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Case 



Shelf 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



i«. «i 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

IN EXCHANGE WITH 

Received I J S. 



r^ 



^ 



RECEIVED. 
. AUG 27,/^^ At. 

r-ABOOY MUSEl.;. 
AROHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. 

VOL. XXV. 



ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA: 



inifiiceUaneousE ^tatta 



RELATING TO ANTIQUITIES. 



PUBLISHED BY THB 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 



VOLUME XXV. 




LONDON AND NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE: 
Ayj>UBW Kbid & Co., Limited, Printing Coukt Buildings, Akensidk Hili 
London Office : 11, Great St. Helens, E.C, 

>j.Dcccc.nii. 






NEWCA8TLB-UPON-TYNB : 

ANDREW REID AND COMPANY, LIMITXD, PRINTING COURT BUILDINGS, 

AKENSIOE HILL. 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 



list of Plates and other Illustrations 
Contributions of Photographs, etc. 

Annnal Reports 

Tieasnier's Balance Sheets, etc. 
Gifts to Museum 

Cwmcil and Officers 

Honorary Members 

Ordinary Members 

Societies exchanging publications 
Amendment of Statute 



PAQE. 

V, vi 

vii 

ix, xxxiii 

xvii, xxxix 

XX, xliii 

xxi, xliv 

xxii, xlv 

xxiii, xlvi 

xxxi, liv 

Ivi 



I.— Early Ordnance in Europe. By R. Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., V.P. 
IL — Local Muniments. By William Brown, F.S.A., Secretary and 

Editor of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society 

in. — * Dagger Money.' An unfinished paper by the late W. H. D. 

Longstafife, V.P 

rv. — Notes on a recent Examination of certain Structural Features of 
the Great Tower, or Keep, of the Castle of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. By R. Oliver Heslop, M.A., F.S.A., one of the Secre- 
taries of the Society 

V. — Ancient Deeds relating to Gunnerton. Communicated by the 

Right Rev. Bishop Hornby, Vicar of ChoUerton 

VI. — The Villiers Family as Governors of Tynemouth Castle and 

Owners of the Lighthouse. By Horatio A. Adamson, V.P. 
VII. — The Early Monumental Remains of Tynemouth. By Sidney 

Story Carr 

VIII. — Discovery of Roman Inscriptions, etc., at Newcastle. 

1 . A Roman Altar to Oce mus, and Altar Base, from the Tyne. 

a. By R. Oliver Heslop 

h. By Commandant R. Mowat of Paris 

2. An Inscribed Slab, mentioning the 2, G and 20 legions 

from the Tyne. 

a. By R. Oliver Heslop 

J. By F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A 

3. Two Stone Coffins of the Roman period, and an Urn. By 

F.W.Rich 

IX. — The Sources of Testa de Nevill. By J. Crawford Hodgson, 

F.S.A., V.P 

X. — Coupland Castle. By the Rev. Matthew Culley of Coupland ... 



1 
62 
83 

91 
106 
111 
118 



133 
136 



139 
142 

147 

150 
168 



IV 



XI.— The Midsummer Bonfire at Whalton. By the Rev. J. Walker, 

Honorary Canon of Newcastle and Rector of Whalton 
XII. — Obituary Notices : 

1. Theodor Mommsen, Honorary Member. By F. Haverfield 

2. Wilfred Joseph Cripps, C.B., F.S.A. By T. M. Fallow, 

F.S.A 

XI la, — Deed Poll of Property in Newcastle. Communicated by 

Richard Welford, M. A., V.P 

XIII. — Excavations on the line of the Roman Wall in Northumberland : 

1. The Roman Camp at Hoasesteads. By R. C. Bosanquet, 

F.S.A 

2. Balance Sheet, etc 



181 



185 



188 



192 



193 
301 



Index 



306 




MITHRAIC SLAB FROM KA8TELL KROTZENBURG. 

(See pp. iv. and 255 et seq.) 



PLATES, ETC. 



I.—* Mons Meg ' at Edinburgh Castle facing 26 

n.— ' The Dulle Griete ' at Ghent „ 28 

in.— A ' Feldschlange ' from battle of Granson „ 33 

IV. — Cannon from Morat and Small Mortar „ 34 

V. — Heton and other Seals , 68 

VI.— The ' Monk's Stone,' Tynemouth „ 122 

VII. — Roman Stone Coffin and Urn, found in Clavering Place, 

Newcastle „ 148 

VIII. — Coupland Castle (from a photograph) „ 168 

rX. — Conpland Castle (from Sir David Smith's drawing) ... „ 170 

X. — Preparing the Bonfire, Whalton „ 181 

XI. — Bringing in Faggots for the Bonfire, Whalton „ 182 

XIL— Portrait of Prof. Theodor Moramsen „ 185 

XIII.— Portrait of late Wilfred Joseph Cripps, F.S. A ,, 188 

XIV. — The Praeftorium, Housesteads, looking S , 193 

XV. — Plan and Sections of the Praetorium at Housesteads ... ,, 210 

XVI. — Central Chamber of the Praetorium at Housesteads from E. ,, 218 

XVIL— The same from the S „ 220 

XVIII. — Plan of Latrines and Cistern at Housesteads .. ... „ 250 

XIX.— Plan of Camp at Housesteads „ 300 



OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mithraic Slab at Kastell Krotzenburg, Germany 
Roman Inscription to Antenociticus from Benwell 

Firing a Cannon 

Early Stand for a Cannon 

An early Gun and Carriage ... 

A * Feldschlange ' and a Small Mortar 

A Bavarian • Falconet ' of 1 524 

A Ship's ' Falconet' in Port de Hal Museum, Brussels 

A Cannon in Basel Museum 

Seal of Philip de Pictavia, Bishop of Durham 
Restoration of Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Section of Keep of Newcastle Castle 





PAGE. 


iv 




.. viii 




15 




17 




21 




35 




36 




37 




42 




82 




90 




95 



VI 

PAQlS. 

Keep of Newcastle Castle in 1811, with Bailey Gate Arch 98 

Facsimiles of Signatures of Edward Villiers, Edward Villiers the younger, 

Barbara Chiffinch and Henry Villiers 116,117 

The Goyemor's House, Tynemonth Castle 117 

Pre-Conquest Stones at Tynemouth 1 19, 12 1, 182 

Effigy at Tynemouth 126 

Medieval Grave Covers at Tynemouth 126, 127, 1 28 

Matrix of Brass, Tynemouth 129 

Matrix of Brass, Spital Dene, North Shields 131 

Roman Altars from Tyne at Newcastle 138 

Gold and Silver Coins of Hadrian 138 

Roman Slab from Tyne at Newcastle 140 

Roman Inscription from Netherby 145 

Coupland Castle about 1800 179 

Facsimile of Signature, etc., of Professor Theodor Mommsen 187 

HOUSESTBADS — 

Plan of District and its Surroundings 195 

The West Gate 201 

Housesteads from the South 205 

Sections through the Camp 207 

South Wa,ll of Praetorium from S.i& 208 

Pierced Drain Cover 211 

Praetorium Restored 214 

Original Plan of Prad^onw?/i Restored 217 

Moulded Plinth, Sill, etc. 215,218 

Flue Tiles 220,222 

Iron Objects, etc 224,289,290,291,292 

Iron Arrowheads 225,289 

Pillar built into Wall 232 

Threshold in Block VII 236 

Wall north of Bast Gate 246 

Plan and Section of Cistern 249 

Sketch of same 250 

Stone Trough and Fragments ... 251,252 

Sections through * Amphitheatre ' 253 

Plan and Section of Well of Knagburn 254 

Plans of Mithraeum 257,259 

Sculptured Figures, ecc, from same ... ... 256,258,261,262,276 

Types of Walling 264 

Architectural Details 257, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 276 

Inscribed Stones 278, 280 

Plan and Section of Gate Tower 283 

Whinstone Mortar 286 



Vll 



PAGS. 

Bronze, Glass, and other Objects 286, 287, 288 



Pottery, etc. 

Saeellmn Restored 

Plan of Boman Camp, South Shields ... 

Keystone from same 

The * Monk's Stone,' Tynemouth, from N.W. 



294-207 
... 300 
... 244 
.. 212 
,.. 384 



CONTRIBUnONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC. 

Thanks are given to the following : — 

Bertram, B. C, for several drawings to illustrate the Housesteads report. 
Brewis, Parker, for photographs of seals facing p. 68, and portion of cost of 

photogravure, and photographs of Tyne altars, p. 133. 
Clarke, Henry, for drawings of medieval effigy, grave covers, etc. at 

Tynemouth, pp. 125-128. 
Clephan, B. Coltman, for photographs and blocks illustrating his * Early 

Ordnance in Europe.' 
Cripps, Mrs., for photograph of late W, J. Cripps, facing p. 188. 
CuUey, Rev. M., for photographs of Coupland Castle facing p. 168 and 

on 179. 
Dickie, A. C, for the plans facing pp. 210 and 300, and several drawings, 

to illustrate Housesteads. 
Gibson, J. P., for photographs of Housesteads to illustrate the Housesteads 

report. 
Haverfield, F., for photograph of Prof. Mommsen facing p. 185 and for 

autograph on p. 187. 
Heslop, R. O., for section of Castle, Newcastle, on p. 95. 
Knowles, W. H., for plan of latrines, etc., at Housesteads, facing p. 260. 
Mowat, R., for plaster casts of coins on p. 138. 

Oswald, Joseph, for photograph of governor's house, Tynemouth, p. 117. 
Rich, F. W., for plan, p. 149. 

Spence, C. J., for photograph of pre-Conquest Cross, p. 132. 
Stephens, Dr. D. H., for photographs of ' Monk's Stone,' I ynemouth, facing 

p. 122, and on p. 334. 
Stone, Sir Benjamin, for photographs of Whalton bonfire, facing pp. 181 

and 182. 
Thompson and Lee, for photographs facing p. 148. 
Webb, Charles, for photograph of Tyne Slab, p. 140. 



Vlll 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

Page xxxix, line 20, for * sacrophagus ' read * sarcophagus.' 

„ 8, line 13, for * Bologne ' read * Bologna.' 

„ 118, second line from top, for ' monastic remains ' read * monastic monu- 
mental remains.' 

„ 122, tenth line from top, for * (see plate vi) * read * (as in fig. 2).* 

,, 145, for * Brough, Derbyshire,' under illustration, read * Netherby.' 

„ 192, line 7 of deed, for 'sive ' read ' suis,' and 13, for ' sius* read *suis * ; 
and lines 15, 17 and 19 for * inp'p'um ' read * imp'p'iim,* and line 
23 for 'apposuit' read *appo8ui.* 

„ 196, lines 1, 6, and 24, for * Anonymous' read ^ anonymus.' 

„ 219, line 13, for ' Caracalla,' read ' Elagabalus.' 

., 255, in the Peel Park museum, Salford, is a carved bas-relief representing 
a Mithraic figure found at Hulme. See also illustration, p. iv, of 
a fine Mithraic slab discovered in Germany (see report of the 
* Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes Kommission'). 



The walls on plate XIX., are indicated in the same way as on plate X., where a 
key is given : — Solid black denotes early work ; hatching, later 
work ; cross-hatching, traces of foundations ; and dotted lines, 
inferred line of wall. 




SOMAN IN80RZFTZ0N TO ANTBNOOZTIOUS FROM BEN WELL. 



I 



IX 



REPORT 

OF 



OF 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



ANNUAL MEETING, MDCCCCIII. 



Otjb society commemorates to-day its ninetieth anniversary and in 
the year that is past we look back upon a period memorable in our 
national history. The alternations of light and shadow in our annals 
have seldom followed each other in more rapid succession. The 
celebration of peace, the suspense during the illness of the king, and 
his majesty's happy recovery were the immediate precursors of the 
great event of the year, the coronation on the ninth of August of our 
most gracious sovereign king Edward VII. 

A period of absoi'ption in public events may well have monopolised 
attention. But, be this as it may, the work accomplished by many 
public institutions appears to have suffered diminution and to have 
attracted a lessened interest in comparison with that of former years, 
and our own society is probably no exception to the general 
experience. 

Perhaps the uppermost feeling in our minds at this moment 
recalls the personality of the chairman who presided over our last 
annual meeting. The speech with which he concluded the business 
of that day was a characteristic utterance ; but we have now to 
look back upon its frank and genial periods with all the poignancy 
that marks the recollection of a valedictory address. They were 
the last words uttered in our midst by our late vice-president, 
Mr. Cadwallader John Bates ; for on the twentieth of March, his 
untimely death overshadowed the year. It has been said that as 



an antiquary his loss is an incalculable one. It may well be 
added that as a friend his loss is irreparable. We are yet too 
near to realize the full extent of our deprivation, for it may be 
said that from first to last his enthusiastic interest pervaded every 
department of our society's work. Mr. Bates was elected a member 
in 1882. In 1891 he contributed to our transactions the first part 
of his 'Border Holds of Northumberland,' a work of xxiv — 465 
pages, forming an entire volume (xiv.) of Archaeologia Aeliana^ 
By his premature death this important publication has been left 
unfinished ; but, incomplete though it be, it will remain a 
standing memorial of the ability and thoroughness with which his 
investigations were characterized. A bibliography of the writings of 
Mr. Bates has been compiled by our colleague, Mr. J. CraWford 
Hodgson. This will appear in the forthcoming part of Archaeologia 
Aeliana appended to an obituary notice by Dr. Hodgkin. At the 
suggestion of Mr. J. C. Hodgson your council has lent its sanction to 
the publication, by subscription, of a memorial volume to consist of 
a selection of letters on archaeological subjects written by Mr. Bates, 
and the editorship of these has been generously undertaken by the 
rev. M. CuUey. In his hands we may feel confident that the task 
will prove a labour of love. 

More recently we have to deplore the death of Mr. William Searle 
Hicks, who was elected to our membership in 1888. As an ecclesi- 
astical architect Mr. Hicks was widely known and highly regarded 
in his profession, and his services as a specialist in medieval art and 
as an ecclesiologist have been on many occasions rendered to our 
society. Ever unobtrusively, but always generously given, these 
services have been at all times greatly appreciated ; so that in the 
twenty years of his membership we have learned to realize the 
estimable character of one whose gracious nature and retiring disposi- 
tion added dignity to his professional accomplishments and whose 
premature death leaves so grievous a blank. 

We have also to record the death of our aged colleague, Mr. 
John Ventress. A paper on the bells of St. Nicholas's church, New- 
castle, was contributed by him to the second volume of the new series 
of Archaeologii Aeliana^ and from that time till the year of his death 
detached notes on old features of the city appeared from him in our 



Proceedings. The model of the castle^ now in the Black Gate 
mnseam, was entirely his own handiwork. Its execution represents a 
work of years, its plan being taken as far as possible from data obtained 
in actual excavations. Whilst, however, much of its elevation is 
ooDJectural, and the wall circuit of the inner bailey is largely on 
traditional lines, the model itself forms an invaluable plan of the 
whole enclosure and an accurate key to the sites of the subsidiary 
structures. Mr. Ventress originally joined our society in 1856, and, 
after an intermission of some years, became a regular attender at our 
meetings until within a short time before his death at the advanced 
age of 84. He had been well acquainted with many of the early 
members of our society and his presence was an interesting link 
between the present and the past. 

In addition to our ordinary monthly meetings in the castle, six 
country meetings have been held during the year. 

On June the fifth, members assembled at Bothbury, under the 
guidance of their colleague, Mr. D. D. Dixon, when Brinkburn priory, 
ff hitton tower, Cragside and Rothbury church were visited in succes- 
sion. A series of valuable historical notes was read by Mr. Dixon 
at the several halts by the way, rendering the visit to each object 
one of special interest. 

On Friday, August the first, a country meeting was held at 
Morpeth, Bothal and Cockle Park. Mr. Knowles described the 
archaeological features of Morpeth church and Cockle Park tower, 
and the intimate local knowledge of our valued colleague, the 
rev. John Walker, and that of the hon. and rev. W. Ellis, con- 
tributed greatly to the success of the meeting. At Morpeth, our 
party was received by the mayor, Mr. Young, who kindly exhibited 
the council chamber and the historic treasures of the borough. At 
Cockle Park tower, the experimental farm of the Northumberland 
County Council was shewn by county alderman T. Carrick, who 
also received the members in the tower. At Bothal, members 
were welcomed by the rector, the hon. and rev. W. Ellis, who shewed 
them his grounds of Bothalhaugh and accompanied them in an 
inspection of the church and castle, both of which he described. 

An afternoon meeting was held at Tynemouth on August the 
second, when our vice-president, Mr. H. A. A^damson, received the 



xu 



members, describing the monastic history and remains of the priory, 
and conducting them, by permission of major Chamberlain, R.A., 
through the governor's house, about to be demolished.* 

The fifth country meeting was held on Monday, September the first, 
_ at Barnard Castle, members proceeding thence by Egliston abbey and 
Greta Bridge to Rokeby. 

A second afternoon meeting was held on October the fourth at 
Corbridge, where the party was conducted by the junior secretary. 
The church and pele were examined and described, and the way was 
then taken by the bridle path to Aydon castle, on the road to which 
the remaining field strips were examined with interest. 

The mid-summer meeting, extending over two days, was held on 
the line of the Antonine Wall on July the first and second, Falkirk 
being adopted as a centre. Arrangements for the visit were carried out 
in the most complete manner by Mr. J. R. MacLuckie, F.S.A. (Scot.), 
and under his guidance the party successively visited Falkirk church, 
Callendar house and South Bantaskine on the first day, and the Roman 
camp at Camelon, the broch of Tappock, Torwoodhead castle, Dunipace 
house, the excavations at the stationary camp near Castlecary, the 
castle there, and the line of the turf Wall on the return by Rousrh 
Castle to Falkirk on the second day. Tappock broch and Torwood and 
Castlecary castles were described by Mr. Thomas Ross, F.S.A. (Scot.), 
and the camps at Castlecary and Rough Castle were severally described 
by Mr. Cunningham, C.E., secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, and by Mr. Mungo Buchanan, other places of interest being 
described by Mr. MacLuckie himself. The inadequate accom- 
modation obtainable in the Falkirk hotels was supplemented by the 
private entertainment provided for a considerable number of our 
members. This generous hospitality was equalled by the devotion 
displayed by the Scottish antiquaries on every hand, and with this 
happy combination the meeting was felt to be altogether successful. 
The unanimous feeling of all present found utterance in a suggestion 
that it would be a courteous return were we to extend an invitation 
to our Scottish hosts, many of whom expressed a strong desire to visit 
the line of the southern Wall. Your council would gladly accede to 
the proposition, and in so doing suggest that a country meeting be 

* Since the meeting the building has been razed to the ground. 



XUl 



held in the summer of the present year on the Roman. Wall in 
Norfchumberiand, and that our conductors at Falkirk, with their 
friends, be invited to join with us. Such a conference, duly arranged, 
would not only prove a friendly visit, but afford opportunity for an 
exchange of observations on the respective lines of investigation. 

During the year the fifty-eighth part of Archaeologia Aelianaj 
consisting of two hundred and nine pages of letterpress, has been 
issued. It contains the first instalment of the report on the excava- 
tions conducted by the Roman Wall Excavation Committee, to 
which our vice-president. Dr. Hodgkin, contributes an introduction. 
Mr. J. P. Gibson describes his discovery of a hitherto unknown wall- 
turret on Mucklebank, following this by a circumstantial account of 
the excavations conducted at abbica in the years 1894, 5 and 7. 
Plates, from Mr. Gibson's own photographs, and a plan from the late 
Mr. Sheriton Holmes's survey, enhance the interest of the important 
details and discoveries described by Mr. Gibson. The part also 
contains an account by Mr. J. P. Pritchett of recejit discoveries in 
the chapel of Raby castle, illustrated by a complete series of plans, 
sections and elevatitns of the windows, doors, sediiia, and other 
features now brought to light. In another paper our vice-president, 
Mr. R. Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., furnishes a treatise on military 
engines of the Roman and medieval periods, detailing and illustrat- 
ing his subject with th6 pains and care of a specialist. The 
remainder of the part consists of four contributions to material 
for local history. In one of these Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson has 
edited Miss Martin's digest of the Brumell collection of charters, 
deposited with our society. In a brief paper Mr. T. M. Fallow, 
P.8.A., has made an abstract of deeds relating to Chester-le- 
Street. Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson also continues the series of 
'Proofs of Age' in two more abstracts, and our vice-president, 
Mf . Richard Welford, adds fifty closely printed pages as a second 
instalment of local muniments. It is hardly possible to exaggerate 
the importance of contributions of this character, and it may be 
safely said that they will render the pages of Archaeologia Aeliana 
a storehouse of information to the topographer and to the genealogist 
in time to come. 



XIV 

Besides the Archaeohgia Aeliana^ the Proceedings of the society, 
issued to members during the past year, occupy one hundred and 
sixty-four pages of the tenth volume of the series, which are pro- 
fusely illustrated. When complete the volume will be not only a 
digest of the society's proceedings, but it will even excel its predecessors 
as a repertoire of notes and documents, the fruit of assiduous care 
and pains on the part of our editorial secretary. To these notes the 
rev. canon Baily has added further extracts from Ryton church briefs. 

His grace the duke of Northumberland, president of our society, 
has carried out important excavations at the gatehouse of Alnwick 
castle during the past year. These have disclosed the masonry and 
abutments about the moat and draw-bridge, including the chamber 
from which the latter was worked. The method adopted for 
raising and lowering the draw-bridge is rendered apparent by this 
discovery and is seen to be one of peculiar arrangement. In its 
exceptional character it is possibly the first of its kind yet found in 
England. Our colleague, Mr. W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., who directed 
the excavations, has promised to read a paper to the society on the 
subject. ^ 

The demolition of house property in Newcastle for the purpose of 
clearing sites for new buildings has been one of the incidents of the 
past year. So rapidly and extensively has this been carried out that 
the appearance of some old thoroughfares has already suffered trans- 
formation. Strange to say the finds made in the process have been 
remarkably few, although careful watch has been kept in view of the 
possible disinterment of relics. Perhaps the most noteworthy features 
observable have been the demolition of the workshop of Thomas 
Bewick in St Nicholas's churchyard, of the birthplace of admiral 
lord Collingwood at the Head of the Side, and the total disappearance 
of the frontage from that point downwards in the steep thoroughfare 
to the lower Side. Most of the houses were timber-framed from 
ground to ridge, with upper storeys projecting over the pathway, 
giving a seventeenth century aspect to the acclivity. Some of the 
shops retained to the last their unglazed and perfectly open 
'bulks,' where, until the middle of the nineteenth century, the 
flax-dresser's stock might be seen, with its carded bundles ready 
for the spinning wheel, while the merchant himself stood white- 



XV 

aproned beside his scale-beam, the entire establishment lying open 
to the street. One result of the operations in the Side has been 
to ox>en out the conduit in which the stream, formerly flowing 
between the tower of St. Nicholas and Denton chare (supplying 
on its way the Pant at the Head of the Side), had long been confined. 
The demolition of the seventeenth century houses disclosed, too, the 
earlier medieval street line and the great retaining wall of the church- 
yard behind. Many walls and foundations of ancient masonry, in 
which ashlar courses had been constructed from yet earlier materials, 
stood conspicuous in the area. The appearance of the site clearly 
indicates that as the thoroughfare had been improved and the stream 
bed raised to carry a wider pavement the ground recovered between 
ihe medieval buildings and the stream had been utilized as the site 
of the seventeenth century frontage now demolished. 

In this connexion your council, hearing that negociations were 
in progress for the sale of the open site on the north side of the Black 
Gate, agreed to appoint a deputation to the Corporation on the subject. 
This piece of ground was originally occupied by a group of half-timber 
houses, built on the western extremity of what was formerly known 
as * Laurence Acton's Waste,' a steep slope lying between the enceinte 
of the castle and the thoroughfare from the Head of the Side to the 
* Do^ T.oup ' stairs. The uppermost buildings on this street line had 
long screened the Black Gate from public view ; their removal in 1877 
not only revealed the thirteenth century masonry of the great gate, 
bat formed an open space in a congested locality and added a striking 
feature to the town by the view thus disclosed. For the first 
time in modem days it became possible to appreciate the group of 
historic buildings formed by the castle, the Black Gate and the 
cathedral church of Saint Nicholas, now made visible from the main 
thoroughfare. These features are justly admired by every visitor to 
Newcastle as the most characteristic association of buildings in the 
city. The Parks Committee of the Corporation had added greatly 
to the effect at this point by enclosing and planting it. It was there- 
fore with some dismay that your council heard of a contemplated 
sale of the ground for the erection of business premises on the site, 
a project which would have screened from view the northern face of 
the bastion, and marred the unique prospect Our president 



XVI 

cordially approved of the resolution of protest and the deputation 
formed to wait upon the Estates and Property Conunittee of the 
Corporation on April 28th last, was accompanied by Sir B. C. 
Browne, Mr. C. W. Mitchell, and Mr. L. W. Adamson, LL.D., receiving 
besides the support of Mr. Wigham Richardson, Mr. Robert Enight, 
and other influential citizens, unable to be present in person. 
The case of our society, introduced to the committee of the City 
Council by Mr. Dendy, seconded by Sir B. C. Browne and Dr. Adam- 
son, was listened to with attention, and the deputation received 
assurance that their protest should meet with every consideration. 

One of the features of the past year has been the increasinir 
number of societies attracted to the castle and to the Black Gate 
museum. Parties of these, chiefly young people connected with 
various organisations, have from time to time availed themselves of 
the special charge made for admission in such cases. Their evident 
interest in the objects belonging to our society suggests the desirability 
of still further popularizing the study of antiquities by systematic 
effort in this direction. It will be remembered that this was a 
function recognised by our early members, and the present time is 
opportune for enlisting an intelligent interest in the objects of our 
pursuit. Your council therefore recommend for consideration the 
question of holding a series of lectures to be arranged for experi- 
mentally during next winter. It might be possible in this way to 
secure on occasion distinguished men from a distance as well as to 
utilize the services of specialists in our own membership. 

For the purpose of our ordinary monthly meetings, the library has 
undergone'repairs in making tight the window frames and in institut- 
ing a new warming apparatus. It is hoped that our meetings may 
henceforth take place under greatly ameliorated conditions, and that 
a largely increased attendance of members may justify the changes 
effected. 

In conclusion, your council refer with pleasure to the publication 
in the past year of the sixth volume of the Northumberland County 
History, the appearance of which was anticipated in our last report. 
The volume deals with the twin parishes of Bywell, and the various 
township histories are detailed with the research and ability which 
we are accustomed to look for in the work of the indefatigable 



xvu 

editor, oar eolleagne, Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson. The book also 
possesses a special attraction in its monograph on the Baliols, 
formerly lords of the barony of Bywell. This important section 
traces the rise and fall of a name vastly prominent in English and 
Scottish history but never before treated with the research, the 
discrimination of character, and the mastery of detail here shown « 
Its particular interest to ourselves lies in the fact that it is the 
work of our distinguished and venerable vice-president, the rev. 
W. Greenwell. 

The following is the 

tbeasureb's ebpobt, with balanob shbbt fob the teab 
ending 318t deoembeb, 1902. 

The number of members at present on the roll is 335 — namely, 
381 ordinary and 4 life members. During the year nine members have 
resigned, seven have died, the membership of three has lapsed through 
their leaving the district, and one has been strack off the roll by order 
of the council, a total of 20 ; while twelve new members have been 
elected. 

The total income for the year (together with the balance brought 
forward) has been £604 9s. lOd., and the expenditure £533 3s. Id., 
leaving a credit balance of £71 6s. 9d. The increased expenditure on 
the Archaeologia Aeliana (being an increase of £88 15s. Od.) was 
anticipated in last year's report, while the cost of printing the 
Proceedings shows an increase of £2 10s. Od. only. The expenditure 
on illustrations has been £6 15s. 4d. less than last year, while the 
sundries account also shows a decrease of £16 10s. Id. 

It is gratifying to note that the receipts at the Castle still continue 
to advance, showing a total for the year of £128 168. Od., as against 
£119 17s. 3d. for 1901, an increase of £8 18s. 9d. The increase at 
the Black Gate is £1 19s. 2d. 

The amount received for books sold is £26 Is. 3d., as against 
£12 5s. 9d., an increase of £13 1 5s. 6d. 

The cost of printing and illustrating the Absica report amounts to 
£23 10s. Id., which is included in this year's accounts. 

A detailed statement of the expenditure accompanies the balance 
sheet. 

▼OJU XX V. 



xvm 



R. S. NIBBBT, TREASURER, IN ACCOUNT WITH THE SOCIETY OF 
ANTIQUARIES OF NEWOASTLB-UPON-TYNB. 

Statement of Receipts and Ezpenditubb fob the Year ending 
31st December, 1902. 



Balance Ist January, 1902 

Members* Subscriptions 

Castle 

Black Gate 

Books sold at Oastle 

Books bought , 

Pbintino :— 

Archaeologia Aeliana 
Proceidings 

Illustrations 

Sundries ..^ 

Secretary, for clerical assistance 

Balance in Bank 

Do. Treasurer's hands ... 



Reoeipfcs. 
£ s. d. 


^TT'd!' 


77 3 


1 




345 9 







128 16 





72 2 8 


27 


6 


34 9 


26 1 


3 


48 10 

161 12 

59 8 

46 13 3 

70 8 2 

. 40 



£71 




71 6 9 



£604 9 10 £604 9 10 



5nve6tment6. 

2f per cent. Consols as at 31st December, 1902 

In Post OflSce Savings Bank on 31st December. 1901 

Add interest for the year 





£ s. d. 


... ... 


42 18 5 


£40 1 1 




2 3 5 


42 4 6 



£85 2 11 



Examined with Vouchers and found correct, 

Hebbebt M. Wood, 
Sunderland, Chartered Accountant. 

16th January, 1903. 

2)etail6 ot JEspenMture. 



Castle— 


£ s. 


d. 


Black Gate— 


£ s. d. 


Wages of Attendant 


65 





Wages of Attendant 


. 20 16 


Insurance 


7 


6 


Rent 


1 


Rent 


2 


6 


Income Tax 


2 3 9 


Income Tax 


2 13 


5 


Water Rate 


1 


Water Rate 


6 





Gas Account 


8 4 10 


Gas Account 


16 


7 


Coals 


1 16 


Repairs 


1 4 


3 


Repairs .., 


3 11 2 


Coals 


18 





Sundries: Brushes, &c... 


17 8 


Sundries: firewood, can- 










dles, &c. 


14 


5 




£34 9 








£72 2 


J 





XIX 



Books bought, etc. — 

Subscriptions to Societies — £ s. d. 

Parish Raster Society 110 

Harleian Society 110 

Surtees Society 110 

Dnrham & Northnmb^ Parish Register Society ... 10 6 

Printing 1,000 Guides to Black Gate and Keep 

Oxford Dictionary 

English Dialect Dictionary 

Calendar of Pat, Balls, Henry VJ., vol. 1 

Antiquary And Notes and Queries 

The Northern 6hnealogist J Yols Ay. And y 

Burke's Armoury 

St. John Hope's Windsor Stall Plates, last part 

Monastic Seals of the XIII. Century 

Victoria History of Cumberland 

Corp, Inscrip, Lat., vol. xiii 

Asher & Co. for Transactions of Imperial German Archaeo- 
logical Institute 

Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist 

Rev. E. A. Downam for plans of earthworks (original drawingi>) 

(ieneml Pitt HiYeTB, Art of Benin 

Sepulchral Slabs 

Beport on the Antonine Wall 

hsLng' 8 History of Scotland y Yol. a 

17m Scottish Antiquary, vols. 16 and 17 

Otto Petters, Ohergermanisch-Bactische Limes 

Tynemouth Parish Register 

Year Book of Learned Societies 

J. O. Wilson for bookbinding 

F. Sanderson, for binding 10 vols, of the ' Brooks Collection ' 



£ 8. d. 



SUKDBIB&— 

Geo, Nicholson, for general printing 

A. Reid & Co., Ltd., for sundries 

VostAge of Archaeologia, etc 

Carriage of books and various parcels 

Deed book and lettering same 

Chequebook 

Copper plate of * Joe the Quilter's * cottage ... 

Richardson & Co., for painting casts 

Fire insurance premium on the * Brooks Collection * 
Fire insurance premium for * Black G&te ' 

Secretary's out of pocket expenses 

Treasurer's do. do. 

Index to Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xxiv 



3 13 

11 16 

2 3 



1 

15 

10 10 
1 


12 10 

1 1 6 

1 11 6 

2 



1 6 

10 

12 3 

12 6 

7 6 

10 10 

15 

9 



£48 10 

£ s. d. 

27 18 9 

5 10 9 
7 16 
1 4 
11 
5 

15 6 

2 6 

1 16 6 

2 15 
16 11 7 

1 17 6 

3 3 

£70 8 2 



XX 

i, curators' report for 1902. 

During the year ten contributors have added gif tB to the society's 
collection, particulars of which are given in the following list : — 

1902. DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

Feb. 26. From Edith, lady Compton-Thornhill -.—Portion of a pre- 
conquest cross shaft, 30 inches long, with two fragmentary 
portions of other shafts. Discovered at Oarham. (^Proceedings, 
vol. X. p. 153). Several coins, including a third brass of 
Constantine II. ; a penny of Henry III. ; groats of Edward III. and 
IV. ; a gold quarter-noble of Henry V. or VI. ; Calais groat 
of Henry VL ; half-groat of Henry VII. ; shilling of Elizabeth 
(found at Gallows-hill, Wark-on-Tweed) ; shilling of Charles IL ; 
five Scottish bawbees and seven bodies of Charles II. ; bodle of 
William and Mary ; small Danish silver coin of Christian VII. ; 
and a Nuremberg counter (Proceedings^ vol. x. p. 154). 
Mar. 26. From Mr. T. H. Abgheb Hind, of Newton Abbot :— Coins, tokens and 
medals, found at various times at Morris Hall, near Norham Castle ; 
also a papal bulla and a decorated spindle whorl. 31 of the coins 
are of silver, and 807^oins, tokens and medals — are chiefly of 
copper. Nine second and third brass Roman coins occur in the 
collection (Proceedings, vol. x. pp. 167-8). 
„ „ From Mr. Johk Wilson, Leazes Park : — A pair of bowls used at 
Tudhoe in the middle of the last century (Proceedings, vol. x. p. 169). 
May 28. From Mr. C. Wintbb : — Arms of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
carved in wood, painted and gilded ; from the canopy of the 
mayor's seat in the Corporation pew, formerly standing in the north 
aisle of the chancel of St. Nicholas's church, Newcastle (Proceedings, 
vol. X. p. 182). 
„ „ From Mr. Miller Chbistt, Chelmsford : — An adjustable pot-hook 
from an Essex cottage fire-place (ibid.). 
July 30. From The MiLYOB of Newcastle : — Two coronation medals in bronze 
struck *in celebration of the Coronation of Their Majesties King 
Edward VII., and Queen Alexandra, June 26, 1902.* The date-was 
anticipatory, for the king's illness prevented the actual ceremony 
until Saturday, August 9 (Proc, vol. x. p. 234). 
Aug. 27. From Mr. RoBBBT Spenob, North Shields : Working model of a 
mangonel, a military engine used in the period between the twelfth 
and fourteenth centuries, for slinging heavy projectiles of stone. 
(Proceedings, vol. x. p. 269). 
„ „ From R. Blaib (one of the secretaries) r—Iron slag found on the 
moors near Keyhurst farm, Netherwitton, Northumberland (ibid,"), 
Sep. 24. From R. Olivbb Heslop (one of 8he secretaries) : Old clasp knife 
found in the Willington Quay ballast hill, 1902 (Proceedings, vol. x. 
p. 294). 
Nov. 26 From Sir H. W. Sbton-Kabb, M.P.:— A number of pre-historic 
flints, etc., from Somaliland and Egypt. 



XXI 



THE COXINOIL AND OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR MDCCCCIII. 



patron and president 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K.G., F.S.A. 

IDice^presidents^ 

HORATIO ALFRED ADAMSON. 

ROBERT RICHARDSON DEBS. 

JOHN VESSEL GREGORY. 

THE REV. WILLIAM GREENWBLL, D.C.L., P.R.S., P.S.A., &c. 

THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L., F.8.A., &C. 

CHARLES JAMES SPENOB. 

RICHARD WELFORD, M.A. 

THOMAS TAYLOR, F.S.A. 

LAWRENCE WILLIAM ADAMSON, LL.D. 

FREDERICK WALTER DENDY. 

ROBERT COLTMAN CLEPHAN, F.S.A. 

JOHN CRAWFORD HODGSON, P.S.A. 

Secretaries* 

ROBERT BLAIR, F.S.A. 

RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP, M.A., F.S.A. 

XCrcasuren 

ROBERT SINCLAIR NISBET. 

BDitor* 

ROBERT BLAIR. 

Xibrarian. 

JOSEPH OSWALD. 

Curators* 

CHARLES JAMES SPENCE. 
RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP. 

HuMtors* 

JOHN MARTIN WINTER. 
HERBERT MAXWELL WOOD. 

CounciU 

REV. CUTHBERT EDWARD ADAMSON. M.A. 

REV. JOHNSON BAILY, M.A. 

REV. DOUGLAS HENRY BOUTFLOWBR, M.A. 

PARKER BREWIS. 

SIDNEY STORY CARR. 

DAVID DIPPIE DIXON. 

JOHN PATTISON GIBSON. 

GEORGE IRVING. 

WILLIAM HENRY KNOWLES, P.S.A. 

REV. HENRY EDWIN SAVAGE, M.A. 

WILLIAM WEAVER TOMLINSON. 

REV. JOHN WALKER, M.A. 



XJQl 



MEMBERS OF THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

ON THE 1st march, 1908. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Date of Election. 

1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1888 June 27 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1892 Jan. 27 

1896 Oct. 28 



Professor Mommsen, Marchstrasse 8, Charlottenburg bei Berlin. 

Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 

Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 

Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 

Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 

Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., P.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.S.A., Nash MiUs, Hemel 

Hempstead. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confr€rie 5, Ghent, Belgium. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (Ist March, 1903.) 



XX111 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

The signs * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, and 
t that the member is one of the Council. 

IMe of Election 

1885 Mar. 25 Adams, William Edwin, The Pollards, Thurlow Hill, Torquay. 

1883 Aug. 29 fAdamson, Rev. Cuthbert Edward, Westoe, South Shields. 

1873 July f Adamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gaidens, Tynemouth. 

1892 Aug. 31 f Adamson, Lawrence William, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle. 
1885 Oct. 28 Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road, Gateshead. 

1885 Jnne 24 Allgood, Miss Anne Jane, Hermitage, Hexham. 

1886 Jan« 27 Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 

1898 Mar. 30 Allison, Thomas M., M.D., 22 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

1893 Sept. 27 Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 

1899 Oct. 25 Armstrong, Miss Mary, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
1884 Jan. 30 Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

1892 Mar. 30 Armstrong, William Irving, South P^rk, Hexham. 

1897 Nov. 24 Arnison, William Drewitt, M.D., 2 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

1896 July 29 fBaily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton. 

1893 Feb. 22 liaumgartner, John Richard, 10 Bldon Square, Newcastle. 

1894 July 25 Bell, W. Reward, Seend, Melksham, Wiltshire. 
1892 April 27 Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon, near Sunderland. 

1900 May 30 Blair, Charles Henry, 32 Hawthorn Road, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

1874 Jan. 7 fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

1892 Mar. 30 Blenkinsopp, Thomas, 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 

1896 Dec. 23 Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Butler Hospital for the Insane, Provi- 

dence^ Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

1893 Dec. 28 Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

1892 June 29 Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

1897 July 28 Boot, Rev. Alfred, St. George's Vicarage, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
1883 Dec. 27 Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

1898 July 27 Bosanquet, Robert Carr, The British School at Athens. 
1883 Dec. 27 t^outflower. Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 
1883 June 27 Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

1892 May 26 Bowes, John Bos worth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 

1899 Aug. 80 Bowes, Richard, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

1894 Feb. 28 Boyd, William, North House, Long Benton. 
1898 Mar. 30 Bramble, William, New Ben well, Newcastle. 
1892 Aug. 81 ifBrewis, Parker, 82 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

1896 July 29 I Brock-Hollinshead, Mrs., 30 Montpellier Villas, Cheltenham. 

1897 Nov. 24 Brooks, Miss Ellen, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 



XXiv THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUARIES OP NBWOASTLB-UPON-TTNB. 



27 
27 
31 
26 



Date of Election. 

1892 Feb. 24 
1891 Dec. 23 

1893 June 28 
1884 Sept. 24 

1891 Sept. 30 

1889 April 24 

1888 Nov. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 

1897 Jan. 27 
1887 Nov. 30 

1885 April 29 

1892 July 27 
1883 

1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Feb. 
1901 Feb. 

1894 Jan. 

1887 Oct. 

1892 Feb. 24 

1885 May 27 

1895 Nov. 27 

1898 Aug. 27 

1883 Dec. 27 

1893 July 26 
1892 Aug. 31 

1886 Sept. 29 
1898 July 26 
1898 Feb. 23 
1892 Oct. 26 
1898 Nov. 30 

1896 Feb.- 26 

1897 Dec. 16 

1889 Aug. 28 

1888 Mar. 28 
1844 about 

1887 Aug. 31 

1884 Mar. 26 

1883 June 27 

1884 July 2 

1898 Aug 27 
1884 July 30 



Brown, George T., 61 Fawcett Street, Sunderiand. 

Brown, The Rev. William, Old Blvet, Durham. 

Browne, Thomas Procter, Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Bruce, The Hon. Mr. Justice, Yewhurst, Bromley, Kent. 

Burman, 0. Clark, L.R.C.P.S- Ed., 12 Bondgate Without, 
Alnwick. 

Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Ooxhoe, Durham. 

Burton, William Spelman, 2 Elmfield Villas, ElmfieM Road, Goaf orth. 

Burton, S. B., Jesmond House, High worth, Wilts. 

Butler, George Grey, Bwart Park, Wooler. 

Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 
tCarr, Sidney Story, 14 Percy Gtirdens, Tynemouth. 

Carr, Rev. T. W., Long Rede, Banning, Maidstone, Kent. 

Carr-Ellison, H. G., Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 

Carr-EUison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Carrick, Frederick, 1 Sedgewick Place, Gateshead. 

Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 

Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Charlton, Oswin J., LL.B., 1 Bldon Square, Newcastle. 

Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 

Clapham, William, Park Villa, Darlington. 

Clayton, Mrs. N. G., Chesters, Humshaugh. 
tClephan,.Kobert Coltman, Marine House, Tynemouth. 

Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 

Corder, Herbert, 1 Carlton Terrace, Sunderland. 

Corder, Percy, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Corder, Walter Shewell, 4 Rosella Place, North Shields. 

Crawhall, Rev. T. B., Vicarage, North Shields. 

Cresswell, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W. 

Cresswell, Lionel, Woodhall, Calverley, Yorks. 

Cruddas, W. D., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 

Culley, Francis John, 5 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 

CuUey, The Rev. Matthew, Bsh, co. Durham. 

Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 
fDees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
fDendy Frederick Walter, Bldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead, 
f Dixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 

Dodds, Edwin, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 



LIST OF MEMBBBS. (let March, 1903.) 



XXV 



Dite of Election. 

1900 Jan. HI 
1897 May 26 
1891 Aug. 31 
1902 Aug. 27 
1883 Oct. 31 

1886 Aug. 28 

1901 Feb. 27 
1865 Aug. 2 
1900 Oct. 31 
1894 Nov. 28 

May 30 

1887 Dec. 28 
1894 Oct. 31 

894 Oct. 31 

895 Jan. 30 
892 April 27 

Dec. 7 
Oct. 31 

879 

Jan. 28 

901 July 31 

878 

886 June 30 

886 Oct. 27 

890 Sept. 25 

894 Aug. 29 
886 Aug. 28 
1883 Feb. 28 
1891 Oct. 28 
845 June 3 

883 Feb. 28 
877 Dec. 6 

891 Jan. 28 
Mar. 8 

883 Aug. 29 

884 Mar. 26 
898 Aug. 30 
898 July 29 



Dowson, John, Morpeth. 

Drummond, Dr., Wyvestow House, South Shields. 

Durham Cathedral Library. 

Ellis, The Hon. and Rev. William, Bothalhaugh, Morpeth* 

Bmley, Fred., Ravenshill, Durham Road, Gateshead. 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Bdmundbyers, Blackhill. 

Fen wick, Featherston, County Chambers, Westgate Road, Newcastle. 

Fenwick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 

Fenwick, Miss Mary, Lingy Acre, Portinscale, Cumberland. 

Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Forster, Fred. B., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

Forster, Robert Henry, Artillery Mansions, 75 Victoria Street, 
London, S.W. 

Forster, Thomas Bmmerson, 3 Bldon Square, Newcastle. 

Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle. 

Francis, William, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 
fGibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 

Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Gibson, William James, Bedlington, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Gjemre, B. W., Ferndene, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Glendinning, William, 4 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 

Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Gough, Rev. Edward John, D.D., Vicar and Canon of 
Newcastle. 

Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Green, Robert Yeoman, 11 Lovaine Crescent, Newcastle. 

Greene, Charles R., North Seaton Hall, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. 
fGreenwell, Rev. William, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A. Scot., 
Durham. 

Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester. 
fGregory, John Vessey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Haggle, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Hall, Bdmund James, Dilston Castle, Corbridge. 

Hall, James, Tynemouth. 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 

Haswell, F. R. N., Monkseaton, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

d 



XXVI THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQXTABIBS OF NBWOASTLB-UPON-TYNB. 



Date of Elecij 


Ion. 


1889 Feb. 


27 


1901 Mar. 


27 


1894 May 
1886 April 
1901 NoV. 


30 
28 
27 


1902 Jan. 


29 


1883 Feb. 


28 


1888 April 
1882 


26 


1865 Aug. 


2 


1895 Jan. 


30 


1899' June 28 


1890 Jan. 


29 


1884 April 
1901 Nov. 


30 
27 


1898 Aug. 
1887 Jan. 


27 
26 


1900 July 


25 


1895 July 

1896 Dec. 


31 

18 


1891 Oct. 


28 


1901 Oct. 


30 


1892 June 29 


1876 




1896 April 

1896 July 
1888 July 

1897 Dec. 


29 
29 
25 
15 


1886 May 
1900 Jan. 


26 
31 


1882 




1883 Aug. 
188a Feb. 


29 

28 


1899 June 28 


1900 Jan. 


31 


1884 Oct. 


29 


1901 Feb. 


27 


1899 Feb, 


22 


1896 Dec. 


23 


1897 uly 


8 



♦Haverfield, F. J., F.S.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

Heatley, William Robertson, 4 Linden Villas, GK>sforiih, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Edward Armorer, Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Corbridge. 

Henderson, William Frederick, Moorfield, Newcastle. 

Henzell, Charles William, Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
fHeslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Princes Buildings, Akenside Hill, 
Newcastle. 

Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 

Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 
fHodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., F.S.A., Barmoor Castle, Heal, North- 
umberland. 

Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bank, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, George Bryan, Harton, near South Shields. 
fHodgson, John Crawford, F.S.A., Abbey Cottage, Alnwick. 

Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, M. N., 11 Myrtle Crescent, South Shields. 

Hodgson, T. Hesketh, Newby Grange, Carlisle. 

Hodgson, William, Westholme, Darlington. 

Hodgson, William George le Fleming Lowther, Dee View, Trevor, 
Llangollen, N. Wales. 

Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 

Holdsworth, David ArundeU,2 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Holmes, Ralph Sheriton, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Hopkins, C. W. Innes, the Tower, Ryton. 

Hopper, Charles, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Hoyle, William Aubone, The Croft, Ovingham. 

Hudson, Robert, Hotspur Street, Tynemouth. 

Hulbert, Rev. C. L., Brathay Vicarage, Ambleside. 

Hunter, Edward, Wentworth, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Hutchinson, Edward, The Elms, Darlington, 
flrving, George, West Fell, Corbridge. 

Jobling, James, Morpeth. 

Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 

Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 

Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 

Keeney, Michael John, 9 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Kitchin, The Very Rev. G. W., Dean of Durham. 
fKnowles, William Henry, F.S.A., 37 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Kyle, Robert, 11 Prudhoe Street, Alnwick. 

Lamb, Miss Elizabeth, Newton Cottage, Chathill. 

Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

Laws, Dr. Cnthbert Umfreville, 1 St. George's Terrace, Newcastle. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (Ist March, 1903.) 



XXVU 



Date of Election. 

1894 Sept. 26 
1899 No7. 29 
1902 May 

1897 Jan. 27 
1885 April 29 

1887 June 29 
1899 July 26 

1896 Nov. 26 

1901 Aug. 28 

1885 Nov. 6 

1888 June 27 
1899 Mar. 29 

1902 Oct. 27 
1877 
1902 Mar. 26 
1884 Mar. 26 
1891 May 27 

1899 Aug. 30 

1895 Sept. 25 
1884 Mar. 26 
1882 

1900 Jan. 31 
1891 Mar. 25 

1899 June 28 
1888 Sept. 26 
1891 Jan. 28 

1898 Mar. 30 
1891 Aug. 26 

1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Mar. 28 

1900 Aug. 29 
1883 May 
1883 Oct. 

1886 Dec. 
1896 Oct. 

1883 June 28 
1900 Mar 30 
1896 April 29 

1884 July 2 
1902 Sept. 24 
1898 May fto 



Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Leeson, Richard John, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Lemon, Allan Bruce, 48 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Lightfoot, Miss, 5 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 

Lockhart, Henry F., Hexham. 

London Library, c/o Williams & Norgate, Henrietta Street, Co vent 

Garden, London. 
LongstafE, Dr. Geo. Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S. W. 
Lowe, Rev. Joseph, Hon. Can. of Newc, Vicar of Haltwhistle. 
Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 
Macarthy, George Eugene, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
Macaulay, Donald, Clive Cottage, Alnwick. 
McDonald, J. C, 2 Nixon Street, Newcastle. 
McDowell, Dr. T. W., East Cottingwood, Morpeth. 
McPherson, John C, Ben well Grange, Newcastle. 
Mackey, Matthew, Jun., 36 Highbury, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Manchester Reference Library (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 
Markham, R. M., 9 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 
Marshall, Frank, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Martin, N. H., Ravens wood, Low Fell.JGateshead. 
Matheson, Thomas, Morpeth. 
Maudlen, William, Dacre House, North Shields. 
May, George, Simonside Hall, near South Shields. 
Mayo, William Swatling, Riding Mill, Northumberland. 
Melbourne Free Library, c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 

12 Ludgate Square, London, E.C. 
Milbum, J. D., Guyzance, Acklington. 
Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
Mitchell, Charles William, LL.D., Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 
Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 
Morrison, Rev. William Wilson, Greatham Vicarage, Stockton. 
Morrow, T. R., The Cave, Fulford, York. 
Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 
Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Neilson, Edward, Avondale, Corbridge. 
Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 
Newbigin, Edward Richmond, 2 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. , 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Ben well Tower, Newcastle. . 
Newcastle Public Library. 
Newton, Robert, Brookfield, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
New York Library, c/o Mr. B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar Square, 

London, W.C. 



XXVm THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NBWOASTLB-UPON-TYNB. 



Date of EImUoil 

1900 Feb. 28 

1896 May 27 
1885 May 27 

1893 Feb. 22 
1892 Nov. 80 

1901 Feb. 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1898 June 28 

1898 June 28 
1901 June 6 
1901 Oct. 30 
1889 Aug. 28 

1894 Dec. 19 
1901 Jan. 30 

1899 Oct. 25 
1889 Aug. 28 
1896 Oct. 28 
1884 Dec. 80 
1898 Jan. 26 
1891 Feb. 18 
1884 Sept. 24 

1880 

1888 Jan. 25 

1898 Feb. 23 

1901 Jan. 30 
1880 

1896 Mar. 25 
1882 

1900 April 25 

1887 Aug. 31 
1883 June 27 

1888 May 30 
1894 Feb. 28 

1897 April 28 
1883 Sept. 26 
1894 May 30 

1902 Oct. 27 
1886 Nov. 24 
1894 Jan. 31 
1891 July 29 



Nightingale, George, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland, 
i Nisbet, Robert Sinclair, 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northboume, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 
fNorthumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

Ogilvie, Frank Stanley, Rosella House, North Shields. 

Ogle, Capt. Sir Henry A., bart., R.N., United Service Club, Pall 
Mall, London. 

Ogle, Bertram Savile, Mill House, Steeple Aston, Ozon. 

Ogle, Newton, 59 Green Street, Grosvenor Square, London. 

Oliver, Arthur M., West Jesmond Villa, Newcastle. 

Oliver, Robert Charles, Bowmen Bank, Morpeth. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
fOswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Page, Frederick, M.D., 1 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Palmer, Rev. Thomas Francis, 2 Cousin Street, Sunderland. 

Park, A. D., 11 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John 8., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C, 

Peacock, Reginald, 47 West Sunniside, Sunderland. 

Pease, Howaid, Bank, Newcastle. 

Phillips, Maberly, F.S.A., Pevensey, Bycullah Park, Enfield, 
London. 

Philipson, Sir George Hare, M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., Prior*s Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Porteus, Thomas, 9 Sefton Road, Birmingham. 

Pritchett, James Pigott, High Row, Darlington 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Rev. George, Grange Rectory, Jarrow 

Pybus, Robert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Radford, H. G., Stonehill, East Sheen. 

Ravensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 

Reavell, George, jun., Alnwick. 

Redpath, Robert, 5 Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reed, The Rev. George, Killingworth, Newcastle. 

Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 

Reid, C. Leopold, Wardle Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Blwick Hall, Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Rhodes, Rev. A. 0., Vicar of Woodhom. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Miss Alice M., Hollinwood, Torquay. 

Richardson, Frank, Clifton Cottage, Clifton Road» Newcastle. 



LIST OP MBBiBBRS. (Ist March, 1903.) 



XXIX 



DiteofBleefcion. 
18d6 July 31 

1898 Jan. 26 

1892 Mar. 80 
1889 July 31 
1877 

1901 June 5 

1883 Jan. 31 
1900 Aug. 29 

1884 July 30 

1900 Mar. 28 
1882 

1894 Mar. 25 
1877 

1901 Jan. 30 

1893 April 26 

1892 Sept. 28 

1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 

1888 July 25 

1899 Nov. 29 
1898 Nov. 29 

1901 Oct. 30 

1891 Sept. 30 
1886 Feb. 24 
1888 June 27 

1888 Oct. 31 
1896 May 29 

1889 May 29 
1901 Aug. 28 

1892 Oct. 26 
1898 Mar. 30 
1891 Nov. 18 

1893 Mar. 29 
1883 June 27 
1901 Jan. 30 
1866 Jan. 3 
1883 Dec. 27 
1882 

1891 Jan. 28 



Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thomholme, Sunderland. 

Richardson, William, Field Head, Willington, Northumberland. 

Riddell, Edward Francis, Melton Road, Oakham, Rutland. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 

Ridley, The Right Hon. Viscount, Blagdon^ Northumberland. 

Ridley, Thomas W., Willimoteswick, Coatham, Redcar. 

Robinson, Alfred J., 65 Fern Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robinson, Rev. F. G. J., Rector of Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Robinson, John, Delaval House, 3 Broxbourne Terrace, Sunderland. 

Robinson, John David, Beaconsfield, Coatsworth Road, Gateshead. 

Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., 17 Pulteney Street, Bath. 

Rudd, Alfred George, Ivy Croft, Stockton. 

Runciman, Walter, jun.. West Denton Hall, Scotswood, North- 
umberland. 

Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Ayre's Terrace, South Preston, North 
Shields. 

Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Ryott, William Hall, 7 CoUingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Sanderson, Richard Burdon, Warren House, Belford. 

Savage, Rev. E. Sidney, Rectory, Hexham. 
fSavage, Rev. H. E., Hon. Canon of Durham and Vicar of St. Hild's, 
South Shields. 

Schofield, Frederick Elsdon, The Retreat, Morpeth. 

Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle.. 

Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 

Simpson, J. B., Bradley Hall, Wylam. 

Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields. 

Sisson, Richard William, 13 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Sisterson, Edward, Woodleyfield, Hexham. 

Skelly, George, Alnwick. 

Smith, George, Brinkburn, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Smith, William, Gunnerton, Barrasford. 

Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street, South Shields. 

South Shields Public Library. 

Spain, George R. B., Victoria Square, Newcastle. 
♦fSpence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

Spencer, J. W., Newbiggin House, Kenton, Newcastle 

Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 

Steel, The Rev. James, D.D., Vicarage, Heworth. 



XXX THB SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OP NBWCASTLE-ITPON-TYNB. 



Date of Election. 
1882 

1887 Mar. 30 
1880 

1897 Jan. 27 
1879 

1866 Dec. 6 
1900 Aug. 29 
18.93 Feb. 27 
1892 April 27 

1896 No7. 25 

1888 Aug. 29 

1899 June 28 

1898 Dec: 21 
1892 June 29 
1902 Feb. 26 
1891 Jan. 28 
1888 Oct. 31 

1888 Nov. 28 
1894 Mar. 28 

1897 April 28 

1897 Mar. 31 

1900 Oct. 31 

1900 May 25 

1889 Oct. 30 

1894 May 30 

1901 Jan. 30 

1891 Mar. 25 
1896 Nov. 26 
1896 Oct. 28 
1889 Mar. 27 

1892 Oct. 26 
1887 Jan. 26 

1895 May 29 
1879 Mar. 26 
1889 Nov, 

1902 Oct. 

1898 Oct. 
1902 Jan. 



1886 June 30 



Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 

Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 

Strangeways, William Nicholas, Lismore, 17 Queen's Avenue, 
Muswell Hill, London, N. 

Sunderland Public Library. 

Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond,*Newcastle. 

Swinburne, Sir John, bart. , Capheaton, Northumberland. 

Tate, William Thomas, Hill House, Greatham. 

Taylor,* Rev. E. J., F.S.A., St. Cuthbert's, Durham. 
fTaylor, Thomas, F.S.A., Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 

Temperley, Henry, LL.B., Lambton Road, Brandling Park, New- 
castle. 

Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 

Thompson, Mrs. George, The Cottage, Whickham, R.S.O. 

Thompson, John, Cradock House, Cradock Street, Bishop Auckland. 

Thomson, James, jun., 22 Wentwortli Place, Newcastle. 

Thorburn, H. W., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auckland. 

Thorne, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Todd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
fTomlinson, William Weaver, Lille Villa, The Avenue, Monkseaton. 

Toovey, Alfred F„ Ovington Cottage, Prudhoe. 

Toronto i*ublic Library, c/o C. B. Cazenove & Sons, Agents, 
26 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Townsend, Brian, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

'Trinity College Library, Dublin. , 

Turnbull William, Whin Bank, Rothbury. 

Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepool. 

Vincent, William, 18 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 

Waddilove, George, Brunton, Wall, North Tyne. 
fWalker The Rev. John, Whalton Rectory, Newcastle.. 

Walker, John Duguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Sq., London. 

Watfion- Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 

Watson, Mrs. M. B., Burnopfield. 

Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
fWelford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Wheler, E. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 

White, Conrad, Kensington Terrace, Newcastle. 

White, R. 8., Shirley, Adderston Crescent, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Whiting, Rev. B. C, St. James's Rectory, Gateshead. 

Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 

1 Bleoted origiiudly Jan. 31, 1876, resigned i8S7. 



S0CIBTIB8 WITH WHICH PUBLICATIONS ABB BXCHANGBD. XXXI 



Date of Blection. 

1893 Aug. 30 

1896 May 27 
1891 Aug. 26 

1897 Sept. 29 

1885 May 27 
190O Apnl 25 

1898 May 25 
1891 Sept. 30 
1900 Nov. 28 

1896 Feb. 26 

1898 Not. 30 

1899 Nov. 
1898 April 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Oct. 31 



Wilkinson, William C, Dacre Street, Morpeth. 

Williams, Charles, Glencarn, Monkseaton. 

Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 

Willyaras, H. J., Barndale Cottage, Alnwick. 

Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 

Wilson, J. A. E., Archbold Terrace, Newcastle. 

W;indley, Rev. H. C, St. Chad's, Bensham, Gateshead. 

Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Winter, Charles, 30 Brandling Park, Newcastle. 

Wood, Herbert Maxwell, 66 John Street, Sunderland. 

Wood, C. W., Beach Road, South Shields. 

Wood, William Henry, 38 Bldon Street, Newcastle. 

Wooler, Edward, Danesmoor, Darlington. 

Worsdell, Wilson, Gateshead. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., 7, St. Mary's Place, Newcastle. 

Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., Tortola, Nairn, N.B. 



SOCIETIES WITH WHICH PUBLICATIONS ARE EXCHANGED. : 

Antiquaries of London, The Society of, Burlington House, London. 

Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of. Museum, Edinburgh. 

Boyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The, 20 Hanover 

Sqaare, London, W. 
Boyal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, The, 7 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. 
Royal Society of Ireland, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The. 
Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania, Norway. 
Aberdeen Bcclesiological Society, The, 42 Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, The. Museum, Berwick. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, The, c/o Secretary, The Rev. W. 

Bazeley, Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, George Patrick and Rev. 

H. J. Dukinfield Astley), 1 Gresham Buildings, Basinghall Street, London, 

E.C. 
Cambrian Antiquarian Society, The, c/o J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., 28! Great 

Ormond Street, London, W,C. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The, c/o Secretary, T. D. Atkinson, St. Mary's 

Passage, Cambridge. 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The 
Clifton Antiquarian Club, The, c/o Alfred E. Hudd, 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, 

Bristol. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, The, 

TolUe House, Carlisle. 



XXXll THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUARIES OP NBWOASTLE-UPON-TTNB. 

Derbyshire Archaeological Society, The, liarket Place, Derby. 

Heidelberg Historical and Philosophical Society, Heidelberg, Germany. 

Huguenot Society, The, c/o Reg. S. Faber, Secretary, 90 Regent's Park Road, 
London, N.W. 

Kent Archaeological Society, Maidstone, Kent. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The, c/o R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., Hon. 
Secretary, Old Swan, Liverpool. 

Literary and Scientific Society, Christiania, Norway. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The, London Institution, Fins- 
bury Circus, London. 

Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The (Verein fUr 
nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte), Wiesbaden, Germany. 

Numismatic Society of London, The (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head), 
22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A, 

Powys-land Club, The, c/o Secretary, T. Simpson Jones, M.A., Gungrog, Welsh- 
pool. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Shrewsbury. 

Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, U.S.A. 

Soci^t^ d*Arch^ologie de Bruxelles, rue Ravenstein 11, Bruzelles. 

Soci€t^ d'Arch^logie de Namur, Namur, Belgium, 

Soci6t6 d*Bmulation d' Abbeville, France. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Castle, Taunton, 
Somersetshire. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Ipswich. 

Surrey Archaeological Society, The, Castle Arch, Guildford. 

Sussex Archaeological Society, The, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 

Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, Jena, Germany. 

Trier Archaeological Society, The, Trier, Germany. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society, The, 10 Park Street, Leeds. 



The Proceedings of the Society are sent to the following : — 

Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London, W.C. 

W. J. Cripps, C.B., Cirencester. 

Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 

Robert Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 

The Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Witton-Ie-Wear, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 



XXXIU 



REPORT 

OP 



Ztt ^octets of ^ntiquKXit^ 



OF 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



ANNUAL MEETING, MDOCCOIV. 



With their ninety-first Annual Report your Council record with 
regret the death of no fewer than eleven members of our society in 
the past year. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Ravensworth succeeded his father as 
president of our society in 1879, and continued in that office until the 
press of other matters compelled him to resign in 1898. His genial 
presence in the chair was, in former years, a welcome feature of our 
annual meetings ; whilst his zeal for the society, and his interest in 
our pursuits were at all times manifested. These characteristics were 
particularly shown when it fell to his lot to represent our society on 
special occasions. Thus, when the Royal Archaeological Institute 
visited Newcastle in 1884 he received its members on behalf of our 
society. In the following year he formally opened the Blackgate 
museum. Again, in 1886, he presided at the banquet served in this 
building to commemorate the pilgrimage of the Roman Wall then 
undertaken. The addresses given at each of these gathering^ were of 
more than passing interest, and their scope and character were admir- 
ably suited to the occasions. In the second of the addresses above 
referred to, that of 1885, reference was made to the peculiar relation 
that had existed between his family and the precincts of the old castle, 
and his lordship's words may be fittingly recalled at this juncture : 
*I have a certain interest in this castle,' he said, 'not only as 



XXxiv ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1908. 

being a member of this society myself, but from the fact that my 
ancestors were leaseholders of the Castle Garth for a great number of 
years. In 1736, my ancestor, Colonel Liddell, entered into competi- 
tion with no less a body than the municipality of this ancient town ; 
they competed for the renewal of the lease, but he got the best of it, 
and obtained the lease from the Crown. In 1766 the reversion of 
this lease was again purchased by the first Lord Bavensworth, but 
in 1780 it was sold to Mr. Turner, and in 1811 the Newcastle 
Corporation regained the possession of the Castle Garth and its 
surroundings.' Our late President was thus doubly related to our 
society ; first, by his regard for the pursuits of our members, and 
further, in an attachment to this place with its associations of an 
ancestral possession. 

The Eev. Anthony Johnson was elected to our membership in 
1882. His monographs on Bywell and Blanchland form valuable 
contributions to the thirteenth and sixteenth volumes of Archaeologia 
Aeliana. A retiring disposition hardly disclosed his capabilities to 
those only known to him by casual contact. But on the visits of our 
society to Bywell and to Blanchland, where he acted as guide, his 
descriptions of the places were of the greatest interest, revealing, as 
they did, stores of local and general information and a reserve of 
erudition ; and these services were rendered with a kindliness and 
geniality not to be forgotten. 

Mr. William Glendenning was elected in 1878, and has thus been 
associated with us for a quarter of a century. To the end of this 
long period he sustained an observant interest in our proceedings and 
was a regular attender of our out-door meetings. 

Mr. William Harris Bobinson was an ardent collector, whose 
judgment and taste in matters of art were as conspicuous as his 
urbane and quiet character was unobtrusive. In his speciality as a 
numismatist his services were at the call of the investigator, and were 
at all times willingly rendered. From his election in 1882 until 
illness prevented, he was constant in his attendance at our meetings, 
where his kindly presence was always welcomed. 

Mr. Robert Teoman Green, elected 1888, an accomplished 
naturalist, was always greatly interested in archaeology. He com- 
bined a life-long intimacy with a rare knowledge of the history and 



AHNtJALfBBPOBTjFOB 1908. XZXV 

antiquities of Newcastle, where his presence suggested a connecting 
link between our own and an older generation of citizens whose pur- 
suit of knowledge remains one of our worthiest traditions. 

Mr. Walter Scott of Sunderland, was elected in 1888, and, 
although unable by distance to attend our monthly meetings, he took 
part in our country excursions. He was throughout quietly and 
observantly interested in our pursuits. 

Mr. George Skelly of Alnwick, had been long and widely known 
as a glossarist' and folk-lorist, although his membership dated only 
from 1892. As a painstaking observer and diligent recorder he 
enriched the local press from time to time with copious notes on his 
particular studies. 

Mr. David Arundell Holdsworth was elected in 1895, and showed 
a keen interest in the meetings of the society. To an ardent pursuit 
of knowledge he added rare powers of exposition, with the promise of 
useful capabilities in our midst. To our deprivation is added the loss 
of an eager comrade. 

Mr. Charles William Mitchell of Jesmond Towers, joined our 
memberehip roll in succession to his father, and was elected in 1896, 
Circumstances prevented an active participation in our gatherings here; 
but although a stranger to our meetings he was a cordial friend in all 
that related to our proceedings. This was shown in a marked degree 
when our society learned that the frontage of the Blackgate had been 
threatened with an obstruction. At the call of your council he gave 
his personal attendance and lent his influence on our behalf with 
helpful results in averting that threatened misfortune. It was a 
happiness to be associated with a colleague who had already won 
distinction in his high calling as an artist, and whose services to his 
native city had unfolded plans of the brightest promise. To ourselves, 
as to the community at large, his premature loss is an irreparable de- 
privation. And, besides, it is the loss of a rare personality; for, as 
one of his friends has written, * He was, in a word, of those whom to 
know with any degree of intimacy is to love ; and he lives in the 
memory as an abiding inspiration.* 

Mrs. Brock-Hollinshead of Shap, late of Cheltenham, elected in 
1896, as a distant resident was debarred from attendance at our 
customary meetings ; but as a student of archaeology she took a lively 



XXXvi ANNUAti ftBPOEl? FOR 1903. 

interest in our publications, and was constant in her exchange of 
books from our library. 

Whilst so many lapses fall to be thus enumerated at home, there 
yet remains for us to record that of a great figure in the wider field of 
Continental archaeology. Professor Mommsen was elected an honorary 
member in June, 1883, along with Dr. Rmil Hubner, whom he sur- 
vived by two years. The attachment of these two eminent names to 
our roll of membership was a distinction to our society, and their re- 
moval leaves us all the poorer. Of the veteran Mommsen's services 
record has already been made by our colleague, Mr. Haverfield.* It 
may be mentioned, however, as exemplifying his enduring interest in 
our concerns that the inscription on the recently discovered Newcastle 
slab was submitted to him, and his reading of it was received by Mr. 
Haverfield only a few days before the death of the historian. 

In the past year the first part of the twenty-fifth volume of 
Archaeologia Aeliana was issued. It consists of 159 pages, 135 of 
which are devoted to papers by members. These include the im- 
portant treaties on ' Early Ordnance in Europe,' by our vice-president, 
Mr. R. Coltman Clephan, F.8.A., with illustrations. Mr. William 
Brown, F.8.A., contributes * Local Muniments ' in a series of eighteen 
documents relating to the two northern counties dating from the 
twelfth to the fifteenth centuries. They are accompanied by illustra- 
tions of seals, descriptions of which are given by Mr. W. H. St. John 
Hope. The third item is an unfinished paper on 'Dagger Money,' by 
the late W. H. D. Longstaffe, communicated by Mr. F. W. Dendy. 
The fourth consists of notes by Mr. Heslop, one of the secretaries, on 
' Structural Features of the great Tower of Newcastle.' The fifth 
contribution relates to the discovery by the Right Rev. Bishop Hornby, 
of eighteen ancient deeds relating to Gunnerton, dating from the 
thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries and now printed. 

The first volume of the new — the second — series of Archaeologia 
Aeliana is dated 1857 and with the completion of the twenty-fifth 
volume the resolution of the society to end the series will come into 
force, and the next ensuing volume will be the first of the third series. 

The original issue of our publications was of demy quarto size, 
measuring 11 by 9 inches, and continued thus in four successive 
* Page 186 of this volume. 



ANKtJAL BBPOBT OP 1903. XXXvii 

volnmes bearing the imprints of the years 1822, 1832, 1846 and 1855 
respectively. It may be remembered that copperplate and litho- 
graphy were then in vogue for illustrative purposes. At the annual 
meeting of 1856 a resolution was adopted to print future publications 
in demy octavo, and our second series, with its octavo page of eight 
and three-quarter by five and three-quarter inches, has thus continued 
unaltered for the past 46 years. 

In portability and appearance these last twenty-five volumes leave 
nothing to be desired ; and, so far as typography is concerned, the 
demy octavo form might well be continued. But the alteration made 
of late years in the method of illustration, by which the work of the 
wood engraver is superseded by the process block, had rendered it 
desirable to adopt a size of page that will admit a display of the 
modem method to the greatest advantage. It is accordingly pro- 
posed to alter the format of our volumes to a size measuring eight 
and three-quarter inches high by seven inches wide. No change will 
thus be made in the height of our volumes, so that they will continue 
to appear on the shelf in uniform range with the preceding series ; 
whilst an increased width of nearly an inch and a quarter will add 
considerably to the capacity of the page for purposes of illustration. 

A further change, of which due notice has been given, will be 
submitted for your consideration at the present annual meeting. In 
place of the issue half-yearly in covers, hitherto in practice, it is 
proposed to send out a complete volume of the Arc/uieologia Aeliana, 
bound in a suitable material, at midsummer in each year. 

As the alteration in form and in manner of publication are both 
in response to a widely-urged request your council tnists that the 
changes may enhance che appreciation with which our publications 
are regarded. 

Our Proceedings with the year 1903 began the first volume of the 
third series. One hundred and four pages of this publication have 
been issued in the year besides a large portion of the index to the 
tenth volume. Copious illustrations, many important articles, with 
numerous records hitherto inedited, enhance the interest attaching to 
these reports of our proceedings. The printing of the Elsdon registers 
brought down to 1813 has also been finished. 

In addition to the regular monthly meetings the society has held 



XXXviii ANNtJAIi RBPOM FOB 1908. 

out-door meetings in the summer, visiting severally the Roman camp 
at ciLURNUM, with the line of the Wall to Limestone Bank ; Mitford 
and Newminster ; and Ulgham, Widdrington and Chibbum. Detailed 
and illustrated reports of these are given in our Proceedings, 

Two most valuable contribations to local history made in the past 
year have been the work of members of our society. 

Our colleague Mr. George B. Hodgson, in The Borough oj South 
Shields from the Earliest Period to the Close of the N^ineteenth Century^ 
has placed the community under a debt of obligation. His work 
embraces an amount of historical and statistical information that will 
prove a perlect mine of facts and figures in itself. These illustrate in 
the most complete manner the rise and progress of an important 
municipality and its relation to the port of Tyne. From an archae- 
ological standpoint the Roman, Anglian and medieval histories are 
summarized with conspicuous grasp of the subjects, whilst the literary 
qualities displayed add to Mr. Hodgson's book an attraction of 
themselves. It is equally fortunate that another local history has 
been undertaken by one who combines the observation of a naturalist 
and the erudition of an antiquary with a rare power of graphic 
delineation. In these qualities Mr. D. D. Dixon has more than 
realized anticipation in the publication of his Upper Ooqmtdale, A 
companion volume to the author's Vale of Whiitingham it adds 
another interesting section to the history, traditions and folk-lore of 
the romantic uplands of Northumberland and an appreciation to the 
charm exercised by their scenery. When the new County History of 
Norihumherland in its progress overtakes these areas Mr. Dkon's 
pages will prove to be of the utmost value. Written in a full know- 
ledge of their abounding interests, the record partakes the freshness 
of the hills themselves. The qualities of Mr. Hodgson's and Mr. 
Dixon's volumes call for more than ordinary recognition and congratu- 
lation for their respective authors. 

An interesting feature has been added to the collection of banners 
in the great hall of the castle by the presentation of a framed 
drawing, executed and given by Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Blair. Each 
banner is blazoned on the drawing, its position on the wall being 
indicated, so that the plate furnishes a key to the heraldry and may be 
said to add a final item to the work. 



ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1903. XXXIX 

"^^niilst SO mnoh has been done in the past to elucidate the 
Btraetnre and character of the stationary camps on the line of the 
Wall and elsewhere it is in no small degree remarkable that discoveries 
in PONS ABLii itself have been so few and far between^ and that even 
the exact site of the station is still a matter of conjecture. It is, 
therefore, with more than ordinary interest that the discoveries made 
on the site of the Aelian bridge and in what appear to have been the 
precincts of the camp call for notice. An altar and an inscribed slab, 
recovered from the debris of the Koman structure in the river bed, 
famish, in the one, a dedication to Ocean by the sixth legion (in exact 
dnplicate of design to the Neptune altar from the same site, already 
in our musenm), and in the other a commemoration of Antoninus by 
Jnlius Yerus his imperial legate and propraetor. The association of 
Neptune and Ocean thus personified, presents, not only a combination 
of great rarity, but is pointed out as of significance in its relation to 
the conquest of Northern Britain. At the same time the accompany- 
ing slab may yet prove to have added greatly to our knowledge of 
the detail of Roman history. With these was found the base of a 
third altar, the altar itself being yet wanting. 

The discoveries of a well-shaped sacrophagus in Hanover Square, 
accompanied by a second and rough-hewn example near by, are not 
only important for the sake of the objects themselves but for the 
indication they furnish of an adjacent highway. They thus afford 
the first clue yet found to guide our investigations of the direction by 
which the stationary camp called pons ablii was reached from the 
northern abutment of the bridge itself. 

It is, finally, a matter of congratulation to record that all these 
objects have been placed in our museum in the permanent custody of 
<rf our society. 

trbasurbr's report, with balance sheet for the year 
ENDING 31st deoembbr, 1908. 

The number of members is now 827. 

During the year we have lost by death eleven members, twelve 
have resigned, and two have been struck off the roll, having left the 
district. Sixteen new members have joined during the twelve months, 
including one life member. The sum of twelve guineas, paid by the 
new life member — Lieut.-CoL Cuthbert — ^has been paid into the Post 



xl treasubbr's report and balance sheet for 1908. 

OflSce Savings Bank to the credit of the capital account, in accordance 
with the council's order of the year 1890 to that eflfect. 

The total revenue for the year has been £598 I2s. lid., and the 
expenditure £525 4s. 8d., leaving a credit balance of £73 8s. 3d. 
The capital account now stands at £100 Is. 6d., being £84 12s. Id. 
more than it did four years ago. 

The exceptionally heavy expenditure on the Castle is accounted for 
by the two new stoves that have been put in, one in the library and 
the other in the warden's room, costing £22 10s. Od. and £5 Is. 8d. 
respectively. 

The combined receipts at the Castle and Blackgate are practically 
the same as last year — £155 Os. 8d. 

The amount spent on the purchase of books has been £14 15s. lOd. 
less than last year. The illustrations have cost £11 19s. 9d. more, 
but the sum required for sundries is £14 7s. 6d. less than was ex- 
pended last year. 

Pull details of expenditure are herewith attached. 

R. S. NISBBT, treasurer, IN ACCOUNT WITH THE SOCIETY OF 
ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



Statement of receipts ais 


no EXPENDITl 


JBB 


FC 


►B THE Y 


EAi 


t ENDING 


31st 


Decembeb, 1903 










, 








Receipts. 


Expenditure. 










£ S. 


d. 


£ S. d. 


Balance Ist January, 1903 








71 6 


9 




Members* Subscriptions 


... 






350 14 







Books sold and bought 






... 


21 11 


6 


33 14 2 


Castle 






... 


126 8 


6 


103 16 7 


Blackgate 


... 




,. 


28 12 


2 


32 12 3 


Printing :— 














Arohaeologia Aeliana 


... ... 










111 17 


Procesdings 






., 






74 19 


Illustrations 






.. 






58 13 


Sundries 







... 






56 8 


Secretary, for clerical assistance 


,,, ,., 










40 


Museum ... ... ... ... 


... 










1 


Invested in P.O.S. Bank 


... £12 


12 











Balance in Bank 


67 


1 


7 








Do. in Treasurer's hands .. 


6 


6 


8 






86 3 












LI 




£698 12 ] 


£598 12 11 



tbbasubbr's balance sheet fob 1903. 



xli 



^nvcetmcntB. 

^ per cent. Consols as at 3rd December, 1903 

In Post Office Savings Bank on 31st December. 1902 

Interest for this year 

Deposited this year 



Examined with Vouchers and found correct, 

John M. Winteb Sc Sons, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Chartered Accountants. 

15th January, 1904. 





£ 8. 


d. 


*•. ... 


42 18 


6 




42 4 


6 


£2 6 7 






12 12 


14 18 


7 




£100 1 


a 



Details ot jEjpenMture. 



Cabtlb — 


£ s. 


d. 


Black Gate— 


£ 8. d. 


Wages of Warden 


66 





Wages of Attendai 


It ... 20 16 


Bonus to Warden on ac- 






Electric bell fixing 


J ... 2 1 10 


count of extra work ... 


1 5 





Rent 


10 


New Stove in Library ... 


22 10 





Property Tax .. 


2 6 11 


New Stove in Warden's 






Gas Account 


3 16 


Room 


5 1 


3 


Water do. 


10 


Cork Carpet in do. 


1 15 





Coals 


17 


Bent 


2 


6 


Carrying Coals .. 


9 


Property Tax 


2 17 


3 


Repairs 


3 9 


Insurance 

Gas Account 


7 
2 2 


6 

8 


Gas-fittings 


10 






Water do 


6 
17 



6 




£32 12 3 


Coals 




Repairs 


19 


2 


, 




Sundries : firewood, black 










lacquer, &c 


12 


9 








£103 16 


7 





Books bought, etc., 1903— 
Sabecriptions to Societies — 

Surtees Society 

Harleian Society 

National Trust Society 

Durham & Northumb^ Parish Register Society 
Tynemouth Parish Registers 

English Dialect Dictionary 

Oxford Dictionary 

Catalogue of Ancient Deeds , vol. 4 



£ s. 


d. 


£ 8. 


d. 


... 1 1 









... 1 1 









1 1 









iety ... 10 


6 






6 





3 18 
2 2 











.. 




10 


6 





I ... 


16 





Carried forwarc 


£7 6 









/ 





xlii 



treasurer's balance sheet for 1903. 



Books Bought, btc, Continued:— 

Brought forward 

Reliquary and lUugtrated Archaeologist 

Asher & Co. for Transactions of Imperial German Archaeo- 
logical Institute 

Iiod^on*8 Borough of South Shields 

Galloway's The Crossbow and Laking's Artnour 

Rev. E. A. Downman for plans of earthworks (original drawings) 

Old Plan of Newcastle ... ^ 

Chesters Museum Catalogue 

Christison's Fortifications 

Roe*s Coffers and Bateman*s Antiquities 

Early Christian Monuments in Scotland 

The Ancestor, 2 vols. 

State Papers : Ireland 

Year Book of Learned Societies 

Otto Fetters, Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes 

J. C. Wilson for bookbinding 

Antiquary &nd Notes and Queries 



Sundries, 1903— 

R. Simpson & Sons, for general printing 

Geo. Nicholson do. do. 

A. Dickson do. do. 

A. Reid & Co., Ltd. do. do. 

J. Burnett & Son, for packing and forwarding ancient 

stones found at Carham .. 

Postage of Archaeologia, etc. ... 

Rubber stamp and ink 

Chequebook 

Carriage on books, etc 

Carriage on box of stone implements from Madras 

Mr. Hughes, framing Plan of Newcastle ... 

J. A. Dotchin and Co., Sundries 

Preparing indexes : Ehdon Parish Registers and vol. x. of 

Proceedings 

Secretary's out of pocket expenses 

Treasurer's do. do. 

Fire insurance premium on the * Brooks Collection ' 
Fire insurance premium for * Black Gate * , 



£ 8. 


d. 


. 7 6 





10 





2 18 


3 


1 1 





3 13 


6 


2 16 


9 


1 1 





5 





9 


4 


3 6 


6 


3 3 





6 


7 


15 





7 


6 


11 


11 


3 19 





1 3 


10 


£33 U 


2 


£ 8. 


d. 


8 18 





2 9 





4 19 


3 


1 13 


2 


18 


7 


5 7 





6 





5 





1 


6 


15 


8 


4 





15 


5 


6 6 





15 6 


2 


2 7 


6 


I 16 


6 


2 15 





£56 


8 



xliii 

curators' report. 
The following donations to the Society*s museum have been 

received during the past year. 
1903. 

Feb. 26. From The North Eastern Railway Co. (per Mr. Geo. Irving) :— 
A carved stone fireplace jamb, from a house demolished near the 
Black Gate (^Proceeding s^ 3 series vol. i. p. 26). 
From Sir H. W. Sbton-Keee, K.C.M.G., M.P. :— Twelve palaeolithic 
implements discovered by the donor at Pooudi, near Madras Qlbid.), 
From Mrs. N. G. Clayton, The Chesters : — Fifty-six iron arrow heads 
recently found with a large number of similar missiles in a chamber 
at Housesteads (bobcovicus), Qlhid,), 

Mar. 25. From Mr, C. H. Blaie, Gosforth :— The royal arms of Great Britain 
and Ireland, of late eighteenth century work, carved in wood. This 
donation has been fixed on the north wall of the Great Hall in the 
Keep (^Proceedings^ 3 series vol. i. pp. 29-30). 

April 29. From Messes. A. Reid k Co., Ltd. :— A miner's lamp from Greece of 
iron and of recent date (^Proceedings^ 3 series vol. I. p. 36). 

May 28. From The Riveb Tyne Commissioners (per Mr. James Walker, 
river engineer) : — A Roman altar dedicated to Ocean by the sixth 
Legion, found in the river Tyne on the site of the Aelian bridge at 
Newcastle (^Proceedings^ 3 series vol. i. p. 60). 

July 29. From Mr. J. R. Cbone (per Mr. A. L. Steavenson) :— The blade of a 
miner's shovel of an early form, and a pick, both conjecturally of the 
seventeenth or early eighteenth century. The shovel blade is of 
wood faced with iron on its edge and pierced with a square hole cut 
obliquely for a shank, with a round hole behind for a strut to 
the shank. 

Aug. 26. From Mr. J. S. RoBSON, Saville Row, Newcastle: — Eleven copper 
coins and tokens, eighteenth century (^Proceedings. 3 series 
vol. I. p. 71). 

Sept. 30. From The Riveb Tyne Commissioners (per Mr. James Walker, 
river engineer) : — A Roman inscription on a thin slab of fine grained 
(probably Heworth) sandstone, to Antoninus Pius, found on the site 
of the Aelian bridge in the bed of the river Tyne at Newcastle, near 
the altar described above (Proceedings^ 3 series, vol. i. p. 72). 

Oct. 28. From The Cobpobation op Newcastle (per Mr. J. F. Edge, city 
engineer) :— Two cistern heads, decorated, one dated 1777 ; from 
leaden downspouts on an old hoiise just demolished between Spicer 
Lane and the Burn Bank on Newcastle Quay. Also a smoke-jack 
from the kitchen of the same building (Proceedings, 3 series 
vol I. p. 94). 
From Mbssbs. R. Robinson & Co. Ltd. (per Mr. F. W. Rich) :— Two 
sarcophagi of Roman date, with vessel of Caistor ware found in 
the larger one, and dug up from the clay in Hanover Square, near 
the head of the Tuthill Stairs, in course of making foundations for a 
new building (Proceeding s, 3 series vol. i. p. 95, and Arch, Ael., 
vol. XXV. p. 147). 



xllv 

THE COUNCIL AND OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR MDCCCCIIIL 



patron and president 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, E.G., F.S.A. 

IDice-opresidents* 

HORATIO ALFRED APAMSON. 

ROBERT RICHARDSON DBES. 

JOHN VESSEL GREGORY. 

THE REV. WILLIAM GREENWBLL, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Ac. 

THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L., F.S.A., &C. 

CHARLES JAMES SPENCB. 

RICHARD WELFORD, M.A. 

THOMAS TAYLOR, F.S.A. 

LAWRENCE WILLIAM ADAMSON, LL.D. 

FREDERICK WALTER DENDY. 

ROBERT COLTMAN CLBPHAN, F.S.A. 

JOHN CRAWFORD HODGSON, F.S.A. 

Secretaries* 

ROBERT BLAIR, F.S.A. 

RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP, M.A., F.S.A. 

treasurer. 

ROBERT SINCLAIR NISBET. 

fi6itor. 

ROBERT BLAIR. 

Xibrarian. 

CHARLES HENRY BLAIR. 

Curators. 

CHARLES JAMES SPENCE. 
RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP. 

auditors. 

JOHN MARTIN WINTER. 
HERBERT MAXWELL WOOD. 

Council. 

REV. CUTHBERT EDWARD ADAMSON, M.A. 

REV. JOHNSON BAILY, M.A. 

PARKER BREWIS. 

SIDNEY STORY CARR. 

DAVID DIPPIB DIXON. 

JOHN PATTISON GIBSON. 

GEORGE IRVING. 

WILLIAM HENRY KNOWLES, F.S.A. 

JOSEPH OSWALD. 

REV. HENRY EDWIN SAVAGE, M.A. 

WILLIAM WEAVER TOMLINSON. 

REV. JOHN WALKER, M.A. 



x\v 



MEMBERS OF THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWOASTLE-UPON-TYNE 
ON THE 1st JUNE, 1904. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Date of Election. 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1892 Jan. 27 

1896 Oct. 28 



Dr. Hans Uildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 

Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 

Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 

Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 

Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 

Sir John Eyans, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.S.A., Nash Mills, Hemel 

Hempstead. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confr^rie 5, Ghent, Belgium. 



xM THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUAEIBS OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

The signs * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, and 

t that the member is one of the Council. 
Date of Election. 

1885 Mar. 25 

1883 Aug. 29 
1873 July 

1892 Aug. 31 
1885 Oct. 28 

1885 June 24 

1886 Jan. 27 

1898 Mar. 30 

1893 Sept. 27 
1889 Mar. 27 
1904 Feb. 24 

1899 Oct. 25 

1884 Jan. 30 
1892 Mar. 30 
1897 Nov. 24 
1904 June 1 

1903 Oct ?S 

1904 Feb. 24 



1896 July 29 

1893 Feb. 22 

1894 July 25 
1892 April 27 

1903 Aug. 26 

1904 Feb. 24 
1900 May 30 
1874 Jan. 7 
1892 Mar. 30 

1896 Dec. 23 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 June 29 

1897 July 28 
1883 Dec. 27 

1898 July 27 
1883 Dec. 27 
1888 June 27 
1892 May 25 



Adams, William Edwin, 1 Harley Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
fAdamson, Rev. Cuthbert Edward, Westoe, South Shields. 
fAdamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
fAdamson, Lawrence William, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle. 

Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road, Gateshead. 

Allgood, Miss Anne Jane, Hermitage, Hexham. 

Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 

Allison, Thomas M., M.D., 22 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 

Armstrong, The Right Hon. Lord, Cragside, Rothbury. 

Armstrong, John Hobart, Brcomley Grange, Stocksfield. 

Armstrong, Miss Mary, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, William Irving, South Park, Hexham. 

Arnison, William Drewitt, M.D., 2 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Atkinson, Wemyss H., 1 Windsor Place, Newcastle. 

Aynsley, R. J., Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Bailes, Thomas, 2 Fenwick Terrace, Newcastle. 
fBaily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton. 

Baumgartner, John Richard, 10 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Bell, W. Reward, F.S.A., Seend, Melksham, Wiltshire. 

Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon, near Sunderland. 

Bigge, Matthew, 1 St. George's Square, Stamford. 

Bird, Henry Soden, 2 Linden Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle, 
f Blair, Charles Henry, 32 Hawthorn Road, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

Blenkinsopp, Thomas, 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 

Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Butler Hospital for the Insane, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Boot, Rev. Alfred, St. George's Vicarage, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Bosanquet, Robert Carr, The British School at Athens. 

Boutflower, Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 

Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, John Bos worth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 



LIST OF jfEMBBRS. (Ist June, 1904.) 



xlvii 



Dikte of Election. | 


1899 Aug. 


30 


1894 Feb. 


28 


1898 Mar. 


30 


1892 Aug. 


31 


1904 Jan. 


27 


1897 Nov. 


24 


1892 Feb. 


24 


1891 Dec. 


23 


1884 Sept. 


24 


1891 Sept. 


30 


1889 April 


24 


1888 Nov. 


28 


1884 Dec. 


30 


1897 Jan. 


27 


1887 Nov. 


30 


1885 April 


29 


1892 July 


27 


1882 




18% Oct. 


28 


1884 Feb. 


27 


1901 Feb. 


27 


1894 Jan. 


31 


1887 Oct. 


26 


1892 Feb. 


24 


1904 Jan. 


27 


1885 May 


27 


1903 April 


29 


1898 Aug. 


27 


1883 Dec. 


27 


1893 July 


26 


1892 Aug. 


31 


1886 Sept 


.29 


1893 July 


26 


1903 Sept 


.30 


1898 Feb. 


23 


1892 Oct. 


26 


1898 Nov. 


30 


1896 Feb. 


26 


1897 Dec. 


16 


1889 Aug. 


28 


1903 May 


28 



Bowes, Richard, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 
Boyd, William, North House, Long Benton. 
Bramble, William, Moorsley House, Benwell, Newcastle. 
fBrewis, Parker, 32 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Brock-Hollinshead, Miss E., 27 Nelson Street, Edinburgh. 
Brooks, Miss Ellen, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
Brown, George T., 51 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 
Brown, The Rev. William, Old Elvet, Durham. 
Bruce, The Hon. Mr. Justice, Yewhurst, Bromley, Kent. 
Burman, 0. Clark, L.R.C.P.S. Ed., 12 Bondgate Without, Alnwick. 
Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Coxhoe, Durham. 
Burton, William Spelman, 2 Elmfield VTillas, Elmfield Road, Gosf orth. 
Burton, S. B., Jesmond House, Highworth, Wilts. 
Butler, George Grey, Ewart Park, Wooler. 
Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 
tCarr, Sidney Story, 14 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Carr, Rev. T. W., Long Rede, Barming, Maidstone, Kent. 
Carr-Ellison, H. G., 15 Portland Terrace, Newcastle. 
Carr-EUison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 
Carrick, Frederick, 4 Park Terrace, Newcastle. • 

Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 
Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Charlton, Oswin J., LL.B., 1 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
Charlton, George V. B., Grafton Underwood, Kettering. 

Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 

Clarke, Henry, 27 Dockwray Square, North Shields. 

Clayton, Mrs. N. G., Chesters, Humshaugh. 
fClephan, Robert Coltman, F.S.A., Marine House, Tynemouth. 

Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 

Corder, Herbert, 1 Carlton Terrace, Sunderland. 

Corder, Percy, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Corder, Walter Shewell, 4 Rosella Place, North Shields. 

Craster, H. H. E., Beadnell Hall, Northumberland. 

Crawhall, Rev. T. E., Vicarage, North Shields. 

Cresswell, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W. 

Cresswell, Lionel, Woodhall, Calverley, Yorks. 

Cruddas, W. D., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 

Culley, Francis John, 5 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Culley, The Rev. Matthew, St. Mary's, Whittingham, Northumber- 
land. 
*Cuthbert, Lieut. Colonel Gerald G., Scots Guards, 89 Baton Terrace, 
London, S.W. 



Xlviii THE SOCIBrY OP ANTIQUARIES OP NBWOASTLE-UPON-TYNB. 



Date of Eleotion. 
1888 Mar. 28 

1903 Feb. 25 

1844 aboat 
1887 Aug. 31 
1884 Mar. 26 

1883 June 27 

1884 July 2 
1898 Aug 27 
1884 July 30 

1900 Jan. 31 
1897 May 26 

1891 Aug. 31 

1904 Jan. 27 

1902 Aug. 27 
1883 Oct. 31 

1901 Feb. 27 
1865 Aug. 2 

1900 Oct. 31 
1894 Nov. 28 
1894 May 30 
1887 Dec. 28 
1894 Oct. 31 

1894 Oct. 31 

1895 Jan. 30 

1892 April 27 
1859 Dec. 7 
1883 Oct. 31 
1879 

1903 Jan. 28 

1901 July 31 

1904 Jan. 27 
1886 June 30 
1886 Oct. 27 
1895 Sept. 25 

1894 Aug. 29 
1886 Aug. 28 
1891 Oct. 28 

1845 June 3 

1883 Feb. 28 
1903 Oct. 26 



Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 

Davies, Wm. Goode, Enfield Lodge, Elswick Road, Newcastle. 
fDees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
fDendy, Frederick Walter, Eldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead. 
fDixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 

Dodds, Edwin, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Dowson, John, Morpeth. 

Drummond, Dr., Wy vestow House, South Shields. 

Durham Cathedral Library. 

Edlestou, Robert Holmes, F.S.A., Gainford, Darlington. 

Ellis, The Hon. and Rev. William, Bothalhaugh, Morpeth. 

Emley, Fred., Red House, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Fen wick, Featherston, County Chambers, Westgate Road, Newcastle. 

Fen wick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 

Fenwick, Miss Mary, Lingy Acre, Portinscale, Cumberland. 

Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Forster, Fred. E., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

Forster, Robert Henry, Artillery Mansions, 75 Victoria Street, 
London, S.W. 

Forster, Thomas Emmerson, 3 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle. 

Francis, William, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 
fGibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 

Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Gibson, William James, Bedlington, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Gjemre, E. W., Ferndene, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Glendenning, George H., 114 St. George's Ten-ace, Newcastle. 

Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 

Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Gough, Rev. Edward John, D.D., Vicar and (Janon of 
Newcastle. 

Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Greene, Charles R., North Seaton Hall, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. 
tGreenwell, Rev. William, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A. Scot. 
Durham. 

Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester. 

Gregory, Arthur, 2 Brandling Park, Newcastle. 



Lisr OF MEMBERS. (Ist June, 1904.) 



xlix 



D»(eofEleoitoii. 
877 Dec. 6 
891 Jan. 28 
893 Mar. 8 

883 Aug. 29 

884 Mar. 

893 Aug. 30 
898 July 29 
889 Feb. 27 

901 Mar. 27 

894 May 30 
886 April 28 
.901 Nov. 27 

902 Jan. 
883 Feb. 



21) 
28 



904 Feb. 2-1 



903 Mar. 25 

888 April 26 

882 

865 Aug. 2 



895 Jan. 30 

899 June 28 

890 Jan. 29 
884 April 30 
901 Not. 27 
898 Aug. 27 

887 Jan. 26 

900 July 25 

895 July 31 

891 Oct. 28 

901 Oct. 30 

892 June 29 
876 

903 Sep. 80 

888 July 25 
897 Dec. 15 
886 May 26 
900 Jan. 31 
883 Aug. 29 
883 Feb. 28 



fGr^ory, John Veasey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
Haggie, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Hall, Edmund James, Dilston Castle, Corbridge. 
Hall, James, Tynemouth. 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 

Haswell, F. R. N., Monkseaton, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
♦Haverfield, F. J., F.S.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 
Heatley, William Robertson, 4 Linden Villas, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Hedley, Edward Armorer, Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 
Hedley, Robert Cecil, Corbridge. 
Henderson, William Frederick, Moorfield, Newcastle. 
Henzell, Charles William, Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
fHeslop, Richard Oliver, M.A., F.S.A., 12 Princes Buildings, Aken- 
side Hill, Newcastle. 
Higginbottom, Albert H., Simmondley, Adderstone Crescent, Jes- 

mond, Newcastle. 
Hill, M. C, Southend, Newcastle. 
Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 
Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 

tHodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., F.S.A., Barmoor Castle, Beal, North- 
umberland. 
Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bank, Newcastle. 
Hodgson, George Bryan. Harton, near South Shields. 
fHodgson, John Crawford, F.S.A., Abbey Cottage, Alnwick. 
Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 
Hodgson, M. N., 11 Myrtle Crescent, South Shields. 
Hodgson, T. Hesketh, F.S.A., New by Grange, Carlisle. 
Hodgson, William, Westholme, Darlington. 
Hodgson, William George le Fleming Lowther, Dee View, Trevor, 

Llangollen, N. Wales. 
Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 

Holmes, Ralph Sheriton, 3 Devonshire Terrace, Newcastle. 
Hopkins, C. W. Junes, the Tower, Ryton. 
Hopper, Charles, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 
Hoyle, William Aubone, The Croft, Ovingham. 
Humble, George, Elswick Grange, Newcastle. 
Hunter, Edward, Wentworth, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Hutchinson, Edward, The Elms, Darlington, 
tirving, George, West Fell, Corbridge. 
Jobling, James, Morpeth. 

Johnson, Rev. John, Hiitton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 
Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 



1 THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUARIES OP NBWCASTLB-tlPON-TTNB. 



Date of Election. 

1900 Jan. 31 

1884 Oct. 29 

1901 Feb. 27 
1899 Feb. 22 

1896 Dec. 23 

1897 July 8 
1904 June 1 

1894 Sept. 26 
1899 Nov. 29 

1902 May 28 

1903 Mar. 25 

1897 Jan. 27 

1885 April 29 

1887 June 29 
1899 July 26 

1896 Nov. 25 

1901 Aug. 28 
1885 Nov. 6 

1888 June 27 

1902 Oct. 27 
1877 

1904 April 27 

1904 Jan. 27 

1902 Mar. 26 
1884 Mar. 26 
1891 May 27 

1899 Aug. 30 

1895 Sept. 25 
1884 Mar. 26 
1882 

1900 Jan. 31 
1891 Mar. 25 
1899 June 28 
1888 Sept. 26 
1891 Jan. 28 

1898 Mar. 30 

1903 July 29 
1891 Aug. 26 

1904 April 27 
1883 Mar. 28 



Kitchin, The Very Rev. G. W., Dean of Durham. 
fKnowles, William Henry, F.S.A., 37 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Kyle, Robert, 11 Prudhoe Street, Alnwick. 

Lamb, Miss Elizabeth, Newton Cottage, Ohathill. 

I^ambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

Laws, Dr. Cuthbert Umfreville, 1 St. George's Terrace, Newcastle. 

Leather, Major G. Towlerton, Middleton Hall, Belford. 

Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Leeson, Richard John, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Lemon, Allan Bruce, 48 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Liberty, Rev. Stephen, M.A., 12 Larkspur Terrace, Newcastle. 

Lightfoot, Miss, 5 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Liverpool Free Library (P. Co well. Librarian). 

Lockhart, Henry P., Hexham. 

London Library, c/o Williams & Norgate, Henrietta Street, Coven t 
Garden, London. 

Longstaff, Dr. Geo. Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S. W. 

Lowe, Rev. Joseph, Hon. Can. of Newc. and Vicar of Haltwhistle. 

Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 

Macarthy, George Eugene, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

McDonald, J. C, 21 Nixon Street, Newcastle. 

McDowell, Dr. T. W., Bast Cottingwood, Morpeth. 

Macfadyen, Frank Edward, 24 Grosvenor Place, Jesmond, New- 
castle. 

McMillan, James, 2 Bishopton Street, Sunderland. 

McPherson, John C, Benwell Grange, Newcastle. 

Mackey, Matthew, 36 Highbury, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Manchester Reference Library (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 

Markham, R. M., 9 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 

Marshall, Frank, Claremont House, Newcastle. 

Martin, N. H., P.R.S.E., Ravenswood, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Matheson, Thomas, Morpeth. 

Maudlen, William, Dacre House, North Shields. 

May, George, Simonside Hall, near South Shields. 

Mayo, William Swatling, Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

Melbourne Free Library, c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 
12 Ludgate Square, London, E.C. 

Milbum, J. D., Guyzance, Acklington. 

Middleton, Lambert W., Oakwood, Hexham. 

Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Mitchell, Mrs. Charles William, Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 

Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 



LIST OF MEMBBRS. (Ist June, 1904.) 



Date of Election. 


1883 


May 


30 


1883 Oct. 


13 


1886 


Dec. 


29 


1896 


Oct. 


27 


1883 June 28 


1900 May 


30 


1884 


July 


2 


1902 


Sept. 


24 


1898 


May 


25 


1903 


Aug. 


26 


1896 


May 27 


1885 


May 


27 


1893 Feb. 


22 


1892 Nov. 


30 


1901 


Feb. 


27 


1897 Oct. 


27 


1898 June 28 


1898 June 28 


1901 June 


6 


1901 Oct. 


30 


1889 


Aug. 


28 


1894 


Dec. 


19 


1901 


Jan. 


30 


1889 


Aug. 


28 


1896 


Oct. 


28 


1884 


Dec. 


30 


1898 Jan. 


26 


1891 


Feb. 


18 


1884 


Sept. 


24 


1880 






1888 Jan. 


25 


1898 Feb. 


23 


1901 Jan. 


30 


1880 






1896 Mar. 


25 


1882 






1900 


April 25 


1887 Aug. 


31 


1883 June 27 



Morrow, T. R., The Caye, Fulford, York. 

Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 

Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Neilson, Edward, Avondale, Corbridge. 

Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 

Newbigin, Edward Richmond, 2 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Newcastle Public Library. 

Newton, Robert, Brookfield, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

New York Library, c/o Mr. B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar Square. 
London, W.C. 

Nisbet, James Thomson, Criffel, Ryton. 
fNisbet, Robert Sinclair, 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northbourne, The Right Hon. Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 
tNorthumberland, His Grace The Duke of, K.G., F.S.A., Alnwick 
Castle, Northumberland. 

Ogilvie, Frank Stanley, Rosella House, North Shields. 

Ogle, Capt. Sir Henry A., bart., R.N., United Service Club, Pall 

Mall, London. 
*Ogle, Bertram Savile, Hill House, Steeple Aston, Oxon. 

Ogle, Newton, 59 Green Street, Grosvenor Square, London. 

Oliver, Arthur M., West Jesmond Villa, Newcastle. 

Oliver, Robert Charles, Bowmen Bank, Morpeth. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
fOswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Page, Frederick, _M.D., 1 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Park, A. D., 11 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John S., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 

Peacock, Reginald, 47 West Sunniside, Sunderland. 

Pease, Howard, B.A., F.S.A., Bank, Newcastle. 

Phillips, Maberly, F.S.A., Pevensey, Bycullah Park, Enfield 
Middlesex. 

Philipson, Sir (Jeorge Hare, M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., Prior's Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Porteus, Thomas, 41 Park Square, Leeds. 

Pritchett, James Pigott, High Row, Darlington 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Rev. George, Grange Rectory, Jarrow 

Pybus, Robert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Radford, H. G., Stonehill, East Sheen. 

Reavell, George, jun., Alnwick. 

Redpath, Robert, 5 Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 



til THE dOCiBTY 6f ANflQtJAKIEd OB NBWCASTtil-tJPOiJ-TYl^fi. 



Date of Election. 

1888 M^y 30 
1894 Feb. 28 
1904 April 27 
1883 Sept. 26 
1891 April 29 
1894 May 30 

1886 Nov. 24 
1891 Jan. 31 

1891 July 29 
1896 July 81 
1898 Jan. 26 

1892 Mar. 30 

1889 July 31 
1877 

1901 June 5 

1883 Jan. 31 
1900 Aug. 29 

1884 July 30 

1900 Mar. 28 

1894 Mar. 25 
1877 

1901 Jan. 30 

1893 April 26 

1892 Sept. 28 

1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 
1904 June 1 

1888 July 25 

1893 Nov. 29 

1901 Oct. 30 
1891 Sept. 30 
1886 Feb. 24 

1888 Oct. 31 

1895 May 29 

1889 May 29 

1901 Aug. 28 
1904 Jan. 27 
1898 Mar. 30 
1891 Nov. 18 



Reed, The Rev. George, Killingworth, Newcastle. 

Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 

Reid, George Davison, 64 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 

Reynolds, C. H., Frederiksgate 72, Copenhagen. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Elwick Hall, Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Miss Alice M., Hollinwood, Torquay. 

Richardson, Frank, Clifton Cottage, Clifton Road, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thornholme, Sunderland. 

Kichardson, William, Field Head, Willi ngton, Northumberland. 

Riddell, Edward Francis, Melton Road, Oakham, Rutland. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 

Ridley, The Right Hon. Viscount, Blagdon, Northumberland. 

Ridley, Thomas W^., Willimoteswick, Coatham, Redcar. 

Robinson, Alfred J., 55 Fern Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robinson, Rev. F. G. J., Rector of Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Robinson, John, Delaval House, 3 Broxboume Terrace, Sunderland. 

Robinson, John David, Beaconsfield, Coatsworth Road, Gateshead. 

Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., 17 Pulteney Street, Bath. 

Rudd, Alfred George, Low Middleton Hall, Middle ton- one-Row. 

Runciman, Walter, jun., M.A., West Denton Hall, Scotswood, 

Northumberland. 
Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Ayre's Terrace, South Preston, North 

Shields. 
Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 
Ryott, William Hall, 7 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Sainby, F., Alboum Terrace, West Hartlepool. 
Sanderson, Richard Burden, Warren House, Belford. 
fSavage, Rev. H. B., Hon. Canon of Durham and Vicar of St. Hild's, 
South Shields. 
Schofield, Frederick Blsdon, The Retreat, Morpeth. 
Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Simpson, J. B., Bradley Hall, Wylam. 
Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields. 
Sisson, Richard William, Nunthorpe, Jesmond Park East, 

Newcastle. 
Sisterson, Edward, Woodley field, Hexham. 
Skelly, Frederick George, Alnwick. 
Smith, George, Brinkburn, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Smith, William, Gunnerton, Barrasford. 



LIST OF ItnitBlRS. (iBt Jane 1904.) 



liii 



Data of Etociion. { 


1893 Mar. 


29 


1883 June 27 


1901 Jan. 


30 


1866 Jan. 


3 


1883 Dec. 


27 


1882 




1891 Jan. 


28 


1882 




1887 Mar. 


30 


1880 




1897 Jan. 


27 


1879 




1866 Dec. 


5 


1900 Aug. 


29 


1895 Feb. 


27 


1892 April 


27 


1888 Aug. 


29 


1899 Jane 28 


1898 Dec. 


21 


1892 June 29 


1902 Feb. 


26 


1888 Oct. 


31 


1888 Nov. 


28 


1894 Mar. 


28 


1897 Apri 


128 


1900 Oct. 


31 


1900 May 


25 


1904 April 


27 


1903 Feb. 


25 


1889 Oct. 


30 


1901 Jan. 


30 


1891 Mar. 


25 


1896 Not. 


25 


1896 Oct. 


28 


1892 Oct. 


26 


1887 Jan. 


26 


1895 May 


29 


1879 Mar. 


26 



Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street South Shields. 

South Shields Public Library. 

Southwell, Rev. Canon, Bishop's Hostel, Grainger Park Road, 

Newcastle. 
Spain, George R. B., Victoria Square, Newcastle. 
*f Spence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 
Spencer, J. W., Newbiggin House, Kenton, Newcastle 
Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 
Steel, The Rev. James, D.D., Vicarage, Heworth. 
Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 
Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 
Strangeways, William Nicholas, Lismore, 17 Queen's Avenue, 

Muswell Hill, London, N. 
Sunderland Public Library. 
Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Swinburne, Sir John, bart., Capheaton, Northumberland. 
Tate, William Thomas, Hill House, Greatham. 
Taylor,* Rev. B. J., F.S.A., West Pelton Vicarage, Beamish R.S.O., 

Co. Darham. 
fTaylor, Thomas, F.S.A., Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 
Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 
Thompson, Mrs. George, The Cottage, Whickham, R.S.O. 
Thompson, John, Cradock House, Cradock Street, Bishop Auckland. 
Thomson, James, jun., 22 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 
Thorburn, H. W., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auckland. 
Todd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

tTomlinson, William Weaver, Lille Villa, The Avenue, Monkseaton. 
Toovey, Alfred F., 28 Burdon Terrace, Newcastle. 
Toronto Public Library, c/o C. B. Cazenove & Sons, Agents, 

26 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
* Trinity College Library, Dublin. 
Tumbull William, Whin Bank, Rothbury. 
Turner, G. Grey, F.B.C.S., 31 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 
Tynemouth Pablic Library, North Shields. 
Vick, R. W., Highnam, West Hartlepool. 
Waddilove, George, Brunton, Wall, North Tyne. 
fWalker, The Rev. John. Whalton Rectory, Newcastle. 
Walker, John Duguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Sq., London. 
Watson, Mrs. M. E., Burnopfield. 
Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
fWelford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
1 Eleoted orisinaUy Jan. 31, 1876, redgned 1887. 



liv THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUABIBS OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



Date of Election. 
1902 Oct. 27 
1898 Oct. 26 

1902 Jan. 29 
188G June 30 
1893 Aug. 30 

1896 May 27 

1903 Aug. 26 

1891 Aug. 26 

1897 Sept. 29 

1885 May 27 

1898 May 25 
1891 Sept. 30 

1896 Feb. 26 

1898 Nov. 30 

1899 Nov. 29 
1898 April 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1886 Nov. 24 
1894 Oct. 31 



White, Conrad, Kensington Terrace, Newcastle. 
White, R. S., Shirley, Adderston Crescent, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Whiting, Rev, E. C, St. James's Rectory, Gateshead. 
Wilkinson. Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 
Wilkinson, William. C, Dacre Street, Morpeth. 
Williams, Charles, Glencarn, Monkseaton. 

Williams, Miss Ethel Mary Neucella, M.D., 19 Ellison Place, New- 
castle. 
Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 
Willyaras, H. J., Barndale Cottage, Alnwick. 
Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 
Windley, Rev. H. C, St. Chad's, Bensham, Gateshead. 
Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Wood, Herbert Maxwell, 66 John Street, Sunderland. 
Wood, C. W., Beach Road, South Shields. 
Wood, William Henry, 38 Eldon Street, Newcastle. 
Wooler, Edward, Danesmoor, Darlington. 
Worsdell, Wilson, Gateshead. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., 7 St. Mary's Place, Newcastle. 
Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., Tortola, Nairn, N.B. 



SOCIETIES WITH WHICH PUBLICATIONS ARE EXCHANGED. 

Antiquaries of London. Society of, Burlington House, London. 

Antiquaries of Scotland, Society of, Museum, Edinburgh. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 Hanover 

Square, London, W. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 7 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. 
Royal Society of Ireland, Dublin. 
Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen. 
Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Royal Society of Norway, Christiania, Norway. 
Aberdeen Ecclesiological Society, 42 Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, Museum, Berwick. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, c/o Secretary, The Rev. W. 

Bazeley, Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 
British Archaeological Association, (Secretaries, George Patrick and Rev. H. J. 

Dukinfield Astley), 1 Gresham Buildings, Basinghall Street, London, E.C. 
Cambrian Antiquarian Society, c/o J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., 28 Great 

Ormond Street, London, W.C. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, c/o Secretary, T. D. Atkinson, St. Mary's 

Passage, Cambridge. 



SOCIETIES WITH WHICH PUBLICATIONS ARE EXCHANGED. Iv 

Canadian Institute of Toronto. 

Clifton Antiquarian Club, c/o Alfred E. Hudd, 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, 
Bristol. 

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 
Tullie House, Carlisle. 

Derbyshire Archaeological Society, Market Place, Derby. 

Heidelberg Historical and Philosophical Society, Heidelberg, Germany. 

Huguenot Society, c/o Reg. S. Faber, Secretary, 90 Regent's Park Road, 
London, N.W. 

Kent Archaeological Society, Maidstone, Kent. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, c/o G. F. Shaw, The Athenaeum, 
Church Street, Liverpool. 

Literary and Scientific Society, Christiania, Norway. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, London Institution, Fins- 
bury Circus, London. 

Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, (Verein fur 
nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte), Wiesbaden, Germany. 

Numismatic Society of London, (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head), 
22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A. 

Powys-land Club, c/o Secretary, T. Simpson Jones, M.A., Gungrog, Welsh- 
pool. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Shrewsbury. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. 

Soci^t^ d'Arch^logie de Bruxelles, rue Ravenstein 11, Bruxelles. 

Soci^t^ d'Arch^logie de Namur, Namur, Belgium. ' 

Soci6t6 d'Emulation d' Abbeville, France. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, Taunton, 
Somersetshire. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Millhill, Woodbridge. 

Surrey Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guildford. 

Sussex Archaeological Society, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 

Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, Jena, Germany. 

Trier Archaeological Society, Trier, Germany. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 10 Park Street, Leeds. 



The Proceedings of the Society are sent to the following : — 
Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London, W.C. 
Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 
Robert Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 
The Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Witton-le-Wear, R.S.O., co. Durham. 
T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 



Ivi THE SOOIBTT OF ANTIQUARIES OP NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



At the Annual Meeting of the Society, on the 27th day of 
January, 1904, Statute X. was amended to read as follows: — 

*X. — The Council shall be entrusted with the duty and 
charge of selecting and illustrating papers for the publications 
of the Society (other than the Proceedings) ; and that no 
paper be printed at the Society's expense before it be read in 
whole or in part at a meeting ; and that no paper which has 
been printed elsewhere be read at any meeting unless it be 
first submitted to the Council at a meeting of the Council, or 
printed in the Society's transactions except at the request of 
the Council. A complete illustrated volume of Archaeologia^ 
bound in cloth or buckram, shall be issued to members in 
June of each year, such volume to be in addition to the 
monthly issue of the Proceedings, and the annual report, list 
of members, etc.* 



ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. 



I.— EARLY ORDNANCE IN EUROPE. 

By R. Coltman Clephan, F.8.A., F.S.A.Scot., V.P. 

[Read on the 27th August, 1902.] 

Thbsb notes have been written with a view of subjecting the early 
records concerning ordnance to some examination, as well as to collate 
them, and to trace the development of the new artillery through the 
more mdimentary stages of its career. Trustworthy evidence con- 
cerning it is rare until the second half of the fourteenth century is 
reached. It is not proposed to carry these remarks beyond the end 
of the sixteenth century, except in a few cases for the purpose of 
comparison. 

The introduction of cannon^ may be said to have inaugurated a 
new era in the relative forces at command for attack and defence, and 
it ultimately caused the entire scheme of fortification in the countries 
of chivalry to be recast, besides bringing about great changes in tactics 
in the field. It may, however, be remarked that, during the incipient 
stages, ordnance by no means took the first place among the military 
engines of medieval times, and, indeed, the efl^ect produced was one 
more calculated to alarm than to cause any very serious damage ; 
but cannon were invested with superstitious terrors, which often 
resulted in the surrender of strong places to an iuferior force. 

There is great uncertainty as to the date of the earliest application 
of an explosive powder as the motive force for the discharge of 
missiles from a hollow tube, which would, however, appear to have 
taken place about 1320 a.d., or perhaps some years earlier, 
near which time it is often stated that Bartholdus Schwarz, an 
Augustinian monk, an alchemist, of Freiburg in Breisgau, made a 
fortuitous discovery of a detonating mixture, but this legend, of which 
there are several versions, may be dismissed as absolutely untrust- 
worthy, though the suggestion made by various writers that his 

' The word*ls d^iyed from the Latin caniiay a reed or tube. 

TOl. XXV. 1 



2 EARLY ORDNANOB IN EUROPE : 

experiments resulted in the invention of the mortar^ is not so 
improbable. We are in possession of evidence that ordnance was 
in nse not long after the l^endary discovery by Schwarz, and 
it is clearly recorded by the clerk or keeper of the king's privy 
wardrobe at the Tower that gunpowder was being made for 
Edward III. by Thomas de Roldeston in 1344, but we must go 
much farther back than to 1820 for the date of its invention. 

It is unprofitable to discuss the various speculations indulged in 
by many writers as to a supposed knowledge by the ancient Greeks 
and Eomans, or by the Chinese, of any explosive compound of the 
nature of gunpowder, but firmer ground is reached when allusion is 
made to one of the mixtures given in a MS., dated 846 a.d., written 
by Marcus Graecus, who evidently contemplated its use as a military 
agent. The MS. runs :—Incipit Liber Ignium a Marco Oraeco 
prescripttiSf cufus virtus et effkada est ad eomhurendum hostesy tarn 
in mari quant in terra^ etc.' This compound contains six parts of 
saltpetre, one of sulphur, and two of charcoal, which is really what is 
now known as gunpowder, and, furthermore, it is a much stronger 
combination than that used for cannon during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, and even much later. There are repetitions of 
this recipe mentioned in the thirteenth century by Albertus Magnus,* 
by Ferrarius,* and by Roger Bacon. All this is suggestive of the possi- 
bility that there may have been far earlier attempts at cannon-making 
than is generally supposed, and, if so, the first experiments, European 
at all events, were probably made in Italy. The subject of gunpowder 
is treated more fully later in these notes. 

A weapon for discharging * Greek fire ' is described by the Byzantine 
princess, Anna Comnena* as * tubes fixed on the prows of the emperor's 
galleys,' but the mixture employed was composed, she states, of bitumen, 
sulphur and naphtha, thus not possessing the explosive properties of 
gunpowder, or at atl events not to any great extent, and one cannot 

' The word, as applied to a form of camion, may have been derived from the 
pounding vessel of the name. 

' In the National Library at Paris. 

* In De Mirahilihus Mundi of Albertus Magnus, bishop of Batisbon. 

* The MS. is in the Bodleian Library, and contideTed to be of the time of 
Edward I. 

* Aleasiad^ book ii. 



GHENT IK P08SBSSI0N OF OKDNANCB IN 1813. 6 

imagine how this form of Greek fire was projected from the tube so as 
to be effective in action. The composition, enclosed in a barrel, with 
a lighted match attached, and hurled by an engine into a town or other 
fortified place for the purpose of setting the buildings in flames, was 
probably a similar mixture, perhaps with the addition of resin.^ The 
Byzantine tubes, used on the emperor's galleys, were decorated on 
the surface with the heads of fabulous animals, and this custom may 
pofiribly have given rise to the many legends in romantic literature 
of encounters between knights errant and fiery dragons belching 
forth sulphurous flames, etc. A statement is made in an Arabian 
treatise of the thirteenth century, preserved, I believe, in the 
Escorial, written by Hassan Abrammah, that Greek fire was used 
in globes or vessels made of pottery or glass. The mixture thus 
employed would seem to have been explosive in character, and to 
have foreshadowed the grenade of later times. 

It is uncertain whether the statements made that ordnance, in 
the sense of the hurling of projectiles, was in use by the Moors 
and Spaniards in the early years of the fourteenth century have any 
foundation in fact, nevertheless it is far from being improbable that 
these peoples were acquainted with an explosive mixture at that time, 
and used it, too, in the manner described. 

John AndeiTie, an eminent surgeon living in the reign of 
Edward III., in his treatise, Practica^ makes a clear distinction 
between * Fewea Oregoia ' and * Fewe Volant^ the latter being what is 
known as gunpowder, showing that both compounds were employed 
in warfare, temp. Edward III. Froissart makes the same distinction, 
though less clearly, and a passage in his work concerning the siege of 
Bomorentin, on the Sandre, obviously refers to Gi-eek fire having been 
used there, and with cannon. Monstrelet, who fills the gap between 
Froissart and Philip de Oomines, makes mention of 'bastom a 
potUdre ' and * afeu.^ 

It is reported that the city of Ghent was in possession of ordnance, 
anno 1313, a date somewhat anterior to the legendary discovery by 
Schwarz ; and that the magistrates of the town gave to their 
ambassadors going to England bmsm met kruyt or donderhmsm ; 

' The "treatise Du Feu Grdgeois^ by MM. lieinand and Fave, gives much 
information concerning Greek fire. 



4 EAttLT OBDNANOB IN SUttOPB : 

bnt this statement, made in a work published in 1843,^ has not 
been authenticated, and the city archives have been searched since 
with a view to finding the passage, bat without success. It is 
incredible, however, that a statement so precise as this^ made by a 
writer of repute, could be a pure invention, and really there is no 
reason for doubting his good faith. The use of ordnance was known 
in Italy at least as early as 1324-1826, for the archives of Florence of 
that time furnish a reference to it, occurring in a decree of the Senate, 
instructing the Gonfaloniere and Council of Twelve to have cannon 
and balls of iron made for the defence of the state, which evidence 
would rather point to the new artillery having been in existence 
somewhat before, and, though proof is lacking, it seems in every way 
probable that in 1320, if not earlier, most, if not all, of the important 
states in Europe were in possession of ordnance. The Florence record 
has been preserved and is often copied : it is printed in Etiuies sur U 
Faasi et PAvmir de VArtilleris.^ 

Colonel L. Robert, Conservateur du Musee d'ArtiUerie, at Paris, 
states in his introduction to the museum catalogm that the town of 
Metz made use of two small cannon in 1324 when besieged by the 
combined forces of the archbishop of Treves, the Comte de Bar and 
the king of Bohemia, but there is no reference. 

Ordnance was undoubtedly employed by the English in the fourth 
decade of the century. 

John Barbour^ archdeacon of Aberdeen, in his metrical life of 
king Robert Bruce, written in 1375, states that ' crakys of war ' were 
employed by Edward III. when invading Scotland in the first year of 
his reign (1327) ^— 

* The other crakys were of war * 
That they before never heard sir,* 

and that these' crakys' meant cannon is obvious from another couplet 

in the same poem, referring to the Scottish army — 

< Bot gynnys for crakys had he nane, 
For in Scotland yeit than but wane 
The OSS of thaim had not bene sene.' 

Barbour was probably about seven years old when this invasion took 

place, so the statement must be taken for what it is worth. 

* Reynard, 2}risor juUional, t. ii. p. 35, Li^ge, 1843. 

• By the emperor Napoleon III^ t. iii. p. 72. 



OBDNANCB AT? 8IBQ« 0^ BBBWICK IN 1833. * 

Edward is said to have had ordnance with him at the siege of 
Berwick in 1333/® and the French fleet, in its attack on Southampton 
five years later, was supplied with the new artillery .^^ Another early 
instance of the presence of cannon on warships is given in an indenture 
b^ween John Starlying and Helmyng Leget, dated 1338, which 
mentions ordnance as forming part of the equipment of the * Barnard 
de la Tour,' * ij cannons de ferr, sanz estuff/ ^^ ^ brass cannon is 
schednled in the same document for ' La Marie de la Tour,' showing 
that, even at this early date, guns were provided with more than one 
movable chamber or breech block. Walsingham, describing the 
defeat of the French fleet, which took place off Sluys, in 1340, says 
there were ' Gunnae plures, cum magna quant' pulveris,' etc. Up to 
the time of the introduction of cannon, or rather somewhat later, 
when ordnance had made some progress in power and efficiency, for 
very early pieces could not breach a wall, the defence of fortified places 
had for a long time proved stronger than the means available for 
attack, which then lay in mining and the employment of mechanical 
engines and war-sheds, with the bore and battering-ram. These 
agencies were often ineffectual for the reduction of fortified places, 
however strongly invested, and it was famine alone that could bring 
about a capitulation. After having passed through its preliminary 
stages, say by the year 1375, cannon obtained command simultaneously 
over the concentric lines of defence, such fortifications having been 
constructed with a view to the withstanding of quite another and more 
gradual mode of assault, and a breech in the walls could be effected by 
the new artillery from some distance, so that the attacking force was 
not so much exposed as hitherto, to be driven from their lodgments, 
and to be harassed by the numerous means of offence and annoyance 
resorted to from the battlements for the checkmating of mining, the 
destmction of war-sheds, and missile-casting engines, and the catching 
of the head of the ram in a sort of vice or fork, to prevent that engine 
from being drawn back again for another stroke. It became necessary 
therefore to mount cannon on the walls of fortresses in order to check 

" Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institutio-n^ vol. ii. page 340. 

" M. lAon Lacabane in BiUiothhque de VEcole des Chartes, vol. i (second 
series), page 61. 

>* Given by sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas, G.C.M.G., in his History of the Royal 
Na/oy^ London, 1847. 



6 EARLY ORDNANCE tN BtJROPB : 

the besiegers* fire, to batter down his entrenchments, and to destroy his 
stores and magazines, but the buildings, the walls of which were narrow, 
had not been built strongly and massively enough for sustaining the 
heavy shock arising from the concussion in firing, and from the effects of 
the recoil of the rude and elementary guns then available. The effect 
of this was that these walls were greatly injured by their discharge ; 
indeed, it sometimes happened that more harm was experienced by the 
garrison within the fortress than that inflicted on the besieging force 
without. Firing had to be discontinued, and when the besiegers' 
cannon could no longer be replied to, especially when covering and 
supporting the movements of the attacking columns on the day of 
assault, a surrender became imperative, or a successful cowp-de-main 
resulted in the reduction of the fortress. In fact, by the end of the 
third quarter of the fourteeniji century, the assault had the advantage 
over the defence. 

An item in the accounts of the French War Treasurer of 1388, 
& MS. formerly in the National Library at Paris, cited by Pere Daniel 
and by Ducange,^' runs : — * A Henri de Faumechon pour avoir poudres 
et autres choses necessaires aux canons, qui estoient devant Puy 
Guillaume.' ^* This document has disappeared, but no doubt is cast on 
Ducange's statement that he made extracts from it. 

In the same year a contemporaneous manuscript, now in the Paris 
Library, and cited by M. Leon Lacabane, states that among the 
military stores then in the arsenal at Rouen, was a ' pot de fer ' for 
discharging bolts i^; and sulphur and saltpetre, to make powder for the 
same, are mentioned. 

A year later a parchment, found among the sealed title-deeds of 

Olairambault,^* states that the Seigneur de Cardilhac et de Bieule, 

received from the master of the * Arbaletriers ' of the town of Oambrai 

* ten cannon, five of iron and five of metal,' ^^ for the defence of the 

town, and, to make powder for these pieces, eleven livres, four sols and 

three deniers, were expended in the purchase of saltpetre and sulphur. 

These weapons were employed when the town was besieged somewhat 

later.i8 

" Glossariunif Bombarda, " A castle in Auvergne. 

** *.Oarreaux ' or * garros/ wingjed arrows or quarrels. 

^* M. L^on Lacabane, BibL de VEcole des Cliartet^ vol. vi. p. 51. 

17 The brass cannon is ' canon de mdtal.' " Johnes's Frinsiart, vol. i. page 146. 



GUNS, ETC., MENTIONED IN PIPE BOLLS OP 1851. 7 

Again, in 1389 reference is made in the archives of Bmgea U> 
niswen enginen die men heetr ibattde}^ Cannon are first mentioned 
by Froissart as having been used in the defence of Qnesnoy in 1840, 
'those of Quesnoy let them hear their cannon,' when carreavx of 
iron were the missiles employed^; and at the siege of Vannes in 1843 
both the besieged and the attacking English had artillery .^^ Froissart 
also refers to a cannon at the siege of Oudenarde, * the noise of its 
discharge conld be heard five leagues away during the day and double 
this distance at night.' This piece is supposed by Captain Fav6, 
and others, to have been the Dulle OrieUy a very large bombard, 
still preserved at Ghent, but the cannon in question dates from a 
considerably later period, as will be shown in a special reference later. 
Edward III. had certainly a large siege train before Calais ; and it was 
probably provided by Peter of Bruges ; for the communal accounts 
of the town of Tournay state that in 1346 Pierre de Bruges made 
cannon of iron for England, which were tested at Tournay. This 
master is mentioned in one of the accounts of Egmond de la B6che, as 
being master armourer to king Edward III. in 1385. 

A document of 1848 is given by the emperor Napoleon III. in 
Etudes sur le Fosse et VAvenir de rAriillerie,^^ in which wedges covered 
with leather are mentioned, * 11*^ cavillispro eisdem canonibus muniiis 
de tracMs.^ These are the wedges for fixing the charge in the 
chamber. 

In the Pipe Rolls of the Exchequer of 1851 is an account of the 
receipts and outgoings between the years 1344 and 1851,^^ and among 
tha entries occur : Ounnis cum sagittis et pellotis ; gunnis cum 
pehtis et pulvere pro eisdem gunnis ; x gunnis cum telar ; vj pede 
phimbi; V Mrelli pulveris, et c magn* pelotplumbiy pro eisdem gunnis. 
These entries, it will be observed, include cannon with powder and 
shot, leaden balls, some of them large,^ and also darts.^^ 

The meaning of the word telar has been variously interpreted. 
It pccors also in the inventory of the effects of Boger Mortimer, 

** Comptes comm. de Bruges, 1340. 

" Johnes'B FrousaH, vol. i. p. 190. ^ Ibid, toI. ii. p. 29. 

« Tome iii. p. 80. 

" Giyen in the Archaeological Jot^mal, toI. six. p. 70. 

*♦ Probably reUtirely large only. *• Carreaua, 



8 EARLY ORDNANCE IN BUROPE : 

taken in 1322 : itj talar pro lalistis; and again in the accounts of 
the Constable of Dover castle of 1361 : xxiv arc de com saunz tcilers,*^ 
and in another account : xxiv arcus pro balistis sine tellur. Here 
the word may refer to the stocks of crossbows, or to the stands for 
mechanical engines of war, for I remember seeing the word used in 
what might be either sense, in connexion with handguns, but I am 
sorry I have lost or mislaid the reference. In Suffolk, according to 
Moor's Glossary J the stock of a farm shovel is still called a tiller, and 
in accounts of the fourteenth century nails and pins are mentioned 
in connexion with the word. The expression ars telaria was 
sometimes used as a general designation for shooting with bows and 
other mechanical engines of war. Napoleon, in Etudes^ gives 
the following item from a Bologne inventory of the year 1881 : 
Tres telerios novos non fulcitos a lombardis^ which would indicate 
that these telaria were intended to support bombards. Lieut. 
Brackenbury, R.A., F.S.A., in his notes on Ancient Gannon, makes the 
following remark concerning teleria, ' These were clearly and unmis- 
takably the beds or supports in which bombards were partly embedded, 
and not, as some antiquarians think, the handles of the guns.' Some 
of these telarios are mentioned in the inventory referred to as being 
worn out and useless and not attached to bombards. Brackenbury 
quotes from another Bologna inventory (1897), also given in the 
EtvdeSy when three cannon, two of which were in one telarium, and 
one, like a bombard, without a telarium. In the entry corrigiis, 
teleriis et canonibuSy the first two words are translated in the Etudes, 
affHts courheSy while Brackenbury is of opinion that corigiis refer 
to the iron bands used to fasten the bombard on to its stand ; but 
the bands were not necessarily of iron, as shown in fig. B ; and the 
equivalent of corigio is to bind with thongs. Bands of iron round 
large guns would be soon ruptured by the force of the recoil of the 
piece. 

In 137*7 Thomas Norwich was directed by king Richard II. to 
provide ' two great and two less engines called cannon to be sent to 
the castle at Brest, [Bristol .?].' ^s 

^ The docament is giyen in the Archaeological Journal^ yoI. zi. 

" Tome i. p. 358. 

» The MS. is given by Rymer. 



ENGAGEMENT BEFOBE WALLS OF BBUGES, 9 

Until 1776 there was a very large iron cannon, of great length, 
stated as being inscribed with the year 1354, lying at the fort at 
Margate*^ ; bnt the date given is in all probability wrong, as there is 
no other mention of any very large cannon anything like so early. 
An inventory of the stores at *Baynard' castle in 1888 includes the 
item j peUt gonne de feer. These instances given are snflScient for 
establishing the approximate date of the introduction of the new 
artillery in Europe, and will have given some idea of the general 
employment of cannon at sieges and on ships in the fourteenth 
century. 

Artillery was first employed in assaults on castles and towns, 
and it is many years before we hear of it being used for field purposes ; 
tbe earliest mention in this sense, excepting the very doubtful one 
of Ore9y, is, I believe, on the occasion of an engagement before the 
waDs of Bruges, between the forces of that city and those of Ghent, 
in 1882. These were small pieces, probably discharging cannon 
arrows (carreaux) ; several guns together mounted on a wheeled 
carriage. They are mentioned by Froissart, and are called ribaudeaux 
(ribandequin), after the mechanical engine of the name, discharging 
darts. A fuller account of these early guns, on a carriage, follows 
later. The statements made by Giovanni Yillani, a Florentine 
historian, bom in Florence in 1280, who wrote very shortly after 
the battle of Orejy,^ and by the Gfrandes GhraniqueB de France^^ 
assertions which have been often repeated, that ordnance was 
employed in that engagement, from the side of the English, 
are open to considerable question ; but there is no inherent 
improbability that this was the case. Oertain it is, however, 
that cannon played no very important or decisive part in the 
warlike operations of that time (1346). An argument much 
relied on by some writers as demonstrating the improbability, nay 
impossibility, of artillery having been used by the English at Oregy, 
is that their army made forced marches, and could not hamper its 
military train with heavy guns, then, as far as is known, without 
wheels of any kind, but there is every reason to believe that the guns 

• Archaeologia, vol. v. p. 156. 

•• He died of the plague shortly afterwards. 

'* There is no knowledge as to who wrote the Grandes Chronique», 

VOL xrr. * 



10 EABLY OBDNANOB IN BUBOPB : 

of that day, far from being heavy and unwieldy as is often sapposed, 
were really small and easily transportable. It is very likely that 
the English forces, marching on Cregy, carried guns and other 
military engines with them for the purpose of assaulting strong 
places m route. We know that the troops, led by sir John Chandos, 
had cannon, transported on carts with its military train, in 1869 ; 
on which occasion it was, as Froissart tells us, to besiege Montsac. 
Demmin gives a drawing in his book of a cannon *from the field 
of Oreyy ' ; but he adduces no evidence that it ever was there, indeed 
the piece he reproduces would appear to be of a somewhat later date. 
Such loose statements are to be deprecated. Perhaps the strongest 
argument against them lies in the fact that Froissart makes no 
mention of ordnance in connexion with any battles in the field ; and 
such a new departure would hardly have passed unrecorded by so 
careful a historian had it really happened, but in estimating the 
value of his evidence it must be borne in mind that this portion of 
the Ohronieles was written from hearsay for he was only nine years 
old when the battle was fought, while Yillani was a man of mature 
years at the time, and unlikely to have made such a precise statement 
without foundation. Froissart frequently alludes to the employment 
of cannon at sieges and on warships, and gives a circumstantial 
account of the battle of Oregy ; attributing the victory of the 
English to excellent shooting with the longbow. 

Mr. Orose in his Military Antiquities respecting a History of the 
English Armyp quotes from a contemporary account giving the 
detailed forces and the pay of the several grades and bands 
composing the English forces in Normandy and before Calais, and 
both gunners and artillerymen^ are mentioned. The latter class 
would seem to have had charge of the mechanical engines. As late 
as 1559, bows are scheduled in a Tower Survey^ under the heading 
of Artillery ; while all cannon mentioned in the inventory go under 
that of Ordnance. It is thought by some that the word artillery is 
derived from Ars telaria, an expression just referred to in connexion 
with the word HeUur.' Yalturius calls both mechanical engines and 
ordnance ' ballistae,' and a Brussels bowmaker, of the year 1400, was 
styled Jean VArtilleur. 

^ Vol. i. p. 278, " Ingyners, Artellers aad Gomi^rs.— 5arl. 782, foL 6a» 



STOBE OF OBBNANOB AT OALAIB IN 1369. 11 

Mr. Joseph Hnnter, F.S.A., in his notes On the early use of 
Gunpowder in England^^^ mentions that in 1369 the store of ordnance 
at Calais consisted of fifteen guns, 995 pounds of saltpetre, 1,298 pounds 
of qnick sulphur, three great guns of brass and one of iron, 224 balls 
of lead, and 84 pounds of gunpowder. 

Ordnance was by no means universally popular among the 
military authorities of the day, until long after its introduction ; and 
Froissart does not seem to have attached special importance to its 
use, any more than to other warlike engines before the big siege 
bombards came into vogue. Mechanical engines, such as the man- 
g(mel, ribaudequin, bricolle, perri^res, and the tr^buchet (trebuket), 
machines to which the principles of tension, torsion and counter- 
poise were applied, were used, side by side, with cannon in the 
fifteenth century, but by that time the estimation of the relative 
importance of such machines in warfare, as compared with ordnance, 
prevailing until the last quarter of the fourteenth century, began to 
be reversed as cannon became more powerful and efficient in action ; 
and die great advantages of a much lower trajectory than the great 
mechanical engines possessed began to be appreciated. The trebuket 
Uurew as heavy a stone as a big bombard; but neither with the 
same velocity nor anything like so horizontally. This machine was, 
thus, far from being so effective as cannon for breeching a wall. 
Claude Fauchet, writing as late as anno 1600, says, Hhat cannon were 
only nsed by cowardly people^ and that valiant knights did not 
approve of them.' ^ 

The great cost of materials must have retarded the employment 
of ordnance on a large scale ; indeed it was almost prohibitive. 
Ordinary iron was 5d. to 6d. per pound ; gun-metal 20d. ; lead lOd.'^ ; 
and when one considers the great difference in the value of money 
at that time from the present, one wonders how ordnance could be 
used at all extensively. 

A book published in 1699^^ says : *' The king of England, at the 
battle of Agincourt, placed some pieces of cannon on an eminence, 

•^ Arehaeologia, toI. xxxii. p. 384. 

" Origines des Chevaliers^ Armoiries, etc,, Paris, 1600, p. 67. 

" Free, ofR.A. Irutitution, toI. v. p. 11. 

" The History of M, de Boueicaut, 



12 BABL7 OBBNANOB tK EITBOPl : 

which did not kill many men bat threw a panic into the French 
army, who were absolutely strangers to it;' and in Nicolas's 
Agimmrt it is stated that artillery was engaged in the battle. 
Whether this be true or not, we do not hear much, if anything, of 
field guns in England before the Wars of the Boses, and abroad in the 
campaigns of Charles the Bold, of Burgundy. 

Oun factories are stated to have been in operation in France in 
1345 ; the accounts of Oahors of that year mention cannon that were 
being cast.^^ The archives of Bruges state that Peter of Bruges cast 
a small brass cannon for two pound leaden balls in 1346. Switzer- 
land was casting at Bale in 1872 ; Venice in 1376 ; and in 1372, 
bronze cannon were being cast at Augsburg by Johann von Aran. 
Malines had a Meester van dm doncPhussm^ in 1365 ^^ ; and in 1369 
Arras had thirty-eight cannon in her arsenal. In 1358, Laon was in 
possession of twelve cannon, and was ordering forty-three more ; and 
in 1368 Ouillaume I'Esquier was Maistre des canons du royf^ up to 
which time the ordnance was under the charge of U maUlare des 
arhalUsiriers. In 1375, Bemart de Montserrat was maistre des 
canons, and superintending the construction of a lai^e gun at Oaen 
weighing more than 2,000 pounds.*^ He was also casting very small 
brass cannon at Oaen that year.^ 

The first expressions employed in medieval literature to denote 
ordnance, then mostly small breech-loading pieces, are canon and 
gunnis ; gonnes being the English name, and canon the French, the 
medieval Latin equivalent is cannones. The word bombard came into 
general use for the large muzzle-loading, stone-throwing pieces, and 
appears about the close of the third quarter of the fourteenth century, 
but many chroniclers have the confusing habit of using the designation 
very much in a general sense. Froissart mentions 'canons and 
bombardes ' in his account of the siege of Quesnoy in 1340, but he 
was only three years old at the time, and did not begin his chronicles 
until sixteen years later. Yillani mentions ^ gunnis and bombards,' 
about 1347, so we may perhaps assume that the latter term was 
applied to the larger guns in Italy then, but the word does not occur 

" Proc, It,A. InstUution, vol. iv. p. 297. 

"• Comptes comm. de Malines* *• Ducange. 

*» Mudes, etc. « Ibid. 



RECEIVED, 

[viAR10,/f^4 
PEABODY iViUSEUivi. 



'^ 

I 

^ 




* OAKOKS & fiOMBABBBS * AT SlEaiS Of* QUBSK07 IK 1840. 18 

in any French contemporary account before 1881. It is clear that 
towards the end of the fourteenth centnry, when new varieties of 
ordnance began to appear, and names had to be found for them, 
the word bombard was specially applied to the description of cannon 
I have mentioned. In the Artillery Accovnis of Burgundy, of the first 
half of the fifteenth century, the terms grosses bombardes and grand 
canon are used synonymously. 

The craft of gunmaking in the fourteenth century was necessarily 
experimental, and practised at a time when the mechanical arts were 
at a very low ebb, and this was especially the case in regard to 
Enc^land, which country, however, does not seem at this time to have 
made any of her own ordnance. 

Towards the close of the century, great improvements were made 
in France, Italy and Flanders, in the casting of brass guns. The 
earliest ordnance was of the crudest description, being dilatory and 
uncertain in action, and dangerous to the gunners. The tube was of 
equal thickness throughout, and a sort of box, for the charge, was 
joined on to it, and the whole piece required washing out after each 
discharge. 

The information is scanty among contemporary English records, as 
to the descriptions and sizes of guns available in England, from, say, 
1335 to 1870, but we may conclude that they were mainly small 
pieces, without trunnions, for the discharge of winged-arrows or 
quarrels, similar to those already in use for such mechanical engines 
as B9pringales and ribaudeaicx,^^ and by leaden balls. The Marge* 
cannon often referred to in chronicles, indentures, royal wardrobe and 
other accounts, of a like nature, would appear to have been relatively 
large only, for a ' great ' gun, costing but twenty shillings,** could not 
have been very big, taking into account the cost of materials and 
making every allowance for the difference in money value at the time ; 
and a variety of other items in these accounts, such as the amounts 
expended on materials for making gqnpoTvder, with the quantities to 
be used for certain cannon in war time, and th& personnel employed in 
transporting and serving them ; all tend to the conclusion that early 

^ Bomanand Medieval Military lUngi/nea, by the writer, Arohaeologia Aeliana, 
voL xxiv. 

^ KingU Wardrobe AeeoufU, 1370, printed in Arohaeologia^ vol. xzxii. p. 386. 



14 SA&Lt OBDNANCS IN EtTBOPB : 

cannon were very small pieces, no bigger than the harquebuse a arocky 
of later times. Really large guns^ however, became quite common, 
after 1377, and an account of the town of Lille of 1882, mentions a 
bombard as costing an amonnt, in our currency, equal to £20. Some 
of the English accounts disclose the curious fact that cannon were 
sometimes owned by private persons, and hired by the king when 
wanted.** 

With every change of the governor of a fortress, commissioners 
were appointed under the Great Seal, to take an inventory of all the 
warlike stores contained therein, which was attached to the indenture, 
and it is &om documents of this nature that a mass of data has been 
drawn. 




Fig. A gives a representation of a cannon, used at the si^e of 
Tunis, anno 1890.** It lies on wooden supports, with a strong piece 
at the breech end, for sustaining the recoil, and is being fired point- 
hlankj^'^ though the drawing is inaccurate. 

Early cannon were mostly of wrought-iron, though by no means 
exclusively so, for as already stated, bronze guns were cast even earlier 
than the last quarter' of the fourteenth century, and the wardrobe 
account of 1870, has the following entry : — ' iij gunner feer, j gunner 
de laton.'*8 

** Proceeding 9y B.A, iTutUution, vol. v. p. 24. 
*» From a Froissart illumination. 

" Froissart was not present at th^ siege, but the figure probably pourtrays a 
contemporary gun. 

" In French, laiton, a mixture of bronze and tin. 



LAEOB BOMBARDS m 1377 AND 1878. 16 

The emperor Napoleon the third's book** contains a vast amount 
of valnable data concerning early ordnance, such as indentures, 
inventories, and extracts from contemporary accounts, many of the 
documents being printed in extenso. These afford the most trust- 
worthy evidence to be had ; but like English MS8. of the period, of a 
similar character, there is practically no information given as to the 
sizes of the earlier guns, which can only be guessed at by a process 
of deduction, of the nature just applied to early English guns. This, 
however, leaves an impression, amounting to certainty, that all the 
pieces made up to about the end of the third quarter of the fourteenth 
century were small. In the Etudss^ we find a reference given to 
1375, when five small cannon are mentioned as costing under £2. 
The missiles employed in France were similar to those used in 
Ei^land. Cannon-arrows (carreaux) were made first of wood, 
feathered with brass and tipped with iron ; later, they were of lead, 
and c^eAplommie. 

As to the arrangements for aiming, rough principles were known 
from the beginning, from the experience gained in the use of 
mechanical engines, of widely different trajectories. 

In the last quarter of the century, guns were forged to project 
stone balls weighing from 20 to 450 pounds. The jump from very 
small guns to those of say ten, twenty, and even forty times their 
weight seems to have been the reverse of gradual, but great difficulty 
was experienced in the welding together of the strips of metal 
employed in the construction of the heavy guns. 

Really large bombards, made to carry, say, from 200 to 400 pound 
stone shot, appear in England about the same time as in France and 
Flanders, in the years 1377-78, at least as far as there is any 
information, while in Italy, which country almost always took the 
lead in ordnance, they are mentioned a few years earlier. 

Lieutenant Brackenbury, R.A., F.S.A., in an able paper on Ancient 
Gannony^ quoting from Andrea Redusio, in Chronicon Tarvisinum^ 

^ Etudes sur le PassS et VAvenir de VArtillerie published in 1846. 

*• Printed in the ProceediThgs of the Royal Artillery Institution of 1847, 
vol. ▼. p. 32. He promised a continuation of his notes, and to carry them 
beyond the fourteenth century ; but, if written, I believe they were never 
published, owing to a number of drawings, which had been prepared for them, 
having been destroyed by fire. 



16 EARLY OfiDNAWCB IN EUROPE : 

of what had oome to that writer's knowledge darmg his lifetime, 
gays :— * That ^hen the Venetians attacked Quero, in 1876, they 
had bombards with them^ such as had never been seen or heard 
of before in Italy. The bombard is described as an iron instrument 
of great strei^th, with a tube in front, in which is a lai^e stone of 
the size of the tube, and it has a cannon joined on to it at its rear 
end, twice as long as the tube, but narrower,*^ in which a black powder, 
made of saltpetre, sulphur and willow-charcoal, is inserted in the open- 
ing of the cannon towards its mouth. This opening is then closed 
with a wooden plug, which is pressed in, and when the round stone 
has been inserted and adjusted against the mouth of the cannon, fire 
is applied through a small opening in the cannon, and the stone is 
projected with great impetus by the force of the lighted powder ; nor 
can any walls, no matter how strong, withstand it, as was found by 
experience in the following wars ; and when these bombards belched 
forth stones the people thought that God was thundering from above.' 
Previous to the invention of trunnions, such a gun was secured to a 
wooden bed or stand by means of thongs, hempen rope or wire, while 
small pieces, for a low charge, were fastened permanently, so to speak, 
to their stocks or stands, by iron bands. The cannon lay well down 
in a groove, and the beds or stands were provided with strong wooden 
uprights behind, strengthened by thick angle iron for sustaining the 
recoil. A stand of this description is on fig. B,** and on it lies 
the barrel of a chambered gun of the early bombard type, as described 
by Redusio. It consists of two lengths, the chamber, and the barrel. 
The latter portion is first laid in its bed and properly secured, then 
the part containing the chamber (cannonm) is slipped into its place 
after having been loaded and roped, and the whole is adjusted in 
position by a wedge, usually of iron. These wedges I take to be the 
eocenes^ mentioned in accounts, and not the wooden plugs or wads 
for separating the powder from the projectile, nor the eavilliSy a 

■* The word eanrumen is often used by Italian chroniclers to denote the 
chamber portion of the gun, whether in a cannon of two lengths, or for the 
breech-block for insertion in a space or chamber ; an inventory of Bologna of 
the year 1381, mentioned in the Mudes (t, i. p. 359), refers to chambers as 
canons, 

«* A stand and cannon of this kind is given by Mr. Grose in Military 
Antiquities^ respecting a History of the English Arm/y^ vol. i. p. 398. The 
chaniber-portioii is adjusted in its place, 



THE 'DULLB GBIETE' AND ' MONS MEG.' 



17 



wooden wedge, covered with leather for fastening the breech-block in 
the chamber. 

This system of guns, forged in two parts or lengths, at first 
probably applied to all guns^ presented serious difScnlties in the way 
of sealing and adjustment. It was, however, retained for a long time 
for guns of large calibre, and the ultimate screwing of the parts 
together effectually kept the powder gas in its right direction. Smaller 
ordnance was forged in one piece, with a space or chamber for the 
reception of the breech-block, which was also secured in position by a 
wedge. The difSculties of working the gun in two lengths, as shown 
on fig. B, are very obvious, and their action must have been most 
dilatory. The *Dulle Griete' of Ghent, and *Mons Meg,' afford 
iOnstrations of the screwing together plan, as indicated by the holes 




in the hinder end for the reception of levers, and these guns became, 

in fact, muzzle-loaders, the divisions and even sub-divisions being so 

arranged merely for the purposes of transport. 

Froissart speaks of very large bombards, one he refers to as having 

been at the siege of Oudenarde, in 1882-1388, jeiant des carreaux 

merveilleusemmt gros^^ and another he mentions as having been at 

the siege of Odmik^ in 1877, shooting 200 pound shot. A gun called 

a ^bombard,' forged at Ch&lons, in the same year, for Philip of 

Burgundy, weighed 450 livres." 

" Froiflsart would appear in this case to have need the word * carreaux * as 
expressing missiles gdierallj, and not literally^ as cannon-arrows, and there 
are many sach cases requiring careful examination. 

•• MSmoires ptmr servir d VhUtoire de France et de BourgogM^ Paris, 1729. 



VOL, XXV, 



3 



18 EARLY OBDNANOB IK EUBOPB : 

The earliest instance of a large bombard occurs in the Ghronicles 
of Pisa, in 1362 ;'^ this cannon exceeded 2,000 pounds in weight. 

Monstrelet mentions, under the year 1478, a great bombard, made 
at Tours, with a ball ' cccc livres de fer^ while Florentius of Buda, 
makes the remarkable statement that a cannon, used at the siege of 
Belgrade, was twenty-five feet in length, which is of course much 
longer than the gun at Ghent, but even this great size would seem to • 
have been exceeded in a cannon made at Bruges in 1445, the chamber 
alone being twelve feet long.'^^ These large bombards were very 
difficult to manage when fired, and their wooden stands had but a 
very short life. 

Fortunately, there are rare instances of very early pieces inscribed 
with the year of make, as instanced the bronze cannon, now in the 
Mus6e d'Artillerie, at Paris, by George Endorfer, 1404.*^ These 
dated cannons are of great assistance in the approximation of the age 
of other specimens, as also are medieval drawings.*^^ 

I have not seen any definite statement as to the extent of the range 
of early cannon, but the emperor Napoleon, in the Ettcdes, quotes 
a MS. of 1346, in which comparisons are drawn between the respective 
ranges of cross-bows and cannon, and these are in favour of the 
former, cannon being looked upon as of much less importance. 
The MS. in question is a direction from the Sire de Cardilhac, etc., 
for the defence of Montauban, and is given in extmso in the Ettcdes. 
The mechanical engine rtbaudequin would shoot its heavy brass- 
feathered arrows much more frequently than a cannon could do. 

Richard Grafton, many of whose statements require critical examin- 
ation, writing in A Chronicle at large and Meere History of the A fat/res 
of England, 1669, says, in referring to the siege of Le Mans, in 1424 : 
' The Englishmen approached as nighe to the walles as they might 
without their losse and detriment, and shot against their walles great 
stones out of great Goonnes whiche kinde of enginnes before that tyme, 
was very little scene or hearde of in France ; the strokes whereof so 
shaked, crushed and rived the walles that within few dayes the citie 
was dispoyled of all her toures, and outward defences.* 

*» Muratori, Cronioa de Pisa, tome 15, coL 740. 

« Mvdes, etc., t, iii. pp. 128-130. »' Appendix, No. 36. 

•* There is a fine collection of these at* Vienna, 



GBEAT BOMBARDS, ETC. 19 

The time employed in loading very early cannon was so protracted 
that again and again we hear of batteries having been taken by the 
enemy, after a single discharge. To meet this difficulty in loading, 
several cannon were often mounted on one stand, and later, many 
chambers, ready charged, were supplied to each gun. The piece 
no. 3 of the appendix affords an instance of a double cannon. 

Throughout the fifteenth century, and even later, great muzzle- 
loading pieces like *Mons Meg,' continued being called bombards. 
Diminutives of this class, hombardes portativeSy of the last quarter of 
the fourteenth century, which are mentioned by Froissart, and the 
somewhat later bombardelles, referred to by Andrea Redusio,*^ 
were in general use. A fine specimen, taken at Granson or Murton 
in 1476, is now in the museum at Nauveville (Canton Berne) ; it 
is clasped with iron bands to a wooden stock, and Ues on its cepi 
or cvppuSy a square stand of wood : it resembles a very early handgun 
inform. 

Although there was but little scientific knowledge or mathematical 
calculation applied to the construction of early ordnance at this 
time, there was clearly some idea in the first half of the fifteenth 
century, of the pressure the powder gas exercised on the bore 
daring the discharge, and of getting each portion of the metal to 
bear its fair share of the strain ; for before the middle of the 
century experience had taught that the strain on the piece when 
discharged decreases from breech to muzzle, and the parts were 
strengthened that needed it. A rule was estabUshed in the 
relations between the chamber and the barrel, that one pound of 
powder was required to project nine pounds of stone, and that 
the capacity of the chamber must be such as to contain the charge 
of a volume of three-fifths of its size, leaving one-fifth for the 
wad, which was constructed from the wood of the medlar or the ash, 
the remaining fifth being empty. The system of forging very 
heavy guns in separate compartments alone made the transportation 
possible. 

Villeret, writing in the middle of the fifteenth century, thus 
describes cannon : ' their figure was that of a hollow cylinder, 

•• Chronieon TarvUinumy 1376, and the holleri of Swiss Records. 



20 fiAfiLT OBDNANOE IN EUBOPE : 

strengthened from space to space by several embossed circles, the 
breech end terminating in a knob^ and the match was placed between 
the first and second circles.' 

After the battle of Hexham, ' sir Ralph Grey fled to Bamburgh, 
and was there besieged cum maximis homhardiSy by the earl of 
Warwick. The king maker brought with him two huge cannon, one 
of which he called London, and the other NewcastU,^^ 

Cannon continued very apt to burst, and we find the Scottish king 
James II. killed, when present at the testing of a bombard, possibly made 
in Scotland, in 1460.^^ . The weakness lay, however, more in imperfect 
welding, rather than in the quality of the material employed, which 
was excellent, for a portion of a serpent gun, of the reign of Henry 
VI., 1422-1461, now in the Rotunda, at Woolwich,^^ has been tested, 
the result showing a tensile strength of 55,258 pounds to the square 
inch, being very little less than that of the best descriptions employed 
in the manufacture of the first Armstrong guns. This weapon is 
imperfectly welded together, for solder has been poured into the 
interstices, left in the process. Some of these guns continued in use 
for many years. 

Other designations were now found for pieces of small calibre, and 
these had often two movable chambers. The veicglaire^^ a cannon 
first consisting merely of the chamber box, and the barrel, appears in 
Flanders during the first decade of the fifteenth century, and this 
cannon (vogeleer) is so mentioned in the archives of Malines, 
about 1409. In 1406 the town of Mons had in its arsenal: — 
12 cannons of iron, each with 3 chambers ; 7 veuglaires, with 
2 chambers ; 21 small bombardes (.?), throwing darts ; and 19 other 
cannon, each with 1 chamber ; besides 6 of metal (bronze).^* 
A veuglaire is scheduled in an inventory of the Canton de 
Fribourg, of 1445, as ' wigler,' Pierre Follare, ' fondeur,' and * 2 
vulgairey a 2 chambres, de bronze ' are referred to in the accounts of 
the same Canton, of 1454. Thirty-seven colovrinea appear under 

•• 10 Camden Soc. PubL, p. 38. 

" Lindsay of Pitacottie, 1728. 

^ Appendix, No. 4. 

•* Flemish, vogeleer , English, /otoZ^. 

•* A. Lecroix, Episode du rSgne Jean de Baviere (Jean-sans-pitii). 



'OOULBXJVRES,' * 00ULBUVBIN8,' AND * SERPENTINES.' 21 

1450, and 8 tarrasMchsm, de Pierre Follaire^ fondeur^ under 1445.^^ 
The tarrasdikhse is a light piece of small calibre,^^ essentially a 
field gan, but used from entrenchments, quickly thrown up on the 
field of battle. They are mentioned as having been employed 
against the Hussites, in 1427^*^. A drawing of one of these guns is 
given in La Chroniqm bemoise de Schilling. 

GotdeuvreSy couUuvrines^^ and serpentines^® appear about the end 
of the first quarter of the century ; the former were guns of a small 
calibre, and the latter smaller still. Pig. represents a fifteenth 
century serpentine, in the Porte de Hal Museum, at Brussels ; the 
carriage is a restoration from an old print.'^ The method of con- 
Btraction of many was the same as that of the bombard, being 




longitudinal wrought-iron bars, welded together, and strengthened 
with rings, the walls of the chambers were thicker than those 
of the barrels, which were of a considerable length in proportion 
to their diameter, say from twenty to forty calibres or more, 
but without any fixed rale in this respect. Other guns of 
these classes were of bronze, but all without trannions, until these 
appliances appear, probably early in the third quarter of the fifteenth 
century. Strittbiichsen BJid Rkgelhiichsen^^ are mentioned in German 

* Archives de la JSociite d*Ifistoire de Canton Fribourgj 1900, tome vii. p. 107. 
•• TarraSi an entrenchment, rapidly extemporized on the field. 
•* Le diveloppement des armes a feu. Schmidt, 1870. 
•• Colverine. 

•• Guns were often named after birds or serpents. Culverin is said to come 
from Colubrine, a kind of snake. 

*• See Appendix, No. 41. 

" Jliegel, a bolt or bar, but whether this alludes to the missiles employed, or 
to the rack with its bar on the gun carriages, is uncertain. 



22 BABLY OBDKANOB IN lUBOPX : 

accounts as field guns with two-wheeled gun carriages. The term 
courtaud appears after the middle of the fifteenth century. The 
Ghroniqms d* Angleterrey writtenfor Edward IV., contain some repre- 
sentations of the cannon of that reign. 

Late in the century, Leonardo da Vinci, bom in 1452,^* and 
others, began more scientifically to treat the subject, hitherto guided 
merely by a knowledge of certain empirical rules. 

In the museum at Edinburgh are rude specimens of ordnance 
from Wemyss castle, Fife, one with two wrought-iron barrels, about 
thirty inches long, and 2*5 inches in caUbre. They are strengthened 
with rings, and the intervals are bound round with small cord, the 
whole has been covered with leather, and the piece is further fortified 
with thin copper at the breech and muzzle. Another smaller gun 
of similar construction has four barrels. 

There is a wooden cannon, strengthened with iron rings, which was 
brought from Cochin China, and now lies in the Mus^ des InvaUdes, 
at Paris, but .there is nothing to indicate its date of make,^^ and the 
sam6 may be said of the cannon at Oenoa, made with wooden staves, 
and covered with leather. 

A mortar in the arsenal at Vienna is made of several layers of 
coiled hempen rope, with an outside covering of leather, said 
to have been captured from the Turks ; and mortars made of paper, 
also covered with leather, lie in the arsenal at Malta. All these guns 
are doubtless provided with an inner tubing of metal of some sort. 

It is stated that the Venetians used small leather mortars at the 
battle with the Oenoese and Paduans before Chioggia in 1879 ; when 
some of the guns are said to have burst on the first discharge : one of 
these weapons, believed to have been used at the battle, is still 
preserved in the arsenal at Venice.^* Leathern cannon, with an inner 
tubing of beaten copper, were used at the siege of Hohensalzburg in 
1525 : and by Gustavus Adolphus in his earlier campaigns, which are 
said to have been brought to his army by an English knight, 

'"' This remarkable man, besides being a great painter and sculptor, was deeply 
versed in dynamics. 

^ There is a wooden cannon at Woolwich, which was used by the Canadian 
rebels in 1837 ; it is bound round with four iron hoops, and is without trunnions. 
It was loaded with buck shot and small pieces of lead. 

'^ Great bombards are freely mentioned in accounts of the series of engage- 
ments that took place, but I see no references to the leather pieces. 



WOODBN AND LBATHBB GANNON, ETC. 23 

sir Robert Scott, who commanded a troop of Free Companions in the 
king's service. The king of Sweden replaced these guns by iron 
four-pounders, one of which went with each regiment. They 
weighed each about six cwts., and were drawn by a pair of horses.''* 
The king made the first really effective use of cannon in the field ; 
the victory at Leipsic, in 1681, was almost entirely due to the 
mobility of his artillery ; Tilly's guns being of no account whatever. 
Cannon covered with leather were not unconmion in the seventeenth 
century—examples may be seen at Zurich. The ' Kalter ' guns of 
GoBtavus Adolphus were specially constructed with a view to 
mobility ; but they could only bear the strain of a small charge. 
The ball passed through a thin copper cylinder, screwed into a brass 
breech, the chamber being strengthened with four bands of iron. The 
tabe is covered with layers of mastic, around which hempen cord is 
wound, then comes a layer of plaster (lime), and the whole is covered 
over with leather, boiled and varnished.^* There is an example in the 
Rotunda collection at Woolwich,^' and two others are at the Invalides, 
Paris. 

Iron shot is usually considered to have been an invention of the 
fifteenth century ; but this is not so, for iron balls are mentioned in 
the Florence reference of 1324-1326, aheady alluded to. It is 
certain, however, that the great majority of projectiles used in the 
fifteenth century were of stone. A more particular reference to this 
subject will be given later in these pages. 

There were very early mortars, hollow tubes, like an inverted 
cone ; they were short pieces of large bore, and some were graduated 
in the tube for the reception of shot of different diameters. Like 
bombards, very large mortars were made late in the fourteenth 
and early in the fifteenth centuries ; but the size was much reduced 
later. A very large specimen called Der grosse Pumhart von Stehr 
lies now in the Herres museum, at Vienna. Length, seven feet, ten 
inches ; diameter, three feet, six inches. The English army before 
Orleans, in 1428, had a train of fifteen breech-loading mortars.^^ 

*» Owen, Modem Artillery, p. 346. 

" Chesney's Observatione on Firearffis ; published in 1862, 

" Appendix, No. 17. 

v* JoUois, Htttoire du S%6ge d^Orliane, 



24 BABLY ORDKANOB IN EUBOPB : 

The cannon, at first without trannions, which do not appear 
before the beginning of the second half of the fifteenth century, was 
cylindrical in general form, and made of longitudinal bars of wrought 
iron, in overlapping sections, welded together on a mandril, or a core, 
and with hoops shrunk on, somewhat similar in principle to the first 
Armstrong guns ; which were built up with concentric layers, shrunk 
over one another, ^n a hollow cylinder of forged iron, so as to 
produce compression of the inner tube ; the outer covering being in a 
state of tension. An experiment was made in 1857, by Mr. Mallet, 
who constructed a thirty-eight inch mortar, by shrinking a number of 
wrought-iron rings oyer one another, strengthenii^ the outside by 
longitudinal bars. The gun was ruptured after a few rounds, owing 
to the imperfect welding of the rings. Lefroy, in Note on Mortar 
Practice^ estimates the mean weight of the thirty-six inch shells 
loaded at twenty-six cwts. 

The windage allowed in all forms of ancient cannon was excessive ; 
and the force of the recoil was so ill-managed as sometimes to 
throw the pieces off the stands on which they were placed. This 
force would greatly depend on the rate of the combustion of 
the powder: one rapidly converted into gas would produce a low 
recoil, while the contrary is the case when the powder burns more 
gradually. The ballistic force of the explosive used, in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries, must have been very low ; but there is every 
reason to believe that a low grade of powder was purposely employed, on 
account of the great liability of the guns to fracture by reason of 
the imperfect welding of the longitudinal bars of iron used in the 
construction of the cannon ; and that a knowledge existed, from the 
very earliest introduction of ordnance of a much stronger compound. 

Cannon were fired with a live coal, or by a firing iron, heated in 
a pan of charcoal (payrolet). Accessories, such as hammers, shovels, 
and bellows for blowing the charcoal, constantly recur in accounts 
of stores. 

Volturius, writing in 1472, describes the war engines then in use, 
including cannon, and guns of that period continued in employment 
as late as the reign of Henry YIII., as shown among the specimens 
recovered from the wreck of the * Mary Rose.' ^' 
^ liOit oft Portemouth i^ 1545. 



ENGLISH BOMBABDS AT MONT ST. MICHEL IN 1423. 25 

Napoleon III., in the EtudeSy refers to two bombards taken from, 
or left by, the English at the siege of Mont St. Michel in 1423, and a 
drawing of them is given by Captain Fav6 in his continuation of fche 
work. These guns are thus of a considerably earlier date than ' Mons 
Meg,' and very valuable as illustrating the bombard of the first quarter 
of the fifteenth century. General Lefroy, E.A., F.R.8.,^ quotes the 
abb^ Desroches as referring to the guns as being made of bars of iron, 
two inches in thickness, bound round with hoops of the same material 
and that in the larger piece is still to be seen the stone shot with which 
it is loaded.®^ It is far from uncommon to find ancient guns ready 
loaded and chained ; and an apron or hinge over the vent, a protection 
against wet, so often present on ancient guns, shows that it was 
customary to have cannon ready loaded for discharge when likely 
to be required, and in this condition they often remained for days 
and even longer. 

One of these bombards is rather larger than the other and the 
system of construction, that of longitudinal bars welded together, is 
the same. The larger gun is 19 inches in present calibre and twelve 
feet in its entire length, the chamber taking up about one-fourth. 
The granite balls are about 18 inches in diameter. 

The smaller gun has a calibre of 15 inches and is 11 feet 9 inches 
iQ total length. The granite ball for this gun is | of an inch less 
in diameter than the calibre of the cannon. The weight of the two 
guns are 5^ and 3 J tons respectively, thus the larger piece is even heavier 
than *Mons Meg,' although with a considerably smaller calibre. 

rav6 quotes freely from the artillery accounts of the dukes 

of Bui^undy ; and mentions that in 1436 a bombard called 

Bourgogne was forged in two pieces for rendering transportation more 

easy : the pieces were conveyed on separate waggons, each drawn by 

48 horses : and were screwed together for firing ; as in the cases of 

* Mons Meg,' and the * Dulle Griete ' of Ghent ; this system was further 

developed in 1443, in the case of two bombards, each consisting of 

four pieces. Fav6 mentions, under the same year, a bombard called 

Dijon^ the barrel portion of which, alone, weighed 20,000 livres : also 

another cannon, the chamber portion of which was 12 feet long ; 

"• Proceedings^ Boyal Artillery IngtUution, vol. iv. p. 10. 
^ One of the shot for this gun is now at Woolwich. 



26 BABLT OBDNANOB IN BUBOPB : 

throwing a projectile 23 inches in diameter. In 1451, a bombard 
was made at Lozembarg, weighing 36,000 livres ; and it received the 
name of that town. 

There is a bombard in the arsenal at Dresden dating towards the 
end of the fifteenth centnry ; calibre, 14 inches. It is named Diefaule 
Magd (the dirty maid), and another at the arsenal at B&le ; calibre, 
18 inches. 

We have a familiar instance of a bombard of the middle of the 
fif tieenth century in the Scottish cannon, * Mons Meg,' already referred 
to, and a rent near the breech is instructive in laying bare the system 
of construction, which has just been described. The bore of the 
barrel is largest near the chamber, which appears from a rule laid 
down by Wolfius to have been considered an advantage in these 
times. The inscription on the gun, placed there at the instance of 
sir Walter Scott, states that the bombard was forged at Mons, but it 
is believed by some to have been made in Galloway in Scotland and 
presented to James II. by the town of Kirkcudbright, when the king 
went to besiege Thrieve castle (the Douglas stronghold) in 1455 ; and 
that it was named after ' Meg,' the wife of the smith who forged it 
in a few days, for the king's use.^ The king is said to have granted 
the lands of Mollance to the smith in recognition of his skill, and hence 
the aohriqmt * Mollance Meg,' shortened to *Mons Meg.' Some 
support is afforded to this legend by the discovery of a deep bed of 
cinders at Oarlingwark when making a road, showing that there had 
probably been a great forge there in early times, and the statement 
that the king was killed in 1460 by the bursting of a cannon, when 
it was being tested, would tend to show that ordnance was being 
made in Scotland about this time. Holinshed ^ states that about 
the year 1498 James IV. gave orders to Robert Borthwick to make 
field pieces and other guns in the castle of Edinburgh, which guns 
were inscribed, Machina sum Scoto Borthunckfabricata Roberto. 

Some entries in the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland 
are, however, fatal to this patriotic legend,®* for there the gun is 
referred to as ' Monns,' ' Mons,' and ^ Mdnsis,' and the addition of the 
affix ^Meg' does not appear in any record before the seventeenth 

" Hiitory of Galloway (Kirkcudbright, 1841). " Vol. v. p. 470, 

^ 1473-1498, H.M. Gen. Register House, Edinburgh, 1877. 




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*MONS meg' at BDINBUBGH CASTLE. 27 

century. The space at my disposal will not permit of giving any lengthy 
extracts from these records, however interesting ; but a selection from 
them follows, sufficient to establish the point, which is important :— <- 
1489. 

* Item, geyin the gunnaris to drinksilver quhen thai cartit Monss, 

be the Kingis commanded xviij*.' 

U97. 

* Item, that samyn day [x day of Aprill], giffin to Johue Mawar, 

elder, in part of payment of the quhelis*' making to the 

bombardis and Mons ... ., ... mjlib,* 

' Item, the last day of Maij, in Edinburgh Castell, at the casting " 

of Mons, gevin to the Kingis command to the gunnaris ... xviij*.' 

* Item, [the xx day of Julij] for iiij gret towis *• to Mons, weyand 

XYJ stane five pund : for ilk stane iiij«* 

' Item, to the menstralis that playit Mons doune the gait xiiij«.' 

* Item, giffin for xiij stane of ime, to mak grath ^ to Mons new 

cradill, and gavillokkis to ga with hir, for ilk stane ... xxviijei.' 

In this year (1497), sir Robert Ker is master of the artillery. 
An item appears for conveying a great bombard from Edinburgh 
to the siege of Thrieve and back to Linlithgow ; and it seems in 
every way likely that this was ' Mons Meg ' herself ; though there 
were, however, other large bombards in Scotland at the time, 
imported from Flanders ; indeed, that country was then supplying 
most of the countries of Europe.^ The Exchequer Rolls show 
payments for freight for a bombard called the 'Lion,' in 1430,^^ 
and there is also an item for damage done by the great gun, 
when being hoisted on board the vessel. Another bombard from 
Flanders is mentioned under the year 1441-1442. Certain it is that 
guns similar to ^ Mons Meg ' were made in Flanders about the middle 
of the fifteenth century, as an instance the 'DuUe Griete,' now at 
Ghent, which bombard resembles ' Mons Meg ' in every detail of con- 
struction. The sobriquet * Meg ' also looks like an importation, for 
*Griete,' a popular name for cannon in the Low Countries, is the 
Flemish equivalent for * Meg.' This is suggestive of the possibility 

* This is the year of the siege of Dumbarton. " Wheels. 

" This must be for castings in connexion with the carriage. 
" Ropes. »' Gear (?). 

" Charles VII. bought a number of guns of Toumay in 1440. Monstrelet, 
chap. cdT. 

" Bower, Fordun Seotichranioon^ lib, xvi. 



28 BABLT ORDNANCE IK BUBOPB : 

that the gun may have been popularly known as * Mons Meg ' in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, though referred to in the official 
documents as ' Mons,' etc. We hear of ' Mons ' as having been 
engaged at the siege of Dumbarton castle in 1489, and she was 
probably also at Norham in 1497. 

' Mons Meg ' was last discharged in 1682, firing a salute in honour 
of the duke of York, when she burst. It is not stated whether or not 
the charge was too large — perhaps it had been forgotten that a cannon 
lives its life like everything else — and this gun would not be able to 
bear much strain after a career of more than two centuries and a 
quarter. The old wooden carriage, though not the original one, for 
items appear in the Treasury accounts for 1497 for a new * cradill ' for 
^ Mens,' fell to pieces in 1835, and the present one of iron was cast at 
Woolwich in the following year. An inscribed stone, which formed 
part of a gate of Edinburgh castle, represents the cannon as mounted 
on an ancient carriage. 

The calibre is about 20 inches, the length 18 ft. 6 ins., and the 
present weight of the gun about five tons. There is reason to believe 
that the projectile used was a granite shot, weighing 380 pounds. 

I have no doubt that the barrel was screwed on to the chamber 
portion, for the holes in the hinder end for the insertion of levers for 
manipulating the screwing together and the reverse, observable in the 
case of the great Ghent gun, are present here also. Plate 1 gives a 
representation of ' Mons Meg ' as she now is. It would not be safe 
to assign a higher antiquity to the cannon than the middle of the 
fifteenth century. 

There is another * Meg ' in the bombard called the * Holle Griete ' 
of Diest, and it is thought to be only the chamber portion of a lai^e 
gun. The present length is 1*67 m. The chamber portion of a large 
bombard could be, and, indeed, often was, used by itself .^^ 

The 'Dulle Griete' at Ghent. 
This great cannon closely resembles 'Mons Meg' in form and 
construction generally, but she is much larger. The name is literally 
* Mad Margaret * ; so also a ' Meg ' ! 

•^ An exhaustive account of 'Mons Meg ' appears in the Annale* du Cercle 
Archeologique de Mo-m^ t xxiv. ; written by M. Armand de Behault de Bomon, 
Mons, 1894. 




z 






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THE *DULLB GRlBTB* AT GHENT. . 29 

Like her sister *Mons Meg/ she is constructed in accordance with 
the methods prevailing about the middle of the fifteenth century, and 
is made entirely of wrought iron. The part containing the chamber 
is screwed to the barrel portion, and the small holes observable in the 
former are for the insertion of levers for screwing the parts together, 
or the reverse. The barrel is composed of 32 bars, each of which is 
55 millimetres broad, by 30 mm. in thickness, welded together 
longitudinally, like the staves of a ;cask. These are covered with 41 
rmgs of equal breadth, welded together, and their different thicknesses 
exhibit the barrel in four telescopic divisions, the outside diameters of 
which measure I'OO, 0*938, 0*880, and 0*820 m. respectively. The 
three rings comprising the muzzle are of different thicknesses, the last 
being the greatest. 

The chamber is composed of twenty rings welded together. Three- 
fifths of its capacity correspond, nearly exactly, to the volume of 
38 kilos, gunpowder, of a density of 0*9, being one-ninth of the weight 
of the projectile, the remaining two-fifths being taken up by the 
wooden wad and empty space. 

The total weight of the cannon is 16,400 kilos ; and the probable 
weight of the projectile used is about 840 kilos. The total length is 
5025 m., inside the barrel 3*315 m., and present diameter there 0*64, 
length of the chamber inside, 1*375. 

The general arrangements of the ' Dulle Griete ' ^* are those of the 
middle of the fifteenth century. It is therefore obvious that it could not 
have been used at the siege of Oudenarde in 1383, as is often stated to 
have been the case. Besides, the arms of Burgundy encircle the 
vent-field, and the princes of that house did not commence their 
rale in Flanders until 1384. It is recorded, however, that this 
bombard was used at another siege of Oudenarde, by the Gantois in 
1452 ; on which occasion the defence was conducted by Simon de 
Lalain.** The town was relieved by the duke of Burgundy and the 
cannon fell into the hands of that prince. It was restored to Ghent 



•* * Mons Meg * is 3™ 97 long ; and greatest diameter 0™ 73. Compare these 
cannon with the 130 ton gun, fired recently at Sandy Hook. Length of gun 
16 yards, charge of powder 600 lbs., trajectory over twenty miles. 

•• Chronique de 8, de Lalain, chap. 81. 



so BABLT OBDNANOB IN BTTBOPS: 

in 1578,^* where it now lies. Plate 2 gives a representation of the 
bombard, where it stands at present.** 

Instances of the nse of ordnance multiply as the fifteenth century 
advances, for by that time the influence it exercised on campaigning 
generally, and more especially on the assault and defence of fortified 
places, began to be of such importance that every chronicler of 
warlike operations has something to say about it. Many of these 
early writers are, however, both fanciful and inaccurate in their state- 
ments. 

Several cannon were employed in the reduction of Bamburgh 
and Dunstanburgh castles in 1465. William Nele, ' gunnoure,' had 
a grant for life of sixpence daily for his good service in making 
cannon within the Tower of London and elsewhere, March 10, 1484.*^ 

Nicholas Merburg was master of ordnance in England in 1414,^ 
Gilbert Parr in 1433,»» Thomas Vaughan in I455,i<» John Jedd, or 
Judd, in 1456,1^1 Raufe Bygood in USd,^^ sir Richard Gilsford in 
1485,^^ sir Nicholas Appleyard in 1513,^^ sir William Skevington in 
1623,1^ sir Christopher Morris in 1537,^^ sir Philip Hoby in 1548, 
and sir William Pelham in 1558.^^^ The office was not abolished 
before 1852. 

Trunnions, cylindrical pieces of wrought iron on each side of the 
piece, fitting into sockets, supported and balanced the cannon on its 
stand or carriage and prevented its being thrown off by the force of 
the recoil, as had been often the case with earlier appliances when not 
enclosed by heavy pieces of timber. Trunnions also assisted in £he 
pointing of the gun. The invention probably dates a little before the 
campaigns of Charles the Bold (1474-1477). One of the accounts of 
the town of Lille, of the year 1465, contains an item for one trunnion, 
to be made for a big serpentine ; and this looks like a replacement, for 
one trunnion on a gun would hardly answer the purpose required. A 

*^ Audenaerdische mengelingen, t, i. p. 10. 

•• Fuller particulars of this bombard are given in Histoire de VArtUlerie en 
Belgique^ par M. Paul Henrard. Brussels, 1865. 

^ Oal. of Pat Rolls, 1 Richard II. " Rymer*s Foedera. 

■* Nicolas's Privy Council Proceedings, vol. v. 

'•• Bayley's Hist, qfth^ Tower of London. *•* Excerpta Hietoriea, p. 10. 

•« Harl. MS. No. 433. >•» Grose's Military AwtiquUiee, 

'•* Holinshed. >« Ihid, '•• Grose's MUitary Antiquities. '•» Ibid. 



OANKON EMPLOTBD AGAINST BAMBUBGH OASTLB, ETC., IK 1465. 81 

serpent gun of the reign of Henry VI., now at Woolwich,^^ affords 
an early example of a gun with tmnnions. 

In the nature of things, there have been no very early stands or 
^nui-carriages handed down to ns, and we owe any knowledge we 
possess as to their form, snbstanoe and construction, mainly to 
references made to them in MSS. of a more or less contemporaneous 
diaracter, and we are indebted to a few very rare drawings, and 
inscriptions on stone, for what we know of those of a some- 
what later date. The ancient stands and carriages, of which there 
are actual examples, are doubtless renewals, for all information 
oonoerning them goes to show that they had but a very short life, 
owing to the proportionately heavy recoil of the guns to which 
they were attached. This influence was naturally much more 
destructive after, say, 1360-1380, when larger guns were made, and 
especially in the case of the stands or beds for great bombards. A 
contemporary chronicle of Nurembei^ states that the baulks of 
timber, of which the stands were composed required renewal every 
three or four days I^^ 

There are specimens of stands and gun-carriages of the reign of 
Henry YIII., and probably also of a still earlier time, in the examples 
recovered from the wreck of the * Mary Rose,' sunk off Spithead in 
1545. Some of the guns preserved in the Swiss and other arsenals 
and museums go back to the middle of the fifteenth century, but it is 
very doubtful if any of the beds or gun-carriages preserved are con- 
temporaneous with the making of the guns to which they are now 
attached. The Burgundian guns were continued in use by the Swiss, as 
shown by various inventories preserved, and as almost all of them were 
without truimions, it was natural that when new beds or gun-carriages 
became necessary, they would be made on the old models, as being 
more suitable for pieces of that description than the newer fashion for 
gons with trunnions. The wretched condition of the roads of the 
period would alone tend to give gun-carriages but a short life. 

Brackenbury^^^ reproduces from the Etudss the description of 
a bed for a cannon which follows below. The cannon and bed 

•^ Appendix, No. 4. 

** Boeheim's Wafenkunde, p. 434. 

*^ Proeeed^ngi of the Royal Artillery Institution, vol. t. p. 9, 



82 BABLY ORDNANCE IN BXJBOPB : 

were ordered to be made at Caen in 1375 by one of the king's 
councillors. The bed for the cannon comprises a large piece of 
elm to encase the body/^^ another portion for the side-pieces, a 
large piece of elm for the front side-pieces for lowering and raising 
the cannon when required, three pieces of wood for the patrons^ etc., 
a piece of oak for the rear side-pieces, two great pieces of wood for 
the lower beams to carry the cannon, wood to make the long bands 
{Ions lyans\ etc., four pieces of wood for the chappeaux and petits 
lyana^ etc. 

The bed thus made would appear to have continued in the same 
fashion during the century following, for the description corresponds 
with contemporary illustrations of fifteenth century stands. Some- 
times, more especially for ordnance of the last quarter of the fourteenth 
century, wheels were placed under the bed for mitigating the force of 
the recoil. Two cannon lying together on a rough bed with wheels 
are given in the Froissart illumination showing the attack on the 
town of Aubenton by the earl of Haynault^-one of the wheels has 
fallen oflP. The siege took place in 1840, and therefore at too early a 
date for the large guns and beds represented, but it gives an idea 
of both^the type of cannon and stand in use some thirty years later. 

The early gun-carriage was rough and clumsy, with heavy wooden 
wheels and axle-trees of the same material, without gun limbers or 
gear, and drawn by oxen ; but it had much improved by the beginning 
of the second half of the fifteenth century. 

The first mention of two-wheeled gun-carriages is, I believe, in 
Ghronicon Tarvisinum^ by Andrea Redusio, in connexion with the 
siege of Quero in 1876 ; and I have already referred to the ribaudeaux 
on wheels used in the battle between the forces of Bruges and Ghent 
in 1882, and when Jean-sans-peur invaded Vermandois in 1411 with 
an army of 40,000 men, he carried with him two hundred rilaudeauxy 
constructed to carry one or several cannon.^^^ The early ribaudequin 
consisted of a rough carriage on two wooden wheels, carrying two or 
three small cannon. The projectiles employed were cannon arrows. 
A wooden mantlet protected the gunners in rear ; and the carriage 
bristled with spears fixed on to it. Originally the machine was 

»" That is to say, deeply grooved. 

"* Chronique de Monstrelet, chap. Ixxxiv. p. 205, 



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GUN-CARRIAGE PROM WRECK OF * MARY ROSE,' ETC. 38 

intended for one discharge only, after which it fell to the rear. The 
^ns were fixed on the carriage at an invariable angle, but later 
specimens show many improvements. Demmin gives an illustration 
of the engine in his book, copied from a drawing executed about 
1505, in Nicholaus Glockenthou's work, now at Vienna. Ribaudeaux 
continued in use for long ; they are mentioned in Elizabeth's reign. 

The application of the rack principle, which took various forms, 
was a great step forward, more especially so when combined with a 
wheeled carriage. The cannon lay on a wooden plane, which was 
attached to the bed of the carriage in front by a pin passing 
through staples or by a hinge, and its tail rested on a bar passed 
through holes in the rack ; or it was attached by the bar passing 
through the tail, as shown on plate III. The rack was connected 
with the plane in front, and on either side by rods for adjustment 
to the angle of elevation or inclination required ; or by a directing 
bar of iron, holed at intervals, which was fixed to the bed of 
the carriage, and the tail of the plane worked up and down, the gun 
being secured at the necessary angle by a pin, as shown on fig. C. A 
gun-carriage, now at Woolwich, recovered from the wreck of the 
* Mary Rose,' is grooved on the under side to slide on a directing 
bar. Drawings of the rack system are given in the Zeitblom MS. of 
the fifteenth century. The timbers of the carriage rested on a single 
shaft mortised into the axle-tree bed, and connected with the trail. 

Qnite a number of ancient guns, many of them stated to have 
been taken by the forces of the Swiss cantons during the period 
from 1474 to 1476, are spread over the arsenals and museums of 
Switzerland,"' and some of the reputed Burgundian guns are at 
Paris. Several of the guns, supposed to be Burgundian, are of 
very early date, half a century earlier than the battle of Granson, 
the explanation being that duke Charles lost most of his field 
artillery at Granson and Murben ; and for the battle of Nancy, 
all the old fortress pieces and guns of position that could be 
laid hands on were requisitioned for the army ; or it may be that 
some of the reputed Burgundian cannon are rejiUy Swiss or German 
pieces. The archives of the Canton de Fribourg contain inventories 

*" There are fine collections, at Nauveville (canton Berne), Morat (Murten), 
Zurich, Bale, and Soleore. 



84 BAELT ORDNANCE IN BUBOPE : 

of cannon as early as 1481 ; that of 1508 shows a remarkable increase 
in the number and variety of ^ns possessed by the Canton, over the 
one taken in 1474. Some of them are scheduled as pieces conquises^ 
and this probably refers to the Burgundian cannon that had 
fallen to the share of Fribourg, at the division after the battle of 
Nancy. 

A feldschlangey on its carriage, stated to have been taken at Granson, 
is represented in plate III. The gun is now in the excellent historical 
museum at Nauveville (Canton Berne) ; and I am indebted to the 
director for having had a photograph specially taken for the purposes 
of these notes. The rack arrangement is shown very clearly, but the 
gun-carriage is probably not the one used by the Burgundians, 
though made on the old model. The collection at Nauveville consists 
of seven pieces, on carriages with two wheels, and of three bombards 
with their projectiles. 

The cannon at the gymnasium at Murten (Morat) are as follows, 
viz. : — cannon, wrought iron, strengthened with rings, chamber 
portion wanting, two rings for haulage. Present length of cannon, 
66 centimetres; diameter at muzzle, 14 ; and behind, 7*5. Mounted 
on oak carriage, 258 centimetres long. 

Small bombard, on low stand. Length, 44 centimetres ; calibre, 14. 
Plate IV. represents these two cannon. 

FeldschlayigBy wrought iron breech-loader. Length, 140 ; calibre, 
8 ; mounted on oak carriage, 255 centimetres long. The cannon is 
strengthened with fifteen rings, and has two rings for haulage. 

Small mortar, without stand. Length, 48 ; calibre, 16, 5. Fig. D 
represents these pieces. 

There is ?kUoth!St feldschlange of bronze, much shorter and thicker, 
mounted on an oak carriage. 

Two other cannon, one with carriage ; and another small bombard. 
My best thanks are due to direktor S. Miiller of Lowenberg, Morat, 
for his kindness in having had the guns specially photographed for 
the purposes of these notes, and also for sending me the dimensions. 

Among the veuglaires, captured by the Swiss, is one at Nauve- 
ville without trunnions, showing three aiming sights ; but I am not 
aware of any of the other guns taken having fixed sights ; nor, in 
fact, do such sights appear, as a rule, on sixteenth century cannon. 




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CANNON IN THE GYMNASIUM AT MUBTBN. 



35 



The Chronique bemoise de Schilling states that Charles left 420 
cannon, exclusive of hand guns, on the field of Granson ; and among 
them were many heavy guns (hauptbiichsen),"* besides couleuvrines, 
and bombards (steinbiichsen ?). These were divided among the 
Swiss cantons^ and their allies ; and in the course of time many of 
them have found their way to other parts of Europe. 

A later form of gun-carriage consists of two strong side timbers, 
sloping gently to the ground, beyond the cannon behind. These are ^ 




united by the bed, in which the cannon rests on its trunnions, 
Holes for the insertion of a pin, at different altitudes, pass right 
through^ and the adjustment of this pin, or bar, to which the tail of 
the piece is drawn, secures the angle of elevation required. 

A representation of a Bavarian falconet, of the year 1524, on its 
gun-carriage, drawn by a single horse, is given on fig. E.^^^ 

Pronsperger in his Kriegahuch of 1573, gives a drawing of a 

"* Probably Courteaux. 

*** Studie Hber die MUwickliing des Qeschiltzwesens in Deutschland ; by 
Costos Wendelin Boeheim : published in Zeitxchrift fur hutorUche Waffen- 
hmde, Tol. L p. 61. The illustration was copied from Das Buohsenmevrterbuch 
of Christof Seselscbreiber, of the year 1624: now in the Kbnigl. Hof- und Staats- 
bibliothek, at Munich. 



86 



EARLY ORDNANCE IN EUROPE : 



cannon, weighing 75 cwts., drawn by 25 horses. It furnishes an 
example of the loading rod of copper, and the square used in aiming. 

Drawings of gun-carriages of the sixteenth century, from a work 
entitled Entree de Charles V, a Milan, avec le pape Clement VII., 
are, I understand, reproduced in De Vigne's Vade-Mecum dupeintre. I 
have not been able to see the drawings. 

The ancient cannon in the donjon of the castle, at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, are as follows : — 5 ship falconets ; 1 cannon with trun- 
nions ; and 3 guns brought from China, all in the so-called banqueting- 
hall ; 1 piece of ordnance, also from China, in the basement ; and 
10 ship guns on the battlements. 

The five ship falconets, were in all probability, worked on swivels. 




The guns are in such a condition of dilapidation and corrosion, that 
it is extremely difficult to arrive at any very exact determination 
concerning the approximate date of make. They differ somewhat, 
though not very materially, in size — four have trunnions ; and these 
supports have been chipped off the fifth — these guns are made of cast 
iron, excepting the trunnions and tail-pieces, which are of wrought iron. 

Two of them .want the fore, and two the after, portions ; while 
but one retains part of its tail-piece. All are breech-loaders, but 
none of the breech-blocks has been recovered. 

The original length of four of the guns must have been something 
over seven feet from the muzzle to the tip of the tail, length of 
chamber about 15 inches, length of baiTel about 4 feet 2 inches ; the 



CANNON IN NEWCASTLE CASTLE, ETC. 37 

fifth cannon has been larger, say, 7 feet 6 inches to 7 feet 10 inches, 
but the hinder end, with the tail-piece, has been broken off. The 
inner tnbes are all more corroded away as the muzzle is approached, 
&o that the present measurements at the mouths, which range from 
IJ to nearly 2 inches in diameter, are in excess of the original calibres 
of the guns. The bottoms are out of the chambers so that the 
arrangements for the reception of the breech-blocks cannot now be 
discerned, but a bolt ran through the latter and a tenon and mortice 
at) the bottom secured the block, while the insertion of a wedge made 
the whole fast. The largest of these guns is very similar in form and 
size to one dragged up from under the sea by some fishermen near the 
Goodwin Sands in 1776,^^^ but that gun is of brass and consequently 
in a much better state of preservation than the cannon under review. 




Fitr. F 117 represents a ship falconet now at the Port de Hal, Brussels. 
Length of barrel, 5 feet 2 inches ; calibre, nearly 1^ inches. This 
piece presents its handled breech-block in position for firing, the 
swivel on which it pivoted, and the tail-piece, in this case bent 
downwards for the purpose of elevation. Another swivel falconet with 
a tail-piece straight, like the tail-pieces of the castle guns, is now in the 
Caerleon museum. This type of cannon, one of the attempts made 
to perpetuate the movable chamber system, was only suitable for a 
small charge of fine grain powder and it had no recoil to speak of. 
They were mostly employed on warships of small tonnage and hence 
the fact of their being always found in the beds of rivers and on the sea 
shore. Quite a number have been fished up. This type of gun is the 
pierier, perear, or patteros, mentioned in inventories. Mr. Gibson, 

"• Archa$ologiay vol. v. "' Appendix. No. 42. 



88 EABLT OBDNAJBTOB IN EUKOPE : 

the warder at the castle, snggests that these guns had been thrown 
overboard in the Tyne, in the bed of which they were found, to avoid 
capture when Newcastle was besieged by the Scots in 1644. There is a 
tradition that king Oharles attempted an escape from Newcastle in 
1645 * by the passage of Lort Burn and that he got down as far as 
the middle of the Side, when he was caught in his attempt to force 
the iron grate at its outlet. A ship was said to be in readiness to 
receive his Majesty.' ^^^ But, however this may be, the guns would 
appear to date from an earlier period, say in the sixteenth century, 
like the Brussels falconet, fig. F ;^^^ but for all that it is far from 
being impossible that they were still in use in the century following. 

BiiBECH-LOA.DlNG CANNON WITH TRUNNIONS. 

This piece of ordnance is made of cast iron strengthened with 
wrought iron rings, shrunk on — the tail-piece and trunnions are of 
forged iron. I was of opinion that the body of this cannon was of 
cast iron, but could not be certain by reason of the corroded and rusty 
condition of the piece, but to make sure I consulted Mr. Towers, 
the manager of the works of Messrs. John Abbot & Co., Ltd., 
of Gateshead, who, on inspection, confirmed my views as to the 
manipulation of the iron employed. He was good enough to send 
one of his most experienced workmen to see the gun, who pronounced 
in the sense stated, remarking that there was a considerable percentage 
of copper in the mixture. 

The length of the gun without the tail-piece, which is broken oflF 
short, is nearly 8 feet 2 inches ; length of chamber, 8^ inches and 
width about 5 inches. The opening at the muzzle is very large, 
partly, no doubt, increased by corrosion, but it was wide originally 
with a view to the missiles, which were probably nails or pieces of 
iron, spreading out like the buckshot from a blunderbuss of the 
eighteenth century ; the diameter of the barrel next the chamber is 
very much smaller, being abont 2 inches. The bottom of the 
chamber is out and the walls are about an inch thick. Guns were not 
cast in England, as fi^r as is known, before the sixteenth century, bat 
this looks like a Flemish gun of the vetcglaire type and dates probably 

"" Sykes's Local Record*^ vol. i. p. 100. 
••"Appendix, No. 42. 



BBBBCH-LOADING CANNON WITH TRUNNIONS, ETC. 89 

aomewhat earlier. The piece was sent to oar society by the 
aathorities of the Boyal Arsenal at Woolwich in exchange for a gnn 
presented to ns by Mr. Joseph Price of Gateshead, in 1835. The gun 
given to us by Mr. Price is now in the Rotunda at Woolwich. It is of 
wrought iron and of comparatively late date. Oalibre, 4 inches ; 
length, 4 feet 4 inches. 

GUNS FROM CHINA. 

The swivel gun was presented to the society by Captain Ooulson, 
who brought it with him from China. I think it is called ^jingil. 
II is a breech-loader, socked and shouldered in a wooden stock, 
working on a swivel something in the style of the sporting duck gun, 
and it greatly resembles sixteenth century specimens of this style of 
gnn which may be seen in many collections, both at home and abroad. 
The length is about 8 feet, thus approximately divided — barrel, 4 feet ; 
Aamber, 17 inches ; and tail portion, 2 feet 7 inches. The calibre is 
about an inch. A swivel serpentine, strengthened by 25 rings shrunk 
on. Calibre Ij inch. A cannon with 2 rings for haulage. Calibre, 
2^ inches; lei^h, about 8 feet. It seems to be of no great 
antiquity. The serpentine and cannon with rings were presented by 
Mr. G. Rippon.^^ They were captured at Chusan. Like most guns 
brought from China these pieces, with the exception, perhaps, of the 
last mentioned, have a European aspect and really one cannot resist 
the impression that they came originally from Europe. 

The gun in the guard-room is of no great antiquity. It has 
trunnions and cascabel; calibre, 8^ inches; length, abont 6 feet. 
The piece came from China but would appear to be of European 
make. 

The ten pieces on the battlements are ship guns, probably dating 
from the first half of the eighteenth century ; calibre, about 5 inches. 
They were placed on the battlements by the Newcastle corporation 
before our society had possession of the castle, for the purpose of 
being fired on occasions of public rejoicing. I believe they were last 
discharged when her late majesty queen Victoria declared the High 
Level bridge open for traffic in 1849. 

Charles VIII. of France entered Italy in 1494, with a train of 

** Arch, Ael,f new series, vol. i. p. ix. 



40 EARLY ORDNANCE IN EUROPE : 

brass cannon,^^^ drawn by horses ; while in the opposing Italian host 
oxen were used for the purpose. Fav6 states that Charles's guns'^for 
besieging fortresses were so dilatory that the besieged had time 
to repair the damage caused by each shot before another could be 
deUvered. 

At this time Italian ordnance consisted of bombardeSj mortiers, 
comunas^ cortanas^ passa volants^ basilisk^ cerbatanas, and espingardes, 
ranging fipom 300 down to ten pounders. 

The elbow-mortar, used in Italy early in the fifteenth century, was a 
tube fixed at right angles to another on a horizontal piece of wood. 
It was one of the attempts made with a view to obtaining a greater 
rapidity of fire ; but like many others it was soon cast aside.^ 

The Orgm^ the Todtmorgel of the Germans, so named from the 
barrels being placed in rows, like the pipes of an organ, was invented 
about the middle of the fifteenth century ; there are examples with 
forty barrels, and even many more. This piece is the prototype of 
the mitrailleuse, and of the Gatling gun. A very early example may be 
seen at Sigmaringen,^^^ with its two-wheeled carriage, and others are 
at Berlin. There are a good many specimens preserved,^^* which vary 
very much in size ; some are very small hand weapons, prototypes of 
the revolver, of which an example is at Woolwich. 

Howitzers, for the discharge of hollow balls, came into use in 
England during the second half of the sixteenth century ; and 
petards appeared in the Netherlands a little earlier. 

The connecting link between artillery and hand guns is to be 
found in a weapon served by two or three men, used from the ram- 
parts, and also with a stand in the field, called harquebuH a chroche. 
An inventory of arms and armour in the tower, and at Greenwich, 
mentions Hagbtcsshes a croke of brass iij ; Hagbusshes a croke of 
ironey oone : and among the ordnance scheduled in the Tower 
inventory of 1559, occurs the item *harquebutts a chroche, 80.' The 
harquebus, or hakmbiischSy would appear to have derived its 

**• Hittoire et Tactique deg Trots Armes, 

"* Mr. Grose in his work on Military AntiquitisSy vol. i. p. 398, gives a 
drawing of an elbow-mortar, apparently taken from the InstUutionum 
reipublioae mUita/ns, etc,^ by Nicolai Mareschalchi (Rostock, 1516). 

*" First half of the fifteenth century. 

'** One with forty-two barrels is in the arsenal at Soleare. 



THE 'ELBOW MORTAR,* * ORGUE,' 'HOWITZERS,' ETC. 41 

name from hoc or hdken^ a spur (attached to the underside of the 
weapon for resting against a rampart or a stand), and bikhse, a gun. 
^veral of these weapons may be seen in the Rotunda collection at 
Woolwich. Other specimens are noticed in the appendix to these 
notes.^^ 

Rifled cannon, a principle, I believe, first applied in Germany, 
were introduced early in the sixteenth century. Examples of that 
period may be seen at the Zeughaus, Berlin ; and also in the museums 
of Nurembm'g, the Hague, and Zurich. Benjamin Robins, who 
published his Ifew Principles of Ounnery in 1742, is often credited 
with this invention.^2^ 

Many bronze and iron cannon were cast throughout the fifteenth 
century, notably in Italy, Flanders, France ; and in Germany also, as 
instanced by the fine gun at the Invalides, Paris, cast by Georg 
Bndorfer, inscribed Y^ith the year 1404. Jaques Dehomes began to 
cast cannon at Malines, in 1420 -P"^ and the arsenal at Bale possesses 
a fine cannon, with trunnions, cast iii bronze, bearing the inscrip- 
tion Jehann de Malines^ ma fayt Ian mcccclxxiiii^ and the arms of 
Burgundy. The length of this piece is 2m. 520 ; weight, 2,000 
liv.; and calibre Om. 220. The diameter of the projectile is 
200 m/m ; and weight 20 livres ; charge of powder, 4 J liv., occupy- 
ing f of the capacity of the chamber. Fig, G is a drawing of 
this cannon. 

It would appear that the first mention of any guns cast in 
England is in the century following, when : — 

" Master Hogge, and his man John, 
They did cast the first can-non." ^^ 

This is stated to have taken place at Buxted, Sussex, in 1543 ; 
doubtless the place a few miles from Lewes, referred to by a writer in 
Archaeologia. vol. x. p. 472 ; who remarks : ' where it has always 
been understood the first guns were made in England.' The writer 
of the notes in question gives a drawing of an early cannon, as 
probably having been made at the Buxted fm-naces. The gun is 

•^^Nos. 36and48. 

'" Robins reduced the practice of gunnery to a science, and he was the 
inventor of the ballistic pendulum. 
*" Chronycke van Mechelen. 
*" Archaeologia, vol. xxxvii. p. 483. 

VOL. XXV. 6 



42 



KAttLY OftDlTANCE IN EUBOPB t 



represented as of wrought-iron longitudinal bars, strengthened with 
rings, without trunnions ; and it is still &stened to an ancient 
wooden stand. The bombard at Bridge Green, in 1768, was fired on 
occasions of rejoicings. It would seem to have been of early fifteenth 
century date. Viscount Dillon, P.S.A., in his notes in Archaeologia, 
vol. li. pp. 167-172, on * A Letter of Sir Henry Lee, 1590, on the trial of 
Iron for Armour,' mentions that a payment occurs in September, 1516, 
of £33 6s. 8d. to John Rutter of London, for * hurts and damages 
by him sustained in a tenement to htm belonging wherein the king's 
great gun, the * Basiliscus ' was cast, and for rent ; ' and that in 1532, 
Carlo Capello, the Venetian, writes that Henry 'visited the Tower 
daily to hasten the works going on there, and was founding cannon.' 



L U^*^iv^i^mH*m4^^^Mfwhi>^^i^*i^y^m.^ 




In regard to gunpowder, an indenture, already referred to, as 
between John Starlyng and Helmyng Legat, dating in the twelfth 
year of the reign of Edward III. (1338), schedules un petit barrell de 
gonpguder U quart' plein.^^^ Reference has been made in these pages 
to gunpowder, the first name it appears to have borne in England, as 
having been manufactured by Thomas de Roldeston for Edward III. 
In a Book of Accounts of the King's Chamber from 1344 to 1347, 
deposited among the records of the exchequer, the following entry 
occurs : — Eidem Thomae super facturam pulveris pro ingmiis^ et 
emendatione diversarum armaturarum^ xl. sol}^^ 

»'-* Sir N. H. Nicolas's Hist. Royal Ravy, London, 1847. 

"• In Mr. Joseph Hunter's * Proofs of the Early Use of Gunpowder in the 
English Army,' Archaeologia, vol. xxxii. p. 381. 



COMPOSITION OP QUNPOWDBR. 43 

There are also entries in the accounts for quick-sulphur ^^^ and 
saltpetre, costing eightpence and one shilling and sixpence per lb. 
respectively, though none appears for charcoal,^^^ i^ut in 1309 ^n entry 
of six pounds of sea-coal occurs in the King's Wardrobe Account in 
connexion with sulphur and saltpetre, as if coal, called sea-coal then 
and much later, could be used as a substitute for charcoal in the 
making of gunpowder ; close to this entry eighty-four pounds of 
gunpowder are mentioned. A Tower Survey of 1559 schedules *salt 
petre, brimstone and coal powder to make powder.' 

Some entries in the Pipe Rolls of the Exchequer of 1851 have been 
already given in these notes, and gunpowder is twice mentioned among 
them. It would appear that the ingredients saltpetre and sulphur 
were usually kept separately, ready to be mixed together when the 
completed compound was required for use, and that the charcoal was 
made when wanted. The ingredients were first separately weighed 
and then pounded together in a pestle and mortar, and an Account of 
the King's Chamber of 1374 mentions scales, brass mortars and iron 
pestles. 

John Andeme, in his treatise FracOca, temp, Edward III., gives 
the following recipe : — Four faire un fewe volant : Frenez j lib. de 
soufre vif de iharbones de saux ij lib., de saltpetre vj lib.^^ 
which is the Marcus Graecus compound over again, viz.: ^ R. lib. i. 
stdphuris vivi, lib. U. carbonis salids, salis petrose vi. libras. A certain 
quantity to be put into a long, narrow and well-compacted cover, and 
then discharged into the air.' This mixture is much superior in 
strength to the gunpowder used for cannon in the fourteenth century, 
which is said to have consisted of equal parts of the three ingredients 
mentioned,^^ and it would seem that the Marcus Graecus mixture of 
846 A,D., well known as it must have been in the reign of Edward III. 
from the fact of its having been quoted by Andeme as well as by 
Rc^er Bacon and Ferrarius, was too strong for the ill-constructed 
ordnance of the period, and, in consequence, a less proportion of 

"' Not the sublimate, commonly called * flowers of sulphur.' 

"^ Charcoal and saltpetre in combination form a more or less powerful 
mixture, and the addition of sulphur is not absolutely indispensible for the 
making of an explosive powder. 

'« Sloane MSS. 335, 791. 

"* As given by Peter Whitehome in his book printed in London in 1573. 



44 EARLY- OBDKANOE IN EUBOPE : 

saltpetre was used in the powder. Roger Bacon even suggests the 
use of gunpowder for warlike purposes. It would appear to have 
increased in strength towards the last quarter of the century, for the 
Wardrobe Account^ 1372-1374, gives 320 lbs. saltpetre and 107 lbs. 
sulphur in connexion with the service of certain guns, and this is 
practically three parts to one. The cost of saltpetre in 1860 was 
about 3s. 6d. per lb., and sulphur about 2s. 7d., that is reckoning the 
ecu as valued at, say, about 14s.^^ An item is given, under the year 
1433, in Nicolas^s Privy Council Proceedings^ vol, v. : — ' Be there 
made a privy seal to Gilbert Parr, master of the king's ordinance of 
my lord of Somerset, 4,000 lbs. of saltpetre, 3,000 lbs. sulphur.' 

Early in the fifteenth century the proportion of saltpetre had 
certainly risen to three, with two each of the other ingredients ; and by 
the middle of the sixteenth century the proportions for cannon were 
four, one, and one ; and those in a mixture made for hand guns, 
eighteen, three, and two, of saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur respectively. ^^^ 
Benjamin Robins says that a similar mixture was in use in his day, 
while towards the end of the century it had altered, viz., to six parts 
of saltpetre and one each of sulphur and charcoal, practically the same 
as the composition of Marcus Graecus in 846, reproduced by Roger 
Bacon about 1260, and by Anderne in his treatise PracUca^ temp. 
Edward III. It would seem therefore that the strength of the mixture 
used was mainly regulated by the ability of ordnance to withstand the 
strain. The English mixture of recent times contains seventy-five parts 
of saltpetre, fifteen of charcoal, and ten of sulphur, respectively. In 
judging these comparisons we must not, however, overlook the fact 
that very much depended on the purity of the saltpetre used, which ought 
to contain fifty-four parts of nitric acid and forty-six parts of potash, and 
we have no means of knowing the analysis of the saltpetre employed 
in the middle ages, nor even during the renaissance. The quality 
of the charcoal greatly affected the rate of combustion and we have 
seen that sea-coal was sometimes used as a substitute. The chai'coal 
made from dogwood was considered the best for powder for handguns, 
while that from the willow or alder was preferred for ordnance, the 

>" Etudes, tome iii. p. 89. 

"•Tartaglia, Q^iaesiti i Inventioni diversa, Venice, 1546. 



COMPOSITION OF GUNPOWDER. 45 

former being much more violent in its action than the latter. ^^^ 
Gunpowder bought in Spain in 1512 cost 8^d. and 4d. per pound, and 
we may perhaps infer from the large quantities purchased abroad, either 
that the quality produced on the continent was better, as it certainly 
was far cheaper, than that made in England, or that we were 
unable to make enough for our requirements in this country. 
Camden states in his Life of Qmen Elizabeth that she was the first 
monarch to make powder in England ' that she might not pray and 
pay for it also to her neighbours.' A royal licence to erect powder 
mills in England was granted, to John Evelyn in 1590. A MS. 
account of the Merchant Tailors company schedules gunpowder as 
costing a shilling a pound in 1549. Carlo Capello, the Venetian, states 
that kmg Henry VIII. made gunpowder at the Tower in 1582, but we 
do not know whether it was granulated or not. It certainly became so 
somewhat later, as shown in a Tower Survey of 1559 ; and the fine dust, 
divided from the projectile by a wooden wad, was replaced by coarse 
and fine grained powder, made for charging and priming respectively, 
* Serpen tyne, grosse corne and fine come* for ordnance. The entry 
in the Tower Survey of 1559 runs : — ' 800 lbs, of serpentine powder 
at 8d. per lb. and 475 lbs. of corne powder at lOd. per lb.,' delivered 
by Anthony Bukman and Edward Castelyn of London, merchants.^^^ 

The size and shape of the granulation exercised an important 
influence on the explosiveness of the powder and therefore on the 
quantity for a charge ; the combustion of the grains, though apparently 
simnltaneous, is in fact gradual. In the case of very small grained 
powder, in consequence of the lower rate of the combustion from 
jrrain to grain by reason of the interstices between the grains being 
so small, a considerable part of the powder would be blown out of the 
gun unignited, and much less gas would consequently be generated for 
the propulsion of the projectile, and its velocity proportionately 
reduced. 

An old treatise of Canonerie, of unknown date, printed in Paris in 

1561, states that the charge of powder was equivalent to occupying 

about two-thirds of the barrel.^^® Various substances were often added 

"' Robins, in a paper read before the Royal Society in 1743. 
** The same people delivered 28 brass cannons with the powder and it would 
seem that they were merchants importing from abroad. 
"• Archaeological Journah vol. x., p. 31, 



46 EARLY ORDNANCE IN EUROPE : 

to the three principal ingredients with the idea of improving the 
mixture, such as quick-silver, various salts, alum, arsenic, camphor, 
amber, and realgar,^*^ brandy, vinegar. Distilled water of orange skins 
was used for watering the mixture. When coal-dust was used instead 
of charcoal a distillation of fish-paste was added. 

It is stated in the Etudes that the brothers Bureau were the first 
to use iron instead of stone for cannon-balls early in the fifteenth 
century, but there was nothing new in the use of metal balls at that 
time, for instances of theu' employment are recorded at a much earlier 
date. They were first of wrought-iron or lead, but later of cast-iron 
or bronze. Sometimes, from motives of economy, a combination of 
stone and lead was employed. The change from stone to iron was 
an important one in the reduction in the size of projectiles and in the 
calibre and weight of the guns, which when thus reduced became 
jnore efficient in action and more easily transportable, having 
increased velocity and diminished mass. Metal balls were not so 
liable to fracture as those of stone. They did not come into general 
use before late in the fifteenth century. 

Probably the earliest reference to iron shot is to be found in the 
passage in the archives of Florence of 1324-1326, already referred to, 
and a distinct allusion to balls of iron and of lead occurs in the 
Practica of John Andeme, temp. Edward IH. : — G'est poudre vault a 
gettere pelotes de fer, ou de plom ou d'areyne^ ove un instrument qe Vem 
appelle gonne}^ Balls of lead are referred to in a document of 1345^^ 
quoted in the Etudes. Moulds {formes) of laton, iron ladles, and 
pincers often appear in accounts. The Pipe Rolls of the Exchequ&r of 
1351 mention leaden balls. Small cannon balls were cast by Johann 
von Aran at Augsburg in 1372, and by Ulrich Becham at Memming- 
ham in 1888. Mention of cast-iron balls occurs in the Swiss records 
of 1495-1499.143 

Fave, quoting from the accounts of the dukes of Burgundy, 
mentions, under the year 1451, that a waggon, drawn by six horses, 
conveyed three stone shot from Namur to Luxemburg ; each weighing 
about 900 livres. At this period the weight of cannon in relation to 

"" Red sulphuret of arsenic. 

"> Sloane M88. 335, 795. »« In the National Library, Paris. 

'** Archives, etc., dn Canton de Fr^ibourg, 1900. 



IRON AKD SUONB SttOT, RED-HOT? SflOT, BT?C. i1 

their projectiles varied greatly. The proportion was more generally 

abont 50 to 1 ; bat it sometimes weat down to as low as 25 to I. 

The invention of red-hot shot is often ascribed to Franz von 

Sickingen in 1525, bat they were used as early as 1452, when the 

Gantois besieged Oadenarde.^*^ The Tower Return of 1559 schedules 

'cannon shot, cross-bai'red shot, and shot of stone,* and an inventory 

of the shot carried by the ' Eliza Bonadventure,' of 1575, schedules 

*cro88-barred shot, jointed shot, bai'e shotte of yron, hollow shot of 

lead, and stone shotte polished, and for fowlers roaghe.' Iron balls 

were sometimes covered with lead, presumably to minimize the damage 

caosed to the inner tube of the gun by friction. By this time the 

great majority of shot in use was made of iron ; still stone balls were 

retained for certain classes of guns, such as fowlers and peteraras. A 

return of shot in the Tower and aboard her majesty's ships, of the 

year 1578, taken from a curious collection of papers published by 

Francis Peck, M.A., in 1782, is as follows : — 

In the Tower, 
Cross-backed and iron shot, round and of several heights ... 47,000 
Stone shot for cannon pieces, port pieces and fowlers 45,000 

Aboard the Skips, 

Iron shot 100,000 

Stone shot 1,300 

The whole amounting in money value to £5,475."* 

Nails and pieces of chain were sometimes employed as projectiles, 
bnt they often blocked the gun or caused it to burst. Boxes contain- 
ing two or three hundred bullets, and missiles of an incendiary nature 
were also used in the sixteenth century. 

Grenades are referred to in the Arabian treatise of the thirteenth 
century, written by Hassan Abrammah, wherein are mentioned balls 
of pottery or glass filled with a fiery mixture and thrown by hand ; and 
fire pots were employed at the siege of Harfleur in 1415. Valturius, 
writing in 1472, gives a figure of a hinged shell, but it is uncertain 
whether this hollow ball was made to contain Greek fire for incendiary 
pwposes or was filled with an explosive mixture for bursting the shell 
itself into fragments. This latter supposition would seem to be the 
moBt likely. P^re Daniel, writing in 1537^ mentions grenades. 

'" Chron, de 8, de Lalain^ chap. 81. 

*** Proceedings of the Jt.A» Institution^ vol. ii. p. 359. 



48 EARL^ ORDNANCE IK EUROPE : 

In Stowe's Annales there is a reference to great preparations made 
in 1543 * for a war with Frauncs, and that one Peter Baud, a Frenchman 
borne, a maker of Ordnance, and one other alien called Peter van 
Collen, a gunsmith, both the king's feed men, devised certain mortars, 
being at the mouth from eleven inches unto nineteen inches wide, for 
hollow cast yron shot, to be stuffed with fire-worke or wild fire, whereof 
the bigger sorts had screws of yron to receive a match to carry fire 
kindled, that the fier-work might be set on fire for to break in small 
pieces the same hollow shot, whereof the smallest piece hitting any man 
would kill or spoyle him.' Here we have the mortar and bomb. The 
bigger sorte discharged a shell upwards of a foot and a half in 
diameter.^^ The invention of the bomb is generally attributed to an 
artisan of Venloo in 1588, and Strada mentions this. It evidently 
existed, however, in one form or other, much earlier. 

There is a hand mortar at Woolwich. for discharging grenades 
from the breast or shoulder, probably dating from about the end .of 
the sixteenth century, fired by a wheel-lock, calibre 28 in., length 
2 J ft. ; and one formerly at Goodrich court, figured by Skelton, 
which has both a match-lock and a wheel-lock ; indeed, weapons with 
the two locks are by no means rare. All the gun-locks we are accus- 
tomed to associate with handguns were sometimes used with ordnance ; 
they were fixed to the vent-field by pins passing laterally through it 
or by side-screws. Pere Daniel states that a petard was used by 
Henry IV. of Prance in 1579.^*^ 

The art of the smith having made considerable progress, much 
better results were obtained. Long serpent guns were made with the 
idea of materially increasing the range, but as experience failed to 
bear this out, shorter pieces were reverted to. It must be borne in 
mind that improvements in ordnance, like changes in dress and in 
armour, took some time to travel, and the same standard of progress 
did not prevail in all countries alike ; still, the constant state of 
warfare and preparations for war that characterised fourteenth and 
fifteenth century times, and even later, did much for a rapid assimila- 
tion of results among the nations of England, France, Italy, Flanders, 
Germany and Spain. 

•*• Arohaeolcgical Journal^ vol. xxiii. 

"' Grose, The English Army^ etc., vol. i. p. 409. 



HAND MOBTABS, »EBPENT GUNS, ETC. 49 

It is impossible to classify, or even to identify, all the descriptions 
of cannon mentioned, for the names when referred to in chronicles 
are so often mixv3d up with those of mechanical engines, and the 
difficulty is intensified by reason of the practice of giving the guns 
nicknames, such as ' the Dirty Maid,' and * Mons Meg ;' and such guns 
are often alluded to in the records of the period by their popular 
sobriquets. In England we had bombards, mortars, curtalles, serpen- 
tines, slyngs,^^ culverins, demi-culverins, fowlers, falcons, falconets, and 
sacres,^^* the last three kinds mentioned being field guns ; two, four, six 
and a half, and eight pounders ; the heavier ordnance being siege and 
position pieces. In France the varieties were fewer in number : 
bombards f basilisks^ spiraleSyVeuglairSy^^^ mor tiers, homhardelleSyCrapau- 
dmux^^^ etc., were the designations of various pieces of artillery. 

The ordnance books of Maximilian I., mention the following 
varieties, viz : — scharf/netzen,, basiliskus, viertdlhilchsen^ singerinen^ 
grosse schlangen^ feldy or mittel^ schlangen, haufnitzeny falconetlein, 
hmmerschlangen, dorndrell or terrashikhsey morser and kleine morser 
(lercJdein)^ etc. No calibres are given. So many pieces of different 
weights and calibres, placed on clumsy carriages, made any effective 
employment of ordnance, in the open country, very diflScult, and in 
fact it long continued a mere adjunct, rather than a component part 
of an army in the field. The carriages had no gun limbers, they 
were usually two wheeled, with wooden axle-trees, and were subject to 
frequent mishaps and breaks-down. The ammunition, the implements, 
and the tools, were carried in separate carriages. It was, therefore, 
only slowly and laboriously that the artillery train could follow the 
movements of an army. The gun was washed out with a mixture of 
water and vinegar after each shot ; and eight to ten shots were fired 
in an hour. 

It was in Germany, during the reign of Maximilian I. (1493-1519), 
when the most surprizing developments in artillery, and what was of 
scarcely less importance, the improvement of personnel, and means of 
transport, took place, under the guidance of the master of ordnance, 
Bartholmaus Freysleben. Maximilian and his advisers assimilated, 
and improved upon everything new from abroad, and especially from 
Italy, at that time constantly engaged in warfare. 

*• Snakes. "• Hawks. 

**• Fowlers, see Appendix, Nos. 20 and 37. *" Appendix, No. 39. Orapaud, a toad. 



50 EARLY OEDNANOfi IK BUBOPli t 

Field ordnance, as well as gun carriages, began tx) be made much 
lighter, and more mobile in every way ; horses were more generally 
used, especially for field guns, instead of oxen ; indeed the Gem^an 
short serpent gun was now drawn by a single horse. 

Kings Henry VIII. and Francis I. also exhibited great energy 
in this direction, giving personal attention to details and improve- 
ments in ordnance, as well as in weapons and armour generally ; 
indeed much was achieved during the period covered by the reigns of 
these three remarkable monarchs, animated as they were by the 
rising tide of the renaissance, which made itself felt in ail directions. 

Tartaglia,^^^ a distinguished Italian mathematician, who wrote on 
gunnery, but without auy practical knowledge of the subject, gives 
tables of the cannon used in the reign of Henry VIII. He defines 
the laws regulating the flight of projectiles, and devised the gunners' 
quadrant. Tartaglia dedicated his Three Books of Colloquies concerning 
the Arte of Shooting to king Henry ; and made the first practical 
attempt to base the theory and practice of gunnery on certain definite 
principles. He pointed out that a shot on leaving the gun could not 
proceed any distance in a straight line, and that the higher the 
velocity of the projectile the flatter the trajectory. 

Many of the improvements and inventions of this period, some of 
them obviously tentative, were for long supposed to have been the 
work of very much later times ; but a number of the guns preserved 
got no further than the experimental stage. 

Very large pieces, for fortress work and position purposes, continued 
in use o^er this period, one the ' Basiliscus,' made by Humphrey 
Walker for king Henry VIII.,^^^ discharged a shot 75 pounds in 
weight. Sir Robert Wingfield, writing to king Henry from Vienna 
in 1515, says : ' The Emperor' (Maximilian I.) gave the king of 
Bohemia a bumbard which was carried to the water by thirty horses,' ^®* 
and the Venetian ambassador repoi'ts to his government that king 
Henry possessed a bombarde, colbren or postell, as requiring thirty - 
six to forty horses, and sixty to eighty labourers assisting them, to 

'" La Nuova Hcientia inventa in 1637 ; QuesUi e Inventioni diverse, Venice, 
writtea 1546. 

**■ Arehaeologia^ vol. li. p. 227. 

"* Archaeological Journal^ vol. lix. p. 78. 



ORDNANCE HADE IN FLANDEB8, ETC. 5^ 

draw it.^*"^ A contemporary account of the battle of Flodden (9th 
September 1518), states that the Scottish army ' was enclosed in three 
parties, with thre great, monntaynes soe that ther was noe passage 
nor entre vnto hym but oon waye wher was laied marvelous and great 
ordnance of gonnes, that is to wit, v great curtalles, ij great colveryns, 
iiij sacres, and vi great serpentynes, as goodly gonnes as have bene 
Bene in any realme, and besides there wer othir dyvers small orden- 
ances.*^*^ The guns now in the Tower probably include some of 
tfieae pieces. In the same year the complement of artillery for the 
army for France was five hundred guns.^^^ 

Early in the reign of Henry VIII. large quantities of ordnance 
were^being drawn from abroad, and especially from Flanders, and 
many wrought-iron and brass guns, varying from 1,170 to 8,979 
pounds, were ordered from maitre Hans Van Neurwerk, surnamed 
Poppen Rnyter, of Malines, in 1512, for the French war, and among 
them were ' the twelve apostles,' pieces of great calibre. The weight 
of the shot for ordnance of about this time was as follows : ' Each 
Apostle, twenty pounds ; Curtow, sixty pounds ; Culverln, twenty 
pounds ; Lizard, twelve pounds ; Bombard, two hundred and sixty 
pounds ; Minion, eight pounds ; Potgun, eight pounds.^*^ Later, 
king Henry would seem to have sought the assistance of foreign 
artisans for working in England in this branch as well as in that for 
forging body armour, for we find the names mentioned of Peter 
Baude,^" a Frenchman ' borne,' casting guns at Houndsditch in 1525 ; 
Peter von Koln^^® and Franciscus Arcanus from Italy ^^^ ; Englishmen 
like John, Robert and Thomas Owen,^^* Ralph Hogge, Master Hugget, 
Humphrey Walker and others were making cannon in Henry's reign, 
and the king was having ordnance founded in the Tower itself. 

The importation of cannon from abroad continued, however, for 

"* Arehaeologidy vol. li. p. 226. 

"* Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, toI. yii. p. 146. 
"' Archaeological Journal^ vol. lix. p. 77. 
"• Archaeologia, vol. li. p. 262. 

** A gan in the Tower is inscribed with the date 1620 ; and * Petrus Baade 
GalloB, operis artif ex.' 

^ The Peter van Onllen mentioned in Stowe's AnnaXes, 
*'* Appendix, Nos. 7 and 9. 
"* Appendix, Nos. 8 and 12, 



52 EARLY ORDNANCB IN BUROPB : 

in 1545 strong remonstrances were addressed by the French ambassador 
to the ' emperor Charles V., against the succours of arms and 
ammunition that were being rendered to England from Flanders. 

Early in the reign of the emperor Charles V., Georg Lofler of 
Augsburg, did much to reduce the construction of ordnance to a 
system, and he and Georg Hartmann of Nuremberg instituted a 
standard for three sizes of larger guns. Cannon were 40 and 12 ; 
' schlangen,' 24, 12, and 6 ; and ' falkens ' 6| and 3 pounders respectively, 
the weight being reckoned on a stone basis ; and the ranges were 
determined. Charles had a dozen cannon cast at Malaga in 1583 : 
length, 18 calibres ; weight about 33 cwts. ; thickness of walls was 
f of the calibre, at the barrel mouth ; f at the first reinforce ; and 
I at the second reinforce ; the position of the trunnions was fixed at 
^ of the total length from behind. Diego Ufano^^^ gives the 
particulars and measurements of the cannon, and he lays down the 
proportion of guns to an army, viz. : 24 heavy and 6 light guns to 
a corps of 6000 horse and 34,000 foot. Like the guns ordered by 
Henry VIII. from Poppen Ruyter of Malines, these Malaga cannon 
were named ' the twelve apostles.' 

The Brander MS. is an inventory, taken at the beginning of the 
reign of Edward VI., of the ordnance and munition at the Tower, the 
ordnance and munition at various * bulwerks ' and castles in England, 
and the English possessions in France, the ships smd their armament, 
the armoury at Westminster, and the armoury at Greenwich. Among 
the bulwerks and castles are mentioned Wark, Holy Island, Alnwick, 
Berwick, and Newcastle. The MS. also schedules jewels, glass, plate, 
etc. The ordnance and munition is that collected during the long and 
epoch-making reign of Henry VIII. This MS. was presented to the 
Society of Antiquaries of London by Gustavus Brander, esquire, F.S.A., 
in 1775. Selections are printed with viscount Dillon's notes in 
'Arms and Armour at Westminster, the Tower, and Greenwich, 
1547,' ^^* and among these is the ' Ordinaunce Artillery ' in the Tower of 
London, consisting of 64 guns of brass, and 351 of iron ; and con- 
cerning the various classes of these some remarks are made in 

i«» Tratado dela artilUria^ yuso della platicado^ en has guerras de Flandes^ 
Brussels, 1613. 

'** Archaeologia, vol. li, p. 218. 



I!^VENTOBY OF CANNON. 



53 



Archaeologia, Some of the guns mentioned in the inventory of 1547 
have heen identified with those now in the Tower and at Woolwich, 
and this would doubtless have been the case with a greater number but 
for the damage wrought by the Tower fire in 1841. The following 
passage has been copied from lord Dillon's notes : — ^^^ 



" In Elizabeth's reign, according to sir William Monson, 

The cannon weighed 6000 lbs., with a shot of 60 



lbs. 



demy-cannon 




4000 „ 


„ , 


, 33i 


culverine 




4500 „ 


>» » 


, 17i 


sacre 




1400 „ 


n » 


, 5J 


minion 




1000 „ 


,, , 


, 4 


fawcon 




660 ,, 


" ♦ 


. 2 


demy -culverine 




3400 „ 


♦♦ ? 


. 9i 


fawconnet 




500 „ 


?» ' 


. 1* 


robynett 


»? 


300 „ 


•» 


. i 



Towards the middle of the sixteenth century, the French artillery, 
the most simple iu Europe, consisted of six different calibres, the 
projectiles of which weighed, respectively, 33^ lbs., 16| lbs., 8| lbs., 
2^ lbs., 1^ lbs., and three * quartenons.' ^^^ 

The following account of the ordnance in the Tower, taken on 
13th September, 1559, appears in Archaeologia^ vol. xxxvii. page 480: — 
*The store of all sorts bxlA kinds of ordnance in the Tower, and a 
memorial of what was required for the next year ' : — 

BBASSE OBDNANOK FOB THE FIELD. 



Thb Store. 


The 


Provisions to bb New 


Bought. 


Canons moun ted 


... 7 To be 


new made 


... 13 


Demi canons '*" 


... 13 


»> 


)) ••. 


... 4 


ColTerings 


... 14 


?» 


J, 


...nil. 


Demy culyeryns 


... 13 


if 


„ 


... 7 


Sacres 


... 38 \ 








Mynions 


... 7 








Fawcons 


... 30 1 








Fawconetts 


... 5^ 


M 


... 


...nU. 


Connemorters 


... 2 








Baces 


... 4 




• 




A piece shooting 7 bullets '"• 


... 1 









134 pieces Total required 24 

^ Page 262, note. 

•*• United Service Journal, 1863, page 577. 

'" A brass demi-cannon, cnlverin, sacre, and minion may be seen at the 
Botonda, Woolwich. See Appendix, Nos. 8, 9, 10, 13. 
'•• Probably an orgue. 



54 EABLT OBDNANCir IN EUROPE : 

Eleven pairs of horses were required for a field cannoD, and seven 
or eight pairs for a demi-cannon. 

It would seem that the calibres of the guns did not differ greatly 
from the cast S.B. ordnance of the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century. 

The casting and making of the 24 new pieces of brass would cost 
£483 10s. 

BRASS ORDNANCE, MOUNTED FOR THE 'ELIZABETH JONAS,' 
AND OTHER SHIPS. 

* Demi-canons, 8 ; canons pereares, 6 ; culverings, 3 ; demi- 
culverings, 5 ; fawcons, 2 ; to be new made, nil.'* 

CAST-IRON ORDNANCE. 

' Demi-canons, 2 ; culverings, 2 ; demi-culverings, 12 ; sacres, 8 ; 
to be new made, 10 ; morter piece, 1 ; fawcons, nil; to be new made, 12.' 

The estimated cost for the 22 new pieces was £128. The cast iron 
cost only 10s. per cwt., while the brass was three pounds and ten 
shillings per cwt.; and it was on this account that one half of the new 
ordnance was proposed to be made of cast iron. 

' Bombardes, 3 ; porte peces, 66 ; slings, 6 ; ^^^ demi-shngs, 36 ' ; 
no new required. 

FORGED ORDNANCE OF IRON. 

* Quarter-slings, 6 ; fowlers, 48 ; baces, 137 ; harquebutts a croche, 
80 ; harleshotte pieces, 80 ; harleshot pieces upon mytches, 6 ' ; no 
new required. 

The armament of the 'Eliza Bonadventure ' is shown in the 

Surveye of the Queens her Ma^* Shippes taken and viewed hy The 

Officer of TK ordnance^ 25 Jan., 1575,^^^ is as follows, viz. :— 

2 demi-canons. 2 fawcons. 

2 canon piriers. 1 fowler, with two chambers. 

6 culYcringes. 3 port-peeces of f erged iron, with two 
10 demi-culveringes. chambers apeece. 

8 sacres. 4 fowlers of forged iron, with like 
2 minions. chambers. 

Jn all 40 pieces of ordnance. 

'" Serpent guns. 

*'• ArclMeologia, vol. xxx. p. 324, 



NAlCllS 01? ENGLISH OttDNlNOS. 



66 



For these guns there was a great variety of shot on board, 868 balls 
in all, of which 759, 37, and 72 of iron, lead, and stone respectively, 
a tolerably clear indication that stone shot was rapidly falling into 
disuse. The more accurately dressed balls (polished, as it stands in the 
inventory), were used for the canon piriers, while presumably the 
coarser balls were for the port-peeces and fowlers (roughe). 

Pirier is a name handed down from the mechanical engine pierrier^ 
and this kind of cannon impelled its projectile with a low charge of 
powder, so low, indeed, that these pieces were sometimes fixed as 
swivel guns without any provision for the recoil. Eobynebts, mentioned 
as late as the reign of queen Elizabeth, afford another instance of this 
inheritance of names from mechanical engines. 

In 1560, there were state armouries at Portsmouth, Southsea 
castle, Berwick, Hull, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, besides the tower of 
London and Greenwich. 

The Kriegshmh of Leon Fronsperger,^^^ with wood engravings by 
Jost Amman, gives much information of the German ordnance of his 
time. 

In 1574 the names of English ordnance are commonly ^^^ . — 









Weight 


Scores of 


Charge of 


Height of 
cufiet. 


NamM. 


weight. 


Diameter. 


of shot. 


carriage. 


powder. 




Lbs. 


Inches. 


Lbs. 




Lbs. 


Inches. 


Bobinet 


200 


U 


1 




i 


1 


Falconet 


600* 


2 


2 


14 


2 


H 


Falcon ... 


800* 


2i 


•n 


16 


n 


2J 


Minion ... 


1,100* 


H 


4i 


17 


44 


3 


Sacre ... 


l.oOO* 


H 


6 


18 


5 


H 


Demi-culverin 


3,000* 


^ 


9 


20 


9 


4 


Culverin 


.. 4,000* 


5i 


18 


25 


18 


H 


Demi-cannon 


.. 6,000* 


H 


30 


38 


28 


6i 


Cannon ... 


7,000* 


8 


60 


20 


44 


7f 


E cannon 


... 8;000 


7 


42 


20 


20 


61 


Basiliske 


9,000 


8f 


60 


21 


60 


H 



In 1599, according to an ordnance return, those of the above 
descriptions of guns marked with a star were used in the navy ; and 
besides these were Port-piece hull, and chambers ; Fowlers hull, and 
chambers ; besides Curtails. 



»" Frankfort, 1673. 

*" Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution^ voL ii. p. 364, 



56 BABLT OBDNAKOE tN EUROPE : 

There is another tower inventory of June, 1578. 

Cannons, etc., remaining in store 104 

Brasse ordnance remayning aboorde the shipps 504 

M. c. zx. 
Amounteth in money Ivij vij iiij vj*'. 



Shot, In the Tower : — 

Crossebarred and rounde shott of iron of severall heightcs 47,000 
Stone shott for canon piriers, portpeces, and fowlers ... 4,500 

Abord the Shipps :— 

Iron shott 10,000 

Stone shot 1,300 

Amountinge in money to the some of 6,476". 

Powdre, and Stuffe/or Powdre. In the Tower :— 

Come and serpentine powdre 65 lasts 

Saltpeter 10,000 weight 

Sulphur 20,000 „ 

Aboorde : — 

Corne and serpentyn powdre, di. ... last 

Amountinge in money to the some of 6,617" 10" '" 

Sir James Turner, writing in Pallas Armata in 1670, remarks 
that a eulverin that shot 16 pounds of iron had but a hundred 
pounds of metal allowed for every pound of her shot, and so she 
weighed then but 1,600 pounds, but now and long before this, she 
weighs 4,300 pounds, and consequently hath the allowance of near 270 
pounds of metal for every pound of her shot.' 

After the close of the sixteenth century, French ordnance, which 
continued the most simple in Europe, was as follows : — 



Description. 


LengUi of gun. 


Weight of projectUe. 
LbB. Oz. 


Cannon 


10 


33 8 


Culverin 


11 


12 8 


BAtarde 


9 6 


7 8 


Moyenne 


8 2 


2 12 


Fawcon 


7 


1 8 


Fawconneau 


5 4 


14"* 



"• The Egerten Papers (12 Camden Soc. publ.), pp. 68-69. 
»'* Errayd, La Fovtification, 1620. 



KAMfiS OF OftDNANCfi. 57 

The following table is extracted from a work dedicated to the 
dake of Buckingham by Robert Norton, engineer and gunner, in the 
year 1643 1^^;— 





Height of 


Length in 


Weight 


Weight 


Length of 


Names of the pieces. 


bore. 


diameters. 


in metal 


of powder. 


the ladles. 




Inches. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Inches. 


Cannon of 8 


8 


15 


8,000 


40 


24 


Cannon of 7 


7 


16 


7,000 


25 


22 


Demi-cannon 


. 6i 


18 


6,000 


20 


21 


Culvering 


H 


28 


4,500 


15 


20 


Demi-culvering 


4i 


32 


2,500 


9 


18 


Saker 


3i 


36 


1,500 


51 


16 


Minion 


H 


30 


1,200 


3 


15 


Falcon 


2i 


42 


700 


H 


14 


Falconet 


2i 


48 


500 


H 


12 


Cannon-perior 


. 9, 10, 12 


8 


3,500 


3, 3i, 4 


3 


Demi-can, drake 


6i 


16 


3,000 


9 


4i 


Cnl vering, drake ... 


5i 


16 


2,000 


6 


H 


Demi-culvering, drake .. 


H 


16 


1,600 


3i 


H 


Saker, drake 


H 


18 


1,200 


2 


H 



The lighter guns, such as falcons, falconets and sakere, were generally 
used for field service, while the heavier cannon and culverings were 
for siege or position purposes. 

Specimens of early ordnance may be seen in many of the large 
collections of arms and armour in Europe ; in England notably in the 
Tower of London and in the museum of artillery in the Rotunda, 
Woolwich. The great continental museums and arsenals, such as 
those at Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Brussels, Dresden, Copenhagen, etc., 
contain examples of most of the many varieties of cannon of the 
fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; and quite a number of 
the guns taken by the Swiss in their struggle with the Burgundians, 
under Charles the Bold, may be seen in the museums and at other 
places in Switzerland. 

Some examples of the more distinctive of the earlier guns spread 
over some of the arsenals and museums of Europe are noticed in the 
appendix to these notes. 



"* Minutes of the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution, yo\. ii. p. 373. 



58 £ABLT OBl)NANO£ IN ^OBOP^ i 

APPENDIX. 
THE MUSEUM OF ABTILLBBT IN THE BOTUNDA, WOOLWICH. 

1. A wrought-iron bombard ^ said to have been found in the moat at Bodiham 
castle, Kent. This gun is lined with cast-iron, and probably dates from late in 
the fourteenth century. The Official Catalogue, prepared by order of the Secre- 
tary of State for War, under the direction of the Committee of the Royal 
Artillery Institution, printed in 1889, gives the following particulars : 15 inch 
bombard, for throwing stone shot of about 160 pounds weight ; calibre, 15*1 
inches; interior diameter of chamber, 3*4 inches; length of chamber, 14*0 
inches; capacity of chamber, about 3*5 pounds; length of chase, 34*0 inches ; 
present weight, 6 hundredweights. 

2. Wrought-iron cannon. Length, 24 inches ; calibre, about 2 inches. It is 
without trunnions or cascabel, but has two rings for raising it. 

3. Fragments of a double cannon were found in the same place as the last 
mentioned piece ; the weapon had probably been originally about 10 feet in 
length, with a breech in the centre, and a barrel running in two directions ; 
calibre, about 3 inches. 

4. Wrought-iron serpent gun of the reign of Henry VI. (1422-1461). It 
is in excellent preservation, with two rings for raising it. Original length, 
7 feet 6 inches ; calibre, 4*25 inches ; weight, 8 hundredweights. This gun 
affords an early example of trunnions, which are 3;^ inches long and 4 inches 
in diameter. 

5. A breech-loading peterara of Edward IV. (1461-1483), made of longi- 
tudinal bars of iron, hooped together with iron rings. The chamber with lifting 
handle is complete. Length, 3 feet ; calibre, 2*5 inches ; weight, 1 hundred- 
weight 13 pounds. 

6. Wrought-iron breech-loading gun and carriage. Recovered in 1836 from 
the wreck of the * Mary Rose,' which sank off Spithead in 1545. Original 
calibre, about 8*0 inches ; length, 9 feet 8 inches. The carriage, which is 
original, is grooved on the under side, to slide on a directing bar. 

7. A brass mker, of the reign of Henry VIII., with the maker's name, 
♦ Francucus Arcanus^ inscribed on the chase. The external shape of the gun is 
twelve-sided. Length, 7 feet 11 inches; calibre, 3*92 inches, or that of a seven- 
pounder. 

8. Another brass mlier of the same reign, inscribed with the date and 
names of the makers, * Ihon and Robert Owyn, bretheryn, made thys sacar, 
weying iziz. Anno Dni. 1538.' Length, 7 feet 9 inches ; calibre, 375 inches. 

y. A brass culverin^ 1542, * Arcanus de Arcanis Cesenen, fecit.' Length, JO 
feet 11 inches ; calibre, 5*20 inches ; weight, 43 hundredweights 25 pounds. 

10. A bra!»s demi-cannon. Length, 11 feet ; calibre, 6*4 inches ; a thirty-two 
pounder. 

11. A brass culverin-bastard. It is twelve-sided, 8 feet 6 inches long; 
calibre, 4*56 inches. 

12. A brass cannon royal, inscribed with the name John Owen. Length, 8 
feet 6 inches ; calibre 8*54 inches.'" 

« 
"" Nos. 10, 11, 12, were recovered from the * Mary Rose.' 



THE ROTUNDA, WOOLWICH, AND MUSBE D'aRTILLERIR, PARIS. 59 

13. A brass minion^ inscribed * John and Thomas Mayo, brethren, made this 
pece, Anno Dni. 1664.' Length, 7 feet 6 4 inches ; calibre, 2*875 inches. 

14. A brass culverin, inscribed ' Henri Pit made this pece, 1590, No. 4, 18 pr.' 
Length, 8 feet 6 inches ; calibre, 5'57 inches. 

15. Two cast-iron guns (1509-1547), both brought from Ireland. Dimen- 
sions of both : length, 10 feet ; calibre, 6 inches ; weight of one, 53 hundred- 
weights 14 pounds, and of the other, 53 hundredweights 6 pounds. 

16. A cast-iron gun of the same period, raised out of the Medway near Chat- 
ham. Length, 8 feet 9 inches ; calibre, about 3*75 inches. 

17. A gun formed of a cylinder of copper, surrounded with hempen cord, and 
enTdoped in leather. Length, 6 feet 6 inches ; calibre, 2*17 ; weight, about 1 
handiedweight 7 pounds. 

LE MUSEE D*ABTILLEBIE, PABI8. 

18. Cannon, late fourteenth century; movable chamber; total length, 0*85 m. 
A tail piece has been nearly rusted away. 

19. Cannon, of the beginning of the fifteenth century, of similar type but in 
better condition. The junctions of the outer covering, which is composed of 
six hoops, are covered by rings. Calibre, 0'055 m. 

20. Veuglaire, first half of fifteenth century, without trunnions. Calibre, 
0*182 m. Found in the old fortifications of Rennes. 

21. Bombarde, second half of fifteenth century ; with trunnions. Chamber, 
20 centimetres deep, by 8 and 10 in diameter ; barrel composed of 20 to 24 bars, 
much rusted away. 

22. A ship falconet, similar to those in the castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

23. Bronze cannon, of the second half of the fifteenth century ; calibre, 
0-072 m. 

24. Large gun, of the end of the fifteenth century ; apparently forged in 
ODe piece ; calibre, 0*22 m. 

26. French cannon, of the second half of the fifteenth century ; inscribed as 
being cast in 1478, by Jehan Chollet, chevalier mattre de Partillerie. The piece 
has trunnions, and weighs 1,603 kilogrammes; length, 2*24 m.; calibre, 0*245 m.; 
diameter of trunnions, 0-180 m. It came from the Isle of Rhodes, and bears an 
Arabic inscription, placed there after the conquest of the island. 

26. Serpentine of forged iron, with trunnions ; close of the fifteenth century. 

27. Hand couleuvrine, of the second half of the fifteenth century. It was 
served by two men, one of whom supports the stock on his shoulder, while the 
other aims and discharges the piece. It is fixed to a wooden stock, with iron 
hoops, like a bombaidelle. Length, 0*77 m.; calibre, 0*025 m. 

28. Couleuvrine, of the end of the fifteenth century ; length, 1*035 m. 

29. Bombarde of bronze, of about the same date, inscribed Petrus Auhutson^ 
M. Hotpitalis Jerusalem, Weight, 3,325 kilogrammes. The granite shot with 
the piece is 0*568 m. in diameter. 

30. Large couleuvrine of the commencement of the sixteenth century. 
Weight, 3,343 kilogrammes ; calibre, 0*165 m.; length, 5*40 m. The ball would 
weigh 24 to 30 livres. 

31. Quarter cannon, of the reign of Francis I.; calibre, 0*18 m. 

32. Cannon of same reign ; calibre, 0*110 m. 

33. Bronze couleuvpue of the same reign ; calibre, 0083 m, 



60 EARLY ORDNANCE IN EUROPE : 

34. Bronze fauconneau of the same reign. 

35. Arqnebuse k croc, of iron ; end of fifteenth century. 

36. Bronze bombarde (German) ; inscribed in German, of which the following 
is a translation : My name u Catkariiie : mistrust thou my contents : I punish 
injustice. Oeorg Endorfer cast m«. Sigismund, arch-duke of Austria, amw 
1404, Weight, 4,597 kilogrammes ; calibre, 0-390 m.; length, 3*65 m. This 
cannon came from Rhodes. It has handles and an apron over the yenf. 

THE POBTB DE HAL MUSEUM AT BRUSSELS. 

37. A Veuglaire^ with chamber ; of wrought iron strengthened with rings. 
Calibre, 0*19 m. ; length, 0*74 m. Fifteenth century. The gun-carriage is a 
reconstruction. 

38. A Bomhardelle, Calibre, 013 m. ; length, 1*30 m. Fifteenth century. 
Found at Courtray in 1882, at the demolition of an old bridge. 

39. A Crapaudeau ; muzzle-loader of the first half of the fifteenth century. 
Calibre 32 mm.; length. 1*03 m. It is a small iron tube, mounted in a thick 
piece of wood, which stands on a small square block, with side handles for trans- 
portation. The mounting is a reconstruction. 

40. A CouleuvrinCj breech-loader, first half of fifteenth century. Calibre, 
0*045 m. Found at Luxemburg during the demolition of part of the rampart. It 
has a ring for hoisting. 

41. A Serpentine f fifteenth century. Calibre, 0*04 m. ; length, 1*38 m. The 
piece is strengthened with 17 rings. The carriage has been reconstructed from 
an old print. 

42. A Faucotmeau de marine, early sixteenth century, breech-loader, turns 
on a swivel. Calibre, 0*035 cm.; length 1*31 cm. The tail is bent, with a knot 
at the end. 

DAS K5NIOLICHE ZEUOHAUS ZU BERLIN. 

43. A reconstruction from an old drawing of a short bombard of the end of 
the fourteenth century. 

44. A breech-loading, wrought-iron cannon of the fifteenth century, 
strengthened with 26 iron rings. Present length, 245 cm.; diameter of bore, next 
the chamber, 6, 6, and near the muzzle, 6 cm. Part of the barrel is fractured, 
and the breech-block is missing. 

45. A cast-iron, breech-loading gun, of early fifteenth century date. Calibre, 
15'6 cm.; length, 91 cm. 

46. A cast-iron breech-loader, 99 cm. long, with trunnions ; fifteenth century. 

47. A wrought-iron muzzle-loader, with trunnions j 238 cm. long. Fifteenth 
century. 

48. A ffakenbuchse. Total length, 204 cm.; length of barrel, 117 cm.; calibre, 
2*8 cm.; fifteenth century. 

49. A short Kammergeschutz, with carriage; fifteenth century. A great, 
wrought-iron mortar, strengthened with 14 rings — the first ring carries the 
trunnions. Calibre, 33 cm. ; fifteenth century. 

50. Two small, bronze mortars ; fifteenth century. 

61. An Orgelgeschutz, with 6 octagonal barrels ; fifteenth century. 

52. A Falconet by Gregor Loeffler, about 1544 ; calibre, 7*6 cm. 

53. A Serpent Inellen of 1586, by Hans Christoph Loeffler, 1586. 



THE BRUSSELS PORTE DB HAL AND OTHER MUSEUMS. 61 

IN TOJHUSBT, COPENHAGEN. 

54. Seyeral Bombarder or Skjoermbroekkere, with breech blocks, Skerpentiner 
or Barser, all early pieces. 

55. A FeltslaDge, 23^ Fod lang ; 14-pounder, Danish. Ornamented with the 
arms of Oldenburg. Further inscribed : * Antonius Grave tho Oldenborch und 
Dalmehorst heft mi lote gete ' ; and an account of Samson^s fight with the lion : 
'De starcke Samson min Name is Ick schete geweltiglick und kame gewis. 
Anno Domini MDL villi lar. Jh got mi Matias van Norenbarch. Dat is var.* 

THE AKSENAL, DBB8DBN. 

56. A Bombard, late fifteenth century ; calibre, 14 inches ; carriage of later 
date. It is called, Diefaule Magd}^'' 

THE BOTAL AKMOURY, MADRID. 

57. A Dragonneau, cast at Li^ge in 1503 Double-barrelled breech-loader. 
A most artistic piece of work. 

HER RES MUSEUM, VIENNA. 

58. A mortar, first half of_;fif teenth century. Calibre, 88 cm. 

59. A mortar, second half of fifteenth century. Calibre, 31 cm. 

60. Eanamerschlange, fifteenth century. Calibre, 14 cm.j length of bore, 
470 cm. 

61. Falconet, early sixteenth century. Calibre, 6*5 cm. ; length, 233 cm. 

62. Small mortars (Boiler), cast by Hans Penden, Siegen, 1538. 

63. Small serpentines (Serpentinleins), by H. Chr. Loeffler, 1579. 

64. Viertelschlange (Falken). Calibre, 10-5 cm., by H. Chr. Loeffler, 1583. 

65. Schlange of the Republic of Ragusa, 15(»5, cast by Johann Baptist von Arbe. 
Calibre, 13 cm. ; length, 449 cm. 



'" The dirty maid. 



62 



II.— LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

By William Brown, F.8.A., secretary to the Surtees Society 
and to the Yorkshire Archaeological Society. 

[Read on the 26th November, 1902.] 

The documents here printed, except the first, which was at one 
time in the possession of Mr. H. C. Abbs, Cleadon House, Sunderland, 
belong to Mr. W. Grey Robinson, Quedgeley House, Gloucester, by 
whose permission they are printed. They have come to him with 
other property from the Middletons of Silksworth. The thanks of the 
Society are due to Mr. F. W. Dendy and Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, 
for help in annotating these charters, and to Mr. W. H. St. John 
Hope, Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
for the description of the seals. 

I.— 1198-1208. Grant by Philip of Poitou, bishop of Durham, 
to Robert of Langley, of forty acres of the bishop's waste, between 
Bsh and the Deemess, on the east side of the road leading to Rowley. 
The limits of date of this charter are settled by the appointment of 
Aimery de Talboys, the bishop's nephew, as archdeacon of Durham 
in 1198, and the bishop's death in 1208. The present vicar of Esh, 
the rev. W. Stuart White, who has kindly assisted me with this 
charter, writes : ' I am afraid that I am not able to identify the forty 
acres ; but, it seems probable that they were somewhere near to the 
small estate owned by colonel Edward Leadbltter-Smith, at Flass, 
which was formerly the property of old lady Peat. At the date of 
the charter the Esh family owned Rowley, and, I believe, they still 
own it. Besides this Rowley, called Rowley Gillet, there is Cold 
Rowley, which lies out by Catchside of Consett.' 

Philippus, Dei gracia Dunelmensis Episcopus, omnibna hominibus totius 
episcopatus sui Francis et Anglis, salutem. Sciatis nos dedisse, concessisse, et 
presenti carta confirmasse Robberto de Languele et heredibus eius, pro 
homagio et seruicio suo, in feodo et hereditate, quadraginta acras terre de 
wasto nostro, inter Eas* et Diuemess', ex orientali parte uie que uadit [ad] 
Roelee. Habendas et tenendas sibi et heredibus snis de nobis et snccessoribns 
nostris, libere, c[uiete, et honoriftce, reddendo inde Robis et successoribus postris 



ORAKTS Of" LAlTD NtlAB ESft AKD At OBD£. 6S 

aanuatim quatuor solidos ad qaatuor terminoa in episcopatu constitutos, pro 

omni alio seraicio, auxilio, consuetadine, et exactione. Quare uolumus, et 

precipimus quod predictus Robbertus et heredes sui predictam terrain habeant 

et teneant de nobis et successoribus nostris per predictum seruicium, libere, 

qniete, et honorifice, in bosco et piano, in pratis et pascuis, in terris cultis et 

incultis, in uiis et semitis, in introitibus et exitibus, cum omnibus libertatibus 

et liberie consuetudinibus ad predictam terram pertinentibus, salua in omnibus 

foresta nostra, ita quod quietus sit de pasnagio propriorum porcorum suomm 

de nutritura sua, quos non adquisierit contra pasnagium nostrum. Hiis 

testibus, Aimerico, archidiacono Dunelmensi, Leone de Heriz, Jordano 

Escolland, Rogero Baudr', Robberto filio Meldr[edi], Gileberto Ansard, 

Robberto de Amundeuill', Waltero de Mostiers, Willelmo de Lomelee, Waltero 

Daadr', Petro Arpin, Robberto filio Thome, Johanne de Torp, Daniele de Ess', 

Hagone de Capella, Willelmo de Herlesee, et aliis multis. 

Seal, in yellow wax, a good deal broken, bears a bishop standing 
with crozier in left hand, and the right raised in the act of 

blessing illvm philippi d . . . . Apparently the 

same as that described in the Proceedings of the society (vol. x. p. 303). 
See reproduction of this seal one half size on p. 82. 

II.— 1197-1208. A confirmation by the same bishop, of a 
f^rant by Adam and Alexander de Horde to Robert de Clifford, of 
the moor of Horde, now Orde, near Berwick, of which a third part 
was to remain as pasture in common between Clifford and the 
Hordes. The rent to be paid by Clifford to the grantors was a 
besant^ or two shillings at the feast of St. Cuthbert in September, 
that is, the feast of his translation, which was celebrated on the 
loth of the month. 

Adam de Orde stands near the head of the pedigree of Orde of 
Orde, in Raine's North Durham, p. 248. He confirmed the grant to 
the monks of Durham of the fishery of the Pool and the service of 
Robert de Clifford made by his son Henry de Orde, who had cut off 
the hand of the king's forester, and Alexander de Orde is one of the 
witnesses to the confirmation, ibid. 134, 249. 

Philippuft del gracia Dunelmensis Episcopus. Omnibus has litteras uisuris 
uel audituris tam presentibus quam f uturis salutem. Sciatis nos concessisse et 

' There were two coins coined in Constantinople and current in England 
which were called bezants, after Byzantium, the ancient name of that city, the 
gold besant and the silver besant. It was the latter coin which was current for 
two shillings. See Kenneth's Parochial Antiquities^ edit. 1695, p. 10 and 
appendix, Boldon Book (25 Surtees Society publ.), app. p. liii. [F. W. D.] 



64 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

presenti carta confirmasse Robberto de Clifford et heredibus suis Moram 
de Horde quam idem Robbertus habet ex dono Ade et Alexandri de Horde 
per easdem diuisas per quas Hugo bone memorie predecessor noster earn 
tenuit ita quod predictus Robbertus et heredes sui tenebunt de predictis Adam 
et Alexandro et de eorum heredibus duas partes predicte More in dominio, 
et tercia pars illius More que est apud Orientem remanebit inter prenominatos 
Adam et Alexandrum et dictum Robbertum in communi pastura. Tenebit 
eciam predictus Robbertus et heredes sui predictam Moram de supradictis 
Adam et Alexandro et heredibus eorum in feodo et hereditate libere et quiete 
et honorifice absque omni seruicio consuetudine et exactione reddendo inde 
annuatim predictis Ade et Alexandro et heredibus eorum unum bisancium 
uel duos solldos^ ad festum sancti Cuthberti in Septembri. Quare uolumus 
et precipimus quod predictus Robbertus et heredea sui babeaot et teneant 
predictam Moram per predictum seruicium libere quiete et honorifice in pratis 
et pascuis in introitibus et exitibus in uiis et semitis in aquis et petariis et in 
omnibus aliis libertatibus liberam et quietam ab omnibus aliis seruiciis et 
consuetudinibus et si prefatus Robbertus infra suas proprias partes stangnum 
vel molendinum firmare uoluerit firmet sicut in carta prenominatorum Ade 
et Alexandri quam inde habet continetur. Hiis testibus Jordano EscoUand 
Gileberto de Lega Leone de Heriz Rogero Daudr' Rogero Bordon Willelmo 
Escolland Willelmo de Latton Willelmo de Elton' Dauid de Auburne 
Willelmo de Hetton' Thoma de Twisl' Constantino de Grendon' Helia de 
CornaP ct Willelmo filio suo Robberto de Scremereston* Johanne de 
Agardeston' et Helia filio suo Patricio de Cheseuic et aliis multis. 

Seal destroyed. 

III. — Feb. 28, 1312-3. Agreement between John Odenel of 
Chevelingham and Nicholas Demester of the same place, concernmg 
the marriage of John's son and heir, Thomas, with Isabel, Nicholas's 
daughter. John Odenel covenanted to settle all his freehold, namely, 
a messuage, a croft, 51 acres of land, 5 acres of meadow, and half an 
acre of wood, in Cheuelingham, now Ghillingham, on Thomas and 
Isabel in special tail. The charter of feoffment to be made according 
to the wishes of Nicholas's counsel. As soon as Thomas and Isabel 
should have had seisin for forty days, they were to re-enfeoff John 
Odenel for life in two-thirds of the property settled. Each parent 
to support his child during the five years next ensuing. Nicholas to 
receive the issues of the remaining third during that period. The 
parties to the deed covenant to build (Jierleger) a house in the said 
third part sixty feet in length. Marriage to take place when 
Nicholas wishes it, if Holy Church will permit, Isabel being then a 
child. 



LAND NfiAB ESH AND AT GHtLLtNGHAM. 65 

Ceste endenture tesmoygne les couenattncea fetes entre Johan Odenel de 
Cheaelingham dune parte e Nichol demester de mesmes la vile dantre parte 
endreit del mariage Thomas fila e eyr le dit Johan e Isabele la fiUe le dyt 
Nichol. e des autres choses en ceste endenture comprises dount mesmes ces 
Johan e Nichol en ceste fourme sount acorde. cest asauer qe lauauntdit 
Johan ad giauntee par sa fay done lealment premys a feffer par sa chartre 
en fourme taille le dymayn en la feste de la Trinite en Ian de grace mile 
ccc. e xiij les auanndiz Thomas e Isabele e les eyrs de Icnr deux corps 
lealment engendrez de tut le f raunk tenement dount le dyt Johan f u seisi le 
lour qe ceste endenture se fyt. nomement dun mes. vne croufte cinkaunte 
▼nc acre de terre cink acres de pre. e vne demye acre de boyse od les 
apurtenaunces en Chenelingham a tenir des chefs seignurs du fe par les 
seniioes qe a les diz tenemenz apendent. e si Thomas e Isabele morgent 
saunz eir de leur corps isaunt touz les auaundiz tenemenz cest asauer mes 
croufte. terre. pre. e boyse. od les apurtenaunces au dyt Johan Odenel e a 
ses eirs reuertirount e remaindrount a touz jours, e serra la chartre de fefEement 
fete par le dit Nichol e soun counsaille en touz poinz a leur volente si auaunt com 
lay le put suffrir. e kaunt Thomas e Isabele auerount pesiblement leur seisine 
de karaunte iours continue il refefferount le dyt Johan Odenel de les deux 
parties de touz les tenemenz auaundiz od les apurtenaunces dount il serrount 
par lay feffez a tenir dez nomez Thomas e Isabele e leurs eirs auaundiz en 
la vie le dyt Johan taunsoulement. e apres soun deces touz les tenemenz 
auaunt nomez od les apurtenaunces as diz Thomas e Isabele e leurs eirs 
auaundiz enterement reuertirount e remaindrount a touz iours. e kaunt Thomas 
e Isabele serrount ensy feffez le dyt Johan sustendra Thomas son filz a ses 
propres custages par les cine aunz procheinement suaunz e le dyt Nichol 
sustendra Isabele sa fille en mesmes la manere. e fet asauer qe apres la 
confeccioun de ceste endenture Johan Odinel auaundyt lerra au dyt Nichol e a 
ses eirs e ses assignez la terce partie de touz les auaundiz tenemenz enterement 
od les apurtenaunces en tote manere des issues e profiz ceux tenemenz regardaunz 
a tenir jeskes la fin de cine aunz procheynement suaunz de les auaundiz Thomas 
e Isabele saunz acountes rendre ou rien fere a nuly. e apres les cine aunz 
passez les auauudlz Johan e Nichol ordonerount pur la dyte terce partie al 
profit Thomas e Isabele taunke a leur age en la meilleure manere quil porrount. 
e les auaundiz Johan e Nichol frount herbeger en la dyte terce partie vne 
mesoun de seisaunte pez de homme en longure couenablement fete a leur 
custages en comune. e kaunt le dyt Nichol vodra les esposailles des auaundiz 
Thomas e Isabele se prendrount si selnte eglise le put suffrir. e si la dyte 
I^bcle murge denz lage quinz aunz mesmes celui Johan Odenel se conust pur lui 
e ses eirs e ses executours estre tenaz e oblige au dyt Nichol en dys liures 
dcsterlinges a paer al dyt Nychol ou a soun atourne cest escrit portaunt a 
Chenelingham denz mesmes Ian apres le deces la dyte Isabele. e pur ceo 
feffement e les couenauncez en ceste endenture comprises en touz poinz lealment 
parfurnir le dyt Nichol Demester se conust estre tenuz a Johan Odenel en dys 
Hares dargent dount le dyt Johan serra parpae le lour qe Thomas e Isabele 
serrount feffez. e sil auigne qe le dyt Johan Odenel salt ataint quil eyt 
coaenaunt enfraynt en nul poynt de nule chose en ceste endenture comprise le 
dyt Johan se conust estre tenuz e oblige au dyt Nichol demester en dis liures 



66 LOCAL MUNIMENTS t 

desterlinges a paer au dyt Nichol ou a soun attourne portaant cest escrit en Ian 
procheinement suant apresle iour de la confeccioun de cest escrit. e lauandyt 
Nichol se oblige au dyt Johan Odenel en lauaundite peine, sur mesmes lea 
condiciouns a tenir couenaunt. Bn tesmoygnaunce de queu i chose a ces escris 
cirografez. les auaundiz Johan e Nichol entrechaungeblement ount mys leur 
seals. Done a Cheuelingham le Mescredy prochein apres la feste seint Mathy 
lapostle Ian du regne le Rey Edward filz le Rey Edward syme. 

Seal destroyed. A cross written on either side of the slit for the 
label. 



IV. — No date. Grant by Isabel, daughter of Nicholas Demester, 
to Thomas de Hetonne, knight, of two parts of all the tenements in 
Chewelingham, which once belonged to John Odenell ; and of the 
remaining third which was then held in dower by Emma, widow of 
John Odenell. 

It does not appear how Isabel's estate in special tail had become 
enlarged to one in fee simple, or how she managed to evade the 
provisions of the statute De Bonis, It is, however, possible that 
John Odenel had, since the settlement, conveyed his reversion in fee 
to his son and daughter-in-law jointly. 

Sciant omnes homines quod ego Issabella filia Nicholai Demester dedi 
concessi et hac presenti carta mea confirm aui Thome de Hetonne militi 
duas partes omnium tenementorum cum pertinenciis in Chewelinghama que 
condam f uerunt Johannes (.yw?) Odnell'. Habendas et tenendas predicto Thome 
heredibus et assignatis suis de capitalibus dominis feodi illius per consuetudines 
et seruicia que ad illas duas partes pertinent imperpetuum. Et ego Issabella 
et heredes mei predictaa duas partes cum pertinenciis prefato Thome heredibus 
et assignatis suis per consuetudines ct seruicia predicta contra omnes homines 
warantizabimus imperpetuum. Preterea ego Issabella concessi predicto Thome 
quod tercia pars tenementorum predictorum cum pertinenciis quam Emma que 
f uit vxor. Johannis Odenell' tenet in dotem et que post mortem ipsius Emme 
michi reuerti deberet remaneat prefato Thome. Habendam et tenendam sibi 
heredibus et assignatis suis vna cum duabus partibus predictis de capitalibus 
dominis feodi illius per consuetudinis {sic) et seruicia que ad illam terciam 
partem pertinent imperpetuum. Bt ego Issabella et heredes mei predictam 
terciam partem cum pertinenciis prefato Thome heredibus et assignatis suis 
contra omnes homines warantizabimus imperpetuum. In cuius rei testimonium 
huic carte sigillum meum apposui. Hiis testibus Rogero Hayronne Thoma Grey 
Militibus Waltero de Dichaud Steffano de Houbournc Johanui (jyir) de 
Hesilrig' Willelmo de Lyhama et aliis. 

Seal destroyed. 



LANDS AND TENEMENTS AT CHILLINGHAM. 67 

V. — May 6, 1343. Grant by Joan, widow of Nicholas de Hunter- 
combe, to Thomas de Heton, knight, of all the freehold in Chelyng- 
ham and Cheuelyngham, which had belonged to her husband. Note 
on the back that it bad been inrolled before John Stonor and his 
fellow justices in the Common Pleas. The arms on the seal are 
arranged in an unusual fashion, as the woman's coat is placed (»n the 
dexter side. The ordinary Marmion bearing was a red fess instead of 
the three mascles or elongated lozenges. The Huntercombes derived 
their name from the manor of Huntercombe in Oxfordshire, which 
Nicholas de Huntercombe, apparently the husband of the grantor in 
this charter, alienated to Dorchester abbey in 1330 {CaL of Patent 
Rolls, 1327-1330, p. 505). They seem to have become connected 
with Northumberland by the marriage of William de Huntercombe 
with Isabel, daughter and one of the heirs of Robert de Muschamp 
{Excerpta e Rotulis Finlum, ii. 90). In 1324 a settlement was niade 
on the marriage of John, son of Nicholas de Huntercombe, and 
Constance, daughter of John de Lilleburn, by which the manor of 
Cheveljngham, which Nicholas had leased to Thomas de Heton as a 
security for 200 marks, was settled on John and Constance in tail ; 
also the manors of Beleford and Yesington, and moieties of the 
manors of Lowyk and Hethpole, held in dower by Ellen, widow of 
sir Walter de Huntercombe, and other manors including Huntercombe 
(CaL of Close Rolls, 1323-27, p. 316). It seems probable that John 
de Huntercombe died without issue. In 1333 Thomas de Heton was 
pardoned for his trespass in acquiring in fee simple from Richard {sic) 
de Hunterscoumbe the reversion of the moiety of the manor of Lowyk, 
expectant on the demise of Elena, widow of Walter de Hunterscoumbe, 
and after attornment by the said Elena, it was granted that the same 
should remain to John, since deceased, Alan and Thomas, his sons, 
and Isabel, his daughter, in fee tail {Gal. of Patent Rolls, 1330-34, 
p. 566). In 1344 Thomas de Heton had licence to crenelate his 
dwelling place at Chevelyngham, and make a castle or fortalice there 
(ibid. 1343-1345, p. 191). 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Johanna quondam vxor Nicholai de 
Hnntercoumbe remisi relaxaui et omnino imperpetuum quietum clamaui 
Thome de Heton' Chiualer omnem accionem dotis me contingentis post mortem 
piedicti Nicholai quondam viri mei de toto libero tenemento quod vncquam 



68 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

fuit predicti Nicholai in Chelyngham et Cheuelyngham.'^ Ita quod ego predicta 
Jphanna racione alicdius seisine tenementorum predictorum per predictum 
Nicholaam prius habite. vllam accionem dotis erga predictum Thomam aut sues 
quoscumque heredes aut assignatos de cetero exigere vel habere non potero. set 
per presentes exclusa aim imperpetunm. In cuius rei testimonium presentibus 
sigillum meum apposui. Dat' apud London* die Martis in festo Sancti Johannis 
ante Portam Latmam anno domini millesimo tricentesimo quadragesimo tercio. 

Dorso: Irrotulatur coram J. de Stonoret sociis suis Justic' domini Kegis de 
communi Banco anno regni Regis E. tercii a conquestu decimo septimo ro. cziiij. 
Seal red wax, | x f inch. Vair three lozenge-f [_r/ ales'] for 
Marmion of Checkendou, ia Oxfordshire, impaling \_Ermim'} two 
bars gemelles [^gules'] for Huntercombe [s* j]o[han]nb de hvnt'- 
cvm[be]. See plate V. no. 1. 

VI. — July 22, 1347. Grant by Alan de Heton to sir Henry, the 
chaplain, vicar of Chevelyngham, of his lands and tenements in 
Docjdington, near Wooler. 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Alanus de Heton' dedi concessi et hac 
presenti carta mea confirmaui domino Henrico capellano vicario de Cheuelyng- 
ham omnes terras et tenementa que habeo in villa de Dodyngton'. Habend' et 
tenend* omnes predictas terras et tenementa cum pertinenciis predicto domino 
Henrico heredibus et assignatis suis tenend' de capitali domino feodi iliius 
I>er seruicia inde debita et de iure consueta. Et ego vero dictus Alanus et heredes 
mei omnes predictas terras et tenementa cum pertinenciis vt predictum est 
predicto domino Henrico heredibus suis et suis assignalis contra omnes genres 
warantizabimus imperpetuum. In cuius rei testimonium huic presenti carte 
sigillum meum apposui. Hiis testibus Thoma Gray milite Roberto de Maners 
milite Walter© de CKiyk' milite Johanne de Bellyngham Dauyd Gray Waltero 
de Hakford' Johanne de Wetewode et aliis. Dat' apud Dodyngton' die 
dominica prozima ante festum Sancti Jacobi apostoli. Anno domini millesimo 
tricentesimo quadragesimo septimo. 

Seal, red wax, circular, J inch in diameter. Within a traceri^ 
panel a shield coachee bearing a lion within a bordure entailed 
with a label of three points. Over the helmet a demi-wyvern as a 
crest. On the sinister side a dragon with a label depending from 
its mouth the inscription on which is illegible (? a heton). >0n the 
dexter side a claw issuing from the top of the shield holding a lance 
with triangular pennon charged with a cross. No inscription around. 
The Middletons of Silksworth, quartered Heaton, vert three lions 
silver.^ The Heatons of Heaton, in Yorkshire, apparently not 

* It is not apparent why both forms of the name of the place should be used. 

* In the * Craster Tables,' printed in vol. xxiv. of the Arehaelogia Aeliana, 
sir Allen Heaton has assii^ned to him, veH a Hon rampant argent. 








^ 
t 

1 



o 



X 






LAND, ETC., IN LONGFRAMLINGTON, TYNEMOUTH, ETC. 69 

connected with the Northumberlaad family, bore, vert a lioti and 
a hordiire engrailed silver, which was one of the quarterings of 
Gascoigne of Lasingcroft See plate V. no 8. 

VII. — June 25, 1354. Grant by Constance, daughter of John de 
Eshlyngton, to William de Routh of her property in Overframelyng- 
ton, now Long Framlington. The deed was executed at Richmond 
in Yorkshire, to which county Routh and most of the witnesses 
belonged. 

Sciant presentee et futurl quod ego Constancia filia Johannls de Eshlyngton' 
dedi concessi et hac present! carta mea confirmaui Willelmo de Routh' omnia 
terras et tenementa cum pertinenciis in Ouerframelyngton* in Comitatu 
Northumbrie que mlchi descendebant jure hereditario post decessum Thome de 
Eshlyngton' fratris mei. Tenend' et habend* omnia predicta terras et tene- 
menta cum pertinenciis prefato Willelmo heredibus et assignatis suis tam in 
dominiis quam in dominicis libei-tatibus aysiamentis et commoditatibus vt in 
moris boscis piscariis viuariis viis aquis molendinis stagnis semitis pascuis et 
pasturis et omnibus aliis dictis terris et tenementis quoquomodo spectantibus 
seu pertinentibus de capitalibus dominis feodi illius per seruicia inde debita et 
de jure consueta imperpetuum. Et ego vero predicta Constancia et heredes mei 
omnia predicta terras et tenementa cum pertinenciis vt predictum est prefato 
Willelmo heredibus et assignatis suis contra omnes homines warantizabimus et 
imperpetuum defendemus. In cuius rei testimonium huic present! carte 
sigiUum meum apposui. Hiis testibus dominis Roberto de Hilton' Ricardo 
Tempest Johanne Mounceaux militibus Ricardo de Ask' Johanne de Bllerton' 
Thoma de Routhe Willelmo de Waghen et aliis. Dat' apud Richemond die 
Mercurii proxima po8t festum Natiuitatis Sancti Johannis Baptiste anno regni 
Regis Edward! tercii a conquestu Anglie vicesimo octauo. 

Dorso: Framelyngton. 

Seal destroyed. 

VIII.— July 24, 1384. Grant by Alan de Hefcon, knight, and 
Marjory, his wife, to William de Heland, rector of Angram, of all 
their land which came from the inheritance of the said Marjory in 
Swinhoe, Horton, Coldmartin, Tynemouth, and Alnwick. 

Omnibus hoc scriptum visuris uel audituris Alanus de Heton' miles et 
Marioria vxor eius salutem in domino Noueritis nos dedisse concessisse et banc 
presentem cartam nostram (sic) confirmasse Willelmo de Heland' rectori ecclesie 
de Anggram heredibus et assingnatis suis totam terram nostram que fuit de 
hereditate dicte Maryorie (sic') in Swynhow Horton* Caldemarton' Tynmouth et 
Ainewyk' Habend' et tenend' omnia predicta terras et tenementa cum omnibus 
sals pertinenciis prefato Willelmo heredibus et assingnatis suis de capitalibus 
dominis feo«li illius per seruicia inde debita et de jure consueta in perpetuum 



70 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

In cuius rei testimonium presentibus sigiila nostra apposuimus Hiis testibus 
Jobanne de Fenwyk' Roger Heroun Willelmo de LawalV myletibus (sic) Roberto 
de Aggiriston' Jobanne de Hesilrig Jobanne de Howbum et aliis Dat' apud 
Cbeflyngbam die dominica in vigilia Sancti Yacobi apostoli anno Ringni Regis 
Ricardi secundi post conqnestum octauo. 

Two seals of red wax. (1) Circular, | inch diameter, on a shield 
within a reticulated border, a lion. The shield is suspended from a 
tree : Sifltllu' alant t>c betoun. (2) Circular, | inch in diameter. 
Within a traceried panel, a lady standing and holdinof before her a 
shield charged with a lion : 0'marjotfe Oe beton. See plate Y. nos. 4 
and 5. 

IX. — Same date. Power of attorney from Alan de Heton and his 
wife to John Scrywan (? Scriven) to deliver seisin of the property 
comprised in the last deed to William de Heland. 

A toutz ceanz qe cestz lettres uerrount ou orrount Alain de Heton' chiualer 
et Marion sa femme saluz en dieu Saches nous auer ordine et en nostre lowe raisse 
Johan Scrywan nostre attome pour diliuer sesine a William de Heland' person 
del glise de Anggram de totz les terriset tenementz qels furount del heritage de 
dit Mariori en Swynbow Horton' Caldemarton' Tynmowth* et Alnewik heiaunt 
ferme et stabille ceo qe le dit Jobane fet en nostre noune tochant le dit sesine 
En tesmoyn de qel chose a cest lettre de attorne nous awoms ra'se nos ceallis 
Escrit a Cbeflyngbam le veilie de Sein Takes le apostill Lan de Ring' le Roy 
Richard secnnd pois le conquest ouyttyme. 

Two labels, one seal remaining bearing a lion as in no. 8. 

X. — ^August 12, 1384. Power of attorney from the same to John 
de Birkin, vicar of Chillingham, to receive from William de Heland 
seisin of the property they had granted to him. According to the 
pedigree of Middleton of Silksworth, given in the Visitations (Foster's 
edition, p. 239), one of sir A.lan de Heton's daughters and heiresses, 
Margaret, married Thomas Middleton, brother of sir John Middleton. 
A totz ceaux qe cestz lettres verrount ou orrount Alain de Heton' chiualer et 
Maryori sa femme salutz en dieu Sachez nous auer oraine et en nostre lowe misse 
Johan de Birkin vicar de le glise de Cbeflyngbam nostre attorney por resaiuer 
sesine a nostre oups de William de Heland' person de le glise de Anggram de 
totz les terris et tenementz qe furount del heritage de dit Mariori de qels le dit 
William foit enfeffe par nostre chartre Heyant ferme et stabil ceo qe le dit 
Johan fete en nostre noune tochaunt le resayuer de dit sesine En tesmoyn de qel 
chose a cestz lettre de attorne nous auoms myse nos ceallis escrite a Swinhowe 
le vendirdi procben apres le fest de Seint Lowrauns le apostel (sic) lanne de 
Ryng le Roy Richard secund pois le conquest ouytyme. 

Two seals of white wax : (1) Mai'jory de Heton's seal as to no. 8, 
very poor impression ; (2) circular, f inch in diameter, with a device, 



MANOR OF BBLSAY AND ADVOWSON OF CHAPEL, ETC. 71 

XL— AprD 10, 1422. Grant by Thomas de Midelton, esquire, son 
of John de Midelton, knight, and of Christiana, his wife, both deceased, 
to John de Midelton. knight, his elder brother of the whole blood, 
of a moiety of the site of the manor of Belsay, and of all the demesne 
lands with a moiety of the patronage of the advowson of the chapel of 
the Blessed Mary in Belsay, and other property, with certain rents 
from the manor of Trewick, except three tenements and three 
hnsbandlands belonging to them in Belsay, and a cotage with four acres 
of land, which John had in exchange by another charter for certain 
lands in Alnwick, one of which tenements lay above the south row 
before the gate of the manor, another by the lidgate* above the north 
row on the west of the manor ; these were called Gibsonlands, and 
the third tenement lay at the west end of the said vill above the south 
row, then in the tenure of Nicholas Henrison, and the cotage lay above 
the south row, opposite St Mary's chapel, and was the third cotage 
eastward from the capital tenement of the said chantry. To hold in ^ 
tail in exchange for a third part of the manor of Silksworth, and for 
a third part of certain lands in Tunstall, and in the Basset-fiat, near 
the conmion field of Offerton, iu the bishopric of Durham, which had 
once belonged to laiy Jacoba de Strevelyn. with divers remainders 
over.^ 

* A * lidgate * still means a gate or passage in provincial English ; ' a gate 
between ploughed land and meadow, or pasture and meadow, in an open 
field'; a gate at the entrance of a village used to hinder cattle from straying 
among the houses (^English Dialect Dictionary'), 

* The following circumstances throw some lighten these transactions between 
John and Thomas de Middleton. In 1318, Belsay and other possessions in 
Northumberland of sir John de Middleton (I.) were forfeited by him for his 
part in the rebellion of Gilbert de Middleton against Kdward II. 

In 1336 those possessions were granted by Edwa'd III. to sir John de 
Stritelyn, subject to life interests which had been granted by Edward II. to 
Thomas Crumbwell and Thomas de Bamburgh (^Patent RoUt 9 Edward III. pt. 
2, mem. 20). 

In 1324 Silksworth had been granted to Richard de Emeldon, who died in 1333. 

In 1361 sir John de Strivelyn and Jane, his wife, lUc Jane de Emeldon, one 
of the three co-heiresses of Richard de Emeldon, settled the lands (I) of sir 
John de Strivelyn, (2) of Barnaba de Strivelyn, n6e Barnaba de Swinburne, his 
first wife, and (3) of Jane de Strivelyn, with limitations in favour of John and 
Jane de Strivelyn in tail, with remainder to John de Middleton (II.) and 
Christiana, his wife, in tail, with divers remainders over {Feet of Fines ^ 
ytnihumberland, 181, file 13, no. 121, deed in Durham Treasury, new History of 
NorthunUterlandj yi. 182, Hodgson's Northumberlandf II. i. 35). 

John de Strivelyn and Jane, his wife, died without heirs of their bodies, the 
former in 1378, and the latter in 1391. John de Middleton (IL) died in 1396, 
and Christiana, his wife, in 1421 ; and, immediately after her death, the deeds of 



72 LOCAL MtJNlMBNTS : 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Thomas de Midelton* Armiger filius 
Johaains de Midelton' Chiualer et Oristiane vxoris eius nunc def unctorum dedi 
concessi et hac present! carta mea indentata confirmaui Johanni de Midelton' 
Militi fratri meo senior i de integro sanguine totam illam medietatem Situs 
Manerii de Belaowe et omnes illas terras dominicales ibidem cum medietate 
aduocacionis patronatus Oantarie Beate Marie in Belsowe et medietatem Curie 
bosci plani prati pasture stagnorum molendinorum et certarum piscariarum 
ac Medietatem sexdecim terrarum Husbandr' cum medietate viginti cotagiorum 
ibidem et cum redditu sine seruicio vnius libre piperis dimidie libre Cimini 
exeunte de Manerio de Trewyk' et cum seruicio sex dcnariorum super quolibet 
ingressu cuiuslibet heredis post mortem antecessoris eius in Manerio de Trewyk' 
exceptis tamen tribus tenementis et tribus terris Husband' eisdem pertinentibus 
et vno cotagio cum quatuor acris terre eidem pertinentibus in Belsowe in 
Comitatu Northumbrie que dictus Johannes habet in excambium per aliam 
cartam meam de et pro certis terris in Alnewyke quorum tenementorum superins 
exceptorum vnum iacet super le Southrawe coram portam («ic) Manerii ibidem 
aliud tenementum iacet iuxta le lidgate super le Norbhrawe ex parte occidentali 
dicti Manerii et vocantur gibsonlandez et tercium tenementum iacet in fine 
occidentali dicte ville super le Southrawe nunc in tenura Nicholai Henrison' et 
dictum cotagium iacet super le Southrawe ex opposito dicte Capelle Beate 
Marie et est tercium cotagium versus orientem a capitali tenemento dicte 
Cantarie que omnia predicta hie per me concessa simul cum dictis parcellis 
auperius exceptis nuper habui ex dono et concessione Simonis de Weltden 
Habend* et tenend' omnia predicta terras tenementa et cetera alia superius 
specificata in Belsowe exceptis preexceptis cum suis membris et pertinenciis 
prefato Johanni fratri meo et heredibus de corpore suo legitime procreatis de 
capitalibus dominis feodorum illorum per seruicia inde debita et de iure consueta 



partition and mutual conveyance and arrangement which follow were entered 
into by their sons John de Middieton (III.) and Thomas de Middleton. 

It is observable that whilst Thomas de Middleton claims and conveys by 
these deeds a moiety of Belsay and the other possessions which had originally 
come into the settlement from the Mi«idletons through the grant of them by the 
crown to sir John de Strivelyn, he does not claim or convey any interest in the 
lanls which had originally come into the settlement from Richard de Embleton 
through Jane de Strivelyn in Alnwick and Silksworth. 

According to a record cired by Hodgson (II. i. 354), John de Middleton (I.) 
forfeited in 1318 only half the manor of Belsay. etc. Probably the other half 
was* preserved to the Middleton family by an entail, created before that date, 
and that under that entail John de Middleton (II.) took one half of Belsay, 
etc., by a title outside the settlement, and used that half for the endowment of 
his second son Thomas de Middleton, and that the latter was thus enabled to 
exchange his interest in Belsay for his brother's interest in the Alnwick 
property, and in Jacoba de Strivelyn 's third of Silksworth manor. 

The way in which the warranties of the guarantors were relied on, and the 
existing entails disregarded by the parties throughout all this batch of deeds, 
is deserving of attention. 

From the seals it would seem that the Middletons had not at this date 
quartered the arms of Strivelyn (on a shield sable cnmlly and fitcliy sUver 
three covered cups), but both the Middletons of Belsay and the Middletons of 
Silksworth afterwards did so. A Middleton deed in the Durham treasury dated 
in 1466 bears the quartering (Ima 6tae Spec. no. 43). [F. W. I).] 



MANO& OF BEtiSAY AND ADVOWSOK Of CfiAl»EL, ETC. 73 

imperpetaum in cxcambium pro tota ilia tercia parte Manerii ville de 
Silkesworth' cum suis membris et pertinenciis ac reuercionibus et seruiciis 
vniuersis ac pro tercia parte vnius terre Husband' iuxta campum de Tunstan' 
(sh) et pro tercia parte terrarum in le Bassetflate iuxta campum de OfEerton' 
infra Episcopatum Dunelmensem que quondam fuerunt domine Jacobe de 
Strevelyn sicut iacent per suas rectas diuisas de et sub modis et formis ac 
condicionibus subsequentibus. Videlicet sub condicione quod si contingat 
dictam Johannem fratrem meum sine herede de corpore suo exeunte obirc. 
Volo tunc quod omnia predicta terre tenementa et cetera alia cum pertinenciis 
in Belsowe et Trewyk' hie per me concessa exceptis preexceptis michi prefato 
Thome de Midelton' et heredibus masculis de corpore meo exeuntibus remaneant 
et reaertantur imperpetuum. Remanere inde postea heredibus de corporibus 
dictornm Johannis de Midelton* Chiualer et Cristiane vxoris eius exeuntibus 
legitime procreatis. Remanere tunc postea rectis heredibus et assignatis dicti 
Johannis fratris mei. Tenend' de capitalibus dominis per seruicia predicta 
imperpetuum. Et sub condicione quod si contingat me prefatum Thomam de 
Midelton' vel heredes masculos de corpore meo exeuntes sen nostrorum aliquem 
per prefatum Johannem fratrem meum heredes vel assignatos suos vel per 
aliquem eorum nomine sen covina aut per quemcumque alium de predictis 
terciis partibus Manerii et ville de Silkesworth' cum pertinenciis seu terrarum 
fluiband' iuxta Tunstan aut terrarum in bassetflat cum pertinenciis vel de 
ceteris aliis prescriptis cum pertinenciis infra Episcopatum Dunelmensem vel de 
aliqua parcella eorundem per processum iuris possessionem amlttere expelli sine 
disseisiri per aliquem titulum iuris in eisdem habentem seu pretendentem 
habere ante datam presencium coUusione fraude et malo ingenio omnino 
postposit' quod tunc liceat michi prefato Thome de Midelton' et heredibus 
masculis de corpore meo legitime procreatis omnia predicta terras tenementa et 
cetera alia prescripta in Belsowe et Trewyk' su peri us declarata exceptis 
preexceptis hie per me concessa intrare habere et michi et heredibus de corpore 
meo exeuntibus retinere imperpetuum Remanereque inde postea in omnibus 
et per omnia vt superius dictum est hac carta et seisina inde deliberata in 
aliqao non obstante. Bt si talis introitus racione premissa de cetcro eueniat 
qaod absit quod tunc dictus Johannes frater mens heredes et assignati sui 
teneantor ad reliberandum michi prefato Thome et heredibus masculis de 
corpore meo exeuntibus omnimoda scripta carta (.^ic) et munimenta tam dictas 
terras et tenementa in Belsowe et Trewyk' quam alia terras et tenementa in 
Thoroburgh' nunc Simonis de Weltden' tangencia que idem Johannes frater 
meos habuit ex liberacione mea super deliberacione seisine presentis carte Et ego 
veio prefatus Thomas de Midelton' et heredes mei omnia predicta terras 
tenementa et cetera alia in Belsowe et Trewyk' exceptis preexceptis hie per me 
concessa cum suis pertinenciis prefato Johanni fratri meo et heredibus de corpore 
suo exeuntibus ac heredibus de corporibus dictorum Johannis de Midelton' Chiualer 
et Cristiane def unctorum exeuntibus necnon heredibus et assignatis dicti Johannis 
fratris mei modo et forma predictis ac de et sub condicionibus prescriptis 
in omnibus et per omnia vt predictum €st contra omnes gentes Warantizabimus 
et defendemus imperpetuum. In cuius rei testimonium vtrique parti huius 
carte indentate nos prefati Thomas et Johannes frater sigilla nostra apposulmus 
Hiis testibus Roberto de Ogle Willelmo de Swynburn* Militibus Johanne del 

TOl* XXV. 10 



74 LOCAti MUlJlMBOTii t 

Strother Willelmo Carnaby Nicholao Turpyn et aliis Dat' decimo die mensis 
Aprilis Anno domini Millesimo quadringentesimo yicesimo secundo. Et anno 
regni Regis Henrici quinti post conquestum Anglie decimo. 

There have been two seals, only one left, red wax, circular, 
diameter | inch. A shield, quarterly and in Uie first quarter a cross 
paty. A cross pattern in place of the inscription around. The 
bearing of Middleton was, quarterly gules' and gold and a cross botany 
silver in the quarter. See plate V. no. 2. 



XII. — Same date. Grant by John de Midelton, knight, to 
Thomas de Midelton, esquire, his brother of the whole blood, of a 
tenement in Alnwick, by le Maltcrosse in which Thomas Bownes had 
lived, and 30 acres of land belonging to it, and three tofts on the west 
of it, a tenement in Bondgate, a husbandland belonging to it, eight 
acres of land in le Haugh called Messangerland, which had belonged 
to Lady Jacoba de Strevelyn, to hold in tail male, in exchange 
three tenements, etc., in Belsay, with divers remainders over. 

Presens carta indentata testatur quod ego Johannes de Middleton' Miles 
filius et heres Johannis de Midelton' Chiualer et Cristiane vxoris eius nunc 
defunctorum dedi concessi et hac presenti carta mea confirmaui Thome de 
Midelton' armigero fratri meo de integro sanguine vnum tenementum in 
Alnewyk iuxta le Maltcrosse in quo Thomas Bonnes nuper habitauit et triginta 
acrasterre eidem tenemento pertinentes ac tria tofta que iacent ex parte occidentali 
dicti tenementi et vnum tenementum in Bondegate et vnam terram Husband' 
eidem tenemento pertinentem, necnon octo acras terre iacentes in le Haugh* 
Yocatas Messangerland in Alnewyk cum suis pertinenciis que quondam fuerunt 
domine Jacobe de Strevelyn' prout iacent ibidem per suas rectas diuisas Habend' 
et tenend' predicto Thome et heredibus masculis de corpore suo exeuntibus de 
capitalibus dominis feodorum illorum per seruicia inde debita et de iure 
consueta imperpetuum, in excambium pro tribus tenementis tribus terris 
husband' vno' cotagio ac quatuor acris terre in Belsowe in Comitatu Northumbrie 
cum suis pertinenciis inferius declarandis, de et sub modis et formis ac 
condicionibus subsequentibus videlicet sub condicione quod si contingat prefatum 
Thomam sine herede masculo de corpore suo exeunte obire. Volo quod tunc 
omnia predicta t-erre tenementa et tofta cum ^uis pertinenciis in Alnewyk 
michi pref ato Johanni filio et heredibus de corpore meo exeuntibus remaneant et 
reuertantur imperpetuum Tenend' de capitaUbus dominis per seruicia predicta 
Bt si contingat me sine herede de corpore meo exeunte obire volo quod tunc 
omnia predicta terre tenementa et tofta hie per me concessa cum suis pertinenciis 



LANDS AND TENEMENTS IN ALNWICK. 75 

iategre remaneant heredibus de corporibus dictorum Johannis de Midelton* 
Chiualer et Cristiane vxoris eius legitime procreatis Tenend' de capitalibus 
dominis per seruicia predicta. Ita quod deficientibus heredibus de corporibus 
eorandem Johannis de Midelton' Chiualer et Cristiane legitime procreatis quod 
tunc omnia predicta terre tenementa et tofta hie per me concessa cum suis 
pertinenciis rectis heredibus meis remaneant et reuertantur imperpetuum 
Tenend' de capitalibus dominis per seruicia predicta vt predictum est. Et sub 
condicione quod si contingat me prefatum Johannem filium seu heredes de 
corpore meo exeuntes sen nostrorum aliquem arte vel ingenio per prefatum 
Thomam heredes vel assignatos suos vel per aliquem alium de predictis terris 
[et] tenementis in Belsowe inferius declarandis vel de aliqua parcella eorandem 
per processum iuris possessionem amittere expelli ammoueri sine disseisin per 
aliqaem habentem seu pretendentem habere titulum iuris in eisdem ante datam 
piesentis carte CoUusione fraude malo ingenio et covina omnino postpositis 
quod extunc bene liceat michl prefato Johanni filio et heredibus meis predictis 
omnia predicta terras tenementa et cetera prescripta in Alnewyk cum suis 
pertinenciis hie per me concessa intrare habere et possidere in feodo talliato vt 
predictum est imperpetum Remanere postea inde in omnibus et per omnia vt 
predictum est hac carta et seisina eiusdem in aliquo non obstantibus Et si talis 
introitus racione premissa de cetero eueniat quod absit Adtunc (sic) dictus Thomas 
et heredes sui teneantur ad reliberandum michi et heredibus meis predictis in 
feodo talliato ac heredibus illorum qui contigerint possessionem habere per 
formam iuris in le remanere vt predictum est omnimoda ilia scripta cartas et 
munimenta dicta terras seu tenementa in Alnewyk tangencia que idem Thomas 
habuit ex deliberacione mea super deliberacione seisine et sigillacione presentis 
carte Et vero ego prefatus Johannes de Midelton' filius et heredes mei omnia 
predicta terras tenementa et cetera alia prescripta in Alnewyk hie per me 
concessa cum suis pertinenciis prefato Thome et heredibus suis masculis de 
corpore suo exeuntibus Ac heredibus singulorum illorum predictorum qui 
contigerint possessionem sine ins inde habere per formam iuris in le remanere vt 
predictum est modo et forma Ac de et sub condicionibus prescriptis contra 
omnes gentes warantizabimus et defendemus imperpetuum Presens insuper 
carta testatur quod prefatus ego Thomas de Midelton' dedi concessi et hac 
presenti carta mea indentata confirmaui prefato Johanni de Midelton* Militi 
fratri meo seniori predicta tria tenementa tres terras husband' vnum cotagium ac 
quataor acras terre cum pert, in Belsowe infra Comitatum Northumbrie que simul 
cnm aliis tenementis in Belsowe nuper fnemnt Symonis de Weltden' et quomm 
tenementomm hie per me concessorum vnum iacet super le Southrawe coram 
portam (sic^ Maijierii ibidem aliud iacet super le Northrawe iuxta le lidgate ex 
parte occidentali dicti Maneril et vocantur G jbsonlandez et tercium tenementum 
iacet super le Southrawe in fine occidentali dicte ville nunc in tenura Nicholai 
Henryson et dictum cotagium iacet super le Southrawe ex opposito capelle beate 
marie ibidem et illud cotagium est tercium cotagium versus orientem a capitali 
tenemento eiusdem Cantarie in excambium pro predictis terris tenementis et 
toftis cum pertinenciis in Alnewyk Habend' et tenend' omnia tria tenementa 
tres terras husband' cotagium et quatuor acras terre in Belsowe cum suis 
pertinenciis prefato Johanni de Mideltoii' f ratyi meo et heredibiis de corpore suo 



76 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

exenntibus de capitalibus dominis feodi illius per seruicia inde d6bita et de hire 
consueta imperpetunm in excambium pro sepedictis terris tenementis et toftis 
in Ainewyk cum suis pertinenciis de et sub modis et formis ac condicionibus 
subsequentibus videlicet sub condicione quod si contin^t dictum Jobannem 
f ratrem meum sine herede de corpore suo exeunte obire volo quod tunc omnia 
predicta terre tenementa et cetera alia prescripta in Belsowe cum pertinenciis 
hie per me concessa michi prefato Thome et heredibus masculis de corpore meo 
exeuntibus remaneant et reuertantur imperpetuum Tenend* de capitalibus 
dominis per seruicia predicta Remanereque inde postea heredibus de corporibus 
dictorum Johannis de Midelton' Militis et Cristiane vxoris eius legitime procreatis 
Tenend' de capitalibus dominis vt predicitur. Remanere postea rectis heredibus 
et assignatis diet! Johannis fratris mei imperpetuum Tenend' de capitalibus 
dominis per seruicia predicta. Et sub condicione quod si contingat me prefatum 
Thomam seu heredes de corpore meo exeuntes seu nostrorum aliquem per 
prefatum Jchannem fratrem meum heredes vel assignatos suos vel per aliuro 
corum nomine consilio seu covina vel per quemcumque alium de predictis 
terris tenementis seu toftis in Ainewyk cum suis pertinenciis vel de aliqua 
parcella eorundem per processum iuris possessionem amittere vel alio mode 
expelli ammoueri sine disseisin per aliquem titulum iuris in eisdem habentem 
seu pretendentem ante datam presentis carte collusione fraude et malo ingenio 
omnino postpositis quod tunc bene liceat michi prefato Thome et heredibus 
masculis de corpore meo exeuntibus omnia predicta terras tenementa et cotagium 
in Belsowe cum suis pertinenciis intrare habere et possidere imperpetuum hac 
carta et seisina eiu^dem in aliquo non obstantibus Et si talis introitus racione 
premissa de cetero eueniat quod absit quod tunc dictus Johannes frater et 
heredes sui teneantur ad deliberandum michi dicto Thome et heredibus meis 
masculis. Necnoa aliis heredibus superius in le Remanere specificatis omni- 
moda cartas scripta et munimenta dicta terras seu tenementa in Belsowe 
tangencia hie per me concessa que idem Johannes frater habuit ex deliberacione 
mea tempore deliberacionis seisine et sigillacionis presentis carte mee Bt ego 
vero dictus Thomas et heredes mei omnia predicta tria tenementa tres terras 
husband* cotagium et quatuor acras terre in Belsowe cum pertinenciis prefato 
Johanni fratri et heredibus de corpore suo exeuntibus ac heredibus dictorum 
Johannis Chiualer et Cristiane vxoris eius de corporibus eorundem Johannis et 
Cristiane exeuntibus necnon rectis heredibus piefati Johannis fratris mei mode 
et forma predictis) ac de et sub condicionibus prescriptis contra omnes gentes 
warantizabimus et defendemus imperpetuum. Et in huius rei testimonium 
vtrique parti huius carte indentate nos pref atus Johannes de Midelton' filius et 
predictus Thomas sigilla nostra apposuimus Hiis testibus Willelmo de Rodom 
Bd'o Crawcestre Armigeris Ricardo Bounes Johanne Porter de Alnewik 
Nicholao Turpyn' Ricardo Anisle Jacobo Anisle et aliis. Dat' decimo die 
Aprilis (etc., ut in ulthna carta) Bt sciendum est quod predicta clausa que sic 
incipit Bt in huius rei testimonium etc. scribitur in altera parte huius carte 
post datam. 

Two labels with fragments of seals in red wax, one apparently 
the same as that attJ^ched to the last deed, 



LAND, ETC!., HARTLEY, TYNEMOUtH, ALNWICK, ETC. 77 

XIIL— Jane 20, 1475. Grant by Thomas Middleton of Silks- 
worth, esquire, to sir John Middleton, knight, and others,^ of his 
property in Hartley, Tynemouth, Hadston, Alnwick, and Doxford. 

There is another deed between the same parties and relating to 
the same places with the addition of Bamburgh, dated at Silksworth, 
June 20, 11 Edward IV. (1471), but in other respects identical with 
the deed printed below. 

Sciant presentes et f aturi quod ego Thomas Middilton de Silkesworth Armiger 
dedi ooncessi et hac present! carta mea indentata confirmaui Johanni Middilton 
Militi Willelmo Hylton Armigero Roberto Tempest Armigero Roberto Porter 
Boberto Harbotill et domino Johanni Skynner presbitero omnia mesuagia 
terms tenementa redditns et seruicia cum suis pertinenciis que habeo in villis et 
territoriis de Hartlawe Tynmouth Hadilston Alnewik et Doxford in comitatu 
Northnmbrie Habend' et tenend* omnia mesuagia terras tenementa redditus et 



' The parties to this deed were sons of the Thomas and John de Middle- 
ton, the partitioners mentioned in the preceding deeds. Thomas, in the 
present deed, is mentioned in the Durham Visitation pedigree of the Middletons 
uf Silksworth, and married Eleanor, daughter of Rowland Tempest. John, in 
the present deed, is omitted by Hodgson from his pedigree of the Middletons of 
Belsay. This John Middleton (IV.) married Isabella, daughter of Roger Thorn- 
ton. 'Cott. Oh. xii. 41, B.M., Dodsworth MSS, 52, fols. 124, 125, and new History 
of Northumberland, VI. 300, 343, where he is called in error the son, instead of 
the grandson, of Christiana de Middleton. Her son, John Middleton, the 
partitioner, married Joan [F. W. D.] 

Midilton, Thomas. Inq, p. m, taken 27 Sep., 1480, at Bishop's Auckland. 
Thomas, aged 16, is his sou and heir. With the intention of depriving the 
bi«hop of the custody of his lands and heir, he had enfeoffed William Hilton 
and others of his lands, &c., of which they were to enfeoff his heir upon coming 
of age, bat of which he took the profits, &c., to the date of h^'s death. 

Silkesworth, manor of, held of the prior of Durham, &c. 

44 Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records, p. 463. 

Middleton, Thomas. Inq, v, o, taken 20 Dec., 1498, at Darlington. He had 
(without due delivery by the bishop) entered on his lands. 



Silkesworth, ) ^„„^^ ^^ 
Elestobb, {manors of. 



Ihid., p. 465. 

Middleton, Thomas. Inq, v. off, taken 6 Sept., 1512, at Durham. Anne, 
aged 4, is his daughter and next heir. Gilbert, aged 30, is his brother and 
Ittir to one-third part of the manor of Silkesworth and lands in Tunstall 
and Bassett Flat, next Offerton, which lands had been, by deed dated 10 April, 
1422, conveyed by John Middilton (son of John Middilton and Christian his 
wife) to his brother, Thomas de Middilton and Margaret his wife and his heirs 
male. They had issue Thomas, who was the father of the said Thomas and 
GUbert. 

Silkesworth, a third part of the manor of. &c. 

Ibid., p. 466. 

Middleton, Lancelot. Inq, per br, de mand, taken 16 Sept., 1561, 
at Durham. Gteorge Myddilton, aged 20, is his son and next heir. Silkes- 
worthe, manor of, and lands and teneii^ents there ; held of the dean an4 
chapter, &c. 

m,, p. 471, 



78 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

serulcia predicta cum suis pertinenciis prefatis Johanni Middilton Willelmo 
Roberto Tempest Roberto Porter Roberto Harbotill et Johanni Skynner 
heredibus et assignatls suis de capitalibns dominis feodorum illorum per seruicia 
inde debita et de lure consueta imperpetuum. Et ego vero predictus Thomas et 
heredes mei omnia mesuagia terras tenementa redditus et seruicia predicta 
cum suis pertinenciis prefatis Johanni Middilton Willelmo Roberto Tempest 
Roberto Porter Roberto Harbotill et Johanni Skynner heredibus et assignatis 
suis contra omnes gentes warantizabimus et imperpetuum defendemus In cuius 
rei testimonium huic presenti carte mee indentate sigillum meum apposui Dat' 
apud Silkesworth predict' vicesimo die mensis Junii Anno regni Regis Edwardi 
quarti post Conquestum Anglie quintodecimo. 

Seal, red wax, circular, diameter | inch. Device, an eagle. 



XIV. — Same date. Power of attorney to Robert Dove of Hartley 
to deliver seisin. 

Nouerint vniversi per presentes me Thomam Middilton de Silkesworth 
armigerum ordinasse deputasse et loco meo posuisse dilectum michi in X'po 
Robertum Dove de Hartlawe meum verum et l^itimum attornatum ad 
deliberandum pro me et nomine meo Johanni Middilton Militi etc. plenam et 
pacificam seisinam ac legalem possessionem de et in omnibus mesuagiis terris 
tenementis redditibus et seruiciis cum suis pertinenciis que habeo in yillis et 
territoriis de Hartlawe Tynmouth Hadilstou Aluewik et Doxford in 
comitatu Northumbrie Habend* et tenend' omnia mesuagia etc. prefatis 
Johanni Middilton etc. heredibus et assignatis suis secundum vim formam et 
affectum cuiusdam carte mee indentate eis inde confecte cuius dat* est apud 
Silkesworth die et anno confeccionis presencium ratum et gratum habens et 
habiturus quicquid predictus Robertus Dove attomatus mens pro me seu 
nomine meo fecerit in premissis In cuius rei testimonium huic presenti scripto 
meo sigillum meum apposui Dat* apud Silkesworth predict' vicesimo die Junii 
Anno regni Regis Edwardi quarti post Conquestum Anglie quintodecimo. 

Same seal as to last deed. 



XV.— March 15, 1479-80. Demise from Thomas Middleton of 
Silksworth, esquire, to Edvvard Sunderland of Bamburgh of a waste 
burgage and three acres of land in Bamburgh for a term of forty 
years from Whitsuntide then next, at an annual rent of 6s. 8d. 
Power of re-entry if the rent be in arrear for forty days, and no 
suflRcient distraint be found, or the burgage shall not have been 
rebuilt, or kept in a state of repair, Robert Man and Robert Spxx 
sureties. 



LANDS, B*C., At HlftST iN WOODHOtlN. ?9 

Hec indentura facta inter Thomam Middilton de Silkesworth armigerum ex 
parte vna et Edwardum Sundirland de Bamburgh ex parte altera testatnr quod 
predictas Thomas concessit et ad firmam dimisit eidem Edwardo ynum 
borgagium yastum et tres acras terre cum sals pertinenciis iacen* in yilla et 
territorio de Bamburgh Habend* et tenend' dictum burgagium et tres acras 
tene predictas cum suis pertinenciis predicto Edwardo heredibus et assignatis 
snis de Capitali domino feodi illius per seruicia inde debita a festo Pentecostes 
proxime future post datam presencium (Maj 21) Ysque terminum quadraginta 
annorum extunc proxime sequencium et plenarie complendorum Reddendo 
inde annuatim durante termino predicto prefato Thome heredibus et assignatis 
8U8 ad festa S. Martini in yeme et Pentecostes per equales porciones sex solidos 
et octo denarios sterlingorum Ita quod si contingat dictum redditum sex 
lolidoram et octo denariorum a retro fore in parte vel in toto non solutum post 
aliqaod festum prenotatum quo solui debeat per quadraginta dies et sufficiens 
districcio in predicto burgagio cum suis pertinenciis nequiat inueniri Aut si 
predictas Edwardus predictum burgagium sumptibus suis propriis de nouo non 
conskmxerit vel si ipse Edwardus heredes vel assignati sui predictum burgagium 
postqoam constructum fuerit non sustentauerint et reparauerint Tunc bene 
liceat predicto Thome heredibus et assignatis suis in predict' burgagium et tres 
acras terre cum suis pertinenciis reintrare et ilia in suo pristine statu rehabere 
et possidere presente indentura in aliquo non obstante Et ad omnes et singulas 
condiciones prescriptas ex parte predicti Edwardi tenendas et periuiplendas 
[piedictus Edwardus invenit Robertum Man et Robertum Sym plegios'] 
*posnerant se prefato Thome Middilton plegios et manucaptores Et predictus 
Thomas Middilton et heredes sui predict' burgagium et tres acras terre cum suis 
pertinenciis predicto Edwardo heredibus et assignatis suis in forma predicta 
dorante termino predicto contra omnes gentes warantizabunt et defendent In 
caias rei testimonium partes predicte hiis indenturis sigilla sua altematim 
appbsaerunt Dat' quintodecimo die Marcii Anno regni Regis Edwardi quarti 
post conquestum Anglie vicesimo. 

Three labels, seals destroyed, for the lessee and his two sureties. 



XVI. Feb. 6, 1488-9. Grant by John Bellingham of Hirst, 
esq., to John Middleton, knight, William Musgrave, gent., and 
William Horsley, chaplain, of all his property in Hirst in Woodhorn, 
or elsewhere in England.^ 

^ Passage within square brackets is written in a different hand. 

' Some such word as qui wanted to complete the sentence. 

' The family of Bellingham of Bellingham, on the North Tyne, trans- 
ferred itself, as to the main line, in the thirteenth century to Burnside, in 
the parish of Kendal, which estate is stated to have been acquired by Richard 
de Bellingham on his marriage with Margaret, daughter and heir of Gilbert de 
Bumside (see Nicolson and Burn's Westmorland and Cumberland, vol. i. 
p. 125). By a deed, dated Oct. 1, 1471, Robert Bellyngham released certain 
rents and personalty to his son, Robert Bellyngham \Cartae Sninhum^ vol. i. 
pp. 173-174). Robert Bellingham, the father, died March 14, 1475/6, seised of a 



80 LOOAti MttNIMENHd : 

Sciaut preseates et fatori quod ego Johannes Bellyngham de Hjrst in 
Comitatu Northumbrie Armiger dedi concessi et hac present! carta mea 
Indentata confirmaui Johanni Mjddylton militi Willelmo Musgrave generoso 
et Willelmo Horsley capellano omnia terras et alia tenementa mea ynacum 
redditibus seruiciis liberornm hominnm escaetis et reuersionibus qaibnscnmque 
que habeo vel habere potero in dominicis vel seruiciis die confeccionis huius carte 
seu michi vel heredibus meis accidere sen reuerti poterunt imperpetuum cnm 
omnibus suis pertin^nciis in Hirst in Wodhorn in Comitatu predicto vel alibi 
infra regnum Anglie integre sine aliqub retenemento Habend* et tenend' 
predictis Johanni Myddjlton Willelmo Musgrave et Willelmo Horsley capellano 
heredibus et assignatis suis libare quiete bene et in pace [cum] omnibus 
libertatibus commoditatibus proficuis et aisiamentis eisdem terris et tenementis 
quoquomodo spectantibus [vt] in communiis pratis pascuis pasturis moris 
mariscis .... leriis quarreiis carbonariis petariis et turbarils veuariis (sic) aquis 
piscariis viis semitis ac aliis locis et rebus qulbuscumque .... capitalibus 
dominis feodi illius per seruicia inde debita et de iure consueta Et ego predictus 
Johannes Bellyngham et heredes mei omnia predicta terras et alia tenementa 
mea v/iacum redditibus seruiciis escaetis et reuersionibus cum omnibus 
pertinenciis supradictis prefatis Johanni Myddylton Willelmo Musgrave et 
Willelmo Horsley capellano heredibus et assignatis suis contra omnes gentes 
warantizabimus et imperpetuum defendemus In cuius rei testimonium tam 
predictus Johannes Bellyngham quam prefatus Johannes Myddylton Willelmus 
Musgrave et Willelmus Horsley capellanus parti bus huius carte feofiEamenti 
sigilla sua alternatim apposuerunt Dat' apud Hyrst predict' sexto die mensis 
Februarii Anno Regnl Regis Henrici septimi post conquestum Anglie quarto. 

One label Seal destroyed. 

moiety of Abberwick, pariah of Bdlingham ; the inquisition after his death 
being taken at Alnwick, June 12, 1480 ; his son Robert was of full age (Cartae 
Swinburn, vol. i. p. 171). 

There is, in the Swinburne papers, an award, dated Sept. 18, 1491, given 
by arbitration, in a dispute between sir Robert Bellingham, knight, who 
claimed to recover possession of Abberwick from Robert Bellingham, gent. 
The latter retained possession, but was ordered to pay a certain sum of money. 
The Bellinghams, at that period, had lands at South Middleton, near Morpeth, 
and apparently also at Bradford, near Belsay {Cartae Swinhirn, vol. i. p. 170). 
Notwithstanding the above-named award, sir Roger Bellingham of Burnside was 
party to a suit respecting Abberwick about 1509. He and his wife, Mabel, lie 
under a goodly tomb in Kendal church (see Nicolson and Burn's Cumberland 
and Wegtmorlandf vol. i. pp. 125-126). He was succeeded by his son sir Robert 
Bellingham, who, having no son, sold Burnside to sir Thomas Constable. 

Inq. p. m. Joh. Musgrave, 8 Hen. V. no. 26 (1426-7). He died seised of 
the manor of Riell (Ryell near Stamfordham). He was son of Robert de 
Musgrave by his wife, Margaret, daughter of Robert de Ryhill. The said John 
died^Dec. 7, 1420, Robert de Musgrave, his son and heir, aged 31 years. 

Inq. p. VI. oi Thomas Musgrave, taken 18 April, 1488. Robert Musgrave, his 
elder brother, being seised of [Kirk] Heaton gave it to one Elizabeth Musgrave 
for the term of her life, and then to the said Robert Musgrave, so Thomas 
being seised of the manor of Ryell, gave it to one Isabel Musgrave, for the term 
of her life. The said Thomas died 10 Nov. 1482 (?), his heirs being his 
daughter. Joan, widow of William Fen wick, and his grandson, Robert Mitford, 
son of Margaret, the deceased daughter of the said Thomas (see Cal, Inq, 
Hen, VII, vol. i. p. 144).— (J. C. H.) 



LANDS, ETC., IN NBWBlGGlNG AND FRAMLINGTON. 81 

XVI f.— Jan. 6, 1489-90. Release by sir John Middleton, knight 

of the body of the king, sheriff of Northumberland, and lord of 

Belsay, William Musgrave of Riall, gentleman, and sir William 

Horsley of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, chaplain, to John, son and heir of 

Eobert Bellingham of Kirkheaton, and to Margaret, daughter of 

George Creswell of Newbigging, gentleman, of their lands and tenements 

in Newbigging and Pramlington, to the clear yearly value of 40s., 

which the releasors had of the grant of John Bellingham of the Hirst. 

Omnibus X'pi fidelibus ad quos [presentes] littere perueaerint Sciatis nos 
domiaos Johannes Middilton Miles pro Corpore domini Eegis vicecomes 
Korthambrie et dominus de Belsoo Willelmus Masgrave de Riall in Comitatu 
Northumbrie gent' et dominus Willelmus Horsley de Nouo castro super Tynam 
GHiellanus remisimus relaxauimus et hac presenti carta nostra con- 
iinnaaimus Johanni filio et heredi Robert! Bellyngham de Eirkeheton in 
Comitatu Northumbrie Bt Margarete filie Georgii Creswell de Newbigging in 
Oomitatu Northumbrie gent' Omnia terris et tenementa in villis et Campis de 
Newbigging et Framelington in Comitatu predicto ad valenciam quadraginta 
Bolidomm legalis monete Anglie per Annum de Claro vltra reprisas que 
habnimus ex dono et feoffemento (sic') Johannis Bellingeham de le Hirst in 
Comitatu predicto gent' Habend' et Tenend' Omnia predicta terras et Tenementa 
in villis in (sic) Campis de Newbigging et Framlington in Comitatu predicto 
pre&to Johanni filio et heredi Roberti Bellingeham predicti Et prefate 
Margarete filie prefati Georgii Creswell et heredibus eorum et assignatis eorum 
imperpetuum de Capitalibus dominis feodi illius per seraicia inde debita et de 
jure consueta In Cuius Rei Testimonium huic presenti Carte nostra (sic) Sigilla 
nostra Apposuimus t)ata apud Belsoo Sexto die Mensis Jaouarii Anno Regni 
regis Henrlci Septimi post Conquestum Anglie quinto. 

Three seals (1) a merchant's mark (2) m (3) a bird, perhaps 
an eagle displayed. 

XVIII.— May 21, 1488. Notice by Henry, earl of Northumber- 
land, lord of Poyninges, and of the Honours of Cockermouth and 
Petworth, and warden of the East and Middle Marches against Scot- 
land that he had received the oath of fealty from a Scotchman, 
mmamed. 

Henricus Comes Northumbrie dominus de Ponynges et honorum de Cokir- 
moth et Petworth gardianus Est et Meddill Marchiarum Anglie versus Scociam 
Ac Justiciarius omnium forestarum domini nostri regis vltra Trentam 
omnibus ad quos presentes littere peruenerint Salutem Sciatis me prefatum 
gardiannm die confeccionis presencium Recepisse corporale Sacramentum de 
•• oriundo in scocia [quod] erit verus legius et subditus de cetero domino 

** Name left blank in the original. 

TDK XXV. 1^ 



82 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS 



nostio Regi qui nunc est et Suocessoribus suis Anglie Regibus et quod 
omnes leges et Custum' Anglie tarn prouis' quam prouidend' in omnibus fideliter 
obediet et Inviolabiliter obseruabit durante vita sua In cuius Bei testimonium 
Sigillum officii mei gardianitatis Presentibus feci apponi Dat' in Castro meo de 
Warworth xxj die Mail Anno Regni Regis [Henrici] Septimi post conquestum 
Anglie Tercio, 

Label for seal. Marks of wax on it. 




Seal of Philip de Pictavia (1197-1208). 
(One-half size.) 



83 



III.—* DAGGER-MONEY.' 

An unfinished paper by the late W. H. D. Longstaffb, formerly 
a Vice-President of the Society. 

[Read on the 25th February, 1903, by P. W. Dendy, V.P.] 

Among the many tangled skeins and myths by which the 
ctoonology of Newcastle-on-Tyne is obscured, the subject of a 
payment of two hammered pieces of gold occurs. 

In 1391, Richard II. conceded that the mayors of Newcastle 
might have a sword carried before them, and in 1400 that town was, 
bj Henry IV.*s grant, to have a sheriflF. It appears to be reasonable 
to assume that, whatever the obligations of the sheriff of Northumber- 
land as to the king's justices might be, there was some fair arrange- 
ment as to their apportionment. In consequence of the severance 
of the earldoms of Cumberland and Northumberland from the^ crown 
of Scotland, a new state of matters as to the borders had arisen. Into 
the large question of border service, and the relative contributions 
of the northern counties, I cannot at present enter. 

Suffice it to premise that Edward lll.'s gold florin of 108 grains, 
current for 6s., of which only two specimens, both found in the Tyne 
or thereabouts, are known, was altered by him to the well-known 
noble of 6s. 8d., weighing at first nearly 137 grains. The weight, in 

Note. — At the monthly meeting of the society in November, 1902, 1 called 
ittention to the custom which prevails in Newcastle of presenting an old gold 
coin to each judge at each assize by the mayor of the city on behalf of its 
corporation. In my remarks, a summary of which appears in the Proceedings^ 
Tol. X., I commented upon the statement, which is periodically made by the mayor 
at the time of presentation, to the effect that the coin is a sum given to purchase 
a dagger to enable the judge to defend himself against the Scots on his journey 
from Newcastle to Carlisle, and I pointed out that there was no sufficient 
e?idence of such an origin for the custom, and suggested that the coin was 
simply a present to the judge and a token of good-will. A few weeks after 
making these remarks, I found, whilst turning over the papers and manuscripts 
left by the late Mr. Longstaffe in his office at Gateshead, an unfinished paper 
by him on the same subject, and as my remarks had excited considerable local 
interest, and this paper so far as it went seemed to bear them out, I obtained 
the kind permission of Mr, Longstaffe's executors to read it to the society. — 
[P. W. D.] 



84 * DAGGER MONEY ' : 

his own reign, was reduced to 120 grains, at which it stood until 
Henry IV., long after his charter to Newcastle, decreased the number 
of grains to 108, still current for 6s. 8d. until Edward IV. fixed 
their value at 8s. 4d. In his second issue he made much change. 
The old weight of 120 grains was coined for 10s., and 6s. 8d. was 
represented by a new coin called an angel or noble-angel, of 80 grains, 
which into the Pretender's time composed the celebrated touch-piece 
for the king's-evil. The 10s. noble was called a rial or rose-noble, 
and the rose and the sun (afterwards mistaken for a spur) of the 
house of York formed upon it a conspicuous badge. The reign of 
Henry VII. witnessed the introduction of a double-rial or sovereign 
current for 20s., but weighing nearly double as much as our present 
sovereign does. In Henry VIlI.'s time the rose-noble of 120 grains 
rose to lis. 3d., in Mary's that rial to 18s. 4d., in Elizabeth's to 158. 
All the rials of 120 grains struck after the time of their founder, 
Edward IV., are extremely rare. In 1868, one of Elizabeth brought 
£30 10s. 

The first published evidence relating to a payment by Newcastle 
to justices itinerant occurs in the corporation accounts of September, 
1562 : — 'Paid to Mayster Mayre that was geven in rewarde to the 
Judges, 30s.' So far as the mere sum is concerned, the amount 
throws no light upon the question whether the 120 grains of gold 
were old or new coins, and the word * reward ' in these accounts is, 
when tested by contexts, found to be used in one of Halliwell's 
archaic senses * (1.) Regard; respect [^.V.] — (2.) To stand to 
one's reward, *.e., to be dependent upon him, or his reward or 
countenance. — North,^ The next entry is more instructive. In 
August, 1567, we have : — ' Geven at Mr, Maiors comandement to the 
judges, two olde ryalls, for their fee, 30s. Item, geven to clarke of 
assis, in rewarde, lOs.' Why should the rials be old ones if they were 
for any present procuring of defence ? A judge, as baron Alderson 
did, might well say : — * I doubt if these coins are altogether a legal 
tender at the present time.' There could be no difficulty in obtaining 
pieces which Elizabeth was striking. Halliwell again stands us in 
good stead : — * Pee — property ; money ; fee ; an annual salary or 
reward [^./S.].' It is observable that even at this early period the 
mayor of the town and not the sheriff of its county deals with what 



PRACTICE OF PRBSBNTING COINS AS TOKENS. 85 

seems to have been only a voluntary present to the assize-holders. 
Still, whatever may have been its date of origin or motive, the 
practice had in 1595 become well established. In August was ' paid 
for 2 old spurr riolls geven to the Judges of the assizes y air lie aceus- 
tomde, 15b. 6d. per peece, 81s.' 

Before proceeding, it may be well to call attention to the common 
practice of presenting coins as pleasant tokens or remembrances. I 
have one which is engraved with the letters M.H., referring to my 
great-grandmother. The instances in wills are innumerable. To 
take an example. In 1588, John Hedworth bequeaths to lady 
Hedworth two rials of gold, and to sir Thomas Tempest, Mr, Robert 
Bowes, esq.y John Lambton, esq. Robert Millot, Nicholas Tempest, 
Thomas Lawson, Richard Hedworth, and Jane and Elizabeth, his 
own daughters, to every one of them one rial of gold ' to a token.' 
To sir Thomas Hylton and William l^awson, supervisors to the 
testator's executors, ' to give them good counsel, and help and defend 
them, that none may do them wrong, as far as they may,' he gives 
one rial of gold each. In 1558, Margery Tunstall gives to her son 
408., to his wife, her daughter, one angel of gold, and to their two 
BODS, one angel each. To another son she gives one angel for a 
remembrance, to his son another angel ; to John Lancaster another 
angel, to each of his children 6s. 8d., to another son (in law) one old 
rial, to his wife 6s. 8d., to his daughter 6s. 8d., and to two other 
females of the same name of Claxton, an angel each.. To each of her 
supervisors, sons, she gives an angel. In 1556, Cuthbert Ellison 
gives to every one of his wife's daughters two rials in value 20s., and 
to each of his supervisors in * tokeninge ' of his * good will bearing 
towards them one rial in value of 10s.' One more instance shall 
suffice. In 1558, during the passing moments of Queen Mary, 
Robert Bennett, originally a monk and bursar of the dissolved priory 
of Durham, and then a prebendary of the new foundation, made a 
will in every way remarkable, and deserving of separate treatment. 
For my present purpose it is sufficient to deal with his bequests of 
gold. He leaves to Mrs. Chaytor, the heiress of Clervaux, 40d. 
in gold, meaning, evidently, the angelet of 3s. 4d., introduced by 
Edward IV. with the angel of 6s 8d. With fluctuations reaching 
is, the angelet was once more 3s. 4d. for a short time. Bennett gives 



86 ^ DAGGER MONEY ' : 

to the lord sufiragan bishop of Berwick one old rial. To each of 
two brothers Metcalfe, and four brother-prebendaries he gives an 
old noble ; to another prebendary one new rial ; and to Mr. Serjaunt 
Meynell one old rial. 

The social position of the testators named above forbids all 
supposition that the coins given were to be anything more than 
keepsakes, but it is clear that those testators had to marshal their 
old and new nobles and angels, sometimes describing their respective 
values, as best they could. Some angelets are excessively rare. In 
1864, Mary's rial fetched £63, her angelet £51. 

Hitherto we have not found the slightest indication of any 
connection between the presentation of gold money and border service 
in kind, which might well be increased, but certainly not decreased 
before James I.'s accession. The burgesses of Newcastle gave lai^ess 
in ancient coins, as did private individuals. 

In 1627 we obtain a new and a peculiar class of evidence. It 
consists partly of an account in Latin of judge sir James Whitelocke 
for his circuit of summer, 1627, and another, in English, for two 
other circuits in Lent and summer.^ It curiously happens that we 
also have the expenses of sir Thomas Swinburne, sheriff of North- 
umberland, during his ' sheriffwick ' of the years 1628 and 1629.* 

Among Whitelocke's receipts in respect of the summer circuit 
beginning at York, 16 July, 1627, we find the following items : — 

£ B. d. 
Of the praenotary of Lancaster 5 

De Comite Darby 16 

De Majore Eborac 2 4 

De Episcopo Dunolm 12 

De ViUa Novo CaMri 2 

jy^ Majore Novo Castriy (spur roy all) 018 6 

De Comite Cumbriae, Vicecomite Westmerland 17 

De Vtcecomite Northvmberland 100 

Item of the Sheriff of CarlUe a diidgeon* [boxwood] dagger. 

• 70 Camden Soc. publ., p. 106. 

* Hodgson's Northumberland^ part iii. vol. i. p. 358. 

' * Turners and cutlers,' says Gerarde, * do call boxwood " dudgeon." ' Halli- 
well remarks that the root of box frequently provided handles for daggers. 
Hence dudgeon-hafted-daggers, dudgeon-daggers, or dudgeons, a term naturally 
sometimes confined to the handle. So Bhakspere : — 
* Is this a dagger which I see before me 
The handle toward my hand ? . . . 

. . . I see thee still, 
And on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood,' 



ENTERTAINMENT 01* TttB JUDGES 01* ASSISE. 87 

In Lent circuit 1628, the entertainments, etc., stood thus :— 

Our charges at Don caster, by the towne 00 

Of the Maior of York 2 4 

Mund ay dinner, the Maior of York 00 

Sunday and Tuesday dinner, the Shirif of Yorkshire ... 

The prenotarye at Lancaster 5 

The Brl of Darbye 16 

Our charges, horses and men, at Lancaster ^ 

The summer circuit adds the four northern counties : — 

Our enterteynment at Doncaster 

Of the Maior of York 2 4 

Sunday and Tuesday dinner, of the Shiref of Yorkshire 

[Mondays probably provided by the Lord Mayor 

as before] 

Of the Bishop of Dunolm 12 

Enterteynment by the Bishop at Darl[ington] 

Enterteynment all the Assises at Dunolm ' 

Of the Towne of Newcastle 2 

Enterteynment of dyet by the Towne, during the assises, 

for the countyes of the Shire and the Towne ... 

Of the Skirif of Northumberland^ at leave taking, in 

gold 10 

Of the Maior of Newcastle, at leave taking, a spur 

royal in gold 

Of the Shirif of Cumberland, all charges, and a dagger 
Of the Shirif of Westmerland, lodging, and for all charges 
Of the Shirif of ^Lancaster, all charges during the Assise 

Of the prenotarye of Lancaster 

Of theErlof Darby thear 

The judges seem to have been franked at Doncaster, York, 
Carlisle, Durham and Newcastle. In the royal duchy of Lancaster of 
course they were. The bishop's £12 would therefore be a downright 
dmum. The £17 from the hereditary sheriff of Westmoreland * for 
all charges' may have been owing to his not being resident at 
Appleby castle, and in lieu of hospitality. He, however, provided 
lodging. The sittings at the little town on the Eden would be very 
brief. It elsewhere appears in Whitelocke's Liher Famelicm that 
*the allowance of Justices of Assise in thear circuits, as it was 
proportioned at the first making thearof was at the following 
rate :— 






16 














17 

















5 








1 


5 






88 



^ DAGGER MONEY * ; 



* A puisne 
Judge 
for his 



Dyet per diem 

Men, ten, allowed eatche I6d. 
.Horses, thirteen, eatche I6d, 



Ad for the second Judge as mutche 

For the Clerk of Assise, three Men, eatche 16d 

For five horses for the Clerk of Assize, eatche I6d. 
Thear is allowed to bothe Judges for linnen and other 
necessaries 

This in all is for both Judges per diem 



This for Oxfordshire circuit for twenty -eight dayes, whiche 

was the olde allowance, came to 17016 

Out of this the Clerk of Assise had, for horse- 
meat for twenty eight dayes 9 6 8 



18 


d. 
4 


13 


4 


17 




2 9 





2 9 





4 18 





4 





6 


8 


13 


4 




^, . 


6 2 






of ether Judge for every circuit 



4 13 4 



Thear is an addition of five dayes to this circuit ... 

So the allowance is now 

Toether Judge 



30 10 



... 201 6 
... 100 13 



The Clerk of Assize hathe but his old allowance for horsemeat. ' 

I have given this strange document in its entirety, only varying 
the typographical arrangement a little, in order to make it more 
clear. Was each circuit estimated as to probable time, and the 
judges paid upon it, irrespectively of the time actually employed ? 
And, in consequence of the falling value of money, was the estimated 
time fictitiously increased ? I am sorry for the poor clerk of assize, 
upon whom the pinch would come more severely than upon his 
masters. And I much wonder whether all the dones and free-keeping 
were duly set against the orthodox allowance. Furthermore, I much 
suspect that the judge sold his spur rials in those non-numismatic 
days, because he puts down varying sums for them, 18s. ^d. and 15^., 
whereas he places cyphers against his entertainments, receiving meat 
and drink and lodgings, but no gold or silver. In clear professional 
profits, his income in 1627 was £974 10s. lOd., for which, as money 
then went, he properly signs Deo Gratia s. 

It will have been observed that in both years a dagger was given 
to each judge, not by a sheriff of Northumberland or Newcastle, but 



ALLOWANCES TO THE JUDGES OF ASSIZE. 89 

by the sherifif of Carlisle or Cumberland at the end of the journey, as 
I assume, unless we surmise that the western sheriff came to New- 
castle to conduct, an improbable theory. I was at one time disposed 
to think that the service might be varied in accordance with the 
changeable judicial routes. But this cannot be, because it is plain 
that in both years in which the dagger was so rendered the judges 
were proceeding from east to west. I may as well at once put in 
sir Thomas Swinburne's own account as to the gold in 1628. 'Item, 
to the Judges, Sir Henry Yelverton and Sir James Whitlock, either of 
tiiem a peece att our parting upon Bmtvell hills, 40s.' 

It may also have been observed that in both years the con- 
(ributories contented themselves with feeing the judges with the 
current coin of the realm, whereas the muncipaUty of Newcastle 
troubled themselves with purchasing from the coin dealers of the day 
the old spur rials, * not a legal tender.' I believe that, even now, a 
young freeman of Newcastle proffers some old silver penny or twopence 
on taking up his freedom. 

Leaving the precious metal for the moment, let us compare the 
judge^s account with what was actually done at Newcastle. 

[NoT£. — Mr. Longstaffe's manuscript unfortunately ends at this point. I 
will only add that no mention of the custom appears in any of the histories of 
Newcastle published between 1736 and 1827, although in that interval exhaustiye 
accounts of the town were written and published, viz. : — in 1736 by Bourne, in 
1789 by Brand, in 1801 by an anonymous author reputed to be the rev. John 
Baillie, in 1812 by Hodgson, and in 1827 by Mackenzie. There is also no 
mention of the payment in the report of the examination into the affairs of the 
corporation in 1833 by Messrs. Dwarris and Bumbold. 

In 1839, the late M. A. Richardson published from the Hornby MS. in the 
possession of the duke of Northumberland ' extracts from the municipal accounts 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne extending from 1661 to 1688.' It is in this publication 
that the payments to the judges in 1562, 1567 and 1595, cited by Mr. Longstaffe, 
as well as another payment of ' two rose nobles ' in 1659 not mentioned by him, 
appear. 

The first mention of the custctoi in the nineteenth century is to be found in 
the third edition of Brockett*s Glossary of North Country Words^ published in 
1846, where it appears under the heading of ' dagger money.* 

It ii probable that after the end of the seventeenth century the custom 
was for a long time discontinued, that after Richardson's account was 
published in 1839 it was revived, and that on its revival it received the pictur- 
esque name of dagger money for insufficient reasons. The corporation accounts 
subsequent to 1688 might, if investigated, throw some further light on the 
subject.— F.W.D.] 

VOL. XXV. 12 




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91 



IV.— NOTES ON A RECENT EXAMINATION OF CERTAIN 
STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE GREAT TOWER, 
OR KEEP, OF THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE-UPON- 
TYNE. 

By R. Oliver Hbslop, M.A., F.S.A., 

one of the secretaries of the society. 

[Read on the 25th March, 1903.] 

I propose to lay before our members some of the results of an 
investigation made at the suggestion of Mr. John Gibson, warden of 
the castle. 

First, however, it may be well if I recall the circumstances 
leading to the enquiry, and the point to which examination was 
directed. 

The upper stage of the great hall, as it now appears, carries the 
barrel vault, erected in 1810, commonly spoken of as alderman 
Porster's roof. Immediately below, a passage-way is carried round 
the four sides of the hall in the thickness of the wall, much like a 
triforium, or blind storey. Large openings, one at either end, under 
the vault, and two at each side, east and west through the spring of 
the arch, serve to suggest the term ' triforial gallery.* In the floor 
of this gallery, exactly in the middle of the passage-way in the 
western wall, there is a trap-door. This had long been choked with 
debris. On lifting it, daylight could be seen through a chink 
communicating with the outside face of the wall. From the street 
below, the orifice presented the appearance of an accidental hole, 
broken raggedly at its sides, where the joints of some courses of stone- 
work seemed to be dislodged and colonies of jackdaws found their 
home. In a surface, presenting the symptoms of decay observable 
here, a cavity like this is not remarkable, and it seems to have 
attracted little or no attention. I cannot find a single reference to it 
in a description of the keep, or in any discussion held in this room ; 
and yet I trust to be able to show you that its existence elucidates 
an obscure and controverted point in the design and in the internal 
arrangement planned by ' Mauricius Ingeniator ' for his royal master, 
Henry II. 



92 THE GREAT TOWER OF THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE : 

The west wall of the keep, it will be remembered, carries the 
latrine shafts and the flues from the main apartments ; a wide 
buttress being added to compensate for these perforations. Its only 
mural chambers are on the level of the great hall and immediately 
above that floor level. So that, compared with the other faces of the 
tower, it is of much greater solidity than the rest. The multangular 
form of its north-west angle adds a further feature of almost 
unbroken strength to this face of the structure. From the hearth in 
the great hall a modern chimney breast has been built against the 
inside of this wall, where it has the appearance of a flat buttress, 9|^ 
feet wide, projecting into the hall. It rises through the barrel 
roof overhead, of which it is probably a contemporary work. The 
trap-door, above referred to, is immediately behind this buttress and 
it is well to note that the inner face of the wall, for the width of 9 to 
10 feet, is entirely masked by this excrescent structure. 

Turn with me now for one moment to the south wall of the keep 
as it is viewed from the great hall. A passage-way runs in the 
thickness of the wall at a height of about sixteen feet above the level 
of the floor. It is reached from the south-east newel stair, and, after 
intersecting the large south window splays, it is continued westward, 
where, after an ascent of nine steps, it terminates in a dark cul-de-sac. 
The ninth step reaches a landing, where, on the right hand, the indi- 
cation of another step shows that a return of the stairs had been 
intended to be made at a right angle, so as to carry the passage 
upwards in the west wall. But the passage-way and steps in that 
direction had been built up with masonry, apparently of an early 
character, leaving the termination of the gallery much like the recess 
of a dark cavern. 

Mr. Gribson pointed out that the oblique line of the stairs, if 
followed upward in the west wall, might correspond with the position 
of the trap-door in the triforial gallery above ; that the great thickness 
of blank wall at this point suggested the possibility of a hitherto undis- 
covered mural chamber ; and that, in any case, it was most desirable 
to make a thorough examination of the space immediately underneath 
the trap-door and to open out the masonry of the blocked stairway 
below, with a view to show the connexion, if any existed, between 
the two, and to ascertain definitely the course and purpose of the 
blind staircase. 



EXAMINATION UNDERTAKEN. 93 

Mr. Gibson's suggestion was laid before the members of the 
society in 1894, who willingly voted a sum of five pounds towards 
the explorations, appointing the late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, Mr. 
W. H. Enowles and the writer to superintend the excavation. 
Mr. Holmes immediately engaged suitable men for the work and 
entered upon the task with his characteristic energy. Pressure of 
other work and failing health prevented Mr. Holmes from embodying 
the conclusions obtained in a report, and by his lamentable death our 
society was deprived of learning the results from one whose experience 
in building construction and whose archaeological knowledge made his 
deductions the more valuable. 

Mr. EjQowles brought to bear the qualities of a specialist as well as 
his professional skill and the results obtained were largely due to the 
vigilance and alertness with which he superintended the work. So 
thoroughly, in fact, did he enter into it that he was induced to 
undertake a minute examination of the entire structure, having dis- 
covered discrepancies in existing plans of the building. This decided 
him in making an entirely new survey of the keep, an undertaking 
involving great detail and of such magnitude that time must neces- 
sarily elapse before its accomplishment. When that work is completed, 
however, we shall possess not only an embodiment of the operations 
now under notice, but complete and accurate descriptions of the entire 
fabric. 

Meanwhile, I trust I may be pardoned for taking upon me to lay 
before the members some of the results of this interesting exploration 
pursued within our own walls. Let me premise, in doing so, that the 
wtidpations of discovering a hitherto unknown intra-mural chamber 
proved futile. Nor were the romantic feelings, with which we followed 
upward, step by step, the mysterious stairway, stimulated as our work 
progressed. All our preconceptions, in fact, were dissipated by the 
results obtained. But these proved of the highest value, in other and 
quite unexpected directions. 

Operations were begun at the trap-door in the mural gallery, but 
it may be better for our purpose to describe, first, the work done on 
the blind stairway lower down. 

This was begun by removing the courses of ashlar resting on the 
bottom step of the blocking, where the return passage in the lower 



94 l?ttB GltBAO? TOWER OF TttB CAS1?L« OB* NEWCAStLB : 

gallery was found to measure 3 feet wide by 5 feet hisrh. Material of 
a more or less easily wrought character, it had been anticipated, would 
be found to constitute the filling behind, and the clearing out of the 
stairway had been supposed to present a comparatively easy task. It 
was soon found, however, that the backing, with which the stairway 
had been closed, was a compact mass of grouted walling that had set 
in the hardest concretion. Progress in such material was necessarily 
slow, as it became almost as diflScult to hew as a face of solid stone. 
In consequence of this it was necessary to restrict the height of the 
excavation to that of a hole barely sufficient to admit the body of the 
workman employed. In this manner eight steps, having side walls on 
either hand, faced with dressed ashlar courses, were bared. But this 
facing ceased at the eighth step, where the stairs also ended abruptly. 
There was no landing on the level of the top step ; and every indica- 
tion showed that the stairs had not ascended higher. Space was 
hewn above and to the right and left ; but it only continued into the 
grouting, of which the inner thickness of the wall is composed. It 
became evident that the excavation had been now carried into the 
original wall of the keep, and, consequently, that the stairs had never 
been constructed any higher than the eighth step. Bufi the character 
of the building material found in the original wall was identical with the 
blocking material encountered all the way from the stair foot. So 
that the conclusion became certain that the filling in of the stairway 
had been contemporary with the building of the keep itself. 

As the design of the king's architect had provided the straight 
mural stair, thus far excavated, it is apparent that a change of plan 
had taken place at this point, leading to the closing of the passage- 
way with the material of construction and filling it in, from side to 
side, upon the uncompleted stairs. 

The abandonment of so important a feature of the structure may 
be compared with circumstances attending the operations of Henry 
II.'s builders. 

The erection of the keep appears from the Pip^ Rolls to have begun 
in the year 1172, continuing through five subsequent years.^ In the 
expenditure of 1174 the amount spent in the operations fell to 

* See Archaelogia Aeliana^ N.s. vol. iv. p. 63, &c. Boyle and Knowles, 
Vestiges of Old Newcastle^ <J*c., p. 47. 




C. Chimney breast. Modem. S. Stairs uncovered. 

G. Blind grallery. E. Excavafion in solid wall. 

T. Triforial gallery. P. Perforation i bones ot Bats found. 

R. Outlet of Roof drain discovera? R.O.H.delt 



96 THE GREAT TOWER OF THE CASTLE OP NEWCASTLE : 

£12 15s. lOd. only. The date corresponds with the invasion by 
William the Lion with his huge forces. *Well sees the king of 
Scotland,' exclaims the chronicler, 'that he will never succeed in 
conquering the Newcastle-on-Tyne without stratagem.' Incomplete 
as was the great tower at this time, the works had, evidently, been 
rendered impregnable to all but an investing army provided with 
heavy siege artillery. The suspension of building operations is 
sufficiently indicated by the small expenditure of the year on the keep ; 
and their resumption in 1176 is shown by payments amounting to 
£186 15s. 4:d. Whether or not the stoppage of the works at this 
date caused a reconsideration and subsequent modification of the 
design, may be open to question. The facts remain that the building 
of the keep was interrupted during its progress; and that the 
architect's plan was, either at that or a later stage, greatly modified 
in its internal structural arrangement, as we have seen. 

The excavation of the steps had been carried a distance of 6 feet 
4 inches within the blocked face when the last ascending step was 
cleared. On digging farther into the heart of the rubble, a long 
cavity was disclosed, about eighteen inches to the right of and level 
with the uppermost step. It is of irregular form, and eight v to ten 
inches in diameter. Probed with a rod it was found to extend for a 
distance of fourteen feet farther immediately behind and parallel with 
the inner face of the wall of the great hall. Its origin and object 
are alike inexplicable, but it must, at some period, have had an outlet 
at its farther extremity ; for there were found, in the recess broken 
into, numerous skeletons of bats. Besides these, Mr. Gibson found, by 
drawing a rod along, the blackened heads of clay-pipes, of the kind 
known as ' churchwardens.' These clay-pipes present the character 
of tobacco pipes in use in the nineteenth century and have probably 
been thrown into the open end of the cavity by workmen engaged in 
building up the chimney breast and the barrel vault in 1810. They 
quite correspond with pipes in use at that period. 

In Bourne's time the castle stood roofless. He describes the 
entrance to the great hall from the fore-building as ' a very stately 
Door of curious Masonry.' From its threshold a scene of ruin and 
decay was looked down upon ; whilst, overhead, the four-square 
enclosure was open to the sky. Bourne says, * the Boom has its Floor 



ITS FORMER RUINOUS CONDITION. 97 

broken down close to the Castle Wall, as indeed all the other Floors 
are to the top of the Castle ; so that, excepting the Floor above the 
County Gaol, there is not one left.'^ The state of ruin when Bourne 
wrote in 1732 continued until the year 1810. ' This noble fortress,' 
writes Mackenzie, ' had been long tenanted by a currier and its walls 
sheltered a vast number of bats ; while the Chapel was used as a beer 
cellar for the Three Bulls Heads public house ; but its reparation 
and improvement were now commenced with great spirit. The top 
of the Keep was arched and flagged, the battlements embrasured, a 
comer tower for a flag-staff raised, and the stairs and interior apart- 
ments were carefully restored to their pristine form. Twelve 
carronades,' he adds, *were also mounted, to be fired on days of 
public rejoicings.'^ The orifice broken into had evidently been one 
of the retreats and hybemating places of the 'vast number of bats' just 
referred to.* It is highly probable that the dilapidation described 
extended most seriously on the west wall, where the flues had probably 
fallen out altogether. For it was, as we have seen, necessary to 
build anew the entire chimney-breast from floor to vaulting. It 
would be in course of this reconstruction in 1810 that workmen 
employed left their broken and discarded tobacco pipes in this recess. 

To return now to the trap-door in the floor of the west triforial 
gallery, and situated immediately behind the centre of the chimney- 
breast just referred to, it should be stated that this was merely an old 
door that had been taken off its hinges and laid down on the spot. 
It covered and afforded footing over what had hitherto been supposed 
to be a mere break in the floor. 

The work of clearing out the debris was begun ; the special 
object being to ascertain whethei- connexion with the blind stair, just 
below, could be discovered. As, however, the course of the blind 
stair was immediately on the west of the line of the triforial gallery 
there seemed probability that the want of continuity in the line 
might be accounted for by the existence of a mural chamber between 
the trap-door and the blind stair. By excavating downward, whilst 

* Bonnie, History of Nenoatstle^ p. 119. 

* Mackenzie, History of Nemeastle, 1827, p. 97. 

* Bourne quotes the Millbank MS., which says it was 'full of chinks 
mnd crannies.' 

VAT. -V-W ■1*' 




WESTERN FRONT OF KEEP OF CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE IN 1811, WITH ARQH OF BAILEY GATE 
IN THE FOREGROUND. 

(Reprodu'-etl from Jefferson's lithograph ia Archaedogia Aeliana, N.s. iv. 98.) 



The four loops under the uppermost string course are on the line of the triforial gallery. 
The orificd btlow, in the centre of buttress, is the spout-hole front the roof. 



EXAMINATION OF THE GALLERY. 99 

the workmen on the stair below drove their cutting upward simul- 
taneously, the intention was to meet and disclose the supposed 
connexion between the two extremities. 

But we have already seen that the stairway only consisted of eight 
steps, and that evidence plainly showed it had never been continued 
beyond, the original plan of the structure having been relinquished as 
far as this feature was concerned. In an equally remarkable manner, 
the assumption respecting the trap-door proved false as investigations 
proceeded. Beneath the foot-way of the mural gallery the removal 
of the door revealed a mass of loose debris, a mere dense collection of 
material that blocked a gap almost to the floor level of the passage- 
way. Its loose character rendered the work of removal comparatively 
easy ; but its quantity was suflScient to fill many carts. Very soon the 
hole was found to be an entrance broken through the crown of an 
arched passage way ; and a regularly built tunnel was discovered at a 
depth of 6 inches below the floor of the triforial gallery. The sides 
of this are faced with ashlar courses of excellent masonry, exhibiting 
the most careful construction, and contemporary in character with 
the original masonry of the keep, forming an essential part of the 
original work. Measuring 14 inches wide by 24 inches high, from 
its floor to its crown, it had passed horizontally through the entire 
thickness of the western wall, at a height of 25^ feet from the floor 
level of the great hall. Its inner termination had been entirely masked 
by the flue shaft built up against the inside face of the western wall 
in 1810. As we have seen, its outside termination is still visible 
from the street as a jagged hole immediately below the level of 
the triforial gallery. Its outer jambs are now so dilapidated that it 
presents every appearance of a mere accidental break, due to decay 
in the facing stones. Only thus, and by absence of knowledge of its 
internal construction, can its existence hitherto have escaped obser- 
vation. Yet it is strange that its appearance, as delineated in 
Jefierson's lithographed view of 1811, in Archaeologia Aeliana, n.s. 
iv. page 98, has passed unnoticed. This is reproduced on the 
opposite page. For it is there shown as a regularly built outlet with 
an arched head. A closer examination of the orifice itself plainly 
shows thit its foot-stone had been projected, though now broken off 
close to the face of the wall. There is no manner of doubt that 



100 TAB GREAT? TOWBB OF THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE : 

this foot-stone terminated as a projecting spont, or gargoyle ; and it 
is equally apparent that the tunnel now disclosed is the original 
outlet of the drain from the main roof of the keep. 

The importance of this discovery will be apparent by the fact that 
here we have at length found a key to a hitherto obscure and much 
disputed problem ; namely, the level of the ancient roof of the great 
hall. By this we have found the yet further unlocked for result, in 
discovering the character of the triforial gallery as intended by its 
architect in the years of the building of the keep. 

Nor is this all ; for Mr. Knowles immediately began, with the 
instinct of a specialist, to sound the walls at the level of the spout 
line just discovered. This operation, conducted, not without peril, 
from the summit of a builder's long ladder, was duly rewarded when 
Mr. Knowles found indications of a second outlet from the roof- 
gutter, in the north-east corner of the north wall. This second outlet, 
however, is of a very diflferent description from the first, just now 
described ; for it has the appearance of an afterthought and not of an 
original construction. It is, in fact, a conduit of much smaller 
dimensions than the first ; and it has every appearance of being dug 
out of an existing wall, its character being that of a roughly made 
hole contrasting with the carefully constructed condition of the larger 
orifice in the west wall. 

Ifc will be seen that we have now the means of showing the 
original height of the great hall from floor to roof-principals. 
Misled by the existing barrel roof, the height has hitherto been 
exaggerated, having been always assumed to be much above the level 
now undoubtedly revealed. With the actual position of the roof now 
before us, the great hall is shown to be no longer of disproportionate 
height, but to be an apartment designed originally upon a scale such as 
to enhance its stateliness, or even, it might be said, its magnificence. 
Its actual dimensions thus become 80^ feet long, 24 feet broad, by 
24^ feet high to the eaves. It will be seen that the height of the 
roof above the floor is in keeping with the proportions^ of the great 
window lights on the north, south, and east sides of the hall ; lights 
which are on a scale of great dignity, and are evidently intended for 
an apartment of this lofty description. 

By this determination of the actual original roof height it 



ORIGINAL ROOF OVER GREAT HALL. 101 

becomes evident, that, whilst the triforial gallery presented only loops 
on the outside face of the walls of the keep, its large internal 
openings (now looking into the great hall) were originally lights, open 
to the day, and looking down upon the roof within the quadrangle of 
the structure. The battlements thus rose clear of and masked the 
roof within the curtain walls. 

It should be noticed that the original roof line of the great hall 
did not escape the acute observation of Mr. Longstaffe, although, in 
the absence of information such as is disclosed by the explorations 
now under consideration, he advances his statement with diffidence. 
He points out the projection on the inside wall on the south of the 
great hall, which he calls its ceiling mark. A similar but less 
defined mark runs along the opposite north wall. These now prove 
to be the original gutter lines of the spouting. The triforial gallery 
thus becomes Mr. Longstaffe's * fourth or defensive storey, now 
partly thrown into the great hall.'^ He also states : 'the original 
roof would most probably be hipped and tiled.'^ This is in exact 
accordance with the fact, now disclosed, of there being a single original 
outlet ; that, as we see, is constructed of dimensions large enough to 
carry off the rainfall of the entire roof by one aperture. And this 
fxurther involves the construction of a hipped roof. This form leaves 
all the triforial windows open to the quadrangle ; and enables a 
continuous gutter to be carried along its four sides to the outlet. 

But we have yet to account for the existence of a second, and 
apparently extemporized, conduit on the north-east corner of the 
quadrangle. 

The keep had stood but 63 years when the Pipe Roll indicates, 
under date 1240, that its roof was covered with lead. Thirty years 
later, in 1270, the large sum of £67 6s. was spent in its repair.^ 
Either at this date, or at a later period, the hipped roof was renewed 
by another form of roof, having its ridge carried from wall to wall. 
This ridge closed in the single triforial windows in each of the north 
and south walls, their outlook now being into the great hall itself 
instead of upon the hips of the former roof. But the construction of 
a ridge roof intercepted the continuity of the four original gutters, 

* Arehaeologia Aeliana, vol. iv, N. s. p. 87. • Ibid. 

' Arehaeologia Aeliana, sttpra^ p. 80. 



102 THE GREAT TOWER OP THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE: 

all leading to a single exit. There thns became two gatters separated 
from each other by the ridged roof. That on the west side continued 
to carry off the water as before ; whilst for the gutter on the east 
side it became necessary to improvise another outlet. This suflSciently 
explains the rough and ready character of the north-east conduit 
discovered by Mr. Knowles. 

Having at length demonstrated the original proportions of the 
great hall, it may be well to notice some conjectures formerly indulged 
in respecting it. 

In the year 1855 additional space was found to be required, in 
order to display properly the collection of antiquities in the possession 
of our society. A much favoured proposal was that of converting the 
great hall by the addition of an upper stage, the existing barrel vault 
giving place to a glass roof. ' Was there ever a room over the great 
hall or not ? ' enquired the advocate of this proposal. * There were 
marks in the wall which had led some authorities to answer the ques- 
tion in the affirmative ; supports of some kind there had evidently 
been, and the conclusion had been drawn that these supports had 
borne the floor of an upper chamber.'® Fortunately, Dr. Bruce de- 
murred to this. ' Unquestionably they must have more room,' he 
allowed, ' but as to the erection of an upper chamber, that, he thought, 
would destroy the magnificent effect of the great hall.' 

A year later the subject was again urged, the same disputant once 
more enforcing his opinion that 'there had anciently been not one room 
only, but two— one over the other. There were,' he stated, * joist- 
holes in the walls, showing the level of one destroyed floor.' ' No 

architect,' it was added, ' would ever have built, originally, so dispro- 
portionate a hall — a hall 45 feet high, and only 25 feet long and 
24 broad.'^ Dr. Bruce, continuing to demur, was confronted with 
the fact of the joist holes referred to. These, he explained, were 
indications of a gallery ; not of an upper floor. 

It is necessary to mention here that joist-holes are visible in the 
east and west walls at the extremities of the haU only. They are cut 
into the walls evidently at a late period, and for some adaptation of 
ihe structure. They had been filled and plastered over, probably 
during the restoration of 1810, and some were opened out by our 

* Proceedings^ old aeries, p. 20. * IHd, 86. 



ADAPTATIONS FOR ITS LAST SIEGE. 108 

attendant. Mr. Gibson, who ascertained their position by sounding 
the wall. These beam-holes are 1 1 feet 8 inches from the tloor of the 
hall and are intended for the insertion of large baulks of timber, 1 1 
to 12 inches square, and, from their size, the intention was evidently 
to support a great weight. Their position is on a line intersecting 
the great north and south windows, and just at the level where the 
openings could be converted so as to be used as embrasures for ord- 
nance, mounted on strong platforms, laid across the window splays. 
Galleries here, effectually blocking the windows, could have formed no 
part of the original construction of the hall. They are manifestly a 
temporary defensive expedient, hastily extemporized at some later 
period, to meet an emergency. 

Did any such emergency present itself in the history of the keep ? 
An answer may be found in the descriptions of the last occasion on 
which this fortress was besieged. In the year 1643, the mayor of 
Newcastle, sir John Marley, treated with the Company of Shipwrights 
concerning covering the castle with planks. The books of the com- 
pany record the negotiation in a minute of their meeting, dated August 
21, in that year.^^ In the following year the character of the ship- 
wright's beams and planks become apparent from the use made of 
them in the great siege of the town. We learn that the Half Moon 
battery was made use of by sir John Marley ' to secure the River and 
Key-side against the Scots, and the other Castle,' that is the present 
keep, ' he put into good Repair, which was vfery ruinous : On the 
former he laid great guns, for the Use above-mentioned ; and on the 
latter he laid great Ordnance, to beat off the Guns which the Scots had 
laid npon the Banks of Gateshead against the Town/^^ Thus, with 
the assistance of the shipwriglits, the extremities of the great hall, as 
well as the battlements, were doubtless, by beams and planks, rendered 
capable of carrying sir John Marley's * great ordnance ' upon extem- 
porized gun platforms. These lower wall-holes are quite in corre- 
spondence with the circumstances just described. 

Mr. Gibson also discovered beam-holes in the east and west walls 
at a height of 24^ feet above the floor level of the great hall. These 
cannot have been joist-holes for an upper floor, because they are just 

*• Brand, Higtory of NetoeaHle, 1. 159. 

'» Millbank MS., Bourne, History of Newcastle, p. 233. 



104 THE GREAT TOWER OP THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE : 

where we must expect to find socket-holes for the roof principals, as 
they would correspond with the level of the outfall from the roof, now 
ascertained. 

I may here mention that I had the privilege of going over the 
features just described, point by point, with our late vice-president, 
Mr. Cadwallader J. Bates. He entered into the investigation with 
enthusiasm, and recognized the deductions as to change of plan and as 
to the great hall. This information he subsequently embodied in the 
address delivered on August 1, 1899, at the commemoration of our 
fiftieth year of occupancy of the castle,^^ ^^^^ subsequently, in his 
Descriptive Guide, published by our society in 1901.^^ In the former 
reference, whilst admitting fully the evidence of a change of plan, he 
expressed .an opinion that the walls of the tower could not have made 
much progress at the date of the invasion by William the Lion 
[1174]. The changed plan could not therefore be connected with 
that event. But I have mentioned it here to show that I had not 
overlooked the coincidence. It is the more necessary inasmuch as 
about forty-eight per cent, of the total cost of the tower had been ex- 
pended in 1174, and it is by no means so improbable that the height 
of the building had then reached the stage at which the change in plan 
occurs. In the second reference Mr. Bates accepts the results of the 
investigation, observing that, whilst, 'on the whole the evidence is 
against there having been been any upper floor in the great hall,' 
there seems evidence ' that at one time or another there may have been 
galleries round some of the walls.' It was in consequence of the 
doubt here expressed that I have examined and re-examined the 
lower tier of joist-holes, in company with Mr. Gibson, and have come 
to the conclusion that the existence of galleries on massive beams at 
either end of the great hall admits of no doubt. The beams crossed 
athwart the window splays, just as sir John Marley may be supposed 
to have ordered his shipwrights to rig up platforms for his ' great 
ordnance,' as I have said. Be this as it may, it is much to have 
had, so far, the approval and concurrence of the late Mr. Bates upon 
the main questions. Would that he had been spared to elucidate 
this great border hold as it would have been explained under his 
critical observation ! 

" Proceedings^ vol. ix. p. 126. 

" The Cagtle of Newcastle^ a Short Descriptive Guide, etc., 1901, p. 31. 



PLATFORM FOR THE GRBAT ORDNANCE, ETC. 105 

In bringing these remarks to a close, I would point out that they 
are intended merely as a temporary record of the explorations and 
their results, and as well in a very special manner to indicate the 
obligation of this society to our warden, Mr. John Gibson. The 
investigation originated in his suggestion, and the results are due 
to his keen interest in all that relates to this venerable fabric. 
This unobtrusive but enduring concern merits our recognition, for it 
has solved difficulties and has, as in this instance, set at rest disputed 
and vexed problems. 

May I, for one moment further, before leaving the structural 
difficulties presented to us in this great tower, call attention to the 
niches in the walls on the stairs of the fore-building. One of these 
occurs on the left hand just under the mid-stair tower ; the other a 
little higher up the stairs on the opposite hand. These have been 
persistently referred to as * holy water stoups.' Now, their position 
on the stairway might of itself have suggested the real use of these 
two recesses ; an examination of their form and structure conclusively 
determines what they have been. They were, in fact, without any 
manner of doubt, lamp niches for lighting the stairway. 

Again, the north-west angle of the keep*, dififering from all three 
other comers in its almost unbroken solidity, and its substitution of 
multangular for the simple rectangular plan of the rest, has caused 
many speculations in accounting for its singularity. I have supposed 
it to have been intended to carry on its summit the platform for the 
great catapult of the period, and there is every reason to think this is 
its original purpose. 

Many other problems yet present themselves. There is the 
aperture, some twelve feet from the ground, on the west wall of the 
keep, popularly known as * the sally port.' Its evident utility for the 
purposes of victualling the garrison, or as an inlet for the admission 
of munitions of war, does not appear to have been noticed. Nor does 
the fact that it is an insertion, awkwardly and roughly hewn through, 
so as to avoid the buttress against which it opens. There is, again, 
its apparent contact with the works shown in the view of the ruins of 
the Bailey gate. 

These, and other points, yet call for investigation on the part of our 
members, to whom, however, I must now apologize for the length of 
these observations. 

VOL. XXV. H 



106 



v.— ANCIENT DEEDS RELATING TO GUNNERTON. 
(Communicated by the Right Rev. bishop Hornby, vicar of ChoUerton.) 

I venture to send you copies of MSS. on parchment that I have 
discovered amongst the papers of my predecessor and grandfather. 
I was hunting for the trust deed of our national parochial schools, 
and rummaging at the bottom of a drawer I came across a parcel 
labelled * ancient deeds relating to Gunnerton.' The paper in which 
the MSS. were folded was a copy of the Mcyrning Post of 1847. 

I have no notion how the MSS., dating from the thirteenth 
century and onward to the seventeenth, have been preserved so long — 
but they must have passed into the possession of the Rev. Christopher 
Bird, my grandfather, when he purchased the estate of Gunnerton 
from Mr. Beaumont. 

I took the MSS. up to the British Museum as I was unable to 
decipher them myself. The substance of them may have been 
published before in the History of Northumberland (ChoUerton 
Parish), but I am not aware of the fact. Indeed, I do not think 
that my immediate predecessor the Rev. Canon Bird was aware of 
the existence of the papers. 

I shall be interested to know whether they throw any fresh light 
upon the history of old families in the north. 

I think you know that I came across the tombstone of one who, 
I believe, was the last of the Herons of Chipchase. The stone is in 
the floor of the parish church, Surfleet, Lincobshire. 

There is a place called Gunnerby (or Gunwarsby) in Lincolnshire 
on the Watling Street. I wonder what is the connecting link with 
QmmQvton in this parish — also on the Watling Street. 

No. 1. — Grant by Peter de Ganwart[on] to Adam Baret^ for his hozoage and 
service, of a toft and croft lying between the honse of Gilbert and the house of 
Bobert de Bent[on] in the vill of Gunwart* [Gunnerton, co. Northumb.] and ten 
bovates of land in the territory of the same vill, beginning from Gooles np to 
Jerde&bory, and from Jerdenbnry eastwards to Holden, and southward to 
Infiasches, and westward to the land of the church, and from the land of the 
church to Jerdenbury : with common of pasture. Paying yearly one pound of 
pepper, or eight pence within the octave of Bt. Cuthlert in September for all 
services (with clause of warranty). 



ANCIENT DEEDS RELATING TO GUNNBRTON. 107 

Witn. Dom. Robert de Merlay, Roger Bertram, Hugh de Bolbec, H. de 
Magneby tunc vic[ecomite] Otwey de Lyle, G. fil G., Gnrd[an] Her, Robert de 
Wiccestre, Simon de Bruntoft, Robert de Cornhou, Peter de Lyle, John de 
Midilt[on], and many others. 

Undated. [12-15 Henry III., 1227-1230.] 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 2.— Quitclaim by Robert fil. Ricardi de Siperwas to Ralph fil. Willelmi de 
Essindene, his kinsman, of all the land which he held from the said Ralph in 
the vill of Gunnwarton, for which quitclaim the said Ralph has given him four 
marks of silver and an acre of land in Essindene. 

Witnesses, de Insula, Richard de Colewelle, Orm de Bromhope, John 

de Shuinebume, de Shuineburne, Derric de Cunwartun, Eustace de 

Bentona, and many others. 

Undated [circa 1230]. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 3. — Lease by Michael de Bsshynden to Dom. Henry de Hauerington, 
knt., of all his messuages, lands, meadows, woods, etc., which he had on the 
day of these presents in the vill of Ganwarton [Gannerton], to hold for a term 
of 6 years, at a yearly rent of five marks at the feasts of Pentecost and St. 
Martin-in-the-winter, the first payment due at Pentecost, 1348, the lessee 
agreeing that if the rent shall be in arrear for 40 days after any term (if he 
should be at the time within the county of Northumberland) the said Michael 
may enter and retain the said messuages, etc. And it is agreed that if the rent 
should be in arrear and the said Henry be out of the county, that the bailiff of 
the two parties shall levy from the goods and chattels found in the said 
tenements, in the discretion of the said bailiffs and with as little detriment as 
possible to the said Henry : and at the end of the term the lands, etc., to be given 
back in the same condition as they were when leased, namely, so many acres 
lying fallow, so many acres manured, etc. 

Dated at Gunwarton, 10th May, 1348. 

Seal of brown wax, containing shield of arms. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 4. — Grant by Thomas de Swynburn, knt., to John de Eston, vicar of Pont 
Eland [Ponteland, a^. Pont Island], John de Eylingale, John de Eyrkeby and 
Sampson Hardyng, of his manor of Gunwarton [Gunnerton, co. Northumb.], with 
all its appurtenances in the vill of Gunwarton, to hold for ever : with clause of 
warranty. 

Witn., Robert Heronn, John de Felton, John de Kylburn, Robert Claueryng , 
knts., William de Camaby, William de Elmeden, John Heroun, and others. 

Dated Monday aft. the F. of St. Nicholas [6th Dec.], 15 Ric. I[. [1391]. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 5. — Power of attorney from Thomas de Swynburn, knt., to William de 
Camaby, John Bryngton, Adam de Bolton and John de Attelowe, to deliver 
seisin in his name to John de Eston, John de Eylingale, John de Eyrkeby and 
Sampson Hardyng, of his manor of Gunwarton [Gunnerton]. 

vor_ Txv. IS 



108 ANCIENT DEEDS RELATING TO GUNNBRTON. 

Dated at Gunwarton, Monday aft. F. of St. Nicholas [6th Dec.], 15 Ric. XL 
£1391]. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 6.— Quitclaim by Thomas de Comorth, knt., to John de Eston, John de 
Kelingale, John de Kyrkebyand Sampson Hardyngof all his right in the manor 
of Gunwarton [Gunnerton], with all appurtenances in the vill of Gunwarton, co. 
Northumb., which he lately acquired by grant and feoffment from Robert de 
Swynbourne, his brother, together with all rights belonging to the same manor. 

Dated at Horkesley, in Essex, Sunday, F. of the Holy Trinity [!•* June] 1ft 
Ric. II. [1393]. 

Seal of red wax, broken and the arms on shield defaced. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 7. — Quitclaim by John Kyrkby, de Hauthor" [? Houghton] to John 
Fenwyck of all his right in the manor of Gunwarton [Gunnerton]. 
Dated at Gunwarton, 6th May, 1 Hen. V. [1413]. 
Seal of red wax, broken. 
Vellum. Latin. 
This charter has been gnawed at the edges by rats. 

No. 8. — Release by Sampson Hardyng to John de Fenwyk, * true heir and 
tenant and in full possession of the manor and vill of Gunwarton * [Gunnerton], 
CO. Northumb., of all his rights in the said manor and vill. 

Witn., John de Woddryngton, William de Swynburne, Robert Lisle, knts., 
William de Carnaby, Robert Raymes, John de Strothir, Nicholas Turpyn, 
Robert Horsle, John Bryngton and Symon de Weltden, and others. 

Dat. at Gunwarton, M. aft. F. of St. Hillary [13 Jan.] 9 Hen. V. [1422]. 

Fragment of red seal. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 9. — Release by William Hardyng to John de Fenwyk, esquire, of all bis 
right in the manor and vill of Gunwarton with all its members and appurten- 
ances in CO. Northumberland which John de Eston, clerk, and John de Eirkby, 
John de Killyngalle, all deceased, and Sampson Hardyng, father of the said 
William, now dead, but who survived the aforesaid John de Eston, John de 
Kirkby, and John de Killyngalle, acquired by feoffment of Thomas de Swynbum, 
knt., to the use of the said John de Fenwyk. 

Witn., William de Carnaby, Henry de Fenwik, sheriff of Northumberland, 
Simon de Welden, Nicholas Turpyn, William Laweson, of Cramlyngton, and 
others. 

Dat. 20th Oct., 7 Hen. VI. [1428]. 

Seals of William Hardying and William de Carnaby, broken. 

Vellum. Latin. 

No. 10. — Deed of sale by sir Francis Radcliffe, of Meldon, oo. Northumb. 
baronet, to Thomas Errington, of Bingfield, gent., of a messuage, tenement or 
farmhold in Gunnertcn, now in the possession of Cuthbert Heron, with 
covenant to assure the same by fine or other conveyance, provided the said sir 



ANCIENT DEEDS RELATING TO GUNNERTON. 109 

Prancis or Dame Catherine his wife be not compelled to travel out of the 
•county, etc. ; and power of attorney to William Magdowell, the elder, of 
Gunnerton, to deliver seisin of the said property to the said Thomas. 

Dated 13th December, 1665. With signature and (fragment of) seal of sir 
F. Radclyffe. 

Attested, on the back, by Thomas Bradley, John Canonier, and Samuel 
Banckes.— And the seisin attested by William Mackdowell, Edward Cozon, 
Bartholomew Eook, and Bdward OUiver. 

Vellum. English. 

No. 11. — Attached to the last deed of sale (by a pin of the period) are : 
ia) A bond in £30 from the said sir Francis Badcliffe to the said Thomas 
Errington to observe the covenants in the said deed of sale. 

Dated 13th December, 1665. Signed and sealed by sir F. Badclifie and 
^attested by the same three witnesses. 

No. 12. — [h) A bond in £60 from George Shaf toe, of Ingoe, gent., to Thomas 
Errington, of Bingfield, to observe the covenants in a deed of release of equal 
date. 

Dated 20th December, 1665. Unsigned and unattested. 

N,B. — This latter bond should have been attached to the deed of release of 
:20th Dec., 1665 (No. 13 of these Deeds). 

Vellum. Latin and English. 

No. 13. — Release by George Shaftoe, of Ingo, co. Northumb., to Thomas 
Errington, of Bingfeild, in the same county, of all his rights in the messuage, 
tenement or farmehold in the town of Gunwarton [Gunnerton], which is now 
in the tenure of the said Thomas Errington ; with warranty and covenant to 
4i8sure the same by any surer conveyance if called upon. 

Dat. 20th Dec., 1666. 

Witnessed, on the back, by Thomas Bradley, John Canonier, Samuel 
Banckes. 

No. 14. — Grant by Thomas Errington, of Bingfield, co. Northumb., to 
John 6hafN», of Gunnerton, of a certain * farmehold' in Gunnerton in the 
parish of OhoUerton, now in the possession of Margery Heron, mother of the said 
John : to hold for term of his life, paying yearly one ounce of pepper to the said 
Thomas. 

Dated 13th March, 29 Charles II. [1677.] 

With signature and seal of Thomas Errington. 

Witnesses, William Mills, Thomas Mackdowell. 

Paper. English. 

No. 15.— Lease, for a year, by Arthur Shaftoe of the East Quarter, in the 
<coQnty of Northumberland, gentleman, and John Shaftoe, of Gunnerton, 
gentleman, to sir William Blackett, of the town and county of Newcastle upon 
T jne, baronet j of * a messuage, tenement and farmehold lying within the Towne, 
Townefeilds and Territoryes of Gunnerton,' in return for the payment of five 



110 ANCIENT DEEDS RELATING TO GUNNBRTON. 

shillings, in order that, in accordance with the statute for transferring or 
uses, the said sir William may be in actual possession of the property and so be 
enabled to accept a grant and release of the same. 

Dated 7th Feb., 4 William and Mary [1693.] 

Signed by Arthur Shaftoe and John Shaftoe, the latter making his mark. 

Attested, on the back, by F. AUgood, John Leadbitter, John Parr and 
Anthony Sharpe. 

No. 16. — The grant and release of^the same property in Gunnerton from the- 
same Arthur Shaftoe and John Shaftoe, to sir William Blackett, bart., in con- 
sideration of the sum of £70, with covenant to assure the same by any surer 
conveyance at the will of the said sir William, provided the parties * required 
to make the same be not forced or compellable to travell further than the- 
county of Northumberland or Towne and county of Newcastle upon Tyne for 
the doeing and executeing of the same.' 

Dated 8th Feb., 1692 [3]. 

Sealed and signed by Arthur Shaftoe and John Shaftoe, the' latter making 
his mark. 

Attested, on the back, by the same witnesses as the lease. 

Vellum. English^ 

No. 17. — ^Attached to the last deed of grant and release (by a pin of the 
period) is the usual bond, in £140, between the parties to observe the covenants 
in the said deed of grant, etc. The day and month are not filled in, but the 
bond should have been dated on the same day (8th Feb.) 

Sealed, signed, and attested as before. ; , . 

Vellum. Latin and English. 

No. 18. — The acquittance by Arthur Shaftoe and John , Shaftoe to sir 
William Blackett, bart., for the sum of £70, the amount of ; the, consideration 
money for the grant and release to the latter of the messuage, etc., in. 
Gunnerton. 

Dated 8th February, 1692 [3J. 

Signed, sealeil, and attested as before. 

Paper. English. 



Ill 



VI.-THE VILLIERS FAMILY AS GOVERNORS OF 
TTNEMOUTH CASTLE AND OWNERS OF THE 
LIGHTHOUSE. 

Supplementary Paper by Hobatio A. Adamson, a Vice-President. 

[Read on the 29th July, 1908.] 

On the 30th March, 1898, a paper which I had written on the 
above snbject was read at a meeting of the Society.^ 

At the sale of the vast collection of MSS. belonging to the late sir 
Thomas Phillips, bart., F.R.S., of Middle hill, Worcestershire, and 
Thirlestane house, Cheltenham, which took place in April and May 
1903, at Messrs. Sotheby's sale rooms, in London, lot 848, consisting 
of *five original deeds relating to the Villiers family and to their 
property in the lighthouses at Tynemouth in the reign of Charles II., 
on vellum,' was purchased by l^i. Thomas Thome, l)ookseller, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and it has since passed into my possession. I 
have examined these deeds. The most important one is the original 
settlement made on the marriage of sir Edward Villiers, who was 
afterwards created earl of Jersey. He was born in 1656, and was 
the eldest son of sir Edward Villiers, knight-marshal, by his wife 
Prances, youngest daughter of Theophilus Howard, second earl of 
Suffolk. His mother acted as governess to the princesses Mary and 
Anne, daughters of James II., who both became afterwards queens of 
England. He attended princess Mary to Holland after her marriage 
with the prince of Orange. 

On the proclamation of William and Mary as king and queen, 
Edward Villiers was appointed master of the horse to the queen 
(February 1688-9), and in June he succeeded his father as knight- 
marshal. On 20th March, 1690-1, he was raised to the peerage as 
viscount Villiers of Dartford and baron Villiers of Hoo. After the 
queen's death (1694) he was, in 1696, sent as envoy extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to the States-General. In 1697 he became one of 
* See Areh, Ael,, xx. 15. 

VOL. XXV. 16 



112 THE VILLIBRS FAMILY : 

the Lords Justices of Ireland, a plenipotentiary for the treaty of 
Ryswick, and ambassador-extraordinary to the Hague. On the 13th 
October, in the same year, he was created earl of Jersey.^ In 
December, 1681, he was married to Barbara OhiflBnch, a daughter of 
William ChiflSnch of St. Martin's in the Fields, in the county of 
Middlesex, keeper of the closet to the king (Charles II.). The 
settlement was made by his father, who was also sir Edward Villiers 
and elder brother of viscount Grandison. It is dated 20th 
December, 1681. By it an annuity of £200 a year from the tolls 
of the Tynemouth lighthouse was settled on sir Edward Villiers, the 
younger, and the heirs male of his body, and subject thereto as his 
father, sir Edward Villiers, should by writing or will appoint. In 
the settlement is recited the grant by king Charles II. of the 18th 
June in the 17th year of his reign, of the lighthouse at Tynemouth 
and of the tolls to be received from it, as set forth in the extract from 
the settlement which is appended to this paper. 

There is a notice of William Chiffinch, the father of Barbara 
Chiffinch, in the Dictionary of National Biography (vol. x. p. 238). It 
states he attended the famous loyal feast of the apprentices at 
Saddler's hall, 4th August, 1681, and continued in favour under 
James II., whose fall he did not survive, dying at the end of 1688. 
To his house at Whitehall the duke of Monmouth had been brought 
after the battle of Sedgemoor on 5th July, 1685, where he was 
defeated, and continued there with lord Grey until they were taken 
to the Tower. The duke was executed on Tower hill on 15th July. 

The next deed of interest is a release of the annuity of £200 by 
Edward lord Villiers, baron of Dartford, in consideration of a 
payment to him of £2,000 by his brother, Henry Villiers, who was 
afterwards governor of Tynemouth castle. This deed is dated 10th 
of June, 1695. When Henry Villiers purchased the annuity he 
was living at Tynemouth castle, and resided there until 1707, when 
he died and was buried in the priory burial ground. See the 
inscription upon his tombstone.^ There is another release under 
the hand and seal of dame Martha Villiers. It is dated 30th 
April, 1691. 

"^ Diotwnary of National Biography, vol. Iviii. p. 325, 
3 Areh^ Ael.^ vol. xx. p. 22. 



MARBIAGE SBTTLEMENT OF SIB E. VILLIERS, THE YOUNGEB. 118 

It is probable the sum of £4,000 borrowed by sir Edward Villiers 
and his son in December, 1681, which is referred to in the deeds of 
16th and 17th December in that year, may have been for the 
rebuilding of the lighthouse and for the building of his own house, 
which adjoined it. 

The light in the Tynemouth lighthouse ceased to be lighted on 
the 3l8t of August, 1898. The discontinuance has been regretted 
ever since by the shipping community. The demolition of the light- 
house commenced in November following, and was completed in 
January in the next year. In taking down the lighthouse, several 
stones carved with dog-tooth moulding were found among the stones, 
clearly indicating that they had been taken from the ruins of the 
priory church. They are now within its walls.^ The governor's 
house has also been demolished, the pulling down commencing in 
November 1902.^ 

For forty years the War department has been building batteries 
in Tynemouth castle and mounting guns — pulling them down and 
erecting fresh batteries. New and costly batteries have been erected 
and 9'2 inch and 6-inch guns have been mounted, and, as in the 
past, they will probably do more harm to the inhabitants of Tyne- 
mouth than they will ever do to an enemy. Why it should be 
thought necessary to fire these heavy guns in time of peace in a 
thickly populated neighbourhood when there are other guns of the 
same calibre in the district from which practice could take place, is 
very puzzling. 

I append extracts from the two more important deeds, and I 
submit the original deeds for inspection by the members. In the 
extracts I have retained the old spelling. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE SETTLEMENT MADE ON THE MARRIAGE OF 
SIR EDWARD VILLIERS, THE YOUNGER, Knt., WITH BARBARA 
CHIFFINCH, DATED 19th AND 20th DECEMBER, 168L 

The parties to the Settlement are the Honble Sir Edward Villiers the Elder 
Brother of the Right Honble George Viscount Grandison of the first part William 

* In Arch, Ael.y vol. xx. p. 17 is a representation of the governor's house 
and the lighthouse in 1784. 

^ It is understood a member of the society has purchased the oak panelling 
from one of the rooms in the Governor's house. 



114 THE VILLIBRS FAMILY : 

Chiffinch of the Parish of S* Martins in the flEeilds in the County of Middlesex 
Esquire Keeper of the Clossett to the King's Majt^« and Martin ffolles of Gray's 
Inn in the s** County of Middle* Esq' of the 2»<* part Sir Edward Villiers the 
Younger Kn* Sonn and heir Apparent of the said S' Edward Villiers the Elder 
of the third part and Barbara Chiffinch only Daughter and Child of the said 
William Chiffinch of the 4*" part 

It states that his Majesty (King Charles the II) in and by his Letters Patten ts 
under the great scale of England beareing date the IS**** day of June io the 17'** 
year of his reign of his especial Grace certain knowledge and meere mot'on did 
give and grant unto the said Sir Edward Villiers the Elder his heirs and assigns 
the custody of the Lighthouse then lately rebuilt by the said Edward Villiers 
the Elder att Tynmouth in the County of Northumberland and the ground and 
soyle whereon the same was scituated And also the usual accustomed wayes and 
passages to and from the same together with full power and free liberty Lycence 
and Authority that he they and every of them should and might continue 
renew and maintaine the said Lighthouse with lights to be continually Burneinge 
therein in the Night season whereby the Ships passing by night might the better 
come to their harbours and Ports without Perill And his said Maj**« in and by 
his said Letters Patents for the defraying of the necessary charges and continuall 
maintenance of the said Lighthouse did ffurther declare and grant that forever 
after there should and might be Collected and taken And that the said S*" 
Edward Villiers and his heirs should and might demand collect have and take 
the sum of twelve pence of and for every shipp of or belonging to any of his 
said Maj**** subjects passing by the said Lighthouse or belonging or trading to the 
ports of Newcastle or Sunderland or either of them or the creeks or members of 
the same and three shillings for every shipp of or belonging to any foreigner or 
stranger coming or passing by the said Lighthouse To hold the same unto the 
said S*" Edward Villiers the Elder his heirs and assignes for ever att and under 
the yearly rent or sum of Twenty Markes to be paid in the manner as therein 
expressed. 

It states that a Marriage by the Grace of God was intended shortly to be had 
and solemnized between the said S*" Edward Villiers the Younger and the said 
Barbara Chiffinch and that upon the treaty of the said marriage it had been 
agreed that the said S*" Edward Villiers the Elder should upon the said Marriage 
settle on the said 6*" Edward Villiers the Young^er his Son and Issues Male of 
that Marriage the yearly sum of Two hundred pounds out of the said Lighthouse 
Grounds and houses 

It is witnessed that in pursuance of the said Agreement and in consideration 
of the said marriage and of the great advantages that the said Barbara Chiffinch 
had and brought to the said S' Edward Villiers the Younger in money and lands 
and Jewells and of the great love and Affection which the said S*" Edward 
Villiers the Elder had and bore to the said S*" Edward Villiers the Younger his 
Sonn and in consideration of Ten shillings to the said S*" Edward Villiers the 
Elder paid by the said William Chiffinch and Martin fEoUes (the Trustees of the 
Settlement) the said Edward Villiers granted unto the Trustees and to their 

* In the former paper on the lighthouse the date of the patent is given as the 
30th June. It is the 13th in the present deed. 



MAKEIAQB SETTLEMENT OF SIR E. ViLLlERS, THE YOUNGfift. Il5 

heirs and assigns All that the said Lighthouse soe lately rebnilt by him as 
aforesaid and all the ground and soyle whereon the same is situated and being 
and every part thereof with the appurtenances And also the custody of the 
same Lighthouse and also all ways passages liberties &c granted by the said 
Becited Letters Pattents And also the said Tolls and duties of twelve pence a 
ship to be received ofE and from his Maj"** subjects and Three shillings a Shipp 
to be received from all fforeigners and Strangers and all other Tolls Duties and 
Gcntribntions in and by the same Letters Patents granted or otherwise of and 
belonging to the said Lighthouse and premises or otherwise Injoyed 

To hold the Lighthouse and premises unto and to the use of the Trustees 
their heirs and Assigns Upon the Trusts thereinafter mentioned 

And stating that his said now Maj^**' King Charles the second by his Letters 
Pattent under the Great scale of England bearing date the 20^** day of June in 
the Six and Twentieth Yeare of his Raigne for the consideration therein 
mentioned of his Especial Grace kc granted demised and to ffarme lett unto the 
said S' Edward Villiers the Elder All that piece or parcell of Ground containing 
three roods or thereabouts adjoining to the said Lighthouse then walled in by 
the said S' Edward Villiers the Elder And the Messuage or Tenement thereupon 
erected and built together with the soyle and wast ground in the Castle there 
To hold the same unto the said Sir Edward Villiers the Elder his Executors 
administrators and assigns from the feast of St Michael the Archangel then last 
past before the date of the same Letters Pattents for the term of 99 years from 
thenceforth next ensueinge att and under the yearly rent of Five shillings to be 
paid in manner therein expressed 

It is further Witnessed that in further pursuance of the said Marriage Treaty 
to the said Edward Villiers the Elder assigned to the Trustees the said piece of 
ground Messuage or Tenement and soyle To hold the same unto the Trustees for 
the residue of 99 years Upon and under the Trusts thereinafter mentioned 

And it was thereby agreed that all the premises should be held by the 
Trustees in Trust for the said S' Edward Villiers the Elder for life and after his 
death Upon Trust that the Trustees should receive and take the yearly and other 
rents and thereout pay to the said Edward Villiers the Younger and the heires 
male of his body lawfully issueing the yearly sum of Two hundred pounds at 
the ffeasts of S^ Michaell the Archangell and the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Lady Virgin Mary by equall portions And to pay the residue or the said yearly 
rents during the life of the said S*" Edward Villiei-s the Younger and while there 
should be issue male of the body and also the whole rents after his decease 
without issue male as the said S*" Edward Villiers the Eider should by writing 
or Will appoint and in default to the right heires of the said S*^ Edward 
Villiers the Elder for ever 

Then follow covenants for title and against incumbrances (one 
mortgage made of the premises by the said sir Edward Villiers, the 
elder, and sir Edward Villiers, the Younger, or one of them, to the 
right honourable George viscount Grandison, the honourable Henry 
Howard, esquire, and Richard Brett, esquire, by indentures of lease 



116 



THE VILLIBRS FAMILY ; 



and release 'beareing date the 16th^ and 17th dayes of December, 
1681,' for securing the sum of £4,000 and interest in such manner as 
in the same indenture of release is expressed only excepted). 

Note. — The settlemeat bears the signatures of sir Edward Villiers, the 
elder, sir Edward Villiers, the younger, William Chiffinch, Martin Ffolles, and 
Barbara Chiffinch, of these the signatures of Villiers, father and son, and 
Barbara Chiffinch are here reproduced. The seals have all been cut ofE. 





"/m 





SOME SIOXATUllKS TO MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT. 



EXTRACT FROM THE DEED OF RELEASE DATED 10th JUNE, 1695. 

It is made between the Right Honble Edward Villiers Caron of Dartford in 
the County of Kent Eldest Sonne and heire of S*" Edward Villiers late Kn* 
Marshall of His Majesties most Honble household deced of the one part and 
Henry Villiers of the parish of S* Martins in the fEeilds in the County of 
Middlesex Esq*"® Sonne of the said Edward Villiers of the other part 

It recites the will of the said Edward Villiers dated S*'' May 1685 whereby 
he devised unto his Sonne Henry Villiers and to his Assignes all that the said 
Edward Villiers estate and interest of and in his Lighthouse Messuages lands 
and appurtenances situate in or near Tinmouth upon Speciall Trust and 
Confidence that the said Henry Villiers should during the continuance and 
remainder of the term of 99 years which the said Edward Villiers had then to 
come of and in the said estate pay out of the rents unto the said Edward Lord 

' The lease of 16th December, 1681, is with the papers but not the release. 
It bears the signatures of sir Edward Villiers and his son. 



BXrBACT PROM DEED OF BBLEASB. 



117 



Villiers (by the name of S' Edward Villiers) the sum of £200 per ann: as 
therein mentioned and it states the said Will was proved in the prerogative 
Coort of Canterbury on the 8**» of July 1689 

It is Witnessed that the said Edward Lord Villiers in consideration of £2,000 
paid to him by the said Henry Villiers released the said Annuity of £200 
payable out of the said lighthouse and premises 



yi<^n T^^ir/y 



«IONATl^RB TO RELEASE. 



Note. — The deed is executed by the said Henry Villiers alone and his seal is 
affixed to it. The signature is here reproduced. It was sealed and delivered in 
the presence of three witnesses, and is impressed with a sixpenny stamp. As 
it is not executed by Edward lord Villiers there must have been a duplicate of 
the deed under his hand and seal. 




THS UOVSRNOR'S HOUSE, TYNEMOVTH CASTLE, NOW DEMOLI8HEP. 



118 



VII.— THE EARLY MONUMENTAL REMAINS OF 
TYNEMOUTH. 
By Sidney Story Cabb. 
[Read on the 26th day of August, 1908.] 

Up to the present no complete account and few brief notes have 
appeared relating to the early monastic remains of Tynemouth. 
Mr. W. Sidney Gibson, the chief historian of the priory at that place, 
did not refer to those the existence of which was known at the time 
he brought out his account of that important Benedictine house.^ 
This article, therefore, is intended to furnish a complete catalogue 
of them. Of pre-Conquest date there are parts of crosses which 
served as memorials or for the rarer purpose of marking the bounds 
of sanctuary ; while the medieval sepulchral remains consist of an 
eflSgy, grave covers, and matrices of brasses. 

THE PBE-CONQUEST STONES. 

The fragments of Anglian crosses are four in number ; three of 
these, discovered at different times, are now in the museum of the 
society at the Blackgate. They have an especial interest for us 
as the only remnants of the earlier monastic institutions at Tyne- 
mouth. In the workmanship of these stones there is an entire 
absence of the treatment which characterized the school usually 
termed the Hexham,^ the chief feature of which is the very 
graceful conventional treatment of branches and foliage. The Tyne- 
mouth crosses follow the more beautiful though at the same time 
later and more general style of treatment in the north of England, 
of which the principal feature is the curiously interlacing designs. 

* The Hutory of the Monastery founded at Tynemouth^ by W. S. Gibson, F.S.A. 
2 vols. VT. Pickering, 1847. 

* A designation given to it owing to some of the stones discovered there in 
connexion with St. Wilfrid's church being supposed to be executed by the 
men he brought from Rome in the latter part of the seventh century, or at any 
rate under a strong Italian influence, of which the chief is the cross of Acca, for 
descriptions of which by the Rev. W. Greenwell, D.C.L., see either A Catalogue 
of the Sculptured and Inscribed Stones in the Cathedral Library^ Durham^ p. 53. 
T, Oaldcleugh, Durham, 1899 ; or A History of Northumberland, ill. 181, 



FRAGMENTS OP PRE-CONQUEST CROSSES. 



119 



When it is remembered that the county of Northumberland 
was in so wild a state at the time of the Conquest that the lands 
constituting it were not recorded in Domesday book, we may fairly 
oonclude that the arts of the Angles would linger longer than in 
many other parts of England where it is difficult to distinguish be- 
tween certain pre- and post- Norman work. Although, therefore, the 
writer names these stones pre-Conquest, as they belong to the class 




Fig. 1. 

80 termed, it is not absolutely clear that they were all sculptured 
before 1066. 

The following stones are at the Blackgate : — 

1. — A fragment of a cross head with one perfect limb : measuring 
14 inches high, 9^ inches wide, and 4^ inches thick. The carving 
is the same on both faces. A boss surrounded by a raised ring, the 
limbs being filled with interlacing work ; radius from centre of the 
boss 11 inches ; the sides are not decorated (see fig. 10, page 182). 

VOL. *« 



120 EARLY MONUMENTAL REMAINS OE TYNEMOPTH : 

2.-^ A fragment of a bross-shaffc measuring 17 inches high, the 

faces tapering from 11 to 10^ inches, the sides from 9^ inches to 

9 inches. All the edges have a single roll moulding, while the faces 

are divided into panels by a horizontal cable moulding between two 

roll mouldings. This cross presents interesting and elaborate subjects. 

In a letter to Mr. Blair, the editor of the society, Mr. Romilly Allen 

writes : 

'The subject on one side appears to be an ecclesiastic or saint holding a 
book and standing on the heads of a pair of dragons. I presume that this 
symbolises the triumph of good over evil, as in the case of Christ trampling on 
the asp and basilisk (see Christian Symholism, p. 274).' The tails of the 
dragons merge into foliage in a remarkable manner. The centaur, holding a 
staff or club, is very like the one at Aycliffe. The exaggerated length of the 
centaur's left arm, which is extended so as to grasp his tail, as compared with 
the extreme shortness of the right arm, is worthy of notice. Centaurs occur 
frequently both in Anglo-Saxon and in Norman art (see Christian Symbolism, 
p. 360). The interlaced work is derived from a six-cord plait. There are 
other examples of the same pattern at Meigle in Perthshire, and on the large 
cross-shaft at St. Andrews.' 

The carving on one side has been destroyed ; and the panels on 
the other side are of different heights from those on either face ; 
they contain two vertical rows of iknots of single cords (see fig. 1). 

8. — A fragment of a crossrshaft 14 inches high, the face tapering 
from 12 to 11 inches, the "sides 8 to 7^ inches, sculptured on one 
face and two sides, the design on the other face having apparently 
been chiselled off. The face of the cross has been divided into panels ; 
the fragment only shows part of one of these, which contains two 
rows of Stafford knots made with double cords. This is perhaps the 
most beautiful form of Keltic ornament and is to be seen on the 
St. Oswald cross,* a coped grave-cover found in the chapter house at 
Durham,^ the Bewcastle cross, and on various other stones and in 
manuscripts. The sides are decorated with two vertical rows of 
knots of single cords. This stone was first noticed by Mr. M. Phillips, 
F.S.A., when some excavations were being conducted during 1895 
in Tynemouth castle yard, within which the priory ruins stand. It 

' Christian Syitibolism, by J. Romilly Allen, 1887. 

* See A Catalogue of the Sculptured and Inscribed Stoiies in the Cathedral 
Library t Durham. 

* See The Tratisactions of the Durham and Northumberlafid 4-rohitectural 
i^nd Antiquarian Society^ IV. 132, 1896, 



FRAGMENTS OF PRE-CONQUEST CROSSES. 



121 



was discovered in front of the south west gateway of the large 
magazine, due south of the west front of the ruins; the mortar 
clinging to the stone when found showed it had been used as 
building material ^ (see fig. 2). 

At first sight we ponder over these fragments and ask, if they 
with their symbolic and beautiful designs once formed the greater part 
of one cross ? The 



whole would then 
have resembled one 
of those from Gain- 
ford, now in the 
cathedral library at 
Durham,^ more than 
any other the writer 
has seen. It seems, 
however, that the 
stones have belonged 
to different crosses. 
This appears very 
evident upon exam^ 
ining the mouldings : 
those on the cross 
head are narrower 
and more angular 
than those on figures 
1 and 2, while the Fig. 2. 

roll-mouldings on the latter two also differ from one another in size. 

4. — The monolith known as the ' Monk's Stone ' stands in front of 
the farmstead called Monk House, which is to the north of Tynemouth 
priory. Above the socket it stands 6 feet 2 inches high, the faces taper 
from 18 inches to 14^ inches, the sides from 11 J inches to 9 inches. The 
stone is clearly of pre-Oonquest date ; it has been unsculptured to the 
height of about 16 inches, then decorated on all faces and sides. No 
design can now be traced on the former. The illustration of the 






* For a fuller account of the discovery, see Proceedings, vii. 163. 

' See A Catalogue of Sculptured Stones in Durham Cathedral Library j 
97, No. XXXI. 



122 EARW MONUilElfTAt EEMAtJfS OF TYNEMOTTtfl i 

south side has been reproduced from a recent photograph by Dr. 
Stephens of North Shields, enlarged. This shows the design with 
a clearness with which it has not been seen before. It consists of a 
somewhat angular interlacing pattern interspersed with geometrical 
figures, divided by a moulding from the top ten inches of the stone, 
which contains two fabulous creatures ; they face one another, their 
spiral tails curving inward. What is left of the design on the north 
side is wholly different ; it is to be traced by standing at a short 
distance from the cross, and appears to consist in the centre of double 
cords crossing in the usual way (see plate VI.), their lower extremities 
twisting back and forming circles, within which other circles have 
been carved, interlacing the cords. The pattern has been repeated 
up the shaft, forming ten sets of concentric circles, the treatment 
resembling that on the upper part of the St. Oswald's cross which 
has been referred to, the cords then continued forming four sets of 
Stafford knots. The edges of the stone are so worn that the return 
of the cords by the circles is conjectuied by the writer in order to 
construct a known Anglian pattern, thus utilizing the groups of 
concentric circles. The interlacing Las been carried up to within 
seven inches of the top of the stone, where there is a moulding, 
above wliich is interlacing work. A roll moulding has also ran 
up each corner of the stone (see plate VI.). 

A tradition concerning the stone, relating to medieval times, seems 
first to be told by Grose in volume iv. of his Antiquities : — 

*A monk of this monastery, strolling abroad, came to the house of Mr. 
Delaval, an ancestor of the ancient family of that name ; that gentleman was 
then absent on a hunting party, but was expected back to dinner. Among 
dishes preparing in the kitchen, was a pig. ordered purposely for Mr. Delaval's 
own eating. This alone suiting the liquorish palate of the monk, and though 
admonished and informed for whom it was intended, he cut oflE the head, 
reckoned by epicures the most delicious part of the animal, and putting it into 
a bag, made the best of his way toward the monastery. Delaval, at his return 
being informed of the transaction, which he looked upon as a personal insult, and 
being young and fiery, remounted his hoi-se, and set out in search of the offender ; 
when, overtaking him about a mile east of Preston, he so belaboured him with 
his staff, caUed a hunting gad, that he was hardly able to crawl to his cell. 
This monk dying within a year and a day, although, as the story goes, the 
beating was not the cause of his death, the brethren made it a handle to charge 
Delaval with his murther ; who, before ^e could get absolved, was obliged to 
make over to the monastery, as an expiation of this deed, the manor of Elsig, 



Arch. Ael. vol. xx?., to face p. 122. 



Plate VI. 




THE MONK'S STONE, TYNEMOUTH. 



[Prom a Photograph by Dr. D. U. Stephens of North Shields.] 



Hhb *monk*s stone.* 128 

in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, with seyeral other valnable estates .... 
**' Tf perchance one offend a f reere's dogge, streight clameth the whole brother- 
hood, an heresy, an heresy ".* 

In another part of the same volume Captain Grose gives a plate 
from a drawing made in 1774 and first published in 1785, showing 
the face of the stbne now towards the east : another piece and the 
socket are lying on the ground. The latter is inscribed, ' Horror 
to Kill a man For a Pige's Head.' The authenticity of this story 
must be a matter of pure conjecture, though the manor of Elswick 
belonged to Tynemouth ; the story, if true, must be given an early 
date, as during the parliament of 1876 a petition was presented to 
king Edward III. and his council, by the mayor and commonality of 
Newcastle, who said that in 1867 the prior of Tynemouth had claimed 
Fenham as part of his manor of Elswick.® Even earlier, in 1880, a 
colliery is alluded to, as the prior and brethren of Tynemouth demised 
to Adam Colewell, from the feast of St. Martin until the same feast a 
year turned, the colliery at Elswick, called the Heygrove. Numerous 
other references connect Elswick with Tynemouth. 

Another eighteenth century account of fche stone is given in 
Boswell's Antiquities. The plate accompanying it is similar to that 
given by Captain Grose except that it does not portray two gentlemen 
in the picturesque dress of the period sketching and examining the 
remains. With regard to the part of the stone shown standing, he 
says the part 'measuring about three feet and a half has been set 
up again.' This is probably the piece now standing, though it is 
6 feet 2 inches high. The pattern the artist shows is one of which 
some portions can still be seen on the east face of the cross, but 
the mistake the artist made was trying to construct a pattern out 
of the indents, which resemble volutes, instead of following the 
parts in relief. Boswell does not tell the story of Delaval and the 
monk. In later times, Hodgson writes, ' I have no doubt the cross 
was set up, like the cij?pi or shafts of the Romans, as a boundary 
between the lands of Monkseaton and Tynemouth, or else as an 
index or guide to travellers.' 

•Welford's Newcastle and Gateshead in tlie Fourteenth and Fifteenth 
Centuries, 187. 

•Ibid. 7 i. 



124 EARtY MONUMENTAL REMAINS OF TYNEMOUTH : 

More recently still Mr* George Rippon of North Shields stated : 
' This curious relic has undergone frequent changes and removals. The 
original site was a field to the east of where it now stands, towards 
Tynemouth, on the ancient road leading to the priory. It was after- 
wards altered to thirty yards west of its present situation. The 
potato crops suffered so severely by the trespasses of visitors to view 
the relic, that the farmer attached horses to the shaft and pulled it 
from its socket, and split away the side of the pedestal, as it now 
remains. . . . Mr. Blacklock, in building his farm house, again 
removed what was still unbroken to the position where it now is to 
serve as a rubbing stone for cattle. The remaining parts were built 
into one of the arches of the threshing machine.' The threshing 
machine was taken down some years ago and the stones from it 
used for building foundations, and can be no longer seen. 

Though romantic and interesting as the medieval and modern 
history of the stone is its chief interest is that it is pre-Xorman. 

To whom were these memorials erected ? Perhaps one looked 
down upon the grave of St. Oswin, or some Northumbrian saint 
or king. As is generally the case there is no inscription to inform us 
to whom these crosses were raised. 

From these early and beautiful crosses we turn to 

THE MEDIEVAL MONUMENTS. 

5. — The monumental recess in the north choir wall of the ruins 
of Tynemouth priory church was occupied, until recently, by a 
recumbent effigy. The stone figure lying with the feet towards 
the east so fitted the recess that although not fixed with mortar it 
may be concluded that it was in situ. The stone was decaying so 
rapidly that after being moved to be sketched to scale for this 
article it was placed in the chapel east of the choir (see fig. 8). 

The slab, from 3 to 7 inches thick, is of the same soft sandstone 
as that with which the priory is built. The carving is in low relief, 
the monument has the appearance of being about the date of the 
choir, which is Transitional or Early English. It is much worn and 
has often been wrongly described. The eflBgy is of a lady ; the head 
rests within a trefoil-arched canopy, the pointed top of which projects 



A MEDllSVAL EFFIGY. 



125 



slightly beyond the top of the stone, the features being now hardly 
recognizable. The figure is clothed from head to foot in a long garment 
reticulated over the head, there is no 
whnple or coverchief, and the garment • 
is draped in loose folds and unre- 
strained by a kirtle. The hands are 
not raised in prayer in the usual way ; 
probably they have held some object 
which is now worn away. Viewed in 
a light bringing out all the shadows, 
the appearance of the drapery and the 
fi;eneral treatment of this the only 
monument of its class at T^nemouth 
appears very dignified and graceful. 

6. — Since placing the eflBgy in the 
chapel its segmental arched recess 
has been occupied by a grave cover. 
This slab has been cut out of harder 
material and is broken transversely 
acroBS the centre. It is 5^ inches 
thick and is here shown drawn to 
scale. It bears a cross in relief, the 
head of which is in the form of a cross 
patee. The stone is much worn, like 
many of the medieval remains, having 
been more exposed to the weather 
than the later discovered pre-Conquest 
stones (see fig. 5). 

7. — Another grave cover has been 
placed within the monumental recess 
on the south side of the choir. This 
slab is cut out of soft stone and is 
also broken. It is much decayed, 
which is to be the more deplored as 
it has been much the finest grave cover 
within the priory. The monument is from 6 J w 7^ inches thick. It 
bears a cross, the shaft of which is plain. The four arms forming 




Fig. 3 



f 



126 EARLY MONUMENTAL REMAINS OF TYNEMOtJTH : 







I' ' 



Fig. 4. 



Sc»l 



C^l Q. 



I I I I M M I U I I 



Fig. 5. 



j^f< 



MEDIEVAL GRAVE COVERS. 



127 



the head are floriated. It closely resembles many in this neigh- 
bourhood, for instance, those at St. Helen's Auckland,^^ Barnard- 
castle," and Chester-le- 
street.^2 From part of 
the shaft being broken 
and worn away it is 
now impossible to say 
whether this has been 
a Calvary cross or not 
(see fig. 4). 

8. — A. small grave 
cover of sandstone, 4^ 
inches thick, having 
a chamfered moulding, 
and here shown drawn 
to scale, is now within 
the priory chapel. It 
is usual to consider a 
memorial of this size 
as the monument of a 
child, but this is not 
always the case. The 
slab is in excellent 
preservation, though 
cracked . The floriated 
cross is similar to that 
jnst described (no. 4), 
except that the shaft 
is divided at the bottom. 
The grave cover also 
bears a sword of a 
plain ordinary type, 
indicating it to be the 
monument of a male (see fig. 6). 

'* A drawing of this grave cover may be seen In The Sepulchral Slabs, Grave 
Covers^ etc, of the Middle Ages now remaining in the county of Durham, by C. 
C. Hodges. Privately printed, 1884, plate 7, No. 20. 

» Ihid., plate 10, No. 27. » lUd., plate 23, No. 61. 




^ I I I 



T-f-r 



ift" 



Fig. 



128 EARLY MONUMENTAL EEMAIKS OF TYNEMOUTH : 

9. — ^A fragment of a grave cover 6^ inches thick now lies 




Fig 7. 



>cAie^ . 



1 I I 1 



I ^ ■ ^ 



if^- 



in the south transept. It was found on the south side of the 



MATRIX OF BRASS AT PRIORY. 



129 



largest magazine within the castle walls, about a foot below the 
surface, during the excavations made by the government in 1896, 






^ 






32L,T 










which have been already referred to in describing the fragments of 
pre-Conquest crosses. When the writer rescued it at the time of 



130 EARLY MONUMENTAL REMAINS OF TYNEMOUTH I 

discovery in the month of February of that year, the mortar then 
clinging to it showed the stone had been used as building material. 
The slab bears part of the shaft, and a point of one of the arms of a 
floriated cross, also a complete sword. These symbols are formed by 
incised lines, unlike those on the other grave covers, which are carved 
in relief (see fig. 7.) 

10. — A portion of a matrix of limestone broken into two 
pieces, which, when fitted together, measure 1 foot 8 inches high, 
and 3 feet 4^ inches wide. The indents are the lower quarter of 
a figure and what seems to be an outline, on the dexter side of the 
foot, of part of a dog's breast. Between the figure and the shafts, 
which have supported the canopy, are two shields, and round the 
outside a border inscription fillet, one of the angle pieces of which is 
to be seen. The brass and'studs have all disappeai'ed. The date is 
probably the middle of the fifteenth century (see fig. 8j. 

11. — In the Spital-dene, now known as the Northumberland park, 
between North Shields and Tynemouth, there is the matrix, of tufa 
limestone, measuring 6 feet 9 inches in length, by 2 feet 7 inches in 
breadth, of a civilian and his wife. Below them is the hollow for 
an inscription, and below it the indents for the smaller figures of 
their children, one daughter and four sons. The indent for the 
brass of the dexter figure, that of the civilian, is 2 feet 7^ inches 
long. He appears to have worn a long tunic with long loose 
sleeves, and a hood round the neck, and he stood on a small 
mound. The incision for the lady is 2 feet 6^ inches long. Her 
costume would be a long gown with deep sleeves. She wore a 
crespine head-dress with small side cauls, and a kerchief thrown over 
it. The small indents are 11^ inches. The four sons seem to have 
been attired like their father, and the daughter like her mother, except 
that her head dress was simpler. The date of the matrix is early 
in the fifteenth century, probably 1400 to 1420. It is in capital 
preservation. All the brass has been stripped off, though the 
rivets by which it was fastened remain. The treatment is quite 
plain, there being no canopy or border fillet (see fig. 9). 

This stone was discovered in 1885 in the Spital dene, which is 
within the borough of Tynemouth and on the left hand side 
of the road from Tynemouth to Preston. When the park was being 



MATRIX OF BRASS AT ST. LEONARD'S HOSPITAL. 



131 



laid out the ex- 
cavators bared the 
foundations of St. 
Leonard's hospital 
from which the dene 
derives its name. 
The first stone found 
was this large slab, 
which was lying face 
down where it now 
rests, obviously as 
it had been laid for 
a flooring stone in 
one of the rooms. 
The writer was pre- 
sent at the discovery, 
but it was not until 
about two years 
afterwards that the 
stone was turned 
over and its monu- 
mental character 
revealed. 

The earliest re- 
ference to the Spital 
is in 1320,13 and 
the earliest existing 
register of a burial 
1656. The registers 
of Tynemouth how- 
ever do not go back 
beyond 1607.^^ 

The matrix may 
either be in situ or 
have been brought 
from the priory. 




FIO. 9. MATRIX OF BRASS, NORTHUMBERLAND PARK. 



" See Proeeedings, in., 86. 

" See 'Tynemoath Parish Registers,' by H. A. Adamson, Arch. Ael., XIX 



132 



EARLY MONUMENTAL REMAINS OF TYNEMOUTH 



Not one of these seven medieval stones bears an inscription. They 
are testimony of the work of past days, but to whom they were erected 
we know not. The drawings of effigies and grave covers must always 
have a greater interest for us than descriptions, and we are much 
indebted to our member, Mr. Henry Clarke of North Shields, and his 
son Mr. H. F. Clarke, for the drawings which accompany this paper. 
The writer also wishes to thank another member, Mr. Oswin J. 
Charlton, LL.B., for an account he supplied him of the matrices 
from which their description is chiefly taken. 




FIG. 10. PRE-CONQUEST CBOSK HEAD, TYNEMOUTH. 



138 



VIII.— DISCOVERY OF ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS, ETC., 
AT NEWCASTLE. 

1. A ROMAN ALTAR TO «OCBAN(JS' AND ALTAR BASE FROM THE 

TYNE BRIDGE. 

(a) BY R. OLIVER HESLOP, F.S.A., ONE OF THE SECRETARIES. 

[Read on the 27th May, 1903.] 





Divers have been employed by the River Tyne Commissioners for 
some time past in clearing obstructions from the north channel at 



184 ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE : 

the Swing bridge. When thus engaged last Wednesday, they foand 
a Roman Altar and a detached base stone embedded in the river 
bottom. Mr. James Walker, C.B., the river engineer, at once 
appreciated the nature of these relics, and by his order they were 
immediately removed to a place of safety. Obligations are due to 
him for allowing free and full examination of the stones, and for the 
care exercised by him in their preservation. 

The altar is 4 feet 3 inches high, measuring 19^ inches across its 
base and an equal width across its capital. From front to back the 
base measures llf inches, and the capital 11^ inches. The con- 
necting shaft is 2 feet 3^ inches high and 16 inches across its face, 
by 8 inches from back to front. Base and shaft and capital unite in 
a form of symmetrical, or, it may be said, even of graceful 
proportions ; whilst the junction of each member is graduated by a 
band of simple ogee moulding. 

The face of the shaft is decorated with a moulded panel occupying 
almost its entire surface, measuring 1 foot 9 inches high, by 9^ inches 
wide, between the inner beads. The panel encloses the representation 
of a ship's anchor boldly sculptured, the surface being deeply sloped 
to bring the carving into relief. The shank of the anchor is 
surmounted by a ring, swivelled on a head. The two arms of the 
anchor appear to have been flattened towards their points. A 
projection below the crown is pierced by a hole, possibly an arrangement 
used in tricing up the anchor when it had reached the ship's hawse- 
hole. The representation of an object so familiar, complete in all its 
details, appears significant, not only of the early development of the 
typical form here shown, but of its long survival, for it can hardly be 
said to have been even yet superseded. It will be seen, too, that 
we have here an example of forged iron work which could be produced 
only by handicraftsmen of great skill in their trade. 

Each side of the altar shaft is relieved by a blank moulded panel, 
the depth of eight inches allowing no room for further sculpture. 
But the absence of elaboration is in keeping with the general design, 
adding greatly to its effect. The altar is plain at the back. A tenon 
at its foot shows that it had fitted into the socket of a separate base 
stone. 

The volutes on the capital have been broken away by damage at 



ALTABS TO NEPTUNE AND THE OCEAN. 135 

an early period ; but the foouB on the top has been left almost intact. 
It is rectangular in form and is surrounded by a prominent lip. 

Across the face of the capital, a narrow ansated panel is lettered 
with the first portion of the dedicatory inscription. The words are 

OCIANO LEG 

The lettering is well cut and perfectly legible. Between the two 
words there is a minute leaf stop, point upwards. In the panel below, 
reading alternately on either side of the anchor, are the letters 

VI VI 

p F 

Expanded the inscription reads : ociano legio sexta viotbix pia 

FiDELis. * To Oceanus, the Sixth Legion, the Victorious, the Pious, 

the Faithful [dedicates this altar].' ^ 

The second stone brought up from the river bed is evidently the 
loose base of an altar. Its upper edge is surrounded by an ogee 
moulding and its top recessed to receive a superstructure. The altar 
to Oceanus being placed on this base was found to be too broad for 
it, and the two stones were set apart again, the supposition being 
that they were not adapted for each other. 

A casual examination of the Oceanus altar immediately suggested 
its correspondence with the Neptunus altar in the Black-gate 
museum. The latter was dredged up when the works of the Swing 
bridge were in progress. It is shown on page 183 on the left, and is 
illustrated in a preceding volume,^ and a comparison with the newly 
discovered altar will show an identity of design and execution in the 
two. A careful measurement confirms this, for each answers to the 
other in every particular dimension. Both altars were found at the 
site of the Aelian bridge and have been in all probability connected in 
some way with that structure. They are twin productions, if not from 
the same chisel, certainly from one and the same design. The conclu- 
sion is a natural one ; that they originally furnished the right and left 

^ The Legio Seownda Augusta was sent to Britain in the time of the emperor 
dandins f?]. The Legio Sexta Vietrix left Spain in a.d. 70 for the Lower 
Bhine In Germany, whence in 120 it was sent to Britain ; in 89 it acquired the 
epithet of pia fiielU, The Legio xiii, Oemirui came to Britain in 48 from 
Qennany, and retnmed thither in 70. The Legio xx. Valeria Vietrix was sent 
to lUyricnm in A.D. 10, thence it went to Cologne, where it remained till 48, 
when it was sent to Britain. 

* Areh, Ael, xir., p. 7. 

VOL. XXV. 19 



136 EOMAN INSCRIPTION'S, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE : 

side of a sanctuary dedicated to the deities typified on the faces of the 
stones., Neptune, *the earth shaker,' rode upon, if indeed he did not 
rule, the waves. Oceanus was not only omnipresent at sea, venerated 
as father of all the gods, but was reverenced as presiding over the 
tributary rivers. He it was that the seafarer might propitiate before 
setting forth. The incoming sailor remembered Neptune, as the 
Batavian troops at Procolitia remembered how he had broaght 
them safely over the North Sea when they left us his form sculptured 
in repose.^ Thus it was that these deities had their shrine in one 
house, where he that came remembered the tutelary Neptune or he 
that fared forth bespoke the grace of Oceanus. 

Looking on the faces of these twin altars we are reminded of this 
coming and going at the Quayside. They recall to us the fears and 
hopes that animated the embarking and the incoming travellers of 
that far-off time. Their votaries would include the civilian on 
business and the soldier on service. To them, too, would in all 
likelihood resort veterans of the Cohort of Aelian Marines, who won 
their diploma of citizenship in manning the fleet that may have sailed 
from under the walls of Pons Aelii. And these altars are still typical 
of the port of Tyne and of its metropolis at Newcastle. For, as in 
the past, so in the present, we are found linking our fortune with 
Neptune and great Ocean.' ^ 



{b) BY commandant R. MOW AT OF PARIS. 

[Read on the 30th September, 1903.] 

The discovery of the twin altars, respectively dedicated to 
Neptunus and to Oceanus by the sixth Legion Victrix, at the very 
spot where stood the old Roman bridge, is suggestive of comments 
which, even after the able paper of Mr. Heslop, are not near being 
exhausted. 

' See Areh. Aeliaria^ Xll., p. 76. 

* The Ocianus altar and the base stone have since been presented to the 
Society by the River Tyne Commissioners, The base appears to be that intended 
originally for yet another altar. An extemporized base of wood has accordingly 
been made for the Ocianus altar, and the newly-fonnd stone base has b^n 
temporarily set under the Neptunus altar in the Black-gate mnseum. Both 
altars now stand face to face on the step at the entrance of the east window recess*. 



ALTARS TO NEPTUNE AND THE OCEAN. 187 

From this remarkable coincidence and from the evident similitude 
of their structure, it is but natural to draw the consequence that they 
were intended to serve as extra ornaments to the Pons Aeltus itself, 
at each side of the entrance of which they were symmetrically erected, 
most likely near the landing-place of the legion after crossing the 
Grermanic ocean, when, quartered at vetbea (actually Xanten in 
Holland), it was ordered to proceed to Britain, and most likely headed 
by Hadrian himself, who was at that moment on his visit to Lower 
Germany. This took place in the year 121 according ^to Lenain de 
Tillemont, or rather in 122 according to the last researches of Mertz- 
berg and of Diirr resumed by Goyau.^ 

The legion, or at least a strong detachment of this corps, was at 
once engaged in the building of the bridge, in pursuance of the plan 
and under the eyes of the emperor ; hence the denomination Pons 
AbUus derived from the gentile name of P. Aelius Hadrianus. 

Altars consecrated to Neptune are relatively common, but the 
case stands different with regard to Oceanus ; till the present not 
another altar bearing this name is recorded, either in Eoman or 
in Greek epigraphies. Such a scarcity renders the Newcastle altar so 
much more interesting, since it brings back to our mind the historical 
instance of Alexander the Great erecting altars to the same deities, 
Poseidon and Okeanos^ when he reached the shores of the Indian 
Ocean.2 This invaluable monument testifies that Hadrian's army at 
the extreme northern end of the Roman empire meant to renew the 
act accomplished by the Macedonian soldiers at the southern limit of 
their conquests. 

Since I sent my note about the twin altars dedicated to Neptune 
and to Oceanus, I have had the opportunity of examining in the 
Cabinet des Medailles de la Bibliotheque Nationale some coins of 

' Hertzberg, Histoire de la Qrice sous la doviinatum romaine, traduite par 
SchUrer, etc., 1886-1890, ii. p. 305, n. 1. — Diirr, Die Beisen des Kaisers Hadrian, 
1881, p. 36 (^Ahluindl. des arch, epigr. Seminars, Wien). — Goyau, Chronologie de 
V empire rofnain, p. 193. 

^Arrian, Indica, 18. — Diodorus Siculus, xvii., 104. — Q. Curtius, ix., 9. — 
Platarch, Alex., Izvi. Arrian's words deserve a special quotation : * He (Alex- 
ander) sacrificed to the gods which he used to serve by inheritance, or which 
were prescribed to him by the oracle, namely, Poseidon (Neptune), Amphitrite, 
the Nereids and even Okeanois himself, and the river Hydaspes, and the river 
Akesines into which flows the Hydaspes, and the Indus into which flow both 
the others. 



138 



ROMAN INSCBIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE: 



Hadrian, with reyenes elacidating admirably these altars. They 
are described in the classical book of Cohen, Description historiqm 
des nionnaies frappeea sous VEmpire rmnainy 2Dd ed., 1880-1890, 
vol. ii.i: — 

Obv. : IMP GAESAK TRAiAN HADBTANVS AVG. Bttst of Hadrian, laureate, 
to right. Bev. : P M tb P cos III. Neptune standing to left, holding a dolphin 
in the right hand and a trident in the left. Gold, (p. 195, no. 1078.) 

Ohv, : Same legend and same bust. Rev, : p M TR P cos lii. Neptune 
standing to right, holding a dolphin in the right hand and a trident in the left, 
leaning his left foot on the prow of a gA]\ej,^Oold. (no. 1080.) 




Obv, : Same legend, same bust. Bev. : p m tr p cos iii. The sea-god 
Oceanus recumbent to left, holding upwards an anchor in his right hand, his 
left arm resting upon a dolphin or sea-monster, his forehead armed with two 
crab's claws. Silver, (p 198, no. 1109-1112.) 

Beside these reverses, showing the very same emblems as figured 
on the altars, viz., the dolphin, the trident, and the anchor, I noticed 
another coin which is in close connexion with the above-mentioned : — 

Obv, : Same legend, same bust. Jiev. : p M tb p cos iii. A river-god 
recumbent to left, holding a tiller in his right hand, his left arm leaning on an 
overturned urn, out of which flows a stream of water. Gold, (p 199, no. 1113.) 



SLAB NAHING THE 2KD, 6TH, AND 20TH LEGIONS. 189 

Oohen believes that this figure represents the river Tiberis ; but 
in consequence of the conformity of its style with the type of Oceanus, 
I am rather inclined to recognise the river-^od Tina (the Tyne). If 
this guess is right, it would lead me to suppose that an altar dedicated 
to this river-god possibly still remains embedded in the estuary of the 
Tyne, and had been erected by Hadrian's sixth legion somewhat with 
the same view as the altars dedicated by Alexander's army to the 
river-god Indus, together with those to Poseidon and to OJceanos. 
However, should Cohen's idea about the river-god Tiberis eventually 
prove to be right, I would of course adopt it ; I would even give it a 
mote precise form by saying that this coin conmiemorates the building 
over the river Tiber of the bridge also called Pons Aelivs (the actual 
Ponte Santo Angela), whose name revived on the Tiberian banks the 
fame of the Britannic Pons Aelim spanning the Tyne*^ 



2. AN INSCRIBED SLAB MENTIONING THE SECOND, SIXTH 

AND TWENTIETH LEGIONS FROM THE RIVER TYNE. 

(a) BY R. OLIVER HESLOP- 

[Kead on the 26th August, 1903.] 

The discovery of an altar dedicated to Oceanus, found on the site 
of the Aelian bridge at Newcastle, was amioimced at our meeting in 
May last. This has been followed by the disinterment, on Thursday 
the 20th August, of another Roman inscribed stone at the same place 
and under similar conditions. We are again indebted to the engineer 
of the Eiver Tyne Commissioners (Mr. James Walker) for the dis- 
covery itself, for the courtesy with which he has allowed the stone to 
be examined, and for the photographs now submitted for your 
inspection. 

The stone before you has been a wall-tablet, inscribed upon a 
slab of sandstone, close grained and of great hardness. It measures 
twenty-six inches long by eighteen and three-quarter inches wide ; 
and in its thinness, of about two inches only, it resembles one of our 
footpath flags. It is, with the exception of a slight crack, in an 

' Spartianus, Hadriani mta, xviii. : fecit et aui nominis pontein, Cf, 
Muiatori, Nov, ihes, veter* insc, vol. iv., p. mmcxxxiv. : Pons Aelivs, 



140 



ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE: 



almost flawless state ; the depth and conditions under which it has 
been buried having been so favourable to its preservation that tool 
marks are yet fresh upon it. Its whole face is covered with a moulded 
and ansated panel, the centre compartment being filled with lettering 
occupying nine lines. The inscription reads : — imp . anton[i]no . 

AVG . PIO . P . PAT . VEXIL[l]AT[i]0 LEG . II . AVG . BT . LEG . 
VI . VIC . ET . LEG . XX . VV . C0N[t]e[i]BVTI . EX . QER . DVOBVS . 

8VB . iVLio . VERO . LEG . AVG . PR . p . Expanded thus : — 

IMP(ERATORI) . ANTONINO . AVG(V8T0) . PIO . P(ATRI) . PAT(RIAB) . 




INSCRIBED SLAB FROM THK TYNB 

(26 ins. by 18f ins.). 

VEXIL[l]aTI0 . LEG(IONIS) . SECVNDAE . AVG(V8TAE) . ET . LEG- 
(lONIS) . SEXTAE . VIC(TRICIS) . ET . LEG(I0NI8) . VICB8IMAE . 
V(ALERIAE) V(ICTRICIS) . C0N[t]r[i]bVTI . EX . GER(MANIIS) . DVO- 
BVS . SVB . IVLIO . VERO . LEG(ATo) . AVG(VSTI) . PR(o)p(RAETORE) . 

As Antoninus Pius became emperor in a.d. 138, and was suc- 
ceeded by Marcus Aurelius in a.d. 161, the date of the Newcastle 
inscription falls presumably within the period of 28 jears thus repre- 
sented. Towards the end of a.d. 139 and in a.d. 140 the Propraetor 
Quintus Lollius Urbicus was engaged in building the Antonine "Wall 



SLAB NAMING THE 2ND, 6TH, AND 20TH LEGIONS. 141 

in Scotland. But the Newcastle stone records the presence of another 
distmguished imperial legate in the person of Julius Verus. Again, 
detachments of the three legions here named were the builders of the 
Antonine Wall. Four of its sections were completed by those of the 
second legion, four sections by those of the sixth legion, and three 
sections of its length, with other connected works, were built by those 
of the twentieth legion. The work done is recorded by each for itself; 
in one instance only, on the Antonine Wall, are any two of the vexiUa- 
tions associated in one inscription. But in the Newcastle inscription 
occurs the remarkable conjunction of all three vexillations. A note 
of Horsley may be quoted in this connexion : — * Excepting the Ger- 
mans,' he says, * we seldom or never have the vexillatio of any but 
legionary soldiers, either in the Roman historians, or any of our 
Roman inscriptions in Britain. — The Germans seem to be spoken of 
as fit for expedition, and are particularly on several occasions famed 
for their swimming. Tacitus tells us that the Roman soldiers being 
loaded with their arms were afraid to swim, but the Germans were 
accustomed to it, and qualified for it by the lightness of their arms 
and the tallness of their bodies.' ' If,' continues Horsley, ' the notion 
of vexillarii and vexillatio^ which I have already endeavoured to estab- 
lish, be right (he had described them as picked men from the legion, 
despatched on special service, as our grenadiers used to be), we may 
hence be furnished with a good reason why there should be vexilla- 
tions of Germans rather than any other auxiliary forces ' {Britannia 
Romana^ p. 298). 

The large force represented by the association of three vexillations, 
and their command by an imperial legate, indicate operations of more 
than ordinary importance. Of their nature and extent our tablet is 
sQent. That it records the execution of work of magnitude, either on 
the Roman bridge itself or in the adjacent stationary camp of pons 
ABLU, may be reasonably presumed. 

The slab has been very generously presented to the Society by the 
Tyne Improvement Commissioners. 



142 EOMAN INSCRIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE : 

(h) BY F. HAVBEFIELD, F.8.A. 

[Read on the 30th September, 1908.] 

In March, 1872^ during the construction of the present Swing- 
bridge, at Newcastle, the remains of the Roman bridge of pons aelii 
(or ABLius) were detected in the Tyne.^ In 1875, during the con- 
tinuation of the same work, a fine altar was discovered bearing the 
brief inscription, nbptuno lb(gio) vi vi(ctrix) p(ia) f(idblis).* 
Twenty-eight years later, in May, 1908, when the north channel of the 
Swing-bridge needed cleansing, the twin of this altar was found, 
bearing an equally brief legend, ociano lbo(io) vi vic(trix) p(ia) 
f(idblts).^ Finally, in August, 190»3, during the same operations, a 
third inscription has been found of greater length and of considerable 
interest. 

The stone which bears this inscription is a plain ansate slab of a 
close-grained sandstone, 26 inches long, 19 inches high, and 2 inches 
thick. It is singularly well preserved and legible throughout. The 
letters resemble in style those of other inscriptions of the same period: 
in height they measure 1 J inches in lines 1,2; If to 1^ inches in 
lines 8-7, and | inch or 1 inch in the last two lines. They look neat, 
but are not really well cut and are not free from errors. Duobus is a 
blunder for duahm — unless some word like exercitihus has been 
omitted — and letters have been overlooked in cutting lines 8 and 8. 
Here the workman seems to have first drawn or painted the letters 
correctly on the stone, but in cutting, vbxill has been carelessly 
reproduced as vex il (x unfinished), and a tied t and i have been 
left out of oontribvti. I have myself examined the stone : it has 
been given by the Tyne Commissioners to the Blackgate collection. 
The text is as follows : — 

IMP. ANTONINO AVO(VSTO) PIG P(ATRI) PAT(RIAB), VBXILLATIO 
LBG(IONIS) II AVGfVSTAE) BT LBG(IONIS) VI VIC(TRIOIS) BT LBO- 
(lONIS) v(ALBRIAB) V(lOTRI(ns), OONTRIBVTI BX GBR(MANII8) DVO- 
BVS, SVB IVLIO VERO LEG. AVG. PR. PR. 

* Bruce, Arch, AeU z. 1 ; Lapidarium, p. 461. 

^ Catalogue of the Blackgate Museum, Ko. 13 ; BpkemtriM, iii. No. 199. 

^ Proceedings^ third series, i. 50. I imagine that Ociane, for Ocoimo^ is simply 
bad spelling : inscriptions give other instances, bine for bene, itiimoriam for 
memoriam, and the like. 



SLAB NAMING THE 2ND, 6TH, AND 20TH LEGIONS. 148 

' In honour of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, erected by a draft of 
the legion ii Augusta and the legion vi Victrix and the legion xx 
Valeria Victrix, levied from the two provinces of Germany, under 
Julius Veru9, governor.' 

The inscription is coached in a common form, such as is often 
used to commemorate a building, though, in accordance with the un- 
imaginative and practical character of Eoman military epigraphy, the 
actual work need not be mentioned.^ In this case, however, the addition 
of the phrase contributi ex Germaniis suggests another reason. The 
men who set up the slab had (as they state) been sent from the Rhine 
to replenish the three legions which garrisoned Britain, and the slab 
records their arrival in our island. Presumably they had come over- 
sea, had sailed up the Tyne, landed at pons ablius, and were about 
to start on their campaigning. A similar voyage, with an inscription 
at the end, is indicated by the two altars found previously, dedicated 
to Neptune and Ocean.^ Such dedications have no meaning at New- 
castle, save as offerings after a voyage over open seas. They must 
commemorate the landing of some draft of the sixth legion, possibly 
that mentioned on our new stone, possibly some other at a different 
date, possibly the first arrival of the legion from Germany, which an 
inscription found in Rome (c. vi. 1549) allows us to date about 
A.D. 125.« 
. The draft is described on the new inscription in unusual terms. 

^It might be the bridge itself, for (so far at least as the name goes) the 
Aelian bridge could date as well from Pius as from Hadrian. 

* By itself the altar to Neptune would not prove this, for JSeptune appears in 
other relations besides those of the sea, and apparently had some connexion 
with bridges (Domaszewski, Wd, Correspondenzhlattt xv. (1896) p. 234). But 
Oceanus is god of the open ocean and that only, and the altars are a pair. 

• One detail suits the age of Hadrian and Pius. That age was marked by a 
Greek literary revival and the dedications of the two altars distinctly betray 
Qreek literary influences. Neptunus as god of the open sea appears chiefly in 
literature, as the result of identification with Poseidon. Oceanus is obviously 
Greek and indeed literary Greek. He occurs commonly in Greek literature, 
from whence he was taken over into Roman literature. But he hardly ever 
occurs on Greek or Roman inscriptions. Coins of Hadrian show him holding 
his anchor (but without his name, Cohen 1109-12) : eastern Colonial coins of 
later emperors show him with his name (Eckhel iii. 390, iv. 39 ; Mionnet, v. 449, 
and suppl. vi. 152). An undated Mithraic monument found at Heddernheim 
shows him with his anchor and his name appended (Cumont, Wd, Zeitschrift^ 
xiii. 94). A little dedication on a bronze plate, found at York, names * Oceanus 
and Tethys* and is in Greek (Ephemeris, iii. p. 312) ; it is unfortunately undat- 
able, but its literary associations are unmistakable and indeed its dedicator, 
Scribonius Demetrius, may have been a Greek himself. 

VOL, XXV. 20 



144 ROMAN INSCEIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE : 

It is called a vexillatio of three legions,^ though nominally a vexillatio 
is confined to one legion, of which it forms a detachment. Probably, 
as prof. Mommsen suggests to me, the draft, though definitely 
designated for the three legions, is treated at the landing place as one 
draft and not yet three. Equally strange is the term contribute to 
which only one parallel seems known — an African inscription 
describing a soldier as oontbibutus ex lbg(ione) hi gallicab (sic) 
IN lbg(ionem) III aug(ustam).* Doubtless it denotes some special 
levy of Germans for service in the British legions. We know that 
during the second century Britain and Germany to some extent 
exchanged recruits for legions and for auxiliary regiments : here we 
seem to have not so much the normal recruits as drafts of special 
reinforcements. 

The date of the inscription may perhaps provide a reason for 
special reinforcements. It belongs obviously to the reign of Pius 
(a.d. 138-161), and that reign, though generally peaceful and prosper- 
ous, was not without its border troubles. In Britain, in particular, 
Lollius Urbicus was engaged in serious warfare about a.d. 142, and 
embodied the lessons of the unrest in the Vallum of Antoninus, 
reaching from Clyde to Forth. Perhaps, however, our new inscrip- 
tion belongs to a later period in the reign of Pius. Julius Verus, who 
appears here for the first time as governor of Britain, is otherwise 
known to us. He governed Syria about a.d. 163-5, and about that 
time received a rescript from the joint Emperors, Marcus and Verus, 
which is quoted in the Digest.^ To this we may now add that he 
governed Britain, and in full accordance with second-century usage, 
governed it before Syria. What interval elapsed between his British 
and Syrian governorships, we do not know. But it can hardly have 
been as much as twenty years, and we may therefore reject the idea 
that he immediately preceded or succeeded Lollius Urbicus in a.d. 
142. We may more reasonably assign him to the later part of the 
reign of Pius, and connect therewith one or two other stray facts. 
First, Julius Verus seems to be mentioned on a fragmentary in- 

'' It does not seem permissible to take vexillatio as an abridgment of vexUla- 
tioneSj arbitrary as the Latin practice of abbreviation is. 

•* C.I.L. viii. 3157, Dessau, 2317 : I owe the reference to Mommsen. 

« CLL. iii. 199, 8174 (?) ; Digest xlviii. 16, 18 ; Prosop. ii. 218. 



SLAB NAMING THE 2ND, 6TH, AND 20TH LEGIONS. 145 

scription found — only a few days after the Tyne inscription — built 
into a Eoman wall in the Eoman fort at Brough near Hope in Derby- 
shire. This inscription records something— possibly the building or 
repair of the fort — executed by the Cohors I, Aquiianorum svb 
ivuo V ...... avg|pr PR, and I think that we may here reasonably 

conjecture Vero, This evidence of military activity under Verus, 
both on the Tyne and in Derbyshire, suggests disquiet among the 
Brigantes rather than campaigns in Caledonia such as those of LoUius 
Urbicus. If we may further identify him with the Julius . . . 
mentioned on a Netherby inscription, nob improbably of this period 
(C. 967, Lapidarium^ 777), we shall be able to trace his activity in 
another corner of the Brigantian territory. 




INSCRIPTION FOUND AT BROUOH, PERBYSHIRE. 



Again, Pausanias alludes (8.43) casually to operations against the 
Brigantes in the reign of Pius. * Pius annexed (says Pausanias) the 
larger part of their territory because they commenced an armed raid 
upon the Genunian region, subject to Rome.' Unfortunately no date is 
given, the Genunian region (t^ Vcvovviav fioipav) is unknown, and the 
position of the Brigantes is not very clearly described. Their terri- 
tory, however, so far as we know, included northern England 



146 ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE: 

from Derbyshire to the neighbourhood of the Tyne and the Solway,^** 
and since the building of Hadrian's WaD most of that district must 
have been within the Roman province. Pausanias, however, speaks of 
the Brigantes as if they were an external tribe raiding across the border 
into Roman land. The truth may be that they had been allowed 
some degree of local autonomy, had now misused it, and lost much of 
their lands in punishment. 

Thirdly, when Marcus succeeded to the Imperial throne, in a.d. 
161, he found unrest existing in Britain. Two or three years later, 
Oalpurnius Agricola restored peace, 'i'his general is mentioned on 
three or four inscriptions,^^ but never north of Hadrian's Wall, and it 
would seem that his operations must have, at any rate, included the 
Brigantian area. These facts seem to indicate a period of unrest 
south of Hadrian's Wall, during the years before and after a.d. 161. 
Perhaps we may append to this some less certain items. It is, at any 
rate, noteworthy that, so far as our faint evidence goes, two other hill 
forts besides Brough, those at Slack and Templeborough, seem to have 
been oc(Jupied near the middle of the second century. It is also note- 
worthy, though I do not know that it has been noted, that the town- 
walls of the Romano-British town isurium (Aldborough) are quite 
reasonably referable to the same epoch. They are built differently 
from the town-walls visible elsewhere in Britain : the style of 
masonry, and in particular the ' diamond-broaching ' of the facing • 
stones, resembles the masonry of the Walls of Hadrian and Pius, and 
might therefore be conjecturally attributed to the second or early 
third century.^^ Isurium lies in the open lowlands of the Vale of 
York. But it is in the Brigantian area : it is not far from the hill- 
country and it might need fortification if the hill-men rose. It may, 
after all, be more than a coincidence that the masonry of its walls 
suits a period when there was unrest near at hand. 

*• Ptolemy : inscriptions to Brigantia at various places between Birrens and 
South Yorkshire (at South Shields for instance. — Ed.) {Archaeological Journal 
xlix. 192) : Coin fiud near Huddersfield {Numismatic Chronicle, xvii. (1897) 
293). Had their territory lain further north, we might connect the passage with 
Lollius Urbicus and his annexation of southern Scotland, but there is no 
evidence of Brigantes in that country. 

" C.LL. vii. 225, 758, 773, and possibly 334, 774. 

'2 The diamond-broaching at ISUBIUM is figured, not very correctly, by H.E. 
Smith, Reliquiae Imrianae (London, 1862), plate viii. Specimens from Barrhill, 
on the Wall of Pius, are figured in the Glasgow Archaeological Society's Antonine 
Wall Report, p. 61. 



TWO STONE COFFINS AND AN UHN FROM OLAVEHING PLACE. 147 

We can now sketch, a little more fully than before, the condition of 
northern Britain about the middle of the second century. A hundred 
years had elapsed since Komans first met Brigantes ; twenty years 
had elapsed since Hadrian built his wall from Tyne to Solway. Yet, 
in A.D. 142, Lollius Urbicus found serious measures needed, and built a 
second wall from Forth to Clyde, not to supersede the old one but to 
supplement it and to sever more effectually the subject south from the 
free north. Still, the south was not crushed. Twenty years later, 
if I am right, when a new generation had grown up, the Brigantes 
rose and their subdual lasted several years. And again, twenty years 
later, we read of fresh revolts, beaten down, not in one year's cam- 
paign, by TJlpius Marcellus (about a.d. 184-5).^^ This is not the end 
of the story, but it is not now my business to follow it.^* Here it is 
enough to have shown that in the most prosperous and successful age 
of the empire, Britain was in part untamed.^*^ Perhaps we may praise 
the Britains for their long fight : I do not know whether we ought to 
blame the Romans. Britain was distant : war in Britain was costly 
and difficult : it seemed best to be inefficient. That is the attitude 
of many great empires. They are too vast for human rulers to. secure 
efficiency in every comer, too vast also for little faults to seem to 
matter. Like the larger animals of the natural world, they are slow 
to see little things and slow to suffer from them. Yet the develop- 
ment of the world is towards the extinction of mammoth and masto- 
don and the increase of the smaller animals. 



3. TWO STONE COFFINS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD, IN ONE OF 
, THEM HUMAN BONES AND AN URN. 
BY FRANK W. RICH. 

[Read on the 28th October, 1908.] 
On the 6th October, while workmen were engaged in excavating 
the site for a new warehouse in Clavering place, for Messrs. E. 

" On UlpiuB see Arch. Ael. xix., 1 79. It would be simpler, I now think, to 
refer C.1.L, vii., 604, and the Chesters stone, to the joint rule of Marcus and 
Commodus, rather than (with Hiibner) to the joint rule of Marcus and Verus. 

" Brough fort was obviously rebuilt at some time later than Pius. Other 
Derbyshire and Yorkshire forts were occupied in the third century, beside those 
on the (<reat main roads to the Wall. 

** Britain was not the only case. Witness, for example, the life of such a 
man as Julius Yehilius Gratus. 



148 ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS, ETC., AT NEWCASTLE: 

Robinson & Co., Ltd., they laid bare a stone coflBn, lying nearly north 
and south, at a depth of 8 feet 8 inches below the present surface of 
the street, the subsoil being nearly all of solid clay. 

When found, it was complete with coped lid in position, but when 
the matter was reported to me the lid had been removed, and the 
contents of the coflSn had been interfered with. The coflSn appears 
to be of the ordinary sandstone of the district, the outside measure- 
ments being : length 4 feet, width 2 feet 1^ inches, and depth 
1 foot 2 inches. The thickness of the sides and ends is from 
8j^ inches to 4 inches, so that the internal dimensions are about 
3 feet 4 inches long by 1 foot 4 inches wide. This would point to 
the fact that, presuming the body was buried entire, it was the inter- 
ment of a young person. The coped lid is about 11 inches thick at 
one end and 9 inches at the other ; the apex is not quite central, nor 
are the two edges quite the same thickness, but this may be owing to 
indifferent masonry. The lid is also hollowed on the underside. 
There are four square dowel holes, one at each corner of the coffin, 
and corresponding ones in the lid. In some of the dowel holes, lead, 
in a molten state, has been run in. 

A very fine um of characteristic Roman pottery and design, with 
slip ornament in relief, and measuring 4 J inches high and 8 J inches 
in greatest diameter, the base being 1^ inches in diameter, and the 
mouth or neck If inches, was found at what appeared to be the foot of 
the coffin, but as far as I could learn, the vessel when found was 
empty. Strewn on the bottom of the coffin were some bones of a 
skull, and what appeared to be ribs, but none of the bones of the legs, 
arms, or vertebrae. Some small remnants of charcoal were found at 
the foot of the coffin. 

A few days afterwards, another stone coffin was laid bare, adjacent 
to the former coffin, but of much ruder masonry, but it was quite 
empty. It is made of rough stone about 3 feet 9 inches long, and 
about 2 feet wide in its widest part, with a cavity about 2 feet 5 inches 
long 10 inches at the wide end, and 9 inches wide at the narrow end, 
the cavity being about 6^ inches deep. This was covered with a 
plain rough stone lid. 

The plate shews the first coffin discovered and the little vase that 
was in it, both from photographs by Messrs. Thompson & Lee of 




o 
o 



z £ 

o 




Q « 

p ^ 



f 
s 



TWO STONE COFFINS AND AN URN FROM CLAVERING PLACE. 149 

Newcastle. The plan annexed shews the exact J)osition of the coffin 
when found. 




PLAN SHOWINQ WHERE THE COFFIN WAS FOUND. 



I have the honour of presenting on behalf of Messrs. Robinson & 
Co., Ltd., the two coffins and urn to this Society, for the Blackgate 
museum. 



150 



IX.— THE SOURCES OP TESTA DE NEVILL. 

By J. 0. Hodgson, P.SA., V.P. 

[Read on the 29fch July, 1908.] 

The great value of the medieval feodary known as Testa de Nevill ^ 
is well known. It was printed in 1807 by the Record Commission 
from a transcript then preserved in the King's Remembrancer's 
office, and those portions of the record which relate to Northumber- 
land were printed or reprinted in 1820 by the Rev. John Hodgson 
in the first volume of the third part of his History of Northumberland. 
My attention was recently directly by Mr. Dendy to a statement 
in the new History of Cumherlathd where the editor of that work 
explains that, although for the sake of convenience he had retained 
the familiar name of Testa de Nevill, the translation offered to his 
readers had been made not from the printed volume but from the 
* recently discovered original certificates, officially known as Knights* 
Fees ^ m. 1, m. 2 . . . the first membrane [of which] contains the 
roll of King's wards, and the second is the return of the sheriff's 
inquest of 12 12.' 2 

On causing enquiries to be made at the Public Record Office I 
was informed that not all the original returns of Testa de Nevill 
are to be found, but only a comparatively small part of the whole 
is forthcoming. They were written on membranes of various sizes 
and were then copied into two volumes in which the entries relating 
to the same county were collected together. This register forms the 
text printed by the Record Commission. 

* Various theories have been put forth and many suggestions have been 
made as to the etymology of the title. Mr. Hubert Hall in a weU reasoned 
article in the Atherusum^ Sept. 10, 1898, writes that we should perhaps ' regard 
the famous " testa " as a corrupt rendering of cista, one of those large *' arks " 
or record chests which were undoubtedly placed in the receipt of the Exchequer 
during this period and which, we know, contained a variety of smaller boxes 
and bags enclosing particular accounts.' He also shows ' that the official who 
had care of documents of this nature at the Exchequer was the marshal, and 
we find that John de Nevill was the clerk, or deputy of Roger le Bigcnl 
hereditary marshal at the Exchequer from the thirty-first year of Henry III. 
until, apparently, the tenth year of Edward I.' 

^ A History of Cumderland^ vol. i. p. 419 (Victoria Histories). 



THE SOUROES OF TESTA DE NEVILL. 151 

With the original inquisitions which are dated 14 John (1212) 
are documents of a later period but without date. They were discovered 
not less than 70 years ago as is proved by a note on one of them 
dated 12 May, 1835, to the effect that the pages of the printed book 
had at that date been noted on the returns. Lately, the various 
documents relating to knights* fees have been calendared, and 
among them are these returns which have thus been made more 
accessible. 

So many of the original certificates relating to Northumberland 
as can be found have been transcribed by Miss M. T. Martin and are 
now printed for the first time. Of the eight certificates it will be seen 
that all, except the first, contain an approximate if not an exact date. 
The second is endorsed with the treasurer's receipt of the roll of 14 
John ; the third is headed 3 Henry III. ; the fourth is endorsed with 
year 11, evidently of Henry III. as the king's grandfather, Henry, is 
mentioned in the document ; the fifth, sixth and seventh are con- 
cerned with the aid for the marriage of Henry III.'s sister, who mar- 
ried in 1235 (the sixth has a reference to 1237) ; and the eighth is 
headed 26 [Henry III.]. This only leaves the first return without 
an approximate date, and it is certainly not later than Henry III., if 
it does not belong to the reign of John. 

L Exchequer Q.B. Knights' Fees |. 

Veredictum hominam de Norhamsyr' et Blandesir*. m. i. 

BogeruB de Andrei' tenet medietatem uille de Anecroft et 
medietatem de Felkindon' et medietatem de Aluereden et facit inde 
aeraicium dimidii militis. Se altero. 

Ingeramns de Hnlecot' tenet alteram medietatem de Anecroft 

et de Felkindon' et de Alneredene et facit inde seruicium dimidii 

militis. Yeniat solus. 

Domina Matilda de Mascamp* tenet uillam de Rosse in dote et Memoran- 

dum 
facit inde semiciam dimidii militis. 

Willelmns de Etona^ tenet Hetonam et facit inde seruicium dimidii 
militis. Veniat solus. 

Jordanus Bidel tenet TiUemue et facit inde seruicium dimidii 
militis. Veniat et fiat miles. 

Willelmns de Comehale tenet uiUam de Ck)rnehale libere in Finis zmarae 
escambio pro Homeclif et reddit inde per annum zyiij marcas. 
Dab[it].- 

' Cf, Hodgson, III. i. 201 . * Ihid,, III. i, 202. * Sic, 

yoi^ x^v, 21 



152 



THE SOUBCBS OF TESTA DB NBVILL. 



xlsolidi 



iij marc*. 



Ij marce 



CBoUdi 



Thomas de Tvisele tenet uillftm de Tvisele et uillam de Audehou 
libere et reddit inde per annum zx marcas. 

Bustacius de Neubig' tenet uillam de Neubiging libere et reddit 
inde per annum xl solidos. 

Costancius de Grandon' tenet iij carncatas terre in uilla de 
Grandon' libere et reddit inde per annum iiij marcas. 

Adam de Thornetona tenet uillam de Thornetona in drengagio et 
reddit inde per annum iij marcas et facit operaciones, dominicis de 
Norham. 

Willelmus Mascnlus tenet uillam de Hupsetligton' et uillam de 
Tvedemue in socagio et reddit inde per annum c solidos. 

Henricus de Orde tenet uillam de Orde in libero seruicio et reddit 
per annum xx marcas. 

Johannes de Braf ertona tenet terciam partem uille de Scremestun 
et dimidiam carucatam terre libere et reddit inde per annum xxy solidos. 

Willelmus filius Roberti de Scremestun tenet terciam partem 
uille de Scremestun libere et reddit inde per annum xx solidos. 

Bobertus filius Ade de Scremestun tenet in uilla de Scremestun ij 
carucatas terre et dimidiam libere et reddit per annum xv solidos. 

Patricius de Chesewic tenet iij»" partem uille de Ohesewic libere 
in socagio et reddit per annum xxxiij*. 

Johannes de Hagardestun tenuit iij**" partem uille de Chesewic in 
socagio et reddit inde per annum xxxiij solidos iiij**. Johannes 
mortuns est terra est in manu domini Regis. 

Willelmus filius Ade de Chesewic tenet terciam partem de 
Chesewic libere et reddit per annum xxxiiij" vj«*. 

Gilebertus de Rehil tenet medietatem uille de Rehil libere et 
reddit per annum ij marcas. 

Adam de Rehil tenet medietatem de Rehil in drengagio et reddit 
per annum xx solidos et facit operaciones in dominicis de Fenwic. 

Item Adam de Behil tenet terciam partem de Gosewic in drengagio 
et reddit per annum xiiij solidos vj**. et facit operaciones in dominicis 
de Fenwic. 

Henricus de Gosewic' tenet terciam partem de Gtosewic in drengagio 
et reddit per annum xiiij*. t^. et facit operaciones apnd Fenwic. 

Patricius de Gosewic tenet terciam partem de Gosewic in drengagio 
et reddit inde per annum xiiij" t^. et facit operaciones apud Fenwic. 

Johannes de Hagardestun tenuit uillam de Hagardestun libere et 
reddit inde per annum c solidos Johannes mortuus est terra est in 
manu domini Regis, 
arce Eustacius de Eylei tenet uillam de Kylei et uillam de Berigdon* et 

uillam de Loulinne in thanagio et reddit inde per annum ix marcas 
et facit operaciones que pertinent ei apud Fenwic, 

• CI Hodgson, III. i. 203, 



iij marce 



iij marce 



CBolidi 



XV marce 
pro . . . adra 
rel' 



csoUdi 



ij marce 



iij marce 



THE SOUECES OP TESTA DB NEVILL. 153 

Adam de Buketun tenet in Buketun j caracatam terre et dimidiam »» 
in drengagio et reddit per annum xij solidos et facit operaciones suas 
apnd Fenwic. 

Bndo de Butemunt tenet molendinum de Tvedemne de dono vmaroe 
Episcopi Philippi et reddit per annum iiij marcas. nbi Episcopus » 

non solebat habere nisi iij marcas. 

[Endorsed :] In libro. In Comitatu Norhumbrie. 

IL Comitatus Norhumberlandie. m. 5. 

Inquisitio facta de tenementis et feodis que tenentur in capite de Domino 
Eege que sunt data rel alienata a capitali seruitio^ domini Regis. 

Comes Patricius tenet Baroniam de Beneleya per seruitium quod sit inborhe et 
hatborhe inter Regiones Anglie et Scocie. Et preterea tenet iij'^ uillas in then- 
agio pro quibus reddit per annum domino Regi xxx^ solidos et per eadem 
semitia tenuerunt omnes antecessores eius post tempus antiqui Regis H. qui eos 
feofbuit, et de feffamento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per marritagium, 
Tel elemosinam, yel aliquo alio modo ynde dominus Rex minus habeat de sernitio 

800. 

Robertas de Muscampis tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de WuUoner" 
per seruitium iiij**' militum. Et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem 
seruitium post tempus domini primi Regis H. qui eos feoftauit, et de feftamento 
isto nihil alienatum est, vel datum per marritagium, yel elemosinam, vel aliquo 
alio modo vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de serultio suo. 

Robertas de Ros tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Werke** per 
seraitiam ij militum, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seruitium 
post tempos domini primi Regis H. qui eos feofEauit, et de fefEamento isto nihil 
alienatum est yel datum per marritagium vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio 
modo Tnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Eustachius de Vesci tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Alnewic'* 
per seruitium xij militum. Et preterea tenet Bodle et Spinlestan, scilicet dnas 
oillas, et molendinum de Warnet, quas dominus Rex H. primus dedit Eustachio 
filio Johannis antecessori ipsius Bustachii ad incrementum seruitii sui, et omnes 
antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seruitium, et de feffamento isto nihil alien- 
atum est yel datum per marritagium, yel elemosinam, yel aliquo alio modo ynde 
dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Robertus filius Rogeri tenet in capite de domino Rege manerium de Wercwrth,'* 
cum pertinenciis per seruitium j militis, et Rogerus filius Ricardi pater eius tenuit 
per idem seruitium post tempus domini Regis H. patris domini Regis qui pre- 
dictum manerium ei dedit cum pertinenciis, et feoffauit, et de feffamento isto 
nihil alienatum est yel datum per marritagium, yel elemosinam, yel aliquo alio 
modo yn(ie dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

' or. Hodgson III. i. p. 213. « Ihld. p. 210. 

*Ihid. p. 211. '• IbU, p. 209. " dhid, p. 204. 



154 THE SOUR0J8S OP TESTA DE NBVILL. 

Idem Robertas filius Rogeri tenet Baroniam de Waltona*^ in capite de domino 
Kege per seruitium iij militum, quam dominus Bex J. ei dedit, et carta sua con- 
firmauit, et de tenemento isto nihil alienatum est, vel datum per marritaginm, 
vel elemosinam. vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de 
seruitio suo. 

Idem Robertus filius Rogeri tenet in capite de domino Rege manerium de 
Robire" cum pertinenciis, per seruitium j militis, quod dominus Rex J. ei dedit, et 
carta sua confirmauit, et de manerio isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per mar- 
ritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habe«t 
de seruitio suo. 

Idem Robertus filius Rogeri tenet in capite de domino Rege manerium de 
Neuburne*^ cum pertinenciis, et cum seruitio Roberti de Throckelaue, et heredum 
suorum per seruitium j militis, quod dominus Rex J. ei dedit, et carta sua con- 
firmauit, et de manerio isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per marritagium, vel 
elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio 
suo, et reddit domino Regi per annum xl". 

Idem Robertus filius Rogeri tenet in capite de domino Rege villam de Core- 
brige cum pertinenciis ad feodam firmam, quam dominus Rex J. ei dedic ad 
firmam, et carta sua confirmauit, reddendo annuatim ad Scaccarium xxx libras 
de veteri firma, et x libras de incremento per annum. 

Hugo de Baillol tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Biwelle" cum 
pertinenciis per seruitium Vi"" militum. Et inde debet ad wardam Noui castelli 
super Tynam xxx milites. Omnes uero antecessores sni tenuerunt per eadem 
seruitia post tempus domini Regis Willelmi ruffi qui eos feofbuit, et de 
feffamento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, 
vel aliquo alio modo vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Ricardus de Ymfrauiir tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Prudehou^*^ 
per seruitium ij militum et dimidii. Omnes uero antecessores sui tenuerunt per 
idem seruitium post tempus primi Regis H. Idem Ricardis tenet uillam de 
parua Rihill', reddendo domino Regi per annum xx solidos, et antecessores sui 
similiter cam tenuerunt post tempus prefati Regis H. primi qui eos feoffauit, et 
de fefEamento isto nihil alienatum est^ vel datum per marritagium, vel elemo- 
sinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Idem Ricardus tenet vallem de Redesdale per seruitium vt custodiat uallem 
a latronibus, de antiquo feffamento. 

Rogerus de Merlaco tenet in capite de Domino Rege Baroniam de Morpathe'^ 
per seruitium iiij**' militum et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seru- 
itium post conquestum Anglie, et de feffamento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum 
per marritagium vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus 
habeat de seruitio suo. 

Rogerus Bertram tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Midford** per 

•« Of, Hodgson III. i. p. 204. " Ibid, '* Ihid, 

'* Ihid. p. 212. »« Hid, p. 206. " lUd, p. 208. " IHd, p. 207. 



THB SOURCES OF TESTA DE NEVILL. 166 

6eniitiam yi°<> militnm, et otnnes antecessores sai tenner unt per idem semitinm 
poet conqnestum Anglie, et de tenemento iato nihil alienatnm est yel datum per 
marritaginm, vel elemosinam vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominns Rex minus 
habeat de semitio suo. 

Hugo de Bolebec tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Stiphord'^ per 
semitinm V^^' militnm, et omnes antecessores sni tenuerunt per idem semitinm 
port tempus primi Regis H. qui eosfeofEauit,et de feffamento isto nihil alienatnm 
est, vel datum per marritaginm, vel elemoeinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde 
dominns Rex minus habeat de semitio suo. 

Johannes et Jacobus de Calce tenent in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de 
Bobm,^ cum filiabns Walteri filii Gilleberti de dono domini Regis I. per semitinm 
iij fflilitnm, et onmes antecessores predictaram dominamm tenuerunt per idem 
seraitinm post conqnestum Anglic, et de tenemento isto nihil datum est, vel 
alienatnm per marritaginm, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus 
£ex minus habeat de seraito suo. 

Johannes yic(ecomes) tenet in capite de Domino Rege Baroniam de Bmeles- 
dona*' per semitinm iij militum, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerant per idem 
seraitinm de dono domini Regis H. primi qui eos feofiEauit. Et preterea idem 
Johannes VicCecomes) tenet vj bonatas terre in Burgo de Banbnrg, reddendo 
per annum vij solidos ad firmam Burgi quas dominus Rex H. pater domini 
Regis I. dedit Johanni filio Odardi antecessor! prefati Johannis, et de f efEamento 
isto nihil alienatnm est vel datum, per marritaginm, vel elemosinam, vel 
aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de semitio suo. 

Gillebertus de Laual tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam de Caluerdona'-" 
cam pertinenciis per semitinm ij militum, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt 
per idem semitinm post conqnestum Anglie, et de tenemento isto nihil alienatnm 
est, vel datum per marritaginm vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde 
dominus Rex minus habeat de semitio suo. 

Robertus Bertram tenuit in capite de Domino Rege Baroniam de Botbale''^ 
per semitinm iij militum et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem sernitium 
de antique feflamento, et de fefEamento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per 
marritaginm, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus 
habeat de semitio suo. Robertus nunc mortuus est, et terra sua cum Ricanlo 
herede suo est in manu domini Regis. 

Adam de Tindale tenet in capite de domino Rege Baroniam dc Langeleya'''^ per 
semitinm j militis et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seruitium post 
tempus domini Regis secundi H. de feffamento suo qui feffauit illos, et de feffa- 
mento isto nihil alienatum est, vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel 
aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de semitio suo. 

Jordanus Hayrun tenet Baroniam^ suam in capite dc Domino Rege per seru- 
itium j militis, et omnes antecessores sui tenuemnt per idem seruitium post 

»• Of. Hodgson III. i. p. 204. '^« Ibid. p. 205. " Ibid, p. 209. 

« Ibid, « Ibid. p. 208. -* Ibid. p. 284. ^* Ibid. p. 203. 



166 THE SOUBCBS OF TESTA DB NBVILL. 

tempus primi Regis H. qui eos feoffauit, et de feffamento isto nihil alienatam 
est vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliqao alio modo ynde 
dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Hugo de Morwic tenet in capite de domino Rege villam de Chiuingtona" per 
seruitium j militis, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt predictam uillam per 
idem seruitium post conquestum Anglie, et de tenemento isto nihil alienatam 
est, vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, yel aliquo alio modo, ynde 
dominns Bex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Thomas de Diueleston' tenuit in capite de Domino Rege villam de Diueleston'*' 
per seruitium tercie partis j militis, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per 
idem seruitium post conquestum, et de tenemento isto nihil alienatam est vel 
datum per marritagium vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex 
minus habeat de seruitio suo. Idem Thomas nunc mortuus est, et terra sna cum 
herede suo est in custodia Roberti filii Rogeri, per commissionem domini Regis 
quamdiu placuerit domino Regi. 

Radulfus de Caugi tenet in capite de domino Regd Baroniam de Ihesemue^ 
per seruitium iij militum, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt predictam 
Baroniam per idem seruitium post tempus primi Regis H. qui illos feoff anit, et de 
tenemento isto nihil alienatum est, vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, 
vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Ricardus Surtayse tenet in capite de domino Rege uillam de Goseford* per 
seruitium duarum partium j militis, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt pre- 
dictam uillam per idem seruitium post tempus primi Regis H. qui illos feofiauit, 
et de tenemento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per marritagium, vel elemo- 
sinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Alexander de Bradef ord' tenet in capite de Domino Rege villam de Bradeford'*" 
cum pertinenciis, per seruitium j militis, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt 
predictam uillam per predictam seruitium post tempus primi Regis H. qui 
feoffault Auenellum de Bradeford antecessorum ipsius Alexandri et de pre- 
. fata uilla nihil alienatum est, vel datum, per marritagium, vel elemosinam vel 
aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Rogerus filius Radulfi'' tenet vnam villam et dimidiam in capite de domino 
Rege, per seruitium j militis, quas antecessores sui tenuerunt per sergantariam 
de forestaria, et dominus Bex I. remouit de sergantaria ad feodum j militem 
tempore Badulfi patris ipsius Rogeri, et de tenemento isto nihil alienatum est vel 
datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo vnde dominus Rex 
minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Yuo Tailleboys tenet in capite de domino Rega Baroniam de Hephale cam 
vxore que fuit Willelmi Bardolf, quam ha bet de dono domini Regis I., et omnes 
antecessores predicte domine tenuerunt illam Baroniam in thenagio, et reddi- 
derunt per annum domino Regi 1 solidos. Dominus uero Rex I. remouit iUud 

«• Cf, Hodgson III. i. 206. " lUd. p. 214. » j^^^ ^ gOB. 

^ lUA. p. 212. "• Ihid, p. 206. '» Vnd. p. 211. 



THE SOURCES OF TESTA DB NEVILL. 157 

thenagiam tempc^re Willelmi Bardolf ad feodum j militis, et de tenemento isto 
nihil alienatum est vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio 
modo vnde dominus Rex minus )iabeat de seruitio suo. 

Michael filius Michaelis et Willelmus Bataille et Robertus de Glentedun qui 
habent sorores heredes Willelmi de Flammauill* et Matilda quarta soror ipsius 
Willelmi de FlammauilP tenent in capite de domino Rege medietatem ville de 
Witingham cum pertinenciis per seruitium vnius speruari sori per annum, et 
aliam medietatem in drengagio pro xl". per annum soluendis domino Regi. 

Dominus H. Dunelmensis episcopus et dominus Philippus Dunelmensis epis- 
oopns successor eius tenuerant wapentagium de Sarberge de dono domini Regis 
Bicardi de dominico suo de corpore comitatus Norhiunbric. 

Dominus Rex Scocie tenet in capite de domino Rege x libratas terre in Tin- 
dale de dono domini Regis H. de dominico suo de corpore comitatus Nor- 
iiQmbrie. 

Philippus de Vlkotes'^ tenet terram que fuit Sewalli filii Henrici, quam terram 
predictus Sewallus tenuit per sergentariam vt custodiret placita corone. Pref ata 
nero terra committitur eidem Philippe custodienda per breue domini Regis 
quamdiu placuerit domino Regi. 

Nicholaus de Biker'' tenet in capite de domino Rege duas partes vnius uille 
per seruitium sergentarie vt f aciat distri(^tiones pro wardis Noui castelli super 
Tjnam, et similiter pro debitis domini Regis inter Tynam et Coket, et yt portet 
breoia domini Regis inter Tynam et Coket, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt 
per idem seruitium de antique f effamento. De predicto fe£Eamento nihil alien- 
•tnm est, vel datum per marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, 
Tnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Willelmus filius Odonis'^ tenet in capite de domino Rege vnam carucatam 
terre cum pertinenciis in Banburg per seruitium sergentarie vt faciat dis- 
trictiones pro debitis domini Regis, et ut portet breuia domini Regis inter 
Tnedam et Coket, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seruitium post 
tempus Willelmi Regis ruifi, et de tenemento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum 
mde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Robertus Janitor de Banburg'^ tenet in capite de domino Rege dimidiam 
carucatam terre in Burgo de Banburg per seruitium iij" viij^ per annum, et 
antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seruitium post conquestum Anglic, et de 
tenemento isto nihil alienatum est, vel datam per marritagium, vel elemosinam, 
vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

G^alfridas Faber tenet in capite de domino Rege dimidiam carucatam terre 
in burgo de Banburg per seruitium sergentarie, scilicet fabricare ferramenta 
de caracis castelli de Banburg, et omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem 
aernitium de antique feflEamento, et de isto feffamento, nihil alienatum est vel 
datum, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

" Cf, Hodgson III. i. 222. " Ihid, p. 224. 

^ jm. p. 223. ^ Jbid, p. 236. 



158 THE SOUROBS OP TESTA DB NBVILL. 

Thomas de Warnetham*' tenet in capite de domino Rege voam carucatam 
terre in Burgo de Banburg per seruitium xx solidorum per annum, quam 
antecessores sui tcnuerant per idem seruitiam de dono domini H. Regis patris 
domini Regis I. et de tenemento isto nihil alienatam est vel datum per 
marritagiam, vel elemosinam, vnde dominus Rex minus habeat de seruitio sue. 

Gillebertus de Hauil?'^ tenet in capite de domino Rege vnam villam per 
seruitium serganteiie de falconaria de terra ilia nihil alienatam est, vel datum 
per marritagium, vel elemoeinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Bex 
minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Gillebertus de Calueleya'* tenet in capite de Domino Rege ij nillas per 
seruitium xxx" per annum, et per thenagium per quod debet dare merchetum, 
et auxilium, et qualibet, altera die a clause pentecostes vsque ad yincula Sancti 
Petri inueniet vnam carectam cum vno trunco ad castellum de Banburg, et 
illuc debet cariare, et interim nullum aliud seruicium faciet, et debet sectam 
comitatus. Omnes uero antecessores sui tennernnt prefatas uillas post tempus 
Regis Willelmi Bastardi, et de tenemento illo nihil alienatum est vel datum 
per marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Bex 
minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Willelmus de Hawelton* tenet iij uillas in thenagio de domino Rege per 
seruitium xl* per annum, et dabit merchetum, et auxilia, et faciet omnes con- 
suetudines spectantes ad thenagium. Omnes uero antecessores sui fecerunt 
predicta seruitia, de tenemento isto nihil alienatum est vel datum per 
marritagium, vel elemosinam, vel aliquo alio modo, vnde dominus Rex minus 
habeat de seruitio suo. 

Alanus de Eslington'" tenet vnam uillam de Domino Rege in drengagium 
per seruitium xls. per annum, et dabit merchetum, et auxilia, et cariabit 
truncas ad castellum de Banburg, et faciet consuetudines spectantes ad dren- 
gagium de predicta villa nihil alienatum est, vel datum, per quod dominus 
Rex minus habeat de seruitio suo. 

Stephanus de Mulesfen^ tenet vnam uillam de domino Rege in drengagio per 
seruitium xxx* per annum, et arabit cum caruca sua vno die in quadragesima 
ad cibum domini Regis, et metet in autumpno per iij dies, quolibet die cum xij 
hominibus ad cibum domini Regis et carriabit truncas ad Castellum de Banburg, 
et dabit merchetum, et auxilia, et pannagium de porcis suis, et ibit cum 
seruientibus domini Regis pro namis capiendis, et pro debitis domini B^:is. 
Omnes antecessores sui tenuerunt per idem seruitium de antiquo feffamento, et 
de feodo isto nihil alienatum est vel datum, vnde dominus Bex minus habeat 
seruitium suum. 

Thomas de Bedinhale^' tenet vnam uillam de domino Rege in drengagio per 
seruitiam xx" per annum, et arabit cum caruca sua per j diem ad cibum 
domini Regis, et metet in autumpno per iij dies, quolibet die cum viij^ 



Cf. Hodgson IIL i. 223. »' mi, p. 236. " IhiA, p. 223. 

lUd, ^ IbU. p. 224, " TxU. p. 223, 






THE SOURCES OF TESTA DE NBVILL. 159 

hoMinibus ad cibam domini Regis, et cariabit truncas ad Castellum de 
Banburg, et dabit merchetum, et auzilia, et pannagium, et ibit cum seruienti- 
bus ad nama capienda pro debitis domini Regis. Omnes aero antecessores sui 
tenaerunt per eadem seruitia de antiqao feffamento, et de feodo isto nihil 
alienatum est vel datum, ynde dominus Rex minus habeat seruitium suum. 

Inquisitio infra Burgum Noui castelli.*' 
Burgenses Noui castelli dicunt quod infra Burgum nullum est tenementum 
qaod sit datum vel alienatum a domino Rege vel a seraitio suo excepto redditu 
liij<^ marcarum de quadam terra quam Dominus Rex Ricardus dedit Sewallo 
filio Henrici, et post obitum ipsius Sewalli Dominus Rex I. eandem terram 
cooimisit Philippo de Vlkotes quamdiu placuerit domino Regi. 

[On dorse :] Norhumberlaundia. In libro. De Testa de Neuill. 
Continet viij pecias. 

[On dorse : at other end of membrane :] Hunc Rotulum recepit 

Thesanrarius per manum Domini R. de Mariscis die Dominica 

proxima post festum Sancti Petri ad Vincula anno Regni Regis 

T .... [Augusts, 

I. XIUJ. 1212.] 

III. Norhumberlandia. 

De valletis et puellis.** m. 6. 

Matilda de Flanuiir est de donacione Domini Regis. Michaell de Northkoket 
Byhyll habet custodiam de ea per Robertum filium Rogeri. 

Willelmus de Kaluele valletus est et pheyn et debet esse in 
cnstodia Domini Regis. Rogerus de Hoddesagg' habet custodian terre 
sue, nescitur quo waranto. 

Margeria de Vescy est de donacione domini Regis et est maritanda Je 
terre sua yalet xx libras. 

Cristiana de Kaluesle maritata est Kogero de Hoddesagr' per 
Pbilippum de Vlecotes. 

Elizabet Tayllebois maritata est Nicholao de Farindon', nescitur 
quo waranto. 

Willelmus Alius Odonis tenet vnam carucatam terre in Banburg', "^ seriantiia 
terra eius valet xx solidos. 

Ckiufridns Faber de eadem tenet dimidiam carucatam terre pro 
ferris Domini Regis de Banbnrg f abricandis. 

Robertas Taylleboys debet esse in custodia domini Regis et mater 

eius tenet terram suam et finem fecit pro custodia sua habenda. 

Simon de Diueston' debet esse in custodia Domini Regis. Suthkokot 

DevAlletis 
StephanuB de Segraue habet custodiam nescitur per quem, terra eius 

valet XX libras. 

" Of, Hodgson III. i. 237. " Ibid, p. 228. 



yoi..xxy. 



22 



160 THE SOURCES OF TESTA DE NBVILL. 

^ . . Agaes de Diueston' est de donacione domini Regis et est maritata 

Roberto de Meyneuiir per J. Regem, terra eius valet c solidos. 

Matilda de Clauerwrth vidua est et est de donacione Domini 
Regis terra eius valet xl solidos. 

Emma de Aydene est de donacione domini Regis et maritata est 
Petro de Vallibtis per 1. Regem, terra eius valet xv libras. 

Alina et Aleysia filie predicte Bmme maritate sunt Jakobo de 
Kauz et Johanni de Kauz per I. Regem, terre earum valent xl libras. 
Aleys Bertram est de donacione etc. et est maritata Rogero filio 
Walter! per I. Regem, terra eius valet xx libras. 

Alicia de Morewic est de donacione etc. et maritata est Rogero 
Golafre, nescitur quo waranto terra eius valet x libras. 

Mabilia de Olere est de donacione etc. et vidua est, terra eius valet 
XV libras. 

Margareta de Milleburn' est de donacione etc. terra eius valet ij 
marcas. Vidua est. 

Sorores Philippi de Vlkotes sunt de donacione etc. et maritate 
fuerunt ante mortem ipsius Philippi terre earum valent xx libras. 
De seriantiia Nicholaus de Biker" tenet c solidatas terre per seriantiam scilicet 
per seruicium ferendi breuia Domini Regis inter Tjnam et Koket et 
faciendi districtionem de warda Noui castri. 
Ban burg' Thomas de Warnetham" tenet j carucatum terre in Banburg' per 

I. Regem per seruicium xx solidorum per annum. 
Burgus de Nouo castro. 
De eccieoiis Ecclesia de Nouo castro^ est de donacione domini Regis et Gnl- 

bertus de Lascj eam tenet per Willelmum de Lungechamp* qui luit 
Justiciarius domini Regis. 
De Esohaetis Dominus Rex habuit in villa de Nouo castro^' c et x solidos et vj 
f denarios redditus quos dedit Burgensibus eiusdem ville pro terris 

suis quas amiserunt per f ossatum domini regis et preterea de domo 
Willelmi monetarii x solidos et de alia domo eiusdem Willelmi xl 
f in R' denarios et iste duo domus inciderunt in manum domini Regis H. 

f aui domini Regis pro debito quod Erkenbaldus monetarius ei debnit 

et dicitur quod vna domus quam Thomas de Karleolo mode tenet 
que prius non valuit nisi x solidos modo valet xx solidos et alia 
R. domus que non valuit nisi x* modo valet xl solidos. Et dicitur quod 

quidam Hugo Beneyt pater duorum puerorum qui sunt infra etatem 
obiit seysitus de predicta domo et quod Willelmus filius Benedicti 
pater Ipsius Hugonis habuit ingressum in domo ilia per priorem de 
Finkale cui Henricus de Puteaco qui tunc fuit vicecomes Norhumbne 
terram illam dedit et Henricus habuit ingressum in domo ilia per 
Loquendum Willelmom filium Willelmi monetarii qui illam ei vendidit. 

" Cf. Hodgson 111. i. 229. ** Ihid. p. 230. *« Ibid, " Ibid. 



THE SOURCES OF TESTA DE NBVILL. 161 

Item de domo Thorphini^' yiij<> de quibus Alicia que fait yxor ^ij<^ 
Wilielmi respondet. 

De terra Gilberti Marescalli ** iij^ ynde parochiani Sancti Andree **J*^ 
respondent. 

Item de domo Walteri tinctoris** vj** vnde Hawis vxor dicti ^J** 
Walteri respondet. 

Item de domo Wilielmi filii Hugonis*' ij** vnde idem Willelmus yj 
respondet. 

[On dorse: — ] Norhumberlandia. Escheete per manum W. de 
Sbor' die veneris ante Ascensionem Domini anno Regni xj**. 

Northumberlandia de Bscheatis ♦ [May 14,1227.] 

In libro. 
Michael filius Michaelis. 

* Illegible. 

IV. Exchequer, Q.R. Knight's Fees, ^. m. 3 

Yeredicta de Comitatu Norhumberlandia de eisdem [i.e. de valettis et puellis ^^ 
qae esse debent de custodia domini Regis et de eschaetis et huiusmodi] et 
coram eisdem Justiciariis [i,e. in itinere domini R. Dunelmensis Episcopi et 
aodoram suomm] ad eundem terminum [i.e. Anno Regni Regis Henrici filii 
Regis Johannis tercio.] 

Philippus de Ylecot' tenet manerium de Diuelsunt' quod est in custodia 
domini Regis et ualet per annum xx^ libras. 

Alicia de Stuteuill* est de donatione domini Regis et non est maritata, terra 
eias ualet xl libras. 

Alicia de Merlaj de donatione domini Regis et non est maritata, terra eius 
otlet c solidos. 

Matillda de Hauelton' de donatione domini Regis non est maritata, terra 
das ualet 1 solidos. 

Margeria de Biker' de donatione Regis non est maritata, terra eius ualet xxx'. 

Alicia Bertram de donatione domini Regis et est maritata Rogero filio 
Walteri per dominnm Regem ut intelligunt, terra eius ualet xx libras. ^ 

Emma que fuit uxor Walteri filii Giliberti de donatione Regis et est 
maritata Petro de Yallibus per dominnm Regem, terra eius ualet x libras. 

Anneys de Diueleston de donatione domini Regis et maritata cuidam 
Robillardo per dominum Regem, terra eius ualet c solidos. 

Habilla que fuit uxor Roberti Bertram de donatione domini Regis non est 
maritata, terra eius valet xv libras. 

Alicia de Morewic' de donatione Regis et maritata Rogero Gulafre per 
dominum R^em ut intelligunt terra eius ualet x libras. 

De escaotis dicunt quod Philippus de Vlecot' tenet Matefen' et Nafreton' 
per semitium seriantie ut sit coronator valent xx^' libras. 

" Of. Hodgson III. i. 230. "• Ibitf. •'« IbirL *' Ihid. « ^^^^ ^ 229. 



162 THE S0U&CB8 OF TESTA DE NBVILL. 

Nicholaas de Biker* tenet Biker' per seriantiam set nesciiint per qaam 
Talet c solidoB. 

Willelmus de Vescy debet esse in custodia domini Regis, terra eius ualet 
per annum Ixxj libras xiij" iiij**. 

Margeria de Vescy de donatione domini Regis, terra eius ualet per annum 
XXX libras. 

Willelmus Bataille duxit in uxorem quandam dominam que fuit soror 
Willelmi Flaunuill* que est de donacione domini Regis terra eius ualet xl solidos. 
Habet eam per R^em ut intelligunt. 

Vxor luonis Talleboys est de donatione domini Regis, maritata est per 
dominum Regem, terra eius ualet xl". 

Quedam domina que fuit uxor Willelmi de Flamuiir de donatione domini 
Regis maritata est Walters de Burdun, terra eius ualet v marcas. 

Nicbolaus de Rye habet vnam puellam in custodia sua per dominum Regem 
terra eius ualet iiij marcas. 

Quedam domina que fuit uxor Thein de donacione domini Regis maritata 
est Rogero de Hodesbagh' per dominum Regem, terra eius ualet x libras. 

Villa de MuUesfen' est Dringagium domini Regis et est in manu Luce de 
Risgef ord cum herede valet xxx'. 

Willelmus filius Odonis tenet per seriantiam quandam terram nesciunt per 
quam, ualet xx". 

Gaufridus Faber de Banburg' tenet terram suam per seriantiam fabricandi 
in castro. 

Robertus le porter tenet dimidiam carucatam terre per seriantiam custodiendi 
januam castri. , 

De escaetis dicunt quod Luuerbotle est escaeta domini Regis. Johannes de 
Neouiir tenet illam et valet centum solidos. 
[On dorse :— ] Norhumberlandia. In libro. 

V. m. 4 

Viris venerabilibus et dominis domino Hugoni de Pateshil tesaurario domini 
Regis et consociis suis Baronibus de scaccario domini Regis suus H. de Bolebec 
vicecomes Norhumbrie salutem. Noueritis me mandatum domini Regis in 
hec verba suscepisse H. dei gracia etc. vicecomiti Norhumbrie salutem Quia 
feoda Baronum que capitales habent honores in comitatu tuo sunt in diuersis 
comitatibus de quibus auxilium nobis concesserunt ad maritandam sororem 
nostram Romanorum Imperatori, mandamus illis per literas nostras quas tibi 
mittimus illas porrigendas quod per literas suas patentes singnificent citra 
octabas Sancti Johannis Baronibus de scaccario nostro apud Westmonasterium 
de quot feodis suis tam veteribus quam nouis quilibet nobis soluerit auxilium 
predictum et quibus et in quibus comitatabus et qui feoda ilia tenent et in 
quibus villis sint feoda ilia vt sic scire possimus an totum auxilium nobis fuerit 
solutum, sicut nobis liberaliter fuit concessum. Et quam plures alii sunt in 



THE SOUBOBS OF TESTA DB NEVILL. 163 

comitatn tuo qai siognlariter feoda et minora de nobis tenent in capite 
qaibus non Bcribimus tibi precipimus qnatenus in fide qua nobis teneris 
nomina singulorum qui talia feoda de nobis tenent in comitatu tuo et in 
qoibus villis feoda ilia sint, per literas tuas patentes citra predictum 
terminum singnifices predictis Baronibus de scaccario nostro. Et similiter 
oomina illorum omnium qui de nobis tenent per seriantariam uel soccagium, 
et Tbi et in quibus villis sint dicte seriantarie et soccagia et quales sint seiian- 
tarie ille dlstincte et aperte, ita curiose et diligenter premissa omnia ezequens, 
quod ad te per negligenciam tuam capere non debeamus, Teste, etc. Et sciate 
quod hoc Breue uenit ad me pauIo ante natiaitatem sancti Johannis baptiste. 

Ego uero huins mandati execucionem cum omni qua potui diligenda et per 
discretam inquisicionem facere procaraui in forma subscripta. 

Jordanus Hayrun tenet in capite de domino Rege per seruicium ynius militis 
Hadistonam, Colewel. Swinebum' occidentalem, paruam Bentonam, Chirtonam 
oocidentalem, Flatford, de veteri feodo. 

Nicholaus de Bolteby et Walterus de Tunstal tenent in capite de domino 
Rege per sernicium vnius militis Wardun, Fourstanys, Alrewas, Hayden, 
Langeley, Blencanhishop, Widen, Fetherstanhisbalu, de veteri feodo. 

Hugo de Morwie** tenet in capite de domino Rege West Cbiuingtun per 
seruicium vnius militis, dc veteri feodo. 

Simon de Diuilbistona ** tenet in capite de domino Rege Diuilbistun, per 
terciam partem seruicii vnius militis de veteri fecdo. 

Nicholaus de Earendun et Elizabet vzor de iure ipsius Elizabet tenent in 
(spite de domino Rege, Heppal, Bikertun, Flotwaytun, Wartun, Tossin et 
mangnam Tossin, Tyrwit et alteram Tyrwit per seruicium vnius militis, de 
reteri feodo. 

Alexander de Bradeford ** tenuit Bradeford in capite de domino Rege per seru- 
idnm vnius militis de veteri feodo. que quidem Bradeford est in manu domini 
Regis. 

Bogerus filius Radulfi ^ tenet in capite de domino Rege Dicbeburn' et alteram 
Dichebum* mangnam Ryhil, Eertindun, per seruicium vnias militis de veteri 
feodo. 

Idem Rogeras tenet in capice de domino Rege tres partes de Toggisden pro 
X solidis annuatim soluendis pro omnibus seruiciis. 

Alicia de Stirap, Hamelinus et Marieria vxor eius Aueray de jure Juliane que 
fuit vxor eius Thomas de Strattona et Ysabel vxor eius et Constancia heredes 
Philippi de Vlecotis tenent in capite de domino Rege, Nafertun, Matfen et 
Looerbothil per seriantariam pro corona domini Regis custodienda infra comi- 
tatum Norhumbne. 

Willelmus filius Auenelli tenet de jure Betricie vxoris sue in capite de 
domino Rege vnam carucatam terre in villa de Bamburg' per seriantariam in 

« Cf, Hodgson HI. i. 234. " /j^v; 54 /j^-^, p 235. « Ibid, 



164 TfiE SOVBCES OF TESTA DB NEVILL. 

balliua de Bamburgsir', et ent pro seruicio suo intendens negociis domini Begie 
sicat seruiens comitatus, et debet receipere namia in north de Koket pro debito 
domini Regis in parco suo. 

Comes Patricius^ tenet in capite de domino Bege Benley, Hiddisley, Edeling- 
ham, Lemoutun, Bromdun, Bremtun, Wttun, Schepley, Harop, Wittun, Stan- 
tun, Horseley, Windegatis, et Bittun, per inborn et wiboru inter duo regna. 

Idem comes tenet in capite de domino Bege Suth Middiitun, et le middest 
Middiltun, et pro vna villa tenet north Middiitun, et Bodum et hoc totum est 
drengagium, et reddit dominu Begi per annum xxx solidos et tenentes predicti 
comitis de predictis villis debent talliari cum dominicis domini Regis et faciunt 
truncagium castello de Bamburg* annuatim. 

Johannes de Hawiltun tenet Hawiltonam, Clauerwrht', et Witingtonam in 
capite de domino Rege in drengagio, et reddit per annum xl solidos, et debet 
talliari cum dominicis domini Begis, et debet heriet et merchet. 

Michael de Bjhil tenet de jure Alicie que f uit Yxor eius, Bobertus de Glen- 
tedun et Cristiana vxor eius, Willelmus de Bedham et Constancia yxor eiiis et 
Matildis de Flaunuill* tenent in capite de domino Bege, Witingham, Throingtun, 
Bartun, et medietatem de Glentedun, pro vno niso muer' uel pro dimidia marca 
pro omnibus seruiciis. 

Willelmus de Caluley " tenet Caluley et Yetlingtun in capite de domino Bege in 
drengagio et reddit per annum xxx solidos et facit truncagium castello de 
Banburg' et debet talliari cum dominicis domini Begis et debet heriet et 
merchet. 

Et Beditarii de Yetlingtun ubicumque fuerint manentes debent per annum 
xxiiij solidos, et hoc non pertinet ad tenementum predicti Willelmi. 

Johannes de Eslingtun ^ tenet in capite de domino Bege Eslingtun in dren- 
gagio et reddit per annum xl solidos et facit tale seruicium quale Willelmus de 
Caluley facit, scilicet facit truncagium castello de Bamburg' et debet talliari 
cum dominicis domini Begis et debet heriet et merchet. 

Gilbertus de parua Byhil tenet paruam Byhil in capite de domino Rege et 
reddit per annum xx solidos et debet talliari cum dominicis domini Begis. 

Thomas <^ Wametham ^ tenet in capite de domino Bege vnam carucatam 
terre in villa de Bamburg' de dominico et reddit per annum xx solidos pro 
omnibus seruiciis. 

Thomas de Bedenhal ^'^ tenet de domino Rege in capite Bedenhale in drengagio 
et reddit per annum xx solidos et facit truncagium castello de Bamburg' annu- 
atim et debet talliari cum dominicis domini Regis et debet de cornagio xiiij<^. et 
de mercheta xvj solidos et heriet xvj solidos et debet arare semel in xl™» cum 
viij carucis ad vnum repastum domini Regis et debet metei'e annuatim per tres 
dies in autumpno qaolibet die cum viij hominibus ad unum repastum domini 
Regis et debet pannagium et de foresfacto XTJ". et de releuio xvj solidos et 
sectam moleudini domini Regis ad xiij vas. 

6« Cf, Hodgson III. i. 231. *' Ihid, p. 236. 

*« Ibid. p. 237. *• Ibid. p. 236. •*• Ibid. p. 237. 



THE aOUECBS OF TESTA DB NEVILL. 166 

Henricus de MuUisfen ^ tenet de domino Rege in capita Mallisf en in dren- 
gaginm et I'eddit per annum zxx solidos et faclt truncagium castello de 
Bamburg' et debet talliari cum dominicis domini Regis et debet de cornagio 
xiiij* et de mercheto xvj solidos et de Heriet xvj solidos et de releuio xTJ solidos 
et de foresfacto xvj solidos et debet arare semel per annum ad uoluntatem 
sernientis cum yj carucis ad vnum repastum domini Regis et cariare bladum 
per annum semel in autumpno cum xij plaustris ad vnum repastum domini 
BegiB et debet metere in autumpno per tres dies annuatim quolibet die cum xij 
hominibus ad unum repastum domini regis et debet sectam molendini domini 
Begis ad xiij vai et pannagium. 

Petms de Strand tenet de domino Rege in capite dimidiam carucatam terre 
in Bamburg* pro fabro inueniendo ad f erramentum faciendum trium camcarum 
et debet innenire j bilo et j bolakjs et debet adquirere carbones cum homine 
domini regis ad predictum ferramentum Rex autem inueniet ferrum. 

Dominus L Rex dedit Roberto filio Rogeri Neubum* '^ cum pertinenciis pro 
semicio vnius militis cum seruicio et homagio et consuetudinibus Roberti de 
Throclan de tenemento ipsius Rol)erti in Throclau, saluo tamen domino Regi 
Tedditnm xl solidorum per annum et quod ipse Robertus talliatur cum dominicis 
Domini regis. 

Johannes filius Roberti tenet Corbrig' ^' quod est burgum pro xl libris per 
imram ad feodam firmam. Ita tamen quod dominus Rex talliat Burgenses 
eiosdem nille cum dominicis suis comitatns. 

Nicholaus de Biker tenet duas partes de Biker et Pampeden vnum vicum 
Tidnum nono castello in capite de domino Rege per seriantariam et debet 
recipere et custodire Namia capta pro debito domini Regis in parco suo et cum 
deliberata fuerint ad uendendum, predictus Nicholaus debet esse unus eorum 
qui debent ea uendere ad precium domini Regis et debet portare breuia domini 
Begis inter Tynam et Eoket. £t debet attachiare loquelas spectantes ad 
eoronam domini regis vbi semiens domini Regis presens non f uerit. Et debet 
esse semiens ad placitum justiciariomm itinerancium apud nonum castrum. 

[On dorse : — 3 ^^oda Comitatns Noihumbrie \ 
In libro In liforo. 

In libro. 



VI, transcribitUT. m. 8, d. 

Norhumberlande In libro. in Comitatu Norht'. 
Hugo de Bolebec vicecomes reddit compotum de c solidis de 
priore de Tinemue de auxilio ad maritandam sororem Regis Im- 
peratori. Et de xx solidis de priore de Brinkeburn' de eodem auxilio. 
Et de XX* de priore de Boelton de eodem. Et de x marcis de priore de 
Hercpedes* [non respondet*] set respondet inde in magno Rotulo 
amioxxj««. [A.D.1237.] 

* Illegible. 

« Cf. Hodgson, III. i. 2S7. •• Ibid. p. 232. •» Ibid. 



166 



THE aOUBCES OF TESTA DB NBVILL. 



m. 2. 

In libro 
Norhumber- 
landia 
aoribitur 
per «e. 



VII. Exchequer, Q.K. Knights' Fees, ^. 

^'^Galfridus filius Galfridi et Alexander de Hilton, reddant 
compotum de codem auxilio assise et collecto in hoc comitatu [i.^., 
de auxilio concesso domino Regi ad maritandum sororem snam 
Romanorum imperatori]. 

Willelmus de Vescy reddit compotum de xij feodis de veteri. In 
thesauro xxvij" per predictos collectores. 

Gilbertus de Hunfranuill' reddit compotum de ij feodis et dimidio 
de veteri. In thesauro c et x^ij* iij<» per predictos collectores. 

Johannes filius Roberti reddit compotum de vj feodis de veteri. 
In thesauro ix" xj" ij** per eosdem collectores. 

Rogerus de Merlay reddit compotum de iiij feodis de veteri. In 
aioimmtur] t^iesauro vij" ix- y]^ per eosdem. 

Rogerus Bertram reddit compotum de vj marcis et dimidia. In 
thesauro viij" v* iiij**. Et debet viij*. 

Hugo de Bolebec reddit compotum. In thesauro xij" xviij* per 
eosdem collectores. 

Johannes Vic(ecome8) reddit compotum de iij feodis. In 
thesauro iiij". Et Quietus est. 

Hugo de Morewic* reddit compotum de j feodo. In thesauro ij 
marce. Et Quietus est. 

Johannes de Baylol reddit compotum de xxiiij feodis et tribns 
partibus preter feoda atturnata Episcopo Dunolmensi. In thesauro 
8[oiuuntur] ix" xij* xj<» per predictos collectores. Et debet xxiij" vij- j*". 

Jordanus Heyrun reddit compotum de j feodo. In thesauro ij 
marce per eosdem collectores. Et Quietus est. 

Robertus de Munchans reddit compotum iiij feodis de veteri. In 
thesauro ix" xvij* v^ 

Eustachius de la Val reddit compotum de ij feodis. In thesauro 
iiij marce per eosdem. Et Quietus est. 

Adam de Tindale reddit compotum de j feodo. In thesauro ij 
R' marce per eosdem. Et Quietus est. 

Robertus de Ros reddit compotum de ij feodis de veteri. In 
thesauro v marce per eosdem collectores. 

Ricardus Bertram reddit compotum de ij feodis. In thesauro 
iiij" et iij" per eosdem. Et Quietus est. 

Radulfus de Gaugi reddit compotum de iij feodis. In thesauro 
iiij" per eosdem. Et Quietus est. 

Johannes de Kauz et Jacobus de Kauz reddunt compotum de iij 
feodis. In thesauro iiij" per eosdem. Et Quieti sunt. 

Rogerus filius Radulfi reddit compotum de j feodo. In thesauro 
ij marce per eosdem. Et Quietus est. 



•* Of. Hodgson III. i. 240. 



THE SOUKCBS OP TESTA DE NBVILL. 167 

Alexander de Bradeford reddit compotum de j feodo. In thes- 
auio ij maroe per eosdem. Et Qnietus est. 

Radulfus super Teysam reddit compotum de duabus partibus j 
feodi. In thesauro xvij» viij** per eosdem. Et Quietus est. 

Simon filius Thome de Diueleston' reddit compotum de tercia parte 
▼nius leodi. In thesauro viij« ix'*. Bt debet ij** **''. in thesaurario 
libeiati. Et Quietus est. Sfolavntur] 

Bogerus de Butemund' et participes tenentes feodum de Hephale. 
In thesauro ij marce per eosdem collectores. 
probatur 

Summa superioris thesauro allocati cxxj" iiij* yj<*. Quod totum 

liberauerunt in thesaurario per iij tallias. Et Quieti sunt. ittnto 

^ ' SColuuntur) 

nil. Exchequer, Q.R. Knights* Fees. ^, 

Botulns de anxilio prelatorum Regi promisso contra transfreta- [▲.!>. 1241-42] 
cionem suana in Waschoniam anno regni sui xxvj***. . 

** ********** inUbro. 

Norhamber- 
Abbas de Neumuster (reddit compotum) de ij palfredis. ^^^ 



23 



168 



X.— COUPLAND CASTLE. 

By the Rev. Matthew Culley op Coupland. 

[Head on the 28th day of October, 1908.] 

When Sir Robert Bowes and Sir Ralph Ellerker drew up their 
report of the Frontier Defences of the Bast and Middle Marches at 
the end of the year 1541, the township of Coupland had in it 
* nether fortresse nor barmekyne.' ^ Leland, perhaps a year or two 
earlier, speaks of Coupland village, ' where.' in his quaint language, 
he tells us, 'the Water brekethe into Armes makynge Islets '2; 
(which is still true of the river Glen at Coupland) ; but he names no 
fortress. .The famous list of castles and towers in Northumberland in 
1415 is equally silent as to any place of defence at Coupland. This 
seems strange, considering the position of the manor, almost at the 
entrance of one of the principal passes, through the Cheviots, into 
Scotland ; at the same time an explanation may be found in the fact, 
that the greater manor of Akeld, only two miles oflF, and which 
frequently belonged to the same owner, had in it in 1541 'a lytle 
fortelett or bastel house/^ while the neighbouring tower of Lanton 
existed already in 1415.^ There is of course the possibility of a tower 
or strong manor house having overlooked the river Glen at Coupland 
at an earlier period, and of its having fallen into ruin previous to 
1415, but it must be borne in mind that Northumbrian castles were 
not particularly numerous before the fourteenth century, and that the 
great bulk of our border towers were not built until after the battle 
of Neville's Cross, which was fought in 1846.*^ It will be remembered 
that the Northumbrians and Lowland Scots were practically the same 
race, a mixed population of Angle and other Teutonic peoples, with 
perhaps a larger admixture— especially in the upland districts — of the 
aboriginal Celtic blood than is generally supposed. For a long time 
it was doubtful whether the present county of Northumberland would 

* Bates, * The Border Holds of Northumberland,' Arch, Ael., Ji^iv., p. 84. 

* Ibid,, p. 28. ' Still in a good state of preservation. 

* Only a fragment now remains. 

* ISee * Border Holds of Northumberland,' p. H. 



2 










Q 

Z 



COirPLAND CASTLE. 169 

eventnallj be attached to England or to Scotland ; it was not really 
until Henry II. had taken possession of the earldom of Northumber- 
land that the northern boundary line between the two kingdoms 
began to assume a permanent shape, and that Northumberland was 
finally destined to become an English and not a Scotch county. The 
actual incorporation of Northumberland in the realm of England did 
not indeed take place until considerably later, and even during the 
first quarter of the thirteenth century the Northumbrian barons did 
homage, perhaps not altogether unwillingly, to Alexander of Scotland, 
while Scottish influence and rule, or possibly we should say misrule, 
extended over the franchise of Tynedale until near the century's end. 
The memory of Northumbrians glories and independence had not died 
out by any means amongst the inhabitants of the later earldom, poorly 
representative as that earldom was of the ancient kingdom, and when 
that independence, so far as it still existed, had by force of circum- 
stances to be relinquished, it is not unlikely that the Northumbrian 
people would have taken as kindly to a Scottish as to an English 
nationality.^ This is hardly matter for wonder, when one reflects 
that even to-day, Northumberland, for some miles inland from the 
border, is to a great extent more Scottish than English in religion 
and sympathies, as well as in blood. 

Be these things as they may, it is, J think, certain that the state 
of the frontier defence against Scotland presented no abnormal 
features before the fourteenth century, and it was not until after the 
middle of that century that the building of border towers became 
popular. 

The building of the castle or great tower of Coupland was doubt- 
less one of the results of the report on the frontier defences sent up 
to Elizabeth's Council by the Border Commissioners in 1584. It had 
been particularly recommended by the Commissioners that there 
should be some additional strongholds along the middle marches 
between the river Tweed and Harbottle.^ The owner of Coupland 
may have been urged to build, or a sense of his own insecurity in the 

• It would perhaps not be impossible to show that an independent Northum- 
brian nationality was preserved under the great franchise of the Palatinate of 
Durham down to the sixteenth century. The question is an interesting one, 
though this is not the place to discuFS it. 

" See ' Border Holds,' p. 74. 



170 COUPLAND CASTLE. 

case of a raid may have led him to do bo. Anyhow, the castle was 
probably commenced very soon after this period, and the great 
strength of the building shows plainly that it was intended for pur- 
poses of defence and that little or no hope was entertained, at the 
time, of any immediate friendship between the two sides of the border. 
This puts the date of building, though later than 1584, evidently 
prior to the union of the two crowns, while the fact of so great and 
strong a tower — only a little less than some of the greater keeps — 
being reared thus late in Elizabeth's reign makes Coupland one of the 
most interesting of our border castles, showing as it does the char- 
acter and state of the borderland at that period. 

The original castle consists of two towers, conjoined, containing 
eleven rooms, including the large stone vault in the basement (now 
divided into two kitchens) and a remarkable stone staircase of 78 
steps. What would formerly be known as the * great chamber,' but 
now called the ' haunted room,' on the first floor, must have been a 
noble apartment before it was divided into two ; within it, running 
along the south wall, is a stone chimney-piece 10 feet 10 inches in 
length and bearing the date 1619, carved in the centre, the date 
possibly of the chimney-piece itself, or of some other event connected 
with the castle or its owners.® The larger of the two towers measures 
47 feet by 29 feet, the walls of the basement are 5 feet 6 inches thick, 
while on the first fioor they show a thickness of 5 feet. The original 
entrance was through a round-headed doorway in the west wall of 
the lesser tower opposite the foot of the stone staircase ; this doorway 
is still in use, though no longer communicating with the open air : 
the great iron hinges of the original door — very large and massive — 
yet remain. This, the only original entrance, was overlooked by a 
window, in the thick south wall of the greater tower ; this window 
was of great strength, with much iron work about it, and. could have 
been efiiciently made use of as a means of guarding or protecting the 
entrance below.^ This window was blocked up when the castle was 
restored in the early part of the last century, but the window recess, 

* The writer has seen reason, as shown above, to retract the opinion expressed 
by him some eighteen years ago in an article printed by the Berwickshire 
:Naturalists' Club, that 1619 was the date of the building of the Castle. 

• Ex inforwatione my late father, who had Ms information from the previous 
generation. 







J : 

E- • 

CO < 

<: , 

O " 



Q 

< 

a. 

ID 

o 
o 



COUPLANB CASTLE. 171 

with stone seats on either side, remains ; it opens from the ' haunted- 
room ' and is now used as a strong safe, shut off by a heavy iron door. 
The walls were pierced here and there by narrow loopholes, all of 
which have been filled up, and there would seem to have been one or 
two other small windows, lighting the upper floors at a considerable 
height above the ground, which may possibly have been enlarged into 
some of the existing casements. The battlements of both towers 
have the appearance of being, at least to a great extent, original, 
though the embrasures have been renewed, and the facing of the east 
battlement is apparently of the date of the restoration. The circular 
turret for the flagstaff is of the same date, making it impossible to 
say with any certainty how the staircase originally terminated and 
led on to the battlements.^^ The present egress is by two doors, that 
opening on to the principal, though lower, tower looking much like 
an old doorway ; while the battlement of the higher tower is gained 
by a door through the later flag turret. 

The old stone spouts (^or gargoyles) for draining the battlements 
are generally well preserved and are good specimens of their kind, 
though in some cases much worn by age and friction, and in one or 
two instances they have been replaced by lead spouts.^^ 

The view from the higher tower is very fine. To the south and 
west stretches a striking panorama of the Cheviots extending right 
over to the Scottish side. To the east the eye takes in the low lying 
and fertile plains towards the sea, though the sea itself is hid by the 
moors of Weetwood and Wrangham, awakening thoughts of Cuthbert 
and his vision of Aidan, and by the romantic Kyloe range beyond. 
Northwards the horizon is bounded by the high fell lands beyond Ford, 
whose old grey church and massive keep, overlooking Flodden, are 
dimly visible amongst the trees. It is a typical border scene. From 
every side an approaching enemy might easily have been descried. 

The more modem additions to the castle, built in the seventeenth 
century and the early part of last century, include all the present re- 
ception rooms, and a considerable number of bedrooms, servants' 
quarters, etc. 

*• Plate IX. shows a ' pepper-castor ' shaped roof or cover, under which the 
stair may have terminated. This had probably fallen in by 1800 or thereabotits 
when the sketch (p. 179) was made. 

" The late Mr. C. J. Bates was much interested in these old stone spouts. 



172 COtlPLAND CASTLE. 

A living scholar has described Kirknewton as ' the most interesting 
place in England.' Whether or not one is prepared to endorse this 
statement to the full, it is certainly true that part of the district 
included in the parish of Kirknewton stands out with a history and 
individuality of its own, in the very fountain-head of Northumbrian 
story ; for to Adgefrin, now Teavering,^^ opposite Coupland — across 
the Glen — and a mile or so from Kirknewton, came Paulinus, a Bene- 
dictine monk from Rome, preaching the Christian faith under the 
protection of the Northumbrian king Edwin, in the sixth century. 
St. Gregory's hill and the dedication of Kirknewton church to pope 
Gregory-the-Great (who sent Paulinus) keeps alive the memory of this 
early mission. Coupland lies in this interesting parish, and in the 
river Glen, which washes the bank on which the castle stands, the 
baptismal waters certainly flowed under the hand of Paulinus. 

From the early part of the twelfth century Coupland was one of 
the manors of the barony of Wooler, which had been conferred on the 
de Muschamp family by Henry I.,^^ and was held at that early period, 
or shortly after, by the de Akelds, who also held, of the Muschamp 
barony, the neighbouring manor of Akeld, from which they took their 
name. In the following century William de Akeld held Akeld, Coup- 
land, etc., of Robert de Muschamp,^^ de veteri feoff ammio^ which seems 
to point to his family having been enfeoffed by the barons of Wooler 
about the time of the original grant under Henry I.^^ Thomas de 
Akeld was a juror on the death of Robert de Manners in 1250. Six 
years later he occurs again as a juror in an inquisition at Wooler, on 
the death of Isabella de Ford ; while shortly after, and in the same 
reign, that of Henry III., Robert de Akeld, and William his son, 
witnessed a charter of Robert de Muschamp, granting a right of 
pasture in the territory of Heathpool to the monks of Melrose.*^ 
William de Akeld, probably the son of Robert, also witnessed a grant 
of land at Bowsden, by Hugh, son of John de Haggardeson, to the 
Convent of Holy Island.^^ These scattered notices, which might be 

*2 The property of Mr. Thomas K. Culley. 
** Bates, History of Northumberland, p. 116, 

'* It is not correct to speak of Coupland as a ' seat of the Muschamps.' It is 
practically certain they never lived there. 

'•'' Testa de Nei'lll. '* Liher de Mdrose. 

" Holy Island Charters, — Raine. 



COTTPLAND CASTLE. 178 

Bupplemented, show these early lords of Coupland to have been fairly 
active members of society in their day. It is not improbable that 
they actually resided at Akeld rather than at Ooupland. The ancient 
chapel of Akeld^ of which and of its priests there are stray notices 
about this time, may not unlikely have been their foundation, and 
may be taken to denote a little community of tenants and retainers 
gathered round the house of the manorial lord. It may be mentioned, 
in passing, that part of the old burial ground of Akeld is still known 
as such, and traces of graves are said to have been visible a hundred 
years ago ; while a neighbouring field, in which fragments of worked 
marble have been ploughed up in recent times,^® and which is called 
the ' Chapel Field,' plainly points to the traditional site of Akeld chapel. 
Another field on Akeld, called ' the Lady's Close' and a well above the 
grave-yard, in Akeld dene, known as * the Lady's Well,' may indicate 
the dedication of the chapel to the Blessed Virgin. 

To restrict oneself, however, to the subject of this paper, which is 
the manor of Coupland, not that of Akeld, we should point out that 
another family bearing local name held land at Coupland and elsewhere 
in the neighbourhood contemporaneously with the later de Akelds. 
These were the de Couplands.^® Their connexion with Coupland pro- 
bably went back a long way, and they may possibly have grown in 
importance as the de Akelds declined or disappeared, though it seems 
doubtful if they ever owned more than certain parcels of land within the 
manor. Stephen de Coupland held land at Heathpool de novo feoffa- 
mento at the time of the Testa de Nevill. In the Inq. 34 Henry III. 
(mentioned above) on the death of Robert de Manners, Samson de 
Coupland was a juror along with Thomas de Akeld ; he also witnessed 
Robert de Muschamp's grant of land to Melrose. In an Inq : 18 
April, 1306, at Wooler, on Nicholas de Graham, Simon de Coupland 
appears as a juror, and about the same time a David de Coupland 
occurs. In 1840 a question arose as to the legitimacy of Joanna, 
wife of Walter Mautalent, who claimed seisin of the lands, both in 
Coupland and Howtell, of Simon de Coupland, as his daughter and 
heir.^ The lands at Howtell consisted of one messuage ^ cum per- 

** The writer secured some of these fragments some years ago. 
** It seems nncertain how air John Ck>npland, of Neville's Oroes fame, was 
related to this familj, thongh we may safely assume that he was akin to them. 
*• Reg. PaL Dunelm, edited by sir Thomas Duff as Hardy, iii, pp. 274-5. 



174 COUPLAND CASTLE. 

tinentibus ' and those at Ooupland are described as two messuages, 
48 acres, etc. From these lands at both places Joanna was forcibly 
ejected, in the case of Howtell by Roger de Hollthale [Howtell], and 
at Coupland by John, son of John de Ooupland, on the ground that 
she was a bastard, and consequently could not claim the estate ' per 
successionem hereditariam.' John de Coupland himself claimed to 
succeed as uncle and blood relation of Simon, who was said to have 
left no direct heir. Joanna Mautalent brought an action in the 
matter, before the king's justices, against John de Coupland, David 
Grey and Thomas Todde (who were also doubtless concerned in the 
ejection), but the question of Joanna's legitimacy coming under the 
jurisdiction of the Church courts, a mandamm was sent in due form 
to Richard, prince-bishop of Durham, who accordingly issued the 
necessary confirmation and the result of the inquiry was that Joanna 
was found to be a bastard, and a certificate to that effect issued by 
the bishop to the king's justices, dated ' in Castro nostro Dunelmi die 
ii Augusti A.D. 1340 et consecrationis nostrae septimae.*^^ In 
consequence of this decision we may presume that John de Coupland 
was confirmed as heir to Simon. 

By the reign of Henry IV. Coupland had become for the most 
part the property of the Grays of Heton, inherited possibly from the 
de Hetons, to whom it wonld seem the neighbouring manor of Akeld 
had been granted two years after Hallidon Hill, in consequence of the 
forfeiture of Adam Prenderguest. The manorial rights continued to 
descend in the Gray family for many generations, though, as their 
residence was at Heton and later at Chillingham, their mere posses- 
sion of Coupland presents no features of particular interest. The 
state of the borderland at this time was truly terrible. Glendale was 
being constantly devastated and laid waste ; the tenantry of Coup- 
land must have carried their lives in their hands, and anything 
approaching to prosperity, or the regular cultivation of the soil must 
have been to a large extent in abeyance. A vivid picture of the state 
of things, at this period, is presented to us by the licence of cardinal 
Langley, bishop of Durham, granted viva voce at Auckland ^ to Thomas 
Whityngeham, vioar of Kirknewton, on the 18th of April, 1486, to 
celebrate masses and other divine offices in any secure and decent place 

^' Reg. Pal. Ihmelm. pp. 339-40. ^ Ibid. 



COUPLAND CASTLE. 175 

whatsoever, and rightly arranged for divine worship, anywhere within 
his parish of Newton, and outside his church, so long as the hostility 
of the Scots then existing there, should last ; at the same time taking 
care to provide for the baptism of children, and the extreme unction 
of the dying and their burial, as far as he securely coald. 

In the sixteenth century the Forsters of Adderston, the Halls of 
Otterbarn, the Herons of Bockenfield, and a family named Wallis, 
apparently related, though it is difficult to say in what degree, to the 
Wallises of Knaresdale, owned various parcels of land at Coapland. The 
Wallises were certainly settled in Glendale in the first years of the six- 
teenth century, if not in the century before, for Roland Wallis is styled 
of Xewingefeld in Glendale in 1509, and James Wallis was living at 
Akeld at the same time. This family gradually acquired the greater 
part of Coupland. In 1563 sir John Forster of Bamburgh,^^ the lord 
warden of the middle marches, sold land in Coupland to Gilbert 
Wallis of Akeld, whose daughter became, apparently, the first wife of 
Cathbert Mitford of Mitford; and in 1567 Thomas Forster of Adder- 
Bton,2* who had purchased the previous year from John Heron of 
Bockenfield and Humphrey Heron of Eshott, sold all his messuage, 
land tenement, etc., in Coupland to James Wallis of Coupland. The 
speculation in land at this period is worthy of notice. The Wallises, 
those at least of the family settled in Glendale, must have been very 
Bubstantial and successful men, and bit by bit bought up much of the 
land in their neighbourhood ; they acquired an estate at Humbleton 
as well as at Akeld and Coupland. The name is very old in the 
south-west of the county ; the rev. John Hodgson tracing the family 
back more or less to the thirteenth century. The Coupland and 
Knaresdale lines seem to have merged eventually into one, at least 
both places were owned by the same individual by the time of 
Charles II. 

It is probable that the tower of Coupland was built by the 
Wallises at this period — the latter part of Elizabeth's reign — for the 
protection of their newly-acquired estate. We have pointed out that 
the work was most likely the result of the report of the Border 
Commission on defence in 1584, and this puts the date of building 
subsequent to the purchases by the Wallis family. It is of course 

» Coupland Title Deeds. " Ibid. 

Toi^ -rxv. ^4 



176 COITPLAND CASTLE. 

just possible that the work may have been begun by the Orays, but 
for various reasons this does not seem likely. On either side of the 
date, 1619, on the chimney-piece of the ' great chamber/ or ' haunted 
room,' are the initials 'G.W., M.W.' — those probably of Gilbert 
Wallis and his wife. This date, some years posterior to the union of 
the two crowns, and too late for* the building of a tower of such 
strength, designed, on the face of it, for purposes of defence, is 
perhaps that of the chimney-piece itself or of some other work of 
adornment or completion. 

In 1642,^* James Wallis of Coupland executed a deed with Henry 
Orde of Weetwood, Henry Wallis of Knaresdale, and Richard Wallis 
of Humbleton, settling Coupland, and his estate at Humbleton, on 
his own issue in tail-male, with remainder to the issue of Richard 
Wallis aforesaid, George Wallis of Learmouth, and James Wallis of 
Wooler ; while in 1665,^® James Wallis purchased * Coupland Tower' 
and the property at Humbleton from his kinsman Richard Wallis, 
thus, in his own person, uniting the hitherto divided estates of the 
family in Glendale. 

James Wallis of Coupland was one of the seven Roman Catholic 
gentlemen placed on the commission of the peace for Northumber- 
land in 1687 ; he charged the Coupland estate with an annuity of 
£40 for his daughter Mary, the wife of Vaughan Phillips,*^ to whose 
guardianship the young heir of Coupland and Knaresdale, James Wallis, 
was committed. The whole estate eventually devolved upon Ralph 
Wallis who sold Coupland in 1713 ^^ to his wife's kinsfolk, the 
Ogles of Kirkley ; this was followed by the eventual dispersion of all the 
other estates of the family .^^ 

Nothing of special interest marked the ninety-three years' 
possession of Coupland castle by the Ogle family ; they were almost, 
if not quite, non-resident owners. By the beginning of the following 
century the gretft deserted tower was showing signs of decay ; 

^ Title Deeds of Coupland. *-• Ibid, 

*' Estcourt and Payne, * The English Catholic non-jurors of 1716,* 

^ Title Deeds of Coupland. 

^ A branch of the Wallis family remained in Glendale as tenants of a farm 
at Humbleton, which, on the dispersion of the Wallis lands, passed about 1716 
into the possession of a member of the Bates family. Thomas Wallis, and, 
after him, John and James Wallis, paid rent for this farm, certainly as late as 
1788. — Old receipt book among the muniments at Coupland, 



COUPLAND CASTLE. 177 

apparently only its strength and solid masonry had prevented 
its becoming a ruin, for at the time of the last conveyance in 1806 
the castle was little more than an empty shell, much of the woodwork 
having been at some time or other destroyed by fire.'^ 

In 1806, Nathaniel Ogle conveyed the castle and estate of Coupland 
to Thomas Bates of Brunton, a representative of a cadet line of the 
Bateses of Aydon White House.^i In 1783 there had taken place the 
marriage of Elizabeth Bates, sister of the purchaser of Coupland and 
his heir-presumptive, with Matthew CuUey of Denton, who that very 
year (1783) had succeeded his elder brother, Robert Culley (who had 
died unmarried), in the family estate of Denton, in the county of 
Durham. A few years later, in 1795, Matthew Culley, who had 
more or less resided in Glendale and on Tweedside since 1767, added 
to the already valuable property of his family by purchasing the 
large estate and manor of Akeld, adjoining Coupland;'^ this was 
quickly followed by the purchase of Humbleton, while his alliance 
with the Bateses eventually brought Coupland castle also to his 
family, thus re-uniting these three manors in one ownership, as in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The Culleys were of French origin 
thoagh they were certainly settled, to some extent at least, in England 
by the end of the twelfth century. There has been little change in 
the spelling of the name in the course of centuries, for example, 
Cuilli, Cuylly, Culy, Cullye, etc.; the i or y before I would naturally 
fall out in an English mouth. As early as 1808,^^ in a licence to 
Matilda, widow of Walter de Culy (to grant in fee her manor of 
Sherendeye, county Warwick, held in capite of the king), the name is 
practically in its present form ; while as late as the latter part of 
Edward the third's reign, another Walter, son perhaps of Walter and 
Matilda, witnessing a charter of Geva, daughter of Hugh, earl of 
Chester, spells his name Cuilli.'* They were essentially a family of 
soldiers and their attachment to the early house of Lancaster in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was quite remarkable, and would 
be instructive could their devotion to this line of Plantagenet be 

^ Ex in/ortnatione my late father, who had his information from the older 
generation. 

" Title Deeds of Coupland. " Ibid, 

" Col, Pat, RolU^ Edward II. ** Dugale's Monasticon. 



178 COU^LANi) CASTttl. 

construed into a desire for a more constitutional form of government 
than that adopted by Edward the second. There seem to be strong 
reasons for believing that the first settlement of this family in the 
north came about through their personal attendance on Thomas of 
Lancaster on his northern expeditions, when, it will be remembered, 
he was really strengthening his cause against his royal cousin Edward. 
Hugh de Cuilly was constable of Kenilworth castle under the earl ; 
was with him at Boroughbridge in 1821, and died a prisoner in 
Pontefract castle, where he was confined along with his unfortunate 
leader.^^ His widow, Joan de Cuilly, was restored to possession of her 
lauds by the king at Alnwick on the 9th August, 1322.3^ On the 
15th of December, 1880, a pardon was granted, at Westminster, with 
assent of parliament, to Roger de Cuylly^^ of a recognizance in £100. 
wherein he became bound by order of council on submitting himself 
to the king's will after the rebellion at Bedford. Two years later, 
Roger witnesses an inspeximus and confirmation of indenture (in 
French) at Leicester, of Henry, earl of Lancaster and Leicester, 
steward of England ^^; thus showing continued attachment to this line 
of the royal house. These and other notices of the family at this 
period in the Patent and Close Rolls and elsewhere give us interesting 
glimpses of the chequered lives, virtues, and vices of these Franco- 
English followers of our early kings. 

A member of this military race, Phillip de Cuylly, acquired one 
fourth part of the manor of Wynyard, near Stockton-on-Tees, in the 
palatinate of Durham, in the early years of the fourteenth century^^ ; 
not improbably through marriage with one of the several daughter 
and co-heirs of sir Hugh Capel of Wynyard. The sieur Phillip 
gave this fourth of Wynyard before 1316 to Roger and Alice de 
Fulthorpe ; but a little later in the same century several members of 
the Culley family had acquired lands within the neighbouring manor 
of Stockton, where they continued to hold in capite of the bishop, 
right down to the time of James I., by knight's service and the very 
interesting feudal tenure of presenting two hunting hounds to St. 
Cuthbert at the annual muster at Durham, on the fourth of 
September, the feast of St. Cuthbert's translation.*® This recalls the 

" Close Rolls, Edward II. ^ Ibid, 

" Vlose Bolls, Edward III. " Jbid, 

*• Surtees, Durham, iii. ** Ibid, 



COUi^LAND CASTLE. 



179 



privil^es and truly regal franchise of the palatinate, which conferred 
on the bishop of Durham the status of an independent sovereign, 
whose vassals held of him in chief, and owed no direct allegiance to the 
king of England. In this we trace the last remnant of a Northumbrian 
monarchy. Late in the seventeenth century, and in the early years 
of the eighteenth, the main stem of these Culleys of the palatinate 
became divided in the persons of two brothers, John and Matthew, 




COUPLAND CA.8TLB ABOUT 1800. 



into two lines, those of Beaumont hill and Denton. The elder line 
failed in male heirs, and the heiress carried the estate of Beaumont 
hill to the Harrisons, who, as Culley Harrisons of Newtown, county 
York, in their turn ended in two co-heiresses, the younger of whom, 
Anne, married in 1813 to the hon. Henry Butler (younger son of the 
eleventh viscount Mountgarret), whose grandson Henry Edmund, 
fourteenth viscount Mountgarret, now represents maternally this 
elder line of Culley. 



180 COtTPLAKD CASTLE. 

The Denton line, descended from the second brother, has thrown 
out a younger branch — that of Fowberry— which has twice within the 
last hundred years terminated in female heirs taking the name of 
Culley ; but the Coupland line has an unbroken male descent. 

Plate IX. (facing p. 170), is a reproduction of a drawing of 
Coupland castle before its restoration, from the valuable collection 
of the late sir David Smith. This drawing, however, seems not 
to be quite accurate ; the writer has therefore given another repre- 
sentation of the castle, reproduced on page 179, from a pencil 
sketch in an old album at Coupland which had belonged to a 
member of his family eighty or ninety years ago. This is, on 
the whole, a good picture of Coupland, as it must have been 
about the year 1800, and as it was when sir Walter Scott wrote of it 
from Langley Ford, near Wooler, in 1791,*^ * Behold a letter from the 
mountains. . . . We are amidst places renowned by the feats of 
former days ; each hill is crowned by a tower or camp or cairn, and 
in no situation can you be near more fields of battle : Flodden, 
Otterburn, Chevy Chase, Ford castle, Chillingham castle, Coupland 
castle, and many another scene of blood are within the compass of a 
forenoon's ride.' The architectural details of this sketch, with the 
exception of a fanciful multiplication of loopholes aud windows, is 
believed to be very fairly accurate. The illustration of the castle as it is 
to-day (plate viii.), showing the old restored towers, and the additions 
of the early part of last century, is from a photograph taken by Mr. 
William Green of Berwick ; the view is that of the east front. The 
south front, overlooking the glen and the hills is not shown, nor is the 
embattled wall, enclosing the court yard and terminating in a small 
tower, to the north. 



*» Lockhart, Life of Sir Walter ScoU, 1. 182-3. 




^ i 



111 

I 
H 

© 

z 



I 

s 



181 



XI.— THE MIDSUMMER BONFIRE AT WHALTON. 

By the Rev. J. Walker, Hon. Canon of Newcastle 

and Rector of Whalton. 

[Read on the 25th November, 1903.] 

In the quiet village of Whalton there survives a custom the 

origin of which is unknown by those who perpetuate it year by year, 

and is perhaps only guessed at by the antiquary and the student. 

Every year on the fourth of July as the sun goes down a huge bonfire 

is made and lighted on the village green, and this is done not only 

r^alarly as to time but with certain formalities as to the manner of 

it. We cannot aver that there is any organization for carrying out 

the ceremony, yet as the day approaches the question of the fire is 

mooted and discussed as well by the elders of the community as the 

more youthful. There is a general concensus that the custom must 

be kept up as heretofore, and thereupon some of the male adults 

begin to consider how and where the necessary faggots can be 

collected, and the more experienced, I mean those who have lived 

longest in the village and most often taken part in carrying on the 

eastern assume the position of leaders. Fallen trees will be noted, 

the thinnings of some plantation, or the remains of a demolished 

fence are bespoken, or often enough permission is asked and readily 

given to cot down the whin bushes on some * outby ' common or barren 

land. The young men with the chosen leader will give a few evenings 

to the collection and preparation of the faggots. Then on the 

evening of the fourth of July with the same ceremony year after year, 

the faggots are brought into the village and deposited upon precisely 

the same part of the village green. A long cart is borrowed from 

some farmer, long ropes are procured, and all the young men and 

many boys of the village proceed with the cart to the place or places 

where the faggots have been collected and load the cart. Then one 

or two of the strongest take the shafts, the rest are yoked to the cart 

by the long ropes, and with much noise and shouting, with the 

blowing of a horn by one seated on the top of the load, it is brought 

into the village. The scene as a huge load of faggots is run down 

the village is an exciting one, and on one occasion in my memory 



182 THE MIDSUMMER BONFIRE AT WHALTON. 

there was a narrow escape from a serious accident. You must 
imagine a cart with a huge pile of faggots, a youth seated on the top 
blowing a horn, one or two men holding the shafts, twenty or thirty 
men and boys dragging by means of a rope the great load and running 
down the village shouting and laughing, and in their excitement 
almost beyond the control of the leader in the shafts. No horse is 
ever used, and mostly two of these immense loads of faggots, as high 
as a load of straw, are used in the building up of the bonfire. The 
pile is carefully constructed with the expenditure of considerable 
energy and some skill. It is always constructed on the same site, 
hardly varying a yard from year to year. And the place for the fire 
is not the highest or most commanding station in the village. Then 
with the building up of the pile of branches and faggots a remarkable 
scene takes place, the whole village grows interested, old men and 
women, young men and maidens, and the children, begin to gather in 
groups and watch the proceedings impatient till, as the twilight 
deepens and the pile of faggots has been carefully prepared and 
examined, the word is given to ' light her.' The feminine as usual 
being the formula used. Then the children joining hands will form a 
moving circle round the burning pile. This is not as much observed 
as it was some twenty-live years ago. Still you may see the children 
racing round the fire with rather more formality than might be seen 
perhaps at an ordinary bonfire. Meanwhile the groups of people 
gather nearer the fire, and presently as the fire begins to burn and the 
flame mounts higher till it illuminates the whole village, a fiddle 
or some other instrument is heard and the young people begin to 
dance in the near neighbourhood of the fire. I have never waited 
until the fire has burnt down to the ground, but I have heard that 
then it was not unknown for some to leap over the fire. At present 
the only usual formalities are the bringing of the faggots, the building 
of the pile on the traditionary site, the lighting as the twilight 
deepens, the dancing either round or in the neighbourhood of the fire. 
There is always, too, a quantity of * sweeties ' and ' bullets ' scattered 
and scrambled for by the children. 

And I would like to mention how regularly my predecessor, the 
Rev. J. Elphinstone Elliot Bates, with Mrs. Bates, used to proceed 
arm in arm down the village to see the fire lighted and to exchange 




o 



X 



uj g 



h 
o 
o 
o 

< 



THE MIDSUMMER BONFIRE 4.T WHALTON. 183 

greetings with the several groups of villagers, adding a charming 
feature to the picturesqueness of the scene. 

It is still a quaint scene and interesting to witness and take part in. 

Old men over 80 years of age have told me that they never knew 
the fire omitted or the custom fail. There is a tradition that twice 
the fire was postponed to the next evening because of the ' great rain ' 
bat it was never omitted— and these old men, one of whom 80 years 
of age and upwards had never slept out of the village but twice in his 
life, asserted that they had received the same story from their elders — 
on the other hand, oddly enough, I have never come across a written 
record or printed account of the custom. There was some opposition 
to it within my own memory but the fire was lighted all the same. 
The old thatched cottages have disappeared, more modern dwellings 
have been built, migration and immigration take place, but whatever 
the changes this custom survives. 

One factor in its unbroken continuance is, T think, found in the 
enduring aflfection of the people for the village. They leave it only 
of necessity, they return to it again whenever it is possible, and a 
few years ago there were I think more old men and women whose 
lives have been lived in the village than in any similar community. 

Another factor is doubtless the comparative isolation of the 
village, it lies some distance irom the old coach road and is still but 
little afifected by the railway, the nearest station being two miles 
distant, and we are not likely to be troubled yet with either trams or 
light railways. 

This year in consequence of a conversation with Sir Benjamin 
Stone, kt., he did us the honour of coming down to witness the fire. 
The 4th of July, Old Midsummer Day, occurred on Saturday, and at 
my request those who are usually most active in carrying out the 
proceedings gave Sir Benjamin a daylight rehearsal, and he took quite 
a number of groups. It is but fair to say that those groups are just 
such as could be witnessed in the evening any year. Beyond the 
mere pause of the procession shall I call it, and a little arranging to 
bring the groups within the focus of the camera, and perhaps the 
addition of one figure in the group you have a picture of the 
annual event just as it happens year after year. Sir Benjamin on 
this occasion set the fire alight, and one of the photographs is taken 

TOL, XXV. 26 



184 THE MIDSUMMER BONFIRE AT WHALTON. 

just as it is getting hold of the pile. I have not got the group of 
children as they run round the fire, but a whole series of these photo- 
graphs was sent to me and I have had them framed and hung in the 
village reading room. Sir Benjamin also gave me a sufficient number 
of copies to give one to each of the more active participators in the 
carrying out of the proceedings. 

I know of no other village or place where the custom is observed 
now, but the late Mr. Thomas Arkle of Highlaws, told me he had 
known those who had witnessed the observance at Elsdon. and there 
is some tradition of its being observed years ago at Belsay. 

One or two observations may be permitted in conclusion. And 
first it seemed undesirable to discuss the possible origin of the custom, 
that it is very ancient there can be no doubt. Traditionary evidence 
is very strong. It is now practised without any superstitious feeling, 
although it has been reported to me that there has in times past been 
a stealthy appropriation of the ashes, and while it is extremely 
doubtful and indeed improbable that the fire has anything to do 
with the Baal or Molech of the Old Testament ; yet it may be a witness 
of the extent to which the use of fire for purification prevailed 
either among British or Anglian races and perhaps in both. 

NOTE. 

^ Beltane adopted in Lowland Scotch from Gaelic (bralltaina) ; Irish brail - 
tame, the Celtic name of the Ist of May ; older forms beltene (in a text), 
belltaine, beltine in Cormac's Glossary (9th to 12th cent.). The first is pro- 
bably the earliest quotable form of the word of which the original meaning 
seems to have been unknown even to the Glossorist since he makes a desperate 
guess at it by transposing beltine or biltene into tenebil, and explaining bil as 
* Bil from Bial, i.e.^ an idol god, evidently meaning the Bal or Baal of the O.T., 
so that beltine became fire of Bel ? or Baal.' Dr. Whitley Stokes has shown 
that the latter part of the word is not ' teine * fire, since this is a f stem 
(old text tened) while Beltene is a fem. ja stem. Whether it can be parallel 
derivative of the same root or whether as is more likely the notion that * taine ' 
was = * teine ' fire is due thereby to popular etymology cannot be determined. 
The ancient Gauls kindled bonfires not only on Beltane but also on Lammas 
and Hallowmas (the rubbish about Baal, Bel, Belas, imported into the word 
from the O.T. and classical antiquity, is outside the scope of scientific 
etymology). 

1. — The first day of May (reckoned since 1752 according to 0. S.), old 
May day of Church Feast, invention of the Cross, May 3. Whit Sunday May 16. 

3. — Name of j^n ancient Celtic anniversary celebration on May day. 

r^T^ie New ^ngli4sh J)ictionary^ sub voc. 



Arch. A el., vol. xxv, to face p. 185. 




THE LATE PROFESSOR THEODOR MOMMSEN, 



AN HONORARY MEMBER OK THE SOCIETY. 



185 



XII.— OBITUARY NOTICES. 

].— THEODOR MOMMSEN, HoNOBABY Member. 

BY F. HAVBRFIBLD, P.S.A. 

[Read on the 25th November, 1903.] 

Our age has lost its greatest scholar, full of years. Born in 
1817, Theodor Mommsen spanned the nineteenth century with his 
gigantic contributions to learning. His life was simple but 
aignificant. A German of Schleswig-Holstein, educated till his 
twenty-seventh, year within the duchy, the straggle of Dane and 
German gave a reality to his national feeling which lasted throughout 
his career. A student of law at Kiel university, a friend of Otto 
Jahn — then concerned with the rising study of inscriptions — he 
touched thus early the two subjects in which later his learning was 
most triumphant. Three yeai-s of student travel in Italy (1844-7) 
emphasized for him the value of inscriptions, and brought him face 
to face with Borghesi, the projector himself of a Corpus Inscriptionum 
and greatest of living epigraphists. He began to write abundantly, 
and was already known as a scholar of extraordinary powers and 
activity. In 1848 he became professor of Roman law at Leipsic, but 
the February revolution gave him other work. He helped the 
Holsteiners against the Danes ; he took the Liberal side in internal 
German struggles, and as a result in 1850 he lost his professorship. 
He thus learnt the real character of a revolutionary epoch. Wandering 
about, first at Zurich university, then at Breslau, he nevertheless 
continued his work. In 1852 came his first great epigraphic book, 
the folio containing the ' Inscriptions of the Kingdom of Naples.' 
In 1854-6 the ' Roman History ' followed. Its success was immense ; 
in less than ten years it had been translated into most European 
languages. In 1858 he settled at Berlin, to live in a quiet suburb for 
nearly half a century. Politics still had his attention. He sat in the 
Landtag at intervals till 1882, fiercely opposing Bismarck's domestic 
policy till a prosecution caused his retirement. Occasionally he 
stepped into foreign affairs, criticising the French in 1870, the Czechs 



186 OBITUARY NOTICE OF 

in 1897, the English in 1900. But he was politician only because he 
felt deeply. His real life was that of the scholar on the greatest 
scale. He wrote, organized, made others write. He created the 
great OorpuB Inscriptionum Latinarum that now stretches to more 
than twenty stately folios ; nearly half he compiled himself, the rest 
— no less a hard task — he made others compile. He re-edited the 
Digest, and half a dozen other ' trifles.' In 1871 he began to set the 
Eoman constitution on a new basis by the first volume of his 
* Staatsrecht.' In 1885 he described the Roman provinces in a fifth 
volume of his history, largely based on epigraphic evidence and 
possible only to the editor of the Corpus. So late as 1899 he issued 
a monumental work on Roman criminal law, and up to the last he 
continued a rapid succession of monographs small and large. All the 
while he was organizing other research. The vast group of great 
collections which the Berlin academy and other German institutions 
are now editing— the ' Monumenta Germaniae Historica,' and many 
more — owe much, some of them everything, to his initiating energy 
and organizing ability. Quite lately old age had threatened to touch 
him, and the illness of his wife made his days anxious. But his eye 
was not yet dim when the death that he had been dreading for another 
came suddenly to himself. 

His was a unique intellect, remarkable before all things for its 
combination of sensitive, excitable, imaginative humanity with 
accurate, methodical, unwearying precision. In him alone, since 
Gibbon, the creative and the critical elements fully met. .The result 
was, in the first place, an astonishing intellectual vigour and an 
unparalleled output of work. Fifteen years ago his publications had 
reached 1,000 in number, and while some of these weje little things, 
others were huge folios. But more, he could organize. He could 
conceive a great co-operative scheme combining many labourers in it, 
could inspire, drive, or coerce them to fulfil their tasks, and control 
the minutiae of the undertaking to a safe conclusion. Few scholars, 
I imagine, and, perhaps, not many business men, have shown such 
practical power and imperative force. 

And in virtue of these qualities he has done a work which is 
diflBcult to realize for its very size. No one remembers what the 
condition of Roman history was before Mommsen. Outside the 



PROFESSOE THEODOR MOMMSEN. l8t 

merely elegant and agreeable study of poetical texts there is no section 
of Roman antiquities which he has not illumined or even transmuted. 
In particular, he has begun and well-nigh perfected the use of 
inscriptions as the basis for the true narrative of the Roman empire, 
showing alike how to collect them and how to understand the mass of 
collected detail. No less important is his work on Roman con- 
stitutional law. There were constitutional writers before him as 
there will be others after him. But the logic and legal intuition, 
the grasp and completeness, of his ' Staatsrecht,' mark a real epoch. 









FACHIMILB OF SIGNATURE AND PORTION OF LETTER OF THE LATK PROFESSOR MOMMBEN. 

By his death our society loses one of its oldest and most 
distinguished honorary members (elected in 1883). It was appropriate 
that he should be an honorary member of this and of other English 
archaeological societies. For he had a sincere regard for our counti y, 
and, though he did not admire all our statesmen (he disliked Gladstone 
and Chamberlain about equally), he desired amity between England 
and Germany, and had many English friends. He took a vivid interest, 
too, in our northern antiquities of Roman date. He recognized 
that our Wall and nailitary inscriptions were most valuable evidences 
both for the history of the Roman army and for the history of the 



188 OBITUARY NOTICE OF 

imperial frontier defences. In particular he hoped that further com- 
parisoQ of our Wall and the German Limes would iUuminate each work. 
'Though you won't enter the Triple Alliance (and you are quite 
right), I hope, regarding the Walls, the two nations will combine their 
researches and every discovery made on either side of the sea will be 
an appeal to the other.' So he wrote to me some years ago, a prqpos 
of excavations on our Wall, and though the recent course of discovery 
has tended rather to reveal differences than similarities between the 
two frontiers, it has also shown that a knowledge of the one is a real 
help to a better understanding of the other. 



2.~WILFRED JOSEPH CHIPPS, C.B., F.S.A, 
BY T. M. FALLOW, F.S.A. 

I have been asked to say a few words about my old and valued 
friend, Mr. Wilfred Cripps, author of ' Old English Plate,' the news 
of whose decease on October 26th came as a heavy and unexpected 
shock to his many friends. 

Although Mr. Cripps was seriously ill three years ago, and had 
never recovered his former vigour, the end came with unlocked for 
suddenness. He had been confined to bed since September, but this 
was not widely known, and I was myself unaware of it. That there 
was any imminent danger was only made known to his fellow-townsmen 
at the evening service in Cirencester church on Sunday, October 25th, 
when prayers were offered on his behalf. He passed away at three 
o'clock on the following morning. 

Mr. Wilfred Joseph Cripps, C.B., was the head of a very old 
Cirencester family, members of which began to take a prominent part 
in the affairs of the town in the reign of queen Elizabeth. As time 
went on, the family became more and more prosperous and 
wealthy. 

Mr. Cripps's grand-father, Mr. Joseph Cripps, represented 
Cirencester in parliament from 1806 to 1841. On his death in the 
latter year he was succeeded in the representation of the borough by 
his eldest son, Mr. William Cripps, the father of the subject of this 
memoir. Mr. William Cripps was at one time a Peelite * whip,' and 



Arch. Ael„ voJ, xxv, to face i). 168. 



Plate xiir. 




THE LATE WILFRED J. CRIPPS, C.B., F.S.A. 

From a Photograph by Elliott & Fry of London. 



WILFRED JOSEPH CRIPPS, C.B., F.S.A, 189 

was a lord of the treasury at the time of the Repeal of the Corn Laws. 
Mr. WiUiam O'ripps married his cousin, Miss Mary Anne Harrison. 
She was descended from ' Parson Harrison/ who held the living of 
Cirencester for the lon.^ period of 63 years (1690-1753), and was a 
sister of the late Benjamin Harrison (of our own day), archdeacon of 
Maidstone and canon of Canterbury. By this marriage Mr. William 
Oripps had four children — three sons and a daughter. Of the sons Mr. 
Wilfred Cripps was the eldest. He was born in 1841, and is survived 
by his sister only, both his younger brothers having predeceased him. 
Mr. Cripps graduated at Trinity college, Oxford, in 1868, and was 
called to the bar two years later. Although he joined the Oxford circuit 
he soon retired from active legal work, and settled down to the life of 
a country gentleman doing much useful work both on the county 
council and as a justice of the peace. He received the distinction 
of a civil companionship of the Bath in 1887. Mr. Cripps was 
twice married, first to a daughter of the late Mr. J. R. Daniel-Tyssen. 
She died in 1881. He married secondly the countess Helen 
Bismarck, a relative of the famous German chancellor. His second 
wife sunrives him. 

It is, however, of his antiquarian work that I ought more 
particularly to speak. 

I first became acquainted with Mr. Cripps in the early part of 
1877, when he was collecting materials for the now well-known book 
Old English Plate. For some time previously I had been examining 
old ecclesiastical plate in Yorkshire and noting the hall-marks on it. 
Mr. Cripps heard of this and eventually a correspondence began 
between us on the subject, and a friendship ensued which lasted till 
Mr. Cripps's decease. Letters and boxes of sealing wax impressions of 
hall-marks passed for many years almost daily between us, and I am not 
exaggerating if I say that we must have written some thousands of 
letters to one another about plate during the last quarter of a century. 
We did not so often meet, and it was only when we were both in 
London together that we did so, and I regret now, very much, that I 
never managed to accept Mr. Cripps's invitation, again and again 
repeated, to visit him at Cirencester. 

The information I was mainly able to send to Mr. Cripps, before 
other fellow workers came on the scene, related tp York and Newcastle 



190 OBITUARY NOTICE OF 

plate. It was our joint work which allocated the half leopard head 
and half fleur-de-lis mark to York. The compilation of the tables of 
York date-letters involved a great deal of planning and no little 
research. I have fortunately preserved Mr. Cripps's earlier letters 
dealing with this detail of the work, and his tentative schemes of the 
tables of York date-letters sent ' for your private eye only,' as he put 
it. Mr. Cripps was justly proud of this part of his work, and 
jealously (and successfully) guarded the copyright iu it against one or 
two persons who thought fit to attempt to produce it in publications 
of their own with doubtiul additions and * improvements.* 

As regards Newcastle Mr. Thomas Sewell, at one time warden of 
the Goldsmiths' company, gave a good deal of assistance, and a 
suggested list of Newcastle date-letters since 1702, compiled by him, 
formed the basis of the tables given in the first edition of Old 
Entflish Platp. 

I have a letter from Mr. Cripps by me, dated May 24, 1877, 
written prior to a special visit I paid to Newcastle to examine the 
church plate there. He says, * Thank you for your letter. I think, 
in reply, I had better send you the sheet of Newcastle letters kindly 
given me by Mr. Sewell whose name is at the bottom of it. The 
early cycles want some correction I believe, and you will not be able 
to square the Otley mark with any on the list. Mr. Sewell has a col- 
lection of marks which I daresay he would let you look over. The 
church plate may give us the old Newcastle mark [before 1697] and 
perhaps a few date letters. My clerical correspondent in Newcastle, 
is the Rev. T. A. Stoodley, Lovaine place. He has kindly promised 
to help me in the church plate line. I do not know him personally, 
but heard that he was interested in this sort of thing and wrote to 
him.' This is the earliest allusion to any definite enquiry i^bout 
Newcastle plate, and I may add, that both Mr. Cripps and I had ex- 
pected to find that a town mark of a Catherine wheel which occurs 
up and down Yorkshire, might prove to be the old Newcastle mark. 
It is still unidentified, while the later researches of others have 
established what the old Newcastle mark was. The publication of the 
book on the old church plate of the diocese of Carlisle, gave a fresh 
impetus to the study of a subject, which, twenty-five years ago, 
had only attracted the attention of two or three antiquaries in 



WILFRED JOSEPH CBIPPS, C.B., F.8.A. 191 

different parts of the country. Since then, workers in this field of 
archaeology have been numerous, and much excellent work has been 
done. In Northumberland and Durham the old church plate has 
been carefully examined by Mr. Blair and others, and it will not be 
forgotten that Mr. Cripps summed up their labours in a paper which 
he contributed to Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xvi. 

The care and pains which Mr. Cripps took in regard to plate and 
hall-marks in the north of England, was the same which he expended 
throughout the country. He was constantly collecting facts, and 
patiently and laborioasly studying them, with the result that when 
Old English Plate appeared, it at once took a position from which 
it has never been dislodged. I believe no other work on any archae- 
ological subject has ever before proved such a success, or has gone 
through eight editions in so comparatively short a period, and I am 
glad to hear from Mr. Cripps's widow that her great lo^s will not 
interfere with the preparation of the ninth edition, to be followed 
probably by many others. 

It was not only old plate which interested Mr. Cripps. Of late 
years he had fitted up a museum attached to his house, in which he 
collected together a large number of Roman ' finds ' which had been 
made at Cirencester. Mr. Cripps was elected a Fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries of London in June, 1880, and when in town fre- 
quently attended the meetings of the society. He was also a few 
years ago made a member of the Goldsmiths* Company of London. 

There is much else I could have said, but this notice has run to 
too great a length as it is. Otherwise I should have liked to have 
spoken of Mr. Cripps's generosity, not to say munificence, shown to his 
native town and its institutions. In the Cirencester Parish Magazine 
there is a cordial and touching reference by the vicar to Mr. Cripps's 
* earnest old fashioned piety.' 

His last letter to me, dated August 8rd, 1908, bears a very friendly 
allasion to Mr. Taylor of Chipchase castle, and ends with the words, 
never, alas, to be fulfilled, ' I will write again soon '. 



25a 



192 

XIlA.— DEED POLL OF PROPERTY IN NEWCASTLE. 

By deed poll dated 12th June, 1634, the origiual of which is in the 
collections of Mr. Richard Welford, M.A., George Taillor of New- 
castle, barber, gave to John Blenkinsopp of Newcastle, merchant, a 
tenement in the Iron Market there, which had been granted to him on 
the 20th June, 1500, by John Goldsborough, chaplain of St. Katherine's 
chantry in St. Nicholas's church, upon condition of annual payments 
of 188. 4d. to the grantor and his successors ; 6s. 2d. to John 
Lawes, another priest of the same chantry and his successors ; and 
6d. to the chaplain of the chantry of the Virgin in the same church 
— 20s. altogether. The followin«i: extracts from the document 
(which is too long for entire transcription), give the position of the 
property and the conditions of the grant :— 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad Quos hoc presens Scriptum peraenit, Georgius 
Taillor ville Novicastri super tinam Barber Sal u tern in domino sempiternam. 
Quod cum Johannes Goldesburghe nuper capellanus perpetuus cantarie ad altare 
sancte Eatherine in BccFia 8ancti Nich'i in villa Novicastri predict* cum 
consensu et voluntate Ric'i hardinge Armigeri veri patroni cantarie predict' 
tradidit concessit et ad feodi firmam dimisit michi prefat* Georgio taillor totum 
iUud ten*t' cum sine pertinen* prout scituat' est in dicta villa in vico vocat' le 
Iron Market inter ten*t* quondam Matilde Robynson et modo in tenura Henrici 
Cooke pic tori 8 ex parte australi et ten't' Will™ Johnsonne modo in tenura 
Mathei Stephansonne ex parte boriali et extend' se a vico predict' ex parte 
orient* usque ad le comune gutter ex parte occidentali per suas rect* diuisas 
.... Reddend' iuiie annuatim Jobannl Goldesburghe et Buccessoribus 
sius capellanis perpetuis cantarie predict* tresdecem solidos et quatuor den'ios 
ad festa sancti martini in yeme et pent' [illegible] per equales porciones 
inp*p'um. Et Jobanni lawes capellano perpetuo cantarie ad dictum altare 
Sancte Katherine in diet' eccl'ia et successoribus suis capellanis perpetuis diet' 
cantarie sex solidos et duo den'ios annuatim ad festa predict' inp*p*um. Et 
capellano perpetuo cantarie ad altare beate marie virgine in eccl'ia . . . 
predict' sex denarios annuatim inp'p'um ad festa predict' prout in quibusdam 
Indenturis inde confect' et sigillat' quarum dat* est vicesimo die Junii Anno 
Regni Reg^s [HenriciJ septum [sie"] quinto-decimo plenius liquet et apparet. 
[Various covenants follow]. In cuius Testimonium huic prescnti scripto meo 
sigillum meum apposuit. Dat' duodecimo die Junii Anno Regni Regis Henrici 
uctam vicesimo sexto. [Seal missing]. 

In the hooks of the Iklerchants Company of Newcastle, edited by 
M.V. F. W. Dendy (101 publ. Surt. Soc, p. 187), John Blenkmsopp 
appears as apprenticed to Henry Bednell in 1517-18, enrolled 
1522-28, and admitted 1524-25. In the same volume, p. 160, 
George Taillor, barber, occurs as paying 40s. for licence to sell all 
manner of corn. Both Blenkinsopp and Taillor are entered in a 
muster of the fencible inhabitants of Newcastle in 1589. the former 
with a jack, a coat plate and a bow, and the latter with a jack, a 
steel cap and a bow. The chaplains, Goldsborough and Lawes 
answered to their names at a visitation in Gateshead church on the 
16th November, 1502. 




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193 



XIIL— EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN 
WALL IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 

THE BOMAW CAMP AT HOUSESTBADS. 

BY R. C. BOSANQUET, F.S.A. 
HISTORY OF THE SITE. 

The recent history of the Roman station of borcovicium begins 
almost ex^tly two hundred years bef oj*e the excavations which it is 
the purpose of this report to record, on April 2nd, 1698, when Thomas 
Gibson * agreed ^ifch Nicholas Armstrong and John Mitchelson for the 
purchase of Housestjeads, which estate, on May 10th and 11th in the 
same year, was conveyed to his son Greorge.'^ 

A hundred years earlier Oamden had to forego visiting this part of 
the Wall. He speaks of the district between Oaervoran and Walwick 
much as we speak of Albania tq-day— ' I could not with safety take 
the full survey of it, for the rank robbers thereabouts.' ^ The Nicholas 
Armstrong who sold Housesteadff in 1698 was amongst the last of 
those ' lawless thieves and robbers, commonly called moss-troopers,' 
who infested Tynedale up to the close of the seventeenth century.^ 
The change of ownership brought Hpusesteads within the pale of 
civilization, and it-was not long before its Roman remains were made 
known to the learned world in a letter from Christopher Hunter to 
Dr. Martin Lister, pj'inted in the Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society (vol. xxiii. p. 1131). It is dated Stockton, May 15th, 
1702, and is accomi)anied by. sketches of inscriptions. After speaking 
of an inscribed slab and a vaulted room discovered at Chesterholm, 
' in a field called the Bower ^ he proceeds : — 

' Hodgson, Northumherlar^, part ii. vol. iii. pp. 393 — 6, pedigree of Gibson 
of Corbridge, Stoneproft, and Stagshaw-close-house, a family which in the 
eighteenth century gave several bishops to the Roman Catholic church. 
George Gibson, the first of Housesteads, joined in the rising of 1716, and died 
in prison the following year. 

* It is thought that he refers to Housesteads under the name of Chester-in- 
the-Wall. Stukeleyi however, gives the name of Chester-o»-the-Wall to ^sica. 

' Hodgson, loc, cit. p. 384. * A notorious thief, and under sentence of death 
in 1703.' 

VOL. XXV. 26 



194 Excavations At HousfisTEADs : 

The other inscriptions were all found near the HousesteadSy a Place so called 
from the abundance of Ruins ; this is about half a mile from Btisy Gap towards 
the West, and is placed just within the Roman Wall. Among the Ruins I found 
several Pedestals, two or three Pillars, two Images, but somewhat defaced. 
The Stone Tab. 1, No. 2, lies against a Hedge a quarter of a mile from this 
place. That marked Tab. 1, No. 3, tho' only part of an Altar, I thought 
worthy transcribing, because I am in hopes of recovering the other part as soon 
as Harvest is over, this part having been tore up by the Plough. The two 
Altars, Tab. 1, Nos. 4 and 5, are very legible ; I found them on a rising ground 
South of the Ifovsesteads ; they call it Chapel hill, and suppose a Foundation, 
which is visible there, to have been a Chapel ; and say that within the memory of 
their Fathers they used to bury their dead here : I dare not determine in this 
point.* 

The mention of the * plough ' and of * harvest ' goes far to explain 
how the * inscriptions, broken pillars, statues, and other pieces of 
sculpture,' which so astonished Alexander Gordon a few years later, 
came to be *all scattered along the ground.' In 1698, to judge from 
the modest sum of £58 which Thomas Gibson paid for it, the estate 
of Housesteads may have been an unenclosed and uncultivated waste. 
But in 1702 the new tenant was growing corn in the rich valley to the 
south of the camp. That implies some sort of enclosure, which again 
implies search for stones with which to build a wall, and accounts for 
the two *very legible' altars which Hunter saw on the Ohapel-hill. 
Year by year, as spade and plough explored the burial-ground and the 
forgotten shrines of the Roman garrison, the number of these monu- 
ments increased. Six years after Hunter's visit the anonymous author 
of Gertain Observations upon the Pkls-wall^ in a Journey made between 
Newcastle and Carlisle^ in the year 1708, on purpose to Survey it, 
which are incorporated in the later editions of Camden, gives a far 
longer catalogue : — 

Vast quantities of Roman altars with inscriptions have been dug up, as also 
abundance of images of their gods, several coins, etc. Seven or eight Roman 
altars are standing there now, being lately dug up, three or four of which have 
their inscriptions pretty plain and legible ; one is dedicated to Hercules, another 
to Jupiter and Numinibus, others to other deities, and all by the Cohors Prima 
Tungrorum which kept garrison here. I saw there also a great number of 
statues. 

* Of the inscriptions referred to, No. 2 is C.I.L. vii, 693, a long and obscure 
tomb-inscription. No. 3, C.I.L. 658, a dedication mentioning the Sixth Legion. 
Nos. 4 and 5, C.I.L. 640 and 638, altars dedicated I.O.M et numinibus Au(f, 
by Q, Verius Supergte/t and Q. Julius Maximus respectively. Lapidarium, pp. 
197, 194, 172 and 173. 



HISTORY OF THE SITE. 



195 



To quote the whole of this description, or of those which Gordon, 
Sfcukeley, and Horsley have left us, would take up too much space. 




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Fio. 1.— HOU8ESTBADS AND ITS suRBOUNDiNtis (Scale about 1*5000). 

The monuments which they saw have been identified, and for the most 
part figured, in the Lapidarium Septmtrionale. It will be sufficient to 
state the results of a careful comparison of the five accounts. The 



196 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

dates of their visits are : Hunter 1702, the Anonymous 1708, Gordon 
1724, Stukeley 1725, and Horsley before 1730. 

(1) Although nowadays there is little to see outside the actual 
fort, the early visitors saw traces of buildings extending far along the 
hill-side and valley to the south and east. * The extent of this city,' 
according to the Anonymous, ' is almost seven hundred yards one way 
and about four hundred from north to south the other ; it lies all 
along the side of a pretty steep hill ; but that part of the valley where 
the vallum or square trench seepis to have been, is not by far so large.' 
The ' vallum ' is here the camp-wall, which encloses an area of two 
hundred by one hundred and twenty yards. Gordon mentions 
' vestiges of streets which appear to cover above eight acres of ground 
in one place,' and Horsley * visible ruins of streets and buildings ' in 
' a field south-east of the station.' 

(2) The altars and sculpture which they saw were then lying in 
the valley, and had been found there, not in the camp.^ We can 
determine with some probability the spots from which they came. 
Thus, all accounts concur in placing at least two altars dedi- 
cated I.O.M. et numinibm Aug, on the Chapel-hill, in connexion 
with a supposed temple of which the foundations were still visible : 
and the figures of the Mother Goddesses on the bank of the Knag- 
burn, at the spot where a column of great size figured with other 
stones in Bruce's Roman Wall (plate xi.) is still lying. The two sites 
are expressly distinguished by the Anonymous, who, after describing 
several pieces of sculpture, including a relief of Victory and another of 
an archer, which are now in the Blackgate museum, and the group of 
MatreSy which is now at Minsteracres, continues : — 

Near the place where all these amd other rarities were found there was also a 
column above two yards in length and two feet in diameter, lying sunk in the 
ground at one end. The people of the place have a tradition of some great 
house or palace that was at this place. This is at the southernmost part of 
the east end of the city in a bottom ; three hundred yards west of which , 
upon a little eminence, are to be seen the foundations of a lioman temple 
but the inhabitants call it the Chapel-steed. Here lie two Boman altars, etc. 

Horsley describes the group of Matres as lying ' about a furlong or 
less to the east, near the side of a brook, and close to a hedge/ 

* The relief (Zap. Sept. 234) of three nymphs is an exception. Horsley 
expressly states that ^e saw it in the camp. 



HISTORY OF THE SITE. 197 

Hodgson noticed that here, 'on the west side of the Knagg-burn, 
where it enters the inges, the ground is irregular, with the remains 
of considerable buildings.'^ Gordon saw this triple group as well 
as two single figures of the same type * in a field at the east end of 
this old town.' Three other single figures have come to light since, and 
the five are now in the Blackgate museum. It has been conjectured 
that the column which alone remains upon the spot had rolled down 
the hill ; but the evidence rather indicates that a temple of the Mother 
Goddesses, such as is known from inscriptions to have existed at 
Benwell and at Oastlesteads,^ once stood here upon the bank of the 
stream. As for the altars and supposed temple^ on the Chapel-hill, 
the discovery in 1822 of the altars and temple of Mithras at its 
west end, and in 1885 of the altars of Mars Thingsus on its northern 
slope, and the fact that at other stations similar groups of altars have 
been found outside the camp, make it clear that this hillock was the 
religious centre of the settlement. The series of altars dedicated by 
successive commanders of the garrison, whidh came to light in the 
early years of the eighteenth century, may have stood in a conspicuous 
position on its top, while the shrines of Mars and Victory, Mithras, 
and others, occupied lower ground in the immediate neighbourhood. 

(8) The discovery of these monuments, and the partial obliteration 
of the extensive house-steads which the early travellers noticed, seem 
to have been due to the process of bringing waste land under cultiva- 
tion, to the removal of foundations that impeded the plough and the 
collection of materials for walls, not to direct antiquity-hunting. 
There was a little desultory digging.^ Gordon and sir John Clark 
* caused the place to be dug where we were then sitting amidst the 
ruinous streets of this famous oppidum^ and found another small 
statue of a soldier,' which the engraving enables us to identify with 

• Arch, Ael, o.s. 1. 271. 

• Benwell, C.LL. vil, 510, a temple ot the three Matres Campestres, restored 
by a prefect of Ala I Asturum in 238 a.d. Castlesteads, ih, 887, a temple of the 
Matres omnimn gentium restored by a centurion. Lajfidarium, pp. 22 and 441. 

• Gordon says that the foundations were circular, and this is not improbable. 
For circular buildings, which may have been temples, see the excavations at 
Ellenborough and Hardknott, C. and W. Trans.^ vol. v. p. 244 and vol. xii. p. 412. 

' * Researches for antiquities,* says Hodgson, ^ seem to have been first and 
afterwards more frequently made here than at any other station on the line of 
the Wall.' But anyone sufficiently interested to dig would have thought it worth 
while *o carry off the spoUs, 



198 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

a figure now at the Ohesters. And Warburton, who certainly du^ 
with some snccess at vindolana, is said to have opened the tumulos 
beside the military road at Housesfceads. Otherwise we hear nothing 
of excavation, and it is plain that antiquities were tolerated when 
chance brought them to the surface rather than deliberately sought 
for. Here is Stukeley's account of the state in which he found 
them : — 

When we were led lower down into the meadow we were surprised with the 
august scene of Romano- British antiquities, all in the most neglected condition: 
a dozen most beautiful altars ; as many fine basso-relievos^ nearly as big as the 
life, all tumbled in a wet meadow by a wall-side, and one on the top of another, to 
make up the wall of the close ; the basso-relievos^ some with their heads down 
the hill, particularly an admirable image of Victory, both arms knocked off ; 
one large soldier, a sepulchral stone, with his short sword hanging at his right 
side, the man told us was condemned to make a pig-trough on ; but some gentle- 
men, full timely, with a small sum for the present reprieved him. 

This pitiful description is borne out by plate 76 of his 
liinerarium Guriosum^ which is a very rough sketch of the site, 
entitled A Cumulus of Roman Antiquities at Houstmds^ taken from 
the east end of the Ohapel-hill ridge in September, 1725. In the 
foreground on the left is the ' Chapelstead ' strewn with altars, in 
the centre funeral monuments and other sculptures piled against the 
wall, to the right a group of Matres, while in the background rises 
the camp, brought unduly near, with a farmhouse standing in the 
south-west comer just where our excavation exposed its foundations. 

Proprietor succeeded proprietor, and still that wonderful collection 
of monuments was left lying in the open. A new fermhouse was 
built towards the end of the century^ and one of the Chapel-hill 
altars was dragged up to form the ' mantle-tree ' of the hearth. The 
group of Mother Goddesses found its way to the home of the 
Silvertops, who were connected with the Gibsons by marriage, at 
Minsteracres. But in 1810 Hodgson found most of the stones seen 
and described by Horsley still lying in the same field, and it was only 
about 1813 that George Gibson, the great-great-grandson of the 
original purchaser, removed them to Stagshaw-close-house. His 
name deserves to be held in honour, for he afterwards gave the whole 
series to the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, and so estabMshed the 
nucleus of the present collection. During that century of exposure 



HISTORY OF THE SITE. 199 

few had been broken up, despite Stukeley's ominous story of the 
pig-trough, fewer still removed from the ground, though in the last 
century it was quite the fashion to transport such antiquities to 
country houses. If the Gibsons took little interest in their open-air 
museum, they at least had some idea of its value and would neither 
have it destroyed nor dispersed. The orders under which George 
Gibson's dykers were working in 1822 when they discovered the 
Mithraeum — they might dig up ' any loose stones or old walls, on 
condition that they neither used nor destroyed any that were 
inscribed or curiously carved' — must have been traditional on the 
estate. 

The era of scientific enquiry began with John Hodgson, vicar of 
Hartburn, and author of the History of Northumberland. He had 
visited the camp in 1810 ; there is a graphic description of its ruins 
in the volume on Northumberland which he soon afterwards con- 
tritiuted to The Beauties of England and Wales, In June, 1822, 
his attention was specially drawn to the site by the discovery of the 
temple of Mithras ; and on July 23rd he undertook a small excava- 
tion, the first of several short campaigns. * At four different times,' 
he writes, ' I have attended researches at this station, thrice in 
company with the late Rev. A. Hedley, and once or twice with the 
Rev. James Eaine, Mr. Thomas Hodgson, and Mr. Henry Turner, 
but was each time driven from the ground by heavy rains.' He was 
a close and accurate observer, and his published descriptions of what 
was then discovered furnished useful clues to the excavators of 1898. 
By the kindness of his grandson, Mr. J. G. Hodgson, I have since . 
been allowed to make extracts from a journal containing sketches, 
plans, and rough notes jotted down upon the spot, which in some 
respects supplement the record in the History. These will be quoted 
in the description of the buildings to which they refer. Meanwhile 
it will be convenient to summarise the work done by these pioneers. 

1822, July 23. The western half of the South Gate was opened, and some 
steps near the middle of the camp, probably those on the north side of the 
Praetorium, were exB.mined,—Arch. Ael, 4to, I. 266. 

1830, July 7-9. Four men were employed in examining the projecting 
chamber on the east side of the South Gtate, the kiln built into the gate-tower, 
and the building north of the Praetorium containing asimilar kiln (block viii). 
The face of the Wall was cleared on Cuddy's Crag.— Jt)wr7i«i, Z, 75-82. Memoir, 
II. 175, 177. 



200 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

1831, June 13-15. Thirteen men were employed in continuing the excava- 
tion of the South Gate, and uncovering a hypocaust (block xv.) near the East 
Q&te,— Journal, Z, 264-272. Memoir^ II. 206. 

1833, July 16-19. The East Gate, a tower to the north of it and the West 
Gate were ex.&mined.— Journal, Z, 504-614. 

Although the very idea of excavation was new and strange, and 
Hodgson at first met with little local support, he was encouraged 
to persevere by the enlightened generosity of Henry Petrie, keeper 
of the records in the Tower of London.^® In 1830 he notes in his 
journal that of the friends for whose help and companionship he had 
hoped not one had come to join him. But enthusiasm such as his is 
contagious. In the following year his friends mustered in some 
force, and in 1833 the 'houking,' as he calls it, was no longer a 
private enterprise, but *a great digging,' undertaken and organized 
by a committee of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries.^^ 

In consequence, it may be supposed, of the death, in June, 1834, 
of George Gibson, the owner of Housesteads, who had given his 
cordial support to the excavations, work was not resumed that 
summer. Opposition on the part of the farmer at Housesteads, and 
the death in the following January of Anthony Hedley who had 
entertained the excavators at Chesterholm, contributed further to 
interrupt the researches that had been so successfully begun. In the 
last instalment of the History which Hod<rson lived to see published 
(part II. vol. iii. 1840), the memorable volume in which he 
declared Hadrian to have been the builder of the Wall, the results 
of the excavations of 1830-1833 were printed for the first time. 

'Thos. Gibson, merchant, inherited Housesteads from his brother 
George ; and in 1838 sold it to John Clayton, of Newcastle, esq.' 
This, one of the latest entries in Hodgson's latest volume, marks the 

*" Raine's Memoir, ii. p. 206 ; see also p. 152, a letter from Hodgson to 
Henry Petrie, written during a visit to London in May, 1829 : — 'As soon as I 
get home I will endeavour to embody the unpublished information I have 
respecting the Roman history of Britain, and will also seriously set about some 
diggings in our northern Roman stations, the result of which shall be com- 
municated to you,' and later letters, pp. 160, 165, 177, and 289. 

" At the annual meeting on February 5th, 1834, Hodgson read ' an elaborate 
report . . . with respect to the discoveries made in the month of June last by 
the committee appointed to superintend the investigation . . . for defraying 
the expenses of which a subscription had been entered into by the members of 
the Society and a few public-spirited individuals. Further proceedings in this 
celebrated station are contemplated during the present year.' — {GentlemarCs 
Magazine, 1834, I. p. 316). 



HISTORY OF THE SITE. 201 

beginning of that period in the annals of the Roman Wall which will 
always be associated with the names of John Clayton and John 
Oollingwood Bruce. The disinterment of the walls and gates of 
Housesteads was one of the great public services by which Mr. Clayton 
earned the gratitude of his own and future generations. Disinterment, 
his own word, most aptly describes the distinguishing characteristic 
of his excavations, the unflinching thoroughness which which his 
labourers were taught to expose walls down to their footings, replace 
fallen stones, cope the top with protecting turf, and remove all 
unsightly debris. Now it was a mile-castle, now a long stretch of the 




FIG. 2.— THE WEST GATE PROM THE INSIDE. 
(Excavated by Mr. John Clayton. J 

great Wall, now, as in the case of borcovicium, the ramparts, gates, and 
towers of a whole camp. Where Hodgson with his slender resources 
could only probe and trench, John Clayton, working on a larger scale, 
revealed and restored to his countrymen one of the greatest of our 
national monuments. 

Work at or near Housesteads seems to have been begun in 1849 or 
1850, and continued almost every summer until 1858. Progress was 
slow, Mr. Clayton's method being to entrust the excavation to a small 
number of highly-skilled workmen, whose accumulated experience in 
some measure made up for want of supervision. Dr. Bruce credits 

\rf\ r irir-v * * 



202 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

two of them — Anthony Place, whose grandson worked for us in 
1898, and Walter Rutherford — with having carried out a lai^e 
proportion of the work at Housesteads. Unfortunately they do not 
seem to have thought of recording the dimensions of the buildings 
which they uncovered, as was done by William Tailford, the 
skilled excavator who for many years worked under Mr. Clayton's 
orders at oiltjbntjm and pbocolitia, and is now custodian of the 
Chesters museum. In the absence of a contemporary plan it is im- 
possible to define the exact extent of the work done within the camp. 
The following dues are drawn from Dr. Bruce's Roman WaU^ the 
editions of 1861, 1868, and 1867 being referred to as (1), (2), and (8), 
the Archaeologia Aeliana, and the isolated volume erf Proceedings which 
was printed from, 1856 to 1857 : — 

I860. The west gate partly excavated. Plan and views in Bruce, Boinan Wall 
(1), p. 216 (preface dated January 1st, 1851). 

1851. June. The west gate * was being further and carefully excavated.* C. Boach 

Smith in OentlemarCs Magazine, November, 1851, p. 504. 

1852. The south gate. *The rubbish had been partially removed in 1830; in 

1862 it had been wholly removed.' — Bruce, Roman Wall (2), p. 185 
(preface dated November 6th, 1852 ; title page, 1863). 

The north gate ' has but just been disclosed to the eye of the antiquary.' 
*At the time of writing the excavations are not yet complete.' — 
lUd, pp. 186, 187. 

* The recent excavations at this station have been confined to its outline, 
and the curtain-wall, with the gates and guard-towers, have been 
satisfactorily disclosed. . . . The space within the walls of the 
station remains unexplored. The labours of the excavator are 
restricted by the climate to the summer ; shortly before the close of 
the last season they were applied for a few days within the walls 
of the station.* — Ihid. appendix, p. 447. 

1853. * Notes on the Disinterment of the Mile Castle immediately West of the 

Roman Station of Borcovicus,' by John Clayton, in Arch, Ael. (4to 
ser.), IV. p. 269. 

1854. * A few days before Christmas an altar dedicated to Cocidius Silvanus 

was found accidentally when removing an accumulation of ruins 
from the side of a wall to provide. a fence against cattle' (^Proceedings^ 
1855, p. 4), in the south-west comer of the station. — Roman Wall (3), 
p. 193. This discovery probably directed the excavations of the 
following year to that point. 

1855. August 6th. The society visited Housesteads. The west wall and the 

buildings against it, from the tower at the south-west comer to 
the west gate, had recently been laid bare. — Proceeding s^ 1855, p. 45. 



HISTOEY OF THE SITE. 208 

1856, November 5th. Mr. Clayton read a paper, Illustrated by plans, on a 

passage through the Roman Wall, in the valley of the Enagbam, 
which had recently been discovered and explored. — Proceedings^ 
1856, p. 186. The plan is given in Maclauchlan's Memoir, p. 93. 

1857, May 6th. Dr. Bruce described the progress of the excavations. * The 

wall between the recently discovered turret on the east side of 
the Knagburn and the station has been cleared of its rubbish, and 
the fallen stones replaced. The interior of the north wall of the 
station has been entirely cleared, and the whole of the north gate- 
way . . completely displayed.' — Proceedings^ 1867, p. 234^ 

1858, * Not far from the southern gateway are some buildings which in 1868 

were freed from the enormous mass of d6hris which enveloped them.' 
This refers to the east end of block xii. — Bruce, Roman Wall |(3), 
p. 188. 

For the next twenty-five years there is but little record of excava- 
tion on this site.^2 Mr. Clayton was exploring other parts of the 
great barrier, especially the fort of cilurnum, and it was only in the 
evening of his life that an accidental discovery recalled his attention 
and that of many other scholars to the ruins of borcovicium. In 
November, 1888, the shepherd at Housesteads noticed a carved stone 
projecting from the foot of the northern slope of the Ohapel-hill. 
Digging revealed two altars of unusual size and a sculptured 
stone in the form of an arch or door-head, all of which are now 
preserved in the museum at the Chesters. The dedication to 
deities hitherto unknown, Mars Tliingsus and the two Alaisiagae, 
Beda and Fimmilena, and the bas-relief representing an armed god 
attended by a goose and approached from either side by a worshipper 
carrying a wreath, gave rise to a prolonged discussion among students 
of Teutonic antiquities.^^ Further excavations in June, 1884, led to 

" In November, 1863, however, Mr. Clayton exhibited to the Newcastle 
Society of Antiquaries two coins * found within the last few days ' at House- 
steads. Arch. Aeh VI. 195, and cf. 200 and 226. 

^» See Arch, Ael. vol. x. pp. 148-172, especially the papers by Clayton 
and HUbner, with plates i— ill ; Haverfield's account of the inscriptions in 
Ephemeris Bpigraphica^ vol, vii. pp. 1040, 1041 ; and the article, Alaisiagae^ 
by Ihm in Pauly-Wissowa, ReaUMncyclopddie. The dedicators of one altar 
are described as cites Tuihanti ounei Frisiorum ver. ser. Alexandriani, The 
words ver, ser., which had baflled the commentators, have recently been 
explained by Mommsen as perhaps standing for veredarii servi. An inscription 
found at WaUdum on the German Idmes associates Brittones et deditioii and 
seems to justify servi, Veredarii (from veredus, a fast horse) appear among 
the frontier-troops in the second and third centuries. A numerus ourgariorum 
et veredariorum formed the garrison of a fort in Lower Daoia about 140 AJ). 
In late authors the name has the special meaning of ' despatch-riders/ but the 
' veredarii of the inscriptions may, at any rate in some cases, have been irregular 
cavalry. See lAmesUatt, 659 ff. 



204 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

the discovery of a missing piece of the sculptured stone, of two 
uninscribed altars, and of a Soman well. The remains of the 
supposed temple of Mars on the Chapel-hill were examined without 
result, and trenches were cut round about it, *but no buildings 
could be found in situ, and the very foundation stones had been 
taken up and removed.' 

The next excavations at Housesteads were those undertaken by 
the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, in the summer of 1898. 

THE EXCAVATIONS OP 1898. 

Work was begun on June 21st, and came to an end on October 
29th, the last four weeks being devoted to filling in the trenches. 
The excavations were supervised throughout by the present writer. 
Very valuable aid was rendered by Mr. A. C. Dickie, formerly 
architect to the Palestine Exploration Fund, who undertook the task 
of preparing plans and drawings, and spent the greater part of July 
and August at Housesteads. We had an experienced foreman, Mr. 
Thomas Smith of Haltwhistle, and, when he was obliged to leave us 
to fulfil another engagement, an eflScient successor was forthcoming 
in John Nicholson, one of our workmen. At first only ten men were 
employed ; later the number was increased to fifteen. 

The fort of borcovicium stands on the brow of the basaltic cliffs 
which here interpose a natural barrier, sloping up from the south, 
and falling in abrupt precipices to the north, between the rolling 
sandstone uplands bordering South Tynedale and the desolate tract of 
moor and moss known as the Forest of Lowes, which extends north- 
ward to the Scottish border. The north gate opens almost upon the 
face of the cliflF, the south gate upon a grassy hill-side descending to the 
valley which has yielded so many sculptures and inscriptions. Fig. 3, 
from an admirable photograph by Mr. J. P. Gibson, to which the 
reproduction does less than justice, shows this valley in the foreground, 
a hollow marking the sight of the Mithraeum on the right, and, 
farther to the right, the lowest part of the Chapel-hill, the fruitful 
scene of former excavations. In the background rises the green ridge, 
crowned by the ramparts of the camp. Along its foot extend five 
well-marked and apparently artificial terraces, relics, perhaps, of 
Roman cultivation. It would be interesting to ascertain their real 
nature — indeed, the whole slope between the south gate and the 



THE BXCA7ATI0NS OF 1898. 



205 



valley deserves exploration. A trial trench showed the level bottom 
between the terraces and the field-wall to the south of them to be full 







5 



.S cs 

^1 



of Boman remains, walls, pottery, and even leather and woodwork well 
preserved in the deep wet peat. 



206 EXCAVATIONS AT HOXTSEStEADS : 

Bich and tempting as the^ remains of the civil settlement 
appeared, it was decided, with good reason, to devote the first season 
to the internal buildings of the camp. iN'o systematic exploration of 
the whole internal area of a Roman camp in the north of England 
had ever been undertaken. Bbemeniuh, oilurnum, aesica, and 
South Shields, had been partially excavated, but in each case the work 
had stopped short when little more than half the area had been 
cleared, and the published plans were only tantalising fragments. On 
the other hand, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland had recently 
secured a remarkably complete plan of the outlying fort at Birrens in 
Dumfriesshire. It was time that the anatomy of some one of the 
camps on Hadrian's Wall should be studied in its entirety. 
BoBOOVioiUH seemed a promising site for the purpose. Thanks to 
the judicious enthusiasm of Mr. John Clayton, the circuit of the 
ramparts and the gates had been excavated, so that little remained 
except to plan them. The internal buildings, though much disturbed 
by desultory digging and the wholesale removal of stones for walling 
and draining, lay near the surface, and while there was not much 
hope of finding inscriptions or important minor antiquities, there was 
every reason to believe that the plan of the internal streets and 
buildings could be obtained at comparatively little cost. This proved 
to be the case. When the work began it was proposed to dig only 
for one month, and to determine by means of trenches the broad 
outlines of the anatomy of the camp. When, a fortnight later, it was 
decided to clear the Praetorium completely, it became evident that a 
much longer time was needed. Nevertheless, at the end of two 
months the Praetorium and six barrack-rooms had been cleared out, 
some points of special interest outside the camp, the amphitheatre, 
two wells, and the shrine of Mithras, had been investigated, and the 
course of the streets, the number and outline of the blocks, and the 
internal arrangements of some of them had been ascertained. A wish 
was then expressed, at a joint meeting of the northern archaeological 
societies, held at Housesteads on August 25th, that the blanks in the 
plan should be filled up, doubtful points determined, and conjectures 
verified. Accordingly, I devoted a thiixi month to the task of com- 
pleting the plan, which is now as perfect as anything short of 
entirely digging out the whole camp could make it. There is only 



THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1898. 



207 



L 



one point within the walls where further excavation is urgently 
needed, in the south-east corner, the lowest part of the whole area, 
where, in a ' pocket ' of deep earth, a 
cistern and other buildings were dis- 
covered in the last weeks of the 
excavation, but were only imperfectly 
investigated. 

Kef erence to the plan of the site 
as a whole (fig. 1, p. 195), and to the 
longitudinal sections (fig. 4), shows 
that the site chosen for the camp 
slopes gradually from west to east, 
and somewhat steeply from north to 
south. Its longer axis runs along 
the ridge, and while the northern 
half of the enclosure is comparatively 
level, the southern half falls away 
at an inconveniently sharp angle. 
With lower ground on north, east, 
and south, it certainly occupied a 
strong position. It is true that a 
more level platform might have 
been found on the higher ground to 
the west, near the adjoining mile 
castle. But there were two reasons 
for preferring the site actually 
selected, which outweighed the dis- 
advantages of irregular levels. First, 
the camp in its present position 
commands the pass through the 
depression immediately to the north- 
east, where the barrier of basaltic 
cliffsdisappears. Secondly, the Knag- 
bum, which forces its way through 
this opening, and several springs on 
the adjoining slopes, afford an 
abundant water supply which would 
have been lacking on the higher ground, 



._y 



\ 



208 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS I 



The conditions of the site may have influenced the form of the 
camp, which is unusually narrow in proportion to its length. It 
measures six hundred and ten feet from east to west, and three 
hundred and sixty-seven from north to south ; the area enclosed is 
nearly five acres. 

THE PRAETORIUM. 
THE EXTERIOR. 

Owing to the slope of the rock on which the Praetorium stands, 
the southern half of it and in a special degree the south-east angle. 




PIG. 5.— SOT TH WALT. OF PRAETORIUM FROM THE 80UTH-BA8T 

rests on an artificial platform composed of whin and freestone chippings 
mixed with yellow gravel, and the south wall, which had to hold up 
this substructure, is built of very large blocks laid as headers and 
extending nearly three feet inwards (fig. 6). At the south-east 
angle the footings of the outer wall lie as much as seven feet below the 
floor level of the interior. In consequence of its height and larger 
masonry, this half of the building was especially exposed to the 
ravages of builders in search of material. Fortunately these plunderers 
seldom do their work thoroughly. Two, in one place three, courses of 



THE praetoeium: the EXTEEIOE. 209 

the so^th wall survived, and scores of blocks from the npper courses 
were found piled up ready for removal in the narrow roadway beside it. 
At the end of the excavation it was decided to replace them and 
rebuild the retaining wall up to the floor-level of the interior. Photo- 
graphs were taken to record the remnant of the wall and the mass of 
made-ground rising above it as they appeared before the reconstruction. 

Of the west wall, the very foundations had for some distance been 
rooted up ; fortunately the mass of clay with which the outer face was 
puddled remains as a record of its position and thickness. At the 
nortti-west angle, where the ground outside is considerably above the 
floor-level, the west and north walls are standing ten courses high. 
They are two feet thick, built in rudely coursed rubble-work. The 
remainder of the north wall, which was more visible, is built of large 
headers in regular courses. 

Of the east wall there remains only the foundation course, and 
of the main entrance only some pavement, including one slab with a 
pivot-hole. It may be assumed that the gateway was arched, as at 
BREMENiUM, where arch-stones were found lying in the entrance. The 
disappearance of the principal fagade of the most important building 
in the camp is a serious misfortune, since here if anywhere we might 
expect some sculptured ornament to relieve the utilitarian monotony 
of the surrounding architecture. It can hardly be a coincidence that 
here was found the most important of the few pieces of sculpture that 
have come to light within the camp. This is a large relief, ^yg feet 
high by three feet broad, representing Mars armed with shield and 
spear, which was found in fragments some forty years ago during Mr. 
Clayton's excavations, * at the south-west angle ' of block xv, * very 
near the point where the streets dividing the station, laterally and 
transversely, cross each other,' in other words, a few yards north-east 
of the principal entrance of the Praetorium.^* It may, therefore, have 
fallen from the wall to the north of the gateway, and a corresponding 
figure, probably a Victory, may have adorned the wall to the south.^^ 

'* Bruce, Roman Wall, (3 ed.), p. 186, and full- page illustration. Lapid, Sept., 
p. 238, where it is stated ♦ search has been made for the missing fragments.' In all 
probability this excavation extended to the east end of the Praetorium, where 
we found no depth of soil and few loose stones. 

*^ It is tempting to suppose that we have this second figure in the relief of 
Victory, * found inside the eastern gate of boecovicus by the late Mr. Clayton's 
excavators in 1862.' Bruce, Handbook^ p. 113. The other Victory from House- 

TOL. XXV. 28 



210 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

The Praetorium measures externally eighty-nine feet six inches by 
seventy-six feet four inches, and is therefore much smaller than the 
corresponding building, the 'forum,' at cilurnum, which measures 
about one hundred and twenty-five feet by eighty-five feet. The 
plan is much the same, an outer and an inner court leading to a row 
of five chambers. 

THE INTERIOR. 

The Outer Court — An arched main-entrance opened from the 
broad space formed by the meeting of main streets into an outer 
court (4), bordered on three sides by a portico (1, 2, 3), and on the 
fourth by a plain wall, through which an arphway opposite to the 
entrance led into the central bay of an inner portico. Opposite to 
this gateway, beyond the narrow inner court, rose the arched 
entrance of the sacellum, which in these frontier-camps served at 
once as the official chapel and the treasury of the regiment. This 
vista of arches, terminating in the shrine, must have been an 
impressive architectural feature as seen from the outer street. 

The portico, nine feet six inches deep, was supported by stone 
columns with moulded bases. The return of the colonnade at the 
angles was formed by L-shaped piers, built up of large blocks of 
light-coloured freestone, one of which measures thirty-eight inches 
by twenty inches by thirteen inches. The roof must have sloped 
inwards and was composed of stone slates, which were frequent 
among the debris. A flagged footway, two feet six inches wide 
and raised five inches above the pavement, ran round the court 
sheltered by projecting eaves and made it possible to pass dry-shod 
in front of the pillars. The depth of the covered passage, portico 
plus footway, was twelve feet, while the open area measured forty- 
eight feet by twenty-four feet, and was therefore only half the size 

steads, now in the Blackgate (^Catalogue, p. 138; Handhook, p. 157), which 
Gordon quaintly describes as 'attired with a flying loose Drapery, standing upon 
a Mound or GloOe, executed with a very Gentile Taste in alto-relievo^ cut out of 
a hard free Stone, about 4 Foot 7 Inches in Length, and standing within a hollow 
Nitch,' came from the valley south-east of the camp. Fragments of similar 
figures have been found at Birrens and Stanwix. There are abundant parallels 
for the association of Mars and Victory. On two inscribed slabs from habit- 
ANCUM these deities stand to right and left like heraldic supporters. Joint 
dedications to them occur at Ribchester (^C.I.L. 220) and Birrens {C.I.L, 1068). 
as well as at Housesteads. 







G^ 






CO 

Q 
< 
UJ 

co 

HI 
CO 

O 

X 



2 

00 

O 

UJ 
< 

Q. 

U 

X 



* 



THE praetorium: the interior. 



211 




FIG. 6.— PIERCED DRAIN-COVBR.* 



of the outer court at cilurnum, which is fifty feet square. Below the 
flagged footway the outer court (4) was bordered by a strip of 
similar flagging three 
feet nine inches wide, 
provided with a shallow 
channel, which received 
the rain-water from the 
eaves and canied it to 
an underground drain 
in the south-east corner. 
The square pit {g) from 
which this drain starts 
may once have been 
protected by a pierced 
drain-cover or sink, 
now in the Blackgate, 
which is known to have 
been found at House- 
steads and closely resembles the adjacent flagging. It will be seen 
from the plan that the greater part of the flagging has been 
removed, probably many years ago, for among the remains of the 
seventeenth-century farmhouse (block vi) we were able to identify 
a slab from this court. Fortunately the well-preserved strip in 
the north-west corner enables us to reconstruct the plan of the 
whole. There are indications that the internal area, within the 
border of flags, was originally laid with two-foot squares of 
sandstone, but little thicker than stone slates. These were 
frequently broken, and latterly the pavement became a mere 
patchwork. 

Of the column-bases in the outer court, a is the best ; / is much 
iujured ; both, like the bases in the inner court, have square plinth, 
torus-mouldings, and lower part of shaft formed out of a single 
block ; J, c, are plinths on which a circular base rested ; d is missing 
altogether, but its position has now been indicated by placing there 
a base, similar to those of this building, which lay on the surface of 
block XII, and may have rolled down from the Praetorium. It is 

* The bypocaust pillars shewn above have nothing whatever to do with the 
sink-slab they support. 



212 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



figured in Bruce's Roman Wall, p. 193. No column or capital was 
found that at all agreed in diameter with these bases.^^ 

Open colonnades were ill-suited to those bleak and wind-swept 
heights, and it is not surprising that after a time the spaces between 
the columns were walled up and the porticoes turned into rooms. Of 
these 1 and- 2 yielded nothing of interest. The pavement of the 
latter had mostly perished, that of the former was partly flagging, 

partly the natural rock 
which rises to the surface 
throughout the northern 
half of the Praetorium. 
Room 8 was more fruitful. 
Its original floor had been 
of clay, laid on the roughly 
lerelled rock. Above it was 
a later floor of flags, with a 
large hearth-stone at the 
east end. The higher level 
yielded a silver brooch of 
late-Celtic openwork, a pair 
of bronze tweezers, and a 
bronze lid with sunk vine- 
pattern. A broken column- 
shaft lay against the west 
wall as if to serve as a seat. 
The Inner Court — The 
bay^ about twelve feet wide 
and twelve feet long, which 

via 7.— KEYSTONE FOUND AT SOUTH SHIELDS ^' 




'« Stukeley may have seen some. ' As for fragments of pillars, or rollers, as 
thev call them, they lie scattered all over the place. A large part of a Doric 
capital lies by the door' of the farm-house, 'consisting of two thori, or swelled 
mouldings, in architectonic language/ The base a was partly visible before we 
began work, and may have susfgested Horsley's remark : ' I think the Praetonum 
is visible, and the rnins of a temple near it.' According to the notions of those 
days Horsley would look for the Praetorium in the highest part of the camp, 
where the two gratoaries (block viii) form a conspicuous moundjand would take 
the building with pillars, the real Praetorium, for a temple. Hodgson refers to 
it as 'a square mass of ruins' which * seems to have had pillars round it 
internally, like the cloisters of a monastery.' History, p. 187. He describes it as 
near the north-west corner of the north-east division or quarter of the station, 
^ead 8outh-we9,t for Tior^^-west, 



THE praetorittm: the interior. 218 

led into the inner court, seems to have been spanned by 
an arch at either end ; near the corresponding archway at South 
Shields was found a keystone sculptured with a bull's head (fig. 7). 
The inner arch sprang from piers of which the splayed bases remain. 
Very similar pier-bases were found in the line of the colonnade at the 
main entrance to the Praetorium at bremenium. The opening 
between the courts was furnished with doors which closed against a 
raised sill, much worn by traflSc. The pivot-holes and the tracks for 
introducing the pivot are shown on the plan. The passage is roughly 
paved, and a still rougher pavement of very miscellaneous material, 
including the coved top of a grave-stone, extends across the inner 
court to the Sacellum. The remainder of the inner portico and court 
had no regular pavement. Their original floor, composed of fine 
red clay well rammed down, was renewed from time to time until 
successive layers completely covered, and did much to preserve, the 
bases of the two southernmost columns. 

All four column-bases in this court, like two of those in the outer 
court, have plinth, tori, and part of the shaft formed out of a single 
block. The disregard for rule and symmetry shown in the irregular 
levels, unequal spacing and dissimilar forms of these bases was one of 
the reasons which early in the excavation suggested to Mr. Dickie 
that the construction of the building had been interrupted and 
afterwards completed by inferior workmen. He has developed this 
view more fully elsewhere. The frontispiece shows the present con- 
dition of this colonnade, and should be compared with fig. 8, in 
which Mr. Dickie has recorded our idea of its original appearanoe.^^ 

The intervals between these columns were never blocked up, but 
walls were built at either side of the passage between the two 
courts. In the sheltered angle thus formed on the south side a fire- 
place was constructed, which was probably in use up to the last 
occupation of the fort. An iron bar, perhaps part of a grate, lay 

" The projection of the eaves is justified by the distance of the gutter in the 
outer court from the bases of the columns. The still greater projection of the 
ipof over the central passage is suggested by the fact that at aiLTTBNUM the chan- 
nelling which runs round the square centre court, returns outward at the gate- 
way leading to the inner court, showing that the roof at this point projected 
outwards in a kind of porch. It may b« noted in passing that this channelling 
at CILUBNUM is secondary work, being ftbove the level of the pier-bases, and that 
an older pavement may be preserved below it* 



214 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOFSESTEADS I 




THE praetobium: the inteeior. 215 

behind some fallen stones. Eound about was a deep stratum of coal- 
cinders, bones and broken pottery. A' pot which was reconstructed 
out of fragments found in this refuse-heap, can hardly, to judge 
from this circumstance, be of earlier date than the fourth century. 
On the other side of the passage the dividing-wall was doubled, 
it is impossible to say why, so as to narrow the gateway from 
twelve feet six inches to ten feet and prevent the opening of the 
northern half of the door. 

In the Praetorium at cilurnum, bremenium, and birrens 
there are side-entrances from the lateral streets into the inner court. 
At Housesteads a flight of steps leads down from the higher level of 
the road on the north, and possibly — though all trace of it has 
perished with the south wall — a similar flight led down from a corre- 




Fia. 9.— MOULDED PLINTH. 

spending side entrance to the lower level of the road on the south. 

The doorway on the north side is well preserved, and had been built 

up, perhaps in modern times. A pivot-hole in the threshold shows 

that it was provided with a door. Some flags and a piece of 

channelling were fitted together to form a doorstep on the outside. 

The western side entrance at cilurnum is similarly provided with 

steps down from the street and gutter-stones on the outside, * showing,' 

says Dr. Bruce, * that the gateway has been roofed.' 

The steps and the space to the west of them had so scanty a 

covering of turf that they must have been explored before, probably 

by Hodgson : — 

I found on the spot a traditionary belief that there were subterraneous 
chambers near the middle of it ; and employed some workmen to clear away the 
ruins and rubbish near the remains of a flight of steps, which were supposed to 
lead downwards. They, however, soon came to the face of the whin-stone rock. 



216 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

. . . At the foot of these steps we f onnd a heap of decayed mineral coals, 
and a quantity of such ashes and scoria as are produced in smitheries in which 
mineral coal is used. Arch. Ael. o.s. I. p. 266. 

His reference to the kiln, * a little to the east of the steps ' — it is 
really a few yards to the north in block viil — helps to determine the 
part of the camp referred to. The identification was confirmed by our 
finding a quantity of coal and some scoriae near the foot of the steps. 
The smith who made the arrows stored in room 12 may have had his 
temporary forge here. 

The inner court, besides being less carefully paved was less 
thoroughly drained than the outer. A rock-cut drain, flagged over, 
takes a sweeping course from the steps on the north along the front of 
the portico to the west wall, the latter part of it being merely a 
V-shaped channel lined and covered with stone slates. It probably 
joined a large drain, covered with heavy flags, which starts from the 
south-west angle of the Praetorium and skirts the outside of block xii. 
A similar slate-built channel runs in front of room 11, and probably 
joined that just described. 

In the south-west angle of this court stands a moulded plinth or 
basis (fig. 9, / on plan), six feet six inches long, three feet broad, six and 
a half inches high. It was originally longer, since the moulding at the 
west end is missing : there is room between the broken end and the 
adjoining wall for a further length of six inches or one foot. It may 
have supported a monumental inscription, as did somewhat similar 
bases found in the Praetorium of several frontier-forts in Germany.^® 
Its west end is slightly worn by the tread of feet, which may indicate 
that the door of room 8 was still used for a time after it was plaoed 
here. The stones to the rear of the basis are a later addition. The 
moulding is continued on one of them, but in the rudest fashion. 

A solid platform in the north-west angle, raised four feet above 
the ground with a surface originally measuring at least ten feet by 
eight feet, is less easily accounted for. It consists of large blocks 
of freestone, packed with gravel and chippings, and covered by massive 
flags, and is not bonded into the adjacent walls. Part of it was 
destroyed by the plunderers who tore away the jamb from the 
blocked-up doorway of room 12. 

^^ Kg.^ at the Saalburg, Butzbach, and Bucb. 



THE praetorium: the interior. 



217 



The chiambers 8-12 which face the inner court have undergone 
so many alterations in ancient times and been so much plundered in 
our own day that it is not easy to unravel their history. It is clear 
that they were originally five in number, arranged like the corre- 
sponding chambers at Birrens. Four of them (8-11) had broad 




wAm eitTRAncE 

na 10.— ORiaiNAL plan of the PRA£T0RIUM at HOUSE8TEADS, RECONSTRUCTED. 



doorways, divided by T-walls of large ashlar, opening on the court, 
while the corner-chamber on the right (12) was entered from 11. 
The original design freed from later modifications is shown in fig. 10. 
The central chamber or Sacellum, sixteen feet square, communicated 
with the court by a doorway twelve feet six inches wide, which, as at 

VOL. XXV. 29 



218 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



ciLURNUM, was perhaps spanned by an arch. The pier is two feet 
thick, and a voussoir measuring one foot eleven inches was fonnd in 
the area before it. The sill is composed of two blocks respectively 
sis feet and six feet six inches long, two feet broad and fonr and 
three-quarter inches thick, and exhibits at either end a shallow sinking 
four feet long and seven and a half inches broad (m, m), which may be 
explained as intended to receive the base of a low stone screen or 
balustrade. The pier on the north is cut to receive the end of the 
screen ; that on the south, with the greater part of the T-wall 
between rooms 9 and 10, has disappeared. The part of the sill in 
front of the screen was moulded (fig. II, cf, plate xvi). No part of the 
screen was found, but some idea of its character may be got from a 




FI(4. 11.— MOULDED BILL WITH SINKINGS FOR PA.RAPBT. 



moulded coping which was found in the corresponding chamber at 
Birrens, and was interpreted as the coping of a balustrade by 
Mr. Barbour, who surveyed the excavations there. Upon seeing the 
sill just described, during a visit which he paid to our excavations, 
Mr. Barbour was able to account both for the socket at Housesteads 
and for the coping at Birrens. There are indications of a low 
screen-wall or parapet with splayed cope at either side of the 
corresponding doorway at cilurnuh. 

The walls of the Sacellum had been systematically demolished. 
The fact that even the foundations were found worth removino: 
indicates that they were composed throughout of fine large blocks like 
the few whigh remain in place. The floor is of walling-stoues 



THE PRAETORIUM: THE INTERIOR. 219 

roughly fitted together and levelled over with clay. Under thia are 
the disintegrated remains of an earlier floor of opus signinum (a 
cement of broken tile and lime) immediately overlying the rock. 
Search was made for the strong-room, which is commonly found in 
the floor of this chamber, but without success. The solid whin was 
found to extend across its length and breadth, with the exception 
that along the south-side a foundation had been cut for a wall of large 
ashlar, running nearly parallel to the south wall and about one foot to 
the north of it. A part of the foundation course is in situ, and the 
rock-cut bed of the remainder was traced up to the west end. This 
wall may represent an earlier Sacellum on the same site, or it may 
have been a dwarf-wall or bench for the reception of a row of altars. 
The whole area had been ransacked. A denarius of Oaracalla lay 
among the stones 'and clay of the later floor. Among the debris, 
perhaps thrown in by recent plunderers to fill the hole formed by the 
demolition of the walls, was a short column with a sinking for an 
iron cross-bar, which may have formed part of a window. 

The rooms 9 and 11 measured sixteen feet by twelve feet six 
inches, the narrower corner-rooms 8 and 12 measuring sixteen feet 
by twelve feet. There is proof of an original division between 
8 and 9 in the wall n four feet nine inches long, built of fine large 
ashlar still standing three courses high. It ends in a straight joint 
both to north and south and can be nothing else than the cross-piece 
of a T wall, the stem of which is now destroyed. For some reason 
it was found convenient to do away with the division between the 
rooms, and the door of 8 was built up with small stones. 

The original floor of 8 and 9 was of whin and freestone chippings 
covered with clay. Successive renewals so raised the floor-level, that 
a clean-cut section shows at least three successive beds of clay, each 
burned and discoloured towards the top and largely intermixed with 
coal-cinders. 

It is hard to say at what stage in the camp's history the entrance 
to room 9 was remodelled. A slab seven feet long, which had 
previously served as a cornice, was now laid down to form a 
threshold, the original threshold being removed, and the doorway, 
originally eight feet six inches wide, was contracted to five feet, a 
wall three feet six inches long being built on the south end of the new 




220 t:XCAVATiONS At HOXJSESTEADS 1 

threshold. A dram, cut through the top of the slab, passes under 
the new wall. The relations of the old wall of large masonry and 
the new wall built on the later threshold are shown in fig. below. 
For the cornice-moulding on the lower side of the threshold, which 
is ten inches thick, see fig. 12. 

The wall, jt?, which cuts otf a strip four feet wide from this room 
(8 and 9), may indicate either a passage leading to a door in the 

south wall, or — since evidence of the 
existence of an upper storey was found 
in rooms 11 and 12 — a staircase leading 
to first-floor rooms. It is founded upon 
the clay floor and must be of late date. 
Contemporary with it was a pavement of 
thin fire-reddened sandstone, in the middle 
of which was a hearth, measuring two feet 
four and a half inches by one foot eleven 
inches, formed out of the half of a 
moulded slab with sunk panel. It may 

FIG. 12.-M0ULDING ON THRESHOLD ^^^ J^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ inSCriptiOU, but DO 
OP BOOM 9. -^ 

trace of lettering survives. An oyster 

shell and a quantity of bones occurred at the highest level. 

The doorway of room 11, like that of 9, was originally eight feet 

six inches wide, was then contracted, and finally built up. The 

threshold, consisting of two long slabs, is still in place, and so far as 

can be seen is but little worn. It is not certain whether the longer or 

the shorter of the two sections of wall r and «, respectively six feet 

and two feet six inches long, was the earlier. The analogy of the 

door into room 9 suggests that s was the earlier, and that the door 

was first narrowed to six feet and afterwards closed altogether. The 

puzzle is complicated by the fact that whilst these two sections of 

* blocking-up ' survive, with a straight joint between them, the jamb 

of the original wall at t has been torn away in recent times, for the 

sake of the large blocks of which it was composed. This should be 

remembered when the remains are examined upon the spot, for at first 

sight the gap thus formed resembles a doorway.^^ 

*■ At the time of our excavation the trench cut by thestone-hunters alongside 
the wall r. s, was quite recognizable. It was filled with fragments of the 
piatf c rm, a part of which they had hacked to pieces in order to extract the 
ftnely^-squared masonry of the jamb. 



THE PRAETORlUM: THE INTERIOR. 221 

What was gained by thus closing up the entrancelfrom the court ? 
The effect was to make rooms 11 and 12 inaccessible except through 
the Sacellum. The object of the change was doubtless to provide a 
strong-room for the custody of money and documents which would in 
some degree share the inviolable sanctity of the central shrine. At 
South Shields and at bremenium this need was foreseen at the 
oiiginal construction of the Sacellum, and a vaulted cellar or base- 
ment was provided under its floor. At cilurnum a similar vaulted 
cellar was constructed at some later date under the floor of the room 
adjoining the Sacellum, and was entered by steps from the latter. At 
Housesteads, where the solid basalt floor would have made the con- 
struction of an underground chamber difficult, the need was met by 
cutting off room 11 (and consequently also room 12) from the court 
and connecting it by a door with the Sacellum. ^^ As to the date of 
these structural changes we can only conjecture. The Praetorium at 
BREMENIUM was built, according to an inscription found near its main 
entrance, under Antoninus Pius, and that of South Shields cannot 
be much later. On the German Limes an underground strong-room 
was often provided in camps built towards the end of the second 
century, and such a room is found at Birrens, which was abandoned 
about that period. Further, 'on the floor' of the vault at cilurnum 
'were found a number of base denarii^ chiefly of the reign of Severus.' 
We may conclude that about the beginning of the third century 
measures were taken to provide a strong-room in such camps as were 
originally constructed without one.^i 

The wall dividing 11 from 12 is very rough rubble- work, and is 
pierced by two doorways. The earlier door, like that between the 
corresponding chambers at cilurnum and Birrens, adjoined the 
entrance from the court into 11. The rock, which here rises to the 
surface, was not quarried away, but the floor of 12, originally of opiLs 
signinum^ was laid at a level eighteen inches above that of 11, and 

*• This is conjecture. Part of the wall between 10 and 11 is destroyed, so that 
we cannot say with certainty whether or no there was ever a doorway in it. 

*^ This applies also to the vault at aesica. Its small size and inferior masonry 
shew that it was a later insertion, like the vault at cilurnum, which it so 
closely resembles. At South Shields and bremenium, as at Murrhardt in 
Germany, the strong-room is a basement of almost the same area as the shrine 
over it. That at Butzbach, sunk in the floor of the Sacellum, is an insertion of 
the third century — OM»L, Butzbach, 9. 



222 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



was reached by three steps. Later, a second door was broken through 
the west end of the same wall, steps being placed outside it in 11, and 
in all probability the earlier door was walled up. A hearth-stone of 
irregular shape is set in the middle of the floor, and there are 
marks of fire against the north wall. To conceal their poor con- 
struction the walls were originally plastered. 

Rooms 11 and 12 were filled by a high mound which had 
remained undisturbed not only when parts of the surrounding walls 

were removed in recent times, but 

ever since the Praetorium fell into 

ruin. This mound contained more 

than the usual quantity of building 

stones, the usual admixture of broken 

slates, and one unusual element — 

a quantity of fallen flue-tiles of the 

form shown in fig. 18. The 

evidence points to the existence of 

an upper storey. 

The flue tiles in room 12 extended in a line from east to west, 

starting from a point near the north-east angle ; those in room 11 

were more scattered, but all lay in the northern half and most in the 



^tVftSicK 




FIG. 13.— FLUB-TILB FOUND ] 
PRAETORIUM. 





Fia. 14.— BACKS OF FLUK-TILES. 



north-east quarter of the room. Round them was the clay in which 
they had been bedded and soot shaken from them by their fall. 
They were black with smoke inside, and there can be no doubt that 
they had formed heating-flues in the east wall of a room forming an 
upper storey above 11 and 12. The furnace must have been placed 
on the solid platform outside 12. We can only conjecture that the 



THE praetorium: the IXTEBIOR. 228 

missiDg sonthern park of it, which has been demolished for the sake 
of the large stones of which it was built, included a flight of steps 
and so supplied an access to the upper floor. I have already referred 
to the coal and scoriae found in this comer of the court.^ The 
flags composing the top of the platform show marks of fire. 

There is no parallel elsewhere, so far as I know, for an upper 
storey in the inner court of the praetorium,^^ and at Housesteads it 
formed no part of the original scheme. The angle-chamber happened 
to be sunk about four feet below the adjacent ground-level on the north 
and west, and it was easy to wall it off and convert it into something 
corresponding to the underground strong-rooms of other forts ; then 
the space thus sacrificed was recovered by the construction of a room or 
rooms above it, and the exposed eastern wall was rendered impregnable 
by the construction outside it of a massive platform which at once 
increased the security of the strong-room and provided the means of 
approaching and heating the upper storey. It must be remembered 
that the five chambers, which are a uniform feature in the 
Praetorium of so many forts, must have had their separate functions, 
and that if one of them was adapted to some other use another would 
have to be provided in its stead. There is abundant evidence that in 
one or more of these chambers was situated the tahularium or office 
of the regimental book-keepers.^* In the climate of Northumberland 
such an olfice would require heating in winter ; accordingly when we 

** To the question why the flue-tiles may not have warmed the ground- 
floor rooms, the answer is that there is no trace of attachment for them on the 
walls, and no suitable place for the furnace. 

^ Herr Jacobi's restoration of the Saaiburg is not supported by sufficient 
evidence. 

** Brambach 695, dedication genio tahulaHi by a librarius found at 
Niederbieber in a room corresponding to our room 12. A small room opening 
from it contained remains of cupboards and locks, * cine Menge zn Schranken, 
Kisten, und Kasten gehorendes Eisenwerk,' (Dorow, Bdvi, Alterthilmer in find 
urn Neuwied am Ilhein, Berlin, 1826). A recent re-excavation of this 
praetorium has shown that the three rooms r. and 1. of the Sacellum had 
nypocausts (lAmesblatt, p. 825). This exceptionally large camp (about 
850 X 650 feet), on the extreme north-western flank of the frontier beyond the 
Bhine, was held in the third century by two corps, a iiumerus Brittormm and 
another of Bivitienses ; hence no doubt some of the offices were duplicated, 
which accounts for the unusual number, three instead of two at either side of 
the Sacellum. For other evidence that the tabularium of Limes-camps was in 
the inner court, see Hettner, Weatdeutsche Zeitschrift, vol. xvii." p. 346. 

In the legionary camp at Lambaesis, the tahularium has been found in the 
angle of the inner court, and there too it has an archive-room opening from it in 
which were found the substructures of large safes or presses (Besnier. MHanges 
(TArch, et d'MiH.y vol. xix. pp. 199-258). , 



224 EXCAVATIOXS AT IIOUSESTEADS : 

find a hypocaust in the room adjoining the Sacellnm at bbemenium^ 
and a cruciform heating-flue underlying the right-hand angle- 
chamber at South Shields, we may reasonably infer that these were 
the rooms in which the librarii wrote. 

Below the flue-tiles was a stratum of fallen slates, lying so flat 
that at first they were taken for a secondary floor-level; as the 
excavation proceeded it became evident that they represented the 
fall of a part of the roof. Immediately below them, in the last foot 
of rubbish above the original floor, iron arrowheads began to come to 
light, some of them adhering to the underside of the slates ; further 
west, where there were no slates, one was found adhering to a flue- 




Zacbits 
9 



FIG. 15.— IRON COMPASSES AND STAPLE, FOUND IN BOOM 12. 

tile. They were found in all parts of the room and at various levels, 
but lay thickest about six inches from the floor over an area measuring 
about four feet north and south and three feet east and west, in the 
middle of the room, nearer to the east than to the west wall. Mixed 
with them were many nails and other scraps of iron. As much as 
thirty inches above the floor-level and close to the noi*th wall there 
was found a rusty lump as big as a man's fist, which proved after 
careful cleaning to be a mass of nails attached to a large hook ; they 
retained the shape of the bag or wrapping in which they had been 
hung up. There was also a large mass of iron, possibly an anvil, 
a pair of compasses (fig. 16), a bone button, a fragment of yellow 
and red wall-plaster, two ribs of a pig, and a piece of window-glass. 
The only coins found were an illegible first brass (floor-level of 12), 
and a coin of Oonstantius (filling of 11). The position of these 



THE praetorium: the interior. 225 

arrowheads was carefully noted ; though they lay in considerable con- 
fusion, there was some reason to think that they might originally 
have been arranged in bundles. The shafts had rotted, with the 
exception of the inch or so of wood that was in contact with the tang 
and was preserved by a deposit of oxide. More than 800 were 
counted. Fig. 16 shows typical specimens and illustrates their 
variety of size and form. All seem to have been hammered ; we may 
conjecture that the nails and scraps of iron found with them were 



ttiMf 



PIG. 16.— ARROWHEADS FOUND IN ROOM 12. 

brouirht there to be converted into similar arrowheads. The 
presence of the anvil seems to show that the angle-room was in use as 
a workshop, not merely as a magazine, in the period immediately 
preceding the destruction of the fort ; but this circumstance proves 
nothing as to its original destination, and it would be rash to identify 
it with the Armamentarium, or store of arms and equipment, known 
to have existed elsewhere. 

yoi. jxY, 30 



226 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

The Praetorium : its Name and its Use, — As considerable pro- 
gress has recently been made in the comparative anatomy of Roman 
camps, it may be convenient to append to the description of the prae- 
torium at Housesteads a brief account of common features of such 
buildings elsewhere. 

The first advance towards a sound knowledge of the arrangement 
of Roman camps was made in 1852, when the excavations of the duke 
of Northumberland, at brbmbnium (High Rochester) in Redesdale, 
brought to light in the centre of the camp a building surrounded on 
four sides by streets, and divided into an inner and outer court, which 
Dr. Bruce identified as the praetorium. 

In 1870, Mr. Clayton's excavations at cilurnum revealed a far 
better preserved building of the same type ; but, as the name ' prae- 
torium ' had been given, in 1843, to another block of buildings in the 
same camp, it was found convenieut to call the new block the ' forum ' ; 
the name was recommended by the general resemblance it presented 
to the forum at Silchester, then recently excavated. The resemblance 
is more than accidental. So far as military can be compared with 
civil organization, the central building, which archaeologists have 
agreed to call the praetorium, was the forum of the camp, not so ranch 
in the sense of a market-place as of an administrative centre. So far 
as classical usage goes, we do not know that the name praetorium was 
ever applied to any building in such camps as those on the Roman 
Wall ; and if it had been, it is perhaps more likely to have been used 
in the sense of commandant's quarters than in the sense of central 
offices. However, it has become the practice, on the continent as 
well as in England, to apply the name praetorium to the central 
building ; and the name is a convenient one, because it records the 
development of this headquarters building out of the praetorium 
described by Polybius, Hyginus, and Josephus. Jt was the general's 
tent, and in the camp of a field force described by Hyginus occupied 
the corresponding position, facing along the Via Praetoria towards 
the Praetorian Gate. In like manner it is convenient to use the name 
sacellum for the central chamber of the inner court of the praetorium, 
although there is no ancient authority for it. 

How far are we justified in applying to the permanent camps of 
auxiliary cohorts terms which bad a fixed value for field camps ? 



THE praetorium: the interior. 227 

When we remember that castrametation was a regular science, that 
such forts were often built by detachments from legions, and that in 
the main lines of their plan the permanent camps of cohort and legion 
show a very close correspondence, it is not diflBcult to believe that 
their gates, roads, and such other features as they had in common, 
were named alike : just as, in spite of the widest differences in scale 
and organization, the same names are applied to parts of a metro- 
politan cathedral and a village church. There is sufficient resem- 
blance of plan to show that Hyginus, in describing the camp of his 
imaginary field force, was bound by the same general rules as the 
designers of Neuss and of Housesteads.^^ 

We now come to the use of the five or more chambers which are 
so constant a feature of the inner court. Briefly, the result of recent 
research is to show that the middle chamber was a sanctuary, in which 
honours were paid to the standards which were exhibited within 
it, to the Genius of the regiment, and to the Imperial House ; and 
that the chambers at either side were offices, corresponding to our 
orderly-rooms, for the transaction of regimental business. The 
discipline and esprit de corps of the Roman army were closely bound 
up with the worship of the standards, and the worship of the 
standards with the worship of the emperor. 

At Housesteads the so-called sacellum or shrine of the standards is 
open across its whole breadth to the east. A part of this archway was 
closed by a low parapet to right and left, leaving an entrance in the 
centre. There is no sign of any door. Fig. 17 (p. 300), shows what 
we may suppose to have been its appearance. In many of the German 
camps the importance of this chamber is emphasized by the addition 
of an apse at the back. In certain camps, especially at bremenium 
and South Shields, its foundations are of stronger masonry than those 
of the surrounding rooms ; and where this is so there is found under 
the sacellum a cellar or strong room. The standards themselves — 
not flags like our modern ' colours ' but glittering clusters of emblems, 

" In time inscriptions may come to our aid. One found in the cohort camp of 
Eutlovica, in Roiimania, records the building of a porta praetoria. The men- 
tion of 2k platea quintana a.nd a. platea praetoria at Novus Vicus (Heddernheim) 
suggests that the military nomenclature was to some extent applied to the 
divisions of towns which grew up under military influences. It would not be 
surprising if the forum at Heddernheim were found, like that at Silchester, to 
hear a definite resemblance to the central building of a legionary fort. 



228 t:XCAVATiONS AT HOUStJSTEAtoS t 

often of precious metals, affixed to a pole — had an intrinsic as well 
as a sentimental value. There is mention in an inscription of a 
guard-house for men whp watched them at night ; and it is likely 
that the need of a place in which they could be kept locked up 
first led to the creation of a strong room. Then, by a process which 
would take too long to trace, the standard-bearer, the officer chosen 
for his integrity to take charge of the precious signa^ became the 
banker of the regiment ; and, under the empire, we find him in 
charge of a sort of compulsory savings bank, in which the rank and 
file were compelled to deposit a certain proportion of their pay. 
Although the buildings remain, the worship of the standards and of 
the Imperial House have left few traces in the forts along the wall, 
the reason being apparently that they continued to be garrisoned in 
the fourth century, when the traditional religion of the army had 
been extinguished, though perhaps not replaced, by Christianity. To 
find evidence of it, we must go to forts which were destroyed or 
abandoned when this worship still flourished. 



BUILDINGS WITHIN THE CAMP. 

The Barracks, — The excavations at beembnium, which threw so 
clear a light on the destination of the central chamber in the inner 
court of the praetorium — the shrine of the standards with its sub- 
terranean strong room — yielded no satisfactory evidence about the 
quarters allotted to the troops. There, as at South Shields and 
AESICA, only a part of the camp has been examined, and the incomplete 
plan exhibits an appearance of irregularity which would to some 
extent disappear if the whole area were explored, and the original 
constructions distinguished from the later. 

The fort of borcovicium was garrisoned, we have reason to 
believe, from first to last by one and the same corps, the first cohort 
of Tungrians. This regiment was one of those entitled milliariaj that 
is to say, it was nominally one thousand strong and consisted of ten 
companies or centuriae ; but unlike the second cohort of Tungrians, 
which served at Birrens and at Castlesteads, it was not equitaia, 
that is to say it did not include a proportion of horsemen. 

No ancient author tells us how the permanent barracks of legion. 



BUILDINGS WITHIN THE OiJtfP : THE BARRACKS. 229 

or cohort, or century, were arranged, but we know that on active 
service a definite space in camp was allotted to each legion, to each 
of the ten cohorts in the legion, to each of the six centuries in the 
cohort, and to each of the ten tents allotted to the century, and, 
though Hyginus does not mention it, to nach of the eight contubemales 
or occupants of a common tent. 

The camping ground of an auxiliary cohort was planned (due 
allowance being made in the case of a milliary cohort for the increased 
number of centuries) exactly like that of one of the cohorts of the 
legion. That is to say, the centuries were grouped two and two, the 
tents of each company pitched in line, and the two lines placed 
parallel and divided from one another by a road twelve feet wide. 
Behind each row of tents a strip five feet wide was occupied by arms 
and baggage, and behind that, on a strip nine feet wide, the horses 
and baggage animals of the company were picketed. The rectangle 
occupied by two centuries encamped in this manner was 120 feet long 
by 60 feet wide, and was technically known as sirigay an obscure term 
borrowed from the nomenclature of that most pedantic corporation 
the gromafici or land surveyors. The system which treats two 
centuries as the unit takes us back to the armies of the Boman 
republic, in which each cohort was divided into three maniples of two 
hundred men, and carried its own standard. Under the early empire 
the maniple disappears, and we find each century a complete unit 
carrying its own standard and furnished with a graded hierarchy 
of petty officers. 

Hyginus, writing in the second century of our era, still assumes the 
pairing of two centuries into strigae as the most convenient formation 
for the tents of his imaginary field force, but he explains that the 
striga could be divided into two hemi-strigia, each 120 feet by 30 feet. 
This allowed nine feet for horses as before, five feet for baggage and 
arms, ten feet for tents, and six feet for a road before the tent doors. 
The centurion occupied a tent to himself at the end of the row, and it 
is probable that a second tent was allotted to the principaUs or petty 
officers of the company : signifer or standard-bearer, optio^ tesseraritiSj 
and ctcstos armorvm. 

Just as in legionary and cohortal camps alike the general plan of 
the permanent stone camps can be shown to have originated in that 



230 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEApS : 

of the camps thrown up night after night in the field, so the 
traditional Mines' of the paired centuries were reproduced in the 
stone-built barracks of first and even second century forts. 

Here, as usual, it will be best to look first at a typical legionary 
camp. The best for our purpose is novaesium (Neuss), a camp 
which has a special interest for us, because the sixth legion lay there 
from the time of the rebuilding of the fort under Vespasian until 
Hadrian moved it to York. The normal barrack block at Neuss 
measures 240 feet by 80 feet, and consists of two long buildings face 
to face, separated by a road 16 feet wide. Each building is in two 
parts. At the end nearest the rampart was a wing 80 feet long 
divided into numerous rooms, in some of which we are inclined to 
recognisse common kitchens and mess rooms. The remainder — a strip 
165 feet long — is divided into twelve exactly similar compartments, 
each consisting of a front and a back room. Their front wall is con- 
siderably behind that of the * mess-house wing,' leaving room for a 
verandah nine and a half feet wide. 

The camp at Neuss has not yet been completely excavated, but 
abeady some dozens of such blocks have come to light, and there can 
be no doubt that they correspond with the strigae and hemi-strigia of 
Hyginus. In the permanent camp the length and breadth of the 
hemistrigium is about doubled, but the proportions remain approxim- 
ately the same. An inscription found in the camp of the twentieth 
legion at Gaerleon makes it highly probable that these buildings were 
known as centuriae?^ 

It is a pecoliarity of Housesteads and a consequence of the 
elongated form of camp, which in turn was determined by its position 
on a naiTOW ridge, that the buildings in the praetentura and retentura 
lie parallel to the longer axis of the fort and not, as is usually the 
case, at right angles.^' There are twelve of these long buildings, 
i-vi and xiii-xviii, a group of three in each angle of the camp ; 
and of these two are always placed back to back, sepamted by a 
passage only four or five feet wide, while the third is divided from 

^ It is CLL. VII. 107, and records that about 253 A.D. the emperors Valerianus 
and Gallienus rebuilt the company barracks of the seventh cohort^ cohorti viL 
centurias a solo restitnernnt, 

" Camelon is an exception ; there the buildings in the praetentura are at 
right angles to the via principal^ as at Housesteads. 



BUILDINGS WITHIN THE CAMP : THE BARRACKS. 281 

them bj a street of some width, varying from eighteen to twenty-four 
feet. In the central division of the camp there is one block (vii), 
which conforms to the same type and must be discussed with them. 
These thirteen buildings vary in length from 152 feet to 169 feet, 
and in breadth from 33 feet to 37 feet. 

There are two among them which obviously differ from the rest : 
IV, which seems to have been given up to smelting operations, and 
XV, a buttressed building, which is constructed in large ashlar 
masonry, and contains a small set of baths at its east end. They 
will be described separately. There remain eleven blocks, all 
subdivided by numerous partitions. It is probable a priori that ten 
of them are the company barracks of the ten centuriae composing the 
military cohort. The use of the eleventh must remain uncertain. 

The investigation of these barrack blocks did not give very satis- 
factory results, for several reasons. First, the walls were often 
destroyed down to their footings ; secondly, the partition walls dividing 
them were of different periods, and where only foundations remained 
it was impossible to say whether one wall had preceded the other or 
both had existed side by side ; thirdly, irremediable harm had beqn 
done by previous excavators, who had traced the outline of the buildings 
much as we were doing, and in their search for inscribed stones had 
ruined whole strips of wall. Thus along the north part of block I 
we were only able to determine the position of two doorways, although 
it is practically certain that there was one in each compartment, the 
reason being that the door sills and any large stones in the wall had 
been violently extracted and thrown on one side when they proved 
blank. Our workmen who knew that Anthony Place had taken a 
leading part in these operations would say, when the confusion was 
worse than usual, ' There's nae dout auld Antony's been here before 

OS.' 

In describing these buildings, I shall number the rooms from left 
to right, and where the rooms of a block are divided into north and 
south compartments, I shall describe the northernmost as (a), the 
southernmost as (ft), and so on. It will be seen that they are all 
divided into ten or eleven rooms, and that in blocks i and vi there 
was a cross-division of rooms into compartments. In block I, com- 
partment {a) usually measures 16 feet by 11 feet and (h) 12i feet by 



282 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



11 feet; and in block vi the inner room has the same proportions, 
12^ feet bj 11 feet, and the outer room measures 14 feet by 11 feet. 
Where cross-divisions exist in the remaining barrack-blocks, they are 
less regular and probably of later date. Division into compartments 
is characteristic of the legionary camp at Neuss, where the inner room 
measures 14^ feefc by 11^ feet, and the outer 8 feet by 11^ feet ; but 
along the front of the Neuss barracks runs a veranda 9 J feet wide, 
and if this be added to the outer room the dimensions will be found 
very nearly equal to those of the barracks at Housesteads. 

One was on the look-out for an L-shaped building, like those pre- 
viously discovered at Neuss, cilurnum. and subsequently at Oamelon, 




PIG. 18.—PILLAK BUILT INTO ANGLE OP A BARRACK-BLOCK. 



north of the Antonine Wall in Scotland, and at Gellygaer, in South 
Wales. Although no L-shaped barrack survives at Housesteads, it 
would be rash to assert that none ever existed there. Several stone 
columns found built into the walls of these blocks seem to attest to 
the former presence of verandahs ; and in blocks ii, iii, vi and 
XVI II, we several times found the footings of a wall parallel to the 
present front wall, and only three or four feet behind it. The evidence 
is clearesfc in the case of block vi, which seems originally to have been 
a hemistrigium facing south. Ti-aces of an older front wall^appear in 
rooms 8, 4, 5 and 9, but were not found, in spite of carefql search, in 



BUILDINGS WITHIN THE CAMP : THE BAERACKS. , 238 

rooms 1 and 2, which may therefore be supposed to have formed a 
projecting wing at the outer end of the L-shaped block. 

If we take these buildings in succession, we shall find that in their 
present form they are grouped in pairs, back to back, whereas in the 
striga system proper the pairs are face to face. Although it was 
seldom possible to discover the doorways, the fronts of the buildings 
having been more or less ruined by injudicious digging, there was sel- 
dom any doubt as to the side on which the doors had been, since on 
that side there was generally a line of stone channelling to catch the 
drip from the roofs. Blocks i, vi, xiii and xviii, face the 
adjacent rampart ; ii and iii face one another, in the fashion of a 
regular striga. In the case of v, which was much destroyed, the 
channelling was not found, but there can be no doubt that the doors 
faced south ; the same remarks hold good of xvii, with the difference 
that here there was one door at the east end. xiv must have faced 
north. The guiding principle at Housesteads seems to have been that 
the barrack doors faced the rampart, so that, in case of sudden alarm, 
the men would go straight to their places ; and it will be noted that 
blocks I, VII, and xiii, cover the whole lengtli of the exposed 
northern front. On the other hand, in a camp laid out on the striga 
system, the barracks opened upon closed streets ; from the point of 
view of the drill-sergeant this plan had its advantages, more particu- 
larly in the field camp of a column on the mafch, where each company 
would pack its baggage and form up on its own line, and issue as a 
complete and disciplined unit in the main street outside. But in 
case of a night attack, the barracks at Gellygaer, with their backs to 
the ramparts, are much less practical than those at Housesteads. 

Most of these blocks were explored only by trenches. The follow- 
ing were completely excavated : Block i, 1 and 2 ; ii, 8 and 9 ; 
ni, 4 ; and rv, 2. Excavation by trenching is always unsatisfactory, 
more especially in a wet climate ; without clearing them completely 
it is hardly possible to recover the life-history of buildings such as 
these, which have been altered and rebuilt several times. 

In the time and with the funds at our disposal, and in view of the 
unusual shallowness of the soil and the disturbed condition of the 
remains, it seemed best to stick to our original scheme, and to trace 
out the anatomy of the camp as a whole. It would be interesting 

VOL. JLXV. ^l 



234 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS I 

to undertake a complete excavatioa of some of these blocks — vi is 
the most promising — but there are many forts which would yield 
better results, because their soil is deeper and less disturbed. 

Constrmtion. — In most cases the foundations rest upon whin rock, 
but clay puddling, usual in the foundations of the central buildings 
(viii-xii), is rarely found in those of the barracks. Blocks of 
whin often appear in the lower courses, but these mainly consist of 
freestone dressed to the same size as the blocks in the camp wall. In 
block II (8 and 9), the fourth course consists of flags laid as 
Hhruflfe'; elsewhere this bonding course was not observed. The 
floors were almost always paved with flags fitted together in irregular 
fashion ; above these there was often a later floor level of stamped 
clay, and in one case a higher flagged floor (east end of xvii). 
Hearths of large flags reddened by fire were usually in a comer, some- 
times in the middle of the rooms. A very curious hearth was found 
in VI (2), and is shown on the plan. It is a shallow pit (depth just 
over one foot) in the middle of the roughly-paved floor. A channel or 
flue, lined with stone slates set on edge, connected it with the south 
wall, and had probably served to introduce a current of air. The flue 
was beneath the level of the floor. The pit contained coal and wood 
ashes, and showed marks of fire. It contained, also, a quantity of 
pottery, including fragments of three Samian vases* which must 
have been thrown in when the hearth was disused and the later 
floor constructed over it. This find is of importance, since, sooner 
or later, when more is known of the chronology of terra sigillatay 
these vases will furnish an approximate date for the reconstruction 
of this part of the camp. 

Were these buildings, constructed throughout in stone, or were 
only the lower courses of stone and the upper structure in wood ? 
This problem was constantly in our minds during the excavation, but 
no satisfactory evidence was forthcoming. I am inclined to believe 
that the original barracks were wooden huts raised on stone founda- 
tions, and that, at some period after the principal buildings had been 
ruined, the barracks were restored in stone : the evidence being that 
in different parts of these blocks two semi-circular stone door-heads 
were found built into the fourth or fifth course of the foundation, 

* See p. 296, 



BUILDINGS WITHIN ME CAMP : THE STOREHOUSES. 285 

The use of the door-heads as building material indicates that pre- 
existing stone buildings had been thrown down ; but it is difficult to 
believe that if the barracks had been constructed of stone throughout 
it would have been necessary, even after a sack, to rebuild them from 
the fourth course upwards. If, however, a wooden superstructure had 
been burned, it would be natural to use damaged members from the 
principal buildings of the camp in the restoration of the barracks. 
Their imperfect alignment is easily accounted for. Thus it is evident 
that the west ends of iv, v, and vi, were originally in alignment, 
but at the reconstruction the end wall of v and vi was moved out, 
perhaps because the drain which skirts them had weakened their 
foundations, iv was never rebuilt. 

Do these stone foundations represent the earliest barracks, or 
were they preceded by ranges of wooden sheds framed on vertical posts 
and horizontal sleepers such as we know existed at Ardoch ? We 
cannot say ; but such a mode of construction, suitable enough on 
deep soil and level ground, offered especial difficulties on the basalt of 
Honsesteads and along the sloping sides of the ridge ; and it is 
possible that in this bleak region freestone was more easily obtained 
than timber. 

It is to be noticed in some of the barracks at Neuss that the 
second of twelve consecutive rooms, each divided into two compart- 
ments, had its inner compartment better paved than the rest, and it 
has been conjectured that the first and second rooms may have been 
occupied by the centurion, whose tent in the field encampment 
certainly occupied a corresponding position. It is possible that the 
two end rooms of vi, one of which has the sunken hearth already 
described, may have been the quarters of the officer commanding the 
ceniuriae. In any thoroughgoing excavation of buildings of this 
type a good look-out should be kept for such diflFerences. 

Were women and children at any time resident within the camp ? 
The comparatively frequent occurrence within the barrack rooms of 
fragments of bracelets made of glass, paste, and jet, and of beads and 
similar trinkets, suggests that in the later years of the Eoman 
dominion there may have been ' married quarters ' within the walls. 

Block VIII, — The Storehouses. — North of the praetorium and 
parallel to it lie two long narrow buildings, the construction of which 



236 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS i 



makes it probable that they were storehouses. Their walls are 
exceptionally thick and are strengthened by buttresses, and their 
floors were raised above the ground, with the difference that the floor 
of the northern compartment rested on square stone pillars, that of 
the southern on parallel dwarf walls. No trace of soot was found in 
either basement, nor did we find any place for a furnace, consequently 
these were not hypocausts. The object of elevating the floor was to 
protect the contents of the buildings from damp. The pavement 
throughout had been removed ; it probably consisted of stone flags. 




'W5^w'V.Hl 



FIG. 19.— THRESHOLD OF BLOCK VIII SKEN FROM INSIDE. 



The doors of these buildings open, contrary to expectation, not on 
the via principalis but on the vacant piazza to the west. The entrance 
in each case is at the west end, and was closed by two doors. The 
well-preserved threshold of the northern compartment, with its 
check, pivot sockets, and bolt-holes for two doors is shown in fig. 19. 

The doorway and steps at the east end, and the kiln in the middle 
of the southern compartment, are insertions of comparatively recent 
date. It was probably at the time when the kiln was built that the 
western half of this compartment was razed to the ground. The kiln 



UUlLDIirGS WiTHItr THE CAMP : THE STOREHOUSES. 



287 



was excavated bj Hodgson, as has been mentioned on page 199.^® The 
kiln inserted in a similar way in the east tower of the south gate is 
discussed on page 282. 

The closest parallel to this double storehouse is furnished by two 
similar blocks, each consisting of two warehouses, which stand at 
either side of the praetorium at brbmbnium. One or more buildings 
of this type have been found in almost every fort hitherto examined 
in the north of England, but it does not seem to be common on the 
German frontier. The following table shows the principal 
instances : — 



Camp. 


Praetorium. 


Granary. 


centre to 
centre. 


Breadth. 


Length. 


Length. 


Br«adth. 


Housesteads 

Chesters 

South Shields 

Cappuck 

Bremenium 

Do 

Do. 

Do 

Birrens (XV) 

Do. (XI) 

Lyne 

Camelon 

Ardoch 


Feet. 
77 
90 
80 

73 

70 

102 

120 

76 


Feet. 

90 
125 

90 

76 

80 

97 
92 

88 


Feet. 

84 

(b2 

75 

69 
76 
76 
76 
76 
77 
71 
97 
106 


Feet. 
22 
33 
29 
21 
22 
21 
20J 

i:j 

24 
25 
20 
20 


Feet. 
14 
lOJ 
12 
10 

9 
91 



It will be seen that their dimensions exhibit remarkable uniformity. 
Their width varies between 20 feet and 25 feet, while their length 
seems to be governed by the length of the praetorium, or, in other 
words, by the distance between the via principalis and the via quintana^ 
for .they are usually placed in the lalera praetorii. The uniformity 
observed in their dimensions and position appears also in their con- 
struction : the floor is raised upon dwarf walls or stone pillars. The 
walls are strengthened with buttresses, and the doors, when their 
position is known, are at the end, never at the side. Arguing from 
the thickness of the walls, the strength of the buttresses, and the 



^* He cleared a part of the adjoining buildings. 



238 EXCAVATIONS AT HOtJSESTEADS t 

narrow proportions of the buildings of this type at Birrens, Mr. 
Barbour has inferred that they were spanned by stone vaults. In 
any case it is clear that they were intended to support a heavier 
superstructure, if not a vault, then perhaps a pitched timber roof 
with stone slates. 

The following considerations suggest that these buildings were 
storehouses : — 

1. Whereas most of the stone buildings in the forts had floors 
resting on earth and roofs of inflammable thatch, these buildings are 
practically damp-proof and fire-proof. Now it was of the first 
importance to the garrisons to have storehouses for grain and other 
provisions which could defy these two dangers.^^ 

2. Horrea or storehouses are known to have existed in Roman 
forts. An inscription found at aesioa^® records the rebuilding of a 
horreum by the garrison in 225 a.d. At Niederbieber we find a 
dedication, *gbnio hor[rei] n[umeri] brittonum.' That fort was 
held by two corps, a numerm of Britons, and one of scouts, and it may 
be inferred that each possessed its own storehouse. In like manner 
at BREMENiUM, where two corps were stationed, it is likely that the 
two blocks of storehouses placed symmetrically east and west of the 
praetorium are those of the Varduli and of the local scouts respectively. 
Finally, at Capersburg, an inscription found before the door of a 
building measuring 52 feet by 26 feet identifies it as horreum. Its 
proportions are not those of the British examples, excepting those at 
Chesters. But, as I have said, the standard pattern of praetoria and 
other buildings are remarkably diveise in Germany and in Britain. 
Supposed granaries have come to light there in the forts at Pfiinz, 
Theilenhofen, and Rliffenhofen.^^ 

^ The Gauls attempted to set on fire the buildings inside Caesar's camp by 
slinging red-hot pellets of clay upon the roofs ; and just such fire-hardeaed 
pellets were found in the camp at Ardoch. 

*• The region of the fort at aesica, where this inscription is said to have been 
found — *the northern part* of the station— was not examined in the recent 
excavations, but it is likely that a storehouse stood on the north side of the 
praetorium. At aesica and cilurnum, as at boecovicium, a large house- like 
building extends from one side of the praetorium to the rampart. It is likely 
enough that the space on the other side of the praetorium in those camps will 
be found to contain the buildings which I take to be horrea. 

" A room adjoining the praetorium at Worth exhibits superficial resemblance 
in plan to the British horrea j owing to the rows of square stone piers on its 
floor, but these are much larger as well as further apart than our pifae^ and the 
editor is probably right in thinking that they supported posts and shelves. 



BUILDINGS WITHIN THE CAMP. 239 

Block IX. — The West Central Building. — This, a paraUelogram 
87^ feet bj 62 feet, seems to have consisted of a narrow central court, 
a corridor round it, and numerous small rooms entered from the corri- 
dor. It stands on a slope, and was more completely destroyed than 
any other of the central buildings. The well-preserved walls in the 
southern half of it are only substructures and do not rise to the floor 
level. It yielded only one object of any interest — an intaglio of glass 
paste, engraved with the figure of Victory. 

Block JT/.— This is a small building, 89 feet by 24 feet, con- 
structed in the same poor style as the barracks. It was entered by a 
doorway at the south-east end, which led into the largest of its four 
compartments— a room containing an apsidal structure, possibly the 
remains of a bath. The south-west angle of xi and the south-east 
angle of vi were completely obliterated, this having been the site of 
a seventeenth century farm house. 

Block XII. — The Commandants House (?) — This is a building 124 
feet from east to west, and 82^ feet from north to south, lying south of 
the praetorium and separated from it by a road 12 feet wide. Its east 
front is in true alignment with that of the praetorium, and its masonry, 
though smaller, exhibits the same careful dressing. The two build- 
ings were nearly contemporary. It seems to consist of a central court, 
a corridor round it, and a series of chambers, three at least of which 
opened into the surrounding streets. The eastern rooms were explored 
by Mr. John Clayton in the fifties, and have remained open ever since. 
Dr. Bruce describes them as follows : — 

* Proceeding once more to the intersection of the main streets, we make our 
way to the southern gate. We soon come to a considerable mass of building on 
our right hand. Part' of it was excavated in 1858, an enormous mass of debris 
having been removed. It is not easy to assign a use to each apartment. One 
of them, when first opened, strongly resembled (though on a small scale) ah 
Italian kitchen ; there were marks of fire on its raised hearth. In this part of 
the camp the ordinary soldiers would dwell. No remains sufficiently perfect 
exist to give us a complete idea of a Roman house in these military cities. 
Judging from the remains which do exist, they seem to have been of a dark 
and gloomy character. No windows have been found; but in most of the 
stations window glass is met with in the debris.' ''^ 

Here, too, as in block ix, the walls that could be traced in the 
southern half of the building were only substructures. It is natural 

^ Pruce, Han^hooh to the Uoman Wall^ 3nd edition, 134, 135, 



240 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

to compare it with the better preserved house which occupies a corre- 
sponding position at cilurnum ; with the hypocausted building south 
of the praetorium at absioa, and with the small house built round the 
central court on the opposite side of the praetorium at Gellygaer. 
Farther afield, a parallel is furnished by the lai^e house, also built 
round a central court, which lies north of the praetorium of Wies- 
baden, and was explained by Von Cohausen as a military hospital. It 
seems probable that in each case this house-like building was the 
residence of the officer commanding the station. 

Block XV. — Before the excavations this was a very conspicuous 
ruin, the east end, which had been laid bare by Hodgson, standing 
high above the rest. It had seven (originally eight ?) buttresses on 
the north side, and originally, no doubt, also on the south. It was 
explored by trenches, but no partition wall could be discovered other 
than those at the east end enclosing the suite of baths described 
by Hodgson in the History of Norlhumberland (pt. ii, vol. iii. p. 187). 

' Some of the stones of the pillars of the stove had elegant mouldings upon 
them, and had plainly been used in former buildings. It consisted of two apart- 
ments, divided by a party wall of two feet. The first, or anteroom, which was 
supported by six pillars, was 114 ^^^^ ^y 8 ^^et, and floored in the ordinary way 
with freestone flags, covered with a composition of lime and pounded tiles. 
The second was 7 feet square within, and wholly covered, floor and sides, with a 
similar cement six inches thick, the last coating being finer than the rest, and 
polished. On its north side, immediately under the mouth of the flue, were thin 
stones set on edge between the outward wall and the plaster : and on the west 
side, two upright rows of tufaceous limestone, porous as pumice-stone, one six 
inches, the other 5 inches broad, were inserted in the wall, apparently for 
allowing heat to rise from below without the Emoke. As the mouth of the stove 
was over this division of the building, it would have more advantage of the fire 
than the ante-room, especially as the opening for the smoke seemed to be behind 
a wall of pillars at the north-east corner of the building, and quite near the 
mouth of the furnace. Adjoining to the entrance into the anteroom was a large 
and perfect cistern, apparently for cold water, and formed in the inside of the 
usual Roman composition of pounded tile and lime, and probably often having 
in it a portion of pounded limestone.' 

The thickness of the walls, and the excellent quality of the 
masonry, which consists of large well-fitted blocks, distinguish it from 
the barracks, which it resembles in general proportions. It measures 
182^ feet by 85^ feet, and is therefore identical in length with xiv 
and XVI, the barracks at either side of it. I have little doubt thafc 
it is the oldest building of the three. If xiv fuid xvj had be^n in 



BUILDINGS WITHIN THE CAMP — THE IRON WORKS, ETC. 241 

existence when it was built, it would not have been set so far to the 
north, with its buttresses almost touching the wall of xiv. There 
was no reason why its south wall should not have been aligned with 
the south wall of the north tower of the east gateway. Further, the 
use of buttresses seems to be characteristic of the architecture of the 
Antonine period ; this, however, is a point upon which it is desirable 
that further evidence should be collected. As to the use of block 
XV, I can offer no satisfactory suggestion ; a somewhat similar 
building, with baths at one end, has been discovered at a fort in Ger- 
many, and interpreted as an officer' mess-house. 

Block IV. — The Iron Works, — The foundations of this block were 
found at an unexpected depth, but in good preservation, wherever we 
sought for them. The soil covering them contained only a small 
proportion of fallen stones, and we inferred that the original wooden 
superstructure had been destroyed, and that the building was never 
restored. On its north side there were considerable bodies of clay, 
and these extended across the road almost to the wall of iii, while 
within IV, and especially at its west end, pieces of slag and masses 
of burnt clay were encountered in the trenches. Specimens of the 
slag were submitted to professor Lebour, whose report on them is as 
follows : ' At my request and through the kindness of professor P. 
P. Bedson of Durham College of Science, an excellent analyst — Mr. 
H. E. Watt — ^made a careful qualitative examination of the slags, with 
the result that they are proved to be iron slags, and not to be con- 
nected with smelting for either lead or copper.' Writing somewhat 
later, professor Lebour adds: * There is plenty of ironstone in the 
neighbourhood of the Roman Wall, whence material for smelting could 
be procured, e,g.y close to Chesterholm, where indeed clay-ironstone 
of good quality was worked within the last sixty years.' 

Late buildings. — At a somewhat late date, a long chamber was 
built right across the south gate, on the road, leaving a narrow space 
for foot passengers between itself and the guard chamber. The exact 
date for this change cannot be given, but a terminm ante quern is 
furnished by the pottery found in connexion with it. There are 
specimens of a type of dish of which many fragments were found 
hereabouts and at higher levels all over the camp. It is possible 
that in the fourth century accommodation had to be found within the 

TOL. XXV. 32 



242 EXCAVATIONS AT IIOFSESTEADS : 

walls for the population of the civil settlement which had grown up 
outside. It will be interesting to see, when the suburban buildings 
are examined, how far the latest pottery found in them agrees with 
the pottery found in the intrusive structures wiihin the camp ; in 
other words, how far the desertion of the civil settlement outside the 
wall synchronized with the extension of the buildings within. Another 
instance of the north and south road being blocked by a late building 
occurs at the east end of block i. There the outlet between i and vii 
is closed by a long chamber with the remains of an apse towards 
the west. It has a rude pavement of massive building stones and flags 
roughly fitted together. The walls, as far as can be judged from their 
remains, had no proper foundation, but rested directly on the pave- 
ment ; part of them may have been of wood, for at the east end a 
layer of wood was found lying on the pavement. Below the pavement 
was an accumulation, eight or ten inches thick, of black mud, and 
below that the original rough paving of the street, and the continua- 
tion of the channelling which skirts the walls of the barrack. 
Probably this was a post-Roman building ; it is plain that when it 
was built I and vii were to some extent ruined. 

Work still to be done. — Should fiirther investigations be under- 
taken ut Housesteads, attention should be directed to the following 
points : (1) Within the camp : Blocks i, vi, xii and xv, would 
repay further investigation ; block iv should be further excavated 
with a view to determining the nature and extent of the smelting 
operations carried on there, and obtaining confirmatory evidence of 
their Roman date. The drains should be traced and their outfall 
examined. It would also be worth while to get a complete plan of 
the latrines and to clear the ground between them and the south gate. 
There appears to be a greater depth and a greater .accumulation of 
rubbish here than in any other part of the camp, and interesting con- 
clusions might be drawn from the stratification of the remains ; else- 
where materials for stratigraphic study are very scanty. (2) Outside 
the camp : the ditch, the roads approaching the camp, the supposed 
banks and ditches outside the west gate, and the buildings outside the 
south gate, one of which, to the west, is Roman work of good period, 
while others may or may not be medieval. The course of the vallum 
is still to be traced, and the remains of the settlement on the slope 



THE CAMP AS A WHOLE. '243 

between the camp and chapel hill would certainly yield interesting 
results. The trial trenches in the valley brought to light in a few 
hours more Samian pottery of good quality than was found in weeks 
of excavation in the camp above ; pieces of oak posts and various 
objects of leather were preserved here in the damp peaty soil. It was 
in this region that the inscriptions and sculptures which made the 
name of boboovious famous were discovered. There is reason to 
suspect the existence of a large building, perhaps the temple of the 
Mother Goddesses, at the east end of the valley near the Knag 
bum, where the drum of a large column lies on the surface. Higher 
up the bum, the baths of the station might be examined, but part has 
been destroyed by the stream, and it would be impossible to recover 
the complete plan. 

ThB Gamp m a whoU. — The unusual length of the camp (610 feet), 
in proportion to its width (367 feet), raises an interesting question : 
Was it of this abnormal shape from the first, or has it been lengthened? 
Mr. Haverfield h&s shown reason for thinking that in the case of 
CILURNUM and amboglanna the portion of the fort which projects to 
the north of the wall is an addition to the original enclosure. It is a 
strong confirmation of this theory that the portion of oilurnum south 
of the line of the wall measures about 435 feet from east to west, and 
330 feet from north to south— dimensions which correspond very 
nearly with those of aesica, peocolitia, vindobala, and several 
other northern forts.'* Now the length of Housesteads from north to 
south (367 feet) corresponds pretty well with that of aesica (351 feet), 
and of the hypothetical early camp at cilurnum (330 feet). Aesica, 
in fact, retains the original dimensions of the forts along the turf wall, 
which once, as I believe, extended from sea to sea. If aesica were 
enlarged towards the north, the result would be a^camp of the general 
proportions of cilurnum ; enlarged to the west it would resemble 
Housesteads. There are two other camps. South Shields and 
YiKDOLANA, the proportions of which approximate to those of House- 
steads. Of the internal arrangements of vindolana (about 495 feet 
by 300 feet) we know nothing. It is possible that it was originally 
about the same size as another presumably earlier fort, Castlesteads 

»* Moresby falls into this group if its reported area, 440 feet by 368 feet, i>e 
correct. 



244 






dots >" ~"^ ,» 



is 










. Li^-^-^^'^^r^"' """ " xt south Sbteldj 
» the 6t**i»^ ^''^ ! tUe local condition 
•aeandtUeba^^^^Toannotgue-*^^^' 



THE WALLS AND GATES, ETC. 245 

may have made it necessary to extend along the longer axis ; but, 
fortunately, we know the ground plan, which is so abnormal as to 
require some such explanation as this. The praetorium, and con- 
sequently the fort, originally faced south ; in due course the camp was 
enlarged, and a new praetorian gate and via principalis were con- 
structed north of the praetorium, the intention being, no doubt, to 
erect a new and enlarged praetorium facing north ; but this change 
was never carried out, and so we have at South Shields the curious 
anomaly of a praetorium turning its back on the praetorian gate. These 
are speculations, but a little study of the plan of oilurnum will show 
that the present praetorium there (the so-called * forum ') cannot be 
older than the enlargement of the camp ; the whole interior must have 
been remodelled, and the previous buildings, whether of wood or of 
stone, swept away when the camp was extended. Traces of earlier 
buildings, or, failing buildings, of earlier roads, should be looked for 
in future excavations there. 

Evidence suggesting these speculations, in particular the ditch 
in the line of the Wall ditch which crosses the fort at Ohesters, 
has accumulated since the excavation at Housesteads. But the 
possibility that the extension of the camp to the west might account 
for its abnormal proportions was present in the minds of the 
excavators. No evidence in favour of such a theory was observed. 
If, as is probable, the original camp had a wall of turf, this would 
have been obliterated where it crossed the enlarged camp, and its 
ditch might be overlooked. 

The Walls and Gates ; the Earthen Rampart. — The four gates and 
the greSter part of the walls had been excavated by Hodgson and John 
Clayton (see pp. 199 and 202) and we only re-examined them as much 
as was necessary for the purpose of making a plan. The buildings on 
the west wall, certainly of very late construction, had been cleared 
out by our predecessors, and we could glean no evidence as to their 
use. Our chief discovery was a tower on the south wall midway be- 
tween the south-west angle and the south gate. It seemed possible, 
on the analogy of ciluenum and amboglanna, that there had been 
two gates on each of the long sides, and we examined this part of the 
south wall in order to settle the point. There is now a breach through 
which a modem cart road passes ; but in Roman times there was no 



246 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



gateway, only the tower shown on the plan. A strip of wall east of 
the south gate, as far as the south-east angle tower, has never yet been 
excavated, and as this part of the enclosure has deep supersoil it should 
repay exploration. The strip from the angle tower to the east gate 
had been excavated previously, and we contented ourselves with re- 
opening the foundations of several buildings, among them one that 
looks Uke a remarkably small tower. The corresponding part north 
of the gate had been excavated by John Clayton, but to no great 




FIG. 21.— THE OAMP-WALL NORTH OF THE EAST GATE, SEEN FROM INSIDE. 



depth, and here we found the remains of a rough retaining wall, which 
had evidently supported a bank of earth behind the rampart. A 
similar retaining wall was uncovered to the west of the north gate. 
Hodgson observed ' a terrace, made of earth and clay, which ran from 
tower to turret along the inside of the wall to the height of about five 
feet above its foundation,' and noted that the insides of the towers 
of the gates and of the turrets between them and the corners of the 
walls were filled up with clay to the same level. The greater part of 



THE ROADS AND DRAINS. 247 

this bank seems to have been dug away by our predecessors, in the 
process of laying bare the walls and towers. It can never have been 
continuous — the latrines, for instance, interrupted it — and it must 
have varied in width. A solid body of chippings and clay runs along 
the south wall to the west of the south gate, and a deposit of the 
same material, thrown back by the workmen who cleared the face of 
the wall fifty years ago, covered part of vi and xii. Quite distinct 
from this earthen rampart are certain strips of wall built close behind 
the original stone rampart in order to strengthen it. They occur at 
the south-west angle, midway along the north side, and immediately 
south of the east gate. At the south-east angle the wall has been 
thickened, at what date it is diflScult to say ; there certainly was 
some rebuilding during the last century. The normal construction of 
the camp wall as seen from inside is shown in fig. 21. 

Roads. — In constracting the roads at Housesteads, the Romans 
availed themselves where possible of the rock, a good instance being 
the road from the east gate to the praetorium. Elsewhere there was 
usually a pitching of rough whins covered with masons' chippings ; 
and over these in some cases was laid a pavement of flags. Between 
II and in there was regular * cobble' paving. Common building 
stones were frequently used in later repairs. In the roadway between 
xvn and xviii there survives a large patch of flagged paving 
(shown in the plan), and there can be no doubt that such paving 
once existed in many parts of the camp from which it has now dis- 
appeared. Along the front of each block there ran a line of stone 
channelling ; there seems to have been a gutter, less well constructed, 
along the margin of the made roads ; and these were in conmiunica- 
tion with a system of underground drains, which it would be interest- 
ing to explore further than we could do in our one season's digging. 
Three main drains were located : (1) running down the slope from 
north to south, at the west end of the camp, and presumably issuing 
into the camp ditch ; (2) draining blocks ix and x and descending 
the hill in the same direction as the former ; (3) draining the build- 
ings in the north-east quarter of the camp, and issuing at the junction 
of the great wall with the rampart. These drains were constructed 
alike, of sandstone flags set on edge, with cover stones of the same 
material ; the bottom was sometimes rock, sometimes rammed clay 
and stones, sometimes flagging. 



248 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 

Whin boulders were sometimes put at the angles of the buildings 
as though to protect them from the wheels of passing carts. 

The Open Area. — West of viii and north of ix lies a large 
open area, not a street, which was never built upon. To the west it 
has a pavement of natural rock, and farther east, where the rock 
descends, the ground has been brought up to the same level and the 
surface formed with chippings and gravel. It is skirted on the west 
by a street which corresponds with the Via Quintana of Hyginus ; 
and conseqeuntly it is hereabouts that we might expect to find the 
Forum Quintanumy of which, unfortunately, we know little beyond its 
name and the fact that in some sense it was a market. The corre- 
sponding part of the camps at aesioa and ciluenum has not yet been 
examined. There is a somewhat similar open area behind the prae- 
torium at Gellygaer ; and at South Shields, though there is not the 
same square space, there is an unusually wide street, flanked at either 
side by three long narrow buttressed buildings. At Housesteads there 
are only two such buildings — those which together form block vni ; 
and their doors open directly on this open space.^^ If, as seems 
almost certain, they were store houses, the open space would be used 
for loading and unloading carts, and troops might parade there when 
supplies were served out. The fact that during the prolonged occu- 
pation of the camp, while subsidiary buildings sprang up elsewhere, 
one of them completely blocking the south end of the via principalis^ 
there was never any encroachment upon this open space, indicates that 
it played some definite and permanent part in the life of the garrison. 

Water Supply. --Th^ fort was probably placed where it is with a 
view to the water obtainable from the burn on the east and from 
springs and wells on the adjacent slopes. It is possible that water 
was brought into the camp by a conduit. We learn from an inscrip- 
tion that this was done at cilurnum^^ ; while at amboglanna, vindo- 
LANA, and ABSICA we have remains of the actual water-courses. If 
this was done for cilurnum, which lies within a iurlong of the inex- 
haustible Tyne, Housesteads would not have been left dependent on 
the outlying wells had it been possible to conduct water from a higher 

'* As I have already pointed out, the door and steps at the east end of viii 
are post- Roman, contemporary with the construction of the kiln and demolition 
of the south-west quarter of the building. 

•* Also at the South Shields camp. — Arch, AeL, xvi, 167 [Ed.]. 



THE LATRINES. 



249 




lO 



RL?Nri 



O-i- 



£ 



FEBT 



ouf=?T='/^C,^ 



level. No trace a of conduit has been found ; judging from the level, 
if any existed it must have entered the camp from the west. When 
the supposed earth works outside the west gate are examined, trenches 
shonld be cut from north to south, parallel to the front of the camp, 
to ascertain whether any water channel entered the camp from that 
aide. Several cisterns were found in the eastern half of the camp. 
One such, about which Dr. Bruce recorded the opinion of one of 
Mr. Clayton's workmen that the 
Romans used it for washing their 
Scotch prisoners in, is lying open 
and visible at the north gate ; 
two others, of about the same 
dimensions, 10 feet by 5 feet, lie 
near the north-east and south-east 
angles ; and part of a fourth near 
the south gate. Their construction 
is shown in fig. 22, which represents 
the one at the east end of block 
XIII. A fifth, about three times 
as large, 15 feet by 10 feet, a well- 
preserved specimen of Roman con- 
struction, was discovered built 
against the south-east angle-tower, 
the ground floor of which seems 
to have been filled up when the cistern was constructed. The 
overflow water from it was used for flushing the latrines adjoining 
it to the south west. A detailed description and drawing of this 
cistern, by Mr. Knowles, are appended. Failing evidence of a 
conduit, we must suppose that these tanks were reservoirs for 
rain water, and that they were once much more numerous. In 
I, 4, there is a roughly constructed cistern below the floor- 
level, with a square opening in the adjoining wall, through which it 
received the surface water from the street behind. 

The Latrines.^Mr. W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., made plans of this 
building and has kindly furnished the following notes : 

* In the last weeks of the excavation a building containing latrines 
was discovered at the south-east corner of the camp. The building 

YOU XXV. 33 




e>ECX10M 



PIG. 22. CISTERN AT EAST END OF BLOCK XIV. 



250 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOIJSESTEADS : 



is a parallelogram measuring internally about thirty-one feet by 
sixteen. The sides abut on the south wall of the camp, within a few 
feet of the angle-tower. Although no similar structure has hitherto 
been opened out in the stations on the Wall, it is not difficult to 
determine the purpose for which the building was erected, its details 
being very similar to the latrine-blocks discovered in the Roman 
cities of Silchester and Wroxeter.^^ At Housesteads the fall of the 
land is from north to south, and the latrines are consequently in. the 



y^^^^-^-^^'^ rtwv*^ , 






■m 




^r^i^^^B 



[i«jp^'? 





'Zi^^C^^^i^'* '^**^ ecf 1^^^^^ 



FIQ. 23.— SKETCH OF STONE CISTERN. 



position best calculated to receive the surface water which was 
needed for flushing purposes. The openings giving access to the 
parallelogram are at the ends, in the middle of the east and west 
walls. A trough (see the plan, plate xviii) three feet wide and 
two feet six inches deep, passes along the sides, and across the 
west end ; it is formed with stone side-walls and flagged bottom. 



'® [Less complete examples have been excavated in a private house at 
Caerwent »nd in the fort at Gellygaer.— R.C.B.] 



Plate XVIII. 



CaiviP Vv{M_L. 








A 


f , 


/\ 


\ / ^ •••■ 


yA 


%/ 


\ 


\\ / ^ ' 


V. 


/ 




\V r^ / 


/ 


oA 


r 


> // 


\ 




/ 


/ 


y 


y 


y 


/ 


' 






U-HKNOWLEO. Mens, ct Ocl. 











THE LATRINES. 



251 



Above these troughs, seats were doubtless arranged in the same way 
as at URICONIUM, but there is no visible provision for the woodwork 
beyond a large rebate (see section C C) formed on the top of the 
inner trough wall, which may have supported a sill-piece. The floor 
of the passage between the troughs is made of flagging, bordered by 
a channel stone. Some gutters or channels at the height of the 
exterior ground level emptied into the trough and served to flush it. 
* Near to the latrines, but erected at a later date, is a stone tank 
or cistern ; it is placed against the angle tower and has blocked the 
original entrance to it. The tank is fourteen feet ten inches by nine 
feet ten inches, by three feet in height. The sides and ends are 
formed with ten large stone slabs, six inches in thickness, and the 



. ,. |.^ 



/.4- 





Fia. 24.— FBA.OHEXTS OF STONE TROUGH. 

bottom with cement finished in the angle with the usual quarter- 
round moulding. The slabs are shouldered and mitred at the 
external angles, and abut against each other elsewhere. The sides 
of the stones are grooved and run with lead, and on the top 
secured with dove-tailed iron cramps. Two coping-stones fourteen 
inches by six inches remain on the south-east side. On the stone 
slabs, and in the cement floor (see the small section A A) are 
some lead plugs, they are placed on either side of the vertical 
joints of the side slabs, and opposite thereto in the cement ; 
no doubt the ends of iron stay-bars were therein secured. There 
is no indication of an inlet, the water must, therefore, have 
passed over the top of the tank. An overflow is provided (see 
section and sketch) in the west (actually south-west) side by sinking 
the upper edge of one of the slabs, and about midway in the height 



262 



EXCAVATIONS AT IIOITSESTEADS : 



is a hole for an outlet pipe or plug ; both deliver into a hollow stone 
channel which continues to the door opening (then built up) at the 
east end of the latrine, and passes, one foot above the floor level, into 
the stone gutter of the passage. This gutter is laid with a fall to 
the west, then to the north, and flowing eastwards the water is thus 
made to pass round the passage, and delivers into the trough at the 
north-east end ; possibly the cistern was provided to afford a flush 
when the surface water failed.' 

Two stone troughs found in the paved gangway of the latrines 

building are shown in figs. 24 



and 25. The former had a 
:: partition and an outlet starting 
^ from the top of it ; the latter 
has a round orifice at one end 
for the admission of a pipe and 
an overflow-opening at the other 
end. They look like washing 
troughs, but as they were not in their original positions we cannot 
say how they were supplied with water. 




Pia. 25.— STONK TBOUOH. 



EXCAVATIONS OUTSIDE THE FORT. 

1. — THE SO-OAIiLED AMPHITHEATRE. 

About one hundred and fifty yards north-east of the camp, and on 
the north side of the Wall, just beyond the gateway in the valley of 
the Knag-burn which Mr. John Clayton explored in 1856, there is an 
artificial hollow commonly known as * the Roman Amphitheatre.' The 
first suggestion of the name came from Hodgson, coupled with a hint 
that the place might equally well have been a quarry, and later writers 
have recurred to the alluring idea, John Clayton with decided reserve, 
MacLauchlan and Bruce with increasing confidence.^^ 

^^ 'Apparently made by human labour ; but whether it was used ... as an 
amphitheatre, or is merely the alveus of an ancient quarry, it is vain to con- 
jecture.'— HODGSON. 

* Scarcely of sufficient dimensions to justify the title of amphitheatre.' — 
John Clayton. 

* It is circular and, though north of the Wall, was perhaps an amphitheatre.' 
—MacLauchlan. 

* Probably an amphitheatre on a small scale.'^BBUCE. 



THE SO-CALLED AMPHITHEATRI!. 



263 



At the request of some members of the society's council, the hollow 
was trenched in two directions. The sections obtained are shown in 
the annexed drawing (fig. 26). Upon the slope nearest to the wall a 
thick bed of freestone chippings lay quite near the surface ; it probably 
dates from the building of the Wall. At the bottom of the hollow 
quantities of similar chippings were met with everywhere under a 
foot-and-a-half of blackish top-soil, which yielded some scraps of 
Roman pottery. There was no level floor in the centre, and nothing 
that could be construed as seats or supports for seats on the surround- 
ing slopes. All the appearances were those of a shallow quarry. It 
is to be noticed that this is almost the only point for some distance 



:-a.a_ 4iLp. 




SECTION THRO. AMPHITHEATF?E N.ToS. 

o J o ,o ao so '♦o yo «.o 710 

■ ■■■■'■•■■■ i I L- 1 1 i Ll-ECT. 

Fig. 26. 

along the line of heights where the freestone underlying the basalt 
crops out so that it can be quarried within a few yards of the Wall. 



2.— THE WELL BESIDE THE KNAG-BURN (FiG. 27). 

A few yards east of the Knag-burn and south of the gateway in 
the Wall *is a powerful spring carefully cased in Roman masonry. 
It was discovered,' says Bruce in his Handbook, ' in the summer of 
1844.' As this had never been cleaned out since its discovery, it 
seemed possible that it might yield objects of interest. The excava- 
tion disclosed the admirable quality of its Roman masonry, but 
nothing whatever in the way of antiquities except a home-made 



264 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 




THE KNAG-BURIf WELL AND THE TEMPLE OF MITHBAS. 255 

counter or draughtsman of red pottery. A local workman informed 
us that he had once seen part of a line of stone channelling to the 
south of the well, half-way between it and the ruins of what were 
probably the baths of the station in a sheltered hollow to the east 
of the bum. If so, the main use of the spring probably was to supply 
the baths with water. It would seem that these baths were not so 
completely destroyed as Hodgson believed. A few years ago, some 
workmen prospecting for lead made an experimental cutting here and 
exposed some well-built Roman walls which disappear into the face of 
a steep bank of accumulated debris. Part of a large armlet of 
Kimmeridge shale was picked up here by one of our workers. 

3. — THE TEMPLE OF MITHRAS.^^ 

The cave or temple of Mithras at Housesteads was accidentally 
discovered in June, 1822, by workmen digging for stones in the side 
of a hillock opposite the west end of the Chapel hill. The dimensions 
of the little c^ll, including its walls, were barely thirteen feet from 
north to south by ten from east to west, and its only features were 
a recess, seven feet by two-and-a-half, on the west and a doorway 

** Recent researches, especially those of professor Franz Cumont of Ghent, 
who has collected and analysed an immense amount of evidence in his great 
book, Les Mygtires de Mithra, have cleared up much that was obscure about the 
history and nature of Mithras-worship. Derived with considerable modifications 
from the cult of Mithras, the Persian god of light, it first appeared in the 
Roman empire towards the end of the first century of our era. Oriental 
auxiliaries introduced it into the army, where it took root and spread rapidly 
through the camps and garrison towns of the Danube provinces, Germany, 
Britain, and North Africa. The new faith travelled with time-expired soldiers 
to their homes in all parts of the empire, with Oriental merchants to the ports 
and trading-centres of the Mediterranean. For a time its influence was confined 
to the lower orders, but it became fashionable at the end of the second century 
when the emperor Commodus was initiated. Thenceforward inscribed monu- 
ments of Mithraism become common and the names of the highest officials 
appear on them. Even after the conversion of Constantine to Christianity the 
upper classes remained faithful to Mithras, and a dedication in his honour is 
known to have been made as late as the year 387. 

The sacrifice of the bull, which is the subject of a great number of Mithraic 
sculptures, refers to a Persian myth of the creation in which the bull, the first 
created of living things, is slain that the remainder of animals and plants may 
be bom of its blood. At the end of the world a similar sacrifice was to renew 
the life of mankind. Mithras was revered as Crentor, Redeemer, and Mediator. 
It is not surprising that the early fathers, some of whom tell us that the followers 
of Mithras believeid in a resurrection and in the immortality of the soul, and 
celebrated a kind of sacrament, should have regarded a cult which had so many 
points of contact with Christianity as a most dan^rorjs rival, 



256 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



facing it on the east. Within the recess — it was this that constituted 
the unique interest of the discovery — a figure of the god and two altars 

were found standing in their 
original positions. They had 
remained undisturbed and un- 
suspected, their heads only a 
few inches below the turf, 
since the third or fourth 
century of our era. The 
sculptured figure represents 
Mithras at the moment of his 
miraculous birth springing, 
torch and sword in hand, from 
the rock, encircled by an oval 
frame engraved with the signs 
of the Zodiac. Its top, and 
those of the altars at either 
side, had suffered somewhat 
from the weather, but 'their 
lower parts were as fresh and 
perfect as on the day they were 
turned off the bench of the 
mason who carved them.' A 
headless figure holding a torch lay behind the altars, and before them 
were some fragments of the sculptured slab, representing the mystical 
sacrifice of a bull, which usually covered the end wall in temples of 
Mithras. The workmen supposed that this great altar-piece, which 
must when perfect have been six feet in height and as much or more 
in width, had been broken up twelve years before, when the cave was 
drained and the dyke on the west was built ; * consequently,' says 
Hodgson, * the parts wanting may probably be found either as covers 
to the drain or in the field wall.'^^ 

The re-excavation of the site in August, 1898, was prompted in 
some degree by the hope of recovering these fragments, still more by 

'•John Hodgson gave a full account of the discovery in Archaeologia Aeliana^ 
4to, I. p. 263, and in his History of Northumberland, pt. Ii, vol. iii. p. 190. Another 
contemporary report is reprinted in La;pidarium Septentrionale, p, 96, from the 
Newcastle Chronicle. 




Fia. 28. THE GOD MITHRAS, WITH THE SIGNS 
OF THE ZODIAC. 




^'^^tf/T 



THE TEMPLE OF MITHBAS. 267 

a conviction that the little cell opened in 1822 was only the inner 

sanctuary, not the main body of the temple. Hodgson, whose slcetch- 

plan is here reproduced (fig. 29), heard 

that when the drain just referred to 

(shown by a dotted line on the plan), 

was being made, 'great quantities of 

stones were dug out of the foundations 

of very extensive walls to the east of 

the room containing the altars,' and 

satisfied himself that its eastern door 

most have communicated with other 

buildings. The excavators of 1898 

did not succeed in finding the inner "*'^ ^'^^^^ 

shrine, which must have been de- ^ 

' FIG. 29.— HODGSON'S PLAN OF THB 

molished for the sake of its stones mithrabum. 

soon after 1822, nor did they recover any fragments of the great 
sacrifice slab. But they traced the adjoining foundations and 
ascertained that they were those of a Mithraeum of normal type, and 
were rewarded by finding two inscribed altars and three sculptured 
figures in the ruins. 

The two essentials for a temple of Mithras were that it should be 
Hi least partly underground and should be supplied with water, it 
possible direct from a natural source. In the present case the boilderB 
duMse a spot where there was a small spring beside a hillock, and pro- 
duced the semblance of a cave by excavating a strip of gnnmd sc^oe 
fifty feet long and twenty wide, and lining it with rough walls. Its 
depth waa slight at the east end and increased as the ground rose 
towaiids the west ; the floor of the west end, now destroyed, must 
have been five feet below the outer ground-level.^ Internally, the 

^ The walls which Hodgson found standing five feet high in 1822 were i!aced 
only on the inside. This is true of the remaining fragments of wall, except at 
the east end where the ground slopes away. The cave-like aspect of the inner 
shrine nay have been increased by heaping earth against the walls so as to xpAsk 
them completely, and the roof may have been so contrived as to assist the illuwon. 
Hodgson suggested that it was of thatch. Some pieces of tite were fi^und, but 
not enough to indicate a roof of that material. A layer of charcoal above the 
pavement was probably the remains of the burned roof-beams. The oonstmeticm 
throughout was rude, the walls being without much foundation, and ^oosistiog 
of rough whins and small undressed pieces of freestone bonded with clay. Two 
large stones projecting from th^ south wail, near its eastern end, may be remaiiis 
of buttresses. 



TOL.'XXV, 



34 



258 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOFSESTEADS , 



temple measured about forty-two feet by sixteen, and probably con- 
sisted originally of a small vestibule, a long nave with raised aisles, 
and an inner shrine. All that can now be made out with certainty is 
the paved central passage, six feet six inches wide, and fragments of 
the dwarf -walls, roughly built and faced only on the side towards the 
nave, supporting the raised lateral platforms or aisles upon which the 
worshippers knelt during the celebration of the mysteries. The 




FIG. 30.— SCULPTURED SLAB REPRESENTING THE MYSTICAL SACRIFICE OF A BULL. 



northern aisle-wall is still in one place nearly two feet high, and the 
aisle-floors, of stamped clay on a bed of stone-chips, must have risen 
at least this height above the floor of the nave. Each aisle was about 
five feet broad, if, as is probable, the top of the retaining-walls was 
flush with the floor— somewhat narrower if there was a parapet. The 
pav^ has a pavement of flags, two to four inches thick, which extends 



259 



CTWE or MiTi-ii^?va- 



1 1 1 1 1 



r, , , , 1° 



-.4- 



&C?^ie OF- FEET 




-a 



QF^oirrrn T>j5kjs 



&ol^y^^Cfe 



«.p»^vT V.W^M|V»a-D 



&-rof>4e 0»nlP>£k 



SECTION A. 14 . 



'ktti' V i^'rt— ^ fry 



110.9L~PLAM OF THE BaTHRAEFM AT HOUSESTEADB. 



26d feiCAVAllONS At HOtTSEStEADS * 

with interruptions nearly the whole length of the building. At one 
place there were found remains of a later floor, consisting of planks of 
oak and small birch logs laid on stone-chippings, which in turn rested 
on the original pavement. The planks were too rough to have formed 
a floor themselves, and were probably meant to support a pavement of 
flags, the object being to raise the floor above the overflow of the spring. 
The receptacle into which the spring rises is a stone box formed of 
flags jointed with clay and sunk in the pavement. It is seventeen-and- 
a-half inches deep and twenty-one by fifteen inches at its mouth. 
The presence of this spring greatly hindered the excavation, since 
part of the area was constantly under water. The bedding under the 
wooden floor is so arranged as to leave a channel or gutter at either 
side ; but this disappears towards the west end, where the pavement is 
higher and comparatively dry. 

The east end is almost obliterated. The mass of masonry shown 
in the plan at the north-east angle may have been below the floor-level 
of the porch and vestibule ; or it may represent a raised platform in 
front of the entrance.*^ In either case its object was to protect this 
end of the building from the flow of water which in winter finds 
its way through the hollow between the Chapel hill and the Mithraeum 
from a large spring cased with Roman masonry in the field on the 
north. 

Of the west end, also, practically nothing survives, but it was 
proved that the building extended no farther to the west than the 
foundations shown in the plan, and it is certain that the plan made 
by Hodgson in 1822 must be fitted, despite some discrepancies in 
dimensions, into the gap at the west end of ours.^ The little cell 
with the group of images and altars standing in the recess of its west 
wall was the inner shrine, the holy of holies, which can be recognized 
in several other temples of Mithras. Recent research has shown 

^ la the Mithraeum at Ober-Florstadt {O.R.L. xviii.), there is a raised 
vestibule of about the same proportions as are indicated by this substructure. 
I have to thank Mr. Blair for calling my attention to the likeness. 

*• The plan reproduced in fig. 29 is taken from ArchaeoUgia Aelianay 4to, I. 
It is only a rough sketch-plan. The plan in the HUtory of Northmberland, pt. u, 
vol. iii, facing p. 190, difEers a Jittle. The north and south walls are prolonged 
to the east beyond the cross-wall, and there is a second door, of which Hodgson 
says, * immediately behind the altars there were indications of a passage by 
stone steps or stairs through the west wall.* This is not probable, and there is 
no hint of it in his earlier account. 



THE MlTHRAllUM. 



261 



that these buildings usually conformed more or less to the same plan, 
oonsisting of a small vestibule, a loi^ nave with a raised aisle or 
platform at either side, upon which the worshippers knelt, leaving the 
central passage free for the officiating priest, and an inner sanctuary 
containing a representation of the mystical sacrifice of the bull. In 
some cases there is proof that the sanctuary was separated chancel- 
wise from the body of the building by wooden rails. Presumably, the 
lateral platforms of which we found traces were continued up to the 
cross-walls seen by Hodgson ; and these latter are to be thought of as 
screen-walls dividing nave from chancel. 

Oumont, in his study of the existing remains of temples of Mithras, 
summarises their dimensions as follows : — 



Breadth of nave, 4 ft. 3 in. to 13 ft. 9 in. 
Breadth of aisle, 3 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft. 3 in. 
Height of aisle, 2 ft. in. to 3 ft. 9 in. 



(Housesteads, 6 ft. 3 in.) 
( „ 5 ft. in.) 

( „ 2 ft. or more.) 



It follows that the Mithraeum at Housesteads was small, but by no 
means one of the smallest. 

Near the centre of the nave, where three crosses are marked upon 
the plan, there were found three figures carved in coarse freestone. 
All were headless and much broken, and 
were lying face downwards. One is a male 
figure, clad in a short tunic, with bare 
l^ and feet, and stands ^at attention' 
with clenched hands. It is twenty-eight 
inches high. The others are a pair of those 
torch-bearing satellites of Mithras which 
are so often found in his temples. Fortun- 
ately, the head of one of them was found 
a few feet away. A precisely similar 
figure was found in 1812 with the altars, 
and is now in the Blackgate. They stand 
with legs crossed, holding a torch, which ma. 32.-scuLrruRi: pound in the 
in one case is lowered, in the other * • 

uplifted. The headless figure measures thirty-one inches, including 
a six-inch plinth, the other is thirty-eight and a half inches high. 
The latter has a pointed cap, long hair, a tunic, loose trousers, 
shoes, and over all a mantle, in fact the Persian costume in 




262 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS ! 



which Mithras is commonly represented. There is reason to believe 
that these genii were worshipped with him under the name 
of Oautes and Cautopates respectively,^^ and that as he was god of the 
snn in all his aspects, so they with their raised and lowered torches 
personified him as he is seen when his powers are at their highest and 
lowest at the summer and the winter solstice. 

The worshippers of Mithras were not exclusive in their religion, 
and allowed the figures and altars of other gods to be dedicated in his 
temples, especially, Cumont notes, those of Mars and Silvanus. It is 
possible, therefore, that an altar dedicated to Cocidius, a local god 
identified on inscriptions with both those classical deities, which was 





FIG. 33.— FIGURES OF TORCH-BEARERS FOUNli IN THE CAVE. 

found in 1898 at the west end of the Mithraeum, may have been set 
up there in ancient times. It is dedicated by soldiers of the second 
legion, serving apparently in garrison at borcovicium (see Mr. 
Haverfield's note, p. 277). It may be added that a similar and rather 



*' In a well-preserved temple of Mithras at Aquincum, near Bnda-Pest, which 
the writer lately visited, four small altars were found built into the face of the 
aisle-platforms. All bear the name of the same donor. The upper part of one is 
missing. The others are dedicated to Cautes, to Cautopates, and to the 
Perennial Spring, Fonti perenni. The missing dedication may have been Petrae 
genitrici, to the Birth-giving Rock. 



ARCHITECTURAL KOTES. 268 

ill^ble altar, also dedicated to Cocidius by a soldier of the sixth 
legion, seems to have been found in the same part of the building 
in 1822.** 

The altar dedicated Marti et Victoriae (also discussed by Mr. 
Haverfield), found near the beginning of the shorter drain towards 
the east end, may have strayed here from some neighbouring shrine. 
But dedications to Mars are not unknown in other temples of Mithras, 
and honours might appropriately be paid to the goddess of victory 
within the precinct of one who appealed to the soldier's devotion as 
Deus Invicttcsj the invincible god. 

Our only clue to the date of the building is the fact that one of 
the altars found in 1822 was dedicated in the year 253. The other, 
judged by its lettering, belongs to the same epoch. We found a silver 
coin of Faustina the younger in clearing the floor. There was not 
much pottery — a few fragments of late plain *Samian' bowls and of 
thin, black-glazed ware with pinched-in sides, types which point to 
the third century. Hodgson tells us that * some fragments of vessels 
of red earthenware were found among the rubbish near the altar.' 

The main part of the building seems to have been burned. We 
noted * much burning to a somewhat high level, and large lumps of 
charcoal in central area.' The inner shrine may have escaped through 
being half underground. 



ARCHITECTURAL NOTES. 

BY A. C. DICKIE. 
1. — THE PRAETORIUM. 

The architectural interest of the site is centred in the praetorium. 
Now that a careful and complete excavation has laid bare the whole 
of its remains, it is possible to study the design and history of this 
building in detail. The surviving masonry is of three difiFerent 
types : 

(1) What seems to be the earliest is seen in the south wall, with 

** See Lapidarium, 183, where Brace argues from a comparison of Hodgson's 
account with that in Richardson's Table-book^ ill, 244, that this is the ' illegibly 
altar ' found at the point marked 4 on Hodgson's plan of the ^CAve/ 



2fi4 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS ! 




IuJLlL. 



.An 



Fig. 34. 



its return-angles (fig. 34). It consists of good, large, well-set stones, 
squared on beds and joints, and pick-dressed on face, bedded without 

lime. Headers are used throughout, 
and run through the entire thickness 
of the wall. The same large and 
careful masonry appears in certain 
internal features, viz., the four angle- 
piers of the outer court, the piers of 
the interior gateway, and the pierg 
between the doorways of the sacellum and the adjoining chambers. 
There is, however, some variety in the tooling, hammer-dressing, 
pick-dressing, and, in one case, sunk marginal-dressing, occurring 
side by side. 

(2) A quite different, inferior and, probably later, type of 
masonry occurs at the north-west angle in the walls of rooms 11 and 

12, and elsewhere. 
It consists of small, 
rudely-squared 
stones, measuring 
about six inches by 
nine inches on the 
Pig. 34a. facc, sct in lime 

and rudely coursed. Fig. 34 a, representing the door-pier between 
rooms 8 and 9, with an early walling-up of part of the door-way, 
shows the two types of masonry side by side.*^ 

From the north-west corner the small masonry continues only to 
the doorway at the north end of the inner court. The remainder of 
the north wall consists of large headers, laid without lime like those 
of the south wall. It is true that they are less carefully squared and 




Ct^Y 



^Mt is unfortunate that the greater pare of the west wall has been destroyed, 
even to its foundations ; along most of its course only the clay bed and outer 
puddling survive. The fragment remaining at its south end is in the first or 
massive style, the fragment at the north, which breaks off at room 11, is in the 
second style of masonry. It cannot be said with certainty how the missing part 
(cross-hatched on plan) was built, but the fact that it was so systematically 
uprooted leaves little doubt that it was built of the same large headers as in its 
southern extremity, and that it was demolished in recent times when these large 
blocks were wanted for the quoins of farm-buildings. The north-west comer, 
which still rises nearly five feet above the rock, has probably survived because 
its small stones were not worth taking. 



ARCHITECTURAL NOTES. 265 

jointed than the other masonry of the first style, but the fact that 
such courses as survive were never visible from outside (the floor of 
the praetorium being at a lower level than the road on the north), 
may explain the less careful workmanship. 

In the large plan of the praetorium (p. 210) no attempt is made 
to distinguish the masonry of the first and second styles, which are 
both shown in solid black. 

(3) "Walls of a third and much later style are distinguished on 
the plan by diagonal hatching. These are built with small stones 
without lime in courses averaging seven inches. The walls built to 
close the openings between the columns are all constructed in this way, 
and are evidently modifications of the original plan, made, perhaps, at 
some period when the building was used for domestic purposes. 

To recapitulate, we have 

(1) Large stones, well-dressed and laid without lime. 

(2) Small stones, rudely dressed and laid with lime. 

(3) Small stones, rudely dressed and laid without lime. 

Of the masonry of the third class it is unnecessary to say more. An 
examination of the two earlier styles leads to some interesting results. 

It is improbable that the inferior work at the north-west corner, 
consisting of small stones laid with lime, can be contemporary with 
the fine massive masonry of the first style. How can we account for 
its presence ? 

No theory of destruction and subsequent restoration will fit the 
case. This is the best protected angle of the building, and the small 
masonry starts from the rock nearly four feet below the outer ground 
level. The angles in which the massive masonry has survived were 
more exposed, and ran greater risk of such destruction. 

There are indications which point to a simpler solution. 
Reference has already been made l^y Mr. Bosanquet to the 
symmetrical plan and masterly setting-out of the praetorium as a 
whole, and to the preliminary labour which was expended in order to 
make possiole the erection of an imposing building on a difficult site. 
The care and expense devoted to the masonry of the south wall, to 
the levelling-up of the slope, to the construction of a stepped platform 
at the east front, are reflected in the accurate levelling and careful 
paving of the outer court (marked 4 on plan). We recognize the 

yo;,. XXV. 3o 



266 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS 

handiwork not only oF an able designer but of skilful and thorough 
workmen. But on entering the inner court (marked 7 on plan) we are 
met by a complete contrast. The foundations of the piers at either 
side of the entrance are at different levels ; the bases of the columns 
on the left are two feet six inches lower than those on the right ; 
three of these column-bases are rude and debased imitations of the 
model-base, marked h on the plan ; there is no trace of any regular 
pavement, and the rock cropping up in the northern half of the 
court has not even been levelled. The contrast is brought out in 
sections A B and C D, 

The relative positions of the first and second classes of masonry 
cannot be accounted for by the theory of restoration followin<2: 
destruction, unless it is argued that the whole of the walls (on the 
lines of which now stand the secondary building) were first entirely 
removed down to the rock. For many reasons this is unlikely. The 
evidence of the sculptured stones point in a like direction, and 
supports the conclusion that the original design was never completed. 
There is abundant proof that it was by the hand of a capable archi- 
tect, and the building was commenced by skilled craftsmen. Soon 
after that commencement the work was interrupted and its later 
completion is plainly the efforts of unskilled builders, who followed 
on the original lines and failed to carry out the scheme in a worthy 
manner. Their clumsy attempts to copy the old models are shewn in 
the rude remains which are so out of harmony with the stone-cutting 
of their more able predecessors. 

We may characterize the three classes of masonry as indicative of : — 

(1) A masterly beginning. 

(2) A hasty or incompetent completion of the original design. 

(3) Tiater modifications and additions interfering with the 

original design. 

2. — SOME ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 

The illustrations on p. 267 show practically all the carving in 
relief discovered during the excavations. Nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10 
are fragments of door or window heads, and give a good idea of the 
treatment of these features. The openings are invariably semi- 
circular-headed, cut out of a single stone from six to eight inches 



267 




268 EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS 

thick. The face is often decorated and is usually surrounded by a 
low marginal moulding. They show considerable variety in 
design, and are exceedingly interesting. No. 1 is one of several 
which have a crescent in the centre, and in the spandril an effective 
boss decorated with a cross within a circle. No. 4 has a rude 
figure of uncertain meaning, and no. 6 a simple raised circle in the 
spandril. No. 7 is the most complete, and also the most interesting. 
The symmetrically-grouped birds and snakes are cleverly designed, 
and drawn with considerable vigour. One admires the skill which 
has made the bird on the left so life-like, although the tiny figure is 
only roughly blocked out in the rough sandstone and no detail what- 
ever is shown beyond a faint indication of the fold of the wing. 
This stone was found built into the south-west angle of the small 
projecting annexe at the west end of Block ir (plate xix). 

Nos. 2 and 8 are fragments with marginal rope ornaments, the 
former probably part of an inscribed slab, the latter of a coved tomb- 
stone. On the other stones here figured the marginal ornament con- 
sists of incised lines, which are really a debased form of the flat 
rounded moulding so generally used in the top members of cornices. 
The variety of the returns and stops of these incised borders is 
illustrated by 7, 9, and 10. 

Profiles of Base-Moulds (see p. 269). 

1 . From a small pilaster-base lying near the south gate. 2. From 
one of the many small column-bases found in different parts of 
the camp (never in sifu), all about six inches in diameter. ^, 
From a rude pier-base, one of a somewhat numerous class. 4, 5 
and 6 gives the mouldings of three of the bases in the praetorium. 
They are marked A, i and j respectively on the plan. The 
base and plinth are in one stone. No. 4, by far the best of 
them, is represented also ip a photograph (fig. 35). It is worked 
sharp and clean to a delicately-designed profile, consisting of 
two tori above a square projecting plinth. Noticeable peculiarities 
are the great projection of the upper torus, and the V-shaped 
sinkings on it and the drum of the column. The whole is in 
excellent preservation, and shows unmistakable signs of having been 
turned in a lathe. The effect of the double torus without any fillet, 



269 




270 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS ; 



and of the great projection of the upper member — so strikingly 
suggestive of the Early English base — is very unusual and quaint, 
and, although it may not be altogether happy, yet in this instance is 
simple and refined, and immediately associates itself with design and 
workmanship of a high standard. The treatment recalls the shaft- 
beading so general in Anglo-Saxon work. 

Nos. 5 and 6 are fair examples of all the other bases in the 
praetorium, which are evidently more or less unsuccessful imitations 




FIG. 35.— COLUMN-BASE IN THE INNER COURT. 



of 4. 5 is more carefully worked than 6, but is not turned like 4, and 
is slightly different in section. 6, like all the other bases, is 
exceedingly rude, and plainly betrays the hand of an unskilled work- 
man, who, in attempting to imitate his model, has produced a 
curiously barbarous result. It is difficult to suppose that the model 
and the copies can be contemporary work. This variation of form 
and workmanship, like other irregularities in the details of the 
praetorium, demands an explanation, which may best be furnished 
by supposing that the work of building it was interrupted and alter- 
wards resumed under less favourable conditions. 



ARCHITECTTTRAL NOTES. 271 

No. 7 is from the base of an altar found lying outside the south 
gate. Its mouldings are shallow and expressionless. 

Copings, Cornices, and othkr Mouldings (see p. 272). 

These show considerable variety in design and workmanship. 

Nos. 8, 9, and 10 are pier-capitals which were found lying in line 
inside the camp near the south-west tower. They were quite near 
the surface, and had probably come to light in earlier excavations, and 
been buried and forgotten. 

Of these 8 and 9 are moulded on three sides only, and are caps of 
attached piers measuring thirty-four and a half inches by twenty- 
eight inches, and thirty-four inches by twenty-six inches, respectively, 
while 10 is moulded on four sides, and measures thirty-six inches 
by thirty-four inches. All three are well designed and worked, and 
may fairly be classed with the fine base, no. 4, on p. 269. 

The shallow sinking on the face of the upper member forms part 
of almost every moulding found in the course of the excavation. In 
the best examples this feature is carefully worked to a low segmental 
section sunk in the flat, while in ruder examples it degenerates into 
two rows of incised lines. 

No. 1 1 is the cap of a detached pier, twenty-five by twenty-seven 
inches. It has no two sides alike in section, and on one side the 
lower member is omitted altogether. It is a very clumsy piece of work, 
and may rank with the ruder series of column-bases (5 and 6 above.) 

Nos. 12, 13 and 14 are selected specimens of the many coping- 
stones found all over the camp. The majority are well worked and 
of good design, though there are plenty of rude examples. 

Sections op Capitals and Copings (see p. 273). 

15 and 19 are further specimens of coping-stones. The former 
has a rope-pattern enrichment on the soffit at the termination of the 
ogee, and the latter exhibits the * quirk' moulding often found in 
Roman camps. 

16 is a beautifuUy-worked panel moulding on a slab which may 
originally have been intended to bear an inscription, but has been 
used as a hearthstone in room 8 of the praetorium. 

17 and 20 are cornices. 17, found lying at the east gate, is exceed- 



272 




278 




274 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



ingly interesting as showing the zig-zag, the triangular sunk ornament 
and the ' quirk ' moulding, all of which are characteristic of Romano- 
British architecture, though usually associated with Norman work. 

20 is more rudely worked. It exhibits a row of consoles placed 
three and a quarter inches apart. It was found in the inner court of 
the praetorium, and may have formed part of the cornice above the 
colonnade. 



1 1 ill III ill if 



i. 



3 
-I— 



-4- 



r^ 






ScALE-Or-rEET 



Wf 



M I- 






FIG. 36.— COLUMN SHAFTS. 

18 is a section of the sill-moulding at the entrance to the 
sacellum (praetorium plan, p. 210, m in room 10). It probably served, 
as has been pointed out, as a base to a low balustrade which screened 
the room from the inner court. 

The columns discovered are practically all of one class (fig. 36). 

No. 1 is the most complete of the larger columns found within the 
camp. The shaft is forty-nine inches high, the base nine and a half 
inches, the broken cap five and three-quarter inches, all in one stone. 
There is no indication of any carving in the cap, and the base is 
square with diagonal chamfers on upper arrises. 



ARCHITECTURAL NOTES. 



275 




FIG. 37. 



No. 2 is a fragment of similar form. 

These two, found in block vii and block i (plan, p. 300) respectively, 

are fair examples of many 

snch shafts, all equally rade, 

and varying considerably in 

size, which occurred in the 

soldiers' quarters. In all 

probability, they originally 

served as verandah supports. 

The stumps of such pillars 

are to be seen in the pave- 
ment outside the barracks at 

oiLURNUM. None as found 

in situ at Housesteads. Some 
were built into walls, others lay inside the small rooms of the barrack- 
blocks. 

No. 3, found in the rubbish thrown into the sacellum after the 
removal of the back-wall at some recent date, is thirty-five and a half 
inches high, all in one stone. 
There are sunk dowel-holes 
for iron fastenings in the 
shaft. It is a baluster 
closely resembling those used 
in windows in Anglo-Saxon 
times. 

No. 4, found lying at the 
south gate, measures seven 
inches on the side, and is the 
only square shaft found in 
the excavations. 

A number of shafts similar ^^^- ^ 

to 1 and 2 have been brought from various parts of the camp into the 
praetorium. 

Fig. 87 is a small fragment of low relief carving, representing what 
seems to be a bird in a cage, from the indication of a vertical bar 
dividing the panel. It is carved in freestone and is well modelled. 
Pig. 88 is the very much decayed head of a small figure in low 





276 EXCAVATIONS AT HOTTSfiSTEADS ! 

relief. The head only measures 2i inches, and the features have 
entirely disappeared, and a faint indication of the modelling of the 
hair is the only detail which remains. 

Fig. 39 is a fragment of a column from the praetorium, and is 
unlike the other examples, in so far as it has a square base, worked on 
the same stone as the column. It is very rudely cut, 
and measures 9^ inches square at base and 2 feet 
8 inches high over all. The diminution under the 
torus is unexpected and there is just the possibility that 
it is a cap. Either theory seems possible in such 
curiously fashioned detail as this excavation has revealed. 
If the latter is correct it is the only example found 
within the camp and is therefore of special interest. 

This completes my notes on the sculptured stones, 
and a more curiously assorted lot cannot well be 
imagined. Such an unusual mixture of forms familiarly 
classified as Byzantine, Anglo-Saxon, and Norman, occurring in Roman 
times seems scarcely credible. 

The character of the whole work is strongly Byzantine, and except 
for those traits of origin which lurk in all architectural detail, there 
is an entire lack of pure Roman feeling. Here is a style of archi- 
tectural detail (existing at a time when Roman architecture was still 
pure), similar to what only became known in the Bast, centuries later, 
and incorporated in it are features, usually attributed to Anglo-Saxon 
and Norman times. This peculiarity has been noticed in the remains 
at other Roman camps, both in this country and in Germany, and also 
in a less marked degree at Silchester and Bath, as shewn in the works 
of Mt. St. John Hope and Mr. Fox. Mr. Fox in his descriptions of 
the remains at ubiconium and Leicester gives sections of mouldings, 
consisting chiefly of caps and bases of columns, which show great 
variety and individuality, but which cling more closely to their classic 
origin than those found at bobcovicium and the other camps on the 
Wall. 

There is little doubt that architectural detail of the Roman 
occupation had a character distinct from pure Roman work, and this 
is most strongly emphasized in the bobcovicium remains. That this 
Roman provincial style, at its best, was one of distinct individuality 



THE INSCRIPTIOKS. 277 

it clearly shown, and ifcs. subsequent decay (inevitable in these un- 
settled times), can be as surely traced in the debased later imitations. 
Without a far wider knowledge than it is possible to get of Boman 
provincial architecture, as it existed in the wealthy cities of Gaul, 
and the great military stations of Germany, it is difficult to estabUsh 
the exact relationship between the strictly classical method pursued 
in Italy and the widely divergent styles which recent discoveries 
proved to have existed in Britain. 



THE INSCRIPTIONS. 

BY F. HAVERFIBLD. 

The excavations at Housesteads produced nine inscribed stones, 
of which seven were found in the fort and two in the Mithraeum at 
the bottom of the hill. I have examined these inscriptions, some on 
the ground where they were discovered, and all in the museum at the 
Chesters, where they are now permanently preserved. I have also 
had the advantage of squeezes, readings, and help from Mr. 
Bosanquet. The texts were published provisionally by me in the 
Proceedings of this Society, vol. viii. (1898) pp. 208, 253. 

1. Altar (centre figure, p. 278), thirteen inches high by eight inches 

broad with one inch letters in the first line, and three-quarter 

inch letters in the other lines. Found lying face downwards on the 

flagged floor of a room in the south-west part of the fort (block VI.). 

Deo n{umini?) Vit(ji)ri Aspuanis or As- 

DEO jnUtvis pro [se] et suis vot(um) sol(vit). * Aspuanis 

pays his (or her) vow for himself and his to the 

HTITRI God Vetus.' The god Vetus, or Vitus, also found 

A8PVANI8 in the plural, Di Viteres or Veteres, had many 

PBOETBVis worshippers in the military posts of North Britain, 

but none, as it seems, elsewhere in the length and 

VOT breadth of the empire. Either we have here a local 

80L worship, British or imported German, or we have 

the 'old gods/ the pagan deities who were being 
displaced by Christianity. The dedications have mostly the marks of 
a late date which would agree with the latter hypothesis. 



278 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOTTSESTEADS : 



The letter H is probably a late form of N, produced by a gradual 
approximation of the cross stroke to a horizontal position. It occurs 
also on two other dedications to the deity here worshipped, 
{Lapidarium Septentrionale, 280, G.LL. vii, 5022>, and Ephemeris^ 
VII, 1087), and, with more resemblance to an ordinary N, on a third 
{Lap. 812, G,I,L, Yiiy 502a). J It is singular,! ^however, that mo 
' Vetus ' dedication actually has N prefixed for numeny and that H for 




N, tliough attested in other limJa, is otherwise uncommon among 
Romano- British inBcriptions, The explanation here given must not, 
therefore, be taken as certain* 

I have been unable to trace the name Aspiiania (or Aspuavis) 
elsewhere. It is disowned both by Celtic and by Germamc philo- 
logists, nor do even the students of Pictish claim it. 



THE INSCRIPTIONS. ^79 

The omission of se in line 4 is a mere error. 

2. Altar (first figure, p. 278), eight inches high by four-and-a-half 
inches wide, with small letters. Found in a small closet, in the 
same block as the preceding altar, but in another part of it. 

DEO I VETEEIB | vs VOTV | M, Deo veterihiLs votum ; ' Dedicated to 
the God Veteres.' The stone cutter has made a strange blunder 
between the singular and the plural, between deo veteri and dlhus 
veteribus, I can quote no parallel. 

3. Small red sandstone altar (third figure, p. 278), seven inches high 
by four inches wide. Found lying loose on its face on a flagged floor 
inside (block xiii) in the north-east comer of the fort. It is 
nearly illegible, as such small altars often are, and the first line is 
defaced, aic a calve | (jer ; no interpretation of this is possible. 

4. Two fragments of what was evidently once a fine slab with a 
cable border, bearing an imperial inscription which commenced with 
letters three-and-a-quarter inches high ; two other pieces of the slab 
were also found, but uninscribed. Found lying loose in the Praetorium. 
The chief fragment contains a cable border, and below a bit of the 
first line — iM— the m being imperfectly preserved. This doubtless 
signifies im(perator). The other fragment contained only part of one 
letter and what letter is uncertain. The stone seems to have been of 
the type which recorded building or restoration. 

5. Buildiug stone, eighteen inches long by fourteen inches high 
by three inches thick, with a rough undressed surface on which a 
graffito has been picked with a pointed instrument, in two lines of 
letters two-and-a-half inches high in the first, and three inches in the 
second line. The first two letters have a double row of pickmarks. 
Found loose just below the turf and above the south wall of the 
building n.e. ii. impe | rator Imperafor, probably a passing 
whim of a workman. 

6. Similar fragment, nine inches long by seven-and-a-half inches 
high by three-and-a-half inches thick, with two lines of letters about 
three inches high, picked like the preceding, but ruder. Found at 
the same time and place as the preceding, but one foot deeper in loose 
soil, AVR SOAL. At first I thought this might be part of Aur(eHus) 
Cae(sar)y the other letters having been on a now lost stone. I now 
incline to explain Aur(eUus) or Aur{elianus) scal(p8tt)j *Aurelius cut 



280 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOURESTEADS : 



this/ another workman^s whim. Certainly I should not explain, as 
has been proposed, ' the century of Aurelius Caius/ and I quote the 
version only as a warning. 




Though this and the preceding stone are in many respects 
similar, they do not seem to belong together. 

7. Building stone, eighteen inches long by eight inches wide by 
seven inches deep. Found in the south wall of the praetorinm^ near 



THE INSCRIPTIONS. 281 

its south-west comer. Some letters have been picked by a pointed 
tool along two sides of its face, but their meaning is unascertainable. 

8. Altar (fig. 41), eighteen inches high by nine inches wide, with 
small letters, diflScult to read. Found lying loose in the western part 
of the Mithraeum. It had been, doubtless, overlooked when the Mith- 
raeum was excavated in 1822, and its original position cannot now be 
fixed. It may have strayed to the Mithraeum from some shrine near it. 

I o M 
EDEOCOCIDI rr •\ / *' \ r ' \ * ^ n -jt n 

i{ovt) o{ptimo) m{aximo) et deo Cocidi\o\ 
qmioqOue) huiOus) loci miUites) legUonis) ii, 

LOCIMILLEO ^. r\\ • .^. r . x r / 7 .xn 

Augiusfae) ... m praesidtOy v{ptum) \8{plvuniy\ 

IIAVGAGVB8 i/r ^ \ r u \ 

INPBAB8ID10 

V 8 L M 

' To Juppiter Optimus Maximus and Cocidius and the genius of 
this site, the soldiers of the Second Augustan Legion ... in garrison, 
pay their vows.' The altar was erected by soldiers of the legion 
stationed at Caerleon (iscA silurum) in Monmouthshire, temporarily 
in garrison at borcovioium. Cocidius is a native god, much wor- 
shipped by the troops quartered in North Britain and usually 
combined with Mars. The text of the inscription is unfortunately 
not quite certain. In 8, I think the cutter put huis for huius. 
In 5, the letters after ii Aicg. are undecipherable to me ; the penult 
letter is e, the last R or s, probably s. Agentes^ with the aid of tied 
letters, would be a conceivable reading, and would make sense with 
inpraesidiOy ' serving in garrison.' 

9. Upper portion of an altar, seventeen inches high by twelve 
inches wide across the inscribed portion. Found lying loose in the 
eastern part of the Mithraeum. It had been, doubtless, overlooked 
in 1822, like the inscription just described, and like that may have 
strayed to the Mithraeum from elsewhere. 

MARTI 

etvii Marti et Vi(c)fonae ... 

toriae 

' Dedicated to Mars and Victory ...' The lettering is poor and 
may be comparatively late ; in particular, the centre angle of the M 
is not brought down as low as the two upright strokes. 

VOL. 5 XV. W* 



28? EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



LATE BCJILDINGS AT THE SOUl'H GATE. 

In late Roman or more probably in medieval times some remark- 
able alterations were made in the eastern tower of the sonth gate. 
A round kiln was constructed in the guard-chamber, the doorway was 
blocked up and a new doorway broken through the south wall to con- 
nect the kiln with an oblong building which projects at right angles 
from the south side of the camp. 

Dr. Bruce, who saw these remains when they were completely 
excavated, supposed that some mosstrooper had converted ' the guard- 
chamber and contiguous buildings ' to his own uses, implying that 
the walls at any rate of the outer building were lioman. ' The byre 
in which he folded his cattle at night, the kiln in which he dried his 
unripened grain, and the lower part of the flight of steps by which he 
ascended to the little fortress that was his own habitation, may all, 
though perhaps with difficulty, be distinguished.' 

Beyond clearing out the kiln to obtain measurements, no work was 
done in 1898, but as conflicting opinions have been expressed regard- 
ing its date, and as an intrusive structure of the same kind appears 
in Block vin within the camp, it seems worth while to describe the 
kiln and projecting chamber in detail. 

The kiln is tolerably well built, and has the form of an inverted 
cone, three feet in diameter at the bottom. Its sides and rough pave- 
ment are much reddened by fire. Hodgson found in it the debris of 
an upper floor, constructed of flagstones covered with a cement of 
lime and pounded brick,^ which had fallen in, and outside the door, at 
A on our plan, *a lintel of oak very much guttered with decay,, 
especially at each end,' measuring five feet four inches, by six inches 
by six, which had probably formed the top of the doorway into the 
kiln. Hard by was an oven, which is described as vaulted and having 
' a sandstone bottom very much burnt, and sandstone sides, and a 
passage for air between it and the kiln.' Remains of it are perhaps 
recognizable to the east of the kiln, in the angle formed by the gate- 
tower and camp-wall. 

*^ Cement of this kind, Mr. Fox tells me, was in use through the Middle Ages; 
it does not therefore prove anything? as to the Roman date of the construction. 



LATE BUILDINGS AT SOUTH GATE. 



283 



The oblong room, measuring twenty-seven feet by twenty-one, into 
which the kiln faces, is built against the south wall of the tower, its 
west wall being flush 
with the eastern jamb 
of the gate. Its walls, 
from three to four feet 
thick, are pierced by 
three splayed loopholes, 
fifteen inches high, 
eighteen wide within a- q^vt^w^ 
and six without. Out- __ 
side the east wall there 
remains part of an 
outer stair, not shown 
on the plan, which 
partially blocks the 
loophole on that side 
and may therefore be 
a later addition. It 
attests the existence of 
an upper storey, which 
no doubt communicated 
with the drying-room ,^ 

over the kiln. ^^*^ 

The simplest and 
most satisfactory ex- 
planation of this group 
of remains is to go 
further than Dr Bruce 
and to suppose that we 
have here a medieval 
homestead, built of 
Roman stones and con- 
sequently presenting a general resemblance to late Roman work. In 
any case it is diflBcult to believe that the kiln can be Roman. It bears 
too close a resemblance to the kiln in the southern half of the granary 
(Block viii) which seems to be contemporary with th<i demolition of 




PIZVN 



UP^CT. 




L^^J^IS 



,h^ 



a^sTT^cw 2\.^. 



no. 42.— PLAN AND SBCTION OF GATE-TOWER (LATER 
STRUCTURES IN HATCHED LINES). 



284 IJXCAVATIOJ^S AT HOUStJStEADS .* 

the western end of that building, and the construction of the rude 
steps at its eastern end, and was pronounced by Hodgson, who ex- 
cavated it, to be of modern construction and probably ' intended for a 
kiln for drying malt, or for some such purpose.' The juxtaposition 
of kiln and oven recalls the somewha"- similar discovery made by Mr. 
Glasford Potter on the west side of the south gate at amboqlanna ; 
there the kiln was outside and the oven inside the guard-chamber. 
{Arch, AeL, 4to. iv, 74.) The foundations of a kiln not unlike ours 
were found east of the east guard-chamber of the south gate at 

ABSICA.^6 

At first sight it seems a remarkable coincidence that in three 
diflPerent camps kilns should have occurred in or near the south gate. 
But, when the plans are compared, it will be found that there is 
very little real correspondence in the three discoveries. Nor have 
these kilns, at any rate the large ones at Housesteads, much in com- 
mon with the ovens which were found in the thickness of the rampart 
at Birrens. The decayed lintel found by Hodgson at the door of the 
kiln by the south gate is a strong proof that the building had been 
in comparatively recent use, for the alternately dry and damp soil of 
the hill-top is very unfavourable to the preservation of wood- work, 
and hardly a trace of it was found in the excavation of the camp, 
although it had survived in abundance in the peaty soil of the valley 
below. 

Even if we admit the kiln to be medieval or recent, it is possible 
that the projecting rectangle, and the door in the south wall of the 
guard-chamber may date from Roman times. The good construction 
of this doorway, with its massive jambs, is certainly in favour of this 
view, although the jambs might have been brought bodily from some 
other building. In this case the rectangular building might be 
regarded as a flanking tower, such as it would not surprise us to find 
in a Roman fortress of the third or fourth century. Here again we 
are met by difficulties. The eastei-n half of this gate was found built- 
up ; it would have been more natural to close up the western portal, 
and keep the entry immediately under the flanking tower, had one 

*^ Near Heddon-on-the-Wall ' the remains of a circular chamber appear in the 
substance of the 'wall, having a diameter of seven feet, with a small aperture 
leading out of it in a slanting direction.' (Bruce, Handbook, 1895, p. 65.) Was 
tnis a structure of the same kind ? 



MINOR OBJECTS FOUND. 285 

existed. Again, it is improbable that special defensive works should 
have been erected at this gate, which was neither the chief entrance 
to the camp (since the long late building on the north was allowed to 
block it), nor the most exposed to attack. Moreover the loopholes in 
its walls are too low down (breast-high from the outer ground-level) 
to have been intended for defence. 



MINOR OBJECTS FOUND IN THE EXCAVATION. 

It remains to deal briefly with the minor objects. 

Stone, — A flint arrow-head, probably pre-Roman. Three flint 
flakes, perhaps i^ecent, and a gun-flint. A slate palette ; a polished 
egg-shaped toy or amulet of red and white veined agalmatolite (identi- 
fied by professor Lebour), foreign to the district, length \\ inches, 
found in a barrack-room, vi, 2. Numerous querns, fragmentary for 
the most part, and presenting only the usual types. A whinstone 
mortar (fig. 48) ; a large series 

of discs, mostly made out of ,^ '^_ ''» 

broken roofing-slates, and small J-^"""^^^ — — "" '^"^ 

balls, probably used in games ; - £ ^^^^>^ J /I 

larger balls and flat slabs used ^ a^ ^^>C? Vi^— ^ ^ ^^ -" / 

for rubbing and pounding ; thirty ^ ^^^^^*- ^^^ ^ 

hones and whetstones. Professor ^ — ^^^^ 

Lebour, who has been so good as ^^^' 43— whinstone mortab. 

to examine this series of worked stones, tells me that the material is, 
in every case, sandstone, grit, or whin, such as are found in place in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Housesteads, or could be picked up 
as loose fragments. 'Some may have come out of the glacial 
boulder-clay or later river-gravels, but all are derived from local 
rocks.' 

Jet was comparatively abundant, as is usually the case on Romano- 
British sites. What appeared to be small unworked pieces occurred, 
suggesting that the raw material was worked up into beads and pins 
on the spot. Two pins of the usual type with facetticd heads, one 
finger-ring with bezel, three spindle-whorls, a large pierced ball, eleven 
beads, and parts of six armlets, the largest of which had originally 



286 



EXCAVATIONS AT ItOUSt:STt:ADS .* 



had an opening 8 inches in diameter, the smallest only 1^^. Part of 
a large armlet of Kimmeridge shale, the opening 8| inches in dia- 
meter, found near the haths by the Knag-burn. 

Silver. — Openwork brooch of Mate 
Celtic' design, the pin detached but 
found with it, from the praetorium, 
room 3 (fig. 44). 

Glass. — Neck and one handle of a 
delicate dwarf-vase. Part of an 

Ihche/ 






FIG. 44.— SILVER BROOCH. GLASS VASE, AND ARMLIT. 

armlet with blue and white rope-pattern, original diameter of open- 
ing 2j\ inches. This, and two of the jet armlets described above, 
were found in a secondary clay floor of the barrack-room, vi, 2. The 
other examples of jet and a number of fragments of similar armlets in 
greenish-white glass paste were found in and about the other 
' barrack-blocks.' Their diameter is in some cases so small that they 
can only have been worn by women or children.^^ The finding of 
these trinkets raises the question whether during part, at least, of the 
Roman occupation of the fort the soldiers' families may not have 
lived with them in barracks. 

Fragments of square bottles were frequent in the lower strata ; I 
noted no instance of their occurrence at the higher, approximately 
fourth-century level. On the other hand, window-glass was found at 
all levels, and in all parts of the camp, and must have been in general 
use up to the last ; there could be no greater mistake than to speak of 
it as a rare luxury. Among the finer glass-fragments is part of an 
amber-coloured bowl, of a type familiar in the south of England. The 



* The internal diameter of the largest was 3 inches, of the smallest \^^. 



MINOR OBJECTS FOUND. 287 

typical first- and second-century pillar-moulded bowl did not occur, 
nor the beaker with cut ovals, characteristic of the late third and 
early fourth centuries ; but there were several fragments of the cylin- 
drical cups of white glass, the common trade-goods of about 300 A.D., 
which found their way far north of the Roman frontier, and appear in 
barbarian graves in Denmark and in eastern Scotland. 

Part of a signet of blue glass-paste, representing Victory. Twelve 
beads, all of familiar types. 




wo. 45,— BRONZE UD WITH SUNK ORNAMENT {fuU size) RESTORED. 

Brame. — Fig. 45 represents the design, in sunk-work that was 
originally filled with coloured enamels, of a bronze lid found in the 
north portico of the outer court of the praetorium. The art of 
enamelling in colours, originally a special possession of the Celts, was 
practised in many parts of the Roman empire, and the design before 
us with its vine-pattern and 'reciprocal' wave-ornament is Greco- 
Boman, not Celtic, 



288 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



^I/fCHE^ 



Another very fine specimen of Roman provincial enamel work, 
unfortunately so much injured that it has not been found possible to 
reproduce it, was found in the chink of a wall in a barrack-room of 
block v., where apparently it had been concealed by the Eoman 
owner. It is a slightly convex plate of bronze, 2 J inches in diameter, 

fiirnished behind with a stem 
for attachment to a backing of 
leather, and decorated in front 
with a minute mosaic-like 
design in four colours, blue, 
red, green, and white, which 
for the most part are still 
vivid. The round central field, 
Ij inches aoross, is divided 
into a chess-board of red and 
blue squares, which diminish 
in size as they approach the 
circumference, so that with a 
little distortion the eight rows 
of eight squares are fitted into 
the circle. Bach of them is 
sub-divided by minute white 
squares placed quincunx- 
fashion, five on each red and 
thirteen on each blue square. 
Round this principal field are 
two zones, the inner of red and 
blue, the outer of green and blue 
squares, the blue chequered as before with white. These mosaic orna- 
ments, not uncommon in the northern province of the Roman empire, 
were made by a process still used in the Venice glass-works. Thin 
sticks of glass of the required colours are grouped in a bundle the 
section of which would give the required pattern, and fused together. 
The rod thus obtained is heated and drawn out, so as to reduce its 
thickness without changing the pattern. Then the workman cuts thin 
sections from several such rods and arranges them mosaic-fashion. In 
this way the most microscopic chequer-work of the ornament before 




FIG. 46.— SMALL BRONZES. 

(I7i€ second object from the left is of iron.) 



SPEARHEADS, ARROWHEADS, ETC., FOUND. 



289 



«8 cuuld be executed with square sections cut from only four rods, two 
plain and two particoloured. A very similar disc, found with fibulae 
and other ornaments at Pont-y-saison in Chepstow park, and now in 
the British museum, may furnish an indication of date ; the fibulae, 
as I learn from Mr. Reginald Smith, are of the Brough type assigned 
by Dr. Arthur Evans to the period about 200 a.d. Smaller discs 
with similar chequer-work are figured in Jacobi, Saalburg, Taf.lxviii. 




Ipchg/ 



KIO. 47 — IROU SPEARHEAD AND ARROWHEADS. 



Some smaller bronzes are shown in fig. 46. They are : a pin 
with golden-yellow patina from a trial-trench in the valley south of 
the fort ; a pair of tweezers from later clay floor in room 9 of the prae- 
torium (and a larger pair made of iron for comparison) ; a strip 
of bronze mounting, with two rivets, apparently an edging for the 
rim of some leather article such as a saddle, from room 11 of the 
praetorimn — similar pieces were found elsewhere ; and an openwork 
Jjey-handle— two specimens found, 

VOL. XXV. 38 



290 



EXCAVATIOXS AT HOFSESTEADS : 



Two gilded fibulae of cross-bow type ; one from the earthen 
rampart opposite N.E. angle of block xviii. 

Fragment of drapery from a statuette. 

Sword-chape (cf. Arch, Ael. x, p. 258). 

Fragments of strainers and other vessels. Conical steelyard 
weight, found immediately above the drain outside the N.E. angle- 
tower. 




FIO. 48.— IRON BPE^&HEAD, ARROWHEADS, AND SHEARS. 



Wire armlets, various rings and studs and rivets ; a strip of thick 
wire bent to form a ^ dress-fastener/ the ends hanmiered flat and 
crossed ; scraps of waste from a furnace. 

Iron, — The find of over 800 arrowheads in the praetorium has been 
described. Specimens of them are shown in figs. 1 6 and 47, and should 
be compared with two very diflPerent arrowheads in fig. 48, which were 
found in other parts of the camp, those from the praetorium have 



SPEARHEADS, ARROWHEADS, ETC., FOUND. 



291 



flat points quite roughlj hammered into shape, but these others are 
beantifolly formed, one quadrangular, the other triangular in section 
(c/1 Jacobi, Das RiimerkaBtell Saalhurg^ Taf. xxxix, 31). 

A spearhead with unusually long barbs, now bent inwards (fig. 47), 
was found outside the north wall of block i, near the surface. A 
smaller spearhead (fig. 48) and two larger ones. 




riG. 49.~iKON KNirs, key, and tool of unknown USlfi 
{SoaU, dbwt 1:2.) 



A pair of shears (fig. 48, p. 290), an axe-hammer, a wedge, a 
pair of tweezers (fig. 46), and a series of seven knives which deserve a 
detailed description. 

The largest is a regular cleaver (like Jacobi, op. cit,^ Taf. xxxvii. 2), 
with a blade 5^ inches long and 3 inches wide ; the handle is hollow, 



292 



EXCAVATlOKS AT HOUSESTEADS I 



3^ inches long and 1^ inches in diametyer, with a rivet through it and 
traces of wood preserved inside. The next in size has a blade 5 inches 
by 2, and a long tang with traces of wood on it. The next, slightly 
smaller, shows remains of a bone or horn hafb adhering to the tang. 
Another (fig. 49), of the same size as the last, has a tang ending in 
a ring. Two others are between 6^ and 7 inches long, the seventh 
somewhat less ; the blade of one of them expands from i inch near 
the haft to 1^ inches and is then tapered to a sharp point from both 
edges. Most of these knives were found in or near the barracks. 

Several keys, one of which is shown in fig. 49. The object drawn 
to the right of it may perhaps have been used as a curry-comb ; it is 
an oblong and slightly curved plate to which a handle was fitted at 
one side. 

Fig. 50 shows a ma- 
son's chisel with octa- 
gonal shaft, found at the 
base of a late partition- 
wall in block i, a hook 
found with numerous 
nails and other scraps 
of iron in room 12 of 
the praetorium, and an 
anchor-like object with 
a projecting loop on one 
side of the stem, the use 
of which I cannot divine. 
Six horse-shoes ; it 
is probable that some of 
them are Koman. Two, 
both small, were found 
low down in block iv. 
The slag and other traces 
of iron smelting observed 
in the same region have 
been discussed above 
(p. 241). 

Styli (pens), nails, fragments of various tools, rings and other small 
objects of iron were found in considerable numbers. 




FIG. 50.— IRON CHISEL, HOOK, AND ANCHOR-LIKE OBJECT. 

{Scale, 1:2. 



POTTERY FOUND. 298 

The following were found together in the smaller cistern south of 
block XTiii : — 2 atyliy 4^ and 4 inches long, and a half of a third ; 
pair of shears (fig. 48) ; staple or holdfast, 1| inches long ; 2 nails, 4^ 
and i{ inches ; knife, 5^ inches ; broken tool, butt quadrangular in 
section, 3| inches. 

THE POTTERY. 

INSCEIBBD POTTKBY. 

(a) Amphora-Jiandlea found inside the fort. 

1. p • SCI... 
NIAN... 

2. IVNI • M 
ELISSI * P 

(b) ^ Samian* found inside the forL 

8. [LJvoiNVS p (fig. 58, p. 296) in large well-formed letters on 
a flat base without the usual boss. The ware is clear brick-red in the 
break, the surface smooth dark-red with less metallic lustre than most 
of the Samian here. Found on N. side of turret between S. gate and 
S.W. angle, in foundation clay. 

4. GENiALis * P, small well-formed letters on a bossed base. 

Found near N.E. drain. 

5. QUINT . . faint, on bossed centre of a plate. 

6. ATTiA . . faint, on bossed fragment. 

7. PBiM ... on bossed fragment, foand in block IV., at same level 

as coal and slag. 

8. MAB .... on bossed fragment. 

9. ...TALIS P, on flat centre ; dull red ware, much like 8, and 

very thin. 

10. SEH . . Bi M, bossed, with outer circle of rays. 

11. ...BBI M. 

12. ADVT .... Fii, in hollow centre of bowl found in block 

VI, 2. 
18. MATSBNi in curve, inverted, on margin of fragment of (pro- 
bably) a hemispherical bowl, found in block i, 6. 

14. PATTO . . vs. 

15. MATEBNMA, ou a Small, quite plain bowl, at the S.E. angle. 



294 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEABS : 



(c) * Saman^ found in the vcdUy south of the Gamp. 

16. PATE . . on bossed centre. 

17. VBRBCVNDi, good lettering. 
18 OVB p. 

Of the pottery found in these excavations, only a small proportion 
was in good condition ; a fact which may be explained by the shallow- 
ness of the soil over a great part of the site, and by the amount of 
disturbance which it has suffered. 




^■La.ch.iJ 



FIG. 51.— ' 8AMIAN ' FKAGMSNT WITH LOZBNGK-BANDS. 



^Samian* Ware or Terra sigillata. — This was found most 
abundantly, and in best condition, in trial-trenches cut across mossy 
ground near the well, in the valley south of the camp. Of 110 frag- 
ments found here in one morning, about 80, or 27 per cent., were 
figured, while of a total of 865 fragments collected in the camp 
during three months only 68, or 17 per cent., were figured. In some 
parts of the camp the percentage was very low ; thus of 100 pieces 
from the neighbourhood of the cistern in the S.E. angle, all except 9 
were plain. 

From the ground near the well came the fragment of a hemi- 
spherical bowl shown in fig. 51, remarkable because in place of the 
usual ^ egg-and-dart * band there is a band of lozenges ; bands of 
lozenges are also introduced into the panels below, on one of which is 



POTTERY FOXrKTD. 



295 




riG. 52.— FRAQMSNT OF HKMISPHSRIOAL BOWL. 



a lion charging to the left. This lozenge frieze is so unusual that it 
may some day furnish an indication of date. Here too was found 
part of a cylin- 
drical cup of the 
shape which has 
sometimes been 
supposed to be 
characteristic of 
the first cen- 
tury.*8 There 
can be no doubt 
that these cy- 
linder-cups were 
in use during the 
second century ; 

in a section cut through a Roman rubbish-heap in Aldemey, by baron A. 
von Hugel, a very cautious observer, a bronze coin of Gommodus was 
found lying between two pieces of ' Samian,' one a piece of a cylin- 
drical cup, the other of a normal hemisphericp.1 bowl with a band of 
^g-and-dart below the margin. Frag- 
ments of the latter type were fairly 
plentiful, both in the valley and in the 
camp ; fig. 52 shows a characteristic 
piece of the ornamentation of such a 
bowl. 

Fig. 58 shows the potter's stamp 
...imnus or ...tcgintcs f\_ecit'] on the 
vase-bottom already mentioned (p. 293) 
as having been found in the clay 

puddling at the foundations of the tower on the south wall, 
should, probably, as Mr. Blair suggests, be completed Lucinus. 

The Samian vases (fig. 54) 1-3 were found in fragments in the square 
sunk hearth of the second room in block v. No. 1 is a somewhat 
uncommon shape. No. 4 is of Caistor ware with chocolate surface, 
yellowish white in the break, with a spiral ornament of barbotine 
work. It was found beside the cistern in the S.E. angle. 

« See Mr. Haverfield*8 remarlss in C. and W, Transactions, XV. 194, ahd 
(New Series) iii (1903), 348, on DragendorfE's dating of this form. 




FIO. 53.— POTTKE'S STAMP, PROBABLY 
CONTEMPORARY WITH CAMP-WALL. 

It 



296 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOTJSESTEADS ! 



No. 5 (fig. 55), dull grey-black ' late Celtic ' ware. Found in the 
conduit adjoining N.E. tower. Drawn from fragments. 






No. 6, pale-grey ware, white in the break. Found in the rubbish 
by the hearth on the east side of the inner court of the praetorium. 

No. 7, bluish-grey ware, made of micaceous clay, white in the 
break. Found upright in the clay-floor of a barrack-room (block i, 1). 



POTTERY AND COINS FOUND. 



297 



No. 8 (scale 1 :8), large bowl of grey ware, white in the break. 
Prom a barrack-room in block ii, upper floor-level. A somewhat 
similar vessel, found between Benwell and Butchester, and dated to 
the end of the third century by the fact that it contained a hoard of 
6,000 coins ending with Aurelian, is flgtired in Arch. Ael.y viii, 25)6. 

No. 9, large deep platter of grey-black ware. Found near the 
cistern in S.E. angle. 

No. 10, large shallow platter of brown ware. Found outside the 
late building which blocks the south gate. 




FIG. 55— VABIOUS WARE8. SCALB FOR 5, 6, AND 7, 1 :4. TOR 8, 9, AND 10, 1:8. 



Cims, — I am much indebted to Mr. Blair for help in drawing up 
the following list : — 

SilTer. Copper. 



Vespasian (Cohen, 123) 

Nerva (Cohen, 20) ... 

Tiajan 

Hadrian 

„ (Cohen, 717) 



1 — 

1 — 
1 4 

1 — 

1 —\ 



Trench north of Mitbraeum, near 

well. 
Praetorinm, room 12. 

Block I. 

Block VI., in surface-earth thrown 
back by previous excavators 
from the inner face of the 
rampart. 

39 



298 



EXCAVATIONS AT HOUSESTEADS : 



Antoninus Pius 

Fanstina I 

Faustina IL (Cohen, 71) 

(Cohen, 283) 
Commodus (Cohen, 1001) 

Elagabalus (Cohen, 276 or 277) 

Julia Mamaea (Cohen, 55) 
(Cohen, 81) 



Oallienus 

Tetricus (and imitations) 

Victorinus 

Minimi 

Claudius Gothicus ... 

Probus 

Diocletian 

„ ... ••. 

Oarausius 

Theodora 

Allectus 

Licinius I 

Constantine I. 
Constantius II. 

Constantine II. 
Oonstans 

Decentius 

Urbs Roma 

Constant inopolis 
Constantine family ... 
Valeus or Valentinian 

Valentinian 

Illegible 



saver. 


Copper. 
1 







1 






— 


Mithraeum. 


— 


1 


Block in. 




— 


Praetorium, room 2, at higher 
floor-lercl. 


1 1 


— 


Praetorium, room 10, under latest 
floor. 




— 


Block XV. 




— 


Trench north of Mithraenm, near 
well. 


(1 base) 


Block XVI. 


— 


4 




— 


12 


Chiefly in the barracks. 


— 


1 




— 


6 




— 


2 




— 


1 


Block I, 2, at higher floor-level. 


— 


1 


Block Xni. 


— 


1 


Block XVI. 


— 


2 




— 


1 




— 


1 


Block 1. 1. 


— 


— 


Between blocks XIV. and XV. 


— 


5 


One in Praetorium, room 11. 


— 


1 


Block V. 2. 


— 


1 


Block XIV. 


— 


2 




— 


4 


One in drain W. of Praetorium, 
one in block XV. 


— 


1 


In drain S. of block IX. 



2 

4 
9 
1 
3 
44 



11 



118 



Total 129. 



The most remarkable feature about this list is the absence of coins 
of Severus and his immediate successors. 



COINS AND BONES FOUND. 299 

REPORT ON BONES FOUND AT HOUSESTEADS. 

BY MR. A. MEBK, M.BC, 
Lecturer in Zoology at the Durham College of Science. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The following is a list of the skeletal remains submitted to me : — 

Package I. — Scapula of pony ; ribs of hos taurus (var. ?) ; tibia 
of sheep or other similar-sized ruminant ; tibia of dog (?) 

Package II. — Tines of red deer ; lower articular epiphysis of left 
fore cannon bone of ox ; last right molar tooth of ox ; left first pre- 
molar of ox ; lower end of tibia of red deer ; left pre-molars of pig ; 
5 incisor teeth of ox : canine and molar teeth of pig , canine and pre- 
molar of dog ; 7 teeth of very old cow ; 8 molar teeth of pig ; canine 
tooth of dog. 

Bone (8). — ^Tines of red deer ; humerus and tarso-metatarsus of 
bird ; molar of sheep or other small ruminant ; rib of ruminant ; 
lower end of radius of ox ; tibia of ox ; metatarsus of red deer ; can- 
non bone of sheep (?) ; astragalus of cow ; ribs of ox ; ribs of sheep 
right fore pastern (proximal phalanx) bone of ox ; neural spine of 
thoracic vertebra of ox ; sternum (part of) of ox ; tibia of dog ; 
radius of small ruminant (sheep ?) ; chip of long bone (radius ?) of 
ox ; lower end of tibia of sheep or other small ruminant ; last and 
second last lower right molars of pony ; part of radius of ox ; rem- 
nants, likely belonging to sheep ; metacarpal bone of dog ; molar of ox. 

The package of large remains contained : — (1) scapula of red deer ; 
(2 j 6 parts of antlers of red deer ; (8) 2 horn cores of hos taurtcs^ 
small variety ; (4) 1 horn core of bos taurtcSy large variety ; (6) part 
of frontal of bos taurus (var. ?) ; (6) left cannon bone of calf of the 
small variety of bos taurus. 



soo 





Klii. U.-SA'-BLcrx KiatmnKD (m« n. SWl 



Plate XIX. 




ADDITION AND CORRECTION, 



The walls on plate xix are indicated in thc! Fiame waj ai on 


plate XV, where a key is given. 




Solid hlack denotes 


early wruk. 


Hatching „ 


latcjr wurk. 


Cross-hatching ,, 


traces of foiindatiana. 


Dotted lines „ 


inferred Imu of wall. 



On page 196, for Anonymous read Anonym n^ 



300 



Plate XIX. 




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306 



INDEX. 



Abberwick, Robert Bellyngham died 
seised of a moiety of, 79 n; dispute 
concerning, 80 n 

Abbs, H. C, documents formerly in 
possession of, 62 

Abrammah, Hassan, an Arabian 
writer, 3, 47 

* Acca cross,' the, 118 n 

Acton's waste, Newcastle, xv 

Adamson, Horatio A., ' The Villiers 
family as governors of Tynemouth 
castle,' 111 

Aesica, report on excavations at, xiii; 
commandant's house (?) at, 240; 
foundations of kiln discovered at, 
284; inscription recording building 
of a horreum at, 238 and n (See 
also Great Chesters) 

AgaJmatolite, object of, discovered at 
Mousesteads, 285 

Agardeston, John de, and Helias his 
son, witnesses to a deed, 64 ; [Aggir- 
iston], Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 70 (See also Haggerston) 

Age, proofs of, xiii 

Agincourt, cannon used at, 11 

Agricola, Calpumius, 146 

Aids for marriage, 165, 166 

Aimery, archdeacon of Durham, wit- 
ness to a grant, 62, 63 

Ainsley [Ainsle], James, witness to a 
grant, 76; Richard, witness to a 
grant, 76 

Akeld: manor, 168; a bastle house at, 
168; held by William de Akeld, 
172; owned by the de Hetons, 174; 
forfeited by Adam Prenderguest, 
174; boug[ht by Matthew CuUey, 
177; ancient chapel, 173; old 
burial ground, 173; chapel field, 
173 ; ' the Lady's close,' 173 ; Lady's 
well, 173 

Akeld family held Akeld manor, 172; 
Robert de, and son William, wit- 
nesses to a charter, 172 ; Thomas de, 
a juror, 172 

Alaisiagae, the two, altar to, 203' 

Aldborougli, Yorkshire, Roman town 
at, 146 

Aldemey, finds in a Roman rubbish 
heap m, 295 



Alexander the Great erected altars to 
Poseidon and Okeanos, 137 

Alexander of Scotland, homage of 
Northumbrian barons to, 168 

AUerwash, see Alrewas 

Allgood, F., attests a lease, 110 

Alnwick, the king at, in 1322, 178; 
inq. p.m. taken at, 80 n; power of 
attorney to deliver seisin of property 
in, 70; grants of lands, etc., in, 69, 
71, 77; of tenements at the 'Malt 
cross,' Bondgate and * le Haugh ' at, 
74 

Alnwick, barony of, held by Eustace 
de Vesci, 153 

Alnwick castle, 52; discovery of re- 
mains of drawbridge, etc., at, xiv 

Alnwick, St. Mary's chapel, 71 

Alrewas, etc., held by Nicholas de 
Bolteby and another, 163 

' Alverden,' vill of, 151 

Amphitheatre, so-called, at House- 
steads, 252 

Amundeville, Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 63 

Ancroft, vill of, 151 

Andeme, John, an eminent surgeon, 
temp. Edw. III., 3; his Practica, 
43 ; recipe of, for gunpowder, 43 

Ang^lets very scarce, 86 

Angels coined, 84; used as touch 
pieces, 84; bequests of, 85 

Angram, William de Heland, rector 
of, grant to, 69 

AnncUSy Stow's, 48 

Anne, the governess to princesses 
Mary and. 111 

Ansard, Gilbert, witness to a grant, 
63 

Antonine wall, meeting at the, xii 

Antoninus Pius, inscribed slab from 
TVne, of time of, 139 et seq., xxxix, 
xliii; hvdltpraetorium SitBremeniuni, 
221 

* Apostle,' name of a gun, 51 
Appleyard, sir Nicholas, master of the 

ordnance, 30 
Aquincum, mithraeum at, 262 n 
Aquitanorum, Cohors I., a Roman in- 
scription, naming, 145 
Aran, Johan von, 12; cast cannon 
balls, 46 

* Arbal6triers ' of Cambrai, 6 



INDEX. 



307 



Arbe, Johann Baptist von, ' Schlange * 

cast by, 61 
Archaeologia Aeliana, change of form, 

zxxvi 

Arcanus, Franciscus, casting' guns, 51 

Ardoch, wooden sheds in Boman camp 

at, 235; measurements of praetorivm 

at, 237 

Arkle, Thomas, on midsummer bonfire 

at Elsdon, 184 
Armlets discovered at Housesteads, 

290 
Armour, trial of iron for, 42 
Arms, drawings of, xxxviii; the royal 
arms presented, xliii; of Gascoigne, 
68; of Heaton, 68 and n; Hunter- 
combe, 68; Marmion, 67; Olden- 
burg, 61 ; Strivelyn, 72 n ; quartered 
by Middletons of Belsay and Silks- 
worth, 72 71 
Armstrong, Nicholas, last of moss- 
troopers, 193; and another. House- 
steads sold to, 193 
Armstrong guns, manufacture of, 20 
Arpin, Peter, witness to a grant, 63 
Arras, cannon cast at, in 1369, 12 
Arrow, cannon, employed, 32 
Arrow-heads, flint, discovered at 
Housesteads, 285; a hoard of iron, 
found at Housesteads, 225, 289, 290 ; 
some presented to society, xliii 
Artillery, first employed in assault on 

castles, etc., 9 
Aske, Richard de, witness to a deed, 

69 
Asturians, prefect of first ala of, 197 n 
Attelowe, John de, and others, power 
of attorney to, to deliver seisin, 107 
Aubenton, sie^ of, in 1340, 32 
Auburne, David de, witness to a deed, 

64 
Aubusson, Peter, 59 
Auckland, licence granted at, to vicar 

of Kirknewton, 174 
Audrey, Roger de, held half of vill of 

Ancroft, etc., 151 
* Audehou,' vill of, 152 
Augsburg, guns cast at, in 1365, 12; 

cannon balls cast at, in 1372, 46 
Autogfraphs, facmmile of prof. Momm- 
8en*8, 187; of sir Edward Villiers, 
senior and iunior, and Barbara 
Chiffinch, 116; of Henry Villiers. 
117 ^ 

Aycliffe churchyard, pre-Conquest 

cross in, 120 
Ayden, Alina and Aleysia de, 160; 
[Aydenel Emma de, married to Peter 
de Vallibus, 160 
Aydon castle, etc., afternoon meeting 
at, xii 



B. 



Bacon, Roger, 43; suggestion of use 
of gunpowder for war, 2, 44 

Baillol, Hugh de, held barony of Bi- 
welle, 154 (See also Baylol) 

Balance sheets, treasurer's, xviii, xl 

Bale arsenal, cannon cast by John de 
Malines in, 41; large bombard at, 
26; guns cast at, in 1372, 12 

* Ballistae,' mechanical engines and 

ordnance named, 10 

Bamburgh, demise of waste burgage 
and land at, 78; grant of property 
at, 77; lands held by Thomas de 
Warnetham, 158, 160, 169; by 
William, son of Avenell, 163; by 
William, son of Odo, 157, 159; by 
Galfrid the smith, 157, 159; by 
William the smith, 162; by Robert 
the porter, 157, 162; by Peter de 
Strand, 165 ; bv John Viscount, 155 

Bamburgh castle, services to, 164, 
165; two large bombards taken to, 
20; cannon employed in reduction 
of, in 1465, 30 

Bamburgh, Thomas de, life interest in 
Middleton lands in .Northumberland 
granted to, by Edward II., 71 n 

Banckes, Samuel, witness to deeds, 
109 his 

Bantaskiue, South, visit to, xii 

Barbour, John, archdeacon of Aber- 
deen 4 

Bardolf, William, 156, 157 

Baret, Adam, grant of a toft, etc., in 
Gunwarton to, 106 

Barnardcastle, etc., country meeting 
at, xii ; medieval grave cover at, 127 

* Barnard de la Tour,* a ship so named, 5 
Barrhill, Scotland, * diamond-broach- 
ing ' in camp at, 146 n 

Bartun, etc., held by Michael de Ryhil* 

and others, 164 
'Basilisk,' a great gun so-called, 40, 

42, 49, 50, 55 
'Basset-flat,' OfiFerton, grant of lands 

at, 71, 77/1 
Bataille, William, married a sister of 

William Flaunuill. 162; and others, 

held mediety of Witingham, 157 

* Batarde,' a cannon so called, 56 
Bates, familv 176 n ; of Aydon White 

House, 177 

Bates, Cadwallader John, death of. ix ; 
a bibliography of, x; Elizabeth, 
married Matthew Culley, 177; rev. 
J. Elphinstone, rector of Whalton, 
182; Thomas, of Burradon, bought 
Coupland, 177 

•Bath, character of Roman work at, 276 



808 



IKDBX. 



Baude, Peter, a Frenchman, made 
mortars, 48; casting* guns at 
Houndsditch, 51 

Bavarian falconet, a, of 1524, 35 

Baylol, John de, 166 (See also Bailiol) 

Baynard's Castle, stores at, in 1388, 9 

Beadnell, see Bedenhal, Bednell 

Becham, Ulrich, cast cannon balls in 
1388, 46 

Beche, Egmond de la, accounts of, 7 

Beda and Fimmilena, altar to, 203 

Bedenhal, held by Thomas de Beden- 
hal^ 164 

Bedenhal, Thomas de, held Bedenhal, 
164; held a vill of the king, 158 

Bednellj Henry, John Blenkinsopp 
apprenticed to, 192 

Beaford, rebellion at, 178 

Belford, manor of, settled on John de 
Huntercombe and his wife, 67 

Belgn^ade, large cannon used at siege 
of, 18 

Bellingham [Bellyngham] , of Belling- 
ham, family of, 79 n; at Bumside, 
Kendal, 79 n; had lands at South 
Middleton and Bradford, 80 n ; John 
of Hirst, grant by, 79; John de, 
witness to a grant, 68; release to 
John, son and heir of Robert of Kirk- 
heaton, 81; Eichard de, married 
Margaret, daughter and heir of 
Gilbert de Burnside, 79 n\ Robert, 
release of rents by, 79 n ; death of, 
79 n; son Robert, 79 n; sir Robert, 
knight, sold Bumside, 80 n; and 
Robert Bellingham, dispute be- 
tween, 80 n ; sir Roger, of Burnside, 
suit respecting Abberwick, 80 n ; and 
wife Mabel, buried in Kendal 
church, 80 n ; tomb of, 80 n ; suc- 
ceeded by his son, sir Robert, 80 n 

Belsay, grant of a moiety of the 
manor of, 71, 72 ?i ; and advowson of 
chapel of Klessed Mary, at, etc., 
71; sir John Middleton, lord of, 81 

Beltane, 184 

Beneley, earl Patrick held barony of, 
153, 164 

Beneyt, Hugh, seised of a house in 
Newcastle, 160 

Bennett, Robert, monk and bursar of 
Durham, bequests by will of, 85 

Benton, Little, etc., held by Jordan 
Hayrun, 163 

Bentona, Eustace de, witness to a quit- 
claim, 107 

Ben well, temple of Deao M aires at, 197 
and n\ hoard of Roman coins found 
between Rudchester and, 297 

Benwell hills, * parting ' with judges 
at, 89 



Beringdon, vill of, held by Eustace de 
Kylei, 152 

Berlin, examples of early rifled armour 
in zeughausy 41; examples of 
orgues at, 40 ; early ordnance at, 57, 
60 

Bertram, Alice, married Roger, son of 
Walter, 160, 161; Mabilla, wife of 
Robert, 161; Richard, 166; Robert, 
held barony of Bothal, 155; Roger, 
166; held barony of Mitford, 154; 
witness to a grant, 107 

Berwick, 52; bequest of old rial to the 
lord suffragan bishop of, 86; 
ordnance at siege of, in 1333, 5; 
state armoury at, in 1560, 55 

Besants. coins so-called, 63 n 

Bewcastle cross, the, 12io 

Bewick, Thomas, demolition of house 
of, in Newcastle, xiv 

Bigod, Roger de, hereditary marshal, 
at the !&chequer, 150 n (See also 
Bygood) 

Biker, Margery de, 161; Nicholas de. 
land held by, 157, 160; held two 
parts of Byker, 162, 165 ; and Pamp- 
den, 165 

Bikerton, etc., held by Nicholas de 
Karendun and wife, 163 

Bird, rev. Christopher, purchase of 
Gunnerton, by, 106; rev. canon, 
rector of Chollerton, 108 

Birdoswald, water course to Roman 
camp at, 248 ; Roman kiln found at, 
284 

Birkin, John de, vicar of Chillingham, 
power of attorney to, to deliver 
seisin, 70 

Birrens, Roman camp at, 237, 238 ; ex- 
cavations in, 206; second cohort of 
Tungrians at, 228; underpiround 
strong room at, 221 ; praetortum at, 
215; measurements of, 237; figure 
of Victory from, 210 n ; inscription 
to Brigantia from, 146 n 

Bishop Auckland, inq. p.m. taken at, 
77 71 

Bismarck, countess Helen, Wilfred 
Joseph Cripps married, 189 

Blackett, sir William, of Newcastle, 
bart., grant, etc., of messuage, etc., 
at Gunnerton to, 109, 110 

Blair, C. H., (and Mrs.), drawings of 
arms by, xxxviii; presents royal 
arms, xliii 

Blencanhisop, etc., held by Nicholas 
de Bolteby and another, 163 

Blenkinsop, John, apprenticed to 
Henry Bednell, 192; tenement in 
Newcastle of, 192 (See also Blencan- 
hisop) 



INDEX. 



309 



Bohemia, king of, a large bombard 

given to, 50 
Bolam barony held by John and James 

de Calce, 155 
Bolbec [Bolebec], Hugh de 165, 166; 
witness to a grant, 107 ; held barony 
of Stiphord, 155; Nicholas de, and 
another, held Warden, etc., 163 

Bolton, aid of prior of, 165 

Bologna, early inventories of, men- 
tioning cannon, 8 

Bolton, Adam de, power of attorney 
to, to deliver seisin, 107 

Bomb, inventor of the, 48 x 

'Bombardes,' 40, 51; large, 17; 
earliest instance of, 18; the word 
used for large cannon, 12; descrip- 
tion of mode of loading and firing, 
16; James II. of Scotland killed at 
testing of a, 20; large, taken to 
Bambiirgh, 20; used at siege of 
Mont St. Michel in 1423, 25; 
siege of Quesnoy, 12; by Venetians 
on attack of Quero in 1376, 16; at 
Bridge Green, 42; at siege of 
Threave castle, 27; a large, given 
to king of Bohemia, 50; at Diest, 
28 ; dimensions of, 28 ; names of, the 
'Dulle Griete' at Ghent, 7; the 
' Lion,' 27 ; Burgogne ' and ' Di- 
jon ' 25 ; ' Luxembourg/ 26 ; ' Die 
faule Magd,' 26; ' Mons Meg,' 25, 26 

' Bombardes portatives,' 19 

*Bombardelles,' guns so called, 49 

Bondgate, Alnwick, grant of tenement 
in, 74 

Bonds, 109 

Bones found at Housesteads, 209; re- 
port on, 299 

Bonfires lighted at Lammas and Hal- 
lowmas, 184; at Whalton, the mid- 
summer, 181; description of, 182; 
sir Benjamin Stone's photographs 
of, 183; at Elsdon, 184 

Borcovicus, see Housesteads 

Boroughbridge, Hugh de Cuilly at, in 
1321, 178 

Borthwick, Bobert, ordered by king of 
Scotland to make cannon, 26; in- 
scription on them, 26 

Bosanquet, E. C, excavations at 
Housesteads, 193 et seq. 

Bothal, country meeting at, xi ; barony 
held by Robert Bertram, 155 

Bonnes, Richard, witness to a ffrant, 
76 ^ 

Bowes, Robert, a rial bequeathed to, 
85; sir Robert, and another, report 
of, in 1541, 168 

Bownes, Thomas, of Alnwick, 74 



Bowls, a pair of old, presented, xx 

Bows in a tower survey of 1559, 10 

Bowsden, grant of land at, to Holy 
Island convent, 172 

Boxwood dagger, a, 86 and n 

Bracelets, etc., discovered at House- 
steads, 286 

Brackenbury, Lieutenant, notes on 
Ancient Cannon , 8 

Bradford, near Belsay, sir Roger 
Bellingham of Bumside had lands 
at, 80 n 

Bradford, Alexander de Bradeford 
held vill of, 156, 163 

Bradeford, Alexander de, 167; held 
vill of Bradeford, 156, 163 ; Avenell 
de, 156 

Bradley, Thomas, tested deeds, 108, 
109 

Brafferton, John de, held one-third 
part of vill of Scremestun, etc., 152 

Brasses, matrices of, at Tynemouth, 
127, 129 

Brass ordnance on ships, 54 

Breech-loading cannon, 38; in New- 
castle castle, 36; mortars, English 
army in fifteenth century had, 23 

Bremenium, partial excavation of 
Roman camp of, 206; praetorium at, 
215, 226; built by Antoninus Pius, 
221; measurements of, 237; gateway 
at, arched, 209; barracks at, 228; 
storehouses, 237; colonnade, 213 

Bremtun, etc., held by earl Patrick, 
164 

Brett, Richard, 115 

Briefs collected in Ryton church, xiv 

Brigantes, operations against the, 145 

Brigantia, inscription to, 146 n 

Brinkburn priory, etc., country meet- 
ing at, xi 

Bristol, cannon to be sent to, temp, 
Richard H., 8 

Britain, Roman legions in, 135 n 

Brittonum, a numerus, 223 n; inscrip- 
tion recording 238 

Broch at Tappock, visit to, xii 

Brock-Hollinshead, Mrs., death of, 

XXXV 

Bromdun, etc., held by earl Patrick, 
164 

Bromhope, Orm de, witness to a quit- 
claim, 107 

Bronze cannon, 41 

Brough in Derbyshire, Roman inscrip- 
tion from, 145 

Brown, William, F.S.A., on local 
muniments, 62 

Bruce, Dr. J. Collingwood, 201 ; 
Robert, metrical life of, 4 



41 



810 



INDEX. 



Bruges, mentian of cannon in archives 
of, 7; large cannon made at, in 
1445, 18 

Bruges, Peter de, master armourer to 
Edward III., 7; supplied siege train 
for Calais, 7 

Brumell collection of charters, xiii 

Bruntoft, Simon de, witness to agrant, 107 

Brussels, a bowmaker of, in 1400, 10; 
ship's falconet in museum at, 37; 
early ordnance at, 57, 60 

Bndle, held by Eustace de Vesci, 153 

Buketun, Adam de, held land in Buke- 
tun, 153 

Buketun, Adam de Buketun held land 
in, 153 

Bukman, Anthony, of London, mer- 
chant, 45 

' Bulks ' in Side, Newcastle, xiv 

Bulla, a papal, presented xx 

Bull's head keystone, Roman, from 
South Shields, 213 

'Bulwerks' and castles, ordnance, 
etc., in, 52 

Burden [Bordon, Burdeen], Roger, 
witness to a grant, 64; Walter de, 
married widow of William de 
Flamuill, 162 

Bureau, brothers, first to use iron 
cannon balls, 46 

' Burgogne,* bombard called, 25 

Burgfundy, dukes of, artillery accounts 
of, 13, 25, 46; arms of, on the 
*Dulle Griete,' 29 

Burgundian guns used by the Swiss, 
31, 33; at Paris, 33; captured, 67; 
at battle of Nancy, 34 

Burnside, Margaret, daughter and heir 
of Gilbert de, married Richard de 
Bellingham, 79 n 

Burnside, near Kendal, main line of 
family of Bellingham at, 79; sold to 
sir Thomas Constable, 80 n 

Butemunt, Eudo de, held mill of 
Tvedmue, 153; [Butemund], Roger 
de, 167 

Butler, hon. Henry, Ann Culley Harri- 
son married, 179 

Butzbach, Germany, strong room in 
Roman camp at, 221 n 

Buxted, Sussex, first cannon cast in 
England said to have been at, 41 

Bygood, Raufe, master of the ord- 
nance, 30 (See also Bigod) 

Byker, etc., held by Nicholas de 
Biker, 162, 165 (See also Biker) 

Bywell, history of parishes of, xvi: 
barony held by Hugh de Baillol, 
154: for which owed ward to New- 
castle, 154 



C. 

Caen, cannon, etc., made at, 32; large 
gun made at, in 1375, 12 

Caerleon, camp of second legion at, 230, 
231 ; Roman inscription found at, 230 

Caerwent, latrines at, 250 n 

Caesar's camp, attempt of Gauls to 
set fire to, 238 /i 

Cahors, cannon cast at, in 1345, 12 

Caistor ware found at Housesteads, 
295 et seq. 

Calais, a large siege train before, temp. 
Ed. ni., 7 ; Enclish forces before, 10 

Calce, John and James de, held barony 
of Bolam, 155 

Tallendar house, Falkirk, visit to, xii 

Callerton, Gilbert de Laual held 
barony of, 155 

Calpumius Agricola, 146 

Calueleya [Caluley]. Gilbert de, held 
2 vills of the king, 158 ; William de, 
held Caluley, etc., 164 (see also 
Kaluerle) 

Caluley, etc., held by William de 
Caluley, 164 

Cambrai, arbal^triers of, 6 

Camden's visit to the Roman Wall, 193 

Camelon, Roman camp, visit to, xii; 
barrack block in, 232; measure- 
ments of praetorium of, 237 

Canadian rebels, wooden cannon used 
by the, 22 n 

Cannon, range of early, 18; mentioned 
in title deeds of Clairambault, 6; in 
archives of Bruges, 7; mentioned 
early in archives of Malines, 20; in 
Mons arsenal, 20; early English 
makers of, 51; ancient, in different 
museums, etc., 34; in Newcastle 
castle, 36; names of, in 1643, 57; 
used at Agincourt, 11 ; said to have 
been used at Cre^y, 9; used before 
Bruges in 1382, 9; used at defence 
of Quesnoy in 1340, 7; at sieges of 
Vannes in 1343. and Oudenarde, 7; 
used at siege of Tunis in 1390, 14; 
in fifteenth century, Villeret's de- 
scription of, 19; first appearance of 
trunnions, 24; windage of, 24; 
fired with live coal, etc., 24; re- 
covered from wreck of 'Mary 
Rose,' 24 

Cannon, ancient breech-loading, 36, 
38; rifled, introduced early in six- 
teenth century, 41 

Cannon, leather covered, 23 

Cannon, leather, used at siege of 
Hohensalzburg, 22; by Gustavus 
Adolphus, 22 



IKDBX. 



311 



Oannon, wooden^ 22; at Woolwich, 

22 71 
Cannon arrows employed, 32; first 

made of wood, later of lead, 15 
Cannon balls, invention of red hot, 

47; stone, 15; iron, first use of, 46; 

earliest reference to, 46 ; moulds for, 

46; leaden, 46 

* Canon piriers,' 54, 57 
Canonrie, an old treatise of, 45 
Cannon, Ancient, notes on, 8 
Canonier, John, witness to deeds, 109 

his 

Capel, sir Hugh, of Wynyard, county 
Durham, 178 

Capella, Hugh de, witness to a grant, 
63 

Capello, Carlo, the Venetian, 42, 45 

Capersburg, Koman camp at, 238 

Cappuck, measurements of /jraeforiuni, 
etc., in Boman camp at, 237 

Carham, fragments of pre-Conquest 
cross from, presented, xx 

Carlisle, sheriff of, gift of dagger to 
judges, 89 

Camaby, William de, witness to 
grants, 74, 107, 108; seal of, 108; 
and others, power of attorney to, 
to deliver seisin, 107 

Carr, S. S., on the early monumental 
remains of Tynemouth, 118 

Carronades mounted on roof of keep, 
Newcastle, 97 

Cartington, see Kertindun 

Castelyn, Edward, of London, mer- 
chant, 45 

Cast-iron ordnance, 54 

Castles, ordnance, etc., in, temp. Ed- 
ward VI., 52 

Castlesteads, temple of mother god- 
desses at, 197 and n; second cohort 
of Tungrians at, 228 

* Catherine,' a bronze bombard so 

named, 60 
Catherine wheel, plate mark of a, 190; 

not identified, 190 
Cauey, Balph de, held barony ot 

'Ihesemue,' 156 
Cautes and Cautopates, torch bearing 

Mithraic genii named, 262 and n 
Celtic, late, brooch, discovered at 

Housesteads, 286; enamelling in 

colours, 287 
Centaur on pre-Conquest crosses, 120 

* Cerbatanas, 40 

Chalons, large bombard forged at, in 

1377, 17 
Chandos, sir John, troops of, had 

cannon at siege of Montsac ita 1369, 

10 



Charles I., attempted escape of, from 
Newcastle, 38; V., remonstrance to, 
for exportation of arms, etc., to 
England, 52 ; cannon cast at Malaga 
for, 53; VII. of France, entered 
Italy in 1494, 39 

Charles the bold of Burgundy, field 
guns used by, 12; guns taken from, 
57 

Charters, Brumel collection of, xiii 

Chepstow park, enamelled object dis- 
covered m, ^9 

Chesters, inscribed stone at, 147 n 

Chesterholm, War burton's excavations 
at, 198 ; vaulted room discovered at, 
in field called the Bower, 193;. iron- 
stone near, 241 

Chester-le-Street, deeds relating to, 
xiii; medieval grave cover at, 127 

Chesters, partial excavation of, 206; 
size of ' forum * at, 210 ; praetorium 
at, 215, 226, 245; measurements of, 
237; vaulted room in praetorium at, 
221; base denarii found in strong 
room at, 221 ; water supply at, 248 ; 
commandant's house (?) at, 240; 
barrack block, 232; visit to, xxxviii 

Chesters museum, William Tailford, 
custodian of, 202 

Chesters, Great, partial excavation of, 
206 (see also Aesica) 

Cheswick [Chesewic], Patrick de, 
witness to a grant, 64; held third 
part of vill of Chesewic, 152; 
William, son of Adam de, held third 
part of Chesewic, 152 

Cheswick, Patrick de Chesewic held 
third part of vill of, 152; William, 
son of Adam de Chesewic, held third 

Sart of vill of, 152; John de Hagar- 
eston, held third part, 152 

Chevington, Hugh de Morwic held 
vill of, 156 

Chibbum, meeting at, xxxviii 

Chiffinch, Barbara, daughter of Wil- 
liam, married sir Edward Villiers, 
the younger, 112; extracts from 
settlement, 113; autograph of, 116 

Chillingham, deed dated at, 70; sir 
Henry the chaplain, vicar of, grant 
to, 68; residence of Greys, 174; 
grant of land in, 67; settlement of 
lands at, 64, 65 

Chillingham castle, licence to crene- 
late, 67 

Chillingham, manor of, settled on 
John de Huntercombe and Con- 
stance his wife, 67 

China, old guns from, 22, 36, 39 

Chinese, the, and gfunpowder, 2 



312 



INDEX. 



Chioggia, battle of, in 1379, 22 

Chirton, West, etc., held by Jordan 
Hayrnn, 163 

Chivington, West, held by Hugh de 
Morwic, 163 

ChoUerton vicars: rev. canon Bird, 
106; bishop Hornby, 106 

Chronicon Tarvisinum, 32 

Church plate of Northumberland and 
Durham, 191 

Chusan, China, old gun from, 39 

Cilumum, see Chesters 

Cirencester, Roman antiquities from, 
191 

Cistern heads, old) presented, xliii 

Clairambault, title deeds of, mention- 
ing cannon, 6 

Clark, sir John, at Housesteads, 197 

Clavering, Robert, knight, witness to 
a grant, 107 

Clauerwrth, Matilda de, a widow, 161 

* Clauerwrht,* etc., held by John dc 
Hawilton 164 

Clayton, Jonn, purchased Housesteads . 
200; excavations by, 201 et seq.; 
Mrs. N. G. presents iron arrowheads, 
xliii 

Clephan, R. C, on ' Early Ordnance in 
Europe,* 1 

Clere, Mabilia de, a widow, 160 

Clifford, Robert de, grant to, 63 

Coal cinders in Roman camp at House- 
steads, 215 

Cochin China, wooden cannon from, 
22 

Cocidius, an altar to, found at House- 
steads, 262, 281 

Cockermouth, honour of, 81 

Cockle park tower, etc., country meet- 
ing at, zi 

Coffins, Roman stone, found in New- 
castle, 147 

CoHORS I. AQuiTANORUM, Romau in- 
scription naming, 145 

Coins, presented, xliii; to judges, 
83 7i; as tokens, 85; bequests of, 
85; Roman, found, 219, 221; at 
Housesteads, 297; a hoard of 
Roman, near Benwell, 297 

Coldmartin, g^rant of land at, 69; 
power of attorney to deliver seisin 
of property in, 70 

Colewell, Adam, coUiery demised to, 
123; [Colewelle], Richard de, 
witness to a quit-claim, 107 

Collingwood, lord, birthplace of, in 
Newcastle, demolished, xiv 

Colwell. held by Jordan Hayrun, 163 
(See also Colewell) 

' Comunas,' 40 



Commodus initiated into Mithraism, 
255 n 

Comnena, Anna, describes weapon for 
discharging Greek fire, 2 

Compasses, iron, etc., found at 
Housesteads, 224 

Constable, sir Thomas, Burnside sold 
to, 80 71 

Constantine, Mithras worship re- 
mained after conversion of, 255 n 

Constantinople, coins struck in, 63 n 

Cooke, Henry, of Newcastle, tenement 
of, 192 (See also Kook) 

Copenhagen, early ordnance at, 57, 61 

OoquetdcUe, Upper, xxxviii 

Corbridge, etc., afternoon meeting at, 
xii; held by John, son of Robert, 
165; Robert, son of Roger held vill 
of, 154 

Cornhill [Comal, Cornehale], Helia 
de, and William, his son, witnesses 
to a deed, 64; William de, held vill 
of Cornehale, 151 

Cornhill, vill of, held by William de 
Cornehale in exchange, 151 

Cornhou, Robert de, witness to grant, 
107 

Cornorth, Thomas de, knight, quit- 
claim by, 108 

Coronation of Edward VII., ix 

Coronation medals, presented, xx 

* Couleuvrines,* ' colovrines,' 21; in 
1450, 21 

' Couleuvres,' 21 

Coulson, captain, gave old guns from 
China to society, 39 

Council and officers of society for 
1903, xxi; for 1904, xliv 

Country meetings, xi, xxxviii 

Coupland, description of original 
castle, 170; *haunted room,* 171, 176; 
one of manors of, 174; Wooler 
barony, 172; conferred on de Mus- 
champ family, 172; held by de 
Akelds, 172; no fortress at, in 1415 
and 1541, 168; lands at, claimed by 
Joanna Mautalent, 173; property of 
Greys of Heton, 174; castle, 168; 
initials on chimney piece at, 176; 
Wallis family acquired, 175; sir 
Walter Scott^s description of, 180; 
drawing of, before restoration, 180; 
sold to Thomas Bates of Brunton, 
177 ; purchased by Ogles of Kirkley, 
176; James Wallis of, 176; settle- 
ment of, 176; tower probably built 
by Wallises, 175, 176 

Coupland, initials on chimney piece at, 
176; Wallis family acquired, 175 

Couplands, de, the, 173 



INDEX. 



313 



Coupland^ David de, 173; sir John, 
and Neville's Cross^ 173 n; John de^ 
ejected Joanna Mautalent from 
Howtell, 174; Samson de, juror on 
inquisition^ 173; Stephen de^ held 
land at Heathpool^ 173 

'Courtand/ a, 22 

Courtray, a bombardelle found at, 60 

Cozon, Edward^ witness to a deed, 109 

Cragside, etc., country meeting at, xi 

'Crakys of war,' 4 

' Crapaudeaux,' guns so called, 49 

Craster [Crawcestre], Edward, witness 
to a grant, 76 

Crayk, VV alter de, knight, witness to 
a grant, 68 

Cre9y, cannon said to have been used 
at, 9 

Creswell, Margaret, daughter of 
George of Newbigging, and another, 

Cripps, Wilfred Joseph, C.B., F.S.A., 
on churchplate of Northumberland 
and Durham, 191; his museum at 
Cirencester, 191; obituary notice ol, 
188; married countess Helen Bis- 
mark, 189 

Crumbwell, Thomas, life interests in 
Middleton lands in Northumberland, 
granted to, 71 n 

CuJley-Harrisons, the, of Newtown, 
county York, 179 

CuUys,. of French origin, 177; came 
nortji with Thomas de Lancaster, 
178; of Denton, 179; of Beaumont^ 
hill, 179; estates of, carried to 
Harrisons, 179; lands in. Stockton 
of, 178; of Fowberry, 180 

Cully [Culy, Cuilly, Cuylly, Cullye, 
etc.], Matthew of Denton, county 
Durham, married Elizabeth Bates, 
177; bought Akeid manor and 
Humbleton, 177; rev. Matthew, on 
Coupland castle, 168; Hugh de, 
constable of Kenilworth castle, 178 ; 
at Boroughbridge, 178; died in 
Pontefract castle 178; Joan, widow 
of, 178; Philip ae, held one fourth 

£art of Wynyard manor, county 
lurham, 178; Roger de, a pardon 
granted, 178; witnesses iiispeximus, 
178; Robert, 177; Walter de, attests 
a charter, 177; Matilda, widow of, 
licence to, 177 
* Culverins,' 49, 51, 54, 55, 56 
Cumberland, severance of, from crown 
of Scotland, 83 ; gift of a dagger by 
sheriff of, to judges, 87, 88, 89 
Cumont, prof. Franz, of Ghent, on 
Mithras worship, 255 n 



Curators' reports, xx, xliii 

' GurtaUes,' 49 

' Curtow,' name of a gun, 51 

D. 

Dagger, a boxwood, 86 and n; gift of 
a, to judge, 87 

* Dagger money,' W. H. D. Long- 

staif e on, 83 
Daniel, pere, mentions grenades in 

1537, 47 
Darlington, inq. p,m., held at, 77 n 
Daudre, Roger, witness to grants, 63, 

64; Walter, witness to a gprant, 63 

* Deae Matres,' temples of the, 197 
Deaths of members, ix, x, xxxiv 
Deeds, ancient, relating to Gunnerton, 

106 

Deemess, gprant of bishop's waste be- 
tween Esh and the, 62 

Dehomes, Jaques, cast cannon, at 
Malines, in 1420, 41 

De la Val, Eustace, 166; [de Laual], 
Gilbert de, held barony of Calver- 
don, 155 

Demester, Nicholas, and another, of 
Chevelingham, agreement between, 
concerning marriage of his son. and 
daughter Isabel, 64 ; grant by Isabel, 
daughter of, 66 

Demetrius, Scribonius, named on a 
bronze plate from York, 143 n 

Demi-culverins, 49, 54, 55 

Denmark, glass discovered in graves 
in, 287 

* Diamond-broaching' in Roman camps, 

146 and n 
Dichand, Walter d«, witness to a 

grrant, 66 
Dickie, A. C., 204; architectural notes 

of praetorium, etc., at Housesteads, 

263 et aeq. 

* Die faule Magd,' a bombard at Dres- 

den, so named, 26 
Diest, a great bombard at, 28 
' Dijon,' Dombard named, 25 
Dillon, viscount, notes on ordnance in 

tower, 53 
Dilston, see Diuclston, Diuilhistona 

* Diri^ Maid, the,' a gun so-called, 49, 

61 

Diuelston [Diueston], Agnes de, mar- 
ried to Robert de Meyneuill, 160; 
Anneys de, married to Robillard, 
161 ; Simon, son of Thomas de, 167 ; 
Simon de, 159; Thomas de, held 
vill of Diuelston, 156 

Diuelsunt, Philip de Ulcotes held, 161 



3U 



INDEX. 



Diuilhistona, Simon de, held Diuil- 

histun, 163 
Dixon, D. D., Upper Coquttdale, 

xxzviii 
Doddington, grant of lands, etc., at, 

68; (teed dated at, 68 
' Dog Loup ' stairs, Newcastle, xv 
Domesday book, lands in Northumber- 
land, not recorded in, 119 
Donations to the museum, xx, xliii 
Dorchester abbey, manor of Hunter- 
combe, alienated to, 67 
'Domdrell,' 49 
Dove, Robert, of Hartley, power of 

attorney to, 78 
Dover castle, accounts of constable of, 8 
Doxford, grant of property at, 77 
Dragonneau, a, cast at Liege, 61 
Dresden, large bombard in arsenal at, 
26; early ordnance at, 57, 61 

* Dudgeon,' boxwood, dagger, 86 and it 

* Dulle Griete,' the, a large bombard 

at Ghent, 7, 17, 25, 27, 28; name 
means * Mad Margaret,' 28 ; descrip- 
tion and dimensions of, 29; arms 
of Burgundy on, 29; used at a siege 
of Oudenarde, 29 

Dumbarton castle, ' Mons Meg ' at 
siege of, 28 

Dunipace house, Falkirk, visit to, xii 

Dunstanburgh, cannon employed in 
reduction of, in 1465, 30 

Durham St. Oswald's, a pre-Conquest 
coped grave cover from, 120, 122 

Durham, inquisitions taken at, 77 n ; 
Aimery, archdeacon of, 62, 63 

Durham, monks of, confirmation of 
grant of a fishery to the, 63 ; Robert 
Bennett, monk and bursar of, 85 

Durham chapter library, pre-Conquest 
crosses in, 121 ; a catalogue of sculp- 
tured and inscribed stones in, 118 w 

Durham, Silksworth manor held of 
prior of, 77 n 

Durham bishops of, held wapentake 
of Sadberee, 157 

Durham, judges entertained by bishop 
of, 87 

Durham treasury, Middleton deed in 
the, 72/1 

Durham, church plate of Northumber- 
land and, 191 

E. 

Edinburgh, great bombard taken from, 
to Tnrieve castle, 27; cannon 
ordered by king to be made in 
castle of, 26; museum, old ordnance 
in. 22 



Edlingham, etc., held by earl Patrick, 
164 

Edward III., petition from mayor, 
etc., of Newcastle, respecting Fen- 
ham, 123; Peter de Bruges, master 
armourer to, 7; had large siege 
train before Calais, 7; gpinpowder 
being made temp., 2, 42; gold florin 
of, found in Tyne, 83 

Edward VI., inventory of ordnance in 
tower in time of, 52 

Edward VII., coronation of, ix 

Edwin, king of Northumbria, 172 

Effi^ at Tynemouth, 125 

Egliston abbey, etc., country meeting 
at, xii 

E^agabalus, denarius of, found, 219 

Elbow-mortar, the, 40 

' Eliza Bonad venture,' armament of 
ship, 54; shot carried by the, 47 

' Elizabeth Jonas ' a ship so-called, 54 

Ellenborou^h, excavations at, 197 n 

EUerker, sir Ralph, and another, re- 
port of, in 1541, 168 y 

Ellerton, John de, witness to a de^, 69 

Ellison, Cuthbert, bequest of coins by. So 

Elmeden, William de, witness to a 
grant, 107 

Elsdon, midsummer bonfire at, 184 

Elstob manor, 77 n 

Elswick manor, Fenham claimed as 
part of, 123; demise of colliery at, 
123 

Elton, William de, witness to a deed, 
64 

Embleton, John the viscount, held 
barony of, etc., 155 

Emeldon, Richard de, Silksworth 
granted to, 11 n; Jane, daughter of, 
wife of sir John de Strivelyn, Tin 

Enamelled objects discovered in Chep- 
stow park, 289; at Brough, 289; 
at the Saalburg, 289; at House- 
steads, 287 

Endorfer, George, a maker of ordnance, 
60 ; bronze cannon made by, in 1404, 
18, 41 

England, Early Use of Gunpowder in, 
11 

England, howitzers came into use in, 
40; first mention of casting of can- 
non in, 41; royal licence to erect 
gunpowder mills in, in 1590, 45; 
ordnance, etc., in castles in, tefmp. 
Edward VI, 52 

English army before 1428 had breech- 
loading mortars, 23 ; forces at Cre^y, 
9; in Normandy and before Calais, 
10; use of ordnance at end of four- 
teenth century, 4 



INDEX. 



815 



Entertainments at judges' circuits, 87 
Kridge Green, bombard at, 42 
Erkenbald, ' monetarius,* 160 
Errington [Eryngton], John, witness 
to a release, 108 ; and others, power 
of attorney to, to deliver seisin, 
107; Thomas, of Bingfield, sale of 
a farmhold in Gunwarton to, 108; 
bonds to, 109 his; grant by, 109; 
seal of, 109 

Escheats, 160 

EscoUand, Jordan, witness to grants, 
63, 64 ; William, witness to a grant, 64 

Esh, rev. W. Stuart White, vicar of, 
62; and the Deemess, grant of por- 
tion of bishop's waste between, 62 

Esh [Ess*], Daniel de, witness to a 
grant, 63 

Eelington [Esling^un, Eshl^gfton], 
Alan de, held vill of the king, 158; 
John de, held Eslingtun, 164; grant 
b^ Constance, daughter of, 69 

Esling^n, held by John de Eslingtou, 
164 

' Espingardes,' 40 

Esshynden [Essindene], Michael de, 
lease by, 107; Ealph, son of William, 
quit-claim to, 107 

Essindene, land in, 107 

Eston, John de, vicar of Ponteland, 
and others, gfrant, etc., of Gunwar- 
ton manor to, 107, 108 hl'^ 

Europe, early ordnance in, 1 

Evelyn, John, licence to, to erect gun- 
powder mills in England in 1590, 45 

Exchange of publications, xxxi, liv 



* Falcon,' a gun so-called, 49, 54, 55, 

56, 57 
' Falconets,' guns so-called, 36, 37, 49, 
56, 57; in castle, Newcastle, 36; a 
Bavarian, 35 

* Falconetlein,' 49 

Falkirk, etc., country meeting at, xii 
Fallow, T. M., F.S.A., obituary notice 

of Wilfred J. Cripps, 188 
Farindon, Nicholas de, 159 
Fauchet, Claude, quoted, 11 
' Faule Magd,' a gun so named, 61 
Featherstolie, see Fetherstanhishalu 

* Feldschlange,' a, 49; taken at Gran- 

son, 34 

•FeUdndon,' vill of, 151 

Felton, John de, knight, witness to 
a grant, 107 

Fenham, petition of mayor, etc., of 
Newcastle to Edward III. respect- 
ing, 123 



Fenwick [Fenwik, Fenwyck], Henry 
de, sheriff of Northumberland, wit- 
ness to a release, 108; John de, 
knight, witness to a grant, 70; John, 
quit-claim, etc., to, of Gunwarton 
manor, 108 fer; William, Joan Mus- 
grave, wife of, 80 ?i 

Ferrarius and gunpowder, 2 

Fetherstanhishalu, etc., held by 
Nicholas de Bolteby and another, 
163 

Feudal tenure, a, 178 

FiJndae, ete., discovered at House- 
steads, 286, 290 

Fimmilena, Beda and, altar to, 203 

Finchale, prior of, had house in New- 
castle, 160 

Fishery, a, confirmed to Durham 
monks, 63 

Flammauill [Flaunvill, Flamuill], 
Matilda de, 157; Michael de Eyhill 
had custody of, 159 ; and others, held 
Witingham, etc., 164; William de, 
heirs of, 157; the widow of, married 
Walter Burdun, 162; William, 
William Bataille married a sister 
of, 162 

Flanders, large bombards exported 
from, 27; large quantities of ord- 
nance obtained from, 51 

Flass, land at, 62 

Flatford, ete., held by Jordan Hay- 
tun, 163 

Flint arrowhead discovered at House- 
steads, 285 

Flodden, a contemporary account of 
battle, 51 ; cannon at, 51 

Florence, archives of, 4; earliest 
reference to iron shot in, in 1324-26, 
46 

Florentius of Buda, quoted, 18 

Flotterten, see Flotwaytun 

Flotwaytun, ete., held oy Nicholas de 
Karendun and wife, 163 

Follare, [Follairel . Pierre, * fondeur ' 
of cannon, 20, 21 

Ford, Isabella de, inquisition on death 
of, 172 

Forest of Lowes, 204 

Forged iron ordnance, 54 

Forsters of Adderston, held land at 
Coupland, 175 

Forster, sir John, of Bamburgh, war- 
den of the Middle Marches, 175; 
Thomas, of Adderston, sold Coup- 
land, 175 

Forster 's, alderman, roof, Newcastle 
castle, 91 

Fourstones [Fourstanys] , ete., held by 
Nicholas de Bolteby and another, 163 



316 



INDEX. 



* Fowler/ gun so named^ 49, 54 
Framlington, etc., lands in, released, 

81; Long, see Long Framlington 
Freiburg, a monk of, discovered a 

detonating mixture, 1 
French ordnance, names of, at end of 

sixteenth century, 56 
Freysleben, Bartholomaus, German 

master of ordnance, 49 
Fribourg, archives of canton of, 33; 

a * veuglaire ' in inventory of canton 

of, in 1445, 20 
French fleet, attack of, on Southamp- 
ton in 1338, 5; defeated off Sluys in 

1340, 5 
Fronsperger, Kriegslmch, 35 
Fulthorpe, Roger and Alice de, 

fourth part of Wynyard given to, 

178 

Gainford, pre-Conquest cross from, 

121 
Galfrid, son of Galfrid, and another, 

166; the smith, of Bamburgh, held 

land there, 157, 159, 162 
Gascoigfne of Lasingcroft, arms of, 69 
Gateshead church, visitation in, in 

1502, 192 
Gatling gun, the prototype of the, 40 
Gaugi, iSilph de, 166 (see also Caugy) 
Gauls, ancient, and beltane celebra- 
tions, 184; attempt of, to set fire to 

Caesar's camp, 238 n 
Gellygaer, South Wales, Roman camp 

at, 232, 233; praetorium at, 248; 

latrines at, 250 n 
Genialis, a Roman potter's name, 

293 
Genoa, cannon made of wooden staves 

at, 22 
Genoese and Paduans, battle between 

Venetians and, 22 
Genunian region, the, 145 
Ghent in possession of ordnance in 

1313, 3; the ' Dulle Griete ' at, 7, 27 
Gibsonlands, Alnwick, grant of, 71 
Gibson of Corbridge, Stonecroft and 

Stagshaw-close-hoiise, 193 n 
Gibson, George, of Housesteads, 193 n; 

gave altars, etc., from Housesteads 

to Newcastle society, 198; Thomas. 

purchased Housesteads, 194; sold 

Housesteads to John Clayton, 193, 

200 
Gilsford, sir Richard, master of the 

ordnance, 30 
Glanton, see Glentedun 



Glass, objects discovered at House- 
steads, 286; balls, filled with a fiery 
mixture, 47 

Glendale devastated and laid waste, 
174 

Glendinning, William, death of, xxxiv 

Glentedun, a moiety of, etc., held by 
Michael de Ryhil and others, 164 

Glentedun, Robert de, and wife Cris- 
tiana, and others, held Witingham, 
etc., 164; Robert de, and others, 
held mediety of vill of Witingham, 
157 

Golafre, Roger, Alice de Morewic, 
married to, 160, 161 

Gold florin of Edward m, found in 
Tyne, 83 

Goldsborough, John, chaplain of St. 
Katherine's chantry, Newcastle, 
g^ant of tenement by, 192; at visita- 
tion in Gateshead church, 192 

Goodrich court, hand mortar formerly 
at, for discharging grenades, 48 

Goodwin sands, old brass gun dredged 
up, 37 

' Gooles,* Gunnerton, 106 

Gordon, Alexander, visit to House- 
steads, 194 

Gosforth, Richard Surtayse held vill 
of, 156 

Goswick, third part of, held by Adam 
de Rehil, 152 ; by Henry de Gosewic, 
152; Patrick de Gosewic, 152 

Goswick, Henry de, held third part of 
Goswic, 152; Patrick de, held third 
part of Gosewic, 152 

Graecus, Marcus, and gfunpowder, 2 

Grafton's Chronicle, quoted, 18 

Graham, Nicholas de, inquisition on, 
173 

Grandison, George, viscount, 112, 115 

Grandon, Constance de, held land in 
vill of Grandon, 152 

Grandon, Constance de Grandon, held 
land in vill of, 152 

Granson, battle of, field guns lost at, 
33, 35 ; ' feldschlange ' from, 34 ; 
fine bombard taken at. in 1476, 
19 ^ 

Grave, Antonius, 61 

Grave-covers, 120, 126 et seq. 

Grays of Heton, owned Coupland, 174 

Gray, David, witness to a grant, 68; 
Thomas, knight, witness to a grant, 
68 (See also Grey) 

Greece, a miner's lamp from, xliii 

Greeks, the, and gfunpowder, 2 

Greek fire, weapon for discharg^g, 2 

Green, Robert Yeoman, death of, 



INDEX. 



817 



Gnenwich^ inventory of arms, etc., at 
40; ordnance, etc., in armoury at, 
Uinp. Edward VI., 52; state armoury 
at, in 1560, 55 

Gregory, pope, Kirknewton church 
d^cated to, 172 

Grenades, 47; hand mortar for dis- 
charging, 48 

Grendon, see Grandon 

Grendon, Constantine de, witness to 
a deed, 64 

Grey, lord, 112; David, 174; sir 
Ralph, fled to Bamburgh, after 
Hexham battle, with two large bom- 
bards, 20; Thomas, knight, witness 
to a grant, 66 (See also Gray) 

'Griete,* Flemish equivalent for * Meg ' 
the name of a cannon, 27 

Grindon, see Grendon, Grandon 

Grose's Military/ Antiquities, quoted, 
10, 122 

' Grosse schlangen,' 49 

' Guillaume T^quier,* 12 ^^ 

Gun carriages, temp. Henry VIII., 31 ; 
from wreck of ' Mary Eose,' 33 

Gunnerby (or Gunwarsby), Lincoln- 
shire, 106 

Gnnnerton, land in, 107; deeds dated 
at, 107 et seq, ; lease of lands in, 107 ; 
grant of toft, etc., at 106; purchase 
of, by rev. Christopher Bird, 106; 
ancient deeds relating to, 106; 
messuage, etc., at, leased to sir 
William Blackett, bart., 109 (See 
also Gunwarton) 

QvaiB, early casting of, 12; great im- 
provements in casting, 13 

Gunpowder, Early Use of, in England, 
11 

Gunpowder, 42; composition of, 43; 
made by Marcus Graecus, 43 ; being 
made temp. Edward m., 2; made 
in tower of London, 45 

Gunwarton, Derric de, witness to a 
quit-claim, 107; Peter de, grant by, 
106 (See also Gunnarton) 
Gustavus Adolphus, ' Kalter ' guns of, 
23; use of leather cannon by, 22 

H. 

Hadrian moved sixth legion to York, 

230 
Hadston, grant of property in, 77; 

held bv Jordan Hayrun, 163 
Haggerston, vill of, in hands of king, 

152 (See also Agardeston, Aggiris- 

ton) 
Haggerston [Aggiriston], John de 

held third part of vill of Chesewic, 



152; held vill of Hagardestun, 152; 

Hugh, son of John, grant of land to 

Holy Island, 172 
Hague, examples of early rifled can- 
non at the, 41 
Hakford, Walter de, witness to a 

grant, 68 
Halls of Otterbum, held lands at 

Coupland, 175 
Hallidon hill, 174 

Hallowmas, bonfires lighted at, 184 
Hamelin and his wife Margery, 163 
Hansard, see Ansard 
Harbotill, Robert, 78 
Hardknott, excavations in camp at, 

197 n 
Hardyng, Sampson, release by, 108, 

dead, 108 ; and others, grant of Gun- 
warton manor to, 107 his, 108; 

William, release by, 108, seal of, 108 
Harfleur, fire-pots used at siege of, in 

1415, 47 
Harlsey, see Herlesie 
Harop, etc., held by earl Patrick, 164 
* Harquebutt k chroche,* a, 40 
Harrisons, estate of Beaumont hill 

carried to, 179 
Hartburn, see Aubume (?) 
Hartley, grant of property in, 77 
Hartmann, George, of Nuremberg, 

maker of cannon, 52 
Hauelton, Matilda de, 161 
Hauerington, dom. Henry de, lease to, 

of lands, etc., in Gunwarton, 107 
'Haufintzen,' 49 
Haverfield, F., on a Roman inscribed 

slab from the Tyne, 142; obituary 

notice of prof. Th. Mommsen, xxxvi, 

185; on Roman inscriptions found 

at Housesteads, 277 
Hauill, Gilbert de, held a vill of the 

king, 158 
Hawilton, etc., held by John de Hawil- 

ton, 164 
Hawiltun, John de, held Hawilton, 

etc., 164; [Hawelton] William de, 

held 3 vills of the king, 158 
Hayden, etc., held by Nicholas de 

Bolteby and another, 163 
Hayrun, Jordan, held Hadiston, etc., 

163 ; held his barony of the king, 155 
Haynault, earl of, siege of Aubenton 

in 1340, 32 
Heathpool, pasture in, g^ranted to 

Melrose, 172; Stephen de Coupland, 

held land at, 173 (See also Hethpool) 
Heatons of Heaton, Yorkshire, arms 

of, 68; sir Alan, arms of, 68 n 
Heddemheim, Roman camp at, 227 n ; 

a Mithraic monument at, 143 n 



voi,. wv. 



42 



818 



INDEX. 



Heddon-on-the-Wall, circular chamber 
in Boman Wall at, 285 n 

Hedley, rev. A., 199 

Hedworth, John, bequest of coins, 85 ; 
Bichard, a rial bequeathed to, 85 

Heland, William de, rector of Ingfram, 
gfrant to, 69; William, power of 
attorney to deliver seisin to, 70 

HemirStrigia, 229 

Henrison, Nicholas, lands at Alnwick 
in tenure of, 71 

Henry H., keep of Newcastle castle, 
temp,, 94; took possesion of earl- 
dom of Northumberland, 168; IV., 
of France, petard used by, 48; VI., a 
serpent g^un at Woolwich, t&m/p,^ 20 ; 
Vill., gunpowder made by, at 
tower, 46; gun with trunnions, 
temp,, 31 ; stands and gun carriages, 
31; tables of cannon used during 
reign of, 50; a large basilisk made 
for, 50 

Henry, earl of Lancaster and Leicester, 
steward of England, 17d; earl of 
Northumberland, notice by, that he 
had received fealty of a Scotch- 
man, 81 

Henry, sir, the chaplain, vicar of 
Chillingham, 68 

Hepple, held by Nicholas de Karen- 
dun, 163 ; Ivo Tailboys held barony 
of, 165 

Her*, G., son of Gurdan, witness to a 
grant, 107 

' Herepedes,' aid of prior of, 165 

Heriz, Leo de, witness to grants, 63, 64 

Herlesie, William de, witness to a 
grant, 63 

Herons of Bockenfield, held land at 
Coupland, 175; of Chipchase, tomb- 
stone of last of, 106 

Heron [Heroun, Heyroun, Heyronne]. 
Cuthbert, farmhold in Gunwarton in 
possession of, 108; Humphrey of 
Eshott, sold land at Coupland, 175 ; 
John, witness to a errant, 107; John 
of Bockenfield, sold property at 
Coupland, 175; Jordan, 166; Mar- 
gery, farmhold in Gunnerton in 
possession of, 109; Bobert, knight, 
witness to a grant, 107; Boger, 
knight, witness to g^rants, 66, 70 
(See also Hayrun) 

Heellrig, John de, witness to grants, 
66, 70 

Heslop, B. Oliver, on structural 
features of the keep of Newcastle 
castle, 91; on a Boman altar from 
the Tyne, 133 ; on a Boman inscribed 
slab from the T^e, 139 



Hethpool, moie^ of manor of, settled 
on John de Huntercombe and his 
wife, 67 (See also Heathpool) 

Heton family, the, 174 (See also 
Heatons) 

Heton, Alan de, g^nt by, 68 ; seal of, 
70; power of attorney from, to de- 
liver seisin, 70; and Marjory, his 
wife, grant by, 69; Margaret, 
daughter of, married Thomas 
Middleton, 70; Marjorie de, seal of, 
70; sir Thomas de, knight, 67; 
grant to, of land at Chillingham, 
66, 67; licence to, to crenelate 
Chillingham, 67; William de, held 
Heton, 151 

Heton, held by William de Heton, 
151 

Hetton, William de, witness to a deed, 
64 

Hexham, battle of, 20; pre-Conquest 
crosses, 118 and n\ the Acca cross, 
118 n 

Heygrove, demise of a colliery at 
Elswick called the, 123 

Hicks, William Searle, death of, x 

Hiddesley, held by earl Patrick, 
164 

Hilton, Alexander de, 166; Bobert de, 
knisrht. witness to a g^nt, 69; 
William, enfeoffed of Middleton 
lands, 77 n (See also Hylton) 

Hirst in Woodhorn, etc., grant of 
property at, 79 

Hoby, sir Philip, master of the 
ordnance, 30 

Hoddesagg [Hodeshagii ' Boger de, 
159; married widow of Thein, 162 

Hodgson, G. B., South Skidds, 
xxxviii; rev. John, excavations at 
Housesteads, 199; History of North- 
umberland, quoted, 240; J. C, on 
the sources of Testa de Nevill, 150; 
Thomas, 199 

H<^ge, Balph, maker of cannon, 51 

Hohensalzburg, leathern cannon used 
at siege of, 22 

' Holden,' Gunnerton, 106 

Holdsworth, David Arundell, death 

of, XXXV 

' Holle griete,' a bombard of Dieste, 
28 

Holy Island, 52; convent, land at 
Bowsden, granted to, 172 

Honorary members of society, xxii, 
xlv 

Horde, grant by Adam and Alexander 
de, 63 

Homeclif, held in exchange for Corn- 
hill, 151 



INDEX. 



819 



Horkesley, Essex, deed dated at, 106 
Homby, right rev. bishop, on ancient 

deeds relating to Gunnerton, 106 
Harrea, or storehouses, 237 et seq. 
Horse shoes, iron, discovered at 

Housesteads, 292 
Horsle, Eobert, witness to a release, 
108; [Horsley], William, chaplain, 
and others, grant to, 79 ; sir William 
of Newcastle, chaplain, and others, 
release by, 81 
Horsley, etc., held by earl Patrick, 164 
Horton, grant of land in, 69; power of 
attorney to deliver seisin of property 
in 70 
Houi)oume, Stephen de, witness to a 

grant, 66 (See also Howburn) 
Houghton (?), 108 
Hounds, hunting, feudal tenure of 

presenting, 178 
Houndsditch, guns cast in, in 1525, 51 
Housesteads (Borcovicus) ^^arrisoned 
by first cohort of Tungrians, 228; 
camp as a whole, 243; position de- 
scribed, 204, 250; purchase of, 193; 
by Thomas Gibson, 194 ; sold by him 
to J. Clayton, 200; letter of Chris- 
topher Hunter relating to, 194; 
visit of Alexander Gordon to, 194; 
sir John Clark at, 197; Anthony 
Place and William Tailford, exca- 
vators at, 202; excavations at, 193; 
by J. Clayton, 201 et seq.; by com- 
mittee of Newcastle society, 200 ; in- 
scriptions discovered, 194, 197, 203 
and n, 262, 263, 277; roads, 247; 
water supply, 248; cisterns at, 249; 
the latnnes, 249; description of, 
250; so-called amphitheatre, 252; 
well at, 253; storehouses, 235; iron 
works, 241; late buildings, 241; 
column bases, 211; praetorium un- 
covered, 206 et seq.; plan of, 217; 
measurements of, 237; unusual 
length of, 243; description of, 208 
et seq ; strong room in, 221 ; colonnade 
of inner court restored, 214; archi- 
tectural notes of, 263; sacellum in, 
217; upper storey in, 222; types of 
masonry at, 264 et seq. ; base moulds, 
etc., 268; copings, cornices, caps, 
etc., 271; sculptured stones, 275; 
coal cinders, etc., 215; flue tiles, 
222; commandant's house (?) 239; 
partly excavated by J. Clayton, 239 ; 
description of, 239; temple of 
Mithras on Chapelhill, 197; 199, 243, 
266 ; description of, 257 ; excavations 
at, 257; by rev. J. Hodgson, 199; 
altars from, 197 ; signs of Zodiac on 



monument discovered in, 256; altars 
to Mars, 209, 263; to Mars Thingsus, 
194, 197, 203 and n; to Cocidius, 262; 
shrines of Mars, etc., at, 197; walls, 
245; gates, 245; arched, 209, 234; 
north gateway displayed, 203; 
late buildings at south gate, 282; 
cement found in, 282 and n; minor 
objects found at, 285 et seq.; small 
obiecte discovered in camp: intaglio 
of Victory, 239; ' Samian ware,' 234; 
bracelets, 235, 255 ; beads, etc., 235 ; 
iron compasses, etc., 224, hoard of 
arrow heads, 225; coins, 203 n, 219, 
263, 297; work still to be done, 
242 

Howard, Frances, daughter of sir 
Theophilus, married sir Edward 
Villiers, 111 ; the honourable Henry, 
115 

Howburn, John de, witness to a grant, 
70 (See also Houboume) 

Howitzers introduced into England 
late in sixteenth century 40 

Howtell, land at, claimed by Joanna 
Mautalent, 173; Joanna Mautalent 
ejected from, 174 

Howtell, Roger, ejected Joanna Mau- 
talent from Howtell, 174 

Huddersfield, Roman coins found near, 
146 71 

Huggett, master, a maker of cannon, 5 

Hugh, earl of Chester, charter of Geva, 
daughter of, 177 

Hulecote, Ingeram de, held mediety 
of Ancroft, etc., 151 

Hull, state armoury at, in 1566, 55 

Humbleton estate, settlement of, 176; 
purchased by Matthew Culley, 177; 

Hunfranvill, Gilbert de, 166 

Hunter, Christopher, letter of, relating 
to Housesteads, 194 

Huntercombe, arms of, 68; family of, 
derived name from manor in Ox- 
fordshire, 67 ; Nicholas de, grant by 
Joan, widow of, 67; settlement on 
marriage of John, son of, 67; Ellen, 
widow of sir Walter de, held lands 
in dower, 67; John, Alan, and 
Thomas, sons of, and Isabel, 
daughter, 67; Richard de, 67; Wil- 
liam de, married Isabel de Mus- 
camp, 67 

Huntercombe, Oxfordshire, manor of, 
67 ; alienated to Dorchester abbey, 67 

Hussites, guns employed against the, 21 

Hyginus, 229 ; his description of a prae- 
torium, 226 

Hylton, sir Thomas, bequest of a rial 
to, 85 (See also Hilton) 



320 



IHDEX. 



Indian ocean, Alexander the Great 
erected altars to Poseidon and 
Okeanos on shores of, 137 

* Inflasches/ Gunnerton, 106 
Ingram, see Anfipram 
Inquisitions held at Wooler, 172, 173 
Insula, de, witness to a quit-claim, 

107 (See also Lisle, Lyle) 

Intaglio, Eoman, discovered at House- 
steads, 239, 289 

Ireland^ viscount Villiers one of lord 
justices of, 112 

Iron, price of, 11 

Iron, shot of, invented in fifteenth cen- 
tury, 23; slag, analysis of Boman, 
241; spears and arrow-heads dis- 
coverea at Housesteads, 289 

Ironstone at Ohesterholm, 241 

Isurium, Yorkshire, walls of, 146 

Italy, entered by the French king in 
1494, 39 

Itinerarium Curiosum, Stukeley's, 198 

J. 

James II. of Scotland, large bombard 

said to have been presented to, 26 ; 

killed at testing of a bombard, 20 
Jean TArtilleur, a Brussels bowmaker 

of 1400, 10 
Jefferson's lithographed view of keep 

of castle, Newcastle, 98, 99 

* Jerdenbury,' Gunnerton, 106 
Jersey, sir Edward Villiers, created 

earl. 111 
Jesmond, Ralph de Caugi held vill of, 156 
Jet objects discovered at Housesteads, 

285 
John, son of Bobert, 166; held Gor- 

brig, 166 
Johnson, rev. Anthony, death of, 
zxziv; [Johnsonne] William, tene- 
ment of, in Newcastle, 192 
Josephus, description of praetoriunij 22i) 
Judd, John, master of the ordnance, 30 
Judges, Newcastle custom of present- 
ing: coins to. 83 w, 85 ; first published 
evidence of, 84; entertained by 
bishop of Durham, town of New- 
castle, etc., 87; dagger given to 87, 
88, 89; allowance to, 88 
Julius Verus, a Boman inscription 
from Netherby, naming, 145; a 
Roman inscription from Brou^h, 
Derbyshire, naming, 145; on slab 
from Tyne, xzzix, xliii, 140 
Juppiter, altar to, discovered at 
Housesteads, 281 



* Kalter ' guns, 23 

Kaluerle, Cristiana de, 159; [Kaluele], 
William de, 159 

* Kammerschlangen,* 49 
Earendun, Nicholas de, and his wife, 

held Hepnal, etc. 163 

Karleolo, Thomas de, house in New- 
castle held by, 160 

Kanz, • James and John de, 160, 
166. 

Kendal church, tomb of sir Roger 
Bellingham and his wife Mabel in, 
80n 

Kenilworth castle, Hugh de Cuilly, 
constable of, 178 

Ker, sir Robert, master of Scottish 
artillery, 37 

Kertindun, etc., held by Roger, son of 
Ralph, 163 

Keys, iron, discovered at Housesteads, 
292 

Kilburn, see Kylburn 

Killyngalle [Kylingale], John de, and 
otners, grant of Gunwarton manor 
to, 107, 106 6t« 

Kimmeridge shale, armlet of, dis- 
covered at Housesteads, 255 

Kircudbright said to have presented 
large bombard to James 11. of Scot^ 
land, 26 

Kirkby, see Kyrkby, Kyrkeby 

Kirkheaton, Thomas Musgrave seised 
of, 80 n 

Kirknewton, 'the most interesting 
place in England,' 172; church dedi- 
cated to pope Gregory, 172; Thomas 
Whityngham, vicar of, 174 

* Kleine morser,' 49 

Knives, old clasp, presented, xx ; iron, 

discovered at Housesteads, 291 
Knowles, W. H., notes on latrines at 

Housesteads, 249 
Koln, Peter von, casting guns, 51 
Kook, Bartholomew, witness to a deed, 

109 
Kutlovica, Roumania, Roman camp of, 

227/1 
Kylburn, John de, knight, witness to 

a grant, 107 
Kylo, Eustace de Kylei held vill of, 

etc., 152 
Kylo, Eustace de, held vill of Kylei, 

etc., 152 
Kyrkeby, John de, and others, grant, 

etc., of Gunwiurton manor to, 107, 

108 Us 
Kyrkby, quit-claim of, by John de 

Hauthorn, 108 



IKDBX. 



321 



Lad^kirk, see Upsetlington 

Lalain^ Simon de^ defence of Oudin- 
arde conducted by, 29 

Lambaesis^ legionary camp at, 223 n 

Lambton, Jolm, a rial bequeathed to, 
85 

Lammas, boniires kindled at, 184 

Lamp, miner's, from Greece, xliii; 
niches on stairway of castle keep, 
Newcastle, 105 

Lancaster, John, bequest of a coin to, 
85; Thomas de, 178 

Langley, grant to Bobert of 62 ; Adam 
de Tm&le held barony of, 155; held 
by Nicholas de Bolteby and another, 
163 

Langley, bishop of Durham, licence of, 
to celebrate masses, etc., 174 

Lanton, tower of, in 1415, 168 

Laon had 12 cannon in 1358, 12 

Lascy, Gilbert de, held church of New- 
castle, 160 

Latrines at Borcovicua, 249; at Sil- 
chester and Wroxeter, 250; at Caer- 
went and Gellygaer, 250 n 

Latton, William de, witness to a deed, 
64 

Laval [Lawall], William de, knight, 
witness to a grant, 70 

Lawes, John, chaplain of St. Kather- 
ine's chantry, Newcastle, 192; at 
visitation in Gateshead church, 192 

Lawson [Laweson], Thomas, a rial be- 
queathed to, 85; William, bequest 
of a rial to, 85; William, of Cram- 
lington, witness to a release, 108 

Leadbitter, John, attests a lease, 110 

Leadbitter-Smith, colonel Edward, 
land at Flass belonging to, 62 

Leaden cannon balls, 46 

Leather, covered cannon in seventeenth 
century, 23 ; cannon of, used at siege 
of Honeinsalzburg, 22; by Gustavus 
Adolphus, 22; mortars used by Vene- 
tians, 22; and rope mortar, 22 

Lee, sir Henry, letter of, concerning 
armour, 42 

Lega, Gilbert de, witness to a confir- 
mation, 64 

Legat [Leget], 5 ; Helmyng, indenture 
between John Starlyng and, 42 

Lbgio n AX70X7STA, scut to Britain, 
135 n ; altar erected by soldiers of, 
281 ; stationed at Caerleon, 230, 
281. 

Lboio yi yi p f, at Neuss and York, 
230; Boman altar reading, 133; sent 
to Britain. 135 n 



Legio xm GXiaNA, came to Britain, 
135 n 

Lboio XX YAL Yio, camc to Britain, 
135 w 

Leicester, Boman mouldings, etc., at, 
276 

Leipsic, victory of, in 1631, 23 

Le Mans, large cannon used at siege of, 
18 

Lemington, etc., held by earl Patrick, 
164 
i * Lidgate,' a, 71 and n 
\ Liege, a dragonneau cast at, 61 

Lilburn, Constance, daughter of John 
de, married John de Huntercombe, 
67; settlement on marriage, 67 

Lille, accounts of town of, 14 ; * trun- 
nion' mentioned in account of town 
of, in 1465, 30 

Limes, an underground strong room 
found in Boman camps on tne Ger- 
man, 221 

Linlithgow, great bombard taken to, 
27 

* Lion,' payments for a bombard called 

the, 27 
Lisle, Bobert, knight, witness to a re- 
lease, 108 (See also de Insula, Lyle) 

* Lizard,' name of a gun, 51 
Local muniments, 62 

Loeffler [Lofler], Chr. serpentines cast 

by, 61; Georg, of Augsburg, maker 

of cannon, 52; Gregor, maker of 

ordnance, 60 
Lollius Urbicus, 144 
London, cannon made in tower of, 30 
' London,' large bombard named, 20 
Longchamp, William de, king's justi- 
ciary, 160 
Long Framlington, grant of property 

in, 69 
Longhorsley, see Horsley 
Longstaffe, W. H. D., on 'Dagger 

Money,' xxxvi, 83 
Louerbothil, etc., held by heirs of 

Philip de Vlecotis, 163 (See also 

Luverbotle) 
Lowes, forest of, 204 
Lowick, moiety of manor of, settled on 

John de Huntercombe and his wife, 

67 
LvciNVS, a potter's name, 293 
Lumley [Lomelei], William de, witness 

to a gn^nt, 63 
Luuerbotle, an escheat of the king, 

held by John de Nevill, 162 (See 

also Louerbothil^ 
Luxembourg, bombard made at, and 

named, 26; a 'couleuvrine ' found 

at, 60 



322 



INDEX. 



Lyhama, William de^ witness to a 

ffrant, 66 
Lyle, Otwey de, witness to a grant, 

107; Peter de, witness to a grant, 

107 (See also de Insula, Lisle) 
Lyne, Scotland, measurements of 'jgrat- 

torium in Boman camp at, 237 

M. 

Mackdowell, Thomas, witness to a 
deed, 109; [Magdowell] William, 
the elder, power of attorney to, 109 

Magnetby, H. de, witness to a grant, 
107 

Magnus, Albertus, bishop of Ratisbon, 
and gunpowder, 2 

Malaga, cannon cast at, for Charles 
v., 52 

Malines, John de, cannon cast by, 
in 1474, 41 

Malines, cannon cast at, 12; in 1420, 
41; mentioned in archives of, 20 

Malta, mortars made of paper in 
arsenal at, 22 

Malt cross, Alnwick, grant of tene- 
ment by the, 74 

Man, Robert, 78, 79 

Manners planers], Robert de, wit- 
ness to a grant, 68; inquisition on 
death of, 172, 173 

MSS. belonging to the late sir Thomas 
Phillipps, bart.. Ill 

Marcus (Jraecus, gunpowder made by, 
43 

Marescal, Gilbert, the land of, in New- 
castle, 161 

Margate, a large cannon at fort at, 9 

' Marie de la Tour,' ship so-named, 5 

Marisco, dom.-R. de, 159 

Marmion of Checkendon, Oxfordshire, 
arms of, 67 

Marriage aids, 165, 166 

Mars, shrine of, at Housesteads, 197; 
and Victory, altar dedicated to, 263, 
281 

Mars Thingsus, altars of, discovered 
at Housesteads, 197, 203 n 

Mary and Anne, governess to prin- 
cesses, 111 

Mary, princess, marriage of, to Wil- 
liam of Orange, 111 

' Mary Rose,* cannon recovered from 
wreck of, 24, 31 ; gun carriage, 33 

Masculus, William de, held vills of 
Upsetlington and Tweedmouth, 152 

Matbbnvs, a Roman potter's name, 
293 

Matfen, held by Philip de Vlecot, 161, 
163 



Matrices of brasses at Tynemouth, 129 

et se^. 
' Mauncius Ingeniator,* 91 
Mautalent, question as to legitimacy 

of Joanna, wife of Walter, 173; 

claimed lands at Coupland, etc., 

173; Joanna ejected from Coupland 

and Howtell, etc., 174 
Mayo, John and lliomas, makers of 

ordnance, 69 
Maximilian I., sur{)risin|f develop- 
ments in artillery in reign of, 49; 

gave large bombard to king of 

Bohemia, 50 
Medieval grave covers, Bamard- 

caetle, 127; Chester-le-Street, 127; 

St. Helen's Auckland, 127; at Tyne- 

mouth, 125 et seq,; monuments at 

Tynemouth, 124 
Meek, Mr. A., on bones found at 

Housesteads, 299 
Meigle, Perthshire, pre-Conquest 

crosses at, 120 
Meldred, Robert fitz, witness to a 

grant, 63 
Melrose, pasture at Heathpool granted 

to monks of, 172; grant of land to, 

173 
Members, list of honorary, xxii, xlv; 

ordinary, xxiii, xlvi; deaths of, ix, 

X, xxxhi — ^xxxvi 
Memmingham, cannon-balls cast at, in 

1388,46 
Merburg, Nicholas, master of ordnance 

in 1414, 30 
Merchant Tailors Company, 45 
Merchants Company of Newcastle, 

books of, 192 
Merlay, Alice de, 161; dom. Robert 

de, witness to a grant, 107; Roger 

de, 166 : held barony of Morpeth, 154 
* Messangerland,' Alnwick, grant of 

land called, 74 
Metz, small cannon used at, in 1324, 4 
Meynevill, Robert de, Agnes de Diue- 

ston married to, 160 
Meynell, Mr. Sergeant, bequest of old 

rial to, 86 
Michael, son of Michael, and others, 

held mediety of vill of Witingham, 

157 
Middle Marches, warden of the, 81; 

sir John Forstier of Bamburgh, war- 
den, 175 
Middleton, South, ' Middest * and 

North, held by earl Patrick, 164; 

South, Bellinghams had lands at, 

80n 
Middleton deed in Durham treasury, 

72 n 



INDEX. 



328 



Middletons of Belsay and Silksworth 
quartered Strivelyn arms, 72 n; of 
Silksworth, 62; quartered arms of 
Heaton, 68 
Middleton [Midelton, Middilton], 
Christiana de, 77 n ; Gilbert, and 
manor of Silksworth, 77 n; Gilbert 
de, rebellion of, 71 n ; John, married 
Isabella, daughter of Eoger Thorn- 
ton, 77 n ; married Joan . . . . , 
77 n; conveyed lands at Tunstall, 
etc., 77 n ; John de, 72 n ; grants to, 
and by, 74 ; witness to a grant, 107 ; 
sir John, 77 ; sheriff of Northumber- 
land and lord of Belsay, 81; lands 
of forfeited for rebellion, 71 n ; and 
others, grants to, 71, 77; John de 
fH), 71 n ; Lancelot, inq. taken 
m 1561, 77 n; George, his son and 
heir, 77 n ; Thomas, married Eleanor 
Tempest, 77 n ; married Margaret de 
Heton, 70; lands at Tunstall con- 
veyed to, 77 w; inq. p.m. of (1480), 
77 n ; son and heir, Thomas, 77 n ; 
inq. p.m. of 1498, 77 n; inq. taken 
in 1512, 77 n ; Anne, daughter and 
heir, 77 n; Thomas, of Silksworth, 
grants by, 77, 78 ; Thomas de, son of 
John de, knight, and Christiana his 
wife, 71 
Midsummer bonfire at Whalton,the, 181 
Milbum, see Milleburn 
Military Antiquities, Grose's, quoted, 

10 
Milleburn, Margaret de, a widow, 160 
MUlott, Robert, a rial bequeathed to, 85 
Mills, William, witness to deed, 109 
' Minion,' name of a gun, 51, 54, 55, 57 
Minsteracres, figures of mother god- 
desses at, 194 
Mitchell, Charles William, death of, 

XXXV. 

Mitchelson, John, and another. House- 
steads purchased by, 193 

Mitford barony held by Roger Bert- 
ram, 154 

Mitford, Cuthbert, of Mitford, married 
daughter of Gilbert Wallis, 175; 
Eobert, 80 n 

Mithraeum at Housesteads, 199, 255; 
at Ober-Florstadt, 260 n ; at Aquin- 
cum, 262 n; dimensions of, 261; 
torch-bearing satellites discovered 
at Housesteads, 261; altars dis- 
covered in the, 279, 281 

Mithraic monument at Heddemheim, 
a, 143 n 

Mithras worship^ 255 n ; temple of, on 
Chapel hill, Housesteads, 197, 255; 
altars, etc., 197 



Mitrailleuse, the prototype of the, 40 

'Morser,' 49 

Molesfen, see Mulesfen 

MoUance, lands of, 26 

' Mollance Meg,' bombard said to have 

been so-named, 26 
Mommsen, professor Theodor, death of, 

xxxvi, obituary notice of, 185; 

facsimile of autograph of, 187; on 

excavations on the Roman Wall, 188 

* Monk's stone,* the, at Tynemouth, 

121; story of the, 122; Hodgson 
thought it a boundary stone between 
Monkseaton and Tynemouth, 123 

Monmouth, duke of, 112 

' Mons Meg,' 19, 25, 27, 49 ; at Edin- 
burgh, 17; description of, 26; 
dimensions of, 28; inscription on, 
26; made at Mons, 26; at siege of 
Dumbarton castle, 28; and pro- 
bably at Norham, 28 ; bursting" of, 
28; old wooden carriage of, 28; new 
iron carriage, 28 (See also ' Mol- 
lance Meg ') 

* Mons,' ' the casting of,* 27 

Mons, ' Mons Meg ' supposed to have 
been made at, &; cannon in arsenal 
of, in 1406, 20 

Montauban, defence of, 18 

Montsac, troops of sir John Chandos 
had cannon at siege of, 10 

Mont St. Michael, bombard used at, 
in 1433, 25 

Montserrat, Barnard de, * maistre des 
canons * in 1375, 12 ; superintended 
making of large gun at Caen, 12 

Moresby, Roman camp at, 243 n 

Morpeth, country meeting at, xi; 
barony held by Roger de Merlay, 154 

Morris, sir Chr., master of the ord- 
nance, 30 

Mortars, invention of, 2; early, 23; 
large, at Vienna, 23 ; breech-loading, 
in English army in fifteenth century, 
23; the elbow, 40; hand, for dis- 
charging grenades, 48; of leather 
and rope, 22 ; made of paper, 22 

' Mortiers,* 40 

Mortar, stone, etc., discovered at 
Housesteads, 285 

Mortimer, Roger, inventory of effects 
of, in 1322, 7 

Morwick [Morewic], Alice de, married 
to Roger Golafre, 160, 161; Hugh 
de, 166; held vill of Chiuingtona, 
156; held West Chevington, 163 

Mosstroopers, Nicholas Armstrong, 
last of the, 193 

Mostiers, Walter de, witness to a 
grant, 63 



324 



INDEX. 



Mother ffoddesaes, temples of the, 197, 
243; ^Dfures of the, at Minsteracres 
from Housesteads, 196 

Moulds for cannon balls 46 

Mounceaux, John, knight, witness to 
a grant, 69 

Monntgarret, viscounts, 179 

Mowat, M. Bobert, on the Koman 
altars from the Tyne, 136 

* Moyenne,' a gun so-called, 56 

Muckle bank wall turret, xiii 

Mulesfen, vill of, in hands of Lucy de 
Eisgeford, 162; held by Henry de 
Mullisfen, 165 

Mulesfen [Mullisfen], Henry de, held 
Mullisfen, 165; Stephen de, held a 
vill of the king, 158 

Munchans, Robert de, 166 

Muniments, local, 62 

Murrhardt, Germany, strong room in 
Boman camp at, 221 n 

Murten, ancient cannon in gfymnasiuin 
at, 34; field guns lost at battle of, 
33 ; larg« bombard taken at, in 1476, 
19 

Muschamp [Muscamp], lady Matilda 
de, held vill of Ross in dower, 151 ; 
Robert de, held barony of Wul- 
louer, 153; grant of land by, to 
Melrose, 173 ; charter of, relating to 
Heathpool, 172; Isabel, daughter of, 
married William de Huntercombe, 
67 

Muschamps, Wester barony conferred 
on, 172 

Museum, donations to the, xz, xliii 

Musgrave, Elizabeth, 80 n; John, son 
of Robert de, death of, 80 ti; inq. 
p.m., 80 n; Robert de, his son and 
heir, 80 n; Thomas, seised of manor 
of Ryell, 80 n; inq. p.m. of 1488, 
80 n ; daughters Joan and Margaret, 
80 n; heirs of, 80 n; Margaret, 
daughter of Robert de Ryhill, wife 
of, 80 n; Robert, seised of Kirk- 
heaton, 80 n; William, and others, 
grant to, 79; of Ryall, and others, 
release by, 81 

Muster of fencible inhabitants of New- 
castle in 1539, 192 



N. 

Nafferton, held by Philip de Vlecot, 
161 ; held by his heirs, 163 

Nancy, guns used at battle of, 33; 
Burgundian cannon captured at, 34 

Nauveville, canton Berne, large can- 
non in museum of, 19, 34 



Nele, William, ' gunnoure,' pension for 
life, 30 

Neptune, Roman altar to, from the 
Tyne, iczxix, 133, 135; Itoman coins 
with reverses of, 138 

Netherby, a Boman inscription naming 
IVLITJS . . . , 145 

Netherlands, petards in use in, 40 

Neurwerk, maitre Hans van, of 
Malines, gfuns obtained from, 51 

Neuss, sixth legion in Boman camp at, 
230; fort built by Vespasian, 230; 
praetorium of Boman camp at, 227; 
barracks in, 232 

Nevill, John de, clerk to the Ex- 
chequer, 150 n ; held Luuerbotle, 162 

Neville's Cross, battle of, towers built 
after, 168 

Neubig^ing, Eustace de, held vill of 
NeuDiging, 152 

Newbigging, Eustace d« Neubigging 
held vill of, 152; lands in, released, 
81 

Newbum, held by Bobert, son of 
Boger, 165 

Newbum, Bobert, son of Boger, held 
manor of, 154 

Newcastle, 52; discovery of Boman in- 
scriptions in the Tyne at, 133; two 
Boman stone coffins found in, 147; 
plan of site, 149; figures of mother 
goddesses, etc., in Blackgate 
museum at, 197 ; Half Moon battery 
at, 103 

Newcastle, wood-carved arms of, pre- 
sented, XX 

Newcastle, burgesses of, 159; rent 
given by king to, 160; proffer of 
old silver penny by young freemen 
of, 89 

Newcastle custom of presenting coins 
to judges, 83 n ; first public evidence 
of, 84 ; entertainment of judges, 87 

Newcastle, number of fencibles in, in 
1539, 192; state armoury at, in 1560, 
55; siege of, by Scots in 1644, 38; 
attempted escape of Charles I. from, 
38 

Newcastle deed poll of property in 
Iron Market, 192 : old house on Side 
demolished, xiv; 'Lawrence Acton's 
waste,* XV ; 'Dog Loup,' stairs, 201 

Newcastle castle, ancient cannon in, 
36 ; old guns from China in, 39 ; can- 
non on battlements, 39; last fired 
at opening of High Level bridge, 
39; ward of, 157; Hugh de Bailol 
owed ward to, 154; model of, xi; 
structural features of the keep of, 
91; alderman Forster's roof, 91; 



INDEX. 



825 



latrine shafts, 92; date of erection, 
94; sums expended on, 94; suspen- 
sion of building- operations, 96; old 
clay pipe heads found, 96; roofless 
in Bourne's time, 96; chapel used 
as a beer cellar for Three Bulls* 
Heads Inn, 97; repaired, 97; car- 
ronades mounted on roof, 97; dis- 
coveries in gallery of, 99; Jefferson's 
lithographed view of , 99 ; ' great 
ordnance * at, 163 ; original roof over 
great hall, 100, 101; beam holes in 
walls, 102, 103; covering of castle 
with planks, 103; adaptations for 
last siege, 103; lamp niches on 
stairway for lighting, 105 ; ' the sally 
port,' 105; Bailey gate, 105 

Newcastle Blackgate, pre-Conquest 
stones in museum in, 119 

Newcastle, church of, in king's gift, 
160 ; held by Gilbert de Lascy, 160 ; 
St. Nicholas's, bells of, x; chaplains 
of chantries of St. Katherine and 
of Virgin, in, 192; ' parochiani * of 
St. Andrew's, 161 

Newcastle Companies, the gold- 
smiths', Thomas Sewell warden of, 
190; the books of the merchants, 
192; of shipwrights, and castle, 103 

Newcastle, Corporation of, mayor 
to have sword carried before him, 
83; gift of spur ryal to judges on 
leave-taking, 87 • petitioned Edward 
III. respecting Fenham, 123; sir 
John Marley, mayor, 103 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, gift 
of Roman altars to, 198; excava- 
tions at Housesteads by committee 
of, 200; visit of, to Housesteads, 202 

' Newcastle,* large bombard named, 
20 

Newminster, abbot of, 167 

Niederbieber, Roman inscription 
found at, 223 n ; storehouses in 
Roman camp at, 239 

Norenbach, Mathias van, maker of 
ordnance, 61 

Norham, ' Mons Meg,* probably at 
siege of, 28 

Normandy, English forces in, 10 

Northkoket, 159 

Northumberland, lands in, not re- 
corded in Domesday book, 119 

Northumberland, severance of, from 
crown of Scotland, 83; invaded by 
William the Lion, 96; certificates 
from ' Testa de Nevil * relating to, 
161 ; sheriffs, obligations of, 83 ; gift 
of, to judges on leave-taking, 87; 
sheriffs: Henry de Fenwik, 108; 



H. de Magnetby, 107; sir John 

Middleton, 81; Henry de Puteaco, 

160; sir Thomas Swinburne, 86 
Northumberland and Durham, W. J. 

Cripps on church plate of, 191 
Northumberland earldom of, taken 

possession of by Henry II., 169; 

Henry, earl of, 81 
Northumbrian barons did homage to 

Alexander of Scotland, 169 
Northumbrian proofs of age, xiii 
Norwich, Thomas, to make cannon 

for Richard 11., 8 
Nuremberg, examples of early rifled 

cannon in museum of, 41 



Obituary notices, 185, 188 

* Oceanus,' Roman altar to, from the 
Tyne, 133; first discovered, 137; 
altars erected by Alexander the 
Great, to, 137 

Oceanus and Tethys, a bronze plate 
found at York naming, 143 

Odenel, John, of Chevelingham, and 
another, agreement between, con- 
cerning marriage of John his son 
and beir, 64, 65 ; Emma, widow of, 66 

Odruik, large bombard used at siege 
of, in 1377, 17 

Offerton, Middleton lands near, 77 n ; 
grant of lands in the Basset flat at, 
formerly belonging to Jacoba de 
Stryvelyn, 71 

Ogles of Airkley purchased Coupland, 
176 

Ogle, Nathaniel, sold Coupland, 177; 
Robert de, knight, witness to a 
gfrant, 73 

Old English Plate, Cripps's, 189 

Oldenburg, arms of, 61 

Olliver, Edward, witness to a deed, 
109 

Orde, near Berwick, grant of moor of, 
63 ; vill of, held by Henry de Orde, 
152 

Orde of Orde, pedigree of, 63; Adam 
de, confirmed g^nt to Durham of 
the fishery of the Pool, 63; Henry 
de, held vill of Orde, 125; cut off 
hand of kin?*s forester, 63; Henry 
of Westwood, party to a deed, 176 
(See tdso Horde) 

Ordinary members, list of, xxiii, xlvi 

Ordnance named ' ballistae,* 10; field, 
made lighter, 50 ; names of, in 1574, 
56; masters of the, 30; Gilbert 
Parr, 44; sir William Pelham, 30; 
ofiice abolished, 30 

43 



326 



niTDEX. 



Ordnance^ early, in Europe, 1 

' Orgue/ the, a gun so-named from 
barrels placed in rows, 40; an early 
example at Sigmaringen, 40 

Orleans, siege of, 23 

Oudenarde, cannon used at siege of, 
7 ; the ' Dulle Griete ' used at a 
siege of, 29; large bombards used at 
siege of, in 1382, 17; red-hot shot 
used at siege of, in 1525, 47 

Owen, John, Bobert and Thomas, 
makers of cannon, 51, 58 

Oxen, guns drawn by, 40 



Pallas Armata, quoted, 56 

Pampeden, etc., held by Nicholas de 
Biker, 165 

Pandon, Newcastle, see Pampeden 

Paper, mortars made of, 22 

Paris, Mus^e des luvalides, wooden 
cannon in, 22; Burgundian guns 
at, 33; early ordnance at, 57, 
59; cannon cast by Georg Endorfer, 
41 ; ' Kalter ' guns at, & 

Parr, Gilbert, master of ordnance, 30, 
44; John, attests a lease, 110 

* Passa volante,* 40 

Pateshill, Hugh de, treasurer of the 

king, 162 
Patrick, earl, held barony of Bene- 

leya, 153, 164 
Paulinus at Adgefrin, 172 
Peat, old lady, land at Flass belong- 
ing to, 62 
Pelham, sir William, master of the 

ordnance, 30 
Penden, Hans, mortars cast by, 61 
Pepper- rent of, 106 
Petards came into use in Netherlands, 

40; used by Henry IV. of France, 

48 
'Peterara,* a, 58 
Petrie, Henry, keeper of records in 

tower, 200 
Petworth, honour of, 81 
Pfiinz, Boman camp at, 238 
Philip of Burgundy, large bombard 

forged for, 17 
Philip, bishop of Durham, gift of mill 

of Tvedemue, 153; seal of, 63, 82; 

grants of, 62, 63 
Phillips, Mary, wife of Vaughan, 176 ; 

sir Thomas, bart., MSS. belonging 

to the late. 111; sale of. 111 
Pict*s wall, observations on the, 194 

* Pierier,' the, a gun so-named, 37, 54, 

55, 56 



Pipes, head of old clay, found in keep, 

Newcastle, 96 
' Pirier,' see Pierier 
Pit, Henry, maker of ordnance, 59 
Place, Anthony, 231; excavator at 

Housesteads, 202 
Poitou, grants of bishop Philip de, 62, 

63 ; seal of, 63, 82 
Polybius, description of praetorium, 

226 
Pontefract castle, Hugh de Cuilly died 

a prisoner in, 178 
Pool, fishery at the, confirmed to 

Durham monks, 63 
Porter, John, of Alnwick, witness to 

a grant, 76; Bobert, 78 
' Port peeces,' 54 
Portsmouth, state armoury at, in 

1560, 55 
' Pot gun,' 51 

Potters* names from Housesteads, 293 
Pottery, discovered at Housesteads, 

293; balls filled with a fiery mix- 
ture, 47 
Poyninges, Henry earl of Northum- 
berland, lord of, 81 
Practica, 46; John Andeme's recipe 

in, for gunpowder, 43 
Praetorium y 226; at Chesters, 215; 

use of the, in Boman camps, 226; 

described by Boman writers, 226 
Pre-Conquest remains at lynemouth, 

118; cross, fragment of, presented, 

XX 

Prenderguest, Adam, forfeiture of, 174 

Price, Joseph, of Gateshead, gave 
old cannon to society, 39 

ProcoUtia, 243 

Prudhoe, barony of, held by Bichard 
de Vmfrauill, 154 

Publications, exchange of, xxxi, liv 

Pudsey, Henry de, sheriff of North- 
umberland, 160 

Pumhart von Stehr, Der grosse, a 
large mortar at Vienna, 23 



Q. 

Quero, siege of, in 1376, 32; bombards 
used in attack of Venetians on, 16 

Quesnoy, siege of, in 1340, 12; can- 
non used at defence of, in 1340, 7 



B. 



Baby castle, discoveries in, xiii 
BacK principle, application of the, to 
cannon, 33 



INDEX. 



827 



Radcliffe^ sir Francis, of Mel don, 

baronet, deed of sale, 108; seal of, 

109; bond of, 109; dame Catherine 

his wife, 109 
Ra|^sa, gun of republic of, in 1505, 61 
Raine, rev. James, 199 
Ravensworth, death of earl of, xxxiii 
Raymes, Robert, witness to a release, 

108 
Bedesdale held by Richard de Vm- 

frauill, 154 
Red-hot shot, invention of, ascribed 

to Hanz von Sickingen, 47 
Redusio, Andrea, 15, 19, 32 
Registers of Tynemouth, 131 
Rehil, vill of, 152 
Rehil, Adam de, held half of Rehil, 

152; Gilbert de, held half of, 152; 

Gilbert de, held mediety of 152; 

held third part of Gosewic, 152 
Revolver, early prototypes of the, 40 
' Reward,' meaning of, 84 
Rials, bequests of, 85 

* Ribaudeaux,' 32, 33 
' Ribaudequin/ 18, 32 

Rich, F. W., on two Roman stone 
coffins found in Newcastle, 147 

Richard II. directed Thomas Norwich 
to make cannon, 8 

Richmond, deed executed at, 69 

Ridel, Jordan, held ' Tillemue,' 151 

' Riegelbiichsen,' 21 

Rifled cannon introduced early in 
sixteenth century, 41 

Rippon, George, on ' the Monk's 
Stone,' 124; presented swivel ser- 
pentine gun to society, 39 

Risgeford, Lucy de, held vill of 
Mulesfen, 162 

Rittun, etc., held by earl Patrick 164 

Robert the porter, held land at Bam- 
burgh, 162 ; son of Roger held Neu- 
bum, 165; held manor of Wark- 
worth, 153; and barony of Whalton, 
etc., 1^4 

* Robinets,' 55 

Robins, Benjamin, often credited with 
being inventor of rifled cannon 41 

Robinson, Matilda, tenement oi, in 
Newcastle 192; W. Grey, docu- 
ments belonging to, 62; William 
Harris, death of, xxxiv 

R'odum, etc., held by earl Patrick, 164 

Roddam [Rodom], witness to a grant, 
76; William de, and Constance his 
wife, and others, held Witingham, 
etc., 164, 166 

Roger, son of Ralph, held vill and a 
half, 156; held Dichebum, 163; 
son of Walter, 160, 161 



Roldeston, Thomas de, gunpowder 
manufactured by, 2, 42 

Romans, the, and gunpowder, 2 

Roman altars, etc., at Housesteads, 
197 ; antiquities at Cirencester, 191 ; 
inscriptions, 277; from the river 
Tyne, 133 

Roman camps, excavations of, 206; 
* diamond-broaching * in, 146 n ; 
water supply to, ^8 

Roman camps: Ardoch, 235; Birrens, 
210/1; Bremenium, 226, 227, 238; 
Biitzbach, 221 n ; Camelon, xii, 
232; Capersberg, 238; Castlecary, 
xii; Chesters, 226, 232; Gellygaer, 
232; Heddernheim, 227 n; Kut- 
lovica, 227 n ; Larribcbesis, 225 n ; 
Moresby, 243 n; Murrhardt, 221 n; 
Niederbieber, 223, 238; Neuss, 227, 
232; Pfiinz, 238; Procolitia, 243; 
Rough Castle, xii; Rufenhofer, 223, 
228; South Shields, 212, 227, 243; 
Stanwix, 210 ti; Theilenhofen, 238; 
Vindobala, 243; Wiesbaden, 240; 
Worth, 238 n- (See aUo Roman 
forts) 

Roman intaglio from Housesteads, 
239; stone coffins found in New- 
castle, 147 

Roman coins found, 219, 221; at 
Housesteads, 297; at Huddersfield, 
146 n; with reverses of Neptune, 
138 ; denarii found at Chesters, 221 

Roman forts at Aldburgh, 146; 
Brough (Derbyshire), Slack and 
Templeborough, 146 

Roman legate named on slab from 
T^e, 140 ; legions in Britain, 135 n 

Roman rubbish heap in Aldemey, 
finds in a, 295; urn found in New- 
castle, 147 

Roman Wall in Northumberland, ex- 
cavations on line of, 193; prof. 
Mommsen and excavations on the, 
188; visits of Camden, 193; 
Stukeley, Gordon and Horsley, to, 
195 ; names of subscribers to excava- 
tion fund, 304 

Romilly-AUen, J., on a pre-Conquest 
fragment from I^emouth, 12© 

Romorentin on the Sandre, Greek 
fire used at siege of, 3 

Rope, mortar of leather and, 22 

Ros, Robert de, 166; held barony of 
Werke, 153 

Ross, lady Matilda de Muscamp held 
vill of, 151 

Rothbury, country meeting at, xi; 
Robert son of Roger held barony of, 
ir.3 



828 



INDEX. 



Bouen^ a ' pot de fer * for discharging 
boltsj in arsenal at^ 6 

Boughcastle Eoman camp, visit to, xii 

Bouth [Eouthe], Thomas de, witness 
to a grant, 69; William de, grant 
to, 69 

Biiffenhofen, Boman camp at, 238 

Butter, John, of London, premises of, 
damaged, 42 

Buyter, Poppen, of Malines, ordnance 
obtained from, 51 

Byal, Great, etc., held by Boger son 
of Balph, 163; Little, vill of, held 
by Bicnard de Vmfrauill, 154; held 
by Gilbert de Parva Byhill, 164 
(See also Behil) 

Bye, Nicholas de, 162 

Byell, near Stamfordham, John Mus- , 
grave died seised of manor of, 80 n ; 
Thomas Musgrave seised of manor 
of, 80 n ; g^ve it to Isabel Musgrave 
for her life, 80 n 

Byhill, Gilbert de Parva, held Little 
Byal, etc., 164; Margaret, daughter 
of Bobert de, wife of Bobert de Mus- 
grave, 80 n ; his wife, Alice, and 
others, Michael de, 159; held 
Witingham, etc., 164 

Ryton church, * briefs ' collected in, xiv 



Saalburg, restoration of the, 223; en- 
amelled discs discovered at the, 289 

' Sacres,' guns so-called, 49, 54, 55, 67 

Sadberge, see Sarberge 

St. Andrew's, large pre-Conquest cross- 
shaft at, 120 

St. Gregory's hill, 172 

St. Helen's Auckland, medieval grave 
cover at, 127 

St. Oswin, grave of, 124 

Saltpetre, cost of, 44 

Samian ware, 234; found at House- 
steads, 294 

* Samson ' a gun named, 61 
Sandale, Jo. de, 306 

Sarberge TSadberge], wapentake of, 
held by bishops of Durham, 157 

Sarcophagous, a Boman, discovered in 
Newcastle, zxxix, 149 

• Scharfmetzen,' 49 

Schepley, etc., held by earl Patrick, 
164 

Schwartz, Bartholdus, discovered a 
detonating mixture, 1 

Scotland, eastern, glass cups dis- 
covered in graves in, 287 

Scotchman, notice of receipt of fealty 
by a, 81 



Scotland, extracts from accounts of 
lord hieh treasurer of, 27; large 
bombards brought from Flanders to, 
27; king of, held land in Tindale, 
157; severance of Cumberland and 
Northumberland from crown of, 83 
Scots, siege of, by, in 1644, 38 
Scott, sir Bobert, an English knight 
in the Swedish service, 23; sir 
Walter, description of Coupland, 
180; Walter, of Sunderland, death 

of, XXXV 

Scottish turf wall, visit to, xii 

Scremerston, Bobert, witness to a 
deed, 64; son of Adam de, held land 
in Scremestun, 152; Williain, son 
of Bobert de, held third part of vill 
of Scremestun, 152 

Scremerston, Bobert, son of Adam de 
Scremestun, held land in, 152; 
William, son of Bobert de Scremes- 
tun, held third part of vill of, 152; 
vill of, held by John de Braferton, 
152 

Scribonius Demetrius, named on a 
bronze plate from York, 143 n 

Scriven, John, power of attorney to, 70 

Seals of William de Carnaby, 108; 
Thomas Errington, 109; William 
Hardyng, 108; Alan de Heton, 70; 
of Marjory de Heton, 70 bis; sir F. 
Badclyffe, 109; Philip de Pwtou, 
bishop of Durham, 82 

Sedgemoor, battle of, 112 

Segraue, Stephen de, 159 

Septimius Severus, etc., base denarii 
found, 221 

Serpent gun, 48, 49, 54; at Woolwich, 
20; temp. Henry VIII., with trun- 
nions, 31 

* Serpentines,' 21 ; a swivel, 39 

Sewallus, son of Henry, 157; land in 
Newcastle of, 159 

Sewell, Thomaa, warden of New- 
castle Goldsmiths' Company, 190 

Shaftoe, Arthur, of the East Quarter 
and another, grant, etc., by, 109, 
110; Greorge, of Ingoe, bond of, 
109; John, of Gunnerton, and an- 
other, grant, etc., to and by, 109, 
110 

Sharpe, Anthony, attests a lease, 110 

Shears, iron, a pair of, discovered at 
Housesteads, 291 

Shell, a hinged, 7 

Sherensleye, county Warwick, licence 
to grant manor of, 177 

Shields, North, matrix of brass in the 
Spital ' dene, 130 ; earliest reference 
to the Spital, 131 ; burials at, 131 



INDEX. 



829 



Shields^ South, Boman camp at, 243; 
plan of, 244; keystone of bull's head 
from 212; Boman inscription to 
Brigantia from, 146 n; prctetorium 
at, 245; measurements of, 237; 
strong room in, 221 and n 

Shipley, see Schepley 

Ships: 'Eliza Bonadventure,' 47; 
armament of, 54; 'Barnard de la 
Tour,' 'La Marie de la Tour,' 5; 
* Elizabeth Jonas * and others, ord- 
nance in, 54; return of shot on 
board of the queen's ships in 1578, 
47 

Ships' falconets, 36, 37 

Shipwash, see Siperwas 

Shot, iron, invented in fifteenth cen- 
tury, 23 

Sickineen, Franz von, invention of 
red-hot shot ascribed to, 47 

Sigmaringen, an early example of 
orgue at, 40 

Silchester, character of Boman work 
at, 276; latrines at, 250 

Silksworth, deeds dated at, 77; 
manor, 77 n; granted to Bichard de 
Emeldon, 71 n ; grant of third part 
of manor of, in exchange, 71; held 
of prior of Durham, 77 n 

Silver brooch discovered at House- 
steads, 212, 286 

* Singeringen,' 49 

Siperwas, Bobert, son of Bichard, 
quit-claim by, 107 

Sixth Boman legion at Neuss, 220 

Skellj, George, death of, xxxv 

Skevington, sir William, master of 
the ordnance, 30 

Skynner, John, 78 

Slack, Yorkshire, Boman fort at, 146 

' Slyngs,' 49 

Sluys, defeat of French fleet off, in 
1340, 5 

Smith, Thomas, foreman at House- 
steads excavations, 204 

Societies exchanging publications, 
XXXI, liv 

SomalUand, etc., prehistoric weapons 
from, presented, jol 

Southampton, attack of French fleet 
on, in 1338, 6 

' Southkoket,' 159 

South Middleton, see Middleton, South 

Southsea, state armoury at, in 1560, 56 

Spain, cost of gunpowder bought in, 
in 1512, 45 

Spears heads, iron, discovered at 
Housesteads, 289 

Spindleston held by Eustace de Vesci, 
153 



' Spirales,' guns so-called, 49 

Spital dene. North Shields, matrix of 
brass in, 130 

Spithead, ' Mary Bose ' sunk off, in 
1545, 31 

Spur rials given to judges, 85 

Stanton, etc., held by earl Patrick, 
164 

Stanwix, figure of Victory from, 210 n 

Starlyng, John, 5; and Helmyiig 
Legat, indenture between, in which 
gunpowder is mentioned, 42 

Statute, alteration of, Ivi 

Stephensonne, Matthew, of Newcastle, 
192 

Stirap, Alice de, 163 

Stockton, Culleys held lands in manor 
of, 178 

Stone cannon balls, 15, 46, 47 

Stone, sir Benjamin, photographs of 
Whalton bonfire, 183 

Stonor, John, grant of land inrolled 
before, 67 

Stew's Annates quoted, 48 

Stratton, Thomas de, and Isabel his 
wife, 163 

Strand, Peter de, held land in Bam- 
burffh, 165 

Strevelyn, lady Jacoba de, lauds at 
Alnwick, 74; at Offerton, formerly 
belong^g to, 71 (See also Strivelyn) 

Strigae, 229 

Strivelyn, arms of, 72 n ; lady Jacoba 
de, land of, at Alnwick, 14; at 
Offerton, 71; sir John de, Bamaba 
first wife of, settlement of lands of, 
71 n; Middleton possessions granted 
to, by Edward III., 71 n; Jane, wife 
of, 71 n (See also Strevelyn) 

Strother [Strothir], John del, witness 
to a grant, 74; John de, witness to 
a release, 108 

' Strittbiichsen,' 21 

Stukeley, his visit to the Eomau 
Wall, 196; and Housesteads, 198 

Stuteuill, Alice de, 161 

Styford, Hugh de Bolebec, held barony 
of, 155 

Sfyli discovered at Housesteads, 292 

Suffolk, second earl of, sir Edward 
Villiers married daughter of. 111 

Sunderland, Edward, of Hamburgh, 
demise to, 78 

Surfleet church, Lincolnshire, tomb- 
stone of last (?) of Herons of Chip- 
chase in, 106 

Surtees [Surtayse], Balph, 167; 
Bichard, held vill of Goseford, 156 

Swinbum, West, etc., held by Jordan 
Hay run, 163 



830 



tKBBX. 



Swinburne [Swynbourne, Swynburne], 
Bamaba de^ married sir John de 
Strivelyn, 71 n; Robert de, 108; 
sir Thomas, sheriff of Northumber- 
land, expenses of, 86; power of 
attorney from, 107, 108; grant by, 
107; William de, witness to gprants, 
73, 108 (See also Shuinebume) 

Shuinebume, John de, witness to a 
quit-claim, 107 

Swinburne papers, 80 n 

Swinhoe, power of attorney to deliver 
seisin of land in, 70; grant of land 
in, 69 

Swiss, guns taken by the, 57; many 
ancient guns, etc., in arsenals, 31, 
33; used Burgundian guns, 31; 
records, mention of cast iron can- 
non balls in, in 1495-99, 46 

Switzerland, early ordnance in mu- 
seums in, 57 

Sword, to be carried before Newcastle 
mayors, 83; chape discovered at 
Housesteads, 290 

Sym, Eobert, 78, 79 



TahtUarium, the, 223 

Tailboys, Aimeiy de, archdeacon of 

Durham, witness to a gfrant, 62, 63 

^See also Tailleboys) 
Tailford, William, excavator at House- 
steads, 202; custodian of Chesters 

museum, 202 
Tailleboys [Taylleboys, Tayllebois], 

Elizabeth, 159; Ivo, held barony of 

Hephale, 156 ; Robert, 159 ; the wife 

of Ivo, 162 (See also Tailboys) 
Tailler, George, of Newcastle, barber, 

deed relating to tenement there, 192 
Tappock broch, visit to, xii 
Tarrasbiichsen, the, a gun of small 

calibre, 21, 49 
Tartaglia, a distinguished Italian 

mathematician, 50 
Tempest, Eleanor, daughter of Roland, 

married Thomas Middleton, 77; 

Nicholas, a rial bequeathed to, 85; 

Richard, witness to a gfrant, 69; 

Robert, 78; sir Thomas, a rial be- 
queathed to, 85 
Templeborougfh, Roman fort at, 146 
Testa de Nevill, certificates from the, 

relating to Northumberland, 151; 

the sources of, 150; etymology of, 

150 n 
Tethys, Oceanus and, a bronze plate 

found at York naming, 143 n 
Teysam, Ralph super, 167 
Theilenhofen, Roman camp at, 238 



Thein, widow of, married Roger de 

Hodeshagh, 162 
Thomas, Robert fitz, witness to a 

grant, 63 
Thornton, vill of, held in drengage, 

152 
Thornton [Thometon], Adam de, held 

vill of Thometona, 152; Isabella 

daughter of Roger, married John 

Middleton, 77 n 
Thorp [Torp], John de, witness to a 

grant, 63 
Thorpin had house in Newcastle, 161 
Thrieve castle, bombard used at siege 

of, 26, 27 
Throckelaue, Robert de, 154 
Throins^tun, etc., held by Michael de 

Ryhu and others, 164 
Tungrians, Housesteads garrisoned by 

first cohort of, 228; Castlesteads 

and Birrens, by second cohort, 228 
Tiberis, Roman coin with reverse of, 

139 
' Tillemue,' Jordan Ridel held, 151 
Tilly's guns, 23 
Tina, Roman coin with reverse of, 

(?) 139 
Tindale, king of Scotland held land in, 

157 
Tindale, Adam de, 166; held barony 

of La^eleya, 155 
Todde, Thomas, 174 
' Todtenorgel,' a gun so-named from 

barrels placed in rows, 40 
Togsden, three parts of, held by Roger 

son of Ralph, 163 
Toilet articles discovered at House- 
steads, 235, 255 
Tokens, presents of coins as, 85 
Torwocidhead castle, visit to, xii 
Tosson, etc., held by Nicholas de 

Earendun and wife, 163 
Toumay, cannon for England tested 

at, 7 
Tours, great bombard made at, in 

1478, 18 
Tower of London, survey of, 45; 

state armoury in, in 1560, 55; 

cannon and shot in, in 1578, 56; 

early ordnance in, 57; list of 

ordnance in, in 1559, 53 ; gunpowder 

made in, 45; fire of, 1841, damage 

done by, 53; inventory of arms in 

the, 40 
Treasurer's reports and balance sheets, 

xvii, xviii, xxxix, xl 
Treasurer of Roman Wall excavation 

fund, reports of, 301 
Trewhit, see Tyrwit 
Trewick, grant of rents from manor 

of, 71 



INDEX. 



831 



Trunnions, cannon, first half of 

fifteenth century, 24; invention of. 

30; serpent gun, temp, Henry VIII. 

with, 30 
Tudhoe, a pair of old bowls used at, 

presented, xz 
Ttmis, representation of a cannon used 

at siefi^e of, in 1390, 14 
Tunstall, Margery, bequest of coins 

by, 85; Walter de, and another, 

held Warden, etc., 163 
Tunstall, lands at, conveyed, 77 n ; 

grant of third part of lands in, in 

exchange, 71 
Turf-wall in Scotland, Boman, visit to 

the, zii 
Turks, mortar made of leather. 

captured from the, 22 
Turner, Henry, 199; sir James, 56 
Turpyn, Nicholas de, witness to deeds 

74, 76, 108 Us 
Tweedmouth, Eudo de Butement held 

mill of, 153; vill of, etc., held by 

William de Masculus, 152 
Tweezers discovered at Housesteads. 

288 289 
* Twelve apostles,' cannon named the, 

52 
Twisle FTviaele], Thomas de, witness 

to a deed, 64; held vill of Tvisele, 

152 
Twizell, vill of, etc., held by William 

de Tvisele, 152 
Tyne, river, discovery of Boman in- 
scriptions in the, 133 et seq.; old 

guns from bed of, 38 ; gold florins of 

Edward in., found in, 83 
T}rne Commissioners present Boman 

inscriptions to socie^, 133 et seq. 
Tynedale, franchise of, 169; thieves 

of, 193 
Tynemouth, afternoon meeting at, xi ; 

grants of land, etc., at, 69, 77; 

power of attorney to deliver seisin 

of property in, 70 
Tynemouth, prior of, aid for marriage, 

165; claimed Fenham as part of 

manor of Elswick, 123; demise of 

colliery at Elswick by, 123 
Tynemouth, the early monumental re- 
mains of, 118; pre-Conquest, 118 et 
seq,; medieval, 124; effigy at, 124; 

grave covers, 125 et seq.; the 
' Monk's stone,' 121 ; matrices oi 
brasses at, 129; registers of, 131 
Tynemouth, castle, the Villiers family 
as ifovemors of. 111; sir Henry 
Villiers, governor of, 112; light- 
house, annuity out of grant to sii 

Edward Villiers the younger, 112; 



money probably borrowed for re- 
building of, 113; light ceased to be 
lighted, 113; governor's house, 113; 
demolished, 113 
Tyrwits, etc., held by Nicholas de 
Karendun and wife, 163 



Ulcotes [Ulcot], Constancia de, 163; 

Philip de, 157, 159; heirs of, held 

Matfen and Nafferton,* 161, 163; 

held manor of ' Diuelsunt,' 161; 

sisters of, 160 
Ulpius Marcellus, campaigns of, 147 
Umfravill, Bichard de, held barony of 

Prudhoe, vill of Byhill, and Bedes- 

dale, 154 (See also Humfranuill) 
Upsetlington, William de Masculus, 

held vill of, etc., 152 
Uriconium, see Wroxeter 



Vallibus, Peter de, Emma de Aydene 

married to, 160, 161 
Valturius, see Volturius 
Van CoUen, Peter, a gunsmith, made 

mortars, 48 
Vannes, cannon used at siege of, in 

1340, 7 
Varduli, the, 238 
Vauffhan, Thomas, master of the 

ordnance, 30 
Venice, guns cast at, in 1376, 12; 

glass works, mode of making glass, 

288 
Venetian attack on Quero in 1376, 

16; are said to have used small 

leather mortars, 22; battle between 

Genoese and Paduans and, 22 
Venloo, invention of bomb ascribed 

to a workman of, 48 
Ventress, John, death of, x; his model 

of Newcastle castle, xi 
Vbubcvndvs, a Boman potter's name, 

294 
Vermandois invaded in 1411, 32 
Verus, Julius, a Boman legate named 

on Tyne slab, xxxix, 140; named on 

Boman inscription from Brough, 

Derbyshire, 145 
Vescy rVesci], Eustace de, held barony 

of Alnwick, etc., 153; Margery de, 

162; land of, 162; William de, 162, 

166 
Vespasian built fort at Neuss, 230 
Vetera in Holland, sixth legion at, 137 
Vetus, altars to the god, 277, 279 



382 



INDEX. 



'Yeu^laire/ a gun so-called, 20, 49; 
at NauveviUe, 34 

Vexillations of three legions, slab from 
Tvne mentioning, 1& 

Victoria, queen, opening of High 
Level bridge, Newcastle, by, 39 

Victory, shnne of, at Housesteads, 
197; figures of, 209 and n; intaglio 
of, discovered at Housesteads, 239, 
287; Mars and, altar discovered at 
Housesteads to, 281 

Vienna, large mortar in Herres 
museum at, 23; early ordnance at, 
57, 61 

' Vierteilbiichsen,* 49 

Villani, Giovanni, a Florentine his- 
torian, 9; died of the pla?ue, 9n 

Villeret, a writer of fifteenth century, 
quoted, 19; his description of can- 
non, 219 

Villiers, sir Edward, knight-marshal, 
married Frances daughter of second 
earl of Suflfolk, HI ; autograph of, 116 

Villiers, sir Edward, son of sir Ed- 
ward, knight-marshal, settlement 
on marriage of. 111; appointed 
master of the horse and knight- 
marshal, 111; extracts from settle- 
ment of, in marriage, 113 

Villiers, viscount, of Dartford and 
baron of Hoo, 111 ; sent as minister 
to States General, 111; lord justice 
of Ireland, 112; earl of Jersey, 111, 
112; married Barbara Chiffinch, 
112; an annuity out of Tynemouth 
lighthouse granted to, 112; release 
of annuity, 112; money borrowed 
for rebuilding of lighthouse, 112; 
autograph of, 116 

Villiers, Henry, release to, of annuity 
out of Tynemouth lighthouse, 112; 
governor of Tynemouth castle, 112; 
death at Tynemouth, 112; burial 
there, 112; autograph of, 117 

Villiers, dame Martha, release by^ 112 

Villiers family, as governors of Tyne- 
mouth castle. 111; owned light- 
houses, 111 

Vinci, Leonardo da, 22 

Vindohalay 243 

Vindolana, nothing known of internal 
arrangements of, 243; water-course 
to Eoman camp of, 248 (See also 
Chesterholm) 

Viscount, John the, held barony of 
Emelesdona, etc., 155 

Visitation in Gateshead church, 192 

Vitus, see Vetus 

Volturius, quoted, 10; in 1472, de- 
scribes g^ns then in use« 24 



W. 

Waghen, William de, witness to a 
grant, 69 

Walker, Humphrey, a maker of can- 
non, 51 ; a large * basilisk ' made by, 
for Henry Vlft., 50 

Walker, the rev. John, on the mid- 
summer bonfire at Whalton, 181 

Wallises probably built Coupland 
tower, 175; of Knaiesdale, 175 

Wallis, Geoi^e, of Learmouth, 176; 
Gilbert, of Akeld, 175; daughter, 
married Cuthbert Mitford, 175; 
Gilbert and wife, initials of, on 
chimney piece at Coupland^ 176; 
Henry, of Knaresdale, party to a 
deed, 176; James, of Coupland, a 
Roman Catholic justice of peace, 
176; his daughter Mary, 176; 
boufifht land at Coupland, 175 ; deed 
settling Coupland, 176; James, of 
Wooler, 176; purchased Coupland 
tower, 176; James, of Akeld, 175; 
Balph, sold Coupland, 176 ; Richard, 
of Humbleton, party to a deed, 176 ; 
Boland, of Newmgefeld in Glendale, 

Walter, son of Gilbert, 155, 161 
Walter the dyer, house of, in New- 
castle, 161; Hawis, wife of, 161 
Warburton's excavations at Chester- 
holm, 198 
Warden, etc., held by Nicholas de 

Bolteby and another, 163 
Wark, barony of, held by Robert de 

Ros, 153 
Wark castle, 52 
Warkworth, Robert son of Roger, held 

manor of, 153 
Wametham, Thomas de, held land in 

Hamburgh, 158, 160, 164 
Wars of the Roses, field guns used in 

the, 12 
Wartun, etc., held by Nicholas de 

Karendun and wife, 163 
'Waschonia,' 167 

Water supply to Roman camps, 248 
Watt, H. E., analysis of iron slag 

from Housesteads, 241 
Weetwood moor, 171 
Wetewode, John de, witness to a 

grant, 68 
Welden [Weltden], Simon de, witness 

to releases, 108 
Welford, Richard, on deed poll of 

tenement in Newcastle, 192 
Wemyss castle, Fife, old ordnance 

from, 22 
West Chevington, see Chiuington, West 



INDEX. 



333 



Westminster, ordnance, etc., in 
armoury at, temp. Edward VI., 52 

Westmorland, the hereditary sheriff 
of, 87 

Whitelocke, sir James, accounts of his 
circuits, 86 

Whalton, Eobert son of Roger, held 
barony of, 154 ; the midsummer bon- 
fire at, 181; rev. J. Elliot Bates, 
rector of, 182 

White, rev. W. Stewart, vicar of Esh, 62 

Whitlock, sir James, justice itinerant. 



gift to, 89 
Whit 



ittingham vill held by Robert de 
Glentedun and others, 157; held by 
Michael de Ryhill and others, 164 ' 

Whityngeham, Thomas, vicar of Kirk- 
newton, licence to celebrate masses, 
174 

Whittington, etc., held by John de 
Hawiltun, 164 

Wiccestre, Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 107 

Widdrington, see Woddryngton 

Widen, etc., held by Nicholas de 
Bolteby and another, 163 

Wiesbaden, practoriuni of Roman camp 
of, 240 

William, the Lion, invasion of North- 
umberland by, 96; son of Avenel 
and Betricia his wife, held lands iu 
held land in Bamburgh, 157, 159; 
160; son of Hugo, house of, in 
Newcastle, 161; son of Odo, 162; 
held land in Bamburg, 157, 159; 
son of William the moneyer, 160; 
prince of Orange, marriage of, with 
princess Mary, 111 

• Windegatis,' etc., held by earl Pat- 
rick, 164 

Wingfield, sir Robert, letter to Henry 
Vni., 50 

Witton, etc., Northumberland, held 
by earl Patrick, 164 

Woddryngton, John de, knight, wit- 
ness to a release, 106 

Worth, Roman camp at, 238 

Wooden cannon at Woolwich, 22 and n 

Wooler, inquisitions at, 172, 173 ; 
Coupland, one of manors of barony 
of, 172 (See also W^ullouer) 



AVoolwich, organ-like guns at, 40; 
hand mortar for discharging 
grenades at, 48; * Katler ' gun at, 
23; wooden cannon at, 22; a serpent 
gun temiJ. Henry VI. at, 20; with 
trunnions at, 31; gun carriage from 
wreck of * Mary Rose * at, 33 ; early 
ordnance in Rotunda, 57, 58 

Wraugham moor, 171 

Wroxeter, Roman mouldings, etc., at, 
276; latrines at, 250 

WuUouer, barony of, held by Robert 
de Muscamp, 153 

Wynyard manor, co. Durham, fourth 
part of, held by Philip de Cuylly, 
178 ; given to Roger and Alice Ful- 
thorpe, 178 



Xanten, in Holland, sixth Roman 
legion at, 137 



Yeavering, Paulinus at, 172 
Yelverbon, sir Henry, judge, gift to, 

89 
Yesington, manor of, settled on John 

de Huntercombe and his wife, 67 
Yetlingftun, etc., held by William de 

Caluley, 164 
York, sun of house of, on coins, 84 
York, bronze plate found at, naming 

'Oceanus * and * Tethys,' 143 n ; 

Hadrian moved sixth legion to, 230 ; 

date letters of, for plate, 190 
York, duke of, * Mons Meg * burst in 

firing salute in honour of, 28 



Z. 



Zodiac, signs of, on Mithraic monu- 
ment discovered at Housesteads, 
256 

Zurich, leather covered cannon at, 23 , 
examples of early rifled cannon at, 
41 



THE END. 



44 



dU 




MONK'S STONE. TYNEMOUTH <FRoM N.WJ, 

|Ht f If. 121 f 



PAEt 60. 



^ 



ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA: 

ox 

/nrstrUancoiis •E'vactd 
RELATING TO ANTIQUITIES. 

FUBLIfiHED ET THB 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNH. 
VOLUMB XXV. 

PART L 




LONDON AND NEWCASTLl^UPON-TYHEr 
Airi>Biw KEn> & Co,, Limitisd, PBnrTiifo Coitbt Bulldiksb, Akeitsii^b Hill, 



M.iiooao.[ii> 



pubUcatfon6 of tbe Societi^ of Bntiquariee 



NEWCASTLE UPON TTNB, 

HOST OP WHICH AB8 TO BB BCAO AT THS CABTLB, NEWCAaTLB-UFOV-TTSS. 



AR( 



One 



S/it^I/ 



AM 

■ 

PRC 



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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



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LIBRARY 



PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMEEICAN 
ARCSaiOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



GIFT OF 



i^i;/yt^^.^x» 



lU? Received 



AO- 



pre- 
To 



rES, 

BTS; 



BRAnuo iiipr^jj:fcx \jm^ M\ni^\jJXi^±Ljn, liiueA wj, ujf lub late 

W* Dodo, priee 2s. 6d* 
BOURNE'S MAP OP NEWCASTLE (reprint). A few copies teft, 

1e, eacli. 
HEBDON^ON-THE-WALL; TEE CHURCH AND PARISH. 

By C. J* Batks* a few 4to. copies left, 5s. each, 
GUIDE TO THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE, By the late Dm. 

E RU OE . ( Out of print, ) 






THE CASTLE OF NEWCASTLE, a Sbort BesiTiptive Guide to 

tfm lilflck Gate nnd Keep V^rd edition) price Gd. 

filOHAKlKSON*S MEZZOTINT OF ST, NTOITOLAS^S OHUHCH 

NEWCASTLE (reprints from the coppurplnte belongiii^ to the 

Society) . (Gid of pr in L ) 

THE RECENT DLSCOYERIES IN THE HOMAN CAMP AT 

SOUTTI SHIELDS, by the kte Dr. BaurE, Separate edition. 

8vo,, pajier covers. To Members, 2s, 6d, each; to others, 5s. 

ErORT OE THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE JOINT MEF/riNO 

OF THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AND 

OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE, 

at Newcastle, in An gnat, 1884. 8yo., paper covers; illustrntions 

(Separate editiun). To Members, 2s. (id., to others, ;^s. Gd. 

CCOUNT OF THE ROMAN WALL PILGRIMAGE OF 1886. 

Svo. Nuiner oils illustrations. (Oul of print.) 

BETING IN YOIfK AND SOUTH-EAST YOHKSUIRE, 1889, 

8vo. ( Out of print*) 

HE BORDER HO!A)S OF NORTHUMBERLAND, By 

C. J. Bateh. Yol. L, with numerous illustiatians, 4 to, {md 

qf print) ; 8vo, (separate Edititm), price £1 Is. each, net. 

ENERAL INDEX TO TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY, 

in 3 parts J paper oovera, price 5a. 

INSDALE PARISH REGISTER ; a ft^vv copies 8vo., iu sheets, 

Ss. 6d. per copy. 

ELSDON PARISH REGISTER. In sheets, 6^. 

SH PARISH REGISTER \ a few copies 8vo., in shcutfi, 3b. tkh 

per copy. 

ARKWORTH PARISH REGISTER; 4 parts, 6a. 

CATALOGUE OF EXHIBITION OF SILYER PLATTE OF 

K EW CA ST LE A SS A Y< ( Out ff print J 

.THE TOWN WALLS OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE, by 

the late She ri ton Holmes, Price Is. 

EPORT OF THE EXCAYATI0N8 AT AESICA, &c. Price oa. 

ORPETH AND BOTHAL, ) , i. i - 

YNFMOUTH ' ^ ''^ copies of each in paper covers, 

ARNARD CASTLE, ( 



2s. each. 



MeetiiigB are liekl on tbc lust Wediiesdnj of every moiitli, in tlio TiLstle of 
lewC4istle upon Tyne. The dmir taken at 7 a^clotrk. 

^ni<? Archaeoioff^ia Aetiana will be dolivertd ffree of postage) tr^ every Member 
bo la rroL in urrear of h\3 Annua! Sobacriptlon, which is due on the lat January 
L Qverj jear. In case of any oiuiskIcjh in puncfcual ddiverj, Meinbei's are ret in eft tt^ 
j5»rUiwitli to inform Robbkt liLAlB. Harton Lotlgt?, Soiitb Shields, to whom alay 
^mmuiiic^tlone fm the Archa&/logm AeHafia may be addressed. 

As jimny uutiiberp of tbe Proceedii^gi a4*e out of priat, Mr. BLitIB w-ouldbe 

mikful for any duplicates \vhjclx nieml>t*rfl nniy have in tbeir hnrid^, 

CfJiitri button a of Autiquitit^i^j especially of Incal objeofs, ft»r tbe Blcick Giitp 

lUHtfum, ^vill be thankfully received by CnAELEa James ^pknce (Hodgkhi Si Co/a 

l*nk, Newcastle), EUcharij Oi,iybr Hbslof (Priutwu Buildiugs, Akmiside Hill, 

Kewcafltl«), the Curut-ora of the ^ut^iety; Qr by John GT£BDN,tlke Atbeiidaut at the 

Castle* 

.V,J.— ^It. IB requested that notice be given to Robert Blair, one of fcbe 
9ecR>titrieSj South Shields, of ivny errors^ ebjinyjea of additisa, or deaiha. 
All comtnuui cations for the Troasurtfr (R. 8. NrSBET) to be addressed 
t9 ^ Geovb Stbemt, Hbwoastljs-upok-Ttkb. 



1 



CONTENTS OF PART 62. 



TOLUME XXV, PAfiT iii. 



Report of Council for 1903 

TreaEurer'B Report and Balance Sheet for 1903 

Donations to Muaaum 

Gomncil and OfficerB for 1904 ■- 
Jjifit of Honorary Members 
List of Ordinary Members 
SooietieB Exchani^ng TraasaotiOEB 
Amendment of Statute 



... si 
,.. xlm 
,.. xliv 
... JtW 
.,, tlvi 
... Iv 



Balance Sheet and List of Subscriberfl to the Eomao Wall 

Excavation Fund -. - •• - '^^^ 



Index 



Bm 



TOZKft UflnAHY 



,1,1 



3 2044 041 967 365 



'HII, 




ThU book should b« returned 
to the Library on or before the 
la«t date stamped below. 

Please return promptly. 



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