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0liiitti\amtouti Cracttf 





Ahdbbw Riid, Sons k Co., Pbintino Covbt Buildin&s, Akbnsidi Hili. 

London Omom: 4, Queen's Head Pabsaoe, Pateenohtee Bow, S.0. 



|PUBLIC library! 

11 660 5 





List of FlateB» WoodcQts, etc iii. 

Contribations of Plates iv. 

Beports of the Society for 1888 and 1889 v&Tii. 

Treasmer's Balance Sheets for 1887 and 1888 x&zii. 

Officers for 1889 xri. 

lasts of Members XYii. 

Stafcates of the Society zxix. 

I. — On the Premonstratensian Abbey of St. Mary at Alnwick, North- 
umberland. By W. H. St. John Hope (lUastrated) ... ... 1 

IL — On Wayside Chapels and Hermitages, with special reference to 

the Chapel on the Old.Tyne Bridge. By F. B. Wilson ... 11 
ni.— The Bells and Communion Plate of Bothbnry Parish Church. By 

D. D. Dixon (Illustrated) 18 

IV. — The Meeting House at HorsIey-upon-Tyne. By Maberly Phillips 83 

V. — ^Disused Graveyards in Northumberland. By Maberly Phillips 66 
VL— An Unknown Percy Medal. By R. S. Ferguson, F.S. A., Chancellor 

of Carlisle (Illustrated) 69 

VIL — On certain Peculiarities of the Dialect in Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

and Northumberland. By Dennis Embleton, M.D 72 

YIIL— Hadrian*s Great Barrier. By Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A. ... 85 
IX.— Bywell. By the Rev. A. Johnson, M JL, Yicar of Healey (Ulus- 

trated) 89 

X. — Notes on Lord Collingwood. By John Clayton, Vice-President 

(Dlustrated) 167 

XL— The Wall and Vallum of Hadrian. By Chancellor Ferguson ... 181 
XIL — On some newly discovered Roman Inscriptions, etc. (Illustrated): — 

1. — An Inscription at Clibum. By Prof essor Hiibner 185 

2.— Inscriptions from Ciltirnum, etc. By the late W. T. Watkin ... 190 

3. — ^An Inscribed Slab from Newbum. By Dr. Bruce 192 

4. — ^A Centurial Stone from Caervoran, etc. By Dr. Bruce 196 

5. — Potters' Marks from Carlisle. By Chancellor Ferguson 198 

6. — ^A Roman Christian Inscription from Portugal. By Dr. Bruce... 199 
XHL — The Insignia and Plate of the Corporation of Morpeth. By J. 

R. Boyle (Illustrated) 201 

XIV. — On the Armorial Devices attributed to the County of Northum- 
berland. By Cadwallader J. Bates, M.A. (Dlustrated) ... 217 
XV. — Notes on the Northmnberland Burr, By John V. Gregory ... 223 
XVI.— The Pre-Historic Camps of Northumberland. By B. C. Hedley 

(lUustrated) 226 

XVII.— Another DiBiued GraTeyaid 'The Qnicks Buring Plas in SidgatV 

Newcastle. By Blaberly PhillipB 284 

XVIIL— Notes on a Pre-Conquest Memorial Stone from Birtley, and 
Fragments of Crosses from Falstone, North Tynedale. By the 

Rev. G. Rome Hall, F.8.A. (Illnstrated) 262 

XIX.— Unused Eyidenoes relating to S8. Cuthbert and Bede, etc. By 

W. H. D. Longstaffe, Vice-President 278 

XIXa.— Carred Oak Chest at Cbesters (Plate) 284 

XX. — Notes on the Plates and Maps of the Tyne in Gardner's Sng^ 
land's €hrievamee JHte&vered of 1666. By Charles James 

Spence (Illustrated) 286 

XXL— Coquetdale Customs. By D. D. Dixon 806 

XX IL — ^The Dedications of the Ancient Churches and Chapels in the 

Diocese of Newcastle. By C. J. Bates 817 

XXIII. — Recent Excayations on the site of the Carmelites, or White 

Friars, at Newcastle. By W. H. Enowles (Plate) 346 

XXIV. — Further Discoyeries of Pre-Historic Grayes, Urns, and other 
Antiquities, on Lilbum HUl Farm, on the Lilbum Tower Estate. 

By James Hardy (Plate) 861 

XXV. — ^Notes of Roman Inscriptions, etc : — 

1. — Inscribed Stones at Cheaters. By Dr. Bruce 867 

2.— Inscribed Stone at Colchester. By F. J. Hayerfield, M.A ... 858 
8. — ^The Roman Inscriptions of Brough under Stainmore. By F. J. 

Hayerfield ... ••• .•• ••• ... ••• .•• ••. 858 

4. — Miscellanea 860 

6. — A Christian Inscription from Chesterholm. By Dr. Bruce, V.P. 867 
6. — Meaning of the Names Prooolitiat Petrianae^ Claaiana, con- 
nected with some Roman Auxiliary Troops in Britain. By B. 

Mowat 871 

7.— Some Excayations at Cheaters. By Dr. Bruce, V.P 874 

Index 379 



Plan of Alnwick Abbey 

Alnwick Abbey, view ahewing gatehonae, etc., taken in 1773 ... 

Alnwick Abbey, the Gatehouse, South front, 1887 

A Preaching Licence of Charles XL 

Bywell 8. Peter's Ohurch and Market Gross 

ByweU 8. Andrew's Church 

Bjwell Castle, from the South side of the river T^ne 

House in Side, in which Admiral Collingwood was bom 

Lord Collingwood's House, Oldgate, Morpeth 

>Fb«mOTt20 of Letter of Lord GoUingwood 

Shrievalty Seals of Northumberland 

Flan of Lordensbaws British Camp 

Plan of Old Bothbury British Camp 

Pre-Conquest Stones at Birtley and Holy Island 

Bi-li teral Eunic and Roman Inscri ption from Falstone 

Carved Oak Chest at Chesters 

Hollar's Map of The River of Tyne 

The ' Shipwright ' Map of the Tyue 

Cut Purses 

Bemains of the White Friars Monastery, i 

Newcastle ... 3 

British Urns from Lilbum Hill (A and B), and from Colwell, 

Northumberland XXU 

Boman Quern from Cilumum r. ... XXIII 




. 1 





































XXIc 346 





Koman Decorated Capital, Carlisle iz. 

Roman IiiBcrlption at Cheaters zzriii 

Boman Inscription, Carlisle Mosenm xzziL 

Alnwick Abbej, East front of the Gatehouse 9 

Mark of James Bartlett on Rothbnry Bell 20 

Bothbury Communion Vessels 28, 30, 81 

^<^» on Panes at Hamham 40 

A Percy Medal 69 

8. Peter^s Church, Bywell (1716-1819), £rom the South ... 166 

The CoUingwood Kettle 167 

Jo^nmZtf of Admiral Collingwood's Signature 177 

.FSktftmtfe of Signature of Lady CoUingwood 179 

Boman Bronze Purse from Carlisle 184 

Boman Inscribed Stone at Clibum 186 

„ „ „ (Hlumum, etc 190 

„ „ „ Newborn 195 

„ „ „ Caeryoran 197, 198 

First Brass Coins of Hadrian 194 

Boman Sculpture of Diana from Crowhall ... 197 

Boman Christian Inscription from Mertola, Portugal 20O 

The Morpeth Mace 202 

The Morpeth Hutch 208 

Early Sculptured Stones in Scotland 277 

The BrsjiikB from Qaadner^s Chievafuse 290 

Hanging Witches (from the same) 291 

Shipwreck, etc., (from the same) 298 

Faenmile of Balph Gardner's Autograph 305 

Boman Inscription at Chesters 357 

Boman Inscription in Brough under Stainmore Churdi 359 

Fragment of Boman Inscription at Wall ... 860 

Fragments of Boman Inscribed Tile, Boman Leaden Seal, Altar, CfrafUiy 

Potters* Names, etc., at Chesters 862 to 366 & 377 

Boman Head of Earthenware from Caeryoran 861 

Boman Sculptured Stone from Chesterholm 367 

Boman Christian Inscription from Chesterholm 368 

The * Catstane,' Cramond 870 

Fragment of Boman Inscription from ^'Zwrntr^/K 876 

Boman Altar to Jupiter at Gilsland 878 



H. J. Boolds : Drawing of Morpeth Hutch, 208. 
The Rev. Dr. Bmoe, V.P.: Loan ot Woodcuts, p. 194. 

John Clayton. V.P. : Donation of Plates IX., X., and XVII., and loan of Woodcuts, 
etc, pp. 167, 177, 179, 190, 191, 197, 198, 367, 360 3tJ6, 867, 368, 376 and 377. 
John TumbuU Dixon : Drawings, pp. 28, 30, and 31. 
John Hall : Donation of Plate VIL 

B. C. Hedley : Drawings for Plates XIII. and XIY. 
W. H. Bt, John Hope: Plan, Plate L 

The Rev. Anthony Johnson: Loan of Block, p. 166. 

W. H. Enowles: Drawings to Illnstrate his paper (Plates XXI., XXIa, XXlb, 

and XXIc.) 
W. H. D. Longstaffe : Loan of Woodcut of Heron Seal, Plate XII. 
The Royal Archaeological Institute: Loan of Woodcut, p. 202. 
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Loan of Blectrotypes, pp. 277 and 370. 

C. J. Spenoe: Etching Plates VIIL and XX. ; Donations of Plans and Etching, 

XVin. XIX., and XX., and Illustrations, pp. 290, 291, and 298. 
The Duke of Northumberland : Loan of Woodcut, p. 9. 
The late J. 0. L. Stahlschmldt : Loan of Woodcut, p. 20. 
Professor George Stephens: Donation of Electrotype, Plate XYI. 

Plates v., VI., VII., XV, (Birtley Cross), XVII. and XXIV. and Illustrations 
pp. 167, 367, 368 and 376 are from photographs by Mr. J. P. Gibson of Hexham. 



Page 40, 4th line from bottonii for * printer's hand' read ^by her own hand.' 
Page 198, the second woodcut is upside down. 
Page 808, for 'T. W. Pease' read * J. W. Pease.' 



PLA-TE. Paus. 

Roman Altar at Bumf oot^ Ecclefechan I. 101 

Plan of IU)maii Camp at Birrens II. 104 

Plan, etc., of Bamswark III. 108 

Ancient British Axe-hammere IV. 118 

Roman Buildings at C7Z«r»wm V. 124 

Portrait of Sir C. E. Trevelyan, Bart VI. 150 

Plan of Ancient British Camp, etc., at Thockrington VII. 156 

Plan of Roman Buildings at Gilsland VIII. 160 

Plan of Stanegate at Poltross Bum IX. 16C 

Plan of Roman Station at Stanwix, etc X. 170 

Roman Tombstone in Carlisle Museum XI. 205 

Beaton Delaval Hall XII. 216 

The Walls of Newcastle in 1638 XIII 230 

Sir Jacob Astley's Plan of Newcastle XIV. 234 

'Loving Cup* belonging to the Corporation of Newcastle XV. 238 

Ancient British Urns from North Tindale XVI. 244 

Cup-marked Stones from North Tindale XVII. 272 

Gup-marked Stone from Cllumnm^ now at Chesters XVIII. 278 



Ancient British Urn, Black Gate Museum iv. 

Roman Altars, &c., in Black Gate Museum 2-94 

„ Altar at Burafoot (from a drawing by Mrs. Hodgkin) 100 

MediacTal Grave Covers, St. Nicholas's Church (drawn by C. C. Hodges)... 131 

.F2u;-«»4ret2« of Autograph of John Smeaton 149 

Roman Tombstone, Carlisle Museum 204 

Beaton Sluice (drawn by C. J. Spence) 222 

Interior of Chapel at Seaton Delaval (drawn by C. J. Spence) 224 

Ancient British Beads of Gk)ld from Chester hope (cut by Bewick) ... 248 

„ „ Um from Hallington, in Black Gate Museum ... 253 

Roman Altars, Chester-le-Street 284,292 

„ „ Caervoran ... 285,286 

„ Altar^ Aviboglanna 288 

„ Inscribed Stone at Clibum 289 

Greek Inscription on fragment of Pottery, from Hahitancum 295 

Roman Christian Inscription, from Mertola, Portugal 297 

* Creeing Trough,' Black Gate Museum 316 



J. Clayton, V.P., F.S.A. : Plate xviil, and Woodcuts at pages 285 and 286. 

B. C. Hedley : Plan of Ancient British (.*amp, page 156. 

Sheriton Holmes : Plan of Roman buildings at Cilurnum (pi. v.), page 124. 

C. J. Spence : Etching facing page 215, and Drawings at pages 223 and 224. 
R. Welford : Plans of Newcastle, pages 230 and 234 (pi. ziii. and xiv.). 

Plate vi., from a photo, by W. Sc D. Downey, of London and Newcastle. 

Plates zvi. (centre and right hand urn), zvii., and xviii. are from photographs 

by J. P. Gibson, of Hexham, a Member of the Society. 
Plate zvi. (left hand urn) from a photo, by J. Bacon of Newcastle. 

Iv Black Oatb Musrum. 


Ztt ^octets of MnticinKtiti 




Thb year 1887 has been made memorable for all Englishmen, by the 
celebration of fifty years completed in the reign of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria. Although at present a certain weariness fills the minds even 
of the most loyal subjects at the mention of the word Jubilee, still a 
Society like ours, which deals so largely with the records of the past, 
cannot absolutely forbear allusion to an event, the like of which has 
occurred only three times before in English history, and will not 
probably occur again in the experience of any one now living. 

Our own city celebrated this joyful event by an Exhibition of Arts 
and Manufactures in a building reared for the pui'pose upon the Town 
Moor. The Chainnan of the Exhibition Council was our President, 
the Earl of Ravensworth, and to his zeal, industry, and toil, no small 
share of credit for the success of the Exhibition is justly attributable. 
Our Society was invited to exhibit some of its archaeological treasures 
side by side with the marvels of modern engineering skill ; but it 
was decided to decline the invitation, as it seemed unwise to expose 
articles of value, which are by their nature irreplaceable, to the various 
risks inseparable from an Exhibition of this kind. Yet archaeology 
was well represented and contributed not a little to the pictorial effect 
of the Exhibition. A skilfully designed model of the Old Tyne Bridge, 
provided by the River Tyne Commissionera, was erected, spanning 
an artificial lake, and thousands of visitors every day crossed this 


structure, treading upon the veritable "Blue Stone" which once 
marked the frontier between the Counties of Northumberland and 
Durham. We have pleasure in recording that under the super- 
intendence of Mr. Messent, the Engineer of the Commission, the chief 
share in erecting this clever imitation of one of the most picturesque 
features of Old Newcastle, was borne bj Mr. W. L. S. Charlton, who 
is one of our younger members, and whose father Dr. Charlton was for 
many years a Secretary of this Society. 

To turn to our own immediate affairs : our Museum already so 
rich in Roman monuments has received some valuable additions from 
the generosity of our friends. Sir Edward Blackett has transferred 
thither the important collection of sculptured stones (chiefly found at 
the Roman camp of Hunnum) which have been till now preserved at 
Matfen Hall. Mr. 6. W. Rendel has presented us with the two 
beautiful altars to a British god (otherwise unknown) named 
Antenociticus or Anociticus. These altars were discovered about 
twenty years ago just outside the camp of Condercum. The Rector of 
Bothal (the Hon. and Rev. W. Ellis) has deposited with this Society 
twelve fragments of Anglian crosses, which may form the nucleus of a 
collection of monuments of the period between the end of the Roman 
and the beginning of the Norman occupation of Northumbria. 

We venture to hope that the example set by these generous donors 
may be largely followed by other possessors of antiquities. In a 
private house, however zealous an antiquary the owner of it may be, 
it is scarcely possible for him to impress upon all his dependents the 
almost religious care with which monuments of this kind ought to be 
preserved. In our climate any long exposure to frost and rain is &tal 
to the sharpness of their surface. On the other hand, in our Museum 
we have a place where they can be safely housed, reverently guarded, 
and intelligently studied by the increasing number of visitors from 
England and America who are learning the importance and the value 
of the Black Gate collection. 

We may say a word or two in conclusion as to publications other 
than those of our own Society for the advancement of archaeological 
science in our district. Mr. Welford has published another volume 
of his valuable History of Newcastle and QatesheM, Mr. W. H. 
Knowles and Rev. J. R. Boyle are proceeding energetically with the 


issue of their Vestiges of Old Newmstle and Gateshead; and the 
Monthly Chronicle is usefully rescuing from oblivion some of these 
iragments of information as to the manners of past times which till 
now have too often been buried out of sight in the cumbrous files of 
country newspapers. To these and all other fellow-workers in the 
field of antiquarian research we offer our hearty good wishes. 

In this connection we may mention that in many parishes of the 
North of England the old pevrter services of communion plate have 
been replaced by services of silver. We venture to suggest to the 
clergy and churchwardens of such parishes that this Society will be 
glad to receive the discarded pewter vessels on loan, if not as gifts, 
and can guarantee their safe custody. 


No great archaeological discoveries have made memorable the year 
that has just passed away. The interesting excavations at Holy 
Island, made by direction of Sir Wm. Grossman, have greatly increased 
our knowledge of the ground plan of the Monastery of Lindisfisime, 
and the similar excavations made by Lord Armstrong at Cartington 
Castle will doubtless add something of value to our stores of archaeo- 
logical information. In this connection we may also record the 
pablication, by Mr. C. C. Hodges, of his long-promised and important 
monograph on the Abbey of St. Andrew at Hexham, a work which 
will no doubt be the quany whence all future describers of that noble, 
bat cruelly injui^d fabric, will derive their material. 

The year 1888 has, however, witnessed one event which may be 
of great importance to the future fortunes of archaeological science, 
both in our own district and over the whole of England. We allude 
to the invitation issued by the Society of Antiquaries of London to 
all the similar societies scattered over the country to attend a con- 
ference for the purpose of considering if any scheme of mutual 
co-operation could be devised to render their labours more fruitful. 
Few will deny that the science of archaeology is one in which com- 


bined and concerted action is greatly needed. At present, besides 
the venerable society which meets at Burlington House, we have 
two peripatetic organizations, the Archaeological Institute and the 
Archaeological Association, independent of each other, and in some 
degree antagonistic, but which do good service by the interest they 
arouse in the various districts which become in turn the scenes of 
their yearly assemblies. In addition to these, there is a considerable 
number of local associations (among which our own is the oldest, 
but, we trust, not the least active) which cover a considerable part, 
but not the whole, of England and Wales. These associations are 
naturally very much what their members make them — strong where 
there is a large body of earnest and enthusiastic antiquaries, and 
weak where there are only one or two archaeologists who use the 
meetings of the society as an occasion for riding some well-known 
hobby to death. There is no conceited action between all these 
societies: no scheme, except the frequent interchange of publications, by 
which the members of one society may benefit by the labours of another; 
nothing to prevent one part of the field of archaeological enquiry from 
being tilled by a dozen husbandmen working in ignorance of one 
another's labours, while others, quite as important, may be entirely 
neglected. Much of this waste of labour might certainly have been 
avoided if^ half a century ago, the Society of Antiquaries had shown 
itself as zealous and enthusiastic for the advancement of archaeological, 
as the British Association was for the advancement of physical, science. 
Let us hope that, though much valuable time has been lost, and some 
opposing interests created, which it may not be easy to reconcile, the 
Society of Antiquaries may yet prove herself equal to the task which 
she has been invited to undertake, of combining these various scattered 
bodies into one organic whole, assigning them their respective func- 
tions, and bringing them into profitable and harmonious relations with 
one another. 

The excursions of our Society during the past year have been 
numerous and successful. The chief battle-fields of Northumberland — 
Otterbum, Hedgeley Moor, Homildon Hill, and (from a distance) 
Flodden — have been seen by our members. For the hospitality kindly 
shown us on these occasions we return our best thanks to our enter- 
tainers, and especially to Sir Wm. Grossman, who gave the Society a 


most hearty and generous welcome on the occasion of its visit to 

Thirty-eight ordinary members and one honorary member have 
been added to our list during the year. But deaths (which have been 
unusually numerous), resignations, and removals have reduced the 
net increase of our numbers to seven. Two of our honorary members 
have died, namely, Mr. J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps, and Commendatore 
Montiroli. Dr. Bruce has prepared a short notice of each of these 
gentlemen for the present annual meeting. 

Our Society is evidently increasing, both in usefulness and in 
popularity, and we believe that great as are the services which it has 
rendered to archaeological science in the past, it has even a more 
distinguished career before it in the future. 

RoMAJf, Oarlimlk. 




£ 8. d. 

Jan. Ist.- 

— To Balance brought forward 

329 12 

„ Subscriptions 

263 1 

,, Collections at the Castle 

104 12 

Do. Black Gate 

26 6 6 

,, Books sold 

23 4 9 

„ Interest 

7 10 8 

Carried forward 

£743 6 11 





By Pbinttng— 

Andrew Eeid 


, Enqbavinos, Photogbaphs, &c.- 

Sprague k, Co. 

Photo- Engraving Company 
J. Akerman (1884-7)... 

* C. Hentschel 

C. J. Spence 

R. B. Utting 

Typo-Etching Company 
Photograph of Altar 

, Books and Binding— 

Asher & Co 


Douglas & Foalis 

C. Thurnam 

Mrs. McKellar, Horaley's Brit, Rom. 

Wm. Dodd 

Whiting & Co 

J. R. Lawson 

Etruscan Boloqna. kc 

^ Wilson .; 

W. D. Learmount 

S. Rayson 

Jemingheim^s Norham Cattle 

Cohen's MSdaillet, Vol. VI 

T. W. Waters, Binding 

, Blaok Gate— 

R. J. Johnson 

S. B. Burton 




Land Tax, 2 years 


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Set of the New Coinage 

Jubilee Medal 

Subscription to Harleian Society 

Do. Surtees Society 

Carried forward 

£ s. d. £ R. d. 



68 15 


156 15 


5 5 



67 15 

11 3 10 

2 16 

2 18 


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95 3 


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37 17 



68 13 


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2 18 

2 2 





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23 17 









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Brought forwaitl 

£ 8. d 

743 6 11 

Examined with the Books and found correct^ 

Janvary 24th, JSSS. 

•£743 6 11 


Jan. l8t.- 


-To Balance brought down 

„ Subscriptions ... 

,. Collections at the Castle 
„ Do. Black Gate 

„ Cash for Books sold 

„ Interest 

„ Cash, per Dr. Hodgkin, Balance of Black Gate Fund 











20 15 





2 11 



1 11 

Carried forward. 

£559 10 4 





Brought forward 

By Index to Proceedings, Vol. 2 

„ Do. Archaeologia, Yol. 12 

„ Two Cheqae Books 

„ Wright & Donglas, for Repairing Castle Stairs 

„ J. Ventress 

„ G. H. Moor 

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„ Remoying Stones from Matf en 

„ J. Simon, Removing Stone 

„ E. Bolton. Expenses from Morpeth 

„ Coals 

„ Gas, 88. 6d. ; Firewood, lOs 

., Sundries 

1888. — Jan. 1st. — Balance in hand 


£ 8. 


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2 2 

3 3 


6 K) 

1 7 


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126 9 


£743 6 11 


1888.— By Pbintikg:— 

A. Reid 

G. Nicholson 

„ Engravinqb Ayjy Photographs : 
Parker & Co.... 

C. Hentscliel 

Ronnnler & Jonas 

Meiseiihach Co 

Miss Uttiiig ... 

Photo Engraving Co. 

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Carried forwaixl .. 


£ 8. d. £ 8. d. 

ISO 6 


66 13 


— 197 1 



6 3 


9 14 


2 18 


3 14 

4 12 




9fi 11 *» 

.£226 11 6 




1888. £ 8. d. 

Broiijjrht forward 559 10 4 

Examined with the BooJcm and found cortect^ 

JOHN PHILIPSON, i . „^,T,^^8 
SHERITON HOLMES, ] a^ditobs. 

Jammary 2eth, 1889. 

£569 10 4 




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C. Robinson 

R. Robinson 

Asher & Co .• 

SirG. Duckett 

Beavis & Co 

Griffin & Co. 

Elliott Stbck 


Rollin & Peuardent, for Cohen's Coins (Vol. V 1 1. ) 16 

Wt^ixnioBf ioT Hex ham Abbey , 

Whiting & Co 

Le^es Marchiarum 

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„ J. A. Dotchin 

„ CM. Carlton 

„ G. Moor 

„ S.B. Burton 

„ Pritchett, for Cast 

„ J. Munro 

„ Subscription to Harleian Society 

„ 00. Surtees Society 

„ Rent of Castle 

„ Insurance 

„ Income Tax 

„ Coab 

„ Gas, 7s. 9d. ; Firewood, ISs 

„ Cheque Books 

„ Sundries 

„ Commission on Subscriptions 

1889. — Jan. Ist. — Balance in hand 




£ s. d. 



225 11 6 


3 11 


8 11 










)0 16 







21 2 9 














29 2 11 




lis. J 



25 8 Oi 

4 17 

6 18 

6 4 

1 15 
14 6 

2 2 
4 16 7 
2 16 6 


14 2 

1 1 
2 6 
7 6 
9 6 

10 9 
9 3 

13 13 
81 7 lOJ 

£559 10 4 


































His Excellency John Sigismnnd von MoBting, Oopen- 

hagen 3 Feb., 1840 

Sir Charles Newton, M. A b Sept, 1841 

•Charles Roach Smith, P.S.A., Strood, Kent 6 Fel.y 1844 

Ferdinand Denis, Keeper of the Library of St. Gen^- 

vifeve, at Paris ^ Feb., 1851 

Sir Charles Anderson, Bart., Lea Hall, Gainsborough „ „ 

Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Principal of the University 

of Toronto „ „ 

William Beamont, Warrington „ „ 

Aquilla Smith, M.D., Dublin 14 Aprils 1865 

The Duca di Brolo 5 -4^n7, 1865 

♦Professor Emil Hiibner, LL.D., Berlin 27 June, 1888 

Professor Mommsen, Berlin „ „ 

•Professor George Stephens, Copenhagen „ „ 

Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, 

Stockholm „ „ 

•A. W. Franks, Keeper of British Antiquities in the 

British Museum „ „ 

Ernest Chantre, Lyons „ „ 

*A. von Cohausen, Wiesbaden 31 Dec, 188:^ 

♦Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle ... 30 June, 188G 
*6errit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, 

Holland „ „ 

♦Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge „ „ 

*David Mackinlay, 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow „ „ 

•Pitt-Rivers, General, Rushmore, Salisbury 25 Jan,, 1888 

* See next page. 


[n addition to the Honorary Members whose names are marked with an asterisk 
on the previous page, the Proceedingt of the Society are sent to the following- : — 

Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 

The British Museum, London. 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Prof. Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Li^ve 9, Ghent, Belgium. 

The Rev. Dr. Cox, Barton-le-Street Rectory, Malton. 

W. J. Cripps, Sandgate, Kent, and Cirencester. 

Dr. J. Evans, Pres. S. A., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 

J. Hardy, Sec. Berw. Nat. Club, Oldcambus, Cockburnspath, N.B 

Rev. S. S. Lewis, Sec. Camb. Antiq. Socy., Corpus Christi Coll., Cambs. 

Lit. and Phil. Socy., Newcastle. 

R. Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 

The Rev. H. Whitehead, Newton Reigny, Penrith. 

T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 


Eleotbd prior to 1888. 
Adamsony Rev. Edward Hnssey, Felling, Gateshead. 
Adamson, William, Gnllercoats. 
Adamson, Horatio A., North Shields. 

Bmoe, Rev. John Collingwood, LL.D., D.C.L., F.S.A., Newcastle. 
Brown, Ralph, Newcastle. 

Brooks, John Crosse, 14 Lovaine Plaoe, Newcastle. 
Booth, John, Shotley Bridge. 
Brown, Rev. Dixon, Unthank Hall, Haltwhistle. 
Blair, Robert, F.S.A., Sonth Shields. 
Bojd, Miss Jalia, Moor House, Leamside, Durham. 
Barnes, John Wheeldon, F.S.A., Durham. 
Browne, Sir Benjamin Chapman, Westacres, Benwell, Newcastle. 
Bates, Ciulwallader John, M.A., Heddon Banks, Wylam. 
Barkus, Benjamin, M.D., 3 Jesmond Terrace, Newcastle. 
Call, Richard, Beaconsfield, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Clayton, John, F.S.A., Chesters, Humshaugh-on-Tyne. 
Calvert, Rev. Thomas, 16 Albion Villas, Hove, Brighton. 
Carr, Rev. Henry Byne, Whickham, R.S.O. 
Coppin, John, Bingiield House, Corbridge. 
Carr, W. J., Printing Court Buildings, Newcastle. 
Carr, Rev. T. W., Barming Rectory, Maidstone, Kent. 
Dees, Robert Richardson, Newcastle. 
Daglish, W. S., Newcastle. 
Elliott, George, 47 Rosedale Terrace, Newcastle. 
Edwards, Harry Smith, Byethom, Corbridge. 
Fenwick, George A., Newcastle. 
Fenwick, John George, Moorlands, Newcastle. 
Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 
Glendenning, William, Newcastle. 
Greenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A. 

Scot., Durham. 
Gregory, J. V., 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
Gibson, Thomas George, Newcastle. 
Hailstone, Edward, Walton Hall, Wakefield. 


Hall, Rev. George Rome, F.S.A ., Birtley Vicarage, Wark-on-Tyne. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, D.O.L., F.S.A., Benwelldene, Newcastle. 
Hoyle, William Aabone, Denton Hall, Newcastle. 
Hooppell, Rev. Robert Eli, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.A.S., Byers 

Green, Spennymoor. 
Holmes, Sheriton, Moor View House, Newcastle. 
Hunter, J. J., Whickham, R.S.O. 
Hodges, Charles Clement, Sele House, Hexham. 
Hopper, John, Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Haythornthwaite, Rev. Edward, Vicar of Felling, Gateshead. 
Johnson, Robert James, Newcastle. 
Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 
Longstaffe, William Hilton Dyer, Gateshead. 
Lyall, William, Lit. and Phil. Society, Newcastle. 
McDowell, Dr., The Asylum, Morpeth. 
Martin, N. H., F.L.S., Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 

Noithumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 
Nelson, Thomas, 9 Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 
Ord, Mrs. Blackett-, Whitfield Hall, AUendale. 
Oswald, Septimus, Newcastle. 
Philipson, John, Victoria Square, Newcastle. 
Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 
Pickering, William, Gourant OflSce, Newcastle. 
Philipson, George Hare, M.A., M.D., Newcastle. 
Pease, John William, Pendower, Benwell, Newcastle. 
Pybus, Robert, Newcastle. 
Raine, Rev. Canon, York. 

Ravensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 
Ridley, Sir M. W., Bart., M.P., Blagdon, Northumberland. 
Riddell, Sir Walter B., Bart., 65 Baton Place, London, S.W. 
Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., Rector of Simonburn, Humshaugh-on-Tyne. 
Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 
Robinson, J. W., 6 Gladstone Terrace, Gkiteshead. 
Redmayne, R. Norman, 27 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Swithinbank, George E., Rothesay, Purley, Surrey. 
Spence, Robert, North Shields. 


Spence. Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

Steel, The Rev. J., Vicarage, Heworth. 

Swinburne, Sir John, Bart., M.P., Oapheaton, Northumberland. 

Stevenson, Alexander Shannan, Tynemouth. 

Swan, Henry F., Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Strangeways, William Nicholas, 118 Ryehili, Newcastle. 

Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicai'age, Otterbum, R.S.O. 

Steavenson, A. L., Holliwell Hall, Durham. 

Taylor, Hugh, 67 Qracechurch Street, London. 

Thompson, Henry, St. Nicholas's Chambers, Newcastle. 

Williamson, Rev. Robert Hopper, Whickham, R.S.O. 

Woodman, William, Morpeth. 

Warwick, John, 11 Ashfield Terrace West, Newcastle. 

Welford, Richard, Thomfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Elected in 1883. 

Adamson, Rev. Cuthbert E., Westoe, South Shields. 

Aldam, William, Frickley Hall, near Doncaster. 

Boyle, John Roberts, F.S.A., Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Northumberland. 

Bootflower, Rev. D. S., Newbottle Vicarage, Fence Houses. 

Brown, J. W., 24 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Clephan, Robert Coltman, High Bridge, Newcastle. 

Dixon, John A., Gateshead. 

Franklin, The Rev. Canon R. J., St. Mary's Cathedral, Newcastle. 

Greenwell, Francis John, Newcastle. 

Green, Robert Yeoman, Newcastle. 

Heslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Prince's Buildings, Akenside Hill, Newcastle. 

Hicks, William Searle, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Hume, G^o. H., M.D., Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Hall, John, Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

HaD, James, Tynemouth. 

Joioey, James, M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 

Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 

Lloyd, The Rev. Arthur T., D.D., Vicar of Newcastle. 

Morton, Henry Thomas, Biddick Hall, Durham. 

XXI 1 

Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, Soath Shields. 

Morrow, T. R., 2 St. Andrew's Villas, Watford, Herts. 

Mackey, Matthew, Lily Avenue, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Mason, Rev. H. B., Ninebanks Vicarage, West Allendale, Northumberland. 

Motum, Hill, Newcastle. 

Nicholson, George, Harrington Street, South Shields. 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 

Nelson^ Ralph, Bishop Auckland. 

Ormond, Richard, 3 Bellegrove Terrace, Newcastle. 

Robinson, Alfred J., 90 Ryehill, Newcastle. 

Reid, George, Leazes House, Newcastle. 

Redpath, Robert, Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 

Rogerson, John, Croxdale Hall, Durham. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremout, Newcastle. 

Robson, Arnold H., Esplanade, Sunderland. 

Sheppee, Lieutenant-Colonel, Picktree House, Cheater-le-Street. 

Scott, George, Shield Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 

South Shields Public Library (Thomas Pyke, Libmrian). 

Spencer, J. W., Millfield, Newburn-on-Tyne. 

Steel, Thomas, Sunderland. 

Tennent, James, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Usher, Robert Thomas J., Orchard House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Young, J. R., 20 Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 

Elected in 1884. 

Armstrong, T. J., 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Briggs, Miss, Hylton Castle, Sunderland. 

Bruce, Gainsford, Q.O., M.P., 2 Harcourt Buildings, Temple, London. 

Burton, S. B., Ridley Villas, Newcastle. 

Clarke, William, The Hermitage, Gateshead. 

Dickenson, Isaac G., Portland House, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Dickinson, John, Park House, Sdnderland. 

Dunn, William H., Belle Vue Terrace, Gateshead. 

Dixon, D. D., Rothbury. 

Dixon, Rev. Canon, Vicar of Warkworth. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Emlev Fred., Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

!■ Howdon Dene, Oorbridge-on-Tyne. 


Bllison, J. R. Carr-, Hedgeley, Alnwiclc, Northnraberland. 
FergoflOD, Richard S., F.S. A., Chancellor of Carlisle, Lowther Street, 

Oibflon, J. P., Hexham. 
Ooddard, F. R., Newcastle. 
Henzell, Charles William, Tynemonth. 
Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 
Harrison, Miss Grace, 
Hodgson, J. G., Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 
Kirkley, James, South Shields. 

Knowles, W. H., Victoria Buildings, Grainger Street West, Newcastle. 
Marshall, Frank, 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Mackey, Matthew, 8 Milton Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 
Maling, Chr. Thompson, Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Newcastle Public Library (W. J. Haggerston, Librarian). 
Peile, Greorge, Greenwood, Shotley Bridge. 
Parkin, J. S., New Square, Lincoln's Inn. London, W.C. 
Phillips, Maberly, 12 Grafton Road, Whitley, Newcastle. 
Robinson, John, 7 Choppington Street, Newcastle. 
Hwaby, Rev. W. P., Vicar of St. Mark's, Millfield. Sunderland. 
Schaeflfer, Anton Georg, 4 Benton Terrace, Newcastle. 
Taylor, Rev. W., Catholic Church, Whittingham, Alnwick. 
Tweddell, George, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Waddington, Thomas, Eslington Villa, Gateshead. 
Wilkinson, The Rev. G. P., Harperley, Darlington. 

Elected in 1885. 

Adams, W. E., 32 Holly Avenue, Newcastle. 

Adie, George, 2 Hutton Terrace, Newcastle. 

Allgood, Anne Jane (Miss), Hermitage, Hexham. 

Armstrong, Lord, Cragside, Rothbury. 

Bum, John Henry, Jun., Beaconsfield, Cullercoats. 

Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 

Charlton, W. L. S., Carritteth, Bellingham, North Tyne. 

Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester (J. E. Tinkler, Librarian). 

Clark, Thomas Thompson, Chirton, North Shields. 

Farrow, Rev. John Ellis, Felling-on-Tyne. 


Fleming, John, Gresham House, Newcastle. 

Hicks, Eev. Herbert S., Vicar of Tynemouth Priory. 

Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 

Ljnn, J. B. D., Eslington House, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 29 Clayton Street East, Newcastle. 

Potts, Joseph, North Cliff, Roker, Sunderland. 

Stephenson, Thomas, 8 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Wilson, John, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Elected in 1886. 

Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Nunwiok, Humshangh-on-Tyne. 

Corder, Percy, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Embleton, Dennis, M.D., 19 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Blackhill. 

Gk>oderham^ Rev. A. (Vicar of St. Anne's), 6 Granville Road, Newcastle. 

Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Cheviott, Corbridge. 

Hnddart, Rev. G. A. W., LL.D., Kirklington Rectory, Bedale. 

Irving, George, 1 Portland Terrace, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Lilbum, Charles, Sunderland. 

Magill, Rev. William, St. Cuthbert's Grammar School, Newcastle. 

Murray, William, M.D., Newcastle. 

Reid, Andrew, Akenside Hill, Newcastle. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richmond, Rev. Henry James, Sherburn Vicarage, co. Durham. 

Scott, Walter, Newcastle. 

Simpson, Walter C, 6 Falconar Street, Newcastle. 

Svendsen, Svend A., Bentinck Terrace, Newcastle. 

Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., Holly House, Tynemouth. 

Wright, Joseph, jun.. Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 

Elected in 1887. 

Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Challoner, John Dixon, 56 Dean Street, Newcastle. 
Charlton, William Oswald, Hesleyside, Bellingham. 
Cowen, Joseph, Stella Hall, Blaydon. 


l>endy, Frederick Walter, Newcastle. 

EvaiiSy Jofieph John Ogilvie, Teignmoath. 

Forater, John, Dean Street, Newcastle. 

HaUidajy Thomas, Myrtle Oottage, Low Fell, Oateshead. 

Hodgson, William, Elmcroft, Darlington. 

Lockhart, Henry F., Hexham. 

Medd, Bev. Augostus Octavins, Rector of Bothbury. 

Reavell, (Jeorge, jun , Alnwick. 

Richardson, Rev. Edward S., Gormire Row, Oorbridge, R.S.O. 

Richmond, Rev. George Edward, Parsonage, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

Riddell, Francis Henry, Gheesebum Grange, near Newcastle. 

Ryott, William Henry, Oollingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Straker, Joseph Henry, Stagshaw House, Oorbridge. 

Tarver, J. V., Eskdale Lodge, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Walker, Charles, Clifton Road, Newcastle. 

Watson, J. G., Harrison Place, Newcastle. 

Watson, Joseph Henry, Percy Park, Tynemonth. 

Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Elected in 1888. 

Jan. 25. Plummer, Arthur, Newcastle. 

Slater, The Rev. Henry, The Glebe, Riding Mill-on-Tyne. 

Grossman, Sir Wm., K.C.M.G., M.P., Cheswick House, Seal. 
Feb. 28. Grace, Herbert Wylam, Winlaton. 

Hoyle, Percy S., Oollingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Pearson, J., 7 Side, Newcastle. 

Richardson, R. Morris, Cotfield House, Gateshead. 

Thorpe, R. Swarley, Devonshire Terrace, Newcastle. 
Mar. 28. Losh, J., 269 Westgate Road^ Newcastle. 

The Edward Pease Public Library, Darlington (T. H. Everett, 
April 25. Bolam, R. Q., Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

Hindmarsh, Wm. Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 
May SO. Beed, The Bev. Geo., Beltingham Vicarage, Bardon Mill. 
Jane 27. East, John Goethe, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

Macarthy, George Eugene, Ashfield House, Elswick Boad, 


June 27. Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 

July 25. Charlewood, H. 0., 2 Bentinck Terrace, Newcastle. 

Sanderson, Richard B., Warren House, Belford. 

Hunter, Ed., 8 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 
Aug. 29. Oowen, J. A., Lieut.-OoL, Blaydon Burn. 

Thompson, Geo. H., Baihfi^te, Alnwick. 
Sept. 26. Mayo, Wm., Swalling, Riding Mill-on-Tyne. 

Blindell, Wm. A., Wester Hall, Humshaugh-on-Tyne. 

Boyd, Geo. Penwick, Whitley, Newcastle. 

Palconar, The Rev. Canon, Rector of Sedgefield. 
Oct. 81. Oubridge, George William, 6 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 

Shewbrooks, Edward, 23 Eslington Terrace, Newcastle. 

Simpson, J. B., Hedgefield House, Blaydon-on-Tyne. 

Todd, J. Stanley, 89 Dockway Square, North Shields. 
Nov. 28. Burton, W. S., 9 Normanby Terrace, Gateshead. 

Stuart, T. W., Newton Villas, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 

Tomlinson, W. W., Victoria Villas, Whitley, Newcastle. 

Eleotbd in 1889. 
•Peb. 27. Haverfield, P. J., Lancing College, Shoreham, Sussex. 
Mar. 27. Watson- Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 
Apr. 24. Burnet, The Rev. W. R., Vicar of Kelloe, Coxhoe, Durham. 

Harvey, W. J., 118 Melbourne Grove, Champion Hill, S.E. 
May 29. Sisson, R. W., Westgate Road, Newcastle. 
July 81. Bell, Charles L., Woolsington, Newcastle. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Rothbury. 
Aug. 28. Culley, The Rev. M., Coupland Castle, and Amble, Northd. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 12 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Park, A. D., Bigg Market, Newcastle. 
Oct. 30. Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepool. 
Nov. 27. Wheler, E. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 

Elected in 1890. 
Jan. 29. Hodgson, John Crawford, Low Buston, Lesbury. 
Laing, Dr., Blyth. 

0- On change of address would Members please notify same, at 
once, to R. Blair, South Shields. 

* Subscription compounded for. 



Antiquaries of London, The Society of, Burlington House, London 

{Assistant Secretary, W. H. St. John Hope, M. A.) 
Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The 

(Hellier Gosselin, Secretary^ Oxford Mansion, Oxford Street, 

London, W.C.) 
Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, The 
Royal Irish Academy, The 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The 
Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, The (The Rev. W. 

Bazeley, Matson Rectory, Gloucester). 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, W. de Gray Birch, 

F.S.A., British Museum, and E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., 86 Great 

Russell Street, London^ W.C.) 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The (Rev. S. S. Lewis, Secretary, 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge). 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 

The (Editor, R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., Lowther Street, Carlisle). 
Derbyshire Archaeological Society, The (Editor, The Rev. Dr. Cox, 

Barton-le-Street Rectory, Malton, Yorks.) 
Folk Lore Society, The (J. J. Foster, 86 Ahna Square, St. John's 

Wood, London, S.W., Hon. Sec.) 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The ( — Radcliffe, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary, Old Swan, Liverpool). 
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The 
Manx Society, The 

Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The 
(Verein fiir nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte f orschung). 
Numismatic Society of London, The, 4 St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar 
Square, London (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head). 


Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A. 
Powys-land Club, The {Editor, Morris C. Jones, F.S.A., Gungrog Hall, 

Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, n.S.A. 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The {Editor^ 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, Luciefelde, Shrewsbury). 
Surrey Archaeological Society, The 
Sussex Archaeological Society (0. T. Phillips, Hon. Librarian and 

Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, The (Verein fiir 

Thiiringische Qeschichte und Altertumskunde) Jena (Professor 

Dr. D. Schafer, Jena). 
Wiltshire Archaeological Society, The 
Yorkshire Topographical and Archaeological Association, The (G. W. 

Tomlinson, Wood Field, Huddersfield, Hon. Sec.) 

y\( 1 i5 xxxti 



ARY, 1890. 

I. — This Society, under the style and title of *' The Society Constitution 
OF Antiquaries op Newcastle-upon-Tyne," shall consist of ^a Eiectto/ 
ordinary and honorary members. The persons named in the first ®* Members, 
schedule hereunto subjoined are and shall be the present ordinary 
members, and the persons named in the second schedule hereunto 
subjoined are and shall be the present honorary members. Candi- 
dates for election as ordinary members shall be proposed in 
writing by three ordinary members at a general meeting, and 
be elected or rejected by the majority of votes of ordinary 
members at that meeting, unless a ballot shall be demanded 
by any member, which in that case shall take place at the 
next meeting, and at such ballot three-fourths of the votes shall 
be necessary in order to the candidates election. The election of 
honorary members shall be conducted in like manner. 

II. — The ordinary members named in the said first schedule, obligations 
and the ordinary members who shall be elected in manner above °* Members, 
mentioned, shall be bound to conform to the statutes for the 
time being and all future statutes, rules, and ordinances, and to 
pay in advance an annual subscription of one guinea ; and all 
members hereafter elected shall pay the said sum and, in 
addition, an entrance fee of one guinea. The subscription shall 
be due on election and afterwards annually on the first day of 
January in every year, but if any member shall pay to the Society 
the sum of twelve guineas over and above his current year's 
subscription he shall be discharged from all future payments. 
Such compositions and the entrance fees shall be invested in the 
names of two trustees to be appointed for the purpose. A 
member elected at or after the meeting in October shall be exempt 



Officers of 
the Society. 

Meetings of 
the Society. 

from a farther payment for the then next year, bat shaU not be 
entitled to the pablications for the cnrrent year. So long as 
members conform to these statates, and bo long as they pay 
their annnal sabscriptions (not having compoanded for them) 
bat no longer, they shall be and continue ordinary members of 
the Society. 

III. — ^The oflScers of the Society shall consist of a patron, a 
president, vice-presidents (not to exceed twelve in number), 
two secretaries, twelve other members, who, with the president, 
vice-presidents, and secretaries, shall constitnte the Council, one 
treasurer, an editor, a librarian, two curators, and two auditors. 
These several officers shall be elected annually, except the 
Patron, who shall be elected for life. The elections shall be out 
of the class of ordinary members by lists to be delivered by the 
members in person at the Annual Meeting. Those of the ^ twelve 
other members' of the Oouncil who have not attended three- 
fourths of the Oouncil meetings during the preceding year, shall 
not be eligible for re-election. The Oouncil shall have the charge 
of the property and the direction of matters not provided for by 
the general meetings of the Society. Five of the Oouncil must 
be present in order to constitute a meeting of the Oouncil, and 
the Oouncil may regulate their times of meeting and the order 
of their proceedings as they may see fit. 

IV. — A General Meeting of the members of the Society shall 
be held on the last Wednesday of every month, in the Oastle of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The meeting in January shall be the 
Annual Meeting, and shall be held at one o'clock in the afternoon, 
and the meeting in each other month shall be held at seven o'clock 
in the evening. But the Society or the Oouncil may from time 
to time appoint any other place or day or hour for any of the 
meetings of the Society. The presence of seven ordinary mem- 
bers shall be necessary in order to constitute the Annual Meeting, 
and the presence of five ordinary members shall be necessary in 
order to constitute any other meeting. A Special General Meet- 
ing may be convened by the Oouncil if, and when, they may deem 
it expedient. 



V. — ^The ordinary members only shall be interested in the Property of 
property of the Society. The interest of each member therein 
shall continue so long only as he shall remain a member, and the 
property shall ne^er be sold or otherwise disposed of (except in 
the case of duplicates hereinafter mentioned) so long as there 
remain seven members ; but should the number of members be 
reduced below seven and so remain for twelve calendar months 
then next following, the Society shall he ipso facto^mo\veA,B,nd 
after satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities the property of the 
Society shall be delivered unto and become the property of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, if 
that Society be then in existence and willing to receive the same ; 
and should that Society not be in existence and willing to receive 
the same, then the same shall be delivered to and become the 
property of the Mayor, Aldermen^ and Burgesses, of Newcastle- 

YI. — ^All papers shall be read in the order in which they are Beading of 
received by the Society. A paper may be read by the author, or P*P®™- 
by any other member of the Society whom he may desire to read 
it, or by either of the Secretaries ; but any paper which is to be 
read by the Secretaries shall be sent to them a week previous to 
its being laid before the Society. 

Amoval of 

VII. — That the Society, at any ordinary meeting, shall have 
power to amove any member. The voting to be by ballot and 
to be determined by at least four-fifths of the members present 
and voting, provided, nevertheless, that no such amoval shall 
take place unless notice thereof shall have been given at the 
next preceding ordinary meeting. 

VIII. — All donations to the Society shall be presented through 
the Council, and a book shaU be kept in which shall be regularly 
recorded their nature, the place and time of their discovery, and 
the donors' names. All duphcates of coins, books, and other Duplicates, 
objects, shall be at the disposal of the Council for the benefit of 
the Society. 

IX. — Every ordinary member, not being in arrears of his Members en- 
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Donations to 
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Roman Inscription, Gabliblk Muskum. 





By W. H. St. Johk Hope, M.A. 

[Read at the Alnwick Meeting on the 29th Jone^ 1887.] 

I PROPOSE^ in the following paper, to deBcribe the result of excava- 
tions made on the site of Alnwick abbey in 1884, by the noble owner, 
the Dnke of Northnmberland. 

Before the commencement of the excavations nothing was left to 
mark the site of the abbey but the gatehouse, and, in place of the 
mounds and hollows and fragments of walls so often to be found where^ 
extensive buildings have once stood, a perfectly level green field lay 
between the gatehouse and the river Alne, where the abbey of 
Alnwick had formerly stood. A more hopeless site for excavations 
could hardly be met with ; but trial trenches soon laid bare founda- 
tions of walls, and by following these up in a scientific manner the 
entire ground plan of the abbey was gradually disclosed. Unfortun- 
ately, the destruction of the buildings after the suppression had been 
80 complete that nearly everywhere the walls had been removed down 
to the very foundations ; and in the church and claustral buildings, in 
the few places where the walls had not been utterly destroyed, only 
two or three courses of ashlar remained. Despite these drawbacks, a 
ground plan presenting many very singular features has been re- 
covered ; and although the excavations have been filled in again — for 
there was nothing worthy of being left uncovered — the Duke has 
caused the lines of the walls, etc., to be permanently marked out on 
the surface of the ground by an ingenious application of concrete. 

Alnwick abbey was founded in 1147 by Eustace Fitz John, in 
honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, for canons regular of the Premon- 
stratensian order, usually called white canons, from the colour of 
their habit. It was colonised, after the manner of white canons and 
white monks alike, from the mother house of the order in England — 
the abbey of Newhouse, in Lincolnshire. It was suppressed in 1585, 



when its annual value was under £200, but was refounded by the 
king in the following year. This was, however, only a brief respite, 
for it was surrendered to the king, Dec. 22, 1589, by the abbot and 
thirteen canons, and finally suppressed. 

Of the history of the abbey between its foundation and fall, but 
little is known, and I have not succeeded in finding anything of im- 
portance to add to what is already in print. 

The site of the abbey is roughly semi-circular in plan, a boundary 
wall forming the diameter (in which is set the gatehouse), and the 
river Alne the circumference. The abbey church stood in the centre 
of this area, with the cloister and surrounding buildings extending 
southwards to the river. On the east lay the infirmary, and on the 
west the outer court. 

The church was cruciform in plan, consisting of a nave and aisles 
of eight bays ; north and south transepts, with two eastern chapels to 
each ; and a presbytery of four bays. The whole of the walls east of 
the nave had been removed down to the foundations, and it was quite 
impossible to learn from these anything except the block plan. It 
will be noticed that the transept-chapels immediately adjoining the 
presbytery are twice the length of the outer chapels, and they possibly 
opened into the presbytery by arches. A short distance from the east 
wall of the latter was the foundation of a cross wall, which probably 
marks the site of the reredos of the high altar. 

Of the nave enough was found to make the arrangements pretty 
clear. The two easternmost bays formed the conventual choir, and 
retained the parallel walls on which the canons' stalls stood, returned, 
as usual, at the west end. These walls were a little over 2 feet apart, 
the intervening space being paved. The width in the clear between 
the stalls was about 13 feet. In the choir were found the remains of 
a huge slab, once inlaid with a brass. 

The plinths of some of the nave arcade bases were found in situ, 
chiefly on the north side. In plan they consisted of a square 5 ffeet 
3^ inches wide, set diamondwise, from the angles of which projected 
an engaged octagonal member. The whole plinth measured 7 feet 4^ 
inches from north to south. Nothing was found to show the plan of 
the piers themselves. The south arcade exhibited some slight varia- 
tions in plan and section, and its western respond seemed to be of a 
different date. 



In the westernmost bay ol' the north arcade was found a square 
base about 4 feet square. Under its western edge was a lead pipe, 
^hich was traced north and south across the whole width of the 
church (see plan). 

At the west end of the north aisle a few feet of the base-mold of 
the front remained in sitv^ apparently of early Decorated date. In 
the north wall is a singular projection which, joined with an appai-ent 
break in the line, seems to point to an extension westward when a 
rebuilding of the nave took place. 

The church appears to have had a central tower, though appar- 
ently one of no great size. 

With the exception of some of the pier bases, the foundation walls 
of the stalls, and the fragment of the west front, the only portion of 
the church where a few courses of ashlar remained was part of the 
south wall of the nave south aisle. This was 4 feet thick, and for- 
tunately retained the base of the east jamb of the western of the two 
doors opening from the cloister into the church. 

The cloister itself was 90 feet square. The surrounding alleys 
were 11 feet 9 inches wide, and paved with flagstones, some of which 
we found in situ} The wall enclosing the garth was divided into 
four bays on each side by buttresses, and had an additional diagonal 
but ress in each corner. Some portions of the original arcading that 
stood on this wall were found during the excavations ; they consisted 
of beautifully wrought twin capitals and bases, the former richly carved 
with characteristic early-English foliage. This arcade was an open 
one, and unglazed. 

The buildings round the cloister-court present some features of 
great interest. 

On the east side, next the south transept, were two rectangular 
chambers 10^ feet and 12^ feet wide respectively, and about 27 feet 
bug, with a dividing wall about 5 feet thick. The one next the 
transept' was probably the sacristy. In its floor was found a long 
piece of lead piping extending east and west. The other room was 
doubtless the auditarium, or regular parlour, where conversation was 
allowed. It perhaps had a door in its east wall, so that it also formed 
a slype from the cloister to the cemetery, which lay to the east. 
These chambers were, unfortunately, only traceable by their foundations. 
' The church was paved with similar flagging. 




To the south of these two rooms was the capihilum, or chapter- 
house. In plan this building is perfectly unique. It consists of a 
rectangular western portion or vestibule about 80 feet 6 inches long, 
and 21 feet 7 inches wide, opening on the east into a circular portion 
26 feet 10 inches in diameter, the whole being about 50 feet long. 
This extraordinary chapter-house cannot be later than the early-Eng- 
lish period, and is probably earlier, for William de Vesci, son of the 
founder, who died in 1184, was buried ante ostium c-apituli nostrijurta 
sponsam suam? Search was made for the graves of William de Vesci 
and his wife before the chapter-house door, but without effect. A 
stone coffin containing bones and without a lid was, however, laid bare 
in the centre of the round part of the chapter-house. 

It is difficult to see what was the arrangement of this oddly shaped 
chapter-house. The change from the square to the round part is 
shai'ply effected, and there were no traces whatever of responds or 
jambs of any kind. A trench cut along the medial line disclosed no 
remains of pillars, so that the roof, however it was managed, was in 
one span. It would be interesting to know if the circuit of the western 
half was completed ; I. think it was not, and that the walls followed 
the lines of the ground plan. 

Immediately to the south of the chapter-house was a door opening 
from the cloister, one jamb of which we found in situ. The sill was 
raised a step above the cloister pavement, and the door was clearly 
that of the stairs that led up to the dormitorium or dorter, which 
occupied the first floor of this eastern range of buildings. These 
stairs were for communication with the dorter during the day. They 
occupied the north end of a building extending from the chapter- 
house to the river. 

The principal part of this building was a spacious apartment 44 
feet long and 26 feet wide, with a projecting fireplace on its east side. 
This was the calefactorium or warming-house, and contained the only 
fire at which the canons, by leave of a superior, could come and warm 
themselves. It was entered from the cloister on the west. 

South of the warming-house is a narrow passage, approached by 

an equally narrow passage or slype from the cloister. It had a descent 

of four steps at its western end, and led to a group of buildings of 

rather complex plan, amongst which the infirndtorium^ or abode of 

' Chronica de Alnewyk, 




sick and infirm canons, must be looked for. Immediately within 
this passage was a door leading to a chamber on the south, parallel 
to which another one of about the same size has been built, into 
which we fpnnd no traces of the entrance. The first chamber has 
a door on the west opening into an apartment about 19 feet long 
and 13^ feet wide. At its south-east angle is a solid mass of masonry 
pierced by a vertical shaft (1 foot 10 inches by 1 foot 6 inches), which 
probably descended from a garderobe in a chamber over head. There 
is nothing to show the destination of these three chambers. 

The narrow passage already mentioned led to an irregularly-shaped 
vestibule at the north-west comer of a large vaulted apartment 22 feet 
wide and 66 feet long, divided into two alleys by a central row of 
three columns. This apartment has, towards the river, with which it 
is parallel, a series of buttresses of varying width and projection. It 
had apparently no outer doorways, and I am unable to suggest its use. 
The first floor I suspect in some way formed the donms nec^ssariaj 
which always opened out of the dorter. To the east of and abutting 
on this chamber was a large hall 48 feet long and 22 feet wide. It 
had two wide windows on the north, a fireplace on the west, and a 
door in the south-west corner which led into a small porch or vestibule 
constructed in, and contemporary with, the vaulted hall on the west. 
This vestibule, however, does not communicate with the latter in any 
way, but is open on the south towards the river. Along the north 
wall of the hall was a molded basemold of unusaally fine character, 
and of the same section as that found at the west end of the church. 
It is unfortunate that, with the exception of the south-west door, no 
other opening should have been found into this chamber, which was 
clearly the infirmary hall. It must have had a door or doors on the 
east communicating with some of the chambers shown on the plan, 
amongst which was the kitchen, buttery, etc. The maze of walls and 
foundations extending from the hall to the mill is so confused, that as 
I had not the opportunity of examining them before they were covered 
up, I shall not venture to express any opinion as to their use or date. 

In a monastery of noimal arrangement the whole of the first floor 
of the range on the east side of the cloister formed the dorter ; it is 
difficult to say if this was so at Alnwick, owing to our ignorance of 
the form of the oddly-planned chapter-house. I am inclined to think 


that the dorter here only extended from the chapter-house to the 
river ; but there would, of course, be a gallery or bridge across the 
west end of the chapter-house itself, along which the canons might 
pass to the room or rooms over the parlour and sacristy — probably the 
muniment room, treasury, and library — and so down the usual night- 
stairs into the church to say matins at midnight. The western 
chamber above mentioned probably had over it the abbot's room, with 
a garderobe in the south-east corner. 

At the south end of the dorter, and opening out of it eastwards, 
was probably the domus }ier^ssana. 

On the south side of the cloister, and parallel with the church, 
were found the foundations of the substructure of the refectorium or 
frater, which here, as in other canons' houses, was on the first floor. 
At the east end of this range was a narrow slype leading from the 
cloister to the buildings by the river, and towards the west end a 
small square chamber marked the site of the stairs up to the irater ; 
the rest of the substructure was used as cellarage. The south wall 
was considerably thickened for strength, along its whole length, at 
some time subsequent to its erection. 

The Chronica, ds Alnewyke relates that : — 

"Ad instantiam Walteri de Hepescotes abbatis de Alnewyk 
peritissimi patris ac famae vemantia. Religionis nobilis advocatus 
noster Henricus quint us Dominus de Percy Anno Domini 1876 in 
die assumptionis beatae Mariae in Eefectorio nostro comminavit cum 
18 militibus quorum haec sunt nomina {jmrnea given) et multi alii 
Nobiles patriae, Impleto claustro parochianis nostris, et communibus 
patriae, computati fuerunt in claustro comedentes utriusque aetatis ad 
illam refectionem 1020. Viri, in Refectorio vero 120, ad secundam 
Refectionem in Refectorio 86."^ 

Alnwick abbey differs in one important point from most monastic 

houses, in that there is no range of buildings on the west side of the 

cloister. This part of a monastery, except in the case of a few isolated 

instances like Westminster and Gloucester, is always occupied by the 

cellarage, and lodgings for guests under the cellarer's charge, and 

hence known as the cellnrium, A diligent search, however, foiled to 

bring to light any traces of a western range here ; and it is probably 

represented by the large block of buildings a short distance to the 

west on the river bank. On the east of these buildings, and south- 

» Harl. MS. 692,/. 212. 








"5 .8 
•g 5 


west of the frater, are some only partly explored walls, which most 
hare belonged to the abbey kitchen, which would here be conveni- 
ently placed BO as to serve both the great guest hall and the canons' 
frater. There was probably a bridge from it to the frater. 

West of the guests' lodgings, and extending round three sides of 
a square up to the great gatehouse, the excavations disclosed a singular 
looking collection of chambers, ovens, fireplaces, etc., of which it is 
difficult to fix the precise age. I am inclined to believe that they are 
the remains of the stables, bakehouse, brewhouse, and other buildings 
usually placed in the outer court of a monastery ; but it is possible 
that they are of much later origin. Wallis, in hi3 Natural Hisfary 
and Antiqmties of Northumberland^' published in 1769, says that the 
site of the abbey "was granted, 4 Edward VI., to Ralph Sadler and 
Lat^. Winnington. It was afterwards sold, with the demesnes about 
it, to Sir Francis Brandling^ Knt. of whose father it was purchased 
with the same lands by Mr. DaubUday, father of Tlwmas Doubleday, 
Esq. ; the present possessor, whose seat is built out of the ruins of it, 
which stood in his orchard, south of his pleasure garden. The only 
remains of this religious pile, is the court wall to the east, through 
which is the entrance, of very curious architecture, with a modem- 
built turret at the south end, beyond which is a building seemingly of 
a later erection, not corresponding with the grandeur of monastic 
structures, answering better the use it is now put to, viz., a stable, 
than any other. Adjoining to it, is an antient and strong tower, with 
four turrets, two at each end." 

Grose, in his Antiquities of England and Wahs^ gives a view 
"which represents the eastern aspect of the Gate-house of the Monas- 
tery, and the gates of Mr. Doubleday's House." It " was drawn anno 
1773." This view is reproduced in facsimile on plate II. It shows 
distinctly that Mr. Doubleday's house, which has been pulled 
down since and all traces of it removed, was within the monastic pre- 
cinct to the south-west of the abbey gate, the east face of which is 
shown. As the intermediate area has not been explored, nothing cer- 
tain can be said on the point as to whether the ovens, etc., were portions 
of the Doubleday mansion ; but their appearance certainly seemed to 
me to indicate a greater antiquity than that of about a century and a 
half. Grose quotes Wallis's account of the abbey, and adds : — " The 
* Vol. ii. 388. * Vol. iii. : London, 1776. 


Tower here spoken of by Mr. Wallis, was the antient Gatehouse of the 
Monastery, the strong latticed gate of which is still remaining." 

Of the east wall of the precinct, with its ancient gateway, as de- 
scribed by Wallis, no traces now remain, and it is diflScult to say which 
of the buildings shown on the plan was that then used as a stable, as 
this part of the site was not fully explored. The north wall of the 
precinct has been traced for a considerable distance on either side of 
the great or main gatehouse, which stood in the centre of its line. It 
should be noticed that the gatehouse projected clear of the wall, and 
had not, as was more usual, its front flush with (or dose to) the latter. 
This arrangement permitted another departure irom the normal plan- 
ning of a gatehouse, viz., that instead of the iront having the usual 
two entrances, a larger for horses and carts and a smaller for foot- 
passengers, side by side, the larger arch only is set in the main front, 
while the smaller door is placed on the east side. 

The north front of the gatehouse is flanked by two square battle- 
mented turrets, and divided midway by a molded stringcourse. The 
entrance door is segmental, headed with continuous moldings, and 
had above the apex of the arch a small image, which has now quite 
perished. On each side, at the springing level, is a small square panel ; 
but nothing is left to show what was sculptured therein. Over the 
door, in the upper stage, is a large and much decayed canopied niche, 
now vacant ; and above is a projecting embattled parapet with seven 
machicolations. On one of the dexter battlements is a shield charged 
> with a cross patonce or fleury, and on the sinister side a shield bearing 
a cross. The flanking turrets are devoid of ornament — ^the only reliev- 
ing feature being a small trefoiled ogee-headed loop on the face of each. 
The whole front is characterised by extreme plainness. 

On the east side, owing to the peculiar oblong plan of the flanking 
turret from east to west, the wall between is, as it were, very deeply 
recessed. The lower stage has a low doorway, 5 feet 9 inches wide, 
with a four-centred arch, the label of which terminates on each side in 
a large angel holding a plain shield. On the apex of the arch is a 
mutilated angel holding a shield, Percy and Lucy quarterly. Above 
this is a very good canopied niche, now vacant. The upper stage pro- 
jects slightly over the lower, and has in the centre a good two-light 
Perpendicular window with a transom and square head. The label 
ends in angels holding plain shields. Above are four machicolations, 

Arch. Ael. Vol. XIII. 

(Plate III. 


TAg Gatihouse^ South Front, 1887. 
(From a Photograph.) 



the intermediate corbels of which carry a projecting parapet. On the 
central battlement is carved a large shield of Percy and Lucy quar- 
terly. The north turret is plain in the lower stage ; the upper stage, 
which projects somewhat on all sides, has a good two-light square- 
headed window with two trefoiled ogee-headed loops above, separated 
by the Percy and Lucy quartered shield. The south turret has the 
same shield in the upper part, and lower down a loop similar to those 
described. This front is well shown in the accompanying woodcut.* 

Alnwick Abbbt, east front of the Gatehouse. 

•From Hartshorne's Feudal and Military Antiquities of Northumberland, p. 274. 



The south or iuner front of the gatehouse has in the lower stage 
a segmental headed door with very few moldings. Over this is a 
square panel, once filled with sculpture, now all decayed. Above is a 
square-lieaded Perpendicular window, which has unfortunately lost its 
tracery. Over this window is a niche containing a figure, apparently 
of a bishop, but the whole has nearly penshed. The parapet has 
shields on the battlements as on the north side, and similarly charged. 
The west turret has an original four-centred doorway at the base, and 
a small two-light window, square headed, and with a transom above. 
Over this again is a loop. The east turret has an original door a little 
way up, with two loops above at different heights. 

The west side is quite plain, with the exception of several loops 
and a corbelled out garderobe. 

The passage of the gatehouse has a plain waggon vault of suspici- 
ously modem appearance. 

The thanks of the Society, and of those who, like myself, are in- 
terested in the study of monastic architecture and arrangement, are 
especially due to the Duke of Northumberland for so liberally under- 
taking the excavation of the site of Alnwick abbey in the manner in 
which he did at the suggestion of Earl Percy. 

Thanks are also due to Mr. George Reavell, the able clerk of the 
works at Alnwick, under whose superintendence the excavations were 
carried on, by the aid of only occasional directions from me, and the 
accompanying ground plan measured and drawn out. 


By F. R. Wilson. 

[Read at the Alnwick Meeting on the 29th Jnne, 1887.] 

The name of Chapel before the Reformation indicated the sacred 
edifices devoted to prayer only, containing no baptismal font, and 
possessing no burying ground. These were sometimes isolated, some- 
times annexed. King's and nobles sometimes possessed oratories 
incorporated with their residences, as well as isolated chapels in their 
court yards ; and abbots, following their example, built for themselves 
private chapels within the confines of their abbeys. There were also 
chapels annexed to conventual and cathedral churches, such as lady- 
chapels and chantry chapels, contained in the precincts of churches, 
as well as chapels belonging to colleges. In early mediaeval times the 
oratories built over the graves of saints were called chapels, and the 
structure raised over the site of a miracle, was also known by the same 
title. Shrines or chapels were erected over springs of water, such as 
the highly enriched one over the very powerful well or spring at 
Holywell, in Flintshire. There were hollow isolated lofty columns of 
stone called "Lantemes des morts," which lost that distinctive char- 
acter during the 14th century, and became replaced by small chapels 
which held perpetually a lighted lamp. Besides chapels in the neigh- 
bourhood of cemeteries, all the charnel houses placed in the middle of 
towns or near churches possessed an oratory. 

A portion of the garment so generously divided by the young 
soldier, says Butler, citing St. Sulpicius, " la chape du bienheureux 
St. Martin," was held in great veneration as a relic in France, in the 
early days of Christianity. It gave the name of cappllft or clwppllf to 
the oratory in which it was presers^ed ; and when, like other relics, it 
was carried into the field of battle by its royal predecessors, it was 
guarded in a tent which was distinguished by the name of chapel 
{rJiapplU a rnj>n^ €<tpeUa.) The clerics to whose charge the r^tpf* was 


confided, received the designation of chaplains.* This led to the 
practice of placing a relic in every place consecrated to worship, and 
this practice is quoted as the origin of the term. Thus capella accord- 
ing to Johnson,* signifies a cabinet to contain holy relics, and in a 
larger sense a closet or chest for the repository of anything valuable ; 
hence it came to signify a little church ; for no church or chapel could 
be ordinarily consecrated without having the relics of some saint to be 
kept therein. 

The particular motive or feeling that called into existence the great 
extension in the number of chapels was the ancient custom of making 
pilgrimages. Most persons made pilgrimage on the occasion of im- 
portant events in their lives, such as recovery from an illness, or the 
loss of a near relative ; but those of more pious tendencies made annual 
pilgrimages as a matter of conscience. Guilds made annual pilgrim- 
ages to chapels in the vicinity of their boroughs, and made offerings. 
Pregnant women frequently made pilgrimages. Persons about to 
undertake a voyage, generally visited a shrine to secure intercession 
of the saint for their safety; and on their return, they would go 
through the same ceremony to return thanks. A chapel on a bridge 
over a sea-going river, like old Tyne Bridge, would have special signi- 
ficance in this sense ; as I hope to show you presently in reference to 
the hermitage and chantry there upon that bridge. 

At last, servants and young people generally, inconveniently resorted 
to the prevailing practice to avoid the execution of their proper duties, 
and crowds of idle persons wandered about the country upon pretence 
that they were pilgrims. This ultimately led to the custom fidling 
into disregard in England. This class of chapel which could not be 
brought within the description of superstitious foundation, was dis- 
solved by the Act of 1 Ed. VI. for the suppression of chantries, but 
not before it had created a demand for numerous wayside chapels. 

Hermitages were sometimes built by the roadside, frequented by 
pilgrims on their routes to particularly populai* shrines; and in 
occasional instances they were the objects of pilgrimages themselves. 
There were men who looked back to the ascetic mode of life of the 
early solitaries with much reverence and desire ; and who, one by one, 
turned their faces from the gradually accumulating splendours of the 

» Guillaume Dnrand. ^ Eccles. Laws, MCLXXXVIII, i. Pr. 


proBpeious commnnity with which they were associated, and estab- 
lished themselves in lonely cells. St. Cuthbert, it is well known, was 
one of these earnest men ; he abandoned his responsible position at 
Lindisiame Priory to retire to a hermitage on one of the desolate 
Fame Islands. 

There were many other instances in which those high in the r^ard 
of their fellow men, bishops and abbots, as well as private individuals, 
retired from the world, its cares and occupations, to end their days as 

Hermitages were sometimes chantries. That of Brianel was a 
chantry of two monks, and had demesne lands upon which corn was 
grown for their support. Another phase of eremitical life consisted 
in communities of hermits, in which each individual possessed his 
separate hermitage. 

There was an enthusiasm about such men that begot enthusiasm. 
Their self-abnegation, vigorous devotion, prodigious charity and un- 
wearying love, begot self-exaction as searching, compassion as generous, 
and passionate adoration as ecstatic. ' !N'obles gave their lands under 
the influence of their example for religions and charitable purposes. 
Merchants gave all that they had to the poor — founded hospitals and 
alms houses. Nor has this influence altogether ceased. After every 
hermitage had been tenantless for two centuries, the great moralist. 
Dr. Johnson, paid this tribute to the memory of the recluses who once 
inhabited them ; "I never read of a hermit," said he, "but in imagin- 
ation I kiss his feet ; never of a monastery, but I fall on my knees and 
kiss the pavement." 

Hermitages were not exclusively situated in secluded places like 
the rock-hewn one so well known at Warkworth, although they are 
so popularly associated with the idea of retirement, that the term her- 
mitage has been applied to secluded places in which a hermit never 
resided. At Severington, near Wisbeach, one of these solitaries lived 
over the porch of the church. And one lived, I think, as I will show 
you to morrow, in the sturdy Edwardian tower of the church at 
Eglingham. Hermitages were common, too, at the ends of bridges, 
in church yards, and at the gates of towns. ** Not far from hence," 
says the student in Don Quixote, "is a hermitage where lives an 
anchorite who is said to have been a soldier. Adjoining the her- 


mitage, is a little house'^built by the labour of his own hands, which, 
though narrow, is large enough to receive travellers." **Can that 
same hermitage produce any poultry," said Sancho. "There are few 
hermitages destitute of that provision," answered the knight. Accor- 
dingly they called at the hermitage for some of the best wine, but 
were answered by the under hermit, his master not being at home, 
" that'theyjhad no wine, but were welcome to water." This passage is 
a picture of the manners and customs of the time, which this master- 
piece of Cervantes is allowed to be, would lead us to conclude that in 
those days hermits were expected to exercise hospitahty to wayfarers. 
Nevertheless, from the character of the remains of the hermitages 
which still exist, it would appear that secluded retreats were most 
frequently chosen by them for their, habitation. The cell at Cratcliff 
near Winster, Derbyshire, is cut out of a rock. St. Robert's Chapel, 
Knaresboro', is also cut out of a rock, the altar in it is well preserved, 
and the small excavation for the chalice to stand in is very discernible. 
The niche for the crucifix and the recesses for the holy water are 
perfect. Godric of Finchale, a hermit of great celebrity, lived in a 
chamber excavated out of the ground, and covered with turf. To this 
was annexed a chapel with two altars — one dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and the other to the eremitical St. John the Baptist. 

The theory of the division of time between work and prayer was 
sometimes often first fulfilled by hermits working at a trade. Bilf rid, 
an Anglo-Saxon anchoret, was an excellent goldsmith ! one Christina, 
an anchoress, was a famous embroideress ; but the description of 
labour they undertook was most frequently gardening. At Notting- 
ham, there are remaining separate cells occupied by a community of 
hermits. There are some curious cells to be seen at Corby; and 
Norham once possessed a hermitage, the site of which is now forgotten. 
So late as the last century an old man built a hermitage in the village 
of Intakes, Derbyshire, and placed on it the following inscription, with 

the date "1728" :— 

" Francis Brown in his old age, 
Did build him here a hermitage.'' 

In early mediaeval times hermits were much resorted to for advice and 
comfort. They were favourite confessors too. They were sometimes 
compelled to enlarge their abodes in consequence of the numbers of 


their visitors. Thus the Golden Legend tells us that Fiacre sought a 
place " to lede hys lyfe heremytiche and solitarily," and begged for 
that purpose " a lytill place within a wood, and ferre fro abydinge of 
ony folk, where he founded a chyrche, and beyond it a lytill way thens 
he bylded a lytill hous wherein he dwelled, and there herberwedde the 
poore that passed by." 

Wayside chapels were frequently placed in the approaches to 
bridges, and less frequently built upon the piers themselves. There 
were chapels of this kind on the bridge at Elvet, " The chauntries of 
Saincte James and Saincte Andrewe upon the new bridge of Elvet," 
(Durham), and there were chapels at Exeter, on old London bridge, 
and as I think, I can show you, on the old Tyne bridge at 
Newcastle ! There are still chapels on bridges at Barnard Castle, 
and that very beautiful one of which I show you illustrations, 
on the pier of the bridge over the Calder, at Wakefield, in York- 
shire.' Nash states that the high road passed thi'ough the midst 
J of the chapel at Droitwich, the reading-desk and pulpit being on 
one side and the congregation on the other.* 

Wayside chapels are much more frequent in continental countries 
than in our own. Indeed, in travelling abroad, the pretty wayside 
chapels and crosses with peasants kneeling, show more than most 
things that we are away from home. In Switzerland the shingled 
spires of road-side chapels built on the central piers of bridges cast 
their shadows into many a snow stream. In France and Italy they 
are equally numerous. They are of much diversity of foim, some 
being square or oblong, whilst others are built upon triangular, hexa- 
gonal, and circular plans. There are numerous examples of chapels 
built of two stories in height, as the gorgeous Sainte-Chapelle at 
Paris. In these instances, the upper chapel, which was on a level with 
the principal floor of the palaces, contained the precious relics, and a 
gallery for the royal family to pay their devotions in ! the lower was 
appropriated to public worship. When a chapel was built over a crypt, 
this disposition was reversed, the crypt contained the relics, and the 
chapel was devoted to worship. The most remarkable of the 

* See Journal Brit Archl. Assoc. XX. (1864), pp. 111-119, for account of 
chapel on Wakefield Bridge, Harnham, by Mr. Wilson. 

* There was a chapel under the southernmost arch of the bridge at Catterick. 


ancient continental wayside chapels^ however, is that dedicated to 
Santa Maria de Y Epina, built upon the approach to the Ponte Nuovo 
over the Arno at Pisa. It is bnilt of the rich materials of the locality, 
and is elaborately ornamented with niches containing statues. Those 
who have seen it radiant with sunshine, as I saw it on the quay-side, 
will need no reminder of its many graces. It was erected cirm a.d. 
1230. Alterations and renovations, rendered necessary by its decay 
or destruction, have been made in successive centuries. A single 
thorn, said to be from the Holy Crown of Thorns was enshrined in it, 
and the wayside chapel of St. Mary of the Thorn became the object of 
pi-ayer and pilgrimage. I show you an illustration of this exquisite 
marble built bridge chapel, which I brought with me from Pisa in 

Having thus demonstrated to you that chapels, hermitages, or 
chantries were genei-al upon bridges, at bridge ends, or at the ap- 
proaches to bridges, I come now to tell you briefly why I think that 
there was a chapel on or at the end of old Tyne bridge. 

The view of the Tyne bridge looking north towards the Castle and 
St. Nicholas's Church, which I now produce, by Sam.^ and JNath.^ Buck 
in 1745, shows the chapel " at the bridge eud."^ Dr. Bruce tells us 
that " the mediaeval bridge was, as is well known, destroyed by a flood 
on the 15th November, 1771." What remained then of the chapel 
would be involved in the general destruction. There is, however, 
further and confirmative documentary evidence, if still existing, in the 
conclusive record by Parson and White in 1827, that *' there was a 
small place of worship called the Ladies chapel on the old Tyne bridge, 
which, by an ancient deed, appears to have been used as a tenement in 
1616." In 1429 (Hen. 6), Eoger de Thornton (the great benefactor 
and builder of the Maison Dieu, which he founded in 1412, and which 
stood on the site of the fish market at the east end of the Guildhall, 
and dedicated to St. Catherine ; and of many other benefactions), in 
his will, appointed the hermit then residing on this bridge, to be one 
of the 30 priests whom he had ordered to sing for his soul, with a be- 
quest of six marks annually.^ 

* See Plate C. facing p. 112 of Arch. Ael IV. (N.S.) 


• On this sabject Mr. Welford thus writes in the Neiocastle iVeekly Ckrothicle 

"All references to a 'reclnse/ 'anchoret/ * hermitage/ 'chapel/ etc., npon 
Tyne bridge are, I think, referable to the chapel of St. Thomas & Beckett, which is 
frequently described in ancient documents as standing ' upon ' the bridge, though 
in reality forming the north end of it. 

" 1. — The Recluse or Anchoret. — Brand, in his HUtory of NewooitU, i. 43, 
writes : — ' In the year 1429 a recluse appears to have lived in a hermitage upon 
Tyne Bridge, and was appointed by Roger Thornton in his will one of the thirty 
priests he had ordered to sing for his soul, etc.' Brand does not state his authority 
for placing the recluse in * a hermitage upon Tyne Bridge/ and there U nothing 
at all about the abode of that solitary personage in Soger Thornton's will. Dr. 
Bock, an eminent Roman Catholic authority on the subjectj states that an anchoret 
was generally under a life vow never to go beyond the precincts of the church to 
which he was attached. It may well be that the Newcastle anchoret was attached 
to the chapel of St. Thomas 4 Beckett, and that is the nearest approach to the 
Bridge we can obtain for him. 

** 2. — Hermitage. — Brand also is the authority for the use of the word hermitage 
in connexion with Tyne Bridge. In a foot note to the page quoted above he states: 
' That there was a hermitage on this bridge anciently appears from a deed remaining 
in the archives of the Corporation of Newcastle, dated November 20th, 1643,* 
which may mean that in that year, a century after the Reformation, the crypt of 
St. Thomas*8 was let for cellarage under the name of the hermitage. As it stands 
the quotation proves nothing. 

"8. — Chapel. — The * Chapel on Tyne Bridge,' it cannot be doubted, was the 
chantry of the Virgin at St. Thomas's. Frequent reference to it as the chapel of 
onr Lady ' in the chapel of St. Thomas k Beckett/ occurs in local history. 

" Without any pressing desire to advertise my own work, I may perhaps be per- 
mitted to add that in the first volume of my History of Newcastle and Oateshead, 
Boger Thornton's will is printed'\'erbatim, and that in the second volume, between 
pages 142 and 239, are long descriptions of the churches and religious establishments 
ezbting in Newcastle at the time of the suppression — with lists of their incumbents, 
occupants, possessions, value, etc. Neither there nor anywhere else that I was able 
to discover, is any mention made of a separate religious abode (or another chapel) 
upon Tyne Bridge, beyond the chapel of St. Thomas 4 Beckett." 



By D. D. Dixon. 

[Read on the Slst Angnst, 1887.] 

The Bells. 

The use of bells for both secular and religious purposes is of very 
ancient origin. As early as the time of the old Jewish dispensation, 
small gold bells were hung on and around the skirt of the vestment 
worn by the officiating high priest. Bells were also used by the 
ancient Greeks and Romans, mostly for secular purposes; and the 
most eflPective weapon wielded by the Britons against the legions of 
Julius Csesar, is said to have been the " crotal/' or spear bell, being 
a javelin with a bell at the butt end. 

Regarding our parish church bells — whose history is at present 
occupying the attention of the members of this society — there seems 
to be no doubt whatever but that bells were used in our churches 
during early Saxon times. The Venerable Bode, in his Ecclesiastical 
History, relates how, in the year 680, a nun of the monastery of 
Hackness — " On a sudden heard the well-known sound of a bell in 
the air, which used to awake and call them to pmyers;" and it is 
also recorded that Benedict Biscop — our own northern Saxon church 
builder — "went over to Gaul, and brought to England all things 
necessary for the church and altar, including sanctus bells for Chris- 
tian worship." Therefore it is certain that by the sound of those 
early "church-going bells" our Saxon ancestors were called to the 
services of the church, to 

Their Uhtsang, or early morning service, corresponding with the 
Roman Matins. 

Their Primesang, a later morning service, corresponding with the 
Roman Prime, 


Their Underaang, at nine o'clock — the Roman Tierce. 
Their Middaysang, at twelve o'clock— the Roman Sext. 
Their Noonsang, at three o'clock — the Roman Nones. 
Their Evensang, early evening service — the Roman Vespers, 
Their Nightsang, the last evening service — the Roman Compline. 

There are very few pre-Reformation bells in the churches of 
North Northumberland, due perhaps to the fact of its close proximity 
to the borders of Scotland, which would render the district liable to 
the frequent pillage of the Scots, who no doubt considered bell-metal 
as plunder worthy of notice. The famous Bernard Gilpin, the Apostle 
of the North, who evangelized throughout Northumberland during the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, relates that at one church he went 
to in Redesdale there was no bell to call the people to church. 
Whether the Scots had robbed them of their bell, or whether the law- 
less dalesmen had themselves melted the bell in the same manner as 
their brother Scots in a parish across the Border were said to have 
done with their parish bell, we do not know. Perhaps the following 
description might apply to both: — 

' Was there e^er sic a parish, — a parish, — ^a parish. 

Was there e^er sic a parish as little Dunkell. 
Where they steeket the meeuister, hanged the precentor, 
Dang doon the steeple — and drank the hell ? * 

There are two small bells in the tower of Rothbury parish church, 
neither of which is very ancient. One is dated 1850, the other 
1682. The latter is the survivor of the two old bells which hung in 
the ancient tower previous to the restoration of the church in 1850. 
Its companion being cracked (report says by the furious ringing of 
" Sexton Jack " [John Watson] at a wedding) was at the said restora- 
tion recast, and bears the following inscription round the shoulder: — 


The bell is 22J inches in diameter and 18J inches high. The sur- 
viving bell, although it was much chipped and corroded, was perfectly 
sound, and was therefore re-hung along with the 1850 recast. Around 
the shoulder of the older bell runs the foUowing inscription: — 




The tbunder^s name is not on this bell, but his mark is quite legible on 

the outside, viz., three 

bells within a circle of 

leaves, being the mark of 

James Bartlett, who had 

the Whitechapel foundry 

from 1676 to 1700. The 

diameter of this bell is 21 

inches, its height 17 

inches ; and although it is 

less than the new bell of 

1850, it is thicker, and can 

be heard at a much greater 

distance. Mr. Stahl- 

schmidt has favoured the 

society with the loan of 
the annexed cut of the founder's mark. 

The parish records throw some little light on the history of this 
bell, to which attaches an interest the newer one does not possess. 
Therefore with your permission I shall endeavour to give a short 
account of the older bell. The Rothbury parish record book com- 
mences in 1669. The first notice of the church bells is found in the 
minutes of the vestry meeting held on Easter Tuesday, April 1, 1662, 
when the following entry (which has reference to the disorders com- 
mitted during the Great Eebellion) was made: — 

*In regard that the late Troublsome Times had occasioned the spoyling 
and deprivement of those things convenient and necessary for y* celebration of 
God*8 publiqe worship in his holy Church. In regard of Authority enioyning 
and y* Due consideration had thereuppon. The Rector, together with the Curate, 
and ffower and twenty ordered that a sesse of each mans Antient Bent through- 
out y* whole Parish, should speedily be raised, collected and Levyed by y« new 
Churchwardens for the present yeare, vizt:— ffor a ffont, Table, furniture for y* 
Communion, Cuppe engraving, cover of ffont. Books of Common Prayer, Great 
Church Bible, The Booke of Homilyes, fflagg: y*' Alley. Also together with same- 
thing about BelUf vestry chest, Glazing and many more.' 

As can be gathered from the churchwardens' accounts of the dis- 
bursement of this '* sesse," the repairs to the bells at this time were 
very scant indeed. All we find is: — 

Bell Ropes 

£ 8. 

00 01 


The {Smith for Bell Tongues & Hooks 

00 Oo 



The bells mentioned here were no doubt pre-Reformation bells, 
and it is to be regretted that the old minute book gives no descrip- 
tion of them, otherwise we might have had preserved to us the names 
of the bells, the saints to whom they were dedicated, or other black 
letter inscriptions which it was customary at that time to place on 
church bells. 

After a lapse of seventeen years, the bell question was again dis- 
cussed by the vestry. During that period John Garthwaite, the first 
rector after the Restoration, died, and was succeeded by the famous 
Dr. John Thomlinson, brother to Dr. Thomlinson of Whickham, 
at whose house he died in 1720. Immediately on his coming to 
the living of Rothbury in 1678, that indefatigable rector began to 
remodel and arrange the affairs of the parish, which he found in a 
very confused state; and amongst other things were the church bells. 
The following entry in Dr. Thomlinson's own handwriting is found 
in the old church book: — 

* That upon Ash Weddensday 1679 it was agreed upon by the minister, 
churchwardens & four & twenty (nernine contradicente) that the Bells of Roth- 
bury should be new ceut this spring, provided that this could be done for the 
-whole Antient rent of the parish and thereupon they unanimiously made it their 
request to me, that I would write to A Bellfounder to that purpose : withall 
adding that rather then fail they would be willing to the halfe Antient Rent 
more.* • 

Whether the "sesse" on the "whole Antient Rent" had never been 

levied, or, if levied, the sum it raised was nbt found sufficient to 

defray the expense of recasting the two ancient bells, I cannot, from 

the books, find out; but on the 14th of April, 1682, another effort 

was made to renew the bells, and as we know the date of the present 

older bell is 1682, this time the scheme succeeded. The following 

interesting record is found in the old parish book: — 

'Aprill 14 1682. Whereas the said Parish Church Bells of Rothbury were 
fallen into great decay insomuch that they^were^well nigh become useless to the 
Parish. The Minister and the Four & Twenty thought it expedient to move the 
Parishioners to ye repayre of them by way of a cheerful! & voluntary contribu- 
tion : and to encourage them thereunto have ordered that ye names and sumes 
of each benefactor should be particularly recorded in the Church-books, as a 
perpetuall monument of their Charitable benevolence to ye Church as also that 
after ages may read, how profuse, and Liberall their Ancestors have been to 
promote a design that conduced to ye Beauty and ornament of Gods house.' 




Their names are as 

follows : — 


£ IL d. 

£ «. d. 

Mr. Tho: Ogle ... 

.. 00 08 00 

Robert Trumble 

Mrs. Ogle 

.. 00 01 00 

Roger Davison « 

Henry Ogle 

.. 00 00 06 

Charles Carr 

00 01 00 


.. 00 00 06 

William Graham 

00 00 06 

Edward Ogle ... 

.. 00 00 02 

Michael Graham 

00 04 00 

John Ogle 

.. 00 00 02 

Hector Henderson 

Bliz. Wilson ... 

.. 00 00 04 

James Butterfield 

00 00 04 

Mr. Robert Clennell . 

.. 00 01 00 

Jane Oliver, widd. 

00 00 04 

Bllin, his wife ... 

.. 00 00 06 

Ralph Browne 

00 00 06 

Tho. Clennell ... 

.. 00 00 02 

Anne, his wife 

00 00 06 

Edward Burghill 

.. 00 00 06 

Henry Browne 

00 00 02 

Anne Eirke 

.. 00 00 02 

Dorothy Young 

00 00 02 

Mr. Bernard Rumney . 

.. 00 00 04 

James Young 

John Rumney ... 

.. 00 00 06 

Will" Wilson, Seilr ... 

00 00 04 

Isabell Warden... 

.. 00 00 06 

Andrew Harrison 

00 00 02 

Dorothy Wardell 

.. 00 00 06 

Tho: Gibson 

00 00 02 

Catherine Robson 

.. 00 00 02 

Jane Harrison 

00 00 02 

Bphraim Clennell 

.. 00 00 06 

Eleanor Machell 

00 00 02 

Margaret Clennell 

.. 00 00 06 

Isabell Watson 

00 00 06 

Robert Henderson 

.. 00 00 02 

Isabell Vrpeth 

00 00 C4 

Grace Ogle 

.. 00 00 02 

Anne Vrpeth 

00 00 02 

George Maving ... 

00 00 06 

Isabell Robson 

00 00 06 

Jane Maving, widd. . 

.. 00 00 06 

Marg* Robson 

00 00 02 

Jane Storrer 

.. 00 00 02 

Archibald Douglass ... 

00 00 06 

George Trumble 

.. 00 00 06 

Margarett Swan 

00 00 06 

Richard Wilson... 

.. 00 00 06 

Mr. Isaac Wallace 

00 03 00 

John Hall and his wife. 

.. 00 00 06 

Mabell Vrpeth 

00 00 02 

Geo; Swan 

.. 00 00 06 

W" Simpson 

00 00 02 

Charles Turner ... 

.. 00 00 06 

John Douglas 

Tho: Clarke 

.. 00 00 06 

John Marshall 

00 00 06 

Will™ Robson ... 

.. 00 00 06 


00 00 06 

Anne Robson, his wife. 

.. 00 00 06 

John Taite 

John Gray 

.. 00 00 02 

Alice Taite 

Gilbert Gray ... 

00 00 02 

Henry Taite 

00 00 06 

John Smayle ... 

.. 00 00 04 

Tho : Gray and his wif e. . . 

00 01 00 

William Hunter 

.. 00 00 06 

Isabell Gray 

00 00 04 

Tho: Hunter ... 

.. 00 00 04 

Alexander Watson 

00 00 04 

Alexand' Swan ... 

.. 00 00 06 


00 00 04 

Alex. Maving ... 

.. 00 00 02 

Tho: Mason and his wife 

00 02 06 

George Oliver ... 

.. 00 00 06 

Mary Swan 

00 00 06 



£ t. d. 

£ •. d. 

Tho: Dixon 

00 01 00 

Andrew Oraghill 

00 00 02 

Tho: Dixon, jun' 

00 00 06 

Cuthbert Swan 

00 00 06 

James Davison 

00 00 06 

Bernard Pearith 

00 00 06 

Alexander Dagleish 

John Pearith 

00 00 06 

W™ Wilaon, junto' 

00 00 06 

James Younge 

00 00 06 


Geo: Carr 

00 01 00 

Michael Milbume • ... 

Andrew Buckbam and 

John Soulsby 

00 00 06 

his wife 

John Backham 

Richard Backham 
Oswald Gibson 

00 00 06 
00 00 06 
00 00 06 
00 00 04 

Mary Soulsby 

Joseph Soulsby 

Roger Snawdon and his 

00 00 04 
00 00 02 

00 02 00 

Mary Gibson 

00 00 02 

Christopher Little 

00 01 00 

Lewis Ogle 

00 01 00 

Anne Carr 

00 00 06 

Tho: Ogle 

00 00 06 

Gawin Eansley 

00 00 03 

Mary Ogle 

00 00 06 

Dionysius Milbume ... 

00 00 06 

Gawin Snawdon 

00 CO 06 

Alexander Turner 

00 00 06 

Elino' Snawdon 

00 00 02 

Anne Snawdon 

00 00 02 

Henry Turner 

00 00 06 

John Bames 

00 00 06 

Blanch Heckles 

00 00 02 

Isabell Richardson 

00 00 06 

Chr: Milbume 

00 00- 06 

John Snawdon 

00 00 02 

Anne Milbume 

00 00 02 

The total amount of the subscription list was £2. 18s. lid., and to 
pay the cost of hanging the bells we find the following : — 

* That upon Ashwednesday being Febmary 20th 1683 the Rector &, XXIV did 
meet and then it was unanimiously agreed that one halfe antient rent should be 
forthwith collected by the present Churchwardens for the hanging of the Bells 
& purchasing a Surplice.' 

Therefore, the bell with the inscription, "John Thomlinson Rector of 
Bothbuiy 1682," and its companion discarded in 1860, were un- 
doubtedly the fruits of the levy on the ancient rent and the voluntary 
subscriptions given by the Rothbury parishioners, of two centuries 
ago. It is said that ''old names die hard," many of the surnames 
recorded in the list of subscribers are yet extant in the parish of 
Rothbury. Ogle, Having, Carr, Smail, Swan, Snowden, Watson, 
Soulsby, Aynsley, and others ; we also find in the list the name of 
Bernard Rumney, the famous northern poet and musician, who lived 
and died at Rothbury ; he composed that amusing ballad " Ecky's 
Mare," found in BeU's Northern Bards, Like many modem scribblers 
he had not much to spare, his name is down for the modest sum of 


fourpence. Judging from the terms of the resolution made at the 
vestry meeting, in 1679, viz. :— " that the bells of Rothbury should 
be new cast " — not that new bells be obtained — and seeing that the 
restorers of 1850 had the old cracked bell of 1682 remsU I think we 
may conclude that it is the identical metal of the pre- Reformation 
bells which in a new form yet rings amongst the hills of the ancient 
parish of Rothbury as it did in those far-off days of Scottish raids 
when often the indwellers would be roused by its clamour to join the 
" hue and cry," when every man was obliged upon pain of death to 
rise and follow the fray. 

In the present day when a fire breaks out during the night in the 
village or neighbourhood, the sexton rings the church bells to arouse 
the villagers, who flock to the scene of the fire, each with his bucket 
and his pail, and with might and main labour at their centenarian fire 
engine, an ancient machine of the last centniy more fit for the Black 
Gate Museum than for quenching a fire. This fire engine formerly 
stood in the old church porch. The passing-bell is always tolled at 
Rothbury, and the parishioners are informed whether the deceased is a 
man, woman, or child in the following manner : — after the bell has 
been solemnly and slowly tolled for the usual length of time, three quickly 
repeated strokes denote a child, six a woman, and nine a man. This 
has been the custom from time immemorial. During the early and 
middle part of the last century, when clocks were only possessed by 
the few, and long before the eight or ten hours' movement was dreamt 
of, a " six o'clock bell " was rung morning and evening for the purpose 
of letting the workpeople in the neighbouring fields and elsewhere 
know the hours of starting and leaving off. There was also an eight 
o'clock evening bell, probably a survival of the curfew bell. 

There is no evidence in the accounts of any repairs having been 
done to the bells during the first forty years of their new existence, 
not until the rectorship of Dr. Sharp, who followed Dr. Thomlinson in 
1721, when the entries in the church accounts for oil, leather, ropes, 
and other * et caeteras,' become very frequent, occasioned no doubt by 
the continual ringing of the bells for the daily services, also the 
morning and evening bell, an ancient custom evidently re-established 
by Dr. Thomas Sharp. 

The first is in the Easter accounts of 


1724— Will" Ma vin, mending the bells 

Oil and candle used about ye bells 

1 726— To Will : Mavin for mending ye Bell 

To bend Leather and oyle for ye Bells 

. 1727— A Gill of Oyl for ye bells 

Pair of Bell Uopes 

For more oyl and candles for the Bells ... 
1728 — To ye Smith for mending ye Bells 

To Arthur Tait for Leather for ye Bells 

To a pair of Bell Ropes 

Ridley for helping Mavin w**» ye bell tongue ... 

And twice helping up with ye bell 

1730 — To John Maying for a Gudgeon to ye little bell 

A Bolt and two Cottrels for ye great Bell 

John Ridley work at ye little bell 

1731— Oyl and nails for ye bells 

A pair of Bell ropes by R. Storer 

John Ridley mending the little wheel 

John Ridley two days' work at ye bells 

Jack Mavin for new Gudgeon and two CottTels... 

Bushing ye two pans of ye great bell w** brass ... 

Bushing ye two pans of ye little bell 

Mending ye great bell tongue &c 

1732 — Oil and nails for ye Bells 

Bell Ropes 

Mending the Bell tongue 

1738 — Oyl, Bell Ropes, Soap, Nails, Almanack 

Smith (viz., Mavin) Mending ye great bell 

Mending ye little bell 

Ridley at ye Bells a day and a half 

1740 — Mavin ye Smith mending the great bell 

The mending ye little Bell 

The Ropes for ye great Bell 

1742— Smith's bill for mending the Bells 

R. Storer Sen' Oil for the Bells 

For a pair of Bell ropes 

John Ridley's bill for the Bells 

1743 — John Mavin's bill for ye Bells 

Matthew Shotton at ye Bells 

Rob* Storer Sen' his bill for Bell ropes &c 
1744— For oil for the Bells 

To John Ridley mending the Bells 

John Mavin, mending the Great Bell 

and the little Bell 

1748— Rob* Storrer Sen' oil for the bells 

John Ridleys Bill for work at ye Bells and Bclfiy 

Rob* Storer Junior his bill for ye' Belfry 










































































... 1 6 
... 8) 

£ 8. d. 

3 2 

6 4 


3 1 


2 10 

7 10 

3 4 


5 8 






1760 — To John Maving mending the bells 

1751—10 Ridley's bill for the Bells &c 

1762 — To John Ridley for relining a Dormant in the Steeple 
and for greasing the Bells 

To John Having mending the great bell ... 

To him mending the little Bell 

To him mending the lock of ye great Gate 
1763— For a New Bell Rope paid W"* Readhead 

Smiths bill for mending the Bells 

Joiners bill for work at ye bells &c 

1764— The Smiths bill for the bells &c 

Oil for the Bells to Ridley 

1765— The Smiths Bill for the Bells this year 

1767— To Ringing the Bell at 6 a.m. & 8 p.m. ^ year 

1768— To Ringing the Bell one half year 

To John Ridley for Ringing the 6 *>Clock Bell ^ year ... 

1769 — To Ringing ye Bell at Morning & Evening i yr 

1775— To John Selby's Ringing the Bell M & B. J a yr 

[Early in the January of 1779 it seems the great bell had fallen 
out of its frame, and three thirsty Bothburians, for a New Year's 
drink, worked for four hours in replacing it. No other payment for 
the work is recorded in the churchwardens' account than this :— J 

1779, Jan. 7 — To three men to Drink for 4 Hours workin gett- 
ing up ye great Bell 

1783, March 12 — To Robt Snowdon, Blacksmith for mending 

the Bell Gudgeons and balancing them 16 

Leather for the Bell Clappers by — Vint 16 

Since the foregoing account was written, I have received the fol- 
lowing communication from our Secretary, Mr. Blair, who has kindly 
assisted me in many ways whilst preparing this paper, to whom I 
had sent rubbings of the marks and inscription on the 1682 bell: — 

Mr. Stahlschmidt, a great authority on bells, writes me thus : — * The 1682 
bell is by James Bartlett. who had the Whitechapel foundry from 1676 to 1700. 
No doubt it contains the metal of the previous bell. Equally certain is it that 
the 1860 bell does 7iot contain the metal of its predecessor. Nowadays the old 
metal is never recast unless specially ordered (and looked after). Unless there 
is direct evidence that the daily morning and evening peal was institute! by 
Dr. Sharp in last century, I should feel inclined to look upon the former as 
a survival of the pre-Ref ormation • morning ave bell ' transferred to a later hour 
and a secular purpose. The usual time for it was 4 or 6 a.m. The fact of the 
first direct payment for this work occurring in 1767 is not sufficient evidence to 
my mind that the custom then commenced. Down to that time it may have 
been considered as part of the sezton^s usual routine work. I notice, too, that 
Dr. Sharp died In 1768, which strengthens this argument of mine.' 



The Communion Plate. 

The communion plate of Rothbury Parish Church (All Saints') 
consists of seven pieces, viz.: — 

No> 1. — ^An embossed and engraved brass alms dish, having a large 
mby-coloured stone in the centre, the gift of the late Mrs. Wealleans 
of Flotterton House. Diameter, 16 inches. Modern, about 1872. 

No, 2. — An electro-plated salver, which stands upon the credence 
table with the unconsecrated bread during celebration. Modern, and 
perfectly plain. The gift of the Rev. W. 8. "Wrenford, curate of Roth- 
bnry, 1881. 

No, 3. — A small silver cross spoon. Five hall-marks : — (1) maker's 
initials I.P. ; (2) a lion passant ; (3) a leopard's head ; (4) the sover- 
eign's head ; (5) date letter t for 1874. 

The remaining four pieces — ^the flagon, the paten, the large cup, 
and the small cup^ — ^are of silver ; these I shall endeavour to describe, 
and at the same time give as much of their history as can be gathered 
from the quaint old pages of the church books. 

Flagon. — The flagon is 11 inches high including the lid, 8^ inches 
without the lid ; 3| inches diameter at the top. It bears six hall- 
marks, a coat of arms, and an inscription. 

The marks, in the deciphering of which I have had the kind 
assistance of Mr. Boyle, are:— (1) Initials of maker, %* 3f- for Robt. 
Makepeace, repeated; (2) a lion passant; (3) a leopard's head crowned; 

(4) ^ for Newcastle ; (5) date letter % for 1731. Inscribed :— 

Sx done Willi : Wharton Sen,, Sccleaicb de Sloihhiry in 
Gam : SVorthum : 25^ S)ecemiris 6€nno SI"'- /f.5/. 

The coat of arms and crest are those of the Whartons, and I am 
indebted for their description to the kindness of one of our members, 

> Bee pp. 28, 30, and 81, for iUnstiations of the communion plate, fiom 
drawings by Mr. J. T. Dixon of Rothbuiy. 



Mr. Bates, who says : — " As to the shield and crest on the flagon, 
they are of interest to students of Border history from their having 

Gx dene 1^ WTia^rt^ ^cn, 
2§ "^Sec^^t^yijS Chncjjp:;. 

being home by Sir Thomas Wharton, governor of Carlisle, summoned 
to Parliament as Lord Wharton in 1545, and snbReqnently made 


Warden General of all the Marches towards Scotland, viz.: — Sable, a 
maunch argent mfhin a bordure or charged mth eight pairs of lions* 
paws saltiremse erased gules, with the crest, a bulVs head erased 
argent attired or, gorged mth a ducal coroyiet, per paU of the secxmd 
and gules. The fanciful bordure to the shield was an augmentation 
granted to Lord Wharton by Edward VI., and could only properly be 
borne by his descendants, of whom this William Wharton could not 
have been one, at any rate by a legitimate line, as Lord Wharton's 
male issue became extinct on the death of the eccentric Philip, Duke 
of Wharton, in the first half of the last century. The Lords Wharton 
used generally, it seems, another crest, which is a perfect curiosity 
of heraldry, viz.: — A Moor kneeling in coat of mail, all proper, dumlly 
crowned or, stabbing himself with a sword of the first, and pommel of the 

Records of the Whartons — who appear to have been an important 
family in Coquetdale — are found in the church books of Rothbury 
during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the list of vestrymen for 
1659 occurs the name of Thomas Wharton, gentleman, and about the 
same period we read the following memorandum : — 

* There was Given Sixty pound by Commissioners for the repayre of ye 
Channsell at Rothbury to be Disbursed by Mr. Tho. Warton of Newtowne who 
was Intrusted w*h the money & the worke.* 

On the stone mantel of the kitchen fireplace at Brockley Hall Farm 
House, in Rothbury Forest, there is yet to be seen cut in fine bold Roman 
capitals the name, "Thomas Wharton, 1666," while in the vestry 
list of 1731 we find the name of the giver of this flagon, viz.: — 
" William Wharton, gentleman, of Brockley Hall." The gift of this 
handsome silver flagon was certainly not before time, because we read 
in the minutes of April 14, 1721 : — 

'It was also then further agreed that ye pewter flagon used at ye com- 
mnnion table he mended at ye place where it leaks,* 

Twenty-three years after the silver flagon was given to the church it 
required some repairs. In the churchwardens* accounts for Easter, 
1765, there is this entry : — " For mending the Flaggon for the Com- 
munion, 3 6." 

Paten. — The paten is 2^ inches high, 74 inches in diameter, 
having a slightly raised edge, with mouldings. Four marks and 
coat of arms on front ; one mark and initials on back. Marks on 



front are: — (I) Maker's initials, I. I., " probably," says Cripps, "the 
mark of Jno. Jackson;" (2) a leopard's head crowned; (3) a lion 
passant; (4) year letter m for 1689; with a lion passant on bottom 
of stand, and the initials T^S. engraved on the back of the paten. 



Respecting the coat of arras I again quote Mr. Bates, who says:— 
" The shield on the paten proves this to have been provided by Thos. 
Sharp, rector of Rothbury, 1721 to 1758. The arms are azure, a 
phean argent tvithin a hordtire or charged with eight torteaux; these 
arms were granted, it appears, in 1691 to Dr. John Sharp, who was 
archbishop of York, 1697 to 1714." I might add that Dr. Thos. 
Sharp, rector of Rothbury and archdeacon of Northumberland, was 
a son of Archbishop Sharp. The initials T.S. on the back of the 
paten are undoubtedly Thomas Sharp's. 



Large Cup. — ^The large cap is 8 inches high, the bowl 4 inches 
deep, diameter at top 3| inches, at 
bottom 2^ inches. No marks are 
visible; but, judging from the im- 
bricated ornamentation around the 
stalk, which somewhat resembles 
that seen on the Edlingham cup^ 
of 1612, and also on those at S. 
John's, Newcastle,* and Bywell S. 
Peter's,* both of which are of the 
first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury (the S. John's cup is also simi- 
lar in shape), we may assign this 
cup also to the early part of the 
seventeenth century. 

There appears from the church 
books to have been a "cuppe"in 
existence in 1660 ; and as we find 
traces of all the other pieces — the 
fiagon, the paten, and the smaller 
chalice — given dui'ing the 18th 
century, and no trace whatever of 
a new chalice having been given, 
this must be the "cuppe" men- 
tioned in the minutes of the vestry 
meeting of Easter, 1662. 

Small Cup.— This cup is 8| inches in 
height, 2^ inches diameter at the top, Ij 
inches diameter at the bottom of the bowl : 
the bowl ifi 2^ inches deep. There are two 

marks: — (1) Initials of maker, qSj for John 
Langlands, a Newcastle silversmith; and (2) 
lion passant; and it contains the following 
inscription : — <fn ^um S^arochicB Sloth- 

' Troe, iii p. 95, and plate facing p. 100. 

• Troo, iii, p. 38, No. 6. 

* Troe. iii p. 129 and plate. 


There is nothing on the cup to lead to the name of the donor. 
Fortunately, however, there is pasted into one of the vestry books, by 
the careful hands of that worthy man, the Rev. John Shotton, who 
was curate of Roth bury from 1743 to 1783, a letter, which without 
doubt refers to this small cup, and shows it to have been the gift (in 
1776) of Giles Alcock, Esq., merchant, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
During the first half of the last century the Alcocks of Newcastle 
purchased the Cartington estate, in the parish of Rothbury, which 
had probably been confiscated owing to the active part its owner, 
John Talbot, took in the Jacobite rising of 1716. Talbot was taken 
prisoner at Preston, whom Patten thus describes : — " John Talbot of 
Cartington, in Northumberland, a brave young gentleman." The 
Cartington estate remained in the hands of the Alcocks until 1883, 
when it was purchased by Lord Aiinstrong of Cragside. Thus we 
discover the connection between Giles Alcock the Newcastle mer- 
chant, and the parish church of Rothbury. I shall conclude with 
reading a copy of the letter mentioned : — 

Newcas: 13 June 1776. 

Being well infonn'd that there is not a Cup belonging to the church at 
Rothbury, that is both becoming and convenient for the administration of 
private Sacrament Especialy in the remoter parts of the parish, I desire the 
Minister & Church Wardens of Rothbury for the time being, will please to Accept 
of that, which the bearer will deliver for that purpose, along with the good 
wishes for the parish in general of 

Your hble Servant 
Bev Mr Shotton. Giles Alcoce. 

This, gentlemen, is about all I can tell you respecting the Rothbury 
church plate; and although the pieces are plain and unadorned by 
jewels or precious stones, yet they are of great interest to the anti- 
quary ; while to myself, one of their guardians for the last twenty 
years, this venerable communion plate, hallowed by the sacred use 
and religious associations of over two centuries, possesses a peculiar 
charm which the most elaborately engraved communion plate of 
modem times could not have. 



By MABEftLY Phillips. 

[Read on the 27th April, 1887.] 

The pen of our venerable member, Mr. James Clephan, has drawn for 
us many an interesting picture of the lives and doings of the early 
Nonconformists in Newcastle ; and Mr. Longstaflfe, in his voluminous 
Memoirs of Ambrose Barnes} the celebrated Puritan alderman, has 
provided a mine of information for the young student upon the same 

But the notable Act of Uniformity* that became law upon August 
24th, 1662, spread consternation throughout the whole county of 
Northumberland as well as in the town of Newcastle, for at the same 
time as Hammond,' Durant,* and Lever*^ resigned their holdings in the 
town, some forty other livings were left vacant throughout the county. 
Many of those so retiring started conventicles in or near their own 
houses, where they gathered together their friends and followers. 
Among this number was the Rev. " Thomas Trurant,"* who, upon 
the date I have named, quitted the pretty rectory adjoining the ancient 
church at Ovingham. 

But we have traces of Nonconformity in the district some time 
prior to this. 

At Heddon-oa-the-Wall, in 1629, it would appear that one Cor- 
nelius Glover was in the habit of preaching in the parish church after 
the vicar had finished his service, and that sometimes the clergyman 
was even hastened along to make room for Mr. Glover. From the 
depositions taken before the High Commissioner at Durham we find, 
" On a Sunday James Carr did saie to deponent I must goe to Mr. 
Wilson (the vicar) and bidd him dispatch praiers for that Mr. Glover 

* Memoirs of Ambrose Barnes^ Surtees Society, Vol. L. 
' Hist. Independency^ Fletcher, Vol. IV., p. 199. 

' " Samuel Hammond, from St. Nicholas's," Baxter's Life and limes (1713), 
by Edmund Calamy, D.D., Vol. J I., p. 498. 

* " William Durant, from AUhallows," Calamy, svpra^ p. 500. 
» " Henry Leaver, from St. John's," Calamy, snpra^ p. 600. 

* " Thomas Trurant, Ovingham," Calamy, snpra^ p. 506. 



is coining to preach." And from the same sonrce we are informed 
that in a few years Mr. Glover got into trouble about his preaching 
and had to flee the district, as the following entry shows: — "Cornelias 
Glover, clerk, preaching sediccious doctrine, 1634, Oct. 23; attach- 
ment, Dec. 11, sought for ; not found, 1635, Jan. 22. Of noe cer- 
taine abode — ^not likelie to be apprehended."'' 

Dr. Calamy,^ who is one of our great authorities upon the ejected 
ministers of 1662, says of Mr. Trewrent— "He continued preaching 
at Ovingham after he was ejected, and by his moderation and prudent 
carriage gained much even upon his enemies. He preached afterwards 
at Harrow-on-the-Hill, in this county, where he had a meeting place. 
There he continued the exercise of his ministry till God called him to 
his rest in the year 1676." In a subsequent edition of the same work 
by Palmer,'^ after Harrow-on-the-Hill, " Middlesex " is put in a paren- 
thesis, but in this instance (though generally very correct) there can 
be no doubt that our author is slightly out, and that it was to Harlow- 
on-the-Hill that Trewrent removed, and there that he ended his days. 
Though living in a quiet country rectory, Trewrent seems to have 
kept himself abreast of the times, for we find that he, with Weld,^® 
Hammond," and Durant,*^ Qf Newcastle, edited, in 1664, a little work 
entitled Hyprocrisie Discovered in its Nature and Workings?^ It was 
dedicated to Sir Arthur Hesilrig, and printed at Tomlin's, at the Sun 
and Bible, in Pie Comer. And when Cromwell propounded his 
scheme for a college at Durham, Trewrent was one of those named as 
a constant visitor.^* 

The Act of Uniformity of 1662 was followed, in 1664, by the 
Conventicle Act,^*^ which made it a criminal offence to attend any dis- 

' Cowrt of High Commimon at Durham, Surtees Soc, Vol. XXXIV., pp. 8, 
110, 111. 

• Baxter's Life and Timet, by Ed. Calamy, D.D. (1713) ; continuation of tame 
(1727), a later edition, entitled Palmer's NonconformisU^ Memorial. 

• Palmer's Nonoan, Memorial. 

" ** Thomas Weld, from Gateshead," Calamy, Vol. IL, p. 288. 

" Calamy, supra, p. 498. 

" Calamy, supra, p. 600. 

" Surtees Soc., Vol. L., p. 366. 

" Hutchinson's Hid. Durham, Vol. I., p. 623. 

" Hist. Independency, Fletcher, Vol. IV., p. 203. Crime to attend any dis- 
senting place of worship, and gave power to a single justice of the peace to con- 
vict, on the oath of an informer, any person above the age of sixteen present at 


Benting place of worship ; but we have every reason to believe that the 
passing of this Act did not silence the ejected vicar, and that it was 
some time daring this period that he, as well as preaching at Harlow 
Hill, held secret services in the house of some friend at Horsley, for 
there are still many in the district who tell you, *'My grandfather told 
me that his grand&ther told him that the early congregation at Horsley 
used to be gathered at. night, the members coming masked from great 
distances." But, in 1666, to make matters more comphcated, the 
Oxford, or Five Mile Act,^* was passed. It prescribed certain tests, 
and forbade all who could not conform to them from coming within. 
five miles of any corporate town, or within a similar distance of their 
old livings. To this Act, however, Trewrent" agreed, and so 'con- 
tinued to live in the district and, as far as we have any record, 
contrived by some means to keep himself free from fine or imprison- 

In the year 1672, King Charles 11. granted his licenses to tender 
consciences,^* and enacted that, upon appHcation, a person could obtain 
a license to preach, the same &vour being granted to certain houses, 
rooms, barns, or buildings to be used for preaching therein. 

Many of the ejected ministers availed themselves of the offer. 
There has been somewhat recently brought to Ught, at the Record 
Office, London, the Domestic Entry-book^® of Charles II., containing 

any meeting for worship where five or more were present beyond members of the 
family. Penalty for first offence, three months' imprisonment, or payment of 
£o ; second offence, six months, or £10 fine ; for the third, transportation beyond 
seas, or payment of £100. If a convicted person returned to his own country 
without permission, or before expiration of his term of banishment, he was to 
suffer death. 

" Hist, Indep., Fletcher, Vol. IV., p. 203. The object was to drive Noncon- 
formist ministers from places where they were well known. The plague had been 
raging very badly in London ; many clergy left their churches, and some of the 
old ejected ministers came back and preached in them, which tended much to 
bring about this Act. 

" Dep. York Castle. Surtees Soc, Vol. XL., p. 135. 

" Hi^, Indep,, Fletcher, Vol. IV., p. 210. 

'• ITie following letter will explain the licenses : — 

*• Public Record Office, 
"Rolls House, Chancery Lane, 22nd April, 1887. 

" Dear Sir, — I regret that the pressure of work will only permit me to send a 
few lines respecting the volumes you refer to. They form a portion of the Public 
Records preserved in the custody of the Master of the Rolls. The two bound 
volumes do not contain original licenses, but are merely the official registers of 
SQch licenses as were granted under the Indulgence of 1672. The more complete 
of the two volumes registers the names of persons and places ; the other forms 
an index, which I find goes no further than about June 10, 1672. The Rev. W. 


a list of the licenses granted, and by it we find that upon June 29th 
"Thomas Truren" had a license granted to be a Congregational 
teacher in his house in the parish of Ovingham; and that the house of 
" Thos. Trewren," in the parish of Ovingham, was licensed as a place 
where preaching might be held. (Harlow Hill and Horsley are both 
in the parish of Ovingham.) The same book informs us that upon 
September 6th, 1672, one George Bendall was granted a similar 
license for his house in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. By the kindness of a 
friend I am enabled to-night to exhibit the identical license that Mr. 
Bendall obtained. It may be remembered that he was one of the 
members of the early morning congregation that was surprised by 
Cuthbert Nicholson,** cordwainer, at a gathering in the house of Dr. 
Gilpin, in the " White Freers," when the doors were broken open, and 
the names of all present taken down and handed over to Mr. Mayor .*^ 
kfac simile of this license is given in the annexed plate. 

. History tells us that the licenses we have referred to were very 
soon withdrawn,^^ and the old laws again put in full force against the 
Nonconformists. We can only presume that Trewrent kept on in his 
old way until death ended his earthly mission at Harlow Hill in 1676. 
By the courtesy of the vicar, Mr. Blackett Ord, I have been allowed 
access to the registers at Ovingham; but as the burial entries do not 

Hume Elliot called my attention to this last fact. I consulted the Tolumes care- 
fully some time ago, with especial respect to Presbyterianism, and some of my 
observations (together with a transcript of the Indulgence) were printed in the 
report of the Law and Historical Documents Committee of the Presbyterian 
Church of England. You will find them in the published minutes of last year's 
Synod, pp. 191-194. In addition to the two volumes referred to by you, we have 
a bundle of applications for licenses, notable among which is an application in 
the handwriting of John Bunyan for nome nineteen licenses. This document is 
printed in exUfuo in the admirable life of Bunyan published not long ago by Mr. 
John Brown of Be«lford. Numerous applications are also scattered amongst the 
unbound State Papers of 1672, and we have some of the original licenses. The 
two volumes are of the deepest interest, and have, I fancy, been several times 
coneulted by literary enquirers. Only small portions have been printed. I tried 
in vain to get the committee (above referred to) to recommend the publication of 
the whole by the Presbyterian Church of England. Each volume contains about 
300 pages of manuscript, and furnishes much information of biographical and 
topographical interest. 

" Trusting that these few particulars may be of service, 

'* I remain yours faithfully, 

" Maberly PhiUips, Esq." " Ernest G. Atkinson." 

I have had a list of the licenses for Northumberland, Durham, and Cumberland 
extracted : the same will be found at the end of this paper. 

* Gardner^s .England's Orievance Discovered^ p. 168. 

«* Surtees Soc., Vol. L., p. 409 ; Dep. from York Cattle, Surtees See, VoL XL. 

« Hist. Indiy.y Fletcher Vol. IV., p. 211. 




^ ^ r* ^ 1 J 





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commence UBtil 1678, of course there is no record of his burial. The 
tradition is that he was interred in the ^ifarden adjoining the chapel, 
¥rhich is very likely, as he would most probably stand excommunicated; 
and we know that about the same date Durant, the ejected minister 
from All Saints, was buried in the garden of his house in Pilgrim 
Street, Newcastle,^^ for that reason. Burial in Bolam Churchyard was 
also refused by Mr. Forster, the vicar, to Mrs. Bavington, of Earn- 
ham,^ because she was excommunicated. Mrs. Bavingtbn was event- 
ually interred in a tomb cut out of the rock under the house at Harn- 
ham Hall. 

But the archives of Durham have been kinder to us than the 
Ovingham register, as there the will of Thomas Trurent was handed 
to me a short time ago, a copy of which I submit: — 

Memorandum that on or about the seventeenth day of January in the year 
of our Lord one thousand 8ix hundred seventy and six Thomas Turvin then of 
HarlohiU within the parish of Ovingham & county of Northumberland Clark 
since deceased being sick in bodie but of perfect minde k remembrance ic desi- 
rous to make his will and dispose of the Estate he had. He the said Thomas 
Turvin did declare himself Nuncupatively as foUoweth or in words tending to 
the like effect [that is to say] I Give and bequeth unto Mrs Elizabeth Ogle six 
red Lethem hose a screen & two brew lead cettles ; • unto Mr Thomas Boutflower 
a clock, unto Mrs Clark 2 pair of sheets & bed clothes to furnish a bed ic a book 
to Mr Bridges; unto Mr Thomas Ogle ten books 8 of Zanchijs & Musculus on 
Isaiah, & the rest to chuse as he pleases. Unto Mabel 1 Gray a pair of sheets. 
The debts to be paid & the remainder to my son Jonathan. And he desired Mr 
Thomas Boutflower to be his Executor. Which words or words to the same sig- 
nification the said Thomas Trurin did utter & declare as & for his last Will and 
Testament in the presence & hearing of 

""'" ""1 


*■ Calamy, Vol. IL, p. 600 ; and Surtees Soc, Vol. L., p. 418. After his eject- 
ment, he continued to live in his own house in Pilgrim Street. The gardens 
would run to Anderson's Place. Brand says he found there a flat gravestone, 
with a Latin inscription ; it was under the staircase, in one of the stables of the 
late Sir Walter Blackett's house (now about covered by Messrs. Lambton's Bank). 
The stable appears to have been built over it. The place was long known among 
the servants by the name of ** the dead man's hole." The stone was given by Mr. 
Anderson, during the ministry of Mr. Turner, to the church worshipping at Han- 
over Square. When they removed to a new church in New Bridge Street the 
stone was fixed in the vestibule, where it now stands. Mr. Turner's church, 
though Unitarian in his time, had originally been Congregational, and Durant's 
followers removed thither at his death in 1681. 

** Richardson's Table Book, HUtorioal, Vol. L, p. 300 ; Mackenzie's Northd,, 
Vol. IL, p. 176 ; Hutchinson, Vol. L, p. 218. 

^ These signatures are not original. 


An InverUary of all the Ooodt ^ ChatteUs of Mr Tlumai Trewren of HarUnc died 
foueued of S(c, 


B. d. 

imia— Two Oxen 


00 00 

Three Kyne 


00 00 

Two Draught Horses 


00 00 

Swine & Geese 


12 08 

Husband Geare 


00 00 



14 00 



00 00 

For hardcorae sown 


06 08 

Five Silver Spoones 


06 00 



10 00 

Brass & Iron 


14 00 

Five bedsteads 


10 00 

Furaishinp for beds in the East Room 


15 00 

In the North Room 


16 00 

In the Upper Room 


06 00 

In the West Room 


00 00 


' 01 

16 00 



14 00 

Carpet k Counterpanes 


00 00 



19 00 



03 00 



00 00 

Chests & Trunks 


00 00 

Tables & Chairs 


00 00 



15 00 

Winnowing cloth pookes seives k. 



06 00 

Bookes *. 


00 00 

To soome in all 


00 04 


Richard Lloyd Knight Doctor of Laws Vicar General and Official 
^EniBcoDfil ^^°^ip*^ ^^"^ Spiritual pur|»oses to the lord Nathaniel by Divine Provi- 
Seal ) <^Gnce Loixi Bishop of Durham Sendeth Greeting To our well beloved 
*'' in Chrijst George Forster clerk Vicar of Bolam in the diocese of Dur- 
ham and Ralph Robinson Clerk Curate of Ovingham in the said 
Diocese of Durham we order and enjoin them to call before them or 
either of them at some suitable place and hour one Thomas Boutflower 
gentleman Executor of the Will of Thomas Trewrin late of Harlow- 
upon-the-hill in the Parish of Ovingham gentleman ileceased to swear 
him the said Thomas Boutflower faithfully to execute the Will of the 
Ed • Kirbv ^^^ deceased and pay the debts and legacies mentioned in the said 
Sarroirate ^^^' -^^^ ^^^ produce a full true and perfect inventory of all and 
^^^ singular the goods of the said deceased and exhibit the same to us 
And that the said Executor shall enter into a bond to us faithfully to 
perform the ordere herein and give security for the performance of 
such duty committed to him on or before Friday the 23rd of this in- 
stant month of March and Certify the same together with the will 
inventory and bond aforesaid to be annexed to these presents. Dated 
at Durham under our seal the 3^ day of March 1676. 
22 March 
Vestra venerabile GAB. NEWHOUSE 

Mandatum f uit Reg'rarins 

impleta per nos 

GEO : FORSTER Vicar, de Bolam 
RADOLPH. ROBINSON Vicar, de Oringham 


It says that on or about the 17th day of January, 1676, at *' Har- 
hohill," Thomas Trewren did declare himself nnncupatively as follows, 
etc., etc. He gives to Mrs. Eliz. Ogle six red leather hose ; to Mr. 
Thomas Boutflower^ a clock; to Mr. Bridges a book; to Mr. Thomas 
Ogle*« ten books; to Mabel Gray a pair of sheets; and the remainder 
of his estate to his son Jonathan, and desires that Mr. Boutflower will 
be his execntor. There is also an " Inventory of Goods & chattells," 
which is very interesting as it shows the value of things in that day; 
the total comes to £73 Os. 4d., no mean sum for the times; and from it 
we clearly see that Trewrent kept a farm. The inventory is signed 
by George Dobson and Oswald Harrison, of whom more anon. 

There is also a mandate from the Episcopal Court of Durham. 
The original is in Latin, but I have had it transcribed. It is to "our 
well-beloved in Christ," George Forster, vicar of Bolam, and Ralph 
Robinson, cnrate of Ovingham, enjoining them to call before them at 
some suitable place Thomas Boultflower, and take his declaration that 
be will dnly discharge the will. Upon the 22nd March the three 
meet, and Forster and Robinson sign the document and return the 
same. I incline to think Mr. Thos. Boutflower would reside 
at Apperly, for at the same time that Trewrent left Ovingham 
Mr. Evans^ left the vicarage at Bywell, and we are told he 
removed to •' Weldon, three miles from Bywell," which I take to be 
Welton, near Nafferton, and about the distance named from Bywell, 
and that he preached alternately at Sir Wm. Middleton's at Belsay, 
and at the honse of Mr. Boutflower at Apperly, which Ues a few miles 
from Stocksfield Mr. Bontflower was evidently a man of substance, 
as the list of rentals^ in 1668 quotes him as owning property in several 

It was rather remarkable that it was upon the same day of the 
month (viz., March 22), two hundred and eleven years afterwards, that 

» Calamy, Vol. IL, p. 519. 

^ Most probably the same Thomas Ogle who was a member of the Baptist 
Church at Hexham, and who was " delivered over to Satan " (in 1666) with Mr. 
Stephen Anderton (minister), for schism and blasphemy against Mr. Tilliam^s 
doctrine. Mr. Anderton was restored, but we have no note of Thomas Ogle. — 
Mift, Baptist Ch. (Douglas), pp. 66, 73. 

" Calamy, Vol. IL, p. 619. 

^ ** Rentals and Bates for Northumberland, with Proprietors' Names, 1663,* 
Hodgson, Pt. a, VoL I., p. 243. 



I fonnd the will of Trewrent at Durham. A word or two upon the 

signatures before us on the ma&date. Of Ralph Robinson^ curate 

of Ovingham, we know nothing, but the vicar of Bolam, George 

Forater,*^ was ejected by the rebels in 1646, and was severely fined for 

not giving up his living. It is said that he was pulled out of his 

pulpit by the blacksmith. He was frequently dragooned and plundered 

of his hay and com. He lived until the restoration in 1660, when 

Mr. Leaver,^ who had been put in by the JParliament, was ejected, and 

Forster restored. Apparently he did not forget then to punish his 

old enemies. 

The register notices that 

he refused burial to the son 
of the Bolam blacksmith, 
and treated Mrs.Bavington 
in the same way. She was 
the daughter of Sir Arthur 
Hazlerig, and wife of Major 
Philip Bavington. She 
died August 28, 1670, but 
was not buried in the garden 
tomb until September 9th 
the time between being 
occupied in arranging with 
the vicar and preparing the 
tomb. She was a dissenter, 
and for some cause had 
been excommunicated, a 
sentence frequently passed 
upon dissenters for con- 
tempt of court. At Ham- 
„ ^ ham Hall, upon two of the 

seen written the inscrip- 

/n ^ i/ tions, doubtless printer- 

^f^(</Uy /OjrO hand, copies of which are 

here given, frds of the full 
an;BSl^nl:J^^fJ:'6r''^°'^'^*'**Bi^- Many years after, the 
" Calamy, Vol. IL, p. 614. 

^\^ \ccP 


tomb was rifled and the body mutilated. Veitch,^^ one of the ejected 
Scotch ministers, also lived at Haruham Hall under the name of 

What immediately was the history of Horsley upon the death of 
Mr. Trewrent we have now no means of ascertaining, we can only 
presume that they struggled on as best they could, considering the 
nature of the times, until the year 1682, when we again catch 
their history, never afterwards to lose it, for in that year the Rev. 
Robert Blunt'^ took the reins of oflBice. Calamy says : — 

•he was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and afterwards came 
to Kirkeharle, from whence he was ejected. After his being silenced, he took a 
farm, but grew weary of it in a year. Then he lived north with his wife's mother, 
and preached in her house, but the Archdeacon of Durham keeping court in the 
neighbourhood, he was prosecuted and for non-appearance excommunicated. 
Writs came out against him every term, and yet he escaped out of their liands 
and continued preaching every Lord's day. In 1672 he got a license to preach, 
but that being soon called in he was outlawed and fined £30 in the Exchequer^ 
and yet continued preaching to poor country people in the night. In 1682 he 
settled with a congregation at Horsley, where he continued until his death.' 

Accounts regarding Mr. Blunt are somewhat conflicting. The 
Memoirs of Barnes^ speak of him as having been put out at " Pontelon," 
while Calamy names him as at Eirkeharle, and Randall's list^ does 
not quote him at either place. It is quite possible that he may have 
been at Ponteland until the restoration in 1660, then have been put out 
there and presented with the living of Eirkharle, which he resigned at 
the passing of the Act of Uniformity. I have tried to clear up the point, 
and have written to the present vicars of both places on the subject, 
but, unfortunately, they could not aid me. There is no doubt that Dr. 
Thomas Gray^ was ejected from Ponteland by the Parliamentary 
party in 1641, and suflFered very great hardships in consequence ; but 
Bandall's list, the only one I believe that is available, is very incom- 
plete during the time of the Commonwealth. Calamy quotes Hum- 
phrey Bell as being ejected from Ponteland in 1662. We are informed 

« Calamy (ed. 1727), Vol. IV., p. 686 ; MetMirs of Veitch and Brysson. 
» Calamy, Vol. II., p. 504. 
•* Surtees Soc., Vol. L., p. 140. 

•* Randal. A State of the churches under the Archdeaconry of Ncrthnmher- 
Uind, at the end of Vol. II. of Hutchinson's Hitd. l^orthd. 
« Walker's Suf., Vol. II., p. 253. 



that Mr. Barnes^^ was instrumental in procuring a yearly allowance 

out of the legacy of Philip Lord Wharton for Mr. Robert Blunt, and 

that Mr. How, of London, also left him a small annuity. But 

although there may be some doubt about Blunt having been at Pon- 

teland, there can be no doubt of his leaving Kirkharle in 1662, and 

of his future movements. The Domestic Entry-book that we have 

before referred to clears the matter for us, for we find from it that in 

1672 Robert Blunt was granted a license to be a Presbyterian teacher 

in his house at Alnwick, and-that the house of Robert Blunt in Alnwick 

was licensed to be a meeting place, and the friend who searched for 

me, further found in a bundle of loose papers^ the following : — "Mr. 

Robert Blunt desires a license to preach in the Tolbooth of Alnwick, 

if it may be granted ; if not, for his own house there, he was formerlie 

minister at Kirkhorll. 7th May, 1672, Mr. Ferner." 

There can be no doubt, therefore, that Alnwick was the place 

"North" to which Calamy says he removed, and that he came last 

from Kirkharle. But there is one other singular thing regarding 

him. In the volume of visitations, in the Episcopal Registry at 

Durham, for Northumberland and Durham for 1665 to 1669, amongst 

the names in the lists of those who are "presented" for being Quakers 

and Nonconformists we find that at Alnwick, on October 14th, 1665, 

William Blunt, Eliz. Brandling, Eras. Brandling, Matthew Blunt, 

Edward Craster and wife, John Neil, Robert Boswell and wife were 

all presented for being Nonconformists. I think we may safely take 

this as the family of our old friend, though at first sight, it seems 

strange that he was not there himself. But when we remember that 

Calamy tells us he was excommunicated by the archdeacon, and 

writs issued against him, we can pretty well account for his absence.** 

Unfortunately, the book does not favour us with the fete of the early 

Alnwick Nonconformists. But, however much Blunt kept in hiding, 

we feel pretty sure he would be somewhere to the front when his 

brother in adversity, William Veitch, passed through the town a 

prisoner on his way to Edinburgh. Veitch was a Scotch minister who 

deemed it best for safety to cross the Border, so he came to Falalees, 

near Rothbury, bringing his young children in creels. Though 

Falalees was a very wild place he was soon molested, when he removed 

^ Surtees Soc., Vol L., p. 140. »« See Note, No. 17. 

» Calamy (ed. 1727), Vol. XL, p. 604. 


to Hamham Hall, which we have previously noted as containing the 
tomb of Madam Bavington. After a few years the property was sold. 
Veitch then removed to Stanton Hall, near Long Horsley, and here 
it was in 1679 that Majors Main and Oglethorpe came to his house, 
forced an entrance, and took Veitch prisoner to Morpeth Jail.*^ From 
there he was removed via Alnwick to Edinburgh, where he was designed 
to be sentenced to death, which, by the application of a friend who 
took a journey to London on purpose, was prevented, but the instruc- 
tions only arrived an hour before sentence of death was to have been 
pronounced. He was taken to Alnwick, January 81st, 1678-9, by 
Lieut. Griffiths, the beating of the kettle drums announcing liis 

We can well imagine that during some of Blunt's nocturnal 
preachings Horsley was visited, and that arrangements were made for 
his becoming the minister of the place, and thither, in 1682, he 
removed, and as far as we can gather spent a more peaceful time. 

The question of information against those who did not conform 
would depend very much upon the temper of the vicar and church- 
wardens of the parish in which they lived. It would appear that at 
his time of visitation the archdeacon issued a printed form to his 
clergy containing a number of questions, first for the vicar to answer 
regarding his wardens, secondly, questions to the wardens regarding 
the vicar, and further orders, that they were all to meet together and 
answer a number of questions regarding those residing in the parish. 
A Ust of offences for which some or many parishioners were "pre- 
sented" in the diocese of Durham between 1665 and 1669, may give 
a good idea of the questions the vicar and wardens would have to 
answer. They ran as follows : — 

Plowing on Easter day. 

Suffering one of his servants to carry whins on the King's birthday. 

Being a Nonconformist. 

Not nncovering his head when he went into church. 

Absenting from church. 

For being married after the Quaker fashion. 

^ Memtnrg, Veitch and Brysson, p. 79. Veitch subsequently, under the name 
of •* Johnston," conveyed the Earl of Argyle to London, While they were at 
"Roderham," at supper with the landlord of the inn, a postboy came in and gave 
"mine host" a bill to read. He gave it to Veitch, asking him to read it aloud. 
It was a notice of Argyle's escape, and offering a reward of £600 for his body. 


Working with a person who stood excommuuicated. 

Unlicensed schoolmaster. 

For pinning crosses on a dead body going to be buried. 

For interring in a garden one dying excommunicated. 

For not receiving the sacrament. 

For being a scold, and breeding disorder among her neighbours. 

For entertaining a Roraish priest. 

For not paying cess towards the repairs of the church, and throw- 
ing scalding water in the face of the churchwardens. 

Burying their dead in a garden, and refusing to bring them for 
Christian burial. 

Not baptizing their children. 

A number of parishioners at Bolam for having a burial place in the 
garth of the church, other than that provided by law. 

And at Bywell, William Fenwick, Esq., J.P., for coming seldom 
to church. (May we presume he was engaged composing the 
celebrated tune for the Northumbrian Small Pipes that bears 
his name.) 

I think the young community at Horsley must have had many 
friends, or their little hamlet was so out of the world that it was quite 
forgotten (in the present day even, many people will modestly ask, 
"Where is Horsley ?"), as I did not see any of its inhabitants named 
in the list. 

At a time when most people believed in witches and bewitching, 
and when such a magnate as a Newcastle magistrate could send to 
Scotland for a witch trier, who, upon his arrival at Newcastle, tried 
the poor wretches by ninning pins into their bodies, and condemned a 
number, who were duly hanged,*^ we can easily imagine that the sudden 
or untimely death of any one known to be an active persecutor of 
those not conforming might deter many a churchwarden in his duty 
as by law prescribed, and several cases of this nature would be known 
at Ovingham. First, there was the case of Major Ord. He had, in 
1660, some diflference with his vicar, Mr. Gilbert Rule, of Alnwick, 

** Gardner'8 EnglaivPs Grievance Discovered. The witch-trier waa afterwards 
found to be an impostor, ^he was laid hold on in Scotland, cast into prison, 
indicted, arraigned, and condemned, for such villanie, exercised in Scotland; 
and upon the gallows he confessed, he had been the death of above two hundred 
and twenty women, in England, and Scotland, for the gain of twenty shillings 
a peoce, and be^eeched forgiveness, and was executed/ P. 116 (reprint of 1796.) 


regarding the use of the Prayer Book. Matters were carried to a very 
hitter end, when, a few days before the case was to be tried in New- 
castle, Major Ord had occasion to see a friend, and for the purpose was 
about to ride through the Tyne at Ovingham, where he fell dead from 
his horse. The jury found that he was dead before he fell, but the event 
made such an impression that those who had joined the Major in the pro- 
secution would not appear, and the proceedings, therefore, i'ell through.*^ 
Then there was Sir Thos. Lorraine of Kirkharle, who had, during the 
week, sworn to break up the meeting of Mr. Veitch {alias Johnson), 
at Harnham, on the following Sunday, but in the meantime he was 
kicked down stairs by his wife, who was sister to Sir John Fenwick, 
for selling four oxen and spending the money in drink. His leg was 
broken and he was otherwise much injured.^' The awful death of Mr. 
Bell, vicar of Long Horsley, was naturally much talked of through 
the country-side. He had taken an active part against the Noncon- 
formists, and returning home from Newcastle one night he stopped to 
drink with the curate at Ponteland, and on leaving there, after dark, 
mistook his way, and was not heard of for two days, when he was 
found in the River Pont, standing upright, but frozen to death, and 
firmly embedded in the ice.** 

The ministrations of Mr. Blunt commencing, as we have said, in 
1682, lasted for a number of years, and until the laws against Non- 
conformists became less stringent, for it was not until Feb. 13th, 
1715/6, that he found a quiet resting place in the churchyard at 
Ovingham, at the advanced age of 92. Unfortunately, we have little 
now that we can tell of the doings at the Horsley meeting house 
during that long period. The various political changes that occurred 
would, of course, be keenly watched. The coming home of the young 
Earl of Derwentwater to take up his abode at Dilston would be sure 
to have attracted their attention, and if the procession did not pass 
through their village on its way from Newcastle to Corbridge, they 
could have seen it winding along the valley of the Tyne, and it is just 
possible some of their number may have followed the Earl and General 
ForBter in their disastrous rising in October, 1715. 

Of our old friend's domestic life the Ovingham register records one 

*• Rule went into Scotland, then to France an«l Holland, where he Ftudied 
physic, and took degree of Doctor. Some time at Berwick.— Calamy (1727), Vol. 
II., p. 614 ; Vol. IV., p. 076. *• Mcmmrs. Vcitcb, p. 63. '* Ihid, p. 87. 


sad event, for from it we find that the partner of his troubles and trials 
for so many years left him to finish his earthly journey alone on April 
26, 1710. From the same source we gather that an assistant minister 
that he had in his failing years preceded his old master, for on June 2, 
1715, "Mr. Hezekiah Dawson, minister of Horsley," joined the great 
majority. The saying is very true, '* Uneasy lies the head that wears 
a crown," for while many a crowned head had passed away the old 
minister had survived. Born in 1624, in the closing years of James I., 
he saw the eventful reigns of Charles I., the Commonwealth, Charles 
II., James XL, William and Mary, Anne, and was a loyal subject for 
two years of George I., a period unparalleled in the religious history 
of our country. 

During the greater part of Mr. Blunt's life the length of his ser- 
mons would doubtless be measured by the hour glass, and, judging 
from the services that were held in Cromwell's time, it would take a 
pretty large glass to be very frequently turned ere the morning service 
came to an end. From Marsden's History of the Puritans I extract 
the following, which may make us thankful for the days in which we 
live: — 

* The manner of Cromweirs chaplain was as follows : — He began at nine 
o'clock with prayer of a quarter of an hour, read and expounded Scripture for 
about three quarters of an hour, prayed an hour, preached another, then prayed 
half an hour, and the people then sang about a quarter of an hour, during which 
he retired and took a little refreshment, he then came into the pulpit again, 
prayed an hour more, preached another hour, and then with a prayer of half an 
hour concluded the service.' 

But we may presume things quieted down ere Blunt finished his 
course, as the church books of All Saints, Newcastle, show, in 1640, 
the purchase of " an hour and a half glass," but in 1706 the officials 
invest in one of only " 20 minutes." 

From the manuscript of Mr. Walter Wilson in Dr. Williams's 
library, in Grafton Street, Loudon,** we are informed that Mr. James 
Atkinson became Mr. Blunt's colleague just before his death, that the 
congregation then consisted of 250, not an average, but residents 
attending, twelve of their number being county voters, and that upon 
the death of Mr. Blunt, Mr. Atkinson was duly appointed the minister 
of the Horsley church. 

** Congregatwnal Year Book, 1887, p. 1 64. Catalogue of Books in Dr. Williams's 
Library at the Library of the Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 


By the kindness of Mr. Brewis Elsdon, solicitor to the trustees, I 
have been allowed access to all documents in his possession. From 
their earliest deed it would appear that in November, 1721, the chapel 
and minister's house were made over to James Atkinson of Horsley, 
gent. ; Luke Bell, Newburn Hall, gent. ; John Forster, Leamington, 
gent.; Bobert Humble, Ryton, gent.; Stephen Eltringham, Hall 
Yards, yeoman ; and Thos. Ornsby, Stella Path Head, yeoman, by Mr. 
Philip Richardson, of Crookham, in the county of Durham, who 
acknowledges that his father, William Richardson, had received the 
sum of £35 in full consideration for the chapel and house, but having 
died before he had signed a deed of conveyance, his son and heir, the 
said Philip Richardson, duly executed the same. Upon the back of 
the deed is endorsed the '* Livery of Seizin," proving that the villagers 
had duly witnessed the delivery by the one and the "seizin" by the 
other of some handable portion of this property .^*^ The boundaries 
are duly given, and it is described as '^ now in the occupation of the 
Rev. James Atkinson, but late in the' occupation of the Rev. Robert 
Blunt." It is stated to be for the use of ** Protestant Dissentera." 

It would, therefore, undoubtedly be some time during Mr. Blunt's 
ministry that the chapel was built, but, most unfortunately, we cannot 
fix the exact date of its erection. It is a plain, substantial building, 
devoid of any architectural beauty. There is a sun-dial upon the 
front wall, which appears to date from the building of the chapel. 
The residence of the minister is at the side of the chapel ; it is evidently 
of much earlier date, but from time to time it has been much altered ; 
the outer walls have been cemented, the roof has been renewed and 
covered with blue slates, but a house a little down the village to the 
west, which stands unaltered, enables us to form a good idea of what 
the minister's house originally was, and blending tradition with the 
various historical data that I have gathered, there is little doubt that 
the early meetings were held at night in the attic of the house (which 
ran the whole length of the building). Access was obtained through 
a small trap-door by means of a ladder, which could be pulled up 

*• " Livery of Seizin.'* "When it was wished to make the transfer of property 
very public, it was customary to call the villagers together to witness that the 
party selling handed to the party purchasing a clod of earth, or a stone, etc., in 
token of one delivering and the other seizing the property in question ; notice 
of the same being endorsed upon the deed and duly witnessed. 


after the congregation had assembled, so that every precaution might 
be taken against informers. Then as times improved, and the laws 
were relaxed against the dissentei's, by subscription, and perhaps by 
positive hard labour, the chapel was raised by the members upon the 
ground at the side of the house, the house having been bought of 
WOliam Richardson for the £35 we have before quoted, but no con- 
veyance made at the time. 

This sum of £35 for a house and chapel in after years, when a law- 
suit was pending, seems very much to have bothered counsel ; but I 
think we may take it as fair value for a well built four-roomed hoase 
at the time it was purchased, and an extract from Best's Farm- Baok^^'^ 
written in 1641, may give us a good idea on the matter. He says : — 

'John Berwick pay'd for his house & close adjoining £1 6s 8d per ann. 
but since his decease Edw**. Pender has paid 40/- besides 12** that he gave in 
earnest att the time of the graunt Lawrence Middleton pays for his house k. 
close 13/4 per ann. but it is worth 16/- They usually lette these cottages here- 
abouts for 10/- apiece although they have not so much as a yard or any back 
side belonging to them We give the thrashers 6^* per day from time we get all 
in till all is thrashed then to Candlemas 4^ Mowei-s 10*' Women boys and 
girls the bipe^er sort 3** lesser 2'* John Pearson had usually for weeding & 
dressing 7*' when he meated himself but when he was here at meat he had 4** 
a day.' 

From these entries I think we may gather that William Richardson 
was fairly paid for his house ; though I strongly believe the Richardson 
family were prominent members "of the church, and may have been 
lenient in their valuation, as we shall endeavour to show. 

In the valuation list for Northumberland in 1663,** given in 
Hodgson's history of the county, under the head of Horsley, we find 
one Elizabeth Richardson holding property assessed at £8 per annum. 
Of Elizabeth Richardson we know nothing, but presume she had a son 
Thomas, who lived afterwards at Ovingham, and who in due time 
inherited his mother's property ; for by the will of the said Thomas 
Richardson, made in 1706, and duly proved at Durham, we find that 
he left all his goods, movable and unmovable, to his son William 
Richardson. A fall copy of the will is subjoined. It is well worthy 
of perusal ; and it will be seen that one of the witnesses to the signa- 
ture is Robert Humble, presumably the same Robert Humble of Ryton 
who is one of the trustees of the chapel. 
« Surtees Soc, Vol. XXXIII., p. 124. « Hodgson's Northd., Part 3, Vol. I^ p. 290. 


The will also coutains such a confessioQ of faith as shows Richard- 
son to have been a man of strong rcligious opinions, and leads to a 
very probable surmise that it was written by our old friend Robert 
Blunt — ^the lawyer or the clergy being in that day the principal will- 
writers, and we have evidence of the minister of Ovingham making a 
will on a former occasion. 

Thomas Richardson died August 6th, 1720, according to the entiy 
in the Ovingham register. 

Soon after Mr. Atkinson became the minister at Horsley, one 
Daniel Shaftoe, who in a deed belonging to the trustees is quoted as 
of Humshaugh, near Hexham, but in his own will as of Hexham, 
died, and after making some bequests to a kinswoman and his servant, 
leaves all the rest of his goods and chattels to John Forster, of Leam- 
ington ; John Harrison of Harlow ; John Dawson of Harlow ; Luke 
Bell of Newbum Hall ; John Wilkinson of Horsley ; John Angas*^ 
of Stifford ; and makes them his executors. The will is dated October 
3l8t, 1718, and duly proved at York, November 28th, 1718. What 
the property consisted of we have failed to ascertain, or what these 
six executors immediately did with it, but we do find that in the year 
1746 they pui-chased of one William Rochester a small farm at Great 
Whittington for the sum of £380, '* as it was deemed desirable by the 
minister and people of the Horsley chapel that the same should be 
purchased and annexed to the meeting-house or chapel, and the rents 
and profits for ever applied for the maintenance and support of the 
said minister,'* and this seems to have been duly carried out, the 
little farm being known to this day as the Whig's Farm, and the 
meeting-house still oilen being called the Whig's Chapel. It will be 
noticed that two of the executors under this will are also trustees of 
the chapel when it was purchased from Richardson, leading us to 
think that Mr. Shaftoe must have had some connection with the place, 
and, though not expressed in his will, that he must have directed those 
to whom he left the money to apply the same for the benefit of the 
Horsley chapel. The family of Shaftoes is so numerous that I have 
failed to. trace exactly who this Daniel Shaftoe was, but am informed 
that he was a descendant of the Bavington family. If this be so, it 

*• Mr. W. A. Wilkinson of Heddon-on-the-Wall, who made out the pedigree 
of the Anj?U8 family, says John Angus was the fourth son of John Angus of 
Styford, and afterwards became John Angus of Hillyfield. 


rather points to aa acquaintance between Shaftoe and Robert Blant, 
when he was at Kirkharle, that place being close to Bavington. I 
have also been informed that members of the Bavington family did 
attend at Horslej. The conflicting description of Mr. Shaftoe, as of 
Humshaugh and of Hexham, is strange. It is possible his property 
may have been at Humshaugh, as the Inn there, now the property 
of Miss Herdman, was in 1740 owned by William Shaftoe, but the 
ownership is not quote<i back to a prior date.*® 

The universal tradition in the district is that the building of the 
chapel was very greatly assisted by the Dobsons of Harlow Hill, and 
that the whole family was then, and for many years afterwards, 
staunch supporters of the community ; also that the heads of the family 
had been troopers in Cromweirsarmy, that they were at the sacking of 
Dundee, and got considerable booty, with which they returned after 
the battles were all over, and settled at Harlow Hill. An old rhyme 
in the country-side runs something to this eflfect : — 

' The Dobsons, the Dobsons, they went to Dundee, 
But when they came back they held their heads hee.* 

The parish registers of Hexham*^ and Whickham*^ also show entries 
of Cromwell's soldiers having been buried within their boundaries. It 
is a fact worthy of note that in the Ovingham register, which com- 
mences in 1678, we find at once numerous entries of the names of 
Richardson, Forster, Harrison, Yellowleys, etc., but it is ten years 
before we find the name of Dobson. In 1688 we have Mary Dobson, 
but the name does not occur again until 1701, when George Dobson 
is interred ; but after that date the name is very frequently met with. 
I have been fortunate in finding the will of George Dobson^ one of the 
troopers ; it is dated March 28th, 1700, from Harley, in the county of 
Northumberland, and a careful perusal of it opens up many interesting 
matters. His youngest son John inherits most of his property, and 
is to continue in the &rm that he holds under lease &om the Duke of 

To George Dobson, son of Jonathan (we presume his brother, and 

*^ The name appears at Gunnerton, not far from Humshaugh, in 1689. One 
Wm. Beacheliff was murdered ; and Edward Shafto, gent., of Gunnerton, says, 
when out a gunning one May morning, he found two gray mares tied, with saddles 
and hridles on. He took them home, and then with his brothers WiUiam and 
Arthur went up Stone-GappB and found the body of the murdered man. — Surteea 
Sue., Vol. XL., p. 294. ' ** Chronioon Mirabile, Sharp. ** Ibid, 


another old trooper), he leaves a legacy of £10. He desires that John 
will give to his son Samuel Dobson a gold ring of 20/- price, after his 
decease, for a token. He leaves to his '' loving wife, Mary Dobson/' a 
quarter part of all he has, and desires that she shall dwell in the ''west 
parlour" so long as she lives, or remains unmarried ; but we much fear 
that she did not long enjoy his kind provision, for the parish register, 
nine days after the interment of the old trooper, has the entry (June 
19, 1701) Mary Dobson of "Harlah Hill," leaving little doubt that she 
soon joined her soldier-husband. 

It will be seen that one of the witnesses to this will is John 
Harrison, and by comparing the signature we find him to be the John 
Harrison who is one of the trustees of the chapel property. 

The will contains such a strong declaration of religious faith — 
though not in the identical words — that it leads us to infer that the 
same hand wrote it which penned the will of Thomas Richardson in 
1701, namely, the old Puritan minister, Robert Blunt. 

Dobson's desire that "his loving wife dwell in the west parlour" 
is worthy of note. Upon inquiry, I am informed that this was not a 
Northumbrian custom, and we do not find it in Thomas Richardson's 
will, made about the same time ; but I am informed, on very good 
authority, that it was the usual custom in both Cumberland and West- 
moreland to leave to the dowager widow a specified part of the house 
or a special room according to the position of the parties, many of the 
houses to this day showing evidences of the same. 

Mr. Bates, in his recent exhaustive paper upon Heddon-ou-the- 
Wall,*^ confirms what we have said about the Dobsons having been 
troopers in Cromwell's army, further remarking that they came from 
Patterdale in Westmoreland, and this leaving the west parlour to the 
dowager widow would appear to sustain the statement in a remarkable 

The paper we have refeiTed to also tells us that Mr. Dryden, the 
present owner of High 8eat, has in his possession an uniedeemed bond 
showing that John Dobson of "Harley-upon-the-Hill" lent £50 to 
Ralph Widdrington of Cheeseburn Grange, and William Widdrington 
his son, on 16th May, 1699, to be repaid on the 14th of December 

*» Arch. Ael Vol. XL, p. 269. 


This I take to be the John Dobsoii named in the will, for, though 
the youn,Q:est son, he appears to take the lead in the fieunily. 

The whole matter clearly shows us that the Dobsons were men of 
substance. In after years they frequently appear as trustees of the 

The name of Dobson also occui's in the history of the early Baptist 
churches, for amongst those implicated in the plot at Mnggleswick was 
one Capt. Dobson.** 

At the back of the residence of Mr. William Bell, at Harlow Hill, 
may yet be seen a substantial house, with rooms on either side of the 

"Gr I 

door. Upon the head-stone of the door is marked ^ ' 1705/' and 

the same upon a stone in the angle of the house. On the front of the 
house a sun-dial will be seen, very like the one on the chapel. This 
I take to be the George Dobson who receives the legacy of £10, and 
whose signature we have to the inventory attached to Mr. Trewrent's 
will, showing another connection amongst the Nonconformist com- 
munity. There is also " I. D." cut in a cross wall at the east end of 
the front boundary wall of Mr. Bell's garden. From time to time the 
Dobsons have owned considerable property in the district. For many 
years some of the family had the " Iron Sign," a wayside hostelry of 
much note in its day. I have failed to get at the origin of the 
" Iron Sign." Is it possible that it can have been a corruption of 
" Ironsides," in memory of Cromwell's well-known troopers ? 

Much as we should like to know more of Oliver's old soldier, I 
fear we must rest content with the glimpse we have got. Had Car- 
lyle's " unknown correspondent "** only preserved the diary of Trooper 

*« Douglas, iV. of Eng. Bp. Ch. p. 81 ; Surtees's Dur. Vol. II. pp. 389, 391. 

*• ' Well supported tradition relates that when King Ch. I. w*as in Aackland, 
on his journey from Newcastle to Holmby, Gertrude, the eldest sister of Ck>lonel 
Fi-aucis Wren (who was as ardent a Royalist as he was a stem Kepublican), went 
to visit the King at Christopher Dobson's, and found him in the middle of a large 
guard-room, the soldiers sitting round on benches smoking tobacco — a practice 
the King held in utter abomination. Shocked at their uncourtly freedom and 
want of resi^ect towards royalty, she dashed the pipes from the soldiers' mouths 
as she advanced towards the King, to whom, kneeling, she tendered her respect- 
ful homage. The King, equally surprised and gratified at such a bold and uuex> 
pectcd proof of attention to his pei-sonal comfort, raised her up, saying. ' Lady, 1 
thank you I You have done more than the boldest man in England durst have 
done." — Chronicon Mirabile, Sharp. 


Sqaire, instead of committing it ruthlessly to the flames, perhaps the 
case might have been different.*** 

We have before named that William Richardson died without 
having executed the deed of conveyance of the chapel and house, and 
that his son, Philip, executed the same as his heir, and that in the said 
deed he is described as of Crookham, in the county of Durham (which 
really was Crookhall), and by his will, some extracts from which I sub- 
join, it appears that he lived until the year 1760, when he ordered that 
all his property in Horsley was to be sold, by which we clearly see that 
the Richardsons held other houses besides the one they had sold to the 
chapel trustees, one of which I was subsequently enabled to identify. 

But to return to the more immediate history of Horsley under the 
care of Mr. Atkinson, we may fairly assume that things prospered 
during his pastorate, as the present gallery bears date 1729, speaking 
of increased acconmiodation being required, but the Angel of Death 
seems to have invaded his family. An entry in the register, February 
20th, 1721, Mrs. Atkinson of Horsley, and again in 1747 (August 
6th), Hannah, daughter of Mr. Atkinson of Horsley, tell their 
respective stories. There is one event that soon after this would cause 
some excitement in the little assembly, and that was the rise of the 
Wesleys. Very soon after the news would reach such a quiet place as 
Horsley, Charles Wesley was announced to preach at Ryton, 1742 or 
1743, and thither wandered some of the Horsley congregation, notably 
one Jonathan Simpson,^' who, with his good wife, was much im- 
pressed, and greatly held with Wesley's doctrine, which did not appear 
quite to harmonise with the views of Mr. Atkinson and the rest of the 
members of the church, for differences of opinion ran so high and 
waxed so warm between them that it led to Simpson leaving the little 
community, although he had been a member for many yeare and acted 
as precentor. After his leaving he was not long in getting Wesley to 
come to Horsley, which he regularly did, the service being held for 
many years in Simpson's house, until the members were strong enough 
to erect a building for themselves. 

In the Ovingham register, 1756, we find, "l8al)ella Simpson died, 
aged 109." Probably some relative. 

•• TJie Squire Papers: Lutt of Long Parliament . and Eastii. Assn. Com. as 
adjoined to Vol. II., 3rd ed. ; Oliver CromfcelVs Letters and Speeches, 
•^ The Orphan House of Wesley, Stamp, pp. 5-6. 


It was towards the closing years of John Wesley's life, when driv- 
ing out to preach at Horsley,^^ that he tells of a very narrow escape 
he had from a terrible accident. He was accompanied in the chaise 
by Mrs. Smith and her two children, Mr. Smith riding beside them 
on horseback. Upon gaining the top of a very steep hill, about two 
miles from Newcastle, both horses suddenly took fright and dashed 
down the hill. The driver was immediately thrown from the box, but 
the horses, though going first on the edge of one ditch, then on that of 
the other, cleared all obstacles, passing over the centre of a small bridge 
at the bottom of the hill, and dashing madly up the next, when they 
suddenly turned through an open gateway on the left, then across a 
fftrm yard to a field, but smashing another gate to pieces in their 
progress. Then they went over the field as madly as ever, and were 
Hearing a precipice when Mr. Smith galloped in front of them and 
brought them to a sudden stand. Had they gone a few yards further 
they must all have been killed. The hill undoubtedly was Denton 

Being at Horsley a short time ago, I was anxious to see the house 
where Wesley had preached, and after being kindly shown through by 
Mr. Jones, the present occupier, I saw a number of initial letters 
cut in the head stone of the front door. They were — 

T.R. MR W*R IR. 
P R. 1700. 

I was told that the property was supposed to have at one time 
belonged to the Ravensworth family, ignoring the fact of the family 
name being Liddell. A local history and directory that had been just 
pubUshed boldly asserted the same. But the letters so. exactly corre- 
spond with the names we have met with in the Richardson family, as 
to leave no doubt that this was at any rate some of the property 
ordered to be sold by Philip Richardson in 1760. It is somewhat 
strange that another of their houses should in after years also have 
fallen to the noncou forming party. There are some other marks upon 
the side stones of the door ; they are very indistinct, but they have been 
copied for me as nearly as i)ossible. The letters on the left hand side 
are stated to be "I. W.,"and the date something like 1740 to 1748. 
It has been suggested that it was cut to commemordte John Wesley's 

*• Life and Itmes of John Wesley, Tyerman, Vol. III., p. 169. 


preaching there about that time. I throw out the idea and it can be 
taken for what it is worth, but the marks are too indistinct to be 
reliable. The house was for many years occupied by the late Mr. 

The homely pulpit from which Wesley preached is still preserved 
aB a relic of early Methodism. 

At Horsley, the quiet course of Mr. Atkinson's life appears to have 
run on for over forty years, and we have little to record of the various 
events that transpired. Shortly before his death the Hexham riots** 
would cause some excitement, i\s the Ovingham register tells us that 
Joseph Hyslop of Wylam, who was shot in that fatal affair, was 
buried in 1761. 

On Oct. Slst, of the same year, the entry is " The Rev. James 
Atkinson, Dissenting Miuister, at Horsley," showing us that his earthly 
course was ended ; but as he and his old colleague had ministered there 
for eighty years we may presume that he had reached a venerable age. 
It would appear that he was followed in the ministry by the Rev. 
William Eltringham, though we have not the exact date of his appoint- 
ment, and from the parish register again do we gather the leading 
events while he was there. The smallpox had evidently raged badly 
both at Horsley and Ovingham, and the awful night of Nov. 17th, 
1771, would never be forgotten, for then the river rose so high that all 
the bridges on the Tyne but that at Corbridge were carried away,*® 
and the following copy from the Ovingham register shows the fearful 
event that happened just across the river at Prudhoe : — 

Charles Wilson of Horsley v All these eight 

Alexr. Hall servant to Mr. Laws at Pi'udhoe Castle ] drowned when boat- 
Isabella Hepple servant I house was swept 
Geo. Simpson \ away by flood 
Isabella Johnson 
Dorothy Johnson Daughter 
Balph Johnson son 
Matthew son of Arthur Johnson of Ovingham 

Sunday, I7th Nov. 

about 1 o'c morning 
and 2 men were 
saved on trees. 

^ A dispute about serving in the militia. Great mob. Ensign Hart shot by 
one of the mob ; soldiers then fired ; 24 killed. At next assizes two rioters were 
tried for high treason. They were found guilty, and sentenced to be drawn upon 
hurdles to place of execution, then to be hanged by the neck ; to be cut down 
alive, and to have their entrails taken out and burnt before their faces ; then to 
hare their heads severed from their bodies, the bodies divided into four quarters, 
and their heads and quarters disposed of at His Majesty's pleasure. — Riclirdson's 
Tabic Book, Vol. II., p. 94-^. ^ Ibid. p. 203. 


Mr. Eltringhani laboured on for other eighteen years. This brings 
us to 1789, when he finished his course of earthly labour, which is 
testified in the register to which we are so much indebted as follows : — 
" Rev. William Eltringham, of Horsley, minister of the Gospel." 

Soon after Mr. Eltringham's death, the Rev. John Heslup was 
appointed as minister in his stead. Of his life we ai'e able to record 
very little, though there are those still living who remember him well, 
and they have described him as a man not unlike the old portraits of 
Wesley. He wore a powdered i^eruke to the very last, retaining his 
office for twenty-eight years, and being gathered to his fathers Nov. 26, 

Up to this date, whatever may have been the faults or failings of 
the Horsleyites, they certainly were not fickle in their regard for their 
ministers, for from 1682, when Mr. Blunt came amongst them, until 
1822, when Mr. Heslup died, a period of one hundred and forty years, 
only four ministers had held the charge, death in all cases terminating 
the appointment. 

But unfortunately, towards the close of Mr. Heslup's life, difficul- 
ties of a very serious nature arose that threatened at one time to wreck 
the community entirely. 

It would appear that in March, 1821, Mr. Heslup being in very 
infirm health, it was resolved at a duly constituted meeting that the 
Rev. Andrew McGregor should be appointed for one year as assistant 
to Mr. Heslup. The services of Mr. McGregor were much appreciated 
by many of the members ; but during the year matters came to their 
knowledge so seriously touching the character of Mr. McGregor that 
it was resolved not to renew his appointment at the end of the twelve- 
months, notice of which was duly given to McGregor. He refused to 
accept the same, alleging that he had been engaged by Mr. Heslup ; 
and he seems to have retained his position until Mr. Heslup's death, a 
few months after. 

One Sunday, Dec. 1st, 1822, due notice was given that the mem- 
bers would meet the following Tuesday to appoint a new minister ; 
but when they assembled, to their astonishment they were refused 
admission to the chapel by the village constable and others there 
assembled, by order of Mr. McGregor, and Wm.^Catcheside and Stobart 
(two members of the congregation). A meeting was therefore held 


elaewhere, at which Mr. Wm. Nesbit presided, when a letter was written 

asking the advice of Mr. Davidson and Mr. Gibb, ministers of the 

denomination in Newcastle, who may yet be remembered by some of 

the members of this society. I have been told that some quaint lines 

upon men about town of that day jocosely described Mr. Davidson as 

follows : — 

** A lang, lean, lounging cuflf, with visage thin, 
His nose is prominent and aquiline." 

However, Mr. Davidson sent word that if they would convene a 

meeting for the following Friday, he would attend, when he hoped all 

might be settled amicably. When the Friday arrived, Mr. McGregor 

still refusing admission, a forcible entry was made, various resolutions 

were passed, i^nd at the close of the meeting new locks were put on the 

doors, Mr. Davidson promising to come and conduct the services on 

Snnday. On Saturday night Catcheside and his party again appeared, 

wrenched off the new locks, and once more took possession, and when 

Mr. Davidson arrived on Sunday the constable was again on duty, 

admission being refused to the members; but a Mr. Matthews, a 

minister from South Shields, was introduced by the back door, and 

the chapel packed with villagers whom these unseemly proceedings had 

gathered together. 

There was nothing now left the trustees but the terrors of the law, 
to which they had most reluctantly to resort. Messrs. Kirkley and 
Fenwick were engaged; but, as most people have experienced, a lawsuit 
is more easily entered than withdrawn from. To make matters more 
complicated, one William Milbum, who had married Mr. Heslup's 
housekeeper, took possession of the minister's house, and refused to 
give up his holding. 

The lawyers set to work; the chapel was closed. Counsel's opinion 
was obtained. 

The Chancery Court followed, and a case was made out for my 
Lord Eldon,*^ in whom, I doubt not, memories were awakened of certain 
nocturnal exploits at a house on the Sandhill, at Newcastle. 

But the wheels of the chariot of Law move slowly, and while they 
were revolving Mr. McGregor retired with his followers to a room at 
the Angel Inn, at Corbridge, where he laboured for some little time, 
but eventually came to an untimely end, being found dead in an 

•• Life of Lvrd Eldon, Twiss, Vol. 1., p. 7o. H 


Milbnrn took fright, and left the minister's house and the district. 

Catcheside and Stobart signed a declaration renouncing all claim 
to membership, and had to pay some £20 each towards the law 
charges ; and in the course of some three years everything was put 
right, and the trustees were once again in peaceable possession of their 
own, with the addition of the usual lawyer's bill. 
" From that time matters have again gone smoothly, but are all too 
recent to interest the antiquary. 

The senior deacon, Mr. William Nesbit, appears by the correspond- 
ence to have stuck well and ably to the lawyers, and to him every 
credit is due. His daughters were members of the congregation, one 
of them (Ann) subsequently becoming the wife of Joseph Parker, 
of Hexham, then a rising young minister, now the well-known 
Dr. Parker of the City Temple. Mra. Parker, a hymnist of no 
mean merit, died in the prime of life. 

Through the various changes in the trustees the old names appear 
again and again. 

There is one fresh name, however, that strikes our attention. In 
1773 John Millie of North Shields, is appointed, and I have every 
reason to believe that he was the father of the unfortunate James 
Millie who was the victim of the diabolical murder that was com- 
mitted in the Arcade, on December 7th, 1888,® by Archibald Bolam. 

From one who was intimate with James Millie I gather that he 
succeeded to his lather's business of hardwareman in the Low Street 
of North Shields, in the early part of the present century, and there 
he resided for many years with his widowed mother, until business 
declining, he relinquished the same, and accepted various situations 
as a clerk, until, upon the Tuesday prior to the murder, he entered the 
service of the Bank. Millie was 54 years of age, he was a Non- 
conformist, and at the time of his death I believe held Unitarian 

Of the congregation that gathered from time to time within the 
walls of the meeting-house at Horsley during the first two centuries 
of its existence we can say hardly anything, the unfortunate loss of 
all the books leaving us entirely in the dark. 

•« Richardson's Table Book, Vol. 11., p. 358. Newcastle Chronicle, Dec. 7-16, 1838, 


An entry in the Ovingham register of 1770, namely, "Robert, son 
of Robert Stephenson, of Horsley," savours strongly of the steam 

The ancestors of Mark Akenside, the poet, may have formed some 
of the hearers of Blunt and Atkinson. Mark's father and mother 
attended the ministry of the Rev. Benjamin Bennet, at the chapel of 
the same persuasion in Hanover Square, Newcastle, where, for many 
years, the seat that they occupied, and the inkstand that was fixed 
in it for young Mark to use when taking notes, were held as 
objects of great interest. Young Akenside was baptised by Mr. 
Bennet in 1721. The elder branches of the femily lived at Eachwick 
for many years, and, being dissenters, would most probably come to 
Horsley as the only Nonconformist place within range. Mr. Bates 
tells us that their baptisms are entered in the Heddon register in the 
following disrespectful fashion : — "8 March, 1701/2, Hannah, daughter 
of Thomas and Ann Akenside of Eachwick, said to be baptised by 
somebody," and " Abraham, son of Thos. Akenside of Eachwick, a 
Dissenter, said to be baptised by somebody, 18 Dec, 1716." It is 
just possible that our old friends who officiated at Horsley may have 
been the " somebodies " refeiTed to. 


In the Name of God Amen. I George Dobson of Harley in the County of 
Northumberland being sick and weak in body but of sound and perfect memory 
[thanks be to God] do make and declare this my last will and Testament in 
manner following [that is to say]. First I commit and commend my Soul into 
the hands of Almighty God hoping assuredly through the all sufficient mercies 
of the Lord, Jesus Christ my only Saviour and Redeemer for full remission and 
forgiveness of all my sins and my body to the Earth from whence it came to be 
interred at the discretion of my executor hereafter mentioned, And as for the 
worldly estate which the Loi-d hath been pleased to enaow me withal I Give the 
same as foUoweth. 

Imprimis I Give and bequeath unto my youngest hon John Uobson the 
Third or Thi-ee Quarter of All my sheep oxen horees and all my other goods 
whatsoever of what kind or nature soever moveable or immoveable and All that 
my Tenement in Harleyhill aforesaid which I hold by lease under the Duke of 
Somerset with all benefit and of renewal of the said lease And my said son John 


to enter upon and enjoy the third pail at tlie said goods tenement or farmhold 
at my death. My will and mind is that ray loving: wife Mary Dobson sliall hold 
and enjoy a quarter part [equally to be divided] of the said Tenement or 
Farmhold for her natural life if she shall so long remain unmaiTied and after 
her death or intermamage which shall first happen after my decease then the 
said quarter part of the tenement or farmhold'^iforesaid to remain and go to my 
said son John his heira and assigns for ever. I Give to my loving Wife a quarter 
part in all my goods as oxen sheep and all other goods whatsoever moveable or 
immoveable of what nature or kind soever and a quarter part of all com or hay 
that shall be growing or coming upon a quarter pai-t of the said farmhold and 
to enter upon the same at my death and to dwell in the West Parlour so long as 
she lives or remains unmarried. I Give to George Dobson sou of Jonathan 
Dobson 10/. To my said son John Dobson my wearing apparell all my ready 
money plows waines and utensils of husbandry and I appoint my said son 
Executor. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the 28th 
March 170(» 

Memorandum. Before the sealing and delivery hereof I order my said son 
John to Give unto my son Samuel Dobson a gold ring of 20*. price after my 
decease for a token. 

Witnesseb V / 



Will proved 1701. 

A True and perfect Inventory of Goods and Chattels belonging to George 

Dobson of Harlow Hill deceased taken and apprized this 11*** July 1701 by us 

George Coulson and John Dawson. 

His apparell horse and purse 

Household Goods Wollen Linen k Pewter 

4 Oxen 

8 Gowes 

2 Stott* 

„ „ five years old 
50 Old Sheep ... . ... 

2 Horses 

20 Hogs k. Lambs 
One Sow & 6 Pigs ... 
Com in the Stack Garth 
Com Crop on the Ground 
Utensils for Husbandry 

Debt* funeral expent«c» 


> Apprizebs. 
GEO: COULSON i ^*^'^*''^*"'* 















































16 08 


In the name of God Amen I Thomas Richardson of Ovingham in the Parish 
of Ovingham in the County of Northumberland being in good health of body 
and of sound and perfect mind and memory Praise be given to Almighty God 
I do Mack and order this my preasant Last will & testament in maner k form 
following That is to say First and principally I commend my Soul into the 
hands of Almighty God hoping through the merits death k passion of my Saviour 
Jesus Christ to have full and free pardon and forgiveness of all my sins and to 
inherit everlasting life 

And my body I commit to the earth to be decently buried att the discretion 
of my £zecutor hereinafter named and as touching the disposal of all such 
temporal estate as it hath pleased Almighty God to bestow upon me I give and 
dispose of as foUoweth 

First I will that my debts and Funeral charges shall be paid and discharged 
and ail the rest of all my personal estates goods and chatels movables and 
immovables whatsoever I do give & bequeathe unto my Son William Richardson 
full sole executor of this my last will & testament leaving the said William 
Richardson to pay my wife one pound yearly of good & lawful money so long as 
she continues my Widow and also whatsoever she had of her own when she 
became my Wife to have att her disposal now &. to whom she pleases and like- 
wise if that be not satisfactory I leave her wholly to my son for her to cum 
home to him and he to take care of her so long as she continues my widow And 
for my household goods I do give them to my tow grandchildren Hannah & 
Biaiy Richardson but except the chamber bed and other bed tow Hannah 
Richardson k. likewise if the said William Ricliardson who is my full son and 
executor dey leaving no issue neather Male or female I do hereby leave the 
children of Margaret Thompson who was my sister now dec** to be my executors 
of this my last will and testament faling all the others before and hereby I 
desire that my body may be deasently buried & I do hereby revouck disavow and 
make void all former wills and testaments by me heretofore maid in witness 
thereof I the said Thomas Richardson to this my last will and testament set my 

hand and seal 

January 16th 1706 

Sined sealed in the presence of us 




[Two last named witnesses make a mark] 
Will proved 1720 

Extracted from the York Jhgtrict Probate RegUtry attached to Her Majesty's 
High Court of JvHice 

In the Name of God Amen I Daniel 1 Shaftoc of Hexham in the County of 
Northuml/land being of sound and perfect memory doe make this my last Will & 
Testament in mann*^ k forme following First I give devise k bequeath unto my 


Kinswoman Jane Stokoe of Hexham in the said County Widdow & relict of 
Richard Stokoe the sum of twenty pounds of lawf ull money of Great Brittaine 
as a legacy Item I give devise and bequeath unto Danlell Stokoe of Hexham 
Butcher son of the said Jane Stokoe the sum of five pounds as a legacy Item I 
give devise and bequeath unto the chilldren of the said Jane Stokoe the sum of 
seaventy & five pounds to be equally divided share & share alike amongst them & 
the heires or Exe" of any deced childe or chilldren (if any such be) which said 
sev^all sums of money soe bequeathed and devised as aforesaid shall be paid by 
my Exe" within six months next after my death Item I give devise & bequeath 
unto my servant Margaret Blakebume all my household goods *come coalls malt 
meall & books Item All the rest of my goods k Chattells moveable & immove- 
able reall & psonall I give devise k, bequeath unto John Forster a^ Foster of 
Lemington a'» Sudley in the County aforesaid John Harrison of Harlow in the 
said County John Dawson of Harlow in the said County Luke Bell of Newbume- 
hall a^ Newbume in the said County John Wilkinson of Horseley in the said 
County & John Angas a^* Angus of Stifforde in the said County who I doe hereby 
make k, appointe sole Exe" of this my last Will k Testament k doe hereby revoke 
All oth*" Wills by me f orm'ly made In wittness whereof I havejiereunto aett my 
hand k seall this one k thirty day of October Anno Dni 1718— Dan^ Shaftoe (LB) 
— Signed Sealled published k declared to be the last Will k testam^ of the said 
Daniell Shaftoe in the p'sence of — John English — ^Lanc'lot Stokoe — Jarard Bow- 
man — Rich** Heron 

This Will was proved at York on the twenty eighth day of November 1718 by 

John Foster Luke Bell John Harrison John Dawson John Wilkinson and 

John Angas the Executors in the said Will named 

Extracts froni the Will of Philip Richardson. 

Philip Richardson of Crookhall Durham Yeoman Leave my sister Hannah 
Rirkup brother iu Law John Clark k my Nephew William Yellowley all my 
messuage Lands Tenements and Hereditement« being in the township Tounfields 
& Territories of Horsley in the County of Northumberland and all other my real 
estate upon Trust 

To sell all property as soon as possible 

To sister Hannah Kirkup £170 If she dies before me to go to her daughter 
Sarah Scott wife of John Scott if no heirs equally to Joseph Clark Hannah wife 
of William Yellowley my niece Isabella wife of Nathaniel Clark and my niece* 
Mary wife of John Nesbitt further to my niece Hannah Richatdson daughter of 
my late V>rother William Richardson Dec £iK) To my sister in law Ann Richard- 
son mother of said Hannah Richardson £ or to my Nephews William Richaiti- 
son Thomas Richardson Philip Richardson sons of my said late brother Thomas 
Richardson by his fii-st Wife &c &c 

Signed this 6 th Feby 1762 





If at ftppcoTod 
not granted 

Kot HVproTed 
not granted 

2f ot approTed 
not granted 

Not approved 
not granted 

If ot approved 
not granted 

Not approTsd 
not granted 

Kot approred 
not granted 



License to Heniy Leaver to be a Piesb^ Teacher at a place called 

the Chappelle a1( the Bridge end joining to Magdalen Hopitell in 

Newcastle 16 April 1672 
License to William Durant to be ane Indepen^ Teacher in a Roome 

of Trinity howse called the Chappell in Newcastle 16 Ap' 1672 
License to Richard Gilpin to be a Presb Teacher in a place called 

the Moothall in the Castle garth Newcastle 16 Ap' 72 
License to John Pringle to be an Indep Teacher in a place called 

the Moothall in Castle garth Newcastle 16 Ap^ 72 
A plaoe called the Chappell at the Bridgeend joining to Magdalen 

Hospitall in Newcastle licensed to be a p' Meeting plaoe 16 Ap^ 1672 
A Roome called the Chappell in Trinity howse in Newcastle 

licensed for an Indep Meeting plaoe 16 April 1672 
A place called the Moothall in ye Castle Garth in Newcastle 

licensed to be a presb Meeting place 16 Apr 1672 
Another for the same place to be an Ind Meeting plaoe 16 Ap' 72 
License to W^ Dnrant Cong> of Newcastle 13 May 
Like to John Pringle Pr of Newcastle 13 May 
Like to John Gilpin of New Castle 13 May 
License to Henry Leyer of New Castle 13 May 
The house of Benjamin Ellison in the towne of Newcastle vpon 

Tyne p' Sep* 6*^ 
The House of Antho: ffeathames of Newcastle vpon Tyne p' [Sep. 6] 
The house of Geoige Bendall of Newcastle vpon Tyne Cong' Sep 

6 (See fao sim, of this license facing p. 36). 
The house of Benjamin Elisonof Newcastle vpon Tyne Cong* Sep*5**» 
The house of Rich. Galpaine of Newcastle vpon Tyne Cong' 

[October 28.] 
A Roome or Roomes in the Talboth in Morpeth Northumberland 

licensed for a Cong* Meeting Place 30 Ap' 72 
License to John Thompson to be a Cong> Teacher in the Talbooth 

in Morpeth Northumb'* 80 Ap* 72 
License to Luke Ogle of Berwick to be a Grail [general] Pr Teacher 

2 May 72 [do]. 
License to Nicholas Wressell of Berwick 2 May 72 
License to Gilbert Rule of Barwick vpon Tweed p' Teacher Sep* 5**» 
License to Gilbert Rule of Barwick vpon Tweed to be a p*" Teacher 

[Sept. 80«'] 

Morpeth Oongl 

Congi Morpeth 





No Shields 


(Veltch) Falalee 
n' Bothbury 





So Shields 



Bp Auckland 


The howse of Rob Blunt in Alnewick Northumberland Pr Meeting 
Place 8 May 72 

License to Bob Blunt to be a Pr Teacher in his howse at Alnewick 
in Northumb^ 8 May 1672 

The howse of Jsabell Green in North Sheeles in Durha' [North- 
umberland] Pr Meeting Place 13 May 1672 

License to Tho* Trewren to be a Cong^ Teacher in his house in the 
parish of Ovingham North<* 29 June 72 

The house of Thomas Trewren in Ovingham Parish North<* Cong* 
29 June 72 

The house of John Owen in Wolsington Northumb* Pr 22 July 1672 

License to John Owen to be a Pr teacher in his house in Wol- 
sington North** 22 July 

License to W™ Johnson to be a Pr Teacher in his house at Falalee 
Northumb^ 26 July 1672 

The house of W™ Johnson at Falalee Northumb* Pr 2o July 1672 

The house of Rich Gilpin att Scarby Castte in Northumberland 
[Cumberland] pr Sep 5"» 1672 

The house of Luke Ogle Bowlome [Bolam] in Northumb'Ld pr 
[Sep. 6] 

License to Patrick Bromf eild to be a pr. Teach*" at his owne house 
at Harsop in Northumberland Sep* 30**» 

License to Witt Johnson pr Teacher at his owne house in Bolam in 
Northumberland Dec' 9^ :72 

The house of John Thompson of Morpeth Northumberl'* 

The house of John Ogle of Kirkley Pond Jland in Northumber- 
land Cong*" December 9 72 

The house of S' W"» Middleton of Pelsain [Belsay] Northumb* Pr 

The house of John Duffenby of Dalton in Northumberland 

The howse of Cuthbert Colesworth in the Westpans near Sonth 
Sheeles Durrham Pr Meeting Place 13 May 

The house of William Warham in Sunderland Durham Pr Meeting 
Place 13 May 1672 

License to Ralph WickliflEe to be a Pr Teacher in W™ Warha[m]'s 
howse in Sunderland Durrham 13 May 

The howse of Tho: Wilson in Lampsley Durrham Pr Meeting Place 
10 June 

License to Tfaio: Wilson to be a Pr Teacher in his howse in Lamps- 
ley Durha' 10 June 72 

License to Rob Pleasaunce to be a Pr Teacher in his house at 
Bishop Auckland Durrha' 10 June 

The house of Rob* Pleasaunce at Bishop Auckland Pr Meeting 
Place 20 June 

License to Rob* Lever to be a Pr Teacher in his house in Branspeth 
Durham 20 June 1672 

The house of Robert Lever in Branspeth Durham Pr Meeting Place 
20 June 1672 

License to John Lummock to be a Jndepend* Teach' in our Bish' 
of Durrham : No : 18 : 72 



By Maberly Phillips. 

[feead on the 26th October, 1887.] 

During a recent stay in the neighbourhood of Wooler, I visited the 
beautiful little church of Old Bewick, which, after lying in ruins for 
a number of years, was, by the liberality of the late Mr. John Charles 
Langlands,* restored to its original state in 1867. Around it stand 
several headstones that give the names and mark the resting-places 
of many a sturdy borderer during the 17th and 18th centuries. A 
stone over the inside of the vestry door informs us that the chapel 
had been previously restored by Ealph Williamson, Esq., in 1695, but 
as the said stone was, at the time of the present restoration, found in 
the bum near the church, it may give some idea of the condition of 
things at that time. 

I was led to enquire whether there were any other chapels of ease 
with their graveyards that had fallen into such ruin, and the result 
was my finding accounts of several in the neighbourhood which are 
still to be traced in states of greater or less decay, and as there can 
be no doubt that wanton destruction and mischief has had far more 
to do with, their defacement than the corroding hand of time, I 
venture to bring the result of my enquiries before the members of 
this Society, trusting that through them the attention of those 
responsible for the due and proper protection of such sacred grounds 
may be awakened ere all traces of these interesting rehcs of past 
time are ruthlessly swept away. 

About four miles from Old Bewick, within the grounds of Mr. 
Edward John Collingwood of Lilbum Tower, are the remains of 
Lilbum chapel. Here, in spite of its ruinous condition, members of 
the Collingwood family have been baptized. The graveyard around is 
becomingly kept, and occasional interments take place. A few old 
headstones are still standing; one notes the resting-place of Henry 
Neilson, who died in 1684, and another of William Neilson, who was 
buried in 1693. 

» See Proe, Soc, Antiq, Nvivcantle^ III., pp. 200 and 201. 



At South Middleton, some four miles to the west of Lilbum, I 
found there had previously been an old church and burial ground^ 
but that every stone had long since disappeared and the ground had 
been ploughed over for many years. It stood in the Woodhead Field, 
where some remains of an ancient village were recently traceable. 

At Brandon is still a small burying ground, but no remains of the 
chapel. It is enclosed, but the neglected vegetation has grown into 
a tangled mass of dockens, nettles, and rank grass. Several head and 
slab stones are still there visible, and I believe others might be found 
were the mass of herbage removed. Between this plot of ground, 
now enclosed, and the high road, are some cottage gardens, which at 
first seems strange, but there always has been, and still is, through 
this part of the country a very strong objection, amounting to a 
superstition, against being buried on the north side, or as it is locally 
called, the back side of the church, and in no case is it resorted to 
until the want of space compels. It, therefore, seems likely that the 
ground at 'Brandon has been enclosed just where the graves were and 
up to the ruins of the church, the remainder of the churchyard on 
the north being turned into gardens. In my opinion the same idea 
applies to several other burial grounds that I saw. 

Two miles north-west of Wooler is Humbledon, and there, a few 
hundred yards oflf the high road, near where the old village is said to 
have stood, were pointed out to me the remains of the old kirk and 
graveyard. Some twenty or thirty yards into a barley field was a 
neglected mound of earth and small stones, grass grown and wretched, 
but no trace of building or headstone. Upon enquiry it appeared 
that about thirty-five years ago the farmer commenced to plough the 
whole place up, but was stopped by the vicar of Doddington, not, 
however, until much of the outlying ground had been turned over 
and many bones exposed. In the memory of by no means the oldest 
inhabitant, some fifteen or twenty headstones were standing, but 
these had all been gradually broken up by the good housewives in the 
neighbourhood for sandstone to clean their hearths with, that article 
being scarce. 

At Akeld, a mile further west, upon the road side, is a grass-grown 
patch of ground of about an acre, open to the road, but enclosed on the 
field side, and offering a most tempting site for muggers, and from the 
embers of late fires, presumably occupied by that fraternity. This was 


the churchyard of Akeld, and the oldest inhabitant only knows that it 
has always been so, but believes that the vicar of Kirknewton does 
look after it, as the farmer commenced a manure heap there and had 
to remove it, and when the pohceman did see the muggers he made 
them move on. 

At Ewart, about two miles north-east, under the shadow of some 
large buildings erected by Sir Horace St. Paul, is the site of another 
old graveyard, but whether a church ever stood here, I could not find 
out. The ground is partially enclosed, surrounded by a row of trees 
of from 80 to 100 years' growth. No traces of buildings or headstones 
are now to be seen ; probably they have long since yielded their quota 
to the sandstone market. 

On the road side, between Mindrum and Mindrum Mill, is a grave- 
yard of considerable dimensions, with many headstones standing. In 
the centre of the ground a wall has been built, enclosing a space about 
10 yards by 12. The wall is about seven feet high, with a good stone 
coping upon the top, but now somewhat broken down. I was informed 
that it was erected some years ago by a family of the name of Potts, 
though the stones within speak of the Edmistons having used it in 1778. 
Outside of this enclosure one of the gravestones records the death of 
George Tait, on "ye 4th Oct. 1675." On the back of it are shears 
with "Memento Mori" in a half -circle, and several large initials, 
evidently of the family of Tait, and from it a brass has been extracted. 
There is also a large stone of a red colour, broken in half, with a 
figure carved upon it much larger than is generally found upon a head- 
stone, which may be a remnant of the old chapel. 

At Fenton is a most interesting ground situated on the farm of 
Mr. Laidlaw. In the centre of a large barley field is an enclosure of 
about half an acre of land. Amongst a mass of tangled grass is here to 
be found (so the historian Mackenzie tells us)^ all that is left of the 
mother church of Wooler. The unevenness of the ground under foot 
indicated many stones stiU .left, if time permitted to uncover them. 
One large tablet, with the aid of some farm-workers who were passing, 
we did succeed in divesting of its matted turf. The top line was 
remarkably clear, "Thomas Morton of Humbleton" being cut in large 
bold capitals. Many letters upon the outer sides of the stone were 
very distinct, but the centre was too weather-beaten to be deciphered. 

* Vol. I., p. 392. 


Mr. Laidlaw told me he had cleared the same slab fifteen or sixteen years 
before, when the date, IGOO and somethino;, was to be made out. The 
Mortons were reputed to be ancestors of the Biddick family of the same 
name. Another large stone some 6 feet long by 20 inches at one end 
tapering to 12 at the other, and broken through the centre, we 
uncovered close by, but it had no inscription. A stone with illegible 
lettering, built into part of the farm stabling, may suggest where the 
remains of the church, and probably some of the headstones arc to be 
found. Until very recently, the foundations of an old pele tower 
might be seen in the garden of the farm-house. 

I was informed that there is an old burial ground lying between 
Wark and Carham, called "Julie's Nick," and another at West Lear- 
mouth, but these I did not visit. 

At Hepple, near Eothbury (though rather out of the district that 
we have been speaking of), once stood a chapel with its burial ground.^ 
Mackenzie, in his Vmr of Northumherhnd,^ tells us that in 1760 
the remain^ of the church were removed and a farm-house built with 
the stones. The Kirk Hill Farm, now to be found at Hepple, seems 
to bear silent testimony to this fact. The same historian also tells ub 
that the graveyard was used occasionally for burying strangers and 
unchristened children in, and that in 1760 "the font and pedestal were 
in good preservation, and many mutilated monuments were found both 
within and without the walls of the holy building." " In the chancel, 
the fragments of a tombstone with its supporters were discovered, and 
what is curious, was standing in a north and south direction. This 
monument was much defaced (apparently more owing to acts of wanton- 
ness than to the slow corroding teeth of time), and it was with extreme 
diflRculty that parts of the inscription were deciphered." The site of 
the church and graveyard is now ploughed over, and no tidings could 
I learn of the interesting relics named by Mackenzie. 

I have made no attempt at giving an historical account of these 
burial places ; but fearing that the opening of the new railway through 
this locality might stimulate the demand for "sandstone," I have 
hastened to bring the matter foi'ward, hoping that it may lead to some 
steps being taken to duly preserve the little that is yet left of these 
sacred relics of antiquity. 

« See Proc, III., p. 216. * Vol. II., p. 75. 




By R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle. 

[Read on the 26th October, 1887.] 


mm l^r;:: 

Obt\ — Bust of first Duke of Northumberland to r., draped, hair 
flowing in ringlets upon the shoulder. Legend, — HU Percy duke 
OF NOR. In the exergue : iohn kirk- f 

Rev. — The supper at Emmaus.^ Copper. Size 1*625. Weight 
1 oz. 13 dwts. Cast and chased. Unique. By John Kirk. 

This medal was brought to me some time ago by a collector in 
Carlisle, with a request that I would tell him what it was intended to 
commemorate. He was unable to tell me how the medal came into 
his possession. 

I brought the medal over to Newcastle, expecting to find a 
duplicate in the Museum in the Black Gate. In this I was dis- 
appointed, nor could any of the local collectors, to whom Mr. Blair 
kindly referred me, produce one or tell me anything about it. Under 
these circumstances I sent, first a cast in gutta and then the medal 

* " The supper at Emmaus occurs on an ivory plaque of the 10 cent, in the 
Kvnttt Kamtner at Berlin (Westwood's Catalogve, No. 18()) ; and in a 12 cent. 
Psalter, in British Museum (Nero C. iv.), there are only two disciples, Cleophas, 
and another traditionally supposed to be 8. Peter." — Romilly-Allen's Early 
Christian Symbolimn. p. 3U6. — Ed. 


itself, to Lord Percy, who showed it to the Duke of Northumberland. 
Nothing like it exists in the collections at Alnwick Castle, nor does 
the Duke know anything about it. By Lord Percy it was taken to 
the medal room at the British Museum, where it was utterly unknown, 
though at once recognised as the work of John Eirk, whose signature, 
very feint indeed, is in the exergue. John Kirk was a pupil of James 
Anthony Dassier, who was appointed Chief Engraver to the Mint in 
1740, having previously been Assistant Engraver. Kirk executed a 
large number of medals and medalets and received several premiums 
from the Society of Arts. He lived in St. Paul's Churchyard and 
died there 27th November, 1776. As the dukedom was created in 
1766, we thus get the date of the medal to within 10 years. 

The bust of the first duke is, I am assured by Dr. Bruce, an 
admirable likeness. The abbreviation of HU for HUGH, and nob for 
NORTHUMBERLAND are curious. 

The treatment of the supper at Emmaus is peculiar. A square 
table occupies the centre of the field of the reverse, covered with two 
cloths one over the other. The two disciples, grave and bearded men, 
are seated at the table ; one apparently sleeping with his eyes down- 
cast ; the other has his arms outstretched in an attitude of astonish- 
ment, and his face turned upwards towards the Saviour, who vanishes 
by rising fi'om his seat into the air over the table, his draperies flying 
loose about him. The second disciple has a long staff, with scrip 
attached, across his knees, and another staff and scrip and cloak lie 
on the ground ; a folding stool, and a wine cooler, in which are two 
bottles, are in front of the table ; on the table a dish or two remain, 
and in the background a servant is removing another. Over the 
shoulder of the disciple, who has his eyes downcast, appears what seems 
like the tip of a wing, but is, I think, intended for his hat, suspended 
on his back. 

Thinking it possible that this composition might be inspired by 
some celebrated painting, I ventured to send a sketch to Sir Frederick 
Burton, the Director of the National Gallery, from whom I received 
the following most courteous reply : — 

*My Deab Sib, Aug. 23, 1887. 

From the sketch of the leverse of the medal enclosed in your letter I 
would venture to say that the medallist could not have taken the composition from 
any celebrated picture by one of the Old Masters. The design belongs to a late 


period of Art — ^to the late eclectic time — I should say not earlier than, if so 
earlj as, the middle of the XVII. centnry. It would be hard to say from the 
sketch, which gives only the general composition, where it was designed, and 
medallists of the XVII. and early XVIII. centuries did not, I think, generally 
consider the laws which should regulate the treatment of a work in relief, but 
sought rather to make their work pictorial. 

At any rate I am pretty sure that the original of the design in question 
would not be found amongst the pictures of any one of the great *01d 

Believe me, very truly yours, 


What is the connection between the obverse and the reverse of this 
medal is not obvious. It is probable that it is a trial piece only, and 
that no more were ever made. It may have been intended to com- 
memorate the laying of the foundation stone of some charity. 



By Dennis Emblbton, M.D. 

[Read on the 30th November, 1887.] 


The vox humana is beyond dispute one of our veiy highest antiquities, 
and every thing that can in any way contribute to an increase of our 
knowledge of any of its almost infinite varieties, is worthy of at least 
an attentive consideration. 

In this north-east comer of England, we have a remarkable variety 
of speech, one so peculiar as to have attracted the notice of all visitors 
— a variety looked upon by outsiders, and by most of our own people, as 
very uncouth and uncommonly vulgar. It may be so to the English 
world at large, but to the philologist and student of the English 
language and its dialects it must always be a matter of much 
interest and importance, leading, as it does> by a not very thorny 
path to Teutonic and Scandinavian languages and literature. 

Two of its peculiarities, viz., 1st, the pronunciation of the letter B, 
called the burr or horr ; and 2nd, the pronunciation of the letter o, 
are the principal subjects of the present communication. 

It is difficult, if not impossible, to convey to any person by mere 
verbal description, a correct idea of the exact pronunciation of a 
language foreign to him, however well it may be described, and this 
is equally true of dialects notably differing from each other, so that it 
is almost hopeless to try by means of written words to present to the 
minds of southern Englishmen a true representation of our northern 
local dialect, whilst the tone of voice which usually accompanies the 
pronunciation cannot be given by any possible combination of words. 
Both of these may easily be heard but cannot be imagined, though 
they may be imitated, and certainly the Newcastle dialect, or dialogue 
as it is sometimes locally called by a slip of the tongue, cannot be 
properly appreciated and learned by a stranger to the district without 
considerable attention and experience. 


Like every other language and dialect, it has suffered, and is still 
Bufifering, from the wear and tear of time and the advance of civilisa- 
tion, and has been notably modified during the last half century 
owing to the extension of railway communication and consequent 
influx of other dialects, and to the spread of voluntary and compulsory 

Notwithstanding these and perhaps other agencies, the old dialect 
in its two forms, Novocastrian and Northumbrian, the differences 
between which are somewhat difficult to describe, will die hard. It 
impresses itself more or less strongly upon all immigrants and their 
descendants, of the working classes, who imbibe it from their associ- 
ates, and we meet with many adults bearing Scotch or Irish names, 
who have leamt to btm- like natives of the " canny toon." 

The horr is said to be in the air of Newcastle and Northumberland, 
and this is, in a certain sense, true, for you hear it everywhere in the 
streets, especially on the arrival by telegraph of some exciting and 
important news ; it is then bawled out in aU its native purity by as 
noisy a set of street urchins, male and female, as can be met with in 
any city or town in the United Kingdom. 

It is hardly quite so rough as it was sixty years ago, and many 
individuals who "tahk Newcassel" among themselves "hev a mair 
genteeler kin' ov a way ov tahkin' " when speaking to more educated, 
or better dressed people ; in a similar manner the Celtic people of the 
west of Scotland speak Gaelic among themselves, but Scottish-English 
to strangers from the south. 

Some of our uncouth words have disappeared — dropped out of use, 
and others more polished have been adopted instead. It is unhappily 
true that in our streets we still occasionally hear very foul language, 
mostly from the intemperate, but this is not so bad or so common 
as formerly; neither is this unhappy defect peculiar to Newcastle 
or even to London. 

The Newcastle vernacular is, however, the vehicle of much local 
humour, and even wit, and replete with graphic illustrations of local 
manners and habits ; and the volumes of Tyneside poems and songs 
by the late Alderman Wilson of Gateshead, by Shield, J. P. Robson, 
Joe Wilson of Newcastle, and others, are famous as having a peculiar 
rough strength and racy flavour, all their own, that endears them to 



*^Tyne8ide-bred 'uns;" as prose, too, it flourishes in numerous pam- 
phlets, in "lokil lettors" in newspapers, and there are at least two 
versions of "The Song of Solomon" in the Novocastrian as well as in 
the Northumbrian variety of the dialect, both of them elaborated by 
natives and pubUshed under the auspices and at the expense of 
H.R.H. the Prince Lucien Buonaparte. 

With regard to the topographical extent of its prevalence, it may 
be stated that Gateshead, on the south side of the dividing Tyne, is 
strongly imbued with the Newcastle dialect; but you cannot go so 
far south as Chester-le-Street — eight miles from Newcastle — ^without 
finding it blending with the materially different dialect of Durham. 
Owing to the many changes of abode of the miners, you may hear a 
good many instances of our dialect isolated as it were here and there 
in the colliery districts of the county of Durham. 

The Newcastle dialect holds both banks of the Tyne, especially 
from Blaydon to North and South Shields and neighbourhood ; each 
of these maritime ports has somewhat of our pronunciation, but also 
one pecuHar to itself, in which is no burr, particularly among the 
seafaring population, and this may be accounted for by their continual 
intercourse with their compatriots of other ports, and with foreigners 
and their languages, at home and abroad, from which the hvrr is 

In Sunderland again there exists a peculiar non-burring pronun- 
ciation, which is owing to foreign and Durham influences. 

In the westward direction beyond Blaydon, the Novocastrian 
gradually blends with the Northumbrian variety, and this extends up 
the South Tyne as far as Haltwhistle, thirty miles off, beyond which 
Border town it is replaced by the Cumberland dialect ; up the North 
Tyne it is heard to Bellingham and even as far as Kielder, fifty- 
five miles from Newcastle, beyond Kielder it is met by the western 
lowland Scottish. 

Northward, the Northumbrian stretches for sixty miles to " our 
town of Berwick-upon-Tweed," where it is strong and tinged with 
Scotch, and along the Border westward, it mingles with the lowland 
Scotch, which here and there preponderates. 

The Novocastrian is audible in various parts of the continent of 
Europe, and of Asia, Africa, and America, especially where there are 


steamboats on which the words of command are given in it, as *'Tom 
aheed," '*eaae 'er," "stop 'er," and these have been generally adopted 
by the natives in the parts where steamers ply. I have heard these 
oommands on the coasts of the Mediterranean, and of Madeira. 

The principal and most noted peculiarity of this Northern pro- 
nunciation of English, is that which is called the hurr or horr. Of 
this, our inheritance from past centuries, we have no reason to be at all 
ashamed ; it is prevalent and prized elsewhere, and has of late years 
been demonstrated to be a capable accompaniment of much sturdy, 
independent, copiously worded, and genuine eloquence, by the manly 
throat of our late, but still happily living, senior Member of Parlia- 
ment, who made it familiar to, and respected by, the representatives 
of the nation at Westminster. 

It must, however, be confessed, as there are two sides or aspects of 
most, if not of all things, that the utterances of a real-bred Newcastle 
working man of the old sort, his horr supplemented and intensified by 
a hoarseness caught in a rainy and cold north-east gale, and his mind 
rojBied with passion, are phenomena, wonderful and portentous, to the 
ears of all who come within the range of their influence. 

Mr. Robert Ferguson, in his The Northmen in Cumherland 
and Westmorland, 1856, at p. 158, writes, "Northumberland also, 
though diflering widely in its pronunciation, which is distinguished 
by a strong and very peculiar burr, coincides very closely in its vocabu- 
lary with the counties above mentioned" fYorkshire, Cumberland, 
Westmorland, and Scottish Lowlands]. 

The difference between the northern and southern dialects is re- 
marked by Higden (Polychronicon), who, writing about 1350, observes: 
** The whole speech of the Northumbrians, especially in Yorkshire, 
is BO harsh and rude that we southern men can scarcely understand 
it." In the more than five centuries since that date the language of 
Northyn Humbraland must have undergone great change, and perhaps 
the Danish hurr has been gradually dropped from the southern part. 

William Stukeley, M.D., F.E. and A.S., in the Iter Boreale of his 
Itinerarium (London, 1786), writing of the inhabitants of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, observes, " They speak very broad ; so that as one walks 
the streets, one can scarce understand the common people, but are apt 
to fancy oneself in a foreign country." The learned doctor is right. 


it is even now, after the lapse of a century, what people from southern 
England call very broad^ and say it sounds like a foreign language ; 
in fact, men with the Newcastle dialect, at all well marked, are taken 
for Germans or Dutch when they are in London ; however, per contra, 
the highly polished and clipped English of Cockneydom is equally un- 
intelligible to a Newcastle working man, yet each of these believes 
that he speaks " plain English." 

Hutchinson, in his History of Northuniberland, 1778, Vol. II., 
p. 418, says of Newcastle : " Here we find a remarkable provincial 
dialect, and a guttural pronunciation, in which words containing the 
letter e, are articulated with diificulty. This seems to be derived from 
the Danes. In a degree the same guttm*al pronunciation takes place 
throughout all Northumberland." 

This historian, it may be remarked, is incorrect when he states 
that words containing the letter R, are articulated with difficulty in 
Newcastle and throughout Northumberland ; perhaps as a southern 
trying to accomplish the burr he found it to be no easy matter, and 
so concluded that the natives also must be in the same case ; the fact, 
however, is very different, for the Novocastrians, and Northumbriana 
generally, have their vocal organs so admirably constructed, that not 
only do they pronounce words containing the letter R with great facility 
in their own way, and have much pleasure in so doing, loving to fill 
their mouths with manly words, speaking ore rotundOy but learn 
foreign pronunciations easily, and look upon those who cannot speak 
as they do as defective in the faculty of speech, and I doubt not that 
they would laugh to scorn the man who would tell them to their 
faces that he thought they had a difficulty in pronouncing such words 
as those above named, and would on the spot give him such examples 
as would at once remove his scepticism. 

The great philosopher and lexicographer, Samuel Johnson, LL.D., 
who was once in Newcastle, and at Denton Hall used a garden walk 
which is still called " Johnson's Walk," was accurate and just in his 
estimation of our Northern dialect, when he stated that 'Uhe language 
of the Northern Counties retains many words now out of use, but, 
which are commonly of the genuine Teutonic race, and are uttered ' 
with a pronunciation which now seems harsh and rough, but was pro- 
bably used by our ancestors. The northern speech is not barbarous 
bot obsolete." 


This is excellent from a man ignorant of all languages except bis 
own and Latin, and who apparently had not been aware of the affinity 
of the Northern speech with the Scandinavian languages. The hmr 
certainly, with some other pecuUarities, has become obsolete (if ever it 
was prevalent) except in Newcastle and Northumberland. 

If we examine the mechanism and action of the organs of speech, 
even without going into the minute anatomical and physiological 
details of the bones, muscles, nerves, and other parts concerned, and 
compare that action, in the production of the ordinary English pro- 
nunciation of the letter r, with that by which the horr is uttered, we 
BhaU find that the diflference between them is not nearly so great as 
might at first be suspected. 

In the former case when the R is to be given out energetically and 
rolled as in Scottish speech, the tip of the tongue is, during an expir- 
ation, raised and vibrated more or less strongly against the hard 
palate at a part a very little way behind the upper front teeth ; when 
it is to be pronounced as in the West Midlands, the tongue is carried 
somewhat further back on the palate and vibrated shortly there. In 
the south of Rngland the letter is sounded lightly slurred, or even not 
pronounced at all, and the tongue is merely raised towards the palate 
without touching it, and no vibration or consequent rolling or trilling 
is produced as the air passes out through the aperture left. 

In the latter case it is the base and not the tip of the tongue which 
is raised, and the soft palate, in the strongest intonation, is made to 
vibrate freely against it ; in a lesser degree of horr the vibration is 
less as the air passes, and in the smallest degree the parts are brought 
very nearly into contact, and in the air rushing, or being forced, 
through the aperture thus left gives rise to that modified sound — a very 
gentle horr. In both cases the mouth is open. In the pronunciation 
of the word hmr, in the north, the closed lips are first of all suddenly 
hnrst open by the air which is being expired, and the base of the 
tongue raised as in the latter case above stated. The horr is an upper 
and anterior guttural. 

Let any one try, according to the above explanation, the different 
pronunciations of the time-worn line, 

< Round the rugged rocks the ragged rascals ran/ 
or the shorter "Rarafratra" of the Rev. Richard Dawes, or the con- 


vivial " a Cheerer o' rum," or even the " Orly Bord " of the street 
newspaper boys, or else let him listen carefully to the pronunciation 
of one of these tests by a competent native, and he will in time be 
able to form a pretty good idea of the vigorous quality of the New- 
castle horr, and the simple mode of its production. 

The question now arises, what or whence is the origin of the 
Newcastle horr? 

Various are the causes assigned ; thus a labourer in Northumber- 
land, as I am informed by a kind friend interested in the horr, once 
said that the cause of the horr in the Northumberland dialect was the 
quantity of clay in the soil ! Again it has been said that the famous 
Hotspur had the hurr, and that the people of Newcastle and North- 
umberland got it from him by the contagion of example, this is hardly 
entitled to credit, although there were doubtless fashions in speech 843 
well as in dress in his days as now, for it seems most likely that the 
horr was endemic in these parts, long before his time, which was the 
latter part of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century. The 
fiery warrior most likely got it, if he did horr^ from his Northumbrian 
or Novocastrian nurse. Certes, it is not that assigned by Bichard 
Dawes, M.A., quondam Head Master of the Royal Grammar School, 
and Master of the Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin, of Newcastle. 
That learned and satirical genius, in his short eflFusion^ on this 
subject, after detailing the grievous wickednesses of the inhabitants 
of Newcastle in his time, 120 years ago, proceeds thus : — 

* But Heav'n in Vengeance for their Crimes, 
Decreed — That in all future Times, 
They shou'd be branded by a mark. 
By which you know 'em in the Dark ; 
For in their throat a Burr is placed, 
By which this blessed Crew is traced.' Etc. 

Remark the subtlety and keenness of the fourth line. 

From scurrilous fiction let us pass to the consideration of such 
plain facts and probabilities as are attainable among the difficulties 
before us. 

The horr was not a Celtic peculiarity left by the Britons ; it must 
have been brought to us by immigrants firom the east side of the 
North Sea. 

* The Origin of the Newcastle Borr^ with alterations and additions, (The 
Second Edition.) London : Printed by W. NicoU in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
MDCCLXVII. (Price Sixpence). 


1. — The Jutes, from Jn tland — Danes ( ? ) — came over first in a.d. 450. 

2. — The Saxons, Frisians, and others, from Holstein and the 
Saxon shore from, the Weser to the Rhine— Teutons — in the fifth, 
sixth, and seventh centuries. These two hordes of invaders occupied 
th» south-east, south, and part of the south-west of England. 

8. — The Angles, predominant in numbers, from Anglen, the south- 
east comer of Sleswic — Teutons — came in 627-86, invaded, and 
settled on the east coasts of Great Britain, from Essex to Aberdeen. 

If these three peoples had the harr on their arrival, is it likely that 
their descendants should have entirely lost it all along the south 
and east coasts^ Northumbrians excepted ? It seems more than pro- 
bable, seeing there is not any evidence that they did horr^ that they 
had not that peculiarity. The Anglian peoples north and south of 
the land between the Tweed and the Tyne, are at the present day 
qnite free from the hoiTy even in districts where they have mingled, as 
in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, with Danish immigrants, so we may 
conclude that in England there was no lurr up to the end of the 6 th 

In the Icelandic language there is such an extensive use of the 
letter b that a Newcastle man might be led at first sight to surmise 
that the Icelanders must be a burring people ; the reverse, however, is 
found to be the case on reference to competent authority. 

In the valuable Icelandic-English Dictionary of Eichard Cleasby 
and Gudbrand Vigfusson, p. 481, under the letter r, we find as* 
follows : — 

* Pronunciation, Spelling.— The pronnnciation (of the r) is as in Italian 
or in modem Greek (jh^^ and this still survives in Norway and Sweden, whereas 
the Danes have adopted a guttural r which an Icelandic throat is unable to pro- 

' Dr. Murray, in his Dinlect of the Southern Counties of Scotland, 1873, p. 120, 
says : — *B is in Scotch always a consonant, and in all positions trilled sharply 
with the point of the tongue, and never smoothly buzzed or bvrred, or converted 
into a mere glide, as in Knirlish ; nor rolled with the whole length of the tongue, 
as in Irish ; nor roughly burred with the pharynx, as in Northumberland, in 
France, and Germany. Even the initial English r, in roady ru7Uf, is softer and 
more gliding than the Scotch, which is used with equal sharpness before or after 
a vowel, as in rare^ roar, raytlwr, roarer. In the south of England its subsid- 
ence after a vowel into a mere glide renders it impossible to distinguish, in the 
utterance of some speakers, between law^ lore; lord, lavd; gutta, gutter; Emma^ 
Hemmer, Hence, when these words are used with a following vowel a hiatus 
is avoided by saying draw-r-ing, Sarah-r-Anne, Maida-r-'ill, idea-r of things, 
law-r of England, phrases which even educated men are not ashamed, or not 
conscious, of uttering. No such liberties are allowable with the Scotch r, which 
is always truly consonantal.' 


duce. In ancient times radical and inflexive r's were perhaps different in sound, 
as may be inferred from the spelling on the old Ranic monuments, as well as 
from comparison, for the inflexive r was in the Gothic a sibilant (*). In modem 
usage a final tt is never sounded.* 

The Icelanders therefore are not, and never have been, a borr|^g 

4. — We must now turn to the Danes and Northmen. These heathen 
pirate hordes ravaged our east coasts, beginning in 797, during the 9th, 
lOth, and even 11th centuries, and during the latter part of that period 
settled extensively to cultivate the land, and became the dominant 
power ; and their descendants occupy large tracts in Yorkshire, Lin- 
colnshire, and other counties, mixing with Saxons, Anglians, etc., and 
yet none of these now have the lorr except in Northumberland. 

It is well known that during the 10th and the beginning of the 
11th centuries there was only one speech throughout England, Den- 
mark, and Norway, and most probably in Iceland also (which was 
settled in 874) — that was the Old Norse or Icelandic, or Dmsk Tunga 
or Normnay which has been preserved * with unbroken tradition and 
monuments from the first settlement of the island to the present day' 
(Cleasby and Vigfusson, IceL Diet). Now we may safely assert that at 
the beginning of the 11th century there was no horr in England. 

It was about half a century after this time that the non-borring 
Old Norse or Domk Tunga began to suffer alteration in Norway, 
.Sweden, and Denmark, but not in Iceland ; and we are told that among 
the Danes the alterations were the greatest, and among the Swedes the 
least. The transition was from the Old Norse through Old Danish 
and Old Swedish to modern Danish and Swedish, and must have taken 
a long time. 

It does not seem to be an extravagant supposition that during that 
long period of lingual transition the old Icelandic trill gave place to 
the burr in Denmark, and its possessions in Norway and Sweden, and 
that it was introduced to Tyneside and Northumberland by immigrants 
from one ot other of these countries, who have infected the Anglian 

Our horr^ therefore, may not be older than the 12th or 18th century. 
It is diflBcult, if not impossible, to fix the year or other exact time 
when it was that the Danes assumed the burring pronunciation of the 
letter r. 


The following information respecting the prevalence, at the present 
day, of the horr in Scandinavia and Germany has been kindly 
commnnicated by Danish and Swedish merchants in Newcastle. In 
(Copenhagen, and over the islands Zealand, Funen, and Jutland, people 
speak the r from the throat ; that is, they hurr like our people in New- 
castle. In the now Swedish provinces of Halland, Bleking, Scania, and 
other parts in the south of Sweden, which were once pai'ts of the 
Danish kingdom, the horr prevails; but in the northern parts of Sweden 
people trill the r with the point of the tongue, like the Icelanders. 
In Norway, which also was once Danish, the horr is now the correct 
pronunciation among educated people, and is heard from the pulpit 
and on the stage, and is .there even more strongly expressed than in 
Denmark. In Sleswic, the mediaeval home of the Angles, and all 
over Germany, the horr prevails. Thus, from different sources of 
information, we find that in Scandinavia the Danes — that is, the 
Danes of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway — have been the borring 
people. When the Germans began to horr we cannot here enquire ; 
possibly it was when the northern hive swarmed southwards. 

In Paris the hurr is common as well as the trill, and Parisian 
French, from the burring throat of a well-speaking Parisienne, is 
quite charming, whilst here the horr is regarded as vulgar and bar- 
barous. To Paris the horr was possibly brought and left there by the 
Normans when they went buccaneering up the Seine to harry the 
interior of France ; and this might have taken place about the same 
time that their compatriot Vikings were ravaging the coasts of 
Great Britain. One ought to expect to find the hmr in some parts 
of Normandy. 

In Italy I have heard Italian burred, but perhaps only sporadically. 

The letter r, spoken * trippingly on the tongue,' is a great favourite 
of, and a great help to, the southern Englishman in his talk. It 
serves him very conveniently to dwell upon in his hesitations, that he 
may get a little time to think what is next to be said. It is also of 
ofie to him and to singers as a sort of vocal stepping-stone from one 
vowel to another, when one ends a word and another begins the next 
word. Without it he would be at a loss how to get from one such 
word to another. For example, he cannot well say Jemima Ann, but 
constitutionally and habitually dreading a hiatus, fills it up with an 


B^ and says Jemimar Ann, or Jemima- Bann^ or Jemima-R-Ann, and 
so on. From this diflBculty the northern Englishman is happfly 
exempt, but is apt to fall into the error of imitating the southron. 

Thus much may be said in favour of our northern English speech, 
that, like the Scotch, it scarcely ever leaves out an H where that letter 
ought to be present, or inserts an h where it ought not to be. For 
example, you never hear any one calling hops ops^ ham arriy hen e», 
high t, hot ot^ etc., or naming an ^gg a hegg, an ox a hox, an oyster a 
hyster, and so on, in this part of England, whilst in Yorkshire, and 
most counties further south, these two faults are popular. 

Omission must not be made of the fact that in some districts of 
Norway — ^as iu Aaksund, pronounced Eolmmid — the H is inserted 
where it ought not to be heard, and left out where it ought to be 
sounded. Perhaps the Yorkshire and Southern habit of thus treating 
the abused h is an inheritance from Scandinavia, but cannot be called 
a refinement of speech. 

Again, in words in which the letters w and H come together, as in 
the pronoun who, the south countryman leaves out the H and even the 
w at times, and for who says tvoo or even oo; and instead of which, 
when, where, whither, whether, he gives us wkh^ wm, were, wither^ 
wether^ and maintains that these and similar omissions are refinements 
of the language. They are certainly a relief to lazy vocal organs, and 
a fining down towards degradation of the products of the ' well of 
EngUsh undefiled,' they may readily lead to confusions of terms and 
misunderstandings, and would require a whole conversation to make 
clear and plain the meanings of such imperfect words. Thus wuJi 
may be taken for witch ; or wen for a kind of tumour ; were for wear, 
or the past tense of the verb to be ; wither for dried up or shrivelled, 
for instance, whither away becomes tvither aivay; and whether^ wether ^ 
a kind of sheep, and so on, introducing confusion in place of clear- 
ness and distinctness, if it were not at times for the context. 

Even in our North country we have departed from the so-called 
broadness of the pronunciation of some of the words of the old Anglo- 
Saxons and of our own immediate ancestors, who for write, wrong, 
would say wente, werong : a mode of speaking which still holds its 
own in some valleys of West Northumberland and Durham, and in 
Scotland among the older natives. 


In our pronunciation of many words ending in ed, such as erred, 
used, observed, mixed, informed, contained, and so on, the e of the 
terminal syUable suffers elision, and we say w^W, observed, mix^dyinform'd, 
cantairCdy and so on, whereas many highly educated persons from the 
south use the terminal ed in reading, as a separate syllable. 

Furthermore, the terminal letter G is commonly left oat in our 
speech. We say for going goiriy for stopping stopping for working 
tc&rkin, for carrying on carryin on, etc., etc.; but we never Qs.jgarding 
for garden, or parding for pardon, or middiiig for midden, though 
midding would be nearer to Danish. The Black Middens, the danger- 
ous rocks at the north side of the sea entrance to the Tyne, within the 
piers, are never styled the Black Middings,® though in Danish they 
would be sort nwddings. 

There are some persons who cannot pronounce the letter L, and 
when it occurs in speech or reading aloud substitute for it the letter 
R; for example, 'There axe prmty of prants and burrocks to prease 

The Portuguese say pracebo for placebo, prata for plate, prazer for 
pleasurCy pranto for plant, pranclia for plank, and so on, changing the 
Latin L to R. 

Others, again, instead of R use w, chiefly in the south of England, 
in London, and a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and this use 
has, with many, become a ridiculous affectation of fine speaking ; for 
example, *What a wavenous cweature is Gewtwude, she cannot 
west wain hewself; 'It is widiculous fow Wobewt not to wide on the 
woad.' Prom this we in the north are happily free. 

The other principal peculiarity of Novocastrian and Northumbrian 
speech is the pronunciation of many words containing the letter 0. 
This corresponds to that of the Danish 0, the oblique line through 
the letter implying that the o must be pronounced as the Danish 
grammar instructs us, like the French eu ferm6 as in the words peu, 
deux, heureuxy bonheur, etc. It is exactly thus that o is pronounced 
in Newcastle by the people ; for example, * A man leuks sic a fyul if 
he hezn't a d4)g wiv 'im.' The name Bob, and the words no, on, log, 
stob, etc., are similarly pronounced. To the Danish invaders or 
settlers we owe, no doubt, also this peculiarity in addition to the borr. 
' I have seen it thus spelt in old plans.— Ed. 


The voice of the Newcastle people in addressing each other, or in 
conversation, is often a sort of sing-song, and the voice is raised more 
or less and lengthened at the latter part of a sentence, as * Hoo ist the 
the day, Geordy?' *Why, pritty middlin', Nanny, hoo'z thoo?' 
Women use this form of speech more than men, and their voices 
often are shrill. This is, probably, also a Danism. 

There are many words in our popular speech which have come 
down to us from the time when, during the predominance of the 
Scandinavian power in England, there existed and was used one and 
the same language throughout Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
and the Danelagh in England. 

I shall conclude with a Newcastle couplet which seems falling fast 
into oblivion, and may here be rescued from that fate ; it has, curiously 
enough, as my son-in-law has pointed out to me, its counterpart in 
Swedish, and may have come down from the old Norse. 

English -| 

' Lumps o' buttor an' shives o' breed 
Ma mammy ga me when ah wis i* need.' 

^ ,. , r ' Smor lumpar och skifvor af brod 
Srvedish i „. ..... ., .., , 

( Mm mamma gaf mig nar ]ag var i nod. 


Ferguson, F.S.A., in a Letter to the Rev. J. G. Bruce, P.S.A., 
LL.D., etc., Vice-President. 

[Read on the 28th December, 1887.] 

Carlisle, Dec. 10th, 1887. 
My Dear Dr. Bruce. 

I think you deserted before its close the very pleasant and 
successful meeting held this year by the Royal Archaeological Institute 
at Salisbury, and that you were not present at Rushmore. I was 
somewhat remiss myself, and took an off day or two : on these I was 
not wholly idle, archaeologically, for my host, the Hon. Percy 
Wyndham, took me some interesting drives, notably between his 
residence. Clouds, near Semley, and Wardour Castle, and between 
Clouds and Rushmore, where I was afterwards a guest. 

In some places we drove along well made roads, with very broad 
margins of turf—as much as 100 feet: beyond the turf, on either 
side, came ^ scrub', in places so dense that not even a dog, much less 
a man, could penetrate it, while in height it reached to eight or ten 
feet or even more. 

I felt that I had come upon a piece of England that had remained 
in, or had reverted to, the condition in which it was when Robin 
Hood and the Curtel Friar ranged the jolly greenwood — ^the condition 
in which it was at the close of the Roman rule, * an isle of blowing 
woodland, a wild and half reclaimed countiy, the bulk of whose 
surface was occupied by forest and waste.' ^ And in the broad gre^n 
expanse of turf on either side of the roads I recognised a survival of, 
and saw the necessity for, the mediaeval law that the woodlands were 
to be cut l^^ck a certain distance from the highways, lest they should 
afford lurking places from which robbers might rush out upon the 
unwary traveller. 

I afterwards, with a guide, penetrated the ' scrub ' at Rushmore, 
and found that well-defined, but narrow, paths wander about it, 
* J. R. Green's The Making of Ihtgland, p. 8. 


enabling persons acquainted with them to traverse the 'scrnb' in 
many directions, to suddenly rendezvous together, and to as suddenly 
disappear: the finest troops in the world would be baffled to follow 
through such 'scrub', and to put down a few handittu had they any 
great extent of such country, as I have described, to roam over. 

The following reflections have occurred to me since my return to 
the north. 

Looking at the Roman Wall in General Roy's Ma^a Britannias 
Septenirwnalis, or in the map given in your valuable Handbook, it is 
seen to be backed at no great distance to the south by river valleys, 
extending from Newcastle to Carlisle, namely, the valley of the Tyne 
and its affluents eastward of the central watershed, of the Eden and its 
affluents westward. To the condition of these valleys in the days of 
the Roman sway I wish to invite attention. 

The rich and lower soil of our river valleys, now the fevourite 
home of agriculture, caused them to be from the very earliest times 
covered with primaeval * scrub ' of the densest character. Such is now 
the case in the uncleared forests of Canada and America ; such we 
know was the case in the earliest times in the valleys of the Thames, 
of the Kennet, of the Severn, etc.; such we may confidently assume 
was the case with the valleys of the Tyne and Eden systems at the 
time when Hadrian erected his Great Barrier, and for long afi^erwards. 
These valleys, and the valleys down which run the various streams 
which cross the Roman Wall, must have been full at that time of 
primaeval ' scrub', extending northwards in many places almost to the 
site of the stone portion of the Great Barrier, certainly touching it at 
the points where it is crossed by the Cambeck, the Kingwater, the 
Irthing, the Tipilt, the Cawbiirn, the North Tyne, etc. This * scrub', 
until cleared away — the task probably of generations — must have 
sheltered in its recesses large numbers of Britons, stone implement 
men, broken men from tribes the Romans had defeated, fugitives 
from tribal or Roman justice, and others, men who would have an 
intimate knowledge of the paths and tracks through the * scrub', 
where no heavy armed Roman soldier could follow them. Such men 
assembling suddenly at unexpected places, perhaps by night, in bands 
of from, perhaps, a dozen to two hundred, would quickly demoralise 
the Roman troops defending the Stone Wall; sentries would be con- 



stantly harassed, small parties would be cut ofT, and night alarms 
would perpetually spoil the rest of the legionaries who could no more 
follow their tormenting foes into the 'scrub' than they could fly over it. 

The idea then occurs to me that the great military engineers who 
laid out Hadrian's Great Barrier made up their minds from the first 
that their valuable troops should not be harassed in this way: 
accordingly they planned the Great Barrier with an embattled Stone 
Wall as a defence to the north against the attacks of hordes of 
barbarians that might be called armies, with a palisaded earthen 
vallum to the south against the attacks of guerillas, banditti, and 
dacoits that infested the * scrub' in their rear. The first the Roman 
general dealt with more Bomano by flinging open the gates of his 
mile castles and precipitating his troops on both flanks of the 
advancing foe. But as for the guerillas, the banditti, and the dacoits, 
there were no gates in the palisades for them to come through; and 
the field officer of the day, some veteran centurion, hirsutus et hircosus, 
oould be trusted to see they did not come over. 

Such are the ideas as to the Roman Wall that my drives in 
Wiltshire and Dorsetshire have put into my mind; I hope they may 
be considered worthy of being laid before the Society of Antiquaries 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

I remain, my Dear Dr. Bruce, 

Yours very truly, 

Richard S. Ferguson. 


One or two additional remarks I may be permitted to make by 
way of appendix. * 

(1.) It has been the subject of remark that no gates have been 
discovered in the Vallum. I think they were dispensed with as 
worse than useless. The Roman general would not want to launch 
large masses of troops upon guerillas; and numerous gates would have 
necessitated equally numerous guards, which would mean a large 
number of extra men on duty day and night. The Roman engineers 
were not so pedantic so to make gates where they were of no use. 

(2.) If the use I have conjectured for the Valium be the right one. 

88 hadeian's great barrier. 

it does away with criticism as to its not always taking the most 
advantageous ground for defence towards the south. In the case of 
the foes expected from the south strict adherence to the rules of 
military engineering would have been pedantry. 

I am glad that the idea I have put forth makes Wall and Vallum 
the work of one mind carried on simultaneously. 


LowTHER Street, Carlisle, Dec. 31, 1887. 
My Dear Blair, 

Since I posted the proof of my letter to Dr. Bruce to you, I have 
received the following information from my friend Mr. Horrocks, who 
owns large moors at Alston, which for a long way lie on either side of 
the Maiden Way. He tells me that proof positive exists that the 
whole district was once covered with ' scrub*, in the roots of birch and 
alder, which are now buried beneath the peat, which are exposed on 
the banks of the streams, and in digging for peat. In the low bottoms 
the 'scrub' still exists. 

Another proof of the existence of extensive * scrub' in Roman 
times is that in the ditch of the camp at Chesters, and elsewhere, 
there have been found with Roman remains antlera of red deer of a 
size beyond any that can now be found in Europe. This implies that 
the deer had unlimited supply of * browse', i.e, * scrub', to feed upon. 

Yours truly, 

Richard S. Febguson. 



By the Rev. A. Johnson, M.A., Vicar op Hbaley. 

[Read at the Bywell Meeting, 9th July, 1887.] 

Pabt I. — Ecclesiastical. 

When I came to Bywell St. Peter's, as curate, eighteen years ago, it 
occurred to me that Bywell, with its two old churches, its market 
cross, its castle, and its ancient fishery, must have an intei*esting history 
of its own. The notices of it in all the histories of Northumberland 
I found to be but scanty ; some I soon discovered to be inaccurate. 
I therefore began at once to collect materials from every available 
source. From this miscellaneous collection I now select a few of the 
most important facts, which, I trust, may be of interest to the members 
of our Society, beginning with ecclesiastical affairs. 

You will know that the ecclesiastical antiquities of Xorthumbria 
have quite a peculiar character, as it had a prominent place in the 
annals of the Church and nation from the very earliest times. ' Its 
inhabitants were conveited to Christianity; and religion, arts and 
letters were cultivated by Northumbrian monks long before the days 
of Alfred, and in times when some other parts of England seem to 
have scarcely emerged from barbarism.' The Anglo-Saxon Church 
had not a more fruitful field than this northern province. Northum- 
berland was ruled by a monarch of its own. Bamborough Castle was 
the residence of the Saxon kings. The little island of Lindisfeme, 
close by, was the retreat of those early missionaries, through whose 
labours Christianity was spread among the pagan natives of the 
mainland. Hexham, the fifth church that was built of stone in 
Britain, was the masterpiece of St. Wilfrid, the greatest of Anglo- 
Saxon church builders. He became bishop of Hexham in a.d. 674, 
and died in a.d. 709. He had in his employ a number of masons 



whom he brought over from Prance and Italy. Sidney Gibson tells 
as that an eminent ecclesiologist, who made a pilgrimage to this part 
of the conntry in the autumn of 1847, gave it as his opinion that 
both of the Bywell churches were originally built by Wilfrid's masons. 
Considering this to be true, as most probably it is, the first churches 
of Bywell would be built either at the close of the seventh century or 
at the very beginning of the eighth — somewhere between a.d. 674 
and A.D. 709. The earliest mention of Bywell occurs a century later 
than this. In the writings of Simeon of Durham, we read that on 
the 11th of June, a.d. 808, Egbert, the 12th bishop of Lindisfame, 
was consecrated at Bywell, by the Archbishop of York and the 
Bishops of Hexham and Whithem. The 11th of June in that year 
was Trinity Sunday. Lindisfame frequently suflFered from the ravageg 
of the Danes. One of these attacks was made about the time we are 
speaking of, and brings Bywell into notice. They plundered every- 
where, overthrew the altars, and carried away all the treasures of the 
Church. Some of the monks they slew, some they carried away 
captive, and others, much afBicted and abused, they turned away 
naked. " Thus," says the historian, " was the church of lindisfeme 
spoiled, and stripped of its ornaments, nevertheless the episcopal see 
still continued therein, and those monks who had succeeded in escaping 
from the hands of the barbarians, remained for a long time after near 
the sacred body of St. Cuthbert (apud sacrum corpus bead GtUhberti). 
In the 11th year after the plunder of this church, Higbald, aft^ 
having completed twenty-two years in the episcopate, died on the 8th 
Kalends of June (t.«., May 25th), and Ecgbert was elected in his place 
and consecrated by Archbishop Eanbald, and Eanbert and Badulf and 
other Bishops who had assembled for his ordination at a place called 
Bigwell (in locum qui dicitur Bigmll), on the 3rd Ides of June (».«.. 
June 11th). This occurred in the seventh year of the reign of 
Eardulf , the son of Earulf, who had succeeded to the throne on the 
death of King Aethelred."i 

Doubtless Bywell suflFered from the hands of these church-destroy- 
ing Danes when they made a descent upon the neighbourhood a short 
time afterwards, plundering and destroying as they went. It took a 
considerable time to recover from the check that was given to church 
' Simeon. Hitt.lEccl, Dwielmensig, Lib. II. Cap. V. 


architectnre by their merciless devastations. " You mast consider," 
says Holinshed, in his Chronicles of the Kings of England, *^ that by 
the invasion of the Danes the churches and monasteries throughout 
Northumberland were so wasted and ruined that a man could scarcely 
find a church standing at this tune in all the country, and as for those 
that remained they were all covered with broom or thatch, and as for 
any abbey or monastery there was not one left in all the country, nor 
did any man, for the space of 200 years, take care for the building or 
repairing of anything in decay." Under these circumstances one 
could scarcely expect to meet with any of the earlier Saxon architec- 
ture aboveground here, except such fragments as are built up with the 
work of the later pre-Norman period. And so we find it. The 
oldest part of Bywell St. Peter's church — the north wall — is of 
the later Saxon architecture, and may probably date about a.d. 1080 
or A.D. 1060. The tower of St. Andrew's, which is one of the 
finest specimens of its kind, is about the same date, or a Uttle older. 
The present tower of St. Peter's belongs to the 18 th century, though 
it stands upon foundations of an earlier date, probably Norman. It 
was evidently intended more for defence than for ecclesiastical pur- 
poses. The holes in the doorway for the reception of huge bolts and 
bars, and the marks on the coign stones, worn by the sharpening of 
weapons, are a sufficient proof of this. In those troublesome times 
fortification of some kind was a necessary precaution. Where there 
was no castle or pele tower for the people to flee to in time of danger, 
the want was not unfrequently supplied by fortifying the church tower. 
The strong and massive tower of Longhoughton, which bears some 
resemblance to Bywell St. Peter's, is an example of this use. There 
the case is placed beyond dispute by the evidence of Clarkson's Survey, 
which says, '* The chirch and steple of this towne is the great strengt 
that the poore tenants have to drawe to in the tyme of warre, wherfor 
it wer neadfoull the same be for that and other causes kepid in good 

On the inside of the western window on the second story of St. 
Andrew's tower there is a portion of the shaft of an early Saxon cross. 
This proves that the tower itself belongs to the later Saxon period, 
not to the time of St. Wilfrid. For a sketch and description of this 
see Arrh. Ael. iii. (N.S.) p. 83. 


In passing on from the notice of those early days 1 ainnot retrain 
from expi^essing my regret that the names of those good old Saxon 
thanes who did so much for Bywell have not come down to as. 
Unfortunately the great Survey of William the Conqueror — The 
Doomsday Book — which gives such an accurate account of the more 
southern counties, does not include Northumberland. Therefore, 
who the early patrons of Bywell were, and what lands they held we 
cannot tell. Soon after the Conquest their possessions passed into 
other hands, and were divided between the two great barons of Bywell 
and Bolbeck. It was a time of excitement and activity in ecclesias- 
tical as well as civil matters. With the Normans came an era of 
church building, but not of absolute peace and harmony. Again we 
find Bywell connected with monastic troubles. It appears that at 
this time Bywell St. Peter's belonged to the abbey of Tynemouth. 
Between the years 1097 and 1119 the church of Bywell St. Peter, 
and that of Woodhom, with Coquet Island and the lands of Amble, 
were settled upon the abbey of St. Alban's in Hertfordshire as the 
portion of that house out of the revenues of its subordinate priory of 
Tynemouth.* This arrangement, however, was afterwards broken 
into, in some respects, but Bywell was retained by the abbey of St. 
Alban's. " Abbat Richard, with the unanimous consent of the Mona- 
stery of St. Alban, decreed, that the church of Tynemouth should 
ailnually pay to the former thirty shillings, and no other demand was 
to be made. The Abbat was to keep in his own hands Ambell and 
Coquet Island, with the Churches of Bywell and Woodhom. And it 
was provided, that when the Abbat went to visit Tynemouth, he, with 
twenty attendants, was to be entertained for fifteen days by the 
monastery there." ^ 

In the year 1074 or 1075 Waltheof, earl of Northumberland, gave 

the church of Tynemouth and all its lands and possessions to the 

monastery of Jarrow. In 1079 Aubrey, the next earl, confirmed the 

grant to the monks of Jarrow, who, by this time, had removed to 

Durham. In 1090 Robert de Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, 

after endowing the monastery of Tynemouth and filling it with 

monks whom he had brought from St. Alban's, through enmity to the 

* Mat. Paris in Vit. xxiii. Sc. Alb. Abb. p. 65, and Hodgson's Northd. Vol. I. 
pt. II. p. 182. 

■ Gibson's Tynemouth^ Vol. I. p. 42. 


bishop of Durham, took it from that church and made it a cell of the 
monastery of St. Alban's. This lawless act of the earl led to a long 
and bitter dispute between Durham and St. Alban's, as the Prior and 
Convent of Durham were unwilling to be forcibly dispossessed of their 
rights. At length the pope of Rome (Alexander III.) was appealed 
to. He appointed Roger, bishop of Worcester, Robert, dean of York, 
and Master John de Saresbury, treasurer of Exeter, delegates to 
enquire into and settle the dispute. A record of the sentence of these 
judges, made under this commission, is in the possession of the Dean 
and Chapter of Durham. It is dated a.d. 1174, and shows the terms 
upon which the matters in dispute were arranged. The monks of 
Durham were to relinquish all claim upon the church of Tynemouth, 
and, in exchange, the abbot and brethren of St. Alban's were to grant 
and give up to the church of Durham the church of ' Biwella ' (saving 
the right of Salaman, priest, as long as he shall live), and the church 
of Edlingham. Eustace de Balliol, lord of the Barony of Bywell, 
^with the advice and concurrence of Hugh, his son and heir) granted 
a charter, assenting to the above-mentioned agreement, in which he 
states that his ancestors had given the advowson and impropriation of 
Bywell St. Peter's to the monastery of St. Alban's {EccTiam de Biwelle 
cti* p'fentiis suis quam antec^sores md monasterio sYl Alhani dedsrant 
et comesserant). Thus Bywell St. Peter's passed into the hands of the 
Prior and Convent of Durham, and from that time remained in the 
undisputed possession of the authorities of that cathedral, the Dean 
and Chapter being its patrons, until July, 1884, when, by the New- 
castle Dean and Chapter's Act, it was transferred to the Archdeacon 
of Northumberland and his successors for ever. 

Mackenzie, in his Hintonj of Northumberland, refers to the well- 
known tradition " that two sisters quarrelled for the precedency, and 
one of them founded a church of her own from which she excluded 
her sister, which was the occasion of two churches in the same town." 
We might have been inclined to believe that such a thing was possible, 
but unfortunately it happens that there are several places in England 
where a similar occurrence of two churches, side by side, is met with, 
and in some of them, if not all, the same story of the quarrelsome 
sisters is produced as an explanation. Willingale Doe and Willingale 
Spain, in Essex, have the churches in the same churchyard. Other 


examples occur at Coventry and Evesham ; at Great Melton, Snoring, 
and Beepham, in Norfolk; at Swaffham Prior, in Cambridgeshire; 
and in Suffolk, at Bnry St. Edmunds and Trimlej. The sisters were, in 
fact, sister monasteries, to which the churches had become attached. 

Bywell St. Peter's is called the Black church, because it belonged 
to the Benedictine or Black monks. The Tynemouth monks belonged 
to that order, and so did those of Durham. Their dress was black. 

Bywell St. Andrew's is called the White church from its belonging, 
at one time, to the Praemonstratensian, or "White monks of Blanch- 
land. Their dress was white, that is, of undyed wool. They wore a 
white cassock, with a rochet over it, a long white cloak and a white 
cap. The rochet was a garment resembling a surplice, but with 
narrower sleeves. In both the Lih&r Regis and BandaVs Survey^ the 
abbot of Blanchland is stated to be the patron of Bywell St. Andrew's. 
Since the dissolution of the monasteries the patrgnage has passed 
through several hands, namely, Queen Elizabeth, Badcliffes, Wit^ains, 
Thorntons, Fenwicks and Beaumonts. Mr. W. B. Beaumont is the 
present patron.* 

What I have said about the Black monks of Durham and the 
White ones of Blanchland will account for the names by which the 
two Bywell churches are commonly known — the Black church and 
the White church — but it does not account for the origin of the 
churches themselves, or for the formation of the parishes to which 
they belong. For that we shall have to look much farther back into 
the remote periods of history. It is quite clear that St. Andrew's 
church was built long before there were any Praemonstratensian 
monks in England. They only came into the country in a.d. 1140, 
and the abbey of Blanchland was not founded until a.d. 1165 — 
more than a hundred years at least after the date of Bywell St. 
Andrew's tower. Just as the Baliols of the Bywell barony had given 
the tithes and advowson of St. Peter's to St. Alban's and afterwards 
to Durham, so now we find the other great baron, Walter de Bolbeck, 
giving those of St. Andrew's to help the abbey at Blanchland, which 
he had founded and endowed, and the abbot, in return, had to 
provide for the service at Bywell, by placing a vicar there. Blanch- 
land was really, in olden times, part of the parish of Bywell St. 
* Hodgson's MB. Materials. S. 






^-"-n-., ^fNOX AND 

N ,-orjNOATlON3. j 


Andrew, and so were Shotley and Slaley, jnst as Whitfconfltall, Healey, 
and Newton, once formed part of the parish of Bywell St. Peter. 
Slalej became a separate benefice in 1719, Shotley in 1724, Blanch- 
land (an offshoot of Shotley) in 1752, Whittonstall in 1774, Healey 
in 1876,' Newton Hall in 1877.® To account for the real origin of 
the two ancient parishes of Bywell with their strangely allotted 
boundaries, we mnst remember that when the great landowners in 
Saxon times built churches for the benefit of themselves and their 
tenants, they endowed them with the tithes, not only of the main 
portion of their estates, but also of the detached portions. The 
boundary of the parish, therefore, would coincide with that of the 
estate. However much we may be indebted to the munificence of the 
Norman barons or their successors, we ought never to forget our debt 
of gratitude to those unknown benefactors of an earlier day, who, by 
building churches, showed how well they appreciated the blessings 
which they had themselves received. 

Besides the two present churches of Bywell there was a domestic 
chapel, called St. Helen's, standing opposite the castle, on the 
southern margin of the river, near the spot where the steps used to 
lead down to the sahnon lock. Until 1886, when the present bridge 
was commenced, two stone piers of an ancient bridge stood in the 
river, a little below the dam. As there appears to have been no 
spring of arches it is inferred that the superstructure was of wood. 
No road could be traced by Mackenzie in 1825 southwards from this 
bridge, which was perhaps erected merely to lead to the chapel. The 
last stones of the chapel were removed about forty or fitly years ago 
for building purposes. The ancient piers were blasted down during 
the construction of the present bridge. Sykes, in his Local Records^ 
relates that *' by some accident the train was fired too early, and a 
man named Brown was hurled into the air and killed." He might 
have added that another man, named Mo£Pat, of Ovington, was hurled 
into the air at the same time, and not killed. 

In Bywell St. Peter's church there are two little side chapels, or 
chantries. That on the south, behind the organ, is dedicated to St. 
John the Baptist, and was built about the year a.d. 1287. In it there 
is a large stone altar slab with the usual five crosses inscribed upon 

» See London Qaiette, Oct. 27th, 1876. • Gazette, May Ist, 1877. 


iV A charter, relating to this chapel and altar, is preserved in the 
Treasury of the Dean and Chapter of Durham.® This chantry is 
stated by Randal to be of £4 yearly value. 

The other chantry — the elegant one on the north side — contains a 
monumental slab on which is inscribed a knight in armour. Probably 
he was the founder. The dedication is unknown. Who could this 
knight have been ? Considering the beauty of the chapel one cannot 
help thinking that he must have been a man of considerable import- 
ance. The square-headed windows which adorn the east, north, and 
west of this chantry are of the Decorated style of architecture, 
belonging to the beginning or middle of the 14th century (about 
1840). The late Mr. Wailes, of Newcastle, filled these windows with 
stained glass to the memory of members of his family. In so doing 
he carefully preserved some of the original pieces of richly-coloured 
glass, representing the oak leaf and the hedge rose, which had 
escaped destruction. I should not be at all surprised if it should 
turn out that the monumental slab represents John Balliol, king of 
Scotland, or his son Edward. The Balliols held the barony of Bywell 
at that time. John, who did homage for his kingdom to Edward I. 
in A.D. 1292, died in a.d. 1306. Edwai*d claimed the kingdom, and 
held it for a short time. He died without issue, and the family 
soon became extinct. There is a tradition that one of the kings of 
Scotland was buried at Bywell. Probably this may only mean that 
he was buried in eflfigy, according to the curious old custom, which 
long prevailed, of so burying distinguished persons in all the different 
churches with which they had been connected. Thus queen Elizabeth 
was buried in many of the London churches. 

In the 18th and 14th centuries there were several small chapels or 
oratories scattered up and down in this neighbourhood. In fact it 
seeAis to have been a mission field well supplied with labourers from 
the monasteries of Durham, Blanchland, and Hexham. In old 
charters and other historical documents I have seen them mentioned 
as existing at Apperley, Styford, Newton, and elsewhere. The 
Newton one was built as a private chantry chapel, or oratory, by 

^ Within the altar rails there is another, now inscribed as a monument to 
the memory of Key. B. Cooke, and on this too the five crosses may be seen. 
* 2 2 Bpecialium, L. 1. 


Bobert de Insula, who held the manors of Chipchase and Newton 
abont the year a.d. 1274. As a condition upon which he was allowed 
to build the chapel, he stipulated that the mother church of Bywell 
St. Peter should not thereby suffer any detriment. All alms and 
offerings made in the said oratory were to be handed over by the 
chaplain to the mother church. Bobert and his heirs were also to 
pay annually six pounds of com to the said mother church, and to 
attend service therein on the four feasts of the year, namely, Christ- 
mas, The Purification, Easter, and St. Peter's Day." 

It may be well to state here that the endowments of these 
oratories were all swept away at the Beformation, when prayers for 
the dead were discontinued in the church. Some of them were taken 
possession of by king Henry VIII. in the last year of his reign. 
The rest were seized by Edward VI. 

In the lAber Regis, Bywell St. Peter's is said to be a vicarage re- 
maining in charge of the value of £9 188. Ijd., Bywell St. Andrew's 
a discharged vicarage worth £3 9s. 2d.— discharged, that is, from the 
payment of first iruits. 

The registers of St. Peter's church commence in the year 1663, 
those of St. Andrew's in 1668.1® 

In the tower of Bywell St. Peter's church there are two very 
interesting, old beUs — 

i. Of the thirteenth century, with the 'two-dot' stop, which Mr. 
Stahlschmidt^i says stamps this as certainly earlier than 1400. 
It measures 2 ft. 2 J inches in diameter, and bears the inscrip- 
tion in large Gothic letters: — 


The letters were not added merely to fill up the line, but with 
an appropriate symbolical meaning. As bells were symbols of 
preachers, and alphabets represented all knowledge contained 
in both the Old and New Testaments — ^for out of an alphabet 
all words of wisdom are formed— so here it was meant to 
indicate the duty of the preacher to "declare the t^^^ counsel 
of God." 

» See Hodgson, Pt. III. Vol. II. p. 92, 'Carta RoVti de Insnla.' 
^^ A paper, on the Bywell Registers and Churchwardens* Account Books, is 
in course of preparation. 
" Proc, iiL p. 129. 



ii. The other^ which appears to be of a later date, measures 2 ft. 
1 in. in diameter, and bears the inscription in beaatifnl 
floriated letters:— 


(TJt surgant gentes vooor Horn et cito jace[n]tes.) 
which may be translated, ' I am called Horn and I call the 
sleeping people to arise', or, more literally, ' That the people 
may arise I am called Horn and I summon the sleepers.' 
In pre-Beformation times it was probably rang in the early morning 
(about five o'clock) to call the people to Matins." The custom of 
ringing the bells at eight o'clock every Sunday morning, which stiQ 
continues here, may be a relic of the old practice of ringing the bell 
for Matins. It may also have served the purpose of an alarm 
bell on such occasions as those ' Incursions of the thieves of Tindale' 
referred to in the Survey of 1569, when the Bywell men had to 'raise 
Hue and Cry in the night season', and prepare for the defence of their 
goods. The mixture of two languages is by no means rare in bell 
inscriptions, as Mr. Blair has pointed out. So that whether we read 
^ Vocor H(ym\ or ' vocor Hormf that creates no difficulty here." I 
cannot, however, agree with Mr. Stahlsohmidt's interpretation, in 
which he makes the name of the bell to be ' Hornet ' as if the Bywell 
people wanted '* something as sharp as a hornet's sting to get them up 
in the morning." Hornets were never used for such a purpose as here 
required — ^homs were. Horn trumpets are frequently mentioned in 
Scripture, and I think it could be proved that, on some oocasionB, 
they have been used to summon people to public worship. Certainly 
both horns and bells were used to convene the people in cases of danger. 
Blowing the hym was the ancient mode of raising the hue and cry. 

" The spirit of the legend may be gathered from the words of Doiandns, 
Bishop of Mende, A.i>. 1286. He speaks of bells as "the trumpets of the Charch 
Militant," " the trumpets of the Eternal King," and says, ** You must know that 
bells, by the sound of which the people do assemble to the church, do signify 
the silver trumpets by which, under the old law, the people were called together 
unto sacrifice." . . . ** Also in the night for Matins they are rung often, because 
we ought often to cry out, Wake thou that sleepest and arise from the dead. On 
festivals the bells do sound more pressingly, and are rung for a longer time to 
arouse those that sleep and are drunken, lest they sleep beyond measure." — 
Burandus on Symbolism, p. 94. Hugo de St. Victor has a passage remarkably 
similar: — "At Matins they are rung oftentimes, because we should often 
exclaim, Arise thou that Sleepest."— Quoted by Rev. J. M. Neale in his Notes to- 
Durandus, p. 92. 

" Proe. iiL p. 129. 


Du Cange supposes that the term *hiw^ properly denoted thp sound of 
a horn. "Hue vero videtur esse clamor cum comu; vo. Huesium." 
He alBo gives the phrase "cum cornu clamorem levare." To put to 
the horn was a phrase used in the courts, meaning to outlaw a person 
for not appearing in the court to which he was summoned. This mode 
of denunciation is mentioned as early as the reign of William the Lion, 
king of Scotland.** 

North, in his Bells of Northamptonshire, p. 158, gives instances of 
alarm bells. '* Indeed," he says, " the use of a bell as a summons to a 
public meeting, or as an alarm in cases of danger, appears to have been 
very general. A bell for such a purpose was used in Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, where it was called the 'Common Bell'.'' In 1552 the towns- 
people of Moulton purchased and set apart a special bell as a Mote-dell 
— to be ' ronge whan any casualtyes shall chaunce and for y^ gatheryng 
togyther y« Inhabytants of y® sayd towne to y« courte and other theyr 
necessaryes'." With these facts before me I am inclined to believe 
that the name of the Bywell bell is Horn, and that it was probably 
used for the purposes which I have indicated. 

In the south porch of St. Peter's Church are some fragments of 
zigzag arch mouldings and an early grave cover of very rude sculpture. 
In and around St. Andrew's Church there are no less than 28 grave 
covers — some of them very fine specimens. The old font in St. Peter's 
is worthy of notice and so is the * leper ' or low -side window. On the 
south side of the chancel {c. 1195) may be seen good examples of sedilia 
and piscina. The chancel arch is modem (1849). The old arch which 
preceded it was supposed by Bishop Turner (of Grafton and Armidale) 
to have been erected about the time of Bichard Coeur de Lion, a.d. 

Passing on to the year 1771, we find in Richardson's Table BooJc^ 
and also in Sykes's Local Records, a very sad but interesting account 
of Bywell among the suJSTerers in the great fiood which happened on 
Sunday, the 17 th November, in that year. All the bridges on the 
Tyne were swept away except Corbridge, and, as the record declares, 
" the first appearance of day discovered a scene of horror and devas- 
tation too dreadftil for words to express or humanity to behold without 
shuddering." The inundation occurred during the middle of the 
" Stat. Will. c. 4, § 2. 

100 BYWBIiL. 

night. It was about two o'clock in the morning when it reached its 
height. "The inhabitants of Bywell were amongst the most un- 
happy sufferers in this melancholy catastrophe. The whole village 
was under water ; and in the dining room and other rooms on the 
first floor of Mr. Fenwick's house it was eight feet deep. The 
farmers there lost all their com and hay stacks^ cows, etc. All the 
garden walls belonging to Mr. Fenwick were broken down, and the 
gardens entirely destroyed. A delay of five minutes would have 
effected destruction to his whole stud together with four servants. 
Most of the valuable stud of horses were got into the inside of the 
Black church, and saved themselves by holding by the tops of the 
pews, which were allowed to continue in their gnawed state for several 
years after the flood ; a mare belonging to Mr. Elliot, father-in-law to 
Mr. Thomas Bewick, who was on a visit to Bywell at the time, was 
saved in the same church by getting upon the altar table. About ten 
houses were swept away and six persons perished. Several lives were 
saved miraculously by twigs, ropes, trees, etc., and many people were 
taken out of their houses through the roofs. The shrieks of women 
and of children, frantic with all the agonies of despair, will better be 
conceived than described. The White church-yard wall "was entirely 
destroyed, and a great part of the church-yard washed away. The 
Black church-yard walls were likewise very much ruined, and the 
parish accounts destroyed. Dead bodies and coffins were torn out of 
the church-yard, and the living and the dead promiscuously clashed in 
the torrent." 

Before the flood St. Peter's church-yard extended much farther to 
the south than it does at present. A conBiderable portion of it was 
washed away. As the bank at the bend of the river was gradually 
being carried off the people began to be alarmed for the safety of the 
church itself, lest it should be undermined and destroyed. It stood 
firm, however, and with the substantial I'epairs that it has recently 
received, seems likely to stand for many an age to come. 


c. 1170. Walter, priest of the church of Biwell, mentioned as the 
predecessor of Salomon, in the charter of Eustace 
de Balliol confirming the settlement of the law suit 

BTWELL. 101 

between Durham and St. Alban's in 1174, whereby 
the abbot of St. Alban's gave up to Durham the 
church of By well St. Peter. "Cum plenario tofto 
Salomonis decanj juxta ecclesiam sancti Andree quem 
Waltervs sacerdos ante eum tenuit." 

1174. Salomon. In the award of the Commissioners who made the 
above-named settlement the transfer is made ^' saving 
the right of Salomon, Priest, as long as he shall live" 
His name appears as *' Salomon sacerdos de Bewell " 
as a witness to the charter of Bernard de Balliol 
conveying Newton to Otwy de Insula. Another wit- 
ness was '* William, the clerk, who wrote the charter 
at Bywell." 

c. 1196 or 8. Patuicius witnesses a grant by Milo de Whitonstal to 
the hospital of St. Mary, near the Westgate, New- 
castle, about the end of the reign of king John. 

1312. Walter de Ja&bowe, feeling unequal to the duties, through 

old age and other infirmities, resigns Dec. 19th, 1312. 
His letter of resignation is given in Registrum 
Falatinum Dunelmense, I. p. 291 : — 

" Yenerabili in Christo patri, domino Ricaido, Dei gratia, 
episcopo Dunelmensi, devotus filius, WalteniB de Jar', yicarius 
ecclesise de Bjwell' Petri, vestrae dicecesis, salutem, cum 
debitis et devotis obedientia, reverentia et honore. Ad coram 
et regimen animarum, ac onera yicarss mese incnmbentia 
sapponanda, senio confractus, ac variis infirmitatibus prape- 
ditus, me seutiens totaliter impotentem, vicariam piaodictam, 
pure, sponte et absolute, resigno in vestrae sanctitatis manibus, 
per prseeentes, omni jari quod mihi in eadem competit, aut 
competlit, ezpresse renuncians in hac parte. In. cujus rei 
testimonium, prsesentibus sigillum meum apposui. Datum 
Dunobni, XIX" die Decembris, anno Domini miUesimo 
trecentesimo duodecimo/' 

1313. Walter de Shirburn upon the resignation of Walter de 

1315. Gilbert de Heley instituted by Bishop Eellawe, 21st Aug., 
1315. He took part (with Hugh, chaplain of the 
parish of Bywell St. Peter) in an inquisition touching 
the right of presentation to Bywell St. Andrew's 
vicarage, 9th Sept., 1315. {Kel Beg. II. p. 726.) 

102 BYWBLL. 

1842. Adam de Xewsome or Neusom. His institution by Bp. 

Kellawe is dated '*X. Kalendas Junii anno Domini 

millesimo oc(f^. xlii^" [May 23rd, 1342.] Kd. Beg. 

III. p. 435. 
1849. Gilbert de Stanbly, upon the resignation of Newsame. 

1856. William de Eges post mortem Stanely. 
1868. John de Inqelby p. mort. Eges. Afterwards vicar of Meldon. 
1890. Nicholas de Inqelby p. res. Ingelby. Nicholas exchanged 

Meldon with John de Ingelby for Bywell. Ha^ldHs 

Reg. fol. 67. 
1405. William Yssop p. mort. Ingelby. 
1420. William Newton p. mort. Yssop. 
1446. William de Wyntbinqham p. mort. Newton. 
1469. WilllAlM Hynd p. res, Wyntringham. 
1484. Richard Saunder p. mort. Hynd. 
1493. Thomas Lee (cap.) p. mort. Saunder. 
1498. Thomas Todd p. res. Lee. 
1510. Thomas Bentley p. mort. Todd. 
1526. John Forstbr (cap.) p. res. Bentley. 
1540, Jan. 3. Richard Swalwei^l (cap.) p. mort. Forster. 
1557, June 8. Thomas Bolton, als. Clerk Pbr. p. mort. Swalwell. 


1567, Mar. 11. Jacobus Browne, CI. sacri. verb. Dei min. p. mort. 


1568, Aug. 14. Thomas Wilkinson, CI. sacri. verb. Dei min. p. mort. 

Browne. At the Chancellor's Visitations, held at Cor- 
bridge and Newcastle, in 1571, he neither appeared in 
person nor sent any excuse, but took flight (fugamfecU)^^. 
He was accordingly pronounced contumacious, and ex- 
conmiunicated. In the entry for the following year, 
the vicarage of Bywell St. Peter is' i*ecorded as being 
vacant. Why he fled is not stated, but probably the 
reason was, that he dreaded the examination which 
the clergy had to undergo at the visitations in those 
days, ^Mn proof of their progresse in learninge and 
studyinge of the scriptures." His curate, John Thewe, 

" 22 Sur. Soc.^ p. 30. 

BYWELL. 108 

and the vicar of By well St. Andrew, William Aahton, 
appeared -at the Newcastle Visitation, in July, 1578, 
but ^^had not completed their tasks, and time was 
given them till the Michaelmas synod for that purpose." 
The task, on that occasion, was an account of the 
Gospel of St. Matthew, in Latin or English. 

1581, Oct. 4. John Woodfall, 01. p. depriv. Wilkinson. Patr. ep. 
Dun. p. laps. temp. 

1586, Aug. 80. Thomas Mitpoed, 01. verbi. Dei min. p. oessionem 

About 1680. Oabbiel Kipling. 
— John Davis, an intruder. Fellow of Mag. Ool. Oamb., ejected 
for nonconformity. (Randal.) 

1662, Ap. 22. RiCHAED Braidley, A.M. No mention how void. Patr. 
Dean and Ohapter of Durham. (Randal.) 

1678, Jan. 8. Thomas Bhoughton, A.M. p. mort. Bradley. 

1694, Nov. 28. Matthew Owen, 01. p. mort. Broughton. He im- 
proved the vicarage of Bywell St. Peter, which had been 
built about the beginning of the reign of King James I. 
Over the doorway, which he erected, is inscribed 
Mat Owen Fecit a d 1698. He died the following 
year. On the outside there is a short buttress at the 
east end of the chancel, on which is cut: 
Mat. Owen. Vic. 
Obiit Nov. 24 

1699. John Habtis, A.M. p. mort. Owen. 

1702, Mar. 6. Francis Clement, A.B. p. mort. Hartis. 

1782. Robert Sdion, A.B. p. mort. Clement. In 1755 he was also 
curate of Bywell St. Andrew. (B. St, A. BegisUra.) 

1773, Feb. 26. Nicholas Hornsby, A.M. p. morfc. Simon. 

1774. Richard Fleming, A.B. p. res. Hornsby. Also vicar of 

Bywell St. Andrew, 1756. 
1778. John Fleming, A.M. He was probably a son of the above 
Richard Fleming, for whom he acted as curate from 
1775 until 1778, when he became vicar of both the 
Bywell parishes. He died in December, 1789. (B, St. 
P. Registers.) 

104 BYWELL. 

1790. Dickens Hazelwood, p. mort. Fleming. Non-resident. Henry 
Johnson was his curate and Uved in the vicarage. 

1795. Henry Johnson. He was curate of Widdrington from 1778 
to 1828, and also vicar of Bywell St. Andrew from 
1790. Before he became vicar of the two churches of 
Bywell, he was chaplain of Netherwitton, and resided 
in Stanton Hall. In the Clerical Directory for 1822, 
his is also returned as curate of Shotley, Slaley, and 

1828. Edward Cooke p. mort. Johnson. Previously Curate of both 
parishes for four years. 

1845. Brerbton Edward Dwarris, M.A. (the present vicar) p. 
mort. Cooke. Late fellow and tutor of the Uni- 
versity of Durham. Rural dean of Corbridge (Ist 
commission dated May 5, 1868). Hon. canon of 
Durham 1869 to 1882. Hon. canon of Newcastle 
1882. Proctor in convocation for archdeaconry of 
Northumberland 1865 to 1868 and 1880 to 1882. 
chaplain to bishop of Newcastle, 1882. Examining 
chaplain, 1884. 

Inter aim, the following may be noted as his 
work: — Bywell St. Peter's church completely restored 
— oak seats and new organ added. Churches and 
schools built at Healey and Newton, and these 
districts formed into new parishes. Also St. Peter's 
vicarage enlarged and greatly improved. 

vicars op bywell ST. ANDREW. 

1315. William de Nortox, canon of Blanchland. He resigned the 
vicarage of Bywell St. Andrew on being elected to 
the abbacy of Blanchland in June, 1315. From the 
^'Finding on an inquisition touching the right of 
presentation to the vicarage of Bywell St. Andrew's," 
we learn that the living became vacant on the Sunday 
next after the Feast of St. BamabaB in that year. 
The inquisition reads as follows : — 

PYWBLL. 105 

" Reverendissimo in Ohristo path et domino^ domino 
Ricardo, Dei gratia, episcopo Dunolmensi, suus devotus 
officialis domini archidiaconi NorthumbriaB, obedientiam, 
reverentiam, pariter et honorem. Mandatnm vestram nupesr 
recepi in hs&c verba: Ricardus, permissione divina, Dunolm- 
ensis episcopus, dilecto filio etc. sub eommuni forma, — 
Auctoritate igitur hujus mandati, diligentem feci inquisi* 
tionem^ per dominnm Hugonem, lectorem ecclesie de 
Quelpington*, dominum Hugonem de Swynbum', rectorem 
ecclesiae de Enaresdale, dominum Willelmum de Bardon% 
perpetnum vicarium de Novo Castro, dominum Gilbertom, 
vicarium de Neubum', dominum Thomam, vicarium de 
Heddone, dominum Gilbertum, vicarium de Bywell* Petri, 
dominum Thomam, vicarium de Horseley, dominum Hugouem, 
capellanum parocbise de Slavelej, dominum Johannem, 
capellanum parochialis ecclesise beati Nicbolai dei^ovo Castro, 
dominum Hugonem, capellanum parochisB de Bjwell Petri, 
dominum Willelmum, capellanum parochalis ecdesias beati 
Jobannis de Novo Castro, et dominum Adam capellanum 
parocbisB de Neubum'. Qui dicunt, quod dicta vicaria vacat, 
et hoc per admiesionem fratris Willelmi de Norton', dudum 
vicarii ejusdem, in abbatem de Alba Landa ; et vacavit 
a die Dominica prozima post f estum Sancti Barnabas Apostoli 
ultimo prseteritum. Item dicunt, quod abbas et conventus 
sunt veri patroni ejusdem, et ultimo prsesentarunt ad eadem, 
et sunt in possess iooe prsesentandi ; et dicunt quod valet, 
tempore pacis, centum solidos ; nee est pensionaria alicui, vel 
litigiosa. Dicunt etiam quod prssentatus est idoneus, et in 
ordinibus sacerdotal! bus constitutus, nee est alibi beneficiatus. 
De cajteris vero inquisitores nihil inveniunt quod obstet 
prsesentantibus vel praesentato. In cujus rei testimonium, 
has literas meas sigillo officii mei, una cum sigillio eorum per 
quos inquisitio capta fuerit, transmitto consignatas. Datum 
apud Novum Castrum super Tynam, V. id. Scptembris, anno 
Domini M^. CCC**. quinto decimo." [9th Sept., 1316.] 

Bp. Kellawe's BegUter, Vol. II. p. 725. 

1815, Sept. 13. Robert de Werkworth, canonicus de Alba Landa. 
His institution to the vicarage of By well St. Andrew's is 
recorded in Bp. Kellawe's Register, Vol. II. p. 727. 
Patrons, Abbot and Convent of Alba Landa. 

1352. DoMiNUs Gilbert de Mynstanacres. (Randal.) 
— William db Stockton. 

1403. Hugh be Dor'am p. res. Stockton. 

1481. John be Hesilden p. mort. Doram. 

1448. John be DehtxTNGTon p. mort. Hesilden. 


106 BYWBLL* 

1469. John db Hehtilpole p. mort. Derlington. 
— John Stamp, canonicus. 

1585, Aug. 11. Henbt Spbagen, canonicus de Blanchelande, p. res. 

1564, May 8. Thomas Brown, CI. p. mort. Spragen. Patr. Joh. Swin- 
bura arm. p.h.v. r'oe advocac'o'is sibi ac Cutho. Blnnt 
mercat. defuncto pro Abb. & Conv. nnp. dissolnti Mon. 
de Blanchland fe't. (Randal.) 

A Thomas Brown was chaplain of Whitfield a.d. 
1545 to A.D. 1571. Probably this was the same 

1571, July 19. Edm. Robinson, A.M. p. mort. Brown. Patr. Queen 

1575, Nov. 14. William Ashton, CI. p. mort. Robmson. Patr. Queen 

1611, Mar. 12. John Hutton, A.M. afterwards vicar of Warden. He 
bequeathed a tenement in Bywell called Three Quarter 
Land, which he had bought for the term of 60 years, 
whereof about 40 were remaining, to the next vicar 
of* St. Andrew's church, upon condition that he 
should give good security to his executors and the 
Worshipful Mr. Chancellor, to purchase the fee- farm 
of it, and that it should go successively from vicar to 
vicar, for the better maintenance of the vicars of 
St. Andrew's. 

N.B. — In 1713 it was valued at £8 per annuuL 

1618. Thomas Carteh p. res. Hutton. 

1687, Aug. 2. Ralph Cabr, S.T.B. p. mort. Carter. Afterwards vicar 
of Warden 1642, Alnham and Eglingham 1662. 
Hodgson's Northumberland^ II. III. 407. 

1640. Andrew Hall. By indenture made 5th July, 1651, he pur- 
chased the above named Three Quarter Land of Sir 
John Fenwick of Wallington, Bart. 

1667, Feb. 19. Robert Simpson, CI. p. mort. Hall. 

1668. George Ritsohel p. mort. Simpson. 
1686. John Fawobtt p. mort. Ritschell. 
1690. John RiTflOHBL, CI. p. res. Fawcett, 

BTWELL. 107 

1705. John Stewart, p. mort. Ritschel. 

1711. William Dunn. Patr. Wm. Fenwick of Bywell, Esq. 

1718. Jos. Cabb. 

1729. Matthew Robinson, A.M. Patr. John Fenwick of Bywell, Esq. 

1756. BiGHAKD Fleming, B.A. p. mort. Robinson. Patr. Wm. 

Fenwick of Bywell, Esq. Also vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter's a.d. 1774. 
1778. John Fleming, A.M. Also vicar of Bywell St. Peter's. 
1790. Henby Johns jn, p. mort. Fleming. Also vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter's 1797. 
1828. William Railton p. mort. Johnson. 
1841. Joseph Bibch. 
1844. Joseph Jaques, M.A. St. James's chapel of ease, at Riding 

Mill, was bailt during his incumbency. 
1866. Henbt Slateb, M.A. (the present vicar) p. mort. Jaqnes. 

He built a new vicarage at Riding Mill in 1868, and 

has since enlarged St. Andrew's church at Bywell and 

St. James's Riding Mill, and also built new schools at 

Riding Mill. 

Part II.— Civil. 

Previous to the Norman Conquest we find no positive statement 
as to who the owners of the lands of Bywell were. But from the 
connection of Bywell St. Peter's church with the monastery of Tyne- 
mouth, and the way in which Bywell is mixed up with other grants 
made to that monastery by the Saxon earls of Northumberland, I am 
induced to believe that they were the proprietors of the lands here. 
Another fact which points to the same conclusion is that many of the 
estates of Robert Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, were, after his 
attainder, granted to the Balliol £Eunily. In 1240, John de BaUiol 
held in capite of the crown, the barony of Bywell, which at that time 
consisted of Newbigging, Woodhorn and its members, Linemouth and 
Hurst,* Halliwell, Linton, and Ellington with Cresswell and Ayden its 
members, besides considerable possessions in the parishes of Stamford- 
haiU; ChoUerton, and Bywell St. Peter, at which time Robert de Rue 

108 BYWBLL. 

held Linemouth and half of Hurst by a twelfth part of a knight's fee, 
and Adam de Perington, Ellington, Cresswell and Hayden, by one 
knight's fee of the old feoffinent, as mesne tenants under the Balliols 
of Bywell.i* The Testa de Nemll informs us that Bywell was the 
barony of the Balliols of Scotland. Under the date of Henry III it 
says, "Hugh de Balliol holds in capits of the king the barony of 
Bywell with all its belongings for the service of five knights' fees, and, 
when required, for the ward of Newcastle-upon-Tyne thirty knights' 
fees, as all his predecessors have held it by the same service since the 
time of king William Rufus who made the same enfeoffinent [invested 
them therewith], and of that tenement there is no alienation or 
donation &c, whereby the king may have less of his service." 

William Rufas granted the Balliol fee (Bywell on the Tyne and 
Gainford on the Tees) to Guy de Balliol, whose son Barnard founded 
the noble fortress of Barnard Castle which derived its name from him. 
This Guy de Balliol was one of the followers of William the Conqueror. 
William RuAis rewarded him for the service done to his father, by the 
gift of the Bywell barony. It was the barony of the Balliol family 
for many generations. John, lord of Bywell and Barnard Castle in 
the reign of Henry III, was a baron of great distinction and power. 
He was the founder of Balliol College, Oxford. He died in 1269. His 
son Alexander de Balliol in 1272 let the manor of Whittonstall to 
Roger d'Areyns. He died without issue in 1278. His widow Manor 
de Genevre, at the time of her death in 1810-1 1, was possessed of two 
locks for taking salmon at Bywell, and one acre of land abutting upon 
the dam, which she and her husband Alexander de Balliol had acquired 
from Adam, the son of Gilbert de Stokesfield. 

In the first year of the reign of Edward I, the barony of Bywell 
was in the possession of John de Balliol, king of Scotland. He was 
the youngest son of John de Balliol, founder of Balliol College, who 
^^ besides his Northumbrian estates was possessed of the barony of 
Barnard Castle, and, in right of his wife Dervaguilla, was lord of 
Galloway : for she was a daughter of Alan, lord of Galloway, grand- 
daughter of David earl of Huntingdon, and great niece of Malcolm 
the third and William the Lion, kings of Scotland. This connection 
with royalty led to the ruin of his house. Edward the first, in 12^2, 
" Hodgson, Vol. II. Pt. II. p. 179. 

BYWBLL. 109 

gave the crown of Scotland to his youngest son John de Balliol, but 
in 1296 compelled him to resign it ; and granted his estates to John 
Dreax, earl of Brittany and Richmond, which grant was confirmed by 
Edward the second, dated August 12, 1808, and in the list of the 
estates which it conveyed, mentions the ^manors of Bywell and Wode- 
hom/ and all the lands and tenements which Agnes de Valence and 
Alianora de Genevre, widows of hi§ brolhers Hugh and Alexander, 
held in dower in the inheritance of the deposed monarch."^^ Balliol, 
after his deposition, spent the remainder of his days in captivity and 
misfortune, and ^'forsaking wholly the administration of Scottish 
dominion, finally went over into Normandy to his ancient inheritance 
and lands there, where, at length, falling blind, and wasting away by 
long age, he departed out of this world in the castle of Galliard, 
leaving those lands which he possessed on that side of the sea unto his 
son Edward Balliol, who being released out of captivity, was come 
over to his fiather before his decease."" 

The earl of Richmond did not continue long to enjoy his rights 
and possessions of Bywell. He soon got entangled in the quarrels of 
the royal family, and the king, in 1326, accused him of prevaricating 
in the execution of his orders, seized his lands and goods, and com- 
mitted his castle and honour of Richmond and the manors of Bywell 
and Wodehom with their belongings to the custody of Robert de 

In the year 1337 Edward III, "pro laudibili servicio,"^® granted 
Bywell to the famous Ralph de Nevill, lord of Raby and Brancepeth, 
whose name was afterwards inseparably connected with the battle of 
Nevill's Cross. In the 7th year of Edward III he was commissioner 
to settle articles between Edward of England and Edward Balliol. 
Doubtless he considered himself well repaid for this * laudable service ' 
by the acquisition of the honours and broad acres so long possessed by 
the Balliols. In the 2l8t year of Richard the second's reign Bywell 
was held by Ralph de Nevill, first earl of Westmoreland. In 1472 it 
was held by another Ralph de Nevill, who was the builder of Bywell 

" Hodgson, Pt. II Vol. II. p. 180. 

»• Hoi. IJigt, of Scot. p. 208. 

>' See Originalia Both in the Bxchequer, 20 Ed. II. Bo. 14.— R. commisit 
Bob^to de Byncestr' custodium castri k honoris de Bichemund cum p'tin' & 
man'io de Bywell & Wodehom cum p'tin' in com' Northumbr'. Hodgson, Pt. 
Ill Vol. II. p. 300. 

» Ibid. p. 314. 

110 BY WELL. 

castle. In the reign of Elizabeth it was held by the famons Charles, 
earl of Westmoreland. He was in arms against the queen in the 
12th year of her reign, a.d. 1569, for which Bywell and all his other 
honours and lands were forfeited by a bill of attainder. 

The following SuiTey taken on the occasion is preserved in the 
Court of Exchequer. 

The view and Sunraie of all Honours Castles Baronies Lordships Manners 
Lands Tenem** fforests Parks Chaces Rectories Tythes Pentions Portions Waters 
i&shings ffishing-places Mylnes Mores Maryshes Heaths Wast Grounds Woods 
underwoods and all other Hereditam^ whatsoever appertaining or belonging to 
Thomas Erie of NorthMand and Charles Erie of Westmoreland in the Counties 
of York Westmoreland Cumberland North'land and the County of the 
Bishoprick of Duresme which did lately Hebell and make Insurrection ag^ our 
SoTereign Lady the Queens Maj^^ made by Edmond Hall and Willm Hombers- 
ton Qent' by vertue of Her Maj^>'* Commission under the great Seal of England 
to them and others directed. The tenor of which Commission hereafter ensueth 

Commission dated 18^^ day of March 1569—12^ Qu. Elizabeth. 

(^IfUer alia) The View and Survey of the Baronies of Btwell and 
BULBECK with all the manners Lands Tenements Granges fforests Chaoes and 
other Hereditaments to the said Baronies appertaining and belonging made the 
last of May in the 12th year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lady Elizabeth by 
the grace of God of England ffrance and Ireland Queen Defender of the 
ffaith &c— 

Btwell and Bulbegk are two ancient Baronies and are situate in the 
extreme South part of North'land between the rivers of Tyne and Darwent and 
albeit they be joined and mixed together yet are the rents and Tenants severed 
and known the one from the others and to the Barony of Bywell belongeth a 
fforest of red Deer well replenished with game which eztendeth also into the 
Barony of Bulbeck and the s^ two Baronies or Lordships are thus abuttated — 
That is to say : — the Lordship of Hexam on the West and the Lordships of Prodo 
and Chopwell on the East, the River of Tyne for the most part on the North and 
the River of Darwent on the South and containeth in Compass twenty-two miles. 
That is to say in length from the East to the West Six Miles and in Breadth 
from the River of Tyne to the River of Darwent ffive miles within which two 
Baronies are many Gentlemen and ffreeholders which attend upon the Lords of 
the said Baronies in time of Service when they shaU be thereunto commanded 
And the ffarms and Tenem^ in the s^ Baronies are weU planted with Coppice 
Wood for the preservation of the red Deer and in the Wasts also are divers 
Woods and very fair coursing with Greyhounds, Whereof one Wood is called 
Highley Wood growing dispersed one Mile and a half from the Town of Bywell 
towards the West planted with Oaks and Part old Birches of 80 or 100 years 
growing containeth 100 acre**, one other Wood called BailifE Wood on the South 
-)art of the Town of Bywell and well bet with Birches of 60 and 60 years growth 


dispersed in divers Parte containeth 80 acres and one other Wood called Throngh 
Deane in East Wood which was a large Wood containing bj estimation 140 
Acres and was all old Birches and felled abont 30 years past and never inclosed, 
by reason whereof the Spring was utterly destroyed. Yet are there Birch sprong 
ap of the very nature of the soile in great plenty so as in process of time there 
will be a Wood of Birch againe. 

The Town of Bywell is builded in length all in one Street upon the River or 
Water of l^yne, on the North and West part of the same ; and is divided into 
two several Parishes and inhabited with Handy Crafte Men whose Trade is all 
in Ironwork for the Horsemen and Borderers of that Country as Making of 
Bitts Stirrups Buckles and such others wherein they are very expert and cunning 
and are subject to the Incursions of the Thieves of Tindale and compelled 
Winter and Summer to bring all their Cattle and Sheep into the Street in the 
Night Season and Watch both the ends of the Street, and when the Enemy 
approach to raise Hue and Cry whereupon all the Towne prepareth for Rescue 
of their goods, which is very populous by reason of their Trade and Stout and 
Hardy by continual Practise against the Enemy. 

To the Barony of Bywell belongeth the ffishing of Salmon of the Water of 
Tyne in length three Miles which is a great Commodity and a great plenty of 
Salmon taken, and a Dame or Bay over the River made very strong of late years 
for preservation of the said ffishing. 

Also in Bywell Town on the North side of the Water of Tyne the Ancestors 
of the Erie of Westmorland builded a fair Tower or Gate House all of stone 
and covered all of Lead meaning to have proceeded further as the ffonndations 
declare being the Height of a Man above the Ground which were never finished, 
and the said Tower is a good defence for the Town and will soon decay if it 
be not maintained. 

The Barony of Bywell extendeth into the Towns and Hamletts of Bywell St. 
Peter, Bywell St. Andrew, Aeon, Newton, Ovington, Mekely, Bromley, Newlands, 
Ridley Nova, Styfford, Spiryden, and Cyssinghope, and the Barony of Balbeck 
extendeth into the Towns and Hamletts of Bromehaugh, Rydding, Helye, 
Shotley, Slaylye, and Mynstreacres All which Towns and Hamletts are very well 
Inhabited with Men of good Service and have very good ffarms and able to keep 
much Cattle and get plenty of Com and Hay were it not for the continual 
Robberies and Incursions of the Thieves of Tyndall which so continually 
assault them in the Night as they can keep no more Cattle than they can Lodge 
either in the House or in like safety in the Nights And all the Tenants hold 
their Lands by Indenture for term of Years which are very finable when their 
Leases are expired. 

The Lord of the said Baronies hath the Leet within all the Limits of the 
same, and all Waifs, Estrayes, ffelons, Goods, amerciaments and all other 
Royalties, casualties and profits rising or growing by reason of the Leete. 

And here follow the several Holdings of Each Tenant 
with their Names and Rent. 

112 BYWELL. 

The question naturally arises here, where did the Lords of the 
Barony of Bywell hold their Leet ? I am inclined to think that it 
was on a hill near Stocksfield Station commonly called '* The Bound 
Hill.** This hill presents every appearance of having been an ancient 
British encampment. The fosse is distinctly visible. It was, no 
doubt, afterwards used in Saxon and Norman times as the Mote Hill 
on which the open open-air courts were held and the law administered 
according to the fashion of those days. Dr. Bruce and the Rev. 6. 
Rome Hall agree with me in believing that this hill must have been 
the old ' Mote Hill ' of the Barony. The Norman barons had the 
power of life and death — the right of ' jus flircae.' On the opposite 
side of the river, a little to the north of Bywell is a rising ground 
called Gallows Hill, which probably had its name irom being the spot 
where the barons of Bywell executed the felons taken within the pre- 
cincts of their liberties. 

So wild and insecure was the country, in this neighbourhood, even 
in the reign of Elizabeth and for some time afterwards, that the judges 
of assize, on their way between Newcastle and Carlisle had to be 
escorted by an armed force. When Lord Chief Justice North came 
on the circuit in the days of Charles II, in 1676, the village of Bywell, 
through which the road passed, was inhabited by expert handicrafts- 
men — village blacksmiths, who became inured to bear arms ; and as 
the tenants of each manor in the barony of Bywell were bound to 
guard the judges in their progress, the service devolved on these stout 
and hardy men. The Lord Chief Justice describes his attendants as 
wearing long beards, short cloaks, basket hilted broadswords hanging 
from broad belts, and mounted on horses so small that their feet and 
swords touched the ground at every turning. The state of the roads 
then and until the roadmaking achievements of Marshal Wade was 
such that it would not have been difficult to give effect to the tradi- 
tional usage, mentioned by Lord Campbell, that a jury, who had not 
agreed by the end of the assizes, were to be carried in a cart, after the 
judge, to the boundary of the next county, and there shot into a ditch, 
like Sir John Falstaff, the Knight of Windsor. All the conununica- 
tion in the way of trade between Newcastle and Carlisle, now called 
''goods traflSc," was undertaken in single-horse carts, by carriers, who 
always went in companies, in the fashion of Eastern caravans, for 

BTWELL. 113 

mntnal protection>-one man, as I have been told, generally having 
charge of five carts. It is cnrions to contrast that state of things with 
the present ease and swiftness of our railway system. And if the road 
between Newcastle and Carlisle was nearly impassable before Marshal 
Wade overthrew many miles of the Roman Wall and constmcted his 
'Military Way' upon the line, and with the materials, of the Wall, it 
may be imagined in what condition those parts of Northumberland 
remained where there were no roads at all, and where the violence of 
the mosstroopers had prevented cultivation and improvement.'^ 

A dreadful account of the lawless state of the Border is given in 
Leges Marchiarum^ a code of fiorder Laws published by Alexander II. 
A.D. 1249. This work relates to murder, homicide, duel, methods of 
recovering fugitive bondsmen, and debts. The valleys of North and 
South Tyne were kept in a state of perpetual war&re, not only with 
their neighbours in Liddesdale and across the Tweedy but also amongst 
themselves, and they were continually making inroads, or 'raids' as 
they were called, upon their more peaceful neighbours of Bywell and 
elsewhere, plundering everywhere, and carrying off whatever they 
could lay their hands upon. The sacredness of human life too was 
little thought of in those raids, and murder was not unirequently 
added to their crimes of theft and plunder. 

* The good old rule 
Snificeth them, the simple plan. 

That they must take who have the power. 
And thej must keep who can.* 

— Wordsworth in Boh Boy^i Chave, 

" If any two be displeased," says Gray in his Charographia^ " they 
expect no law, but bang at it bravely, one and his kindred, the other 
and his." Under such a state of things one can easily see that the 
quiet villagers of Bywell were taking no more than a necessary pre- 
caution when they drove all their cattle and sheep into the street at 
night, and kept watch at both ends for fear of an invasion of the 
thieves of Tynedale. 

The castle of Bywell was commenced in the year 1472 by Ralph 
de Nevill, but it was never completed, ''as the foundations declared" 
in the reign of Elizabeth. Why the erection was discontinued does 
" Bee Gibson's Memorial of Northd. p. 95. 


114 BTWBLL. 

not appear. It is probable that it was stopped, like Philip de Ulecote's 
castle at Nafferton, through opposition from the barons of Pradhoe. 
To build a castle, or even to fortify an ordinary dwelling by means of 
embattlements, in other words to 'crenelate' a building, required a 
licence from the crown which was not always granted. To crenelate 
a church tower did not require a licence. Philip de Ulecote who held 
NafPerton, Matfen and Lorbottle, presuming upon the influence he 
possessed with the crown, commenced to erect a castle at Nafferton. 
Bichard de Um^vill complained of the detriment that this rising 
castle at NafPerton might be to his fortress at Prudhoe, whereupon 
king Henry III. immediately issued a writ to Philip de Ulecote com- 
manding him to desist from its farther prosecution. It still remains 
in much the same condition in which it was left by the workmen when 
they terminated their labours. Possibly the building of Bywell castle 
was stopped in a similar manner. 

Bywell, after its forfeiture to the Grown in the reign of Elizabeth, 
was purchased by a branch of the ancient family of Fenwicks of 
Fenwick Tower. It was in the possession of William Fenwiok Esq., 
high sheriff of Northumberland in the 12th year of Queen Anne's 
reign, a.d. 1713, and of John Fenwick, who filled the same high ofice 
in the 2nd year of the reign of king George II. A.D. 1728, and who 
was a representative of the county in several Parliaments. William 
Fenwick Esq., who was high sheriff of Northumberland in 1752, 
rebuilt Bywell Hall according to designs by Mr. Pain, architect, ab6ut 
the year 1760. 

In 1802, his son William Fenwick Esq., of Bywell, died without 
issue and left Bywell to his widow. In 1809 she married the Sev. 
Septimus Hodson, Bector of Thrapston, in Northamptonshire, who 
sold the Bywell estate to Thomas Wentworth Beaumont (fether of the 
present owner), for £146,000. 

In the year 1760, as one Robinson, a mason, was fishing in the 
river Tyne at Bywell, after a fall of rain, he found a Roman drinking 
cup of silver with the following inscription round the brim: — 
"DESiDBBi vivab" (Loug life to you Desiderius !) 
He sold it for 15s. to a goldsmith in Newcastle, from whom it was 
claimed by William Fenwick Esq., as lord of the manor. Wallis sup- 
poses that it had been washed out of the banks about Corbridge and 

Arch. Ael. Vol. XIII. 

^o faae "page IJ/.. 

SV5.; -.iP- 


From South Side of River. 
(ThUpleUeJrom a photograph by Mr. /. P. Gibson^ presented by John Hall, Esq.) 


BYWELL. 115 

carried down the river. '' It weighed about six ounces, and was like 
a pepper caster. The inscription was on a fillet, the letters raised and 
all cast near the brim. The foot was hollow and part of the vessel."** 
Brandy in his History of Newcastle (Vol. I. p. 608), gives a drawing 
of it, and states that it was 4 inches in height and 2^ inches in 
diameter at its broadest part. Where it is now is not known. 

The market cross originally stood midway between the two 
churches, and the stocks a few yards to the south of it. The site of 
the cross is marked on the six inch Ordnance maps. It was removed 
to its present position a few years ago, when other altertitions were 
made at Bywell. In 1852, many old cottages on the north side of 
the river, including the old St. Andrew's vicarage and the St. Peter's 
rectorial tithe buildinp (let in tenements to Arkles, Sistersons, Dodds, 
Bobsons, etc.), were pulled down. The &mou8 old dam was blown 
down by gunpowder in 1861, in order to allow the salmon a free 
course up the river. The old com mill was removed at the same 
time, and the salmon lock allowed to go to decay, as being no longer 
of use. The first repairs of the dilapidated church of Bywell St. Peter 
were commenced in 1848, and the general restoration completed in 
1878. The church of St. Andrew was enlarged by the addition of a 
north transept and an organ chamber in 1870. 

Some years ago I found amongst the older inhabitants of this 
neighbourhood a lingering, but well nigh extinct tradition, about what 
they called "The Birches Nook Witches." Every detail had been 
forgotten, but I felt sure that there must have been some ground for 
the tradition. After a little investigation I came upon a large mass 
of information, in the Depositions from York CastUy published by 
the Surtees Society in 1861.^^ Amongst the many cases which illus- 
trate the annals of crime in the North of England, in the 17th cen- 
tury, by far the most remarkable is that which relates to this neigh- 
bourhood. The editor (Rev. James Raine) considers it one of the 
most extraordinary cases of witchcraft on record. He says he knows 
nothing that surpasses it in interest save the great Lancashire case. 
The chief character in the story is Ann Armstrong of Birches Nook, 
who plays the part of the witchfinder and tells us her experiences which 
certainly are most extraordinary. The date was 1673 — a period 
notorious for superstition in these parts. 

« " R. S "[pearman], *» Vol. 40. 

11 fi BYWELti. 

A few condensed extracts may suffice to show the nature of the 

April 2. 1673. Before Humphrey Mitford, Esq. Ann Amutrong, of Birchen' 
nooke, spinster, saith, that Ann, wife of Thomas Baites, of Morpeth, hath heene 
Beverall times in the company of the rest of the witches, both att Barwick, 
Barrasford and at Bidingbridg-end. . . . The said Ann Baites hath Beverall times 

danced with the divell att the places aforesaid, calling him her protector 

She hath seen the said Ann Baites severaU times att the places aforesaid rideing 
upon wooden dishes and egg-shells, both in the rideinge honse and in the dose 

She tells us how she came under the influence of the witches by 
eating of their cheese, after which they had power over her to turn her 
into a horse when they wished to ride to their meetings, where the 
devil presided in person, in the form of a long black man riding on a 
bay galloway. Then we have an account of the festivities on those 
occasions. They had *' all sorts of meates and drinke they named siltt 
upon the table by pulling a rope." At a meeting of the witches, held 
at the house of John Newton of the Biding, on the 3rd of April, 
sixty-five persons are said to have been present. A few days later a 
report of their proceedings was laid before the magistrates. 

Lncy Thompson of Mickley, widdow, did swing and demanded a boyPd capon 
and plumbroth, and thereupon it did immediately come down in a dish, and 
likewise a bottle of wine. . . . Ann, wife of Richard Forster of Stocksfeild, did 
swing upon the rope, and, upon the first swing, she gott a cheese, and upon the 
second she gott a beakment of wheat flower, and upon the third swing she gott 
about halfe a quarter of butter to knead the said flower withall, they haveing 
noe power to gett water. 

After every one had had a swing, then came the feast, after which 
followed the more serious business of the evening, namely, the confes- 
sion they had to make to his Satanic majesty. Those confessions re- 
lated to all the mischief they had done by their diabolical witchery 
since their last meeting, and ranged from laming the hind leg of a 
neighbour's horse up to slow murder itself. 

Ann Usher, of Fairly May, confessed to the divell that by liis help she was a 
medciner, and that she had within a little space doijie 1002. hurt to one George 
8tobbart, of New Ridly in his goods. . . . Jane Hopper of the Hill oonfespcd 
that she had power over Wm. Swinburne, of Newfeild, for near the space of 
two yeares last past, by which he is sore pined, and she hopes to have his life. 
And Anthony Hunter, of Birkenside, confessed he had power over Anne, wife of 
Thomas Bichardson, of Crooked oak ; that he touke away the power of her limba, 
and a8kt the divill's assistance to take away her life. 

BTWBLL. 117 

For fnrther information I must refer the curious to the volume in 
question,^ where the confessions are given at considerable length. 
Nothing is known of the result of the trials. We are not told whether 
the accused persons were condemned or acquitted. From this silence 
we may hope that they escaped with their lives. We must not, how- 
ever, be too confident, for it was only 23 years previous to this aflFair 
that 15 persons were executed on Newcastle Town Moor, on similar 
charges. It is sad to think that such a state of society ever existed. 
If tfaone were ' good old days ' when such things happened, surely we 
may safely say that ours are better. We have at last got rid of witches, 
not by burning all the ugly old women, but by the spread of education, 
and that higher Christian enlightenment which means death to all 
such superstitions. 


For copies of three documents respecting Bywell Mills and Fishings, 
and a letter relating to the Bywell Militia during the Commonwealth, 
I am indebted to the late Mr. Bichard Wellington Hodgson, of Gates- 
head. The originals are bound up with other ''MS. Materials '* 
collected by his father who unfortunately did not live to complete his 
great work on Northumberland. It is a pity that this valuable 
collection of manuscripts was not purchased for one of our literary or 
antiquarian libraries, where it would be more generally accessible. 
The papers are bound in several vols., with a good index to each, and 

there is also a general index to the whole. 

A. J. 


Btwell Mtlns. 

A note of accounts for Bywell Mjlns and Fishings and Ovingham My Ins. 1652. 

(By Archibold Yealdant, bailiffe.) 

A note bow Ovingham Myhis hath been letten sencs the Death of my Master 
Roger Fenwick Esq', the 23<* febru. 1636. 

Imp'— One Rich' Lee of Oringba' towne bad the said Mylns at his death and 
in the yeare 1636 and 1637. 

And after him. 1638. One Buckham and one Whorton had the said Mylns. 

" Burtces Soc. Vol. 40, p. 191, &c. 

118 BYWBLL. 

And in the year (1639) Joh. Dadglesh entered to the said Mylns, and sencs 
Tho : fforster and Joh Dadglash is to account for the said Mylns till this Whit- 
sonday next 1663. 

The 23*^ Febmarie (1635) 
A Note who hath had By well Mylins ever sencs the death of my Master Mr 
Roger ffenwick of the shortflatt Esq 

Imp* — One John Sympson had the said Mylns in the yeare 1636 and 1637 
and 1638. 

And in the yeare 1639 One Edmund Weatheirlye had the said Mylns till the 
Martinmas (1640.) And then Mr Hodgshon leight the said Mylns to one Will' 
Smyth for one half yeare. And after him entered Thos: fforster and Joh* 
ffonter, at the Whitsunday after w^ was in the yeare 1641. And they had the 
said Mylns till the Candlemas 1642, and paid x" of the said zent. And then 
entered Joh Dadglesh and sencs y* tyme he and Thomas fforster is to account 
for Bywell Mylns till Whitsunday next (1663). 

A Note how the fishing of Bywell hath been letten sencs the Death of my 
Master Roger ffeinwick of Shortflatt Esq', being the 23*^ of Febmarie. 1635. 

Imp*— All that was maid of the fishing in these years 1636 and 1637 and 1638 
was disburst, for repair of Bywell Damm and more monies that was gotten of 
my Ould Ladye Feinwick, 8' William Blazton and some monies from Mr Albert 

And in the yeare 1639 Mr Georg Boutflowre of Apperlie, and Mr Lancelott 
Newton of Stokfeeld Hall, touke the said fieshinge. 

And in the yeare 1640 when the Skots cam first into England, and then non 
would take it. And so fell to my hand to make what could be maid one the 
fleshing w*^ by Accounts shall appeare the sum is £60 2s. 2d. 
Imp* paide in Readie Monis to Sir John ffeinwick \ 

as shall appear the sum i 

And in disbursments as appeares 

And in the yeare 1642, their was maid of the said \ 

fieshinge the sum of / 

It. paid in readie monis to my Master Sir John ) 

ffeinwick the sum of / 

And in Disbursments as appears 

And in the year 1642, One Mr Ralph Carr, Will* Masslnger and Thomas 

fforster did take the said fieshing that yeare and at that time they lost Eltering- 

ham fieshinge, and then some of the ould Damm decayed and they gave it over. 

And in the yeare 1643 the said two parts fell into my hands to make what 

could be maid one it in these trublesum tymes part of the Damm being forth, 

£ B. d. 

that nobodie would take the said fieshinge 34 9 9 

paide in readie monis to my Master Sir John \ |q ,/) ^ 

ffeinwick the sum of ^ 

And in Disbursments ypon accounts 14 19 

3*7 \ 






56 8 

7 12 


£ f. 


24 19 

8 13 


16 5 


36 7 11 

BYWKLL. 119 

And in the yeare 1644 the middle of the Damm being forth their was litle 

maid of the two parts that year is 

Paid in readie monis to my Master Sir John -i 

ffeinwick the sum of J 

And in Disbursments 

And in the yeare 1645, the sonth half part of the ^ 

Dam and the wholl Locke was all taken 

away that Wynier so their was made of 

thetwopai'ts 1 

Paid in Readie monis to my Master Sir John ffeinwick 19 12 4 
Ajid in Disbnrsments 16 16 7 

And in the yeare 1646 part of the Dam being forth but we had gotten the 
locke mended their was one Captaine Graye his wyfe and his shoal gers sett a 
locke vpon the locke and called it her locke as long as she staide, soe these foor 
yeares was trublesnm tymes and their was maid of the two parts in monis 

£ 8. d. 

6 10 6 

And in Disbnrsments 7 16 

And in the yeare 1647 the Dam being partlye repaired, 
that yeare — for their was maid of the two parts 

A Note how it is Disburst 

Imp' my young Master ffeinwick of the^Shortflatt \ 

in readie monie j 

It. paid for two parts of a New Boot 

It. paid in readie Monie to my M'*^ Woodall of ^ 

the Shortflatt when she was seeke ... j* 
It paid a years rent caled the Vicondell rent the ^ 

sum of / 

It. paid the Vicondell rent for Bywell Hall when ) 

had the 
62 9 

\ fleshings 








1 4 

13 4 

6 14 8 

it laye Lee the sum of 

Paid to Captaine Graye for the two parts of a Cessl 

laid on by the Skots i 

And in Salmont to Shortflatt 2 4 10 

And in Salmont to Wallington 2 12 6 

Making vp the snm ... 52 9 4 

And in 1648 and 1649 Peter fforster, Cuth : Newton, and Tho : fforster had 
the said fleshing these two yeares 

And in the yeare 1650 Mr Cuth : Hearon. Tho : Hearon. Peter fforster and 
Tho : fForster had the said fleshing that yeare 

The Mylns and ffieshings in Bywell hath been Cequestered. 

120 BYWBLL. 


This docnment respecting Bywell Mills and Fishing is endorsed 
'*Mr. Breerton's Report." 

According to your Order the 30th of Novemher 1654, upon reading 
my Report in the Case of Sir John Fenwick, who claims all the 
Mills and Fishings of Bywell in the Countie of Northumberland, 
sequestered for the Delinquency of William Fenwick, sonne aod 
heir of Roger Fen wick Esquire, I hare perused such Evidences and 
Proofes as have bin produced unto me, to prove the Title of the said 
William Fenwick unto the moyetie of the said Mills and Fishings, 
claimed on his behalf by Mr. Johnson of Counsell with the said 
William at the hearing of the said Report, and I find 
That Sir William Fenwick of Wallington in the Countie of Northumberland 
Knight, father of the said Sir John Fenwick and Roger Fenwick did by his 
Will in writing, bearing date the 3 of December 1612, and proved by Witnesses 
in the Prerogative Court at Tork the 13^*> of March 1613, doth give and 
bequeath, amongst other things, all that his moyetie of the Mills and Fishings 
in Bywell in the said Countie, and of the Dammes and Locks thereunto belong- 
ing unto his Sonne Roger Fenwick and his heirs for ever. As by a Copie of the 
said Will and of the Probate thereof attested by Thomas Tompson Pnbliqne 
Notarie and deposed by Lodowick Hall, before D' Bennet one of the Masters in 
Cfaancerie doth appeare — 

That John Hodshon of Bywell aforesaid Oentr and Anne his wife, by 
their Indenture bearing date the 16*^ of March 1632, and executed by Liverie 
and seisin the 2*> of Aprill then next, in consideration of 1200*^ mencioned to 
be paid, infeof Cuthbert Heron of Chipchase in the said Countie Esquire» 
(amongst other things) of all that his the said John Hodson*B sixt part of all 
those water com Mills called Bywell Mills in Bywell aforesaid, and likewise of 
the full sixt part of the free fishing of the water of Tyne, w*^in the Lordships 
of Bywell and Bnlbeck in the said Countie and of the sixt part of all houses 
&o whatsoever, to the said Water com Mills, and Fishings belonging, or in any 
wayes appertaining. To have and to hold unto the said Cuthbert Heron, his Heirs 
and assignees for ever. As by the said Indenture produced under the hands 
and seales of the said John Hodshon and Anne his wife, with Liverie and seisin 
endorsed, more fully appeares. W<^ Feofment is alledged to be in trust for the 
said Roger Fenwick his Heirs and Assignees for ever. 

That by Inquisition taken after the decease of the said Roger Fenwick the 
14^ of Aprill 1636, it was found, that the said Roger Fenwick dyed seised in fee 
simple (amongst other things) of the moyetie of the Free Fishing, and of the 
moyetie of the Mills of Bywell aforesaid held of the late King Charles, as of 
his Manor of East Greenwich by Fealtie onely, in free and Common Socage, and 
of the moyetie of the Towne of Hawick in the said Countie, held of the said 

BTWBLL. 121 

King as of his Baronie of Bulbeck in the said Conntie by Knight service, And 
that the said Roger Fenwick djed the 23 of Febrnarie 1636, the said William 
Fen wick the now Delinquent being his aonne and heir, and at the time of the 
decease of his Father of 6 yeares, and 7 monthes, and 4 dayes. As by a Oopie 
of the said Inqnisition, deposed by Thomas Jackson Gentleman now fully 

That by Indenture bearing date the 13^ of March 1686, the said late King 
Charles grants unto the said Sir John Fenwick, Sir William Blakeston Knight, 
and Oathbert Heron aforesaid the custody wardship and marriage of the said 
Wiir Fenwick. 

And the said King, by another Indenture of the same date demiseth unto 
the said Sir John Fenwick, Sir William Blakeston, and Guthbert Heron 
(amongst other things) two parts of the moyetie of the said Mills and Fishings, 
except as therein i8«excepted, To have and to hold during the minority of the 
said Ward. And in the close of the said several Indentures, it is mencioned 
that in witness thereof unto one part of the said Indentures remaining with the 
said grantees, the King's seal of the Court of Wards is set and affixed, and to 
the other part remaining with the said King, in his said Court, the said Sir 
John Fenwick, Sir William Blakeston, and Cuthbert Heron hare put their hands 
and seales. And in and by one Schedule unto the said Indenture of grant of the 
Wardship annexed, and containing the extent and yearly value of the said 
William Fenwick's Estate, there is mencion made of the moyety of Bywell 
Mills and Fishings held of the King as of his Manor of East Qreenwyche in 
Socage and the Yearly Rent of 4". As by Copies of the said Indentures and 
Schedule deposed here by Christopher Hall more fully appeares. 

That by Indenture bearing date the second of Februarie in the 17"» yeare of 
the raigne of the late King Charles Anno Domini 1642, the said Sir John 
Fenwick and Cuthbert Heron together with one Albert Hodshon, and Thomas 
Woodhall Gentleman, in consideracion of the Yearly Rent thereby reserved and 
for other good Causes and Considerac^ons^ demise unto one John Dauglees 
Miller all those three water com mills situate at By well aforesaid, and all 
those two water com mills called Ovingham Mills in the said County of 
Northnmberland together with all mills houses &c to the mills or any of them 
belonging or appertaining. To have and to hold^from the date thereof for and 
daring the minority of the said William Fenwick his Ma"" Ward. Yielding 
and paying yearly during the said Tearme unto the said Sir John Fenwick for 
Bywell MiUs 24" and for Ovingham MUls 13" 06" 08<*. And the said John 
Dauglees covenants with the said Sir John Fenwick, that the said John 
Dauglees shall at the said William Fenwick's accomplishing the age of twentie 
and one yeares, surrender upp his said Lease, and deliver quiet and peaceable 
possession of all the said Mills unto the said William Fenwick or his Assignees. 
And upon the back of the said Indenture there is a Memorandum mencioned to 
be endorsed before the sealing and deliverie of the said Indenture, whereby the 


122 BYWBLL. 

trae intent and meaning of the Covenant is expressed to be that the said John 
Dauglees at the said William Fenwicks accomplishing the fall age of one and 
twentie, shall deliyer unto the said William peaceable possession of his parts 
of all the said Mills ^nd likewise peaceable possession to the said Albeit 
Hodshon of his part of the said Mills. As by the said Indenture produced 
under the hands and scales of the said Sir John Fenwick, Cuthbert Heron, 
Thomas Woodhall, and Albert Hodshon, and as by the said Memorandam 
relation being therennto had more fully appeares. 

And I find that in pursuance of your Order of the last of January 1654 M' 
George Fenwick Commissioner for the said County hath certified the exam- 
inac'ons of several Witnesses examined upon Interogatories on behalf of the 
said William Fenwick. 

Tobie Dudley Esquire deposeth, that he was present when Livery and Seisin 
was given of the lands mencioned in the said Deed bearing date the 16 of March 
1632 and subscribed his name as a Witness. 

Wm Lawson deposeth, that the said Lease bearing date the 17^ of Februarie 
in the 17^ Yeare of the late King Charles, was sealed and delivered by Sir 
John Fenwick, Cuthbert Hearon, Albert Hodshon, and Thomas Woodhall, unto 
John Daglees in the presence of this Deponent, to w^** he subscribed his name 
as a Witness. 

Archbuld Yealdant yeoman deposetb, that he knoweth, that Sir John Fen- 
wick, Cuthbert Hearon, Albert Hodshon, and Thomas Woodhall did by their 
Lease in writing, dated the second of Februarie in the seaventeenth yeare of 
the latQ King demise unto John Daglees the said Mills of By well during the 
minority of the said William Fenwick. And the Lease shewed unto him (w«^ 
is endorsed to be the same above reported) is the same Lease w^^ he saw sealed 
and delivered by the said Sir John Fenwick, Cuthbert Hearon, Albert Hodshon 
and Thomas Woodhall. To w*''^ this Deponent is a witness, and his name sub- 
scribed thereunto. And being crosse examined, deposeth that he hath heard Sir 
John Fenwick say he purchased the said Mills and Fishings*, and at the Request 
of his Father he permitted his brother Roger to receive a part of the Rents and 
Profits for his life. And that after the said Rogers death He the said Sir John 
did enter upon the said Mills and Fishings, and received the Rents and Profits 
thereof, and imployed this Deponent as his Bailiffe or Steward to receive the 
same of the Tenants. 

Thomas Forster Yeoman deposeth, that he hath knowne Bywell Mills and 
Fishing about 28 yeares, and that for about 8 yeares before the death of the said 
Roger Fenwick, the said Roger was reputed Owner of two pts of the said Mills 
and Fishings and did let and dispose thereof so long as he lived, but to whose 
use this Deponent knoweth not. That as often as there was occasion the 
Woods belonging unto the Demesnes at Bywell, whereof Roger Fenwick was 
accompted Owner, were cut downe, and used for repairing the Mills and Damme 
at Bywell. That he was present at the .sealing of a Lease of Bywell and 

BYWELL. 123 

Oringham Mills by Sir John Fenwick, Cnthbert Hearon, Albert Hodshon and 
Thomas Daglees, bnt his name is not thereunto as a Witness. 

Henry Sympson Gentleman deposeth, that he hath known the Mills and 
Fishing in Bywell about 30 yeares and that the Lady Margaret Fenwick Relict 
of the said William Fenwick did let the said Mills and Fishings to several 
tenants for the use of the same Roger Fenwick, as this Deponent hath heard her 
relate. And that the said Roger was in his life tyme reputed the Owner of the 
moyetie and one sizt part of the said Mills and Fishings till the tyme of his 
decease. That since this Deponent canne remember he never knew or heard of 
any other that was reputed Owner of the said Mills and Fishings in the right of 
her Sonne Roger Fenwick, who let and disposed of the same and received the 
Rente and Profits thereof. W*^** this Deponent canne the better depose for that 
he was bred and brought up w^^* the said Lady his Aunt, and Schoolfellow w^ 
the said Roger his Cowsin German. That although this Deponent was for the 
most part resident and brought up with the said Lady as aforesaid, yet he never 
beard that the said Sir John Fenwick lett or any way disposed of the said Mills 
and Fishings, or received any the Rents or Profits thereof. That after the 
decease of the said Roger Fenwick, the said Sir John Fenvdck, by virtue of the 
Grant of the Wardship of the said William, did enter into the moyetie and sixt 
part of the said Mills and Fishings, and received the Rents and Profits thereof 
for the use of the said W<" Fenwick, as he pretended, And this Deponent hath 
heard the said Sir John Fenwick say that he would be accomptable to the said 
W™ his nephew, for the Rents and Profits of the moyetie and sixt part of the 
said Mills and Fishings. That he was told by those that had the looking to the 
said Mills and Fishings, that the great part of the wood, used about repairing 
of the said Mills, were cutt downe in the woods belonging to Bywell Demesne : 
vr*^ this Deponent verily believes to be true, in regards there is little or no trees 
at all left at this present of any value. And the said Henry Sympson, crosse 
examined deposeth, that he believeth that the said Sir William Fenwick was in 
his life time seised of the said moyetie of the said Mills and Fishings, and the 
reason that induced him so to believe is, for that the said Sir William did by his 
last Will dispose of the said moyetie his sonn'e Roger Fenwick, as he hath 
seen in the Register in the Court at York, where the said Will was proved and 
is entered at large, but this Deponent was not privy or a witness to the making 
of the said Will. 

Lodowick Hall Gentleman deposeth, that he hath heard the said Sir John 
Fenwick of late tyme say that He would be accomptable unto his Nephew W" 
Fenwick, for the Rents and Profits W^*" he had received for the Mills and Fishings 
of Bywell. 

This I find to be the substance of snch Evidence and Proofs as are produced 
on behalf of the said W™ Fenwick, upon w**, and upon my Report of the Claim 
of the said Sir John Fenwick, it is submitted to your consideration and Judge- 
ment, whether all or what part of the said Mills and Fishings do belong unto 
the said Sir John Fenwick, or unto the said William Fenwick. 



A not of Certen Artklea of contrivereie 
Between Sir John ffoster and If' Willyam 
Hodgon and M' Willyam Ridell of the on 
ptie and John Newton of Eltering freholdes 
of the other ptie beinge plaintif e : for a 
certaine fisheinge of the Water of tine belongeinge 
to his ineritance : w^ inheritance in caled the 
Hoose of Elteringham. 

Itm — ^At the Rebelion lat Sir John ffoster beinge warden of the mydell marches 
and haveinge the quenes stafe in his hand: did sett on botes and nets and 
did enter ynto all the hole fisheinge thronghe his myght and power w*^ 
dothe belonge to the Eneheritance of Elteringham and then and at that 
tyme when he did so forsablie enter the said John Newton was but of the 
age of Yj or vij yeare owld and not able to mayntane his own Right 
notw^standing I have kept the posesion till at sache tyme as he w^ his 
extort myght and power did dryne me awaye 

Itm On Arther Lee my stepfather who did marie my mother did dwell at 
Elteringham in the tyme of pay maryge and the said Arther for me and in 
my name, set on a botte and a net and did kepe the posesion bothe night 
and daye and then the said Sir John ffoster beinge Lord warden did see 
that he wold no waye leue fisheinge did cause Mr Cuthbert RadHfe beinge 
ofecer ynder him in By well Lordshipe to take the said Arther Lee and 
carid him to Bywell Castell and ther did kepe him xij or ziiij dayes till 
suche tyme as his frindes did Lowse him and was bound in Reconesenoe 
that he should fishe no more ther 

Itm Since that I came to Lawf ull yeares I have fished and taken the comoditie 
of my ffisheinge but notheinge to the comoditie that they have gotten 
and I did kep my posesion till at suche tyme as by f orse they drive me of yt : 

Itm I wold craue to be satesfied whether that I maye vpon my owne inherit- 
ance to hold them from cominge vpon my ground w^ more companie then 
if ye or no and not offend the Lawe 

Itm I wold be satesfied whether they may Ryeteslie come ypon my ground as 
they ha7 done and dothe and they not ofend the Lawe : and bothe brek- 
ethe my hedges and tredethe downe my grase : forsablie : and fishthe my 
water to the damnage of a hundrethe makk in the yeare : 

Itm I hold my land by fre sockitche of the maner of Bywell and my predisesers 
before me tyme out of membrie. 

BYWELL. 12^ 

Itm I craae yor good counsell and your ffayuer in my good mater and I will be 

your claaente [client] : 
Itm Whether I maye mantaine my posesion till such time as Lawe be tried 

ye or no. 


Militia Dubikg the Commonwealth. 

ffor Mr Fen wick of By well 

The Present Service of the Common Wealth Requireing that some horse 
should be raised for the service thereof and understanding that none hath (as 
yet) been raised in the County of North'Iand In pursuance of the late act of 
Parliament for that purpose I have thought fitt and doe hereby desire yon to 
furnish the bearer hereof Daniell Browne with one horse. Bridle and Paddle for 
service or ten pound in mony to enable him to mount himself e for the said 
service hereby assureing you that when the Militia of the County shal be setled 
the said horse or monies shal be allowd as part of your proportion thereof or 
otherwise shal be restored to you : 

Tour assured loveing ffriend 
New Castle December LAMBERT 

the 6th : 1659. 

Decemb^ y« 15*^. 1669. 

Receaued then of M'. William ffenwick of Bywell one Browne Gelding 
sadle k bridle w*"* twenty shill* in money to make him worth £10 according to 
y« w*^in mentioned Ord'. for the remounting of Daniell Browne of Colo Twisle- 
ton's Troop Witness my hand y" day & yeare abovesaid 










'' Fairly good <iondition. 

i Baptisms, j 

Writing in some parts not 


J Marriages, 1 
) and ( 
( Burials, j 



very legible. Towards the 
end the entries seem to 
have been made with cai«- 

Very good condition. 

( Baptisms, 


1 Marriages,! 
J and ( 
[ Burials. 



j Writing good and entries 
carefully made, especially 
(^ in Vicar Clement's time. 

3. . 

( Baptisms 
J and V 
J Burials. 

1729-1776. 1 


f Very bad condition. 
^ Nearly destroyed by the 

( Marriages. 

1729-1763. J 

^ Flood in 1771. 

" Excellent condition. 

Copy of No. 3, 

Penmanship particularly 

and ) 

good. The copy of what 


< Baptisms ( 

and f 

Burials, J 

1776-1812. } 


' was then legible in No. 3 
has been made with great 
care by John Fleming, 


Marriages ... 



Good condition and 
fairly well written. 


Baptisms ... 



Condition and writing good. 


Marriages ... 





Marriages ... 










Baptisms ... 

1868 to pre- 
sent date. 




Marriages ... 

1837 do. 




Burials ... 

1869 do. 



As may be gathered from the above tabalated statement, these 
registers have, on the whole, been well kept, and are now, with one 
exception, in a most satis&ctory state of preservation. While No. 3 
was nearly destroyed in 1771, it is remarkable that the two earlier 
books are in good condition. Probably they were at the vicarage on 
the memorable night of the Flood, and so escaped unhurt. No. 4, 
which contains the copy of No. 8, has the following memorandum : — 

* We the Minister and Churchwardens and Sidesmen of the Parish of Bywell 
St Peter do certify all whom it may hereafter concern that we have caused the 
following Copy of the Parish Register (Comprehending the Space of 47 years 

BYWELL. 127 

Yiz. from the year 1729 to 1776 Inclusive) to be taken from the Original Register 
which wife damaged by a dreadfnl Inundation of the River Tyne November the 
17**» & 18"» 1771.-— We do likewise certify that we have compared the said Copy 
with the Original and believe it to be a fall perfect and true Copy of whatever 
Is legible in the said Register in regard to the Marriages, Births and Burials 
within the said Parish ; as witness Our Hand this 21*^ Day of December 1776. 

John Fleming Minuter 
Gbobob Wails >v 

lilOKEL WiNSHIP / Churoh 

Joseph SuMMEBVELLt Wardens 

Geobge Jewitt j 

Wm. Fenwick \ 

Ra: Smith i Sidesmen 

Cbo. SUBTBBS f of the Parish 

John Jobling [ of 

Geobge Hind \ ByweU St Peter,' 

ko Sec. I 

The first half of No. 1 is in Latin, with an admixtnre of English, 
and is written in court hand by vicar Braidley. During the last year 
of his life (1672) there is a gap — no baptisms are registered, only one 
niarriage, and no burials. A note is entered, by his successor, respect- 
ing this omission : — 

* Here was a great neglect, M' Braidley the late Vicar having not registered 
any for above a twelve moneth.' 

It may be observed that, in the older books, that is for about a 
hundred years, the baptisms, marriages, and burials were not entered 
directly into the Register books, but copied from notes kept by the 
clergyman. Entries, not always in chronological order, were made for 
a whole year at a time, and signed by the vicar and churchwardens. 
This mode of keeping the books did not necessarily imply carelessness 
on the part of the clergyman, for if the old requirements to secure 
safety were to be observed, it would be impossible for him to make 
each entry separately, and immediately after the ceremony had been 
performed. The presence of two churchwardens was required, and 
they might not always be at hand. An ecclesiastical mandate of 1608 
provided that — 

' for the safe keeping of the said book, the churchwardens, at the charge of the 
parish, shall provide one sure coffer with three locks and keys, whereof the one 
to remain with the minister, and the other two with the churchwardens severally ^ 

128 BYWBLL. 

BO that neither the minister without the two churchwardens^ nor the church* 
wardens without the minister, shall at any time take that book out oi the said 

The practice of keeping notes, and making np the register book 
from. them once a year, must have led to the loss of much that ought 
to have been recorded. After the death of vicar Braidley, for instance, 
the few notes that he had in his possession were, doubtless, lost, and 
this would account for the chasm of a whole year in the otherwise 
well kept register. On the other hand, the manner in which some of 
these notes have escaped and been preserved for more than a hundred 
years, is something wonderful. On the page for a.d. 1708, in No. 2, 
we find the following memorandum : — 

' On the 19^ day of April 1833, in searching the Parish Begisters minutely 
for the Baptism of Sam^ & Hob*. Sewell, supposed to be about the date of the 
page on which this is inserted I found a small piece of loose paper containing 
the following—* Jane of John Hudson baptised June 7. 1708. Robert Son of 
William Sewell baptised June 1708. James Hon of Thomas Robinson baptised 
June 10. 1708. Mary of Robert Brown June 13. 1708.— 

Witness my hand to the above, the 24*** 
April 1833. 



Apart from the great utility {^permagnus iisus* as Elizabeth's Con- 
stitution terms it) of Parish Registers as legal evidence, they are 
invaluable to the student of local history and biography. They furnish 
many scraps of useful information, and occasionally contain interesting 
notes respecting remarkable occurrences, such as storms, floods, riots, 
etc. Nicknames and personal infirmities, so often met with in the 
Elsdon Registers and elsewhere, are not found here. Previous to 
A.D. 1698, ages are not recorded, except in one case of ei^raordinary 
longevity. Examples of obsolete words and archaic expressions are 
not unfrequently met with. These and a few other points of interest 
may be observed in the following extracts : — 


Anthonius filius Nicholai Andrew de Eipperlin Aug: 16. 1668. 

Alicea filia Nicholai Lawson June 4^ 1663. 

Margareta filia Bartholomei Lee. Aug: 20^^ 1663. 

Johannes filius Johannis Ellison de High Field 2do Septem 1663. 
[These are the first entries.] 

BYWBLL. 129 

BoVtDs filius Rob*ti Atkinson de Minsteracres ll'"^ Aprilis 1664. 

Maria filia Thome Oord de Espsheelds primo die Junii 1664. 

Gulielmns filius Johannis Newton de fotherley 18^ Septem: 1664. 

Michaell filius Petri ffetheiston de fijwell Sep 29 1664. 

Josephus filius Lancloti Newton* et Sarah filia eius gemelli 28^' die Maij 1 665. 

Elizabetha filia Bartholomei Richardson de Low flfotherley 4**» Octo 1666. 

(^eoTgius filius Joh's Hunter de High ffotherley 18 Dec 1667. 

Henricus filius Henrici Giles de Bywell 20 No 1669 

Johannes filius Michaelis Thompson de porta levis ligni* 4^ Aprilis 1670. • 

Margaret daughter of John Anger a stranger was baptised Dec: 29 1675 

Jane daughter of M' Balph Delaval bapt DecemV 8. 1677. 

John son of W" Currah of Healey Mill Feb. 13, 1703. 

Dorothy daughter of Robert Unthank, of Newton Hall March 23, 1703. 

Robert son (posthumous) of Robert So Isabel Jopling, of Newton Hall, 

OctoV 14«» Anno 1712. 
Margaret, Daughter of Edward & Mary Hey ; of y* Grey Mare, May 1** 

A.D. 1716. 

Matbimonium oontbahgntes. 

Johannes Armestrange et Magdalena Suertis de Whittinstall Octo 18^*' 1663. 
Georgius Hedlye et Barbaria Dod 26*« No: 1663. 
Johannes Newton et Jana Hutchinson 2do die ffab 1663. 
Johannes Dawson et Margareta Dauison 4to die ffab: 1663. 

[These are the first marriages.] 

Johannes ffuster de fframmagate in ciuitate Dunelmi et Elizabetha Raw de 

eadem Ultimo Alaij 1664. 
Thomas Mallibume et Barbary ffoster de Bywell 27 Aprilis 
Eodem die Anthonius Henderson et Marg Robson de Nuton 1665. 
Gulielmus Welch et Anna Boaby 14*« Septem 1665. 
John Stokoe k Margaret Robson was married July 16. 1674. 
May 6^ 1708. John Surtis, of High-farther-Lee; & Jane Car of Farl-May. 
Jan^ H*** 1709. M' Thomas Boutflower, of Apperley ; & M" Margaret Lee, 

widow, of Old Ridley. 

* This Lancelot Newton, of Old Ridley, is mentioned in the 1st Church- 
wardens' Book. He was fined £6 for not burying his wife in Woolen, according 
to the law then in force. 

* Leiyhtwood Oate. Two cottages so named, between Apperley and Hedley, 
have lately gone to ruin and disappeared. The place is erroneously given on the 
Ordnance map as *Lightfoot Gate.' A man of the name of Lightfoot li^ed there 
when I visited the place some years ago. — A. J. 

180 BYWBLL. 

NoYb' 9"» 1710. Robert Surtis of r Parish of Ryton ; & Hannah Angas of 
y« Row House. 
Memorandum, That about an Hour after y« Marriage of y* s* Two 
PeiBons, y« Leads were blown off y« South side of our Parish Church, by a 
sudden k. violent Whirlwind, to y® Admiration and Astonishm* of y* 



Qeorgius Cowper de Newlands Julij 20"' 1663. 
Robertus Newton de Stozfield Julij 26 1663. 
Katherina Woodmas de Bywell Julij 28*^ 1663. 
Johannes filius Petri Joblin Aug 20 1663. 

[These are the first burials.] 

Josephus filius de Johannis Bell de Brumley 7"*» Maij 1664. 

Miles Usher de farlemay March 12 1664. 

Jana uxor Arthuri Taylor de Ridley mill 28 Aprilis 1666. 

Vid Lighton de Heley wood hous 3 decem 1666. 

Anna Uxor JohUs Slater de Merisheelds Ult Aprilis 1666. 

Thomas filius Bowlandi Pickering de Bywell Aug 19 1666. 

Will*mus Armestrang de Comon ffab 16 1666. 

Jana Usher de Hineley Steele 21 Marcij 1667. 

Willm* SuertiB de high ffotherley eodem die. 

Susanna Uxor M' Ricardi Braidley Vicarij de Bywell S" Petri 20^ Decembris 

Bodem die Jana Dauison de Akam. 
M' Rich Braidley, Vicar was buried Decemb' 24. 1673. 
Tristram Newton de Stocksfeild was buried Feb 19. 1673. 
Tho : Elder buried Jan: 2. 1674. 
George Younger buried Feb: 20. 1674. 
Richard Teasdale buried March 21. 1674. 
Innocent Brown buried June 6*** 1675. 
M" Maiy Bootflower buried June 10. 1675. 
Ann Anges of Shilford buried Nov: 16. 1676. 
Elizabeth daughter of Seth Tate buried Jan 1. 1676. 
Ann Ushar buried April 5. 1677. 

[Possibly the Ann Usher, of Fairley May, accused of Witchcraft, at 
Morpeth, Ap. 9. 1673.] 
Milisent Boutflower buried April 24. 1681. 
George Yealder buried Jan. 8. 1684. 



r &"v 
.^ Vof High Fotherley. 
me J 

Ciawen Cartington buried Nov: 1684. 

Mary Tone & her daughter Ann buried in one grave April 18. 1686. 

June 27"* 1703. Thomas Hunter 
— 29"" — Elizabeth His wife j 

March 23** 1703. Ralph Seymor, of Rochel Foot ; Aged an Hundred & Six 
yeais, as is reported. 

Jan'y 20*** 1712. Henry Angas, Yeom' of y" Row house ; a Dissenting 

September 28"» 1718. Jane Taylor, a Lunatick of this Parish ; who, being 
committed to y« Care of John Cowman of By wel, at y« Rate of Three 
Shillings per week, for her Maintenance, fell into y« Fire of y* s** John 
Cowman, her Keeper, by Reason & cause of his, & his Family's, 
Negligence : k, was ; in a very miserable Manner, burnt to Death. 

N h*- \^^ 1714 /George, & 1 children of W" KUengton, of Heley-Close- 
V Isabel / House. 

The Rev«» Francis Clement Vic' of Bywel S* Peter buried June the Sixth 
day 1732. 

{William Brown of Whittenstall k. Ralph Rrown his 
Son both shot in the Riot at Hexham. 

(Dorothy wife of William Lowes 1 ^*'' ^^^f. ".*\* 
J .„ „ I Great Flood in which 

March 10. 1761. 

Nov 19*'» 1771 


ofByweU . ^^^ p^^^ Registers 

Mary Brown of By well J were damaged. 

Jany 12. 1773. The Rev** M' Rob' Simon Vicar of Bywell S* Peter. 
Feby 10. 1776. William Arkley of Shotley drowned accidentally. 
Dec' 27. 1789. The Reverend John Fleming A M : Vicar of Bywell St 
Peter's, and of Bywell St Andrews. 

Oficiating Min' during the Sequestration. 

1804. Charles Stobart, of New Ridley ) 
Weaver f 

1808. John Hunter of Prudhoe, Parish S 
of Ovingham, his Death occa- 1 
sioned by a Cart running over C 
his Body ) 


Aug 8. 
Feb 27. 


Aug 5. 
Feb 29. 

102 years. 
27 years. 

No record is to be found in the Bywell Registers themselves of 
persons having been buried in woollen, according to the Act passed in 
1678 (80 Car. II.) for the protection of trade, but a memorandum is 
entered in the Churchwardens' Parish Book, November 1st, 1683, to 
the effect that Lancelot Newton, of Old Ridley, was fined £6 for not 
obeying the law. 

182 BYWELL. 

In 1694, an empty exchequer was replenished by a tax on births, 
marriages, and burials, through an Act, entitled * An Act for granting 
to His Majesty certain Rates and Daties upon Marriages, Births, and 
Burials, and upon Bachelors and Widowers, for the term of five 
years, for carrying on the War against France with vigour.' By other 
subsequent enactments the parish register was made the instrument of 
taxation. The clergyman was thereby placed in the invidious light of 
a tax-collector, and as the poor were often unable or unwilling to pay 
the tax, the clergy had a direct inducement to retain their good will 
by keeping the registers defective. Accordingly we find that, although 
births are entered at the end of Register Books, Nos. 2 and 3, the 
entries are but few in number, notwithstanding the pretentions 
heading : — 

' A Begister of All Persons, Bom in this Parish of Bywel S^ f eter, ami not 

The mode of entry may also be worthy of notice. No Christian names 
are given to those un-christened infants : — 

' Bom, Anno 1703. 
April 10*^ A Daughter of W» WiUtinson ; of Newton. 
May 2S^ A Son of W™ Johnson ; of MiU Shields. 

Bom A.D. 1713. 
March 7 A Son of Thomas k Maiy Snrtis ; of Hindley.* 

In 1813 a new set of registers came into use, and from that date 
baptisms, marriages, and burials haye been entered into separate books, 
specially arranged for the purpose. This system, more uniform but 
less interesting, was the result of the passing of ' Rose's Act,' in 18 12. 
It is styled, ^ An Act for the better regulating and preserving Parish 
and other Registers of Biiiihs, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials in 
England,' but the registration of births is altogether omitted from its 
provisions. And, by a stroke of the wildest wit, the penalty of trans- 
portation for fourteen years, for making a false entry, is * to be divided 
equally between the informer and the poor of the parish.' 

In looking over these registers, it is interesting to note how many 

families once prominent in the parish have passed away, and their 

names no longer appear, while, on the other hand, many of the sur- 

. names which occurred most frequently 150 or 200 years ago, still hold 

their gi-onnd. Of the former we may mention those of Boutflower, 



Balderish, CoUiusou, Eltringham, Hinde, Jopliug, Giles, Cowman, 
Madgin, Maudlin, Mallaburn, Lawson, Mounsier, Teasdale, Ushar, 
CTnthank, Wails, and Winship. Of the latter, Angus, Arkeld (in the 
form of Arkle or Arkley), Barron, Charlton, Davison, Fenwick, Forster, 
Green, Hunter, Jewitt, Manghan, Newton, Eidley, Richardson, Sister- 
son, Stobbart, Stokoe, Surcees, and Taylor, still exist and maintain 
their position as prominent names in the. neighbourhood. 






1 Baptisms ... 


{ Very bad. Much in- 
< jured by the inundation of 


< Marriages ... 

1685 <" 7-1 754 

> Parchment 



( the Tyne, A.D. 1771. 

' 2. 

1 Copy of the "> 

do. do. 


1 Good. Well written by 
John Fleming, Vicar. 


1 Baptisms ... 


1 do. 



Marriages ... 





Baptisms ... 

1813 to pre- 
sent date. 




Marriages ... 





Marriages ... 

1837 to pre- 
sent date. 




Burials ... 

1813 do. 



Most of the general remarks made with reference to the registers 
belonging to the parish of Bywell St. Peter, apply equally to those of 
St. Andrew's. The condition of the books themselves, and the nature 
of the entries made in them, are very similar. This might be expected 
from the fact that, for a considerable portion of the time, both parishes 
were served by the same vicar. 

The oldest register book of this parish (like No. 8 of St. Peter's) 
was much injured by the flood in 1771. No. 2 contains a copy of it, 
with the following explanatory notes : — 

*• I John Fleming Vicar of Bywell iSt Andrew do declare & am ready upon 
my corporal oath to testify the same that I have with great Care k Pains at 
the Desire of the Sidesmen k Parishioners of the Parish, of Bywell St Andrew, 
& without Fee or Reward, copied the foregoing Registers being all that appear 

184 BYWELL. 

legible in the Parish Registers of Bywell St Andrew before the year 1771 A: the 
same is according to the best of my Knowledge & Belief a fall perfect & true 
Copy of what is now legible in the said Parish Registers as Witness my Hand 
this eighteenth Day of March one thousand seven hundred & seventy nine 

John Fleming 

We the ChnrchwarHens. Sidesmen, & Parishioners, of the Parish of Bywell 
St. Andrew in the County of Northumberland k Diocese of Durham, do testify 
& make known that we have procured the foregoing Copy of our Parish 
Registers prior to the year 1771 to be made out, the original having by Length 
dt Time k otherwise been decayed, particularly by a most dreadful Inundation 
of the River Tyne November the 17 & 18"* 1771 by which the whole was thought 
to be in great Danger of being lost. We have also compared the said Copy 
consisting of 54 Pages & believe it in our Consciences to be a faithful, perfect, 
and true, Copy, of whatever is now legible in the said Register as witness our 
Hands this eighteenth Day of March one Thousand seven Hundred & sevei^ty 

liiB Mark 

John Lishman / Wardens. 

Wm Fenwick 

Ra: Smith 

William Jobling ^ Si^ssmen, 

&c., &c. 

The names of the sideBmen here are nearly the same as those of 
Bywell St. Peter's. It appears that many of them acted for both 
parishes, their property or tenements extending into both. The 
churchwardens, on the other hand, are all different. 

The following are a few examples of the entries : — 


1668 Filius Gulielmi Fenwick de Bywell Armigeri baptizatus fuit 

decimo oct° die mensis Aprilis. 

[This is the first entry. The Christian name JRobertvs is not 
legible now, but there can be no doubt that this was Sir Robert 
Fenwick, Lord of the Barony and Manor ot Bywell, whose burial is 
recorded in 1691.] 

June S*** 1668. Susanna Daughter of George Feuster of Bearl. 
April 10"' 1670. Roger Son of John Sisterson of Bearl 
June 25. 1702. John son of John Green of Styford. 

A Child of Simon Bolton a Popish Recusant. 

April 4. 1702. Margaret Daughter of William Fenwick Esq. 

BYWBLL. 135 

De<? ... 1703. William Son of William Penwick Esq. 

Oct' 15. 1717. Elizabeth Daughter of M' W» & M« Elizabeth Penwick 
of Bywell Hall. * 

Jan: 14. 1721. William Son of M' John & M" Margaret Penwick of 
Bywell HaU. 

fit was this William Penwick whose birthday was observed with 
such noteworthy festivities on January 14th, 1739, according to the 
account given in Richardson's Table Book. *John Penwick Esq. 
of Bywell gave a grand entertainment on account of his son's birth- 
day, and had a large sheep roasted whole, in a tent erected upon the 
ice on the rivej, with plenty of strong liquor for the populace, who 
ate and drank very merrily, with huzzas and firing of cannon. Mr 
Penwick's coach and two horses were also driven up, down, and 
across the river, with several gentlemen and ladies in it, to the great 
surprise of all present.'} 

Ap* 3. 1723. Margaret Daughter of M' John Sc M" Margaret Penwick 
of Bywell Hall. 

Aug^ 4. 1724. John Son of M' John & M" Margaret Penwick of Bywell 

Sep' 27. 1726. Roger Son of M' John & M" Margaret Penwick of Bywell 

Baptized since 1789 Decenters 
Aug 27 Mary Dau' of Jacob k Mary Wilkinson of Styford. 

1762 April II Grace Dau' of George & Ann Angus of Styford. 

1764 May 5 Priscilla Dan' of George & Ann Angus of Styford. 

1776 Dec 16 Deborah Dau' of Geo & Hannah Angus of Styford. 

At the end of the first Register Book there are some entries of 
births only, not baptisms, e.(jf, 

*Bom A.D. 1711 
Sept' 2. A Daugh' of M' John & M" Christian Newton, of Stocksfield 


May John XJshar ic Mary Angus. 

WiUiam Hudson k Mary Wright. 

[These are the first marriages.] 

May 1686 John Hearron & Dorothy Joatlan. 

January 28. 1719. John Penwick of Stanton Esq' k M** Margaret Pen- 
wick of Bywell Hall. 

[This marriage united the three houses of Bywell, Stanton and 



1668 Dorothy Wilkinaon of the Ryding. 

....John Ridley of Broomhaugh. 

[These are the first burials.] 

May S** 1678. M^ Fenwike. 

[This was William Fenwick, Esq., of Bywell Hall. He was 
under age at the time of the death of his father, Roger Fenwick, of 
Shortflat, who held half of the mills and fishings at Bywell. In 
1663 he was proprietor of Shortflat, South Middleton, and of the 
tithe of North Middleton, besides Bywell, and several other places. 
—Hodgson, Pt. IL, Vol. I., p. 369.] 

1691 Sir Robert Fenwick K' Lord of the Barony & Man' of Bywell. 

[The registration of his baptism is the first entry in these Registers.] 

1704. Nov. 7. Robert Son of William Fenwick Esq. 

1706 S'* The Rever*d M' John Ritschell Vicar of this Parish Church 

about 15 years was buried at Hexham* 
1714 M" Susanna Fenwick Wife of W" Fenwick Esq' of Bywell 


1719 October 14. William Fenwick of Bywell Hall Esq. 

1720 Oct' 2. John Sisterson yeoman of Berl. 

1724. April 30. John son of Gawen Maines of Styford. 
1727. June 16. M'" Margaret Fenwick Wife of John Fenwick Esq'. 
1731. Nov' 22. M" Alice Fenwick Wife of John Fenwick Esq' of Bywell 

[She was the 2"** Wife of John Fenwick, and daughter of Thomas 
Errington of Beaufront — also Aunt of JohnErrington, commonly 
styled the Chief of Beaufront,'] 

1782. Oct' 10. M'» Henrietta Maria Fenwick of Bywell Hall. 
1753. Oct' 26. Barbary Fienlis of the Riding Mill. 
1764. Sep** 6. Mary Calle of the Lee Widow. 
1758. Jan'7 15. Anne Galley of Double Gates Styford. 
1761. March 11. John Son of Henry Leighton of Bromley Shot at the Riot 
at Hexham March 9^. 

1768. March 6. John Bastard Son of Rob* Byers of Styford. 

1769. March 23'* M'" Margaret Fenwick Wife of W» Fenwick' Esq. of 

[She was the youngest daughter of W™ Bacon Esq. of Staward. 
She died March 17^ aged 52 years.] 

BYWELIi. 187 



These old parish books are three in number^ and give a detailed 
account of parochial business from a.d. 1683 to a.d. 1796. The first 

A. is a thin long folio, 15^ inches long by 6t% inches wide, con- 

taining 79 pages. On the outside of the cover it bears the 
title, 'The Acompt Book of y« Parish of Bywell S* Peter. 
Anno 1688.' It also contains minutes of vestry meetings, 
an account of collections on briefis, and other memoranda 
up to A.D. 1711. 

B. A.D. 1712 to A.D. 1742, a thick foUo, 16 inches long by 6 inches 

wide. On the cover is the title, ' The Book of Ace** for 
the Parish of S* Pet' in Bywel. A:D: 1712.' 

Fbancis Clement, Vior. 
John Chablton, ^ 

' >• Church- Wardem. 

George YTilly, I 

John Young, J 
At the end is 'An Account of Collections for Briefs a:D: 
1713, &c.' 

C. Contains accounts and minutes of vestry meeting, ft'om a.d. 

1743 to A.D. 1796, but no briefs. It is a thick folio, 12f 
inches long by 8 inches wide. 

These books are all in remarkably good condition. They are of 
good thick paper, bound in vellum. None of them seem to have 
suflFered from the eflfects of the flood in 1771. Probably they were at 
the vicarage on the night of the inundation, and so escaped like the 
two oldest registers. With the exception of only a few words on the 
first page, the writing is clear and legible. 

It appears from these old records that the affairs of the parish have 
been managed, for at least two hundred years, by a virtually select 
vestry consisting of the vicar, four churchwardens, and twenty four 
' Since division of parish in 1876, two church wardens and twelve sidesmen, 


138 BTWBLL. 

The first entry is a list of the sidesmen :— 

* The Names of y« foiire and twenty of y* Parish of By well S* Peter ; 
Anno 1683. 

SB RoB» Penwiok, Knight. William Bate of Broomley. 

Oswald Hindb. Hbn: Winship. 

THOS: WlLKIK803f. Anthoxy Colestokb. 

Joseph Newton. Fbancis Winship. 

Geoboe Newton. Geobqe Stobbabt. 

Abthub Tatlob. John Davison. 

John Huntbb. Will' Robinson. 

Rob: Newton. John Ushab. 

John Swinbobne. GEOsaE Subtis. 

Mathew Colestone. John Newton of high Fatherley. 

Stephen Tone. Geoboe Feusteb. 

William Taylob. Geoboe Kent.* 

Next comes the following memorandum : — 


Whereas M' Lancelott Newton of Old Ridley in the County aforesaid, did con- 
trary to the Statute made and provided in y* case buiy his wife in linning, and 
in order to the penalty of y* Statute has paid the forfiture y* i9 02-10- to the 
informer, and 02- 10 - to the poor : Now wee the minister and 24 of y' parish 
doe order the foresaid forfiture of 02 - 10 to be put out for the use of the poor of 

the said parish. . 

Rob: Simpson Minister 

Rob ffENWiGK 

Oswald Hynd* 

&c. &c. 

The statute referred to in this memorandmn was *An Act for 

burying in Woollen/ passed in the year 1678 (30 Car. II. cap. 8) 

' for the lessening the importation of hnen from beyond the sees, and 

the encouragement of the woollen and paper* manufacturers of this 

Kingdom.' No person was to be 'buried in any shirt, shift, or sheet, 

other than should be made of woole only.' An affidavit, which might 

be sworn before a parson, vicar, or curate, was to be brought within 

* How this custom of burying in woollen could affect the paper trade does 
not appear at first sight, but it is explained by what Mr. Wm. Taylor, of Norwich, 
says m the Monthly Mugazine for February, 1800 r — * Another beneficial conse- 
quence flows from it (the Act), which is of great importance, especially at the 
present time, when the price of paper and of books is become so enormously high. 
For it appears that by the prohibition to clothe the bodies of the dead in linen, 
at least 200,000 lbs. of rags ai*e annually saved from untimely corruption in the 
grave, and in due time pass to the hands of the manufacturers of paper.' — Bum's 
Parish Regigters, p. 29, note. 

BYWELL. 139 

eight days of the burial, under a penalty of £5, to the eflFect that the 
corpse was actually buried in wooDen fabric. The upper classes, how- 
ever, generally preferred to bury in linen, and to pay the fine. We 
might, therefore, have expected to find more frequent notices of the 
custom about this time, but Mrs. Newton's case is the ouly one 
mentioned in which the burial was contrary to the law. In the 
registers themselves the practice is never referred to, and thei-e are no 

The Act was repealed in 1818 by 54 Geo. III., cap. 108. 
Although the first volume, by its title, professes to be an 'Acompt 
Book' from Anno 1683, no financial matters are recorded for that 
year, and nothing whatever for the year 1684. After a blank page we 
come to the first vestry meeting on record, and the first churchwardens 
accounts : — 

'June 6. [1685.] 
Wheras y" 24 tc church-wardens of Bywell 8* Peter bad a sumuns to meet 
this day, now so many of them as did meet have agreed to lay on a sess, 
viz : 6** per plow thro y* Parish, k do hereby lay on y« said sess, witness o' 

Rob ffBNWiCK 
Rob: Simpson. 
Oswald Hikde. 
John Swinbubne 


John Dauison \| 



Henby Winship 
Gbobqe Kent. 

June 9. 1685. The accompts of the church-wardens, viz. 

Hen: Winship 
Anthony Nicholson 
John Selby 
John Newton 

Then going out 

John Rose 

John Babbon 

Hen: Gbeby 

Mioh: Davison, coming in 



Heo: Winships accompt. 

One Sess 

Lairstones 2 

Laid out at the Court 

Roge money 

For ringers 4 times 

At Corbridge 

For laing down y" stones in y^ Church 
For wine 

Rests in his hand 

Anth: Nicholsons accompt. 

One Sess 

Laid out at y Court 

Roge money 


At Corbridge 


For going to Hexham w"* a List of dissent" 

laid out more "I 

11 s. d. 
00 : 09 : 10 
00 : 03 : 04 

13 : 02 

00 : 01 : 07 
00 : 02 : 00 
00 : 02 : 00 
00 : 01 : 10 
00 : 00 : 04 
00 : 01 : 00 

00 : 08 : 09 

00 : 04 : 05 

00 : 09 : 04 

00 : 01 : 07 
00 : 04 : 06 
00 : 02 : 00 
00 : 01 : 04 
00 : 01 : 00 
00 : 00 : 06 

00 : 10 : 11 
00 : 01 : 07 

then receivV 
^ch y^Qg -p^i^ him by John Selby 
w<^ makes a clear accompt. 

John Selbys Accompt 

One Sess 


Laid out as foUoweth 

Paid to Anth : Nicholson . . . 

Roge money 

At Corbridge Court tc By well 

To George Newton 


For fox heads one old & y other young.. 

11 s d 
00 : 14 : 00 
00 : 02 : 06 

00 : 16 : 06 

00 : 01 : 07 
00 : 02 : 06 
00 : 01 : 08 
00 : 00 : 09 
00 : 02 : 00 
00 : 01 : 06 

00 : 10 : 00 

Rests 00 : 06 : 06 

Paid of this 6» : 6«» to 


00 : : 04 

BYWELL. 141 

John Newton's account is not entered. Probably he was not at 
the meeting, and the 9d. paid to George Newton may have b6en the 
balance due to him. 

The Roge money at a later date is called 'Jail Money.' It amounted 
regularly to Ss. 8d. per year, and was paid to the High Constable for 
the County. • 

Lairstone money is frequently entered, but no very definite state- 
ment as to what lairstones mean, or for what object the payment was 
made to the churchwaixlens. The following resolution of the vestiy 
throws some light upon the subject, though it is not altogether clear 
without a little further explanation : — 

* May ye 14. 1695. Agreed then that two sesses of 6** per Plough be laid on 
the parish, for paving the floor of the Church, and making it plain & even, the 
one to be gathered on y« 24"' of June, the other to be gather'd on y« 29**" of June. 

At the same time also agreed that the mony due these 8 years last past for 
layr stones in the church, be gather'd by y« respective churchwardens, for these 
3 last years past, and be paid in towards the charge of y** paving & making 
even the floor of the church.' 

The fact was that when any person was buried within the church, 
and the flags were disturbed for the purpose, a charge* of Is. 8d. for 
adults, and lOd. for children, was made by the churchwardens to 
enable them to replaciB the stones in their lairs, and keep them ' plain 
and even.' In the Hexham Churchwardens' Book (1732) the charge 
is fully and distinctly explained. Mr. Gibson, a recent churchwarden 
of that parish, has kindly fomished me with the following extract, 
which is quite conclusive in the matter : — 

' Whereas the repairing of the fflaggs in the Great Isle and in the North and 
South Isles in Hexham Church hath from time to time been done att the charges 
of the Parishioners within the parish of Hexham, and whereas for defraying the 
charg of such repair the sum of one shilling commonly called Lair Stone money 
hath been paid for every person buried within the said church in any of the 
Isles aforesaid and hath been constantly collected and received by the Church- 
wardens of the said Parish or by some person by them appointed for that 
purpose, and whereas the present Beedle George Yarrow undertook the said 
repair upon condition that the then Churchwardens would permitt him to receive 
the said Lair stone money, but having very much failed in his said undertaking. 
At a meeting this day by the Twenty Four or vestrymen of the said parish whose 
names are hereunto subscribed — It is ordered that the Church Wardens of the 

* The charge varied in different parishes. 

142 BYWELL. 

paid Parish for the time being doe at all times hereafter receive the said Lair 
Stoue money and doe pay the same into the chest of the said Parish, to be laid 
out as occasion shall require for the purpose before ment*oned, and that noe 
bargain shall be made by the said Church Wardens for the future for permitting 
any person to receive the said Lair Stone money and make the said repair unless 
such person g^ve security not onely to keep the fflaggs in all the said Isles in 
good repair at all times but alsoe that on every Saturday evening he shall sweep 
and clean all the com'on passages to and from the said church, and keep the 
same clean and decent at all other times 

signed this third day of January Anno Dm' 1732 

E Blagket" 

Th: Andrewes Jo: Aynsley Matt Bell W. Bell. David Johnstone W" John- 
son. John Eirsopp/ 

In 1699 we have the following entry in the By well book : — 

Received for layr stones 

Abr: Joplins wife 
Abr: Joplins mother 
Moses Fosters child 
Tho: Hunters wife 
Tho: Hunters child 
Tho: Stobbart ... 
John Davison 

















Wanting for layr stones 

For 8 d 

Steph: Tones vrife 01:08 

Steph: Tones child 00: 10 

Arthur Taylors son 00 : 10 

Matt: Oolson's daug'of Br.... 00 : 10 

Tho:Stobbart'sdaugh'ofBr: 00:10 

Ant: CJolson of New Ridly ... 01 : 08 

W™ Taylors mother of Br: ... 01 : 08 

Tim: Taylor of Brum: ... 01 : 08 

In the balance sheet these receipts are summed up : — 

li' 8 d 
Received for layr stones 00 : 10 : 00 

This is the last entry for lairstones. Whether the above arrears 
were ever paid is not stated. 

Among the other items we find a great many payments made out 
of the church cess for the heads of wild animals. Foxes, foulmarts, 
and badgers seem to have been very numerous in the neighbourhood. 
They were stigmatised as vermiriy and a premium was paid for their 
destruction. Their heads were brought to the church door, or to the 
vestry, and presented to the churchwardens, whose duty it was to pay 
for every fox head Is., for every foulmart {i.e. stoat) 4i, for every 
brock (t.e. badger) 4d. 

" The E. Blacket who heads the list of persons present would be Sir Edward, 
the Lord of the Manor, and T. Andrewes was the incumbent. 

BYWBLL. 143 

There are several memoranda respecting money given by beneiac- 
toTB then living, or bequeathed by will tx) the poor of the parish. 

'Ascensiou Day 1699. 
Received then of M' John Raw of Nun-honse forty 
shillings of the money left by Peter Dawson (formerly 
Clark of the Parish of By well S* Peter) for the poor of the ^ ^^* 
said Parish, and was on the same day distributed among ^ 
the Poor of the said Parish in the presence of M' Raw ... 

10b« 2irt 1705. 
Receiv'd then of Tristram Newton Twenty shillings, being a Legacy left to 
y** Poor of this Parish by Joseph Teasedale, late of this Parish ; & payable 
every S* Thomas's Day (viz. on y® 21'* of 10^*') 

Memorand' An Extract of Joseph Teesdale's Will, 

Gate of Bromley in this Parish) dated Peb^ 16*»» 169}. 
And whoever enjoyeth the Land, (in Bromley afores**) 
to g:ive Yearly & Every Year to y" Poor of By wel S* Pet'*" \ 
Parish y<> Sum of Twenty Shillings ; to be given at y<> I £ : g : d : 
Discretion of y® Overseers of y** Poor of y« s** Parish, as a j 1 : 00 : 00 : 
Rent Charge. j 

December 21"' a.d: 1712. 
Imp" P<* then by Jeremiah Brown, of Newton-Hall, Yeom' to \ 
J* Church- Wardens of this Paiishi, Twelve Shillings, being / 
y Interest of Twelve Months for Ten Pounds ; left to y« > » • » ^ 
Poor of this Parish by M' Thomas Brown late of Newton- I "" • ^-^ • ^ 
Hall, deceased. ) 

[Thomas Brown's Will is dated Sep. 13, 1703.] 

Item, P* then by George Hunter, Yeom* of Farther Lee, to y® 
Church- Wardens of this Parish, One Pound k Four Shil- \ 
lings, due, upon this Day, for Twelve Months Interest of I £ : s : d : 
Twenty Pounds, lent him by W" Fenwick, k John Bacon j 1 : 4 : 00 
Esq" for y" Use of y* Poor of this Pariah. J 

Item, F* then by W™ Lawson of Bywel, to y« Church- Wardens 

of this Parish Five Shillings k Three Pence, due, upon . ^ 

this Day, for Twelve Months Interest of Four Pounds k r no • ft • «i ■ 

Ten Shillings, given to y® Poor of this Parish by W" 

Fenwick, Esq'' ^ 

Memorand* December 21»* a.d. 1718. 

Madam Elizabeth Radcliffe, Widow of y*" R« Worshipful S' Edward Rad- 
cliffe, of Dilston, Bar^ k Mother of y** R^ Honourable Francis, late Earl of 
Derwentwater, by her last Will k Testament, dated y« 18**» Day of Decem- 
ber, 1668, did give k bequeath an Annuity or Rent-Charge of Twenty 
Pounds a Year, w«^ she then had of M' Francis Sutton of Green-Croft, to 
y* Poor of several Parishes ; 

144 BYWBLL. 

Four Pounds a Year, Part k Parcel Thereof, to y* Poor of y« Parish of 
Samt Peter in Bywel, to be distributed every Year, upon S* Lucy's Day, 
viz : Decb' 13"» or thereabout. 

East' Monday, March SO"* 1719. 
Agreed then (w*^ y« Consent of y" Vic' & after Notice Publickly given, for 
a General Meeting) by Us, y* Church-Wardens & Parishion" of this Parish, 
(whose Names are Hereafter Subscribed to y^ Assessment, made at this 
Public Meeting) y* y'' Poor Money, belonging to this Parish, be applied & 
appropriated to y" purchasing of a Close, in Bywel, Commonly callM 
Forster's Close ; & y* y" Rent thereof be distributed, Yearly & every Year, 
by y« Vic' Church-Wardens, Overseers of y'' Poor, & Twenty Four of this 
Parish, to y* Poor Inhabitants Thereof, by even &, equal Portions, upon 
East' Monday, & upon B* Thomas's Day, before Christmas ; viz : 21** Day of 
* An Account of the Distribution of the Money belonging to the Poor of this 
Parish received of the following People at Xtmas 1783 

of W™ Fenwick Esq' 1 10 

of the Tenant of Naflferton being a Legacy 
of Lady E. Batcliffe of which paid to the Chapel- 

£ 8 d 
Warden of Whittonstall 2 2 

Out of Old Ridley Estate due Xtmas 5 

3 16 
By well Quarter 18 9. Newton Quarter 18 9. Bromley Quarter 18 9. Far 
Quarter 18 9.' 

Mackenzie says that all these bequests 'have been irrecoverably 
lost.' This 4 is not correct, as may easily be proved by a reference to 
the Bywell Parish Book for 1887, where the following entry waa made 
on Easter! Monday : — 

' Received by the Churchwardens from Messrs Lambton & Co. dividend on 
3 p.c. Consols due 5^ Jan. & 6**' July in each year, viz. for charity monies 
in lieu of old rent charge payable for Bywell and Nafferton Estates for 

the Poor of Bywell St. Peter's 

including Whittonstall 


£5 10 


And from Old Ridley ... 


Which is thus distributed :— 

Whittonstall Parish .. 

' ... £2 

Healey St. John's 



Newton St James' 

18 10 

Broomley Quarter 



Bywell Quarter 








At the end of Churchwardens' Account Book A is the following 
entry: — 

' The Names of y^ Chuicb-wardens, chosen for this Parish, & Whittenstal. 

John Sxtbtis. 
Tho. Bennisok. 

Hen. Batbsok. 
Thomas Wilkinbon. 

Robert Usheb. 
Isabel Usher. 

Thomas Fusteb. 
Tho. Brown. 

Edwabd Relbt. 
Thomas Lawson. 

Edward Selby. 
W'» Brown. 

Cuthb* Selby. 
John Lbighton. 


Ann* 1702 

W™ Lawson, for By wel. 
Geoboe Bbown, for Acham. 
Thomas Hunteb, for High-Farther-Lee. 
John Ellebinoton, for his Close-Honse. 

Ann** 1703. 

William Giles for Bjrwel. 
M' Henby Collinson, for Newton. 
John Anoas, for y* Raw- House. 
Geoboe Babban, for High-Father-Lee. 

Ann* 1704. 

John Baldbis^, for By wel. 

Chbistopheb Atchikson, for Newton HaU. 

John Hill, for Bromley. 

Cctthbebt Snowbal, for Lingy Field-House. 

Ann" 1705. 

W'" Winship, for Bywel. 
M' W" Hind, for Acham. 
Tristbam Newton, for Bromley. 
W'" Ellebington, for his Close- House. 

Ann" 1706. 

M' John Charlton, for Bywel. 
Dobothy Robinson, for Newton. 
Edward B rowel, for Bromley. 
Thomas Armstrong, for Low Farther-Ijce. 

Ann" 1707. 

W" Gibson, for Bywel. 

Edwabd Hymers, for Newton Hall. 

John Angas, for Bromley. 

Geobgb Hunteb, for High Farther-Lee. 

Ann° 1708. 

W"' Giles, for Bywel. 

W™ Winship, for Acham. 

Gbobge Sdbtis, for High-Farther-Lec. 

Thomas Pattibon, for Wheel-Birks. 

Ann" 1709. 

Richabd Davison, for Bywel. 
Geobob Feusteb, for Newton. 
Robebt Cab, for Bromley. 
John Usheb, for y« Far-Quarter. 

Geobob Rbynoldson, &, 
W" Gbben 

for Whittenstal. 

Memorandum, That y« Names of y* Church-Wardens of this Parish, for y« 
future years, may he found in y« Regist' Book of this Parish, at ye 
end of every Page. 



The cost of labonr and the prices of difibrent materials may be 
worthy of notice, and also the valuation of property in 1725, when the 
change in the mode of assessment was made. In order to illustrate 
these and other points of interest we may take a few miscellaneous 
extracts in chronological order. 

*Novemberl2*»'169l. li 8 d 

Paid for Bible k Com'on prayer booke ... 03-13-00 
AprlU 10*h, 1694. 

A Cease j^ Laid on of 6^ per plongh for & towards the repair of y* Churcb 
of ByweU 8t Peter: k the Change of the Chalice to be collected 

Decb' 21«< 94. 

A Cesse y«" Imposed on y« s* prsh at 6** per plough for an towards y« 
Bepaires of y« Church but especially for y^ repairing of the Chalice. 
The Ch: Wardens account of ByweU St Peter from Midsummer 1695. being 
y* Bps Visitac'on to Whitsuntide 1696. being y^ Arch Deacons Visitac^on. 









09 : 



14 : 




00 : 



TSesses atWhiton- 

Bidley greeveship 




staU at 2 8 p. 

Far Quarter 





both together 




Single sess 

02 : 





Laid out. 
Aty«BP« Visitac'on at New 




Receivd for layr- 
stones in arrear 


16 • 



Castle for fees 8" books 5 .. 


Minister & Ch. Ward, ex- 

Laid out 


09 . 





: 08 

Due to y« Vicar ... 

pences ... ... ... 

Rogue Money 


: 05 


The Act for births & 





For the schoolhouse door 



: 00 

For mending y« Ch: ladder 



: 00 

For mending y« leads & 




: 00 

For wooden stanchels to 

y« Oh: windows 



. 00 


For nail8& 4 ironstanchels 



: 06 

For mending y« font ... 



: 00 

For 3 days winning stones 

by Jo. Hill & Tho. Foster 



: 06 



For winning &. hewing li* s d 

stones & repalriag j« 

top & north side of j^ 

Church by Roger Gra- 

liam 01 : 06 : 08 

For 2 fother of lime & 

leading 00 : 06 : 08 

For a fother of stones & 

one of sand 00 : 01 : 00 

For a neck to f surplice 00 : 01 : 06 
Forwashingy* surplice... 00 : 05 : 00 
For ringing y« bells ... 00 : 06 : 00 
For fox heads & fomarts 00 : 08 : 00 
For Court-fees at Cor- 

bridge 00 : 08 : 00 

For Wine at Whits: & 

Xt"»" & bringing ... 00 : 14 : 00 

To Mi: Slater 08 : 00 : 00 

For drink at eeverall 

times to the Masons & 


A Messenger 4 times to 


Unpaid of y« far quarter 
Churchwardens ezpences 

00 : 04 : 06 

00 : 02 : 00 
00 : 06 : 00 
00 : 08 : 00 

16 : 09 : 00 

In the Accounts for 1697-1699:— 


00 : 






; 00 

Why he was arrested is not 

* For a gallon rundlet 

For mending y* bell tongue 

Arresting St. Tone's com 

Arresting St. Tone 

[Stephen Tone was churchwarden in 1696. 
stated. After this his name disappears.] 
April 26. 1708. Agreed then by y« Vicar k Church Wardens, & those of y* 
24 then p'sent, y* whosoever of y« 24, after publick notice given, will not 
meet at y« time & place appointed, shall (w"»out a reason to be allowed 
of by y« major part of y« s^ 24) forfeit a shilling, w«»» shaU be disposed 
of by y« consent of 'y« major part of y« s** 24. 
Aprill y« 24* 1704. Paid then to y« Rever^ Mr Francis Clement, Vicar of 
St. Peter's in Bywell, y sum* of six Pence ; as an Acknowledgement of 
y® s* Vicar's Bight^ Titles and property, in and to y« Dwelling house now 
standing in y« Church Yard of St. Peter's Parish aforesaid, by me, 

John Cowman. 



The same acknowledgment is made year by year until March 26th, 
1722, after which it ceases. On June 10th, 1709, the vicar's receipt 
is entered, and it occurs again the foDowing year, thus : — 

' Receiv'd then of John Cowman Six Pence, due at May-Day last, 
for a year'8 Bent for y" House, standing in y« West End of y® Church- 
Yard of Bywel S» Pet' 
Receiv'd in y" p'sence of us, \ by me 

Thomas Richardson ^ Francis Clement, 

Mart Richardson Jun' ) Vic' of Bywel S* Pet' 

May 21»* 1706. 

l^ to W™ Forster for y« Pulpit ; &c 

f or a Regist' Book 

for changing y*' Flagons 

December 21. 1706. For Washing y** Surplice for one half year 

To W»» Taylor, for 1 Brock, & 1 Fowmert's Head ; 
W™ Fairbridge, for a Table Cloth for y« Com-) 

munion Table, viz. a Green Carpet ... i 

For Dying y" s* Carpet, & making it; 

For Fulling it, & Wooll for y" Cushions ; 

For a Rope, for y« Cover of y« Font ; ... \ 

It was made into a Bell-Rope •' 

Disbursed by y« Vic' April 6*^ 1708. 

For a Cricket to Kneel on in y* Church & a Cushion 
Charges at Newcastle & Hezam upon y** Parish) 

Account ' 

For Mending y* Surplice 

For Washing y® Surplice & Linnen for y« Church,\ 
Scouring y*" Flagons & Chalice from Martin' \ 
mas 1706 to May Day 1708 ... ... ) 

Paid to W" Forster for Benches in y" Church 

for Mending y« Ladder 

for Nails 

for Making a New Chist for y« Church 
P^ to J° Forster for a Brock & Fowmert's Head 
P** for Parchment, & Writing a Copy of y Regist' 

for y Years 1706, 1706, & 1707 ... 
P** to Thomas Wilson for 1 Fox Head 

to W" Eltringham for 3 Fowmarts' Heads ... 
to J" Thompson, y^ Herdsman for 1 Fowm^ Head 


























7 6 




2 6 

BYWELTi. 149 

MexnorandQ*. That John Cowman was allowed Two Shillings for his Jonmey to 
Durham, at Michaelmas Visitation, 1707. 

June 12* 1710. 

That, at a General Meeting of y" Parishion" of y" Parish of By wel 8* 
Pet', an Order is now made by y" Minist' Church- Wardens, Overseers of y* 
Poor, & Twenty Four of y* S^ Parish, y* every Freeholder and Farmer of 
y* S*^ Parish, having any Cottages or Tenements belonging unto them, 
shall, when any Tenant cometh to settle in them, give sufficient security, 
to be allowed by One or Two Justices of Peace, unto y** Church- Wardens Sc 
Overseers of y« Poor, for y« Discharge of y* s* Parish. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands on y® day & year 

Fbancis Clbmbnt, Vicr- 

Wm. Lawson \ 

Jeremiah BbownI 
JOHN 08HEB }*. 


WiLLH Fenwick Geo. Sandebson Henbt Collinson &c. kc, [15 others] 



12 : 00 


2: 00 

1 : 

1 : 6 

Decemb' 21. 1710. To Ellison Crainstofie ; for y« maintenance 
of y« s<* [two] Children, from Octob' 7**» to Decemb' 
21«* 1710, after y« Rate of 6** p Week, according to W» 

Lawson's Agreem* w"» her ... 

To y« Plumb" ( in part of Paym*) for a Yetling 

To George Hunter for going to Staward ab^ y® Lead 

Easter Monday, 1711. To John Lishman for y^' Battlement ... 
To Widow Crainstone, for y^ Maintenance of her 2 \ 

Children,accordingtoan Agreem* between y® Church- ( 00 : 11 : 6 
Wardens & Her, X"^ 21. 1710 ) 

August 18^ 1711. Paid then to John Bacon Esq' by y« Bespec- ^ £ 
tive Church- Wardens of y« Parish of S* Pet' in Bywel, 
y« Sum of Eleven Pounds, Eighteen Shillings, & Three } 11 : 18 : 8 
Pence ; due to him for Twenty Pigs of Lead, us*d in 
repairing j* Boof of y® s** Parish Church 

N.B. — Paid towards this lead by the several churchwardens : — 

£: s: d 

Thomas Wilson, for Bywel-Ward 2: 6: 8 

Richard Davison, „ Newton-Ward 2 : 11 : 10} 

Thomas Surtis „ Kew-Ridley-Ward 8: 6:11 

George Mills „ Far-Ward 1 : 13 : 00 

150 BYWBLL. 

December 21»* 1711 
Memoranda*. £ : s : d 

That y« Oesse of Two PonndB^ collected in j* Chappelry of \ 

Whittenstall, Ann<» 1711 was paid to M' Bacon, August I « . qa . no 
13«» 1711 in part of Payment for y» 20 Pigs of Lead / 
us'd for y® Boof of y« Church ) 

£ : 8 : d: 
DecF 21«* 1712. P* for a Book of Acc*» for y« use of this Parish ) qq • 7 • 6 

[Probably Book B] ) 

„ „ To W™ Forster, for Lab' in Making a New \ 

Wheel for One of y« Parish Church Bells ; > 00 : 10 : 00 
& for Wood, for y« s** Wheel / 

April 6**» A.D. 1713. John. Brown of Y» Hassocks [?] Churchwarden for New 

Bidley Ward. 
May 6*»» A.D. 1718. 
Memorand. That Henry Gyles of Hedley in y« County of Northumberl'* Mason, 
does hereby (in consideration of y« Paym* of y® sum of Five Pounds, of 
good and lawful money of Great Britain) promise, bargain ic agree, to & 
w*** y« Church- Wardens of this Parish, y* He, y« s** Henry Gyles will take 
off y* Slates of y" South Isle of y« s* Church, & in good & sufficient Manner 
cover y^ Roof thereof ; & supply the Deficiency of Laths, Nails, & Slates ; 
k provide Lime, Hair, and all other Materials, necessary for well slating y° 
B* Roof. And He, y« s* Henry Gyles, does further promise, y* 

he .will plaister y« low Parts of y" Vestry- Windows, & whiten all y« s^ 
Vestry : & plaister a Part of y« North- Wall of y* Church afores** & whiten 
y*> Black-Part of y® South-Wall, k build a low wall, under y« Beading 
Desk ; & fill up y« Holes, w«»in y« Steeple. 

In Witness whereof, y« s^ Henry Gyles has hereunto set his Hand, on 
y® Day, &, Year, first above-written. 

Henbt Gtlbs. 

£ : 8 : d : 
December 21. a.d. 1718. ?^ John Cowman, for y« Relief of Jane 

Taylor, a Lunatick of this Parish ... 00 : 15 : 6 : 

„ „ P^ Christopher Bllerington, an Impotent 

Person of this Parish, for his Relief... 

AprU 6*^ A:d; 1713. P» for Wood, for y« Reading- Desk ; ... 

P> for 3 Days Work at y« s* Desk ; .,. 

„ ,. P^ for a Bolt, Hinges, Nails, & Springs, 

for it; 00 : 2 : 00 

December 21. 1713. P* for a Tin Box, to carry y« Chalice in, ' 

and Bread, for Administration of y" 

Holy Communion to y^ Sick, in y** 


00 : 









> 00 


BYWELL. 151 

(A.D. 1714.) 

WE, y Minist' Churchwardens & Parishion" of S* Pet^'» in Bywel, in 
a pq y* County of North umb'l** (whose Names are Subscrib'd) do Hereby 

§ "g Certifie, y* H. J. Son of W. J. of , in y* Parish afores** is a Person 

o^t-i cf a Sober Life & honest Conversation, k is y® great Support of his 
o ^ Parents ; who, having many young Children, will, w*'»out his Aid k 


^ lb Assistance, be reduc'd to very Necessitous Circumstances, & become 
. •:S e Chargeable to our P&rish. And therefore Wb Humbly request y^ IX* 
£ •§ Worp* Commission" of our [this] County, not to permit any Military 
Officer to Compel y« s** H. J. to be a Soldier. 

In Order to Open Penance. 

I. of in this Parish, do Here w^ Shame & Confusion of Face, Gonfesse, 

y* I have committed w* of y** Parish of in y« County of y« great 

& heinous Crime of Fornication, for w''** I am now Heartily Borry, and beg 
Pardon of Almighty God ; for y« obtaining of w** I desire y® Prayers of this 
Congregation, whom it g^eves me to have so Scandalously Offended. And I do 
Hereby promise. & seriously resolve by jr* Assistance of God's Grace, to shew, by 
J" future Course of my Life, y« Sincerity of this my Repentance. 
Die Dominicj, viz : vicesimo Quarto Die Mensis Augusti, inter Preccs Matutinas, 
Vestrum Hoc Venerabile Mandatum Executus Sum. 

An extract of an Order, granted to R. W. of Morpeth- Abbey in y" C. of Nl'* who 
is a great Sufferer by Fire. — 

A Fire happened w®*' burnt all Household Goods, & Writings, to his 
great Losse & Impoverishm*. And, forasmuch as y* s** Petn' is thereby 
reduced to such necessitous Circumstances, We do therefore recommend 
him, y^ s*' R. W. & his Family to all well-dispos'd Persons, w**'in y« s"* 
County, for a Contribution towards their p'sent Subsistance, & y" Re- 
covery of their Losses ; k do desire all, whom it concerns, to be aiding 
& assisting to him, in y* Collection thereof. 

Given under our Hands, in Open Court, at the Sessions afores^. 

Jan'T W^ I7|i. 

Collected then, in this Parish, for y* Use of Robert Wilkinson, of Morpeth-Abbey 
in y« County of Northumberland, (who is a great Sufferer by Fire) y" 

Sum of Six Shillings and Eight Pence. "^ £ : s : d 

^ch ^ng pd iQ ^r Brandling, of Newcastle, for y® Use 
of Rob* Wilkinson afores** by M' John Charlton, 
Church- Warden of Bywel. 

August 7^^ 1715. Collected for the Relief of Robert Wilkin- 
son, of Newton in this parish 00 : 6 : 3 

00 : 6:8: 

152 BYWBTJi. 

Feb'y 27«' 174|. 

Collected then, in S* Pet" Church for y« Belief of Joseph \ £ : s : d : 
Forster, of y" Bbook-House in this Parislu in y« ^ 00 : 10 : 00 ; 
time of his Sicknesse, y* Sum of Ten Shillings. 
April 18*^ 1715. ?** for Orders, for Praying for y" Royal 

Family; & his Majesty's Proclamation, ^ 00 : 5 : 00 ; 
ag*^ Prophanenesse k Immorality; &c. 


P<* to Mary Leighton of Stabk a Vaqe, ^ 

e. / 

00 : 6 : 00 

for her Relief, in y« Time of Sicknesse. 
„ „ „ P^ for mending y« King's Coat of Arms; in 

y« Church 00 : 1 : 00 : 

Item F* for NaDs, f or y" 8** Arms 00 : 00 : 6 

May 3"» 1715. P* to M' Robert Spain, High Constable for \ 

this Ward, for this Parish Assessem* to- s 00 : 8 : 8 

wards y* Jail, &c A.D. 1715 ) 

May 3* a.d. 1715. P* Henry Gyles, & his Sons, for laying y« 

Foundation of y* Pulpit, & Stair Case, 

for Removing & setting up y« Font, ^ 1 : 00 : 6 ; 

Plaistering y« Windows of y* Vestry, k 

Flagging y« Floor of y« Church. 
Dec: 21"* 1715. P<* to John Mallaboum, (y« Smith) for Two 

long Rods, & Two Staples, for y* Sound- ^ 00 : 6 : 00 

ing Board, over y* Pulpit 

70 \ 


An Enquiry after Matthew Robinson. 

Whereas M. R. of Br. in y Parish of S^ Pet" in Bywel, in y*- County of N. 
Smith, did, about a year agoe, run away from his Wife & 3 Children, who are 
now Chargeable to y" Parish afores*'. And Whereas Information has been lately 
made, y* y"* s** M. R. lives now in y* Town of Mask, upon y« Sea, in Yorkshire: We, 
y« M. C. W. & Parishion" of B. afores*' (whose names are subscribed) do Hereby 
request y« Rever** M. & y« C. W. of M. afores^ to certifie Us, if y« s* M. R. be 
resident in their Parish ; y* such Order may be made in this Case, as to Justice 
doth appertain, to cause y^ s** M. R. to return to his Wife & Children, for y* Relief 
of our Parish. 

S' Thomas's Day. Deoemb' 21»* A: d: 1716. 

Receivd for y« Use & Relief of y® Poor Inhabitants of this Parish, 

of M' John Charlton, of By wel ; 

of Jeremiah 3rown, of Newton-Hall ; 

of W" Lawson, of Bywel ; 


£ : 

s : 

d : 


00 , 



10 ■ 



4 : 

6 : 



6 : 



W*** s* Sum was thus distributed, by y* Charch Wardens k Parish- 
ion" of this Parish, to y* Poor Inhabitants thereof. 
Alice Lawson, 




Eleanor Forster, 
Barbary Bradley, 
Blizabeth Maadlen, 
Elizabeth Mons' 
Alice Dod, 
Mary Stranghon, 
Barbary Scot, 
Cuthbert Dobson, 
Cuthbert Ridley, 
John Hunter, 
Anne Liddell, 
Mary Bell, late 
Bobert Marshal, 
Margaret Stokoe, 
Mary Unthank, 
Margaret Emblton, 
Jane Bolton, 
Margaret Beson, 
Catherine Rose, 
Edward Stokoe, 
Mary Hutchinson, 

of Bywel 

of Newton 

- of Newton Hall 

" of Acham 


Dorothy Robinson, 1 ^ g^^^iey. - 

Dorothy Snowbal, J 

Mary Jackson of y' Hope-House 

W- Hunter, I of Panehel Field. 

Anne Hunter, J 

Margaret Lamb, of Hindley 
Margaret Thompson, 
Anne Rose, 

I of y* Bat House. 

In y« Far- Ward. 
To 3 Children of Thomas Hunter, late of High-Farther-Lee 

To Qrace Maughon, of y° s'* Farther-Lee 

To other Inhabitants of y« s* Ward 

To Qrace. Maughon, afores*^ 

£ : 
00 : 
00 : 
00 ; 
00 : 

00 : 

00 : 00 
00 : 1 
00 : 00 



1: 00 
1 : 00 


00: 00: 6 
00 : 00 : 6 
00 : 1 : 00 
00: 1: 00 
00 : 00: 6 
00 : 00 : 6 
00 : 1 : 00 
00 : 00 : 6 
00 : 1 : 00 
00 : 00: 6 

00 : 18 : 00 

00 : 1 : 00 
00 : 1 : 00 
00 : 1 : 00 
00 : 1 : 00 
00 : 00 : 6 
00 : 00 : 6 
00 : 00: 6 
00 : 00: 6 

00 : 6: 00 






6 : 

00 : 

3 : 

00 : 


2 : 






1 : 14 : 6 



DiBbors*^ by 
Tho* Bates. 

T. Stobert's 

Kob* Proud. 

By John 

By Jeremiah 


T. Stobert. 

Bast' Monday, April 2^ a:D: 1716. £ : s : d : 

P^ for a Presentment, Exhibited at Durham Mi- 
chaelmas Visitation, a: D: 1716 00: I : 00 

P^ for Bread k, Wine, for y« Holy Communion, at 

Whitsuntide, A: D: 1716 00 : 6 : 3 : 

F* for bringing y« s* Bread & Wine from New- 
castle 00: 1 : 00 ; 

P* for Parchm* & Writing a Copy of y« Regist' 
A:D: 1716. to be returned into y« Bp's 
Regist"* Office 00 : 2 : 6 : 

P* for Bread Sc Wine, for y« Holy Communion, at 

Michaelmas A: D: 1716 00 : 6 : 3 : 

P* for bringing y« s* Bread & Wine from New- 
castle 00 : 1 : 00 : 

P* for Washing j* Surplice, Scouring y« Flagons 
& Chalice, & famishing Linnen for y' Com- • 
munion-Table, for Half a Tear, ending at 
Bast' A: D: 1716 00 : 2 : 9 

P* for 2 Fowth" of Lime, for y* Church ; ... 00 : 7 : 00 

P** for making up y« s^ Lime ; 00 : 00 : 6 

P* for Hair, Laths, Nails & Tackets ; 00 : 1 : 6 

Pd Henry Gyles, k his Son, for Work at y« Church 6o : 6 : 00 

P«* for an Hand-barrow, for y* Use of y* Church DO : 1 : 6 : 

Ace* Easter Visit" 

P** for y« Churchwardens Expenses, East' Visita- 
tion at Durham ad. 1716 00 : 7 : 6 

P** for Court-Fees, East' Visit. 1716 00 : 8 : 6 

P* for y« Church-Wardens Expenses at y« s* Visi- 
tation 00: 7: .S : 

F* y« Apparit' for Prayer Book DO : 5 : 

P** for y" Church Wardens Expenses, at Durham, 

East' Visitation A: D:. 1716 00: 7: 9: 

P* Henry Gyles, for Himself & his son, being 
Four Days, at Plaist^ring y« New Window, 
& pointing all y« Windows of j* Church Sc 
Vestry " 00: 9: 4: 

P^ for Wood for y« Lintils of y« New Window of 

y Church 00 : 6 : 8 : 

P^ for y* Church-Wardens Expenses, at Durham, 

East'Visitation A:D: 1716 00 : 7 : 6 : 

pd wm Forster, for 6 Days Labour at y« New 
Window of f Church ; & for Wood Rtan- 
chela, for y« other Windows of y* Church 00 : 10 : 6 : 



By John 

By Jerem'* 


1 • 


00 : 








Ace** Dec' 21«* 1716. £ : s : 

P* for Bread & Wine for y« Holy Commnnion at 

Christmas, A: D: 1715 00: 6 

P** for brinjs^og y® said Bread & Wine from New- 

P*" for Iron- Work ab* y° Church- Windows 
P* for a P'sentm* Bast' Viaitat. 1716 
P^ for Six Iron Stanchels, bought at Newcastle 
by John Mallaboam, Church- Warden, for 
y« Great Window of y« Paridi Church ... 1 : 00 : 9 . 
Dec. 21. 1716. 

Imp" P* to Henry Gyles, Mason, of Hedley, for 
making a large & Spacious New Window, 
on y* South Side of our Parish Church ; & 
for enlarging y« other Windows' ... 1 : 00 : 00 

Item, P^ for Court-Fees, Michaelmas Visitat. 1716. 00 : 8 : 6 
Item, P" for a P'sentm* at y« s'* Visitation ... 00 : 1 : 00 
Item, P* to ye Apparit' k, for y« Church Warden's 

Bxpenses at y« B* Visitation 00:12: 6 

Disbursed by Mr. Clement, Vic' :— 
P*^ for Bread & Wine for y* Holy Communion ; 
Whitsuntide, 1716. 
Michaelmas, 1716. 
Christmas, 1716. ... 
P<^ Ralph Hepple, of Hexam Glazier, for glazing 
y® New large Window, &, y* other Windows, 
on y« South Side of this Parish-Church, 

July 19«» 1716 3 : 15 : 00 

St Pet'*» Parish in Bywel in y« County of Northumberland May 21«* 1718. 
I do Hereby testify y* H. K. y« Bearer Hereof, liv*d in y« Parish of Bywel afores^ 
for y*' space of almost One Tear, Immediately preceeding y*" Day of y* Date 
Hereof. At w«*» Time, he remov'd from Hence, Free of all Public Scandal, or 
Church-Censure, So y* I know no Reason, why he may not be receiv'd into any 
Christian Congregation ; where Providenbe shall order his Lot. 
In Witness Whereof I have Hereunto set my Hand, on y* Day, k Year, above- 
Memorand. Bast' Monday, March 80^ 1719. 

Agreed also at this General Meeting, That after a Session's Order is 
made for dividing this Parish into Four Separate Wards, every Poor Person 
or Family, that shall, for y^ future, remove from one Ward to another, in 
this Parish, must have a Certificate, under y* Hands k Seals of y* Church- 
Warden and Overseer of that Ward, from w^^ he, or they, shall remove, 
acknowledging j* Person or Family, Therein mentioned, to belong to that 
Division ; y* so y" 8* Ward may be oblig'd to receive y« Poor Person & 
Family, when he, or they, stands in Need of Belief. 
^ See illustration, p. 166. 


7 : 



7 : 


00 : 



156 BYWELL. 

Agreed then (w*»' y* consent of y« Vic' & after Notice, given Publickly, 
for a General Meeting) by Us, y« Church Wardens, & Parishion™ of this 
Parish, (whose names are Hereafter subscrib'd to y* Assessem* made afc 
this Public Meeting) y' a Petition be made, on y« behalf of this Parish in 
General, to y« R* Worp» His Majesty's Justices of y« Peace, for this County, 
at y« General Quart' Sessions, holden at Hexam, at or near upon Mid- 
summer next, for an Order, for dividing our Parish into Four distinct & 
separate Divisions or Wards, by the Names of Bywel-Ward, Newton- 
Ward, New-Ridley Grieve-Ship, & y« Far Quarter: & y* each respective 
Division do find One Church-Warden, & One Overseer of y® Poor ; &, for 
y" Future, take care of, & separately maintain, their several Poor ; w^ 
shall Hereafter be Chargeable on their s'* Divisions. 

Memorand. July l6th 1719. 

An Order was then made, at y" General Quart' Sessions, held at 
Hexam ; y* this Parish be Accordingly separated. 

Agreed also, at this General Meeting, y' y" former or last Church- 
Warden of every Ward, in this Parish, shall, for y« Future, be. Yearly & 
Successively, Overseer of y« Poor, for his respective Division. 

Agreed also, at this General Meeting, That after y« Death of Xp' 
Blrington, & Mary Winder (two Impotent Persons at this Present Time, 
reliev'.d by a Parish Charge) every Assessement, for & towards y« necessary 
Relief of y« Poor of this Parish, be made, on y" Inhabitants Thereof, for y^ 
Future, according to a Pound-Rate ; (That is, according to y* Book of 
Rates) & not according to Ploughs. 
Ap. 18. 1720. Pd for a Cricket, to kneel on, in y* Reading Desk, £ s: d: 

& for a Shelf, for Books, & Pap" 00 : 2 : 00 : 

P^ for y*- Parishion" Expenses at y« Public Meet- 
ing upon Easter Monday. April 18** A.D. 1720 1 : 00 :»00 : 
Dec 21" 1721. Paid for a Proclamation, k a Form of Prayer, for 
a General Fast, on y« 16«» Day of DecemV 

1720 ; to preserve fs from y« Plague 00 : 3 : 6 : 

Dec' 21-* 1722. Paid then by W" Collinson of Newton in y« s« 
County Gent to y« Church Wardens of this 
Parish, the Sum of Eight shillings, bequeathed 
by his Father, M' Henry Collinson, Late de- 
ceased, for y« Term of Five Years: or Five Yearly 
Payments, to y« Poor. The First Paym* to be 
made, upon S* Thomas's Day, before Christ- 
mas, next ensuing y« Day of hisDeath ; k so 
on successively, Yearly, during y« Term of y° 
8<i Five Years: or Five Yearly Payments ... 00 : 8 ; 00 : 
Memorand. This is y« First Paym'. 

BYWELL. 157 

MemoTand. 8^ Thomas's Day, viz : December 21*^ 1722. 

Due to me Francis Clement Vic' from this Parish ; Since y^ Choich- 

Wardens stated their last Acc*» viz : upon & Thomas's Day, 1722. 

Imp", For Bread & Wine ag»* y" H. Commnn" £ : s : d 

Baster ...) 00 : 14 : 4 

Whitsuntide ( ^^ ... 00 : 7 : 2 

Michaelmas [ ... 00 : 7 : 2 

Christmas i.. ) ••> ... 00: 7: 2 

Item, For y« Church Wardens, & Parishion" Expenses at y* 

Public Meeting, 

(Baster Monday [^^^^ 1:00:00 

1 : 00^:^ 

£ : s : d 
Total 3 : 16 : 10 

(Baster Monday ) ,„^^ 
(S* Thomas's Day J 

00 : 6 : 00 

00 : 2 : 6 

Dec 21. 1723. Paid for a Copy of y« Lady Elizabeth Radcliffs ) £ : s : d 
Will, of Dilston, Com' Northumb' dated Decem- 
ber 18'** 1688 ; The Original whereof is in y" 
Spiri" Court of Durham. 
Dec: 21. 1724. Paid for a New Tin-Paten for y« Holy Com- 
munion-Bread ; bought at Newcastle. 
„ „ For a Laborer, at making 3 Fowth'" of Lime. ... 00 : 2 : 00 
For Serving y« Masons, 6 Days— 00:4:00: 

An Ace* of y« Collecting of one Penny y Pound in By wel-Ward ; for y« 

Maintenance of y*' Poor. Or an Aoc* of Collecting an Assessem* for y^' 

Rep" of y« Church at One Penny f Pound of y* Land, in Bywel-Ward. 

£ : s : d : 
Paid by— Thomas Wilson ; 00: 4:11 

Robert Toppin ; 00: 2:06 

William Gyles; 00 : 00 : 5j 

John Mallaboum; 00 : 00 : 3| 

William Lawson ; 00 : 00 : llj 

Nicholas Lawson ; 00:01:09^ 

William Atchinson ; 00 : 02 : 09 

James Goodwill ; 00 : 00 : 08 

Peter Wilkinson ; 00 : 01 : 02 

Edward Sisterson; 00 : 01 : 02 

Henry Winship ; 00 : 01 : 02 

Richard Davison ; 00 : 01 : 02 

William Richardson; 00 : 01 : 03 

The Fishing; 00:03:04 

Azureley ; 00 : 00 : 05 

William Newton ; 00:00:03 

M' William Hind ; 00 ; 00 : 04 

£ : s : d : 
Total ... 01 : 04 : 06 : 



S' Thomas's Day, viz : December 21"» 1725. 

Ordered then, (w*"* y" Consent of y" Vic' & Minisf & after Notice, for a Public 
Meeting) by Ub, y" Church -Wardens, & Parishioners of this Parish, (whose 
Names are aubscrib'd) That all Assessements & Taxes, for y« Repairs, Furniture, 
& Ornaments, of our Parish Church, be Now, & at all Times Hereafter, made 
upon y" Inhabitants Thereof, according to a Pound Rate, of y® Land, in this 

An Ace* of y" Yearly Value & Rent of y** Land, in 
1, Bywel-Ward. East Township, West Township Azurely, 
&c. Milns, Fishing, Cuthbert Newton's House, & Forster's 

£ : 8 : d : 
Total ... 294;: 13;: 01 : 

In y° Occupation of 
Thomas Wilson ; ... 

Robert Toppin ; 

William Gyles ; 

JoliA Mallaboum ; 

William Lawson ; 

Nicholas Lawson, Sen'' ... 
William Atchinson ; 

James Goodwill ; 

Peter Wilkinson ; 

Edward Sisterson ; 

Henry Winship ; 

Richard Davison ; 
William Richardson 
William Newton*s House ; 

The Fishing; 

Azureley ; 

Forstcr's Close ; 

£: s : d 
59 : 10 : 00 
29 : 00 : 00 
05 : 05 : 00 
03 : 15 : 00 
11 : 05 : 00 
21 : 07 : 06 
33 : 00 : 00 
08 : 00 : 00 
14 : 00 : to 
14 : 00 : 00 
14 : 00 : 00 

14 : 00 : 00 

15 ; 00 : 00 

03 : 00 : 00 
40 : 00 : 00 
05 : 00 : 00 

04 : 00 : 00 


294 : 13 : 01 

An Ace* of y* Yearly Value, & Rent of y** Land, in 
Newton-Ward. £ : s : d 

Total ... 598 : 10 : 00 

In Newton — 

Mr. Fenwick's Land ; 

M' Collinson*s Land ; 

George Hall's Shelden-Close ; ... 

£ : s : D 
.. 157 : 10 : 00 
.. 63 : 00 : 00 
.. 04 : 00 : 00 



In Newton- Hall. 
L** Derwent Water's Land ; 
L"" Oxford's Land ; 

In Acham. 
M' Fenwick's Land ; 

At Stelling. 
M' Hind's Land ; 


... 130 : 00 : 00 : 
... 70 : 00 : 00 : 

... 84 : 00 : 00 : 

... 100 ; 00 : 00 ; 
... 598 : 10 : 00 

An Ace* of y« Yearly Valne & Rent of y« Land in Ridley Grieveship. 

£ : S : D : 
Total ... 561 : 00 : 03 : 

In Bromley. 

M*" Fenwick's Land ; 

M' Bacon's Land ; 

M' Snrtis's Land ; 

Eastwood Honse ; 

In Hindley. 

M*" Rogers's Land ; 

M*" Boutflower's Land : 


Kipper-Deen ; 

Hassocks & Short Croft ; 

Row House ; 

New Ridley, & Brough House ; . . . 

Bat House ; 

Hindley Steel ; 


Old Ridley; 


Ridley Mi In, & Land ; 

John Newton's Far Close 



Mary Shields, & Intack ; 

The Common ; 



£ : 8 : D 
84 : 00 : 00 
14 : 00 : 00 
08 : 00 : 00 
12 : 00 : 00 

SO : 00 : 00 
23 : 00 : 00 
08 : 00 : 00 

08 ; 10 : 00 

09 : 10 : 00 
25 : 00 : 00 
25 : 00 : 00 

05 : 00 : 00 
09 : 00 : 00 

06 : 00 : 00 
41 : 00 : 00 
01 : 00 : 00 
25 : 00 : 00 
05 : 00 : 00 
40 : 00 : 00 
08 : 00 : 00 
63 : 00 : 00 
16 : 00 : 00 

r97 : 00 : 00 
Ue : 00 : 00 

561 : 00 : 00 

550 : 00 : 00 



An Aoc* of y« Yearly Value, & Rent of y« Land, in y« Far-Quarter. 

£ : 8 : d : 
Total ... 616 : 00 : 00 

Cronkley ; , 

Miln-Shields, & 2 Milns ; 
Bast Esper-Shields ; 
WeBt-Esper-Shields ; 
Wmnow*B Hill ; ... 
Minst' Acres; 


High Farther-Lee ; 
Low Farther-Lee ; 
Lingy Fieldhouse ; 

Ferl-May ; 

Heley Land, & 2 Milns; .. 

£ : 8 : d 

... 30 : 00 : 00 

... 31 : 10 : 00 

... 17 : 00 : 00 

... 86 : 00 : 00 

... 10 : 00 : 00 

... 29 : 10 : 00 

... 20 : 06 : 00 

... 66 : 00 : 00 

... 36 : 00 : 00 

... 15 : 00 : 00 

... 22 : 00 : 00 

... 158 ipO : 00 


... 516 : 06 : 00 

An Aoc* of y" Whole Parish. 



Ridley Grieveship ; 

Far Quarter; 


£ : 8 : d 

... 294 : 13 : 01 

... 599.: 00 : GO 

... 561 : 00 : 00 

... 616 : 05 : 00 

.,1970 :.18 : 01 

£ : s : d 
An Assessment of One Penny ^ Pound 

amounts to 02 : 03 : 00 : 

One Halfpenny, amounts to 01 : 01 : 06 : 

Oompared with the above valuation^ it may be interesting to note 
the rateable value of April 7th, 1885 : — 

Township of East Acomb ... 

„ Apperley 

„ ., Broomley 

„ „ Bywell St. Peter 

,. „ Espershields ... 

„ „ High Fotherley 

,, „ Healey 

„ „ Newton 

„ „ Newton Hall ... 

„ Stelling 

Total for the Parish of Bywell St. Peter ., 












BY WELL. 161 

S* Thomas's Day, viz: December 21'* 1726. 

Order*d then, at y* Public Meeting of this Day, That y« Porch, on y« South Side, 

& at y« East End of this Parish Church, Commonly call'd Newton's 

POBCH, (It being First Pointed, w*^ Lime, in y" Roof ; & Pav'd, in y« Floor, 

w*** Flaggs, by y« p'sent & several Particular Possessors) be, at all Times 

Hereafter repaired (as y« Rest of y« Church) by y" Parishioners, in General. 

NewtorCs Porch is the more modem name of the little chantry 

chapel dedicated to St. John the Baptist, which is situated exactly in 

the position here indicated ; on the soath side of the church and at 

the east end of the aisle. The Newtons were probably those of Old 

Ridley. How the chantry came into their possession is not known. 

Daring divine service they woul<f have their seats within it, and their 

family burial place would be underneath. Instead of paying lairatone 

money to the churchwardens, they would have to keep the flags and 

all other parts of their porch in order at their own cost. This use of 

the word porch, for a portion of the interior of a church, is somewhat 

uncommon, but other examples are found elsewhere. Bloxam says 

that porch was anciently used to denote an aisle. J. Parker's Gloss, 

of Arch, says, 'Small chapels attached to churches are sometimes 

called porches/ At Kelloe, in the county of Durham, on the north 

side of the nave of St. Helen's Church, we find the Thomley Porch,. 

which belonged to the Harpins, Lumleys, and Trollopes, who were 

successively owners of Thornley. It had originally been founded in 

A.D. 1347, as the chantry of the Kellawes, one of whom, Richard 

Kellawe, became Bishop of Durham in a.d. 1311. 

Ordered a!so, That y« Allowance, for y* Expenses & Charges, of y* Vic' & Church 

Wardens, of this Parish, at Visitations, be at all Times Hereafter, in Manner 


viz: £: s : d : 

For y« Vic' at every Place of Visitation 00 : 06 : 00 : 

For y* Church Wardens ; 

At Durham, \ to erery one 00 : 03 : 00 : 

At Newcastle, / of them 00 : 02 : 06 : 

Order*d Likewise, That a Sexton be Now, & at all Times Hereafter, appointed 

for this Parish ; & y* his Fees be paid, in Manner following, by all Persons, 

Parlshion" &c. 

The Sexton's Fees. 

For every Marriage, by Licence, one Shilling ... 

by Banns, Six-pence 
For every Burial, of Freeholders, Six -pence ... 

Farmers, Four-pence 

Cottagers, Two- pence 


s : 

















162 BYWELL. 

£: 8: d 
Dec. 21"* 1727. For a Cagg to fetch y« Communion- Wine ... 00 : 01 : 00 
Dec. 21'* 1728. Paid for a New Surplice for this Parish ... 03 : 00 : 00 

viz: For Sixteen Yards of Holland, at 3« tH p Yard. 

„ „ Item, For making y* s* Surplice ; 00 : 08 : 00 : 

April 7'*" 1729. For a New Common-Pray' Book ; 00 : 16 : 00 : 

„ „ For a Large Damask-Table- Cloth, for y" Com- 
munion Table 01 : 00 : 00 

„ „ For a Damask-Napken ; 00:03:00 

„ „ For Another Napken, to enclose y* Surplice ... 00 : 01 : 00 
„ „ For Carriage, for y« New Surplice 00 : 00 : 11:J 

Easter-Monday, April 19*'* 1731. 
Order'd then (w*** y* Consent of y* Vic' & after Notice for a Public Meeting) by 
U.s y*^ Church- Wardens & Parishion'* of this Parish, (whose Names are 
Subscribed & on y* other side written,) That an Assessement of an Half- 
penny per Pound, according to a Book.Rate of y*^ Land in this Parish, be 
made on y" Inhabitants, for y* Rep" Ornam** & Furniture of our Parish- 
Church, & other Expences concerning y*" Same; viz: Particularly, towards 
y« Charges of a Law-Suit, ab* Providing Yearly, & Every Year, Bread & 
•Wine, for y" Commun. at Easter : & y* y« s* Assessem' be collected by y* 
Church- Wardens, at or before Michaelmas next. 

On St. Thomas's Day, Dec. 21, 1731, a similar order for a penny 
per pound was made for carrying on the law suit, etc. 

June: 11: 1732 
Orderd then by the Church Wardens and the twenty foure that assessment to be 
laid on of a penny of the Pound to cary on the Law-Suit upon the Inhabi- 
tants of the s*^ Parish. 

On St. Stephen's Day, December 2Gth, 1732, another assessment of 
a penny per pound was made for the same purpose, after which the 
law suit soon terminated. The churchwardens seem to have won their 
case, for there is only one more entry for bread and wine at Easter, 
viz.: 'March 26*^ 1778, £00 : 12 : 08,' and one for legal expenses, 
viz. : * December 21'*, 1734, The Church Wardens about the liaw 
Suit £00 : 06 : 00.' The name of the defendant is not given, but he 
was probably the lay impropriator, whose successors did afterwards 
l)rovide the wine, as well as keep the chancel in repair. The late Mr. 
Silvertop of Minsteracres, who held a lease of the tithes of Bywell St. 
Peter from the Dean and Chapter of Durham, regularly provided the 
sacramental wine, as part of his duty. The Ecclesiastical Commis- 

sioners, into whose hands the tithes came when the lease expired a few 
years ago, have refused to acknowledge their obligation in this matter, 
althongh they have borne the expense of repairing the chancel. 

The following is a list of the leases of Bywell St. Peter's Rectory 
abont the time of the law suit : — 
Nov. 2. 1724. Lease for 21 years to John Crosby, of El vet nigh Durham, gent. 

£28 yearly to Dean & Chapter, £44 to increase livings, & £2 

to the Vicar of Bywell. 
Aug. 7. 1731. Same lease to Gordon Lewen, of the City of Durham, Gent. 
Sept. 27. 173S. Same to George Smith, of Bum hall, Esq"'. 

Canon Qreenwell thinks it is possible that Lewen had taken over 
the lease of Crosby, and that Lewen was the man against whom the 
parish proceeded. 

Headings for the churchwardens' accounts for A.D. 1781 are written 
out by Francis Clement, vicar, but the accounts themselves are not 
entered. Vicar Clement died during that year. During his incumbency 
we have a full and detailed account of each churchwarden's receipts 
and disbursements. Afterwards, dunng the Bev. B. Simon's time, we 
have, in one brief account, a yearly summary. 

£ 8 d 

April 10«»» 1732. To a Swill for the Saxton 00 ; 00 : 06 

Dec»»' 22* 1735. For scourging a Woman^ 00:01: 4 

Decb' 20"' 1740. Ringing the 29'»» May & 6^ of Nov' 00 : 02 : 8 

No accounts are entered for 1745. 

1747. On a leaf of parchment is ^A Register of the Peivs in the 
Parish Church,' 38 in number, with the names of places and parishioners 
to whom they were assigned. 

Dec 21»* 1760. To two New Wheels for the Bells £1 : 

April 23* 1763. To Vermin Heads 0: 

March 31** 1755. To Wood for Spills 0: 

„ „ To Leading 58 Fother of Stones 1: 

„ „ To Labourers for 21 Days at 12'* 'i|p' Day ... 1 : 

DecV 21** 1757. Expenses when Gerrard Richardson did Penance 00 : 

•April 23* 1764. To 8 Foulmart Heads 

June 26*'M 769. To one fother of koals : 

Aug 30^»» 1771. To 13 Fothers of Slates at Hedley Quarry at 6" <^ 

Fother £3 : 18 : 

• Both the name of the woman and the nature of her crime were left unrecorded, 
and have passed into oblivion. 

• The last entry for Vermin. At Corbridge the last entry for heads is in 1743. 

5 : 


1 : 


8 : 

13 : 


1 : 



1 : 

2 : 




10 : 


1 : 

2 : 


164 BYWELL. 

Easter Monday 1777. Sexton's Salary 

„ „ Clerk's do. 

„ „ The Clerk for copying the old Register 

„ „ Paper for Do 

., „ To Mr Leybonrne for Wear Work & Church 
Wall — Lime—Leading k, Removing Rub- 
bish Journeys of Churchwardens & Ez- 
pences ordered by the Sidesmen ... 20 : 7 : 8^ 
1778-9. Closet in Vestry for Surplice 1: 2: 

Easter Monday 1781. Orderd then, by the Vestrymen here present after Notice 
for a Public Meeting that a Suit be imediately comenced by the Church- 
wardens against Anthony Wails of Peep I see thee [ue. Peepy] for 
refusing to pay his share of the Assessment laid upon the Inhabitants of 
this Parish on the 26"' of June 1780 for the Relief of two men allotted to 
serve in the Militia for this Parish & the Chapelry of Whittenstall. 
N.B. The above order became unnecessary by A. Wails paying his Cess. 

July 24"' 1781. 

Ordered then with Consent of the Vicar & after notice for a public Meeting 
by us the Parishioners Sc Churchwardens of this Parish that an Assessment 
of one Penny per Pound according to the Pound Rate on Lands in this 
Parish be made on the Inhabitants for the Maintenance of the Families of 
the Militia belonging to this Parish according to Act of Parliament & that 
the said Money together with that Proportion of what shall be raised in 
the Chappelry of Whittonstall be paid to the Treasurer of this County forth- 

Oct' 21"* 1781. Ordered— Assessm* of one halfpenny per Pound — to be paid to 
men ballotted to serve as Militiamen for this Parish who hired substitates, 
pursuant to an Act of Parliament in that behalf made, & that the said 
Ass^ be made immediately. 

£ 8. d. 

Accts. for 1782-8. Paid on Ace* of the Militia by the Church- 
wardens within their year of office 13: 8: llj 

S. Tho*'" Day 1785. The Assessment is signed by 'J" Fleming Vicar., George 

Jewitt, Jonathan Maxwell, Tho' Brown, George Stobart, Charch"* Sc also 

by Jno. Silvertop, W'" Sanderson, Geo. Hind, W™ Jobling, Jno. Hind, Mich. 

Charlton, Rob* Hall, Bdw* Kell, W'" Thompson, W'" Richardson, George 

Angus, W» Winship, k W« Green.' 

s. d. 
Dec. 22* 1790. Receiv'd of Henry Ridley Church*" for Bywell 

Quarter the Surplice Fees of Bywell S* Peter during the seques- 
tration IS : 

[Distributed to poor along with the charity money. j 

Decf 21. 1791. To Jos. Richardson k, Stephen Leedes for New £ s. d. 
Hearse 10 : : 

BYWKIJi. 165 

Easter Monday. 1791. One penny per Pound was laid on for niakiiig a Hearse 
for the use of the two Parishes of By well, and building a House for placing 
the Hearse in. 

This old hearse house stood on the north side of the chancjel, in 
the angle formed by the chancel and the east end of the chantry chapel. 
The line of the roof may still be seen by a mark on the chancel wall. 

A vestry is mentioned in 1715. Until 1849 the chantry chapel on 
the north side of St. Peter's Church was used as a vestry. The 
shoulder headed door now leading from the chancel to the new vestry 
is the original door : this was the only entrance to the chantry from 
the inside of the church. One arch was built in 1841), and the old 
doorway placed in its present position. In 1873 this arch gave place 
to the two which now throw the chantry open to the church. The 
schoolroom door, referred to in the accounts of 1696, was an outer 
door which had been broken through the window on the north of the 
chantry. When the present vicar, Canon Dwarris, came to the parish 
in 1845, this c'napel was used as a schoolroom. In fact it was the only 
one in the parish. In 1849 the doorway was built up and the window 

In the modern parish books the churchwardens' accounts are not 
entered, but there is an unbroken continuity in the minutes of vestry 
meetings. Some of the resolutions contained in them are veiy in- 
teresting. Two examples may suffice. 

December 21. 1812. 'Ordered that a pair of Stocks be purchased, and fixed in 

a proper place, at the cxpencc of the two parishes.' 
December 21. 1815. ' Ordered that £6 be advanced for a boat free to all people 

going to church, one third to be paid by S* Andrew's parish.' 

In book A there are 02 notices of collections for briefs, and in B 
there are 277, making a total 339. 

Sep. 12*'» 1703. 

Collected then for y* Brief of Tuxford, Three shillings, Ten Pence, k Two 


Fbancis Clement, Vic' 

April 9*»» 1704. 

Collected then for y* Brief of y** French Refugees, Four shillings, six 

Pence, & one Farthing. 
October 2*> 1709. £ s. d. 

Collected then in y« Parish of By wel S* Pet' for y" Palatines 

Brief , y« Sum of 00:12: 9^ 









: 1 : 

1 : 


: 00 : 

5 : 

April 19"* 1718. 

S* Glemeni*8 Church Brief, at Hastings, in the County of Sussex. 


Collected then, upon y'' afores^ Brief, in ye Parish-Churches 

of S* Pet' k S* Andrew in Bywel, y« Sum of One Shilling, & 

One Penny; 

Item, At y« Chappel of WhittenFtal, Five Pence 

November 12. 1716. 

Brief, for y*" Reformed Episcopal Churches, in Great Poland, 

k Polish Prussia, &c. 

Collected then upon y* s* Brief, at y" Parishes of Bywel, y*" 

Sum of Five Shillings 

November IS**" 1716 

Item, Collected at y" Chapelry of Whittenstal, y" Sum of 

One Shilling, and Six Pence 

Of the Bywell St. Andrew's churchwardens' account books, unfor- 
tunately only a few leaves remain, and those contain veiy little that is 
worthy of note. The afiairs of the parish have been managed, for 
nearly two hundred years, by a virtually select vestry, consisting of the 
vicar, two churchwardens, and twelve sidesmen. Here, and also in 
Bywell St. Peter's parish, other parishioners might have attended the 
vestry meetings, but they seldom, if ever, did so. 


00 ; 






(S<»LTH VlBW AM IT WAS FltOM A.D. 1716 Tu A.D. 131.1, Seep. ISi.) 




15y John Clayton, F.S.A., V.P. 

[Read on the 25th January, 1888.] 




^^A '^ 





l^a^^^yy ^ * ^MUjfc^^^^^^^B 







hw^^^-adHBR "^^M 


The Collixowood Kettlc. 

The above, from a photogi*aph by Mr. Gibson of Hexham, repre- 
sents a silver kettle which has lately come into my ix)S8e8sion, and in 
the following paper I mean to trace its history and that of those who 
have possessed it since the year 1806. 


On the upper Bide of the stand is the inscription in cursive letters: — 

The gift 

of tJie Corporation 

of Neivcastle upon Tyne, 

to their distinguished 

Fellow Burgefs 

Vice Admiral Lord ColUngwoody 

in testimony of their high Estimation 

of his eminent Services to his 

King and Country 

in various Naval Engagements, 

and especially at the memorable Battle 

off Trafalgar on tlie 21st day of October 1805, 

when He gallantly led the Van of t?ie British Fleet into Action 

and after Immng succeeded to the chief Command 

upon the glorious and lamented Death of 

Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, 

compleated the most brilliant decisive Victory 

over tJie combined Squadrons of France and Spain 

Henry Cramlington, 


So from this we learn that the kettle was presented hy the Corpora- 
tion to Admiral CoUingwood after the Battle of Trafalgar. 

Just below the handles, on plates attached to the stand, are the 
arms of the town of Newcastle and of the Collingwood family, one on 
each side. 

On the stand are hall-marks of two dates : — 

I.— (1) Lion p.; (2) Date letter L for 1806; (8) King's 

head ; and (4) The maker's mark, W B. 

These occur on the underside of one angle of the triangular stand. 

II.— (1) Queen's head; (2) Lion p.; (8) Date letter ® for 

1819; (4) Leopard's hea4; and (5) The makers' 

J A 
mark, & . 
G A 

We find these next the foregoing on the stand, also on the kettle itself 



and on the lamp, a mixture of plate marks — those of George III. 
of 1806, and those of Queen Victoria of 1849-50— which will here- 
after be accounted for. 

Admiral GoUingwood being a native and a free burgess of the town, 
the action of the governing body on the occasion would seem to be 
natural and proper, and will be found recorded in the following 
terms: — 

At a Common Council held the 2l8t day of November, 1806. 

Henry Cramlington, Bsq., Mayor, 

Sir Mattw. White Bidley, Bt. \ 

John Erasmus Blackett, Esq. 

William Yeilder, Esq. 

WUliam Cramlington, Esq. 

Anthony Hood, Esq. 

Bobert Clayton, Esq. 

Joseph Forster, Esq. 

Thomas Smith, Esq. 

Nathaniel John Winch, Esq., Sheriff, 
Mr. Isaac Cookson, junr. Mr. Thomas Maddison. 

Mr. Thomas Cookson. Mr. William Harle. 

Mr. Henry Shadforth. Mr. Thos. Shadforth. 

Mr. William Laslie. Mr. George Brumell. . 

Mr. Thos. Butherfoi-d. Mr. Bobt. Yelloley. ' CounetUore. 

Mr. Thomas Bobinson. Mr. Thomas Heath. 

Mr. Bichard Chambers. Mr. Joseph Pollard. 

Mr. Brough Pow. Mr. John Hall. 

It is ordered that this Body do present to Vice Admiral Lord Collingwood a 
piece of plate of the yalne of one hundred and fifty guineas as a tribute of 
their gratitude and respect for his late gallant services. And it is ordered that 
Mr. Mayor, Mr. Alderman Yielder, Mr. Alderman Clayton, Mr. Alderman Hood, 
aud Mr. Alderman Forster, be appointed a Committee to direct the making of 
such a piece of plate as they shall think will be most acceptable and that they 
do communicate this Besolution to Lady Collingwood. 

The kettle was placed in the hands of Lady Collingwood by the 
Corporation of Newcastle in the year 1806, and in the year 1886 was 
found in possession of a prominent pawnbroker of Canterbury, Alder- 
man Hart. It would seem that Lady Collingwood having survived 
her husband, gave the kettle to their elder daughter Sarah, who married 
a young barrister of the name of George Newnham, who was then 
employed by the British Government in the investigation of claims of 
British subjects on the French, after the close of the long war in 1814. 



The Honourable Mrs. Newnham Collingwood joined her husband in 
Paris, and before their return a son was born, who died in infancy. Mr. 
Newnham assumed the name of Collingwood in addition to his own 
name; and after the close of the business in France, and after a short 
experience of the life of a barrister in London, retired with his wife to 
the village of Hawkhurst, situated partly in Kent and partly in Sussex. 
Mr. Newnham Collingwood wrote and published a biography of his 
fether-in-law, Lord Collingwood, which he dedicated to the Duke of 
Clarence, afterwards King William lY., and lived in the confident 
expectation that William IV., who had been brought up a seaman, 
would raise him to the peerage as Baron Collingwood, which title had 
become extinct by the death, without male issue, of Admiral Lord 
Collingwood. On the death of William IV., without having thus 
gratified the ambition of Mr. Newnham Collingwood, the latter soon 
sunk and died. He left a widow and two daughters. One of the 
daughters of Mr. N. Collingwood died under age, and the other married, 
first, a gentleman of the name of Hall, and secondly, Mr. Howell, by 
neither of which man'iages was there any surviving issue. The 
younger Miss Collingwood — the Honourable Mary Patience — married 
Mr. Anthony Denny, who then resided a few miles to the north of 
London, and there is issue of this marriage still in existence. For 
some time before her death it would seem that Mrs. Newnham Colling- 
wood became very eccentric, and presented the kettle to a Mr. Watson, 
who married her maid. She died in the year 1851. The alterations 
in the kettle made on the occasion of its transfer to Watson are the 
cause of the mixture of the plate marks of Queen Victoria with those 
of George III. 

The son of Watson is now residing at Dover, and we have sought 
information fi*om him on this subject. He informs us that his father 
was not in the habit of placing any confidence in him. We do not 
mean to question the soundness of the parental judgment, but regret 
its effect in preventing a successfiil attempt to explain the alterations 
made in the kettle. 

On the present occasion it is right that some inaccuracies should be 
corrected, and some omissions supplied, in the biography of Lord Col- 
lingwood published by his Lordship's son-in-law, Mr. George Newnham 
Collingwood. The biographer states that * Lord Collingwood's family 


IB of considerable distinction and antiquity in the county of Northum- 
berland, having given to it knights and sheriffs during the last three 

The fact is that at one period of time, the surnames of Fenwick, 
Collingwood, and Ogle, were generally prevalent in Northumberland 
amongst all classes, high and low. Eef erring to an early record which 
has been preserved — ^viz., the Muster Roll for the County of Northum- 
berland in the 80th year of Henry VIII. (1538) we meet with 
frequent recurrence of the name of Collingwood; and we learn 
from Lord Collingwood himself that he was descended from the family 
of Collingwood of Ditchbume, in the parish of Eglingham. In this 
muster roll there is no distinction of classes, except between the indi- 
viduals who could bring horses and armS; and the individuals who must 
be equipped at the expense of the Government. On the face of the 
muster roll those of the first class are described as able with horse and 
harness; that is to say, able to mount and arm themselves. The 
parish of Eglingham appears on the muster roll as containing 87 men 
capable of military service, 20 of whom are able to bring horse and 
harness, amongst them is ' Bobert Collin wood.' 

There were at least two Protestant families of Collingwood in North- 
umberland, viz., that of Collingwood of Lilbnrn Tower, and Collingwood 
of Chirton; from the former two other families, namely Colhng- 
wood of Comhill House and Collingwood of Glanton, are ofishoots, 
the property of the family of Collingwood of Chirton has lately 
passed, partly to Collingwood of Lilbum Tower, and partly to the 
second son of Mr. Spencer Stanhope of Cannon Hall in Yorkshire. 

On the 14th January, 1727, Cuthbert Collingwood, the father of Ad- 
miral Collingwood, who is described as the son of Cuthbert Collingwood 
of North Dissington, Northumberland, gentleman, was bound apprentice 
for ten years by indenture to Mr. Christopher Dawson of the Town and 
County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, merchant adventurer and boothman. 
The Company of Merchant Adventurers comprised three ancient com- 
panies — the Mercers, the Drapers, and the Boothmen otherwise mer- 
chants of com — and received a charter of incorporation from King 
Edward VI. We find in the records of that company a registration 
of this indenture of apprenticeship, which was for ten years, at that 
time necessary under a bye-law of the company. On farther reference 
to the records of the company, we find that at a meeting held on the 


23rd day of November, 1787, under the presidency of Ricd. Ridley, 

Esq. (an ancestor of the present Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart.), the 

following entry was made : — 

*Mr. Cuthbert CJollingwood apprenticed to Mr. Christopher Dawson, 
Merchant Adventurer and Boothman, petitioned for his freedom of this 
fellowship setting forth that he wanted one month and some odd days to 
serve of his t«rm of ten years and was willing to pay such fine as the fellow- 
ship thought proper which they agreed should be £5 (five pounds) which he 
payd to the wardens, and was admitted to his freedom accordingly.* 

The apprentice was bound for ten years, for which term he 
generally served without any wages, and his parent paid to the master 
a considerable apprentice fee. 

It seems not to have occurred to Lord Collingwood's biographer 
that every member of a family cannot be a " knight of the shire or 
high sheriff," and that the junior members must support themselves by 
resorting to some trade, business, or profession. 

An individual of the name of George Collingwood, and a Roman 
Catholic, rode to Preston with Lord Derwentwater's paity in 1715, 
and surrendered to the king's troops with the rest of the rebel army. 
He was tried, convicted, and hanged at Liverpool, and it is said that 
Lord Collingwood's grandfather was advised to apply to the crown for 
a grant of the forfeited lands of Qeo. Collingwood. He was, however, 
wiser than his advisers and did not do so, for an Act of Parliament was 
passed appointing commissioners to deal with confiscated lands, by 
whom George Collingwood's lands were sold to the best bidder, viz.. Sir 
H. Liddell, and now forms part of the Eslington Estate, belonging to the 
Earl of Ravensworth, our excellent President. Lord Ravens worth has 
become possessed of a veiy beautiful property in the vale of Whitting- 
ham, the river Aln passes through it — Imefltimsj per agros Alauna — 
holding its way by Alnwick and Alnmouth to the German Ocean. 
The biographer seems to assume that estates of the CoUingwood family 
have usually passed to the crown by confiscation. 

We have an example of a large estate belonging to another branch 
of the Collingwood family passing in the usual way by sale to another 
family. This estate belonged to Mr. Collingwood Tarlton, and was pur- 
chased by Lord Ravensworth, the grandfather of the President of our 
Society, for no less a sum than £60,000. Mr, Tarlton had received the 
estate by descent from a Collingwood. Many of us will recollect his 
virtues and his failings. He was not much of a theologian or politician, 



and was influenced only by the price which conld be obtained, and 
which he was able to spend without any assistance from others. It 
thus appears that Mr. Newnham CoUingwood and Mr. Collingwood 
Tarlton held different views as to the transmission to others of the 
Collingwood estates, the former ascribes it to treason and conficqnent 
confiscation ; the latter to the more ordinary course of sale for the 
accommodation of the owner to the best bidder. It must be observed, 
however, that Mr. Newnham Collingwood had no experience in dealing 
with land, and that Mr. Collingwood Tarlton had that experience to a 
large extent. 

Cuthbert Collingwood having obtained the freedom of the town 
and of the Merchants' Company, embarked in business in Newcastle 
and married Milcah, a daughter of Mr. Reginald Dobson of Barwise, 
near Appleby, in Westmorland ; another daughter of that gentleman 
marrying Captain Brathwaite of the Royal Navy, afterwards Admiral 
Brathwaite, a circumstance that had the effect of inducing Mr. and 
Mrs. Cuthbert Collingwood to adopt the profession of the navy for 
their son, the future Admiral. 

The eldest son of Cuthbert Collingwood and Milcah, his wife, was 
born at their house, in the Side, in close proximity to the church of St. 
Nicholas^ where he was baptized ; and the following is the entry of 
the baptism in the register : — 

' 1748. October 24, Catbbert, son of Cuthbert Collingn^ood, Merchant, and 
Milcah his wife.* 

Mr. Cuthbert Collingwood (Lord Collingwood's father) it appears 
did not conduct successfully his business of a merchant, and the &cts 
are collected by an inspection of the title deeds of the house in New- 
castle in which he lived and, as was the custom in those days in 
Newcastle, also carried on his business. We are indebted to the 
artistic skill of our brother antiquary, Mr. Charles J. Spence, for an 
etching of the house in which the future Admiral was bom. 

It would seem then that in 1744 Mr. Cuthbert Collingwood entered 
into an arrangement with his creditors, and by a deed dated September 
29th, 1744, and made between Cuthbert Collingwood of the first part, 
Edward Collingwood, Esq., of Chirton, and William Wharton of New- 
castle, Gentleman, of the second part, and the several individuals, 
creditors of the said Cuthbert Collingwood therein named, of the third 
part, all the real and personal estate of Cuthbert Collingwood except the 


apparel of himself and his wife, and furniture, not exceeding a hundred 
pounds in value were conveyed to Edward Collingwood and William 
Wharton in trust for sale and payment to the creditors of their debts. 
By a deed dated 1st March, 1747, between Edward Collingwood, 
Esquire, of Chirton, and William Wharton, of the first part, Cuth- 
bert Collingwood and Milcah his wife, of the second part, John 
Stephenson, Esq., of the third part, and John Widdrington of 
Newcastle, Gentleman, of the fourth part, after reciting the tmst 
deed of September, 1744, and reciting the payment to the creditors 
of Cuthbert Collingwood of fourteen shillings in the pound on their 
respective debts, and indicating the expectation that the residue of 
the estate and the effects might be sufficient to pay another dividend 
of two shillings and sixpence in the pound, making altogether six- 
teen shillings and sixpence, which the creditors had agreed to 
accept in full satisfaction of their claims, and that Stephenson had 
agreed to advance on mortgage of the Newcastle property £450, 
and the property was accordingly conveyed to John Widdrington, to 
hold it as a trustee for Stephenson, the mortgagee, and subject to the 
mortgage for the separate use of Milcah, the wife of the said Cuthbert 
Collingwood. The several creditors by a separate deed confirmed the 
arrangement and gave a discharge for their several debts. Mr. Edward 
Collingwood who evinced his regard for his relation, Mr. Cuthbert 
Collingwood, by acting as a trustee in the arrangement with his 
creditors, was the head of the family of Collingwood, of Chirton, and 
was induced to accept the oflBce of Eecorder of Newcastle, in which 
office he enjoyed the perfect confidence of the governing body of that 
town and generally of its inhabitants. In the year 1739 he resigned 
the office and its emoluments, and ac^pted the office of Alderman, by 
which means having become a member of the governing body, he 
continued to give his advice and assistance in the affairs of the town 
gratuitously. In the year 1753, on the resignation of Mr. Christopher 
Fawcet, Mr. Edward CoUingwood was induced to accept again the 
office of .Recorder, which he held till 1769 when he again retired in 
favour of Mr. Fawcet, who was re-appointed. We know from tradition 
the motives which led to this proceeding. Mr. Christopher Fawcet 
had been obliged to resign his office in consequence of having been 
present at a dinner, at which one of the toasts drunk was the health 
of King James, Fawcet remaining mute. The personal indignation 


of every individual of a loyal body, compelled Fawcet to resigii his 
office, tx) which, in consequence of the feeling against him having 
been worn out by time and by means of the generous conduct of Mr. 
Collingwood, he was restored. 

Mrs. Milcah Collingwood continued to hold the property in 
Newcastle, receiving the rent and paying the interest of the mortgage, 
and having survived her husband Cuthbert Collingwood and John 
Widdrington her trustee, she sold the property for £900 to Mrs. 
Catherine Harvey, and it was conveyed accordingly to her by Milcah 
Collingwood, widow, and John Widdiington of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
Esq., who is described as the only son and heir-at-law of John Widdring- 
ton, deceased, the original trustee. The property remains vested in the 
Harvey family, being now the property of the grandson of the pur- 
chaser, Mr. John Harvey, to whom we are indebted for a reference to 
the title deeds. 

Young Cuthbert Collingwood, afterwards the Admiral, was educated 
at the Grammar School of Newcastle, of which the Rev. Hugh Moises 
was the head-master ; here he met John Scott the future Lord Eldon, 
and when he was thirteen years old joined as a midshipman the man- 
of-war, the Shannon, commanded by his uncle, Captain, afterwards 
Admiral, Brathwaite. In Mr. Newnham Collingwood's Biography^ 
Cuthbert Collingwood is stated to have been only eleven years old, 
which is obviously an error, and the anecdote of his having invited 
the first Ueutenant to eat plum cake with him in his berth is more 
likely to have really occurred if he had been in fact eleven years old 
instead of thirteen, his actual age. 

Having thus traced the pedigree of Lord Collingwood so far as the 
materials, which are now forthcoming, enable us to do, we must now say 
something of the pedigree of his wife. Lady Collingwood. As has been 
already stated, she was the daughter of John Erasmus Blackett^ Esq., 
an alderman of the town of Newcastle, whose lineage is supplied by 
the municipal records, and particularly by those of the Merchants' 
Company, to which he belonged. 

On December 6th, 1768, John Erasmus Blackett, son of John 
Blackett, was admitted by patrimony into the Merchants' Company. 
From this it will appear that Mr. Newnham Collingwood was in error 
when he stated that John Erasmus Blackett was the son of a baronet, 
as John Blackett, his father, never was a baronet. 


Several baronetcies have belonged to members of the Blackett femfly, 
and there is some confusion in tracing them ; bat as all are extinct save 
that at present held bj General Sir Edward William Blackett, of Matfen, 
it would be a waste of time to attempt to nnravel that confusion. 

Although John Erasmus was not the son of a baronet^ he was one 
of the distinguished family of Blackett, which for upwards of two cen- 
turies held the highest position in the commercial and mining transac- 
tions and territorial investments of the North of England. 

It is diflScult to define the particular locality from which each 
branch of that &mily sprung. Hoppyland, a hamlet near Hamsterley, 
in the parish of Lanchester, was supposed to have been the cradle of 
one of the branches of the family, and Jarrow, in the same oonnty, 
that of another branch. 

The former place is not mentioned in Surtees's admirable History of 
the County of Durham, and its existence was doubted, but it seema to 
be clear that some of the lands there belonged to one of the Blackett 
family, and other lands belonged, and still belong, to the &mily of 
Leaton Blenkinsopp of Whickham. 

Captain, afterwards Admiral, Collingwood, after his marriage with 
Miss Blackett, took a house in the suburbs of the pleasant little town 
of Morpeth, and looking upon the river Wansbeck, which they occu- 
pied for several years, though the naval officer had little opportunity 
of residing there, as he passed most of his time at sea. (The illus- 
tration shows this house). His wife and two daughters, Sarah and 
Patience Mary, continued to reside in this house as their home, but 
they spent much of their time at the house of Alderman Blackett, 
Lady Collingwood's father, in Charlotte Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

In a patent of nobility it is usual to describe the ennobled person 
by reference to any land which he possesses. In the case of Lord 
Collingwood, who had no land, his wife gave to the heralds as his 
lands the name of a property, one half part of which she inherited 
from her mother — a Miss Boddam — the other moiety being the pro- 
perty of the wife of Dr. Carlyle, the minister of Inveresk in Scotland; 
the lands were called, in the patent of nobility, Caldwell and Heathpool, 
in the county of Northumberland. 

We have already become acquainted with our worthy townsman, 
John Widdrington, by means of the able pen of Mr. Clephan^ — ^which 
» Arch, Ael, Vol. X., 138. 





tonches no subject which it does not adorn — and we are glad to see the 
name of John Widdrington again as a trnstee for Milcah Collingwood. 
We knew him before as snccouring four gentlemen, who had undertaken 
to ride on horseback from Edinburgh to London and back again, and 
who had reached Newcastle on their return journey, where they would 
have been delayed owing to the exhaustion of their treasury, if John 
Widdrington, who was acquainted with one of them, had not come to 
the rescue and supplied money to all. 

Mr. Newnham Collingwood, in his Bwgraphy, has placed us in 
possession of a great number of the private letters of Lord Collingwood, 
which evidence the excellence of his character and his powers of com- 

The foUowing is 2kfac simile of the signature of Admiral Colling- 
wood before his elevation to the peerage: — 

.^^ ^ -«^6«..^^ 


My friend Mr. Woodman, of Morpeth (one of our worthy Vioe- 
Presidents), has placed in my hands a collection of letters of Lady 
Collingwood, addressed to his aunt, Miss Woodman, between whom 
and her ladyship there was a very sincere friendship. These letters 
form one side of a correspondence between two excellent and amiable 
ladies, but the matters to which they refer are of such a domestic 
diaracter that they might not interest the public ; but one of them 
gives a most lucid description of a ball at the ancient Mansion House, 
which, fronting the River Tyne, could only be approached by land 
through the narrow street of the Close. The ball in question took 
place in November, 1806, the year following the battle of Trafalgar, 
and consequently when her ladyship's title and honours were fresh. 
The following is the letter:— 

Charlotte Square, Nov»'« y« 22<», 1806. 


I miiat begin the account of the Ball with the three ladies dresses from this 
house, Mrs Trevelyan wore white sarsnet with lace let in round the breast and 
a silver gause pin'd upon her head. Miss Brown was plain and elegant — a white 



thin muslin dress, short, and a white sat ton waist over it, with a gold band on 
her head. My dress was my black velvet. gown with my gold trimming down 
the front and round the breast and sleeves. It looked, I must say, very hand 
some. My black and gold handkerchief on my head, gold lace band, and my 
Diamonds and Topazes — so much for my Ladyship. We went at nine o'clock, 
and found the Drawing-room very full. Mr Mayor asked me if I intended danc- 
ing, as he requested the honour for the two first dances ; which, of course, I de- 
clined, and Mrs. Brandling began with the Mayor. The ball room was beautif al 
and proved sufficiently light ; but the heat was beyond every thing from the num- 
ber of lamps — fifteen behind each transparency. The company look brilliant, and 
everybody well dressed. The Ridleys, Brandlings, Ellisons (Hebbum), Mrs. Lisle 
and her young ladies, the Riddells, Bewicks, Blacketts, about an hundred and 
seventy odd, sat down to supper, and at the next ball they expect two hundred. 
I am invited to that also, but I have excused myself. The Reays are to be at 
that, and they dine here and take a bed ; and we have invited to dinner on that 
day the Askews,' Prossers,* and Linskills,* who are all to be at the Mansion 
House that evening. The supper was very handsome ; soups and game of all 
kinds hot, and everything else cold. We did not go to supper till near half after 
two o'clock ; there was no dancing after. We moved the first, and it was near 
four when we got home. Miss Brown danced with C. Blackett, Dixon Brown, 

and John Lampton Lorraine. Mrs. Trevelyan did not dance 

The Bmiths were at the ball, and Mrs. Smith you would have been amused with 
—she took Mrs. Trevelyan for Mrs. Bulman. That I was not surprised at, for I 
always thought them alike. Mr. Smith has brought down his own carriage from 
London. But to return to the ball, nothing could be more pleasant nor better 
conducted. It is said there are to be giw more balls, in which case yon wiU oome 
in for your share. The parties have begun very early this winter. We have had 
two great dinners, and on Saturday next we are to have seventeen at Dinner, 
the Mansion House family, &c. We dined yesterday at Mrs. Claverings, to meet 
the Ellisons of Hebbum, and this evening I am to be at our neighbour Headlams ; 
Monday, a concert ; Tuesday, Mrs. Alcock dines here ; Wednesday, a Rout at Mrs. 
Hedley's ; Thursday, the assembly night, but I do not think I shall go ; Friday, 
dine at Dr. Prosser's. So much for our gaieties. My Father is certainly much 
better. He continues to use the warm bath every other night ; and I fancy I 
must soon come to that myself, for I have been much teazed with the Rheuma- 
tics in my Hip, and I have it now in my Knees very bad, and last night got no 
sleep. Sarah has had a bad cold, but is well again ; they go to Mrs. Wilson's three 
times a week to dance and draw, and Mr. Kinlock comes to them at home once a 
week, and with Mr. Bruce and Mr. Thompson they are kept very busy. I have 
not heard from my Lord since I left Morpeth, and I am now getting very anxi- 
ous. I fear my dear Mrs. Ogle will think me very idle not to have wrote to her 
yet. I fully intended to have done so by Mr. Trevelyan, but was prevented ; but 
I will in a day or two. 

' A skews of the Redheugh. 

* The Rev. br. Proeser was Archdeacon of Durham and Rector of Easington, 
which went with the Archdeaconry. 

* The Linskills of North Shields. 


I hope your sister Fenwick is better, as you did not mention her particularly. 
My Father joins me and my girls in kindest regards and good wishes to you 
and Mrs. Woodman and your sister, and pray remember me to all your family. 
I remain, my dear Mary, 

^'^j^^^J^ ^^i**--^ -^4 



Miss Garter's best comp^. 

Miss Brown will write a few lines with this. 

Although no individual, who was present at this ball, can How 
be living, yet there are a great many persons in existence who are well 
acquainted with the parties mentioned by Lady CoUingwood aa 
present. The Mayor of the town who gave the ball was Mr. Archibald 
Reed, then a very young man, the younger brother of Col. John 
Ee^ of Chipchase Castle. Lady Collingwood being the only peeress 
in the room, the Mayor seems to have asked her ladyship to lead off 
the ball, which she^ with great good taste and good sense, declined, in 
order to avoid the appearance of presumption on her newly acquired 
rank. The Mayor then applied to Mrs. Brandling — before her 
marriage Miss Jaques of Leeds — she had become the wife of Mr. 
Robert William Brandling, a younger brother of Mr. Brandling of 
Gosforth House, and became the mother of several handsome 
daughters. Her ladyship proceeds to enumerate other parties present 
at the ball, Sir M. Ridley of Blagdon, and his family ; Charles John 
Brandling, then one of the members of Parliament for the town, 
and afterwards member of Parliament for Northumberland, who 
married Miss Fawkes of Famley, county York; the Ellisons of 
Hebbum, who would consist of Mr. Cuthbert Ellison, the head of the 
race, afterwards, for nearly twenty years, one of the M.P.'s for the 
town ; his newly-married wife. Miss Ibbetson, with her beautiful 
sister, who married Mr. Smith of Heath in Yorkshire, and died in a 
year; Mrs. Lisle of Acton and her young ladies; her ladyship after- 
wards mentions Mrs. Smith as affording some amusement.' 

Mrs. Smith was the wife of Alderman Thomas Smith, who was 
accustomed to give utterance to her sentiments whatever they might 
happen to be; but she had a high character as the manager of a house^ 


hold, and was remarkable for giving good dinners. Her husband, Mr. 
Thomas Smith, is afterwards mentioned as having travelled from Lon- 
don in his own carriage, probably the first equipage which he had 
possessed. He was a younger son of Mr. Smith of Togstone, an ancient 
landowner in Northumberland, and had come to Newcastle in the latter 
part of the last century to make his fortune, in which, with the assist- 
ance of his two sons, Thomas and William, he succeeded to a lai^ 
extent. Mr. Eustace Smith, late M.P. for the Borough of Tynemonthy 
is the sole representative of this family in the male line. 

She also mentions the three partners of Miss Brown; the first Mr. 
Christopher Blackett of Wylam, the second Mr. Dixon Brown, who is 
now represented by his nephew, the Rev. Dixon Brown of Unthank, a 
member of this Society, and the third, Mr. John Lambton Loraine, 
who is now represented by a distinguished naval ofQcer, Captain Sir 
John Lambton Loraine, Bart. 

The concluding portion of Lady CoUingwood's letter has reference 
to the education of her two daughters, which seems to have been 
carried on at Newcastle during her Ladyship's long and frequent resi- 
deuces with her father, Mr. Alderman Blackett. They went three 
times a week to Mrs. Wilson's to dance and draw. Mrs. Wilson's was 
a first-class boarding school for young ladies, and they were attended 
once a week at home by Mr. Kinlock, the dancing Qiaster, of whom 
many of us have a recollection, who declined an invitation to remove 
to London on the ground that he prefeiTed being Caesar in Newcastle 
to being second in command in London. The young ladies were like- 
wise attended at home by Mr. Bruce, the founder of the Percy Street 
Academy, a distinguished mathematician, a man of gi'eat learning and 
ability, and the &ther of our estimable Vice-President, Dr. Bruce, and 
by Mr. Thompson, the organist of St. Nicholas's, as an instructor in 

The subject of the above is not perhaps sufiiciently antique for the 
consideration of an antiquarian society, but year by year this objection 
will diminish. The minute details will naturally be disregarded by the 
members of the Society resident at a distance, but they will be read 
with interest by the local members, that is to say, those who are resi- 
dent in the city of Newcastle and the adjoining counties of Northum- 
berland and Durham. 

To /ace page 180. 


Since the foregoing paper went to press, an original letter, addressed 
by Lord Collingwood to the Mayor of Newcastle, Mr. Cramlington, 
relating to the gift of the plate, has been discovered amongst the 
papers of the writer. It appears to hav^ been given to him by Mr. 
Cramlington, who was mayor when the address of th^ Corporation, 
and the presentation of the plate took place. 

This letter is of sufficient interest as showing the style of writing 
of the Admiral, to be introduced here, and a,faC'Simile of it, therefore, 
produced by photo-lithography, is now presented to the reader. 

Three public monuments have been erected to the memory of 
Lord Collingwood. The first in St. Paul's Churchyard in London, 
where his mortal remains are deposited ; the second in the church of 
St. Nicholas, Newcastle, where he was baptised; and the third the 
statue of him on the land at the north side of the mouth of the 
Tyne, overlooking the harbour. These three monuments were fit 
memorials of the general feeling of the public ; but Admiral Colling- 
wood needed no monument of stone or brass to perpetuate his fame, 
which lives in the glory of his deeds. He might well say with the 

poet — * 

* Exegi monumentum aere perennius.' 

The two Protestant families of Collingwood (from one of which 
the Admiral sprung) existing in Northumberland, viz., the CoUing- 
woods of Chirton, and that of Lilburn Tower, have now become 
identical in the person of the present Mr. Collingwood of Lilburn 

♦ Horace, Book III., Ode xxx. It is thus rendered in English by the late 
Earl of Ravensworth, the last President of the Society, in his Translations 
from Horace^ p. 386 : — 

' IVe reared a goodly monument 
Than wall of brass more permanent.* 





Ferguson, F.S,A., Chancellor of Carlisle, in a letter to Dr. 
Bruce, V.P. 

[Read on the 28th March, 1888.] 

Carlisle, Feb. 25th, 1888. 
My Dear Dr. Bruce, 

In December last I addressed a letter to you upon ' The Wall and 
Vallum of Hadrian,' in which I advanced certain views as to the 
respective uses of the Wall and the Vallum. These views so far 
received the approval of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne as to have the honour of a place in the Archaeoloyia AelianaJ* 
I concluded by saying, * I am glad that the idea I have put forth 
makes Wall and Vallum the work of one mind caiTied on simultane- 
ously '. Since writing these words my attention has been called to a 
meeting of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, at which Professor 
Hughes, F.S.A., advanced the following propositions : — 

(1) That the distribution of the Roman Camps suggests that 

there was a system of defensive works held by the British 
approximately along the line of the * Vallum *. 

(2) That the * Vallum ' must have been a source of danger, not of 

strength, to the Roman * Wall '. 
(8) That in chai*acter the^ Vallum' resembles British rather than 
Roman work. 

(4) That the position and aiTangement of the lines of the 'Vallum' 

are inconsistent with the hypothesis that it was constructed 
at the same time as the Roman ' Wall'. 

(5) That the 'Vallum' should be regarded as the Picts' Wall 

afterwards enclosed within the lines of the Roman Wall. 

* Page 85. 


And my attention has been also drawn to an account of * Our Trip 
along the Roman Wall '*, in which similar views are [put into the 
mouth of 'Geologist*, whom we may take to be identical with Professor 

Professor Hughes states of the Vallum, which he considers pre- 
Boman, that 'it was, he thought, a boundary and line of defence of a 
northern tribe against their southern enemy — ^perhaps a fence against 
cattle lifting as well ; in which case it is not clear whether it was 
thrown up agttinst the northern or southern tribes '. I think if the 
Professor will look into the matter he will find the line of tribal 
division to have run north and south, and not east and west ; but I 
am not now going into that question. 

Let us see how the Professor's theories work out along the Wall 
and Vallum to the west of Carlisle, for of course, if the Vallum is pre- 
Boman to the east of Carlisle, it must also, be pre-Boman to the 
west of it. After the Wall crosses the river Eden at Carlisle, the north 
ditch disappears, or rather the Eden takes its place, the Wall runs as 
&r as Beaumont (a distance of four miles) on the top of the high 
cliffs which then formed (and now in part forfti) the southern bank of 
the river Eden ; the Vallum pursues its course at no great distance 
south of the Wall, but on lower ground, so that from it the river, 
though close at hand, cannot readily be seen. 

Let us carry our minds back to pre-Boman days, obliterate the 
Wall, and leave the Vallum standing alone, as the Professor suggests 
it did. Is it ^ a defence against cattle lifting' ? Surely no pre-Boman 
Briton would, to prevent cattle lifting, pile up four miles of heavy 
earthworks, parallel to and within a few yards of a deep and rapid 
river, fordable only within those four miles at some three well-known 
and easily defended waths ! The notion is absurd. Is it a boundary 
and line of defence of a northern tribe against their southern enemy ? 
Surely no ! A northern tribe would have adhered to the line of diflfe 
on the northern bank of the Eden. Had they wished to have included 

* TJte Cambridge Jieriew, Feb. 15, 22, etc. See also an account of the same 
trip by the Bishop of Carlisle in Murray's Magazine^ Vol. II., p. 822. From the 
Ckimhridge Seview it appears tliat the trippers discussed the question of the 
respective dates of the Wall and Vallum after one day's experience thereof. 
Some of the party had visited the Wall and Vallum on previous occasions ; but 
none of them had ever seen more than the show bits ; none of them, for instance, 
had seen and studied the Wall l^tveeen Castlesteads and the Solwav. 


territory to the south of the Eden, they would not have taken a mere 
strip a few yards wide, but would have gone a mile or two more to the 
south, to the defensible line on the high ground through Eirkbampton. 
It is equally unlikely to be the boundary and line of defence of a 
southern tribe against a northern enemy; a southern tribe would 
never have drawn their boundary line a few yards to the south of the 
river Eden, and in such a position that their sentries could not see 
the river. 

Between Carlisle and Beaumont the Vallum, by itself, would be a 
piece of folly of which even a pre-Roman Briton could not be guilty ; 
but, on the hypothesis advanced by me in my last letter,* the Vallum, 
taken with the Wall, and as a part of one and the same great engineer- 
ing work as the Wall, fulfils, not only between Beaumont and Carlisle, 
but everywhere between the Sol way and the Tyne, a most important 
function. The Professor's theories, based on what he has seen 
between Tyne and Lanercost, are killed by what he has not seen 
between Carlisle and Beaumont. 

Let us now deal with the Professor another way ; let us examine 
the arguments he draws from that portion of the Wall he has seen. 
We need hardly dwell on his argument that in places the Wall and 
Vallum are so close that there is no room ' to allow cattle to graze, to 
deploy troops, and hardly to run a road between them *. The road 
exists ; troops usually deploy parallel to their front, and not perpen- 
dicular to it as the Professor seems to think, and the whole brigade 
of H.M. Guards could be deployed anywhere along the Great Barrier 
between the Wall and the Vallum; the grazing of cattle is hardly 
worth consideration. His main argument is that the Vallum would 
be a source of danger rather than of strength to the Wall, and that 
where it was far from the Wall it would weaken the defence of the 
Wall, by drawing men from it to guard the Vallum. The very con- 
trary would be the case. Suppose the Vallum obliterated, then the 
guards and sentries on the Wall, whose * front' was towards Scotland, 
would have their rear exposed to the attack of any guerillasy bandittiy 
and damts that might be lurking in the * scrub ' to the rear. They 
would require to be covered by sentries, guards, and patrols that would 
absorb more men than the Wall itself, for they would not have the 

♦ Page 85. 


assistance and help of ramparts and guard [houses. Again, in the 
absence of the Yallum the communications between the camps wonld, 
by night and in foggy weather, require to be kept open by strong 
patrob. It is matter of certainty that the Valium added enormously 
to the military strength of the Great Barrier, and effected an immense 
economy both in the number of men actually required to guard the 
Barrier and in the number of those required to do night duty. 
Further, in the event of an attack oh the Wall, a commanding officer 
must have felt his responsibilities much lightened by the knowledge 
that his rear was covered against attack. 

The Professor makes a great point that one of the lines of the 
Vallum actually runs (as he says) into the Wall at Wall Bowers. He 
is here in error ; the ditch running into the Wall at that place is not 
one of the lines of the Vallum, but an extra ditch, found only here, 
and funning on the north side of the Vallum, and parallel thereto*. 

The Professor's remaining argument, that the long earthworks of 
the Vallum resemble British earthworks, is confuted by his own state- 
ment, that they also resemble those of the Pfdhlgrahm. 

I remain. Yours truly, 

Richard S. Ferguson. 

• There are several theories about the extra ditch ; I refrain from adding 
another untU I have again visited the place. But see MacLauchlan^s Memoir^ 
p. 57. 

RoMXK PuRAB or Brokzx. 



1. — An Inscription at Cliburn, WESTMORiiAND ; by Professor 
Emil Hiibner, Hon. Member; (read on the 28th 
September, 1887). 

In the beginning of August, 1886, 1 received, through the kindness 
of Dr. Bruce and Mr. Robert Blair, an excellent photograph of the 
newly discovered Clibum inscription, of which the first notice is given 
in the Proceedings of this Society, (Vol. III., p. 251). I saw instantly 
that it was the fragment of one of those large slabs which used 
to be placed over the entrance of public buildings, baths, &c., as, for 
instance, the similar inscriptions from Isoi. Silvrvm (C./.Z. VII., 
107), LoNGOViciVM {GJ.L. VII., 287), Lanchester (445, 446), 
Aesica (782), Netherby (965), Brbmenivm (1043, 1045, 1046), and 
others. As the fragment is only 15 inches in length, and 8 to 16 in 
height, and its frill size may easily have been 2, 4, even 10 to 12 feet 
in length (and the height corresponding), it is impossible to supple- 
ment it with even approximate certainty. I thought it therefore most 
convenient not to risk any rash interpretation, but to wait patiently 
in case another piece of the slab were found, and meanwhile add it to 
the supplement which I am preparing for the British epigraphical 
coUection {G.LL. VII.). 

Mr. W. Thompson Watkin, who, from Liverpool, watches diligently 
over the epigraphical finds in Roman Britain, and publishes them in- 
stantly, separate or collected, in different periodicals, has in the mean- 
time, edited a reading and an interpretation of the Cliburn inscription, 
which I cannot consider as satisfactory (see Archaeologia Aeliana^ 
Vol. XII., p. 290). But I would have let it pass over, until in due 
time and place the correct text might appear, had not even Professor 
Mommsen been misled by it. For in an occasional communication to 
the Korreepondemhlati der Weetdeutechen Zeiischrift fiir Oeschichte 
md Kunst for this year (Vol. VI., No. 7, July, p. 161), he has repro- 



duced Mr. Watkin's text of the Cliburn inscription, adding some 
observations abont the ala Petriana and the Roman station of 
Petrianae.1 Of course he disapproves of Mr. Watkin's condlabsvm, 
which is a grammatical monstrosity not for a moment to be seriously 
thought of. In the same way he refuted, with conclusive arguments, 
Mr. Watkin's ala Sebustana, which by no means can have its place at 
the side of the ala Petriana, if this in fact is recorded in the text. 

Under these circumstances it seemed to me proper to yield to the 
repeated injunctions of my English friends and to publish, not a full 
expansion and due interpretation of the fragment, but only that reading 
of it which I consider to be correct. I use for it beyond the photo- 
graph already mentioned, which is nearly as good as the original, the 
copy of Mr. Rich. S. Ferguson (published in the same part of the 
Archaeologia Aeliana as Mr. Watkin's note, p. 289, with a woodcut), 
and a rubbing sent to me by the same excellent antiquary, through 
the kind intervention of Mr. Blair. It will appear at once that Mr. 
Ferguson's reading is quite correct, so far as he has read nothing 
wrong ; only be did not) succeed, in his first attempt, in reading all 
that can be read. 

It would be desirable to have 
a woodcut of the text on a little 
larger scale than that hitherto 
published, in order to show all the 
ligatures of letters which the short 
text presents. I repeat it, only for 
cleamess's sake, and append short 
notes to every line. The palaeo- 
graphical character of the lettering 
is evidently that of the beginning 
or middle of the third century, — 
about the time of Severus Alexander. It resembles closely that of 
such public monuments as those of Netherby (C./.Z. VII., 765, 
A.D.222), Lanchester (a/.Z.VII., 446, from a.d. 238 to A. d. 244), 
and Papcastle (C./.Z. VII., 415, a.d. 242). Specimens of their 
writing are given in my Exempla Scripturae Latinae Epigraphum 

' In the same Qerman periodical I have just ^ven my reading of the Clibum 
inscription, with some short notes, Vol. VI., 1887, No. 9, September, p. 206. 


(1886), Numbers 649, 660, 651. There are no dots between the 
single words ; which is not infrequent in inscriptions of that late epoch. 

The text, then, of the Clibum inscription is this : 

The first Urn offers no diflScnlty whatever. At the beginning of 
the second, two letters have evidently been cancelled on purpose, and so 
snccessfully that scarcely anything of them can be made out with full 
certainty. Still it seems to me highly probable, as others observed 
before, that these were the two letters, N and A ; only I think to dis- 
cover, in the very fullest sunlight given to the photograph, at the right 
hand side of the A, the remains of an e joined to an A. We must read, 
therefore, kjr. The two following words are most certainly vbtebi 
(the I formed by a prolongation of the perpendicular stroke of the r), 
and Ott ; the p of the last word turned to the left, because an b was 
joined to it : 'b. The whole word can scarcely have been any other 
than O'EEB, or opbri. For I take veteri operi for ablatives. In veteri 
the formation in i, not in e, is the correct one, in operi it is by no 
means uncommon. 

In the third line there can be no doubt that the first two letters 
are combined from m and di, by prolongations of the perpendicular 
strokes of the N and of the D respectively. The word dilabbum is 
just what we expect in an inscription like this, erected evidently 
to commemorate the restoration of an old building. 

By far the most difScult of all is the following, the fowrth line. 
The upper part of the first letter, all that remains of it, may have been 
a P, or a b, or an b. But if it were a b or an e, it is at least not im- 
probable that, when the stone was broken, something of the lower part 
of these two letters would have been preserved. As there is not a per- 
ceptible shadow of such part of the letter, I think it most probable 
that it was a simple P. What follows in the second place was clearly 
an L ; only one may doubt if it was a simple L, or an L combined with 
an I, LI. The fact is, that it seems to be the latter combination. But it 
only seems so. A closer inspection of the photograph (and, I am sure, 
of the original too, the rubbing being not sufficiently distinct) shows, 
that what seems to be the head of the i joined to the l, is only an in- 
voluntary prolongation of the right foot of the N of the line above. We 
have, therefore, after the simple p a simple l. The two letters following 
are also simply, and without any doubt, is. The reading plib, thus 


obtained, excludes a guess of Mr. Watkin's, to which there cannot be 
denied the epithet of ingenious. Under the supposition that the name 
of the ala Petriana followed, he imagines that this ala might have been 
styled sometimes [no^bilis. For this epithet, certainly not yet known 
by any example, he might have quoted, as a similar instance, the ala 
Augusta oh vtrtutem appeUata of the well known inscriptions of Old 
Carlisle. But if I am right in reading not B and il, bnt only p and l, 
the ingenious supposition has no foundation. The . . . pUs must have 
been part of a word like exemplisy or dtiplis, or amplis. 

The second word of the same line is clearly 'ER. Only in the ihird 
element lies the difficulty. It seems, in fact, to be a combination of 
T and R. And if so, Mr. Watkin's supposition, on which his reading 
and interpretation of the whole text is based, viz., that this was the 
place where the name of a military corps was mentioned, gains a high 
degree of probability. But here, also, I cannot follow him. It is true 
the R has a stroke on the left hand side of its top far too long, and it 
was my first impression too, that petr or pert was meant. Bnt a 
further consideration of the place in the text where the name of that 
ala was to be supposed, made me give it up quickly. The stonecutter 
had put his R a little too &r to the right ; he restored the symmetry 
of the spacing between the single letters by making the left angle of 
the top of the R a little broader than necessary. But he meant nothing 
but a simple R. So Mr. Ferguson read it. Let us take it for granted 
that there is only j^^ in the text.. 

What follows, in the same line, if considered under the impression 
of being an epithet to the foregoing name of a cohort or an ala, could 
be taken for something like o. R. (cwium Eamanarum)^ or o. l. (ewkan 
LatinorwnJ, But looking at it without any prejudice, I see most 
distinctly on the photograph, after the c, the combination of an e and 
an L, in that way sl, the e being turned to the left. The two 
last letters existing of line four, la, are distinct. I read the whole 


Of the next or fifth line, the last legible, in which Mr. Watkin had 
the unfortunate idea to suppose the Ala Sebusiana (which was always 
Sebo8iana)j the beginning is clearly as Mr. Ferguson sees it, alb. 
Only between the l and the b the photograph shows distinctly 

' Mr. Fcrpiison jrivcs BLis<iERCLLA nearly in the right way. 


something like a lengthy dot; or as the protracted tail of the l (u). 
But I think it is only an i, of smaller size, and adjoined, in a quite 
common way, to spare some space, to the l, in that way : li. The 
two letters following b, vs, though omitted like the rest by Mr. Ferguson, 
are certain. I see behind them^ on the righb hand side, almost 
distinctly on the photograph, the three elements a-LV, et lu, — Only the 
a is not perfectly clear. It might be taken also for aL, el ; but I can- 
not fibad any sense in el, whilst ei combines easily with the rest. 

Of the last line of the text it is impossible to determine a 
single letter out of the remaining tops of three or four. The first 
may have been a c ; but it is of no use to enter a discussion about 
the meaning of those apices lUUrarum. 

What I read of the whole text, is, to resume my analysis, as 
follows. I add some few expansions, for the sake of clearness, in 
brackets, supposing that at least two-thirds of the whole tablet are 

BAiiNBVM [cohoriis illius Severianae Antoninia''] 

NAB VBTBBi OPB[n dwi Hodria-'] 

Ni DILABSVM [ fistuUs am-'] 

PLI8 PER CEiii4A[m ductis item] 

[can] ALIBUS BT iN[minibu8 ] 

[restitvit ille sub mperatore illo ire.]. 
I am fer from ascribing to my expansions more than a very re- 
mote probability. But one sees that this inscription contained a 
quantity of interesting particulars about the repairs of the single parts 
of the public bath of a military corps, stationed at that place. It is 
to be hoped, but scarcely to be expected, that more fragments of the 
text may turn up, and if so they will very likely destroy most of my 
guesses. But, at any rate, even the fragment put to its just reading, 
contains information of antiquarian interest which we shall not 



2.— Remarks on some Inscriptions found on the Roman Wall ; 
by W. Thompson Watkin ; (read on the 26th October, 1887). 

It has long been a matter of surprise that no tablets recording the 
erection of the Wall of Hadrian have been found along its track. 
True, we have the slabs from several mile castles recording their erec- 
tion in his reign, under Aulus Platorius Nepos, but nothing approach- 
ing the large slabs on the Wall of Antoninus Pius, recoixling a certain 
amount of work done by the legions and cohorts, &c., on the Wall 
itself, has occurred. The centurial stones, if they refer to the erection 
of the Wall, are of a totally diflFerent character ; but it is quite possible 
they mark the quarters occupied by the various centuriae. 

It is therefore of interest tp notice some stones found on the Wall 
which seem to refer to its erection. In December, 1882, the Rev. Dr. 
Bruce sent to me a copy of a stone discovered a short time previously 
at CiLURNUM. It bears an inscription on its face^ and also on its side, 
thus : — 

Dr. Bruce considered the last letter of the first line of the smaller 
inscription (on the side) as p ; but I advised him to look again, and 
ascertain if it was not F, and an abbreviation of the words tvrm lafan 
for Turma Lafanii, on the face. He ascertained this was the case. 
As far as the reading was concerned the matter rested here ; and in 
the Archaeological Journal^ Vol. XL., p. 135, 1 gave the expansion — 
"Tfurmae) Laf(anii) P(ubliu8) Val(erius) P(edes) cxiii," considering 
that the stone marked the boundary of an allotment of private pro- 



perty. Centurial stones invariably give us a distance of only from 20 
to 80 feet, not only on the Wall, but at Ribchester, Manchester, and 
Tomen-y-Mur, the only other stations where centurial stones have 
been found. 

Since then it has frequently occurred to me that whether Publius 
Valerius was a "military tenant" or not, he would scarcely name the 
troop he belonged to in a private boundary stone. This led me to look 
for a more satisfactory reading, and as the p at the end of the first 
line turned out to be f, so I suggest that what is taken for p at the 
beginning of the second line may also turn out to be f. More than 
this, the second stroke of the A has another stroke diagonally across it, 
which makes the letter not unlike al ligulate. If so, the line is 
F.VALL. succeeded by p.cxiii., and the whole would read " T(urma) 
Laf(anii), F(ecit) Vall(i) P(edes) cxiii." I prefer pedes to passus, for 
the latter would seem a large amount for a turma to execute. There 
does not seem either to be any mark before f (or p) val(l), which 
would indicate that it was the decuria commanded by P. Valerius that 
could have executed it. The only doubt in my mind would be, if my 
reading is confirmed, concerning the position of Fecit. I have written 
to Mr. Clayton asking him to ascertain whether the letter is f or P, 
but being unable himself to attend to it, he has left it until the visit 
of some competent person.* 

Should my reading be correct, the inscription may throw light on 



Nos. 42 and 139 in the Lapidarium Sepientrionale. In the former the 

end of the second line is vpxxx preceded by letters which look like Ri. 

Is not the i an f? If so, we have " F(ecit) V(alli) P(edes) xxx." 

* This letter is undoubtedly p and not p.— Ed. 


In No. 189 we may possibly have a fragment of a tablet similar to 
those on the Antonine Wall. The extant letters VGi oocxliii would 
lead us to infer that in the first line the (leg ii a)vg, or a vexiUation 
of it, were the erectors. In the second line it is not improbable that, 
as on the Antonine Wall, mp hi, or od od od, preceded the extant 

It will be understood that these remarks are merely suggestions. 
If they be not confirmed, wc must look for a solution of the readings 
in a different quarter. 

8. — On an Inscjeibbd Slab found at Newburn; by Dr. Bruce, V.P.; 
(read on the 28th December, 1887). 

I AM always disappointed when we have not a new stone of the Roman 
era to discuss at each of our meetings. Last month we had one, and 
now we have another. 

Newburn is about five miles west of Newcastle, and stands upon 
the north bank of the river Tyne. There is a small pele tower here, 
which forms part of a later bouse, all now included in the extensive 
steel works of Messrs. John Spencer & Sons. A short time ago our 
fellow-member, Mr. Boyle, was examining this pele tower, and on one 
of the stones forming the window niche of the vaulted chamber on the 
ground floor he discovered some letters, but as the stone was placed 
upside down and was covered with thick coats of white-wash he was 
unable to read the inscription. He called attention, however, to the 
stone, stating that it was probably of the Roman era, and that it was 
most desirable that it should be cleaned. Shortly afterwards Mr. 
Cadwallader J. Bates visited the pele. The stone was now freed from its 
incmstations and had become perfectly legible, though the reading was 
diflftcult from the deficiency of light and the stone being upside down. 
Mr. Bates made a drawing of it, of which he kindly gave me a copy. 
The reading of the latter two lines being somewhat difiicult, I at once 
sent the drawing which I had received to the great master of our 

* On re-examination I find there appears to be the lower part of a c before the 
VOf 80 that instead of the Second Legion, [coh, 7.1 cyaB[r»on»m] maj possibly 
have erected it. The stones numbered 784 and 789 m Vol. VII. C.I.L., have also 
been stones commemorating erections of portions of the WaU, and are quite distinct 
from the ordinary " centurial *' stones. 


fiomano-BritiBh inscriptioDs, Profeasor Hiibner, of Berlin. Mr. Blair 
and I, however, went to Newburn without any loss of time to examine 
the stone for ourselves. Mr. Spencer was not able to meet us himself, 
but he provided us with all needful assistance. Mr. Blair made a 
drawing of the stone, and we brought away paper impressions of it. 
As, however^ to get a faithfnl engraving made it seemed necessary that 
the stone should be photographed, and as this could not be done in 
the dark chamber in which it was fixed, we left word with Mr. 
Spencer's obliging representative, Mr. Lewis, that it was very desirable 
that the stone should be taken out of the wall and eventually placed 
in some museum. Without a day's delay I received the following 
communication from Mr. Spencer: — "I am glad you were enabled 
yesterday to obtain the information you required about the Roman 
stone, and that it proved so interesting. I have instructed them to 
take it out of the wall and forward it to the Museum, which will be 
the best place for its future rest. As you are aware, the building be- 
longs to the Duke ; so if his Grace should take so much interest in the 
stone as to assert his right to it, of course his claim will have to be 
considered, but probably you can arrange all this. I, on my part, will 
see that the building is none the worse for the removal." 

The stone is one of the centurial kind. It is 13 inches long and 
9 inches broad. The face of it has been left untouched by the 
mediaeval masons except that a small portion of its left-hand margin 
has been removed to fit it for its place in the pele. A. bordering of 
the cable-pattern, which was so freely afterwards adopted by Saxon 
and Norman architects, is placed upon its edges. On each side of the 
inscription a Roman standard is placed. This gives special interest 
to the stone, as it is of unusual occurrence. The only instances that I 
remember in which the military standard occurs on the stones of the 
North of England are in the case of a stone found at Chesters, the 
Roman Cilurnum (No. 948 of the Lapidarium SeptentrionaU), in 
which case, however, only the upper portion of it, a banner, remains, 
on which are inscribed the words vibtvs | avgg., and on the face of 
what was probably the grave stone of a Batavian warrior found at 
Carrawburgh, the ancient Pbocolitia (No. 930 of the Lapidarium), 
where we have a fully-armed soldier holding a naked pole in his hand, 
on the top of which is the figure of a bull. On the boss of a bronze 




shield, however, which was found in the estuary of the river Tyne not 
long ago (forming No. 106 of the Lapidarium), we have a representa- 
tion of two standards which, in form, closely resemble those upon the 
Newburn stone. Between these two standards is an eagle holding an 
olive branch in its mouth. In this I'espect also it resembles our new 
stone, where we have a bird, doubtless the eagle, occupying the lower 
part of the centre of the stone. The shield to which I now ref^r be- 
longed, it would seem, to a centurion of the eighth legion, who was 
probably shipwrecked, as so many others have been, on entering Shields 

The military standards of the Romans differed in form. Very 
frequently, as in the case of the one on the right side of the Newburn 
stone, the pole was decorated by a series of small circular shields of 
bronze or silver, and sometimes even of gold. On the top of the 
standard we have not unfrequently the figure of an eagle, the king of 
birds ; a hand, the emblem of power ; a bull ; the figure of Hercules ; 
the bust of the emperor, or some similar device. To give a degree of 
elegance to the whole of the figures a group of foliage, executed no 
doubt in brass or other metallic substance, crowns the whole. 

We have numerous examples of the military standard upon the 
column of Trajan at Rome, which contains a pictorial representation, 
as it were, of that emperor's two campaigns against the Dacians. I 
have laid upon the table an engraved copy of the sculptures on 
Trajan's column. 

Upon the coinage of the empire we have numerous representations 
of the standard. On the reverse of the coin of Hadrian, inscribed 

DidOiPLiNA avg(v8TI), we have the emperor addressing three soldiers 
holding standards, each, no doubt, representing a legion. I have here 



a large brass coin of Hadrian on the reverse of which Hadrian on 
horseback is shown addressing three soldiers, each holding a standard. 
The inscription is exergitus germakious. 

To come to the standards on the Newburn stone, I may state that 
the one on the left-hand side of it is chiefly characterised by a square 
banner near its top bearing the inscription lbg(io) xx "The twentieth 
legion." On minute examination in a good light an eagle (or what 
appears to be such) is perched upon the edge of the banner. The 
standard on the right-hand side bears four shields. 

The following is the inscription on the stone : — 


which may be thus ex- 
panded : — Legionis vicessi- 
mae valeriae. victricis cohorUs 
qtcartas, centuria Libumii 
Frontonis, centuria Termtii 
Magni, "The century of 
Liburnius Fronto and the 

century of Terentius Magnus, of the fourth cohort of the twentieth 
legion, surnamed the Valerian and Victorious, [erected this]." Here 
we have the troops belonging to two centurions mentioned on one stone. 
Usually but one centurion is named. The work on which so many men 
were employed must have been an important one. One of these officers 
we have met with before. On an altar found at Condercum, Benwell 
(No. 16 of the Lapidarium), we find the name of Marcvs lAhumius 
Fronto, of the second legion. This is probably the same oflBcer as one 
of these on the stone, though in the interval between the dedication of 
the altar and the carving of the centurial stone he had changed from 
one legion to the other — the second to the twentieth, or nice versa, 
Newburn is but a short distance from Benwell Hill, so that he had not 
left the neighbourhood. In fact the post at Newburn was probably 
dependent upon the station at Benwell Hill. 

The discovery of another centurial stone in the mural region 
bearing the name of the twentieth legion reminds me of a passage in 


Horsley's Britannia Romana, in which he speaks of the almost entire 
absence in his day of such memorials. He says : — "One would expect 
that this legion (the twentieth) bore its part in building Severua s 
[Hadrian's] wall ; but among all the centurial inscriptions upon the 
face of this wall I remember not one of this legion, or of any cohort 
said to belong to it. This makes me suspect that this twentieth legion 
was no way concerned in that work; though I know not for what 
reason, or how they came to be excused, since it is certain that they 
continued in Britain long after this." Since Horsley's day many have 
been found, and here is one added to the number. 

In a somewhat historical sense this stone is of importance. For 
some time it has been suspected that the Romans had a fort here. 
Newburn is the first place at which the river becomes fordable. It 
was, therefore, of some importance to have the command of it. It 
was here, it will be remembered that, in a.d. 1640, the Scotch forces 
under General Lesley, in spite of the opposition of the king's troops, 
succeeded in crossing the river. A road now leaves the Roman Wall 
at West Denton and runs down to Newburn. This road was, no 
doubt, originally a Roman one, traces of Roman pavement having 
been visible in it until a recent period. The church at Newburn has 
been built in a good measure of Roman stones, some of them exhibiting 
the " diamond broaching " of the Roman masons. The pele itself has 
in it many stones of Roman character. Besides all this, Mr. Brooks, 
who was formerly river engineer to the Newcastle Corporation, dis- 
covered indications of a stone platform laid across the bed of the river 
so as to make the ford more reliable and safe. A quantity of black 
oak was also found at this spot, which had probably been used to fix 
the stones in their places. All this could only have been done by the 
Romans. The discovery of the stone which we have now discussed 
renders the supposition that the Romans had a fort here to command 
the passage of the river yet more probable. 

4.— A Centurial stone from Oaervoran, &o. ; by Dr. Bruce, V.P.; 

(read on the 80th November, 1887). 
During the autumn two Roman stones, previously unknown to us, 
and belonging to the mural district, have been found. 



One of these is a figure of Diana, with a stag at her right side. It 
is very mnch weathered. The deity is represented as drawing an 
arrow out of her bow. The stone was found near to Crowhall, which 

is to the south of both Wall and Vallum, 

and to the south of Crindledikes near to 

the place where the Roman mile-stones 

were found which are described by our 

senior Vice-President, Mr. Clayton, ih 

the ninth volume of the Archaeologia. 

The fium on which the figure was found 

belongs to the Earl of Strathmore. The 

stone has been removed for the present to 

Ridley Hall. Fancying that our Museum 

in the Black Gate was its most fitting 

resting place, I addressed a letter to Mr. 

Bolam, his lordship's agent, expressing 

my views, and he has kindly undertaken to mention the matter to the 


The other stone to which I have to call the attention of the Society 



is one that is built into a wall of the farmhonse at Magna, Caervoran. 
It is a centnrial stone 8 feet long. In the middle of it, in a sunk panel, 
is the inscription : — o fbliois j p. xx p. Cmturia Felicisper viginii 
passus. "The century of Felix (erected) twenty paces (of this)." 

For the present, at least^ the stone is at Caervoran ; eyentnally it 
may be removed to the museum at Chesters, Mr. Clayton being the 
proprietor of Caervoran. 

At the same time two fragments of incriptions were discovered ; 
nothing, however, can be made of them. They are shown in the two 

5. — Potters' Marks ; by R. 8. Ferguson, F.S.A., Chancellor of 
Carlisle ; (read on the 25th January, 1888). 

Potters' marks from Roman pottery ware found in Carlisle, and now 
in the collections of Mr. R. Ferguson, F.S.A., Morton, and Mr. Fisher, 
Bank, and in the Carlisle Museum. Those marked thus (*) are in 
Mr. Wright's list {The Celt, tlie Roman, mid the Saxon, edition of 
1875). Those marked (f) have beeu found recently on the site of the 
New Markets now being erected at Carlisle : — 

On Samian ware in the collection of Mr. R. Ferguson, F.S.A., of 
Morton, Carlisle : — 





♦ FVS (on lamp) 




FORTIS (on lamp) 










On Roman ware (other than Samian) in the collection of Mr. R. 
FergOBon, F.S.A. :— 

• On amphora — i On mortarium — ' i On a fragment of white 



ware— PI RV 

On Samian ware in the collection of Mr. Fisher, Bank Street, 
Carlisle : — 

* CRACVNA • F I * CELTAS • FC | * PANI • L • P 




On an amphora in collection of Mr. Fisher, Bank Street, Carlisle : — 

A- R- A 

On Samian ware in the Musenm, Carlisle : — 

SAXAMI • M (2) 

«ECKI/R • F 

* MAIOR • F 


(^. same as above) 


t* BIGA • FEC 

(very large on the side) 

(scratched on bottom) 

(? ANVNI • M • ante) 
t lOCL • MS 







t AIAIV ? 



t / / BI • MA 

On amphorae in the Mnsenm, Carlisle : — 
C • TYC I P • L • 

On mortaria in the Mnsenm, Carlisle : — 




M A 

6. — A Roman Christian Inscription from Portugal ; by Dr. 
Bruce, V.P.; (read on the 28th March, 1888). 

Through the kindness of Mr. Thomas Warden of Mertola, Portugal, 
we have before us for our inspection to-night another Christian in- 
scription of the Soman period, which, like the one we already have in 





our possessioD, was found in a garden near his residence. The stone 
is a gravestone, having an elaborate cross at its head. Preceding the 
first line of the inscription is a plain cross. The inscription is as 
follows: — ^ 


And may be thus trans- 
lated: — *'Britto, a pres- 
byter, lived sixty-five 
years. He rested in the 
peace of the Lord God in 
the nones [the 5th] of 
August, in the 584:th year 
of the era." 

I obseiTed on a former 
occasion that it is not 
known from what circum- 
stance the Spanish era took 

its origin. In early times different nations had different chronol<^cal 
reckonings ; thus the era of the Greeks began with the year of the first 
Olympiad, and that of the Romans with the building of the city of 
Some. Both of these .methods of measuring time continued in use 
until long after the birth of Christ. The Christian era, which is now 
universally adopted throughout Christendom, is said to have been first 
proposed in the year a.d. 527. We must not be surprised, therefore, 
that the Spaniards had a different starting point in their chrono- 
logical reckoning when this tombstone was prepared than that which 
is now so generally adopted. The year of the Spanish era corresponds 
with B.C. 88, consequently the year 584 of the Spanish era, when Britto 
died, corresponds with the year 546 of the Christian era. 




By THE Rev. J. R. Boyle. 

[Read on the 27th July, 1887.] 

OuE distinguished member, the Chancellor of Carlisle, has contributed 
a paper on the "Morpeth Great Mace" to the Arcliaeologkdl Journal 
(Vol. XLII., p. 90), He has treated the subject with the acumen and 
ability which mark everything he writes. I am, perhaps, therefore 
presumptuous, in undertaking to say anything ut all upon an object of 
antiquity which has already been described by Mr. Ferguson. My 
position, however, is this. I have recently been fevoured, by the 
Mndness of the town clerk of Morpeth, with an opportunity of examining 
not only the civic mace of that town, but a magnificent punch-bowl, a 
branks, a fine old hutch, and a grant of arms, all of which are the 
property of the Morpeth Corporation. I felt at once a strong desire to 
bring these objects before your attention. But how can I describe the 
plate and insignia of the town, and pass over its great mace ? I have, 
therefore, no alternative but to commence my account of the insignia of 
the corporation of Morpeth with a notice of its mace, and to acknow- 
ledge that my description is almost entirely drawn from that of Mr. 

The mace measures 2 feet 2^ inches in length. It consists of a 
fihaft with three knops, and terminates at its upper end with a large 
bowl. The whole mace is of silver, but the knops and the bowl are 
gilt. No assay or maker's mark is visible, though it is possible that 
if it were taken in pieces some such mark might be found. The bowl 
has a cresting of fleurs-de-lis, thirty in number, beneath which is a 
band of plain silver, bearing an inscription presently to be noticed; 
and, beneath this, a cable moulding which covers the joining of the 
cresting with the bowl itself. 

The top of the bowl is covered by a table or plate, in the centre of 
which there is a raised boss, surrounded by a cresting of fifteen fleurs- 
de-lis, and bearing the royal arms, as borne by the Stuarts; i,e, Quar- 




terly, first and fourth, France and England quar- 
terly; second, Scotland ; third, Ireland. These 
arms are enamelled in their proper colours. Above 
the shield bearing the arms is the date 1604, the 
figures of which are filled with blue enamel. 

The inscription to which I have referred is 
engraved partly in Roman capitals and partly in 
italic common letters, and is in two lines. The 
following is a transcript: — 

4* Dmu: Dnt: Will HOWARD : Bni: ds 

' MOBFeth : Fi7i>": Bmis : ^orff: Yrafris : Auun 

cult: TSepotis: et: Qognati: Gomitu: Ajundell 

Surrey : Suff: 'Sorthampt : et : TSottingh : et : Dtmr 

[2nd line.] E/tsr: Yxoris 

"EitMi Sararis: et: coheredis: Georgii: Dni 
Dacre: de: Qilsland: et: Grei^tock: Ao: Dni 
1604: Yoh: non: Yaleo: Yiff. 


' The gift of Lord William Howard, Lord of 
Morpeth, son of the Duke of Norfolk, brother, 
uncle, nephew, and relative of the Earls of Arun- 
dell, Surrey, SuflFolk, Northampton, and Notting- 
ham; and of Lady Elizabeth, his wife, sister and 
co-heir of Gteorge Lord Dacre of Gilsland and 
Greystock. Anno Domini 1604.' 

The inscription is preceded by the Howard 
badge, a cross crosslet fitch^e, and followed by 
the Howard motto, *Volo non Valeo,' and the 
monogram, W. H. 

On the bowl itself eight shields are engraved, 
bearing arms. Over each shield is the name of 
the &inily to which it belongs. They are as 
follows: — 

1. Howard. — On a bend, between six cross 

crossletsfitcMes, a mullet 

2. Brothbbton. — Three lions passant gardant 

in pah; a label. 


3. Mowbray. — A lion rampant 

4. Warren. — Chequee. 

6. Marley. — Three martlets in pale. 

6. Dacre. — Three escalkps, two and one. 

7. Grbistock. — Three lozenges, two and one. As Mr. FerguBon 

remarks, the charge should be, three ciishions, two and one. 

8. Qrimthorp. — Barry o/stx, three chapUts^ two and one. 

On the bottom of the shaft a shield is engraved, bearing, quarterly^ 
1, Howard; 2, Brotherton; 3, Mowbray; 4, Warren; with a mullet in 
the fesse point for difference. Mr. Ferguson thinks this shield was 
once enamelled; but no trace of the colouring matter now remains. 

The inscription and heraldry of this mace open an almost limitless 
field for genealogical disquisition. To me it is a tempting field; but, 
as my subject is not the history of the family of Howard and its con- 
nections, I must satisfy myself with the briefest possible explanations. 
Of the shields on the bowl^ those I have numbered 1-4 are Howard 
quarterings; the remaining four are Dacre quarterings. Lord William 
Howard's father was Thomas, the fourth Duke of Norfolk. The 
Duke's second wife was Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Sir 
Thomas Audley of Walden. By her he had two sons, Thomas, who 
was created Earl of Suffolk in 1603, and William, the donor of the 
Morpeth mace. Shortly after the birth of the latter his mother died^ 
and his father married, as his third wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Leyboume, of Cunswick, in the county of Westmoreland. 
She was the widow of Thomas Lord Dacre of Gilsland. Lord Dacre 
had left four children, viz., a son, George Lord Dacre, and three 
daughters, Anne, Mary, and Elizabeth, who all came, by their mother's 
second marriage, under the guardianship of the Duke of Norfolk. He 
formed the intention of marrying the young Dacres to his own chil- 
dren. For the young Lord Dacre he intended his daughter the Lady 
Margaret Howard. Loi-d Arundell, the son of his first wife, he de- ' 
signed should marry Anne, the late Lord Dacre's eldest daughter. 
The second daughter, Mary, he intended for his second son. Lord 
Thomas Howard; and the youngest, Elizabeth, for his third son, Lord 
William. The plan could only be accomplished in part. The young 
Lord Dacre died at the age of eight, in consequence of a &11 from a 
wooden vaulting horse; and his second sister Mary died in early youth. 
Lord Arundell, however, married Lady Anne Dacre, and Lord William 


Howard married Lady Elizabeth. Thus, to use the language of Canon 
Ornsby, *the rich inheritance of which their brother's death made 
them the co-heirs, passed through that double alliance into the Duke's 
family, and is enjoyed to this day by his descendants.' 

The arms of Brotherton, Mowbray, and Warren, were brought into 
the Howard quarterings by Lady Margaret Mowbray, who, in the time 
of Henry V., married Sir Robert Howard. She was the eldest daughter 
of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England, and 
of Elizabeth Fitzalan, as heiress of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel. 

The Dacre quarterings on the bowl of the mace are — Dacbe, 
Mablby, Greistock, and Qeimthoep. 

It is, perhaps, singular that on the mace the arms of Mabley are 
simply three martlets; whereas, when the arms of Morpeth were 
granted by William Hervy, Norroy King-at-Arms, they were — Barry 
oftm^ argent and gules, on a hordure azure, eight martlets or. These 
were the arms granted to the borough, with a triple towered castle, or, 
for difference. I append a transcript of the original grant:— 

' TO all and Singaler aswell kingea heraldes and offycers of Armes as nobles 
Gentyllmen and others which These presentes shall see or here I wyllm Heruy 
esqujere otherwyse called Norrey principall herald and kinge of Armes of the 
Northe partjes of this^realme of Englonde Sendyth due commendacons and 
gretynge fforasmoche as Aunciently frome the begynnynge the Renowne of 
Anncient Cetys amd Townes corporate hathe bene comendyd to the worlde by 
the good Decertes and lawdable acts and customes of the Inhabytants of the 
same Emonge the which I the sayde Norrey kinge of armes notte Specyally at 
this present The good worshipf nil and well dysposed psons the Baylyffe and 
Burgesses of the towne of Morpethe in the Countye of North ombrlonde hathe 
well and worshipf uUy guyded and behaved themselfes in all humble obedyenoe 
towards the Kyngs Ma** from the begynnynge whereby they have well merited 
and decerved to Beceyve the Bignes and tokens in Shylds called Armes In con- 
sydeiacon wherof at the gentill request of the sayde Baylyffe and Burgesses I 
have assigned unto them Armes and blason mete and oonvenyent for a further 
Demonstracon and declaracon of theyr honest behavyour and demenure towards 
theyre prince and countrey And further havynge knowlege of credyble psones 
of theyre fyrst fowndacon I could nott w*owt grett Injury of theyre fyrst 
founder The noble and yalyaunt knyght Sir Roger De Marlay assigne unto them 
any other Armes than a pcell of his Armes for ppetuall memory of his good 
wyll and benevolence towards the sayde Towne so well begun and so longe con- 
tynued which were to his prejudyce to have it forgotten and browght into 
oblyvyon In consyderacon wherof I the said Norrey kynge of Armes in mann' 
and forme abovesayde by power and auctoryte of myn ofEyoe annexed and 


fjraunted by the kyngs majestes letters patents under hie gret Seale have given 
and graunted Ratyfied and Confyrmed unto the sayde Baylyffe and Burgesses of 
the towne of Morpath in the county of Northumbrelond and to theyre SucceF- 
sours for ey'more The olde and anncient armes of the sayde Sir Roger Marlaye 
theion a castell golde for the angmentacon for a further Declaracon of theyre 
worshipfnll behayvoor and good Decerts so well begune and longe contynewed 
As more playnly aperyth by the picture thereof in this m'gent To have and to 
holde to the sayde Baylyffes and Burgesses of y« towne of Morpathe and to theyre 
Successonrs And they it to use and enjoye to theyr worshypes for evermore 
w*out Impedyment lett or interuptyon of any pson In witnes wherof I the 
sayd Norrey kinge of Armes have signed these presents w* my hande and sett 
thereunto The Seale of myn offyce and the Seale of myn Armes. Geven the 
zx^ day of Maye in Anno Dni 1552 and in the yere of our Sovereigne Lorde 
Bdwaide the vi by the grace of god kynge of Englonde Praunce and Yrlonde 
Def endor of the fayth and in yerth under cnste of Englonde and Yrlonde the 
Supreame hedd the Sixth year. 

p me WiLLM Hebyy 
als NoKBEY Rex armor/ 

This grant of armB is written on parchment. The border is gor- 
geously and effectively illuminated. On the left margin the arms of 
Morpeth are emblazoned, Barry of six^ argent and gulesy over all a 
tawer triple-towered or^ on a bordure, eight unartlets of the tfiird. The 
two seals are in perfect preaerration. 

The Dacre quarterings are, perhaps, best explained by a statement 
of the descent of the barony of Morpeth. The first baron of Morpeth 
whose name is recorded is William de Merlay, who lived about the 
beginning of the twelfth century. The seal of his grandson, Roger de 
Merlay, as appended to a confirmation of the lands of Morwic to the 
monastery of Durham, bears a representation of four birds standing 
on extremely conventional branches. His son, Roger, in 1188, in a 
deed which is printed by Hodgson (II., ii., 480) confirms to the free 
burgesses of the vill of Morpathia all their liberties and privileges, as 
the charter of the king sets forth (proportat) which he possesses of his 
(the king's) gift. This deed also bears a seal, of simiku*, but more 
careful^ design. The third Roger, son of the last named, employed a 
seal, in the centre of which is a shield bearing the Merlay arms as on 
the mace. By the marriage of his eldest daughter, Mary, to WilUam 
de Greystock, before 1266, the Morpeth barony passed to the latter 
family, with whom it remained till Elizabeth, the only daughter and 
heiress of Sir Robert Greystock, mai-ried Thomas Lord Dacre of Gils- 


land, who distinguished himself at the battle of Flodden Field. His 
great-granddaughter, Elizabeth, married, as I have already mentioned. 
Lord William Howard. It only remains to mention that the Grim- 
thorp arms came to the Greystocks by the marriage of Joan de Grey- 
stock, sister of the William who married the heiress of the Merlajs, 
with William Fitz Ralph lord of Grimthorp, who, though adopting his 
wife's name retained his own arms. Through the failure of his brother- 
in-law's line, the barony of Morpeth came to his own descendants. 

In the inscription on the mace, Lord William sets forth his 
relationships at considerable length, and describes himself as son of 
the Duke of Norfolk, and brother, uncle, nephew, and relative of the 
Earls of Arundel, Surrey, Suffolk, Northampton, and Nottingham. 
His half-brother Philip was Earl of Arundel. His nephew Thomas, 
Philip's son, was Earl of Surrey. His brother Thomas was Earl of 
Suffolk. His unde Henry was Earl of Northampton, and his father's 
uncle, Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, of Armada celebrity, was 
Earl of Nottingham. 

The grandson of Sir Robert Howard, and Lady Margaret Mowbray, 
did essential service to the crown of England at the battle of Flodden, 
for which the king granted augmentation to his arms, to bear on the 
bend thereof, on an escutcJieon, or, a demi-lion rampant, pierced through 
the mouth tvith an arrpiv, within a double tressureflory and couhterfl^ory^ 
gules. It is not a little remarkable that this augmentation is omitted 
from the Howard arms on the Morpeth mace. 

I must take the liberty of pointing out a slight error into which 
Mr. Ferguson has inadvertently fallen. " Ijord Wm. Howard," says 
he, " himself tells how the Barony of Morpeth (and so the De Merlay 
arms) came in. *The Baronie of Morpeth came to Thomas de 
Greistock by Marie his wife, daughter and co-heir of Roger de Merlay, 
and from them in lineal descent to Eliza de Greistock and so to Lord 
W. Dacre her son.'" The mistake is Lord William Howard's, and 
Mr. Ferguson has done no more than repeat it without correction. 
Marie de Merlay, however, married not Thomas, but William de 
Greystock. So much for the maces. 

Amongst the insignia of authority the branks may fairly be 
included. It belongs to the era of the ducking stool and the stocks, 
and represents the power of local government to punish feminine 
garrulity. The word branks, for such, and not brank, is the singular 


form, is deriyed, doubtless, from the Gaelic word hrancaa, a bridle. 
The word is of recent, if not present, use in the north, to designate a 
horse's bridle of very primitive structure. 

Much has been written about the branks, and there is no need for 
me to do more than briefly describe the Morpeth example. It is of a 
type which belongs to the 17th century. It is made of iron, and 
consists of a horizontal band intended to encircle the head, with 
another band, which, united to the former in front, passed over the 
face, and the crown and back of the head. Attached to the inside of 
the horizontal band is a plate of iron, intended to go into the mouth, 
and so to coerce the unruly member to silence. Both bands are 
furnished with hinges, to admit of the instrument being adjusted. 
This done, it was secured behind by a padlock. In the archives of 
the Morpeth Corporation there is only one entry which refers to the 
use of the branks. It is as follows: — 

*X*^3. 1741. Elizabeth Holbum wife of James Holburn was punisht with 
the Branks for two hours at the Market Crosse by the order of M' Tho« Qair and 
M' Geo. Nicholls the then present Bailiffa for scandlious and opprobions 
langaage to several persons in Town as well as to the s<^ Bailiffs, &c/ 

I wish next to draw your attention to the magnificent Monteith or 
punch-bowl. It is 11| inches in diameter, and 7| inches in height. 
The rim which is escalloped was formerly moveable. The bowl itself 
is fluted, and the base is gadrooned. At the sides are two rings for 
handles, hanging from the mouths of lions' heads. 

It is said that the Moiiteith was so called after a gentleman of 
fashion of that name, who was remarkable for wearing a scalloped 
cuat; but another explanation is that Mr. Monteith invented this 
especial type of punch-bowl. The latter is, at all events, more con- 
sonant with the lines of King, in his Art of Cookery, published in 
1709, or about fifteen years after the Monteith was introduced — 

New things produce new words, and thus Monteth 
Has by one vessel sav'd himself from death. 

The rim of the Monteith was intended to hold the wine glasses, or 
cops, the stems of which were laid in the escallops, and the cups 
within the bowl. In this way they were carried into the room in 
which the company was assembled. The glasses were then taken out, 
the rim removed, and the punch compounded. The Monteith was 
introduced about the year 1696, and ceased to be made about 1716. 



The Morpeth Monteith, which is a very fine example, was made 
at Newcastle in 1712, and bears five silver marks: (1) maker's mark, 
*Ho/ with mallet below, for Richard Hobbs ; (2) Britannia ; (8) three 
castles for Newcastle; (4) lion's head erased; (5) date letter (9^) 
for 1712. 

The " town-hutch " of Morpeth is a plain, oblong oak chest, with 
a falling lid, strongly banded with iron, and originally secured by 

seven padlocks. At present it possesses only four locks, two of which 
are of very antique type, closely resembling manacles, and are opened 
and closed in a similar way. The hutch is the depository of the 
archives of the corporation of Morpeth, and also of a large number 
of deeds relating to private properties. It seems to have been the 
practice of the Morpeth people in the past to deposit their title deeds 
and leases in the town-hutch for safe keeping, and large numbers of 
these documents have never been reclaimed. The two oldest deeds 
which still remain were executed by the third Roger de Marlay who 
died in 1266. English abstracts of a large number of the deeds in 
the Morpeth chest, prepared by the late Henry Thomas Riley, are 
printed in the Appendix to the " Sixth Report of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Historical Manuscripts." 

The hutch is doubtless the one referred to in the " Book of 
Orders," and must therefore be ascribed to the time of Henry VIII. 


I do not think I need make any apology for appending the follow- 
ing lengthy bnt interesting document to my paper on the * Plate and 
Insignia of the Corporation of Morpeth/ It has not hitherto been 
printed. Its great valae consists in the light it throws on the ancient 
constitution and government of the borough of Morpeth. The original 
*boke' is at present in the possession of Mr. F. Brumell, the Town 
Clerk of Morpeth, to whom I am indebted for permission to print it. 
It is a thin folio, containingIS leaves of paper, of which 12 pages are 
written upon, and is stitched into a parchment cover. The first two 
paragraphs are in the handwriting of Lord William Howard, the 
famed * Belted Will.' The marginal notes throughout are also in his 
hand. I ought perhaps to mention that a fragment of a copy of this 
document exists amongst the Morpeth archives. 

Orders for the towne and burrough of Morpeth established and Con- Northnmbr. 

firmed by Thomas Lo Dacie 14" decembr A«. 15«. H. 8. 1623 

This booke was delivered to me at Naward Castle by W. Thomas 

Dikes Esqnier' the 10 of September 1607 A'*, 5^ B Jacobi 

William Howard. 

This boke made at Mobpbth the yere of our lord god one thonsande un. 
fyve hundreth twentie and thre the xiij*** of december in the xv"» 
yere of the Baigne of our Sou'aigne L Kinge Henrye the viij By 
Thomas L dacre w**^ the hole Consente assent and will of all the 
Burgenss w^ the hole comminaltye of the same towne, And all articles 
and clauses in the same booke conteyned, to be as Principall orders, 
Bewles, and Costomes, thoughte and devysed by Thomas L dacre 
burgenss and Comynaltye aforesaid expedient holsome and necessarie 
to the Comon welth p'fitt and Begiment of the same towen And that all 
suche Articles and Clauses as in the same shalbe Conteyned shalbe 
used frequented observed and mayntayned as principall orders rewles 
and Costomes w^^'in the said Towne vnder suche penalties and forfetts 
as hereafter shall ensue. 

* Thomas Dykes of Warthole Hall, in the parish of Plumbland, Cumberland. 
He is mentioned by Camden, as * a very learned man/ from whom he received 
copies of several Boman inscriptions. 

A A 




7 Aldermen 
to be euery 
vera choeen 
by their 

2 Procters to 
be likewifie 

The crafts 





chaunge of 
No Alder- 
man to beare 
any office but 
No Alder- 
man to be a 
juror in the 

uppon the 
death of 
aa officer 

Election of 
ye Bailiffs & 

An Artycle conceminge vij Craf tea to be instituted 
ffirste it is Ordered Condescended and Concluded by the said Thomas 
L dacre Burgenss and cominaltye of the said towne that in the said 
towen seven principall crafts shalbe named or instituted, and all other 
craftes & occupacons w*^in the said towen to be Annexed or Adioyninge 
to the same as hereafter followethe in Order 

An article conceminge makinge aldermen 

IT'M it is ordered and concluded by the said Thomas L dacre burgenss 
and Comminaltie that everye one of the said vij Craftes shall of their 
owne eleccone & chossinge have one Alderman, and everye of the 
saide Aldermen by consent of their Craftes shall electe or chose ij 
proctors for everye Crafte to se that all the said vij Craftes w*** the 
Craftes and Occupacons to them annexed shalbe kepte in dewe order 
and Rewle of their occupaoon, And the said p^ctors to be Channged 
ever att the yeres end and other to be elected in their sted, Provyded 
allwaies that everye the said Craftes shall Chaunge their Alderman 
at all tymes when they shall thinke the said exchaunge to be for the 
Comon welthe and p*fitt of their Occupacone 

An Article co'c'ninge the Changinge of Alderme' to other offices 
Itm it is AUso orderyd and Concluded by the said Thomas L dacre 
burgenss and Cominalty that he w^^ shall once be elected to the office 
of an Alderman Shall after w^'^in the said towen here none office but 
onelie thoffice of a Baylyfe, ne that none bearinge thoffice of an 
alderma shall passe upon Juries w^in the said towe 

An Article Conceminge the eleccon of Newe officers after the 
decease of other 

Item it ia allso Ordeiyde and Concluded by the said Them's L dacre 
burgenss and cominaltye That if it fortune Anye alderman bailife or 
p'ctor or other officer to dye w^'^in the yere or tyme of his office, that 
then the said craftes w^ their alderme Immediatlie after the decease 
of the same shall electe and Chose a newe officer to the office vacant 
to occupye the same in dewe effecte for the comonwelthe of the same 

An Article conceminge the Electone of BaillEes & Sergennts 
Itm it is allso ordeyned and concluded by the said Thomas L Dacre 
Burgeuss and Cominaltye aforesaid that the great Inqueste at the hed 
Courte at Michaelmas shall by there dyscretiones name or appointe iiij 
men to the eleccone of Baylif es and ij men to the name or election of 
S'gennt And they so named to the eleccon of the said offices it is con- 
cluded that the said S'. Phillipe Dacre Knighte brother to the saide 



Thomas L. Dacre or other for the tyme bcinge bearing th Office that 
the said S^ Phillipe now beareth assosiate with hym or them the Alder- 
men of the vij Craftes shall by their dyscressiones electes and chose 
ij of the said iiij so named to the Office of Bailyfes to be Bailyfes and 
th^y so elected to stande for the space of one yere and allso to electe 
one of the said ij named to th Office of 8*gennt to be S'gennt and so 
by them in lycke maner to stand and 8ve the said office for the space 
of one yere as is above said Pbovyded allwaibs that he beinge once 
elected to th' office of a baylyfe or Sgennt in forme aforesaid and 
. servinge in the same by the space of one yere shalle not be elected or 
chosen to anye the said offices for and daringe the terme of thre yeres 
then next ensuinge but y* he shall duringe y'' term foUowinge clere 
from the electione of anye the said offices above specified 

The con- 
stable of the 
oistle wth 
the 7 Alder- 
men to 
choose the 2' 
& Sergouit 

No Bailiffe 
or sergeant 
to bearo 
oflSoe wthin 

the comou 
chest to h»ae 
7 kcyes every 
Alderojan to 
kct pe one the 
8ame to stand 
in the Inner 
chamber and 
the Bailiff 
to keepe one 
kej'c of the 

An article concerninge the makinge of a chiste for their 
comon Hnche, 

Itm it is orderyd and concluded by the sayde Thom*s L Dacre bur- 
genss and cominaltye aforesaid that they shall have a chiste for ther 
comon hoche w^** vij lockes and the same chiste 1o stand in the inner 
Chaimbre in the toll bothe And the aldermen of the vij craftes to 
have the kepinge of the vij keyes of the said lockes that is to saye every 
alderman one kcye provided allwayes that the bailyfe of the sayde 
towen for the tyme beinge shall have one keye of the said chamber 
dore to the intent that the said aldme w"' other may resorte to the 
said chiste as ofte as they shall have need therto. 8o that the said 
chamber be allwaies by the said bayliffes honestlye kepte Dighte and 

Thb Names of the vij craftes w*'' the occupacones or craftes 
to them anexed w"' suchc articles to the same app'teyn- 
inge as in this booke byne contayned. 

The ffyrete crafte inchantes and to them annexed Taylers, Barbew, Merchants 
wex makers, Bowers,' and ffletchers.' 

Itm that noue Jnhabitinge w*^*in the said towen shall by anye coUu- ^» man to 
cone or male engyne* do bnnge in anye stuffe or marchandyse to the of astraunger 

•'in the Towne 

sayde towne not beinge his owen boughte before it came to the same 
of intent to sell or occupye other menes goodes w^^'in the saide towen 
to the hurte and preiudice of the sayed mchants crafte, that they or 
everye of them so ofEendinge shall forfaite vj.s. viijd. to be levied to 
the oommone hoche 

'' ' Bowyer, a maker and seller of bows and arrows.' — Bailey, 

• * Fletcher, a maker of arrows.' — IMd. 

* ' Malengme, evil Artifice.' — Ibid, 




No Tftnner 
shall choapeu 
or buy any 
skione bat 







The Seconde craf te Barkers' k, Tanners. 
Itm that no' Barker shall bye covenante or maike Bargayne for 
anye Skynes on the markett daye or Saterdaye before they present the 
markett or on the markett daye before the Bell ringe chepen or handle 
anye Skyne, But they and everye of them so offending shall for everye 
Skyne so boughte handled or cheped f orf aite xij d thone half e to my li, 
and thother to the comone hoche. 

The thirde crafte ffullers and to them annexed Dyers, wrightes 
carvers and hatters. 

Item that no ffuller shall in Dightinge'or baysinge the Stuffe w^** they 
have in workyn use eny kerdes^ or other Bngynes to hnrte the said 
Stuffe but onelye tassels' under payne to forfaite for everye such work- 
inge w^^ cardes or other engynes xij** thone half e to my L and thother 
to the comon hoche totiens quotiens 

The liij Crafte Smithes and to them anexed Sadlers, Slaters Lorymers 
and Swerde Slypers." 

The V Crafte Cordyners and to them annexed Coryers [curriers]. 
The vj Crafte Weavers, 

Itm that no weaver shall worke or use to worke here [hair] or flocke 
myxte w*** woole of intent to deceyve the kings Subiects thereby, but 
shall for everye suche f alte fforfeite ij s to be Levyed as is aforesaid 
Itm that no man or woman inhabitinge w^^in. the sayed Towe shall 
use or worke of thoccupacone of weavinge either for Lynnings [linen] 
or other Stuffe w^out ag^rement w^ the said crafte and to paye for 
the same agrement xxd thone halfe to the comone hoche and thother 
to the crafte so agreed w^ll. 
The vij and Laste Crafte. 

Itm that no glover ne none of their occupacone shall pricke anye 
Shepe Skynes betwixte the feaste of St Michaell tharchangell [29 
September] and the feaste of the Invencone of the Crosse [3 Hay] 
under payne to forfaite for eveiye Skyne so pricked ij s thone halfe to 
my L and the other to the commone hoche totiens quotiens. 
Item that no Bucher in anye tyme of the yere do pricke or raoon anye 
sheepe skynes under suche payne to be levyed after the same forme as 
is aforesaid of glovers totiens quotiens. 

Itm that no occupier w^in the saide tow* shall bnye or Chepe anye 
shepe Skynes on the market daye before the Bell ringe ne on the 
Saterdaye before they p*sente the market vnder suche payne as before 

* * Barker * is here the synonym of * Tanner.* 

• • To Dight, to deck, set off, or adorn.*— j^ai^^y. 

^ * Cards, instruments made of steel-wire to card wool.* — JHd, 
* ' Tassels, a kind of hard burr used by Clothworkers in dressing cloth * [ue,, 
the head of the Fuller's Teazel, Dipsaous Fullonum]> — BaiUy» 
» * Sword Sleiper, a Sword Cutler.'— JPaiicy. 



is expressed to be levyed in iorme aforesaid, and that no Barker bay 
anye Shepe Skynes of intent to pricke or barke the same contrarye the 
effecte and tenor of the Statute in that behalf e provyded 
Itm it is ordayned y* none in the saide towen vsinge anye of the said 
craftes do vse or occnpie anye other occnpacone then his owen w'^'out 
agrement of snche crafte as he thinkethe to occnpie and for the same 
agremente to paye iij s iiij d thone halfe to the comon hoche and 
thother to the crafte so agreed w*»»all; allwaies p'vided w^'in the said 
towen no ma* shall occnpye above ij craftes or occnpacones in anye 
wise. Provided allwaies that this article shall not extend to the pre- 
indice or hnrte of anye mane disposed to leave anye of the said craftes 
and to agree w^ another, so that allwaies he do occnpie but onelie two 
craftes, provided allso, that no man vsinge the crafte of cordyner vse 
in anye wise the crafte of curryinge. Ne that none vsinge the crafte 
of a Butcher shall in anye wise vse the crafte of Tanninge Ne that 
none vsinge the crafte of Weavinge shall in anye wise use the crafte 
of walkinge. Nor that none vsinge two craftes in the said towen shall 
vse anye snche craftes adioyninge as be p'hlbited to be adloyned by 
the kings moete Laudible and worthye Statutes. 

An Article concninge suche lyckes. 
Itm it is allso orderyde by the said Thorn's L Dacre Burgenss and 
cominaltie aforesaid that no straunger not beinge apprentice in the 
said towene do keepe shope or occupie w^^'in the said towe* w**'oute 
agreement w"» suche craft as he thinkethe to occupye or vse, and for 
the same agremente to paye xl s. sterlinge thone halfe to the comone 
hoche and thother to the crafte so agreed w^^all. Provided allwaise 
that no mane shall so agree w^'' anye of the said craftes excepte he be 
still remayninge or inhabitinge w^in the said towe\ Provided allwaies 
that all free menes sones w***in the said towen w**» one occnpacone or 
crafte onelie payinge for his agrement to the said occnpacone or 
crafte w^** he thinkes to occnpye or worke iij s iiij d« 

An Article conceminge takinge of apprentices and the service 
of the same 
Item it is allso orderyde and concluded by the said Them's L Dacre 
Burgenss and Comminaltie aforesaid that no man w^i*in the towe' shall 
take at ones moe apprentics then one, and that one to be bounde for 
terme of vij yeres, and his indentures to be made in forme and to be 
sealed before the Bay lief s of the towe' and alderma* of the same crafte, 
and if it fortune the master of the said apprentice to dye or otherwise 
to remitt his said apprentice by fale redempcone or any other man' 
that it shall not be Lawfull for the said apprentice so remitted 
redemed or selled to sett upp shope or otherwise [exercise] his crafte 

no towens 
any trade but 
hiB oime 
wthout agre- 
munt flnt 
made wth 
the oompMiy 
of the other 

No freman 
to use aboTe 
2 trades 

No stranger 
to keepe 
shopp or line 
any trade 
wthout he 
agree and 
paye for his 

to serve 7 

No appren- 
tice to use 
any oraf t 
before he 
hath serred 



No man to 
keepe above 
one appren- 
tice untill he 
hath aerred 
4 yvares and 
then at most 
but 2 appren- 

The 7 crafts 
to meet 
and the 
aldermen of 
the crafts to 
see offences 
punished and 

The Bailiffs 
and alder- 
men uppon 
any pLamtlff 
demand of a 
debt and the 
thereof shall 
cause ye oflB- 
cern to levie 
Ruche debt 
wthlu 8 daies 
as yf the 
same hadd 
in ye court 

Order howe 
to punishe 
Fraies made 
in ye towen 

w^in the said towe*, But that he shall after snchie decease of his said 
maister, or other remissione serve w"» some other of the same craf te 
duringe the terme of vij yerea aforesaid for his better erudicone. AU- 
waies pVided that it shalbe lawful 1 for anye man, havinge one appren- 
tice servinge hym by the space of fonre yeres that then if need shaU 
requier he shall take another, allwais havinge bat one by the space of 
foure yeres, and that in no wise he shall have above two, and that 
everye apprentice so s'vinge by the space of vij yeies w***in the said 
towene shall gyve or paye to the comon huche for his said fEreedome 
but xij «. 

Itm it is ordeiyd and concluded in maner and forme aforesaid, that 
everye of the said craftes shall meet everye monthe once, p'p*lie called 
their monethe daye, and there all such offences or breache of orders as 
shalbe committed or done amonge the said craftes, to be presented 
and complayned uppone and the alderma' of the same Crafte w^ 
thadvice of the same crafte, shall see suche offences reformed or deter- 
mined, by punishment or other ref ormacone as the order and reasone 
of the occupacone requirethe. 

Itm it is orderyd and concluded in forme aforesaid, that no mane 
make complaynte to the Bailyffes and Alderme' of the vij ciaftes for 
anye debte owinge w^'^in the towen, and the p'ties defend confes the 
same Debte that then the said Bailyfes and alderme' shall gyve 
aucthoretie to gyve comandement to the officers to leye suche debte 
w^'^in viij dayes havinge therefore his fees, as if it hade been recov'ed 
in the courte and executone therof maid or directed. 

An Article conceminge makinge of frayes w'^^in the saide 

Itm it is allso orderyd that if anye free mane or honortte gentleman 
of the countrye do by chaunce make a fraye w**»in the said Burrougbe, 
.that then the S'geauntes and officers of the same shall areaste them bo 
offendinge and make them to p'sent the toule bothe, and there to 
remayne vntyll suche tyme as they fynde sufficient suertye to stand 
to and vndergo thorder and agrement of my lordes courte, allwayes 
provyded that the gentlema' so offendinge shall paye for his fees viij d 
And if it f ortine anye stalinger to maike a fraye w^Mn the said boroughe, 
that then the officers aforesaid shall sett the same offenders in the 
Stox and there to remayne vntill they fynde suertye for suche things 
as is abovesayd and paye to the 6'gente for his fees iiij d; and in lycke 
maner if anye straunger or outten man make a fraye w^in the said 
towen the same offender to be sett in the Stoz and there to remayne 
vntill they fynde suertyes for all suche thinges as is before remem- 
bred, and to paye to the S'gaunte for his fees viij d. 



An Article conceminge the officers fees bailyffes and Bgeaunts 
Itm it is covenanted that the said Thomas L Dacre shall of his 
proper chardges purchase or buye the clere yerelie valew of iiij I 
lande w^in the said towen and the sajde iiij ^ to be geven in fees to 
the ij bailyf es of the sayed towe' frome yere to yere, in p'cele whereof 
the sayed • Thomas L Dacre hathe geven to the sayde Baylifes iiij 
shoppes vnder the Toule boathe 

And allso the sayed L Dacre covenantethe to geve vnto the sayed 
sergeante of the same towen for his fees x s to be payed of Estreyt^s 
of Courtes att the aadite vntill suche tyme the sayed L Dacre his heirs 
or assignes have purchased the clere yerelye valewe of flEoure poundes 
and zs for Cnsyderacones abovesaid. 

An Article conceminge the levying of suche forfeits as by 
breache of theis articles in this booke Conteyned shall 
happe to be forfeited 
It is allso ordred that the said sergeaunt for his yere shall levye all 
suche forfeits and fynes as shalbe forfeited by breache of the articles 
in this booke conteyned, thone halfe to the vse of my L and thother to 
the common huche, and he to have for Levyinge every suche fyne or 
forfeit for his fees ij d 

An Article conc'ninge the keepinge and conveyiuge of vaga- 
bondes and Beggers out of the said towne 
Itm it is allso orderyde and concluded that the fiayliefes and 
aergeaunts for the tyme beinge shall provyde Remedye for suche 
vagaboundes and strange Beggers as vse to remayne or begge in the 
said towen on the holye dayes att the time of devyne service, and 
that they suffer none of suche sorte to be in the said towne but suche 
as by the statute be admitted for because it is thoughte that those 
that vse to goo in service tyme do entyce s'vants their maisters 
beinge absente to imbecille destroye and waste their maisters goods 
And allso it is ordred that none inhabitinge w^^in the said towen shall 
keepe or releve anye scottes or suche vagaboendes vnder payne to 
forfeite for every e one so kepte or releved vj s. viij d to be levyed in 
forme aforesaid 

An Article oonc*ninge playinge att Gardes or other vnlawfull 
Itm it is orderyde that no mane shall playe att dyce cardes or other 
vnlawfull games but onelye betwixte the feaste of 6t Thom"s thap- 
postle before Christenmas [21 December] and the daye of the Epiph- 
anye [6 January], but all suche as ^uffere anye suche dyce Cardes or 
other vnlawfull games p'hibited by the statutes shall for everye suche 
playe vsed w*^ their house forfeite ii s thone halfe to y* L and 
thother to the Comone huche totiens quotiens 

The Lo Dacre 
to purchase 
iiij 1 p ann 
in Land 
to be glTen to 
ye bailiffa 
and sergeant 
for their 
yeftrlye fees 
4 shoppes 
under the 
Towle booth. 

The forfeit- 
ures to be 
Levied by the 
sergeant and 
ye one moiety 
answered to 
the Lord the 
other moiety 
to the comon 

The Bailiifs 
and sergeant 
to provide to 
Toido the 
towne of 
vagabonds k 

Of vj 8 vilj d 
paine fur 
feited by any 
yt shall keepe 
or reletve any 
beggar or 

Plaiyng at 
dice and 
cards pro- 
np|>ou paine 
of li s the one 
nioiety to the 
Lo the other 
to the oomon 



The BftiUffs 
to acoonnt 
for the niony 
they recoiTtt 
while they be 
in office the 
mony to be 
kept iiecrot in 
the oomon 
chist the lonl 
or his ofSoer 
to be priyie 


' The Lo : or 
his constable 
of hig castle 
to bo preyie 
with the 
money col- 
lected and. 
reiua?ning in 
the oomon 

Order for ye 
in pmccmion 

An Article conc'ninge the accompteB belonginge to the Condon 

Item it is ffurther ordryde y* the Bayljffes of the said towen after 
the yere and tyme of ther office expired w^^'all their gylles in the said 
towne appteyninge or of costome belonginge to the Comone Chiste, 
shall make their accomptes to the Baylifies and Sergeant then beinge in 
office and before the alderme' of their Crafte w^ one honeste mane of 
everye crafte elected and broughte to the same by the said alderme* 
and that all suche moneye as by the said officers and alderme' shalbe 
recey ved of the said accomptes shalbe Layed in their Comone Chiste 
and that no man shalbe previe to the sayed accompte but onelye suche 
p'sones as is before Remembred allwayes provyded that the sayed 
Thom"s L Dacre or his brother S' Phillipe Dacre Knighte shalbe prevye 
that the same moneye shall allwaes remayne in the X>)mone Chiste 
and in the kepinge or occnpacone of no other man 

An Article conc'ninge the order to goo att p'oession 
Itm it is ordred that none shall p'sume to goo at p'cessione in other 
order thene hearafter foUowethe, ffirste the sergeaunte before the 
Baylieffes w*'* his Mace under his gyrdle and then the aldermen of the 
vij Craftes to goo in order 


B. 205, line 21, for * JBany oftix* read * Barry often '; line 22, for 
* hordure * read ' hordure ature.' 


By Oadwallader J. Bates, M.A. 

[Read on the 3lBt August, 1887.] 

It seems to be admitted as a general principle by all good heralds that 
the counties of England, not being, as yet at any rate, bodies cor- 
porate, have no right to the use of arms. The only unquestioned 
exceptions to this rule are afforded by the duchies of Lancaster and 
Cornwall, and the counties palatine of Chester and Durham. The 
county of Kent, however, has seen fit to assume the white horse 
traditionally ascnbed to the kingdom of Hengest and Horsa, and the 
county of Middlesex has appropriated the three seaxes or daggers that 
the heralds of the sixteenth century assigned to the kingdom of the 
East Saxons. A further exception has been supposed to exist in the 
case of Northumberland, the county authorities of which have, of 
recent yeara, made use of a castle on an azure shield. 

In inquiring into the origin of this device it must be remembered 
in the first instance that the sheriffs of all counties formerly bore castles 
on their oflScial seals, a survival possibly of times when the royal 
castles within their jurisdictions were entrusted to their care. Mr. 
John Gough Nichols was the first to direct attention to this ancient 
practice. In his Herald and Omealoi/tst, Vol. III., p. 881, he wrote : — 
'There is an interesting class of seals of which, I think, very little 
notice has hitherto been taken, though examples are not uufrequently 
occurring, and the number that once existed must have been very 
large. * I allude to the seals of Sherifis. . . . These seals are 
usually of a small circular form, and bear the representation of a castle, 
evidently denoting the power of imprisonment : and therefore it may 
be presumed that their chief employment was connected with the 
jurisdiction of the gaols. Accompanying this castle there is generally 
the coat of arms of the individual, a circumstance which gives them 
an important historical value.' 



In the next volnmes (IV. p. 218, and V. p. 198) Mr. F. J. Baigent 
deBcribes the castled seals of the following sherifiB, being all, it wonld 
seem, that had come under his notice : — 

Gilbert Wace, Oxford and Berkshire 1372-1387 

William de Weston, Surrey and Sussex ... 1388 

Sir Thomas Haroourt, Oxford and Berkshire ... 1407-1408 

William Warbelton, Hampshire 1410 or 1451 

John Lysle, Hampshire 1418 

William Brokas, Hampshire 1416 

John Uvedale, Hampshire 1420 

William Kyngebourne, Hampshire 1421 

John Giffard, Hampshire 1432-1438 

Henry Bruyne, Hampshire 1447-1458 

Sir Walter Mauntell, Oxford and Berkshire ... 1456-1457 

Edward Trussell, Hampshire 1610 

Philip Holman, Northamptonshire 1638 

Of these the early Oxfordshire seals are the only ones that have on 
them anything that points — in their case it is an ox — to one oonnty 
in particular. 

Only two official seals of sheriflfe of Northumberland seem to have 
been preserved. The earliest of these is that of Henry Percy, first 
Earl of Northumberland, and sheriff of the county, appended to a deed 
' dated 80th April, 1895, by which Thomas del Strother grants all his 
rights in Wallington to Robert de Clifltbrd.^ The device is that of a 
castle nearly encircled by a crescent, the latter being the well-known 
badge of the Percy family.^ It is a singular coincidence that cresoentB 
also appear upon the other extant ^seal of the office of sheriff,' that used 
in September, 1444, by John Heron of Chipchase, Sheriff of Northum- 
berland, on the receipt he gave to Sir William Swynbum of Grreat 

' * Et pro majore securitate sigillum officii Henrici de Percy comitis ac 
vicecomitis Northumbrie presentibus apponi procuravi.' — Proceeding* of ArduuO" 
logioal Institute, 1852, vol. ii. pp. 303-304. 

* Mr. Hartshome gives a woodcut, Ibid. p. 300, of this seal from the impression 
in red wax attached to the Wallington deed then in the possession of Mr. 
Thomas Bell of Newcastle. In his < Old Heraldry of the Percies,* Arckaeolooia 
AeUana, N.S. iv. p. 179, Mr. Longstaffe has engraved the earPs shrievalty seal in 
1396 from an impression in the C^pheaton archives, and comparing it with Mr. 
Hart6horne*s cut adds that ^ some slight alterations in detail are rather more 
decided than mere degrees of preservation.' There is, however, nothing more 
difficult than to get a perfectly accurate engraving made of an ancient s^, and 
it seems highly improbable that the Earl of Northumberland would have a 
different shrievalty seal in 1396 from that which he used in 1395. The question is 
much confused in Mr. Longstaffe's paper by two misprints, one on p. 179 1. 16 


Heaton for 28b. of green wax due from him to the king in the previous 
year.^ This time three crescents ^re charged upon the castle itself. 
Mr. Longstaffe in his masterly essay on the 'Old Heraldry of the 
Percies/ has pointed out that this seal is wholly unconnected with 
that family, but he is inclined ' to take up the position that the crescent 
in Northumberland had an official or territorial origin, arising in some 
remembrance of the Saxon kingdom and earldom of Northumbria.'* 
Now certainly it may be conceded that the three crescents on the 
shrievalty seal of 1444 have no connection with either the Percies or 
the Herons, but the impersonal way in which the receipt speaks of 
* the seal of the office of sheriff' justifies the belief that this had been 
originally made for Sir Robert Ogle, who was sheriflF five years before, 
the arms of Ogle being argent afess between three crescents gules, A 
similar instance of economy in the matter of shrievalty seals is afforded 
by the fact that the seal used by William Ryngeboume, sheriff of 
Hampshire in 1421, appears to have belonged to Robert Dyneley, who 
was sheriff so far back as 1392. 

There is then nothing unusual in these two seals of Northumber- 
land sherifis when we compare them with the seals of the same class 
in the southern counties of England as described by Mr. Baigent. 
Each bears a conventional castle — the badge of a sheriff just as much 
as a mitre is the badge of a bishop — while in the one case the castle is 
embraced by the Percy crescent, and in the other charged with the 
Ogle crescents. There is apparently nothing about these seals that 
would identify them with the county of Northumberland. If a Percy 
or an Ogle had been Sheriff of Oxford and Berkshire, of Surrey and 
Sussex, or of Hampshire, at that period, they might, it would seem, 
have used these self-same seals there respectively without the least 

where for * 1375 ' read * 13^6,' and the other on p. 182 1. 7 where the date should 
be ' 1396 ' instead of ' 1386.' The triangle of pellets xMr. Longstaffe sees on his 
Capheaton seal may be the traces of a figure on the flanking tower of the gate- 

' For the woodcut of this seal given by Mx. Longstaffe, see Arch, Ael. K.S. 
iv. p. 180. 

* Ibid, p. 181. The fact that the Danish moneyers at York In the tenth 
century inserted here and there a crescent in the legend or in the field of their 
coins, like a private mark (^Proc, Arck, Iiut., 1846), seems a very slender ground- 
work for this theory, and it is nearly all that Mr. Longstaffe adduces in support 
of it. 


- It is, however, remarkable that we meet with similar castles on the 
insignificant seal of John de Coupland, Escheator of Northumberland 
in 1355 (Brit. Mas. Seals, 48 1 20), and on the fine seal of William de 
Beverley, Archdeacon of Northumberland in 1869, of which im- 
pressions are preserved in the Treasury of Durham, one of them having 
been engraved by Surtees in his history. Seals, Plate XII., 9. Bat in 
the case of Beverley's seal we at once perceive that the castle is a 
Northumbrian one, by the fact that St. Oswald with crown and sceptre 
is represented looking out of the circular flanking turret on the dexter 
side of the high gateway, while St. Cuthbert with mitre and pastoral 
staff appears in that on the sinister side, ahd lest there should be any 
mistake as to who were intended they are respectively docketted with 
the initials and C. In all probability this castle, which is further 
drawn as standing on water, is intended for that of Bamburgh, for long 
the oflBcial residence not only of the sheriffs, but it would seem of the 
archdeacons of Northumberland.' 

Coming now to modern times we find that in 1823 Mr. Robert 
Thorp, then Clerk of the Peace for Northumberland, devised a County 
Seal with a castle, which still kept to the main outlines of the Great Gate 
of Bamburgh, set on a shield of the most preposterously degenerate 
character conceivable. Round the shield was the motto ' Libertas et 
Natale Solum.' Where Mr. Thorp got his castle from cannot now be 
discovered, but there can be little doubt that it was imitated from 
some old shrievalty seal under the mistaken notion that the castle was 
the peculiar badge of the county of Northumberland.* By the 
apparently accidental use of horizontal lines by Mr. Thorp's engraver 
for shading the shield, the field came to be regarded as blue, while the 
use of vertical lines for the same purpose on the flags waving on each 
flanking turret has caused them to be painted red. 

In 1843 Mr. Thorp was succeeded in his oflBce by Mr. William 
Dickson, who enjoyed a certain reputation as an antiquary. Unfortu- 

• WiUiam Heron, SherifE of Northumberland, accounts on the Pipe Roll of 
1248, 32 Hen. III., for ' ij marcas de firma cujusdam molendini in Bamburc quod 
archidiaconus Northumbrie aliquando tenuit.' — Hodgson, Northumberland^ II. 
iii. p. 217. 

* There exist several spurious arms of counties formed from those of their 
chief towns. I have seen ascribed to Northumberland a shield argent on an 
inescittolieon azure a cattle of the fields in chief three martlett sable. This is, of 
course, a worthless imitation of the arms of Morpeth. 

Akch. AKX.f vol. xiii., to face p. 220. 

Plate XII. 


Earl of Northumberland, Archdeacon of Northumberland, of Chipchase, 

1395. 1355. 1444. 

Nobthumbbblabd Coubtt Sial, 


nately Mr. DickBon, perceiving no doubt that Mr. Thorp's castle 
possessed no definite local character, invented as the arms of the 
coanty of Norlhomberland a pictorial representation of the keep of 
Newcastle, which had then ceased to be even situated in Northumber- 
land ; the keep moreover was drawn not only in violation of all 
heraldic precedents, but so far out of ordinary perspective as to give 
the idea that it was pirouetting round on the foundation of its south- 
west comer, a prank which it is devoutly to be trusted it will not 
indulge in when the Society of Antiquaries is assembled within its walls. 

Mr. Stephen Sanderson, the present Olerk of the Peace, has 
continued to use the invention of his predecessor. There can be little 
divergence of opinion as to the desirability of discarding so very 
modem and extraneous a badge ; the difficulty is to know what can 
be legitimately put in its place. If a county badge only is required 
the castle on the seal of William de Beverley, differenced as it is with 
the figures of Oswald and Cuthbert, may have sufficient couUur locale 
for the purpose ; if anything further is desired the only course open 
seems to be to follow the example of Kent and Middlesex^ and revive 
the traditional arms of the Northumbrian kingdom that had its seat 
at Bamburgh. 

It so happens that two traditional coats are ascribed by the heralds 
to King Oswald, and it is one of the curiosities of heraldry that the 
Bishop of Durham should bear one of these, viz., azure a plain cross 
between four lions rampant or^ instead of the similar coat, azure' a cross 
patonce or between four lions rampant argent, that is associated with the 
name of St. Cuthbert.^ The other arms of King Oswald blazoned as 
paly of eight or and gules have their foundation on the passage in Bede 
where he mentions that after the king was slain at Maserfield his body 
was conveyed to Bardney Abbey, in Lincolnshire, and his banner of 
gold and purple hung up over his tomb.® The monks of Bardney 

^ Toiige*8 Visitation, edited by Mr. Longstaffe in 8urtee» Society's Puhlica- 
titms, 41, p. 81. The distinction between the two coats is forcibly illustrated on 
the obverse and reverse of the palatinate seal of Bishop Tunstall. — Surtees's Hist, 
of Durhanij I. seals, plate VI. 3, 4. The use by the Bishops of Durham of the 
secular instead of the ecclesiastical coat is, after the transference of their palatine 
jurisdiction to the Crown, as difficult of justification as their continuing to place 
a coronet round their mitre. 

" Bede Histaria Ecclesiastica lib. III. cap. xi. The same coat as this attri- 
buted to Oswald, was borne, for no apparent reason, by the Cistercian abbey of 
Bindon in Dorsetshire, which supplanted an ancient nunnery of unknown origin. 


woald naturally, up to the Dissolation, show a banner to the people as 
that of St. Oswald ; but ic says something for the genain^ness of their 
relic that they do not appear to have decided how the fragment had 
been attached to the stafip, since Camden describes it as ' a bannerol! 
of gold and purple, interwoven palie or hendie'^ Camden's followers 
settled this coat to have been paly^ and assigned it in their ^hion to 
Bemicia, giving the very much more suspicious cross and lions to 
Deira, and the two are often drawn among the * arms of dominion' of 
the King of England in the heraldic collections of the early sixteenth 
century.^® The County of Northumberland represents to-day, after the 
waxings and wanings of thii*teen centuries, the old Bemician state 
that rose round the basalt rock of Bamburgh ;^^ and whatever doubts 
may be cast on the origin of the banner of eight red and gold stripes 
ascribed to the king who made Northumberland a name to be ever 
honoured in Christendom, it forms a coat as illustrious as it is simple,^ 
and one that can have no rival among a people really proud of the 
history of their county. 

Oswald's wife was a West Saxon princess ; can she haye sought refuge in her 
own country after his death, as Ethelburh did in Kent after the death of her 
husband Edwin, and founded this religious house ? 

' Camden Remaines eonceming Britainet ed. ?hilipot, 1637, p. 206. 

'<> E.g. Harl. M8. 6823. The town of Tynemouth, it will be remembered, 
bears the arms ascribed to St. Oswin, guleSf three erowns or, 

" Neither a diminution of area nor a loss of independence affects the right 
of a country to its armorial ensigns ; the Kougresovka or mock kingdom of 
Poland, manufactured by the Congress of Vienna, retains the white eagle of the 
ancient Republic, and the Prussian province of Hanover the white horse of its 
former sovereigns. 

*' The advantages of a simple combination of colours easily produced for 

Surposes of decoration are sufficiently obvious, ' The coUfun of a province, 
ukedom, or freetown,' Dr. Woodham remarks in his valuable account of the 

Seraldry of the University of Cambridge, *■ so far from excluding ordinaries, are 
almost confined to them. Compare for instance, Hungary, Austria, Bavaria, 
Angoul^me, Brabant, the French and Belgian tricolors, &c. The canton of Fri- 
burg bears sabU and argent, that of Zurich argent and azure, the former per 
f esse, the latter per bend sinister ; and a better example of the intrinsic property 
of ordinaries could scarcely be found : the colours would be perfectly distinct in 
the field, and answer all the purposes of rallying points.* — IHiblieations of Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Sooiety^ No. IV. p. 21. 


By John V. Grbgoey. 
[Read on the 26th July, 1888.] 

Rbpeebing to Dr. Bmbleton's interesting paper ' On Certain Peculi- 
arities in the Dialeot of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Northumberland/ * 
it may be observed that, whatever may have been the origin of the 
peculiar pronunciation of the letter R in Northumberland, there are very 
strong reasons against the opinion that it is due to Danish influence. 

That it could (according to Dr. Embleton's suggestion) originate 
from Danish influence in the tweUlbh and thirteentli centuries seems 
incredible, because there was no immigration of Danes at that time 
to account for any effect whatever on the speech of the people. 

Dr. Embleton supplies good arguments that it did not originate 
from the Danes who invaded and settled in England in the eighth, 
ninth, and tenth centuries, because the guttural u in Danish is of 
later introduction; but, as it is sometimes assumed by other writers 
that the peculiarity comes from those Danish invaders and settlers, it 
may be worth while to show why such could not have been the case. 

The Danish settlements in England were mainly in Yorkshire, 
Lincolnshire with the districts west of it, and Norfolk. They also 
extended, but less numerously, north and south of those limits into the 
oonnty of Durham, and into Suffolk. South of Suffolk there were 
Danish piratical incursions, but settlements are rare, and the same 
north of the Tyne, till we come to the north of Scotland, where, as on the 
Western coasts, the settlements were rather Norwegian than Danish. 

It will be observed that the districts in which Danish settlements 
occnr are wholly in the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, and East 
Anglia, which, as will also be noticed, are those which had been pre- 
vionsly settled by the Anglian branch of the Anglo-Saxon people. 

The dialect of the Angles was not the same as that of the Saxon 
branch which settled in the south of England. 

If the origin of the Northern hurr were Danish, we ought to find it 
the most strongly marked where the Danish settlements were the most 
numerous — in the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire, in Lincolnshire, 
andin EastNorfolk — but being entirely absent in these localities, it seems 
plain that it has not been derived from the influence of the Danish settlers. 
' Arehaeologia Aeliana^ XIII. 72. 


Oonoeming the present county of Northomberland^ it has been 
sbown^ that, if place names are any guide, there were no Danish settle- 
ments on the east coast north of the Tyne. 

North of the Tweed the Teutonic population was not entirely 
Anglian. An earlier settlement in Lothian appears to have been 
Frisian, and the mixture with the Ancient British tribes, whether 
Picts or Oymry (both probably the same race, though that is a question 
outside the present argument), was probably greater than between Tyne 
and Tweed. These facts may account for the absence of the Northam- 
berland R north of the Tweed, supposing it to be of Anglian origin. 

It would therefore appear that the territory in which the Angles 
were least mixed with other tribes was the present county of Northum- 
berland. Here the Anglian dialect would, therefoi'e, retain its purity 
with least change by influence from other quarters; and this being 
exactly the district where the burr occurs, we are led to the inference 
that if the burr is derived from some early mode of pronunciation, it 
is a survival of the pure Anglian dialect where it is least mixed with 
either Danish or other tongues. 

The burr is indigenous to Newcastle, but not to Sunderland. 
There were Danish settlers at Sunderland, but not at Newcastle.' If 
the burr had been from the Danes, it would have been a Sunderland 
and not a Newcastle peculiarity. 

But it is necessary to remark that it cannot be maintained with 
certainty that the burr is a survival of Anglian speech. It looks 
likely; but we can only go so far as to say that (^ it is so early a fonn 
of speech, then it is Anglian, and in no case can it be Danish. 

It is, however, not at all improbable that a later origin should be 
assigned to it. The county of Northumberland was much isolated 
from the rest of England in the olden times, and it would not be at 
all strange if, in the changes which are constantly going on in dialects 
as well as languages, and in pronunciation as well as etymology, the 
peculiarity referred to may have gradually arisen, and, though not 
from Danish influence. Dr. Embleton*s supposition of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries might still not be far from the mark. 

The only object of this short note is to endeavour to show, not 
when the burr originated, but that it is not Danish. 

' Arehaeologia Aeliana, IX. 67. 

■ See Mr. Heslop's paper, Aroh, Ael^ X. 93, and see also X. 186. 


Bt E. 0. Hbdlet. 

[Bead on the 28th March, 1888.] 

An apology may appear to be needed for treating this sabjeot at some 
length. Such a mode of treatment seems however to be warranted 
from the fact that, with the exception of the Rev. G. Some Hall's 
exhanstive and able papers on the Camps of Upper Tynedale^, nothing 
has been done towards a systematic examination and description of 
this class of pre-historic antiquities for the purposes of Oomparative 
Archaeology. The Ancient Briton as deposited in the grave has re- 
ceived much attention : — ^his mode of burial, by inhumation, or after 
cremation ; — his cinerary urns and other sepulchral vessels ; — his 
implements, domestic and warlike ; — his personal appearance and 
mental capacity as shown l)y his skull and other bones ; all these have 
been studied, described, and illustrated ably and exhaustively : but of 
the people who occupied Northumberland previous to the Roman in- 
vasion, in relation to their domestic and political life, we have very 
little information. It is obvious that an investigation of the nature 
of tlieir habitations and places of defence must throw strong light on 
then* manner of life. A recital of dry facts and details, in many cases 
isolated, may not possess the interest attached to more tangible results, 
— such as the discovery of an altar, a weapon, or an urn, — but it is to 
be hoped that the series of papers which it is proposed to lay before the 
Society, with a view to assist in this investigation, may not be entirely 
resultless. I have undertaken to plan and describe these fortified sites 
in Northumberland which I may from time to time have an opportunity 
of surveying and examining. I shall endeavour in this effort to avoid 
speculation, and to bring forward the facts in each case with as strict 
a regard to accurate observation and correct relation as I am able. 

The Camps of Upper Coqubtdale. 

In the examination of this series, I have been associated with Mr. 
D. D. Dixon, of Bothbury, to whose local knowledge and interest in 
* Arehaeologia Aeliana, Vol. VIL, pp. 3-17. 



this subject much is due. The district of Upper Goquetdale lying 
between Brinkbum priory on the east and Alwinton on the west, a 
distance of 15 miles, is peculiarly rich in evidences of early occupa- 
tion. These consist of fortified sites, hut circles, burial mounds, and 
standing and incised stones. I propote to lay before the Society a plan 
and description of each important camp, and notice the other remains 
of pre-Roman occupation in connection therewith, in order of position, 
commencing with the eastern part of the district. 


This camp is situated at the north-western extremity of Lee Ward 
township, and in that part of Bothbury parish, known as ' Bothbury 
Forest.' It is about 1| miles due south from Bothbury, and occupies, 
as is usual the summit of a lofty ridge (an eastern spur of Simon- 
side), 879 feet above sea level. The view from the ramparts is ex- 
tensive, and includes much of the Cheviot range, Druridge Bay, 
Coquet Island, and the valley of the Coquet from Warkworth to Har- 
bottle. This position implies an obvious and ready means of com- 
munication with a large tract of country which may be assumed to 
have been extensively occupied in pre-historic times judging by the 
evidences still left to us, remembering also that many remains have 
been swept away by lapse of time and cultivation. This communica- 
tion with places at a distance may have been rendered more easy and 
far-reaching by the use of Spy Law as a signal station. This hill 
forms a prominent feature in many Northumbrian lands^pes, being 
1,181 feet above sea level. On its summit is a huge pile of rough 
stones, displaying neither methodical arrangements nor any distinct 
indication of its ancient use. On a platform west from the pile is a 
circle composed of heaped up stones, which has an internal diameter 
of 86 feet, and an external one of 54 feet. As Spy Law is also known 
as ' The Beacon/ it probably was used as a site for one of the fires 
which gave the alarm on the occasions of Scotch forays, and it may 
have been used in still earlier times for a similar purpose. It would 
be vain at present to hazard an opinion as to the uses to which this 
pile and circle were originally put ; they have been regarded as 
watch-towers, but no evidence has been advanced in &vour of this 

Archa^ olo gxa^ Ae 





Lor^i ns Haws 

British Camp 



It may be remarked that, as in the case of most camps^ so also at 
Lnrganshaws, the site is overlooked by a higher hill at no great distance. 
This might seem to be a great disadvantage, but an apparently inferior 
site was perhaps necessitated by its being essential to have snch a supply 
of water as was not obtainable at the higher elevation. 

From the ramparts of Lnrganshaws may be seen the camp of Burgh 
near Great Tosson, on its green basaltic hill, in striking contrast to the 
surrounding dark heath : this is to the south of the Coquet. To the 
north are * Old Rothbury ' and West Hills camps, — to the east Grarleigh 
Pike, with its group of hut circles, southward is Ewesley camp, and 
further up the Coquet valley may be seen the camps at Newtown, 
Harehaugh Hill, Hetchester, and Oaistron (Ceasterton). In a more 
comprehensive view may be seen Robert's Law, Cartington Pike, 
Debdon Moors, Cragside, and the hills of Rimside Moor, all of which 
bear evidences of early occupation. 

The camp at Lnrganshaws is one of the most perfect in the county. 
Its defences are in good preservation except in a part of the eastern 
ramparts where the two outer lines are much destroyed ; probably 
due to the cultivation of the adjoining land, and is distinguished 
in the parish tithe maps as 'Old Improvement.' The defences 
consist of three ramparts of earth and stone, with a ditch between 
the two outer ones, which at present is in many places 12 feet deep. 
The outer rampart has a circumference of 474 yards and encloses 
an area of 8*488 acres. The innermost one with a circumference 
of 225 yards encloses an area of 1*282 acres, thus leaving a space 
of 2-201 acres : this large area between the two lines of defence 
appears to point to a provision for enclosing and defending the 
flocks and herds of the occupiers of the camp. The intermediate 
space, as will appear by the plan, is subdivided, the portion to the 
south of the west gateway being terraced in a fashion that does not 
occur anywhere around, and is undoubtedly artificial as shown by 
its regularity. This terracing is shown in section A-B. In form 
Lnrganshaws camp is an irregular oval. It has two entrances ; an 
eastern and a western. That on the eastern side is an elaborate de- 
fensive work strengthened by traverses to the right and left, which 
extend between the onter and the innermost rampart, and form a 
passage 66 feet long and 18 wide, narrowed at the gateways to 8 feet 


4: incheB. This protected passage way with its outer and inner gates 
may be considered as a rude proto-type of the mediaeval barbican. The 
western gateway possesses at present only one traverse, on the right ude, 
and it is not improbable that this may be accordance with the original 
plan, as there are other instances of gateways which have only a single 
traverse also to the right hand, for instance, as at Quarry House^ and 
Old Bothbuiy. A suggestion may be offered as to this seemingly in- 
complete defence. The sword arm of any assailant penetrating the 
outer gateway, and not his shield protected, left, would be exposed to 
the attacks of the defenders stationed behind the traverse on the right. 

The outer gates at Lurganshaws have large blocks of sandstone on 
each side ; those at the western gateway have been mutilated probably 
by the 18th century builders of Bobert Fitz Soger's deer park wall, 
which runs past the west side of the camp. The presence of this wall 
may also account for the mutilation of the incised stone, noticed 
hereafter, and also for the incomplete state of the southern ramparts, 
which seem to have been robbed of many of their stones. The gateway 
stones of the eastern entrance still remain almost in their original state. 

Traces of a i-oadway may still be seen between the eastern and 
western entrances. 

The principal traffic has been through the eastern gate. A hoUow 
way leads up towards this gate as shown on the plan. It is from 4 to 
9 feet deep, but does not lead quite up to the gate : it may have done 
so originally, but I am not inclined to suppose that this hollow way is 
to any great extent, if at all, designedly artificial.^ Previous to the 
construction of the camp, the guUy probably existed in a modified 
form, and carried off the drainage from the plateau above : during the 
use of the camp, the constant traffic of men and animals, and the flow 
of a considerable amount of drainage water, would easily hollow out 
the way to its present dimensions. Many of these so-called hollow 
ways exist in the district of Lurganshaws, and are regarded by some as 
roadways of pre-historic times ; the evidence of their artificial nature 
is very slender ; the main fact insisted upon is their apparent connec- 
tion with camps : this may be explained by the reasons given above 
in connection with Lurganshaws. 

* Arohaeologia Aeliana, Vol. XII., p. 169. 

* Canon Gieenwell believes "that they are trackways at people bringing 
peat from the bogs." 


L line of stones^ described in the Paiish Tithe Maps as ' Large 
stones set in a line,' and which seem to be either designedly or 
accidentally, a continuation of the hollow way extends across the 
morass, bebween the hill on which the camp is situated and Garleigh 
Pike. Similar alignments are also to be seen on the northern and 
south-eastern slopes of the hill : these have been noticed by Canon 
Greenwell in British Barrows, p. 480. 

In the space between the outer and second ramparte at Lurgan- 
shaws, on the southern and south-eastern sides of the camp, are a 
series of earth and stone rampiers, dividing the intermediate space 
between the defences, into several enclosures, which may have been 
used as night-folds for the protection of the occupiers' stock. Within 
one of the subdivisions are the remains of two hut-circles each 15 feet 
in diameter. 

Within the inner rampart are remains of several hut circles, two 
have been excavated, the larger one, 19 feet in diameter, has an en- 
circling wall about 2 feet high, formed carefully of freestone slabs. 
Another small chamber has been formed in the thickness of the 
southern rampart ; and the walls at least on the west side seem to have 
been straight lines. This, probably a guard chamber, is situated on 
the side of the camp immediately facing Spy Law. 

Two lai^ rocks in the neighbourhood of Lurganshaws camp have 
cut upon them the mysterious markings, which were first brought to 
public notice by Canon Greenwell in a paper read before the Archaeo- 
logical Institute at Newcastle, in July, 1852. Several series of these 
markings have been figured and described by the late Mr. Oeo. Tate, 
in Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Field Clvib^ Vol. V., 
1864, p. 137. The Lurganshaws series is as yet inedited : the first of 
them was only discovered so late as 1870. I forbear, at present, to 
make any conjectures as to their meaning, merely remarking their 
frequent association with camps and occurrence in intimate connection 
with burials. 

In relation to the camp, the rocks at Lurganshaws are as follows. 
The first is a large earth-fast rock 288 yards west from the western 
gateway. Part of the northern face has been quarried away, cutting 
through the centres of two series of circles, as shown by the rubbing ; 
15 markings are still left in fairly perfect condition. The next is 


154 yards north-north-wesfc from the first : it is comparatively a small 
stone, bat contains an interesting example of the horse-shoe marking, 
with a series of pita within it. 

Two other large rocks, 187 yards east from the north-east angle 
of the camp, contain many pits and hollows, which are probably 
artificial, being possibly the remains of the central cups and markings 
which have yielded to the action of the weather. This &te will soon 
overtake the other incised stones, now that their covering of peat and 
heath has been removed. 

Old Rothburt Camp. 
[Read on the 26th September, 1888.] 

Half a mile N.W. from Rothbury, and immediately behind The 
Penny Stane Qnarry, is situated the camp of Old Rothbury. It 
occupies the western extremity of the freestone range which encircles 
Lord Armstrong's grounds at Cragside and the village of Rothbury. 
The situation is naturally a very strong one on its northern and 
westero sides. To the east it is sheltered by a higher plateau of the 
same formation, but this shelter is gained at the expense of security, 
as the site is overlooked and commanded from this plateau within 
bowshot of the ramparts. 

The camp area is intersected N. and 8. by a road, and E. and W. 
by a farm fence. Such portions as lie to the north of this fence have 
been under cultivation, and consequently the defences have been very 
much destroyed. 

The eastern lines immediately N. of the gateway mentioned below 
are in particularly fine preservation. They consist of two ramparts 
and two ditches : the dimensions of which are as follows. Depth of 
first ditch, 5 feet 8 inches ; height of first rampart from outer ditch, 
7 feet 4 inches ; depth of inner ditch, 8 feet 6 inches ; height of 
inner rampart, 7 feet. 

The defence of the south side has consisted of two ramparts and two 
ditches. Of these, little that is instructive now remains. The situa- 
tion here is marshy, and possibly the stones composing the ramparts 
have been extracted to use for other purposes. The ramparts end 



PLotoLliiopr*pl»d&fVialKiby Jin. « Aii«a«i..6 Qu-u Square 


abraptlj at their western extremity, and leave a passage 85 feet wide, 
which may have been, and probably was, one of the camp gateways. 

The west side of the site, at least southward of the stone wall 
mentioned as intersecting the camp, is naturally very well defended, 
for here the freestone range ends in a rugged and inaccessible crag. 
Northward of the stone wall where the natural position is weaker, a 
rampart of stone has been constructed, of this little remains but heaps 
of rubble and i*efuse, as the stones suitable for walling have been 
taken away. 

Several circular dwellings may be traced in the angle between this 
rampart and the modem stone wall ; these possess no special features 
of interest, and have only escaped by their situation near the crag face, 
where an insufficiency of soil prevented cultivation. 

Much detritus covers the crag face at the north-east corner, and 
this seems to have been taken advantage of for use as a roadway, 
probably to the well situate near the base of the hill, within the outer 
ramparts, and not far from Kimmernod house. 

The north face of the camp site, though covered with soil and 
stone rubbish, is still very steep, and has been regarded as sufficiently 
strong to need no further protection than that afforded by a rampart 
and ditch scarcely traceable now, and probably at no time very large. 
These are not shown on the plan. This defence runs round the base 
of the hill, and includes the well of the camp within its circuit. 

A fine entrance to this camp may be seen at the S.E. comer, 
where a ledge of rock forms an excellent passage to the hill face over- 
hanging Bothbury. This gateway may have had some connection 
with a rampart and ditch, which, first seen near the County Hotel, 
run up the hill face towards the camp, and join in a portion of their 
course, a deep gully known as Antons Letch, which once used to 
harbour a ghost. To the north of this south-east entrance, the outer 
rampart is recurved to meet the inner, thus forming as may be seen 
in other examples,^ a traverse to the right hand on entering. 

The total area enclosed by the inner part of Old Bothbury is 
8*429 acres, within a circuit of 580 yards. 

A curious feature in this camp is a mound of earth and stone 
shown on the plan. It may have been a portion of a camp which 
* See Vol. XII., p. 159. 


existed here when the present doable ramparted area was enclosed, 
or it may be the remains of a division or defence for enclosing the 
flocks and herds of the tribe or commanitj who occupied the camp. 
What militates against either suggestion is that the termination of 
the embankment hear the centre of the camp, is quite distinct, and 
its further course across the area is not to be traced even with the aid 
of the imagination. A third suggestion is that it may have been 
constructed specially as a shelter from the north to a group of 10 or 
12 hut-circies clustered under its southern side. The most easterly of 
these circles is of very great diameter, viz., 56 feet, the one next to it 
on the west is also greater than any of the others now remaining, 
being 20 feet across, whereas the ordinary diameter is 16 feet. Without 
any great stretch of the imagination, we may regard this very large 
circle, which was probably never roofed in, as a place of general 
assembly, and the large circle next it as the abode of some person of 
greater consequence than those housed in the lesser huts. 

Bound about Old Rothbury the hills are studded with burial 
mounds : two of these have been examined by Canon Greenwell.* One 
of these burial mounds is known as *The Futtbaa' Cairn': it is 
situated on the hill immediately to the north of the camp. 

Mr. D. D. Dixon says, * it was here where, a few years ago, accord- 
ing to ancient custom, the ball to be contested for by the inhabitants 
of Thropton and Rothbury, was thrown up with all due ceremony by 
the village bailiffs, who carried with them their halberts, — insignia of 
office.* This custom of a football contest at Shrovetide is of great 

Round about the camp are scattered hut-circles and earthworks, 
the particular uses of which are not now very apparent. It is 
probable that these earthworks are co-aeval with the camp, and were 
used at such times as the camp was not occupied. The camps known 
as ' British ' seem from their situation and construction to have been 
made, not for permanent residence or to withstand a long siege, but only 
to retire to in times of danger, and to form a defence against surprise. 
From what we know of uncivilised races, we may infer that the 
ancient Britons during times known vaguely as pre-historic, wonld, 

» BrUish Barrow*, p. 428 to 433. 

• Brandos Popular AwtiquUies, 4to, 1813, Vol. I., pp. 62, 76. 


when not anited into their respective septs in time of tribal danger, 
be addicted as their successors up to the 17th and even 18th century 
were to cattle-lifting and petty forays. Such a state of insecurity may 
have caused the construction of the camp which is under consideration. 

A large oblong rock jutting out from the southern face of the 
hill on which the camp stands, is known as ' Kate's East.' It has a 
horizontal deft near its top. Whether this curious name is a freak of 
modem local nomenclature, or whether it enjoyed a more extended 
use, going back to pre-Roman times, it is not for us to suggest. 

Below the camp also is Oartington Gove, a recess or cave which 
local tradition says is connected by a subterranean passage with Oar- 
tington Castle, three miles distant I However, much we may be in- 
clined to smile at the credulity which accepted without question such 
a tradition as this, at the same time it is quite possible, that, though 
perverted by centuries of oral transmission, we have in these traditions, 
the mark of some event sufficiently important at the time of its 
occurrence to have a place in the unwritten volame of local records. 

The rock at Cartington Oove has a series of rock markings upon it. 
These consist of simple pits or hollows, if any concentric circles and 
groves ever existed, they have now disappeared. These markings are 
known locally as Cups and Saucers ; they are referred to in Andmt 
British Sculptured Rocks of Northumberland, by Mr. Geo. Tate, p. 10.* 

• Benviekshire NaturaliM Field Club Trafuaotions, Vol. V., pp. 137-138. 



By Maberly Phillips. 

[Read on the 28th November, 1888.] 

At the monthly meeting of our society in October, 1887, it was my 
privilege to read a paper upon * Disused burial-grounds in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wooler.' I was then accorded so patient a hearing that * 
I have been tempted to bring the matter again before you. 

My investigations have led me to many interesting particulars re- 
garding disused burying-grounds in or near Newcastle, the first of 
which I introduce to your notice this evening as * The Quicks Bnring 
Plas in Sidgatt.' 

First, it may be well to identify the spot of this almost forgotten 
graveyard, then to trace its origin and history, and give what aocoant 
the few records available permit of some of those that have from time 
to time become the tenants. 

During the latter part of the seventeenth century, had any good 
townsman been desirous of wandering from St. Andrew's Church to 
' Jesmunt ' he would have had to pass through the gloomy portals of 
the New Gate, and make his way along Sidgate. On his left he 
would soon pass the * Blind Man's Lonnin,' where the town had 
recently spent 6s. for a new gate to be placed. 

Doubtless the blind man would be basking in the sunshine that 
favoured the place in those days, and we trust the town officials were 
as considerate to this mendicant as they were to the one in Sandgate, 
for whom they provided a * boule ' in which to receive his offerings, as 
the following entries show: — *Paid for working 9 lb. of Danske iron 
in a great boule for the blind man in Sandgate 4d., for nails 2d., and 
hanging 4d. — lOd. in all.' 

Leaving our blind friend to the charity of the traveller, and pass- 
ing eastward in the direction of the Swirle, a small runner that 
emptied itself into Sidgate, we should soon reach the burying-ground 
in question with its modest head-stones marking the resting places of 
the departed. 


Bat time has wroaght its changes. The Sidgate is now onlj 
known as Percy Street. The Swirle has. vanished entirely, and the 
few, who in more modem days knew of the graveyard, have identified 
it, to use the glowing words of the local historians, as ' The Campus 
Martins of the young gentlemen belonging to the Percy Street 
Academy.' To-day we must describe it as in St. Thomas's Street, 
occupying the site of Messrs. Slater's store houses and yard for hay, 
com, etc., and the small garden to the north. 

Now, for a moment, let me take you to another part of the town. 

Should one of my audience look into the vestibule of the Uni- 
tarian church in New Bridge Street, he will be faced by a stone 
painted black with gilded letters, bearing the inscription: — 


CHBiSTi I D.V. Hac iN urbb | PastorIs VioiLANTissiMi | oFFioij 

ULT. I VEB. 29. 30. 32. 33 | 1681.' 

The Rev. E. H. Adamson has kindly favoured me with the follow- 
ing translation: — 'Over the remains lying underneath of a venerated 
parent, William Durant, A.M., by the Divine will a most vigilant 
pastor of the Church of Christ in this Town — his son, John Durant, 
lamenting and grieving, out of dutiful regard and filial piety hath 
placed this tomb-stone.' The texts from the last chapter of Joshua 
refer to the burial in private ground of Joshua, Joseph, and Eleazar 
the priest. 

As my investigations have led me to believe that this stone was (if 
I may be pardoned the expression) the foundation stone of the 
* Quicks' burying-ground, we must take it into our consideration firet. 

William Durant, to whose memory it was erected, was a man who 
played no unimportant part in the history of our town, prior to, 
during, and subsequent to the eventful period known as the Common- 

In 1645 Durant was appointed Lecturer at St. Nicholas's by the 
Common Council, in 1646 he was settled as Morning Lecturer at All 
Saints'. In 1652, on July 30th, * The Common Council ordered that 
upon Monday after the Judges comeing to this towne, Mr. Durant be 
desired to preach before them.' 


In 1653 he was one of those who met at Alderman (Jeorge Daw- 
son's house, when one fian^y^ who had assumed the name of Joseph 
Ben Israel and the character of a converted Jewish fiabbi, was 
examined as to his sinceritj. The meeting led to the publication of a 
tract, entitled ' A False Jew or a Wonderful Diacoyery of a Scot, 
Baptized at London for a Christian, Oircnmcised at Bome to act a 
Jew, re-baptized at Hexham for a believer but found out at New- 
castle to be a cheat.' 

In 1656 the Afternoon Lectureship of All Saints' fell to Dnrant's 

In 1658 Dnrant was acting as one of the Commissioners for 
examining the ministers, interesting evidence of which has been 
kindly furnished to me by my Mend Mr. Horatio A. Adamson of 
North Shields, in the following extracts from the records of Tyne- 
mouth parish: — 

'165| 3 Jany. We the churchwardens of the Pariah of Tynemonth doe 
humbly present this Bearer M'. Jo Vaje Minister to be examined by yon 
whether he is fitt to receive a Oall by thin prsh to be their minister he haying 
spent some tyme and paines and is generly liked by ye said pr*K 

Ordered — That a Cesse be laid on for the discharge of M' Vayes lodging and 
diett till such tyme as he is sattled minister of this prsh and have his means and 
M** Blachiston M' Taylor and Edward Hodghon is ordered to provide the place 
where the s*^. M' Vaye shall reside for his lodging and diet. 

7^ Jany. Att ye meetng of the 24 the 3^ of Ja: M' Ralph ffenwick M'. Jo 
Blachiston Bdward Hodgson M' Bich^ Walter and Will Taylor acooredg un to 
an order made Ja: 3*^. inst fu going along to the comm<*. to Newcastle with W. 
John Vaye to be examine the ptie^ above mentioned doe return the accompt to 
ye 24 of the business as f oUoweth. 

That they havng heard M' Hammond M' Weld and M'. Duiant examine the 
said party in several matters touching the histoiy of ye Bible and other things 
relating to the ministere all functions, found him very weak and ignorant and 
altogether unfitt to preach or exercise in the worke of ye minesteiy. 

Whereupon the 24 doe order that notwithstanding the former oall given unto 
M'. Vady the 13 of Decemb'. last past by ye said 24 att Preston likewise an other 
order made the 3*^ of January concaming the maintenance of ye said M'. Vady 
both w''. orders the said 24 doe this day make null and void, and doe hereby dis- 
cUdme and discharge the said M' Vaye, not holding it fitt to have anything 
further to doe with him. Doe desire M^ Blackiston Edward Hodghon and 
William Taylor to give notice to the Home that M' Vady shall be noe longer 
there upon the^r«A account but till Munday next.* 


In the year 1662, as Dorant could not comply with the require- 
ments of the Act of Uniformity, he left the pale of the Established 
Gbnrch, and threw in his lot with the Nonconformists. 

Our next record of Durant is in 1669, when upon July 22nd, 
'Before Ralph Jenison Mayor of N'castle Cuthbert Nicholson Oordwainer (and 
public informer) saith that upon Sunday last there was assembled at the house 
of William Durant in Pilgrim Streete a great multitude of people consisting to 
the number of 160 persons or thereabouts, under the pretence of religious 
worship and senrioe, for he heard them sing psalms, And after singing was done 
he did see and heare the said William Durant pray amongst the said people. 
And Robert Fryrer one of the sergeants att mace being with the churchwardens 
of the same parish did in the name of M' Mayor discharge them there unlaw- 
fully assembled and upon that they dispersed themselves.* 

And again upon August 4th Durant was charged by the same in- 
foimer with being at ' a meeting and conventicle held at the house of 
M' Richard Qilpin in the White Freers.' 

In 1672, when King Charles the II. granted his licenses of in- 
dulgence to tender consciences, Durant applied on April 16th for per- 
mission to be ' an Independent Teacher in a Boome of the Trinity 
House called the chappell,' * but this was refused. He, however, upon 
May 18th, obtained a license to be a Congregational preacher. 

In 1681 death put an end to his chequered career, but standing 
excommunicated at the time, his perplexed family knew not what to 
do with his remains, so buried him in the garden of his house in 
Pilgrim Street. The house is generally supposed to have stood at the 
comer of High Friar Street. 

Shortly after his death, his son. Dr. John Durant, erected a tablet 
to his memory. 

Brand, the historian, informs us that 

* He found the inscription on a flat grave-stone, under a staircase, in one of 
the stables of the late Sir Walter Blackett*s house in Pilgrim Street. The stable 
appears to have been built over it. The place was long known among the 
serrants by the name of " The Dead Man*s Hole.** The grave-stone was presented 
by M' George Anderson, during the ministry of M' Turner, to the church 
worshipping in Hanover-square. In the ministry of the Rev^ George Harris, 
the congregation erected a church in New Bridge Street ; and the stone was 
then removed from the chapel-yard in Hanover Square, and incorporated in 
the walls of the new structure, in the vestibule.* 

In two short years, Dr. John Durant himself, who so recently had 
raised a stone to his father's memory, joined the great majority, and 

> See p. 63. 


as history informs us that he was interred in the borying-ground at 
the Sidgate, we are pretty safe in fixing the date of the opening of 
the ground in question as between 1681 when William Dorant died 
and was buried in his garden, and 1688 when his son, Dr. John 
Durant, was laid in Sidgate. 

My own opinion is that John Durant was the first interred there. 

The only attempt that I have found among local accounts to fix 
the ownership of this ground ascribes it to the Hudsons of Whitley. 
However, that may have been in later times^ I am able to show a 
much earlier proprietorship. 

Under the year 1688 I came upon the name of James Durant in 
the index to the wills at Durham. On perusing the will I was agree- 
ably surprised to find several particulars which throw much light upon 
the matter we are considering. The will ran : — 

<ln the name of God Amen. I James Durant of the Ck>untj & Town of 
Newcastle upon Tjne North*^ being sick in body, but of sound & disposing mind 
k memoiy, make this my last will & testament in manner & torm following (that 
is to say) Imprimus I give & devise unto my sister Jane Durant, all that my 
close or parcel of ground situate near a Street called Sidgate without the walls 
but within the liberties of Newcastle upon Tyne the aforesaid, which I lately 
purchased of my late Mother Jane Durant & which is now used for a burial place 
k now in the possession of me the said James Durant, to have and to hold the 
said close or parcel of ground unto my said sister Jane Durant, fur 8c during her 
natural life & after her death k decease then the same to revert & come to my 
Nephew George Durant & his heirs for ever.' 

He further leaves £15 to his apprentice Paul Hudspeth, and his 
household goods to his brother-in-law, Henry Shaw of Gateshead, 
merchant, and finally constitutes the said Henry Shaw his sole execu- 
tor. The will is dated September 8th, 1688. 

Trom the will I think we may fairly assume that after the death 
of William Durant his wife Jane, feeling the cruel position she was 
placed in at her husband's death, had either purchased a piece of 
ground or appropriated some that she already owned as a burial-place 
for her family and friends. Mrs. Durant was the sister of Sir James 

The mortality in the Durant family about this time is remarkable. 
Jane Durant, widow of William, must have passed away, and would 
probably be buried in Sidgate. 


Benezer Durant was another son of William. The books of the 
Merchants' Company show that on September Ist, 1064, he was ap- 
prenticed to Sir James Clavering (his ancle), Merchant Adventurer 
and Mercer. He evidently prospered, for in 1676 his younger brother 
James (whose will we have been considering) was set over to him to 
work out his apprenticeship. In 1680 Benezer's wife died, as the 
following entiy from St. Nicholas's shows : — 

* Dec' 10 Mary wife of Benezer Dnrant Merch* (who dyed excommunicated) 
was buried contrary to act of Parliament for burying in Woollen, her husband 
paying the penalty by that act required ' (which was £,6), 

Whether this is simply a record regarding the ' burial in woollen,' 
or whether it means that Mary was buried in 8t. Nicholas's, is difficult 
to determine. 

The lesser excommunication removed a person from participation 
in the sacraments, but the greater excommunication, called the ana- 
thema, expelled him from the church and deprived him of Christian 
burial. Mrs. Durant may have incurred the lesser excommunication 
only, and, therefore, was not denied burial at St. Nicholas's; but, in 
this very year, we read that * Ajnbrose Barnes (the celebrated Puritan 
Alderman) and fifty others have not been at church for the last 12 
months, or have come when prayers were nearly done. Excommuni- 
cated 3 times.' 

Benezer Durant evidently married again and died before 1686, as 
we find from an entry at Durham, May 17th : — 

*Bond of this date between Jane Durant of Newcastle Widow G. A. Mathew 
of same Cork Cutter and John Bolton of same Yeoman. Conditioned that the 
above Jane Durant administers the Goods of Benezer Durant Merchant her late 
husband late of the chapelry of All Saints N'Castle.* 

He would probably be buried at Sidgate, as we do not find his 
death recorded in any of the parish registers. 

In 1686 St. Nicholas's register has the entry of the death of 'Jane 
Durant, Widdow' (Benezer's second wife), which a further record 
from the Will Office at Durham proves : — 

*May 28, 1688. Bond of this date between Richard Wall of Newcastle 
Chemist John Trotter of the same place Merchant & John Pickles of same 
Notary Public. Conditioned that the above Richard Wall administers the goods 
that belong unto Benezer Durant late of K' Castle deceased (not now adminis- 
tered by Jane Dumnt late Wife &. relict and administratrix.)* 


Once again St. NicholaR's register fitvoars as with an entry, Sep- 
tember 17th, 1688 — ' Died James Durant Merchant' As he had lately 
parchased the Sidgate borial-groand and died possessed of the same it 
seems strange that he was not buried within its walls. 

Having, I hope, established the origin of the burying-gronnd and its 
early ownership, it will be as well now to give the dates and names in 
• chronological order of those that I have been able to trace fix>m varions 
sources as resting within its walls. 

1683, John Durant, M.D., commemorated by a table monument of 
blue stone. Beneath his arms (a cross crosslet), surmounted by the 
crest of a grifSn passant with expanded wings, is the inscription: — 

'Mon Christi est vita mea. JohaDiiea Dnrant M.D. obiit — 2 Anno 1688 
ntatis 85. 

Vixi dum vobis, yolui dam christe volebas. — Chiiste Mihi Bpes es Tita corona 

Which our lamented member, the late Mr. James Clephan, has 
rendered in his usual happy style: 

* Willing I lived whilst thou wooldst have me stay 
Thou, Christ, my hope^ life, crown, eternal day ! ' 

Henry Hudson, senior, of Newbiggen, gent., made his wiD 22nd 
Nov., 1700, and after an elaborate religious confession, says: — ^* And 
my body I would have buried beside my wife and daughter in Sidgate 
within the liberties of the town of Newcastle.' That this request was 
carried out I shall be able to prove directly. 

By the kindness of the Bev. J. M. Lister, vicar of St. Andrew's, 
Newcastle, I have been permitted 1^ access to the registers of that 
church, and thei'e from a tangle of entries announcing that ' one had 
rip open her belle with a pair of sissors,' that another ^stab his selph 
with a dager'; of a third 'she hang herself with her own garter,' all 
of whom were buried ' a back of the church '; of numerous pitmen 
that had worked in the coal mines at ^ Jesmunt ' and had been killed 
by the fell of stone or timber, and of ' Men of Mark ' who had been 
laid in places of honour in the choir and the aisles^ I rescued the 
following, which shows that the will of Henry Hudson had been duly 
complied with: — 

* Henry Hntson who lived In Newbegin Buried In the Qviehi Baring Plas In 
Sidgatt The Twenty Second day of Jannaiy 1704.' 


Prom the same registers I also get the three next records: — 

*M' Brown Buried in Sidgatt the Sixth day of ffebruary 1707/ 
Who this gentleman was we cannot say, the family of that name 
being a large one even two centuries ago. The prefix * M'.' assures ns 
that he was a Brown of some note. 

1708 * Elizabeth Conlson Buried in Sidgatt in the Quigs Boring plas near 
the Swrile November 1 1708.' 

She may have been one of the Coulsons of J^smond. In 1665 
William Coulson of Jesmond was imprisoned for words spoken 
against the King. 

1708 'Henry Shaw buried the 21 day of Norember 1708 in Sidgatt near the 
Swrile in the Qaigs Bnring plas.* 

This time we are fortunate, and I think may fairly assume that 
this Henry Shaw was the merchant of Gateshead, who in 1688, as 
brother-in-law of James Durant, was left his household goods and 
appointed sole executor to his will. 

Before we pass on to the next entry, let us drop a word of thanks 
to the quaint quill-man of St. Andrew's register, Robert Dawson, 
weaver, who was chosen parish clerk by Mr. John March, vicar of 
Newcastle, May, 1687. Many of his entries are most amusing in 
their detail. The birth of his own child is recorded in the following 
manner: — 

^ Isabella daughter of Robert Dawson Clerk of 8* Andrews and Isabella HJB 
Wife was Bom The Twelfth day of December In the Morning Be Twixt fiye and 
six aclock And was Baptised The Twenty sizt day of December 1700.* 

He also records many of the events of the day, amongst others I 
noted that 'M'. John ffenwick of Rock Stabd M' ffiirdinando 
foster Esq Parliament Man for Northumberland the Twenty second 
day of August 1701 Be Twixt The White Gross and The Thomtree ; 
and that ^M' John ffenwick of Rock was hanged The 25 day of Sep- 
tember 1701 for Stabin M' ffardinando foster, of Bambro a parlia- 
ment man.' 

At first I was puzzled to account for the derivation of the term 
^ Quicks * and ' Quigs,' but when I find that the same scribe spells 
Whickham 'Quikam,' I think that a strong Northumbrian 'burr' and 
a little phonetic spelling would easily convert * Whigs ' into * Quigs ' 
or * Quicks.' 



1716. On the 27th June, 1712, Enoch Hndfion of Brunton made 
his will. After a strong oonfession of faith he Bays: — 

•And mj body to the earth to be decently interred at the discretion of my 
Bxo'. herein after named 8oe as the f aneral charges exceed not the sam of Fifty 

The executor, Henry Hudson, saw fit to bury him in Sidgate, 
where he was commemorated by a head-stone, inscribed, 'Enoch 
Hudson de Brnnton gtmerosus, obiit Sep. 12th; 1715.* 

He left his brother Henry, Scot's House, to his wife a dwelling 
house in Brunton for the remainder of a lease had from Sir Arthur 
Hasselrigge Bt., to his brother his iron chest, pistols, holsters, best 
saddle, and silver hilted sword. His wife was Ruth Hutchinson. 
They left four daughters,^ Buth, Sarah, Mary, and Hannah; they all 
had considerable portions. Mary married John Dove of Oullercoats. 

1786. On an upright stone : — 

' Here lies the body of the Rey^ M' Robert Marr late pastor of the Garth 
Heads Meeting House.' 

I have not seen any date given of the death of Mr. Marr, but his 
will is at Durham, and is dated- Oct. 19th, 1736. He dies possessed 
of some little worldly property, and leaves to his brothers, Alexander 
and Thomas, and his sister Oatherine, 

* The sum of Bighty four pounds lawful money of Oreat Britain the full 
▼alue thereof in Guineas being now as will be found on search in my custody.' 

He further leaves to his relatives his interest in sundry bonds of 
obligation for 1,400 Scottish Marks. Taking the value of a mark at 
Is. 1^. gives about £78. 

1759. On a head-stone:— 

' Here lies the body of John Fife, who departed this life the 20^ of Sep' 
1769 Aged 44 Tears. Isabella the Wife of John Fife departed this life Septem- 
ber the 9^. 1767 Aged 44 years. 

1765. On an upright stone: — 

Hen lies the Bev' M' George Ogilvie leat Min' in Silver S^ who departed this 
life Te 21 April 1765 Aged 67. 

The N&weastU Journal of April 27th gives the foUowing: — 

• Died Sunday April 2^ The ReY<> George Ogilvie Dissenting Minister in Silver 
Street a gentleman greatly respected as a pious, charitable and friendly Man.* 


Mr. Ogilvie would appear, however, to have been a man of some 
little eccentricity, if the stories I have heard of him be correct. One 
was that on a Sunday afternoon if his hearers were drowsy he would 
order the ' Snuff Mill to be ca'd roond the east or wast galleries' as 

From Ogilvie's will, which I found at Durham, dated March 1« 
1765, 1 gather that some little time prior to his death he came into a 
goodly property. He says * My Cousin John Ogilvie of Edmonton died 
some years ago without a Will good in Law T have proved my 
Propinquity to him as Heir at Law so that both his estates at 
Edmonton became mine. I entered on Possession of the Estate at 
Edmonton but from various causes found very little good from it So 
sold it to William Snell Merchant for £800.' The other estate he 
quotes as being at Stock Newington in the Manor of Lady Abney, 
and for which his cousin paid £1,460. 

From the estate £30 is to be paid to the trustees of the college of 
New Jersey in America to be laid out in educating young Indians to 
propagate the gospel among the Indians. Also thirty pounds to the 
trustees of the congregation in Silver Street, the interest of which is 
to be paid annually to the school master, but if there be no school 
master then the said sum shall be annually paid at the discretion of 
the said trustees to the poor ^Eunilies that may belong lo the congrega- 

He appoints Dr. Andrew Wilson, physician, sole executor. 

At present I have not been able to trace the &te of this latter 

1770. On an upright stone: — 

' Here lies the remaios of William Leightou bootmaker, who dejMtrted this 
life Aag* 1. 1770 Aged 66 Vears. Also the remains of Margaret his Wife also 
Alexander and Ralph two of his children.' 

1770. On a head-stone: — 

* To the memory of Andrew Donaldson Inn Keeper who departed this life 
Feb 1 1770 Aged 79.* 

1788. On a head-stone:— 

' The burial place of John Siortun and his family. Alice his daughter died 
May 1778 in the third year of her Age. John his son died April 14^. 1788. in the 
10 Year of his Age.' 


Of this stone and family more anon. 

1784. My next entry records the death of another Silver Street 
minister. A newspaper informs ns that the Rev. James Shield, on the 
18th Feb., 1766, received a call to the Silver Street chapel from Adder- 
ston (another accoant says from Cotherstone) as assistant and suc- 
cessor to the Rev. George Ogilvie, the then minister of the congrega- 
tion, but that Mr. Shield does not appear to have acted as minister 
until Mr. Ogilvie's death. The Newcastle Journal of July, 1766, adds 
tiiat * A few days ago the Rev^ M' Shield entered upon the office of 
the ministry at the Dissenting Meeting House in Silver S^ in room of 
the Rev^ M' Ogilvie Dec ; ' and the Newcastle Chronick of May 22ndy 
1784, has the following:— 'On Thursday the body of the Rev. Mr. 
Shield formerly Dissenting minister of this town was interred in the 
burying-ground in Percy S*^. having been drowned at Sea the preced- 
ing day between Sunderland and the mouth of the harbour.' 

Prior to the next entry a great change comes in the management 
of the ground, so that for the moment I will break from my chrono- 
logical record. 

In the Newcastle Gourant of June 14th, 1786, the following ad- 
vertisement appeared : — 


*The dissenters* Burial Ground in Sidgate having lately been parcbased, 
levelled & enclosed with a good wall: Notice is hereby given that the Pro- 
prietors are ready to treat for the disposal of bnrying places to any person 
desirous of purchasing: & they wish to give the preference to those whose 
families have been accustomed to bury there. For particulars apply to M'. John 
Fife in the Castle Garth or to M^. Thomas Walker House Carpenter at the 
White Cross, Newcastle where plans may be seen.* 

Here, then, is a clear ownership by 'proprietors,' with Mr. John 
Fife of the Castle Garth, and Mr. Thomas Walker of the White Cross, 
as custodians. Let us try to identify these two gentlemen. 

In the Newcastle Directory for 1787, the year following the adver- 
tisement, John Fife, staymaker. Castle Yard, is the only one of that 
name given, and he is repeated in the directories of 1790 and 1801. 
I am told he was the grandfather of Sir John Fife. A gentleman who 
came to the town about 1820 informs me that he remembers seeing 
the sign above the establishment. 


I have quoted a stone to the memory of a John Fife in 1759 and 
of Isabella Fife, 1767, and from the register of the Castle Garth 
Chapel, now in the custody of the churchwardens of St. Nicholas, to 
which I have kindly been allowed access, there is no donbt that more 
than one family of that name was connected with the place as far back 
as 1740. 

I have gathered that John Fife was in an extensive way of busi- 
ness, and travelled the country with pack horses. As a lad he stayed 
often at Romaldkirk, and at the village named he married, on May 
31st, 1762, Miss Sarah Bailes. 

The other custodian is Mr. Thomas Walker, house carpenter^ at 
the White Cross. 

House carpenters were anciently called 'wright«.' The house 
carpenters and joiners originally formed one company, though they 
soon separated. 

After the separation a schedule of work was arranged in which both 
could join, and one thing was Hhe making of chists for corpses, and 
all other chists not pinned with wood.' In 1685 'the Joyners Com- 
pany ordered y^ from henceforth no brother of ye company of Joyners 
shall Keep or sett up aCoffin or other sign at 2 places, but onely either 
at ye house or shopp of such brother upon payment of 6^ & 8^ fine to 
be p^ by every brother soe offending.' 

It is possible that Walker's profession may have led to the position 
he held as one of the custodians of the burying-ground, and that the 
ti-ade sign of a coffin may have 'mensed the door cheek* of his estab- 
lishment at the White Cross. 

The Directory enables us to trace the following :— 

1787. 'John & Thomas Walker Millwrights Pump & beck makers above 
the White Cross.* 

1790. 'John k Thomas Walker Millwrights Pump k, beck makers above 
the White Cross.' 

1810. 'John & Tho«. Walker Millwrights White Cross.* 

1811. * John Walker MiUwright Percy Street.' 

There is little doubt that the Walkers also must have been con- 
nected with the Castle Garth congregation, as there are the births and 
l)aptisms of several children of both a John and Thomas Walker 
between 1759 and 1769. 


At the election in 1780, when Ridley, Bowes, and Delaval were the 
candidates, Thomas Walker, hoose carpenter, plumped for Delaval. 

At this election the Bev. James Murray, author of the celebrated 
Sermons to Asses, proposed a test or pledge to the candidates, whidi 
Sir Matthew White Ridley refused to give. Bowes (the notorioiu 

Stoney) also declined, prefixing a capital D with a to his reftisal ! 

Sir Thomas Delaval gave the pledge, but lost the election. 

I now return to the Sidgate under its new management. How the 
burying-plaoes 'went oflf' we cannot tell. I can only record three 

1785, May 26. Brand tells us that the wife of Dr. Button was 
interred here, and the Newcastle Magazine for May of this year has — 
*Died at Jesmund, near this town M". Hutton, wife of Charles 
Button, LL.D., F.R.S., and Professor of Mathematics in the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich.' Button himself survived his wife 
thirty-eight years. Be was a self-made man of whom Newcastle may 
well be proud. Bom within a stone's throw of where his wife was 
laid, his iather was a collier^ and at an early age Charles started as a 
hewer in Long Benton colliery, but a lameness in his arm from an 
accident rendered him unfit for the employment. Be opened a school 
in Jesmond, then one in Newcastle, where he had success until 1778, 
when he was appointed to Woolwich. Button published 'A Plan of 
Newcastle and Gateshead ' taken from an accurate survey and finished 
in 1770, which is the earliest map that I have found that shows the 

1786. A head -stone records : — 

* This stone is erected by the congregation of Wall Knowls in token of their 
regard to the memory of the Rev<* M'. Alexander Gibson their late Minister, who 
departed this life on the 20^^. day of April 1786 aged 44 years.' 
' O Death where is thy sting 
O Grave where is thy victory ' 

1790. A head-stone gives : — 

'The burial Place of Robert Mitchell Linendraper Newcastle and his family. 
Here lies seven of his children who died in infancy. On the 28^ day of Decem- 
ber 1790 Jannet Mitchell aged seventy years She was forty five years the 
faithful k affectionate wife of the above Robert Mitchell ' 

Mitchell's place of business was at the foot of the Side, i have been 
told that some of the family were in the town until very recently. 


This is the last entry that I can record, though I doubt not many 
more interments were made. 

But the great burying-plaoe for NoncontbrmiBts at this time was 
' The Ballast Hills,' where an enormous number were inteiTed. 

In 1794 bhey are recorded as 650. In 1802 the whole interments 
for the town are quoted as 1,139. These were divided as follows : — 
St. l^ichoks's, 81; All Saints', 152; St. John's, 188; St. Andrew's, 94; 
the Friends' Burial Ground, 2 ; in all 467, while the balance, 672, fell 
to the Ballast Hills. 

During the ten years from 1794 to 1804 no less than 6,178 
interments were made at this ground. It was the property of the 
Corporation — ^most scandalously mismanaged and kept in a dis- 
graceful state. Upon a petition of the inhabitants of that district 
in 1785 the (Jommon Council allowed them at their own expense to 
enclose the ground. They commence their petition by saying that 
numbers of swine were daily observed working and grubbing among 
the graves, which may give some idea how matters stood. 

I have shown the ownership of the ground in 1688, and have 
endeavoured to trace the same to the present day, but with very poor 
saocess. Hutton's plan that I have referred to, made in 1770, shows 
the burial-ground as extending right down to Percy Street. The 
school and adjoining house are not shown, but houses are marked on 
the plan a little to the east, and any casual observer will note a great 
difference in the date of the architecture of the present laundry 
(lately the school) and adjoining the public house and the houses a 
little to the east. 

The next and only other plan that notes the burial-ground is 
Oliver's, taken in 1882, and that merely shows a piece of groand at 
the back of the school buildings, or what was known for many years 
as the high play yard and garden, now Slater's hay and straw yard 
and garden above. 

Oliver's map of 1882 marks the school premises as No. 487, and 
the burying-ground as No. 438, and in the key giving the ownership 
names both as belonging to Miss Hutchinson, but I think this must 
be incorrect, as I find for a great number of years the site of the 
graveyard has b^n owned by the same persons that owned Yilla de 
St. George, the adjoining property to the north. 


Mackenzie) in his History of Newcastle, says: — 'When the late Mrs. 
Hadson sold this groond she reserved the part where some members 
of the Hudson family had been interred at the further end of the 
premises.' This may have been in 1786 when the higher part was 
sold to the 'proprietors/ and future burials confined to it; the lower 
part that faced Percy Street was sold for building sites. At the present 
day the laundry premises are owned by Mrs. Browning (by inherit- 
ance from Miss Hutchinson) and what was the burying-ground and 
Villa de St. George are owned by Mrs. Oarr (by inheritance from Mr. 
Johnson). I have tried to get access to the deeds of the property, 
thinking they might solve this interesting question^ and for tins 
purpose I called upon Mrs. Browning's solicitors in Pilgrim Street, bat 
they politely declined to give me any assistance without the consent of 
their client, whose name and address they as politely declined to give, 
alleging that their client was very old, and they would not trouble 

Mrs. Garr's solicitors reside in London, so that I could not 
interview them, but perhaps the publicity that will be given to this 
paper may lead to some friend furnishing the desired information. 
Messrs. Sanderson^ who own the adjoining property, most kindly 
oflFered me every assistance, but though their deeds trace their 
property back to 1668, when a Mr. Thomas Dunn bequeathed to his 
Wife Margery Dunn a messuage in Sidgate, Newcastle, they give 
no particulars of any use to my subject. 

The only information that I can gather is the following, which 
must be taken for what it is worth, though I have every reason to 
believe that it is substantially correct: — 

It is to the effect that at the end of the last century or very early 
in the present some man in humble circumstances came into a great 
deal of property in Percy Street and the vicinity, that he married some- 
one who kept an earthenware stall in the Bigg Market, and soon after 
died, leaving his widow all his property, that she ere long recovered 
from her sorrow and married one Thomas Greaves a watchmaker 
upon the Quayside (William Greaves, watchmaker. Quayside, may be 
found in the directory for 1778, and the same books for 1787, 1790, 
1801, and 1817 each have Thomas Greaves, watchmaker, Quayside). 
Amongst the property that Greaves so owned was Villa de St. George, 


and here for many years he resided. Oreares was a man of somewhat 
eooentric habits, and is yet remembered by many of the old inhabitants 
of Percy Street. 

I have interviewed perhaps the oldest now to be found. Born in 
Vine Lane at the very early part of the century he has known the spot 
from his earliest memory. *Div aw knaw Tommy Greaves,' was 
his indignant reply, in an injured tone, to my question, 'div'nt 
aw remember the dowter being mawried to Johnson the baoey man ! ' 
Than followed an account how on a certain day the lads were all astir 
upon seeing a sedan chair taken up the narrow lane that led to Villa de 
St. Oeorge, into which Greaves got, and was conveyed by way of the 
Leases and Gallowgate to St. Andrew's Church, the boys all following. 

Mr. Johnson, the tobacconist, undoubtedly did marry into the 
family, but whether he married Greaves's own daughter or the daughter 
of his wife by her former husband I cannot find out; at any rate 
'Johnson came into a great deal of property, and from him the present 
owner inherits what was the Quig's burying-place. 

My 'oldest inhabitant' also informs me that he well remembers 
several head-stones standing in the burying-ground, and that a woman 
occasionally came from the vicinity of Prudhoe Street and gave the 
lads sundry coppers to climb over the walls and see if the head-stone 
of ^her man' was still standing, as she intended being buried beside 
him, but I fear her wish was never realized. 

Such, then, is the veiy imperfect record- that I can give of the 
* Quicks burying-ground.' The question still remains unanswered — 
how has this grave-yard, with its deeply interesting historic associa- 
tions, been allowed to drift from its original purpose ? 

If there is one spot of ground that should claim our tenderest 
r^ard it surely is * God's acre.' After my last paper one of our 
members wrote to me and suggested that in future some of those 
grave-yards that I then named should be called *The Lord's waste.' 
Certainly this one might be added to the number I 

I have interviewed * old boys ' who attended the academy (one as 

far back as 1812), several of whom remember sundry head-stones 

which they used as targets for stone-throwing ; others again, of more 

modern days, had little dreamt that when they indulged in 'Bed 

Stocks • and ' Spenny Wye ' they were scampering over the gi-aves of 

their grandfathers. 

. F ¥ 


One informed mc that he could not remember any head-stones, 
but often had strong suspicions of the very flat stones with which the 
pigsty was paved. 

The historian Brand, writing in 1789, says stones were then 
standing to Enoch Hudson, Durant, Leighton, Marr, and Ogilvie. 
Thanks to the pen of our late member Mr. Thomas Bell, we have a 
record of the stones that he found there in 1830. He says, ' the fol- 
lowing inscriptions remain (August, 1880) in the garden and ground 
attached to the school premises.' He gives full copies, of which I 
have already availed myself , so now need only repeat the names: 
Gibson, Mitchell, Donaldson, Fife, Morton, and Leighton, the last 
being the only stone that Brand mentions. 

By whose neglect these stones have perished I know not, or how 
the property so recently (comparatively speaking) sold as burial sitea 
has passed to private hands I cannot say. 

I am glad to be able to state that one relic is yet left us. I have 
already said that a short while ago buildings were erected round the 
ground, the centre yard being cemented. 

Visiting the spot a tew months since with a iriend who had been 
at school there many years before, we were longing to find scHne frag- 
ment of the old stones when we espied, facing us at the end of a hone- 
trough, a stone much de&ced but still recording the burials of the 
Morton family. I subsequently questioned the builder who made the 
alterations to the premises and he assured me that this is the only 
stone that was found, and that it was exhumed from the vidnity of 
the pig-sty. The stone has been kindly placed at my disposal and is 
now awaiting some fitting resting place, where it may yet give silent 
testimony to the reality of the 'Quigs' burying*ground in the 

The Mortons were evidently members of the Castle Garth con* 
gregation. Indeed, the evidence that we have points very strongly to 
the grave-yard having, in latter days, been owned and largely used by 
members of the Scotch church that met in the Castle Garth. Many 
of their descendants must still be in the town, from whom even yet, 
perhaps, more particulars may be forthcoming. 

The stone that is left records the death of Alice Morton, buried 
May, 1778, in the third year of her age, and of John Morton, buried 


April 14, 1788, in the tenth year of his age ; these with the follow- 
ing entries from the registers referred to exactly tally : — 

1775. 'Alioe Daughter of John k Alice Morton was bom August 18^**. & 
Baptised Sep' 17***.' ' 

1773. * John Son of John & Alley Morton bom September 8**' k Baptised 
Sep'. 29.' 

About six inches of the right hand side of the stone has been 
chiselled off purposely, while the fece bears proofs of ill-usage. 

The story that I tell speaks little for the veneration for their 
fathers of the good people of Newcastle, and makes us regret the 
graves had not been other than they were. 

Had they marked the resting-place of some Ancient Briton, doubt- 
less they would have been 'rifled,' but by canon as learned as any in 
the kingdom, who would have sifted every particle of earth 'and 
registered every grain of evidence that could have been obtained. 

Had they been the graves of some intruding Roman, every frag- 
ment of stone would have been preserved and every abbreviated 
inscription extended and translated in an admirably learned manner ; 
but beingy gentlemen, only the graves of your grandfathers, they have 
vanished from our midst, no arm being raised to stay their flight, no 
pea lifted to record their history. 


By the Rev. G. Rome "Hall, F.S.A., Vicar of Birtley, 

[Read at the Anniversary Meeting, 25th Jannary, 1888.] 

The valley of the North Tyne is rich in remains of many differeofc 
ages, from that which saw the pre-historic tumuli and barrows^ the 
hill forts and lowland fastnesses of oar Ancient British ancestors, down 
to recent times. The great barrier-wall of Hadrian with its adjuncts, 
the noble station of Cilurnnm and its once-imposing bridge, and the 
still fi^uented ' Watling Street;' are among the various relics of the 
prolonged Roman domination. North Tynedale also possesses many 
fine remains of the Norman and Mediaeval period in its andent 
chdrches, castles, pele-towers, and bastel-honses, besides its pictur- 
esque and stately mansions of more modern days. 

There are, however, as we find elsewhere throughout England, 
comparatively few vestiges remaining of pre-Conquest times, the 
Anglo-Saxon period which followed the subjugation and partial extir- 
pation of the Romanised Britons, and which continued for many 
centuries, longer even than the Roman rule in Britain. Our old 
English forefathers were not great church- builders in stone, though 
St. Wilfrid's grand cathedral at Hexham was 'the goodliest church on 
this side of the Alps.' ^ When it rose in finished beauty on its com- 
manding site near the junction of the two rivers North and South 
Tyne, Hextildesham, or Hagulstad, would become to the dwellers in 
the surrounding vales in some measure what Rome was then to the 
Christian world at large — a centre of devotion and a place of 

Among the earliest Christian fonts of the Saxon times (when 
churchyard wells were not used) appear, in this district, to have been 
Roman altars upturned and hollowed out to serve their sacred pur- 
» Riehard of Hewkam, lib. i., cap. 3, Bddm* in Vit, mif. 


pose, and thns thej became tan^ble and endnrin^ memorials of the 
triumph of the Christian religion over pagan idolatries. As at Old 
Haydon chapel, so at Warden church, where the tower shows pre- 
Conquest work, at St. John-Lee church, at St. Oswald's church (a 
fragment found during the recent careful restorabion), and at ChoUer- 
ton church, such Roman altar fonts have been in ancient use; the 
last named being probably the finest example, having been dedicated, 
the vicar, the Rev. Canon Bird, infoims me, to Jupiter; though the 
letters i.o.m. are now illegible, the sacrificial implements are distinct.' 
Farther up the vale of North Tyne it is thought that St. Kenti- 
gem, or St. Mungo Hhe beloved,' reached, during the 6th century, in 
one of his missionary journeys from the Cumbrian kingdom in the 
west, the district about Simonbum, or Simondburn, where the mother- 
church of the whole dale was afterwards erected. In 1877, when this 
fine edifice was restored, the rector (the Rev. Canon Rogers) recoixls, 
in speaking of the chancel arch, that 'the stone work above it fell in, 
and among the stones thus released were found the remarkable frag- 
ments of a Saxon cross and other ancient carved stones which are 
preserved in the porch.' ' This cross shaft bears interlacing ornament 
with the characteristic grape-clusters associated with the best examples 
of St. Wilfrid's school of Saxon art, and is well and deeply sculptured. 
The interesting church at Bellingham, with its now, I believe, unique 
stone-vaulted nave, is dedicated to St. Cuthbert, and is one of the 
traditional resting-places of the saint's ' incorruptible body' during its 
long wanderings between Lindisfarne and Durham. I'he yearly iuir 
and the perennial spring or well close by the churchyard are still called 
by his name.^ But no trace has yet been found here, where it might 
well be looked for, of Saxon work, unless it be the original north door- 
way of the church, which is triangular-headed. The late rector, the 
Rev. R. Powell-Powell, informed me that the late Mr. Bloxam, who 
saw it, considered it to be of pre-Conquest date, though the slanting 
stones falling against each other to form the arch seem to be not 
straight-Hned but slightly concave, and, if so, may be of later date, 
that is, very Early-English. 

* See Appendix. 

■ Trant. Bern. Nat, anb. Vol. XT., p. M. 

* Archaeologia Aeliana, Vol. VIII. (New Series), pp. 64, 66. 


StiU higher in the valley an undoubted relic of pre^^Norman daja 
was diBcovered in 1818 at Falstone, small but most interesting, whidi 
now rests in our society's museum in the Black Gate. I refer to the 
very curious fragment of the cross, unique in Britain in this respect, 
that it is like the celebrated fiosetta stone from Egypt, bearing, not 
indeed a tri-lingual, but a bi-litsral inscription, which has been first 
graven on the surface of the stone in Runic and then in Romanesque 
letters, in Anglian (or Saxon) folk-speech.^ 

These remains are the sole representatives of Saxon art that have, 
until the present time, been observed throughout the whole extent of 
North Tynedale, which extends nearly forty miles in length from 
Warden to Deadwater. Any fresh examples of sculptured stones of 
the early Christian period in Northumbria must be of interest and 
value to archaeologists. It is, therefore, gratifying to be able to ex- 
hibit at our anniversary meeting a small inscribed monumental slab. 
of very rare type from Birtley church, and photographs by our col- 
league, Mr. J. P. Gibson, of fragments of crosses froip Falstone chuidi* 
all of undoubted pre-Norman date, and which have been recently 

1. — Pre-Gonqub8t Mehobial Stone of the Habtlbpool Ttpb» 


Birtley, formerly ^Birkley,' church was anciently one of the four 
capellae in the great parish of Chollerton, the other three being Chip- 
chase, Ounnerton, and Colwell, of which, except the recently uncovered 
foundations in the case of the last, no traces now exist. The present 
chapel in the park of Ghipchase castle is a modern structare; the 
original capella having been taken down which stood near the fix>nt of 
the castle, and this later edifice built up chiefly frK>m its materiab 
in the first half of the 18th century. The small chapel, now the 
parish church, at Bfrtley consists of a well-proportioned chancel 
and nave, with early Norman chancel arch still intact For some 
years the east gable had been in a dangerous condition, and in 
the autumn of 1884 the much-needed reparation of the building was 

» North Tynedale and its Ihur ehaynea, by Bdw. Charlton, M.D.,D.C.L., p. 8. 

















»— « 














carried out under the careliil supervision of Mr. A. B. Plnmmer, 
A.R.I.B.A., a member of our society. The stone to be described was 
found built up in the disused south doorway of the nave, together with 
an early *' consecration ' cross, an early Norman capital and base, and 
other carved stones. The Ireshness of appearance of the incised cross 
and lettering on this small, thin, oblong memorial slab is remarkable, 
as if done yesterday. Though it was at once placed in a safe position, 
its interest was not at first realized; but the 8axon form of the fourth 
letter € afterwards drew my attention specially to it. 

Its present dimensions are as follows : — Length, 9f inches ; width, 
7^ inches ; and from 8^ to 8 inches in thickness. As with many 
crosses of similar type, it is formed of very iiard material, in this 
instance of indurated close*graiiied freestone. Excepting the lower 
edge and sculptured surface in front, which ai*e untouched, it has been 
roughly chipped away, but not to any depth, all over. A simple 
moulding remains on the edge at the right hand side. It is thus very 
nearly the original size still, notwithstanding injurious treatment ; 
and the finely-chiselled surtioce at the bottom is reddened by the action 
of fire. 

-Incised Crosa, — With fair exactitude a Latin cross, of a variety in 
form associated with the primitive Celtic and Scoto-Irish Christianity, 
has been carefully incised upon the stone. The space between the 
continuing lines or margin sitows no interlaced work such as is com- 
monly met with on many Anglian or Saxon sculptured stones. Tiie 
cross is sunk in the centre of the small slab about an eighth of an inch, 
except at the base^ where it is shallower on the left hand ; but it is 
well defined throughout. Though of the Latin form, crux immism^ 
long-shatled (and thus easily distinguished from the common eastern 
or Gi-eek shape with its four arms of equal length), it has the Celtic 
peculiarity of a projecting ohlatiy panel at top and bottom and at the 
extremity of each arm.^ But it has neither the semi -circular hollows 
at the intersection of the arms with the shaft and summit, nor a circle 
thrown across the spaces between the arms at a little distance fi'om the 
intersections, nor are there the re-entering angles at the intersections 
of the arms, shaft, and summit, thus forming a square central panel. 
Of the two latter forms of crosses examples are found incised upon 
similar small slabs irom HartlepooL The largest found there most 

* The panel at the base of the cross is larger than the others. 


resembles the Biitlej cross, though it has, in addition, the oentral 
square. The Birtley cross is a variant of the second form found in 
sepulchral slabs at Olonmaonoise.^ 

Incised Letters and Dots. — Near the angles of this stone, between 
the arms, are four letters crisply and clearly cut, like the whole 
chiselling of the cross. The first letter looks like a q, but there is no 
channel uniting the circle to the small pit-mark or round hollow be- 
neath it on the right. It is certainly an o. The short stroke or line 
at the top of this letter, on the right hand, well incised, will be noticed, 
and it is, I think, significant. The second of the upper letters is an 
B ; and both are better and more skilfully shaped and cut than the p 
and € at the lower angles, the latter letter also occupying a relatively 
higher position on the stone.^ The cross strokes at the top and bottom 
of the p are unusual, I think, in Saxon inscriptions in Roman capitals. 
They do not occur in those upon the Hartlepool slabs, where only the 
common Roman e is met with. The rounded form, probably a cor- 
rupted imitation of the other, which, as a usual Saxon form, first drew 
my attention to the Birtley cross stone, alone occurs on the very in- 
teresting fragment of the cross from Falstone, with its bi-literal 
Romanesque and Runic inscription. It is found also on the early 
grave cover, most probably of pre-Oonquest date, which was found in 
the cloisters of Hexham abbey about the banning of this century, 
and which is briefly inscribed pvgr ivrdanvs. Thus the rounded or 
Saxon form of the Roman capital e seems to have been in general use 
throughout the district of North Tynedale, judging from these three 
known inscriptions discovered at the head, the centre, and the lower 
extremity of the valley. 

' Jour, of Brit. Archaeol. Anoc, Vol. I., p. 187. No. 1. £arly Christian 
Symbolwm, cf. p. 109, Fig. 17, by J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., Scot. 

• The Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D., F.8.A., Disney Profeasor of Archaeology, CSwoa- 
bridge, in a communication to the writer (February, 1889), remarks respecting this 
*mo6t interesting stone ' from Biitley : — 'I cannot think the date diflen much 
from that of the Hartlepool stones. It seems to throw us back to the rery early 
times of Christianity in Northnmbria, and to the " Irish " influence, the regular 
Irish inscription in the earliest time being or do^ " a prayer for." . . . This 
stone, I think, supports the suggestion I made some years ago at Monkwearmouth, 
that people in ve^ early monasteries got a number of stones cat by some skilled 
mason, itinerant, and filled them in as occasion came. The O R seems to me to 
be cut much more boldly and finely than the P €. At Monkweaimoath they 
had Sic in ttmulchro requiewit corpore cut on their stone, and a local man, not 
nearly so skilful, filled in the Hereherecht Prh.^ In this connection see On 
Inseriptions at Jarrow and Monkwearmouth^ by the Bev. G. F. Browne* B.D., 
St. Catherine's College, Cambridge, in ArohMsologia AeUana^Yol, XI. (N.S.), p. 30 ,* 
also HUbner's Interiptlonet Britanniae Chrigtinnae, 197. 


Small cironlar hollows or dote, it will be obeerved, are impressed or 
cat here and there on the very smooth sarf aoe of the cross-slab, and 
near the letters o, b, p,«.^ 

At the right hand of the letter b^ on a level with the upper 
part, are three of these points or dots placed as a triangle. The 
largest of all, already referred to, gives the o the appearance at first 
sight of a Q, and two others may be seen near the top of the cross on 
the left. The dot near the € might serve as a kind of finish to the 
inscription, like a period or fall stop. It is difficult to assign any 
special reason for these smallxircolar hollows or impressions, which I 
have also noticed on an early grave stone built into the north wall of 
the chancel (outside) of Chollerton Church. There some of the dots 
have formed centres for the construction of the four intersecting 
segments of circles, in shaping the smaU incised cross (eroix patie)^ 
which is of frequent occurrence in this neighbourhood, especially at 
Birtley and Chollerton churches, on ancient monumental slabs and 
head-stones. Dr. Joseph Anderson quotes ^^ Professor Westwood 
(Leqndamm Wdllias), who says that the arrangement of three 
points triangularly placed — ^as on the Birtley cross — ^in early in- 
scriptions and manuscripts written in Britain usually indicated a fdll 
stop. 'This use of the three points,' Dr. Anderson adds, *is found 
in the Psalter of St. Augustine and the Gospels of St. Chad, both 
written in the eighth century.* It also occurs, with two single and one 
double point, on the fine inscribed monument of St. Vigeans, in 
Forfarshire, 'the stone of Drost or Drosten ;' and it is placed at the 
end of the name, at the right hand, and opposite the upper portion of 
the letter k. This monument bears on Uie obverse^ 6 feet in height, 
a large cross, extending nearly the whole length of the stone, of 
the more usual Celtic form, being hollowed or recessed semi-droularly 
at the intersection of the arms with the shaft and summit. It may 
be of any date from the end of the 9th to the beginning of 

•It may be incidentally remarked that * strong, oval, and sometimes round 
dots' form the vowels of the Ogham characters on the Irish crosses of the 
earliest Christian age, as also on those of similar date in Wales. EarUf Christian 
Art in Ireland, by Miss Stokes. Part II., pp. 1, 32, and 38. 

^^Sootland in Early Chrutian Itmss, Second Series, Lecture V., p. 196. Can 
the more skUled workman^ who incised the cross and first two letters B on this 
Birtley stone, have added the three dots after the B in token of the completion 
of hU part of the inscription ? If so, it would form an incidental corroboration of 
Prof. Browne's supposition. 


the 11th oentury. The characters of the inscription are like the 
Irish and lona miniscnles, and the letter € is the same ronnded form 
which appears on the Birtley and Falstone crosses, and the Hexham 
grave cover. The cross of simple form at Trawsmawr, in Gaermar- 
thenshire {Early Christian Symbolisnij p. 99, Fig. 13; Westwood*a 
Lapidarium WaUiae^ pi. 49), consists of two indsed grooves, ter- 
minating in round holes or dots, and with four ronnd holes in the 
angles of the cross. It is carved upon a rude monolith standing erect 
near a similar stone, with a debased Latin inscription. 

Meaning of the Inscribed Letters^ o, R, p, G. There is an evid^it 
contraction in this inscription, and each letter might readily be meant 
for the initial of four separate Latin words. But when we notice the 
ordinary sign of contraction, as I consider it to be, over the first 
letter o, we find at once some help in deciphering the meaning of the 
brief epitaph. On three of the Irish incised cross-slabs firom the 
royal cemetery of Glonmacnoise, represented in the Bev. Dr. Outt's 
weU-known manual ^^ the contraction of the Irish ^Oroit/ ^LaHn^ 
Oratio,' 'a Prayer,' into ^ob' is effected by placing the short 
straight incised line above the first two letters.^ Upon one of these 
memorial stones there are two inscriptions to members of the same 
family, and their meaning is * A prayer for Oonaing son of Oongal ;' 
and ' A prayer for Dnlcen son of Thadggan;' the date being given aB 
circa a.d. 822. Two other cross-slabs bear upon them the inscriptioDB 
'A prayer jfor Maelfinnia,' who was abbot of Glonmacnoise, and died 
circa A.D. 992; and 'A prayer for Flannchaddh,' also abbot of the 
same celebrated monastery of ^ Gluainmacnois,' (in King's Oonnty, 
Leinster), who died circa a.d. 1003. The earliest grave slab of this 
whole series is that inscribed 6b do oholumbon ' Pray for Golumban,' 
supposed to have been the abbot who died a.d. 628. 

As the permanent establishment of Ghristianity in Northumbrian 

" The SejnOehral 8lab» and Orenea of the Middle Ages, Plates I. and IL, 
p. 59 ; see Petrie's EeoUntutieal Arehiteeture of Ireland, pp. 820, 824. 

^'On the small cross-slab at St. Bdien's, in Pembrokeshire, now in St. David's 
cathedral, 'the line to signify a contraction is placed below the Omega instead 
of above it. Dr. Reeves considers that the contraction is for the word et, between 
the Alpha and Omega.* Harly Christian ^mholism^ p. 117, of pp. 107, lOS. 

" Tne late eminent Roman Catholic historian of The Anglo-Sawon Conq^tett 
of Britain, etc., the Rev. D. H. Uaigl^ sajs, * the first effectual conversion of 
Northumbria was the work of Irish missionaries, and, daring the 7th and 8th 
centuries, constant and friendly intercourse was maintained between the 
ecclesiastics of Northumbria and those of Scotland and Ireland.' Jonr, Brit, 
Arch, Aseoe., Vol. h, p. 191. 


was owing to the sncoessf al labours of bishop Aidan and his Celtic or 
Scoto-Irish missionaries Irom lona, who settled at Lindisfarne on the 
invitation of king Oswald in the year a.d. 685 (after his great victory 
over Oaedwalla at ' Heavenfield,' near Ohollerford, in North Tynedale), 
the foregoing instances of the use of a contracted form may serve to 
illustrate and explain the meaning of the inscription on this Birtley 
memorial stone. Upon the latter the upper limb of the cross with 
its panel separates the two capitals ' o ' and ' b/ Nevertheless they 
appear to make simply the beginning of the usual formula, the first 
two letters of oba or obate, or perhaps a repetition by the Scoto-Irish 
evangelists of the OB which would be so fiuniliar to them. The ^p' 
stands for pbo, and the Saxon letter e implies any one of the very 
numerous Ohristian iblk-names of the Old English stock beginning 
with that vowel. 

This view of the reading of the inscription has been corroborated 
by the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, F.S.A., who suggests ' Edward;'* and Prof. 
G. P. Browne, B.D., of Cambridge, * Edmund;' * Pray' or 'A Prayer far 
Edward^' or 'Edmund,' two of the most common of the Ai^lian or Saxon 
names. But, of course, any other name beginning with the same initial 
letter may be intended ; as Eadbert, Edwin, Egbert, and others. In the 
Yenerable Bede's Ecclesiastical History and The Anglo-Saosm Chronicle, 
we find at least seventy-seven different Christian names of men begin- 
ning with E ; twenty-eix of whom were connected with Northumbria. 
Thus we have a wide field laid open to our conjectures, even if 
we reject the supposition that a lady was commemorated in chis 
Birtley inscription; for several female names occur, as we know, on the 
similar cross-slabs at Hartlepool. 

The Purpose of this Oross-Slab, and comparison with the few known 
examples of a similar kind. — ^We now come to the particular purpose 
of this Birtley stone, which was evidently from its incised cross and 
inscription meant for a sepulchral monument, small though it is, and a 
memorial of the Christian dead. 

In Sir Outhbert Sharpe's Tracts, in our society's libraiy, an 
account is given of the discovery of 'Sepulchral Stones found at 
Hartlepool in 1888;' reprinted trom the Gentleman's Magazme for 
September, 1888, and ArcJiaeologia, Vol. XXTL, 1885. In digging 
the foundations of a house in a field at Hartlepool called the ' Cross 


Close/ not far from the old chnrchyard, distant aboat 135 yards in a 
south-easterly direction from the present church, and on the supposed 
site of the cemetery of the nunnery^ of which St. Hilda was abbesB,^^ 
several skeletons were discovered upon the limestone rock, lying in two 
rows in a position nearly north and souths at a depth of about ^ feet. 
Some of the skulls, it is said, were resting upon small flat plain stones 
from 4 to 5 inches square ; and also some rather larger stones were 
found * bearing inscriptions and marked with the cross. The chiselling 
of the first (drawings of two stones, were sent) is as crisp and sharp as 
tf it had been cut yesterday, and the letters are well finished. This stcme 
of compact limestone is 11^ inches square, and the sur&ce is smooth 
and polished.' Upon it is incised a cross of peculiar Celtic form, with 
the Oreek letters and Christian symbols Vi aud Q above the horizontal 
limb of the cross, and below in Bunic letters the name of a female, 
HiLDiTHBYTH.^'^ This stoue, with others from Hartlepool, is in the 
British Museum ; and its incised cross, as I have already remarked* 
most nearly resembles that on the Birtley slab; excepting that, besides 
the four oblong panels, it has also a central square. It is the largest 
of the Hartlepool stones, being 11^ inches square, and is figured as 
No. 1 by Dr. Haigh. 

We possess two of these interesting stones from Hartlepool in our 
Black Oate museum. No. 2 (in Mr. Haigh's list) is there, which, on 
the lower half of the slab, the sides of which are slightly broken and 
chipped as in the Birtley example, has the name of -another female, 
HiLDDiGYTH, written, like No. 1, in Bunic letters. The incised cross 
is of a different and more usual form, inasmuch as the panels at ihe 
extremities are semi-circular, and that at the centre is a oirde. Bat 
in its special Celtic type and character it is similar. In sise it 
approaches very nearly the dimensions of the Birtley stone, being 9 
inches long, 6^ inches wide, and 2| inches in thickness. 

The other Hartlepool cross stone in our society's possession has a 

^* A noble North- Humbrian lady, Heia, St. Hilda's predecessor, founded the 
convent, and was its first abbess until the year, a.d. 649. It seems to have been 
destroyed in the first ravages of the Danes in the ninth oentnry and never 
icstored. See Bede*8 Eoclet. Hist., IV., c. 23, Bohn's edit., p. 212. 

>*See also the Bev. E. L. (now Dr.) Ciitt*s The Stmulckral Slaht oMd Crones 
of the Middle Ages, Plate IIL, p. 60. ArohaeoUfffia, Vol. XXVI., Plate 52 ; and . 
Vol. XXVIII., p. 846. The fullest account is given by the late Rev. D. H. Haigh 
in The Journal of the British Arohaeoloffioal Ajuooiation, Vol. L, 1846, pp. 
1 85-197. — Notee on the Monumental Stones discovered at Eartlepool in the yeaire 
1838, 1838, and 1848. 


bevelled edge, with which the slight moulding on that from Birtlej 
may be compared. It is in perfect condition^ chiselled and smooth on 
(he &ce, back, and sides. The shape of the cross, detached from its 
border, is similar to the last, but is in low relief, instead of being 
incised. The inscription is more worn, bnt the first word is veiy 
distinct, and it requests 'the prayers of the laithfnl for two persons, 


This slab is 7^ inches in length, 6f inches wide, and 1^ inches in 

Bespecting this * very interesting series of small inscribed cross 
stones," Mr. J. Bomilly Allen, F.S.A., Scot., remarks: — ' The stones 
fonnd at Hartlepool, nine in number, although resembling the 
ordinary cross-slabs in general appearance, differ from them entirely 
as regards size, as the smallest only measures 7^ inches by 5^ inchesi 
and the largest about 12 inches square.' ^^ They vary in thickness from 
1 inch to 4} inches.^^ 

Mr. Haigh speaking of the small dimension of these stones, adds, 
'so that they were not sufficient to cover a grave, as in the case with 
such tombstones of a later date.'^^ 

Another site, on which three cross stones of the same class or not 
unlike those at Hartlepool have been fonnd, is Wensley church in 
Yorkflhire. When writing in 1845, Mr. Haigh knew only of one 
example here, preserved in the vestry, but discovered many years 
befbre in the churchyard. He says, ' In this country I know of but 
one sepulchral monument at all resembling the character of those found 
at Hartlepool.' It is, however, of a much more ornate appearance 
than the latter, having upon it, in relief, ' the ax)ss, patte, with birds 
and quadrupeds in the angles, and beneath, in Stfxon characters, the 
name dokfbid.' ^^ The length of this stone is 15^ inches, and its 
breadth 9 inches. 

In 1846, however, Mr. Haigh found a second cross-slab of the same 
type, lying in the flagged pavement of a path in the churchyard at 
Wensley, a drawing of which, made in 1854, he had mislaid when 

^ Early ChrUtian SymbolUm, p. 118. 
" Jow. BrU. Arch, Astoe., Vol. I., p. 196. 
" Ibid., p. 187. 

^^Jour. BrU, Aroh, Assoc, Vol. I., p. 196. Ibid,, Vol. VIL, p. 76. Emriy 
Chriitian Symbolism^ p. 124. 


sending copies of the JTorthumbrian inscriptions to Prof. Hiibner of 
Berlin. It is now preserved with the first and a fragment of a third 
stone of this class in the vestry^ and is itself imperfect at both ends. The 
cross of the same form as the other^ and the lettering, are also in relief. 
The inscription was probably obatb batberbht et abvini.^ 

At Billingham, in Durham, was found a fragment only, about one- 
third of the original size, of what was, it is beUeved, a similar inscribed 
cross-slab, thus fiimishing a third site. It still bears the Alpha, only 
the Omega being broken off, and thus resembling the largest of the 
Hartlepool grave stones.^^ 

Birtley, in North Tynedale, is the only other known site where this 
veiy rare type of sepulchral monument has as yet come to light ia 
Bngland. It is the first example discovered north of the river Tyne, 
and is therefore of considerable ardiaeological interest. The instances 
already adduced f]X)m Hartlepool, Wensley, and Billingham (?) are all 
that can be adduced in illustration of the subject ; and each plaoe^ it 
will be noted, is within the ancient kingdom of Northumbria. 

As to the purpose served by this memorial stone, and its position 
on the grave, it cannot well have been placed as a head-stone, being so 
small, nor as a foot-stone, because the lower portion, still intact, is 
careihlly finished, and not intended to be sunk in the ground. 

Dr. Gutts observes of the Hildithryth monument from Hartle- 
pool: — ^'This is not properly a grave stone, as may be s^en from its 
size ; it was probably used as a bolster upon which the heads of the 
corpses were Laid/ ^ This, however, seems to be a misapprehension, for 
the account of the discovery in the cemetery of St. Heiu's and St. 
Hilda's monastery distinctly speaks of the small plain stones, not 
inscribed, 4 to 5 inches square, found under the heads of the 
skeletons. We are aware from Bede that the Anglo-Saxons used 
cushions of stone for the head, as at the burial in a stone coflSn of 
Sebbi or Sibbi, the pious king of the East Saxons, drm a.d. 649, in 
the church of St. Paul's, London, when a strange miracle is recorded.'' 
Adanman, in his account of St. Columba's last days, relates that he 

^Jour, Yarki. Arohaeol Astoeiaticnj Vol. VL, p. 46, 1880. yoteg on an 
Inscribed Stone at Wensley, by the late Rev. D. H. Haigh. Gommmucated by the 
Rev. J. T. Fowler, M.A., P.8.A. The drawing is given. 

*> Hiibner'B Christian Imeript,, No. 202. Early ChrUtian SymhoUem, p. 118. 

** Mannal of Sepulchral Slabs and Crosses, Plate IIL, p. 90. 

» Secies, Hist., Bk. IV., c. 11. 


had a bare flag for his conob, and for bis pillow a stone ; wbich stone, 
he adds, stands to this day as the Hfultts of a monument beside his 
grave. It is singular that a monumental stone, about twice the 
dimensions of the Birtley cross-slab, a flattened round-edged granite 
boulder, 20 inches long and 15 wide, was found not many years since 
in Cladh an Diseart, in the island of lona, and is now preserved in the 
cathedral. Upon one of its flat sides it bears a Celtic cross of the 
more usual form, the intersections recessed, and the arms of the cross 
connected by a circle. When discovered it was thought not improb- 
able that this was the very stone of which Adamnan speaks, which 
marked the grave of St. Columba before his remains were removed 
and enshrined. Dr. Anderson gives an engraving of it (Fig. 58), and 
of a similar ' flattish, water-worn, undressed stone (Fig. 52), about 22 
inches long, 11 inches wide, and S inches thick, found in the church- 
yard of Ooldstone, Aberdeenshire. On one of the faces of this slab 
an oval panel has been sunk, in which is a raised cross of Celtic foi*m 
of the type from which the form of the Birtley cross may be taken^ 
but without the circle to connect the arms.^ 

The supposition that sepulchral stones of the Hartlepool type have 
been bolster or pillow stones may be dismissed. Much more probably 
the Birtley cross-slab, and all others of similar small size, were placed 
on the grave, over the breast^ and not interred with the deceased, who 
asked, according to the custom of the age, for the prayers of the living, 
who might look upon his last earthly resting-place in passing by or 
when drawn there by affection or reverential regard. 

Date or age of the Birtley monumental atone, — There' is some 
difficulty in determining the exact period to which it may be referred. 
Its interest consists both in the rarity of type and in its antiquity, 
undoubtedly long anterior to the Norman Conquest. 

The late Rev. B. H. Haigh, when living, the greatest authority in 
this country on Bunic epigraphy, says of the Hartlepool stones, * The 
use of Runic letters marks a period at which the Roman characters 
had only begun to come into extensive use for inscriptions.' He 
seems to have identified, from the works of the Venerable Bede, some 
of the names commemorated there with those of peraons living in the 
latter half of the 7th and 8th centuries; and he adds that these 'curioas 
** Soiftland in Earl^ ChrUrtian J^mieit, Lectnre II., pp. 86, 87. 


monnmentfi ... are relios of the very earHest age of Anglo* 
Saxon Christianity/^ This conclusion seems to gain strength from 
the position of the bodies in the Hartlepool cemetery being, with one 
exception, laid north and sonth (not with their faces eastward^ as 
awaiting the Besnrrection); proving that they must have been interred 
before this almost universal custom of Christians was practised by the 
Saxon converts. Their habits and customs also must have been, to 
some extent, similar to those of pagan times judging from the appear- 
ance of the teeth which were ground down by the use of the same kind 
of food mingled with grit prepared in qnem or mortar; and the plac- 
ing of pillow stones under the heads of the deceased, which has often 
been met with in pre-historic and Saxon burial-barrows, as in the 
stone-lined grave within the Pitland Hills barrow near Birtley.^ 

Profisssor George Stephens of Copenhagen, coincides with this 
view of the very early date to which we may assign such Christian 
monumental stones as the Birtley cross-slab with the other examples of 
the Hartlepool type; and Dr. Anderson, referring to than, remarks, 
without question, that they ' are assigned to the 7th and 8th centories.' ^ 
Mr. J. Bomilly Allen also takes the same view.^ 

Dr, Cutts, in his Manual of Sepukhral Slabs and Crosses, written 
in 1849, gives a modified expression of opinion as circa a.d. 1000: — 
<Date doubtftd; it may be much earlier than the 11th century,*^ 
under which he classes the Hartlepool cross stone which most nearly 
resembles that at Birtley. The inscription on the latter is of the 
simplest form, and contracted in its expression; and it may therefore 
be considered to be of earlier date than the sepulchral monuments 
which follow the later conventional formula. Orate pro animo, 
which, however. Dr. Cutts says was practised from a.d. 600 to 1000. 

Miss Stokes, who is no doubt a high authority, would, by com- 
parison with the monumental crosses of Ireland, suggest a later date 
in Ac pre-Conquest period to those in Scotland and the North of 
England. ' We are inclined,' she writes, ' to question the very eariy 
dates that have been assigned to such examples as the stone crosses at 
Alnmouth, Jjancaster, ColUngham, York, Hartlepool, Bewoastle, Buth- 

" Jour, Brit, Areh. Ajuoo^ Vol. I., pp. 190, 191. 

« ArehaeolgiA AelUma, VoL XII. (New Series), p. 263. 

^ Scotland in Barly Christian Times^ Second Series, p. 256 ; Nate. 

** Early Ckrittian Swrnbolism, p. 118. 

» Plate lit, p. 60. 


well, which have been attribated by Stephens to the years 600, 651, 
670, 680, some of which have Bnnic inscriptiona.' ^ Bnt the accom- 
plished writer herself makes a distinction between the itiGised sepnlchral 
slabs, * which date from the 7th to the 10th century,' '^ and the high 
crosses, snch as those fine examples at Bnthwell and Bewcastle on the 
Anglo-Scottish Borders. Precedence in point of time is also given " 
to the Christian tomb slab laid upon the ground, inscribed with the 
prayer and a cross, over the pillar stone and the high cross standing 

On careful consideration I am disposed to agree in the view that 
the Btrtley cross-slab, of the Hartlepool type, may date from about 
A.D. 700, or even earlier, and not later than the eighth century. 

The discovery of this sepulchral memorial to an unknown and 
unnamed personage (the initial letter of the name only arouses with- 
out satisfying our curiosity) leads us in thought to the &r distant 
days when the first Christian church, perhaps of wattled work of 
wood and thatched with rushes, morti ScotHco, was erected at Birtley, 
within the easily-defended area, surrounded by ramparts and deep 
ditch still in great part remaining, of what seems to have been one of 
the numerous Bomano-British camps or hill-forts of this district of 
North Tynedale. There is little doubt that a Saxon church preceded 
the very early Norman building of which, in the chancel walls and 
arch, at least, characteristic portions yet exist unimpaired. 

About six miles S.S.E. from Birtley church and village, which 
occupy an elevated position just over 600 feet above the sea, stands 
the recently and well-restored church of St. Oswald, distinctly visible 
from Birtley owing to its commanding site on the range of hills 
above Chollerford eastward. In the year a.d. 685, it is well known 
that St. Oswald with his small army of loyal Saxons of Bemicia 
here met in battle the great host of Britona under the cruel tyrant 
Oaedwalla, king of Oumbria, a Christian merely in name. The 
Venerable Bede relates that a erons of wood was constructed. (Was it 
made in the form so familiar to St. Oswald during his exile in lona, 
the Scoto-Irish, with oblong panels on the arms and head, such as is 
represented on the Birtley memorial slab, for this could easily have 

* Earlf Chrixtian Art in Ireland, Part II., p. 9. 
" Ibid., p. 8. 
« Ibid., p. 7. 



been done ?) This cross was set np, as a battle-standard, near to the 
protecting barrier of the Roman Wall and its deep foBse, by the king's 
own hands, who, with his brave followers, before the engagement 
knelt in fervent prayer *to the trae and living God Almighty.'" 
Oaedwalla was slain, and his numerons forces were put to flight. This 
decisive victory not only restored king Oswald to his rightfdl throne, 
bat made him Bretwalda or over-lord of Britain. He soon afterwards 
appointed St. Aidan first bishop of Lindisfame; and, we read, on his 
admonitions the king industriously applied himself to build and 
extend the Church of Christ in his kingdom.' ^When the bishop, 
who was not skilful in the English tongue, preached the Gospel, it was 
most delightful to see the king himself interpreting the word of God 
to his commanders and ministers, for he had perfectly learned the 
language of the Scots during his long banishment. . . Churches 
were built in several places.' 

From its proximity to the site of the great battle of * Heavenfield,' 
its similarly elevated and easily-defended position, having been already 
an inhabited spot for centuries past, not far from the junction of the 
vale of Rede with that of North Tyne, it seems not improbable that 
Birtley may have been chosen soon after this event as suitable for the 
erection of a simple ecclesiastical edifice, a church of wood, and as an 
evangelizing centre. ^ It appears,' the historian adds, ' that there was 
no sign of the Christian faith, no church, no altar erected throughout 
all the nation of the Bemidans, before that new commander of the 
army [St. Oswald], prompted by the devotion of his faith, set up the 
cross as he was going to give battle to his barbarous enemy.' 

Is this small memorial cross-slab found at Birtley a relic of these 
or shortly following days? Did pious hands carefully chisel and 
sculpture the stone, as a tribute of grateful hearts even before a 
church was built, to some revered missionary of the cross, perhaps 
laid to his rest in the new 'God's acre,' some devoted follower of 
king Oswald and St. Aidan or their successors, who had brought the 
glad tidings of the Gospel to the fierce pagan vale-dwellers by the 
North Tyne in the very early days of Northumbrian Christianity ? 

Note. — Since the foregoing pages were read a fourth (or, if we 
reckon in the Billingham stone in its very fragmentary condition, a 
** Secies. Hut,, Book III., c. 2. 


fifth) Bite is now known where another small cross-slab of the Hartlepool 
type has been found. Most appropriately it has come to light at the 
very cradle of the Christian religion in Northombria. This Lindisf ame 
example was discoyered in the sommer of the year 1888, daring the 
excavations undertaken by Sir. Wm. Grossman, Bart., and the Rev. 
W. W. P. Keeling, M.A., at the Priory church, Holy Island, a few 
yards from the west front, though not m sitUj and within the bounds 
of the parish churchyard. The material is the hard, fine-grained local 
whinstone or basalt, worn round the edge and on the surface, so that 
the incised cross and inscription appear faint and indistinct. The 
stone is oblong in shape with semi-circular top, and its dimensions are 
about 8 inches high by 6 inches wide, and only about 1^ inches in 
thickness. The cross is of true Scoto-Irish (Latin) form, with central 
circle and circular terminations at the head and the extremity of 
the arms, but semi-circular base, all in triple lines, concentric and 
straight. It resembles most closely the cross incised on the monu- 
mental slab. No. 8, of the Hartlepool stones, as described and figured 
in the Rev. D. H. Haigh's learned paper in the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association^ Vol. I., pp. 185, ff. An inscribed name 
appears in two lines across the stone, aelbebct, though this reading 
is rather doubtful.'* 

2. — On somb Pbagments of Saxon Crosses from Palstone, 
North Ttnedale. 

The very early propagation of Christianity in the remoter portions 
of the ancient Bemician kingdom, high up the vale of the North 
Tyne, was attested in the year 1818 by the discovery at Palstone of a 
small sculptured slab, a fragment formed of a kind of grey freestone, 
about 1 foot long and 5^ inches broad, which had been broken away 
from a Bunic cross or column.^ At each end is an ornamental inter- 
laced knot. 

•* Free. 8oo. Antiq. Newc, Vol. IIL, p. 404. 

■• The Old Northern Runic Monuments of Seandin<t/eia and England, by Prof, 
George Stephens, F.S.A., Vol. I., p. 456. See Ibid,, Vol. III., p. 194, and H-orrf- 
Liet, p. 862. Cf. also, Archaeologia Aeliana, Vol. X. (N.S.), pp. 88-92. On the 
Shaft of an Anglic Ineerihed Oroee diecovered in the Church at Chetter-lc-Streety 
in 1888, by the same great writer. In describing this lowest piece of a funeral 
pillar, bearing the dewl man*s name in mixt Roman and Runic staves/ EADMUin), 
which in this respect resembles some of the Hartlepool cross-slabs, he observes 


Through the kindness of the discovei'er, the Rev. James Ford, 
minister of the Presbyterian church in that isolated village, on whoae 
farm it was found, and by the good offices of a well-known local 
antiquary of Jbhat time, Mr. Spearman, residing at Hewingshields on 
the Roman Wall, not many miles south from Falstone, this most 
interesting 'find' was secured for the museum of our Society of 
Antiquaries at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, then in its robust in&ncy. 

Probably the most accurate i-epresentation of this Falstone cross 
fragment is given in Prof. Stephen's great work. He remarks of the 
full-size plate engraved in our Archaeologia AeUana^^ that the inscrip- 
tion there is ' most illegible or hopelessly confused.' A small bat 
ueai'ly correct drawing is given by the Rev. D. H. Haigh in his 
article on the Bewcastle Groas,'^ and the same high authority repeats 
the Runic inscription in his Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain,^ 

* This stone,' says Prof. Stephens, ' is as yet probably unique in 
England, in so far that it is bi-literal. That is, it bears twice over 
the same inscription in one and the same dialect, but written in two 
different alphabets. Runic and Roman. It contains the epitaph in 
English in Old Northern Staves, but also in Roman miniscules, side by 
side. Still, as is usual in such cases, where words are given in two 
alphabets — Runic and Roman, Ogham and Roman, etc. — there are 
small variations, possibly mere results of the floating folk-speech.' 

He deciphers the meaning of the inscription to be, ' Eomaer this 
set after Hroetberht this Beacon (mark or memorial) after his eme 
(uncle). Bede (pray) for the (his) soul !' 

There are, it appears, in West-Gotland, the early centre of Swedish 
Christianity, three other examples of such bi-literal (Runic and Roman) 

that 'the epigitiphs in Scando- Anglic lands were inscribed (1.) in Ranes only, in 
Old Northern, and then Scandlan characters, beginning in England in the fifth 
century; (2.) after that date in "twav-staved carvingB," the same words being 
in Runish and Roman letters. In England only one such ifffiiM has come down 
to us, the Falstoue stone, about A.D. 700/ — (3.) With the advance of Latin civi- 
lization some words or sentences are in the f olk-speech, ifi Runes, others in Latin 
with Roman letters, as the Ruth well, Dearham, and Hackness crosses.— (4.) Then 
there are used mingletl Runic and Roman letters, as at Lindisfame, Alnmouth, 
and this cross-shaf t at Chester-le-Street ; and (5.) we have lastly Roman letters 
only, either in Latin inscriptions, or in writing English words, as at Yarm, Dews- 
bury, Wycliffe, and Thomhill (A.D. 867). 

^ Vol. L, 4to., 1822, p. 103. 

^ Archaeologia Aeliana, Vol. I., No. 15 of his Plate. See also, Ihid,, Vol. L 
(New Series), p. 149. 

^3 See Plate IT., pp. 41-42. 





S "8 

I I 


























stf^nes, 'rare and precious/ and 'excellent illustrations of the Falstone 
Bauic cross.' They witness to the existence of two separate classes of 
the population in the early Christian period, * lewd and learned ' to whom 
the monuments would sped^; the clerks, accustomed to the Roman 
letters, and the laity, rich and poor, better versed in their native runes, 
and only learners as yet in the alphabet of Latin lore. Thus the two 
ranks or classes ol the Old English people living toward the head of 
North Tynedale, then, perhaps, more numerous than now, would be 
able to read without difficulty, just as, to compare the greater with 
the less, the famous trilingual Bosetta stone would speak intelligibly 
to three different nations dwelling on the banks of the Nile. 

The late Dr. Charlton, being specially interested, as himself a 
dalesman by birth, gives a simpler translation of the epitaph of this 
Falstone monumental cross, dated by Prof. Stephens and others about 
A.D. 700. *Eomafcr set this (cross) up for his Uncle, Hroethbert. 
Pray for his soul.' He remarks, 'Hroethbert is equivalent to the 
Robert of our day, and the descendants of Robert would be Robertsons, 
or Robsons, which now, as of old, is the chief surname about Falstone. 
We think we have evidence here of the Robsons some twelve hundred 
years ago, in the very district where, till lately, they helji sway. 
Whether old Hroethbert was the ancestor of the wight-riding 
Robsons of the old play — ' Honest men, save doing a little shifting for 
their living ' — we will not say. •• 

3. — ^Nbw Fragments of Saxon Crosses Reoentlt Discovered 
AT Falstone. 

It has often seemed strange to me that other relics of 
early Christian times, besides the famous stone which could not be 
passed by without the foi*egoing reference and description in this con- 
pection, had not since its discovery been brought to light at Falstone. 
In mentioning the subject to my young friend, Mr. R. Owen Picton, 
who takes an intelligent interest in archaeology, he kept this in mind, 
when giving attention to the antiquities of the parish, of which his 
father, the Rev. R. Picton, is rector. The result was an invitation 

* Narth Tynedale and its Fbur Chaynes, 2nd edit., pp. 8-9. 


to help him, on a pleasant afternoon in May^ to dig np with oar own 
hands, aided by pick-axe and spade, a large stone nearly imbedded in 
the soil of the churchyard of Falstone, on the south side. Mr. B. O. 
Picton has written to me ^m Cheltenham, where on aoooont of 
health he has been spending the winter, his own record of the dis- 
covery, and he has also forwarded careful rubbings taken by himsftlf. 
His own words had best be given, which are as follows: — 

' The stone standing apright was first observed by me in April, 1886. One 
half was in the ground, while long grass hid the greater part of it, only aboot 
four inches being left to view (that is, when close by it). My attention was ^nt 
drawn to the stone by noticing the socket hole at the top, and on pushing the 
grass aside the design upon it was observable. The stone was dug up on May 
36th, 1886, when socket holes were found both at the top and bottom, but no 
lettering. On digging it up the teuant of Falstone farm-house, who was passing 
at the time, stated that he had two stones of similar design in the walls of the 
adjoining farm, which he showed us. The larger of these is now in the church, 
and from the similarity of its designs may have formed part of a cross, of which 
the stone found in the churchyard was a lower part. The ends of it seem worn. 
The design on this second stone was more distinct on the left side (that is, on 
the side not embedded in the wall). The other sides were covered with mortar, 
but even after it was washed off their design is not so clear. I am rather doubt- 
ful whether the third stone belongs to the cross at all. The design on this stone 
is on one side only. 

The wall in which the second of the three stones was found, as well as some of 
the adjoining walls, are partly built out of the stones wluch were left lying about ' 
when the old church was pulled down in 1824. These two latter stones were, no 
doubt, among the heap, and were usad to build the walls of the adjoining farm- 
house. Bvidently when the old church was demolished there was no attempt 
made to preserve any marks of antiquity, however meagre they might be. I 
know of no additional fragments of the cross having been found, and if there 
had been I think it would have come to my knowledge. 

The interlacing work of the back of the first and largest stone, though very 
indistinct, might draw out some opinions as to its special character. It is more 
distinct, however, on the side of the second stone. In the few illustrations w^hioh 
I have seen of Saxon stones I have not come across any similar work. 

The question as to whether these stones have any connection with the well- 
known fragment of a Saxon cross, having upon it a Saxon and Runic inscrip- 
tion, found near Falstone, may naturally arise. On this subject there is one 
thing I will point out, viz., that this inscribed stone was found at a place marked 
** Ruins" in Armstrong's ''Map of Northumberland" (1769), which is near the 
mouth of the Hawkhope Bum, and over a quarter of a mile distant from the 


I htkve marked the tracings or rubbings of the second stone right, left, front, 
and back, to make it correspond with the large stone, though the designs of the 
fronts slightly differ.' ^ 

Dimemkms of the new Saxon Oross fragvnmU. — When we had 
careiiilly dag out and extricated the largest (first) fragment from its 
embedded position on the sooth side of the chnrchyard, it was foand 
to measure 2 feet 1 inch in length (that is, in height), 1 foot in width, 
and 7 inches in thickness. In the wall of the adjoining &rm-hoase, 
part of which is the ancient and interesting pele or bastel-honse of 
Falstone, the second scnlptnred stone, also a fragment of a cross shaft, 
was discovered. It is 15^ inches high, 9^ inches wide, and 5^ inches 
thick. The third stone, which was built into the garden wall, was 
smaller and different in form, being only 6| inches long by 6 inches 
wide, and 4| inches in thickness. Our coUeagne, Mr. J. P. Gibson, 
Hexham, informs me that he discovered a fourth stone, before un- 
known, in the churchyard wall, which, with the others, he has 
photographed. This stone I have not seen, nor had Mr. B. 0. Picton 
observed it daring his search, which was carefully carried out; though, 
with so large an extent of walls to examine, such stones would not be 
easily discemible, unless the light were specially favourable, and might 
even then escape recognition. 

CharojcUr of the Sculpturing, — Soon after the discovery of the cross 
fragments at Falstone, I sent Mr: B. 0. Picton's rubbings to the Rev. 
Wm. Greenwell, F.S.A., whose opinion coincided with and corroborated 
my own, already expressed, that the local sculptor living towards the 
head of North Tynedale, probably worked from the remembrance of 
designs on Saxon crosses and other stones which he had seen and 
admired in and around the great church at Hexham at the foot of the 
valley. Mr. Greenwell's view is thus expressed in his letter to me — 
'The Falstone Saxon sculpture is, I should think, a rude imitation 
of the beautiful Hexham school with grape branches. It would be 
desirable to have the fragments taken out of the garden wall, and 

^ It is with much regret that I have to record the untimely decease of my 
young friend, Mr. R. Ow&a^ Picton, solicitor, in the spring of 1888, after a 
lingering Ulness. His blameless life, with excellent abilities, endeared him to 
all who had the privilege of knowing him ; and he had given promise of good 
success in his professional career, as well as in antiquarian research which he 
had prosecuted, especially in connection with the parish of Falstone. 


then it might be possible to put them together, should they belong 
to the same cross.' ^^ 

As to its characteristic features these sculptured stones may be both 
compared and contrasted with those of the great Wilfrid's time and his 
famous school of Saxon art. Different from the Birtley cross-slab, 
which is well incised, the Falstone fragments are carved in relief of 
fair depth, and some of it is boldly cut. The ornamental, interlaced 
knot at each end of the Bunic cross stone, first described, is in deeper 
relief than the chain and other simple interlaced work of the recently- 
discovered cross shafts and slab. In the former it seems as if in style 
it resembled the more purely Celtic work, and in the latter the in- 
fluence, in rude exercise, of the Romanesque classical school upon 
Scoto-Irish art, appears more evident. So conventional is the repre- 
sentation that it is scarcely conceivable that the ancient sculptor could 
have ever seen a bunch of grapes, or his memory failed him to design 
any but the most distant approximation to the true form in the triple- 
rowed pendants upon the largest shaft. 

The small slab at Falstone bears upon it the best carved work as 
to design and finish. It resembles a similar stone which I have often 
noticed in the garden of my friend, Mr. C. R. Kendal, M.R.G.S., of 
Abbey Chite House, Hexham, having within a scroll a conventional 
bunch of seven grapes. Very rude scrolls with bunches within appear 
rather unsymmetrically on each side of a central rib on the smaller 
Falstone cross shaft. The contrast with the beautiful sculpturing 
upon that Anglian masterpiece, the grand ^Acca' cross in the Dean 
and Chapter library in Durham cathedral, once one of the glories of 
Hexham ; or that very fine portion of a cross remaining, still five feet 
in height, in the Spital garden, near Hexham, having on one side a 
crucifixion scene and on the other sides the vine leaf and grape orna- 
ment, will be very apparent when the two excellent [^otographs of 
the latter are placed side by side with those of two of the Falstone 
cross fragments, taken by Mr. J. P. Gibson. 

The only other Saxon work, in North Tynedale itself, with which 
comparison may here be made is the interesting portion of a cross, 

^'The three fragments of croeses are now located for safe keeping in the 
church at Falstone, beneath the tower. See Proe. 8oe, Antiq., Newe., Vol. IV., 
p. 10. 


found built up in the wall above the chancel arch of Simonburn 
church. This is now securely placed against the west wall of the 
porch upon the stone seat, and it seems to have been split from top to 
bottom, the other part being lost. The stone is nearly of the same 
dimensions as the largest shaft at Falstone, being 2 feet 2 inches in 
height, 8^ inches broad at bottom and 7^ inches at top ; the thickness 
of the fragment being 6^ inches at bottom and 5^ inches at the top. 
Here again, by comparison, the inferiority in design and execution of 
the Falstone sculptures is manifest. For the Simonburn stone may 
ahnost certainly be considered the work of St. Wilfred or his school. 
Bunches of grapes in well-formed clusters are enclosed in spiral circles 
with ivy (not vine) leaves here and there upon concentric tendrils of 
the ivy plant. 

Purpose and Age of the Falstone Gross Fragments. — My own im- 
pression is that these three recently-discovered sculptured stones are 
portions of different Saxon monuments. After close examination of 
the relative proportions and designs of the two larger shafts on two 
or three occasions, they seem to me not to h^ve formed originally 
portions of one and the same cross, but of different crosses. The 
smallest fragment also has belonged apparently to another distinct 

In the largest stone, I am disposed to believe that we have a 
considerable portion of, it may be, the ancient churchyard cross of 
Old Falstone, which may have been erected, as we know such crosses 
often were, before the first Saxon church of wattled work rose to 
shelter, during divine worship, the primitive converts to Christianity. 
The fragment was found by us lying imbedded very near to what may 
well have formed the original site, on the sunny southern side of the 
churchyard facing the pleasant river and the environing hills. Around 
such a cross we are informed that our Saxon ancestors used to gather 
for the worship of the One True God and His Christ, as in an open-air 
church; sometimes under the shadow of a venerable yew tree, and with 
a well near by, answering at first as a Christian font, where the whilom 
devotees of Thor, Woden, and other deities of the Valhalla, were 

There seems no reason to doubt that the Falstone cross-fragments, 
like the Birtley cross-slab, are among our few known relics of the very 



early days of Northumbrian Christianity, probably dating from the 
7th or 8th century after Christ. 

It is diflBcult to answer the question — Whence arose the first 
ideas and suggestions exemplified in the artistic productions of the 
Scoto-Irish and Roman schools of this district illustrated *in these 
ancient Christian monumental stones ? The enamelled fibular and 
other ornaments of the Romano-British period show one phase of 
Celtic art, which developed afterwai'ds into the very beautiful and 
intricate illuminations of the Northumbrian and Irish manuscripts, 
the later being a distinct advance upon those written in the earliest 
Christian age. But pagan and Christian emblems are often curiously 
interwoven; and the processes of artistic thought appear sometimes to 
run in confluent channels drawn from Celtic and classical, and even 
Byzantine sources. (See Dr. Stuart's Sculptured Stones of Scotland^ 

It has been said that, ' whatever its origin and purpose, interlaced 
ornamentation was equally familiar U) the Saxon invaders and to the 
British aborigines.' ^ It is matter of history that the Ancient British 
inhabitants of this country were expert in intertwining the pliant 
reeds and willows for many and various purposes. The bascattdasy 
(Welsh, basgedy whence our English word basket,) were among the 
prized household treasures of the patrician ladies of Imperial Rome. 
This native art of plaiting was deftly applied in making the domestic 
furniture of the Britons, their skin-covered coracles, and perhaps war- 
chariots, their house-walls and the defensive ramparts of their fortifica- 
tions constructed of wattled work of intertwisted branches, trees, and 
stakes. Can it have suggested the peculiar and distinctive style, with 
its marvellously varied devices, of interlaced Celtic oi:namentation 
found on stone and metal work, and the paleographic relics, the 
earliest manuscripts and illuminations of Britain and Ireland ? 

There is little doubt that they were native British fingers, or those 

^ An Attempt to explain the Origin and Meanifig of the Early Interlaced 
Ornamentation found on the Ancient Sculptured Stones of Scotland, Ireland, 
and the Isle of Man, By Gilbert J. French of Bolton. Printed for Presenta- 
tion only, 1858. The writer, who had great knowledge of ecclesiastioil art, 
argues that this arose from the Ancient British plait-work. Of, An Account of 
the Three Ancient Gross Shafts^ etc, at Ham ; by the Rev. Prof. G. F. Browne, 
B.D., F.S.A., 1888; p. 16. Also, Archaeologia, Vol. L., pp. 287-294; and Jour, 
Brit, Arch, Assoc, for 1869, Vol. XV., pp. 63-80 (Mr. French's paper). 


of a skilful imitator, which formed the ^ basket-work ' decoration on 
the two unique fictile vases from Goventina's temple- well at Procolitia 
or Carrawbnrgh towards the close of the fourth centuiy.*^ 

On the sculptured crosses pagan still blended with Christian sym- 
bolism, as we see in the mysterious emblems of intertwining serpents, 
spectacular ornaments, the comb, trumpet, and other devices, with the 
familiar scenes of the chase, as if heathen anticipations of the after- 
life existence were still to some degree cherished; and all these in close 
association with quaintly carved but easily understood representations 
of the great scene on Calvary, or drawn from Biblical or primitive 
church history. In the labyrinthine mazes of curious, elaborate, 
and endless knot-work in which these were set before the popular 
gaze, something of the mystery of divine things, of the everlasting 
life, and the wonders and beauty of all nature (to us grotesquely 
manifested thereby,, though not to them), may well have been im- 
pressed upon the simple minds of those who gathered for solitary 
devotion or united worship before the lofty sculptured cross of 
Acca, in the cathedral precincts at Hexham, or the lesser church- 
yard crosses which pious hands erected, even in remote Christian 
settlements of the earliest age, as at Birtley and Falstone; where the 
sacred rites of the ancient British church may have preceded those 
afterwards introduced among their Saxon converts by St. Aidan and 
his missionaries from the Holy Isle of Northumbria. 

Postscript. — Since this paper was read the noble volume on 
Hexham Abbey has been published by our colleague, Mr. Hodges, 
which, with admirable historical and descriptive chapters, contains 
fine drawings and the fullest architectural details from the eailiest 
times, including Saxon monumental crosses and sculptured stones 
of St. Wilfred's church. I am glad to think that so competent an 
authority may be disposed to investigate the subject referred do m 
the preceding pages. He remarks*^: — 'The whole question of the 
origin and development of the various forms of ornament introduced 

**One of these *very curious vases or cups of earthenware' bears an inscrip- 
tion, from which it appears that the dedicator, Saturninus Gabinius, made the 
vase with his own hands, as an offering to the goddess. Arch. Aeliana^ Vol. 
yill., New Series, pp. 7, 8. 

^^Eccle^ia HeufuUtadensU. The Abbey of 8t. Andrew, Hexham, 1888. Chap. 
V. p. 60, Note. 


into the stone work of this period is such a large one that the author 
feels no justice could be done to it here. It is to be hoped that before 
long a monograph will be devoted to the subject/ 

Also it may be permitted to me here to re-echo the desire, so 
gracefully expressed by Professor George Stephens, F.S.A., that the 
publication of all the sculptured stones of the pre-Conquest or Saxon 
age now left to us in these Northern Counties may shortly be under- 
taken for our Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne by the 
Rev. Wm. Greenwell, F.S.A., who is best qualified to accomplish this 
much-needed and important work.*^ In this connection the hope may 
be expressed that the present series of the Disney Lectures on Archaeo- 
logy in the University of Cambridge, by the Rev. Prof. G. F. Browne, 
on The Anglian Sculptured Status of pre-Norman Type^ with the ex- 
cellent illustrations, may hereafter be issued in book formj being a 
valuable contribution to the knowledge of this subject. 

APPENDIX (see p. 253). 

That these Roman altars were utilized by the early Saxon converts 
to Christianity in this part of Northumbria is proved by the remain- 
ing portion of a large altar now preserved in the poreh of Warden 
church. It has been upturned, the moulding showing at the bottom 
where the horns of the altar have been cut off level with the surfooe of 
the slab. Its dimensions are 4 feet 4 inches high ; 1 foot 8 inches wide 
at the top and bottom, and 1 foot 4 inches in the middle; and from 7 to 
8 inches in thickness. In a sunk panel, which nearly fills the whole 
side of the altar above the moulding, there is a central figure, rude, bat 
carved in good relief, with the arms extended, not horizontally but at 
a sloping angle from the sides. The characteristic Anglian or Saxon 
interlaced work appears in a long band or oblong panel on each side, 
with the triquetra and cable moulding above on the right, and a con- 
voluted cross on the left. Mr. J. P. Gibson, of Hexham, has obtained 
an excellent photograph of this interesting Roman altar-slab, which, 
like an ancient palimpsest, has been put to a fresh use in later (Chris- 

*» See Arch. Ael,, Vol. X. (N.8.), p. 92, NaU, 



tian) days. In Warden church, near the north wall of the fine chancel 
which has recently been rebuilt on the larger original foundations by 
the vicar, the Rev. Canon Cruddas, lies a good example of the Norman 
domus ultima or coped gravestone, tegulated like the fragment in 
Simonbum church porch. It is 5 feet 4 inches long ; 1 foot 4 inches 
high at the head, and 1 foot 1 inch at the foot ; and 1 foot 8 inches 
and 1 foot 4 inches wide respectively at the head and foot. There are 
six overlapping rows as of tiles on each of the sloping sides. The 
exterior angles of Warden church tower show long and short mason- 
work alternately, and the tower-arch from the nave has the usual 
Saxon characteristics, part of the 'moulded abacus remaining under 
the low rounded arch which is only 5 feet 5 inches wide, the height 
from the floor to the abacus being 6 feet, and the breadth of the wall 
2 feet 9 inches, the dimensions being but little larger than those of an 
ordinary doorway. 

Crow-Stone from Cladh an Dihkart 
IN loNA. (See p. 963.) 


Abkrdxxnshirx. (See p. 968.) 

(The above woodcute have been kindly lent by the Society of Antiquaries 

of Scotland.) 



By W. H. D. Longstaffe, Vioe-Prbsidknt. 
[Read on the 19th December, 1888.] 

In 1827, with the skeleton of St. Cuthbert, were found a magnificent 
stole and a maniple, made bj ^Ifflasd's order for Frithestan, the 
bishop. He was consecrated to the see of Winchester in 905, by 
order of King Edward the Elder. It has been supposed that ^IflSaed 
was Edward the Elder's queen of that name; but Eyre suggests that, 
as Edward the Elder's sister and his daughter, a nun, were so-called 
as well as his queen, any one of the three may have bestowed the 
gifts on Frithestan. The fact stands that the truly regal needle- 
work came from Winchester to Durham. Dr. Raine volunteered the 
most possible explanation of the transit. It was this: — ^ It might be, 
as the Queen died long before the Bishop, that the present never, in 
reality, came into the possession of him for whom, it was fabricated, 
but was preserved in the palace. It might be that these two articles 
of priestly dress were not intended to become the personal property of 
that bishop, but only to be worn by him when officiating in the 
private chapel of the Queen: either of these circumstances would 
account for their falling into the hands of King Athelstan.' The 
queen died before 916, Frithestan died in 982 or 988, and in 934 
King Athelstan, the illegitimate successor of Edward the Elder, gave 
to St. Cuthbert one stole with a maniple, one girdle, and two bracelets 
of gold, meaning, apparently, of golden tissue. Edmund, Athelstan's 
successor, and the legitimate son of Edward the Elder, also gave two 
golden bracelets taken from his arm, and two robes of Grecian work- 
manship. His brother Edred oflFered divers gifts worthy of a king. 
Only two such bracelets of golden tissue were found, not four ; but 
there was a golden girdle of the same materials and workmanship. 

Between 968 and 990, according to Prior Wessington — ^whose in- 
formation in this matter, as in others, is not traced — Ethelwold, 
Bishop of Winchester, arrived at St. Outhbert's shrine, and, *of the 


highest audacity', raised the lid of St. Outhbert's coffin, talked with 
the dead man as with a friend, and placed upon his body a pledge of 
his love. The church of Durham certainly had an agreement with 
several convents for the celebration of officia plenaria, and among 
these Winchester occurs. 

In 1104, at the translation of the remains of St. Cuthbert, the 
monks seem to have felt doubtful as to their existence at all. How- 
ever, they were supposed to have been found incorrupt. Bishop 
Flambard, the builder of the splendid nave of Durham minster, was 
consecrating an altar in some other part of the Cathedral, and seems 
to have been another Gallic. I do not pursue this matter further. 

To return to the Winchester garments. Eadwine, a monk, has a 
strange statement copied in the Winchester Book (Addit. MSS. Brit. 
Mus., fo. 114^). Apparently its date is between 1032 and 1056. 
The document meanders about some disputes between the old and the 
new monasteries, and the * good laws betwixt the two monasteries in 
monks' days, as Bishop Frithestan has done in priests' days'. Bp. 
-ffithelwold arbitrates. The monk goes north to St. Cuthbert. * God 
and the saint granted me that I washed him with my hands, and 
combed his head with a comb, and sheared his hair with sheai^s, and 
clothed him all with new clothing y and took from him his old clothes; 
some I left there, and some I have here'. The whole of the • strange 
narrative ' may be seen in Thorpe's Diplomatarium. Does it not ex- 
plain the occurrence of Winchester vestments at Durham ? 

Eyre will have none of Reginald's account of Elfred Westoue's 
combing the head of St. Cuthbert, and wrapping him in such robes 
as he, Elfred, thought fit, Symeon only mentioning that Elfred 
exhibited a single hair of the saint which, in the fire, shone like gold. 
On the other hand, Reginald does not mention Symeon's story about 
the Conqueror's precipitate flight from Durham to the Tees because 
the monks would not allow him to satisfy his doubts whether they 
had St. Cuthbert at aU. 

I now put forward another unused document. Peter Langtoft's 
Chranicle, tmnp. Ekiw. I., whensoever derived, as edited by Robert of 
Brnnne, contains much extraordinary matter. In describing the 
Durham flight in the Conqueror's time, it says: — *Seynt Cutberte's 
bones of fertre toke thei out'. [Saint Cuthbert's bones out of feretory 


took they out.] On the community's return the reading is: — * The 
Bisshop brouh the hones agayn unto the se'. [The bishop brought 
the hones again unto the see.] 

In narrating William's other doings, the chronicler says : — 
' Sit hen to Darham went, tfaer he destroied the see 
The Bisshop he bisoaht, 8. Cutberte's honeg to see, 
The BUtJuop opned the schryne, the hones thei ap raised, 
The Kyng wepte with his ine, that sight mykelle he praised. 
And silver grete plente opon the altere laid, 
2 her franchise gaf tham fre, the whilk that thei of said. 
The kastelle did he wirke of his tresore alle, 
And S. Cutberte's kirke closed with a walle.' 
The phrase, ' Their franchise gave them free,' is very curious, bnt 
cannot be treated of in this paper. One thing is clear, the body waa 
not secreted from the world at large, and the fears of 1104 are 

It may be objected that Langtoft is a late chronicler. Be it so, 
as long as he is independent of the mere copyists. We all know how 
the very existence of an usurper, unmentioned save by one chronicler, 
was ignored until the Hexham stycas proved his reign. 

It is obvious that neither the Winchester monk, nor Elfred West- 
oue, nor the Conqueror, had any difficulties. As to those created in 
1104, as compared with the discoveries of 1827, you must form your 
own opinion. Eyre's is a disingenuous book, Consitt's conscientious. 
Lingard, before his death, believed that the remains found were those 
of St. Outhbert. The remarks of Henry Howard, in one of the 
Durham newspapers, appear to be unknown; they are superior to 
Lingard's. There is an amusing note in an otherwise reliable work. 
Rock's Church of our Fathers^ i. 435. 

Both Eyre and Consitt think that the miracle might cease when 
faith ceased. There is, however, the fact that no trace of decomposed 
animal matter occurred. To me, of course, the subject is simply one 
of historical interest, it being matterless whether a saint is incorrup- 
tible, or, as in the case of Bede, corrupted. 

In the foregoing paper I have followed Raine, p. 68, quoting 
a MS. by Prior Wessington, stating that it was Ethelwold, Bishop 
of Winchester, who, * of the highest audacity,' raised the lid of St. 
Cuthbert's coffin. But I find, through a very useful series of papers 
on the dioceses of England, contained in Parker & Co.'s Penny Post^ 


that the visitant really was Elfwold, formerly a monk of Winchester, 
and afterwards Bishop of Sherborne. The authority quoted is William 
of Mabnesbury — ^no mean one — who flourished some 300 years before 
Prior Wessington. It seems that Elfwold always had the antiphon 
conoerning St. Cuthbert in his heart, and died singing it with voice 
and hand. His journey, ^ad sanctum Cuthbertum Dunelmum*, is 
narrated, and so his ^ audacity'. He left some * pledge of his love'. 

Ethelwold of Winchester is described by Godwin as turning honest 
priests^ with their wives and children, into the world, in order to put 
in monks. We must be thankful that sacerdotalism is now under 
some control, feeble though that may be. One of Ethel wold's suc- 
cessors, Walkelyn, favoured not monks, but displaced them where he 
might, and put in secular priests in their room. What the relative 
merits of the two states might be, I know not. 

In 1854, in our 4^ ArcMeologia Aeliana} there was a modest ' In- 
quiry into the origin of the name Sunderland, and as to birthplace of 
the Venerable Bede'. Although Jarrow occurs last before Bede's ex- 
pression, Mn territorio ejusdem nvDuasterii^ we should, as the monas- 
teries of Wearmouth and Jarrow were conjoint, and the former had a 
slight possession on the south side of the Wear, give the benefit of a 
doubt, and treat the phrase as possibly applying to the whole joint 
territoiy, meaning the territories of both bodies. There must neces- 
sarily have been a subdivision of some kind. Mr. Brown, in his 
* Inquiry', admits that territorium and King Alfred's sondorland have 
general senses. Indeed, at the present day the word territmies is 
prudently inserted in conveyances of any considerable estates. I have 
known the words capital messuage and hereditaments convey territories, 
much to the pecuniary satisfaction of the owner thereof as to minerals. 

Monkton, with its Bede's Well^ accompanied with the usual 
customs, and containing as many or more pins as there were coins in 
Coventina's Well, is traditionally the birthplace of Bede. In Cam- 
den's Britain, translated by Holland, and * finally revised, amended, 
and enlarged, with sundry additions by the said author,' we read that 
beneath Gateshead, * almost at the very mouth of Tine, is to be scene 
Girwy, now larrow, the native soile of Venerable Bede'. Ascending, 

» Vol. IV., p. 277. 



we come upon Harrison's most valnablc description' of the British 
rivers in 1585, when he sayeth of the Tine thus: — *Next to Jerro or 
Girwie, where Beda dwelled in an abbeie; now a gentleman's place, 
altliough the church be made a parish church, wereunto diverse towns 
resort, as Moonke Eaton, where Beda was borne, which is a mile from 
thence.' This Moonke-Eaton may possibly guide ns to the correct 
pronunciation of Symeon's Munecatun. 

Ascending again, we arrive at the earliest life of Bede. Stevenaou 
believes that it was written before his remains were removed from 
those of St. Cuthbert, and were separately translated, as no allusion is 
made to the circumstance, which took place in 1104. At all events, 
five of the six copies of the life are of the same twelfth century. They 
state that ' he was a native of an inconsiderable village in the territory 
of Jarrow, past which sweeps the deep river Tyne, which falls into 
the ocean at no great distance'. Bishop Walcher's grant to the monks 
of the vill of Jarrow with its appurtenances — viz., Preston (extinct), 
Monkton, Hedworth, Hebbum, Westoe, and Harton — no doubt fairly 
represents the separate territory of Jarrow on the deep river. 

The co-monastery of Jarrow being posterior in date to that of 
Wearmouth, and Bede, or his parents for him, electing the monastic 
life, there was no option but to be placed under the care of Benedict 
at Wearmouth. After the commencement of the monastery of Jarrow 
he was transferred to the care of Ceolftith, the abbot thereof, and 
there, under the shadow of Monkton, Bede lived and died. 

Upon the whole, I see no reason to disturb the ancient claims of 
Monkton, in the territory of Jarrow, to have been the birthplace of 
Bede. Still, it may be polite to make a few remarks upon the Sunder- 
land claim. 

The West-Saxon Alfred, the translator of Bede, had no knowledge 
of the Northern vernacular. Bede latinized Gateshead into ad cceprcB^ 
caputs an example followed by Florence of Worcester. Alfred saxon- 
ized this Latin into Aet ffregeheafde — not a bad translation, both gat 
and hraege meaning goat. His substitution of aundorlande for tenitorio 
is equally good; but he would know no more of Sunderland than he 
did of Gateshead. 

In Bishop Morton's charter of 1634, the recital is that 'our 
borough of Sunderland-near-the-Sea, in the county palatine of Durham, 
is, and time out of mind hath been, an ancient borough, known by 


the name of the New Borough of Wearmouth,' and has had ' various 
ancient liberties and free customs, as well by prescription as by virtue 
of sundry charters^ as well by grants and confirmation of the most 
famous kings of England as by sundry grants of our predecessors. 
Bishops of Durham.' Then comes a prayer for remedy of defects in 
charters, and for further liberties. Whatever all this grandiose lan- 
guage may mean, the exceptional phrase ' Neio Borough' seems to be 
borrowed from a charter of Henry III., granting to * our burgesses of 
the New Borough of Wamemuth ' the customs of Newcastle and a 
mercatorial guild. Going upwards from 1634, we find that in the 
fifteenth century the borough mentioned as that of Sunderland nigh 
the Sea, or that of Sunderland. In the fourteenth century Sunderland 
is linked with the vill of Tunstall, .in Bishop Fordham's Roll, and in 
Bishop Hatfield's Survey the Borough of Snnderland is found as 
having rendered yearly 20Z. and then was let at only 6/. Passing by 
the charter of Henry Til., we come to the doings of Bishop Pudsey. 
In his great survey, called * Boldon-Buke', the Borough of Wermouth 
10 mentioned; and we have his charter to his Burgesses of Weremne, 
of customs according to the custom of the Burgesses of Newcastle. 
After this, the Pipe-Roll of 1197 — * Boldon-Buke' having been com- 
piled in 1183 — we find mention of the town of Sunderland. This is 
the first occurrence of its name, intelligible as connected with the. new 
borough sundered from the rest of "Wearmouth, but not with any 
possession of the ancient monasteries, EingQuthred's grant to the church 
of Durham only extending from Tyne to Wear. The Sunderland of 
Boldon-Buke is manifestly Sunderland Bridge, near Durham, as the lord 
of Butterby, the manor opposite, was paying in respect of a mill-dam. 
The borough was new as compared with that of Durham, and per- 
haps with that of Oateshead, just as the castle on the Tyne was new 
as compared with Bamborough. The name of Sunderland is suffi- 
ciently explained by the sundering of the new borough from the rest 
of the South Wearmouth of King Athelstan's grant, in which it must 
have been included, otherwise we should have no evidence of its 
annexation to the church. Between the time of King Alfred and tlie 
first occuiTence of the name Sunderland as applicable to the Borough 
of Wearmouth — is,^ that portion of South Wearmouth which was held 
by freehold burgage tenure in contradistinction from the rest of the 
district — ^there is a gap of some 300 years. 


Thk annexed reproduction of a photograph by Mr. Gibson^ of 
Hexham, a member of the Society, shows a fine oak chest, four 
feet nine inches long and two feet nine inches high, apparently of 
seventeenth century foreign — Italian or Flemish — workmanship. It 
has probably been a linen chest. The carved front is divided into 
three compartments vertically and two horizontally, there being a 
drawer in the lower of these. In the centre of the upper portion ^ a 
representation in bold relief of the Sacrifice of Isaac. The piece of 
furniture was given to Mr. Clayton, in whose possession it now is, 
some years ago, by Mrs. Colbeck, who then resided at Walwick Grange. 
An ancestor of Mrs. Colbeck is said to have purchased it on the dis- 
persal of the contents of Dilston Hall, the seat of the unfortunate 
Earl of Derwentwater, after the ill-fated rebellion of 1715, in which he 
took so prominent a part. The chest is said by tradition to have been 
used at the chapel near the Hall for holding the priests' garments. 

The Rev. Canon Greenwell, of Durham, has a chest 'of similar 
design and workmanship, but smaller and without drawer in the 
bottom compartment. 


By C. J. Spenoe. 

[Read on the 27th March, 1889.] 

Ralph Gardner's name does not appear anywhere in our Trans- 
actions ; poesibly the peculiar nature of his relation with the predeces- 
sors of our worshipful landlords may suflSciently explain this; but 
whatever view we take as to the virtues of that extinct monopoly which 
was the burden of his grievance, we must at least, as antiquaries, hold 
him in thankful remembrance, for he has left us one of the most 
valuable local books of his century, a book which has not many rivals 
in interest among the Commonwealth quartos. 

Of the events of Gardner's life we have scant knowledge beyond 
the little which may be gathered from his book ; of his death we only 
know certainly that it was not by hanging, as his adversaries would 
have it ; his biographer. Dr. Leitch, was at some pains to clear Gai*d- 
ner's memory from that imputation. 

The son of a discharged writing master at the Newcastle Grammar 
School, settled in 1650 at Ghirton Cottage, brewer and churchwarden 
at North Shields, in 1658, at the age of 28, he was petitioning Parlia- 
ment in behalf of himself and many others — shipmasters and captains 
— for freedom of trade and navigation in the river of Tyne. 

The 37th chapter of the Orievance (one of the series of depositions 
in support of his complaint) is a detailed account of Gardner's im- 
prisonment in ' the stinking common jail, where only a wall parted 
them and such as had the plague,* at the very time when this petition 
was in preparation. 

(B.) Thomas Salkeld, Gent, upon his oath raid, he knew a Gentleman cast into 
Neweoitle Prison apon a bare Arrest in Augutt 1652. And laid actions 
upwards of Nine hundred pounds, where Twenty pound could not bee 
recovered, and kept him lockt up in a prison from all comforts in a 


Tower above 86 foot high, being forced to eyacaate in the same Boom 
he lay, and eat his meat, by reason that he was locked from the house 
of easement, 
(c) He offered good Bayl, Free-men of yeweiutle, who were accepted and 
entered in the book, and two dales after raced oat again, and he still 
kept there. He desired to be admitted to defend his own Canse in their 
Court, bat they refased it. 

(D) Desired to go with a Keeper to Ck>ansel» which was also denied: His 

Friends and Servants often not admitted to come to him. 

(E) Proffered good Bond to be a true Prisoner, to the end he might have the 

benefit of the fresh Aire, for the preservation of his health, bat at the 
Goalers hoase, which the Sheriff granted at the first, bat presently after 
refased, saying, that the mayor, aldermen, and himself had a meeting, 
and resolved he should have no liberty, being an enemy against their 

(o) The said Gentleman offered them that what any coald recover against him 
by Law, they should have it without the Law. 

(h) Constrained to drink the Goalers Beer, not fit for mens bodies. 

(i) No I'ryall ever against him ; they disobeyed two or three BabeaM Qrrputtet, 
which the Sheriff received, and his Fee, and was proffered to have their 
charges bom, but never returned them. 

(k) Refused substantial Bond to appear at London before the Judges, And after 
five months imprisonment, he brake prison in Fehntary following. 

The delay resulting rrom this imprisonment was no doubt the 
canse of the failure of Gardner's agitation : a conservancy bill was 
actually drafted, and the extended time given to its opponents would 
have expired on the 13th, but on the 12th December the Long Parlia- 
ment was dismissed ; then, as Gardner says, he ' conceived to give a 
narrative was better, though it be large,* and he set himself to write 
his book, which was published two years later. He who reads it will 
have a truer knowledge of the life and work of this extraordinary man 
than could have been gained from any little matters of personal detail 
which are lacking. 

A little quarto volume of 211 pages, four pages of dedication to 
the Lord Protector, and two of introduction. Chapters I. to XXIV. 
are historical ; then follow the petitions in four chapters, and, headed 
by a plate of wrecks and drownings, twenty-seven chapters of deposi- 
tions and one on Jarrow Siike. The great portrait of Oliver faces ^An 
Act for a Free-Trade in the River of Tjne for Coaky Salty Ac' which is 
followed by 'a map of Tyranny'* and a * Short relation ^Northumber- 
land's miseries.' 



^ Sin 

^ Englands Grievance t 


^ In relation to the ^ 

^ ^ — ^ - — - ^ ^^— ^ ^ 

«| WITH 1^ 

-^ The Map of the River of TINE, s^ 

5^ and Situation of the Town and S^ 

^ Corporation of ?^ 


? THE Z 

^ Tyrannical opprefsion of thofe Magi- ^ 

^ ftrates; their Charters and Grants; the |^ 

^ feveral Tryals, DepoAtions, and Judgements S^ 

^ obtained againft them ; S^ 

2| WITH Ij 

^ A Breviate of feveral Statutes proving repugnant ^ 

^5 to their Adings; With Propofals for reducing the ex-. ^ 

^ ceffive Rates of Coals for the future ; And the rife of their ^ 

^ Grants, appearing in this Book. ^ 

^ ' 5^ 

^ ^ 

^ By Ralph Gardiner of Chriton in the County of Northumberland^ Gent. ^ 

^ ^ 

^ ^ 

^•5 London Printed for R. Ibbitfon^ in Smith-field, and P, Stent at the White S^ 

^ horfe in Gikfpur ftreet, without New gate, 1655. S^ 


The book conclndes with a series of chapters on statutes, oaths, 
and ordinances, summed up in the last 12 pages of ^Reasons against 
tJds Arbitrary Power J ^ 

A copy of the Orievancs in any condition is sufficiently scarce, but 
with an original map it is of exoessively rare occurrence. It has been 
twice reprinted — in 1796 by Akenhead & Son, and even at that date 
the first edition was a rarity, for in his preface the editor says : — 

* After some degree of difficalty in oar search for it, we have been fitvonred 
with an original copy, and being repeatedly solicited thereto by a number of 
respectable gentlemen, have reprinted the whole verbatim^ with the exact /m- 
similes of the author^s map of the river, and curioas prints, together with portraits 
of the respective kingn and queens and now o£fer it to the public on as reason- 
able terms as the nature of such chargeable undertakings will admit of.* 

The second reprint by Dr. Leitch in 1849 was published during 
the agitation for the establisliment of a Tyne Conservancy, and is full 
of the raciest notes by the anonymous editor, • The Faithful Son of 
Father Tyne.' 

Both reprints are illustrated with the same tame reproductions of 
Gardner's six plates of atrocities ; the 1849 edition has also a view of 
Gardner's house at Chirton, which was pulled down in 1856. 

Akenhead gives twelve royal portraits, very inferior in every re- 
spect to the series in the first edition ; his portrait of Cromwell is a 
still more inadequate substitate, for among the original plates this is 
the most generally known and prized. It is a fine etched portrait by 
Gaywood, occupying a full page with the title : — 

< His Excellencie Oliver Cromwell, Qenerall of all the Forces of England, 
Scotland and Ireland, chancellour of the University of Oxford, Lord Protector 
of England Scotland and Ireland, 

R, O, fecit Peter Stent Ex^. 16S3 

Gaywood has copied his head, reversing the aspect, from Lombart's 
well-known engraving after Robert "Walker's portrait of Cromwell in 
armour, three-quarter length, with the figure of his son Richard behind, 
tying the sash. We have a witness to the truth of this portrait from 
one who well knew Cromwell's appearance, 'John Evelyn, a cultivated 

* Coal is prominent on the title page, but, with the exception of a few inter- 
esting notices of the admixture of ' slait * and of rings among the fitters, the 
book is mainly concerned with the shipping question, and has but little bearing 
on the archaeology of mining. 


lover of the arts, and engraver also of a few plates, in a digression 
concerning physiognomy (the last chapter of his Numwnatia) says of 
this portrait : — 

< Let him that would Write and Read the History of the late Times, particu- 
larly that of the late Usurper Cromwell, but seriously contemplate the Falls and 
Lines in his ambiguous and double face (as accurately stamp'd in his Medal by 
J^mtnons* (Thomas Bimon) *or engrav*d in Tailte- Donee by Lombard^ from a 
PUfture of Walker*s, the most resembling him) to read in it, without other Com- 
ment, Characters of the greatest Dissimulation Boldness, cruelty, ambition, in 
eyery touch and stroak ; so like to his of whom *twas said, S(evtu ille vultvn et 
rubor, a quo te contra ruborem muniebat,' 

The wrath which the sight of this portrait excites against its 
original is an additional proof of accuracy, but surely Evelyn carries 
political criticism too for when he hints that the proverbial colour of 
Oromwell's nose was designed as a safegu/^rd against blushing. 

Stent, Gardner's publisher, who is well-known as a print-seller, 
issued this plate in the year in which Cromwell accepted the Protector- 
ate. It has been originally intended for a portrait of Cromwell as 
Lord General. The principal tide, ' Lord Protector,* etc., comes at 
the end of the inscription, and appears to have been added at the last 
moment. The whole of the lettering was afterwards erased, and the 
plate reissued, with the title of Lord Pi*otector alone in large flourished 
letters, with a ruled background, which entirely destroys the effect of 
the head. 

Gaywood, the engraver, pupil, and in some of his best work, close 
follower of Hollar, also etched the six plates which illustrate the depo* 
sitions ; they are not more careless in execution than the majority of 
the little plates in the pamphlet quartos of the time, and they have a 
quaintness which is entirely polished away in the copies by Akenhead. 
The etching of the ' Branks ' is on a smaller copper, and Akenhead, to 
fill up his page, has added an imaginary drunkard's cloak. 

In the chapter headed by the branks, the deponent relates how he 
saw one 'Ann Bidlestone drove through the streets by an OfBcer of 
the same Corporation, holding a rope in his hand, the other end 
fastened to an Engine called the Branks, which is like a Crown, it 
being of Iron, which was mnssled over the head and &ce, with a 
great gap or tongue of Iron forced into her mouth, which forced the 



blood out.' ^ These^^ says Gardner, *are such practices as are not 
granted by their Charter Law, and are repugnant to the known Laws 
of England,' 

His legal method of abating the grievance in this case would have 
been a doubtful gain to the ' chiding woman.' ^ Sooulds,' he says, 
' are to be Duckt over head and ears into the water in a Ducking- 

/^i M 

/ My^^S^ 

/ i ■'' ?1 




1 jL. J@SU\Vi"3i 

^~^j^~ "^ •""""■"^^^^^^^^^^^^BB^K^^^K^W^^Sa^i^^^a 

A. EiAtrt Sfc#rp. B* Ann BidUflw. 

There are two other plates to illustrate depositions bearing no 
relation to the main argument of the Orievancey which was concerned 
chiefly with the wrongs of the seamen and abuses in the port and river ; 
one heads a chapter on a seizure of tobacco in the market, the other is 
the very singular plate of the Newcastle witches. Seven of the con- 
demned (fourteen witches and one wizard) have come up for execution, 
three are hanging in a row, and the hangman is in the act of turning 
the fourth off the ladder. The 'Belman' is on one side open mouthed, 
proclaiming, and on the other the Scotch witch finder is receiving his 
20b. apiece. 



After reciting the names of the fourteen, the deposition con- 
cludes : — 

* These poor souls never confessed anTthing, but pleaded innocence ; and one 
of them by name Margaret Brown beseeched Qod that some remarkable sign 




A . 



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^^ s 

-T3 «w 

«: ^ 

hjO »- 

1? ,^ 

5 ^ 

•^ ;? 

n» & 



.s .s 

^ R .^ 

•fc ^ *♦ 


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ft 1 

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might be seen at the time of their execution, to evidence their innocency, and as 
soon as ever she was turned ofE the ladder, her blood gushed out upon the people 
to the admiration of the beholdersi' 


In addition to these six plates to the depositions, there is in the first 
edition a very remarkable series of royal portraits which have received 
little notice. All, with one exception (the Charles I., which is 
published by Stent), were engraved early in the seventeenth century, 
and in every case where it was possible, from authentic originals. 
Wear and retouching have marred some of the plates, but others, in 
spite of service in more than one work, are in a fine state, notably so 
the Elizabeth, a copy from the portrait engraved by Passe in 1592, the 
only plate in the series which bears the excudit of the original pub- 
lisher, Gompton Holland^ a name well-known in connection with British 
portraiture. He was brother to Henry Holland, whose heroologu is 
the first regular series of English portraits, and he published the plates 
of another celebrated collection, the basiliologia of Henry Holland, 
for which Elstracke, the Passes, and others worked. These heads in 
the Orievance are numbered in the same way as the royal portraits in 
the Basiliologia, but they seem to be by a less skilful hand ; very pro- 
bably they were engraved by "William Holl, one of whose best workS;, 
the ^Hmricus Princeps* in Drayton's Polyolhion is copied from Passe. 
He was an artist of no great ability, principally employed by the book- 

John heads the first chapter. The author evidently considers his 
patronage no credit. 

Mary's portrait bears traces of an inscription — ^ ForUssimi qiuque 
interfecti sunt ah ea' — with which it appears in the translation of 
bishop Godwin's Annals of England^ 1630, burnished out to make way 
for the original title, which had been erased, but is partially legible, in 
the second state. The Edward YI. was used in the same book, with 
the uncomplimentary inscription, V(b tehi terra^ cujus Rex Pu^ est. 

The plate of Charles I. also shows an erasure from an earlier state, 
the latter part of the title, * Defender of the FaUh^ etc., has been re- 
moved to suit the altered times. 

Of twenty-one copies of the Orievams examined during the last 
three years, seven only have maps of the Tyne. Four of these have 
the map originally engraved for the book, and published with it, the 
other three have maps from two different coppers, which are very 
little later in date, and have been each described as undoubtedly the 
original. One of these later maps was facsinUlied by Akenhead in his 
reprint of 1796. 

"BNGLAND'h grievance D1800VBRBD." 293 

C^rdner'B original map is a very characteriBtic work of Wenzel 
Hollar, etched in 1664, It is surprising that the Orievancs should 
contain a plate so important as this map by Hollar, which is a most 
beautiful piece of drawing. The explanation, probably, of the elaborate 
illustrating of the book is that Gardner had some monetary support in 
his agitation from the London coal and shipping trades ; and a Hollar 
then was not what a scarce Hollar is now. 

Hollar, in 1654, was at about the lowest point of misfortune in a 
life of much hardship. He was a Bohemian by birth, and after the 
ruin of his family in the Thirty Years' War, he abandoned the law for 
which he had been educated, and had finally adopted engraving as his 
profession, when he came to England under the protection of the Earl 
of Arundel. 

After the outbreak of the civil war he entered the king's service 
under Sir Robert Peake, the painter, with whom also was Faithome, 
the engraver. They were engaged in the defence of Basing House, to 
which Faithome refers in the dedication of his rare little book, the 
first English treatise on etching, to * The Worshipful Sir Robert Feakey 
Knight, Tou clmrufd the steel of my tools into weapons and the exercise 
of my arts into arms,'* 

The two engravers were liberated after a short imprisonment, and 
in 1664 Hollar, tempted by the prospect of work on Dugdale's Hon- 
nsticony had ventured to return to London from Antwerp, where he 
had been living, ai^d was then employed at Faithome's shop in work 
for the print-sellers, regulating his labour by an hour glass, which was 
carefully turned down at every interruption. About this time he 
etched his great view of London (' near a yard long with liatin verses 
thereon ') for Stent, and was paid dOs. for the drawing and engi*aving. 
A very small fraction of the eleven guineas ' which have been paid for a 
single print of his plan of the Tyne would have covered the cost of 
the original etching. 

It is a very careful piece of drawing ; few, if any, of Hollar's 2,400 
plates were otherwise, and a large proportion attain a high artistic 
level, which is surprising where so much must have been hack work. 
' He was very short sighted and did worke so curiously that the curi- 
osity of his worke is not to be judged without a magm'fying glasse. 

*Tuwiiley Sale. 


As a boy he tooke a delight in drawing maps, which drafts he kept 
and they are very pretty.'* 

This map is entitled * The Eiver of Tyne leading from the sea on 
the east to Newcastle on the west, being bounded in on both sides, by 
the County of Northumberland on the north, and the County of 
Durham on the south. London printed and sould by Peter Stent, at 
the White Horse in Giltspur Street between Newgate and Pye Comer.' 
On a globe over th^Hii^e, ' 1654 R 0^ and under the 2-inch scale, 
* Described hy Ralph Gardner ^ OenV 

It seems hardly possible that the whole of this survey can be by 
Gardner. The hydrographic part of it is so minutely accurate that it 
is more likely that this portion at any rate is from some manuscript 
chart of the time, possibly a survey made when the river was all *dored 
and wrecked up with sand,' and the new articles of conservancy were 
drawn by Sir Julius Caesar and the London Trinity Mastei'S ; or it 
may be that the map was done by Gardner, with the help of some of 
his many nautical iriends in the 'multitude of shipping' which he 
speaks of. 

The positions and forms of eight shoals and sandbanks are given 
with the greatest minuteness, and from Tyne Bridge to 'Tynnmouth 
Barres/ there are thirty soundings, 7 feet at south end of the bar, 
where a ' great ship ' aground is striving to back off; nine others are 
at anchor outside waiting for the tide. There are ships on every sand- 
bank; two or three are sunk in mid-stream, and on the 'Dirtwick' 
Sand is a disappearing wreck. Following Aubrey's advice to use a 
glass, one sees that these little ships are drawn with all Hollar's 
mastery of marine work, and are accurate even to the direction of the 
wind throughout the whole length of the river. Note the two ships 
working up stream in the Bill B,each, and all the rest sailing down the 
river on the other tack. 

Tynemouth Castle is imaginary in its detail. A recent work — 
probably the fortification of 1642 — is shown on the Spanish Battery. 

In the High and Low Lights we have the first representation of 
two of the earliest of English lighthouses, then improved by the 
addition of turrets burning two candles apiece. 

North and South Shields Low Streets skirt the river for a mile on 
• Aubrey's Aneedote$ of W, Hollar. 



Plate XTIIL 


each side, ^where no towns had any right to be/ the south divided by 
the Market Place and the north by the wooden bridge. There is a 
crowd of shipping in the harbour, especially on the north side. 

In the first clause of Gardner's petition he refers to the need of a 
market at Shields *to relieve the garrison of Tinmouth Castle, the 
inhabitants which be thousands the great conflaence of people resort- 
ing thither. The great fleet of ships daily riding there.' One of the 
objects of Gardner's map is undoubtedly to enforce his plea for a mar'ket, 
the large section of the country, with the villages surrounding North 
Shields (' where many be starved to death in the ^vinter season '), is in- 
troduced for this purpose. Several depositions are given in support of it. 

William Beavely of Lyn^ whose * beer they rooked from him which 
he brought from Lyn for the relief of the poor at Shields,' deposeth, 
' that he and the ships company hath often been constrained to go to 
sea without bread or beer, none being to be got at Shield^ on a sudden, 
and have drunk water for above five days which hath so weakened his 
men, that they were in great danger of their lives.' 

Captain James Oremaway also, who * could get but two dozen of 
bread at hoi\x8hMldSy had to go ashore at Scarborough, whereby he 
lost the protection of the fleet of loaden ships with which he had sailed, 
and was taken by a Dunkirk man-of-war. 

The group of villages arranged ahout North Shields is centred by 
2,* bird sight jpro^ecV of the races on Killingworth Moor, probably 
one of the earliest views of a racecourse, and of Newcastle I'aces 
certainly the earliest. 

This festival (suspended for a short time during the Commonwealth) 
appears to have been an important North Country event in the seven- 
teenth century, and we have several references to it, which are printed 
in Vol. IV. of our Transactions, in a paper by Mr. Hodgson Hinde. 
He has overlooked the two earliest references which are given in 
Vol. I., in a note to Canon Raine's paper on *Sir Edward Radcliflfe, of 
Dilston.' In 1673, John Dodsworth, of Thornton Watlass, Esq., leaves 
by will, * my silver flagon which I wonne first at Killingworth Moore,' 
and in 1621, the earliest reference, a letter from Sir Henry Babington 
to Sir Edward Ratcliffe, asking for his contribution of £5 to the horse 
race at Killingworth, a receipt is written on the letter, and a list of 
five other contributors, each of £5, is endorsed.' 

* ArohtBologia MUana, Vol. I., N.S., p. 210. 


One hundred years later, in 1721, the races were finally removed to 
the Town Moor. In the map the course, of about three miles, is marked 
by a line of posts, extending at interval from 'Hill top' nearMmton, 
where a number of men and horses are waiting, to a winning post and 
flag half*a-mile east of Benton church. The horses running are about 
the centre of the course, which still retains the name of Scaffold Hill. 
Hollar has not drawn the stands usually erected here, and it is possible 
that they may not have been in use in his time. Two rows of spectators 
line the sides of the course and thicken to a crowd at the west end. 
Here again the glass brings out an unexpected variety of detail. 

Speed is the authority for the plan of Newcastle in all of the 
Oardner Maps. Hollar's only variation is a row of houses from Sand- 
gate to 'Riddal's -Shore,' and again, from thence to 'Dent's Hole/ 
He has made a grotesque mistake in his reading of St. Anthony's 
(S Tantlins.), which has been copied in four subsequent maps. 

Hollar's map fails to illustrate one point to which Gardner devotes 
several chapters — ^the vexed question of the Ballast Shores ; and this 
may account for the appearance of the second map, in which the 'keys* 
and shores are carefully marked and. named. There is no engraver's 
name; and no very certain means of determining the hand; for 
convenience we may call it the Shipwright Map. It is very inferior 
to the earlier map in execution, and shows nothing of the adjacent 
country. Shields church marks its later date. Pace Sand is buoyed 
at the east end where North Boad passes. Only one other sand is 
marked, and only six soundings. 

The map would be uninteresting if it ^ere not embellished with a 
very curious series of groaps, the motive of which appears on a label 
from the mouth of a little seafaring figure, plodding up the river side 
at Willington : ^To Neurmtle for Shipurights' At the top of the 
map three free carpenters, in sack coats, with tool bags, saws, and 
axes, are returning irom work elsewhere to the Gateshead shipyard. 
At the foot, two similar figures with the explanation : ' Newcmfh 
ShiptvriyhU going to Seek Works in the River of Thames A^ in the 
Winter Season^ who are kindly received and admitted to work.^ 
Opposite the Coble Dene in the most important group, a Newcastle 
shipwright is falling upon a shipwright of England, whose tools are 
scattered round a half-sawn log below. The shipwright of England's 







coat is oflp, and his breeches, in the straggle, are about to follow; on a 
huge label he exclaims : ' Ha 'vast there Brother Trade carry ffair 
why may not Wee worke in this River^ as tvell as you in the River 
of Thames A other Ports of England & Wales: Another free ship- 
wright or bnrgess, with a long staff, walking round the combatants, 
advises (in a sentence which irresistibly suggests the vernacular) : ^Carry 
him to New Castle he is a fforrinor: Gardner's narrative gives many 
instances of the difficulties arising from this monopoly of work by the 
Newcastle shipwrights. The most interesting is the case of Thomas 
Ch'ff, an ancient sea carpenter of North Shields, whose name is 
frequently mentioned in the depositions. A plate heads the chapter, 
with the wreck under Tynemouth Oastle, and the subsequent pro* 
ceedings in three groups. 

(A) Senry HarrUon Master of a ship npon his Oath said that in A^rU 1646, 

a ship sailing into Ttnnumth Haven, by stonn was cast npon a rock 
near Tinmowth Castle. The master got a shoar with all expedition, 
and obtained the present help of an antient Ship-Carpenter, by name 
Thomas Cliff of North Shields with three of his men to save the said 
ship from perisshing, which ship had been quite lost, if the said Master 
should have run to Newcastle to have agreed with the free Carpenters, 
whose excessive Rates and demands, often surmounts the value of the 
ship in distress; and their tediousness in coming and going that 
distance, that often the ships in distress are quite lost. 

(B) The said Cliff and his men saved the ship and got her off, and brought her 

to the lower end of North Shields, and laid her upon the Sands to mend 
her, where the three Carpenters were at work, and Ann the wife of 
Thomas Cliff and Ann Wallice his daughter standing (to see their 
Servants work) near unto the ship. 

(c) The Mayor and Burgesses of Ifeweastle sent Thonuu Butter and John Hall^ 

two Sergeants, with Thomas Otfcay, Richard Pederick, and other free 
Carpenters of Newcastle to Shields to seize upon all the aforesaid Work- 
men for daring to save any ship from sinking in that River, with 
command to carry them to prison. 

(d) The two women seeing their servants trailing away, railed against their 

evil practices, for which Thomas Ratter with a club, by several blows 
upon Ann Cliffs body and head knockt her down to the ground; The 
other Sei'geant John Hall, by several blows with a Rule or Trunchion 
broke Ann Wallice her arme, and then perceiving Souldiers coming 
from Tynmouth Castle, both the said Sergeants fled to Netoeastle, where 
they were protected from the hand of Justice. 




(b) The said Ann Cliff ytbs taken up, carried home, got to bed, and in a few 
weeks dyed thereon. For which the said Mutter was indited, and found 
by the Jury guilty, yet did not suffer. 


J ^ 



The said woman required her friends as they would answer it at the 
last day, they should require her blood at the hands of Rutter, he being 
her death. The poor men kept in prison, and Cliff kept in suit at Law 
for his working, by Newctutle, and his men, and they forced to give 
bondinever to work again. 

•' bnqland's gelbvancb disoovkbbd." 299 

Probably this second map was engraved for some other petitioner 
than Gardner, perhaps for Ezekiel Goddard, who deals especially with 
the sea carpenter question ; his curious little tract, evidently inspired 
by Ralph Gardner, is in a collection of broadsides in the British 
Museum, and is here reprinted. 



Bt Ezekiel Goddabd. 

That some more strict Law may be made against Perjury , both in Criminal 
Ganses, and Causes of Meum and Iktum: And that all Witnesses may be Sworn 
apart, one from the other, and not within Hearing one of another. 

Some strict Law against Swearing, Cursing, and horrible Imprecations, 
especially against that of Calling God to Damn, Rot and Cbnf&und thenuelvet 
and others: Without such a Law and the dne Execution thereof, no good to be 

Against the Wkite-DHers, the Mint, the Minories, and such Nests of Villains, 
that defend themselves by force of Arms against, and in despite of aU Laws, 
and in Disparagement of all Civil Government. 

Against Giving Bond and Judgment in Trust, or other Security, to leave a 
mans Wife or Children any certain Summ of Money at the time of their Death. 

A severe Law against Imbezelling the Stores of the Nation. 

A Law to Erect Courts of Conscience in all Corporations, to recover small 
Debts, and to Regulate Fees in all Hundred Courts for that purpose. 

To Erect Beacons upon all Sea-coasts, old Beacons being decayed. 

To enable Maiors and chief Officers in Corporations, and Justices of the 
Peace in Market-Towns, to send such of the Poor as are Chargeable to the 
Parishes where they live, to Work in Harvest at a certain Rate, at the Request 
of any that shall desire the same, under a Corporal Punishment in case of 

To prevent the Destruction of Cities, Corporations and Market-Towns by a 
multitude of Hawkers, Pedlers and Keepers of (Shops in small Villages, it may 
please this House to restrain the said Persons, and to give them liberty to live in 
some City, Corporation or Market-Town, to exercise their Trades there. 

To Restrain the Town of Neweaatle from the many abuses they put upon the 
Nation in general. Viz. 

1. — They will suffer no man to take any Carpenter either out of his Neighbours 
Ship, nor out of the Town, to save his Ship from perishing, though driven in by 
Storm or by other casualty, but do Imprison such Carpenter for the same, 
except the Master of the Ship go first ashore, and carry two able Bondsmen to 
be bound in £1000 to Clear the Harbour of her Wreck; which if be cannot doe, 
they seise the Ship and her Lading to the Towns use, which takes up so long 
time to provide Security, or it may be the Master cannot get Security, till the 
Ship is lost for want of help. 


And when they have seized some Ships, and taken the Lading and Rigging 
ashore, they do not clear the Harbour of the Wreck or Hnll of such Ships, by 
which Wrecks several Ships have been lost, and could get no Recompense of the 
Town therefore. 

2.— They will suffer no man to deliver any Goods at the Town of Shields, 
though his Majesty hath Officers there, but force all men to carry the Goods to 
NemoaitU'Keyy which is about Six Miles, and there pay the Town-duties: And 
then bring the said Goods back to Shield*, 

S. — They will suffer no common Brewer to brew Beer at Shislds^ but all men 
are forced to go to NemoattU for their Beer, though the Ship be laden and fit to 
Sail, and have a fair Wind, which many times loses a Voyage: And when any 
Brewer sets up Brewing, they Sue him, and have been cast in all or most of 
their Suits of that nature; but by their great Stock ruin all that oppose them in 
any of these things. 

4. — ^Their taking Excessive Tolls out of every thing that is brought thither to 
Sell, whether Com, Grain, Apples, Fish, or any other Victuals; the Maior a 
share, the Bell-man a share, the Meter a share, and that not a little. 

6.— Their making of men pay Wharfage, Porterage, Metage, Phinkage, when 
their Goods come not on the Key, nor are Meted^ nor carried by Porters. - 

The third map is larger than the Shipwright map, and is without 
the groups, whose place is occupied by the names of the two counties ; 
the other place-names are identical in both maps^ and both are from 
the same survey. Each shows the ballae(t quays^.the positions of 
which are marked to-day by a range of hills peculiar to Tyneside. 
This ballast from the coal fleet was a constant source of vexation 
Dr. Leitch says, 'Old Father Tyne was sadly troubled with the 
.gravd'^ and it crops up again and again in the Orievance, The 
ancient penalty, revived in 1616, to prevent captains from evading 
the ballast dues by casting ballast at sea^ was one to which no ship- 
master would tamely submit. 

* Tltomas Hatilwood of London Master of a ship upon his Oath said, that all 
Masters of ships, which sayleth into the Riyer 0% Tyne for Coals, Salt, h*'. The 
Mayor and Burgesses of Newctutle compels them to Swear against themselves, 
whether they did not cast ballast at Sea between Sowter and Hartly, or within 
fourteen fathom water, to the hurt of the said River of Tyne, And when the 
said master hath sworn the truth, that he did not, then a poor drunken Fisherman, 
or other, is called into the Town-chamber, and maketh Oath that the master did 
cast ballast when in truth he did not, he having part of. the fine for the same. 

< Then the Masters Oath is invalid and laid aside, and forthwith is commanded 
to pay a Fine of five pounds, or else to cut a purse, which hangs up in the Town- 
chamber, with sand and money in it» and so much as is therein, he must pay, or 
is sent to prison, and there to lye till he doth pay it.' 






Among the most interesting of our old town relics in the Black 
Gate are two of these cut purses and the knife, which used to hang in 
the town chamber. Gaywood's etching yery accurately represents them 
in use, but the fact that they have been preserved would show that the 
practice was not a common one. The purses are an interesting 
monument of early corporate economy. Each beara the marks of 
more than one incision sewn up to fit it for further service. 

It seems very doubtful whether this third map was engraved for 
the Orievance, for it contains nothing which specially connects it with 
Gardner, though it is the original from which Akenhead m'ade his 
facsimile. He has copied so faithfully, that the older style is not 
apparent till the maps are laid side by side, and then the difference in 
the style of the engraving, the size of the coppers, and the spacing of 
some of the words may be noticed. 

There are three other maps of the Tyne belonging the same period, 
two are on the model of Hollar's, and the other (till recently supposed 
to be the only early Tyne chart surviving) closely follows the lines 
of the Shipwright map. The earliest of the three is a curious river 
plan, which is mentioned by Brand in his brief account of the 
Adderley trial. The threatening proportions of the Spar Hawk in this 
map, the police *Mr. Cousinshouse,' and one or two other details, show 
that it was engraved by the opponents of the Westoe Pans shore. It 
was originally issued as the heading of a broadside, dated September 
26th, 1670, which sets out the grounds of the adverse decision by the 
London Corporation, to whom the matter was finally referred. The pro- 
moters of the quay punished an 'Answer,' which was followed by a 
printed * Reply on Behalf of the Town of Newcastle to the said Answer.' 
The first clause of this reply complains that the town has already spent 
£2,000 in unsuccessfully opposing the only other shore which had been 
erected nearer the mouth of the river. The objects of the promoters 
of the Jarrow Key seem to have extended to the reclaiming of Jarrow 
Slake, and they held that their scheme would benefit the * great shipps' 
which could not easily get up the river. There is a long and interesting 
notice in the MS. account of the trial, of a discussion on the rival merits 
of the 'great shipps' and Cesser shipps' employed in the coal trade. 

Tynemouth Light appears for the first time in this map, and there 
are one or two interesting points in the names, a list of which is given 
by Brand. 


A Coasting Pilots which -was the first of a long serieB of books on 
navigation, by John Seller, hydrographer in ordinary to the king, 
and was published about 1670, has, among a number of * Sea Cards 
from the Dutch,' a fine chart of the ' Biver of Tim' on the same sheet 
with a plan of the Humber, from which it is divided by an eccentric 
flowing scroll, proceeding from an open-mouthed head at the side. 

The lower portion of this map contains our river, which is copied 
somewhat closely from Hollar. The names ^Middens' and 'Leaden 
Hook ' are the only additions. 

These books of John Sellers are not described by Gough, who gives 
first in his list of charts Jenner's rare little 4to, * The Sea Coasts of 
England, 1653,' and then ' &reat Britain's Coasting Pilot,* by Captain 
Orenville Collins, which went through several editions from 1693 to 

The Master and Brethren of the Trinity House have a very fine 
copy of CoUins's Pilot iii perfectly fresh condition, and in the oflBce of 
the Tyne Commissioners is a copy with the autograph of Paul Jones, 
described fully in the Monthly Chronicle for August, 1888. It contains 
a most interesting chart of various portions of the north-east coast from 
the Wear to the Wan&beck, with a special section for the Tyne. 

In outline CoUins's Tyne is almost identical with the two later maps 
which are found in Gardner's Grievance. , A few names are added, and 
a lai^e number of soundings in feet, his survey occupied seven years 
— from 1682 — and was undertaken by command of Charles II., to 
supersede the existing charts, which, the preface says, were all either 
Dutch or copies from the Dutch. 

Seller's map of the Tyne, however, is from an English source, and 
by an EngUsh engraver (James Clarke). The title page of his book is 
wholly English, and very interesting in its groups of the early naviga- 
tors, with their singular instruments. 

Till within the last two or three y^rs all the printed maps of the 
river preceding the survey by Collins had been overlooked since Brand's 
time. Now that so many have turned up (three of these within 
three weeks) there is reason to hope that we may yet add others to the 
six which are exhibited, but we cannot expect to find one which wiU 
equal the Shipwright map in curiosity, or Hollar's in the beauty of 
its execution. 


(Examined Apbil, 1889.) 

Brituh Mntewn. — Two copies. 

1. Grenrille Library; with Hollar's map inserted before the address to the 


2. Imperfect (in 1884 neither copy contained a map). 
Bodleian Library, — Two copies without the map. 

Camhridffe University Library, — ^A perfect copy with Hollar's map. 

Bvihop Cosine^ Library, — One copy without the map. 

Hvth Library, — One copy with the third map, from which Akenhead made his 

The late T, W, U, Robinson,'-A copy with the third map. 
T. W. Peaee,— Two copies. 

1. A fine copy (Portland), with the autograph of Ferdinando Gorges, and 

with Hollar's map (from a copy of Gray's Chorographia, in which it had 
been inserted). 

2. Imperfect. 

R, Spence, — Two copies. 

1. With the Shipwright map (Comerford). 

2. With fragment of Hollar's map at end ; a fine copy (Sunderland sale). 
In other Private Collections in the North, 

One copy in original calf, bound up without sheet K. A fine print of Hollar's' 

map, with full margin, at end. 
Two copies with Akenhead's/ac«i»iZ^ map. 
Six copies imperfect. 
Summary.— BoUat^s original map, 4 ; Shipwright map, 1 ; third map, 2 ; later 

maps and imperfect, 14. The Cambridge copy is the only one which 

appears to be in an originally perfect state. Brockett's copy, which 

realized a very high price at his sale, is now missing. 

Sale Pbices. 
White Knights, £5 lOs.; Nassau pt, 1, £1 ISs.; Townley pt. 1 (imperfect), 
£4; Brookett (fine copy, morocco), £20 9s. 6d.; Brorkett,2nd sale (Nassau's 
copy), £5; Puttick sale in 1861 (imperfect), £3 6s.; Chamley's Catalogite, 1840, 
£10 10s.; Comerford, £7 ISs., resold, £12 12s.; Sunderland (no map), £7 Ss. 


Title page—England's Grievance Discovered in relation to the Coal Trade, 
etc., by Ralph Gardiner of Chirton, in the County of Northumberland, Gent. 
London, printed by *R. Ibbitson for P. Stent, at the White Horse, in Giltspur 
Street. Qvarto. 

Epistle dedicatory, 4 pp.; tothereader, 2 pp.; England's Grievance, beginning 
with Charter-La^v^, etc. (B-Dd,), 204 pp.; table and errata, pp. 206-211 ; errors 
in paging, p. 47 for 46 ; p. 68 for 89 ; pp. 138, 139 for 146, 147 ; pp. 142, 143 for 
160, 161 ; p. 167 for 166. 



Portrait of Oliver Cromwell on p. 114 ; sixteen portraits and six plates on the 
letterpress ; at the end a folded map of the Tjne by Hollar, 1654, * Described by 
Ba. Gardner: Gent,* 21J- inches by 16^ inches. Two other maps are found in- 
serted as frontispieces in copies which have been considered perfect; one of 
these was faenmilied by Akenhead, and Upcott^s collation is from a similar 
copy. The original map by Hollar is bound at the end, and in undoctored copies 
there is a set off from the title page, which shows that no map has been in front 
(see list of T3me maps below). 

Note bt John Bell, communicated bt the late T. W. U. Bobinbon. 

This is a scarce and curious book. It was 
lent to me by Mr. Joseph Saint, and after- 
wards given to me by his brother, Mr. Thomas 
Saint after his brother's death. 

October lO^A, 1783. Jn. Widdbinoton. 

The copy of Gardner's England's Ghrievanoe in which the above is written 
was (December 4th, 1840) in Mr. John Clayton's office, Sandhill, Newcastle. 
After the death of John Widdrington in November, 1797, or that of his widow, 
it passed into the possession of Mr. Thomas Young, a freeman and master 
slater in the close, Newcastle, who was well-known under the cognomen of 
the * Iteggy Slater/ from his stout person and curious manner of pronouncing 
legislator when publicly reading the newspapers, which he was fond of doing 
at the different inns he frequented. Whilst it was in his possession, he boasted 
of having ' an old original book all about the Tyne and Corporation.' This 
coming to the knowledge of Mr. Fenwick Boyd, a merchant of Newcastle, who 
was a leaseholder under the Corporation, and had got into a misunderstanding 
with them relative to his lease, and thinking that the ' old original book ' of the 
' Leggy Slater' might be acceptable to the incorporated body, he drove a bargain 
with Young by giving him a copy of Brand's History of Newcastle for it, and 
presented Gardner's Chrievanee to the Mayor for the time being as a peace 
offering. — J. B. 

A List of the Eablt Maps of the Biveb Ttsr, 
1. — An illuminated chart of the Tyne, on vellum, 1 foot 6 inches by 1 foot 2 
inches, showing the course of the river from the sea to Newcastle, with 
numerous soundings. Temp. Henry Vlll. (before the erection of the light- 
houses). Two-inch scale, with three elaborate compasses, and a note: — 
* This river hath at the eninge : 2 : bonks or shoullds, and is the Proporci- 
one with the depths figrede at Lowe Watter, in springe tides it hoyeth 


: 12 : fotte, and in neppe tydes : 8 : fotte, veiye nedfolle it is that thare 
ware at everye pointe of sande or Bockes, a becone, or a boye, for at hoye 
watter, both sands and Bockes are under watter, even to the mane Lande.* 
— M.B., Cotton. Ang. 1, 11, 6. 

2. — A plan of the harbour entrance and fortifications, tsmp. Henry VIII., on 
yellmn, 2 feet 3 inches by 1 foot 7 inches (a tracing of this plan is in the 
Castle).— M.B., Cott. Aug. 1, 11, 7. 

The plan of Tynemonth Priory, engraved for the Archaeologiaj and 
printed also in Gibson's Tynemouth^ is in the same collection. — M.B., Cott. 
Aug. 1, 11, 6. 
. 3.— A map of the Biver of Tyne, etc., W. Hollar, fecit, 1664, 'described by Ba. 
Gardner, Gent,' 2-inch scale, 21 J inches by 16| inches (b&^ facnmile), 

4. — Gardner's second map (the Shipwright map), IJ-inch scale, 16 inches by 
5 inches (see facsimile), 

6. — ^Gardner's third map (fully described above), 2i-inch scale, 21 inches by 
8 inches. 

6. — The Adderley Ballast Shore map^ heading a broadside of 1670 (described 
above), U-inch scale, 12 inches by 7 inches. — M.B., 816, m, 8. 

7.— ' A chart of the Biver of Tine,' on a 2-inch scale, with the Humber on the 
same plate. In Seller's Coasting Pilots S.A., and in The English Pilot, 
1671. Ja. Clarke, sculpsit (copied from No. 8), 21 inches by 17 inches. 

8. — A coloured 'ground plotte of Cliffords Forte, builded 1672 att the Low 
Lights, near Tinmouth Castle upon the river of Tine, by one of his Majes- 
tyes engeneers, Mr. Beckmann,* drawn by him on a scale of 20 yards to an 
inch, 12^ inches by 8 inches.— M.B., sb zxziii, 23, g, 1. 

Part of the river is shown in this plan which has with it a S3ction and 
two prospects. • 

9. — A map of the Tyne, forming part of a chart of various portions of the north- 
east coast. In Collins's Great Britain^ s Coasting Pilot, 1693, l|-inch 
scale, 22 inches by 17 inches. 

10. — ^A coloured * general plan of Tynemouth Town and Castle and Clifford's 
fort, scituate at the entrance of the river Tyne,' 400 feet to an inch, with 
a separate plan of Clifford's fort, 100 feet to an inch, and a section 40 feet 
to an inch, 2 feet 4 inches by 1 foot 8 inches. — M.B., ^ xzxiii., 22. 

This plan shows the harbour from the sea to Shields. It was drawn 
in 1720. 
There are several plans belonging to the middle and latter part of the 18th 

century, one of which is the well-known survey by Fryer, published in 1773. 

Fae»imiU of Gardner's Signature in Tynemonth Ohnroh bookB. 



.By D. D. Dixon. 

^ [Read on the 29th May, 1889.] 

/ The origin of many of the interesting old customs nsnally found in 
connection with villages of ancient foundation^ such as Harbottle, 
Hepple, and Rothbury, in Upper Coquetdale, can be traced a long 
way back in the annals of local history. Numbers are of Saxon origin, 
a few are said to be British, others (mostly sports and amusements) 
are reputed to be Roman, but probably the greater number have been 
introduced into our village life since the Norman Conquest. In 
speaking of the customs of Upper Coquetdale I do not mean to say 
that they were confined to that district alone — ^they were general 
throughout the whole country, differing only according to the status 
of each vill or manor. For instance, in Coquetdale we find that the 
early lords of Rothbury, Hepple, and Harbottle exercised the rights 
of life and death, each had the farms or gallows erected within his 
lordship; besides having many other rights, privileges, and customs, 
all of which were part and parcel of the feudal system, whilst in the 
adjoining lesser manors of Thropton, Callaley, Cartington, and Whit- 
tingham, although we find traces of several old customs, yet there is a 
lack of those speciarcustoms and institutions the usual concomitants 
of the more important manors. 

The Gallows. 

There were, in olden times, four gallows in Upper Coquetdale, 
viz., at Rothbury, Hepple, Harbottle, and Alwinton; and as there is, 
in each of the townships mentioned, a certain spot or locality still 
retaining the prefix gallows in its place-name, it may be of interest to 
notice the traditional sites of those four 'wuddies' which once adorned 
the landscape in Upper Coquetdale. 

The gallows of a Norman lord usually stood on an elevated spot, 
distant from his stronghold about one mile, in such a position that 
the gruesome sight could be seen from all parts of the manor, as a 
terror to evildoers. The gallows of Robert fitz Roger, the first 


Norman lord of Rothbury (1205) — if we are to be guided by the 
place-name— stood on a hill end close to West Hills camp, midway 
between Rothbury and Thropton. The slopes of the hill are still 
called the * Gallowfield Braes.' This spot (500 feet above the sea- 
level) was admirably adapted for such a purpose. 

The gallows erected within the Hepple barony by the Tailbois, 
the lords of Hepple (1207), has left us a trace of its existence and 
its site, in the form of a field-name, * The Gibbet Close/ For some 
time I had been endeavouring, but without success, to identify its 
site, and it is quite recently, by the help of an observant native of 
Hepple, Mr. John Clark, who is well versed in the lore of that ancient 
barony, that I was able to do so. 'The Gibbet Close' lies at the 
base of a hill, on whose summit probably stood the gallows. This 
hill is on the south side of the river Coquet, exactly opposite to 
Hepple, and distant about a mile from Hepple tower. 

The Harbottle gallows occupied an elevated site on a high ridge 
of moorland sti-etching between the villages of Harbottle and Holy- 
stone, about 800 feet above the sea-level, oi^ mile south of Harbottle 
castle, the border stronghold of the potent Umfravilles. This hill is 
yet known as * Gallow Edge.' How Gilbert de UmfraviUe, lord of 
Redesdale and Harbottle {cirm 1300), exercised his almost regal 
powers wicliin his franchise there, we gather from the charges brought 
against him in the Hundred Rolls. One of those charges shows the 
swift and savage manner in ^hich capital punishment was inflicted by 
that cruel and unscrupulous baron. Thomas de Holm was taken 
within the franchise, l)ut he escaped from the dungeon of Harbottle 
castle, and fled for refuge to the altar in Alwinton church, where, 
before the coroner, he forswore his country; but Simon Smart and 
Benedict Grey, porter of Harbottle, beheaded him at *Simonseth' 
(Simonside near Rothbury, beyond his franchise) in the body of the 
county, and took his head thence, and hung it on the gallows at Har- 

The same Gilbert de Umft-aville held 200 acres of land in the 
adjoining manor of Alwinton with the royalty of the town of Alwinton, 
where he also had a gallows and assize of bread and ale. The crest of 
a steep green hill to the north of, and overlooking, the village of 
Alwinton, yet called ' Gallow Law,' points strongly to the site of the 


Alwinton gallows. This hill — one of the Cheviot range — looks small 
alongside its huge companion * Lord's Seat/ but it stands in a pro- 
minent position, 884 feet above the sea, and is about one mile north 
from Alwinton church, which, in those days, was probably near the 
centre of the manor. 

There appears to have been curious degrees of dignity even in so 
hideous an erection as the gallows of feudal times. It is said^ ' The 
earl of a county was entitled to an imposing instrument, for while, by 
the Norman law, the gallows of a simple lord of a manor had only two 
supporting pillars, that of an eai*l was distinguished by having six.' 

RoTHBUEY Market Cross. 

During the Middle Ages when weekly markets and statute fairs 
were of greater importance than they are in these days, the village 
cross or market cross was the centre of the whole commerce of the 
district ; from its steps royal proclamations were read, and many other 
public announcements were given. When, in 1291, Robert fitz 
Roger obtained from king Edward I. a charter for a weekly market 
to be held on Thursdays, and a fair yearly, on the eve, day, and 
morrow of S. Matthew the Apostle, within his manor of Eothbury, 
whether there was then a market cross or not we have no record, and 
it is not until so late as the beginning of the 18th century that we 
have any ceitain account of Rothbury market cross. We must, how- 
ever, bear in mind that during the Commonwealth anything in the 
form or bearing the name of a cross was held in great abhorrence by 
our Puritan forefather, who destroyed many of our fine old market 
crosses ; therefore, when Rothbury parish church was denuded of its 
ornaments (as we know it was) during that unfortunate period, the 
older cross may have shared in the general despoliation. The Roth- 
bury market cross of which we are accustomed to speak was erected 
in 1722 by several of the then influential inhabitants of the village to 
afford a shelter to the country folks when attending the weekly market 
with their produce — butter, eggs, poultry, etc. It was a square build- 
ing with a hipped roof, and had four open sides, round-arched, very 
similar to Stamfordham market cross. About the beginning of the 
present century the cross was in so ruinous a condition that it was con- 
sidered dangerous. Therefore in 1827, instead of having it restored. 


the freeholders had the building entirely pulled down, and every stone 
of it removed. Luckily, however, a person who evidently had a little 
of the antiquary in his composition, got the mason, for half a gallon 
of ale, to carry a stone containing an inscription into his garden. 
This stone is yet in existence. 

It is said that the Duke of Northumberland (lord of the manor), 
who then came to Rothbury every year on his way to Kielder castle, 
and Inncheoned at the * Three Half Moons,* was so much annoyed 
at the destruction of the cross that he gave up visiting Rothbury 
altogether, and journeyed to his shooting box in North Tyne by 
another route. There was a great to do about it amongst the 
villagers, and the vandals who had been instrumental in its destruc- 
tion were threatened with legal proceedings. An old woman composed 
a long doggerel rhyme in memory of the cross ; there is neither poetry 
nor beauty in its composition, but it is valuable in preserving a record 
of the cross and of its destruction as well as the names of several old 
femilies in Rothbuiy. The following three verses quoted below are 
thought suflScient : — 

* Tc ancient inhabitants mourn for the loss 
Of that venerable pile, I mean Rothburj cross, 
Where oft in my childhood I happy did play 
With youthful companions, long since away. 
There was the Grahams, and the Milburns, the Storers and Storeys, 
The Clennells, the Snawdons, the Todds, and the Dores, 
The Matthews and Mavins — that's just half a score, 
Believe me, dear neighbours, there is very few more. 
If the age of the cross you are wishful to know, 
To the * Black Bull ' yard I ask you to go. 
Where with letters inserted, conspicuous to view, 
Is seventeen hundred and twenty-two.' 

Urged by a query in the Weekly Chronicle of November 24th, 
1888, respecting Rothbury market cross, and acting upon the advice 
given in the last verse, I went to the ' Black Bull' yard and found the 
tablet already mentioned built into the gable end of a house, the 
property of Mr. John Clark. The only name legible is that of ' Aichi- 
bald Douglas,' an ancestor of the querist in the WeeJdy Chronicle, 
Christopher Douglas of West Hartlepool. The others may have been 
Robert Snawden and Robert Redhead, both of whom were men of 



some note in the parish at that time (1722). A few of the inhabitants 
of Bothbarj can remember the rains of the cross, and a very old man 
informed me that he could recollect, when a boy, watching the 
countrymen go into the cross when trying on the leather breeches 
they were about to buy at the October fair. He also informed me of 
the price ofsalt and tobacco at that time (90 to 100 years ago). He 
said when the pig was killed — a great event in the country — his 
mother sent him to Philip Nairn, a shopkeeper in Rothbury, for 
*' a staen i' saat an' a yerd i' baccy ; ' the salt cost 5s. and the tobacco 
one penny. 

Near to the cross the pillory was wont to be erected, and not far 
off stood the village stocks, whilst about 20 yards to the west lay the 
Rothbury bull ring, described to me by an old Bothburian, who knew 
the spot well, as being ^ a fearful big staen flag wi' a greet iron ring 
in't as thick as yor airm.' 

The village green or market place, an open space in the middle of 
the village, more commonly known as the ' Cross,' whereon the market 
cross stood, is now the rendezvous of all the travelling tinkers, besom 
makers, muggers, and gipsies that peregrinate the country^ and who, 
without let or hindrance, encamp upon it^ such being the right of an 
ancient village green ; but I hope shortly there will be a scheme set 
on foot to remedy this nuisance. 


Without going into a long dissertation on the origin of cockfiglit- 
ing, I may say that it is a generally held opinion that the custom 
was first introduced into this island by the Romans^ although it is 
thought the bird itself was here before Caesar's arrival. 

William fitz Stephen, who wrote during the time of Henry II., is 
the first of English writers that mentions cockfighting, and describes 
it as * the sport of schoolboys on Shrove tuesday.' 

The custom of cockfighting at schools was practised on Shrove 
tuesday both in the North of England and the southern counties of 
Scotland, until about the end of the last century, the master himself 
presiding at the battle and enjoying the perquisite of all runaway 
cocks — fugies they were called.^ 'Gamecock, bancock, and fugie,' 

' * Hammlcs ' they were sometimes called in other places. — Ed. 


was a school rhyme in former years, and evidently alludes to some 
older custom. The scholars also paid a fee of a penny^ known as a 
oockpenny. The following Yorkshire rhyme may possibly have refer- 
ence to this practice: — 

^ A nick and a nock, 

A hen and a cock. 
And a penny for my master.' 

But cockfighting had patrons of higher rank than dominies and their 
pupils: country squires, city merchants, noblemen, and even royalty 
itself, frequented the cockpit. It was called the royal diversion. The 
cockpit at Westminster was erected by Henry VIII., and James I. 
was passionately fond of the sport. 

During the first half of the present century the custom of co«k- 
fighting was universal throughout the whole of Northumberland, and 
was a &vourite sport amongst the pitmen of Tyneside, as well as 
amongst the rural population of upper Ooquetdale and Bedewater. 
But in my researches into the old customs of our parish (Rothbury) I 
am rejoiced to find no trace whatever of such cowardly cruelty as 
fhromng or shying at cocks on Shrove tuesday — a most Ijarbarous 
custom, compared with which cockfighting, savage as it may appear, 
is to be reckoned among * the tender mercies* of barbarity. To us it 
is no doubt amusing to hear old tales of the cockpit; but we must at 
the same time admit that cockfighting was very barbarous sport, and 
cannot but rejoice that the practice is now to be numbered amongst 
the things of the past. 

In the village of Rothbury, some fifty or sixty years ago, there 
were no less than five cockpits, viz.: — 

One at the foot of the present ' Blue Bell' Garden, connected with 
an old public house then called the * Malt Shovel.' 

Another behind the modem * Turk's Head,' known at that time by 
the name of ' The Fighting Cocks.'^ 

A third at the west end of the village, close to the site now occu- 
pied by the Independent cliapel, where chairs and tables, stools 
and crackits, made by ^ Aad Tommy Haa/ a joiner at Whitton, 
were regularly fought for. 

» The village of Fighting Cocks in South Durham got its name from the 
barbaroas sport. The name of the new railway station on the Stockton and 
Darlington line has been changed to the more euphonioas ' Dinsdale.* — £d. 


There was a fourth in a yard behind * The Pox and Hounds,* a 

public house which was done away with many years ago. The 

peculiar merchandise fought for at the cockpit of this ' Fox and 

Hounds ' were legs of mutton, webs of homespun linen, and 

bottles of gin. 

The fifth and most important, which might be termed * the village 

cockpit/ was situated on the * Haa Hill,' near to the church, now 

part of the churchyard, where many a saTage main was fought. 

There were also cockpits at Great Toason, Snitter, Thropton, 

Sharperton, Harbottle, Netherton, Holystone, Harehaugh, and at 

Swindon, near Hepple, where there was also a ' badger-hole,' kept by 

Oliver Proudlock, the landlord of the * Badger Inn.' 

The last cockfight held within the * Haa Hill ' cockpit took plaoe 
about 1838, when between fifty and sixty cocks were entered, to be 
fought in what were known as four cock mains. The entry money 
was 12s. 6d. each bird, spectators paying 6d. for admission to see the 
fights. Persons came from great distances. to the Rothbury cookings, 
and on this particular day Wnllie Thompson, a shoemaker, came all 
the way fi*om Otterbum with eleven game cocks, each cock being tied 
up in a tartan bag, and hung in the bows of a carrier's covered cart. 
It was an unfortunate day for the poor shoemaker: his eleven birds 
were defeated. Amongst the well-known local cockfighters of that 
period who were present at this, the last of Rothbury's cockfights, and 
whose names are written according to local phraseology, were: — 

Jim Blaaket of Tetlington, Aad Wullie Bum the brower, 

Tom Amory of Snitter, Wat Mavin the fisher. 

Tommy Embleton of the Sneugh Banks, Lang Ned Pyle, i' the Forest Burn Gate, 

John Wuntrip of Big Tosson, Fargy Jordan of Lang Horaley, 

Bob Smith the weaver, John Watson the theeker (known as 

Geordie Eamsay the tailor, and his the * Jovial Thatcher *), 

son Bob, Besides Cocker Bill, Bweerin* Jim, the 

Tom Mavin and his brother Wnllie, ScammeUer, and others whose names 

the tailors, are now forgotten. 

It was just midday, when the proceedings were in full swing, that 
the Rev. C. G. V. Harcourt, the rector of Rothbury, whilst taking 
his accustomed walk through the rectory fields, saw the motley crowd 
assembled on the Haa Hill. Surmising at once that a cockfight was 
in progress, he hurried down to the village, and calling in the assist- 


anoe of the village constable — the late John Watson, the sexton, a 
stalwart fellow, better known as * Saxon Jack' — attempted to disperse 
the crowd, but in vain. A smatch of the old lawless spirit of their 
ancestors yet lingered in the breasts of the men of Coqiietdale; there- 
fore, regardless of consequences, they were determined to fight the 
mains out, and did. So at the next magistrates' meeting, held at that 
time in the ' stone parlour' of the ' Three Half Moons,' *Jim Blaaket/ 
Willie Leighton, and several more of the ringleaders, were fined pretty 
heavily. This prompt action of the rector virtually put an end to 
cockfighting in Rothbury, with the exception of an odd fight or two 
which were held in a secluded spot at the east end of the village. 

Many villages had properly built cockpits with a roof,^ but those 
at Rothbury were in the open air. The pit or circle was generally 18 
feet in diameter, surrounded by a low earthen rampart about 2 feet 
high, outside of which stood the spectators, whilst two men termed 
handlers were the only persons allowed inside the ring when the cocks 
were fighting. The floor of the pit was laid with fine ashes; ailer 
each battle this was carefully swept, and the feathers cleared away. 
The gamecocks of the ancients fought only with the spurs nature had 
provided for them, but those of modern times were armed with steel 
or silver spurs 2 or 8 inches long, and very shaip. With these bayonet- 
like weapons it often happened that the enraged birds would, at the 
very first onset, transfix each other, and both fall down dead on the 
floor of the cockpit, with such force did they strike. A Rothbury cock- 
fighter whom I knew well carried the mark of such a stroke to his dying 
day. He was a celebrated handler, and during a fight when lifting a 
poor blind and exhausted bird which was thought to be dead, it unex- 
pectedly struck out and sent the three inches of steel through his hand. 

Every bird had a particular name by which he was known and 
entered in the lists, Hei-e are a few of the Rothbury names: — Tom 
Mavin had one called * Burke'; John Wintrip of Tosson had * Jim 
Crow'; Tom Wintrip of Thropton had 'The Weary Bai^nman'; Jack 
the Theeker's was * Mary wants him back again'; and Wat Mavin had 

' Like that in the village of Coxhoe, county Durham, now used as a smithy. 
The pit at Middleton-one-Row, traces of which may still be seen, was on the 
bank in front of the village sloping to the Tees. It was about the same size, 
and had an earthen rampart as that at Rothbniy, but outside of it there was a 
ditch. The spectators sat on the bank above. At Ponteland and on the vUlage 
green at Elsdon there were cockpits similar to that at Rothbury.— Ed, 



a fevourite game cock which was fed and walked by Nanny Trammell 
on the * Haa Hill': his name was * Nanny wants him back again.' 

• Walking a cock ' was the feeding and tending of a game cock. This 
was firequently part of the rent of a form. About sixty years ago it 
was noted in the conditions of the lease of the hill ferm of Wilkwood, 
in Upper Coquetdale, that the tenant — then a person named Wood — 
^ shoold feed a pointer dog, spin a stone of lint, and toalk a game cock 
for the Squire ' (Clennell of Harbottle). 

It is interesting to notice how strong the spirit of antipathy to the 
French showed itself amongst the rural population of North Northum- 
berland for* many years after the close of the great French war. As 
in the olden days the cry was Scotch and English, so at the period of 
which I am speaking the very children played at French and English. 
But the most amusing manner in which this feeling showed itself was 
in the names our fathers and grandfathers gave to their game cocks. 
This I shall best illustrate by giving a short account of a notable 
cockfight held at the little village of Netherton, in the parish of 
Alwinton, some fifteen or twenty years after Waterloo, on which occa- 
sion the feathered warriors on one side were named after the English 
generals, and those on the other after the French generaLs, who had 
taken part in the campaign, and whose names were then household 
words throughout the country. The match was arranged by James 
Blacklock of Yetlington, a veteran of the cockpit, and John Buddie of 
Alnham, a Waterloo hero. The Yeldomites, with Buddie as their cap- 
tain, chose the names of the English generals, whilst the Yetling- 
tonians, with Blacklock as their leader, adopted those of the French. 
Many of the persons present that day had vivid recollections of the 
Falsb Alabm, and not a few had served as volunteers in the ranks 
of the Coquetdale Bangers, the Cheviot Legion, the Percy Artillery, 
or had been drawn for the Northumberland Militia, whilst Buddie and 
several others had actually fought the French under the command of 
those generals whose names they had assumed for their birds; therefore 
the excitement was great. Nicknames or sobriquets were, and are yet, 
very common in Coquetside, therefore some of the assembly were 
known by such names as Harry i' the Rig, Willie the Weaver, Geordie 
Scott, Kit Mordue, Cleesh, The Buck, Talleyrand, The Scammeller, 
Young Renny, The Gravit, Bendigo, Brassy, Pilpan, and Billy the 


The main having been drawn, the birds fell together in the order 
and with the resnlts following: — 

/Jack Bnddle's Duke of Wellington beat 

l-Dode Avery's Murat. 

/Bob Dodds's MaTshal Nej beat 

I Jimmy Blshender'g Sir John Moore. 

{Stephen Atcheson's Qenerol Wolfe beat 

Ned Hibert'B General Grouchy. 

X, ^ /Jim BlaakeVs Napoleon beat 

vJimmy Turnbuirs General Ficton. 

The second time: — 

C2 ") /Wellington beat Ney, and 
^Napoleon beat Wolfe. 

And, strange to relate how history repeats itself, at the third and last 
time — 

(B ^ J*^^^^ Bnddle*B Duke of Wellington beat 

i Jim Blaaket*s Napoleon. 

Mndi to the delight of the Yeldomites. According to cnstom the 
day's proceedings were finished np by a ^carding' in the 'Fighting 
Cocks' Inn ' at night. 

The usual doggerel rhyme commemorating the event began thus: — 

* Jim bagg'd Napoleon and off he went, 
To Netherton cockin' the lad was bent ; 
But Wellington lick'd him to his heart's content 
That varra day.' 

In giving notice that a cockfight was going to be held, it was 
customary at Rothbury, during the last century, to affix a written 
notice on the church doors, as well as on the doors of the village 
smithy. Often, too, the notice was simply verbal; one person told 
another, and soon the news spread far and near. In larger towns, 
such as Alnwick and Newcastle, the coming events were duly adver- 
tized in the newspapers. Numerous cockfighting advertisements are 
to be found in the old files of the Weekly Gourant and Weekly GhrmicU 
lying on the shelves of the society's libraiy in the castle. Complete 
official lists were also sent out irom the Gallowgate cockpit, contain- 
ing the names of the birds, their handlers, and owners. Three of 
these I have in my possession, viz., for Race week 1888, Easter week 
1835, and Easter week 1846. On the back of the last mentioned list, 


which has eyidently been sent by a person residing in Newcastle to 
his cockfighting friend in the conntry, is a most characteristic letter 
worthy of record, a verbatim copy of which shaU conclude this 
paper: — 

* Dear James. 

I am happj to tell yoa that the stag was good Game but we ware 
afrade of him and the Feaders Baley did not Like him and I Fonght him on 
Satarday for 12". 6^ and he Paid a grand Cock but it was a hard Battle and I 
Tride him the next morning an he still shoed Fight But verrj Bad and the old 
Cock win a Four mane on Monday Oliver Parker Fed him and If you have any- 
thing good For the next meating to send It In as I have got Baley to Fead at 
my house and you can stand as much on them as you Like and this is a correct 
markd List and we call the Black Cock the Deavel amang the Taylors. 

I Remain yours Truley 

Gbobob Hudsok.* 



[Read on the 29th May, 1889.] 

From the exceptionally important place that Northumberland occu- 
pies in the early history of English Christianity its ecclesiastical 
dedications might reasonably be expected to prove more suggestive 
and interesting than even those of Cornwall or Cumberland.^ A land 
whose soil was trodden by more than forty native saints must surely, 
yon would say, have enshrined their hallowed memories in the names 
of many of its churches and chapels. We should expect to be able 
thus to identify to a great extent the scenes of their lives and labours, 
and especially to trace the several stages by which the work of con- 
version spread from the rude monastery of Lindisfame and the 
splendid basilica of Hexham. Unfortunately instead of at once pror- 
oeeding to derive from the study of these local dedications lessons 
that so powerfully appeal to our imaginations, we shall find ourselves 
doomed in the first place to spend a very considerable amount of time 
in dry research amid conflicting evidences in order to determine what 
these dedications actually are. It is not the object of the present essay 
to do more than critically gather into a convenient form the informa- 
tion that can be most readily procured, and thus to open the field for 
further inquiry. For similar reasons, although to be of any real 
service in illustrating the growth of the English Church an essay like 
the present should embrace the whole of the Great Northumberland 
that stretched from the Humber to the Forth, it has been found 
necessary to restrict it to the limits of the old archdeaconry of North- 
umberland and modem diocese of Newcastle. 

By the middle of last century nearly every tradition of the names 
of the saints under whose invocation the churches of Northumberland 
had been placed seems to have utterly died out. Brown Willis, 

* For an interesting paper on The Dedication$ of the Parochial Churchet 
and Chapels of the Modem Diocese of Carlisle^ bj the Rev. Edmund Yenables, 
see JVansactions of the Oamberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Arch- 
aeological Society J vii. p. 118. 


who had published his Survey of Cathedrah and ParochiaU Anglicanum 
between 1727 and 1738, wrote in 1744 to Dr. Thomas Sharp, arch- 
deacon of Northumberland, asking him for information on this 
subject. He received the following answer, dated Rothbury, April 

* I take the firat opportanity I have after my Visitation (which ended yester- 
day) to let yon know that after the most diligent Enquiry among all my clergy, 
I have only got yon 4 Dedications: viz: Ilderton St. Michael, ShilbotCle 
St. James, Long Horsley St. Helens, Alnham probably St. Michael. 

* I was the more curious about this last, because being the first in this Deanry, 
you seemed more solicitous about it than ordinary : and yet this Dedication I 
have given you is only collected from something that the oldest Parishioners have 
said, viz : that formerly there was a Feast on the first Sunday after Michaelmas. 

* All the Clergy, who could give me no Account at present, promise that if 
they can fish out any Thing with tolerable Probability they will communicate it 
to me. But indeed I despair of getting further Light by this way of Bnqniry : 
having before, at your Bequest, doYie all that could be done by this method. 

* I am most heartily, your most humble servant 


Now as it happens that Ilderton was in the deanery of Bamburgh, 
while Shilbottle and Alnham were in that of Alnwick, and Long 
Horsley in that of Morpeth, this total forgetfulness of the patron 
saints of the churches by the parish clergy, applies at any rate to three 
out of the six rural deaneries into which the archdeaconry was then 
divided. Nor were Dr. Sharp's further endeavours more successftil, 
for he writes from Durham on the 28th of September following : — 

* As to Dedications I am sorry this is so barren therein : it may however be 
acceptable to add to the Parish of Ovingham com : Northumberland the chapel 
within Pruddow Castle, which I find dedicated to Thomas the Martyr * * • • * 
At Elsden I was pleased to find the Curate there surprized to hear that Church 
dedicated to St. Cuthbert, who readily from thence did date the Fair at Belling- 
ham upon St. Cuthbert's Day in Harvest ; and a good Proof of its being in 
Elsden Parish.* 

Again he writes from Durham on the 11th June, 1750: — 

* Of the Dedications of Churches I never was able to get any better Account 
than that I formerly sent you. But if I have any opportunity of adding any 
Thing to that Account, I shall readily apprize you of it.* 

Brown Willis had fortunately a more able correspondent in 
the person of his cousin Dr. Martin Benson, nominated a prebendary 
' Cole MSS., XL. fo. S9» in Brit. Mus. 


of Durham in 1724, and made bishop of Gloucester in 1784, and he 
was able to insert among the manuscript notes in his Survey of Durham 
a foirlyfull list of the dedications of that diocese < added out of the 
Dean and Chapter's Register by Dr. Benson's kindness.'* This list was 
subsequently copied and annotated by William Cole, Dr. Benson's 
successor in Browne Willis's family living of Bletchley in Buckingham- 
shire, but it appears already in Ecton's Thesaurus Rerum EccUsias- 
Ucarum published in 1742, and being followed by Bacon in his edition 
of the lAber Regis in 1788 has ever since formed the chief authority 
for the church dedications in the present dioceses of Durham and 
Newc^tle. Meanwhile, a similar list with certain variations was 
brought out about 1778 from the manuscripts of the Rev. Thomas 
Randal, master of the Grammar School at Durham and vicar of 

The general value of the dedications added by Bacon to the 
account of the livings in the Liber Regis may be guaged by the fiwt 
that canon Raine has, by a careful examination of mediaeval wills, 
been able to make no fewer than two hundred and seventeen correc- 
tions or additions to them in Yorkshire alone.' It would appear that 
if the Jiame of a saint could be fished out, to borrow archdeacon 
Sharp's phrase, with tolerable probability in any parish, the church was 
at once put down as dedicated to him, as in the case of Alnham ascribed 
to St. Michael, simply because the oldest parishioners said that there 
was formerly a village feast on the first Sunday after Michaelmas. 
Coufiideriug that Henry YIII. in cousequence of complaints at the 
loss of time caused by the village-feasts during harvest is said to have 
ordered them to be all held in future just afl^^er Michaelmas,^ an arrange- 
ment that was confirmed by cardinal Pole's specifying the first Sun- 
day in October to be observed as the dedication festival of all the 

» Cole MSB., XXVIl. fo. 236. 

* The State of the Churches under the Archdeaconry of Northumberland, 
by the Rev. Thos. Bandal, often bound up with Hutchinson's Vien of ■> orth- 

* Yorkghire Archaeological TransaotionJt^ ii. p. 180. 

" Nicolson and Bum, Hut. of Cumberland/, ii. p. 386. Similar changes had 
been made before the Refonnation, e.g., in 1493; the feast of the dedication of 
the parish church of Kewstoke, in Somersetshire, was changed from the 9th of 
August to the Sunday next after the feast of St^. Anne (26th ifuly), *ob temporis 
antumnalis qualitatem assiduasquc parochianorum ocoupaciones eo tempore 
pro messibus colligendis.' — Reg. of Bishop Fox, ed. by Edmund Chisholm Batten, 
privately printed, 1889, p. 59. 


churches in England,^ it ought not to be wondered at if we should 
find several churches in Northumberland ascribed to St. Michael on 
apparently no better grounds than local reminiscences of this once 
universal practice. Originally no doubt the village feasts and fairs 
were held, in compliance with Gregory's instructions to Augustine, on 
the anniversary of the dedication of the church or on the festival of 
the patron-saints,^ but it was found inconvenient when these fell in the 
cold season of the year, and in that case they were gradnaUy, some- 
times with episcopal sanction, transferred to a holy day in summer. 
Indeed so slight is the connection between the fair-days and festivals of 
the parochial saints in Northumberland, that they are hardly identical 
in more than four instances — ^at Warkworth, Tynemouth, Bellingham, 
and t^elton — where the fairs were held on the feasts of St. Lawrence 
(10th Aug.), and St. Oswin (20th Aug.), the Translation of St. Cuthbert 
(4th Sept.), and Michaelmas respectively. St. Bartholomew's Day (24th 
Aug.) was found to be a peculiarly suitable time at the end -of harvest 
for a village holiday. We know that this was the fair-day at Blanchland 
and the feast-day at Benton,^ where the churches were dedicated to St. 
Mary and St. Andrew respectively. It would then be very unsafe to 
decide that Whelpington, Whittingham,^® and Newbiggen are dodicated 
to St. Bartholomew simply from fairs being held there on his feast. 
Yet this is what Bacon and his authorities appear to have done. 
They were led in the same way to ascribe Benton also to St. Bar- 

"* Cardwell, Doovm. AnnaU, i. 147, quoted by Canon Venables in Traiuao- 
tiont of Cv/mberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian Soo., viL p. ] 33. 

• * Ut die dedicationis vel natalitiis sanctorum martynun, quonun iUic re- 
liquisB ponuntuT, tabeniacula sibi circa easdem eccleaias, quse ex f anis oommntatse 
sunt, de ramis arborum faciant, et religiosis conviviis solemnitatem celebrent.' — 
Bede Eist., lib. i. c. xzx. It will be noticed that the feast of the patron saints 
is only mentioned by Gregory as an alternative. It might of course happen that 
the church was consecrated on their festival, and it probably would be if this 
fell conveniently. The ceremony of laying the foundation might, too, be expected 
to take place on their festival if it was in the spring, and in some cases this may 
have affected the orientation of the building. A dedicfltion feast was appointed 
on the consecration of Bumham church, in Somersetshire, in 1315. — Jitfff. 
Drokensford, ed. by bp. Hobhouse. On the general subject, see bp, Kennett's 
Par. Ant. ii p. 302, and for the form of an ordnT for change of dedication days 
Gibson, Codex Juris Hcclesiastiei Anglioani-j p. 1463. 

• On the 24th of August, 1745, notice was given * that the diversions usually 
performed at Long Benton, on that day, would be on Monday, the 26th of 
August, to which would Ije added that of bull-baiting, and others entirely new.* 
— Sykes, Local Becordg, i. p. 170. 

*° Whittingham Fair was originally held on St. Cuthbert's day, the 4th of 
September, and was only altered to St. Bartholomew's day at the end of the 
eighteenth century. — Bailey, Agricultural Survey of Northumberland^ p. 152 n. 


tholomew, and the chapel of St. NiehokB at Cramlington to St. Luke. 
The false ascription of the church of St. Andrew at Heddon-on-the- 
Wall to St. Philip and St. James (1st May) by Randal ; and his 
doubtful ascriptions of the chapels of Bock and WhittonstaU to them, 
probably had their origin in some May Day festivities at those places. 

Simonburn is perhaps the grossest case of the loose way in which 
ecclesiastical dedications are determined. Bacon had no hesitation in 
putting it down to St. Simon from the mere name; but unfortunately 
this was originally 'Symundesbum' from some early owner called 
Symund, probably an Anglicised form of Sigismund. It has escaped 
from this Scylla only to fall into the more &tal Charybdis of being 
categorically ascribed to St. Mungo of Glasgow, simply and solely 
because a well near the village — not one of those near the church but 
on the opposite side of the burn — ^is called Muggers' Well.^^ Nor is it 
an altogether satisfactory guarantee that Kyloe church is dedicated to 
St. Nicholas, that that name was marked against it on a chart hung up 
in a public house at Bamburgh^' some twenty years ago. With what 
caution local traditions, generally manufactured in the last century, 
should be received appears from the case of the ruined chapel at 
Tilmouth. Any reader of Marmion Would be ready to swear that it 
was dedicated to St. Outhbert, but the story of the stone boat was a 
fabrication of the Bev. B. Lamb, vicar of Norham, and far from 
having the slightest connection with St. Cuthbert, the chapel was 
under the patronage of St. Catherine.*'* 

Of course it is not to be denied that in some cases the indirect evi- 
dence aflTorded by the date of the principal village festival, the dedica- 

" The number of holy wells in Northumberland is very considerable, and it 
is much to be wished that they were kept in a better state for the use of way- 
farers. Civilization is in thiR respect now much behind what it was in Northum- 
berland in the days of king Edwin. It would add much to the interest of these 
wells if their authentic names were simply carved on the stone. The Muggers' 
Well at Simonbnm may be StiMungo's Well; but we are neither vouchsafed any 
proof of it, nor told who are the saints commemorated according to this theory 
in Coppie's Well at Gunnerton, and CJoley's Well and Pricky's Well at Colwell, 
in the same neighbourhood. 

" F. R. Wilson, Churches in the Arolideaconry of Lindisfamey p. 199. The 
chart in question is not now forthcoming, nor can any dedication of Kyloe 
church be found on the old Admiralty charts at Bamburgh castle. A St. 
Nicholas's Rock is marked to the east of Holy Island on Greenwood's Map of 
Northumberland, 1827. 

^* Scott, Mamhion, Canto II. xiv.; Kaine, North Durham^ pp. 264, 826. 



tion of the church bell, or the dedication of a neighbouriDg well does 
appear sofflciently strong to warrant the presumption of the charch 
being under the invocation of the particular saint in qaestion. When 
all three point to the same saint the evidence amonnts very nearly to 
proof, bat at Ovingham^ which was a cell of the monastery of St. 
Andrew at Hexham, and had its fair on his festival (80th Nov.) and 
where the larger bell bears the name of that saint, while there is aLso 
a St. Andrew's Well at Ovington in the parish, the church is said, 
why it does not appear, to be St. Mary's. At Newburn too where the 
ancient bell is inscribed to St. Margaret, and the hopping is held about 
the feast of St. Margaret of Antioch (20th July) we fortunately now 
possess documentary evidence of the church being St. Michael's.^^ 
Without direct mediaeval testimony it can in no case be right to 
definitely state that any church or chapel is dedicated to this or that 
saint, and still less can it be so to draw any lessons in ecclesiastical 
history iirom dedications that rest on no such solid basis. 

Considering the small bowl with the Christian monogram repeated^ 
round its rim, that was found in the Tyne near Corbridge in 1786,y 
is the only trace we have of Roman Christianity in Northumberland,^* 
it would be rash to assume an^ direct connection between the Empress 
Helena and the churches there dedicated to her. These dedications 
are more probably the result of the great veneration in which the cross 
was held by the English in early times, as shown both in the numerous 
representations of it in stone and in the metrical versions of the legend 
of its Invention.^^ This cult of St. Helen was^evidently of ancient 
origin, as the churches and chapels built in her honour at Corbridge, 
By well, and Edlingham disappeared before the Bef ormation, while the 
church of Longhorsley, one of the very few, as archdeacon Sharp 
teUs us, that retained the memory of its patron saint, lies singularly 
remote from the mediaeval village. There is a St. Helen's Well at 
Cornhill, formerly credited with medicinal properties, and another on 

" It appears that on account of Newbum hopping being held bo near St. 
Jame8*8 day (25th July) the church was at one time set down to that apostle, 
whose figure was placed in the east window in 1827. — Lewis, Topographical Jhe- 
tionary of Unglandy iii. p. 366. 

** £ruce, Lapidarium Soptentrumale^ p. 342. 

'* Hodgson casts doubt on the Cluistian character e^en of this mpnogram. — 
UUt, of Northd. II. iii. pp. 178, 246. 

" Of. 'Elene, or the Recovery of the Cross,' and * The Holy Rood,* in The 
Poetry oftho Codem VeroellentUj by J. M. Kemble, -ffllfric Society, 1844. 


the Till near Twizell Bridge. This latter is meDtioned by Sir Walter 

Soott in describing the march of the Scottish army to Flodden — 

* Many a chief of birth and rank. 
Saint Helen ! at thy fountain drank.* ^ 

No church in Northumberland is dedicated to St. Ninian the great 
missionary to the Southern Picts at the end of the fourth century: 
nor, what is still more remarkable, to his greater master St. Martin. 
At Wooler, however, a very large fair was held on St. Ninian's day 
(16th Sept.) and a well near Whittingham still bears his name. 

The Apostle of Ireland was honoured in the triple dedication of 
the little nunnery of Lambley on the South Tyne to ' Qod, St. Mary, 
and St. Patrick.' It is also somewhat remarkable that St. Patrick's 
Day (17th March) should have been chosen for the fair at Alnwick 
for which bishop Bek obtained a charter from Edward I. in 1297,^' and 
especially so that presentments were made in the archdeacon's court 
against persons working there on that day even after the Bestoration.?^' 
It is difficult to assign a reason for this veneration of St. Patrick in 
Northumberland, but we may remember that the name of the great 
earl Cospatric or Gospatric means ' the son of Patrick,' just as that 
of Oilmichael, the persecutor of the monks of St. Cuthbert who lived 
about the same time, means * servant of Michael.' The names Gospatric 
and Patrick continued among the earl's descendants who were earls 
of Dunbar and owned the barony of Beanley in Northumberland. 

St. Columba, from whose monastery at lona the Northumbrian 
church immediately sprang, might seem at first sight to have been 
entirely forgotten among its dedications, but there was a church of St. 
Comb, as Columba was called in the vernacular, on Holy Island, 
with a churchyard,^^ a fact that may point to the site of the pristine 
Celtic monastery being different from that of the subsequent basilica 
and priory. 

The dedication of the parish church of Bamburgh to St. Aidan, 

*" Scott^ Marmion, Canto VI. six. 

'» Tate, History of Alnmiek^ i. p. 149. 

» Ihid, ii. p. 131. 

'* Raine, North Durham^ p. 114, where an item for 'fencing the church- 
yard of St. Columb ' occurs in a roll of 1396-6. Crofts In Bt. Colmes or Colomes 
are mentioned in a survey of Holy Island in 3 Eliz. (ibid. p. 26); and the name 
occurs again as St. Comb's in a survey of 1602 (ihid. p. 164 n.)* The monks had 
a ' box of St. Cuthbert and St. Columb ' in the priory church for the offerings 
of the faithful {ihid. p. 113). 


the first bishop of Lindisfeme, is one of those known as proprietary 
dedications. These dedications in which chnrches were called after 
the names of the saints who founded them^ were especially common 
in Celtic countries. Bede tells us that St. Aidan had a church and 
chamber in the king's town at Bamburgh near the rock-city, and that 
he often used to stay there and make excursions to preach ^a the neigh- 
bouring country, as he did also at other of the king's -owns.^ One 
of these other towns would appear to be Haltwhistle. A rather obscure 
passage in Leland's Itinerary has preserved the traditionary connec- 
tion of St. Aidan with that district,** and the name of Eden's Lawn 
attached to the part of Haltwhistle immediately west of the church 
seems to be a re-translation of the Celtic Llan Aidan.^ 

Aidan's royal interpreter, St. Oswald, may also possibly have built 
the church that occupied the highest portion of the castle-rock at 
Bamburgh, and in which his right arm was treasured up for some 
centuries, for though Bede tells us it was dedicated to St. Peter, the 
name of St. Oswald appears to be exclusively applied to. it, or to the 
chapel that succeeded it, in Henry the First's grant of the churches of 

** *■ The naming a church by the name of a saint or martyr was far from 
dedicating it to that saint or martyr, though it served for a memorial of him 
among the living, and so far was an honour to his memory, though dedicated 
only to God and his service. And this is further evident from this consideration 
that churches were sometimes named from their founders, who certainly did not 
intend to dedicate churches to themselves. Thus Sirmond has observed three 
churches in Carthage to be so denominated from the founders, Basilica Fausti, 
Florentli, and Leontii, &c., &c.* — Bingham, Chrittian AntiquitUSj bk. YIII. c. iz. 

•• Bede Hist. lib. iii. c. xvii. 

^ * In Sowthe Tynedale^ as in that is be syd Hexhamshire except and yet as 
a Parte of Somthe or Sowthett Tyndale^ is but one Paroche Churche, and that is 
caullyd Haultewesel. There be bisyde aliqitot tacella, where of one is not far 
from Willington^ and it is caulyd White Chapell. There lyethe one of the 
Holy Aydans, and other Holy Men in the Churche Yarde by the Chapel.' — Le- 
land, Itinera/ry, vol. VII. pt. I. fo. 74. There is little doubt that White Chape] 
on the north bank of the Tyne between Haltwhistle and Haydon Bridge, not 
far from Beltingham, is the place meant. As to the corrupt state of Leland's 
text, see Arch, Ael, N.S., XIV. p. 26 nn. 

•• There is no doubt that a Celtic wave passed over the valley of the South 
Tyne after it had been conquered and colonized by the English. This is illus- 
trated by the change of names undergone by the Roman station of magna, 
probably turned into Magdenceaster or Maiden Castle, by the English, and then 
translated by the Celts into Caervorwyn or Caervoran. Amboglanka too instead 
of being called Oswaldesburh bears the Celticised name of Bird Oswald. 8t. 
Aidan*8 Well at Bamburgh had been corrupted into ' Edynwell,* temp^ Ric XL 
Cole says, * Hautwizzle St. Aidan q. Holy Cross q. — St. Aidan as I judge,* and 
in this opinion he was followed by Hodgson, HUt, North,^ II. iii. p. 123. The 
idea that Haltwhistle church was dedicated to the Holy Cross had its origin in 
the erroneous notion that the fair day generally followed the feast of the 
dedication. Lanercost, just over the Cumbrian border, seems also a Celtic name 
reminding one of those of the Welsh churches beginning witk Llantrch. 


St. Aidan and St. Oswald at Bamburgh to the Aiistin canons of Nostell. 
In the early part of the eighth century the monks of Hexham bnilt a 
church that still retains the name of St. Oswald on the spot where he 
planted his wooden cross in the great battle with Cadwalla. 

There seems nothing but the name to connect Oswald's sister, St. 
Ebba, the abbess of Coldingham, with the little chapel at Ebbsnook, 
near Beadnell, the foundations of which were laid bare in 1868.** 
The Invention of St. Oswin at Tynemouth in 1060 seems to have been 
part of a political agitation directed against the Danish earl Tosti. 
There had, it is said, been previously a church of St. Mary there. 

St. Finan, the second bishop of Northumberland (a.d. 662-661), 
is recorded to have built a larger church *in the island of Lindisfarne,' 
after the Scottish fashion, not of stone, but of hewn oak covered with 
reed thatch.*' This church, which would probably be at first known 
as St. Finan's, was, in a.d. 687, dedicated by archbishop Theodore 
to St. Peter the Apostle. 

In A.D. 665 king Oswi received as a present from pope Vitalian 
certain relics of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, and of the holy 
martyrs, Lawrence, John, and Paul, and Gregory and Pancras ^ and 
it is very probable that churches would then be erected in their 
honour. If it was about this time that the royal towb on Yevering 
Bell, the scene of the missionary labours of Paulinus and Edwin, was 
abandoned, and a new town built instead of it at the place bearing 
the Celtic name of Melmin, there would be much appropriateness in 
dedicating the church there to St. Gregory ; and this is the present 
dedication of the church of Kirknewton in Glendale, though there 
appears to be an unfortunate lack of evidence to support it.*' 

The ancient church of Warkworth is dedicated to St. Laurence, 
who also appears to have been the titular saint of the principal church 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, though we find the church of the Holy 

* These foundations were again laid bare on the occasion of the visit of 
the British Association on Thursday, Bept. 19, 1889.— Ed. There certainly was 
a chapel of St. Ebb at EbbescnoU, a place of a very similar name near 
Coldingham. ^ Bede Higt., lib. iii ccxvii. xxv. 

*" 2lnd,f lib. iii. c. xxix. Among the relics preserved at Durham was * a vial 
of crystal, containing a rib of St. Laurence and other bones of the same, with 
(some of thej coals Twhich burnt himV — Raine, St. Cutkbertj p. 122. 

** King Bid win's head was placed m St. Peter's Church at York ' in the porch 
of St. Gregory the Pope, from whose disciples he had received the word of life.* 
— Bede ffUt,, lib. ii. c. zz. 


Trinity there re-oonflecrated by David Benham, bishop of St. Andrew's 
(a.d. 1283-1255), in conseqaence of the effusion of blood in it by a 
certain clerk of Berwick.'® The chapel of St. Lawrence of Byker, the 
interesting remains of which near the Tyne seem to be in the Early 
Pointed style,'^ is stated by the Royal Commissioners in 1546 to have 
belonged to a hospital founded by the ancestors of the late earl of 

It is much to be regretted that St. Boisil of Melrose, the teacher of 
St. Cuthbeit, who died just as he had finished the instruction of his 
pupil in St. John's Gospel, shoold have been allowed to be forgotten 
at Tweedmouth, the church of which was dedicated to him,^ though 
it is now wisely ascribed to St. Bartholomew, the patron saint of the 
neighbouring hospital at Spittal.^ 

Coming now to St. Cuthbert himself, the most famons of all the 
saints of Northnmberland, we find ourselves placed in a singular 
dilemma through the zeal of prior Wessington (a.d. 1416-1446), who 
compiled a list of the churches and chapels dedicated to St. Cuthbert 
in the northern counties, which he placed above the choir door of his 
church of Durham.^ The part of this list relating to Northumber- 
land contains only the names of Norham, Bedlington, Carham, 
Elsdon, Haydon Bridge, and Beltingham, the last possibly an error 
for Bellingham, where both the church and well of St. Cuthbert are 
mentioned by Eeginald of Durham in the twelfth century.'* Be this 
as it may, Wessington^s list is probably not exhaustive as regards 
Northumberland any more than as regards Cumberland and York- 
shire, where he seems to have overlooked Bewcastle and Marske.^ 

» Raine, NoHh Durham, App. p. iii. Num. DCXLIII. 

•* Proo, Soo. Antiq, Newomtte, ii. 16. 

"^ Welf ord, Nmecutle and Gate$head, 16th cent., p. 286. 

•• Raine, Mrth Durham, p. 78. 

** The new church at Spittal, which might well have heen caUed St. Bar- 
tholomew's, is entered in the Diocesan Calendar as St. John the Evangelist's. 
To make matters even worse the church of Tweedmouth is now in dagger of 
being assigned to St. Bartholomew of Fame, although it was in existence before 
1146, while St. Bartholomew could not have begun his sojourn on the island 
before 1149 and died forty-two years later. 

•» Raine, St, Cuthbert, p. 44 n. 

** Canon Qreenwell has kindly referred to the original document in the Trea- 
sury at Durham, and there is no doubt that Wessington wrote Belfingham. For 
a translation of Reginald's legend see Charlton's North Tynedale and iU Four 
Oraxnes, p. 10. 

^ Sanderson, Antiquities of Dvrham, p. 131, adds Bewcastle and also Dufton 
in Westmoreland. Raine's addition of Marske is supported by the authority of 
Roger Gale (d. 1744). 


He mentionB neither the chapel of St. Cathbert-in-the-Sea at Holy 
Island nor that on Fame Island, nor the ' Oalse Kyrk * near Bocken- 
field. It cannot then be r^arded as proof of a chnrch not being 
dedicated to St. Cathbert that its name does not appear in Wessing- 
ton's list. Nor should too mnch credence be attached to his storj of 
the nnmerous churches and chapels dedicated to St. Cathbert in the 
* west country,' having been built at the end of the ninth century by 
the monks who fled with his body from the Danes.^ Symeon and 
Ranald of Durham would assuredly not have forgotten this in their 
minute account of these wanderings had it been the case. It tends to 
raise the character of St. Cuthbert much higher, and to explain more 
clearly how he came to occupy the foremost place among all the mis- 
sionary saints of the North in the affections of the people, if we regard 
most of these churches as having been of his own foundation.^* 

Although St. Cuthbert's great contemporary St. Wilfrid is only 
commemorated in the dedications of the church of Eirkharle, and the 
rained church of Guyzance on the Coquet, yet his influence may be 
traced in the numerous dedications to St. Andi'ew scattered over South 
Northumberland. St. Gregory was abbot of the monastery of St. 
Andrew, which he had founded at Rome, when his interest in the 
English nation was first awakened by seeing the fair-haired boys in 
the slave market; and St. Augustine was prior of that monastery at 
the time he set out on his mission to Eent.^ It was therefore na- 
tural that Wilfrid should resort to a mouastery so intimately con- 
nected with the conversion of England on his visit to Rome in a j). 
653, and it was in St. Andrew's church there that he prayed, through 
the merits of that apostle, for especial powers in reading and teaching 
the gospel.^^ After his successful labours in this respect, he dedicated 
his splendid monastery at Hexham in a.d. 674 to the apostle he had 

" ' In partibns occidentalibas abi dicti Bpisoopns et Abbas rabiem Danorum 
declinantes aliquando quietem habebant, plures ecclesise et capellsB in bonorem 
Sancti Cutbberti posteiios sunt erectsB quorum nomina alibi sunt contenta.* — 
Wessington, De Grig, Ord, Mon, to, 30. St. Cuthbert, we shall see, had been 
associated with the dedications of Norham and * Cythlescester* previous to the 
Danish invasion. 

* On St. Cuthbert*s personal connection with Cumbria see Venables, Church 
Dedications in Diocese of Carlisle in the Cumberland Society's Transactions, 
▼IL p. 129. 

* Montalembert. Moines d* Occident, iii. p. 356. 

** ' In oratorio sancto Andres Apostolo dedicato.'— Kddius, Vita A Wilfridif t. 


chosen as his patron; and we find andenb churches under the invoca- 
tion of St. Andrew at Oorbridge, Bywell, Heddon-on-the-Wall, New- 
castle, Long Benton, and Bothal, to which may probably be added 
Shotley, Ovingham, and Bolam.*^ 

St. John of Beverley, who filled the See of Hexham a.d. 685-706,** 
is recorded to have been in the habit of retiring for prayer and read- 
ing with a few friends, especially in Lent, to a retired village sur- 
rounded by a thin wood and an earthwork on the north bank of the 
Tyne about a mile and a half from Hexham church. 

In this village there was Bede tells us in his time a coemUerium 
dedicated to St. Michael,*^ who is said to have appeared in a vision to 
the exiled Wilfrid as he lay fever-stricken at Meaux, and to have an- 
nounced to him that his life was, through the intercession of the 
Virgin, to be prolonged for four years longer.** Wilfrid was told by 
St. Michael that he had already built monasteries in honour of St. 
Peter and St. Andrew, but not one dedicated to St. Mary; he was now 
to make up for this and dedicate a monastery in honour of her through 
whose intercession his life had been spared.** He is said consequently 

♦' Wilfrid's especial devotion to St. Andrew was marked by his building in 
his honour another monastery, that of Oundle, where he died. — Bddius, Ixii. 
A very curious metrical legend of St. Andrew, probably originally written in the 
8th century, though now only extant in the West Saxon dialect of the lOth, was 
printed by Kemble in Aelfric Soc. Publ. 1844 ; see also Professor Stephen's notes 
on the Bound Man-Devil at Kirkby Stephen in Cumb. Antiq Trans, vii p. 306. 

*• Bede, Sut. v. 2, 3. There is considerable difficulty in understanding the 
changes and counterchanges of dioceses and bishops after Wilfrid's deposition 
in 678. The monastery of Hexham was restored to Wilfrid in 687, but he was 
again driven into exile in 691 and became bishop of Hexham in 706 when St. 
John succeeded Bosa at York. Dr. Obser's Wilfrid der Aeltere Bisehofvon York, 
Karlsruhe, 1881, affords valuable aid in some respects, but in others adds to the 
confusion by its inaccuracies. 

** * Mansio quaadam secretior, nemore raro et vallo circumdata, non longe ab 
Hagustaldensi ecclesia, id est unius ferre milliarii et dimidii spatio interfluente 
Tino amne separata, habens ccemitarium Sancti Michaelis archangel!.' — Bade, 
Hitt. V. 2. This village was at one time supposed to have been Warden, the 
church of which was consequently ascribed to St. Michael, but as John of 
Hexham in his account of the Scottish Invasion of 1138 mentions both Waredun, 
a village outside the early territory of the church of Hexham, and the oratory 
of St. Michael on the north side of the Tyne, it shows they could not be the same 
place. It is not certain, however, that St. John Lee derives the prefix dis- 
tinguishing it from Lee two miles and a half south of Hexham from St. John of 
Beverley. Richard of Hexham says that a holy well there was frequented by 
countless crowds both of sick and healthy persons on the eve and day of St. 
John the Baptist, — Hodgson, Hist, of Northumberland, II. ili. p. 404 n. 

*' St. John of Beverley, it should also be remembered, had a vision in the 
church of St. Michael at York.— Historians of the Church of York andits Areh- 
bishops. Bolls Series, i. p. 583. 

*• • Jam enim memento, quod in honorem Sancti Petri et Andres Apostolorum 


to have built the church of St. Mary at Hexham after his restoration 
to that bishopric, while he commemorated his vision of the archangel 
by the church at St. John Lee/' and gave expression to his gratitude to 
the Roman See in a church of St. Peter. All three chnrches were how- 
ever complete by St. Acca.*® Wilfrid's great church of St. Andrew 
at Hexham contained altars of St. Mary, St. Michael, St. John the 
Baptist; and many other saints, as well as a porch of St. Peter .^ 

Two instances of joint dedications occur in Northumberland a little 
after Wilfrid's time. A chapel in honour of St. Cuthbert and St. 
Oswald was erected at Cyihlescester, near the Roman Wall, on the 
scene of the assassination of king Alfwold in 788,^^ and Ecgred, bishop 
of Lindisfarne (^a.d. 830-845), placed the church he built at Norham 
under the patronage of St. Peter, St, Cuthbert, and St. Ceolwulf.*^ 
The three monasteries of Tynemouth, Alnwick, and Brinkbum subse- 
quently adopted as their respective joint patrons St. Mary and St. 
Oswin, St. Mary and St. James, and St. Peter and St. Paul. 

The Danish invasions of Northumberland, terrible though they 
must have been, have added the name of no martyr to the calendar. 
The chapel of Chatton, served by the canons of Alnwick, was called 

domoe sedificasti: SanctsB vero MarisB semper Virgini intercedenti pro te nallam 
fecisti. Habes hoc emendare, et in honoiem ejus domum dedicare.' — Eddius, 117. 
The reference is clearly to the monasteries of St. Peter at Bipon and St. Andrew 
at Hexham, and we should have expected to find Wilfrid building a * domus* 
of equal splendour in honour of St. Mary. 

*' Richard of Hexham, cap. iv. ; Raine, Hexham Priory ; Surtees Soc. Publ. 
44, pp. 15, 18. Folcard, however, in his Lite of 8b, John of Beverley, says that 
it was this saint who built the church of St. Michael. 

*• Richard of Hexham, cap. iv., Raine, Hes^ham Priory, i. p. 18. This, in- 
deed, seems most probable, and would explain the term * capella beati Johajinis 
de Lega,' met with in 1310, to mean the chapel at Lee founded by St. John of 
Beverley though dedicated to St. Michael. 

^ Richard mentions generally the numerous porches with their several altars, 
while Symeon of Durham tells us that the altar of St. Michael was in the south 
porch and the porch of St. Peter in the east part of the church. 

*® The history of this period centres round Corbridge, where Aldulf was con- 
secrated bishop in 786 and king Ethelred murdered in 796, and near the Wall, 
jvsrta Mvrvm, in this neighbourhood we find the very ancient chapel of Halton 
(originally Hawelton or Haleweton), not far from the now nameless Roman 
station of Hunnum, which may easily have been called * Cythlescester.' There 
is no other chapel left along the course of the Wall which can be supposed to 
have been built on the scene of the murder of Alfwold, who was buried at 
Hexham ; nor is it likely that the chapel mentioned by Richard, cap. xvii., would 
entirely disappear, especially as Alfwold seems never to have been forgotten at 
Hexham, where he was honoured with an elaborate tomb late in the thirteenth 

*> Raine, North Durham, p. 261. 



after St. Bdmnnd the East Anglian king slain by the Danes in 870, 
who had also an altar in the chapel of Widdrington.'^ 

With the Norman conquest a certain number of foreign saints 
appear to have become popular in Northumberland. Duke William's 
fleet had been detained several days at the mouth of the Somme by 
contrary winds. He caused the shrine of St. Yalery to be borne 
thi'ough the streets to the shore, and immediately the favourable 
breeze sprang up that wafted the ships across to Hastings.*' There is 
nothing strange then if Gislebert Tison, after obtaining the great 
barony of Alnwick and considerable possessions in Yorkshire as his 
share in the enterprise, built a chapel in honour of St. Yalery by the 
sea-shore at Alnmouth as a thank-offering for this timely raising of 
the wind. The principal fair at Alnwick in the twelfth century ap- 
pears to have been held on St. Yalery^s day, as we find from a grant 
of wine by German Tison for the mass on that occasion ;**'Por was 
' Walleres day,' as it was femiliarly called, forgotten in the town there 
till the seventeenth century." 

The foundation of the hospice of St. Leonard by Eustace de Yesci, 
near the spot where Malcolm of Scotland is said to have been slain on 
the north bank of the Aln, furnishes us with a clue to the date of 
similar dedications to this Gaulish saint, the patron of prisoners. The 
name of St. Giles first occurs in connection with the hospice founded 
by an archbishop of York at Hexham before king John's time. In 
the middle of the twelfth century we find St. Maurice installed as the 
titular saint of Ellingham, when Mabel de Greinvill confirmed a grant 
to his church there by placing with great devotion a curved knife on 
his altar. St. Eloy or Eligius, the goldsmith-bishop of Noyon and 
patron of all workers in metals, first appears in the North in the four- 
teenth century with his chantries in the churches of St. Nicholas and 
St. Andrew at Newcastle. 

There seems to be a want of evidence either to afiirm or deny the 
tradition that the church of St. Nicholas at Newcastle was dedicated 

•' Proo. of Arch. Inst., Newcastle, 1862, ii. app. cxxvii.; Tate, Hitt, of 
AVMvick, i. p. 138 ; Hodgson, Hitt. ofNorthd, II. ii. p. 248. 

*■ William of Malmesbury, Chronicle, Bohn, 1847, p. 27S. 

»* Aewmimter Cartulary, Surt. 8oc. Publ. p. 24S. 

•* The Fellowship of Glovers at Alnwick ordained in 1699 — *He that gives 
more nor 3** for a singell shurline before Walleres day shall pay for eveiy de- 
fault xii*.*— Tate, Higt.^f Alwmick, ii. p. 836. 


by St. Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, in 1091, during the exile of the 
bishop of Durham, William of St. Oarilef.** If it were so, the diocese 
of Newcastle may be proad to trace the origin of its cathedral church 
to the compiler of the Use of Sarum, thougrh there is nothing in the 
history of St. Nicholas to make him a suitable patron of Northumber- 
land, placed as it was by St. Cuthbert and St. Wilirid under the tutel- 
age of St, Peter and St. Andrew. 

Among the relics held in especial veneration at Tynemouth at the 
time of the Reformation was a finger of St. Bartholomew,*^' to whom, 
at any rate, the ancient nunnery at Newcastle and the hospice near 
Tweedmouth were dedicated. The popularity of St. Bartholomew in 
England may be supposed to date from the time of the appearance of 
that apostle in a vision to Raher, the minstrel of Henry I., during a 
pilgrimage to Rome, and the consequent foundation of the priory and 
hospit^hof St. Bartholomew at Smithfield in lllS.*^ 

St. Thomas of Canterbury came to be considered the patron of 
England on the Borders, owing to the coincidence in time between 
the penoQce of Henry II. at his shrine, and the capture of William the 
Lion before the walls of Alnwick. The political side to his character 
also made him a favourite among the barons of Northumberland who 
opposed king John and supported Simon de Montfort. In addition 
to the chapel on Tyne Bridge, St. Thomas the Martyr had a chapel in 
Prudhoe village, a hospice at Bolton, and a chapel at Alnwick where 
a cup of his and the foot of earl Simon were the principal relics vene- 
rated at the abbey .^' 

The victory of Halidon Hill, won on the vigil of St. Margaret of 
Antioch in 1888, seems in those days of chivalry to have been attri- 
buted to her intercession; and this dragon-slaying virgin very nearly 
came to occupy the place of honour finally assigned to St. George as 
patron saint of England.^ There wasachantry of St. Margaret in Ford 
church, and one of St. Mary and St. Margaret in the parish church 
of Holy Island. It is, however, difficult to always distinguish the two 

^ Mackenzie, Hist, of Nemcattle, p. 236. The authority given is an old book 
preserved in the vestry of the church. 
»' Proc, of Aroh. Inxt. 1852, ii. p. 279n. 
^ Beanties of England and Wales, X. prt. iii. p. 412. 
•• Proo. of Arch. Inxt, 1852, ii. p. 279 n. 
* Bot. Boot. 1333; Hodgson, mtt, of NoHhd. IlL ii. p. 103. 


St. Margarets. St. Margaret of Scotland was also held in great rever- 
ence on the English side of the Border.^^ 

In bringing these desultory notes to a oonclnsion it is not oat of 
place to again lay particular stress on the extreme caution that is 
necessary in accepting a parochial dedication as a matter of history. 
Dedications that are manifestly false ought surely to be officially 
corrected. St. Boisil should be reinstated at Tweedmouth, St. Mary 
at Framlington and Widdrington, St. Andrew at Long Benton 
and Heddon-on-the-Wall, St. Michael at St. John Lee, and St. 
Edmund at Chatton. The claims of St. Bartholomew to Spittal 
and St. Yalery to AJnmouth are almost equally strong, as al- 
though churches on new sites have been erected at both places, 
the patrons- assigned to them have been chosen on false pretences. 
In the vast number of cases which roust always remain more or 
less doubtful it is better to say that a church is ascribed rather 
than dedicated to this or that saint. Here there is, of course, a 
much wider field for conjecture and controversy. The evidence for 
each case of hypothetical dedication requires to be fully gone into 
in detail; but there seems to be no reason why, for instance, Halt- 
whistle should not thus be ascribed to St. Aidan, in preference to the 
Holy Gross, and Halton to St. Cuthbert and St. Oswald. Nor can 
there be any great harm in tentatively applying the name of a saint 
who was honoured by a chantry or an altar to the whole of an other- 
wise patronless church, so long as it is done tentatively and not posi- 
tively. Great credit is due to the ecclesiastical authorities at Hart- 
bum and Enaresdale for their courage in declining to give their 
churches any dedications at all, rather than fictitious ones, like so many 
in Northumberland. Future research may possibly recover many 
more of our ancient dedications and modify not a few of the conclu- 
sions the writer has arrived at, the more so as he has unexpectedly 
been debarred from a personal examination of the earlier Episcopal 
Begisters and original wills at Durham, the latter down to 1567 and 
between 1580 and 1586 have, however, been all read by canon Baine, 
who has kindly communicated several important extracts. 

•* The cross of St. Margaret of Scotland was preserved at Durham (Raine, 
8t, Cuthbert, pp. 91, 121), and was, with her girdle at Tynemouth, one of the 
* superstitions * reported by the visitors of Henry VII T. — Proo, of Arelu Jnst. 1852, 
iL p. 279 n. 



Alnmouth.— St. Valery. 

Eustace fite John in his f onndation charter of Alnwick abbey, granted 
to it A.D. 1147» 'ecclesiam de Lesbury cum omnibus appendiciis suis, et 
nominatim cum capella de Houghton, et cum capella de Sancto Walerico 
. . . et capellam de Alnwick * (Tate, Hitt. of AVnwiek, ii. App. p. viii.), 
and as in the Taxatio JEoclesiagtica, a.d. 1292, there is the entry 'Lessebury 
cum capell. de Alnewyk Houghton et Alnemouth/ the identification of 
the chapel of Bt. Valery with that of Alnmouth is complete. The use of 
* capella de Sancto Walerico' where we should expect 'capella Sancti 
Walerici ' seems to be a Qallicism. • 

The modem ascription of the chapel of Alnmouth to St. John the 
Baptist rests on the fact that Henry III. granted a charter to William de 
Vesci for a fair there on the feast of the Decollation of St. John the 

Alnwick Abbey. — St. Mary and St. James the Apofetle. 

William de Vesci granted the church of Chatton * Deo et ecclesia 
Sanctsd Marias de Alnwic et canonicis ordinls Prsemonstratensis ibidem 
Deo servientibus/ and this is the usual phrase in subsequent documents ; 
but Randal gives the entry of the presentation of Thomas Wynfelde to 
the vicarage of Lesbury in 1681 from bishop Tunstall's Register, in which 
Roger Acton styles himself ' Abbas Dei patientia Monasterii B. Marie V. 
et S. Jacob! Apostoli de Alnewicke ordinls premonstratensis ;' and as this 
document was given under the common seal of the abbey in the Chapter 
House there on the 11th October, 1631 (TunstalFs RegiHer, fo. 8 in Ep. 
Reg. Durham), there is little doubt that this was the full dedication. In 
the Durham Obituary Rolls, however, the House uniformly make their 
dedications to St. Mary. 

There appears to have been a chapel of the Holy Trinity in the abbey, 
since Simon de Lucre gave to the canons (1216-1262) three oxgangs in 
Lucker * ad sustentacionem Luminis ad missam cotidianam beate Marias 
in capella Sanctss Trinitatis.' — Tate, Hut. of Alnwieh, ii. App. p. xii. 
This can scarcely apply to the chapel of Lucker, in which the canons had 
no concem. 


Alnwiok Chubch. — St. Michael, with chantry of St. Mary. 

John Wyndhill, rector of AmclifEe in Ciayen, in his will, dated 1431, 
orders a chaplain to celebrate mass for his soal for three years after his death 
in the chapel of St. Michael in Alnwick, and he also bequeaths one vest* 
ment of mby silk and one great missal to the high altar of St. Michael of 
Alnwick.— TMf. Ebor, ii. p. 82, Surt. Soc. 

George Harbottell of Calleche [Cawledge] Park leaves, in 1676, his 
body 'to be bnryed in my parishe Ghnrche of Saincte Michaell th* 
archangell at Alnwick.'— 2>«rAam WilU^ 1. p. 408, Sart. Soc. 

Henry VI., on July 6th, 1448, gave a licence to Henry earl of North- 
umberland, William bishop of Norwich, Henry Percy, Lord Poynings, and 
John Lematon to found a chantry to the praise and glory of God, and in 
divine honour of the most blessed, glorious, and immaculate Virgin Mary, 
at the altar of the same Virgin, within the chapel of St. Michael of Alnwick. 
—Tate, Hitt. of Alnwick, ii. p. 70, Pat. EoU. 26, Hen. VL m.28. 

Stlls* — There were three mediaeval'bells in the tower. The lazgest^ 
the hig bell^ was melted down and recast in 1764. On the second bell is 
inscribed the invocation to the patron saint of the church, MIOHAIBL 
ABCHAKGELB VENi vs ADIVTOBIO POPVLO DBi, and on the smallest 
AVB MABIA GBAGIA PLBHA, having reference probably to the chantry. 
(See Proc, ill. p. 79, for description of the bells.) 

Alnwick Hospital. — St. Leonard. 

Founded by Eustace de Vesci, 1184-1216. 

' Eustachius . . . f undauit capellam sancti Leonard! pro Malcolmi 
Regis ScotisB anima.' — Chron, Mon. de Alnewyhe, Proc. Arch. Inst., 1852, 
ii. App. p. iv. 

' Hospitale nostrum Sancti Leonardi juxta Alnewicum ex parte boreali 
aquae de Alnewico.* — Charter of Henry earl of Northumberland, 1427, in 
Tate, Hut, of AVnmch, ii. App. p. xxii. 

Alwinton. — St. Michael. 

By will dated 14th July 1582, John Rotherforth of Harbottle desires 
to be buried in the church * of St. Michaell th' Archangell, at Allenton.* — 
Extract from Will at Durham communicated by Canon Baine. 

Bambubgh. — St. Aidan. 

Bahbubgh Castle. — St. Peter, afterwards St. Oswald. 

< Prsterea confirmo donum quod feci predict® ecclesiie, et canonicis 
ejusdem loci [Nostell] ; videlicet, ecclesias Sancti Oswaldi, et Aidani de 
Baenburch sicut Algarus presbiter unquam eas melius tenuit.' — Charter of 
Henry I. (1121-1129) in Dugdale, Momutieon, ed. Caley, vi p. 92. 
* Ecclesias Sancti Oswaldi et Sancti Aidani cum capellis suib de Baenburch.* 
— Sot, Chart, p. 216. Sidney Gibson wishes to make out that by the 


charch of St. Oswald that of Nostell itself was meKDt.—IHUtan Sail and 
a Visit to Bamhirgh Cattle, p. 138 n.; but this view is not borne out by 
the context. 

Bbdlikqton.— St. Cuthbert. (See ante, p. 326.) 

Bellinoham. — St. Cnthbert. 

*Beati Cuthberti gloriosi Gonfessoris, cttjns venerationi sollempni 
ecclesiola in eadem villnla dedicata imV ^Reginald, Dun. Surt. Boc. Pub. 

Beltikgham.— St. Cuthbert. (See ante, p. 326.) 

Bbntow. — St. Andrew, with chantry of St. Mary. 

* Dominns Edwardus, del gratia, rex Angliae illostris, domino Adas de 
Benton* licentiam dedit dandi et assig^ndi centum solidatas annoi leddi- 
tus cuidam capellano in ecclesia Sancti Andreie de Benton, divina singulis 
diebus oelebranti.* — Bp. Kellawe's fiegister, IS Jan., 1312, Reg. Pal. l5un.. 
Rolls Series, p. 1146. 

Berwick. — St. Laurence. 

* Bicardns dei gracia humilis minister ecclesie sancti andrese Universis 
filiis matris ecclesie salntem ; Sciant tarn posteri quam presentes nos con- 
oessisse et dedisse ecclesie beate marie de celohou ecclesiam sancti lauientii 
de berewic'—Raine, ybrth Durh&tn^ App. p. 83, fo. OOOCLIII. 

* Abbas et conventus de Kelcho quietam dederunt et concessemnt 
Ecclesie dunelmensi ecclesiam Sancti Laurendi de Berwic.*— Composition 
between the churches of Durham and Kelso, St. Luke^s Daj, 1171. — Ihid, 
App. p. iii. No. DCXLin. 

Berwick. — Holy Trinity, with altars of St. Mary and St. John the 
Baptist {^Rot Scot. 1837). 

* David Dei gracia Bpiscopus Sancti Andrea &c. Cum in parochial! 
ecclesia sancte trinitatis de berewic quedam violencia ad effusionem san- 
guinis, temporibus nostris a quodam Clerico scolari de berewic * Cuidam 
alii sibi consocio esset iUata nee in dicta Bcclesia celebrari possent officia 
divina nisi remedium episcopalis officii intervenisset * Kos ad dictam 
ecclesiam accedentes * Eidem beneficium reconciliacionis secundum jura 
Canonum impendimus, &c.* — Letter of David Benham, bishop of St 
Andrew's (1233-1266).— iW<i. App. p. 89, No. CGOCLZZZ. 

* [Lego] corpus meum ad sepeliendum in cemiterio Ecclesiie SanctsB 
Trinitatis ex parte australi. Item lego summo altari Ecclesie SanctsB 
Trinitatis pro decimis meis oblitis iij libras.* — Will of Thomas Ridell, senior 
Burgess of Berwick-on-Tweed, IZb^.-^Dwham WilU, i. p. 28, Surt. Boa 
Ex Visit. Com. PaL Dunelm. 1616. 

*Ordinacio vicarie ecclesie S. Trinitatis de Berwick unite celle de 
Coldingham/ 1368.— Hodgson, Northvmberland, III. il. p. 146. 


Bbrwick.— Chapel of St. Nicholas, with altar of St. Eleme (Elene ?). 
— Rot Scot I. p. 97 ; Scott, Benmck-upon-Ttveedy p. 834. 

* UuiversiB, &c. David Dei Qracia Bpiscopas Sancti Andiee Salatem 
in Domino * KoveritiB qnod Nos Capellam Sancti Nicholai de Berewic ad 
Matricem Bcclesiam Sancte Trinitatis ejoadem looi qnam monachi Dnn- 
elmenses in proprios usas com pertinenciis optinent pleno Jure pertinentem 
dedicauimos.' — Letter of David Benham, bishop of St. Andrew's (1233- 
^256) in Baine, North Durham^ App. p. 88, No. OOOOLXxVm. 

* A Btatat made in the Church of Sent Nycollas.* — Laws of the Qoild, 
1281, Scott, Berwich-'f^on'Tweed, p. 334. 

Bbbwiok.— St. Mary. 

David I. of Scotland gave the choich of St. Mary at Berwick to St. 
Guthbert and his monks in exchange for the church at Melrose. — Soott^ 
Bermok'V^on-Ikveedf p. 334. 

Blakchland. — St. Mary. 

Dugdale, Monattioont ed. Caley, vL p. 886. 

Bolton. — Leper Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr. Mention also 
occurs of the Royal Hospital of the Holy Trinity. 

' Deo et beatsQ Marise et hospital! sancti Thomas martyris de Bovelton 
in Northumberland.'— Carta Boberti de Boos de Fundatione, in Dugdale, 
MonaHioont ed. Caley, vl p. 693. 

'Bector Hospltalis S. ThomsB de Bolton prsasentatus ad eccL de 
Syrestaen, 10 Hen. III.' — Bot, Hugonis Wells episc. Iiondon. 

* Hospitale regium S. Trinitatis de Bolton super moram juzta Alnwick.* 
— Bot. Pat. 3 Bd. in. 

BoTHAL. — St. Andrew, and a church of St. John, probably in the 
castle ; also a * New Chapel of Our Lady.* 

' David Holgrave et Elene uxor ejus pro quodam capellano cantarie 
in eoclesia Sancti Johannis de Bothale.' — Cal. Inq. p. m. 20 Bic. IL num. 
123 ; Hodgson, Northumberland^ III. iL p. 261. 

' David* Holgrave pro cantaria in ecclesia Sancti Andr* Bothale.* — 
Cal. Inq. p. m. 22 Bic. II. num. 69 ; Hodgson, Northwnberlandt III. ii. 
p. 262. 

* My body to be beryed the Chyrch of Saynt Andrew befor the 
rudloyft.*— WUl of Isabel Ogle of Bothal, 1540.— Durham Wills, L p. 114, 
Surt. Soc. 

* My bodie to be buryed in the chirche of Bothall dedicated in thonor 
of God and St. Andro the Apostle.'— Will of Bobert Lord Ogle, 1643.— 
Ibid. i. p. 119. 

Bbinkbubn. — St. Peter and St. Paul {Durham Obituary Bolhy p. 83.) 


Btwell. — St. Andrew. 
Bywbll.— St. Peter. 

Oabham.— St. Oathbert. (See antSy p. 826.) 

Charlton, Nobth.— St. Giles. 

' Sciatis me conoessisse et dedisse et hac mea carta confirmasse deo et 
Capelle Bancti Bgidii de Cherletun qninglntas acras terre.' — Charter of 
Ralph fitz Main, Lord of North Charlton, in Hodgson, Northumberland^ 
IILiLp. 134n. 

Dr. Hunter sajrs South Chatton was dedicated to St. Giles:—' Cherle- 
ton South, capella, St. Giles.'— Cole MS. xxyii. p. 238 B.M. 

Chatton.— St. Edmund. 

* Est eciam ibidem quoddam molendinum aquaticum quod valet et 
reddit per annum . . . viij^. et inde solvuntur annuatlm cuidam 
capellano divina in capella Sancti Edmundi apud Chatton celebranti ex con- 
oessione facta jam diu per quendam dominnm de Chattone iiij^i. per annum, 
— Inq. p.m. Hen. Percy, 1352, Proe. qfAreh. Imt. 1852, ii. App. cxzviL 

Chillingham. — St. Peter. 

* My body to be buryed within the church of Sent peter th' 
appofltle in Chillangh'm.*— Will of Thomas Hebborne, Esq., 18 Apr., 16 
Blis. in IffUli and Inventories, Surt. Soc. Publ. 2. p. 401. 

CoRBRiDGB.— St. Andrew. 

'The Chirch of Ck>rhridge is dedicate onto S. Andre.' — ^Leland, 
Itinerary, vol. v. p. 101 ex inform. Dr. Davel, vicar of Corbridge. 

Cramlington.— St. Nicholas. 

* Willelmus de Kiblesworth finem fecit per centum solidos pro pardon- 
acione &c. adquirendo Jcc., quartam partem maneiij de Cramlyngton 
cum pertinentiis et advocacionem medietatis capelle Sancti Nicholai 
ejusdem manerij in com' Northumbr.' — Originalid, 6 Bd. IIL ro. 15, in 
Hodgson, Aorthumberld, IIL ii. p. 308. 

DxLSTON. — St. Mary. 

* My bodie to be buryed in my Chappie at Dilston, if I die in this 
Countie, which I will and desire, as my father did, who I hope is with God, 
be dedicated to th' service of God in honnour of our blessed Ladie the mother 
of God.'— Will of Sir Edward Radclyffe, 1667, in Arch, JSn. N.8. I p. 206. 

Edlingham.— St. Helen ; St. John the Baptist. 

* Sciatis me dedisse &c. deo et saucto Cuthberto et monachis ejus 
de Dunelmo terram illam que est inter ecclesiam sancte Blene ab occi- 
dental! parte et murum in Edeluingeham node contentio f uit inter me et 
Alexandrum clericum illorum.' — Chartei'of Waldere fitz Edward, cirea 1200, 
in Hodgson, NoHhumberld. III., ii. p. 122 n. 



* Lego . . . ooipos memn ad sepeliendum in BcclesiA beati Johannis 
BaptistsB de Bdljngeham.*— Will of Sir WUliam de Felton, 1368, Beg. Ep. 
Hatfield, f . 83 b. in WUla and Inventories^ Surt. Soc. PubL 2, p. 29. 

Ellingham. — St. Maurice. 

' Mabilia de Greinvilla &c me dedisse et oonoeasisse deo et eodesle 
sancti Maoricii de Bllingeham totam terram BLfwoldi &c. et omne nemos 
sancte Marie, kc, et at haoc donacio rata et stabilis permaneant hac mea 
carta et sigillo roboravi et ad hoc confirmandum cultellam cnrratun saper 
altare sancti Diauricii cum magna devocione optulL* — Charter of MAbel de 
Oreinvill in Treasury of Durham, 4, 2, spaL K. 1 in Hodgson, Nortkw^ 
berld. in. ii. p. 129 n. 

* Willelmus de Yesci &c. Seiatis me oonceesiase et mea carta confirmasse 
donationem et conceasionem quas radulf us de Galgi fecit monachis de sancto 
Gttthberto de Bcclesia Sancti Mauritii de Blingham.' — Ibid, IIL iL p. 132 n. 

Blsdon.— St. Cuthbert. (See ante^ p. 826:) 

Fabnb.— Chapels of St. Cathbert and St. Mary. 

'Churches of Fame,' 1362-8; 'Chapel of St Cuthbert/ 1869-70.— 
Baine, North Durham, p. 346. * Chapel of St. Maiy/ H51-2.— T^ui. p. 358. 

Felton. — St. Michael. 

By will dated 14th Sept. 1549, Bdward Heron desires to be burled in 
the church of St. Michael at Felton. — ^Bztract from Will at Durham com- 
municated by Canon Baine. 
Fbahlington. — St. Mary. 

By will dated 2nd March 1572-3, William Maners of Framlington, 
gen. leaves his body *• to be buryed within my parishe churche of Our Lady 
at Framling^n.' — Ibid, 
OUTZANOB.— St. Wilfrid. 

* Confirmavimus ecclesiam Sancti Wilfridi de Gysnes, quam Bichardus 
Tysone eisdem canonicis dedit.' — Foundation Charter of Alnwick Abbey in 
Proc, of Arch, Inst, 1852, iL p. 273 n. 

Haydon.— St. Cuthbert. (See ante, p. 826.) 

Hebbubn, (in Chillingham parish). — St. Mary. 

' Nicholaus Hepburn in puram et perpetuam elemosinam dedlt et oon- 
cessit capelle S. Marie existent! in [Chipburn] Hepburn et vicario de 
Chillyngham quinque rudas terre vulgariter nuncupatas the Chapell rude.* 
— Beg. III. Eccles. Dunelm, p. 4 in Hodgson, Northwnherld, III. ii. p. 120. 

Heddon-on-the-Wall. — St. Andrew. 

* WalteruB de Bolebek, &c., me dedisse, &c. Deo et ecclesise 8. Mariss 
de Blaucalanda, et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus quicquid juris et 
patrooatus ego et antecessores mei habuimus in ecclesia S. Andrea de 
Hedone.' — Dugdale, Monasticont vi. p. 886. 


Hbxhah. — St. Andrew; fche form St. Mary and St. Andrew also occurs. 
As to the churches of St. Mary and St. Peter, etc., see ante^ p. 829. 

Holy Island. — St. Mary, with chantry of St. Mary and St. Margaret. 

* Ecclesia beate Marie in villa de Halyeland,* 1281. — Reg. Dec. et cap. 
L p. ii. fo. 20; Baine, North Durham^ p. U7 n. 

The chantry was founded in 1304. ' Thomas Medelam of Ailmouth, 
gentleman, true patron of the Chantry of the Blessed Virgin and St. 
l£ai^ret in the Pariah Chnrch of Holy Island, 1504.' — Notarial Act, 2, 1, 
Spec. L. 1 in Treasury, Durham; Baine, North Jhtrham^ p. 148 n. 

HoLYSTOiyB. — St. Mary. — Durham Obit RolU^ Surt. Soc. p. 88. 
EiBKHABLB. — St. Wilfrid. 

Licence to William de Herle to give lOOf in land for a chaplain *• in 

ecclesia Sancti Wilfridi de Kirke Herle in com. Northnmb.*— Bot. Pat. 10. 

Ed. in. pt. 2 m. 36 4. July. 1336. 
Lambley. — St. Mary and St. Patrick. 

* Johannes dei gratia &c. Sciatis nos concessisse Deo et Sancte Marise 
et sancto Patricio, et sanctimonialibus de Lambeleya locum abbatisB de 
Lambeleya super Tinam, &c.'— Dugdale, Monagticon, i. p. 606 ; Hodgson, 
Northvmberld. II. iii. p. 93 n. Probably the name of St. Mary is added as 
part of the general form of dedication of the period. 

Lbsbuby. — St. Mary. 

* Sir Tho. Wynfelde confreer cap. Bccl. de Alnewicke Oanonicus pie- 
sentatus, Jcc., ad Eccl. paroch. de S. Marie de Lesburye, Oct. 11, 1631, p. res. 
Kendall canonioe est institutus.* — TuustalPs JUgiiter, fo. 8 in Ep. Beg. 

LowiCK. — St. John the Baptist. 

Sir Alan de Heton among other crimes preyented the parish priest 
from collecting his oblations on the day of St. John the Baptist, which is 
the principal day of Lowiek, but gathered and pocketed them himself. — 
Boll in loc. 7, Treasury of Durham, in Baine, North Durham, p. 214 n. 

« My bodye to be buried in the parrishe churche of Lowicke dedicate 
of Sainte John.'— Will of Janet Muschannce 1. Dec. 3. Ed. VL, Willi and 
Inwntories, Surt. Soc. Publ. i p. 126. 
Meldok. — St. John the Evangelist. 

Boger Bertram gives to Qod and the church of St. Outhbert and Bobert 

de Stichell, bishop of Durham, certain lands * una cum advocatione ecclesie 

beati Johannis Evangeliste in Meledun.'— Charter of Boger Bertram, L 2, 

Sp'al, in Treasury at Durham; Hodgson, Northumberland, III. ii p. 60. 

MoBPBTH. — Parish church of St. Mary; chapel of All Hallows at the 

bridge end with chantry of St. Mary, and chapel and chantry of 

St. Mary Magdalene. 


Thomas de Heppiscotes, rector of Morpeth cirea 1384, gives £100 to 
the abbot and convent of Newminster under the obligation of their finding 
a chaplain who should do divine service * in ecclesia parochiali beate Marie 
de Morpath . . . vel capella omnium sanctorum ville de Morpath.' — 
Hodgson, Northumberland, II. ii. p. 891 n. til. U. p. 67. 

' The chantry priest of Our Lady's Chantry in All Hallows Chapel at 
the bridge end.*— Deed of 1605, Ihid, IL ii. p. 505. 

* Roger Pantyl, chaplain, and keeper of the chantry of the bridge and 
chapel of the Blessed Mary Magdalene of Morpeth. '-^Deed of 1403, Ihid. 
II. ii. p. 497. 

Nbwburn. — St. Michael. 

By will dated 25th March 1559, George Brrington of Dentoxi, gen. de* 
sires ' to be buryede in Sancte Myghel's churche in Nuberen so nye my 
father as can be.' — Extract from Will at Durham communicated by Canon 

Newoastlb. — St. Nicholas, with chantries of St. John the Baptist 
and St. John the Apostle; of St. Katharine^ founded by Alan de 
Durham; of St. Katharine, founded by Nicholas and John Elliker; 
of St. Peter and St. Paul; of St. Thomas the Martyr; of Our Lady 
with altar of St. Mary, in the south transept, hence called St. 
Mary's Porch; of St. Margaret; of St. Cuthbert; of St. Ley; and 
of Our Lady, founded by Robert Carr temp. Henry VII. 

Nbwoabtle. — All Saints, with chantries of St. Thomas the Martyr; 
of Our Lady; of St. John the Evangelist; of St. Peter; of St. 
Katharine; of St. Ley; and of St. John the Baptist and St. John 
the Evangelist; also an altar of the Holy Trinity. 

Newcastle. — St. Andrew, with chantries of St. Mary; of the Holy 

Trinity; and of St. Thomas the Maityr. 
Newcastle. — St. John the Baptist, with chantries of St. Thomas 

the Martyr; of Our Lady; and of the Holy Trinity. 
Newcastle. — Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, with chantries of St. 

Ann and of St. Mary. 
Newcastle. — ^Nunnery of St. Bartholomew. 
Newcastle.— Priory of St. Michael on the Wall Knoll, • Ord. S. Trin. 

ad Eedemp. Captiv. Terrae Sanct«.' — Durluim Obituary Bolls, 

Surt. See. p. 88. 
Newcastle. — Hospital of St. Mary; or of St. Mary and St. John the 

Evangelist — Beg. Ep. Langley. 


Newcastle. — Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, founded by Henry I. 

Newcastle. — ^Maison Diea of St. Catherine. 

Newcastle. — Chapel of St. James at the north end of the Barras 

Newminsteb Abbey. — St. Mary. 

The bond of the abbot and convent given to Thomas de Heppescotes, 
in connection with his chantry at Morpeth, mentions also the altar of St. 
Mary in their monastery. — Hodgson, Nortkumlferland^ III. ii. p. 67. 

NoBHAM. — St. Peter, St. Cuthbert and St. Ceolwulf (dedicated by 
bishop Ecgred 880-845. — Sym. Danelm.), with chantries of St. 
Mary, 1292 ; St. Nicholas, 1844, and St. Cuthbert ; also churches 
of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert (Raine, North Durham, p. 261), and 
a chapel of St. John in the Castle, 1848 {Ibid. p. 277). 
Ogle.— St. Mary. 

Bishop Hatfield gave a licence, 4 Jan. 1876, to Robert Ogle for the 
performance of divine service in an oratory in the chapel of the Blessed 
Virgin near the castle of Ogle.— Hatf. Beg. ; Hodgson, Northd. II. i. p. 379. 

Pbudhoe. — St. Mary; St. Thomas the Martyr. 

Gilbert de Umframvill has permission to give lands in Prndhow to a 
chaplain to celebrate mass in the chapel of St. Mary, in the castle of Prud- 
how, and his successors for ever.— Inq. ad quod Damn. 28 Ed. i. num. 86; 
Proe. Arch, Inst. 1862, ii. p. 248 n. 

Wallis in his Higtory of Mrthnmberland mentions the ruined chapel 
of St. Mary * at the foot of the hill.* 

'Dominus Lodovicus Tnmer capellanus cantarise Bancti Thomas de 
Prodhooe.*— Visitation 1501, Secies. Froc. of Bishop Barnes, Surt. 8oc. 22, 
App. xxi. Archdeacon Sharp says this chapel was in the castle. — See above, 
p. 818. Clarkson's survey, 1567, proves it to have been in the village. 

Seaton Delaval.— St. Mary. 

' My bodie to be buried in the chappell of our ladie at seaton dallavell.' 
—Will of Sir John Dallavell, 1571, in Wills and Inventories, Surt. Soc 
Publ. 2, p. 375. 

Spittal. — Leper Hospital of St. Bartholomew. 

Inspezimus of Bishop Poore, 1284, confirmed by Bishop Eellawe in 
lZlS,—Seff. to. 285 ; Baine, ^orth Durham, p. 246, App. p. 128. 

Swinburne, West.— St. Mary. 

Nicholaus filius Johannis de West Swynbnme, fundabat cantariam ad 
altare beate Marie Virginis in capella beate Marie Virginis in West Swyn- 
bume, 1278.'— Lansd. MS. 326, fo. 133 ; Hodgson, Northumberland, Ii. 1. 
p. 213 n. 


TiLMOUTH. — St. Catherine. 

Inq. p. m. Will. Ridell, 1325 ; Nicfaolas de Lessebniy ordained deacon 
1337 upon the title of the chantry of the chapel of St. Catherine of Tylle- 
muth. — Raine, North Durham^ p. 324 n. 

TwBBDMOUTH. — St.' Boisil. 

'Carta mabilie filie Bustachii dc uno tofto juxta ecclesiam aancti 
Boysilii de tuedmuthe.* — Durham Treasury, iiij. j. Special'. T. viij.; Baine, 
North Durham, App. p. 120 dclxxxix. 

TYNEMOUTH.—St. Mary and St. Oswin, with altar of St. Alban and 
St. AmphibaluB. — Gibson, Tynemouth^ i. p. 122. 

Warkwobth. — St. Laurence. 

Benedict. Petroburg. in 8urt. Soc. Publ. 2, pp. 168-169; 'le mustier 
Saint-Laurenz.*— -Fantosme, 1. 1706-1709, Ibid, p. 79. 

Wabkworth. — Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene. 

' Carta Robert! filii rogeri de ddnacione Capelle marie magdalene extra 
villam de Werkeword.' — Raine, North Durham, App. p. 142 doolxxxtii. 

Warkwobth Hermitage. — The Holy Trinity. 

* Myn armytage bilded in a rock of stone within my parke of Wark- 
worth ... in the honour of the blessed Trynete.'— Grant of Henry 6th 
earl of Northumberland to his chaplain George Lancaster, 1531, Proe. of 
Arch, Ingt, 1862, 11. p. 227 n. 

WiDDRiKGTON.^St. Mary, with altars' of St. Edmund and the Holy 

'Altare sancti Edmundi in ecclesia de Wydrington.* — Deed of 1307, 
Hodg-ton, Northumberland, IT. ii. pp. 221, 248. 

* Rogerus de Wyderyngton dat quinquaginta marcas pro licencia dandi 
decem marcatas redditus cum pertinentiis ezeuntes de tenementis suia in 
Dririgge et Wyderyngton capellano cantarie altaris Sancte Trinitatis in 
capella beate Marie de Wyderyngton.* — Originalia, 46 Bd. ill. (1371) ro. 
41 ; Hodgson, Northuniberlai^, II. ii. p. 642, III. ii. p. 333. 

Willows Chapel. — St. Giles. 

Randal, 8taU of the Churches, p. 62; Hodgson, Northumberland, IL i. 
pp. 192 n. 207 n. 

WooLBR. — Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene. 

Inq. p. m. Philip Darcy, 2 Ric. II., num. 17. 



The dedications verified by the references in Appendix I. are 
printed in italics. The letter R indicates the dedication given by 


... St. Michael.' 


... Holy Trinity. 

AtiNMOUTH ... 

... St. John Baptist 


... St. Andrew.* 

(8t. Taleryy 


...St. Andrew. 

Alnwick ... 

... St. Mary and St. 


...St. Andrew. 

Michael {St. 


... St. Peter.^ 

Michael, R). 


... St. Cuthbert. 


... St. Austin.* 

Chatton ... 

... Holy Cross (St. 

Alwintok ... 

... 8t. Michael. 


Bahbubgh ... 

... St. Aidan. 


... St. Peter. 


... St. Owthhert. 


... St. Giles. 

Berwick ... 

... Holy Trinity. 


... St. Andrew.^ 

* See ante, p. 318. 

' Heniy III. granted a fair at Alnmonth, on the feast of the Decollation of 
St. John the Baptist, to William de Vesci.— Hodgson. Northd. III. i, p. 127. 
Alnmouth appears at one time to have been called ' Ncwbiginge,' and this has 
led Canon Raine into the mistake of supposing ' Sanctum Walericium * to have • 
been at Newbiggen, near Woodhom. —Priory of Rexham^ i. app. xiv. 

' Probably a mere play on the name. Hodgson actually says that it is dedi- 
cated to St. Augustine of Canterbury^ ' to whom and his forty followers, when 
travelling on their missionary labours in those parts, a legendary tradition 
ascribes the expulsion of the fiends from Cross-fciT ! The churoh was not 
appropriated to the Austin priory of Hexham till 1376. The offerings of wax at 
the Purification of the Blessed Mary constituted a considerable pai-t of the en- 
dowment of the vicarage, and the qM church had belonging to it a chapel or 
oratory called Our Lady^e Porch. — Hodgson, Northd. II. iii. p. 36. 

* The ancient fair was held at Michaelmas. 

* ' Fuit capella S. Helenae in parochia de Bywell, sed nulla est mentio cujus 
parochia sit, utrum S. Petri aut S. Andreae.' — E MS. Chr. Hunter, Handal,p. 31. 

* There was a chantry at the altar of St. Mary in the church of Corbridge in 
1374.— Hodgson, Northd. III. ii. p. 335. Coi bridge had also churches dedicated 
to St. Helen, St. Mary, and the Holy Trinity, the sites of which can be identified. 
For a carious account of St. Andrew's Well there, see Forster's Rietory of Cor^ 
hridge, 1881, p. 201. The ancient fair was held on St. John the Baptist's day. — 
Hodgson, NoHhd. III. i. p. 169. 






Embletok ... 



St. Luke est. 

Meholcu, B.)^ 
8t. John Baptist, 
St. Maurice. 
8t, Maurice (St. 

Mary, R). 
8t, OttthheH* 
St. Mary.» 
8t. MiehaeV^ 
St. Michael. 
Holy Cross (St. 

Aidan — Oole 

and Hodgson). 
St. Mary. 
St. OuthbeH.^^ 

Halistok ... 

Heddon-on-the-Wall St. Andrew 
(St. Philip and 
St. James, R). 
.. St. Andrew, 
,. St. John the 
Evangelist (St. 

Hexham ... 
Holt Island 






Long Hobsley ... 
Long Houghton ... 


Nethebwitton ... 








St. MichaeL» 
St. Michael. 
St. WiVrid. 
St. Giegoiy. 
St. Bartholomew" 
St. Mary. 
•St. Helen." 
St. Peter. 
St. John the 

St, Mary. 
St. Giles." 
St. Bartholomew"* 
St. MwhaeO^ 
St. Cuthhert, 
St. Mary." 
St. Mary.» 
All Saints. 
St. Philip and Stw 

All Saints.* 
Holy Sepulchre." 

^ Cole was misled into supposing that Cramlington chapel was St. Luke's, 
owing to the fair being held on the feast of the Evangelist. — Charier RoU^ 64 
Hen. iii. m. 4, P.B.O. 

• The fair was held on the Assumption of the Virgin.— Hodgson, Korihd, HI. 
i. p. 151. 

• This dedication appears to rest on the fair-day, the Nativity of the Virgin. 
— IWd. III. i. p. 189. 

>° The fair was held at Michaelmas. — Charter Roll^ 1 John, prt. 2, m. 9. 
P.B.O. ; but the mediaeval bell is inscribed to St. Mary. 

" Cole was almost ready to give this as St. Mary Magdalene, owing to the 
fair-day fallacy. * Hay don cap: St Ma: Magd: Fair Day: but dd. to St. Cuth- 
bert, says Dr. Hunter.'— Cole MS. xxvii. Brit. Mus. 

" See ante, p. 318. 

" The fair was on St. Bartholomew's day.— Hodgson, Northd. IH. i. p. 161; 
§elb St. Mary and St. Michael.— £^. inform. Mr. Blair. 

" See ante, p. 318. 

" The fair-day (1294) would point to St. Lawrence.— Hodgson, Northd, II. 
i. p. 315 n. The chantry at the altar of St. Nicholas in this clmpel is mentioned 
in 1428 ; but Edward the sixth's charter to Morpeth school speaks of the 
chantry of St. Giles.- /Aid. U. i. pp. 320 n., 324 n.; II. ii. p. 610. 

" This rests on St. Bartholomew's fair. — Ibid. II. i. p. 161. 

" %t!iX inscribed to St. Margaret (See Proc. iii 191.,) 

" SellSt St. Andrew and St. Catherine. {Proo. iii. 187-8.). The dedication to 
St. Mary possibly has arisen from the fact of their being a chantry of St. Mary 
in this parish,but at Prudhoe. 

»• gdl, St. Mary. (See Proc. iv., 136) 

• The ancient fair was on St. Matthew's day. 

" » Shipwash. Bcclesia destructa. Shipwash dicata f uit Sco Sepulchro.'— 
Sx. injorm. Dr. Hunter, Cole MS. xxvii. p. 238, B.M. 



Shotley ... 
Bin OinBUBN ... 



EAB8D0N ... 

St. JameB.** 
St. Andrew. 
St. Simon. 
St. Maiy.« 
St. Bartholomew 
(86. SoiHT). 


Wallsbkb ... 




To these Bandal addsj 

St. Maiy. 
St, Outhhert. 
8t. CuthbeH. 
St. Helen. 
St. Alban. 



St, Oswin (i». 
Ifary and 8t. 
Omin, R). 

Holy Cross. 
St. Michael. 
St. Bartholomew. 
St. Mary. 
St. Mary. 

St. Michael. 
St. Onthbert (8t. 

St. Philip and 

St. James. 


We BabBequently meet with : — 
St Mary.** Whai^on 

St Mary (St 
Mary • Magda- 
lene, Hodgson)" 

" See ante, p. SIS. 

" Roger de Merlay (1239-1266) founded a chantry <ad altare beate Marie in 
Ecclesia de Stamngtx)n.* — Hodgson, Northd, IIL ii. p. 73. 

** * The altar of the Blessed Virgin in the parish church of Stamf ordham ' is 
mentioned in a deed of 1426 relating to Bachwick. — Newminster Cartulary, Surt 
Soc. 66, p. 190. 

** * EUgo corpori meo sepulturam infra Bcclesiam parochialem de Whalton, 
videlicet in porticu Beatas Marias.'— Will of Sir Robert Ogill, 1410, in Reg. Bp. 
Langley, fo. 33 ; WiUe and InventoHeif Surt. Soc. 2, p. 47. 



By W. H. Knowlsb. 

[Read on the 27th February, 1889.] 

Between the years 1066 and 1216 more than 400 religions houses 
were founded in England, whilst in the reign of Henry III., when the 
establishment of monasteries was on the wane, no less than 52 houses, 
apart from those of the various Mars and other minor orders, were 
built. It was during this reign that the various orders of friars 
appeared in this country, and in 1266 these orders possessed 49 houses, 
containing in all 1,242 brethren. 

The arrival of the Mars initiated a new religious movement among 
the people. The Dominicans, or Preaching Friars, abandoned the 
seclusion of the cloister for a movable pulpit in the street or the 
market place, and, living upon ahns and in voluntary poverty, stood 
out in strong contrast to those who occupied the monasteries, with 
their rich possessions and grasping dispositions. 

Newcastle was singularly rich in religious houses. Of these, that 
of the Friars of the Sac, or, as they were sometimes called, Friars of 
the Penitence of Jesus Christ, is the subject of these notes. This 
order, of which only nine houses were established in England (at 
Cambridge, Leicester, liincohi, London, King's Lynn, Newcastle, 
Norwich, Oxford, and Worcester), was very short lived. It was in- 
troduced in 1258 and suppressed in 1807. I believe that no remains 
of their buildings are extant in any of the places enumerated, unless 
the fragments shown in the accompanying drawings were constructed 
by them. I think, however, that I am justified in asserting that the 
architectural character of these fragments, which are slight in extent, 
is of this period, and thus in claiming for Newcastle the distinction 
of being the only place where any structural evidences of this order 


Tanner says:— "The right style of this oi'der was 'Friars of the 
Penance of Jesus Christ'; but they were more commonly called Friars 
of the Sac, from their habit being shaped like a sack, or made of the 
coarse cloth called sackcloth." ^ 

Their first establishment in England was at Cambridge,^ where 
they owed their settlement to the bene^tions of Richard Heckingham 
and others, although Henry III. is spoken of as their founder. They 
afterwards desired to settle also at Oxford ; and, to accomplish this 
purpose they made application to Henry III. begging a small plot of 
land to build thereon a house and chapel. This they obtained, as well 
as the church of St. Michael, which stood on the ground granted to 
them. After tliis they bought an adjoining field from Walter the 
goldsmith, having received a benefaction for this purpose from Ela, 
* the most pious Countess of Warwick.' 

* This order of Friars,' says Anthony k Wood, ' gathered many 
good scholars and multiplied in numbers exceedingly, until the sup- 
pression of this order at the council of Lyons in 1307, when all 
mendicant orders were suppressed excepting only Dominicans, Fran- 
ciscans, AugustinianS; and Carmelites.' 

The Friars of the Sac were established in Newcastle before 1268, 
in which year Henry III. granted to the brethren of the Penitence of 
Jesus Christ a certain place called Constable Calgarth, in the town of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and which was contiguous to the garth or place 
of the said brethren in that town. On the 8th January, 1800, 
Edward L, on his arrival at Newcastle, gave two shillings by the 
hands of Walter de Carleton of the brethren of the Sac in this town 
hr their pittance for two days. 

' Dufresne defines Saccus as a garment used by monks, and said to be a sort 
of mean cloak which is worn in addition to the other garments or vestments, 
and which differs from the cilieiwn or tunic, from being woven with goats' hair, 
which adheres to the naked flesh. 

' Brand, Vol. I. p. 58. This order is said to have commenced in Provence, 
A.D. 1246, when the General Council of Lyons was sitting, by means of an 
expelled novice. It was confirmed by Pope Nicholas the Fourth. They are 
reported to have admitted both sexes, who were allowed to havo property. If 
they were married persons, they were to continue so ; and although they could 
not lawfully or regularly marry after admission, yet, if they did, the marriage 
was still reputed valid. It was not a perfect, or complete religion, and has been 
accounted not a true order, so that, though its members were esteemed ecclesi- 
astical persons, authors are not agreed whether or not they enjoyed the personal 
and real privileges of clerks and religious. — Bospinian de Monaohatu, 


At the time of the sappreasion of this order the Whitefriars of 
Newcastle occnpied what had become an inconyenient abode at Wall 
Enoll. The Friars of the Sac were redaced to one — the brother 
William de Oarleton just mentioned. On the 26th May, 1807, 
Edward I. granted to the prior and brethren of the order of the 
Blessed Mary of Mount Oarmel^ in the town of NewcasUe-on-Tyne, 
'the place in which the brethren of the penetence of Jesus Christ used 
to dwell in the same town ... So nevertheless that the same prior 
and brethren of the aforesaid order of the blessed Mary shall find rea- 
sonable sustenance for brother Walter de Oarleton of the aforesaid 
order of penitence, dweUing in that place, for the whole of his life, in 
a way suitable to his rank.' Here the Whitefriars remained till the 
suppression of their house in 1589. 

The remains comprise portions of two walls at right angles in the 
form of the letter T, the foundations of the stem being about 42 tt. 
6 in. in length, terminating at the east end with a few courses of a 
return wall, and at the west end with a wall of uncertain length the 
foundations of which run north and south, the accumulation of earth 
being great and too costly to be removed. The old work above the 
ground covers only a portion of the foundations of the wall, which 
forms what I have called the stem of the letter T. It consists on the 
north side, which is the interior of an apartment, of several courses of 
ashlar masonry, with a moulded string of Early English character 
filleted on the &ce 10 feet above the probable fioor level, and imme- 
diately below a window sill and jamb, chamfered on the exterior and 
widely splayed on' the interior. A large portion of this wall, on the 
south fece, has formed one side of an apartment, containing a fireplace 
with chamfered segmental arch and chamfered jambs. On the east of 
this apartment, and at right angles to the wall we are considering — 
blocking the lower portion of the window mentioned above — ^is a 
narrow pointed arch chamfered on both sides. Over the arch, on its 
west side, is a chamfered floor shelf. The wall forming the top of 
the letter T, of which the exterior faces the west, contains the chief 
feature of the remains. This is a pointed doorway of two chamfered 
orders, the outer chamfer having a casement or hollow. There are no 
capitals, and the mouldings are continued from the apex to the base. 
The inner order is continued across the sill or threshold. The rear 


arch is flat, and its jambs are widely splayed, with indications of a 
bolt hole. A rebate for the door is worked on the back of the inner 
order. The doorway measures 8 ft. 4 in. in width, 4 ft. 9 in. to the 
spring of the arch, and 7 ft. 8 in. to its apex. On the north side, 
and oontiguons to this door, is the sill or threshold of another opening. 
The floor on the exterior or west side of this wall is covered with rough 
glazed clay tiles five inches square and one inch thick, slightly bevelled 
for cement and laid diagonally; they are doubtless contemporary with 
the building. To the north-west of these remains several fragments 
have been found, including four capitals, a piece of string moulding, 
and a corbel. The capitals are octagonal, with vertically faced abaci 
and roll neck. They measure 3 ft. 1 in. across the top and 2 ft. 7 in. 
on the underside. The string moulding is a bowtell with a low fillet 
on its lower side. The corbel, which measures 20 in. x 6 in. x 6 in., 
has a chamfered roll on the underside. These fragments are all of 
early date; but in addition to them two pieces of window tracery have 
been discovered, which must be assigned to a considerably later period. 
The west face of the wall — the top of our letter T — is 143 ft. 4 in. 
from the town wall at a point between the site of the Whitefriars and 
Denton towers^ 

The establishments of the various orders of friars were very irre- 
gular in plan^ being adapted to available sites in the midst of large 
populations. The churches of friars were invariably destitute of 
triforia — ^frequently simply a parallelogram, at other times with a 
single aisle or two aUeys divided. 

Despite, however, the very limited extent of the remains discovered 
here, we have sufScient to indicate that the buildings were of con- 
siderable extent. The four capitals — ^provided no undercroft existed, 
and supposing them to belong to the church — prove that at Newcastle 
the church had at least five bays with an aisle, or two aisles of three 
bays. The position of the church would most Ukely be on the north 
side of a cloister, the east side of which would be probably formed by 
the wall containing the door shown in the drawing ; and it may be 
that the apartment on the north side of the adjoining wall was the 
chapter-house, whilst that on the south suffioed for the refectory or 
calefactory with dormitory above. This approximation of plan is 
conjectural on my part. 


It is to be regretted that the investigation has not yielded more; 
yet, when so much in Newcastle has been irretrievably lost^ the little 
found here may, I hope, lay claim to some interest, particularly as the 
extensions of the North-Eastem Railway Company may in a short 
time require the removal of these remains. 

My special thanks arc due to Mr. George Irving for his generous 
permission to open out, excavate, and remove walling and plaster 
work, and for his kindness in providing men to accomplish this work; 
and also to Mr. Lovegrcen, the tenant, for his ready acquiescence in 
proceedings which entailed inconvenience upon him. 


Bt Jambs Habdy, Sborbtaby of the Berwiokshibe 
Natubalists* Club. 

[Read on the SOfch October, 1889.] 

In a previous volume of the Archaeologia Aeliana (Vol. X., pp. 220- 
222) an account is given by Mr. James G. Mofibtt of Lilburn Cottage, 
now deceased, of some remarkable pre-historic graves, disturbed by 
the plough on Mr. George Tait's farm at Lilburn Hill, in the last 
week of June, 1888. 

Some years afterwards another discovery was made on the same 
farm, but in a different direction from the previous one, of urns 
found in rude graves, of which two were preserved and sent to me. 
Before they had reached me Mr. Mofiatt had written, of date Ist 
May, 1886, stating that : * Two cists, both containing bones, one a 
trace of iron, were dug out over 40 years ago in the North Caimfold 
field, Lilburn Hill farm. Three cists were dug up on the 19th, 20th, 
and 21st April, 1886, containing bones and three ums; the two 
largest ums were broken aU in pieces, the small urn is entire. The 
largest urn was about 7| inches across at top, vase-shaped, string 
pattern. Number 2 was 6f inches across the top, the upper parts 
outside covered with lozenge or rather fusil pattern. The small urn 
is entire, 2) inches across, cup-shaped, with crescent or finger-nail 
indentations. AU these were in the East Caimfold field, Lilburn Hill 
farm. The three ums are of the most primitive description, the clay 
material of the ums having been most imperfectly bumed with wood 
or peat.* ^ I had not the opportunity of visiting the place till June 4th, 
1889, along with a friend. Mr. Tait was found occupied, but immedi- 

' Eittory of Berwickshire Naturalists Cluh, Vol. XI., pp. 272-3, where there 
is an account of an inscribed stone stlpposed to have b^n a cist cover from 
Lilburn South Stead farm. Other notices of Antiquities may be found in the 
paper quoted : '' On Urns and other Antiquities found round the Southern Skirts 
of the Cheviot Hills. By James Hardy." 


ately disengaged himself, and went with ns to the fields where the nms 
were come upon, called the ' Oairn-&nld'8 field,' lying on the N.E. 
part of the farm, mid-way between Lilbum Hill and TricUey (the 
ancient Tricklington) gamekeeper's cottage. The field was bearing a 
strong crop of oats. The upper part of the field is crossed by a low 
ridge, on which the plough, when the ground was last cultivated, was 
repeatedly interrupted by projecting portions of sandstone and others 
deeper seated in the soil. Mr. Tait told the man to stop and draw up 
the stones, and when he did so he found them standing upright, 
bounding an enclosed space. Mr. Tait showed the position of two of 
these short graves. One of them he said had a three-cornered com- 
partment, he did not say yv where situated, with a great 
urn standing upright in the /%\ centre. This urn, which Mr. 

Tait states, was 16 mches ^ ^ high and 7 inches across the 

mouth, crumbled to pieces when handled. It contained bones and 
ashes, and among these lying at random sideways, the small cup-shaped 
urn (A). A second grave, not far distant to the N.E., showed when 
opened the food vessel (B), which was standing upright Both graves 
had a sandy bottom, and when this last urn was removed a dimple was 
left where it stood in the sand. This grave was also enclosed by 
stones. At a considerable distance more to the N.E. an oblong short 
grave, lying oblique to the ridge, was come upon, with some bones in 
it, one a piece of a human elbow joint. The bottom was full of sand, 
along which lay the mark of a black substance. The subsoil of the 
field is naturally sandy, lliere was a sandstone slab on this grave 4^ 
feet by 3 feet. The graves were shallow, only 2 feet or so of soil 
remaining on the surface above them, owing to repeated culture carry- 
ing the loose earth to a lower position. There are other eminences on 
the ridge which Mr. Tait proposes to examine during the autumnal 

Dbsobiption of the Urns. 

Small Gup-shaped Urn (A). — ^This' is formed of a reddish por- 
phyritic clay, such as may be found among the Cheviots, where the 
rock is in a state of decay, owing to the continuous percolation of 
moisture, and is full of minute gray gritty particles, apparently of 
porphyritic origin also. The lip is slightly bevelled inwards, ^ inoh 



2 J 

5 e ^ 

55 . 





thick ; the outline of the sides is not qoite regalar, bnt they have been 
smoothed, and while still soft impressed with more or less bent, sub- 
upright bands of slender arched fore-nail impressions, 21 in aU, the 
naU marks on each being in number from 12 to 13. The irregularity 
of the outline is partly owing to these bands, the impressions having 
been made while the substance was soft and pliable. A similar band 
of nail marks, about 7() in all, encircles the mouth-rim. Below 
these bands there is a free space for the hollow above the rim of 
the bottom of the vessel. The bottom is flat. There is an oblique 
black stain as if from smoke or ashes on one of the sides down to the 
base. The interior is very regularly hollowed out. The top is 3 
inches in diameter ; the height, 2^ inches ; diameter of the bottom, 
2 inches. 

The Drinking Vessel (B) has fewer gritty particles in its texture 
than A. Although of elegant shape it has been very rudely bshioned 
and sculptured. It has been smoothed by some implement before the 
application of the very rudimentary ornamentation. The design upon 
it is so crude that it cannot very well be described. The top of the 
projecting rim of the mouth, of a quarter of an inch in thickness, is 
obliquely notched, and sometimes crossed, by deepish impressions as 
if made by a flint knife, and its outside is encircled by a similar but 
closer series of nearly upright shorter notches, a quarter of an inch 
deep ; it then contracts before it swells out in a concavity towards 
the narrow middle projecting band. Below the notched rim there 
follows an encircling band, ^ inch deep, of horizontal random lines or 
dashes ; from four to six in number, according as there is space to 
fill ; and beneath these an attempt has been made to form irregular 
lozenge patterns, mostly bounded with foiu* lines, but where they meet 
with bom five to eight in a cluster. Beneath the ill-drawn lozenges, 
and above the middle notched band, is placed a band of deep-cut zig- 
zig inartistically drawn lines (five or six). The middle band, about 
^ inch, carries a series of cross notches more oblique and pronounced 
than those beneath the top rim. After this middle band the urn 
tapers towards the bottom. Following it is a band (| inch) similar 
to tliat below the brim of length-ways irregular lines (five or six) ; 
then a band of rude lozenges (1^ inches), not always completed, 
bounded by four lines. The points of these line-bordered patterns cut 



through the band of horizontal lines above them, and a narrower band 
(} inch) of similar but still hastier drawn lines where the bottom is set 
on. On the well-formed rim rooiid the bottom (^ inch thick) is a 
series of obliqae notches. Part of the present base is artificial, and 
some of the redness of the urn is owing to the material employed in 
patching it up, for it came in a fragmentary condition to me, and a 
friend reconstructed what came of it. 

[B. — ^This urn, Mr. Muffatt's No. 2, on being reconstructed, 
measured 6j% inches high ; 5^^ triches across the mouth ; diameter 
at bottom, 8| to S^ inches.] 

Although the great Cinerary Urn (0), which contained the cup- 
shaped one, is in a very imperfect and fragmentary condition, there is 
sufficient left of it to allow of a description of its appearance and 
pattern, when its constituent parts were in combination. It is a very 
rude example of primitive fictile art, formed out of badly kneaded, 
unsifted, gritty, and untenacious clay ; but is fully as valuable as a 
representative relic of an early age, as the more finished productions 
of a more cultivated period, and to be prized accordingly. Mr. Mofett, 
who saw it in a more entire state, says it was vase-shaped. Apparently 
it has had two divisions, an upper ornamented section of wider dimen- 
sions than the under, commencing at the mouth-rim and terminating 
with a narrow-raised ridge, beneath which, after a sudden concave 
contraction, the lower division originates. This is smoothened and 
unadorned,^ and without a dividing line, with a flat bottom. The 
material is of reddish porphyritic clay containing angular porphyritic 
fragments, conspicuous from their size, especially on the bottom. 
The thickness of the sides of the urn is about 4-16ths of an inch, of 
which about 2-16ths, separating like a crust or bark, is red, and the 
remainder in the interior black and burned and smoked. The thick- 
ness of the bottom is ll-16ths of an inch. The inside has been 
smoothed, but not finely. It is thinned .and slopes outwards at the 
mouth to form a sort of inner lip, which on the inward slope is irre- 
gularly marked by two encircling plaited-thong or string impressions ; 
the rim or upper edge of the lip is divided by a centi-al encircling, 
plaited-thong, impressed line. There is no ornament outside the lip, 
only a free space to which the ornament of the upper division reaches 
without being bounded by an encircling line. The ornament consists 


of a series of triangles or V-shaped designs, placed zig-zagwise, with 
oblique strongly plaited-thong marked lines placed in two different 
directions, in nines or tens, to fill np the spaces. The intervals 
between these lines are about 4-I6ths of an inch in breadth. These 
rough lines and flat intervals resemble a piece of very broad-striped 
corduroy. The lines all terminate above an encircling plaited-thong 
marked line, which runs above a rudely unornamented ridge, beneath 
which the lower division commences. It appears to have been convex, 
and then to have taken a sub-conical shape on whose apex the flat 
bottom with little definable separation was moulded. The diameter of 
the bottom, for it is much broken, may have been 4 inches. The 
sides of the under division are not very shapely, and show depressions 
and dimples. The urn, from some slender lines on its surfaces, appears 
to have been laid on wiry grass to diy. 

A packet of bones found among the fragments of urns and ashes — 
I am not told where obtained or in what graves — ^accompanies the urns. 

Mr. Tait agrees with me that the proper place for the preservation 
of antiquities from Northumberland is the Museum of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and to the society I beg leave to 
present these urns. 

My visit to Lilbum Hill brought other antiquities to light, but I 
would require to go back to finish the inquiry. On other parts of the 
farm there have been found a ^tone hammer, perforated for a handle 
(not at hand at the period of my visit) ; a bullet of pale porphyrite, 
somewhat cellular in its composition, six inches in circumference, 
which I brought away ; and a beautiful thumb flint or scraper. 
This is of a pale grey semi-transparent flint, and has been struck off 
at one blow. It is truncate at the thickened end, as if by a skilled 
stroke. The back is slightly raised, and the sharpened edge for 
cutting has been neatly chipped. 

On a wall top, near a gate not far from the Oaim-fauld's field, lies 
a detached stone, supposed to have come from a cairn, with three 
circles and a hollow central cup incised on it, which no one seems to 
care for. Quern stones have also been turned up in the fields. After 
crossing two fields in an easterly direction, we came to a field of old 
grass on Ohillingham Newtown ground, backed by a fir plantation. 
This is in view of Ohillingham. This field appeared to have many 


flat rocks exposed to the day, with incised circles and other analogous 
markings dispersed upon their faces. There was no time to examine 

more than the first we reached. One mark was thus : ^^ ; another 

was : ^^ ; and a third : '• O) . This last had been picked ont by 

some pointed metallic implement. Some of the inscriptions were wom 
with the weather and the passage of the harrows when the field had 
been cultivated. There are numerous ^British camps among the Fow- 
berry plantations, never yet surveyed and little known: ihese are 
adjacent to Trickley, and reach to Whitsunbank Hill. 

The sculptured rocks described by Mr. William Ounn, F.O.S.» in 
the Bermckshire Naturalists' City's Proceedings^ 1886, Vol. XI., 
pp. 401-402 (and figured Plates I., II., III.) are probably a continna- 
tion of this iresh series, as they are said to be a third of a mile from 
Trickley. The disadvantage of a snatch visit is that objects are not 
seen in their full bearings, and the knowledge obtained is fragmentary. 
It would have required an hour here instead of a few minutes. 


1.— Inscribed Stones at Chesters; by Dr. Bruce, V.P. 

During the recent excavation of the buildings on the east side of 
the station of Cilurnum (Chesters) two stone fragments were found 
(along with others) having Iqtters upon them. They are shown in 
the annexed woodcuts, one-eighth of the full size. They read: — 

I • • M . DDL 
GAL-VER . . . . 

which being expanded is Jovi optimo maximo Dolicheno \ pro salute 
Atigustorum nostrorum | Oalerivs Ver[ecundu8 posuif] * To Jupiter 
Dolichenns the best and greatest, for the safety of our Emperors, 
(Valerius Yer[ecundus has erected this slab']. It will be noticed 
that the bottom stroke of the last letter in dol is turned the wrong 

We have before met with several dedications to Jupiter DolichenuB. 
The word Dolichenns is supposed to be derived from Doliche, a town 
of Thessaly, which is situated in a district abounding in iron. I am 
not aware whether any iron ore has been found at Chesters. We 
have, however, before met with an inscription praying for the welfare 
of the emperors (pro salute Augmtorum) possibly Elagabalus and 
Severus Alexander. On several inscriptions found in England the 
name of an officer called Yerecundus occurs, but not one named 
Galerius Verecundus, 


2. — Inscribed Stone at Colchester ; by P. J. Haverfield, M.A. 

The following fragment was recently found at Colchester (Essex), 
and was sent to me for inspection by Dr. Laver. It is a fragment of 
Purbeck marble, 8 inches long and 5 inches wide. The letters on it 
are well-formed, though small. They are : — 

The first line (if d does represent the first 
^ line) was perhaps dis manibusy the second, 

^^ ' third, and fourth contained names and titles, 

^^ the fifth seems to have denoted a regiment, and 

VAL [VA tied] that can only be the [cohora] I Vdingumufn\ 
7 'YAf^fionum ^^ the Icohors^ I Vc^rdullorum;\, probably 
QVi militmii the former, as the latter had usually the epi- 

thet fida between the numeral and the name. 
Both regiments were in garrison in the north, the cohors I Vangionum at 
Habitancium (Risingham), the other at Bremenium (High Rochester). 
Two other inscriptions on Purbeck marble have been fonnd at 
Colchester. They were published first by E. W. A. Hay, in his Letter 
on tJie Discov^y of a Sphinx (Colchester, 1821), and have since been 
edited by Hiibner {GJ.L.y vii. 91, 92). They both contain the names 
of several soldiers, and belong to the second century. It does not 
seem that the above fragment is a part of either ; but it is probably a 
relic of the same date and sort. 

3.— The Roman Inscriptions op Brough under Stainmorb ; 
by P. J. Haverfield, M.A. [read on the 30th October, 1889]. 

Three Roman inscriptions have been found at or near Brough — a 
Greek one now preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, 
a Roman imperial inscription now preserved at Brough in the church 
porch, and a small 'figure' which is not genuine. I have lately been 
able to examine all three myself, and venture a few remarks. 

1. As to the Greek inscription, I have nothing new to say. So far 
as I could judge, the stone commemorates, in hexameter verse one 
Hermes from Commagene, who, at the age of 16, perished, as it seems, 
in some expedition into the North — the land of the Eimmerians — ^in 
the first half of the third century, a.d. The reading which was finally 



agreed upon by scholars at the time of discovery, seems to me to be 
right, though it is difficult to be certain about the last two lines.^ 

2. The Roman inscription, which was found near the Greek one, 
during the restoration of the church in 1879, has caused great difficul- 
ties. Readings have been proposed by Prof. Hiibner and by the late 
Mr. W. T. Watkin in the Academyj both from photographs. A third 
reading was published also in the Academyy by my friend Mr. A. J. 
Evans, after a personal examination of the stone. Unfortunately, 


■MS A. 

most of the stone is exceedingly worn, and therefore these readings 
diflfer somewhat considerably. So far as I could judge, the decipherable 
letters, which diflfer somewhat from the woodcut, are: — 
I M P C A E S A 




.... M ... . 

About the first line there is no doubt; it is well cut, the a is 

unbarred, the legs of the m slope. The second line has been much 

I Bee the Archaeologia Aelianaf Vol. XI., Plate I., p. iv., for a representation 
of this stone. 


disputed ; to me it seemed plain thronghont, and I do nob think 
anyone who had been able to examine the stone would have read 
the last two letters anything but pe. I was also convinced that this 
second line has been rectit over some original line erased. Marks of 
the erasure seemed to me plain, and the slope of the line and size of 
the letters confirm this idea. Whether this is the case with the other 
line, I will not say; the surface of the stone is too worn to decide, but 
I am inclined to think that the obscurity of the sixth line is due to 
partial erasure. In the third, fourth, and fifth lines my reading agrees 
with that of others, and I despair of deciphering any more. Mr. Evans 
read nino in line 4, which is probable enough ^eno,' but the N (if 
read right) has disappeared since he saw it. Line 5 is almost wholly 
gone. The last line may be, as has been suggested, [g]lement(e)oo8. 
cos, anyhow, seemed certain to me, but the preceding letters are not 
very certain, ietb might, however, be traces of lems, if the he were 
tied. In this case, the stone was probably erected in the consulship 
of Tertullus Clemens, a.d. 195. 

The stone is 82 inches long by 22 inches wide; the inscription is in 
a sort of ansated frame, is 26 inches long by 20 inches. The letters in 
line 1 are 3^ inches high ; in line 2, not quite 2 inches (variable) ; in 
lines 8 and 4, just over 2 inches ; in the last line, much smaller. 

4.^Mi8CELLANEA ; by the Editor. 

There is in the yard of the 
school-house at Wall a fragment 
of a Roman tombstone. A repre- 
sentation of it is given in the 
annexed illustration, one-eighth of 
the size of the original. Too few 
letters remain to make any sense 
of the inscription. 

A silver ring found many years 

ago at OrLTTRNUM, inscribed: — 

the two lead seals, altar (p. 


— 862), and the two fragments 

of inscribed tiles, are now 

in the museum at the Cheaters. 



The annexed illnstration, from a photograph by Mr. Oibeon of 
Hexham, represents a fragment of Roman pottery, of a yellowish 
oolonr and ooarse in quality, discovered some years ago at Magna 
(Caervoran), and now in the possession of Miss Henderson of Halt- 
whistle. It has apparently been used for decorating the month of an 
earthenware vessel. In the mnsenm at Ghesters there are several 

examples of human heads in relief, some of them grotesque, from 
Roman stations, per Imeam Valli^ belonging to Mr. Clayton, used for 
a similar purpose, and Mr. Roach Smith in his Antiquities of Ekh- 
bormgh gives others. The finest, however, is that discovered at 




York, representing Jupiter Ammon, and now in the mnsenm of the 
Philosophical Society there. The treatment of this is so superior to 
the others that it leads one to think that it has been copied from some 
work of art well-known-to the andents. 

A piece of Roman tile, with 
the fragment of an inaoriptioii 
running from right to left (?), 
has recently been found at Onr 
UBNUH. It is shown in the 
annexed woodcut, one-half the 
size of the original. On another 
fragment of tile from the same 
place are the letters (scratched 
on before burning) . . . geito . . . 
(See representation of it at the 
bottom of the next page). 
Two leaden seals, similar to those discovered at Brough under 
Stainmore, in such large quantities. South Shields, Felixstowe, and 
one or two other places, have been found at Cilurnum, One of 
them bears on the obverse the heads of Septimius Severus and his two 
sons, the reverse being plain. The other is inscribed on the obverse 

Aii^AV> ^^^ ^° ^^^ reverse 


J^lrrn i f^fof. Hubuer thinks 


the former may read Ala Au- 
gusta and the latter Julius. 
The illustration, trom a photo- 
graphy shews the inscribed seal. 

In the Archaeologia Aeltana (Vol. X., Plate fiwjing p. 264, Nos. 1, 
8 and 7) there are representations of the seals discovered at South 
Shields, like that bearing the heads of Severus and his sons. 

In July, 1889, there was discovei-ed near the eastern abutment of the 
Roman bridge which formerly spanned the North Tyne 
near CimBNUM (Chestere) a small Roman altar, wanting 
the top and a portion of the first line, inscribed [di]bv8 
I viTiBi I Bvs ^ • It is 6 inches high. The annexed 
woodcut, one-eighth the size of the original, shows it. 

xu o uijr, 



At Prooolitia, where it has lain since the discovery of coins, etc., 
at Coventina's Well, a carved stone has been found, of which, beyond 
the dedication to the goddess Coventina, little can be made. Tt seems 
to read: — • 

[NY]MPHI8 BT coventina \ I I I TIANVS DEC j I j I 
I I I I lYO^I I 1^1 I I I I I I I I KR I I I I 

At the villa at Oilubnum, near the 
river, there is scratched on the plaster 
in one of the rooms some nnintelligible 
marks. They are shown in the illustra- 

The letters ibihys or ipimvs are also scratched on an oval piece 
of lead, about 2 inches in diameter, found at Cilurnum, and now in 
the museum at Chesters, where there is a large collection of graffiti 
and potters* names, found in stations on Mr. Clayton's property on 
the line of the Roman Wall. Many of the latter have been published 
by Hiibner in the Carpus. Insc. Lat, vol. vii. Representations of 
most of the graffiti, one-half the size of the originals, are here given: — 

r.« K «oM<;«'''H"» 









Fragments of short inscriptions in white slip round the outside of 
small dark-coloured vessels: — 


The following is a list of the potters' names:—- 

On bottoms of lamps: — F O R T I 8 (from .^sUa) and K • F 
Letters in relief on glass: — I V . 
Qnamflwrm^sAmoTtaria: — C TOSS A, LCM, A/c 



On the outside of figured Samian ware:— 






... lANI 


On plain Samian ware: — 





... NICGI-M 

BIQA. . 









O F C E A^E 8 






CI Vt» • 



(graff. 18 on back) 
CRI ... 











OR ACCI ... 


IN .. .8FEC 





MACRIN . .. 
MA I E R A 1 1 N I N 
AA L L I A . . . 

AA R T . . . 

MERCATO . . .♦ 
Mice... Nl M 
M . . N I NIM 
• MNGVI ANI (?) 
0CCI80 F 
PVQNI ... 




(graff, 14 on back) 



♦ Near N. Gateway, Ciluenum. 



8EPI (P) 









VIVIA (?) 









... IAN 


... NI8 OF 

... ACOF 



... LIM 


*. . A^M 

.. VLLIN 1 OF 




.. DVS FE 

..CITTI • 

. . C 1 MA 

... LLI ... 


r Camva. 


5. — ^A Christian Inscription from Chesterholm ; by Dr. Brooe, 
V.P. [read on the 27th November, 1889]. 

I have great pleasure in introdncing to the notice of the Society 
the fragment of a Roman inscription difEering in character from any 
that have previously come under our notice. 

Mr. Blair and I when accompanying the party of excursionists of 
the British Association to the Roman wall, noticed, as we hastily 
passed the station of Vindolana (Chesterholm), a heap of scones 
lying in front of the kitchen door of the 
cottage there. We saw that one of them 
was inscribed, and that the letters had a 
Roman aspect. Being unable to bear it 
away with us we sent word to Mr. Clayton 
that the stone was there, as well as another, 
having carved on it in bold i-elief the figure 
of a boar, the badge of the twentieth legion. 
Mr. Clayton liad them brought at once to Chesters, where we sub- 
sequently took the opportunity of examining them. The letters on 
the stone are very boldly cut, though ruder than usual. The inscrip- 
tion is — 


(mc) iacit 


* Brigomaglos lies [here].' 

The letter W in the first line has doubtless been intended for an 
M (in short, the one is but the other upside down), and the first 
letter in the second has been intended for an I, though it has a 
horizontal stroke at the bottom giving the appearance of an L 
turned the wrong way. 

The inscription being new to me, I sent a copy and a paper 
impression of it, to Professor Hubner of Berlin, who has written 
largely upon inscriptions of this character. 

In his reply to me he gives a full description of the stone, which 
it will be sufficient for our present purpose that I transcribe. 

* The other inscription, that of Vindolana, is a sepulchral one 




the sort I have collected in the Inscriptioms Britanniae Christianas, 
I do not positively affirm that the man was a Christian, but the name 
Brigomaglos is a British one like Brohomaglus\ SenemaglusK Yenda- 
maglus,^ etc., used in the inscriptions from the fifth century downwards, 
Hio lAGiT (for iaget) is the nsual formula in these sepnlchral 
inscriptions. Line 3 may have contained another name of the 
deceased or his origin. This is the first stone of the class found in 
the North, except the Scotch Catstane from Cramond, though several 
have been found in Wales. From the form of the letters and from 
the termination of the name os instead of vs, I am disposed to think 
it is of a relatively high antiquity. It differs sensibly from the 
pagan Roman inscriptions of the same epoch.' 

On making enquiries at Chesters respecting the spot where this 
stone was discovered, I was told that it was found at a short distance to 
the north-east of the station of Vindolana, and had apparently been 
removed from its original position for the purpose of forming part of 

" Corp, Brit. CkrUt,, Noa. 64, 92, 112, 167, and 168. 


the materialB used in the oonstraction of a raised carriage road long 
since abandoned. A few days ago some repairs being required in 
the cottage at Ohesterholm, this and some other stones were gathered 
together for the use of the masons, when fortunately the value of this 
inscription was detected. 

Doubtless Ohristianity was brought to Britain by the Christian 
members of the Roman army. We have some negative evidence of 
its diffusion in Roman times in the stones found in the Roman 
stations ; and the historic page yields us some direct evidence in the 
accounts which it gives us of the martyrs who suffered in the time of 
Diocletian. Still the proofs as to its prevalence in early British 
times are very scanty. The slaughter and the subjection of the 
inhabitants of the island by the heathen Saxons, and the feud that 
existed between the survivors of the Biitish Church and the Saxons 
after they adopted Christianity probably led to the neglect and conse- 
quent loss of the memorials of the early introduction of Christianity 
into Britain. Hence a special interest attaches to the Yindolana 
inscription, fragmentaiy though it is. Perhaps if search were made 
others might be found in the same neighbourhood. 

Professor Hiibner, in his letter, mentions a stone that was found 
near Cramond in Scotland. Fortunately we are in possession of a 
cast of the upper part of this stone, the part on which the inscription 
has .been carved. The original stone is fixed in the ground, and 
stands 4^ feet high. Professor Hiibner gives a drawing and an 
account of it in No. 211 of his Inscriptiones Britanniae Christianae. 

In the second volume of the Archaeologia Aeliana (quarto series) 
there occurs in the list of donations this entry : ' A cast of the 
Catstaue, an ancient Pictish inscription,' but so far as I can observe 
there is no account of it. I may therefore here give it. The 
inscription is : — 

IN [h]OC TV- 

' In this tomb lies Yetta the son of Victus.' 

This stone early attracted the attention of antiquaries. In the 
Philosophical Transactions for February, 1700, there is a sketch of it, 

370 THE *catstane/ oramond. 

giving the inscription exactly as we have done, and as it is yet to be 
seen, even at this day, with the exception of a faded letter or two, upon 
the stone itself. It is noticed by nearly all the writers upon the 
antiquities of Scotland, but it is treated of at greatest length by the late 

The 'Oatstanb,' Oramokd. 

Sir James T. Simpson, of Edinburgh, in the Proceedings of ths Society 
of AnUqtiaries of Scotland^ Vol. IV., p. 119. At the close of his veiy 
learned paper he ventures upon the supposition that the Catstane 


commemorates the grandfather of Hengist and Horsa on the follow- 
ing grounds, among others : — (1) ' The surname vbtta upon the 
Oatstane is the name of the grandfather of Hengist and Horsa, as 
given by our oldest genealogists ; (2) The same historical authorities all 
describe Vetta as the son of Victa, and the person recorded on the 
Catstane is spoken of in the same distinctive terms — 'vetta 
F(iLrvB) Yicrri^ ; (3) Vetta is not a common Saxon name, and it is 
highly improbable that there existed in ancient times two historical 
Vettas, the sons of two Victas.' Most of us will be surprized and 
delighted at the conclusion to which my late learned friend arrived 
and hope that it is true. Professor Hubner says respecting it, ' nan 
sine 'probdbilUatey but Professor Rhys declines to receive it. 

The illustration of the * Catstane ' has been kindly lent by the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland (per Dr. Jos. Anderson^. It originally appeared in the 
fourth volume of the Proceedings of the Scottisn Society. 

6. — Meaning op the Names Frocolitu, Pbtrianab, Classiana, 


Britain ; by II. Mowat of Paris [read on the 18th December, 

Thanks to the discovery of the temple of Ooventina by Mr. J. 
Clayton, the station of Procolitia has recovered its ancient &me ; as for 
the name itself, it would have gone to oblivion had it not been recorded 
in the Notitia dignitatum ulriusque imperii, compiled about the time 
of Honorius, whereby we know that it was garrisoned by a Batavian 
cohort, ' Tribunus cohortis primae Batavorum, Procolitia.' At first 
sight, one may guess that the name of this place is an essentially 
Latin word, from its contrast with the neighbouring topographic 
names, which bear a marked indigenous feature, Amboglanna, 


clnsion that the Procolitia station was created by the Romans on a 
spot where the Britons had never yet erected any establishment. It 
then becomes a matter of interest for the history of that part of the 
country to ascertain how far the Roman origin of Procolitia can be 
proved by philological evidence. 


Let US observe that the word is but a varied form of ProcuUcia. 
First, it is well knowu that t^ is a substitute of a former o, especially 
when followed by an Z ; compare the classical literary forms famulm^ 
fitulus, tumulus, saeculum^ regulUy consul, Vulcanua, Hercules, 
laniculum, with the archaic or popular iormAfamoluSy titolus, tumoluSj 
secolom, regola, consol, Volcanus, Hercoles, lanicolensis. Next we have 
the ordinary change of ft to a, as in provMia, tribunittus, Mauritius, 
for provincia, tribunicius, Mauricius. We are now brought to deal 
with Proculicia instead of ProcMtiay and to derive it from Proculus 
or Proculeiiis, as novicius from novus, trihunicius from tribunus, 
sarmentidus from sarmentum, and especially Lucotitia (an old country 
seat on the Montague S^ Genevieve, at Paris) from Lucotios, name of 
a chieftain impressed on a Gaulish coin. This last instance is par- 
ticularly interesting, since it shows that the place Lucotitia took its 
name from its first owner called Lucotios, By analogy, the same may 
be said of Procolitia or ProcuUcia, so named after its founder Proctdus 
or Proculeius, Who was he ? Most likely we shall never be able to 
know with ccitainty. All that can be supposed is, that he was the 
commander of the body of troops who for the first time encamped and 
settled on the spot. 

Now it must be remembered that the excavations conducted by 
Mr. Clayton at Chesters, on the site of Cilurnum, brought to light a 
diploma of Antoninus delivered in the year 146 to a soldier belonging 
to a troop stationed at the place of the find, but miscellaneously 
inscribed amongst three horse and eleven foot regiments, necessarily 
scattered in several garrisons. One of these is the *ala Augusta 
Gallorum Proculeiana/ whose denomination shows clearly that 
Proculeius is the name of the ofiicer, praefectus, who was appointed 
to organize and command this horse regiment when it was levied. 
Moreover, I would venture to suggest that this Proculeius was the 
very chief who brought his troop to the place henceforth called 
PiiocoLiTiA, when the Wall and its seventeen fortified military posts 
were erected by order of Hadrian, in the years 120 and 121, according 
to the statement of Spartian, his biographer. 

In the course of years this ala was removed or disbanded, for we 
hear no more of it ; in the time of Honorius, Procolitia was garri- 
soned by the first cohort of Batavians. 


That the name of Procolitia was taken from that of the ala 
Augusta Gallarum Proculeiana, or of its first commander, Proculeius, 
is not altogether an arbitrary conjecture, since it can be supported by 
an analogical argument, as it is well known that another station of the 
Vallum Hadriam, named Petrianae, was garrisoned by a horse I'egi- 
ment bearingjprecisely the same name, likely derived from that of its 
commander, Pefcreius. That is a fact we may safely assert, having 
the evidence of the Notitia digmfntum — * Praefectus alae Petrianae, 

Another regiment of Roman cavalry, the ala Classiana c(ivium) 
rfomanorum), recorded in the Sydenham diploma of Trajan, requires 
also a few remarks, for it is impossible to agree with the learned 
authors who have) found no better explanation of the word Classiana 
than to consider the ala so named as having been composed of 
marines. It is true that Nero drew from the crews of the Italian 
fleet, classis, a number of men sufficient for the foimation of a new 
legion, hence called Classica; and this accounts also in the same 
manner for the name of the cohort Aelia classica^ presumed to have been 
quartered at Tunnocelum, in the reign of Hadrian. But in both 
instances, legion and cohort convey the idea of infantry troops. Now, 
\i classica is regularly derived from classis, the same cannot be said of 
classiana^ a word which is to be found in uo dictionary of the Latin 
language ; it then becomes obvious that such a form can only originate 
from Classius, a proper name, of which we have at least two instances 
in inscriptions at Nimes^ and Avignon^. 

This explanation has a double advantage : it puts an end to the 
joke of the 'Horse Marines,' introduced in the Roman Forces in 
Britain ; it is conformable to the Roman custom of giving to most of 
the auxiliary horse regiments a denomination reminding them of their 
first commander's name. Out of their army list for Britain we are 
now able to draw up the following table of such regiments : — 

* Corpvs Inscriptimmm Latinarum^ vol. xii., n. 3085 : — 


' IHd. n. 4087 :— D-M | clabsiae | thbodor | ae avbel | tavbinvs 








Olassiana civium romanoram 



Augusta Petriana torquatal 
milliaria civium romanoram ) 

Augusta Gallorum Procul- 

II Oallorum Sebosiana 


I PannoniorumTampiana... 

Classiui ... 



Petreius ... 


Sebosius ... 
Sabinus ... 
Tampius ... 


fiunnum ... 

Sydenham dipL 
Watennore insc 
Riveling dipl. 

Carlisle insc 

j Chesters dipL 
\ Waloot dipL 

Malpas dipL 

Notitia dign. 

Malpas dipl. 

This method of reviving a man's name, which otherwise wonld 
have been lost, may lead sometimes to carious discoveries ; here is an 
interesting instance. The Alpes Gottianae were so denominated from 
the name of Cottius, a petty king of that country under the pro- 
tectorate of the Roman emperors down to Nero. Another province, 
the Alpes AtrecUanaej was the boundary of the latter ; and although 
history has not pi*eBerved the name of its first ruler, we may safely 
deduce it by analogy, and restore the figure of the forgotten Alpine 
king Atrectius, perhaps a contemporary of king Cottius. 

7.-~S0MB EXCAVATIONS AT Chestbbs ; by Dr. Brucc, V.P. [read on 
the 18th December, 1889]. 

Mr. Clayton has recently been making some excavations at Chesters, 
in the north-east angle of the station. Four chambers or barrack 
rooms have been exposed. The length of them has not yet be!en 
ascertained, but the width of three of them is 12 feet, and of the other 
18 feet. The walls are standing, seven and eight courses of stone 
high, and the masonry may be said to be of second-rate quality. 
Amongst the objects found in the course of the excavation have been a 
great quantity of spear heads and iron daggers. Sir Lowthian Bell has 
taken away a portion of one of these spears for the purpose of asoer- 






CO 1-9 


1tHEN£'.V YOt^R 




taining whether the metal is iron or steel. I have not heard the result 
of his examination hnt he has given me a hint that he suspects it is iron. 
A quantity of mill-stenes have been foand, most of them in a 
fragmentary state, but a pair are so perfect that they might almosb be 
used for their original pTirpose. These mill-stones are made of the 
ordinary mill-stone grit. Their diameter is 16 inches. The apper 
stone is girt with a rim of iron, in which the hole for the insertion 
of a handle appears ; there are apparent traces of an aperture for the 
insertion of a second handle. In the centre of the upper stone is 
the usual opening for pouring the com into the miU, and round it 
is a shallow cup for facilitating this process ; the cup has a diameter 
of 6^ inches, and its rim rises about half an inch above the 
general level of the stone. Across the aperture for admitting the 
com is an iron bar, pierced with a hole for receiving the pivot round 
which the upper stone revolves, and which is fixed into the bottom 
stone. Everything is complete, excepting the second loop for 
receiving a handle, if indeed there was one. In the seventh volume 
of the Archaeological Journal at page. 394, a woodcut is given, 
showing a hand-mill found at Kilkenny, in Ireland, which very 
nearly resembles this one. This mill had recently been in use in the 
humble cabin of a Edlkenny peasant. It has one handle which is 
ten inches high. The following account is given of the mode in 
which the operation of grinding by it was done : — ' The quern when 
required for use, was placed on the floor, a cloth having been spread 
beneath it, and the com, previously highly dried in an iron pot or 
on a girdle, was placed in a vessel within reach of the grinders. When 
everything is ready two women take their seats on the ground at 
opposite sides of the mill ; and a handfdl of com having been placed 
in the hopper, one seizes the handle and pushes the mnner-stone round 
to the other, who dexterously returns the compliment to her companion. 
The stone thus soon acquires considerable velocity, receiving a firesh 
momentum as the handle passes each grinder $ and as the work pro- 
ceeds the mill is continually fed by handfhls of com, the meal passing 
out by a notch cut in the rim of the nether stone.' This description 
enables us to figure in imagination the occupation of groups of busy 
operatives long long ago, seated on what are now the sunny slopes of 
modem Cilumum. 



The fragment of a mill-stone made of stone from Andemach on the 
Rhine has also turned np. Several broken stone troughs have been 
found, and one circular stone mortar, which is seven or eight inches 
in diameter. 

I have often been struck with the number of rough stone mortars 
of all shapes and sizes which are found whenever excavations are made 
in Roman ground. It seems to me to be impossible that the troops 
could grind in their little hand-mills all the com that was required 
for their sustenance. I cannot help thinking that these stone troughs 
were used for soaking the corn, which, after it had been brought into 
a pulpy state, was subjected to trituration in the earthenware mortars 
of which we find so many examples. The food might then be cooked 
either by itself or mingled with the flesh of some animal by placing 
the mortar upon the edge of the hearth. 

Besides the objects already enumerated, a great number of broken 
pieces of Samian ware, with the potters' names^, was found, as well as 
fragments of ampJwrae, which may once have contained refreshing 
draughts of Falemian. 

Not many coins have been found, but amongst them, however, are 
two very fine denarii, one being of Vespasian, with reverse tbi pot ii 
cos III P P Vesta seated, cadaceus in left hand, wand in right ; and 
the other with the laureated of Hadrian, and reverse vesta avg, 
Vesta seated to left with patera in right hand, 
spear in left. 

One small fragment of an inscription has 
been found, shewn in the annexed illustration. 
The letters are — 

. . • DB-A • • • 
• • • O-P'P • • • 
... VI . • • 

Judging from the style of the letters, I would guess that the 
inscription belongs to the time of Antoninus Pius, and venture to 
expand it thus — 

[ha]db(ia»o) a[ntonino] 
[avg- pi]o p-p« [vbxillatio] 

[leg] VI [VIOTB- P-F] 
■ See pp. 363-366 and 377 



* A YexiUation of the Sixth Legion, samamed the VictoriouBy Pions 
and Faithful [dedicates this] to the emperor Titus Aelins Hadrianus 
Antoninus Pius, the Father of his country/ 

The stops in this inscription are short strokes rather than dots, 
and they incline to one side. 

Further* excavations may reveal new objects of interest. 

In addition to the graffiti and potters' names discovered at CiLUR- 
NUM and given on pages 368-6, the following have since been 
exhumed : — 

1. Potters' names on mortaria : — 


2. On Samian ware : — 



, ERi/, VIOANI (?) 

3. Oraffiti on Samian ware, half the size of the originals :— 


Roman Altab to Jupitsr, Oilsland. 


JSlfflsd, queen, itole end maniple made 

by, 978 
Aidui, S., oknrclk dedicated to, 824 
Akeld, old grave-yard at, 6B 
Akenhead's reprint of England? $ Oriev- 

ance Discovered, 288 

Akenside family, 59 

Aloe CUutiana, Indiana, FicenHana 

Jugusta Feiriana, Oallorum Frocu- 

leiana, Gallarum SeboHana Sahini- 

ana, and Fannoniorum Tampiana, 874 

Alcock, OileB, preiente cap to Bothbory 

church, 82 
Alfred's translation of Bede, 282 
Alf wold, king» asflassination of, 829 
Allen. J. Bomilly, on the Hartlepool 

ftonee, 261 
Alnmonth chapel, dedication of, 888 
Alnwick, abbey of St Mary at, 1; plan 
of church, 2; cloisters, 8; chapter 
house, 4; the ealefactorium, 4t ; the 
cellarium, 6; the refectorium, 6; 
Wallis'8aoeoaDtof,7; (h-oee on, and 
view, 7 i gatehonse of, 8 ; dedication 
of, 838 
Alnwick church and hospital* dedica- 
tions of, 884 
Alpes AtreetiaHoe and Cotiianae, the, 

Alwinton, the gallows at 806 
Alwinton church, dedication of, 884 
Anderton. Rev. Thomas, 89 
Andrew, S., churches dedicated to, 828 
Angles, the, settle in Britain, 79 
Angles, settlements of, in Northumber- 

bind, 224 
Antoninus Fius, fragmentary inscrip- 
tion naming, 875 
Areyns, Roger d', Whittonstall let to,108 
Athelstan, king, presents stole, etc., to 

8. Cuthbert, 278 
Atkinson, E. G., letter on the " Domestic 

Entry-book" of Charles II., 86 
Atkinson, Rev. James, minister at 

Horsley, 46. 58 ; death of, 55 
Ashton, William, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 106 


Bacon's Liber Regis reieneA to, 819 ; 
dedications in the archdeaconry of 
Northumberland given in, 848 

Badge of the twentieth legion, 867 

Bugent, F. J., list of seals of eheriif s, 218 
Baites, Ann, a witch, 116. 
Ballast Hills burial ground, 247 
Ballast quays, 800 

Balliol family at Bywell, 96; ICyretseq. 
Balliol, Eustace de, 93; John de, 107, 
108; Hugh de, 108; Quy de, 108; 
Barnard, 108; Alexander, 106 
Balliol, John de, king of Scotland. 108 
Balliol college, Oxford, founded, 108 
Bambargh church, dedication of, 384 
Bamburgh castle chapel, dedication 

of, 334 
Barnard Castle, chapel on bridge at, 15 
Barnard Castle, the Balliols of, 108 
Bartholomew, S., dedications to, 831 
Bartlett, John, bell founder, 20 
Bates, C. J., on armorial devicee 
attributed to the County of North- 
umberland, 217; the dedications of 
the ancient churches and chapels in 
the diocese of Newcastle, 317 
Bavington, Mrs. K., 40 
Beaumont, T. W., purchases Bywell, 114 
Bede, Venerable, birthplace of, 281; 

his residence at Jarrow, 282 
Bedlinfl1x)n church, dedication of, 885 
Bell's, John, note on a copy of England's 

Orievanee Discovered, 804 
Bell, Rev. W., vicar of Longhorsley, 

frozen to death, 45 
Bells, on the use of, 18 
Bellingham church, 258; dedication 

of, 335 
' Belted Will Howard,' 209 
Beltiiigham church, dedication of, 885 
Bendall, Geo., licence for his house, 86 
Benson, Bp., on dedication of churches 

diocese of Durham, 819 
Bentley, Thomas, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102 
Benwell, altars presented, vi 
Berwick churches and chapels, dedica- 
tions of, 835, 886 
Beverley, archdeacon William de, seal 

of, 220 
Bidlestone, Ann, with the branks, 290 
Billingham, part of cross-slab at, 262 
Birch, Joseph, vicar of Bywell St. 

Andrew, 107 
Birches Nook witches, 116 
Birtley, early Christian church at, 265 
on a pre-conquest memorial stone 
from, 252, 254, 262 

W W 



BirtJ^ stone, the parpoae of, 268; date 

or age of, 268 
Blackefct, Chriitr., 180; Sir Edward, 

presents Boman inscriptions, vi; John 

Erasmus, 175, 176 
Blanchland monies, B jwell St. Andrew's 

tlie property of, 94 
Blanchland church, dedication of, 886 
' Bine-Stone,' the, vi 
Blnnt, Rev. Robert, mimster at Hordey, 

41; death of, 45 
Boisil, S., of Melrose, 826 
Bolbeck, Walter de, gives Bywell St. 

Andrew to Blanchland, 94 
Boldon-Bnke, the, 288 
Bolton, Thomas, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102 
Bolton hospital, dedication of, 886 
Borders, lawless state of the^ 118 
Bothal chnrch: dedication, 886; pre- 

oonquest stones from, presented, vi 
Bontflower, Thomas, 89 
Boyle, J. R., on the insignia and 

plate of the Corporation of Morpeth, 

Brudley, Richard, vicar of Bywell St 

Peter, 108 
Brandon, old harial ground at, 66 
Branks, punishment of the, 289 
Branks used at Morpeth, 206 
Brathwaite, Gapt., 178, 176 
Bridge, ancient, at By weU, 95 
Bridge, chapels, 15 
Brinkbum church, dedication of, 886 
Brigomagloit 867 

SriHo, a presbyter, tombstone to, 200 
BrohomagUu, 868 
Brough under Stainmore, inscriptions 

found at, 858 
Brougbton, Thomas, vicar of Bywell 

St. Peter, 108. 
Brown, Dixon, 180; Thomas, vicar of 

Bywell St. Andrew, 106; Mr., 

buried in Sidgate, 241 
Browne: Rev. O. F., on the Birtley 

stone, 254; Jacob, vicar of Bywell 

St. Peter, 102 
Bruce, Dr. J. C, on an inscribed slab 

found at Newbum, 192; on a cen« 

turial stone from Caervoran, etc., 196 ; 

on a Roman Christian inscription from 

Portugal, 199; on inscribed stones at 

Chesters, 857; on a Roman Christian 

inscription from Chesterholm, 867; 

on the Catstane, 869 
'Burr * or Borr, 78 ; peculiarity of the, 

75 ; the pronunciation of, 77 ; origin 

of, 78; first used by the Danes. 80; 

counties where used, 81 ; the North- 
umberland burr, notes on, 228; the 

burr not Danish, 224 

BywelL Rev. A. Johnson on, 89 ; origin 
of the two parishes, 98, 95 ; chapel 
of St. Helen at, 95; flood at, 100; 
castle, 113; hall buUt, 114; dam and 
mill removed, 115 

Bywell barony, 107 ; survey of, 110 

Bywell mills and filings, accounts for, 
117; report respecting, 120; artidea 
of controversy respecting, 124 

Bywell St. Andrew's church: tower* 
91; called the white church, 94; 
belonged to the PremonstratenwJan 
monks of Blanchland, 94; value of, 
97; registers, 97, 188; grave coven 
in, 99; vicars of, 104; dedicatioa 
of, 887 

Bywell St. Peter's church : tower, 91 ; 

given to Tynemouth, 92 ; settled on 
t. Alban's, 92; dispute respeeting« 
between bishop of Durham and abbot 
of St. Alban's, 98 ; given to Durham^ 
98; called the black church, 94; 
chantries at, 95; value of, 97 ; regis- 
ters, 97, 126; beUs of, 97 ; font» ete^ 
in, 99; vicars of, 100; ehnreh- 
wardens' aocoant books, 187 ; dedica- 
tion, 887 

Caervoran, centurial stone from, 196 
Carham church dedication, 887 
Carleton, Wm. de, last Friar of the 

Sac 848 
Carlisle: potters' marks on Roman 

pottery, found at, 198; the Roman 

wall and vallum, west of, 182 
Carmelites or White Friars, Newcaitle, 

excavations on the site of, 846 
Carr, Jos., vicar of Bywell St. Andrew, 

107; Ralph, vicar of Bywell St. 

Andrew, 106; Mr., of viUa de St. 

George, 248 
Carter, Thomas, vicar of Bywell St. 

Andrew, 106 
Cartington Cove, 288 
* Catstane,' the, 868 
Chantries in Bywell St. Peter's, 96 
Chapels, origin of, 12 
Chapels, wayside, and hermitages, F. B. 

Wilson on, 11 
Charles I., portnut of, 292 
Charles II. grants licences to preach, 

85 ; Domestic Entry-book of, 85 
Charlton, North, dedication of, 887 
Chatton church dedication, 887 
Chest of carved oak at Chesters, 284 
Chesterhohn, discoveries at, 867 
Chester-le-Street, peculiarities of dialect 

at, 74 
Chesters, carved oak chest at, 284 
Chillingham church dedication, 887 



ChipehaM chapel, 264 

Chollerton parish, 254; church, font of, 
253 ; grave stone in wall of, 257 

Churches in diocese of Newcastle, 
dedications of, 817 

Cilurtimm, inscription found at, 190; 
Roman qaems discovered at, 874; 
coins, 875 

Oladh an Diseart, lona, cross incised 
stone found at, 268 

Clastiana, meaning of name, 871 

Clayton, John, notes on Lord CoUing- 
wood, 167 

Clement, Francis, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter, 108 

Clibnm, Roman Inscription at, 188 

ClifE, Thomas, carpenter, case of, 298 

Clonmacnoise cross-slabs, 258 

Cockfighting in Coquetdale, 810 

Coins, Roman, discovered, 875 

Colchester, inscribed stone found at, 858 

Coldstone, Aberdeenshire, cross marked 
stone, 268 

Columba, S.: burial of, 262; church 
of. 828 

Collingwood, Lord : notes on, by John 
Clayton, 167 ; silver kettle presented 
to, 168 ; letter to the Mayor of New- 
castle, 180; monuments to, 180 

Collingwood, Lady, 169 

Collingwood families, 171 

Collingwood, Cuthbert, 171; George, 
172; MUcah, 178; Edward, 174 

Collins, Capt. G., Great Britain's coast- 
ing pilot, 802 

Communion plate of Rothbury, 27 

Conventicle Act, the, 84 

Cooke, Edward, vicar of Bywell St 

Coquetdale customs, D. D. Dixon on, 806 

Coquetdale, Upper, the camps of, 226 

Corbridge church dedication, 887 

Corby cells, 14 

Coulson, Elizabeth, buried in Sid- 
gate, 241 

Conpland, John de, seal of, 220 

Cramlington church dedication, 887: 
Christian inscription, early, 867 

Cramond * Catstane,' the, 868 

Cromwell, Oliver, portrait of, 288; 
John Evelyn on, 289 

Cross on stone at Birtley church, 256 

Crossman, Sir Wm., vii, viii 

Crowhall, figure of Diana found near, 197 

Cut purses, 801 

Cuthbert, S., 18; churches dedicated 

Cuthbert and Bede, SS., unused evi- 
dences relating to, 278 

Cutts, Dr., on the Hartlepool and other 
cross-stones, 264 

Cythlesoester, chapel at, 829 


Dacre, Lord, 208 

Dacre, Thomas Lord, orders for the 
town and borough of Morpeth, 209 

Danes: incursions, 90, 829; settlements 
in England, 228 

Danes and Northmen invade Britain, 80 

Davis, John, 108 

Dawes, Richard, his origin of the 
Newcastle burr, 78 

Dawson, Hezekiah, minister at Horsley, 
40; Robert, clerk of St. Andrew's,241 

Dedications of churches and chapels, 
817; see 'Saints' 

Derlington, John de, vicar of Bywell 
St. Andrew, 105 

Dialect, on certain peculiarities in the 
Newcastle, 72; topographical extent 
of, 74 

Diana, figure of, found near Crow- 
haU, 197 

Dickson, William, derk of the peace, 
his county seal, 221 

Dilston chapel de^cation 887 

Diplomas, Roman, 878 

Dixon, D. D., on the bells and com- 
munion plate of Rothbury church, 
18; on Coquetdale customs, 806 

Dohson family, Harlow Hill, 50 

Dobson, George, will of, 59 

Donaldson, Andrew, burial place of, 248 

Doram, Hugh de, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 105 

Doubleday, Thos., owner of Alnwick 
abbey, 7 

Drinking vessel found at LUbum HUl 
farm. 868 

Droitwich, chapel at, 15 

Drost or Drosten, the stone of, 257 

Duxm, William, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 107 

Durant, Rev. William, lecturer at St 
Nicholas's, etc., 235; commissioner 
for examining ministers, 236; leaves 
the church, 237 ; information 
against, 287 ; licensed to be a Congre- 
gational preacher, 287; death of, 287; 
tombstone of, 87, 285 

Durant, Dr. John, 287, 240; James, 
will of, 288; Mrs. Jane, 288; 
Benezer, 289 

Durham, bishop of, dispute between, 
and St. Alban's, respecting Tyne- 
mouth, 98 

Dwarris, Edward B., vicar of Bywell 
St Peter, 104 

Eadwine, monk of Winchester, 279 

Ebbsnook, chapel at, 826 

Ecton's Tketaurui referred to, 819 



Eden, river, the Roman Tallum neftr,182 
Edlingham church dedication, 887 
Edward the Elder, king, 278 
Edward VI., portrait of, 292 
Eghert, bishop, consecrated, 90 
Eges, William de, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102 
Elfred Westoue and S. Cathbert's 

body, 279 
Elfwold, monk of Winchester, 281 
Ellingham church dedication, 338 
Ellis, the Hon. and Rev. W., presents 

pre-conqaest stones, vi 
Eloj or Eligius, S., chantries dedicated 

to, 330 
Elsdon church dedication, 838 
Eltringham, Rev. Wm., minister at 

Hornley, 55; death of, 56 
Elvet bridge, Durham, chapels on, 15 
Embleton, Dr. D., on certain pecu- 
liarities in the dialect of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne and Northumberland, 72 
Ethelwold, bishop, at S. Cuthbert's 

shrine, 278 
Evelyn, John, on the portrut of Crom- 
well, 289 
Ewart old grave-yard, 67 

Falstone: fragments of stone crosses 
found at, 2H2, 267, 269; description 
of, 271; character of the sculpture, 
272; purpose and age of, 273 

Fame chapels, dedications of, 338 

Fawcet, Christopher, recorder, 174 

Fawcett, John, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 106 

Feasts and fairs, village, when held, 310 

Felix, the century of, 198 

Felton church dedication, 338 

Fenton grave-yard, 67 

Fen wick family purchase Bywell, 114 

Ferguson, Robt., on the Northumber- 
land dialect, 75 

Ferguson, R. S., on an unknown Percy 
medal, 69; on Hadrian's great barrier, 
85; on the wall and vallum of 
Hadrian. 181 ; on potters' marks, 198 

Fife, John and Isabella, their burial 
place in Sidgate, 242 

Finan, S., builds church at Lindis- 
fame, 325 

Fitz John, Eustace, founds Alnwick 
abbey, 1 

Fitz Roger, Robert, establishes market 
at Rothburv, 808 

Flambard, bishop, consecrates altar, 279 

Fleming, John, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter and St. Andrew, 108, 107; 
Richard, vicar of Bywell fit. Peter 
and St. Andrew, 108, 107 

Flodden battlefield, vin. 

Flood at Bywell, 100 

Fonts, Roman altars used as, 253 

Forster, Ann, a witch, 116; Rev. Geo., 
37, 40; John, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter, 102 

Framlington church dedication, 888 

Friars of the Sac established in New- 
castle, 847; suppressed, 848 

Frithestan, bishop, stole and mample 
made for, 278 

FroniOy Liburmmi, century of, 196 

Oallow Edge, Harbottle, 807 
Gallow Law, Alwinton. 807 
Gallowfield Braes, Rothbury, 807 
Gallows, the. in Coquetdale, 806 
Gardner, Ralph: life of, 285; imprison- 
ment of. 286 ; publishes his England 9 
Qrievanee JDUoovered, 286; reprints 
of, 288 
Gardner's EnglatuTs Orievamee Du' 
covered : notes on the plates and maps 
in, 885; portraits in, 292: list of 
copies and coUation of, 808; sale 
prices of, 803 
Gatehouse, Alnwick abbey. 6 
Gaywood, R., engraver, 2S9 
Gibbet Close, the Hepple, 307 
Gibson, Rev. Alex., burial place of, 246 
Giles, S., hospital dedicated to, 880 
Gilpin, Bernard, 19 
Glover, Cornelius, 88 
Goddard, Ezekiel, petition to Plu^ia- 

ment, 299 
Godric of Finchale, 14 
QraffiH found at Chesters, 868, 876 
Grave-yards, M. Phillips on disused, in 

Nortnumberland, 65 
Grave-yard, another disused, 234 
Greaves, Thomas, of Yilk de St. 

George, 248 
Greenaway, Capt. James, depotitioQ 

of, 295 
GreenweU, Rev. W., on the Falstone 

crosses, 271 
Gregory. John V., notes on the Kor- 

thnmbrian burr, 228 
Grose, F., on Alnwick abb^, 7 
Gayzance ohnrch dedication, 888 

H, the letter, nse of in the north, 88 
*Haa HUl,' Rothbury, last oookfight 

at. 812 
Hadrian's great barrier, R. 8. Fei^guson 

on, 85 
Hadrian, the wall and vallam of, by 

R. S. Feiguson, 181 ; denarioa of, 874 



Haigh, Uev. D. H., on tbe Hartlepool 
and other fftones, 261, 263 

Hall, Andrew, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 1U6 

Hall, Rev. G. Rome, on a pre-oonquest 
memorial stone from Birtlej, and 
fragments of crosses from Falstone^52 

HaUiwell-Phillipps, death of, ix 

Handmills, Roman, discovered, 874 

Harbottle, the gallows at, 306 

Hardj, James, further discoveries of 
pre-historic graves, etc., on Lilbam 
Hill farm, 351 

Harlow on the Hill, 84 

Harnham hall, 40; Wm. Yeitcb at, 48 

Harrison, Henry, shipmaster, deposition 
of, 298 

Hartis, John, vicar of Bjwell St. 
Petor, 103 

Hartlepool, incised Saxon stones found 
at, 255, 259 ; Haigh on, 263 

Harvey, Mrs. C., purchases Mrs. CoUing- 
wood*s property, 175 

Hasilwood, Thomas, deposition of, re- 
specting ballast, 800 

Haverfield, F. J., on inscribed stone at 
Ck)lchester, 358; on the Roman in- 
scriptions of Brough under Stain- 
more, 858 

Haydon church dedication, 838 

Hazlewood, Dickens, vicar of Bywell 
St. Peter. 104 

Hebbum chapel dedication, 838 

Heddon-on-the-Wall church dedication, 

Hedgeley Moor, battlefield of, viii 

Hedley, K. C, the pre-historic camps of 
Northumberland, 225 

Heley, Qilbert de, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter, 101 

Helen, S. : churches dedicated to, 822; 
chapel of, Bywell, 95 

Hepple: chapel and burial gronnd at, 
68; tbe gallows at, 806 

Hermitages, 12 

Heron, John, of Chipchase, seal as 
sheriff, 218 

Hertelpole, John de, vicar of Bywell 
St. Andrew, 106 

Hesilden, John de, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 105 

Heslup, Rev. John, minister at Horsley, 

Hexham : church dedication, 339 ; 
riot, 56; remains of Saxon crosses 
at, 272; Aeca's cross, formerly at 

Higbald, bishop, death of, 90 

Higden on the Northumberland dia- 
lect, 75 

Holl, William, engraver, 292 

Holland, Compton and Henry, 292 

Hollar, Wenzel, engraver, 298 ; his map 

of the Tyne, 293 ; description of, 294 
Holy Island: church dedication, 339; 

excavations at, vii 
Holystone church dedication, 339 
Holywell, Flintshire, chapel at, 11 
Homildon Hill, battlefield of, viii 
Hope, W. H. St. John, on Alnwick 

abbey, 1 
Hopper, Jane, a witch, 116 
Homsby, Nicholas, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 103 
Horsley-upon-Tyne: the meeting house, 

33, 47; trustees of chapel, 47; law 

suit respecting, 57 
Hour glasses in pulpits, 46 
Howard family, lurds of Morpeth, 206 
Howard, Lord William, presents mace 

to Morpeth, 202; handwriting of, 

Hroetberht, memorial cross to, 268 
Hiibner, professor, on an inscription at 

Cliburn, 185; on the Chesterholm 

Christian inscription. 367 
Hudson, Henry, buried in Sidfrate, 240 

Enoch, burial in Sidgate, 242 
Hughes, Professor, on the Roman 

vallum, 181 
Humbledon old grave-yard, 66 
Hut circles at Lordenshaws, 229; at 

Old Rothbury, 232 
Hutch, town, of Morpeth, 208 
Hutchinson, William, on the Newcastle 

dialect, 76 
Hutton, Dr. Charles, 246; Mrs., burial 

place of, 246; John, vicar of Bywell 

St. Andrew, 106 
Hynd, William, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102 

Icelandic language, no burr in, 79 

Indiantt, Ala, 374 

Ingelby, John de, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102; Nicholas de, vicar cf 

Bywell St. Peter, 102 
Inscription, Roman Christian, from 

Portugal, 199 
Inscription on Birtley stone, 258 
Insula, Robert de, builds chantiy 

chapel, 97 
Iron Sign inn, 52 

Jaqnes, Joseph, vioar of Bywell St. 

Andrew, 107 
Jarrow: vill of, 282; key and slake, 801 
Jarrowe, Walter de, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 101 
Jennefs Sea CoatU of England^ 802 



John, S., of Beverly, 828 

Johnson^ Rev. A., on By well, 89; 
Henry, vicar of Bywell S. Peter and 
S. Andrew, 104, 107; Dr. S. on the 
northern dialect, 76 

Jubilee of queen Victoria v 

Jupiter DoiichenuSy inscription to, 857 

Jutes, the, invade Britain, 79 


Kate's Kist, Old Rothbury, 233 
Killingworth races, 295 
Kilkenny, quern found at 875 
Kipling, Qabriel, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 103 
Kirk, John, medallist, 70 
Kirkharle church dedication, 839 
Knaresborough, St. Robert's chapel 

Knowles, W. H., recent excavations on 

the site of the Carmelites or White 

Friars, at Newcastle, 346 


Lambley church dedication, 839 

LangUinds, J. C, 65 

Langtofts, Peter, chronicle of, extract 

from, respecting S. Cuthbert, 280 
Lawrence, S., churches dedicated to, 325 
Lee, Thomas, vicar of Bywdl St. 

Peter, 102 
Legion : the twentieth, 196 ; badge of 

the, 367 ; the sixth, 376 
Leighton, William, burial place of, 243 
Leitch's reprint of England's Griev- 
ance Discovered, 288 
Leonard, S., hospital dedicated to, 830 
Lesbury church dedication, 339 
Letters, various, the pronunciation of, 

in North of EngUnd, 82, 83 
Lighthouses on the Tyne, 294 
Lilburn chapel ruins, 65 
Lilbum Uill farm, discoveries of graves, 

urns, etc, 351 
Lindisfame, cross marked stone found 

at, 267 
Lindisfame plundered by the Danes, 90 
Longstaife, W. H. D., on unused 

ei-idences relating to SS. Cuthbert and 

Lordenshaws or Lurganshaws, camp, 

226 ; description of, 227 
Loraine, John L., 180 
Lorraine, Sir Thomas, 45 
Lowick charch dedication, 389 

Mace belonging to Morpeth Corporation, 

200 ; armorial bearings on, 203 
JfayiMK, TerenHue, century of, 195 

ICansion house, Newcastle, ball, 178 
Margaret, S., dedications to, 381 
Market cross, Bywell, 115 
Market cross, Rothbnry, 308 ; verses 

on, 309 
Marr, Rev. Robert, buried in Sid- 
gate, 242 
Mary, queen, portrait of, 292 
McGregor, Rev. And., minister at 

Horsley, 56 ; dispute with the 

congreffation, 57 
Meldon church dedication, 339 
Merley family, barons of Morpeth, 206 
Michael, 8., 328 
Milburn, William, 57 
Militia during the Commonwealth, 126 
Millie, James, 58 
Mindrum grave*yard, 67 
Mitchell, Robert, burial place of, 246 
Mitford, Thomas, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 103 
Moises, Rev. Hugh, 175 
Mommsen, professor, on the Clibom 

inscription, 183 
Monkton, birthplace of Bede, 281 
Montiroli, Commendatore, death o^ ix 
Monteith punch-bowl, 207 
Monthly Chronicle^ The, vii 
Morpeth church and chapels^ dedi- 
cations of, 339 
Morpeth Corporation, the insignia and 

plate of, 201 ; grant of arms to, 204; 

orders for the town and borough 

of, 209 
Morton family, burial place of, 260 
Morton, John, burial place of, 243 
Morton*8, bishop, charter quoted, 283 
Mote hill, Bywell, 112 
Mowat, R., meaning of the names 

ProeolitiOy etc., 371 
Mowbray, earl Robert de, gives Tyne- 

mouth to St Alban's, 92 
Mynstanacres, Gilbert de, vicar of 

Bywell St. Andrew, 105 


Neilson, Henry and William, 66 

Nesbit WillUm, 58 

Netherton, cockfight at 814 

Nevill, Ralph de, Bywell, granted to, 
109 ; buUds Bywell castle, 113 

Newbum: inscribed slab found at, 192; 
ford at, 196 ; church dedication, 822, 

Newcastle, Corporation of, preaent 
silver kettle to Lord ColUngwood, 109 

Newcastle churches, chapeU, and hos- 
pitals, dedications of, 840, 841 

Neweaetle and &aie$head, Biator^ of, 
Wdf Old's, vi 



Newcastle and NorthnmberlaDd, on 

eertun peculiarities in the dialect of, 

Newminster abbey dedication, 841 
Newnham, Qeorge, 169 ; assames name 

of CoUingwood, 170 
Newsome, or Nenaom, Adam de, vicar 

ofBjwell St Peter, 108 
Newton chapel, 96 
Newton, William, vicar of Bjwell St 

Peter, 102 
Nicholas, 8^ dedication of church to, 

Nonconformists, questions as to, 48 
Norham church dedication, 841 
Norw, old, or Icelandic language, where 

used, 80 
North, Lord, at Bywell, 112 
Northumberland, the armorial devioes 

attributed to, 217 
Northumberland) early Christianity in, 

Northumberland, the pre-historio camps 

of, 225 
Northumberland, churches and chapels 

in, 817 
Norton, William de, Yicar of Bywell St 

Andrew, 104 


OgUvie, BeT. George, buried in Sidgate, 

242; will of, 243 
Ogle, dedication of chape1« 341 
Ogle, Sir Robert, supposed seal of, as 

sherifr, 219; Thomas, 39 
Old Bewick church, 65 
Old Rothbury camp, 230 
Ord, Major, death of, 45 
Oswald, king, heralding of, 221 
Oswald, S. : church of, 265 ; his battle 

with Caed walla, 266 . builds churches, 

266 ; church dedicated to, 324 
Oswi, king, receives relics from the 

pope. 325 
Otterburn, viii 
Oviugham, 34^ 3Q, 60 
Owen, Matthew, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 103 

Patrick, S., church dedication to, 828 
Percy, Henry, first earl, seal as sheriff, 

Percy medal, R. S. Ferguson on a, 69 
Pgtrianae, meaning of name, 371 
Pewter Communion vessels, vii 
Phillips, Maberly: on the meeting house 
at Horsley-on-Tyne, 38, 41 ; on dis- 
used grave-yards in Northumberland, 

65; on another ^Usused grave-yard, 
' The Quicks buriug plas in Sidgatt,* 
Newcastle, 234 

PieenHana, ala, 374 

Picton, R. O., on memorial eroesea 
found at Falstone, 270 

Potters* names, 376 

Preaching licences granted, 68 

Premonstratennan abbey of St Mary, 
at Alnwick, 1 

ProcoHHa, meaning of name, 371 

Pmdhoe, dedication of chapel at 841 

Publius Valerius, 191 

Punch-bowl belonging Morpeth Cor- 
poration, 207 

Querns, Roman, discovered, 374 
Quicks burying place, 234 

R, as used in Southern England, 81 

R, the letter : on the pronunciation of, 
77; Dr. Murray on, 79 

Races on Killingworth Moor, 295; 
removed to Newcastie, 296 

Railton, William, vicar of Bywell St 
Andrew, 107 

Ramwy, or Joseph Ben Israel, 'A 
false Jew,' 236 

Randal's, Rev. Thos^ 8taU of the 
Churches, 319 

Reavely, William, deposition of, 295 

Reed, Archibald, mayor, 179 

Rendel, Q. W., presents Roman altars, 

Richardson, Philip, 47 ; extracts from 
will of, 62, Ihomas, 48* 58; will of 
61; WUlism, 48. 53 

Richmond, John, earl of, Balliol es- 
tates granted to, 109 

Ritschel, George, vicar of Bywell St. 
Andrew, 106; John, vicar of Bywell 
St. Andrew, 106 

Roads, state of the, near Rvwell, 112 

Robinson, Edm., vicar of Bywell S. 
Andrew, 106; Ralph. 40; Mat- 
thew, vicar of Bywell S. Andrew, 

Rock markings at Lordenshaws, 229 ; 
at Cartington Cove, 233 

Roman altars used as fonts, 253 ; leaden 
seals, 362; standards, 194; diplomas, 
373 ; potters' names, 376 

Roman silver cap faund at Bywell, 114 

Roman inscriptions, on some newly dis- 
covered, 185, 357, 375; early Christian, 


Bothbury : ohnroh, the bella and oom- 
moiiion plate of, 18; BabsoriptbiM to 
the belU, 22; various pajmente for 
the bells, 25; extracts from parish 
books respecting bells, 21; the gallows 
at, 306; forest, 226; cockpits at, 811; 
market cross, 808 

Bothburj, old camp, 230; gateway at, 
281; banal mounds at, 232 


Sahiniana, ala^ 874 

Saints : Aidan, 824; Alban, 93; Am- 
phibalas, 342 ; Andrew, 91, 328, 338, 
340; Bartholomew, 831, 340 ; Boisil, 
326 : Catherine, 840, 341, 3I'2 ; Ceol- 
wolf, 841; Colamba, 262, 823; 
Cuthbert, 18, 278, 826; Edmund, 
312; Eloy, or Eligius, 830; Finan, 
823 ; Giles. 330, 842 ; Helen, 95, 822; 
James, 333; John the Baptist, 840; 
John the Apostle, 840; John of 
Beverley, 828 ; Laurence, 325 ; 
Leonard, 830; Margaret, 331, 340; 
Mary, 1, 8i0,342; Mary Mai^lene, 
342; Maurice, 338; Michael, 328, 
340; Nicholas, 331, 340; Oswa d, 
265,324; Oswin, 342; Patrick, 828; 
Peter, 91, 342 ; Robert, 14; fhoinas 
4 Becket, 17, 840; Valery, 330; 
Wilfrid, 89, 327 

St. Alba.i's, abbot of. By well St. Peter's, 
given to, 92; dispute between abbot 
of, and bishop of Durham, 98 

Salomon, vicar of Bywell St. Peter, 101 

Salkeld, Thomas, deposition of, 285 

Sanderson, Stephen, clerk of the peace, 

Sauuder, Richard, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter, 102 

Saxon interlaced ornamentation, pro- 
bable origin of, 274 

Saxons, the, Frisians, etc., invade Bri- 
tain, 79 

Seals of sheriffs, 217 

Seals, Roman leaden, 862 

Seaton Oelaval, dedication of chapel 
at, 8a 

Sebbi or Sibbi, king, burial of, 262 

Sebotiana^ ala, 374 

Seller, John, hi«« Coasting Pilot, 802 

SenemagUu, 868 

Shaftoe, Daniel, 49; will of, 61 

Sharp, Archdeacon, presents paten to 
Bothbury church, 30 ; on the dedica- 
tion of churches, 818 

Shaw, Henry, buried in Sidgate, 241 

Sheriffs' seals, 217 

Shield, Rev. James, burial place of, 244 

Shields, North and South, peculiarities 
of dialect at, 74 

Shields, need of a market at, 805 
Shirbmn* Walter de, viear of Bywell 

St Peter, 101 
Sidgate. Percy street, grave-yard in, 2S4 
Simon, Robert, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 108 
Simonbam church, 258; dedication of 

321; part of Anglian cross sbift in 

Simpson, Jonathan, 53; Robert, vicar 

of Bywell St. Andrew, 106; Sir J. 

Y., on the Cramond ' Catstane,' 370 
Sixth legion, the, 876 
Slater, Henry, vicar of Bywell St 

Andrew, 107 
Smith, alderman Thos., 179 
' Song of Solomon' in the Tyneside dia- 
lect. 74 
South Middleton old burial ground, 66 
Spence, C. J., notes on the plates and 

maps of the Tyne in Gardner's Eng^ 

land's Qrtevance Discovered of 16&, 

Spencer, John, 198 
Spital, dedioition of hospital at, 841 
Spragen, Henry, vicar of Bywell St. 

Andrew, 106 
Spy Law, 226 
Stahlschmidt, the late J. C. L., on 

Rothbury bells, 26 
Stamp, John, vicar of Bywell St. An- 
drew, 106 
Standards, Roman, 194 
Stanley, Gilbert de, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102 
Stephens, professor Georgre, on the early 

monumental stones, 2& 
Stewart, John, vicar of Bywell St. An- 
drew, 107 
Stockton, William de, vicar of Bywell 

St. Andrew, 105 
Stokes, Miss, on the early monumental 

crosses, 264 
Stukeley, William, on the Newcastle 

dialect 75 
Sunderland, origin of the name, 283 ; 

peculiarities of dialect at, 74 
Sunderland bridge, near Durham, 283 
Swalwell, Richanl, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 102 > 
Swinburn, West, dedication of chapel 

at, 841 

Talbot, John, of Cartington, 32 
Tampiana, ala, 874 
Tariton, CoUingwood, 172 
Thomliuson, Dr. John, 19, 21 
Thompson, Lucy, a witch, 116 
Thomas ii Beckett, S. : chapel ci, 17; 
chapels dedicated to^ 821 



Tboraton, Roger de, 16 

Thorp, Eobert, clerk of the peace, hie 
connty seiJ, 220 

Todd, Thomas, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter, 102 

Tilmoath chapel, 321; dedication of, 

Trawsmawr, croas at, 258 

Trarant, or Trewrent, Rev. Thos,, 33, 
84,36; will of, 37 

Tweedmonth chapel dedication, 342 

Tyne hridge : hermitage on, 11, 16 ; 
model of, v 

Tyne, north and south, peculiarities of 
diidect, 74 

Tyne, gpreat flood in the, 56, 99 

Tyne, river, maps of, 293 

Tyne, Hollar's map of. 294 ; the Ship- 
wrights' map, 296 ; map described in 
Brand's Newcastle, 801; map in 
Sellers's CoasHng Pilot, 302 ; map 
in Collins's Coasttt^ Pilot, 302; list 
of early maps, 804 

Tynedale, north, antiquities in, 252 

Tynemouth parish, examination of 
ministers for, 236 

Tynemouth castle, 294; lighthouse, 301 

Tynemouth priory, dedication of altars 

in, 342 
Tyneside songs, 73 

Ulecote, Philip de, 114 

Umfraville, Gilbert de, 307 

Urns found at Lilburn Hill farm, 352 

Usher, Ann, a witch, 116 


Valerine, Puhlius, 191 
Valery, S., chapel dedicated to, 330 
Yeitch, Wniiam, 42 
Vendumaqlue, 868 
Vesci, William de, 4 
Vespasian, discoveries of, 875 
Vestiges of Old Newcastle and Gates- 
head^ vi 
Vetta, 370 
Victa, 370 

Vigeans, St., monument of, 257 
Vifla de St. George, 248 
Vindolana^ discoveries at, 367 


Wakefield, chapel on bridge at, 15 
Walker, Thomas, carpenter, 245 
Wallis's notice of Alnwick abbey, 7 
Walter, vicar of Bywell St. Peter, 100 
Waltheof, earl, gives Tynemouth to 

Jarrow, 92 
Warden, Roman altar used as font at, 

Warkworth church dedication, 842 
Warkworth chapel and hermitage, dedi- 
cations of, 342 
Watkin, W. T., the late, on the Clibum 
inscription, 185 ; on inscriptions found 
on the Roman wall, 190 
Wearmouth, the borough of, 283 
Welford's History of Newcastle and 

Gateshead, vi 
Wells, holy, in Northumberland, 321 
Wensley church, Yorkshire, cross stones 

found in, 261 
Werkworth, Robert de, vicar of Bywell 

St. Andrew. 105 
Wesley, Rev. John, visits Horsley, 54 
Wessington, prior, MS. of, quoted, 278 
Wharton family in Coquetdale, 29 
Wharton, William, presents flagon to 

Rothbury church, 27 
Whitefriars or Carmelites, 348 
Widdrington, John, 174, 176 
Widdrington church dedication, 842 
Wilfrid, S., 89; church dedicated to, 

827 ; founds churches, 829 
Wilkinson, Thomas, vicar of Bywell 

St. Peter, 102 
William Rufas grants Balliol fee to 

Guy de Balliol, 108 
Willis's, Brown, Survey of Cathedrals, 

etc., 318 
Willows chapel dedication, 342 
Wilson, F. R., on wayside chapels and 

hermitages, 11 
Winchester vestments found with S. 

Cuthberf s body, 279 
Witches at Bywell, 116 
Witches, execution of, in Newcastle, 291 
Woodfall, John, vicar of Bywell St. 

Peter, 103 
Wooler, dedication of hospital at, 842 
Wyntringham, William de, vicar of 
ByweU St. Peter, 102 


Yssop, William, vicar of Bywell St. 
Peter, 102 

NOV 1 8 1938