obtuse (fig. 3 6, 3 c). The hind tibiae are distinctly spurred below the middle, and 
the plantula: and pseudonychiae are very distinct. 

The species varies very much in colour ; some specimens in the collection of Nepalese 
insects presented to the Linnfean Society by General Hardwicke, being of a blue or purple 
tinge. The one now figured, from the collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq., is of an intense 
fiery copper, tinged according to the play of light with golden green. 

Species HI. — Heiororhina dives, Westw. (Plate 33, fig. 5 a, b, c, d, e, /.) 

Gnathocera Mac Leay, Gory and Perche'ron, Mon. Ce't. pi. 19, fig. 2 (nee. Cet. Mac 

Leaii, Kirby). 
Coryphe pretiosa, Mac Leay Cet. So. Afr. p. 29 (nee Cetonia pretiosa Esch.) 

The only specimen I have seen of this magnificent insect was in the museum of the Jardin 
des Plantes, where I found it arranged with the true Cet. Mac Leaii, with which it has also 
been confounded by Gory and Percheron, whilst Mr. Mac Leay (from confiding in their Jlono- 
graphie) has mistaken it for the C. pretiosa of Eschscholtz. As it is from this specimen that 
my figures were drawn, I did not venture to extract the trophi. The head of the male has 
the sides produced into two long porrected, nearly straight horns, the tips being incurved (fig. 
5 a, head from above, 5 b, the same from the front, 5 c, the same sideways) ; the front of the 
clypeus is deflexed and broad (5 b) ; the crown of the head is furnished with a very broad, 
short plate ; the mesosternal process is long, narrowed, rather obtuse at the tip, which is 
slio-htly bent upwards (fig. 5 e and 5 /) ; the fore tibia (5 d) are short and toothless, the 
hind ones have the rudiment of a spur below the middle ; the pseudonychiae are scarcely dis- 
tinct, and the elytra have the tips strongly spined at the suture. As this species is well 
figured in the Monographic des Cetoines, I have not thought it necessary to refigure it. 

Species IV. — Heterorhina Mac Leaii (plate 33, fig. 4, and details). 

Cetonia Mac Leaii, Kirby in Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. 12, p. 408, pi. 21, fig. 11 (nee. 

Gory and Perch), 
Cetoninus (Coryphe Naricia § 2 J Mac Leaii, Mac Leay, Cet. So. Afr. 
Cetonia pretiosa, Esch. Entom. p. 23, No. 9, 1822 (nee. Coryphe pretiosa, Mac 

Leay). 

It is at once evident, from Eschscholtz's character "capite spina incumbenti, clypeo reflexo 
bidentato," given of his C. pretiosa, that it is identical with Mr. Kirby's insect. This lovely 
species has been recently brought from the Philippine Islands, by Mr. Cuming, in considerable 
numbers ; as it is not, however, figured in Gory and Percheron's Monogi-aph, I have introduced 
it in the present work, and proceed to point out the characters of the sexes. The male has 
the clypeus more strongly bifid in front than the female, and the flattened horn on the crown 
of the bead in the former sex is much more acute than in the female, which has it obtusely 
rounded, or but slightly pointed (4 a, 4 6, head of male, 4/, head of female.) The mandibles 



OF THE EASTERN WORLD. 133 

have the horny blade more than one-third longer than the square niemhranouspart ; the maxilla 
of the male has the inner lobo pointed at the tip ( fig. 4 c), and tlic upper lobe horny, entire, and 
not very acutely pointed at the tip ; but in the female (4 y) the upper lobe is acutely bifid at the 
tip ; the mcntuiu is deeply cleft in the centre of the anterior maifrin. The mesosternal process is 
rather long, flat, and not very acute at the tip (fig. 4 rf and -i e) ; the abdomen of the male is 
deeply channeled down the middle beneath ; the elytra of tlie males are terminated by two 
strong spines at the suture. The fore tibiae in the males are simple, but bidentale in the 
female (fig. 4 h) ; the intermediate tibiaj are also simple in the male, but slightly spurred 
beyond tlie middle in the female, whilst the hind tibifc are spurred in that situation in both 
sexes. The pseudonychise are scarcely distinct. Some specimens have two small black spots 
on the pronotura in lieu of the large one, and the black spot near the base of the elytra almost 
divided in two by a longitudinal patch of green. 

Specif.s V. — Heterorhina decora (Plate 33, fig. 6). 

Cetonia decora, IKgcT. Vers. Oliv. Ent. 2, p. 148 ; Schon. Syn. 1, 3, pag. 133. 
Cetonia 6-maculata, Fabricius Svst. El. 2, p. 149 ; Gorv and Pcrcheion Mon. Get. pi. 

19, fig. 3. 
Cetonia maculata, Gory and Percheron op. cit. in text. 

This is another species closely allied to the preceding in the disposition of its colours, hut 
which differs fi'om both materially in the structure of the clypeus. In both sexes the anterior 
angles of the head are rounded off, the middle being produced into a cone truncated, or rather, 
slightly emarginate at the tip (fig. 6 «). The crown of the head has a short flat horn, 
which is truncated in the male, but rather conical at the tip in the females. The mixilla in 
the female (fig. f) b) has the lower lobe terminated by a curved spine, wiiilst the upper lobe is 
curved and acutely bifid at the tip ; the mesosternal process is long, narrow, obtuse, and rather 
bent upwards at the tip (fig. 6 c and 6 d) ; the elytra are spined at the tips, especially in tiie 
males. The fore tibia; of the males are entire, but bidentate in the females ; the lower tooth 
minute. The hind tibise are slightly spurred below the middle. The tarsi in the female are 
short and broad. The spottings vary very considerably in size, being sometimes very small, 
as in a specimen in the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, in which those on the pronotum 
and near the suture are almost obsolete ; and sometimes almost as large as in H. iNIac Leaii, 
as in the magnificent specimen represented in the plate, collected in Java by Dr. Horsfield, 
and contained in the Museum of the East India House. 

Species VI. — Heterorhina amcena (Plate 34, fig. 4, and details). 
Coryphe amcena, Hope in Trans. Ent. Soc., Vol. 3, p. 64. 

This small Assamese species has the sides of the head rounded in both sexes; the middle 
of the front margin of the clypeus being rather deeply notched (fig. 4 a 4 6), the upper sur- 
face of the head is strongly carinated, the carina terminating in a conical point in both sexes; 
the mandibles have the horny blade long (fig. 4 c), the maxillae of both sexes (fig. 4 d) have 
both the lobes rather oblong at the tip. The mentum is cordate-truncate, with the anterior 
margin deeply notched (fig. 4 e) ; the fore tibise of the male are simple, but slightly bidentate 
in the female (fig. 4 h), the mesosternal process is elongate, narrowed, not very acute at the 
tip, which is rather bent upwards (fig. 4/4 r/), the hind tibiae are not spurred beyond the 
middle. The male has the abdomen channeled down the middle beneath. 

Species VII. — Heterorhina punctatissima, Westw. (Plate 34, fig. 5, and details). 

Coryphe jucunda, Hope in Trans. Eut. Soc, vol. 3, p. 64, nee. Germar in Allg. Liter. 
Zeit., Aug. 1837. 

This new species is about the size of H. decora, it is of a remarkably rich dark-green colour 
and very much punctured. The middle of the anterior margin of the clypeus is slightly 
produced and reflexed in both sexes (fig. 5 a 6 .^ , fig. 5 c $ ). In the male the crown of the 
head is bounded in front by a broad curved horn, rising but very little above the surface of 
the head (5 a), in the female, however, (5 c) , this is much more developed, and the crown is 
moreover strongly keeled between the eyes, the keel terminating in a conical point. The 
maxilla; have the lower lobe terminating in a point (5 d $), which is rather stronger in the 
female than in the male, and the upper lobe is acutely bifid, the lower tooth being the largest; 
the mentum is elongated, rather nanowed towards the base, and with the front margin deeply 
notched in the middle; the mesosternal process is moderately long and rounded at the tip, 
which is scarcely turned upwards (fig. 5/5 g). The fore tibiae of the males are entire but 



136 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID^ 

deeply bidentate in the $ (fig. 5 e) ; the fonr hind tibiae are toothed below the middle. The 
abdomen is not channeled beneath in the middle in the males. The pseudonycliise are long. 
I have seen specimens of this species in the collections of Messrs. Hope, Solly (from Assam), 
Parry (from Sylhet), the";Entomological Society of London (received from Mr. Mc Clelland), 
and the East India House. 

Species VIH. — Heterorhina tibialis, Westw., n. sp. (PI. 34, fig. 6 and details.) 
H. oblonga, viridis, rugosula, tibiis rufis ; clypeo $ subsimplici, $ transverse carinato. 
Long. Corp. lin. lOJ. Inhabits East Indies, Assam ? Mus. Soc. Merc. Ind. Or. et nostr. 

This new species is most nearly related to the preceding, but it is considerably smaller, 
narrower, and more regularly oblong. The green colour is of a much darker tint on tlie 
upper surface of the body, which is very much punctured, the punctures, however, being not so 
well defined as in the preceding, whence the elytra have a more rugulose appearance, except 
down each side of the suture and along two striae (bordered by deeper punctures), down the 
disc of each elytra. Tlie under side of the body is more shining green, with a coppery tinge, 
the thoracic portion being deeply punctured. The exposed part of the metacoxse and the two 
posterior tibise are red, the tarsi black, and the femora concolorous with the body. The head 
of the male (fig. 6 a, 6 6) is nearly square along the front margin, which is slightly reflexed, 
and there is a slightly defined, curved line, running between the base of the antenna, its 
middle touching a scarcely more raised, central, small tubercle — the head of the female, on the 
other hand, has the middle of the front margin elevated into a small, upright, conical lobe 
(not visible looking downward) ; the ridge above-mentioned is greatly elevated, and there is also 
a slightly raised tubercle behind. The maxillae have the lower lobe terminated by an obtuse 
point, scarcely stronger in the female than in the male ; but the upper lobe is strongly and 
acutely bifid in both sexes (fig. 6 d). The mentum is strongly notched in the middle of the 
front marcrin. The fore tibisB of the male are simple, but in the female they are broad and 
obtusely bidentate (fig. 6 e) ; the two hind tibice in the male and the middle and hind ones in 
the female are spurred below the middle. The mesosternal process is porrected, rounded, and 
slightly bent upwards at the tip (fig. 6 /and 6 g). The abdomen of the male is not channeled 
beneath, and the club of the antennae is of equal length in both sexes. 

Species IX. — Heterorhina glaberrima, Westw. n. sp. (Plate 34, fig. 1, and details.) 
H. nigra nitidissima, thorace et elytris impunctatis, castaneo, glauco, vei viridi-tincta, 
clypeo integro subquadrato in utroque sexu simplice, metasterno canaliculato. Long. corp. 
lin. Hi. 
Habitat in India Orientali. In Mus. Soc. Merc. Ind. Or. et D. Parry, 

This very distinct species possesses many of the characters both of Rhomborhina and Ano- 
malocera, but difi'ers in habit materially from both, having also a much more elongated meso- 
sternal process than the former, and the clava of the antenna9 of the males much shorter than 
in the latter. The general form is more regularly oblong than in the majority of the species; 
the head is entire, with the front part subquadrate, being rather narrower at the base of the 
antennae in the female than in the male ; the lateral and front margins are reflexed, the latter 
being slightly curved instead of straight ; the disc of the head is nearly flat and punctured. 
The club of the antenna; in the male is evidently longer than in the female ; the lower lobe 
of the maxillje of the male (tig. 1 a) is not so acutely hooked at the tip as in the female 
(fig. I b) ; the mentum is deeply notched in front ; the fore tibiae in the males are simple, but 
strongly bidentate in the females (fig. I e] ; tlie mesosternal process is elongated, not acutely 
pointed at the tip, which is bent upwards (fig. I c I rf) ; the elytra are somewhat acuminated 
at the tips. The metasternum in the males is deeply channeled longitudinally, and there is 
an impression in the middle of the basal joint of the abdomen ; the metasternal impression is 
less strong in the female than in the male, and the basal joint of the abdomen is not 
impressed. The four hind tibia; in the males are simple, but slightly spurred beyond the 
middle in the female. The pronotum and elytra are exceedingly glossy and impunctate, 
except the front of the former and the extremity of the latter. The colour is dark, but 
variable from a rich chestnut colour to green or bluish pui-ple, having in some shades a strong 
tinge of rich red brown, which it is impossible correctly to represent by colours. The podex is 
rugose, and clothed with fulvous hairs. The underside of the body and legs also varies in 
colour according to the upper side. 

This species serves well to show the gradual approximation of forms in a complete series of 
the species of a natural group ; it is only because we find other species in the present genus 
with an entire quadrate clypeus, such as H. leeta, Hopei, &c,, that I have retained this 



OF THE EASTERN WORLD. 137 

species in the genus now under description. In its peculiar babit it most approaches Rhom- 
borbina apicalis, but iu that species the clava of the autennw is of precisely equal length in 
both sexes, whereas in Rh. cyanipcs it is rather larger in the male than in the female. 

Species X. — Heterorhina lata (Plate 34, fig. "2 a — i). 
Cetonia Icela, Fabr. Syst. El. 2, p. 150. 
Cetonia pijropus, Herbst. Col. 3, p. 258, pi. 32, f. 6. Voet. Col. ed. Panz. 1 , pi. 4, f. 27. 

This beautiful species has the clypeus entire in both sexes, and slightly reflexed (fig. 2 a). 
The mandibles have the horny part acute, and about one third longer than the square portion 
(fig. 2 b). The maxillae have both lobes curved and acute (fig. 2 c) ; they are alike in both 
sexes. The mentum has a deep but rather narrow notch in the middle of the front margin 
(fig. 2 d). The club of the antenna; of the males is not longer than that of the females ; the 
abdomen of the males is not channeled beneath. The mesosternal process (fig. 2 e 2/) is 
elongate-conic, and rather obtuse at the tip, which is bent upwards toward the body ; the fore 
tibiae in the males (fig.2 ^) are entire, but broad and bidentate in the females (fig. 2 i) ; the four 
hind tibi;e are furnished below the middle with very slight rudiments of a spur ; the two posterior 
in the males are curved towards the base (fig. 2 h). The female has the elytra broader 
behind than the male. The species is not only a native of ,Tava, but Mr. Parry has received 
it from Sylhet, and there is a female specimen in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes 
labelled Gnathocera australis, received from M. Gory as a native of New Holland, which I 
cannot distinguish specifically from the true types of the species. 

Species XI. — Heterorhina Bengalensis (Plate 35, fig. 1, and details). 
Cetonia bengalensis, Hope, Syn. Nep. Col., inZool. Misc. p. 24. 
Gnathocera melnnaria, Gory and Percheron, Mon. Get. pi. 22, fig. 5 (variety). 
Gnathocera pyroscelis, Hope MSS. (variety). 

All the specimens of this species which I have seen are females, and differ in no structural 
respect from each other, the varieties consisting in the more or less pitchy red or black elytra, 
and the colour of the tibia;, some having them all black, others with the four, and some with 
only the two hind ones fulvous red.' The front of the clypeus is conical and notched in the 
middle, with a strong dorsal carina terminating in an obtuse point (fig. \a and 16) ; the 
mandibles have the horny blade rather broad in the middle, and at least one third longer than 
the square portion (fig. )c) ; the maxillae have the lower lobe curved and strongly hooked, and 
the upper lobe is strongly curved and acutely bifid (fig. \d) ; the mentum has the front margin 
nearly straight, a very minute notch only being visible in the middle of the fore margin (fig. 
\e) ; the mesosternal process is very short and obtuse (fig. 1/and 1^) ; and the anterior tibiee 
broad and strongly bidentate ; and the four hind ones spurred below the middle. 

Species XII. — Heterorhina jucunda. 

Gnathocera jucunda, Germar in Allg, Lit. Zeit. Aug. 1837 (nee. Cor. jucunda, Hope 

in Trans. Ent. Soc. 3, p. 64). 
Gnathocera smaragdina. Gory and Percheron, Mon. Cet., pi. 20, fig. 1, iiec smaragdina, 
Voet and Herbst, which = H. africana. 

ISIessrs. Gory and Percheron give China as the locality of this species. It has, however, 
much more the habit of an African insect, judging from the male specimen in Mr. Hope's 
collection. The head is nearly quadrate in front, the anterior margin, of the clypeus being 
only slightly produced into an elevated lobe ; the back of the head is strongly carinated, the 
carina terminating in an elevated semicircular lobe ; the maxillae have the inner lobe acute, 
curved, and horny, and the upper lobe obtusely and obliquely truncate, and not so long as the 
lower tooth ; the mentum has a small, but distinct, notch in the middle of the front margin ; 
the mesosternal process is elongate-conical, and bent upwards at the tip ; the abdomen is not 
channeled beneath ; the anterior tibiae are narrow and nearly simple, the apex on the outside 
being slightly oblique-truncate, so as to give the appearance of an indication of bidcntatiou ; 
the four posterior tibia; are simple ; the tarsi are rather elongate and narrow, with the pseud- 
ouychiae obsolete. I should conceive from these characters that this specimen is a male, and 
that it, as well as H. chloris, Hope (Gory and Perch., pi. 20, fig. 5), to which it is closely 
related, are African insects. 



138 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID^. 

Species XIII. — Heterorhina elegans (PI. 35, fig. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 'with the details). 

Cetonia elegans, Fabricius, Olivier (nee Gory and Perche'ron, pi. 20, fig. 2, from Oware, 

= C. stigma Pal. B.) 
Cetonia citprea, Herbst, col. iii., tab. 29, fig. 5. 
Gnathocera micans, Guerin. Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 80 (variety). 
Coryphe cyanoptera, Hope MSS. (variety). 

This is a very variable and brilliant insect, the variations consisting not only in difference of 
size, colours, and markings, but also in punctation, and even in form and structure, no two 
specimens being exactly alike ; some being very much smaller and narrower than others of the 
same size ; thus some males are very narrow, and others short and broad. The front of the 
head is more or less produced in the middle of the clypeus, the produced part being reflexed 
and generally slightly bifid ; the crown of the head is carinated, the carina terminating in 
both sexes in a transverse tubercle ; this, however, is sometimes almost, and even entirely, 
obsolete. The maxilla! have the inner lobe more or less acutely toothed, and the upper lobe, 
as in the last species, obliquely truncate at the tip ; the mentum is deeply emarginate in front ; 
the mesosternal process is moderately elongated and obtuse (fig. 4a, 4S) ; the abdomen of the 
male is deeply channeled down the middle beneath ; the anterior tibiae of the males are 
slightly sub-bidentate, the apex being very acute, and the females broad and acutely bidentate. 
The four hind tibiae differ in the size of the central spurs, which are sometimes obsolete; the 
hind pair also differs in the size and colour of the brush of hairs at its extremity on the inside. 
The pseudonychisB are very minute. Individuals differ also very much in the punctation of the 
elytra, the punctures being sometimes nearly as strong as in the males of H. laeta, and some- 
times almost obsolete. Almost every shade of green is exhibited by different specimens, and 
others are of a rich golden, and some of an intense purple-blue. The colour of the exposed 
part of the posterior coxae varies from black and green to fulvous red ; the tibiae also vary from 
cyaneous to green and castaneous. The black spots at the shoulders and tips of the elytra are 
also variable. 

My figure 2 represents the Gnathocera micans of Guerin, which I cannot but consider as a 
male variety of this species, differing in having the front projection of the clypeus entire at the 
tip (fig. 2a) ; the tubercle at the extremity of the carina is dilated at the tip ; body rather 
narrow ; the elytra without any humeral or apical black patches ; the exposed part of the 
metacoxae concolorous ; the fascicle of hairs on the hind tibijc dark brown ; and the punctures 
of the elytra distinct. Fig. 26 represents the maxilla, and 2c the fore tibiae of this individual. 
I am indebted to M. Guerin Meneville for sending me his typical specimen of this insect from 
Paris. It is from the Neilgherries. 

My figure 3 represents the smallest and narrowest male which I have seen, contained in the 
collection of F. Parry, Esq. The front of the clypeus has the projection so slightly bifid as 
to appear at first sight entire. The carina is very slight, and terminates in an impression 
without any raised tubercle (fig. 3«) ; the elytra are very strongly punctured, and without any 
black humeral or apical spots ; the exposed part of the metacoxae red. The femora have a 
fulvous tint, and the tibiae are castaneous, with a green tinge ; the hairs on the hind tibise are 
fulvous, the hind feet having the brush scarcely distinct. 

My figure 4 represents another variety of the male, of very broad form, having the upper 
surface of an intense cyaneous purple, and the exposed part of the metacoxae red ; the legs are 
black, and the hairs on the hind tibiae dark brown. Fig. Aa and 46 represent the mesosternal 
process, and 4c the front of the head of this specimen, which is in the collection of the Rev. 
F. W. Hope. 

My fig. 5 represents the front of the head of another specimen, in the collection of F. Parry, 
Esq., of a similar broad form to figure 4, but without any horn at the extremity of the carina, 
which is terminated by a transverse depression. This specimen is a male, of a rich green 
colour, with small humeral and apical black spots, and the metacoxae concolorous. Figure 6 a 
represents the front of the head of an ordinary female, 6 b the maxilla of the same, and 6 d the 
anterior tibiae. 

A small female of this species, collected by Colonel Hearsey in Central India, of a rich 
golden colour tinged with green, with the exposed part of the metacoxae black, has the disc of 
the elytra much more arched than ordinary, with a slightly elevated ridge extending from the 
inside of the apical black patch half up the elytra, parallel with the suture. 

The original specimens, described by Fabricius, are preserved in the Banksian Collection at 
the Linneean Society ; one is green, the other golden green, both having the exposed part of 
the metacoxae red, without any humeral black spot, and the apical ones dark green instead of 
black ; both arc males, with brown tufts of hair at the extremity of the posterior tibiae. 

As Mr. Mac Leay describes the clypeus of Cetonia elegans, Fab.j as having no horn in the 
male, it is probable that he mistook the species. 



OF THE EASTERN WORLD. 139 

Species XIV. — Heterorhina olivacea (plate S.i, fig. 7, and details). 
Gnathocera olivacea, Guerin, in Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 80. 
Gnathocera Surrya, Hope MS. 

Tliis species scarcely differs from the preceding in its structural details. All the specimens, 
however, which T have seen, agree in their deep olivaceous colour, and in the thick 
tuft of hairs at the tip of the hind tibiae. The elytra are also more attenuated behind than in 
any individuals of H. elegans which I have seen. The exposed part of the metacoxje is of a 
dark red-brown colour. The head is alike in both sexes (fig. 7 a, 7 b) ; the maxillre have the 
lower lobe horny, curved, and acute, in both sexes (fig. 7c) ; and the upper lobe is broad, 
short, and obliquely truncate, so as almost to appear bidentate. This fonn occurs both in 
males and females ; but I have found the upper lobe much nan'ower and entire in some 
specimens. The abdomen of the male has only the two basal segments longitudinally chan- 
neled beneath ; the mesosternal process is long and curved upwards at the tip. 

Species XV. — Heterorhina bimacula, Wied. Zool. Mag. Band. 2, st. 1, p. 85. 
Coryphe Wiedemanni, Mac Leay, Cet. So. Afr. p. 30. 

This species comes very close to the following, with which it is regarded as identical by 
Messrs. Gory and Percbferon ; but, as Wiedemann expressly says of the yellow marking on 
each elytron, that it "ein wenig vor der Mitte steht ;" and that it "am vorder-und hinter- 
rande ein wenig zackig ist ;" and, moreover, describes the pygidium as being " ein wenig 
rothlich," I consider his description as inapplicable to the following. He gives Bengal as the 
habitat of his insect, which he says is 7 to 7- lines long. 

Species XVI. — Heterorhina confusa, Westw., (plate 36, fig. 2, aad details.) 

Gnathocera bimaculata, Gory and Perche'ron, Mon. Get., pi. 22, fig. 3 (escl. Syn. Wied.) 

Gory and Percheron give Java as the habitat of this insect, figured by them from the 
collection of Dejean. The only specimens I have seen were collected in Central India by 
Colonel Hearsey. The front of the head (fig 2 a) is subquadrate and entire in botli sexes, 
with an elevated margin; along its middle runs a slightly elevated space, dilated in front; both 
tlie maxilla; have the upper lobe bifid in the male ; but in the female one of them is entire 
and rather obtusely pointed, whilst the other is obliquely truncate (fig. 2 6, 2 c) ; the meso- 
sternal process is porrected and bent towards the body ; the anterior tibia; of the males (fig. 2 e) 
are sub-bidentate at the tip, but more acutely so and broader in the female (fig. 2 /) ; the 
yellow patch on each elytron occupies the middle, terminating at about one third of the length 
of the elytron from the extremity ; the terminal segment of the body, both above and beneath, 
is bright fulvous red. The abdomen of the male is channeled longitudinally on the 
under side. 

Species XVII. — Heterorhina Cuvera (Plate 36, fig. 1 and details). 
Dicheros Cuvera, Hope, MSS., Newman, Ent. Mag. 5, 384. 

This species varies from 6 to 8 lines long ; it is closely allied to the preceding species, but 
differs in its narrower form as well as in the much greater extent of the spots on the elytra. 
The front of the head (fig. 1 a) is similar in its construction to that of H. confusa. The 
maxilla; (fig. 1 6) have the lower lobe curved and acute in both sexes. In a male dissected I 
found the upper lobe of one maxilla acute and entire, whilst in the other maxilla it was bifid 
(fig. 1 c), whilst in the female both maxillae have the upper lobe bifid. The mentum (fig. 1 d) 
is oblong, with the front miirgin emarginate ; the mesosternal process is elongate, rather obtuse 
at the tip, which is bent upwards (fig. 1 e) ; the abdomen of the male is deeply channeled 
beneath ; the male has the fore tibiae sub-bidentate at the tip (fig. I g), whilst in the female 
they are broader and more acutely and distinctly bidentate (fig. 1 h), The hind tibiae are 
simple in both sexes. I have seen many specimens in which the yellow patch is discoloured, 
and has assumed a dark brownish red colour. It is from Bombay. 

Species XVIII. — Heterorhina Childrenii (Plate 36, fig. 3 and details). H. nigra nitida, 
clypeo tuberculo elevate instructo; pronoto rufo-plagiato ; elytrisque macula magna 
flava ; scutelloque rufo. Long. corp. lin. 7, lat. ad basin elytr. fere lin. 3. 

The only specimen I have seen of this species is in the collection of the British Museum, 
where it has long stood undescribcd, having the name attached to it which I have adopted 



140 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONllD^ 

above. Il is an interesting species, differing in the form of its clypeus from any of the other 
similarly coloured species. Its general habit is similar to that of H. confusa, except that it is 
much more attenuated behind. The front of the head is slightly produced and elevated iu the 
middle, and the centre of the disc is elevated into a small tubercle, rounded in front (fig. 3 a 
3 b), with vaiious curved impressed strigae. The fore tibia; are narrow and sub-bidentate 
(fig. 3 d), and the mesosternal process is porrected aud bent upwards at the tip (fig. 3 c). It 
is shiniiig black, with the sides of the pronotum red, dilated towards the hind angles into a 
large patch on each side ; the scutellum is red, the podex dirty red ; the exposed parts of the 
metacoxse and the deflexed sides of the pronotum red ; the terminal ventral segment and the 
sides of the preceding joint are also red ; the large yellow patch on each eiytron tenninutes 
about one third from their extremity. It inhabits Bengal, aud was received by the British Museum 
with the remainder of the Hardvvicke bequest. 

Species XIX Heterorhina bicornis (Plate 36, fig. 8 a — 8 h, and details). 

Cetoine k deux cornes, Latr. in Regne An. pi. 17, fig. 4 ij; plate 18, fig. 5 $ . 
Dicheros plagiatus, Klug MSS. ; Gory and Perch^ron Mon. Cet, pi. 58, fig. 3. 

It will be seen on referring to Mr. MacLeay's distribution of the sections of his group 
Coryphe, that he adopted Gory and Perche'ron's Dicheros (which he correctly alters to 
Diceros), as one of them ; observing, however " that, except a slight difference iu the form of 
the thorax and the colour, we find little to distinguish the group from the section Naricije. 
The organs of the mouth are the same ia both." Had Mr. MacLeay been acquainted with 
the insects figured iu the upper part of my plate 36, there can be no doubt that he would have 
seen the impropriety of retaining Diceros in the station he has assigned it. It is true that we 
now know several species which agree in the peculiar armature of the head of the two sexes ; 
but this character has I think, been satisfactorily shown to be but of trivial value. Compare 
on the other hand, for example, the two insects represented in figures 2 and 7 of this plate, 
and it will be evident that the general relations of the two species are far too close to allow 
them to be separated in consequence of the difference in the structure of the horns of the head 
— a character which, if employed, would necessitate the establishment of almost as many groups 
as there are species in the genus. 

The male has the sides of the head iu front of the eyes produced into two long porrected 
horns directed slightly upwards (fig. 8 a, 8 6), the space between them at the base being deeply 
excavated into a semicircular hollow, the crown of the head not being furnished with any horn, 
plate, or tubercle ; the female, on the other hand, has the front of the head conical, reflexed, 
and terminated by two small teeth, the space between which and the crown of the head is 
deeply excavated, a short, flattened, conical horn overhanging the excavation (fig. 8 c, 8 rf). 
The maxillae in both sexes are alike, having both the lobes acute, curved, pointed, and entire 
(fig. 8 e) ; the mentum is rather broad, with the front margin emarginate (fig. 8/). The 
prothorax is broader in proportion than in the preceding species similarly coloured, and its sides 
are rather more rounded ; we still, however, perceive the slight angle in the middle of each 
side ; the elytra are more attenuated behind, especially in the female ; the tips are slightly, 
but not pointedly, produced in either se.x. The fore tibise are narrow, and very slightly sub- 
bidentate at the tip in the males (fi<r. 8 ^), but in the female they arc rather broader, with 
the tip more distinctly bidentate (fig. 8 h). The mesosternal process is elongate and bent 
upwards at the tip. The abdomen of the male is deeply impressed down the middle on the 
underside ; the four hind tibia are simple. This species is a native of Timor. 

Species XX. — Heterorhina ornata (Plate 36, figs. 6 and 7, and details). 

Dicheros ornatus, Burm. MSS.; Hope in Proceed. Ent. Soc, July 1841, p. 33. 

The female of this species closely agrees with that of the preceding, but it is of a narrower 
form ; the head is similar (fig. 7 a 1 b), the middle of the crown being furnished with a short, 
flattened, conical horn ; it has, however, been described " capite medio excavato postice triden- 
tato ;" the latter character having originated by regarding the raised and slightly angulated 
lateral margins of the head, in front of the eyes, at the base of the antennae, as horns. The 
yellow spots on the elytra commence nearer the base than the extremity of the scutellum, and 
terminate at one-third of their length from the tip. The terminal segment of the body, both 
above and beneath, as well as the preceding ventral joint, are of a dark-red colour ; the 
maxillffi are similar to those of the male of the preceding species. The fore tibiic are bidentate 
(fig. 7 c), and the four hind tihise are simple. The mesosternal process (fig. 7c, 7 d) is por- 
rected, and bent upwards at the tip. 

Mr. Hope's unique specimen is from Mysore in the East Indies. 

I refer to this species, a male insect, brought by Mr. Cuming from the Philippine Islands, 



OF THE EASTERN' WORLD. 141 

in the collections of the Biiiisli Museum and Mr. Waterhouse, represented in fig, 6 with its 
details. The horns of the front of tlie he;id iu this insect are even longer than in H. bicoruis, 
tlie extremities being compressed ; the general colouring agrees with H. ornata $ , as does 
also the size and shape of the yellow patches on tlie elytra ; the femora, as in that species, are 
blood-red at the base, witli tlie tips black, and the prothorax beneath is blood-red. It is 
represented of the natural si^e. 

Speciks XXI. — Heterorhtna biguttata, Westw. (Plate 36, fig. 5, and details). H. nigra, 
nitida, pronoto utrinque plaga sanguinea, elytrisque maculis duabus minoribus fere 
rotundatis mediis fulvis. ^ Long. Corp. lin. 8';|. 
Habitat in Insulis Philippinensium. D. Cuming. In Mus. Britann. 

The only individual I have seen of this species is a female, in the collection of the British 
JIuseura, brouaht from the Philippine Islands by Mr. Cuming. It closely agrees in its general 
character with the female of H. ornata, but has the elytra more attenuated behind, and the 
conical front of the head is rounded off, and but slightly bifid. The horn on the crown of the 
head is broader in front ; tlie sanguineous patches on the pronotum are wider apart, and the 
yellow spots on the elytra are of a dark fulvous-yellow, and occupy only a small portion of 
the middle of each side of the elytra, each having its margin towards the suture almost 
regularly rounded. Tiie femora and terminal segment of the abdomen are coloured as in the 
preceding species, but the presternum is not red at the sides. 

Species XXII. — Heterorhina decora. 

Dicheros decorus. Gory and Perche'ron Monogr. Cel. Plate 58, fig. 4. 

Inhabits Java. The head is described by Messieurs Gory and Percheron as " courte, con- 
cave, rebordee, bidentee anterieurement, carenee sur le vertex." I regret that owing to the 
indisposition of M. Gory, I was unable to examine this species in his cabinet, during my recent 
visit to Paris. I am unable, therefore, to speak with precision as to its specific distinction from 
the following species. 

Species. — XXIII. — Heterorhina Petelii (Plate 36, fig. 4, and details). 
Gnathocera Petelii, Buquet in Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1836, p. 206. 

The head of the female of this species (now first delineated from the collection of M. Buquet) 
is similar in its structure to that of the female of H. bicornis, having a short flattened horn 
between the eyes, extending over the deep impression of the clypeus, which is slightly elevated 
and but slightly emarginate in front. This sex only is described by M. Buquet, nor does he appear 
to be aware that it is the female, and that from analogy the male must be similar in the form of 
the head to C. bicornis. It is broader in its outline than the other species I have examined. 
M. Buquet describes the dessoiis du corps as red. The underside of the body is, however, 
black, the three apical segments of the abdomen alone being blood-red, which is also the 
colour of the deflexed sides of the pronotum, scutellum, and pygidium. The mesosternal 
process is represented in figures 4 a and 4 b ; the tip being bent upwards. 



The plants represented in these plates are as follows : — 

Plate 33. Cypripedium purpuratum, Lindl. Bot. Reg. pi. 1991. A native of the Malayan 
Archipelago. 

Plate 34. Pontederia vaginalis, Roxburgh's Plants of Coromandel, 2, pi. 110. 

Plate 35. Cypripedium barbatum, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1842, pi. 17; brought from Mount 
Tophir, in the Straits of Malacca, by Mr. Cuming; and 

Plate 36. Dolichos lignosus, Linn. An Indian legume, the seed-vessels of which are a 
common food throughout India, eaten as our French or kidney-beans are, to which, however, 
according to Rumphius, they are far inferior. 



Note. — The Gnathocera dorsalis of Gory and Percheron is the only species of the group 
treated upon in the previous pages hitherto described as a native of New Holland. The tribe 
is however confined to the tropical portions of the Old World ; for the insect in question 
belongs to Mr. Kirby's genus Macroma, and instead of being the dorsalis of Kirby, as quoted 
by the French monographers, it is his Macroma scutellata ; the M. concolor of the Kirby 
Cabinet (now in the possession of the Entomological Society) being a dark variety of the same 
species. The true dorsalis of Kirby is a large species of Scliizorhina. 



142 



THE SUMMER'S CALL. 



This brilliant summer weather and a vacant page tempt me to 
introduce some pleasant lines, by that sweet poetess, the late 
lamented Mrs. Hemans. 



Come away ! the sunny hours 
Woo us far to founts and bowers ; 
O'er the very waters now, 

In their play, 
Flowers are shedding beauty's glow : 

Come away ! 
Where the lily's tender gleam 
Quivers on the glancing stream — 

Come away ! 

All the air is filled with sound 
Soft and sultry and profound ; 
Murmurs through the shadowy grass 

Lightly stray ; 
Faint winds whisper as they pass — 

Come away ! 
Where the bee's deep music swells 
From the trembling foxglove bells. 

Come away ! 

In the deep heart of the rose 
Now the crimson love-hue glows ; 
Now the glow-worm's lamp by night 

Sheds a ray 
Dreamy, starry, greenly bright — 

Come away ! 
Where the fairy cup-moss lies 
With the wild-wood strawberries. 

Come away ! 



143 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, &c. 

(No. IX.) 



jMR. DOUBLEDAY'S notes on the habits of the north AMERICAN 
SPECIES OF PAPILIO CONCLUDED. 



Papilio Turnus is very widely spread, and seems to vary much 
from the effects of cHmate. The extreme northeni ones (as New- 
foundland specimens) are paler, (sometimes, Mr. Gosse tells me, with 
the ground nearly white,) and have the bands less clearly defined ; 
the black being a good deal suffused (especially in the ? ) over the 
yellow. The southern species generally expand from ^ to 1 inch 
more than the northern ones, and have the colours brighter, the 
black being more velvety and better defined. 

I found Turnus common at Trenton Falls, N. Y., in June, fre- 
quenting the lilacs in the gardens, and then easily captured ; indeed 
I have often taken them off the flowers with my fingers. When 
flying its appearance is beautiful, from its sailing along with its 
wings expanded. Then it is hard to take. In Ohio it is common, 
and not rare anywhere in the southern states ; being found alike in 
the low country near the sea and on the loftiest of the wooded 
Alleghanies (say 3000 to 4000 feet elevation). It frequents in the 
south, Cnicus horrid ulus, Anona grandiflora, Cephalanthus occiden- 
talis, &c. In crossing the mountains of N. Carolina and Tennessee 
we saw in plenty in the wet patches of the roads, by the sides 
of the numerous water-courses, &c. for it loves to sit in the mud, 
and in Ohio, where the roads are none of the best, it was equally 
abundant. 

P. Glaucus is very rare in general, and almost confined to the 
southern states. I never saw it but two or three times. It some- 
times, in early spring, comes to the plane-tree blossoms, but is 
mostly seen soaring over the high underwood. Its flight is very 
rapid. R. Foster took it in Ohio. I have specimens taken in 
Delaware (its northern limit !), and it occurred occasionally in 
E. Florida. 

P. Troilus in its habits resembles Philenor. I have often seen 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 

them in company on the flowers of Cep. occldentahs, Anona grandi- 
flora, &c., and on the muddy roads. Its flight is more powerful 
than that of Philenor. About equally diffiised throughout the 
Union. 

P. Tlioas. This certainly is not the same as the Brazilian 
species. I have a specimen from Mexico exactly like the 
N. American ones. This is Cramer's Cresphontes. It is a rare 
and quite southern species. I took but three or four in Florida. 
It flies rapidly in the pathways of the woods, sailing with its 
wings expanded. It alights on the ends of projecting branches or 
on a projecting dead twig, sitting with its wings expanded, droop- 
ing, as we set lepidoptera in England, or rather more so ^.^-^ "^"^^ 
than we commonly depress them; quite as much as the line 
above. I never saw it close its wings over its back. I saw it often 
in the streets of Savannah, Geo. It seemed common there. Abbot 
gives the larva on the orange. I found it on the Thorn-ash, or 
Stink-ixsh. of the Florida people ; Zanthoxylon fraxineum {'■'•fragrant 
groves of Zanthoxylon," — Bartram). Boisduval's figure of the larva 
is, I think, pretty correct. 

I used to be much amused with the groups of butterflies in the 
wet places in the roads. I have seen Turnus, Philenor, and Troilus, 
Col. Philodice, Tereas Lisa, Melitsea Tharos, Argynnis Cybele, 
Polyommatus Competor, Danaus Archippus (rarely so), and two 
or three Hesperias, all clustered together on a few yards of mud. 
I have seen too in Illinois, in the autumn, Colias Philodice and 
Csesonia, Terias Nicippe (?) and Lisa, and Callidryas Eubule, in 
groups, literally of hundreds (the first named insect generally 
making ^^- of the company), on a space not 6 feet square. The 
Philodices sit with their wings over the back, in roivs, quite close 
together, in fact sometimes touching each other, thirty or forty in 
a row. These things I hardly dare tell, for people won^t believe them. 

I have put a (?) to the Nicippe. I think there are two species 
confounded under this name, but am not sure which is the right 
one. 



145 



PLATES XXXVII, XXXVIII, XXXIX, and XL. 

' ON THE AFRICAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS PAPILIO OF 
MODERN AUTHORS. 



Having observed great confusion in the nomenclature of many 
of the African species of the genus Papilio as restricted by modern 
authors, owing in a considerable degree to the rarity of the larger 
Lepidoptera from that continent, and the impossibility of deter- 
mining some of the Fabrician species described from the drawings 
of Mr, Jones (which, as already stated, I have had an opportunity 
of examining), and having been also favoured by the Rev. F. W. 
Hope, M. Boisduval, and the respective curators of the entomo- 
logical departments of the British Museum and Jardin des Plantes, 
with the means of describing and figuring several new and unfigured 
species, I have considered it would be serviceable to give a complete 
list of the African species of the genus, with a revision of their 
synonymy and other notes. 

The present paper is intended, therefore, to comprise only such 
species as are inhabitants of the African continent ; those which 
are peculiar to Madagascar and the other adjacent islands will form 
a subsequent paper. I have, for convenience, adopted the arrange- 
ment of M. Boisduval, given in the first volume of his Species 
general des Lepidopteres, although I do not consider the classifi- 
cation and groups given in that work by any means natural. Of 
this no greater proof can be given than is afforded by his first two 
species of the genus, P. Antimachus and Antenor, which are as 
unlike each other as can be conceived in general form, although 
introduced into the same group ; whilst many of the species which 
exhibit far less striking dissimilarity are formed into separate 
sections : the great extent of the genus, however, (to which, in 
my opinion, the Ornithopteri ought to be united, since the chief 
character by which they have been separated by M. Boisduval — 
namely, the structure of the anal appendages — is, as shown by 
M. De Haan, too variable amongst the species restricted by him to 
the genus Papilio, to allow of its adoption as a generic character,) 
united with our ignorance of the preparatory states of so many of 

NO. X. — \St NOVEMBER, 1842. L 



146 AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

the species, are in themselves obstacles sufficient to prevent our 
obtaining a satisfactory arrangement of the species at present. 

Species I.— PAPILIO AXTIMACHUS. 

Syn. — Pap. Antimachns, Drury, Append, vol. iii. plate 1 (upper side). Jones, fig. pict. 
tab. 41, fig. 1 — 2. Donovan, Nat. Repos. vol. iii. pi. 100 and 101 (upper and under 
sides, copied from Jones's drawings). 

M. Sraeathmann, by whom this magnificent insect was collected 
at Sierra Leone, and sent to Drury, stated to him " that it is seen 
only in mid-day, when every exertion under the direct influence of a 
vertical sun must be' painful to a European. Its flight is also 
remarkable for its velocity ; and, to increase the difficulty of taking 
it, the insect frequents only the upper branches of the trees, from 
whence it darts and glances from one branch to another, and never 
descends nearer to the ground than the height of eight feet. It turns 
its head about instantly to the glade or path, and will not suffer any 
person to approach within striking distance of it, but will dart away 
on the least motion of the body. If the naturalist, however, exert 
his patience, it will at last become more familiar and careless, and is 
then to be caught upon some particular branch, to which it will 
appear more attached than to another.'*' 

From the length and narrowness of its wings, which measure 
nearly nine inches in expanse, (exceeding in this respect any other 
species in the genus), its flight must resemble that of the Acrsese. 

It passed at the sale of Drury's collection into that of Mr. INIac- 
Leay, at the price of 4Z. 4*.; nor have I ever heard or seen another 
example of this species. 

Species II.— PAPILIO ANTENOR. 
Syn. — Pap. Antenor, Drury, App. vol. ii. pi. 3, fig. 1. Donovan, Ins. India, pi- 15 fig. 1. 

Drury states that he was ignorant from what part of the 
world his specimen (which was given him by Mr. Leman) came, 
Donovan, however, figured the species, or rather copied Drury ""s 
figure, in his work on the Insects of India, observing merely that it 
might be *' mentioned with much propriety amongst the rarest of 
the Papilio tribe found in India," without giving any account of the 
source vt'hence he obtained this information. The Rev. F. W. Hope 
possesses a specimen which he has informed me that he obtained in 
a small collection from tropical Africa (Timbuctoo), made by the 
late Mr. Ritchie. 

At the sale of Drury's collection this butterfly was purchased by 
Mr. Latliam, at the price of 2/. 1 2s. Qd. ; it is also included in the 



AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 147 

sale catalogue of Francillon's collection. The above are all the 
specimens yet known in collections. 

Species III.— PAPILIO BRUTUS. 
Syn. — Pap. Brutus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 3, 1, p. 22. 

Papilio Meropp, Cramer, pi. 151, A. B.,and pi. 378, f. D, E. Donovan, Nat. Repos. 

fig. 2, pi. 77. 
Papilio sulfurea. Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. Lcp. pi. 1. 

The figures of Cramer in his plate 151, represent a specimen 
without a tail, most probably from an accidental mutilation rather 
than from a perfect individual, although tailless specimens are known 
to occur in some Eastern species which are ordinarily tailed. The 
figures of Palisotde Beauvois, above referred to, have been overlooked 
by former writers, and represent a variety in which the dark band 
of the hind wings is interrupted. 

The species is widely distributed in Africa, ranging not only from 
the Coast of Guinea to Caffraria, but also occurring in Madagascar, 
whence M. Boisduval has received specimens varying from the 
ordinary type in having the spot at the tips of the fore wings 
smaller and rounded, with the tail black, except at the tip, which 
is white. 

Species IV.— PAPILIO DOREUS. 

Syn Pap. Doreus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 3, I, p. 68. 

Pap. Phorcas, Cramer, pi. 2, fig. B, C. 

A native of the Gold Coast and the Coast of Guinea : specimens 
are contained in my own and several of the other Metropolitan 
collections. 

Species V PAPILIO NIREUS. 

Syn. — Papilio Nireus, Linn. Fab., Godart, Boisduval. Clerck, Icones, pi. 30, fig. sup. 
Cramer,! pi. 187, fig. A, B., and pi. 378, fig. F, G. Drury, vol. ii.pl. 4, fig. 1,2. 
Swainson, Zool. Illustr. 1st Ser. pi. 124. 

A native of the Coast of Guinea, Caffraria, as well as of Mada- 
gascar, according to JNI. Boisduval — (Linnreus and other early 
wTiters having incorrectly given India as its locality). Cramer 
appears to have reversed the sexes of this species, figuring the 
male as the female, and vice versa. Mr. Smeathmann informed 
Mr. Drury that this insect feeds upon the orange and lime trees, 
about which the butterfly is always seen flying. 

Species VI.-PAPILIO MENESTHEUS. 
Syn. — Pap. Menestheus, Drury, App. vol. ii. pi. 9, fig. 1, 2. Cramer, pi. 142, fig. A, B. 

A native of Sierra Leone, but by no means of common occur- 
rence. Fabricius incorrectly gives India as its habitat. 

L 2 



148 AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

Species VII.— PAPILIO THERSANDER. (PI. 38, fig. 1, 2.) 
SvN. — Pap. Thersander, Eut. Syst. 3, I p. 32 (nee Donov. Nat. Repos. 3, t. 75). 

Specimens of this species (omitted by Boisduval) are contained 
in the collections of the British Museum and the Bristol Institu- 
tion. It is a native of Sierra Leone, and is closely allied to, but 
smaller than P. Menestheus. Fabricius derived his knowledge of it 
from Jones's drawings, vol. i. fig. 71 ; and it is from an inspection 
of these drawings that I have been enabled to determine the species 
beyond a doubt. This is the more necessary to be stated, because 
Donovan, in his Naturalist's Repository, vol. iii. pi. 75, figured the 
upper and under side of a totally dififerent insect under the name of 
P. Thersander, and which he says were copied from Jones's figures. 
If not artificial, they however represent one of the Nymphalidse 
(Charaxes sp.), as is evident from the head and antennae. There 
are, however, no such figures in Jones's Icones ; so that Donovan 
must have fallen into some strange error respecting the species. 
M. Boisduval also now possesses a specimen of the insect, and informed 
me, when in Paris, that notwithstanding Donovan's figures, he had 
supposed it was the true Fabrician P. Thersander. 

Species VIII.— PAPILIO DEMOLEUS. 

Syn. — Pap. Demoleus, Linnaeus; Fabr.; Cramer, pi. 231, fig. A, B. (nee Demoleus Esper.) 
Pal. Beauvois, Ins. d'Afr. pi. 2 b. 
Papilio Demodocus, Esper. 

Inhabits the Gold Coast, Coast of Guinea, Caffraria, the Cape of 
Good Hope, as well as Madagascar, according to M. Boisduval, who 
informs us that M. Duraolin has reared it at Senegal from the 
caterpillars which feed on the orange-tree. 

Species IX.— PAPILIO LATREILLIANUS. 

Syn. — Pap. Latreillianus^ Godart. Guerin, Icon. R. An. Ins. pi. 76, fig. 1. GriflBth, An. 
Kingd. Ins. pi. 3, fig. 1, (copied from Gue'rin). Boisduval. (nee Pap. Latreillii, 
Donovan). 

Inhabits Sierra Leone, but rare. Specimens are contained in the 
collections of the British and Bristol Museums. 

Species X.— PAPILIO TYNDER^US. 

Syn Pap. Tynderceus , Fabr. Jones's Icon. vol. i. t. 57. Donovan, Nat. Repos. vol. iii. 

pi. 83. Godart, Enc. M. 9, No. 59. 

Papilio Nausinous, God. Enc. Meth. 9, No. 58. 

Donovan's figures of this rare species (which inhabits Sierra 
Leone) nearly agree with those of Jones's above referred to, except 
that those of the former author have the hind wings too short, and 



AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 149 

the colours too high. It differs from the preceding species by having 
the hind wings dentated. 

Specif.9 XL— PAPILTO LEONIDAS. 

Syn. — Pap. Leonidas, Fabricius, &c. 

Papilio similis, Cramer, pi. 9, fig. A, B. 

Inhabits tropical Western Africa. In my own and several other 
London cabinets. This species has a striking analogy with some of 
the species of Danais. 

Species XII PAPILIO PYLADES. 

Syn. — Pap. Pylades, Fabricius. Donovan, Nat. Kepos. voL i. pL 13. 

Inhabits tropical Western Africa. In the collections of Mr. Hope 
and the British Museum. Fabricius gives it as the type of his 
genus Zelima (Syst. Gloss, in Illig. Mag, vol. vi.), distinguish- 
ing it from Papilio by the " palpi short, biarticulate ; second joint 
rounded at the apex ; antennae long, clavate." — (See Children in 
Phil. Mag. Feb. 1830, and Horsfield, Lep. Jav.) 

Species XIIL— PAPILIO PODALIRIUS. 

Syn. — Papilio Podalirius, Linn. &c. 

Papilio Feisthamelii, Godart ; Dup. Suppl. pi. 1, fig. 1 (variety). 

M. Boisduval considers the P. Feisthamelii of Duponchel as 
a local variety of the ordinary P. Podalirius peculiar to the 
south of Europe and north of Africa, having the ground colour 
of the wings whiter coloured and the anal spot brighter. 

Species XIV.— PAPILIO AGAPENOR. 

Syn. — Pap. Agapenor, Fabr.; Jones, Icones, 1, tab. 51 (nee Boisduval). 

Pap. PoHcenes, Cramer, pi. 37, fig. A, B. (e Surinamia at errore); Boisduval. 
Pap. Polixenus, Godart, Eqc. Meth. (ex Amer. Septentr. at errore). 
Pap. Scipio, Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. Lep. pi. 2, fig. 1. 

Fabricius (E. S. ti, part i. p. 26, No. 76) expressly describes this 
species as having a red stripe across the hind wings on the under 
side, and as a native of Africa, referring only to Jones's Icones, 1, 
tab. 51. Specimens of this insect agreeing exactly with Jones's 
figures from Sierra Leone and Ashantee are in the collections of 
the British Museum and Mr. Hope. It is further distinguished by 
the four straight transverse pale bars across the discoidal cell of the 
fore wings. 

Cramer, 1, p. 61, and pi. 87, fig. A, B, figures it under the 
name of PoUcenes, giving Surinam as its locality, Godart changed 
the name in the Encycl. Meth. 9, 52, to Polixenus, also giving 



150 AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILTO. 

North America as its habitat ; and Boisduval gives it under the 
name of Policenes (H. N. Lep. 1, p, 261), and as inhabiting Suri- 
nam and some of the Antilles. I can see no difference between 
the true African specimens and the figures and descriptions of the 
authors above referred to, and therefore think that they must have 
erred in the locality they assign to the species. 

Palisot de Beauvois figures the true African Agapenor under the 
name oi Pap. Scipio (Lep. pi. 2, fig. 1). P. Agapenor of Boisduval 
is distinct. Godart has given the true Agapenor (as well as P. Po- 
lixenus) ; but as his knowledge of it is stated to be derived from 
Fabricius alone, he evidently did not perceive the identity. 

Species XV.— PAPILIO ANTHEUS. 

Syn.— Pap. Antheus, Fabr. ; Cramer, pi. 234, fig. B, C. 
Papilio A7itharis, God. Enc. Meth. 
Papilio Agapenor, Boisduval (nee Fabr.) 

Fabricius (Ent. Syst. 3, 1, p. 36) expressly says of this, " Sta- 
tura omnino P. Agapenor at ecaudatus," referring merely to 
" Cramer, Ins." [that is, to his pi. 234, B, C] and to Jones's Icones, 
1, pi. 56. These figures agree in all respects, except that the 
latter have no tails to the hind wings. The species is stated by 
all these authors to be from Amboyna. It, however, precisely 
agrees with specimens lately received from Sierra Leone and 
Ashantee by the British Museum and Mr. Hope, having long tails. 
Godart and Boisduval give the Fabrician and Cramerian insects as 
distinct, retaining the name of Antheus for the Fabrician species, 
which they only know from the writings of Fabricius ; Godart 
giving Cramer's species under the name of Antharis, and as a 
native of North America ; and Boisduval under the incorrect one 
of Agapenor, from which species it is at once distinguished by the 
want of a red stripe on the under side of the hind wings, and by 
the curved pale bars in the discoidal cell of the fore wings. I have 
no doubt that the early authors erred in their locality Amboyna, 
and that all these supposed species are identical and natives of 
Africa. 

Species XVI.— PAPILIO LALANDEI. (Plate 37, %. 1, 2.) 
Syn. — Pap. Lalandei, Godart, Enc. Meth. ; Boisduval. 

Godart, in the Encyclopedic Methodique, refers to the Memoires 
de la Societe Linneenne de Paris, vol. 2, pi. 1, Lep. fig. 1, 2, for 
figures of this butterfly; but M. Boisduval informs me that those 
figures were never published : I have therefore represented its 



AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPfLIO. 151 

upper and under sides, in the accompanying figures, from drawings 
made by myself in Paris, in May last, from a specimen which M. 
Boisduval has received since the publication of his volume containing 
this genus. It is a native of Caffraria. There are several patches 
of dark hairs on the outside of the macular band of the fore wings 
towards the anal angle. 

Species XVII.— PAPILIO ZENOBIA. 
Syn. — Pap. Zenobia, Fabr. Donovan, Nat. Repos. pi. 179. Jones, fig. pict. 1, tab. 68. 

A native of Sierra Leone, but very rare ; specimens of it are 
contained in the collections of the British and Bristol Museums, 
and in the Banksian Cabinet, whence the species was described by 
Fabricius. 

Species XVIII.— PAPILIO MESSALINA. 

Syn. — Pap. Messalina, StoU (Suppl. Cramer), p. 125, pi. 26, fig. 2. 

Pap. Cynorta, BoisJuval, Sp, Gen. Ins. Lep. 1, 370 (nee Fabricius). 

The Cynorta of Fabricius, as proved by an inspection of Mr, 
Jones's Icones, is a distinct species from the Messahna of Stoll, with 
which Boisduval has confounded it. This is a rare species, inhabit- 
ing Sierra Leone (and Caffraria according to Stoll). It is con- 
tained in the collections of the British and Bristol Museums. 

Species XIX.— PAPILIO CYNORTA. (Plate 40, fig. 3, 4.) 

Syn. — Papilio Cynorta, Fabr. Jones, Icon. pict. 1, tab. 87. (nee P. Cynorta, Bdv.= 
P. Messalina.) 
Papilio Zeryntius, Boisduval. 

This species has been confounded with the preceding by 
Boisduval, by whom it is suggested that it may be only a local 
variety of that insect ; an opinion in which I cannot concur. The 
black portion of the disc of the fore wings, as well as the dilated 
veins which separate the white bar, are clothed with black woolly 
hairs. Mr. Hope possesses a species received from M. Wester- 
mann, from Sierra Leone ; and there is a specimen in the collec- 
tion of the British Museum which was also confounded with the 
preceding species. Jones's figures give excellent representations 
of the upper and under sides of the species ; but as no figures of it 
have yet been published, I have added it to my illustrations. 

Species XX.— PAPILIO BOISDUVALLIANUS. (Plate 40, fig. 1, 2.) 

P. (n. sp.) alls supra nigris fascia lata, e margine anaU ad medium anticarum ducta plagaque 
obliqua submedia, albis ; subtus albo similiter variis, basi posticarum fulvis nigro variis, 
apiceque fuscis. Expans. alar, fere unc. 3^. 

Habitat Sierram Leonara. In Mus. Westermann et Boisduval. 

Although it is very desirable, when possible, that the specific 



162 AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPIMO. 

names in long genera should maintain a uniform character, yet I 
think the present is an instance in which the uniformity which has 
prevailed in the names of the species of the present genus, being 
selected from names celebrated in ancient story, may be broken. 
It has already been done in the name of a species dedicated to 
Latreille, and entomologists will, I trust, agree with me in the 
propriety of adopting the name of the most distinguished modern 
French lepidopterist as that of a species for the knowledge of which 
I am indebted to his liberality. 

On the upper side it is of a dull blackish-brown colour, the body 
marked in front with several white dots, and the wings with a 
broad white fascia extending from the anal margin of the hind 
wings half-way across the fore wings ; another oblique broad white 
bar extending across the fore wings beyond the middle, occupying 
the extremity of the discoidal cell. The tip of the wings is 
marked with a small white marginal dot ; the white bar on the hind 
wings is gradually shaded off into the ground colour of the middle 
of the wing. On the under side the fore wings are dark brown ; 
the apex, beyond the oblique bar, being luteous-coloured. The 
base of the hind wings fulvous clay-coloured, with black markings; 
and the apical half of these wings fulvous-brown, the white mark- 
ings being as on the upper side. The abdomen is pale luteous at 
the apex ; the thoracic portion of the body black with white 
spots. 

Received by M. Boisduval from M. Westermann, and inhabits 
Sierra Leone. 

Species XXL— PAPILIO HIPPOCOON. 

Syn. — Papilio Hippocoon, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 3, 1, 38. Jones, Icones, fig. pict. 1, tab. 88. 
Boisd. Sp. Ins. Lep. 1, 243. 
Papilio Westermarmi, Boisduval, op. cit. p. 372. 
Papilio Niavius fern. Cram. 234, A. 

Messrs. Godart and Boisduval have failed in their writings to 
recognise this as a Fabrician species, although Boisduval describes it, 
ex visu, from a specimen furnished by M. Westermann, adding the 
description of Hippocoon from the works of Fabricius alone. The 
upper and under sides are beautifully figured in Jones*'s Icones, 
which have enabled me to identify the species. Cramer gave it as 
the female of a species of Danais (D, Niavia), to which indeed it 
bears great resemblance. It is a native of Guinea and Sierra 
Leone. 



AFRICAN SPKCIES OF PAPILIO. 153 

Species XXII.— PAPILIO TROPHONIUS. (Plate 39, fig. 1, 2.) 

Syn. — Papilio Trophonius, Westw. in Ann. Nat. Hist. 

Papilio Cenea, StoU, pi. 29, fig. i. (nee P. Cenea, Linn.) 

This species, which has been overlooked by M. Boisduval, bears 
considerable resemblance to several of the preceding species, but 
differs from them all in the colour of the pale portion of the wings. 
In the specimen figui'ed the wings of the upper side are dark 
brown, with a large fulvous red patch, occupying a large space 
along the inner margin of the fore wings, and the greater portion 
of the hind wings, with a rather narrow edge of brown with white 
spots arranged in pairs on the hind wings. The fore wings have 
also a clay-coloured oblique bar running nearly across the discoidal 
cell, with a large pale patch beyond its extremity, and several small 
submarginal pale spots. On the under side the arrangement of the 
colours of the wings is nearly similar, except that, as in all the 
allied species, the extremity of the fore wings is pale clay- coloured 
brown, and the veins, as well as the intermediate longitudinal strise, 
are darker brown. The body is brown, spotted in front with white ; 
the abdomen buff, with a longitudinal dorsal stripe, brownish- 
black, and the sides with two rows of dark dots. 

StolFs figures agree with other specimens in the cabinet of the 
British Museum, and my own, in which the fore wings have an 
oval patch of pale clay colour behind the middle of the discoidal 
cell, and the clay-coloured portion of the hind wings does not extend 
beycmd the middle of the wing. The pale spots on the fore wings 
are also much smaller than in the specimen figured by me, and the 
base of the hind wings is also brown on the upper side. It is possible 
that these latter may prove to be specifically distinct from the more 
richly-coloured specimen which I have figured, as I believe the 
allied species of Papilio do not exhibit such marked sexual differ- 
ences. In such case the name of Trophonius should be retained 
for the species here figured ; and Stoll's kind may be named 
P. Ceneus, although his statement that his insect is a " Nymphe 
aveugle a quatre pieds," and his error in giving to the species a name 
employed by Linnseus for a different species of Papilio, scarcely 
warrant the retention of his specific name. It is a native of 
Guinea and Caffraria. 

Species XXIII.— PAPILIO ADAMASTOR. (Plate 38, fig. 3.) 
Syn. — Pap. Adamastor, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. 1, 371. 

Described by Boisduval, from a specimen sent to him by M. Wes- 
termann, who had received it from the coast of Guinea. Mr. Hope 



154 AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

has it from Ashantee, and there is a specimen in the collection of 
the British Museum. As the species has not hitherto been figured, 
I have represented its under surface (the upper side differing only 
in being uniformly black, with similar white markings) in order 
to show the difference between it and the next species. 

Speciks XXIV.— PAPILIO AGAMEDES. (Plate 39, fig. 3, and Plate 37, fig. 3.) 

Syn. — Pap. Agamedes, Westw. iu Ann. Nat. Hist. 

P. alls anticis subdiaphanis basi obscurioribus, fascia lata alba e margine intemo ad medium 
alae, inde versus costam per medium areae discoidalis, cxtensa, punctisque submarginalibus 
albis : posticis ecaudatis fuscis, fascia lata alba e medio fere ad basin extensa postice dentata, 
punctisque albis duplici serie ordinatis ; alis posticis subtus pone fasciam pallida fuscis 
nigro lineatis et albo maculatis, basi aurantiis nigro bimaculatis. Expans. alar. unc. 3. 

This species, which is unique in the cabinet of the Rev. F. W. 
Hope, inhabits Ashantee. It is closely allied to the preceding, but 
differs not only in the disposition of the white markings of the wings, 
but in the semitransparence of the apical portion of the fore wings, 
which is narrower than in the preceding species. I at first thought 
it possible to be the other sex of that species, until I carefully 
examined the body, when I found it was of the same sex as speci- 
mens of Adamastor in Mr. Hope's collection. 

Spkcies? XXV.— PAPILIO ORESTES. 
Syn. — P. Orestes, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. 3, part 1, p. 34. 

Fabricius describes a species of Papilio under this name, giving 
it as a native of Africa, on the authority of Mr. Francillon's collec- 
tion. This species is regarded both by Boisduval and Godart as a 
doubtful species of Papilio. Mr. Francillon''s insect was, however, 
fortunately drawn by Mr. Jones in his Icones (to which, however, 
Fabricius does not refer), and from a careful examination of these 
figures it appears that the insect is in fact a species of Papilio, 
exceedingly like the Indian P. Nomius of Esper, and P. Aristaeus, 
Cr., but with a very short tail. Both those species have, however, 
long tails. Notwithstanding the species of the group to which 
these insects belong are widely dispersed, I have little doubt that 
the specimen in question was an Indian insect, which had been par- 
tially mutilated. 

All the plants represented in these plates are natives of Sierra 
Leone, and belong to singular African orchidaceous genera ; namely, 
Plate 87, Bolbophyllum barbigerura, Lindl. (Bot. Reg. 1942) ; 
Plate 3S, Polystacha grandiflora (Bot. Mag. 3707) ; Plate 89, 
Angrascum distichum, Lindl. (Bot. Reg. 1781) ; Plate 40, Eulophia 
lurida, Lindl. (Bot. Reg. 1821). 



155 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, NOTICES OF 
NEW WORKS, &c. 

No. X. 



Collections and Library of the late- Professor Audouin. — 
It was stated in p. 94, that the collections of M. Victor Audouin 
had, since his decease, been transferred to the Jardin des Plantes, 
and that his library would most probably be sold by public auction. 
In a notice of this work, which appeared in the Revue Zoologique 
for 1842, p. 121, a doubt was thrown upon the former of these 
statements. It is proper, therefore, to mention that it was intended 
only to apply to such collections of M. V. Audouin as had been 
formed with the view of illustrating the habits and economy of 
various insects, and which had been more especially alluded to in 
the former part of my memoir of the deceased gentleman ; and when 
in Paris, in ISIay and June last, I had the pleasure to see portions 
of these collections already arranged with the greatest care, and 
publicly exhibited in one of the galleries of the Jardin des Plantes ; 
these portions consisting of specimens of the nests of insects, and 
illustrations of their various modes of attack on wood and other 
materials. Such a public exhibition of objects tending to elucidate 
the economy of insects, carefully arranged and labelled, together with 
specimens of the insects by which the various labours, &c., have been 
performed, must, in my opinion, be not only far more interesting, but 
also more instructive, than a few cases of specimens with merely their 
scientific names attached ; the greatest praise is, therefore, due to 
M. Milne Edwards, not only for the arrangement and exhibition of 
these specimens collected by M. Audouin, but also for the great 
care which has been bestowed upon the arrangement of the magnifi- 
cent collection of Crustacea belonging to the Jardin des Plantes, 
all of which are beautifully set, named, and exposed in the galleries 
of the Jardin des Plantes. I know of but one collection in this 
country arranged with the view of illustrating the various branches 
of the economy of insect life — namely, that of the late Mr. Sells ; 
and all who had the pleasure of knowing that gentleman, and 
of examining his museum, will agi*ee with me as to the great 
amount of knowledge to be obtained by the inspection of a single 
drawer of one of his cabinets. At my request he drew up, shortly 



156 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

before his lamented decease, a brief notice of his plan of arrangement, 
which has been published in the last part of the Transactions of the 
Entomological Society of London. A more philosophical arrange- 
ment might perhaps be proposed, but it would probably be more 
beneficial to take the Introduction to Entomology* of Messrs. 
Kirby and Spence as the guide for such an arrangement, because 
as that work is so deservedly well known, it would be easy to refer 
to its pages as a catalogue raisonnee of the collection. 

Of the other portions of M. Audouin's collections, as well as of 
his numerous manuscripts and drawings, entomologists will learn 
with pleasure that a careful revision will be made, with the view of 
publishing all which are found to be of sufficient interest and in a 
sufficiently complete state. The publication of the completion of 
his Memoir on the Pyralis of the Vine (which has lately taken 
place), will sufficiently prove the value of these manuscripts, and 
the justness of my estimate of M. Audouin's talents, and at the 
same time raise our anxious anticipation for the publication of the 
remainder. 

The sale of M. Audouin's library took place in May last, and 
occupied fourteen days (see ante, p. 110). The prices obtained for 
the books was in general high, the amount realised being about 
20,000 francs. Many of the works were purchased for the libraries 
of the Jardin des Plantes and of the Royal Society of London. The 
prices obtained for a few of the books are subjoined. 

FRANCS. 

De Geer's Memoires, 7 torn, in 9 vol. 4to 500 

Goeze, Entomologische Beitrage, 3 vols. 8vo . . . . . . 38§ 

Kirby and Spence, Introduct. 4 vols., 4th Ed. 70 

Latreille, Precis des Caracteres Generiques, 1 vol. 8vo. . . . . 20 

Reaumur, Memoires, 6 vols. 4 to 40 

Rosel, a beautiful MS. translation, 6 vols., 4to 140 

Schiiffer, Icones Insect., Ratisb., 4 vols., 4to 94 

Germar, Fauna Ins. Europ., 2 1 fasc. 82 

Harris, Exposition Engl. Ins. . ........ 50 

Latreille, Descript. d'Ins. d'Afrique, 22 pages , 10§ 

Say, American Kntomol., 3 vols., 8vo ........ 139 

Stephens, lUustr. of Brit. Ent 170 

Germar's Magazin d. Entomol., 4 vols., Bvo • . . . . . 44 

Illiger, Magaz., 5 vols. 8vo in 3 . ... . . .55 

Silbermann, Rev. Entomol. ......... 80 

Annales de la Societe Entomol. de France, 1832— 1840 .... 200 

The Entomological Magazine, complete 100 

The Arcana Entomologica (7 numbers) 29| 

Billberg, Monographia Mylabridium . 40 

Dejean and Boisduval, Iconogr. Col. d'Eur 212 

* A new edition of this work is in the press, in which I am able to state, from an examina- 
tion of some of the proof sheets, very great additions have been made both to the text and 
notes, portions having been entirely re-written. Notwithstanding this, the work is announced 
at a reduced price. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 15? 

FRANCS. 

Herbst and Jablonsky's Coleoptera 200 

Laporte and Gory, Icon. Ins. Col. 192 

Cramer, Exotic Lepidopt 180 

Godart and Duponchel, Lep. de France 411 

Australian Species of Scaritid.e. — In the notice of the sixth 
number of this work, which appeared in the Revue Zoologique, 
as ah-eady mentioned in the preceding article, M. Reiche suggests 
that Carenum perplexum, on account of the square base of the 
elytra with the humeral angle saillani, may be presumed to possess 
wings, and thus generically to differ from the others, whilst 
C. megacephalum and tinctilatum, on account of the form of the 
thorax, should probably be retained as a distinct genus, under 
INIr. Newman''s name Eutoma. 

The three large species of Scarites are considered by M. Reiche as 
forming (probably with the Sc. rotundipennis, Dej., which is stated 
to be a native of the Cape of Good Hope*), a separate group, 
distinguished by the absence of wings, the dilatation of the abdo- 
men, and the cylindrical terminal joint of the palpi. 

Mr. Hope informs me that Mr. MacLeay has named this section in 
his manuscripts Scaraphites, and that he has discovered a new species 
on the east coast of New South Wales, at Elizabeth Bay, where it 
was found many feet deep in the earth, whilst trenching in sandy 
soil to form a Pinetum. I would suggest that it should be named 
in honour of its discoverer. 

Species XVI. — Scarites ( Scaraphites J MacLeaii. S. niger subnitidus, elytris obovatis, 
singulo striis 6 tenuibus punctatis serieque sub-laterali punctorum majoruin, pedibus 
anticis obtuse dentatis, tibiisque intermediis spina acuta apicali externa armatis. Long. 
Corp. iin. 18 ; lat. elytr. lin. 5i. 

This species most resembles Sc. Lenseus in its narrower form and 
distinctly striated elytra, but it differs from that species in several 
respects. The mandibles are obtusely dentated, each having one 
minute tooth below the apex, and a large compressed one in the 
middle. The two oval impressions on the head are radiato-striolated 
in front. The pronotum has a slender, but rather deep central 
impressed longitudinal line, as well as a distinct anterior transverse 
one, most decided at the sides ; and there is no impression on each 
side towards the anterior angles, nor are the posterior angles 
obliquely foveated, being, on the contrary, convex. The elytra are 
broadly obovate, being evidently narrowed towards the base. Each 
has six fine impressed punctate striae, beyond which is a row of seven 
larger submarginal punctures, three others of which are placed in an 

* Is not this an erroneous habitat ? 



158 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

oblique line towards the tip of the elytra ; there is also a marginal 
row of punctures at the base of each side. The teeth of the fore 
tibiffi are obtuse, and the middle tibiae have a single acute tooth on 
the outside, at the tip. 

I also possess a species of this group, which I had considered to 
be identical with Sc. Silenus, with which it agrees in size, but from 
which however it differs, in having the elytra more regularlyrounded ; 
the mandibles are also differently toothed, wanting the small tooth 
on the inside near the tip, and the left mandible having one large 
central simple tooth, with a small lobe towards the base, whilst 
the right mandible has two strong central teeth. If this should 
ultimately prove a distinct species, it may receive the name of 
Scarites (Scaraphites) confusus. 

My Sc. sculptilis is, by M. Reiche, in the article above referred 
to, considered as closely allied to Scarites lateralis, Dej., supposed 
to be a native of the East Indies, and belonging to Dejean's 5th 
section of the genus. 

M. Reiche has also added descriptions of two new Australian 
species, belonging to my genus Gnathoxys *, namely — 

Species XVII. — Gnathoxys obscurus, Reiche. G. nigro-asneus subnitidus, pronoto subro- 
tuiidato canaliculate angulis anticis baud porrectis, elylroium disco punctato-striato ; 
stiiis octo geminatis interruptis ; lateribns et apice crebre et irregiilariter punctatis. 
Long. 14 mill. (= fere 7 lin. mens. Angl.) Hab. Australia, Swan River. Mus. Reiche. 

Species XVIII. — Gnathoxys cicatricosus, Reiche. G. elongatus scneo nitidus, pronoto sub- 
ovato canalicLilato, angulis anticis baud porrectis, elytiis profunde, late et irregulariter- 
impressis, apice rugoso plicatis. Long. 13 mill. Hab. Australia, Swan River. Mus. 
Reiche. 

Mr. Newman has also published the description of another species 
of Carenum in the Entomologist t for September last (p. 369). 

Species XIX. — Carenum loculosum. C. nigrum fronte profunde longitudinaliter bisul- 
cata, prothorace transverse lunato medio longitudinaliter sulcato ; elytris foveis magnis 
prave dispositis asperis ; tibiis anticis dentibus 2 longis externis spinisque 2 internis 
armatis; tibiis intermediis dentibus 5 — 6 externis minutis spinis 2 apicalibus. Long. 
Corp. .625 unc, lat. .25 unc. 

It is perfectly distinct from Carenum Spencii, Westw. 

Mr. MacLeay has recently forwarded to Mr, Hope a Carenum, 
under the name of C. 4-punctatum, which agrees with Bonelli's 
species (C. Bonellii mihi), except that the central fossula of the 
pronotum is scarcely transversely striolated, and the oblique impres- 
sions on each side at the base are scarcely distinct. It is a native 
of New South Wales, and was found under stones at Illawarre. 

* M. Guerin Meneville showed me, whilst in Paris, two Indian insects apparently belonging 
to this genus, possessing the same structure of the fore feet. 

f I regret to mention that the proprietors of this work are under the necessity of discon- 
tinuing its publication with the number which will appear on the 1st of November. 



ENTOMOJ.OGICAL INTELLIGENCE, ETC. 159 

MoNOGRAPHiA Anoplororum Britanni.e ; or an Essay on the British species of 
Parasitic Insects belonging to the order Anoplura of Leach, with the modern 
divisions of the genera according to the views of Leach, Nitzsch, and Burmeister ; 
with highly magnified figures of each species. By Hknry Denny. Author of 
" Monographia Pselaphidarum et Scydmaenidarum Britanniae," &c. London. 
Henry G. Bohn, 1842. 8vo, 286 pages, and 26 plates. 

]\Ir. Denny, so well and advantageously known by his illus- 
trated work on the British Pselaphidse and Scydm£enid?e has, 
in this work, published a beautiful series of more than 200 highly 
magnified coloured figures, with descriptions and notices of 248 
species of lice found in this country, one half of which at least are 
now for the first time made known to naturalists. 

The excellent manner in which the work is executed, has led to 
a request on the part of the British Association, that he will also 
illustrate the exotic species of the group. A few remarks upon the 
introductory portion of the work will not, however, be irrelevant. 
JSIr. Denny states that the opinion tha-t each and every animal has 
its own peculiar parasite is not borne out by facts ; thus Docophorus 
icteroides is found on nearly every species of duck which has come 
under the authoi'*'s notice. On extending our observations to genera, 
we find them take a wider range ; and it is in only two or three 
cases that it could, with any confidence, be asserted that they were 
diagnostic of certain families of Vertebrata. It is easy to say whether 
they belong to quadruped or bird, but more difficult to pronounce 
the peculiar family of either, as some genera of each division appear 
perfect cosmopolites ; thus, Pediculus infests man, Quadrumana 
Rodentia, Carnivora, Pachydermata and Ruminantia ; Nirmus 
infests every order of birds except the Gallinacea ; Docophorus 
all but Gallinacea and Columbidse ; Lipeurus infests the orders 
Gallinacea, Grallse, Palmipedes, and Accipitres : whilst a few on 
the other hand are nearly certain indexes to the families ; Eureum 
being only found on Chelidones ; Trinoton only on Palmipedes ; 
Goniocotes and Goniodes only on Gallinacea and Columbidse ; 
Gyropus only on the Guinea pig in this country ; and Phthirus only 
on man. Mr. Denny has not made any observations on the occur- 
rence of several distinct species, and even genera, upon the same 
animal. 

The extent of the variations of form at different ages in these 
insects, has not received the attention which it merits ; indeed 
Mr. Denny's observations hereon in pages xii. and xvii. are some- 
what at variance with each other. This is a point the more neces- 



160 ARCANA ENTOMOLOGICA. 

sary to be elucidated, as the character of the Ametabola of Leach 
(insects undergoing no metamorphosis) adopted by Mr. Denny, 
depends upon its existence. My own opinion on the position of 
these insects, given in my Introduction to the modern classification 
of insects, is called into question. As however I consider the 
fundamental characteristic of the class Ptilota to consist in a 
distinct metamorphosis involving the development of wings^ I cannot 
admit the Anoplura of Leach into that class ; and my answer there- 
fore to Mr. Denny's question as to the class to which I consider 
these parasitic insects to belong, will be found in the development 
of my views on the primary divisions of the annulose animals given 
in the fourth page of my Introduction, where I have adopted the 
order Ametabola of MacLeay (with the omission of his Vermes) 
because it leaves the Ptilota distinct^ whilst Mr. Denny unites the 
Thysanura and Anoplura as a primary division, with the metamo- 
photic insects, under the general name of Insecta, which I maintain 
ought to be applied to the whole of the annulose animals with 
articulated feet. Mr. Denny justly eulogises Dr. Burmeister as 
the " first authority for this tribe of insects,"' although he properly 
rejects his division of the Anoplura into Rhynchota and Mallophaga, 
the former (Pediculidse) being united with the rostrated Hemiptera 
of Linnaeus, whilst the latter are grouped with the mandibulated 
Hemiptera or the Orthoptera of recent authors. 

Mr. Denny has carefully investigated the writings of preceding 
authors ; a few of the figures published in the posthumous work 
of Lyonnet, appear however to have been overlooked : thus, 
Lyonnet's plate 4, fig. 4, represents a species found upon the 
heron, which appears to be identical with Liotheum importunatum. 

As a work upon the indigenous species of these insects it is in- 
valuable, but for the higher ends of zoological science, this group of 
insects still requires illustration. With the exception of a figure 
of the female organs of generation of the human louse, copied from 
Swammerdam, we have no attempt to exhibit the internal structure 
of these insects ; and the only figures which are given of the 
details of the mouth from a single species (Pediculus vestimenti) 
are copied (and not quite correctly) from Burmeister's Genera 
Insectoiura, a few figures are indeed added of the trophi in situ of 
two or three of the mandibulated species ; but the interest attached 
to the distinction of haustellated and mandibulated trophi in a 
group whose general habits are so entirely identical, required a 
much more precise examination of their structures in this respect. 



161 



PLATE XLI. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW MANTIDEOUS INSECT WITH POINTED EYES. 



Of the many curious forms exhibited by the different species of 
Soothsayer insects (Mantidge), those which have conical pointed 
eyes are not the least remarkable. The insects thus circumstanced 
constitute several distinct genera. Two of these genera are distin- 
guished by having an upright horn in the middle of the head ; 
namely, 

Hymenopus, Serv., having the four posterior femora furnished 
with a broad membrane throughout their entire length, and consist- 
ing of the single species M. coronata, Oliv., from the Eastern 
Archipelago ; and 

Hakpax, Serv., having the fore posterior femora furnished near 
the apex on the lower or posterior edge with a foliaceous lobe, and 
consisting of several species natives of Senegal, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and other parts of Africa as well as Java and Sumatra. One 
species is described by Serville as a native of Cayenne, H. picti- 
pennis, Serv. ; but this is most probably doubtful, especially as 
Burmeister gives this species as apparently identical with the H. 
cornuta, Oliv., Latr., which is a native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
The synonymy of the species of this genus is rather confused. See 
Charpentier and Burmeister's Memoirs in the first and second 
volumes of Dr. Germar's Zeitschrift f. die Entomologie, and De 
Haan (Bijdragen tot de Kennis d. Orth. p. 89,) who has, how- 
ever, added some species which have not conical eyes, including 
Epaphrodita musaruni Serv. * 

Serville divides the species of this genus into two sub-genera : — 

1. Harpax, proper. Prothorax with the sides greatly dilated ; sides of the terminal abdo- 

minal segments lobed. Head with a vertical horn bifid at the tip. [The latter character 
is, however, sexual, all Seiville's specimens belonging to this section being females, whereas 
the male has the vertex furnished with a shorter horn obtusely mucronated]. Type, 
M. ocellata. Pal. de Bcauv. 

2. Crtobroter, Serv. Prothorax scarcely dilated at the sides; sides of abdominal segments 

not denticulated. Vertex furnished with a tubercle. Type, M. urbana, Fabr. 
{gemmata, Serv.). 

The three other genera which possess conical pointed eyes are 
destitute of a horn on the crown of the head as well as of lobes on 
the hind femora. 

NO. XI. IsfjAN'UARV, 1843. M 



162 A NEW MANTIDEOUS INSECT WITH POINTED EYES. 

AcANTHOPS, Serv., has the body short and comparatively broad, 
with the fore margin of the wing-covers sinuated, and the terminal 
segments of the abdomen dilated at the sides. Type, M. sinuata, 
Fabr. (fuscifolia Stoll, f. 14). See as to the synonymes of the 
species of this genus, Charpentier in Germar's Zeitsch 1, 375 ; 
3, 299. South America is the geographical station of this genus. 

The two remaining genera are very long and slender in form. 

ScHizocEPHALA, ServiUo, has the eyes porrected, the hind femora 
destitute of spines or lobes, and the abdominal setse elongated, 
slender, articulated, and attenuated to the tip. Type Mantis 
hicornis, Linn. An inhabitant of the East Indies. Dr. Burmeister 
has described a second species from the Berlin Museum. 

ToxoDERA, Serv. (Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, tom. 6, p. 25, pi. 2 ; 
and H. n. Orth. p. 168, pi. 5). The type of this singular genus 
(T. dentieulata^ Serv.) possesses conical eyes which are laterally 
extended. The fore posterior femora are furnished, along more 
than half their length, with three membranous lobes emarginate at 
the middle, and the apex of these femora is armed with four strong 
spines. The abdomen is terminated by two broad foliacious appen- 
dages, which appear to be articulated. This insect (which is 4i 
inches long) is a native of Java, and is unique in the Museum of 
the Jardin des Plantes. It appeared to me on an examination of 
this specimen that the apex of each of the ocular cones was not 
facetted but similar to the remainder of the skull. 

Notwithstanding various structural differences, I have considered 
the insect figured in the opposite plate as also belonging to the 
genus Toxodera; it is, however, a native of Senegal, where 
it represents its Javanese ally, as is also the case in the genus 
Harpax. 

TOXODERA (HETEROCH^TA) tenuipes (Plate 41). 

Fusca, tegminibus brunneis, postice pallidis, alis infumatis, nigro fasciatis, cyaneo-iridescentibus, 
coxis anticis longis, antice lobatis et spinosis, femoiibus anticis basi vix crassioiibus, 
femoribus 4 posticis longis apice subtus foliolis duobus minimis instructis, supra inermi- 
bus, cercis analibus latis foliatis, ut videtur G-articulatis, oculis oblique porrectis ; spina 
terminali nigra baud granulata- Long. corp. unc. 5. Expans. tegm. unc. 4^. 

Inhabits Senegal. In the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope. 

Obs. In the elongated form of the body and the dilated appendage at the extremity of the 
abdomen, tliese insects approach the Phasmidae, whilst in general characters they are very 
nearly allied to the typical Mantidae. 

The singular Orchidaceous plant represented in the plate is the Megaclinium maximum, 
Lindl., a native of Sierra Leone. 

• M. De Haau has formed Mantis rubicunda into a subsection of his Mantis C. with tlie 
character " Oculis trigonis acutis.'' He also gives lo the genus Orthodera the character " oculi 
angulati," but this is not correct. 



163 



PLATES XLII, XLIII, and XLIV. 

ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID^ OF AFRICA. 
PART I. 

There is scarcely any group of insects which more fully shows 
the great increase of our modern stores of novelties than the 
Goliathideous Cetoniidse, our knowledge of the number of species 
of which having been more than doubled during the last five years. 
Having in the 8th and 9th numbers of this work given a complete 
revision of the Asiatic species of the group, I propose in this and 
the following number to treat the African species in like manner, 
having been favoured, from several of our most extensive collections, 
with the loan of a number of fine unfigured species. I am further 
induced to this by the circumstance of the remaining insects of this 
group being confined in their geographical range to Africa * 
(including Madagascar), whereby a complete revision of the group 
will have appeared in this work ; and because the insects of 
Africa are at the present time more particularly the subject of my 
entomological study ; having undertaken, at the request of the 
Rev. F. W. Hope, to prepare a report on the state of our know- 
ledge of African entomology, other gentlemen having in like 
manner undertaken other geographical districts, whereby we may 
hope to obtain a series of papers, which cannot fail to bo of very 
considerable value. 

The typical genera of this group, as already noticed (ante, p. 1 1 4), 
are distinguished by two peculiarities, which are not found in the 
majority of the group — namely, the suborbicular form of the protho- 
rax, and the dentated upper lobe of the maxillaj. Here belong the 
two following A frican genera ; which are at once distinguished 
from their Asiatic analogues, Narycius, Cyphonocephalus, JNIycte- 
ristes, and Phsedimus, by their vt'ant of metallic colours, the more 

* With the exception of the Brazilian Yncse (which Burmeister has satisfactorily shown to 
belong to the Trichiideous section), and the Mexican Goliathus Hoepfneri, G. and P. 
(Ischnoscelis H. Burm.) a very interesting insect, of which only the cornuted male has been 
observed. Dr. Burmeister, as already stated (p. 70, note +), at first considered it as nearest 
allied to Ischnostoma, but he is now of opinion that it ought to be introduced into the Goliathi- 
deous group. From a careful examination and dissection of the insect, which I made whilst 
in Paris in the past summer, I am not prepared to admit this relationship. 

M 2 



164 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS 

robust galea of the maxillae, and the comparatively shorter fore-feet 
of the males. 

HYPSELOGENIA, Burmeister. 

This genus is composed of two species, whose affinities have, 
until recently, been imperfectly understood ; Gory and Percheron 
placing them with Diplognatha, whilst Mr. MacLeay, who did not 
correctly examine the structure of their maxillae, referred them to 
his Cselocephalous section of Ichnostoma ; (Ceton. of South Africa, 
p. 43). By Dr. Burmeister their true structure has been observed, 
and their affinity to Goliathus (long ago pointed out by Latreille 
and others), satisfactorily established, in his beautiful work entitled 
' Genera Insectorum."' They are of small size, and natives of Southern 
Africa. The clypeus is moderately cornuted, the disc of the head 
being concave, terminated in front by an ob-conical, porrected, and 
erect lobe. The fore-feet of the males are scarcely longer than in 
the females, and the tibise in both sexes are externally tridentate, 
the teeth, however, being very obtuse in the males. The inner lobe 
of the maxillae is not armed with a tooth. 

Species I. — Hypselogenia concava, Gory and Perch., Mon. pi. 17, fig. 1. (Diplognatha c.) $ . 

Burmeister, Gen. Ins. fasc. 7. $ . MacLeay, op. cit. p. 43. 
Species II. — Hypselogenia albopunctata, Govy and Perch., pi. 17, fig. 2. $. Burm. Gen. 

Ins. fasc. 7. $ . 
Syn. — Celonia Geotrupina, Schonherr, Syn. Ins. 1, 3. App. 46. 

GOLIATHUS, Lamarck. 

The insects of this genus are indeed well entitled to the generic 
name, which Lamarck gave to them by making use of the specific 
name which had been given to one of the species by Linnaeus. 
Dr. Harris, the most distinguished of living American entomolo- 
gists, adopting the opinion which has been entertained with much 
justice by many recent writers, of the injustice of such a system of 
nomenclature, has proposed to restore the specific name Goliata, 
and to substitute that of Hegemon instead of the present generic 
name. Perfectly agreeing with Dr. Harris in his opinion of the im- 
propriety of such nomenclature, I yet do not adopt his generic name, 
because I also consider that when such an improper substitution of 
names has been universally adopted for nearly half a century (as in 
this case), it would not be advisable to alter it. 

From Hypselogenia the true Goliath beetles are distinguished by 
the bifid horns of the clypeus of the males, and the entire clypeus of 
the females. The inner lobe of the maxillae is produced into a sharp 
tooth. The fore tibiae of the males are externally destitute of teeth, 



CETONIID^ OF AFr.ICA. IffS 

and the four hind tibiae in this sex are also without a central spine 
on the outside. The metasternal process is conically porrected, and 
at its extremity appears a slight channel, separating the scarcely 
visible portion of the mesosternum. 

Mr. MacLeay in his observations on this group was unable to 
state whether plantute and pseudonychiae exist in all the feet, in 
consequence of his specimens being mutilated. I may, therefore, 
mention that a rather strong plantula exists between the tarsal 
ungues of all the feet in both sexes, and that it is terminated by 
two or three very short bristles, which are often broken off, even 
in all the feet. In noticing the figures of the so-named Goliaths 
regius and princeps, Mr. MacLeay states that no allusion is made 
by their respective authors to the existence of plantulse ; although 
they are distinctly shown, both in Dr. King's and my figures, of 
those insects. The four posterior tibiae in both sexes are fringed 
throughout the hinder margin with fine soft fulvous hairs, which in 
the middle feet are longest at the base ; Mr. MacLeay also describes 
the males as having " the anterior tibiae thus lined only half-way," 
which is not the case, the inside of these tibiae having, at the base 
within, a patch of fulvous velvet-like plush of a texture totally un- 
like the long soft marginal hairs of the other feet ; a similar patch, of 
the same texture, also existing at the base of the other tibiae within. 
It has been long observed that the Cetoniidae, during flight, do not 
erect the elytra, but keep them horizontal, and I have observed a 
peculiarity in the structure of the scutellum, which has an evident 
effect in this pecuHarity, each side of the scutellum being suddenly 
and deeply deflexed, which I have found (by the examination of 
individuals moistened in spirits of wine), forms a strong line of 
resistance against the sides of the inner margin of each elytron, when 
I have attempted to elevate them perpendicularly. 
•' The species of this genus (as first restricted in Mr. Hope's ' Coleop- 
terists' Manual' to the giant types of the family possessing the cha- 
racters above mentioned), are peculiar to Western tropical Africa. 

Species I. — Goliathus giganteus, Lamarck, Kirby, Westw., in Dnuy, lllust. Exot. Ent. 
vol. i.p. 61, (2iul Edit.) plate 31. Ditto (var.) Buim. 
SvN. — Scarabceus Goliathus, Linn. Mantissa 530. 

Cetonia Goliata, Fabricius. Ent. Syst. 1,2, p. 124. 

Cetonia Goliathus, Olivier. 

Goliathus Africaiivs, De Lamarck. 

Goliathus magnus, Duncan, in Naturalist's Library, Beetles, pi. 16. 

Hegemon Goliatus^ Hairis, in Ist volume of the Journal of the Essex (U. S.) 

County Nat. Hist. Society. 
Cetoninus (Goliathus J Drurii, MacLeay, (nee. Westw.). 

This species still remains of the greatest rarity, the only known 



166 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS 

individuals being the one in the Hunterian Museum, at Glasgow, 
and a second in the collection of Mr. MacLeay. 

Species II. — GoUathus Drurii, Westw. in Drury, lUust. Exot. Ent., vol. iii. pi. 40, 
(2nd Edit.) 
Hegemon Drurii, Harris. 
GoUathus giganteus, MacLeay, (nee. Westw.) 
GoUathus giganieus, Buruieister. 

I have now seen so many specimens of the males of this species, 
in the collections of the Jardin des Plantes, Messrs. Hope, Melly, 
MacLeay, Raddon, and others, all of which agree together in their 
specific characters, that I have not the slightest hesitation in giving 
it as distinct from the preceding species, with which Dr. Burraeister 
still unites it. Had he however had an opportunity of comparing 
the two species side by side, as I have had in the collection of 
Mr. MacLeay, he would have no longer hesitated in admitting them 
to be distinct. The insect represented by Dr. Klug, in Erman's 
voyage, pi. 15, fig. 7, under the name of Goliathus regius, is 
evidently the female of this species. 

It is unfortunate that Mr. MacLeay has reversed the specific 
names which I applied to the two preceding insects in my edition of 
Drury's Illustrations. 

Species III. — GoUathus Cacicus, $ Voet. Col. 1, tab. 22, f. 151. Olivier, Gory and 
Percberon. 

$ GoUathus princeps, Hope, Col. Man. frontisp. 

Of this fine species many specimens have, during the past 
summer, been received in England, by Mr. Hope, from Cape 
Palmas, on the western coast of tropical Africa, where they were 
collected by Mr. Savage, who thus notices their habits, in a letter 
forwarded to Mr. Hope : — " As to Goliathus Cacicus, these regions 
abound with them ; and, after a year''s watching, I have obtained 
the flower, and know botanically, the tree from which they derive 
their food. It is a syngenesious plant belonging to Jussieu's 
CompositcB CorymbifercB. The Cacicus inhabits no other tree, as it 
is said. The Mecynorhina torquata inhabits two kinds of trees, one 
a magnificent Mimosa, a Goliath of its kind ; I have not yet 
obtained the blossom ; it is now in seed, which I have. The 
Goliathus Drurii is not found in the locality of Cape Palmas : it has 
been taken at Bussa, near Montserrado, ancj the specimen I now 
send is from Cape Coast." [The insect here alluded to is a splendid 
specimen of the insect figured in Drury s Srd volume, or my G. Drurii.] 
" I lately saw Professor Klug's Regius, which is no more nor 
less than the female of Drurii. Of this I am as certain as that 



CET0N1ID.E OF AFRICA. 167 

the Princeps of Hope is the female of Cacicus. The Gold Coast 
would seem to be the locality of Drurii, and the Grain Coast that 
of the Torquatus and Cacicus^ 

The tarsi of the males of this species are much more slender than 
in G. Drurii. 

The largest specimen of the male of G. Cacicus which I have seen 
measures three inches and a half in length, including the horns of 
the head, whilst some are at least one-third shorter. The smallest 
female which 1 have seen measures two inches and a half in length, 
the elytra at the base being one inch and one-third in width. 
In some specimens of the female the two lateral fulvous marks on 
each side of the prothorax are united, and broader than in the 
specimen figured by me in Mr. Hope's Coleopterists' Manual, and 
in others the elytra have the pearly portion much more extended, 
leaving only a dark patch at each shoulder, and a large triangular 
basal spot extending half the length of the elytra. 



Africa possesses, at least as far as known at present, no species 
analogous to the Asiatic genera, 

Narycius and Cyphonocephalus, in having the sides of the head 
alone produced into horns, and the maxillae multidentate. 

Mycteristes and Ph^diraus, in having the front of the prothorax 
cornuted, and the maxillae multidentate, or 

Dicronocephalus, in having the prothorax broadest across the 
middle, with the maxillae edentate. 



We therefore now proceed with that section of the subfamily 
which possesses a trapezoidal prothorax, broadest at its hinder 
angles, and a simple terminal lobe to the maxillae. The types of 
this group nearly rival in size the great Goliaths ; they are, how- 
ever, for the most part much more brilliantly coloured ; the elytra 
are much broader at the base than behind ; the body is very much 
depressed, and the prothorax has the posterior margin slightly 
emarginate in front of the scutellum. The fore-feet, in the males 
of this section, are considerably more elongated than in the oppo- 
site sex. The majority of the species of this section possess a short 
sternal process between the middle feet, and the species are at 
once distinguished from their Eastern analogues, by a peculiarity in 
the formation of the sternal process between the middle feet, which 



168 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS 

has not been previously observed. In the African species, the 
anterior portion, or the apex of the mesosternal process, forms only 
the narrowed point at the extremity of the metasternal lobe, 
whereas in the Asiatic species the mesosternal portion is broader 
than the metasternal base of which it forms the apex, so that the 
process is generally clavate. (Compare, for example, Plate 30, fig. 
1 a, with Plate 19, fig. 1 c). 

In the Asiatic species, as will be seen from the short table given 
in page 132, and page 117, Jumnos takes the lead, with its long fore 
legs in the males which have the tibise internally serrated, in which 
respect we find it to agree, analogically, with the leading species of 
this section found in Africa, although differing materially in the 
structure of the clypeus, destitute of horns in the male, and the 
externally bidentate fore tibise of the males. 

MECYNORHINA, Hope (Col. Man. 1. pp. 60, 119). 

As at first proposed by Mr. Hope this group was intended to 
comprise G. micans, Daphnis, Grallii, &c. as well as its type 
Polyphemus. In the appendix, however, to the first part of his 
Coleopterist's Manual, he restricted it to G. Polyphemus, no 
description of the male of G. torquatus, nor even of the female of 
Polyphemus, having at that time been published. The characters 
assigned in p. 119 are " ^ Tibise anticse dentibus utrinque armatse; 
tibise intermedise dente parvo medio armatse," which are not appli- 
cable to the female. 

Both Mr. MacLeay and Dr. Burmeister have divided the genus 
into two sub-sections. Those of Mr, MacLeay being thus 
characterized : — 

1. $ Clypeus with a single porrected horn. G. torquatus, Drury. 

2. $ Clypeus with three horns, the middle one diverging or bifid at the apex. G. Poly- 
» phemus. Fab. 

Whilst Dr. Burmeister proposes (contrary to Mr. Hope's inten- 
tion) to restrict the name of, 

Mecynorhina, to G. torquata (the male having only a single horn 
to the clypeus, and the mando of the maxillse destitute of a tooth, 
which exists in the female, and the female with only one spine in 
the middle of the intermediate tibise ; and to give the name of, 

Chelorrhina, to G. Polyphemus, with the character : — Head with 
a strong frontal horn, bifid at tip, and two moderately long lateral 
horns. Both sexes with a spine at the extremity of the mando, 
and the female with two spines in the middle of the intermediate 
tibitc. 



CETONIID^ OF AFRICA. 169 

I do not consider it necessary to adopt these two divisions, the 
general characters of the two species being identical ; the male of 
G. torquatus has, moreover, the sides of the head produced into a 
conical horn, which is analogous to the side horns of Polyphemus, 
and the bifid extremity of the middle horn in Polyphemus being, 
in my opinion, but a specific character. The second character 
employed by Dr. Burmeister, namely, the possession of a spine to 
the mando of the male Polyphemus (see Plate 44, fig. 3, drawn 
from a sketch sent me by Dr. Burmeister) would have been entitled 
to greater weight, were I not able to show similar instances of a 
difference in this respect existing between other species (E. G. 
Eudicella frontalis, Dicranorhina Burkei), whilst Dr. Burmeister's 
third character is certainly erroneous, as the females of both species 
agree in the toothing of the intermediate tibiae. 

The two species at present composing the genus form an admi- 
rable link between the gigantic species and those which follow, 
agreeing with the former in the singular velvet-like coat in which 
they are superficially clothed, as well as in their large size. 

Species I. — Mecynorhina Polyphemus, $ , Fabricius, Ent. Svst. 1, 2, 125 ; Oliv. Ent. 

1, 6, 9, 3, T. 7 f. 61 ; Gory and Perch. PI. 25, fig. 1 ; Arc' Ent. PI. 19, fig. 1 d, and 

1 e;_$ Westw. Arc. Ent. p. 69, PI. 19, fi?. 1, 1 a, 1 6, 1 c. 
Species II. — Mecynorhina torqnata (Plate 44, fig. 1, $,2 $); Drury Illust. Exot. Ent. 

3, PI. 44 , fig. 1 , $ ; Herbst Naturs. Kaf. 3, tab. 28, fig. 1 ; Waterhouse Mag. Nat. Hist. 

2d Ser. p. 636, and fig. $ 

Cetonia collaris, Schonherr, Syn. Ins. 1, 3, 117. 

It is to Joseph Hooker, Esq. (the son of Sir W. Hooker, the 
distinguished botanist), a most zealous Entomologist, whose at- 
tention had been particularly directed towards the Goliath beetles, 
and who is at present with the Expedition engaged in exploring 
the South Seas, that I am indebted for my first acquaintance with 
the male of this species, and which* is at present deposited at 
his father's residence at Kew, with his Entomological collection. 

The magnificent male here figured is contained in the cabinet of 
A. JNIelly, Esq., of Liverpool, to whom I beg to offer my best thanks 
for the kind reception afforded both to Dr. Burmeister and myself 
during the visit of the former in this country. This specimen 
exceeds in size any other I have yet seen, and has the frontal horn 
of the head proportionately more developed, with a double series 
of black rounded tubercles towards the tip. In addition to this 
and Mr. Strachan's male specimen, a figure of which by the late 

* This is the specimen to wliich Mr. MacLeay alludes as being probably a second individual 
of G. Polyphemus. 



170 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS 

Mr. C. Curtis, was published by Mr. Waterhouse, I have seen several 
other specimens in the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, one of 
which measures as follows : — 

Length of the head ..... 6 lines. 

„ pro thorax 9 » 

„ elytra 16 „ 

Breadth of hind part of prothorax . , . 12i „ 

„ base of elytra . . . . 1 3§ „ 

The female here figured is also contained in the splendid collection 
of Mr. Hope, having been brought from Sierra Leone by Mr. 
Strachan. Its measurements are as follow : — 

Length of the head ..... 4§ lines. 

„ prothorax . . . . 8 „ 

5> elytra 17^ „ 

Breadth of the base of the elytra . . . 13^ „ 

The male differs from every other Goliathideous insect in not 
having the frontal horn dilated at the tip ; this sex possesses no 
tooth on the inner lobe of the maxilla (fig. la), whereas it has a 
very strong one in the female (fig. 2 a) ; fig. 2 5 represents the 
mentum of the female, and fig. 1 b and 1 c, the sternal process 
alike in both sexes, the apical mesosternal portion being much more 
developed than in the giant Goliaths. The fore posterior tibiae in 
both sexes have their extremities produced into several acute spines 
independently of the calcarise, which in the two posterior feet of 
the female are unequal in size, one of them being spatulate in form. 
The reason which induced Schonherr to change the name of this 
species to C. coUaris, (which appears to have perplexed Mr. 
MacLeay, who by the bye cites both the name and reference of 
Schonherr incorrectly) was that there was another C. torquata 
described by Fabricius. As, however, Drury''s name has a long 
priority it ought, even on these grounds, to have been retained. 

As the species is entirely omitted in the " Monographic des 
C^toines," I have represented both sexes in the accompanying 
plate. 

CERATORHINA, Westwoed. 

The following characters at once distinguish a most natural group 
of these insects: — Head of the males with the clypeus (and occa- 
sionally the hind part of the head) cornuted, simple in the females. 
— Fore-tibise of the males not dentated on the outside (occasionally 
spinose along the inner edge), those of the females internally simple, 
and externally 3-dentate. Middle tibiae of the females with only 
one spine in the middle of the outer margin. Sternal process, with 



CETONllDJi OF AFRICA. 171 

the apical (mesosternal) portion, small, and not wider than the 
extremity of the metasternal portion. 

Nearly every species in the group tlius naturally associated is dis- 
tinguished by splendid green or golden colours. This is, in fact, the 
case with all those which are natives of the tropics ; but I have re- 
ceived, within the few last days, two species from Mr. Melly from 
a more southern latitude, both of which exhibit white velvet-like 
patches, and one of them is entirely destitute of metallic tints. 

In the Coleopterist's Manual of Mr. Hope (vol. i, p. 119) a genus 
was proposed under the name of Dicronorhina, comprising Cetonia 
micans, Daphnis and Grallii, characterised by the internally spinose 
fore tibiae of the males. As however several species are now known, 
(D. Nireus, Burkei, 4-maculata and guttata) the males of which 
possess unarmed fore tibiae, I have considered it as likely to lead to 
less confusion by uniting them under a different generic name. 
The group now proposed, comprises Mr. MacLeay's sub-sections 
3, 4, and 5 of the section ' Goliathi Smithii,' and his 4th sub- 
section of Coryphe Naricise, with several other species which must 
have been formed into other sub-sections according to his arrange- 
ment. 

By Dr. Burmeister they are formed into the genus Dicronor- 
rhina, and portion of Ceelorrhina, which are, as it appears to me, 
unnaturally placed in different sections of his family Goliathidse. 

They may be formed into several sections as follows : — 

A. Tibiffi anticK $ intus denticulatae. 

a. Clypeus $ in cornu obtriangulare porrectue . . (1. Dioronorhina, Hope.) 

b. „ „ furcatum porrectus . . . (2. Eudicella, White). 

B. Tibia; anticae intus baud dentatae. 

a. Clypeus $ in cornu obtriangulare medium porrectus. 
o. Corpus baud metallicum, tarsi antici $ apice peui- 

cillato (3. Cheirolasia, Westw.). 

;8. Corpus metallicum tarsi antici baud penicillati. 

* Caput $ cornu postico armatum clypeus 

$ baud recte truncatus . . . • (4. Taurhina, Burm.). 

* * Caput $ baud cornu postico armatum ; 

clypeus $ recte truncatus . . . . (5." Ceelorrhina, Burm.). 

b. Clypeus $ in cornua duo lateralia porrectus . . (6. .y/ejoAaworr Aiwa, Burm.). 

Section 1.— DICRONORHINA, Hope. 

The first of these sections, which has for its type the typical 
species of Mr. Hope's genus Dicronorhina (a name altered by 
Dr. Burmeister to Dicranorrhina), namely the Cetonia micans of 
Drury, is further characterised by having the inner lobe of the 
maxillse in both sexes destitute of a tooth, which is found, at least 



172 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS 

in the females, of almost every other Goliathideous insect ; the 
anterior tibiae of the males are also externally destitute of any tooth, 
and the terminal joint of the anterior male tarsi is clothed beneath 
with a pencil of hairs. The four posterior tibiae are not spined in 
the centre of the outer margin in the males, but in the females each 
of them has a single strong central spine. 

Species I. — C. micans. Drury. Viridi-nitens, capite viridi quadrate maris lateribus uni- 
spinosis et in angulos obtusos nigros productis, medioque marginis antici in cornu nigro 
porrecto recurve apice bifido producto. Long. corp. (e cap. ad auum, testo Drurio) 
1| unc. (teste MacL. 25 lin.). 
Syn. — Scarab, micans. Drury, vol. ii., tab. 32, fig. 3 ; MacL. Cot. So. Afr., p. 33 ; Fab. 
Ent. Syst. 2, p. 126, 5 ? 

The description and figure of Drury disagree with the insect, 
now known to the majority of Entomologists under the name of 
Goliathus micans. Drury's description of the head is " green and 
nearly square ; the surface irregular and uneven, the corners 
pointed, forming two black obtuse angles ; from the front of the 
head issues a small black and thick protuberance like a horn, that 
divides into two branches, each of which terminates in a sharp 
point." Drury states that his specimen was received from Calabar, 
on the west coast of Africa, about 5" or 6° north latitude. In my 
priced copy of the catalogue of Drury's collection, I find that 
lot 112, comprising " Cetonia hamata, nitens., grandis, [torquata?] 
Scarabaeus festivus, and 1 2 others," was purchased by Mr. MacLeay 
at the price of 17/. In the memoir on the Cetoniidae of South Africa, 
Mr. MacLeay, quoting only Drury under G. micans, describes the 
male and female from his cabinet thus : — " Viridi-nitens an tennis 
palpis tarsisque nigris, J clypeo lateribus unispinosis, cornu medio 
porrecto recurve, apice bifido ; $ clypeo simplice quadrato." 

It appeal's to me very doubtful whether the Fabrician descrip- 
tion of C. micans can be intended to apply to this species. 

Species II — C. cavifrons, Westw., Viridi-nitens, capite $ supra nigro ; lateribus acute 
dilatatis parteque postica viridibus ; clypeo valde excavate, antice 3-corni cornubus laterali- 
bus brevibus truncatis ; intermedio baud recurvo apice dilatato bifido ; margine antico 
clypei in J sub 3-siniiato. Long, corp (J (in spec, nostr, cornu clypei incluso) l^ unc. ; 
$ 1-|- unc. 

Syn. — Golialhus micans, Gory and Perch6ron, Men. des Cet. pi. 25, fig. 2 ; Gu^riu, Icon. 
R. An. Ins. pi, 26, fig. 5 ; Burmeister Handb. d. Ent. Laniellic I, p. 188. 

This insect is now widely distributed in collections under the 
name of Goliathus micans, having been received from the French 
collectors at Senegal in considerable numbers. The structure of 
the head is however quite unlike that of C. micans. Mr. Strachan 
has also brought it from Sierra Leone, his specimen being the insect 



CETONIID-E OF M'RIOA. 173 

alluded to by Mr, ISIacLeay, in his observations on C. micans, and 
which (ante p. 6), I stated to be identical with C. micans, knowing 
only the species so named and figured by modern French authors, 
Mr. MacLeay himself not having alluded to any difference between 
the figures of Drury and Guerin. 

Species III. — C. splendens. M*L. Viiidi-nitens, thorace punctis duobus caeruleis, elytris 
vix striatis linea obliqua hiimerali caernlea ; clypeo $ lateribus bispinosis cornu medio 
porrecto lecurvo apice bifido. Long. corp. lin. 24. 

Mr. MacLeay adds, " It is a species which comes very close to 
C. micans, and belongs to the same section." 

The above is all the description given by Mr. MacLeay of this 
species, of which he gives no habitat ; so that we are left in doubt 
whether it be a native of South Africa, or not. 

Species IV. — C. Derbyana. Melly's MS. Plate 42. Viridis nitidissimus, clypeo ponecto 
elytrisque albido-maiginatis, capita nigro, $ comubus duobus elevatis inter oculos, 
rornuque antico subiecurvo ; apice obtriangulaii, 9- clypei margine antico sub 3-sinuato. 
Long. Corp. (J (coruu clypei escl.) I| unc. $ -^^ unc. 

The general colour of this splendid insect is a shining green with 
a bluish tinge. The head of the male above is black, except at the 
hinder part, which is green, and a large patch on each side of the 
central carina, covered with whitish velvety tomentosity. The 
front margin of the clypeus is nearly square, there being behind 
each of the anterior lateral angles an acute prominence, whence the 
head is gradually narrowed to the base of the antennae. The sides 
of the head are not elevated, but there are two horns elevated and 
obtuse between the eyes, standing out obliquely. (In C. cavifrons 
these horns are not distinct, but are confluent with the sides of 
the head, forming a very deep excavation on each side of the central 
carina). Along the middle of the head runs an elevated carina 
extending to the extremity of the central horn of the clypeus, which 
is rather recurveil, with the sides angularly dilated. The under- 
side of the head, together with the trophi and antennae, are also 
black. The disk of the prothorax is very finely punctured. The 
sides with a very slight margin, and with a rather broad lateral 
band (gradually narrowed tow'ards the hind angles) covered with 
whitish tomentosity. The elytra are similar in colour to the pro- 
thorax but rather more distinctly punctured, the punctures occa- 
sionally forming longitudinal lines. At each shoulder and subapical 
tubercle is a black patch ; the tomentose marginal band ascends to 
a considerable distance along the suture, breaking into small spots. 
The fore tibise have several (seven or eight) teeth along their inner 



i74 ON THE G0L1ATHIDE0U8 

margin. The basal joints of the tarsi are terminated by a small 
point ; and the last joint on the fore tarsi is furnished beneath with 
a small tuft of black hairs. The tibiae are chalybaeous or aeneous 
black, and the tarsi black. The body beneath is of a dark shining 
olivaceous green. The femora and sides of the metasternum tinged 
with coppery red : the third, fourth, and fifth segments of the 
abdomen are marked on each side with a white spot; and the 
podex has a transverse patch of white at the base. 

The female is similarly coloured, but rather darker, and with 
the punctures very close and strong, especially on the prothorax, 
with an interrupted narrow line along the middle, partially free 
from punctures : the sides and anterior margin of the head are 
elevated and black, as are also the tibise and tarsi. The abdomen 
of the male presents only a slightly depressed and very slender line 
along the middle of the three or four basal segments ; and the 
extremity is more pointed than in the female. The sternal process 
is but slightly porrected, with a very small portion only of the meso- 
sternal portion visible in front (pi. 42, fig. Iblc). The basal lobe 
of the maxillae is destitute of a spine in both sexes (fig. 1 a), and 
the terminal joint of the maxillary palpi is somewhat longer in the 
male than in the female (fig. 2 a). 

I have to return my best thanks to Mr. Melly for an opportunity 
of describing and figuring this new and beautiful species, as well as 
several other interesting novelties, which will appear in the next 
number of this work, recently arrived in this country, having been 
collected by Mr. Burton in the hilly and hitherto unknown country 
lying between 25 and 26^ S. lat. and 27 and 28° E. long. The 
specimens of the present species were taken on the trunks of a tree 
named Zizyphus ; they flew exceedingly fast, and only those speci- 
mens were taken which were found in pairs. Mr. Melly has 
proposed to name the species in honour of the Earl of Derby, Pre- 
sident of the Zoological Society ; and I have much pleasure in 
adopting his suggestion. 

Section 2.— EUDICELLA. White. 

This section is distinguished by the forked central horn of the 
clypeus of the males ; the anterior male tibise simple externally, but 
denticulated within ; the terminal joint of the fore tarsi, in the same 
sex, not furnished with a brush of hairs ; the broader mentura and 
shorter scutellum : together with the strongly dentate inner lobe of 



CETONIID^ OF AFRICA. 175 

the maxillae of the females, the same part being either simple or less 
strongly dentate in the males. Hitherto no species has been 
found which has not the superficies of the body of a shining green, 
or glossed with a fulvous tint, no trace of tomentosity occurring in 
the species. The females have the hind part of the prothorax and 
base of the elytra considerably dilated, and the tarsi, in all the 
known species, are black. The female has the front margin of the 
head nearly straight, with it and the sides margined. 

Species I. (V.) — Ceratorhina (E.) Daphnis, Buquet, Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 1835 

(torn. IV.) pi, 2, fig. 3, 4. 
Inhabits Senegal. 

Mr. Melly possesses a specimen exactly agreeing with M. Bu- 
quet's description ; in which the frontal horn, when seen in per- 
spective from above, appears to have the two branches curved at 
the tips ; but when seen of their proper form from behind, they are 
nearly straight, like those of C. Morgani. I mention this because 
Mr. MacLeay (judging only from M. Buquet's figure) gives as one 
of the characters distinguishing it from C Smithii, " ramis extus 
arcuatis," which is not the case. 

Species II. (VI.) — Ceratorhina (E.) Smithii, MacLeay, Cot. of South Africa, p. 34, 
pi. 1, fig. med. 

Taken by Dr. Smith in Africa, near the Tropic of Capricorn. 

Species III. (\ll.)— Ceratorhina (E.) Morgani. (Plate 43, fig. 3^,4 ?). White in 
Mag. Nat. Hist. N. S. 1839, p. 24. 

The accompanying figures are made from beautiful specimens in 
the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, natives of Sierra Leone. 
They are of an intense uniform shining green colour, without any 
spots on the elytra by which they are distinguished from the other 
species ; with the forks of the horn of the head nearly straight 
and diverging. The female is very broad across the base of the 
elytra, which, as well as in the male, are considerably more 
attenuated towards the tip, than in the other species represented 
in the plate. Fig. 3 a represents the side view of the head, and 
S b the apex of the horn seen from behind ; 3 c the mandible, 8 d 
the maxilla of the male ; 4 a that of the female ; 3 e the mentum 
of the male (that of the other sex not being quite so broad 
nor so deeply channelled in the middle, the labial palpi being 
thicker in the female); 3y*and Sff the sternal process, ahke in 
both sexes. 



176 ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID.E OF AFRICA, 

Species IV. {VUl.)—Ceratorhina (E .) frontalis, Westw. (Plate 43, fig. 1^,2$). 

Syn. — Eudicella frontalis, Westw. iu Taylor's Phil. Mag., Nov. 1841. Laete vlridis niti- 
Jissima, subaurata, capite $ tricorni, cornu medio fulvo capite pauUo longiori basi 
crasso, ante medium in ranios duos subparallelos lateribus externis serrulatia apiceque 
recurvis ; elytris disco lateribusque fulvo tinctis maculis duabus humeralibus alterisque, 
duabus subapicalibus nigris, clava antennarum fulva, $ clypeo antice fere recto fulvo. 

Long. Corp. $ (excl. cornu capitis) lin. 17. ? lin. 16. 

Inhabits the Gold Coast. 

Both sexes of this beautiful species are in the collection of Mr. 
Turner of Manchester, who kindly forwarded them, and numerous 
other rarities, to Liverpool, for the examination of Dr. Burmeister 
and myself during our visit to the latter city. The prothorax and 
elytra in both sexes are most delicately punctured ; the suture, 
and a broad stripe down the sides of the latter, of a splendid 
green, the other parts of the elytra being stained with fulvous. 
The front of the head of the male is bright fulvous, the extreme 
tips of the lateral horns black. On the underside, the male is of 
a splendid golden green, the femora with a dorsal stripe of bright 
red, the tibise above green, beneath black, as well as the tarsi ; 
underside of the front of the head and horn rich brown the latter 
tinged with green ; the abdomen deeply impressed in the centre, 
the impressed part bright fulvous red ; clava of antennae fulvous. 
Abdomen of female beneath concolorous, with the rest of the 
underside of the body. Sides of metasternura and of abdomen 
thickly punctured. Figure 1 a represents the side view of the 
head ; 1 h the horns seen from behind ; 1 c the maxilla of the male 
{the inner lobe in both maxilloe terminated by a short tooth) ; 2 a, the 
extremity of the maxilla of the female, with a stronger tooth. 

Species V. (\yi.) — Ceratorhina (E.) Grallii, Buquet iu Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 1836, 
(Tom. v.)p. 201, PL 5, fig. 3. 

Supposed by M. Buquet to be a native of Western Africa. 

Species VI. (X.) — Ceratorhina (E.) igni(a,Wesiv!. (The description and figure of which 
will appear iu the following Number). 

The plant represented in Plate 42, is the Babiana villosa, a 
bulbous native of South Africa ; and that in Plate 4^ is the 
singular Orchidaceous Bulbophyllum saltatorium Lindl. from 
Sierra Leone. 



177 



PLATES XLV AND XLVI. 

ON THE GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIIDiE OF AFRICA. 
PART II. 



CERATORHINA (EUDICELLA) IGNITA. IVestw. 
(Plate 46, fig. 1. <?.) 
C. (E.) viridis, cupreo-micans, capite $ tricorni, cornu medio capite plus duplo longiori porrecto 
recuivo, bifido, luteo-bruaneo ramis divergentibus apice tuberculatis, elytris coacoloribus 
immaculatis, tibiis castaneis tavsis antennisque nigris. Long. Corp. (exclus. cornu capitis) 
lin. l/J. Lat. ad basin elytrorum, lin. 8§. 
Habitat in Africa tropicali. Gold coast. In mus. D. Raddon. 

Considerably larger tban any of the other species of Eiidicella, the male having the upper 
surface of the body of a splendid opaline green, strongly tinged with coppery orange ; the 
insect when held towards the light appearing entirely green, while when held from it, it appears 
of a rich coppery red. 

The head has less of the coppery hue, it is almost flat above and nearly quadrate; it is 
closely punctured, the punctures being quite visible to the naked eye. From the base of 
each antenna runs a sinuated dark slender impression, almost parallel with the inner margm 
of the eye ; the anterior angles of the head are produced into a short diverging spine, directed 
upwards, of a brown colour, black at the extreme tip, and obliquely truncate within. Be- 
tween each of these spines and the middle of the head is a deep oval impression of a green 
colour. The space between these two impressions is occupied by a triangular brown patch 
running backwards from the middle of the front of the head, which is produced into a long 
luteous-brown horn, the base of which is darker reddish brown, and nearly straight, being 
elevated in a slight curve, at the extremity of which the horn is divided into two branches, 
which follow the curve of the basal part', each terminating in a point, behind which are 
several (three or four) black tubercles ; the furcation of these two branches forming a regular 
curve when seen from behind. The entire horn is more than double the length of the head. 
(Fig. la, \ b, \ c, the horn seen in different positions.) Tiie eyes and the antennae are 
black, the palpi pitchy, the maxillary being paler than the labial. 

The pronotum is, at the hind part, half as broad again as it is long, and is very finely and 
closely punctured, especially at the sides and fore-angles, the punctures being scarcely visible 
to the naked eye ; it is slightly dilated in the mWdle of the sides, which have slender 
thickened magins. Near the base of the scutellum are two slight impressions. The scutel- 
lum and elytra are covered with excessively fine punctures not visible to the naked eye ; the 
latter has two lines of deeper punctures running along the sides of the suture. This is 
elevated at the extremity of the elytra, where it has a slender black margin and terminates in 
two points. The sides of the elytra are concolorous, the middle of the raised humeral part 
appearing rather darker, but not in the least marked with the black spot observable in the 
other species. The base of the elytra is rather broader than the hind part of the thorax. 
The elytra are one fourth longer than broad. The underside of the body is green tinged with 
coppery orange, especially across the middle of the metasternum ; this iias a dark longitudinal 
line in the centre, and the sides are thickly punctured. The underside of the femora 
are marked with minute slender dark oblique striae; the femora on the upper side 
are entirely castaneous red; the anterior with a thick coating of hairs along the edge. 
The tibise are castaneous brown, very slightly tinged with green ; the anterior curved and 
irregularly dentate along the inner edge. The teeth, spines, and tarsi are black ; the tibiae 
beneath are dark brown. The anterior extremity of the metasternum is green, wiiilst the 
base of the mesosternum is coppery, (fig. Id, \ e, sternal process). The abdomen beneath 
is green, with the slender margins of the segments dark brown. The centre of the abdomen 
has a deep impression, which is dark along the middle. 

NO. XII. IS^ MARCH, 1813. N 



178 GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID.E 



Section 3.— CHEIROLASIA. Westwood. 

This section is distinguished by the anterior tibiae of the males 
being destitute of the serrations which so singularly arm those of 
the preceding sections. The apex of the anterior femora, and the 
base of the tibise are, however, clothed with a thick coat of fulvous 
hairs, of which also a broad brush ornaments the apical joint of 
the fore tarsi. The head of the males is armed on each side, in 
front of the eyes^ with a porrected horn ; and the middle of the 
clypeus is produced into a thick horn, dilated and very slightly 
bifid at the tip. The sides of the front of the clypeus are also 
pointed. The body is comparatively short and broad, destitute of 
metallic colours, but marked with pale pubescent patches. The 
mandibles have the blade slender and rather acute (PL 45, fig. 1 h). 
The maxillae have the basal lobe produced into an acute spine ; and 
the apical lobe is also very acute (fig. 1 c, both maxillae being alike). 
The nientum has the fore margin deeply cleft (fig. 1 d). The 
sternal process is broad, obtuse, and but slightly porrected (fig. 1 e 
and 1/). 

Specifs I. (XI.) — Ceratorhina (Cheirolasia) Burkei. Melly's MS. (Plate 45, fig. 1). 
Nigra nitida, capite, prothoracis lateribus maculis elytrorum, corporeque subtus albida 
pubescentia obsitis, tibiis posticis tarsisque omnibus fulvis $. Long. Corp. lin. 12—14 
(cornu capitis incluso). 
Habitat in Africa australiori. D. Burton. 

This is one of the fine new species collected by Mr. Burton in Southern Africa (see p. 174), 
for a knowledge of which I am indebted to A. Melly, Esq. The head is fulvo-castaneous, 
the edges of the large frontal horn and the tips of the two short ones at the fore angle of the 
clypeus black, the hind part of the head black, with two large triangular patches of pale 
pubescence, of which there is also a large one on each side of the carina, running to the middle 
of the frontal horn, where it forks, and extends to the tip of each branch ; the horns in front 
of the eyes are fulvo-castaneous, the antennae fulvous, the underside of the head and trophi fulvo- 
castaneous. The prothorax has its upper surface marked on each side with a broad baud of 
pale pubescence, in which is a small dark dot ; this pubescence extends narrowly along the 
fore margin of the prothorax, from the middle of which it is extended backwards in a narrow 
line to the middle of the disk. Within each pale band is a sooty-black opaque one, the space 
enclosed within which and the hind margin is very bright, with a few very minute punctures. 
The elytra are black and shining, with a slight pitchy tinge, the base and extreme apex being 
bright castaneous ; they are marked with a variable number of impressed patches of pale 
pubescence, which become more or less confluent in different individuals. The disc is slightly 
and very minutely punctured. The podex is castaneous, with a large white spot on each side. 
The fore legs are elongated ; the femora castaneo-fulvous, with the tips black ; the anterior 
ones thickly clothed within with fulvous hairs ; the fore tibia; black, with the tips fulvous, 
which is also the colour of the dense patch of hairs within, at the base ; the outer margin 
presents the slightest possible indications of an approach to the common tridentate structure, in 
the existence of two slight sinuations ; the tarsi are long, with the joints produced acutely at 
the tips within, the terminal joint rather broad and thickly clothed with fulvous hairs; the 
four posterior tibise are fulvous, with the base beneath black ; the tarsi are also fulvous ; they 
are slightly serrated along the outer margin ; each of the four posterior tibise is furnished with 
two rather short spurs ; and there is a very minute bisetose appendage between the ungues of 
each foot. The metasternum is black, with the sides covered with pale pubescence, as are 
also the posterior coxae ; the abdomen black, with two rows of large pale patches down the 
middle, and several smaller spots on each side. It is very slightly channelled down the three 



OF AFRICA. 179 

basal segments. The smaller specimen sent me by Mr. Melly had the horns of the head 
rather shorter, the spots of the elytra more confluent, the four hind legs entirely fulvous, the 
anterior tibias with the sinuations more distinctly marked so as to give them more the 
appearance of being tridentate (fig. 1 g), and the four hind tibiae more serrated (fig. 1 A, 1 i). 
The maxillae in this specimen were of a similar form to those of the larger specimen figured in 
the plate. 

Section 4.— TAURHINA, Burmeister. 

This section is distinguished from the last by its splendid metallic 
colour and by its fore tarsi being destitute of an apical brush, and 
from the following by having the hind part of the head, in the 
males, produced into a broad curved horn (pi. 45, fig. 2 a), whilst 
the centre of the front margin of the clypeus is porrected in the 
shape of a thick obtriangular horn ; the front of the clypeus of 
the female (pi. 4-5, fig. 2 d, from Schaum) is not straight. The 
inner lobe of the maxillse is simple in the males : (I have not seen a 
female in nature). The anterior femora and tibia3, in the males, 
are singularly constructed, evincing an approximation to the 
internally serrated tibiae of some of the preceding species. The 
sternal process is broad and somewhat triangular at the tip, which 
is more porrected than in the last group (fig. 2 5, 2 c). The 
abdomen is channelled beneath, and the pseudonychise are distinct 
but very minute, the unguiculse being scarcely visible. 

Species I. (Xll.) — Ceraiorhina (T.) Nireus (Plate 45, fig. 2.) 

Syn. — Dicranorhina Nireus. Scliaum. Anal. Ent., p. 40, tab. annex. $ $ . Bur- 
meister, Handb. d. Ent., Vol. 3, p. 190. 

This beautiful species inhabits Guinea. The only specimen I 
have yet seen is in the collection of Captain Parry of Cheltenham, 
who has kindly permitted me to illustrate it in this work. 

Section 5.— CCELORRHINA, Burmeister. 

The type of this section exhibits equally splendid colours with 
Taurhina, from which it differs in the armature of the head of the 
male, which is thus described by ]\Ir. MacLeay, who, I believe, 
alone possesses this sex : — " Clypeo antice concave, cornu medio 
brevi recurvo, apice dentate, triangulum obversum simulante." He 
also describes the anterior tibiae as having no teeth externally or 
internally. The female has the head unarmed, with the front 
margin of the clypeus slightly emarginated ; the inner lobe of the 
maxillae is strongly toothed ; the front margin of the mentum is 
deeply incised ; the anterior tibiae are tridentate, and the four 
posterior ones have a tooth on the outside, beyond the middle. 
The sternal process is of the same form as represented in pi. 45, 
fig. 3 a, 3 i. 

N 2 



180 GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIIDyE 

Species I. (XIII.) — Ceratorhina (C.) i-macnlata. 

Syn. — Cetonia 4-muculata, Fabiicius. Olivier. Gory and Perch., IMon. 131, 4 pi. 19, 
fig. 4. MacLeay. Burmeister, H. d. E., iii. p. 207. 

The typical specimen of this insect, described by Fabricius from 
the Banksian Cabinet, is still in that collection at the Linnsean 
Society, bein^ a female. 

Species II. (XIV.) — Ceratorhina (^C celorrhina ?) aurata, Westw. (Plate 45, fig. 3). 
Laete viridi-aurea, antennis et clypei marginibus nigris, hujus margine aiitico $ lato fere 
recto; elytris luaculis duabus parvis tiiangularibus humeralibus alteiisque duabus api- 
calibus nigris, marginibus fulvo-aureis ; tibiis tarsisque aureo-viridibus $. Long. corp. 
lin. \C\\. Lat. ad basin elytr. lin. 8. 

Syn. — Goliath. {End.) auratus, Westw. Ann. of Nat. Hist., Nov. 1841. 
Ccelorrhina aurala, Burmeister, H. d. E., iii. p. 208. 

Inhabits the shores of the Cammeroons River, in Western Tropical Africa. In the Cabinet 
of J. Turner, Esq. of Manchester. 

I am unfortunately unacquainted with the male of this species, 
and am therefore unable to determine the precise group to which 
it belongs, placing it here provisionally, since it differs from the 
Eudicellse and Coelorrhina 4-maculata in the broader shape of its 
clypeus and preen tarsi, although agreeing with the latter insect in 
a narrower form than that of the female Eudicellse, as well as in 
the narrowed shape of the mentum. It agrees with Taurhina 
Nireus '^. in possessing green tarsi, but differs in the truncature of 
its clypeus. 

The general colour of this insect is a rich golden-green. The hind part of the prothorax 
and the suture and margins of the elytra more fulvous. Tiie clypeus is very much punctured ; 
its margin and the antennas and palpi black. The maxillae in the female have both lobes 
armed with an acute tooth. The elytra have a small black triangular patch at each shoulder, 
and a black spot near the tip of each. The suture is also black at the tip. The feet are 
golden-greeu ; the femora above are fulvous golden-green ; whilst the tibiae and tarsi are green- 
golden, with the ungues black. The podex is green, with numerous black transverse-indented 
striolse. The body beneath is of a richer golden-green, with tiie legs and tarsi green, the femora 
fulvous. green on the upper edge, the clypeus beneath green with the margin black. The sides 
of the metasternum and of the abdominal segments are much punctured ; the middle of the 
metasternum with a red line. The sternal process is broad, with the apex subtriangular (fig. 
3 a, 3 b). 

Section 6.— STEPHANORRHINA, Burmeister. 

This section (which Dr. Burmeister has regarded as congeneric 
with C. 4-maculata and simillima) is distinguished by the anterior 
tibiae of the males being simple in both margins, and by the head 
of the same sex having an obconical horn on the front of the fore- 
head, and the anterior angles of the clypeus elongated into porrected 
horns. The sternal process is very similar in form to that of 
C. aurata (pi. 45, fig. S a, 3 b). The female has the head simple, 
the clypeus slightly emarginate, and the anterior tibiae 8-dentate. 
The elytra are carinated and marked with numerous white pubescent 
spots. 



OF AFRICA. 181 

Species I. (XV.) — Ceratorhina {S.) qntlata, Olivier, Gory and Perdieron, pi. 22, 
fig. 6 9- Buquet, in Annales Soc. Ent. France, t. 5, pi. 5, B. f. 4 $ . 

The locality of this species has been the subject of much con- 
fusion, Olivier cites South America, Gory and Percheron give 
China as its probable habitat, whilst Mr. MacLeay (Get. Soc. Afr. 
p. 29, SO), introduces it into his Indian group named Naricise. It 
is, however, a native of Guinea and the neighbouring parts of 
Africa. 

TMESORRHINA, Westwood. 

The description of this genus will be found in a preceding page 
(71). The genus is here restricted to two species, from a consider- 
ation of the structural pecuharities alluded to in page 108. 

Species I — Tm. concolor. Plate 19, fig. 3, and details. Dr. Burmeister as wellas myself 
have regaraed the Schizorhina Thoreyi of Schauni (Anal. Ent. p. 42) as the male of this 
species. 

Species II. — Tm. Iris. Fabricins, Olivier, Westw. ante, p. 107. 
Syn. Tm. amabilis, ante, pi. 19, fig. 2. 

Both sexes of this tropical African species are now in the collec- 
tion of the Rev. F. W. Hope. The female is contained in the 
Banksian Cabinet. The habitat Surinam,' given to the species by 
Fabricius, is altogether erroneous. 

APHELORRHINA, Westwood. 

This generic name is now proposed for the insect represented in 
plate 19, fig. 4, under the name of Tmesorrhina simillima, of which 
I am acquainted only with the male, in which sex the head 
is unarmed, with the front margin of the clypeus slightly emargi- 
nate, the fore-legs long and simple ; the sternal process long, 
porrected, with the apex slightly bent upwards ; the apical meso- 
sternal portion narrower than the basal metasternal part, and sub- 
triangularly elongated. The elytra are marked with numerous 
white pubescent spots, and the maxillae have the inner lobe obtuse 
and the outer one entire. 

Species I. — Aphelorrhina simillima. Plate 19, fig. 14, and pages 72 and 108 $ . 
DYMUSIA, Burmeister. 

The head in both sexes is unarmed, and the clypeus deeply 
emarginate. The maxillae have the basal lobe obtuse in both sexes, 
and the apical one very acute. The mentum is very deeply emar- 
ginate. The sternal process is elongated ; the apical mesosternal 
part narrower than the base and rounded oflf at the tip. The fore- 



182 GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONllDJE 

legs in the male are scarcely longer than in the females, with the 
tibige bidentate at the tip, those of the females being 3-dentate. 
The elytra are terminated by two sutural spines, the disc being 
more or less marked with white dots. 

Species I. — Dymusia cyanea. Burmeister, Olivier, (Cetonia c.) Gory and Peich^ron 

(Schizorhina c.) pi. 27, fig. 6. 
Species II. — Dymusia punctata. Burmeister, Scbonherr, Syn. ], 3, App. p. 52, 

(Cetonia p.). 
Syn. — Schizorhina Swartzii, Scliaum Anal. Ent. p. 43. 

BOTHRORRHINA, Burmeister. 

By an accident, the typical species of this group was illustrated 
by me in a previous Number (p. 126) under the name of Plsesior- 
rhina, a name given by Dr. Burmeister to a different (subsequently 
mentioned) group. It comprises two species, natives of Madagascar, 
of great rarity. 

Species I. — Bothrorrhina reflexa, Burmeister. 

Syn. — Cetonia [Goliath) reflexa, Gory and Percheron, op. cit. supr. 
Plcesiorrhina reflexa, ante, p. 126, and plate 32, fig. 1 and details. 
Species II. — Bothrorrhina ochreata, Burmeister, Gory and Percheron (op. cit. sup. 
C. G. ocLr.). 

CHORDODERA, Burmeister. 

This group has the front of the head in the males produced into 
a short straight truncated horn, with another flat deflexed truncated 
horn arising between the eyes ; the female has the middle of the 
front margin of the clypeus slightly elevated, and an acute trian- 
gular horn arising between the eyes. The maxillae have the inner 
lobe acutely pointed. The mentum is rather deeply emarginate. 
The fore tibiae are tridentate inboth sexes. The sternal process is but 
very slightly porrected, and dilated into a short round lobe in front. 
The colours are obscure, the thorax with lines, and the elytra with 
spots of pale pubescence. The species are from tropical Africa. 

Species I. — Chordodera b-lineata, Burmeister, Handb. d. Ent. 3, 203, Fabricius, 
Olivier I, 6, 33, f. 76, (Cetonia 5-/.). 

Species II. — Chordodera pentachordia, Burmeister, King in Erman's Reise, t. 15, f. 9. 
(Ceton. p.). 

PLCESIORRHINA, Burmeister (nee. Westw. ante, p. 126). 

This genus is remarkable rather on account of its non-possession 
of striking characters distinctive of the opposite sexes ; thus, the 
head is simple, with the clypeus nearly straight in both sexes. 
The maxillae also have both the lobes unarmed. The fore tibiae 
are nearly alike in both sexes, and destitute of teeth on the outside*. 

* D. Scliaum has erroneously assigned the character of tridentate tibia: in both sexes to 
this group. Anal. Ent. p. 42. 



OF AFRICA. 183 

The inentuin with the front margin nearly straight. The sternal 
process long, narrow, rather acute at the tip, and bent upwards. 

Specifs I. — PlcBsiorrhina depressa, Bunueister ; Gory and Peiche'ion pi. 21, fig. 1, 
(Gnathoccra </.). 
Syn. — Gn. Cleryi, Dej. Cat. ; and Gn. tristis, Buquet. 

Speciks II. — PleBsiorrhina cincta, Burmeister ; Voet, Olivier, Herbst, Schonlierr(Cetoniac.). 
Syn Cetonia tamia. Pal. Beauv. ; Gorv and Percl)6ron, pi. 21, fig. 4. 

Spkcifs III. — Plcesiorrhina plana, Burmeister ; Wiedemann, Germar Mag. 4, 145, 
(Get. p.). 
Syn. — Coryphe Herschelii, MacLeay, Get. Soc. Afr., p. 31. 

Species IV. — Plasiorrhina mediana, AA'estw. Plate 4G, fig. 2. Supra nigra, pronoti 

lateribus fosciatiue tenui mediana elytrorum corporcqiie subtus cum femoribus fulvis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 8. Inhabits Cape Palmas, Mr. Savage. In the collection of the 
Rev. F. W. Hope. 

The upper surface is black, moderately shining, and very delicately punctured ; the front 
margin of the clypeus is very slightly emarginate ; the prothorax lias a very slender yellow 
margin on each side, within which the disc is obliquely strijose ; the elytra are black and 
depressed, with a slender, nearly straight, fulvous transverse fascia, interrupted by the suture ; 
the epimera are fulvous ; the podex black, with a fulvous patch on each side ; the underside of 
the body entirely fulvous (except a slight dash of black at the base of the abdominal segments, 
on each side) ; the femora are fulvous, and the tibia; and tarsi black. 

Species V. — PlcBsiorrhina abbreviata, Burmeister, Fabricius, (Cetonia a.) 
Syn. — Gnathoctra flavo-succincla. Gory and Percheron, pi. 22, fig. 2. 

This species varies greatly in the colour of the prothorax, which 
in some specimens is entirely black, in others entirely red, and in 
some is red with a very large black discoidal patch. All these 
varieties are contained in the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, 
the first being labelled with the name of " Cingulata Gory," and 
from Guinea. Burmeister, however, describes that species (H — b. d. 
Ent. p. 561,) under the genus Anochilia, and as a native of 
Madagascar. 

HETERORHINA, Westioood, ante, p. 132. 

The great diversity in the armature of the head of the males in 
the species associated under this group, appears to me to be a 
sufficient proof of the comparative unimportance of such a character 
for the establishment of genera to be founded thereupon. Dr. Bur- 
meister, in his Handbuch der Entomologie, III., p. 216 et seq., has, 
on the contrary, not only adopted the genus Diceros as distinct from 
the group which he calls Coryphocera (comprising most of my 
Heterorhinse), but has also raised the Gnathocera MacLeay, of 
Gory and Percheron (my Heterorhina dives), to the rank of a 
genus, under the name of Mystroceros Diardi, whilst he has sunk 
the Trigonophori into a section of his Coryphocera. In the 
appendix to his volume, p. 790, he has reduced Mystroceros to a 
species of Diceros. The opinion, however, which I formerly expressed 



184 GOLIATHIDEOUS CETONIID^ 

respecting the unity of these groups, has been more strongly con- 
firmed by the examination of the new species represented in 
plate xlv., figs. 4 and 5, which present another diversity in the 
armature of the head, accompanied by an equally marked differ- 
ence in the maxillse and fore tibiae, which would render it as 
unnatural to unite them into a genus with Diceros bicornis as it is 
to unite Heterorhina dives (Gn. MacLeay, G. and P.) with them ; 
the general habit of the last-named species agreeing with that of 
the true Cetonia MacLeaii, of Kirby. 

The following are the African species of this group : — 

Species I. — Heterorhina Africana, Drury (Scar. Afr.) Fabricius, Olivier, Gory and 
Percherou, pi. 19, fig. 6. 
Syn. — Scarab. cBrugineus, Voet. 
? — Scarab, pyropus, Voet.) An Syn. Het. Isetse ? 

SptciEs II. — Heterorhina viridi-cyanea, Pal. Beauv. Ins. pi. 5, fig, 5. Gory and Perch, 
pi. 21, fig. 2, 
SvN. — Cet. Stigma, Pal. Beauv. pi. 5, fig. 4 (variety). 

Note. — The Eev. F. W. Hope informs me that the insect represented in my plate 35, 
fig. 4, p. 138, is a native of Africa, in which case I apprehend it, like C. stigma, is a variety 
of this species. Messrs. Gory and Perche'ron have contused the two African and Itidian allied 
species under the name of Gnathocera elegans. 

Species III. — Heterorhina monoceros, Gory and Perch. Mon. Cet. pi. 21, fig. 3. Burm. 
Handb. 3, p. 232. 

Species IV. — Heterorhina suturalis, Fabricius, Olivier, Gory and Perch. Mon. pi. 21, 
fig- 6. 

The original specimen of this species described by Fabricius, is in 
the Banksian Cabinet, being a female. It has the fore tibiae rather 
more strongly bidentate than the male. A male insect of this species 
is contained in the cabinet of the British Museum, marked as a new 
species. Having compared the drawing of it (which I made with 
the view of figuring it in this work) with the original Banksian 
specimen, I find them specifically identical. 

Species V. — Heterorhina Algoensis, Melly's MSS. (Plate 45, fig. 4.) Luteo-fulva, pronoti 
maculis duabus, alteiisque duabus minoribus humeralibus nigris, elytiis flavis, abdomineque 
nigro, hujus apice rufo ; capite $ bicoruuto. $ $. Long. coip. lin. 9 — 10. 

Inhabits tlie south-eastern part of Africa. In the collection of A. Melly, Esq. 

The head of the male (PI. 45, fig. 4 a,) has the anterior angles of the clypeus produced into 
two long porrected, nearly straight, horns, with the apex obliquely truncated, the inside of each 
being rather concave and hairy. The disc of the head is also armed with a short triangular 
deflexed spine ; the head, pronotum, scutellum, suture of the elytra, epimera, posterior coxas, 
femora, tibia;, podex, sternal spine, and centre of the metasternum, are fulvous red and very 
shining. Tlie tips of the horns of the head, the eyes, club of the antennse, patches on the 
pronotum, and humeral spots, black ; the tarsi pitchy ; the sides of the metasternum strongly 
punctured; the abdomen black and shining, with tlie apex red. The elytra are very slightly 
punctate-striate. The maxilla; in this sex (fig. 4i) are bidentate, both being alike; the mentum 
is emaiginate in front (fig. 4 c). The anterior tibia; have the slightest possible indication of a 
tooth on the outside, towards the apex, which is very acute, the four posterior tibise are 
furnished with a spine in the middle ; the unguiculae are minute but distinct ; the sternal process 
is long, narrow, straight, and deflexed (fig. 4 rf, 4 e). The female differs, in having the head 



OF AFRICA. 1S5 

simple, with the front margin of tlie clvpeiis emarginate (fig. 4/) ; the anterior tibiae 
strongly bidentate (fig. 4 g, in which respect it differs from all the other African Goliath 
beetles) ; and I observed that one of the maxillse had the apical lobe bidentate, whilst it was 
simple in the other maxilla. It is similarly coloured to the male, except that the red is 
less briglit, and the sides of the posterior coxae are less broadly marked with red, and the 
antennae have th'e clubs pitchy red. Brought, together with the following species, by Mr. Burke 
from the hilly country in Africa, lying between 25 and 26 degrees South Lat., and 27 and 28 
degrees Long. East. 

Species VI. — Heterorhina ^avipennis, Westwood. (Plate 45, fig. 5.) Nigra nitida, 

elytris pallide flavis, capite $ antice bicoruuto. $ Long. corp. lin. 9. 
Inhabits the south-eastern part of Africa. In the collection of A. Melly, Esq. 

Closely allied to the preceding species, but narrower. Black, shining, slightly punctured, 
especially at the sides and hind part of the pronotum. Elytra pale yellow with two small dark 
humeral spots, and with several rows of slight longitudinal punctate striae. The horns of the 
head are similarly formed to those of H. Algoensis. The fore tibis of the males are simple, 
and the hind ones less strongly toothed in the centre. Beneath entirely black and shining ; 
the sides of the nietasternum punctured. 

Species VII. — Heterorhina Feisthamellii, Gory and Perch^ron, Mon. pi. 19, fig. 5. 

Messrs. Gory and Percheron give Senegal as the habitat of this 
species, which seems from their figure to approach H. viridi-cyanea 
as figured by Palisot de Beauvais. Burmeister, however, who 
examined the insect in Paris, gives it as a probable variety of the 
Indian C. elegans (Handb. d. Ent. 3, 228). 

There still remain two species of this group of whose true 
locality there appears to be some doubt, namely : — 

Speciks VIII. — Heterorhina Chloris, Hope, Gory and Perch. Mon. pi. 20, f. 5. 

The typical female specimen in Mr. Hope's collection is 
labelled " Brazil," but which (notwithstanding Burmeister gives it 
as a variety of the Indian H. elegans, Hand. d. Ent. 8, 228), I 
apprehend is an African insect, differing from H. Africana $ in 
not having the head cornuted above, and in having shorter and 
thicker tibiae and tarsi ; whilst as compared with the females of the 
H. elegans it is more elongated, and the tibiae are less strongly 
bidentate. 

Species IX Hfterorhina Smaragdina, Hope, Gory and Perch. Mon. pi. 20, fig. 1, (but 

not of Herbst., &c.) See page 137. 

ANISORRHINA, Westwood. 
See p. 126. {Gertyodonta, Burm. H. d. E. 3, 234.) 

Species I. — Anisorrhina bimaculata, De Geer, Olivier, 1, 6, 14, pi, 7, fig. 52 $ ; pi. 2, 
fig. 6$. Herbst. Icon., tab. 27, fig. 5. 
Syn. — Cetonia flavo maculata, Fabricius, Gory and Perch., Mon. pi. 21, fig. 3 $. 
jMacLeay, Burmeister. 

ScarabcBus hisigjiatus, Herbst., col. 3, p. 164. 
The male has the head armed with a short flat horn on the vertex, and the front of the 
clypeus has the centre recurved and more or less emarginate. In both sexes the inner lobe 
of the maxillae is armed with a strong curved hook at the apex, and the outer lobe is broad 
and entire. 



186 GOLIATHIDEOUS CETO.MID.E 

Spfcies II. — Anisorrhina umbonata, Gory and Percheion, Mon. pi. 22, fig. I^. Mac- 
Leay, Burmeister. 

The bead is simple and unarmed in both sexes of this species. The maxillas are alike in 
both sexes, with the apical lobe strongly bidentate, and the basal lobe terminated by an acute 
point. The male has no depression along the under side of the abdomen, and the clava of 
the antenna? is larger in this sex than in the female. 

Mr. MacLeay has given the Cetonia propinqua of Hope, Gory and Percheron, Mon. pi. 51, 
fig. 3, as the female of this species, although those authors state Mexico as the habitat of the 
last-named insect. I have now before me Mr. Hope's typical specimen of C. propinqua 
(labelled as all the individuals in bis collection, which have served for the descriptions of the 
various new species described therefrom are, with red paper tickets*), and find it to belong 
to a different sub-family of Cetoniidse, although having a very great general resemblance to 
H. umbonata. It is a male with the abdomen slightly channelled beneath, and with triden- 
tate anterior tibia; ; the two terminal teeth being very close together. 

Species TIL — Anisorrhina trivittata. (Plate 46, fig. 3 (J.) Rubro-fusca, pronoto vittis 
tribus uigris, elytris macula magna sinuata flava nigro-cincta. 

Syn. — Gnathocera Z-vittata, Schaum, Anal. Ent. p. 41. Burmeister Handb. d. 
Ent. 3, p. 236. 

This new and hitherto unfigured species inhabits Caffraria and Port Natal. In its colours 
and markings it approaches nearest the first species, but differs from it as well as from umbo- 
nata in structural characters. I have only seen a male in Mr. Hope's collection, from which 
the accompanying figure is taken. It has the legs short and thick. The head is unarmed 
with the clypeus somewhat emarginate. The maxillae have both the lobes simple and obtuse 
(pi. 46, fig. 3 a). The sternal process is very much curved upwards at the tip (fig. 36), and 
the abdomen is not channelled beneath. 

Species IV. — Anisorrhina bicolor. (PI. 46, fig. 5 J .) " Nigra nitidissima, elytrorum basi 
rubra, $." 

Syn. — Genyodonta bicolor, Burmeister, Handb. d. Ent. 3, 238. 

This curious species is a native of South Africa (Enon), and is unique in the collection of 
M. C. Sommer, Esq. of Altona, to whose kindness in forwarding the insect for my examina- 
tion I am greatly indebted. It is of a narrower and more elongated form than the other 
species, with the head unarmed ; and the fore margin of the clypeus slightly emarginate. 
The maxillae have the inner lobe simple, and the apical lobe short and thick (fig. 5 a). The 
mentum is deeply emarginate in front (fig. 5 6). The scutellum is long and narrow-trian- 
gular, and the sternal process is very short and thick (figs. 5 c and 5 d). 

Species V. — Anisorrhina Natalensis, Hope. (Plate 46, fig. 4^). " Smaragdina, capite 
fere quadrato marginibus elevatis nigris, thorace viridi varioloso, elytris vindi-ODalinis 
crebrissime punctulatis, podice postice aureo ; tarsis piceis." 

Syn. — Gnathocera Natalensis, Hope in Proc. Ent. Soc, p. 33. 

This new and hitherto unfigured species inhabits Port Natal in South Africa, and is unique 
in the collection of the Rev. F. AV. Hope, to whom I am indebted for an opportunity of illus- 
trating it. The specimen is a male. The fore margin of the clypeus is slightly emarginate. 
The maxillae have both lobes simple (fi?. 4 a). The mentum is very deepl}' incised in front 
(fig. 4 b). The legs are rather long and slender, with the fore tibise simple. The sternal 
process is short, broad and rounded in front (figs. 4 c, 4 d). The abdomen is deeply chan- 
nelled ; and the elytra have no sutural spines at the extremity. 



Cetonia recurva, Fabricius, Syst. Eleuth. 2, 138, is too con- 
cisely described to be accurately determined, although from the 
characters " tota senea, sterno magno porrecto, cornuto recurvo," 
it appears to enter the genus Plsesiorrhina, if indeed it be not 
identical with P. depressa. It is a native of Guinea. 

* The idea of thus, or in some other manner, indicating the type specimens in collections, 
is a most excellent one, and ought to be adopted, especially in all public collections. 



OF AFRICA. 187 

Cetonia NiTiDULA, Fabr., Ent. Syst. 1, 2, 146, is another 
African species which cannot be determined from the concise 
description of Fabricius. The emarginate clypeus, however, and 
the elytra acuminated at the apex, &c. seem to refer it to the 
genus Dymusia. It was described from the collection of Mr. Lee. 
Mr. Hope (Col. Man. 1, 38) refers it to the genus Cetonia without 
any expression of doubt. 



INCA LINEOLA, AVcstwood. (Pate 46, fig. 6.) 

Although the genus Inca has, as it appears to me, been satisfacto- 
rily proved to belong to the Trichiideous and not to theGoliathideous 
Cetoniidffi, I cannot resist the opportunity of figuring a species 
recently received by the British Museum from Sierra Leone, where 
it was collected by the Rev. D. Morgan ; all the other known 
species of the genus being natives of South America. Various 
instances have been recorded of equally strong peculiarities, in the 
Entomo-geographical distribution of the species of different groups ; 
as, for example, in a species of Cerapterus, brought from Brazil by 
Mr. Miers ; all the other Paussidse being natives of the old world. 

/. nigra, capite et pvonoto fulvo, varioloso, hoc tuberciilis nigris, elytris albido griseo nigroqiie 
variis, alboque guttatis, singulo ultra medium et versus suturam lineola nigra ornato. 
Long. Corp. lin. 10. Habitat Sierram Leonam, Rev. D. Morgan. In Mus. Britan. 

The head and pronotum are black, the latter especially, covered with large fulvous punc- 
tures, except in various parts which form small, round, and oblique black, raised, shining 
tubercles. The liead is unaimed and simple (fig. 6 a), the front margin of the clypeus 
being alone very slightly angulated in the middle. The maxillae (fig. 6 b) are terminated by 
a triangular densely hairy lobe. The mentum is deeply emarginate in front, and narrowed at 
the base (fig. 6 c). The sides of the prothorax are slightly serrated. The elytra are not 
siuuated at the humeral angles, nor are the epimera visible ; the former are punctured, varied 
with pale gr.ay, whitish, and black colours, each with four small white round spots, one near 
the suture in the middle, the other three towards the outer and apical margin. There is also 
a small black stripe running from the middle white spot parallel with the suture. The legs 
are black and punctured. The anterior femora have a very slight sinuation near the tip 
within. The tibiae are straight and destitute of a spine on the inside, but 3-dentate on the 
outside. The four posterior tibiae have a slight indication of a spine beyond the middle. 
The sternal process is simple. The body beneath is covered with pale fulvous pile, e.tcept 
in the middle of the metasternum. The abdomen, except at the sides, is also luteous. I 
presume from the straight middle tibiae, and the rather broad fore ones, that the unique speci- 
men is a female. 



I have now brought my revision of the whole of the Goliath- 
ideous Cetoniidse to a close. My object in illustrating this tribe of 
insects has been twofold ; first, to present a series of figures of the 
many new and rare species of these insects, which, both fi-om their 
singular forms and beautiful colours, are pre-eminently favourites 



188 GOLIATHIDEOUS CET0N1ID.?=;. 

with the Entomologist ; and second, to obtain, by the very minute 
analysis to which the species have been subjected, a clew to their 
natural classification. Naturalists are aware that another tribe of 
Lamellicorn beetles (namely, the family of the Sacred Scarabsei) 
was, twenty-four years ago, investigated by Mr. MacLeay with 
great care, the result whereof led him to propose a quinarian and 
circular distribution of the species, which he afterwards extended 
to the whole of the animal kingdom ; and as no subsequent author 
has revised his arrangement of the Scarabsei, it has been repeatedly 
held up as an unanswerable proof of the truth of the quinarian 
system. Five years ago, Mr. MacLeay published his Quinarian 
Revision of the Cetoniidse, since which period I have neglected no 
opportunity of analysing the species of one of the tribes of that 
family. The result is now before the entomological world, and I 
feel convinced that no one, after a careful examination of my 
figures and dissections, can arrive at any other conclusion than that 
these insects can neither be arranged in a quinarian nor in a 
circular system. I do not mean hereby to assert that such a 
system is totally unnatural, but simply that Mr. MacLeay has 
entirely failed in his endeavour to carry out such a system amongst 
the Goliathideous Cetoniidse. 



The plant figured in plate 45, is the South- African Ixia mon- 
adelpha. 



189 



PLATES XLVII. AND XLVIII. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF TWO NEW AFRICAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 



Since my Memoir on the African Species of the Genus Papilio 
of Modern Authors was pubhshed (Plates 37—40), Mr. Edward 
Doubleday has been so kind as to place in my hands two additional 
undescribed species, received by his brother, Mr. H. Doubleday, 
from Mr. Raddon, who obtained them from the Gold Coast. It 
is with great pleasure, therefore, that I introduce them into the 
present volume by way of Supplement to my Memoir. 

PAPILIO CHAROPUS. (Plate 47.) 

P. alis nicris, fascia communi Isete viridi, in posticis dilatata et extiis denticulata, versus costam 
anticarum in maculas divisa, alis posticis caudatis maculisque submargiualibus viridibus, 
alis subtus fuscis, anticis fascia submarginali lutea versus costam bifida, posticis nebulis 
ocellisque submargiualibus griseo argenteoque variis. Expans alar, unc. 43. 
Inhabits the Gold Coast of Africa. In Mus. H. Doubleday. 

This species is ck>sely allied to Papilio Nireus, and still nearer to 
the Madagascar P. Oribazus of Boisduval, with which last it might 
be at first confounded. Having however, whilst in Paris last 
summer, made drawings of the last-named species and its allies 
Phorbanta, Epiphorbas, disparilis, kc. (with a view to their publica- 
tion in this work), I am enabled to state its specific distinction 
from all of them. The beautiful green bar which crosses the wings 
is much narrower in tlie fore wings, and much broader in the hind 
ones, than in P. Oribazus (which is similarly tailed) ; whilst the 
underside of this species is quite diff'erent, being in fact far more 
beautiful in its cloudings and silvery ocelli than in any of the allied 
insects. 

PAPILIO HESPERUS. (Plate 48.) 

P. alis nigris, fascia communi curvata, macula obliqua versus medium costae anticarum 
maculisque duabus discoidalibus posticarum sulphureis, his caudatis. Expans. alar, 
unc. 5f. 
Inhabits the Gold Coast of Africa. In Mus. H. Doubleday. 

The fore wings of this very distinct species are of a velvety black 
colour, with an oblique brimstone spot at the extremity of the 
discoidal cell, divided into three parts by the veins, a small oval 
subapical spot and a curved fascia extending half across the fore 
wings and nearly across the hind ones, being broadest in the space 



tgO AFRrCAN SPECIES OF PAPILIO. 

between the first two branches of the great median vein of the fore 
wintrs ; the hind wings have also a spot near the costal margin, and 
two patches on the disc beyond the middle. On the underside, the 
wings are brown, shaded along the apex and hind margins with 
paler purpUsh and brownish clouds ; the various pale markings are 
here only partially apparent, the bar across the hind wings being 
much narrowed, and the discoidal spots on these wings as well as 
the subapical dot of the fore wings being obsolete. The neck is 
marked with four minute white spots. 

The plant figured in plate 48, is the Clerodendron splendens 
(G. Don), a native of Tropical Africa. 



" The fall of kings. 

The rage of nations, and the crush of states. 

Move not the man, who, from the world escaped, 

In still retreats and flowery solitudes. 

To Nature's voice attends, from month to month 

And day to day, through the revolving year; 

Admiring sees her in her every shape. 

Feels all the sweet emotions at his heart. 

Takes what she liberal gives, nor thinlcs of more." 

THOMSON. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Page 2, line 18, and page 6, line 35, for "Eudacilla," read Eudicella. 
Page 6, line 28, for " genera," read sub-genera. 

foot note *. Mr. Strahan's insect is the micans of Gory, but not of Drury. 

See page 172. 
Page 8, I now possess an additional species of Phyllomorpha, intermediate between 

P. Latreillii aud P. Persica, which maybe thus cliaracterised. 
Phyllomorpha pellicula, W. Albida ; pionoto postice haud profunde inciso, 

lateiibus in lobos duos lateraliter extensos productis, abdominis lati laciniis penul- 

timis et antepen. maximis sequalibus apice recte truncatis. Long. corp. lin. 5. 

Habitat in Africa tropicali. 
The plant figured in plate 2 is Lobelia ramosa Benth., from the Swan River, given 

by mistake for L. gracilis, which inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. 
Page 12, Systella Rafflesii, W. Plate 4, fig. 1, 2. 

Syslella Hopii, W. Plate 4, fig. 3. 
Page 14, The idea of the publication of an English Encyclopedia of Natural History has, I 

believe, been abandoned. 
Page 17, Epicopeia. I have recently examined a female of this genus, which possesses 

setaceous antenns : thus corroborating its affinity with Gymnautocera, ^c. 
Page 19, Eterusia bicolor, Hope, is most probably a variety of Papilio jEdea, Clerck. Icon 

t. 41, fig. 3-4. 
Page 24, The genus Diclynna may be identical with Eurys, Newman, who however gives 

no description of the peculiar veining of the hind wings. Entom. p. 90. D. lata 

is distinct from E. aratus. 
Page 33, M. De Haan, in the Verhandl. o. d. Natuurl., &c., Orthopt. 1842, has figured 

Deroplatys desiccata ^ and D. arida $ {M. palleata, Hag. MSS.), as the 

sexes of one species. 
He has also figured, under the name of D. rhombica. Hag. MSS., a male insect, 

which appears to be identical with my D. angustata, and giving, as the female, 

the D. lobata of Guerin. 
Page 40, line 2, Cantharocnemis Spoiidyloides, Serv. Ann.Soc. Ent. France, 1, 133. 
Page 43, The Count de Castelnau informs me tliat some of the insects figured in this plate had 

been previously described in his Histoire Naturelle des Animaux articule's. 
Page 52, line 29, Dele nostr. 

line 31, read triangulari ntrinque ad, &c. 
Page 53, Midas bicolor. Plate 14, fig. 4. 

Page 57, for " Colobothea leucospilota," read C. albo-notata. See p. 112. 
Page 58, Urocalymma. Mr. Newman has described several additional species of this genus 

from the British Museum collection,unnecessarily changing its name to HomoncBa. 

Entom., p. 320. 
Page 60, line 25, for " gieater," read greatest. 

Page 65, Opsomala gladiator. I now possess this singular insect from Tropical Afiica. 
Page 67, Papilio Pelaus is identical with P. Imerius of Godart (Enc. Meth.) and Bois- 

duval, and P. Augias of Menetries. It is a native of Haiti. See also p. 107. 
Page 70, note f- The removal of Inca to the Trichiideous group of CetoniidcB should also 

have been noticed. 
Page 71, Tmesorrhina amabilis = Cetonia Iris, F. Vide p. 107. 

Page 72, Tin. simillima. Now removed to a new genus, Aphelorhina. Vide p. 108 and 181. 
Page 79, .Quietus cerius, Plate 20, fig. 5. W. W. Saunders, Esq. has received a species 

of this genus from Southern Africa, which I have described in a paper recently 

read before the Entomological Society. 
Page 81, See p. 157 and seq. for additional species of Australian ScaritidtB, to which may 

be added the following species, which is intermediate between C. Bonellii and C. 

tinclillatum, thus confirming the propriety of my rejection of Eutoma : 



192 ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Carenum Scaritoides, W. Nigrum nitidum subangustum, elytris violaceo tenuis, 
sime marginatis, punctis duobus humeralibus alterisque duobus subapicalibus, 
pronoto linea tenui centrali impresso, tibiis anticis externe bidentatis. Long. coip. 
lin. 95 (mens. angl.). Lat. elytr. fere lin. 3. Habitat Port Philip, West 
Australia. In Mas. D. Hope. 
Page 91, Plate XXIV. 
Page 93, Entomol. Intell., (No. VI.). 
Page 103, Schizorhina ohliquata is synonymous with the subsequently published Diaphonia 

eucnemis of Burmeister. 
Page 104, Macronota Rafflesiana = Tceniodera histrio, Burm. 

Macronota tristis is probably the female of Chalcothea Barrotiana, Burm. 
Macronota Vittigera, Hope, is described by Burmeister as the variety a of 
Clerota Budda. 
Pace 118, Rhomborhinaopalina. Some of the specimens of this species received by Captain 
Parry from India differ in the colour of the scutellura, and have been considered 
by that gentleman as distinct, under the name of Rh, intermedia, 

Rhomborhina Japonica. Dr. Burmeister (p. 779) considers this species as identical 

with Rh. opalina, in which, however, he is certainly mistaken, since the two 
insects are structurally distinct. His strictures on the breadth of my figure of 
Rh. Japonica and the width of its feet, arc contradicted by my short description 
of that species derived from Mr. Hope's typiciil specimen. Tiie sternal process 
of Rh. Japonica is scarcely more than half of that of Rh. opalina. 
Page 119, Dr. Burmeister considers Rhomborhina microcephala (the specific came of which 
he has unnecessarily altered to An. Mearesii) as well as Helerorhina gla- 
berrima, as belonging to the genus Aiiomalocera, which does not accord with 
my views of the relations of these insects. 

Rhomborhina clypeata. (Plate 34, fig. 3). 

Page 120, Rhomborhina pilipes. Meliy's MSS. (Burm., p. 779.) Mr. Jlelly having 
been so good as to send me the unique specimen in his collection tlius named, I 
find it agrees with the insect named by Mr. Hope Rh. distincta, and which, as 
stated in p. 118, appears to me only a variety of Rh. Mellii, agreeing therewith 
in antennae, sternal prncess, roetasternal carina, black extremity of abilomen, 
black hairs on the tibia;, form of clypeus, &c. Dr. Burmeister (p. 780) has 
incorrectly considered Rh. apicalis as a variety of Rh. pilipes. 

Mr. Hope has recently received a very distinct species of Rhomborhina from 

India, allied to, but larger than, Rh. Mcllii. 
Page 122, Trigonophorus Delessertii. (Plate 29, fig. 4). 

Mr. Hope has recently received another species of Trigonophorus from India, 

allied io'Tr. Saundersii. 
Pafo 126, line 6 and 7, for " Plaesiorrhina," read Bothrorrhina, 

Note *, Anisorrhina is synonymous with the subsequently published genus 

Genyodonta, Burm. 
Page 127, Schizorhina Guerinii belongs to the genus Stenotarsia, Burm., and is allied to 
St. coccinea. 

Schizorhina plumigera is the Pogonotarsus phimiger, Burm. 

Page 128, Chromoptilia diversipes is identical with the subsequently published Tricho- 

tarsia fimbriata, Burm., p. 587. 
Page 134, Heterorhina dives is the Mystroceros or Diceros Diardi, Bnnn. 
Page 136, Heterorhina tibialis. Dr. Burmeister (p. 787 and 789) thinks that this very 
distinct species is a variety of H. Hopei. My figures of the armature of the 
clypeus and sternal process of the two species will sufficiently prove their dis- 
tinction. 
Page 137, Heterorhina jucunda {^maragdina, Gory and Percheron), judging from Mr. 
Hope's typical specimen, is certainly quite a different species from H. punc- 
tatissima, although Dr. Buimeister considers tlie contrary to be the case (p. 788). 

Dr. Burmeister having commented upon my figures of the maxilla; of the various 

species of this genus, I will only observe that they were all made with the 
express desire of determining the form of that organ, and that if the specimens 
examined by Dr. Burmeister do not precisely agree with my figures, I am of 
opinion that it has resulted from the specimens varying in this respect from each 
other. 
Page 153, Papilio Trophonins, as stated to me by Mr. E. Doubleday, is identical with the 

Danais Rechila of Godart. Enc. Meth. 
Page 173, line 14, add " pronoto" after " clypeo porre?to." 




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