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Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"

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Case 



Shelf 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

IN EXCHANGE WITH 



Received 




RECEIVED. 

MAR10,/f^3. 

peAbody mstm. 

•' . ' ' ' 

ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. 

Vol. XXIV. 



ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA: 



inti(ceUaneou0 €ract$ 
RELATING TO ANTIQUITIKS. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

\ SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 
VOLUME XXIV. 




LONDON AND NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE: 
AiDMw liEiD & Co., Limited, Printing Court Buildings, Akensidk Hill. 
London Okticb : 11, Great St. Helens, E.G. 



M.DCCOC.IIl. 






NBWCARTLS-UPON-TYMK 

ANDBEW REID AND OOMPAXYa UMITBD, PRINTING COURT BiriLDINGH, 

AKEK8IDB HILL. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOS. 

List of Plates vi 

Other Illustrations vi, vii 

Contributions of Plates, etc viii 

Annual Report for 1901 ix 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet for 1901 xiv 

Curators' Report for 1901 xvi 

Gifts to Museum in 1901 xvii 

Council and Officers for 1901 xx 

Honorary Members xxi 

Ordinary Members • xxii 

Societies exchanging Publications ... xxxi 



I. — Excavations on the line of the Roman Wall : — 

1. Introduction. By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., F.S.A., V.P. 1 

2. Mucklebank Wall Turret. By J. P. Gibson 13 

3. Great Cbesters (AK8ICA). By J. P. Gibson 19 

II.— Discoveries in the Chapel at Raby Castle, County Durham. By 

J. P. Pritchett 65, 114 

III. — Notes on Roman and Medieval Engines of War. By R. Coltman 

Clephan, F.S.A., V.P 69 

IV. — The Brumell Collection of Charters, etc. By J. Crawford 

Hodgson, F.S.A 115 

V. — Abstract of Deeds at Kirkleatham Hall, relating to the Chantry 
of the B.V.M. in Chester-le-Street Church. By T. M. Fal- 

low, M.A., F.S.A 124 

VI. — Proofs of Age of Heirs to Estates in Northumberland (continua- 
tion). By J. C. Hodgson 126 

VII. — Local Muniments (second Instalment). By Richard Welford, 

M.A.,V.P 128 

VIII.— Obituary Notice of Cadwallader John Bates, M.A., V.P. By 

Thomas Hodgkin ^. 178 

IX. — Extracts from the Privy Seal Dockets, relating principally to the 

North of England. By F. W. Dendy, V.P 184 

X.— Seaton Sluice. By W. W. Tomlinson 229 

XI. — Notes on a Northumbrian Roll of Arms, known as * The Craster 

Tables.' By J. C. Hodgson 244 

Index 257 



PLATES, ETC. 



01. — Mucklebank Wall Turret and Walltown Crags ... facing page 13 

Absioa (Great Cheaters): 

I.— West Gateway from S.E. „ 26 

II. — Western Rampart and West Gateway „ 28 

III.— N.W. Angle Turret from Bast, showing junction with North 

Wall of Camp ... \ .. 34 

IV.— N.W. Angle Turret from the West „ 86 

V. — South Gateway and Circular Chamber 38 

VI.— The lines of the Murus and Vallum at Cawfields, from W. 46 

VII.— Plan of Aksica ,. 62 

VIII. — Plan of Chapel at Raby Castle, County Durham ... \ 

IX. — Longitudinal sections of same ... ( ., 66 

X. — Transverse section? of same \ 

XI.— Portrait of the late C. J. Bates, V.P. „ 179 

XII.— The North Harbour Gates, Seaton Sluice, 1876 „ 229 

XIII.— Seaton Sluice, 1880 „ 232 



OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE. 

vii 
viii 
xxi 

XXX 

xxxii 
7 
9 



Bronze Dagger from river Blyth 

Ancient Ironbonnd Box 

Corbel from Pilgriih Street, Newca-tlu 

Sockburn Church in 1 826 

Old Bottles from Gallowgate, Newcastle 

Plan of Camp of Poly bins 

Plan of Camp of Hyginus 

Plan of Camp of BBEMEKIUM (High Rochester) , 11 

Centurial Stone from Mucklebank Wall Turret 12 

Fragments of i4w»pA<»ra from same place 18 

Absica (Great Chesters) :— 

Vaulted Chamber in Camp 21 

Silver Plated -F^^^a^ 28 

Gold Plated J^iJttZa ... 25 

South Tower of West Gateway 27 

Junction of Southern Chamber of West Gateway with outside of 

Camp Wall 30 

Exterior of Built-up West Gateway 32 

Eastern Guard Chamber of South Gateway 38 

^ra^i and Potters' Names 40 



Absica (continued) :— 

Silver Necklace and Pendant 41 

Gold and Silver Finger Rings, Gold Barring and Gnostic Intaglw 42 

Bronze Figure of Mercury 43 

Suburban Building No. Ill ,. 44 

Ground Plan of same 46 

Hypocaust in same building 49 

Same building from East 50 

Building S.B. of Pretorium 54 

Inscriptions 33, 55> 56, 58, 59 

Hypocaust near Centre of Camp from the Bast 60 

Hypocaust near South Gateway, from the West 61 

Figure of Mercury 64 

Early Sundials at St. Cuth berths Church, Darlington 68 

Principle of Catapult and Balista 70 

Soldiers with a Balista (Column 6f Trajan) 71 

Model of a Catapult made at Meudon 72 

Model uf a ^a2««to made at Meudon 73 

Model of an 6^na^0r made at Meudon .. 75 

Trebuchet from a 14th Century Ivory Carving 89 

Bomano-Gallic Crossbow ... 1)8 

Crossbows and Quarrels 104 

ACaltrap lOr. 

i Battering Ham un Arch of Septimi us ISeverus lUS 

A re#^«<^ on the Antonine Column Ill 

Design of Window at end of Side Chamber in Baby Castle Chapel ... Ill 

PotteiV names from ^me?<» ... 228 

Plan of Seaton Sluice Harbour , 230 

•Hartley Haven,' from an old engraving 236 

Pac-similes of autographs :)f Delavals ... 213 




BKONZK DAOGEK, IT&OM BIVSR BLYTH (se&p. XViii). 



Tiii 

CONTRIBUTIONS OF PLATES, BTO. 

Thanks are given to the following : — 

Brewis, Parker, for photographs from which blocks on pp. xzi, xxzii, and 

68 have been made. 
Olephan, R. C, for the blocks which illustrate his paper, pp. 70 to HI. 
Fallow, T. M., for loan of etching for block on p. xzx. 
Gibson, J. P., for the photographs from which illustrations have been made 

for his papers, pp. 12 to 64. 
Pritchett, J. P., for the drawings illustrating his paper, facing p. 66 and 

on p. 114. 
Society of Antiquaries of London, for loan of blocks on pp. 23, 25, 41 and 

42 (silver rings). 
Spence, C. J., for photographs for blocks on pp. 42 (intaglio) and 43, and 

for drawings and plates facing pp. 229 and 232. 




IBONBOUND BOX (see p. xvii) 



IX 

REPORT 

OF 



Cte <&octet^ ot ^ntiqnnvM 



OF 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



ANNUAL MEETING, MDCCCCII. 



Our Society commemorates its eighty-ninth anniversary to-day; 
and, as it enters its ninetieth year, your Council congratulate the 
members on the unabated interest shown in its varied pursuits 
whilst they look forward to a career of extended usefulness, 
which shall not only sustain the achievements of the past but shall 
add yet more to the reputation happily enjoyed by the Society. 

Of the 354 members standing enrolled at our last anniversary 

there have, passed away two prominent men, whose loss to the Society 

is to be deplored. Of these Professor Emil Hiibner, LL.D., was 

elected an honorary member in 1883, and his great experience and 

erudition in Roman epigraphy constituted him a unique authority. 

In the pages of our publications it will be seen how often his opinion 

has been appealed to in cases of doubtful reading, how cheerfully he 

has responded to our call upon his services, and with what lucidity 

the knowledge gained in the editorship of the British and Spanish 

volumes of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum has enabled hira to 

solve the problems set before him. More familiar to us is the 

personality of Major General Sir William Grossman, K.C.M.G., F.S.A., 

who throughout the past fourteen years closely associated himself 

with our society, of which during the past five years he was one of 

the vice-presidents. His professional knowledge as a military 

engineer was sought in endeavouring to solve the perplexing problems 

of the Roman lines of defence in our district. In these he became 

keenly and actively interested. The historic ruins on Holy Island 



occupied his attention as soon as he settled there. It was at his 
instigation that the Commissioners of Woods and Forests were 
induced to take active measures for their preservation ; whilst the 
excavation and survey of the monastic remains in the island were 
carried out by his own direction. As a member of the County 
History Committee he was assiduous in furthering the progress of 
that undertaking, a task in which his special knowledge enabled him 
to aid most effectively. 

Nine monthly meetings have been held in the Castle during the 
year 1901, at which papers were read and objects of interest exhibited. 
Four country meetings were also held, and a summer of almost 
unexampled fineness added its attraction to the excursions. In June 
our colleague, Mr. D. D. Dixon, conducted a large gathering from 
Roth bury to Hepple, Whitefield and Holystone, pointing out camps 
and strongholds by the way. In July Ogle and Capheaton were 
visited ; after which, in a long circuit, the members proceeded 
successively to Kirkharle, Little Harle, East Shaftoe, Harnbam and 
Whalton. A third excursion was made in September when the day's 
programme included Mainsforth, Bishop Middleham, Sedgefield, 
Grindon, Redmarshall, Bishopton and Great Stainton. A fourth and 
last excursion on the afternoon of October 5th to Stannington and 
Blagdon was made under less propitious conditions of weather. Your 
council record their obligation for hospitality received on these 
occasions. 

The new series of the Archaeologia Aeliana has now reaohed its twenty- 
third volume. The contributors include F. W. Dendy, V.P., F. Haver- 
field, F.S.A., Horatio A. Adamson, V.P., Sir Henry A. Ogle, bart., 
Richard Welford, V.P., the Rev. D. S. Boutflower, and the Rev. J. F. 
Hodgson, who respectively furnished : — An Obituary of our late Vice- 
President Dr. Embleton ; Notes on the Excavation at Chesters in 
1900; An Outline of the History of Tynemouth Priory; A Note on the 
Ogle Family ; On Local Muniments ; The Boutflowers of Apperley ; 
and A Treatise on Low Side Windows ; etc. The new volume is freely 
illustrated. One hundred and twenty-eight pages of the tenth volume 
of the Proceedings have also been issued, as well as the index to the 
ninth volume, which covers fifty-three pages. Adding to these the 
volume of the Archaeologia above referred to, we have a total of five 



XI 



hundred and twenty-six printed pages issued to the members for the 
year, as well as the large number of accompanying plates and illustra- 
tions in the text. In this connexion your council express their 
recognition of the manner in which the laborious duties of editorship 
have been continuously discharged by Mr. Blair. The task, involving 
unremitting attention, has never been allowed to flag, and it is but 
due to his assiduity that opportunity should be taken of expressing 
the society's appreciation. 

A new edition of the Guide to the Castle and Black Gate Museum 
has been prepared for the press by our vice-president, Mr. C. J. 
Bates, and issued for sale to visitors. As might have been antici- 
pated, the work has been rewritten with all the care and skill of one 
BO well qualified for the task, and the Society is under obligation to 
Mr. Bates for his valuable services. 

Anticipation was expressed in our last report of the visit of the 
British Archaeological Association under the presidency of Dr. 
Hodgkin, one of our vice-presidents. This event took place in July, 
when meetings and excursions were conducted from the 1 8th to the 
24:th of that month, a period memorable for the fervent heat of the 
weather. With a programme embracing the chief places and objects 
of archaeological interest in the district the visitors found abundant 
occupation. 

Our society has specially identified itself with efforts made for the 
preservation of the ancient music of the English Border. As early as 
the year 1855 the topic had been dealt with in a resolution, and 
thenceforth until the issue of the collection of Northumberland pipe 
music, published by our society in 1882, its importance has been dwelt 
on in our proceedings and in our reports. The Northumberland 
Small Pipes Society was formed to carry on the work thus initiated, 
and the council recommend members to co-operate in this praiseworthy 
endeavour to perpetuate the traditions and music of our ancestors. 

The approaching completion of a sixth volume by the North- 
umberland County History Committee indicates the steady progress 
of their work, and our colleague, Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, is to be 
congratulated upon the success which has attended his unremitting 
and onerous task as honorary editor. When it is understood that 
some three thousand pages are included in the six volumes, and that 



Xll 

these cover but a section of the area to be dealt with, and that the 
whole of the material is drawn from original sources, the magnitude of 
of the task undertaken by the committee may be to some extent realized. 

Nor is this the sole undertaking which absorbs much of the 
energy of the members of our society, for our colleague Mr. F. W. 
Dendy has followed his volumes on the Merchant Adventurers of 
Newcastle by a kindred work dealing with the Hostmen's Company, 
whilst our colleague Mr. Richard Welford is about to enter upon a 
work dealing with the Royalist Composition Papers. Although these 
volumes will form part of the series of Surtees Society publications, 
they are none the less to be reckoned as emanations from our own 
society, and to their respective authors our members will most 
cordially extend their congratulations. 

The historical value of the hitherto inedited local and national 
muniments has been exemplified by the contributions of Mr. 
Welford, Mr. Dendy, the Rev. C. E. Adamson, the Rev. Canon Baily, 
and of other members, to our last year's transactions. Accumulations of 
these 'Materials for History' are of invaluable service and are much 
to be desired. The work of indexing our National Public Records 
renders accessible in its progress a continually increasing amount of 
unwrought material relating to our locality, which ought to be dealt 
with in the course of our operations as early as practicable. Your 
council suggest that papers containing collated extracts for Northum- 
land and Durham from the appendices to the Reports of the Deputy 
Keeper of the Public Records, from the Reports of the Historical 
MSS. Commission., and from the Calendars of State Papers would form 
useful work for individual members to undertake and for the society 
to publish. Material such as this is necessary in order to give 
completeness to the volumes of the New County History yet to be 
published. 

The official custody of valuable documents has occupied the 
attention of the Northumberland County Council during the past year, 
and your council have been associated with the committee appointed 
by them to deal with the question. It is hoped that the recommen- 
dations of that committee may lead to the establishment of a public 
muniment room for the storage and safe keeping of deeds and charters 
on conditions making them accessible to students. 



xm 

The gift by which the Brumell Charters have been placed in our 
custody, whilst it indicates the confidence reposed in our members, is, 
we trust, an earnest of other similar collections yet to follow. 

In another direction the custody and preservation of antiquities is 
to be noted with satisfaction. The discovery of a large number of 
Anglian sculptured stones has been made during the repairs to the 
ruined church at Sockburn, in addition to those which had previously 
been brought to light in the same place. Sir Edward Blackett has most 
thoughtfully placed this valuable collection within the private chapel 
of the Conyers family, which he has restored under the direction of Mr. 
W. H. Knowles, F.8.A. Their permanent preservation is thereby 
assured. (For view of church in 1826, see p. xxx.) 

The scope afforded for the individual service of members and for 
helpful association in every branch of archaeological investigation 
constantly extends, and it is in the light of the possibilities which lie 
before us that your council regard the position and anticipate the 
future of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. 

The following is the 

treasurer's report, with balance sheet, for the year 
ending december 31st, 1901. 

The number of members now on the roll is 343, viz :— 338 
ordinary and 5 life members. During the year 13 members have 
resigned, 15 have died, and 5 have been struck off, in all 33, while 22 
new members have been elected. 

The total revenue for the year has been £544 Os. 3d., and the 
expenditure £466 17s. 3d., leaving a balance in favour of £77 3s. Id. 
While congratulating members upon having such a large sum in 
hand, it is only right to point out that had the account for printing 
part 57 of the Archaeologia Aeliana, now ready for issue to members, 
been paid, as it would have been in the ordinary course of things, the 
amoant would have been reduced by about £40. 

It will be noticed that there is a slight difference between the 
amount of the balance brought forward from last year, as given in the 
present balance sheet, and that shown in last year's statement. It is 
owing to the fact that a cheque for 10s. 6d. was not deducted 
from the bank balance, as it ought to have been, when the accounts 
for the year 1900 were made up. 



XIV 

The expenditure on the Castle has been £29 lis. 9d. less than 
last year, while that on the Black Gate also shows a decrease of 
£5 17s. 3d. 

• It is satisfactory to note that there has been an increase of 
£4 5s. dd. in tiie receipts at the Castle. 

A detailed statement of expenditure is appended to the balance 
sheet. 



R. S. NISBBT, TREASURER, IN ACCOUNT WITH THE SOCIETY OP 
ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

Statement of Receipts and Ezpbnditubb for the Yuar ending 
31st December, 1901. 



Balance Ist January, 1901 

Members* Subscriptions 

Books sold at Castle 

Books bought 

Castle 

Black Gate 

Printing : — 

ArcJuieologia Aeliana 
Proceedings 

Illustrations 

Museum 

Sundries 

Secretary, for Clerical Assistance 

Balance in Bank 

Do. Treasurer's hands 



BecetptB. 




£ 8. 


d. 


£ 8. d. 


37 2 


11 




349 13 







12 5 


9 


40 1 8 


119 17 


3 


75 12 3 


26 1 


4 


36 1 9 

72 17 
56 18 
53 8 7 
4 19 8 
86 18 3 
40 



£74 11 
2 11 



77 3 1 



£544 3 £544 3 



5nvedtmentd. 

2i per cent. Consols as at 3 Ist December, 1901 

In Post Office Savings Bank on 31st December. 1900 

Add interest this year 



£37 18 8 
2 2 5 



£ 8. d. 

42 18 5 

40 1 1 

£82 19 6 



Examined with Vouchers and found correct, 

John M. Winter & Sons, 

Chartered Accountants. 
29th January, 1902. 



XV 



Detatld of JEipenMture. 



Castle— 


£ 8. d. 


Black Gate— 






£ s. 


d. 


Salaries 


66 


Salaries 






20 16 





Insurance 


7 6 


Insurance 






2 15 





Rent 


2 6 


Rent 




... 


1 





Income Tax 


2 5 9 


Income Tax 






1 17 


6 


Water Rate 


6 


Water Rate 






1 





Gas 


7 


Gas 






2 13 


I 


Sundries: firewood, var- 




Repairs & Whitewashing 


C 


2 


nish, brushes, &c. 
Repairs 


1 1 5 
4 18 I 
19 












£36 1 


_9 


Coal 






Removing Stone CoflSn ... 


6 














£75 12 3 




Books bought, ktc— 

Subscriptions to Societies — 

Parish Register Society for 1901 

Harleian Society 

Surtees Society 

Durham and Northumberland 
Society (1900-01) 


and 1902 ... 2 

1 

1 

Parish Register 
1 


8. 

2 

1 
1 

1 


d. 







£ 8. 


d. 



Antiquary and Notes and Queries 

Oxford Dictionary (2 p&rta) 

Calendar of Stiite Papers— ^mnc<?, vol. 1 

„ „ Domestic, 1691-2 

„ „ Edward IV, 

Essex Archaeological Society's General Indeao 

Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist 

Feudal Aids 

Stones of Islay 

B/onnd'B Family History 

Creeny*8 Monumental Brasses and Incised Slabs 

St. John Hope's Windsor Stall Plates, parts 1 to 6 

English Dialect Dictionary, 2 years' subscription 

Asher & Co. for Transactions of Imperial German Archaeo- 
logical Institute 

Gotch's Architecture .. 

8coit*s Church Architeotuj'e 

Rev. E. A. Downman, for drawings of Plans of Earthworks ... 

Tear Booh of Learned Societies 

Otto "Pettera for Obergermanisoh'Raetische Limes 

J. C. Wilson for bookbinding 

F. Sanderson, for binding 14 vols, of the * Brooks Collection ' 



5 


1 







1 





o 
18 

5 
15 
16 
15 

7 
10 
15 
11 
12 

2 14 

3 17 

2 2 

3 14 

1 1 
12 

16 
7 
14 

2 18 
7 14 




6 
2 



6 



6 




6 

6 
3 
C 

6 





£40 1 8 



£ 8. 


d. 


27 6 





20 8 


4 


7 16 


5 


1 1 





1 14 


6 


6 





1 16 


6 


6 





2 2 





1 1 





12 9 


6 


1 15 





3 3 





£86 18 


_3 



XVI 

Sundries — 

Geo. Nicholson, for general printing 

A. Reid & Co., Ltd., for sundries 

Postage, carriage of parcels, and cab hire 

W. W. Woodman, payment for Aesica camp ... 

H. Simpson, printing 

Northumberland Excavation Fund 

Fire insurance premium on the * Brooks Collection ' 

Cheque book 

Refunding 2 years' subscription overpaid 
Subscription to National Trust Society 

Secretary's out of pocket expenses 

Treasurer's do. do. 

Index to Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xxiii. 



The following is the 

curators' report. 

The Museum has received acquisitions during the year 1901 from 
sixteen donors, a number contrasting satisfactorily with the accessions 
received in the previous year. 

Details of the presentations are appended and the list may be thus 
summarised. Stone implements are represented by two objects from 
Denmark, and bronze by a dagger from the river Blyth. There are 
some small objects in pottery of Greek and Roman fabrication and a 
specimen of a Roman bonding tile. Two casts of the Darlington 
sundials are referable to Anglian times and a stone corbel is attri- 
buted to the fourteenth century, whilst some altar cloth embroidery 
belongs to late sixteenth or early seventeenth century workmanship. 
The carved stone shield from a fireplace lintel bears the date 1696, 
and a curiously wrought locker or ' treasure chest ' may belong to the 
same or to a later century. A small collection of encaustic tiles 
exhibits design of a Moresque character, dated 1609. The most 
ponderous item is of uncertain date and origin : it is a stone coffin 
having its outside rough hewn as it left the quarry, and, although un- 
finished and apparently unused for interment, it has been utilised as a 
water trough up to a recent period. A double-ended cheese press, 
with levers and weights complete, is a relic of a bygone northern 
industry. Four old English ale bottles are the last of the contents of 



XVll 

an ancient cellar. The alms-box of the imprisoned debtors, with its 
appeal to the charity of the passer-by, and the tablet from Lambert's 
Leap may be classed with subjects which have become old and serve 
to connect the past with the present. The name of Grace Darling is 
connected with a collection of her personal relics. Lastly we have a 
product of our own times : it is a painted glass panel with an early 
portrait of Queen Victoria. 

DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 
1901. 
Jan. 30. Prom Mr. Sopwith :— The Debtors' Alms-box from Newgate Prison, 
Newcastle. It is of strong rough construction, measuring 8| 
inches long, 7 inches wide, and 6 J inches deep, with a slot for coins 
in the lid, on which is painted the appeal, ' Please remembet the 
poor debtors ' {Proceedings^ vol. x. p. 2). 
„ „ From the Newcastle and (Jateshead Water Co., per their Chairman, 
Mr. L. W. Adamson, LL.D. :— 

(i.) A stone corbel 10 inches deep, 8 inches wide, having a 
projection of 7 inches from the wall, carved with a crowned 
head, and probably of early fourteenth century date. 
It was found in an excavation in front of the Royal Arcade, 
PUgrim Street {Proceedings^ x. p. 3, plate 1, fig. 1). 
See p. xxi. 
(ii.) An oak spade 32 inches long, with a blade measuring 8 
inches long by (> J inches wide, blade and shaft being formed 
of a single piece of wood. Found in Neville Street. This 
and the foregoing were discovered in making excavations 
for new water mains (ibid). 
From Miss Hoyle, 29, Leazes Terrace, Newcastle :— An iron-bound box. The 
lid is plated with decorated iron straps, between which is laid sheet- 
iron, cut out in scroll-work patterns. The ends and sides are covered 
with plain interlaced flat bands. There is a heavy wrought iron 
handle on the front which is hinged upon an ornamented plate 
carrying eye loops, and the lid is secured by a drop staple covering 
the keyhole. The lid is hinged at about three quarters of its depth 
and again hinged at the back edge of the box, so that when the first 
part of the lid is lifted an outer compartment is disclosed ; a 
second and back division of the box is only reached by lifting both 
pairs of hinges, as the box tapers rapidly from front to back either 
, to fit a window splay or, as has been suggested, the tapering 
quarter of a ship (Proceedings, vol. x. p. 5, plate la), 
Toi.. xxrv. ^ 



XVUl 

From Mrs. J. H. Little, 28, Leazes Park Koad, Newcastle :— Four old ale 
bottles, of eighteenth century date, found on the west side of 
Gallowgate, in the rear of houses near Corporation Road. One 
bottle measures 9 inches high by 4 inches at the base ; the rest 7} 
inches high by 6 inches diameter at bases. One of the bottles still 
contains some of the ale with which all were filled at the time of 
their discovery {Froc, x. p. 3, and Plate, 1, fig. 2). 

From Mr. Stephen Coulson, Leschow, Carlton in Cleveland : — A cheese press, 
long used in farm practice, with tubs, levers, chains, weights of 
stone, etc., complete (^Froc, x. p. 3.) 

Mar. 27. From the Mayor and Corporation of Newcastle, per Mr. W. G. Laws, 
City Engineer : — Stone from the parapet wall of the Old Sandyford 
Bridge, inscribed * Lambert's Leap, 1769.* The circumstance com- 
memorated is thus recorded by Brand : * Sept. 29th, 1759, mention 
occurs of Mr. Cuthbert Lambert, son of a physician of Newcastle, 
who had a most narrow and providential escape in surviving a fall 
of thirty -six feet perpendicular, his mare having taken fright with 
him and leapt over the eastern battlement of the bridge at Sandy- 
Ford-Stone : " Lambert's Leap " is cut upon the coping stone of the 
battlement,' Newca^ftle Courant, quoted by Brand, Hutory of 
Newcastle, vol. ii. p. 538« iProceedings, x. p. 32). 

From Mr. Alexandeb Pbingle, Cramer Dykes :— A carved fragment taken 
. from the centre of a fireplace lintel. The original stone 
measured about 10 feet long by 25 inches broad. The middle portion 
now presented bears a shield terminating in a floriated base. In 
the centre is sculptured a goat's head between the letters R and S. 
Above it is the date 1596 and in the base is the head of a halberd. 
The lintel was found in removing an old house at the north angle of 
the street at the junction of High Bridge and the Bigg Market 
iProc,, X. pp. 12 and 32) 

From the Directors of the North Eastern Railway Co., per Mr. Georue 
Irving : — ^A glass panel from the inner door of house No. 11 Pleasant 
Row, Shieldfield, Newcastle. The panel is of stained glass, dated 1860. 
An oval centre contains a portrait of Queen Victoria. The door 
was removed during the demolition (A the street by the Railway Co. 
The house from which it was taken was occupied by William 
Armstrong, father of the late Lord Armstrong, who was bom here 
{Proc, X. p. 32). 

April 24. From the late Dr. Trotter of Blyth :— An ancient British bronze 
dagger 12J inches long, with rivet holes at the handled end, where 
its greatest width is 2 inches. It was dredged from the bed of the 
river Blyth {Proc. x. pp. 36, 37). 



XIX 

June 5. From Mrs. B. Swablby Thobpe :— 

(i.) Spanish glazed tiles from a rained monastery at Angustinia, 
Seville. The designs are of a Moresque character, and one 
tile bears the date 1609. 
(ii.) Greek and Roman pottery collected by the late Mr. Swarley 
Thorpe, viz. : two lamps, two small vases with black 
pattern on reddish ground, a dish with handle, a vase with 
handle and smaller handles on either side ; tesserae and 
fragments. 

From Mrs. Mandel Cbbighton, widow of the late Bishop of London :— Portion 
of an altar table cover in tapestry embroidered, from Embleton 
Church, Northumberland. The portion in its present condition has 
been made up by sewing together strips of the embroidery which 
formed a border to the centre, and it now measures 5 feet 6 inches 
long by 25 inches wide. Conjecturally it is late sixteenth or early 
seventeenth century work {Proc, x. pp. 42, 43). 

July 31. From Mr. R. Coltman Clbphan, F.S.A. -.—Leaf -shaped and chisel- 
faced flint implements from Denmark QProc, x. p. 74). 

Sept. 25. From Dr. Fbederio Page : — ^A Roman bonding tile, measuring 10 J 
inches by 7i inches ; from bonding course in the flint walls of the 
Camp at Caistor QPi'oc, x. p. 118). 

From Messrs. J. and W. Lowby:— A massive stone coffin, found on the site of 
the Close Gate Glass Works, in excavating the foundations for the 
new Electric Power House. The coffin, which had been left 
unfinished, had been utilized for a cooling trough by glassmakers in 
later times (iVdc, x. pp. 118 and 119). 

Oct. 30. From the Rev. J. Lane Hopkin and Mr. Daniel Hopkin, Executors 
of the late Mr. D. Hopkin Atkinson ; — Waterproof cloak and silk 
scarf worn by Grace Darling ; some of ber hair ; portraits of her 
father and of her mother ; a book containing some of her letters ; 
letters containing references to her ; her father's log kept at the 
Longstone lighthouse ; photograph of tomb in Hamburgh Churchyard 
(Proc, vol. X. p. 134). 

Nov. 27. From J. P. Pbitchett, Darlington :— Casts of the upper and under 
surfaces of a stone which had been built in as a sill in the aumbry 
in the north transept of Darlington church. On each face the lines 
of sundials are traced, in which the gnomon is placed vertically in 
the centre of concentric circles with radial lines dividing them into 
eight parts (Proc, x. p. 144 ; see reproduction from a photograph, 
by Mr. P. Brewis, on p. 68). 



XX 



THE COUNCIL AND OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR MDCCCCII. 



patron and president 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K.G. 

IDfce-presf&ents^ 

HORATIO ALFRED ADAMSON. 

CADWALLADER JOHN BATES. 

ROBERT RICHARDSON DBBS. 

JOHN VESSEL GREGORY. 

THE REV. WILLIAM GREBNWBLL, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Ac. 

THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L., F.8.A., &C. 

CHARLES JAMES SPENCB. 

RICHARD WELFORD. 

THOMAS TAYLOR, F.S.A. 

LAWRENCE WILLIAM ADAMSON, LL.D. 

FREDERICK WALTER DENDY. 

ROBERT COLTMAN CLBPHAN, F.S.A. 

Secretaries* 

ROBERT BLAIR, F.S.A. 

RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP, F.S.A. 

Zvcnewvcv. 

ROBERT SINCLAIR NISBET. 

BMtor. 

ROBERT BLAIR. 

Xfbrarfan* 

JOSEPH OSWALD. 

Curators* 

CHARLES JAMES SPENCE. 
RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP. 

Hu&itors. 

JOHN MARTIN WINTER. 
HERBERT MAXWELL WOOD. 

CounciU 

REV. CUTHBERT EDWARD ADAMSON. 

REV. JOHNSON BAILY. 

REV. DOUGLAS HENRY BOUTFLOWBR. 

PARKER BREWIS. 

SIDNEY STORY CARR. 

ROBERT COLTMAN CLEPHAN, F.S.A. 

JOHN PATTISON GIBSON. 

JOHN CRAWFORD HODGSON, F.S.A. 

GEORGE IRVING. 

W1I>LIAM HENRY KNOWLES, F.S.A. 

REV. HENRY EDWIN SAVAGE. 

WILLIAM WEAVER TOMLINSON. 

WALTER SHEWBLL CORDER. 



XXI 



MEMBERS OP THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWOASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

ON THE 1ST MARCH, 1902. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Dale of Election. 
1855 Jan. 3 

18S3 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1886 June 80 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1892 Jan. 27 

1892 May 25 
1896 Oct. 28 



J. J. Howard, LL.D., F.S.A., Mayfield, Orchard Road, Blackheath, 

Kent. 
Professor Mommsen, Marchstrasse 8, Charlottenbnrg bei Berlin. 
Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 
Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 
Bllen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 
Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 
Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.S.A., Nash Mills, Hemel 

Hempstead. 
Professor Karl Zangemeister, Heidelberg. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confrferie 5, Ghent, Belgium. 




CORBEL FROM PILGRIM STREET, NEWCASTLE. 

(See p. xvii.) 



XXU THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 
ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



The signs * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, and 
t that the member is one of the CJouncil. 



Date of Election 
1885 Mar. 25 

1883 Aug. 29 

1873 July 

1892 Aug. 31 
1885 Oct. 28 

1885 June 24 

1886 Jan. 27 

1898 Mar. 30 

1893 Sept. 27 

1899 Oct. 25 

1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 
1897 Nov. 24 
1896 July 29 
1882 

1893 Feb. 22 

1894 July 25 
1892 April 27 

1900 May 30 

1874 Jan. 7 
1892 Mar. 30 

1896 Dec. 23 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 June 29 

1897 July 28 
1883 Dec. 27 

1898 July 27 
1883 Dec. 27 
1883 June 27 
1892 May 25 

1899 Aug. 30 
18S8 Sept. 26 
1894 Feb. 28 
1898 Mar. 30 
1892 Aug. 31 



Adams, William Edwin, 3 Manor House Road, Newcastle. 
fAdamson, Rev. Cuthbert Edward, Westoe, South Shields. 
fAdamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
fAdamson, Lawrence William, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle. 

Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road, Gateshead. 

Al]good, Miss Anne Jane, Hermitage, Hexham. 

Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 

Allison, Thomas M., M.D., 22 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 

Armstrong, Miss Mary, The Elms, Gosfortb, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, William Irving, South Park, Hexham. 

Arnison, William Drewitt, M.D., 2 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
fBaily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton. 
fBates Cadwallader John, Langley Castle, Northumberland. 

Baumgartner, John Richard, 10 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Bell, W. Howard, Seend, Melksham, Wiltshire. 

Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon, near Sunderland. 

Blair, Charles Henry, 32 Hawthorn Road, Qosforth, Newcastle. 
fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

Blenkinsopp, Thomas^ 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 

Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Butler Hospital for the Insane, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.8.O., Northumberland. 

Boot, Rev. Alfred, St. George's Vicarage, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Bosanquet, Robert Carr, The British School at Athens. 
fBoutflower, Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 

Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, John Bosworth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, Richard, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Boyd, George Fenwick, Moor House, Leamside, Durham. 

Boyd, William, North House, Long Benton. 

Bramble, William, New Ben well, Newcastle. 
tBrewis, Parker, 32 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (Ist March, 1902.) 



XX111 



Date of Election. 

1896 July 29 

1897 Nov. 24 

1892 Feb. 24 
1891 Dec. 23 

1893 June 28 
1884 Sept. 24 

1891 Sept. 30 

1889 April 24 

1888 Nov. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 

1897 Jan. 27 
1887 Nov. 30 

1885 April 29 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 July 27 
1882 

1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Feb. 27 
1901 Feb. 27 
1901 July 31 

1894 Jan. 31 

1887 Oct. 26 

1885 Nov. 25 

1892 Feb. 24 

1885 May 27 

1895 Nov. 27 

1898 Aug. 27 
1883 Dec. 27 

1893 July 26 

1892 Aug. 31 

1886 Sept. 29 

1893 July 26 
1898 Feb. 23 
1892 Oct! 26 
1898 Nov. 30 

1896 Feb. 26 

1897 Dec. 16 

1889 Aug. 28 

1888 Mar. 28 
1844 aboat 

1887 Aug. 31 



Brock- Hollinshead, Mrs., 30 Montpellier Villas, Cheltenham. 

Brooks, Miss Ellen, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Brown, George T., 61 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 

Brown, The Rev. William, Old Blvet, Durham. 

Browne, Thomas Procter, Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Bruce, The Hon. Mr. JusticCj Yewhurst, Bromley, Kent. 

Burman, 0. Clark, L.R.C.P.S. Ed., 12 Bondgate Without, 
Alnwick. 

Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Coxhoe, Durham. 

Burton, William Spelman, 2 Elmfield Villas, Elmfield Road, Gosforth. 

Burton, S. B., Jesmond House, Highworth, Wilts. 

Butler, George Grey, Ewart Park, Wooler. 

Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 

Carr, Frederick Ralph, Lympston, near Exeter. 
tCarr, Sidney Story, 14 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Carr, Rev. T. W., Long Rede, Barming, Maidstone, Kent. 

Carr-EUison, H. G., Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 

Carr-EUison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Carrick, Frederick, 1 Sedgewick Place, Gateshead. 

Carrick, Thomas, The Nook, Haydon Bridge. 

Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 

Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Charleton, William L., Muskham Grange, Muskham, Notts. 

Charlton, Oswin J., LL.B., 1 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

C*hetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 

Clapham, William, Park Villa, Darlington. 

Clayton, Mrs. N. G., Cheaters, Humshaugh. 
fClephan, Robert Coltman, Marine House, Tynemouth. 

Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 

Corder, Herbert, 10 Kensington Terrace, Sunderland. 

Corder, Percy, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
fCorder, Walter Shewell, 4 Rosella Place, North Shields. 

Crawhall, Rev. T. E., Vicarage, North Shields. 

Cresswell, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W. 

Cresswell, Lionel, Woodhall, Calverley, Yorks. 

Cruddas, W. D., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 

Culley, Francis John, 5 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 

CuUey, The Rev. Matthew, Esh, co. Durham. 

Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 
fDees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
fDendy Frederick Walter, Eldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 



Xxiv THE 80CIBTT OF ANTIQUABIB8 OP KBWCABTLB-UPON-TYNE. 



Dftte of Eleotion. 

1884 Mar. 26 Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

1893 Mar. 9 Dickinson, William Bowstead, Healey Hall, Biding MUl. 

1883 June 27 Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead. 

1884 July 2 Dixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 
1898 Aug. 27 Dodds, Edwin, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
1884 July 30 Dotcbin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

1900 Jan. »1 Dowson, John, Morpeth. 

1897 May 26 Drummond, Dr., Wyvestow House, South Shields. 

1891 Aug. 31 Durham Cathedral Library. 

1888 Oct. 31 Bmley, Fred., Ravenshill. Durham Road, Gateshead. 

1886 Aug. 28 Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Blackbill. 

1901 Feb. 27 Fenwick,Featherston, County Chambers.Westgate Road, Newcastle. 
1866 Aug. 2 Fenwick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 

1900 Oct. 31 Fenwick, Miss Mary, Lingy Acre, Portinscale, Cumberland. 

1894 Nov. 28 Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
1894 May 30 Forster, Fred. E., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

1887 Dec. 28 Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

1894 Oct. 31 Forster, Robert Henry, Artillery Mansions, 76 Victoria Street, 
London S.W. 

1894 Oct. 31 Forster, Thomas Emmerson, 3 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

1895 Jan. 30 Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle. 

1892 April 27 Francis, William, 20 Colling wood Street, Newcastle. 
1859 Dec. 7 Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 

1883 Oct. 31 t^ibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 

1879 Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

1901 July 31 Gjemre,E. W., Femdene, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
1878 Glendinning, William, 4 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
1886 June 30 Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 
1886 Oct. 27 Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
1895 Sept. 25 €k)ugh. Rev. Edward John, D,D,, Vicar and Canon of 

Newcastle. 
1894 Aug. 29 Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 
1886 Aug. 28 Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 
1883 Feb. 28 Green, Robert Yeoman, 11 Lovaine Crescent, Newcastle. 
1891 Oct. 28 Greene, Charles R., North Seaton Hall, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. 
1845 June 3 fOreenwell, Rev. William, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A. Scot., 

Durham. 
1883 Feb. 28 Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester. 
1877 Dec. 6 fGregory, John Vessey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
1891 Jan. 28 Haggle, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

1893 Mar. 8 Hall, Edmund James, Dilston Castle, Corbridge. 
1883 Aug. 29 Hall, James, Tynemouth. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1902.) 



XXV 





1887 Mar. 


30 


1884 Mar. 


26 


1898 Aug. 


30 


1898 July 


29 


1889 Feb. 


27 


1901 Mar. 


27 


18»4 May 


30 


1886 April 


28 


1901 Nov. 


27 


1902 Jan. 


29 


1883 Feb. 


28 


1883 Feb. 


28 


1888 April 


25 


1882 




1865 Aug. 


2 


1895 Jan. 


30 


1899 June 28 


1890 Jan. 


29 


1884 April 


80 


1901 Nov. 


27 


1898 Aug. 


27 


1887 Jan. 


26 


1900 July 


25 


1895 July 


31 


1895 Dec. 


18 


1891 Oct. 


28 


1901 Oct. 


30 


1892 June 29 


187C 




1896 April 


129 


1896 July 


29 


1888 July 


26 


1894 May 


30 


1897 Dec. 


15 


1886 May 


26 


1900 Jan. 


31 


1882 




1883 Aug. 


29 


1888 Feb. 


28 


1899 June 28 



Halllday, Thomas, Myrtle Cottage, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 

Haswell, F. B. N., Monkseaton, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
♦Haverfield, F. J., P.S.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

Heatley, William Robertson, 4 Linden Villas, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Edward Armorer, Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Corbridge. 

Henderson, William Frederick, Moorfield, Newcastle. 

Henzell, Charles William, Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
•fHeslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Princes Buildings, Akenside Hill. 
Newcastle. 

Hicks, William Searle, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 

Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 
tHodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., F.S.A., Barmoor Castle, Northumber- 
land. 

Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bank, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, George Bryan, 41 Trajan Avenue, South Shields. 
fHodgson, John Crawford, F.S.A., Abbey Cottage, Alnwick. 

Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, M. N., 11 Myrtle Crescent, South Shields. 

Hodgson, T. Hesketh, Newby Grange, Carlisle. 

Hodgson, William, Westholme, Darlington. 

Hodgson, William George le FJ ming Lowther, Dee View, Trevor, 
Llangollen, N. Wales. 

Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 

Holdsworth, David Arundell, 2 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Holmes, Ralph Sheriton, Haydon Bridge. 

Hopkins, C. W. Innes, the Tower, Ryton. 

Hopper, Charles, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Hoyle, William Aubone, The Croft, Ovingham. 

Hudson, Robert, Hotspur Street, Tynemouth, 

Hulbert, Rev. C. L,, Brathay Vicarage, Ambleside. 

Hunter, Edward, 8 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Hunter, Thomas, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Hutchinson, Edward, The Elms, Darlington, 
flrving, George, West Fell, Corbridge. 

Jobling, James, Morpeth. 

Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 

Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm, 

Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Motpeth. 

Keeney, Michael John, 9 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

d 



XXVI THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUARIES OP NEWOASTLE-UPON-TYNB, 



Dftte of Election. 

1900 Jaja. 81 
1884 Oct. 29 

1901 Feb. 27 
1899 Feb. 22 

1896 Dec. 23 

1897 July 28 
1901 Sept. 26 
1894 Sept. 26 
1899 Nov. 29 
1897' Jan. 27 

1886 April 29 

1887 June 29 
1899 July 26 

1896 Nov. 26 
1901 Aug. 28 
1885 Nov. 6 

1888 June 27 
1877 
1899 Mar. 29 
1884 Mar. 26 
1891 May 27 

1899 Aug. 30 
1896 Sept. 26 
1884 Mar. 26 
1882 

1893 Oct. 25 

1900 Jan. 31 
1891 Mar. 25 

1899 June 28 
1888 Sept. 26 
1891 Jan. 28 

1898 Mar. 30 
1891 Aug. 26 
1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Mar. 28 

1900 Aug. 29 
1883 May 30 
1883 Oct. 13 
1886 Dec. 29 
1896 Oct. 27 
1883 June 28 



Kitchin, The Very Rev. G. W., Dean of Durham. 
fKnowles, William Henry, F.S.A., 37 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Kyle, Robert, 11 Prudhoe Street, Alnwick. 
Lamb, Miss Elizabeth, Newton Cottage, Chathill. 
Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

Laws, Dr. Cuthbert Umfreville, 1 St. George's Terrace, Newcastle. 
Laws, John W., Brandling Street, Gateshead. 
Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 
Leeson, Richard John, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Lightfoot, Miss, 6 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 
Lockhart, Henry F., Hexham. 
London Library, c/o Williams & Norgate, Henrietta Street, Covent 

Garden, London. 
Longstaff, Dr. Geo. Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S.W. 
Lowe, Rev. Joseph, Vicar of Haltwhistle. 
Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 
Macarthy, George Eugene, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
McDowell, Dr. T. W., Bast Cottingwood, Morpeth. 
Macaulay, Donald, Olive Cottage, Alnwick. 
Mackey* Matthew, Jun., 36, Highbury, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Manchester Reference Library (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 
Markham, R. M., 9 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 
Marshall, Frank, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Martin, N. H., Bavenswood, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Mather, Philip E., Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Matheson, Thomas, Morpeth. 
Maudlen, William, Dacre House, North Shields. 
May, George, Simonside Hall, near South Shields. 
Mayo, William Swatling, Riding Mill, Northumberland. 
Melbourne Free Library, c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 

12 Ludgate Square, London, E.C. 
Milbum, J. D., Guyzance, Acklington. 
Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
Mitchell, Charles William, LL.D., Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 
Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 
Morrison, Rev. William Wilson, Greatham Vicarage, Stockton. 
Morrow, T. R., The Cave, Fulford, York. 
Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 
Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Neilson, Edward, Avondale, Corbridge. 
Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 



LIST OF HBMBEBS. (1st March, 1902.) 



XXVll 



Date or BledioiL 
1900 Mar 30 
1896 April 29 
1884 July 2 
1898 May 25 



1883 Jan. 31 

1899 Oct 26 

1900 Feb. 28 

1896 May 27 
1885 May 27 

1893 Feb. 22 
1892 Nov. 30 

1901 Feb. 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1898 Jane 28 

1898 Jnne 28 
1901 Jane 5 
1901 Oct. 30 
1889 Ang. 28 

1894 Dec. 
1901 Jan. 

1899 Oct 
1889 Aug. 28 
1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Dec. 
1898 Nov. 
1898 Jan. 26 
1891 Feb. 18 
1884 Sept 24 

1880 

1888 Jan« 25 

1898 Feb. 28 

1901 Jan. 30 

1880 

1896 Mar. 25 

1882 

1900 AprU 25 

1887 Aug. 81 
1883 Jane 27 

1888 May 30 



19 
30 
25 



30 
30 



Newbigin, Edward Bichmond, 2 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 

Newcastle Public Library. 

New York Library, c/o Mr. B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar Square 
London, W.C. 

Nicholson, George, Barrington Street, South Shields. 

Nicholson, Joseph Cook, 7 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Nightingale, George, Whitley, B.S.O., Northumberland. 
INisbet, Bobert Sinclair, 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northboume, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 
fNorthumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

Ogilvie, Frank Stanley, Bosella House, North Shields. 

Ogle, Capt. Sir Henry A., bt., B.N., United Service Club, Pall 

Mall, London. 
*Ogle, Bertram Savile, Mill House, Steeple Aston, Ozon. 

Ogle, Newton, 59 Green Street, Grosvenor Square, London. 

Oliver, Arthur M., West Jesmond Villa, Newcastle. 

Oliver, Bobert Charles, Bowmen Bank, Morpeth. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
fOswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Page, Frederick, M.D., 1 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Palmer, Bev. Thomas Francis, 2 Cousin Street, Sunderland. 

Park, A. D., 11 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John S., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 

Patterson, Thomas, 165 Stratford Boad, Newcastle. 

Peacock, Beginald, 47 West Sunniside, Sunderland. 

Pease, Howard, Bank, Newcastle. 

Phillips, Maberly, F.S.A., Pevensey, BycuUah Park, Enfield, 
London. 

Philipson, Sir George Hare, M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., Prior's Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Porteus, Thomas, 9 Sefton Boad, Birmingham. 

Pritchett, James Pigott, High Bow, Darlington. 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Bev. George, Grange Bectory, Jarrow. 

Pybus, Bobert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Badford, H. G., Stonehill, East Sheen. 

Bavensworth, The Earl of, Bavensworth Castle, Gateshead. 

Beavell, George, jun., Alnwick. 

Bedpath, Bobert, 5 Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 

Beed, The Bev. George, Killingworth, Newcastle. 



XXViii THE -SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



Date of Election. 
1894 Feb. 28 

1897 April 28 
1883 Sept. 26 
1891 April 29 
1894 May 30 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Jan. 31 

1891 July 29 

1895 July 31 

1898 Jan. 26 

1892 Mar. 30 
1889 July 31 

1900 Aug. 29 
1877 

1901 June 5 

1883 Jan. 31 
1900 Aug. 29 

1884 July 30 

1900 Mar. 28 
1882 

1894 Mar. 25 
1877 

1901 Jan. 30 

1893 April 26 

1892 Sept. 28 

1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 

1888 July 25 

1898 April 27 

1900 Feb. 28 

1899 Nov. 29 

1893 Nov. 29 

1901 Oct. 30 
1891 Sept. 30 
1886 Feb, 24 
1888 June 27 

1888 Oct. 31 

1895 May 29 

1889 May 29 
1901 Aug. 28 



Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 
Reid, C. Leopold, Wardle Terrace, Newcastle. 
Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 
Reynolds, Charles H., Millbrook, Walker. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Elwick Hall, Castle Bden, R.S.O. 
Rich, F. W., Bldon Square, Newcastle. 
Richardson, Miss Alice M., HoUinwood, Torquay. 
Richardson, Frank, Clifton Cottage, Clifton Road, Newcastle. 
Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thornholme, Sunderland. 
Richardson, William, Field Head, Willington, Northumberland. 
Riddell, Edward Francis, Cheesebum Grange, near Newcastle. 
Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 
Ridley, J. T., Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Ridley, The Right Hon. Viscount, Blagdon, Northumberland. 
Ridley, Thomas W., Willimoteswick, Coatham, Redcar. 
Robinson, Alfred J., 55 Fern Avenue, Newcastle. 
Robinson, Rev. F. G. J., Rector of Castle Eden, R.S.O. 
Robinson, John, Delaval House, 3 Broxbourne Terrace, Sunderland. 
Robinson, John David, Beaconsfield, Coatsworth Road, Gateshead. 
Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 
Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 
Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., 17 Pulteney Street, Bath. 
Rudd, Alfred George, Ivy Croft, Stockton. 

Runciman, Walter, jun., West Denton Hall, Scotswood, North- 
umberland. 
Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Ayre's Terrace, South Preston, North 

Shields. 
Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 
Ryott, William Hall, 7 CoUingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Sanderson, Richard Burden, Warren House, Belford. 
Sanderson, William John, Heathdale, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Sanderson, Williaili John, jun., Heathdale, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Savage, Rev. E. Sidney, Rectory, Hexham. 
•fSavage, Rev, H. E., Hon. Cancn of Durham and Vicar of St. Hild's, 
South Shields. 
Schofield, Frederick Blsdon, The Retreat, Morpeth. 
Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle, 
Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 
Simpson, J. B., Bradley Hall, Wylam. 
Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields. 
Sisson, Richard William, 13 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Sisterson, Edward, Woodleyfield, Hexham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1902.) 



XXIX 



Date of Election. 


1892 Oct. 


26 


1898 Mar. 


30 


1891 Nov. 


18 


1893 Mar. 


29 


1883 Jnne 27 1 


1901 Jan. 


30 


1866 Jan. 


8 


1883 Dec. 


27 


1882 




1891 Jan. 


28 


1883 Dec. 


27 


1882 




1887 Mar. 


30 


1880 




1897 Jan. 


27 


1879 




1866 Dec. 


5 


1900 Aug. 


29 


1895 Feb. 


27 


1892 April 


27 


1896 Nov. 


25 


1888 Aug. 


29 


1899 June 28 


1898 Dec. 


21 


1892 June 29 


1902 Feb. 


26 


1891 Jan. 


28 


1888 Oct. 


31 


1888 Nov. 


28 


1894 Mar. 


28 


1897 April 28 


1897 Mar. 


31 


1900 Oct. 


31 


1900 May 


25 


1889 Oct. 


30 


1896 July 


29 


1894 May 


30 


1901 Jan. 


30 



Skelly, Greorge, Alnwick. 
Smith, George, Brinkburn, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Smith, William, Gnnnerton, Barrasford. 
Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street, South Shields. 
South Shields Public Library. 
Spain, George R. B., Victoria Square, Newcastle. 
^fSpence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 
Spencer, J. W., Newbiggin House, Kenton, Newcastle. 
Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 
Steel, The Rev. James, D.D,, Vicarage, Heworth. 
Steel, Thomas, 51 John Street, Sunderland. 
Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 
Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 
Strangeways, William Nicholas, Lismore, 17 Queen's Avenue, 

Muswell Hill, London, N. 
Sunderland Public Library. 
Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Swinburne, Sir John, bart., Capheaton, Northumberland. 
Tate, William Thomas, Hill House, Greatham. 
Taylor,» Rev. B. J., F.S.A., St. Cuthbert's, Durham. 
fTaylor, Thomas, F.S.A., Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 
Temperley, Henry, LL.B., Lambton Road, Brandling Park, New- 
castle. 
Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 
Thompson, Mrs. George, HoUyhirst, Winlaton, co. Durham. 
Thompson, John, Cradock House, Cradock Street, Bishop Auckland. 
Thomson, James, jun., 22 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 
Thorbnm, H. W., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auckland. 
Thome, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Todd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

tTomlinson, William Weaver, Lille Villa, The Avenue, Monkseaton. 
Toovey, Alfred F„ Ovington Cottage, Prudhoe. 
Toronto Public Library, c/o C. B. Cazenove & Sons, Agents, 

26 Henrietta Street, Oovent Garden, London, W.C. 
Towusend, Brian, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
♦Trinity College Library, Dublin. 
Tumbull William, Whin Bank, Rothbury. 
Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepool. 
Ventress,* John, Wharncliffe Street, Newcastle. 
Vincent, William, 18 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 
Waddilove, George, Brunton, Wall, North Tyne. 
1884 Feb. 27 1 Waddington, Thomas, EsUngton Villa, Gateshead. 



1 BlMted orisinftlly Jan. 31, 1876. resigned 1887. 



a Elected originally Aug. 6, 1866. 



XXX THB SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NBWCA8TLE-UP0K-TYKB. 



Date of Election. 

1891 Mar. 25 
1896 Nov. 25 
1896 Oct. 28 
1889 Mar. 27 

1892 Oct. 26 
1887 Jan. 26 

1895 May 29 
1879 Mar. 26 
J 889 Nov, 27 
1898 Oct. 26 
1902 Jan. 29 
188G Jane 30 

1893 Aug. 80 

1896 May 27 
1891 Aug. 26 

1897 Sept. 29 
1886 May 27 
1900 April 25 

1898 May 25 
1891 Sept. 30 
1900 Nov. 28 

1896 Feb. 26 

1898 Nov. 30 

1899 Nov. 29 
1898 April 27 

1897 Oct. 27 
1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Oct. 31 



Walker, The Rev. John, Whalton Rectory, Kcwcastle. 
Walker, John Dnguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Sq., London. 
Wat«on- Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 
Watson, Mrs. M. E., Bumopfield. 
Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
tWelford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Wheler, B. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 
White, R. 8., 121 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Whiting, Rev. B. C, St. James's Rectory, Gateshead. 
Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 
Wilkinson, William C, Dacre Street, Morpeth. 
Williams, Charles, Glencarn, Monkseaton. 
Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 
Willyaras, H. J., Bamdale Cottage, Alnwick. 
Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 
Wilson, J. A. E., Archbold Terrace, Newcastle. 
Wind]ey, Rev. H. C, St. Chad's, Bensham, Gateshead. 
Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Winter, Charles, 30 Brandling Park, Newcastle. 
Wood, Herbert Maxwell, 66 John Street, Sunderland. 
Wood, C. W., Beach Road, South Shields. 
Wood, William Henry, 38 Bldon Street, Newcastle. 
Wooler, Edward, Danesmoor, Darlington. 
Worsdell, Wilson, Gateshead. 

Wright, Joseph, jun.. Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 
Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., Tortola, Nairn, N.B. 




SOOKBUKN CHURCH IK 1826. 

(From an etching, by the Rev. James Baine of Durham, kindly lent by Mr. T. M. Fallow.) 



XXXI 



SOCIETIES WITH WHICH PUBLICATIONS ARE EXCHANGED. 

Antiquaries of London, The Society of, Burlington House, London 

Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of, Museum, Edinburgh. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The, 20 Hanover 

Square, London, W. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, The, 7 St. Stephen's Green, Dnblin. 
Royal Society of Ireland, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The. 
Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania, Norway. 
Aberdeen Ecclesiological Society, The, 42 Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, The. Museum, Berwick. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, The, c/o Secretary, The Rev. W. 

Basseley, Matson Rectoiy, Gloucester. 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, George Patrick and Rev. 

H. J. Dukinfield Astley), 16 Red Lion Square, London, W.C. 
Cambrian Antiquarian Society, The, c/o J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., 28 Great 

Ormond Street, London, W.C. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The, c/o Secretary, T. D. Atkinson, St. Mary's 

Passage, Cambridge. 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The 
Clifton Antiquarian Club, The, c/o Alfred E. Hudd, 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, 

Bristol. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, The, 

Tullie House, Carlisle. 
Derbyshire Archaeological Society, The, Market Place, Derby. 
Heidelberg Historical and Philosophical Society, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Huguenot Society, The, c/o Reg. S. Faber, Secretary, 90 Regent's Park Road, 

London, N.W. 
Kent Archaeological Society, Maidstone, Kent. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The, c/o R. D. RadcliflFe, M.A., Hon. 

Secretary, Old Swan, Liverpool. 
Literary and Scientific Society, Christiania, Norway. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The, London Institution, Fins- 
bury Circus, London. 
Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The (Verein fUr 

naasauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte), Wiesbaden, Germany. 
Numismatic Society of London, The (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head), 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 
Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the. Harvard University, U.S.A. 
Powys-land Club, The, c/o Secretary, T. Simpson Jones, M.A., Gungrog, Welsh- 
pool. 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Shrewsbury. 
Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, U.S.A. 
Soci^t^ d'Arch^logie de Bruxelles, rue Ravenstein 1 1, Bruzelles. 
Soci^ d'Arch^logie de Namur, Namur, Belgium. 



XXXll THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

Soci6t6 d'Bmulation d* Abbeville, France. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Castle, Taunton, 

Somersetshire. 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Ipswich. 
Surrey Archaeological Society, The, Castle Arch, Guildford. 
Sussex Archaeological Society, The, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 
Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, Jena, Germany. 
Trier Archaeological Society, The, Trier, Germany. 
Trier Stadtbibliothek (c/o Dr. Keuffer), Trier, Germany. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society, The, 10 Park Street, Leeds. 



The Proceedings of the Society are sent to the following : — 

Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London, W.C. 

W. J. Cripps, C.B., Cirencester. 

Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 

Robert Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 

The Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Witton-le-Wear, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 




OLD BOTTLES FROM GALLOWOATE, NEWCASTLE. 

(From photographs by Mr. Parker Brewis.) 



ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. 



I.-EXCAVATI0N8 ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL 
IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 

1. INTRODUCTION. 

BY THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L., F.S.A., ETC. 

No member of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Society of Antiquaries 
needs to be informed of the nature of the objects aimed at by the 
excavation of a Roman camp, but as this report may fall into the 
hands of some who are strangers* to the district, it seems desirable to 
preface the detailed account of our labours by some remarks of a 
general kind. 

The history of our island during its occupation by the Romans has 
been practically left unwritten by the pen, and if it is to be told at 
all, must be recovered for us by the labourer's spade. The Agricola of 
Tacitus and a very few pages in the Historia Augusta^ in Xiphilinus's 
abridgement of Dion Cassius, and in the history of Ammianus 
Marcellinus are all the materials that antiquity has left us where- 
with to construct the story of Roman Britain, a story which occupied 
four centuries in the original telling. This being so, we are compelled 
to supplement the paucity of our literary information by examining 
the vestiges of the handiwork of our conquerors which still remain 
under the soil of our country. That this work has been under- 
taken with a fair measure of success is evidenced by the proceedings 
of our various antiquarian societies, and by such works as General 
Roy's Military Antiquities of Britain and the late Mr. Roach Smith's 
Roman London and Collectanea' Antigua. 

In the north of England we are practically destitute of materials 
for the political history of our country in Roman times, the Muni- 
cipium and Colonia. having been entirely unknown in this region. But 
for the military history of the province, we have a magnificent, an 
almost unrivalled treasure-house of information in the Great Wall 
which stretches from the Tyne to the Solway, and the camps and guard- 
houses which stud its course. The admirable Memoir on the Rommt 

VOL. XXIV. 1 



2 EXCAVATIONS OX THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

Wally which was prepared more than forty years ago by Captain 
MacLauchlan at the expense of the fourth duke of Northumberland^ 
had the great advantage of being written by a man who was practi- 
cally acquainted with the problems of defensive warfare ; and an 
ideal excavation commission should perhaps always number among, 
its members such a military expert, as well as an architect, a practical 
mason, and a scholar well versed in the text of the Roman writers on 
strategy and fortification. Exactly such a combination we have not 
been able to procure for our present operations, but the want of it has 
been in great measure supplied by the services of explorers who have 
already had large experience of excavating work in other regions^ 
especially of Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, of the British Archaeological School 
at Athens, and Mr. Dickie, of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Whenever a Northumbrian antiquary accompanies a stranger wha 
is visiting one of our great Roman camps, he is sure to be asked what 
was the destination of the various buildings whose foundations are 
there visible. To such questions, if he has any regard for scientific- 
accuracy, he must often return an evasive answer. It is true that we 
can safely decide as to the object with which the ' guard-chambers,' 
one on each side of the great gateways, were built. So, too, if we find 
a large hall, the floor of which was covered with grains of com, we 
may safely assume that it was used as a grain warehouse ; and when 
we see certain rooms underlaid with the elaborate heating arrange- 
ment known as the hypocaust, we cannot be far wrong in supposing 
that these formed part of the officers' quarters. But much further 
than this we have not as yet been able to go. In order to speak 
with any certainty as to the uses of the various buildings which once 
existed on our Northumbrian moors, we must study what may be 
called the comparative anatomy of Roman camps. We must careftdly 
explore, not one, but, if possible, all of these strongholds. We must 
have every line of wall that we can trace carefully laid down on a 
scientifically prepared plan. Above all, we must be quick to observe 
the slightest traces of old destructions followed by subsequent 
rebuildings, since the determination of these successive strata of archi-^ 
tecture is at once the most perplexing and the most interesting of 
the various questions which will come before us. It is only by a 
careful induction from all these various particulars that we shall be 



INTRODUCTION. 8 

able with any certainty to reconstruct the history of our county in 
Soman times, to say during what periods it was at rest under imperial 
role, at what times the legions were driven far to southward and 
the Caledonians and the Maeatae trampled on the charred embers 
of Roman civilization. 

In some respects we are less fortunately situated than the explorers 
of earlier days, who, when at work in such a camp as Housesteads, 
which Stukeley called ' The Tadmor of Britain,' had only to scratch 
beneath the surface to find statues, cqins, and important dedicatory 
inscriptions. But though these are not now to be had in such 
numbers or on such easy terms as a hundred years ago, there are, 
doubtless, still some of them waiting to reward the excavator's toil ; 
and even without them, if we can by scientifically conducted excava- 
tions recover the plan of the camp, we shall have done as much for the 
•cause of archaeology as any of our predecessors. 

Happily in this matter we are by no means left to depend on 
conjecture alone. Two authors, Polybius and Hyginus, have left 
us very valuable and full information as to the castrametation of the 
Roman armies ; and though the camps which these authors describe, 
being only of a temporary kind, diflFered greatly from the castra 
itativa or permanent camps, among which ours in Northumberland 
must be reckoned, still there cannot be much doubt that a certain 
general analogy existed between the two classes, and that the permanent 
oamp, though a more substantial erection than the castra aestiva, and 
affording much more roomy quarters to its occupants, was constructed 
on certain broad lines of similarity thereto. 

The Roman camp described by Polybius was a square, each side 
of which measured 2,150 Roman feet. A wide intervallum, however, 
of 200 feet ran all round inside the ramparts of the camp. The 
space therefore actually available for the quartering of the soldiers 
and their officers (inclusive of the streets) was a square of 1,750 
Roman or about 1,690 English feet, which gives us a total superficies 
of about sixty-five acres. This space was meant to accommodate two 
legions and their proportion of allied troops, amounting to about 
18,000 infantry and 2,400 cavalry, in all 20,400 men, besides the 
horses of the cavalry. (See Marquardt's Romische Staatsverwaliungy 
p. 890.) 



4 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

Polybius, I need hardly say, was a contemporary of Scipio 
Africanos Aemilianos, the destroyer of Oarthage, and flourished in 
the middle of the second century before Christ {Hrca 208-121). 
Our next authority, Hyginus the surveyor (Hyginus Gromaticus), is 
believed to have lived in the reign of the Emperor Trajan (98-117 
A.D.),^ and he evidently describes a somewhat different state of 
things in the Roman army. 

The camp of Hyginus was 2,820 feet long by 1,620 broad.^ These 
measurements correspond to about 741 by 524 English yards, or 
about eighty of our acres. We must, however, make some 
abatement from these dimensions in order to allow for the fact that 
the camp of Hyginus, unlike that of Polybius (but like our own 
Northumbrian camps) had the comers rounded off; and also in 
order to allow for the via sagularisy a road thirty or forty Roman feet 
wide, which ran all round inside the boundary wall of the camp. It 
will thus be reduced to something less than seventy acres, as against 
the sixty-five acres of the Polybian camp. But then the camp of 
Hyginus was calculated to hold at least 40,000 men, instep of the 
20,400 of Polybius,^ and a much larger proportion of horses. From 
this comparison it is plain that the Roman soldier in the time of 
Trajan had far less space allotted to him than his predecessor in the 
time of the Scipios. Probably scholars are justified in concluding 
that this difference is partly due to the altered statm of the soldier, 
who, in the second century B.C., was still the citizen of a free 
republic, voting in the forum as well as mounting guard in the 
camp ; but in the first century A.D. was practically the paid servant 
of an autocratic master. 

It has seemed worth while thus to glance at the information which 
is afforded us as to the plan of both these camps, the Polybian and the 

^ It should be stated, however, that our authority for ascribing the book * de 
munitionibus castrorum ' to Hyginus is not unquestioned, and that while the 
majority of scholars assign to the author a date contemporaneous with Trajan, 
Lachmann will only admit that he is * earlier than Constantine,' and Marquardt 
(Did Edmische Staatsverwaltung , ii. 679) puts him in the beginning of the 
third century. But in any hypothesis he is a valuable witness for the period of 
the construction of the Boman Wall. 

* See note by Lange on Hyginus, p. 183. 

• General Roy makes the three legions of Hyginus, with their proportion of 
auxiliary troops, amount to 42,626 men. Marquardt (p. 584) makes the 
legionaries about 20,000 men and the auxUia 21,790. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

Hyginian ; but it will be at once obvious that it is only by analogy 
that they can throw any light on the precise problem presented to us 
by the camps in Northumberland. The Polybian camp of sixty-five 
aci-es for 20,000 men, the Hyginian camp of eighty acres for 
40,000 men : we can of course look for no precise correspondence 
between these edifices and such camps as those between Wallsend 
■and Solway, the largest of which (amboglanna) is not quite six acres 
in extent, and none of which was meant to accommodate more than 
1,000 men with their horses. But while it is therefore clear that we 
must not look for the precise measurements either of Polybius or 
Hyginus in our Northumbrian camps, we may derive some useful 
hints from them as to the general arrangement of the troops and the 
^tination of the chief buildings. 

And first we may consider to which form of camp our own 
structures most nearly correspond ; and here, as we might reasonably 
expect, the later Hyginian form is much more m h)idence than the 
Polybian. Like the camp of Hyginus, our camps have rounded 
oorners ; and the soldiers' quarters in all those, I believe, that have 
yet been examined, came up much closer to the bounding wall than 
they do in the camp of Polybius.* 

One great distinction between the Polybian and Hyginian camps 
is that in the former the allies are placed (as they were in order of 
battle) on each flank of the legionaries, while in the latter the 
l^onaries are quartered close under the boundary of the camp, and 
ihe aloe of the allies are ranged behind them. But as to this 
difference our camps will of course tell us nothing, as they were all 
occupied by auxiliary troops. 

The camp of Hyginus is oblong, the proportion of the length to 
the breadth being about 11 to 8 : that of Polybius is square. Most 
of our camps are oblong, but with varying degrees of elongation. 
Another difference between the two is that in the Polybian camp the 
Yia Qttintana (one of the two streets running from right to left of 
the camp) is nearest to the Porta Praetoria^ and the Via Principalis 
to the Porta Decumana. In the camp of Hyginus the position 

*The Intertallvm of the Polybian camp is two hundred feet wide; the 
<x>rre8ponding Via Sagularis of the Hyginian only thirty, or in some cases forty. 
Our camps generally show a space of thirty or forty feet between the soldiers' 
quarters and the limiting wall. 



« EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

18 reversed: the Via Principalis looks towards the Praetorian, the 
Via Quintana towards the Decnman Gate. 

The chief interest, however, of the excavation of a Roman camp 
will always attach to the buildings near its centre, which formed the 
headquarters of the general and his staff. Notwithstanding the well- 
worn quotation from The Antiquary^ * Praetorian here, Praetorian 
there, I mind the bigging o't,'^ all students of Roman encampments 
must give their best energies to the discovery of that most important 
•edifice, wherein was lodged the very brain of the whole marvellous 
organism. 

It was from the Praetorium as a central cell that all the rest of the 
<5amp was developed. As Polybius says : * The Roman method of 
laying out a camp is as follows. The place for the camp having been 
selected, the spot in it best calculated to give a view of the whole and 
most convenient for issuing orders is appropriated for the Praetorium 
(general's tent). Having placed a standard on the spot on which they 
intend to put the Praetorium, they measure off a square round the 
standard in such a way that each of the sides is one hundred feet from 
the standard, and the area of the square is four pleihra (forty thousand 
square feet).'^ Polybius then goes on to explain that in the camp 
prepared for the occupation of two legions, the twelve Tribunes 
(corresponding to our Colonels) had their tents pitched in a straight 
line between the Praetorium (and adjoining buildings) and the Via 
Principalis. 'The space behind the tents of the Tribunes is thus 
nsed. On one side of the square of the Praetorium is the Forum 
(market), on the other the office of the Quaestor (Paymaster-Greneral) 
and the supplies which he has charge of. Then, behind the last tent 

» From Scott's Antiquary, chapter iv. (Mr. Oldbuck speaks) : 

*Ye8, my dear friend, from this stance it is probable — nay, it is nearly 
certain — ^that Julius Agricola beheld what Mr. Beaumont has so admirably 
described ! From this very Praetorian ' 

A voice from behind interrupted his ecstatic description. * Praetorian here. 
Praetorian there, I mind the bigging o't.' 

Both at once turned round, Lovel with surprise, and Oldbuck with mingled 
surprise and indignation at so uncivil an interruption.* 

Edie Ochiltree, a professional beggar, who thus suddenly appears upon the 
scene, describes to the grieved antiquary how about twenty years ago he and 
some fellow beggars and * the mason lads that built the lang dyke that gaes down 
the loaning,' and two or tMree shepherds * built this bit thing that ye ca' the — 
the — Praetorian, and a' just for a bield [shelter] at auld Aiken Drum's bridal, and 
a bit blithe gae-down [frolic] we had in 't some sair rainy weather.' 

« vi. 27 (Shuckburgh's translation). 



utteoduction. 7 

of the Tribunes on either side, arranged at right angles to these 
tents, are the quarters of the cavahy, picked out of the Extraordinarii, 
as well as of some of these who are serving as volunteers from personal 
friendship to the Consuls {Equites Deleeti), All these are arranged 
parallel to the side aggers, facing the Quaestorium on the one side, the 



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CAMP OF POLYBIVS 

Forum on the other. And, generally speaking, it falls to the lot of 
these men not only to be near the Consul [or General] in the camp, 
but to be wholly employed about the persons of the Consul or the 
Quaestor on the march and on all other occasions.' In other words 
these are the officers of the general's staff. * Back to back with these 
again, facing the agger, are placed the infantry, who serve in the same 



8 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE BOMAN WALL : 

way as the cavalry {Pedites DdecHy A reference to the plan 
on the preceding page will at once make this arrangement clear. 

If we now turn to the Hyginian camp we find a considerable 
unlikeness to the Polybian as to the arrangements for the general and 
his staff. In the first place, the Praetorium, instead of being a square 
whose sides were 200 feet long, was an oblong, 720 feet long, with a- 
varying breadth of 160 to 220 feet, according to the number of 
legions contained in the camp. Even with the narrowest dimensions 
it would contain 115,200 square feet (Roman) as against the 40,000* 
of the Polybian Praetorium. We see, therefore, that if the common 
soldier's accommodation had deteriorated since the days of Polybius 
that of his oflBcers had improved. The troops in camp are only about 
twice the Polybian number, but the officers' quarters are nearly three 
times as roomy. 

It is to be remarked, however, that part of the space allotted to 
the Praetorium was probably devoted to public purposes. Hyginus 
nowhere expressly informs us where the Forum of the camp was 
situated, but he tells us that the altars were erected at that end of 
the Praetorium which abutted on the Via Principalis ; that close to 
them were in one set the Auguratorium^ the place at which the 
general took the auspices, and on the other the Tribunal, a kind of 
pulpit which the general ascended in order to declare the fortunate 
result of the auspices and harangue his soldiers before the battle. 
From these hints Lange, one of the latest editors of Hyginus, infers 
that the end of the Praetorium looking towards the Via Principalis 
was virtually a Forum, and he assigns to it conjecturally a space 
180 feet square. If this deduction be made the Praetorium proper 
is reduced to 82,800 square feet. It will be still, however, more than 
twice as large as the Praetorium of Polybius. 

Behind the Praetorium, on the other side of the Via Quintana lay 
the Quaestorium, or paymaster's office. The exact dimensions of this 
building are not given by Hyginus : only he tells us that it should be 
of a less width than the Praetorium.'^ In length it probably extended 

* Lange, from the measurements for the soldiers* quarters on each side of the 
Quaestorium, deduces the conclusion that its usual width was 160 feet. Roy, 
whose plan I have copied, does not extend the length of the Quaestorium to the 
rearward as far as the Via Sagularis. Lange deducts from the front part 
of the Quaestorium a quadrangle, 110 feet square, to serve as a second forum. 
However probable this may be, it does not seem to be vouched for by the 
text of Hyginus. 



INTEODUCTION. 



9 



from the Via Quintana to the Via Soffularis^ and thns its other 
end fronted the Porta Decumana. Here, Hyginus tells us, were kept 
any ambassadors or hostages from the enemy's camp, as well as the 
booty which had been captured. Obviously, the motive was to prevent 



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g}| Ti l E g r~o\ <4 ^ R I 1 ; | g | o 




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m iB CX I "Ol.t ^i A R I g fH 



=/ 



' •t.c'» 

CAMP OF HV^ai.N.VS 

hostile eyes from seeing what was going on at the front as well as to 
lessen the chances of recapture of provisions or of spoil. 

The whole eflfecfc of the Hyginian division was to give the general's 

VOL. XXIV. 2 



10 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE BOMAN WALL : 

quarters more importance than heretofore as compared with the rest 
of the camp. The camp was divided into three segments, of which 
the Fraetmtura was in front and the Retentura behind. The middle 
segment^ equal in size to the former and considerably larger than the 
latter, was entirely occupied by the Fraetarium and the Latera 
Fraetoriij the troops quartered in these ' wings of the Praetorium ' 
being all in the nature of body-guard to the occupant of the 
Praetorium, who of course in the expedition of a Trajan, a Hadrian, 
or a SeveruB would be the emperor himself. 

Thus, in the Hyginian camp the Praetorium was moved towards 
the centre of the camp and away from the Decuman Oate : and 
carrying the Via Principalis along with it, it effected that transposition 
between the Principalis and the Quintana which has been alluded to 
above. 

Having these details as to the arrangement of these two kinds of 
camps firmly fixed in our minds, we shall watch with interest to see 
to which of them the officers' quarters in our Northumbrian camps 
seem more closely to correspond. We have not yet, it seems to me, 
a sufficiently broad basis of induction upon which to rest any safe 
conclusion. We can almost always trace the outlines of a building, 
generally in the centre of the camp, which seems to represent the 
Praetorium, but it does not seem to be always in the same relative 
place nor always surrounded by the same kind of buildings. Judging 
from the plans already published, I should say that the shape of the 
Praetorium is generally Polybian and its position Hyginian, but, as I 
have said, it is too soon as yet to formulate a conclusion. Nor can 
we yet certainly identify any lines of wall as representing the Forum* 
or the Quaestorium. 

Thus it will be seen that we have some very interesting questions 
waiting for a solution at the hands of our sturdy Northumbrian 
labourers. All that is required is that they should be directed by 
skilful and scientific archaeologists, and that those who cannot them- 
selves either dig or superintend the diggers, but who are interested in 
the history of the Roman occupation of Britain, should contribute 
according to their ability to the funds of the excavators. Most forcibly 

^ Except perhaps at oilubkum. 



INTBODUCTION. 



11 



has professor Gardner pointed out (in reference to the antiquities 
of Oypms) that the British government, almost alone among the 

BREMEN I UM. 







governments of civilized states, refuses to recognize any obligation 
towards archaeology by the grant of a small pittance out of the vast 



12 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE BOMAN WALL : 

national store to assist the work of excavatioD.® * But as this is so, the 
obligation evaded by the state must be pressed on the attention of 
individual citizens. Let us hope that they will not imitate the 
meanness of their rulers. 

I append (on p. 11) a copy of the plan of the camp at bbembnium 
(High Rochester), one of the few which may be said to have been 
scientifically examined. This was done at the cost of the fourth duke 
of Northumberland, and the results are recorded by Dr. Bruce in the 
Proceedings of the Boyal Archaeological Institute^ Newcastle Meeting, 
1852. 

* * We are bound to stop a moment to make the reflection, however distastefnl 
it may be, that perhaps the only civilised government which would have tolerated 
such proceedings * [as the unmethodical, unscientific excavations by amateurs in 
Cyprus] ' is the English. All the other states of Europe are alive to the fact 
that the remains of antiquity are a valuable source of knowledge and culture, 
and require to be protected from cupidity. France, Germany, Italy, Bussia, 
Greece, pay annually large sums to promote systematic excavations, and to 
secure a worthy record of them. Italy, Greece, and now even Turkey, assert 
the right of the state to appropriate and preserve not merely ancient buildings, 
but all ancient works of art and records of history. England alone in her care 
for government and commerce takes insufficient care of historic remains : only 
the English proconsul cares nothing for these things Thus, while estab- 
lished institutions like the British and South Kensington museums are fairly well 
supported, any suggestion to give a grant to a new institution such as the British 
school of Athens, or a new cause such as that of excavation at home or abroad, 
is referred to the generosity of a public, out of which it seems impossible to 
•extract money for archaeological purposes, except on the smallest scale.' — Percy 
Gardner : New Chapters in Greek History ^ pp. 176-177. 




OBNTUaiAL STONS FBOM MUCKLBBANK WALL TUBRBT (866 p. 15). 



18 

2, MUCKLEBANK WALL TURRET. 

BY J. P. GIBSON. 

In the summer of 1891, while examining carefully the grass- 
covered line of debris that indicates the track of the Roman Wall 
aloDg the * Nine Nicks of Thirlwall,' my attention was attracted by a 
square joint between two stones in a hole scratched by a rabbit. 
Upon examination, it proved to be part of the ruins of a wall turret 
hitherto undescribed. 

Horsley says that in hia time wall turrets were more generally and 
entirely ruined than mile castles. His theory that there were four 
turrets between each mile castle received no confirmation whatever 
during the careful examination of the Wall made by the late Mr. 
Clayton in 1873, when the Black Carts turret was found. A little 
later another turret, very dilapidated, was discovered at Brunton, and 
partly rebuilt to about the height of five feet by Mr. Clayton's ordera^ 
Hodgson records the finding, in 1833, of a turret about three hundred 
yards west of amboglanna, which he says was destroyed in 1837. In 
the summer of 1883, the whinstone quarrymen at Greenhead, engaged 
in baring the surface of the rock at the west end of Walltown crags, 
came upon a turret described in a paper read before this society by 
Dr. Bruce.* This turret has entirely disappeared, the steep rock on 
which it stood having been used up to supply Carlisle with paving 
material. About half-way between this turret and Walltown farm- 
house, a few months later another turret was found, and partially 
excavated by Mr. Tailford, Mr. Clayton's excavator, who also noticed 
the existence of the turret which is the subject of this paper. 

The Mucklebank turret is unique alike in its situation and in its 
mode of construction. In going westward, about half-way down the 
western face of Mucklebank, the highest of the Nine Nicks of Thirl- 
wall, the Wall deflects to the south as it usually does when it descends 
into a defile. The deflection generally occurs on the slope of the defile, 
and at an acute angle to the general course of the Wall. At Muckle- 
bank the Wall deflects southward at a right angle, enclosing the small 
plateau on which the turret is built, and at its south-west comer 
makes another rectangular turn to enable it to run down the steep 
slope and cross the defile to the west by the shortest route. The 
turret is placed in the more northerly of these two right angles. 

* Arohaeologia Aeliana^ vol. x. page 57. 



14 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL : 

The accompanying illustration (plate I.) from a photograph taken 
looking down upon it from the east shows its situation, which is exceed- 
ingly strong for defensive purposes, as it completely enfihides and 
commands the Wall town defile. It has also a most extensive outlook to 
the north. Looking westward from it on a clear day, the gleaming 
silver line that can be seen on the far distant horizon is the Solway firth 
beyond Carlisle. Many of the wall turrets shown on the bas reliefs on 
the Trajan column at Some have a lighted torch projecting from the 
window of their upper storey. These lights might be used for 
signalling at night. A light in the Mucklebank turret would be seen 
along the whole range of the Walltown crags, which the illustration 
shows in the distance beyond the turret. 

Permission having been obtained of the owner, Mr. W. H. 
Coulson, the assistance of Mr. Tailford and other workers wa& 
secured, and in June, 1892, the excavation of the turret was commenced. 

The excavation made there is fairly typical of the general character 
of the work done in the camps and mile castles on the line of the 
Wall. It may therefore be well to describe it in detail, as the 
small size and isolated position of this turret cause it to furnish 
more sharply defined evidence of the epochs of destruction and 
rebuilding than can be expected in the camps and mile castles, where, 
during the long period of the Roman occupation, many changes and 
alterations must have taken place quite apart from the great 
renovations required after Caledonian invasions. 

On cutting away the turf, the soil about twelve inches below the 
surface was found to be mixed with large stones, around which were 
clustered innumerable snail shells, countless generations of snaila 
having crept among the interstices of the fallen masonry and found 
there a lodgment and a sepulchre. Embedded in the debris at every 
angle, just as they had fallen at the destruction of the turret, were 
found heavy slabs of the slate-like freestone of the district, from three 
to four inches in thickness and about twenty-four inches square;, 
these might be the floor of an upper chamber in the turret, or,, 
possibly, the continuation of the path along the top of the great Wall 
over or through the turret. These slabs were much thicker than the 
roofing slates usually found in the camps, and were not pierced for 
nails as the roofing slates are. They must have been supported on. 



THE MaCKLBBANK WALL TURRET. 15 

wooden joists, no traces of arches being found. The number of very 
iarge iron nails, many much oxydized, found at this stage of the 
excavations seems to indicate that a great portion of the upper part of 
the turret must have been constructed of wood. On the column of 
Marcus Aurelius at Some are shown wall turrets having an upper 
storey of timber, with a wooden palisade in front of them, indicating 
that they were enclosed on three sides by a stockade within the main 
enter wall. If any such stockade had existed here it may have 
enclosed the little square plateau, in the north-west comer of which 
the turret stands. There were not found any of the rounded stones 
used as projectiles in the ballista, like those since discovered at the 
north-west angle turret at aesioa ; so that if any engine of war was 
mounted on the turret it was probably only a small catapult for 
throwing javelins, such as was used as the field artillery of the 
Romans. Here was found a small copper coin of Yalens (864 a.d. to 
878 A.D.), in fairly good preservation. 

On the outside of the south-east angle of the turret was found a 
centurial stone, which had evidently been intended for the place it 
occupied as a coign or corner stone, as one end, as well as the face, 
was dressed smoothly. Very few centurial stones had previously been 
found in any wall or building in their original position, most of them 
being discovered in the fallen debris or re-used in modem buildings. 
If they were employed, as Mr. Clayton suggested, to mark the 
completion of the work of a company under a centurion, this is what 
might naturally be expected, as their usual original position would 
most likely be at or near to the top of the wall. 

The inscription on this stone (see illustration p. 12) is : 
c Oi • I • 
FL-0 

enclosed in a tabula ansata. The tyeing of ooh is peculiar and 
unusual, but a similar ligature exists on a centurial stone of the first 
cohort of Batavians found at Poltross bum. As another centurial 
stone of this cohort was found at magna (Carvoran), the nearest 
station to the west of the turret, there seems every probability that 
this cohort, which accompanied Agricola in his conquest of Northern 
Britain, took part in the building of the wall between Mucklebank 
and Gilsland. Afterwards it was for a long period quartered at 



16 BXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

PBOOOLITIA. This is proved by the numerous inscriptions found in 
that camp and in the votive well discovered just outside its western 
rampart in 1878 (^Arch. Ael. viii. 1-49). 

Under a quantity of rubbish bearing marks of fire, and at a depth 
of about four feet from the highest portion of the turret, a pavement 
of rather irregularly laid flagstones was found, but a careful examin- 
ation of the doorstep and jambs showed that the original floor level 
had not yet been reached. On raising these flags, under another mass 
of debris showing traces of fire at a depth of about six inches, a 
second floor of similar flags was found ; and at a depth of about 
eighteen inches below this second floor of flags was the original floor 
of the turret formed of beaten clay, which had, apparently, been 
hardened by fire or mixed with ground bricks. Upon it were found 
many bones of domestic animals, covered by &llen portions of the 
building, mixed with considerable masses of charcoal from burnt 
timber. 

The south inner wall of the turret showed traces of the long 
continued action of fire, and a piece of coal was found, showing the 
Romans must have known and worked some of the outcropping seams 
of coal not uncommon in the district. In the north-east comer of 
the turret were found the broken remains of a large amphora, of which 
the neck and both handles were perfect.* The mark on one of the 
handles was Q MCC A S. It had not been employed for holding any 
liquid, as two small irr^ular holes purposely made near its base 
rendered it unfit for that purpose. Possibly it may have been 
employed as a receptacle for the rations of the guard who occupied 
the turret. Many fragments of coarse pottery were found, and 
portions of a small bowl of red ware, commonly called Samian ; it had 
on it raised ornamentation, but the glaze and the work were both poor 
in quality. Some buckles, studs, and small objects of bronze were 
found just above the original floor level, which is usually the place 
most prolific in objects of interest in excavations on the line of the 
WaU. 

No traces were found of either an outer or inner stair in connexion 

with the turret, or of anything giving a clue as to the means of access 

from the floor level to the upper storey of the turret or the top of the 

great Wall. The small size of the interior of the turret would prevent 

* See illustration, p. 18. 



THE MtJOKLBBANK WALL TtJBBBT. 17 

imy internal means of commnnication larger than a ladder. The 
4oorway was on the west side of the south wall, and showed remains 
^f bolt holes. 

The internal dimensions of the turret were about eleven feet 
square, the thickness of the south and east walls about three feet. 
The north and west walls of the turret were portions of the great 
Wall itself (here about six feet thick), into which the turret was 
recessed to a depth of fourteen inches. There is a plinth on the east 
interior wall only, about eight inches high, and projecting four inches 
from the wall. The highest portion of turret wall measured about six 
feet in height, and was composed of courses of squared stone, the 
walls being built in the same fashion as the great Wall, with outer 
and inner faces of squared stones, the core being filled in with grouted 
rubble. 

The chief conclusion to be arrived at from the exploration of this 
turret seems to be that the two great epochs of disaster indicated in 
many of the explored camps occurred after the completion of the Wall 
and its turrets, as this turret seems to have been occupied for a 
considerable period before its first overthrow. If it were possible to 
determine at what time this overthrow took place, an important step 
would be made towards deciding the vexed question of the identity of 
the builder of the Wall. It was not thought desirable to clear the 
•outer faces of the turret formed by the great Wall, as it would have 
subjected the little building to the risk of wanton destruction. 

As few wall turrets are known to exist, it is well to put on record 
here, for the first time, that a few hundred yards to the east on the 
jteep eastern face of Mucklebank, I have found the remains of another 
turret. Owing to its exposed position, very little of its masonry is 
left, and as yet no attempt has been made to explore it. Between 
BOBOOVicus and the mile castle, about half a mile to the west of it, a 
recess on the inside of the wall, about thirteen feet long, and going 
ikbout a foot into the wall, probably indicates the site of a wall 
turret. 

The wall turret to the west of the mile castle on Walltown crags, 
•excavated by Mr. Tailford in 1883, is now in an exceedingly dilapi- 
dated condition, and will probably soon share the fate of that at the 
western end of the crags, of which the best remaining record is Mr. 



18 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL. 

C. J. Spence's beautiful etching in the Arch. Ael. x. facing p. 67^ 
and in the third edition of Dr. Bruce's Handbook of the Roman Wally. 
p. 186.10 

The destruction of much of the line of the Wall in this district 
seems inevitable, as the quarry is rapidly extending eastwards, and 
archaeology must stand aside when an important and valuable property 
like the enormous masses of whinstone on which the Wall has its base 
can find a market at a price equal to or greater than that of coal, the 
staple product of our two northern counties. 

Wherever the Wall and the rock or ground on which it stands 
is about to be absolutely destroyed all particulars available about it 
should be at once put on record, and eyeful search made among the debris 
at its base for centurial stones or other objects of interest. It would 
therefore be well if some arrangement could be come to between the 
Northumberland Whinstone Company and our Society by which we 
should have notice when the Company purposes bareing a fresh stretch 
of ground on which the Wall stands preparatory to its final removal. 

It would be well to make special search at the points where any 

change in the thickness of the Wall occurs as, if the theory so often 

put forward that these changes took place where the work of one 

centurial detachment left off and that of another commenced is correct^ 

it might be reasonable to expect to find among the debris at these 

points inscribed centurial stones, which might possibly afford some 

clue as to the absolute date of the erection of the Wall. 

" I gladly acknowledge the kind assistance* received from Mr. Spence, who 
spent a day at the turret, and showed his proficiency with pick and spade by 
excavating the portion of the south face of the great Wall shown in the 
illustration. 




FRAOMSNTS OF AMPHORA FROM MUCKLEBANK WALL TURRET (see p. 16). 



19 

3. ON EXCAVATIONS AT GREAT OHESTEBS (AESICA) IN 
1894, 1895, AND 1897. 

BY J. P. GIBSON. 

In deciding at which camp on the line of the Wall it was most 
desirable to commence excavations, the choice was practically limited 
to the camps lying between the rivers North Tyne and Tippalt ; — the 
long and continuous cultivation of their sites having left little worth 
excavating in the camps lying to the east of the North Tyne ; while 
the camps to the west of the Tippalt, which have all suffered much 
in the same way, are within the territory of the Cumberland and 
Westmorland Archaeological Society, upon whose domains it would 
be unfair to encroach. 

CiLURNUM, the first camp to the west of the North Tyne, has 
been gradually and thoroughly excavated by its former owners, the 
late Mr. John Clayton, Mr. N. G. Clayton and Mr. B. Clayton, and 
the work is now being continued by Mrs. N. G. Clayton, the present 
owner, Mr. William Tailford being now, as he has been for many long 
years, the careful excavator, and Mr. Blair, one of the secretaries of the 
society, frequently visiting the camp during the progress of the work. 
This arrangement, first carried out by the late Mr. John Clayton, 
and continued by his successors, has worked in a perfectly satisfactory 
fashion, having produced results not merely to be seen in the camp 
itself, but also in the interesting Roman museum erected close to the 
camp by the late Mr. N. G. Clayton, and maintained at the cost of 
Mrs. Clayton, the present proprietor of the Chesters estate. 

Procolitia, the next camp to the westward, had its northern 
rampart destroyed about 1752, by General Wade, who carried his 
mihtary way along its line, and made use of its stones for road- 
making. Since his time the northern half of the camp has been 
almost denuded of its masonry to build the houses and outbuildings 
at the neighbouring farms of Carraw and Carrawburgh. Some 
excavations were made there by the late Mr. John Clayton, of which 
the most notable were those in 1878 of a building outside the camp, 
with hypocausts, of which the pillars were built with flat, tile-shaped 
bricks, bearing the stamp of the sixth legion ; and the dealing out 
in 1878 of the votive well to the goddess Coventina just outside the 
western rampart.^^ 

^^ Vide A'^ch, Ael.^yoX, viii. pp. 1-49. 



20 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

The southern portion of the camp has been little disturbed, and 
affords a good field for excavations. 

BoRCOVicus has been for over two centuries a happy hunting 
ground for the antiquary. In 1822 excavations were made there and 
at the Ohapel-hill to the south of the camp, where a Mithraic cave 
had been accidentally discovered by workmen seeking stone for field 
walls. These excavations were under the direction of the rev. John 
Hodgson, who, in 1830 and 1831, and again in 1833, made further 
explorations inside the camp.^^ From 1850 to 1858, considerable 
excavations were made and since that time occasional discoveries have 
been made by the late Mr. John Clayton, which were duly recorded 
in the Arclmeologia Aeliana, Little of the surface of this camp 
therefore remains that has not been turned over. 

ViNDOLANA, the camp on the Stanegate, occupied by the fourth 
cohort of Gauls, was carefully excavated by the rev. Anthony 
Hedley, who was its owner from 1814 to 1835, the date of his 
death. As he resided at Chesterholm, just a stone's throw from 
the camp, he was able to superintend the work of excavation very 
closely. Unfortunately, his death resulted from a chill occasioned 
by exposure to bad weather while engaged in the work. Unluckily, 
no general plan of the results of his labour is in existence, as he appears 
to have done good and systematic work, and many of the finest altars 
and other objects now in the museum at Chesters were found by him, 
and were acquired by Mr. John Clayton when he purchased the 
€hesterholm estate. 

At ABSICA, the next camp on the line of the Wall, nearly all the 
south and west sides have been little disturbed, the only record of 
systematic excavation being that of Dr. Lingard in 1800, who then 
opened and described the vaulted chamber in the middle of the 
camp. Maona, the camp on the Stanegate just to the east of the 
river Tippalt, was barbarously destroyed as far as possible by a 
former owner, who was annoyed by the trespass caused on his farm by 
persons who came to see the Roman remains. 

Of these six camps, the two most promising seemed to be peooolitia 
and AESIOA, and as permission to excavate on his estate had already 

'2 Hodgson, History of JVorthumberlandf part 2, vol. iii., p. 186, 



EXCAVATIONS AT GBEAT CHBSTERS (aesica). 



21 



l^een received from Mr. H. J. W. Coulson, aesica was selected, and 
on July 23, 1894, excavations were commenced there. They were 
placed under the care of Mr. W. Charlton then of the Reins, 
Bellingham, a member of the society, who had previously excavated 
the interesting ruins of Dala castle, situated on the Chirdon burn, 
a tributary of the North Tyne. Owing to an unfortunate cycle 
accident, which crippled him for some time, he was unable to give 




VAULTED CHAMBSR, GREAT CHESTEKS. 



much personal superintendence to the work, and it was therefore left 
chiefly in charge of a foreman excavator, strange to the locality, and 
unaccustomed to the ways of north country workmen. The excava- 
tions were frequently visited by the local members of the committee, 
and considerable sfisistance was given by professor Pelham and Mr. 
Haverfield, and other Oxford members of the committee, who were in 
residence for some time at Gilsland and visited aesica almost daily 
during the period of their stay. 



22 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL. 

An accouut of the work done is given in the Report for 1894 of 
the Excavation Conunittee.^^ The plane and elevations which illus- 
trate this report were made by the late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, whose 
knowledge of practical engineering was of the greatest service to the 
committee during the progress of the work in successive years. 

To render more intelligible the account of work done in 1896 
and 1897 it is necessary to give a slight resume of the work done in 
1894. On July 23rd, 1894, the first cutting was made inside the 
south-west angle of the camp and revealed the existence of an angle 
turret in its usual position. It is rectangular, measuring inside 
eleven feet eleven inches by ten feet two inches. It is placed 
diagonally across the comer of the camp, so that it faces to the south 
west and its front face is gradually thickened towards its centre, so that 
looked at from the outside the angle of the camp appears rounded off. 
In other respects it differs little from the wall turret excavated at 
MucMebank in 1892 (see p. 14), being of similar masonry and having 
the same arrangement of superimposed floors, indicating the same 
periods of disaster and reoccupation. A trench driven forty feet from 
this angle tun'et towards the centre of the camp showed a block of 
buildings of poor and late work having a south frontage on the 
intervallum over two hundred feet long. It contains about a dozen 
chambers, but nothing of any special interest was found in any of 
them. A trench driven eastwards exposed the foundations of a small 
and roughly constructed building resting against the south wall of 
the camp. About two hundred and eighty feet east of the angle 
turret was found the west guard chamber of the south gateway, and 
close to its western wall a find of very fine scale armour forming part 
of a hrica seemed to indicate that an officer had perished there. 
The excavation of this guardchamber yielded a rich hoard of fibulae^ 
rings, chains, and other articles of jewellery. It is noticeable that 
they were not found on the floor level of the guard chamber but 
about two feet above. It has been suggested that the character of 
these objects indicates that they belong to the latter part of the 
second century,^* but a careful consideration of the circumstances of 
the find, and a comparison with the find of coins in the villa outside 

" Arch, AeU vol. xvii. pp. xxii-xxxii. '* Ihid, p. xxviii. ; see also 

Proceedings, vol. vi. pp. 241-245. 



24: EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL : 

the camp in 1897, seems to indicate that they could not have been 
placed where they were found earlier than the latter part of the third 
century — the reason for assigning this date to the find will be fuller 
given, where referring to the hoard of coins found in 1897 — at 
present it is sufficient to say that the articles found were possibly the 
possessions of the prefect of the cohort of Spanish auxiliary 
troops (cohors secunda Asturum) which was so long quartered 
at this camp, and were gathered together during one of the 
Caledonian raids, ready to be carried away by their owner who wa& 
doubtless overwhelmed in the destruction of the gateway tower where 
he had taken shelter in readiness to quit the camp. 

An examination of the vaulted chamber in the middle of the 
camp merely confirmed the description of it given by Dr. Lingard 
in 1800,^^ and resulted in no further discoveries. Mr. Sheriton 
Holmes, however, made excellent plans and drawings of it which were 
used in illustrating the 1894 report.^^ During the course of the 
work about thirty coins ^^ ranging from the time of Mark Antony 
down to Magnentius were found in different parts of the camp. 
As the quantity of work done at aesica and Down-hill seemed 
small in proportion to the amount of money expended it was thought 
desirable that in resuming work in 1895 some radical change should 
be made in the working arrangements. This was specially requisite 
as the funds at the disposal of the Committee were fast becoming 
exhausted, and it was thought inexpedient to again ask for further 
subscriptions until more satisfactory results could be shown. 

It was therefore decided to employ workmen living in the locality 
under the supervision of a local foreman. For that purpose the 
Committee employed Mr. Thomas Smith of Sunnyside, near Halt- 
whistle, who had previously been engaged in similar work. 

As the member of Excavation Committee living nearest to the 
spot, I undertook the immediate direction of the work, visiting aesica, 
during its progress in 1895 and 1897, once, twice, or thrice weekly as 
occasion required. Meetings of the Excavation Committee were also 
held on the spot at intervals, and this arrangement resulted in nearly 

** Quoted in Hodgson's History of Northumberland ^'gs.it 2, vol. iii., pp. 203. 
" Arch, Ael.^ vol. xvii., p. 24, plate 02. 

" Described by Mr. C. J. Spence in Appendix No. 1. See Arch. -4^Z. voL 
xvii. pp. xxx-xxxi., for list of coins found in 1894. 



25 





aOLD PLA.TSD FIBULA DISCOVBRBD AT GREAT CHB8TBB8 {ftM tize). 



26 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL: 

double the amount of work being done for the money expended as 
compared with the results obtained in 1894. 

Gordon, who first described the camp of aesica in 1726/^ seems 
to have come to the conclusion that no western gateway had ever 
existed there, and the absence of any visible break in the line of the 
western rampart led to the adoption of this theory by Dr. Bruce and 
even by Maclauchlan, who about 1854 spent two years in the survey 
of the Wall, and whose notes, published with the plans made and 
issued in 1857 at the cost of Algernon, third duke of Northumberland, 
are still by far the best authority upon matters of fact connected with 
the Wall.i* 

As distinct traces of the military road which usually issued from 
the eastern and western gates of the Wall camps can be seen at no 
great distance to the westward of aesica, it seemed unreasonable that 
there should be a road and no gateway by which it could have access 
to the camps, as the road from the south gateway had been traced 
going due south and south only after leaving the camp. 

To clear up this question, in June, 1895, work was commenced 
at the south-west angle turret, excavated in the previous year, and 
the inner face of the west wall of the camp was carefully followed 
northwards and cleared of debris. It was found to be of excellent 
masonry, and standing intact to a height of from five to six feet. 
About forty-five feet north from the angle turret a building was ex- 
posed close to the Wall, but not actually bailt against it, like the 
turrets found in a similar position between the angle turrets 
and gateway at oilubnum. The excavation of this building was 
not at once proceeded with, but the course of the camp wall was 
followed northward, and at about 125 feet from the angle turret 
a building of very excellent and massive masonry was met with 
projecting about twelve feet from the inner face of the camp wall. 
This proved to be the base of the southern tower of the west gateway, 
and another week's work fully revealed the remains of a gateway far 
surpassing in interest any previously found on the line of the Wall. 
Its discovery clears up some points hitherto obscure and adds much 

*' Itinerarium Septentrionale, page 78, plate 28. 

" The Roman Wall and Vestiges of Roman Occupation in the North of 
England^ by Henry Maclauchlan, 1857. 




I 



UJ .3 

< p, 

UJ 9 

^ a 

ii 

UJ -S 



I 
I 



AT GREAT GHESTBRS (aesica). 



27 



to oor knowledge of the Roman occupation of the north. It is built 
on the usual plan, having two inner and two outer portals, separated 
by pillars of heavy masonry, and it is flanked to the north and south 
by towers, the bases of which were used as guard chambers. In this, 
much more clearly than in any previous excavation ^er Uneam valliy 
can be traced the flow and ebb of the successive Roman invasions, 
three or four periods of building and three epochs of disaster and 
destruction having left] clearly visible traces on the existing remains. 




SOUTH TOWER Or WEST GATEWAY. GREAT GHESTBRS. 

The different quality and character of the masonry used in these 
snccessive periods is very marked, and indicates that long periods of 
comparatively peaceful occupation must have intervened to allow such 
great changes to have taken place, as in every case the character of 
the later work was not improved, but deteriorated. Had the reverse 
been the case, and the later work shown an improvement on that 
preceding it, this conclusion could not have been arrived at, as the 
changes for the better might have been suggested by the insufficient 
character of the early work when put to the rude test of barbarian 
The earliest masonry is seen in the lower portion of the 



28 EXCAVATIOKS OK T?HE LINE Ot tSB ROMAK WALL t 

southern guard chamber and in the portals of the gateway, and con- 
sists largely of well squared and very massive stones, many of which 
pass through the entire width of the walls to which they belong. 
The early character of the work is shown not merely by its lower 
situation in respect to the surrounding work, but also by comparison 
with similar masonry existing at other points on the line of the Wall. 
A notable instance may be given in proof of this. On the bank of 
the North Tyne opposite to the villa at cilurnum are the remains 
of a water pier of the first bridge, surrounded and enclosed by a 
great mass of later masonry, which formed the land abutment of 
a subsequent bridge, built when the course of the river had moved 
westward, leaving this early water pier dry. This westward move- 
ment of the bed of the river is still in progress, and the whole 
abutment is now many feet from the banks of the river. 

The bases of the bridge piers which lie in the North Tyne, 
and are only visible in summer when the river is very low, show two 
distinct kinds of masonry, each of them having a complete pier base 
of early masonry which has been thickened and lengthened at 
the rebuilding of the bridge by a facing of later masonry added to 
one side and one end of each. This addition strengthened the piers 
and also enabled them to carry a bridge of greater width than that 
originally built. The later masonry is similar to that of the land 
abutment on the east side of the river, and the early masonry 
in them and in the pier enclosed in the land abutment resembles 
that of the south guard chamber of the aesica gateway.^^ 

A careful comparison of the stonework of the southern and 
northern guard chambers of this gateway and the fact that between 
the south gateway and the camp wall there exists a straight joint 
showing a distinct time of building, while no corresponding joint 
exists between the north guard chamber and the camp wall adjoining 
it, leads to the conclusion that the gateway and southern guard tower 
may have been built some time before the northern guard tower and the 
general outer wall of the camp.^^ This might imply that in the period 

" See Arch, Ael, xvi. 328 for the late Mr. S. Holmes's description of the 
bridge. See also Proc, ii. 178. 

^^ It has been suggested by Mr. Parker Brewis, a member of the council of the 
Society, that if on the south side of the gateway there was a high tower and on 
the north side merely a guard chamber, there might in the south side be a 
straight joint at the junction of wall and tower to allow for the greater 



AT GREAT CHBSTERS (^«5/{7^ ). 29 

intervening between the building of the southern and northern towers 
the camp was defended by an earthern rampart and ditch ; as in 
making a camp, even when required only for a single night's 
occupation, the Romans always protected it by surrounding it with a 
rampart and ditch. I put forward this theory respecting the stone 
towers and earthern ramparts of the camp at its first building with 
a certain amount of diffidence, knowing that it may be used to suggest 
the existence of a greater earthern rampart preceding the great 
Wall itself and superseded by it. Had confirmatory evidence 
not been found in later excavation of other gateways, which will be 
given in due course, I should have merely recorded the facts without 
advancing any suggestions to explain them. 

It is, however, of the utmost importance to ascertain as much as 
possible of the early history of the Wall and its camps, and in 
attempting to do this systematically, a careful examination of work 
that can be proved to have been done in the early part of the Roman 
occupation seems to be the surest means of gradually elucidating and 
clearing up the vexed questions connected with the subject. Let us 
at least make our foundations sure whatever superstructures our 
fancy may lead us to erect upon them. 

The masonry of the northern guard chamber is of small well- 
squared stones exactly like those used in the outer walls of the camp. 
It has also continued through it the line of large flat stones, locally 
called *thruflfs,' which form a bonding course in the camp walls. 
This course is usually the seventh above the plinth. Bonding courses 
in Roman buildings in the south of England, and even as far north as 
York,^ are usually made with flat square tile-shaped bricks, but the 
abundance of laminated sandstones found along the line of the Wall 
furnished its builders with a bonding material obtained with a much 
smaller expenditure of labour thapi that required in the manufacture 
of bricks. 

Although the change in the character of the masonry shows that 
the interval of time between the building of the towers was possibly 
a long one, there seems no evidence that during that period any over- 
settlement of the heavier mass of masonry, and at the north side this precaution 
would not be needed. Against this Mr. Bates urges the point that Roman 
gateways with towers usually have both sides symmetrical.— J. P.G. 

" BHracum, by C. Wellbelovcd, pp. 117, 118. 



30 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 



throw or destruction of the camp took place. The first clay floors of 
both chambers, and the roadway of the gateway, were fomid strewn 
with charcoal, and showed other traces of fire. They were overlaid 
with debris of building materials about eighteen inches thick, on the 
top of which were placed floors formed of flagstones that had been 
laid and used during the second occupation of the camp. At this 
period great changes were made in the gateway, the southern outer 
portal having been closed, the level of the northern portal raised, and a 




JUNCTION OF SOUTHERN CHABiBER OF WEST GATEWAY WITH OUTSIDE OF GAMP WALL. 

new roadway made in it over the debris. A second sill had been laid 
in the north portal on the level of the second roadway. It is about 
thirty inches above the level of the first sill. The illustration 
from a photograph of the inside of the gateway shows both these sills. 
In the upper one can be seen the hole in which the lower iron pivot 
of one of the gates was inserted. The existence of a similar pivot hole 
in the lower sill was ascertained by taking out (and carefully 



AT GREAT OHBSTBRS (aeSICa). 81 

replacing) two or three stones of the intervening courses of masonry. 
In the south portal there is no second sill, but it is blocked up from 
a little below the level of the second sill of the north portal with 
masonry of a third period, differing in character from that both of the 
south and north guard chambers. In this some of the stones of the 
second period appear to have been re-used along with others not so 
carefully dressed and squared, but the mason work is much worse, the 
joints being opener and the stones not so truly laid. 

The blocking up of roadways after the first period of disaster has 
occurred not merely at aesica, but also generally along the line of the 
AVall, having been specially noticed at cilurnum,^^ borcovicus,^ and 
AMBOGLANNA.2*^ It may also be still seen in the northern gateways of 
the mile castles, many of which have been reduced in width by the 
insertion of later masonry within their jambs. In the guard 
chambers yet another floor, also consistiag of flagstones, was found 
about six inches above that of the second occupation. It also was 
laid over a mass of debris, showing distinct traces of fire. The much 
smaller interval existing between the second and third floors appears 
to indicate a shorter lapse of time between the second destruction and 
re-occupation of the camp than between the first expulsion and 
re-entry of the Romans. 

During the third occupation, the north portal had been entirely 
blocked up,- and a wall connecting the north and south towers built in 
front of both portals. The foundations of this wall are over four feet 
above the original level of the gateway. The masonry of this work of 
the third occupation is of squared stone, but shows still further 
deterioration in quality. A strengthening of the inner side of the 
northern portal seems to have been effected, possibly at some later 
period, with rubble work of different character from any found during 
the excavations. 

Dr. Bruce, describing the west gateway of boroovicus, says : ' As 
iisaal, it had been contracted to half its width ; but to expose an 



^ Traces of this still remain in the south gateway, but have been unfortunately 
destroyed in other gateways. 

*• Hodgson's Hist. NoHh. part II. vol. iii. pp. 186, 187. 

** See Arch, Ael. (O.S.) iv. 63, 141, for papers on amboglanna by H. G. 
Potter, F.L.S., F.G.S. 



82 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL : 

intending foe to greater difficulty the passage was rendered diagonal 
by closing up the northern portion of the outside and the southern 
portion of the inside portal.' A careful reading of Hodgson's 
description of the excavation of this gateway shows this to be wrong, 
as both of the outer portals were built up and a triple ditch drawn in 
front of them so that during the latter part of the occupation the 
roadway must have been effectually blocked as undoubtedly it was at 

AESICA.2^ 




AKSiOiL. Exterior of built-up W. Gateway. On the left is the wall of the N. guardchamber, 
the plinth of the built-up portal is shown about 4 feet above the level of that of the 
guardohamber. 



In clearing away the great masses of fallen stones which 
indicated the existence of towers at this gateway and at the south- 
west and north-west angles of the camp there were found a number 

^ * The western gateway is the most perfect of the three that was opened, 
and probably owes its preservation to the weakness of the station on this side 
on which it is overlooked by higher ground ; but has a triple barrier of ditches 
and ramparts of earth thrown up before the gateway which was probably closed 

as we found it when these ditches were formed Before I began to 

explore this gateway, the ditches before it on the outside and lines of buildings 
within led me to conjecture that it had been closed long before the desertion of 
the station, the road that led westward from it is intersected with the ditches in 
front of it.' Hodgson, Northumberland^ part ii. vol. iii. p. 187. 



AT GREAT OHBSTBRS (absica ). 



38 



of peculiar sugarloaf-shaped stones, about fifteen inches high, which 
had probably been used as corner pinnacles or as merlons in the 
parapets of the towers. If such was their use they might easily be 
detached from their position in an emergency and hurled down on 
any foe attacking the towers.^^ Continuing the excavation northwards 
an extensive range of buildings was found erected against the outer 
camp wall between the western gateway and the north-west angle of 
the camp. Of these the most northerly appears to have been a smithy ; 
in it close to the hearth was the stone trough to hold the water used 
in tempering the iron, and behind this trough was found a little 
hoard of about twenty denarii of the early emperors, some of which 
were in a fair state of preservation.^^ In the next of these buildings 
southward was found a quantity of charred wheat, the gi*ains of 




^iililll^ 



which still distinctly retain their shape. An important inscribed 
tablet now in the Black Gate museum, at Newcastle, is stated by 
Wallis,^^ who first describes it, to have been found in 1761 in the north 

" *In 536 A.D. the garrison of the mole of Hadrian, which had long been 
converted into a fortress (now the Castle of S. Angelo), was able to check an 
aasanlt of the Qoths by throwing down npon their heads the masterpieces 
of Oreek art which stiU adorned the mausoleum.' Lanciani, The Destruction 
of Ancient Roniey p. 8, 1899. 

" For description, by Mr. C. J. Spence, see Appendix I. 

** Wallis, HUtory of Northumberland^ vol. ii. page 9. 

VOL XXIV. 6 



84 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

part of the camp. It commemorates the rebuilding of a granary 
which had become ruinous through age, by the second Cohort of 
Asturians during the reign of Alexander Severus. Detached portions 
of the slab, which have since disappeared, suggest, from parts of the 
consuls names given upon them, the year 225 a.d. as the date of the 
work. It is just possible that the granary found is that referred to 
in the tablet. Personal ornaments found in the other buildings 
nearer the gateway suggest the idea that they were used as 
dwellings. Continuing the excavations farther northward, the 
north-western angle of the camp was reached. This portion of the 
work was supervised by one of our vice-presidents, the late Major- 
General Sir William Crossman, K.C.M.G., F.S.A., who took up his 
residence at the Shaw's hotel, Gilsland, for that purpose. His 
services were specially valuable as he had much experience of similar 
work in various parts of the world, and had made not very long 
Qgo extensive and interesting excavations at Lindisfame.*^ In 
exploring this comer it seemed at first as if a modem field road 
which had been cut right through it had destroyed the angle turret, 
but on digging deeper the foundations of its western side were laid 
bare, and remains of its north, south, and east walls were found 
nearly five feet high. The masonry of this angle turret and that 
of the great Wall which here forms the north wall of the camp were 
somewhat similar and bonded into each tther. It had been suggested 
that if this angle turret proved to be of the same masonry as the 
Wall it would certainly join it at right angles as the walls of the 
mile castles which were built along with the Wall invariably do- 
instead of the Wall striking the rounded camp angle at a tangent 
as it does at boroovious. This arrangement at borcovicus has 
been cited '^ as proving the Wall to be of later date than the camp. 

It does not, however, follow, that evidence based on a rounded 
angle turret alone is suflScient to prove the camp earlier than the Wall. 
A little consideration of the different uses of mile castles and of 
camp angle turrets will show the fallacy of this argument. The mile 
castles are walled enclosures about sixty feet square, placed against 

" Arch, Ael. xv. 9, and Proc. iii. 195, 400. 
'* Bruce, Bandhook of the WaU^Svd.ed. p. 139. 



AT GBEAT OHESTEBS (aBSICA). 35 

the south si(Je of the great Wall, which always forms their northern 
bonndary ; their east and west walls join the great Wall at right 
angles, and are bonded into it. They are placed at intervals approxim- 
ating as closely to a Roman mile as the selection of a suitable site 
permitted. The close proximity of mile castles to the eastern 
ramparts of pbocolitia and magna tends to show they were erected 
without any consideration for their relative position to the camps.^* 

The mile castles have had gateways in their northern and southern 
walls : a voussoir remaining in situ in the north gateway of that a 
little to the west of Housesteads proves that the north gateways at 
least were arched. Practically, the mile castles were fortified gate- 
ways with roads running through them, and formed, with one 
exception,^^ the only communication with the country beyond the 
Wall, except that afforded by the gateways of the camps. Inside them 
have been found traces of rough erections that might have afforded 
shelter to the guards who kept watch in them and relieved the 
sentries, posted on the Wall at intervals of three hours. As the 
sentries* roadway on the top of the Wall would be carried over the 
top of the northern arched gateways, it is improbable that the mile 
castles would be higher than the wall itself, and there would be no 
advantage in making any other than a simple right-angled junction 
between Wall and mile castle. 

In the various representations of camps existing on the Trajan 
and Anrelian columns at Rome,^^ their angle towers and those of 
their gateways are always shown considerably higher than the ram- 
parts connecting them. The very large accumulations of fallen 
masonry found at aesica on the sites of the angle and gateway 
towers prove that the same arrangement existed there. 

An engine of war placed on the north-west angle tower would 
enfilade not merely the north and west walls of the camp, but also 
a considerable stretch of the great Wall to the west of the camp. 
The rounded angle would give additional strength to the portion 

** There is little doubt that the building to the east of aesica taken by 
Kachlauchan and Bruce for a mile castle is a comparatively modem erection, 
and that the mile castle it was supposed to represent must be sought for in or 
close to the shallow defile just to the west of aesica. 

•• The gateway in the defile of the Knag-bum. 
** Bartoli Colonna Traiana and Colonna Antonina, 



36 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

of the tower exposed above the Wall, and would render more easy 
the training of a ballista or other engine of war placed on the top 
of the tower, especially when it was being used at short range during 
a close attack. The finding of a large heap of rounded stones, suit- 
able for use as missiles, at the base of this tower, seems to make it 
certain that it served as a platform for a small ballista. These reasons 
seem sufficient to account for the usual plan of making rounded 
comers to each angle of the camp having been adhered to, even 
if great Wall and camp wall were built simultaneously ; without 
taking into account the spirit of military red-tapeism which might 
exercise an influence even in the well-organized armies of Imperial 
Rome. 

It must be admitted that a very careful examination of the 
masonry, where the east side of the turret joins the great Wall, does 
not alone afford absolute proof that turret and wall were built 
simultaneously, but an examination of the inside of the turret shows 
that it is recessed into the great Wall. For conclusive evidence of 
the relative dates of great Wall, turret, and camp wall, we have to 
rely on the foundations of the western side of the turret. There the 
rounded angle of the camp wall, instead of being continued as usual 
around the outside face of the turret, strikes the south-west side of 
the turret, about four feet from the points where its western angle 
joins the great Wall. Evidently, therefore, the turret must have 
been completed and connected with the great Wall before the camp 
wall was brought up to it. Had the camp and its angle turrets been 
complete before the great Wall was brought up to them, there could 
have been no reason for any departure from the usual arrangement, 
in which the turret is placed diagonally in the angle formed by the 
two walls, and has only one outer exposed face, which is rounded off 
on the outside only. 

The value of this evidence is much strengthened by the 
fact that the arrangement is shown to exist in the original founda- 
tions. Had it occurred in the superstructures it might possibly 
have been merely an alteration made after some partial destruction 
of the camp walls or turret. An example of such an alteration occurs 
where the inside of the camp wall joins the southern tower of the 
west gateway, and might have led to a totally erroneous conclusion 



AT GEBAT OHBSTBBS (aesICa). 87 

had it nofc been revealed by a very careful examination of the courses 
of masonry both outside and inside the junction. Assuming then 
that turret and great Wall were complete when the camp wall was 
brought up to them, the advantage of the peculiar departure from 
the usual arrangement becomes evident, as the two walls buttress 
and greatly strengthen the angle turret, and a foe attempting to force 
the camp at this comer would have two walls to climb instead of one, 
both of these walls being commanded by the angle turret. 

The extensive quarrying along the north side of the camp, which 
took place during last century to provide materials for farm 
buildings and boundary walls, made it impossible to get any satis- 
factory plan of the north gateway of the camp, but sufficient remains 
were found to prove that it was directly opposite to the south gateway, 
and, like it, was placed much nearer to the eastern than to the 
western rampart. 

A long trench, driven south from the north wall, through the north 
western part of the camp, revealed many traces of buildings of poor 
masonry, made from re-used materials during the latter part of the 
Roman occupation. As it was found impossible to keep the whole of 
the excavated ground permanently open, these buildings were measured, 
laid down on the plan, and covered up again. Gordon, writing of aesica 
in 1726,^ long before the destruction caused there by the building of 
the present farm house on the site of the camp, says in describing it: — 
'On the South End of this Fort is a very distinct regular Entry, 
having four or five Courses of the square Stones, the Jamm of the 
Door remaining pretty entire. On each Side of this Entry is a round 
Turret of hewn Stones something pyramidical and hollow within.' In 
the plan he gives of the camp ^^ these turrets are shown, in perspective, 
like two sugar loaves with their tops cut off. 

Again, in writing of amboglanna, Gordon says ^^ : — ' On the 
South End thereof I noticed two Turrets of hewn Stone,' and on his 
plan of the camp^® a round turret is shown on each side of the 
south gateway. Like those on the aesica plan, they are shown in 
perspective, and rather resemble tall old-fashioned bee-hives. 

•* Jtinerarium Septentrionate^ p. 78. " Ibid» plate 28. 

•^ Ibid, p. 80. " Ibid, plate 30. 



38 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF JHE ROMAN WALL : 



Not having met with an account of similar turrets in any records 
of Roman remains in Britain, it was thought worth while before closing 
the excavations in 1895 to attempt a search for any traces of them 
that might remain. For this purpose a trench being driven towards the 
east from the south entrance of the camp, the remains of the east guard 
chamber were at once come upon, which proved to be similar in char- 
acter to the early work at the southern side of the west gateway. It 




Aesica. Eastern Guard Chamber of South Oateway with Circular Chamber beyond. 

afforded still further proof that on their first consti uctiun the gate- 
ways had only one tower each, this chamber being of heavy massive 
masonry, while the western chamber, found in the previous year, was 
of smaller stones, and was built at a considerably higher level. 

A cutting to the east of this eastern guard chamber revealed a 
small, circular chamber of masonry, with a flue containing soot, 
leading into the bottom of it, which was doubtless the interior of one 











^^^^^^^^^^^v 


'f*M 


m 


kk. 1 




f 


■^ 






7 * 



5 

I 



1 






< 
O 

CO 

liJ 

< 



AT GREAT 0HBSTBR8 (aesica). 89 

of Gordon's ' round turrets.' The illustration from a photograph 
of the south gateway which includes the bases of both towers 
shows the character of their masonry and the relative situation of 
this chamber better than any written description can do. 

At BORCOVious two similar chambers remain, one in the northern 
part of the camp, and the other inside the eastern guard chamber 
of the south gateway.^^ Hodgson in describing the latter says :— 

'In 1830 the rubbish was also partly removed from a room close to the 
outside of the wall of the station, and to the right of the south gateway, which 
seemed to have had an upper floor. It measured 24 feet by 15 and communi- 
cated by a dark passage through the wall of the station with a circular kiln 
formed of masonry without lime, within a strong square tower, and having, 
2 feet above the level of its upper floor, an oven of sandstone which had 
been much used. The lower floor and eye of the kiln also exhibited strong 
marks of fire ; and a quantity of strong broken freestone slates, coated with a 
stratum of lime mixed with broken pottery and brick, showed that the upper 
floor had been made of such materials. These apartments formed, I apprehend, 
a true Roman pistrina, or place for drying and grinding corn and making it 
into bread. It is remarkable that the eastern tower of the southern gateway 
of AMB06LANNA had been converted into a kiln.' 

Since 1830 this kiln in the eastern tower of the amboglanna 
gateway has disappeared, but Mr. H. Glassford Potter, in describing 
some excavations made at amboglanna in 1850,*® says : — 'Near the 
[west] guard-room, the remains of a kiln for drying com, or malt, may 
be seen. ... It is flagged at the bottom, and measures 4 feet 4 
inches by 3 feet 8 inches.' When at amboglanna a few years ago I 
found traces of this western chamber, so that both of the * hewn stone 
turrets' seen by Gordon are accounted for. At aesioa we can 
account for the eastern one only, but the place where its western 
counterpart might be expected to occur was cleared out in 1894 during 
a week when I was unfortunately absent, and it may have been 
destroyed without its existence being noted. 

There have been, therefore, in each of the camps, at amboglanna, 
at AESiCA, and at borcovicus at least two of these circular chambers. 
Or. Bruce suggests that those at borcovicus were * kilns in which 
some mosstrooper dried his unripened grain.' *^ It seems too great a 

*• Hodgson's Northumberland^ part II. vol. iii. p. 186. 

^ Arch. Ael. (O.S.), vol. iv. p. 71. 

** Brace's Handbook, 4th ed. page 148. 



40 



BXOAVATIOirS Oir THB LINB OF THK SOMAN WALL : 



(?gcB^[0o 



^h 






m^^iiKr) 



tax on one's credulity to believe that three mosstroopers should 
occupy the three southern gateways of three Soman camps, many 
miles apart, and should erect kilns in all of them. 

The shape and the small size of these chambers 
would make them of little or no use for drying 
corn, and whatever may have been their use, 
there is no evidence that they were not entirely 
of Soman origin. The suggestion made by 
Colonel Pagan, R.M.L.I., that they were the 
chambers in which the mess cooking cauldrons 
were set, seems to explain their purpose in the 
most simple and satisfactory fashion. 

The work at this southern gateway terminated 

the excavations of 1894-95. From time to 

time during their course large quantities of pottery were turned up, 

consisting chiefly of the grey smother-kiln ware, made in tBe 



( (gfteSyj 




neighbourhood of Upchurch, where an area of twenty-four square 
miles, covered with potters' debris, shows the extent and importance 
of the Roman potteries formerly existing there. 



AT GREAT CHESTBRS (aesica). 



41 



A few small fragments of the parti-coloured Darobrivian ware 
and much of the beautiful red Samian ware were also found. Two 
fragments of the latter had on them, scratched through the glaze, 
graffiti of names that have also been found on centurial stones in that 




SILVKR NECKLACE AND PENDANT, QRBAT CHBSTERS {/vll Hze). 

district. Some potters' names and other graffiti discovered at Great 
Cheaters are shown on -poge 40. Millstones were found, varying in size, 
from those that could be turned by one person up to those that would 
have required an ox or ass to drive. Most of them are made 

VOL. XXIV. 6 



42 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL 



of the local grits, but a few of them were * made in Germany ' of the vol- 
canic rock found near Andernach, where an extensive manufactory still 
exists at which millstones are made from the same stone. Unfortun- 




8ILVBR RING FROM AXSICA WITH CARNBLIAN INTAGLIO. 

ately, no altars were discovered, and the fragments of inscribed stones 
turned up were few and unimportant, the portions of the camp 

explored being those least likely to 
furnish buildings containing impor- 
tant inscriptions. In addition to 
the hoard of jewellery found in the 
south gateway (amongst the objects 
being the silver necklace shown in 
the illustration on page 41, and the two 
silver finger rings on this page), the 
pretty bronze figure of Mercury (shown 
full size in the illustration on page 
43), and many bronze objects, such 
as brooches, buckles, studs, and 

ABRAXAS GEM (3 times original size). i • . m ^ i i 

cooking utensils, were turned up and 

removed to the Black Gate 

museum at Newcastle; one brooch, 

inlaid with blue enamel, is in the 

form of a hare, which is almost an 
exact replica of 
one at present in 
Chester museum. 

The small gold earring now in the Ohesters museum 
was found many years ago. Weapons and imple- 
ments of iron, much corroded, were turned up in 

great profusion — among them a sickle similar in shape to those 

recently rendered obsolete by the use of machinery in the reaping 







SILVER RING FROM AB8ICA. 



AT GREAT CHESTBRS (aesica). 



48 



field — but much smaller in size. The fashion in which the Romans 
used their sickle is shown on the Trajan column, where a reaper is 
represented turning down the corn and striking it with a sharp-edged 
sickle.^ It seems odd that in Ireland, where no Roman settlements 
existed, this fashion should have 
been followed, while in the north 
of England the serrated sickle 
which was used by being drawn 
through the standing corn towards 
the reaper was most common. 

At different parts of the camp 
odd coins were found. The little 
hoard of early denarii found in the 
smithy, built against the northern 
portion of the west wall of the 
camp, is fully described by Mr. C. 
J. Spence in Appendix No. 1. 

The work of excavation was 
resumed at aesica in July, 1897, 
and carried on until put a stop to 
by bad weather in October of that 
year. At first arrangements could 
not be made to work inside the 
camp, and as from time to time 
various detached buildings of im- 
portance had been accidentally 
discovered in the immediate 
neighbourhood of many of the 
other camps on the line of the 
Wall, it was decided in the first 
instance to search for suburban 
buildings, the existence of which 
seemed to be indicated by surface 
inequalities in the pastures on the 
southern slopes below the camp. A commencement was made close 
to the outer edge of the south fosse of the camp, and a few yards to 
*' Bartoli, Colonna Traiana eretta dal Senato e populo Romano, 



BRONZE PiaURB OF MERCURY. 



44 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 



the west of the line of the south gateway. Remains of the walls 
of a large building were found ; as little but the mere foundations 
remained, the main lines only of it were traced. Further 




search showed another rectangular building forty-four feet long by 
twenty-seven feet wide, without partition walls, close to the edge of the 
fosse at the south-eastern angle of the camp. This is shown on the 



AT GREAT CHESTBRS (aeSICA). 45 

plan, and is marked Suburban Building No. II. Nothing of 
interest was found in either of these buildings except some fragments 
of a single vase of rich, dark brown glazed ware, much thinner than 
what is usually found in the Wall camps. 

A trench commenced over a hundred yards farther south, where a 
hypocaust*' is said by old residents in the locality to have been 
found in the early part of last century by workmen in search of 
building stones, was driven northward uphill for a considerable 
distance, and revealed a number of walls varying in height from one 
to five feet, all running east and west. On following the lines of these 
walls it soon became evident from the excellent character of the 
masonry and the existence of some hypocausts that the block of 
buildings discovered was one of considerable importance. The most 
southerly of these buildings had been quite quarried out for building 
stones, but further excavations showed remains of a building over a 
hundred and ten feet long by seventy-three feet in width, some 
portions of the walls of which are still standing more than six feet 
high. A ground plan of it is given on page 46. 

It seems to have been the fashion to call almost every detached 
Roman building in the North of England * baths,' if there was the 
least evidence that it had contained a bath, or even if it had rooms 
heated by a furnace connected with a series of hypocausts. In the 
time of the Romans, as at the present day, no important private 
house was considered complete which did not contain baths, it seems 
probable therefore that those in many of the buildings found on the 
line of the Wall to the south of the camps were private baths, and that 
the buildings themselves were the suburban villas occupied by the 
commanding officers of the respective garrisons. 

Leaving the question open as to whether the building was a public 
or private one, the find at absica will be simply described as a 
bnilding, leaving our readers to call it * baths* or * villa* as they 
choose. The situation it occupies is at once sheltered and commanding, 
lying below the ridge on which the camp itself stands, and being 
screened by it from the bitter north-east winds that blow there during 
the early months of the spring. Eastward it looks out on the far- 

*^ Marked H y p in Maclauchlan's Survey, Sheet III. 



46 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 



stretching lines of the Vallum and on the Oawfields and Whinshields 
ranges of basaltic trap hills, which have gradual but steep slopes to 
the south and break into precipices on the north. The view 
to the westward commands the chain of hills known as the Nine 
Nicks of Thirlwall, which are really a continuation of the Oawfields 
and Whinshields ranges, carried about a third of a mile northward 




WALI^S ^K MAIN ^ALUS 



FLOORS^^^SPUS siOMNLlM 



SoAkc or^jc 



GROUND PLAN OF SUBURBAN BUILPINQ NO. III. 



from the line of their westward course by an enormous fault that 
dislocates the strata In the intervening valley of the Caw-burn. There 
for a short distance the outcrop of trap rock disappears, leaving the 
defile defended by aesica, and still more strongly by the older 
unexplored camp lying on the line of the Stanegate at the point 



> 




AT GREAT CHESTERS (aeSICA). 47 

where it crosses the Caw-burn. About a hundred yards to the south 
are seen the almost obliterated lines of the Vallum, and half a mile 
beyond, along the top of the next ridge, runs the track of the 
Stanegate, which, although probably the first Roman road in the 
district, continued in use through medieval times. 

The haugh below was used as the cemetery of the camp, and on 
the slope still further south ancient barrows show the burial places of 
the prehistoric tribes in possession before the coming of the Eomans. 

In Roman times the outlook would be on much the same landscape 
of green fell and heath-clad moorland as that which at present meets 
the eye, although from existing traces of ancient terraces we know 
there would be more spade and plough cultivation than at present, 
when the hill pasturage is stocked with Cheviot sheep and shaggy 
West Highland cattle, and the sod remains unturned except by the 
spade of the archaeologist. 

At CONDBRCUM,*^ CILURNUM,** PROCOLITIA,*^ BORCOVICUS,^^ and 

viNDOLANA,^ at a short distance outside the camps but within, or on 
the south side of, the great Wall, important detached buildings heated 
by hypocausts have from time to time been found. The largest of these 
lies close to the west bank of the North Tyne at cilurnum. It was 
discovered and excavated in 1884 by the late Mr. John Clayton of 
the Chesters, and it has many features in common with that found at 
AESICA. In these buildings^ and in many others found in the north 
of England, the absence of an atrium seems to have caused a want of 
regularity in the plan, which renders it difficult to assign a definite 
use to each room, especially when little more than the foundations of 
the walls remain. 

The plan ** of this building here given is incomplete toward the west, 
as the excavation could not be carried farther on account of the road for 
light conveyances to the farm, permission to disturb which could not be 

** Brand's History of Newcastle, Appendix, vol. i. p. 606. 

** Arch. AeL vol xii. 124. *« Ibid. 

*' Hodgson's Hist. North, pt. II. vol. iii. p. 180. 

*• Dr. Hunter in the Philosophical Transa<ftionSy No. 278. 

^ The various plans which accompany this paper were made by Mr. C. 
Dickinson of Hexham from the drawing office or Messrs. Armstrong, Mitchell 
& Company, Blswick, who was on the spot for some weeks during the progress 
of the exoavatious. Most of the other illustrations are from my own photographs. 
— J.P.G. 



48 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

obtained. At this western end would doubtless be the principal entrance, 
as it closely abuts on the line of the Roman road leading from the south 
gateway of aesica to the Vallum and the Stanegate. There would also 
be the chamber used for storing fuel and the furnace for heating the 
hypocausts. This is indicated not merely by the position and arrange- 
ment of the hypocaust flues, but also by the fact that they there show 
most the effects of the great heat to which they have been subjected. 
The fuel used would probably be wood, although we know coal was 
used by the Eomans in the north, small quantities having been found 
during the excavations at aesioa and other Wall camps. The 
western chamber, marked H on the plan, is forty feet long by 
seventeen feet wide. Near its west end the walls form two apsidal- 
shaped projections to the north and south, each ten feet wide. The 
northern of these contains the lower portion of a deeply splayed 
window, which has a northern outlook. Pieces of Roman window 
glass were found near it, and also close to a similar window found at 
CILURNUM. The insecure condition of the wall made it undesirable 
to weaken it by clearing out the debris between the window jambs, so 
that it is difficult to say how the framework that held the glass had 
been attached to them. The southern projecting portion of this room 
had contained a bath made of concrete, having steps leading down 
into it. Probably it may have been lighted by a window like the 
northern projection, but the southern wall did not remain sufficiently 
high to show the sill of any window that might have been there. 

Near the west end of this room was found a number of peculiarly 
shaped dressed stones about eighteen inches long by eighteen inches 
wide, and thicker at one end than at the other, which appear to have 
been voussoirs of an arch connecting the western ends of the two 
apses. The square projections from the sides of the thin end of these 
stones would form a bold moulding on each side of the soffit of the 
arch. Or possibly they might form a solid finish for the wall plaster 
to come up to. 

Under the whole of this room was a hypocaust supplied with hot 
air by a flue coming in at the west end from the chamber containing 
the furnace. A series of arches under the level of the floor connected 
this hypocaust with another under the floor of G, a small room lying 
to the east of H. In the two rooms C and A, still farther east, the 



AT GUBAT CHESTERS (afSICA). 



49 



floors consisted of flags only. The small room D, to the south of 
these, seems to have been used as a bath, as the concrete of which 




the floor consists is a foot thick and has been carried up the walls 
and finished with a bold moulding. 



50 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE BOMAN WALL ; 



The rooms B, E, and P were not fully excavated, only the main 
A flight of stone steps leads down from 



walls having been traced, 




the outside to a doorway in the north end of room B. At the point 
marked C in the plan in room H, upon the earthen floor on which the 



AT GREAT CHESTBRS (aESICa). 51 

hypocaust pillars rest, more than a hundred coins of copper and a few 
of base silver were found. The freshest and most perfect of these 
are of the emperors Valerian, Gallienus, Postumus, Marius, Claudius 
Gothicus, and Quintillus, who reigned from a.d. 264 to a.d. 270.^^ 
These coins assist us in getting an approximate date for the destruction 
of this building, as they had not been secreted where they were found, 
but had been left above the upper floor of the hypocaust, as some of 
them were found adhering to the hypocaust pillars, while others lay 
on the debris which had fallen into the broken hypocaust. A few 
coins were also found at other places marked on the plan. At each 
of the two places marked I) on the plan, portions of a skull and other 
human bones were found, evidently not interred there, which probably 
were those of persons who had perished during the destruction of the 
building. 

It is worthy of notice that in this building, as well as in all build- 
ings hitherto found on the line of the Wall, two features commonly 
observed in Southern Britain and other parts of the Roman Empire are 
entirely absent ; firstly, the bonding courses in the main walls made 
with thin tile-shaped bricks, and, secondly, the tesselated pavements 
which form such beautiful and artistic decorations of the floors. 

The masonry consists of well-squared freestone, apparently rather 
hUM in character than that of the camp walls and the great Wall 
itself, to which it bears some resemblance, the thicker walls having, 
like it, squared stones on each face, filled in with a rubble core made 
solid by a * grouting ' of mortar poured into the interstices in a semi- 
fluid condition. One of the sculptures on the Trajan column at 
Borne shows an armour clad Roman workman stirring up this thin 
mortar in a receptacle, then in use for carrying it, which has 
bpen replaced by the modem hod. The shape of this receptacle is 
exactly that of a modern waste-paper basket.^^ An excellent means of 
judging the comparative age of the buildings is afforded by the con- 
dition of the mortar in their walls, that in the older buildings being 
firm and intact, having contained a large proportion of well burnt lime, 
which, by gradually absorbing carbonic acid from the atmosphere, has 
reverted almost to its original condition when quarried, having 

•• See description in Appendix II. ** Bartoli, Colonna Traiana, p. 129. 



bi EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OP THE ROMAN WALL : 

become a solid carbonate of lime, hardened by the admixture of a 
small proportion of silica. Of the mortar of the later buildings found 
inaide the camp little remains except the coarse sand too freely used in 
its composition, which had been procured from a sand bed on the 
banks of the (>aw-burn, about half a mile distant. The rule that the 
earlier work is the better holds good with the mortar as it does with 
the masonry. In this building and in others subsequently found 
inside the camp, the pillars (pilae) which support the upper floor of 
the hypocausts are usually dressed stones from eighteen to twenty- 
four inches in height. Examples of their various forms may be seen 
in the accompanying illustrations. Some are simply cylindrical, while 
others bear a certain rude resemblance to altars, and small altars have 
actually been found which have evidently been disused hypocaust 
pillars on which the soldier has roughly chiselled a dedication to his 
favourite god, thus carrying out the vow, in fulfilment of which the 
altar was doubtless made, at the minimum of labour and expense. 

Pilae sometimes are formed of large square tile-shaped bricks 
about one and a half inch thick simply laid on each other until 
they reach the requisite height. Examples of this kind are found 
at ciLURNUM and procolitia, but do not occur at aesica. 

In one of the hypocausts found inside the camp, which is of very 
late work, the pilae are built up of small stones. The use of different 
shaped pilae in the same hypocaust indicates that the builders were 
dealing with previously used material. 

The pilae in the building being described rest on a floor of 
beaten clay, and support a course of flagstones about three inches 
thick, on which is laid a coating of about six inches of 'opus 
signinum,' a concrete apparently formed of the refuse of brickfields 
mixed with hot lime. Sometimes in the lower layers of this concre*#e 
the ground brick is replaced by small pebbles and coarse sand. 
Similar concrete is still used for the floors of kitchens and out- 
houses. Locally, in the neighbourhood of lead and baryta mines, the 
ground brick of the concrete is replaced by a whitish material 
known as 'mine cuttings,' which is the lighter portion of the vein 
material separated from the ores in the process of dressing, and consists 
chiefly of a white crystalline carbonate of lime found in great 
quantity in metalliferous veins. A stiU more durable concrete for 



AT GREAT CHBSTBBS (aeSICa). 68 

footpaths and other outdoor work, which has recently been 
extensively used, is made from the waste sif tings obtained in crushing 
whinstone by machinery for the purpose of making road-metal. 
These sif tings mixed in the proportion of four or five parts to one of 
cement form a concrete almost as enduring as granite. 

A careful examination, made in 1898, of the ancient masonry of 
Borne itself impressed me with the fact that, during the Imperial 
period, concrete was the chief building material used, stone, brick, or 
marble, forming usually only the outer covering or veneer. The most 
striking examples of the quantity and quality of the concrete there 
used are furnished by Hadrian's villa and the baths of Caracalla 
and Diocletian. 

Many writers on Rome appear to ignore altogether the existence 
of concrete, and Middleton seems to be the only one who has fully 
recognized and insisted on the extent of its use, even Parker and 
Lanciani failing to give any adequate impression of this most 
important point. The Tyne and Solway Roman Wall may fairly be 
described as a concrete wall faced with squared stones, as about 
three-fourths of its bulk consists of concrete. 

The roofs have been covered with rectangular grey slates of local 
stone which continued to be used throughout medieval times, but 
are now becoming obsolete in consequence of the comparative 
lightness and cheapness of Welsh slates, which require much slighter 
timber supports. They were laid square, and in lozenge fashion as was 
frequently the case in Roman buildings in the south, and were fastened 
with heavy iron nails. In later times the builders of Northumbrian 
pek towers made use of the shank bones of sheep for this purpose as 
a cheap substitute for nails. 

The interior walls of the various buildings found at aesica do 
not show so many traces of plaster as those at cilubnum, where 
much plaster was found in which ferns and other vegetable material 
had been used for bonding instead of hair, the leaf impressions 
being distinctly visible in it when first found. 

A heap of about a wheelbarrow load of what had evidently been 
finely prepared plaster, technically known as * putty Ume,' was found 
in the excavation of one of the buildings near the centre of the 
camp of which some account will follow. Arrangements were made 



54 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 



to fence and leave open this building, but it is to be regretted that 
exposure to the winters' frosts and the trespass of people who climb 




the railings and walk on the crumbling walls seem to be likely to 
eventuate in its total destruction. 

The late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, who made a careful survey and plan 



INSCRIPTIONS DISCOVERED AT GREAT CHESTERS (aBSICa), 55 



of the excavations of 1894-1895, definitely located the position of the 
east gateway of the camp. A cutting was made on the spot indicated 
by him, and the east faces of the north and south gateway towers were 
found and cleared, but no 
farther exploration could 
be carried out on account 
of the farm wall which 
had been carried through 
the portals and had 
partially destroyed them. 
This excavation showed 
the same difference be- 
tween the southern and 
northern gateway towers 
as that existing in the 
west gateway, the heavy, 
massive, early masonry 
bemg seen only in the 
sonthern tower. 

Considerable disappoint- 
ment was felt by members 
of the Committee that 
during the three years' 
excavations no inscribed 
stones had been found 
except some fragments of 
an unimportant character. 
This was to be accounted 
for so far as the camp 
was concerned by the fact 
that the explorations had 
chiefly been in the gate- 
ways and along the line of 
the outer walls of the camp 
where inscribed stones 

are rarely met with. In the hope, therefore, of finding something of 
more special interest than had been previously got, a trench was 




56 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE IJNE OP THE ROMAN WALL 



opened about ninety feet north of the central chamber and a little to 
the east of it, and driven south for over two hundred feet. It 
exposed the foundations of a large building to the east of the vaulted 

chamber, and fur- 
ther excavation 
showed that the 
vaulted chamber 
was a portion of a 
block of buildings 
measuring seventy- 
five feet from north 
to south. The plan 
and position of the 
building showed it 
to be the west end 
of the pretorium, 
and the measure- 
ment nearly coiTe- 
sponds to that 
of the pretorium 
since excavated at 
BOECOVICUS. On 
working eastward 
it became evident 
that the pretorium 
had been excavated 
and cleared out at 
some previous time, 
probably when the 
destruction of the 
north gateway took 
place. Little was 
found renudning 
except traces of its 
main walls, which 
disappeared entirely as the farm road and buildings were approached. 
Abutting against the south-west corner of the pretorium was found 




INSOBIPTIONS DISOOVBEBD AT GREAT CHBSTBES (aeSICa). 57 

another large block of buildings. The miscellaneous character of the 
materials used in Its construction showed it to be work of the latter 
part of the Roman occupation. In the wall separating a passage in 
this block from the pretorium, a very large and boldly moulded altar 
had been used as a walling-stone, being laid on its side. The 
relative position of this and other inscribed stones are shown in the 
plan of the central portion of the camp. The shape and mouldings 
of this altar showed it was probably erected early in the second 
century. Before it was used as building material it had stood in an 
exposed position without any protection from the weather for a very 
long period, as its inscription was totally obliterated. From the hard- 
ness of the stone and the amount of weathering it showed it might 
have faced the storms of a hundred or a hundred and fifty years. 
Doubtless it was made and erected shortly after the first occupation 
of the camp. It has been placed in the east chamber of the south 
gateway of the camp. 

In the room to the west of the passage where this altar was found 
two large inscribed funereal stones *^ had been used in flagging the floor, 
the partition wall separating the room from the passage having been 
bnilt on the eastern ends of both stones. The larger inscription has 
been partially obliterated by a rude channel cut diagonally across it. 
Sufficient, however, remains to show that it had been erected to 
* Aurelia, a dearest sister, aged fifteen years and four months.' The 
formation of the letters of its inscription, its shape, and its 
weathering all indicate that it is the earliest of the inscribed stones 
discovered, and there can be no doubt that it is second century work. 
On the other funereal stone the inscription is perfect, and dedicates 
it to the Gods of the Shades, by a daughter who had caused it to be 
erected in memory of her father, a Roman citizen of seventy years of 
age. Novellinus has been suggested as an extension of the name 
Hovel, the * e' and * 1 ' being ligatured in both places where the name 
appears in the inscription, but Novellius, a common Roman name, 
seems a much more probable rendering. In the name Llanuccus, a 
peculiarity is the doubling of the *1,' so common in the commence- 
ment of Welsh proper names. 

^ See Arch. Ael. vol. xix. p. 268-272, for description of the inscriptions by 
Mr. P. Haverfield. 



58 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE EOMAN WALL 



In the southern wall of the same room, about eighteen inches above 
the floor-level, was an altar which had been used as a walling-stone 
and laid face upwards. Its length is about four feet, and the 




inscription shows it was erected in fulfilment of a vow and dedicated 
to the Dolichene Jupiter by a centurion named Lucius Maximus, of 
the Twentieth Legion, surnamed the Valerian and Victorious. 
Various readings of the ten letters which follow the name of Lucius 



<^^ 




INSCRIPTIONS DISCOVERED AT GREAT CHE8TERS (ABStCA). 59 

Maximus have been suggested, none of which is satisfactory. The 
ornament immediately above the inscription resembles one which was 
afterwards commonly used in late Norman work and is known as 
the 'sunk star.' The shape of this altar and its inscription show 
that it cannot be earlier in date than the third century. 

Altars dedicated to the Dolichene 
Jupiter are not uncommon in many (; 
countries occupied by the Romans. | 
Several have been found in the North of \::^^ V- - ^/^ ^^ 
England and on the line of the AVall. "" H.>. A) ^ ' *.-> 
Warburton''^ and Horsley describe a 
fragment of one found at aesica, which 
is now in the library of the Dean and 
Chapter at Durham. Below are frag- 
mentary inscriptions found on broken 
stones during the excavations. 

Portions of a long inscription on a large ' tabula ansata ' were 
found, but unfortunately only a few letters were legible. In this block 
of buildings ten rooms were cleared out, three of which were furnished 
with hypocausts. The illustrations given of these hypocausts show 

^- -^ '7 





UNSOKIBSD TILS FROM AESIOA. 



great variety in the pilae, caused by the use of old materials. The 
round structures in little chambers adjoining the hypocausts appear 
to have been the hearths of furnaces used in heating the hypocausts. 



*' Warburton's Vallum liojnanum, page 73, fig. Ixi. 



60 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE BOMAN WALL I 



In one of the rooms, a number of large sqnared stones with 
square sockets cut in them seemed to show there had been a series of 




wooden posts used in supporting the upper storey of the building, 
which might also be constructed of wood. 

Further evidence of the occupation of aesica by the second 



AT GREAT CHESTERS (aeSICA). 



61 



oohorfc of Asturians was furnished by a portion of a tile bearing its 
stamp. Many fragments were found of the hollow square tiles used 




in carrying hot air up the walls of buildings having hypocausts. 
Among the metal objects found were a silver fibula, about one and a 



62 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL : 

half inches long, some bronze objects, apparently studs or ornaments, 
belonging to armour or horse trappings, and many much-corrode( 
iron tools. These, along with the pottery found, and the inscribec 
stones discovered, are now deposited in the Black Gate museum a 
Newcastle. 

The illustration which furnishes a tail-piece to this article 
a photograph of a stone, nine inches high, which was found 
to the south of the altar and the funereal stones. This stone 
much interest among the excavators, who gave the name of ' Ouk 
Charlie ' to the figure. It seems from comparison with figures foun( 
elsewhere in Roman camps that it is intended to represent the go( 
Mercury, the caduceus being very distinctly evident. 




is fron it \ 
a Uttli 11 I 
excite( I \ 



Al 



APPENDIX I. 

In addition to the coins noted in the report made in 1895 the following hai 
since been discovered : — 

Vespasian (^i2.). — 1. 

Obv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG. Head to right. 
JRev, Illegible. 

TITUS (^i2.).— 1. 

Obv AVG T VESP .... Head to right. 

Hev, Illegible. Emperor on horseback. 
Tbajan (^i2.).— 5. 

1. Obv DBS V cos VI. Head to right. 

Rev, s P Q B OPTIMO PEINCIPI. In exergue vesta. 

2. Obv. IMP TBAIANO AVG . . . . P M TB P. Head to right 

Itev. cos VI . . . 8 P Q B OPTIMO PBINCIPI. VictOl 

marching to left. 

3. Obv. IMP CAES NEB TBAIAN OPTIM AVG GEE DAC PAB 

. . Head to right. 
Bev, COS VI P P S P Q B. Valour marching to right wi 

spear. 

4 AIANO GEE DAC P M TB P. COS . Head to rigt 

6. lUegible. 

Hadbian (^jR.).— 2. g 

1. Obv HADBIANVS AVG. Head to right. 

Bev. p M TB p pp cos III. In field felic avg. 

2. Obv, HADBIANVS AVGVSTVB. Head to right. 
Rev. COB in. 

And one which cannot be identified. 
(The above denarii were all found together below a fiag, see p. 43.) 



II 



N 




^NG N?ll, 




iinccntapooASjOay & Son LI*! lit^ 



corns DISCOVERED AT GBEAT CHBSTBES (aESICA). 68 

Marcus Aubblius (AR.).— Illegible. 
Faustina the younobb (-4i?.).— 2. 

1. Obv. PAVSTiNA AVOVSTA. Head to right. 

2. Rev, VBNVS. Figure seated to left. 
ViCTOBiNUS (AE,), — 2. Illegible. 
Tbtbicus (-4 J^.)«— 3, of which two are illegible. 

Obv, Illegible. 

Rev. LABTITIA AVG. 

Tbtbicus, the younger (AE.). — Illegible. 
Const ANTiNB (-4^.). — 

Obv NVS P P AVGQ. Veiled head. 

GONSTANS (AE.),^i, 

Rev, VICTOBIA DD NN AYGO. 

Valentinian (AE.). — Illegible. 

Three dejiarii, three second brass, and one third brass cannot be 



identified. 



APPENDIX II. 



The hoard of coins found in hypocaust in suburban building No. III. 
Csee p. 6). 

Valbbian (base denaHus). — 1 

Obv, IMP VALEBIANVS AVG. Radiated head to right. 
Rev. VICTOBIA AVG. Victory standing to left, holding out a gar- 
land, in left hand a transverse spear. 
Gallibnus (hsLBie denarii?). — 3 

1. Obv. IMP GALLIENVS AVG. Radiated head to right. 

Rev. DIANAB CON& Stag walking to left. In exergue xii. 

2. Obv, Ibid, 

Rev, NBPTVNO CONS. A sea-horse to right. In exergue N. 

3. Obv, Ibid, 

Rev, PAX ABTBBNA AVG. Peace standing to left, holding 
olive branch, and a spear transversely. In field A. 
POSTUMUS (base <f«iwrw). — 6 

1. Obv, IMP c POSTVMVS P P AVG. Radiated head to right. 
Rev, HKBC DBVSONIENSI. Hercules, naked, standing to 

right, holding a club. 

2. Obv. Ibid. 

Rev. [pax AVG]. Peace standing to left, holding out an 
olive branch in right hand transverse spear in left. 

3. Obv, Ibid, 

Rev. P M TB p cos III. Mars, nude, marching to right, 
with a spear and a trophy. 

4. Obv. Ibid, 

Rev, p M TB P COS . . . Female figure standing, hold- 
ing a spear and a cornucopia. 

Carry forward ... 9 



64 EXCAVATIONS ON THE LINE OF THE ROMAN WALL. 

Brought forward ... 9 
6. Obv. Ibid. 

Rev. PBOVIDENTIA AVG. Providence standing to left, 
holding a globe, and a spear transversely. 

Mabius.— 1 

Obv, IMP M AVB MABIYS p F AVQ. Radiated and draped 

bust to right. 
Rev. Holding a garland and a palm branch. 

Tbtricus, the elder (all illegible).— 7 

Tbtbicus, the younger (reverses illegible, 3). — 5 

Rev. VIBTVS AVG. A soldier to left, with standard. 
Rev. SALVS. . . . Health standing. 
Claudius GoTHicus.— 4 

1. Obv. IMP CLAVD . . . Radiated head to right. 

Rev, ANNONA AVG. Abundance standing to left, holding 
ears of com and a cornucopia, and placing her foot on a 
ship's prow. 

2. The same. 

3. Obv. imp clavdivs p p avg. Radiated head to right. 
Rev. FIDBS MILIT. Faith standing to left, holding a standard 

and a spear. 

4. Obv. imp cl . . . Radiated head to right 

Rev. VIBTVS AVG. Soldier, helmeted, standing to left, lean- 
ing on a shield and holding a spear. In field a star and H. 

QUINTILLUS.— 1 

Obv. IMP c M AVB QViNTiLLVci AVG. Radiated bust to right. 

Rev. LAETiTiA AVG. Joy Standing to left, holding an anchor 
which rests on a globe. In field xii. 

Third brass illegible 8 

Minimi 86 

120 




mercury; («m p<^te 69). 



65 



II.-ON EEOENT DISCOVERIES IN THE CHAPEL OF 

RABY CASTLE. 

By J. P. Pritohbtt of Darlington. 

[Read on the 27th November, 1901.] 

Whilst recently engaged in decorating and re-arranging the 
fittings of the private chapel at Raby castle, I was led to make 
investigations for hidden ancient features, consequent on remarks 
relating thereto, in the privately printed handbook to the castle, by 
the late duchess of Cleveland, and by statements of the rev. 
J. F. Hodgson in his exhaustive papers on the castle in the Tran%' 
actions of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham 
and Northumberland. 

As the history of Raby is well known to all northern archaeo- 
logists, I need not occupy time by going into that further than to say 
that the date of the chapel is fixed between 1362 and 1367. Mr. 
Hodgson points this out from the label terminations of the south 
windows, bearing what he considers portrait heads of lord John NeviU 
and his first wife Maud Percy, the latter of which bears the Percy 
crescent on a necklace. 

For a long time previous to 1848, when Mr. Hodgson says he 
remembers it, the chapel was almost in ruins, with the windows 
boarded up, etc. In about 1848, duke Henry — the second duke — 
carried out extensive works of restoration, and, in the chapel, put on 
a nearly flat deal ceiling, reconstructed the stonework of windows, 
broke out modem doors, and stoothed and plastered the whole of the 
internal walls, lining them to imitate stone, the consequence 
being that all the ancient features, except four windows, were hidden. 
Having obtained lord Barnard's consent and instructions, and guided 
by the statements in the two works above named, I commenced 
to explore, and found the ancient features which are shewn on the 
drawings exhibited and here reproduced, and which I may describe 
as follows : 

(▲) The plain two-light window close to east end on south side 
was walled up with four and a half inches brick wall on the outside, 



66 DI8C0VEBIES IK RABT CASTLE. 

and lathed and plastered on the inside, so the opening, which disclosed 
jambs ten feet wide, was very soon made. You will observe that 
the sill has a very steep splay and the head is spanned by three plain 
cross arches in steps, like many other arched openings and corridors 
in the castle ; and an extraordinary thing is, that it crosses over the 
side chamber hereafter named. 

(b) The next feature explored, was the flat-headed six-light 
window or screen at the west end. The first idea was, that it had 
been an outside window opening on to the roof of the original lower 
hall before the upper or baron's hall was built over it ; a close 
examination, however, shews that this was not the case ; it never wa& 
glazed, though there are remains of saddle bars to form protection, 
and the detail shews the window to be coeval with the baron's hall ; 
I think, therefore, it has been an open or screen-window opening 
from the chapel into the baron's hall to enable the members of the 
household who could not get into the chapel to hear and witness the 
service going on at the opposite end of the chapel. 

(c) Close to the west end is part of one jamb and springer of 
arch of the original door into the chapel, which must have been very 
narrow, as it opened on to a narrow newel staircase which 
Mr. Hodgson remembers. The remains of the sill of this door, and 
of another at the south side, to be presently described, shew that the 
floor was in 1845 raised four feet four and a half inches to get the 
sham groining in the carriage way underneath, no doubt at the same 
time that the floor of the baron's hall was raised about eleven feet to 
make the under hall higher, and get the sham groining there. These 
levels show that originally the floor of the baron s hall was on the 
level that the chapel floor is now. 

So far, all has been simple enough, but when we come to the 
discoveries near the east end, things are more complicated. 

(d) We have there a piscina in the east wall, of the same date as 
the chapel, and exactly like one of the same date in the neighbouring 
church of Staindrop, just outside Raby park ; but, whether it is in 
situ^ or was moved from the usual position on the south side when 
the alterations hereafter to be described were made, it is impossible 
t^ say ; I IMnk the masonry shews indications of its being an 
insertion. ^ 






LJ 

-J 

H 
I/) 

< 



>- 

< 



UJ 

< 

X 

o 



I 

■i 




z 
< 



I 



mSOOVEBIBS IN BABT CASTLB. 67) 

(b) On the soath side is part of the original' s^dilia apd a 
narrow ogee-headed door opening into a chamber which was originally 
thirteen feet six inches by five feet three inches, bnt subsequently 
widened to seven feet six inches by cutting away the inside of the 
oater wall, and leaving part of the rubble arch above hanging on 
nothing. I think this chamber has been twice altered ; first about 
1450, when an east window was cut out and the side wall cut away 
in the reckless way I have named, probably to transform the vestry 
or priest's room into a private chapel or oratory, and, I think the 
hagioscope was cut through the sedilia, in the rough way shown, at 
the same time, but why this hagioscope was cut so far west, and 
doae to the door it is difficult to say, unless it was for attendants 
standing or kneeling behind the lord or lady to see the altar of 
chapel. Then about 1580-1540, which would be in the time of the 
foarth earl of Westmorland (1530-1544), further alterations were 
made by the insertion of a three-light screen window with four- 
centred uncusped lights which have never been glazed ; and meant no 
doubt, like the earlier six-light window at the west end to enable 
worshippers to join in the service being performed in the chapel. 

The most extraordinary thing about this building is the fact, 
that the fiat arch across the west end of the side chamber, which 
must have been turned after the room was widened by cutting away 
the wall, supports the vault, thirteen feet and a half span, of this 
chamber of earlier date, and how such a massive vault was sup- 
ported whilst this arch was inserted at its springing is a complete 
mystery to me. 

What we have done to make these newly discovered features 
presentable, is as follows : the west screen, south door, sedilia, and 
piscina, are merely cleared of mortar and pointed, the south screen 
is treated similarly, except that we have restored two pieces of the 
jambs that had been cut away for the insertion of joists, eleven inches 
by three inches, when the floor was raised four feet four and a half 
inches ; and I have formed two trap doors in the floor, to shew when 
opened, the full height of the south door and screen. 

The east window of the side chamber is to be restored and the 
vault made safe by inserting a girder under the part cut away. 



68 



DISCOYEBIES IN BABY CASTLE. 



It was found that althongh it would be practicable to remove the 
imitation groining over the carriage way below, and to lower the 
floor of the chapel to its original level, that such a proceeding would 
involve several problems which would require more time, incon- 
venience and trouble than could at that time be afforded. It is, 
however, to be hoped that on the first convenient occasion this work 
will be carried out. 

I may say that lord and lady Barnard took great interest in the 
work, and invited to meet me, the rev. J. F. Hodgson, vicar of 
Witton, who knows the castle better than any one, and the rev. 
D. H. S. Cranage, University Extension lecturer on Architecture, and 
author of a book on the churches of Shropshire ; and I think I may 
say that we all fairly agreed on the above descriptions and dates. 

NoTB. — The drawings, reproduced in the plates facing p. 66, have been 
made by J. Pritchett & Son since the works of exploration and renovation were 
carried out. They show in detail the features described in the paper. 




EARLY SUNDIALS IN ST. OUTHBEBT'S CHUBCH, DABLINGION. (See p. xix.) 



69 



III.— NOTES ON ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY 
ENGINES, ETC. 

By Robert Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., V.P. 

[Read on the 27th March, 1901.] 

The warlike engines of ancient Rome would appear to have been 
the descendants of those shown on the granite sculptures ol Persepolis. 
The Greeks employed thenu Vastly improved engines were made 
by the famous Archimedes at Syracuse, during the reign of his 
relative, Hiero IL, B.C. 270-216, but no particulars have been pre- 
served. The engines he constructed were employed later, with great 
effect, when the Romans besieged Syracuse. 

They were practically the same for attack and defence, and have 
been described by Vitruvius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Vegetius, 
and other writers ; but what with the mistakes of the copyists, and 
especially the absence of any drawings explanatory of the text, or 
in fact any at all beyond certain monumental inscriptions which 
do not help us much, it is most difficult to differentiate or clearly 
nnderstand them. The chroniclers almost all disagree with each 
other in many essential points, but it must not be forgotten that 
the writers who are most at variance chronicle quite different centuries 
in the history of the Roman world. 

Industrious attempts have been made by several modern writers to 
reduce these descriptions to some clear system of mechanics ; and 
with the assistance afforded by what is known of earlier medieval 
engines, all of which inherited their lines of action from Roman times, 
a considerable degree of success has been achieved in formulating the 
principles and details of construction. 

The mechanical agencies employed in the working of Roman 
military engines may be described as 'tension' and Horsion,' two 
principles often applied in combination for this purpose ; and to 
these may be added, in the case of the onager, the use of the sling. 

A sunmiary of the conclusions of these authorities and of others 
would imply that the scorpion was a huge crossbow, with an 
added sliding plane for securing an accelerated action, and limited to 



70 ROMAN ANB HEDIBYAli HILITABY ENGINES : 

the throwing of darts ; and that the catapnlta and ballista were 
worked on the principle of tension, as represented in the nse of 
the bow, but with added appliances for increasing the initial pro- 
X)elling force of the first cause of action, by means of bringing the 
agency of torsion into play, in order to secure an augmented power 
or double action ; these energies being concentrated, so to speak, into 
one cumulative force, applied, in the case of the ancient catapulta for 
the throwing of large darts or javelins, and in that of the much larger 
(Roman) ballista for hurling stones ^ weighing 860 pounds each, as 
well as javelins twelve cubits in length.' ^ Tacitus (lib. Hi) says, in his 
description of a battle near Cremona between the armies of YitelUus 
and Vespasian, that the former had a ballista, belonging to the 
15th l^on, that threw enormous stones ; and Josephus speaks of the 
Romans having a train of 800 catapnltae and 40 ballistae at the siege . 
of Jerusalem. 

The principle of torsion was applied to these machines by 
providing them with a strong rectangular frame of hard wood, con- 
structed in three compartments, firmly fixed on to a stand, which was 
also made very strong. Instead, then, of employing the energy 
represented by the simple bow, as supplied in the case of the scorpion 
or the crossbow, and assuming such arc or bow to be divided into 
four quarters, only the two outer quarters were used,^ the two middle 
quarters being dispensed with, and in their place was the frame. The 
two inner ends of the outer quarters of the arc were firmly fixed in 
two upright shuttles with strands of twisted sinews (tormenta) which 
were held on the axis (sucula) in the middles of each of the outer 
compartments of the frame, so that the bending of this combination 

gave much more elasticity and 
propulsive force than was obtain- 
able with the ordinary bow ; thus, 
in fact, providing a recoil strong 
and forcible enough to project 
heavy darts to a distance of 250 

FIQ. L-PBINCIPLB OF THE CATAPULT •' *****»« "^ « vudwcwxv/^ vi. ^a\J 

AND BALLISTA. yards, which is a longer flight 

^ Taking the Roman cubit at seventeen inches and four tenths this would 
make the missile over seventeen feet long, which is, to say the least, eztraordinar}'. 

* Procopius very naturally says that the longer these quarters were the more 
forcible the machine. 




OATAPULTAB AND BALLlSTAE. 



71 



than was ever attained by the crossbow. A representation of | this 
frame shown in a MS. of the tenth century, no. 17,389, in the 
National Library, Paris (fig. 1), will explain the principle at a 
glance. 

This added movement, if it may be so described, is the one so 
laboriously worked out by Vitruvius, as applied to the catapulta and 
ballista. The diflBculty in applying the details handed down by 
these authorities for reconstructing the engines lies mainly in the 
errors made in the original dimensions of the various parts by the 
copyists. 



:^■^<i 




JPIO. 2.— SOLDIERS WITH A BALLISTA (CX)LUMN OP TRAJAN). 

Beferring to the ballista Ammianus Marcellinus says that sm^all 
windlasses were employed for pulling the cord into position, and thia 
was doubtless the case with the catapulta also. The mechanism of 
the windlass was thus handed down to medieval times in its applica- 
tion for the same purpose in the case of the crossbow and other 
military engines. The main difference in the details of the two 
machines lies in the adaptation of the table or missile plane, in such 
a manner as best to bring the cumulative energy of the apparatus 
to bear on such widely different missiles as darts and stoned. 



72 



ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 



A relief on Trajan's colnmn (erecfced a.d. 118) depicts two soldiers 
working a ballista in the embrasure of a bastion. Oth^ reliefs on the 
colnmn show similar engines on corner towers, and others drawn by 
mules. These engines varied very much in size, and some were very 




riw 3.^M0tieL of a 



rAl4 LTA tMAIlE AT XKUDOSi. 



small hand-iQachines. Livy says tliati there were taken &t the siege of 
Carthage 120 large and ^00 small catapultae, and 33 laj^ge anl 52 
email ballietae. Athenaens speaks of a catapult only one foot in length. 
The excavations at Ardoch, male in 1^98, yieldGd 20 bullets of red 



OATAPULTAB AND BALLISTAE. 



73 



Bahdstone weighing from 6 oz. to 2^ lb. each. The illustration (fig. 2) 
has been taken from Schreiber's Atlas of Classical Antiquities. All details 
are omitted; still the mere outline of the engine has proved of great assist- 
ance in helping out the written records in all attempts at reconstruction. 




PIQ 4.— MODEL OF A BALLI8TA (MADE AT MBUDON). 

Josephus writes of the terrible character of the stone-casting 
engines of the Romans at the siege of Jerusalem, when their missiles 
beat down the battlements of the sacred city, disabling similar 
engines on the walls, and thinning the ranks of the intrepid defenders. 
Stones were thrown the weight of a talent (about 100 lb.), and were 
carried two furlongs and farther. Figs. 3 and 4 give some idea of 
Roman catapultas and ballistas. 



10 



74 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

The onager donbtless took its name from the wild ass, suggested 
by its kick as represented by the recoil, and that the concussion 
must have been very great is obvious from the construction of the 
machine, which was worked on a system of torsion furnished by an 
adaptation of ' tormenta ' or twisted cords manipulated by a lever ' 
with an added sling, a form apparently much more effective for the 
hurling of heavy stones, rather than an impulse given by letting slip 
the cord of a bow, however augmented by auxiliary appliances ; but, 
as will be seen later in these pages, it would seem that the form of 
torsion of the onager was not applied very long before Ammianus 
wrote concerning it, though, as already stated, he refers to the engine 
as * formerly called scorpion,' which, however, could nob well have been 
the case, as that machine was in all probability named after the reptile, 
as suggested by its form and sting. The onager had a great advantage 
over the ballista in point of strength, and was best adapted for throwing 
heavy missiles among masses of men, or into camps and towns, rather 
than for hitting smaller objects with precision ; but it could not have 
had the same nicety of aim as the bow-fashioned engines, which dis- 
charged their projectiles point-blank, while those launched from the 
onager of necessity described a great parabolic curve. The motive 
power of both classes of machines must have been greatly affected by 
atmospheric changes and the weather generally. Fig. 5 gives some 
idea of the ancient onager. 

The cords of these engines of antiquity were as much as eight inches 
thick, and made of the leg tendons of animals, or sometimes of 
women's hair, and the word ' tormenta ' was the general designation 
given to the machines, as suggested by the twisting and untwisting of 
the coils, by means of which the propulsive force was applied. 

It would seem that during the later centuries of the Western 
Empire the nomenclature of engines of war had got very much mixed, 
or that their names had become interchangeable. The same feature 
of uncertainty becomes even more pronounced in the records con- 
cerning them during the middle ages, when it was quite common 
to bestow pet or fancy names upon them, without any further 
designation. 

3 The children's skipjack affords a familiar illustration of the application of 
torsion, 



THE ONAGER. 



76 



While Vitruvius, who was an architect by profession, living in 
the Augustan age, and whose evidence has great weight and 




authority, speaks of the ballista as throwing stones and darts, missiles 
so very different in bulk and character, Ammianus Marcellinus, 



76 ilOMAN AKD ^EBlEVAJj MitlTARY Bl^GmEfi : 

the soldier and historian, writing in the reign of the emperor 
Gonstantius II. and Yegetins somewhat later,^ refer to that engine as 
being used for darts only. The two last named chroniclers, 
however, wrote much later than Vitruvius, so it seems probable 
that the onager came first into vogue rather early in the fourth 
century. There is, moreover, no doubt, that the early Roman 
ballista shot stones and beams of wood as well as darts, for Polybius, 
bom B.C. 202, makes mention of it in that sense. This testimony is 
early, but springing over to the other extreme in point of time, we 
find Procopius, the soldier secretary of Belisarius, who wrote in the 
sixth century of our era, stating in De Bello Gothico that the ballista 
of his day threw both bolts and darts ; while Abbo, in his poem of the 
ninth century, says the same thing in connexion with the siege of 
Paris by the Vikings, anno 886. Mr. Grose in his Military Antiquities 
gives reproductions of the labours of Mr. Newton in working out 
models of the scorpion, catapulta and ballista, mainly based on the 
descriptions given of these machines by Vitruvius ; and there may be 
seen at the Chateau de St. Germain-en-Laye eight most interesting 
and carefully constructed models of catapultae, ballistae and onagri, 
which were made at Meudon, under the direction of General de Reffeye, 
by order of the late emperor Napoleon III. As you see from the 
drawings exhibited to-night the first named engines (catapulta and 
ballista) differ somewhat from those worked out by Mr. Newton, but 
it must be remembered that considerable changes had taken place in 
the details of these engines from the times, say, of the emperor 
Hadrian to those of Gonstantius II., when the scorpion would seem 
to have dropped altogether out of use. 

The materials for the figure of the onager on the drawing were 
taken by general Melville from the text of Ammianus and others, and 
the model of the same class of engine by general de Reffeye, as 
shown on fig. 5, was doubtless also arrived at from the same 
sources, in conjunction with the descriptions of Hero ^ and Philo ; 
and it will be observed that the two models differ considerably, 
that of the English general being much the simpler of the 

^ Yegetius, 375-392 A.D., dedicated a treatise on the Art of War to the emperor 
Valentinian II. 

^ Hero of ByKantium. 



TSB CATAPULT, BALLISTA, AND ONAGER. 77 

two.^ The photographs show the smaller details and appliances 
very clearly. The cushion arrangement for deadening the force 
of the recoil, is absent on general Melville's reduction. Figs. 3, 
i and 5 are reproductions from photographs of the machines 
made at Meudon, representing the catapulta, the balista and the 
onager respectively. 

We will now assume that these ancient war engines were worked 
on the principles set forth, and we find them handed down to 
medieval times with similar looseness as to nomenclature^ for the 
names ballista and catapulta were retained in the middle ages, but 
often applied to quite different engines from those of the Roman 
world bearing the names, and as time went on the confusion became 
greater and greater. An extreme instance of this confusing habit 
may be cited in the case of John de Monte Reggio, who refers to 
cannon as tormenti to shoot spJicera tormeniaria. 

In Dr. Bruoe's Raman Wall we find reference made to two 
inscriptions found at bbeheniuh with the word ' ballistarium ' men- 
tioned in both. It expresses the platform on which a ballista or other 
warlike engine was stationed ; and a portion of the rampart is as much 
as 28 feet thick, and heavily buttressed, near where the inscription 
was found. At boecovicus a number of roughly hewn stones, 
weighing from one to one and a half hundredweights each, for 
feeding military engines, was found. The form of these stones is 
roughly a cone flattened at one end which is sharply cut ; and the find 
is all the more interesting and important as it explains in some measure 
how and where the action of the cord was brought to bear on the 
projectile for its discharge. 

At BORCOVIGUS on the north wall, west of the gateway, a short 
second wall of inferior masonry has been built, and the intervening 
qmoe filled in with clay and stones, thus forming a platform within 
the outer wail on which an engine was placed. Doubtless this 
platform h:td been built up sufficiently high to enable the missiles to 
be discharged over the heads of the defenders on the wall itself. That 
some provision of this sort was usually made in all works of the kind 
is shown by Anunianus Marcellinus, who states in lib. xxiii. that the 

' This machine was made at Gibraltar for nse against the Spaniards, to reach 
places inaccessible to shells. 



78 EOMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

platforms for military engines were bailt contignoasto, rather than on 
a wall, and did not form part of it^ for he adds that the concnssion 
from the discharge was of such a natare as would have endangered the 
stability of the wall itself, had the machines been used directly 
upon it. This writer, though he does not exclude brick, mostly 
refers to cespiticious walls (* super congestos cespites vel latericios 
aggeres '), on which the force of concussion would act diflferently from 
what it would do on a wall of masonry, and his remarks specially apply to 
projections built against a wall. Fig. 2 shows how ballistas were 
stationed on corner bastion towers in Trajan^s reign. These bastions 
rose no higher than the curtain. It is stated in the Bible, 2 
Chronicles, xxvi. 15, that Dzziah 'made engines at Jerusalem, 
invented by cunning men, to be on the towers and upon the bulwarks, 
to shoot arrows and great stones withal.^ ^ All medieval experience 
goes to show that even the trebuchet, hereinafter described, was used 
on stone towers, at Carcassonne for instance. It would seem, then, that 
the isolation of military engines on projecting bastion towers was the 
rule. 

To the north of the east gateway at borcovicus is a solid platform 
of masonry twenty feet square, which is also probably a ballistarium. 
Hyginus calls these platforms ' tribunaliae.^ Stances are present along 
the walls of Silchester, especially near the gates. 

The northernmost frontier of the Empire in Britain, tl e vallum in 
Scotland, a ' murus cespidcius,' also affords some suggestions as to trib- 
unaliae, and a good many projectiles have been unearthed. This line 
of fortification was constructed during the reign of Antoninus Pius,® 
by Lollius Urbicus, and is believed to have extended from Caeriden on 
the Forth to Alcluyd on the Clyde. Only vestiges of the eighteen 
castella, built about two miles apart, remain, and the rampart, 
which is stated to have been twenty feet high,® is now only visible 
in reaches at a few places along the line ; while the fosse, 
originally twenty feet deep, has been much filled up and almost 
obliterated in many places ; indeed for miles, especially at the Clyde 
end, it is only traceable by the colour of the soil. Fortunately, the 

' B.C. 840-811. 

' In his third consulship — probably about 140 A.D. 

' Judging from the base I cannot think it was ever so high. 



THE ANTONINE WALL. 79 

suTveyB made by Gordon about 1726, and by Roy more than half a 
century later, when the works were in a much better state of preser- 
vation than they are at present, have been passed on to us. 

The Scottish vallum, a wall of sods built upon a foundation 
course of stones, now popularly known as Graham's Dyke, but 
formerly Grime's Dyke, exhibits swelling projections along its entire 
course and, as far as can be seen from what remains of it, at some- 
what regular intervals ; and these projections are not built in the 
same layers with the wall itself, but are constructed conversely alongside 
of it, as in a manner is also the case at borcovicus. These thickenings 
of the walls are undoubtedly the remnants of stances for military 
engines. It is uncertain whether these stances were built contempor- 
aneously vrith the wall or not, and it may be that they were later 
additions to provide for the much greater recoil of the onager, and 
the way the sods are laid might seem to lend some colour to such a 
sappofiition. 

Near to Polmont are distinct traces of the fosse, and a long and 
deep piece of it may be seen in the park at Callendar castle, which 
lies a little to the east of the town of Falkirk, though but few 
traces, either of the vallum or the causeway, are to be observed along 
this portion of the barrier, or in fact on any part of it where the 
ground has been turned over for the purposes of agriculture. At 
Bough-castle and Tentfield, a little to the west of Falkirk, the 
fosse, berm and vallum run along for a considerable distance in 
a fine condition of preservation ; while the causeway is obviously 
represented in the present carriage road, running for a distance by 
their side. The fosse measures here 50 feet wide and 12 feet deep ; 
the berm 18 feet broad ; foundation of vallum 1 5 feet. Distance to 
public road, supposed to be the old military way, 60 feet. The 
stances for military engines are well marked. Farther on, at Elf 
billy towards Castle Carey, the entire fortification, and the causeway, 
extend for a considerable distance in excellent condition : and here 
again the stances are in evidence. The extensive station of Rough- 
castle exhibits all its features, in respect to the external lines of forti- 
fication, in almost perfect preservation, excepting for the height of the 
converging vallum, which is however still considerable, and very clearly 
find continuously marked. Breaks in the Hue show its cespiticious 



80 ROMAN AND HBDIEVAL HILITABY ENGINES: 

character ; and it is remarkable that the process of attrition and 
denudation has been so very gradual. The gateways and main 
thoroughfares of the station are clearly marked. The luxuriant 
growth of bracken alone interrupts what would otherwise have presented 
a perfectly distinct outline of the entire works, which, however, most 
be very obvious at the seasons when this vegetation has died down. 
The berm, which is common to all fortifications of the kind, is 
sharply marked, and its use in connexion with military engines is 
very obvious — it enabled them to rake the fosse not only directly 
but obliquely as well. 

This northern barrier is quite homogeneous, and presents none of 
the perplexities arising from the more varied, and perhaps double, 
character of the more pretentious sister line of fortifications farther 
south. I have been informed that a careful report of excavations on 
the line of the Antonine Wall has been prepared, under the auspices of 
the Glasgow Archaeological Society, giving full particulars of the 
stances and their measurements ; but I have not seen it, and the 
space at my disposal on this occasion will not permit of my going any 
further into that matter, which is, after all, only incidental to the 
subject of these notes. 

In the museum at the Black Gate is the cast of a tablet inscribed 
to the emperor Antoninus Pius, recording the completion of three 
miles of the Scottish vallum. The little Quide to the Castle of New- 
castle informs us that the original was taken to Chicago, but was 
destroyed in the great fire there. 

When the Visigoths took possession of the southern provinces ot 
Gaul in the fifth century, with Toulouse for their capital, they 
brought Roman methods and traditions with them, and these 
were handed down through this people to that very elastic 
generalisation of time, the middle ages. The military system and 
tactics of the Visigoths, which may be said to have been derived 
from the Romans, were, however, much modified by the Franks, 
who held greatly to their own more barbarous Germanic methods 
of warfare, in which courage and impetuosity were far more con- 
spicuous than organization, continuity and tenacity ; but military 
engines continued uninterruptedly on the old models, and so remained 
with variations, excepting in the adaptation of a system of connter- 



INTRODUCTION OF CANNON. 81 

poise for heavier engines, until a new departure took place in the 
introduction of the epoch-making bombard. It must not be supposed, 
however, that mechanical engines of war were at once superseded by 
cannon ; on the contrary it was long before ordnance had advanced 
suflBciently, either in power or precision, to compete with the older 
engines for many purposes ; and they continued to be used contem- 
poraneously with them, both on land and sea, until the sixteenth 
century. The continuity from Roman to medieval times thus ran 
on far more unbroken lines than is often supposed ; and much of 
what may have been lost to Europe during the interval was preserved 
by the Byzantine empire, and brought back again by the Crusaders 
from Constantinople, Egypt, Asia Minor and Palestine. 

That period of reconstruction, not very happily generalized as the 
dark ages, furnishes us with but scanty records, for when Rome fell, 
the general scramble left little time or opportunity for the chronicler 
to record events, which moved then with great rapidity ; and it was 
not before the European nations had, in a measure, become organized 
and consolidated that we are put into possession of fuller infor- 
mation concerning their doings. Still, there is ample evidence of the 
continuous use of mechanical engines, which are mentioned in 
accounts of the sieges of Rome in 537, Nismes in 637, and Paris in 
885. In the Capitulare Aquisgranmse of the year 813, the marshals 
of the forces of Charlemagne are enjoined to supply suitable stones 
for the ' fundibuli,' that is, machines with slings, probably onagri. 
The engines of these early times were much more rudely constructed 
than their Roman prototypes. 

The early Norman castle was more an isolated seat of power, amidst 
hostile surroundings, rather than a place of refuge for the neigh* 
bouring vassals and serfs when menaced by an enemy ; and it was 
practically impregnable as against the then means ot attack, which 
consisted mainly in the use of the bore or the ram, besides occasionally 
* sap and mine,' covered by archers ; and it could hold out very often 
as long as the provisions lasted. Mining o{ierations were but rarely 
resorted to in attacks on these strongholds, which were frequently 
built on rocky eminences, or on the high mounds previously occupied by 
the Anglo-Saxon * burhs.' When fully garrisoned the defenders were 
able to concentrate their strength rapidly on any given point, and, 

VOL xznr. 11 



82 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES ! 

assuming the outworks to have been forced, the high and massive 
character of the donjon, which had no woodwork to set fire to, and 
which commanded not only the whole of the surrounding defences, 
but beyond them, defied all attempts at a ooup-de-main or escalade. 
The fencing in of towns by stone walls, which involved the defence 
of a great frontage, began to be more general after the second 
crusade, and it was then that military engines, with the use of war- 
sheds, towers, etc., once more commenced to play a great part in the 
reduction of fortified places, and this state of things continued until 
the manufacture of cannon and gunpowder had passed out of their 
rude and experimental stages. 

We notice first in the records of the thirteenth century that 
special corps of ' gynours ' or * ingegneors ' were attached to armies, 
not only for the construction of warlike engines, but also to work 
them, and they had charge of the military train. 

Groping among old Latin records for differentiating these machines 
is a difficult and unsatisfactory quest, but medieval literature is worse 
again in the hopeless inaccuracy and confusion of nomenclature and 
description. Very little information of a definite character conciem- 
ing these machines reaches us from the dark ages, but what thei*e is 
shows that early medieval engines continued to be worked on the 
Roman principles of tension and torsion. That of counterpoise, as 
represented by the tr^buchet (catapult), first i^pears in the thirteenth 
century, probably very early. I have not found any pre-Conquest 
mention of large military engines in England, but they are referred to 
in Domesday Book. In spite of the numerous names for these machines 
in common use in the middle ages, there were practically only three, 
or at most four, types, but many varieties of these, differing some- 
what in size and unimportant details ; and these notes have been 
written with a view of differentiating them more clearly. 

Froissart in his chronicles frequently alludes to military engines, 
but seldom by name. Indeed he usually refers to them in general terms, 
such as * great machines were made for hurling rocks and darts,' and his 
mode of allusion is shared in, more or less, by all other medieval writers 
on the subject ; and it is partly these references that have brought so 
many historians and lexicographers to imagine that the wch*Js ^ catapult ' 
and * ballista,' as used in the middle ages, were interchangeable terms ; 



THE CATAPULT AND BALLISTA. * GREEK FIRE.' 83 

in fact, that either name could be applied to one and the same 
engine. It would seem that names were frequently coined for these 
machines, for Froissart in his account of the attack on the castle of 
Romorantin on the Sandre, mentions engines called *aqueraux' 
to fire * le feu gregois.' This name would seem to have originated in 
the special office or- function to which the engine was applied ; but 
there is no sort of suggestion as to its class or principles of construc- 
tion It may possibly have been one of those elementary pieces of 
artillery in the form of a hollow tube made of brass or iron, something 
of the kind used by the emperor Alexius Conmenus, as described by 
his daughter and biographer the princess Anna Comnena in the 
Alexiad, for discharging ' le feu gregois ' from his galleys ; or a cannon 
-* canons jetant feu' — for throwing Greek fire, which was in use in 
the reign of Edward III., and which is referred to in these notes 
under the heading of ' Greek Fire ' ; but it is far more likely to have 
been an engine work d on the direct counterpoise plan, one like the 
trebuchet ; and the Greek fire would in that case have been hurled 
into the beleagured castle enclosed in a barrel. Camden mentions 
machines he calls * malleoli,' usel ' in fiering buildings.' There is 
not infrequent mention in medieval records of these barrels of fire 
having been thrown by mechanical engines, or discharged by 
mortars, and their course is ofcen pictured as that of a fiery dragon ; 
but whether it was possible or not to apply fire at a vent before 
discharge can only be guessed at— old prints certainly depict the 
barrel as flying through the air with a tail of flame. The romances 
of chivalry abound with tales of encounters between knights errant 
and fiery dragons belching forth flames, and they possibly owe their 
origin to this cause, or to some other form of appUcation of Greek 
fire. The Godex Aureus of Saint Gall, a MS. of the ninth century, 
figures a horseman carrying a dragon-like looking fish, vomiting 
flames, transfixed on the point of his lance. 

We find warlike engines frequently confounded with each other in 
times removed bat little farther back from our own than those in 
which they had only quite recently become obsolete. For instance, in 
Camden's^® Remnnes Gonceming Brittaine the following passage 
occuTB :— *the balister in violent shoting great stones and quarrels, 

^ Camden died in 1023, aged 73 years. 



84 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITABY ENGINES: 

as also the catapultes'; and here we have no distinction whatever 
made between the two engines, at least as regards the missiles they 
discharged. Bat in Blount's Antient Tenures we find an item noted 
on page 92, * a spindle fall of raw thread to make a false string for the 
king's balister or crossbow.' This statement would imply that the 
medieval ballista was constructed on the principle of its confrere of 
the ancient world, and this is supported by Otto of Preising, writing 
in 1155, ^ tormenti e balista quam modo,' etc. This passage also bears 
a clear allusion to the spindle, as applied to Roman catapultae and 
ballistae, already illustrated in these pages by the figure in MS. 
17,389, in the National Library, Paris. Records of the twelfth 
century very often refer to ordinary crossbows as ballistae ; and the 
first portion of the passage in Blount classes the smaller and larger 
engines together, but the allusion made to the false string shows that 
the ballista was meant. 

There is some uncertainty as to the principle of the bricoUe. 
Proissart says it shot darts,^^ presumably like the espringal 
(springaus), the balista de turno, and the falarica. Guiart, writing in 
1297, refers to the * springold ' as throwing quarrels, feathered with 
brass. Camden in the Remaines writes, * Mangonels, Trabucches and 
Bricolles, wherewith they used to cast milstones ' ; and further on in 
his work, * some kind of Bricol it seemed which the English and 
Scotch called an Espringold, the shot whereof King Edward the first 
escaped sair at the siege of Strivelin [Stirling].' I think we may 
conclude that the bricolle, espringal, falarica and balista de turno 
were all worked on the combined principles of tension and torsion, 
after the fashion of the ancient catapulta and ballista. The 
springaus is several times scheduled in inventories of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries that have come down to us. In Accounts 
of the Constables of Dover Castle^ dated 1844, we have * iij. springald 
magnas, and iij. parve springald,' etc. The name of the balista 
de turno sufficiently indicates its description. The same Dover 
Accounts (1344) schedules ^ magna arbaliste ad turrm.' 

The ribaudequin is a huge crossbow on a small platform some- 
times moved on wheels and worked by tension only, constructed 

" At the siege of what Froiseart calls the town of Africa (Johnes ed., 
Tol. X., p. 194.) 



THE BRICOLLB, RIBAUDEQUIN, FALARICA, ETC. 85 

on the model of the ancient scorpion. It was fifteen feet 
in length, throwing javelins five feet long. A train of these 
engines, each drawn by a horse, formed part of the armament of 
John, doke of Burgundy, when he marched on Paris in 1411. The 
name would seem to be associated in some way with the free com- 
panies called ribauds.^^ The falarica, sometimes spelt phalarica, or 
trifax, is often mentioned as throwing fiery darts. This engine was 
used by the Saguntines, Livy tells us, when Hannibal besieged tho 
city (B.C. 219). The shaft of its projectile was wrapped round 
with tow, steeped in oil, and smeared with sulphur and resin, 
then ignited, and the missile launched against the pluteus (the 
prototype of the sow or oat) and the stationary tower called bastille, 
the ancient musculus ; and these beleaguering engines were frequently 
burnt by its agency. The falarica was worked on the lines of the 
ancient catapulta, great nicety of aim being required for its special 
work. The bible or beugle threw stones, and was probably a variety 
of the ballista. 

The mata-funda may be classed among fundibuli, or sling-throwing 
engines (f auditor^ a slinger), as mentioned in Gapitulare Aquisgran- 
ense, anno 813 ; and this machine was a form of the ancient onager.^^ 
The tricoUe seems to have been another name for the bricoUe, or the 
word misspelt by the copyist. 

The mangon or mangona, with its diminutive mangonel (from 
which we probably have the word gonne, gon or gun), was worked by 
torsion. There are instances however of this name having been 
applied to machines where counterpoise was employed, but it was 
common enough to carry on the old names to new departures, thus 
causing great difficulty and perplexity to the historian. 

The names of mechanical engines were sometimes handed down 
to cannon, for in a paper printed in Archaeologia^ vol. xxx, concerning 
stone shot, mention is made of a survey of ships dated 25th January, 
1575, in which is an inventory of shot carried on board the * Eliza 
Bonadventure,* and one item is ^ polished stone shot used for canon 
piriers/ clearly a name inherited from the pierrier^ described later on 

*' In Pipe Roll, Mag» RoU 27 Edw. III. the machine is mentioned as 
' Riband.^ Archaeological Journal^ xix. p. 73. 

" * That mnrderons sling the matafnnd.' — Soatbey*8 Joan of Arc, 



86 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

in these pages ; and a piece of ordnance called a robinet is catalogued 
in a survey of arms, etc., in the Tower of Loadon, anno 1547. 

The mangona had its prototype in the onager of the fourth century. 
It is mentioned by name as early as 886, in connexion with the siege 
of Paris by the Danes, and could not therefore have been worked on 
the counterpoise plan, as that invention did not appear until much 
later. M. Paul Lacroix, in his Arts in the Middle Ages, gives a 
drawing of a mangona, copied from an illustration in MS. 7,289 
in the National Library, Paris. This machine is worked on the 
principle of torsion, and the drawing is specially interesting as 
illustrating the smaller details and appliances, which the space at my 
disposal will not permit of particularisation. In Fiers Plowman we 
find, 'sette Mahon at the mangonel, and muUe-stones throweth.' 
Simon de Montfort was killed at Toulouse in 1218 by a shot from a 
mangonel. 

The cabulus mentioned by Le Breton as having been employed at 
the siege of Chateau Gaillard in 1204 was clearly a stone-casting 
engine. This is probably still another name for the onager, the more 
so as there is no mention of the trebuchet so early. Mangoneaux 
and pieriiers ^^ were used alike by the French troops and tho opposing 
Egyptians in the luckless campaign of St. Louis in Egypt in 1250 
for hurling great stones and Greek fire at the battle of Mansourah. 
The invaders had a train of eighteen of these engines, which were 
replied to by sixteen machines of the Egyptians, who succeeded in 
setting the cats and belfreys of the French army in flames. 

A representation of a medieval engine of the onager type occurs 
on a fifteenth century miniature by Zeitblom, in a MS. in the library 
of prince Waldberg Wolfegg. 

Coming now to the class of engines worked on a direct system of 
counterpoise, which first appears in the thirteenth century, either 
alone or in combination with a sling, we find a passage in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Bo7iduca:--^ Bring up the catapult and shake the 
walls,' which can only refer to a machine throwing great stones or 
bolts, and one doubtless worked on this system and not on that of the 
Roman catapulta ; indeed the fact cannot be doubted that the ancient 

" Pierriers are described in the next section, which is devoted to engine 
worked by counterpoise. 






THE MANGONA, TREBUCHET, BOBINET, ETC. 87 

name survived but was applied to an essentially different engine in 
medieval times, and one much more powerful than the old catapulta, 
or even the onager and the medieval mangona, while the ballista of 
the middle ages continued being constructed on the lines of its Roman 
prototype. 

Among the medieval engines worked by counterpoise, besides 
the catapult (trebuchet), would appear to be the pierrier, the 
calabres, thecoillard or cuillard, and the martinet. The trebuchet 
is certainly the medieval catapuU under another name, the word 
catapult being also often used^n a generic as well as a general 
sense ; and the others named are all probably the same machine, 
with variations, more in size and the details of adjusting the 
counterpoise and projectile, rather than in any principle of con- 
struction. There is a reference in the ballad of the Alhigeois^^ 
to the trebuchet, as throwing stones at the siege of Toulouse. 
The petrary or petraria is mentioned as being employed at the 
same siege, and also in the defence of Beaucaire about the same 
period, and we find it often alluded to, after the second crusade, as 
being used in casting Greek fire into fortified places, which was 
frequently done in barrels ; and it would seem to have been the same 
machine as the * aqueraux,' mentioned by Froissart as being employed 
for that purpose. It also threw rocks at the siege of Toulouse, and 
the Turkish pierrier is doubtless the same engine as the petrary, 
varying possibly somewhat from its English confrere. Aegidius 
Romanus (Colonna), in De Regimine Principuniy calls all tr^buchets 
* petrariae,' and in fact all these machines were worked on the same 
principle. The tripantum also belongs to the same class. The 
coillart or cuillard is oflen mentioned in accounts of the campaigns of 
Henry V. ; and it formed part of the armament of Alexandria.^^ 
Its probable derivation from cuiller or cochleare^ a spoon, would 
connect it with the trebuchet or medieval catapult. 

The robinet threw both darts and stones, and was in fact a 
survival of the Romin ballista ; while the mate-griffon would appear to 
have been a slinging machine, or one using a sling in combination, 
like the onager. 

" The Provencal poem of the crusade against the Albigenses. 

*• ' A Survey of Egpyt and Syria. 1422.' A MS, in the Bodleian Library, 



88 BOHAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

We see frequent reference to these machines in the wars of the 
Saracens, in which military engines were freely employed ;^^ and this 
people doubtless became acquainted with them through their conflicts 
with the Byzantine empire. Even the Vikings had assimilated them, 
as seen in the records of Siegfried's siege of Paris (886-886). 

It would appear that the system of direct counterpoise, especially 
in combination with a sling, answered better for propelling such 
missiles as large stones ; and it is certain that the great majority of 
engines for this purpose, like the trebuchet, especially in later 
medieval times, were worked by this method, while most of those 
constructed on the bow principle were much better adapted for 
propelling darts only. 

Remains of medieval engines were found among the debris of the 
castle of Russikon in Switzerland, which was burnt down in the 
thirteenth century. These may be seen in the museum at Zurich, but 
they are of too fragmentary a character to help us much ; and the 
engravings in the Walturius^ printed at Verona in 1472 and now in the 
Hauslaub Library at Vienna, serve only to make the question of 
identification more difficult ; indeed, most of the drawings of engines 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are fanciful and unworkable. 

The late emperor Napoleon III., when president of the French 
Republic, had an engine constructed at Vincennes which he calls a 
trebuchet, after the model of one shown on an old carving, supposed 
to date from the reign of Edward II. The machine consisted 
of a beam, called a verge, turning on a horizontal axis, and 
supported upon uprights. A counterpoise, such as a box filled 
with stones, was fixed at one extremity of the beam, and on 
the other a sling which contained the projectile. A winch was 
often used to lower the verge for making ready. It was quite 
common to cast the projectile from a receptacle at the extremity of 
the verge, formed like a great hand or a spoon, but the addition of a 
sling more than doubled the range of the engine. This machine, 
constructed in 1860, has a verge about thirty-four feet long, the 
counterpoise being fixed at 9,900 pounds. After some preliminary 
experiments a 24-pound shot was hurled 191 yards in a great parabolic 

" Lord Lyttelton in his life of Henry II. says, * Saladin assaulted AscaloD 
with thirteen catapults.* 



THE TRilBUCHBT. 



89 



carve, a weight of projectile and distance of flight very much short of 
what has been achieved by some Roman and medieval engines ; in 
fact, as shown, more particularly, later in these pages, we have a pro- 
jectile for the trebuchet in the castle here weighing about 523 pounds. 
There were several kinds of trebuchets, but the difference 
between them lay mainly in the adjustment of the counterpoise, 
which in one variety could be shifted up and down the beam 
for regulating the range as required. Another machine, besides 
having a fixed counterpoise 
at the base of the beam, had 
a small adjustable regulator 
as well. There is a medieval 
carving, in ivory, in the 
museum at Boulogne, repre- 
senting one of those amorous 
contests between a knight and 
his ' fair ladye,' so character- 
istic of the literature of the 
troubadours. A portion of 
this carving, an illustration 
of which is given in fig. 6, 
shows a trebuchet charged 
with fully blown roses, and a 
knight in armour kneeling 
before the engine obviously 
with the intention of belabour- 
ing his fair foe with a shower 
of these fragrant missiles. 
This machine is worked on the principle of counterpoise, some- 
what in the manner described, but the basin-like receptacle for 
the missiles at the lower end of the verge is not adaptable for the 
addition of a sling. The upper end is heavily weighted, and as 
soon as the catch has been slipped, owing to the unequal balance, the 
missiles are hurled with great velocity among the foe. The illustration, 
fig. 6, has been reproduced from a wood engraving, which, though 
faded, gives a good idea of the machine, and is especially valuable as 
furnishing an almost unique representation of one of these engines 

VOL. XXIV. 12 




PIG. 6.— THKBUOHST (FROM A CARVING IN IVORY, 
FOURTBBNTH CKNTURY). 



90 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

directly handed down to us from medieval times. The armour of the 
knight would indicate a date early in the fourteenth century of our era. 
This class of machine (k verge) continued to be used long after the 
introduction of cannon. The learned Jesuit, le pere Daniel, says so, 
and there is plenty of evidence that they were often preferred to early 
cannon. The English version of the name in old chronicles is trypgette 
and trybget ; and the machine is so referred to in a poem describing 
the siege of Rouen, temp. Henry V.^^ Missile engines used on ships 
were mounted on raised platforms. 

Dr. Hodgkin wrote a poem in 1872, entitled The Catapult^ 
suggested by a picture painted by Sir Edward John Poynter, P.R.A., 
a work full of power and inspiration, and the lines so faithfully 
describe the trebuchet (catapult) that I venture to give extracts 
from the poem here : — 

This framework's strength supports the catapult ; 
Thus planned : — A beam upon a pi vot poised 
Has one end by a gathered weight of stones 
Held down to earth ; the other, high upreared, 
Wears the resemblance of a clenched hand. 

♦ ♦♦♦*♦♦ 
To drag this armed hand downwards for a space, 
And counterwork the lever's loaded end, 
Storing up all its strength for the recoil 
The soldiers labour, straining at the winch, 
That o'er the pulley drawn the tightening rope. 
And slowly — slowly lowers the great hand. 

««**♦** 
The little cord which when the moment comes. 
Shall loose the tackle, break the pulley's strain. 

Among a wealth of interesting objects which ought to be properly 
catalogued, the society possesses a very important collection of sand- 
stone projectiles in the castle here, a large proportion of which were 
found in 1898, when lowering the floor of the merchants' exchange 
on the Sandhill. They are all spherical, and may be roughly classed 
in three varieties. The greater number are accurately rounded, while 
others are more roughly chiselled, and the remainder are very roughly 
hewn, especially at the sides. The roughest balls were fashioned for 
the trebuchet and other stone-casting engines, while all the others are 
for pieces of ordnance, polished or finely chiselled for * canon piriers,* 
and for * fowlers' rough. These pieces were muzzle-loaders, while 

* MS, No. 124 in the Bodleian Library. 



ANCIENT STONE BALLS IN THE CASTLE, NEWCASTLE. 91 

cannon were breech-loaders. The former were used to propel stone 
shot with a low charge of powder. It was naturally superfluous to 
fashion balls for mechanical engines with any nicety, all that was 
needed being a reasonably true balance for their aim and flight. 
Holinshed states that Edward I. used at the siege of Strively 
(Stirling ?) catapault balls weighing from two to three hundred- 
weights each. 

The form of balls for military engines of the Augustan age, and 
somewhat later, has already been referred to. 

I had one of the castle balls weighed by Mess*^ Pooley, and used 
it as a standard for approximating the weight of the others. It was 
somewhat chipped, so the perfect balls in the specification would 
weigh relatively somewhat heavier than the weights given below. 

Diameter. 
Ft. ins. Owts. qn. Ibe. 

6 stone shot 1 6^ each weighing about 2 1 3 

2 ,, „ rather smaller 

1 catapalt ball ... 1 11 ^ weighing about 4 2 19 

2 stone shot ... 1 ll 

16 smaller balls "... 1 oj to 1 ft. IJ in. mean weight of each 3 H 
4 catapult balls ... 11 weighing each about ... ... 3 4^ 

There are also several broken balls of various dimensions. Two stone 
shot in tbe Tower of London are in diameter eighteen inches and two 
feet respectively ; and both shot for cannon and projectiles for 
mechanical engines may be seen at Norham castle. The warder 
at the castle of Newcastle drew my attention to markings on some of 
the balls, such as parallel lines, a rose, horse-shoes, and crosses. 

Gannon was employed in England certainly as early as 1338, as 
shown by an indenture between John Starlyng and Helmyng Legat, 
* ij canons de ferr, sanz estuff, etc.,' ^ and the records of the war waged 
against the French by king Edward III. contain many references to 
their employment at sieges. 

It mil be seen later that the largest of the balls now in the 
castle of Newcastle was exceeded in size by projectiles for the 
heavier ordnance of a very early period.^^ It is quite possible 

*• Most of these are dressed for ordnance, a few roughly hewn. 

^ These cannon are mentioned as forming part of the armament of the war 
Teasel ' Barnard de la Tour.' 

^* A cannon is stated to have been used at the siege of Tannenberg, a fortress 
demolished in 1399, capable of throwing a projectile 960 lb. in weight. It was 
named Faust Bucleae. 



92 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

that some of the castle shot were discharged against the Scots 
in 1842 when king David of Scotland lay about Newcastle with 
a large army, and assaulted the town. One of the Froissart 
illuminations depicts the Scottish army before the town, and there 
is another in the series showing the battle close to the walla with 
queen Philippa present in person, but this is a mistake, for she 
came no farther north than York.22 This was in the early days of 
ordnance, but king Edward had a siege train of cannon before then, 
and it is very likely that he armed the walls of Newcastle with the 
new artillery, the defence of that fortress being of such vital importance, 
more especially while the king was engaged on his French campaign, 
when England was greatly open to invasion, having been largely 
denuded of troops for home defence. The army raised to repel ibe 
Scottish invasion doubtless consisted mainly of raw levies. 

That ordnance was largely employed before the Scottish invasion 
in the defence of fortresses as well as in their attack is clear from the 
line in Froissart, 'Those of Quesnoy let them hear their cannon.* 
This was when the French besieged the town in 1840, two years 
before the Scottish army appeared before Newcastle. 

There are still a good many very early pieces of ordnance to be seen 
in the various museums and arsenal^ of Europe, with calibres ranging 
roughly from thirteen to twenty inches, but, as far as I know, no 
larger examples have come down to us. 

Medieval records yield many examples of very large cannon, some 
of which had a graduated tube for the reception of variously sized balls. 
These records usually lack details, but there are not a few explicit 
statements concerning huge ordnance, which are described by ViUaret 
(torn, xiv., p. 244). Froissart speaks of very large ordnance. V^y 
early cannon were only capable of throwing shot describing a parabolic 
curve, with a radius of about three hundred yards ; and this would 
be ample for throwing shot as far as the Exchange on the Sandhill. 

Stone balls continued being used for a certain class of cannon as 
late as the seventeenth century. The Surveye of the Qiceene her Ma^* 
Shippes, taken and viewed by The Officer of The Ordnance, 25th January, 

^ Newcastle was often a try sting place for the assembling of the English 
armies for the invasion of Scotland. A writ, dated 20th June, 1322, summons 
'all bannerets, knights, esquires, and other men-at-arms to meet the king at 
Newcastle, on the vigil of St. James, to march against the Scots.' 



INTRODUCTION OF CANNON, ETC. 93 

1675, referred to in Archaeologia, vol. xxx., gives an inventory 
of the shot carried by the ' Eliza Bonad venture,' and in the specifica- 
tion is mentioned ' stone shot polished and for fowlers rough.' As 
already stated, the polished stone shot were for 'canon periers/ 
and this name is doubtless inherited from the mechanical engine, 
* pierriere.' The rougher balls were for the pieces called fowlers. To 
judge from this inventory and other sources of information it would 
seem that the proportion of stone shot, as against balls of iron, in use 
towards the end of the sixteenth century, was about one in ten, possibly 
a little less. In a book preserved in the Tower, Provisions and Recepts 
for ix years in the beginninge of Her Ma^^ Raigne from 1558 to 1567, 
stands * Recepts from Anthony Rickman and Edward Caflyn, 
marchants, stone shott of sundrie sorts 204 score and 18.' 

The longbow and the crossbow, though perhaps more generally 
classed as weapons rather than as warlike mechanical engines, still 
largely partake of the character of the latter. 

THE LONGBOW. 

The use of the bow is recorded almost to the extreme limits of 
history. There are representations of bows in the tombs of the kings at 
Thebes, some (if them exhibiting a double curvature, while others are 
nearly straight. A bracer was worn by the ancient Egyptian bowmen, 
and their arrows, which had bronze tips, barbed or shaped triangularly, 
were drawn to the chest and a|so to the ear with the forefinger and 
thumb or the two forefingers, as in medieval times. Some of these 
bows did not exceed 22 inches in length, while others were three feet 
and over. 

These weapons were used by the Persians, Ethiopians, Libyans, 
Chaldaeans, Scythians, Greeks, and Romans, and the bow of the 
Lycian Pandarus is related to have been made of ibex horn, with a 
doable curvature, and strung with sinews. The same form occurs on 
the Trajan and Antonine columns, and we have it again on a relief in 
the Blackgate museum from borcovicus. Another relief at the Black- 
gate, which was found at Jarrow, exhibits an archer closely following 
a stag. One formed of a single horn, stated to have been found in the 
Fens, Cambridgeshire, was exhibited at the rooms of the Society of 



94 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

Antiquaries of London in 1870. It also had a double curvature, and 
was originally 42^ inches long. The old Tartar bow was of horn and 
strung with sinews. The Celtic equivalent is ' bua.' 

Agathias, writing in the sixth century of our era (535), says that 
the Franks did not use the bow in warfare, but it is mentioned in two of 
the capitularies of Charlemagne.^^ Judging from the numbers of 
arrow-heads found, the bow was a weapon of the ancient Britons, an^ 
the Danes were expert at its use. In Lodbroc's Death Song, ' The 
flexible yew sent far the barbed reed.' 

Turning to the Byzantine empire we find it recommended in Leo's 
Tactica as * the easiest weapon to make and the most effective.' 

On the Bayeux tapestry only a single bowman is seen among the 
Anglo-Saxon host, while several are shown in the Norman ranks ; 
these bows are short and drawn only to the breast, and the arrows 
barbed. 

The English archer became justly celebrated under the Norman 
kings, and it was first under them that the bow was lengthened and 
assumed great importance as a weapon of war. Richard I. was himself 
an adept with the long bow, but it was not fully appreciated in war- 
fare before the reign of Edward 1., when it began to be the dominating 
feature of the armament of England. In 1814, Edward 11. levied a 
company ot 'Northumbrian archers' for the invasion of Scotland. 
Harold was slain by an arrow at Hastings, and James lY. of Scotland 
met his death on Flodden field from the same cause. 

Bowmen under the Norman kings wore a leather jacket, which 
was afterwards adopted by the French, and called jacque d^Anglois. 

Part of the light cavalry of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
consisted of mounted archers. The longbow was the leading weapon 
at Cre9y, Poictiers and Agincourt, and it continued to be so in the 
English armies until the sixteenth century ; but Flodden may be said 
to have been the latest battle won mainly by its agency. 

In the reign of Edward I. * a painted bow cost one shilling and 
sixpence, and a white bow one shilling.' These bows did not exceed 
five feet in length, as would appear from illuminations of the period, 
and would seem to have been about the same length at Cre^y. See 
Roy. MS. 16Gr. vi. folio 116 in British Museum. 
^* Capitulare Aquisgranense and de Villis Dominicis. 



THE LONG BOW AND THE CROSS BOW. 95 

The later length of the English longbow was about an archer's 
height, say between five feet six inches to six feet, with a bend of nine 
inches, and those made from the bough of a yew were preferred because 
of the very slight shrinkage of that wood in drying, and its com- 
parative immunity from boring insects. But as yew trees were scarce 
bowyers were enjoined by Act of Parliament to make four bows of 
* witch hazel,' ash or elm, to one of yew, and no person under seven- 
teen years of age with certain exceptions, was permitted to shoot with 
a yew bow, under a penalty of six shillings and eightpence. This 
statute was repealed in Elizabeth's reign. The bowstring was either of 
silk or hemp, twisted or plaited, but always round where the notch of 
the arrow went ; and a MS. account of the Merchant Taylors' 
Company of 1549 schedules *a dossen Bowe stryngs, sixpence.' 
At the commencement of Elizabeth's reign *a bowe of yeugh' 
was worth two shillings and eightpence, and arrows six shillings 
the gross. Roger Ascham, writing about 1550, says ' the arrow 
consists of the stell, the feathers, and the head,' and he adds that they 
were made of divers woods, but mainly of ash, oak or birch. The 
shaft was drawn by two or sometimes three fingers at the string, and 
always to the ear for moderate distances, but towards the breast when 
used at long ranges. The archer kept both eyes open, and looked only at 
the object aimed at, holding his weapon perpendicularly. He carried 
a sheaf of arrrows consisting of twenty-four at his belt, but when in 
action he laid down two or three at his feet, with the tips towards his 
left, so that he could take them up, one after the other, without losing 
bis aim ; sometimes he stuck them in the ground. The standard 
length was a clothyard shaft, feathered from the grey goose or pea- 
cock's wing, or plain at the base, and tipped usually with a sharp, but 
sometimes a barbed head ; these tips were of iron pointed with steel. 
Chaucer writes * a shef e of peacocke arrows bryght and kene.' The 
archer wore a leathern wrist-guard called a bracer, to avoid hurt by 
the recoil of the string. The arrow with feathers from a goose's wing 
was the * broad arrow.' The plain pile (without feathers) was thought 
to penetrate better. Henry V. enacted that the sheriffs of counties 
were to take six wing feathers from every goose for feathering 
arrows. In 1522, these feathers cost 2 Id. for 1400 ; arrows of ash 
were preferred. 



96 ROMAN AND 3I£DIBVAL MILITAB7 BNGINSS : 

An ordinary English arch«r would rarely miss an object the size of 
a man at 250 yards, and he could discharge his weapon ten and even 
twelve times a minute. The extreme range of the bow for practical 
shooting was from sixteen to twenty score yards ; in fact a bowshot 
seems to have been a term used to express a distance of 400 yards, 
and the minimum range for archery contests was usually set at 220 
yards. There are instances recorded of an arrow's flight of between 
500 and 600 yards, and a bow made of horn shot an arrow 480 yards 
at one of the meetings of the Toxophilite Society. 

The form of the longbow of the fourteenth century was thick in the 
middle, narrowing towards the ends, and it was sometimes coated 
with paint. In the reign of Edward III., the sheriff of Gloucester 
was commissioned to procure 500 painted bows ; the unpainted were 
called w^Afite bows. In the reign of Henry IV. it was made penal to sell 
bad bows. 

The price of longbows was fixed by statute in the reign of Edward 
IV. at a maximum price of three shillings and fourpence each, a much 
higher price than they brought in the reign of queen Elizabeth ; and 
in order to increase the number available, each merchant vessel carrying 
goods to London was compelled to bring a certain number of bows 
in proportion to the weight of the cargo carried ; and there was a 
similar enactment in the reign of Richard III., when the importation 
of every tun of Malmsey wine was required to be accompanied by ten 
bowstaves, under a penalty of 13s. 4d., and all bowstaves over 6^ feet 
long were admitted duty free. A statute of Philip and Mary ordains 
that all temporal persons having an estate of a yearly value of a 
thousand a year and upwards are required to furnish the State with 
thirty longbows, thirty sheaves of arrows, and ' thirty Steele cappes or 
skulls.' 

German and Italian bows rarely exceeded five feet in length. 

Archers carried one or two pointed stakes as part of their equip- 
ment for planting before them on the ground as a defence against 
cavalry, and as a protection from the various missiles of the enemy. 
Leadenheaded mallets also formed part of their equipment, and these 
were employed for driving in the stakes, and also to dispatch the 
enemy's wounded. 



THE LONG BOW. 97 

The longbow continued in use long after the introduction of 
hand-guns, but it was practically superseded by the harquebus early in 
the sixteenth century, when its repute as a weapon of war had been 
Bometime on the wane, though it continued to have enthusiastic 
admirers for many years ; but such is always the case during periods 
of transition. Henry VIII. was a skilful archer, and there were many 
enactments in his reign for the encouragement of the use and practice of 
archery. The bow undoubtedly had many advantages over the earlier 
forms of hand-guns, which were uncertain, cumbersome, inaccurate and 
dilatory in operation, in fact inefficient in every way ; but in the reign 
of queen Bes& they had so far improved as practically to oust the 
bow as a weapon of war, in spite of the constant efforts made to 
rehabilitate it. Still its use constantly cropped up again, for instance ; 
when Charles I. quarrelled with his Parliament, the earl of Essex 
raised a company of archers for his service. Many trials between 
hand-guns and bows took place during the sixteenth and even the 
seventeenth century, most of which resulted in the triumph of the bow ; 
nevertheless at last it ceased to be a military weapon and was relegated 
to the ladies and gentlemen's shooting matches. As late as 1792, a 
match took place at Pacton Green, Cumberland, distance a hundred 
yards, and the result arrived at was that the arrows hit the target six- 
teen times out of twenty shots, while the musket balls achieved twelve 
hits only. It is a curious fact that Benjamin Franklin proposed in 
1776 to equip the colonial forces with the longbow. 

Specimens of the English longbow are of the greatest rarity. The 

loss of a war vessel, the * Mary Rose,' which sank oflF Spithead in 1545, 

famished us with some actual specimens of that time. A couple of 

these bows are preserved in the Tower of London ; they are 6 feet 4^ 

inches long, and made of yew. Another is at Dover castle. There 

was a Northumberland crossbow still to the fore early in the present 

century, and the late Mr. Matthew CuUey of Akeld, in a letter to our 

society, dated November 26th, 1814, wrote concerning it : ' This 

bow had long been used by the hereditary bowmen of Wark castle. 

It is described as having been formed of various-coloured wood inlaid 

tc^ether, and of great length and strength. From the joining of 

diflferent sorts of wood valuable properties are derived, which are well 

known to mechanics, and more especially to builders. This weapon, so 



98 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

dreadful in the hands of its ancient possessors, being no longer in 
request, was consigned to the children as a plaything.' I must sajr 
that I have not come across any other mention of bows made in 
such a fashion ; but there were crossbows constructed of yew and 
whalebone in alternate layers. 

THE CROSSBOW. 

The Greek word for the weapon is r^aarpa^eTTf^, because it was 
pressed by the stomach against the ground when being strung. The 
Latin equivalent is * arcus balistarius ' or * balista manualis,' and the 

weapon with its windlass is 
obviously inherited from the 
antique. Fig. 7 represents a 
Romano-Gallic crossbow and 
quiver from a relief on a 
'cippus' in the museum at 
Puy,24 but whether the weapon 
hybemated so to speak, from 
the fall of Rome to the tenth 
century, or that any mention 
PIG. 7.-ROMANOKJALLIC CJ10S8B0W. of balHstac ovcr that early 

period may have had reference to a hand weapon mther than to the 
mechanical engine of the name is uncertain. What would seem to 
lend colour to such a possibility is that in medieval chronides a cross- 
bow is often, nay usually, referred to as a ballista,^^ and this may have 
been the case also at an earlier period of history. 

A soldier armed with a crossbow is shown on a vignette in a MS. of 
the tenth century in the National Library, Paris, and representations 
of the weapon occur in Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the eleventh century, and 
of the twelfth on some frescoes in the cathedral at Brunswick. The 
weapon does not appear in the Bayeux tapestry, though Guy of Amiens 
states that the Conqueror had ^ balistantes ' at Hastings, and these 
were perhaps as likely to have been crossbows as the larger mechanical 

2* Aymard, Annates de la Soc. du Puy^ 1832. 

«* A Pipe Roll in the Public Record Office (Mag. Rot. 27 Edw. in.) gives 
some curious particulars concerning crossbows, and they are called ballistas over 
and over again. Henry V., as Duke of Normandy, confirmed the privileges of 
the halistarii at Rouen. 




THE CROSS BOW. 99 

engines. Reference is made to the crossbow in Domesday Book in the 
mention of ' Odo the arbalister,' and Wace says that it was used in the 
chase in the eleventh century, both in England and Normandy, 

It would appear that the use of the weapon was revived in England 
by Richard I., and in France about the same time by Philip Augustus 
for use in the second crusade ; and we find Peter the Saracen making 
crossbows in England in 1205 for king John,^^ with wages at nine- 
pence a day. 

The princess Anna Comnena calls the crossbow a ' tzangara/ and 
mentions it as forming part of the armament of the crusaders late in 
the eleventh century ; and that it was in use in the twelfth century is 
shown by a bull of pope Innocent II. in 1189,^^ which fulminates 
against its barbarity, and only sanctions its use against the heathen, 
meaning thereby all nations unconverted to Christianity. Such 
prohibitions, though renewed by Innocent III., were soon brushed 
aside, like others of a similar character, both before and since. It 
was partly owing to the first edict that the mortally wounding of 
Richard I., by a bolt from a crossbow, was looked upon as a judgment 
of God. Camden writes : — * It is reported by William Brito, that the 
Arcubalist or Arbalist was first showed to the French by our King 
Richard the first, who was shortly after slaine by a quarrel thereof.' 
Guillaume Guiart, writing towards the end of the thirteenth century, 
mentions the weapon as being in use at the battle of Uaringues 
in 1297, and he adds that it was introduced into Normandy in 
the previous century by Richard I. of England. An illustration 
{Roy, MS8. 16 G. vi. fol. 336, in the British Museum), about 1330, 
shows crossbowmen clad completely in banded mail, with round 
bassinets, and surcoats to the knees. The crossbow was in constant 
use during the fourteenth century, when the Genoese, who had been 
sedolonsly devoting themselves to the improvement of the weapon 
and its practice since late in the twelfth century, made it a specialty, 
and the services of these mercenaries, who wore helmets, braissarts, 
greaves, and jackets with long sleeves, were in great request in all 
the wars of the period ; it was, however, never a favourite weapon 



^ Archaeologia^ vol. 58, p. 445. 

2' 29 Canon of the Sacred Council of the Lateran. 



lOO ROMAN Am) MfiDlUVAli MlLltAHY ENGINES : 

with the English, who used it mainly in the defence of fortified 
places. At the battle of CreQj the English army used the longbow, 
while the French king had a /5orps of six thousand Genoese 
crossbowmen in his pay, but these were of little avail against the 
English arrows, partly because of rain, alternating with brilliant 
sunshine, which blinded the Italian bowmen. The English archer 
could shoot ten to twelve arrows while the crossbowman dis- 
charged his two or three quarrels, for the winding up of the 
' moulinet ' or ' cranequin ' was so slow ; besides, he had to take 
a fresh mark and aim every time his crossbow was strung. The 
crossbow had, however, the advantage of a lower trajectory, but 
the longbow was much lighter and more portable, besides being more 
easily preserved from the action of damp than its crossbow confrere. 
In Archaeologia^ vol. 38, the baron de Cosson states that 'in 
1302, William Conrad, bowyer of the Tower of London, supplied 2 lb. 
of wiseblase, 4 lb. of glue, 4 lb. of sinews of sea-dogs, etc., for ballistae 
and bows to the Prince of Wales/ and here we have a clear distinction 
made between the weapons. It does not appear that the extreme 
range of the crossbow has been accurately determined, but it certainly 
did not exceed 200 yards. The point-blank range was nothing like a 
hundred yards, probably in an ordinary weapon not over seventy. 
Part of the light cavalry of medieval times consisted of crossbowmen. 
In the Accounts of the Gonstables of the Castle of Dover^ dated 
1344, a variety of crossbows are mentioned: *cxxxvj. arbalistas de 
quibus, xxxiiij. arbaliste de cornu ad duos pedes, et ix. de comu ad 
unum pedem, et iij. magne arbaliste ad turrm.' The last men- 
tioned item in the passage is probably the arbalete a tour or 
cranequin hereinafter described. It would appear from this that 
there were crossbows with two stirrups, as well as those with the 
usual one, but I have seen no other reference to crossbows *ad 
duos pedes.' Soon after Cre9y, corporations of bowmen were estab- 
lished in several French towns. In 1359, a company of * arbal6triers,' 
200 strong, was formed at Paris, and another at Laon iii 1867, and 
the 'ConfTerie d' Archers de la ville de Paris' obtained a charter from 
Charles VI. in 1411. Henry V. of England had only ninety-eight 
crossbowmen with him when he invaded France, and accoitling to 
Juvenal des Ursins there were 4,000 crossbowmen in the armies of 



THE CROSSBOW. 101 

the allies (English and Burgundians), for another invasion of that 
kmgdom. The Chroniqms cCAngleterro, written for king Edward IV., 
contains illuminations of arbalestiers, with their weapons. 

The introduction of the pavise, a large shield propped up 
before the archer, was a great protection against missiles, and a 
miniature from Froissart in the National Library at Paris shows a 
crossbowman shielded in this manner. 

The steel used in the construction of crossbows was of the 
strongest and most pliable kind. An enactment of the reign of 
Henry VII. forbade the use of the weapon, with certain reservations, 
under severe penalties. 'No man shall shoot with the crossbow 
without a king's licence except he be a lord or have 200 marks of 
land,' and in the sixteenth century it was mostly used in the defence 
of fortresses, or on ships ; and similar prohibitions were enacted 
daring the reign of Henry VIII. This perhaps accounts for a Tower 
inventory of arms, etc., anno 1547, containing only 'Crossbowe to 
shoot stone— oone.' ^ This would be a prodd most likely. 

References are sometimes made, in the middle ages, to crossbows 
of hom,^ but I am not aware of any specimens existing made solely of 
that substance, and these were probably composite bows of whalebone 
and yew in layers, this form of construction being designed for lend- 
ing elasticity to the weapon. The fittings are of steel, iron, brass, 
ordinary bone and whalebone, and the weapons were sometimes 
coated with glutinous matter as a preservative against moisture. 
All these details may be seen among the numerous collections of 
crossbows. The projectiles are usually called quarrels, and are in 
great variety of form, but shorter and thicker than arrows for the 
longbow. Several specimens were found at Tannenberg, a fortress 
dismantled in 1399. The full complement for a crossbowman in the 
field was fifty quarrels — specimens are quite common in continental 
mnsenms. Quarrels for the arbalest may be seen in considerable 
variety at Dresden, Berlin, etc. The stocks of pageant crossbows for 
the chase, which afforded great scope for ornamentation, were not 



" Archaeologia, vol. 51. ^ 

» The Accounts of the Castle of Dover^ dated 1344, mention 'arbaliste de 
comu.' 



102 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITARY ENGINES : 

only beautifully inlaid with bleached stag's horn,^® ivory and 
mother-of-pearl, but often adorned with mythological, historic or 
biblical legends, carried out with rare elegance and finish, in fact 
presenting some of the choicest work of the ' Renaissance/ There are 
also barrel crossbows, and some with a pistol in combination. The 
crossbowman wore a brigandine or stuff tunic lined with strips of 
steel, besides his 'half-plates.' A picture in the National Gallery 
shows how the old stirrup crossbow was bent ' ad unum pedem.' The 
bowman places his foot in the stuTup, a cord is then fixed to the butt 
of the stock, the other end being attached to the waistbelt ; the cord 
runs on a pulley, and the bow is bent by raising the body. 

Early representations of crossbows on illuminations and miniatures 
are too small to show any apparatus there may have been for liberating 
the string ; and the oldest form of lock of which there is any example 
is simply a long lever, working on a pivot passed through the stock. 
One portion of the lever is within the stock itself, while the other 
(the trigger) is outside. This lock was inadequate, for in order to 
obtain the necessary purchase to enable the end of that portion of the 
lever inside to turn the nut holding the string, for the discharge of 
the projectile, the protruding part necessarily stood so far out as to be 
much in the way, and was apt to go off when touched inadvertently. 
This disadvantage was obviated in later forms of locks by the substi- 
tution of a succession of small levers inside the stock, in place of the 
one piece ; these were held in their places in the receptacle cut for 
them in the wood. By this means the angle of deflection of the 
trigger was much reduced when the mechanism was set for the release 
of the string. 

The subsequent addition of a lock-plate permitted of a much more 
delicate mechanism ; and the old long trigger was fixed on the stock 
as a guard for the protection of its short and much more effective 
successor. 

THE ARBALEST, OR WINDLASS CROSSBOW (arbalete a cranequin). 

This, the Genoese crossbow, is furnished with double cordage, and 
a set of pulleys (two) near the bottom of the stock, and another set 

'• We are indebted for the discovery of this interesting fact to Herr Max von 
Ehrenthal, late Director of the Historische Museum at Dresden. 



THE WINDLASS AND LATOH CROSSBOWS. 103 

(four) placed below the bowstring ; these strong cords run aloiig the 
pulleys, and the bow is bent by a small windlass, which is adjustable 
to the bottom end of the stock, while hooks, connected with the top 
pulleys, grasp the bowstring. As soon as the bow has been bent by 
the action of the windlass, the tackle is removed and is carried by the 
bowman slung from his shoulder. The top end of the stock is 
furnished with an iron stirrup, through which the archer thrusts his 
foot, in order to obtain the necessary purchase for bending the bow. 
The string is liberated by the action of a trigger, which sets free the 
catch holding it. 

This type of bow was used at Agincourt, and it was greatly 
depended on in the defence of beleagured places. It was also called 
* arbalete a tour,' because the windlass, fixable to the stock, was some- 
times embattled, like a tower, and it was named *cranequin.' In 
Germany this was called the English windlass. The Agincourt form 
continued practically the same for centuries, indeed, up to early in 
the seventeenth century, when bows of this model were made at 
Malines, in Belgium, by a 'confrere de tir.' I have one of these 
Malines crossbows in my collection 

THE LATCH CROSSBOW (arbalete a eric). 

Latch is the English name given to the improved crossbow of the 
second half of the fifteenth, and to that variety used in the sixteenth 
century. It was bent by a windlass, with a rachet and long handle, 
of a much less complicated form than the cumbrous machinery of the 
' cranequin.' The tackle is slipped on to the stock from the bottom, 
which passes through the thick hemp or iron ring or hoop attached to 
the windlass. Some of the latches used in fortress work were very 
heavy and unwieldy. The later forms of this bow are sometimes 
furnished with an elevating sight. 

The earliest mention of the name latch, I believe, occurs in an 
inventory of the * ordynaunce ' and munitions, etc., taken in 1547, and in 
it are scheduled 'cross-bowes called latches.' There is a latch cross- 
bow in my collection. The derivation of the word Match' has not 
been ascertained ; possibly it comes from the latch-like handle. 



104 



ROMAN AND MBDIEVAIi MILITARY ENGINES 



THE GOATSFOOT CROSSBOW. 

This horseman's weapon is light, and the apparatus for bending it 
is both prompt and simple. The stock, below a pin going through 
it, is firmly grasped by a lever consisting of two branches of unequal 
length, one of which grasps the string, while a downward movement 




Fia. 8.— CROSSED WS AND QUARRELS. 

of the other and longer branch, draws the cord into position for the 
discharge. A specimen, dating about 1425, may be seen at Dresden. 

THE PRODD CROSPBOW. 

This bow is light, and was used in the chase. It shot principally 
pebbles, but also bullets. The French called it * arbalete a jalet.' A 



THE * GOATSPOOT ' AND * PRODD ' OBOSSBOWS, ETC. 105 

small prodd, in my collection, would seem to date from late in the 
sixteenth or early m the seventeenth centary ; and it is probably a 
similar bow to the one used for shooting game by queen Elizabeth at 
Oowdray. It takes its name from two upright pins of iron, placed 
at the tip of the stock, and across the top of these pins a thread is 
drawn, with a bead in the centre, which required to be brought into 
line with the notch observable on the top of the adjustable movement 
placed over the trigger for sighting purposes. The cord of this bow 
is double, and is kept taut by beads placed there for the purpose of 
leaving a cavity or resting place in which to place the pebble or 
bullet for discharge. This bow being light no windlass was required 
for bending it, and the arrangement for straining the cord into posi- 
tion was combined with the lock for its release. 

Fig. 8 gives representations of the Arbalest, the Latch, and 
the Prodd. 

THE SLING AND FUSTIBAL. 
\ 

The sling is far too familiar to everyone to need description, and 
it^ ancient character is universally known. The ancient Egyptians 
used slings made of leather thongs ; and the armies of Greece and 
Rome had their contingents of slingers (funditores). Yegetius 
recommends the slinger to cast with not more than one turn about 
the head. The excavation at Ardoch yielded 67 sling bullets of lead 
varying from | to 1^ inches in diameter ; and at Hill-fort near Aber- 
nethy two sling bolts of burnt clay were unearthed. A great number of 
baked clay sling stones were found in a late Celtic crannog near 
Olastonbury in 1892. The sling was used at the battle of Navarete, 
where, Froissart says, Hhey broke many helmets and skull caps, 
so that they wounded and unhorsed many of their opponents,' 
and as late as the siege of Sanoerre, in 1572. At the Rotunda, 
Woolwich, are twelve sling stones of two sizes, viz., 2-35 and 17 
inches in diameter. These stones came from Rhodes — they are 
pebbles covered with lead. A single slinger appears on the margin 
of the Bayeux tapestry— the weapon is being used by a peasant 
aiming at a bird. I saw it used in Egypt by boys for frightening 
birds from the bean fields. 

The fnstibal, or staff-sling, consists of a long pole, four feet in 
length, with a sling in the middle. An example is recorded in a 

VOI^ XXIV. 1^ 



106 ROMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITABT ENGINES : 

MS., which is attribated to Matthew Paris, in Bennett College 
Library, Cambridge, C. 5, xvi., and there is an actual staff-sling in 
the museum at Emden. It was wielded by both hands to cast stones, 
and used in the sixeeenth century for hurling grenades. The example 
at Emden was adapted for that purpose. 

OALTBAP OB CBOWSFOOT. 

This, the Roman ^ murex ' or ' tribulns,' was a sharp point of iron 
standing upright, fashioned like a crow's foot. It was constructed? 
so that one point always projected upwards, however thrown on the 

ground. They were strewn broadcast on 
the ground for the purpose of maiming^ 
horses in a charge of cavaby, or placed 
on a moat when filled up with fascines. 
The illustration shows a Eomancaltrap 
discovered at Chesterford {Arch. Jour. 
vi. 21), and one has been found at 
Cheaters (see Proc. iv. 170). Knightly 
spurs have been known to have been 
used for this purpose. The name is an. 
abbreviation for cheval-trap. There are some specimens in the 
Rotunda, Woolwich, varying in height from 1*25 to 2*6 inches. An 
indenture of 16 Edward III. mentions 'j barelle cum mm.dcccc, 
calketrapp. 

Besides missile-casting engines there were many other agencies 
employed in the siege operations of Roman and medieval times, and a 
sketch follows of some of them. It will be seen that the middle ages- 
inherited, in this direction also, almost everything from Roman times, 
which had, in their turn, borrowed greatly from still earlier en^pires- 
and peoples. 

The Romans made much use of the spade in warfare and owed a 
great part of their astonishing successes over numbers to its agency. 
The frequent scandalous panics and surprises recorded of several 
of the battles and sieges during the middle ages, and especially those in 
which the forces consisted mainly of the levies of the Jan, were often 
attributable to a lack of the organised employment of this invaluable* 




THB *WAEWOLF,' CALTRAP, ETC. 107 

ikljnnct in warfare. Ita use was properly appreciated by Charlemagne, 
who enjoins a supply of spades with every military train. 

A Gonp-de-main or an attempt at escalade was osoally the first 
move made in the assault on a fortress, but when this failed it 
became necessary to sit down before, and closely invest, it. Military 
engines were then brought into play and wooden towers used, besides 
all the minor means, offensive and defensive (the latter by no means 
the least necessary),^^ employed by the besiegers in their operations, 
such as sap and mine, battering down the walls, casting fiery darts, 
filling up moats and ditches with fascines or rubbish, to enable the 
assailants to get near the walls to attack them closely. The moats 
when filled up were strewn with caltraps. 

False brays (f ausse braye) were used to keep the fosse clear, 
and to hinder the approach of military engines, sheds and towers, 
and especially to place difficulties in the way of mining. This 
defence is variously described as an outer barrier of a more or less 
permanent character, and as forts of the nature of barbicans. 
Probably it took both of these forms. 

Medieval references to the * warwolf ' afford another illustration of 
the same name being sometimes appUed to two totally difPerent things. 
This machine would seem to have been made in the form of a harrow, 
and it was used as a second defence after a portcullis bad been forced. 
Matthew of Westminster, however, refers to it as a stone-throwing 
engine^ but going back to the sixth, century of our era, Procopius in 
De Bello Oothico speaks of the warwolf as a machine for defending a 
gate, constructed on the harrow principle, and let down from a parapet 
on an attacking force. It is possibly the machine shown on one of 
tbe Froissart illuminations when ' the earl of Haynault takes and 
destroys Aubenton.' The herse would seem to have been a machine 
of this kind also. There may have been a stone-casting machine 
called warwolf, or the word was used as a sort of nickname ^^ for an 
engine employed for that purpose, for Camden in his Britannia says, 

" There are manj disgraceful panics recorded in the history of the middle 
ages, when a large besieging force nas been subjected to a successful sally from 
a fortress, and indeed it sometimes happened that the tables were turned and 
the inTesting force besieged within its own stockade. 



** Nicknames and pet names, as already stated, were commonly given in the 
middle ages, to both mechanical engines and pieces of ordnance ; and this is 
natnrallj a prolific source of dificulty in their identification. 



108 



BOMAK AND MBDIEYAL HILITABT ENQINES : 



* concerning these mangonels, petraries, trabncces, bricoles, espringolds, 
and what our ancestors ealUd the warwolf^ threw great stones with so 
mnch force as to break open strong gates/ 

Among the engines nsed in attacking beleaguered places is the 
^ toUeno,' for lifting soldiers on to a parapet. This ancient machine 
was worked by counterpoise, and may have suggested the application 
of this principle to stone-casting engines, nsed in the thirteenth 
century. It was a beam and scales, in the form of baskets. One 
scale was weighed down, so that the other ascended to the level of a 
parapet. 

The battering-ram or bosson (aries) is a heavy oak beam, or 
several beams spliced together, tapering towards the head, which 
was shod with iron, or sometimes tipped with an iron ram's head for 
breaching a wall ; which was done by striking it near the bottom, 
continuously battering at the same place, so that the mortar fell out. 
According to Ezekiel (599 B.C.), the king of Babylon used these 
machines to batter down the walls of Jerusalem (Ezek. xxi. 22). 

The bore (terebrus) is much lighter than the ram, and pointed at 
the end, the object being to dislodge individual stones, and by degrees 
to make a lai^e hole by picking out the mortar. 

A ram is figured on an inscription at Nineveh, and there is an 
actual specimen of Roman origin in the Oermanische Museum at 
Nuremberg, which is about a foot in diameter at the base, about 

eleven feet in length, and 
is still shod with iron. 
Plutarch refers to one used 
by the Romans in the 
Parthian war ; and the 
engine is described by 
Yitruvins, who states Uiat 
it was sometimes aalong 
as 120 feet. Josephus 
mentions a ram, used by 
Vespasian, as being 50 
cubits long (about 91 
feet), with a head as thick as ten men. The battering ram was 
used by Wamba. at Nismes in 673, and fig. 9 represents a relief 




no. 9.-BATT«RlNO RAM (AROH OF SEPTIMIUS 
8BVCKUB). 



THE BATTBBING-BAlf, BTO. 109 

on the Arch of Septimios Severns, erected m'208 a.d. A vignette on 
a MS. of the tenth centnry, No. 17,389, in the National Library at 
Paris, shows it in operation suspended on a trestle, borne on wheels, 
and the engine was used at the siege of Exeter in 1067. There are 
frequent allusions to the engine up to the sixteenth century in the 
records that have come down to us. Froissart repeatedly mentions 
the ram, but it is generally difficult to say whether the bore or the 
l)attering ram is meant. The battering ram was often made available 
for the united energies of many men, and when suspended by ropes or 
chains in a sling or held by two perpendicular beams, its momentum was 
enormously augmented. It was also impelled on rollers or wheels and 
rapidly run forward to breach a wall, but its usual action was that of 
the pendulum, working only to the limits of the chain by which it 
was held suspended. Woolsacks or bags of hair were let down by the 
besieged from a parapet to deaden its effect, or wooden forks or 
triangles were lowered to catch the ram's head, so that it could not be 
drawn back again for another stroke. Sir Christopher Wren used the 
ram as an agency for the demolition of the walls of old St. Paul's.^' 

Another and more potent agency employed in all ages for breaching, 
was the mine, which was usually an excavation started from beyond 
the fosse and carried under the walls, the foundations of which were 
then propped up with timber and fired, after the hole had been filled 
with brushwood and straw for tinder ; with the burning of the props 
the wall fell in and a breach was effected. This mode of offence was 
only available in cases where the walls were not built on the solid rock. 
Oonntermining was usually resorted to by the defenders as early as the 
eleventh century, or when this was omitted palisades were erected to 
cover the supposed place when the mine could be located. Various 
means were used for the detection of the slightest vibration under the 
walls. 

Encounters under the surface of the ground in mining and counter- 
mining were not unfrequent. The siege of Melun, in 1420, is an 
instance ; king Henry Y. is stated to have been engaged in this 
encounter. Mining was also practised in the East. Gibbon, quoting 

•• There is a drawing in the Pyroteeknie de VAncdot Lorrain^ and another in 
the WaltuHui of the Hauslaub Library at Vienna, of an engine with gear, 
eonstracted on the counterpoise plan, for battering Hown a walL Note Demmin. 



110 BOMAK AKD MEDIEVAL HILITABT ENGINES : 

from a MS. of George of Sienna, states that mining with gnnpowder 
began in 1480. 

The 'sow' or ^cat,' the ancient ^cattns, platens or vinea/ an 
illustration of which, from the Arch of Septimius Sevems, is shown in 
fig. 9,^ is a movable shed on wheels, covered with raw hides to pre- 
vent its being burnt by fire cast from a parapet, and there are cases on 
record of these sheds having been plated with iron. It was often used 
as a cover for enabling a ditch to be filled up with rubbish or fascines 
in order to prepare a way for a wooden tower or other means of 
attack, and it sometimes contained a ram. The cat is mentioned by 
Guiart, anno 1295 — * Un chat sur le pont atiaire, etc.,' and one was 
employed a year earlier at the siege of Oh4teau Gaillard. These 
erections were also used by St, Louis in his Egyptian campaign in 1250, 
and there is constant mention of them in accounts of the si^es of 
the middle ages. This armed shed was often propelled on rollers, worked 
by levers, or by ropes and pulleys. John Sykes, in Local BscordSy 
when referring to the siege of Berwick by Edward II., in September, 
1819, says, ^On the iSth the English employed a great machine calkd 
a sow, constructed for holding and defending men, who were moved 
in it towards the foot of a wall, in order to mine and sap its founda- 
tions. Devices were used to bum the machine, but by throwing a 
stone of vast weight from an engine, the sow was split and her 
occupiers dislodged.* This kind of engine was in use as late as the 
wars of the Oonunonwealth, Camden says, ^The Cathbuse, answer- 
able to the Cattus, mentioned by Yegetius, was used at the siege of 
Bedford Castle in the time of King Henry the third. The sow is 
yet usual in Ireland, and was, in the time of King Edward the third, 
used at the siege of Dunbarf, which when the Countesse, who 
defended the castle, saw— she said merrily, that unless the English- 
men kept their sow the better, she would make her to cast her Pigs.' 

The ^testudo' {testa^ a shell), the medieval 'tortoise,' was a 
movable wooden shed like the cat, but it contained a battering ram 
or a bore for attacking a rampart. The Antonine column at Borne 
furnishes an example of Boman soldiers extemporizing a testudo when 
attacking a fort. They placed their long cylindrical shields over 

'^ The family of Cattas ^as in great variety in Roman times, and of varioos 
designations^ 



THB *TB8TUD0.' 



Ill 



their backs at a sharp angle, with the ends of these mantlets resting 
against the rampart assailed, thus forming a sloping cover to work 
nnder and sap and mine, or otherwise to attack the fortress. The 
besieged are seen throwing down rocks and other missiles, bat these 
roll down the inclined plain, presented by the sloping mantlets, 
without doing very much harm. Fig. 10 shows this arrangement in 
operation (column of Marcus Aurelius, erected 167-179 A.D.). The 
name was also applied to a close formation of soldiers, who placed 
their shields together so as to present an unbroken surface against 
the missiles discharged by the enemy. One form of tortoise was 
called a ' spur,' — it rather resembled the prow of a ship. 




FIO. 10.— TS8TUDO (COLUMN OF MARCUS AUKXLIUS). 

The * eate ' is referred to in the ballad of the AlUgeois as a cover 
for the besiegers ' faced with iron and held knights within it to push 
the gate vigorously and quick' The besieged assaU it with missiles, 
and cry ^Par Dieu! dame cat will never catch the rats.' This 
machine clearly belongs to the ^ cat ' family. 

The *belfredus,' *berefreid,' *bef&oi,' or *belfrey,' sometimes 
called ^chas chateilz' (cat castle), in contradistinction to the smaller 
cat, is a movable tower used for enabling bodies of soldiery to rush on 
to the walls of a fortress, with the object of taking it by storm. 
Marcellns used one of these towers, called sambuca, at the siege of 



112 BOMAN AND MBDIBVAL HHiITABT ENGINES : 

Sjracase ; and Yegetins, in De Rs Militan^ calls it by the same name. 
This machine seems to have hybemated between the sixth and eleventh 
centuries, at least I do not know of any records concerning it during 
that interval. It was constructed in several storeys, the lowest being 
frequently supplied with a bore or a ram. There were intercommuni- 
cations between the storeys by means of ladders or staircases, and the 
tower was high enough to reach or overtop ,the parapet of the 
fortress assailed. It was provided with a drawbridge for an assault 
in force, and the structure was rolled on wheels to the point of 
attack. It also was usually covered with raw hides as a protection 
against fire. An erection of this kind was used against Rome in 537,. 
but we do not hear of it again before the eleventh century, when we find 
one in operation at the si^e of Jerusalem in 1099, and a tower of 
the kind was burnt by Greek fire before Acre in 1190. A belfredus^ 
built by order of Simon de Montfort, was employed at the siege of 
Toulouse, and as stated in the ballad of the AlbigeoiSy already several 
times referred to, it was adapted to contain five hundred men. 
Belfreys were used by St. Louis, in Egypt, in 1250, and they were 
employed in every siege of importance. The last of these engines was 
constructed as late as the reign of Charles I., and it was captured 
'by the Parliamentary forces. The great objection to the employment 
of this kind of tower was its great weight, which made it very 
difficult to roll over ditches filled up with light rubbish or fascines; 
and its size presented an excellent mark for projectiles. 

Caesar, in describing the siege of Marseilles, conducted by hi& 
lieutenant, C. Trebonius, refers to a stationary tower, called & 
musculus, built on the lines of the beref reid. The first storey con- 
tained a bore to knaw a hole, and hence the name of the tower. 
That storey having been completed, a floor was laid over it, and 
above this the walls, built of brick, were continued to a second, and 
then again floored, and so on to the top. The tower was placed 
under the walls of the fortress attacked. The only protection for the 
soldiers while building up the walls was afforded by their mantlets* 
This sort of tower was also used during the middle ages, and 
called 'bastille,' but it was not built of brick, like the Roman 
'musculus,' but of earth, or wood, or stones without mortar. In 
Edouard Lehrischer's Avranchin Monumental et Historiqmy reference 



*GEEBK FIEB.' 118 

is made to bastilles as having been used at the siege of Mont St. 
Michel in Normandy. 

'Mantlets' of hurdles (musculi), stuck in the ground or held 
over the body, provided an excellent cover for archers, or other 
combatants, beneath the walls of a fortress, for protection against 
Greek fire, boiling pitch, showers of stones, and the numerous other 
inflictions showered down from the battlements by the defenders, and 
they formed part of the archer's equipment in the field. 

* Greek fire' played a great part in the warfare of medieval 
times, both by land and sea. It is stated to have been invented by 
a Syrian of Heliopolis, in 678, but Procopius mentions something 
of the kind in the preceding century, called ' Medea's oil.' Jesuit 
Petavius states, on the authority of Nicetas, Theophanes and Cedrenus, 
that it was invented about the year 660. Anna Comnena gives the 
ingredients, in the Alexiad^ as bitumen, sulphur and naphtha, while 
others add pitch and gum to the mixture. The princess tells us in 
the Alexiad how it was discharged from a tube I and here we may be 
said to have the prototype of the hand-gun. An Arabian treatise of 
the thirteenth century, written by Hassan Abrammah, speaks of 
several ways of using Greek fire in the East — in grenades made of 
pottery or glass, thrown by hand ; tow or hemp wrapped round 
staves and then dipped ; poured, or squirted through tubes, or cast 
from military engines by means of arrows, javelins or baiTels. The 
northern nations long regarded Greek fire as supernatural, and as the 
secret of its composition was most jealously guarded it was not before 
the second crusade that they acquired the knowledge of its component 
parts ; but whether they were able to prepare it themselves in the 
East is not so clear. Philip Augustus brought some of it from Acre, 
and used it for setting fire to some vessels of the English fleet at the 
siege of Dieppe. It was employed in many ways, but its most fatal 
form of application was in setting fire to fortified towns, where the 
wooden houses of medieval times afforded it free scope, when inad- 
equately guarded against by a sufficient covering of the roofs with 
raw hides and other means of protection. A mixture of vinegar, 
sand and urine was used to put out the flames. Barrels of Greek 
fire were cast into fortresses by various military engines as already 
described, and also by mortars ; and it was freely employed by the 

TOU XHY. 16 



114 



BOMAN AND MEDIEVAL MILITABT ENGINES. 



besieged in the destruction of military engines and movable towers, 
long after the introduction of cannon. The Sire de Joinville, describ- 
ing its use in the Hist de St Louys^ says ^* that in front it was of the 
bigness of a tun, and that the tail of it stood out ' comme un grant 
glaive.* It sounded like a thunderbolt, and looked like a great dragon." 
A treatise by MM. Reinaud and Pave, entitled Du Feu Oregeois^ 
gives a recipe for its production, and other particulars ; and in John 
Andeme*s Practica^ temp. Edward III., a clear distinction is made 
between *Fewes Qr^gois' and ' Fewe Volant,' showing that both descrip- 
tions were in use in that reign ; the * fewe volant * being gunpowder. 
Proissart tells us that Greek fire was employed at the battle of 
Breteuil in 135C, the besieged being provided with ^canons jetant 
feu.' With the rapid improvement of ordnance, and especially that 
in the impulsive force of gunpowder, brought about greatly by its 
granulation, Greek fire, as well as mechanical engines of war, and the 
various contrivances for attacking and defending a fortress, at length 
became obsolete. 



FuffTHER CjCPLORATIOH SHKW5 
THId TO HAVE BEEN THE DESIGN 
OF WINDOW AT ENOorStOtCMAHBER 




fcs 



- PiUSENT FUX)K 

X>BiO]NAL FLoobUnE 



Plan 



(See p. 65 et aeq.) 



116 



IV.— THE BRUMBLL COLLECTION OF CHARTERS, bto. 

By John Crawford Hodgson, P.S.A. 

[Read on the 27th November, 1901.] 

In the sixth report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission 
there is a brief account of a collection of charters belonging to 
the late Mr. Francis Brumell, sometime town clerk of Morpeth. 
Mr. Brumell's sons, Mess™ Francis and George Brumell, to whom 
these charters now belong, being desirous that they should be kept 
together and preserved as a collection for the use of their native 
county, have agreed to deposit them for that purpose with the 
Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. To make the collection of greater 
use to students a catalogue of its contents has been prepared by 
Miss M. T. Martin. It will repay examination. It will be seen from 
it that the documents range from about the year 1200 downwards, and 
comprise a considerable number which deal with the estates of the 
great Northumbrian family of Ogle, at Bothal, Hebbum, Tritlington, 
Elarsdon, Cockle Park, Causey Park, Bedlington, Sleekburn, Bebside, 
Cowpen, etc. Another series relates to Burradon in Tynemouthshire, 
whilst other documents will be found to relate to Newcastle, Dilston, 
ToBson, Snitter, and Lowick. 

The charters have been deposited with the Society by the 
Mess" Brumell, instead of being presented to it, in order that 
the collection may be transferred to the local Public Records Office, 
if such a depository should hereafter be established by the County 
Council or by some other public authority. 

Miss Martin's abstract, although necessarily brief, gives the date of 
each document, the parties to the same, the places dealt with, the 
names of the witnesses, and a description of the seal or seals appended. 

1. — N.D. — Grant by Robert de Gramavilla, heir of lady Constance de 
Gramavilla, to Gilbert de Oggel, of that moiety of the vill of Burgedun 
which Constance his mother granted by charter to the said Gilbert for 
his homage and service ; to hold free from such service, paying yearly 6d. 
to the ward of New castle upon Tyne. Witnesses : Walter, son of Gilbert, 



116 THE BRUMBLL COLLECTION OF CHARTERS, ETC. 

German Tisun,! Otwey de Insula, 2 Robert de Neuham, Geoffrey de 
Wdingtiin,3 Nicholas de Morewic,* William Mautalent, William the 
Scot, Hugh de Aisend,6 Hugh de Morewic,6 William de Custillun, Adam 
son of Gilbert, Bobert de Glanteleie, Bobcrt de Oggell and Adam the 
Scot. (Fragments of seal in a canvas bag.) 

2. — ^N.D. — Grant by Geoffrey de Wdrintun7 to Oclard de Burwindune, 
of the moiety of Burwedune which his father gave to the said Oclard. 
Witnesses: William de Vals, Osbert, clerk of Wdrintune, Bichard, clerk 
of Wdehom,8 William, priest of Wdrintune, Boger de Merlae,9 Engleram 
de Dumay, William de Looneis, Adam Barate, Boger de Ohivintune, 
Thomas, clerk, William, clerk of Ettieldune,lo Bobert de Erdesdune, 
Edolf, son of Eveda, Balf, son of Geoffrey de Wdrintune and Boger, 
brother of the said Geoffrey. (Seal missing.) 

3. — 1268, October 5. — Quitclaim by William, son of Balf, son of Adam 
de Kyllingworthe, to Boger Baret of Burudon, of his right in the land 
formerly of Asceline, daughter of Julia his grandmother, in Burudun. 
Witnesses: Adam Baret, John de Biker, John of Little Benton, Hugh of 
the same vill, Geoffrey de Wydeslad, William of the same vill, Bichard 
de Saint Peter of Kyllingworth and Adam de Haverden. (Fragments of 
seal in a canvas bag.) 

4.— [(7irca 1268.]— Grant by Henry, son of Balf de Kyllingworth, to 
Boger Barat of Burewedun, of land in Burewedun and of the customary 
services of Henry Hyming. Witnesses: sir John de Wydrigton, sir 
Adam Barat, John de Benton, William de Wydeslad, Bichard de 
Kyllingworth, clerk, William of Little Benton and Hugh de Bacwrth. 
(Seal missing.) 

5. — [Circa 1270.] — Grant by Hugh de CoUum to Bobert, son of John, 
carpenter of Brakenholm, of land in Brakenholm.n (Land described.) 
Witnesses: Bobert de Hakethorpe, Bichard de Herlethorpe, Bobert de 
Osgoteby, William Page and Thomas Lubias.l2 (Seal missing.) 

6. — 1274. — Sale by William, son of Thomas de Merchingley,13 to 
Alan Wodeman, of the land with buildings by the Lortebome in the town of 
Newcastle, between the land of Martin Haras and the land formerly 
of John Goldsmith, and extending from the high way to the moat of 
the castle, paying yearly to the king 15d., to Christine and Isabel, 
daughters of Miles de Pampedene, IDs. of silver, to the convent of Hexeld- 

» Living 1209. * Died 1250. ''Living about 1203. * Living 1191. 
* Hugh of Heisend and German Tlson were parties to an agreement concerning 
Hazon, dated 8th Sept., 1202. New Higtory of Northumberland, vol. v. p. 4t:i. 
« Of full age, 1200. ' This deed adds some details to the earlier part of the 
Widdrington pedigree. * The earliest known vicar of Woodhorn, in the time 
of King John (1199-1216). » A minor in 1188, died in 1239. »® Query Elsdon. 
" Brackenholme is a township in the parish of Hemingbrough. " Bobert, son 
of Thomas Lubias, held a messuage and land in Brakenholme in 1292. 
Baine, Hemingbrough^ p. 167. 

" Thomas de Merchingley was bailiff of Newcastle in 1257 ; cf. Welford, 
Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. i. p. 418. The exact position of the place, from 
which he derived his name, is not known with certainty, but apparently it lay 
between Broomley and Slaley. See Arch. A el. vol. xvi. pp. 846, 347, and 
the new History of NorthumberlaTid, voi. vi. p. 377. 



THE BRITMELL COLLECTION OF CHAftTEKS, ETa 117 

ham one stone of wax, to the keepers of the castle one pound of pepper, 
and to the said William one pound of cummin. Witnesses: Thomas de 
Karr, then mayor,l4 John de Flamang, Adam de Blakedena, Eichard de 
la Haye, John Sautmarays, then bailiffs,i5 Nicholas Scot, Henry Scot, 
John, son of Eoger, Thomas Thoraud, Henry de Bometona, Thomas, son 
of Maior and John Godrik. (Seal.) 

7.— [Latter part of reign of Edward I.]— Grant by Eobert, son and 
heir of Thomas Heringe, to Eobert de Vans and Joan his wife and the 
heirs of Eobert, of the land, meadow and wood of Aldeschel which he 
inherited from Thomas his father. Witnesses: sir Eoger de Folpeton, 
then bailiff of Hextildesham,l6 sir John de Vans, knight, Matthew de 
Catteden, Eobert de Erynton, Eobert de Bingfeld, Anthony de Erynton, 
John de Falufeld and Eichard Wacy. (Seal missing: very small frag- 
ments of red wax.) 

8. — ICirca 1330.] — Grant by Simon de Leylthone, vicar of West- 
hanne', and John Duk, vicar of Great Bursted, to king Edward I., of 
lands in Berkynge and in the parish of Little lUeford, which they had 
by grant of sir Thomas Weston, knight, and the reversion of other lands 
in Berkynge.i7 (Lands described.) Witnesses : sir John de Poulteney, 
then mayor of London,i8 sir Eobert ae Haugham, knight, Eobert le Bret, 
g^oldsmith of London, John de Goldingham, John de Dagenham, 
Alexander de Bettoigne, John le Portir, John Samekyn, Eichard Male- 
meynes and Thomas le brewere. (Seal missing.) 

9. — 1347, August 14, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. — ^Agreement between sir 
Philip de Somervill and Eobert de Oggle concerning the tenure of the 
vill of Saltwyk which Eobert holds of Philip. 19 Indenture, (Seal, 
heraldic; red wax.) 

10. — 1354, July 25, Dilston. — Grant by John de Tossan, son and 
heir of Eobert de Tossan of Eouthebiry, to Alan, called Maire, of 
Snyttre in Eouthebiry, of a messuage called le Greneyarde and land in 
Dyveleston field which the said John inherited after the death of Eobert 
his father and Emma, daughter of Hugh, butcher of Corbrig, his mother, 
(liands described.) Witnesses: sir William de Tyndale, Eobert del 
Hyle, Alan de Felton, William de Ayrig, Eobert de Hodespeth and 
Thomas Forster of Corbrig. (Seal missing.) 

" Cf. Welford, Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. i. p. 419. ** Ibid, 

"The names of Roger de W...lton, bailiff of Hexham, John de Wa...se, 
Matthew de Catteden, Robert de Eringtona, Robert de B[ingefeld] appear in 
the Subsidy Roll of Hexham for 1295 ; cf, the new History of JVorthumherlandj 
▼ol. iii. pp. 32, 34. 

" West Hanningfield, Great Burstead, Barking and Little Bford, are 
parishes in Essex. 

" Sir John Poulteney was mayor of London in 1330, 1331, 1333, and 1336 ; 
and was the founder of the church of St. Lawrence^ Pountney ; cf, Stowe, 
Z^mdon, vol. ii., pp. 216, 217. 

*• Saltwick was a mauor of the Merlay barony and came to sir Philip de 
Somervill through his mother, Isabel, daughter and- co-heiress of Roj^er de 
Merley ill. Under him the manor was held by Richard de Saltwick who, in 
1342. granted it to Robert de Ogle by a charter printed in Hodgson's 
Northumberland J II. ii. p. 385. 



lis 1?HB BttUMELL COLLEdTlOlf OF CHAllTBliS, ETC. 

11.— 1.399, May 21, Lowick.— Grant by Thomas Gray, lord of Werk, 
to Eobert de Ogle, son and heir of sir Eobert de Ogle, and to Maud 
his daughter, wife of the said Robert, of lands called Sammesland in 
Lowyke which he had by charter of Henry de Bele. Witnesses: sir 
Roger Heron, sir John de Lilburne, sir Thomas Gray of Horton, sir 
Henry de Heton, sir John Maners, Robert de Maners and William de 
Urde. (Seal, heraldic; red wax, slightly broken.) 

12.— 1411, April 20, Whykham.— Quitclaim by Thomas del Redhough, 
son and heir of Hugh del Redhough, knight, to Roger de Thornton of 
New castle upon Tyne and John de Fenwyk, chaplain, of his right in the 
land called Axelfeld in the bishopric of Durham.20 Sealed with the 
common seal of the town of Newcastle. Witnesses: Ralf de Eure and 
Thomas Surtays, knights, William Chaunceller, Percyval Lynley and 
John Boterell. (Seal, red wax.) 

13.— 1449, May 10, Morpeth.- Grant at fee farm, by Roger Usscher, 
gentlemen, to John Hutton, barker of Morpath of a tenement in Mor- 
path in lez Newgate street. (Boundaries given.) Witnesses: Henry 
Grey, then steward of Morpath, James Buke, James Belle, servant, 
William Chestir and William Barker, baillifs, Nicholas Chaloner and 
John Lonsdall. (Seal, R. (and crown?); red wax.) 

14. — 1460, December 27. — Quitclaim by Ralf Swan, son and heir of 
William Swan, gentleman, to William Stokton and Edward Watson, 
chaplains, of his right in lands in Little Ryal, Grenlighton, Rothberi, 
Framlyngton and Newcastle upon Tyne, which the said chaplains, with 
Thom&s Blaklaw, clerk, deceased, had of the gift of the said William 
Swan and Agnes his wife. Witnesses: Robert Lyel, Gylbert Arthur and 
James Lee. (Seal, red wax.) 

15. — 1517, April 18, Bothall castle. — Grant by Robert Ogle, lord 
of Ogle and Botthall, to William Ogle, esquire his brother, of 
the vill of Hebburn, lands in Tritlyngton, lands in Southdisshington 
(tenants given), a tenement in North Middilton which he lately pur- 
chased from Humfrey Lisle, knight (tenant given), the tower and lands 
of Cokyll Parke and the office of forester there, to hold for life in 
exchange for lands in the tower and vills of Great Tosson and Twysill. 
William Ogle of Gawsee Parke is appointed attorney to deliver possession. 
(Seal, heraldic; red wax, slightly broken.) 

Note on dorse, that possession was taken at Hebum and Cokyll 20th 
April, 1517. Witnesses: sir George Harper, chaplain, Thomas Albyn, 
Robertt Moray, Umfray Tosson, Robert Waiteland, William Leghton, 
Ihon Soane and Reichartt Fawdon. 

16.-1527, May 10.— Quitclaim by Robert Ogle, knight, lord of Ogle 
and Bottell, to William Ogle of Cokill Park, knight, of his right in the 
manor and park of Cawsy Park with enclosures called le Southfeld and 
Barronsfel(^. (Seal missing; very small fragments of red wax.) 

17.— 1528, May 22.— Grant by sir Robert Ogle, lord of Ogle and 

2* In 1411 Roger Thornton obtained a pardon for purchasing the mapor of 
Axwell without licence from Thomas, brother of Hugh Redheugh. Welfoid, 
Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. i. p. 249. 



THB BEUMBLL COLLECTION OF CHARTERS, ETC. 119 

Bottale, to William Ogle, knight, his brother, of lands in Newham, 
in exchange for lands in Warton. George Ogle is appointed attorney to 
deliver possession. Indenture, (Seal, heraldic, R.O.; red wax, imper- 
fect.) 

18.— 1530, June 22.— Sale by Robert Ogle, knight, lord of Ogle and 
Bottell, to sir Wylliam Ogle, knight, for ^6 12s., of a messuage and thirty- 
eight acres of land in Horsley with his pasture and common of pasture in 
the fields and forest of Horsley. Indenture, (Seal missing.) 

19.— 1536, December 2.— Grant by Robert Ogle, knight, lord of Ogle 
and Bothall, to William Ogle of Gokylparke, knight, his uncle, of 
common of pasture in the common and forest of the lordship of Eresdoune, 
and in the commons and moors of Trytlington, Eresdon and Fenrother. 
Indenture, (Seal missing; small fragment of red wax.) 

20.— 1538, November 20.— Grant by William Ogle of Cokle Park,21 
knight, to John Walker, Robert False and Thomas Lighton, clerks, of the 
manor of Cawsy Park with appurtenances in Horslee, Newham, Ersdon and 
Gawes Close, with common of pasture in the forests and commons of 
Felton, Ersdon, and Tritlyngton. Robert Ogle and John Lighton are 
appointed attorneys to deliver possession. (Seal, heraldic; red wax, 
broken.) 

21. — 1542, November 28. — ^Exemplification of a record in the Common 
Bench, Hilary Term, 34 Henry VIII., rot, 540. John Kyllyngworth, 
plaintiff, George Owrde, esquire, defendant; plea of land in Borowden. 
Judgment given for the plaintiff. Letters Patent, (Seal.) 

22.-1560, July 1.— Extract from Pipe Roll, 1 Elizabeth. Matthew 
Ogle of Heybome, gentleman, owes 66s. 8d., value of wood in the rectory 
of Mytfourth lately sold to him. Paid 1 July, 2 Elizabeth. 

23. — 1561, March 26, Redgrave. — Lease from the Crown to Matthew 
Ogle for twenty-one years of the rectories of Horsley and Kyrkeharlowe, 
and the tithes of grain and hay in Newton and Nonekyrke in the parish 
of Harteboume; reserving the advowsons of the vicarages of Horsley and 
Kyrkharlowe. Letters Patent. 

24. — 1563, June 24. Lease from the Crown to Bartram Andersonn of 
New castle upon Tyne, merchant, for twenty-one years, of the tithes 
of com of Borodoune.22 Letters Patent, (Seal.) 

25. — 1566, February 12. — Exemplification of a record in the Queen's 
Bench, Easter Term, 7 Elizabeth, rot. 135. John Harden, esquire, plain- 
tiff, Bartram Anderson, Alexander Robynson and Thomas Clybborne,23 
defendants; plea of trespass and ejection in a moiety of the vill of 

*' For a pedigree of Ogle of Cawsey Park family which sprang from 
sir William Ogle of Cockle Park, knight, see Hodgson Northumherland, II., ii., 
p. 185. 

" The will of Bartram Anderson of Newcastle was proved at Durham, 
12 June, 1571, The inventory of his furniture, stock in trade, &c., has been 
printed by the Surtees Society, Durham Wills and Inventories^ vol. i. (1835), 
p. 335. 

** Thomas Clibborne is mentioned in the will of his father-in-law Nicholas 
Baxter of Newcastle, merchant, dated 17 November, 1566, of. Welford, New* 
cattle and Oateshead^ vol. li., p. 424. 



120 THE BRUMBLL COLLECTION OF CHABTERS, ETC, 

Burradin by Weetelade, co. Northumberland. Judgment given for the 
plaintiff; Michaelmas Term, 7 Elizabeth. Letters Patent, (Seal.) 

26.— 1576, June 2.— Bond by Cuthbert, lord Ogle of Bothell, to James 
Ogle of the same place, gentleman, in .£40, to keep the covenants con- 
tained in indentures of the same date. Signatures of witnesses: James 
Ogle, William Duxfelde, clerke, Rauffe Ogle, Percivall Ogle, C. Oggle, 
John Charry, Edward Edwortb and Eichard Murton. (Seal missing.) 

27. — 1586, February 10. — ^Writ to James Ogle, esquire, late sheriff 
of CO. Northumberland, to deliver the said county to Robert Claveringe, 
esquire, who has been appointed sheriff. (Seal missing.) 

28. — 1593-1622. — Receipt for rent paid to the king's receiver by 
Matthew Ogle, gentleman, farmer of the rectory of Horsley, 1593: nine 
similar receipts to Charles Ogle, gentleman, 1599 to 1603: one similar 
receipt to Charley and John Ogle, gentlemen, 1602: twenty-six similar 
receipts to John Ogle, esquire, 1604 to 1622; and receipt to John Ogle, 
esquire, from ^64, heriot, due at Michaelmas, 1605. 

29. — 1594, May 11. — ^Lease from the) Crown to Mathew Ogle, 
Charles Ogle and John Ogle of the rectory of Horseley, to be held by 
each successively, for life; the advowson of the vicarage being reserved 
to the Crown. Letters Patent. (Seal.) 

30. — 1594, July 10. — ^Exemplification at the request of Edward Coke, 
esquire, attorney general, of: — 

Two inquisitions after the death of John de Graystok, knight, taken 
at Penreth and Newcastle upon Tyne; 20 September, 7 October, 1436. 

Inquisition after the death of Ralf de Graistoke, knight, taken at 
Kirkeby Lawnesdale; 21 October, 1488. 

Three inquisitions after the death of Elizabeth Dacre, late wife 
of Thomas Dacre, knight, lord of Dacre and Gillesland, taken at Carlisle, 
Haltwisell and York castle, 27 June, 29 June, 1517, 10 March, 1518. 

Recognizance in which Richard, earl of Salisbury, ils bound to 
Henry VI.; 23 March, 1458. {Close Roll.) 

Security that John, duke of Norfolk, will appear before the king 
and council; 26 November, 1443. (Close Roll.) 

Act of Parliament; 20 November, 1459. 

Petition of dower by Robert Constable and Beatrice his wife, late 
wife of Ralf, lord of Graistoke; 1490-1. 

Bill of Thomas, duke of Norfolk, against Edward Dacre, Thomas 
Bates, William Middleton, William Musgrave, William Welden and 
John Brisco; Star Chamber. (Writ de certiorari, 1 July, 1594.) 

Indenture between Henry VIII. and William Dacre, knight, lord of 
Dacre, Gillesland and Graystock; 30 November, 1525. (Close Roll.) 

Letters patent of Henry VII. to Thomas Dacre, knight, lord Dacre^ 
and Elizabeth his wife; 26 April 1507. Letters Patent. (Seal.) 

31. — 1599 to 1605. — ^Twelve receipts for rent paid to the king's receiver 
by John Ogle, esquire, farmer of Helye, Newtongrange, East Ritton, Colte 
Parke and Earsden. 

32. — 1610, Hilary Term. — Extract from recusant roll; co. North- 
umberland. 



THB BBUHELL OOLLEOTION OF OHABTBBS, BTO. 121 

33. — 1618, June 26. — Sale by Lancelot Ogle of Cowpen, gentleman, to 
John Ogle of Cawsey Park, esquire, of the manor or capital messuage 
of Bebside. Signed: Lancelot Ogle. Signatures of witnesses: Jo: 
LawBon, Tho: Bradforth, Ba: Smyth, Roger Willson, Bich: Johnson, 
Bobert Lorenc; Guthbert Oxley, notary public. Indenture, (Seal; red 
wax, partly defaced.) 

Note on dorse that this deed was produced in the suit between 
William Middleton, baronet, plaintiff, and Thomas Ogle, defendant, 
15 October, [16]88. 

34. — 1618, November 9. — ^Petition of Thomas Henderson to viscount 
Wallingford, master of the Court of Wards and Liveries, for the livery 
of the heir of James Ogle of Cawsey Park, esquire, who died seven or 
eight years ago. 

Answer that the said Thomas must resort to the attorney and another 
of the council of the Court and prove a tenure. Signed : W. Wallingford. 

35. — 1619, Michaelmas Term. — ^Decree of the Court of Wards and 
Liveries; whereas it was found by inquisition taken at Morpeth, 1st 
September last, that James Ogle, esquire, died Ist March, 1613, seised 
of the manor of Cawsey and Cawsey Parke and of other lands (named) 
and that John Ogle is his son and heir aged forty years at his father's 
death; and Thomas Henderson, at whose charges and prosecution the 
said inquisition* was taken, having acknowledged to the said court that 
the said John Ogle has given him satisfaction therefor; it is ordered 
that upon payment of twenty nobles, the rates lost for want of livery 
sued after the death of James, being .£22 lis. llfd. shall be discharged, 
and the said John may proceed with his livery. 

36. — 1621, February 12. — ^Writ to the escheator in co. Northumberland, to 
deliver seisin to John Ogle, son and heir of James Ogle, esquire, who 
died March 1st, 1613, of the manor of Cawsey and Cawsey Parke and lands 
in Cawsey Parke, Horsley, Horsley Forreste, Earsden, Earsden Forreste, 
Felton, Tritlington, Earsdon Hill in the parish of Bottelphe (?), and the 
forest of Felton, of which the said James is found by inquisition to have 
been seised. (Seal.) 

37. — ^1622, June 1. — Grant to Marie Wight of Brockham,24 co. Surrey, 
-widow, for a fine of ^6300, of the wardship and marriage of Henry Wight, 
son and heir of Gabriel Wight, esquire, deceased, with a yearly rent of 
jB6 from lands in cos. Essex, Middlesex, Surrey and London, which are 
in the king's hands by reason of the minority of the said Henry. 
Indenture, (Seal, of the Court of Wards and Liveries, missing.) 
Annexed is a schedule of the lands with their yearly value. 
38. — 1630, December 4. — ^Beceipt from the king's commissioners to 
John Ogle of Cawsey Parke, gentleman, for <£13 6s. 8d. in discharge of 
a composition made with them for compounding the fines for not attend- 
ing and receiving knighthood at the coronation of Charles I. Signed: . 
Wentworth.26 

" Brockham is a parochial chapelry belonging to the parish of Bletch- 
wortfaf near Reigate. 

** The autograph of Thomas, viscount Wentworth, the famous minister of 
Charles I., afterwards created earl of Strafford. 

16 



122 THE BBUMELL COLLECTION OF CHARTBES, ETC. 

39. — 1633, December 18. — Sale by John Ogle of Cawsay Parke, esquire, 
to Thomas Ogle of Tritlington, esquire, of the manor or capital messuage 
of Bebside. Signed : John Ogle. Signatures of witnesses : Thomas Ogle, 
Lancelot Ogle, James Ogle, Mathew Ogle, Thomas Ogle. Indenture. 
(Seal missing.) 

40. — 1661, February 18. — Commission to Cuthbert Heron, Eobert Shafto, 
James Ogle of Caussey Parke, and Henry Widdrington, esquires, keepers 
of the peace in co. Northumberland, to give possession of the barony of 
Bywell to William Fenwicke, esquire, plaintiff against John Fenwicke, 
knight and baronet, in a plea of detinue of the said barony. (Seal.) 

41. — 1662, July 17, Hampton Court.— Instructions to Algemoun, 
earl of Northumberland, and Joceline, lord Percy, appointed lieutenants 
for CO. Northumberland in pursuance of an " Act for ordering of the forces 
in the severall counties of this kingdome." Signed : Charles E. Copy. 

42. — 1662, July 29. — Lease by Algemoun, earl of Northumberland, 
to James Ogle of Burradon in the parish of Tynmouth, esquire, for nine 
years, of his moiety of the com tithes and petty tithes of Burradon, 
parcel of the rectory of Tynmouth. Indenture. Signed: Northumber- 
land. (Seal of the earl of Northumberland; red wax, partly defaced.) 

43. — 1682/3, February 21, 22. — ^Lease and release by Martin Ogle of 
Tritlington, esquire, to William Ogle of Causay Park, esquire, of lands in 
Bebside, Cheppington and Ellington, co. Northumberland, and in Bedling- 
ton, Cleaswell Hill, East Sleackbume and West Sleackbume, co. Durham. 
Signed: Martin Ogle. Signatures of witnesses: Eobert Eeevelley, 
Oliver Miller, Jos: Eaglestone. Indentures. (Seals missing.) 

44.— 1682/3, February 21.— Letters of attorney by Martin Ogle of 
Tritlington, esquire, to William Ogle of Causay Parke, esquire, to recover 
lands in Bebside, Cheppington and Ellington, co. Northumberland, and in 
Bedlington, Cleaswell Hill, East Sleackbume and West Sleackbume, co. 
Durham. Signed: Martin Ogle. Signatures of witnesses: Eobert 
Eeevelley, Oliver Miller, Jos: Eaglestone. (Seal missing.) 

45. — 1682/3, February 22. — ^Agreement between Martin Ogle of Trit- 
lington, esquire, and William Ogle of Causay Park, esquire, that whereas 
Martin has appointed William his attorney to recover certain lands, the 
expenses of the latter shall be repaid out of the first profits of the lands; 
and the lands shall be conveyed to such person as the said William 
shall appoint. Sigfned: Martin Ogle. Signatures of witnesses: Eobert 
Eevelley, Oliver Miller, Jos: Eaglestone. Indenture. (Seal missing.) 

46. — 1690, November 5. — ^"The joynt and severall answeres of John 
Ogle and Dorothy his wife, heire at law of Thomas Ogle, late of Tritling- 
ton, deceased, in the bill named and Eobert Clark, administrators of 
the goodes and chattells, rights and creditts of the said Thomas Ogle, 
three of the defendants to the bill of complaint of sir William Middle- 
ton, barronet, complainant." Not dated. (Endorsed : " Answer to a bill 
about Bebside.") 

Pinned to this document is a letter from John Ogle to Mr. Lancelot 
Algood, Newcastle upon Tyne, dated at Blencow, November 5th, 1690. 

47. — 1690, December 13. — 'Order, Ogle and Midleton and Brownes 
proceedings.' 



THE BEUMBLL COLLECTION OF CHAETERS, ETC. 123 

48.— 1691, January 19.—" The Answer of John Ogle and Dorothy his 
wife, two of the defendants to the bill of complaint of sir William Middle- 
ton, baronet." Sworn at Bishop Auckland. (Endorsed : " An answer in 
Chancery relating to the purchase of Bebside, etc.'') 

49.-1691, October 28.— Release by Thomas Ogle of Bishop's Wear- 
mouth, nephew and heir at law to Martin Ogle, late of Tritlington, 
deceased, to William Ogle of Cawsey Parke, esquire, of the lands sold to 
the said William by the said Martin, 22nd February, 1682. Signed : Tho : 
Ogle. Signatures of witnesses; John Eobson, Tho: Potts. Indenture, 
(Seal, red wax.) 

50.— 1692.— " Case Ogle and Ogle, 1692. Bebside." (Endorsement.) 
61. — 1708.— "The case of Bebside given by Mrs. Lotherington26 of 
Hebboum, 1708." (Endorsement.) 

52. — 1709, August 27, Newcastle upon Tyne. — "Captain Ogle's case 
about Bebside." (Endorsement.) Signed: Jo: Chesshyre. 

53. — 1730, July 27 — Statement of a case concerning Little Houghton. 

Signed: Tho: Lutwyche. (Endorsed: "Peareth's case. Henzell Soll"^.") 

54. — 1821, February 6. — ^Writ to William Clarke, esquire, late sheriff 

of CO. Northumberland, to deliver the said county to Addison John Cres- 

well Baker of Creswell, esquire, who has been appointed sheriff. 

Annexed: Letters patent announcing the said appointment. (Seal.) 
Annexed: Letters patent to the people of co. Northumberland to 
assist the said newly-appointed sheriff in all things appertaining to his 
office. 

55. — 1821, September 29. — ^Extract from the Pipe Roll, being the 
return of Addison John Creswell, esquire, sheriff of co. Northumberland. 
56. — 1700-1828. — ^Abstract of deeds and writings relating to the title 
to freehold messuages, etc., at the Kale Cross in the Side, Newcastle, 
belonging successively to Henry Marley, John Peareth, etc., and after- 
wards to Charles Porter. 

57. — 1638-1724. — Schedule of deeds and writings belonging to a house 
in Pilgrim street, Newcastle, the property of Peter Brown of Back- 
worth, George Simpson, John Cay, Thomas Brumell, Elizabeth Jefferson, 
John Horsley of Milbum Grange, William Wharton and others, 
successively. 



*» 1724, May 31. Mrs. Anne Lotheringtone of Hebron buried. Hehhurn 
BegUter, 



124 

v.— ABSTRACT OP DEEDS IN THE MDNIMBNT ROOM, 
KIRKLEATHAM HALL, RELATING TO THE 
CHANTRY OF THE B.V.M. IN CHESTBR-LE- 
STREET CHURCH. 

By T. k. Fallow, F.S.A., of Coatham. 
[Communicated to the Editor on the 27th November, 1901.] 

The following, relating to Chester-le-Street, is from the Valor 
EcclmasHcm (vol. v. p. 812), and it shows that the chantry of the 
B.V.M. in Chester-le-Street church was endowed with lands, etc., in 
the parish of Eorkleatham. It is not possible now to identify those 
lands, but there are some deeds at Eirkleatham relating to the 
possessions of the chantry in that parish, and I append abstracts 
of them. The connexion of the Lomleys with Chester-le-Street 
and with Eirkleatham, easily explains how the chantry became 
endowed with lands in the latter parish. 

Ep'atus Dunelm'. 

Decanatus Cestrie in Strata. 

Ricardus Laton Decanus ib'm. 



Col. 2. Ep'at' Dun'. 

Leonardus Raughton ^ capellanus can- 
tariste cantarie B'te Marie Vir- 
ginis in Cestria p'dict'. 

Cantar* p'dca valet in 
Sit' mansionis sue cum cet'is fructib3 ejusdem "j £ s. d. 

cantarie in difs' villis & campis jac' vij in I 
Ceton XX* Maltby xx» Leventhrop ^ vj* viij<* > — ex — 
Kirkbe Levynton xxxij* viij** Kyrkelethome I 
xxvj* viij^ Upledome iiij\ In toto^ annuj 

Sm* valor patj sup* 

Inde in vi; in £ s. d. 

Redd' resolut' dno Lomley xvj*^ & Henrico^ .. 

Boynton militi viij^ I ^ 

Sm* repris' pat3 sup* 

£ s. d. 

Et valet clare / — cviij — 

X°^*psinde ... ... — x ixob'q' 

* Raughton was a local sarname occurring in tbe neighbourhood of 
Kirkleatham. 

^ Leventhrop, now 'Linthorpe,' a township included in the modem borough 
of Middlesbrough, but in the ancient parish of Acklam. 



CHANTEY OP B.V.M. IN CHKSTER-LB-STEBET CHURCH. 125 

(1) Deed dated 4 Nov. 40 Eliz^, from Samuel Brasse of London, gent., 
Bobt. Brasse of London, hatmaker, and Geo. Whitton, of London, gent., reciting 
that Q. BUz. by Let. Pat. (19 May, 40 Bliz.) granted for the lives of S. B., R. B., 
and Q. W. snccessively all that tenement with appurts. in Kirkleatham in the 
tenure of Wm. Smith, late parcel of the chantry of the B.V. Mary at Chester- 
le-Street, &c., &c. 

Now know ye that S. B., R. B., & G. W. in conson of cert, sum of money, 
grant their interest in the same to John Smith. 

(2) Indent. 1 July, 1612, betw. Robt. Wall of Sutton in Galtres and Robt. 
Walls [sic] of Redcar, by w<* R. W. of Sutton grants R. W. of Redcar in cons5n 
cert, sum of money : * totum illud messuagium sive tenementum ac tof tum 
croftum ac omnes illas quadraginta acras terrae arabilis et pasturalis cum 
omnibus pastnris eidem messuagio pertinentibus, cum pertinentiis, parcellas 
nnper cantariae beatae Mariae in ecclesia parochial! de Chester in le Streete in 
Episcopatu Dunelmensi ac scituatas jacentes et existentes in Kirkelethome in 
com. Bbor. modo vel nuper in tenuri sive occupatione Petri Makeridge vel 
assignatorum suorum annualis redditus triginta duorum solidorum. Necnon 
totum illud tenementum cum pertinentiis scituatum jacentem et existentem in 
Kirkelethome predicta in dicto comitatu Ebor. modo vel nuper in tenura sive 
occupatione Willelmi Smith vel assignatorum suorum, parcellam etiam 
predictae nuper cantariae beatae Mariae in ecclesia parochiali de Chester in le 
Streete in predicto Episcopatu Dunelmensi ac anoualis redditus sive valoris 
viginta sex solidorum et duorum denariorum ' as fully as James I. by Let. Pat. 
24 March ' last past * (10 Jac. I.) granted the same to Francis Morrice and 
Francis Phillips. 

(3) Indent. 20 Dec. 10 Jac. (I.) between Rob* Walls of Redcar and John 
Smith of Kirkleatham and Tho. Smith, his son and heir, by w^^ R. W. in consoli 
cert sum of money grants to J. S. and T. S. * all that messuage or tenement 
toft, croft, and all those Brrable landes * in Eirklethom late in the occupation of 
William Smith and now in the occupation of John Smith * p*cell of the late 
chauntree of the blessed Marye in the p'ishe church of Chester in the Street in the 
bushoppricke of Durham,' yearly value 26/-, as freely as James I. granted the 
same (24 March last past) to Francis Morrice and Francis Phillips, and as they 
by Deed (1 July last past and enrolled in Court of C.P.) granted the same to 
Robert Wall of Sutton in Galtres— to be held of the King as of his manor of 
JBast Greenwich. 

When the lordship of Kirkleatham was purchased by John Turner, 
the deed of feoffment from sir William Bellasis to John Turner 
of Oisbrough, dated 3rd December, 1628, includes the messuage 
with toft and croft and 40 acres in the several fields of Eirkleatham^ 
East Ooatham and ^ITreby * [i.e. Yearby] sometime belonging to the 
chantry of St. Mary's in the parish church of Chester in le Street. 



126 



VI.— PROOFS OF AGE OP HEIRS TO ESTATES IN 

NORTHUMBERLAND (continued from vol. xxii. pp. 116-130). 
By John Ceawpoed Hodgson, F.S.A. 
[Read on the 26th Febraary, 1902.] 

When the documents entitled * Proofs of Age of Heirs to Estates 
in Northumberland in the reigns of Henry IV., Henry V., and Henry 
VI.' were contributed to the twenty- second volume of the Archcaologia 
Aeliana it was fully intended that the series should be continued and 
if possible completed at some future time. But a recent search at 
the Public Record Office has only disclosed two more documents of 
the class so far as this county is concerned ; the following abstracts, 
therefore, which have been prepared by Miss M. T. Martin, must be 
regarded as an appendix to, rather than as a continuation of, the 
above named paper. 

The first of these documents proves the birth of William Bertram,^ 
son and heir of sir William Bertram of Bothal, knight, by his wife, a 
daughter of sir Thomas Kempston, knight. He was bom at Bothal, 
on Monday, November 24, 1449, and, preceded and accompanied by 
various attendants who carried lighted torches, a silver basin, a towel, 
and a silver salt cellar with salt, was carried to the parish church the 
same day to be baptized. His god-parents were sir John Carliol of 
N ewcastle, knight, John Aschton, vicar of Ovingham, and Agnes, wife of 
Robert Rhodes, the famous mayor of Newcastle, each of whom was 
respectfully and ceremoniously solicited by special messengers, viz., 
Roger Widdrington, of Widdrington, Thomas Heron, of Meldon, and 
Thomas Cramlington, of Widdrington, all men of family, who may 
have been squires to Sir John Bertram or guests at Bothal at the 
time of the child's birth. 

The second document which relates to Thomas Cramlington* of 
Newsham, son and heir of Lancelot Cramlington of Newsham, 
sometimes described as of Blyth Nook. It contains no picturesque 

» For a pedigree of Bertram, see Hodgson, Jforthumberland, II. ii. p. 126. 
2 For notices of the family of Cramlington, of Cramlington and Newshain, 
with a pedigree, see Arch, Ael,, vol. xix. p. 1. 



PROOFS OF AGE OF WILLIAM BEETRAM AND THOS. ORAMLmGTON. 127 

description of his baptism, but proves his parentage and that he 
himself left at his decease one son and two daughters him surviving. 
Thomas Oramlington entered his pedigree at St. George's Visitation 
of Northumberland in 1615. 

Inq, p, w., 12 Edward iiij. No. 86. — Proof of age of "William Bartram, 

son and heir of William Bartram, knight, deceased, taken at Morpathe, 

28 June, 12 Edward iiij. [1472]. The jurors say that the said William was 

horn at Bothall on Monday next before the feast of St. Andrew, apostle, 28 

Henry vi. [24 November, 1449], and baptized the same day in the church of 

Bothall, and is aged twenty-one years and more. Roger Wodrynton of 

Wodrynton, aged 48, was sent to John Earlele, knight, to ask him, on behalf of 

the said William Bartram, knight, to be godfather of William, his son. Thomas 

Herone of Meldowne, aged 66, was sent to sir John Aschton, vicar of Ovyngham, 

to ask him to be godfather. Thomas Cramlyngton of Wodryngton, aged 50, 

was sent to Agnes, wife of Robert Rodes, esquire, to ask her to be godmother. 

John Packare of Morpeth, aged 70, held a lighted torch at the time of 

William's baptism. John Wermowth of Morpathe, aged 60, carried a silver 

bason with a ewer full of water, from Bothall castle to the church before 

William on the day of his baptism. John Knyght of Wodryngton, aged 56, 

carried a silver salt-cellar with salt before William from Bothall castle to the 

church. Robert Grene of Rothbery, aged 60, carried a towel before William 

from Bothall castle to the church. Thomas Atkynson of Bothall, aged 54, rode 

with the venerable Father in Christ, Robert Nevyll, then bishop of Durham, 

from Bothall castle to Newcastle upon Tyne, and met John Carlyll at Bothall, 

who told him that he was godfather of the said William. Gilbert Arthure of 

Rothbery, aged 62, Alice, his wife, bore a daughter who was baptized in the 

said church on the day of William's baptism. Thomas Symsonof Wodryngton, 

aged 53, rode with the said John Earlele, William's godfather, from Newbume 

to Bothall. Thomas Hedlee of Morpathe, aged 58, was in the church at the 

time of William's baptism, and was taken ill there with fever. William Browne 

of Morpathe, aged 60, in riding towards Bothall, fell from his horse and broke 

his left shin. 

Inq. p, m., 21 James I., Part I., No. 1.— Proof of age of Thomas Oram- 
lington, son and heir of Lancelot Oramlington of Newsham, esquire, deceased, 
taken at the castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 17 January, 21 James I. [1623], by 
oath of Tristram Fenwicke, Martin Fenwicke, Oliver Eillingworth, Mathew 
Newton, Henry Holme, gentlemen; John Murton, Thomas Anderson, John 
Gardner, John Meggison, John Spraggan, Symond Robson and John Toplinge. 
The jurors say that the said Thomas, at the time of his father's death, was of 
full age, that is to say, twenty-one years and more. He was married, by his 
f&ther, to Grace Lawson, one of the daughters of Robert Lawson of Oramlington, 
esquire, and had, by her, in the life-time of Lancelot his father, one son and two 
daughters, namely Elizabeth, Barbara, and Robert Oramlington. 



128 



VII.— LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

By BiOHARD Welfobd, M.A., a vice-president of the society. 
[Bead on the 26th Febrnary, 1902.] 

A second instalment of mnniments relating, like the firsts to the 
town of Newcastle and its environs, needs no fresh introduction. 
The documents which follow are epitomized on the same lines as 
the previous series, and are characterized by the same fluctuating 
degrees of utility and importance. 

The first of them — ^a bundle of deeds dealing with property upon 
Newcastle Quay, including a hostelry known to bibbers by the water- 
side as the ' Fox and Hounds * — contains names of persons^ who fill 
conspicuous places in local history. 

THE yUATSIDB. [f.W.D.] * 

The series begins with a deed in which appears Boger Mitforth, 
or Mitford, sheriff of Newcastle in the municipal year 1530-81, an 
oflSce-bearer in the Company of Merchant Adventurers, and entered as 
such in Edward the Sixth's charter, dated September 1, 1547. Then 
follows his father-in-law, John Blaxton, sheriff in 1504-5, mayor and 
governor of the same company in 1518-14, mayor again in 
1527-28, the first husband of famous Barbara Thomlinson, whose 
genealogy at one time puzzled local antiquaries, so extensive were the 
legacies she received in her lifetime and so numerous the bequests 
which she left at her decease. The other party to the deed is Edward 

^ AM that is known abont these and other prominent persons whose names 
appear on subsequent pages may be traced through the indexes of the following 
local works : — Brand, HUtory of Newcastle; Hodgson, History of Northumhev' 
land; Longstaffe, Menwirs of the Life of An^rose Barnes (60 Surt. See. 
publ.); Dendy, ider chant Adventurers Books^ and HostmeiCs Books (93, 101 
and 105 Surt. Soc. pub.) ; Proceedings of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries ; 
Arehaeologia Aeliana ; Chronological History of Newcastle and Gateshead, and 
the elaborate pedigrees of Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson in the new History of 
Northwnherland, Some of the persons named herein form the subject of 
separate biographies in Men of Hark ^Twixt Tyne and Tweed, 

3 Initials attached to headlines indicate the sources from which the 
documents have been obtained. Thus : — [C.-E.] Captain Carr-Bllison of 
Hedgeley; [D.A.H.] D. A. Holdsworth, Eldon Square, Newcastle ; [F.W.D.] 
P. W. Dendy, a vice-president of the society; [G.B.R.] The late Qeorge 
Bouchier Richardson; [B.W.J Documents in my own collection. 



A HOUSE ON THE QUAYSIDE, NEWCASTLE. 129 

Hall, baker, a burgess who, although he never received municipal 
honours, was sent with sir Robert Brandling to represent the town in 
the first Parliament of queen Mary in October, 1558. 

A subsequent indenture gives us the names of William Jenison, 
sheriflF, twice mayor, and three times M.P. for Newcastle ; Mark 
Shafto, sheriflF and mayor; Henry Chapman, sheriflF, three times 
mayor, and once M.P.; and William Riddell, sheriflF, and twice 
mayor, son of Peter Riddell, merchant, and father of sir Peter and 
sir Thomas Riddell, both of whom also were sheriflfe, mayors and 
parliamentary representatives of Newcastle. 

Further down the list come Ralph Jenison (sir Ralph later on), 
sheriflF and mayor ; George and Henry Dawson, Puritan mayors, and 
that ' miracle of his age,' Thomas Bonner, the mayor who entertained 
Oliver Cromwell. Next appear Humphrey Pibus, father-in-law of the 
rev. John March, Jacobite vicar of Newcastle ; Phineas Allen of 
the Trinity House, and George Marshall, father of the local poet 
of that name, followed by the ropemaking Pembrokes, the bookselling 
Akenheads, and that venerable lady who, as some of us remember, 
lived to the age of ninety-four in her railway-blocked mansion in 
Clavering Place — Hannah Pembroke, daughter of David Akenhead, 
and widow of Sir Robert Shafto Hawks. 

. 1544-5. January 2. — Indenture between Roger Mitforthe of Newcastle, 
merchant, and Ann, his wife, one of the daughters and heirs of John Blaxton, 
merchant, and Edward Hall, jun., of Newcastle, baker. Reciting that William 
Thomlinson of Gateshead, and Barbara, his wife, were possessed during Barbara's 
life of a tenement on the Key Syde, Newcastle, between the King's Street, S., 
a tenement of William Gibson, mariner, N., the vennel called Byker Chaier, W., 
and a tenement of Peter Riddell, merchant, and a house in possession of Thomas 
Stobbes, slater, E. Also a cellar under the house, in the occupation of said 
Stobbes, containing in length three virgats and in breadth six virgats, and that 
after Barbara^s death the reversion belonged to said Roger and Ann Mitforthe, 
and the heirs of the said Ann. It is witnessed that said Roger and Ann granted 
to said Hall all the premises, to hold of the chief lord of the fee, under yearly 
rent of £ 1 6s. 8d. to said Roger and Ann, and 8s. per annum to the king. 
[Acknowledgment of said Ann, according to the custom of the Court of the town 
of Newcastle, attached.] Executed by Roger Mitforthe, with mayoralty seal 
affixed. 

1571. August 20. — Indenture of bargain and sale whereby Edward Hall, for 
£37 lOs., convened to John Michelson of Newcastle, master and mariner, all the 
said premises, with appurtenances and implements, * that ys to saye, one brewe 
leade and one Tappe stone' on the Keye Syde, then in Hall's occupation. 

VOL. XXIV. 17 



130 LOCAL MUNIMENTS: 

Signed by Edward Hall, and witnessed by Bayly, Robart Horsbryge, 

Bar tram Bradfurthe, Peter Stobes, Jacob Householde, Edward CoUingwood, and 
others. 

3571. August 24.— Deed Poll of bargain and sale, with livery and seisin 
indorsed, from Hall to Michelson. Witnesses to indorsement: Robert Lytle, 
merchant ; Thomas ffyssher, baker ; Richard Derycke, carpenter ; Robert 
Horsbrige, baker ; James Bell, keleman ; Robert Hall and Mather Hewes, 
Wrights ; Peter Scott, smith ; John Bates, jun., mariner ; Edward Bell, mariner; 
Edward Reveley, James Baylye, Robert Marche, Jacob Householde, Peter 
Stobbes, Bartram Bradfurthe, Edward Collingwood, and many others. 

1572. October 16. — Indenture of a fine— John Michelson, plaintiff, Edward 
Hall and Eleanor, his wife, deforciants, of a messuage and toft with appurten- 
ances on the Key Syde. 

1580. September 10. — Indenture of bargain and sale of the premises from 
Isabell Chamber, late wife of Robert Chamber, late of Gateside, and daughter 
and heir of Robert Mitford, late of Newcastle, deceased, to John Michelson, 
at yearly rent of £ 1 6s. 8d. Signed : Isabel Chamber, X mark. Witnesses : 
William Pottes, Thomas Hyrtfeld, Robert Thompson, Willm. Chamber, Willm. 
Watson, Anthony Ellington. [Bond of Isabell Chamber in £200 of same date 
for performance.] September 13. — Indenture of bargain and sale. Chamber to 
Michelson, with livery and seisin indorsed, signed and witnessed as on 10th. 

1583. August 23. — Award of William Jenison, Mark Shafto, Harie Chapman 
and Thomas Bates touching a dispute between Oswald Mitforde and John 
Michelson respecting the title to the said house whereby it was awarded that 
Mitford should assign all his right, etc., to Michelson for £70, and should grant 
Michelson the house adjoining, formerly occupied by Thomas Stobbes and now 
by John Hall, at a yearly rent of 12s. Signed by Jenison, Chapman and Bates, 
and countersigned by William Riddell. Indenture of bargain and sale (dated 
September 25, 1583) from Mitford to Michelson as per award. 

1584. June 18. — Indenture of bargain and sale by which Richard Sayles- 
berye of Gateshead, cordyner (who had married Isabel Chamber, then dead) 
set over to Michelson the before-named yearly rent of £1 6s. 8d. . Signed : 
Rychard Saylesberye. Witnesses : William Rychesonne, Willm. Cookson, 
Willm. Erington, John Jackson, Cristof er Tod, and Martin Turpin, notary public. 
Same date, bond of Saylesberye in £20 for performance, and deed poll releasing 
all Saylesberye's right, etc., in the premises ; followed, November 16, 1584, by a 
deed poll from Oswald Mitforde and Elynowre, his wife, to Michelson, with 
acknowledgment of said Elynowre before Henry Mitford, mayor, with mayoralty 
seal afl&xed. Witnesses to signing in Court : William Riddell, Lyonell Maddyson, 
Henrye , Robart Lamb, Wm. Jacson, r,nd John Jackson. 

1593-4. January 1. — Indenture of bargain and sale, with livery and seisin 
indorsed, whereby John Mychelsone confirmed to William Mychelsone of 
Newcastle, master and mariner, the burgage, etc., late in possession of said John 
on the Key-syde, between a tenement late of James Nicholson, master and 
mariner, W., a tenement late in occupation of Edward Robsone, smith, E., and 
from the Key-side, S., to tenement of John Readhead, shipwright, N. And all 
those two burgages on the Key-side, late in occupation of Bertram Hall, cutler, 
and Anthony Barras, yeoman, lying between Russell's Chaire, E., a tenement 



A HOUSE ON THK QUAYSIDE, NEWCASTLE. 131 

belonging to the heirs of Lowrance Rookeby, merchant, deceased, late in tenure 
of Clement Andersone, merchant, and a tenement late in the occupation of 
Margaret Delavell, widow, W. and N. and the Key-side, S. Signed : John 
Mychelson. Witnesses : Robert Strangwidge, alioi Openshawe, Richard Lilbornn, 
Thomas Boone, Thomas Dayye, Thomas Mylles, An^ee Boone, Leonard Diggles, 
and Willm. Jackson, notary public. 

1609-10. February 21. — General release from John Michelson, mariner, to 
William Michelson, master and mariner, * late tutor and guardian during my 
minority,* of all actions, suits, etc. Executed by said John, and attested by 
Roberte Chamber, John Holborne, John Colson, and John Turner. 

1646. August 14. — Indenture of surrender between Phineas Allen, sen., of 
Newcastle, master and mariner, and Phineas Allen, jun., his son, of Newcastle, 
merchant adventurer. Reciting that Phineas, sen., was interested for life as 
tenant by the courtesie of England of and in all that messuage, etc., in the 
occupation of John Mallet, master and mariner, on the Key-side, Newcastle, 
boundered by messuages in the possession of George Durham, barber chir- 
urgeon, E., Thomas HoUman, W., Roger Dalton, N., and the Key-side, S., the 
reversion thereof being to said Phineas, jun. Signed : Phimeis Allan. Witnesses ; 
Sar : Liueley, William Coulson, and Thomas Milbourne. 

1648-9. February 2.— Counterpart of indenture of lease whereby Phineas 
Allen, jun., for £16 yearly, leased to Robert Richardson, yeoman, for four years, 
a messuage on the Key-side then in said Richardson's possession. Covenants from 
Allen to keep premises in repair, except as excepted, and from Richardson to 
repair glass windows, brew lead, and locks and keys and leave same in good 
repair at end of term. Signature of Richardson, witnessed by Thomas Trotter, 
Thomas Aisley, Gilbert , and Bdw. Holme, scrivener. 

1650-1. January 29. — Indenture of bargain and sale whereby Phineas Allen, 
merchant, son and heir of Phineas Allen, maister and mariner, and Jane, his 
wife, deceased, daughter and heir of William Michelson, master and mariner, 
deceased, and Elinor, wife of said Phineas Allen, merchant, conveyed to George 
Gray of Newcastle, master and mariner, for £250, the premises on the Key-side, 
occupied by Robert Richardson, yeoman, boundered by messuages of Barbara 
Durham, widow, E., Thomas HoUman, yeoman, W., and Roger Dalton, baker 
and here brewer, N., and the Key-side, S. Signed by Phineas and Elinor Allen, 
and witnessed by Thomas Clarke, Tho. Wilkinson, Robt. Richardson, and 
Bdw. Holme, scrivener. 

1650-1. March 8. — Indenture of assignment between (1) Phineas and 
Elinor Allen and Ralph Jenison, of Newcastle, merchant, and (2) George Gray. 
Reciting that said Phineas Allen by indenture dated November 16, 1646, in 
consideration of a marriage between him and Eleanor Basnett of Newcastle, 
widow, for the maintenance of said Eleanor if she survived him, demised to said 
Jenison, the premises occupied by John Mallet, since deceased, for 99 years, 
and that the true meaning of last indenture (January 29, 1650-1) was that Gray 
should hold said premises discharged of said term, and that said Eleanor was to 
have no benefit by said lease. Witnessed, that said Jenison, by consent of said 
Allen and wife, set over to said George Gray all said premises, right, title, etc. 
Signed by the Aliens and Jenison, and witnessed by Clibnme Kirkbride, Michell 
Coatesworth, and Edw. Holme, scrivener. 



182 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

1661. April 21.— Deed Poll of release enrolled in the Town's Court, Newcastle, 
from Phineas and Eleanor Allen to George Gray. Acknowledgment of said 
Eleanor, before George Dawson, mayor, and mayoralty seal affixed. Endorsed : 
* Taken and acknowledged in open Court ye ffowertetenth day of May in ye year 
w*thin specified by ye w'thln named Ellinor first sworne and alone examined 
before : (Signed) Gteorge Dawson, maior, Hen. Dawson, Tho. Bonner, Willm. 
Dawson, John Lodge, vie. [sheriff], Anthony Walker, Will. Warren, Richard 
Walker, John Waithman, Bdw. Holme, William Jackson. Signed, sealed and 
delivered in ye p*'sence of (Signed) Humphry Pibus, Alan Gilpin, Edw. 
Holme, scrivener. InroUed in ye Book of Inrolments in ye Guildhall of ye 
towne of Newcastle upon Tyne, ye xiiij day of May, 1651.' (Signed) Man [town 
clerk]. 

1660-1. February 1. — Will of George Gray of Newcastle, master and 
mariner. To son George, his farmhold at Pensher in the occupation of 
Christopher Rawson, with remainder to son William. To son William, his 
messuage in Homsby Chare with remainder to son George. To son Ralph, 
his messuage on the Keyside, Newcastle, in occupation of Thomas Thompson, 
vintner, with successive remainders to George and William. To George, his 
messuage at foot of Byker Chaire occupied by Ralph Emmerson, fitter, paying 
to William, on attaining age of 24, the sum of £50. To loving wife Phillis, £10 
for a legacy. Residue to George, sole executor, ffrancis Gray, merchant, to 
have tuition of the children during minority, with £5 for a token. Thomas 
Clarke and Robert Plumton to be overseers, with £3 apiece for a token. 
Witnessed by Clarke and Plumton and Thomas Thompson, scrivener. 1661. 
December 15. Nuncupative will of said George Gray : — * I do give unto my wife 
all my household stuff and plate, and further I do declare and will that she 
shall have her thirds of all my estate. Also I give to my young son Edward my 
house called Hulman's House.' 

1688. May 23 and 24. — Indenture of lease and release by which Ralph Grey 
of Newcastle, clerk, for £200, released to Edward Grey of same town, hostman, 
all that messuage on the Keay-Side, formerly occupied by George Pescod, and 
then by William Brown, cooper, boundering upon messuages in possession of 
Ann Pembroke, widow, E., said Edward Grey, W., the Key-side, S., and a 
tenement belonging to John Otway, merchant, behind, N. Signature of Ralph 
Grey, witnessed by Ra. Brandling, Tho. Matthews, Wm. Whitehead. 

1688. May 28. — Indenture of covenants by which Ralph and Edward Grey 
covenanted with Charles Clarke of Newcastle, gentleman (John Grey and John 
Otway of Newcastle, merchants, being parties thereto), to levy a fine of last 
mentioned premises and also of Hulman's House. Fine levied accordingly at 
Easter term and exemplification of recovery in Trinity term following. 

1710. April 18. — Indenture of demise by which Edward Grey, hostman, for 
£100, demised to Richard Haswell of Newcastle, hostman, all that messuage 
near Byker Chair End, in the occupation of said Haswell, ^ att the signe of the 
ffox and hounds.' Signed by Grey and Haswell, and witnessed by Robert 
Humble and Richard Burdus, notary public. 

1715. May 2. — Bond from said Edward Grey to Joseph Bonner of Bolam, 
clerk, in £210 conditioned for payment of £105. Same date, indenture of demise 
whereby, for securing said bond. Grey demised to Bonner for 99 years at a pepper- 



A HOUSE ON THE QUAYSIDE, NEWCASTLE. 188 

com rent, the messuage in possession of Richard Haswell, boundered bj a 
messuage occupied formerly by Ann Pembroke, and now by John Pembroke, 
ropemaker, E., a messuage late in possession of said Edward Grey and now of 
William Sowerby, hostman, W., the premises formerly Otway's and now in 
possession of William Fletcher, N., and the Key-side, S. Signature of Edward 
Grey, witnessed by Cha. Clarke and Robt. Wall. 

1720. July 9. — Account stated between Edward Grey and Richard Haswell, 
with receipt for £95 5s. given by Haswell to Joseph Bonner, to whom he 
assigned his mortgage of Edward Grey's house, which had been forfeited by non- 
payment of the £100 named in demise of April 18, 1710, and interest. 

1721. June 2. — Will of Joseph Bonner whereby he gave his son Joseph 
Bonner all claim that he had in the said messuage. Executors: William 
Aynsley of Gallowhill, esquire, and Robert Bonner of Oallerton. 

1780. October 28. — Indenture of assignment between Joseph Bonner, late of 
Newcastle, but then of London, gentleman, one of the sons of Joseph Bonner of 
Bolam, deceased, and Thomas Hall of Gibside, gentleman. Reciting the 
indentures of 1710, 1715, and 1720, and the will of Joseph Bonner, and that 
Joseph Bonner, party thereto, owed said Hall £92 6s. 8d., of which sum 
£25 6s. 3d. had been paid on Bonner's account to Christopher Spoor of Newcastle, 
glazier. Witnessed, that in consideration of said sum of £92 6s. 8d. and a 
farther sum of £34 13s. 4d. paid by Hall, he, the said Bonner, assigned to said 
Hall the messuage on the Key-side, etc. Signature of Bonner witnessed by Jno. 
Gibson, Edward Man, and Jno. Rainmorter (?). 

1745. March 29 and 30. — Indentures of lease and release whereby, for £165, 
Christopher Grey of Newcastle, gentleman, conveyed to George Marshall of 
Newcastle, raff merchant, all that messuage on the Keyside, etc. 

1746. May 80.— Indenture of assignment between (1) Thomas Hall of 
Lampton, county Durham, gentleman, and George Hall of Newcastle, gentleman 
(executors of the will of John Hall, late of Ravensworth Castle, gentleman, their 
father, deceased, who was executor and devisee of Thomas Hall, late of Gibside, 
their uncle, deceased) ; (2) Christopher Grey of Newcastle, gentleman ; 
(3) G^eorge Ma,rshall, raff merchant ; (4) John Walker of Newcastle, sadler, 
whereby, for £154 7s. paid to said Thomas and George Hall for the debt of said 
Christopher Grey, and £10 13s. paid to said Grey by said Marshall (total, £165), 
and OS. apiece to the Halls and Grey paid by Walker, said messuage was assigned 
to Walker in trust for Marshall. 

1746. July 22.— Counterpart of indenture of release whereby, for £900 
advanced to Marshall by Ralph Harle of Newcastle, gentleman, said Marshall 
released to Harle all said premises, with proviso for repaymejit with interest. 

1746. December 9.— Will of Ralph Harle in which, after various legacies, he 
gave all other his estate to his niece, Ann Harle. Executors : Cuthbert and 
Joseph Smith. 1746-7. February 25.— The executors having renounced, letters 
of administration were granted to Ann Atkinson, alias Harle, wife of Lancelot 
Atkinson of Newcastle, merchant. 

1749. October 7. — Indenture of release between (1) Lancelot Atkinson, of 
Newcastle, gentleman, and Ann his wife ; (2) George Marshall aforesaid ; (3) 
Nicholas Dodson, of Hawthorn, county Durham, gentleman, and Warren Maude, 
of Sunniside, Bishopwearmouth, coalfitter, executors of the will of Robert 



134 LOCAL MUNIMBNTS : 

Forster, of Hawthorn, deceased. Reciting that Marshall had paid £600 of the 
£900, leaving due £392 10s. 6d. principal and interest, for which sum, paid by 
Dodson and Maude to Atkinson and wife, and £409 98. 7d. paid by them to 
Marshall, said Atkinson and wife, with consent of Marshall, released to said 
Dodson and Maude all said premises to secure £800. 

1757. September 24. — Will of George Marshall. To eldest son John, two 
houses on the Keyside, adjoining Byker Chair W., then or late in the occupation 
of Alexander Sword, and others, as tenants. To grandchildren Jane, John, 
Thomas, Hannah, and Benjamin Walker, and Philip and Cicely Hodgson, £20 
each at 21 or marriage. To Joseph GamcU, Michael Walton, and Hugh Boage, 
£5 each. Residue to his two sons, John and George Marshall, executors. 

1771. May 20 and 21. — Indentures of lease and release — (1) Nicholas Dodson 
and Warren Maude ; (2) John Marshall, Newcastle, master and mariner, eldest 
SOD of George Marshall, deceased ; (3) George Marshall, of Blyth, raff merchant, 
younger son of said George Marshall ; (4) Barbara Reavely, of Newcastle, 
widow; (5) Margaret Younger, of Bishop Auckland, widow, and John Dodson, 
of same place, gentleman (executors of John Younger, deceased) ; (6) Edward 
Collingwood, of Chirton, esquire. Reciting that Reavely advanced £400 to 
enable John Marshall and Margaret Younger, and John Dodson advanced £300 
to enable George Marshall, to pay off the mortgage, in consideration of which 
sums and of £100 paid by George Marshall to Maude, the said parties released 
to Edward Collingwood all said premises, with others in Pudding Chair and 
Burn Bank. 

[Other deeds relating to mortgages, &c., follow, and in September 1784, for 
£590, the parties interested released to David Akenhead, of Newcastle, book- 
seller, the messuage on the Keyside successively occupied by George Pescod, 
William Brown, Richard Haswell, Alexander Sword and others, and the 
messuage adjoining it, bordering upon a dwelling house, lately in possession of 
Captain Matthew Woodhouse, deceased, E., Byker Chair W., the Keyside S., and 
a house of several tenants on N.] 

1784-6. January 2.— Indenture by which, for £76, John Marshall, of 
Newcastle, master mariner (only son and heir of John Marshall, master mariner, 
deceased, by Eleanor his wife, one of the daughters and co-heiresses of John 
Pembroke, of Newcastle, rope maker, who died intestate, letters of administration 
being granted to Hannah Pembroke, his widow) released to David Akenhead 
(who married Hannah, daughter of Matthew Woodhouse, master mariner, 
deceased, by Hannah his wife, deceased, who was the other daughter and 
co-heiress of said John Pembroke) one half of the messuage on the Quayside in 
Akenhead's possession, boundering on messuages in possession of Henry Atkinson, 
fitter, B., Mr. Wood, publican, W., the Quay, S., and warehouses of said John 
Marshall, N. Signed by John Marshall and witnessed by Jas. Stobie and 
Edwd. Stuart. 

1814. February 2. — Indenture between (1) Matthew Akenhead, of Whitby, 
shipowner ; (2) Hannah Pembroke Hawks, wife of Robert Shafto Hawks, of 
Gateshead, iron manufacturer ; (3) Armorer Donkin, of Newcastle, gentleman. 
Reciting that David Akenhead, of Newcastle, bookseller, made his will December 
13th, 1808, bequeathing to said Matthew Akenhead the messuage on the Quay 
(then occupied by Messrs. Scott and Foster and Mr. Blakey) and died in July 



A HOUSE ON THE QUAYSIDE, NEWCASTLE. 135 

1813, and that said Hannah was entitled to several sums of money devised for 
her separate use by said will, and that said Matthew had agreed to sell her the 
inheritance in fee simple of the said messuage for £410 and that said Hannah 
was desirous of having it conveyed to said Armorer Donkin as trustee for her. 
Conveyance accordingly. 



1587. July 1.— Indenture of bargain and sale whereby Robert Small, of 
Newcastle,' master and mariner, and Elizabeth his wife, conveyed to Robert 
Gibson, of Newcastle, merchant, a tenement on the Keysyde occupied by Isabell 
Kand, widow, bouudered by tenements of John Mychelson, master and mariner, 
W. and N., a tenement pertaining to William Riddell, merchant and alderman, 
in the occupation of Barberey Whitfeild, wedowe, B., and the Keyside, S. 
Signed by R. and E. Small and witnessed by John Thornton, John Clibborne, 
fh^ncis Lighten, and Martin Turpin, notary public. 

1587. September 7. — Indenture of bargain and sale from Oswolde Mitford, 
merchant, to said Robert Gibson of the tenement occupied by Isabell Rand, 
widow^ boundered as above, paying to said Mitford 13s. 4d. per annum. Signed 
by Mitford, and witnessed by James Carr, Anthonye Eland, Thomas Burfild, 
Richard Burfild, John Clibbourne, and Martin Turpin, notary public. 

1590. October 18. Indenture of bargain and sale in fee from Robert Gibson 
to Martin Errington, of Newcastle, master and mariner, of the said burgage or 
tenement, occupied by Hugh ffletcher, boundering as above. Signed by 
Gibson and witnessed by Xpofer Hele, Anthonye Humble, Henrye Turpin, 
fErancis Lighten, and Martin Turpin, notary public. 

1607-8. January 30.— Indenture of bargain and sale in fee of said premises 
by Martin Errington to George Davison, of Newcastle, blacksmith, and Margery 
his wife, described as now in occupation of said Davison, boundered as above, 
but tenement on B. is now occupied by Richard Wilson, smith. Signed by 
Errington and witnessed by Robert Beckwith, Bobart Wilkinson, Oswold 
Chrysoppe, Henry Andersonn, Robert Booker, and Oleborne, scrivener. 

1617. August 23. — Deed Poll from Lawrence Mitford, of Gray's Inn, esquire, 
to the said George Davison of a yearly rent of 13s. 4d. issuing out of said 
premises. Signed by Mitford and witnessed by Hen. Anderson, John Ainsley, 
and Thos. Watson, notary public. 

1619. April 15. — Probate of will of George Davison whereby, among other 
legacies, he gave to William Green the aforesaid rent of 13s. 4d. Executors : 
Margery his wife and Ralph Cock. 

1621. March 31. — Deed Poll from William Greene, of London, yeoman, to 
John Stubbes, of Newcastle, merchant, of a rent of 13s. 4d. payable out of a 
messuage in possession of Margery Davison, widow. Signed, X mark of William 
Greene. Witnesses : Wm. Smith, Jno. Wheelar. 

1623-4. January 7. — Deed of feoffment, in contemplation of marriage 
between said Margery Davison and Thomas Holbourne, master and mariner, and 
conveyance of the house on the Keyside to Guy Straingways, of Newcastle, 
gentleman, and John Stobbes, of Newcastle, merchant, to use of said Margery 
and Thomas for life, then to use of Barbara and Ann, daughters of said Thomas 
Holbourne. Signed by Guy Strangwayes and witnessed by Christo. Strangwayes, 
Henrie Hall, and Tho. Clarke, scrivener. 



186 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

1637. Easter Term.— Copy of Bill in Chancery. — George Durham and 
Barbary his wife, formerly Holbourne, against Strangewayes ^nd others for 
discovery of the above settlement. Complainant alleged that Margery and 
Thomas were dead ; that Ann Holbourne and John Stobbes were also dead ; 
that Barbara married Qeorge Durham and had issue by him living ; and that 
said Barbara and George ought to be lawfully seised of said premises. But Guy 
and Christopher Strangewayes, Thomas Clarke, and William Coward, all of 
Newcastle, having by some casual or sinister means gotten possession of said 
deed of feoffment, not only conceal and suppress it, but pretend that it was 
never executed. To which Guy Strangeways and Thomas Clarke answer that 
they remember said Margery Davison, about 14 years since, in her widowhood, 
being seised in fee simple of and in the said burgage, by her deed dated January 
7, 21 James, between herself and defendant Strangeways and one John Stobbes, 
enfeoffed them with said burgage for uses ; that defendant Strangeways made 
her a counterpart of said deed sealed with his own hand and seal, and said 
Clarke being a scrivener, prepared and witnessed said deed ; that complainants 
now have the counterpart ; and that neither of defendants have the other nor 
know where it is. [Result not" stated.] 

1662-3. January 26.— General release from George Durham, barber- 
chirurgion, son of above George Durham, deceased^ to Edward Williamson, of 
Newcastle, gentleman, and Barbara, his wife, widow of said GJeorge Durham, 
deceased, of all manner of actions, suits, etc. Signed by George Durham and 
witnessed by Richd. Wilson, scrivener, and Robt. Bulman, notary public. 

1668. August 14. — Demise, by way of mortgage for 21 years to secure 
repayment of £40 from Barbara Williamson, widow. Michael Durham, of New- 
castle, stationer, and Thomas Durham, of Newcastle, apothecary, to Thomas 
Parkin, of Newcastle, joiner, of all those premises, &c., on Eeyside, boundered by 
a burgage belonging to Phillis Cocke, widow, B., and a tenement occupied by 
Nicholas Browne, W. Signed by the three parties and witnessed by Christopher 
Greetham, X mark of Sarah Parkin, and Antho. Nermann, scrivener. 

1670. — Similar demise for same term and sum from Barbara Williamson and 
Michael Durham to Joseph Gofton, of Newcastle, plumber. Signatures 
witnessed by Thomas Milburn, William Wouldhave, and Bdw. Arrowsmith, 
scrivener. 

1671-2. February 2.— Similar demise for 99 years for securing repayment 
of sums due upon several bonds therein recited from Barbara Williamson and 
Thomas and Michael Durham to Henry Kirkhouse, of Newcastle, master and 
mariner. Signatures witnessed by Antho. Heron, (Jeorge Pinckney, scrivener, 
and Robt. Bulman, notary public. 

1676-7. January 17. —Assignment of said demised term by Henry Eirkhouse 
to John Pembroke, of Newcastle, master and mariner. Signature of Kirkhouse 
witnessed by John Pickells, scrivener, and Robt. Bulman, notary public. 

1686. October 19.— Will of Martha Durham, widow. To Deborah, wife of 
Robert Jackson, master mariner, Newcastle, and Ann Pembrough, New- 
castle, widow, executors, all real and personal estate. To William Coward, my 
brother's son, 20s. if my executors recover money due on bonds from Edward 
and Gawine Durham. To Barbary, wife of George Johnson, master and 
mariner, a pair of linn sheets and a pair of pillowbers. Witnessed by Nicholas 
Dent, Charles Thompson, and Richard Thompson. 



SHOP AND QUAY IN SANDGATB, NEWCASTLE. 187 

1700. September 13. — Assignment of said mortgage term from Ann 
Pembroke, widow, administratrix of John Pembroke, her late husband, to her 
son John Pembroke, ropemaker. Signed, X the mark of Ann Pembroke. 
Witnesses : Hannah Legget and William French, scrivener. 

1713. July 13.— Probate of will of Barbara Williamson granted to Anne 
Pembroke, widow. To grandson Henry Durham, the messuage on the Keyside 
between a tenement held by John Otway, merchant, E., and a tenement 
belonging to Mr. Gray, W. (subject to his paying my two daughters Anne 
Pembroke and Alice Durham, £20 apiece, and my grandson, John Pembroke, 
at ae:e of 14, £20) and after his death to my loving cosen, John Spearman,' of 
Durham, gentleman, for 99 years, and after said term to the heirs of grandson 
Henry Durham. To daughter Anne, two iron chimneys in said messuage, and 
residue of household stuff, etc., to daughter Alice. Will made May 26, 1686. 
Witnesses : Rob. Spearman, Kob. Carr, Robt. Pattison. 

1739. November 8.— Release of all said premises from Thomas Durham, of 
Silver Street, Stepney, Middlesex, son and heir of Henry Durham, late of New- 
castle, deceased, eldest son and heir of George Durham, who was eldest brother of 
said Thomas Durham, of Newcastle, apothecary, to John Pembroke, ropemaker, 
for £6, of all right, etc., in the messuage formerly Barbara Williamson's and now 
in possession of said John Pembroke. Signature of Thomas Durham attested 
by Jos. French and Oswould Atkinson. 



1624. December 18. — Indenture of feoffment, with livery and seisin 
indorsed, from Cuthbert Proctor, of Newcastle, gentleman, and Cuthbert 
Proctor, his son and heir, to Thomas Colyear, of Newcastle, shipwright, of a 
little cottage house or tenement in Sandgate, boundering on tenement of Thomas 
Weare, keelman, N., a tenement of Humfrey James, S., the King's Street, W., 
and lands of Richard Redhead behind, E. Also one Key, measuring at S. end 
lOJ yards broad, and at N. end 4 yards broad, and extending from tenement of 
John Humfre/, N., down to low water mark of the Tyne, S., with a yearly out- 
rent of 48. from the house of Humfrey James. 

1625. May 21. — General release from same to same. 

1626. September 3.— Demise from Peter Harrison, of Newcastle, blacksmith, 
Catherine his wife, and Elizabeth Harrison, widow, Co said Thomas Colyear, of a 
shop and Key in possession of said Peter, in Sandgate, boundered by tenement of 
John Mallart, master and mariner, W., a tenement of William Jackson, black- 
smith, E., the King Street, N., and low-water mark, S., for 21 years at a 
peppercorn rent. 

1635. June 10. — Deed Poll of bargain and sale with livery and seisin 
indorsed from Tnomas Hayton, Newcastle, baker and brewer, and Katherine, his 
wife (one of the co-heirs of George, son of Thomas Colyer, deceased), to John 
Colyer, of all said premises. 

1635. September 16.— Indenture of feoffment, with livery and seisin 
indorsed, from Alice Lambton, widow, one of the daughters of said Thomas 
Colyer, to John Colyer, son and heir of said Thomas Colyer, of all said premises. 

• Deputy Registrar of Durham Court of Chancery for 42 years ; undersheriff 
for the county of Durham 29 years ; author of the first part of Spearman's 
Enquiry into the Ancient and Present State of the Cotmty Palatine^ etc, q.v, 

VOL. xxrv. 18 



138 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

1699. May 4. Will of Ann Preston, widow, devising said premises to Jolin, 
son of John Pembroke, mariner, (chargeable with 20s. per annum to Ann, 
daughter of Henry Durham) for life. 

1725-6. January 8. — Release as well of all title to said premises as of the 20b. 
per annum charged thereon by Ann Preston's will, from Robert Hills and Ann 
(formerly Ann Durham) his wife, to said John Pembroke the son. 

NORTHUMBERLAND STREET. [D.A.H.] 
BRUNSWICK PLACE CHAPEL. 

Our second batch of muniments relates to lands and tenements 
outside Pilgrim Street Gate, including the site of the great Wesleyan 
Chapel, known for the best part of a century as Brunswick Place. 
The originals are preserved in the vestry of the chapel. 

Very early in the reign of queen Elizabeth, William Lawson, a 
Newcastle merchant, sold to his fellow townsman, George Simpson, 
draper, four tenements with gardens and little closes belonging 
thereto, in the rising thoroughfare which afterwards shaped itself 
into Northumberland Street. 

About George Simpson little will be found in the authorities 
named in footnote 1. He had married into the wealthy family of 
Jenison, his wife being Isabel, daughter of alderman William Jenison, 
whose municipal and parliamentary honours have been already 
enumerated. His place of business was in the Side— a thoroughfare 
in which, during his lifetime and for long after, the principal shops of 
Newcastle were located. For the commercial centre of the town and 
the seat of municipal government was the Sandhill, and the Side was 
the main artery of traffic thereto and therefrom. Even in Bourne's 
time, a century and a half later, this picturesque street had not lost 
its character. ' It is from the one end to the other,' he wrote, 
' fill'd with Shops of Merchants, Goldsmiths, Milliners, Upholsterers, 
&c.' Here, then, over his shop no doubt, in property belonging to 
his wife's father, George Simpson lived. In 1587, when alderman 
Jenison made his will, the first and only bequest that he entered in it 
was ' to my sonne-in-lawe, George Simpson, draper, and Beile, his 
wief, all that tenement, etc., lyinge in a streayt called the Syd, in 
Newcastle, whearin he now dewellyth, duringe thear lyves natural!, 
and after to go to thear sonne, William Simpson, and his heares, and 
for defaulte of suche to Barbarae Sympson ther dowghter,' All the 



OUTSIDE PILGRIM STREET GATE, NEWCASTLE. 139 

rest, occupying in the recital seven pages of the 38th volume of the 
Surtees Society's publications, went to his widow Barbara, second 
daughter of Ralph Carr, merchant. 

Why with such connections by marriage as Jenisons and Oarrs, 
Simpson, the draper, went no higher in the scale of municipal 
dignity than the shrievalty does not appear. He was sheriff in 
1669-70, and there his civic promotion seems to have stopped. It is 
probable that he died soon after his father-in-law, for Isabel, his 
widow took a second husband in the person of Ninian Girlington, of 
Girlington, Yorkshire, and by him had further issue. 

William Simpson, son of George, was an apprentice with his 
grandfather Jenison when the latter died, and was set over to his 
grandmother Barbara, for the rest of his term. In due course he 
inherited the house in the Side and the lands and tenements outside 
Pilgrim Street Gate, and possibly when his grandmother died, some- 
thing more. Howsoever that may have been, he was a citizen of 
renown, and as such is entered among the hostmen named in the 
Great Charter of Queen Elizabeth. His position and family relation- 
ships are further indicated by the statement in the deeds which 
follow that in his will dated February 5, 1632-3, he left the tuition 
and government of his son Isaac to lady Margaret, widow of Sir 
George Selby, ' the King's Host,' and that twe of his executors were 
leading merchants in the town — Robert Anderson and Leonard Oarr. 

Isaac Simpson, grandson of the draper, sold the property outside 
Pilgrim Street Gate in 1651 to George Moody, a member of the Com- 
pany of Smiths in Newcastle. George was one of a family of Moodys 
whose names figure somewhat conspicuously in the Smiths' books 
during the first half of the seventeenth century. Besides himself there 
were three of the name— John, Thomas and William, each of them in 
business and taking apprentices. George was a locksmith and had 
three sons, two of whom, George and Christopher, followed the 
paternal calling.* One of his workmen was a Dutchman, and this 
connection brought him trouble among his brethren of the craft. On 
May 23, 1657, he was summoned before the court of his company 

* Buried— Geo. Moody's [first] wife, June 1649 ; [second] wife, November 
10, 1662 ; WiUiam Moody, Feb. 13, 1666-7 ; Geo. Moody, June 26th, 1667. 
Books of the Smiths* Company, 



140 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

' for letting the Dutchman have the half profitt of his shop.' The 
result is not recorded. Later on in November of the same year, 
Stephen EUet came under discipline, ' for seeking and taking worke 
out of George Moody's hand belonging to Mr. Ralph Storey's new 
ship,' and was fined 6s. 8d. A similar fate had previously befallen 
Clement Browne, * for disgracing the Company and saying that none 
of them could make any curious worke but George Moodye, Thomas 
Moodye and himself,' for which tribute to the skill of the Moodys 
and his own ability he was ordered to contribute 6s. 8d. 

Later on the property was acquired by Robert Heslopp, barber 
surgeon, of whom we learn something in Dr. Embleton's excerpts from 
the Barber-Surgeons' books.^ By and bye the estate gave rise to 
litigation, and no fewer than seventeen ejectment actions were raised 
by various claimants, but the dispute and settlement are clearly 
explained in the deeds themselves and need no further elucidation. 

1668. November 20.— Indenture of bargain and sale by which William 
Lawson, of Newcastle, merchant, for £26 138. 4d., conveyed to George Simpson 
of Newcastle, draper, his four tenements with two gardens and two tofts or 
little closes to said tenements belonging, lying without the Gate commonly 
called * Pylgram Strete Gate ' upon the west side thereof, betwixt a tenement 
in the tenure and occupation of Jennete Nicolson, widow, S., a tenement in the 
tenure, etc. of John Chanler, potter, N., and extending from the Queen's Street 
called Pilgrim Street before on the B. unto a close pertaining to Robert Hallyman 
now or late in the occupation of John Ellyson, ' cariageman * behind on the W. 
Signed by me Wyllam Lawson. Witnesses : the mark of X Robert Webster, 
tailor, the mark of X Nicolai Hedlye, cutler, Orswold ffenwic(?), Henrye 
Mychelson, Edward Collingwod, Jacobus Middilton, scrivener. 

1570. Hilary Term. 12 Elizabeth. — Indenture of a fine — Lawson to Simpson. 
[This is the document exhibited by Mr. Holdsworth at the meeting of the 
Society at which this paper was read. A process block of it appears in our 
Proceedings^ vol. x., facing p. 156.] 

1632-8. February 5. — Copy of the will of William Simpson. * In the name 
of God, Amen : I, William Simpson, of the towne and county of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, drap[er], at this tyme sicke in body but of good and p'fect remembrance, 
praysed be God, doo make and ordaine this my last will and testament 
in maner and forme following: First I give mg||^oull into the mercifull 
hands of God, my Maker and Redeemer, and my body to the earth to be buryed 
in St. Nicolas Church, according to the discretion of my frends. And as for my 
worldly goods I give them to my sonn Isack Simpson, to be imployed by his tutors 
hearaf ter mencioned for his mentinence in bringing him up in learning and the 
fear of God. Item : I give to my said sonn Isaace Simpsonn and to his heirs for 
ever all my messuages and lands with the appurtenances in Newcastle or other 

» Arch. Ael. vol. xv. pp. 228, 266, 268. 



OUTSIDE PILGKIM STREET GATE, NEWCASTLE. 141 

whear which are nowe in the possession of me or my assignes. And I leave my 
said child to the teution and goverment of my Lady Margrett Selby, Mr. 
Robart Andersonn, and I make them my full and whole executors of this my 
last will and testament. Signed : William Simpson. Wittnesses : Oliver 
Killingworth, John Strangwayes, John "Wright, x his mark, Michell Lawsonn.' — 
A schedill of legacies given by the testator wch he willed to be annexed to 
his last will and testament. Imprimis to the Lady Margratt Selby, a gold ringe 
with a blue ston sett in it. Item : to Mr. Robart Anderson, a light xxiis. 
pece of gold to make him a ringe. Item : to Mr, Leonard Carr, a xis. pece of 
gold to be [buy ?] him a ring. Item : to Mrs. Barberry ffenwick, a gown to 
wear in the house, maid for his wife in the tyme of her sickness. Item : his 
sarvant Michell Lawson the apparell wch he weareth at this instant and such 
other of his apparell as executors doth thinke fitt and also his new english bible 
bound with blue leather and gilded. 

1661. November 15.— Indenture of feoilment by which Isaac Simpson, of 
Cheswick, Northumberland, gentleman, son and heir of the said William 
Simpson, late of Newcastle, gentleman, conveyed to George Moodie, of New- 
castle, smith, all those four waste homesteads and two closes in Pilgrim Street, 
boundering upon the high street, E., a close belonging to Anthony Norman, 
scrivener, W., a house and garth belonging to Henry Wace, yeoman, and the King's 
Dikes, 3., and certain ground belonging to Mr. William Dawson, draper and 
alderman, N., together with three riggs or leases of meadow ground in the 
tenure of John Strangwaies, merchant, situate within the Oastle Leases 
belonging to the town of Newcastle. Signed : Isaac Simpson. Witnesses : 
Christopr. Strangwaies, William Gibson, John Hancocke, Anth. Nermann, 
jun., scrivener. Livery and seisin indorsed by these four witnesses and by 
Richard Flecke. Thomas Moodie and William Ainslay. 

1667. June 15. — Will of George Moody, of Newcastle, smith. To be buried 
in the churchyard of All Saints in Newcastle. To wife, Katherin Moody, during 
widowhood, the burgage in which he lived and after her intermarriage to son 
George and his heirs for ever. To said son George the burgage occupied by 
Alexander Simpson, draper, * adjoining on my now dwelling house,' the farm- 
hold in Jesmond bought of James Haropp, said George paying yearly to sons 
Christopher and Nicholas £4 till they attain twenty-one ; also the three riggs 
in the Cattle Leazes. To sons Christopher and Nicholas the burgages in the 
several occupations of William Pescod. Alice Pescod and William Robson, situate 
without Newgate, to be equally divided betwixt them, and a burgage in the 
occupation of George Garret and others in Gallagate. To daughters Ann and 
Mary Moody, the tenement and the garth or close at the back thereof, occupied by 
Andrew Loaden, William Hutchinson, Henry Mills and others, without 
Pilgrim Street Gate, and * all the putor which is locked up in a chist which was 
theire mothers.' To Ann * one cubbard, one standing bedsted and a table * ; to 
Mary * one press, one beddsteade and a table.' Rest of household stuff to be 
equally divided amongst wife and children Ann and Mary. Son George executor. 
Supervisors : Mr. Nicholas Seiward and Mr. Willyam Mason. Witnesses : Mary 
Seiward, Anthony Norman. 

1676. August 7.— Indenture of feoffment by which Edward Stephenson 
of Newcastle, ropemaker, and Ann his wife, one of the daughters of George 



142 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

Moody, late of Newcastle, smith, Mary Moody, spinster, another daughter, and 
George Moody, of Newcastle, lattin plate worker, son and heir of said George 
Moody, deceased, for £101 conveyed to Nicholas Parker, of Newcastle, gentleman, 
and Margaret, his wife, all those four messuages and two little closes or 
parcels of ground adjoining, without Pilgrim Street Gate, in the several occupa- 
tions of James Mowett, Thomas Dunne, Henry Tailor, Thomas Reeveley, Henry 
Mills, William Bailey, John Robson, Henry Dodshon and Thomas Shelter, 
boundering upon a tenement and garth late belonging to Henry Wall, deceased, 
and now in the occupation of Thomas Allison and William Whitehead, and also 
upon the King's Dykes, S. ; a parcel of ground late belonging to William 
Dawson, draper and alderman, deceased, and now in the possession of Richard 
fflecke, N., and extending from * the King's Ma'ties Streete leading from 
Pilgraham Streete Gate ' before, E., to a close formerly Anthony Norman's, and 
now in the occupation of William Knight, W. Signed : Edward Stephenson, 
Anne, his wife (the mark of), Marie Moody (the mark of), George Moody. 
Witnesses : Nicholas Seiward, James Younger, James Mout, Robert Bnlman, 
notary public. Livery and seisin indorsed ; same witnesses. 

1680. April 20. — Indenture of feoffment whereby Nicholas Parker and 
Margaret, his wife, for £105, conveyed the four messuages and two little closes, 
to Thomas Pattinson, of Newcastle, gentleman, and Margery, his wife. The 
occupants are Michaell Huntley, Thomas Dunn, slater, Ann Potter, widow, 
Alice Baley, widow, Thomas Dunn, roper, Edward Sandilands, John Rowson, 
Elizabeth Arey, widow, John Gibson and Robert Carruthers. Boundaries the 
same, but Cuthbert Dykes has replaced William Knight in the occupation of 
the close behind. Signed: Nicholas Parker, Margrat Parker. Witnesses: 
William Gofton. Gyles Redman, Tho. Mulcaster, William Rutter, Dorcas 
Rutter. Livery and seisin indorsed. Witnesses : the same. Memorandum dated 
April 23, 1680, that the above named tenants ' did attorne and become tennants 
unto the within named Thomas Pattinson and Margery, his wife, of and for the 
p'misses within specifyed, and did give and deliver unto the within named 
Thomas Pattinson the sume of a penny of lawfull money of England in name 
and token of attornment in the presence of William Gofton, Gyles Redman 
and William Rutter.* 

1687. June 4. — Similar indenture by which, for £73, Thomas Pattinson and 
Margery his wife conveyed to Robert Heslopp, of Newcastle, barber-chirurgion, 
all those two messuages with appurtenances, without Pilgrim Street Gate, in the 
occupation of Michael Huntley, Thomas Dunn, Alice Clark, widow, and Mary 
Clover, and also one close adjoining, occupied by John Kidney, gardener. 
Signed : Tho. Pattinson, Margery Pattinson. Witnesses : John Ward, George 
Bryan, John Kedge. Livery and seisin indorsed ; same witnesses. Bond in 
£100 for performance attached. 

1688. September 5. — Indenture (copy only) of covenants of five parts :— (1) 
Alice Brown, widow, and Elizabeth Johnson, widow, her daughter ; (2) Thomas 
Pattinson and RCargery his wife ; (3) Lyonell Blagdon, merchant ; (4) Charles 
Dobson, mariner, and Elizabeth, his wife ; (6) Robert Heslopp, George Brian, 
glazier, and William Armorer, cooper (all of Newcastle), by which the parties 
covenant with Heslop that they will levy fines as follows : 

Brown and Johnson of a messuage in the Painterhengh in their occupa- 
tion, boundering upon tenements of Mary Andrew, N.E., and widow 



OUTSIDE PILGRIM STREET GATE, NEWCASTLE. 143 

Dobson, deceased, S.W., and extending from the street to a yard or entry 
belonging to said Mary Andrew behind, S.E. 

Thomas and Margery Pattinson of the two messuages outside Pilgrim 
Street Gate, occupied by Michael Huntley, Alice Clerk, widow, and Oliver 
Clerk, with a garden, close, or parcel of ground adjoining, occupied by John 
Kidney, gardener, boundered by a tenement of John Reefly, miller, a garth 
occupied by widow Whitehead and the King's Dikes, S., ground in posses- 
sion of Richard Fleck, brewer, N., and extending from the street, B., to a 
close lately occupied by Cuthbert Dikes, deceased, and now in possession of 
Sir William Blackett, W. 

Lyonell Blagdon of a messuage in the Close, in possession of said Robert 
Heslopp, boundered by a messuage of Sir William Blackett's, E., messuages 
of widow Jeilerson, W., the Tyne, S., and the Close, N. 

Charles and Elizabeth Dobson of a messuage in the Side, in the posses- 
sion of said Robert Heslop, bounded by a tenement formerly in possession of 
William Huntley, and now of widow Fletcher, W., a tenement late in 
possession of Gawin Preston, and now of Samuel Chicken, hostman, E., the 
Side, S., and a stone wall behind, N. 
Signed by all the parties, and attested by John Douglas and Nat. Hargrave. 

Memorandum of Robert Heslopp, that the above is a true copy of the 
original in his possession, and that he has also tlie indentures of a fine levied in 
Easter Term, 1 William and Mary, in pursuance thereof, and the exemplification 
of a common recovery, suffered in Trinity Term, 1 William and Mary, etc., etc. ; 
and in consideration that Isabell Bulman, of Newcastle, widow, had purchased 
of him the two messuages and garden outside Pilgrim Street Gate, he promised 
to produce to said Isabella the indentures of fine, etc. Dated May 3, 1714. 
Signed : Robert Heslopp. Witnesses : Nat. Hargrave, RaL Salkeld. 

1718. October 29 and 30. — Indentures of lease and release, whereby Robert 
Heslopp and Katharine, his wife, in consideration of £106, released to Isabell 
Bulman, of Newcastle, widow, the messuages, cottages, or tenements, and stables, 
with a close or garden beyond Pilgrim Street Gate, now in the occupation of 
Walter Atkinson, gardener, Phebe Noteman, widow, and Mary Metcalf, widow. 
Boundered by the messuage formerly John Reafley's, and now in possession of 
John Wilson, miller, a garth formerly occupied by widow Whitehead, and now 
in possession of said Isabell Bulman, a garth in possession of William Brunton 
and also by the Queen's Dikes, S. ; a parcel of ground formerly in possession of 
Richard Fleck, brewer, and now of Isaac Wilson, brewer, and a tenement in 
possession of Oliver Clark, N., and extending from the street, E., to a close, late 
belonging to Sir William Blackett, and now in the tenure of John Dawson, W. 
Signed by Robert and Katherine Heslopp, and seal of the mayoralty attached. 
Witnesses to the signing of the deed and payment of the purchase money : Nat. 
Hargrave, Ral. Salkeld. Recognisance of Katherine Heslopp as a married 
woman taken in the Guildhall, October 30, 1713, in the usual form* and 
endorsement thereof signed by R. Ridley, mayor, H. Reay and Ra. Reed, 
aldermen, NiCho. Fenwick, sheriff, Nat. Hargrave, Tho. Ord, James Thompson, 

• A copy of the form of recognisance is printed in our Proceedings^ vol. i., 
p. 70. 



144 LOCAL MUNIMBNTS. 

William fErench, Bal. Salkeld, James Walker, Nich. Errington, and John 
Harrison. Enrolment at the Guildhall, in Book x., folio 75, signed by Joshua 
Doaglas, town clerk. 

1721. April 14 and 15.— Indenture of lease and release by which, for £130, 
Isabella Bulman released to Thomas Oliver, of Newcastle, house carpenter and 
millwright, and Margaret, his wife, all those messuages, cottages, stables, close, 
garden and appurtenances without Pilgrim Street Gate, theretofore in the 
occupation of Michael Huntley, Alice Clark, widow, Oliver Clark, and John 
Kidney, gardener, and now of Walter Atkinson, gardener, Thomas Atkinson, 
butcher, William Fothergill, gardener, Elizabeth Hall, and Mary Hastridge, 
boundering upon the messuage of John Wilson, miller, a garth formerly in 
possession of widow Whitehead, and now of the Honourable Frances Rutherford, 
widow, and a garth in the possession of Elizabeth Brunton and Jane Scott, 
widows, and also upon the King's Dikes, S., ground formerly in possession of 
Richard Fleck, and now of Thomas Robinson, barber-surgeon, and a messuage 
in possession of Oliver Clark, N., and extending from the street, E., to a close 
belonging formerly to Cuthbert Dikes, deceased, and then to Sir William 
Blackett, bart., and now occupied by John Dawson, W., with [0 glorious art of 
conveyancing I] ' all and singular houses, edifices, buildings, barns, byres, stables, 
brewhouses, brewing-leads, brewing-coppers, brewing- vessels, shops, cellars, 
sollars, vaults, rooms, chambers, lofts, backsides, parcels of ground, trees, bushes, 
ways, water, yards, garths, gardens, orchards, void grounds, lands, tenements, 
walls, waters, watercourses, entries, easements, paths, passages, lights, liberties, 
privileges, profits, commodities, advantages, emoluments, hereditaments and 
appurtenances whatsoever.' 

1738. May 24.— Will of Thomas Oliver, of Newcastle, tanner (eldest son and 
heir of above-named Thomas Oliver), devising to Sarah his wife, sole executrix, 
all his real and personal estate. 

1778. October 31. — Will of said Sarah Oliver, bequeathing all her real and 
personal estate to Thomas Maddison, of Newcastle, bricklayer, and Frances 
Perrot, of Newcastle, widow, upon trust, to sell all her household goods, wearing 
apparel and stock-in-trade, and invest the money, and to permit her nephew, 
Matthew Laidler, of Newcastle, tanner, and Sarah, his wife, to have the rents, 
etc., of her freeholds in Newcastle, etc., for life, then to their children, and if no 
issue, then to her relations, Matthew and William Wilson, Matthew Wilson 
the younger, Kobert John, Thomas and Elizabeth Clark in equal shores. 
To Christian, widow of John Perrott, late of the Castle Garth, shoemaker, £20 ; 
to maidservant Elizabeth Rutherford, and to manservant Mark Mordue, 6 
guineas each. To executors Thomas Maddison and Frances Perrot, each £6. 
Signed : Sarah Oliver. Witnesses : John Fenwick, William Oliver, Mary Watson. 
Proved at Durham, March 3, 1779. 

[Sarah Laidler survived her husband, and died in 1808 without issue, when 
several persons claimed as representatives of devisees in remainder under the 
will, and after hearing two out of seventeen ejectment actions brought into 
court, it was ordered that the claims should be referred to the arbitration of 
Robert Hopper Williamson and James Losh, who decided that the following 
persons were entitled to one-seventh part each, viz., Matthew Wilson, of Blyth, 
heir of his father of same name ; Thomas Wilson, heir ot his father William 



BKUNSWICK PLACE CHAPEL, NEWCASTLE. 145 

Wilson ; Robert Clark, heir of his brother Thomas Clark ; Joseph Clark, heir of 
his aunt Elizabeth Clark, otherwise Hudson ; and the other three-sevenths were 
awarded to the said Matthew Wilson, as cousin and heir of said Sarah Oliver. 
Each of the parties in diilerence to pay his own costs. Award dated January 
21, 1812. Signed : Robert Hopper Williamson, James Losh. Witnesses : Thomas 
Small, Thomas Forbes.] 

1814. — ^Action brought by the Wilsons and Clarks against Anthony Clapham, 
of Newcastle, for performance of agreement (dated March 1813) to purchase the 
premises for £2000 subject to payment at Michaelmas of a fee farm rent of 6s. 
per annum to the representatives of Edward Noel, esq., deceased. 

1816. August 23. — Will of said Joseph Clark, bequeathing all his estate and 
effects to his wife Hannah Clark, sole executrix. [She afterwards married 
Gteorge Lumsdon, labourer.] 

1819. May 17. — The Master of the Rolls ordered specific performance of the 
agreement by Anthony Clapham. 

1821. February 12 and 13. — Lease and release of ten parts : — (1) Thomas 
Wilson, of South Shields ; (2) Thomas Wilson of Sandgate, Newcastle ; (3) 
Robert Clark, of Gateshead ; (4) Robert Clark, of Newcastle, stable-keeper, son 
and heir of Joseph Clark, deceased ; (5) George Lumsdon, of Newcastle, labourer, 
and Hannah, his wife, widow of said Joseph Clark ; (6) Matthew Wilson ; (7) 
Nathaniel Clayton and John Walker, junior ; (8) Anthony Clapham ; (9) Philip 
Nairn, junior, Newcastle, merchant ; (10) Thomas Featherstone, of Newcastle, 
grocer. Reciting the award, and that the premises named therein are all those 
messuages, bakehouse and shop with appurtenances in Northumberland Street, 
in the occupation of William Potter,' surgeon, and a tanyard and buildings in 
the occupation of John Bell & Co. . . . and reciting that said Anthony Clapham 
became purchaser for said Philip Nairn and was desirous of having the premises 
conveyed to him, and that since the award several of the buildings had been 
pulled down and the premises now consisted of the messuage occupied by the 
said Potter, an open piece of ground with a large building lately erected thereon 
which was intended to be used as a Methodist Meeting House,* and several new 
dwelling-houses, and reciting that there was due and owing from said Philip 
Nairn £2397 9s. 2d. It was witnessed that in consideration of £2397 9s. 2d, 
paid by said Nairn, and 6s. paid by said Featherstone, each of said Wilsons, Clarks, 
and Lumsdon, and 10s. paid by said Nairn and Featherstone to each of the said 
Clayton and Walker and the Wilsons, Clarks and Lumsdon, the premises, with 
the meeting house and all other buildings were conveyed to said Nairn and 
Featherston, in trust for said Nairn, boundering by Northumberland Street, B. ; 
by gardens and premises held by lease from the representatives of John Erasmus 
Blackett, esq., and Shafto John Hedley, esq., under the mayor and burgesses of 
Newcastle, W. ; by a garden heretofore belonging to Alexander Adams, esq., 
N., and by messuages belonging to Ralph Duxfield and the representatives of the 
' late Joseph Bulmer, builder, S., subject to a fee farm rent of 6s. per annum due 
to the representatives of said Edward Noel. 

' Died July 19, 1821, William Anthony Potter, surgeon, Northumberland 
Street, many years agent to Messrs. Schweppe k Co., greatly respected. I^eto- 
castle Courant, July 21, 1821. 

* The foundation stone of the chapel was laid on May 5, 1820, and on February 
23, 1821, it was opened, with sittings for 1389 persons, at a cost of £6726. 

VOL. XXIV. 19 



146 LOCAL KUNIMBNTS : 

COAL STAITH AKD GLASSHOUSBS IN THK CLOSE. [R.W.] 

The abstracts which follow show, first, a devolution of property in 
the Close neighbourhood, from the Dents of Byker, with their famous 
* Hole ' in the river, through Andersons and Jenisons to the enter- 
prising family of Dagnia, and secondly, the acquisition by the same 
family of a garden without the Close Gate from William Hutchinson, 
the friend of Ambrose Barnes. Excellent papers on William 
Hutchinson and the Dagnias have already appeared in our publica- 
tions, the first of them, entitled 'William Hutchinson, Merchant 
Adventurer,' by the late James Clephan, in Archaeologia Aeliana^ 
vol. ix. page 8, and the second, headed 'John Dagnia of South 
Shields, glassmaker,' by the rev. C. E. Adamson, in our Proceedings^ 
vol. vi. page 163. 

William Hutchinson's transactions, as disclosed by the abstracts 
which bear his name, elucidate and confirm an interesting point in 
local history upon which Mr. Clephan dilates in the paper above 
named ; for after Mr. Longstaff'e had completed that great local 
treasure house of puritan lore, the 'Memoirs of the Life of Ambrose 
Barnes,' it was discovered that the Close Gate Meeting House, the 
first place of public worship specially erected by and for Noncon- 
formists, had been built upon land given or leased to his co-religionists 
by this same William Hutchinson. And here in these papers we 
learn how and from whom Mr. Hutchinson acquired lands at the Close 
Gate, the mercantile and manufacturing uses to which he devoted 
them, and to whom and in what manner, after his death in March, 
1689-90, the property was transferred. 

The abstracts contain names, additional to the above, representative 
of leading families in Newcastle and the neighbourhood — Clavering, 
Shadforth, Marley, Bowes, Jenison, Tempest, Bewicke, Ord, Swin- 
burne, Mitford, and Carr. 

1593-4. January 28. — Feoffment with livery and seisin indorsed from George- 
Dent and Robert Dent, his son and heir apparent, to Francis Anderson and 
Bertram Anderson, the elder, of a coalstaith without the Close Gate, Newcastle, 
abutting upon a coalstaith in possession of Thomas Liddle, merchant, B. ; upon 
waste ground belonging to the town of Newcastle, W., and extending from the 
highway leading to the Forth, N. to low water mark of the Tyne, 8. by the right 
metes and bounds. 



COALSTAITHS AND GLASSHOUSES. 147 

1620. May 16. — Feoffment, with livery and seisin, from Henry Shadforth to 
William Shadforth and George Marley, of a messuage, burgage, and garden, 
with their appurtenances in the Close, Newcastle, in the several occupations of 
Mr. James Olavering, alderman, George Thompson, and Elizabeth Anderson, 
respectively ; boundering upon a burgage of Robert Mores, N., a burgage and 
garth of Robert Cook and Richard Swan, E., a burgage of Matthew Dodds, W., 
and the Close, S. To hold, etc., as to one moiety to use of said Henry Shadforth 
his heirs and assigns for ever, and the other moiety to use of William Marley of 
Newcastle, merchant, his heirs, etc., as tenants in common of the chief lor4 or 
lords. 

Same date. — Deed to sever a joint tenancy between William Marley and 
Henry Shadforth of a house in the Close, betwixt a tenement of Henry Bowes, 
E., 'ye stairs which ascend to ye High Castle,* W., the east mote, N., and the 
King's high street, S. 

1625. October 3. — Bargain and sale of a coalstaith without the Close Gate 
from Edmund Anderson, son of Francis Anderson, to Robert Anderson. 

1666-7. January 19. — Feoffment from Henry Anderson, son and heir of 
Bartram Anderson, to Ralph Jenlson, esq., of a coalstaith at Close Gate among 
other lands. 

1667. June 3. — Feoffment with livery and seisin from Ralph Jenison, esq., 
and Jane, his wife, to Robert Chickell and Mary Green of said coalstaith at 
Close Gate. 

1684. November 1.— Assignment of a term of 999 years from Nehemiah 
Blaigdon to Richard Wall, Benezar Dnrant, John Dagnia, and Onesiphorus 
Dagnia, of all those messuages, burgages', etc., near the Close Gate. 

1691. October 13. — Assignment from John Dagnia and Onesiphorus Dagnia 
to Edmund Nelson, gentleman, reciting last mentioned deed and stating that 
Wall and Benezar Durant being since dead, said John and Onesiphorus Dagnia 
had become entitled to the said premises by right of survivorship. (Declaration 
of trust from Nelson to the Dagnias dated next day.) 

1691. October 14 and 15. — Lease and release from Lyonel Blaigdon to Dorcas 
Wall and John and Onesiphorus Dagnia of a messuage, etc., part of which was 
then used as a glasshouse, near the Close Gate. 

1691. — Indenture of co-partnership between John and Onesiphorus Dagnia. 

1692. February 2. — Agreement between John and Onesiphorus Dagnia and 
Dorcas Wall for carrying on the glasshouse for three years. 

1695. September 2. — Feoffment from Edmund Harrison and Mary, his wife, 
and John Chickell, eldest son of said Mary, by Robert Chickell, her former 
husband, to John and Onesiphorus Dagnia, of a dyehouse and two rooms, a fire 
tenter house, a shear room, and a stable, lately erected upon a parcel of ground 
called a coalstaith, without the Close Gate, and all that said staith or parcel of 
waste ground with the appurtenances. 

1695. September 10. — Deed to prevent survivorship between John and 
Onesiphorus Dagnia in said property. 

1 701 . September 8. — Similar deed relating to the premises bought of Blaigdon. 

1702. October 25. — Deed to sever joint tenancy between said parties of the 
glasshouse and other premises purchased of Coultherd and wife. 

1703. April 30 and May 1. — ^Lease and release from sir James Clavering of 



148 LOCAL MUNIMBNTS : 

Axwell, James Cla?ering of Greencroft and John Clavering of Newcastle, 
executors of the will of sir James Clavering, late of Axwell, to Onesiphoms 
Dagnia, of all that messuage, etc., and garden, and the coachhouse, etc., on the 
north side of the Close Gate, late in the occupation of Matthew Dawson, 
cordwainer, boundering upon a new messuage, etc., then in possession of said 
Onesiphoms and John Dagnia, their tenants or assigns, W.; a stable or 
cowhouse and piece of waste ground in possession of Jonathan Hutchinson, 
esquire, his tenants or assigns, E.; and extending from the Queen's street 
be^re, S^ to a great meadow close in possession of Thomas Wasse, esquire, N. 

1712. June 18. — Will of Onesiphoms Dagnia, whereby he bequeathed to his 
son, John Dagnia, his heirs, etc., two full third parts of his messuages, houses, 
glasshouses, etc., money, glass bottles, glass goods, chattels, wares, etc., and to 
his son, James Dagnia, his heirs, etc., the other third part thereof. 

1717. April 14. — Probate of will of James Dagnia, bequeathing to his 
brother John all his real and personal estate, share of glasshouses, materials, etc., 
subject to payment of £500 to his son Onesiphorus Dagnia, and £25 a year to 
his wife, Ann Dagnia, for her life. 

1607-8. January 1. — Feoffment from Robert Gibson to sir Nicholas Tempest, 
of a garden without the Close Gate. 

1655. May 21. — Feoffment with livery indorsed from sir Bichard Tempest to 
John Watson, of ground, formerly a garden, without the Close Gate. 

1675-6. January 19. — Feoffment with livery indorsed, from John Watson to 
William Hutchinson, of waste ground, formerly a garden, as above. 

1689-90. January 10.— Will of William Hutchinson whereby he gave to use 
of his son, Benjamin Hutchinson, his heirs, etc., all that his messuage, sugar- 
house, distilling house, and buildings, lately by him built upon a parcel of 
ground purchased of John Watson without the Close Gate. 

1693. September 16. — Deed to lead the uses of a fine of the premises devised 
to Benjamin Hutchinson by his father's will from Benjamin Hutchinson to 
Thomas Mulcaster. 

1694. Michaelmas term. — 5 William and Mary. Indenture of fine as above. 
1694. December 6 and 7. — Lease and release from Benjamin Hutchinson to 

Robert Bewicke, esquire, in trust for John Ord of all said premises. (Receipt of 
Benjamin Hutchinson for £600 purchase money.) 

1696-7. Febmary 1.— Lease from Robert Bewicke to Mrs. Abigail Carr, of 
said premises for seven years. 

1704-5. February 1. — Lease from John Ord to Mrs. Carr and others, of said 
premises for four years. 

1705. April 23 and 24.— Lease and release from Elizabeth Dawson to Thomas 
Mulcaster, of one moiety of the garth or parcel of ground and stable without the 
Close Gkite. 

1633. September 30. — George Swinbum's marriage settlement — a tenement 
at Close Gate. 

1703. November 11.— Lease from Samuel Swinbum to John and Onesiphoms 
Dagnia for twelve years, of some parcels of waste ground and a dunghill near 
Close Gate. 



SUGARHOUSB, DISTILLERY, ETC. 149 

1703. November 20.— Probate of Samael Swinburn's will whereby he devised 
said premises to his wife for life and after her decease to his son. 

1710. June 2 and 3. — Lease and release from Dorothy Swinburn and John 
Swainson and wife to John Dagnia, of the said premises. 

1710. August 5.— Assignment from Edward Dagnia to John Dagnia, of *ye 
White Glasshouse.* 

1701. May 21.— Lease and release from William Johnson to Richard Oarr, of 
one full sixth part of all those messuages, etc., distillery, house, and yard or 
ground thereto belonging, now in said William Johns(p'8 possession, situate at 
the Close Gate on the S. side of the street there. 

1705-6. March 1. — Mortgage from Richard Oarr to Mrs. Catherine Dockwray, 
of said premises * now the pott house ' for the payment of £60 and interest. 

1709. March 30. — ^Assignment of mortgage from Mrs. Dockwray and Richard 
Carr to Mr. Robert Mitford, of said premises for payment of £72 and interest. 

1710. April 17 and 18.— Lease and release from Richard Carr and wife to 
John Dagnia, of said premises at the Close Gate. 



1689-90. — Further extract from will of William Hutchinson, whereby he 
bequeathed to his son Jonathan Hutchinson all his messuages and buildings 
lately by him erected upon a parcel of ground called the Ship Garth, without 
the Close Gate, charged with payment of £20 a year to his daughter for life. 

1708. August 20 and 21. — ^Lease and release from Robert Bewicke, John 
Ord, Abigail Carr, and Richard Carr, to John Dagnia, of the distilling house and 
sugarhoose. 

1713. April 1 and 2. — Lease and release from Mary, relict of Jonathan 
Hutchinson, to John and Onesiphorus Dagnia, of the sugarhonse, distilling house, 
and the key or wharf, and parcel of ground adjoining said house, which, or some 
part thereof, was called the Ship Garth. 

1713. April 3. — Bond from John Dagnia, junior, Onesiphorus and John 
Dagnia, to Mrs. Hutchinson, for payment of £200 after death of Margaret 
Hanwell, sister of Jonathan Hutchinson. (Same date, mortgage of said 
premises from the Dagnias to Mrs. Hutchinson for securing said £200.) 

1722. November 30. — Assignment from Mrs. Hutchinson and Onesiphorus 
Dagnia to John Dagnia, of the said mortgage, followed (December 27 and 28) by 
lease and release from Onesiphorus Dagnia to John Dagnia, of all the premises 
formerly used as a sugarhouse, redeemable upon payment of £401 6s. and interest. 

1723. October 15 and 16.— Deed to lead the uses of a recovery of one moiety 
of all those messuages, burgages, glass houses, key or wharf, etc., at Close Gate, 
late in possession of John Dagnia, senior, father of Onesiphorus Dagnia, to use 
of said Onesiphorus Dagnia, etc., followed by exemplification of the recovery 
(Michaelmas Term, 10 George I.) wherein John Brown was demandant, Charles 
Clarke tenant, and Onesiphorus Dagnia vouchee. 

1744. June 22 and 23.— Lease and release from James, eldest son of John 
Dagnia, to Thomas Hall, of all said premises, formerly used as a sugarhouse, etc., 
to hold upon trusts therein mentioned. 



150 LOCAL MUNIMENTS: 

1749-50. January 9 and 10. — Lease and release from James, Edward, John, and 
Onesiphorus, four of the sons of John Dagnia, deceased, to Mr. James Williams, 
of a messuage and a key in Sandgate, and a messuage, etc., and White Glasshouse, 
and also a moiety of several other messuages, etc., with appurtenances in Close 
Gate, with covenant to levy a fine, followed (same date) by bond from Williams 
to the Dagniasfor £100 till certain claims made by Wall and Pearson to some 
part of last mentioned premises be settled. 

GLASSHOUSE IN THE CLOSE. [f.W.D.] 

Another glasshouse in the same locality as the last is the subject 
of the next bundle. Through the hands of Marlejs, Peareths and 
their relatives the Sorsbies, the property passed down to Anthony 
Easterby and George Doubleday, the latter being the father of 
Thomas Doubleday, well-known to most of us as poet, playwright and 
political economist. Pedigrees of the Peareths, who figure very con- 
spicuously in these MSS., are to be found in Surtees's History of 
Durham^ vol. il. page 45, and in the new History of Northumberland^ 
vol. ii. page 409. Joseph Bainbridge, solicitor, who held the property in 
1821-3, was the owner of Wellington Place, Pilgrim Street, which he 
built for his own residence, and was father of the first wife of John, 
afterwards sir John, Fife. 

One of the messuages comprised in the recitals of the opening 
indenture was situated in 'a lane or chaire called Ratten Rawe.' 
Now Ratten Rawe, or Rotten Row, a name found in various parts of 
the kingdom, is a very puzzling designation. The rev. John 
Hodgson pointed out that, even in his time, there had been ^ a good 
deal of ink and oil expended over it as solvents.' He derived it from 
a German word, 'rotten' — the same as* rout 'in English and French — 
viz., the scene of a riot. Dr. Brewer refers it to the Norman 
' Ratten Row,' or roundabout way, being the way corpses were carried 
to avoid the public streets. During the last half century, the ques- 
tion has been discussed over and over again in N'otes and Queries^ but 
no etymology has been found which fits all the localities in which the 
name occurs. Among numerous suggestions the following are the 
most interesting : — (1) From ' rotteran * — to muster ; (2) * Routine 
Row,' from church processions passing along ; (3) the Latin word, 
^rota'; (4) woollen stuff called *rateen'; (5) * rotten,' or 
decayed houses ; (6) a road in which the gravel was kept ' rotten,' 



BOTTEN BOW. 151 

or loose for horsemanship ; (7) ' Boute du Eoi ' — reserved for riders ; 
(8) * Rat Row ' — street of rats ; (9) * Bother Bow ' — oxgate, or cow- 
gate ; (10) Anglo-Saxon, * rot ' — splendid or cheerful, ».«., the fine or 
grand street ; (11) * Battin Baw ' — houses built of rattin or un- 
dressed timber ; (12) ' Bathad'n Bigh,' Celtic— a good or made row, 
not a track ; (13) ' rath,' or vallum encircling homesteads and pro- 
tecting them from attack ; (14) * Bed Bow ' — houses built with red 
bricks. 

None of the above etymologies seem adapted to the Newcastle 
* Botten Bow,' which, according to Bourne, was a little street running 
from the West Gate eastward, 'at the end of which is a narrow 
passage, turning up to the North, which leads to the monastery of the 
Black Friars.' In its present form, Botten Bow is called Cross 
Street. Of. Oorbridge's Map of Newcastle. 

1700. July 2. — Indenture by which Henry Marlay, of Newcastle, merchant, 
conveyed to John Sandford, of Newcastle, gentleman, and Bobert Mitford, of 
Morpeth, fuller and dyer, his messuages (1) at the Kale Cross ; (2) in St. 
Nicholas's Churchyard j (3) in a lane or chaire called Ratten Rawe ; (4) at or 
near the Eeyside ; and (5) his great messuage in the Close, to use of himself for 
life, with remainder to Frances his wife and his heirs in tail. Remainders as to 
St. Nicholas's Churchyard and the Kale Cross properties to Henry Peireth, of 
Newcastle, merchant; those in Ratten Row and the Close, to use of John 
Peireth, clerk, with ultimate remainder of last-named properties to use of John 
Jeffreyson, son of Matthew Jeffreyson, of Newcastle, merchant and alderman. 
Seal bears a chevron between three martlets and a label of three points. 

1734-5. February 13 and 14. — Indenture of lease and release whereby John 
Peareth, of Oxford, gentleman, released to William Peareth, of Newcastle, 
merchant, the messuage in the Close. 

1741-2. January 5 and 6. — Similar deed by which William Peareth recon- 
veyed the house to John Peareth. 

[Barbara Peareth, sister of John Peareth, married Jonathan Sorsbie, and died 
in the lifetime of her brother, John Peareth, of the Inner Temple, esq., leaving 
an only son named Jonathan, who, upon the death of John Peareth, unmarried 
and intestate, became the heir at law.] 

1816. November 9. — Jonathan Sorsbie (son of the late Jonathan Sorsbie and 
Barbara his wife) by his will of this date bequeathed to his trustees, William 
Clarke, of Hampstead, wine merchant, Robert Makepeace, of Serle Street, 
London, goldsmith, and William Makepeace, of same place, gentleman, his glass- 
house in Newcastle, occupied by the Northumberland Glass Company, upon trust 
for his son, Jonathan James Sorsbie. 

1821. November 12. — By a codicil Jonathan Sorsbie recited that he had 
disposed of the glasshouse to Joseph Bainbridge. 

1823. May 31 and April 1.— The trustees of Jonathan Sorsbie's will 
conveyed to George Doubleday and Anthony Easterby, by direction of Joseph 



152 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

Bainbridge, the messuage in the Close, formerly Henry Marlay's, and afterwards 
in occupation of Thomas Brandling, merchant^ Peter Russell, merchant, and 
John Bell, gentleman, as tenants of John Peareth, deceased, and then of 
the Northumberland Glass Company. 

Attached to this deed are the following entries relating to the 
Peareths : — 

1706. August 30. — Certificate of baptism of Barbara, daughter of John and 

Lettice Peareth, from Aldworth Registers. 
1706. October 11.— Certificate of baptism of Elizabeth, daughter of John 

and Lettice Peareth, from Aldworth Registers. 
1712. May 6. — Certificate of baptism of John^ son of John and Lettice 

Peareth (born April 9), from Aldworth Registers. 
1714. April 22. — Certificate of baptism of Mary, daughter of John and 

Lettice Peareth (born March 27), from Aldworth Registers. 
1732. July 8. — Certificate of bunal of Mrs. Elizabeth, daughter of John and 

Lettice Peareth, from Aldworth Registers. 
1734. May 5. — Certificate of burial of rev. John Peareth, late vicar, from 

Aldworth Registers. 
1744. December 31. — Certificate of burial of Barbara, wife of Mr. Jonathan 

Sorsbie, from Registers of St. Nicholas's, Newcastle. 
1778. December 12. — Certificate of baptism of John Peareth, of the Inner 

Temple, from Registers of Ickenham^ Middlesex. 

WBSTGATB STREET AND DENTON CHARE. [f.W.D. AND R.W.] 

Near the comer of Westgate Street and Denton Chare, in the 
middle of the sixteenth century, stood an ancient pant (depicted in 
Corbridge's Map of Newcastle), and opposite to it was a tenement 
belonging to the Maison Dieu or hospital of St. Katherine, founded 
by the munificent Roger Thornton, and retained by his family for 
several generations after his decease. In the chare itself was a plot 
of waste ground, and these two properties — the house and the plot- 
form the subject of the deeds abstracted below. The adjoining 
hospital of St. Mary the Virgin seems to have been interested in one 
or both of them, for Robert Oolson, or Colston, spurrier, the vendee, 
covenanted to pay 16s. a year rent-charge to Thornton's hospital, and 
5s. a year to that of the Virgin. 

Behind both properties ran what is here called the common gutter. 

Now it is probable that this common gutter was the sewer which, in 

a deed dated 1611, transcribed in our Proceedings^ is named the 

Esley burn. That there was a runner of water in that locality is 

• Proceedings of the Society, vol. vii. page 4. 



OOENBB OF DENTON CHIRE, NEWCASTLE. 163 

evident, not only from the deed of 1611, but from an ancient 
document quoted by Brand ^® describing the military wardship of 
the town : — 

DentoD Tower . . . shall have to ward all the Haire-Hagh behinde the 
White-Freers, with all the howses standing there upon the Burn-Banck, betwixt 
the Freer-Kirk and a Burne, unto a stone brigge in Baly-Gate, with all Baly- 
Gate upwarde that same rawe unto Denton Chare. 

The Esley burn is now, therefore, pretty well defined. Where- 
soever it may have started, it ran down behind the east side of lower 
Westgate Street, was crossed by a stone bridge in BaUeygate, and 
thence found its way down to the Tyne, possibly at or near the Javel 
Groop. 

From the next deed in the series, we learn whereabouts in the 
town lived a somewhat notable man — Oswald Chaitor, or Ohaytor, 
linenweaver, parish clerk of St. John's. References to this important 
functionary abound in the ecclesiastical history of the period. 
Appointed on the 10th November, 1582, * to read, sing, respond, and 
assist in the Divine Office in the chapel of St. John, in the town of 
Newcastle,' he occupied the post for thirty-eight years, and dying on 
the 21st July, 1628, aged sixty-eight, was buried under the shadow 
of the sacred edifice in which he had so long and so often repeated 
his * Amens.' 

Passing through the hands of Charles Matfen, merchant and host- 
man, who was closely allied by marriage to the Andersons of Bradley, 
the property came to four ladies of that ilk. One of them named 
Jane married John Simpson of Newcastle, and thus founded the 
family of Simpson of Bradley, while another took for her second 
husband one of the enterprising Dagnias. In 1718, alderman John 
Simpson, buying the shares of his mother's sisters, became possessed 
of the whole, which he sold in 1767 to the great builder, George 
Anderson, father of the still more celebrated Major Anderson, of 
Anderson Place. Later on, Charles Hutton, the famous mathema- 
tician, acquired the premises for a school, and he, receiving the 
appointment of Professor of Mathematics in the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, disposed of them to John Penwick, and with 
that conveyance the abstracts end. 

•• Brand, History of Newcastle^ vol. u page 8». 
20 



154 LOOAL MUNIMENTS : 

1566. May 4. — Deed of feoffment with livery and seisin indorsed from Thomas 
Halymau, clerk, master of the hospital of St. Katherine the Virgin, called 
Thorueton's Hospital, and the brethren and sisters of the same, with the consent of 
John Lnmlaye, knight, lord of Lnmlaye, the patron, to Bobert Colston, spnrrier, of 
one tenement with appurtenances in Westgate, above the corner and opposite the 
Pant, between a tenement occupied by Elizabeth Havelock, widow, S., a tene- 
ment occupied by Cuthbert Murray, and the vennel called Denton Chare, N., 
and in length from Westgate, W., to the common gutter, E. Also a parcel of 
waste ground in Denton Chare between two tenements belonging to the afore- 
said master, etc., in the separate tenures of said Cuthbert Murray and Isabel 
Heworth, W., a tenement held by Ralph Wightman, and the common gutter, E., 
and extending from Denton Chare, N., to a tenement occupied by Arthur 
Horseley, S., to hold to use of said Colston of the chief lord of the fee by 
services due and of right accustomed, rendering yearly to said master, etc. 16s., 
and to John Baynes, master or keeper of the hospital of blessed Mary the 
Virgin, called the West Spittell, and the brethren and sisters of the same, 58., 
at Martinmas and Pentecost. Signed and sealed by Lumley and Halyman. 

1607. November 30.— By deed of this date Blienor Manwell, widow of 
Thomas Manwell, late of Newcastle, shipwright, deceased, and daughter and 
heir of Bobert Colson, spurrier, deceased, conveyed to (George Watson and 
Thomas Wales of Newcastle, shipwrights, her two tenements standing together 
in Denton Chare, occupied by Thomas Shevill, skinner and glover, and George 
Maxfield, mason, abutting upon the Chare, N., upon the house of Anthony 
Dortrey, currier, S., upon the house of Oswald Chaitor, W., and upon the house 
of widow Wilde, E., to use of said Blienor for life, and afterwards t^ use of 
Thomas Lawson of Whittonstall, yeoman, his heirs, etc. She appointed her 
beloved in Christ, Thomas Henryson and Thomas Urwen of Newcastle, to be her 
lawful scriveners and attorneys to give possession, etc. 

1704. May 19 and 20. — Indenture of lease and release, from George Gatis, 
Newcastle, skinner and glover, to Charles Matfen of same place, gentleman, of 
all that messuage, etc., on the N. side of Westgate Street, in the occupation of 
George Thompson, chapman, in consideration of £31 Is. 6d., etc. 

1704. September 21.— Will of this date of Charles Matfen of Newcastle, 
merchant. To sister Jane Matfen for life all my great messuage in Westgate 
now in possession of Mr. Midf ord and others, and after her death to nephew 
Francis Anderson," with remainders to nieces Jane Anderson, Ann, wife of 
Balph Anderson, Dorcas Anderson, and Mary Anderson, daughters of my late 
sister, Dorcas Anderson, share and share alike, subject to payment of £6 
annually to niece Jane Fell. To said sister Jane Matfen all other my freehold 
houses in Newcastle, and my closes called the Whinny Closes, near the Castle 
Leazes, and after her death to Francis Anderson, with remainders to the four 
nieces as above. To said four nieces, £50 each. To Mrs. Margaret Sanderson 
£100, my pictures, * silver sarvar' and my cabinet. To Mr. Charles Sander- 
son of Newcastle, gentleman, £20, and to his wife, Mary, £5. To Mrs. Jane 

" Francis Anderson died without issue and unmarried, and the property 
came to the four nieces. Jane married John Simpson, father of alderman 
Simpson ; Ann married, as second husband, James Dagnia ; Mary married 
Edward Forster ; Dorcas married Alexander Grimaldi, 



CORNER OF DENTON CHARE, NEWCASTLE. 155 

widow of Mr. Gerrard Stokeld, £36. To Margaret, wife of Henry Ord, my 
landlady, £5. To Henry Shafto., esq., counseller at law, and Mr. William 
Rutter, each £4. To Mr. Robert Jenison, £3. To the poor of St. John's 
chapelry, £3. To nephew Francis Anderson, for mourning, £6. To above 
Charles Sanderson all my bottles of wine and sack. Residue to sister Jane, 
sole executrix. 

1711. December 1. — In consideration of £100, Alexander Qrimaldi and 
Dorcas, his wife, released to Onesiphorus Dagnia of Newcastle, glassmaker, 
one-fourth part of a messuage formerly in the tenure of John Phillipson, 
gentleman, and then of the widow of Francis Johnson, merchant, situate in 
Westgate, adjoining Denton Chare ; also a fourth part of another messuage in 
Westgate, late in the tenure of Richard Vaux, and then of John Jervis and 
others adjoining a messuage in the occupation of John Omesby, glazier, and of 
all other messuages, etc., which said Qrimaldi and wife may have under Charles 
Matfen's will. 

1711-12. January 29 and 30.~ Similar release from James Dagnia and Ann 
his wife, niece of Charles Matfen, to Onesiphorus Dagnia, of another fourth part, 
for same sum. On same date, and for same sum Edward Forster, shipwright, and 
Mary his wife release to Onesiphorus Dagnia another fourth share in the property. 

1712. Hilary Term. — Fine levied between Onesiphorus Dagnia, plaintiff, 
and James Dagnia, Edward Forster and Alexander Qrimaldi, and their 
respective wives, deforciants. 

1713. April 1 and 2. — Lease and release from Dagnia to John Simpson, of 
Newcastle, hostman, in consideration of £300, of all those three-fourths of 

(1) the messuage, etc., formerly held by John Phillipson and then by Edward 
Cook, esq. ; (2) the messuage adjoining in Westgate, formerly in possession of 
Thomas Pearson ; (3) the other messuage lately held by Richard Vaux and then 
by Mrs. Jane Hedworth. 

1757. May 2 and 3. — Lease and release from John Simpson, of Newcastle, 
esquire and alderman, to George Anderson, of same place, in consideration of 
£500, of all those messuages in Westgate and Denton Chare theretofore in 
possession of John Phillipson, Charles Matfen and George Gatis, or some of 
their tenants. 

1769. May 1 and 2.— Indenture of four parts— (1) George Anderson ; 

(2) John Simpson ; (3) Charles Hutton, gentleman ; and (4) Margaret Richardson, 
by which Qeorge Anderson released to Charles Hutton those three messuages 
in Westgate and Denton Chare, formerly in occupation of Phillipson, Matfen 
and Gatis, and now of Charles Hutton, Nicholas Walton, gentleman, and Tulip 
McClellan, glazier, as tenants under said Qeorge Anderson, boundering S. or 
8.W. by Westgate Street, N. or N.W. by Denton Chare, and messuages in the 
occupation of Richard Fletcher, bricklayer, Henry WoodroflE, barber, and 
Elizabeth Pattison, widow, and E. or N.E. by a messuage of Ralph Cook, 
brewer, and S. or S.E. by the messuage formerly of said Gatis, and now of his 
daughter Ann Gatis, spinster, to hold under said Charles Hutton to use of said 
Margaret Richardson for 1,000 years, subject to redemption on payment by 
Hutton of £600 and interest. 

Trinity Term, 9 George UL Fine levied (Charles Hutton, plaintiff, Gteorge 
Anderson and Mary, his wife, deforciants), of three messuages in the parish of 
St. Nicholas. 



156 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

1775. May 1 and 2.— Indenture of four parts— (1) Margaret Hall, spinster, 
executrix of Margaret Richardson, deceased ; (2) George Fenwick, gentleman ; 
(3) Charles Hntton ; (4) John Fenwick, gentleman, reciting that £300 of the 
£600 advanced belonged to George Fenwick, and that John Penwick had 
agreed with Hutton to buy the premises for £900, paying £300 due to Margaret 
Hall, and leaving George Fenwick's £300 on security of premises. Lease and 
release accordingly. Same date (May 2) deed of bargain and sale enrolled in 
the town's court— Charles Hutton and Isabel his wife to John Fenwick. In 1780 
all the money was paid and the premises conveyed to John Fenwick. 

THE DOG BANK. [C.-B.] 

A bundle of deeds relating to property adjoining the churchyard 
of All Saints illustrates the changing nomenclature of the district. 

Akenside Hill, which leads up to the church from the Sandhill 
and the Side, was, even in our time, known as Butcher Bank ; while our 
great-great-grandfathers knew it only as All Hallows Bank. The 
thoroughfare which skirts the northern boundary of the Church, and 
by us denominated Silver Street, has borne the names of All Hallow 
Gate, Temple Gate, and Jew Gate. And now, in these deeds, the Dog 
Bank, which runs along the south side of the enclosure, is named All 
Hallow Bank, All Hallows Street, Silver Street, and South Silver 
Street. Thus we see that Akenside Hill has had three. Silver Street, 
four, and the Dog Bank, five names ! Amidst so much innovation, 
even the church itself has been unable to maintain, in this matter of 
nomenclature, ' the grace of continuance.^ From stately All Hallows 
it has dropped to plain and common-place All Saints. 

Bourne, who was curate of All Hallows, and knew the locality 
well, notpd these changes of street names in his history, as follows : — 

On the East of this [Pilgrim] Street, is SUver'Street, close to the North-side 
of All-hallows Church-yard ; it leads into Pandon, ... It was anciently called 
All-Hallorcgate ... it was also called Temple-gate, Mr. Nicholas Lamb, whose 
House is in this Street, finds it called Jewgate^ in his Writings ; bat when, or 
for what Reason it bore that Name, I know not. 

On the South-side of this Church are two Pair of Stairs ; those opposite to the 
Quire-Door lead into a narrow Street called the Dog-hank ; but formerly, as 
appears by some ancient Writings, 8Uver Street, The other Pair lead into the 
Butcher-Bank^ which is a narrow Street and a great Descent. . . . This 
leads into the Street called the Side, and into the Sand-hill, It was called 
formerly All-Hallows-Bank,^* 

*' Bourne, History of Newcastle, pages 88, 108. 



THE DOG BANK, NEWCASTLE. 157 

Then comes Brand, half-a-centnr j later, and be gives us a pleasant 
glimpse of the obvious by remarking that Templegate originated 
*from the circumstance of its communicating with All Saints' 
Church.' Confirming Bourne, he quotes a release, dated October 7, 
1700, of two messuages in a street * called Silver Street, alias Jew- 
Gate.' Under the head of Dog Bank, he remarks that * Jews who 
dealt in silver wares have probably lived here formerly, for this also 
is called Silver Street in some ancient writings.'" 

Apart from the names of the streets the topography of the property 
is somewhat puzzling. In the first deed, the house is described as in 
All Hallowes Bank, abutting on the church to the north with All 
Hallows Street to the south. The succeeding document also places it 
with its face to the street. But, subsequently, another house is 
introduced on the south side, and the premises no longer look out 
upon the thoroughfare. So the position remains until, in the last of 
the batch, the street becomes once more the southern boundary, as if 
nothing otherwise had ever happened. 

Apart from these topographical gymnastics the deeds are of little 
interest. 

1610. Augost 16. — Indenture of bargain and sale whereby William Bajtes 
of East Greenwich, Kent, mariner, conveyed to Henry Cook of GJateshead, and 
Christian his wife, the capital messuage, etc., in All Hallowes Bank, abutting on 
AU Hallows Church, N., All Hallows Street, S., land of Qeorge Adkinson, W., 
and lands of said WiUiam Baytes, E. (Same date, deed of feofEment — Baytes to 
Cook and wife.) 

1627. August 9.— Deed of feofEment by which William Snowball of Wells, 
Norfolk, mariner, conveyed to James Heworth, of Newcastle, and Christabell, his 
wife, all that burgage in Silver Street, boundering on burgage in tenure of 
Robert Hoope, W. ; ground occupied by Ralph Fewler and Margaret Baits, E. ; 
Silver Street, S. ; the wall of the churchyard, N. 

1653. December 16. — Date of will of Christabell Heworth, devising to her 
eldest daughter Catherine, wife of Matthew Pettigrew, the house in All Hallows 
Bank, boundering on Hope's house, W., etc., with a moiety of another house 
there in possession of Rowland Syms, with remainder to her second daughter, 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Allen. To said second daughter, all that messuage 
wherein she then dwelt in All Hallow Bank and the other moiety of house held 
by Syms, with remainder to Catherine Pettigrew. 

1669-70. January 27.— Indenture of feofEment by which Catherine 
Pettigrew, widow, conveyed to Robert Bulman, the messuage boundering on the 
house lately occupied by Robert Hope, deceased, W., a tenement in possession 

" Brand, EUtory of Newcastle^ vol. i. pages 359, 396. 



158 LOCAL MUNIMENTS: 

of Richard Smith and Elizabeth his wife, E., a tenement occupied by Thomas 
Smith, S., and the churchyard, N. ; also a moiety of messuage adjoining said 
messuage, S., to use of said Catherine for life, and after to use of her daughter, 
Isabel Watson and her heirs. 

1682. May 9 and 10. — Indenture of lease and release by which Mark 
Pettigrew conveyed to Lancelot Atkinson, all that messuage on the north side of 
All Hallow Bank, and a moiety of a messuage adjoining, formerly belonging to 
Christabell Heworth. 

1706. April 16. — By will of this date, Lancelot Atkinson devised his 
messuage in South Silver Street, alias the Dogg Bank, to his wife, Jane, for life, 
and afterwards to his son, Samuel Atkinson, and his daughters, Christobel, wife 
of David Steel, Ann, wife of Christopher Henderson, and Catherine, wife of 
Benjamin Copeman. 

1723. September 14. — Samuel Atkinson, bricklayer, by will of this date^ 
gave his house in the Dog Bank to Elizabeth his wife, sole executor. 

1729. July 8 and 9. Lease and release from Lancelot Atkinson and others 
to Michael Batty, of the premises conveyed by William Snowball to James and 
Christabell Heworth (August 9th, 1627), and now lying waste. 

1729-30. March 24.— Mortgage to secure £100 lent by Peter Forster, of 
Oateshead, boat builder, to Michael Batty, of l^ewcastle, chapman, upon two new 
messuages built upon waste ground, purchased by Batty from Lancelot Atkinson 
and others in Alhallow Bank, alias Silver Street, alias Dogg Bank, boundering 
by messuage of George Hutchinson, weaver, W., by a tenement, formerly waste 
ground, belonging to Elizabeth Cockbum and others, E., by Alhallow Bank, S., 
and by the churchyard, N. 

1730-31. February 11 and 12.— Lease and release of the two messuages from 
Michael Batty to William Smith, l^ewcastle, linen draper, for £100. 



THE BIGG MARKET. 

Three abstracts, relating to houses in the Bigg Market, afford 
only slight material for local history. 

House No. 1 appears to have adjoined the property which formed 
the north-west, or right hand, corner of the Bigg Market entrance to 
St. John's Lane. This lane, as many of us remember, ran down to 
St. John's church and is now covered by the east side of West 
Grainger Street. The property is described in the MSS. of Mr. 6. 
Bouchier Richardson as * Michael Robinson's house.' If it were so 
named when he copied the abstracts, circa 1846, it is probable that 
the site numbered 68 in Oliver's Map of 1830, and therein assigned to 
Michael Maddison, shows the house in question. It certainly abutted 
upon property at the head of St. John's Lane, and * Maddison ' may 
be a misprint for ' Robinson.' 



BIGG MARKET INNS, NEWCASTLE. 159 

The position of house No. 2 admits of no doubt, for it is definitely 
described as ' The Fighting Cocks Inn.' With it is associated the 

* Unicorn.' The Bigg Market, like the lower end of Pilgrim Street, 
was well served with inns, and amongst them the ' Fighting Cocks,' 
the * Unicom,' and the * Golden Lion ' were not the least important. 
An etching of * Fighting Cocks' Yard ' appears in T. M. Richardson's 

* Memorials of Old Newcastle,' and in the Monthly Chronicle for 1888 
all three of the above named hostelries are depicted, the two latter 
standing side by side. 

The situation of house No. I is indifferently described as in the 
Bigg Market and Nolt Market. In some other document the same 
locality is designated the Horse Market. The fact is that this 
thoroughfare, from St. Nicholas's church to the White Cross, near the 
entrance to Low Friar Street, was fiill of markets. On the east side, 
from the church to the High Bridge, were the Flesh, Fish, and Cloth 
Markets. On the west side, beginning at the church tower, came 
markets respectively named Iron, Wool, PuUen, Meal or Groat, Bigg 
or Oat, Nolt or Nowt, and Horse, ending with a Milk Market at the 
Cross. 

The fragment of MS. which represents house No. 3 contains the 
great name of Ambrose Barnes, and includes a property in the Broad 
Garth, Quayside, noticeable for its confirmation of the statement on 
page 156 ante^ that the Dog Bank bore the name of Silver Street. 

FIRST HOUSE. [G.B.R.] 

1621. September 3. — Deed of feoflfment, with livery and seisin indorsed, by 
which William Wrey and Elizabeth his wife and John Nicholson, shipwright, 
son and heir apparent of John Nicholson, blacksmith, conveyed a burgage in 
the Bigg Market to use of John Mould and Ann his wife, their heirs, etc. 

1662. December 7. — Will of Ralph Mould, whereby he gave his two 
messuages in the Nolt Market to his wife for life, then to his son, John Mould, 
the latter to pay his sisters, Ann and Margery Mould, £20 apiece at 21 or 
marriage. 

1705. May 17 and 18. — Lease and release from Ann, widow of Joseph Potts 
(one of the daughters of Ralph Mould, son and heir of John Mould, tailor), and 
William Potts and Sarah his wife (said William being son and heir apparent of 
said Ann Potts) of a messuage in the Nolt Market, alias the Bigg Market, to use 
of Michael Thinn, his heirs, etc. 

1746-6. February 24. — Feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, by which 
Michael Robinson, gentleman, son and heir of William Robinson, late of West 



160 LOCAL MUNIMENTS: 

Brandoa, county Durham, yeoman, and Margaret his wife, both deceased (said 
Margaret being only child and heir of Michael Thinn) conveyed said premises 
to Shaftoe Vaughan, esquire. 

1748. October 28 and 29. — Lease and release whereby Robert Vaughan 
(brother, heir and devisee of Shaftoe Vaughan, deceased) and Sarah Ogle released 
the premises to Henry Cowell. October 31. — Bargain and sale enrolled in the 
town's court of Newcastle from said Robert Vaughan and Mary his wife unto 
said Henry Cowell to bar said Mary of her thirds in said premises. 

SECOND HOUSE. [F.W.D.] 

1766. August 13.-— Will of John Hare, of Newcastle, gentleman. To wife, 
Margaret, for life, the house ' wherein I now dwell ' and all that public house, 
the Unicom, in the Nolt Market, held by Edward Cowling, victualler (upon 
condition that she uphold the messuage, garden, etc., settled upon her by him 
before marriage, and hold his heirs harmless against his covenant in said settle- 
ment) charged with £50 to Ralph Shotton, son of wife's sister, and £50 to 
Hannah Henzell, daughter of wife's eldest brother. After wife's death, the two 
messuages (house and Unicom) and the messuage settled at marriage (subject 
to payment of £50 each to Thomas Henzell and Joseph Henzell, wife's brothers, 
and £100 to Richard, son of William Feareth, esquire and alderman) to wife's 
brother. Master James Henzell, with remainder to Jane his wife, and after death 
of both, the marriage house to John Hare Henzell, son of said James, the 
residence and the Unicom to Ralph, another son of James, both taking the 
name of Hare Henzell. To said James Henzell, Richard Chambers, tanner, 
Roger Hall, clothier, and Robert Rich, coachmaker, all his share in the glass- 
houses, held of the Corporation, upon trust to pay profits to wife for life and after 
her death to Thomas Henzell of the glasshouses aforesaid. To said trustees, a 
house in Westgate Street in the occupation of Thomas Nicholson, victualler, 
paying profits to said Richard Chambers for life, and then to — Chambers, his 
eldest son. To Eleanor, wife of said Roger Hall, the house in Back Row in their 
occupation. To Cuthbert Waters, fisherman, £20 per annnm, and to William 
Manners, pitman, and Eleanor his wife, £7 per annum, issuing out of messuages 
at the head of the Side. To Jane, widow of Robert Bell, labourer, the room in 
which she dwells for life and £2 12s. per annum out of the Head of the Side 
property. To Abraham Irwin, cartman, and James Finn, a poor blind man, 
each £2 12s. annuity out of same property. To Elianor, Elizabeth, Ann, Isable, 
and Mary, daughters of late wife's late brother, Richard Chambers, £50 each. 
To Robert, son of said Richard, deceased, £100. To Lucy, wife of Master 
William Smith, of Newcastle, surgeon, for separate use, £150. Head of the 
Side property, charged as above, all real estate undemised, and residue of 
personalty to Elianor and Margaret Wetherell, daughters of late sister-in-law, 
Judith, late wife of Richard Wetherell, of Durham city, gentleman, in equal 
shares. Executors : Elianor and Margaret Wetherell. Signed, John Hare. 
Witnesses : Thomas Davidson, John Armstrong, John Isaacson. Codicil 
directing that devise to wife is conditioned upon her permitting Robert Rich to 
have for life a moiety, next St. John's churchyard, of the garden behind the 
marriage house, with liberty of passage, etc. Also to said Rich £20 for his 
trouble as trustee. 



BIGG MARKET AND NOLT MARKET, NEWCASTLE. 161 

1795. October 20.— Will of John Hare Henzell, of Ballast Hills, mariner, in 
which (after reciting his title to various messuages, stables, garden, etc., in the 
Nolt Market, Newcastle, formerly the estate of John Hare, gentleman, deceased) 
he bequeaths to his daughter, Jane Body Hare Henzell, all that messuage and 
stabling occupied by Thomas Bobson as a public house by the sign of the 
Fighting Cocks. Proved at Durham July 7, 1796, by his widow, Jane Henzell, 
sole executrix and guardian of his daughter. 

1814. April 7 and 8. — Lease and release by which Jane Body Hare Henzell 
of Morpeth, spinster, in contemplation of marriage with Bdward Challoner of 
Morpeth, master mariner, conveys to John Challoner of said town, and Edward 
Stamp, junior, of Alnwick, in trust, the Fighting Cocks, in the occupation of 
Mary Wheatman, on W. side of the Bigg Market, with houses and shops lately 
erected behind same, occupied by William Pearson, George Amery, William 
Tnmbull, John Spencer, Richard Atkinson, John Bobertson, and Thomas 
Watson, subject to the life estate of Jane Lester, mother of said J. B. H. Henzell, 
of and in premises called the Unicom Inn, for the natural Ufe of said J. B. H. 
Henzell, with survivorship, etc. 

1821. February 17. — Will of Jane Body Henzell Challoner, wife of Bdward 
Challoner of North Shields, master mariner, confirming settlement of April, 
1814, and giving all other real estate from death of survivor of self and husband 
in trust to Robert Maving and George Body, for all her children, in equal shares 
if more than one. Letters with will annexed granted at Durham to Edward 
Challoner, AprU 4, 1821. 

1836. December 22. Indenture of five parts. (1) John Challoner, late of 
Morpeth, and then of Newcastle, and Edward Stamp; (2) Jacob Dawson of 
Newcastle, and Margaret his wife, one of two daughters (co-heiresses) of Robert 
Maving, deceased, and John Bywell Mason of Newcastle, gentleman, and 
Elizabeth, his wife, the other daughter of Robert Maving ; (3) Anna Hare 
Challoner, Newcastle, spinster, only child of Edward Challoner and Jane Body 
Hare Henzell, his wife, both deceased ; (4) John Macrobin of Aberdeen, esq., 
Dr. and Professor of Medicine; (5) Christopher Dighton of Northallerton, 
surgeon, and William Skinner of Aberdeen, advocate, reciting (1) contemplated 
marriage between Anna Hare Challoner and John Macrobin ; (2) the indenture 
of April 1814 ; (3) the will of J. B. H. Challoner ; (4) that J. B. H. 
Challoner died in February, 1821, leaving the said Anna, her only sur- 
viving child, and that said Edward Challoner had also died; (5) that 
said QeoTge Body died in 1822, leaving said Robert Maving him sur- 
viving ; (6) that said Robert Maving died in May, 1834, without devising 
his trust estates, leaving said Margaret Dawson and Elizabeth Mason 
Ms co-heiresses. For nominal consideration paid by said Dighton and Skinner 
to parties 1, 2, and 3, to destroy all estates tail of said Anna in the property and 
limit the inheritance in fee simple, the said parties released, and said Anna, 
with consent of said John Macrobin, granted to said Dighton and Skinner, the 
Fighting Cocks, occupied by Philip Eggleston, and the shops, etc., behind, in 
trust for said Anna till marriage, and after marriage in terms of a settlement of 
same date* 

1866. December 1. — Indenture by which, through deaths of William Skinner, 

VOL. xxrr. 21 



162 LOCAL MUNIMENTS: 

November 19, 1861, and C. Dighton, November 2, 1863, John Macrobin 
appointed George Alexander Simpson and Samuel Anderson, both of Aberdeen, 
trustees. (Anna Hare Macrobin died April 1, 1858.) 

1867. June 6. — Sale to the Corporation of Newcastle of the Fighting Cocks 
Inn, held successively by Thomas Robson, Mary Wheatman, Philip Eggleston, 
Boger Heron, and now by Lawrence Stephenson, with the buildings behind 
occupied, now or late, by Francis Johnson, Chas. Deas, John Johnson, Chris. 
Liddell, Thomas Sharper, B. G. Fitzakerly, Joseph Bainbridge, Mark Vint, B. 
Brough, Thomas Potts, and Bichard Bell. 

THIBD HOUSE. [R.W.] 

1674. — Indenture between Margaret, widow of William Pace, late of New- 
castle, skinner and glover, deceased, Bichard Bobinson, butcher, and Judith his 
wife, William Hunter, shipwright, and Grace his wife (Judith and Grace being 
daughters of William and Margaret Pace), 1st part, and Ambrose Barnes 
of Newcastle, merchant, and Matthew Soulsby of Newcastle, ropemaker. 
Witnessing that for the natural love and aflfection which said persons of the 
first part bear to each other it is agreed that they shall, before Michaelmas, by 
fine, etc., convey to said Ambrose and Matthew, a messuage on W. side of Bigg 
Market, bounded by tenement of John Cockburne, N., a tenement and garden 
lately occupied by Bertram Orde, deceased, and belonjging to Sir Francis Bowes, 
S. and W., and on the Bigg Market, B. ; also a messuage in the Broad Garth, 
occupied by said William Hunter (and seven others), bounded by land of 
Nicholas Fen wick, merchant, W., Trinity House, E., and extending from head of 
said Garth towards the S. to Silver Street, N., both properties to use of said 
Margaret for life, and then one moiety of each to Bichard and Judith, for life 
and heirs, and in default to William and Grace for life and heirs, the other 
moiety to William and Grace for life and heirs, and in default to Bichard and 
Judith and heirs. Signed : Ambrose Barnes, Matthew Soulsby. Witnesses : 
John Grayson, Thomas Parkin, Peter Wilson, notary public. 

LOW FBLAR STREET. [F.W.D.] 

Much more interest attaches to the next series of documents. 
They begin with two houses in Shod Friar Chare (now Low Friar 
Street), which were boundered on the south, that is behind — although 
in one deed the quarter is named east — by a piece of land described, 
first as a close in the occupation of a gardener, then as a garden, next 
as a garden belonging to the house of Joseph Oarr, esq., and after- 
wards as owned by the Carrs of Oocken. 

There can be little doubt that this was the garden of a mansion 
at the top of Newgate Street, facing the White Cross, and separated 
from Low Friar Street corner by the house known to us as the Three 
Tuns Inn, One of the deeds, dated 1782, names the house and 



LOW FRIAR STREET, NEWCASTLE. 168 

garden as belonging to Ralph Carr, esq., of Cocken, formerly 
* occupied by Langdale Sunderland, esq., late collector of the 
customs, Newcastle, and now by Aubone Surtees, esq.' 

Local annals relate that a few years after the elopement of his 
daughter with John Scott, afterwards lord Bldon, Aubone Surtees 
left his house on the Sandhill, the scene of the flight, and took up his 
residence *near the White Cross,' whence he removed to Ben well, 
and there died in September 1800. Hutton's Map of Newcastle, 
dated 1770, shows a house at the spot above indicated, standing back 
from Newgate Street in its own grounds, with garden behind extending 
half the length of Low Friar Street. The identification, therefore, 
seems fairly complete. 

In 1723, the two houses named in the deeds were purchased by a 
well-to-do Newcastle joiner named Edward Bland. It may be noted, 
in passing, that a witness to the second release executed in Bland's 
favour was Edward Chicken, schoolmaster, tax collector, clerk to the 
Weaver's Company, parish clerk of St. John's, and local poet. Pour 
years before he put his hand to the release he had published his 
masterpiece, the * Collier's Wedding.' He kept his school at the 
comer house (the Three Tuns Inn), and being often resorted to for 
advice and assistance, became known far and wide as ' Mayor of the 
White Cross.' To him, therefore, when this release was completed, 
Francis Armorer, attorney-at-law, resorted both for witnessing 
signatures to the deed and enrolment in the Town's Court. 

Edward Bland, making his will in 1786, left real estate of con- 
siderable value to his widow and children. For, besides these two 
messuages in Shod Friar Chare, he had a mansion in Pilgrim Street 
(formerly the residence of Thomas Bigge and Edward Collingwood), 
which he had himself occupied till his death, and which, after his 
decease, had been converted into an inn ; a house on the north side of 
the Nether Dean Bridge,^* near its junction with Pilgrim Street, and 
a house and ground on the south side of Hillgate, Gateshead. 
Through the death of the elder children, it may be presumed, all this 

" It is not possible to identify the * great messuage on the west side of 
PUgrim Street,* out the house on the north side of Nether Dean Bridge ia pretty 
clearly indicated in the plan attached to a paper by Mr. W, H. Knowles, F.S.A. 



164 LOCAL MUNIMBKTS : 

property, subject to the life interest of her mother, came to the 
youngest daughter Ann, and formed her marriage portion, as appears 
in the deed of settlement dated March, 1764. 

1623. September 1. — Lidenture of bargain and sale by which Edwaid 
Bearop, of Newcastle, skinner and glover, and Suzannah his wife, for £7 lOs^ 
conveyed to Thomas Morrow, of Newcastle, yeoman, two tenements in Shodfriar 
Chare, occupied by John Clegg, labourer, and Cuthbert Robinson, yeoman, 
boundered by a house of Arthur Mirriman, skinner and glover, "W ., a tenement 
occupied by Robert Robson, skinner and glover, B., Shodfriar Chare, N., and a 
close of John Desborough, gardener, S. Signed by the Bearops, and attested by 
John Tompson, Mychell Dobson, Robt. Robson, and Chris. Stobbs, scrivener. 

1655. October 22. — Indenture of feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, 
by which Thomas, son and heir of said Thomas Morrow, deceased, for £26, 
conveyed the two burgages to Barnard Walker, of Newcastle, waterman. 
Described as including a garth behind, as now enclosed, on the south side of a 
street called the High Friar Chare, boundered by tenement of Elizabeth 
Blackburn, widow, W., tenement of Robert Forster, yeoman, B., and a back 
garth belonging to said tenement in possession of Matthew Bell, gardener, S. 
Signed : Thomas Morrow. Witnesses : William Skelton, Richard Walker (his 
mark), Nicholas Harding (his mark), and Richard Jackson, scrivener. 

1668. June 28. — Indenture of feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, 
whereby for £16 lOs., said Barnard Walker conveyed the property to Robert 
Atkinson, of Newcastle, and Blanche, his wife. Signed : Barnard Walker (his 
mark). Witnesses : John Huntley (his mark), Matthew Hall, house carpenter 
(his mark), Bdward Blakey, smith, and Thos. Thompson, scrivener. 

1698. August 28 and 24. — Indenture of lease and release by which Blanche 
Atkinson, widow, and Matthew Atkinson, mariner, son and heir of Robert 
Atkinson, deceased, conveyed the two houses to John Kell, of Newcastle, 
smith, and Barbara Gee, of same town, widow. The adjoining owners 
and occupiers are Mary Hoyle, widow, in lieu of Elizabeth Blackburn, W., 
and Lionel Blagdon, merchant, instead of Robert Forster, E., while the 
garden is occupied by Mr. Joseph Carr. Signed by the Atkinsons, and 
attested by James Gillies, Thomas Pattison, and John Byfeild, scrivener. Bond 
for performance of covenants. Indenture of bargain and sale from Matthew 
Atkinson, and Margaret his wife, to Barbara Gee, enrolled in the town's court 
and seal of corporation affixed, August 26, the recognizances of Margaret 
Atkinson, as a married woman, being taken before Nicholas Fenwick, mayor, 
Tim. Robson, Wm. Aubone, Thos. Wasse, Geo. Cuthbertson, sheriff, John 
Douglas, William Gofton, Thos. Ord, John Byfeild, Ralph Featherstonehaugh, 
and Lionel Moor. 

1702. September 7 and 8. — Indentures of lease and release by which said 
John Kell, for £22 10s., released to Joseph Kell, of the Meadow Heads, 
Northumberland, yeoman, one full moiety of the two messuages and garth in 
High Friar Chare. Witnessed by Mary Waugh and John Byfeild. 

1708. April 23 and 24. Similar indentures whereby said Joseph Kell and 
Alice his wife, for £20, released their interest in the half part of two messuages 
on the south side of Shodfriar Lane, to Barbara Gee, with bond for perf ohnance. 
Witnesses : Joshua Matland, Nathaniel Matland, and Ihos. Gofton. 



LOW FRlAE STRUBI?, NEWCASTLE. 165 

1710. December 16 and 16.— SimUar indentures by which Benjamin 
Blagdon, of London, haberdasher, son of said Lionel Blagdon, merchant, deceased, 
conveyed to John Mann, of Newcastle, yeoman, all that piece of waste ground in 
Shodfriar Chare, or Low Friar Street, containing by estimation in length from 
E. to W., 23 yards, and from N. to S., 18 yards, boundered by garden wall of 
the house of Joseph Carr, esquire, B., the Chare, W., the wall belonging to the 
house of Alexander Neilson, N., and the tenement in the occupation of Barbara 
Gee, S. Attested by George Allgood, Elizabeth AUgood, and William Wilks. 

1723-4. January 22 and 23. — Similar indentures whereby Barbara Gee and 
Joseph and Alice Kell, for £69, released to Edward Bland, of Newcastle, joiner, 
the two messuages in Shodfriar Chare, late in possession of Kell and Gee, or the 
latter*8 tenant, William Marshall, meal maker. Deed of bargain and sale 
enrolled in the Town's Court on the 23rd. Witnesses ; Francis Armorer, junior, 
William Huntley, and John Widdrington. Alice Kell's recognisance taken 
before Matthew Featherstonehaugh, mayor ; Jo. Beay and Nicholas Penwick, 
aldermen ; Bichd. Swinburne, sheriff ; Josh. Douglas, town clerk ; Nat. 
Hargrave, Thos. Goft-on, Lionel Moor, John Steel, and Matthew Dawson. 

1724. August 26 and 27. — Similar indentures between John Mann and 
Helena, his wife, and said Edward Bland. Witnessed by Francis Armorer, 
Edward Chicken and William Huntley. Deed of bargain and sale enrolled in 
the Town's Court, witnessed by Francis Armorer and Edward Chicken. 
Recognisances of Helena Mann taken before same mayor and sheriff; Nicholas 
Ridley and Francis Johnson, aldennen ; and the above-named Hargrave, 
Gofton, Steel, and Dawson, with W. Paston, and Archd. Kennedy. 

1736. November 21. — Will of Edward Bland. To wife, Mary, the messuage 
in which he dwells, with cellars, stables, lofts. &c., with remainder to son, 
Christopher Bland, and his daughters, Ann Bland and Alice Storey. To 
Christopher, his messuage, with stable and premises at the Netherdene Bridge, 
occupied by Reynold Hollinsworth, Easter Ffrench, Margaret Lawson, and George 
Simpson, also his two messuages in Low Friar Chare, alias Shodfriar Chare, 
occupied by Joseph Hall, Jane Todd, Francis Davison, Elizabeth Marshall, 
widow and others ; also his messuage in Hillgate, Gateshead, occupied by Mary 
Dowry, and all his land and tenements not otherwise bequeathed. If 
Christopher die before his majority, or without a will, the four last-named 
messuages to come to daughter Ann. Wife to have rents and profits of same till 
Christopher attain the age of ten, and after that, his cousin, Michael Bland, 
merchant, and friend Hauxiey Surtees to put them out at interest in such 
manner as friend Henry Ward shall advise, for use of said son till he be 21. 
Gives wife household goods, stock, drink, malt, and all other personal estate, 
after paying his debts, and sums left by the will of his mother, funeral expenses, 
maintenance and education of said son till he go apprentice or attain 21, and of 
daughter Ann till she be 21, with a legacy of £200 to said Ann at 21, and if she 
die before that age to pass to Christopher at 21. Wife sole executrix. Wit* 
nessed by Henry Ward, Robert Wilson, and Benjamin Heslop. 

1764. March 9 and 10.— Indenture of lease and release by way of settlement 
on the intended marriage of said Ann Bland and William Smith, late of York city, 
surgeon, but now of London, livery lacemaker : — Whereas a marriage is agreed 
upon, by permission of God, to be solemnized between said William Smith and 



166 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

Ann Bland, and whereas said Ann is seised (subject to life estate of Mary 
Pendleton, of Newcastle, widow, mother of said Ann), of all that great messuage, 
etc., on the west side of Pilgrim St , and of other messuages hereinafter described, 
and in consideration of said intended marriage, it is agreed that said messuages 
shall be conveyed to Thomas Davidson, of Newcastle, attorney, upon trust (for 
uses herein specified) this indenture witnesseth that said Ann Bland, with con- 
sent of said William Smith, releases to said Davidson the following properties : 
(1) The messuage in Pilgrim Street, heretofore in the occupation of Thomas 
Bigge, Edward Collingwood, and Edward Ward, afterwards of Edward Bland, 
father of said Ann, and now of John Wind, inn-keeper, as tenant, boundering 
upon messuages of Thomas Gillman, inn-keeper, N., and William Mole, inn- 
keeper (tenant of Thomas Jopling, gentleman), S., and extending from Pilgrim 
Street, E., to the common sewer called Lort Burn, W. ; (2) The messuage on the 
north side of Netherdean Bridge, heretofore belonging to Ambrose Henzell, 
broad glassmaker, deceased, afterwards to Jacob Henzell his son, and since to 
Christopher Bland, grandfather, and then to Edward Bland, father of said Ann, 
heretofore in the occupation of Robert Snowdon, mariner, Gawen Twizell, 
barber-surgeon, George Halliday, yeoman and others, and now of John Coulson, 
Catherine Steward, George Hallowell, John Hays, Elizabeth Lupton, widow, 
and another as tenants ; boundered upon a messuage formerly belonging to 
Francis Brown, ropemaker, deceased, and now to William Lowes, esquire, and 
occupied by Miss Lawson, milliner, and Walter Hodges, yeoman, as tenants, B., 
a messuage formerly belonging to Samuel Twizell, master mariner, and now to 
John Huntley, upholsterer, and in his occupation, with others his tenants, W., a 
yard belonging to John Donkin, occupied by Richard Jopling, inn-keeper, 
behind, N., and said Bridge, S. ; (3) Two messuages and garth in Shod Friar 
Chare, boundered [as before] ; (4) A messuage and ground on S. side of Hill- 
gate, Gateshead, occupied by Clement Smith, tailor, and others, boundered by 
messuage of Elizabeth Baron, widow, E., messuage of Stephen Hunter, joiner, 
and a flight of stairs to St. Mary's churchyard, W., and extending from HiUgate, 
N., to said churchyard, S. Signeld by the parties and attested by W. 
Keenleyside, Thos. Plummer, Cuth. T. Brough, and Chas. Potts. 

1769. — Indentures of lease and release whereby for £190 William Smith 
released the two messuages in Shod Friar Chare to George Lowes of Newcastle, 
joiner and cabinetmaker. Witnesses : Ralph Lodge and Joseph Watkin. 

1782. December 30 and 31. — Similar indentures by which John Maughan 
of Whinnitly, Northumberland, gentleman, and John Carrick of Carvoran, in 
same county, gentleman, executors of the will of George Lowes (who died 
October 13, 1781), released to Susannah Lowes of the Know or Grandway 
Know, widow of said George Lowes, the said two messuages and garth 
purchased at public sale for £240. (Occupiers — Matthew Shepherd, William 
Preston, James Robinson, David Grifiin, John Burlinson and David Annan). 
Boundered by messuages belonging to William Yielder, tanner, W., William 
Hales, coachman, E., the Chare, N., and a garden of Ralph Carr of Cocken, 
lately occupied by Langdale Sunderland, esquire, late collector of the customs, 
Newcastle, and now by Aubone Surtees, esquire, S. Signed by the parties and 
witnessed by John Bell and Michael Porch. 



BABBABA GEE. 167 

1786. May 11 and 12.— Similar indentures whereby Susanna Lowes, now 
of Hexham, for £240, conveyed the property in Lower Friar Chare to Martin 
Taylor. Boundaries the same, but the garden [and presumably the house] is 
in occupation of Christopher Blackett and John Beed. Witness : Thomas 
Davidson. 

1786. November 10. — Indenture of demise from said Martin Taylor to John 
Snow of Gateshead for 1000 years, with proviso for redemption on payment of 
£150 and interest. Bond for £300 attached. All those messuages in Lower 
Friar Chare in the occupation of said Martin Taylor, Matthew Shepherd, James 
Bobinson, James Searchbille, Dr. Botheram and others, and also all those 
new erections and buildings lately built on the garth thereof. 

NOTE ON BABBABA GEE. 

Barbara Gee, named in the foregoing documents, is a person of 
importance from the fact that her will confirms an endowment to the 
meeting house at the Close Gate (see page 146). The endowment is 
still paid by the Society of Friends (whose place of worship is erected 
upon part of the demised property) to the Church of the Divine 
Unity in Newcastle. Barbara's will begins as follows : — 

* In the Name of God, Amen. I, Barbara Gee of the town and county of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, widow, being of sound and perfect mind and memory, do 
make, publish, and declare this to be my last will. And first, I give and devise 
unto George Grey of the town and county of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, esquire, 
Benjamin Bennet of the said town, clerk, Joseph Airey of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, aforesaid, gentleman, and Matthew Twisell of Eachwick in the county of 
Northumberland, gentleman, their heirs and assigns, all my messuages or 
tenements, and houses, entrys or passages whatsoever in Pilgrim Street, in 
Newcastle aforesaid, with their rights, members and appurtenances to and for 
the several uses and trusts, and subject to the proviso hereinafter mentioned. 
Whereas, my son John Gee, late of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, aforesaid, gentleman, 
deceased, did by his last will and testament in writing, duly executed [dated 
1717], charge all the said messuages or tenements, houses, entrys or passages 
after my death, with the yearly payment of the sum of six pounds for ever to 
such person or persons as should at the time of my death be minister or 
ministers of and for the Protestant Dissenters' meeting house for religious 
worship, situate without the Close Gate, without the walls but within the 
libertys of the said town of Newcastle, and to the successor or successors of such 
ministers for ever, I do hereby ratify and confirm the said devise of six 
pounds per annum for ever, and do hereby order and appoint that the said sum 
be paid by four equal quarterly payments yearly and every year to the hands 
of the said minister and his successors for ever. And I hereby make all the said 
premises liable to the payment of the said six pounds per annum for ever, to be 
paid as aforesaid to the said minister and his successors, whether the said meet- 
ing house be at the Close Gate or elsewhere.' Bemainder to Airey in trust for 
the children of her daughter Addison. Lands and tenements at High Callerton 



168 LOOAL MUNIMENTS : 

to Grey, Bennet, Airey and Twisell upon similar trusts. To Benjamin Bennet, 
two guineas for a legacy, and a like sum to Mr. Wroe ; to Nathaniel Matland of 
Shields, 30s. ; to Sarah Warwick, 20s. ; to child of daughter Addison first attain- 
ing 21 years, my silver tankard, two silver cups, one small silver spoon, one 
silver watch chain and seal which did belong to my said son John, and three 
gold rings. Executed March 19, 1724-5, and attested by Bartho. Kent, Charles 
Turner and Jonathan Barnes. 



THE POSTERN [C.-B.] 

A schedule of deeds by which property in the Postern was 
conveyed aflPords a passing glance of an extinct industry — ^that of the 
horse-mill. The premises comprised, in 1629, a house and horse-mill 
which stood at the south east corner of the Postern, looking partly 
up Westgate Street, to the north, and partly along Back Sow to tiie 
east, and extended westward along the whole south side of the Postern 
to the town wall near the Postern Gate. Horse-mills were not 
uncommon in Newcastle in the early days of its history, when freedom 
of milling was a highly prized privilege. The customs and regula- 
tions of the town, sent by the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle to 
the mayor and burgesses of Stockton in 1343, provided that * every 
burgess may have a mill of his own, upon his own land — horse-mill, 
water-mill, wind-mill, or hand-mill,' and that * every burgess may 
send his corn to be ground to whatever mill he will.' And so, where 
neither wind nor water was available, the more homely but less 
capricious horse-mill went its weary round. In 1474 the Meal 
Market of Newcastle, as was natural, had its horse-mill, and a 
hundred years later the Brandlings owned one in the Broad Chare, 
on the Quay, which, in 1578, Henry, brother of sir Robert Brandling, 
bequeathed to his son William. The mill in the Postern with the 
house and garth attached to it is clearly shown upon Hutton's map, 
dated 1770, and appears to have covered a considerable piece of 
ground. 

Further interest in this schedule accrues from its disclosure of two 
noteworthy names — those of Anthony Wheatley and John Stephenson. 

Anthony Wheatley, who appears as executor of the will of John 
Spoor, was the cordwainer of Back Row — ^uncle, foster-father and 
apprentice master of John Brand the historian. Testator, it is to be 
noted, was a cordwainer also, and when he was making his will in 



ANTHONr WHBATLBY, CORDWAINER. 169 

1755 who could be better fitted for the upbringiag of his children 
than his friend, neighbour, and fellow-craftsman, Mr. Wheatley, already 
engaged, as he was, in the benevolent enterprise of educating and 
training his own nephew, young Brand ? 

It has been customary to associate Anthony Wheatley with the 
management of a small business in a poor locality, among squalid 
surroundings. But it may be doubted whether this estimate of his 
position is quite correct. The locality was poor and mean without 
doabt. Back Row was a narrow thoroughfare leading from King 
Street, in front of the Black Gate, to Westgate Street, where it faced 
the Postern. Yet it contained, on the south side, several good, 
substantial houses, and in one of them Anthony Wheatley lived. 
Besides, he was not only a member of his company — the Oordwainers 
— (admitted to his freedom in 1749), but for several years one of the 
wardens of that influential fraternity. A tablet in the ancient hall 
of the company still preserves the memory of his wardenship. 

John Stephenson, the house carpenter in this schedule, made 
himself a name in connection with the restoration of Tyne Bridge. 
When that massive viaduct was broken down by the great flood of 
November 17, 1771, he entered into an agreement Ho finish a 
temporary bridge in four months, to be reckoned from June 18, 1772, 
under a large penalty.' On the 27th October following he completed 
his contract, and the bridge was opened for traffic. David Stephenson, 
architect of All Saints' Church, and of the ' new theatre,' the designer 
of Dean Street and Mosley Street, and the undertaker of many other 
works of utility and improvement in Newcastle and Gateshead (not 
to mention the New Quay at North Shields and the tenantry column 
at Alnwick), was a son of John, the house carpenter. 

1629. October 23. — Indenture of bargain and sale whereby, for £20, John 
Reefley of Newcastle, miller, conveyed to Charles Mitford of Newcastle, 
merchant, all those two tenements, or horse-mill, in the Postern, boundered by the 
town wall, W., a tenement belonging to Richard Kirkhouse, tanner, S., and the 
King's high street, N. and E., subject to redemption on payment of £20 and 
interest. 

1641-2. January 13. — Release by deed poll of said premises from William 
Reefley of Newcastle, blacksmith, to Alexander Forster, of Ellington, gentleman. 

1641-2. January 14. — Indenture of feoffment with livery and seisin indorsed 
whereby said Reefley conveyed the premises to said Forster. Bond for 
performance attached. 

VOL. xxrv. 22 



170 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

1669. August 17. — Indenture of feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, 
by which Alexander Iforster of Alnwick, gentleman, son and heir of Alexander 
Forster, late of Ellington, deceased, for £55 conveyed the premises to John 
Harrison of Newcastle, wine porter. 

1678. May 17. — Similar deed whereby John Harrison of Newcastle, free 
porter, in consideration of marriage with Eatherine Taylor of Newcastle 
spinster, conveyed to Henry Shaw, barber-chirurgeon, and John Baker, smith 
in trust for said Harrison during life, and afterwards to said Taylor, his intended 
wife, their heirs, etc., a messuage in Westgate street, near unto the Postern, 
occupied by John Allan, Margaret Aynsley, and others. 

1685. September 25. — Similar deed, by which, for £20, John Gunthorpe of 
Alnwick, gentleman, and Tabitha, his wife, relict of Alexander Forster, conveyed 
the premises to John Harrison of Newcastle, yeoman. 

1708. July 30 and 81. — Indenture of lease and release whereby Robert 
Harrison of Newcastle, mason, released to Samuel Spoor of Newcastle, yeoman, 
all that messuage in * Westgate street or the Postern,* then in the several tenures 
and occupations of Edward Blacklock, James Allan, and others, as tenants. 

1717. November 21 and 22. — Indentures of lease and release, the release 
tripartite : — (1) Robert Harrison of Newcastle, mason, and Thomasin, his wife ; (2) 
Jonathan Spoor of said town, smith ; (3) John Spoor of same town, yeoman, and 
Isabel Spoor of same town, spinster (said John and Isabel being children of Samuel 
Spoor, before-named, and Jonathan, a trustee for John and Isabel). For £35 
said Harrison conveyed to said Jonathan Spoor all that messuage, etc., and all 
that backside, etc., used as a byre or cowhouse, in the Postern, and now in the 
occupation of Thomas White and others as tenants ; boundering upon a 
messuage occupied by Elizabeth Blacklock and others as tenants, E., a messuage 
in possession of James Foggin, W., the Postern, N., and a messuage belonging to 
William Thornton, and occupied by Nicholas Emmerson and others, S.; and also 
all that other messuage, etc., in Westgate street, now in possession of Elizabeth 
Blacklock and others, boundering npon Westgate street, E., the messuage 
occupied by White and others, W., the Postern, N., and Thornton's messuage, 8. 
Bond for performance of covenants from Harrison to Jonathan Spoor. 

1720. Michaelmas term, 1 George IV. — Indenture of part of a fine, Jonathan 
Spoor, plaintiff ; Robert Harrison and Thomasin, his wife, deforciants. 

1755. June 6. — Will of John, son of Samuel Spoor, -whereby, inter alia, he 
devised to Anthony Wheatley all his messuages, with stables, etc., at the foot of 
Westgate street, and all other real estate, in trust for bringing up his son Samuel, 
and his daughters, Isabel and Margaret, and on Samuel attaining legal age, to 
the use of him and his heirs, etc., charged with £20 to be paid in equal shares 
to the two daughters on their attaining the age of twenty-one. Residue to 
Margaret, his wife. Executor : Anthony Wheatley. 

1757. February 1 and 2.— Indentures of lease and release between Isabel 
Stephenson of Newcastle, widow [daughter of Samuel Spoor], and her son, John 
Stephenson, house carpenter, and Ann, his wife. In consideration of natural 
love and affection, and for his better advancement and preferment, as also in 
consideration of £25 paid to her by him, the said Isabel released to him all that 
messuage, etc, with byer or cowhouse, to hold to use of said Isabel during life, 
' and afterwards to use of said John and Ann, his wife. 



THE WINDOW TAX. 171 

1766. December 4 and 5.— Indentures of lease and release by which Samuel 
Spoor of Newcastle, cordwalner, only son and heir of John Spoor, cordwainer, 
deceased, and Margaret, relict of said John Spoor, released to John Stephenson, 
of Newcastle, house carpenter, a messuage standing in * Westgate street or the 
Postern,' now in the occupation of Samuel Spoor, Margaret Spoor, Mary Elliott, 
and others as tenants thereof. 

1767. October 2. — John Stephenson of Newcastle, carpenter, and Ann, his 
wife, to secure a loan of £300, mortgaged to Charles Atkinson, of Newcastle, 
merchant, two houses newly erected by said Stephenson, upon the site of the 
messuage in the Postern, formerly occupied by Thomas White and others. The 
adjoining property in Westgate street, formerly in occupation of Elizabeth 
Blacklock, is described as late in the occupation of Margaret Spoor, widow, John 
Hall, cordwainer, and Mary Atkinson, widow, and now ' rebuilt by said John 
Stephenson.' " 

8IDGATE, FBIAB OHAEE, AND CASTLE GARTH [B.W.] 

Attached to half-a-dozen abstracts concerning a honse in Sidgate 
are odds and ends of manuscripts relating to other property in the 
same ownership, and to cnstoms and impositions that have become 
obsolete. • 

Two of the documents are doctors' bills, in which we see the 
general practitioner of the middle of the eighteenth century — surgeon 
apothecary, as he was called — compounding his own medicines, and, 
while charging for drugs and pills, adding nothing for attendance and 
skill. 

Another paper exhibits the rent collector in his most peremptory 
mood, demanding, in his Majesty's name, under threat of sending a 
messenger to levy the same, payment of a fee farm rent, due to a 
grantee from the crown. 

Two others refer to that worst of all impositions, the window-tax. 
Instituted, in 1695, to defray the cost of recoining silver, this tax 
continued, with various fluctuations of amount and incidence, down 
to 1851, when the revenue derived from it was nearly two millions. 
Among its many victims in Newcastle was Mrs. Ann Hedley, widow 
of George Hedley, tanner, and heir-at-law of Dorothy, widow of Gilbert 
Smith, chapman. Mrs. Hedley inherited a house in Sidgate, and a 
house and shop in the Castle Garth, from her aunt, Eatherine 
Longmoor, and two messuages in Black Friar Chare, and two tenements 

'•In Oliver's Plan of Newcastle (1831) the house in the Postern, west of the 
comer site, is entered as being, at that date^ the property of Margaret Stephenson. 



172 LOCAL MUNIMENTS: 

in Plummer Chare on the Qnay, from Dorothy Smith. She appears 
to have escaped the tax upon her Quayside and up-town property, but 
down here under the shadow of the Castle Keep, more light and 
ventilation were needed, and these sanitary privileges had to be paid 
for.i^ Whether she lived in the window-taxed house, which contained 
* four rooms, two garrets, and a shop, als6 a coal-hole adjoining the 
Castle,' or in the more leafy environments of Sidgate and Black Friar 
Chare, does not appear. But, in the autumn of 1747, she obtained a 
new tenant for her house in the Garth, and that date synchronises with, 
or at any rate follows shortly, the last entry in her doctor's bill. For 
it will be observed that she was taking hysteric pills and juleps, 
stomach draughts and drops, from December, 1746, to July, 1747, 
that on the 28th of the latter month, applying an epispastic, she 
recovered, and that, on the 14th October following, she sublet her 
house for ten years. There may be no connecting link in this sequence 
of events, but history is sometimes made of very slender materials. 

1682. June 29. Indentureof feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, from 
Margery Pile, of Newcastle, widow, daughter and heir of Thomas Thompson, of 
Newcastle, deceased, tailor, Godfrey, (George, and James Pile, sons, and Eleanor, 
daughter of said Margery, to George Hankin, of Newcastle, ropemaker, of all 
that burgage now ruinous, formerly belonging to said Thomas Thompson, 
fronting Sidgate, Newcastle, 109 yards 6 inches long, and 6 yards broad, near 
the New Gate, boundered by the house of William Pescod, N.W., by a piece 
of waste land belonging to Mrs. Mary Midford, S.E., Sidgate, S.W., and a waste 
belonging to Bartram Anderson behind, N.B., subject to an annual rent of 2s. 6d. 
to Mary Midford, of Ouseburn, widow. Bond for performance attached. 

1682. August 14. — Indenture of feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, 
whereby William Pescod granted to George Hankin a parcel of ground adjoining 
above premises. 

1684. August 23. — Feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, from George 
Hankin and Jane, his wife, to Thomas Watson, of Newcastle, master and mariner, 
of a messuage in Sidgate, occupied by William Morris, John Toung and others, 
formerly a waste,* ruinous, and lately bought of Margery Pile, for £80 with a 
fine levied in the Town Court of Newcastle. 

1696. June 27. — Will of Thomas Watson, whereby, inter alia, he gave the 
messuage near Newgate, betwixt Gallowgate, W., and the street, N., to his wife, 
Hannah, for life, then to Bichard, son of George Johnson, of Newcastle, master 
and mariner. 

" A hundred years after Mrs. Hedley had paid her last tax, a Newcastle 
Sunday School teacher was urging upon his class the duty of forgiving those who 
trespass against us, and even those who add insult to injury. * Do you know 
what I mean by adding insult to injury ? ' he asked. * Yes, sir,* replied an up- 
to-date scholar, * it's making a blind man pay window cess.' 



RENTS, RATES, AND DOCTORS^ BILLS. 173 

1704-5. February 17. — FeoflEment of said premises, after death of Hannah 
Watson, from Richard Johnson, of Cornhill, Northumberland, gentleman, to 
Katherine Longmoor, of Newcastle, widow, for £19 7s., with bond for 
performance and note attached that Hannah Watson died in September 1747, 
when Mrs. Longmoor came into possession. 

1748-9. March 13. Administration, with will of Katherine Longmoor 
annexed, granted to Ann Hedley, Newcastle, widow, niece and next of kin of 
said Katherine, whereby the house in Sidgate was given to George Grey and 
John Widdrington upon trust to pay Mary, wife of Henry Elliot, for life, £40 a 
year. Residue to Ann, wife of George Hedley, and after her death the house to 
be sold and the proceeds divided among her children. 



Documents relating to persons named in the foregoing deeds : — 

(a.) 1691. May 11. Indenture between Charles, Earl of Maccles- 
field, and Jane Johnson, of Castle Garth, Northumberland, widow, demising 
to said Jane all that tenement late in possession of William Johnson, 
consisting of one high room, one garret, the little stable and usual privilege 
in the open place in the Castle Gartb, for 21 years from 2nd February last, 
paying therefor yearly £5 at quarter days free from all taxes. Signed — 
Macclbsfibld. Seal— An elephant. 

(J.) London, November 4, 1727. Mrs. Longmore. I Received your 
Bill of Ten pound and paid It way to a N other person, and yesterday I had 
an account that It is paide, which was ye Reason I did not Wright to you 
Before, My Wife gives her service to you and your Neise, I rest your 
frind John Goldham. 

I have got your dish, But I think It is not proper to sent It A Lone, 
Because of the Charge It will put you to. 

((?.) Reed. February 22nd, 1738-9, of Mrs. Kath. Longmore Ten 
pound Ten shillings for One year's Rent of Houses in ye Castlegarth, due 
from her to George Liddell, esqr., Christmas last, or 1738. Reed, as above 
for ye said Geo. Liddell esqr., p. Hugh Boag. 

(^d.) Reed. Sep. 13th, 1 746, of Mrs Ann Hedley Seven pound Seventeen 
shillings and Six pence for |rs Rent of Housing in the Castlegarth due 
at Lammas last. Reed, as above for Geo. Liddell esqr's execcrs., £7 17s. 6d., 
By Hugh Boao. 

{e.) Mrs. Cath. Longmoor. Dr. to B. Heslopp. 

for Self. 
1743. 

April 2, To an Emulsion 

10, To a Mixture 

1742. For Mastr Hedley. 

February 2, To 5 Boluses 

16, To 6 Boluses 

1743. 
April 10, To a Julep for Mrs. Hedley 



7ber 3, To an Oyntment for Son 



s. 


d. 


1 





1 


6 


T 


"e 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


4 


e" 


1 





4 



Reod. ye Contents of this Note for ye Use of Mr. Benjn. 

Heslopp p. me William Wilkinson. 



6 8 



174 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 



1746. 
Deceb^ 11, 

23, 

Jan. 2, 

21, 

Feb. 5, 

14, 
16, 

March 81, 
Aprill 1, 

15, 



22, 
24, 
May 5, 
July 28, 



Mrs. Hedley to William Bacon, Dr. 

To Pectoral Electuary 

To Pectoral Decoction 

To a Box of Hysteric Pills 

To a Hysteric Julep 

To a Bottle Drops 

To a Hysteric Julep Repeated 

To a Bottle Drops Repeat-ed 

The Hysteric Julep as before 

To a Box of Pills 

To a Hysteric Julep 

To a Purging Tincture 

The Electuary Repeated 

The Decoction as before 

To three Stomach Draughts 

To three Stomach Draughts as before 

(Pour similar items of three draughts each follow.) 

To a bottle Drops 

To a Box of Ointment 

To three Stomach Draughts as before 

To three Draughts Repeated 

To three Draughts as before 

To three Draughts as before 

To a bottle Drops 

To 2oz. of Manna 

An Epispastic, etc 



Reed. Augt. 17th, 1747, the full Contents, William Bacon. 



8. d. 
2 8 

2 4 

3 4 


1 6 

6 


1 6 
6 


1 6 
3 4 


1 6 


1 

2 8 
2 4 


2 3 


2 3 


9 


6 


3 


2 3 


2 3 
2 3 


2 3 


6 


1 4 


1 
£2 10 9 



{ff,) Receiv'd the 20th of April, 1747, of Mrs. Ann Hedley, the sum of 
Three Shillings & seven pence f, being a Cess laid on the Lands in the 
Parish of St. Nicholas for the necessary Repairs of the Church. 



£0 3s. 7id. 



William Watson, 1 ^i . , 
Lancelot Stout, } Ohurohwardens. 



(^.) Newcastle, May the 6, 1747. 

Received of Mrs. Hedley the sum of three shillings k seven pence 
for a Year's Land-tax of her House in Key Side due last lady day. 

Window cess — per me, Thob. Aubone. 



(*.) Newcastle, May the 6, 1749. 

Received of Mrs. Hedley the sum of five shillings & eight pence for 
a Year's Land-tax of her House in Sidgate, due last lady day. 

Window cess per me, Thos. Aubone. 



ROSEMARY LANE, NEWCASTLE. 175 

0*.) The Third Day of October, 1747. 

In Newcastle- 1 Received of Widow Hedley the sam of Three ] £ a. d. 
upoa-Tyne. j Shillings for One Year's Pee- Farm Rent (by / 

Grant from the Crown) due unto Edward vO 3 
Noell esqr's Heirs at Michaelmas last, for a I 
Messuage in Black Fryar Chair. ) 

I say received, 
Acquitt. 4" per Robt. Douglas, Recr. 

You are hereby required, in his Majesty's Name, and without further 
Notice, to pay this Rent, due at Michaelmas next, at my House in West- 
gate on the first Day of October, 1748, in the Morning, and bring with 
yon this Acquittance, otherwise a Messenger will be sent forthwith to levy 
the same. 

(*.) 1747. October 14. — Lease for 10 years from Ann Hedley, of 
Newcastle, widow, to Mary Dykes, of Newcastle, widow, at £13 10s. per 
annum, of a house in the Castle Ghirth, containing four rooms, two garrets, 
and a shop, also a coal hole adjoining the Castle. Lessee to pay poor's 
rate and window cess and keep the glass of the windows repaired ; lessor 
to pay all other taxes and execute all other repairs. Witnesses : Mary 
Whitehead, Charles Handasyde. 

ROSEMARY LANE. [O.-E.] 

Leases of church property form the subject of our last sheaf of 
muniments. The street in which the property was situated is 
described as Rosemary Lane, or St. Mary Lane, or St. John's Chare. 

Bourne, writing about Pudding Chare, tells us that * The Lane 
called Rosemary-lane, which turns upon the Right Hand as you go 
down this Chare [from the Bigg Market] into Westgate, was formerly 
called St. JohrCs Chare because it led from the PyMing-chare to St. 
JohrCs Church.' Brand states that Pudding Chare ^communicates 
with St. John's Churchyard, or rather with a new footway railed off 
at the end of it called ** Grave's End Walk " by another little street 
called anciently St. John's Chare, at pi-esent Rosemary Lane, in which 
is the lying-in hospital,' etc. 

At the date of the first deed in the following series (1673) the 
property — a bit of waste land, one-hundred-and-twenty square yards in 
area — was leased to Anthony Green, house-carpenter, by the church- 
wardens of St. John's, and by them alone. In later documents 
the vicars of Newcastle are made parties to the leases. 

One of the churchwardens, it may be noted, is described as 
* Thomas Fletcher, the second of the name,' cordwainer. This some- 



176 LOCAL MUNIMENTS : 

what unusual designation^^ suggested the existence of two contem- 
porary Thomas Fletchers, not necessarily related to each other, or at 
any rate not being father and son. Extracts from the books of the 
Oordwainer's Company showed that there were not merely two but 
four of them. One Thomas Fletcher was a steward of the Company 
in 1645, and again in 1660 ; another Thomas Fletcher (probably the 
churchwarden) was admitted to his freedom on the 23rd February, 
1651-2; a third, with the affix *jun.,' was admitted on the 29th 
December, 1657, while a fourth Thomas Fletcher took up his freedom 
in January 1663-4. With four Richmonds in the field at one time, 
some method of fixing identity became necessary, and thus the 
churchwarden of St. John's was labelled, like pope or monarch, 
Thomas Fletcher the Second. 

1673. November 5. — Lease for forty -one years from Robert Crow, merchant, 
Christopher Cocke, miUer, Thomas Fletcher, ' the second of the name/ cord- 
wainer, and William Pattison, of Benwell,'* yeoman, churchwardens of St. 
John's, Newcastle, to Anthony Green, house-carpenter, Newcastle, of all that 
piece or parcel of waste ground, containing by estimation, 15 yards in length 
and 8 yards in breadth, being part of lands belonging to St. John's chapeliy, 
and then in the occupation of Jane Coats, widow, boundering E. upon a 
messuage belonging to the said Jane Coats, S. upon a messuage belonging to the 
chapelry, and extending itself towards a lane called St. Mary Lane, aliag 
Rosemary Lane, N. and W., yielding to the said churchwardens an annual 
rent of 7s. 

1696. November 19. — Indenture of assignment by which John Green, 
perry wigg maker, son and administrator of Anthony Green, set over to Charles 
Fairbridge, joiner, all of Newcastle, for the residue of the term, the lease of * all 

" * Thomas Fletcher the Second * appears as such several times in the Cord- 
wainers' Books. Thus, in 1665-6 the stewards are William Smith, James Bell, 
John Andrew, and * Thomas Fletcher the Second.' In a list of * searches made 
to discover the journeymen working with their respective masters,' dated July 
22, 1672, * Thomas Fletcher the Second ' is reported as employing three men — 
John Fletcher, Lawrence Nesbit, and Robert Trotter ; while another of the foar, 
designated ' Thomas Fletcher the eldest,' has but one— John Moryson. Another 
list, enumerating * Free Cordwainers living in May, 1674, arranged in the order 
of their admission to freedom,' contains three of the Thomas Fletcher's, of which 
' Thomas Fletcher, senior ' is twelfth, ' Thomas Fletcher the second,' thirty-third, 
and 'Thomas Fletcher, junior,' thirty- seventh in the rotation. Twenty-one 
years later the name of Fletcher is still prominent in the Company's records : — 
* May 27, 1695. Let to Thoinas Fletcher, the low room of the Correction House 
in the Flesh Market [cf. Brand, Hut. Newcaitle^ vol. i. p. 327] to enter May I, 
1696— rent 30s. per annum; to Richard Fletcher, senior, the hall, a closett with 
a garret, 55s.' 

'* Benwell, being then in the parish of St. John's, had its churchwarden at 
the period covered by these deeds, and for long after. See Brand, HiM. 
Newcastle^ vol. i. p. 111. 



ROSEMARY LANB, NBWCASTLB. 177 

that parcel of waste ground, with the house and other buildhigs thereon 
standing,' in consideration of a payment of £7 2s. Witnessed by Thomas 
Davison (his mark) and Thomas Richardson, scrivener, 

1701. April 17.— Lease for 21 years from the Rev. Nathaniel Ellison, M.A., 
and vicar of Newcastle, and the churchwardens of St. John's (Christopher 
Richelly, yeoman, Ralph Cook, yeoman, John Jackson, sadler, and Thomas Gill, 
of Benwell, smith), to Charles Farbridge, paying 7s. yearly, of all that 
messuage lately erected by the said Charles Farbridge, and now in the tenure 
of Alexander Ripping, boundering E. on the messuage of Richard Coates, ship- 
wright ; S., upon a messuage belonging to the chapelry occupied by George Carr. 
clerk, and extending itself towards St. Mary Lane, alias St. John's Chare. 

1707. October 20.— Charles Farbridge set over the lease to Emanuel Walker, 
of Newcastle, gentleman. 

1716. December 17.— Emanuel Walker, of Westminster, gentleman, for £80 
paid him by Thomas Holme, of Newcastle, gentleman, set over the lease. The 
house was then occupied by Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson, widow, and Samuel Mowbray, 
schoolmaster. Witnessed by Nich. Ryall, John Low and Christopher lies. 

1719. September 23.— Lease between Dr. Ellison, vicar of Newcastle, and 
the churchwardens of St. John's (John Harrison, barber-surgeon, Lancelot Stout, 
butcher, Tristram Wilkinson, tanner, John Wake, Benwell, yeoman), and Thomas 
Holme, of Newcastle, gentleman, of all that messuage built by Charles Farbridge, 
in St. Mary Lane, alias Rosemary Lane, alias St. John's Chare. Term 21 years ; 
rent 14b. per annum. Witnesses : Robt. Liddell, John Holme, Thomas (}ell, 
and Edwd. Reay. 

1734. April 16. — Renewal of the lease to Thomas Holme, by the Rev. 
Thomas Turner, vicar of Newcastle, and the churchwardens of St. John's 
(William Rowel, tallow chandler, Robert Tielder, tanner, Thomas Toung, 
bricklayer, and Jeremiah Baynes, Elswick, gentleman), for 21 years, paying 14s. 
yearly. Witnesses : Thomas Baker and Ed. Clarke. 

1734. May 13.— Assignment of the lease by Thomas Holme of High 
Heworth, son and heir of Thomas Holme, of Newcastle, to John Wilkinson, of 
Newcastle, gentleman, to secure payment of £50 lent on mortgage. 

1736. December 29. — Indenture by which John Wilkinson and Thomas 
Holme of High Heworth, assigned to James Clarke, of Newcastle, merchant, the 
lease aforesaid as security for a loan of £50, said Thomas Holme having 
omitted to pay the loan made by Wilkinson. 

1748-9. February 17. — Renewal of the lease to Thomas Holme, of High 
Heworth, by Thomas Tumor, vicar of Newcastle, and the churchwardens of St. 
John's (John Manuel, cheesemonger, James Bradley, farrier, Thomas Jackson, 
shoemaker, John Usher, of Benwell, yeoman). Term 21 years. Rent 14s. 
a year. February 21. — Assignment of the lease from Holme to James Clarke 
to secure the aforesaid loan of £50. Witnesses : Thomas Dixon and Samuel 
Mowbray. 

1762. September 10.— Assignment <^ the lease to Braems Whel^, of Durham, 
gentleman, acting executor of the will of Margaret Beaver, of Newcastle, 
widow, deceased, who was executrix of the will of Thomas Holme, of High 
Heworth, deceased, upon payment of the £50 due to James Clarke. Witnesses : 
Thomas Dixon and John Fenwick. 

VOL. XXXV. 23 



178 



VIIL— OBITUARY NOTICE OP MR. CADWALLADER JOHN 
BATES, M.A., A VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 

By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., F.S.A., etc. 

[Read on the 30th April, 1902.] 

By the death of Mr. Oadwallader J. Bates the Newcastle Society 
of Antiquaries has lost not only an active member and a distinguished 
vice-president, but the man to whom we were especially looking to 
hold high the standard of archaeological accuracy and thoroughuess in 
future years. 

Though, as has been already said at our previous meeting, it 
would require another student as laborious and as many-sided as 
himself to do full justice to his character as an antiquary, a brief 
sketch of his life and literary work must be included in the records 
of our Society. 

Cadwallader John Bates was bom in 1853. His name Cadwallader 
— so fitting for an archaeologist — came to him indirectly from the 
family of Lord Blayney, with which he was connected by a maternal 
ancestor. As might be supposed from this name, there was in him a 
strain of Welsh blood, but his direct ancestors in the paternal line 
had been for many centuries settled in the county of Northumberland 
and were always employed in agriculture, sometimes as landowners, 
sometimes as occupiers, and sometimes in both capacities. His great- 
uncle, Thomas Bates (1776-1849), holds a high place in the bucolic 
annals of England as one of the chief improvers of the breed of short- 
homed cattle and the founder of the celebrated Kirklevington herd. 
The Kirklevington estate, which is situated near Tarm, in the North 
Riding of Yorkshire, was purchased by him out of a fortune which he 
had acquired by judicious and scientific farming in the valley of the 
Tyne. Cadwallader Bates, in succession to his father and to four 
uncles, who died without issue, became eventually the heir of Thomas 
Bates's property as well as of an estate in Lithuania, which bad been 



las 



Arch. Ad. vol. xxiv. ; to face p. 179. 



PlaU XI. 








THE LATE MR. CADWALLADER J. BATES, 

A VICe-PHESlDSNT OF THE SOCIETY. 



OBITUARY NOTICE OF MB. C. J. BATES; 179 

acquired by his uncle, Mr. Edward Bates, of the Schlos^, Oloden, 
Germauy. The most important part of his property was, however, 
his share in the Heddon colliery. 

His education was conducted at Eton and Jesus College, 
Cambridge, but owing to the temporary failure of his eyesight he had 
to be withdrawn from the former and could only take an ' aegrotat ' 
degree at the latter. This disappointing interruption of his studies 
(which also forbade his entering on a professional life was, however, in 
his case largely compensated for by the leisure afforded for the educa- 
tion of travel. During this interval in his life he travelled much on 
the continent of Europe, visited many out-of-the-way places, and 
accumulated a large store of historical knowledge. 

After leaving college he lived with his father at Heddon Banks, near 
Heddon-on-the-Wall, and entered the Heddon colliery office, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. During his intervals of leisure he pursued with unremit- 
ting energy the historical studies in which he had become interested at 
Cambridge. He soon began to make a special study of the castles in 
which our county is so rich, and the result of his labours was given 
to the world in 1891 in his well-known work on ' Border Holds,' 
which forms the fourteenth volume of the Archaeologia Aeliana. Un- 
happily, only the first volume of this admirable history of Northum- 
brian castles was ever published. He fully intended to write a second 
volume, but other literary employment intervened, and now the work, 
interesting and valuable as it is, must for ever remain a fragment. 

Another visible memorial of the interest inspired in him by the 
ruined fortresses of his native county is furnished by his restoration 
of Langley castle, near Haydon Bridge, which after his father's death 
he bought from the trustees of Greenwich hospital in 1882, and 
with the assistance of Mr. Hodgson Fowler, architect, of Durham, 
converted into a stately dwelling-house, sufficiently furnished with all 
modern comforts. 

Being invited by Mr. Elliot Stock the publisher to write the volume 
on Northumberland for his series of county histories, he accepted the 
invitation and gave the labour of not less than two years to that 
unpretentious production. The very narrow limits within which, by 
the law of the series, he was confined made this a somewhat uncongenial 
task, and parts of the book have certainly suffered from the severe 



180 OBITUARY KOTICE OF ME. 0. J. BATBS, 

compressioii to which it has been subjected ; bat no student who uses 
it will fail to recognize with gratitude the vast amount of patient and 
conscientious labour which has been bestowed in its composition. 

His next literary work was of a kind which snrpriaed many of 
his friends. From border castles and Northumbrian chroniders he 
turned aside to compile the pedigrees of cattle. ^ Thomas Bat$s omd 
the Kirklevington Short-horns : a Contribution to the History of pure 
Durham CatOoy by Cadwallader John Bates,* was published at New- 
castle in 1897. He felt that the true history of this important 
development of British farming had never been properly written, and 
having in his possession many unpublished letters oi his collateral 
ancestor, he decided on giving them to the world together with a 
detailed history of his life and exposition of his views on the science 
of cattle-breeding. Few things give one a more vivid impression of 
Mr. Bates's untiring industry and power of masteiing the most 
diflBcult subjects than this goodly octavo volume of more than 400 
pages, in which he discusses the points of short-horn cows as if he 
had been engaged in breeding them all his life and had never heard 
the names of Bede or of Simeon of Durham. His antiquarian friends 
can only ' stand fixed in mute amaze * when they hear him dilate on 
the excellencies of 'a combination of the Cambridge, Rose, and Duchess 
blood which resulted in some very showy level cows, rich reds and 
roans, with sweet, breedy heads and a deal of substance and good 
quality,' but he evidently knows what he is talking about and we can 
only wonder at the many-sidedness of the author. We read a letter 
from lord Althorp to Thomas Bates (16 Nov. 1820) beginning 'I 
arrived here last night and found His Grace arrived safe but not quite 
well, as he coughs a little,' and we think. Have we got back from 
cattle to human affairs, and are we among the statesmen of George 
IV.'s reign ? No. His Grace is a young bull, * a grand animal, the 
very image of his father Eetton, with that fine, fleecy coat that so 
remarkably distinguished the Duchess tribe.' 

Altogether a most marvellous production is this dissertation of 
our late vice-president on his great uncle's stock-book, yet we 
archdsologists may be excused for a sUght spasm of jealousy if it was 
this that deprived us of the completion of * Border Holds.* 

Having discharged this duty towards the Qiemory of his dead 



A VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 181 

ancestor, Mr* Bates turned back to Northumbrian history and, 
unless I have been wrongly informed, meditated the production of a 
book which was to deal with the earlier history of the North of 
England in far larger lines than the volume which he had published 
for Mr. Stock. 

He was thus brought face to face with that great ecclesiastical 
question which occupied so much of the time and thought of 
Northumbrian churchmen, till it was settled in 664 at the Synod of 
Whitby : I allude to the discussion as to the right season for the 
celebration of Easter, This question had also, perhaps, more than a 
mere archsBological interest for him, in consequence of his having 
recently joined the Church of Rome. However this may be, he 
devoted himself to it with characteristic thoroughness, plunged deep 
into the enquiry as to the accuracy of the rival Paschal cycles, and 
studied in connexion herewith the life and writings of Columbanus 
and other champions of the Celtic Easter. I believe this enquiry 
occupied at least a year of his literary life : and now that he has gone, 
it would be safe to say that there is no man living on this planet who 
is able to discuss it as thoroughly as he would have done. However 
completely the debate may have ' fallen dead,' even to ecclesiastics, 
it is much to be hoped that the result of his labours may not be 
altogether lost, and that the notes which he must have accumulated 
in the course of his studies may be in a fit state for publication. It 
is believed that St. Wilfrid was meant to be the central figure in the 
book which he proposed to write : but at the time of his death he 
was more specially concerned* with the life of St. Patrick, whose 
relation to the See of Rome on the one hand and to Celtic Christianity 
on the other had an important bearing on his researches. From 
some little correspondence which I had with him a few months ago I 
gathered that he entirely rejected the theory of Prof. Zimmer that 
St. Patrick's work in Ireland was rather the confutation of Pelagian 
heresy than the conversion of heathens and idolaters, and that, on the 
contrary, he was prepared stoutly to do battle on behalf of the old- 
fashioned description of that saint as the true ' Apostle of Ireland.' 
. All these far-reaching plans of historical work have now been 
rudely interrupted by his, as it seems to us, untimely death. As 
I have already said, it is believed that some portions of hi» papers are 



182 OBITUARY NOTICE OF MR. 0. J. BATES : 

in a state ready for publication, but at the best they will lack that 
final revision which, in the case of such a conscientious student so 
hard to satisfy, either with his own work or the work of others, would 
have meant so much. 

In this review of the labours of -our late vice-president, I have 
said nothing as to his connexion with the new County History of 
Northumberland. He took a warm interest in the scheme from the 
very outset, was present at the first meeting of the promoters, and 
during his year of office as sheriff of Northumberland (he repudiated 
with emphasis the title of high sheriff), he gave a dinner in the castle, 
Newcastle, to the leading gentlemen of the county in order to enlist 
their interest in the undertaking. I trust that in the preface to the 
next volume the editor will give a more detailed statement than I 
can do here as to his actual share in the composition of the history. 

I must here close a very inadequate sketch of the life and work 
of a most remarkable man, of one who, while engaging to some extent 
in commercial pursuits and taking his full share of the duties of 
public life, devoted himself with untiring patience to the study of the 
records of past ages and laboured after historic truth with a resolute 
thoroughness which would have seemed more characteristic of a 
German professor than an English country gentleman. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

(By Mb. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A.) 

1880. LiPiEC, or, A July in the Polish Highlands. 

1883. The Barony and Castle of Langley.* 

1885. Heddon-on-the-Wall — the Church and Parish.* 

1886. Three Papal Bulls confinnatory of the Possessions of the Riddells of 
Riddell.* 

1887. On the Armorial Devices attributed to the County of Northumber- 
land.* 

1889. The Dedications of the Ancient Churches and Chapels in the Diocese 
of Newcastle.* 

1891. Border Holds.* 

1892. Names of Persons and Places mentioned in the Early Lives of St. 
Cuthbert.* 

1892. Flodden Field.* 

1893. Bamburgh Castle. f 

1894. A Forgotten Reference to Roman Mile Castles.* 

1895. A History of Northumberland. 

1895. Dunstanborough Castle.t . v 



BIBLIOaRAPHY. 183 

1895. Architectiral Descriptions of the Towers at Embleton, Craster, Bock 
and Proctor Stead8.t 

1897. The Distance Slabs of the Antonine Wall and the Roman Names of 
its Fortresses.* 

1897. The Beornicas and the Deras.* 

1897. The Home of St. Cuthbert's Boyhood.* 

1897. The Early Swinbomes of East and West Swinburn.f 

1897. Nine-banks Tower.f 

1897. The De Insulas of Chipchase.f 

1897. Winwedfield : The Overthrow of English Paganism.* 

1897. Thomas Bates and the Eirkleyington Shorthorns. 

1898. Three additional Miracles ascribed to St. Acca of Hexham.* 

1899. The Brothers Colling.J 
1899. Warkworth Castle.t 
1899. Warkworth Hermit^ge.t 
1899. Life of St. Henry of Coquet.f 
1902. By well Castle.t 

1902. Edward ui. at Blanchland.t 

1902. St. Patrick's Early Home.|| 

1902. Introduction to the Report of the Pedigree Stock Committee, and 
sections of the Preface dealing with the Chillingham Cattle, the Haggerston 
Bisons, and with Shorthorns. § 

In addition to the above many short papers and notes have appeared in the 
ProeeediTigs of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, which see. 



* Printed in the Archaeologia Aeliana. 

t Contributions to the new Rigtory of Northumberland^ several of which 
accounts were re-written from chapters in ' Border Holds.' 

X Printed in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 

II Printed in the Ushaw Magazine, 

§ Journal of the Newcastle Farmers* Club, 



184 



IX.— EXTRACTS PROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 
RELATING PRINCIPALLY TO THE NORTH 
OP ENGLAND. 

By P. W. Dendy, V.P. 

[Read on the 27th Nov. 190L] 

The king had formerly three seals : (1) magnum sigillum, the Great 
Seal ; (2) parvum sigillum, the Little or Petit Seal ; (8) signettuniy 
the Signet. 

The Great Seal was and still is in the custody of the Lord 
Chancellor ; the Little Seal, afterwards called the Privy Seal, was in 
the custody of the Clerk of the Privy Seal, who was sometimes called 
Keeper of the Privy Seal, and is now known as the Lord Privy Seal. 

The Privy Seal is the seal appended to grants which are afterwards 
to pass the Great Seal, and to documents of minor importance which 
do not require the Great Seal. Until 1851 the use and custody of 
the seals was regulated by a statute passed in 1586 (27 Henry viii., 
c. xi.) which provided that documents requiring to be sealed with the 
Great Seal, such as letters patent for the grant of appointments to 
office under the Crown, of patents of invention, charters, naturaliza- 
tions, pensions, creations of honours, pardons, licences in mortmain, 
etc., were to pass by Warrant from the Clerk of the Signet to the 
Clerk of the Privy Seal, and under Warrant from the Clerk of the 
Privy Seal to the Lord Chancellor as Keeper of the Great Seal. In 
practice they passed from the Signet Office to the Privy Seal Office 
in the form of signet bills verified by the Signet Seal and the 
signature of the Clerk of the Signet. These signet bills were the 
warrant for the Privy Seal ; and on the Privy Seal being attached to 
them they were forwarded to the Lord Chancellor, by whom the 
patents were engrossed and completed in the office of the Great Seal. 

In 1851 a statute was passed (14 and 15 Vict. c. 82) abolishing 
the previously existing offices of Clerk of the Signet and Clerk of the 



EXTRACTS PROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS. 185 

Privy Seal and making simpler regulations for attaching the Privy 
Seal and the Great Seal to documents requiring to be sealed with 
either or both of thdse seala 

A docket is an abstract, a digest, or a minute containing the effect 
of a larger instrument in writing. The Privy Seal dockets were 
written upon the warrants and copied into Docket Books, which 
present, in the form of a register or journal, short abstracts of all 
instruments that were prepared for the Privy Seal. The Return from 
the Privy Seal Office in 1800, published in the first report on Public 
Records, states that ' the only books of entry which are kept in the 
above office are called Docquet Books with their respective Indexes. 
These books contain abstracts of all grants and appointments of what 
nature soever which pass through the said office with their dates, 
commencing from July, 1571, and contijiue in regular succession 
down to the present time with the exception of two periods, viz. : in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign from September, 1580, to March, 1600, and 
in the reigns of Charles i. and ii., from July, 1646, to June, 1660.' 

The Returns of the same date from the Signet Office also mention 
docket books from January, 1584, to 1800, with some few chasms 
therein, particularly from March, 1596, to April, 1608, and from 
June, 1645-6 ( ? Jan.), to June, 1660, with Indexes. 

There are two sets of Privy Seal dockets. From those known as 
the Home Office Privy Seal Dockets extracts were made, probably by 
Mr. Surtees, relating to the North of England, and the MS. containing 
them, which formerly belonged to the late Canon Raine, has come 
into my possession. The dockets form calendars to the Privy 
Seals themselves, which are for the most part at the Record Office, and 
there are of course still in existence under the same custody the 
Patent Bolls of documents under the Great Seal for the same period. 

The Privy Seal dockets have never been printed and it is doubtful 
whether they ever will be. The Patent Rolls for the same period will 
be calendared and printed in due course. Until they are so, the 
entries in these extracts will be useful for reference, and even after the 
Patent Rolls have been so calendared there will be some entries of 
transactions which passed under the Privy Seal alone and did not also 
pass under the Great Seal and so into the Patent Roll, and the 
extracts will still remain a useful record of those entries. 

VOL. XXIV. 24 



186 EXTBACT8 PROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

The extracts in the MS. are not strictly consecntive in date. 
Finding on inquiry through an agent at the Becord Office that the 
MS. was to some extent incomplete, I have had a copy of it collated 
with the originals, partly at my own expense and partly at that of 
the society. Further information on the subject of the Privy Seal 
records will be found in Mr. Scargill Bird's valuable Ouide to the 
Public Record Office^ 2nd edition, p. 291. 

EXTRACTS. 

July, 1571. — Pardon of all manner of rebellions, &c., to Anthony Welbury, 
gentleman, at the request of the earl of Leicester. 

August, 1571.— Lease of 31 years of the capital house of Owton, in the 
bishopric of Durham, and lands, the possession of Robert Lambert, attainted of 
treason, to William Knolles, gentleman pensioner, without fine ; rent, £33 6s. 8d. 

July, 1609. — Grant to Robert Brandling, esquire, and his heirs, of the site of 
Newminster monastery ; rent, £14 16s. 

March, 1601. — Lease of 21 years to Marmaduke Blakeston, clerk, of her 
Majesty's two parts of the manor of Blakeston, parcel of the possessions of sir 
Wm. Blaxton, recusant ; rent, £260 6s. ; fine, 20s. 

14 May, 1601. — Warrant to the Exchequer to allow £200 yearly aboye the 
accustomed fees unto Samuel Saltonstall for exercising of the office of collector 
of petty customs in the Port of London, as sir Richard his father or Thomas 
Phillips and Richard Yong enjoyed the same during his Majesty's pleasure. 

February, 1571. — Wardship of George, earl of Cumberland, granted to 
Francis, earl of Bedford. 

Wardship of Richard Butler to Martin Wright. 

Wardship of Robert Swyft to Francis Wortley. 

A lease of the mill near the castle of Raby, and of the grange and certain 
lands in Leyerston, to Thomas Harris for 21 years ; rent, £15 6s. 8d. ; fine, 
£15 6s. 8d. 

March, 1572. — Pardon to Robert Claxton of all manner of treasons, at the 
request of the earl of Leicester. 

May, 1572.-- Lease of lands in Cleisby for 21 years, Qnashton and other 
places in the counties of York, Lancaster, and Durham, to John Erington ; rent, 
£27 10s. 2d. 

]572. — Lease to Henry Gary, gentleman, of the herbage and pannage of the 
great and little park of Topcliffe, late parcel of the lands of the late earl of 
Northumberland ; rent, £25 Ss. 4d. ; during pleasure, and also grant of the 
keeping of the said parks. 

1672. — Lease for 21 years of the site of the manor of Whitworth, with 
appurtenances, in the bishopric of Durham, to sir Christopher Payton [«<?], 
knight ; rent, 106s. 8d. ; fine, £21 6s. 8d. 

1572, — Pardon to John Carnaby convicted of the late rebellion in the north. 

September, 1572.— Lease for 21 years of a messuage and lands in Harrington 
and OflEerton, and of the site of the manor of Bsshe, in the county of Durham, 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 187 

parcel of the lands of Wm. Smythe, attainted, to Thomas Gierke ; consideration, 
£44 158. ; fine with increase of 638. 4d. ; rent per annum, £22 6s. 6d. 

November, 1572.— Grant of the manors of Bradley and Scruton and certain 
lands and tenements in Rogerley. Frosterley, Sonneysale, Blackbancke, and 
Dribomside, counties of York and Durham, to sir George Bowes, knight, paying 
yearly, &c. [not expressed], 

December, 1672. — Lease for 21 years of the capital tenement and water mill 
and divers parcels in Nunstaynton, within the bishopric of Durham, late of 
William Smythe, attainted, to Robert Bowes ; rent, £49 ; and after the death 
of Rosamond, now wife of Elias Markham, late wife of Robert Smith, father of 
William, the yearly rent to be £66 and 338. 4d. yearly to the dean of Durham; 
fine, £50. 

A gift of a tenement in Walworth, in the bishopric of Durham, of the 
yearly value of £10, to John Case, gentleman, one of the captains of Berwick, 
and his heirs for ever. 

January, 1572. — Lease of the head house and site of the mansion of Leiton, 
in the bishopric of Durham, to Thomas Cotton, one of the gentlemen pensioners, 
for 21 years ; rent, £80 and no fine, because the rent is increased from £12 to £80. 

February, 1572. — Lease for 21 years of certain lands in Cowton, Grenebery, 
South Cowton and North Cowton in Yorkshire, for sir George Bowes, knight, in 
consideration of services ; rent, £15 8s. 9d. ob. ; fine, £61 16s. 2d. 

Lease for 21 years of certain lands in Eldon and Woodlande, in the bishopric 
of Durham, to John Cruys, gentleman ; rent, £35 193. 9d. 

Lease of lands in Newsham, Ingerthorpe, Monkton, Montby Mayns, Wood- 
howse, etc., in Yorkshire, to Henry Brakenbury, gentleman usher, for 21 years ; 
rent, £33 6s. 8d. ; fine, £50 in consideration of service. 

June, 1573. — Lease for 21 years of the herbage and pannage of Raby to John 
Holdich ; rent, £80 14s. 8d. ; fine, £70 14s. 8d. only upon consideration of an 
increase of rent of £10. 

June, 1573. — Lease to Barnard Dowthwait and others, of two parks, divided 
into five, of three parks of Raby called the East, Middle, and West Parks, and 
of two parts into five parts divided of divers lands in the bishopric of Durham ; 
rent, £28 Ss. 4d. ; fine, £113 Os. ]2d. For 21 years. 

February, 1573. — Lease of the capital messuage of Hardwych, in the 
bishopric of Durham, for 21 years ; rent, £ 1 5 without fine ; to George Frevell. 

February, 1573[-4].— The Queen of Scots hath remained in the earl of 
Shrewsbury's custody from Candlemas day in the 11th year of the Queen's 
Majesty to I5th February, 1573, which is five whole years, one month and two 
weeks, and after £52 the week it is £13,624. 

March, 1573[-4]. — ^An erection of a grammar school and almshouse in Kepier, 
in county Durham, granted at the petition of John Keith, esquire, and Barnard 
Gilpyn, parson of Houghton-in-le-Spring, in the said county with licence to 
receive in mortmain for the maintenance thereof the value of £50 per annum. 

May, 1673 [#ic, sed quere mistake for 1574]. — Lease of the site of the manor 
of Chopwell, with the herbage and pannage of certain woods there, in the 
bishopric of Durham, to John Ward for 21 years ; rent, £35 ; fine, 100 marks. 

February, 1674[-5]. — ^An exchange of the manor of Barnes and other lands in 
the bishopric of Durham to the value of £129 lis. lid., made by Robert Bowes, 



188 iiXTRACTS FROM THE PRIVY feEAL DOCKETS 

etiquire, in recompense of which and in consideration that he has paid into the 
receipt of the exchequer £67 I7s. O^d. he has of the Queen's Majesty of the lands 
following as parcel of the possessions of the rebels, viz., Owton, Seton, Oldhall, 
Knitesley, Westhall, Whickham, Westburen, Preston-upon-Skeme, Castle Eden, 
Westmurton, Oldacre and Hurworth, in the county of Durham ; Sallej Estharle- 
seye, Murton Grange, Walton, Heade, Lathley, Farmeley and Gargrave, in the 
county of York ; Druryes in the county of Suffolk ; all which parcels amount to 
the yearly value of £138 18s. Id. 

March, 1674-6. — Incorporation of Sherburne hospital, in the bishopric of 
Durham, which heretofore has been incorporated by the bishops of Durham and 
by them founded. Because doubt and question has been moved whether the 
bishops of Durham had power to incorporate the same. It is now sought by 
her Majesty's letters patent to make the same incorporation profit [? perfect] 
and further that they may enjoy all the lands which heretofore they enjoyed 
as belonging to the said hospital. 

September, 1574. — Re-admission of Henry Butler, draper, into the fellowship 
of the Merchant Adventurers, with freedom he lost for marrying Jane Sel- 
volden, born in Aritwerpe. 

1675. — Lease to Ralph Conyers of the capital tenement of Leighton, in the 
bishopric of Durham, for 21 years ; rent, £24 IBs. 4d. and no fine in considera- 
tion of the surrender of Thomas Cotton's old lease of the premises bearing date 
18 February last. 

2nd Volume, March, 1600-1601. 

6 May, 1601. — Lease for three lives, that is to Elizabeth Mompasson, late 
wife of John Alford, esquire, Richard Mompasson, esquire, and Henry Alford, 
esquire, son of the said Elizabeth, successively of the rectory and chapel of 
Sutton, and of the site of the college or mansion house of the late collegiate 
church of Sutton, in the county of York; rent, £29 19s. 4d. ; fine, 408. 

Annuity of £200 to be paid out of the profits arising under Statutes 23 and 
28 Elizabeth concerning recusants, to Henry Sanderson of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne for life, in consideration of the surrender of a lease of recusants' lands. 

Commission to the archbishop of Canterbury, the lord treasurer of England, 
and others, authorizing them to review, re-examine, reforme and finally to 
determine a pretended contract of matrimonie and a former sentence thereupon 
given between sir Cuthbert Collingwood, late of Eppleden, in Durham, knight, 
deceased, and Meryall Cleasby, now wife to Thomas Stockton, of county York, 
gentleman, at the suite of George Collingwood, one of the sones of the said sir 
Cuthbert, and Robert Collingwood, nephew by the sone and heire of the same 
sir Cuthbert, being her Majestie's ward and whom the cause chiefly concerneth. 

A commission to Mr. Secretary Herbert and others to receive and examine a 
cause in controversie betwixt William Colmer, John and Ambrose Colmor, 
concerning the pretended will of Joane Warde, widow, mother of the said 
William, for that a judicial sentence being first given for William, was after- 
wards reversed and judgment given for the other two, whereupon William 
appealing to her Majesty obtained this commission of review. 

A lease by the commissioners to Raphe Downes of two parts of a messuage 
called Harberhouse and of other parcels of the possessions of Thomas Forcer, ' 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 180 

recusant, and of two parts of the manor of Hardwick, parcell of the lands of 
Robert Mayer, recusant, for 21 years if it shall so long continue in her 
Majesty's hands ; rent, per annum, £31 7s. lOd. and part of a halfpenny ; fine, lOs. 

December, 1601. — Pardon granted to Margaret Norton, wife of John Norton, 
of Lamesley, in the bishopric of Durham, yeoman, for receiving of Thomas 
Palliser, a seminarie priest. 

April, 1602. — Lease made by the commissioners to James Thetcher, John 
Bellingham and Thomas Carrill of the chief messuage called Munsteynton 
Hall, alias Nunsteynton, with the appurtenances, in the bishopric of Durham, 
for 21 years ; rent in the whole, £66 13s. 4d. ; fine, £60. 

April, 1602. — Lease made by the commissioners for 21 years unto sir William 
Bvers, knight, and Katherine his wife, of the demesne lands of Barnard castle 
and of the herbage of Broad Parke and Colt Parke, and other lands belonging 
to the lordship of Barnard castle, in the bishopric of Durham ; rent, £50 9s. 8d. ; 
fine, £100 19s. 4d. 

May, 1602. — Lease to Marmaduke Blackstone, clerk, of two parts of the 
manor of Blackston and other manors, messuages, and hereditaments in 
Dameton and otherwhere within the county and bishopric of Durham, which 
lands are one William Blackston's, a recusant, for 21 years ; yearly rent, 
£260 68. ; fine, 10s. 

July, 1602. — Pardon granted to Rowland Houghton, gentleman, for a roberie 
by him committed on George Helme and John Durham in the county of 
Lancashire. 

May, 1603. — Licence to his Majestie's servants, Lawrence Fletcher, William 
Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Augustine Phillips, John Henninges, Henry 
Condell, William Sly, Robert Armin, Richard Cowley, and the rest of their 
associates to exercise the art of playing comedies, tragedies, histories, interludes, 
morals, pastorals, stage plays and such like in all towns and the universities 
when the infection of the plague shall decease [sic']. 

June, 1603. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay to sir William Bowes, 
treasurer of Berwick, or to his assigns, the sum of £1,000 for supply of his 
receipt to be made of £4,000 due at the feast of the Annunciation of the Virgin 
Mary last past, and so to continue yearly during his Majestie*s pleasure. And 
for £1,000 more to the said sir William Bowes, the 8ame having been paid into 
the receipt of the exchequer by the receiver of Yorkshire by order given him in 
that behalf for the better accomplishment of his payments due to the said 
garrison at the above said feast for half a year with other clauses of payments 
contained in this warrant. 

June, 1603. — A joint patency granted to Thomas Thursby and Cuthbert 
Thursby his son of the keeping of a park in Yorkshire called WoUes park, parcel 
of Barnard castle; fee per annum, £4 lis. 8d. on surrender of the father's 
letters patent. 

June, 1603. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto the lady Arbella, or to 
such person as she shall authorise under hand in writing to receive the same 
the sum of 100 marks for her present relief, of his Majesty's free gift. 

September, 1603.— A pardon for John Worthington for killing of one George 
Brokenbury. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. 

October, 1603.— A warrant to the exchequer to pay to Edmond Nevill of 



190 EXTRACTS FROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

Latimer, commonly called earl of Westmoreland, or to his assigns, yearly the 
sum of £600 daring his Majestie's pleasure, at the feasts of the Annnnciation 
and St. Michaell the Archangel by even portions to be paid. 

December, 1603. — The office of constable of the castle of Brancepath and 
keeping of the garden there in the bishopric of Durham, with the fee of 
£16 6s. 8d. per annum, granted to Henry Saunderson and Samuell his son for 
their two lives on surrender of a former patent, thereof granted by the 
late queen to the said Henry Saunderson. 

January, 1603. — An annuity of £200 per annum to Henry Saunderson the 
father, and Samuell Saunderson his son, and the longer liver of them to be 
taken out of his Majestie's customs of Newcastle-upon-Twyde [sic]. 

January, 1603. — A grant of the office of palister of the east park, west 
park, and middle park, within the bishopric of Durham, to Lawrence Trotter 
for life with the yearly fee of 30s. 4d., and other allowances and profits 
incident thereto. 

February, 1603. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay Greorge Bowes, esqaire, 
appointed to worke for certaine mineralls in Winlock water in Scotland and 
the hills and cleves thereabout, the sum of £300 towards the same workes, 
whereof £100 to be paid in hand and the next according to such somes as he 
from time to time shall thinke fitt to demand and the lord treasurer allow. 

February, 1603. — A receivershipp of the revenues of Northumberland and 
the bishopric of Durham for John Lyons during his life upon surrender of 
William Clepton, with the yearly fee of £60 and £20 for portage of every 
hundred pound. 

June, 1602.— A lease in reversion for sir Robert Carey, knight, for term of 
21 years, to begin after his decease, of the keeping of the castle of Norham in the 
bishopric of Durham, and of sundry lands and hereditaments thereto belonging, 
paying for the same the accustomed yearly rent of £68, with provisoes as well 
for the safe keeping of the said castle as of the artillery and munition therein. 
And if he die, his heire being under age, then her Majestie to appoint a keeper 
of the same castle during the minority of the said heire, and the executors of 
the said sir Robert to allow £40 yearly to the said keeper for the said terme. 

June, 1604. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay to the earl of Northampton 
yearly during the life of Margaret Nevill, eldest daughter of Charles, earl of 
Westmoreland, attainted in the late quene's time, a pension of 100 marks to her 
use as an enlardgment of a former pension of £60, and to her the said Margaret 
Nevill the like sum of 100 marks yearly during her life to be paid quarterly, 
with a proviso that her former pension of £50 do cease. And further to pay to 
Katherine and Anne, two other of the daughters of the said earle, the like 
annuity of 200 markes to each of them, and to the ladie Adeline Nevill, sister 
to the said earle, £50 yearly during their lives from the feast of St. John Baptist. 

April, 1604.— The keeping of Mar wood hagge chase in the bishopric of 
Durham, and of the woods there with the bailiwick and coUectorship of the 
rents in Marwood, granted to Robert Rimes and Francis Rimes for term of their 
lives, with the fee of £3 Os. 8d. per annum upon surrender of a former patent 
thereof granted unto Nicholas Rimes during pleasure. 

May, 1604.— Pardon fbr Reynold Heron, gentleman, for burning the house of 
John Lilburne, gentleman, in county Durham, and carrying away certaine 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 191 

goods with diyeis others, being the principals of these offences and before 
pardoned. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general by order from sir Thomas Lake. 

May, 1604. — Joynt patentcy for Brian Simpson and Thomas Simpson, 
gentlemen, of the keepershippe of the west parke of Raby, and of the middle 
park of Raby, in the bishopric of Durham, with all fees and comodotles there- 
unto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general by order for the lord Cecil. 

June, 1604. — A warrant to the exchequer for a remission to sir William 
Ewre, knight, and others, as well of certain fines imposed on them in the Star 
Chamber as of a recognizance of £400 for payment of £203 6s. 8d., parcell of 
the said fynes dated at Greenwich, the 2nd of June ; procured by sir Thomas 
Windebank. 

June, 1604. — Pardon for John Vasey, being indicted with others for burning 
the house of John Lilburne, gentleman, in the bishopric of Durham. 

June, 1604. — Pension of £184 13s, 4d. per annum for sir William Selby, 
knight, late gentleman porter of the town of Berwick, during his life, the first 
payment thereof to begin at the birth of our Lord God last past. 

July, 1604. — Pardon for William Coniers, gentleman, for killing of Henry 
Briggs at Flashe Greene, in county Durham. 

July, 1604. — Pardon to Robert Heron, Robert Ramsay, John Swynebome, 
and Walter Heron, for burning the house of John Lilburne, gentleman, at East 
Thickley, in the county of Durham. 

October, 1604.— A warrant to the exchequer to deliver unto George Bowes, 
esquire, being employed for discovery of gold mines in Scotland, the sum of 
£200 towards his charges. 

December, 1604. — A grant for the erection of a gramar schoole in North 
Auckland, to consist of a master and usher and schollars, with an incorporation 
of 12 governors of the same, and licence to purchase lands in mortmain of Anne 
Swifte, widow, at whose sute it is granted. 

December, 1604. — ^A pencion of 100 markes per. annum during the life of 
Margaret Pudsay, one of the daughters of the late earl of Westmoreland, and 
two other pencions of 200 marks per annum for Katherine Gray and Ann 
Ingleby, two other daughters of the said earl, with a pencion of £50 per annum 
for Adeline Nevill, one of the sisters of the said earle, during her life, all to 
begin from midsummer last and to be paid by the receiver of Yorkshire if they 
so desire it. 

December, 1606. — A grant in fee farm made unto Henry Stanley and John 
Standish and their heirs, in consideration of the service of sir Henry Goodier, 
knight, of the rectory of Hart in the bishopric of Durham, and of other 
rectories and tenths in the counties of Northumberland, York, Northampton, 
and others, of the yearly rent of £55. 

December^ 1605.— Discharge granted to Phillipp Calverley, widow, late 
wife of Walter Calverley, and to Henry Calverley her son, being his Majestie*8 
warde, of the some of £840, due to the late queen by reason of the recusancy of 
William Calverley, grandfather to the said Henry, and of the seisures and 
extents made upon the lands descended to the said Henry, in respect that the 
said Walter in his lifetime, and also the said Phillipp and Henry, are con- 
formable in religion. 

March, 1605.— A licence granted to sir Bevis Bulmer, knight, in consideration 



192 EXTRACTS FROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

of his great labor and charges in devising a new engine by waterworke for 
cutting iron into small redds, for the sole and only using of the said engine for 
twelve years. 

June, 1606. — A pardon for Charles Middleton, gentleman, for the man- 
slaughter of John Price, who was noted to be a man of a dissolute life. 

July, 1606.— Annuity of £200 granted to sir William Dethick, knight, from 
Christmas last during his life, in regard of a surrender of his office of garter 
principal king at arms, with power to enjoy all his former privileges notwith- 
standing the surrender. 

July, 1606. — Pardon for John Vasy of Newlands, in the county of Durham, 
gentleman, for assembling with twenty others unlawfully and burning the house 
of John Lilburne. 

September, 1606. — The deanery of Durham void by the promotion of doctor 
James to the bishopric there, granted to Adam Newton, esquire, tutor to the 
prince. 

September, 1606.— A dispensation for the said Adam Newton to hold the 
said deanery notwithstanding he be not minister nor resident upon the same, so 
as he appoint one of the prebends there to be his sufficient procurator. 

September, 1606.— A licence granted to sir Jerome Bowes, knight, that he, 
his executors and assigns, may make drinking glasses and other glasses in Eng- 
land and Ireland like unto such as are made at Morano, in reversion after a 
licence thereof made by the late queen for term of his life and three years after, 
and if he die before the expiration of the former licence, then for three years 
after the determination thereof, paying therefor the accustomed rent of 100 
marks. Recommended by the lords of the council. 

October, 1606.— A grant to sir Francis Anderson, knight, and William 
Anderson, esquire, and their heirs in fee farm of divers rectories and tithes, 
amounting to the yearly value of £68 5s. lOd., being parcel of the value given 
by his Majesty to the duke of Lenox. 

December, 1606. — Pension of £200 per annum granted to Adam Newton, 
school master to the prince, and to Katharine his wife, during their lives. 

March, 1606.— Warrant to the Exchequer to pay to sir Raphe Gray, knight, 
or to Thomas Middleton, of London, linen draper, or his assignee, the sum of 
£400, whereof presently £200, and £200 on 1st June next, the said sum of 
£400 to be by the said sir Raphe Gray paid over to the chancellor of Scotland, 
and by him to be issued for payment of workmen employed about the gold 
mines there. Dated at Westminster, the 26th March, 1607. 

March, 1606.— A lease upon surrender to Thomas Craggs and Nicholas Hall 
to the use of the teuantes of certaine grounds, tenements, and cottages in 
Elwich, parcell of the manor of Brancepeth, in the bishopric of Durham, for 
term of 40 years' rent per annum. £33 8s. 4d. and £16 12s. for the price of two 
oxen and two sheep for provision of his Majestie*s house. Fine £167 10s« Sub- 
scribed by the commissioners. 

May, 1607.— A warrant to the exchequer to pay to sir William Selby, knight, 
captain of his Majesty's castle of Tynemouth, in the county of Northumberland, 
the sum of £220, in full satisfaction for certain works and reparations by him 
caused to be done about the said castle. 

May, 1607.— Pardon granted to Thomas Orde, gentleman, for the man- 



RBLATnsrO CHIEFLY TO THE NOBTH OF BN(!^LAND. J 98 

slaughter of Gkorge Whitfield, gentleman. Subscribed by sir John Crooke and 
sir Francis Bacon. 

Deeember, 1607. — Pardon for robberie granted to John Hilton, late of 
Bonrton, eoonty Westmoreland. 

March, 1607-8.— Lease granted to Ambrose Dudley, gentleman, for the term 
of 21 years, of the site and demesnes of the manor of Chopwell, in the county of 
Durham, and other lands in Chopwell whereof he had a former lease from the 
late queen, upon an extent thereof taken for the debt of sir Robert Constable to 
the said queen, which lease he was to hold so long as the said lands should 
continue in the hands of the said Queen, her heirs or successors, for satisfaction 
of the said debt, paying therefor for the said former lease £26 lis. 4d., being 
the yearly yalue which the said lands were found to be of, besides the fee farm 
of £21 yearly payable out of the same to the said queen, her heirs and 
successors for ever, which the said Dudley was also to pay. And now the said 
Dudley is to pay to his Majesty during the said 21 years, as well the fee farm 
rent of £21, as £26 lis. 4d. reserved upon his said former lease. It is also a 
lease unto him for 21 years of certain coal mines within the said lordship of 
Chopwell, whereof he had a former lease from his Majesty for 40 years, paying 
for the first pit £6, and for every other pit where coals shall be digged there 
£10 yearly as he was to pay by his said former lease. 

January, 1607-8. Pardon for robbing on the highway granted tct^^omas 
Musgrave of Craven, the son of sir Richard Musgrave, knight. 

November, 1608. — Pardon granted to Jane Collingwood, wife of . George 
Collingwood, esq., for the receiving, comforting, and maintaining of Francis 
Stafferton, a seminary priest in her house, and extendeth not to pardon any 
lands or goods. 

November, 1608. — Grant of the manor of Chopwell, in the bishopric of 
Durham, to sir William Constable, knight, and his heirs, paying therefor to 
his Majesty the ancient rent of £21, which sir Robert Constable, late lieutenant 
of the ordnance of the late queen did pay, and the rent of £26 13s. 4d., at which 
the said manor was extended for his debt to the said queen, in all £47 ISs. 4d. 
by the year. There is excepted out of the grant the woods called Bastwood, 
Moreclose Deane, and the Carres, and the soil and the herbage of the same 
woods. And his Majesty granteth that sir William May shall have sufficient 
wood out of the premises for the timbering of the coal mines demised by his 
Majetty to Ambrose Dudley for 21 years in such sort as the said Dudley may do. 

November, 1608. — Protection for Francis Dacres, sone and heir of the late 
lord Dacres, to endure for one whole year. 

December, 1608. — Grant to Thomas Jenyson at the suite and nominacion of 
sir John Asheley, knight, of certain goods of William Jenyson, recusant, 
amounting to £5 6s. 8d. A third part thereof, being 85s. 7d., is already paid 
into his Majesty's receipt, and also a demise of his Majestie*s two parts of the 
moiety of the manor of Walworth and other lands in Woodham and elsewhere 
in the county of Durham, of the yearly value of £19 16s. 7d. for his highnesses 
2 parts for 41 years, paying yearly £6 lis. lid., being a third part of his 
Majesty's said two parts. 

January, 1608.--Grant to Thomas Salvyn, esquire (at the suit of Thomas 
Gonnes, gentleman), of the goods of Raphe Rookby, esquire, in consideration 

VOL. XXIV. «" 



194 EXTRACTS FBOM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

that there i^ already paid into the exchequer the sum of £3 6s. 8d., being a third 
part of the yalne of the said goods. And also a demise of his Majesty's two 
parts of the manor of Vreby, rectory of Marske, and divers lands and tenements 
to the said manor and rectory belonging in the county of York, and of two 
parts of certain lands and tenements in Marske aforesaid, Bedcar and 
Upletham, in the said county, for 41 years, if they shall so long remain in his 
Majesty's hands by means of the recusancy of the said Rookby, for which 
there is yearly reseryed to his Majesty a third part of the yearly value of his 
highness*s said two parts, that is to say the yearly rent of £2 19s. 3d. ob. 

May, 1609. — Grant or restitution to George Smith, the eldest son of William 
Smith, and to his heirs, of the fee simple of the manor or grange of Nunstaynton, 
with the appurtenances, and divers other lands in Nunstainton and elsewhere in 
the county of Durham, late the possessions of the said William Smith attainted^ 
in consideration of £200 paid to his Majestic. 

July, 1609. — Grant to Robert Brandling, esquire, and his heirs, in fee simple, 
of the site of the late monastery of t^ewminster, in the county of Northumber- 
land, and certain demesne lands and tenements thereto belonging, being of the 
clear yearly value of £14 16s., for which he hath already paid £1,000, and is 
done by virtue of his Majesty's commission for sale of lands. 

June, 1610. — A grant of release to Christopher Athy, the younger, of the lands 
extended in the time of the late queene for the recusancie of Christopher Athy, 
the elder, he being the next heir of the said recusant and conformable in 
religion. And is done by virtue of the Commission as aforesaid. 

December, 1610. — Grant to the master and brethren of saint Edmond's 
hospital in Gateside, in the bishopric of Durham, to be newly founded by the 
name of the hospital of king James in Gateside, and granteth to them all such 
lands and possessions as they have quietly enjoyed for 60 years past, the former 
charters being lost, and containeth such further grants and articles for the said 
hospital as have been thought fit. 

May, 1610. — Confirmacion of all lands and possessions to Shirburn hospital, 
consisting of a master and thirteen poor brethren. [Record not found.] 

May, 1611. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay to the mayor and bailiffs 
and burgesses of the town of Berwick, or their assigns, for building of a stone 
bridge over the river of Tweed there, the sum of £8,000, in form following, 
videlicet, £2,000 for the works to be done this year, including the sum of £784 
lis. 9d. already due for provisions and workmanship, towards the building of 
the said bridge, and £2,000 yearly afterwards or more, at the discretion of the 
lord treasurer and chancellor of the exchequer, until the said sum of £8,000 be 
fully satisfied, whereof they are to give an account. 

April, 1611.— Grant in fee farm to Robert Brrington and Timothy Draper 
,and their heirs, of the coal-mines within the lordship of Denton, county 
Northumberland, at the petition of the tenants there ; rent, £30 per annum ; 
fine, £900. 

January, 1610. — The office of master and keeper of all the forests, chaces, 
parks, and warrens, within the lordship of Barnards castle, granted to Talbot 
Bowes and Thomas Bowes, for term of their lives and of the longer liver of them, 
with the office of steward of the same lordshipp and constable and porter of the 
same castle, with the usual fees thereto belonging, which said offices were 



&«LA1?1N(^ CttlEB^LY tO THE KORTH Of ftNGtiANt). 198 

heietofore granted by king Phillip and queen Mary unto Gteorge Bowes and 
William Bowes, esquire, now knight, during their lives, which said Qeorge 
Bowes is sithence deceased, and the said sir William Bowes now enjoyith the 
same by force of letters patent from king Phillip and queen Mary, in revercion 
after the said sir William Bowes. 

July, 1611. — Pardon for Robert Salby, gentleman, who stands condemned for 
stealing divers parcels of goods of the lord of Roxborough, which was discovered 
upon his own confession, and this his first offence. 

July, 1611. — Grant to Frances, now wife of William Anderton, and to Anne, 
now wife of Henry Sherborne, being daughters of Francis Dacres, esquire, of 
two several pensions of £50 each per annum, during their lives, and a like 
pension of £50 per annum for Thomas Gray at the suit of Blizabeth, one other 
of the daughters of the said Francis Dacres, during the life of the said Blizabeth. 
To b^in from the determination of three like annuities formerly granted 
unto them during his Majesty's pleasure. 

November, 1611. — Grant to William Olopton, esquire, and to his heirs, in fee 
simple, of a pension of £3 per annum, issuing out of the parsonage of Melf ord, 
in Suffolk, and of certain tithes in Melford aforesaid, valued at 208. per annum, 
for which he hath paid £28, being seven years* fine. There is also reserved to 
his Majesty a yearly rent or tenth of d2s. Id. ob. per annum, with a tenure by 
knight*s service in chief. And is done by virtue of his Majesty's commission for 
defective titles. 

December, 1611.— A grant to Thomas Calverley and John Calverley and 
their heirs in fee farm of the manor of Erytholme, with the appurtenances in 
the county of York, valued at £39 9s. lid. yearly. For which they have paid 
to his Majesty £157 19s. 8d., being 4 years' fine, and 18s. for a rent resolute to 
the castle of Richmond, are herein reserved to his Majesty, with a tenure of 
knight's service in chief. And is done by virtue of the commission for defective 
titles. 

October, 1612. — Grant to Ohristopher Fulthorpe and his heirs of the moiety 
of the manor of Tunstall in the bishopric of Durham, and of the moiety of a 
thiid part of a cottage, and of 4 acres of meadow in Bontofte in the said 
bishopric, and of certain lands and tenements in Thrislington in the said 
bishopric, rated, together by the particular thereof, at the yearly value of £13 
9s., for which there is paid into the exchequer the sum of £80 14s. Subscribed 
by the commissioners for defective titles. 

February, 1617. — ^A warrant to the exchequer to pay to John Tunstall 
(appointed to go the electrice at Hildebergh) the som of £100 to be given to 
nurses and midwives there, and £250 towards his charges in his journey, and 
such other sums as the lord chamberlain shall signify to have been necessarily 
expended in that journey. 

March, 1617-18. — The mastership of the Savoy, void by the surrender of 
Walter Balcanquall, clerk, granted to Marcus Antonius de Dominis, archbishop 
of Spalata during his life. 

April, 1618.^A warrant to the exchequer to pay to the mayor or burgesses 
of Berwick for the finishing of a bridge there the sum of £4,000. 

Thomas Middleton, author of * The Peace Maker,' or < Britain's Blessing,' 
William Allen to print it solely for seven years. [Record not found.] 



It4 BXtRAOI^S FROM TtifcB ^BIVT BZLL DOOi^Bl^ 

1618. — DeniEation for Walter Balconqnall, olerk, bom im Scotland. 

Noyember, 1618. — Pardon for Ralph Foster for the death of Thomas 
Swinhoe, esquire, which was found murther, and for which he stands convicted. 

July, 1627.--Grant to Sampson Bure, his Majesty's attorney in the 
principality and marches of Wales, of the office of his Majesty's attorney in the 
counties of Denbigh and Montgomery with all fees and profits thereunto 
belonging. His Majesty's pleasure signified by Mr. secretary Ooke. 

July, 1626.— Grant to the lord Scroop, and the heirs males of his body, o£ 
the dignity of earle of Sunderland, in the bishopric of Durham. Subscribed hj 
Mr. Attorney-general. 

February, 1626. — Gonfirmacion of an assignment made to sir Henry Fane, 
knight, by the lord chief baron, sir James FuUerton, and sir Thomas TreTor, 
lessees in trust for his majestic of the reyenue which was his Majesty's when he 
was prince, of their estate in the demesne lands of Barnard Castle in the 
bishopric of Durham, heretofore letten for the yearly rent of &bO 9& 8d., and 
granteth the reyercion of them (at the nomination of the said sir Henry Fane, 
unto Samuel Cordwell and Henry Dingley, and their heires in fee farm with the 
woods thereupon. The said rent of £50 98. 8d. is from Michaelmas last doubled, 
and so to be reserved to the Orowne, and £900 to be paid for a fine to his 
Majesty. Subscribed by the commissioners for sale. 

June, 1627. — A commission to the lord president of York, sir John Savile, 
knight, and divers others, for treating and compounding with all recusants, 
now convicted and hereafter to be convicted within the several counties of 
Stafford, Derby, Ohester, Lancashire, Notts, York, Lincoln, Westmoreland, 
Cumberland, Northumberland, and Durham j for all the forfeitures either of 
lands or goods since the 10th year of king James, and for receiving of the 
voluntary contribution of 6d. upon every chaldron of coals that shall be 
transported from Newcastle and Sunderland. The said moneys to be employed 
for providing, furnishing, and maintaining six sufficient ships to guu!d the 
coasts from the north-east point to the mouth of the Thames. The said sir 
John Savile is hereby appointed receiver of the said 6d. upon the chaldren of 
coals at Newcastle, and William Poore at Sunderland, and John Richardson, 
esquire, is nominated clerk of this commission. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general. By order from the lords of his Majesty's privy council. 

July, 1627. — Demise to Richard Dudley, gentleman (to the use of Blisabeth 
Jackson, widow), of four prebendaries in Bldon, parcel of the collegiate chnrdi 
of Auckland, in the bishopric of Durham, for the term of 81 years, to commence 
from the feast of saint Michael the Archangel, which shall be in the year of our 
Lord God 1631, under the yearly rent of £35 168., payable half-yearly, and with 
such covenants, clauses, and provisions as in grants of like nature are usoal. 
And is done in consideration of the long and faithful services done to his 
Majesty by her late husband, Nathan. Jackson, and for her relief and main- 
tenance. By order from the lord treasurer. 

July, 1626.— Warrant to pay to sir Henry Vane, knight, and sir Marmadnke 
Darrell, knight, cofferers of his Majesty's household, the sum of £1,666 ISs. 4d., 
for the charge and expense of the queen's household monthly, and so from time 
to time to pay unto them the like sum monthly for the service aforesaid during 



ftBtiATiNG CMIEFLT TO THB NOtLTH OF BNOtiAKB. 191 

I 
his Majesty's pleasure, the first thereof to begin on the last day of this instant 
month of July, for the charge and expense of that month incluslTe. 

March, 1626. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay the fee of ten pence per 
diem onto Robert Talboys, gentleman, during his life as keeper of all such of 
his Majesty's bowling-greens and alleys belonging to any of his Majesty's houses 
of access as are not formerly granted to any other person. His Majesty's 
pleasure signified under his Majesty's sign manual. 

April, 1626.— Warrant to the exchequer to pay to the treasurer of the navy 
and surveyors of the marine victuals the sum of £5,638 13s. 4d. for the charge of 
setting to sea in warlike manner six Newcastle ships with 860 men for five 
months' service and for revictualling the * Hector' and *Alethea' (two 
merchant ships)» with 170 men for one month, according to an estimate sub- 
scribed by the lord admiral land commissioners for the navy. By order of the 
lord treasurer, 

April, 1626.— Warrant to the wardens of the mint requiring them upon 
signification of his Majesty's pleasure by the keeper of the privy purse to pro- 
vide such number of angels used at the healing of the king's evil as shall be 
required and the same to be delivered to the keeper of the privy purse. 

May, 1626.— Warrant to the exchequer to pay unto Mons. Jean Caill^ 
treasurer-general to the queen's Majesty the sum of £15,000 for hetown use and 
expenses, and £2,000 for the entertainment of her clergy, both for one year to 
begin the first day of January last. Subscribed by order from the lord 
treasurer. 

May, 1626. — Warrant for payment of £1,200 towards the charge of erecting 
certain fortifications near Tynemouth, the rest of the charge being to be 
defrayed by those of Newcastle-on-Tyne who have undertaken to fijiish the 
work. By order from the lord treasurer. 

February, 1627. —An imposition of 2s. on every chaldron of coals of London 
measure laden in tlie port of Newcastle or Sunderland to be vented in this 
kingdom, and 5s. over and above the former impost and custom. By order of 
the council board. Dat. 11<* die. 

February, 1627. — ^A like [imposition] of 5s. upon the chaldron upon all sea- 
coals that shall be from henceforth transported into any foreign parts or into 
the kingdom of Ireland. By order and dated ut swpra, 

July, 1627. — Grant to George Trotter and his heirs of a tenement and lands, 
parcel of the lordship of Brancepeth in the bishopric of Durham of the yearly 
rent of £3, for which he is to pay to his Majesty £160 for a fine, and the 
former rent is doubled. The woods are also to be paid for as they shall be 
valued on survey taken within six months. Subscribed by the commissioners 
for sale of his Majesty's land in fee farm. 

March, 1627-8.— The office of receiver of his Majesty's revenue within the 
counties of Northumberland, Durham, and the archdeaconry of Richmond to 
commence upon the death or other determination of the estate of John Braddell 
gentleman, who now enjoyeth the same together with such fees and allowances 
as are thereunto belonging, granted unto Thomas Wharton. By order from the 
lord treasurer. 

March, 1627-8.-^The office of sherifi! of the bishopric of Durham granted unto 
sir William Beilasis, knight, during the time the same shall remain in his 



l98 BXtBAOTS FROM THE PBIVT SEAL DOOk^TS 

majesty's hands» by reason of the translation of the late bishop of Winchester. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. 

March, 1627-8.— Grant in reversion of divers parcells of land lying in the 
lordship of Brancepath, in the bishopric of Durham, of the yearly rent of 58s. 8d.9 
to William Fetherstonehaugh and his heirs, and also an assignment thereof 
made by his Majesty's feoffees in trust unto Lancelot Fetherstonehaugh for 
which there is paid into the exchequer the sum of £50 and the old rent 
advanced to £3 198. 5d. By order from the commissioners for sale. 

April, 1628. — A grant of denizations for Patrick Maxton, clerk, Thomas 
Toung, clerk, John Toung, gentleman, Jacob Johnston, gentleman, and Anthony 
Murray, clerke. Subscribed by Mr. Windebanke. 

July, 1628. — The dignity of baronet granted to John Conniers of Horden, in 
the bishopric of Durham, gentleman, entailing the same upon the heirs males of 
his body. By warrant under his Majesty*s sign manual. 

July, 1628.— A discharge unto the said John Conniers, of the sum of money 
usually paid to his Majesty in respect of the said dignity. 

September, 1628. — Pension of £40 per annum payable out of the exchequer 
granted unto Anthony Crozier, mariner, and Isabell, his wife, during their lives, 
in consideration of his service. Subscribed by Mr. Qall. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

November, 1628. — The office of keeper of his Majesty's walk called Battle's 
Walk, alias Battle's Bailiwick, in the forest of Windsor, with all commodities 
thereunto belonging, granted to Ralph Maddison, gentleman, during his life, 
upon surrender of a like grant by sir Richard Harrison, knight. His 
Majesty's pleasure signified by the lord viscount Conway. 

November, 1628. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto the said Ralph 
Maddison, the yearly allowance of £50 as keeper of his Majesty's walk abovesaid, 
towards the provision of hay and for increase of keeper's wages, which was 
formerly allowed to the said sir Richard Harrison, his Majesty's pleasure signified 
ut supra, Dat. 19* die. 

28 December, 1628. — To sir John Conyers, knight, £100 per annum for life, 
to cease on his preferment in the wars. 

March, 1628-9. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto sir Henry Vane, 
knight, who is employed by his Majesty into Holland, the sum of £4 a day for 
his diet and entertainment during the time of his service. To commence from 
the first of this instant March, and also to advance unto him presently by way 
of imprest the sum of £300 to be afterwards defalked upon his said entertain- 
ment. By order from the lord viscount Dorchester. 

January, 1628. — A warrant to the officers of the exchequer to give sir 
Thomas Edmonds and sir Henry Vane, knight, a full discharge of the whole sum 
of £11,500, which was delivered to them to be paid to divers of the French, the 
queen's servants at their departure from hence, although there is remaining yet 
undisposed of the said sum £860, which his Majesty doth hereby also give to 
the said sir Henry Vane. Subscribed by Mr. Kirkham. His Majesty's pleasure 
signified by the lord viscount Dorchester. Dat. 7* die. 

July, 1629. — His Majesty's declaration to disparke the three parkes of Raby 
called the east, west and middle park of Raby, and to discharge all the officers 
of the castles of Raby and Barnard castle, and of the said parkes from further 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 199 

execution of their places, his Majesty intending to sell the same in fee farm for 
advancement of his revenue. By order from the lords commissioners for his 
Majesty's revenue. 

July, 1629. — Confirmation of an assignment made unto Edward Esterfield, 
by his Majesty's lessees in trust of the castles of Raby and Barnard castle, and 
the three parkes of Raby called the east, west and middle parkes, within the 
bishopric of Durham, and a grant of the reversion thereof to Henry Dingleyand 
Samuel Oordnall, nominated by sir Henry Vane, knight, and their heirs under 
the yearly rent of £51 10s., with a tenure in socage, and is done in consideration 
of £1,500 to be paid for a fine, the woods are to be paid for, as they shall be 
valued upon survey taken within six months, the said sir Henry Vane is to dis- 
charge all the officers fees amounting to the sum of £52 6s. per armum. By 
order from the lords commissioners for his Majesty's revenue. 

July, 1629. — A warrant to the Exchequer to pay unto sir Henry Vane, 
knight, cofferer of his Majesty's household, whom his Majesty hath appointed to 
be ambassador extraordinary into the low countries, the sum of £1,500 for his 
Majesty's secret service. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Dat. 
15* die. 

March, 1630*31 .—A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto sir Henry Vane, 
knight, controller of his Majesty's, household the sum of £210 which he 
disbursed unto Qerrit Van Houthorst in the low countries, which said sum was 
due to the said Gerritt Van Houthorst for a picture of the king and queen of 
Bohemia, and their children by him made and sent to his Majesty, and for 
which the Houthorst had a privy seal dated the 18th of May last. By order 
from the lord viscount Dorchester. Dat. ultimo die. 

June, 1631. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto sir Henry Vane, 
knight, comptroller of his Majesty's household (who is appointed to be his 
Majesty's ambassador to the kings of Denmark and Sweden and other princes 
and states of Germany), an allowance of six pounds per diem for his diets and 
entertainment to begin from the first of May last past and to continue until the 
day of his return into his Majesty's presence inclusive. And also presently to 
advance unto him by way of imprest £1,000 to be afterwards defalked out of his 
said entertainment, and afterwards to advance unto him such sums of money from 
time to time as his said entertainment shall amount unto from three months to 
three months, to be in like manner afterward defalked, with an allowance also of 
such further sums of money for his transportation, posting charges, sending of 
letters, intelligencies, and other secret services as shall appear to be due unto 
him by bills subscribed with his own hand and allowed by one of his Majesty's 
principal secretaries of state for the time being. Subscribed upon signification 
of his Majesty's pleasure by the lord viscount Dorchester. Dat. ultimo die. 

November, 1632.— A grant to George Raddiffe, esquire, your Majesty's 
attorney in the north parts, to be one of his Majesty's council learned in the 
law, and in respect thereof to have such advantages as have been granted to 
others for that service. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, upon signification 
of his Majesty's pleasure by sir Sidney Mountague. 

April, 1633. — ^A pension of £500 per aimum granted to sir Henry Vane, 
knight, comptroller of his Majesty's household, during his life, payable by the 
officers of his Majesty's household to commence from Christmas last. And, 



200 EXTRACTS PROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

likewise a pension of £300 per annum granted to Henry Vane, esquire, son of 
the said sir Henry during his life, to commence after the decease of his father, 
and payable by the officers of the household. Subscribed upon signification of 
his Majesty's pleasure by the lord treasurer. 

September, 1683. — A warrant to the exchequer for payment of £1,763 98. 
unto sir Henry Vane, knight, comptroller of his Majesty's household, the same 
being due unto him for principal and interest money upon an imployment as his 
Majesty's ambassador into Holland and Qermany, as appeareth by a certificate 
under the hands of the auditors of his Majesty*s imprests. Subscribed by order 
of the lord treasurer. Dat. septimo die. 

Noyember, 1633. — A warrant to pass the great seal whereby his Majesty 
removeth Edward Moore from his mayoralty, he having unduly procured himself 
to be mayor of Berwick, upon complaint thereof made to the lords of his 
Majesty's most honorable privy council, and of other his insolencies, he being 
convented before their lordships, his behaviour then was such as gave them just 
cause to judge him unfit for that service ; power is hereby likewise given to the 
bailiffs and burgesses of the said town to elect another fit person to execute that 
office. His Majesty's pleasure signified by the lord privy seal. 

November, 1633. — A warrant to pay unto Madam Parone, midwife to the 
queen's Majesty, the sum of £600 in recompence for her attendance on her 
Majesty, at the time of her delivery of his Majesty's dear son, the duke of YoA. 
By order from the lord Cottington. Dat. 23 die. 

March, 1638-4.— Lease for 60 years granted to sir Henry Vane, knight, 
comptroller of his Majesty's household in consideration of a fine of £66 13s« 4d. 
to be paid into the exchequer before this lease pass the seal of all that herbage 
and pannage of the woods and woodground, parcell of the manor of Ohopwell, 
in the bishopric of Durham, to begin immediately after the death, surrender, 
forfeiture or determinacion of the estate of life for one George Ward, at the 
yearly rent of £38. The lessee covenanteth to preserve the woods, he hath 
liberty to dig for coales in the said ground, and if any coale mine prove to be 
worth above £5 per annum his Majesty is to have halfe of the clear value. By 
warrant from the lord treasurer and lord Cottington. 

January, 1635. — Pardon of burning in the hand granted to sir Paul Neile, 
knight, who standeth indicted of the manslaughter of Thomas Howton Carreman, 
as by an inquisition taken before the coroner of London appeareth, and for all 
other felonies and offences touching the death of the said Howton, with a grant 
and release unto him of all his goods, chattels, and debts, accrued to his 
Majesty thereby. And his Majesty doth hereby require that he shall not be 
further indicted or questioned touching the death of the said Howton, nor shall 
give security for the good behaviour according to the statute. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

September, 1635.— Grant to sir Henry Vane, knight, comptroller of his 
Majesty's household, and to the heires males of his body of the custodie of Tees- 
dale forest and Marwood Chace, in the county of Durham, after the death or 
other determination of the estate of sir Talbot Bowes and Thomas Bowes who 
hold the same for their lives by a grant from the late king James. Sir Henry 
Vane doth covenant to discharge all the keepers and forresters fees, to restore 
the game there for his Majesty's disport, to repaire the lodges and to preserve 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 201 

the grounds, trees and woods, without charge to. his Majesty after the 
determinacion of these former estates. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general 
upon signification of his Majesty*s pleasure, by Mr. secretary Windebank. 

September, 1635. — A grant whereby his Majesty upon the peticion of the 
said sir Henry Vane and to enable him to endow the parish church of Staindropp, 
in the county of Durham, with a competent mayntenance for an able minister 
giyeth licence to the bishop of Durham to create that church yito a vicaridge, 
and to sir Henry Vane to give a mancion house and lands to the vicar and to his 
sucoessors to the yearly value of £57 to make up the present pencion given to a 
minister there of £23 6s. 8d. fourscore pounds. And his Majesty doth hereby 
grant to the said sir Henry Vane and his heires the advowson of the said vicaridge 
to be holden by a tenure in socage. And his Majestic doth hereby declare that 
the said yearly pencion of £23 6s. 8d. shall be continued to the said vicar and 
his successors, and that sir Henry Vane and his heirs who now enjoy the lands 
lyable to the payment thereof shall pay the same accordingly. Subscribed by 
Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

November, 1639. — ^A presentation of Guy Carleton, clerke, to the rectory of 
Arthureth in the diocese of Carlisle (void dejure) and in his Majestie's gift 
(pr& hoc vice) by the minority of Richard Netherby or for want of sueing forth 
hie livery. Subscribed by order of the lord archbishop of Canterbury. 

February, 1685.— A warrant to the exchequer for payment of £300 to sir 
Henry Vane, knight, for secret service and without account. By order of Mr. 
secretary Windebank. Dat. 24° die. 

February, 1636.— A pardon granted to sir Arthur Capell, knight, his Majesty's 
servant, for the manslaughter of sir Thomas Leventhorpe, baronet, and of all 
other felonies, offences, burning in the hand, and punishments touching his 
death. And a grant unto him of all his goods and chattels, rights and credits 
accrued to his Majesty thereby. And the said sir Arthur Capell is not to give 
security for his good behaviour according to the statute in that behalf. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By order of Mr. secretary Windebank. 

VoL 6 finishes 1637. Three years wanting to 1640. 

December, 1637. — Warrant to the chief justice and others, the justices of the 
court of common pleas, to admit Jane the wife of John Bellassis and daughter 
and heir of sir Robert Butler, deceased, being under the age of 21 years, by her 
guardian to levy fines and suffer recoveries of the manor of Higham Gobion and 
other manors and lands in the counties of Bedford and Hertford, for the 
payment of the debts occasioned by her father and mother, deceased. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general, upon signification of his Majesty's pleasure by 
Mr. secretary Windebank. Dat. 13° die. 

January, 1637.^A warrant to the receiver of the county of Durham to pay 
unto Samuel Saunderson, son of Henry Saunderson, deceased the sum of 
£130 158. lOd., being the remainder of a debt of £170 15s. lOd., due unto the 
said Henry Saunderson, as appeareth by a report made to his Majesty by Mr. 
Comptroller and Mr. secretary Coke, to whom his Majesty referred the examina- 
tion of the same. And his Majesty doth hereby acquit the said Samuel 
Saunderson of the sum of £40 formerly paid unto his father as a part of the 
said debt. Subscribed by order of Mr. secretary Coke. Dat. ultimo die. 

August, 1639. — A licence granted unto sir Henry Vane, treasurer of hip 

TOL. XXIV. 26 



202 EXTRACTS FROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

Majesty^s household (owner of a piece of ground at the west end of the South 
Pannes at the Sheilds in the port of Tynemouth) and to his heirs and assigos, 
to erect and build a wharf or quay there for unlading of the ballast of the 
shipping that do and shall trade to Newcastle, and to maintain and continue 
the same. And to take such recompence and allowance for unlading of ballast 
there as is usually taken at other ballast wharfs upon the said river of Tyne, 
without the impeachment of his Majesty or others, and notwithstanding any 
former grants of this kind. And is done upon the petition of a number of the 
masters and owners of ships of Ipswich, Aldborough, Woodridge, London, Lynn 
and Yarmouth, pretending that it may be for their better accommodation in 
their trade for coals to Newcastle. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By 
warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

August, 1637.— A grant unto sir Henry Vane, knight, comptroller of his 
Majesty's household, in consideration of his services as well in foreign employ- 
ments as otherwise, of all trees of oak, ash, alder and all other woods with the 
windfalls, stubbs and roots of trees formerly felled within the west park of 
Brancepeth, lately granted in fee farm, and in Chopwell woods in the bishopric 
of Durham. Except 383 timber trees in the said west park, and 187 in Chop, 
well woods chosen out and marked for ship-timber for his Majesty's use by the 
purveyor for the navy, who upon direction given by the lord treasurer and lord 
Oottington to his Majesty's surveyor-general, was by him deputed to number, 
view and value all the said wood, which was accordingly done and certified. 
And sir Henry Vane is licensed to fell, cut, grub up and take away the said 
trees and woods hereby granted within the space of 21 years, with fiee egress 
and regress for doing the same. Subscribed by Mr. solicitor-generaL His 
Majesty's pleasure signified by Mr. secretary Windebank. 

January, 1639.— Charter of creation for the lord viscount Wentworth, lord 
deputy of Ireland, to be baron of Raby and earl of StrafEord, entayling both the 
said titles of earl and baron upon the heires males of. his body lawfully begotten 
and in default of such issue entailing the said title of baron upon sir William 
Wentworth, knight, his lordship's brother and the heirs males of his body, 
lawfully begotten, and for default of such issue male the remainder of the said 
title of baroa to sir George Wentworth, knight, his lordship's youngest brother, 
and the heirs males of his body lawfully begotten. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney, 
general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

December, 1642.— A release and discharge to John Bellasis, esq., of certain 
arrearages of rent amounting to £804 or thereabouts, part of £1,200 due to his 
Majesty for the wardship of the lands of Joane Boteler, daughter and heir of 
sir Robert Boteler, knight, deceased, now wife of the said John Bellasis. 

July, 1642. — The receiver's place of Northumberland, Durham and Richmond 
granted unto mayor Norton, esq., for his life with all profits thereunto belong- 
ing, in as ample manner as Thomas Wharton or any other receiver formerly 
held the same. Subscribed upon signification of his Majesty's pleasure, by Mr. 
secretary Nicholas. 

January, 1641.— A grant whereby his Majesty constituted sir Thomas 
Tempest, knight, his Majesty's attorney-general in Ireland, to be one of his 
Majesty's learned council in this kingdom, and granteth unto him the usual fee 
of £40 per annum, and such fees and privileges as others of his Majesty's learned 



ftBLATtNG CHIEFLY 1*0 '^HB XORfH Of BNOLANi). 203 

conncil formerly enjoyed. To be holden during his good behaviour ; Inth a 
declaration that he shall not hereby be prejudiced in his office of attcnmey- 
general of Ireland. Subscribed upon signification of his Majesty's pleasnie by 
Mr. secretary Nicholas. 

February, 1640.— The dignity of a baronet of this kingdom granted unto 
sir Nicholas Cole of Brancepeth Castle, knight, and his heirs males, with all 
rights thereto belonging. Subscribed by warrant under his Majesty *K sign 
manual. 

A disdiarge to the said sir Nicholas Cole of the moneys usually paid in 
respect of the said baronetcy. Subscribed and signified ut supra, 

August, 1642. — The office of one of his Majesty's sergeants-at-arms, with the 
fee of 12d. per diem, and all other profits thereunto belonging, granted to 
Bdward Umfrevile, esq., during his life, in reversion after the death, forfeiture, 
surrender or other determination of the interest of any of his Majesty's 
sergeants whatsoever now in being. Subscribed by warrant under his Majesty's 
sign manual. 

October, 1642. — The dignity of a baronet of this kingdom granted to Thomas 
Liddell of Ravenshelme Castle^ in the county palatine of Durham, esq., and his 
heirs in usual form. Subscribed by warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

. A discharge to the said Thomas Liddell of the sum of £1,095, usually paid 
in respect of that dignity. Subscribed by warrant ut supra, 

1 February, 1639.— Office of one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of 
state granted to sir Henry Vane, knight, treasurer of his Majesty's household, 
during his Majesty's pleasure, with the fee of £100 per annum during life. 
To commence from Christmas last. Subscribed upon signification of his 
Majesty's pleasure, by Mr. secretary Windebank. 

March, 1639-40. — ^A grant to sir Henry Vane, knight, treasurer of his 
Majesty's household, and one of his Majesty's principal secretaries, and to his 
heirs of divers liberties and privileges within his manors of Itaby and Barnard 
Castle in the county and bishopric of Durham, and in several other his manors, 
villages, townships and places there, viz., goods, chattels, and debts of felons, 
fugitives, felons of themselves, and outlaws for felony as well of his tenants 
as of all other persons within the said manors and places to be levied by his 
own officers; goods, chattels, and debts of all such his tenants forfeited or 
adjudged in any his Majesty's courts of king's bench, chancery, common pleas, 
exchequer, justices of oyer and terminer, of assize, of gaol delivery, or of the 
peace, or before any sheriflEs, coroners or officers whatsoever, with power to sue 
for them in his Majesty's name or his own. All fines and amercements for 
escapes of all felons and murderers, return of all writs and proces and the 
execution thereof within the said manors and places, and the sheriffs not to 
exercise their office there, except in default of sir Henry Vane's officers, or with 
a special non omittas, or at his Majesty's immediate suit. Fines and forfeitures 
for all trespasses and misprisions of treason, premunire, and all other negligent 
offences, oppressions, extortions, deceits, conspiracies, concealments, regrators, 
forestallers, maintenances, ambidexters, falsities, and all fotfeitures of 
recognizances for the same. All fines and forfeitures for ccmcealments, 
contempts, false claim, and all other fines and forfeitures whatsoever of 
his tenants or others within the premises or of their sureties to be lost or 



204 EXTEAOTS FitOM THE PAlVt SEAL DOOI^ETg 

forfeited. And all sums of money to grow dne from all such persons upon 
forfeiture of any recognizances for surety of the peace, good behaviour, and all 
appearances for the same, or for any felonies or other offences taken or 
acknowledged in any his Majesty's courts or before any his Majesty's justices, 
or to be taken hereafter, forfeited and belonging to his Majesty. All waifs, 
strays, treasure trove, within the premises. To hold plea of all actions, where 
the debt and damage exceed not £40, and to have a court and a prison within 
the premises, and to make a keeper of that prison. To hold plea of replevin, 
withernam, and to have court leets, view of frankpledge or withernam, hundred 
courts, assize of bread, wine, beer, ale, and other victuals whatsoever, and the 
scrutiny and amendment of weights and measures within the premises before 
sir Henry Vane his steward. Together with free warren in every part of the 
premises, whereof sir Henry Vane is seised ; with power to appoint coroners for 
doing all that which may belong to the ofBce of a coroner within the premises. 
A new market to be held every Tuesday in Standropp and a fair on Thursday 
in Whitsun week yearly with the tolls and profits thereof. Subscribed by 
Mr. Attorney-general, upon signification of his Majesty's pleasure, by Mr. 
secretary Windebank, upon the certificate of the lord treasurer and the lord 
privy seal, to whom his majesty referred the same. 

April, 1640. — A commission whereby his Majesty doth appoint sir John 
Conyers, knight, to be governor of Berwick and of the garrison and work there, 
which place he is to hold by himself or his sufficient deputy during his good 
behaviour. And he is to have an entertainment of £3 per diem, to be paid by 
the treasuier and paymaster there, and in default thereof out of the exchequer, 
together with all rights, privileges and profits belonging to that place, as amply 
as the earl of Lindsey, late governor there, or any others held the same. He is 
to command all officers and soldiers placed or to be placed in the town or 
garrison, as such as upon any occasion shall be sent thither for the defence 
thereof. He is enabled to use martial law if necessity shall require. And he 
may command the inhabitants and townsmen to take arms for defence of the 
town, and to arm and disarm them as he shall find it best for his Majesty's 
service. And to do and execute all things fit for the good and safe government 
of the same. Nevertheless in the execution of this commission he is to demean 
himself according to such instructions under his Majesty's sign manual as he 
shall receive with this commission, or such others as his Majesty shall be pleased 
to give him at any time hereafter, during this his employmemt. Subscribed by 
Mr. Attorney-general, upon signification of his Majesty's pleasure by Mr. 
secretary Vane. 

June, 1640.— A denization granted unto the lady Mary Conyers, wife of sir 
John Conyers, knight, she being bom beyond the seas. Subscribed upon 
signification of his Majesty's pleasure by Mr. Vane. 

June, 1640. — The office or place of one of his Majesty's sergeants-at«>law 
granted unto Sampson Eure, esq., sergeant-at-law, with the fees and rights 
thereunto belonging, as amply as any other his Majesty's sergeants ^joy the 
same. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, By warrant under his Majesty's 
sign manual. 

July, 1640. — A warrant to Henry KnoUis, esq., receiver-general of the first 
fruits and tenths for payment of £500 to Thomas Eden, doctor of law ; which 



ftlJLATIl^G OHTBPLY TO THE NOBTH OF BNGtiAND. 205 

sum he hath lent unto his Majesty by way of advance upon that revenue for 
the year to end at Christmas, 1642, with further warrant to the exchequer to 
pay unto him such further sums for interest thereof as the same after the rate 
of £8 per cent, for a year shall amount unto, until the same be repaid. Sub- 
scribed by order of the lord treasurer. Dat. 11° dia 

August, 1640. — A presentation of William Hilton, clerk to the rectory of 
Burgh St. Mary in Fleg in the diocese of Norwich, now void by the death of the 
last incumbent, and in his Majesty's gift Qiac vice) by reason of the minority 
of Abigail Clare, his Majesty's ward. Subscribed by order of the lord arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. 

May, 1644. — A protection royal unto William Hallyman of the bishopric of 
Durham and his sureties for one whole year from the 13th day of September 
last. Subscribed by Mr. Warwicke upon signification of his Majesty's pleasure, 
by Mr. Secretary Nicholas. 

May, 1644. — A grant of the office of jeweller (to his Majesty and prince 
Charles) unto Francis Sympson and John Sympson, gentlemen, during their 
lives, and the longer liver of them, with the fee of £50 per annum to each of 
them, payable quarterly out of the exchequer. The first payment to begin at 
Michaelmas last, with power for the sole making of badges of honor, and 
in as ample manner as Alexander Herriot, deceased, or any other had the 
same. Subscribed by Mr. Norgate. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. 

January, 1644. — A creation of Mr. John Bellasis to be baron Bellasis of 
Worlabye in the county of Lincoln. The same dignity granted to him and to 
the heirs males of his body with all privileges, precedencies and immunities 
thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Warwick, upon signification of his 
Majesty's pleasure, by the lord Digby. Dat. 27° die. 

April, 1646. — ^A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto sir Sampson Bure, 
knight, one of bis Majesty's sergeants-at-law or his assigns the sum of £2,000, 
in consideration and recompence of his good and faithful services done by him 
to his Majesty. Subscribed by Mr. Windebank upon signification of his 
Majesty's pleasure, by the lord Digby. Dat. 18° die. 

June, 1646.— The deanery of Durham with all profits therunto belonging 
granted unto doctor William Fuller, during his life. Subscribed by sir Thomas 
Windebanke upon signification of his Majesty's pleasure, by Mr. secretary 
Nicholas. The said deanery being void by the death of doctor Balcanquall, 
late dean there. 

March, 1618.^A commission to Emmanuel lord Scroop, president of his 
highness's council in the north parts and others, to take a survey and view of all 
notorious, idle and misbehaved persons in the counties of Northumberland, 
Cumberland, Westmoreland and Durham, and of such as were sent into Ireland 
and are returned, and to certify his Majesty or his highness's privy council of 
their names and dwelling-place from time to time. And is renewed for 
adding sir Thomas Wharton, sir Francis Howard and others to the former 
commissioners. By direction of the lord chancellor. Subscribed by sir George 
Coppin. Procured by Mr. secretary Calvert. 

16«1.— General pardon to Thomas Errington of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
gentleman. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney, signed by Mr. secretary Nicholas. 



206 BXTRACl^S ^ROlt THB PRIVY SBAL DOC^BfS 

February, 1660.— Pardon to Thomas Lilbome of Overton, county Durham, 
gentleman. Subscribed by Mr. solicitor and signed by Mr. secretary Morrice. 

March, 1660-1. — Pardon to sir Gteorge Vane of Rogerley, in the county of 
Durham, knight. Subsbribed by Mr. Attorney-general, and signed by Itr. 
secretary Nicholas. 

March, 1661. — The office of one of the collectors of the custotas in Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne granted to Henry Brabant. To hpld (in reversion after the interest 
of Richard Wynn) during his life with all fees, profits and advantages there- 
unto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

April, 1661. — Full pardon to Francis Wren of Henknowle, in the county 
palatine of Durham, esq. Subscribed by Mr. solicitor and Mr. secretary 
Nicholas. 

May, 1661. — A pardon to Rowland Place of Dinsdaile in the county of 
Durham, esq. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. Signed by secretary 
Nicholas. ^ 

May, 1661. — A pardon to Richard Lylbome of in county 

Durham, esq. Subscribed and signed ut supra. 

February, 1661. — Pardon to Edward Scurfield of Woogrey [sic] in the 
county palatine of Durham. Subscribed by Mr. attorney. Signed by Mr. 
secretary Nicholas. 

March, 1661. — Pardon to Christopher Mickleton of the city of Durham, in 
fche county palatine of Durham, gentleman. Subscribed by Mr. solicitor. 
Signed by secretary Nicholas. 

February, 1661.— Pardon to John Rogers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney, signed by Mr. secretary Nicholas. 

July, 1662.— Grant to sir Walter Vane, knight, Charles Vane, and Richard 
Bettinson, esquires, for the making, writing and engrossing of all writs of subpena 
issuing out of his majesty's court of chancery, and of the subpena office in 
chancery, with all duties, fees and commodities thereto belonging. . To hold to 
them knd the survivor of them for their lives and the life of the longer liver of 
them as fully as the same was heretofore granted or enjoyed with such daittes 
and non obstantes as are usual in grants of like nature. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. By warrant under the sign manual. 

June, 1619. — Dispensation to William Neile, clerk, to be cf^ble of the 
mastership of the hospital of Greatham, in the bishopric of Durham, he being 
full minister which the foundation of that hospital requireth, notwithstanding 
that he be not a master of arts or bachelor of law, which in his Majesty's late 
establishment of that hospital is required. 

June, 1619. — Grant to Anthony Brackenbury and his heirs of a small 
tenement in Richmond, in the county of York, and certain small debts and 
goods which escheated to his Majesty by the attainder of one George Dewes 
of high treason for coining of gold. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general upon 
signification of his Majesty's pleasure, by sir Christopher Larkins. 

January, 1620-1. — A grant to Henry Shaftowe, esquire, of an annuity of £60 
during his life, and of the sume of £180, being an arrear due to him by a former 
grant of the like pension of £60 per annum, payable out of the exchequer, which 
is to be surrendered, and to be paid now by the receiver general of the county 



RELATING CHIEfLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 207 

of York, which alteration is allowed by the lord treasurer, by reason the said 
Shaf towe is paymaster of the garrison at Berwick, and there employed in his 
Majesty^s service. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, by order from sir Raphe 
Freeofif^. 

March, 1620-1. — The office of steward of the manor ol Bamesley and 
Dodworth, in the county of York, with the fee of 20s. per annum, granted to 
sir Francis Wortley, knight and baronet, during his life. By order of the lord 
treasurer. 

April, 1622. — The office of his Majesty's attorney, within the principalities 
of South Wales and North Wales, and within the counties of Salop, Hereford, 
Gloucester, Worcester, Chester, and Flint, and the Marches of Wales to the said 
counties adjoining, granted to Sampson Eare, esquire, during his life, with the 
usual fees thereto belonging, in as ample manner as the same was granted to 
Marmaduke Lloyd, esquire, who is to surrender his patent before this pass the 
great seal. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general upon signification of his 
Majesty's pleasure by the lord admiral. 

May, 1632. A denization to the lady Elizabeth Ogle, now wife of sir John 
Ogle^ knight, and to John, Thomas, Cornelius, and Dorothie Ogle, his children, 
born in the Low Countries. By order of Mr. secretary Calvert. 

May, 1623. A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto the lord Clifford the 
sum of £100, to be employed towards the repair of the gaol within the town of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which is much fallen to ruin. The said sum to be levied 
upon such recognizances as were found forfeited to his Majesty at the Assizes, 
held at the said town of Newcastle in Lent last. Subscribed by Mr. Eirkeham. 

December, 1623. — A presentation to the rectory of Bingham, in the county 
of Npttingham, in the diocese of York, void by the promotion of doctor Hamner, 
the last incumbent there to the bishopric of Asaph, for Mathew Wren, doctor of 
divinity. Subscribed by Mr. Windebanke, by order from the duke of 
Buckingham. 

March, 1626. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay unto sir Henry Vane, 
knight, as well the sum of £1,738 18s. 4d., as the sum of £844 68. 8d. monthly, 
to be employed for the expenses of his Majesty's household as Prince of Wales, 
and to continue the like payments from time to time during his Majesty's 
pleasure. Subscribed by Mr. Windebanke. By order from the lord Conway. 

April, 1625.— Warrant to the exchequer to pay to sir Henry Vane, his Majesty's 
servant or his assigns, the sum of £200 to be disbursed for his Majesty's secret 
services without account. Subscribed by Mr. Gall. By order of the lord Conway. 

15 Charles I.— Ralph Sure says he was a prisoner in the King's Bench for 
six years past, and is still there. [Not found.] 

June, 1662.— A warrant to the exchequer for discharging sir Thomas 
Williamson, baronet, of £500, being a remainder of ship money levied in the 
county of Nottingham and received by his late father sir Thomas Williamson, 
in the time of his shrievalty, and afterwards about the year 1642 paid unto the 
garrison of Newark, by order of the then commissioners assisting there, as 
appears by the certificate of the lord Byron and others which has been allowed 
by the lord treasurer. Subscribed by warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

11 March, 1757.— John Bowes, esquire, now chief baron of the exchequer in 
Ireland, ^pointed chancellor. [Not found.] 



208 BXTBACTS FROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

25 March. — £1,000 equipage as chancellor. [Not found.] 

26 July, 1758. — John Bowes as baron Bowes of Clonlyon, county Meath. 
[Not found.] 

1577. A licence for Ralph Bowes and Thomas Bedingfield to bring in play* 
ing cards, for twelve years. 

May, 1579.— The wardship and marriage of Robert Brandling, with the 
annuity of £16 to Charles Haule, gentleman. 

November, 1577. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay to Robert Bowes, 
esquire, the sum of 20s. per day, sent into Scotland and in advance in prest 
upon his entertainment, £100. 

June, 1578.— A warrant unto the exchequer to pay unto Robert Bowes, 
esquire, treasurer of Berwick, employed in her Majesty's affairs in Scotland, 40s. 
by the day, for his diets, that is 20s. by day over and above his former allowance, 
which was only 20s. 

December, 1578. — Grant to sir Robert Constable, knight, of the manor of 
Chopwell, in the county of Durham, to him and to his heirs in fee farm ; yield- 
ing and paying therefor the yearly rent of £21. 

August, 1578. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay to Robert Bowes, esquire, 
treasurer of Berwick, or to his servant John Puleston, the sum of £1,000 to be 
employed towards the making and finishing of the pier and mending the haven 
at the town of Berwick. 

September, 1637.— The office of captain of his Majesty's forts of Holy Island 
and Feme Island, in the county Palatine of Durham, which are now reduced 
into one garrison, granted to Robert Rugg, esquire, during his Majesty's 
pleasure, f n which garrison is appointed one captain with the yearly fee of 
£80, one gunner with the fee of £18 5s., one gunner's mate with the fee of 
£12 8s. 4d., and nine soldiers with the fee of £82 2s. 6d. per annum, to be quarterly 
paid by the receiver of the county of York upon the muster roll, to be duly 
made and signed by two or more of the deputy lieutenants of the counties of 
Durham or Northumberland. The first payment to begin from midsummer last 
Subscribed by Mr. Attomey-generaL By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. 

May, 1576. — A warrant to the receiver of Yorkshire to pay to Robert Bowes, 
esquire, treasurer of Berwick, yearly during pleasure towards the discharge of 
the payments at Berwick, £8,000 to be paid half-yearly. A like warrant to the 
receiver of Northumberland, bishopric of Durham and Richmondshire to pay 
to the said treasurer for the purpose aforesaid £4,000 yearly. A like to the 
receiver of Lincolnshire to pay unto him to the same end £3,000 yearly. A 
lease in reversion of Wingate Grange, in the bishopric of Durham, for 21 
years, made to Philip Hall, the tenant ; rent, £12 10s. ,* fine, £25, June, 1576. 

January, 1576. — A lease in reversion for 81 years of the parsonage and 
vicarage of the collegiate church of Chester in le streate, in the county of 
Durham, for sir James Marvyn, knight ; rent, £77 2s. 8d., oh,, and no fine. 

February, 1576. — Lease upon surrender of the deanery and vicarage of 
Lanchester, with the appurtenances in the bishopric of Durham, made unto 
William Hodgson for 21 years ; rent, £28 10s.; fine, £28 10s. 

May, 1577. — Warrant to the exchequer for £100, to be yearly paid to Jane, 
countess of Westmoreland, during the Queen's Majesty's, pleasure, for herself 



EBFiATIKG OHIBPLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 209 

and her three daughters over and besides £200 allowed to them by former 
warrant. The first payment of the said £100 to begin and to be made for the 
half-year ended at the feast of the Annunciation of our Lady last past. 

July, 21 Elizabeth. — ^A pardon for Antony Brakenbury, gentleman. 

July, 21 Elizabeth. — A warrant to pay to Robert Bowes, esquire, treasurer at 
Berwick, the sum of £2,000, whereof the one now, and the other half in the 
beginning of the next spring, to finish the pier at Berwick. 

June, 1680. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto Robert Bowes, esquire, 
treasurer of Berwick, or to such person as he shall appoint, the sum of 
£1,000 to be employed for the full finishing and perfecting of the pier at the 
town of Berwick. 

July, 1613. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay £146 lis. 7d. in full satis- 
faction of £159 2s. 2d., for the building up of the Tolbooth in Barnard Castle, 
in the bishopric of Durham. Subscribed by Mr. Windebank. 

June, 1616. — The office of captain of the two forts of Holy Island and Feme 
Island, in the bishopric of Durham, with all fees thereto belonging, granted to 
William Ramsey during life, with the yearly fee of £80 for himself, £36 10s. for 
his lieutenant, £36 10s. for two gunners, £15 4s. 2d. for a gunners* mate, and 
£190 138. 4d. for 16 soldiers for the better defence of the forts. 

December, 1613. — Grant in fee simple to Robert, earl of Somerset and his 
heirs of the lordships of Raby, Brancepeth and Barnard Castle, county of York 
[He}, of the yearly value of £1,038 5s. 8d. In consideration as well of the sum of 
£40,266 5s. 6d. paid to his Majesty, as of his service and for the better supporta- 
tion of his honours and dignities, paying nevertheless to his Majesty the yearly 
rent of £60, with a grant also of the advowson of the church of Midleton in 
Teesdale, and of the game of deer of all kinds and of all woods within the parks, 
forests, and chaces within the said lordships. 

May, 1614. — A pardon granted to John Jemison for the manslaughter of 
Robert EUpatrick upon a sudden afEray. It appearing upon evidence at his 
trial that the said Jemison was assaulted and much urged by the said Kilpatrick. 
Subscribed by Mr. Recorder of London. 

October, 1614. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay to his Majesty's servant, 
Anthony Brakenbury, the sum of £47 for his charges in fetching of hounds for 
his Majesty's service. 

June, 1615. — Pardon to Marmaduke Tunstall, gentleman, for the man- 
slaughter of William Scroope. 

July, 1616. — Pardon to Robert Branskell for the manslaughter of Geofifry 
Hickman. 

December, 1615. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay to John Tunstall, 
servant to the Queen, the sum of £105 10s. 9d. by him laid out for her highnesses 
service in her journey to the Bath, besides £400 which he received imprest by a 
former privy seal. 

December, 1615.— A pension of £200 per annum, payable out of the court of 
wards, for Penelope Tonstall during her life. In consideration of £850 already 
paid by her husband John Tunstall, above-named, unto sir William Stewart 
upon his surrender of the said pension, formerly granted to him during 
his life. 

May, 1616. — Pardon granted to Walter Calverley, gentleman, for a robbery 

VOL. xxrv, 27 



210 BXTBACTS FROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

done by the highway side and taking £11 16s. from two men. Sabscribed by 
the earl of Cumberland, lord Eure, and baron Bromley. 

May, 1615. — A grant to Thomas Blackston, esquire, and the heirs males of 
his body, of the dignity and degree of a knight baronet. 

January, 1616. — Pardon for Arthur Radcliffe and Edward Hall for the killing 
of William Hall, being men of very quiet conversation and never before accused 
of any misdemeanour. 

From the Signet Office. 

John Bowes, esquire, now chief baron of the court of exchequer of Ireland, 
appointed chancellor, 11 March, 1767. [Not found.] 

25 March. — £1,000 for an outfit for equipage. [Not found.] 

26 July, 1758.— Created baron Bowes of Clonlyon. [Not found.] 

There is a mezzotint engraving of John Bowes, * The Rt. Hon. John Bowes, 
Esq., lord chief baron of his Majesty's court of exchequer.' 

Arms as Bowes of Streatlam with different crest. A demy lion rampant 
grasping a sheaf of arrows. 

John Jackson, rector of Marske, who married Joan Bowes, was son of John 
Jackson, rector of Melsonby. See ' Northern Star,' vol. ii., p. 101. Note from 
Thomas Mason, esquire, of Copped Hewick, Harrogate, August, 1832. 

26 September, 1625. — Collected for the fire at Barcester or Bissester in 
Oxfordshire, Is. 9d. and two bodies. [Not found.] 

14 December, 1673. — Collected the sum of Is. 9d. towards the losses sustained 
by fire in the house called the Theatre Royal, Middlesex, the whole amounting to 
£11,000, £400, £88 2s. 6d. 

6 November, 1678. — Collected the sum of Is. 3Jd. towards the losses sustained 
by fire at Enaresborough, the whole amounting to £850 2s. 3d. [Not found.] 

7 May, 1666.— For Nathan Hoyle of Sowerby, in the county of York, 
clothier, 13d. [Not found.] 

13 December, 1674. — For the church and steeple at Burenden in Kent, Is. 9d. 
and four bodies. [Not found.] 

July, 1616. — Grant to sir George Selby, and sir John Fenwick, knights, 
and John Dudley, esquire, and their heirs in fee farm at the nomination of John 
Murray, esquire, of the barony of Langley, and divers manors and lordships 
within the bishopric of Durham, which were parcel of the possessions of 
Thomas, late earl of Northumberland, attainted of high treason; rendering 
yearly so much of the rents of the premises as are free or fee farm rent being 
£45 or thereabouts, and for so much as are demesne or customary rents being 
£124 or thereabouts. 

April, 1617. — Grant to sir Timothy Hutton, knight, and Humfrey Wharton 
at the petition of Thomas Cleyburn, gentleman, of the manor or lordship of 
Killerby with appurtenances, in the county of York, and for that there is no 
yearly value expressed in the particular, it is rated at £50 fine to his Majesty, 
and is done by virtue of the commission for amendment of defective titles. 
Subscribed by the commissioners. Procured by Mr. secretary Winwood. 

January, 1602. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay to Ralph Bowes, esquire, 
£750, to be taken out of recusants' goods as they shall be paid, above £6,000 to 
be found out at their own costs, [Not found.] 



RBLATIKG CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF EKGLAND. 211 

1612. — A warrant to sir Richard Moljneux, knight and baronet, receiver 
general of the duchy of Lancaster, to cause payment to be made into his 
Highness' receipt of all such sums of money as he hath received or shall here- 
after receive upon compositions made with copyholders or customary tenants 
within the said duchy. 

Vol. 8 begins 1660. 

June, 1660, — A grant to Henry Brabant, esquire, of the office of collector of 
the customs and subsidies of tonnage and poundage, of several goods and 
merchandises to be brought in or carried out by merchant strangers or others in 
the port of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with all fees, profits and com- 
modities thereunto belonging during his Majesty's pleasure, the same being 
void by the death of Richard Winn, gentleman. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney by 
warrant procured by Mr. secretary Nicholas. 

June, 1660. — A like [grant] to John Sudbury, clerk, of one of the prebend's 
place there [Westminster], void by the death of Dr. Steward, the late dean 
there. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Procured by Mr. 
secretary Nicholas. 

June, 1660. — A presentation of Ralph Blakiston to the rectory of Ryton, in 
the connty and diocese of Durham, vacant by the decease of William James, 
and in his Majesty^ gift pro hac vice by the vacancy of the see. By warrant 
under his Majesty's sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. secretary Nicholas. 

January, 1660. — Pardon in usual form to Alexander CoUingwood, of Little 
Ryle, in the county of Northumberland, gentleman. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. Signed by Secretary Nicholas. 

October, 1662. — The office of comptroller of his Majesty's customs in the 
port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with all fees, profits and advantages thereto 
belonging, granted to Martin Forster, esquire, during his life, with such non 
ohgtantes of statutes, etc., as are general. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney, by 
warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

November, 1663. — Warrant to the exchequer to pay to sir John Marley, 
knight (whom his Majesty has commanded to repair to Newcastle in order to 
his service), the sum of £800 and to strike a tally for £300 thereof upon Mark 
Milbank, esquire, receiver of the benevolence for Northumberland. And also to 
pay to captain Edward Trelawney £100 as (of) his Majesty's gift fur his 
attendance lately upon the Portuguese business. Both without account. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Beere, by warrant from the lord treasurer. 

April, 1663. — A pension of £500 per annum granted to sir John Lawson, 
knight, during his life. To commence from Michaelmas last, and payable out 
of such moneys as shall arise out of his Majesty's customs and be paid into the 
exchequer and in default thereof to be paid out of any other moneys remaining 
in his Majesty's exchequer. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney. By warrant under 
his Majesty's sign manual. 

October, 1662.— A grant unto sir Thomas Hesilrigge and Robert Hesilrigge, 
sons of sir Arthur Hesilrigge, deceased, and their heirs (for the better enabling 
them to pay the debts of their father) of the messuage of Hardwich, in 
Shankton, in the county of Leicester. And of the lands in Ilveston in the 
said county. And of the lands of Mersfen, West Brunton and New Biggen, 



212 BXTRACtS FROM TttB PRiVt SBAL POCKUTS 

Donnington and Throanton, in the county of Northumberland, vested in his 
Majesty by the late Act of Attainder, reserving the ancient rents and services. 
Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manuaL 

July, 1660. — Pardon granted unto sir Thomas Liddel, of Bavensworth castle, 
in the bishopric of Durham, baronet, of all offences. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

July, 1660.— The office or pl£^ce of Bouge Croix Pursuivant at Arms granted 
unto Henry Dethicke, gentleman, during his Majesty's pleasure, with the yearly 
fee or annuity of £20 and all other profits, commodities and pre-eminences 
thereunto belonging in as ample manner as William Dugdale, esquire, now 
Norrey, or any other before him enjoyed the same. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general, under his Majesty's sign manual. 

August, 1660.— A pardon unto Bobert Delavall, of South Dissington, in the 
county of Northumberland, esquire, of all treasons, misprisions of treasons, and 
other crimes, and offences whatsoever by him committed before the 10th day of 
June last past, together with a grant and restitution of all forfeitures by reason 
of the same and with such clauses and exceptions as are contained in a form 
remaining with his Majesty's solicitor general. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor- 
general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

August, 1660. — A pardon unto sir Baiph Delavall, of Seaton Delavall, in the 
county of Northumberland, baronet, of all such offences and with, such restitu- 
tions of lands and goods, and with such exceptions and clauses in all things as 
are expressed in the form of a pardon prepared for that purpose and remaining 
with Mr. Attorney-general. Subscribed by him. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

July, 1660. — The office of justice of the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, 
and Badnor granted unto sir Bichard Lloyd, knight, his Majesty's attorney in 
the principality of Wales, during his Majesty's pleasure. Together with the fee 
of £60 per annum, payable out of the exchequer at Brecon half yearly by 
equal portions, and all other fees, profits and advantages thereunto belonging. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. 

August, 1660. — A grant of the office of provost marshall of the island or 
islands of the Barbadoes in America unto Francis Cradocke, esquire, for and 
during the term of his natural life, together with the fees, profits and privileges 
thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under 
his Majesty's sign manual. 

August, 1660.— Timothy Fuller presented to the rectory of Middleton-in- 
Teesdale, void by the decease of Anthony Maxton, whether it belongs to his 
Majesty's gift by lapse or otherwise. Sign manual. [Not found.] 

August, 1660. — A grant of the offices of chancellor of the bishopric and 
county palatine of Durham and Sadbery, and of keeper of the great seal of the 
said bishopric unto sir William Darcy, knight. To hold during the vacancy of 
the see of Durham, together with all powers, jurisdictions, privileges, fees, 
profits and emoluments thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney. 
By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

August, 1660. — ^A grant of the office of clerk of the common pleas in the 
bishopric of Durham unto James Mickleton, gentleman. To hold during the 



RBLATINO CHIEFLY TO THE KORTH OF BNOLAND. 218 

▼aoancy of that bishopric, together with all fees, profits, and advantages 
thereunto belonging. Sabscribed and by warrant ut supra, 

August, 1660. — A presentation of Samuel Cradocke, batchelor in divinity, to 
the rectory of North Cadbury, in the county of Somerset, void by the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Ralph Oudworth, the last incumbent, whether it belongs to his 
Majesty's ^Upleno jure by lapse or otherwise. Subscribed by Mr. Trumbull. 
By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

November, . 1660. — A pardon for all treasons, offences, etc., in the usual 
form granted unto John Cropley of Clerkenwell in the county of Middlesex, 
esquire. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney -general. By warrant under his Majesty's 
sign manual. 

December, 1660. — A pardon granted unto sir Gilbert Gerard of De Flambert's, 
county Middlesex, baronet, of all such offences, etc. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. By warrant ut supra, 

October, 1660,— Pardon to John Brackenbury, the younger, of Eppleby, 
county York, of all such offences, and with such restitution of lands and goods 
and with such exceptions and clauses in all things as are expressed in tne form 
of a pardon remaining with his Majesty's attorney under his majesty's signet 
and sign manuaL Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor. 

Volume 10, 1663. 

January.— Grant to Thomas Lilburne, esquire, of several parcels of land, 
parcel of the manor of Holme Cultrum, in the county of Cumberland, in the 
greatest part whereof there are several terms of years in being. To hold to him 
and his assigns for such several and respective terms as with the terms now in 
being do make up 31 years, rendering the ancient rents, with a further grant to 
him and his assigns of the yearly sum of £100, to be paid out of the profits of 
the said manor from midsummer last for 31 years, and with such provisoes and 
covenants as were directed to be inserted by warrant from the lord high 
treasurer of England. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. 

February, 1663. — ^The dignity of a baronet of this kingdom granted to George 
Selby of Whitehouse, in the bishopric of Durham, esquire, in usual form; 
Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. The discharge in usual form ut supra, 

February, 1663. — John Trollop, late of Hula, in the bishopric of Durham, 
gentleman, having been found guilty of the murder of one William Selby, 
esquire, about 33 years ago, whereof he stands now attainted, and outlawed, 
and being the only remaining child of John Trollop, the father, who had two 
sons more both eminently active in the service of his Majesty's father (of 
blessed memory), and slain in the late wars, the said John Trollop, the father, 
humbly petitioned his Majesty to vouchsafe his gracious pardon to his son John 
whose execution would leave the aged petitioner issueless, and be the utter 
extinguishment of his family. His Majesty is hereby graciously pleased to 
pardon his said son for his said offence, and all pains, penalties, forfeitures, and 
outlawries thereby accrued. Provided he find security for his good behaviour. 
Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

June, 1674.— Colonel Edward Villiers, governor of his Majesty's castle of 
Tynemoath, having at his own charge by his Majesty's approbation, walled in a 



214 EXTRACTS FROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

parcel of ground, containing three roods or thereabouts, near adjoining to the 
lighthouse there, and erected one messuage or tenement upon it for the better 
preservation of the said lighthouse, and hath begun to rebuild, and at his own 
charge undertaken to finish, an old ruinated church lately standing upon the 
waste ground within the said castle. His Majesty is pleased to grant the said 
parcel of ground walled in and the soil and waste within the said castle to the 
said Colonel Villiers and his assigns for 99 years from Michaelmas last, at the 
yearly rent of 5s., with such provisoes and clauses as were directed to be inserted 
by warrant under his Majesty^s sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general. 

June, 1665. — Licence to colonel Bdward Villiers, his heirs and assigns, to 
erect and continue a lighthouse at Tynemouth, and to receive 12d. per ship of 
his Majesty's subjects, and 3s. per ship of strangers passing by that way, at the 
yearly rent of 20 marks. To commence and be paid from the death of the said 
Edward Villiers. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under the 
sign manual. 

March, 1671-2. — A presentation of John Cradock, master of arts, to the 
rectory of Walpoole St. Peter's, in the county of Norfolk, and diocese of 
Norwich, the same being void by the removal of William Jackson, the last 
incumbent, and in his Majesty's gift, pleno jure. Subscribed by sir John 
Nicholas for sir Philip Warwicke. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. Dat. 27<>. 

April, 1672. — The office or place of post or carrier of all his Majesty's letters 
between the court or place of residence and the first post stage or post office of 
the postmaster general, granted unto Thomas Derham, gentleman. To hold the 
said office during his life, and to be exercised by himself or deputy as amply as 
any other heretofore enjoyed the same, with all fees, perquisites, and profits 
thereto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

Volume 11, 1673. 

March, 1673-4. — Creation of Dame Susanna Bellasise, relict of sir Henry 
Bellasise, knight, deceased. Baronet Bellasise of Osgodby* county Lincoln, 
during her life. With all precedencies, rights, and privileges to the said dignity 
belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

March, 1674. — ^A presentation of John Aiesley, master of arts, to the rectory 
of Wolsingham, in the county palatine of Durham, void by the resignation of 
the right reverend father in God, Guy, bishop of Bristol, and in his Majesty's 
gitt, pleno jure. Subscribed by sir Philip Warwicke. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

April, 1664.— Warrant to the Exchequer to pay to George Selby, his 
Majesty's servant, the sum of £650 in full of £800 intended by his Majesty to 
be bestowed on him for his fidelity and good services to his majesty, £150 being 
already paid, and the said £650 to be paid without account, by warrant of the 
sign manual. 

December, 1665. — Grant to Charles Hildyard, esquire, of the sole making 
of blue paper, being his own invention, and never practised in England. 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 215 

To hold to )iim and his assignB for the space of 14 years, according to the 
statute in that behalf made, and with such clauses and provisions as ^.re usual 
in giants of like nature. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

March, 1665-6. Warrant to the exchequer to pay to sir. Walter Vane, 
knight, £300, in consideration of the charges he has been at in his late voyage 
as envoy to the elector of Brandenburgh, without account. Subscribed by Mr. 
Trumbull, by warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Dat. 27°. 

1668. Matthew Drew, secretary to the Duke of York named. [Not found.] 

February, 1668. — Grant to sir James Clavering to enclose 300 acres of his 
own land in Whitehouse, in the county of Durham, and to have the liberty of a 
park and free warren therein, and all privileges thereunto belonging. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

January, 1669. — A presentation of Walter Blakeston, master of arts, to the 
rectory of Langton, in the county and diocese of York, void by the death of the 
last incumbent, and in his Majesty's gift, pleno jure, by lapse or otherwise. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manuaL 

October, 1670. — An erection of an office to be called the office of treasurer 
and paymaster of his Majesty's ordnance. And a grant of the same unto Qeorge 
Wharton, esquire, to be executed by himself or deputy, during his Majesty's 
pleasure, with the salary of £40 per annum, payable out of his Majesty's 
exchequer quarterly. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under 
his Majesty's sign manual. Dat. 31° die. 

April, 1672. — Commission for the constituting Charles, earl of Carlisle, 
William, lord Widdrington, Edward Villiers, esquire, sir Christopher Conyers, sir 
Ralph Cole, sir Gilbert Qerrard, sir George Vane, sir James Clavering, Henry 
Lambton, John Tempest, William Blackeston, Cuthbert Carre, and Ralphe 
Davison, esquires, and sir Francis Bowes, or any three or more of them to be his 
Majesty's lieutenants for the county palatine and city of Durham. Subscribed 
by B£r. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

April, 1672.— A demise from his Majesty of Holy Island, in the county of 
Northumberland and bishopric of Durham, with the appurtenances, excepting 
the use and benefit of the fort, castle and haven there, to Daniel CoUingwood, 
esquire, for 31 years, under the yearly rent of £1 6s. 8d. And also a grant of 
the office of governor and keeper of the said castle within the island aforesaid. 
To hold the same with all fees, allowances, privileges and immunities thereunto 
belonging, during his Majesty's pleasure, with clauses and non ohatarUesMm^A. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. 

September, 1672. — A commission for constituting and appointing lieutenant- 
colonel William Stapleton his Majesty's captain general and governor in chief 
in and over his Majesty's islands of St. Christophers, Nevis, Montserat, Antego, 
Barbuida and Anguilla and all other the Caribee islands, lying to leewards from 
Guardaloupe, to the island of St. John de Porto Rico, which now are, or here- 
after shall be, under his Majesty's subjection or government, in the room of sir 
Charles Wheeler, baronet. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant 
under his Majesty's sign manual. 



216 EXTRACTS FEOM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

May, 1681.— Creation of Richard, lord viscount Lumley of Waterford, in the 
kingdom [*w?], to be baron Lnmley of Lumley, in the county palatine of 
Durham, with all rights, privileges and pre-eminences thereunto belonging. To 
hold to him and the heirs males of his body with remainder to Henry Lumley, 
esquire, his brother, and the heirs males of his body. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. 

August, 1681. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto Richard, lord 
Lumley, master of the horse to the Queen, £1,500 on account for the buying of 
horses, mares and geldings for the service of the Queen, Subscribed by Mr. 
Morice. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Countersigned by the 
lords commissioners of the treasury. Dat. 30° die. 

July, 1681.— A grant to colonel William Blackstone of £2140 9s. lOd. and all 
arrears of rents and other casual profits which accrued due to his Majesty 
during the late vacancy of the bishopric of Durham, with power to sue for the 
same, provided, and he agrees to pay into the exchequer for his Majesty's use, 
one full third part of the money received. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney -general. 
By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Dat. 13° die. 

August, 1682. — A warrant to the exchequer to repay to sir Nathaniel 
Johnson, knight, Patrick Trant, Cornwall Bradshaw, William Bridges, and 
John Hind, esquires, or their assigns, the sum of £13,000, with interest for the 
same at the rate of £6 per cent., and £4 gratuity per annum out of the 
revenue of hearth money (making both principal at the end of every six months) 
from the time of the loan thereof. And also like interest and gratuity for any 
further sum that they shall hereafter lend upon the same credit. Subscribed 
by Nicholas Morice, esquire. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manuaL 
Dated 12° Augusti. 

January, 1684. — His Majesty is pleased to make Angelica Magdaleine, the 
wife of Philip Wharton, esquire (an alien bom), a free denizen of this his 
Majesty's kingdom of England, granting her such liberties and privileges as 
other free denizens usually enjoy, with a proviso that she do take the oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy at some quarter sessions within one year after the 
date hereof, and that certificates thereof be filed in the Petty Bag office within 
three months after the taking of the said oaths. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

August, 1682. — A griant unto George Simpson of a keeper's place in the 
forest of Teesdale, in the county of Durham, in the room and place of Thomas 
Fetherston, deceased, to hold the same during his Majesty's pleasure, with all 
rights, privileges, profits and advantages thereunto belonging. Subscribed by 
Nicholas Morice, esquire. By warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manuaL 

February, 1683.— A grant unto John Craddock, gentleman, of the office of 
collector and receiver of the ancient tolls and duties arising by or within the 
several markets of or in the city of London, to be exercised by himself or 
deputy, with the salary of £600 per annum, to be retained and paid quarterly 
out of the moneys received by him. To hold to the said John Craddock from 
Michaelmas next during his Majesty's pleasure. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

November, 1672.— A warrant to the excheqfier to pay to Tobias Eden £1,095 
due from sir Robert Eden for and in respect of the dignity of a baronet 



REIiATINa CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 217 

conferred on liim. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

February, 1672. — A grant of the oflfices of ctilBtomer and collector of the 
customs in the port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with the fees and profits thereof, to 
Henry Brabant, son of Henry Brabant, esquire. To hold during his Majesty's 
pleasure, and to take effect from and after the death, surrender, forfeiture or 
other determination of the interest of the said Henry Brabant, the father, who 
hath a grant for his life. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general. By warrant 
from the lord Clifford, lord high treasurer of England. 

February, 1672.— Grant to colonel Henry Bwbankeof all his Majesty's right, 
title, and interest in and to the sum of £500 by him discovered to belong to 
his Majesty but concealed from him and remaining in the hands of George 
Dawson, late collector of the customs at Newcastle, upon his accounts for the 
months of February, March, April, and May, in the year of our Lord 1660, with 
power to sue for and recover same in his Majesty's name, and upon receipt 
thereof, to give acquitances and discharges, with such other clauses as are usual 
in like cases. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. Dat. 28^ die. 

May, 1673. — Pardon to William Calverley, gentleman, of all offences for 
^razeing,' interlining, or detering of any writs or process of the court of King's 
bench or other proceedings at law, and of all penalties and forfeitures by reason 
thereof. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general. By warrant under his Majesty's 
sign manual. 

March, 1678-9.— On a surrender made by Henry Ball, gentleman, of the 
office of searcher in his Majesty's port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, his Majesty is 
pleased to grant the same with the fees and profits thereof to John Tempest, 
esquire, and Edward Tempest, his son, for their lives successively, to be executed 
in person or by deputy. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant 
under his Majesty's sign manual. 

September, 1679. — Pardon to John Jennison, esquire, Catherine, Mary, and 
Elizabeth, his daughters, of all treasons, misprisions of treason, conceal- 
ments, offences, evil deeds, contempts and transgressions, of what kind or 
nature soever, either against the common or statute laws of this kingdom, and 
of all pains, penalties, and forfeitures by reason thereof, with restitution to the 
said John Jennison of lands and goods. And with such clauses, &c. Subscribed 
by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

December, 1679. — ^A pardon unto Robert Jenison, gentleman, of all treasons, 
misprisions of treason, felonies, burglaries, murders, homicides and other crimes 
and offences by him committed against the common laws or statute laws of this 
kingdom before the seventh day of August last, and with such other clauses and 
non obgtantes as were contained in the like pardons to Mr. Bedloe and others, 
according to his Majesty's order in council of the 7th of August last. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 
1679.— Warrant to the exchequer to pay unto Mistress Eleanor Qwynn, an 
annuity of £5,000 during his Majesty's pleasure towards the support and 
maintenance of herself and the earl of Burford, to be paid quarterly and to 
commence from Christmas last. Subscribed by sir John Nicholas. By warrant 
under his Majesty's sign manual. Dat. 11® die. 

VOL. XXIV. 28 



218 BXTEAOTS FROM THE PEIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

January, 1674.— A presentation of Thomas Tullie, doctor in divinity, and one 
of his Majesty's chaplains in ordinary to the deanery of Bipon, in the county of 
York, void by the death of doctor Neale, late dean there and in his Majesty's gift 
pleno jure. Subscribed by Mr. Bere. By warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. 

January, 1675.— William Christian, esquire, late receiver of the duty to his 
Majesty on fire hearths and stoves, in the county palatine of Darham, town of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, county pf Northumberland, and town of Berwick-upon- 
Tweed being in arrear upon his account to his Majesty £477 lis. 4J. His 
Majesty is pleased to grant the said sum to sir Francis Anderson to his own use 
without account. With power to sue for the same in his Majesty's name and 
directions to the officers of the exchequer to issue process, and do all other 
acts necessary for the benefit of the said sir Francis in the premises. Subscribed 
by Mr. Bere. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. I)at. 12* die. 

March, 1675-6.— Grant to Rowland Tempest and John Tempest, sons of John 
Tempest, esquire, for their lives, and the life of the longer liver of them, of the 
first of the two offices of collector of the customs in the port of Hull, which shall 
become void by the death or other determination of the interest of Mathew 
Appleyard or Thomas Loysons (?), the present officers, with all fees and profits 
thereunto belonging to be executed by deputy or deputies. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

May, 1675. — Grant to Christopher Vane, esquire, and his heird, of the nuiaors 
of Shipborne and Fairlawn, in the county of Kent, and of all other lands and 
hereditaments which by indenture dated the thirtieth day of June, 16 Chas. I., 
were settled and limited to the use of sir Henry Vane, the youoger, for his life 
and for raising of portions for his daughters with other remainders over. With 
such non ohstantes and clauses as were directed by warrant under his Majesty's 
sign manual. Subscribed by Mr, Attorney-general. 

March, 1675-6.— A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto Col. Francis Cair, 
£500 without account, as of his Majesty's free gift and royal bounty in considera- 
tion of divers good services. Subscribed by sir Philip Warwick. By warrant 
under his Majesty's sign manual, Dat. 27* die. » 

June, 1685. — A grant unto Ralph Williamson, esquire, of the office of comp- 
troller of the customs in the port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and in all ports 
members and creeks thereunto belonging, with power to constitute such and so 
many deputies (to be first approved of by the lord high treasurer or commissioners 
of the treasury for the time being) as he shall think convenient for his Majesty's 
service, during his Majesty's pleasure, with all fees, profits and advantages to 
the said office belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, by wanrant 
under his Majesty's sign manual. 

July, 1685. — A presentation of Robert Collingwood, derk, to the vicarage of 
Catherick, in the archdeaconry of Richmond, in the county of York, and diocese 
of Chester, void by the death of Charles Anthony, the last incumbent there, and 
in his Majesty's gift pleno jure, by lapse or otherwise howsoever. Subscribed 
by sir William Trumbull, by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

January, 1685-6.— A grant unto Charles Estob, clerk, and master of arts, of 
a prebendary's place in the metropolitical church of Canterbury, void by the 
death Dr. Edmund Cassells, late, prebend there, and in his Majesty's %i%plemo 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 219 

jure. To hold the same during his life, with all rights, privileges, and advan- 
tages thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Gauntlett. By warrant under 
his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

February, 1685-6. — A grant and confirmation unto Elizabeth Cradock, widow 
of John Cradock, her executors, administrators and assigns, of the yearly sum of 
£600 for the remainder of 21 years granted to her said husband, and payable 
quarterly out of the profits arising by the markets of the city of London. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, by warrant under his Majesty's sign 
manual. 

February, 1685-6. — His Majesty is pleased to constitute John Dryden, esquire, 
poet laureate and historiographer royal. And to grant him £300 per annum 
payable quarterly out of the exchequer from lady day last, during his Majesty's 
pleasure. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general under his Majesty's sign manual. 

July, 1685. — A grant unto Thomas Wren, master of arts, of the place of 
master of the free school of Berkhamstead, void by the resignation of Edmund 
Nubolt, and in his Majesty's gift. To hold the same during his natural life, with 
all fees and profits to the same belonging. Subscribed by sir William Trumbull, 
by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

January, 1685-6.— His Majesty is graciously pleased to confer the dignity of 
baroness of Darlington, in the county palatine of Durham, and of countess of 
Dorchester, in the county of Dorset, upon Catherine Sidley (only daughter of 
sir Charles Sidley), and to grant to her the usual fee of £20 per annum, payable 
half yearly out of the exchequer during her life, together with all rights, 
privileges, and immunities to the said dignities respectively belonging. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general, by warrant undisr his Majesty's royal sign 
manual. 

October 1688. — His Majesty's gracious and general pardon unto Christopher 
Vane, esquire, sir James Tillie, knight, and John Harington, gentleman, of all 
treasons, misprisions of treason, crimes, misdemeanors and ofitences, and of all 
pains, penalties and forfeitures incurred by reason thereof. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attomey^general, by warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Immediate. 

October, 1688. — His Majesty's gracious and general pardon unto the lord 
bishop of Durham, of all treasons, misprisions of treasons, felonies, crimes and 
offences, and of all pains, penalties and forfeitures by reason thereof, ut mipra, 

November, 1688.— Alike pardon unto Christopher Vane, of Fairelawne, in the 
county of Kent, esquire, of all treasons, etc., by him committed before the 23rd 
day of October last past. And of all indictments, etc., ut supra, 

March, 1688-9. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto George, marquis of 
Halifax, keeper of the privy seal £4 per diem in lieu of the ancient allowance 
of sixteen dishes of meat, his Majesty thinking fit rather to grant the said daily 
sum than the said diet should be taken in kind. The said allowance to continue 
from the 18th day of February last, and from thenceforth to be continued and 
paid at the four most usual feasts in the year, during so long time as he shall 
continue to be keeper of the said seal. Subscribed for [tic] sir William Trumbull, 
by warrant under his Maiesty's royal sign manual. 

March, 1689.— A grant unto James Finney, clerk, of the prebend of Hustwate 
in the metropolitical church of York, the same being void by the death of Dr. 
Edmund Diggle, late prebendary thereof, and in his Majesty's gift by the 



220 BXtRACTS FROM THfi PRIVY SBAL DOCKBTS 

vacancy of the see at the time of the decease of the said Dr. Diggle. Subscribed 
for sir William Trumbull, by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

June, 1685. — A grant to George Simpson of a keeper's place in the forest of 
Teesdale, county Durham, void by the death of Charles, late earl of Carlisle. 
To hold during his Majesty's pleasure with all rights and advanta^^ thereunto 
belonging, and to execute the same by himself or deputy. Subscribed by sir 
John Nicholas, by warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Countersigned by 
the lord treasurer. Dated 17"<» die. 

February, 1684. — His Majesty is pleased to constitute and appoint sir Philip 
Howard to be captain general and governor-in-chief in and over the island of 
Jamaica, and other the territories depending thereon, and to grant him the 
powers, privileges, and authorities, according to his late Majesty's directions. 
Signified to be his Majesty's pleasure by warrant under his royal sign manual. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. 

June, 1685.— The dignity of a baronet of the kingdom of England, with all 
the rights, privileges, and pre-eminences thereunto belonging, granted unto John 
Sudbury of Eldon, in the county of Durham, esquire, and the heirs males of his 
body lawfully begotten. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general. A discharge to him of £1,095 usually paid 
into the exchequer in respect of that dignity, ut supra. Dat. 30™° die. 

July, 1685. — Grant to sir William Bowes, knight, of the offices of master 
forester and chief warden of the forest and chaces within the lordship of Barnard 
Castle, in the bishopric or county of Durham, and chief ranger of the forest of 
Teesdale and chace of Marwood, and all fees, profits, and advantages thereunto 
belonging. To be held and exercised by himself, or his sufficient deputy or 
deputies, during his Majesty's pleasure, with such covenants for repairs, payment 
of keepers wages, and replenishing the said forest and chace with deer as was 
directed by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. 

July, 1689. — A grant unto Christopher Vane, esquire, of the offices of master 
forester, and chief warden of all his Majesty's forests and chaces, with the lord- 
ship of Barnard Castle, in the bishopric or county of Durham, and of chief 
keeper of the forest of Teesdale and chace of Marwood, alias Marwood Hagg in 
the bishopric or county aforesaid. To hold and exercise the same to the said 
Christopher Vane and the heirs males of his body, by him or themselves or 
sufficient deputy or deputies, with the like wages, fees, privileges, and pre- 
eminences, as have been formerly held and enjoyed in respect of the same, and 
such covenants and clauses are inserted as were directed by warrant under his 
Majesty's royal sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general. 

April, 1686. — ^Whereas sir Henry Brabant having surrendered to his Majesty 
the fee of £27 per annum, with the arrears thereof payable out of the customs 
as belonging to his office of collector of the customs in port of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, which was granted to him by his late Majesty's letters patent, his Majesty 
is graciously pleased to give warrant for paying him the like yearly fee or 
salary for his said office, out of the said revenue or other customs not appro- 
priated ; quarterly from Christmas last during his Majesty's pleasure. And 
the sum of £27 for executing that office for a year ended then, to be paid him 
forthwith. Subscribed by Nicholas Morice, esquire, by warrant under his 



RELATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OP ENGLAND. 221 

Majesty's rojal sign maaual, and countersigned by the lord treasurer, dated 
the 28th. 

September, 1686. — His Majesty's commission to sir Nathaniel Johnson, 
knight, to be captain general and governor-in-chief in and over the islands of 
Nevis, St. Christopher, Montserrat, Antigua, Barbouda, Anguilla, and all other 
his Majesty's islands and colonies in America called the Carribee islands, lying 
to leeward from Guadaloupe to the islands of St. John de Porto Rico. To 
hold during his Majesty's pleasure, with such clauses, powers and authorities, as 
were directed by warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. 
Solicitor-general. 

October, 1686. — A presentation of Christopher Wyvill, clerk, to the deanery 
of Ripon in the county of York, void by the promotion of Dr. Thomas Cart- 
wright to the bishopric of Chester, and in his Majesty's gitt, plena jure. Sub- 
scribed by Mr. Qauntlett. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. 

December, 1686. — Discharge to sir Richard Browne, grandson of sir Richard 
Browne, late of Deptford, in the county of Kent, deceased (upon whom his late 
Majesty was pleased to confer the dignity of a baronet), of and from the sum of 
£1,095, usually paid into the exchequer for and in respect of that dignity. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's royal 
sign manual. Countersigned by the Lord treasurer. 

March, 1686-7. — A grant unto John Duck of Haswell on the Mount, in the 
county of Durham, esquire, and the heirs males of his body lawfully begotten, 
of the dignity of a baronet of the kingdom of England, with all the rights 
privileges, and pre-eminencies thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

March, 1686-7. — A warrant to the exchequer to pay unto Dr. Nathaniel 
Johnston (in consideration of his good services), or to his assigns, the yearly sum 
of £400 without account, quarterly from Christmas last during his Majesty's 
pleasure. Subscribed by sir William Trumbull, under his Majesty's royal sign 
manual. Countersigned by the lords commissioners of the treasury. 

May, 1687. — A discharge unto sir John Duck of Haswell on the Mount, in 
the county of Durham, baronet, of and from the sum of £1,095, usually paid 
into the exchequer for and in respect of the said dignity of baronet, which his 
Majesty was pleased lately to confer upon him. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor- 
General, by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. Countersigned by 
the lords commissioners of the treasury, dated the 12th. 

June, 1688. — A revocation of lettei-s patent, dated 10 July, 1 James II., con- 
taining a grant of the office of customer and collector in the port of Hull to Mathew 
Appleyard, esquire, and his Majesty ratifies, allows, and confirms certain letters 
patent granted by his Majesty's late royal brother, containing a grant of the 
aforesaid office to Rowland and John Tempest, esquires, for their lives and the 
life of the longer liver of them, to be executed by them or their sufficient 
deputy. With all fees, profits and emoluments to the same belonging, except 
the fee of £39 per annum usually paid in respect of the said office, which hath 
been by them surrendered to his Majesty, with a clause directing the pay- 
ment of the like sum of £39 per annum, at the four most usual feasts in the 
year, from lady day last, during his Majesty's pleasure. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's sign manual. Countersigned 
by the lords commissioners of the treasury. 



222 EXTRACTS FROM THK PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

I desire that nothing pass concerning the grant in reversion of the mastership 
of Sherborne Hospital, in the bishopric of Durham, after the expiration of the 
interests of Mr. Meecham, present master thereof, without first giving me notice 
of it, his Majesty having granted it to Sir Philip Talbot, at the court of White- 
hall, the 30th day of April, 1672. Arlington. To the clerk of the signet 
attending. [Not found.] 

Charles Bex, Our will and pleasure is that you prepare a bill for our royal 
signature to pass our privy seal containing a grant to George Simpson of Shipley, 
in our county of Durham, of a keeper's place of our forest of Teesdale, in our 
county, void by the death of Thomas Featherstone. To have, hold and enjoy 
the same for and during our pleasure, together with all rights, privileges, profits, 
and advantages thereunto belonging in as full and ample a manner to all intents 
and purposes as the said Thomas Featherstone or any other person hath or of 
right ought to have held and enjoyed the same. And for so doing this shall be 
your warranty. Given at our court at Windsor, the 11th day of August, 1682, in 
the 39th year of our reign. By his Majesty's command, Conway. To the clerk 
of the signet attending. [Not found.] 

George Simpson a keeper of Teesdale forest. 

February, 1692-3. — Grant and confirmation to sir Ralph Cole, baronet, and 
his heirs of the advowson of Brancepeth aXiaa Branspeth dlias Brandspeth, in 
the county palatine of Durham, with the profits and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his 
Majesty's sign manual. 

February, 1693-4. — A presentation of Thomas Tillie, clerk, one of their 
Majesty's chaplains in ordinary to the rectory of Aldingham, in the county 
Palatine of Lancaster and diocese of Chester, void by the death of William ' 
Thompson, the last incumbent, and in their Majesty's gift, pleno jure^ or other- 
wise. Subscribed by sir John Nicholas. By warrant under his Majesty's royal 
sign manual. 

May, 1695.— His Majesty is graciously pleased to create Ford, lord Grey of 
Werke, viscount Glendale, in the county of Northumberland, and earl of 
Tankerville. And to grant to him the fee of £20 per annum for the better 
support of the dignity of an earl. To hold the said dignity and fee to him and 
the heirs male of his body, with all rights, privileges and pre-eminences to the 
same dignities belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, by warrant 
under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

February, 1707.— A presentation of John Hilton, master of arts, to the 
vicarage of Stonehouse, in the county and diocese of Gloucester, the same being 
void by the decease of Robert Ratcliffe, the last incumbent. And in her 
Majesty's gift, plena jure. Subscribed by warrant under her Majesty's sign 
manual. 

July, 1708. — Warrant to the exchequer out of any her Majesty's treasure 
there not particularly appropriated to pay unto James Craggs, esquire (whom 
her Majesty hath appointed to be her secretary in the court of the ki^g of 
Spain), or his assigns, the sums of £300 for his equipage, and 40s. by the day 
for his ordinary entertainment and allowance. To commence from the 28th 
day of March, 1708, and to continue till his returning into her Majesty's 
presence, or other signification of her Majesty's pleasure. To be paid from 



BBLATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

3 months to 3 months^ the first 3 months' allowance to be advanced unto him. 
And further to pay unto him or his assigns such sums of money for 
intelligeucies, etc., as by bills under his hand, subscribed and allowed by one of 
her. Majesty's principal secretaries of state shall appear to be due unto him. 
The said several sums to be received by him without account. Subscribed for Sir 
William Trumbull, by warrant under her Majesty's royal sign manual. Dat. 28th. 

September, 1708. — A warrant to the exchequer out of any her Majesty's 
treasure there (not particularly appropriated) to pay unto James Craggs, esq. 
(whom her Majesty has appointed to be her resident in the court of the king of 
Spain) or his assigns, the sums of £300 for his equipage, and £3 by the day for 
his ordinary entertainment. To commence from the day of the date of these 
presents, and to determine inclusively on the day of his returning into her 
Majesty's presence or other signification of her Majesty's pleasure. To be paid 
from 3 months to 3 months, the first 3 months to be forthwith paid unto him. 
And further to pay to him or his assigns such sums of money for intelligence, etc., 
as by bills under his hand, subscribed and allowed by one of her Majesty's 
principal secretaries of state, shall appear to be due uuto him, the said several 
sums to be received by him without account. Subscribed for Mr. Oauntlett 
by warrant under her Majesty's royal sign manual. Countersigned by the lord 
high tieasurer. Dated the 18th. 

March, 1710-11. — A warrant to the exchequer out of any her Majesty's 
treasure there (applicable to the uses of the civil government) to pay unto 
James Craggs, esq. (whom her Majesty hath appointed her envoy extraordinary 
to the king of Spain) or his assigns, the sum of £500 for his equipage, and £5 by 
the day for his ordinary entertainment. To commence from the 25th day of 
this instant March inclusive, and to determine inclusively on the day of his 
return into her Majesty's presence or sooner upon signification of her Majesty's 
pleasure. To be paid from 3 months to 3 months, the first 3 months' allowance 
to be advanced unto him. And further to pay unto him or his assigns, such 
sums of money for intelligences, etc., as by bills under his hand, subscribed and 
allowed by one of her Majesty's principal sepretaries of state shall appear to be 
due unto him. The said several sums to be received by him without account. 
With a clause determining his allowance as resident there on the said 25th day 
of March instant exclusive. Subscribed for sir William Trumbull, by warrant 
under her Majesty's royal sign manual, Dat. 31st. 

May, 1699. — Permission for Charles Eden, gentlemen, to return from France. 
[Not found.] 

11 December, 1688. — ^Also to Francis Butler, gentleman, having gone before. 
[Not found.] 

3iay, 1703. — Her Majesty is graciously pleased to grant unto Henry Lumley, 
esq., the office of governor and captain of the isle of Jersey and castle of Gurye, 
alias Mont-Orgneil and Elizabeth, and all manors, lands, profits and advantages 
thereunto belonging. To hold the same by himself or his sufficient deputy or 
deputies (to be first approved by her Majesty) during her Majesty's pleasure. 
Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general. By warrant under her Majesty's royal 
sign manual. 

May, 1703.>*-A grant unto James Craggs, esq., of the office of clerk of the 
delivery and deliverance of all manner of artillery, munition, and other 



324 EXTRACTS PROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS 

necessaries whatsoever appertaining to the office of the ordnance with the wages 
and fee of twelve pence by the day, payable quarterly out of the exchequer, 
with a revocation of former lettere patent, whereby her Majesty granted the 
said office to John Pulteney, esq. Subscribed by Mr. Solicitor-general, by 
warrant under her Majesty's sign manual. 

September, 1702. — Anthony Bowes, keeper of Hyde park. [Not found.] 

July, 1698. — His Majesty is pleased to create Christopher Vane of Babie 
castle, esq., a baron of the kingdom of England by the name, style and title of 
lord Barnard, baron of Barnard castle, in the county palatine of Durham. To 
hold to him and the heirs males of his body lawfully begotten, with all rights, 
pre-eminencies and privileges thereunto belonging. By warrant under his 
Majesty's royal sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney -general. 

October, 1698.— His Majesty is pleased to constitute and appoint Nathaniel 
Blakeston, esq., his captain-general and go vemor-in -chief in and over the pro- 
vince and territory of Maryland in America, with all the rights, members and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging, during his Majesty's pleasure. And such 
powers, authorities and clauses are inserted as were directed by warrant signed 
by their excellencies the lords justices. Subscribed by Mr, Attorney-general. 

January, 1690-1. — Upon the promotion of Peers Mauduit, esq., late rouge 
dragon pursuivant, to the office of Windsor herald, their Majesties grant the said 
office of rouge dragon pursuivant unto Hugh Clopton, gentleman, with the 
annuity of £20 per annum, and all other fees, perquisites and advantages thereto 
belonging. To hold and exercise the same to the said Hugh Clopton during his 
good behaviour, and to receive the said annuity half-yearly at Lady day and 
Michaelmas, out of the receipt of exchequer. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general, by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

April, 1691.— A presentation of Thomas Wren, clerk, to the rectory of 
Kellyshall, in the county of Hertford and diocese of Lincoln, void by the 
deprivation of Alexander Horton (the last incumbent) for his not taking the 
oaths, according to the late act of parliament, and in his Majesty's gift by the 
vacancy of the see of Ely, pro hac vice, by virtue of his Majesty's prerogative 
royal, or otherwise howsoever. Subscribed by Nicholas Morice, esq., by warrant 
under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

April, 1691. — A presentation of Dr. Thomas Cumber to the deanery of the 
cathedral church of Durham, void by deprivation of Denis Qrenville, late dean 
thereof, for his not taking the oaths according to a late act of parliament and in 
his Majesty's gift, pleno jure. Subscribed for Nicholas Morice, esq., by warrant 
under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

November, 1691. — Grant to Christopher Vane, esq., of the next advowson, 
donation and presentation of the rectory of Middleton in Teesdale, in the 
county and diocese of Durham after the decease or other avoidance of the 
present incumbent, of the said rectory and such clauses are inserted as were 
directed by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

April, 1711. — A warrant to the exchequer, out of any her Majesty's 
treasure applicable to the uses of the civil government, to pay unto Thomas 
Lord Baby (whom her Majesty hath appointed one of her ambassadors extra- 
ordinary and plenipotentiaries to the states general) or his ^assigns the sums of 
£1,500 for his equipage, and £100 by the week for his ordinary entertainment. 



BBLATING CHIEFLY TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 225 

To commence from the 6th day of March last (the day he took his audience of 
leave of the king of Prussia) inclusive, and to determine inclusively on the day 
of his returning into her Majesty's presence, or sooner upon signification of her 
pleasure. To be paid from 3 months to 3 months, the first three months* 
allowance to be advanced to him. And further to pay unto him or his assigns 
such sums of money for intelligences, etc., as by bills under his hand subscribed 
and allowed by one of the principal secretaries of state shall appear to be due 
unto him. The same to be received without account subscribed for Joseph 
Moyle, esquire, by warrant under her Majesty's royal sign manual. Counter- 
signed by the lords commissioners of the treasury. Dat. 26th. 

July, 1711. — Her Majesty is pleased to grant unto Thomas lord Baby the 
dignities of viscount and earl of the kingdom of Great Britain by the names 
and titles of viscount Wentworth of Wentworth, Woodhouse, and Stainborough, 
and earl of Strafford, in the county of York. To hold and enjoy the same to him 
and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And for want of such issue 
to Peter Wentworth, esquire, brother to the said lord Baby and the heirs male 
of his body lawfully begotten. With all rights, privileges, pre-eminences, and 
advantages thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By 
warrant under her Majesty's royal sign manual. 

October, 1711.— Her Majesty is pleased to constitute and appoint sir Henry 
Bellasyse, knight, Edward Stowell and Andrew Archer, esquires, her com- 
missioners to enquire into the number and quality of the forces in her 
Majesty's pay in Spain and Portugal, and to examine the state of the payments 
and accounts relating to the said forces, and to the garrisons and fortifications 
of Gibraltar and Port Mahon, and also the accounts of the agent victuallers and 
commissaries of stores in those ports. With power to them or any two of them 
to do all things in due manner relating to the said commission and pursuant to 
her Majesty's instructions. Subscribed by warrant under her Majesty's royal 
sign manual. 

August, 1721. — His Majesty is pleased to discharge the executors or adminis- 
trators of James Craggs, esquire, of and from the quantity of 1,010 oz. 15dwt.of 
white plate delivered him as late one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of 
State. And of and from all actions, suits, prosecutions, troubles and demands 
concerning the same, and that the indenture entered into by the said James 
Craggs be delivered up. Subscribed for Mr. Moyle, by warrant under his 
Majesty's royal sign manual. Countersigned by the lords commissioners of the 
treasury. Dated the 31st. 

March, 1722. — A grant of the dignities of a baroness and countess of the 
kingdom of Great Britain unto Sophia Charlotte countess Leinster in his 
Majesty's kingdom of Ireland by the names, styles and titles of baroness of 
Brentford in the county of Middlesex, and countess of Darlington in the county 
of Durham. To hold the said dignities to her the said countess of Leinster for 
and during the term of her natural life, with all the rights, privileges, 
precedencies and immunities thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney- 
general. By warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

July, 1721. — His Majesty is graciously pleased to make Sophia Charlotte 
countess Platen, baroness Eilmansegge and Carolina Kilmansegge her daughter 
(aliens bom), free denizens of this his kingdom of Great Britain. And that they 



826 IfiXTRAOTS FROM THE PEIVY SBA!l DOCKUTS : 

enjoy all rights, immunities and advantages to a free denizen belonging. And 
such clauses are inserted as are usual in grants of like nature, and as were 
directed by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general. 

June, 1723. — A pardon unto William Hutchinson of Bernard castle, in the 
county of Durham, esquire, and one ot his Majesty's justices of the peace for the 
said county, for his omission and offence in not taking in due form the oaths 
required to be taken by law, within the time thereby limited. And of all dis- 
abilities, pains and penalties incurred by reason thereof. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney -general. By warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. 

April, 1727.— A presentation of Thomas Tullie, clerk and batchelor of law to 
the rectory of Aldingham, in the county palatine of Lancaster and diocese of 
Chester, void by the death of Dr. Thomas Tullie, the last incumbent, and in his 
Majesty's gift, ^/^ojwr^. Subscribed for Mr. Moyle. By warrant under his 
Majesty's royal sign manual. 

May, 1731. — A grant from his Majesty unto Elias Thornhill, of Sunderland 
by the sea, in the county of Durham, whitesmith, his executors, administrators 
and assigns of the sole use and benefit of his new invention of making the rim 
or edge of coal waggon wheels with iron or steel and with iron ribs or *■ tabbs ' 
and iron bolts, rivets, and screws for the fastening the same, which will 
' perserve ' the said wheels and make them last many years longer than those 
now used and thereby prevent the destruction of many thousands of timber 
trees in the year to the great advantage of all persons concerned in the coal 
trade, and by preserving the timber trees for ships and other vessels to the benefit 
of the nation in general. To hold and exercise the same within England, Wales, 
and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, for and during the term of 14 years, accord- 
ing to the statute in such case made and provided, and such clauses, provisoes 
and restrictions are inserted as are usual in grants of the like nature. Subscribed 
by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual 
and countersigned by the lord Harrington. 

November, 1716. — A grant unto Thomas Tullie, master of arts, of the deanery 
of Carlisle, now void by the death of Thomas Gibbons, late dean there, and in 
his Majesty's gift, plena jure. To hold the same during his life with all profits 
and privileges thereunto belonging. Subscribed by Mr. Alexander. By- 
warrant under his Royal Highness's sign manual. 

January, 1731. — His Majesty is pleased to constitute Morgan Vane, esquire, 
to be accountant and comptroller general of the stamp duties on vellum, parch- 
ment, and paper in the room of William Ashurst, esquire, deceased. To hold the 
same during his Majesty's pleasure with the yearly salaries of £300 for himself 
and £150 for three clerks to be employed under him. To commence from the 
date of this intended grant and be computefl by the day and paid unto and for 
Lady Day next, and from thence to be paid quarterly in like manner as other 
the salaries payable to the officers employed in the said duties are paid and 
satisfied. Signified to be his Majesty's pleasure by warrant under his royal sign 
manual. Countersigned by the lords commissioners of the treasury and sub- 
scribed by Mr. Attorney-general. 

June, 1720. — His Majesty is pleased to grant unto William Vane, esquire, the 
next advowBon, donation and presentation to the rectory of Middleton in- 



BBLAT[N0 CmBFLY TO THE NOBTH OP ENGLAND. 227 

TristaU, aliiu Teasdale, in the county of Durham and the diocese of the same, 
next after the decease or other avoidance of the present incumbent of the said 
rectory, and such clauses are inserted as are usual in grants of like nature. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's royal 
sign manual. 

December, 1737.— A grant unto Jane Vanef, widow and hoop petticoat 
maker, of her new invention of a machine or joint hoops so well contrived that 
she can bring an hoop coat of four yards wide into the compass of two yards or 
less for the ladies to go into a coach or chair without any manner of trouble or 
inconvenience to those that wear them or any detriment to trade. To hold to 
her, her executors, administrators and assigns for the term of 14 years according 
to the statute in that behalf made and provided, within England, Wales, and 
town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and a clause is inserted to oblige her to cause a 
particular description of the nature of her said invention by a writing under 
her hand and seal to be inroUed in the High Court of Chancery within two 
calendar months after the date of the grant hereby intended, together with all 
such other clauses, provisoes and restrictions as are usual in grants of the like 
nature. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general. By warrant under his Majesty's 
Boyal sign manual. Countersigned by the duke of Newcastle. 

June, 1743. — His Majesty is graciously pleased to grant unto Mary, wife of 
Charles Umf reville, Hannah, wife of William Cawston, Deborah, wife of Thomas 
Hickeringill, Ursula, wife of John Hayward, and Bridget, wife of John Oent, 
the younger, sisters of Charles Drew, otherwise Thomas Roberts (who was lately 
tried and convicted of a felony and murder by him committed on Charles John 
Drew, gentleman), their heirs and assigns respectively, to hold to tbem, their 
heirs and assigns respectively as tenants in common and not as joint tenants, 
all those capital messuages, lands, tenements, mansion houses, advowson, and 
premises herein particularly mentioned. And all the estate, right, title, and 
interest whatsoever either in law or equity of in and to the same, and of, in and 
to every part and parcel thereof, which became in any wise forfeited or 
belonging to his Majesty by reason of any murder or other felonies, trespasses, 
misdemeanours, or offences whatsoever by the said Charles Drew otherwise 
Thomas Roberts committed, or of any attainders, convictions, or judgments of 
or for the same or any of them. And to discharge the said Mary Umfreville, 
Hannah Cawston, Deborah Hickeringill, Ursula Hayward and Bridget Gent, 
and their heirs respectively of and from all executions, seizures, process and 
proceedings whatsoever, had, made or issued against him the said Charles 
Drew otherwise Thomas Roberts, whereto the estate hereby granted by his 
Majesty to them and their heirs as aforesaid is or shall be any ways subject or 
liable for or by reason of any such attainder, conviction, or judgment against 
him the said Charles Drew otherwise Thomas Roberts. And such recitals and 
clauses are inserted as are usual in grants of the like nature. Subscribed by 
Mr. Attorney-general by warrant from their excellencies the lords justices 
guardians of the kingdom. Countersigned by the lords commissioners of the 
treasury. 

January, 1744. —His Majesty's warrant to the exchequer, out of any treasure 
there applicable to the uses of the civil government, to pay unto Ralph 
Jennison, esquire, or to his assigns, the yearly pension or sum of iSl,200, to 



228 EXTRACTS PROM THE PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS. 

commence from the day of the date of the privy seal, and to be computed and 
paid by the day to the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
next ensuing, and from thenceforth quarterly during his Majesty's pleasure, to 
be received by him without account. Subscribed for Mr. Pry, by warrant 
under his Majesty's royal sign manual. Countersigned by the lords com- 
missioners of the treasury. Dated the 5th. 

January, 1736. — A grant unto James Hugonin, esquire, of the office of 
sergeant at arms in ordinary to attend upon his Majesty's royal person (in the 
room of Joseph Lawson, esquire, deceased). To hold the same with the fee of 
three shillings by the day. And also two shillings and sixpence by the day for 
board wages. Payable quarterly at the receipt of his Majesty's exchequer, out 
of any his Majesty's treasure there applicable to the uses of the civil govern- 
ment. And to commence from the 21st day of December last past inclusive. 
Together with all other fees, profits and advantages thereunto belonging, during 
his Majesty's pleasure. Subscribed by Mr. Attorney-general, by warrant under 
his Majesty's royal sign manual. Countersigned by the duke of Grafton, lord 
chamberlain of his Majesty's household. 

June, 1736. — His Majesty's most gracious pardon 'unto John Nesham of 
Sunderland, near the sea, in the county palatine of Durham, gentleman, of 
murder and manslaughter for and concerning the death and killing of John 
G-ray of Lumley, in the said county, pitman, and of all indictments, convictions, 
pains, penalties, and forfeitures, incurred by reason thereof. And such clauses 
are inserted as are usual in grants of the like nature. Subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-general, by warrant under his Majesty's royal sign manual. Counter- 
signed by the duke of Newcastle. 

Lease for 41 years from March, 1655, if it shall so long continue in his 
Majesty's hands by reason of the recusancy of Robert Conyers, gentleman, a 
convict recusant, to Edward Lively, gentleman, of his two parts of the manor of 
Hutton Bonville, county York. [Not found.] 



Pqttejis' Names, Absica. (See page 41.) 




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229 



X^SEATON SLUICE. 

By Wm. Wbavee Tomlinson. 

[Read on the 24th September, 1902.] 

Should a history of the rise and fall of local industries be written, 
few places would have a more interesting record than Seaton Sluice. 
It is situated in the manor of Hartley, which foimed part of the 
extensive barony of Gaugy. 

When we first meet with the place it was known as Hartley 
Pans — a name derived from its staple industry of salt-making. * Sir 
John Delaval's Pans' were deemed worthy of mention by Dr. 
William BuUein in 1564 when visiting the worthy knight, and the 
salt made in them was, we learn from another source, ' esteamed by 
sutche as buye the same to be better than any other white salt, and 
to be as good as baye-salt or as salt upon salt.' A great quantity of 
it was made at these pans and carried in wains to Blyth to be 
transportei to other parts of the kingdom, chiefly to Yarmouth 
where it was used in the curing of herrings. 

In » the latter years of queen Elizabeth's reign a dispute as to 
right of way from Hartley to Blyth's Nook arose between sir Robert 
Delaval and Thomas Cramlingcon. The former claimed the right 
to pass with his carts, wains and other carriages along the road called 
the 'Easter Waie' which extended *alonge the Sea Linckes frome 
Hartley and Hartley Salt Pannes into and over the Grounds of 
Seaton Delavall and over Newsam Grounds, by the east end and 
along the east side of the Dike and Close called Blithes Nooke Close, 
and so to the Fore Street and house steeds of the said auncient towne 
of Blithes Nooke, and so to and alonge the sands there to the River 
and Haven of Blithe,' and he pleaded ancient usage, his ancestors 
having 'time out of mynde' used the way at their pleasure 'on 
horseback and on foot with carts and waynes.' 

Thomas Cramlington contested this right and proceeded to cast 
a ditch over the ' Easter Waie, nere the corner of the Dike Nooke 
there, by which ditche the passage by the said way was stopped or 
hindered.' He further pulled down ' two auncient beacons within or 
nere the lowe water sea merke standinge within the mouthe of the 



. ^ 



t — 



JeatouTL Deiayal 



Seataiirt ^^\V^ 



Salt I^anj 




HeartUy 



HedrtieV Cohftti 



Batts 



Entrance to thk Harbour of Sbaton Sluice and Outline of the HAifeTLBY Coabt 
(From GreenvUe Oolline's Chart in Ore<H Britain's Coasting PUot, 1693 64. 



RIGHT Of WAY BBTWBBN HARTLEY AND BLYTH. 2181 

said Haven to discover the Danger of the Barre there and for the 
safetie of shipps going out and cominge in at the said haven' — 
beacons which had stood there time out of mind and been maintained 
by the hnd-owners of the town of Blithes Nook. On one occasion 
Sir Robert Delaval, hearing that an attempt would be made to stop 
the way, sent some of his hinds and servants, together with his 
bailiff, 'I'homas Delaval, to accompany his wains, ordering them to 
use 'the quietest and gentlest means' they could to persuade the 
obstructionists to let them pass. George Fordan, one of these men, 
had in his hand * onelie a stoute walking staff with a little yron picke 
in the ends thereof ' ; John Hill, another of them, ' a staff with a picke 
of iron in the same ' ; John Ward and Ralph Fenwick each * a lance 
staff onelie which they usually carried with them going abroad and 
according to the usage of the country.' They set out, no doubt, 
intending, according to their instructions, * to use all meanes by 
persuasion and otherwise ' that the said carriages should pass. They 
were met by Thomas Cramlington, who came with his sword drawn 
in his hand and in furious manner ' did strike at the cattell in the 
draughtes.' He was accompanied by Gilbert Wilson, who had his 
sword and buckler, and John Fenwicke and Oswyne Fenwicke and 
several others weaponed with swords, daggers, and lance staffs. 
Thomas Cramlington thereupon told them that they should not pass 
that way but * over his bellye,' using withal * most undecent and 
railing words.' Finally, however, at the request of his uncle Oswyne 
Fenwick. he consented to let the carriages pass for that time. The 
dispute was eventually settled by legal methods. 

We learn incidentally from this case that there were fishermen 
living at Hartley who had been accustomed time out of mind to 
' take, gather, digge for, and get baites for fishe (sand-eales, wormes, 
lempetts, so they are particularised in another document) in, upon, 
and alonge the coast of the sea against the lands and grounds of 
Newsame and Blithes Nooke within the lowe water mark there, and 
also in anie part or place of the sea sands where the salt water ebbeth 
and floweth against the grounds of either of the said townes of 
Newsame and Blithes Nooke without interrupcion.' * 

' Delaval Papers ; MSS. in the possession of the Society. 



232 8BAT0N SLUICE : 

In the latter half pf the seventeenth century the little salters' village 
became a small seaport and acquired its present name. It was sir 
Ralph Delaval, the first baronet, who efifected the transformation — 
one of the inevitable results of the opening out of the Hartley coal- 
field. Up to the year 1595 the underground treasures of the manor 
had remained untouched. An inquisition having been taken by 
Edward Grey and Anthony Felton (the latter a Customer of the Port 
Newcastle), by virtue of a special commission of the Court of 
Exchequer they certified, on the 26th of August, 1595, * that within 
the precincts and bounds of the manor of Hartelowe, viz., in the 
South Field and in the North Field there existed, and might be sunk, 
a certain coal-mine, which, until the day when the inquisition was 
taken, had not been dug, won or leased at all, and that the yearly 
letting-value of the mine would not in their opinion exceed fourteen 
shillings and four pence.' ^ 

The working of this coal, on a large scale at least, seems to have 
been deferred until the time of sir Ralph Delaval when operations 
began to be carried on with much spirit. Wanting a shipping-place 
for the produce of his collieries, he constructed a harbour capable of 
accommodating twelve or fourteen vessels of 300 tons burden at the 
point where the Seaton burn, after running due east, turns abruptly 
to the north. To protect the entrance he built a pier which ' fended 
off the surge to the north-east/ As this breakwater was, at first, 
formed of squared stones laid with and without cement it was soon 
breached by the sea. He, therefore, at great cost, had the blocks 
joined together by means of * dovetails of heart of oak let into the 
stone and that held effectually.' ^ 

Again, by the silting up of the harbour another difficulty 
presented itself. This he overcame by placing tide-gates across the 
channel of the stream where the present bridge crosses it, thus 
forming a backwater which, being released at the ebb, scoured away 
the sand lodged upon the rock and washed it ' as clean as a marble 
table.'. These sluice-gates acted automatically ; they were closed by 
the water from the sea rushing into the harbour at' the flow of the tide, 
and were flung open at the ebb by the dammed-up water of the 

^ See Appendix I. " ^oger^ovt\i*s Lifeiof Lord Keeper OuUford, 



DUTCH PBIVATBER OFF THE COAST. 288 

stream which had aocamulated behind them. The harbour and salt 
pans were protected against French or Dutch att^ks by a small 
battery. This proved very serviceable in 1667 at a time when we were 
at war with Holland. ^ On Wedinsday last/ so Richard Foster informed 
Joseph Williamson in a letter dated from Newcastle on the 14th of June, 
' a Dutch priueter of 10 guns did give chase to a small vessell loden 
with marchant goods, whoe maed to a bay sume 5 miles distant ffrom 
Tynmouth, and neare S' Eaph Dellevales peare : S' Eaph beange 
thare sent 2 botes who toned her under the comand of sume guns 
S' Saph hath planted thare for the securety of his harbor and pans, 
but the man of warr did pursue the vessell tell he came within 
musket shot, and then severall shot beinge maed at him and as it 
was thought some 4cd het, for she presently tacked about and stood 
of to sea whare she hovered all day, but the small vessell was got 
into the harbor.' ^ 

In 1670 the port of Seaton Sluice was annexed to that of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the ofScers of customs being authorised to 
appoint a person to be constantly resident there. ^ Sir Ralph 
Delaval, who up to this time had spent £7,000 ^ in making the sluice 
and harbour fit for the export of salt, coals and grindstones, received 
a grant from Charles II. appointing him collector and surveyor of 
his own port. Ships were registered at the port at least as early as 
1672, for one of them, the * Ann ' of Seaton Sluice, was recommended 
to be taken as a victualling vessel for the navy, her master being 
well acquainted with the coast of Holland.^ 

The right honourable Francis North, baron of Guilford, lord 
keeper of the great seal, when on circuit in the north of England in 
August, 1676, paid a visit to sir Ralph Delaval and was shown the 
little port of Seaton Sluice with the salt pans there. To his youngest 
brother — Roger North — we owe the best, as it is the earliest, descrip- 
tion of the place in the graphic account which he gave of this visit. 

Sir Ralph Delaval having finally expended above £15,000 over his 
pier whereby so considerajble a revenue accrued to the exchequer that 
the king ' in consideration thereof and that the said S' Ralph would 

* mate Papers, Domestic, Chas. II., vol. 206, No. 62. 

» Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Chas. II. 1660-1670, p. 635. 

* Ibid^ 1672, p. 353. 

TQL. xaiv. 30 



234 BBATON SLUICE : 

erect and build an other Peere for the greater benfit of Trade* 
granted him a Privy Seal for £1,500. Sir Ralph accordingly built 
this second pier at a great cost, but only received £600 of the sum 
granted and the balance, in consequence of the king's death, remained 
unpaid. In 1703 and 1704 this pier was much injured by 'great 
storms and stress of weather,' and sir John Delaval, son of the 
founder of the port, spent other £500 in repairing the damage.^ 

In 1704 there were eight salt pans at work and some idea of the 
trade of the port may be gathered from the fact that £6,000 was paid 
this year to the Government for duty on salt and customs. Upwards 
of 1,400 chaldrons of coal were shipped to London from the port and 
this branch of trade was shewing signs of developing.® 

The increased activity in the coal trade here was, no doubt, due to 
the connexion with the colliery of some of the most enterprising 
coal owners of the district. A draft has been preserved of an indenture 
quadripartite, dated on the back 20th April, 1703, between John 
Delaval of Seaton Delaval, John Blakiston of Newcastle, John Hall 
of Seaton Sluice of the 1st part, Josias Horn of the 2nd part, John 
Rogers of Newcastle of the 3rd part, and John Ord of Newcastle of 
the 4Dh part, respecting ' collierys, coale mines, seame and seames 
of coale, saltpanns or boyleries of salt, situate lying and being within 
the Manor or lordship of Seaton Delaval and Hartley, and the Port 
and Haven lying or being within the said Manner of Seaton Delaval 
and Hartley.' » 

The John Rogera mentioned in the indenture afterwards married 
Ann, the daughter of sir John Delaval, who died while staying at 
Seaton Lodge in January, 1723.^^ 

About the middle of the eighteenth century, other industries were 
established at Seaton Sluice by Thomas Delaval, esquire, who had 
received a commercial training in Hamburg. To turn to profitable 
account the pyrites with which the coal-mines abounded, he estab- 
lished floors and crystallising cisterns for the extraction of copperas, 

' See Appendix II. Delaval Papers ; MSS. in the possession of the Society. 

* Ibid, See also Calendar of Treasury Paper s, 1702-7, p. 438. 

• MS. in the library of the Mining Institute. 

'* The story told by Spearman that Mrs. Rogers was poisoned by Mrs. Poole, 
sir Joh 1 Delaval's mistress, is dealt with in Benton Kail and its Associations. 



OPENING OF THE NEW HARBOUR OR DOCK. 286 

and, to utilize the small coal unburnt by the salt-pans, he founded 
a glass manufactory — described in 1769 as * a handsome building 
two hundred and twenty feet in front, the side walls to the roof thirty- 
six feet ' 1^ — ^bringing skilled workmen from ILanover to teach the art 
of glass-making. 

Finding the old basin inadequate to the trade of the port he, 
with the approval of his brother sir John Hussey Delaval, prepared 
plans for a new harbour or dock, eight hundred feet long, thirty 
feet wide, and fifbj-two feet deep, with an entrance from the east. 
Begun in 1761, it was finished in 1764, and became one of the 
engineering curiosities of the north of England, having been cut 
through the solid rock at a cost of about £10,000. The site forms 
part of the ' Pan close.' ^^ A pier similar to that of the north entrance 
protected the east entrance. At both ends were dock gates consisting 
of heavy booms or balks of timber sliding in grooves and raised by 
means of cranes. 

On the 20th of March, 1764, the harbour was opened in the 
presence of many thousands of spectators, two vessels sailing in, 
though the sea was uncommonly high and the wind easterly. The 
event was celebrated by the roasting of three large oxen and the 
broaching of several hogsheads of ale. On the 22nd the ' Warkworth ' 
sailed out with a cargo of two hundred and seventy-three tons of coal. 

A distinguished member of the Koyal Academy of Science at 
Paris, M. Gabriel Jars, came to Seaton Sluice in 1765, to see the 
little harbour with the waggonway ^^ leading down to it, the glass- 
works, and especially the steam engine at the colliery with the new 
machinery set in motion by it — an invention of Joseph Oxley's — for 

" History of Northumberland, by John Wallis, vol. ii. p. 278. 

" Aug. 18, 1761. Whereas it is resolved to make an Amendment to the 
Harbour at Hartley Pans immediately, and in order to do so it is necessary to 
make a large Cut thro' the Pan Close there, which Cut will be part in Clay and 
part in Stone : Notice is hereby given that any person or persons desirous to 
undertake the said Cut or any part thereof or any of the Walls or Piers necessary 
to be done are desired to apply at the office at Hartley pans aforesaid, where 
attendance will be given to receive proposals and to shew the dimensions of the 
said intended Cut, Piers and Walls. — NewcaHle Journal, Aug. 22-29, 1761. 

" This old waggonway, about If miles in lengfth, is now a footpath and may 
be followed through the fields from the * Brierdene * Pit, near the Brieidene Farm- 
house, past an astonishing number of old pit-heaps to the west end of the village 
of Hartley and thence down to Seaton Sluice, 



286 8BAT0N SLUICE. 

drawing coal out of the pit without the employment of horses. It 
had commenced working on the 19th of March, as the newspapers 
said, ' with incredible success,' raising a corf a minute, but was out 
of order at the time of the visit of M. Jars, and he did not see the 
mechanism. * It was not much thought of,' he tells us, ' being very 
apt to go wrong.' i* 

Three years later (about 1768), a greater than Jars was 
attracted to Hartley by this new engine— James Watt. He found 
it working sluggishly and irregularly, but, unlike the previous visitor, 
was able to examine the engine — the first self-acting rotatory engine 
he had seen.^* 

An interesting view of the harbour by J. Bailey, which appears in 
Hutchinson's History of Northumberland^ 1779 (reproduced on the 
opposite page), depicts a busy little place : a vessel is passing through 
the * gut ' into the harbour where another one is already moored, other 
vessels are sailing out by the old entrance. A waggon dntwn by a 
single horse is on the wooden waggonway in front of the old ' King's 
Arms ' inn, about to turn round to the staithes on the south side 
of the * gut,' the shipping place of the famous Hartley coals.** 

From the regulations it is evident that the trade of the port was 
carried on under somewhat unfavourable conditions. A vessel was 
not to be loaded up to her full capacity unless she could get away at 
high-tide ; there was not a suflScient depth of water in the harbonr 
basin at neap-tide to float a loaded vessel and she would therefore have 
to lie in the ' gut ' obstructing the rest of the shipping. A portion 
only of her cargo was to be put on board and then she was to be 
towed into the basin to wait until the loading could be completed for 
her despatch the next tide. The spout nearest the sea was 
reserved for ships that could sail round from the north entrance, take 
in their cargoes and get away at high water, when from one cause or 
another loaded vessels in the 'gut' were unable to put to sea.^^ At au 



" See Appendix III. 

'» Life of James Watt, by J. P. Muirhead, p. 274. 

" Onr vice-president, Dr. L. W. Adamson, has a picture in oils representing 
a vessel sailing out of the harbour. It was painted by J. C. Ogilvie about 
60 years ago. 

" The Delaval Papers, edited by John Robinson, pt. iv. pp. 174 and 175. 




I 

I 



I 

s 



(3 



288 SEATON SLUICE : 

earlier period ships at neap-tide, having taken a part of their cargo 
on board in the old harbour, were obliged to go into the roadstead, 
where the remainder of it was brought out to them by keels.^^ 

The waggonmen who brought the coals from the pit to the staithes 
were subject to heavy fines for breaches of the regulations. A 
delinquent, however, had the satisfaction (if such it were) of knowing 
that the shilling forfeited for leaving his loaded waggon was ' to be 
drunk by the rest of the waggonmen/ ^^ 

The second half of the eighteenth century was the most prosperous 
period in the history of Seaton Sluice, as much as £24,000 being 
contributed in one year to the public revenue by the little port. The 
large cones known by the names of 'Gallaghan,* 'Successj* and 
' Oharlotte ' rose as conspicuous landmarks, and increased the output 
from the glassworks : eight hundred and forty thousand bottles 
were exported in 1776. The salt pans were also working well, and 
there was a brisk demand for Hartley coals. In one year (1777) 
one hundred and seventy seven vessels cleared from the port for 
London, with 80,686 chaldrons of coals.^® Even shipbuilding on a 
small scale was carried on at Seaton Sluice during this period. 

During the wars with Napoleon it was considered necessary to 
protect the place by means of a blockhouse and a battery of three 
eighteen-pounders on an artificial mount formed of ballast, a party of 
soldiers from the garrison at Tynemouth being stationed here.21 

With the progress of the century Fortune turned her wheel to the 
disadvantage of Seaton Sluice. First the salt and copperas works 
were discontinued, then a dreadful gale, which raged on the 2nd of 
February, 1825, accompanied by a phenomenally high tide, seriously 
damaged the stone pier, and threatened to destroy the harbour. A 
minor misfortune happened on August 28th, 1838. Ten loaded waggons 
ran amain on the colliery rail-road and two of them, being jolted off 
and precipitated through the stone wall at the turn of the road by the 
side of the harbour, killed an old man of eighty-three. 

'• Great Britain » Coasting Pilots 1693 ed., pt. ii., p. 12. See reproduction 
of chart, p. 230. 

*» The Delavdl Papers, edited by John Robinson, pt. iv. p. 175. 

2« Ibid, p. 177. 

2* Mackenzie's View of Northumberland, 1811, vol. 2, p. 508. 



AS A PLEASUBfi RESORT. 2B9 

When the Melton Constable hotel was built in 1839 it was noted 
that more than half a century had elapsed since any buildings had 
been erected or any improvements made, and the event formed an 
occasion for rejoicings. 

Seaton Sluice, a few years later, came into vogue as a pleasure 
resort. On Sunday, July 2nd, 1843, the * Venus,' described as a 
* powerful steam vessel' commenced running from the New Quay, 
North Shields, to Seaton Sluice twice a week ; the fare there and back, 
including tea and a plate of fruit at Seaton Delaval gardens, 
was Is. 3d. 

A passing allusion may be made in this connexion to the Blyth 
and Seaton Sluice races. For seven or eight years previous to 1881 
they had only been partially held, but in this year they were revived, 
chiefly through the instrumentality of Mr. M. L. Jobling, and for 
many years afterwards were well patronised.^ In 1842 they still 
maintained their popularity and presumably also to a later date. 

With the remarkable development which took place in the steam 
coal district of Northumberland in the early * forties,' the deficiencies 
of Seaton Sluice as a coal-shipping port became only too obvious. Mr. 
N. G. Lambert, one of the lessees of the Hartley and Oowpen collieries, 
giving evidence in 1848 in support of a project for docks at the 
Low Lights, North Shields, ard a railway in connexion with them, 
declared, ' We ship our Hartley coals at Seaton Sluice. Sometimes far 
ten weeks together a ship cannot get to sea from that port s,nA it is of the 
utmost importance to the well-being of the colliery that we should 
get a better place of shipment. Our colliery is the original Hartley 
from which all the others have taken the name ; other collieries 
have taken the name of the coal and sold large quantities, while we 
have not had facilities for doing so.' ^' 

This agitation for better shipping accommodation led to the 
formation of the Northumberland dock on the Tyne and the improve- 
ment of the harbour of Blyth. From this time may be dated the 
decline of Seaton Sluice as a port. 

In 1851-2 Seaton Sluice was less isolated than it is now ; it was 
connected with the old Seghill railway (afterwards the Blyth and Tyne 

** See Tyne Mercury, July 12, 1831, and Gateshead Observer, Aug. 6, 1842, 
*• Enquiry before Capt. Washington. 



240 SEATON SLUICE : 

railway) by a short waggonway, and passengere were booked from the 
village to Percy Main twice a week, on Tuesdays and Saturdays. 
From 1863 to 1862, when the Hartley colliery was laid in, the 
waggonway was used exclusively for mineral traflSc. 

An engine hctovj introduced into Seaton Sluice by Messrs. W. K. 
Horsley and Company in the later 'fifties' was closed not long after the 
colliery ceased working. The day of Seaton Sluice as an industrial 
centre was nearly over. The bottle works continued to flourish for a 
time but in 1870 they were closed, and in 1878 abandoned. They 
were finally sold in 1894. The massive cones remained standing till 
1896, when they were brought down by the agency of dynamite, the site 
beinjr devoted to building purposes. 

The demolition of the bottle works closed one chapter of the 
history of Seaton Sluice. Another has commenced with the laying 
out of part of the Hartley estate for a watering place. 

It is not without a feeling of melancholy that one wanders through 
the old village, noting the details which tell of former prosperity, 
details which yet impart a touch of picturesqueness to the place— 
the old harbour, unused except by a few fishing cobles ; the dark, deep 
' gut ' with its rusty mooring rings and fragments of broken cranes ; 
the scattered stonework of the piera ; the mounds of ballast ; the quaint 
octagonal colliery office, now a reading-room ; the spacious brewhouse, 
now a church ; the business premises of the bottleworks, surmounted 
by a bell-turret, at present used as a schoolroom connected with the 
church ; the glass-house square, with its weather-bleached eighteenth 
century houses, the most characteristic bit of Seaton Sluice ; the gaunt 
wall of the copperas works screening some gardens from the sea-wind ; 
the waggonway, now a footpath with some of the stone blocks thi^t 
held the rails still visible in it ; and, on the other side of the stream, 
the most picturesque, as it is the oldest building in Seaton Sluice — 
the thatched house of sir John Delaval. 



APPENDIX I. 

ExcH. c?PECiAL Commissions, Northumb. 37 Eliz. No. 117. 

Vii-tute istius Commissionis nobis directe asse^simus ad manerium de Hartelowe 

infra specificatum. Et tam per cogniciones nostras quam alionun in hiis 

casibus peritorum etfide dignorum supervisum et inquisicionem fecimug diligenter 

in et per tot limites manerii predicti per quern invenimus et baronibus inf rascriptis 



APPENDIX. 211 

certioremos quod infra precinctam et limitem manerii de Hartelowe predictam 
videlicet in agro australi et in agro boreali est et fodi potest quedam minera 
carbonum que usque diem oapcionis hujus inquisicionis minime fossata nee 
inventa nee dimiasa fnit. Quodque eadem minera carbonum valet ciare 
per annum ad dimittendum ISs. 4d. et non ultra secundum sanas discretiones 
nostras. In en jus rei testimonium presentibus sigilla nostra apposuimus vicesimo 
sexto die Augusti anno regni domine nostre Elizabethe del gratia Anglie, 
Francie et Hibernie regine, fidei defensoris etc tricesimo septimo infrascripto. 

Bdw. Graye. Anthony Felton. 



APPENDIX II. 

May it Please your Lord^. 

In obedience to yo"" LordP* Commands signified to us by M"" Lowndes on the 
annex't Memorial of S*^ John Delival Bar^ setting forth That S'' Kalph 
Delaval, fEather of the said S*^ John, did, in the Reign of his late Ma^^® King 
Charles the 2** erect and build A Peere at Seaton Delaval for the benefit of 
Trade 8c Encouragm^ of Navigation That the said Peere cost the said S*" 
Ralph above 15,000^^ whereby so considerable a Revenue accrued to his said late 
Ma"* That in consideration thereof And that the said S"" Ralph would erect 
& build an other Peere for the greater benfit of Trade His said late Ma*y was 
graciously pleased to grant him A Privy Scale for 1500" as by a Copy thereof 
thereunto annexed may appeare. — That the said S*" Ralph at great Charge 
Built an other Peere and received the sume of 500** in part of the said 
1500" towards Building thereof That notw'^'standing the said S' Ralph 
Erected the said other Peer at his great Charge Tet the remaining 1000" 
granted by the said Privy Seal, rests unpaid, by reason of the Demise of his 
said Majesty That ever since the Erecting of the said Peer considerable 
yearly Revenues have accrued to the Government more particularly to her 
p'sent Ma^y ffor that there was the then last year paid at the said Port for 
Custome and the Duty of Salt 6000*'. That by reason of great Stormes & 
Stress of Weather, the said Peer became Ruinous & in decay, and hath cost the 
said S' John these last two yeares the sume of 500" in building a new Peer to 
snstaine the other for the benefit of Trade & Navigation Desireing yo' 
LordP to take into consideration the great Charge the said S'' Ralph & 8^ John 
have been at for the increase of the Revenue and the Incouragem^ of 
Trade & Navigation That the remaineing 1000" or such other sume 
of mony may be granted the said S^ John to enable him to support 
k maintaine the said Peer's for the benefit of the Revenue. Wee doe 
Humbly acquaint yo* LordP That in our Letter of the U**" of December last 
Wee Inclosed Copy of the said Memorial to the Collector of Newcastle directing 
him to Examine the Allegations therein contained. And in answere thereunto 
by hii Letter of the third of January last. Copy of which is hereunto annexed 
He reported to us That upon Enquiry he found That S*^ Ralph Dei aval Did Erect 
and build in the Reign of King Charles the 2^ at Seaton Delaval A Peer And 
that he the said Collector was assured that it was not without a very consider- 

voifc XXIV. 31 



242 



SBATON SLUICE : 



able expence That the said S*" Ralph at his great Charge did also Baild a 
Second Peer Which by distress of Weather being become Ruinous was Repaired 
by the present S' John Delaval to his Charge of 500^* And (as he is Informed) 
he is still adding to the same, By which meanes the Salt Panns there are 
increased to 8, which have made the Quantity of Salt That the Excise thereof 
doth amount to upwards of 5000*^ p. annum communibus annis, That there 
has been Loaden from thence the last yeare upwards of 1400 Chaldrons of 
Coals which Tt is beleived will increase, But as to any Customes paid at 
Seaton He the said Collector knowes of none, It being no Port for Importation 
or Exportation And that he does not think it necessary to add any more Officers 
then at present, there being only a Coast Trade that is driven there, which 
accompt he has from the Officers there aswell as other good hands And beleives 
them to be true Soe that, as there is noe benefitt or advantage to the ReTenue 
under our Management, from the Expence of Erecting and maintaining the said 
Peer, But only to the Salt duty being now Advanced to upwards of 6000** a yeare 
by the Increase of the Salt Panns there, as appeares by our Collectors said Letter 
Wee humbly Conceive, That the Comm" for that Duty are the more proper 
persons to give their Opinion in the present Case. 

Which is humbly submitted to your LordP" Consideration, 

T. Newport 
Custome House, London, Will Culliford 

2 March 1705. Jo; Werden. 

T Hall 
Endorsed : 
* S"" Jn**. Delavals, Report from ye Com" of. Customs to the Treasury.* 



APPENDIX IIL 



Mines de 
Oharbon 
de terre de 
Hartly. 



Privilege de 
14anB. 



Desobiption of Haetley Fibb-bngine and Seaton Sluicb, 
BY M. Gabbiel Jabs. 

A environ huit milles Nord-est de Newcastle, pr^s d'un village nomme 
Hartly, un particulier qui a un bien considerable, sur lequel il a les droits 
r^galiens, exploite une tr^s-grande quantity de mines de charbon : une de see 
machines k feu est tr^-consid^rable ; elle a deux grandes chaudi^es poor 
fournir la vapeur k un cilindre de soixante pouces de diam^tre. Cette machine 
en fait mouvoir une autre de nouvelle invention, pour ^ever le charbon des 
mines. Nous n'en avons pas vu la mechanique, elle ^toit d^rang^ lorsque nous 
fiimes sur les lieux, & Tendroit ot. sont les rouages ^toit ferm^ ; mais on nous 
a dit qu'elle est extri^mement compliquee, compost de six ou sept rouets ou 
lanternes, & sujette k casser tr^s souvent. On ne fait pas cas de son usage. 
Celui qui en est I'inventeur & le constructeur a obtenu un privilege exclusiC, 
ce qu'on nomme Patetites du Roi, pour quatorze ans. Au lieu d'nne pareille 
machine, qui doit employer beaucoup de la force ou plutdt de la 
puissance de la machine k feu ; il seroit mieux d'^lever Teau de la machine & fen 
au dessus d'une roue, qui feroit mouvoir un treuil pour Clever le charbon. 



APPENDIX. 248 

L*entreprenear de ces mines n'^tant pas d*abord situ^ aTantageasement pour 
la oonsommation de son charbon, quoique pea ^loign^ des bords de la mer, a 
fait nne d^pehse considerable poar la surety des yaisseaux qui transportent son 
charbon. II a fait couper un rocher sur plus de cent toises de longueur & 
quarante pieds de profondeur. Cette coupe forme une esp^e de canal, par leqnel 
les yaisseaux entrent & sortent d'un bassin oh ils viennent charger le charbon. 
Mais afin que les bd,timen8 ne soient point agit^s & brisks dans le bassin, 
lorsque la mar^ remonte, on a pratique ^ Tentr^e & 4 la sortie du canal, des 
coulisses oil, k I'aide d'un pied de ch^vre toumant, des poulies & des cordes, 
on descend de grosses pieces de bois, qui ferment une esp^ce de vanne d'^cluse 
pour briser les vagues. On nomme cet endroit seaton-tlaice. On pretend 
que cette coupe a cout(^ plus de dix mille liyres sterlings. De plus on a 
pratique des routes, telles qu*on les k ci-devanl d^crites, pour voiturer le 
charbon de chaque mine jusqu* au bassin. Le m^me particulier a sur les lieux 
une verrerie tr6s-consid€rable. — Voyages Aletalhirgiques^ vol. i., p. 207-8, 
Lyon, 1774. 




^ tTlup^"^ i>^(^^ 



^-.^tc^-t^; 



J U$^^CA^-r€^ 



/ 



^'-^i^^^^*-*!-^-*-^ ^^y'da€y^i^ ^ 



Facstmileh of Signatures op Delavals, 



244 



XL— 'THE ORASTER TABLES.' 

By J. Crawford Hodgson, F.S.A. 

[Read October 29, 1902.] 

The roll of arms known as the Oraster Tables comprises a series 
of upwards of eighty coats of ancient Northumbrian families. ITiey 
were compiled in 1631 and 1632, by whom is unknown, and sketched 
in colours on two boards, which were enclosed in a black frame ' with 
a gilt bead on the inside ... the names and writing [being] in an 
old law hand.' These tables can no longer be found at Craster 
Tower, although repeated searches have been made, but fortunately a 
copy was made August 26, 1771, by Mr. Charles Williams,^ and given, 
either to Sir Edward Swinburne of Capheaton, or to his son, Sir John 
Edward Swinburne.^ 

The roll, which was habitually quoted by the Rev. John Hodgson 
as an authority, assigns arms, otherwise unknown, to several families 
of the lesser gentry, and in other cases it supplies the tinctures. 

The Roll of Abms known as the Obasteb Tables. 

* These copied from two old painted boards belonging to George Craister, 
esq., of Craister, Northumberland, August 25th, 1771, by C[harle8] W[illiam8]. 

N.B. — The background is sable and the names and writinof in old law 
hand. The frame black, with a gilt bead on the inside.' 

Table No. 1. 

^The coates of such anctient families as be at this present time, 1631, 
resident in Northumberland, but have not any houses of their names within the 
said county.' 

^ Charles Williams, bom March 20, 1734, was the second son of John 
Williams of Latch-moat in Staffordshire, who settled in Newcastle about 1730, 
as an ironfounder, and who purchased the Killingworth House estate and 
died 1768. Under his father's will, Charles Williams took an interest in the 
Newcastle Bottle and Flint-glass works, which had come to him with his wile 
Margery, widow of Onesiphorus Dagnia, daughter of George Forster of North 
Shields. He was private secretary to the second duke of Northumberland, and 
a keen sportsman. 

2 Sir John Swinburne has been good enough to make a search, but has been 
unable to find Mr. Williams's copy at Capheaton. 



A XORTHdHBRIAN BOIJi OF ABMS. 245 

1. AlviLBT : per chevfon engrailed gales and sable, in chief two Toided mullets 

argent, in haae a Yoided cinque! oil or. 

A3m8ley of Shaf to : gules, on a bend argent three mullets asure, in 
chief a dnquefoil or ; St. George's VUitatvm of Northumberland ^ 1615. 

Aynsley of Little Harle : gules, on a bend ermine, between two 
quatrefoils or, three mullets of six points az. ; Burke, General Armory. 
These arms were confirmed in 1793 to Lord Charles Murray on 
his marriage with Alice Aynsley of Little Harle. 

2. Andbbsok : * yert, three bucks couchant argent, horns or.' 

Anderson of Coxlodge and Jesmond : vert, three bucks lodged or ; 
Burke, General Armory, . 

Anderson of Newcastle : vert, three bucks lodged argent, attired or ; 
St. George's Visitation of Northumberland , 1615. 

8. (?) Armorer : gules, a chevron argent between three armed hands of the second. 

Armorer of Belford : gules, a chevron between three arms in 
armour argent ; St. George's Visitation of Northumberland^ 1615. 

4. Brandling : gules, a cross crosslet argent, in dexter chief an escallop of 
the last. 

Brandling of Newcastle : gules, a cross flory argent, in the first 
quarter an escallop of the second ; Flower's Visitation of Yorkshire^ 
1663/4. 

6. BURRBLL : azure, a saltire gules, between four leaves vert, on a chief azure a 
boar's [or lion's] head between two battle axes or. 

Burrell of Howtell : argent, a saltire gules between four leaves vert, 
on a chief azure a lion's head erased between two battle axes or ; 
St George's Visitation of Northumberlandy 1615. 

6. Carnabt : ai^ent, two bars vert, in chief three hurts [balls] ]of the second. 

Camaby of Halton : argent, two bars azure, in chief three hurts ; 
St. George's Visitation of Northumberland^ 1615. 

7. Cabr : gules, on a chevron argent three estoiles of five points. 

Carr of Woodhall : on a chevron three estoiles ; St. George's Vtsita* 
tion of Northumberland^ 1615. 

Carr : gules, on a chevron argent three estoiles of six points sable ; 
Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxvii. 

8. Clavbbino : quarterly or and gules, over all a bend sable. 

Clavering of Callaly : quarterly, or and gules, a bend sable ; 
Dugdale's Visitation of Northumberland^ 1666, 



246 THE OBAfiTBB TABLES : 

9. COLLINQWOOD : argent, a chevron aznre between three stags' heads sable. 

CoUingwood of Bslington : argent, a chevron between three stags' 
heads erased sable ; Dugdale's Visitation of Northumberland, 1666. 

10. Del AVAL : ermine, two bars gules. 

Delaval of Seaton Delaval : ermine, two bars vert ; Dugdale's ViHtt^ 
tion of Northumberland, 1666 ; also a shield on the west turret of Bothal 
Castle ; Border Holds, p. 290. 

11. FoRSTEB : a chevron between three bugle horns. 

Forster of Adderston : argent, a chevron vert between three hunting, 
or bugle, horns sable ; St. George's Visitation of Northumberland, 1615. 

12. Gret of Hobton : barry of six argent and azure, over all a bend gules. 

Grey of Horton : barry of six argent and azure, a besant on a bend 
gules for a difference ; Border Holds, p. 298. 

Barry of six, argent and azure, on a bend gules an annulet or ; Bt. 
George's Visitation of Northumberland, 1615. 

Barry of six, azure and argent, a bend gules ; Constable's Boll, 
Surtees Society, No. 41, p. viii. 

13. Geet of Chillikgham : gules, a lion rampant argent within a bordnie 

engrailed of the second. 

Grey of Chillingham : gules, a lion rampant within a bordure 
engrailed argent, a martlet for difference. St. G«orge*s Visitation of 
Northumberland, 1615. 

Gules, within an engrailed bordure a lion rampant argent. 
Constable's Boll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. vii. 

Heton of Heton, quartered by Grey of Chillingham : vert, a lion 
rampant within a bordure engrailed argent ; Border Holds^ p. 298. 

14. Hall : or, a chevron azure between three demi-lions rampant of the second, 

on a chief gules three plates argent bearing three mullets sable. 

Michael Hall {ob, 1647) : a chevron between three demi-lions 
rampant ... on a chief three roses . • . ; monument, St. Nicholas's, 
Newcastle, cf, Welford, 8t, Nicholas, p. 137. 

15. Hebon : * azure, three herons argent.' 

Heron of Chipchase : gules, a chevron between three herons argent ; 
Constable's Boll, Surtees Society, vol. 41, p. vii. 

Gules, three heronsargent ; Elizabethan Boll, Surtees Society, No. 
41, p. XXX vii. 

[Gules] three herons [argent] ; shield on the porch at Chipchase ; 
Nefe Bistory of Northumberland ^ vol. iv. p. 337. 



A NORTHUMBRIAN ROLL OF ARMS. 247 

16. HODOBON : per chevron embattled, or and azure, three martlets counter 

changed. 

William Hodgson, sheriflE of Newcastle in 1475 : per fess embattled 
or and azure, three martlets counterchanged ; Carr MS., Surtees Society, 
No. 41, p. lix. 

17. Lawbbnob : * argent, a cross engrailed gules, on a chief of the second a lion 

passant or.' 

Lawrence : 1 and 4, argent, a cross ragnly gules ; 2 and 3, argent, two 
bars and in chief three mullets gules ; Constable^s Roll, Surtees Society, 
No. 41, p. xi. 

Lawrence of Scotland : argent, a cross gules, on a chief of the second 
a lion passant gardant, or ; Burke, General Armory. 

Lawrence of Iver, Bucks : argent, a cross raguly gules, on a chief of 
the second a lion passant gardant or ; ibid, 

18. Lawson : argent, a chevron sable between three jackdaws proper. 

Lawson of Cramlington : argent, a chevron between three martlets 
sable; St. (George's Vintation of Northumberland, \^\b, 

19. MUBCHAMP : argent, a chevron vert between three flies of the last. 

Muschamp of Barmoor : azure, three butterflies argent ; St. George's 
ViiUation of Northumberland, 1615. 

Muschamp of Wooler : argent, a chevron vert between three flies 
[bees, butterflies or beetles] proper ; Burke, General Armory, 

20. Pboctob : * or, three water bougets gules.' 

Prockter : argent, three water bougets gules ; Klizabethan Roll, 
Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxvii. 

Three water bougets 2 and 1 ; on a stcne shield in Rock Chapel ; 
New Hiitory of Northumberland, vol. ii. page 148. 

William Proctor of Nether Bordley in Craven married (circa 11 Dec. 
1500) Isabel, daughter and co-heir of John Lilburn of West Lilbum; 
the Lilbum arms are, three water bougets. 

21. (7) : * sable, a bend engrailed argent.* 

Radcliffe : argent, a bend engrailed sable ; Uugdale*s Visitation of 
Northumberland, 1666. 

22. Rambs [of ShortflatJ : < sable, a buck's head caboshed or.* 

Of, Hodgson, Northumberland, Part II. vol. 1. p. 367. 



^48 THE CBASTBB TABLli : 

23. Rbbdb : or, on a chevron gales between three garbe of the second, aa manj 

trefoils argent. 

Read of Close-honse : or, on a chevron between three garbs gales, as 
many ears of com argent ; St. George*s Vtsifation of Northumberland, 
1615. 

Reed of Troughend : or, on a chevron between three garbs gales as 
many ears of corn argent ; Bnrke, General Armory, 

24. RUTHBBFOBD : gulcs, on a fess argent three birds sable, between in chief 

a mallet or, in base an orle. 

Rutherford of Middleton Hall, near Wooler : or, an inesciitcheon 
gules, in chief three martlets of the second; Flower's VmUstion of 
Yorkshire, 1668/4. 

25. Salkbld : argent, fretty gales, on a chief of the second an aniialet or. 

Salkeld of Bassington, par. Eglingham : argent, fretty gales, on a 
chief of the last a martlet for difference or ; St. George's ViHtation of 
Northumberland, 1615. 

26. Sblbt : barry, or and sable. 

Selby of Biddleston : barry or and sable ; St. George's Vuitation of 
Northumberland, 1615. 

Selby of Biddleston : barry of eight, sable and or ; Barke, General 
Armory. 

27. Stbothbb : gales, on a bend argent, three eagles displayed sable. 

Strother : gules, on a chevron («io), three eagles displayed vert, 
quartered by Loraine of Kirkharle ; Dugdale's VUitation of North- 
umberland, 1666. 

Gules, on a bend engrailed argent, three eagles displayed vert ; 
Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. zzxvii. 

Gules, on a bend argent, three eagles displayed aznre ; Burke, 
General Arm4>ry. 

28. Wallbs : argent, a chevron sable, in base four voided quatref oils gules. 

Cf Hodgson, Northumberland, Part II. vol. iii, p. 83. 

29. Walkeb : gules, two bars argent between six besants three, two and one or. 

30. Williams : ' lozengy gules and argent.' 

31. Wbldon : gules, a bird argent, in sinister chief a fountain argent and asure. 

Welton of Welton : argent, a lion rampant dismembered gules ; 
Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xzzv. 

Michael Weldon of Weldon : argent a cinquefoil gules, on a chief of 
the second a demi-lion rampant issuant of the field ; monument (1680) in 
St. Nicholas's Church, Newcastle ; cf, Welford, St. Nichola»\ p. 72 ; 
Burke, General Armory, 

32. Wbatsled : party per chevron argent and azure three voided lozenges 

counterchanged. 



A NORTHUMBRIAN ROLL OF ARMS. 249 

Table No. II. 

*The ooates of such families in Northumberland as do remaine at this 
daye, anno 1633, and do beare thyre names after thyre ancient houses. Such 
as have theyre houses yet in possession are marked with H.P. : the rest not so.' 

1. Babikotok : argent, ten torteauxes gules, 4, 3, 2 and 1. 

Sir Anthony Babington : argent, ten torteaux, 4, 3, 2, 1, and a label 
azure ; Constable's Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. ix. 

2. Babbowe : vaire, four bars |gules], on a canton six besants, 3, 2 and 1. E.P. 

3. Bbadnell : * azure, three water bougets sable.' 

Beadnell: per fess gules and azure, a garter fesseways argent 
fimbriated and buckled in the centre or, between a rosary in chief, and 
in base three bells of the last ; Burke, General Armory. 

4. Blbistkesopb : gales, three garbs or, within a bordure engrailed of the second. 

H.P. 

Blenkinsop of Blenkinsop : argent, a fess between three garbs sable, 
a crescent for difference ; St. Greorge's Visitation of Northumberland^ 1615. 

Blenkinsop : gules, three garbs within a bordure engrailed or ; 
Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxvii. 

Blenkinsop of Hoppy-land : a fess between three garbs or ; Burke, 
General Armory, 

6. Bbadfobd : azure, on a bend argent three birds of the first. 

Bradford of Bradford : on a bend three martlets ; St. George's 
Vuitation of Northwnberland, 1616. 

6. Cbamlinoton : barry of six argent and azure, in chief three annulets of 

the second. 

Cramlington of Cramlington and Newsham : barry of six argent 
and azure, in chief three annulets of the last ; St. George's Visitation 
of Northumberland f 1615. 

Barry of six, argent and azure, in chief three annulets sable ; 
Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xzxvi. 

7. Cbaistbb : quarterly or and gules, in the first quarter a crow proper. H.P. 

Craster of Craster : quarterly, in the first quarter a bird ; St. 
George's Visitation of Northumberland, 1616. 

Quarterly, or and gules, in the first quarter a martlet sable. Eliza- 
bethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxvii. 

8. Ohablton : ' gules, a lion rampant or.' 

Charlton : or, a lion rampant gules, langued, etc., azure ; Constable's 
Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xiii. 

Charlton of Hesleyside : or, a lion rampant gules ; Burke, General 
Armory. 

YOU ZXIT. 32 



250 THB CRASTEB TABLES : 

9. Cbbsswell : gules, on a bend sable three bolls' heads argent. H.P. 

Ciesswell of Cresswell : argent, on a bend sable three bulls* heads 
caboshed of the field ; Constable's Boll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. zxzIt. 

10. Blbinoton : party per fess gules and argent three Yoided cinquefoils 

counterchanged. 

Sable, three water bougets argent; Elizabethan Boll, Surtees 
Society, No. 41, p. xxxviii. Burke, General Armory, 

11. Erbington : argent, two bars azure and in chief three escallops of the 

second. 

Errington of Errington : argent, two bars and in chief three escallops 
azure ; St. George's Visitation of Northumberland^ 1615. 

12. Fbnwigk : party per fess gules and argent six martlets counterchanged. 

H.P. 

Fenwick of Wallington : per fess gules and argent, six martlets 
counterchanged ; Dugdale's VUitation of Northumberland^ 1666. 

13. Fbathbbston : gules, a chevron argent between three feathers of the last 

Featherstonhaugh of Featherstonhaugh : gules, a chevron argent 
between three ostrich feathers argent ; Hodgson, Northumberland^ 
Part II. vol. iii. p. 364. 

14. FowBRB : vert, a stag at speed argent attired or. H.P. 

Fowbery of Newbold, oo. York : vert, a stag at speed argent, attired 
or; Elizabethan Boll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. zxii. 

15. Haggbbstonb : * argent, a chevron sable between three cross orosslets 

a chief gules.* 

Haggerston of Haggerston castle : azure on a bend cottised argent 
three billets sable, on a canton argent the red hand of Ulster ; Dngdale's 
Visitation of Durham, 1666. 

16. Hbbbubn : argent, a label of three points sable. [....]. H.P. 

Hebbum of Shotton : argent, three fire pots sable, a label for 
difference : Flower's Visitation of Durham, 1676. 

Hebburn of Hebburn : argent, three lamps sable ; Dugdale*s Vtsita- 
tion of Northumberland, 1666. 

Hebbum of Hardwick, co. Durham : argent, three uncovered cups 
(or lamps) sable in each a flame of fire proper, with a label of five 
points gules ; Burke, General Armory, 



A NOBTHUMBBIAN BOLL OF ABMS. 251 

17. Hesilbidgb : * argent, a chevron sable between three Jeaves vert.' 

Heslerigge of Swarland: argent, a chevron between three hazel- 
leaves vert ; St. George's Visitation of Northumberland^ 1615. 

Argent, a chevron between three stopped trefoils vert ; Elizabethan 
Boll, Sortees Society, No. 41, p. xzzvii. 

18. HoBSLBYB : * vert, a^horse passant argent.' 

Cf, Hodgson, Northumberland, Part II. vol. ii. p. 104. 

19. HOBSLET : goles^ three horses' heads couped argent bridled or. 

Horslej of Horsley : gales, three horses* heads erased argent ; 
Dugdale's Visitation of Northumberland, 1666. 

Boger Horsley of Scrainwood (ob, 1359) : gules, three horses* heads 
argent, bridled or ; on a shield at Bothal castle. Border Holds, p. 290. 

20. Ildbbton : party per fess inyected sable and gules three pierced 

cinquefoils or. 

nderton of Ilderton : argent, three water bougets sable ; Constable's 
Boll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xvi. 

Sir Thomas Ilderton, in 1505 : three water bougets ; New History of 
Northumberland, vol. iv. p. 379i 

21. ElLLlNGWOBTH *. argent three voided cinquefoils sable or. 

Eillingworth of Eillingworth : argent, three cinquefoils sable, 
pierced or ; St. George's Visitation of Northumberland, 1615. 

William Killingworth, 3 Edw. IV.: two bars, in chief three cinque- 
foils; ibid. 

22. Ltslbt : ' gules a lion passant crowned or.' 

Lisle of Felton : gules, a lion passant gardant argent crowned or ; 
Burke, General Armory, 

23. MiDDLBTON : quarterly gules and or, in the first quarter a cross patonce 

argent. H.P. 

Middleton of Belsay : quarterly, gules and or, a cross patonce 
argent, quartering Strivelyn ; Dugdale's Visitation of Northumberland, 
1666. 

Quarterly gules and or, in the first quarter a cross patonce ; Hodgson, 
Northumberland, Part II. vol. i. p. 353. 

24. MiTPORD : argent, a fess sable between three moles proper. H.P. 

Mitford of Mitford : argent, a fess between three moles sable ; Dug- 
dale's Visitation of Northumherland, 1666. 



252 THE CRASTSB TABLBS : 

25. MiLBUBNB : sable, a chevron argent between three escallops of the second. 

Michael Milbume, sheriff of Newcastle, 1616 : sable, between three 
escallops a fess argent, charged with a crescent gules ; Carr MS., Bortees 
Society, No. 41, p. Izxii. 

Milbum of Armathwaite, Cumberland ; sable, a chevron between 
three escallops argent ; Burke, General Amwry. 

26. MoBTOK : quarterly, gules and ermine, in first and fourth quarters a goat's 

head erased argent. H.P. 

Morton : quarterly, ermine and gules, in each of the second and 
third quarters a goat's head erased argent ; Elizabethan Boll, Snrtees 
Society, No. 41, p. zxxvii. 

27. Ogle : argent, a fess gules between three crescents of the second. 

Ogle of Ogle Castle : argent, a fess betwen three crescents gules ; 
Burke, General Armory, 

Ogle of Burradon : argent, a fess between three crescents gules, a 
mullet charged with a crescent for difference ; quartering Bertram ; 
St. Gorge's VisUation of Northumberland, 1615. 

28. Obd : sable, three salmons hauriant argent. 

Ord : sable, three salmons hauriant argent ; Elizabethan Boll, 
Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxvii. 

29. Padstow (?) : sable, a chevron or between three escallops argent, in chief 

gules, three paws or. 

Paston : argent, sem^e of fleurs-de-lis azure, a chief dancette gules. 
Tonge's Vmtation, pp. 79-80. 

30. Bbvelby : argent, a chevron engrailed gules between three voided mullets 

azure. 

Beveley : a chevron engrailed between three voided mullets of six 
points, impaling Burrell ; on a panel in Bolton chapel. 

Beveley of Northumberland : argent, a chevron engrailed gules 
between three estoiles of 16 points azure ; Burke, General Armory. 

31. BiDLEY OF WiLLiMOTESWiCK : gules, a chcvron argent between three birds 

of the second. 

Bidley of Hardriding and Willimoteswick : gules, on a chevron 
between three falcons close argent, as many pellets ; Dugdale's Vitiia- 
tion of Northumberland, 1616. 

A chevron between three goshawks, quartering Thirkeld, etc. ; Flower, 
quoted by Hodgson, Northumberland^ Part II. vol iii. p. 389, etc. 

32. BiDLET OF Wai<town£ : argent, a bull passant gules. 

Bidley of Walltown ; argent, on a mount vert a bull statant gules, 
a mullet for difference or ; quartered by Bidley of Walltown ; St. George*8 
Vmtation of Northumberland, 1615. 



A NOETHUMBRIAN ROLL OF ARMS. 268 

33. RoDDHAM : g:ale8, on a bend ermine three cinquefoils azure pierced argent. 

H.P. 

Roddam of Roddam : gules, on a bend ermine three pierced cinque- 
foils sable ; Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xzxvi. 

Roddam : gules, on a bend ermine, three cinquefoils sable ; Burke, 
General Armory. 

34. Shafto : gules, on a bend argent three voided mullets azure. 

Gules, on a bend argent three mullets azure ; Roll, 1240-45, Nem 
HiHory of Northumberland^ vol. iv. p. 417. Dugdale's Visitation of 
Northumberland, 1666. 

35. Swinburne of Caphbaton : a fesse between three voided cinquefoils. 

Cinquefoils counterchanged 2 and 1 on a shield party per f ess gules 
and argent ; ef Hodgson, Northumberland, Part II. vol. i. p. 231. 

Per fess gules and argent three cinquefoils counterchanged ; 
Dugdale's Visitation of Northumberland, 1666. 

36. SwiNBUBNB OF Edlingham : a fess between three voided cinquefoils. 

37. SwiNHOE : argent, three swine passant sable. 

Or, three boars passant sable ; Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, 
No. 41, p. XXX vii. 

[Argent] three swine passant [sable] ; on a stone shield in Rock 
Chapel ; New History of Northumberland, vol. ii. p. 148. 

38. Thiblwall : sable, a chevron argent between three boars' heads or. H.P. 

Thirlwall of Thirlwall : sable, a chevron argent between three boars' 
heads erased or ; St. Qeorge's Visitation of Northumberland, 1615. 

Sable, a chevron argent between three boars' heads or ; sepulchral 
slabs, Haltwhistle Church ; cf. Bates, Border Holds, p. 327. 

39. Webtwood : * argent, on a fess gules three fountains azure and argent 

between two (? three) ravens sable.' 

Argent, a fess nebulee azure, in chief three mullets; Elizabethan 
Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxv. 

40. Thornton : * sable, a chevron argent, above all a chief indented * of the 

second. H.P. 

Sable, a chevron and a chief dancette argent ; Elizabethan Roll, 
Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxviii. 

Thornton of Nether Witton : sable, a chevron argent and a chief 
indented of the last ; St. George's Visitation of Northumberland, 1616. 

41. Welton : gules, a fret or, in chief two mullets of the second. H.P. 

Weltden of Weltden : a cinquefoil, on a chief a demi-lion rampant ; 
Burke, General Armory, 



254 THB CBASTBB TITLES : 

42. WiDDBiNGTON : quarterly, argent and gales, over all a bend sable. H.P. 

Widdrington of Widdrington : quarterly, argent and gules, over all 
a bend sable ; Flower's Visitation of Torkskire, 1568/4. 

43. [Whitfield] : or, two bends engrailed sable. 

Whitfield : argent, a bend plain, Dbtween two cotises engrailed sable ; 
Elizabethan Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. xxxyii. (y, Hodgson, 
Northumberland, Part II. vol. iii. p. 100. 

Argent, a bend plain, between two cotises engrailed sable ; Burke, 
General Armory. 

44. Dalton : 'argent, three lozenges gules,' charged with a saltire of the first. 

Argent, three lozenges gules, each charged with a saltire of the 
field, quartered by Button of Hunwyke; St. George's Visitation of 
Durham, 1615. 



Table No. [II. 

* These following are some of ancient families that be extinct in 
Northumberland.' 

1. Sib Robebt Hepple : gules, an orle engrailed ermine. 

Hepple : ermine, an inescutcheon within a bordure engrailed gules ; 
on Ogle monument in Bothal Church, Border Holds, p. 296. 

2. John de Ashenden : * argent, a lion rampant gules.* 

Ashenden : argent, a lion rampant gules armed and langued azure ; 
Burke, General Armory, 

3. Hugh Baliol : ' valre . . . gules . . . argent.' 

The seal of Hugh de Baliol (pb, 1228) bears : on a shield an orle; 
see New History of Northumberland, voL vi. p. 37 n. 

4. Sib Waltbb de Bolam : * or, an engrailed cross sable.' 

Thet»e arms are on an effigy in Bolam Church. 

5. William de Bewick * argent, between a fess lozengie gules three lions* (?) 

heads sable erased at the neck.' 

Bewick of Newcastle : five lozenges in fesse gules, each charged with 
a mullet of the first, between three bears' heads erased sable ; Dugdale's 
Visitation of Northumberland, 1666. 

William Bewick (pb, 1636) : argent, five lozenges conjoined in fess 
gules, each charged with a mullet of the field between three bears' heads 
erased sable, muzzled argent, a label for difference ; monument in 
Bewick Porch, St. Nicholas's, Newcastle ; c/, Welford, St, Nicholas', p. 50. 



A NORTHUHBBIAlf BOLL OF ABHS. 255 

6. Sib Wiobot Habbottlb : < azure, three clabs or.* 

Harbottle : azure, three bottles or icicles in bend or ; Blizabethan 
Roll, Surtees Society, No. 41, p. zzxyi. 

Azure, three icicles or ; Bates, Border Holds, p. 197. 

Azure, three guttes or bendwise ; Longstaffe, * Heraldry of the Percys,* 
Areh. Ael, vol. iv. new series, p. 215. 

Argent, three hair bottles or (i.e., leather bottles with the hair 
outside) ; quartered by Riddell of Gateshead j St. George's Visitation 
of Durham, 1615. 

7. Sib Robbbt Lilbubn : ^ argent, three water bougets sable.' 

Lilbum of Newcastle : argent, three water bougets sable, a crescent 
gules; Visitation of Northumberland, 1666. 

Three water bougets with a crescent between them, were on a shield 
at Belford Chapel ; Gough's To\i,rs, vol. vii. ' Northumberland,' p. 21 ; 
New History of Northumberland, vol. i. p. 366. 

8. ROCHBSTBB OF Roc : ' or, a f ess sable between three crescents ' of the second. 

Rochester of Essex : or, a fess between three crescents sable ; fiurke, 
General Armory, 

9. Adam db Tindale : ^ argent, a fess gules between three garbs sable.' 

Tindal : three garbs on a fess ; eflBgy in Hexham Church, see New 
History of Northumberland, vol. iii. p. 193. 

Argent, a fess gules between three garbs sable ; quartered by 
Bulmer of Tursdale; St. George's Visitation of Durham, 1615. 

10. Thomas db Tbbwiokb : quarterly, argent and azure, above all a buck's 

head caboshed and pierced through the nose with an arrow or. 

Seal of Thomas de Trewyc (circa 1360) : three bars and in chief three 
roundels or bezants, »J< s. thomb . de . tbbwyc ; Sir Arthur 
Middleton's Muniments. 

11. Sib Bobebt Umfbamvill : gules, a cinquefoil or within an orle of crosses 

crosslet of the second. 

Or, a cinquefoil gules within a bordure azure, charged with horse- 
shoes, Gilbert de Umfrevile, Boll of Arms, 1240-1245, p. 11. 

Umf ramvill : gules, a cinquefoil within an orle of crosses crosslet or ; 
Ogle tomb in Bothal Church ; Bates, Border Holds, p. 296. 

Gilbert de Umframville (ob, 1307) : a cinquefoil between eight 
crosses patonce; effigy in Hexham Church, New History of Northumber- 
land, vol. iii. p. 193. 

Umframville of Prudhoe : gules, a cinquefoil within an orle of 8 
crosses patt^ or ; Burke, General Armory, 



266 THE 0RA8TBR TABLES. 

12. YssOT, BABOK OF ALNWICK : or, a bend gules, over all a lion rampant sable.' 

William de Yesci, son and heir of Eustace de Vesci ; cross patonce ; 
Durham Treasury 1 Spec. I™' l"'* No. 2. 

Sigillum Wile) mi de Vescj : gules, a cross patonce argent ; cf, Tate, 
Alnwiflk, vol. i. p. 404. 

13. Sib Allen Beaton : vert, a lion rampant argent. 

Heton of Chillingham : gules, a lion rampant, within a bordure 
engrailed argent, with a martlet for difference, quartered by Grey of 
Chillingham; St. George's Visitation of IVorthvmberland, 1616. 

Vert, a lion rampant, within a bordure engrailed argent ; Bates, 
Border Holds, p. 298. 

14. PlEBSON: azure, a chevron argent between three feathers argent, in 

chief three balls of the second. 



* These arms ascribed to Vescy are very doubtful. 



267 



INDEX. 



A. 
Abernethy, sling bolts of burnt clay 

discovered at hill-fort near, 105 
Adams, Alexander, a garden in 
Northumberland street, Newcastle, 
belonging to, 145 

Adam the Scot, witness to a grant, 
1 16 ; son of Gilbert, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Adamson, rev. C. B., * John Dagnia of 
South Shields, glassmaker,' 146 

Aesica (Great Chesters), excavations 
at, in 1894-6-7, 19 ; jewellery, etc., 
discovered at, 24 ; vaulted chamber 
in middle of camp, 24 ; coins dis- 
covered at, 24, 33, 43, 51 ; the west 
gateway of, 26 ; sugar-loaf shaped 
stones at, 33 ; rebuilding of a 
granary at, 34 ; platform for a 
ballista, 36 ; turrets at, 37 ; south 
gateway of, 38 ; potters* names, 
graffiti^ etc., at, 40 ; silver necklace 
from, 41 ; silver rings with intagli 
from, 42 ; figure of Mercury, 42 ; 
gold earring from, 42 ; * putty-lime * 
found at, 53 ; suburban buildings at, 
44 et seq. ; plan of one, 46 ; inscribed 
tile from, 59 

A^e, of heirs to estates in Northumber- 
land, proofs of, 126 

Aircy, Joseph, of Newcastle, gentle- 
man, and others, premises in Pilgrim 
street, etc., given to, in trust, 167 
(see also Arey) 

Aiesley [Aisley], John, M.A., presented 
to rectory of Wolsingham, county 
Durham, 214 ; Thomas, witness to a 
lease, 131. 

Aisend, Hogh de, see Hai^end 

Ainsley [Ainslay, Aynsley], of Shafto, 
arms of, 244 ; John, witness to a 
deed poll, 135 ; Margaret, of West- 
gate street, Newcastle, 170; William, 
141 ; of Gallowhill, executor of 
Joseph Bonner, 133 

Akenheads, *the bookselling,' 129 

Akenhead, David, bookseller, of New- 
castle, conveyance of house on Quay- 
side to, 134 ; Hannah Pembroke, 
daughter of, 129; Matthew, of 
Whitby, shipowner, and others, con- 
veyance of same house by, 134 

Vol. XXIV. 



Akenside hill, Newcastle, formerly 
Butcher BanlL, and All Hallows 
Bank, 156 

Albyn, Thomas, witness to a grant, 118 

Aldborough, petition of masters and 
owners of ships of, 202 

* Aldeschel,' grant of land, etc., 117 

Aldingham, county Lancaster, death 
of William Thompson, rector of, 
222 ; presentation of Thomas Tillie, 
clerk, to rectory of, 222 ; death of 
Dr. Thomas TuUie, rector of. 226; 
appointment of Thomas Tullie, 
LL.B., 226 

Aid worth registers, extracts from, 162; 
rev. John Peareth, vicar of, 152 

Alford, Henry, and others, lease of 
rectory and chapel of Sutton, county 
York, to, 188; John, Elizabeth 
Mompesson, wife of, 188 

Allan, James, of the Postern, New- 
castle, 170 ; John, of Westgate 
street, Newcastle, 170 

Allen, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas, 
devise to, 157 ; Jane, wife of 
Phineas, daughter and heiress of 
William Michelson, 131 ; Phineas, 
senior, of the Trinity House, New- 
castle, 129 ; master mariner, of New- 
castle, surrender of a house on 
*Keyside* by, 131 ; marriage of, 
with Eleanor Basnett, 131 j and 
Eleanor, deed poll of, 132 ; junior, 
of New6asde, merchant adventurer, 
surrender of house on Quayside by, 
131 ; lease of same by, 131 

Allgood, Elizabeth, attests a deed, 165; 
George, attests a deed, 165 

All Hallow Gate, Newcastle, 166 ; 
bank, Newcastle, 166 (see also All 
Saints) 

Allison, Thomas, 142 

All Saints' church, Newcastle, David 
Stephenson, architect of, 169 ; 
churchyard, Newcastle, property 
adjoining, 166 (see also All Hallows) 

Alms box, debtors', presented, xvii 

Alnwick, the tenantry column at, 
designed by David Stephenson of 
Newcastle, 169 

Amhoglanna^ turrets at, 37 

Amery, George, of Newcastle, 161 

S3 



258 



INDEX. 



Ancient British bronze dagger, pre- 
sented, xvi, xviii 
Andersons, of Bradley, the, 163 ; of 
Cozlodge and Jesmond, arms of 
244 ; Ann, wife of Kalph, devise to, 
154 ; married James Dagnia as 
second husband, 1547t ; Bartram, 
of Newcastle, lease of tithes of 
com of Burradon to, 119 ; Bartram 
and others, defendants in a suit 
concerning vill of Burradon, 119 ; 
will of. 11 9m; Clement, merchant, 
of Newcastle, 131 ; Dorcas, devise 
to, 154 ; married Alexander Grim- 
aldi, 154» ; Elizabeth, of Newcastle, 
147 ; Edmund, sale of coalstaith in 
the Close, Newcastle, by, 147 ; 
Francis, of Newcastle, 164 and », 
nephew of Charles Matfen, bequest 
to, 156 ; Francis and Bertram, 
grant of coalstaith in the Close, 
Newcastle, to, 146; sir Francis, 
grant of hearth money in arrear 
to, 218 ; George, 'the great builder,' 
father of major, 163 ; conveyance 
to, and by, of premises at the corner 
of Denton chare, Newcastle, 155 ; 
Henry, witness to deeds, 135 bis ; 
grant by, son and heir of Bertram, 
of coalstaith in the Close, New- 
castle, 147 ; Jane, married John 
Simpson of Newcastle, 153, 1547t ; 
bequest to, 154 ; Mary, devise to, 
154 ; married Edward Forster, 154/t; 
Robert, merchant, of Newcastle, 
executor to William Simpson, 139, 
141 ; purchase of coalstaith in the 
Close, Newcastle, by, 147 ; Samuel 
of Aberdeen, 162; Thomas, 126, 
127 
Anderton, grant of a pension to 
Frances, wife of William, and 
another, 195 
Andrew, John, steward of Newcastle 
Cordwainers* Company, 176?i ; 
Mary, of Newcastle, tenements of, 
142 
* Angels ' to be coined for healing 

* king's evil,' 197 

Anglian sculptured stones discovered 

at Sockburn, xiii; sundial in 

Darlington church, xvi, xix 

Anquilla, appointment of governor 

of, 215 ; captain-general, etc., 221 

Annan, David, of Shodfriar chare, 

Newcastle, 166 
Antiqua, appointment of governor of, 
216 ; captain-general, etc., of, 221 
Antonine column, 93, 110; wall, 
stances on the, 78, 79 



Antoninus Pius, inscription to, 80 

Antwerp, freedom of Merchant Ad- 
venturers lost by marrying a native 
of, 188 

Appleyard, Matthew, collector of 
customs at Hull, 218 ; revocation 
of letters patent as collector, 221 

' Aqueraux,* the, 87 

' Arbalest,' or windlass cross-bow, the, 
102 

* Arbalctriers,' 100 

Arbella, the lady, warrant for pay- 
ment to, 189 

Archer, Andrew, and others, appointed 
commissioners to enquire into 
forces in Spain and Portugal, 225 

Archer, relief of, on stone from 
Jarrow, 93 

Archimedes, engines of war used by, 69 

Ardoch, sling ' bullets ' of red sand- 
stone found at 72, 105 

Arey, Elizabeth, of Newcastle, widow, 
142 (see also Airey) 

Armin, Robert, and others, licensed 
to play comedies, etc., 189 

Armorer (?) of Belford, arms uf, 
244 

Armorer, Francis, of Newcastle, at- 
torney-at-law, 163 ; junior, attests 
deeds, 165 ter; William, of New- 
castle, cooper, covenant with, to 
levy a fine, 142 

Armour, scale, discovered at Aesica, 
22 

Arms, of Northumbrian families, 243 
et s^q. ; a Northumbrian roll of, of 
1631, 243 et seq. ; on seal of Henry 
Marlay, 151 

Armstrong, John, attests a will, 160 

Arrow, Harold die<i from an, as did 
James IV., of Scotland, 94 

Arrowsmith, Edward, witness to a 
deed, 136 

Arthur, Gilbert, witness to a grant, 
118; of Rothbury, and Alice, his 
wife, 127 
Arthuret, in diocese of Carlisle, 
presentation to rectory of, by queen, 
201 ; Richard Netherby, patron of, 
201 
Aschton, John, vicar of Ovingham. 

126, 127 
Ashenden, John de, arms of, 253 
Association, British Archaeological, 

meeting of, in Newcastle, xi 
Asturians, second cohort of, inscribeil 

tile recording, 59 
Athy, Christopher, the younger, grant 
of lands of Christopher, the elder, 
a recusant, to, 194 



INDEX. 



259 



Atkinson, Blanche, and another, 
houses in Highfriar chare, New- 
castle, conveyed by, 164 ; Charles, 
of Newcastle, merchant, mortgage 
of premises in the Postern to, 171 ; 
Henry, of Newcastle, fitter, 134 ; 
Lancelot, of Newcastle, merchant, 
Ann, wife of, 133; house on All 
Hallows bank conveyed to, 1 58 ; 
will of, 158 ; devise to wife, Jane, 
and to his son Samuel, and his 
daughters, 158 ; and others, grant 
of a house on Dogbank, 158 ; Mary, 
of the Postern, Newcastle, widow, 
171 ; Matthew, mariner, son and 
heir of Robert, and Margaret, his 
wife, and another, conveyance of 
premises in High Friar chare by, 
164 ; bond of, 164 ; Oswould, attests 
a deed. 137; Richard, of Newcastle, 
161 ; Robert, of Newcastle, and 
Blanche, his wife, conveyance of 
premises in High Friar chare by, 
164 ; Matthew, son and heir of, 
164; Samuel, devise of house on 
Dogbank, Newcastle, to, 158; will 
of, 158 ; gave house to wife 
Elizabeth, 168 ; Thomas, of Bothal, 
127 ; Thomas, of Newcastle, butcher, 
144 ; Walter, of Newcastle, gardener, 
143, 144 
Aubone, William, 164 
Auckland, collegiate church of, 4; 
prebendaries in Eldon in, demised 
to Elizabeth Jackson, 196 ; North, 
grant for erection of a grammar 
school in, 191 
Augustinia, near Seville, Spanish 
glazed tiles from ruined monastery 
at, xix 
Aurelia^ tombstone from Aenca^ 

erected to memory of, 67 
Aurelian column at Rome, 35 
Axelfeld, in bishopric of Durham, 

quitclaim of lands called, 118 
Azwell (see Axelfeld) 
Aynsley (see Ainsley, Aiesley) 
Ay rig, William de, witness to a grant, 
117 



B. 

Babington, arms of, 248 ; Sir Anthony, 

arms of, 248 
Backwortb, Hugh de, witness to a 

grant, 116 
Badges of honor, sole makers of, 205 
Bailey [Baley], Alice, of Newcastle, 

widow, 142 ; William, 142 



Bainbridge, John, of Newcastle, 
solicitor, held property in Welling- 
ton place, 150 ; father of first wife 
of Sir John Fife. 160 ; Joseph, of 
Newcastle, 151, 162 

Baits, Margaret, of Newcastle, 157 
(See also Bates) 

Baker, John, of Newcastle, smith, 
170; Thomas, witness to a deed 
177 

Balcaquall, Walter, denization for, 
born in Scotland, 196 ; surrendered 
mastership of Savoy, 195 ; Dr., 
dean of Durhani, death of, 205 

Baley (see Bailey) 

Baliol, Hugh de, arms of, 268 

♦ Balista,' principle of the, 70 ; model 
of a, 73 ; platform for a, at Aesica, 
36 

Ball, Henry, office of searcher at 
Newcastle, 217 

Barate, Adam, witness to a grant, 116 
(See also Barct) 

Barbadoes, grant of office of provost 
marshal of, 212; appointment of 
governor of, 216 

Barbouda, captain-general, etc., of ,221 

Baret, Roger, of Burradon, grants of 
land to. 116 (See also Barate) 

Barker, William, baililf of Morpeth, 
witness to a grant, 118 

Barking, grant of lands in, 117 

Barnardcastle, grant of master and 
keeper of forests, etc., 194 ; all 
officers of castle of, to be dis- 
charged, 198 ; lease of demesne 
lands of, to sir William Evers and 
wife, 189 ; confirmation of assign- 
ment of demesne lands at, 196; 
grant of liberties and privileges in 
manor of, to sir Henry Vane, 203 ; 
grant of lordship of, etc., to Robert, 
earl of Somerset, 209 ; warrant for 
payment for building toll booth in, 
209 ; sir William Bowes appointed 
master forester of, 220 ; Christopher 
Vane, appointed to same, 220 

Barnard, lord, Christopher Vane 
created, 224 

Barnes, exchange of manor of, 188 

Barnes, Ambrose, of Newcastle, 
merchant, 146, 169; Memoirs of 
L'ife of^ 146 ; and another, convey- 
ance of house in the Bigg Market, 
to, in trust, 162 ; Jonathan, attests 
a will, 168 

Barnsley, steward of manor of, 207 

Baron, Elizabeth, of Gateshead, 
widow, house of. in Hillgate, Gates- 
head, 16Q 



260 



INDEX. 



Baronet, sum dae for diffnity of a, 216 ; 
discharge from nsual payment for 
dignity of, 221 

Barras, Anthony, yeoman, of New- 
castle, 130 

• Barronsfeld,' 118 

Barrowe, arms of, 248 

Basnett, Eleanor, of Newcastle, 
married Phineas Allen, 131 

' Bastille,' a, 112 

Bates, Cadwallader John, V.P. of 
Society, guide to castle, etc., xi ; 
his death, obituary notice of, 178 
et seq. ; bibliography, 182 ; owned 
property in Lithuania, 178 ; edu- 
cated at Eton, and Jesus college, 
Cambridge, 179 ; purchased Langley 
castle, 179 ; wrote Border Holds 
and History of Northumberland, 
179 

Bates, Edward, of the Schloss, 
Cloden, Germany, 179 ; John, jun., 
mariner, witness to a deed poll, 
130 ; Thomas, a breeder of short- 
horns, 178; and others, bill of 
Thomas, duke of Norfolk, against, 
120 ; award in the dispute, 130 ; 
[Baytes] Wm., of East Greenwich 
Kent, mariner, conveys house, etc., 
in All Hallows bank, Newcastle, 167 

Bath, expense of the queen's journey 
to the, 209 

Battering ram, the, 109 ; used to 
demolish old St. Paul's, 109 

Battle's walk, alias Battle's baili- 
wick, in forest of Windsor, office of 
keeper of, 198 

Batty, Michael, of Newcastle, chap- 
man, house in Dogbank conveyed 
to, 168 ; mortgage by, 168 ; sale of 
same, 168 

Bayeux tapestry, a bowman repre- 
sented on the, 94; a slinger repre- 
sented on the, 106 

Bayly, witness to a deed, 130 ; 
I Baylye] James, witness to a deed 
poll, 130 

Baynes, Jeremiah, of Elswick, gentle- 
man, 177 

Beadnell, arms of, 248 

Bearop, Edward, of Newcastle, skinner 
and glover, and Susannah his wife, 
conveyance of premises in Low 
Friar street by, 164 

Beaver, Margaret, of Newcastle, 
widow, 177 

Bebside, sale of manor house of, to 
John Ogle of Cawsey park, 121 

Beckwith, Robert, witness to a deed, 
136 



Bedford castle, the ' cat ' used at siege 
of, 110 

Bedford, Francis, earl of, wardship of 
George, earl of Cumberland, granted 
to, 186 

Bedingfield, Thomas, and another, a 
licence to bring in playing caids, 
208 

Bedloe, Mr., pardon to, 217 

Bele, Henry de, lands in Lowick, held 
by charter of, 118 

Belford chapel, arms of Lilburn in, 254 

» Belf redus,' the. 111, 112 

Bell, Edward, imariner, witness to a 
deed poll, 130 ; James, witness to a 
grant, 118 ; steward of Newt-.astle 
Cordwainers' Company, 176« ; keel- 
man, witness to a deed, 130 ; Jane, 
wife of Robert, labourer, bequests 
to, 160 ; John, attests a deed, 166 ; 
of Newcastle, gentleman, premises 
in Close, occupied by, 152 ; John, 
and Co., of Newcastle, 146; 
Matthew, of Newcastle, gardener, 
in possession of tenement in High 
Friar Chare, 164 ; Richard, of New- 
castle, 162 • 

Bellasis [Bellasyse, Bellassis, Bel- 
lasise], Sir Henry, knight, and 
others, appointed commissioners to 
enquire into forces in Spain and 
Portugal, 225 ; Jane, wife of John, 
under age, warrant to enable her to 
levy fines, etc., in her manors, 201 ; 
John, release of, of arrears of ,rent 
due to the king, 202 ; Joane 
Boteler, wife of, 202 ; created baron 
Bellasis of Worlabye, county 
Lincoln, 205 ; dame Susanna, relict 
of sir Henry, created baroness 
Bellasise of Osgodby, county 
Lincoln, 214 ; sir William, knight, 
office of sheriff of Durham bishopric 
granted to, 197; sold lordship of 
Kirkleatham, 125; of Worlabye, 
county Lincoln, John Bellasis 
created baron, 206 

Bellingham, John, and others, lease 
of Nunsteynton hall to, 189 

Bennet, Benjamin, of Newcastle, clerk 
and others, premises in Pilgrim 
street, etc., given to, by will of 
Barbara Gee, on trust, 167 ; legacy 
to, 168 

Benton, John de, witness to a grant, 
116 

Ben well, in parish of St. John's, New- 
castle, had separate churchwarden, 
176 and n ; Aubone Surtees resided 
and died at, 163 



INDEX. 



261 



Berkhampstead^resignation of Edmund 
Neobolt, master of free school of, 
219; Thomas Wren, M.A., appointed 
to mastership of, 219 

Bertram, William, son and heir of 
William of Bothal, proof of age of, 
126, 127 

Berwick, *80w* used at siege of, 
110 ; payment to the mayor and 
bailiffs of, by the exchequer, 
towards building a new Tjridge, 194 ; 
warrant for payment to mayor and 
burgesses of, for finishing bridge 
across Tweed, 195 ; John Case, 
one of the captains of, 187 ; 
treasurers of : Robert Bowes, 208 ; 
sir William Bowes, 189 ; sir William 
Selby, late gentleman porter of, 
191 ; Edward Moore, removed from 
mayoralty of, under great seal, on 
account of ' his insolencies,' 200 ; sir 
John Conyers appointed governor 
of, 204 ; and to use martial law if 
necessary, 204; Shaf to we, pay master 
at, 207 ; payment to sir Robert 
Bowes, treasurer of, towards making 
pier and mending haven of, 208; 
receiver of hearth money at, 218 ; 
payments for finishing pier at, 209 

Bettinson, Richard, and^others, grant 
to, 206 

Bettoigne, Alexander de, witness to a 
grant, 117 

Bewick [Bewicke], of Newcastle, arms 
of, 253 ; William de, 253 : arms 
of, on monument in Bewick porch, 
St. Nicholases church, Newcastle, 
254 ; Robert; ground without the 
Close gate, Newcastle, granted to, 
in trust, 148 ; lease of same by, 148 ; 
and others, transfer of sugar house, 
etc., in the Close, Newcastle, by, 149 

Bicester, Oxfordshire, collection for 
the fire at, 210 

Bigg market, Newcastle, premises in, 
168 ef ieq, 

Bigge, Thomas, mansion in Pilgrim 
street, Newcastle, residence of, 163, 
166 

Bingfeld, Robert de, witness to a deed, 
117 

Bingham, Notts, rectors of, 207 

Bishop Middleham, country meeting 
at, X 

Bishopton, country meeting at, x 

Blackbank, etc., grant of lands, etc., 
in, 187 

Blackburn, Elizabeth, of Newcastle, 
widow, tenement in High Friar 
chare, 164 



Blackett, John Erasmus, and another, 
lessees of premises in Northumber- 
land street, Newcastle, 145 ; sir Wm., 
142 ; close belonging to, outside Pil- 
grim street gate, Newcastle, 143, 144 

Black Friar monastery, Newcastle, 
151 ; chare, Newcastle, premises in, 
\1\ et seq. 

Blacklock, Edward, of the Postern, 
Newcastle, 170 ; Elizabeth, of the 
Postern, Newcastle, 170 

Blackston (see Blakeston) 

Blagdon, country meeting at, x 

Blagdon [Blaigdon], Benjamin, of Lon- 
don, haberdasher, conveys ground in 
Shodfriar chare, Newcastle, 165; 
liionel. of Newcastle, house in Close, 
Newcastle, 1 43 ; grant of glasshouse, 
etc., near the Closegate, Newcastle, 
147 ; covenant to levy a fine, 142; of 
Newcastle, merchant,164 ; Benjamin, 
son of, 165 ; Nehemiah, assignment 
of premises near the Clasegate, New- 
castle, by, 147 

Blakeden, Adam de, witness to a grant, 
117 

Blaklaw, Thomas, clerk, 118 

Blakiston [Blackston, Blackstc ne, 
Blakeston, Blaxton], John, sheriff 
and mayor of Newcastle, 128 ; con- 
veys house on Quayside, 129 ; 
husband of Barbara Thomlinson, 
128 ; John, and others, indenture 
of, concerning collieries, etc. 
at Hartley, 234 ; Marmaduke, 
clerk, lease of parts of manor 
of Blackston, etc., 116, 189; 
Nathaniel, governor in chief, etc., 
of Maryland, 224 ; Ralph, appoint- 
ment of, as rector of Kyton, 211 ; 
Thomas, a grant of degree of knight 
baronet to, 210 ; Walter, M.A., 
presentation to i-ectory of Langton, 
county York, 215 ; William, a re- 
cusant, 186, 189 ; colonel William, 
grant to, of rents, 216 ; William, 
and others, appointed lieutenants 
for Durham county and city, 215 

Blakeston, lease of manor of, 186, 189 

Bland, Ann, settlement on marriage 
of, 165; Christopher, owner of house 
in Nether Dean bridge, Newcastle, 
166 ; Edward, 166 ; of Newcastle, 
joiner, premises of, in Newgate 
street, etc., 163 ; premises in Shod- 
friar chare, conveyed to, 165 hU ; 
will of, and devises by, to wife Mary, 
and son, Christopher, and his 
daughters, Ann and Alice, 163, 165; 
Michael, merchant, 165 



262 



INDEX. 



Biaxton (see Blaklston) 

Blayney, lord, 178 

Blenkinsop, of Blenkinsop, arms of, 
248; Leaton-, of Happyland, county 
Durham, 248 

Blue paper, grant to Charles Hildyard, 
of sole right of making, 214 

Blyth nook.. 229 ; Hartley fishermen 
got bait at, 231 ; ' Easter waie * 
leading to, 229 ; races, 238 ; river. 
Ancient British bronze dagger from, 
xvi, xviii 

Blyth and Tyne railway, 238 

Boage, Hugh, 134 

Bohemia, picture of king and queen 
of, and their children, bought, 199 

Bolam church, arms of sir Walter de 
Bolam on effigy in, 253 

Bolam, sir Walter de, arms of, on 
effigy in Bolam church, 253 

Bonner, Joseph, of Bolam, clerk, bond 
to, 132; will of, 133 ; Joseph, junior, 
devise of house on Quayside, New- 
castle, to, 133 ; of London, 133 ; 
Robert, of Callerton, executor of 
Joseph Bonner, 133; ihomas, of 
Newcastle, 132; 'that miracle of 
his age,' mayor of Newcastle, 
entertained Oliver Cromwell, 129 

Bontofte, county Durham, grant of 
meadow in, to Christopher Ful- 
thorpe, 195 

Booker, Robert, witness to a deed, 135 

Boone, Andrew, witness to a grant, 
131 ; Thomas, witness to a grant, 131 

BorcovicuSy discoveries in Roman 
camp of, 20 

Borneton, Henry de. witness to a deed, 
117 

Boteler, Joane, daughter and heir 
of sir Robert Boteler, and wife of 
John Bellasis, 202 

Boterell, John, witness to a grant, 118 

Botha I church, Hepple arms on Ogle 
monument in, 253 ; Umframville 
arms on same, 254 

Bottles, old ale, found in Gallowgate, 
Newcastle, xvi, xviii, xxxii 

Bourne, History of Newcastle, 156 
and n 

Bourton, county Westmoreland,pardon 
of John Hilton of, 193 

Bowes of Stroatlam, arms of, 210 ; 
Anthony, keeper of Hyde Park, 
224 ; sir Francis, house in Bigg 
market, Newcastle, belonging to, 
1 62 ; and others, appointed lieuten- 
ants for Durham county and city, 
215 ; George, warrant for payment 
to, 190 ; employed for discovery of 



Bowes of Streatlam — continued. 
gold mines in Scotland, 191 ; and 
William, formerly keepers of forest 
of Barnardcastle, 195 ; sir George, 
knight, lease of lands at Cowton, 
etc., to, 187; grant of manors of 
Bradley and Scruton, and lands, 
etc., at Rogerley, etc., to, 187 ; 
Henry, premises of, in the Close, 
Newcastle, 147 ; Joan, John Jack- 
son, rector of Marske, married, 
210 ; John, chief baron of the ex- 
chequer in Ireland, 209 ; appointed 
chancellor of Ireland, 207, 210 ; 
created baron Bowes of Clonlyon, 
CO. Meath, 208, 210 ; engraving of, 
210 ; Ralph, warrant to, for pay- 
ment out of recusants' goods, 210 ; 
and another, a licence to bring in 
playing cards, 208 ; Robert, ex- 
change of manor of Barnes by, for 
Owton and other ' possessions of the 
rebels,' 188 ; grant of capital tene- 
ment and watermill at Nunstaynton 
to, 187 ; warrant for payment to. 
to finish pier at Berwick, 208; 
treasurer of Berwick, warrants for 
payments to, sent into Scotland, 
208 ; Talbot and Thomas, office of 
master and keeper of forest of 
Barnardcastle granted to, 194 ; and 
constable and porter of the castle, 
194 ; sir William, keeper of forest 
of Barnardcastle, 195 ; treasurer of 
Berwick, warrant for payment to, 
189 ; grant of office of forester, 
etc., of forest, etc. of Barnardcastle, 
Teesdale, and Marwood, 220 

Bowling greens, etc., keeper of king's, 
197 

Bows, 93 et seq. 

Boynton, Henry, 124 

Brabant, Henry, office of one . of 
collectors of customs at Newcastle, 
granted to, 206, 21 1 ; the younger, 
grant of collector of customs in 
Newcastle to, 217 ; sir Henry, 
collector of customs at v Newcastle, 
220 

Brackenbury, Anthony, grant to, of 
tenement in Richmond, 206 ; 
Henry, lease of lands at Newsham, 
county York, etc., to, 187 ; John, 
the younger, of Eppleby, county- 
York, pardon to, 213 (see also 
Brakenbury, Brokenbury) 

Brackenholme, grant of land in, 1 16 

Braddell, John, receiver of North- 
umberland, Durhf^m a^id Richmond, 
197 



INDEX. 



268 



Bradford of Bradford, arms of, 248 

Bradforthe, Bartram, witness to a 
deed, 130 ; [Bradforth] Thomas, 
witness to a grant, 121 

Bradley, James, of Newcastle, farrier, 
177 

Bradshaw, Cornwall, warrant for 
payment to, 216 

Brakenbury, Anthony, a payment to 
for fetching hounds, 209 ; a pardon 
for, 209 (see also Brackenbury) 

Brancepeth, grant of trees of oak, 
etc., in west park of, to sir Henry 
Vane, 202 ; lordship of, granted to 
Robert, earl of Somerset, 209 ; 
advowson of, granted to sir Ralph 
Cole, bart., 222 ; office of constable 
of. granted to Henry Saunderson, 
and his son, Samuel, 190 ; grant of, 
to George Trotter, 1 97 ; grant of 
lands in lordship of, to William 
Fetherstonehaugh, 198 

Brand, John, the historian, 168; his 
History of Nefccaatle, 1 57 and n 

Brandenburg, warrant for payment 
to envoy to elector of, 216 

Brandlings of Newcastle, arms of, 
244 ; owned horse-mill in Broad 
chare, 168 ; Henry, son of sir 
Robert, bequeathed' horse-mill to 
son William, 168; Ralph, witness 
to a deed, 132 ; Robert, grant to, 
of site of Newmiuster monastery, 
116, 194; wardship and marriage 
of, 208 ; sir Robert, one of members 
for Newcastle, 129 ; Thomas of 
Newcastle, merchant, premises in 
Close, occupied by, 152 

Branskill, Robert, a pardon to, for 
manslaughter, 209 

Brasse, Robert, of London, hatmaker. 
and others, grant of tenement in 
Kirkleatham, by, 125 ; Samuel, and 
others, grant of tenement in Kirk- 
leatham, 125 

Brecknock county, grant of office of 
justice of, 212 

Bremenium, plan of camp of, 11 ; 
two inscriptions from, naming 
* ballisterium,' 77 

Brentford, baroness, Sophia Charlotte, 
countess Leinster created, 225 

Bret, Robert le, goldsmith of London, 
witness to a grant, 117 

* Brewleade,' on Quayside, Newcastle, 
129 

Brian, George, witness to a deed, 
142, of Newcastle, glazier, and 
others, coTenant with, to levy a 
fine, 142 



* Bricolle,* the, 85 

Bridge (Roman) across North Tyne at 
ChoUerford, 28 

Brierdene farmhouse, 235» ; pit, 235» 

Briggs, Henry, William Coniers par- 
doned for killing, 191 

Brisco, John, and others, bill of Thom- 
as, duke of Norfolk, agajnst, 120 

British Archaeological Association, 
meeting of, in Newcastle, xi 

Broad Garth, Quayside, Newcantle, 
premises in, 159, 162 

Broad Park, lease of herbage of, 189 

Brockham, near Reigate, Marie Wight 
of, 261 and n 

Brokenbury, George, a pardon for 
killing, 189 (see also Brackenbury, 
Brakenbury) 

Bronze dagger, Ancient British, from 
river Blyth, presented, xvi, xviii 

Brough, Cuthbert, attests a deed, 
166 ; R, of Newcastle, 162 

Brown [Browne], Alice, of Newcastle, 
widow, and others, covenant to levy 
a fine, 142 ; Clement, of Newcastle, 
smith, fined by smiths' company, 
140 ; Francis, of Newcastle, rope- 
maker, owner of premises in Nether- 
dean bridge, Newcastle, 166; Nich- 
olas, of Newcastle, 136 ; sir 
Richard, discharge of, from usual 
payment for dignity of baronet, 
221 ; William, of Morpeth, 127 ; of 
Newcastle, cooper, 132, 134 

Brumell collection of charters, etc., 
gift of, xiii, 115 

Brunswick place chapel, Newcastle, 
138, 145 ; foundation stone laid, 
145/i 

Brunton, West, etc., county Noi-th- 
umberland, grant of lands at, 211 

Brunton, Elizabeth, widow, premises 
of, without Pilgrim street gate, 
Newcastle, 144 ; William, of New- 
castle, 143 

Buke, James, of Morpeth, witness to 
a grant, 118 

BuUein, Dr. W., 229 

Bulman, Isabel, of Newcastle, widow, 
purchases house outside Pilgrim 
street gate, 143 his-, grant by, of 
same premises, 144 ; Robert, of 
Newcastle, notary public, 136 ter, 
142; a tenement in Silver street, 
Newcastle, conveyed to, 157 

Bulmer, sir Bevis, knight, licence 
granted to, 191 ; Joseph, of New- 
castle, builder, premises in North- 
umberland street, Newcastle, be- 
longing to representatives of, 146 



264 



INDBZ. 



Burbage, Richard, and others, licence 
to, to play comedies, etc., 189 

Bardos, Richard, of Newcastle, notary 
public, 132 

Burenden, co. Kent, collected for the 
church of, 210 

Burfild, Richard, witness to a deed, 
135 ; Thomas, witness to a deed, 135 

Buif ord, earl of, warrant for payment 
of annuity to mistress Eleanor 
Gwynn and, 217 

Burgh St. Mary, in Pleg, in Norwich 
diocese, William Hilton appointed 
to rectory of, 205 ; in gift of 
Abigail Clare, a minor, 205 

Burlinson, John, of Shodfriar chare 
Newcastle, 166 

Burnbank, Newcastle, premises in 
Padding chare and, 134 

Burning in the hand, pardon of, 200 

Burradon, documents relating to, 115 ; 
grant of lands in, 116, 119 ; suit con- 
cerning vill of, 119 

Burradon, Oclard de, grant to, of land, 
in Burradon, 116 

Burrell, of Howtell, arms of, 244 ; 
arms of Reveley impaling, 251 

Butcher bank, Newcastle, 166 

Butler, Francis, permission to return 
from France, 223; Henry, draper, 
readmitted to Merchant Ad- 
venturers company, lost by marry- 
ing a native of Antwerp, 188 ; 
Richard, wardship of Martin Wright 
granted to, 186 ; sir Robert, de- 
ceased, warrant to daughter and 
heir, though under age, to levy 
fines, etc., for payment of her 
father's debts, etc., 201 

Byfeild, John, of Newcastle, scrivener, 
164 ter 

Byker 'chair,' Newcastle, messuage 
at foot of, devised, 132 

Byker, John de, witness to a deed, 116 

C. 

' Cabulus' (?) [cabalas], used at siege 

of Chateau Gaillard, 86 
Cadbury, North, see North Cadbury 
Caill^, mons. Jean, queen's treasurer- 
general, warrant for payment to, 
197 
Caervoran, see Carvoran, Magna 
Caistor, Roman bonding tile from, 

xvi, zix 
* Calabres,' the, 87 
Calendars to the Priory Seals, 185 
Callendar, near Falkirk, the Antonine 
wall at, 79 



Caltrap, the, 106 ; of Roman date 
found at Chesters and Chesterford, 
106 

Capell, sir Arthur, knight, his 
majesty's servant, pardon to, for 
manslaughter, 201 

Capheaton, country meeting at» x 

Calverley, Henry, son of Walter and 
* Phillipp,' 191 ; * Phillipp,' late wife 
of Walter, and her son, discharge of 
sum due to the queen, 191 ; Thomas 
and John, grant of manor of Erj* 
holme, county York, to, 195 ; 
Walter, pardon for a highway 
robbery, 209: sum due to queen 
from, for recusancy, 191 ; William, 
pardon to, 217 

Canterbury cathedral church, grant 
of prebend in, 218 ; archbishop of, 
and others, commissions to, as to a 
marriage, 188 

Caracalla, baths of, quality of concrete 
used in, 53 

Carcassonne, tr^buchet used on stone 
towers of, 78 

Carey, sir Robert, lease to, of Norham 
castle, 190 

Garibee, see Carribee 

Carliol. sir John, of Newcastle, knight, 
126, 127 ; Thomas de, mayor of 
Newcastle, witness to a gram, 117 

Carlisle, inquisition taken at, 120 ; 
deans of : Thomas Gibbons, 226 ; 
Thomas Tullie, M.A., 226 

Carlisle, Charles, earl of, and others, 
appointed lieutenants of county and 
city of Durham, 215 

Carleton, Guy, clerk, presented to 
Arthuret church, Carlisle diocese, 
201 

Carnaby of Halton, arms of, 244 

Carnaby, John, pardon for his part in 
the * rebellion of the north,' 186 

Carres, woods called the, 193 

Carrs of Cocken, premises in Low 
Friar street, Newcastle, of, 162 ; of 
Woodhall, arms of, 244 ; [Carre], 
Mrs. Abigail, leases of premises 
without the Close gate, Newcastle, 
to, 148 ; and others, transfer of the 
sugarhouse, etc.. in the Close, New- 
castle, 149 ; Cuthbert, and others, 
appointed lieutenants for Durham 
county and city, 215 ; colonel 
Francis, warrant for payment to, 
for services, 218 ; George, of New- 
castle, 177 ; James, witness to a 
deed, 135; Joseph, 165; house in 
Low Friar street of, 162 ; of New- 
castle, occupier of garden in High 



INDEX. 



266 



Carrs — continued. 
Friar chare, 164 ; Leonard, of New- 
castle, merchant, executor to 
William Simpson, 139 ; bequest to, 
141; Ralph of Cocken, preinises i ii 
Newgale street, Newcastle, belong- 
ing to, 163 ; garden belonging to, in 
Newcastle, 166 ; Ralph, of New- 
castle, merchant, Barbara, daughter 
of, married alderman W. Jennison, 
139 ; Richard, transfer, etc., of 
premises at the Close gate, New- 
castle, to, and by, 1 49 ; Robert, 
witness to a will, 137 

Carrawburgh, see Procolitia 

Carribee islands, appointment of 
governor of, 215; sir Nathaniel 
Johnson, appointed go vernor-general 
of the, 231 

Carrick, John, of Caervoran, North- 
umberland, gentleman, and another, 
executors of George Lowes, con- 
veyance of premises in Shodfriar 
chare, Newcastle, by, 166 

Carrill, Thomas, lease of Nunsteynton 
hall to, 189 

Carruthers, Robert, of Newcastle, 142 

Carvoran, see Caervoran, Magna 

Gary, Henry, lease of herbage and 
pannage of Topcliffe to, 186 

Case, John, one of the captains of 
Berwick, gift of tenement to, 187 

Cassells, Edmund, prebend in Canter- 
bury cathedral church, 218 

Castlecary, the Antonine wall at, 79 

Castle Eden given to Robert Bowes, 
188 

Castle Garth, Newcastle, premises in, 
171 ^ teq. 

Castle Leases, Newcastle, 154 ; riggs 
in, conveyed to George Moodie, 141 ; 
devise of, by, 141 

Castle, etc., Newcastle, Guide to, xi 

* Cat,' the, 110 

Catapult, principle of the, 70 ; model 
of a, 72 

Catapult, The, poem by Thomas Hodg- 
kin, extract from, 90 

Catteden. Matthew de, witness to a 
deed, 117 

Catterick, county York, death of 
Charles Anthony, vicar of, 218 ; 
Robert CoUingwood presented to 
vicarage, 218 

Cawsey Park, grant of manor of, etc., 
119 ; etc., quit claim of manor and 
park of, 118 ; seisin of, delivered to 
John Ogle, 121 

Cawston, Hannah, wife of William, 
grant to, 227 



Coitic Christianity, 181 

Challoner, Anna Hare, of Newcastle, 
spinster, daughter of Edward, and 
wife, and others, parties to a con- 
veyance of the ' Fighting Cocks,' 
Newcastle, 161 ; Edward, of Mor- 
peth, master mariner, settlement on 
marriage of, 161 ; Jane Body Hen- 
zell, wife of Edward, of North 
Shields, master mariner, devise of 
Estate to trustees for children, 161 ; 
John, of Newcastle, and another, 
conveyance to, on trust, 161 ; late 
of Morpeth and then of Newcastle, 
and others, conveyance of ' Fighting 
Cocks,' Newcastle, etc., by, 161 ; 
Nicholas, witness to a grant, 118 

Chambers [Chamber], Isabella, wife of 
Richard Salesberye of Gateshead, 

130 ; late wife of Robert, of Gates- 
heaci, and daughter and heir of 
Robert Mitford, grant of house on 
Quayside, Newcastle, 130 ; bond of, 
130 ; Richard, tanner, bequest of 
share in glass works, Newcastle, on 
trust, 160; Robert, witness to a deed, 

131 ; Robert, son, and Elianor, 
Elizabeth, Ann, Isable, and Mary, 
daughters of Richard, bequests to, 
160; William, witness to a deed, 
130 

Chancellor, the lord, has charge of 

ejreat seal, 184 
Chancellor, see Chauncellor 
Chanler, John, of Newcastle, potter, 

140 
Chapman, Henry, sheriff, mayor, and 

M.P. of Newcastle, 129 
Charles I., fine for not attending to 

receive knighthood at coronation 

of, 121 
Charles II., made grant to sir Ralph 

Delaval and appoi nted him collector, 

etc., of Seaton Sluice, 233 
Charlton of Hesleyside, arms of, 

248 
Charry, John, witness to a bond, 

120 
Charters, etc., Brumell collection of, 

gift of, xiii, 115 
Chateau Gaillard, *cabalus' used at 

siege of, 86 ; ' sow * used at siege 

of, 110 
Chaytor, Oswald, parish clerk of St. 

John's, Newcastle, 153, 154 
Chauncellor, William, witness to a 

grant, 118 
Cheese press, old, presented, xvi, xviii 
Chest, an old treasure, presented, xvi, 

xvii 

34 



266 



INDEX. 



Chester county, commission for treat- 
ing with recusants in, 196 ; appoint- 
ment of attorney for, 207 ; Dr. 
Thomas Cartwright appointed bishop 
of, 221 

Chester, William, bailiff of Morpeth, 
witness to a grant, 1 1 8 

Chester-le-street, lease of the parson- 
age and vicarage of, 208 ; Richard 
lAton, dean of, 124 ; church, deeds 
at Eirkleatham hall, relating to 
chantry in, 124 ; extract from Valor 
JScclesiastieus relating to, 124 ; 
Leonard Raughton, chaplain, 124 

Chester!, antiquities from House- 
steads, Chesterholm, etc., at, 20 ; 
caltrap found at, 106 (see also 
Oilurnum) 

Chesters, Great, see Aesica 

Chesterholm,! see Vindolana 

ChcTington, Roger de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Chickeil, John, eldest son of Robert, 
and others, grant of dye-house, etc., 
without the Close gate, Newcastle, 
147 ; Robert, and Mary Green, grant 
of coal-staith at Close gate, New- 
castle, 147 

Chicken. Edward, witnesses a deed, 
165 ; schoolmaster, tax collector, 
local poet, etc., 163 ; his school, 163; 
known as * mayor of the White 
Cross,* 163 ; Samuel, of Newcastle, 
host man, 143 

Chipchase, arms of Heron on porch 
at, 245 

Chopwell, lease of site of manor of, 
etc., 187 ; grant of manor of, to sir 
William Constable, 193 ; lease of, 
to Ambrose Dudley, 193 ; of coal 
mines at, 193 ; lease of herbage and 
pannage of woods in manor of, to sir 
H. Vane, 200 ; grant of trees in 
woods, to sir Henry Vane, except 
those marked out for ship timber, 
202 ; grant of manor of, to sir Robert 
Constable, knight, 208 

Christian, William, late receiver of 
duty on fire hearths in Durham 
county, Newcastle, and Berwick. 218 

Chrysoppe, Oswold, witness to a deed, 
135 

Cilurnumy excavations at, 19 

Civil war, two sons of John Trollop, 
senior, slain during, 213 

Clapham, Anthony, of Newcastle, ac- 
tion against, for non -performance of 
agreement, 145 ; conveyance of pre- 
mises in Northumberland street, by, 
145 



Clare, Abigail, a minor, patron of 
rectory of Burgh St. Mary in Fleg, 
206 

Clark [Clarke], Alice, widow, of New- 
castle, 142, 144 ; Charles, of New- 
castle, premises conveyed to, 132; 
Bdward, witness to a deed, 177 ; 
otheryvise Hudson, Elizabeth, 145; 
Hannah, widow of Joseph, married 
George Lumsdon, labourer, 145 hU; 
James, of Newcastle, merchant, 
assignment of lease of house in 
Newcastle to, 177 ; Joseph, bequest 
to, 145; will of, 145; bequest to 
wife Hannah, 145 ; Oliver, of New- 
castle, 143, 144; premises outside 
Pilgrim Street gate, Newcastle, be- 
longing to, 143, 144 ; Robert, John, 
Thomas, and Elizabeth, bequests to, 

144 ; Robert, of Newcastle, stable 
keeper, and others, grant of pre- 
mises in Northumberland Stre*^t by, 

145 ; bequest to, 146 ; of Gates- 
head, and others, grant of premises 
in Northumberland Street by, 145 ; 
Thomas, 132 ; witness to a deed, 
131 ; of Newcastle, scrivener, 135; 
William, of Hampstead, one of the 
trustees of Jonathan Sorsbie, 151 
(See also Gierke) 

Clavering of Callaly, arms of, 244 

Clavering, James, of Greencroft, and 
others, grant of premises, near the 
Close gate, Newcastle, by, 148 ; of 
Newcastle, alderman, 147 ; sir 
James, of Axwell, 148 ; grant to 
e« close land at Whiteh«use, county 
Durham, and to have park and free 
warren, 215; executors of, 148 ; and 
others, grant of premises near the 
Close gate of Newcastle, by, 148; 
appointed lieutenants for Durham 
county and city, 215 ; John of 
Newcastle, and others, grant of pre- 
mises near the Close gate, by, 148 ; 
Robert, sheriff of Northumberland, 
120 

Olaxton, Robert, pardon to, 186 

Clay, burnt, sling bolts of, discovered 
near Abernethy, 105 ; at Glaston- 
bury, 105 

Clayton, Nathaniel, and another, pre- 
mises in Northumberland Street, 
Newcastle, 145 

Cleasby, county York, etc., lease of 
lands at, 186 

Cleasby, Margaret, • pretended con- 
tract of matrimonie ' of sir Cuthbert 
Collingwood, knight, with, 188 ; 
wife of Thomas Stockton, 188 



INDEX. 



267 



Clegg, John, of Newcastle, labourer, 
164 

Clephan, James, * William Hutchinson, 
merchant adventurer,' 146 ; R. Colt- 
man, ' Notes on Roman and Medi- 
eval Military Engines,' 69 

Clerk of the Privy Seal, the office of, 
now abolished, 184 ; sometimes 
known as the ' keeper,' now * lord 
privy seal,' 184 

Clerke, Thomas, lease of lands in 
Herrington, etc., to, 186 (see also 
Clark) 

Clibborne [Cleyburn, Clibbornl, John 
witness to a deed, 135 ter ; Tnomaa, 
210, 21 1 ; and others, defendants in 
a suit concerning vill of Burradon, 
119 and n 

Clifford, lord, payment to, for repair 
of Newcastle gaol, 207 

Clopton, Hugh, appointed * rouge 
dragon,' 224 ; receiver of Northum- 
berland and Durham, 190; grant of 
a pension to, 195 

Close, Newcastle, coal-staiths and 
glasshouses in the, 146 ; glasshouse 
in the, 150 ; Gate meeting house, 
first nonconformist place of worship 
in Newcastle, 146 

Cloth Market, Newcastle, 159 

Clover, Mary, of Newcastle, 142 

Coals, voluntary tax on, for providing 
six ships for defence of north-east 
coast, 196 ; tax on, in ports of 
Newcastle and Sunderland, 197 ; 
imported into Ireland, 197 

Coalmines at Chop well, 193 ; at 
Denton, 194 ; staith, etc., in the 
Close. Newcastle, 146 et seq. 

Coats, Jane, of Rosemary lane, New- 
castle, widow, 176 ; f Coates] 
Richard, of Newcastle, shipwright, 
177 

Coatham, East, land at, belonging to 
B.V.M. charity in Chester-le- Street 
church, 125 

Coatsworth, Michael, witness to an 
assignment, 131 

Cock, Phi His, of Newcastle, widow, 
premises on Quayside belonging to, 
136 

Cockburn, Elizabeth, and others, 
tenement on All Hallows bank, 
Newcastle, belonging to, 158 ; 
Ralph, of Newcastle, and another, 
executors to George Davison, 136 ; 
John, house in Bigg Market, New- 
castle, belonging to, 162 

Cocklepark, tower and lands of, and 
ofl^ce of forester, grant of ^ 118 



Coffin, stone, found in Newcastle, 
presented, xvi, xix 

* Coillard * or * cuillard,* the, 87 

Coins (Roman), etc., discovered at 
Aesica, 24, 33, 43, 62 

Cole, sir Nicholas, of Brancepeth, 
dignity of baronet granted to, 203 ; 
discharge of payment on account 
of baronetcy, 203 ; sir Ralph, and 
others, appointed lieutenants for 
Durham county and city, 215 ; 
advowson of Brancepeth granted 
to, 222 

'Collier's wedding,' the, by Edward 
Chicken, 163 

Collingwood of Eslington, 246 ; 
Alexander, of Little Ryle, pardon 
to, 211 ; sir Cuthbert, late of 
Eppleden, knight, commission as to 
his ' pretended contract of matri- 
monie ' with Margaret Cleasby, 188 ; 
George,8on ot, 188 ; Robert, nephew, 
188 ; David, demise of Holy Island 
to, except fort, etc., and governor, 
215; Edward, witness to a deed, 
130 ; mansion in Pilgrim street, 
Newcastle, residence of, 163, 166 ; 
of Chirton, conveyance of premises 
on Quayside, Newcastle, to, 134 ; 
attests a deed, 140 ; Jane, wife of 
George, pardon of, for receiving 
seminary priest, 193; Robert, pre- 
sented to Catterick vicarage, county 
York, 218 

CoUum, Hugh de, grant by, 1 16 

Colmer, Ambrose, John and William, 
commission concerning a will dis- 
puted by them, 188 

Colson, John, witness to a release, 
131; or Colston, Robert, of New- 
castle, spurrier, 152 ; grant of 
premises in Westgate, 154 ; Elianor 
Manwell, daughter of, 164 

Colte park, etc., John Ogle, farmer 
of, 120 ; lease of herbage of, 189 

Colyer [Colyear], George, son of 
Thomas, 137 ; John, grant of 
premises in Sandgate, Newcastle, 
CO, 137 ; Thomas George, son of, 
137 ; Alice Lambton, daughter of, 
137 ; of Newcastle, shipwright, 
grant of house in Sandgate to, 137 

Comber (see Cumber) 

Comedies, etc., licence to William 
Shakespeare and others, to play, 
189 

Commonwealth, the * sow ' used as 
late as time of, 110 

Condell, Henry, and others, licence to, 
to pla^ comedies^ etc., 189, 



us 



INDEX. 



Conrad, William, bowjer of the tower 
of London, 100 

Constable, Robert, and Beatrice his 
wife, petition of dower of, 120 ; 
Robert, debt of, to queen, 193 ; late 
lieutenant of the ordnance, 193 ; 
grant of manor of Chopwell to, 
208 ; sir William, grant of manor 
of Chopwell to, 193 

Oonyera family, chapel of, at Sock- 
burn, restored, xiii 

Oonyers [Conniers, Corners], sir 
Christopher, and others, appointed 
lieutenants for county and city of 
Durham, 215; John, of Honien, 
county Durham, dignity of baronet 
granted to, 198 ; sir John, knight, 
appointed governor of Berwick, 
204; grant of annual payment to, 
198 ; lady Mary, denization granted 
to, 204; Ralph, lease of Leighton, 
county Durham, to, 188 ; Robert, 
recusancy of, 228 ; William, pardon 
of, for killing Henry Briggs, 191 

Cook, Edward, of Newcastle, esquire, 
165 ; Henry, of Gateshead, and 
* Christian,' his wife, purchase of 
house in All Hallows* bank, New- 
castle, by, 157 ; Ralph, of New- 
castle, brewer, 155, 177 ; Robert, 
and another, premises in Close, 
Newcastle, belonging to, 147 

Cookson, William, witness to a deed, 
130 

Copeman, Catherine, wife of Benjamin, 
and others, devise of house in Dog 
bank, Newcastle, to, 158 

Corbel, stone, from Pilgrim street, 
Newcastle, xvi, xvii, xxi 

Corbridge, Hugh, butcher, of, 117 

Oorbridge's ' Map of Newcastle,' 151, 
162 

Cordnall, Samuel, and another, Raby 
and Barnard castles and Raby 
parks granted to, 199 

Oordwainers Company, Newcastle, 
stewards of, 17671 ; Anthony 
Wheatley, warden of, 169 ; extracts 
from books, 176 ; Thomas Fletcher, 
the second, member of, 176 and n 

Cordwell, Samuel, and another, con- 
firmation of assignment of demesne 
lands of Barnardcastle to, 196 

Coronation of Charles I., fine for not 
attending to receive knighthood, 
etc., 214 

Correction house in the Flesh Market, 
Newcastle, 1767i 

Cotton, Thomas, lease of head -house, 
etc., of Leiton to, 187 



Coulson, John, of Nether dean bridge, 
Newcastle, 166 ; William, witness 
to a deed, 131 (see also Colson) 

Council and officers for 1 902, xx 

Country meetings, x 

Coventina, discovery of well of, 19 

Coward, William, 136; bequest to, 
136 

Cowell, Henry, sale of premises in the 
Bigg Market, Newcastle, to, 160 

Cowley, Richard, and others, licence 
to, to play comedies, etc,, 189 

Cowling, Henry, of the ' Unicom,' 
Newcastle, victualler, 160 

Cowton, South and North, lease of 
lands at, 187 

Cradock [Cradocke, Craddock], Eliza- 
beth, widow of John, gcant to, 219 ; 
Francis, grant of office of provost 
marshal of Barbadoes to, 212 ; 
John, grant of ancient market tolls 
of London to, 216 ; John, M.A., 
appointed to rectory of Walpole 
St. Peters, county Norfolk, 214 ; 
Samuel, B.D., appointe<l to rectory 
of North Cadbury, county Somerset, 
213 

Craggs, James, warrant for payment 
to, as secretary in king of Spain's 
court, 222 ; resident and . envoy 
extraordinary, 223 ; clerk of the 
oixinance, 223 ; discharge of exe- 
cutors of, 225 

Cramliugton of Cramlington and New- 
sham, arms of, 248 

Cramlington, Thomas, dispute between 
sir Robert Uelaval and, 229 : of 
Widdrington, 126 and n, 127 ; 
Thomas, son and heir of Lancelot, 
of Newsham and Blyth nook, proof 
of a^e of, 126 and w, 127 ; Thomas, 
married Grace Lawson, 127 ; Eliza- 
beth, Barbara, and Robert, children 
of, 127 

Crannog, a Celtic, at Glastonbury, 
105 

* Craster Tables,' the, 243 et seq. ; copy 
of, made by Charles Williams, 213 

Craster of Craster, arms of, 248 ; 
[Craister], George, of Craister, 
Northumberland, 243/i 

Cre^y, long bow leading weapon at, 
94 ; French had Genoese crass bow- 
men at, 100 ; corporations of bow- 
men established in French towns 
after, 100 

Cress well of Cresswell, arms of, 249 

Cromwell, Oliver, entertained in New- 
castle by Thomas Bonner, mayor. 
129 



INDEX. 



269 



Cropley, John, of Clerkenwell, pardon 
for all treasons, etc., 213 

Crossbow, the, 98 et seq.; a Romano- 
Gallic, 98 ; mentioned in Domesday 
Book, 99 ; not on Bayeux tapestry, 
98 ; use of, prohibited by popes, 99 ; 
Richard I. mortally wounded by 
bolt of, 99, 299 ; the prodd, 104 ; 
the goatsfoot, 104 ; the latch, 103 ; 
the windlass, 102 

Grossman, sir William, death of, ix 

Cross street, Newcastle, formerly 
Ratten raw, 151 

Crozier, Anthony, and Isabell, his 
wife, pension granted to, 198 

Grays, John, lease of lands at Eldon, 
etc., to, 187 

Cumber, Or. Thomas, presented to 
deanery of Durham, 224 

Cumberland, wardship of George, earl 
of, granted to Francis, earl of Bed- 
ford, 186 

Cumberland, commission for treating 
with recusants in, 196 

Curators' report for 1901, xvi 

Custillun, William de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

D. 

Dacre [Dacres], Edward, and others, 
bill of Thomas, duke of Norfolk, 
against, 120 ; sir Thomas, lord 
Dacre, and Elizabeth his wife, 
letters patent of Henry VII. to, 
120 ; Elizabeth, late wife of sir 
Thomas, lord of Dacre and Gilsland, 
inquisitions 27. m., 120 ; Francis, son 
and heir of the late lord Dacre, 
protection for, for one year, 193; 
grants of pensions to daughters of, 
196 ; sir William, lord of Dacre, 
etc.,indenture between Henry VIII., 
and, 120 

Dagenham, John de, witness to a 
grant, 117 

Dagnia, the family of, 146 

Dagnia. Ann, wife of James, bequest 
to, 148 ; Edward, assignment of 
* ye White glass house * in the Close 
to, 149 ; James, son of Onesiphorus, 
bequests to. 148 ; will of, 148 ; 
bequests, 148 ; eldest son of John, 
grant of premises in Close, New- 
castle, by, 1 49 ; married Ann Ander- 
son. 154»; grant of one-fourth of 
house in Westgate street, etc., by, 
156 ; Edward, John and Onesiph- 
orus, sons of John, deceased, grant 
of quay, white glasshouse, etc., in 



Dagnia — continued. 
Close gate, Newcastle, by, 150 ; 
John, transfers of premises in Close, 
Newcastle, to, 149; John, and 
others, assignment of premises near 
Close gate, Newcastle, to, 147 ; 
assignment of same by, 147 ; grant 
of glasshouse, etc., to, 147; partner- 
ship with Onesiphorus Dagnia, 1 47 ; 
John, junior, and others, bond of, 
to Mrs. Hutchinson, 149 ; John and 
Onesiphorus, grant of dye-house, 
etc., without the Close gate, New- 
castle, to, 147 •; lease of waste 
ground, etc., near the Closegate, 
Newcastle, 148 ; grant of quay, etc., 
in the Close to, 149; bond of, 149 ; 
John, son of Onesiphorus, bequests 
to, 148; *John, of South Shields, 
glassmaker,' 146 ; Onesiphorus, and 
others, assignment of premises near 
the Closegate, Newcastle, to, 147 ; 
assignment of same by, 147 ; grant 
of glasshouse, etc., to, 147 ; partner- 
ship with John Dagnia, 147 ; 
Onesiphorus, of Newcastle, glass- 
maker, one-fourth of house in West- 
gate street, conveyed to, 155 ; 
Onesiphorus, conveyed premises in 
Westgate street, Newcastle, 155 ; 
grant of premises at Closegate, 
Newcastle, to, 148 ; will of, 148 ; 
bequests by, 148 ; son of James, be- 
quest to, 148 ; Margery, widow of, 
married Charles Williams, 243n 

Dalton, arms of, 253; quartered by 
Hutton of Hunwick, 253 ; Roger, 
of Newcastle, baker and &er 
brewer, 131 

Darey, sir William, knight, grant of 
office of chancellor of Durham and 
Sadberge to, 212 

Darling, Grace, collection of relics of, 
xvii, xix 

Darlington, St. Cuthbert's church, 
early sundial in, xvi, xix, 68 

Darlington, Catherine Sedley, created 
baroness of, 219 ; Sophia Charlotte, 
countess of Leinster, created 
countess of, 226 

Dameton, lease of messuage, etc., in, 
189 

Darrell, Marmaduke, and another, 
king's cofferers, monthly payment 
by, for queen's household, 196 

De Insula, Otwey (see Insula) 

Davison [Davidson], Francis, occupier 
of premises in Low Friar chare, 
Newcastle, 165 ; George, of New- 
castle, blacksmith, and Margery, his 



270 



INDEX. 



D&YiBon— continued. 
wife, sale of house on Quayside to, 
135 ; probate of will of, bequest to 
William Green, Margery his wife, 
and another^ 135; executors, 135; 
Margery, of Newcastle, widow, 136 ; 
contemplated marriage of. 135 ; 
Ralph, and others, appointed lieu- 
tenants for Durham county and 
city, 215 ; Thomas, attests a will, 
160 ; of Newcastle, attorney, 166 
DawsoD, George, collector of customs 
at Newcastle, 217 ; puritan mayor 
of Newcastle, 129, 132 ; Henry, 132 ; 
puritan mayor of Newcastle, 129 ; 
Jacob, and Margaret his wife 
(daughter of Robert Maving), and 
others, parties to a conveyance of 
* Fighting Cooks,* Newcastle, 161 ; 
John, of Newcastle, 143, 144 ; 
Matthew, 165 bis; of Newcastle, 
cordwainer, 148 ; William, of New- 
castle, 132 ; draper and alderman 
of Newcastle, grounds in Pilgrim 
street belonging to, 141 ; premises 
of, without Pilgrim street gate, 142 
Day, Thomas, witness to a grant, 131 
Deas, Charles, of Newcastle, 162 
Delaval of Seaton Delaval, 246 
Delaval, Ann, married John Rogers, 
234 ; said to have been poisoned 
by Mrs. Poole, 234/*; John, and 
others, indenture of, concerning 
collieries, etc., 234 ; sir John, salt 
pans of, 229 ; repaired pier at 
Seaton Sluice, 284 ; John Rogers, 
married Ann, daughter of, 234 ; 
Margaret, widow, of Newcastle, 
131 ; sir Ralph, baronet, of Seaton 
Delaval, pardon of, with restitution 
of lands, etc., 212 ; sir Ralph, built 
pier at Hartley, 232 ; sir Ralph, 
grant of Charles II. to, 233 ; made 
collector, etc., of Seaton Sluice, 233 ; 
visit of Francis North to, 233 ; 
granted a privy seal, 233; Robert, 
of South Dissington, pardon for all 
treasons, etc., with restitution of 
forfeitures, etc., 212 ; sir Robert, 
and Thomas Cramlington, dispute 
between, 229; Thomas, 231, 234; 
made plans for new dock at Seaton 
Sluice, 235 
Denbigh, Sampson Eure, appointed 

attorney for county of, 196 
Dendy, F. W„ and the Newcastle 
Hostmen's Company, xii ; * Extracts 
from the Privy Seal Dockets, re- 
lating chiefly to the North of Eng- 
land,' 184 et se^. 



Denization, letters of, 198 
Denmark, stone implements from 
xvi, xix ; and Sweden, sir Henry 
Vane, ambassador to, 199 
* Dent's Hole,' on the Tyne, 146 
Dents of Byker, the, 146 
Dent, George and Robert, grant to, of 
coalstaith in Close, Newcastle, 146 ; 
Nicholas, witness to a will, 136 ; 
Robert, George, etc., grant of coal- 
staith in Close, Newcastle, 146 
Denton, Northumberland, grant of 
coal-mines at, 194 ; tower, New- 
castle, 153 

Derby county, commission for treat- 
ing with recusants in, 196 . 

Derham, Thomas, grant of office of 
carrier of all the king's letters, 214 

Derycke, Robert, carpenter, witness 
to a dee<l, 130 

Desborough, John, of Newcastle, 
gardener, 164 

Dethicke, Henry, grant of office of 
Rouge Croix to, 212 

Dewes, George, attainder of, of high 
treason for coining goli, 206 

Dieppe, English ships set on fire by 
'Greek fire' at, 113 

Diggle, Dr. Edmund, prebendary of 
York, 219 ; [Diggles], Leonard, 
witness to a grant, 131 

Dighton, Christopher,of Northallerton, 
surgeon, and others, parties to a 
conveyance of the * Fighting Cocks,' 
etc., Newcastle, 161 

Dikes, Cuthbert, of Newcastle, 
premises of, without Pilgrim street 
gate, 143, 144 (see also Dykes) 

Dilston, documents relating to, 116; 
grant of land at, 117 

Dingley, Henry, and another, con- 
firmation of assignment of demesne 
lands of Barnardcastle to, 196 ; 
Raby and Barnardcastle castles and 
Raby parks granted to, 199 

Dinnington (?), etc., county North- 
umberland, grant of land at, 212 

Dinsdale, pardon to Rowland Place of, 
206 

Dissington, South, etc., grant of lands 
at, 118 ; pardon of Robert Delaval 
of, for treasons, etc., 212 

Dixon, Thomas, witness to a deed, 
177 

Dobson, widow, of Newcastle, tene- 
ments of, in Painterheugh, 143 ; 
Charles, and Elizabeth, his wife, 
and others, covenants to levy fines, 
142, 143 ; Michael, attests a deed, 
164 



INDEX. 



271 



Dockets, 186 ; extracts from the 
privy seal, 180 et seq. 

Dclckwray, Mrs. Catherine, mortgage 
to, and assignment by, of ' the pott 
house * at the Close gate, Newcastle, 
149 

Doctors' bills, 171 

Don kin, John, owner of yard in 
Nether Dean bridge, Newcastle, 
166 

Doddington (see Dinnington) 

Dodds, Matthew, premises in Close, 
Newcastle, belonging to, 147 

Dodshon, John, 142 

Dodson, John, of Bishop Auckland 
134; Nicholas, of Hawthorn, county 
Durham, and another, executors of 
Robert Forster, of Hawthorn, 138 

Dod worth, county York, steward of 
manor of, 207 

Dog bank, Newcastle, property in, 
156 et seq. 

Dominis, Marcus Antonius do, ap- 
pointed to mastership of Savoy, 
195 

Donations to museum, xvi-xix 

Donkin, Armorer, of Newcastle, gentle- 
man, house on Quavside, conveyed 
to, 134 

Dortrey, Anthony, of Newcastle, 
carrier, 154 

Doublcday, George, father of Thomas, 
150, and another, premises in Close 
conveyed to, 151 

Douglas, John, 164 ; witness to a deed, 
143 ; Joshua, town clerk of New- 
castle, 144, 165 

Downes, Ralph, lease to, of Harber- 
house, 188 

Dowry, Mary, occupied a house in 
Hillgate, Gateshead, 165 

Dowthwait, Barnard, lease of parks at 
Raby to, 187 

Draper, Timothy, and another, grant 
of coal-mines at Deuton to, 194 

Drew, Charles, grant of his forfeited 
lands to his sisters. 227 ; Matthew, 
secretary to the duke of York, 215 

Dribornside, etc., grant of lands, etc., 
at, 187 

Druryes, county Suffolk, lands at, 
granted to Robert Bowes, 188 

Dry den, John, the poet, appointment 
of, as poet laureate and historio- 
grapher royal, 219 

Duck, John, of Haswell on the 
Mount, county Durham, grant of 
dignity of baronet to. 221 ; dis- 
charge of, from usual payment for 
the dignity, 221 (see also Duk) 



Dudley, Ambrose, lease of Chopwell 
to, 193 ; of coal-mines to, 193 ; 
John, and others, grant of barony 
of Langley to, 210; Richard, 
demise, to, to use of Blizabeth 
Jackson, of four prebendaries in 
Eldon, of church of Auckland. 196 

Dugdale, William, Rouge Croix, 212 ; 
Norrey, 212 

Duk, John, vicar of Great Bursted, 
grant by, 117 (see also Duck) 

Dumay, Kngelram de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Dunn [Dunne], Thomas, 142 bis, of 
Newcastle, slater, 142 ; of New- 
castle, roper, 142 

Durant, Benezar, and others, assign- 
ment of premises near Close gate 
to, 147 

Durham, pardon to the bishop of, 
219 ; as to power of bishops of, to 
incorporate Sherbum hospital, 188 

Durham, dean of, rent of house and 
water mill at Nunstaynton, to be 
paid to, 187 ; death of Dr. Bal- 
canqual, dean of, 206 ; Dr. 
William Fuller appointed, 205 ; 
Denis Granville, dean of, de- 
prived, 224 ; Dr. Thomas Comber, 
presented to deanery of, 224 

Durham Court of Chancery, John 
Spearman, deputy registrar of, 137 

Durham, bishopric of, warrant to 
receiver for payment to Robert 
Bowes, 208 ; office of sheriff of, 
granted to sir William Bellasis, 
knight, 197 ; John Spearman, 
under-sheriff for, lZ7n ; grant of 
receivership of, 190, 201 ; to John 
Braddell, 197 ; to Thomas Wharton, 
197 ; to mayor Norton, 202 ; grant 
of rents of, during vacancy, 216 ; 
office of palister of east, west and 
middle parks in, 190 ; grant of 
office of clerk of common pleas in, 
212 

Durham, county and city, appoint- 
ment of lieutenants for, 215 ; com- 
missiou for treating with recusants 
in, 196 ; receiver of hearth money 
in, 218 ; notorious persons in, 205 

Duiham city, pardon to Christopher 
Mickleton of, 206 

Durham and Sadberge, grant of office 
of chancellor of, 212 

Durham, Alice, bequest to, 137 ; 
Barbara, widow, 131 ; Edward, be- 
quest to, 136 ; Gawine, bequest to, 
186; George, barber-surgeon, of 
Newcastle, 181 ;• George, and his 



272 



INDEX. 



Durham — continued. 
wife Barbary i'. Strangewayes, 
and others, 136 ; George, barber- 
surgeon, son of, release by, 136 ; 
Henry, 137 ; devise of messuage on 
Quayside, Newcastle, to, 137 ; John, 
189 ; Martha, widow, will of, 136 ; 
bequests by, 136 ; Michael, of New- 
castle, stationer, and others, mort- 
gage of house on Quayside by, 136 ; 
Thomas, of Newcastle, apothecary, 
and others, mortgage of house on 
Quayside by, 136 ; Thomas, of Silver 
street. Stepney, Middlesex, release 
of premises on Quayside, Newcastle, 
by, 137 

Dutch, French and. Hartley protected 
against, by small battery, 233 

Duxfield, Ralph, of Newcastle, 
premises in Northumberland street, 
belonging to, 145 ; [Duxfilde], 
William, clerk, 120 

Dykes, Cuthbert, of Newcastle, 142 ; 
Mary, of Newcastle, widow, lease 
to, of house in Castle Garth, 175 
(see also Dikes) 



E. 



Earring, gold, from Aeslca^ 42 
Earsdon, grants in lordship of, 119 ; 

John Ogle, farmer of, 120 ; Earsdon 

forest, lands in, delivered to John 

Ogle, 214 
Earsdon, Robert de, witness to a grant, 

116 
Easterby, Anthony, 150 ; and another, 

premises m Close, conveyed to, 

151 
Easter, celebration of, 181 
• Easter Waie,' road so called, between 

Hartley and Blyth Nook, 229 
East Harlsey, county York, lands at, 

granted to Robert Bowes, 188 
East Ritton, etc., John Ogle, farmer 

of, 120 
East Shaftoe, country meeting at, x. 
Eastwood, wood of, 193 
Eden, Charles, permission for, to return 

from France, 223 ; sir Robert, grant 

of sum due from him for dignity of a 

baronet, 216 ; Thomas, doctor of 

law, warrant for payment to, 204 ; 

Tobias, warrant for payment to, 216 
Edmonds, sir Thomas, a discharge for 

moneys to, 198 
Edolf, son of Eveda, witness to a 

grant, 116 
Edward I, grant of lands in Essex, 

117 



Edworth, Edward, witness to a bond, 
120 (see also Hed worth) 

Bggleston, Philip, of the 'Fighting 
(Jocks,* Newcastle, 161 

Egyptians, long bow used by the, 93 

Eland, Anthony, witness to a deed, 135 

Eldon, etc., lease of lands at, 187 ; four 
prebendaries in,demi83d to Elizabeth 
Jackson, widow, 196 

Eldon, lord, his elopement. 163 

* Eliza Bon adventure,' the ship, stone 
shot used by, 93 ; inventory of shot 
on board of, 85 

Elizabeth, queen, letters patent of, 
relating to lands at Kirkleatham,214 

Elizabeth, etc., grant of office of 
governor, etc., of, 223 

Ellet, Stephen, of Newcastle, smith, 
fined for taking away work from 
another, 140 

Ellington, Anthony, witness to a deed, 
130 

Elliot, Marv, wife of Henry, bequest 
to, 173 (see also Kllet) 

Ellison, John, of Newcastle, * cariage- 
man,' 140 ; rev. Nathaniel, vicar of 
Newcastle, 177 ; and others, leafe 
from, of messuage in St. John's 
chare, 177 

Elrington, aims of, 249 

Elsdon (?), William, clerk of, 116 

Elstob, Charles, M.A., grant of pre- 
bendary in Canterbury Cathedral 
church, 218 

Embleton church, old tapestry from, 
xix 

Emmerson, Nicholas, of the Postern, 
Newcastle, 170 ; Ralph, of New- 
castle, fitter, 132 

Engines, Roman and medieval 
military, 69 

Eppleden, sir Cuthbert Collingwood, 
knight, of, 188 

Errington of Errington, arms of, 249 ; 
Anthony de, witness to a deed, 11 7 ; 
John, lease of lands at Cleasby, 
county York, etc., to, 186 ; Martin, 
of Newcastle, master mariner, sale 
of house on Quayside to and by, 135 ; 
Nicholas, 144 ; Robert de, witness 
to a deed, 117 ; Robert and another, 
grant of coal mines at Denton to, 
194 ; Thomas, of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, general pardon of, 205; 
William, witness to a deed, 130 

Ersdon (see Earsdon) 

Eryholme, county York, grant of 

• manor of, 195 

Esh, lease of site of manor of, 186 

Esley burn, Newcastle, the, 152 



INDEX. 



278 



Esterfeld, Bdward, assignment to, of 
castles of Rabj and Bamardcastle 
in trust and the parks at Raby, 199 

* Ettieldune,' William, clerk of, 116 
Bare, Ralph, a prisoner in king's 

bench, 207 ; sir Ralph, witness to a 
grant, 118 ; Sampson, grant of 
appointment of his majesty's 
attorney in counties of Denbigh 
and Montgomery, 196 ; granted 
office of sergeant-at-law, 204 ; ap- 
pointed attorney for Wales, etc., 
207 ; Kir Sampson, knight, warrant 
for payment to, for faithful services, 
205; sir William, knight, and others, 
remission of iine imposed on, 191 ; 
sir William and Katherine his wife, 
lease of demesne lands of Bamard- 
castle, etc., to, 189 

Evers, see Eure 

Bwbanke, Henry, grant to, of sum due 
from collector of Newcastle, 217 

Extracts from the Privy Seal dockets, 
186 ^ scq. 

F. 

Fairbridge, Charles, of Newcastle, 
joiner, premises In Rosemary lane 
assigned to, 176 (see also Farbridge) 

Fairlawn, county Kent, grant of manor 
of, 218 

*Falarica,' the, 85; used by the 
Saguntines, 85 

Fallow, T. M., F.8.A., on deeds at 
Kirkleatham hall relating to chantry 
in Chester-le- Street church, 124 

* Falsebrays,' 107 

Falufeld, John de, witness to a deed, 

117 
Fane, sir Henry, assignment of 

demesne lands of Bamardcastle to, 

196 
Farbridge, Charles, lease of house in 

St. John's chare, Newcastle, to, 177; 

assignment of same to Emanuel 

Walker of Newcastle, gentleman, 

177 (see also Fairbridge) 
Farmeley, county York, lands at, 

granted to Robert Bowes, 188 
Fame islands, William Ramsey, 

captain of, 209; Robert Rugg, 

captain of, 208 
Fawdon, Richard, witness to a grant, 

118 
Featherstone, arms of, 249 ; Thomas, 

of Newcastle, grocer, and premises 

in Northumberland street, 145; 

keeper of Teesdale forest, death of, 

222 (see also Fetherston)* 

VOL. XXIV. 



Featherstonhaugh of Featherston- 
haugh, arms of, 249; Matthew, 
mayor of Newcastle, 165 ; Ralph, 
164 (see also Fetherstonhaugh) 

Fell, Jane, bequest to. 154 

Felton and Felton forest, lands in, 
delivered to John Ogle, 214 

Felton, Alan de, witness to a grant, 
117; Anthony, customer of port of 
Newcastle, 232 

Fenrother, commons and moors of, 
grant in, 119 

Fenwick [Fenwyk, Fenwicke], George, 
gentleman, party to a deed of 
premises in Westgate street, 156 ; 
sir George and others, grant of 
barony of Langley to, 210 ; John, 
231 ; witness to a deed, 177 ; to a 
will, 1 44 ; John de, chaplain, and 
another, quit claim of land in 
bishopric to, 118; John, property 
at corner of Denton chare, New- 
castle, sold to, 153, 156 ; Martin, 
127 ; Nicholas, sheriff of Newcastle, 
143 ; of Newcastle, merchant, land 
in Broadgarth belonging to, 162 ; 
mayor and alderman of Newcastle, 
164, 165; Oswin, 231 ; Oswald of 
Newcastle, attests a deed, 140 ; 
Kalph, 231; Tristram, 127 

Fetherston, Thomas, keeper in Tees- 
dale forest, 216 

Fetherstonehaugh, William and 
Lancelot, grants of lands in lord- 
ship of Hrancepeth, 198 (see also 
Featherstonhaugh) 

Fibulae, etc., discovered at Aesica, 22 

Fife, sir John, first wife of, 150 

' Fighting Cocks Inn,' the. Bigg 
Market, Newcastle, 159 : devise of, 
161 ; occupied by Thomas Robson, 
161, 162 ; by Mary Wheatman, 161, 
162; Philip Eggleston, 161, 162; 
Roger Heron, 162 ; Lawrence 
Stephenson, 162 

Finn, James, *a poor blind man,' 
bequest of an annuity to, 160 

Finney, James, clerk, appointed to 
prebendary of Hustwaite in 
cathedral church of York, 219 

Fires, sums collected for, 210 

Fish market, Newcastle, 159 

Fisher (see Fyssher) 

Fitzakerly, E. G., of Newcastle, 162 

Flamang, John de, witness to a grant, 
117 

Flashe Green, county Durham, Henry 
Briggs killed at, 191 

Flecke, Richard, 141, 142, 144; of 
Ne^ircastle, brewer, 143 bis 

35 



274 



INDEX. 



Flesh market, Newcastle, 159 

Fletcher, Hugh, of Newcastle, 136 ; 
John, 176 n ; Lawrence and others, 
licence to, to play comedies, etc., 
189 ; Richard, of Newcastle, brick- 
layer, 165 ; Thomas, 176 ; the elder, 
176»; 'the second,* churchwarden 
of St. John^s, and another, lease of 
ground belonging to chapelry, 176 ; 
steward of Newcastle cord wain ers* 
company, 176n ; jun., 176 ; William, 
house on Quayside, Newcastle, 
occupied by, 133 

Flint, appointment of attorney 
for county of, 207 

Flodden, latest battle won by agency 
of the long bow, 94 

Foggin, James, house in Postern, 
Newcastle, belonging to, 170 

Folpeton, sir Roger de, bailiff of 
Hexham, witness to a deed, 117 

Forbes, Thomas, witness to an award, 
145 

Forcer, Thomas, Harberhose formerly 
property of, 188 

Ifordan, George, 229 

Forster of Adderston, arms of, 245 

Forster, Alexander, of Alnwick,gentle- 
man, son and heir of Alexander, 
conveyed horse-mill in Postern. 
Newcastle, 170 ; widow Tabitha, 
married John Gunthorpe, 170 ; of 
Ellington, gentleman, horse-mill in 
Postern conveyed to, 169 ; Edward, 
of Newcastle, shipwright, married 
Mary Anderson, 164w ; they convey 
one-fourth of premises in Westgate 
street, 185 ; George, of North 
Shields, Margery, daughter of, 
married Onesiphorus Dagnia, 243»; 
Charles Williams, 2i'dn ; Martin, 
comptroller of customs at Newcastle. 
211 ; Peter, of Gateshead, boat 
builder, mortgage by, of house in 
All Hallows bank, Newcastle, 168 ; 
Ralph, of Hawthorn, execucors 
of, 134 ; Robert, of Newcastle, 
yeoman, his tenement in High Friar 
chare, 164 ; Thomas, of Corbridge, 
witness to a grant, 1 17 

Foster, Richard, pardon of, for murder 
of Thomas Swinhoe, 196 

Fothergill, William, of Newcastle, 
gardener, 144 

Fowbery of Newbold, county York, 
arms of, 249 

Fowler, Ralph, of Newcastle, 167 

* Fox and Hounds Inn,' Newcastle, 132 

Framlington, quitclaim of lands in, 
118 



Free warren, grant of, to sir Henry 

Vane, 204 
French towns, corporations of bowmen 

established in, after Cre^y, 100 ; or 

Dutch attacks, Hartley protected 

against, by small battery, 233 
French, Easter, occupied premises at 

Netherdene bridge, Newcastle, 165 ; 

Joseph, attests a deed, 137 ; 

William, 144 ; of Newcastle, scriv- 
ener, 137 
Frevell, George, lo.ase of capital house 

of Hardwych to, 187 
Friends, Society of, payment of rent to 

church of Divine Unity, Newcastle, 

166 
Frosterley, etc., grant of lands, etc., in 

187 
Fullai-ton, sir James, lessee in trust 

for demesne of Barnardcastle, oon- 

iirmation of assignment by, 196 
Fuller, Timothy, presented to rectory 

of Middleton-in-Teesdale, 212 ; Dr. 

William, deanery of Durham granted 

to, 205 
Fulthorpe, Christopher, grant of 

moiety of manor of Tunstall, 

county Durham, etc., to, 195 
• Fundibuli,' 81 
Fustibal, the, 105 
Fyssher, Thomas, baker, witness to a 

deed poll, 130 



G. 



Gallowgate, Newcastle, devise of 
burgage in, 141 

Gamell, Joseph, 134 

Gardner John, 127 

Gargrave, county York, lands at, 
granted to Robert Bowes, 1 88 

Garret, George, and others, burgage 
in Gallowgate, Newcastle, occupied 
by, 141 

Gateshead, St. Mary's churchyard, 
166 ; grant to St. Edmund's hospital 
to be newly founded in, as king 
James's hospital, charters having 
been lost, 194 ; transfers of house in 
Hillgate, 163, 165 

Gatis, George, of Newcastle, skinner 
and glover, grant by, of a house in 
Wes^ate street, 154 

Gangy, Seaton Sluice in barony of, 
229 

Gawes close, grant of lands at, 119 

Gee, Barbara, of Newcastle, widow, 
and another, conveyance of premises 
in High Friar chare or Shod Friar 
lane to, 164 bu ; and others, con- 



INDEX. 



275 



Gee — continued. 
veyed premises in Shod Friar chare, 
166 ; will of, 167 ; confirms son 
John's devise to Close gate meeting 
house, 167 ; John, of Newcastle, 
gentleman, devise to minister of 
Close gate meeting house, 167 

Gell, Thomas, witness to a lease, 177 

Genoese crossbowmen at Cre^y on 
French side, 100 

Gent, Bridget, wife of John, grant to. 
227 

Gerard [Gerrard], sir Gilbert, bart., 
of De Flamberts, county Middlesex, 
pardon to, 213 ; and others, ap- 
pointed lieutenants for Durham 
county and city, 215 

Germany, Holland and, payment to 
sir Henry Vane as ambassador to, 
200 

Gibraltar, garrison and fortifications 
of, 226 

Gibson, John, 142 ; witness to a deed, 
133 ; John Pattison, on Muckiebank 
wall turret, 13 ; on excavations at 
AeHcaper Imeam vall% 19 ; Robert, 
of Newcastle, merchant, sale of 
house on Quayside by, 35 ; grant 
of garden without the Close gate, 
Newcastle, 148 ; William, attests a 
deed, 141 ; mariner, of Newcastle, 
tenement belonging to, 1 29 

Gill, Thomas, of Benwell, 177 

Gillies, James, attests a deed, 164 

Gillman, Thomas, of Newcastle, inn- 
keeper, 166 

Gilpin, Alan, witness to a deed, 132; 
[Gilpyn], Barnard, parson of 
Houghton-le-Spring, and another, 
licence for erection of grammar 
school, etc., 187 

Gilsland, lords of Dacre and, sir 
Thomas Dacre, 120 ; sir William 
Dacre, 120 

Girlington, Ninian, of Girlington, 
Yorkshire, Mabel Simpson married, 
139 

Glamorgan county, ^ant of office of 
justice of, 212 

Glanteleie, Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Glass houses, etc., in the Close, New- 
castle, 146 f^ ^^g. ; works, at Hart- 
ley, 237 ; etc., at Newcastle, 2\'6n 

Glastonbury, baked sling stones dis- 
covered in Celtic crannog at, 105 

Glendale, viscount, hord, lord Grey 
of Wark created, 222 

Gloucester, appointment of attorney 
for county of, 207 



Goat's head, initial^ R S, and date 
1596, on fireplace lintel found in 
Newcastle, xviii 

Godrik, John, witness to a deed, 
117 

Gofton, Joseph, of Newcastle, plumber, 
mortgage of premises on Quayside 
to, 136 ; Thomas, 165 his ; attests a 
deed, 164 ; William, 164 ; witness 
to a deed, 142 

Gold, attainder of George Dewes of 
high treason for coining, 206 ; 
mines in Scotland, 191 

' Golden Lion ' inn, Newcastle, 1 59 

Goldsmith, John, 116 

Goldsmith of London, Robert le Bret, 
117 

Goldingham, John de, witness to a 
grant, 117 

Goodier, sir John, knighr, service of, 
191 

Graffiti, etc., from AesicUf 40 

Gramavilla, Robert de, heir of lady 
Constance de, grant by, of lands in 
Burradon, 115 

Granville, Denis, deprive I of deanery 
of Durham, 224 / 

'Graves' End Walk, Newcastle, 
175 

Gray, Edward, Hulman's house, de- 
vised to, 132 J hostman, of New- 
castle, house on Quayside leased to, 
132, 133; Francis, of Newcastle, 
merchant, 132 ; George, of New- 
castle, master mariner, premises on 
Quayside conveyed to, 131 ; be- 
quests by will of, 132 ; Phillis, 
wife of, bequests to, 132 ; George, 
junior, 132 ; John of Lumley, par- 
don for murder of, 228 ; Katherine, 
one of daughters of late earl of 
Westmorland t, pension for, 191 ; 
Ralph, house on Quayside, New- 
castle, devised to, 132 ; Thomas, 
grant of a pension to, 195 ; lord of 
Wark, grant by, of lands in Lowick, 
118; sir Thomas, of Horton, witness 
to a grant, 118 ; William, house in 
Homsby chare, Newcastle, devised 
to, 132 (see also Grey) 

Grayson, John, attests a deed, 162 

Graystock [Graystok, Graistoke], 
petition of dower of Beatrice, late 
wife of Ralf, lord of, 12J ; John de, 
two inq,p. m., 120 ; Ralf de, knight, 
inq, p, ni.j 120 

Graystock, etc., sir William Dacre, 
lord of, 120 

Great Bursted, Essex, 117 and n 

Great Chesters, see Aes^ica 



276 



INDEX. 



Greatham hospital, dispensation to 
William Neile, clerk, to hold 
mastership of, 206 (see also Greet- 
ham) 

Great Btainton, country meeting at, x 

Great Tosspn, exchange of lands at, 
118 

' Greek fire,' 83 ; said to have been 
invented by a Syrian, 113 ; in- 
gredients of, 113 ; used for setting 
English ships on fire at Dieppe, 113 

Greek pottery presented, xvi, xix 

Green, Anthony, of Newcastle, house 
carpenter, lease of premises in Rose- 
mary lane to, 175, 176 ; John, of 
Newcastle, * perry wig maker/ son 
of Anthony, assignment of lease of 
premises in Rosemary lane, by, 176 ; 
Mary, and another, grant to, of 
coalstaith at the Close gate, New- 
castle, 147 ; Robert, of Rothbury, 
127 ; William, of Newcastle, be- 
quest to, 135 

Green bery, see Grenebery 

Greenlighton, quitclaim of lands in, 
118 

* Greneyarde, le,' messuage called, 117 

Greetham, Christopher, witness to a 
deed, 136 

Grene, see Green 

Grenebery, lease of lands, etc., at, 187 

Grey, of Chillingham, arms of, 245 ; 
arms of, quartering Heton of Chill- 
ingham, 256 ; quartering Heton of 
Heton, 245 ; of Horton, arms of, 
245 ; Christopher, conveyance of 
house on Quayside, Newcastle, by, 
133 ; Edward, 232 ; of Wark, Ford, 
lord, created viscount Glendale, in 
CO. Northumberland,and earl of Tan- 
kerville, 222 ; grant to, 222 ; George, 
173 ; of Newcastle, and others, 
premises in Pilgrim street, etc., 
given to, by will, 167 ; Henry, 
steward of Morpeth, witness to a 
grant, 118 ; Ralph, of Newcastle, 
clerk, release of house on Quayside, 
Newcastle, by, 132 (see also Gray) 

Grimaldi, Alexander, Dorcas Ander- 
son married, 154 ; they conveyed 
one-fourth of house in Westgate 
street, Newcastle, 155 

Grindon, county Durham, country 
meeting at, x 

Groat or Meal market, Newcastle, 159 

Guadaloupe, isle of, 215 

Gunthorpe, John, of Alnwick, and 
Tabitha, his wife, conveyed pre- 
mises in Westgate street, New- 
castle, 170 



Gurye, etc., grant of office of governor 

of, 223 
Gwynn, mistress Eleanor [Nell Gwyn], 

warrant for payment of annuity to, 

217 

H. 

Hadrian's villa, quality of concrete 
used in, 53 

Haggerston of Haggerston castle, 
arms of, 249 

Hakethorpe, Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Halifax, George, marquis of, keeper 
of the privy seal, warrant for pay- 
ment to, 219 

Hall, arms of, 245 ; Bertram, cutler, 
of Newcastle, 130 ; Edward, and 
Eleanor, his wife, 130 ; a baker, 
M.P. for Newcastle, 129 ; house on 
Quayside granted to, and by, 129 ; 
Edward, and another, pardons for 
killing William Hall, 210; Eliza- 
beth, of Newcastle, 144 ; Eleanor, 
wife of Roger, devise of a house in 
Back row, Newcastle, to, 160; 
George, of Newcastle, conveyance 
of house on Quayside by, 133 ; 
Henry, witness to a deed, 135 ; John, 
of the Postern, Newcastle, cord- 
wainer, 171 ; of Ravens worth castle, 
gentleman, property of, 133 ; of 
Seaton Sluice, and others, indenture 
of, relating to collieries, etc., 234 ; 
Margaret, of Newcastle, spinster, 
156; Philip, lease of Wingate 
grange, county Durham, to, 208; 
Robert, wright, witness to a deed 
poll, 130; Roger, clothier, bequest 
of shares in glassworks. Newcastle, 
on trust, 160 ; Josepn, occupied 
premises in Shodfriar chare, New- 
castle, 165 ; Michael, arms of, 245 ; 
monument in Ht. Nicholas's church, 
Newcastle, 245 ; Thomas, grant of 
premises in the Close, Newcastle, to, 
149 ; of Gibside, assignment of house 
on Quayside, Newcastle, to, 133 ; of 
Lampton, assignment of same, 133 

Halliday, George, of Nether dene 
bridge, Newcastle, yeoman, 166 

Hallyman [Halyman], Robert, close 
belonging to, outside Pilgrim street 
gate, Newcastle, 140 ; Thomas, 
clerk, master of St. Katharine's 
hospital, Newcastle, and brethren 
and sisters, grant by, of premises, 
in Westgate, 154 ; William, of bis- 
hopric of Durham, a protection 
royal granted to, 205 



nmRx. 



277 



Hallowell, George, of Netheidean 

bridge, Newcastle, 166 
Haltwhistle, inquisition taken at, 120 ; 
church, arms of Thirlwall on sepul- 
chral slabs in, 262 
Hancocke, John, attests a deed, 141 
Hand, pardon of burning in the, 200 

Handasyde, Charles, attests a lease, 
175 

Hanningfield, Essex, 117 and n 

Hankin, George, of Newcastle, rope- 
maker, ' burgage ruins,' in Sidgate, 
etc., conveyed to, WZhU ] and Jane, 
his wife, conveyance by, 172 

Hanmer, Dr., rector of Bingham, 
Notts, appointed bishop of St. 
Asaphs, 207 

Hanwell, Margaret, late Hutchinson, 
149 

Haras, Martin, 116 

Harberhouse, lease to Ralph Downes 
of, 188 

Harbottle, arms of, 254; quartered by 
Bidden of Gateshead, 254 

Harden, John, plaintiff, in a suit r. 
Bartram Anderson and others, 119 

Harding, Nicholas, attests a deed, 164 

Haidwich, Shankton, county Leicester, 
grant of messuage at, 211 

Hardwick, county Durham, lease of 
capital house of, 187 ; lease of two 
parts of manor of, 189 

Hare, John, executors of, 160 ; of 
Newcastle, gentleman, will of, 160 ; 
numerous bequests in, 160 

Hargrave, Nat., 165 his ; witness to a 
deed, 148 quat, 

Haringues, crossbow used at battle of, 
99 

Harlsey, see Bast Harlsey 

Harle, Ralph, of Newcastle, mortgage 
of house on Quayside to, 183 ; will 
of, 183 ; Ann, his niece, 133 ; wife 
of Lancelot Atkinson, of Newcastle, 
merchant, 133 

Harington, John, pardon to, 219 

Hamham, country meeting at, x 

Harold, killed by an arrow, 94 

Harper, sir George, chaplain, witness 
to a grant, 118 

Harquebus, long-bow superseded by 
the, 97 

Harrington, see Harington 

Harris, Thomas, lease of mill near 
Raby castle, etc., to, 186 

Harrison, Bdmund, and Mary, his 
wife, and others, grant of dyehouse, 
etc., without the Close gate, New- 
castle, 147 ; Elizabeth, widow, and 
others, demise of premises in Sand- 



Harrison — CO h tinned, 

gate, Newcastle, by, 137 ; John, 
144 ; of Newcastle, barber-surgeon, 
177; wine porter, conveyance to and 
by, of horse mill, etc., in Postern, 
170 ; settlement of, on marriage 
with Katherine Taylor, 170 ; 
premises in Westgate street, con- 
veyed to, 170 ; Peter, of Newcasile, 
blacksmith, and Catherine, his wife, 
and another, demise of premises in 
Sandgate by. 137 ; sir Richard, 
keeper of Battle's walk, in Windsor 
forest, 198 ; Robert, of Newcastle, 
yeoman, and Thomasin, his wife, 
conveyed house in Westgate street, 
170 ter 
Hart, grant of rectory of, etc., to 

Henry Stanley, and another, 191 
Hartley, protected by small battery, 
233 ; fishermen living at, 231 ; got 
bait at Newsham and Blyth, 231 ; 
pier built at, 232 ; inquisition con- 
cerning manor of, 232, 239 ; pier 
at, petition concerning, 240; 
coalfield at, opening out of, 232; 
indenture relating to collieries, 
salt pans, etc., at, 284 ; James 
Watt's visit to, 236 ; • King's Arms 
Inn,' 236 ; glass works at, 237 ; 
Seaton Sluice in manor of, 229 ; 
pans, 2 9; * Easter Waie,* leading 
from, 229 (see also Seaton Sluice) 

Hastridge, Mary, of Newcastle, 144 

Has well on the Mount, John Duck 
of, 221 

Haswell, Richard, of Newcastle, 134 ; 
hostman, house at Byker chare end, 
demised to, 132 

Haugham, sir Robert de, knight, wit- 
ness to a grant, 117 

Haule, Charles, an annuity to, 208 

Haver Jen, Adam de, witness to a deed, 
116 

Havelock, Elizabeth, of Newcastle, 
widow, 154 

Hawks, Hannah Pembroke, wife of 
Robert Shafto Hawks, and others, 
conveyance by, 134 ; Robert Shafto, 
of Gateshead, iron manufacturer. 
134 ; Hannah, wife of, 134 ; 
Hannah Pembroke, widow of, 129 

Haye, Richard de la, witness to a 
grant, 117 

Hays, John, of Netherdean bridge, 
Newcastle, 166 

Hay ton, Thumas, of Newcastle, baker 
and brewer, and Katherine, his 
wife, grant of premises in Sanderate 
by, 137 



278 



INDEX. 



Hayward, Ursula, wife of John, grant 
to, 227 

Hazon, an agreement concerning, 
116;t (see also Heisand) 

Heade, county York, lands at, granted 
to Robert Bowes, 188 

Hearth money, 216, 218 

Heath, John, and another, licence for 
erection of a grammar school and 
almshouse, 187 

Hebbum, of Hardwick, county Dur- 
ham, 249; of Hebbum, 249; of 
Shotton, 249 

Heddun banks, 179 

Hedley, Ann, wife of George, 
bequest to, 173 ; Mrs. Ann, widow 
of George, tanner, heir-at-law of 
Dorothy Smith, 171 ; lease from, 
of house in CaRtle Garth, 175 ; 
Nicholas, of Newcastle, cutler, 
attests a deed, 140; Shafto John, 
and another, lessees of premises in 
Northumberland street, Newcastle, 
146 ; Thomas, of Morpeth, 127 

Hed worth, Mrs. Jane, of Newcastle, 
155 (see also Ed worth) 

Heisand, Hugh de, witness to a grant, 
116; party to an agreement con- 
cerning Hazon, lUhi 

Hele, Christopher, witness to a deed, 
136 

Heley, etc., John Ogle, farmer of, 120 

Heliopolis, * Greek fire' said to have 
been invented by a Syrian of, 113 

Helme, George, 189 

Henderson, Ann, wife of Christopher, 
and others, devise of house on Dog- 
bank, Newcastle, to, 158 ; Thomas, 
petition of, for livery of heir of 
James Ogle of Cawsey park, 121 

Henknowle, pardon to Francis Wren 
of, 206 

Henninges, John, and others, licence 
to, to play comedies, 1 89 

Henry VII., letters patent of, to sir 
Thomas Dacre, and Elizabeth, bis 
wife, 120 

Henry VIII., indenture between sir 
William Dacre, lord of Gilsland, 
etc., and, 120 

Henryson, Thomas, of Newcastle, 
scrivener, 164 

Henzell, Ambrose, of Newcastle, 
broad glassmaker, owned house in 
NetheiSean bridge. 166 ; afterwards 
owned by son, Jacob, 166 ; Hannah, 
bequest to, 160 ; Jane Body Hare, 
of Morpeth, spinster, devise of 
'Blighting Cocks' to, 161; settle- 
ment of, on marriage with Edward 



Henzell— continued, 
Challoner, 161 ; John Hare, devise 
to, 160 ; of Ballast Hills, mariner, 
will of, 161; devise of 'Fighting 
Cocks * to daughter, Jane Body 
Hare, 161 ; Joshua, bequest to, 
160 ; Master James, and Jane, 
devise to, 160 ; Ralph, son of 
James, devise of ' Unicorn,* New- 
castle to, 160 ; Thomas, bequest to, 
160 

Hepple, country meeting at, x 

Hepple, sir Robert, arms of, 253 ; on 
monument in Botbal church, 263 

Hereford, appointment of attorney 
for county of, 207 

Heringe, see Heron 

Heriot, a, paid by John Ogle, 1 '20 

Herlethor|)e, Richard de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Heron [Heringe], of Chipchase, 245 ; 
Anthu., witness to a deed, 136 ; 
Reynold, pardon to, for burning 
John Lil burn's house, 190 ; Robert, 
son and heir of Thomas, grant by, 
117 ; Robert and Walter, and 
others, pardons for burning John 
Lilburn's house, 191 ; Roger, of the 
' Fighting Cocks,' Newcastle, 162 ; 
Thomas, of Meldon, 126, 127 ; sir 
Roger, witness to a grant, 1 1 8 

Herrington, co. Durham, etc., lease of 
messuage, etc., in, 186 

Herriot, Alexander, jeweller to the 
king, 206 

Hesilrige, of Swarland, arms of, 250 ; 
sir Arthur, deceased, 211 ; Kobert 
and sir Thomas, sons of, grants to, 
of lands in Leicestershire, etc., 
211 

Heslop [Heslopp], Benjamin, attests a 
will, 166 ; barber-surgeon, his will, 
173 ; Robert, of Newcastle, hoaae 
in the Close, Newcastle, 143 ; in 
Side, 143 ; barber-surgeon, grant of 
premises without Pilgrim street 
gate to, 142 ; property outside 
Pilgrim street gate, belonging to, 
140 ; and Katherine, his wife, grant 
of premises outside Pilgrim street 
gate, 143 ; and others, covenant 
with, to levy a fine, 142 

Heton of Heton, arms of, quartered by 
Grey, 245 ; of Chill ingham, arms 
of 256 ; quartered by Grey, of 
Chillingham, 266 ; sir Allen, arms 
of, 265 ; sir Henry de, witness to a 
erant, 118 

Hewes, Mather, wright, witness to a 
deed, 130 



IKDEX. 



279 



Heworth, Catherine, daughter of 
James and Christabell, married 
Matthew Petiigrew, 157 : house in 
All Hallows' bank, Newcastle, 
devised to, 157 ; Christabell, of 
Newcastle, 158 ; Elizabeth, daughter 
of James and Christabell, married 
Thomas Allen, 157 ; devise to, 157 ; 
Isabel, of Newcastle, 1 54 ; James, 
of Newcastle, and Christabell, his 
wife, bargage in Silver street con- 
veyed to, 167 ; will of Christabell, 
167 ; devises by, 167 ; house on Dog 
bank, Newcastle, conveyed to, 1 58 

Hexham, subsidy roll of 1295, 117 ; 
bailiffs of, 117 ; Kobert de Bingfield, 
Matthew de Catteden, Robert de 
Brrington, Roger de W...lton, John 
de Wa ..se, 117/i ; sir Roger de Fol- 
peton, 117 ; donation of wax to con- 
vent of , 117 ; priory church, effigy of 
Adam de Tindale in, 254 ; arms of 
Gilbert de Umf ramville on effigy in, 
254 

Hickeringill, Deborah, wife of Thomas, 
grant to, 227 

Hickman, Geoffrey, a pardon for 
manslaughter of, *^09 

Higham Gobion, manor of, 201 

High Callerton, lands at, devised by 
will of Barbara Gee. 167 

* High castle,' Newcastle, stairs to the, 
147 

High Friar chare, Newcastle, premises 
in, 164 

High Rochester, see Bremenium 

Hildebergh, the electrice at, 195 

Hildyard, Charles, grant to, of sole 
making of blue pajjer, his own in- 
vention, 214 

Hill, John, 231 his 

Hills, Robert, and Ann, his wife, 
release of charge on premises in 
Sandgate, Newcastle, by, 138 

Hilton, John, late of Bowston, county 
Westmorland, pardon of, for 
robbery, 193 ; John, M.A., pre- 
sented to vicarage of Stonehouse, 
CO. Gloucester, 222 ; William, clerk, 
presented to rectory of Burgh St. 
Mary in Fleg,in Norwich diocese,205 

Historiographer royal, Dryden the 
poet appointed, 219 

Hodges, Walter, of Netherdeanbridge, 
Newcastle, yeoman, 166 

Hodgkin, Thomas, his poem, *The 
Catapult,' 90 ; on the Roman wall in 
Northumberland, 1 ; 'Obituary 
Notice of Mr. Cadwallader John 
Bates,' 178 



Hodgson, arms of, 246; Cicely, 134; 
J. Crawford, on the Brumell col- 
lection of charters, 115 ; proofs of 
age of heirs to estates in North- 
umberland, 126; on * The Craster 
Tables,' 243 ; Philip, 134 ; William, 
lease of deanery and vicarage of 
Lanchester to, 208 ; sheriff of New- 
castle, arms of, 246 

Hoi bourne [Holborne], Barbara, 
married George Durham, 136 ; 
John, witness to a deed, 131 ; 
Thomas, marriage contemplated 
between, and Margery Davison, 
135 ; Barbara and Ann, daughters 
of, 135 

Holdich, John, lease of herbage -and 
pannage of Raby to, 187 

Holland and Germany, payment to sir 
Henry Vane as ambassador to, 
200 

HoUinsworth, Reynold, occupied pre- 
mises at Netherdene bridge, New- 
castle, 165 

Hollman, Thomas, of Newcastle, 
yeoman, 131 ; William, of New- 
castle, 131 

Holmecultrum, ( -'umberland, grant of 
parcel of manor, 213 

Holme, Edward, of Newcastle, scri- 
vener, 131 ter, 132 ; Henry, 127 ; 
John, witness to a lease, 177 ; 
Thomas," of High Heworth, 177; 
of Newcastle, held lease of house in 
St. John's chare, 177 

Holy island, demise of, to David 
CoUingwood, except the fort, castle, 
etc., 215 ; appointed governor of, 
215 ; captains of, William Ramsey, 
209 ; Robert Rugg, 208 

Holystone, country meeting at, x 

Home office privy seal dockets, 186 * 

Honorary members, xxi 

Hoop petticoat maker, grant to Jane 
Vanef, 227 

Hope, Robert, of Newcastle, 157 
his 

Horden, John Conniers of, 198 

Horn, crossbows of, 101 

Horn, Josias, and others, indenture 
relating to collieries, etc., at 
Hartley, etc., 234 

Homsby chare, Newcastle, messuage 
in, 132 

Horsbryge, Robert, witness to a deed, 
130 

Horse market, Newcastle, 1 59 

Horse-mills in Newcastle, 168 ; in 
meal market, 168 ; one in Broad 
chare, owned by Brandlings, 168 



280 



IKBBX. 



Horsley, grants of land, etc., in, 1 19 bis; 
rectory, Matthew Ogle, farmer of, 
120 ; lease of, to him and others, 
120 ; lease of rectory of, 119 ; and 
Uorsley forest, etc., lands in, 
delivered to John Ogle, 214 

Horsley of Horsley, arms of, 250 ; 
Arthur, of Newcastle, 154 ; Roger, 
of Scrainwood, arms of, 251 ; 
Horsley and Co., 239 

Horton, Alexander, rector of Kellys- 
hall, CO. Herts., deprived for not 
taking oaths, 224 

Houghton - le - spring, licence for 
erection of grammar school, etc., 
at, 187 ; Bernard Gilpyn, parson of, 
187 

Houghton, Rowland, pardon to, for 
robhery, 189 

Householde, Jacob, witness to a deed, 
ISO 

Hoasesteads, west gateway of, 31 ; 
platform at, for balista, 77 (see also 
Borcovieui) 

Howard, sir Francis, appointed on a 
commission, 205 ; sir Philip, captain- 
general, etc., of Jamaica, 220 

Howton. Thomas Carreman, man- 
slaughter of, 200 

Hoyle, Mary, of Newcastle, widow, 

164 ; Nathan, of Sowerby, 210 
Hudspeth, Robert de, witness to a 

grant, 117 

Huebner, Prof., death of, ix 

Hugh, butcher, of Corb ridge, 117 ; 
Emma, daughter of, 117 

Hull, appointment of collector of 
customs at, 218 ; revocation of 
letters patent of Matthew Apple- 
yard as collector of port of, 221 ; 
confirmation of grant of same to 
Rowland and John Tempest, 221 

Hulman*s house devised to Edward 
Gray, 132 

Humble, Anthony, witness to a deed, 
135 ; Robert, witness to a deed, 132 

Huntley, John, of Newcastle, uphol- 
sterer, owned premises in Nether- 
deanbridge, 166 ; Michael of 
Newcastle, 142 bts, 144 ; William, 
nf Newcastle, 143; attests deeds, 

165 btJt 

Hunter, Stephen, of Gateshead, joiner, 
house in Hillgate, Gateshead, be- 
longing to, 166 ; shipwright, and 
Grace, his wi e, and others, con- 
veyance of house in Bigg market, 
Newcastle, by, 162 

Hur worth, given to Robert Bowes, 
188 



Hntchison, Benjamin, ground outside 
the Close gate, Newcastle, devised 
to, 148; granted by, 148 ; George, 
of Newcastle, weaver, house of, on 
All Hallows' bank, 158 ; Jonathan, 
of Newcastle, esquire, 14S ; devise 
of the *Ship Garth* without the 
Close gate, Newcastle, to, 140 ; 
Margaret Han well, sister of, 149 ; 
William, occupied premises at back 
of Gallowgate, Newcastle, 141 ; 
the friend of Ambrose Barnes, 146 ; 
grant of ground without the Close 
gate, Newcastle, to, 14S; will of, 
148 ; bequest to son, Benjamin, 148 ; 
devise of premises called the Ship 
Garth without the Close gate, New- 
castle, by, 149 ; Mary, relict of, 
transfer of same premises by, 149 ; 
of Barnardcastle, pardon to, for 
not taking oaths, 206 

Hutton of Hun wick, arms of, quarter- 
ing Dalton, 253 ; Charles, the mathe- 
matician, his school at corner of 
Denton chare, 153, 155, 156 ; ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics 
at Woolwich, 153; and Isabel, bis 
wife, sold same property, 156 ; 
John, of Morpeth, barker, grant of 
tenement to, 118 ; sir Timothy, and 
another, grant of manor or lordship 
of Killerby, 210 

Hutton's * Map of Newcastle,' 103 

Hutton Bonville, lea-^e of two parts of 
manor of, granted to Edward 
Lively, 228 

Hugonin, James, grant of office of 
scrgeant-at-arms to, 228 

Hyde park, Anthony Bowes, keeper 
of, 224 

Hyginus, the Roman camp of, 3; 
distinction between it and that of 
Polybins, 5 

Hyle [? Ryle], Robert del, witness to 
a grant, 117 

Hyrning, Henry, 116 

Hyrtfeld, William, witness to a deed, 
130 

I. 

Ickenham, Middlesex, extract from 

registers of, 152 
Ildert^n of Ilderton, arms of, 250; 

sir Thomas, arms of, 250 
lies, Christopher, witness to a deed, 

177 
Ilveston, county Leicester, grant of 

lands at, 211 
Ingerthorpe, etc., Yorkshire, lease of 

lands at, 187 



INDEX. 



281 



Ingleby, Ann, one of daughters of late 

earl of Westmoreland, pension for, 

191 
Inquisitions j9.m., 120 
Inscribed stones from Aesica, 56 et seq. 
Insula, Otwey de, witness to a grant, 

116 
Intagli from Aesica, 42 
Ipswich, petition of masters and 

owners of ships of, 202 
Ireland, tax on coals imported into, 

197 ; sir Thomas Tempest, knight, 

attorney general in, 202 ; viscount 

Wentworth, lord deputy of, 202 ; 

John Bowes appointed chancellor 

of, 207, 210 
Iron market, 159 
Irwin, Abraham, cartman, bequest of 

an annuity to, 160 
Isaacson, John, attests a will, 160 



Jackson, Deborah, wife of Robert, 
master mariner of Newcastle, 
executor of will of Martha Durham, 
136; Elizabeth, four prebendaries 
in Eldon of Auckland church, de- 
mised to use of, 196 ; John, witness 
to deeds, 130 bis; sadler, of New- 
castle, 177; John, rector of Mel- 
sonby, 210 ; rector of Marske, mar- 
ried Joan Bowes, 210 ; Nathan, 
grant to his widow for his faithful 
services, 196 ; Thomas, of New- 
castle, shoemaker, 177; William,132; 
witness to a deed, 130 ; notary 
public of Newcastle, 131 ; rector of 
Walpole St. Peters, co. Norfolk, 
removal of, 214 ; of Newcastle, 
blacksmith, premises of, in band- 
gate, 137 

Jamaica, sir Philip Howard appointed 
captain general and governor of, 220 

James, Humfrey, tenement of, in 
Sandgate, Newcastle, 137 

James I., land, etc., at Kirkleatham, 
granted by letters patent of, 125 

James IV. of Scotland, killed by an 
arrow, 94 

James, William, rector of By ton, death 
of, 211 

Jarrow, relief of archer on stone from, 
93 

Jars, M. Gabriel, visit of, to Seaton 
Sluice, 236, 241 

• Javel Groop,' Newcastle, 153 

JeflEreyson, John, son of Matthew, of 
Newcastle, merchant and alderman, 
161 

VOL. XXIV. 



Jennison [Jenison, Jenyson], John, a 
pardon for manslaughter, 209 ; and 
his daughters, Catherine, Mary, and 
Elizabeth, pardons to, for treasons, 
etc., and restitution of his lands, 
217 ; Ralph, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, 131 ; Ralph, grant to, of coal 
staith at Close gate, Newcastle, 147 ; 
grant by, and Jane, his wife, of 
same, 147 : sir Ralph, sheriff and 
mayor of Newcastle, 129; Robert, 
pardon to, for treasons, etc., 217 ; 
Mr. Robert, bequest of Charles 
Matfen to, 155 ; Thomas, grant to, 
of goods of a recusant, 193 ; demise 
of Walworth and Woodham to, 193; 
William, a recusant, goods of, 193 ; 
sheriff, mayor, and M.P. for New- 
castle, 129 ; and others, award of, 
concerning house on Quayside, 
Newcastle, 130; alderman William, 
Isabel, daughter of, married George 
Simpson, 138 ; bequests under will 
of, 138 ; to his widow, Barbara, 139 

Jersey, etc., grant of office of gover- 
nor, etc., of, 222 

Jerusalem, stone-casting engines used 
at siege of, 73 

Jervis, John, of Newcastle, 155 

Jesmond, devise of farmhold in, 141 

Jewellers to the king, 206 

Jew gate, Newcastle, 156 

Jobling, M. L., revived Blyth and 
Seaton Sluice races, 238 

John,son of tloger, witness to a deed, 1 1 7 

Johnson, Barbary, wife of George, 
master mariner, bequest to, 136 ; 
Elizabeth, of Newcastle, widow, 
covenant to levy a fine, 142; 
Francis, of Newcastle, 162 ; mer- 
chant, 156 ; alderman, of Newcastle, 
165 ; Jane, of * Castle Garth, North- 
umberland,' demise of premises in 
Castle Garth to, 173 ; John of New- 
castle, 162 ; sir Nathaniel, knight, 
and others, warrant for payment 
to, 216 ; Jacob, letter of denization 
to, 198 ; Dr. Nathaniel, warrant for 
pension for ' his good services,' 221 ; 
sir Nathaniel, commission as 
governor, etc., of Carribee islands , 
221; Richard, witness to a grant, 
121 ; of Comhill, Northumberland, 
gentleman, son of George, of New- 
castle, master mariner, devise of 
house in Sidgate to, 172 ; convey- 
ance of same by, 1 73 ; William, 
grant of one-sixth of premises at 
the Close gate, Newcastle, 149 ; of 
Castle Garth, Northumberland, 173 

36 



282 



INDfiX. 



Jopllng, Bichard, of Newcastle, inn- 
keeper, 166 ; Thomas of Newcastle, 
gentleman, owner of house in Pil- 
grim Street, 166 

Jupiter Dolichenus, altar to, from 
jiesiea, 68 



Kale Cross, Newcastle, property at 

the, 151 
Karliol, see Carliol 
Kedge, John, witness to a deed, 142 
Keenlyside, William, attests a deed, 

166 
Kell, John, of Newcastle, smith, and 
another, conveyance to and by, of 
premises m High Friar chare, 164 ; 
Joseph, and Alice, his wife, of the 
Meadow Heads, Northumberland, 
yeoman, conveyance to and by, of 
premises in High Friar chare, New- 
castle, 164, l«i5 
Kellyshall, co. Herts, Alexander Mor- 
ton, rector, deprived, 224 ; Thomas 
Wren, appointed, 224 
Kempston, sir Thomas, daughter of, 
married sir William Bertram of 
Bothal, 126 
Kennedy, Archibald, 165 
Kent, Bartholomew, attests a will, 

168 
Kepier, co. Durham, licence granted 
for erection of a grammar school 
and almshoase at, 187 
Kidney, John, of Newcastle, gardener, 

142, 144 
Killerby, co. York, grant of manor or 

lordship of, 210 
Killingworth house estate purchased 

by Charles Williams, 203» 
Killingwoi'th of Killingworth, arms 
of, 250 ; John, plea of land in 
Borowden, 119; Oliver, 127; attests 
a will, 141 ; Henry, son of Ralph 
de, grant by, 116 ; Richard de St. 
Peter of, witness to a deed, 116 ; 
Richard de, clerk, witness to a 
grsnt, 116; William, arms of, 250; 
son of Ralph, son of Adam de, grant 
of land, 116 
Kilmansegge, Caroline, made a free 
denizen of Great Britain, 225 ; 
Sophia Charlotte, countess Platen 
and baroness, made free denizen, 
225 
Kilpatrick, Robert, a pardon for man- 
slaughter of, 209 
Kings bench, Ralph Bure, a prisoner 
in the, 207 



'Kings Dikes,* the, Newcastle, 141, 
142, 144 

* King's evil,' warrant to mint to pro- 
vide angels for healing of, 197 

King's seals, the, 184 

Kirkbride, Cliburne, witness to an 
assignment, 131 

Kirkby Lonsdale, inquisition taken 
at, 120 

Kirkharle, country meeting at, x ; 
lease of rectory of, 119 

Kirkhouse, Henry, of Newcastle, 
master and mariner, mortgage to, 
of premises on Quayside, 136 ; 
assigiiment of same, 136 ; Bichacd, 
of Newcastle, tanner, house rin the 
Postern belonging to, 1 69 

Kirkleatham, grants of tenements in, 
125 ; sale of lordship by sir William 
Bellasis, 125 ; purchased by John 
Turner, 126 ; lands at, 124 ; hall, 
CO. York, deeds at, relating to 
chantry in Chester le Street church, 
124 

Kirklevington, 178 ; lands at, 124 ; 
shorthorns, Thomas Bates and the« 
I 180 

Kirsopp, see Chrysoppe 
I Knaresborough, collected for fire at, 
I 210 

Knight, John, of Widdrington, 127; 
William, of Newcastle, 142 

Knighthood, fine for not attending to 
receive, 121 

Knitsley given in exchange to Robert 
Bowes, 188 

Knollis, Henry, receiver of first fruits 
and tenths, 204 ; William, grant to, 
of capital house at Owton, 116 



Laidler, Matthew, of Newcastle, 
tanner, and Sarah, his wife, bequests 
to, 144 

Lamb, Nicholas, house of, in Silver 
street, Newcastle, 166; Robert, 
witness to a deed poll, 130 

Lambert, Mr. N. G., one of lessees of 
Hartley and Cowpen collieries, 238: 
Robert of Owton, county Durham, 
attainted of treason, 116 

♦ Lambert's leap,' Newcastle, inscribed 
stone from xvii, xviii 

Lambton, Alice, widow, grant of 
premises in Sandgate, Newcastle, 
by, 187; Henry, and others, ap- 
pointed lieutenants for Durham 
county and city, 216 



INDEX. 



283 



Lancashire, commission for treating 
with recusants in, 196 

Lancaster, sir Richard Molynevz, 
receiver general of, 211 

Lanchester, lease of deanery and 
vicarage of, 208 

Langley, grant of barony of, forfeited 
for treason, 210 

Langley castle, 179 

Langton, co. York, presentation of 
Walter Blakeston to rectory of. 215 

Laton, Richard, dean of Chester-le- 
Street, 124 

Lawrence, arms of, 246 ; of Scotland, 
246 ; of Tver, Bucks, 247 

Lawson of Cramlington, arms of, 246; 
Miss, of Netherdean bridge, New- 
castle, milliner, 166; Grace, 
daughter of Robert, of Cramlington, 
married Thomas Cramlington, 127 ; 
bir John, knight, a pension granted 
to, 211 ; Jo., witness to a grant, 121 ; 
Serjeant • at - arms, 228 ; Michael, 
servant to William Simpson, attests 
his will, 141 ; Margaret, occupied 
premises at Netherdene bridge, 
Newcastle, 165 ; Thomas, of 
Whitton^tall, yeoman, 154; William, 
of Newcastle, merchant, 138 ; 
property outside Pilgrim street gate 
conveyed by, 140 

Lay ton, lease of head house, etc., of, 
187 

Leathley, co. York, lands at, granted 
to Robert Bowes, 188 

Lee, James, witness to a grant, 118 

Legget, Hannah, witness to a deed, 
137 

Leghton, William, witness to a grant, 
118 (see also Lighton, Leiton) 

Leicester, earl of, pardons granted at 
request of, 186 

Leighton, co. Durham, lease of, 188 

Leinster, Sophia Charlotte, countess 
of, created baroness of Brentford 
and countess of Darlington, 225 

Leiton, see Layton, Leighton 

Lester, Jane, tenant for life of 
* Unioom Inn,' Newcastle, 161 

Leversthorpe, sir Thomaj, pardon to 
sir Arthur Capel, knight, for man- 
slaughter of, 201 

Leverston, lease of lands in, 186 

Leylthone, Simon de, vicar of West- 
hann', grant by, 117 

Liddell [Liddel, Liddlel, Christopher, 
of Newcastle, 162 ; ueorge, receipt 
for rent paid to, for houses in Castle 
garth, 173 ; Robert, 'Witness to a 
lease, 177 ; Thomas, of Ravenshelme 



Liddel 1 —continued. 
castle, dignity of baronet granted to, 
203 ; relieved from payment of fees 
for baronetcy, 203 ; sir Thomas, 
baronet, of Ravensworth castle, 
pardon to, 212 ; Thomas, of New- 
castle, merchant, coal-staith in 
Close, belonging to, 146 

Lighton, Francis, witness to a deed, 
135 ; John, 119 ; Thomas, clerk, and 
others, grant of manor of Causey 
park, etc., to, 119 (see also Leiton, 
Leghton) 

Lilburn of Newcastle, arms of, 254 ; 
arms on shield in Belford chapel,254; 
sir Robert, aims of, 254 ; of Lilburn, 
arms of, 246 ; John, burning of his 
house, 190 ; pardons for burning of 
house of, 19?; John, of West Lilburn, 
Isabel, daughter of, married William 
Proctor, 246 ; sir John de, witness 
to a grant, 118 ; Richard, witness to 
a grant, 131 ; pardon to, 206 ; 
Thomas, grant of lands of Holme 
Cultrum, CO. Cumberland, to, 213 ; 
of ' Overton,' co. Durham, pardon 
of, 206 

Lincolnshire, commission for treating 
with recusants in, 196 ; warrant to 
receiver of, for payment to Robert 
Bowes, 208 

Linthorpe, lands at, 124 and n 

Lisle of Felton,^ arms of. 250 ; sir 
Humfrey, tenement formerly be- 
longing to, 118 (see also Lysley) 

Lithuania, Thomas Bates's property 
in, 178 

Little Benton, John of, witness to a 
deed, 116; Hugh of, witness to a 
deed, 116 ; William of, witness to a 
grant, 1 16 

Little Harle, country meeting at, x 

Little Ilford, Essex, grant of lands in, 
117 and n 

Little Ryle [Ryal], pardon to Alex- 
ander CoUingwood of, 211; quit- 
claim of lands at, llii 

Liueley, Sara, witness to a deed, 131 

Lively, Edward, lease of two parts of 
manor of Hutton Bonville, co. York, 
228 

Llanvccvs, on tombstone from 
Aesica^ 57 

Lloyd, Marmaduke, attorney for 
Wales, etc., 207 : sir Richard, 
knight, attornev for Wales, etc., 
212 

Loaden, Andrew, occupied premises 
at back of Gallowgate, Newcastle, 
141 



284 



INDEX. 



Local muniments, 128 et teq. 

Lodge, John, sheriff of Newcastle, 132 

London, collector of petty customs of, 
186 ; grant of ancient market tolls 
of, 216 ; Robert le Bret, goldsmith 
of, 117 ; petition of master and 
owners of ships of, 202 ; sir John 
Poulteney, mayor of, 117 ; old St. 
Paul's, demolished by battering 
ram, 109 ; stone shot in tower of, 91 

Long bow, the, 93 ; early use of, 93 ; 
standard length, 95 ; form of, 196 ; 
Flodden, latest battle won by it, 
94 ; leading weapon at Crecy, 
Poitiers, and Agincourt, 94 ; super- 
seded by the harquebus, 97 ; 
specimens rare, 97 ; some found in 
' Mary Rose,' 97 

Longmoor, Katherine, 171 ; her 
doctor's bill, 172, 173; conveyance of 
house near Newgate, Newcastle, to, 
i73 ; administration to effects of, 173 

Longstaffe, W. H. D., his ' Memoirs of 
the Life of Ambrose Barnes,' 146 

Lonsdale, John, witness to a grant, 1 18 

Looneis, William de, witness to a 
grant, 115 

Loraine of Kirkharle, arms of, 
quartering Strother, 248 

Lord Chancellor holds great seal. 184 

Lord Privy Seal, the, 184 

Lorenc, Robert, witness to a grant, 121 

Lortbum, Newcastle, *the common 
sewer called,' 166 

Losh, James, 144 

Low, John, of Newcastle, witness to a 
deed, 177 

Low Countries, sir Henry Vane, 
ambassador to the, 199 

Lowes, William, owned premises on 
Netherdean bridge, Newcastle, 166 

Low Friar street, formerly Shod Friar 
chare, Newcastle, premises in, 162 
et seq. 

Lowick, documents relating to, 115; 
grant of lands called * Sammesland ' 
in, 118 

Loysons (?), Thomas, collector of 
customs at Hull, 218 

Lubias, Thomas, witness to a grant, 116 

Lucius Maximus, a centurion of the 
20th legion, altar from Aesica 
dedicated by, 58 

Lumleys, the, 124 ; Henry, 216 ; 
grant of office of governor, etc., of 
Jersey, etc., 223; John, knight, lord 
of Lumley, 154 ; Richard, lord of 
Waterford, created baron Lumley, 
of Lumley, 216; master of the 
horse, a warrant for payment to, 21 6 



Lumadon, George, labourer, Hannah 

Clark married, 145 Hti grant of 

premises in Northumberland street, 

Newcastle, by, 145 
Lupton, Elizabeth, of Netherdean 

bridge, Newcastle, widow, 166 
Lyel, Robert, witness to a grant, 118 
Lynley, Percival, witness to a grant, 

118 
Lynn, petition of masters and owners 

of ships of, 202 
Lyons, John, grant of receiversnip of 

Northumberland and Durham to, 190 
Lysley, arms of, 250 (see also Lisle) 
Lytle, Robert, merchant, witness to a 

deed poll, 130 

M. 

McClellan, Tulip, of Newcastle, 
glazier, 155 

Macclesfield, Charles, earl of, demise 
of premises in Castlegarth by, 17^ 

Macrobin, John, of Aberdeen, doctor 
and professor of medicine, and 
others, parties to a conveyance of 
the * Fighting Cocks,' Newcastle, 
161 

Maddison, Lionel, witness to a deed 
poll, 130 ; Michael, 158; Ralph, 
office of keeper of Battle's walk in 
Windsor forest granted to, 198 ; 
warrant for payment to, 198 ; 
Thomas, of Newcastle, bricklayer, 
and another, bequest to, 144 

Magna^ Roman camp of, destroyed by 
a former owner, 20 

Mainsf orth, country meeting at, "x 

Maire, Alan, grant of land to, 117 

Maison Dieu, Newcastle, founded by 
Roger Thornton, 152, 154 

Makepeace, Robert, of Serle street, 
London, goldsmith, one of trustees 
of Jonathan Sorsbie, 151 

Malemeynes, Richard, witness to a 
grant, 117 

Mallet, John, master mariner, of New- 
castle, 131 

Mallart, John, of Newcastle, master 
and mariner, premises of, in Sand- 
gate, 137 

Maltby, land at, 124 

Man, Edward, witness to a deed, 1 33 ; 
town clerk of Newcastle, 132 (see 
also Mann) 

Maners, sir John, witness to a grant, 
118; Robert de, witness to a grant, 
1 18 (see also Manners) 

' Mangon,' or ' Mangona,' the, 85 

* Mangonel,' the, 85 



INDEX. 



285 



Mann, John, of Newcastle, yeoman, 
conveyance of ground in Shodfriar 
chare to, 165 ; and Helena, his 
wife, conveyed premises in Shodfriar 
chare, Newcastle, 165 (see also 
Man) 

Manners, William, pitman, and 
Eleanor, his wife, bequest to, 160 
(see also Maners) 

* Mantlets,' of hurdles, 113 

Manuel, John, of Newcastle, cheese- 
monger, 177 

Man well, Elianor, widow of Thomas, 
of Newcastle, shipwright, and 
daughter and heir of Robert 
Col son, 154 

March, rev. John, Jacobite vicar of 
Newcastle, 129 ; [Marche.] Robert, 
witness to a deed poll, 130 

Market tolls, ancient, grant of. 216 

Markham, Rosamond, wife of Blias, 
187 

Marleys, the, 160 

Marlev, Henry, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, premises conveyed by, at 
Rale-cross, etc., in trust, 151 ; 
Frances, wife of, 161 ; arms on seal 
of, 161 ; sir John, knight, warrant 
for payment to, 211 ; William, of 
Newcastle, merchant, premises in 
Close, belonging to, 147 bis 

Marseilles, a * muscuius,' used at siege 
of, by Romans, 112 

Marshall, Elizabeth, widow, occupied 
premises in Low Friar chare, New- 
castle, 165 ; George, of Newcastle, 
129 ; of Newcastle, raff merchant, 
conveyance of house on Quayside 
to, 133 ; will of, bequest to children 
and grandchildren, 134 ; of Blyth, 
raff merchant, 134 ; John, of New- 
castle, master and mariner, 134 ; 
houses on Quayside, Newcastle, 
devised to, 134 ; son of John, 134 ; 
Eleanor, wife of latter, 134 ; 
William, of Newcastle, moalmaker, 
165 

Maroke, demise of lands in, and rectory 
of, 194 ; John Jackson, rector of, 
210 

* Martinet,' the, 87 

Marvyn, sir James, lease of church of 
Chester- le-street to, 208 

Marwood chase (and *hagge'), co. 
Durham, granted to Robert Rimes, 
and Francis Rimes, 190 ; sir 
William Bowes, appointed master 
forester of, 220 ; Chri^-topher Vane 
appointed to same, 220 ; custody of, 
given to sir Henry Vane, 200 



Mary, queen of Scots, in custody of 
earl of Shrewsbury, 187 

Maryland, Nathaniel Blakeston, ap- 
pointed captain general, etc., of, 
224 

* Mary Rose,' the ship, some long 

bows found in wreck of, 97 
Mason, John Bywell, of Newcastle, 
gentleman, and Elizabeth, his wife, 
and others, parties to a conveyance 
of * Fighting Cocks,' Newcastle. 
161 ; William, one of supervisors of 
George Moody's will, 141 

* Mataf unda,' the, 85 

Matfen, Charles, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant and hostman, property at 
corner of Denton chare, 158, 154, 
156 ; will of, 154 ; bequests by, 
154; Jane, sister of Gharie-s devise 
of * great house ' in Westgate street, 
Newcastle, to, 154 

Matland, Joshua, attests a deed, 164 ; 
Nathaniel, of Shields, bequest of 
Barbara Gee to, 168 

Matthews, Thomas, witness to a deed, 
132 

Maude, Warren, of Sunniside, Bishop- 
wearmouth, coalfitter, and another, 
executors of Robert Forster, of 
Hawthorn, 133 

Mauduit, Peers, 'rouge dragon,' ap- 
pointed Windsor herald, 224 

Mautalent, William, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Maxfield, George, of Newcastle, 
mason, 154 

Maxton, Anthony, deceased, rector 
of Middleton in Teesdale, 212; 
Patrick, clerk, letter of denization 
to, 198 

May, sir William, 193 

Mayer. Robert, recusant, property of, 
189 

Meal market, Newcastle, horse-mill 
in, 168 

' Medea's oil,' mentioned by Pro- 
copius, 113 

Medieval military engines, etc., notes 
on Roman and, 69 

Meecham, Mr, master of Sherbum 
hospital, 222 

Meggison, John, 127 

Melford, Suffolk, grant of a pension 
out of parsonage of, 196 

Melsonby, John Jackson, rector of, 
210 

Members of the society, xxi-xxx 

Merchant adventurers, Henry Butler, 
draper, readmitted to company of, 
188 



286 



INDEX. 



Merchingley, Thomas de, bailiff of 
Newcastle, 116n ; grant by, 116 

Mercury, bronze figure of, from 
Aesica, 42 

Mereclose deane, woods of, 193 

Merlay barony, Saltwick in, 117 and n 

Merlay, Roger de, witness to a grant, 
116 

Merriman (see Mirriman) 

Mersfen, etc., county Northumberland, 
grant of lands at. 211 

Metcalf, Mary, of Newcastle, widow, 
143 

Michelson, Henry, attests a deed, 
140 ; John, witness to a grant, 
130 ; of Newcastle, master and 
mariner, 135 ; William, of New- 
castle, master and mariner, house 
granted to, 130 

Mickleton, Christopher, of city of 
Durham, pardon to, 206 ; James, 
grant of office of clerk of common 
pleas in Durham to, 212 

Mlddleham, Bishop, see Bishop Middle- 
ham 

Middlesex theatre royal, collected 
for fire at, 210 

Middleton in Teesdale, grant of 
advowson of, to Robert, earl of 
Somerset, '209 ; rectors : Timothy 
Fuller, 212 ; Anthony Maxton, 
212 ; grant of advowson of rectory, 
etc., of, to Christopher Vane, 224 

Middleton, North, grant of tenement 
in, formerly sir Humfrey Lisle's, 118 

Middleton, of Belsay, arms of, 250 ; 
[^liddilton,] James, of Newcastle, 
scrivener, 140 ; Thomas, author of 
the • Peacemaker, or Britain's 
Blessing,' 195 ; William, and others, 
bill of Thomas, duke of Norfolk, 
against, 120 ; sir William, baronet, 
and Thomas Ogle, suit between, 121 

Midford. see Mitford 

Milbank, Mark, receiver of benevo- 
lence for Northumberland, 211 

Milburn, arms of, 251 ; of Arma- 
thwaite, Cumberland, arms of, 251 ; 
Michael, sheriff of Newcastle, arms 
of, 251 : Thomas, witness to deed, 
136 ; [Milbourne,] Thomas, witness 
to a deed, 131 

Military wardship of Newcastle, 153 

Milk market, Newcastle, 159 

Mills, horse (see horse mills) 

Mills, Henry, 142, occupied premises 
at back of Gallowgate, Newcastle, 
141 ; Thomas, witness to a grant, 
131 

Mining and countermining, 109 



Mint, warrant to warden of, to provide 
* angels ' for healing king's evil, 197 

Mirriman, Arthur, of Newcastle, 
skinner and glover, premises in 
Shodfriar chare, 164 

Mitchel son, John, of Newcastle, master 
and mariner, tenement belonging to, 
129 (see also Michelson) 

Mitford, wood in rectory of, 119 

Mitford of Mitford, arms of, 260 

Mitford [Mitforthe, Midford], Ann, 
129 ; Charles, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, mortgage of horse-mill in 
the Postern to, 169 ; Henry, mayor 
of Newcastle, 130 ; Isabel, daughter 
and heir of Robert, 130 ; Lawrence, 
of Gray's inn, deed poll of, re- 
lating to premises on Qoayside, 
Newcastle, 136; Mrs. Mary, of 
Ousebum, widow, waste land in 
Sidgate, Newcastle, belonging to, 
172 ; Oswolde, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, sale of tenement on Quay- 
side by, 135; Oswald, dispute about 
house on Quayside, 130; and 
Eleanor, his wife, deed poll of, re- 
lating to property on Quayside, 
Newcastle, 130 ; Robert, of Mor- 
peth, fuller and dyer, and another, 
premises at Kale cross, Newcastle, 
conveyed to, 151 ; Mr. Robert, 
assignment of ' the pott house ' at the 
Close gate, Newcastle, to, 149 ; 
Roger, sheriff of Newcastle, 122; 
conveys house on Quayside, New- 
castle, 129 

Moat, the east, Newcastle, 147 

Mole, William, of Pilgrim street, 
Newcastle, innkeeper, 166 

Molyneux, sir Richard,receiver general 
of duchy of Lancaster, 211 

Mompesson, Elizabeth and Richard, 
and another, lease of rectory and 
chapel of Sutton, co. York, and site 
of college, 188 

Monkton, co. York, lease of lands at, 
187 

Montby Mayns, etc., Yorkshire, lease 
of lands at, 187 

Montgomery, Sampson Eure, appoint- 
ed attorney for county of, 196 

Montserat, appointment of governor 
of, 215 ; captain -general, etc., of 
221 

Moody [Moodie], George, of New- 
castle, smith, property outside Pil- 
grim street gate, sold to, 139 ; 
deaths of wives of, etc., I39n ; sons 
George and Christopher, 139 : had 
Dutchman in his employ, 139; 



IKDEX. 



287 



Moody — continued . 

lands, etc., in Pilgrim street, etc.. 
conveyed to, 141 ; will of, 141 ; to 
be buried in All Saints' churchyard, 
141 ; bequests to wife, Katherin, 
and to sons George, Christopher, and 
Nicholas, and daughters, Ann and 
Mary, 141 ; of Newcastle, latten 
plate worker, and others, convey 
house without Pilgrim street gate, 
142 ; executor of his father's will, 
141 ; Jrhn, 139 ; Mary, and others, 
convey premises without Pilgrim 
gate, Newcastle, 142 ; Thomas, 139, 
141 ; William, 139 
Moore, Edward, removed from the 
mayoralty of Berwick on account 
of his insolencies, 200; [Moor] 
Lionel, 164, 165 bis 
Mordue. Mark, bequest to, 144 
Mores, Robert, premises in Close, New- 
castle, of, 147 
Moresque tiles presented, xvi, xix 
Morpeth, inquisition at, 121 ; grant 
of tenement in Newgate street, 
118 ; Henry Grey, steward of, 118 ; 
William Chestir and William 
Barker, bailiffs of, 118; William 
Stokton .and Edward Watson, 
chaplains at, 118 
Morrice, Francis, and another, land, 
etc., at Kirkleatham granted to, by 
letters patent of James I., 125 
Morrison (see Moryson) 
Morrow, Thomas, of Newcastle, yeo- 
man, conveyance of premises in 
Low Friar street to, 164 ; convey- 
ance of same by Thomas, son and 
heir of, 164 
Morton, arms of, 251 
Morwick, Hugh de, witness to a grant, 
116 ; Nicholas de, witness to a 
grant, 116 
Moryson, John, 176» 
Mould, Ann, married Joseph Potts, 
tailor, 159 ; and others, conveyed 
house in Nolt market, Newcastle, 
159 ; John, ami Ann, his wife, house 
in Bigg Market, Newcastle, con- 
veyed to use of, 169 ; Ralph, will of, 
159 ; devise of houses in Nolt 
market to wife and his son John, 
169 ; bequest to John's daughters, 
Ann and Margery, 169 
Mount Orgueil, etc., grant of office of 

governor, etc., of, 223 
Mout, James, witness to a deed, 142 
Mowbray. Samuel, of Newcastle, 
schoolmaster, 177; witness to a deed, 
177 



Mowett, James, 142 (see also Mont) 

Mucklebank wall turret, excavation 
of, 13 ; centurial stone from, 12, 
15 

Mulcaster, Thomas, witness to a deed, 
142; ground outside Close gate, 
Newcastle, 148 

Murray, Anthony, clerk, letter of 
denization to, 198; Cuthbert, of 
Newcastle, 154 bis; [Moray] Robert, 
witness to a grant 

Murton, John, 127 ; Richard, witness 
to a bond, 120 

Murton (see Westmurton) 

Murton grange, lands at, granted to 
Robert Bowes, 188 

Muschamp, of Barmoor, arms of, 247 ; 
of Wooler, 247 

* Musculus,' a, used at siege of Mar- 
seilles by Romans, 112 

Museum, donations to, xvi-xix 

Musgrave, Thomas, of Craven, son of 
sir Richard, knight, pardon for 
robbery, 193 ; William, and others, 
bill of Thomas, duke of Norfolk, 
against, 120 

N, 

Nairn, Philip, junior, of Newcastle, 
merchant, conveyance of pre- 
mises in Northumberland street to, 
146 

Napoleon III., 88 ; models of catapult, 
etc., made by order of, 76 

Navarete, the sling used at battle of, 
106 

Neale, Dr., dean of Ripon, 218 (see 
also Neile) 

Necklace, silver, from Aesha, 42 

Neile, sir Paul (son of bishop Richard 
Neile), pardon of burning in the 
hand, for manslaughter, 200 ; 
William, clerk, dispensation to hold 
mastership of Greatham hospital, 
206 (see also Neale) 

Neilson, Alexander, house of, in New- 
castle, 165 

Nelson, Edmund, of Newcastle, gentle- 
man, assignment of premises near 
Close gate to, 147 

Nesbit, Lawrence, 176n 

Nesham, John, of Sunderland, pardon 
to, for murder, 228 

Netherdene bridge, Newcastle, pre- 
mises at, 163, 166 

Netherby, Richard, patron of Arthuret, 
201 

Neuham, Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 116 



288 



INDEX. 



Nevill, Adeline, sister of Charles, earl 
of Westmoreland, payment to, 190 ; 
pension for, 191 ; Anne, daughter 
of Charles, earl of Westmoreland, 
payment to, 190 ; Edmond, com- 
monly called earl of Westmoreland, 
warrant for payment to, 189 ; lord 
John, and his wife Maud Percy, 
portrait heads of, 65 ; Katherine, 
daughter of Charles, earl of West- 
moreland, payment to, 190; Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter of Charles, 
earl of Westmoreland, payment 
to, 190 ; Robert, bishop of Durham, 
127 
Nevis, appointment of governor of, 
216 ; of captain-general, etc., of, 221 
Newark, money paid to garrison of, 

207 
Newbiggen, etc., co. Northumberland, 

grant of lands at, 21 1 
Newbolt (see Nubolt) 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 

Quitclaim of lands in, 118 : inquisi- 
tions taken at, 120, 127 ; docu- 
ments relating to, 115^ portion 
of charge of fortifications at 
Tynemouth, to be paid by, 197 ; 
port of Seaton Sluice annexed to, 
233 ; Button's map of, 163 ; 
receiver of hearth money in, 218 ; 
grant of land at Axelfeld in 
bishopric, sealed with seal of, 
118 ; pardon to Thomas Errington 
of, 206 ; to John Rogers of, 206 ; 
8hips,payment for setting to sea of, 
197; customs and regulations of, 
sent by the mayor, etc., to mayor, 
etc., of Stockton, 168 ; stone balls 
discovered on Sandhill, 90 ; old ale 
bottles found in Gallowgate, 
xviii ; a stone coffin found in the 
Close, xix ; stone corbel, an oak- 
spade, and other objects foand in 
Pilgrim street and Neville street, 
xvi-xix ; inscribed stone from 
* Lambert's leap,' xviii ; note of 
circumstance, xviii ; carved fire- 
place lintel from Bigg market, 
xviii ; a glass panel from old 
house in Shieldfield, with portrait 
of queen Victoria, xviii 
Ma YOBS : John Blaxton, 128 ; 
Thomas Bonner, 129 ; Henry 
Chapman, 129 ; George Dawson, 
129, 132: Henry Dawson, 129; 
Matthew Featherstonehaugh, 165; 
Nicholas Fenwick, 164 ; Ralph 
Jenison, 129 ; William Jenison, 
129 ; Thomas de Karl', 117 ; 



Sewcsistle—contimied, 

Henry Mitford, 130; Robert 
Rhodes, 126, 127; sir Thomas 
Riddell, 129; William Riddell, 
129 ; R. Ridley, 143 ; Mark 
Shafto, 129 

Sheriffs: John Blaxton, 128; 
Henry Chapman, 129; George 
Cuthbertson, 164 ; Nicholas 
Fenwick, 143 ; William Hodgson, 
246; Ralph Jenison, 129; WU- 
liam Jenison, 129 ; John Lodge, 
132 ; Michael Milburn, 251 ; 
Robert Mitforth, 128; sir Peter 
Hidden, 129 ; sir Thomas Riddell, 
129; William Riddell, 129; 
Mark Shafto, 129; Gheorge 
Simpson, 139; Richard Swin- 
burne, 165 

Town Clerks: Joshua Douglas, 
144, 165; Man, 132 

Bailiffs: 117, Thomas de Mer- 
chingley, 116n 

Members of Parliament : Robert 
Brandling, 129 ; Henry Chap- 
man, 129; Edward Hall, 129; 
William Jenison, 129 ; sir Peter 
Riddell, 129 ; sir Thomas Riddell, 
129 

Chapels : Brunswick place, 145 ; 
Close gate meeting house, first 
nonconformist place of worship 
in, 146 

Churches : All Saints, David 
Stephenson, architect of, 169 ; 
St. John's, churchwardens of, 
176 ; lease from, and others, of 
house in St. John's chare, 177 ; 
parish clerks of : Oswald Chaitor, 
153; Edward Chicken, 163; 
bequests to poor of, 156. St. 
Nicholas's, tax for repair of, 174 ; 
monuments of Michael Hall, 
245 ; and Michael Weldon in, 
247 ; Bewick monument in 
* Bewick porch,' 253 ; extracts 
from registers of, 152 

Coals : Tax on, in port of, 197 ; 
voluntary tax on, * transported * 
from, 196; sir John Savile, ap- 
pointed receiver at, of voluntary 
coal tax, 196 

Companies : Cordwainers, 176n ; 
Hostmen'SjXii; Weaver's, Bdward 
Chicken, clerk to the, 163 

Customs : Collectors of, 206 ; sir 
Henry Brabant, 211, 220 ; Henry 
Brabant, jun., 217 ; George 
Dawson, 217 ; Langdale Sunder- 
land, 163, 166; Richard Winn, 



ti^E^. 



289 



Newcastle — eoutinued. 

211 ; * customer,' Anthony Pelton, 
232 ; * comptrollers/ Martin 
Forater, 211 ; Ralph William- 
son, 218 ; * searcher,* Henry Ball, 
217 

Gaol : payment towards repair of, 
207; debtors' alms-box from 
Newgate, xvii 

Glass Works, etc.: *Ye White 
Glasshouse' in the Close, 149; 
bottle and flint glass, 243 ; coal- 
staiths and glasshouses in the 
Close, \i& et seq. 

Hospitals : Maison Dieu or St. 
Katharine's, 162 ; St. Mary the 
Virgin, 152, 164 

Inns: * Fighting Cocks,* Bigg 
market, 159 ; • Fox and Hounds,' 
128, 132; * Golden Lion,' 159; 
'Three Tuns,* 162; * Unicom,' 
159 

Mabkbts : Bigg, 15S et/ieq. ; Cloth. 
159; Fish, 159; Flesh, 159; 
correction house in, 176/« ; Groat, 
159; Horse, 159; Iron, 159; 
Meal, 168; Milk, 159; Nolt, 
159; Pullen, 159; W(»ol, 159 

Monastery, Black Friars', 151 

Stbbets, Chabbs, Lanes, etc. : 
Akenside hill, formerly Butcher 
bank and All Hallows' bank. 156 ; 
All Saints' churchyard, 156 et seq.; 
All Hallows' gate. Temple-gar e 
and Jew-gate, 156 ; Bailv-ga e,' 
153; Broad garth, 159,*^ 162; 
Byker chare, 129, 132 ; ' Castle 
Leazes,' 141; Close, 143, 151; 
Denton chare, 152 et stq.; *the 
Bast Mote,' 147 ; Gallowgate, 
141; 'Graves end walk,' 175; 
* Hairehugh,' 153 ; High Friar 
chare, 164,* Homsby chare, 132 ; 
*.ravel t?roop,' 153; Kale croPs. 
1 51 ; » King's dykes,' 141, 142, 144 ; 
Lort burn. 116, 166 ; Low' Friar 
street, 162 et seq.; Netherdean 
bridge, 163 ; Newgate without, 
141 ; Newgate street, 162 ; North- 
umberland street, 138; Painter- 
heugh, 142; Pilgrim street, 163 ; 
Plummer chare, 172 ; Postern, 
168 etseq.; Pudding chare, 175 ; 
and Burnbank. 134 ; Quayside, 
128, 151 ; Katten rawe (now Cross 
street), 150 ; Rosemary lane or 
St. Mary's lane or St. John's 
chare, 175 ; Russell's chare, 130 ; 
St. John's lane, 158, 176, 177 ; St. 
Mary's lane, alios Rosemary lane. 



Newcastle — continued, 

alias St. John's chare, 175, 177 bit; 
St. Nicholas's churchyard, 161; 
Sandgate, 137 ; Shod Friar,charei 
162 et seq. ; Side, 143 ; Sidgate, 
Friar chare, and Castle garth, 171 
et sSq.; Silver street, 156 ; * Stairs 
to ye High castle,' 147 ; Westgate 
street, 152 et aeq,; Whinny closes 
near the Castle Leazes, 154; 
White cross, 159, 162; White 
Friars, 153 : Tower, Denton, 153 

Newgate street, Newcastle, mansion 
in, 162 

Newham, exchange of lands in, 119 

Newminster, grant of site of monastery 
of, to Robert Brandling, 116, 194 

Newsham, etc., Yorkshire, lease of 
lands at, 187 

Newsham, Northumberland, Hartley 
fishermen got bait at, ^31 ; grounds 
at, 229 

Newton, lease of tithes of grain and 
hay of, 119; grange, etc., John 
Ogle, farmer of, 120 

Newton, Matthew, 127 

Nicholson, James, master and mariner, 
of Newcastle, 130; Jennete, of New- 
castle, 140; John, of Newcastle, 
shipwright, son of John, blacksmith, 
burgage in Bigg market, conveyed 
to, to uses, 169 ; Thomas, of New- 
castle, victualler, 160 

' Nine Nicks of Thirl wall,' the, 13 

Noel, Edward, 145 ; fee farm rent for 
house in Black Friar chare, New- 
castle, due to heirs of, 175 

Nolt market, Newcastle, 159 

Norfolk, security that John, duke of, 
will appear before king and council, 
120; Thomas, duke of, bill of, 
against Edward Dacre, and others, 
120 

Norham castle, stone shot at, 91 ; a 
lease of keepership of. to sir Robert 
Carey, 190 

Norman, Anthony, of Newcastle, 
scrivener, 136; attests will, 141 ; 
close without Pilgrim street gate, 
Newcastle, belonging to, 141, 142 ; 
Anthony, junior, of Newcastle, 
scrivener, 141 

North, Francis, baron of Guilford, 
visited sir Ralph Delaval, 233 ; 
Roger, description of Seaton Sluice, 
233 

Northampton, earl of, warrant for 
payment to, 190 

Northampton, etc., grant of rectories, 
etc., in, 191 



290 



INDEX. 



North Auckland, see Auckland, North 

North Cadbuiy, Somerset, Dr. Ralph 
Cud worth, rector of, 213 ; presenta- 
tion of Samuel Cradocke to rectory 
of, 213 

North east coast, six ships to be pro- 
vided out of voluntary coal tax, for 
defence of, 196 

North of England, extracts from privy 
seal dockets, relating chiefly to the, 
184 ^ sea. 

North Middleton, see Middleton, 
North 

Northumberland bow, a, 97 

Northumberland : County council 
and official custody of ancient docu- 
ments, xii ; commission for treating 
with recusants in, 196; escheator f or, 
to deliver seisin of Cawsey park, 
etc., 214 ; proofs of age of heirs t<» 
estates iu, 126 ; notorious persons in 
county of, 206 ; the new County 
History of, xi; pipe music, xi ; dock, 
reason for it, 238 ; Glass Company, 
premises in Newcastle, occupied by. 
161 ; grant of rectories, etc., in, 191 ; 
receivership of, 190 ; in Thomas 
Braddell, 197 ; granted to Thomas 
Wharton, 197 ; Robert Bowes, war- 
rant for payment to, 208 ; Mayor 
Norton. 202 ; recusant roll for, 120 : 
sheriffs of, Clavering, Robert, 120 ; 
Ogle, James, 120 

Northumberland, Topcliffe late be- 
longing to late earl of, 186; Thomas, 
earl of, barony of Langley forfeited! 
by treason of, 216 

Northumberland street, Newcastle, 
property in, 136 

* Northumbrian archers,' a company 
of, levied by Edward II., 94 

Northumbrian families, arms of, 243 

Norton, Mayor, receivership of North- 
umberland, Durham and Richmond, 
granted to, 202 ; Margaret, wife oi 
John, of Lamesley, pardon to, for re- 
ceiving seminary priest, 189 

Noteman, Phoebe, of Newcastle, 
widow, 148 

Notts, ship money levied in, 207 : 
sir Thomas Williamson, sheriff of, 
207 ; commission for treating with 
recusants in, 196 

Novellinus, tombstone from Aetica, 
recording, 57 

Nubolt, Edmund, resigned ma8tershi)> 
of Berkhampstead free school, 2Hi 

Nun Moukton, see Monkton 

Nunnykirk, lease of tithe of grain an<l 
hay of, 119 



Nunstaintou, co. Durham, grant of 
capital tenement and mill at, 187 ; 
^rant of manor or grange of, ami 
lands in, 194 ; hall leased to James 
Fletcher and others, 189 



Offerton, etc., lease of messuage, etc., 
in, 186 ; pardon of Thomas Lilbome 
of, 206 

Ogle, country meeting at, x 

Ogle, arms of, 261 ; of Burradon, arms 
of, 251 ; of Ogle castle, arms of, 251 ; 
estates of family of , 1 16 ; monument 
in Bothal church, Hepple arms on, 
2 )3 ; Umframvill arms on, 254 

Ogle [Oggell, Oggle], Charles, 120; 
witness to, a bond, 120; and 
others, lease of Horsley rectory 
to, I20j Cornelius, 207; Cuthbert, 
lord of Bothal, bond of. 120; 
Dorothy, 207 ; denization for lady 
Elizabeth, wife of sir John, knight, 
and his children, 207 ; George, 119; 
Gilbert de, grant of land in Burradon 
to, 115 ; James, bond to, 120 ; late 
sheriff of Northumberland, 120 ; 
of Cawsey park, petition for livery 
of heir of, 121; decree concerning, 
121 ; John Ogle declared son and 
heir of, 121; John, 120, 207; 
farmer of Heley, etc., rent paid for, 
12U; son and heir of James, of 

• Cawsey park, 121; writ to 
esfheator of Northumberland, to 
deliver seisin to, 121 ; John, of 
Cawsey park, discharge of, for not 
attending to receive knighthood, 
214; sale of manor house of 
Bebside to, 121 ; Lancelot, of 
Cow pen, sale by, of manor of 
Bebside, 121 ; Matthew, farmer of 
Horsley rectory, 120; Matthew, 
of ' Heyborne,' 119 ; lease to, of 
Horsley and Kirkharle rectories, 
etc., 119, 120; Percival, witness 
to a bond, 120; Ralph, witness 
to a bond, 120 ; Rotert, grant 
of vill of Hebburn, etc., by, 118; 
lord of Ogle and BothaL and manor 
and park of Cawsey park, etc., 118 ; 
Robert de, agreement with, con- 
cerning Saltwick, 117; witness to 
a grant, 116 ; sou and heir of sir 
Robert de, grant of lands in 
Lowick to, 118 ; sir Robert, knight, 
lord of Ogle and Bothal, grants by, 
119 ; Sarah, and another, conveyed 
premises in the Bigg market. New- 



INDEX. 



291 



Og\e--eo«HiiU0d, 
castle, 160 ; Thomas, 207, suit be- 
tween sir William Middleton, bart., 
and, 121 ; William, quitclaim to, 
of manor of Cawsej park, etc., 118 ; 
grants of vill of Hebburn, etc., t^ 
118; William, of Cocklepark, grants 
of lands to, and by, 119 ; sir 
William, grants of land in New- 
ham, etc., to, 119 

Old-acre given to Kobert Bowes, 188 

Oldhall, given in exchange to Robert 
Bowes, 188 

Oliver, Sarah, of Newcastle, widow, 
bequests of, 144 ; Thomas, of New- 
castle, house carpenter and mill- 
wright, and Margaret, his wife, 
grant to, of premises without 
Pilgrim street gate, 144 ; Thomas, of 
Newcastle, tanner, will of, 144 ; 
devise to wife Barah, 144 ; William, 
witness to a will, 144 

' Onager,* 74 ; model of an, 76 

Openshawe, see Strangwidge 

Old, arms of, 251 ; [Orde] Bertram, of 
Newcastle, house occupied by, 162 ; 
John, of Newcastle, ground outside 
the Close gate, Newcastle, in trust 
for, 148; lease by, 148 ; and others, 
transfer of the sugar house, etc., in 
the Close, Newcastle, 149; and 
others, indenture of, relating to 
collieries, etc., at Hartley, etc., 284 ; 
Margaret, wife of Henry, bequest 
to, 155 ; Thomas, 143, 164 (see also 
Owrde, Urde) 

Ordinary members, xzii 

Ordnance, sir Robert, constable, late 
lieutenant of the, 193 ; erection of 
office, to be called *• treasurer and 
paymaster of his Majesty's,' 215 

Ormesby, John, of Newcastle, glazier, 
155 

Osbert, clerk of Widdrington, witness 
to a grant, 116 

Osgoteby, Robert de, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Otway, John, of Newcastle, merchant, 
house on Quayside, belonging to, 
132, 137 

Oveiton, see Oflferton 

Ovingham, John Aschton, vicar of, 
126, 127 

Owrde, George, pica of land in 
Borowden, 119 

Owton, given in exchange to Robert 
^owes, 188 ; lease of capital house 
at, 186 

Oxley, Cnthbert, notary public, 121 ; 
Joseph, new machinery of, 235 



P. 



Pace, Margaret, widow of William, 
of Newcastle, skinner and* glover, 
and others, conveyance of premises 
by, in the Bigg market, etc., 162; 
Judith and Grace, daughteis of, 
162 (see also Paise) 

Pacton Green, Cumberland, a match 
in 1792, between long bows and 
muskets, 97 

Padstow, arms of, 251 

Page, William, witness to a grant, 
116 

Painterheugh, Newcastle, a house in 
the, 142 

Paise, Robert, clerk, and others, grant 
manor of Cawsey park, etc., to, 119 
(see also Pace) 

Palister, grant of office of, in bishopric 
of Durham, 190 

Palliser, Thomas, a seminary priest, 
189 

Pampedene, Christine and Isabel, 
daughters of Miles de, 116 

Paper, blue, grant to Charles Hildyard, 
of sole making of, 214 

Pardons, 186 et seq. 

Paris, siege of, by the Vikings, 76 

Parker, Nicholas, of Newcastle, gentle- 
man, and Margaret, his wife, grant 
of houses without Pilgrim street 
gate, Newcastle, 142 ; premises 
without Pilgrim street gate, con- 
veyed to, 142 

Parkin, Sarah, witness to a deed, 136 
Thomas, attests a deed, 162; of 
Newcastle, joiner, mortgage of 
house on Quayside to, 186 

Parone, madam, midwife to the 
queen, warrant for payment for 
delivery of duke of York, 200 

Paston, arms of, 251 ; William, 165 

Patent rolls, the, 185 

Pattinson, Thomas, of Newcastle, 
gentleman, and Margery, his wife, 
grant of premises without Pilgrim 
street gate to and by, 142; and 
others, covenant to levy a fine, 142 

Pattison, Elizabeth, of Newcastle, 
widow, 155 ; Robert, witnesses a 
will, 137 ; Thomas, attests a deed, 
164 ; William, of Benwell, yeoman, 
churchwarden of St. John's, New- 
castle, 176 

* Pavise,' the, 101 

Payton, sir Christopher, lease of site 
of manor of Whitworth to, 186 

Peareths, the, 160; pedigree of the, 
150 



392 



tKBEX. 



Peareth, certificate of baptism of Bar- 
bara, daughter of John and Lettice, 
162; certificate of baptism of Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John and Lettice. 
152 ; her burial, 152 ; Henry, of 
Newcastle, merchant, 151 ; John, 
baptism of, son of John and Lettice, 
152 ; house in Close, Newcastle, 
conveyed to, 151; John, of the Inner 
Temple, barrister, 151 ; of New- 
castle, clerk, 151 ; burial of He v. 
John, vicar of Aid worth, 152 ; John, 
of Oxford, gentleman, granted pre- 
mises in Close. Newcastle, 151 ; 
baptism of Mary, daughter of John 
and Lettice, 152 ; Richard, t^on of 
William, esquire and alderman, be- 
que:«t to. 160; William, of New- 
castle, merchant, grant to and by, 
of premises in Close. 151 

Pearson, Ihonias, of Newcastle, 155; 
William, of Newcastle, 161 

Pembrokes, the ropemaking, 1 29 

Pembroke, Ann, of Newcantle, widow, 
132, 133 ; bequest to, 137 ; assign- 
ment of mortgage on premises on 
Quayside, by, 137 ; probate of Bar- 
l)ara Williamson's will granted to, 
137 ; Hannah, daughter of David 
Akenhead, and widow of sir Robert 
Shaf to Hawks, 129 ; John, beque»<ts 
to, 137; Hannah, wife of, 134; 
Uleanor, daughter and coheiress of, 
married John Marshall, 184 ; John, 
of Newcastle, ropemaker, house 
occupied by, 133 ; assignment of 
premises on Quayside to, 1 37 ; John, 
of Newcastle, master and mariner, 
assignment of premises on Quayside 
to, 136, 137 ; John, son of John, 
mariner, devise of premises in Sand- 
gate, Newcastle, to, 138 

Pembrough, Ann, executor of will of 
Martha Durham, widow, 136 

Pendleton, Mary of Newcastle, widow, 
seised for life of ^ great messuage' 
in Pilgrim street, etc., 166 

Penrith, inquisitions taken at, 120 

Pensher, farmhold at, devised by 
William Gray, 132 

Percy Main, 23i) 

Percy, Maud, first wife of lord John 
Nevill, portrait head of, 65 

Perrot, Christian, widow of John, of 
the Castle Garth, Newcastle, shoe- 
maker, bequest to, 144 ; Frances, 
of Newcastle, widow, and another, 
bequests to, 144 

Persepolis, warlike engines on sculp- 
tures of, 69 



Persians, etc., long bow used by, 9S 

Pescod, Ann, burgage without New- 
gate, Newcastle, occupied by, 141 
George, of Newcastle, J 32, 14 
William, burgage without Newgattr 
Newcastle, occupied by, 141 ; house 
in Sidgate, Newcastle, belonging 
to, 172 ; conveyance of, 172 

Pettigrew, Catherine, devise to, 157 ; 
conveyed tenement in Silver street 
Newcastle, 157 ; Mark, conveyance 
by, of house on All Hallows bank, 
158 

Pewter, bequest of , 141 

Philipson, John, of Newcastle, gentle 
man, 155 

Phillips. Auirustine, licence to, to play 
comtHlies, etc., 1 89 ; Fi-aucLs and 
another, grant of lands in Kirk- 
leatbam to, by letteis patent of 
James 1., 125 ; I homas, collector of 
petty customs of London, 186 

Pious, Humphrey, 129 ; witness to a 
deed, 132 

Pickells, John, of Newcastle, scrivener, 
136 

' Pierrier,' the, 85, 8*i, 87, 93 

Pierson, arms of, 255 

Pile, Godfrey, George, and James, 
sons, and Eleanor, daughter, of 
Margery, 172 ; Margery, of New- 
castle, widow (daughter and heir of 
Thomas Thompson of Newcastle, 
tailor), and others, conveyance of 
house in Sidgate by, 172 

Pilgrim street, Newcastle, premises in, 
163 ; Gate, Newcastle, 138 

Pinckney, George, of Newcastle, 
scriverer, 136 

Pipe music, Northumbrian, xi 

Place. Rowland, of Dins 'ale, pardon 
to, 206 

Plague, the, 189 

Platen, Sophia Charlotte, countess, 
and her daughter, made free deni- 
zens, 225 

Playing cards, a licence to bring in, 
208 

Plummer chare, Newcastle, tenements 
in, 172 

Piummer, Thomas, attests a deed, 166 

Plumton, Robert, 132 

Poet-laureate, appointment of Dryden 
the poet as, 216 

Molybius, the Roman camp of. 3 

Poiybian and Hyginian camps, the 
great distinction between the, 5 • 

Poole, Mrs., mistress of bir John Dela- 
val, is said to have poisoned Mrs. 
Rogers, 2 U/* 



INDEX. 



298 



Poore, William, appointed receiver at 
Sunderland of voluntary coal tax, 
196 
Popes prohibited use of crossbow, 99 
Porch, Michael, attests a deed, 166 
Portir, John le, witness lo a grant, 

117 
Port Mahon, garrison and fortifica- 
tions of, 225 
Porto Rico, island of, 216 
Portugal, Spain and, forces in, 225 

* Portuguese business,' payment for the 

211 

Postern, the, Newcastle, premises in, 
168 ft neq. 

Potts [Pottes], Charles, attests a deed, 
166; Thomas, of Newcastle. 162; 
William, witness to a deed, 180; 
and Sarah his wife, and others, con- 
veyance of house in Nolt market, 
Newcastle, by, 159 

Potter, Ann, of Newcastle, widow, 
142 ; William Anthony, of New- 
castle, surgeon, 145 and n 

Potters' names, etc.. from Aetti(ut^ 40 

Poulteney, sir* John de, mayor of Lon- 
don, witness to a gmnt, 117; founder 
of St. Lawrence Pountney, 117» 

Pre-conquest, see Anglian 

Preston upon Skeme given to Robert 
Bowes, 188 

Preston, Ann, widow, will of, 138 ; 
devises by, 138 ; Gawin, of New- 
castle, 143 ; William, of Shod Fiiar 
chare, Newca5»tle, 166 

Pritchett, J. P., on discoveries in chapel 
of Raby castle, 65, 114 

Privy Seal Dockets, extracts from the, 
relating chiefly to north of England, 
\%^ et seq. 

ProcolUia, partly destroyed by general 
Wade, 19 ; discovery of weil of Cov- 
entina at, 19 

Procter, arms of, 246; Cuthbert, of 
Newcastle, gentleman, and Cuth- 
bert, his son, grant of house in 
Sandgate by, 137 ; William, of 
Nether Bodley, Craven, married 
Isabel, daughter and co-heir of John 
Lilburn, 246 

Proofs of age of heirs to estates in 
Northumberland, 126 

Publications, societies exchanging, 
xxxi 

Pudding chare, 175; and Bum bank, 
Newcastle, premises in, 134 

Pudsay, Margaret, one of daughters of 
late earl of Westmoreland, pension 
for, 191 

* Pullen ' market, Newcastle, 159 



Q. 

Q MCC AS, inscription on amphora 
handle, 16 

* Quarrels,* 101 ; found at Tannenberg. 

101 
Quashton, etc., lease of lands, etc., at, 
18H 

* Queens Dykes,* Newcastle, 143 
Quesnoy, siege of, 92 

R. 

Raby, lease of herbage and pannage 
of, to John lloldich, 187 ; lease of 
east, middle and west parks at, to 
Barnard Dowthwaite, 187; lease of 
mill near castle of, 186 ; keepership 
of parks of, 191 ; grant of liberties 
and privileges in manor of, to sir 
Henry Vane, 203 ; east, west, and 
middle parks to be disparked, and 
officers of castle discharged, 198; 
assigned to Edward Bsterfield and 
others, 199; lordship of. granted 
to Robert, earl of Somerset, 209 

Raby castle chapel, discovehes in, 65 ; 
piscina in, 66 ; portrait heads nt. of 
lord John Nevill and his wife Maud 
Percy, (55 ; further explorations in, 
114 

Raby, Thomas, lord, 202 ; Krant to, as 
ambassador extraordinary lo Stales 
CJeneral, 224 ; grant of dignities of 
viscount Wentworth and earl of 
StraflE .rd, 225 

Races at Blyth and Seaton Sluice, 
238 ; revived by M. L. Jobling, 238 

Radcliffe, arms of, 246 ; Arthur, and 
another, pardon for killing William 
Hall, 210 ; Geori:e, made king's 
counsel, 199 (see also Ratcliffe) 

Radnor, grant of office of justice of, 
212 

Rainmorter (?), John, witness to a 
oeed, 13 { 

Rames of Shortflat, arms of, 247 

Kamsay, Robert, and others, pardoned 
for burning John Lil burns bou.se. 
191 ; [Kamsey], William, api»ointed 
captain of Holy island and Fame 
islands, 209 

Rand, Isabell, of Newcastle, widow. 
135 

Raicliffe. Robert, vicar of Stonehouse, 
CO. Gloucester, death of. 222 (see 
also Radcliffe) 

' Ratten rawe,' Newcastle, derivation 
of name, 150 ; now Cross street, 
151 



294 



INDEX. 



BaughtoD, Leonard, chaplain of 
chantry of B. V. M. in Chester-le- 
Street church, 124 and n 

Rawson, Christopher, of Xewcaatle, 
182 

Raynes, John, master of St. Mary's 
hospital, Newcastle, 154 

Reaveley [Reveley, Reafley, Reefley, 
Reefly], arms of, 252 ; impaling 
Burrell, 262 ; Barbara, of Newcastle, 
widow, 134 ; John, of Newcastle, 
premises of, outside Pilgrim street 
gate, 143 ; John, of Newcastle, 
miller, 142 ; mortgage of horse- 
mill in the Posttem, IHO ; Thomas, 
142 ; William, of Newcastle, black- 
smith, conveyed horse-mill, in Pos- 
tern, 169 ; bond of, 169 (see also 
Reveley) 

Readhead, John, shipwright, of New- 
castle, 130 ; Richard, lands of, in 
Sandgate, Newcastle, 137 

Reay, Edward, witness to a lease, 
177 ; H., alderman, of Sewca-tle, 
142 ; Joseph, alderman, of New- 
castle, 165 

Rebellion in the north, the, 1 86 

Recusants, 189 ; land of, surrender 
of, 188 ; goods, 210 ; roll, extract 
from, 120; in northern counties, 
commission for treating with, 
196 

Redcar, devise of lands in, 194 

Redheugh, Thomas del, son and heir 
of sir Hugh del. quitclaim of land 
called Axelfeld in bishopric, 118 

Redman, Gyles, witness to a deed, 
142 

Redmaishall, country meeting at, x 

Reed, of ('lose house, arms of, 248 ; 
of 1 roughend, 248 ; Ra., alderman, 
of Newcastle, 143 

Ref)ort, annual, for 1901, in ; cura- 
tors*, xvi ; treasurer's, xiii-xvi 

Reveley, Edward, witness to a deed 
poll, 130 

Rhodes, sling stones fiom, at Wool- 
wich, 105 

Rhodes, Robert, mayor of Newcastle, 
126 ; Agnes, wife of, 126, 127 

* Ribaudequin,' the, a huge cross-bow, 
84 

Rich, Robert, coachmaker, devise of 
shares in glassworks. Newcastle, on 
trust, 160 

Richard I., revived use of cross-bow, 
99; mortally wounded by a bolt 
from a cross-bow, 99 

Richard, clerk 6f Woodhorn, witness 
to a grant, 116 



Richardson, John, appointed clerk of 
commission in the matter of a 
Yoluntary coal tax, 196 ; Margaret, 
party to a conveyance of premises 
in Westgate, etc., 165 ; Robert, 
witness to a deed, 131 ; yeoman, of 
Newcastle, lease of house on Quay* 
side to, 131 ; Thomas, scrivener, 177 

Richelly, Christopher, of Newcastle, 
177 

Richmond, Yorkshire, grant of tene- 
ment in, 206 ; rent to castle of, 195 ; 
receiver of archdeaconry of, John 
Braddell, 197 ; granted to Thomas 
Wharton, 197 ; granted to Mayor 
Norton, 202 ; warrant to receiver 
for payment to sir Robert Bowes, 
208 

Riddell, of Gateshead, arms of, 
quartering Harbottle, 264 ; Peter, 
merchant, of Newcastle, 129 ; tene- 
ment in Newcastle belonging to, 
129 ; sir Peter, sheriff, mayor and 
M.P. of Newcastle, 129 ; sir Thomas, 
sheriff, mayor, and M.P. of New- 
castle, 1 29 ; William, sheriff • and 
mayor of Newcastle, 129 ; witness 
to award, 130 ; witness to a deed 
^)oll, 130 ; merchant and alderman, 
136 

Ridley, of Hardriding, arms of. 262 ; 
of Willimoteswick, 262; of Wall- 
town, 252 ; Nicholas, alderman 
of Newcastle, 165; R., mayor of 
Newcastle, 143 

Rimes, Nicholas, keeper of Marwood 
bagge chase in bishopric of Dur- 
ham, 190 ; Robert and Francis, 
keepership of Marwood hagge chase 
granted to, 190 

Ripon, deans of, Thomas TuUie, D.\y., 
218; Dr. Neale. 218 

Ripon, Christopher Wyvill, clerk, 
appointed to deanery of, nee Dr. 
Thomas Cartwright, 221 

Ripping, Alexander, of Newcastle, 177 

Rolnert, son of John, grant of land to, 
116 

Roberts, Thomas, otherwise Charles 
Drew, grant of his forfeited lands to 
his sisters, 227 

Robertson, John, of Newcastle, 161 

' Robinet,' the, 86 

Robinson, Alexander, and others, de- 
fendants in a suit concerning vUl of 
Burradon. 119; Cuthbert, of New- 
castle, yeoman, 164 ; James, of 
Shod friar chare,Newcastle, 166, 167; 
Michael, son of William of West 
Brandon, co. Durham, yeoman, and 



INDEX. 



295 



'Bohinsou—continued. 
Margaret, his wife, conveyed house 
in Bigg market, 160 ; Michael, house 
of, in Bigg market, Newcastle, 168 ; 
Richard, butcher, and Judith, his 
wife, and others, conveyance of 
house in Bigg market, Newcastle, 
162; Thomas, of Newcastle, barber- 
surgeon, premises of, without Pil- 
grim street gate, 144 

Robson, Kdward, smith, of Newcastle, 
130 ; John, 142 ; Robert, of New- 
castle, skinner and glover, 164 ; 
attests a deed, 164 ; Symond, 127 ; 
Thomas, of the 'Fighting Cocks,' 
Newcastle, 161; Timothy, 164; 
William, burgage without Newgate, 
Newcastle, occupied by, 141 

Rochester, of Essex, arms of, 254 ; of 
Rock, 264 

Roddam of Roddam, arms of, 262 

Rogerley, grant of lands and tene- 
ments in, 187 ; sir George Vane of, 
206 

Rogers, John, of Newcastle, pardon to, 
206 ; married Ann, daughter of sir 
John Delaval, 284 ; and others, in- 
denture of, relating to collieries, etc., 
at Hartley, etc., 234 

Rokeby, see Rookeby 

Boll of Arms, a Northumbrian, of 
1631, 244 ; of 1682, 248 

Roman bonding tile from Caistor, pre- 
sented, xvi, xix ; bridge, piers of, 
across north Tyne at ChoUerford, 
28 ; caltraps, 106 ; coins, etc., dis- 
covered at Aesica, 24. 33, 43, 51, 62 ; 
pottery presented, xvi, xix 

Roman Wall, excavations on the line 
of the, 1 ; reference to, in ancient 
writers, 1 

Roman and medieval military engines, 
etc., notes on, 69 et seq. 

Romans, etc., long bow uaed by, 93 

Rome, Trajan and Antonine columns 
at, 35 

Rookeby, Lowrence, merchant, of 
Newcastle, 131 ; Biaphe, recusancy 
of, 194 ; grant of go(xls of, 193 

Rosemary lane, Newcastle, premises 
in, 175 et itq. 

Rothbury, quitclaim of lands in, 118 

Rotheram, Dr., of Low Friar chare, 
Newcastle, 167 

Rotten row, Newcastle, see Ratten raw 

Rouge Croix pursuivant at arms, 
grant of office of, 212 ; Dragon, 
appointment to, 224 

Rough castle on the Antonine wall, 
79 



Rowell, William, of Newcastle, tallow 

chandler, 177 
Rowaon, John, of Newcastle. 142 
Roxburgh, lord of. theft of his goods, 

195 
Koyalist composition papers, xii 
Rugg, Robert, captain of Holy island 

and Fame islands, 208 
Russell's chare, Newcastle, 130 
Russell, Peter, of Newcastle, merchant, 

premises in Close, occupied by, 162 
Russikon in Switzerland, remains of 

medieval engines found in ruins of, 

88 
Rutherford, of Middletcn hall, near 

Wooler, arms of, 248 ; Elizabeth, 

bequest to, 144; the hon. Frances, 

widow, premises of, without Pilgrim 

street gate, Newcastle, 144 
Rutter, Dorcas, witness to a deed, 

142; William, witness to a deed, 

142; bequest of Charles Matfen to, 

156 
Ryall, Nicholas, witness to a lease, 

177 
Rychesonne, William, witness to a 

deed, 130 
Ryle (s*'e Hyle) 
Ryton, rectors of, Ralph Blakeston, 

211; William James, 211 



S. 



Sadberge, Durham and, grant of office 
of chancellor of, 211 

Sadbury, John, of Bldon, created a 
baronet, 220 ; discharge from pay- 
ment of fees for, 220 

St. Asaphs, Dr. Hanmer, bishop of, 
207 

St Christopher's*, appointment of 
governor of, 216 ; captain -general, 
etc., of, 221 

St. John's chapelry, Newcastle, bequest 
of Charles Matfen to poor of , 15.>; 
Edward Chicken, parish clerk of, 
163 ; churchwardens of, leased 
premises in Rosemary lane, 176, 
1 76 ; Thomas Fletcher, cordwainer, 
churchwarden, 175; churchyard, 
Newcastle, 17.'>; chare, Newcastle, 
premises in, 176 ; lane, Newcastle, 
168 

St. Katharine's hospital, Newcastle, 
founded by Roger ThornU»n, 152 ; 
Thomas Halymau, master of, 164 

St. Mary the Virgin hospital, New- 
castle, 152; John Raynes, master 
of, 164 

St. Mary's lane, Newcastle, 175 



2»6 



tNDBX. 



St. Nicholas's church, Newcastle, tax 
for repair of, 174; monaments of 
Michael Hall, 245 ; and of Michael 
Weldon io, 248; churchyard, pro- 
perty in, 161 

St. Patrick, Mr. Bates's proposed life 
of, 181 

St. Wilfrid, Mr. Bates's proposed life 
of, 181 

Salesberye, Richard, of Qateshead, 
cordiner, transfer of rent, 130; 
Isabel Chamber, wife of, 180 

Salisbury, Richard, earl of, recog- 
nizance of, to king, 120 

Salkeld. of Bassington, arms of, 247 ; 
Kalpb, 144; witness to a deed, 
14a big 

Salley, Yorkshire, lauds at, granted 
to Robert Bowes, 188 

Salop, appointment of attorney for 
county of, 207 

Salt, duty on, from Seaton Sluice, 
284; pans, etc., at Hartley, in- 
denture relating to, 234 

Saltonstall, sir Richard, collector of 
petty customs of London, 186; 
Samuel, collector of petty customs 
of London, 186 

Saltwick iu Merley barony, 117w ; 
tenure of vill of, 117 ; granted to 
Robert Ogle, ll7n 

Sal7in, Thomas, grant to, of goods of 
Raphe Rookby, 193 ; demise of 
Ureby rectory, of Marske,etc., to,194 

* Sambuca,* the, 111 

Samekyii. John, witness to a grant, 117 

' Sammesland,' Lowick, grants ot 
lands called, 118 

Sandewon, Charles, of Newcastle, 
gentleman, and Mary, his wife, 
bequests of Charles Matfen to, 164 ; 
Henry, of Newcastle, annuity paid 
to, iu considemtion oi surrender of 
recusants' lands, 188; and his son 
Samuel, office of constable of 
Brancepeth granted to, 190 ; an 
annuity granted to, 190; Mrs. 
Margaret, bequest of Charles Matfen 
to, 164 ; Samuel, son of Henry, 
deceased, warrant for payment of 
debt to, 201 

Sandford, John, of Newcastle, gentle- 
man, and another, premises at Kale 
cross, etc., conveyed to, 151 

Sandgate, Newcastle, grants of house 
in, 137 

Sandilands, Edward, of Newcastle, 1 12 

Saunderson, see Sanderson 

Sautmarays, John, witness to a grant, 
117 



Savile, sir John, knight, appointed 
receiver at Newcastle of voluntary 
coal tax, 196 ; and others, commis- 
sion for treating and compounding 
with recusants in northern counties, 
196 

Savoy, mastership of, void by sur- 
render of Walter Balcanquall, clerk, 
granted to the archbishop of 
Spalata, 196 

Saxon, see Anglian 

Scale armour, discovery of, at Aesica, 
22 

* Scorpion,* the, an engine of war, 76 
Scotland, a company of Northumbrian 

archers levied for invasion of, !*4 ; 
gold mines in. 191 

Scots Mary, queen of, in the earl of 
Shrewsbury's custody, 187 

Scott [Scot], Henry, witness to a 
deed, 117; Jane, widow, premises 
of, outside I'ilg^m street gate, 
Newcastle, 144 ; John (afterwards 
lord Eldon) elopement with Bessie 
Surtees. 163 ; Nicholas, witness to a 
deed, 117 ; Peter, smith, witness to 
a deed poll, 130 

Scroop, Emanuel, loi-d, president of 
the nort h, to take * a survey and view 
of notorious, idle and misbehaved 
persons* in northern counties. 205; 
lord, made earl of Sunderland, in 
the bishopric of Durham, 196 ; 
William, a pardon to Marmaduke 
Tun stall, for manslaughter of, 209 

Scruton. etc., grant of manors of, 
187 

Scurtield, Edward, pardon to, 206 

Seals, the king had foimerly three, 
184 ; great, in custody of lord 
chancellor, 184 

Searchville, James, of Low Friar 
chare, Newcastle, 167 

* Searcher ' at Newcastle, office of, 

217 

Seaton given in exchange to Robert 
Bowes, 188; lands at, 124 

Seaton Oelaval, ^rounds of, 229 ; 
pardon of sir Ralph Dela\ralof, 212 

Seaton Sluice, in manor of Hartley, 229 
et xeq. ; Roger North's description 
of, 23.^ ; sir John Delaval, rei»aired 
pier at, 234 ; duty on salt ut, 234 ; 
annexed to Newcastle, 23H; new 
dock at, 235 ; in Pan Close, 235 and 
» ; harbour opened, 235, first ship, 
235 ; M. Gabriel Jar*s visit to, 235, 
241 ; a pleasure resort, 238 ; steam- 
boat 'Venus,* plied to and fro 
238 ; races at, 238 



INDEX. 



297 



Sedgefield, country meeting at, x 

Seiward, Mary, attests a will, 141 ; 
Nicholas, witnesses a deed, 142 ; 
one of supervisors of George Moody's 
will, 141 

Selby, of Biddleston, arms of. 247 ; 
George, warrant for payment to, 
for his fidelity, 214; of Whitehouse, 
bishopric of Durham, dignity of 
baronet, granted to, 213 ; discharge 
from fees for, 213; Robert, pardon of, 
for theft, 196 ; sir George, and others, 
grant of barony of Langley, 210 ; 
lady Margaret, widow of sir George, 
•the King's Host,' 139, 141; 
William, John Trollop pardoned 
for murder of, 213 ; sir William, 
late gentleman porter of Berwick, 
pension for, 191 

Selvolden, Jane, a native of Antwerp, 
188 

Seminary priests, 189; pardon for 
harbouring, 193 

Sergeant-at-Arms, grant of office of, 
228 ; Edward Umf revile appointed, 
203 

Shadforth, Henry, grant of preipises 
in the Close, Newcastle, 147 bis ; 
William, and another, grant of 
premises in the Close, Newcastle, 
to, 147 

Shaftoe, East, see East Shaftoe 

Shafto, arms of, 262 

Shafto [Shaftowe], paymaster at 
Berwick, 207 ; Henry, counsellor at 
law, bequest of Charles Matfen to, 
156 ; grant of annuity to, 
206 ; Mark, sheriff, mayor and 
M.P. of Newcastle, 129; award by, 
and others, 130 

Shakespeare, William, and others, 
licence to, to play comedies, etc., 
189 

Sharper, Thomas, of Newcastle, 162 

Shaw, Henry, of Newcastle, barber- 
surgeon, 170 

Shelter, Thomas, 142 

Shepherd, Matthew, of Shodfriar 
chare, Newcastle, 166, 167 

Sherborne, Ann, wife of Henry, grant 
of pension to, 195 

Sherbnm hospital, incorporation of, 
188 ; confirmation of all lands, etc., 
to, 194 ; grant in reversion of 
mastership of, 222 

Sbevill, Thomas, of Newcastle, skinner 
and glover, 154 

Shields, sir Henry Vane, owner of 
ground at South pans, 202; licence 
to sir Henry vane for erection 
of a ballast wharf at, 201 ; North, 

VOL. XXIV. 



Shields ^continued. 
New Quay at, made by David 
Stephenson, of Newcastle, 169 ; 
steamboat ' Venus ' went to and 
from Seaton Sluice, 238 ; project for 
docks at Low Lights, 238 

Shipbome, county Kent, grant of 
manor of, 218 

Ship money, 207 

Ships : Alethea, 197 ; Heetor, 197 

Shod Friar chare, Newcastle, premises 
in, 162 

Shotton, Ralph, bequest to, 160 

Shrewsbury, earl, Mary, queen of 
Scots in custody of, 187 

Side, Newcastle, premises in the, 
138, 143 

Sidgate, etc., Newcastle, premises in, 
171 et seq, 

Sidley, Catherine, created baroness of 
Darlington, etc., 219 ; grant of 
pension to, 219 ; sir Charles, 219 

Sigilluw, parvum, the little or petit 
seal, 184 

Signet, bills, 184 ; clerk of the, 
abolished, 184 

' Signettum,' the signet, 184 

Silchester, stances along walls of, 78 

Silver street, Newcastle, formerly 
All Hallowgate, Templegate, and 
Jewgate, 166 

Simpson, Alexander, draper, burgage in 
Pilgrim street, Newcastle, occupied 
by, 141 ; Brian and Thomas, 
patentcy of keeperahip of west 
park, Raby, etc., 191 ; Francis and 
John, officer of jewellers to the kinjr 
granted to, 206 ; sole makers of 
badges of honour, 206 ; George, 
occupied premises at Netherdenc 
bridge, Newcastle, 165 ; grant of 
keeper's place in Teesdale forest, 
216, 220, 222; of Newcastle, 
draper, premises sold to, 138 : 
married Isabel, daughter of 
alderman William Jenuison, 138 ; 
William, son of, and Barbara, 
daughter, 138 ; sheriff of Newcastle, 
139 ; his widow married Niniau 
Girlington, 139 ; George Alexander, 
of Aberdeen, 162 ; Isaac, of Ches- 
wick, Northumberland, son and 
heir of William Simpson, of New- 
castle, conveyed land, etc., in 
Pilgrim street, Newcastle, 141 ; 
Isabel, married Ninian Girlington, 
139 ; alderman John, of Newcastle, 
153 bis; property at corner of 
Denton chare, sold to George 
Anderson, 163, 155 ; John, of Brad- 
ley, Jane Anderson married. 153; 

38 



298 



mDEX. 



SimpBon— continued, 
Thomas, of Widdrington, 127; 
William, of Newcastle, * a citizen 
of renown,' a hostman, 139 ; left 
tuition and government of his son 
Isaac to lady Margaret Selby, 139 ; 
will of, 140 ; desired to be buried in 
St. Nicholas's church, 140 ; bequests 
by, 140 

Skelton, William, attests a deed, 164 

Skinner, William, of Aberdeen, advo- 
cate, and others, parties to a con- 
veyance of the 'Fighting Cocks,' 
etc., Newcastle, 161 

Sling, the, 106 ; lead bullets for, 
discovered at Ardoch, etc., 106 ; 
used at battle of Navarete, etc., 105 

Sly, William, and others, licence to, to 
play comedies, etc., 189 

Small, Robert, of Newcastle, master 
mariner, and Elizabeth, his wife, 
conveyance of tenement on Quayside 
to, 136 ; Thomas, witness to award, 
145 

Smith, Clement, of Hillgate, Gates- 
head, tailor, 166 ; Cuthbei-t, 133 ; 
Dorothy, widow of Gilbert, 171 ; 
George, grant of manor of Nun- 
stainton, etc., to, 194 ; John, tene- 
ments at Kirkleatham granted to, 
126 ; Joseph, 133 ; Lucy, wife of 
master William, of Newcastle, sur- 
geon, bequest to, 160; Ra., witness to 
a grant, 121; Richard, and Elizabeth 
his wife, conveyance of house on 
All Hallows' bank, Newcastle, to, 
168; Thomas, of Newcastle, 16S ; 
William, witness to a deed poll, 136; 
granted two houses in Shod Friar 
chare, Newcastle, 166 ; steward of 
Newcastle Cordwainers company, 
ntin ; uf Nunstainton, attainted. 
187. 194 ; of London, livery lace- 
maker, late of York, surgeon, settle- 
ment on intended marriage of, 165 j 
of Newcastle, draper, house on All 
Hallows' bank, Newcastle, con- 
veyed to, 158 

Snitter, documents relating to, 116 

Snow, John, of Gateshead, mortgage 
of premises in Low Friar chare, 
Newcast'e, to. 167 

Snowball, William, his house on Dog 
bank, Newcastle, 158; of Wells, 
Norfolk, mariner, conveyed burgage 
in Silver street, Newcastle, 157 
Soowdon, R..bert, mariner, of Nether- 
dean bridge, Newcastle, 186 
Soane, John, witness to a grant, 118 
Societies exchanging publications,xxxi 



Sockburn church in 1826, xxx : 
Anglian sculptured stones dis- 
covered at, xiii ; Conyers chapel 
at, restored, xiii 

Somerset, Robert, earl of, grant of 
lordships of Raby, Brancepeth, and 
Barnardcastle, to, 209 ; grant of 
advowson of church of Middleton 
in Teesdale, 209 

Somervill, sir Philip de, agreement 
of, 117 

Sorsbies, the, 150; Barbara Pearetn 
married Jonathan, 161 ; burial of 
Barbara, wife of Jonathan, 152 ; 
Jonathan, son of Jonathan, will and 
codicil of, 161 ; devise by, 151 

SoulHby. Matthew, of Newcastle, rope- 
maker, and another, conveyance of 
house in the Bigg Market to, in 
trust, 162 

South Dissington, see Di8.«ington, 
South 

' South feld,le,' 118 

*Sow,'the, no 

Spwerby, William, of Newcastle, host- 
man, 133 

Spade, an old oak, found in Neville 
street. Newcastle, xvii 

Spain, payment to James Craggs as 
secretary resident and envoy extra- 
ordinary to court of king of, 222, 223 

Spain and Portugal, forces in, 225 

Spalata, archbishop of, appointed to 
mastership of Savoy, 196 

Spanish tiles presented, xvi, xix 

Spearman, John, of Durham, gentle- 
man. 137 ; deputy registrar of 
Durham court of chancery, under- 
sheriff for county Durham, 137« ; 
bequest to, 1 37 ; author of ' Enquiry 
into the ancient and }>i*e8ent state 
of the county palatine,' etc.. 137» ; 
Robert, witness to a will, 137 

Spencer, John, of Newcastle, 161 

Spoor, Christopher, of Newcastle, 
glazier. 133 ; Isabel and Margaret, 
daughters of John, 170 ; John, will 
of, 170 ; devises by, 170 ; and 
Isabel, children of Samuel, party to 
a deed relating to premises in 
Pdstem, Newcastle, 170; John, of 
Newcastle, cordwainer, will of, 168 ; 
Jonathan, of Newcastle, smith, 170 ; 
Margaret, of Postern, Newcastle, 
relict of John, 171; Samuel, of 
Newcastle, yeoman, son of John, 
170 ; house in Postern, conveyed 
to, and by, 171 ; children of, 170 

Spraggan, John, 127 

• Spur,' form of * tortoise * called a, 1 11 



INDEX. 



299 



Stafferton, Francia, a seminary priest, 

Btafford co., commission for treating, 

etc., with recusants in, 196 
Staindrop, a new market and a fair 
at, grant of, 204; church to be made 
into vicarage, 201 ; endowment of, 
by sir H. Vane, to whom adyowson 
granted, 201 ; a mansion house, etc.. 
to be supplied, 201 
Stainton, Great, see Great Stainton 
Stamp duties, death of William 
Ashurst, comptroller-general of, 
226 ; Morgan Vane appointed, 226 
Stamp, Edward, jun., of Alnwick, and 
another, conveyance of * Fighting 
Cocks.* etc., Newcastle, in trust, 161; 
and others, conveyance of * Fighting 
Cocks,' etc., Newcastle, by, 161 
Standish, John, and another, grant of 

rectory of Hart, etc., to, 191 
Stanley, Hennr, and another, grant of 

rectory of Hart, etc., to, 191 
Stannington, country meeting at, z 
Stapleton, lieutenant colonel William, 
appointed governor of Caribee 
islands, 215 
Star Chamber, fines imposed by the, 

191 
States general, grant to Thomas, lord 
Baby, as ambassador extraordinary 
to the, 224 
Steel, Christobel, wife of David, and 
others, devise of house on Dog bank, 
Newcastle, to, 168 ; John, 165 bU 
Stephenson, David, architect of All 
Saints church, Newcastle, etc., 169 ; 
Edward, of Newcastle, ropemaker, 
and Ann, his wife (daughter of 
George Moody), and others, convey 
premises without Klgrim street 
gate, 142 ; Isabel, of Newcastle, 
widow, conveyed house in Postern, 
Newcastle, to son John, and Ann, 
his wife, 170 ; John, 168 ; made 
temporary bridge across Tyne, 169 ; 
David, son of, 169 ; John, of New- 
castle, house carpenter, and Ann, 
his wife, premises in Postern con- 
veyed to, 170; mortgage of same 
by, 171 J Lawrence, of the * Fighting 
Cocks,' Newcastle, 162 
Steward, dean of Westminster, 211; 
Catherine, of Netherdean bridge, 
Newcastle, 166 
Stobbs, Christopher, of Newcastle, 
scrivener, 164 j Peter, witness to a 
deed, 130; Thomas, slater, of New- 
Cflstle, house of, 129 (see also 
Stubbes) 



Stobie, James, witness to a deed, 134 
Stokeld, Mrs. Jane, widow of Mr. 
Gerrard, bequest of Charles Matfen 
to, 155 
Stubbes, John, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, grant of a rent to, 135 ; house 
on Quayside conveyed to, and 
another, 135 (see also Stobbs; 
Stockton, customs and regulations 
sent by the mayor, etc., of New- 
castle to, 168 
Stockton, Thomas, Margaret Cleasby, 
wife of, 188; [Stokton], William, 
and another, chaplains of Morpeth, 
quitclaim of lands in Northumber- 
land to, 118 
Stone : balls, discovered on Sandhill, 
Newcastle, 90 ; weight of, 91 ; 
marks on, 91 ; used as late as 
seventeenth century, 92 ; coffin 
presented, zvi, six ; implements, 
pre-historic, presented, xvi, xix 
Stonehouse, co. Gloucester, death of 
Robert Ratcliffe, vicar of, 222 ; 
John Hilton, M.A., presented to 
vicarage of, 222 
Stout, Lancelot, butcher, of New- 

castle, 177 
Stowell, Edward, and others, appoint- 
ed commissioners to enquire into 
forces in Spain and Portugal, 225 
StraflFord, viscount Wentworth, created 
earl of, 202 ; Thomas, earl of, auto- 
graph of, 121 ; Thomas, lord Raby, 
created earl of, 225 
Strangwayes [Straingways, Strang- 
widge, Strang waies], Christopher, 
witness to a deed, 136, 136, 141 ; 
Guy, and another, house on Quay- 
side conveyed to, to uses, 136 ; and 
others, bill in chancery against, 
136 ; John, attests a will, 141 ; 
of Newcastle, merchant, riggs on 
castle leases occupied by, 141 ; 
alias Openshawe, Robert, witness 
to a grant, ] 31 
Stuart, Edward, witness to a deed, 

134 
Strother, arms of, 246 ; quartered by 

Loraine of Kirkharle, 247 
Subsidy roll of Hexham, 117n 
Sudbury, John, clerk, grant of a pre- 
bend in Westminster to, 211 
Sunderland, in the bishopric of Dur- 
ham, lord Scroop made earl of, 196 ; 
voluntary tax on coals * transported ' 
from, 196 ; tax on coals in port of, 
197 ; William Poore, appointed re- 
ceiver at Sunderland of voluntary 
coal tax, 196 



800 



INDEX. 



Sunderland, Langdale, collector of 
customs, Newcastle, 166 ; premises 
in Newgate street, Newcastle, occu- 
pied by, 163 

Sundial, Anglian, in Darlington 
church, xvi, xiz ; 68 

Surtees, Aubone, occupied garden in 
Newcastle, 166 ; premises in New- 
gate street, Newcastle, occupied by, 
163 ; elopement of bis daughter with 
John Scott, 163 ; resided near White 
Cross and then at Benwell, where 
he died, 163 ; Hauxley, 165 ; [Sur- 
tays], sir Thomas, witness to a grant, 
118 

Sutton, CO. York, lease of rectory, 
chapel and college of, 188 

Swainson, John, and wife, grant of 
premises near Close gate, New- 
castle, by, 149 

Swan, Balf, son and heir of William, 
quitclaim by, of lands in North- 
umberland, 118 ; Richard, and 
another, premises in Close, New- 
castle, belonging to, 147 

Sweden, Denmark and, sir Henry 
Vane, ambassador to, 199 

Swifte, Ann, licence for purchase of 
land from, for Auckland grammar 
school. 191 ; [Swyft] Robert, ward- 
ship of, granted to Francis Wortley, 
186 

Swinburne, of Capheaton, arms of, 
252 ; of Edlingham, 252 ; Dorothy, 
and others, lease by, of premises near 
Close gate, Newcastle, 149 ; George, 
marriage settlement of a tenement 
at the Close gate, Newcastle, 148 ; 
John, and others, pardoned for 
burning John Lilburn's house, 191 ; 
Richard, sherifE of Newcastle, 165 ; 
Samuel, lease of waste ground, etc., 
at the Close gate, Newcastle, 1 48 ; 
will of, by which he devised to wife 
premises near the Close gate, 149 

Swinhoe, arms of, 252; Thomas, par- 
don of Richard Foster for murder 
of, 196 

Sword, Alexander, of Newcastle, 134 
bis 

Syms, Roland, of Newcastle, 157 

Syracuse, engines of war used at siege 
of, 69 

T. 

Talbot, sir Philip, grant of reversion 
of mastership of Sherbum hospital 
to, 222 

Talboys, keeper of the king's bowling 
greens, etc., payment to, 197 



Tankerville, Ford, lord Grey of Wark 

created earl of, 222 
Tannenberg, large cannon used at 

siege of, 91n 
Tapestry from Embleton church, xix 

* Tappestone,' one, on Quayside, New- 
castle, 129 

Taylor [Tailor]. Henry, 142 ; Kather- 
ine, of Newcastle, settlement on 
marriage of, 1 70 ; Martin, premises 
in Low Friar chare, Newcastle, 
conveyed lo and mortgaged by, 167 

Teesdale forest, custody of, given 
to sir Henry Vane, 200; keepers in, 
216 ; grant of keepership in, 222 ; 
Charles, earl of Carlisle, and George 
Simpson, appointed keepers in, 220; 
sir William Bowes, master forester, 
etc., of, 220 ; Christopher Vane ap- 
pointed to same, 220 

Tempest, John, and £dward his son, 
appointed searchers at Newcastle, 
217; John, and others appointed 
lieutenants for Durham county and 
city, 215 ; John and Roland, grant 
of office of collector of customs at 
Hull to, 218 ; sir Nicholas, grant to, 
of a garden without the Close gate, 
Newcastle, 148 ; sir Richard, grant 
of ground without the Close gate, 
Newcastle, 148 ; Rowland and John, 
grant of office of collector of port of 
Hull, 221 ; sir Thomas, knight, 
attorney general in Ireland, 202 

Temple jra.te, Newcastle, 166 

Tentfield, the Antonine Wall at, 79 

* Testudo,' the, 110 
Thetcher, James, and others, lease of 

Nunsteynton hall to, 189 

Thickley, co. Durham, John Lilburn's 
house at, burnt, 191 

Thinn, Michael, house at Nolt market, 
Newcastle, conveyed to use of, 159 

Thirlwall of Thirlwall, arms of, 252 ; 
in Haltwhistle church, 252 

Thomas the clerk, witness to a grant, 
116 ; son of Maior, witness to a 
deed, 117 ; le brewere, witness to a 
I grant, 117 

Thomlinson, Barbara, John Blaxton, 
first husband of, 128; wife of 
William Thomlinson, 129; William, 
and Barbara, his wife, tenement be- 
longing to, 129 (see also Tomlinson) 

Thompson, Charles, witness to a will, 
136 ; Georore, of Newcastle, 147 ; 
chapman, 154; James, 143 ; Richard, 
witness to a will, 136 ; Robert, wit- 
ness to a deed, 130; Thomas, of New- 
castle, scrivener, 132 j vintner, of 



INDEX. 



801 



Thempson — continued, 
Newcastle, 132 ; of Newcastle, 
tailor, 172 ; William, rector of Ald- 
ingham, co. liancaster, death of, 
222 (see also Tompson) 

Thorand, Thomas, witness to a deed, 
117 

Thornhill, Klias, of Sunderland, grant ^ 
of patent for making coal waggon ; 
wheels, with iron ribs or 'tabbs,* ' 
226 I 

Thornton, arms of, 262 ; of Nether- 
witton, 252 

Thornton, John, witness to a deed, 
I3r» ; Roger de, and another, quit- 
claim of land to, 118 ; he obtained ; 
pardon for purchasing without j 
licence, 118n; Koger, founder of j 
Maison Dieu, Newcastle, 152 ; 
William, house in Postern, New- 
castle, belonging to, 170 

* Three Tuns * inn, Newcastle, 162 
Thrislington, in bishopric of Durham, 

grant of lands, etc., in, to Christo- 
pher Fulthorpe, 195 

Thrunton, etc., co. Northumberland, 
grant of lands at, 212 

Thursby, Thomas, and Cuthbert, his 
son, patent for keeping a park called, 
Wolles park, 189 

Tile, inscribed, from Aesica^ 59 

Tillie, sir James, knight, pardon to, 
219 ; Thomas, clerk, presentation of, 
to Aldingham rectory, co. Lancaster, 
222 (see also TuUie) 

Tindale, Adam de, arms of, 254 ; on 
effigy in Hexham church, 254 

Tisun, German, witness to a grant, 
116 ; party to an agreement con- 
cerning Hazon, 116/i 

Todd [Tod], Cristofer, witness to a 
deed, 130 ; Jane, occupied premises 
in Low Friar chare, Newcastle, 166 

* Tolleno,' the, 108 

Tomlinson, W. W., on Beaton Sluice, 

229 (see also Thomlinson) 
TompBon, John, attests a deed, 164 
Topcliffe, lease of herbage and pannage 

of great and little parks at, 186 
Toplinge, John, 127 
Tosson, documents relating to, 115 
Tosson, Humphrey, witness to a grant, 

118 ; John de, son and heir of 

Robert de, grant by, 117 
Trajan column at Rome, 35, 48, 61, 

72,93 
Trant, Patrick, and others, warrant 

for payment to, 216 
Treasure chest, an ancient, presented, 

xvi, xvii 



Treasurer's report and balance sheet 
for 1901, xiii-xvi 

' Tr^buchet,' the, 82, 87 et ttq, 

Trelawney, captain Edward, payment 
to, for Portuguese business, 2i 1 

Trevor, sir Thomas, and another, 
lessees in trust of demesne lands 
of Bamardcastle, 196 

Trewicke, sir Thomas de, arms of, 
254 ; seal of, 254 

« Tribulus,' the, 106 

' TricoUe,* the, another name for 
' bricolle,' 85 

Trinity house, Newcastle, land in 
Broad garth belonging to the, 162 

Tritlington, etc., grant of lands at. 
118 ; etc., lands at, delivered to 
John Ogle, 214 ; commons and 
moors of, 119 

Tr<jllop, John, of Hula, in bishopric 
of Imrham, pardon for murder of 
William Selby, 213 ; John, senr., 
two sons of, slain during civil war, 
213 

Trotter, George, grant of lands, etc., 
at Brancepeth to, 197 ; Lawrence, 
office of palister of east, west and 
middle parks, in bishopric of Dur- 
ham, granted to, 190 ; Robert, 176» ; 
Thomas, witness to a lease, 131 

Tullie, Thomas, D.D., presented to 
Ripon deanery, 218 ; Thomas, B.L., 
presented to rectory of Aldingham, 
CO. Lancaster, *^26 ; granted deanery 
of Carlisle, 220 : Dr. 1 homas, rector 
of Aldingham, co. Lancaster, death 
of, 226 (see also Tillie) 

Tunstall, John, his journey to Hilde- 
bergh to electress, costs of, 195 ; 
servant to the queen, payment to, 
209 ; Marmaduke, a pardon to, for 
manslaughter of William Scroope, 
209 ; Penelope, a, pension to, 209 

Tunstall in bishopric of Durham, 
grant of moiety of manor of, etc., 
to Christopher Fulthorpe, 195 

Tumbull, William, of Newcastle, 161 

Turner, Charles, attests a will, 168; 
John, witness to a release, 131 ; 
purchased lordship of Kirkleatham, 
125 ; Thomas, vicar of Newcastle, 
177 

Turpin, Henry, witness to a deed, 135 ; 
Martin, of Newcastle, notary public, 
130; 135 tei' 

Turrets of the Roman Wall in North- 
umberland, 13 

Tweed, grant from exchequer for 
building new bridge across, at Bej- 
wick, 194 ; bridge finished, 196 



802 



INDFX. 



Twizell) exchange of lands at, 118 

Twizell, Guwen, of Nethcrdean bridge, 
Newcastle, barber-surgeon, 166 ; 
Matthew, of Eachwick, co. North- 
umberland, gentleman, and others, 
premises in Pilgrim street, New- 
castle, etc., given to, in trust, 167 ; 
Samuel, of Newcastle, master 
mariner, owner of premises in 
Netherdean bridge, 166 

Tyndale, sir William de, witness to a 
grant, 117 

Tyne bridge, destroyed by flood in 
1771, 169; temporary bridge made 
by John Stephenson, 169 

Tynemouth, payment for erecting 
fortifications at, 197 

Tynemouth castle, grant of piece of 
land in, to colonel Edward Villiers, 
governor of, '2\{ ; lict-nce to same to 
erect lighthouse at, and charge dues, 
214 

* Tzangara,' a crossbow called a, 99 

U. 

Umframvill, arms of, 264 ; in Bothal 
church, 254 ; of Prudhoe, arms of, 
264 ; sir Robert, arms of, 254 ; 
Gilbert de, arms of, on effigy in 
Hexham church, 264 ; [Umfre- 
ville], Edward, office of sergeant-at- 
arms, granted to, 203 ; Mary, wife 
of Charles, and others, grant to, 227 

•Unicorn* inn, Newcastle, 159, 160, 
161 

Unitarians, church of the, rent pal. I 
to, by Society of Friends, 167 

Upleatham, lands at, 124 ; demise of 
lands in, 194 

Urde. sir William de, witness to a 
grant, 118 

Ureby, demise of parts of manor of, 194 

Urwen, Thomas, of Newcastle, scriv- 
ener, 154 

Usher, John, of Ben well, yeoman, 177 ; 
[Usscher] Roger, grant by, of tene- 
ment in Morpeth, 118 



V. 

Valor Ecolesiasticut^ extract from, 

relating to chantry in Chester-le- 

Street church, 124 
Yals, William de, witness to a grant, 

116 
Van Houthorst, Qerrit, payment to, 

for a picture, 199 



Vane, Charles, and others, grant to, 206; 
Christopher, pardon to, 219 ; grant 
of manors of Shipbome and Fair- 
la wa, CO. Kent, to, 218; Christopher, 
of Fairlawne, co. Kent, pardon to, 
219 ; of Raby castle, created lord 
Barnard, baron of Barnardcastle, 
224 ; grant of advowson, etc., of 
Middleton in Teesdale rectory, 224 ; 
grant of office of master forester of 
Barnardcastle, Teesdale, and Mar- 
wood, 220 ; sir George, and others, 
appointed lieutenants for Durham 
county and city, 215 ; sir George, 
of Rogerley, knight, pardon to, 206; 
sir Henry, knight, and another, 
cofferers of the king's household, 
payment to, for queen's household 
expenses, 196 ; warrant for payment 
to. 198 ; a discharge for moneys to, 
198 ; ambassador to the Low 
Countries, 199; payment to him, 
1 99 ; ambassador to Denmark and 
Sweden, 199; payment to, 199 ; a 
pension to, 199 ; payment as 
ambassador to Holland and Ger- 
many, 200 ; lease of herbage and 
pannage of woods of Chopwell, 200 ; 
grant of custody of Teesdale forest 
and Marwood cbace, 200 ; appointed 
one of his majesty's principal 
secretaries of state, 203 ; grant of 
divers liberties and privileges in 
manors of Raby and Barnardcastle, 
etc., 208 ; a grant to, for endowment 
of Staindrop church, 201 ; to give 
mansion, etc., to church, 201 ; 
owners of ground and pans at 
Shields, 202 ; licence to erect ballast 
wharf at Shields, 201 ; payment to, 
for secret service, 201 ; comptroller 
of his majesty's household, grant of 
tiees, etc., in Brancepeth west park 
and Chopwell woods, 202 ; payment 
to, for king's household, 207 ; for 
secret service, 207 ; granted free 
warren, fair and market at Stain- 
drop, etc., 204 ; Morgan, appointed 
comptroller general of stamp duties, 
226 ; sir Walter, knight, and others, 
grant to, 206 ; warrant for payment 
to, 216; William, grant of advowson, 
etc., of Middleton in Teesdale to. 
226 

Vanef, Jane, hoop petticoat makef, 
grant to, for a new invention, 
227 

Vascy, John, pardon for, for burning 
John Lilburn's house, 191 (see 
also Vescy) 



INDET. 



303 



Vaughan, Robert, and Mary, his wife, 
and another, conveyed premises in 
Bigg market, Newcastle, 160 ; 
Shaftoe, bouse in Bigg market, con- 
veyed to, 160 

Vans, sir John de, knight, witness to a 
deed, 117 ; Robert de, and Joan, his 
wife, grant to, 117 

Vaux, Richard, of Newcastle, 165 

* Vennel called Denton chare,* 154 

• Venus,* steamer, plied to and from 

Seaton Sluice, 238 

Vesey, baron of Alnwick, arms of, 255 ; 
William de. sou and heir of Eustace 
de, arms of, 255 ; arms on seal of, 
255 (see also Vascy) 

Victoria, queen, portrait of, xviii 

Villieis, Kdward, and others, appointed 
lieutenants for county and city of 
Durham, 216 ; colonel Edward, 
governor of Tynemouth castle, grant 
of piece of ground at Tynemouth, 
214 ; licence to, to erect lighthouse 
at Tynemouth, and charge dues on 
all ships, 214 

Vindolaiui excavated by rev. Anthony 
Hedley, 20; antiquities from, at 
Chesters, 20 

Vint, Mark, of Newcastle, 162 

W. 

Wace, Henry, of Newcastle, yeoman, 
premises in Pilgrim street belonging 
to, 141 

Wa'^y, Richard, witness to a deed, 117 

Waggon wheels, coal, patent for iron 
ribs or * tabbs * to, 226 

Waiteland, Robert, witness to a grant, 
118 

Wake, John, of Ben well, yeoman, 177 

Wales, Sampson Eure, attorney for 
principality and marches of, 196 ; 
sir Richard Lloyd, knight, attorney 
for, 212 ; North and South, appoint- 
ment of attorney for, 207 

Wales, Thomas, of Newcastle, ship- 
wright, and another, premises in 
Denton chare conveyed to, 154 

Walker, arms of, 2*7; Anthony, of 
Newcastle, 132 ; Barnard, of New- 
castle, waterman, conveyance to 
and by, of premises in Low Friar 
street, 164 ; Benjamin, 134 ; 
Emanuel, of Westminster, took over 
lease of premises in Newcastle, 177 ; 
Hannah, 134 ; James, 144 ; Jane, 
184 ; John, 134 : John, clerk, and 
others, grant of manor of Cavvsey 
park to, 119; John, jun., premises 



Walker — continued, 

in Northumberland street, 145 ; 
Richard, of Newcastle, 132; 
attests a deed, 164 ; Thomas, 134 

Wall, Dorcas, and others, grant of 
premises near the Close gate to, 
147; Henry, tei ement without 
Pilgrim street gate, Newcastle, 142 ; 
Richard, and otheis, assignment of 
premises near Closegate, Newcastle, 
to, 147; Robert, of Sutton in 
Galtres, granted messuage, etc., in 
Kirkleatham, 125 

Walles, arms of, 247 

Walls, Robert, ot Kedcar, grant of 
messuage to, in Kirkleatham, 125 

WalUngford, viscount, master of 
court of wards and liveries, 121 

Walpole St. Peter's, co. Norfolk, 
removal of William Jackson, in- 
cumbent of, 214; presentation of 
.lohn Cradock, M.A., to rectory, 214 

Walter, son of Gilbert, witness to a 
grant, 116 

Walthman, John, 132 

Walton, CO. York, lands at, granted to 
Robert Bowes, 188 

Walton, Michael, 134 ; Nicholas, of 
Newcastle, gentleman, 156 

Walworth, gift of a tenement in, 187 ; 
demise of portion of manor of, 193 

War, engines of, notes on, 69 

Ward, Edward, of Pilgrim street, 
Newcastle, 166 ; George, lessee of 
herbage and pannage of Chopwell 
woods, 200 ; Henry. 165 ; attests a 
will, 165 ; John, 231 ; witness to a 
deed, 142 ; lease of site of manor of 
Chopwell, etc., to, 187 ; [Warde] 
Joanne, commission concerning 
' pretended will ' of, 188 

Wark castle, a bow used by hereditary 
bowmen of, 97 ; description of, 97 

* Warkworth.* tiist ship out of Seaton 

Sluice, 234 
Warren, William, of Newcastle, 132 
Warton, exchange of lands in, 119 
Warwick, Sarah, bequest of Barbara 

Gee to, 168 

* Warwolf, the, 107 

Wasse, Thomas, 164 : of Newcastle, 
esquire, premises belonging to, 148 

Waters, Cuthbert, fisherman, l.equest 
to, 160 

Watkin, Joseph, attests a deed, 166 

Watson, George, sliipwright, and 
another, premises in Den tun chare, 
Newcastle, conveyed to, 164; 
Isabel, of Newcastle, devise to, 168 ; 
John, grant to and by, of ground 



804 



INDEX. 



Watson — continued, 
without the Close gate, Newcastle, 
148; Mary, attests a will, 144; 
Thomas, of' Newcastle, 161 ; notary 
public, 135 ; Thomas, of Newcastle, 
master and mariner, conveyance of 
premises in Sidgate, Newcastle, to, 
172 ; will of, giving same to wife, 
Hannah, and another, 172 ; 
William, witness to a deed, 130 

Watt, James, his visit to Hartley, 236 

Waugh, Mary, attests a deed. 164 

Weare, Thomas, of Newcastle, keel- 
man, tenemeDt of, in Sandgate, 137 

Weatsled, arms of, 247 

Weavers' company, Newcastle, 
Edward Chicken, clerk to the, 163 

Webster, Robert, of Newcastle, tailor, 
attests a deed, 140 

Weetwood, arms of, 252 

Welbury, Anthony, pardon of, 186 

Weldon, arms of, 247 ; Michael, arms 
cf, on monument in St. Nicholas's 
church, Newcastle, 247 j [Welden] 
William, and others, bill of Thomas, 
duke of Norfolk, against, 120 

Welford, Richard, and Royalist com- 
position pai)ers, xii ; on ' Local 
Muniments,' 128 et seq. 

Welton of Wei ton, arms of, 247, 252 

Wenlock wateJ", in Scotland, payment 
for working minerals in, 190 

Wentworth, of Wentworth, created 
viscount, 225 ; lord deputy for Ire- 
land, created baron of Raby, and 
earl of Strafford, 202 

Wentworth, Peter, title of earl of 
Strafford, etc., to descend to, in de- 
fault of heirs of Thomas, lord Raby, 
225 ; Thomas, viscount, afterwards 
earl of StrafEord, autograph of, 121 

Wermowthe, John, of Morpathe, 127 

Wesley an chapel, Newcastle, 138 

West Brunton, see Brunton, West 

Westburen, given to Robert Bowes, 
188 

Westhall, given in exchange to Robert 
Bowes, 188 

Westminster, Dr. Steward, dean, 211 ; 
John Sudbury, prebendary, 211 

Westmorland, Charles, earl of at- 
tainted, 190 ; payment to daughters 
of, 190 ; pensions for daughters and 
one of sisters of late, 191 ; Edmond 
Nevill, earl of, warrant for payment 
to, 189 ; countess, and her daughters, 
warrant for payment to, 208 

Westmorland county, commission for 
treating with recusants in, 196 ; 
notorious persons in, 205 



West Murton, given to Robert Bowea, 
188 

Weston, sir Thomas, knight, 117 

Whalton, country meeting at. x 

Wetherell, Eleanor and Margaret, 
executors of John Hare, 160; 
daughters of Richard and Judith, 
of city of Durham, gentleman, be- 
quests to, 160 

Wharton, Angelica Magdaleine. wife 
of Philip, an alien, 216 ; George, 
newly created office of treasurer of 
ordnance granted to, 216 ; Hum- 
frey, and another, grant of manor 
or lordship of Killerby to, 210 ; 
Thomas, office of receiver of North- 
umberland, Durham, and Richmond, 
granted to, 197 ; sir Thomas, ap- 
pointed on a commission, 206 

Wheatley, Anthony, of Newcastle, 
cordiner, 168, 170; executor of, 
John Spoor, 168 ; uncle of John 
Brand, 168 ; member and warden of 
Cordwainers company, 169 ; tablet 
in hall to memory of, 169 

Wheatman. Mary, of the * Fighting 
Cocks,' Newcastle, 161 

Wheler, Braems, of Durham, gentle- 
man, 177; [Wheeler], sir Charles, 
baronet, governor of the Caribee 
islands, 216 : [Wheelar] John, wit- 
ness to a deed poll, 135 

Whickham, given to Robert Bowes, 
188 ; quitclaim of lands near, 118 

* Whinny Closes,' near the Castle 
Leazes, Newcastle, 154 

White, Thomas, of the Postern, New- 
castle, 170 

White Cross, Newcastle, 159, 162 

Whitefield, country meeting at, x 

White Friar.-*, Newcastle, the, 153 

Whitehead, widow of, Newcastle, 143 
*/>, 144 ; Mary, attests a lease, 175; 
William, 142 ; witness to a deed, 132 

' White glasshouse,' assignment of the. 
149 

Whitehouse, co. Durham, grant for 
park and free warren at, 215 

Whitfield, arms of, 253 ; Barbary, of 
Newcastle, widow, 135; George, 
slaughter of, 193 

Whitton, George, of London, and 
others, grant of lands in Kirlt- 
leatham by, 125 

Whitworth, co. Durham, lease of site 
of manor of, 186 

Widdrington, Usbert, clerk of, 116; 
William, priest of, 116 

Widdrington, Geoffrey de, witness to 
grants, 116 ; grant by, of land in 



nmwx. 



805 



Widdrington — continued. 
BarradoD, 116 ; John, 173 ; attests 
a deed, 165 ; sir John de, wit- 
ness to a grant, 116; Ralph, son 
of Qeoftrey de, witness to a grant, 
116 ; Roger, 126, 127; son of Geoffrey 
de, witness to a grant, 116; William, 
lord, and others, appointed lieu- 
tenants of county and city of Dur- 
ham, 215 
Wight, Henry, son and heir of 
Gabriel, of Brockham, Surrey, grant 
of wardship, etc., of, 214; Mary, 
of Brockham, Surrey, grant of 
wardship, etc., of Henry Wight, 
121 
Wightman, Ralph, of Newcastle, 154 
Wilde, widow, of Newcastle, 154 
Wilks, William, attests a deed, 165 
Wilkinson. John, of Newcastle, gentle- 
man, 177 ; Robert, witness to a 
deed, 135; Thomas, witness to a 
deed, 131 ; Tristram, tanner, of 
Newcastle, 177 
William, the Scot, witness to a grant, 
116 ; priest of Widdrington, witness 
to a grant, 116 ; clerk of Bttieldnne, 
116 
Williams, arms of, 247 ; Charles, 244 ; 
of Newcastle, ironfounder, son of 
John of Latch-moat, Sta&., pur- 
chased Eillingworth house ^tate, 
married Margery, widow of Onesi- 
phorus Dagnia, 244fi; copy of 
' Craster Tables,' etc., by, 243 
Williamson, Barbara, and others, 
mortgage of house on Quayside by, 
136 ter; probate of will of, 137; 
bequests to daughters, etc., 137 ; 
Bdward, of Newcastle, gentleman, 
and Barbary, his wife (widow of 
QeoTge Durham), release to, of pre- 
mises on Quayside, 136 ; Ralph, 
grant of office of controller of cus- 
toms at Newcastle, 218 ; Robert 
Hopper, 144 ; sir Thomas, baronet, 
sheriff of Nottingham co., 207 ; dis- 
charge of, of remainder of ship 
money, 207 
Wilson, Mrs. Elizabeth, of Newcastle, 
177 ; Gilbert, 231 ; Isaac, of New- 
castle, brewer, property of, outside 
Pilgrim street gate, 143 ; John, of 
Newcastle, miller, 1 43 ; premises of, 
without Pilgrim street gate, 144 ; 
Matthew, of Blyth, 144; bequest to, 
145 ; grant of premises in Northum- 
berland street by , 1 45 ; Matthew and 
William, and Matthew, the younger 
bequests to, 144 ; Peter, of New. 



WHson-'Continued. 
castle, notary public, 162 ; Richard, 
of Newcastle, smith, 135 ; Richard, 
of Newcastle, scrivener, 186; 
Robert, attests a will, 165 ; Roger, 
witness to a grant, 121; Thomas, 
144; Thomas, of Sandgate, New- 
castle, and others, grant of premises 
in Northumberland street by, 145 ; 
Thomas, of South Shields, and 
others, grant of premises in North- 
umberland street, Newcastle, 145 

Wind, John, of Pilgrim street, New- 
castle, innkeeper, 166 

Window tax, the, 171 

Windsor, forest, office of keeper of 
Battle's walk in, 198 ; herald, ap- 
pointment of, 224 

Wingate grange, co. Durham, lease 
of, 208 

Winn, Richard, collector of customs 
at Newcastle, 211 

* Withernam,' 204 

Wolles park, near Bamardcastle, 
patent for keeping, 189 

Wolsingham, co. Durham, void by 
resignation of Grey, bishop of 
Bristol, formerly rector of, 214; 
presentation of John Aiesley, to 
rectoiy of, 214 

Wood, Mr., of Newcastle, publican, 
134 

Woodham, demise of lands in, 193 

Woodhom, Richard, clerk of, 116 

Woodhouse, etc., county York, lease 
of lands at, 187 

Woodhouse, capt. Matthew, of New- 
castle, 134 ; Hannah, daughter of, 
married David Akenhead, 134 

Woodlands, etc., county Durham, 
lease of lands at, 187 

Wodeman, Alan, grant of land in 
Newcastle to, 116 

Woodridge, petition of masters and 
owners of ships of, 202 

Woodroff, Henry, of Newcastle, 
barber, 165 

Wool market, Newcastle, 159 

Woolwich, Charles Hutton, appointed 
professor of mathematics at, 153 

Worcester, appointment of attorney 
for county of, 207 

Worthington, John, a pardon to, for 

killing George Brokenbury, 189 
Wortley, Francis, wardship of Robert 
Swyft, granted to, 186 ; sir Francis, 
appointed steward of Bamsloy and 
Dodworth, county York, 207 
Wouldhave, Thomas, witness to a 
deed, 136 

39 



306 



INDEX. 



Wren, sir Christopher, used battering 
ram to demolish old St: Paurs, 
109 ; Francis, of Henknowle, free 
pardon to, 206 ; Matthew, D.D., 
presented to rectory of Bingham, 
207 ; Thomas, M.A., appointed 
master of free school of Berkham- 
stead, 219 ; presented to Kellyshall 
rectory, county Hertford, 224 

Wrey, William, and Elizabeth, his 
wife, conveyed a burgage in the 
Bigg market, I^ewcastle, 159 

Wright, John, attests a will, 141 ; 
Martin, wardship of Richard Butler, 
granted to, 186 

Wroe, Mr., legacy to, by Barbara 
Gee, 168 

Wydeslad, (JeofErey de, witness to a 
deed, 116; William, witness to 
deeds, 116 bis 

Wyvill, Christopher, clerk, presented 
to deanery of Ripon, 221 



Yarmouth, petition of masters and 
owners of ships of, 202 



Yearby, land, etc," belonging to 
B.V.M. chautryjin Cheater -Ic-street 
church. 135 

Yew, bows mfule]of^ 95 

Yielder, Robt^rtj of Newca^^tle, tiLouer. 
177 ; Williamj of Newcastle, tanner, 
owned house in Shod Friar cbarc, 
Newcastle, 166 

York, cathcdi-al church, James Fionejj 
clerk, appoiQted to prebend in, 
vice Dr. Edmund Diggle, decease^l^ 
219 ; caatiCj iuquisition taken at, 
120 

York, birth of duke of, 200 

Yorkshire, commission for treating 
with recusiants id, 196 ; receiver ofj 
warrant tu, for f myment to sir Robert 
Bowes, 208 ; grant of rector ieii, etc, 
in, 191 

Young [Yong], Richard, collector of 
petty customs of London, IBS ; 
Thomas, of Newcastle, bricklayer, 
177 ; Thomas, clerk, letter of deniza- 
tion to, 198 

Younger, Jamee^ witness to a deed* 
142 ; Mar^^aret, of Bishop Auckland, 
widow, 134 



END OF VOLOME XXIV. 



i 



"ART «8. 



i- 



I ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA: 

RELATING TO ANTIQUITIES. 

PUBLISESD BY TSB 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUABIES OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 
TOLUME XXIY. 

PART i. 




LONDON AND NEWCASTLK-UPON-TTKE: 
Loituuir OrricB: 11, U lis at It. ]Ji«lieh8, mo, 



IpubUcations of the Society of Slntiauancs 



NEWCABTLB UPON 1 YNE, 

kofiT OP TTIllCir AEK to BE HAD AT THE CASl'Lfi, ?fEWCASTi.L-l rui**ii»fi. 



ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA^ or, MiscellaneouE Tracts rels 
Antiquitj. 4 Vob., 4to* Vols, L jmrt ii. 15s. j III. i, 1 
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OUIDE TO THE OASTLE OF NEWCASTLE. By the late 1)b 

Brucb, (Out o/prmf.) 
NEW GUIDE TO THE CASTLE AND BLAOKGATE, {3rd 

Edition). 6d, eticb. 
OICHARDSON'J^ MEZZOTINT OF ST. NICHOLAS'S CHUBOIL 
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All commutii cations far the Treasurer {K. H. NiSBgiT) to be addt^iscd 

t^ 8 U»OVS STEKlfiTf KEWCASTLG-UPOM-TYNg. 



CONTENTS OF PART 58. 



VOLUME XXIY, PABT ii. 



Title E^age 
Contents 
List of riatea 



V. 

vL 



OtWr KlustTstious ,., p. f Jl 
Contributions of PUteSj kc, viii 



Vlli— Obituary Notice of Cadwallader Jolin Bates, M,A., a 
Vice-President Qt the Society, 
By Thomas HoDQKiK; D.C.L., F.S^., V.P. 178 

IX —Extracts from the Privy Seal Dockets relating priocipaiiy 
to the North of Eagiaad. 
By F. W. Dbndy, V.i\ .,. 181 



X." Seatoa Sluice. 

Bt w* VV, Tomlinson. 



S29 



XI,— Notes OE a Northumbrian Roll of Arms known ai * The 
€r aster Tables.' 
By J. a HoDQsoWt^^'S^.,.. .,* ... 2U 



Inde^i 



257 



PLATES. 

Portmit of Mr. C. J. Bates, 

The North Harbour Gates, 9eat;on Sluice, 1876* 

Seaton Sluice, 1880. 



JP 



i 



1 




3 2044 041 967 357 



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