(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



I;;. 11^ 



I 





303277364Z 



SACKLER LIBRARY 
1 , ST JOHN STREET 
OXFORD 
OX1 2LG 

This book is due for return on or before the last date shown below. 



1^ JUL 7-006 



ARCH^OLOGIA ^LIANA: 

UB, 

ininellaRtPuit ttactti 

RELATING TO ANTIQUITY. 

PCBUSHED BY TUB 

SOCIETY or AHTIQUABIE8 OF NEWCASTLE-TJPON-TTHE. 

HEW SEBIES. 

VOLUME IV.' 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 
EMERBON CHABNLET, 6, BIOQ HABXEI, 

PalNTBD BI 1. a. FOBStEB, CUTTOS STKIBT. 



CONTENTS. 



The Ghuack at Guyzanob. By Christopheb Setmoub Bbll, Esa. 1 

Thb Battle of Hexham. From the Tear Book of 4 Edw. IV. Coiamiinicated 

hj Jasfeb Gibson, Esa. ' . . 6 

The Fibst Ministsb'b Account of Hexham Pbiobt. From Jaspeb Gibson, 

Esq. 8 

The Hbbeditaby Sacekdotaoe of Hexham. By the Editob 1 L 

Fkoceedings of the Society 29, 140, 145, 249 

Two Papebs concebning Biohmond. From Mb. M. Aislabie Dbnham. . 41 

Letteb fbom Abchbishof Pabkeb as to Bishop Ttjnstall'b Bubial. From 

the State Papers 44 

The New Castle ufon Tyne (with Illustrations.) By the Editob 45 

The Old Hebaldby of the Peboys (with namerous Hlustrations.) By the 

Editob 157 

Public Amusements in Newcastle. By John Hodgson Hinde, Esq. 229 



ARCH^OLOGIA iELIANA. 



THE CHURCH AT GTJYZANCE. 

Tns following notes, chiefly from local information, eBpecially the ex*- 
tract given from the Survey of the Percy estates in 1567 by Thomas 
Clarkson, may be found useM as an appendage to the account of 
Guyzance, and its lords, the Tysons and the Hiitons, printed in the 
AreluBclogia u^liana, vol. iii., p. 129. 

C^arkson's descriptions of the church and its possessions is both 
graphic and minute ; and it is to be remarked that in bis account, 
written only thirty years after the suppression of the monastery at 
Alnwick, and consequent secularisation of ita estates, it is expressly 
stated that the chapel of Brainshaugh was the parish church of 
of GnyEanoe. 

By permission of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, the follow^ 
ing extract from this valuable survey is given :-*- 

Srainsha/wghe cum suis perlinennis. 

To the westard of the town of Guysnes is scituate one chapell with 
eertaine other good buyldyngs unto the said chapell apperteining called 

Braynshawgh which chapell was foundit by then lord of ShUbottell 

Guisans and ot^er townes which afterwaide was the inheritance of the 
Baron Hilton by marriadge of the dowght^ and soylle heire of the for- 
said ' ■■ lord tiien of SMlbottell and other the premisses. It was first 
a nonrye' and after ohanones at the last browght to the master and his 
felowe who then was accomptant to the monasterye of Alnewyke of all 
the yssues and profits which yerely did enorease above the fyndynge of 

the sayd master and felowe and th^r famylle. then lord of Aclyng- 

ton did graunt that parcell of grounde wherein the scite of the sayd chapdl 
and other buyldynge standith to the abbott and convent of the said lait 
dissolved monasterye of Alnewyk for the same was parcell of Aclyng- 
ton in the old ynglish tonge called Brainshawghe : all the other land 

^ <* Prioriflsa de Oyesnes hahet 3/. 14«. W^-^Fope NiehoMa Taxation. 1292. 

WSW 8EBIB8, VOL. IT. B 



2 THE CHURCH AT GUYZANCE. 

meadowes and pasiures therunto adjoyning was gevyn by the said 

lard of Shilbotle to the mayntenance of the said religious persones 

in puram elemosinam as by the register book of the same at length is 
declared with all other parcells of lande apperteyning to the said howse 
of Brainshawghe lyin without this bounder folowyng and in other places 
as heirafter shal be described. 

Begyning at the water of Coquet at the southeast comer of the dicke 
of Midlewood one the north syde of Acklington Parke at the head of the 
Marche hagge which ys a parcell of grounde laitly pertaining to the 
town of Acton and gevyn by the lord of Acton to the howse of Brains- 
hawghe in maner and form aforesaid from thence a dicke called Brains- 
hawghe dicke inyyroneth all the ground as well arable pasture as 
meadow therunto adjoining and belonging saving such certaine parcell 
of grounde as heirafter shidl be mentioned unto ti^e water of Coquet. 

It is scituate upon the water Coquet nighe Aclyngton parke with two 
gardyngs besyd the churchyard : the kirk is leadit : ther is two closes 
adjoyning unto the said gardyngs called the Lee Closes conteyning ■■ 
acres of grounde over and besyd thre certayne parcell of arable ground 
containing — acres which are all ditched with one quickwood dicke 
with another parcell of pasture grounde joyning upon Ousnes loyning 
called Morelee which containeth — acres wherein standith a ■■ 
mylne in good reparations called Brainshawghe milne. 

Th^ is a close which is parcell of Haisand and adjoyning to the said 
ground called the ChatheuLee Closse and also it perteineth to Braines- 

hawghe it conteynith acres and ther is also within the bounder 

of Brainshawghe and parcel of the same contening acres called 

Shell Close it is a pasture ground well dicked with a quickwood hedge 
and ther is one cottaidge lyinge in Whittell which is rented at 
vi*. viij^. p. annum and one cottaige in Haisand p. annum iiij". a nother 
cottaidge in Bredderwyk p. annum viij". all which are also parcell of 
Brainshawghe over and besyds one close in Haysand field called the 
!Nunne Close p. annum ij". as also the tenement and toft with ther ap- 
purtenance in Ouysance p. annum — — - as heirafter in the title of the 
towne of Guysance more at large it doith appeare.' 

The inhabitants of the towne of Guysnes and Bamhill do pay all their 
teithes to Brayneshawghe the teithe come of Guysans onely excepted 

which is of the yerely value of : they ought to go to no other 

church then to the ohapell of Brainshawghe for it is the parice churche 
in the which owght to be devyn service of God mynistered thre days in 
the weeke : ikej owght onely te crystine and baptisme the children at 
Shilbotle only and now the said inhabitants have no service at the said 
ohapell of Brayneshawghe but at Easter onely so that in lait dayes as 
well as in the ancient tyme ther was the master and his felowe with 
others that used to do solemne service as is before recited nowe is ther 

* Accordindy, under the heacT of " Guysnei. — John Foster, knight, free-tenant/' 

we find that Henry Heron in right of Hie Queen, holds free, as parcel of the land of 

Brainshawghe, by rents payable to the Lord, 1. Nine acres of arable land, one rood of 

-meadow and one acre of pasture ; 2. A cottage there with three acres of arable land, 

one rood of meadow and acres ofpasture ; 3. Another cottage with two selions 

of land now in the tenure of Gilderd Wilson. 



THE CHUKCH AT GUYZANCB. 9 

not one preaat either to singe or saye any thing which wold be by my 
Lord's helpe be amendit. 

Sir John Foster haith the said chapell of Brayneshawghe with all the 
spiritualities thereunto belonging as also the temporalityes of the 
Queene's Majesty by lease. 

From this and collateral evidence it appears that Sir John Forster, 
the celebrated Warden of the Marches, had become possessed, by grant 
from the Crown, of Alnwick Abbey and its dependencies, including the 
chapel of Brainshaugh. He liyed at Alnwick Abbey while holding the 
office of Lord Warden, and, from the above, was in possession of the 
church lands at Guyzance about 1567. His heirs sold the whole to Sir 
'Francis Brandling, Knight, whose son, Mr. Kobort Brandling,' is by 
May son stated to be proprietor about 1618.^ 

Alnwick Abbey and the surrounding lands were sold by Robert 
Brandling and Ealph Brandling, grandsons of the above, to Mr. John 
Doubleday, but the Guyzance chapel lemds cannot be clearly traced. In 
1661 the heirs of Sir Francis Brandling, Ent., were fined for not ap« 
pearing at the Court Baron of Alnwick, to do suit and service for lands 
at Guyzance. In 1699, the property is mentioned as in the hands of 
the Widdringtons of Hauxley, who sold the Guyzance estate to the 
ancestor of Mr. Tate of Bankhouse, but the gardens, &c., around the 
chapel seem to have lapsed to the adjoining estate. 

The chapel ruins, from the best information now to be obtained, have 
lain in the present delapidated state, without material change, for the 
last sixty years. Previous to that period, from the division of the 
tithes among several lay impropriators, the ownership of the grave- 
yard and site of the ruin were undefined, and consequently the 
materials lay at the mercy of those around ; great quantities of stone 
were then taken away for buildings at Brainshaugh, &c. It is said, I 
know not whether correctly or no, that the terrace in front of the haU 
was flagged with gravestones therefrom. 

Henry Trobe, aged seventy-six, who was born at Guyzance Mill, 
which his father tenanted before him, never saw or heard of any change 
in the ruin, save as to the outer fence; this was a broken-down wall, 

' Bobert Brandling of White House, in the parish of Ahiwick, buried March 10th, 
1664-5, was son of Sir Francis Brandling, Knight, of Alnwick Abbey, 1623-25, who 
died in 1641. — Surtees* Durham^ vol. ii. p. 90. 

^ In this Survey the following properties are described as belonging to '^ Mr. Robert 
Branlyne — sometime Sir John Forster's freehold" : — 1. A cottage and crofts in the 
occupation of Robert Gibson, 2a. 3r. 6jj?. ; 2. A messuage house, garth, and crofts, 
in the occupation of Robert Gibson, la. \r, 30ji?. ; 3. A cottage and a garth in the 
occupation of John Horsley, Z2^p. 



4 tHE CHITRCH AT GITYZANCE. 

perlmps as old as the churohi bo delapidated that tho cattle from the 
Burrounding pasture could graze over the grave-yaixl. The present 
enclosure wall was built by the late John Tate, Esq., of Bankhouse, 
after he had acquired the sole property in the area. 

At the Tithe Commutation in 1837, the district was treated as the 
*^ Extra-parochial chapelry of Brainshaugh/' haying been so considered, 
as shewn by county records, more than two hundred years. Thomas 
Tate, Esq., is now sole tithe-owner, and proprietor of the freehold of 
the ruin and grave-yard, his late father having gradually bought up the 
divided shares from Mr. Bacon of Hazon, and others. 

The late Mr. Tate remembered service being performed frequently 
under the shade of a large thorn tree outside of the ruin. When the* 
old hall at Gloster Hill was burnt down, on Sunday momiug, 7th Janu- 
ary, 1759, his parents were at the service, and had to be sent for on 
account of the fire. I cannot learn from whence came the officiating 
minister, or how he was recompenced for his toil. Mr. Trobe on one 
occasion, about fifty years ago, attended within the ruin ' a preaching * 
by the Bev. Mr. Beverstock, who had married the widow of Cook of 
Brainshaugh; but this was probably nothing more than the casual 
volunteer of a clergyman resident in the neighbourhood. 

The burial ground is open for any inhabitant of Brainshaugh or 
Guyzance. A register of burials was commenced by the late Mr. Tate ; 
but it is said interments have been variously registered at Edlingham, 
Shilbottle, Felton, and Warkworth, as suited the convenience of the 
clergyman. Mr. Tate's family burial place is within the chancel, and 
I am told that in excavating the grave of the late Mr. John Tate, at a 
depth of about eight feet, some fragments of stained glass, and a small 
implement like a pair of scissors or snuffers, were thrown out. Un- 
fortunately these were appropriated by a neighbouring farmer, and lost 
sight of ,* so that it cannot be ascertained whether the relics were of 
any value, historical or intrinsic. The Yicar of Shilbottle has generally 
been called on to read the burial service, but most likely from no bet- 
ter reason, than his being the nearest resident clergyman, and willing 
to oblige the friends. 

The popular tradition, so frequently appertaining to the like ruins, 
exists in the neighbourhood, that the Priory of Brainshaugh was an 
appendage to Brinkbum, and that a subterranean passage existed be- 
tween the two places. All this is of course mere fable, the chapel un- 
doubtedly belonging to Alnwick, but it is curious as shewing that these 
grandsire tales, however confused, had their origin in actual circum- 
stances^ to note that Brinkburn had possessions in Guyzance and at 



THE CHUECH AT GUYZANCE. ^ 

Barnhill/ Kay not the subterranean passage have been originally a 
secret footpath through the dense wood which on one occasion nearlif 
preserved Brinkbum from a Border foray, and in early times fiUed the 
Yale of the Coquet ? 

The existing walls of the ruin are faced with dressed stones, ' blocked 
in course/ but very irregular ; the core of the walls being filled with 
round stones from the river, &c., and coarse lime ; they are about thirty 
inches thick. In the nave, about half height, there are holes as if at 
one time there had been beams let in to carry the floor of an upper 
chamber. The piscina, which is of two basins, has the arch of its 
recess formed of one large stone, quite out of proportion to the 
' blockers' of varied size and thickness around. 

The church of Guysance, as a member of Alnwick Abbey, had right 
of pasture in Edlingham moor. We find that John the son of John the 
son of Waldeve of Edlingham, granted to the Abbot and Convent of St. 
Mary's, at Alnwick, free and sufficient common in his whole moor and 
pasture of Edlingham for all their horses tame and wild, and for all 
their cattle as well of their house of Alnwick as of the house of Gysnes. 
This John was living in 1241, which gives an approximate date to the 
grant. It was confirmed by Edward I. in 1307, as appears in Tanner's 
Noiitia Monaatica, quoted by both Hutchinson and Mackenzie in their 
county histories. 

in all probability, Shilbottle, Hazon, and Guyzance being from the 
earliest records connected as one fee under the barony of Alnwick, the 
latter vill had been originally part of the parish of Shilbottle, separated 
therefrom, in the lapse of time, by the distance of the parish church and 
the convenience of Brainshaugh chapel, both of which pertained to the 
A-bbey of Alnwick. When the sustentation of the * master of Brains- 
haugh and his felowe ' was withdrawn, the district would be left nomi- 
nally as the parish of Brainshaugh, but practically as extra-parochial. 

But whence came the minister who held service * pretty regular ' 

under the thorn tree a hundred years ago ? If I am correctly informed 

that the early modem interments were registered at Edlingham, is there 

not some room for surmise whether any ' pastoral ' connection in lieu of 

the right of pakturage arose between the two places, and whether the 

duties having been performed by the clergyman from Edlingham, he t 

entered the services done in his own parish register ? '\ 

C S. B. J 

' Clarkson's Survey of 1567 states that George Carre, son of "WiUiam Cvre of f 

Whitton, holds ireely at Guyzance two messuages and 20 acres of arable land, 2 acres 
of meadow, and 6 acres of pasture, late pertaining to the monastery of Brenkeboume, i 

by suit of court and a fi^e rent to the lord : also that the heirs of Edward Bednell J 

hold there freely a tenement called Bamhill, and certain lands adjoining formerly the t 

possessions of the same monastery, by fealty, suit, and rent. 



6 



THE BATTLE OF HEXHAM. 

Tear Book, 4 Edward IY., p. 18.* 

Ewter Term? [1464]. 

About the Feast of Pentecost next before tbe term of Holy Trinity, 
the King Henry the Sixth was in the county of Northumberland, in the 
castle of Anwick, and with him the Duke of Somerset, and the Lords 
De Bos, liolins, Hungerford, the Queen, with the Prince Edward their 
son, and others, lords of Eraunce, Sir Pors de Brace, and with him many 
lords and knights of Eraunce, sent by the King of Eraunce to aid the 
King Henry and his lords ; and then were taken all the Lords of Eraunce, 
except the aforesaid Pers 4 Holy Land, by Robert the Lord of Ogiell and 
others, knights and esquires of the county of Northumberland ; and they 
paid their fines for ransom. And then after came into the same county 
the Lord of Mountegue, the brother of the Lord of Warwick, the King 
and his lords being at Everwick [York], and the King Henry, with his 
lords, &c., that is to say, the Lords De Boos, Melius, Tailbois, Baufe 
Gray, knight, Eindem, Humfra de Neyel, the Duke of Somerset, with 
many others; but Baufe Percy, knight, was dead in another field, which 
is caJled Heggely More, which was pitched by the lords aforesaid against 
the said Lord of Mountegue ; and all the other lords fled, except the said 
Baufe ; and there like a man, was he slain ; and then the lords aforesaid 
took their King Henry, with all their power of people, and took their field 
in Hexhamshire, in a place called Liyells, on the water Devylle, against 
the aforesaid Lord of Mountegue, who joined battle with them, and had 
the victory of his enemies aforesaid ; and there the Lord of Somerset was 
taken, and his head cut off at Hexham, and there he lies ; and also were 

1 It is mmecessory to reprint the original French. The translation was furnished, 
says Mr. Jasper Gibson of Hexham, ** by Mr. Thomas Chisholm Anstey, after a visit 
we paid to what we of Hexham regard as the field of battle — y\z.y the g;round between 
Dukesfield and the Linnels, on the south side of the Devilswater. As to Queen 
Margaret's adventure, I may add, that besides the " Queen's Caye," there is a small 
runner, between Hexham and Devilswater, where tradition says her horse fell, and 
which is still called ** The Queen's L^tch," and has given its name to a farm-house 
buUt near it." The document is interesting in its clear evidence of King Henry's 
presence at the field of fight. See generally, 1 Lei. Coll. 499, 500. 

' The battle of Hexham took place in the vacation between the terms. Easter term 
in 1464, began 18 Apr. and ended 14 May. Pentecost fell on 20 May. Trinity term 
ranged from 3 June to 18 June. The battle of Hedgeley Moor had been fought in 
Easter term, on Apr. 2d. 



THE BATTLE OF HEXHAM. 7 

taken Lords Eos, Molins, Hungerford, Findem, with many others, 
knights, esqnires, and other men ; and their heads were cut off, of Lords 
Ro8, Molins, Hungerford, Findem, with two others, at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, in a place called Sandhill ; and they lie in the Friars Minors and 
Augustine ; and after the skirmish aforesaid, whether the King Henry 
was taken or not, there are divers sayings of this ; hut there were taken 
three of his followers, with his helmet, and two of his eroves richly 
arrayed, and presented to the King Edward at Everwike, Wednesday, 
May 23, in the fourth year of his reign ; and thereon the other lords and 
knights, yiz. the Earl of Kime, Grey, Neyel, and Bichard of Dunstahle, 
wit£ many others, fled out of the said fleld called Hexamfleld ; and the 
Earl of Kime was taken in Kiddesdale long time after, and his head cut 
off at Newcastle aforesaid ; and he lies in the Friars Minors ; and the said 
Humphrey Novel remained in the region of Derwent, within the county 
aforesaid, in tahis, south of the land, for the space of Ave years ; and then 
he was taken in Holdemes, and his head cut off at Everwike, hy the 
Lord of Warwike, and many others. And then after, in the jsame fourth 
year of the King Edward aforesaid, he went to Durham with his lords, and 
he sent into the county of Northumherland the Lord of Warwike, Mounta- 
gue, Fauconbridge, Scrope, and many other lords, to seize the castle of 
Alnewike, which was fllled with the Frenchmen, but then was not seized 
De Brace ; and the castle of Brambrought, in which was the said knight. 
Sir Ealph Grey j and in the castle of Dunstanbrught, the servants of the 
lords aforesaid took the garrison, with a man whom they call Goys ; and 
en preines the castle of Alnewike was seized with the lords aforesaid, and 
was rescued by the men of Scotland, to whom the said Henry, sometime 
King, had delivered the town of Berwike; and they took the Frenchmen 
out of the castle aforesaid, against the will of the lords of King Edward, 
and then had them into the realm of Scotland ; and through this surprise, 
which was made to the said lord the king, the Lord of Fauconbridge died 
at Durham, who was a noble knight ; and then after the lords entered 
there into the castle of Alnewike ; and then they took the castle of Dun- 
stanbrught, and all those of the castle ; and the said Goys had his head 
cut off at Everwike ; and they delivered all the others ; after which they 
took the castle of Brambrught, the which Sir Balph Gray kept against 
the King Edward lY. after Midsomer ; and the said Grey was carried to 
Doncaster, and there was deprived of the honour of a knight before many 
of the king's people — viz., his gilt spurs were hewed from his feet, and 
his sword and all his armour on him were broken and taken from him 
in the fleld-^and then he was beheaded. And the cause of this punish- 
ment of him, in such manner, was by cause of his perjury and doubleness 
which he had done to King Henry the Sixth, sometime king, &c., and 
also to the King Edward the Fourth, who now is ; and this decollation 
of him was about the day of Saint Benet, the fourth year of the king 
aforesaid ; and then his head was carried to London the Saturday^viz., 
the Yigii of Mary Magdalene, the year aforesaid ; and this was put on 
London Bridge on high upon a pole of plain appearance, that it might 
be viewed— whom God on his soul have mercy, &c. 



8 



THE FIRST MINISTER'S ACCOUNT OF HEXHAM PRIORY.^ 

H£XHAH.<^The account of Reginald Camaby, knight, collector of the 
rents there from Michaelmas^ 27 Een. YIII. [1535] to Michaelmas 28 
Hen. VIII. [1536]. 

Abbears.— None, because it is the first account of the said accountant. 

Fabms of Demeskb LANi)S.<^Site of the late Monastery of the Priory, 
with the buildings to the same belonging, and the Hospital of Saint 
Giles, and lands to the same belonging, late in the hands and occupation 
of the Prior, as appears by the survey thereof made by the Commissioners 
of the King, and remaining in the possession of the Court for Augmenta- 
tion of the Crown, 17«. 4^. 

* 

Rents Ain> Faeics oe Tekakis.— Of 57 tenements or burgages within 
the town of Hexham leased amongst divers tenants, 12/. 14«. 5d. — 5 
tenements in the yill of Saundehouse leased at will, 106«. Sd, — 10 
tenants at will in the town of Alnewick, 8/. 13«. Id, — 5 tenants at 
will in the vill of Yarwick, 46*. 8^. — 5 tenants at will in the vill of 
Dotland, 66«. 8(/.— Capital messuage at Beringfield, with the lands, mea- 
dows, feedings, and pastures, to the same belonging, leased to Henry 
Harryngton by indenture as is asserted, 71, — Capitfid messuage called 
Beaufronte, leased to Edward Hirste and Wm. Legh at will, 20«.— - 
Tenement in Grotington in the tenure of the relict of Thomas Heryngton 
at will, 40«.-— Grange of Milbame, ten. Edmund Horseley by indenture 
as is affirmed, for years, 106*. Sd, — Tenement formerly ten. 8 ten- 
ants called Kirketon, leased to Wm. Musgrave, 71. — 4 tenements in 
Aldstanemore, ten, as many tenants at will, 4Z. 13*. 4^. — 9 tenants at 
will in the viU of Dalton, 8/. 13*. 4(/. — 5 tenants at will in Neisbie, 106*. 
8(/."^Grange or tenement called Chesbome Graunge, ten. Gawen Swyn- 
bome, 4/. — ^Tenement in Stellyng, ten. Thomas Swynborne, 33*. 4d,^ 
6 tenements in Echewyke, ten. as many tenants at will, 66*. — A grange 
called Carrawe, with the lands, meadows, feedings, and pastures to the 
same adjoining, this year lies waste, and although a certain tower is built 
there of great strength, every one wholly refuses to dweU in the same as 
the accountant affirms. — ^Water com mill called Ingo Mill, leased to 
William Storey, 13*. 4d, — ^Tenement in Purdo, ten. Edw. Bell, 8*. — 

1 The substance of a full copy furnished to Mr. Jasper Gibson of Hexham. There 
are some discrepancies in the figures and corruptions in the names. 



THE FIRST MINISTER'S ACCOUNT OF HEXHAM PRIORY. 9 

Tenement in Walton, ten. Bob. Tolland, IQs, — 5 tenements or burgages 
in the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne at will, 27«. Sd, — 4 tenements in 
East Matfen, ten. as many tenants at will, 53« 4(^.^ Cottage in West 
Matfen, I6d. — Cottage in Slavelee, Ss. — Tenement called Stokesfieldhall, 
14*. 4d. — Tenement in Birtley, 8«. 4i.-*-Ten€ment in Newbume, 5«.— 
Tenement in Stannyngton, 6«. — ^Tenement in Gonnerton, 13«. 4(?.— 9 
tenements in Warden, ten, as many tenants at will, 6^. 13*. 4d.— Tene- 
ment called Bieresparke, ten. Thomas Lord Dacre, knt., 33*. 4d. — Tene- 
ment in Chollerton, ten. the vicar there, 40*. — 2 tenements in Temple 
Thometon, 26«. Sd. — Tenement in Besshelles, waste. — Tenement in 
Haresley, 6*. 8(^.-— Tenement, with the appurtenances, called the Friours- 
house formerly 9*., a tenement called Bo wiry house formerly 13*. 4d,y 
and a tenement in Hugh formerly 26«. 8i., lie waste.-^Tenement 
with the appurtenances caJled Farendenhall in the Bishoprick of Dur- 
ham; ten. Wm. Blakeston, and affirmed to be held under a lease for 
years, 106*. Sd, — Tenement in Steynton, in the Bishoprick of Durham, 
at will, 26*. Sd. — 3 tenements in Longchester in the Bishoprick aforesaid, 
ten. as many tenants at will, 34«. Sd, — ^Manor of Little Broughton, co. 
York, ten. Wm. Warden, 12/. 18*. ^d, — Temporalties of the Prebend 
of Sawton, viz. the demesne lands of Sawton, 10/. 16«., and other tene- 
ments in Sawton, Edston, and Brawby, 13Z. 4«., as appears by the con- 
fession of the late Prior. Sum, 1571. 2«. 5^d. 

Issues OF the Spibitualties. — ^Rectory of Sawton, oo. York, belonging 
to the Prebend there, 13/. Ss., and Ekeley [Ilkley] rectory, co. York, 
100«., with all their rights and appurtenances, leased to Thomas Meryng. 
-—Issues and profits of the tithes of com of the whole parish of Hexham- 
shire, 651, 10«. 5d,, viz. : Tithe of com of Hexham, 10/., Alenwyk, 
13«. 4(/., Sandehowe, Ss,, Acome, d3«. 4(/., vill of Waul. ., 46«. 8(/., 
vill of Cokely, lOs., vill of Kepike, 13*. 4e/., vill of Irryngton, 20«. : All 
tithes whatsoever of the chapel of Alwentdale, 15/. : Tithe of lambs of 
the whole parish of Hexhamshire, 68«. 7e/. : Tithe of wool of the whole 
parish, 27s. 6d. : Personal tithes and free Easter offerings of the whole 
parish, 9/. : Tithes and oblations within the chapel of Saint John, 43s., 
chapel of Saint Oswald, 60s., chapel of Beyngfleld, 66s. Sd, — ^Issues and 
profits of the rectory and tithes co. Nd., 39/. 6s. Sd., viz. Rectory and 
tithes belonging to the church of Aldestone Moor, 66s. Sd. : Tithes of 
com of Newburgh, 26s. Sd., of the parish church of Aldwyck, 20*. : 
Tithes of the vill of Fourestones, ISs. 4e/. : Tithe of com of Chollerton, 
26«. 8^., Barford, 33«. 4(/., Chipclies, 4/. €«. Sd,, Gonnerton, 40«., Colne- 
well vill, 40*., Hayden brigg, with the parish of Langlay, 17/. 13*. id., 
leased to divers persons — Tithe of com of the parish of Isell, co. Cum- 
berland, let, 100*.— Sum, 118/. 5s. Id. 

Sale of Wood. — None sold. 

Sum total of Receipts. — 266/. 15*. Z^d. 

DiscHABOED Bekts. — The moiety of the rents of the demesne lands, 
because they were occupied by the Prior and convent from Michaelmas 

VOL, IV. c 



10 THE FIRST MINISTEE'S ACCOUNT OP HEXHAM PEIORY. 

27 Hen. VIII. to 4 Feb. following, on which day the said priory, to- 
gether with all its possessions, came to the hands of the king (by yirlue 
of an act, &o.) as their own right, viz. — for the term of St. Martin in 
winter, happening within the time aforesaid, Ss, 8(^.— The like of the 
rents of tenants ffor the same reason], 74/. 10«. 2^d. 

Rekts Resolutb akd Fsv8iovs.<^i^^« Resolute, — Sheriff of York, 
from the lands in Sawton, at 13«. 4d, — Chapter of the metropolitan church 
of York, from the same, 40«.-— Choristers of the church sibresaid, from 
the prebendal lands aforesaid, 4b. Yearly Pensions. — Bishop of Durham, 
from the churches of Warden, ChoUerton, and Aldestane, 33«. 4d. — 
Prior and convent of Durham, from the churches of Aldestane and Ovin- 
gham, iOs. — Abbot and convent of Blanchland, frt)m the chapel of 
Slaveley, 23«.— Sum during the time of this account, nothing, because 
paid by the Prior. 

Salabies to the Cukatss. — Curate of the parish church of Hexham, at 
4/.— of the chapel of Saint John, 41, — of the chapel or church of Beyng- 
field, 4/.<^of the chapel of Slaveley, 4/.-^of the chapel of Alwentdale, 41. 
—-Sum, nothing, because paid by the Prior. 

Pees. — Henry Earl of Northumberland, High Steward of the late 
priory, at 100s. — John Lord Latymer, Steward of the House of Saluta- 
tion, CO. York, 53«. 4d. — ^James Bldley, Bailiff of Sawton, 26s. Bd.^ 
Sum, nothing, because paid by the Prior. 

Payhekt of Monet. — Charged in the account of receipts, for money 
received by the late Prior and convent for the demesne lands in the oc- 
cupation of them from the said 4 Feb. 27 Hen. YIII. unto the end 
of this account, viz. from the term of Pentecost within the time afore- 
said, wherefore they are answerable, Ss, Sd, — ^The like for rents in 
divers towns> received by the Prior and convent, 73/. 11«. 2|(f.— The 
like for issues of the spiritualties by them received from the said 4 Feb. 
and by them now therefore accounted for to the king, 118/. 6s. 1(/.— • 
Sum, 192/. 4«. ll^^d. 

Sum of A.llowances and Payments, 266/. 1 5s, 2|(i. 

The sum corresponds with the sum aforesaid received. 



II 



THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 

Op the causes leading to the cessation of bishops at Hexham, half a cen- 
tury before the Danish destruction of 875, and of the intermediate state 
of the church, wo are not informed. The prelates of Lindisfarne, con- 
tented with their sway, did not assume the vacant diocese until, after 
their wanderings, the land between Tyne and Tees was given to Bishop 
Eardulph ''in augmentation of the episcopate," the express reason being, 
that long before that time the Bishops of Hexham had ceased.^ In the 
record of this grant there are no words like those which had conferred a 
beneficial interest in the land between Wear and Tyne : and for other and 
territorial reasons which belong to Durham history, we do not infer that 
more was given than an episcopal jurisdiction. The mere grant of land 
between the Wear and Tyne had been made by the local king alone, but 
to clothe the grantee with an iextra cure of souls, the monarch of the 
realm is called to join. Such estates as had clearly belonged to the 
Bishops of Hexham qua bishops would doubtless pass, and they of Dur- 
ham would at least have the right of using the church of Hexham itself 
as a cathedral ; the property in it, subject to that usage, being either 
in the representatives of the monks who were there before it was made 
a see, or in the parish priest, for we know that even in later periods^ the 
monks only took churches subject to parochial necessities. 

But whether the Bishop of Durham affected to be the person to whom 
the monastery lapsed, or claimed through a stretched construction of 
his grant, it is plain that he took possession of Hexhamshire, and ap- 
pointed civil officers, called provosts, to manage his broad domain. 

We have two lists of them. One after Symeon's chapters in the early 
MS. relating to St. Cuthbert, of which. Sir Wm. Lawson is the generous 
posesssor; the other in an anonymoushistory of the diocesans largely ab- 
stracted in 1 Leland's Collectanea, 378. The two sufficiently differ to be 
trustworthy checks and corroborators of each other ; and Leland's au- 
thority calls some of the provosts, tetns or thanes, and commences the 

* Symeon de Gestis. Houedon, "Wcssyngton. 



12 THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 

list rather earlier than the Lawson MS., viz. with the entry, " Aid wine 
Bishop of Durham appointed Tein Colam §on of EAred his provost in 
Hexham church." The date agrees with GoUan the son of Eadred, 
which Eadred was grandson of Hunred, one of the seven bearers of St. 
Cuthbert in the first flight, and after we have reached another CoUan, 
and the priests of Hexham, I shall show a farther support of this iden- 
tity. The next provost was appointed by Bishop Edmund (1020-1041). 
By Leland he is called Tnn iTlfhiU son of Arehull, nephew' \jiepo8] of 
Bishop Aldwine, Edmund's predecessor. The Lawson MS. supplies us 
with his grandfather's name, calling him VlkhiU, Arhilles sune, Wtfutunes 
mn$. Between 1023 and 1041, Alfiic, who, from being provost of the 
church of "Winchester, had become Archbishop of York, is reported by 
Leland's authority to have sent letters to Bishop Edmund of Durham, 
moving the question by what right he could retain Hexham. This is 
the first notice we have of the claims of the archbishops, who must have 
traced a right to the lapsed monastery, either generally as metropolitans, 
or particularly because they sat in the chair of Wilfrid, who when Hex- 
ham was given to him, and the monastery was founded, was Bishop of 
York, a diocese from which Bemicia was forcibly divided, and Hexham 
made its capital. The latter position is more probable ; for other monas- 
teries fell into the hands either of the local bishops or of laymen, and 
even the Hexham writers do not deny that the Bishops of Durham truly 
represented the see of Hexham, as well as that of Lindisfame and 
Chester. However this may be, some claim was set up, though nothing 
seems then to have come of it ; for in the time of Bishop Egelric (1042- 
56), we And provosts as usual. By the appointment of that bishop, 
Uikhill was succeeded by another Collan, who, for reasons which will be 
given when we speak of the priests of Hexham, we may fairly identify 
as the grandson of Collan son of Eadred, the former provost of the 
same name, and son of a second Eadred. This descent is given by 
Symeon, and by comparison with the descents from Franco, another of 
St. Guthbert's bearers, it seems to be correct. Collan, the provost of 
Egelric, who is only mentioned in the Lawson MS., was succeeded, 
under the same prelate's appointment, by Ulkill, Ikinges sum, as to 
whom both authorities agree. Bishop Egelwine (1056-1072) continued 
him in the post, and with that notification Leland's author ends his list. 
The Lawson MS. ends its enumeration with Uihred, Ulkilles 9uney ap- 
pointed by Egelwine, and father of Cospatric, who in the writer's days 

2 The bishop's granddaughter married Aildl, son of Fridigist and Arkil son of 
Ecgfrlda or Ecgfrith. But were there no other reasons than chronology, we cannot 
make nepos signify great-grandson. 



THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OP HEXHAM. 13 

was sheriff in Tevietedale, a datum which gives high anthority to his 
statements. Before stating what part Uthred took in the change of 
owners of Hexham, let as see how the parish cure fared during the raid 
of the provosts. 

No doubt an hereditary priesthood sounds strangely. But Gregory 
YII/s constitutions were not generally obeyed in England. Before 
AnseWs synod of 1103, wives were not prohibited to English priests, 
and Henry of Huntingdon notes the variety of public opinion on the 
change.' It was then provided that no archdeacon, priest, deacon, or 
canon marry a wife or retain one being married unto him, and that the 
8ons of jpnests be not heirs to the chwreh of their fathers. We may, 
therefore reasonably expect to find previous evidence of a contrary usage. 
The manner in which a living was thus entailed may be seen in Kemble's 
Codex D^lomattous, No. 946, where a lady grants a church hereditarily 
to '' WsBulfmr preost and his beamteam" as long as he shall have any in 
orders. That the custom affected Hexham will presently be shown, and 
we have another well authenticated example in Bedlington. Beginald, be 
it premised, gives the nicknames or surnames of the four carriers (there 
were seven in all) who were deputed by Cuthbert to go and find materials 
for carrying his body. Stithard who spied a rope for the bridle was called 
J^ap, The brother who discovered a horse (». e. a colt) was called " Coite, 
quod cquum sonat." Unred, who stumbled upon the car, was called 
" Cretel, quod carmm anglice dicitur.'' A fourth bearer, who secreted a 
cheese £rom his comrades, was believed to have been temporarily changed 
into a fox, whence all the family of his issue were named ** Tod, quod 
vnlpeculam sonat." Such, with due allowance, was the rude and curious 
method by which surnames arose. It is further to be gathered from 
H^nald that in the early days of Durham, the body of clerks, who only 
retained the usage of monks as respected singing, acquired the benefit of 
ownership (dominii privilegium) in the church, under the bishop. Of 
such sort and bringing up were the bearers of the sacred body. They 
possessed prebends of the church in the manner of canons who are now, 
says our author, ealled Seculars, and they performed monastic exercises 
in church offices. Whence it happened, that in this fashion of religion, 
he who had been turned into a fox possessed the church of Bethligtune 
with its appurtenances by right canonical in his issue {jwre canonicali in 
sud progenie). To this day, says Beginald, the kindred of that man con- 

' It is not necessary to repeat the proofs of the marriage of the clergy generally 
in an article drawing attention to their hereditary order and rights. Mr. lEemble, in 
his " Saxons in England," has laboured the whole subject, and he remarks that eyen 
Saint Wilfrid had a son. " Sanctus Pontifex noster ae exilio cum fOio suo proprio 
rediens," are the words of Eddius. — See Sym, Hist. Eccl, Dun. cap., xlv. 



14 THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTiGE OF HEXHAM. 

tinue there, whom the neighbours in the vulgar tongue call Tod, No 
doubt Eilaf Tod strongly resembled " WiUielmus dictus Fox, olericus de 
Eboraco" of the Clervauz Cartulary. Beginald, after giving this instanoe 
to prove a system 'which, even in his day, needed illustration, proceeds 
to describe and give a prophecy of one of the prebendaries elderly and 
honest, who obtained the sole custody of St. Guthberf s body, ezerdsiiig 
such familiarity with him that he was boUeved to comb his hair and 
pare his nails, and oftentimes held friendly conversation with him as to 
whence and where he might find the relics of St Beda the doctor and 
of other saints, and whether and how he might carry them off or de* 
posit them beside Cuthbert himself. Clearly Beginald had no faith in 
Beda's bones having been identified in ordinary course, but of whatever 
worth his notion of his predecessor's knowledge may be, it is plain that 
in Cuthbert's friend we have iBlfred Westou, famous in reliquary lore, 
and from the way in which his position is elucidated by Tod's, we may 
be certain that whatever church he had under Durham, was hereditary 
and of prebendal right. As Leland's collections do not extend to the 
priests of Hexham, it is most satisfactory to find the Lawson MS. con- 
firmed by collateral proofs, for that wSllfred's descendants did hold that 
church, is, as we shall see, upon evidence of the most unquestionable 
authority. 

During the frequent changes of provosts, a couple of generations had 
sufficed for the priesthood of Hexham. Our evidence fails for the time 
of Aldhune. Bishop Edmund ascended the episcopal chair in 1021, 
and gave the church of Hexham to a priest called Alfred by Symeon, 
Ehured (Elvred) Weatou tune in the chronicle attached to the Lawson 
MS., and El/red Westoue by Eeginald.^ Both he and his children, 
being also canons and officers in the church of Durham, exercised their 
duties at Hexham by deputies, Alfred's successive curates being Gamd 
elde or Qismel Hamel, and Qamd iunge. Alfred was secretary or custo- 
dier of the cathedral church of Durham. His antiquarian acquisitive- 
ness enriched it with relics, which generally consisted of a sort of tithe 
taken from the bodies which by revelation^ were disclosed to him in the 
ancient monasteries and churches of Northumberland. He dug them 
up, elevated them above the pavements for veneration,- and took a part 
of the bones to Durham. According to Sjrmeon's History of the Church 
of Durham, he thus subjected the bones of Balther and Bilfrid the anchor- 

* A contemporary note in Reginald inserts ^/im*. "Westou and Westouson are in 
fact the same. Thus Symeon says that GUlo Michael though called son of Midiael, 
might be more rightly called son of the devil. 

^ Symeon Hist. Dun. 



THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OP HEXHAM. 15 

ites, Acca and Alchmund the Bishops of Hexham, King Oswin, and the 
yenerable Abbesses Ebba and iGthelgitha. Some interpolations, however, 
in the work known as Symeon de Gestis differ respecting the bones of Alch- 
mund, stating that Alcmund appeared to a holy man of Hexham called 
Bregmas or Dregmo, and commanded him to go to Alfred the son of 
Weston,* a priest of 'the church of Durham, and order him to carry his 
bones in the presence of the assembled folks of the territory of Hehxam 
beside the relics of Acca, who had already been taken out of the church- 
yard into the church, and that Elfred's intention to steal a finger from 
Alcmund was frustrated, to his great disgrace, by a miracle of the too- 
confiding saint. A subsequent anecdote also shows that Acca was 
equally indisposed to be distributed. At Melrose the bones of Boisil, 
the preceptor of Saint Cuthbert, were revealed to Alfred, and he ap- 
pears to have brought them all away and hid them near St. Cuthbert, 
but in another chest (smnto). The other relics were in St. Cuthbert's 
coffin itself. Alfred's most famous feat, however, was the acquisition 
of the relics he identified with Beda's. 

The great historian had now been dead three hundred years. He 
died in 735 and was buried at Jarrow, where a porch on the north side 
of the church was consecrated to his honour, and was existing in 
Symeon's time. Perhaps he had been interred there, and before the end 
of his century miracles were ascribed to his tomb ; but his^ relics would 
seem to have been soon raised for adoration. When he died it was the 
the custom at Jarrow to walk in the morning untQ the third hour with 
the relics of saints, and Bishop Lucius or LuUus, of Mentz, sent a 
covering of silk to enclose the relics of Beda himself. It is stated that 
the name of Venerable does not occur until the 9th century, notwith- 
standing the story which gives it a supernatural origin to fill in a gap 
iiithe disciple's rhyme of ' Hac sunt in fossa Bedse. ...... .ossa' In 

794, sixty years after Beda's death, his monastery was devastated by 
the Danes, and we hear nothing more of his remains untU the days of 
JElfred Weston, from the nature of whose visits, coupled with the rest 
of the monks of Durham within its walls in 1070, and the subsequent 
boming of it by the Conqueror, it is plain that Jarrow church, like the 
fanes of Tynemouth and Wearmouth, had been repaired, and that its 
desolate state when Aldwine and his monks came three or four years 
afterwards, was, as regarded the church, of very recent oVigin. 

JBlfred knew, says Symeon, that the doctor died and was buried at 
the monastery in Gyruu (Jarrow), and every year he came on the anni- 
versary of his death, and there was wont to be instant in prayer. Upon 

6 Westneor is the printing of the Mon. Hist. 



16 THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 

a certain time, he went after his usual manner, and after he had passed 
a few days there alone in the church, prapng and watching, he returned 
to Durham very early one morning by himself, a thing he had never 
done before, not wishing now to have any witness of his secret. He 
never returned to Jarrow, not caring to go, since he had obtained what 
he desired so much. He lived many years afterwards, and when his 
Mends asked him where rested the bones of Venerable Beda, he was 
wont to reply : — *' None has known that better than I. Beloved, ye 
may take it for sure and certain, that the same chest which protects the 
most sacred body of Father Cuthbert, also contains the bones of the 
reverend doctor and monk Beda. None need seek for a portion of his 
relics out of the shelter of that coffin." This he would communicate 
9ub aUi silmtio, lest strangers in the church should take a lesson from 
himself. Besides, Alfred had to contend with domestic treason. 
Bishops Egeliic and Egelwine, and their attendant monks, belonged to 
distant monasteries, and wished to transport the Durham relics to their 
own houses. They were only restrained through awe of this austere 
priest, who was devoted to Saint Cuthbert, and notoriously a great 
favourite with that potent confessor. A brother of the monastery of 
Durham, of the natne of Gamel, probably the younger curate of Alfred, 
seems to have stated to Symeon that he had been an eye-witness to his 
gratifying h^s friends by holding a hair of St. Cuthbert in the flame, 
where it glistened like gold, and was not consumed. Of the most pe- 
culiar circumstances by which JSlfred's knowledge of this virtue must 
have been acquired we are not informed. Dr. Baine's explanation of it 
is well known. Beginald adds greatly to the story, and connects St. 
Cuthbert's comb and scissors with Alfred's dressing of his hair, but he 
qualifies his language with *' It is reported." 

Symeon does not state when the translation of Beda was effected. 
Richard of Hexham says that Acca and Alcmund were removed in 
Egelwine's time (1056 1070). The Jarrow feat was probably earlier, 
as Alfred lived many years afterwards. 

Mr. Giles has the following passage : — ''Cave, in his Sistarta Ltteraria, 
i. 613, says, on the aathority of Seller, who quotes from a Saxon MS. 
in the Idher Vt^omimsia, p. 103, that Bede's bones underwent one more 
removal to York ; and the author of the Monastieon AngUeanum says 
that they were Anally deposited at Glastonbury Abbey, with the relics 
of Esterwin, Sigfrid, and Herbert, Abbots of Wearmonth." It is, how- 
ever, generally taken for granted that the relics brought by Westou 
rested in the coffin of St. Cuthbert until his translation, of which we 
have a faithful account from, as I have every reason to believe, the 



THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OP HEXHAM. 1? 

hand of Symeon. The narrative follows other chapters by him in the 
early Lawson MS. ; we know from other evidence that be was present at 
the examination of the oofia, and the way in which he mentions the 
bones of Beda seems to confirm the conjecture. ** It has been alrMcfy 
9taUdy^ says he, " who removed them hither from Janiu. In fact, he 
who transferred to the church of Durham the bones of St. Boysil, the 
same, \y revelation, transferred to the same place those of Doctor Beda/^ 
and placed them in different parts of the church. That word revelation 
is, I fear, fatal to the position that the locality or existence of Beda's 
bones was well known when the pious fraud was enacted. Eeginald, 
who wrote later, but was well acquednted with one of -Alfred's descend- 
ants, tells us still more plainly that the knowledge of Alfred on these 
matters was derived from conversations with St. Cuthbert. 

Symeon, in his History of the Church, speaks with exceeding caution. 
After giving Weston's account, and the secrecy with which he clothed 
'the treasure he had brought, Symeon says : — " with whose declaration 
{sententia) touching Beda, that verse composed in the English tongue 
agrees, where, when the state of this place, and of the reliques of saints 
contained in it, are treated of, mention is made of Beda's relics along 
with others." In another place he has preserved the Saxon poem in 
qnestion, and there, sure enough, we meet with "the famous writer 
(hooker the word is) Beda and Bosil the abbot." "Doubtless," proceeds 
Symeon, "those bones are known to be his, which after many years {i.e. 
ctr. 1104) were found placed with the uncorrupted body of Father Cuth- 
bert, separated from the other relics in a linen bag." It may be asked, 
why these Beda's any more than those of any other saint ? It may be 
answered, because Bosil's were in a separate coffer, and because it is not 
clear that the church professed to have the fall remains of other 
saints. If it had, the identity would again have been clothed with 
doubt, as the other bones seem to have had each their linen sacks, some 
of which, in a half-decayed state, were in the larger repository in which 
the relics reposed in Reginald's time. William of Malmsbury only 
mentions the bones of Beda and EIng Celwulf as in linen bags by them- 
selves, but our local historians are preferable in authority. 

As JEllfred Weston contended for the integrity of his charge of relics 
with Bishops Egelric and Egelwine, while the Lawson MS. says that 
his son Eylaf Lawreu held the church of Hexham under those prelates, 
he must have surrendered the cure of Hexham to his son in his lifetime.^ 

' He probably effected this by the mvestilure mentioned by Dr. Whitaker in his 
Hist. Whalley, 41. " It enabled an incumbent who was also patron to transfer dur- 
ing his lifetime all his rights in a benefice without the intervention either of bishop 

VOL. IV. D 



1^ THE HEREDITAEY SACERDOTiGE OF HEXHAM, 

It was probably in consequence of this step that Eylaf held the cure for 40 
years at least. Like his father, he was an office-bearer at Durham, being 
treasurer of the church and hereditary canon, and he executed the cure 
of Hexham by placing there a priest called Sproh Up to this period 
the possession of the church of Durham had been continuous. Eylaf, 
says the Lawson M&, had the church as long as the land was inhabited, 
and the change is attributed to the effects of the Conqueror's deyastadon. 
Por three months did the riot go on, and the whole land between 
Humber and Tweed was reduced to solitude, except York, Durham, and 
Bambrough. For two years the church of Durham lacked a pastor, 
Egelwine quitting it by flight in 1070, and the same year Thomas 
isenior became Archbishop of York. The provost of Hexham, ITctred 
XJlkilles sune, being thus absolved from any feelings of gratitude to his 
old master, went to Archbishop Thomas, and pointed out that such a 
place as Hexham might easily be reduced under his ownership {daminiuin)^ 
when the whole land lacked a husbandman. The archbishop followed 
his advice before the see was filled up, and he entered Hexham, the 
land being everywhere waste, and no one being prohibited from inhabit- 
ing where he liked. 

From this time the bailifwick of Hexham ceased to be a temporality 
of the see of Durham, but the parochial cure and episcopal government 
were untouched. When Bishop Garileph was engaged with his new 
foundation of monks at Durham, Archbishop Lanfranc confirmed the dio- 
jcese as including '' all the parish which is between Tese and Twede, with 
the church of Hexham and that of Lindisfame, where anciently there were 
episcQpal seats, and CarlisleandTevietedaleand all the adjacent provinces." 
8o Archbishop Thomas of York himself defines it as all the land which 
is between Tese and Tyne (the very words employed in describing King 
Alfred's gift, which did not necessarily pass any ownership of soil), 
Northumberland, Thevietedale, Tindale, Carlisle, Weredale, with the 
church of Extildesham and all the parish pertaining, and the church of 
Lindisfame, where anciently bishopricks existed." Archbishop Thomas 
Tecites a miracle of St. Guthbert performed on himself, and when he con- 
firmed the church he probably only meant it as a cathedral, and he may 
have taken part in the next event in good faith and under the belief 
that he was entitled to provide for the parochial cure in right of the 
monastic lands. In the change at the church of Durham, Eylaf Lawreu 

or archdeacon. It appears in particular that St. Petei^s church in Cambridge was 
thus conveyed. — ^Bot. Flac. 6 Ri. I. Rot. 1., and Selden, c. xii. s. 4." 

"We have already noted the provision by the Synod. Westm. 3 H. I. TTtJUii pret- 
byterorum nan sint haeredes eeelesiarttm patrum suorutn. But this difficulty was obyi- 
«ted by the investiture mentioned above. 



THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OP HEXHAM. 19 

the priest of Hexham was among the secular canons who — perhaps from 
uxorious motives — ^refused to take the monastic hahit. It is prohahle 
that the expelled seculars who were granted prebends in the churches of 
Darlington^ Auckland, and Norton, were deprived of the bereditarj 
churches they had held as canons. Eylaf, therefore, took the best course 
for himself that he could. He went to the archbishc^, and from him 
received that same church which he had formerly received from Bishop 
Egelwine, and on his death his son Eylaf entered upon the church of 
Hexham through the same archbishop, consequently before 1100^. 

Before proceeding further, the Lawson MB. may be confirmed a& to 
the tenure of the church by JSlfred's descendants and the suppositioa 
about the family of the provosts called Gollan. The consecutive de- 
scendants of Hunred the bearer were Eadulf, Eadred, CoUan, Eadred, 
and the second Gollan. This last Gollan had a sister whose issue were 
JEilafy Hemming, and IJlfkill, the first dead, the two latter living priests 
when Symeon closed his history at 1096. Nothing is more probable 
than that Alfred should marry a granddaughter of Aldhune's provost 
of his hereditary church, she being the sister of his own contemporary 
Gollan the second. The eldest son is called by the family name of 
Eylaf, and as Eylaf Lawreu certainly died in Archbishop Thomas's 
time, Symeon is quite accurate in his distinction between the living and 
the dead if the identity of these Eylafs is admitted. A single charter 
of Bishop Garileph, in 1085, confirms the Lawson MS. as to the priesthood 
of Eylaf at Hexham, Reginald as to the succession of Eylaf Tod's family 
at Bedlington, and Symeon as to the existence of the two younger bro- 
thers, Hemming and IJlfkill, whose priesthoods are located. The charter 
is printed after the Three Historians, p. xx., and contains the marks or 
crosses of Eilaf> preost of JExtildesham, Eilav of Bethlingtum^ Hemming 
preost of Brentespethe, and Ulehil preost of Seggeffeld, 

The descent of office from Eylaf Lawreu to his son of the same name, 
as stated in the Lawson MS., is also confirmed by Bichard of Hexham, 
to whom we are chiefiy indebted for the closing passages of the family 
of the great authority in relics. Bichard, with monastic partiality, 
grieves that under Archbishop Thomas senior, a secular priest named 
Eilav* possessed this church, so rich in heavenly treasure, that the pre- 
late erected it with Holm into an additional prebend of York, of which 
Bichard de Maton, a canon of Beverley, was the first occupant, and that 
Eilav, the son of the aforementioned EUav, held the cure as ministering 
priest under Maton, being rewarded for his service with a portion of the 

* My copy reads Eilanus, from a common and pardonable confusion of the letters. 
M and n so similar in MSS. 



20 THE HEEEDITARY SACESDOTAGE OP HEXHAM. 

benefice. In this miserable state, continues my author, the church re- 
mained until the death of Archbishop Girard ( 1 100-1 108), torn to pieces, 
reduced to ruins and snrrounded with wretchedness by the perfidy of the 
inhabitants, the malice of secular priests, and the oppression of carnal 
men ; deserted and dilapidated consequent upon the plundering and depo- 
pulation of the neighbourhood. ' 

During this period, viz. about 1101, Leland's authority, and a Durham 
chronicle quoted in the Monasticon under Hexham^ state that in the dis- 
sensions between Henry I. and Bishop Flambard, the king deprived 
that bishop of the church of Hexham, with the region belonging to it, 
and gave it to the archbishop, notwithstanding the gift of Kings Guthred 
and Alfred, which in the Monastieon is made specifically to include with- 
in the bounds of St. Cuthbert's lands for ever, all the land between 
Tees and Tyne, the church of Hexham, with the adjoining region on the 
iBouth of the Tyne. 

In the notes of Rudd upon Symeon, is mentioned indeed a lai^er hieh 
tory of Durham quoted by Wharton, which runs as follows : — " The 
king seized the bishopridL of Durham, and abstracted Caerleil and Hex- 
ham, appendages of the diocese, of which he gave Hexham to the Arch- 
Inshop of York ; in OaerleU he founded a bishoprick de novo, and gave 
it to Ethelwolf Prior of St. Oswald's, which places, /row the tims of 8t. 
Cuthhert and before (I) were under the jurisdiction of the church of 
Lindisfarne or Durham. 

Mr. Hinde, with prudent caution, has remarked, that Symeon's Gon- 
tinuator is silent as to Hexham, though he mentions the abstraotion of 
Carlisle and Teyiotdale. That the question, indeed, of beneficial in- 
terest in Hexhamshire may have been put at rest on this occasion is not 
improbable. There may even have been additional priyileges and ex- 
emptions conferred on this peculiar jurisdiction of the archbishops. But 
we are not bound to conclude that the bare abstract bounds of episopacy 
were touched. Indeed, it is very questionable whether Hexham, sub- 
ject though it be to its peculiar exemptions, has ever been out of the 
diocese of Durham. While Richard of Hexham dilates upon the prero- 
gatives of his priory, he seems to regard them as independent grants of 
bishops, archbishops, princes and kings, by reason of the ancient honour 
of the church ; and a memorial of the diocese is observable, though no cus- 
tom or due was owing to the Bishop of Durham or his officers, for there 
is a salvo if the bishop himself demanded the presence of the prior or a 
brother at the discussion of an ecclesiastical cause. The mention of the 
prior brings this clause down long after Flambard's quarrel. The clergy 
of Hexham might renew the sacred oil at Easter either from York or 



THE HER£DITABT SACERDOTAOE OF HEXHAM. 21 

Dorhamy and miglit be ordained anywhere. Suoh privileges would be 
the same, in whatever diocese the church was. SpeakiDg of Plambard^ 
it may be noted that he is stated to have had a son named Elias, who 
succeeded him in his prebend in Lincoln Cathedral — another instance of 
an inheritance of spiritualities — and we have read that the office of Culdee 
was in some cases hereditary in the Scotch church, which had a consid* 
able influence over that of Lindisfame. But by far the most interesting 
example of hereditary priesthood is found in the hereditary deans of 
Whalley, who continued as late as 1215, when the Lateran Council 
finally prohibited the marriage of ecclesiastics. On the office of a dean 
of Whalley, who was compounded of patron, incumbent, ordinary, and 
lord of the manor, the reader is referred to Dr. Whitaker's History of 
JFhalleif, pp. 41, 324. The list of deans stretches far into the Saxon 
times, and there is much charter evidence bearing upon it. The Town- 
leys descend from these deans of Whalley. 

In 1109 Thomas junior succeeded Gerard as archbishop, and in the 
year 1113 the clergy of York, under some erroneous supposition that 
Eata Bishop of Hexham had presided at York, and feeling that York 
had no reliquea of its saints, and Hexham already had those of four, 
persuaded the archbishop to remove Eata's bones to York. It is un- 
necessary to state the miraculous interposition employed to prevent tliis 
step; the circumstance is mentioned because the biographer of Eata states 
that he then reposed within the church, at the south side near the 
sacrarium, that a little chapel of stone was built over his tomb, and far- 
ther that he the writer thought it probable that the saint was translated 
thither by ''Alfredus Alius Westuerum," a priest of Durham church, who 
lifted Acca and Alomund fi:om the earth, and enclosed them in shrines 
within the church. The life of Eata is in a MS. at York of the 14th 
century, and has been pablished by the Surtees Society. 

The same year saw the church of Hexham taken out of the hands of 
Hichard de Maton, he receiving in exchange a portion of the common 
fiinds of ihe chapter, and on Nov. 1st, the archbishop planted canons 
regular in the church, endowing them with the church and its posses- 
sions and privileges. Eilav, however, continued to hold his cure, with a 
great part of the benefice. As Bichard of Hexham has it, he was per- 
mitted to hold his possessions as a gift of the church, and to the great 
honour of the canons, to whom, he says, the lands belonged, by both 
ecclesiastical and civil law, and who might have justified the securing 
of them to themselves, but who, rather than compromise the credit of 
the fraternity, submitted to every hardship, to penury, and even to hun- 
ger. Such a statement will be taken with Tcry great caution in these 



22 THE HEREDITARY SAGERDOTAaS OF HEXHAM. 

• 
days, when the system of starving the working clergy is we may hope 

drawing to a close, and the wretched disputes between the secular and 
monastic clergy are weighed at their true value. To have deprived 
Eilav of his guerdon after he had borne the heat of the day for the ad- 
vantage of the new comers would have been unjust indeed : to have 
taken hostile measures against him would have raised the secular interest^ 
and opened the whole of the intricate questions about Hexhamshire. 
The new canons adopted the prudent course of allowing them to die out 
with him if possible.^^ The claims of his sons would perhi^s have been 
sufficiently barred by the cessation of that prebendal arrangement at 
Durham, under which Hexham church had been held by his ancestors, 
and by Anselm's constitutions ; and, as it happened, at least one of them 
became a monk himself, being no less a personage than the celebrated 
historian of the Battle of the Standard, Ethelred or Ailred, afterwards 
abbot of the beautiful foundation at Eievaulz, who in his youth had been 
brought up at the Scotch court, proDably in consequence of the ownership 
of the Earldom of Northumberland. 

Twenty six years after the new order of canons had been introduced, 
viz. in 1134, Eilav, being at Durham, fell very ill. For reasons into 
which, in the changed state of our country, we cannot fully enter, there 
was, indubitably, a greater sancity ascribed to religious orders than to 
the ordinary clergy, and Eilav, through a sense of justice or other mo- 
tives, listened to the advice of ' certain wise men,' and sent for Kobert 
the Prior of Hexham. On his arrival he surrendered the lands of his 
church which he held, thanking him and his canons for having treated 
him more like a father than a chaplain, and repenting him of the course 
he had held towards them. In token of his restitution he offered a fair 
phylactery with a silver cross which should surround the relics of Acca 
and Alcmund as a perpetual memorial of the church's freedom. The 
three sons of the penitent, Ethelred monk of Rievaulx (who was accom- 
panied by his abbot), Samuel, and Ethelwold, were assembled to witness 
and perhaps to consent to the act, and the historian was there also, 
describing himself as "a certain canon of the church of Hexham, 
Bichard by name." 

The sickness of Eilav increasing, he assumed the monastic habit him^ 
self in the church of St. Cuthbert, whom, like his grandfather, he had 
ever held in wonderful reverence. Upon this point the testimony of 

'0 Mr. Kemble gives instances where evicted canons seem to have retained their 
influence over theu* prebends, which could not legally be taken fix)m them, though 
they might be expelled from the cathedral service and the collegiate buildings : and 
he remarks, that craft rather than force was employed in the changes of ecclesiastical 
constitutions. 



THE HEREDITARY SACERDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 23 

Bicbard of Hexham is confirmed. Bishop Geof&ey's oonfirmation to the 
convent of Coken, which, he says, ** Aillan (read Aillav), the priest by 
ancient right of patrimony, held of me and my predecessoTs, and becom- 
ing a monk of St. Guthbert, gave by his hereditary testament [that is, a 
will conferring inheritance] to St. Cuthbert and his monks^ his sons 
being present and confirming the same." The charter of Eilaf himself 
seems to be lost, and the copy of it at Durham, in which he is called 
^llaf, is supposed by Mr. Surtees to be a forgery, but the gift, by the 
same name, is mentioned in a chronicle quoted by Leland,^^ and the 
bishop's confirmation places the fact beyond dispute. The donor's en- 
trance into the order was his civil death, and his testament would at 
once take effect ; but his natural demise was close at hand. He spent 
several days in the exercises of a dying man, and then delivered up hia 
soul." 

Ethelred the Abbot of Eievaulx is more than once quoted as an au- 
thority for miracles by Eeginald, who dedicates his book to him. It 
was from him that he received by family tradition the story of a weasel 
making her nest in St. Cuthbert's coffin in the time of JSlfired Westoue, 
who, by a pardonable error, is made the grandfather of the celebrated 
abbot. Chronology and other collateral evidence is confirmed by Richard, 
who expressly states that he was the penitent Eilaf 's son. He died about 
1166, leaving the character of a good man and an animated writer, and 
his name occurs in the calendar of saints' days on Jan. 12, along with 
that of Benedict Bisoop, the famous Abbot of Wearmouth. Of his two 
brothers, one of them would probably be father to the abbot's niece, who 
is mentioned by Eeginald as married to Kobert Fitz-Philip, knight, a 
nobleman of Lothian, whose title of nobility was conferred more on ac- 
count of his wealth than his virtue. 

One more member of this family, Aldred, must be noticed, not only 
because he became a brother of the church of Hexham, and thus con- 
nects the old order of things and the new, but because he told a story 
proving that the penitent, besides his love of St. Cuthbert, had very 
much of the spirit of -Alfred Westoue in his composition. The story oc- 
curs in the interpolations which seem to have been made by a canon of 
Hexham in the book known as Symeon Le Gestis, for the purpose of 
showing that no parts of Acca and Alcmund had left Hexham for Dur- 
ham, and when they were written Aldred was dead It seems that when 
Aldred was yoang, he was brought up in the house of his brother, 
who was a priest, and ruled the church of Hexham before the reconsti- 
tution by Archbishop Thomas junior. This brother reflected how rich 

» 1 Lei. Col. 390. i« Ric. Hag. 



ii THE HEKEDITARY SACERDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 

any church would be in the possession of but a fragment of Acca's relics, 
and contemplated a division of them. The mode in which his intention 
was baffled may be seen in the Manumenta Mistot^iea. From the same 
authority it appears that the first of Archbishop Thomas's canons who 
was sent to Hexham was named Edric. 

It only remains to trace the gift made by .^fred Weston to the 
church of Durham. 

Eeginald states that the relics which were turned out of St. Cuthbert's 
coffln, in consequence of haying mouldered and defiled it, were placed 
in wooden receptacles hewn out for the purpose, and honourably pre- 
senred elsewhere in the church in the larger repository already mentioned. 
The MS. at York, which enumerates the relics preserved at Durham, 
distinguishing the relics (which it minutely professes to identify) that 
were found in St. Cuthbert's tomb, states thfit other relics were in ivory 
caskets and chrystalline vials and other places outside out of the feretory 
of St. Cuthbert, though in the feretrar's custody. It is presumed from 
this, that the relics found in the tomb were inside of the feretory. 
Among them are the bodies of Cuthbert, Beda, and Boisil. The other 
remains are called hones only ; and it may be specially remarked, that those 
of Acca and Alcmund do not occur.^' The tunic of St. Beda was kept 
elsewhere. But when Pudsey ruled the see, he caused a feretory for 
Beda's bones to be made of gold and silver, of such exquisite work that 
it balanced the splendour of the material.** It was moreover adorned 
with precious stones, and included many other relics of saints besides 
those of Beda.** This feretory remained for the present near St. Cuth- 
bert's tomb, and was not removed until long afterwards to the bishop's 
beautiful chapel, the Galilee, the only use of which mentioned by 
Geoffrey of Coldingham was for the admission of females. It received its 
present name immediately ; as a gift from a Lord of Dinsdale to Pudeey 
and St. Cuthbert, is mentioned in the charter as made '* upon the altar 
of Blessed Mary, in the western portion of the same church qua voeatur 
Galilea*^ 

In 1383 the plan of ivory and crystal receptacles continued, and we 
meet with some of Westou's acquisitions in the shrinekeeper's inventory. 
We see a portion of the tunic of St. Beda the Doctor, with some of the 
bones of the Innocents, &c., in a vial of crystal with a foot of silver gilt. 
Bobes and hair of Boisil partially occupied a little ivory casket. Another 
ivory casket contained relics of Acca, with portions of his face-cloth and 
chasuble, which were in the ground for three hundred years ; a bag of 

*3 Scriptores Tres. cccc,xxvi. ** Geoff. Coldingham. 

1^ Continuation of Symeon, 386. 



THE HSREDITAET SACERDOTAOE OF HEXHAM. 9^ 

doth of gold professed Hotr (o contain a portion of the hones of Acca 
vad of St. J.^mund. The sealis of Oeolwnlf and Boisil were in a shrine 
adorned with silver and gold and images. Boisil's inner tnnio was in 
an ivory turret, with images of gold and silver. There was also a piece 
of Saint Oswin's flesh ; hut of Balther, Bilfrid, Ebha, and ^thelgitha, 
all mentioned by Symeon as yielding spoils to Alfred, I do not perceive 
any trace, though they are mentioned in the earlier catalogue. Of Boisil 
we only notice the scull in a fair shrine of gold| silver, and images. 
Perhaps the odier bones rested until the Eeformation with those of Bed% 
and were then thrown away with those sohedoled^ For a similar reason 
the shrinekeeper does not account for the bones of Beda, because that 
saint had now an altar of bis own in the Galilee. His gold and silver 
feretory contained two sets of Latin verses, one '* in the first work in the 
lower part thereof," meaning perhaps the shrine itself in opposition to 
its fair cover presently to be notioed. This set stated the contents of 
the receptacle, that one Peter was the ariizan^ and Bishop Hugh the 
giver. The other set of verses stated that, in 1870, the prior (Forcer) 
translated the feretory from near the tomb of Saint Cuthbert at the re- 
quest of Richard of Barnard Castle, whose bones rested not far from 
thence under a marble stone, which, as Dr. Raine states, adjoined the 
present tomb of Beda on the west. The Eitei and IfonwnefUa give 
the following account of the tomb before the dissolution :— 

** Theffe was on the south side of the said Galilee, betwixt two pillars, 
a goodly monument, all of blue marUe, the height of a yard from the 
ground, supported by fine pillars, in every comer one, and under the 
midst one ; and above the said through of marble pillars did stand a 
second shrine to Saint Cuthbert,* wherein the bones of the holy man 
St. Bede were enshrined, being accustomed to be taken down every f^- 
tival day, when thei^ was any solemn procession, and carried with fbur 
monks in time of procession and divine service. Which being ended, 
they did convey it into the Galilee, and set it upon the said tomb again, 
having a fair cover of wainscot, very curiously gilded, and made to draw 
up and down over the shrine, when they pleased to shew the sumptuous - 
ness thereof." — " On the south side of the said Galilee was the altar of 
St. Bede, before which altar lie his bones and relics interred under the 
same place where his shrine was befbre exalted.*'— *' There are two 
stones that were of St. Bede's shrine in the Galilee, of blue marble, 
which after the defacing thereof [by the visitors at the suppression] 
were brought into the body of the church and now lie over against the 
eastmost tomb of the Kevils, joined both together. The uppermost 
stone of the said shrine hath four holes in every comer, for irons to 
stand and to be fastened in, to guide the covering when it was drawn up 

*• This seems to be an erfoneoua deduction from the line, " Transtulit hoc feretnim 
Cuthberti de prope tumba." 



26 THE HEBEDITABY SACEBDOTiGE OF HEXHAM. 

or let down, whereupon did stand St. Bede's fthrioe. And the other is 
a plain marble stone, which was lowest, and did lie aboye a little marble 
tomb, whereon the lower end of the'fiye small pillars did stand ; which 
pillars did also support the uppermost stone." 

The uppermost stone may readily be detected still from its holes, be- 
tween the the third and fourth piers from the west, on the south side of 
the nave.*' 

The bill for the demolition of the shrine is, says Br. Baine, preserred. 
The saint's literary fame, after long centuries of shadow, had now raised 
his importance aboye that of St. Cuthbert, and not to mention Bishop 
Cosines long epitaph, which was written on parchment and suspended in 
a frame near his tomb, the erection of the tomb itself contrasts singularly 
with the plain blue stone which marks St. Cuthbert's resting place. 
This must be the tomb, alluded to by Speed, when he says that in the 
Galilee " the marble tomb of Yenerable Beda remsineth," and by Hegge, 
when he speaks of ** Saint Beed's bones which there lie interred under 
a tombe of black marble without any inscription." Camden, in his re- 
mains, has a story of a French bishop who, returning out of Scotland, 
and being brought to the shrine of St. Cuthbert, kneeled down, and 
after his devotions offered a copper baubee, saying ** Saint Cuthbert %f 
thou art a saint, pray for me." But afterwards, being brought unto the 
tomb of Beda, saying likewise his orisons, he offered there a French 
crown, with this alteration, *' St. Beda, because thou art a saint, pray 
for me." Camden sap that this took place " not many yeara since," so 
that it very likely happened after the Beformation. At all events, 
singular to relate. Dr. Baine notes among the objects which had appar- 
ently been pushed through the chinks of the side masonry of the tomb, 
and were found on its examination in 1830, a French coin of a metal 
resembling gold, powdered with fleurs-de-lis. There were also found a 
few abbey pieces, a small circular flattened piece of lead, and a half 
crown of William and Mary, 

This examination was only of the contents of the altar tomb, down to 
the level of the pavement, and perhaps somewhat deeper, and the monu- 
ment was replaced; but on the 27th of Hay, 1831, being, by a singular 
coincidence, Saint Beda's day in the calendar, the tomb was again re- 
moved : what followed shall be given in Dr. Baine's own words. 

" After finding a few more abbey pieces in their course downwards, the 
workmen, at the depth of about tluree feet from the level of the floor, came 
in contact with the following human bones, which, although by no means 
furnishing the full complement of those belonging to a perfect skeleton, 

" Omsby, 88. 



THE HEBEDITABT SACEBDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 27 

appeared neyertheless to haye been purposely arranged in their respec- 
tive places, in a coffin of the full size, of which, though in a very 
decomposed state, there were numerous traces. 1. The paharium, 
tolerably perfect, consisting of the osfrantis and the ossa parietaHa, the 
former so remarkably flat (still more so than that of Cuthbert) that a 
cast was made of the whole bone before its reinterment. 2. The ossa 
Umporalia, and portions of the bones of the basis of the scull. 3. The 
lower Jaw, apparently that of a man advanced in years, or who had lost 
the greater part of his teeth at an early age. The cavities from which 
the teeth had fallen had disappeared in the bone, so that a considerable 
portion of time must have intervened between that period and the death 
of the individual to whom the jaw had belonged. 4. A portion of the 
malar hones, 5. The heads of both the humeri, 6. The radius and ultM 
of one fore-arm. 7. The oa humeri of the other. 8. A portion of the 
sternum. 9. The thigh hones. 10. Eight bones of the tarsi of the feet. 
The above bones were found, as we have already stated, stretched along 
a space of nearly six feet in length, and that the grave had contained no 
other human remains was proved by a very careful investigation. For 
this fact we can perhaps give a reason. Bede's bones, real or reputed-^ 
for this is a matter into which we have no inclination to enquire— were 
widely dispersed — ^much, we dare say, to the profit of the man who is 
reported to have stolen them from their first resting-place at Jarrow. 
There were few monasteries in England which could not boast of some of 
them ; and, even now, in more than one church upon the continent, the 
curious in these matters may see some of his zibs. We must not omit 
to mention, that in the upper part of the grave, apparently in the place 
which the right hand would have occupied if elevated for the benedic- 
tion, was discovered a massy ring of iron, plated with a thick coat of 
gold, and containing upon a boss the device of a cinquefoil, a conmion 
ornament at the time of the dissolution, when these bones were buried. 
Ko priest, during the reign of popery, was buried or enshrined without 
bis ring. Perhaps this of which we are writing had been a hasty pre- 
sent to so memorable a man, by those who laid his remains in the ground, 
in conformity with custom, and in the stead of a more valuable ring, 
which had been taken away by the king's commissioners. We know 
that these men carried off with them a splendid ring from the coffin of 
Cuthbert. The ring found in the grave of Bede was lined internally 
with one or two folds of thick woollen cloth, to accommodate it appar- 
ently to the substance upon which it had been placed ; but of that sub- 
stance no characteristic trace remained. The ring and the abbey pieces 
were placed in the library along with the coins, &c., discovered during 
the previous imperfect investigation first mentioned. The bones were, 
the day afterwards, reinterred in a box of oak, covered with lead, in 
which was enclosed a memorial upon parchment of the whole particulars 
of the exhumation, and then upon the upper slab of the tomb, which 
was carefully replaced, was cut afterwards the old inscription : — " Hac 
SUNT Hr 70SSA B^d^ venebabilis ossa."^ 

" Brief Guide to Durham Cath. 



28 THE HEEEDITA£T SACSEDOTAGE OF HEXHAM. 

80 fiir Dr. Raine, and hia son has, with true oonaerratiTe feeling, 
placed the cast alluded to in this Society's collections. It is rcalfy 
a Tery singular formation, and of high interest That it is what was 
taken in 1104 to helong to Beda there can be no reasonable donbt. On 
the earlier questions of identity an opinion is not offered. For if the 
£ate of Beda's bones after the Danish invasion was not popobuiy known, 
it is not likely that iEHfred had special knowledge of them. We are then 
thrown upon his revelations, a subject quite extra the consideration of 
an antiquarian society. 

The library of Durham Cathedral, as is well known, boasts of two 
books in Beda's handwriting, and several representations of him, al- 
ways in a blue habit, once decorated the cathedral windows.** The 
monks had also in 1446 a cup called Beda.*^ Of this ''goodly cup 
called St Bede's Bowl, the outside was of black mazer, and all the 
bowl within the mazer was of silver, double gilt with gold, and all the 
edge of it being finely and largely wrought round about with silver, 
and double gilt with gold ; and in the midst of it was the picture of that 
holy man St. Bede as if he had been writing, and the foot of the said 
bowl was all of silver, and double gilt with gold, with £)ur joints of 
silver coming down on every side one, double gilt with gold from the 
edge to the foot, to be taken asunder."^ 

Ed. 

^* Hunter's description. ^ Baine's Guide, 94. '^ Bites and Monuments. 



29 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

McfUhiy Mating, 2 Feb., 1859. 

John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

ConcuKicATiONS. — By tie Editor, — An entry from the parish register 
of Scotter, in Lincolnshire. ** Gualter Blackett a blind man and Mar^ 
gery Ireland of the Byshoprick of Durham marryed by licence June 
the dOth 1691." This curious coincidence of name with that of the 
Baronet of Newcastle, was communicated by Mr. Peacock, of The 
Manor, Boltesford, to Mr. Mewbnm, one of our members, who kindly 
drew the Editor's attention to it. Sir Walter Blackett, however, de- 
rived his christian name from the Calverleys, and the name of Walter 
does not characterize the Blacketts of Woodcrofte, in Durham, and of 
Wylam, in Northnmberland. 

Bemarks on the brasses of Sir John Eadclyffe, in Crosthwaite Church, 
of which rubbings were presented to the Society by Dr. Charlton. 

In the second volume of these Archseologia (p. 140), attention was 
drawn to the discrepancy between the date of the will of Sir John Had- 
clyffe, the disinherited head of the house of Derwentwater, and that of 
his death, as copied by Nicholson and Bum from his brass at Crosthwaite 
Chorch. The death is stated to take place on 2 FeK, 1^27, the wiU is 
dated 1 Feb., 1529 [1530 N.S.], 21 Hen. VIII. The rubbings of the 
brass presented by Dr. Charlton furnish the following literatim copy of 
the readiog : — 

Of yo' charite 5y for the soule of f' John Ratclif knyght ^i 
for the state of Dame Alice his wyfe which f ' John dyed y ij 
day of february an** d'i M®v*xxvij 6 whois soule Jhu haue flcy. 

The accuracy of the topographers is thus confirmed, while the doul^e 
date of the will seems to preclude any error in the copy of that docu- 
ment, and the consecutive days of February prove that the same year 
was meant in both records. How, then, shall we account for the discre- 
pancy? From the expression ''state," as applied to the widow, it is 
plain that she wiis alive when the brass was laid down, and the only 
way in which I can account for the evident eiTor in it is this. In the 
instructions to the engraver, Axabic numerals were nsed. The old 7 
with its concave top was very like a 9, and the artist in supplying 
Koman numerals mistooi^ it for one. The error was either undetected, 
or was not considered of sufficient importance to warrant the cost of 
leturaing the plate for correction. 



40 PB0CE£DINOS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The effigies and inscription are aooompanied b j two shields. One has 
the engrailed sable bend of Radolyffe, with an nntinctored rose in the 
sinister chief comer. The other is d'or with two lions passant azure, 
for Sutton or Dudley. You will detect a more feeble treiEitment in the 
-Bxms than in the figures and inscription, as if the former had been sup- 
plied or restored at a later date. Bzcept on the rose^ the present indi- 
•cations of heraldic tinctures are given. These are attributed to the 
Inventiye genius of Sylvester Petm Sanota, a noted herald of Italy, and 
were not used in England in 1527. These shields must therefore have 
been supplied at a later date. 

m * 

The paper concluded by referring to the singular dum set up by a 
person lately resident at Keswick, and now at Whickham. She styles 
herself the Countess Matilda Badclyffe, the title being unwarranted 
•eTen were her pretensions to descend from the son of the last Earl of 
Derwentwater correct. This son is generally understood to have died 
childless in 1731, when his ancle Charles assumed the titular earldom 
«f Derwentwater 4 but the claimant is said to consider that his burial 
was a sham one. 

DoKATiOKs. — From Mr. SaihUme. — Catalogue of a collection tA his- 
torical and topographical works and civil war tracts rdating to the 
oounty of York ; of tracts concerning Sir Thomas Eaizfax ; and of ser- 
mons and other works connected with the county, in Mr. Hailstone's 
library at Horton Hall. 1858. 

Fnnn the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. — A history of the parish of 
Waterbeach, by the Bey* Wm. Eeatinge Clay, vicar. 

Frwn the Jrehaological Imtiiute.'^The ArchsBoIogical Journal, 
No. LIX. 

Dfom Mr, J. G. Bell, — A catalogue of books for sale by him at 11, 
Oxford Street, Manchester. 

'ELEcnoisa.'^ Ordinary Memiere.^^yir. John Stuart, Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Mr. William Hawthorn of fien- 
weU. 



Annual Meeting, 7 February, 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., Y.P., in the Chair. 

€oMinrKicATioir8.~5y the Council'-^The Annual Beport 

" The Council of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

presents, on this day, its forty-sixth annual report, and congratulates 

'the members on the £siyourable position of the Society. The meetings 

have been uniformly well attended, the papers read and communications 



F&OCEfiDlKGS OF THE SOOIETT. 81 

made have exeited attention, and hare girea rise to mucli interesting 
disQfuasion both in the Soeiety and elsewhere. Sereral new members 
have also been elected, and the library and museum hare reoeiyed many 
important additions. The parts composiDg the annual rolume of this 
Arehmloffia have been regularly deliyered at the appointed time, and 
the papers they contain will challenge comparison with any that have 
been published in former yearsr The regularity with which these parts 
appear every three months renders now quite unnecessary a leng^ened 
aonui^ report of all the proceedings of the past twelre montlu^ as in 
eaeh trimestral part a complete recotd is giren of the papers that have 
been read, the donatione that haye been made, and the antiquities that 
have been exhibited at the Society's meetingB. 

'* Hie first part of the SisUry of Northmihfrland, continued by Mr. 
Hodgson Hinde, one of the^Yice-piesidents of the Society, and con- 
taining an able paper by the Bey. Br. Bruce, the Junior Secretary, has 
now been for some time before the public, and your Council would fain 
hope that this important loeal work will not be allowed to remain in its 
unfinished state* 

** Your Counml has also the pleasure of announcing that the great 
work of the 8wp90y of the Bonum Wallf from sea to sea, executed by 
Mr. Maclauehlan, has now been engrayed and printed at the sole exr 
pense of the munificent patron of this Society, His Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland. It is unnecessary now to enlarge on the yast impor* 
tance of this great work, whether as affording a basis for future 
researches, or as tending to elucidate the elaborate yolumes already 
published on the mighty barrier. 

** The thanks, not only of the Society, but of all the arch»ologists of 
Europe, are due to his Grace for this enduring monument of his zeal for 
the aidyanoe of archssological science. 

" The Zapidariim of the JFaU, projected also by his Grace, is now 
steadily proceedings and ere long it is hoped eyery inscription relating 
thQ Roman Wall in Iforthumberland and Cumberland will be accurately 
engrayed, and thus rendered accessible to the antiquary. 

** The completion of the first part of the Hutory of Northumberland^ 
by Mr. Hodgson Hinde, has apparently giyen rise to an undertaking of 
a similac character and of great local interestr— yiz., a proposal for a new 
Sietory of JVewcMtle-upothlk/ne. Materials for this work had long been 
accumulated by Mr. George Bouchier Bichardson, formerly a member of 
this Society, before he left this country for Australia ; and these papers 
and collections being still ayailable, certain members of the Society are 
now engaged in preparing them for the press, wiUi all the additional 
information that has been collected since the publication of Brand and 
Mackenzie. In the completion and perfecting of this work, eyery mem- 
ber of the Society will, your Council feels assured, lend a helping hand, 
so that at length when the History is brought out, it may be worthy of 
the great town from whence the Society deriyes its name. 

** Your Council would also call attention to the fact, that since the 
decease of the late Corporation Warder of the Castle, no fresh appoint- 
ment has been made by the Corporation, and the flag, which on certain 
appointed days used to waye from the summit of the keep, has not again 



32 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

been hoisted. The Society, your Conacil feels assured, would gladly 
undertake the hoisting of the flag by the hands of its own officer ; and 
would request that the custody of the powder room, the only apartment 
in tiie keep hitherto kept closed, may be handed over to their custody. 

** The hope expressed last year that fresh accommodation might ere 
this be prepared for the Society's increasing collection, has not been 
realised, for no arrangements have yet been made relative to the final 
disposal of the property immediately adjoining the Castle. 

" Since the last annual meeting, the Society has received a consider- 
able accession of new members ; but it has likewise sustained a most 
serious loss by the death of one of its chiefest ornaments — the Bey. Dr. 
Baine, of Crook Hall, in Durham. It will long be remembered that 
one of the last appearances of this eminent antiquary in pubUc was on 
the occasion of the last annual meeting of this Society; and none can 
forget the acuteness of investigation he then displayed relative to the 
authorship of the ChiUingham inscriptions. In acquaintance with 
ancient records, and especiidly with those relating to the North of Eng- 
land, Dr. Baine was probably unrivalled. As the historian of Kortii 
Durham, and a most extensive contributor to the invaluable publications 
of the Surtees Society, his name will be always honoured ; but it was 
reserved for those who enjoyed his-Mendship to appreciate the geniid 
warmth of his disposition, and the wonderful stores of local information 
which he possessed." 

The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the Beport, cordially con- 
curred in the expressions of deep regret with which the death of Dr. 
Baine, his valued and long-esteemed friend,*was recorded in the Beport. 
His great work, the Sutary of North Durham, would bear comparison 
with any topographical production that had ever issued from the press 
of this country ; but, valuable as it was, it was exceeded, in his estima- 
tion, by the contributions which its author had made to historical and 
archsaological literature in the volumes of the Surtees Society. His 
glossaries to many of these publications not only threw great light upon 
words, but gave an insight of the manners and customs of past ages, 
the value of which it was almost impossible to over-estiniate. Dr. 
Baine had reached an advanced period of life; but still, they had fondly 
hoped that for many years to come they would have had the pleasure and 
advantage of his presence amongst them. It had pleased Providence 
otherwise ; and they could only lament the great loss which they had 
sustained by his death, and endeavour, by all the means in their power, 
worthily to do honour to his niemory. 

7?y the Editor, — A paper on the relics said to be those of Beda, and 
on -Sllfred Westou and his family, the hereditary priests of Hexham. 
Printed, p. 11. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 33 

T)oirATioifs. — F)rom the Rev, James Raine, — A flat stone, inscribed 
BELLiNv on its front edge, haying the appearance of having laid in a 
wall, string-course fashion, or served as the indication stone under a 
statue. It was found at Piercebridge, and has for some years been pre- 
served by the donor's father, the late Dr. Raine, at Crook Hall, Durham. 
See the proceedings of the next meeting for a communication relative to 
this stone, from Dr. Raine's brother, the Rev. John Raine. — ^Another 
stone from the same localities, ornamented with a sort of embattled 
tooling.— Several pieces of Roman pottery, picked up by Dr. Raine and 
his son, the donor, at Binchester. One of them, an amphora jar, is 
is stamped ve+pi. — A cast of the oafrontis found in the grave of Vene- 
rable Beda. 

M-om Mr, Stuart. — His magniflcent volume on the sculptured stones 
of Scotland, published by the Spalding Club. 

Ri/ Mr. St. John Crookes.'-^A true relation of the Scots taking of 
Cocket Island, 1644. — ^Mr. Mylne's Report on Tyne Bridge in 1772. 

M-om the Canadian Institute. — The Canadian Journal, November, 
1858, N.S. No. XYIII. 

Exhibitions, — By Mr. JEdw. Thompson. — A water-colour drawing of 
Newcastle, from Pandon Dene, by Waters. 

By Dr. Bruce. — A circumcision knife, set with garnets, and differing 
in shape from the type now used. It belonged to the widow of the 
late rabbi of Newcastle, in whose family it is said to have been for 300 
years. 

By the Bditor.-^A. silver spoon, with foliated knob formerly gilded, 
and marked si* It was lately found at Newcastle, and bears the hall 
mark Q cusped outwardly, for 1613. "We can have little hesitation 
in associating it with Buhner He, an extensive grocer and apothecary, 
who married his first wife, Agnes Cock,, in 1612, and was the only inha- 
bitcmt with the rare combination of initials B. I. in a position to have 
such a spoon. More particulars of He may be seen in the History of 
Darlington, Ixxxvii. ; but the following extract from his will, remain- 
ing amongst those proved at Durham in 1675, is more full than that 
given by Mr. Surtees :— 

22 Jan. 1638. 14 Car. Bulmer He of Newcastle, merchant. To be 
buryed within the parishe church of St. Nicholas, within the towne of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, within the south porch lately buylte, under my 
owne blew stone theare, the which stone I bought from a quarry att the 
Heughe, co. Northumberland. TJnto Anne my wif all that burgage 
whearein I nowe dwell within the said towne of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
in a streete theare called the Sidd, with the estate and tearme of yeares 

TOL. lY, P 



84 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

I nowe bave in two gardinges' upon the backe part of tbe said bni^age, 
for her weadowhood, [rem.] sonne Robert [in tail]. Unto my said 
8onn one bowse in Darlington, in the Church Rowe, with 4 beastes 
gaites on Branking Moore, with 2 other bowses in the Church Rowe 
[in fee]. Unto mj said sonne all my term of yeares in 4 beastes gaites 
in Branking Moore, 1 horse gaite in tjie ould stint, with 2 beastes gaites 
in the ould stint. Unto my said sonne one beare bowle of eolyer, 
one booke called Jarrard's Harbell, one booke called Rastell's Statutes, 
one gunn called Harquabus de Crack, with the furniture theareunto be- 
longing. ITnto my sonne James He that burgage in Newcastle in the 
Sidd which I lately, bought of Chr. Aeirson of Durham, yeoman. 
Neither the said James nor his heires shall erecte any thinge hurtfnll for 
any of the leightes of that burgage whearein I now dwell. Unto the 
said James one house in Darlington, in the Church Rowe, and the terme 
of yeares in foure pasture gaites in Branking Moore, which I have under 
demise, those closes called Darlington Waists, and the tearme of yeares 
in all that large close called the Lowe Parke, within the territories of 
Darlington, under demise of Mr. WiUiam Warmouth, marchaunt and 
alderman, one booke called Turner's Harbell in Englishe, a booke called 
the Generall Practice of Phesiek, and a booke called the Method of 
Phesick, and one musket with the furniture theareunto belonging. 
Unto my daughter Anne He that great burgage in Darlington called the 
Bull Inne,' nowe or late in the occupation of John Ward, merchaunte, 
one other house in Darlington, with 7 pasture gates, according to the 
ould stinte in Branking Moore, to the said Bull Inn [in tail, rem.] to' 
the right heires of me. Unto the said Anne three skoze pounds, one 
wyne bowle parceU guylt, with the Sarizannces head upon the same, 
and also half a dozen of silver spoones. Unto my daughter Marie lie 
my burgage or tenement and garth which I lately purchased of John 
!Kinge, feltmaker, in Gatesid, in Pipewelgaite, nowe or late in the seve- 
rail tenners and occupacions of William Gibbins, tanner, and Raphe 
Rutter, glover, [in tail, rem.] to the right heires of me. Unto [my 
father-in-lawe Mr. Lawrence Pollard and to his wif erased'] ElizabetiL 
Pollard, weadow, 40«. My brother-in-lawe Richard Pollerd. My bro- 
ther-in-lawe John Lunn and his wif and children. My brother-in-lawe 
John Smyth. My cozen William Greetam and his wif and two sonnes, 
Christofer and Henry. [My cozen Richard Boulron and his wif erased,'] 
Jane Lainge [theire daughter erased,] Anne Boulron [theire daughter 
erased.] My cozen Elizabeth Anderson. [My sister Grace Errington, 
her two children, erased.] [Elizabeth and Anne Coates, interlined hut 
erased,] 

Resolutions. — ^That application be made as soon as possible to the 
Corporation for part of the groimd near the Castle, on which to erect a 

1 Fart of the Castle libeitieB. 

' It adjoined the Bull Wynd, which formed its eastern boundary, and is now prin- 
cipally used as offices by Messrs. Mewbum, Hutchinson, and Mewbum. A great 
stone bull; the crest of JBulmer, is still extant in the renewed buildings, with the in- 
scription, ANTHONE BYLUER AND If ABIB LASIMBIE, 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE SOCIETY. 86 

museam for the deposit of antiquities; and that the Chairman, Mr. 
Thomas Gray, Mr. Oregson, and the Secretaries, he appointed a com- 
mittee to make the arrangements. 

That this Society learns with pleasure that the Archaeological Institute 
are again ahout to visit the North of England, Carlisle heing selected as 
the place of their country meeting next summer, and desires to state to 
the Council of the ArchsBological Institute that they will he happy to 
co-operate with them and the Carlisle committee, so as to contribute to 
the success of the meeting. 

Elections. — Patron. — His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G. 

President. — Sir John Swinburne, Bart, 

Vice-Presidents. — The Right Hon. Lord Rarensworth, Sir Charles 
M. L. Monck, fiart., John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., and John Clayton, Esq. 

Treasurer. — ^Matthew Wheatley, Esq. [Mr. Eenwick retiring from 
the duties of the office.] 

Secretaries. — ^Dr. Charlton and the Rev. Dr. Bruce. 

Council. — The Rev. Edward Hussey Adamson, the Rev. James Raine, 
Messrs. Thomas Bell, William Dickson, John Dobson, Martin Dunn, 
John Fenwick, William Kell, W. Hylton Dyer Longstaffe, Edward 
Spoor, Robert White, and William Woodman. 



Monthly Meeting, 2 March, 1859. 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., Y.P., in the Chair. 

CoMMxrNicA.TioNS.— i^ow Mr. Way.^^^ letter, expressive of gratifi- 
cation at the course taken by the Society with respect to the Carlisle 
Congress of the Archaeological Institute. 

From Dr. J. J. Mbward.^^A. copy of Cooke's grant of arms to Trinity 
HaU, Cambridge, dated 17 Sep., 1575, from the original in the Hall 
Library. The operative part is as follows :— 

Wheras the CoUedg or Hall comonly called Trinitie Hall, within the 
TJniversitie of Cambridg, incorporated by the name of Maister, fellowes, 
and scollers of the Colledg or Hall of the Holy Trinity, in the ITniver- 
sitie of Cambridg, was fownded by William Bateman, Bishop of Nor- 
wich. Nevertheles the Maister, fellowes, and scollers of the same 
Colledg or Hall, not willing to preiadice any other Corporation, have 
required me, the saide Clarencieulx King of Armes, to sett foorth and 
allowe unto their saide Colledg or Hall, such armes and creast as may 
be lawfully borne, which their reasonable request consider'd, and at the 



36 FB0C££DIN6S OF THfi SOOIETT. 

inBtance of Henry Heruy, Eequier, Doctor of Law, I have sett foorth 
and allowed the armes and creast herafter following. That is to say. 
Sables a cressant, a border ermyns : and to the creast uppon the healme. 
On a wreath silyer and sables, a lion seant gnles holding a booke, the 
coyer sables, the leaves gold : manteled gules, dobled silver : as more 
plainly apperith depicted in this margent. 

Mr. Howard remarks that the bonlare is described as plain and not 
engrailed, as a distinction between the coat episcopal and corporate, but 
the Corporation have not observed the herald's dictum. The seals of 
Bishop Bateman, the founder (1343 to 1353), are described by Mr. 
Bayfield in his descriptive catalogue of the seals of the bishops of Nor- 
wich prior to the Reformation, in the Proceedings of the Norfolk and 
Norwich Archseological Society, from impressions, B. M. No. 99, a.d. 
1351, and No. 100, a.d. 1354; the arms in both cases being sable, a 
crescent ermine, in a border engrailed argent. A large circular silver 
seal of the hall, inscribed " * S* Colleen . Scolariu* : aula . S*<fe . 
trinitM . de Norwico . in . Vnivercitat : Canfehr ;" gives the Trinity and 
the same coat as on the bishop's seals< The same objects are on a 
pointed oval silver seal, inscribed " <£ Sigillu^ cmtodis CoUegij S'de 
trinitaf Cantehrtg.*' The Hall also possesses a somewhat worn circular 
bronze seal, ascribed to the celebrated Stephen G6u*diner, when Master 
of the College, about 1525. It gives the crescent and engrailed border 
(no ermine is visible), and a rough legend, read by Mr. Howard as 
Sigillum Stephani i/[agistri] a[ul8B] ^[initatis] C(««[tabrigi8e]. The 
present bookplate of the Hall gives the crescent and engrailed border 
both ermine. 

By Dr, Charlton. — A notice of golden objects found near Alnwick. 

Discoveries of gold articles of antiquity always create great interest, 
not only from the intrinsic value of the metal, but from the readiness 
with which it could be worked into shape, even by the rudest hands. 
Few such discoveries have, however, been made in Northumberland : at 
least very few have been laid before the public, the unfortunate position 
of the law of tieasure trove in England consigning almost all articles of 
value directly to the melting-pot. How much of the present find has 
gone that way, we do not venture to determine ; but we believe that the 
amount of gold found on this occasion was but smalls About ten years 
ago, during the excavations for the branch line to Alnwick, some navi- 
gators observed a glittering object among the soil they were casting up. 
"We have obtained most imperfect accounts of what they really found. 
Some have said that a grave was opened, and that it contained urns : 
others that a metal spear or sword handle was discovered, to which the 
gold was attached. At all events, a scramble immediately took place 
for the prize, in which (some say) the urn was broken ; but the confused 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETT. 87 

accounts that hare been given me are not to be relied upon. ThQ gold 
in question consists of thin plates of yarious shapes, and of a piece of 
gold wire. The pieces Nos. 1 and 2 are about half an inch in breadth 
and 4-lOths, and four inches and a half in length. From their peculiar 
shape, it is obvious that they Jiave been placed round some spherical 
object, such as the knob of a da^'ger handle, or on the shaft of a spear or 
hilt of a sword. There is a rude attempt at ornamentation around the 
larger margin, but we are not sure that these lines may not have been 
indented while the gold was being afi^ed to the handle or knob which 
it ornamented. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are flat plates of gold, pointed at the ends. These seem 
to have been affixed round a dagger handle or sword hilt. At aU events 
they ornamented some object of uniform thickness throughout. 

No. 5 is the piece of gold wire, about Ave inches long, not quite solid, 
but partially hollow. 

It seems to us quite possible that all these fragments were attached 
to one weapon, to judge from their size and peculiar shape. 

Nos. 6 have evidently been destined for a different object, the form of 
which we cannot conjecture. They consist of very thin plates of gold, 
mdely hammered together at the angles, and ornamented with a circular 
stamped of concentric rings. The object to which these gold plates 
were attached must have been angular in form, as in one or two of the 
plates there are angles produced Uke the angles of a casket. The line 
of the ornaments, however, is more circular, as if they had been im- 
printed on the rim of a cup. These plates of gold were much crushed 
when they came into our possession ; possibly they had been detached 
with violence from the object they ornamented. Whether that object 
is still in existence we know not. 

As to the age of these gold plates, &c., it is difficult to flx for them 
any exact period. The stamp impressed on them resembles closely that 
found on several gold ornaments of the Bronze age, in the Museum of 
Copenhagen —but they may be of early British or of Saxon date. 

From the Committee for the Extension of the Soeietp^e Museum^-^A. 
recommendation that the Society should petition the Corporation of 
Newcastle for the plot of ground lying between the railway viaduct and 
the Black Gate. Adopted. 

I^om the Rev, John Raine. — A paper in elucidation of the stone from 
Piersebridge, inscribed " bbllinv," presented by the Kev. James Eaine 
to the Society. The writer identifies the solar divinity, who was known 
by the Celtic tribes as Beli, Belis, Belen, Belatucader, and Abellion^ 
with Baal^of the East and Apollo of the Greeks, and instances the curi- 
ous conjoined title found at Aquileia, " apollini bbleno c . aqvileivs . 
FELIX." So, also, for Transalpine Gaul, Ausonius calls the priest of 
Belenus by the name of Phoebitius. Tertullian gives Belenus as the 
deity especially worshipped at Noricum. In Cumberland, numerous in- 
scriptions have been found addressed to Belatucardus (». e., Belenus the 



38 PEOOEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

braye, as Gkde supposes). In Ireland, Baal, according to Yallancey, who 
finds numerous idlusions to him in names, appears to have been wor- 
shipped, as by the Carthaginians, in a direct address to the luminary, 
and not through the medium of images. Mr. Raine, after tracing Zabi* 
anism aU over the world, from the time of Job to the discovery of it in 
Mexico by the Spaniards, remarks that it is unnecessary to suppose that 
so natural a tendency in the heart spread from nation to nation, and 
giyes some curious proofs that the yarious deities of later polytheism had 
their origin in a common idea. Thus the Orphic poet declares that 
Protogonus, Fhares, Priapus, Titan, Helius, Jupiter, Pan, Hercules, 
Cronus, Prometheus, Bacchus, Apollo, Pean, Adonis, and Cupid are aU 
one divinity. Others add Osiris, Mithras, Belus, Ammon, Apis, Se- 
rapis, and Phaeton to this list. It is right to add, that Mr. Raine's 
paper was previously read to the Society in 1834, but forgotten in the 
long cessation of the Arehmohgia.- Since that time, many writers have 
laboured on the same subject, and fallen upon the same evidences. 

. DoFATiOKS.— Ji-om JKb Oraoe the Duke of Northumberland, IT.G. — 
The Eoman Wall and Illustrations of the principal Vestiges of Koman 
Occupation in the North of England, from original surveys made by 
direction of His Grace, by Mr. Madauchlan, in 1857. 

lyom 8%r Matthew White Eidleif, Bart — Reprints of the following 
curious publications of the 17th century :— The Man in the Moon, Dis- 
covering a World of Knavery under the Sunne, from Nov. 14 to Nov. 
21, 1649. — (A royalist print, with Charles II.'s declaration). The 
Commonwealth Mercury, from Sep. 2 to Sep. 9, 1658, (containing an 
account of Oliver Cromwell's death and the proclamation of Eichard, 
and some curious advertisements; one reading thus : — '' That excellent, 
and by all physitians approved, China Drink, called by the Chineans, 
Tcha, by other nations, Tay or Tee, is sold at the Sultaness Head, a 
cophee-house in Sweeting's Eents, by the Koyal Exchange, London.")^- 
The Commonwealth Mercury, from Nov. 18 to Nov. 25, 1658, (with an 
account of Oliver's funeral.) — The Fire of London, 1666. — Mercurius 
Domesticus, No. 1, Dec. 19, 1679. (All these have curious advertise- 
ments.) 

IVom Dr. Koward. — Impressions of the seals and booki)late of Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, named in his paper. 

£y Dr. Charlton.'^The gold objects named in his paper, as found 
near A.lnwick. 

I^om the Kilkenny ArchcBohgical Society. -^Wa Transactions, Yol. II. 
N. S., No. XVIII. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 59 

^om Mr, James Yates. — The Decimal System of Measures, Weights, 
€uid Money, by William Arthur Jones, M.A. — 1857. 

ExBiBiTioK.-— ^y Mr. Fenwioh^-^L French jetton, and a modem cop- 
per coin, from Hexham. 

]<]LBCTioir. — As an Ordinary Member. — Mr. Benjamin Plummer, jun. 

Kesolftioits.— That the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 
be supplied with such parts of the Arohaologia ^liana as it does not 
cdready possess, and as this Society can supply. 

That the Lord Mayor and Council of York be respectfully requested 
not to destroy the only remaining barbican in their city — that of Walm- 
gate Bar. [See proceedings of 6 April.] 



Monthly Meeting, 6 April, 1859. 

John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., Y,P., in the Chair. 

CoMMUNicA-TiONS. — From the Lord Mayor of York — A copy of the fol- 
lowing resolution of the Council of that city, at a special meeting held 
14 March : — 

That the memorials now presented against the entire or partial de- 
struction of the Barbican at Walmgate Bar, from the subcribers to the 
restoration of the city walls between Walmgate Bar and the Red Tower, 
from the Lincolnshire Architectural Society, from the Yorkshire Archi- 
tectural Society, from the Council of ike Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, from the York Institute of Popular Science and Literature, 
from the Society of Antiquaries of London, from the York School of 
Art, and from the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, be 
entered upon the minutes. And this Council desires to express its ap- 
proval of the sentiments they contain, and its anxious wish to preserve 
inviolate those interesting remains of antiquity which are placed in the 
hands, and therefore under the guardianship, of the Corporation of 
York. 

jFVom the Committee for the Extension of the Society's Museum.^-^K re- 
port that the Committee of the Council of the Borough had liberally 
arranged for the sale of the ground between the Castle and the Black 
Gate for 1,000^. 

From the Rev. D. H. Haigh. — A notice of an Anglo-Saxon or Teutonic 
inscription at Tune, in Norway. 

Donations. — By Mr. Einde, V. P. — Chronicon Florentii Wigomiensis, 
2 vols. : Henrici Quinti, Regis Anglice, Gesta : Chronique de la traison 




40 PROCEEDINGS OP THE SOCIETY. 

et mort de Ric. II. : Adami MarimuUienBiB Chronica : Gesta Stepbani 
Eegis: F. Nicholai Trivetide, Ordine Frat. Fraedicatorum, Annales: 
Chronicon Domini Walteri de Hemiogburgh, 2 vols : together 9 vols. 
(I, p.) of the English Historical Society's Fublications. 

By Mr. JE, Thompson. — ^A framed impression of Nesbit's cut of St. 
Nicholas Church, Newcastle. 

From the Canadian Institute, — The Canadian Journal, N. S., No. XIX. 
Jan. 1859. 

From the Archceologioal Institute. — The Archseological Journal, No. 
60, 1858. 

From M. Boucher de Perthes. — ^His Yoyage en Espagne et en Algerie 
en 1855, 1859. 

From Mr. Sainthill. — His Defence of the British School of Medal 
Engraving, 1859. 

From Mr. John Adhins Barton. — ^His Diary of a Month's Tour in the 
South of France, 1859. 

Exhibitions. — From His Oraee the Duke of Northumberland^ K. G. — 
A bronze signet ring bearing a lion passant, of poor execution. It was 
fonnd in Mr. Clutterbuck's garden at Warkworth. — A pilgrim's token 
of lead, found at the allotment gardens at the Moor Edge, near Alnwick, 
and presenting the upper half of a human figure. It seems to have 
been worn as a brooch. Mr. Gregson observed that, the Armenian 
priests at the present day bestowed a token upon pilgrims by a painful 
tatooing. At the request of the members he exhibited a well executed 
figure of the crucifixion and the date 1838 which had thus been placed 
on his own arm at the Holy City. 

Eesoltjtions.-— That the country meeting of the Society this year be 
held at Carlisle, in connection with that of the Archseological Institute. 

That of the Survey of the Eoman Wall presented by the Duke of 
Northumberland, the letterpress only shall be allowed to circulate. 



41 



TWO PAPERS CONCERNING EICEMOND.* 

I. " Db. Smith of Easby about thb Plaqitb if Richmokb." 

GiYEN out for the good of the town of Richmond which was visited with 
the plague from about Martinass, anno 1644, untUl about the same time 
1645, in which sickness dyed in all about 700 persons, Mr. Brodrick 
being then alderman. 

Cabe ottght to BE TAKEN. I. W%o should — FoUow, 1. That every one 
be brought (as much as may be) to a sensible feeleinge and humble con* 
fession of there sins : for in the time of pestilence harty prayer will 
prevaile where costly medicines cannot operate. 2. That every one use 
constantly some preservative or other, because where the disease once 
catcheth hold it is to be feared that then sero medicina paratur. 3. 
That the poorer sort use to eate every mominge, rue, sage, sorrell, &c., 
and it is good to mix with there meats vinegre and verjuyce — richer 
sort provide themselves of more efiEectuaU antidotes. 4. That if any be 
forced to go abroad in any danger that they either— chew the roote of 
zedoary, anglica, pimpemell, enula campaigne, &c., — carry about them 

a sprigg of wormwood, rue, or mug wort, &c. Avoyde, 1. That every 

one keep his house from all filthinesse, sluttishnesse, ill smells and cor- 
ruption, and that all streets, channells, stables and other houses of office 
be made clean. 2. For prohibiting unnecessary and sportfuU con- 
courses and meetings of people and (if possible it could be) noe man 
suffered to frequent other mens houses. 3. That every one either kill 
or keep close there swine, doggs, catts, &c. 4. Let there be noe exces- 
siveness neither in meate nor drink. 5. That in muddy and moyst 
weather (especially when the wind is in the south) that every one keep 
there doores and windowes close shutt. 

II. Direetiom for the Plague both what the Infected should — Follow, 

1. That if any find themselves not well or ill at ease, that (forthwith 
without delay) they take some advise for preventing further danger. 

2. That if the sicknesse catch any imediatly after meals, that presently 
they force themselves to vomitt either by finger, feather, &c., and then 
get something of the doctor to expell the poyson by sweate, taking after 
some cordiall medecine. 3. That the infected fumigate their houses 
once or twice a day, with pitch, rozen, brimstone, frankensence, juniper, 
&c the doctor, truly informe hiro of all symptomes, and acci- 

' From old copies in the possession of Mr. Denham of Pieitwbridge. 
VOL. rv, Q 



42 TWO PAPERS CONCERXIXG RICHMOND. 

dents that befall the infected, as lax, costiveness, sleepeing, wakeing, 

dissinesse, doteioge, thirstinesse, vomitings, &c. Avoyde, 1. That if 

the party infected be giyen much to slnmberinge and sleepe (especially 
in the begininge) that he be kept wakeinge, for much sleep is hurtfull. 
2. That if nature ezpell the venome outwardly to some of the emunc- 
tories, either by botch, blish, [or] carbuncle, tiiat then you assist her 
by layinge too an attractive suppurative and mollyfyinge cataplasme, 
and, in great danger, (if you please) you may with a lancett or sharp 
penknife superficially scanfye Uie place, 

III. Clensera and Watchmen should — Follow. 1. That in clensinge 
they remove all (or most) things, fumigateinge the house with odorifer- 
ous smells, and purify inge cloathes with diligent washing and airinge. 
2. That watch be strictly kept both orer the infected and densers, and 
that the watchmen be admonished not to venture over furr, least they 
indanger both themselves and others, and be forced to come of with a 
'* too late, had I wist ! " 3. That where any house falls foul, that the 
householder be admonished to make an inventory of his goods (as near 
as may be), the copy of which in time of danger may be given to the 
magistrate, least, in densing, they be imbezilled and purloyned. 4. 
That there should be some convenient remote place chosen where the 
infected corps should be buryed and not be sufiEered to be brought to the 
common church- varde. 5. That the watchmen and those that are 
visitors of the sick deliver them nothing, but they observe still to goe 

(as they call it) on the wind-hand of them. Avoyde, 1. That there be 

none suffered to dense but such as have had experience and are known 
to be honest, upright, and skilftdl persons. 2. That they assume not 
that office for private gaine and filthy lucre, but that they be carefull 
and diligent, npt slubbering things over halfe done. 8. That they come 
in no man's company that's dear, neither any suffered to come at them. 

4. That none be permitted to bury the deade but either such as have 
had the sicknesse, or else those that are lately est sent to the pest-houses. 

5. That those which are sent to the pest-houses be not all shutt up to- 
gether, neither those which came last in suffered to accompany them 
that came first, but that they may have severall particions according to 
the degree of danger. 

Where medicines effect, give God the glory. 



II. A ** Petition op the Towne op Bichhond for an Augmentation to 

THiOB MlNISTEB." 

To the Honorable the Trustees for Maintenance of Ministers: The 
HUMBLE PETiciON of the aldcrmeu and burgesses of the Burrough of Bich- 
mond, in the county of Yorke, on the behalfe of themselves, and many 
thousands inhabitants in and about the said towne ; Humbly sheweth — 
That the said towne is a very auntient burrough, populous and very full 
of poore by reason of the manufacture of makeing stockings here, being 



TWO PAPERS CONOEENING EICHMOND. 43 

the only trade they have to gett their liveljhood by, and which, in re- 
gard they make them of a course sort, afoards them but a very meane 
subsistance. — That there is a very great market weekely kept there, to 
which is great resort by the Bale-men comeing from Wenser-dale, 
Swadale, Coverdale, Bisshopp-dale, and other dales, being persons of the 
most ignorant and under sort of people. — That the place hath been for 
a long tyme supplyed by a weake and meane ministry, and that often 
changed, by reason that the yearely maintenance for maynte)'ning a 
minister there is not above 50/f. per annum, whereby the inhabitants 
and the neighboring people resorting frequently to that towne have been 
kept in great ignorance, and for want of a painefuU and able minister 
amonge them are like still to bee contynued in the same sad condicion, 
unless a better provission bee made for them by some augmentacion of 
maintenance for an able and godly minister to reside among them. — All 
which considered, and forasmuch as His Highness and the counceU have 
in a speciall manner recomended it unto your honours to make provission 
and give encouragement for the ministers in market townes and populous 
places by setling.an addicion of maintenance to the ministers thereof, 
THB PETicioNERs doc most humbly beseech your honours to take the 
premisses into consideracion, and to graunt such a considerable aug- 
mentation as may bee an incouragement for a minister of parts and 
abillityes to reside in soe remote a part of the nation. And they shall 
ever pray, &c. 



44 



LETTER FROM ARCHBISHOP PARKER AS TO BISHOP 

TTJN8TALUS BURIAL.* 

My Lord of Dur[e8me] hath one of his ezecntorB here,' the other is in 
the North, wher also is his testament. This executor saith that his 
mynd was to he homly and playnly buryed.' Consider you wether yt 
wer not best to prescribe som honest maner of his entyeryng, lest it 
might ellys be cyyl juged that the order of his funeral wer at the 
cownsayls apoyntment, not knowen abrode that the handeling of yt 
wer only at his executors liberalytie. 

I have sealed up ij small caskates wherin I thinke no grete substance 
eyther of moneye or of wrytinges. Ther is one roll of bokes, which I 
purposed to delyyer to the Queue, which is nothing ellys but King 
Henryes testament/ and a boke eonira eom^unicationsm utriusque spec. 
and such mater. His bodye, by reason of his soden departure, cannot 
be long kept. Thus Jesus preserve youe. This xviijth of Novembre. 

Your beidman, M. C. 

To the right honorable Mr. Secretarye. 

[/»(forW] 18 th Novembr. 1559. 



* Domestic State Papers, temp. Eliz. yii. 39. 

* The executors were " Dr. Hyndmer my chancellor of Dttreme, Nicholas ThomeU, 
and Sir John Timstairs sonne, of Houghton." The will was proved 30 Jan. 1659, 
by Nich. Thornell, Dr. Hindmer being dead. See extracts from the will, 1 Sur. IzvlL 

5 He directed his "funeral to be without all pomp and vanity," if in London in St. 
Paul's, next his old friend Thomas Linacre, physician. He was, however, buried in 
the chancel of Lambeth church, at the charge, as is generally stated, of Archbishop 
Parker, Uie writer of the letter in the text, in whose " free custody" he died. 

^ Is this the document postponing the Scotch succession to that of the House of 
SuiFoUc of which Bishop Tunstall was an executor ? Or is an early print of the New 
Testament alluded to ? 



4d 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

/. COPIES OF RECORDS. 
[1334.] iNQUis. Ao 8 Edw. III. (EB. 1124. Box J.) 

LiNQUESTE prise a Noeefchastett s**' Tyne le Lundy ^ chein deuant 
la fest de la Natiuite seint John le Baptistre Lan du Regne du 
Boy Edward tierce puis le conqueste eytisme :^ Deuant John de 
Denton mair de la dit ville de Noefchastett p comandement sire 
John de Hildeley & sire Ambros de NeoburgK Clercs le dit nre 
Seign" le Roy p s?ement John Reynald GilBt de Oggitt Adam 
Page Wau? de Couyngtre Willa de Tympron Hugfi de Coleuilt 
Bog de Brighton Witte de Wylom Roftt de Necton John Potter 
John de Aynewik & Alayn Pulhore. Les queux iurez dyent 
q<'nt au pount de hors la porte q' le dit pount est assiez soffisant 
sauf la CoTierte q' faut une Rode & dj. des plancheurs q' valent 
accatre xx s. It' ix" des clouwes valent vij s. vj d. It' la car- 
J)entrie vaut xx s. 

It' q"nt a Heronpit ils dient q' ceo est tot pri & de nult value. 
It' ils dient q' ceo poete estr' redresce de xx gistes q' valent ac- 
catr' de nouele xxx s. It' iij Rode des plancheurs valent xl s. 
It' iiij** clouwes valent x s. It' la carpentrie de Heronpit vaut 
XX s. 

It* la seccond porte covient estre redresce de nouele & vaut 
loveraigne de cele en tot mafie des coustages c s. 

It' q^nt ala mesone del Eschekier ils dient q' la dit mesone est 
assiez soffisant sauf la defaute de couerte & de merime & de 
plum q' poet estre redresce de x mars. 

It' q»nt ala g»nt sale le Roy ils dient q' il ad defaute pie West de 
une fenest^ de iiij foilles oue la Gable de merime et vij Couples 
de Cheuerons dount le marime est emporte & vaut acchatr' de 
nouele xx s. It' la charpentrie de cele vaut xxvi a viij d. It' 
les ferres & les clouwes & loueraigne de ferr' valent x s. It' la 
maceonrie dedeinz la dit sale poete estre redresce de Ix s. It' 
yfaute une foille de une aAitre fenestre dont le merime vaut p 
aocatr' ^ d. & la Carpentre \j d. It' les ferres & les clouwes 



46 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

xij d. It' la Couerte de plum y&ut q' amount a iy piers de plum 
q' valent aocatr- c s. iV en les ij Gables faiUent ij fenestras 
roundes de verr* q' valent accatr' de nouele xxyj s. viij d. It' 
loueraigne de yoeles vaut xxvj s. viij d. It' dep lest de la dite 
sale &ute de la couerte de plum & de Bordes q* poete estr' re- 
dresce de ij' Bord q' valent accatre xxvj a viij d. It* il poete 
estre redresce de Couerte de \^s Lest de viij" xl pier de plum q' 
valent accatr' xxv li. It' p chascon Bode couerire vaut le 
plumerie vj a viij d. It' la charpentrie de iy Bord p lattere vaut 
ziij s. iiij d. It' les clouwes au dit oueraigne vaut xiij s. iiij d. 

It' q'nt ala Chamber de Boy oue le Celere de souz poeunt estre 
redressez de merime b de caipentrie de x li. It' la couerte q' 
faute de plum amount a oc piers q' valent accatr' vj li It' la 
maceonrie si ele doit astre apparaille de nouele vaut xx li. It' 
q*nt ala Qwysine dedeinz la mantaille est tot perri & de nutt 
value & poete estr' fait de nouele de x mars. It q*nt ala Pane* 
trie & la Botellerie les defautes prount redressez de merime & 
de carpentrie de xl s. It' la coGture de meisme ceux poete estre 
redrescez de c pier de plum q' valent accatr' iij li. 

It' q*nt ala Gemers les defautes poeunt estr' redrescez de xx s. 

Item quant a la Chapelle elle poet estre redresse des totes les 
defautes des x li. 

Item q*nt a la g«nnte Tour j ad defaute de plumberie q' ne 
poet estre redresse des moyns q' des xx m*r. 

Item la defaute de mazonnerie de la dite Tour de amender 
vaut vj m*r. 

Item ils dient qe y auoit ime Meson p amount lentre de la 
dite Tour & couent estre fiedte de nouelle dount la meerime & la 
Carpentrie valent x li. 

Item totes les defautes enuironn le Chastel des Torelles & des 
mures poent estre redressez des xvi U. x s. 

Item la Mesone de la Baronie de Bolbek' q est en la meyn 
Sire Bauf de Neuitt & Sire Willam de Hercle poet estre re- 
dresse des XX li. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de Baliol 
quele Baronie est eu la meyn la Countesse de Penel^r poet estre 
redresse des c s. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de Werk' 
quele Baronie est en la meyn Sire Witte de Mountagu poet estre 
redresse des xx H. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de Oesford 
& Dyueleston quele Baroirie est en la meyn Sire Thomas Sur* 
tays & Sire Witte de Tyndale poet estre faifce des x m'r. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de Caugy 
qest en la meyn EolSt de Clifford du nouel lieu poet estre fidta 
des X m*r. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 47 

Item la Mesone qe deit esti-e sustenue de la Baronie de Whal- 
toD qest en la meyn Sire Gefiroi le Scrop poet estre faite des 
X m"r. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de Herona 
qest en la nxeyn Sire John Darcy le Cosyn poet estre faite des 
X m"r. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de la 
Yale qest en la meyn Sire Bobt de la Yale poet estre faite des 
X m*r. 

Item la Mesone qe deit estre sustenue de la Baronie de Bothale 
qest en la meyn Sire RoSt Bertram poet estre redresse des 
X m*r. 

Item ils dient q' totes les dites mesones queles le Boi deit 
faire poeint au' estie sustenues p la mise des c s. 

Item ils dient qe il y ad de plum iour de ceste endenture faite 
en chastel auauntdit iy piers p esme. 

Item ils dient que Sire Bog^ Mauduyt taunt come il fust vis* 
counte liffa a Sire Willam de Felton Ix pieres de plum. 

Item ils dient qen temps des difises Yiscountes qe aunt este 
puis la bataille de Bannokburn pluseurs Chares & Charoites 
cunt este remises en Chastel auauntditz a^s le deptir le Roi en 
la garde des viscountes q' ount este queux Chares & Charettea 
nule ne est ore remia En testmoignaunce de quele chose lea 
ditz Jurours a ceste enquest' ount mis leurs seals. Don au 
Chastel auaunt dit le vj jour de JuyL Lan auaunt ditz. 

Endorsed. — Hanc inquisic6em lil^avit hie Ambrosius de Novo 
Burgo XXV die Julii Anno octavo Ijfe. E. Pcij post conquestu, 
asserens earn captam esse p pceptii Regis oretenus fcm : quam 
quidem R Dimolm Epiis TheS recepit hie in sce'io die & anno 
»up"dcia 



[1336.] Inqttis. ao 9 Edw. III. 
(No. 68. Second numbers.) 

Inquisitio capta apud Novum Castrum super Tjmam die Jovis 
proximcl post festum Epiphanise Domini anno regni Regis Ed- 
wardi tercii a conquestu nono coram Yenerabili patre domino J. 
dei grati4 Archiepiscopo Cantuariend primate totius Angliae 
ac domini Regis Cancellario per Nicholaum de Punchardon 
Johannem de Harleston Johannem de Fandoti Robertxun de 
Ryhill Robertum de Byker Robertum de Milneburn Thomam de 
Throk Johannem de Wydeslade Johannem Reynald Johan- 
nem Wak Willielmum de Ebor Alanum Pulhore Thomam de 



43 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

Snape Thomam de Hextildesham Bichardum de Ebor Henri- 
cum Peynture Juratores. Qui dicunt super sacramentum suum 

2uod a tempore belli de Bannokburn quo tempore Johannes de 
Jaunton Miles fuit Viceoomes Northumbr dicto Castro cum om- 
nibus edificiis suis in bono statu existentibus infra quod tempus 
Nicholaus Scot Adam de Swynburn Willielmus Ryddal Johan- 
nes de Fenwyk Gilbertus de Boroughdon Johannes de Fen- 
wyk Johannes de Insula de Wodburii Johannes de Lilleburn 
Willielmus de Tyndale Rogerus Mauduyt & Bobertus Dar- 
reynes nunc Vicecomes fuerunt Vicecomites Northumbr' quo 
tempore magna Turris cum Turrellis dicti Castri magna aula 
cum Camerl domini Begis adjacente & cum aliis diversis 
Cameris infra le Quenesmantle & cum pincemar' & panetiia 
Capella domini Begis infra Castrum quaedam domus ultra port- 
am quae vocatur le Chokerhouse cum pontibus infra Portias & 
extra cum tribus portibus & uno posterno deteriorantur ad va- 
lenciam ccc lifer. Item dicunt quod reman in custodiA Bogeri 
Mauduyt nuper Vicecomitis ccccxx petr' plumbi. Item dicunt 
quod dominus de Bothall edificabit imra dictum Castrum unam 
domum. Item dominus Bobertus de la Vale edificabit unam 
domum. Item dominus de Haddeston edificabit unam domum. 
Item dominus de Whalton edificabit unam domum. Item do- 
minus Bobertus de Clifford de Novo loco capital dominus Baron 
de Caugy edificabit unam domum. Item domini de North 
Oesford & Deuilston edificabunt unam domum. Item dominus 
de Werk super Twedam edificabit unam domum supra poster- 
num. Item Dominus Baron de Ballio edificabit unam domum. 
Item dominus Baron de Bolbec edificabit unam domum quae 
Yocatur le Bolbeckhalt. Item dicunt quod £mma Jargoun fedt 
purpresturam super motam Castri continentem in latitudine x 
pedes & in longitudine xx pedes & habet postemam. Itena 
Matitt Knyht fecit purpresturam super dictiam motam conti- 
nentum in longitudine xij pedes et in latitudine xij pedes & 
postemam. Item Johannes Parlebien fecit purpresturam super 
dictam motam continentem xij pedes in latitudine & in longi- 
tudine xij pedes & postemam. Item Johannes de Ingilwod 
fecit purpresturam continentem in latitudine iiij pedes & in 
longitudine xiiij pedes & postemam. Item Henricus'' Bon- 
marcH fecit purpresturam continentem in longitudine xij pedes 
& in latitudine xij pedes & postemam. Item Johannes Baty 
fecit purpresturam continentem in longitudine xij pedes et in 
latitudine xij pedes & postemam. Item Adam Ayer fecit pur- 
presturam continentem in longitudine xij pedes & in latudine xij 
pedes & postemam. Item Benedictus Sutor fecit purpresturam 
Qpntinentem in longitudine xij pedes & in latatudine xij pedes & 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 49 

postemam. Item Johannes Thewe fecit purpresturam continentem 
in longitudine xij pedes & in latitudine xij pedes & postemam. 
Item Johannes de Gastro Bernard fecit purpresturam continent- 
nra in longitude x . . pedes & in latitudine xij pedes et postemam. 
Item Willielmus de Hextildesham fecit purpresturam conti- 
ixentem in longitudine xij pedes & in latitudine xij pedes & 
postemam. Item dicunt quod Thomas Tinclier fecit purpres- 
turam continentem in longitudine xij pedes & in latitudine xij 
pedes & postemam. Item Willielmus Grys fecit purpresturam 
continentem in latitudine x pedes & in longitudine xx pedes & 
postemam. Item Adam de Neddreton fecit purpresturam con- 
tinentem in longitudine viij pedes & in latitudine xiiij pedes & 
postemam. Item Adam de Neddreton fecit purpresturam con- 
tinentem in longitudine xv pedes & in latitudine xiiij pedes. 
(Item dicunt) quod Johannes de Karlio fecit posternam. Item 
Hugo Littester fecit purpresturam continentem in longitudine 
XV pedes & in latitudine xiij pedes. Item Johannes de Byry 
fecit purpresturam continentem in latitudine viij pedes & in 
latitudine' xx pedes. Item heredes Thomse Non-eys fecenmt 
purpresturam continentem in latitudine v pedes & in longitudine 
XX pedes. Item Robertus Taverner fecit purpresturam conti- 
nentem in longitudine xl pedes & in latitudine xx pedes. D . . . 
concellat' pertinentia ad Castrum domini Regis ViUse Novi 
Castri super Tynam De Thorn de Frismar' & heredibus suis 

pro qiiad^m placed iiij s. per annum. De Willielmo de 

Acton pro qu^dam domo super motam xvj d. per annum. De 

terrd quondam ThomsB del Hays pro una per annum. 

Item de heredibus Nicholai Scot pro duobus mesuagiis super 

faogam Castri v d. Item de terrA Roberti Jolif ii d. ob 

dicti Juratores huic inquisitioni sigiUa sua apposuerunt. Datum 
apud Castrum dicti Regis Villae Novi Castri super Tynam . , . . 



Sheriff's Accoitnt. a** 31 Edw. III. Nortfiland. 

(W. N. 236. D.) 

Nortliland. Particte Compoti vie' de diffsis misis & expefi p 
ipm factis circa repacbnem diifsor^ domor^ infra Castrii 
Reg de Novo Castro sup tynam. 

Ptide compoti Alani de Strother vie' Northumbr' de diffsis 
misis expii p ipm factis circa repac6nem diffsorj; domor^ infra 
Castru Regis de Nouo Castro sup Tynam inS iiij diem Nouemb]^ 

1 Sic MS. 



so THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNB. 

xxxj"» & vj diem Mar* ©r' sequent' p visu & testimoniu Robti. 
de Tynden deputati Gubti de Whitley magis? & supuisoris 
Oj^adonu Reg' in Cast'' ^dcd F?8ona de G^ntpit — Pro repacoe 
cuiusd prisone voc' le graunt pit in quad tuni juxta scdam por- 
tarn de [quo] le Loftnore subito eecidit p putrefacSSe gista^ & 
fere ocddit incarSatos infra vid3 iiij*" die Nouembr' anno xxxj» 
Reg' niic. In v pec' maeremii empt' de Johe Wodseller pro v 
gistis pro dco Loftflore rej^and prec' cuiu^b xviij d. vij s. vj d. 
Itm pro portag' diet' v gistis del gaolegrip U8q3 CastrO x d. 
Itm in xij plaunchours empt' pro eod prec cuiuslib vj d. vj & 
Itm in cc spikenaitt empt' pro eod prec' ce"* x d. xx d. Itm 
Witto Pratiman & Gilberto Pratyman carperitar' opant' p unam 
septiam quolib cap p septiam ij s. vj d. v & Itm in Crokes Sc 
bandes pro le trapdore empt' xviij d. Itm in ij grossis staptia 
& j barre de ferro ex t'nsuerso le trapdore xviij d. 

pb Sma xxiiij s. 
Itm die Mercur' px ante fm Sci Andr* quid incarSati nocte 
sequent' fregerut dcam prisonam p sedem latrine. Et die Lune 
iiij**. die Decembr' Johi Letwel & Witto de Castro cementar' 
opant' & frangent' in dca p^sona scrutant' latrinam quolib 
capient' p septiam ij s. vj d. v s. Robto de Wigton Witto de 
Britby Witto de Orlyens & Johi de Lambley opar' opant' ibidin 
p V dies quotib capient' p diem iij d. ob v a x d. Itm pro 
ij. libr' candet empt' pro obscuritate prisone iij d. 

pb Sma xj s. j d. 
Itm Die Lune xj"** die Decembr' Johi de Letewett & Witto 
de Castro cementar' opant' ibidm quotib cap p septiam ut sup% 
V 8. Robto de Wigton & pdcis tribus soc' suis opar* opant' 
ibidm & deSuient' dcis sement' p vj dies quotib cap ut sup* 
vij s. In candet empt' ex causa &dca ij libr*. iij a. [In ij 
pibj cirotec' pro ©dcis cement' empt iiij. d. erased'] Itm Robto 
Cook pro iij celdr* calci' empt' vid3 un c celdr continet iiij 
q»rt' pro dca prisona repand' prec* celdr' ij s. vj s. Itm pro 
cariag' dci calc' del LymekUnes U8q5 Castru V3 j leuc' p singlis 
celdr* cariand' ij d. [iij d. etaaed] vj d. [ix d. erased,] Itm p 
xxxij lades sabuli del sandyate usq3 Castru p j leuc' pro aingtis 
xvj lades vj d. xij d. 

^b Sm» xix a ix d. 
Die Lune px ante fm Sci Thome apti Johi Letewett & Willo 
de Castro Cementar' opant' ibidm pro dca p^sona quolibt cap p 
septiam ut sup*, v a Robto de Wigton & trib3 soc' suis opar' 
opant* & deseruient* Cementar' p v dies quolib cap ut sup* v a, 
X d. Itm in ij libr candet empt* ex causa p?dca iij d, ^ 

^bSm'xjajd. 



it porpreBturam continentem 
iline xij pedes 3s postemajn. 
xrit purpreaturam continent- 
idiDe xij pedes at postemam. 
. fecat purpreaturam conti- 
^ in latitudine xij pedes & 
jiDBfi Tinclier fecit purprcB- 
;ij pedes k in latitudine xij 
lua Grya fecit purprestnram 
[ in longitudine xx pedes 8i 
iton fecit purpresturam con- 
t in latitudine xiiij pedes & 
!ton fecit purprebturara con- 
& in latitudine xiiij pedes, 
irlio fecit postemam. Item 
continentem in longitudine 
m. Item Johannes de Byry 
L latitudine viij pedes & in 
is Thomce Non-eys fecenmt 
line Y pedes & in longitudine 
T fecit purpreaturam conti- 
1 latitudine xx pedes. D . . . 
domini Regis ViUte Novi 
! Frismar' £ heredibua euis 
r annum. De Willielmo de 
tarn xvj d. per annum. De 

pro una per annum. 

)ro duobus mesuagiis super 

loberti Jobf ii d. 06 

Ila sua apposuerunt. Datum 
vi Castri super Tynam .... 



5dw. Ill, NortBland. 
D.) 

de diffsie misis & expeii p 
iCsorj domorj infra Oastru 



r vie' Northumbr' de diSsis 
ifinem di(?sor^ domor; inira 
ynam inP iiij diem NouemM 



62 THE NEWCASTLE UPOIT TTMI. 

Sawer & soc' suo aarr' pro dco merem sarr' ij s. Itm pro portag' 
d8i meremii del gaolegrip [ad erased] de aq* U8q5 castra vj d. 
fadj d. erased] Itm in (iij arboi^) meremio empt' p* les 
^huatres loDgitud xlvj pedu viij s. Itm sarr' p dco meremio sarr* 
^ a Itm p portag^ dei meremii usq3 CastrQ [xvj d. erased] 
xd. Its in [viij vi arbor* erased] merem empt' pro viij 
gross' post' & yj minor' post' & iiij lacos longitud x pedu x s. 
Item sarr' pro dco merem sarr' ii & Item pro portag' dci 
merem usque Oastru xviij d. [ij s. erased.] Itm in iiij peeiis 
merem empt' pi*o solis Lynteft triu hostiu v fenestr' in dca domo 
iii s. iiij d. Itm sarr' p dco merem sarr' xij d. Item pro portag' 
dci merem usqj Castru vi d. [viij d. erased,] 

pt Sm» xxxviij s. iiij d 

Die Lune in festo Sci Vincent' Johi de Letewell & Wilto de 
Castro Cementar (^anf & sculpant' petr* quolib cap p septiafn 
pro fund dee p^one ut sup*, v s. Jofii de Midelhm Wilto 
Pratiman & Gilb Pratiman carpent' opant' ibid quolib cap p 
8^' ut sup*, vij 8. vj d. Rob de Wigton & iij soc' suig opar' 
opant' & deseruient' Cement' & fodient' petr' p v dies quolib 
cap ut sup*. — V s. X d. 

pb Sm» xviij s. iiij. A 

Robto Koc pro ij celdr' vj viij q*rt' calci emp ab eo : pdj 
oeldr' ij s. iiij s. & pro oariag' yj d. Itm Andr' le Lymleder pro 
xxxij Lekdes Sabuli cariand usq^ castru xij d. 

^b Sm* V s. 

Die Lime prox post festu conffns Sci Pauli Johi de Medelh^oi 
& duob3 sociis suis carpent' opant' ibm quolib cap p ceptiam ut 
s* vij 8. yj d. Johi Letewel & Witto de castro semente^ opant' 
sup le Barbicane ex* porta q"lib cap p septiam ut s' v s. Kobto 
de Wygton & iij soc' suis opar* opant & defuient' tam debs 
oemtar' & carpentar* q* mudand gnulus magni turr' p v dies 
q'^lib cap ut s» V a X d. 

pb Sm» xviij s. iiij d. 

Itm in V (gross' arbor') meremio emp de Johe Wodseller |»o v 
gystis ad eande domu p'sone longitudie xiiij ped x s. [Itm sarra- 
tor' p sarr' dci nfiemij ij s. erased.] Itm pro portisig' d86ff v 
gystes usque castru xviij d. [xx s. erased.] Itm (iiij arbor') 
in m?emio emp de eod Johe p uno sidwifie & topwifle longitud 
xlyj ped yj s. viij d. Itm sarator' pro sarr' dci m?emij xvig d. 
[ij s. erased.] Itin pro portag' usque castru xij d. Itm in 
xl sperres de fyr emp de Thorn* de Kelsow j8c' pecij yj d. xx s. 
& pro portag' d66^ xl sperres del Keyside usque castru x^ d. 

pb Sm* xij s. viij d. 

Die Lune v**" die februar' Johe de MideUi'm & ij soc' suis 
oarpentar' opant' & leuant' £emiu dee dom^ q^'lib cap p septian 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 53 

ut s» vij s. vj A Johi Letewel & Witto de castro sementar' 
opant' inf» magna trim q*b3 cap p septiafii ut s' v s. Bob de 
Wygton & iij soc' suis opar' pdcis def uient' carpent' & sementar' 
& fodient' petr' p vj dies q'^bj cap p die ut s* vij a 

pb Sm* xix 8. vj d. 

Die Lune px» ante festu Sci Walentini Johi de Medelh*m & 
ij soc' suis carpentar' opant' sup dcam domu q''b3 cap p septiam ut 
8* vij s. vj d. Johi Letewel and Witto de castro sementar' opant' 
sup le barbecanex* portam q<'b3 cap p septiam ut s» v s. Bobto 
de Wygton & iij soc' suis opar' pdcis opant' cementar' & car- 
pentar* p quinq; dies & dj q**lib3 cap p diem ut s* v s. x d. 

jpb Sm» xviij s. iiij d. 

Itm in do latthes emp pro ead domo sup* p*sona del Hayron- 
pit coopiendo ^c' ce"* xij d. vj s. [xx d. x s. erased.] Itm in 
cc thak nayl emp pro eaa domo xvj d. [xx d. erased.l Itm in c 
double thaJk nayl emp pro ead domo xij d. [xx d. erased,'] Itm 
in m* & dc Stanbred pc' cen°' iiij d. [v d. erased] v s. iiij d. 
[vj s. viij d. erased.] Itm in xl estlandbord empt' pro iiij 
hostiis & V fenestr' 6s Euesyngbord ^c' pec* iij d. x s. Itm in 
ceo shot nail emp pdcis hostiis & fenestr' xv d. 

^b Sm» XXV s. iij d. [erased] xxiiij s. xj d. 

Itm in iiij petr' fern emp n crokis bandis & aliis necessar^ inde 
fiunend iiij s. dom^ p»sone Heyronpit Wifto de Whitebern fabr* 
pro iiij par' bandis & iiij par' crokis pro dcis iiij hostiis & vj 
grossis crokes pro le balkes tened cu plQbo in muro & ij magnis 
crokis & ij bandis pro ianua magne turris factis ex dco ferro pro 
ope suo iy s. Itm in v par' bandis & crokes emp pro v fenestre* 
dci dom^ ^'^3 ^' I^™ i^ iffemio emp pro le chemeney inf* 
coq'nam dci dom^ pro le mauntelet & aliis ncc*ijs iij s. Itm in 
X sperris de fyr emp pro eod^^c' pecij vi d. v s. Itm in c 
thaknaylemp pro eoaiij d. [x d. erased] Itm in ccc stmlatthes 
emp pro eod xvj d. [ij s. erased,] Itin in m^dc strabrodes pro 
eod ce**' iij d. iiij a pro femorali in coq'na inf" dcam domu 
del Heronpit. 

pb Sin' [xix s. viij d. erased] xxj s. j d. 
Die Lune ^x» ante ftm Sci Petri in cathedra Jobi de Medelh*m 
& Witlo Pratiman carpentar' opant' sup le chemenay inf* coq*nam 
q''b5 cap in ista'septiana ij s. j d. iiij s. ij A Gilbto Pratiman 
carpent pro dcis iiij hostijs & v fenestr' facienft p istam septiam 
ij s. j d. Wiiio Red. sclater ex 8ta couencbe secu facta pro 
coopacoe dee dom^ continetis ij rod^s & dj p singts rodis xviij s. 
tarn pro petr* ad coopiend dcam domii qin pro ope suo xlv s. Itm 
Robto de Wigton & ij soc' suis opar' ex 8ta c6uenc8e secu fca 
pro dco chemeney dauband v s. It' in iij celdr' calci emp de 
Jolle de Brinkelawe pro dca domo coopiend pc' celdr' ij a vj. s. 



54 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

It' pro cariag' dci calci ix A Itm in xxxij lades sabuli cariaad 
usq5 castru pro ead xij d. 

fib 8m* Ixiiij s. 

Itm in xlij daubyn'stours emp pro ij muris inf* dcam domu 
vi3 in? coq*nam & p^sonam & aliu in? q'md'm caiflam & p'sonam 
in ead domo ij s. yj d. Itm in, v kymples vfgar^ emp pro dcis 
mur' X d. [xv d. erased.^ It' in c thaknail pro dcis muris iiij 
d. [x d. erased.] Eoftto Wigton & ij soc' suis opar' opant' & 
dauband dcos mm*' p vj dies q**b3 cap p diem ut s* v s. iij d. 
It' in M* Waltel einp pro q*dam mm*' dci dom^ ex longitudle 
xl & iiij ped v s. Jotii Fflendhachet sementar' opant' sup dcm 
muru p iiij dies & di cap die iiij d. xviij d. Ric' de Eipington 
opar' opant' & defuiet dco sementar' p idem temp^ cap p cUem 
iij d. [ob xyj d. erased,] xiiij d. 

pfe Sm* xvj s. vij d. 

Sm» to^ expens' xxj IL iij s. v d. pb 

[Itm pro factur' fdrcarj; in m?emio emp pro iij arbor' ij s. pro 
cariag' p duas leuc' vj d. It' ij carpent opant' sup dcas furcas 
p ij (ues [iij dies erased.] q**b5 cap p diem v d. [ij a yj d. erased.] 
XX d. Itm. in xij petr' fern & viij li. emp de Adam Kirkeherle 
pc' petr' xij d. xij s. viij d. Witto de W hiteberii* fabro pro x 
par' boyaj iij pair' maneclis & iij grossis boltis pro le stokkis 
pro singlis petr' fabricad yj d. yj s. 

pb Sm« xxij s. X d. aM erased.] 

xxij li. yj s. iij d. pB 



//. GENERAL BISTORT. 

BiTBiNG^ the Boman period a cohort of the Gomovii was stationed at the 
Bridge of ^lius, between the stations of Segedunum (Wallsend) and 
Gondercam (Benwell). This situation, the existence of a Eoman road 
vfrom Chester-le-street, and the discovery of Eoman remains in Tyne 
Bridge and in the town of Newcastle, identify the^ residence of the 
Gomovii with that place. Traditions of the Eoman occupation existed in 
1448, when JEneas Sylvius, travelling from the N'orth, "reached N'ew- 
castle, which, they say, was built hy CsBsar." 

The road from Ghester would he useful for transport to a point he- 
tween the end of the mural works and Halton Ghesters, and the hridjge 
needed a good guard, hut the paucity of Eoman and total want of Saxon 
remains, the supernumerary character of the station, the lack of any cen- 



l^HE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. 65 

treing of roads, and the capabilities then and long after of EcgMd's port 
at Jarrow and of Tynemouth, forbid ns to ascribe to Newcastle any 
great importance before the Norman Conquest. 

The site of the station is unknown. It was probably in the neigh- 
bourhood of Collingwood Street, but some post upon the site of the 
County Courts would be desirable for observation of the bridge, and the 
dificoTeries of modem times, leave no doubt of such an occupation by the 
Bom ana. 

The Roman station, wherever it was, appears to have been styled 
If onkchester^ during the Saxon period. As in the case of the monas- 
teries of Gainford and Sockbum, the place is not mentioned by Beda, 
but a tradition of a colony of monks there, or the signification of the name 
of Monkchester, led Aid wine and some Mercian monks thither in 1074 
to seek servants of Christ. They failed in their mission, but were 
destined for a nobler fate, and were the nucleus of the powerful monas- 
tery at Durham.' In 1072, the Conquexor's army had perished at 
Monkchester for lack of sustenance, but for the stores at Tynemouth, 
and there was then no bridge across the Tyne.' 

Such was the impoverished site on which the New Castle was to rise. 
A little lower down the river there was a dene or small valley called 
Pampedene,^ in the township of Byker. Edward I. granted to New- 
castle "the lands and tenements in Pampeden in Bjker,'' which he had 
by grant from Eobert de Byker and his wife, and the word tenements 
may possibly imply that some buildings had arisen upon the estate, 
though the unity of possession militates against their number or im- 
portance. Leland on his visit is silent about Pandon, though he men- 
tions its gate. But the chroniclers of the 16th century confuse Pandon 
with Newcastle, and strangely say that the latter place was before the 
reign of John '' but a small fisher town without walls named Pandon." 
Camden only says that the common people reputed Gateshead to be 
older far than New Castle itself, and attempts to identify it with the 

^ The name of Monkchester tnirviyed as a surname long after it ceased to designate 
a place. 

' Symeon Hist Dun. and De Gestis. The latter work identifies Munckeceaster 
with Newcastle. ^ Vita Oswini. — Sur. Soc. 

^ Etymologies are so illusiye that i scarcely yenture to suggest more about Pampe- 
dene or Pandon than that, as we have also a Pampden at Auckland in Hatfield's 
Survey, the word Pampe is in some way connected with rivulets with steep banks, or 
denes. If we oould be certain thet the mp was formerly, as now, pronoimced n, (and 
such spellings as accompt favour the notion) we should obtain a pleonasm, such as the 
almost constant occurrence of Celtic names for waters would lead one to expect. For 
Pant is Celtic for a valley or bottom, and consequently is synonymous with Bene. 
The Pante in Essex is Beda's Penta, and we have Ponts in Northumberland and Dijr- 
hanL But we must remember that there is a Pamphill in Dorsetshire, and Pampis- 
£;>rd in Cambridgeshire. 



56 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE, 

Bomon Gabrosentum. Orey in his Chorographia misrepresents Camden 
in this wise, "Gabrosentum — ^probably (saith my author) Newcastle 
upon Tyne"— and adds considerably to the traditions about Pandon — 
" Ifind of the Kings of Northumberland that had a house in Pampden, 
which we now call Pandon Hall, an ancient old building, and seat of 
the Kings of Northumberland," aiid '' some of their kings were interred 
in Saint Augustine's Friers,' now called the Manners — an ancient re- 
ligious house, founded by the Kings of Northumberland." In fixing 
a seat of kings at Tandon, Grey did not refer to the recorded royal 
wick or vill of Ad Murum, for in his own dogmatic way he places it at 
Wallsend ; but his words may have fostered the idea which sprung up 
that the Saxon Ad Murum was Newcastle or Pandon. Bertram g^ves 
the name to a Roman post which would suit Newcastle very well. 

This Ad Murum was famous as the scene, in 653, of the baptism of 
Peada Pending, Prince of Mercia, son of Penda, Pantha, or Panta.* A 
century afterwards, its name was unaltered, Beda speaking of Ad Murum 
in the present tense, near the wall, severed^ says he, from the eastern sea 
twelve miles. Kemble makes the Saxon yard to be 39*6 inches, and a very 
long mile was used until a comparatively recent period.'' Symeon staties 
the distance between Garmundsway to Durham as five miles. It is now 
about seven. So also Reginald in his Life of St. Godrio describes Lumm^ei 
as distant from Finchale one mile, Heppedune from Heissewelle one 
mile, and the hospital at Badele near Darlington, 3 miles from Kalietune. 
These distances may now be stated thus — Great Lumley to Finchale, 
\\y High Haswell to Hetton on the Hill, IJ, Haughton-le-Skerne to 
near Baydale Beck, 3f . The distance of a place upon the "Wall would 
naturally be measured along it or along the military way, and, on the 
proportions indicated above, we must seek Ad Murum at about 16 or 17 
miles from the sea, or as, far west from Newcastle as the sea is east. 
On doing so, we strike exactly at the Roman station of Yindobala, the 
modem Rutchester." Such a deduction is singularly confirmed by Sir 
Ralph Sadler in 1537. He describes Tynemouth as within 6 miles of 
Newcastle, precisely half of Beda' s. distance. 

3 An order introduced into England in the 13th century. 

< Eadlit filius Pantha^ Fenda filius Pubba. — Genealogies appended to Nennius. 

7 *^Like the Boad-miles in the North, the filthier and dirtier the longer." — 2 - 
JButler's Remains^ 248. 

B It is a curious coincidence (nothing m^re) that from Rutchester came the altar 
with the very questionable monogram supposed to be that of Christ. Brand also 
mentions as ** still remaining, a yery remarkable coffin, or sepulchre, hewn out of the 
living rock." Dr. Bruce says that it is more like a cistern^ being 12 feet long, 4 broad, 
and 2 deep, with a hole close to the bottom at one end. But, when discovered, it 
had, it seems, a partition of masonry across it, three feet from one end, and contained 
many decayed bones, teeth, and yertebrsB, and an iron implement like a three-footed 
candlestick. The farm house at the station is stated to be partly mediseral. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNB. 57 

OateBhead had a monasteiy in Beda's time, and soon after the Con- 
quest accommodated a county meeting, as is shown in the circum- 
stances of Bishop Walcher's tragical end.- Thus there seems to hare 
been some sort of scanty occupation of the land on both sides of the 
liver; and the little chronicle of the thirteenth century, printed in Mr. 
Hartshome's Northumberland (app. p. viii.) agrees when it says that 
'' the said Zing William sent Robert his son towaids Scotland against 
Malcolm the Sing of Scotland, which Bobert in his return from the 
same journey built a eoiUUum in the ville now called Ifovum Castrum^ 
and so the said ville from thence began to be termed Novum Castrum, 
which before used to be called Monke Chestre, and continuously apper- 
tained to the said Earls of Northumbria." 

Peter Langtoft gives a curious reason for this mission of Bobert 

Sithen in his ferthe [fourteenth"] yere he went tille Alverton, 

No man wend in erthe drede of no felon. 

On warned him of a thing, that Malcolme with po3'soun/ 

Bchuld begile the kyng, with som that lufed tresoun. 

William sent his send, his eldest sonne Hoberd, 

If he mot understond, or any suilk of herd. 

Soberd about did spie, if Malcolme wild haf wrought ; 

Bot alio it was a lie, that thing was never thouht. 

The chroniclers, however, state generally that Bobert was sent in the 
tutumn of 1080 to do battle with the Scots, but failed in his campaign, 
and on his return builded a new castle {easteUum novum) upon the river 
Tyne (Symeon de Gestis, Fordun). Houedon calls this structure a 
fiMmieiuneuia, and Grafton's statement appears to be so far true when he 
says that Bobert retired " onto the water of Tyne, where he lay in 
camp a season, and there builded a fart, where as at thb day standetb 
KeweCastell upon Tyne. But the town and wall was builded after- 
wards," &c. Unless " the Mount" on the south of the keep was the site 
chosen, no documentary evidenoes or remains exist by which we can locate 
or restore this little fort. Possibly the precipitous site of the Half-moon 
might not be neglected, nor the Boman materials remain unused ; but 
the circumstances of Bobert's lite forbid the supposition that Houedon's 
expression is mit fully as much as the work deserved. It is indeed 
believed that neither the Saxons nor the early Normans used keeps of 
stones in conjunction with their enclosed areas, but Irusted much to 
earthworks and wooden structures on high mounds. Most of the " Castle 
Hills'' in the North have no appearance of masonry on their summits, 
and neither in New Castle, Barnard Castle, Durham Castle, or Bichmond 
Castle, all founded soon after the Conquest, is there a scrap of archi- 

TOL IT. I 



5^ THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

tectare pretending to that period, unless it be part i>f the outer walls. 
That the New Castle had no permanent keep is probable, from the fact 
that the acoonnts for building the present one never mention it as a new 
tower, or as a reparation of a former one, but they merely call it the 
tower. This new feature in military architecture was sufficiently strik- 
ing to give name to the metropolitan castle. At the same time, it may 
be that Bobert built a light tower which had almost perished. *'In 
£ngland (says Mr. Parker, Arch. Journal, i. 409) it is pretty clear, 
from a yariety of evidence, that the masonry of the early part of the 
eleventh century was so bad, that such buildings as were erected of 
stone at that period would scarcely stand above sixty years ; and the 
more usual material for buildings of all kinds was wood. Even quite at 
the end of that century the works of Lanfranc at Canterbury, of Bemi- 
gius at Lincoln, and of Gundulph in the White Tower, London, are still 
extremely rude, and the joints of the masonry wide enough to admit 
two fingers, while the principal part of the ornament is cut with the 
hatchet." It is remarkable how little influence the Conquest had upon 
the arts of England ; for the buildings of Normandy are always in ad- 
vance of ours both in design and execution. But« indeed, the feudal 
system would not allow many Norman craftsmen to leave their native 
^manors. 

Thus, as Speed has it, did Robert lay ''the foundation of a castle, 
whereof the town of Newcastle did afterward take both her beginning 
and name ;'* but the firm establishment of defences on the site seems due 
to his unscrupulous brother, the Bed King. Hardyng, who, as Mr. 
Hinde has ably shewn, is correct as to the creation of the town of New- 
castle, is doubtless so as to that of the castle ; and the method employed 
-of finding wayis and means is interestmg. 

He buylded than the Newcastell vpon Tyne, 

The Scottes for to gaynstande and to defende. 

And duelte therin : ike people to enclyne 

The toune to builde and walle as did append. 

He gaue theim ground and golde fill great to spend. 

To buylde it well and wall it all aboute. 

And fraunchised theim to paye a free rent out. 

The rentes and frutes to th'archbishop perteinyng, 

And to the bysshoppes of W3nDLche8ter and Sarum, 

And also of nyne abbeys lyuelod conteynyng, 

In his handes seazed and held all and some. 

But for his workes and buyldynges held eche crome, 

With whiche he made then Westmynster hall. 

And the eoitel of the Ifinve CasUll withdll, 



THB NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 59 

That Btandeth on Tyne, therin to dwel in warre, 

Agayne the Scottes the couDtree to defende, 

Whiche, as men sayd, was to hym mekill deer, 

And more pleasyng then otherwyse dispende. 

And muche people for it did tiym commende ; 

For cause he dyd the common wealthe sustene, 

His marches [var^ Of marchers] vnnumerable to mayntene. 

Stow assigns the date of 1090 as that '' when King William had re- 
paired such castles as the Scots had impaired, and builded the New 
Castle iipon Tyne." 

The strength of Bufds's fortress was considerable. '' Afterwards the 
said earldom [of Northumberland] came by royal grant into the hands 
of Robert Mowbray : which Bobert> along with others in the 9th year 
[1095-6] of the reign of King William Rufus, the son of the said Con- 
queror, endeavoured to deprive the king of his realm and life, and to 
make the son of his aunt, Stephen de Albemarle, king; which being 
known, the said King William Bufus cited to his court the said Earl 
Robert, who disdained to come to the king's court. The said king, 
therefore, congregated an army from all England against the said 
Robert, and besieged his castle at the mouth of the T3nDLe, in which he 
took the brother of the said Robert He also conquered the castle 
{mtrum) of New Castle [Huntington calls it quadam Jlrmitas qua vo' 
catur Novum OasteUutn], where he captured all the best followers 
{militet) of the said earl.® After these things, however, he besieged 
the castle {eask^m) of Bamburgh, to which the said earl had fled, which 
when the said king had perceived it impregnable, he prepared before it 
another castle^^ {easteUum), which he called Malvesin [or the Bad Neigh- 
bour], in whieh leaving part of his army, he returned to Southumbria, 
after whose departure the guard of New Castle promised the said Robert 
to receive him if he came secretly. Accordingly, that he might do so, 
he went out from Bamburgh with certain soldiers at night, which being 
known, the horsemen who had remained in the castle of Malvesin on 
behalf of the king, following the said Bobert," took him, he, however, 
being first grievously wounded while he resisted them, and having led 
him to Wyndesores, placed him in prison; and so the said castle of Bam- 

^ One of William's charters is dated at the siege of Newcastle. It is printed in 
2 Gibson's Tynemouth. 

*o Of wood.— Giles* Roger of Wendover. 

^^ See Mr. Hinde's Northmnberland, p. 199. Messengers were sent by the be- 
siegers to prepare the garrison of Newcasue for his arriyal. There he barely escaped, 
capture, and sought refiiffe at the monastery of Tynemouth, from the church of which, 
after a brave resistance^ ne was dragged forth. 



60 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYKE. 

Dnrgh was yielded to the Sing of England. And thenceforth the said 
King William Eafus, and after him Henry I., held the same earldom 
of Northumbria ; and so the possessbn of the said earldom which before 
did belong by hereditary right to the earls, came to the hands of the 
King of England,''^' The possessions of Kobert Howbray, excepting the 
earldom of Northumberland^ were lealtored. to his kinsman, Nigel 
d'Albini, who is represented as haying experienced the same inconve- 
nience from the scanty snbsistenoe and want of provision at Newcastle 
as the Conqueror did. A bridge, apparently of wood npon piers par- 
tially composed of Boman work, had arisen before the time of Stephen.'' 
The New Castle, then, was already of such importance that the official 
earl kept the flower of his warriors there, and preferred the safety of 
its walls to those of a fortress deemed impregnable by his baffled sove- 
reign. Sorely we may infer from the way in which the building of this 
novum ca$Mbim is mentioned and the general circumstances of the case^ 
that the name attached to it in distinction to the previous defences of 
the earldom-*-to other aatles, those of Bambrough^^ and Tynemouth— 
not to the shapeless and useless remnaots of a Roman Chester near its 
site. All analogy of other Newcastles, Newbiggins, NeWarks, and New- 
tons^ would place the new structure on a site differing from its prede- 
eeseors. Such names arose for local distinction rather than as historical 
evidences, and not one old writer hints at any reference of the New 
CasUe to Monkchester. The castle and the Chester were different things, 
and wanted no distinction. A Chester was an enclosed station or settle- 
ment; it was like the British caer, and, like it> is translated miiaa by 
the early historians. Chester city is not latinized into Castrum. Pro- 
bably the original privileges and citizenship of the ehesUrt and hurgha 
were well known in aftertimes, as the words ctttf and hur^hwete applied 
to places having rights similar to those of continuous and large popula- 

" De Comitatu Northumbris.— Hartihome'fi Northumberland, App. p. viiL 
1* Vita Oswini. — Sur. Soc. 

^^ " Castle- ward existed in Northumberland, in respect of each of the royal eastles 
of Bamburgh and Newcastle — the latter erected in the reign of the Norman Con- 
queror, whilst the former existed from the very commencement of the dynasty of the 
rTorthumbrian kings. The small amount of the contribution levied for the oasUe* 
ward of Bamburgh as compared with Newcastle, favours the inference that the impost 
originated under the Anglo-Saxon goyemment, when the relative value of the precious 

metals was greater Until the reign of Henry III. the castle- ward does not ap-' 

pear as an item of revenue in the Northumbrian Pipe Bolls, but must rather have 
been rendered in personal service, or the composition must have gone directly into 
the hands of the parties entrusted with the defence of the castles. Of these, Bam- 
burgh was always in charge of the sheriff, whilst Newcastie had a constable or go- 
vernor specialhr appointed by the crown." — Hinde's Northd. 261. 

In these differences ample reason is afforded for the distinctive name of Newcastle. 



THE NEW CASTLE tJPON TYNE. 61 

tions on Boman sites. A castle, on the other hand, is a fortress inde* 
pendent of the town around it, is oat of the hnrghal jurisdiction, and is 
translated MstMum, and afterwards more generally coitrum.^ The pro- 
tection of the castle, however, as at Newcastle and Barnard Castle, 
secured a rapid growth of houses under its walls, and the two places 
mentioned took the name of their fortresses, an inconrenience which may 
have led to tiie occasional ocourrenoe of Novum Oppidum'' and NoTum 
Burgus" for New Castle in the Pipe Bolls. In my quotations the 
application of the words New Castle, though without the article, must 
be determined only by the context or probability. 

We have no certain knowledge of the fabric of the castle before the 
lime of Henry II., and much might be done in the interim. We may 
perhaps flatter ourselves that portions of Bufiis's fortress may yet be 
distinguished by some bold Boman-looking and cubical ashlar in the 
outer walls. Whether any of the Boman stones are yet visible, may be 
questionable ; and, if not, we may infer firom their disappearance before 
the Conquest, that Monkchester before the ravages of the Danes had 
been a settlement of more consequence than we are led from other 
reasons to attribute it. 

The masonry to which I have alluded is still seen near the High 
Level Bridge, and until lately appeared to greater advantage in a tower 
which was opened out in the railway works. That it materially differs 
from the facing of longitudinal stones on the keep is evident, and perhaps 
the works at the Half-moon were even more early. Still the companion 
forfa:ess of Bambrough, which resisted the strength of Bufus, has dis- 
appeared ; the mode in which the wall in question is broken into towers 
savours of transitional work ; and some Boman materials might have 
been expected in Bufiis's work. 

On the accession of Stephen, in 1 135, David of Scotland, who had pre- 
tensions to Northumberland by his wife, swore fealty to the Empress, 
occupied Cumberland and Northumberland, took the '' Castle upon Tyne" 
by craft,^ and was supported by the Northern barons. Negociations fol- 
lowed, in which David obtained the earldom of Huntingdon, and aban- 
doned the cause of his niece. The claims of his family to the earldom 

/' In the earlj rolls we haye inyariably Noyum Castelluin, not Castrum. In 

• Bishop Poictoa'0 charter to Gateshead, formerlj in the yestry of that town, the word 

castrum was struck out and easUllum contemporaneously inserted. — Copy by W. H. B. 

^ Applied to the castle. So, Geoffrey of Coldingham, speaking of Pudsey's works 
upon the castle at Northallertpn, says *^ Apud Alyertonam etiam firmayit opidum." 

^ In the Pipe RoUs of 1205 and 1206 we haye the ezpreaaion Noyum Burgus 
Btmck out, and Noyum Castellum inserted. 

" Knyghton in Twysden, 2385. 



62 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 

of Northamberland were also to be considered^ and he seems to have 
temporarily surrendered the castle of Newcastle upon faith of an imme- 
diate adjudication. On Stephen's refusal to comply with his wishes, he 
again approached Newcastle in 1137; but the large force collected 
against him at that town led to a truce until 113B, when he again in- 
vaded England, and was defeated at the Battle of the Standard, which 
turned the Scottish tide without ending its ravages. At last, in April, 
1189, by a treaty signed 

At Durham, quhare Stevyn, than the kyng 

Mad fyftene dayis hys dweUyng : 

And in the New-castell than Kyng Dawy 

Of Scotland dwelt than comownaly, 

Thare thai accordyd fullyly 

To gyve Northumbyrland til Henry 

Dawys soune.* 

In the record of the grant in the pages of Bichard of Hexham, the 
towns of Bamburgh and Newcastle are excepted, in consideration of an 
assignment of others ^ to be made to Heniy in the South of England. 
But in li47 there are two charters from Earl Henry to the monks of 
Tynemouth, one, which is dated at Newcastle, exempting them from 
military service ; the other is dated at Bamburgh, freeing them 
from contribution to the works on the castles within the earldom, among 
which Newcastle is specified. David dated his tables of tolls at New- 
castle, and made several grants in the town, which were repudiated by 
Henry II. John of Hexham, writing somewhat later than Bichard, is 
silent as to the exception. " It may," says Mr. Hinde, on whose sound 
History of Northumberland I rely much for these early occurrences, 
*' be doubted indeed whether the object of the treaty was not carried 
out in a different form, by allowing Henry to enjoy those towns with 
the remainder of the earldom, the fortifications having first been de- 
stroyed. For although one of the charters referred to above alludes to 
works on the castle of Newcastle, we know from the Pipe Bolls of 
Henry II. ithat the fortifications of this place, as well as of Bamburgh, 
were in a very delapidated state at the commencement of that reign, 
and that large sums were required for their restoration.'' 

It was to Newcastle, also, that David, in 1153, summoned the barons 
of Northumberland to do homage to William the lion (then a lad of 
nine), as successor to the earldom, his father Henry having died. 
Malcolm, an elder son, took Cumberland. The contracting parties, 

" MTynton, B. yii. 6. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 63 

DaTid and Stephen, both died the year after, and our Henry II. repu- 
diated the usurper's treaty, and in 1157 seized upon the inheritances of 
the minors, the sole compensation given to William being the Franchise 
of Tynedale, to be held by homage only. In 1165 the Pipe Rolls for 
Northumberland are resumed, and the early ones show a large expendi- 
ture upon the Border fortress of Wark. Roger Fitz-Riohard (the con- 
stable of Ifewcastle) received in gifts from the king 58/. 2t., and in the 
next year 521 12«. In 1160 the sheriff was allowed 20/. for lands 
given to Roger Fitz-Riohard in the Borough of Newcastle, and 82/. 12«. 
to the same in Warkworth, and these items run on for many years. 
The latter was a gift in fee ; the former an official payment which 
ceases in 1176, when Roger de Glanville has 30/. out of Newbum 
during the king's pleasure for the custody of Newcastle. After 1213, 
when the burgesses obtained the town in fee-farm, the charter stipulated 
that the rent was not to be paid to the sheriff, but to the Exchequer 
direct, and it again appears as a deduction from the sheriff's accounts. 
In 1166, 51. were spent upon the works of a gaol at Newcastle, and, in 
1168, 30/. were spent upon the works of Bamburgh and 111/. 0$. Sd. 
" in operatione Novi Castelli super Tinam," the latter under the inspec- 
tion of Roger Fitz-Richard. This charge, towards which the burgesses 
paid a fine of 20 marks because they compelled a knight to swear, 
must probably be applied to the walls. Four years elapsed after these 
works. 

We now arrive at the period when the New Castle was furnished with 
the present keep, an addition which is so important that the circum- 
stances of its erection properly fall into the general rather than the par- 
ticolar history of the castle. 

The expenditure "in operatione turris Novi Castelli super Tinam" 
in 1172 was 166/. 14«. under the inspection of Guy Tison, Robert de 
Bevelestune, Qosceline Rufus, and Robert Fitz-£ve. In 1173, 51. was 
supplied to the f uniishing (ffuamistura) of New Castle, and 240/. 5$. 4d. 
applied to the works of the tower, under the same inspection. In 1174 
only 12/. 15«. 10^. was in like manner expended, anil we have the reason 
in the contemporary chronicle of Jordan Fantosme, published by the Sur- 
tees Society, which affords several most curious glimpses into the state of 
the casUes of the North in the expeditions of William the lion in 1 173 
and 1174. Prince Henry, who had been crowned king by his father 
Henry II., was warring against that fSather, and demanded the help of 
William, because he was his feudatory, and promised that the guerdon 
should be the earldom of Northumberland. William obeyed the man- 
date, demanded Northumberland, and on the old king's refusal of it, 



64 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

eame to Work, Alnwick, and Warkworth, where ''feeble (says FantbBme) 
waa the castle, the wall, and the trench : and ' Boger le fiz Eichart, un 
Tftillant cheyalier,' had had it in ward, but he could not guard it. Of 
this Roger le fits Richard I must certainlj tell you : Of the Newcastle 
on Tjne was he master and lord (del Noef'Chasfel'iur-Tine esteii 
maUtre e tire). He was seized with such boldness and great ire, that 
he would neither speak of peace to the king of Scotland nor laugh. 
Thither came the Song of Scotland with armed people and naked. The 
hills and the yalleys dread his coming. A greater folly than his was 
neyer seen. To the barons of the land [he boaste] it will be very 
dearly sold : he will give them, before his departure, such a discomfiture, 
he will not leave them outside the castle an ox te their plough. But 
the barons are deyoted to their lord, they care as little for their property 
as for a wild beast ; they prefer dying with honour rather than suffer 
shame [and] abandon their natural lord, though they lose their lands. 
They will endure and wait : they do so wisely ; but they will not sor* 
render their lands though they suffered great damage. Well sees the 
King of Scotland that he will never succeed in conquering the New 
Castle on Tyne without stratagem (del ^oef-Chaetel-eur'Tine ewiqtterre 
een% engin). And say his counsellors: ' Wrongly do you hang your head. 
Before succour comes to tEem, they will be in despair; but warn the 
host to be ready in the morning; go conquer Carlisle.' " The king pre- 
ferred attacking Frudhoe, but his baronage insisted on the siege of 
Carlisle, the governor of which (Robert de Yaus) was to be thrown from 
tiie "great high tower." Carlisle, however, resisted as bravely as 
Newcastle, and William retreated to Scotland on the approach of Sir 
Richard de Luci. 

But treason spread in England. Lord Roger de Mowbray (Dan 
Rogier de Munbraie] joined the rebels. After Easter, 1174, William 
returned to Wark« His Flemings assaulted the porteullis (horiqon) ; 
they came to the ditohes by wonderful daring, but were baffled and 
killed close to the portcullises. The king ordered his " stone*bow " 
to come hastily to break the gate, and then they would take h iaile 
without any dday. The engine reversed ite action, and the stone in- 
jured a knight of the invaders. The siege was then raised, and Mow- 
bray joined the Lion in another siege of " Carlisle fall of beauty," and 
when they arrived the sun illuminated the walls and turrete (turellee). 
A messenger was received by De Yaus, leaning on a battlement (kemd) 
and playing with his sword. He refused to surrender " the castle and the 
tower," William left him for Appleby " castle and tower " which were 
quite unguarded, and soon surrendered. Brough castle next was taken. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 05 

first the outer work (e unt U premier jor but eh h laile pr%s\ after- 
wards the tower to which the besieged had retreated, by burning them 
out. Luci, now alarmed, sent a messenger to Henry II. who was on the 
continent. The king asked after the loyalty of several barons. Then 
he bethought him of his castles. '' Randolph de Glanville, is he at Rich- 
mond? and Lord Robert de Yaus, what are these two barons about?" 
The messenger described the siege of Carlisle and captures of Appleby 
end Brough. '' How, my good fellow I (said the king), is then Appleby 
taken?" "Sire (says the messenger), for Robert de Yaus I have been 
sent : neither wine nor wheat can reach him any longer, nor from the 
side of Richmond will he be assisted more ; if he has not speedy succour, 
all will be starved. Then wiU Northumberland be completely devast- 
ated, Odinel de Humfranville at length disinherited; the Newcastle 
upon Tyne will be destroyed, William de Yesci, his lands and his fees." 
The king answered that his retam would be within fifteen days. Yaus 
heard this in his tower, and artfdlly obtained a term for succour. Wil- 
liam then strove to surprize Humfranville at Fradhoe. He failed, and 
lefb for Alnwick Castle. With Humfiramville went William d'Estuteville, 
Randolph de Glanville, Lord Bernard de Baliol, William de Yesci, and 
sixty knights to the Newcastle on Tyne. Humfranville and Roger le 
fitz Richard summoned their best troops, and travelling by night [the 
morning of Saturday, July 13, 1174], arrived near Alnwick, where the 
Scots were surprized, and, after a sharp fight, William yielded tx) 
Olanville, who led him, the same evening, gently to the New Castle on 
Tyne, where they took lodgings for a night. Thence GlanviUe con- 
ducted him to Richmond, there (says William of Newburgh) fuU cau- 
tiously to be kept, for the purpose of sending to the King of England 
at opportunity. 

The king returned, and, wearied with his journey, was leaning on 
his elbow and sleeping a little, and '' a servant was at his feet, who 
scratched them gently." A messenger arrived from Glanville, one Brien, 
whom the king knew well. He insisted on admission, and in his alter- 
cation with the chamberlain, the king awoke. Interrupting Brien in 
his compliments, he hastily asked, '' Has the King of Scotland entered 
Richmond? Is the Newcastle on Tyne, the fortress (les fermete%) seized? 
Is Odinel de TJmfranville taken or driven out, and all my barons from 
their lands ejected?" Then the good news were communicated to the 
king. 

The 51. spent on the provision of the castle in 1173 was unquestion- 
ably for the siege, and the small expenditure upon the keep in 1174 was 
owing to the convulsions of the country during William's second raid. 

VOL IV. K. 



66 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 

• * 

In Fantosme's li^irited narration a distinction is fordbly drawn be- 
tween castleB and their keeps, which are called towers. He speaks of 
Northnmberland as '' rich in castle and in tower/' of the '' castle and the 
tower," " the great high tower" of " Carlisle full of beautjr" ; the 
castle and the tower of Appleby ; the castle of Brongh, where first the 
''baile" is taken and afterwards the tower. The fortress of Ifewcastle 
appears to have still been the firmitas it was in the time of Bnfiis, a 
crery strongly-walled area, the sense in which Fantosme nses the word 
castie.^ Carlisle and Bichmond were evidenUy the great fortresses of 
the North, and the former was assisted fifom the latter. Newcastie had 
stood a gallant siege in 1173, bnt it is described as a fertMtn which 
would be destroyed if Carlisle were taken. Olanville did not dare to 
keep his royal prisoner at Newcastie, but merely took lodgings for him 
there a single night, and hurried on to Richmond, then in the hands of 
the Crown, and deposited him in a very narrow prison there. All this 
falls in with the Rolls and architecture. The building of the keep at 
Newcastie had been suddenly interrupted; that of Richmond was already 
in use. Its erection is properly attributed to Conan Earl of Brittany 
(1146-1171) ; the style is a littie earlier than that of Newoastie, and 
the date ascribed to it, 1171, being that of Conan's death, will be that 
of the completion of his great work. 

We may gather then from the capabilities of Newcastie . to stand a 
siege, that its walls were in working order, whether erected by Rufus, 
Henry I., the Scottish kings, or Henry II. No adequate costs occur in 
the Pipe Rolls of the last monarch, and the masonry, .as already ob- 
served, though somewhat transitional in its ground plan, strikingly 
differs in its regular cubes from tiie rough longitudinal treatment of the 
keep. 

To proceed with the erection of the keep. In 1175, 186/. I5s. 4d. 
was expended upon the tower of Newcastte, one of the items being ^' in 
operatione turris Novi Opidi super Tinam." The surveyors were 
Robert de Diveliston and Ralph Baiard,"^ and the works so far seem to 
have given satisfaction, as we have an extra payment to the mason em- 
ployed, ''£t Mauricio Cementario ejusdem turris de prestito regis per 
breve regis, 20^" Is not this Maurice the same as "Maurieiusingenia- 
tor" who was engaged from 1184 to 1186 in constructing the tower of 
Dover and the cingulum around it ? A minute cprnpanson of his two 
works would be very instructive. 

^ Of Warkworih, which Fitz-Bichard aUo held, he sajs, ** For feeble was the 
castle, the wall, and the trench." 

. *i They were feudally connected, both holding parta of Ihe same fee. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 67 

In 1 1 76, as before mentioned, Boger de Glanville became the governor 
ofthecastla Under the same supervision the sum of 144^ 15*. 4d. 
was expended upon the tower, and 5/. 12«. on a gaol of Newcastle. In 
1177, 141/. 12». IIJ. occurs as the last item which can with certainty 
be placed to the account of the keep. 

The total cost of the keep, therefore, was 892/. 18«. 9i. In the next 
year we have a more general item of 80/. 17«. Id. ** for works of New- 
castle upon Tyne and the gate {porta) of the same castle/' Boger de 
Glanville being, by royal precept, the only inspector. The western en-^ 
trance, which fronted the street called Bailey-^gate, of which, by the 
kindness of Mr. Thomas Bell, I am enabled to annex a drawing made 
before its destruction, exactly corresponds in style with the period 
under consideration, and is what in 1237 is termed the gate of the 
castle near the tower. And thus the works of the castle were com- 
pleted in Uie tiansitional Norman style. 

In the reign of John very considerable expenditure took place on a 
tower and fosses, and new work below the castle towards thQ water, by 
which certain burgages were destroyed. The owners were indemnified. 
For reasons which will be adduced in their proper place, it is believed 
that these works extended along the margin of the Close and the Side, 
including the tower called the Half-moon. 

In the I8th year of this monarch (1216-7), provision was made that 
in case of Philip de TJlecote's death, Hugh de Baillol was to take charge 
of this castle.'' 

In 1237, we find the Old Tower, in distinction as it is presumed to 
John's new one, the king's chamber in it, his old hall and an old 
kitchen belonging to it, his new hall and new chamber roofed with 
lead. In the previous year, 1236, we have a safe conduct for Alexander 
of Scotland to come to Henry III. at Newcastle, and the two kings 
met here in 1237, when Alexander released his right in Northumber- 
land, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, for 200 librates of land in those 
counties. Again, in 1238, there is a safe conduct for Alexander to come 
to Henry and his parliament, to treat of peace at Newcastle.^ In 1244, 
the Mayor of Newcastle and Bobert de Cropping, keepers of the pro- 
visions of the castle, were commanded to sell the remainder of the king's 
com and wine, and account for the proceeds to the Exchequer.^ 

William Heyrun occurs as governor from 1247 to 1263. In the for- 
mer year the Black Gate seems to have been erected, and in 1250 or 
1256 a prison near it called the Heron Pit. Large sums were paid in 

** Rot. Pat., Hartshorne's Nd., 236. »> Placitorum Abbreviatio. 

^* Originalia. 



68 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE, 

1267 for mendiDg the defects of the New Castle, and for its defence in 
the times of disturbance. 

John Baliol did homage for the crown of Scotland to Edward I. in 
the hall of his palace within the castle of Newcastle in 1292.^ In 
1297 the sherijff was commanded to store the castle with victaals and 
other necessaries, and to cause it to be safely guarded.^ At the time of 
the Battle of Bannockbum the castle was in good repair.^ From 131 B 
to 1324 we have considerable cave taken for the defence of the castle, 
and through it of victualling the king's army.^ In ia24 or 1325 the 
sheriff was ordered to sell and account for all the king's wa^^ns and 
carts which in the last return from Scotland to Newcastle were brought 
back, and were then in his custody.^ 

In 8 Edw. Ill,, the beginning of 1334, as it would seem, Boger Man- 
duyt the sheriff represented to the king's council, that the castle of New- 
castle on Tyne was so decayed and left to neglect that there was not in all 
the castle a single house or rocnn (meion is the word) in which one could 
be received, nor one gate which could be closed : that the council wou]Ld 
please to advise for the ordering of a remedy, seeing that all the country 
was then, as it were, at war : and that he, the sheriff, conld not go into 
the country to perform his duty as sheriff, except by fcnrce, with armed 
men. He therefore prayed the council to order that he might have 
men at arms out of the issues of his bailiwick for the maintenance of the 
said office. 

Whether Eoger was suspected to have been guilty of dilapidation or 
not, all the answer seems to have been a grant of 20/. to expend in the 
reparation of the said castle.^ How insufficient such a sum was, will 
be seen by the inquisitions of 1334 and 1336. The requirements set 
out will be distributed among the items, and here it only need be 
noted that there were, in 1334, 200 stones of lead in the castle, that Sir 
Eoger Manduyt when sheriff had delivered 60 stones of lead to Sir 
William de Felton, and that of the many carts and waggons in the 
castle, in the custody of successive sheriffs after the battle of Bannock- 
bum, and the departure of the king, none were forthcoming. The 
value of the materials and workmanship are given separately through- 
out ; for in those days " the various classes of workmen having been 

" Ryiner^s Foedera. Of his son it is also said by Hardyng that 

''At Newcastell Edwarde kyng of Scotland* 
His homage did to the kyng of Englande." 

*• Madox^s Exchequer, per 1 Brand, 150. ^"f Inq. 9 Edward III. 

'^ Madox's Exch., and Wardrobe Accounts in Brand. 

» Originalia. ao Arch. .El , iii, 85. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 09 

assembled, their employer found the rough material, and it was worked 
by the side of the structure."'^ In 1336 there was still in the custody 
of Manduit, late sheriff, 420 fother of lead, and the buildings repairable 
by the king were 300/. worse, than they were at the time of the battle 
of Bannockbum. 

In 1335-6 (9 Edw. III.)) Bobert de Tonge, receiyer, ftc., was to seU 
all the king's wines in his custody at I^ewcastle and elsewhere in the 
North Farts, and in 1336-7 (10 Edw. III.), John de Thyngden, whom 
the king assigned to do divers works in the castle of Newcastle, was to 
have twelye oaks good and fit for timber in the wood of Bjrwell, which 
Mary of Pembroke then held for life by gift of the king. In 1337-8, 
Eobert de Tughale was appointed receiver and keeper of the king's 
victuals, as well grain as wine, in the town of Newcastle and elsewhere 
in these parts.^ In 1341, Lord John Nevil of Hornby, captain of this 
castle, seems to have had Earl Murray in his custody, and here, in 
1351, John de Coupeland the sheriff was to keep securely his royal pri- 
soner, David Bruce.'^ The prisons called the Great Pit and the Heron 
Fit were renewed in 1357. In 1377, Parliament was petitioned for 
the reparation, among other northern fortresses, of the castle of New- 
castle upon Tyne, and for the placing of a proper constable to reside in 
the same. The governorship had for long been vested in the sheriffs* 
The prayer does not seem to have been attended to. 

Henry lY ., in 1 399, separated the town of Newcastle from Norths 
umberland, and constituted it a county of itself;*^ but as castles and 
boroughs existing near each other were always separate in jurisdiction, 
the castle of Newcastle, though not excepted in the charter, was not 
affected by it. I have not seen any evidence of the private act said 
to be in the Bolls Chapel, and to put the castle back into Northumber- 
land. In inquests held in 1447 and 1461, the castle is stated to be in 
the county of Northumberland. 

Edward lY. included this castle in a sweeping grant of the warden- 
ship of the North Marches to his brother Bichard ; and in the reign of 
Henry YII. the separate office of constable re-appears. In 1485, Wm. 
Case, Esq. (who had been attainted by Bichard III.), had a grant of 
it for life, with the accustomed wages and fees ;'* and in 1494, the office, 
being vacant by Sir Bobert Multon's death, was granted to Boger Een* 
wick, Esq., with the fee of 20/. yearly out of the revenues of the county, 
with other emoluments. But the building itself was hurrying to its 

'* Tiimer's Dom. Arch., 10. ^^ Originalia. 

»3 Brand. »* Ibid. ^ Bourne. 



70 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

£dl. Its appearance while it was still in tolerable condition is roughly 
shown in a bird's eye view of the town published in the old series of 
the ArckcBologia JEliana. 

In this reign the fortress was known as the ** High Castle,'' and be- 
fore the century closed the use of the keep as a county prison, and of the 
king's hall as a moot hall or hall of assise, had become settled, and so 
matters remained until our own times. 

In 1589, Queen EUaabeth, reciting the inconyeniences arising from 
disreputable persons evading punishment by escaping into " an old and 
ruinous castle " situate within the town, but without its liberties ; and 
that the said old castle and the enclosed circuit, precinct, and ambit 
tiiereof were of no further use than for a prison or common gaol for 
tJie county of Northumberland, and for the common haU called the 
Moot Hall or HaU of SesHom of that county : gives licence of entry 
into the enolosure of the castle, and in the houses and mansions within 
its ambit, circuit, and precincts, except only her gaol there, popularly 
called th4 Dun^eon^ and seize and punish malefactors, and commit them 
to the gaol of the town. Between 1606 and 1609 the castle was fanned 
by the incorporated Company of Taylors, who, in 1605, paid 10«. ** for 
the rent of the castell to Gilles Wallis [gaoler], dewe at Martinmas," 
and in 1606 gave something ''to the presoneres of' the castell." 
The rent does not occur between 1609 and 1614 when Giles Wallya 
died. The next year it reoommenoes.-— '' 1615 [or beginning of 1616.] 
Spent when we went to tack posseoa of the hous in the castell Sd, 1616, 
Bee. in parte of paymente of the rente of the castell 59. Paid for the 
rent of castell II. 16«. Bd. Spent at the payment of castell rent d«. ^d. 
Paid for the rent of the he castell 109. Given the prisoners he castell 
at the reqxiest of John Leek M.** 

Two years afterwards the leasee from the crown which constitute the 
modem title to the castle commence. Alexander Stevenson, Esq., one. 
of the pages of James's bedchamber, more roughly described in the 
Milbank MS. as ''a Scottish man, who came in with King James— one 
of his close stool," '' begged the castle of the King," and in 1619 ob- 
tained a lease for 50 years at 409. rent,** of " all that old castle of the 
town of Newcastle upon Tyne, and the scyte and herbage of the said 
castle as well within the walls of the same as without, with its rights 
Ac," except the county prison and Moot HaU. 

With Stephenson began the peopling of the Castle Garth, which at 
that time only contained the gaoler's house near the South Postern, and 
another, as shown in Mathew*s plan of 1610, contained in Speed; and 

'« 3 Arch. ^1. 43. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 71 

buildings went on rapidly, seyeral being described in a soryey taken by 
the Bishop of Durham and other royal oommisBlonerB on 18 Aug., 18 Jao., 
1620.*^ Bourne mentions it as two inquisitions. Aecording to Garde- 
ner, the Attorney-General had in May exhibited an information con- 
cerning the premises against the mayor and burgesses, who probably 
were already straining the powers granted them by Elizabeth, and 
claimed the Castle field and the Forth. An immense dunghill to the 
west of the castle was also a crying nuisance. It had destroyed the 
wall, and in 1625, the Corporation, in asking the king's council for ar- 
rangements for defence of the town against the Dunkirk fleet, state 
that the castle called the New Castle in the heart of the town, is in the 
county of Northumberland, and is in great ruin.'^ 

Stephenson died in Oct., 1640, leaving his lease of the castle to Mr. 
Auditor Darell, ** it being all he was like to have towards the payment 
of the said Mr. Steyenson's debts which were due to the said executor 
and others, amounting in the principal to 2, 5001. besides damages which 
amounted to as much more."'' But Mr. Auditor Darell's path was not 
clear. In 1648, Barbara Black, widow of Patrick Black, professed to 
conyey Steyenson's lease to Jane Langston of St. Martin's in the fields, 
relict of John Langston, groom porter. On 25 Mar. 1650, the com- 
mittee for the removing of obstructions resolve that Auditor Philip 
DarreU hath the right of preemption in and to the castle and apper- 
tenances. But in 1650, the Corporation of Newcastle purchase of Mrs. 
Jane Langston, for 300/. her interest in the High Castle and its precincts ; 
and they took possession, for in 1665, Gardener wrote that Darrell was 
kept out of his right by the instigation of the mayor and burgesses, but 
that the law would quickly decide that title upon a legal trial, *' but the 
county of Northumberland hath the reveraon, who is kept from having 
a free passage to the assizes by the mayor and burgesses, who shut up 
the gates, which is the right passage, and at such gates, which be open, 
the people of Northumberland, coming to do their service at the assizes 
bolden for that county, in that castle, are arrested and cast into prison 
by Newcastle, where none can bail them but burgesses of Newcastle, 
and often thereby people have their cause overthrown by such restrain- 
ment." 

The castle bore a conspicuous part in the seige of Newcastle in 1644, 
being the dernier resort of Newcastle's brave defenders. It was ceded 
three days after the capture of the town. 

In 1649 there was a parliamentary survey of ''the farme of the old 
castle of the towne of Newcastle upon Tyne, with all the rights, 

37 Brand's MSS. ^ State Papers. 3» Gardener, 



V2 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

members and appurtenances thereof, lying and being in the countie of 
Northumberland, late parcell of the possessions of Charles Stuarte, late 
E[ing of England, by yirtue of a commission grounded upon an act for 
the sale of the honors, manners, and landes heretofore belonging to the 
late kinge, queene, and prince." 

In 1662, when the lease to Stevenson was soon to expire, the town 
petitioned for a grant of the castle and its precincts. They of the 
county of Northumberland in which the castle was situate objected, 
wishing to have the grant for the county, but Lord Ogle on its behalf 
having conferred with those who appeared for Newcastle, gave the 
question up, the use of the gaol, &c., being stipulated for. However, 
while time was thus spent by the contending parties. Lord Gerard 
stepped in, and obtained over their heads, in Aug. 1664,^ a grant of the 
reversion under the Exchequer seal for 99 years determinable on Ihree 
lives, at a rent of 40«. He had petitioned for a grant of the constable- 
ship of the castle, but " that was found no ways necessary for his 
majesty's service." 

Immediately, says Hornby, great disputes arose between Lord Gerard 
and the town. In order to carry on a trial 100/. was by the common 
council in October, 1664, placed in the hands of Sir John Marley ; their 
petition set forth their services to the' late king. They had held out 
the town against the Scots. They had spent lOOOJ. in repairing the 
walls. They had borrowed 34,000/. for the payment of the garrison. 
And not one farthing, said they, had ever been repaid.*^ In 1668 a 
revocation of the grant was asked on the ground that it was only under 
the Exchequer seal, was at an under value, and had been obtained by 
surprise. But all was of no avail. The matter was referred to the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and there it ended.^ 

In the wild days of James II., the corporate officers were more suc- 
cessful. In 1685, not only did they obtain a lease of the reversion for 
81 years at the annual rent of 100 chaldrons of coals (for Chelsea 
Hospital) but also, about a month before, a warrant that the Castle 
Garth should be parcel of Newcastte. The procuring of this cost the 
town 600/.^ 

By virtue of this illegal warrant, the Corporation vexed Lord Gkrard, 
now Earl of Macclesfield, and his tenants, with frivolous suits, broke 
open their houses under the by-laws of the incorporated companies, 
seized their goods, and indicted them for following their trades. The 
Earl denied that James could take the Castle Garth out of Northumber- 

*o Brand throughout, and 3 Arch. ^1. 43. *^ 1 Hornby, 24. 

*2 1 Brand, 164, « Brand's MSS. 



THB Js'BW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 73 

land. After a long litigation^ commencing in Trinity Term, 1690, the 
order for an injunction was made absolute on 24 July, 1693, and the 
warrant of tlie deposed monarch was set aside.** He died in 1701, and 
tiie Earl's death followed two months after, wbea. the Corporation en- 
tered under their lease. The warrant being abrogated, they could not 
introduce their by-laws, but sub-leases would fall in, and their rule 
ended with great delapidatipns and a diminished rental. In 17S4 they 
IHrayed in vain for a renewal of their term, which had expired in 1732 ; 
the neiLt year the Suryeyor^General reported on the castle, and Colonel 
George Jiiddell petitioned for it. Hiis petition was more favourably re-- 
eeiyad than that oi the burgesses, and in 1736^ on p^ji^ent of 150/. fine, 
it wtB granted fo^ fi£ty years at the old rental of coals. 

Ju 1768 the eastle-yard, which had long been considered as a separate 
township^ wm united with the parish of St. Nicholo^. 

In 1777** a lease of the reversion for 40j years from 13 July, 1786, at 
the same rent, was granted to Henry Ij&fd Bavensworth in trust for 
himself and the other pesso^s entitled under his uncle George's will.-* 
The fine paid was 6Q0/. In 1780 the Liddell family sold their interest 
for 2,625/.** to John Chrichloe Turner, Esq., of Chester Deanery, co. 
Durham, who, the next year^ n^ed it tp indemnify the sureties for his 
faithfid perfonn$kAP9 of the office of receiver for Greenwich Hospital, 
which he held ^l^y with l^r. {Nicholas Walton. In 1802 he was a 
knight and had ves^goed his office^ and he then sold the castle to John 
Turner, Esq,, of the ;)(Gddle Temple, for 625/. 6s. 2d. and an annuity of 
600/. The purchaser, in 1808, enfranchised the premises,*^ including 
the keep and gaol, and also the gaoWs house, but excluding the Half- 
moon Battery, <eii whiph Sir J. C* Turner had eirected numerous build- 
ings. These werp auinjendered to the Crown and used for the new 
County €oiart0. A new street caUed Castle Street was laid out, and in 
1810 and 18U the Tunier property was sold in various lots. The 
keep was purchased by the Corporation for 600/. Castle Street has 
yielded to the Bailway and the High X<evel Bridge approaches, and 
Queen Street, which took the plaqe of the castle moat on the west^ is 
sharing its fiate. 

** 1 Brand, 166. 

^ In the extract of this year given by Brand, i. ITl, as from a writ directed to the 
sheriff, « of Thomas Bolome for the custody of one messuage, and 8 gardens within 
the Kmg's Castle, called Kingabif GaaUej *l$y ; the word Eingsby is probably an error 
for King's Hy or High Castle. 

** See Arch. -aai. 43. 

, ^^ The Maltme&'s Company and the Bey. David Gallatly were amongst the occu- 
piecs. 



74 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 



lit PARTICULAR HISTORY. 

I. The Mount. — "There is," says Brand, " a place still called the 
Moanty on the south side of the keep, and within the outer^ wall of the 
fortification. 

Castle Street was laid out in 1811, across the Mount east and west* 
The conditions of sale of the sites ran thus :— " The respective pur- 
chasers of the building scites in Oastle Street wiU be required to reduce 
the Bank, where necessary, to the level of the intended streei^N.B. The 
Bank is supposed to consist chiefly of ashes, and may probably be 
disposed of for manure, and be removed at very little expense." Of the 
real material I am not more exactly informed than from Sykes's descrip- 
tion, "the hill of earth." In removing it, the labourers found the 
skeletons of two men, about a foot and a half below the surface. One 
of them was lying with the face downward, and from the freshness of 
its appearance was thought not to have been buried many years.*^ 

Grose conjectures that the mounds often found in the outer bfdley of 
castles served, like modem cavaliers, to command the country. The 
motive for erecting mounds amid towers is not obvious ; and it is ex- 
tremely probable that in such works we may often have the sites of the 
wooden ediflces on earthen mounts which preceded the more elaborate 
fortresses of the later Norman period, and are conspicuous in the 
Bayeaux tapestry. We can easily comprehend why Prince Bobert's 
fortress at Monkchester has wholly perished. 

* 

II. Castle-Waed. — The castle- ward system was in ftdl op^*ation in 
Eufus's time, for Hugh de BaiUol held his barony of Bywell in chief by 
the service of 5 knights' fees, and he owed to the ward of New Castle 
upon Tyne 30 soldiers. " AU his ancestors held by that service since 
the time of King "William Ruffus, who enfeoffed them."" This was one 
man for each of the 80 knights' fees which belonged to the Baliols. The 
barony of Bywell, being near the castle, famished the whole service. 
The baronies of other families owing similar duty must also have fur- 
nished men, there being no payment of a money commutation for 
castle-guard until the reign of Henry III.'^ The payment was at the 

** The inner wall of the stirveys — ^the ordinary castle wall. 

" Local Records. ^ Testa de Nevil. 

B^ See a record of 1221 in 1 Brand, 169, in which a sheriff was relieyed against 
some inequitable terms on his appointment to keep the castle, and yet to account for 
the castle-guard rents. He proved that his predecessors had them, and was placed 
upon a ffilimlar footing. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPOX TYNE, 



75 



rate of one mark per knight's fee, and the niunher of fees will represent 
that of the ordinary garrison. The Eed Book of the Exchequer gives 
us the following sanunary of castle-guard, some of the baronies being 
g^nted before and some after Bufus's time : — 



The ward of Bayllol 

'Copiun' [Carham, ue. Wark upon 

Tweed.] 

Bolium [Bolam] . . 
Delaval fee 
Walton fee 

Caugi fee 

Herun fee , , 

Bothale fee 

Divelston [i] and Goseforde [|] 

Bolebek 

Merley 



• • 



• • 







£. 


8. 


d. 


131 


j fees . . 


. . 15 


13 


4 


1 


>i • • 


.. 


13 


4 


3 


it • • 


.. 2 








2 


i> 


.. 1 


6 


8 


3 


tt • • 


.. 2 








3 


>> • • < 


.. 2 








1 


» • • 


,. 


13 


4 


3 


}t 


. 2 








1 


>9 • • • 


. 


13 


4 


5 


II . . . 


. 3 


6 


8 


4 


>} • • 


. 2 


13 


4 



Add other members of the Baliol 
fee not charged 



• I 



49i 
6i » 



• • • • 



£33 
4 6 8 



56 fees .. £37 6 8«* 



The, sheriff could only collect 32{. 4s. 5d. In 18 Hen. III., the 
Baliols succumbed to the claims of the Bishops of Durham to the 
military serrices in respect of Barnard Castle and Gainford, in the 
wapentake of SadbergOi and, in consequence, deducted 5| fees fix)m the 
30. The Grown ignored the payment to the bishop, and entered the 
deduction as arrears ; but the practice continued long after the time of 
the Baliols, and we have the amount entered in Bishop Hatiield's Sur- 
vey as due to him.^ The burden of service appears to have been par- 
celled out among the subfeudatories of Baliol: thus as late as 15 Edw. 
11% the tenure of some land at Stainton, near Barnard Castle, is said to 
be " by service of ward of the New Castle."** 

At the time of James I.'s grant to Stephenson, the castle- ward rents 
still amounted to 321,, and as the same amount they were excepted in 
the lease of 1685. They are excepted generally as ''all free rents, 
castle-guard rents, and other rents belonging to the Honour of the old 

^3 The original language is printed by Mr. Hinde in 4 Arch. Ml.<, 0. S., 2S5y with 
some remark which I have timely used for the statements in the text. 

'^ " Idem Gomes (Warwic) pro terns, quondam Johannis de BalHol, ad terminum 
Sancti Martini tantum, red. 70«." 

M 4 Sur. 99. Mr. Surtees, forgetting the obligations of the Baliols to Newcastle, 
supposed the New Castle here to mean Barnard Castle. 



7« THE KEW CASTLE tJPON TtHti. 

Oasfle/' in sabseqneiit leases. The enfhmehiflement to Tomer also ex* 
6epts fhe Honour of the old Casfle and all free alid other i^te to Hie 
•aid Honour belonging. 

in. Ths Babohs' Houbxs.— The two inquests of 1334 and 1336 
yield the following list of baroiiids Uable to sustain houses in the castle. 
In 1334 it is added that the whole of the nM houses which the king 
ought to keep up might be sustained for 100«. 

L £$lbeeL The house of the barony of Bolbek was in the hand of 
Sir Balph de Neril and Sir William de Herle in 1334, and in 1336 the 
Baron of Bolbeck was to build a house called the BMeckhdU. Is there a 
remembrance of a family badge in the sign of the Three Bulls' Heads ?** 

2. Bdioh In 1334 the barony of Baliol was in the hand of the 
Countess of Pembroke* The barony and its house are also mentiMed in 
1336. 

3. WerUfipimTicede. The barony was in Sir WUliam de Mountagu's 
hand in 1334, and its house required no less a sum than 201., ten marks 
being the ordinary amount of amendments. In 1336, the lord of the 
barony was to build a house above the poetem. This barony was also 
called Garham, and the sernce of one fee identifies it with * Copiun ' of 
the list of castle-guards. 

4. Herth Oeiford and ihfvelMon [G^ot^ and Bilston]. Iti tiie 
hands of Sir Thomas Surtays and Sir Wllliftm de Tyndide in 1334. 
Mentioned in 1836. 

There is an interesting charter respecting the Qosfbrth portion of the 
fee in 2 Hodg. 127. Walter fitz-'William (who is the Walter Surtees 
of the Pipe BoU of 1186, and must be added to the third generation in 8 
Sur. 234) grants to Bobert de Idsle GK>seford with the moni^tery aUd 
mill, he doing | of a knight's service within the eaildoin, and 15 days 
guard in Newcastle. In like manner he grants t6 him *^ the land of 
the stable {de eiabuh) of New Castle with the aforMid land in fee and 
inheritance." The charter is witnessed by Odinel de UmpfhiTel who 
died in 1182. 

6. Caugy, In the hand of Robert de Clifford da no^l liea, in i834« 
In 1336 he is called Bobert de Clifford de Novo loco, chief lord of Ihe 
barony of Caugy, and the English equivalent of Newerited is found in 
13 Edw. in.» 

<^ This is not the place for any history of the descents of the baronies. The nn 
a¥dTe named stood norm of the chapel of the keep. The name is transferred to a 
new house next to the Moot-Hall. The inn at the filaek Gate, called the Two BoUa' 
Heads, occurs by that name in the sale-particiilars of 1819. 

*• Inq. p. m. 



tflB KBW CASTLE tJPON TTTKE. 77 

6. Wluiltm. In the hand of Sb Qeffirej le Sorop in 13^4. Men- 
tioned in 1036. 

7. Henmn or JETaddeaton. In the hand of Sir John Darcy the * cosyn/ 
in 1334, under the name of Heronn : called Haddeston in 1336. The 
manor of Haddeston had been held by the Herons. 

%. Deht Vale. Sir Robert de la Yale is mentioned as o^mier in both 
surveys. 

9. Sothale. Sir Robert Bertram had the barony in 1334, and the 
lord of Bothal is also mentioned in 1336. 

The order given above is that of 1334. That of 1336 i»— 1. Baliol, 
2. BeUtval, B. Saddeston, 4. Whalton, 5. Oangy, 6. Qosforth and Dil- 
ston, 7. Wark, 8. Baliol, 9# Bolbeok. In both inquests the towers of 
the enceinte are mentioned distinctly from the Barons' houses. The list 
of baacons liable is similar to that of castlefgnards due, except that no 
housed are mentioned f(nr the Merley and Bolam fees. 

rV.— Thb Insteb Wall. — This is the ordinary military enceinte wall, 
as distinguished £rpm the outer or supporting wall which ran at the 
extreme limits of the castle liberties. It is plain that the old wall of 
the castle was decrepid in the early days of Henry III. In 1127 the 
work of a breach of New Castle cost 347. Is^Sd., and in 1237 ''the 
breach of the wall behind the postern" was amended. In the Pipe Boll 
for 1272-5, the three first years of Edward I., there is a payment of 15{. 
for a wooden enclosure of a breach of the wall of New Castle (lign$a 
€lau9ura etffusdam Ireke muri Ifavi Castri). In 1334, it was reported 
that all the defects of the environn of the castle, the towers {torelles), 
and the walls, might be remedied for 167. lOs, The tuirels of the castle 
are also mentioned in 1336. 

The wall appears in good condition in the bird's eye view of the six- 
teenth century and the map in Speed. In the inquisition of 1620, it 
is called the inner wall of the castle, and in that of 1649 the inner wall 
of the Castle Garth. The former inquest begins by stating that the 
castle was enclosed by a great stone wall, and the thickness of its western 
side, destroyed by a dunghill, was two yarda* This strong and noisome 
feature had been of long accumulation,'^ and the survey thus describes it. 

" Within the site and circuit of the said castle the inhabitants of the 
town of Nevtf'castle upon Tyne have made a certain dunghill or ' leastalF 
in and against the outer wall of the said castle, on the west side of the 
said wall, and have located, placed, and cast much rubbish and other 

^^ "A poor woman dieing on the donghill," waa buried at St. John's in 1591. 



78 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

dirt and QmBances there, and have suffered and still suffer the said dung- 
hill, &c.| so located, placed, and cast, to lie ^ere. The length of which 
dunghill contains 98 yards, the height 10 yards, and the breadth 32 
yards. And by reason of the weight of the dunghill, &c., in and against 
the wall of the said castle on the west side of the same wall there lo- 
cated, ftc., a great part of the said wall, containing in length 40 jraxds, 
in height 10 yards, and in hreadih 2 ffords, was ai^ still is totally sub- 
verted and prostrated, to the very great diminution of the state and 
strength of the said castle, so that in the opinion of the jurors the sum 
of 120/. will scarcely repair the same wall." 

The Milbank MS. states that ^' the high and great heap, viz. the dung- 
hill on the west side of the castle, was taken away by Sir John Harley, 
mayor, and his adherents, to rampart the town waUs."^ 

Stukely and Boger Gkde visited Newcastle in 1 725. '' I suspect (says 
the former) that a piece of the outer wall of the present castiLe, which 
stands on the west side in a tattered condition, may be Eoman, at least 
built with Boman stone : this going upon the slope of the hill, the 
courses of the stone slope too, parallel with the declivity; but, be that 
as it will, at the foundation of it, a little lower, I saw a bit of the true 
old Boman Wall, and indubitably so, made of white limestone, with 
mortar prodigiously hard, and ringing like a bell when struck upon.'' 

About 1790^ there were, as there are now, "many remains of the 
outer walls of this ancient fortress to be seen, particularly on the south 
and west from the lane called Sheep-head Alley by the Bank-head, and 
the ancient South Postern to the old Half-moon Battery, and also by-the 
head of the Dog-leap Stairs leading to the Side." Hodgson supposed 
the last-named relics to be Boman, but in his days the architecture of 
our own forefathers was unstudied and often ignored. 

The site of the castle is a projecting nab of land, possessing great 
facilities of defence with some little drawbacks. The immunity from 
attack on the two precipitous sides concentrated the enemy's force at 
the junction with the main land, and here, as is evident, a moat, wet or 
dry, must always have existed. 

Between the Norman fortresses and those introduced in Henry in.'s 
days, there are radical distinctions. ** The Norman castle held a small 
garrison, who trusted to the passive resistance of their walls ; their suc- 
cessors diminished the solidity, to increase the extent of their front, and 
by throwing out salient points were enabled to combine their forces 
upon any one point."^ During the transitional style of architecture, 
there was also a transition in the ground plans of castles. Without at- 

M Per Bourne, 119. «> MS. po88. Mr. Tho. Bell. 

00 G. T. Clark, in 1 Arch. Journal, 101. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 79 

taining to the bold plans of the thirteenth century, and without abandon- 
ing the keeps which had succeeded the fortified mounds, the builders of 
the twelfth century exhibited the improyements of having two ballia 
or courts instead of one, and flanking towers along the exterior walls ;*^ 
for the centre of a certain wall midway between projections is passively 
the weakest part, but ^at in defence of which most weapons can be 
directed.^ 

If reference be made to the plan of the castle, it will be seen that the 
Black Gate and the walls near it are thoroughly Early English in plan, 
and are clearly additions a Jundamentts. The rest of the walls have a 
transitional appearance, but some of them-— for they arid not uniform- 
may be earlier. 

While the siege of the outer walls was going on, the keep was from 
its height of great advantage for the annoying the enemy by archers, 
who had very much wider range than the garrison on the waUs ; and in 
a Norman castle on level ground, the policy evidently was, as at London, 
to place the keep in the centre of the enclosure, where all sides might 
have what assistance it could afford. But in castles on nabs of land, 
such an arraDgement would have been a useless waste of force. The 
land side was the object of protection, and the nearer the keep was 
brought to it the better. The modes adopted at Bichmond and New- 
castle differ. In the flrst the walls are gradually brought up to a neck, 
the ke^ is placed on it^ and outside of it is the smaller bailey. At 
Newcastle the walls are spread out to the extremity of the declivities; 
they are then drawn across a wide extent to the west, and the keep and 
the several courts are all within the main walls. Bichmond keep had 
the larger range of shot, but that of Newcastle had the other buildings 
in the enclosure more under its protection, and in itself, 08 a keep, was 
stronger. If in some considerations the walls of Newcastie were less 
cleverly disposed, there was by their compact treatment less outward 
&ce in them, and in Norman tactics that was a great point gained. 

Bound the declivity the walls may be pretty accurately ascertained. 
Towards the west, however, the property has been much disturbed. A 
square tower on the east side of the High Level Bridge was opened out 
in the railway works. It has since been cut away in widening a road. 
Before this reduction the wall left the tower and plan on a littie to the 
north ; it then turned to the west and disappeared in the bridge. The 
old bird's eye view of Newcastie in 1590, and Speed's plan of 1610 
show that the wall soon turned northward again in the direction of an 
old line of houses which existed until the formation of Castle Street, 

" A. Mnward, 5 Arch. Journal, 43. « Clark ut supra. 



BO THE NEWCASTLE UPON T7NB. 

and sppear to hare marked very mnjch fhe line width the donghiU d&- 
mdliahed. Thej ran on to the Tnestem gateway. In the formation of 
the railway a portion of wall was found 31 feet 8^ inches loog> and 5^ 
feet thick pomting to Bt. KiehoWi and /exactly in ihe direetioa I haya 
described. It was of smallinh stones, and altogether of va&nacr woxk- 
snandxip to the wall we left near the bridge,** which was 8 feet thioL 
From the western gateway the wall continued parallel with the keep at 
labont 30 feet distance from it; this pafalld portion was takm down in 
1847.** Fromthenoetothesqnaretowersonthof the Black fihite, of which 
jhalf remaiBs, the line was tolerably direct. Some portions of tiie wdi 
may be traced in the hooses, «nd Ihe additknal wall leading -horn ihe 
Black Gate southwards breaks oif where it would reach swdi a line. 

Y. Thb Seep.— As already stated, the present keep was erected by 
Heniy IL between 1172 and 1177, aft a .cost of 892/. 1B$, ^d. 

In 1240, the Tower of New CastSfi was corered with lead, and in 
1270 liie large sum of 671. 6«, was spent en the nepair of tilie King's 
Tower in Ihe ^castle of Kewntetle. On this part of the eastk {2s tour) 
was placed a quarter of Ihe body of Andrew de Hartde^ in 1323, and 
^doubtless here abo was ^aoed i&e x^oarter of Gilbert de MiddLeton 
-which was sent to l^ewcastle in 1317,** and memorials of jother pessons 
who from time to time BxxSexei at the town. 

In 13S4, iho Great Tower had defects in plumbery which could 
3iot he ronedied for less ihan 20 aiArk& The defects of the ma* 
tKmry of the sasd tower to amend weve worth 6 snaiks; thesie had 
heen a house aboTC the entrance to the sadd tower whidi ought to be 
made anew, whereof the timber and ihe caipeniry weve worth 10/. Li 
1386 the Great Tower is again mentioned, and in i3i5i8 it reoeiTcd some 
Teparation; The «te|» were cleaaied," and quarried stone seems to 
haTO been required and lased.** Two great crooks and two bands were 
made of iron for the door (jtmua). 

The keep was used for the canfinement of prisoners in Bm 16th 
43entury. In 1502, Boger Fenwyk, £sq«, constable de ako cadrotnfru 
mlUm Nwi Castri took a boud from Alesander XJrpelh of fialyw^U, 
yeoman, William Oar of Whitton, gcaat., Robert Beule, Bobert iEknadon^ 
and Alexander Urpeth of Bothberry, yeomen, conditioned that the sud 
Alexander Urpeth of Qaly well personally abide, '' within the caeteU of 

<» Inf: O. B. E. ** Inf. G. B. E. 

M Bymetr'fl Foedera. "* Placitonim Abbreyiatio. 

«7 See the record, p. 62. ^ Ibid. p. 63. 



THE NEW CASTLE tJPOK TYNK 81 

otir BOTeraine lord the King called the Hye Castell in the town of New- 
castell upon Tyne and the walles of the same castell, as trew presoner,^ 
and none eskape mak nor presume to mak oute of the said castell walles 
nor yattes of the same Hye Castell."" 

Security was indeed highly necessary, for the castle of Newcastle 
seems to have heen of the most unsafe description. In 1527, Siz^ 
WiiHam Lisle and Humphrey his son, heing in ward within the castle, 
not only broke " the prison wherein they were themselves, but also 
divers other prisons there, wherein were divers outlaws kept, some for 
felony, some for murder and treason," some Scottish, others English. 
With these wretches, they escaped out of the castle, and passed into 
Scotland^ there banding themselves with the thieves called the Arm- 
strongs. One letter says that the Lisles broke " the prison and gaill," 
the former probably referring to the prison of the Lisles, the latter to 
a more promiscuous place of confinement.''^ 

In 1532, the heads and quarters of seventeen border thieves were 
** caused to be sett up upon the dungeon of the castell of NewcasteU^ 
and in sundry other eminent and open places most a^arent to the river 
and sight of the people, to the. high contentation of all the trewe 
inhabitants of their parties, and extreme terror of all other semlabel 
offendors."'^ Six years afterwards, it was the opinion of Sir Wm. Eure^ 
Sir John Woddrington and Sir Cuth. Katclyff, and Kobert CoUyngwood, 
esquyer, that proclamation should be made that all loyal men of Tyn- 
dale should come into the inward parts of the realm. And as to tha 
rest, that when the corn and hay were gotten, the Wardens of the 
Marches should without pity bum and destroy their hay, corn, and 
houses. ''And so many of the said Tyndale folks, either wife or child, 
as shall be found there, to be taken and be brought unto Your Grace is 

"* Mr. Fenwick has with the above bond, a similar one in 1503, from John Lilbum 
of Shawden, Esq., John Wetewod of Wetewod, Esq., John Car of Hatton, gent., 
and Thomas Lilbnm of Belford, gent., for the true imprisonment of John Beffle, 
senior, of Chatton — and another in 1515 from Edward Charlton of Heslesyd, Thomas 
Fenwyk of Fawnys, Wm. Eryngton of ParkcheUs, and Gilbert Eryngton of Fourstans, 
gentlemen, to Koger Fenwyk as sheriff, conditioned that Peter Lambert layt of 
Fourstans afoyrsad, now beynge prisoner to our soverane lord the Kyng afforsayd iiL 
the kepyng of the aboyv namyd scheryff, no departor ne escayp mayk nor presum to 
mayk, bod trewly in proper person remeyn within the manor of Wallyngton bonds 
and felds off the sayme, to he be lawfully dyschargyt and lisens geye be the sayd^ 
Bcheryff.** 

'* State Papers. In 1524, Norfolk, who was then at Newcastle, wished the Earl of 
Angus to be sent to Lord Dacre at Morpeth Castle, or to Lord Westmoreland at 
Haby, for at either place he would be in no danger of escaping, whereas at Newcastle 
he would have to be secretly watched every night. But Angus's was not an oeteofiU 
ble, though an actual, captivity, and does not apply to the castle. 

^* G. B. Richardson. 

.VOL. IV. M 



82 THE NSW 0A8TLB UPON TTNS. 

64dU of IfifWcaiiU, there to remain unto yonr Grace is pleasure be known 
anempet them ; and the men eo taken, preaentlj there to be ezecated."" 

In 1587, '* Gilbert Heron, gent, priaoner in the high oaatle," wita 
buried at St. Nicholas, and in 1589, Qneen Elizabeth excepts " her gaol 
there, popularly called the Dungeon," firom her grant of liborty to the 
town to seice malefactors in the eastle liberlie8« When the Company 
of Tailors occupied the castle, between 1606 and 1609, they paid their 
yearly rent to Giles Wallys. He occurs as ** jailor of the high castel" in 
1597, and was buried in 1614. 

The keep was excepted from James I.'s grant to Stephenson as '* the 
prison wherein is kept the sons of Belial, it beiog the county prison 
for Northumberland.'''" The sons of Belial truly met with their deserta 
here, for in 1620 this '' great square tower of great height" was '* yery 
ruinous, and the roof of the same tower was wholly taken ol^ and 
spoiled of all the lead and tiles wherewith anciently it was covered. So 
that the prisoners of the county of Northumberland, who were kept in 
the lower vaults and parts of the tower where was the common prison and 
gaol for the whole county of Northumberland, were lying so miserably^ 
basely, sordidly, and dangerously, that the showers of rain, snow, and 
hail descended on their heads. The sum of 809/. 15«. would scarcely 
repair the said gaol and great tower, and make them fit for the king's 
seryice."^^ In a previous part of the inquest the number of the vaults 
is given :«— '' A great tower very ruinous, under which are two vaulta 
in which the prisoners, &c." However, under all drawbacks, there wae^ 
in 1625, a child begotten " in the jail of the hie castell."^* 

In Dec. 1627, Sir Francis Brandling, late sherifP, delivered to Sir 
Thomas Swinburne his successor " the gad of the county called the high 
eastle." One of the prisoners was one Brewes, a Scotchman, who had 
stolen 38 sheep, and made an escape before the last assizes forth of the 
gaol with irons on his legs. Another was the gaoler who had been 
committed for the escape. There were also delivered 8 doors, 10 locks, 
10 keys, 10 pair of iron fetters, and one pair of bolts. In the kalendar 
of the 1628 assizes, the gad out of which Brewes escaped is called " his 
majesties prison in the High Castle, being the common gaol.'"'* 

Once more, however, was the old keep to bear its part in the din of 
war. In Aug., 1643, the shipwrights treated with Sir John Harley, 
the gallant mayor, concerning covering the . castle with plank, and in 

"^^ 5 State Papers, 134. n Qardener. 

7« 18 Brand's MSS. We do not find Bourne's itaiement that one-third of the 
tower was almost taken away. 

" Eeg. St. Nio. N.C. w Arch. -El., 0. S. i. 149. 



THB NEW 0A8TLB UPON TTNB. 88 

1644, it was from its very nunoas condition put by bim into good re* 
pair. He laid upon it great ordnance to beat off those guns which the 
Scots had laid " upon the banks of Gateshead'' against the town ; and 
this he managed bravely for a long time.^ On Oct 19, when the town 
was taken, the mayor " took the castle for a sanctuary, and took down 
his flaming flags, and pat up the white. Then the soldiers laid down 
their arms and colours and left them." So writes Man the town clerk. 
One journal of the day says that " the mayor,^ Lord Craford, and about 
400 got into the eastle." Another increases the number* ^* There 
were," it says, *' 500 men in that little compass of the castle, besides 
women and children. The Scottish lords tidcen then, vis., the Lord 
Craford, Sea, and Kaxwell (three grand incendiaries), the general hath 
sent into Scotland to be there tryed, for speedier justice will be done 
upon them there than in England." The castle was ceded on Oct 22. 

As some workmen were cutting a drain a little in advance of the 
south side of the keep, in 1824, they discovered some human skeletons 
at the depth of three feet from the surface. Two were found at about 
eighteen inches from each other, lying with the feet to the east, and 
severed from the earth by rude sepulchres^ the bottoms of which were 
formed of thin stones and lime, and the sides built up of stones, with 
stones laid upon the tops to support the superincumbent earth. A skull 
of one of these had a round perforation in the top^ as if made by a ball. 
The rest of the bodies had been ^a^miscously huddled together.^^ Per- 
haps we m&j allot these burials to the week's siege of the castle in 164i« 

The parliamentary survey of 1649 begins thus ; — "All that the Old 
Castle, being a stronge and greata Tower of free-stone situate in the 
midst of the Castle Oarth, in the county of Northumberland, and 
bounded with, strange works of stone and mudde, is now garrisoned by 
the Parliament's forces, and used by them as a magazeene of ammunicion 
for the garrison of Newcastle, and therefore we have not surveyed nor 
valued the same." 

The repairs of Sir John would probably soon go down. 

" There is in the middle of the castle," says M. Jorevin de Bocheford, 
in his Travels, 1672,*> " a high donjon, which is a large and very strong 
square tower, made of hewn stone. At present it is used for the prison 
of the town, but it has no garrison or soldiers to guard it. It seems to 
me, nevertheless, to be very strong, being on the comer of a rock, en- 
closed on one side by thick walls, and steeply scarped on the other thalj 

"" HilbaDke MS. per Bourne, 233. 

"f^ Sir Nicholaa Cole and Sir George Baker.— Echard. 

'» 2 Sykea's Local Records, 172. w Translated in 4 Ant. Rep. 649. 



«4 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

looks to the town, which it commands/' In the reverrionary lease to 
the Corporation in 1685, are excepted ** all those lower places within the 
castle now used for the common prison and gaol by the sheriff of the 
county of Northumberland/' and in the lease to Col. LiddeU in 1736, 
*' All that strong building used for a common gaol or prison for the 
county of Northumberland."'^ 

Bourne mentions the floor above the county gaol as haying been flag- 
ged by the order of Alderman William Ellison, when he was mayor of the 
town in 1723. No other floors were left, but Bourne and Brand concur 
in saying that there had been five divisions or stories besides this — ^a 
}K)sition I cannot understand." The percolation of centuries must have 
thoroughly damaged the vaulting, and Mr. Ellison's floor seems to have 
had no lasting effect ; for the wretched state of the prisoners excited the 
compassion of the benevolent Howard, who, in 1777, observes " that 
during the assizes at Newcastle, the county prisoners are, men and 
women, confined together seven or eight nights, in a dirty damp dun- 
geon, six steps [occasioned by the accumulated rubbish around] in the 
old castle, which, having no roof, in wet seasons the water is some 
inches deep. The felons are chained to rings in the wall." At this 
period, and for many years afterwards, the prisoners were, on the Assize 
Sunday, shown to the public like wild beasts, and the vulgar and curious 
paid sixpence each for admission." 

In 1778, Brand made his observations on the castle. The keep, he 
says, measured 28^ yards in height, and appeared anciently to have been 
Somewhat higher. The 28| yards nearly agree with the height of the 
old work as given at the north-east angle in YuUiamy's elevations in 
the Vetusta Monttmenta. Brand gives eleven [now nineteen] steps up 
to the portal on the stairs, and eighteen [now thirty two] from the por- 
tal to the great entrance. 

At the top of the keep, he was of course much surprised to find a 
little artificial garden, producing apple-trees, rose-bushes, &c. This 
garden existed to a late period, the occupier speaking of the interior of 
the castle as a pit in his garden. 

8* 1733. " The flying man flew from the top of the castle into Baily-gate ; and 
after that he made an ass fly down, by which several accidents happened ; for the 
weights tied to the ass's legs knocked down several, bruised others in a violent man- 
ner, and killed a girl on the spot.*' — Newcastle Courant. 

In 17^6, curious fireworks were played oiF from the castle on account of the mar- 
riage of its owner, Lord Ravensworth. In 1850, the electric light was exhibited on 
its summit. 

82 it By the rows of square holes in which the beams have rested, there must have 
been five stories of apartments, of which the great hall and state rooms were the 
lowest, fix)m the present flagged floor to the top of this tower." — Brand. 

^^ Parson and White. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 85 

'' AH the apartments of the ground floor, and the county prison itself, 
except when used at the assizes, have been converted into cellars.*— 
There is a place here, into which if water be poured in the largest 
quantities it immediately disappears. Great alterations must have been 
made in the appearance of the lower parts of the south front, when the 
temporary prison of the county was made in this keep. The present 
entrance, to which we descend by f6ur or Ave steps, must have been first 
made on that occasion, for there is no arch over it in the wall. Another 
similar kind of entrance on the eastern side of the south-eastern angle 
which is now built up, with a swine-stye before it, is also, without 
doubt, of a date much posterior to that of the original building.'' So 
far Brand. 

In 1782, Mr. Turner, the then lessee, published the following 
astounding proposal : — 

" A "Wind Mill in the centre of the Town of Newcastle. — To be Let, 
the Old Castle, in the Castle Garth, upon which, with the greatest con- 
venience and advantage, may be erected a Wind-Mill, for the purpose 
of grinding com, and bolting flour, or making oil, &c. There is an ex- 
ceeding good spring of water within the Castle, which renders it a very 
eligible situation for a Brewery, or any Manufactory that requires a 
constant supply of water. The proprietor, upon proper terms, will be 
at a considerable part of the expence. Enquire of Mr. Fryer, in West- 
gate Street, Newcastle." 

"The castle itself," says a writer, eire, 1790,^ "seems to be much in 
the same state as in Bourne's time. The county prison or dungeon, 
which is only used to confine the felons during the assizes, is still in a 
miserable situation. A large part of the ground floor of the castle is 
used for a beer cellar. A confectioner has an apartment on the west 
side which he uses as an icehouse, and a currier occupies most of the re- 
maining apartments as workshops, &c. There is a very extensive pros- 
pect from the top of the castle, on the walls whereof a little garden has 
hen madef planted with edbhagee and other vegetables. The immediate 
environs of the keep or inner castle, especially on the south side, are 
in a very nasty state, there being many pigstjes, dunghills, and re- 
ceptacles of fllth all thereabouts." 

In 1809, Mr. Turner contracted to sell the keep to the Corporation 
for 600 guineas. It was cleared of the excrescent buildings on the 
south and east by the zeal and perseverance of Alderman Forster. The 
Corporation placed arches and a floor above the prison, and covered the 
whole keep with an arched roof of brick, flnishing it with the present 
battlements. Something, but very little, was done to the chapel. Guns 

8* MS. poas. Mr. Tho. Bell, Newcastle. 



88 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 

vefe mounted for rejoicing days, and in 1812, the festivitieB of Ascen- 
«ion Day were marred by the explosion of a cartridge and the hurling 
of the unfortonate gnnner over the parapet. He was killed on the spot. 
Our Society was inaugurated in the keep in 1813, occupying for some 
time the room on the west of the Great Hall. 

In 1817, the Society of Antiquaries of London published a series 
of large plates of details of the keep from measurements by Mr. L. 
Yulliamy, distinguishing the old parts of the keep from the modem ad- 
juncts. There are some slight inaccuracies, such as i^e omission of the 
billet moulding round the principal windows ; but since the renovation. 
of the great doorway, the oriole chapel, and some details in the lower 
chapel, these plates have become of high value- 
After some lectures on Castellated Architectore, Dr. Bruce, in 18479 
published a Guide to the Castle, which goes very fully ijito the ichno- 
graphy of the keep. The popular notion that the castle was Prince 
Eobert's was rife then as it is even now, and on some details, such aa 
the number of stories, and location of recorded members of the castle, I 
venture to differ from my friend; but his Guide is valuable in its minute 
detail of parts, and a reference to it avoids the necessity of my giving 
more than my own general notions of the keep. Dr. Bruce succeeded, 
by one mode and another, in drawing considerable attention to his sub-' 
ject ; and in a review of the Guide for the Archaeological Journal, Hudson 
Turner tried in vain to op^i the eyes of the Newcastle public to the 
real date and nature of the castle. Many other church architects must 
have visited it, and been aware of the patent discrepancy between its 
characteristic details and the architecture of Eobert Curthose's time, but 
to Turner belongs the merit of publishing it. 

Dr. Bruce tried the floors of the nave of the chapel, the small chamber 
leading into it, and the great ground room, for an underground dungeon, 
but without success. He found the floors a mass of rubble as far as he 
bored, which was from 5 to 6| feet. 

At this time the joiners and curriers of Brand's time had vacated their 
shops, but still the castle was in a deplorable state. The Society's 
present library was used as a school, and the great hall contained humble 
fittings as a dwelling. One little room was formerly used as an icehouse. 
The same month that Dr. Bruee's lectures were delivered, our Society 
prayed the Council of the Borough to allow them to restore the keep ; 
and upon a further application, the Society became tenants of the keep, 
and the Corporation undertook the cost of restoration, which was accord- 
ingly effected, from drawings made by Mr. Dobson thirty-flve years 
before. In Aug. 1848, a banquet was held in the keep, under the pre- 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNR 87 

sidenoy of the noble Pation of the body which retomed to its earlj 
haanty and the yenerable pile recdved much of its present appearance. 

In the walls of our keep five sta^^es are sometimes found ; but it is 
sufficient to regard the building as composed of four, that being the 
numbCT of the central rooms. The points of separation are indicated bj 
the face of the walls receding at each stage ; consequently the rooms 
axe wider as we rise* Of these central rooms or halls in their order :— ^ 
(1.) That of the ground floor, still bearing the rings by which prisoners 
were chained when it became a gaol, is a noble yaulted apartment, 
the libs radiating from a central pillar. (2.) That of the second 
story, is divided by two modem arches. It is now the library of our 
Society, and is stripped of its original appearance, (d.) Into the Great 
Hall, on the third floor, the principed door of the castle opens* The 
windows of this apartment are of a superior description, and stairs slope 
from them into the room. The mark of its ceiling is left against the 
south wall. Like other Korman ceilings it was flat, with a single cant 
at each side. (4.) The fourth or defence story is now partly thrown 
into the Great Hall, giving a very erroneous notion of Norman economy 
of space, and partly occupied by Alderman Forster's barrel roof of brick. 
The original roof would most probably be hipped and tiled. A cover 
of lead was given in 1240.^ In Brand's time the joist-holes of this 
uppermost story seem to have remained visible. A busy apartment in 
time of siege it would be indeed, and in accordance with its use the 
elaborate plan of the other floors disappears. A gallery runs round, 
with frequent openings into the room and sUts to the outside. At night 
it would accommodate a numerous retinue, after the rude fashion of 
sleeping in common on the floor of a hall. 

Although the centre of only the third floor is called, par iminme$y the 
Hall, yet both it and that of the second floor^ bear a relation to the 
chambers which open out of them similar to that of the hall or forehouse 
in a manor or ordinary dwelling-house. Both chambers are fitted up 
with some degree of comfort. They have flreplaces coeval with their 
eonstruction, and have private garderobes. Bat there are material dif- 
ferences. The upper room opens upon the dais of a great hall, thronged 
with public business, and exposed to immediate access from the great 
entrance, while the safety of its occupant is further imperilled by the 
absence of any private exit. The other is approached ftoia a great 
room, itself reached in an obscure manner, reached, too at a point in a 

•• Et in turn Novi Castri snper Tynam plumbo cooperieDda. — ^Pipe Roll. 

^ The ^und floor alao is in the nature of a hall, with its chamber at one end and 
its butlery or pantry at the other, but the chamber is of a greasy inferior order. 



88 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

window which, as Dr. Bruce has well remarked,*' might be guarded by 
one man against a host ; while " a dark, narrow passage and staircase, 
in which there are repeated turnings,'' give an exit to a coiresponding 
chamber on the ground floor,^ where doubtless the keeper of the castle, 
or other person of trust, was the occupant. 

Now, it would be obvious, without the assistance of records, that the 
king would require, in addition to the great hall of his royal jurisdic- 
tion, the same accommodation that any other man, rich or poor, would 
require for his domestic conyenience. And it is almost surplusage to 
adduce the fact that in the thirteenth century the kings had two halls at 
Westminster and Windsor, a greater and a lesser. Both halls would haye 
their chambers attached as usual. Further, in that century, as Mr. 
Turner states, castles assumed a more domestic character. The donjon 
or keep was abandoned* for a hall and chambers constructed in the in- 
ner enclosure or bailey."^ 

We must therefore, at Newcastle, as elsewhere, look for the king's 
residential hail and chamber, and the hall and chamber of the castle 
itself yiewed as the capital of a great county, where the law-courts 
were held and business was transacted. We must further look for a 
new ball in the bailey. We shall, hereafter, see that the old Moot Hall 
was Early English in character, corresponding to the new hall. And 
surely the lower hall and chamber in the keep realize in a remarkable 
way what we should expect in the king's private arrangements, while 
the Great Hall and chamber above them are those needed for the con- 
stant business executed, open to the public by a direct and easy entrance. 

Indeed, we are scarcely left to doubt and uncertainty on the subject. 
In 1237, the year after Henry III.'s conference here with Alexander III., 
when inconvenience was probably experienced, and when 7/. was paid 
to Walter de Kyrkham for the royal wardrobe at Newcastle, the liberate 
roll directs the sheriff '' without delay to repair the chamber of our castle 
of Newcastle upon Tyne, at the head of our old hall, and likewise our 
chamber [observe the distinction between the public and private cham- 
bers] in the old tower" and to '' cause also our new hall and new chamber 

»7 Brief Guide to the Castle. 

^ To save confusion, I purposely omit noticing the modem names of King's and 
Queen's chamber. The communication between the chamber on the ground floor 
and the central apartment of that level has been modernized and probably much 
enlarged. 

89 In the times of Henry III. and Edward I. the keeps are often described as 
ruinous and roofless, and abandoned as inconvenient for habitation, tliough capable, 
with some repairs, of being used in time of war. — ^Turner. 

^ Kichmond Castle, the keep of which is of a very simple and uninhabitable char- 
acter, exhibits a hall forming part of the outer wall and of the original plan. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 89 

in tiie Bame castie to be roofed with lead'' [therefore outside of the 
keep], and ** the breach of the wall beyond the poiUm of the same castle^ 
and the palisade before the gate of the same castle, niffh the old tower,^* 
The last paragraph leaves no doubt as to the application of the term of 
*' old tower " to the keep. The work was done at a cost of 33/. 14«. lOi., 
and the sheriff accounts in his pipe roll in the words of the liberate roll, 
''Et in caiaera Noyi Oastri super Tynam ad caput yeteris aulsd et 
similiter camera regis in yeteri turre reparandis. £t in noya aula regis 
et in noya camera ejusdem castri reparandis et plumbo recipiendis. Et 
breccha muri ultra postemam ejusdem castri, et palicio ante januam 
ejusdem castri et juzta yeterem turrim reparandis." Again, in 1239, 
we haye repairs of " the king's chamber, the king's old hall, and the 
king's old kitchen to the same hall appertaining."'^ I am ignorant of 
the site of the kitchen. The kitchen of the twelfth century is said by 
Necham to haye been usually placed nigh the road or street. In illu* 
minations of that date the repast is brought into the hall, apparently 
from a courtyard. Kitchens appear to haye been open in the roof, the 
cooking being performed at an iron grate {eaminum ferreum) which 
stood in the centre of it. Such offices were^ in general of slight con* 
struction, built of wood and plastered.*^ 

The ascent from the room below to the hall above, is by the newel 
stair, from which branches a passage opening upon the dais of the hall, 
and also leading to an opening or gallery where, in addition to services 
of readers or minstrels, news from the summit might be communicated. 
At the other end of the hall is a well-room, and what was lately used as 
a gunpowder store, an apartment corresponding to the usual position of 
the butlery and pantry. The well-room is furnished with basons on 
each side. The passages from them are choked, but I belieye one of 
them leads to the hollow pillar from which springs the vaulting of the 
ground floor. The other, I presume, supplied the second story, leading 
by the pipe which enters the singular bason above the chapel door, and 
occupies the same position in relation to that floor that the weU-room 
does to the one above. 

The chambers and arrangements appurtenant to the great hall differ 
in their points of compass to those of the other stories, apparently in 
consequence of the main entrance, which fixed the position of the lower 
end of that hall. 

The north-west comer of the keep assumes an hexagonal appearance. 

On its eastern side is attached the stairs of entrance. Below them 
is the chapel and, above them^ half-way, a small gateway tower. At 

»> Pipe RoU. w Turner. 

VOL. nr. X 



90 THB KBW0A8TLX UPON TTNX. 

their Btimmit is a highly omamentftl room abcre the ehaneel of the 
ohapel. 

The gateway tower is ''the house orer ahove the entry of the said 
tower" mentioned in (he inquest of 1884, wUeh required new timber 
and carpentry to the amount of lOl. 

Near the grand entranoe to the keep, remarks Brand, ** and in front 
as you ascend to it firom south to north, is a doorway leading into a little 
apartment, which has been riohly adorned on the inside. It stands 
oTer a erypt or yault of eonsiderable height, on two great arches that 
Intersect each other [Brand means the chancel of the chapel], of beau* 
tifiil Gothic masonry. This [the upper apartment] had a distinct nmf, 
and the whole forms a projection eastward at the north-east angle, 
against the east end of which a modem house has been huilt. From 
the garret of this house there is at present an entrance into it through 
an arched passage, where there must haye been aaoiently a window. At 
present it is a currier's shop. From the richness of its interior orna- 
ments, I suspected it to hare been the chapel, to which supposition its 
direction from east to west is not unfavourable. It must howerer have 
been but a very small one. Bourne supposes the chapel to have been 
within the walls of this keep, on the ground floor, in a place which at 
present composes a part of Mr. Fife's yery curious and eztensire cellar." 

The apartment has in more modem times been popularly termed the 
Oratory, and that it was devoted to sacred uses is obvious. There is a 
holy-water-stoup in the ascent of the entrance to it and the keep. The 
roof has of late years been heightened, and a feeble renovation has 
supplanted the remains of rich work mentioned by Brand. 

In this little room we seem to have the Oriole, a feature explained by 
M. Paris as the porch, by William of Worcester as U o9yr»tory$, and it 
may he observed that the room over an entrance was often a chapel. 
Where the oriole was the upper story of the nave of a chapel, and looked 
into the chancel, which in that case was the height of both stories, the 
oriole was for the lord and his family's use, or often for the ladies only. 
In the former sense of a porch, or upper room of a porch, used for sacred 
purposes, it is used in such orders as that of 86 Hen. III. to make at 
Geddington " a chapel in the oriole beyond the door of our chamber." 

The chapel was approached by the ordinary congregation from a door 
parallel with the entrance stairs. This weakening feature was, however, 
capable of powerful defence from an opening in the entrance tower 
above, and a gallery therefrom along the face of the wall. The door on 
the ground opens into a kind of ante-nave, with a stoup in it. 



THJS NEWCi^TLS UPON TYNS< 91 

The anraBgement of our ohapel is 8iiig:ulftr and iaterestiog." The 
chancel runs east and weati and there are iodioatioQS that the altar was 
placed in ita usual eastern position, with its aumbrye on the north and 
the piscina on the south. Yet the nave tends from north to south.** 
The best seats in the chancel were often bestowed upon lords of manors^ 
and here the king and his nobility might see all that passed at the altar, 
by their position in the recess at the west of the chaoceL This, how- 
ever, was no extraordinary hardship (m the tenants of the naye, for it 
occurred more or less in almost every church, and was only partially 
obviated by small apertures, or squints, pierced through the walls of 
the conventional ground plan, which has, with uncommon perversity, 
been persisted in to our own day ; and as this chapel can scarcely be the 
garrison chapel — ^the probable site of which will be noticed hereafter 
—the worshippers would be few. 

The recess is backed by a great thickness of wall, and in no way 
weakens the castle. But the wall in the nave is only thin, and a small 
doorway from it into the castle would, besides affording the king a 
private entrance, be more defensive than a blank wall, against which 
machines might otherwise be worked without molestation. The apart- 
ment'' between the chapel and the central room on the ground floor is a 
dark and miserable place, with two singular apertures through its 
western and southern walls. The former is now occupied by a gaspipe, 
and is at such a height that a person in the small room cannot see what 
is going on in the large. The other aperture is bent, having two 
directions through the waU. These may be gaol arrangements. 

On the west side of the keep, a sallyport, described by Br. Bruce, is a 
feature well worth attention. 

There is an apparent change of masonry in the uppermost story, 
under Alderman Forster's work. The retirement of the wall, or a 
variation of the quarry employed, may account for it, for the character 
of workmanship is the same as the remainder of the walls. 

^ *^ In remoying the stones in the interior of the chancel, evident marks of fire were 
Ibiind on many of them. No remains of stained glass, of coloured tiles, or of painting 
on the ceiling or walls have been discovered. The ancient floor was discovered 
about a foot below the present one, and it appeared to consist solely of moderate- 
sixed roughly-hewn flagstones. We will not, however, venture to assert that this 
was the original floor. A narrow channel or pipe floored with lead was diacovered 
in the thickness of the wall over the chancel arch descending towards the eastern 
window of the chancel ; its use is unknown, but it may have served as a drain from 
some of the chambers above.'' — Newcastle Journal, July, 1848. 

^ The roof of the nave exhibits traces of the suspension of lamps. In Yulliamy's 
plates the blank arch in the recess is zigzagged. 

M « On the left side of the entrance vou go into a dark little room, which un- 
doubtedly was the vestry." — Bourne. 



W THE NEW CASTLE T7P0N TYNE. 

The last fbatores of the keep necessary to be noticed are the doorwajB 
on the ground floor. . That to the west is the most singular. It leads into 
an isolated chamber. Into this all the garderobes of the tower^ and the 
stone bason in the wall of the common garderobe leading out of the 
great hall, empty their fllth, which was easily removed by means of the 
door. Curiously enough, this arrangement is omitted in plans and sec- 
tions of the keep hitherto published. 

It is not readily conceivable that the ground floor was only accessible 
by crossing the hall and dais from the grand entrance, and passing 
through the very secluded story below. I am therefore disposed to 
concur with Dr. Bruce in believing that some small doorway 'always ex- 
isted on the south. I have already mentioned two doorways into the 
chapel, one fix>m the exterior, the other from a room in the interior.^ 
Finally, one of the south windows of the nave is larger than the other, 
is an opening of right angles, not a splay, and altogether resembles a 
doorway. If not made for communication with a modem house which 
rested against the chapel, it may well have been for direct entrance 
from the east part of the king's bailey. 

And how does the architecture of this skilful accumulation of apart- 
ments and means of defence— of this valuable and dated evidence of the 
transitional style — bear out the records ? Let us for a moment consider 
some of its neighbours. 

The keep of Eichmond Castle was built by Earl Conan between 1146 
and 1171. It is late Norman. The hall seems to be of the same date, 
both exhibiting capitals with a smatch of the Corinthian order. Bishop 
Pudsey*' was building Darlington Church in 1190. That is Early 
English, but retaining many Norman details. Here are two bounds to 
investigation. 

The choir of Tynemouth is dateless. It is of Early English contour, 
but full of Norman peculiarities. The work of Darlington runs into 

•• See pp. 90, 91. 

»7 Pudsey's architect was, like Maurice the architect of Dover, styled ingmiaU>r or 
engineer. " Vir iste Ricardus Ingeniator dictus cognominatus est, qiii Bunelmensis 
oivis eflfectus, cunctis regionis hujus incolis arte et nomine notissimus est." (Keginald, 
cap. 54) This Ricardus Ingeniator and Thomas his heir exchanged their property 
at Wolveston, which must have been considerable, for 102 acres and 2 tofts at Pit- 
tingdon, and 16J marks, f 3 Sur. 149.) Near Wolveston is some of our most re- 
markable transitional architecture, in the churches of Norton, BiUingham, and 
Hartlepool. Wolveston was probably the well known residence of Richard, for his 
seal gives a wolf passant as a punning device. He was employed on Pudsey's works 
at Norham Castle. (Reginald, ut supra, et vide cap. 47.) 

Mr. Surtees thought that Ricardus Ingeniator" might be translated " Diek the 
Snarer— now rather an awkward compliment to a bishop's ^a»wAtf^/?tfr,— then, doubt- 
less, a title of honour, when our forests were scarcely cleared from beasts of prey.'* 
The charter is to Prior Gennan, who was succeeded by Bertram ii^ 1189, 



THE NEW CASTLE ITPON TYNB. 93 

pnre Early English, and its capitals are less Norman in their foliage 
than those of Tynemouth. I am therefore inclined to think that Tyne- 
month is a rezy little earlier. 

Tynemonth shews what Darlington does not, the transitional yolute* 
It ocenrs at the south side of the choir, and at the foot of the east end, 
in ascending which it is mostly supplanted by stiff foliage. A large 
specimen of the yolute, of singular detail, may be seen in a capital of 
native grey marble, full of fossils, which lies in the choir. 

These volutes occur in the Galilee of Durham, built by Fndsey at an 
earlier date^ than Darlington Church, and also in the chapel and keep 
of Newcastle. It might be hard to say whether Galilee or chapel was 
earlier. The volutes in the Galilee are plainer, and the vaulting at 
Newcastle looks very late. It is rough in execution, the ornaments 
upon it having the appearance of being of various sizes. They are 
zigzags and modifications of the nail-head ornament, viz., small curved 
pyramids of four faces, many of which are so decayed as to assume the 
appearance of balls. By increasing the number of sides these pyramids 
became the nutmeg ornament of Darlington and Nun Monkton, a dec- 
oration not uncommon at the Early English period in the North, but 
very scarce in the South. The quasi-nutmeg form of Newcastle is, I 
believe, also to be traced on the east side of the screen which divided 
the parish from the conventual church of Tynemouth. 

Here then we have two buildings, the Galilee and our chapel, Nor- 
man, but very light and peculiar Norman, with a volute much less 
graceful than that of Tynemouth, but still a volute, which, in the upper 
chamber of our chapel or oriole, the portion of the building naturally 
the latest, has manifest approximations to the Early English style by ad- 
ditional rising stems being introduced.*^ The brackets in the chapel are 
still more characteristic of the change proceeding than are the capitals. 
Would it not be reasonable to place these structures about half way be- 
tween Bichmondand Tynemouth? Suppose Tynemouth to be built 
about 1187, two or three years earlier than Darlington. Say also that 
the popular notion that Eichmond Keep was built about 1171, the year 
of Conan's death, or rather give him time to build, and say about 1168. 

*B This, in the absence of the buildings themselyes, would be proved by a charter 
executed in Prior German's lifetime. The new chapel for females in St. Cuthberf s 
church was of service even to its worldly weal. In this charter (3 Sur. 393} a lord 
of Dinsdale, his wife, and their son, endow the lights roiuid the sainf s body, the men 
" upon the altar of B. Guthbert in his church," the lady " upon the altar of B. Mary 
in the west part of the same church, which is called Galilea." Bishop Hugh is re- 
cipient, and Prior German Vi a witness. 

^ I presume that their restoration may be tolerably correct. 



94 THE NEWCASTLB UPON TTNS. 

The half distasoe date would foe 11 77 or bo. That is the date at whi^ 
the fouilding of Newcastle tower ends. 

But then the work of the tower began in 1172, and we might ei^ect 
a more Norman detail in the earlier portions of the huilding than we 
do in those which would necessarily he added when the scaffolding for 
the tower was removed. Go to the lowest room> and you find it 00. 
Tet even there, the transition is steadily progressing. Tou find tbe 
pillar undergoing the change. The capital has hecome octagonal, hut in. 
a very different way to the octagonal capitals in the nave of Durham. 
Here a rude approximation to a foliated appearance is made hy placing 
a projecting hall at each angle. The plinth continues square, thoq^ 
the hase of the pillar is round. There was a reluctance to alter the 
shape of so important a memher as the plinth in all the styles. The 
square plinth was felt to he offensive, hut it was preferred to decorate 
what the architects scarcely dared to cut away.^^ Hence the tongue- 
shaped leaves and other excrescences issuing from the circular mouldings 
of transitional hases, and extending to the otherwise vacant and super- 
fluous hases of the plinth, such as we see here at Newcastle. 

The great doorway seems to have heen inserted when the huilding 
was finished for safety of its ornaments, for they are of the character of 
the chapel, exhibiting minute moulding and the quasi-nutmeg orna- 
ment. ^^^ The ornamental windows have the volute and a sort of bead 
moulding round them, probably the same as that of the chapel noof or 
the billet tnoulding of the fireplaces. This feature was not noticed by 
VuUiamy. 

The keep and hall and kitchen of Newcastle, were called old in 1237, 
some sixty years after erection, and, between 1313 and 1334, sufficient 
time elapsed to reduce both keep and out-buildiogs to a state of utter 
dilapidation. In little more than twenty years after the completion of 
Conway Castle, a jury found that the great hall and cellar under it were 
ruinous on account of the age of materials and default of lead, and could, 
not be repaired under 160Z., of which the masons' work amounted to 
100/. Other towers were also in a precarious state and ruinous^ ey&a. as 
to masonry. The great use of wood, the imperfect exclusion of the 
weather by unglazed windows, and the waste committed by keepers, 
who made the most of their temporary tenure by stealing lead and other 
valuables — and this accusation is more than broadly hinted at in the 
Newcastle documents— -might effect the dilapidation in some degree. 
But the way in which the masonry of towers had decayed can only be 
accounted for on the grounds of those terrible settlements we see in so 

iw Paley*8 Gothic MouldiDga. ^^^ Vulliaioy's plates. 



TttB NEW OASTLB UPON TTNB. 95 

taany ancient buildings, endangering the ezidtenoe of steeples, twisting 
whole sides of buildings ont of perpendicular, and throwing arches into 
thd most eccentric cnrres. The plan 6f working by contract {ad im» 
eham^^) may have had its effect, but from whatever reason in the main, 
the rule-of-thumb buildings of our fathers Were often ill-founded and 
ill-built, and their splendid materials (calculated, when well-applied, to 
last for ages, as they frequently hare lasted), were to a great extent 
thrown away, and their frequent reparations and rebuildings were thus 
rendered absolutely necessary. The keep of the New Castle, however, 
did not suffer much in its main walls, and it suryired the manners of the 
era which saw its rise. The fine fortifications of the town would rebder 
an attack upon the castle a most improbable erent. Kings found bettet 
accommodation in the constantly inhabited monasteries than in their 
own fortresses, which were only occasionally visited, and the fittings oi 
which must in the interim have inevitably decayed. The very barond 
ceased to confine themselves in the narrow areas of castles. 

Walled towns, such as York, Durham, and Newcastle, became stocked 
with houses for the occasional and sometimes lengthy residence of no- 
bles and gentry. The splendour of the September residences at Durham, 
arising out of St. Cuthbert's feast, is well known, and even smaller road- 
toWns had their houses for the resting of the great barons on their jour-* 
nies. The fashion of the gentry having town houses in Newcastle was 
teore effectual than the early castle-guard ; but the authorities on the 
Marches saw that landlords did their duty in defence of the king- 
dom amongst their own green acres also. '' I have (writes Northumber' 
land to Henry Till, in 1532) established your Highness' s county of 
Northumberland, as well in executing of justice upon attemptates coni- 
xnitted within your said county of Northumberland, as also causing every 
gentleman, which lay within the town of Newcastle, to repair and lie at 
their own houses, there to keep watch, ward, shout and cry, and every 
man to be ready to rise with his neighbour, and follow, upon pain of 
death." 

And thus it was, that from the state of dilapidation described in the 
Inquisitions, the castle never revived. Mortifying to human vatiity is 
the refiection that the utmost range of time that we can give to Henry 
Plantagenet's i)raud tower, in its efficiency, is — ^fromits erection in 1 175 
to a short time after the battle of Bannockbum, at latest 1325*^a space 
of but 150 years. 

VI. The Cboss Wall. — " There were," writes Bourne^ about 1732| 
" two great strong walls which surrounded the castle. The interior 

103 Parker's Domestio Arch. 22. 



96 THB NEW CASTLK UPON TYNE. 

wall was of no great distance firom the castle itself, as may be still seen 
in several places. The exterior wall sarroonds the verge. of the castle 
boanders. From this outer wall were four gates — ^the Great Gkite and 
three posterns." 

This language is very confused, for the wall containing the gates does 
not surroand the castle bounders ; but it is clear that Bourne uses the 
words exterior and interior in a different sense to that of the surveys* 
Doubtless from his description arose the recent idea that a wall ran close 
to the keep on all four sides, and thus isolated it. '' The inner wall,'' 
writes Hornby, "an the iouth part oi the castle, at no great distance 
from the castle, remained in 1774/' The walls [which of the walls ?1 
by Hornby's measurement were 4^ yards thick. ^^ 

There was a gateway in this wall leading to the entrance stairs of the 
keep, in approaching which, as Brand remarks, ** two portals, as it were, 
must be passed before we can arrive. From the first of these, whiek u 
on the iouth, and in a great wally which, at a few yards distanee, has in- 
closed the whole keep, we mount by eleven steps to the second one," that 
surmounted by the entrance tower. " No grooves for portcullises are 
discemable in either of the portals, but so much appears to have been 
demolished, that one cannot from thence infer that there have never 
been any." 

This south part of the wall as encumbered by buildings is shown in 
front of the keep in Brand's view, and as cleared in 1811 in Jefferson's 
view of the Bailey gate. In the last a turn to the east is given. Shortly 
after, the wall was taken down, and the base of the keep was exposed 
by the clearance of a large amount of rubbish. Hodgson, in his Picture 
of Newcastle, says that the keep was strengthened on the south and west 
sides with a second wall, in which were, one large gateway and two 
posterns. But in 1818^^ he amplifies his statement thus : — ** The inner 
waU extended from the Black Gate around the Great Tower, and again 
joined the outer wall north of Bailey Gate, It had a large gateway 
through it in the west, and two posterns walled up in the south side ; all 
of which were pulled down in 1811." 

It will be observed that no evidence of the existence of this wall on 
the east or north appears. Indeed Hodgson confines it to the south and 
west sides, and when the old Three Bulls Heads' Inn was destroyed, no 
vestiges of it appeared. The turn which Jefferson gives to the east is at 
a point west of the entrance stairs and represents a wall which is also 
indicated in Yulliamy's and Bell's plans as running up to the keep. 
And it is almost certain, that the chapel wall instead of terminating on 

103 G. B. Bichardson's MSS. ^^ Beauties of England and Wales. 



THB NEW CASTLB DPOK XTHI. 



the Boatii in b kind of buttress ran farther and joined the portal de- 
scribed hy Brttnd. The western wall (about 30 fbet from th« keep) WM in 



fact ike ordinary enounte w^ of the oastle, containing the Bailej-gftte. 
These eimumstanceB, compared with the bird's e^e view of the sixteenth 
centoiy, throw little doubt apm the conclusion that this innermost wall, 
which ran about 20 feet to the soath of the keef>, did not siuTonnd it, but 
that it was part of the ordinary partition wall which divided the two 
bail^ of a cattle. 

The mun entrance of the keep seems to ha^ been only accesnble' 
&om the Bonthem or common bailey by means of a portal guarded by 
wallB-on each side from the northern or king's bailey, and the utility of 
a small entrance on the ground floor of the keep into the king's bailey 
ie evident"" I presume that the second poatem on the south ride might 
be near the Bailey-gate for communication between the two baile^B and 
fitr exterior aoceas. In the ledger-book of firinkbnm Priory, mentioa 
is made of a grant from the master and twetliren of St. Vary's Hospital 
inWestQate, ofa rant issuing from ahouse "in&aballeamNoviCEtatri." 
iw I iBL iLot lore that thu story was open to caminon use, any more thou the kmg's 
•pBrtmenbi above. On the summit ibere would oKen he watclierBi but generally Ule 
kaap would be veiy modi of a private reaidenoe, the ganiatm beuig disperaed in t^ 
enceinte. 



98 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TTNE. 

YII. TsB Old Qaxe, — ^We hare seen that the gate of the castle was 
erected in 1178, and that the aichitectore of the Bailey-gate answered 
to the date. In 1234, the reparation of the gate of New Castle an 
other repairs in the castle cost 22/.,'" and in 1237, was repaired th 
palisade (palteium) before the gate (januam) of the same castle, an< 
near the Old Tower. Palieium generally means a palisade made o 
pales, but strictly a wooden barbican, " barbacanam fnsteam sive pal 
liceam," as Dn Gange quotes a passage. It would appear that originally 
a barbican was rather a sort of penthouse for the defence of the shooterj 
of missiles from a building than the building itself, but from bein| 
placed generally in the antemurals, it was at last applied to the buildin 
itself, or rather to the space enclosed by such outwork. 

The wooden palisades or barbicans continued in use a long time. Th 
a contemporary account of the Battle of Agincourt, quoted by Sir Hi 
Nicolas, says :— '' Before the entrance of each of the three gates | 
Harfleur], the prudence of the enemy had erected a strong defen 
which we term a barhtean, but commonly called bulwarks : that towi 
the king was the strongest and largest, being defended without wi 
round thick trees, nearly to the height of the walls of the town, faste: 
around, bound, and girded together very strongly. . . .The structure 
it was roundj containing more in diameter than the cast of a stone, wi 
which our common people in England are wont to amuse themselves 
the road-side : water of great depth and breadth surrounded it, bei 
about two lances' length broad in the narrowest part, having a brid 
for ingress and egress towards the town." A century earlier, we ha 
a description and drawing (MSS. Addit. 10,293, B. K.) which probabl 
give a very correct idea of the defences of the gate of the New Castli 
" This castle was in appearance very strong, for there were good ditchi 
around it full of water, and near the ditches were great roeillts and wo; 
derfully strong, and after there were walls wonderfully strong an 
thick and lofty, and they were as white as chalk" [alluding to a com 
mon medieval practice of colouring the outside of buildings with whi 
and other colours]. A duke rides up to the hreteske or gate tower d 
fending the bridge, which he finds open and without guard ; he p 
through it into the court, and rides up to the gate of the JxUliU, which 
finds closed. On the upper part of the gate tower is a projecting ba 
tlement of wood resting on the main walls and on diagonal struts. 
Another illustration of this sort of defence, showing the corbels on 
which the struts rested, is found in the same MS. The wooden 

^^ In the same year John the Carpenter, employed on the oasUefl of Bamburgk 
and New Castle, had a liyery of 4/. as long as the king pleased. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 99^ 

battlement does not appear to hare been higher than if it had been 
made of stone, in which case it would haye been called a machicol- 
ation. Mr. Way has suggested the principle as applicable to the 
corbels which projected from the Pink Tower^ which was demolished in- 
stead of being reserved as an interesting portion of the John Knox chapel^ 
which occupies the site. The construction is very effective, the direc* 
tion of the strut being the same as that of the corbel which supports it. 

The western gate ceased to be a principal one on the erection of the 
Slack Gate, and it has latterly been spoken of as a mere postern. 

A street leading up to the old gate is called Bailey-gate; this entrance 
leading direct into the castle yard, whereas the Black-gate had an inter- 
mediate space used as a gaoL We have the designation of le "Baillye 
Gate" as early as 1373. Gray, in his Ghorographia, mentions the '' street 
called Bayliffe-gate, which in former times belonged unto the castle and 
county of Northumberland. There is [he continues] a Postern Gate, 
where prisoners taken in the time of hostility with Scotland, and felons 
of the county of Northumberland, were brought in privately into the 
castle in Newcastle, where the common gaiLe for the county is." 

" On the west side (says Bourne) was the Postern facuig Bailiff-gate, 
now (1732) the dwelling-house of James Lidster."^^ 

Hodgson says that this feature was pulled down with the walls which 
extended from it along the keep, in 1811.^^ Its appearance has been 
preserved by Jefferson in the valuable drawing already referred to and 
given. 

YIII. The South Postebk. — ^If any portion of the castle now merits 
the designation of pure Norman, this feature may be it. I hardly know 
whether this little gateway or that on the east side of the castle noticed 
in the next heading, is to be considered as the postern of the inquest in 
1336, where "three gates and one postern" are mentioned as deteri- 
orated, and in which the lord of Wark's house is stated to be above the 

w The Gxjabd Room.— In 1758, Lord Ravensworth leased to Mary Lister: — "All 
that messuage, burgage, or tenement situate, standing and being in the Castle Garth 
aforesaid, late in the possession of Anne Lister or her undertenants, and now in the 
TOssession of the said Mary Lister her undertenants or assigns ; Boundering on the 
king's Waste upon or towards the south part, on the Castle Wall upon or towards the 
west part, on a tenement belongingto Wm. Mills, formerly the Guard Soontj upon or 
towaids the north part, and on the King's Waste upon or towards the east part, as the 
same is now enjoyed : And also all those messuages or toofalls and little garth ; 
Boundering on the King's Waste upon or towards the south part, on a tenement late 
in the possession of Mr. James Ellis, and now in the possession of Tho. Swinhoe upon 
or towards the west part, on an incroachment called Lister's Incroachment upon or 
towards the north part, and on the King's Waste upon or towards the east part, as the 
same are now enjoyed." 

108 Beauties of England and Wales. 



100 THE NBWCASTLB UPON TTNE. 

posteriL At a rery nmch eailier date one of the gatewayB was '#A# 
postern, for in 1237 the words '' beyond the postern " w^re oonsidered 
as a soffioient loeati<m of a breach in the wall to be amended. 

Abont 1540y tiie term 8oath Postern is recognised in the desGriptio& 
of wards assigned to the respectiye towers on tiie town wall, the ''high 
stare that ledes fro the Sowth Postern of the casteU towards the dose ** 
being a bonndary. 

When Stephenson took his grant of the castle there was in the Garth 
a honse wherein the gaoler of the eastle dwelt,^ and it is comprised in 
the Snrvey of 1649 by the following description :— 

''All that cottage or tenement of stone and dawbing situate on the 
south side of the Castle Oarth, within the inner wall, and adjoining 
thereunto, conteyning one lowe room with a chamber, and a shedd 
where a smith now keepes a shopp, now in the tenure or occupation of 
Bartholomew Herle, gaoler of the prison for Northumberland, and is now 
worth per annum (if it might be let) 50«., and for the same is payd to 
the crowne yearly by the sheriflfe of Northumberland 58. But by what 
grant the sheriff holds it wee cannot be informed. And therefore wee 
conceiying it to bee a place of publique office and depending upon the 
Moote H^, doe only incerte the ancient rent, being 5^." 

At the same time this postern had received the incumbrances which 
hide it on the south in the shape of " several small tenements without 
the inner wall of the Castle Garth, and over the passage which leadeth 
down to the Castle Stairs, on the south side of the said wall, occ. John 
Marshall." 

''On the south side of the Castle (says Bourne) is another gate, 
which leads down the Castle Stairs to the street called the dose : this 
was called the South Fo%tem, There is an old building upon ii^ which 
fvoB the County GaoWa house" 

Further he says : — '' It is reported that underneath that house which 
was anciently the County Qaol,^ is a vault which leads to the Castle, 
There is indeed a large door still to be seen, which perhaps was the en- 
trance into it ; and Mr. George Grey, the present possessor of the house, 
told me that it was certainly so, because he bad put down through his 
own floor a bailiff's rod to the very end, and could find no bottom." 
It might be diffioalt to conceive how this fact made the vault a certainty. 

The Gaoler's House was among the excepted items which the lessee 
of 1777 had to keep up; but it was included in Mr. Turner's en- 
franchisement of 1808 as a ''messuage or tenement on the south-tewl 
side of the Castle Stairs within the Castle Garth, and commonly called 

i<» Milbank MS. 

110 a I loiow not which is the hbuse/* says Brand with reference to tibis passage. 



THE XEW CASTLE TOON TYKB. 101 

tiie Gaoler^s House, late m the occupation of Luke Hardy, deceased, and 
tiiien of his widow." In Mr. Bell's plan, however, the gaoler's hoase 
oovers the way through the South Postern and adjoins it on the^M^, 
and it should be noted that Speed giyes a gable in the castle wall dose 
to the east of this postern. Mackenzie (1827) states that the gader'a 
house was occasionally used as a temporary prison," and mentions that 
''Thomas Watson, who was executed for murder, Aug. 6, 1790, was 
the la^ felon confined in this house." He farther says that the South 
Postern was still called the VaiUty and that between it and Ihe castle 
there was, according to tradition, a subterraneous passage. The story 
which I heard in the upper room of this postern was, that there is a pas- 
sage under one of the Norman arches in it whidi leads to the Moot 
Hall, but I only understood it to be a large drain. 

IX. The East Postesn. — " On the east side of the castle there was a 
postern, which led down to the street called the Side, tchich is still to h$ 
seen ; it was once called (but many years after it was in decay) the waist 
of Lawrentius Acton." So Bourne, but this waste was below the postern, 
upon the bank. There were no remains in 1774 of '' the postern which 
communicated with the Side by a narrow passage" (Dog-Loup).°^ 

The property of Mr. Turner, who bought the castle, extended all 
along the north side of the Dog-Leap Stairs, he advertising in 1810 the 
sale of two houses and a shop on the south side of the Dog-Leap Stairs, 
several houses and shops on the north side of the same stairs, the ground 
or site of a commodious house and shop in the Side, fronting the foot of 
Dean Street, and on the north side of the Dog-Leap Stairs, two houses 
and shops adjoining, and a piece of vacant ground behind. 

The postern is perhaps shown in the bird's eye view of the sixteenth 
century. 

X. Xeufe's Lands. — In 1201, Xing John granted to the burgesses 
certain escheats, the gifts of David of Scotland to the nuns, and resumed 
by Henry II. The charter was however repudiated, and four years 
afterwards the lands were granted to Xempe, the king's ballister or 
engineer, in compensation for his services tmtil'he could be provided for 
in marriage. In 1205, we have entries in the Pipe Boll for the making 
of helmets, the support of three balisters,"* and of cavalry and infantry, 

1" Hornby, 22. 

1" In 33 Hen. III., the Liberate EoUs furnish a writ to the sheriff of Northumber- 
land, *"*" quod baUstas et quarellas nostras in castris nostris de Bamburgh et de Novo 
Gastxo qui indigent reparacione reparari et atUiari facias/' This, says Afr. Harts- 
home, is perhaps the earliest instance on the rolls of the word from which the English^ 
term 'artiUeiy' has been derived. 



102 THB NEWCASTLE UPON TYNB. 

20 at a time. In 1206, 22/. 17«. 6i. was deliTered to Eempe the bal- 
ister, and the sheriff has credit for his escheats ; but in 1 214 they became 
the property, not of the bnigesses generally, but of those ''who lost 
their rents by occasion of the foss and new works made under the castle 
towards the water/' to be divided proportionally according to the 
amount of loss. The charter is printed by Brand. 

From Grays tradition that the buiigesses built the Cloth* market after 
John's grant of a Guild of Merchants, Mr. Hinde infers that here were 
the lands of Kempe. Perhaps we can trace some more of them. The 
burgesses asserted that a grant of their town in fee-farm, by John, in* 
eluded the Castle Moor and Castle Field. Now over that portion called 
Castle Field or Castle Leases, the burgesses had only the pasture from 
Lammas to Ladyday, while the ''sweepage" or crop of hay belonged to 
certain private owners, whose properties were gradually bou^t up, being 
conveyed as the land itself.^^ Arrangements for intercommon in winter 
are not imusual, and the exclusive rights of meadow, and the ownership 
of the soil itself, point to some special grant, such as John's. Bourne 
mentions that they were tythe-free. In the surveys of 1620 and 1649 
no certain boundaries could be obtained, and the commissioners in the 
latter year declared that ** although this be leased (as we conceive) hy 
the Crown to the sayd Alexander Stephenson, yet hee never had pos- 
session thereof, but both this and the other parcell of ground called the 
Frith, hath been tyme out of mynde in the possession of divers persons 
residing in or neare unto Newcastle and (as we are informed) holdeth 
the same of the Crowne in fee-farme. Therefore wee have not valued 
the same but leave them to better judgements." In the ma]^:uL is— - 
'' This and the last parcell to be cleared " and in 1650 an order was sent 
down annulling and vacating the survey, the right of the Corporation 
having been allowed. 

It is remarkable that the lease obtained by the town from James II. 
of the castle, comprises the Castle Fields and the Fryth.^** 

The claims of the Crown to the Forth were probably well founded, as 
in 55 Hen. III. it was held by the burgesses at the rent of 13«. 4e?., at 
the king's pleasure only, but those to the Castle Field perhaps arose from 
the name, which proves no more than that of the town itself. The 
Town Moor was also called Castle Moor and by that name with Castle 
Field was confirmed to the burgesses by Edward III. 

U3 See 1 Arch. ^1., 31. '^ There was a wood given to the town by Adam of Jes- 
mond, lying on the north, and now called the Town Moor, to which, for the benefit of 
freemen, they have added the Castle-Leesesi pnrchast of our author amongst other 
proprietors.'' — ^Memoirs of Alderman Barnes, 419. 

iw 1 Brand, 166. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 103 

XI. Thi Castle Moat.— The extensive works which compelled John 
to recompense the hurgesses now come before ns. In 1205, 24/. 8«. 4d, 
was expended on trenches, and in 1213 no less a sum than 132/. 18«. 11 J. 
of the reyennes of the vacant see of Durham was applied to the work of 
the New Castle, and of the tower, and of the fosses. The same source 
yielded 22/. to the defence of the castle from 1 Sept. 1212. William 
£arl of Warren was goyemor at the period, and seventy men at a time 
are mentioned. 

There is no evidence to show whether the plural number refers to the 
^various directions or to some double or triple formation of the moat. 
It probably ran all round the fortifications, for while on the west the 
late Queen Street and the head of the Long Stairs were called the 
Castle Moote,"* on the east the same style and that of the King's Koat 
were the common descriptions of the back boundary of houses in the 
Side.™ We also have " the High-Castle Koote " as a boundary in the 
Close near to the Castle Stairs."' In 1225, three bridges in New Castle 
were repaired. Did these lead over the foss to the Bailey Gate, the South 
Postern, and the East Postern ? As to the site of the moat near Bailey« 
gate, we are told that in digging the foundations of the western pier of 
the great arch over the High Level Bridge approaches, the ground 
presented the layers and appearances which a moat would leave, and 
this would be a proper place for it, since such defences were, for obvious 
reasons, situated a little off the walls. This portion, however, of the 
moat was, in all likelihood, earlier than John's time. The burgesses 
lost their tenements " occasione fossati et novsB operationis factsB subtm 
castrum versus aquam," and in the absence of evidence to the contrary 
we must accept the natural conclusion to be drawn from the expression, 
a conclusion in accordance with probabilities. We must infer that both 
dike and new work were below the castle towards the water. And it 
were unlikely that the ancient custom of moating buildings across the 
neck «f the promontory on which they stand had been neglected here. 
The destroyed burgages, then, were on the Side, Sandhill, or Close. If 
the Side was already covered with dwellings, the small pieces cut fix>m 
the burgages by the moat, which was afterwards their western boundary, 
could scarcely be the subject of much loss of rent. The Sandhill was a 
mere place of recreation in Bichard II.'s days."^ It was, says Gray, 

»« In 1676, 1616, &c. 

"• Deedfl temp. Hen. VIII., poss. Mr. White, &c. i" 1 Brand, 160. 

™ In 1337, Edward III. had granted to John de Denton the king's three empty 
places in the town of Newcastle called the Middyng-place on the Sandhill, Wyndas- 
place, and Jakemannesough. 



104 TEE NSW CASTLB UPON TTNS. 

after the times wben the merchants carried on badness in the Cloth* 
market that they remoyed lower down towards the rirer, to the street 
called the Side, and the Sandhill. The Close, then, is left to ns, and^ 
judging from the early oocapation of Pipewellgate, on the Gateshead 
dde of the rlTer, we may reasonably saj^;>06e that a similar sit^ on the 
north side, protected aa it was by the castle from the northern quarter 
of inyasion, would be alike chosen for residence and trade."* 

Some, if not all, of the burgages of Pipewellgate comprehended ground 
on both sides of the present street, and those of the Close probably did 
the same. The river, which flowed up the Sandhill, would coyer to some 
extent what is now the south side of the Close, and the oreatbn of the 
moat would be a total destmction of many of the burgi^^es on the north 
side. It was the back boimdary of the future buigages of. the l^e, but 
it must have been on the Tery site of many of those in the Close. ITet 
the valuable space did not continue as a moat for a century. In 1275,' 
when the Hundred RoUs were made up, the various sherifEB had leasied 
four places of the castle moat, ranging from 60 by 8 feet to 16 by 10 £ee^ 
by rents payable to the exchequer of the castle. Eleven other pieces of 
the moat, ranging from 20 by 10 to 12 by 6 feet,, were held imder no 
ascertained title ; some paid rent, others none. Thomas de Dunfres and 
Jordan the constable rented a piece of land h$low th$ moai frx>m an un- 
known period. A grove charge is made against Bobert de Hampton 
as sheriff. By command of Henry III. he took an inquisiticm on the 
enclosures made upon the moat of the castle, but accepted ten marks 
from the burgesses not to grieve them by means of it or of a quarrel 
which had occurred between them and his men* 

The leases commence with those by William Heron, who was sheriff 
from 1247 to 1257. Doubtless all these leaseholdB and encroachments 
soon became freeholds, and we cannot be surprised to find in the inquisi* 
tion of 1336 a number of such further purprestures aa could be. made* 
Ifilteen of these range from 20 by 10 to 12 by 10 &et, and have^back 
doors, one is of a back door only. Only three are said to be absolutely 
upon the moat, but the situation seems to refer to the whole, and ire 
can have little hesitation in referring the parcels to the backs of houses 
in the upper part of the Side, the back doors broken into them being 
as much encroachments as themselves. A few other parcds which 
follow confirm the location. William de Acton pays rent for a house 
upon the moat, and the heirs of I^icholas Scot, for two messuages on 
the hogh {hogam) of the castle. Now we find from the wards assigned 

^ At Norwicli, the principal streets wind roimd thd castle, following tiLeline of 
the moat. — ^Parker's Dom. Arch., 154. 



THE NEWOASTLB UPON TYNB.. 10? 

to iiie towers of the town wall in 1540, that '' Pinoke Tower shall have 
in. warde in the Close fro a high stare that ledes fro the Sowth Postern 
of the oastell towardes the Close, so going eastward that same rawe, 
by the north side of Sandhill, unto and with Sainct Mary Lane, with 
the howseis upon the comer, called Sainct Kary Lands, in All Hallowe 
Kirke, and so going upward all the West Bawe in the Side unto a great 
^waist upon the Castle Hugh, sumtime called Old Laurence Aeion^e Wiaistf, 
now Thomas Heryng's, foreanenste a pante in the Side afore Swinhom's 
doore, upon Lork Bum." — " West Spitell Tower shall haye in warde in 
the Side, that is to saie, upon the West Bawe under Castel Mote from 
the Castle Yate, so going downward on that rawe to and with a great 
waiste [that belonged to] Laurence Acton, now Thomas Heryng, fore-* 
anenst a comer shop of a chaunterie in Sainct John Kirk next the pant/' 
There is a pant near the Dog-loup Stairs marked in Thompson's plan of 
1746. 

On a reperusal of these descriptions since the last two pages were 
printed, and considering the way in which the houses running down 
from the Black Gate, which had been added in 1247, are said to be under 
the moat, I am inclined to think that, after all, the record of 1336 
rightly distinguishes between a few encroachments which were actually 
upon the moat and others which were not ; and that the castle liberties 
came down to the Lortbum^ which flowed into the Tyne at the 
Sandhill, and to the roadway of the Side. The west sides of these 
streets would then be subsequently gained by royal grants and encroach-* 
ments,' and would not be included in the town held in fee-farm by the 
burgesses. Mr. Hinde has remarked that '' at first few sites in this 
direction could be obtained without an amount of labour for which there 
was no adequate inducement." The encroachments woold naturally 
first be made in the Close and Side, and after their enumeration in 1275 
and 1336, the Sandhill was still void, and clearly in the hands of the 
Crown. Edward III. granted to Bichard de Kmildon a piece of vacant 
ground opposite ihe chapel of St. Thomas on the Sandhill, for him to 
build an endowment for a chantry in St. Nicholas' church. The same 
monarch's grant to John de Denton of the three empty places called the 
Middyng-place on the Sandhill, Wyndas-place, and Jakemannesough, 
has already been mentioned. As to the two first places, among the old 
town writings there was '' a grant for the Sandhill and the Windowes" 
and there was a proclamation in 16 Bic. II. commanding the removal 
of all merchandize and stuff from a common place called the Sandhill, 
where the inhabitants were wont to assemble for recreation. And as to 
'Jakemannesough, I presume- that it is the Jack-man-house of the fee* 
farm rent roll of Mr. Pauncefort in 1758. 

VOL. IV. p 



106 T&B NEW CASTLB UPON TTNE. 

The moat <m ihe west side of the oastle remained free from encroach^ 
ments, the ride of l^e street called the Castle Moote continuing as parcel 
of the castle liberties until a yery recent period. In 1575 mention is 
made of a ''dweUiDg house in Balygait nere the Castle Koote,"^ and 
the survey of 1649 comprises ''one other wast ground lying west and 
north of the old castle, without the workes or moate thereof over against 
Sayli-gato and Back-Eowe, containing by estimation 140 poles, worth 
per annum, 6i. Bd" 

XII. The Outeb Wixl of ihb Castlb. — ^The new work towards the 
water mentioned with John's foss may be looked for close to it. Whether 
it included the Half-moon Battery may be questioned, but it seems likely 
that to this time should be attributed a supporting wall round the de- 
clivity of the castle site, a wall which the formation of the moat rendered 
the more necessary. It may still be seen behind some houses in the 
Close, and, when the moat was quite obliterated by encroachments, it 
became the boundary of the castle liberties on the east and south sides. 
As such it is minutely set out in the inquirition of 1620, in which the 
jurors say :— 

'' That a certain ancient wall, being the outer wall of the castle, begins 
on the north side of the castle, at the space of 6 yards distance from the 
gate leading into the castle [the Black Gate] and proceeds eastward and 
southward on the back sides of the houses and buildings now in the 
several tenures or occupations of Thomas Suretyes, gent., Henry Maddi- 
son, Margaret Cook, widow, Bulmer He, John Eden, Alice He, widow,^^ 
Henry Maddison, Alexander Davison, Eliz. Kirkley, widow. Hen. Eden, 
John Handcock, John Hudson, Michael Waterhouse, Margaret Cook, 
widow, and Anthony Dobson, and so by the middle part of a garden now 
in the tenure of Anthony Morpeth, to the comer of a house now in the 

tenure of Balph : and so by the back side of the house of the 

same Ealph, and so proceeding westward and by the back sides of the 
houses now in the tenure of William Hall, Eobert Bewick, Henry Bowes 
and Henry Shadford, and so and across the Castle Stairs leading towards 
the street called the Close, by the back sides of the houses now in the 
several tenures or occupations of Ann Anderson, widow, Boger laddell, 
Henry Anderson, and Thomas Colthird ; and proceeding by the back 
part of a house now in the tenure of James Clavering, alderman, to the 
tipper pinion gavel of the same house, being distant, Angliei ' short/ 9 

wo Bed. Proc. Sur. Soo. 

'^ Alice lie died in 1632, and her son Bulmer would thereby become owner of 
both hnrgageB. In his will of 1639, he gives to his son Bobert the burgage in the 
Bide wherein he dwelt, and the term of years he had in two gardens upon the back 
part of it: and to his son James the burgage in the Side, which he lately bought of 
Chr. Aeirson of Durham, but James is not to erect anything hurtful to the lights of 
the first named burgage. 



THE SEW CASTLE UPON TTNB. 107 

jBxda from the Long Stain where the jurors ard not able to discorer the 
said ancient wall any farther, by reason of the decay of the same." 

The fact is, that it did not extend any further, for its supporting office 
was completed. This wall is conspicuous on Speed's Map, stretching 
from the Long Stairs to the Koot-hall, where it disappears behind the 
inner wall. But to proceed with the limits of the liberties. 

" And that the limits and bounds of the castle aforesaid, through and 
across the middle part of the house now in the tenure of Robert More, 
carpenter, extend themsdyes to the ' channell ' being four yards or 
thereabouts upon the ' turn-stile' now placed upon the said Long Stairs, 
and so proceeding upon the channel aforesaid along outside the new 
wall lately built to enclose the dunghill to the comer of the house now 
in the tenure or occupation of William Hatherick, and so by the back 
side of the house of the said WilHam Hatherick to the back side of the 
house of the said Thomas Suretyes, where the said ancient wall began. 

" And that the said outer wall of the castle aforesaid by the circuit 
aforesaid contains by admeasurement three acres and one rood of land. 

" And that many edifices and structures of houses are now pitched and 
erected adjoining to the outer wall aforesaid through its circuit.''^ 

The parliamentary survey of 1649 perambulates the liberties in a re- 
verse direction, thus :— 

" Which sayd old castle, with the scyte thereof, togeather with all the 
appurtenances thereunto belonging, are butted and bounded by a channell 
whiche beginnes and leades from the north side of the fore part of a 
house and shopp now in the occupacion of Alexander Yeache of New- 
castle, by the wall from the north-west of the Black Gate, and soe the 
channell leadeth south- weste from the sayd house and shopp by the wall, 
within whiche is a peice of waste grounde over agaynst Bayly Gate. 
It boundreth all alonge within the channell without an outward wall to 
the west. This wall leades south south-west, the comer whereof is 
butted by a dwellinghouse now inhabited by Cuthbert Maxwell bordring 
on the west side of the sayd corner, from thence sou the alonge the 
channell, through the grate of the Long-Stayres, and soe along tha 
channell to another grate below adjoining to a corner of an old stone 
wall whiche pointeth directe weste, and is parte of the house of Michael 
Moore. And soe the wall leades south through the sayd house a small 
distance to Mr. James Claverynges garden, and soe leades along east on 
the south side of a tenement now in the possession of Robert Peacock^ 
and south of the inner wall of the Castle Garth, directly by an old ruined 
wall south on Mr. Bowes his garden, to the boundring stone on the com- 
mon passage called the Castle Staires, under which boundring stone there 
is a grate and a channell or water passage that falls thro' the same, and 
boundreth south on the inner wall of the Castle Garth east from the 
sayd boundring stone, and on the south of Mr. William CalTerleyes 

»» Brand'* MSS. Vol. xiii. 



108 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE, 

gaxden along the outward wall to the ende of a stone and hricke-honae 
in the same garden, belongyng to the said Mr. Wm. Calverley, and in 
possession of Mr. Marke Milbankes. From thence it bonndreth by a 
corner of the old wall, and leades directly northe and on the east side of 
the inner wall of the Castle Oarthe, and on the east side of the Moote 
Hall, and east of divers gardens and wast grounds belonging to the old 
castle, and now in the possession of divers persons of Newcastle, whose 
houses bounder on the east of the sayd gardens. All which houses are 
in the towne and coiintie of Newcastle, viz. fix>m the garden now in the 
possession of Mrsi Joane Carre, 16 yards in length east and west, and 7 

Jrards in bredth, unto Mrs. Alice lie her garden, 9 yards square, which 
yeth the northernmost part of all the burdens and wast grounds, and 
adjoins to the inner wall of the Castle Garthe to the west, and to the 
back side of hir now dwellinge house on the easte, and so boundring 
north west of Thomas Huntley and Bobert Huntley's gardens without 
and adjoining to the north-west side and comer of a square old 
ruined tower near the draw bridge of the Castle Garth, leadinge northe 
and without the Black Gate of the sayd Castle Garthe, and so alonge by 
an olde wall which leades north-west to the back side of the said. 
Alexander Yeache his house and shopp to the north thereof, and unto 
the channell of the streete weste, from the forepart of the house and 
shopp aforesayd, and doe contain by estimacion five acres and a halte, 
more or lesse." 

In 1646, an information had occurred m the Commons' Journal, con- 
cerning the moat of this castle, and the wall thereof, which appears to 
have fallen and destroyed many houses. The attention of the Com- 
mittee of the Northern Association was called to the feet. 

These limits, somewhat reduced by later encroachments, are delineated 
on a plan made for the owner of the liberties in 1777 by Mr. John Bell.>» 
The plan brings up the boundary walls of the Castle Garth up to the 
Black Gate itself, while the surveys commence the outer wall at a dis- 
tance of six yards fix)m it. 

XIII. The N'bw Hall and New Chambeb. — " Cause also our New 
Hall and New Chamber in the same castle to be roofed with lead," 
are the words of Henry III.'s liberate roll of 1237. The work was done 
the same year, and the sheriff accounts for repairing the New Hall 
and New Chamber, as well as for covering them with lead. Of the old 
hall in the keep we hear no more. In 1244, the Hall of the king was 
mended for 5/. 5s, 7J<?., and in 1269, 14/. 16«. 6d. and 71. 13«. 5d. were 
expended on the repair of the king's houses in the castle of Newcastle. 

A striking event took place in the hall, on 26 Dec., 1292. Then it 
was that John Baliol did homage to our Edward for the crown of Scot- 
land, "at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the hall of our lord the king's 
palace within the castle."*** 

»» Lent by his son Mr. Tko. BeU of Newcastle. »»* Bymer's Fwdflra. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 109 

In 1834, the Great Hall of the King was in want, towards the west, 
in a window of four leares with a gable of timber, and 7 couples of 
chevTons, whereof the timber was carried away, and to buy anew would 
o68t 209. The carpentry of the same would be worth 26«. Sd, : the 
irons and nails, and ironwork, 10«. The masonry within the hall might 
be repaired for 60«. The leaf of another window was wanting, to buy 
the timber of which would be 6d., and the carpentry would cost 6d, : 
and the irons and nails, I2d. ; also thecoyering of lead was wanting, 
amounting to 200 stones of lead, worth 100«. In the two gables, two 
round windows of glass were in decay, which would cost to buy anew, 
26«. Sd, ; and the work of the same, 26«. Bd. Also to the east of the 
hall there was wanting to the roof of lead and boards, what might be 
remedied by 200 boards, worth 26«. 8(7., and covering of lead towards 
the east, 840 stonesi worth 251, For every rood of roofing, the plumbery 
was worth 6«. Sd,, and the carpentry of 200 boards for the side waa 
worth ISi, 4d,, and the nails for the work would cost 13«. ^d. 

All this is in accordance with the usages of the period. So rare a 
luxury was glass, that glass windows formed a part of the personal 
estate of the owner. The glass windows, when they did exist, were 
often furnished with wooden shutters inside, so that, as one of the rolls 
expresses, the glass might still be seen outside when they were shut. 
This was merely keeping up the same arrangement as when the glass 
was wanting. The open windows were fitted internally with wooden 
shutters, lattices, or fenestrals, and sometimes with iron bars. These 
probably were the "irons" of the Newcastle inquisition. From the 
liberate rolls it would appear as if the round windows in gables, which 
were much in vogue during the 13th century, were more commonly 
glazed than were the other lights. I refer my reader for further in- 
formation on these subjects to my authority, Turner's excellent volume 
on Domestic Architecture. 

Further, the King's Chamber with the cellar underneath might be re- 
paired in timber and carpentry for lOl. The roof was defective in lead, 
amounting to 200 stones, which to buy anew would be 6/. : also th& 
masonry, if that ought to be repaired anew, would cost 20L 

Again, in 1336, we have "the Great Hall with the Chamber of our 
Lord the King adjoining, with divers other chambers within the Queues- 
mantele." 

It is plain from this also that the usual plan was adopted. The cham- 
ber was annexed to the hall, on the second story called the solar. Access 
from the chamber to the hall used to be had by stairs. The cellar or 



110 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. 

ground floor^ level with the hall, was generally of stone, the solar of 
wood. The apartments called cellars were to a great extent used as 
such, much accommodation being acquired for wood, and, at Newcastle^ 
the cellar would also be used as a passage from the pantry and butlery, 
which were separate buildings. Chambers were placed transversely to 
the hall, and frequently were not so tall as the latter was. Hence we 
have two round windows in the gables of the hall at Newcastle. The 
great disparity between the quantities of lead required for the east and 
west sides of the hall, might induce the belief that the roof was of a 
tee-fall form, but I am not aware of any other reason to direct us to 
such a conclusion. 

In the old bird's eye view, the cellar and solar of the king's chamber 
yery distinctly appear from behind the Half-moon. Singularly enough, 
the hall does not dearly present itself, although it. existed up to the 
present century. 

At Winchester, the hall used for assizes and sessions is now almost the 
only suryiying relic of the castle there. Westminster Hall is a law court. 
Similar examples may easily be found— -one of them at Newcastle. 

In 1556, mention is made of the ''assyse in the Hye Castell,^ and 
Elizabeth's grant of entry into the castle precincts in 1589 states that 
the *' old castle and the enclosed circuit, precinct, and ambit thereof were 
of no further use than for a prison or common gaol for the county of 
Northumberland, and for the common hall called the Mbai Hall or Sail 
of Sessions of that coanty." Some alterations in the building were 
seemingly made in James I.'s time, as the arms of that monarch occurred 
oyer the entrance,^^ and *' the Moot Hall and other conyeniences for 
keeping the assizes and sessions for the county " were excepted from his 
grant to Stevenson in 1618. Again, in the inquisition of 1620, *' vdthin 
the said castle is a great hall commonly called the Moot-Hall, where the 
assizes and gaol deliveries for the county, &c., are held." In the sur- 
vey of 1649, pursuant to the act for sale of the crown lands, we read 
that " There is an auncient building within the inner- wall of the Castle- 
Garth which is commonly called or knowne by the name of the Mooie 
Hall, which is now in the slate, and is used by the justices of assize, 

1^ G. B. Bichardfion. Mr. Hodgson, in his Picture of Newcastle, says that ''till 
Elizabeth's time we are sure the county courts were held in the great tower," and 
that after the time of James I., the old chapel of the garrison was converted into a 
Hoot Hall, and the dimgeon of the keep reserved for the county prison during the time 
of the assizes • The statement about thegreat tower does not occur in Mr. Hodgson's 
volume in the Beauties of England and Wales : that about tiie Moot Hall is retained, 
but is explainable by Bourne's tradition about the chapel elsewhere noticed. The 
Moot Hiul, as shown in the text, existed as such before James's time. 

i» Hornby, i. 15. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. Ill 

sesaioiM, and gaole delivery, for the keeping of their assize and sessiona 
for the oonnty of Northumberland. Therefore ve do not value the same, 
coDceiying it ia excepted in the acte." 

The Bome surrey mentions a stable in tbe possession of WUliam 
Calrerley, utnate on the south side of the Uoot Hall, within the inner 
Trail of the Castle Qarth, containing 14 yards £. and W. and 6 yards 
N. and 8. 



The exception in the lease of the castle, in 1685, also comprises the 
Hoot Hall and " all other houses and buildings and other fit and usual 
places, as well within the castle as without, where his Majesty 'a people 
and subjects of his Highness's county of Korthumberland use to come, 
reside, and be attthe assizes, &o." The lessee of the castle in 1777 
was bound to repair the Hoot Hall, Grand Jury room,'" and Qaoler'a 
house. In short, tbe Hoot Hall is reeerved in all tbe dealings with 
the Castle Garth and in the sale to Turner in 1808. lu 1809 it was 
pulled down, being supplanted by the new County Courts. Mr. Hodg- 
son, in his Picture of Newcastle, 1812, thus describes it :— 

" It exhibited a curious mixture of Roman, Norman, Gothic, and 
modem architecture. Its eastern wall appears to have been the wall of 
the Boman station. It is of vast thickness, had a simicircular door- 
way, is built of square, tesselated ashlar-work, and ranges with a 
w^ every way similar to itself, and whose foundations were discovered 
under the County Court. At the north end of the Moot Hall was a 

in Xhs aliove view it &om Bichardson's Table Book. The windom into the 
Cude Qarth tre t^orooghlj Jacobean. The Grand Juiy room appean in bqnt, 
" Hoot Hall (Old). Doon 6 ft. 7 in. hiElL^O.B. Bichaidson's M58. 



112 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

range of low Korman arohes and pilasters ; its roof was supported by 
two heavy pointed arches; and its front had square winciows with 
stone mulUons, and the arms of England quartered with those of Scot- 
land over the main entrance." 

At the south end of the Moot Hall was a building running the oppo- 
-site direction, and used as a grand-jury room. This corresponded with 
the King's Chamber. 

The question whether the east side of the Moot "Bvjl was Boman 
may be left to the next subject. Sufficient is it here to know that it 
was parcel of the inner wall of the castle, and that the south wall was 
parcel of the cross-wall which divided the baileys. This is tolerably 
evident from the old view, where that wall disappears behind the 
chamber. 

The application of the word '' Norman" to tb& arcade of the north 
wall might have been puzzling, had not operations in 1846 proclaimed 
its Early English character. Mr. Bichardson's notes gives the follow- 
ing particulars :— 

<< Moot Hall, Old. Inside wall of north end exposed by removal of 
house adjoining, 29 Dec. 1846. Wall about 4 feet thick was standing. 
About 36 feet wide. Six arches. Only one respond corbel for central 
arches left, viz. that nearest east wall. Outside of north end appears to 
have been quite plain." 

Then follow some sketches. One with the six arches and two corbels 
above them is erased, and supplied by an elevation of seven arches, each 
corbel being above the apex of the arch nearest but one to the side wall. 
The reason of this alteration is probably afforded by the widths given 
on a rough ground plan, wherein the interior measurement is 45 (not 
86 feet),^" and the outer one 51 feet, which would give 3 feet each for 
the east and west walls. 

From one of Mr. Bichardson's drawings given herewith, it will be 
seen that the two easternmost arches were closed with stone. The two 
next were closed with brick, the next was still open, for the purpose of 
access from the house of which this end of the hall had become a part. 
The last arch was closed with stone, and the one wanting was doubtless 
so also. These appearances render it probable that the three centntl 
portions of the arcade had formed an Early English window of three 
lights. 

The ground sketch alluded to supposes the hall to have been divided 
into three aisles by two rows of four arches, each in a line with the 
corbels, a probable arrangement, though neither it nor the remaining 

^3* Another arch of 6 feet, and 3 feet for blank ends, make up the 45 feet. 



J 



NORTH END VIEW OF THE MOOT HALL, NEWCASTLE. 



THE NBW GASTLE UPON TYNB. 



iia 



onrbel can be reconciled with the modem appearance of the ridge of the 
roof resting upon two pointed arches rising from a circular pillar. But 
the pillars and arches of halls were often of wood, and ours may have 
been renewed more than once before being constructed of stone. 

The house in which the north wall was found is now the Three Bulls' ^ 
Heads Inn, and the Moot-hall extended southward along the line of 
rails which severs the yard of the county courts &om the Castle Garth. 

This heading should not perhaps be left without a note of the stairs 
which Bourne mentions as opposite to the chapel of St. Thomas the 
Martyr, on the Sandhill, and which led up to the Half-moon.^" 

XIV. The Half-Mooit and Queen's Mantle. — In 1238, the sheriff 
of Henry III., charged 10^. for the mending of the king's houses in the 
castles of Bambrough and Newcastle under the Moon {mhUr luna), and 
here we may have the first mention of the remarkable bastion which 
frowned upon the Sandhill. The character of the edifice, as it appears 
in the view of the sixteenth century, agrees with the Early English 
period. 

In 1334, the Eatchen within the Mantle {mantaille) occurs immediately 
after the king's hall and chamber. It was all perished and value- 
less, but might be renewed for 10 marks. The Fantry and the Butlery 
immediately follow. Their defects might also be remedied in timber 
and cftrpentry for 40«. The roofing of these houses might be restored 
with 100 stones of lead, worth 3/. The Gamers, which might be fully 
remedied for 20«. follow. 

In 1336, we have these buildings more generally, but in the same 
order : — " The Great Hall with the King's Chamber adjoining, and with 
divers other chcmbers within the Qttenesmantele, and with the Butlery and 
Pantry." 

Are not these chambers within Queen's Mantle the same as those 
described in 1238 as under the Moon ? 

The kitchen was generally on the ground fioor, for security against 
fire, and as distinct as possible from the other buildings.'^ 

When Sir John Marley repaired " the other castle " or keep, he also 
made use of ** the round tower under the Moot Hall, towards the Sand- 
hill, called the Half-moon, which was the old castle of Monkchester,— ^ 
to secure the river and Quayside against the Scots," and, for this pur- 
pose, laid great guns upon it.^^ 



^^ Bourne, 126, and 59. 

^^ Milbanke MS. per Bourne. 



i^ Parker's Dom. Arch. 121. 



TOL, IV. 



A 



1 14 THE NEW CASILB UPON TYNE. 

In 1702, when the burgeaaes were leaseeB of the oasile, the Slaters 
presented a man for insuficient work at the Half -moon in the Castle 
Oarth,» and in 1704, the *' numOe waU in the Castle Gkirth " had either 
fallen or was in suoh a state as rendered it neeessary that it should be 
immediately repaired.^ 

The following acoonnt was written circ. 1790 :— 

"The old ronnd tower, commonly called the Half-moon Battery, 
was, in 1785, built nearly round with houses, so that at present a very 
small part of the old wall thereof can be seen. 27ie round front wall of 
the Old Battery forms the hack waU of the eWeular hUldin^s, which are 
let in tenements of single rooms. These buildings are three stories 
high. The access of the two uppermost is by means of wooden stairs, 
eommunicating to two gallerys, which go round the buildings, affording 
a ground entrance from the gallerys to the rooms adjoining. The whole 
has a yery pleasing effect to those coming down Gateshead, on the 
Bridge, &c., and there is a very fine prospect of the river &c. from the 
galleries. Very alarming consequences had like to have happened on 
erecting these new buildings. A large quantity of clay and other 
rubbish had been dug to make a foundation to the building, and 
spread abroad as a platform for the lower story, which became so 
enormous a weight upon the Old Bank Wall of the castle, as to cause it 
to give way in several directions towards the Bridge^^ End and Sand 
Hill, and — houses were obliged to be pulled down to the ground and re^ 
built, whilst others were secured by much labour and expense. On 
this occasion the Old Front Outer Wall of the castle, towards the bridge, 
was erased to the foundation, and a new one built nearly on the.scite 
thereof. The old one was very strong, and well cemented, but the new 
one is by much stronger, being — yards in thickness. Prodigious large 
stones were laid therein, some of which weighed -^ tons, which were 
obliged to be raised by a windlass and tackles. Previous to building the 
houses round the Old Battery, on a certain spot thereon, a person, by 
turning round in a space not exceeding three or four yards diameter, 
had a fine view of the river, &&, to Pipewellgate Lime Eiln. Then, 
continuing to turn to the left, in the aforesaid narrow circle, you had in 
rotation the Bridge with Gateshead and St. Thomas's Chapel, the Sand 
Hill, Exchange, part of the river, &c., the Butcher Bank, All Saints' 
Church, with an extensive prospect to Byker Hill, Heaton, and Shields 
Eoad ; then the Side, with the Back Buildings of Pilgrim Street, the 
Painter Heugh, Low Bridge, &c., and, lastly, the Head of the Side, 
with St. Nicholas' Church ; and all these variety of views were to be 
observed in walking round the diameter aforesaid. These prospects, 
though not at present to be seen from so narrow a circumference, yet, 
by going round the galleries which surround the present circular 
buildings, the same views will naturally occur.""* 

1^ Slaters' Books. i» Brand. 

134 « ] 787. ^QY. 24. A considerable mass of earth came down from the Half-moon 
battery, and destroyed some houses at the end of Tyne Bridge." — Richardson's Table 
Book. 

«5 MS. poss. Mr. Tho. BeU. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. US 

Aooording to the respectable authority of Hornby,^ the front part of 
the Half-moon Battery, which was pnlled down by Sir John Turner in 
1787y preyioualy to the erection of his houses, was " found to be of an 
octagonal figure, and presented an appearance essentially Roman, as 
regarded its masonry. The wall was about 3 feet thick, and the facing 
stones and rubble strikingly resembled Boman. In some parts adjoin- 
ing, there were loose stones scattered about, and made use of by the in- 
habitants for yarions purposes—of the exact size and form as those in 
the Boman Wall. In front there was a part of an arched gallery 
which is supposed to have run around the front of the whole fortifica- 
tion. There were found some cannon-balls, one of which was about 
9 lbs. weight. These must have been shot from the battery on Wind- 
mill Hill in the civil wars." 

The site of the Half-moon being selected for that of the new Moot 
Hall, or County Courts, the following exception, in addition to that of 
the Moot Hall and Grand Jury room, was contained in the enfranchise- 
ment deed to Turner, in 1808 :«* 

*' Except, &c.. All that messuage or tenement, with the smith's shop, 
late a stable behind the same, situate near the Moot Hall, in the Castle 
Garth aforesaid, and bounded on the south west by a passage or entry 
leading down to the Gaoler's house, on the north-west by the open part 
of the Castle Gart^, and on the north-east by the south-west end or cor- 
ner of the Grand Jury room, now in the occupation of Michael Birkin« 
shaw, smith, and others : And also all that piece of waste ground lying 
behind the said smith's shop, and used as a midden-stead, and bounded 
on the north-west by the said smith's shop, and on the south-cast by the 
said passage from the Castle Stairs to the steps leading from the top of 
the Tenter Garth towards the Castle Stairs : And also that messuage 
or tenement adjoining the south-east comer of the Grand Jury room, 
and boanded on the south-west by the said passage called the Half-moon 
Entry, on the north-east by the waste ground at the top of the Half" 
moon Battery, and on the south-east by the Battery Stairs, and now or 
late in the occupation of James Smith, Margaret Lumley, Alexander 
Turner, George Anderson, and others : And also all those several tene- 
ments or rooms situate on the north-west side of the Battery stairs, and 
now or late in the occupation of Ann Saunderson, William Brownlce, 
James Brown, and George Thirkell : And also all those several tene- 
ments or rooms sometime since built round the front of the Half-moon 
Battery, and bounded in front by the waste ground called the Tenter 
Gktrth, and on the back part thereof by the waste ground at the top of 
the said Battery, and now or late in the several occupations of William 
McKenzie, James Walker, Joseph Waugh, David Cuthbert, John Brown- 
lee, and many others : And also that the said piece of waste ground 
called the Tenter Garth, and the said piece of waste ground on the top* 

»» 1 Hornby, 10, per Richardson's MSS. 



1 1 6 THB NEW CASTLE UPON TYNB. 

of the Half-moon Battery : Together with the eeyeral rights, memhbrs, 
and appurtenances, to the last mentioned messuages, tenements, and 
premises respectively belonging : All which premises hereby excepted 
are situate and lying, adjoining, or contiguous to each other, without 
any other property or premises intervening/' 

The above exceptions, with the Moot Hall and Grand Jury room, in- 
clude the whole property now occupied by the County Courts, and the 
vacant ground enclosed about them. The passage leading down to the 
Gaoler's House is that still remaining along the west side of tlie courts. 
. The following evidence of what appeared in founding these courts has 
repeatedly been printed, but its repetition cannot conveniently be dis- 
pensed with. 

In February, 1810, " previously to digging the foundation for the 
County Courts, it was necessary to remove an enormous mound, sur- 
rounded by the Moot Hall on the north, (then removed), and by what 
was called the Half-moon Battery, on the south. This vast accumula- 
tion of ashes, &c., was about 32 feet ^high, above 100 feet in length, 
and of great breadth. Thi3 begining of this month, on digging the 
foundation after its removal, and when at the depth of 5 feet from the 
surface,**' a well of Roman masonry** was discovered near the edge of 
the bank. At the bottom of the well were found two buckets with their 
iron chains."*^ It was, *' finely cased with Boman masonry and is now 
remaining below the centre part of the present courthouse. It had 
originally been a spring, or sunk low down on the river bank, and its 
circular wall raised within another strong wall in the form of a tra- 
pezium*^ to the height of the area of the station, and the space between 
them traversed with strong connecting beams of oak, both horizontally 
and perpendicularly, and then tightly packed up with pure blue clay. 
.... Two of the perpendicular beams had very large stags' horns at their 
lower end, apparently to assist in steadying them till clay sufficient was 
put round them to keep them upright. On the original slope of the bank 
next the outer wall there was a thick layer of ferns, grasses, brambles, 
and twigs of birch and oak, closely matted together. . . .Here also, were 
exposed large remains of the foundations of other very thick and strong 
walls, one of which rose into the eastern wall of the old Moot Hall, which 
was of exactly the same breadth, bearing, and style of building, and doubt- 
less of the same date as the Eoman foundations of which it was a con- 
tinuance.*^ There was also a low, half-round arched doorway in it, 

^ " Under more than 20 feet of rubbish." — ^Hodgson- s Picture of Newcastle. 
138 u Cased with fine ashlar work." — Ibid. "^ Sykes's Loc. Bee. 

140 « 4n(j enclosing about 10 square yards. — Hodgson, in Beauties of England and 
Wales. 

141 it With one of these walls, the eastern wall of the late Moot Hall has the same 
breadth, bearing, and manner of building ; it has also in it a low semicircular door- 
way, walled up, and the outside of it is faced with tessellated ashlar-work, bearing 
every mark of Boman masonry." — Ibid.. 



NSapiNIMb^lMBaAlIiBt 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TTNE. 1 1 7 

walled up; but which on being reopened and its jambs taken down/ 
appeared plainly to have been cnt out of the wall, and its sides con* 
structed with very different mortar to that of the wall itself — the mortar 
of which was there a sort of grouting made of^slacked lime, mixed with 
brick, fossil coal, and limestone, broken into small pieces, and all poured 
in a fluid state among a rouble work of unhewn stone carelessly thrown 
together, between two faces of ashlar work. This wall as it goes to 
j^oin the Black Gate, has many courses of stone still standing in their 
original state, on each side of the stairs leading into the Side ; and is, 
I have no doubt, a part of the original wall of Pons -^lii.*** The whole- 
site of the Court-house, for several feet above the original surface of the 
earth, was strewn with a chaos of Boman ruins. I saw dug up large 
quantities of Eoman pottery, two bronze coins of Antoninus Pius,^^ 
parts of the shaft of a Corinthian pillar, fluted, and of the flnest work- 
manship ; besides many millstones and two altars, one bearing an illegible 
inscription, and the other quite plain. The altars were found near the 
south-east comer of the Court-house, and near them a small axe, and a 
concave stone which bore marks of Are, was split, and had thin flakes of 
of lead in its Assures. The broad foundation walls were Arm and im- 
penetrable as the hardest rock. 

''Aug. 11, 1812, when the foundations of the north portico were sink- 
ing, a floman coin was found, and the original surfaceof the ground was 
covered with a thick stratum of small wood, some parts of which were 
wattled together in the forms of crates, or the corfs of collieries, but in 
a decayed state, and cut as easily willi the workmen's spades as the 
brushwood found in peat mosses does, •• .There was much horses' or 
mules' dung near them."*** 

How far the architectural remains m situ seen by Hornby and 
Hodgson are to be referred to the Eoman era may be judged, in some 
measure, from the way in which they fall into the mediseval arrange- 
ments. 

As to the form of the tower or battery called the Half-moon, we are 
not left in uncertainty. The view by Buck, in 1745, differs in no ma- 
terial degree from that in the sixteenth century, and the general ground 
plan may be further gathered with accuracy from the plans of the town 
by Thompson in 1746,1** and Hutton in 1772. Brand's plan in 1788 
gives the circle of Turner's buildings placed round the exterior of the old 
work a year before. The Half-moon was, as its name implies, semicircu- 

142 c< ^e east waU of tbe late Moot Hall is beyond all doubt the eastern wall of 
the station." ... 

1^ Coins of Marcus Aurelius and Constantine, with other pieces, were found by 
drainers near the old castle, on May, 1824. — Tyne Mercury. 

1** 2 Hodg. Northd. iii. 173-4. 

^^' A colored plan of Newcastle, drawn by Isaac Thompson in 1746, on a scale of 
200 feet to an inch: dedicated to William Duke of Cumberland; 8ft. 9 in. by 
3 ft. 6 in. — Brit. Mus., Crown MS. xxxii, 52. 



1 1 8 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TTNE. 

lar, strengfhened with two or three square tower-like projections, be* 
tween each of which were three smaller Gothic buttresses. Between 
each of these buttresses was a window-slit under the battlement which 
crowned the whole work. * The Half-moon rose high above the other 
walls, and merited its frequent appellation of " tower/' in respect of 
which the keep was termed the old tower. The Half-moon had a 
supporting wall or Bank wall, the form of which had become obscure^ 
but, on its failure in 1787, was found to be octagonal, and was destroyed, 
being succeeded by a stronger wall nearly on the same site. Any one 
examining the present supporting wall of the Moot Hall yard, will un- 
derstand the tremendous strain upon such a feature. A singular adjunct 
was observed upon its front — the indications of ''an arched gaUery 
which is supposed to have run around the front of the whole fortifica- 
tion." The arrangement is perhaps a little puzzling at first sight, but, 
on consideration, it is not extxaordinary here, for the term Queen's 
Mantle must be applied to one of the walls of this angle of the fortifica- 
tions. In it was the kitchen for the king's hall, of which the site does 
not admit of doubt. 

Now we have the term Moon applied to the inner or circular work 
both before and after the occurrence of the term Queen's Mantle, there- 
fore, primd facie, they are not identical. In our earliest notice of the 
Moon, certain houses are stated to be below it, an expression hardly ap- 
plicable to buildings within it, while, on the other hand, these erections 
must have been within the line of some fortifications. While we know 
that the King's Chamber was adjoining to the hall, and from all other 
examples that the butlery and pantry were also close to it, none of 
these features are said to be within the Queen's Mantle, being dis- 
tinguished in one inquest from '' the kitchen within 'la diantaille,' " 
and in the other from the " divers other chambers within the Queues 
Mantele." In modem times, when the Half -moon battery was a weU 
imderstood expression, we have a fall of the '* mantle wall in the Castle- 
Garth," which must mean something other than the Half-moon, and 
have been some portion of an outer wall, the inner one being almost 
wholly built against. And finally, there was an eastern doorway in the 
old Moot Hall, which must have had a purpose, and led to some place 
under protection. 

On merely local evidences therefore, we should come to the conclusion 
that the eastern part of the present Coanty Courts yard was the Mantle, 
containing divers chambers under the Moon, and a kitchen communica- 
ting with the King's Hall by means of its eastern doorway, and sur- 
rounded by the '' mantle- wall." But the accordance of such a plan with 
the known significance of the word *' mantle " must first be clear. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE, 119 

To the words Mantellus, Mantellum, Mantelletam, Da Oange gives 
Tarious illustrations. Sometimes a door to a gateway is meant, at 
others a defence of wood or stono added to other works, mach like the 
palisade and its outer to^er or gate. Thus a castie in our Henry Y.'s day 
was made safe *' antemuralibus quibusdam municionibus lapideis, quas 
guerratores manUHoB appellant." In the century before, a new tower 
which was before a portal was to be mantelled : one great mantel was 
to be made of posts, such as might be able to guard the warriors destined 
to it. A barbican was to be repaired and garnished '' de gachils et de 
fitagieres et manteaux." '' Item bretesches et manteauz oouronnez ou 
galandiz de tours soustendront d'aisselles seulement sans gros." A 
mole at Breda was called a mantel \ it was a wooden framework filled 
with stones. The later mantelet was a moveable framework of planks 
stretched across posts, to coyer the assailants quaatpallio, as with a man- 
tle. Hence the name. The word thus seems to have been applied to 
any defence in the nature of an auxiliary curtain to another, whether a 
line drawn in front or a tower-like machine, or the projecting contriyance 
on the tops of towers to which I have previously alluded. It also ap- 
pears that although usually made of wood, yet that material was not 
requisite to the existence of a mantle, which might be of stone, if it 
served a similar end as the mantie of wood. 

The mantie at Newcastie would probably be of wood, supported on 
the arched gallery observed by Hornby. The name may eitiier have 
been in compliment to the queen of the originator of this part of the 
fortress, in supposed resemblance to some particular mantie worn by her, 
or in reference to its protection of some apartments in the Half-moon, or 
Mantie, devoted to her accommodation. 

It may be remarked that the interior of the Half-moon appears frx)m 
Thompson's plan to have been separated from the common bailey, hj a 
wall running up to the King's Chamber. 

The comer of the hiU occupied b^ the Half-moon and Mantle, doubly 
defended, frowning upon the Tyne and estuary of the Lortbum, must 
have been of immense advantage. In vain might an enemy break 
through the town walls, and think to cross the bridge leading to the 
sunnier south without effective molestation from the castie. 

The medisBval appearance of the Half-moon in the old views renders 
it unnecessary to notice the popular idea that it was older than the other 
parts of the castie. Of the previous aspect of tiiis part of the enceinte 
we are not informed, but it may have had a square tower similar to 
those at other points, perhaps the very trapezium found in 1810. If so 
the eastern wall of the Moot-hall would ran on to it in the line men- 



120 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. 

tioned by Hodgsoiii and any wall within it wonld coincide with that 
seen by the same historian. Bnt he also saw "other walls/' and I am 
not disposed to deny the existence of some Homan stmoture on the site. 
Whether the specifio walls which fall into the Norman fortress were or 
were not Roman is not maoh to my purpose to consider. They might 
be used by more races than one ; bnt exactness in points of masonry and 
proofs of style is not found in the topographical works of Hodgson's 
time, and it must frankly be owned that the opinion even of this great 
master of Roman subjects is much weakened by his considering the con- 
tinuation of the wall at the Eastern Postern to be Roman also. I have 
seen it, and Mr. Richardson was, I think, right in pronouncing it 
Norman,**" and, to ground any hypothesis of the Norman works being on 
older foundations, some distinct and dear evidence is requisite. 

XY. Thb Gasnebs.— These appendages are mentioned in the inquest 
of 1334, between the butlery and chapel. 

XVI. The Chapel. — Among the many items of improvement or- 
dered by Henry III. in 1237, was the payment of a fee of 508. to a 
chaplain serving the chapel of New Castle. ITpon its first occuirence 
on the Pipe RoU this year, the order for it is referred to. The payment 
was to be yearly, and so it continues. In the roll of 1272-5 it appears 
that the sheriffs of counties generally had received instructions to pay 
chaplains, for the first quarter only of one of the years, but, as it tamed 
out that the Sheriff of Northumberland had not received such orders, 
the faU fee was allowed. 

In the inquest of 1334, the chapel occurs between the Oamers and the 
Great Tower, and might be thoroughly repaired for 10/. In that of 
1336, the chapel of the king within the castle occurs after the buildings 
in Queen's Mantle, the Butlery and Pantry, and before the Chekerhouse 
which was outside the Gate. The jury seem to be returning from the 
south to the north of the hall. 

" There is," says Bourne, in 1732, *'a house in the yard, where, they 
say, was the chapel of the Garrison, which is called the Chapel-house to 
this day ; it stands northeast from the chapel ; its common name now is 
the Three Bulls' Heads." And, afterwards referring to the hinges chapel 
within the castle, mentioned in 1336, he says :-—'' This chapel, I have 
been told, stood on that part of the castle yard where the Moot Hall is, 
but, upon searching, I found it in the castle itself." And then he dor 
scribes the chapel in the keep. 

!*• 4 Arch. JEl. 0. S. 95. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 121 

Seyeral years preyioxis to 1 774, upon digging a cellar on the east side 
of the keep for the above house called the Three Bulls' Heads, a great 
quantity of human bones were found, which Hornby, who records the 
event, thinks were most probably the remains of bodies deposited there 
in the plague of 1636.^*'' Brand, however, adds that a large stone coffin 
was found. In the excavations for the railway, numbers of skeletons 
were disinterred here and elsewhere in the Castle Oarth.'^ 

This Three Balls' Head Inn is now obliterated by the railway, the 
licence and name being removed to the house which comprised the north 
wall of the old Moot Hall, as before mentioned.^ The old house was 
only divided by a roadway from the end of the chapel of the keep, bat 
projected more to the east than the chapel. 

Albeit bones, and coffin, and name, might all perhaps have an explana* 
tion in the proximity of the chapel of the keep, the tradition is worth 
attention. It is observable that this Old Three Bulls' Heads Inn and 
premises were freehold before Turner's enfranchisement.**^ And as to 
the tradition, that the King's Chapel stood near the Moot Hall, it is not 
improbable that there would be a new royal chapel, close to the new hall 
and chambers. 

That the royal and garrison chapels were diistinct, is tolerably clear, 
and one at least must be sought beyond the chapel of the keep. 

In 1338-9, 12 Edw. III., there is an entry in the Plac. Abbrev. 
*'pro can tar' infra castrum villss Novi Castri super Tinam." This 
chantry would most likely be in one of the chapels. 

• 

XVII. The Bridges. — In 1225, three Bridges in New Castle were 
repaired. These probably led over the moat opposite the Bailey Gate, 
and two posterns. In 1237, 16Z. 6$. 11^^. was spent in repair of the 
Bridge of New Castle, and in 1245, 21. 14«. ^\d., in that of the Bridges 
of the same. The remaining records of bridges will be enumerated 
under the Black Gate, which will be considered next in date, for my 
headings are so arranged as to exhibit in some degree the progress of 
the castle, as well as to bring the history of each part into one focus. 

XVIII. The Black Gate, the Second Gate, ajtd theib Append- 
ages. — The Black Gate and its accompanying works are now the sole 

^^7 There is no evidence to support this idea, which arises from a misconception of 
Dr. Jennison's " Garth-side/' an execrable orthography for Gateside — ^perhaps a typo- 
graphical hlunder. 

^^ Kichardson on Plague and Pestilence. 

»*• See page 113. 

1*0 " Mr. Smith and Mr. Davison's freehold."— Bell's Plan. 

VOL. rv. K 



122 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. 

relics of the extensiye works of Henry III. in our castle. Up to June, 
1247, the works of a certain New Gate in the castle of Newcastle cost 
6141. I5s. lid, A farther sum of 36/. Os, ^d. was afterwards laid out 
on the repair of a gate of NewOastle.^^ In 1250, 5501. 16«. 7d., being 
the sum total of these items, is entered on the Pipe Boll as for the 
repair of a gate of New Castle, the accountant confusing the works, 
and naming only one, and that the lesser purpose. 
The inquest of 1334 commences with the following items :— 

1. The Bridge without the gate, quite sufficient in repair, except 
that its covering wanted 1^ rood of planks, worth 20»., 9 score of 
nails, worth 7». 6(/., and carpentry, worth 20«. 

2. The Heron-pit (a prison surmounted by a house.) 

3. The Second Gate, which ought to be repaired anew, and the 
work required in the ceiling would cost 100«. 

4. The house of the Exchequer, (and then comes the King's or 
Moot hall.) 

In 1336, these features occur thus-— 

1. A house beyond the gate, which is called the Chokerhouse. 

2. With the Bridges within the gates and without. 

3. "With three Gates and one postern, (probably the Bailey Gate, 
the Black Gate, the Second Gate, and the East or South Postern.) 

In 1358, when the Great Pit and the Heron-pit were repaired, we 
find that the former prison was in a tower nigh ^he Second Gate, and 
that the latter, with its house above, was nigh the Great Gate, and was 
44 feet long. Some mason's work was done at the Barbican without 
the gate. 

The gates were thus in immediate connection with the prisons, and 
these together constituted the Gaol. 

William de Watford was appointed keeper of the gate of the castle in 
1351, with the same salary as his predecessors, Nicholas Ufton, deceased, 
and others. Ten years afterwards, Thomas Bote had a grant of the 
custody of the gaol and of the gate of the castle, with the fees which his 
predecessors in those offices, Wm. de Watford and Wm. Fox, had been 
accustomed to receive. 

It was, doubtless, from the connection between the grim entrance and 
the gaol that the former derived its name of the Black Gate. In 1509, 
there is a bond*" from John Thomson of Kyllom, EoUand Walles of 
Newingefeld in Glendale, James Walles of Aykheld, and Bichard Pal- 
l3mge of Kyllom, yeomen, to Boger Eenwyk, Esq., and Bobert Musgrave, 
Esq., Justices of the Peace for Northumberland, conditioned for the 

"1 Harl. MSS. 624, per 1 Brand, 148. »«' Poss. Mr. Fenwick. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 123 

bondsmen to enter the body of William Huntley, of Teveringe, yeoman, 
son of Gilbert Huntley of the same place and style, '' within the Iron 
Yats of the Hygh Castell of Il^ewcastell upon Tyne, at the next sessions 
of gale delyvere within the said castell." 

About 1540, the Black Gate is called the Gastle-yate^" ^^r eminence. 

The Black Gate had seemingly fallen into great decay at the accession 
of the House of Stuart. ** The way through the yard (says the writer 
of the Milbank MS.) begins at the Castle Yate, and when I was young, 
there was no house in it but the house of one Thomas Southern, and the 
house of one Green. These houses were near the gate before you came 
into the castle-yard.'' Afker noticing two houses in the yard, and the 
grant to and by Stevenson, he proceeds to state that *\ this man himself 
began to build upon the Black Gate,"^ "but it was finished by one 
John Pickle, who made it in the fashion it is now, and kept a tavern in 
it, and then one Jordan, a Scotsman and sword-slipper, built the house 
on the south side of the gate, and lived in it, and Thomas Eeed, a Scotch 
pedlar, took a shop in the north-side of the gate." 

The names of Tho. Southeme and John Green will be found among 
the owners of the Castle Garth in the inquest of 1620, and the above 
statement is further confirmed by that inquest mentioning, in juxta- 
position, a shop with a chamber without the gate of the castle, on the 
east side, in the tenure of John Eede, and " a house in the tenure of 
Rob. Jorden." 

The survey of 1649 particularizes the chief messuage or tenement in 
the occupation of John Pickills, situated over the Black Gate, with two 
stables belonging to the same, and a garden upon the works within the 
Castle Garth — two small tenements between the Black Gate and the 
Drawbridge of the Castle, ten. Robert Preston — two small tenements 
part within and part without the Black Gate, ten. Tho. Read — two gar- 
dens near the- Black Gate to the west, and an old square tower towards 
the east— and a piece of waste ground belonging to Alexander Yeache, 
near the Black Gate towards the east, and to Mr. John Pickell's garden 
to the south, and the channel to the north, containing 16 yards in length 
and 12 yards in breadth. These premises are also referred to in the 
description of the Castle bounders in the same survey, in which we 
again find " the square old ruined tower near the Drawbridge of the 
Castle Garth." Thence the boundary led " north and without the Black 
Gate of the said Castle Garth." 

"The main gate, called now the Black Gate, has had (says Bourne in 

i« 4 Arch. M\. 0. S. 138. 

*** Bourne in his copy has it ; — ** This man began to build the Castle Gate.'* 



124 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. 

1732) two portouUicesses, one without the Oate^ as may he still seen, 
and another within it at a little distance from it, the ruins of which 
were to he seen a few years ago. There still remains a piece of the old 
wall, which shows its situation to haye heen where that house is, which 
was lately purchased hy Mr. Jasper Harrison. The shop belonging to 
this house was dug, as I was informed, out of the wall just now 
mentioned." 

The Corporation of Newcastle left the gate in a wretched state on 
their lease expiring. In 1740, the new lessee obtained 2$0/. from them 
for dilapidations in the Castle Garth, the ancient great gate whereof, 
known hy the name of the Black Oate, haying, in 1739, fallen down 
with a tremendous crash. Although seyeral shops adjoined the same, 
none of the occupiers were injured.^^ The portion which fell has 
eyidently been the south front. 

About 1790, we read that the ** gate called the Black Oate, the only 
one now remaining, has now no appearance of a gate, but immediately 
under the gateway, where the old arched roof still remains. On each 
side of this gateway are shops dug out of the wall and other passages 
which haye the appearance of cells, and some haye pillars with arches 
springing from them. These shops, and most of the others in the Castle 
Oarth are occupied by dealers in old clothes, &c.''^ In 1810, among 
the lots offered by sale we find the public-house called the Two Bulls' 
Heads, ^t the Black Oate, and in 1811 we haye the expression " Black- 
Oate-Street, adjoining the Dog-Leap-Stairs." 

The Black Oate is of the Early English style, and consists of an arched 
passage, both sides of which are arched in the other direction. Behind 
them the interior of the gatehouse is occupied by elegant yaulting rest* 
ing on corbels. The plan is peculiar. Arches run at right angles from 
the gateway, and between nearly eyery pair is a single diagonal rib not 
crossed by any other. There are three small windows, mere arrow slits, 
in each side of the gatehouse which assumes the appearance of two 
semi-circular bastions. The front of the gatehouse is of the debased 
style of James I.'s time, when Steyenson and Pickle built upon it. The 
work on the back is more modem still, supplying that which fell in 
1739. 

Erom the way in which the castle moat is mentioned, one would sup- 
pose that it was carried round the Black Oate on its erection, the old 
course being occupied to some extent by the Heron-pit and Drawbridge 
between the Oates. This being the case, the Barbican of 1358 may be 
placed outside of the Black Oate, to guard the Bridge, outside of the gate, 

1*5 Brand, and Newcastle Courant. **• MS. poss. Mr. Tho. Bell. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 126 

mentioned in 1334. A similar arrangement of two gates, and barbican 
walls in front of tbe outer one^ may be seen in the plans of Arundel 
Castle given by Dallaway.^*^ 

The inner Drawbridge was close to the Second Gate, and between it 
and the Black Gate was the Heron-pit, the curious arrangements of 
which will be hereafter noticed. Of the old square tower near the 
Drawbridge and Second Gate, part still remains and will be noticed 
afterwards as the Great Pit. The ruins of the Second Gate, with its 
portcullis, disappeared '' a few years " before Bourne wrote. It is not 
known whether there was any opening through the wall here at an 
earlier date. 

XIX. The ExcHEauBB-HoirsE. — In 1328, the rent payable from the 
manor of Yetlington was to be paid to the King's Exchequer of New- 
castle/" and such directions are frequent. In 1334, the House of the 
Exchequer was sufficient, save in such covering, timber and lead, as 
might be remedied for 10 marks. The mention of it occurs between 
that of the Second Gate and that of the Great Hall; but, in 1336, it is 
plainly described as '' a house beyond the gate which is called the 
Ghokerhouse." 

It will be remembered that the old Exchequer of Durham is outside 
of the castle gate. At Newcastle the king appears to have had escheats 
between Denton Chare and the Back Bow,^^ and the Old Duke of 
Cumberland Inn, which was approached by a perpendicular Gothic 
doorway, and stood at the north-east corner of Back Bow, was the sub- 
ject of a tradition probably much older than itself, viz., that here the 
workmen employed on the castle were paid their wages.^^ 

XX. The Gaols and the Gaol Gkip. — There are several scattered 
items in the rolls recording considerable expenditure on gaols. They 
range from the erection of the keep, and some of them probably refer to 
one of the towers of the castle walls, which in the fourteenth century was 
employed as a prison. But in 1222 we have 15^. 11«. 3^d. expended on 
the work of a certain gaol in the town of Newcastle. In 1240, a certain 
gaol at Newcastle was made : in 1250, the gaol q^ Newcastle was rebuilt 
at a cost of 18Z. 3«. 4id, : and, in 1256, an entry of 14^. 5«. 7d. occurs for 
rebuilding the king's gaol in Newcastle.^^^ In 1 335, Bichard de Galeway 

"■f Rape of Arundel. ^^ Originalia. 

"9 3 Arch, ^l., 114. »«> Information of the late tenant. 

i«i WilKam Heynin was governor from 1247 to 1263. One of these gaols was 
doubtless the Heron-piti 



126 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

of Newcastle had a grant from Edward III. of a waste place in the town 
called Aldegaole.^*' Taking one item with another, we conceive that 
there were at least two royal gaols at Newcastle, and that one of them 
was, originally at least, not in the castle. When the town hecame a 
county of itself, the gaol arrangements of the king would he lightened. 

In 1400, each of the prisoners in the gaol of this castle received 28, 
hy the will of Kichard Lord Scrope of Bolton, and such hequests in later 
days are not uncommon. 

In the repairs of the prisons, we find that in 1357-8, timher was 
hrought to the gaol called the Heron-pit from the Oaolegrip, an 
orthography which disposes of Brockett's derivation of the proper 
name from gavel, tribute, toU having, he says, been taken on the Javel 
Group to a recent period. This place is an opening towards the Tyne 
from the Long Stairs."* It is called the Gaoell-grype in 1605,*** Javil- 
grippe about 1540,"* Jayle-groupe in 1590, and more recently JaveU, 
Gable, and Gavell grip or groop. The latter word signifying a ditch,*"* 
Brand thinks it probable that here was the commimication between the 
ditch of the castle or gaol and the Tyne.^ It is not shown that the 
moats were other than dry ones, but the place might well have been 
designated from being the passage from the water to the part of the 
castle called the gaol. 

XXI. The Gbeat Pit. — ^The sheriff's account of 1357*" opens with 
'*the reparation of a certain prison called the Great-pit in a certain 
tower near the Second Gate, of (which) the Loftflore suddenly fell by 
rotting of the joists, and almost killed those incarcerated within, viz. on 
the 4th November, in the 3l8t year of the king that now is." 

This prison must at least, one would suppose^ have been of the full 
size of the tower in which it was situate, and the loftflore was repaired 
with 5 joists, 12 planks and 200 spikenails. Crooks and bands were 
procured for the trapdoor which opened into the dreary den below, as also 
2 great staples and a bar of iron which went across the same trapdoor. 
A week completed the repairs. 

»« Originalia. »«» 1 Brand, 65. 

164 "The Javil-Grippe with all that dwell uppon that high-stare in the Close." — 
4 Arch. JEl, 0. S. 139. The present name of the stairs was well known in 1430, 
when we have messuages " in le Close ex utraque parte de Langstare." 

»M 4 Arch. .ML 0. S. 139. 

i«6 On the Gateshead side of the river, we have Pipewellgrope, running from Pipe- 
wellgate to the Tyne. 
w 1 Brand, 56. 
i6« See the Record, p. 50, ante. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 127 

Scarcely had these heen finished, when a new difficulty occurred. Un- 
like many dismal prisons we hear of, the Great-pit possessed the advan- 
tage of a place of office. 

In the same month of Kovember, some prisoners broke this prison ^^ 
8€dem latrtna, and on the 4 Dec. the masons commenced a diligent ex- 
amination of the place. The lower story or prison part of the tower 
was without windows, for they burnt 41bs. of candles per ohouritatem 
prisons. As these masons and their labourers were paid by day, and not 
by piece, we cannot feel surprized at their spreading their work over 
three weeks. They used 3 chaldrons of lime from the Lymekilnes, and 
32 lades of sand from the Sandyate, each distant a mile from the castle, 
but do not appear to have required any new stone. 

The " tower near the Second Gate," in which the Great-pit was sit- 
uate, cannot well be other than the '' square old ruined tower near the 
drawbridge of the Castle Garth " mentioned in the survey of 1649. 
Three sides of it are now gone, and part of one of its internal walls which 
braves the eastern breeze exhibits yarious incised initials of apparently 
old, though I dare not say of ancient, date. 

XXII. The Heeon-Pit and Walls between the Black Gate and 
Second Gate.— The jurors of 1334 found that the Heronpit was al- 
together decayed, and of no value. It might be repaired with 20 joists, 
to buy anew worth 30»., 3 rood of planks worth 40«., 400 nails worth 
10«., and carpentry worth 20s, The Heronpit is mentioned between 
the bridge without the gate and the Second Gate. 

In 1358, the Great-pit having been repaired, the account turns to 
another prison called the Heronpit and a regular series of weekly ac- 
counts continues from the morrow of the circumcision, to the end of the 
account on the 6 March. The heading of the account is, '' For the re- 
pair of a certain prison called the Heronpit, and for a certain house 
above the said prison, near the Great Gate, of the length of 44 feet." 

In the Ist week, or rather part of a week, 4 days are employed by 
labourers in working at, digging, and cleansing the prison. 

In the 2hd, masons, carpenters, and the labourers are employed. The 
prison is covered in. Four great trees are brought from the Gaolegrip, 
and made into four joists. 34 pieces of Estlandhord (Norway timber) 
are nailed to these with spikyng. The trapdoor of this floor requires 
double spiking nails, of double the price of the spiking ones. The trap- 
door has a staple in the centre, and a great bar across it which falls into 
and is fastened^byj^a Jock. These articles, and two other great staples. 



128 THE NEWCASTLE TOON TYNE. 

two great erokes, and two double bands used for other purposes in the 
prison, were made by William de Whitbern of Spanish iron, and he 
was paid so much per stone for making it into small articles. 

In the 3rd week, operations above ground begin. The labourers 
quarry stone. The masons dress it, and build a low wall, described as 
a wall of the foundation of the said prison, 44 feet long and 2 high, 
built about the prison under the timber of tlfb said house. Such walls 
may be seen in every old town under houses of both brick and timber. 
Only one longitudinal wall is mentioned, the other side of the house 
being formed by the castle wall. Meanwhile the sawyers and carpenters 
busy themselves in preparing the timber of the intended superstructure. 
Out of two great trees they make siUs of the whole length of the build- 
ing, 44 feet. Out of three other trees they make pantrees 46 feet in 
length.^^ Eight great posts, six lesser posts, and four main beams 
(locos) of 10 feet, are also manufactured. Besides all these, four pieces 
of timber are made up into the sills and lintells of three doors and five 
windows in the house. In these preparations, we doubtless have all 
the timber requisite for erecting a house in the style called in Yorkshire 
** post and pan work." 

In the 4th week, the masons continue their labours on the founda- 
tion of the prison, and lime and sand are provided. The carpenters are 
still busy, no doubt in erecting the frame they had prepared the week 
before. 

At all events, in the 5th week^ the building must have been pretty 
well up ; the masons leave it to work upon the barbican. Five great 
trees are brought to make five joists for it of the length of 14 feet, a 
measurement which gives us the breadth of the house. Moreover, four 
trees are procured for one sidwinere and topwinere of the same length 
as the pantrees. The topwinere is probably the ridgebeam and the sid- 
winere a beam running lower down. As only one sidwinere is named, 
it may perhaps be inferred that the house had a tee-fall roof, falling much 
lower on the timber side than on the castle-wall side. The term 
windrheam is still applied to a transverse beam, corresponding to the col- 
lar in modem roofs. Forty spars of fir were also procured for the roof. 

In the 6th week, we find the carpenters lifting the timber of the 
house into its place. 

In the 7th week, 600 "latthes" were provided for the roof, and 200 
<*thak nayl." 100 ** double thak nayl" and 1,600 "stanbred" were 
also purchased. The old word thach is applied to roofing, of whatever 

i<9 It is observable that these are two feet longer than the extent of the foundation 
ifrall, and of the house as elsewhere described. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 129 

material. The fittings up of the house are next heard of. Forty '' est- 
landbord" were boaght to make four doors, five fenestrals, and '* evesyng- 
bord." The windows were in all probability lacking in glass, and 
fiirnished with shutters only ; and the '' e7es3mgbord" would seem to 
have been the wooden gables intended to throw the wet over windows. 
300 ^* shot nail" were used for these doors and fenestrals. The smith 
is now called into action. ^ By him 4 stones of iron are transformed into 
crooks, bands, and other necessaries for the house. Each of the four doors 
and five fenestrals before mentioned took a pair of bands and crooks. 
There were also four great crooks for the balkes, fastened with lead in 
the wall. These were probably connected with the fireplace."^ Tim- 
ber, spars, " thaknayl," and ** stralatthes," were bought for the chim- 
ney within the kitchen in the house, for the mauntelet, &c. The 
mauntelet must be understood as the mantel or mantel- tree, the beam 
to support the chimney, now supplanted by a brick arch, and commonly 
decorated with a projecting mantelpiece. Moreover, 1,600 strabrodes'^^ 
were bought pro femorali in the kitchen within the house. The word 
femerell is synonymous with louvre, the lantern for the escape of smoke 
without admitting rain. Here perhaps it is the chimney generally.^^ 
. In the 8th week, the carpenters are at work on the chimney, which 
Beems to have been made of nothing but wood and plaster, and the la- 
bourers daub it at a price fixed by agreement. The four doors and five 
windows, or rather, I suppose, fenestrals or window-shutters, are made. 
The slater covers the house in, and provides stone for his work, and 
charges a lump sum per rood for 2\ roods. Lime and sand are pro- 
vided for him. Forty-two daubyngstours"' are purchased for two walls 
within the house, namely, between the kitchen and the prison, and an- 
other between a certain chamber and the prison in the same house, I 
gather from these expressions, that part of the new house was used as a 

no xhe cross piece of wood in a chimney upon which the rackans or pot-hooks are 
hnng, is called the randle-balk. It is now generally superseded by a crane. As to the 
crooks at Newcastle, there is a parallel passage in the Howden rolls, " pro balk-hookia 
infra orreum."— Eaine's York Fabric KoUs, 336. 

17^ Stbabbodoe. — Dr. Raine, in his charming Glossary of the Finchale Rolls, ex- 
plains this term as, " Stratvproda, synomymous with the thaknah of the Holy Island 
and Coldingham Rolls, the wooden pins or stobs used in fastening thatch to the roof 
of a huilding." Hia quotation, however, includes "strabrodd" among the items of 
certain ferramenta. We have thaknayl used in this house at Newcastle, which waa 
slated, and in the chimney we have a provision of timber, 10 spars of fir, 103 ihak^ 
nayl, 300 atralaithes, and 1,600 strabrodes, 

na Pro le chemeney infra coquinam. — Pro femorali in coquinam. 

"3 Dalbtnostoubs. — Stours or pieces of wood, sections of hranches of trees, &c., 
«sed in forming the framework of chimneys and partitions of rooms to be covered 
with plaster of lime or clay.-— Gloss, to Dm. Househd. Book. 

VOL. IV. 8 



180 THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

prison as well as the pit below. We also have five kimples of rods and 
100 thaknayl bought for these walls, and labourers daubing them. 1,000 
waited''*' are provided for a certain wall of the house, in length 44 feet 
(the whole length of the house), and a mason and labourer work at it 4^ 
days. The house was probably one of those in which the spaces between 
the timber frame was filled up to a great extent with brick rather than 
plaster. 

This week concludes the account. There is, however, another para- 
graph, struck out, probably as not legitimately belonging to the account, 
but containing some glimpses of the grim furniture of the castle in good 
king Edward's days. Three trees make gallows. And twelve stones of 
iron, bought of Adam Kirkherle, who seems to have been the great iron 
merchant of the day, are formed into "x par. boyarum," 3 pair of 
manacles, and 3 great bolts for the stocks. 

The record may possess some interest to an historian of surnames. 
These were still unsettled, or, in many cases, trades might be hereditary, 
and descend with the name. Thus timber in the tree is bought of John 
WodteUerf a sawyer is named John Sawer, and the man employed to 
bring sand is called Lytnleder. Of other names possessing interest, the 
carpenters were named Fratyman ; the masons were John de Midelham, 
John Letwell or Letewell, William de Castro (of the Castle) and John 
Flendhachet ; and among the labourers is William de Orlyens. 

John Wodseller's timber was landed at the OaoUgrip (Javel Group), 
and " sperres of fyr," bought of Thomas de Kelsow, were brought from 
tlie Keysyde. The carriage from these places to the castle was at the 
purchaser's expence. Sand was procured from the Sandyate, which is 
stated to be a mile off the castle, and lime was bought of Robert Cook 
or Koc, at the Lymekilnes, which are put down at the same distance. 
The sand seems to have been procured without any charge made for it, 
but the carriage of it and the lime had to be paid for, and Adam the 
LymUdir may, from his name, be presumed to have led the latter as 
well as the sand. 

The cost of carrying the sand was ^d. per 16 lades, and the lime 2i. 
per chaldron of 4 quarters. Besides Cook's lime, other lime for roofing 
purposes was bought of one John Brinkelawe, whose establishment was 

"4 In the York Fabric Roll of 1510, we have 42,000 thaketeill, 6,100 hardwalteil, 
8,000 basterdwdlltiel, 3,000 singlewallteill, 130 rigeteill; and in that of 1544, under 
the head of " purchase of stones," we have 70 rigtile, 6,400 thacktile, 14,500 brick- 
tile, and 1,000 walltile. I presume that thacktiles were for roofing, that rigtiles are 
the coping or crest stones of roofs, and that walltiles and bricktiles (differing in 
name by reason of varying size and quality) were nothing else than thin bricks for 
building waUs. 



\ — 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 131 

perhaps more distant, for Sd, per chaldron was paid for the carriage of 
his article. There are varying charges for the carriage of timber. 

The remnneration of the workmen was less in March than it was in 
Noyember. The 6d* a day or 2«. 6d. a week paid to carpenters' and 
masons falls to 4d. a day or 2$. Id. a week; and the S^d, a day or U. 
9d. a week paid to labourers, falls to Sd. a day or U. 3d. a week. The 
slater who roofed the building received 18». per rood of work, the house 
containing 2^ roods. The blacksmith was paid by stone for making up 
Spanish iron into bands, crooks, staples, bars and such matters, and the 
rate per stone was 6d. Of the sawyer's wages it is difficult to strike 
an average, the charge varying with the bulk of tree, but they shall be 
noticed in connection with timber in the following list of prices paid for 
various articles used in these repairs. 

«. d. 

Trees of great timber, each to constitute a joist each 2 

Sawing „ 6 

Carriage from Gaolegrip „ 2| 

Pieces of timber for joists , „ 1 6 

Carriage from Gaolegrip „ 2 

Qreai trees of timber to make sills, of the length of 

44feet „ 3 4 

Sawing „ I 

Carriage from Gaolegrip „ 8 

Trees of timber for l^e pantrees, length 46 feet „ 2 8 

Sawing ,, 8 

Carriage for 8 10 

Timber for lintels perpiece la 

Sawing .' „ 8 

Carriage „ If 

Great trees of timber, each to constitute a joist, 14 feet 

long each 2 

Carriage „ S| 

Trees of timber for a sidwinere and topwinere, 46 

feet long „ 1 8 

Sawing „ 4| 

Carriage „ l| 

Trees for gallows „ 8 

Leading 2 miles m 2 

Planks for loft floor „ 6 

Sparsoffir „ 6 

Carriage from Keyside per 5 1| 

Estlandbord perpiece 3 

Cairiage from water p^ 34 pieces 4 

Latthes for roof per 100 1 

Waltel for wall per 1000 6 

Stralatthes for kitchen chimney per 100 8 

Strabrodes for same „ 3 

Daubyngstours per 42 2 6 

Kymples of rods £or walls a piece 2 

Thaknayl per 100 8 

Thaknail for walls „ 

Thaknayl for kitchen chimney „ 

Double thaknayle „ 1 

Stanbred „ 4 



132 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

$. d, 

Shotaiail for doors and windoirs . . . per 100 6 

Spikenail for loft floor „ 10 

Double spiking for trapdoor „ 1 8 

Crooks and bands for trapdoor 1 6 

,, for windows, per pair for window 3J 

Two great staples and a bar of iron to go across trapdoor 1 6 

Lock and key for trap •. 2 

Spanish iron per stone 1 

Lime, per chaldron of 4 quarters 2 

Candles for workmen in the prison per lb. 1| 

Gloves for masons per pair 2 

It may now be asked, Where was the Heronpit ? In the inquisition 
of 1334 the Heronpit is mentioned between the Gate and the Second 
Gate, and in the above acconnts is expressly stated to be near the for- 
mer. The Second Gate being through the earlier castle wall, between 
the Second Gate and the Great or Black Gate, there is room for a house 
44 feet long, and it would make the passage narrower and safer. It 
may further be observed, that the office called in 1351 that of keeper of 
the gate is in 1361, four years after these repairs, called that of " the 
custody of the gaol and of the gate." The jurisdiction was probably 
the district between and including the two gates. 

This area is on a level considerably higher than the adjacent ground 
on either side, and the walls confining it are interesting. There is a 
military and irregular character about that on the north which makes it 
difficult to place a longitudinal house of 44 feet against it. But the 
southern wall is straight, and moreover yields indisputable evidence of 
some superstructure. Its basement possesses a striking appearance in 
the cellar of the Two Bulls' Heads Inn, and against its face is a pro- 
jecting shoot, originally perhaps from a jakes above. This is now 
closed near its exit, and in a room above is made to serve as the chim- 
ney of a quaint fireplace in the inn. Still speaking of the basement, 
close to the shoot, at its western side, is a good pointed doorway, 
which leads into a passage, and has fastened inside. The passage 
leads north, under the roadway, between the two gates, and suddenly 
expands into what appears to be a room, but which is blocked by rub- 
bish. ^^' From this there would probably be an oblique passage to 
another doorway in the north wall near the Black Gate. These arrange- 
ments were probably connected with secrecy, d&mier resort, and escape 
at either side. The door on the south is surmounted by another, a cir- 
cular-headed one, passing in an angular and crooked way through the 
wall, and suitable for defence of the door below. There is ample room 
for a Heronpit occupying part of the original moat to the east of the 

^"f* I give a plan of these features. 



THE NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 185 

artificially underground contrivances already described, the house aboye 
going over all ; and it is not improbable that, except where the draw- 
bridge stood, the whole of the space between the gates is divided into 
rooms and passages. I confess I should like to see these features and 
the fair vaulting of the Black Gate opened out and preserved, for the 
sake of visitors to our truly barren town in respect to English archi- 
tecture. 

XXIII. The Second Gate. — The position of this object, and the 
draw-bridge adjacent to it, has already, to a great extent, been indicated. 
The exact place is probably where there is a hitch or abrupt widening 
of the present street. To that point the old castle wall seems to run, 
and there the wall proceeding from the Black Gate appears to terminate. 

XXIV. The Gallows. — ^The provision of gallows in 1357 has al- 
ready been noted under the head of the Heronpit. 

^ Mention is made, in 1390-1, of five messuages in GaUou-gate, in the 
town of Newcastle.*^' The Back Row, near the castle, was anciently 
called Gallow-gate. The present Gallowgate, near St. Andrew's church, 
was, about 1540, called " the Gallowgate without N"ew-yate.'**" The 
prisoners to be executed from the county prison in the castle were 
brought along Gallowgate or Back Row on their way to the gallows, 
which were erected outside of the Westgate. They therefore came out 
of the Black Gate, not out of the Bailey entrance. " All Gallowgate 
foreanenst Castle-yate" are the words used about 1540. 

It does, however, appear that numerous executions continued to 
take place in the castle precincts themselves, and it is observable that 
the burials of the sufferers took place, to a considerable extent at least, 
in the churchyard of St. John's.*'® 

XXV. A Dove-Cote.— Besides the structures already enumerated 
there appears to have been in the castle a dove-cote, the possession, 
strangely enough, of a religious house ; for in the accounts of rents 
arising £rom the possessions of the late monasteries of N'ewminster, 

"« 1 Brand, 136. *'' 4 Arch. ^1. 0. S. 138. 

^'8 Clement Roderforthe, gentleman, "was executed in the castle, 22 Aug., 1599. — 
Alexsander Davison, a prisoner hangd in the Hye castle, buried 12 May, 1605.-^ 
Renold Charlton, Henry Dods, Arthur Robson, Arche Rogers, executed in lie castle, 

14 Nov., 1605. — John Hall, Arche Armstronge, Thomas Armstronge, , 

Cuthbert Charlton, William Charlton, executed in the castle, huried 25 Jan , 1605-6. 
^-George Nickson, out of the castle, buried 26 May, 1611. — Bartram Potts and 
William Elwode, executed, buried 20 J^Vj 1611. — ^Arche Reede and John Robson, 
executed and buried 23 April, 1613. — ^William Armstronge, executed and buried 24 
April, leiZ,— St. JohfCt. 



184 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

Hexham, and Tynemouth, in 1578, we have I2d., ** the new rent of a 
certain waste called a duekeit, lying within the castle of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, in the tenure of John Borne."*^* 

XXYI. The Hebald's House. — Of the only two houses which existed 
in the Castle Garth hefore Stevenson's grant, one was '' a house wherein 
William Robinson dwelt, who was deputy herald under Norroy, King at 
Arms. This man wrote in a book the arms of all the mayors of this 
town, from Laurentius Acton, until his time. And when I [the writer 
of the Milbanke MS.] was chamberlain of the town, which was about 
the time of Sir Nicholas Cole's being mayor in the year 1640, it was then 
in the town's chamber; when Trollop built the Town Court. He bor- 
rowed it, but would never restore it." 

A house is shown in Speed's plan, near the chapel of the keep, which 
may be that in question. 

XXYII. The Castle Gabth.«— It has already been stated, that when 
Stevenson had his grant the only houses in the Castle Oarth were a 
herald's house, the gaoler's heuse, and two houses near the Black Gate. 
''These," says our authority, "were all the houses at that time; but 
since then Mr. Bulmer He took a garth behind his house in the Side, 
and built a stable in it, and a gsurden in it ; and also George Hayrop 
took from thence to the Moot Hall, and built houses upon it. He was a 
butcher, but not a freemen, and these took their land and houses of Alex- 
ander Stephenson."'^ " Those who built houses for the first time on the 
hill side overlooking the bridge took their land of this man."'^ His 
doings at the Black Gate have been alluded to imder that head. 

Eastward and southward, therefore, was the Garth beginning to be 
girt about with gardens and dwellings, the order and site of which may 
in a great measure be gleaned from the description of the outer wall of 
the castle, page 106. In the inquest of 1620, after stating that the castle 
is inclosed by a great stone wall, and that within the castle are the Moot 
Hall and Great Tower, the new properties are enumerated thus : — 

** There are within the circuit of the castle [». e, within the inner 
walls] a garden, ten. Geo. Harropp— A mess, and garden, ten. Ric. S win- 
bourne. — Nine other houses, ten. Tho. Southeme, Tho. Stephenson, John 
Green, Rob. Bulmer, Nic. Valentine, Rob. Elnngton, Wm. Robinson, 
Sim. Greenwod, and John Trumble.-— A garden, ten. Cuth. Gh'ay, paying 
nothing per annum, because not rented. 

'* And also without the castle aforesaid [outside of the inner wall] are 

1'* 2 Gibson's Tynem., clxyi. ^^ Milbanke MS. per Bourne. ^^ Ibid., another copy. 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TTNE. 135 



certain waste lands on which are certain edifices and gardens, viz. :« 
little garden on the north and east of the castle aforesaid now in tenure 
of Thomas Snretyes, with an old tower. — Little gardens, ten. Buhner 
Isle, Alice lie, widow, Henry Maddison, Alex. Davison, Eliz. Kirkley, 
Hen. Eden, John Handcock, John Hudson, Nio. Waterhouse, Jiargt. 
Cook, widow, and Anthony Dohson : two thirds of a little garden, ten. 
James Oarr : a little garden, ten. Anth. Morpeth.*^ — A garden on the 
east and soath of the castle, ten. Wm. Hall, rent 5«., 100^. fine given 
for it. — A house on the south side of the castle, ten. Nic. Maddison. — 
Gardens,. ten. Hen. Anderson and Ex)ger Liddell: a little garden, ten. 
Alderman James Clavering.*® — Houses, ten. Rob. More, James Spence, 
Bog. Story, Ealph Hall, and Alderman Fra. Burrell. — A house with a 
little garden, ten. Lionel Maddison. — Houses, ten. Tho. Bird, John 
Rochester, Edward Brown and Rob. More.*®* — A shop with a chamber 
outside the Castle Gate on the east side, ten. John Rede. — A house, ten. 
Rob. Jorden." 

** All which rents aforesaid were imposed by Alexander Stephenson 
by virtue of his demise, and all are now paid to him by the said several 
persons."** 

The Parliamentary Survey returns about ninety small tenements with 
their little yards and gardens contained within the ground of the castle *" 
The reason for the rapid increase of its population has already appeared 
in the General History of the Castle. It was the immunity of this de- 
tached piece of Northumberland from the vexatious burghal restrictions 
upon traders. 

The boundaries given in the leases of the castle from the Crown to 
theLiddells are verbatim those of the survey of 1649, and the follow- 
ing description of tenements in the same leases is evidently derived from 
the same source :— 

All that chief messuage or tenement, in the occupation of John 
Pickills, situate over the Black Gate, with two stables belonging to the 
same, and a garden upon the works*®^ within the Castle Garth. — Several 
small tenements situate and being within the said Castle Garth, in the 

i8> I omit the rents. To none of these gardens after Surtees's is rent affixed. 

*** These three gardens have no rent. 

^ Brown's and More's houses haye no rent given. 

w» Brand's MSS. 

i8« Sir Chas. Harbord's Report, 26 Mar. 1685.— Brand's MSS. 

>" I know not where I can better mention the very strange angular wall which 
proceeded from the Black Gate into King Street, and marked in my plan. It was 
only faced outwardly to the street, and in its late destruction was foimd to be merely 
resting on a midden-stead. It did not, however, satisfy the course which the new 
wall built to enclose the great dunghill (see p. 107) took. Perhaps its facing on one 
side had been robbed, at least the foundation of a wall is still seen which might unite 
it with the inner wall of Uie castle, opposite the multangtdar comer of the keep. 



186 THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

tenure or occupation of Thomas Sheffield.— Seyeral small tenements 
situate in the Castle Garth, ten. Thomas Wedrell. — Several small 
tenements in the said Castle Garth, ten. Henry Cole, alias Core.-— 
Several small tenements without the inner walls of the said Castle 
Garth, ten. Michael Moore. — A small tenement, being without and 
on the south side of the inner wall of the said Castle Garth, ten. 
James Clavering. — Several small tenements without the inner wall of 
the Castle Garth aforesaid, and over the passage which leadeth down to 
the Castle Stairs on the south side of the said wall, occ. John Marshall. 
—Several small tenements on the east side of the said Castle Garth, and 
within the inner wall thereof, ten. George Harropp. — Several small 
tenements within the inner wall of the said Castle Garth, and adjoining 
to the said George Harropp's tenements, ten. Alice He, widow. — Two 
small tenements between the Black Gate and the Drawbridge of the 
Castle Garth aforesaid, ten. Robert Preston. — Two small tenements part 
within and part without the Black Gate aforesaid, ten. Thomas Bead.— 
One stable, in the possession of Wm. Calverley, situate on the south side 
of the Moot Hall, within the inner wall of the Castle Garth aforesaid, 
containing fourteen yards east and west, and six yards north and south. 
i— One small brick and stone tenement or outhouse, without the inner 
wall of the said Castle Garth, towards the south-east part thereof, with 
a little backside thereunto belonging, containing thirty yards in length 
east and west, and twelve yards in breadth, and also a stable and loft 
to the same belonging, occ. Mark Milbanks. — A plot of waste ground, 
poss. Mrs. Joan Carr, situate east of the inner waU of the said Castle 
Garth, and butted on the west of a dead wall, containing, by estimation, 
seven yards in bread.th, and sixteen yards in length. 

One garden, poss. Tho. Todd, containing fourteen yards in length, and 
four yards in breadth. — One garden, poss. John Dobson, containing eight 
yards square. — One garden, poss.— Rumney, six yards in breadth, and 
ten yards in length. — One garden, poss. John Strangwishe, six yards 
north and south, and eight yards east and west.— One other garden, 
poss. Joseph Tully, five yards from north to south, and seven yards from 
east to west. — One garden, poss. John Stranges, ten yards north and 
south, and nine yards east and west. — One garden, poss. James Brigges, 
seven yards north and south, and six yards east and west. — One garden, 
poss. Wm. Nicholson, twelve yards north and south, and seven yards 
east and west. — One other garden, poss. John Plumpton, five yards 
square. — One garden, occ. Edward Middleton, fourteen yards in length, 
and four yards in breadth. — One other garden, poss. Christopher Ellison, 
ten yards in length north and south, and eight yards in breadth east 
and west. — One garden, poss. Mrs. Alice He, conteining by estimation 
nine yards square. 

All which said waste grounds and gardens, with their and every of 
their appurtenances, are situate, lying and being without the inner wall 
of the Castle Garth aforesaid, towards the east, and bounded with the 
west end of divers tenements in Newcastle, to the east end of the said 

gardens. 

And one other garden or waste ground, poss. Thomas Huntley, six 
yards square. — One garden, poss. Mr. Robert Huntley, eight yards in 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNB. 18t 

length, and fire yards in breadth.— -Whioji two gardens are situate near 
the Black Oate aforesaid, to the west, and to an old square tower to- 
wards the east. 

One piece of waste ground or bank, lying all along betwixt the said 
gardens and the east side of the inner wadl of the Castle Garth aforesaid, 
containing by estimation 100 poles.— One piece of waste ground, south 
of the inner wall of the said Castle Garth, from the Castle Stairs on the 
east to the aforesaid Robert Peacock's house on the west^ containing by 
estimation 100 poles. — One piece of waste ground, lying west and north 
of the old castle without the works or moate thereof^ over against 
Bayligate and Bakerow, containing by estimation 140 poles.** — ^And one 
other piece of waste ground belonging to Alexander Yeache, near the 
Black Gate towards the east, and to Mr. John Pickell's garden to the 
south, and the channel to the north, containing sixteen yards in lengthy 
and twelve yards in breadth. 

In the reign of Charles II., the Castle Garth seems to have been more 
associated with shoes than the old clothes for which it has latterly been 
famous. " The castle," says a Frenchman** of the period, "is of great 
compass, since it encloses within its walls, like a little city, the habita- 
tions, as I think, of all the cobblers of Newcastle." The former character 
of the place cannot with any justice be estimated from its recent con- 
dition. Mr. Hornby states that the rights of the burgesses (in the 
town generally) having been in many cases given up and not rigidly in^ 
sisted on, the site of the castle was not in his day the residence of such 
substantial freemen as formerly.*^ 

The sum total given by the Parliamentary Survey was 116/. 15«. 6d. 
In a view of the Castle Garth in 1685, and return made by Sir Wm. 
Blackett and others, the rental of the premises by building and improve- 
ments amounted to 149/. 1«. 8^., alleged to have risen to that height by 
strangers and fugitives harbouring there.^ But in 1735 after the lease 
to the Corporation, the rent was only 11&/. 15«.,^ evidently in conse- 
quence of their restrictions, on the cessation of which it immediately 
rose. In 1739 it was a little more than 150/., and the constabulary, 
division, or vill called the Castle Garth contained 77 inhabitants rated 
for the support of its poor at II. 9«. Gd, the lunar month. In 1741 the 
rent was 224/. 78. Gd., and in 1768, when the Garth was incorporated 
with St. Nicholas' parish, it was 938/., and the expense for the poor 

'" Qiueen Street arose on this site. 

1** M. Jorevin de Rocheford. His Trftvels were published at Paris in 1672, and 
are translated in 4 Ant. Bep. 549. 

iw 1 Hornby, 27. 

^•1 Surveyor-General's Report in 1735,' 1 Brand, 166. 

»» Ibid. 

VOL. IV. T 



138 XHE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

-51/. 10«. Bd. The management of the division, prior to this union, seems 
to have been vested in 12 inhabitants, who met in the Grand Jury room, 
and appointed two overseers annually,*®' 

The old description of the castle, in circ. 1790,*®* states that " the Cas- 
tle-yard, or as commonly called the Castle Garth, is now crowded on all 
sides with shops, except the space immediately before the Moot Hall, 
Vfh&re booths are erected on Saturdays." Most of the shops are described 
as occupied by dealers in old clothes. " The boundary of the castle at 
present contains many hundreds of inhabitants." 

At the breaking up of the Castle Garth property in 1811, we find 
^* the Castle Garth Chapel or Meeting-house, situate on the north side 
of Castle Street, a spacious building, fitted up with pews, galleries, &c., 
and capable -of holding a large congregation." 

This meeting-house is a conspicuous feature in Thompson's map of 
1746. 

It belonged to the Scotch Relief Presbyterians, and their register 
commences in 1708. The lease of the ground is supposed to have 
been taken of the Corporation about 1705. After the congregation had 
spent a considerable sum in erecting the chapel and minister's house, 
with extensive premises adjoining, they were compelled for some time to 
pay rent for the chapel and house, the lease of the ground having fallen 
into other hands. In 1814 they purchased the chapel, and converted the 
wings into dwelling houses, reducing the seats &om about 800 to 450.'^ 

Illustrations. — It only remains to enumerate my pictorial addenda, 
which are of an inexpensive character. I did not think it necessary to 
reduce the copy of Jefferson's View of the Western Gateway, which 
was already on the stone for quarto purposes, nor to place Eichardson's 
interesting but rough sketch of the North End of the Moot Hall in 
the hands of a professional engraver, being in fact unable to explain to 
him the intent of some parts of it. The Bird's Eye View of the sixteenth 
century could not be dispensed with, and below it I liave added an en- 
larged copy of the representation in Speed. Thompson's Plan of 1 746 is 
new. Mr. Charnley's courtesy enables me to reprint that paft of Buck's 
Tiew of 1 745 which refers to the castle. It is valuable for its delineation 
of the Half-moon ; but, as will be observed from Thompson's Plan, and 
the better known ones of Hutton and Brand, the engraver has included 
loo much of the Moot Hall in the half circle. My own Plan explains 
itseK. I have introduced the boundary walls from Mr. Bell's Plan ; 

iM St. Nicholaa" books, per Bichardson's Guide, 81. 

"* PosB. Mr. Tho. Bell. ^^^ Parson and White, Ixx. 



^ N O R T 










Sketch o/ the J\feM}Ccu5kleuficrL Tyru^, 



20 



Jo 






e;c*-»/€e^«A4^ 









JSV ffjf. 




pfU. CaUtU,^**'*^ 







H^ 



Co^^e^-^^^i'*^^^ 



THE NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 139 

but, as elsewhere noticed, the limits of 1649 towards the east are greater, 
and I belieye them to have formerly comprehended what is shaded in 
my extract from Thompson's Plan. 

CoNCLUStoN.— In this first attempt to marshal the records relating to 
the New Castle, I haye made mnch use of Mr. Yentress's local know- 
ledge and memoranda of operations within the castle liberties. My 
anxiety to embody all details which led to my conclusions/'' and to show 
how I arrived at them, has, I fear, made my paper heavy and uninviting, 
nor can it be free from errors. Some strange misconceptions are doubt- 
less rectified, and however clumsily I may have used my evidences, 
their assemblage will be of use to future writers, who can be more con- 
cise in their treatment of the subject, and perhaps more sound in their 
deductions. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 



iM I ^iaii to withdraw one or two statemexitB, while my conclTiaionfl to which they 
refer remain the same. 

Fage 80, Note 63. I find some sketches bv Mr. Bichardson at yariance with his in- 
formation. They show that the wall seen by him was close to the head of the Long 
Stairs. The position of the inner wall is well ascertained by other evidence, yiz. by 
the dunghill of 32 yards breadth being to the west of it. The wall seen by Mr. 
Richardson must have been part of the new wall built along the channel of the street 
to enclose the dunghill, see pp. 106, 107. The strange angular wall near the Black 
Gate seems to haye been independent and within the dungmll wall, and to have been 
on the dunghill itself, see p. 135. 

Fage 87, 88, Note9 86, 88. The entrance from the p;reat room, on the ground floor of 
the keep, to tiie chamber which communicated with the superior cnamber aboye, 
would be open when Mr. YuUiamy made his plans, for the lower chamber was used 
as a condemned celL But he does not giye it, and may haye had reasons for ignoring 
what is at least in a modernized and enlarged state. 

It may be interesting to add to the notice in p. 91 of the aperture in the small room 
between the great room just mentioned and the chapel, that by the arrangement of 
leyel the aperture is only 4 feet aboye the floor of the small apartment, but 8 feet 
aboye that of the large. 

Perhaps the wall mentioned in p. 96, line 2 from the bottom, was not original. 



140 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Manthlff Mtiting, 4 May, 1859. 
John Clayton y Esq., Y.P., in the Chair. 

CoKicxrKicATiONS.— ^y Dr. Bruci. — A, report of his yiait to Caerleon 
{Isca Silurum) on the ITsk, and Caerwent ( Venta Silurutn). The former 
is interesting as the head quarters of the Second Legion, who left many 
memorials on the Wall in the ITorth. The name has been deriyed from 
Caer and le^io , or more probably Caer and Llion, the latter word being 
the synonym of ITsk, meaning waters. Outside the walls is Arthur's 
Bound Table, corresponding in appearance and situation with the 
earthen amphitheatre at Borcovicus, but larger than it, measuring 
220 by 190 feet in area, and 16 feet in depth. Close beside it is Bear- 
house field. A burial had been detected mthin the station, as in an urn 
at Borcovicus. There, in the South, we have memories of Arthur ; here, 
in the North, on the Wall also: there, 'ivories;' here objects of the 
same material from Hunnum : there moulded bricks for cornices ; here for 
Toissoirs. There, as here also, is the name of 6eta erased from public 
iDonuments. A Boman foot-rule had been found, and yielded the mea- 
sure of 11*604 inches. At Tintem Abbey, Dr. Bruce obserred petrified 
moss squared, and used for building purposes, as at Borcovicus. There 
are acres of it at Bewcastle, and lillebonne amphitheatre is entirely com- 
posed of it. Carbonate of lime is formed on vegetable matter, and near 
Borne rushes are growing with the carbonate upon them. 

Dr. Bruce also referred to a communication with Mr. Hobler of Lon- 
don, the numismatist, who called his attention to the practice of por- 
traying on Boman coins the representations of conquered provinces in a 
desponding and unarmed state, as in the ivdaea capia types; while 
Borne was pres^ited armed, helmeted, aggressive and victorious. Th^e 
were two interesting exceptions in the cases of Britannia and Dacia. 
These are without the helmet, but have the sword, which, in the hands 
of the second province, assumes the curious bent appearance made 
familiar to us by a Dacian sculpture from Amboglanna. 

Donations -—i^o}?} the Rev* C7. Best Eobinson.'^'Eh Chronicon Fre- 
tiosum Snathense. 

From Mr. Samuel Shaw. — ^His List of Tradesmen's Tokens of the I7th 
century, struck at Andover. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. HI 

ExHiBiiioKs.-^j;^ ZV. Bruee. — ^Five Boman brass ooins illustrating 
his remarks on the representation of prorinoes.— -A memorial medal. 
Ohv. A portrait in profile of a boach siaiH : Bw, The walk of Dax. 

KTR : AQ : TABBELL : ICPCCOLYin.— CONS. BELIQ : 



Monthly Meeting , 1 June^ 1859. 
John Clayton, Esq., V. P., in the Chair. 

CoMKuirccATioNs.— j9y the Chairman, — ^Notes of a Visit to Uriconium 
(Wroxeter), illustrated by photographic views. 

JBy Dr, jBntoe.'^A, note from Mr. Boach Smith, advising the excava- 
tion of all the stations on the Wall. — A note from the Bev. J. W. 
Smith, Hurworth, promising every facility for excavation in the station 
of Procolitia. 

DoiTATioNS.— "^om Sir Walter C. Ik'evelyan, ^or^.— -Charters of the 
Collegiate Church of St. GUes, Edinburgh, Bannatyne Club, 4to.— 
Excerpta e libris domicilii Jacobi Y., Bannatyne Club, 4to. — Lyon's 
History of St Andrews, 2 vols. Svo, 1843*-— Bower's Description of the 
Abbey of Melrose, 8vo, 1827. — Cromwell's History of Colchester, 2 
yols. 8vo, 1825. — ^Nimmo's History of Stirlingshire, 2 vols. 87o, 1817. 
Deville's Tombeaux de la CathMmle de Bouen, 8vo, IdSd.—Deville's 
Histoire du Chateau et des Sires de Tancaville, 8vo, 1 834.— -DeviUe's 
Histoire du Chateau QaiUard, 4to. 

Urom the i2at. Jameei F<r^«.-^n the Mining Operationaof the Bomans 
in Britain, 1859. 

li^om the Auther.^^TAnGB on Seaton Belaval Hall, 1857. 

H'om the Canadian Imtitute.'-^The Canadian Journal, K S., No. XX., 
March, 1859. 

Unm tk$ Ajtckmkgioal Institute. — The Archssological Journal, 
No. LXI. 

li^am the Fuhliiher.'-^The Conservatory Journal, Boston, U. S., Nos. I., 
II., nr., IV., V. 

ExHiBiTioifs. — Bg Dr., Bruee^^^A, brazen ornament of open work, ap- 
parently from aome piece of furniture of the latter end of the seventeenth 
century. It presents the Virgin with a orown of fleurs-de-lis, and figures 
of Eaith and Hope. Above all is an earl's coronet. The object was 
turned up by the plough near Hexham, and is perhaps to be referred to 
an Earl of Derwentwater. 

BE80Li7Tioirs.--That the Castle be opened in the evening of holidays 
as formerly. 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

That the Secretaries do communicate with the Directors of the Lon- 
don and North Western Bailway Company^ requesting them to frank Mr. 
Wright and other persons immediately concerned in the excavations at 
Uriconium. 



Monthly Meeting 9 6 July, 1 859. 
John Fen wick, Esq., Y.P., in the Chair. 

GouHUNioATioirs. — From the North Eastern Railway Company.'^A. 
letter intimating that the application of the Society, as to the railway 
arches near the castle, had been referred to Mr. Alderman Hodgson and 
Mr. W. R, Hunter, two of the Directors, to arrange as to the terms of 
occupation, the Board having every desire to act as liberally with the 
Society as they consistently could. 

I^om Sir Walter lirevelyan, Bart — ^Miracles performed by King 
Henry YI.^ and a Hymn and Prayer to that monarch, from 423 MS. 
Harl. 248, mentioned in 3 Warton's Hist, of English Poetry (1824), 26, 
and stated by Heame in his Otterbome as compiled by order of Henry 
YII. during his negociations with Pope Julius II. for the canonization 
of the Lancastrian king. See other hymns in 4 Arch. iBL, 0. S., 3, 
47 Cam. Soc. Publications, Trevelyan Papers, 53, and 2 Arch. JSL, 175. 

JBy Mr. James Clephan.'^B^maiks on the use of the word " clock." 

The word 'clock* commonly means in ourday, a time-measurer, with 
pendulum, wheels, weights, &c. It was formerly applied to sonorous 
time-indicators, brought into action when the hour had been ascertained 
by a dial, glass, or other means. And a period came when it was indif- 
ferently used for a horologe or a bell ; and it is not always possible to 
determine which was meant. In Beckmann's " History of Inventions," 
the Hon. Daines Barrington, contributing a chapter on '' Clocks and 
Watches," quotes the familiar lines of Chaucer, where, in allusion to 
chanticleer {Ifonnee Freestes Tale), the poet of the fourteenth century 
says :— 

Wei sikerer was his crowing in his loge, 

Than is a clok, or any abbey orloge. 

Chaucer, as Barrington conceived, meant to say that the crowing of the 
cock was as certain as a hell or abbey-(;^o(;A;— clocks, to the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, (adds Beckmann in a note,) being often called horologes ; nor 
had he (Barrington) been able to stumble upon any passage alluding to 
a clock, by that name — that is, alluding to a horologe by the name of 
* clock' — earlier than the thirteenth year of Henry YIII. (1522). In the 
Surtees Society's recent volume, however, among the presentments made 
at the visitations of York Minster, and of the churches dependent upon 
it, is one of 1510, near the beginning of Henry's reign, relating to Cawood, 
in which, a clock was mentioned. The words are : — '^ Ye clerke to keipe 
ye clok and ryng corfor at dew tymes apontid by ye parresh, and also to 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY* 143 

ryng ye day bell." Was the ' clock,' here named, a horologe, ot a mere 
bell ? Not improbably it was the former. The Archbishops of York 
had formerly a castle at Oawood ; and it was therefore a place of conse- 
quence, and might well have a horologue. But there was a much earlier 
occurrence of the word * clock ' in Mr. Raine's volume — where, also, it 
might mean a time-measurer, moved by wheels, &c. Nearly the earliest 
of the ** Fabric Rolls," now printed by the Surtees Society, was one. of 
the year 1371, when Chaucer was in his flower, comprising a statement 
of expenses incurred for bells, &c. Among the items were these :— 

Making anew the bell for the eloky with the mason's beU . . £3 6 8 

Hanging the bell for the elok in the belfry 6 6 

According to agreement made with Sir John Clarebnrgh for 
making one new clokb, with all apparatus, except lead 

and the bell 13 6 8 

In exchange made with John de Kirkham for another great bell 

for the elok, and he had for amends with the church bell 20 
'^Eeward' and other necessaries for the elok . . . . . . 4 4 

Are we now stumbling on the word * clock,' applied to a horologe, a 
century and a half before the earliest use of the word, in that sense, dis- 
covered by Barrington ? Before this question is answered, I have other 
evidence to offer. In the previous year — i.e., in 1370— the masons of 
the minister were bound by the Chapter to the observance of certain 
hours of labour ; with a proviso, that on holidays falling at noon, they 
were only to work ** till itte be hegh none smytyn by ye clocke*' — ^words 
which would seem to imply that the hour was struck, not rung. And, 
again, in 1399, the sum of 78. 4d. was paid for two lead weights for the 
horologe ffi. plumes pro orilogio). The cathedral, therefore, had a horo- 
loge at this time ; and I think we may fairly conclude that it was to this 
horologe the word "clock" was applied in 1371— the year, singularly 
enough, in which, as shown by the father of Mr. Baine, in his " History 
of North Durham," the monks of Fame acquired a horohgiwn — for which, 
with carriage, they paid 45«., (when wheat was 20«. a quarter, and a 
new boat cost them 40*.) '* What a pity," says Dr. Baine, '* that they 
do not give us the name and residence of the maker !" Would it be too 
rash to conjecture, as Sir John Clareburgh* was now in the North, intro- 
ducing a "new clock" into York minster, that he was the " Sam Slick" 
of the period, and may have supplied the horologe to the cell of Earne ? 

The Editor said, there was one of the items of 1371 which he took to 
be conclusive. Sir John Clareburgh's agreement was to " make one new 
clock, with all apparatus, except lead and the helV* — ^the "great bell for 
the clock" being furnished by John de Kirkham. It was quite clear, from 
these stipulations, that the " clock" was a separate thing from the bells.* 

^ The name has a foreign aspect. In 6 Rymer, 590, is a safe conduct, 42 Edw. III., 
for three wlagiersy natives of Delft;, coniing to exercise their craft in England, 
(Prom. Parv. sub voce orlager). Clareburgh is not one of them. — ^Ed. 

' A friend suggests that whether the word is applied to a horologe or a bell, it arises 
from the regular sound produced, just as we speak of a clocking hen. Bosworth's 
Saxon Dictionary has — " Clucoa. (Plat. Dut. Frs. klok t. : Ger. kloeke f ) a bell, 
dock, campana. Beda, 4, 28." A water- mill at Hollinside, par. Whickham, was in 



144 FBOOBSDINGS OF THE SOCIETT. 

Br. Bruee called attention to two newly discorered Roman inscrip- 
tions on Coome Crag, and at Baoles Bum, of which drawings had been 
sent by Mr. J. Parker of Brampton. 

BoNATioHS.— 2^0191 Mr. J. A. MasweU.'^k charge of grape-shot, a 
relic of the Amethyst, British frigate (^Affleck), wrecked off Aldemey in 
1793. Throngh an alteration in the set of the current, it became acces- 
sible in 1853, and many relics (this included) were recovered. The 
gun must have been a large one, as the charge is upwards of five inches 
in diameter. 

From Sir Walter C, Trevel^an, Bart.'^-JAher Niger Scaccarii, Ed. 
altera (Heame's), 2 vols., 1771, with the autograph of Daines Barring- 
ton.— Sprotti Chronica (Heame's edition), 1719. 

I^om Mr. C. Roaeh Smith, — Le Baphael de M. Morris If core, Apollon 
et Marsyas, par L^on Batt^, 1859. 

From the Kilkenny Areh^ogical Society. — ^Their Proceedings and 
Papers, Vol. II., N. S., Jan. 1859, No. XIX. 

From the Canadian Institute.'-^The Canadian Journal, May, 1859, 
N. S., No. XXI. 

JF^om the P«(/m^.— The Conservatory Journal, Boston, IT. S., 4 Juue, 
1859, No. TI. 

FVom Mr. Quariteh. — ^The Museum, 15 June, 1859. 

PuBCHASED BT SuBscsipnoN. — ^Thc Fabric Bolls of York Minster, 
edited for the Surtees Society by the Bev. James Eaine. 

BjBSOLunoir. — That the Society, in holding its country meeting, do 
meet the Archaeological Institute at Lanercost, Naworth, Magna, and 
Amboglanna, on Thursday, July 28. 

1317 called Clohinthenm. (2 Sur. 251.) The monkB of Fincbale in 1430 paid 2«. 6<f. 
for *' the repair of a certain clol^* there, as if such mechanical contriyances were 
not uncommon ; and among Prior Wessington's works in the church of Durham be- 
tween 1416 and 1446 we find the making of a window near the horologium. It is not 
clear that Chaucer uses the words dok and orlog$ in different senses ; at all events, 
the term * dock* was well settled as a synonym of horologe in his days. To the local 
evidences already adduced may be added the Promptorium Parvulorum, compiled in 
1440. There an earlier, but now unknown, lexographer is quoted as an authority 
for the entry '* Clokke, horizonium, horologium." 

A belfrey or campamle was called clokerre^ Fr. docker^ Low Latin doeherium. The 
' docher bells' were runs at Norwich in 1547. The Promptorium treats dyale and 
horlege as synonyms, and latinizes them by the word horoteopus. Orlage is translated 
horologiumj and Mr. Way appends to it a curious notice of early English docks, to 
which the reader i? referred. — £d. 



i 



145 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Cauntfy Meeting, 28 Jtdif, 1859. 

BEnnsur tickets to Milton, at one fare, were granted by the Newcastle 
and Carlisle Bailway Company. 

The members alighted at Greenhead, and were joined by a small party 
from the Archseological Institute's Congress, held at Carlisle, in adyancer 
of the main body of their companions, who fell in with the arrangements 
at Eosehill, while others never ventured further than Naworth. 

Oreenhead is on the crown of our island neck. Streams near to it 
run to the east and west. In the adjacent hamlet, called Glenwhelt, i» 
an inn called the Globe, of superior building, and marked i^u 1757. 
It contabis the fine stag's horns dug out of a well at Magna. Opposite 
is a gigantic head, said to have been brought from Thirlwall Castle. 
It is not quite so ugly as the engravings from it, and is more perfect and 
cheerfdUy grinning than they lead one to expect. 

In reference to the Maiden- way, which runs from the south to Magna, 
the £ev. Mr. Barnwell remarked that in his country of Wales, and in 
France, old roads were often connected with females. The tradition 
about our Maiden- way is that it was made by young girls, and that as 
one of them was disposing of her apronfal of great stones by laying 
them in situ, it rent, and down fell the stones together in a heap, which 
remains until this day.^ If 'maiden' is really anything more than 
'maden,' an old form of 'made/ anything artificial— and we must re« 
member the frequent Maiden-Castles, Maiden-Bowers, and Maiden- 
Laws, and our ordinary made-roads — ^the reader may advantageously 
consult Mr. Bainbridge's Paper, 4 Areh. JEl, 0. S., 5U 

At Carvoran, the B^man remains yielded by Magna were exanuned 

with interest. Mr. Bichard Cail, whose works on the Durham and 

Auckland line entitle him to be heard, declared that the wedge-shaped 

stones employed by the Bomans in facing were of the worst form that 

could be adopted, though easily worked. The wall produced was * lean ' 

behind, and the stones had a natural tendency to fall forward, being 

wholly dependent on the grouting, which was not superior to that at 

present used. 

1 £z. isf. W. C. at Chestexhoh&e. 

VOL. IV. TJ 



146 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Here the bastard whin appeared to the day, endways and at fanlt. 
Seyeral leogths of circular shafts were lying abont, of 12 inches in 
diameter, and fitted a round base. Both on this base and on square 
ones the stone also formed a portion of the colnmn ; so that the joint was 
not, as at present, coincident with the npper termination of the base 
mouldings. Mr. Austin, who, with a medieval architect's quick per- 
ception, noticed this, also pointed out a larger base, 14| inches in diam- 
eter, where the column was circular but the plinlh square. The racant 
comers were filled up by leares, correspondent to the tongues or 'toes' 
in similar positions so familiar to the student of later British architec- 
ture — ^that of the 12th century. On a sphinx-like figure on the garden 
wall was a collar with a vondyked edge. 

In the farm-house, which is marked i^i 1745, we saw a terracotta 
head of eastern character, lately found in ploughing on the east of the 
station. A denarius of Vespasian, '' ncp. zy cos. ym," had been turned 
up on the iputh of it. 

The singular angle made by the Valium north of Magna, leaving a 
bog to the south, did not escape attention. The Vallum does not ascend 
the hill which is occupied by the Wall, and is useless as a defence to 
the north. 

Grossing the ditch of the Wall, the material of which is here thix>wn 
to the north, the party proceeded on the north side of the works. The 
mediffiyaHsts made a temporary stray to the fortalice. of Thirlwall, an 
Edwardian pile of an oblong shape, wholly faced with Boman stones, 
with galleried chambers in some of the walls, and bearing joist marks 
in its whole extent. The stories are marked by sets off. A trefoiled 
slit and a few shoulderings are almost the only evidences of style. 

Between Wall-end and Bosehill the Wall is doubly defended to the 
north— naturally, by a little ravine ; artificially, by the ditch which is 
cut through the risen ground along the side oi the little valley. Some- 
thing of the same appearance occurs between Bosehill and Amboglanna, 
where the ravine is watered by the Irthing. The earth from the ditch 
is thrown to the north. 

The passage of the Irthing was accomplished with as much dijQQlculty 
as when Button wrote. The tourists were '' sometimes in and some- 
times out" like him, and sometimes on a peasant's back. 

Dr. Bruce expounded Amboglanna. Some cuttings had recently been 
made by a committee of Carlisle gentlemen* The objects discovered 
were exhibited on the spot. There were some good Samian ware, a 
fiooring tile impressed by the foot of a dog, a ridge tile, a buckle, a 
dagger, a hooked chain for cooking, and some corroded lengths present- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOOIETt. 147 

ing metal in their centre almost as thin and flexible as a watoh spring. 
In the farm-yard is a large circular trough with a sort of base rising in 
its centre. 

For some distance west of Amboglanna, the Valium has another ditch 
on its norths running up to and terminated by the Wall. If, as Mr. 
Maclauohlan conjectures, it was made originally for the ditch to the 
Wall, we have another proof that the Yallnm is later than the Wall, or 
that at least the two works were going on more or less simultaneously. 
Under ordinary circumstances, it would not be clear why a Yallum was 
made at all, where the earlier ditch was at a proper distance &om the 
Wall as adopted. Hodgson remarks that a bog is passed, and thinks that 
the double ditches were to drain the military road running between them ; 
Dr. Bruce, that this defile required additional security to the south. 

Leaving these relics of Eoman engineering, we passed on to the charm* 
ing ruins of Lanercost Priory, rich red midst cheerful green. Mr. J. H. 
Parker remarked, generally, that the date was the early parl^of the 13th 
century, except the lower south wall of the nave. This wall is of grey 
stone, instead of the ruddy material which gives so warm smd character- 
istic a tint to the buildings. The work is transitional Norman, corres- 
ponding exactly with the date, 1169, when the church was dedicated by 
Bernard Bishop of Carlisle. This is the date which must be substituted 
in the inscription' '' Eobertus de Yallibus filius Huberti, dominus de 
GiMand, fundator prioratus de Lanercost, Anno Domini 1116. ^dar- 
gan^ uxor ejus sine prole."' The nave is, and probably was in monastic 
times, used as a parish church, like the nave of Tynemouth priory, and 
was excepted from the crown grant to Sir Thomas, the Bastard Dacre. 
It is probable that in the transitional south wall of this parochial nave 
we have that of the choir of 1169 ; otherwise it is difficult to reconcile 
the existing buildings with the fact that the monks always began to 
build from the east, and dedicated when the easternmost portion was 
finished. They could scarcely erect the whole of an extensive church 
after 1169, and another in fifty or sixty years afterwards. The north 
wall was broken up for the arches of a north aisle. There are several 
peculiarities in the triforia and clerestories of the whole stracture. They 
are sometimes united, as in the nave ; at others are separate. Both plans 
appear in the choir where chapels open into it. Where they do not, long 
lights take the place of the arches and arcades. There are marks of a 
screen westward of the modem east end of the parish church which may 
have been lengthened. 

3 1 Hutclii]iBon*s Cumberland, 54, ' Ada, datighter of Wm. Engaiae. 

* Bight See Hinders Pipe Bolls, Iz. 



148 .PEOCEEDINGS OP THE SOCIETY. 

The nortii chapel opens into the choir, ttiid into aoother chapel atiU 
&rthei north, whioh may be conBidered ob an eastern aisle to the tran- 
sept. Between theae two northern chapels is a lai^ altar tomb, with 
Mwa of what is loosely called the Tador flower. On the sooth ude is 

the following black-letter inscription :—".SM'«^M«»r.Him^«]r 

y«r< o/(?oiMcoooiiij" ^. the ^xi daj/t of May." On the uorkh dde is 

" ....eltM Maieil witf of »ir ffumfffy Daert, toh yer» 

<if Ood iinii ;A«ziiij ^i/e of lfowinl»r." Hia lady'a father was Si* 
Ihomaa Farr, £nt. He was aammoned aa a baron in 1482 and 1483, and 
from the oircumetanoe that his son was not summoned until 1509, that 
year of bis widow'a death baa been applied to him. Dngdale ia nearly 
T%ht, giving 1 H. 7.— Amu on tht tomb; — On Iht tovth »id». I. 
Chequy, for Vaax. — II. Quarterly. I. 3 escallopa, for Dacre.' 2. Vaor. 
3. Barry, a canton charged vith a lion passant, for Molton. 4. Fretty, 
in each space a fleurdolia, for Uorrille. Supporteia, 2 gryphons.^^ 

These ands are on thB Bed of Wm. de Daere, eeigneur de Dacra, 134 3.— Howard 



' * A gryphon ia die derice of Bobert de Tallibiu, die fbunder of LanercoBt priory. 
(1 HutcL Comb. 348. Bowaid Hem. liiii.) WilUam Lord Dicre sealed wilh a giy- 
phon 3 Jan. 4 £I]z. (Ibid,) A gryphon is a supporter on the Boal of Lord Dacra in 1531, 
g^ven below, which presenti tbe qnarteriogi of Dacre, Orimthorp, Orefstmik, Vauz, 



Horville and Feiren of 'Wemme. A blact gryphon holds one of the bannen 
at Nawortb, and a black gryphan'a head erased is eivon in HarL MS. 4032, [temp. 
Hon. YIII.) as the badge of Vaui. In the time qf Elizabeth the Daciea wore two red 
buila ducally gorgod and chained in gold, as supporteia. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 149 

III. Dacre. — On the north 9%de. I. Dacre. — II. Sorrounded by knot- 
work. Quarterly^ 1 and 4. Barry of fLye,^ for Parr. 2 and 3. 8 water^ 
boHgets, for Ros. — III. Vaox. — West end. Dacre quartering Yauz, 
Mnlton, and Morville. 

Sir Hum&ey's son Thomas, the second Lord Dacre, married Elizabeth 
the heiress of GTreystock, and died in 1525. To him must be attributed 
another large monument in the south chapel, under a depressed canopy 
on which the dog-tooth ornament has been copied. 

ArfM on the south tomb. — North aide,,, A motto in ornamental 
capitals, fobt ien loialte, above the following coats.— -I. Three cushions 
for Greystock,® impaling Barry, three chaplets, for Grimthorp.' — ^11. 
Dacre quartering Yaux, Multon, and Morville. Supporters, 2 gryphons.^® 
*— III. A fess chequy between 6 crosses patee fitchee, for Boteler of 

^ Two bars, with a bordure are the more usual form. The respresentations indicated 
by all these arms may be seen in the Baronages, and the Histories of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland. 

> Ralph inz Walteb, Ht. 1210. Seal, an eagle. — 1 Hutch. Cumberland, 348. 

Thomas fitz William db Gbeystock, liy. 1244. 3 lozenge-shaped cushions. 
Beal, ibid. - 

JoHK DB 6BA.T8T0K, 1297- The same arms. Seal, ibid. — 1305. Three double 
cushions, disposed like the pillows under the heads of effigies, diamondwise upon 
square. Sepulchral fllab, Greystock. He gave all his lands to his cousin, Ralph fitz 
William, 

The arms are tinctured as, Red, three ermine cushions with golden tassels. Sed qu. 

The crest is said in the Howard Memorials to be a black gryphon, but I believe 
this animal to belong to Yauz, whose crest in the same work is said to be a white 
gryphon. 

3 Ralph pitz William, Lord of Grimthorp, and, by gift, of Greystock, 1316. 
Barry, three chaplets. Effigy at Hurworth Church, brought £rom Neasham Abbey 
where he was buried in that year. 

RoBEBT fitz Ralph, his son, 1301. The same arms, with a label of 5 points. 
*' Sigillum Roberti,*' marked P in the Howard Memorials. 

Elizabeth, his wife, 1301. Barry, two chaplets, one above the other, impaling 
three fusils in fess within an engrailed border, for Nevil of Lincolnshire. *' SigiUum 
Elizabethse,*' marked Q in tiie Howard Memorials. 

The same, as widow, 1344. Two shields (between which she is standing). 
Dexter, Barry, 3 chaplets. Sinister, 4 fusils in fess within an engrailed border, for 
Neyil. Seal, marked T in Howard Memorials. 

Ralph, their son, assumed the name of Greystock, and d. 1323. 

William sb Grbtstock, his son, 1344. Barry, 3 chaplets. Crest, a dolphin. 
Seal, marked S in Howard Memorials. 

Ralph Baron of Greystock, his son, 1392-7. Barry of 16, silver and blue, 
3 red chaplets — Willement's Roll. 

Ralph db Greystock, his grandson, 1470. Quarterley, 1 and 4. The same arms 
quartering 3 cushions for Greystock proper. 2 and 3. Boteler of Wemme. Morpeth 
Corporation Archives. This impression wants the crest. It is given in Seal U of 
the Howard Memorials as a plume of feathers. 

The description of the seals in the Howard Memorials is vexy inaccurate, and al- 
most unintelligible. The drawings are some check. 

'^^ Here is one of many reasons for being incredulous as to the black gr3rphon be- 
longing to the Grimthorp line, which did not fall into Dacre untU the next 
generation. 



160 PROCEEDINGS OP THE SOCIETY. 

Wemme, impaling Yaoz.— /Sot^A <ufo.-— ^otto as before. — ^I. Dacre 
impaliiig Yaux.-— 11. Greystook quartering Grimthorp, Boteler, and 
Yauz. Supporters, 2 dolphins."— -Til. Morville impaling Multon. 

All tlie coats on this tomb are within garters, and the impaled forms 
do not betoken marriages. The whole are intended as mere quarterings 
or indications of the yarious baronies this knight of the garter re- 
presented. 

Between the coats are statues on pedestals of three sides, carved with 
badges, viz., I. An escallop. II. A bird." III. A ragged staff." 
The total absence of the famous Bed Bull of Dacre from the tombs is 
remarkable. It is first seen in the seal already given of William the 
next Lord Dacre. Its connection with the Greystocks, who were co- 
heirs of the barons Botbect, seems probable ; though it must not be 
denied that the Lords Dacre of the south, who had no Greystock blood, 
also gave it in Elizabeth's time, it may be from a fancy that it was a true 
Dacre bearing. We have before us at this moment a charter dated 
1394, from Walter Aide and his wife Agnes, formerly widow of William 
Graystok, touching lands in Corbridge, and it is sufficiently striking 
that she seals with a great bull.'^ 

In the south wall of the south chapel, and in the north wall of the 
north transept are low quatrefoiled tombs. The northern one has a 
shield, a bend chequy for Yaux of Tryermaine. The quatrefoiled panels 
of the southern tomb are graced with central escallops, into which the 
cusps run. 

On the northernmost chapel is the plain tomb inscribed: — "Here lyes 
James Dacre, Esq., who died July the 16th, 1716, in the 30th year of 
his age, being the last mail heir of the Dacres of Lanercost.'' 

There is a reliquary behind the altar of the ruined choir, and a stone 
coffin is now laid in the piscina. 

Marks of the cloister roof exist against the transitional wall. The 

1^ See page 149, note, 9. 

^2 Qu. an eagle. 1436, Johannes baro de Graystok, miles — ^maximum ciphum ar- 
gent! cum coopertorio, yocatum le Chartre de Morpath — ^unum ciphum argenti et 
deauratum, cum albd aquild super oooperturam deposit^. (Test. Dun., 85.) The 
seal of his ancestor, Balph fitz Walter, of the old line of Grreystock, giyes the badge 
of an eagle. 

^3 Supposed in the family to allude to the hereditary forestership of Englewood. 
Bee 2 Nic. and Bum, 383. 

1* Dacab of Nobth. a red bull statant, armed and ducally gorged in gold. 
Badges temp. Hen. YIII.— Harl. MS. 4632. 

"I tooke then hys [Leonard Dacre's] guyddown, with the Redd Bull, which ys 
the Lord Dakers badge, which I trust the law of armes will allow me to beare."— 
Lord Hunsdon. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 151 

refectory is on the side parallel to the church, aboye the usual vaulted 
cellar. The dormitory was west of the cloister, and is now shown as the 
refectory, in consequence of a large fire-place inserted by Christopher 
Dacre of Lanercost, son of Thomas Dacre the grantee. It is marked CD. 
1586. Some glass was remored from the window to the parish church, 
and records the grant. At the end of the hall a square house (the 
Prior's?) is said to be that of the Dacres— again meaning the grantees. 
There are other monastic buildings, in good repair, all of the date of the 
church, with large dog-tooth ornaments at some intervals from each other. 

Leaving Lanercost, the party wandered through park and wood, and 
by melodious water, to N'aworth. Over the gateway were the well known 
arms of Howard. The magnifi.cent quadrangle was cheerful with country 
music, and the great hall was entered by a doorway over which Howard 
and many quarterings impaled Dacre and quarterings. The White Lion 
of Mowbray, and the Bed Bull of Dacre, gorged and chained, were sup- 
porters, and fEicing each other were two crests, the lion and the bull 
statant, gorged and chained. We know at once that we have the work 
of Bauld Willie and Bessie with the Braid Apron. 

In the noble hall the antiquaries received the ample hospitality of a 
groaning board. Heraldry here appears in its most imposing form. 
Enormous coloured beasts rise from the floor and bear aloft their banners. 
The Orimthorp arms are borne by a white dolphin in utter defiance 
of naturalists. The noble fish stands on his tail, his fins are rosy, a 
cresset is his coronet, and a white scallop rests between his fore-paws. 
The Multon coat is presented by some white and hornless animal, pro- 
bably a very conventional sheep (multo)* Dacre of course has the Red 
Bull, and Greystock" rejoices in a black gryphon. In an adjoining room 
was noticed a pretty new papering, diapered.with the cross crosslets of 
Howard and the scallops of Dacre. 

The licence to crenelate Naworth is dated 1337, and the keep which 
presents the Dacre arms will suit the date, but Mr. Hartshorne thought 
that some arches in Belted Will's Tower were earlier. 

Belted Will's bedroom is fitted up with its blue and yellow plaid, as 
it was before the fire. Above the mantle-piece are three gartered coats, 
with the motto foet : ek : loi^lLTe. I. Greystock impaling Grimthorp. 
II. Dacre quartering Vaux, Multon, and MdiTille. III. Boteler impaling 
a vaire coat for Ferrers of Wemme. HEn this bedroom are some curious 
bosses placed on the walls. The white scallop is placed on a red ground^ 

^^ This restoration probably depends on a passage in the Howard Memorials) p. Ixii, 
at the writing of which no banners appear to have existed. We believe the coat to 
have been Yauz. 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCCETY. 

and round this is a green circle. Charged with five crimson roses, seeded 
in gold, it is a chaplet of Qrimthorp. On another carving the circle is 
red, and on it are placed divers hadges-^the red rose seeded gold for 
Grimthorp, the ermine cushion with golden tassels for Greystock, the 
white dolphin for one of these families, the cushion and the rose s^ain, 
a green trefoil, a greenish white ragged staff, and the trefoU again. Per- 
^ haps the trefoil leaves are intended as growing out of the staff. 

The oratory is rather too smart. Good old and feeble new work are 
dashing. We have the white scallop on a red ground and on a black 
ground. Here a black gryphon, looking to the sinister, holds the white 
scallop in his hind paw ; there he holds both scallop and staff. The 
ragged staff also is thrown over the shield of Dacre. The window has 
quarries of the ragged staff coupled with the escallop by a knot.^* 

In a coach-house we saw the dado of a tomb which, when found, was 
supposed to mark the spot where Belted Will lay in Brampton church. 
The quatrefoils are exceedingly thin and poorly drawn, and lead to 
grave suspicions of their having been tampered with. The tomb is of 
Decorated appearance. There are three sluelds : — 1. Dacre. 2. A cross 
flory, in the dexter chief an escallop. 3. Yaux of Tryermaine. 

Our readers are referred to the ordinary works for more detailed ac- 
counts of Lanercost and Naworth, and to the Howard Memorials for 
their owners. We only pretend here to note some particulars which 
have not been attended to before. They are given as accurately as the 
drawbacks of an excursion numerously attended would allow. 

The party left by IS^awofth gates, and taking the train there, were 
wafted home much profited. 



Monthly Meeting^ 7 Sept 1859. 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

CoMMUinciLTioNS.— JMr. White submitted a correspondence with the 
Bev. Bobert Jones, incumbent of firanxton, as to the memorial stone to 
be erected by Mr. CoUingwood on the spot where Mr. Bankin discovered 
the bones of those who fell at Flodden Field ; and the design and in- 
scription were left in the hands of Mr. White. 

The Editor reported that the Perpendicular east window of St. 
Nicholas', Newcastle, was in progress of removal, to be replaced by 

10 Engraved iu the Glossary of Heraldry, as ** Dacre's Knott," p. 197. 

" Give me my seallop-sheil of quiet, 
My staff oi faith to walk upon/' — Ealeigh. 



raOCEEDlKGS OF THE SOCIETYr 153 

B<x)ne-work; in a style transitional between Decorated and Perpendicu- 
lar, and of a height which would destroy the old circular light above* 
It was understood that the new window was to be filled with stained 
glass, in commemoration of the late Dr. Ions, organist of the church. 
Grey's account of the window was this : — " In it (the church) are many 
sumptuous windowes : that in the east surpasseth all the rest in height, 
largenesse, and beauty, where the twelve apostles, seven deeds of cha- 
rity, &c., built by Eoger de Thornton (a great benefactor of this towne), 
with this inscription— •'< Orate pro anima Kogeri de Thornton, et pro 
animabus Bliorum et filiarum."— ifr. Dohsan stated that the intention 
had been to change the style of the window altogether, and make it 
Decorated. He himself had advised that a Perpendicular character 
should be retained, in a form as near as possible that of the old window. 
The stone-work was not in good condition. The historical character- 
istics of the church had previously been much tampered with. The 
Decorated window of the north transept was truly restored under his 
care ; but the curious and early Decorated windows of the north aisle, 
with their geometrical tracery, had given way to Perpendicular ones. 

Mr. Dohson laid before the meeting plans of the proposed museum, in 
connection with the Castle; so framed as not to hide the Keep or St» 
Nicholas' Church, and also to bring in the Black Gate as part of a whole. 
The plans had been submitted to the Town Council on the same day, as 
the vendors of the site; and the cost of the ground and erections, it was 
stated, would amount to about £2,000. 

Exhibitions. — Messrs. Win* Brockk and Oeorge Lyall, of South 
Shields, exhibited a selection from the flint implements collected by 
Mr. Evans from the diluvian or post-pliocene mammaUferous drifts of 
Abbeville, Amiens, Hoxne in Suffolk, and other places, in juxtaposition 
^vith the remains of mammoths and other extinct animals. Mr. Brockie 
gave the following chronological summary of the discoveries of such ob- 
jects :— 

In the 18th volume of the Archsohgia, in 1800, is a paper by Mr. 
John Frere, F.B.S., F.S.A., entitled *' An Account of Flint Weapons 
discovered at Soxne, in Suffolk," wherein that gentleman gives a section 
of a brick-pit, in which numerous flint implements had been found, at a 
depth of 11 feet, in a bed of gravel containing bones of some unknowi^ 
animal ; and concludes, from the ground being undisturbed and above 
the valley, thsit the specimens must be anterior to the last changes of the 
surface of the country. 

In 1847, M. Boucher de Perthes, President of the Society d'Emulation 
of Abbeville, published the first volume of a work entitled " Anliquites 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Celtiques et Antediluyiennes/' in which he announced the'discoyery of 
worked flints in beds of undisturbed sand and gravel, containing the re- 
mains of extinct mammalia. 

The late Dr. Eigollot, of Amiens, corroborated the fact in a '' Memoire" 
of 1855. 

At Easter, 1859, Mr. Frestwich, accompanied by Mr. Evans, visited 
Amiens, and founc^ at St. Aoheul, near that city, a flint implement (an 
axe or cat's-tongue), 17 feet from the surface, in a bed of coarse sub- 
angular flint grayel, lying immediately above the chalk, containing teeth 
and bones of the elephant, and of a species of ox, horse, and deer, sur- 
mounted by undisturbed beds of whitish marl and sand, with small chalk 
debris, and topped by an irregular bed of flint-gravel and brown brick 
earth. After satisfying himself that it was truly in situ, he had a 
photographic sketch of the section taken. 

In June last, when Mr. Frestwich again visited Amiens, one of the 
geological party who accompanied him, Mr. J. W. Flower, extracted 
with his own hands, in the same pit, from a seam of ochreous gravel, 
20 feet below the surface, a very fine and perfect specimen of flint 
implement. 

In a brick pit now open at Hoxne, Mr. Frestwich also lately found 
several specimens presenting a striking similarity in work and shape 
to the more pointed forms from St. Acheul. 

, The Chairman remarked, that one of the circumstances which provoked 
incredulity at the flrst, was the enormous quantities in which these im- 
plements were found.— jT^ Miitor stated, that smaller and of coxu'se 
more recent implements of the kind were turned up by the plough, in 
great quantities, at Newton Xetton, near Darlington. 

Donations. — H'om Mr. Jomn ^%om|p«(m.— -His Observations on the 
Jewry "Wall, Leicester. 

From the Kilkenny Archasohgieal Society. — Its Froceedings and Fapers, 
Vol. II., N. S., No. XXI. 

From the Canadian Institute.'^The Canadian Journal, N. S«,No. XXII. 

IVom M. Boucher de P^^A^*.— L'Abbevillois, 7 July, 1859, contain- 
ing Mr. Jos. Frestwich's Letter on ' Antiquit^s Antidiluviennes,' 

By Br. Charlion.'^A modem porringer, which belonged to the late 
Mr. Wingate, traced with quasi-oriental characters. An accompanying 
note pretends to be from one John Soulter, Jun., of Alston, and de- 
scribes, in too extravagant a dialectic orthography, the supposititious 
discovery of the ' quear add purinjer' in ' howkin among sum stons.' 

Fttbchase, by subscription. — ^Illustrations of Boman London, by C. 
Boach Smith, 1859. 



PEOOEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 165 

Mtmthly Meeting^ 6 Oet, 1859. 
J. Hodgson Hinde, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

CoMMUNicATioifs. — The Editor asked for information touching a 
passage in the case of the baronets against the sons of viscounts and 
barons, as to precedency, appended to a MS. of Eobert Hegge's works, 
dated 1625. in the possession of Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, Bart. It was 
this :— ** Out of an ancient manuscript chronicle of the time of Edward I. , 
Edward II., and Edward III., written hy Thomas Zawson, a monhe of 
Durham,*^ After naming several barons, the words '' cum aliis baroni- 
bus et baronettis " are quoted as occurring in describiDg the consultation 
at Shirburne about the banishment of Hugh Spencer, 1311. Nothing 
appeared to be known of this chronicle. 

The Editor drew attention to a miracle of the Virgin recorded under 
1265 in the Chronicle of Lanercost. Two men were imprisoned in 
Newcastle, in the foot of a tower, a prison of the strongest description, 
laden with fetters, and shut up with great double doors and many bars. 
At the moment of supernatural deliverance, which is of the usual order, 
they were lying on the pavement. As they departed, some great dogs 
which guarded the approach {atrium) were dumb. They escaped by way 
of the top of the outer wall, from which they let themselves down by a 
ladder made of their linen. The prison was probably the Great Pit in 
the square tower near the second gate ; if so, the doors opened into the 
Castle Garth or its entrance, and the prisoners stilL had to mount the 
castle wall, which, from the configuration of the ground, would not be 
high on the inside. 

The Chairman reported that the Duke of Northumberland, the So- 
ciety's Patron, would give 250/., Sir John Swinburne, Bart, President, 
50/., John Clayton, Esq., V.P., 50/., himself (the Chairman), 50/., and* 
Br. Charlton, 25/., towards the intended museum. 

Donations. — From Sir W, C, Trevelyan, Bart. — Pownall's Antiqui- 
ties of Province, Languedoc, and Dauphine, 1788. 

From the Arehasohgieal Institute, — The Archeeological Journal, No. 
LXII. 

£y Mr, 2?o(/</.— The Song of Solomon, in the Newcastle Dialect, by 
John Geo. Forster. Printed privately by Prince Louis Lucien Bona- 
parte, 1859. 

I^om the Rev, Wm. Ehiyht^-^Two stone shot, about 5 in. diam., part 
of a heap found near the Eoman CathoHo Church at Hartlepool. — The 
Chairman observed that similar balls had frequently been found in the 



156 PHOOEBDIKGS OF THE 80CIETT« 

yioinity of Norham Casfle, 8omo of them so large as to lead to the in- 
ference that they conld not hare been intended for cannon, but for some 
of the other mediadyal machines of war. 

£xHiBiTioKs.«^^y Dr. CKorl^.— Old Norw^an horse fhmitare> 
sword*belt made of chain armonr— which was frequently cut up for 
such purposes—old double knife-case; and old knifci with a recent knife* 
belt and knife. The curiosity of these Norwegian implements consisted 
in their ornamentation^ which was still of a peculiar Lombardic charac- 
ter common in the wooden churches in Norway, which might be of the 
twelfth century.— 2V. Charlton remarked that no Eoman remains had, 
he believed, occurred in Scandinavia, except a fragment of excellently 
manufactured pottery, of the high class distinguishing the Portland vase, 
found in a sea-king's grave ; and that the shell-shaped fibula, of two 
thicknesses, which occurs in couples in Norway and England, is not 
found in Denmark. With regard to the stone hammers, of which the 
holes were formed in so smooth a circle, the museum at Christiania con- 
tains incomplete examples, and there could be little doubt that the holes 
were painfully executed by the same method as that used in Polynesia, 
abrasion by a piece of wood, sand, and water. 

EiKcmoir.— Ori^nory ifrnii^.— -Mr. Thomas Hay ton Burnett, of Ben* 
well High Cross House. 



THE OLD HERALDRY OF THE PERCYS. 



ttage door in the fair county 
rampant lion and the three 
id 'window on the border aide 
Test, like many other objects, 
hose of beauty of form and 
•n. Whatever enables us to 
le— whatever strikea the eye, 
QctiTe characteristicB of our 
accurate detail — is of conse- 
quence. ±t IS una oonsitteranoD mat attends the long series of royal 
emblems in Egypt, and winged gigoB of power in the East. Gtlorionsly 
does the oonrtier-prophet bring out by direct spiritual guidance the 
nations who aucceasiTely rolled on the world's destined fate, and that by 
symbols. Uinut«ly recorded are the origins and names of the tribes of 
Israel and the heathen, and persistent are tbeir charaot«ristics of body and 
soul. And it is for ns, in the mighty tramp of the Teuton over the crushed 
iron of imperial Rome, to bear in mind the varying streams which com- 
pose the dominant blood 1 — to trauk the continuous paternal influence 
which gave the family features of a long gallery of portraits, the some- 
what nnscrapnlous sagacity of the Xevilles, the fiery gallantry and 
chivalrous ei^endour of the plotting sons of Lovaine, the religions tone 
of the older and eager dynasty of Percy, and that capacity for useful 
middle-class service which made tbe Bowes's clever in every generation. 
But " blood without groats" is not all. The mind of a family is 
mnch dependent on circumstances. The younger branches may have 
the same talents, virtues, or vices, but they are comparatively unde- 
veloped. They exercise no influence for good or evil on a thousand 
tenants. And it is evident that a guiding set of symbols, to answer its 
true end of marking individual influences on the world's social history, 
must show the status as well as the mere descent of a family. 



158 ANCIENT HERALDRY. 

Here is the plain issue between ancient and modem heraldry. The 
old shows estate as well as blood ; the new shows blood only. The new 
system makes no apparent distinction between technical heirs of a 
millionth drop of the vital fluid and them who won the transmitter's 
barony, his acres, and his responsibilities. Its pictured genealogies are 
well enough if it is perfectly understood that a right to quarter the arms 
of England does not place a respectable gentleman on the same footing 
as the Earl of Surrey, who had the inheritance of Brotherton. For the 
practical uses of heraldry, the hundreds of quartenngs which may now 
be worn, must indeed, from mere necessity, be cut down to the paternal 
coat and a quartering or two. But all principle in such restrictions is 
gone ; and considering the wild facility of using unauthorised bearings 
which the removal of legal barriers has introduced, it is as well that the 
heraldry which was governed by the possession of land has been irre- 
vocably supplanted by that which similarly indicates the remotest 
possibility of inheritance. 

So strictly and practically was heraldry the sure badge of possession 
and of territorial rights unsuflered to be dormant, that the Flemings 
declined to assist Edward III. until he actually assumed the royal 
fleur-de-lis of France, and when Bichard duke of York claimed the 
crown as heir to Lionel duke of Clarence, it was objected that he did 
not wear that duke's arms. He answered that he might lawfully have 
done it, but forbare it for a time, as he did from making hie claim to the 
crown, Camden, in mentioning this, states, that quarterings '' to shew 
their right " began in Edward lY.'s time ; but the requisition of more 
actual possession was certainly rife as late as Henry YIII.'s reign, when 
Surrey, in 1523, complains that Sir William Gascoigne, a claimant to the 
earldom of Westmoreland, intended to bear the arms of the earl defaoto^ 
who and his ancestors had " enjoyed the land without interruption, 
and no man may bear the arms of his antecessors without difference, 
unless he be possessed of the inheritance." That the land was the 
criterion between an heir- male and the heirs-general as to the right to 
the ' whole ' or undifferenced coat was well settled in the case of Chray 
of Buthin v. Hastings. 

When, the right thus accrued by land, the coat acquired might be 
placed in any way pleasing to the owner of the shield. The modem 
rules as to husbands only impaling or wearing escutcheons of pretence, 
and the issue only quartering, were unknown. When the husband took 
a vested right in his wife's lands, he either impaled or quartered her 
arms ; while for the issue, the inherited coats were sometimes impaled 
as well as quartered with each other, and so long as the inheritor had 



IMPALEMENTS, 169 

two coats by right of descent, they might be coupled in impalements, 
though the families so designated had never directly intermarried. 
There is a good example of this practice on the south Dacre tomb at 
Lanercost Usually, however, males quartered the arms of their wives 
or ancestresses from whom they acquired their lands, while impalements 
were practically the general bearings of married women, who took an 
immediate interest in their husbands' land by right of dower. The 
practice of husbands impaling their wives' arms, whether heiresses or 
not, probably arose near the close of the 15th century. Even now it is 
laid down that the arms of a wife should not in general be borne upon 
the husband's banner, surcoat, or official seal. In early times, pursuant 
to the above rules, we often find two shields, one the husband's arms 
alone, for himself; the other the same impaled with his wife's, for her. 
And so in portraits, the husband is clothed in his own coat, while the 
wife's robes contain his bearings on one side, hers on the other. The 
old practice is still kept up in the achievements of gartered peers. The 
reader will not lose sight of these arrangements in the sequel. 

The origin of the Percys is veiled in obscurity. That they came from 
Kormandy, and derived their name from Percy in the seigneurie of the 
Paynells there, seems certain. In the 16th century we get an unproven 
array of individuals before the Conquest, and the high-sounding titles of 
Earls of Caux and Poictiers occur, but we are not indulged with any 
reasons why they were not borne by the heirs in England. I am not 
acquainted with any convenient, or even accurate, pedigree of the Percys 
published in a tabular form, but, saving the said early descents and a 
few other apochrypha when the compiler was seduced by family pedigrees 
and Pierpoint's MS., the narrative detail of Bp. Percy in the later 
editions of Collins' Peerage is wonderfully correct.^ The light and glory 
of the house might well allow a total loss of the earls in Normandy if 
it could clearly and indisputably boast of Bishop Percy as a scion. 

In the following catalogue of arms I give what distinctive insignia 
can be found for each chief of Percy during the old regime ; and the 
subject of monumental evidences having necessarily been much before 
me, I add such notices of burials and monuments as I could procure. 
The derivation of each bearing will be discussed as it chronologically 
arises. The Society is indebted to His Grace the Duke of Northumber- 

^ The differences of Dugdale and his copyists are so considerable and varied, that I 
went carefully through the evidences, and am fully satisfied of the bishop's accuracy. 
Much might be said on the personal histoiy of the barons and the descent of younger 
lines, but it would scarcely be right to mtroduce extraneous matter here, at least 
notiiing short of a complete pedigree, proved at eyery step by references. 



160 THE MILL-PICKS OF PERCY. 

land for the means of placing the nxunerous illostrationB of this paper 
in the engraver's hands. 

WILLIAM D£ PERCI, occ. 10B6. CaUed Ove U GemouM. (Ge- 
nealogia Perciorum, a genealogically acciirate old statement printed 
under Salley Abbey in 5 Mon. Ang. 516, ed. nova.) Or A$gemun9. 
*' Willielmus de Perci cognomento Asgemuns." (Beg. Whitb., fo. 139, 
written about 1180.) Or Ohtlesfemuns. (Ibid. Young's Whitby, 
909.) 

BuBiAL.—Honorably buried by his companions at Matmifoyf near Jer^ 
mdlemf where he died. (Ibid.) *' The said Pearde's heof t was brought 
into England according to his bequest, for in the abbey of his foundation 
at Whitby he had willed it to rest. And when the monks cometh to 
their chapter-house of Whitby, they are bound to name as their founder 
the said William Pearcy, and to pray for him with mind most deyoutly, 
whose heart there in the said ehapter-home doth lie.'' (Peeris's metrical 
Chronicle of the Peroies, written for Henry Percy, the 5th earl of 
Northumberland. There is a perfect copy in the earl's beautiful MS. 
Beg. Bib. No. 18, D. 11. About twenty stanzas are omitted at page 
24 of Bichardson's imprint of the Chronicle from a copy in Bodsworth's 
MSS., and the yersification is arranged in a more barbarous manner 
than in the original.) 

Emma de Port his wife, and William Percy the first abbot of Whitby, 
were also buried in the same chapter-house. (1 Mon. Aug., 73, per Bp. 
Percy. An old history of the Percys in Harl. MS., 692, ending with 
the 5th earl of Northumberland with this note :— " All this I toke out 
of a fayre rowle conteyneing a pedegree of the kings and of other noble 
men. Which rowle hath John Stowe of London. Which, as it should 
seem, was made by a monke of Whitby.") 

Abms? — "William Lord Percy the fyrst founder of Whitbye his 
armes, Field azure, five miU pyhee or" (Harl. MS., 692.) It is not 
generally allowed that heraldry proper is so ancient. But many 
instances of distant races of the same race {e. g, the Yiponts of West- 
morland and France) bearing similar charges would carry some sort 
of hereditary device to an early date. The whole subject of the mill- 
pickfr or fusils will recur under Josceline de Lovaine. 

ALAN BE PEBCI, his son. Called The great— magnue. (Ethelred, 
apud Decern Scriptores.) 

BuBiAL. — Radingee. (Genealogia Perciorum.) Or Whitly ehapier- 
house, ** By Em. de Port his mother in the chapter house lieth he, as 



THE MILL-PICKS OF PERCY. 161 

true founder, where their tombs you may see." (Peeris. HarL MS., 692, 
agrees.) 

WILLIAM DE PERCY, his sou, occ. 1133, 1166. 

Bttbial. — Whitby. (Qenealogia Perciorum.) Or Sallay Alley 
(founded by him in 1147). (Harl. MS., 692.) 

His wife Aaliza or Adelidis de Tunebrigge was buried' at "Whitby. 
(HarL MS., 692.) 

AGNES DE PERCY, his daughter, wife of Josceliife de Lovaine, 
occ. 1195. 

BxmiAL. — Chapter-house, Whithy. (Harl. MS. 692.) **Lady Agnes 
among her elders lieth at Whitby. Upon the marble stone of her tomb 
in the said Whitby, under the which buried was the body of this lady, 
two yerses in latin be, which I shall english as I can or I farther 
pass :-— ' In the feast of Saint Agnes, Agnes Percy Jieth here engraved : 
and they both agree in kind, name and life.' This is a great commenda- 
tion, and a token that this lady was of virtuous life and conversation." 
(Peeris.) Dugdale from a ' MS. de familia penes Will. Pierpoint ' gives 
the Latin thus :— 

Agnes Agnetis festo tumulatur, et istis 
Idem sexus, idem nomen et vita dies. 

Abms. — See under Josceline de Lovaine, infra. 

JOSCELINE DE LOYAINE, her husband, died before 1191. Styled 
The Q^em^e brother, (Henry II.'s confirmation of the grant of Petworth 
by the queen dowager Adelicia and her second husband William de 
Albini.) Also, The Castellan of Arundel,— ^*' Ego JosceUinus Castellanus 
de Arundello." (Charter quoted by Bishop Percy in Collins' Peerage.) 
And J)e Zuvene. (Charter by assent of " Agnes de Percy," his wife. 
Lansdowne MSS., 207 C, fo. 443.) JDe Lmain. (Yorkshire Pipe Rolls, 
1168, 1191.) '' Joscelinus de Lovein quondam sponsus mens." (Grant 
from Agnes de Percy to Salley Abbey.) 

Btjeial. — Petworth. " The first Joscelejme at Petworthe interred doth 
lie." (Peeris.) He died before 1191. (Yorkshire Pipe Roll.) 

Abms. — Fusils or mill-piehs ? It has generally been 
supposed that these arms, being those of Agnes de Percy, 
were thrown aside, and that Josceline continued to bear 
the blue lion rampant as his own paternal coat. 

"The Lady Agnes Percy a noble lord did marry, 

Josselayne Lovan, brother to queen Adilice (second wife 

Bereriej Minster, to thc first king Hcury), aud cldest son to the duke of 




162 THE MILL-PICKS OF PEECY. 

Braban, named Godfray, whose daughter the said queen was, as 
the chronioles testify, as well of Henry of Huntington as of William 
of Malmesbury. But first the lady paused, and did tarry, for she 
would not be married to the saide Josselayn but with a condi- 
tion, as ye shall hear now what was the composition. The said 
lady Agnes put him in choices two, whether that he would forsake his 
own arms, and the lord Percy's arms hold, or keep his own arms, and 
take the name of Percy. This Josselayne advised him well as a wise 
knight and a bold. Forsake his own arms in no wise he would, because 
it was convenient that men hereafter understood that ho was comen of 
a princely birth and of a noble blood. Therefore, in conclusion, he chose 
to hold his own arms still, and to take the name of Percy at the said 
lady Agnes' wiQ.' The lord Percy doth bear by this Josselayne the 
Braban arms, always to endure witii a shield gold, a lion azur^ ramp- 
ing in their arms to shine." (Peeris.) 

'' He took the counsel of his, sister, and he chose rather to be called 
Jocelyn Percy than to forsake his own arms, which be ' Field or, a lion 
rampant azure,' for so should he have had no right to his father's in- 
heritance, and so of right the lord Percy should be duke of Brabant, 
though they be not so indeed." (Harl. MS., 692.) 

It is disagreeable to discredit this old and oft-repeated and withal 
pretty story. But the plain truth is, that neither before, during, or after 
his marriage was Josceline called Percy, and that neither in the main 
line of Percy, its offshoots or its subfeudatories, is there any trace of 
the blue lion until the reign of Edward I. On the contrary, Josceline's 
own grandson gives the mill-picks ; and though we cannot expect to 
find direct proof of their being worn at the early period of Josceline him- 
self, we have strong secondary evidence in the five fiisils of the Daw- 
treys of Sussex, subfeudatories of Percy, whose ancestor, Robert de 
Alta Eipa, was contemporary with Josceline of Lovaine. (3 Ey ton's 
Shropshire, 7.) Leland preserves the following somewhat confused 
tradition, which is radically different from received notions : — 

" Dawterey told me that there were three women or sisters that had 
division of the lands of the Honor of Petworth, and that they were thus 
married, to Percye, Dawterey, and Aske. So that hereupon I gather 
that all these three came out of the north country. Percy, Dawterey, 
and Aske give the Mtllepykea, but with difference in the field.' The 
first partition hath not continued in all the aforesaid three names 

8 " Lord Percy's heir I was, whose noble fame 
By me survives unto his lasting fame ; 
Brabant's duke's son I wed, who for my sake 
Betain'd his arms, and Percy's name did take." — Sion House, 

3 Dawtrby. Blue,^« silver fusils conjoined in fess. 
. Dawtbey, as quartered by Aske of Yoikshure. Blue, four silver fusils conjoined 
in fees. The same coat is sometimes ascribed to the name of Aske. 
Some variations may be seen under Dawtrey and Pealtry in heraldic dictionaries. 



THE MILL-PICKS OF PERCY. 163 

wholly, but hath been disperkelid. Yet some likelihood is, that^ seeing 
that so much remained a late in Percy hand, that Dawterey and Aske 
had never like parts, to have been but as heneficiarii to Percy." (6 Itin. 
17.) 

Josoeline was indeed by far the largest owner in the Honor of Anindeli 
holding twenty-two fees as lord of Petworth, the next number being 
eight. (Partitio post mortem Hugonis de Albenago.) And when, under 
the 5th earl of ITorthumberland, we find the fusils instead of the Lucy 
fish quartered at Petworth with the lion rampant, Lallaway applies 
them to Lovaine. The application of the blue lion to Brabant is 
doubtful, as will be shown on its first occurrence temp, Edward I., 
yet the miU-picks borne by Josceline and his issue probably were, as 
stated, assumed in right of his wife's estate. For the monks of Salley 
wore them on their seal, in evident compliment to their founder, and 
in these miU-picks we probably have the origin or consequence of a 
tradition preserved at Sessay, near Topcliffe. In the Dawnay crest, the 
lion's paw is held by a Saracen, who, though he has a story for himself, 
looks marvellously like the Saracen of the Darells, predecessors in the 
manor. The villagers of Sessay insist that the lion's paw is or should 
be a miller^ 8 pick. They say that, once upon a time, Sessay "Wood was 
troubled with a gigantic cannibal, whom an ancestor of the Dawnays 
found asleep ' in the precincts of what was then the Old, but now the 
New Mills.' Seizing the miller's pick, the fortunate discoverer drove 
it home to its mortal mark. The king decreed that the giant-slayer 
should always keep hold of the miller's pick, by which token all men 
might know that to him and to his had been given the royalty of Sessay, 
thenceforth, for ever, f Gill's VaUis Eboracensis, 348.) 

The tradition obviously ascends far beyond the Dawnays, through the 
Darells, to the early seisin of Sessay. The pedigree of DareU in the 
Visitation of 1584 commences with one "William Darell of Sezay in the 
time of king John, and his son William of 1270, whose wife was 
Ada, daughter and heiress of • . . • • . Perey. 'Heiress' may be too strong 
a word, but a grant in frank-marriage from Percy to Darell is highly 
probable. Sessay was part of the Bishop of Durham's manor of Aller- 
tonshire, and the 4 fees which "William de Percy, father of Josceline's 
wife, held of Bishop Pusey in 1166, must have covered the property of 
the Darells, and at a later period, I carucate and 4 oxgangs were held 
by Marmaduke Darell of John de Percy [of Kildale], who held them of 
the Bishop, who held the whole vill (6 carucates) of the king. 

A golden Hon rampant crowned was afterwards given by the Darells, 
but, under a dateless charter of Marmaduke fitz Marmaduke Darell, 




164 THE MILL-PICKS OF PERCY. 

Glover in the Vimtation draws a shield with the arms ascribed in his 
ordinary to " Percey de Ebor," which were, Blue, three golden fusils in 
fess within a silver border charged with eight torteauz. In the seal 
there is an additional half fiisil, and the tinctures are of course wanting. 

riMoaMMnnMM *' The Frenchmen take the fhsile for a spindell, 
/\ /\ /\ and we take it for a wever's shettell, and the Dutch- 
men take it for a mt^^A;." (Qerard Leigh.) The late 
and curious instance here engraved of the charge with 
a miUrind as a trade-mark or affectation of armory, 
is found on a grave-stone in Eyton church yard, ''Heare 
lyeth the bodye of Jane Smith, wife was to William 
Smith, milldr. She departed to the mercye of God 
the 29 of December, 1621." 
Many of the Pigots bear fusils, and the pick-axes borne by others 
were probably fasils or mill-picks, with the addition of their handles. 
In this state they often retained their name of mill-picks. See the 
mill-picks of Moseley with handles in Gloss. Her. p. 323. 

Kow, we have at least one person of the name of Pichot de Perci con- 
temporary with the great Alan, and witnessing his charters. The name 
was probably a family one. Before the Conquest we have no evidences 
of the race. 

That the fusils of Percy, when the account in HarL MS., 692, and 
Leland's Itinerary were composed, were considered to be mill-picks is 
plain, and, whatever faith be placed upon the Sessay tradition, they 
were something to pick or pierce with— a mere pun, perhaps, on Percy 
or Pichot. 

A north-country provincialinn, " Lord Northumberland's arms," has 
for the last two hundred years been synonymous with a black eye. We 
may doubt whether the notion arose in the black and red which filled the 
spectacles-like badge of Percy, or in the fusils; but this is the proper 
place to notice the idea that the name of Percy {Pierey, a penetrando 
oeuhim regU Sootorum) was allusive to Malcolm of Scotland's death, 
through a successful attempt to pierce his et/e with a lance-head at 
Alnwick. It is observable that Fordun, who first mentions this tale as 
an unproven story of the populace, does not connect its hero with the 
lordly Percys,^ and it is only mentioned here in illustration of the 

^ Yulgaiiter dictum est, quod ille proditor re^, mucrone dine lancesB, tnmsfixit 
regem per oculum, give perforavit, et propterea dictus fuit Piercy, quod Anglicd sonat 
perforare oeulum; sed quia in scriptis neque authenticifi sive apocryphis noo reperi, 
«adem facilitate contemnitur quH approbatur. — ^Fordun. 

Houeden says that Malcolm was slain by Mortal near the Alne. The Annals of 
Wayerley call him Moral of Bamburgh. Fordun has '* castrum de Alynwick, sive 



THE MILL-PICKS OF PERCY, 165 

sound of their name. " If Percy be alive, Til pieroe him," was Fal- 
staff 's pun. 

Goldy a bine lion rampant f — ^The English heralds style the Percy 
bearing the old arms of Brabant, and state that they were afterwards 
changed for the arms since worn for the duchy, viz., Black, a golden lion 
rampant. (Bp. Percy.) 

If Josceline de LoTaine bore the coat at all, it is more probable that 
the tinctures were a difference from the arms of Brabant, as a younger 
son, or from the lion coat of D* Albini, as a sub-feudatory of ArundcL I 
am not aware that there is any foundation for the notion that Josceline 
or his descendants had a claim to the duchy. 

HENRY DE FEBCI, his son, occ. 1195, 1204. 

'BTSBiAJL.'^JFhitbif. His wife Isabel de Brus was buried there also. 
(Peeris.) 

Arms. — Fustli f A leaden seal said to have been found in the Thames 

must be attributed to him. (1 Joum. Brit. Arch. Assoc., 154.) The 

shield has a central boss, and a sort of cross or gyronny device, formed 

perhaps of the supporting bars of the shield. But we have a trace 

of the fusils for this generation in their descent to the Percys of 

Kildale,^ if, as I conceive, the W^alter de Perci who occurs in the Pipe 

Boll of 13 Job. as taking a share of the goods of the countess of Warwick 

(Agnes Percy's sister), was their ancestor. The ordinary statement 

that they descended from Walter de Percy, brother of another Henry 

de Percy who died 1272, is untenable, William de Percy of Kildale 

occurring in the Pipe Boll of 1243. 

WILLIAM DE PEBCT, his son, occ. 1212, died 1245. 
BuBiAL.— iS«/fey. (Peeris. Genealogia Perciorum.) 

Murealdm, quod idem est." In S«x. Cliron., Flor. Wigom., Ilea. Hunt., Symeon, 
«nd Chron. Mailros, Alnwick is not mentioned as the place of Malcolm's death 
(4 Ant. Rep. 383). The Chron. Alnewyke says that Hamund, the constable of 
Eustace de Veecy, did the deed by offering the keys of Alnewick Castle on the point 
of his lance, at what was tdfterwards Malcolmswell, and that by returning over a 
swoUen ford he gave it the name of Hamondes Forde. — 3 Arch. -SI., 0. S., 36, 

Morsel was the nephew and sheriff of Robert Mowbray, the earl of Northumber- 
land, and when he is said to have slain the king, we need not understand that he did 
80 with his own hand. 

^ Pbbct of Kildale. Gold, five black Aisils in fess. — ^Vincenlfs Baronage. 

William db Peecy of Kildale, oir. 1265. Five fusils in fess.— Seal, Harl. MS. 
1986, fo. 269. 

Perct of Ormesby, a branch from Kildale. The same arms. — Gloyer's Ordinary. 
Glass formerly at Croft Hall. 

Sir Robert Conyebs, of Ormesby, jure JuHanes Percy. The same arms, quarter- 
ing gold, a blue maunch, for Conyers. — Gloyei's Ordinary, Du4(dale'8 Anns from 
Durham Cathedral. 

VOL. IV. Y 



/ 



IM THE MILL-PICKS OF PERCY. 

Aiau.— Three (})fuiih in fees. Seal. (Snrtees, plate 7, fig. 8.) The 
dexter outline of the first fiisil seems obliterated by a softening of th^ 
wax, unless it was dimidiated. The latter was the form of the 1st and 
5th fusils in a quartered form, Umjp. Hen. VIII. (HarL MS. 4632, 
fo. xxxij.) 

HENET DE PERCY, his son, 1245-1272. 

Burial. — Salley, by his father. (Peeris. Genealogia Perciorum. 
Harl. MS. 692.) This is the last recorded burial of a Percy at Salley. 
A dab in the chapter-house, charged with a cross and shears, was found 
to coyer the remains of a lady of middle or advanced age, and rather 
tall in stature, confirming the position that the shears denote a female 
burial. The style is that of the Idth century, but no eyidence con- 
nects the remains with a Percy. (Harland*s Salley Abbey.) 

Abms.— jFVw/i«t7« in f ess f* 
WILLIAM DE PERCY, son and heir. 
JOHN DE PERCY, brother and heir. 

HENRY DE PERCY, brother and heir, died 1315, called Xordf ifo 
Percy ^ (Chron. of Alnwick Abbey.) and Lard of Topcliffe. (Barons' 
letter.) 

BuBiAL. — Fountains Alley » (Genealogia Perciorum.) '' In Fountaynes 
church lieth he before the sacrament, which abbey he endowed with 
great lands." (Peeris.) The crosslegged effigy stiU existing at Fountains, 
bearing a Hon rampant, which w&s brought firom the choir, is said by 
tradition to represent Roger de Mowbray, who died in 1298. '' Also 
in the quire lieth buried the Lord Mowbray." (Leland.) The armour 
seems to endorse the popular opinion, which, however,^ connects with 
lord Percy a stone coffin, 6 feet 3 inches long, standing not far from the 
north-west comer of the altar. " It is probable that the coffin was co- 
vered by the effigy of Mowbray, now in the north chapel ; more particu- 
larly since it is remembered to have stood against the wall opposite to 
it." (Walbran.) 

Abhs. — Gold, a Hue lion rampant. Armorial banners of 1300 in the 
Roll of Karlayerok, specifying the tincture. Seal and counterseal ap- 

« Sir Robbet db Pbect, Knt., son of Sir Peter de Percy. Five fusih in fess 
(Seal, Beddem, York, temp. Walter de Stoke, mayor.) Peter de Percy was aheriff 
of Yorkshire in 1263-4, and Robert his son and heir is on the Pipe RoU as acting for 
him. 

Perot of Eildalb now wore five fusils also, as shown in a previous note. 



THE BLUE LION OF PERCY. 167 

pended to the BaroDs* letter in 1301, and engraved by Hartsliome* In 
this splendid seal the lion ramps on the horse's trappings as well as on 
the shield. 

It is possible that the lion was assumed in remembrance of Josceline 
of Lovaine, differenced from the tinctures of the later dukes of Bra- 
bant, or it might be only indirectly allusiye to the ducal house, through 
the lords of Arundel, who descended from queen Adelicia, and perhaps 
used a lion in reference to her descent. For the sudden change of 
bearing, made before the acquisition of Alnwick," and having no con- 
nection with any lions of Northumberland, does seem to be in extraor- 
dinary coincidence with the baron's marriage with a daughter of the 
earl of Arundel, his lord paramount, and may have been parcel of the 
bargain. The seals of the two barons are wonderfiilly similar. 

In the 16 th century all certain knowledge of the history of the bear- 
ing seems to have departed. While some identified it with Brabant 
(See p. 165), others attributed it to the very earliest Percys of the old 
stock, *' Gemons first named, Brutus' blood of Troy." So we have the 
blue lion ascribed to " Algernon" in a list of Percy quarterings (Vin- 
cent's MSS., 172, Coll. Arm.), and as a device in a pennon of the 16th 
century. (I. 2, Coll. Arm.) 

Jiliie, Jive golden fuatls ? This coat was probably still occasionally 
used, and perhaps wholly so in the first days of the baron ,* for Sir 
Eobert de Plumpton, who died in 1295, whose ancestors had been sub- 
feudatories of the Percys since about 1160, and who was the first to lay 
aside the device on their early seals — a man riding on a crowned lion — 
in so doing, substituted the fusils of his lord, differencing each with a 
red escallop. 

Crest.— '^ sort offan, not pecaliar to Percy. Seal of 1301. 

ELEANOR FITZ-ALAN, his wife, survived tiU 1328. 

Burial. — Beverley Minister. She had Leckonfield for her dower. The 
bond of the vicars choral to celebrate her obit is dated in 1336. 

Leland speaks unimpassionedly of the glorious collegiate church of 
St. John. To him it was but " of a fair uniform making." With the 

The story of Bishop Bek's misconduct in this trans- 
action need not be repeated, but I cannot omit placing 
upon record a curious coat of the episcopal owner of 
Alnwick, which I saw last year in the west window 
of Howden north aisle. The cross moline, the coat of 
which Bek was so ostentatious, is dimidiated with the 
patriarchal staff of Jerusalem by virtue of his office. 
The cross moline is white on red; the staff is rose- 
coloured on a tawny pink ground. 




168 THE PEECY SHRINE. 

smnptaoufl monaments, he was more interested. *' Besides the tombs of 
saints, be three tombs most notable on the north side of the quire. (I.) 
In one of them, with a chapel arched oyer it, is buried Percy earl of 
Northamberland and his son, father to the last earl. (II.) In another 
is boned JSHeanor, wife to one of the lord Percys. (III.) And in an- 
other of fffhite alabaaUr, Idonea lady Percy, wife to- one of the lord 
Percys. (lY.) Under Eleanor's tomb is bailed one of the Percys, a 
priest." 

Leland seems to commence his description from the east. He begins 
with the tomb of the fourth earl, which is still remaining, while its 
chapel or canopy is known to haye been destroyed. The next tomb is 
the celebrated Percy shrine, and ought to be Eleanor's. I cannot 
believe that this peerless gem of flowing Decorated work is to be referred 
to the period after Idonea's death in 1365, a period in which the trans- 
itional York choir was erected.^ Nor, while I would concede that 
Loland might mistake the material of a highly flnished work if it were 
coloured, can I allow that he would state a freestone monument to be 
of nfhiU alabaster. We know that the tomb under the shrine was of 
grey marble, with the matrices of an early brass* in it. It is engraved 
by Gough, and is said to have been an insertion ; but, if so, it must have 
been a very early one, for a stone coffin and remains were in it.^ And 
it stands to reason that the post of honour north of the high altar would 
first be occupied. 

'^ Since writing the above my view is much confirmed. '^ In the church of Walwick, 
in Holdemess (see Poulson), there is a monument which resembles in a striking 
manner the great tomb at Beverley. It is supposed to commemorate a provost of 
Beverley. This provost I believe to be Nicholas de Hugate, who died rector of "Wal- 
wick in 1338. He was canon of York and provost from 1317 to 1338. This fact 
may be of use. His will is at Lincoln.^' — James Haine. 

B A female figure under a trefoiled canopy consisting of a simple pediment crocketed 
and finialed. Two angels assisted the buttresses uereof. Around were fourteen 
shieldSy and in the margin ran an inscription. 

8 "When the choir of the minister was fitted up for service instead of the nave, the 
tomb under the shrine was removed. ** The contents exhibited a stone coffin joined 
with mortar, 6 ft. 6 in. long, 1 ft. 6 in. wide, and only 16 in. deep. The body was 
closely enveloped in lead, so much so as to leave the impression of the body in it, and 
was enclosed in a wood coffin, which appeared to have been plundered of the orna- 
ments which decorated it. Dr. Hull, who was present, supposes that the arms, legs, 
and bones, fix)m their magnitude, did not belong to a person above the age of 12 
or 14.*' A Durham penny of Edward III. was also found in removing the tomb. — 
Scaum's Beverlac. 

Dugdale calls this canopy and tomb ^' Tumulus Matildis oomitissee Northumbrise 
filia Willielmi Herbert Gomitis Pembrochise" (Church notes), yet the body in cloth of 
fold attributed to that couotess on its discovery in 1678 (MS. note in some copies of 
the Baronage) scarcely coincides with the observations of Dr. Hull. Maud Herbert 
was the 4th earl's countess, and the ascription of the tomb to her is> of course, quite 
untenable. 



THE PERCY SHRINE. 169 

Thus I should have been disposed, on the documentary evidences- and 
general probabilities, to have given the shrine to Eleanor Fitz-Alan ; but 
the heraldic proo& are remarkable. On the south or principal front we 
have four coats. One of them is borne by a lady. The others, and all 
those on the other side of the canopy, are held by figures of knights, 
highly finished, .and evidently portraits. This one lady, above whose 
head rises an iris ornament, like the upper half of a fieur-de-lis, has 
the wimple of the reigns of Edward I. and II., and the knights have 
mail and surcoat of the like date, no jupon.^^ For the appearance of the 
coat of France and England, which were first quartered in 1340, I 
can only account by a lapse of time between the deceased's death and 
the erection of her memorial. Eleanor died in 1328, the bond of the 
vicars choral to lier executors to celebrate her obit is not dated until 
1336, and the execution of so costly a monument might well reach 
over 1340. Now the shield which the lady holds has a chief only, em- 
blazoned by Torr, who probably saw colour," as Silver, a blue chief, for 
' Lord Clun.' Modem writers have stated the field to be chequy, misled 
by the quatre-foiled diaper, which is not alternately raised as in the 
chequy of Warren above it. The chief is of flowing diaper. The coat 
is given to Fitz- Alan ancient, lords of Clun (Eyton's Shropshire), to Glun, 
and to Saluce, the name of Eleanor's sister-in-law (Gen. Arm). The next 
coat above is the chequy of Warren's heiress, the wife of Eleanor's 
nephew. Opposite, to the east, is Old France and England, probably 
a complimentary badge of loyalty, as in Lumley and Hilton castles. 
The king, however, was literally a cousin of the Warrens, and we find 
the next baron Percy bequeathing to the earl of Arundel a cup enam- 
elled with the arms of France and England. (1 Test. Ebor., 59.) Be- 
low this is a coat blazoned by Torr as Purple, a golden lion rampant. 
The purple has evidently been the red of Arundel, or Fitz-AIan mo- 
dem.^' All one side of the tomb may therefore be considered as having 
reference to Fitz-Alan. The other side has to the east Clifford, refer- 
ring to Eleanor's daughter-in-law Idonea, and above that coat Torr 
again emblazons Purple, a golden lion rampant. To the west he has 

^^ The whole tomb requires most careful drawing and engraving. Gough's figures 
are stiff and inexact. And, in these evil days of restoration, every genuine thing of 
beauty ^ould be perpetuated on paper at once. 

1^ I think what I saw of colour was more modem than Torr's time, and I cannot 
remember whether it corresponded with his note. 

^* Lb Contb d'Arondell bt db "Warren. — Quarterly— 1 and 4, red, a golden lion 
rampant; 2 and 3, chequy, gold and blue. (Willement's Roll, inter 1392-7.) The 
golden Hon on a red field was borne by Eichard earl of Arundel at Karlaverok in 
1300. 



170 THE PERCY SHRINE. 

Silver, a blue lion rampant, and under it Blue, a silver lion rampant. 
The last but one coat may be Brus, but it more probably is Percy, the 
gold having disappeared. These lions are all on richly-flowered dia- 
per, whereas the Fitz-Alan shield on the other side is plain. The Clifford 
coat is borne by a knight, differing from the rest in having very open 
armour of annulets. Each group of four is fastened by an inter- 
lacing annulet in the centre. We have possibly a reference to the 
Yipont annulets so proudly cherished by the Cliffords. 

Leland's expression, " und&r Eleanor's tomb," applied to the priest's 
burial, must be construed by the wish of George Percy, rector of Roth- 
bury in 1474, " to be buried in the north aisle heitde (Juxta) the tomb 
of lady Eleanor de Percy.'' The efigy in the north transept of the 
minster attributed to George Percy does not seem to belong to him, 
whether it is in situ or not. It was in its present place, and on its pre- 
sent altar tomb, when Dugdale visited the minster in 1 641, " in boreali 
parte ecclesiee murum orientem versus,"'^ but he does not attribute it, 
as he does the other Percy tombs. The bearings, sueh as the maunch, 
are of the drawing of the 14th century, and Old France is quartered 
with England. Out of 19 shields, only one, a lion rampant, in an ob- 
scure position, can be attributed to Percy. We look in vain for Clifford, 
Lucy, old Percy, or the Neville cross of the prebendary's own mother. 
Warren and Lancaster, if by the labelled arms of England Lancaster is 
meant, may come in, but the bend of Scrope and the three legs of Man, 
being together, and four large collared birds like Cornish choughs at the 
foot of the robes, would rather refer to the Scrope family. As the arms 
have been given very inaccurately, I subjoin my notes of them," to 

^3 " And in Beverley minster the said Greorge was prebendary, and there he is 
buried and daily had in memory." — Peeris. 

14 u Sy jT^Q chappell door [t. e» of a little chappeU in the north isle of the cross 
body] lyes an old monument whereon is cutt the sciid portraiture of a man." — ^Torr. 

" The effigy lies upon, but is much shorter than, an altar tomb of Decorated work 
in the east chapel of the north transept, and, consequently, a space at the foot of the 
figure is unoccupied. In Goueh's time there was an aperture in it which disclosed 
the stone coffin lying inside. The arms are as follow : — 

I. On the collar of the ehaauble^ over the left shoulder. I. Three lions passant 
guardant. England. 2. A bend between two double roses. II. On the manipley 
running frmn the top. 1. A chevron, with a bird (Cornish chough ?) in base. The 
upper part of the shield is hidden. 2. A bend. Scrope ? or Mauley ? There is a 
similar coat on the armorial gateway at Alnwick, sai<^ I Imow not why, to be for 
Tison. 3. The three legs of Man. [Sir William le Scrope, earl of Wiltshire, pur- 
chased the kingdom of Man from the earl of Salisbury. Oliver refers this crest to 
the grant of the isle to the first earl of Northumberland, in 1 Hen. IV.]. 4. A 
maunch. Conyers ? [Oliver gives this coat to Hastings as a quartering of the earl 
of Kent, the husband of a daughter of the second earl, but Kent* s own arms are 
wanting.]. 5. A bend engrailed between two cottises. There is something like a 



THE OLD AND NEW ARMS OF PERCY. 171 

aid in a judgment what earlier priest, Percy, Scrope, or otherwise, is 
commemorated. 

HENEY DE PERCY their son, 1315-1353. Called the Third, [as] 
Lord de Percy, but Second, [as] Lord of Alnwick. (Chron. Mon. de 
Alnewyke.) The succession begins with Henry 1245-72, there being 
great doubt whether Henry, son of Josceline de LoTaine, survived his 
mother. 

BvBULL.'-^Alnwick Alley. "At Alnwike lieth in the monastery." 
(Peeris.) " In the said abbey honorably buried." (Chron. Mon. de 
Alnewyke, which states that he had great affection for the abbey towards 
the end of his life.) In his will of 1349 he desired burial in Salley 
abbey. His statue is in the west front of York minister, (restored) hold- 
ing a piece of timber as benefactor. 

Abms.— -^ lion rampant. Seal, describing him as' 'senior,' 1347. 
(Surtees, Seals, ix., 3, Baine's North Durham, app. No. 793.) Entrance 
to the inner baly at Alnwick. John Nevil's tomb in Durham Cathedral. 
He leaves to his son Henry a vessel for salt> with the arms of Percy and 
Arundel. (1 Test. Ebor., 59.) 

Blm, fioe golden fusils infess. " Henry Percy porte de azure ove nne 
fesse endentee d'or." Boll not earlier than 1337, and chiefly relating 
to the north. (2 Coll. Top. 320.) The beautiful secretum, said to have 
been used by one E,obert de Percy in 1308 and 1317, may be mentioned 
here. (Edmondson, and Hartshome, fig, 12.) The baron leaves to his 
heir all the tapestry for the hall of the ancient arms of Percy, (1 Test. 
Ebor., 59.) The fusils also appear to decorate the mantiing of his helmet. 
Seal of 1347 ut supra. 

crescent or horn in the sinister chief point. The dexter part of the shield is gone. 
6. Chequey. JFarren. 7. Three lions passant gnardant, with a label of three points. 
Lancaster? III. On the foot of the alb. First row, 1. On the commencement of a 
bend, a mullet of six points in the dexter chief. The rest of the shield is under the 
stole. Sotham ? In the east window of the south choir transept in York Minster, 
among a variety of Scrope of Masham insignia, there is the coat, Silver, a black bend 
chargied with tiiree golden mallets pierced. (Browne.) 2. A har, in chief three roundels. 
This has strangely been called chequy. The bar is hardly a fess, it is nearer the 
chief. 3. Quarteny, 1 and 4, Semee of fleurs-de-ly, the stone between tiie fleurs not 
cut away. A similar appearance of a £ret sometimes occurs in the arms of France in 
glass. 2 and 3. Three lions passant guardant. Most of the upper portion of this shield 
is hidden by the chasuble. Old France and England. 4. A lion rampant. Percy ? 
6. Hidden by the stole. IV. Second row. 1. A fess between two chevrons inverted, 
and joined in the form of "W in chief, and one chevron inverted in base. Fitz- Walter ? 

2. Defaced. Gough blanks this shield in his text, but draws it like three shells. 

3. A chevron between three escallops. 4. Three water bougets. Ros. The eaii of 
Wiltshire's grandmother was a Ros. 5. A fess between three boars' heads. The 
birds on the hem are noticed in the text. 



172 THE CREST OF PERCY. 

Cbest.— On a ehapeau a lion passant. Ibid. Its first appearance. 
The tail of the noble beast sweeps down as in the royal seals of the period. 

SuppoRiEBS? I\ffo lions rampant f Secretum of 1308 and 1317 ut 
supra. 

£DONEA DE CLIFFOBD, his wife, died 1365. (Called Imania in 
his willy but Idonea in other evidences.) 

BnBiAL. — Bm>irley Minster. " Lady Tdondye his wife, which was 
circumspect and wise, in Beverley minster is tombed in right costly wise. 
And at the same minster she founded a chantry men may see." (Peeris.) 
** In the exequies of Lady Idonea Percy, the ordinance in that behalf is 
to continue according to ancient usage." (Archbp. Arundel's ordinances 
for Beverley, 1391, 2 Scaum, 574.) ''And in another of white alabas- 
ter, Idonea lady Percy, wife to one of the lord Percys." (Leland.) 

There is no tomb to correspond with this description, nor does Dugdale 
mention one. (Church notes.) It might either stand against a chapel 
behind the Percy shine, or nearer to the west under an arch of the choir. 
If the effigy only was of alabaster, the rest of the tomb n:iay possibly 
still be in the church, though grievously misplaced. " In the body of 
the church stands an ancient monument, called ' The Yirgin's Tomb/ 
because two virgin sisters lie buried there, who gave the town a piece 
of land." (Gibson's Camden.) This monument (accompanied with its 
tradition) remains between two of the southern piers of the nave, and 
perhaps is made up of two tombs. A plain altar is surmounted by a 
grey slab, upon which rests another dltar presenting a dado of Early 
English, or very early Decorated date, and upon this is another slab* 
But over all this is a graceful Decorated canopy of freestone; less im- 
posing than the Percy shrine, but still very richly and cunningly carved. 
It does not fit its place very well, and its width suits the altar tomb 
of Edward III.'s time, which now stands in the north transept, and is 
partially covered with the priestly effigy. The figure is much shorter 
than the tomb ; in fact Gough shows an aperture between the feet of the 
priest and the end of the tomb, disclosing a stone coffin inside. The 
tomb might once be surmounted by the effigy of Idonea, and shadowed 
by the canopy now in the nave. It bears, however, marks of an inde- 
pendent canopy or hearse. 

HENRY DE PERCY, 1353-1368, called The Fourth as Lord de 
Percy, but The Third as Lord of Alnwick. (Chron. Mon. de Alnwyke.) 

Burial. — Alnwiek Ahhep, beside Mary Plantagenet, his first wife, 
who died in 1362. (Ibid.) Her arms, those of England, with a label 
of five points, are on the inner entrance of Alnwick Castle. 



THE FIRST EARL. 178 

Abms. — A U<m rampant^^ Seal of 1355. (Eartshome, No. 13.) 

SxjppoETEES ? — Two herons are looking from the Bhield, They are 
BcaFcely true supporters. 

HENRY DE PERCY, 1368-1407. Called the Fifth as Lord de Percy, 
and jPour^A as Lord of Alnwick. (Chron. Mon. de Alnewyke.) The words 
" Perci qmnti^' also occur on a seal giren to 1372 (Harts- 
home, fig. 11), and the inscription on another of 1376 should apparently 
read '^Sigillum Henrici quinti domini de Perci." (Hartshome, fig. 16.) 
He hecame Mtrl of Northumh&rland in 1377, and after his marriage 
with Maude Lucy, is styled Lord of Coekermouth (Seals) or of Lucy. 
(Willement's Roll of Arms inter 1392-1397.) His souhriquet was '' the 
Creaeent:' (Gower. HarL MS. 6291.) 

He was in " The Conspiracy of the 2%ree Henrtei/^ viz. Harry BoUng- 
broke, himself, and his son Hotspur, which hurled Richard II. from the 
throne. In his after career against his idol, " Owen Glendor and the 
earl of March and the Percys were greatly abused and deceived by a 
Welsh prophecy, who made them to believe that Sing Henry was the 
Moldewarpe cursed of God's own mouth, and that they three were the 
Dragon, the I^on, and the Wolfe, which should devide this realm be« 
tween them by the prophecy of Mawmot Marlyn." (Grafton.)^* 

BuBiAL. — York Minster. " The body of the said earl of Northumber- 
land in Yorke Minster doth lie, at the right hand of the high altar, right 
honorably." (Peeris. Harl. MS., 692.) To this first earl must be at- 
tributed a noble statue which ilntil 1829 stood at the east end of the 
choir of York Minster. He was represented in a mail gorget and a 
mantle, and on his arm was the emblem of his being a benefactor of the 
church. (Brown's York Minster, 277.) His effigy appears in two of 
his num^x>us seals, 1386 and 1400. (Hartshorne, fig. 14, and gurtees, 
Seals, pi. viii. fig. 1.) 

AlBhs. — A Uon rampant, with a label of three points, the shield borne 

18 Thomas Perot, bishop of Norwich, the baron's brother. Amu. A lion rampant 
within a bordure, a common distinction of ecclesiastics. Seal 35 Ed. III. TDash- 
wood's Sigilla Antiqua, pi. xiy. fig. 4. Hartshorne.) — Badge, A double rose ? (Intro- 
dnced near the head of the seal.) 

M jRoispur, Sometimes he [Glendower] angers me, 

With telling of the Moldwarp and the Ant, 

Of dreamer Merlin, and his propbecies ; 

And of a Dragon, and a finless Fish, 

A clipt- winged GrifSn, and a moulting Baven, 

A couching JLion, and a ramping Gat ; 

And such a deal of skimble-skamble stuff. 

As puts me from my faith. — (1 King Hen. IV., iii. 2.) 

vox.. IV 2 



174 THE LUOIES. 

by a lion's gamb isiuing from douds. Seal in his fiEtther'a lifetime, 
appended to a warrant of 1363, (Baine's Nortb Durham, Appendix, 
No. 701. Surtees, Seals, iz, 2. Hartshome, p. 282. Gutta Percha 
impression furnished by Mr. Way, See White's Otterbum, p. 73.) In 
the engravings the points of the label are omitted. 

The tame, without the difference. Seal (Surtees, iz, 1), date unknown, 
but, judging from the design, probably soon after the death of the pre- 
vious baron. Seals ascribed to 1372, 1376, and 1386. (Hartshome, 
figs. 11| 16, and 14.) Shield on the gateway of Lumley Castle, to 
orenelate which the license was granted in 1389. The two last author* 
ities were after the earl's marriage with Maud Lucy, which took place 
between 1381, when Gilbert de IJmfirevil died, and 1383-4. (Dugd. from 
Glaus. 7 Bic. II. m. 22.) On the gateway tower at Cookermouth Castle, 
in the centre, are the following shields. 1. Umfreville, 2. Two bars, 
for Multon. 3. Three lucies or pike*fish, for Lucy. 4, The lion of 
Percy. 6. ITevil. Maud Lucy really was a Multon, the name and arms 
of Lucy having been derived from an heiress in the 13th century. 

Gold, a bine Kan rampaiU, for Percy, quartering Bed, three ether luetea 
or piJce^fish, for Lucy. Willement's Roll, inter 1392*1397. Seal, 1397 
and 1400, (Betrospective Review, IT.3., i. 113, Surtees, Seals, viii. 1 ; 
Raine's No. Dm. App., No. 792.) The celebrated settlement^ by which, 
this quartered coat was rendered compulsory on the earl's descendants, 
for whose sake the heirs in blood of Lucy were sacrificed, is recorded on 
the Fine Roll of Michaelmas term, 8 Ric. II., 1384, and is amply recited 
in the Cumberland inquest after Maude's death, 21, Sep. 22 Ric. II.» 
1398, as follows :-*- 

" The jurors say, that the said Matildis was seised jointly with the 
said surviving earl in her demesne as of fee tail by fine, with the king's 
licence, of the castle and honour of Cokermouth [ftc, &G.1. To hold to 
the same Henry and Matildis and the heirs male issuing frx>m their 
bodies, of our lord the king and his heirs, by the services tiierefore due 
and accustomed. So that, if the same Henry and Matildis shall die 
without an heir male of their bodies, then all the premises shall remain 
wholly to the heirs issuing from the body of the said Matildis. So that, 
if the said Matildis shall die without an heir of her body, then all the 
premises shall remain wholly to Henry Percy, son of the said earl, and 
the heirs male from his body issuing. So that he and his said heirs 
male do wear the arms of the said earl, which are of gold with one lion 
rampant of azure {quas sunt de auro eum uno leone de amtro rampante), 
quartered with the arms of Lucy, which consist of gules with three sil- 
ver lucys {quce de goulm eum trihue Imye argenteis consistunt,) ^^ in all 

" " Fdd gulea, three fyshes argent."— Hail. MS., 692. 



THE LITCIEd. 176 

fitandards, pennons, coats of arms, and in all other armories, which 
usually are j&t to be adorned with pictured cognizances of arms, as often 
as they shall wish to show xsognizances of arms in warlike acts or else^ 
where. So that, if the same Henry, son of the said earl, shall die 
without an heir male from his body issuing, then after the death of the 
same Henry, son of the said earl, all the premises shall remain to 
Thomas Percy, knight, brother of the said earl and the heirs male from 
his body issuing. The said Matildis died on Wednesday next before the 
feast of our Lord's nativity last past. And William de Melton, knight, 
is her proper heir," to wit, the son of Joan de Helton, sister of Sir 
Thomas de Lucy, father of the said Matildis, and Qie said William is of 
the age of 40 years and upwards."" 

The condition did not take effect during Maud Lucy's lifetime, for 
until her death without issue, no absolute estate tail vested in the 
Percys. There is no documentary obligation upon the earl himself to 
quarter. It was not perhaps considered necessary to bind him to what 
he would generally be already doing without constraint as Lord de 
Lucy.*^ 

The account of the Percy and Lucy transaction by Peerisis worth re- 
peating, first, because it disposes of the very unintelligible descent of 
Prudhoe, commonly given through the widow of TJmfrevil, and, secondly, 
for a curious but perhaps unfounded distinction made between the right 
to transmit arms with and without the name. 

The said sixth [fourth] Henry lord Pearcy had the seventh [fifth] 
Henery, whom to Elizabeth, earl of Anguish' daughter andheir,*^ he did 
marry. And, to the same Henery and Elizabeth, the said earl of 
Anguish, that noble lord, gave the lordship of Prudhoo with the appur- 
tenances, 08 fair evidences do record, and to the foresaid Henery and his 
heirs for evermore,** whether he had issue or none by the said lady 

^ The Meltons in after times quartered the Lucy coat. tXnless some stray estates 
of Lucy fell to them, they were hardly justified in so doing in the primitive days of 
heraldry. '* Sir William Melton, knight, couzen and nert heire of the said eountesse, 
never had the said armes/' — ^Treatise of the Nobility upon a debate of the barony of 
iLbergavenny, 1642. 

1^ The original Latin may be seen in 2 Nic. and Bum, 125. 

20 MoNsa, Thomas Perct. Gold, a blue lion rampant. (Willemenf s EoU of Arms, 
ittter 1392-1897.) This is the earl's brother, afterwards earl of Worcester. His 
seal in 1393 also had the lion without apparent difference ; but Vincent (on Crooke, 
p. 609) places a red orescent on the lion. Perhaps it was thought, as the earl now 
always quartered Lucy, and his sons had specific diiferences, that Sir Thomas, who 
was of considerable influence, might wear the whole arms without inconvenience. 

2^ Her brother Bobert, who married Margaret Percy, the earl's sister, in 14 
Edw. III., died issueless in his father's lifetime. — Bugd. 

** On the early seal of this Percy (Surtees, ix. 1), the shield hangs fixmi a branch 
in fiiil bloom, on which a popinjay is perched. The flowers are cinquefoil. Can 
they possibly have reference to tne famous cinquefoil of Umfrevil, "the flower of the 
North r 



176 PEECY I PERCY!! E8PERANCE! PERCY rr 

Elizabeth, his daughter. But or these marriages were made completelj, 
Elizabeth departed a virgin to GxkL's mercy. Then afterwards Margret, 
the lord Nvill's daughter, his second wife, married he ; by whom he 
had issue three sons, whose names be Henry the eighth, Baph the second, 
and the third Thomas. Hargret died, and after her, as fortuned the 
case, he married Maud, countess of Anguesh, his third wife, which 
mother was to Elizabeth his first wife. And by tiie said Maud forth- 
withall the lord Lucy lands by her gift came to him all. So this 
noble man, if ye wisely regard, had fair lands and possessions great, 
first by Elizabeth the daughter, and by Maud her mother afterward. 
Of the which no law may Ms heirs defeat.. . • • . .This said lady Maud 
Lucy, as I understand, married herself conditionally to the foresaid 
seventh [fifth] Henry, first earl of Northumberland, as to say, that the 
lord Pearcy should bear continually the blew lion and the lucies silver 
in his arms quarterly. Ser name he might not take, issue none had she. 
Therefore she did bind him to bear her arms, as in his arms ye may 
see. The honour of Cockermouth came by her. She gave it freely to 
him and to his heirs, as by the law she might, bearing the foresaid 
arms of her, in memory, with the blew lyon, the Braband armsy 
quarterly." 

CRBffi.'^On a ohapeau, a lion statant. It occurs on the gateway of 
Lumley castle about 1389, and was formerly above the effigy of the earl 
on the east front of York Minster. (Brown.) 

Sttffobts&s.— In the early seal (Sartees, ix. 1) bears (?) fill up the 
vacant spaces of the seal at the sides of the shield. In that of 1372 
(Hartshome, fig. 11), the shield is between two falcons {}) endorsed, but 
turning their heads to bite it. These are scarcely genuine supporters. 
Two lions guardant on Hotspur's seal come nearer to the later usage. 

'WAB.'CnY.—Ferof/I Percy / Used at the battle of Ofcterbum. " The 
English arrived, and mistook, at their entrance, the huts of the servants 
(of the Scots) for those of their masters. They forced tlieir way into 
the camp, which was, however, tolerably strong, shouting out, Percy/ 
Percy ! " — " Sir Henry and Sir Ealph Percy, indignant for the affiront 
the earl of Douglas had put on them, by conquering their pennon, and 
desirous of meeting him, hastened to the place from which the sounds 
[of Douglas ! Douglas !] came, calling out, ^Perey ! Percy P " (Froissart.) 
— " Et clamant mille, Percy que, et Georgius ille." (Barry's old poem 
in Fordun.) — ** Now, A Douglas ! was the cry ; now, A Percy ! rent the 
sky." (Drayton.) 

j£sperance ! Percy ! tTsed at the battle of Shrewsbury. (Hall. Hd- 
linshead.) — "Now, Hsperance! Percy! and set on."— "That roan 
shall be my throne ; well, I wlU back him straight. Bsperance ! Bid 



THE WHITE LION. 177 

Butler lead him forth unto the park.'' (Shakspere.)—- '^ As stiU the peo- 
ple cried, A Percy ^Ispiranee.^^ (Drayton.) 

'* Add therefore this to Eaperanee my tpordy 

Who causeth bloodshed shall not escape the sword." 

(Mirror for Magistrates, 1574.) 

Badges.-—^ white lion ( guardant f) The old ballad on the battle of 
Otterbum, supposed to be not later than Henry VI.'s time, thus enu- 
merates the standards and pennons :— 

The Blodye Hart in the Douglas armes, hys standerde stode on hye ; 
That every man myght full well kaowe : by syde stode Starres thre : 
The Whyte Lyon on the Ynglysh parte, forsoth as I you sayne ; 
The Lucetts and the Cressawnts both : the Skotts faught them agayne. 

There is in the official seals of succeeding earls, as wardens of the 
marches, a lion holding a banner. On the Lion Tower of Warkworth 
castle, which for both architectural and heraldic reasons cannot be 
placed earlier than in the fourth earl's period, we have a crescent round 
its neck, and the same appearance occurs on the signet of the second 
earl. This Hon is always distinguishable from the blue one by being 
guardant, facing the spectator. Probably it was of an official origin. 
In York Minster the white lion with a crescent adorned a little golden 
rood. '' Dna parva crux de auro cum crucifixo et ymagine B. Marise et 
S. Johannis cum leone alio ac uno le cressaunt, cum corona in medio. 
(Baine's York Fabric Rolls, 218.) In the earl's seal of 1400 he tram- 
ples a Hon. (Surtees, Seals, viii. 1.) " As for the Percy family, one of 
their ancient badges or cognizances was a white lyon statant." (Bp. 
Percy.) In Vincent's MS., among other Percy crests and badges, there 
is a silver Hon passant guardant, d^xQdMLj crowned in gold; but ** Lysley" 
is written above it, and consequently it had not vested in the first earl's 
time.** 

23 The " two lions fighting tearing one another" given by Drayton as the badge of 
the Northumbrians in me muster before the battle of Agincourt evidently refer to the 
device of the Howards after the fight of Floddon, the white lion of Albmi trampling 
the red one of Scotland's monarch. 

Of Scotland ye have lost the flower ; 

The White lion rampant of mood, 

He raged, and rent out your heart blood ; 

He the white, and you uie red. 

The white there struck the red stark dead. — (Skelton.) 

Hollinshead states that after the batde, the earl of Surrey gave to his servants this 
cognizance to wear on the left arm — a white lion standing over a red Uon, and 
tearing the same red lion with his paws — 

For who, infield or foray slack, 

Saw the Blanch Lion e'er give back. — (Scott.) 



178 THE LOCOT OF PEECT. 

A heket. The next item m the liallad writer's ennmemtion is 
" lucetts," suppoeed by Bp. Percy to allude to tlie luciea of Luoy. But 
the latter do not, I think, occur as bodges with the Percys, for the 
fusils and fishes on Hedgley oross ore hardly removed from arms. There 
b a parallel passage in a much later productios, one on Fioddon field. 
The Hoone Qai day did thine ftill bright, 

And the Lvtt-haai that day wfts full bent, 
The Bed Creuent did blinde the Scota' nght 
But this is only a dngular coincidence, being exactly explained by other 
lines — 

Sir WiDiatn Peiey and Lord Ogle both came. 
And Sir WiUisin Gascoyne theyr cotyo here was bee. 
Ogle had red crescents and Oascoyne wore a demi-lnoe's head, the Luoys 
never. What then waa the 'lucett' disported by the Percy with the 
' cressaunt' ? A locket, surely — that mysterioufi bearing so continually 
in association with the n^Tor^waning crescent, and variously named fet- 
ters, shackles, iiliacklebolt, and manacle. The Korthumbrians call it 
" the fetterlocks or gyves." (M. A. Denham.) As generally drawn, it 
resembles the swivel in the Ironmonger's arms, in its recent form,^ 
and is very different from the fetterlock of York. It is said to occnr 
on the tiles of Salley or Fountains, or both, but I cannot detect it in 
Harland's plate of the former, and the Bipon antiquaries are unable to 
find it in the latter. It is, however, probably a genuine Percy badge, 
for it occurs for the first time on Hotspur's seal, and alone. The Glos- 
sary of Heraldry gives ' locket' as a synonyme of many of the names 
given above. We have a very satisfactory explanation of the word in 
Johnson—" a sntall lock ; any catch or spring to fasten a necklace or 
other ornament." The great lexicographer quotas Huilihras in alluMoa 
to the more unpleasant manacles of criminals : — 
' Thatother viitDOUB school of lashing, 
TThere tnighta are kept in nanow lists, 
With wooden lockets 'bout their wriBta. 

And the word is perfectly applicable to prison ar- 
rangements, but the Percys viewed their badge in 
the gentler sense, for it occurs, evidently intention- 
ally, as the breast clasp of an angel on the heraldic 
window which acoompanies the fourth earl's tomb at 
Beverley, and most of the iuBtances are altogether 
inappropriate to the circling a leg or an arm. The subjoined example is 
from the badges, tm^. Hen. VIII., in Harl. MS. 4632. In thefifth earl's 
" Their grant deplete the ewiveU difforenOy. 



THE ORESCENT OP PERCY. 



179 




time we shall find the badge called a turret, an old word for a fastener 
which turns, here applied more particularly, as it would seem, to the 

cross piece or swivel of the locket in its more 
usual shape. 

A crescent. The last badge in the ballad 
is the celebrated one which decks the earl's 
pennon in his seal of 1400 (Surtees, Seals, 
viii. 1), and gave him a soubriquet. On the 
seal of 1886 he has hands of crescents over 
his armour. (Hartshome, fig. 14, and inf. 
of Mr. Way.) 

A crescent, nearly surrounding a castle. This appears on the earl's 
shrievalty seal in 1396. (Capheaton archives.) It is here engraved. 

The design is that of the ^'Sigillum oficii Henrici 
de Percy comitis ac vicomitis NorthumbrisB/' 
used in 1375 on a document in Mr. Tho. Bell's 
collectiotts (Hartshome, p. 300), but some slight 
alterations in detail are rather more decided than 
mere degrees of preservation. Judging from the 
entire absence of heraldry and honours of Lucy,^ 
I am disposed to date the making of the larger 
seal of 1386, in which the earl rests on a mighty 
sword, perhaps that of the earldom, between his 
creation in 1377 and 1384, in which year he had 
committed to himtheshrievalty of Northumberland 
and custody of the Castle of Newcastle. All his lands, present and future, 
were to be held '' sub honore comitali, et tamquam parcella dicti 
comitatus." The Earl, as already mentioned, was himself alluded to as 
" the Crescent" Bishop Percy quotes a pedigree of Henry VII's time, 
in which a very remote and romantio connection between the Percys and 
the Moon is given.— > 

Gemona fyret named Bnitys blonde of Troy; 

WMcli valiantly fyghtynge in the land of Fersi 

At pointe terrible ayance the miscreants on nyght, 

An hevynly mystery was schewyd hym, old bookys reherse ; 

In hys scheld did schyne a Mone yeryfying her lyght, 

Which to all the ooste gave a perfytte syght, 

To vaynquys his enemys, and to deth them persue ; 

And therefore the JPersea the eressant doth renew. 

^ It is a coincidence that a mercantile fieunily of Antwerp and LcMidon, called Zucy, 
bore, Azure, a crescent argent. (Guillim and Burke.) Torr in his description of Good- 
ramgate church, York, gives the same coat for iMee. Is there some pun comoected with 
light f The Ogles acquired a badge of Maude Percy's house through Melton and Barcy, 
a sun in splendour on a wreath of gold and red, "Lucy hy Darcy." fVincent's MS. 173.) 




180 THE 0EE8CEHT OF PERCY. 

And I think I have Bees TBrionun statements that the badge was as- 
somed in coDtequence of the first William de Percy taking a celebrated 
Saracen prisoner in hie cmaade, or for having taken the standard of the 
infidels." Unch might be said on the mythology of the widely spread 
symbol of the moon, bnt a pemsal of Feeris' metrical Chronicle of the 
Percys will cure any one of dependence on the stories contained In 
Tudor pedigrees for early descents. It seems very probable that tbe 
orescent has reference to the earldom of Northumberland." There was 
still a nominal connection between coundes and earldoms, and the 
CKiBcent la conspicuous npon a sbrieTalty seal of Norlbnmberland 
I wholly nnoonneotfld with the Percys, on a receipt given 
I in Sep., 23 H. VI. (1444), by John Heron of Chipchaao, 
esq., sheriff of Iforthumberland, to Sir William Swyn- 
bnm of Oreat Heton, for 28 s. of green wax owing by 
him to the king in the time of the said John the sberiif 
of the connty aforesaid, in the year 22 Hen. YI., "In 
witness whereof the serf cf the office of sheriff is ap- 
pended." (Capheaton arcbiTCB.) The device is a castle as 
before, tetth (Ktm eretemU upon it. 

" " For tbou biB liBrp«T art I ween ; I lee gleam oa thy vest 
Thy pely, curoed, Bilver moon, the Saracea's proud crest 
Eis ancestor, m fell cniiade, for England'a powerful king, 
Foudit mai^illy, and did from tience that Syrian ttophy bring^' 

(W. Kichardfian'B GaUad of Hotspur.) 
" The minstrela of th; noble bonae, all clad in robes of blue. 

With ^ver cntacenta on their arme, attend in order due 

They nmg how in the caaqueror'e fleet Lord William shipped his powera, 
And gained a Mr young Saxon bride with all her lands aiid toveca. 
Then journeying to the Holy Ijuid, there bravely fonght and died: 
And Uflt liie diver crescent wan, some Pavnim eoldan's pride. 

(Bp. Percy's Hermit of Warkworth.) 
" The only previons entry funtly coincident with snch s badge, is in the re- 
gister of Salley Abbey, which records its 
foondation by William lord Percy on tjie 
Sth ides of January, 1147, " on the first day 
of the moon." I am unable to state the date 
of tbe entiv ; and if there is any allusion in 
it, it will he to the emblem of the patron 
saint, Mary the Virgin. The oocurrenMS of 
the badge in the abbey are not earlier than 
the ISth century. Among the sculptured 
stones which have been bmlt into tbe front 
of the second gateway ia one (perhaps in- 
verted) bearing two crescents and aome fo- 
liage. " On the inner side of the same wall 
are three crescenta, one above and two be- 
low a wavy line." — Eariand's Hist. Ace. of Bailey Abbey, 1863. 

The mere want of early examples of the crescent is not, however, conclnsive. 
Badges befine the time of Eichard 11. are not common, and no drawing of the Percy 
locket occnis before Hotspur's seal contains it 



THE PERCY CRESCENT. 181 

Tradition, erroneous in its details, but perhaps arising in some remem- 
brance of the Saxon kingdom and earldom of Northumbria, seems also 
to have dimly transmitted the idea that the crescent had an official or 
territorial origin. Percy, the trunkmaker, who placed great reliance on 
the possession of a mole in the shape of a half-moon upon his body in 
support of his claims, quotes an apochryphal history from Sir WiUiam^ 
Churchill's Divi Britannici, published in 1675, fo. 127, to the effect, 
that, *' upon a tripartine exchange," the counties from Trent to the 
northward fell to the lot of thePercies, in memory whereof they adopted 
a Half-moon for their cognizance, that being the geographical form of 
the said jurisdiction.^ Shakspere uses a similar story in illustrating 
the rebellion which led to the battle of Shrewsbury.^ 

We shall hereafter find a more than usually intimate connection be- 
tween the white lion, the crescent, and the motto Esperance ; and in the 
Percy's earlier and more sunny days his hopes were not belied. '' Prss- 
dictus Henricus quintus post obitum patris sui in honoribus fama et 
dominiis erescehat valde," (Chron. Mon. de Alnewyke.) 

The crescent is worn round the great lion at Warkworth, exactly as 
the Celtic torque was round the necks of men. And curiously enough, 
we have in the Promptorium Farvuhrum the entry, '* a cressent abowte 
the nek, torqueo, torquis, lunula" Lunula is elsewhere explained as an 
ornament for a woman's neck, shaped like the moon, " Anglic^, an ouche 
or barre." 

^ Father to the great duke of Marlborough. 

29 Craik'B Romance of the Peerage, 299. 

^ Mortimer, England, from Trent, and Severn, hitherto, 
By south and east is to my part assigned : 
All westward, Wales, beyond the Severn shore, 
And all tlie fertile land within that bound 
To Owen Glendower ; and dear coz, to you 
The remnant northward, lying off from Trent. 
And our indentures tripartite are drawn. 

SoUtpur, Methinks my portion, north from Burton here, 
In quantity equals not one of yours : 
See, how mis river comes me crankling in, 
And cuts me, from the best of all my land 
A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out. 
I'll have the current in this place damned up : 
And here the smug and silver Trent shall run 
In a new channel, fair and evenly : 
It shall not wind with such a deep indent, 
To rob me of so rich a bottom here 

Glendower. Gome, you shall have Trent turned. 

The moon shines fair, you may aw^ by night : 
I will go haste the writer. — (I K. Hen. IV., iii. 1.) 

VOL. IV. 2 ▲ 



182 WAEEWOETH HEEMITAGE. 

The position that the crescent points to Northumberland derives a 
fresh interest from the remarkable fiact that the orescent had been di&- 
tinctive in the old Saxon territory of that name. It was a peculiar 
mark of the Northumbrian mint at York. The eridenoes of this are 
gathered together by Mr. Shepherd in the Archi&ological Institute's York 
Tolume. It is curious that the pellets in squares or triangles, such as 
one sees in the shrievalty seal of 1386, were also distinctively abundaot 
on the coins of those moneyers who used the crescent. I note such 
coincidences, knowing not what they are worth. Among the badges of 
the ducal house of York we find a lion within a crescent, '' luna ex- 
oresoens, in oujus medio leo incedens*' (Insignia Edwardi regis. 1 Lei. 
Coll., 619), the two objects used also by the Percys. The lion, however, 
was in right of the dignity of March. 

MAEO ABET DE NEYIL, his first wife, died in 1 372. Her brotiier, 
John lord Nevil, the hero of Nevil's Cross, married her husband's aunt 
Maud. Hence the alternate arms of Percy on his tomb at Durham. 

BuBiAL.— -Unknown. But unless it can be made to appear that the 
very late or transitional Decorated work at Warkworth Hermitage is 
wholly incompatible, even in the hands of an old country workman who 
slowly changed his styles, with the date of her death, the bull's head 
will identify her with the lady there commemorated in effigy, with her 
weeping husband at her feet. Mr. Hartshome thinks that there is 
nothing in the architecture at variance with the details that prevailed 
from 1351 to 1368, only four years short of Margaret Nevil's death. 
She was mother of Hotspur. 

HENEY DE PERCY (Hotspur), his son and heir-apparent, slain 
1403. Called Senry the Sixth (Chron. Mon. de Alnewyke), and more 
commonly Hwrry Hotspur^ '' Called by the French and Scots Harre 
Sdtesporre, because in the silence of unseasonablo night, of quiet sleep 
to others who were at rest, he unweariedly took pains against his ene- 
mies, OS if heating his spurs, which we call Hatesporre." '' Eor while 
others were given to sleep, he was wont to watch over the enemy." 
(Knighton, 2696, 2728.) " Henry Hatspur vulgariter nuncupatus." 
(2 Fordun, 405.) ''For his sharp quickness, and speediness at need, 
Henry Hottespur he was called indeed." (Peeris.) ** Quern Scotti 
vocaverunt Hatespur propter innatum sibi probitatem." (2 Lei. Coll., 
382.) 

He was one of the Three Senries, '' when the pale-faced moon 
looked bloody on the earth of ftichard," whose renunciation ends with 



BABBT HOTSPtJB. 183 

" Pnesentibiu Hflnrioo diic« LanoastriK, Henrico de Ferriaco eomite de 
Korthnmberland, et Henrico fiUo mo, fto." (2 Foidnn, 427.) 

BnBiAL. — rbrA J/tMbr, nearhiafother. After " yonng Han? Peror'a 
tpur yaea eold" (Shakspere), hiB lady gathered his severed limbs, and 
" in To^ Ifinater this most honorable knight by U\e first earl bis father 
lieth openly in sight." (Peeris.) Their offigiea 
hare long disappeared. Truly it would have 
been a delight to gather from the medierfd art- 
ist's portraiture all the idea tliat could be given 
of one who thought " it were an easy task to 
pluck bright honour fimn the pale-fkoed moon." 
(Sbakepere.) 

Asm. — Ptrey, dijermced iy a laM of thrae 

poitOt ffulM. (WiUementfa Koll, inter 1392-7.)" 

Fsrcy and Zuey juarUrlg, differatMi hy a label of ikrt6 points. This 

coat is found between 1399 and 1403, on a seal exhibited hy the Bev. 

Henry Cnrwen at Uie Carlisle 

Congress in 1859, and was 

probably adopted by Hotspur 

on the death of Haud Lucy, 

when, for want of her issue, 

the entail was reduced into 

certainty. 

SUFPOKTEBB. TioO UoM 

guardaiU are endorsed to the 
shield fn the same seal. 

Bisox.-— .^ lodtet. The 
shield bangs from this badge 
in the seal, where it first ap- 
pears. The abeenoe of the crescent strongly indicates the connection of 
the latter with the earldom. 

Wia-CBTM. — Parcyf Percf/ /—Entrance ."* Partsy ! See the evi- 
denoes nnder bis father. 

" MoNsm. RatiwPkbot. PeroycliArgod onthe shonlder ■withftmuUot of thaiold, 
(Willemenf B BolL) Thu wu EotBpur'B bnther. 

•• SatUngt, Our supplies liTe largely in flifi hrnia 

Ofgr~* "-""—'--'-• -^--^ ^ -- 



n incensed fire of mjur 

Barde^h, Conjecture, eipectatioa, and si 

Of aids uncertain, shoold not be admitted. 

Aip. Tori. 'Tia tgit true, L(»<d Bardolph ; ibi ii 
It wu young Hotspur t case at Bhrewsbuij. 



184 THE SECOND EARL. 

HENBY FERCT, Seoohs Earl, 1407-1455. Called J9mry d^ 
Ferity tha Third. — Senry Percy the third of thit name earl ef Sorthtu^er- 
Itmd. (2 Fordnn, 439, 448.) Tb« Scotch author oompiiaes Hotspur in 
the Bnameration, calling him plainly earl of Northumberland undei his 
death at Shrewabtuy, vhile be speaks of the after fortunes of " Henry 
eenior earl of Iforthiunberland." 

BuBiu. — 8t. J.UaH». He fell on the side of the Bed Bose at St. 
Albana, " and then Ijeth in his grave" (Peeris), in our Lady's Chapel 
of the Abbey ohnrch, 
with other noblemen 
in like manner s^a 'n. 
(ColUns.) His effigy, 
robed in the mantle 
of a peer, with Percy 
quartering Lucy on 
the breast, is conspic- 
uous on the north side 
oftheN.W. tower of 
theohanning minster 
at Beverley, and with 
that of hia coon teas in 
the stained glass for- 
merly at St. Denys, 
Tork.(Diigdale'8Ch. 
Ifotea.) 

Akms. — Perey and 
Zuey quarterly, as 
before. Seal, 1435 
(Surtees, vjii. 2). 
Durham cloisters. 
Hilton Castle, the 
Hiltone being sub- 
feudatories of Aln- 
wick for Shilbottle. Stwied glass at St. Denys, York. fDugdale's 
Church Notes.) In orientali fenestra capellee ex australi parti chori, 

Bardolph. It n-aa, my lord, who lined himself vith hope. 

Eattingi. But, hj your leave, it nsvet yet did hurt 

To lay down li^Uhooda and forms of hope. 
Bardolph, Tee, if this present quality of via 

Impede Qie instant act ; a cause on foot 

Lives so in hope, as in the early spring 

We seo th'appoaring buds ; which to prove fruit, 

Hope gives not so much warrant, as despair 

That frOBta will bite them.— (2 K. Hen. IV., i. 6.) 



THE BADGE OF ALNWICK ABBEY. 185 

in ecdesia collegiata beati Johannis Beyer] aci, impaling Nevil. (Ibid.) 
In orientali fenestra cancelli in ecclesia de Topcliffe. In australi fenestra 
ecclesiaB. In both instances are two shields, one impaled with NqyH, 
the other not impaled. (Ibid.) 

CsEST. — On a ehapeau, a lion atatantf tail drooping. Seal, 1435. 

SxTPPOBTBBS. — Ikffo Itons rampant Seal, 1435. 

Beast. — A Uon sefant, guardant. Sigillnm Henrici de Perei comitis 
NorthibrisB, cnstodis emarchisB versus Scotiam. (Kartshome, supple- 
mental plate, ascribed to 1446. Of. his son's seal.) The lion holds the 
banner of Percy and Lucy. The term * beast ' is technically used for 
the single supporter, generally in a sitting position, which holds a ban* 
ner. 

Badges. — A lion rampant* Keep, Warkworth. " In the north part 
of the said dungeon is portrayed a lion wrought in the stone very work- 
manly." (Clarkson's Survey.) Bondgate, Alnwick. The royal license 
to fortify the town is dated 12 Hen. VI. 

A lion rampant between the hams of a crescent. This device should, I 

think, be referred to the second earl's time. It 
is on a curious stone pannel let into a house in 
Bondgate Street, Alnwick. A shield marked 
with two crosiers in saltire refers it to the abbot 
of Alnwick, and he uses his patron's device as 
his successors did the crescent and locket. In the 
entrance to the same house is the cross patonce 
shield of Yescy, and farther on, in Narrowgate, 
the same coat is repeated.** On the dripstones of 
^ a west window in the church are two shields, 

one the plain cross, ^^so used by Yescy, the other the cross patonce. 
These arms also occur on the gateway of Alnwick Abbey, and they are 
probably intended by the crosses moline in the much altered chancel of 
the church which belonged to the convent. All this reference to the old 
lords of Alnwick long after their cessation assures me that their coat 
did not cease to be used for their foundation. The cross patonce is also 
in the seal of the town, borne on the shield of St. Michael, to whom the 
parish church is dedicated. 

A siher orescent, "Luna insigne Perciorum." (1 Lei. Coll., 617.)^ 

^ Some ancient masonry in this part of the town leads Mr. Way to suspect the ex- 
istence of a hostelry or other building used by the convent. At all events these 
stones very probably point to property belonging to it. 

3* This " charte of the genealogie of the dukes of Yorke" adds the word * Luna' 
to the name of each of this earl's children. 




186 BLACK AKD BED. 

" Item 1^10 libeTBtnnni meom argenteam, Anglioi ernunrnt, et libera' 
tnram meom, Anglic^ eoUer," ad feretrom 8. 'WilMdi." Will ofWiUum 
Stove, senior, of Ripon, an old retuner of the Peroya, 1430. (2 Teet. 
EboT., Snr. See., 12.) He must have been in good oironmBtancea, 
judging fix>m faia bequests and his ownaship of one basUrd (a long dag- 
ger) of silver, toi^ilung vbtoh it vaa orduned in 1403 that no peraou 
ahoold HBO a baalard, deootated with silver, unleaa he were poaseeaed of 
the yearly income of 201. 

In Durham oloisters, we have the bearing, Fv pal* red and black, a 

tihtr ortteaU, upon a shield, the shield of peace, like those oontuning 

fbathers upon the Black Prince's tomb. (Figured by Siuteee.) The 

old retainer Btowe had a bed of red at Warkworth, and one of bis \caSs 

tvo colonrs at Bipon, " one other bed of hlaiU and nd." When he was 

arrayed in them, after the party-oolonred fashion of attire in his day, his 

light side red and his left black, and his silver crescent hung from his 

eoUoT on his breast, he would present the same appearance as the shield. 

In later times the paly appearance is confined to the interior of the 

crescent, and a golden locket is thrown over the colonrs. I have already 

hinted that &om the speotacle-Uko aspect thus afforded we may have the 

phrase of Lord Northumberland's arms as bintamaant to a block eye. 

In the glass of the east window of the south 

aide of Warkworth chnroh is a crescent alone, 

with the horns brought np to unite, and the 

space enclosed given in pole as usual, but the 

colours are jfelloiB and black. The yellow is 

however pale, and cross-hatched with block, 

and perhaps the idea of red is intended to 

be conveyed, yellow being the only colour 

which the old stainera mingled with white 

in one piece of glass, and the size of the crescent being too small to 

admit of a separate insertioii of red. The cut is &om Vincent's MS ., 1 72. 

A ertiemt between tao locktU. On each dde of a capital in the chancel 

of Alnwick ohnrcb." (Figured in Hartshome, p. 166.) The ballad on 

the battle of Otterbum, which mentions " the^lucetts and the oressaunta " 

is referred by Bp. Percy to this earl's time. 

" PeriiBps a rara instanoe of tlie distzibutiDn of a collar of livery \j b subject. 



the first eail erased pBrdon in. Fnrliuneat 6 Hen. JY,, Tcre (he gathering of power, 
and giving of liverias, 

>* The crescent and locket respectirelf terminate tlie dripstones of one of tlie 
western windows of Alnwick diurch ; and the lookot ' and orescent (tie order being 
reversed] occupy the same position in Qie porch arch. 



BLACK AND RED. 



187 





A ere^eent enelonng a $prig of leaves in flower. 
Signet of the counteBS, attached to a letter dated at 
Warkworth among the correspondence of the con- 
vent at Durham. 

A Uon sejant guardaniy gorged with the ereseetU. 
Signet of the earl, attached to a letter of eren date 
v^ith that of his countess. The letters are in French 
in favour of the >vriter's chaplain John de Warmouth, who wished an 
exchange for the vicarage of Billingham, an arrangement which does 

not appear to have taken place, and are lying among 
others of Bp. NevU's time, 1427-1467." The next 
countess, Eleanor, used her own badge, a unicorn. 
The earl probably gave his signet to his younger 
son, Thomas Percy baron Egremont,^ who in 1454 
is found using one identical or nearly so. (Instru- 
ment poss. Dr. J. J. Howard.) 

LiVEBT CotovBB.'^Blaek and red. Their occurrence on the shield of 
peace and on a retainer's bed has already beeu adduced.) 

MoTxo. — Ssperanee. Signet of the countess, on the crescent (perhaps 
Vesperanee in this instance.) On the crescent in the abbofs panel, in 
Bondgate, Alnwick. In Arundel collegiate church occurs a brass of a 
rector of Sutton, named Esperaunee Blundell. (Dallaway's Arundel, 2nd 
ed. 201.) Sutton was part of the lordship of Petworth. Blundell was 
incumbent in 1413 by presentation of the prior of Lewes. Strange 
names suited the soil, for in Elizabeth's time, when Henry earl of 
Northumberland had obtained the advowson, we have Lodewio Lewes, 
and after him Acquila Cruso. (Ibid. 246.) 

Je espoyr. — On the signet of the earl, ut supra. The drawing from 
which the engraving was taken was not quite exact in the letters, which 
at the time puzzled all the inspectors of the original ; but on a careful 
examination of lord Egremont's signet mentioned above, I am pretty 
sure tliat this is the correct reading. 

^ The seals are surrounded Ly twisted straws, and occupy the centre of the rough 
red crosses formed on paper by melted sealing wax, or some other preparation of yer- 
million. I think that these were a key to the mode of folding and detectors of 
attempts to open, but my memory does not serve to explain the mode. 

^ Talbot ontrewe was tho oon Bogges name, 
Rauling Bewmond anodre, I understonde, 
The third also was made fid tame, 
He was called bold Egremonde. 

(Political poem, cir. 1460, 29 Arch. 335.) 



188 THE THIED EAEL. 

HENRT PEECT, Third Eabl of NoETHiTMBSBAin), 1455-1461. 
Galled Hm/ry Percy de Poininga (stained glass formerly at St. Denys', 
Tork)i or Lord de Paynings. (Parliamentary summonses in his father's 
lifetime.) 

BuBiAL.— iS^. BenySf Torh " In the north choir is a large hlue 
marhle, which has had two effigies on it, and an inscription round in 
brass, but now quite erazed. Under which it is said lies the body of 
Henry earl of Northumberland, probably him that was slain at Towton- 
field.^' (Drake.) Percy's Inne, the family mansion, was opposite to the 
church. VHiitaker fandfolly supposes that the motto Now ya thus, ac- 
companying a lion passant on a gold ring weighing above an ounce, and 
found at Towton field, alludes to the times, ** This age is as fierce as a 
lion," ascribing it to Northumberland himself. (Thoresby's Leeds, 157.) 
'* At Towton was slain on the evil Palm Sunday." (Peeris.) 

Asms. — Percy and Lucy quarterly, with a label of three points gules for 
difference. In australi fenestra ecclesisB de Topdiffe, 1666. In quadam 
boreali fenestra ejusdem ecclesiflB.^ Stained glass at St. Denys', York. 
(Dugdale's Church Notes.) Seal, 1446, used in his fstther's lifetime, as 
warden of the East Marches. (Surtees, Seals, yiii. 1 1, Eaine's North 
Durham, iv.) The label would of course disappear on his father's 
death. 

His wife bore the same coat with label impaling Poynings and Eitz- 
payne quarterly, viz. — 1 and 4. *' Six pieces barways or and vert, a 
bendlet gules," for Poynings.** 2 and 8. *' Gules, a bendlet azure upon 
three lions argent, passant, guardant" (Harl. MS. 692.), for Eitzpayne.^ 
Glass in the east window of Topclifie chancel, 1666. (Dugdale's Church 
Notes.) On '* Lady Eleanor de Poinings," •'. e» the after countess. Glass 

3' In altera boreali fenestra. Percy with a fleur-de-lis d'or on the lion's shoulder. 

William Pbkct, Bp. op Cablisle. — Arms, Percy and Lucy quarterly within 
a border of some width. — Motto, <* Sperar.''(?) Stained glass, S. Denys. (Dugdale, 
per Brake.) The bishop was the third earl's brother, and uses the same difference as 
his relative the bishop of Korwich. Ko other differences occur in the York window, 
whidi by William's dignity (conferred in 1452), and the expression " Orate pro bono 
statu," is fixed to the last three years of the second earl's life. The border was a 
difference of three archbishops of York in succession, Nevil, Arundel, and Scrope. 

*^ This coat occurs in Bolls temp, Edw. II. and Edw. III. 

^ ^* BoBBRT FrrzPAYNs followed them (the earl of Warren and Henry de Percy), 
He had his red banner, side by side, with three white lions passant, surcharged wim 
a blue baton," 1300. (Roll of Karlaverok.) There seems to have been an intimate 
connection with Maltravers, Montacute, and GiffiEu:^ the arms of the last fainily being 
the same as Fitzpaine without the bend. 
EoBEBT FrrzPATNE, knight, 1366. The same arms. Seal. (95 Gent. Mag. ii, 297) 
EoBEST PoYNiNOS, knight, 1416, 1418. Barry of six gold and green, a red bend, 
quartering red, three sUver lions passant, over all a blue bend. Seal« 1416. (Gent. 
Mag. ii. 297.) Ensigns at the siege of Bouen^ 1418. (Peck's Desid. Cur. 243) 



POYNINGS, FITZPAYNE, AND BRYAN. 189 

at St. Denys'. (Ibid, per Drake.) In this instance Poynings and Fitz- 
payne appear to the dexter. I have already made some remarks as to 
impalements being primarily proper to ladies. 

The baronies of Poynings, Fitzpayne, and Bryan, are not very in- 
teresting to a North-country man, yet they are too important in the 
history of the arms and titles of Percy to be passed over in silence, and 
any mere references would give the reader as much trouble as I have 
had in coming to some conclusion. The descent in blood from Bryan to 
Percy admits of no reasonable doubt ; that there was one from Fitzpayne 
ancient is not so clear. But in spite of modem dicta as to the mere 
personal character of baronies, certain it is, that both arms, name, and 
barony, for all practical purposes, passed with the lands from the old 
Fitzpaynes by entail to Robert de Grey, whose heiress married 
Poyniugs; for although his sitting is not capable of proof, no rival 
claimed the barony, and his descendants bore the style. 

The facts appear to be these, and most singular they are, not psu'alleled 
by lord Deincourt's disinherison in Edward II.'s time of his only issue, 
a granddaughter, in favour of a male relation of his own name.^ Bobert 
Fitzpayne (aged 28 in 1316), ha/oing a daughter Isabella, an infant 
(aged 30 <md upwards in 1354), did, in 1323 or 1324, when aged 36, or 
thereabouts, in conjunction with his wife £la, entail his estates by fine, 
in case they had no male issue, upon Eobert the younger son of Bichard 
de Grey of Codnor, whose elder brother John was bom not later than 
1305, and who himself (see his deposition in the Scrope case,) was bom 
about 1321, and was therefore an infant at the time of the settlement. 
The settlor died in 1354; his daughter, who married Sir John Chidioke 
and had issue, was disinherited ; and Grey took the lands, unth the arms 
and name of Fitzpayne, according to direction, but does not clearly ap- 
pear on the EoUs of Parliament. Se was then the husband of Eliza- 
both Bryan, and died in 1392, leaving a daughter and heiress Isabella, 
bom not later than 1363, who was the wife of Bichard lord Poynings 
and great-grandmother of lady Percy, whose legal right to the arms 



^2 The license, reciting his apprehension that his name and arms would be extin- 
guished in the person of his granddaughter, and his cordial desire that they eJiould 
be had in memory, gives permission to him to enfeoff whomsoever he would, and for 
the enfeoffees to regrant to him and his male relatives by name. It scarcely bears 
out Mr. Thynne's deduction &om it (1 Heame's Ant. Disc, 141), that none could deal 
with the family arms so long as any of the male line was living, for it does not ap- 

Sear that the consent of the males was necessuy. Thynne lays it down, Hke modem 
eraldic rules, that all the males had interest in the arms as in the blood ; but this was 
not so, for Deincourt contemplates that in their ordinary descent to his granddaughter 
they would be lost, and to prevent their so descending, he obtains leave to ahenate 
the land to a male Deincourt. 

VOL. IV. 2 b 



190 THE HEIBSHIP OF BRYANT. 

and land of Fitzpayne was clear. There was no tnheritanee of bloody but 
there may have been some descent of which we are not aware. 

Elizabeth Bryan was bom beyond the sea, and was naturalized in 
1351. Her mother, the first wife of Sir Ouy Bryan, died before 1350. 
His second wife was a Montacuto, by the coheiress of a Grandison. 
Becoming a widow for the second time in 1349, she married Bryan, and 
about 1354 was mother of Sir Guy Bryan the younger, who in an in- 
quisition of 1375 is expressly stated to have been her son. Bryan the 
son died in 1386, mentioning his brother Eobert le Fitzpayne in his 
wUl, and leaving female issue, which ran out in the person of Avioe 
Goxmtess of Wiltshire in 1457, all the male blood of the Bryans having 
previously failed. 

Four claims were then put in to the estates of Bryan. 1. By the 
Percys, in right of the heiress general of Poyning and of Guy Bryan the 
father, and under certain entails. 2. By the brother of the earl of 
Wiltshire, under fines levied by his countess then right heir of Bryan. 
3. By the heir male of Poynings, under an entail made on lady Percy's 
uncle. 4. By Sir Thomas Seymour, who claimed under one Margaret 
Erlegh, sister or aunt of Guy Bryan the younger, alleged to be the heiress 
general of Guy the father, by reason of the doctrine of half blood, which 
affected the relation between Elizabeth Fitzpayne and her brother Guy 
the younger,* and also claiming under a will of the countess of Wilt- 
shire's grandmother, then right heir. 

The matter seems to have himg much upon the legal effect of many 
and varying settlements, which may be seen in 3 Coll. Top. 270, by the 
curious in such matters. A question of peerage might have been affected 
by the question whether Elizabeth Fitzpayne and Margaret Erlegh 
were sisters or not,^ but at least the senior coheirship of the Bryans 
vested in Percy by descent, and, in 1488, after a contest of thirty years, 
it was agreed that all the claimants should have some of the estates, but 
that '' the said earl of Northumberland is and oweth to be taken and re- 
puted as heir general to the said Sir Guy de Brien."** This would give 
him an exclusive right to bear the Bryan arms. 

*3 I have not examined the pedigrees of St. Manr critically. The Percys seem ta 
have claimed the entirety, and therefore they did not contemplate a coheirship. 

^^ It is remarkable that in the Seymour share is the manor of Wrozhall, and all 
the lands there which were of Sir Guy Bryan. Now this manor occurs in the licences 
to Robert and Ela Fitzpayne, to settle on Bobert Grey. Bankes supposed that £la 
was one of the sisters of Sir Guy Bryan the father. 

Besides the Coll. Top., the reader may consult Dugdale's Baronage, Nicolaa'A 
Scrope and Grosvenor Boll, and Beltz's Order of the Garter. 



BADGES OF POYNINGS AND FITZPAYNK 



191 




Gbest. — A goMm crescent. Glass at St. Denys'. (Dagdale's Church 
Notes.) This was perhaps only during his father's lifetime. 

[^ hlach dragoiCB head between its mnffs, is 
among the crests or cognizances of Percy in Yin- 
cent's MSS. for *'Poynings/' and is found on 
the seal of Sir Eohert Poynings, the grandfather 
of lady Percy, in 1416. (95 Gent. Mag., ii, 297.)] 

Beist. — A Uon sejant, guardant, — Seal, 1446. 
Se holds the hanner as in the seal quoted under 
the second earl. 

Sabges. — ^^ A crescent and a lion" — Signet as warden, 1461. (Raine's 
North Durham, v.) 

A unicorn with a tree behind 7*m.— Signet of the countess Eleanor 
when a widow, 1463. (3 Coll. Top. 270.) A unicorn statant appears 
on the sinister side of the shield in the seal of her grandfather, Sir 
Robert Poynings, in 1416, «i supra. 

\_A Joey erect, handle uppermost, crowned, appears 
in the same seal and will be found as a fayourite 
badge of Percy.*" It also occurs in the seal of Sir 
Michael de Poynings, 1359. {VideKer. Notices of 
I Canterbury Cathedral, 84.)] 

[^A black curved falchion or scimitar, hilted and 
tipped gold, is hence- 
forth worn by the 
Percys for Fitzpayne, 
I suspect some con- 
nection with the Long- 
specs of Salisbury, but 

this peculiarly formed weapon probably alludes to the Saracenic-sounding 

name of Filius Pagani, The annexed example is from Vincent's MS. 

172, temp. Eliz., among the badges of Percy, all of which are placed 

upon wreaths. The strap is not usual.] 

Owing to litigation, the insignia of Bryan do not appear to have 

vested in this generation. 

*' This badge seoms to have continned in the male line of Poynings. The standard of 
* Mr. Ponenges/ teinp. Hen. VIII., (Harl. MS. 4632) is powdered with crowned keys, 
with the motto Loyaulte na peur. So also in MS. 1. 2. Coll. Arm. Sir Edward 
Poynings i^^assigned a red standard, with a silver unicorn courant, armed and unguled 
gold, and eight silver keys crowned gold. Motto, Loyal et n*apaour. He gives the 
Poynings arms without difference, and quarters Fitzpayne and Bryan. Modem 
heraldry was fast advancing. In Vincent's MS. 172, separately from the group of 
Percy badges, the key and cord, engraved above, are headed with the name of Poynings. 





192 THE FOURTH EARL. 

HENRY PERCY, Fourth Earl op Northumbkrlakd, 1461 -(restored 
1470)-1489. In the St. Denys glass he is styled ''FUius de Poiningsy 
I have given his autograph in the plate of facsimiles, from a letter cir. 
1480, among Beddem papers in York Minster. 

'RjTKSXL.'^Bw&rley Minster. This fourth earl fell a victim in 1489 to 
popular discontent, on his enforcing Henry YII/s exactions, and was 
murdered at a seat near Thirsk, at Topcliffe it may he assumed, though 
I do not rememher hearing Topdiffe Castle called Cocklodge, as the 
historians have it. 

By his will, made at Newhurgh in 1485, the unfortunate earl had 
desired '' to he huried in the college church of Beverley, if it fortune 
me to die in the county of York." (2 Col. Top., 65.) The expenses of 
his funeral amounted to upwards of 1,510/. of the money of that day." 
" At Beverley Minster hee lyeth, and alsoe lady Mawd his wife. In 
the which minister five priests bee found dayly to singe and masses to 
say for lord Henry and Mawd*s soule as they bee bound, and for their 
ancestors deceased devoutly to pray. At an altar by his tombe they 
siDge every day, and three headmen hee founded there alsoe to continue 
and pray alway." (Peeris.) Dugdale, in a MS. note in his Baronage,*^ 
states that the grave of Maud being opened in September, 1678, "her 
body was found in a fair coffin of stone, embalmed, and covered with 
clotii of gold, and on her feet slippers embroidered with silke ;^ and 
therewith a wax lampe, a candle, and plate candlestick." The grave 
was '' near unto the before specified monument" of the fourth earl." 

Dallaway (Hist. Sussex, under Petworth) says that " for the preser- 
vation of this monument a small stipend is stiU paid." The stately 
tomb was " much defaced" in Dugdale's time. (Baronage.) The ex- 
pression probably refers to the canopy. 

The Percy Chapel is at the east end of the north aisle of the minster. 
It opens from the remainder of the aisle by an arch resting on corbels. 

^ A shorte draught of the charge of the buiiall of our Lord and Maister Earl of 
Nortliumberland whose soule Jesu pardon, (inter alia) — A standart 41. — ^A baner, 
3/. 6s. 8^. — His cote armer of seynet, betyn with his annys, 51. — 12 baners of sarcenet, 
betyn with my lord's armys, at lOs. the pece, 6^. — 100 penseUs of sarcenett, at I2d, 
the pece, 61. — 60 scutchions of bukeram betyn with my lord's armys (hole armys), at 
I2d. the pece, for the chaire, herse, and church, 3^. — The reward to two officers of 
armys, for their helpe and payne in orduring the said buriall, at 101. the pece for 
coming from London, ther coste and reward, 20^. — [13,340 poor folks that came the 
day of the burial received 2d. each. 600 priests \l2d, each) and 1,000 clerks (4<f. 
each) came to it.]— (See Neve's MSS. per Peck's Desid. Cur., 246.) 

*■' Library of the Dean and Chapter of Worcester, per Bp. Percy. There was a 
similar note in a copy in Mr. Cough's possession. 
48 "Silver and gold." (Cough.) 
*B See the notes under the Percy shrine, supra. 



THE EARL'S TOMB AT BEVERLEY. 193 

The bracket next to the choir or Lady Chapel is composed of the shield 

of Percy supported by angels, that against the north wall is similarly 

decorated with the arms of Lucy (the fishes being of equal height) 

and angels. Under this arch is a perpendicular screen of wood with 

doors. There is a niche, as if for an effigy, in the wall under the east 

window of this chapel, above which window is an angel bearing the 

quartered coat of Percy and Lucy. There is some stained glass in this 

window, comprising the earl's arms, as afterwards mentioned. The 

leading above these remnants, and in other windows in the minster and 

St. Mary's church, is disposed in fanciful devices of covered cups, orbs 

crowned, and stars of different kinds. 

This east window, as to its stone work, is considered by Petit to be 

earlier than the monument. The window to the north of the chapel is, 

however, contemporaneous, and is the only one in the fabric having a 

depressed arch. Angels bear shields up the splay of this window in the 

following order : — 

Percy and Lucy. 

A unicorn ? ^ Percy. 

Lucy. " Defaced, 

Old Percy. Dragons ? 

A crescent enclosing the locket.*^ Bryan. 

Percy and Lucy. A bascule and a crescent. 

Gough figures an inscription on the floor, " A d'ni 149 . .," perhaps re- 
ferring to the death of the countess Maud. 

The great altar tomb of the earl is now in the centre of the chapel, 
but in Terr's time " between the two closetts or chappells at the east 
end is erected this tomb of blue marble." It was "removed from the 
south wall and its stately canopy broken down for repair." (Qough's 
Camden.) Fragments of the canopy lay beside it Prom Dugdale's 
notes we acquire an idea of this canopy. It rose in an ogee arch with 
spandrils full of heraldry, above which were horizontal mouldings 
surmounted by a battlement. Dugdale and Torr differ a little in 
the order of the quarterings and other details. 

The altar tomb itself is very perfect, but somewhat debased in style. 
The badges are placed upon square projections, and not on shields as are 
the arms. The statues of the dado are all gone. Judging from the 
crooks remaining in the niches, I think that they may have been 
moveable. The heraldric insignia are the following : — 

North side. — 1. The locket. 2. Poynings. 3. Bryan. 4. Old Percy. 

^ It is very curious that in one drawing in "Waiburton's MSS. from Dugdale, 
(another one is right,) and in Torr, this shield is giyen with the locket upon the 
crescent. 



194 THE BARL'S TOMB AT fiEVERLET. 

5. The locket. 6. The crescent. 7. Lucy. 8. Percy. 9. The crescent. 
West side, — 1. Old Percy. 2. The locket. 3. The crescent. 4. Lucy. 

5. Percy. 

South side, — 1. The crescent. 2. Poynings. 3. Bryan. 4. Defaced 
(probably Old Percy). 6. The locket. 6. The crescent. 7. Lucy. 

8. Percy. — ^9. The locket 

JEHasl side. 1. Bryan. 2. Old Percy. 3. Poynings. 4. Lucy. 

6. Percy. 

Dagdale, in his Church Notes of 1641, gives a shield, similar to that 
now remaining in glass, as in " the south window of the chapel, on the 
south side of the choir, towards the east," with the earl and countess on 
each side, he dressed in blue and green, she in the blue and crimson of 
Herbert. Behind him are male children, behind her are females, and 
below is the inscription :— '^ Orate pro animabus Henrici quarti Gomitis 
Northumbrise et Domini de Poynings, et Matildis uxoris filiea "Willielmi 
Herbert Comitis Pembrochiffi, ac pro bono statu filiorum et filiarum." 
" In the upper part of the same window " were Percy and Lucy, and 
the same impaling Herbert. ** In the east window of the said chapel " 
were Percy and Lucy impaling Nevil, Old France and England, and the 
same labelled silver. ''Sculptured about the south window of the 
aforesaid chapel" were — 1. Percy and Lucy, 2. The crescent and locket, 
3. Old Percy, 4. Lucy, 6. Percy, 6. Percy and Lucy, 7. Percy, 8. Percy, 

9. Bryan, 10 ? These appear to be intended for the charges 

given on the previous page, beginning at the left base and going up- 
ward and down to the right base. Dugdale is right in his other 
descriptions of the church as to the cardinal points. 

Abms. — Four grand quarters, 1 and 4. Ferei/ and Lacy quarterly. 
2 and 3. Poynings and IHtzpayne quarterly. Glass at S. Denys'. (Dug- 
dale and Drake.) 

Quarterly. 1. Percy and Lucy quarterly. 2. Poynings, 3. Fitz- 
payne. 4. Old Percy, On an escutcheon of pretence or surtout, Gold, 
three blue piles, the centre one longest, and not conjoined at the base, for 
Bryan. Impaling, Per pale red and blue, three silver lions rampant, for 
Herbert, East window of the Percy Chapel, Beverley Minster. It has 
already been mentioned, that this earl was in 1488 acknowledged to be 
heir general of Bryan. In the stone work of the north window, the 
arms of Bryan occur in their usual and proper form of three piles con- 
joined at their base.® 

51 Sir Gtjt de Bbyan, knt. Gold, three blue piles from the chief, conjoined at 
base. (Willement's Roll, inter 1392-7.) Seal, 1380 (95 Gent. Mag., ii, 297), StaU 
plate. The onlv arms on his monument, at Tewkesbury, are those of himself impaling 
Montacute. The crest is much defaced, but seems to have been a griffin's head. 



THE LION TOWER AT WARKWORTH. 195 

The surtout also occurs on the earl's monumental canopy. Torr and 
Bugdole vary in the aiTangement of the quarterings. The surtout is of 
very rare occurrence in England, in place of a quartering, hut common 
in Scotland. Nisbet says, without quoting any authority, that before 
the Lucy match, the Percys quartered Black, a golden lion rampant, for 
Louvaine, with Black, a golden chief indented, for Percy ; and that, 
after it, they quartered Louvaine and Lucy, and wore Percy "in an 
inescutcheon, by way of surtout." 

Percy and Lucy only. Garter plate. In the upper part of the south 
window of the chapel, on the south part of the choir, according to Dug- 
dale^ was this coat, and the same impaling Herbert (for the countess). 
This simple quartering occurs in stone above the east and north windows 
of the present north chapel, and in the side of the latter is the same, 
borne by an angel having a cross over his brow, as Gabriel is represented. 

Percy Andent lion Tower, Warkworth. The date of this building is 
fixed, architecturally, by its fan-tracery, its weakness of conception and 
detail, and its great similarity to the porch of Warkworth Church, which 
is added to a Perpendicular south aisle. The bascule of Herbert confirms 
the allocation to this earl. The arms of Lucy also occur alone on this 
tower, and above them there probably was a banner charged with Percy 
and Lucy quarterly, and held by the great lion. 

Cbest. — On a chapeau ermine, a lion passant, the tail lashed. Garter 
plate. Lion Tower, Warkworth, above Percy ancient. 

Beast.— ^ [white'] lion statant, guardant, gorged with a crescent, 
which is inscribed with ((ti^^txwxtt. Lion Tower, Warkworth, where 
this large and terrible beast probably supported a banner." 

Stjppoetebs.— -4 .... and a crowned lion, guardant. The old cornice 
above the badge of a lion rampant on the barbican of Alnwick Castle 
contains three badges, each with two supporters. Of the first, the locket, 
the sinister supporter is a " crowned lion, full face; the dexter side is all 

AiiiCE DE Bbyak, his daug}iter-in-law, is buried at Acton, Suffolk. Her brass gives 
— 1. The same coat differenced by a label of three points, for her late husband Guy the 
yoimger. 2. The same differcuced coat, impaling Bures, for herself. Date, c. 1425. 

Sir William db 3>ryan, knt., brother of Guy the younger, and eventually heir- 
male. The same coat, a canton paly of four, silver and blue, charged with a red bend, 
thereon three golden eagles displayed. This difference is from his maternal grand- 
mother Grandison. ("Willement's Itoll.) — The piles only, for himself; and the same 
impaling Fitzalan and Maltravers quarterly, for his wife. Brass, 1395, Seal ch., Kent. 

Here are two instances of the impaled shields in company with unimpaled ones! 
the former evidently for the wives. In the impalement of Percy and Herbert in the 
text, we find the adoption of the modem usage. 

52 ** At the entry into the hall, for the porch thereof, is raised a little square tower, 
wherein is two chambers, and on the fore side in stone portrayed a lion, very work- 
manly wrought, and therefore called the Lion Tower," (Clarkson*s Survey in 1567.) 
There is another lion on the central boss of the vaulting. 



196 HEDGLEY CROSS. 

broken away.'' (Inf. Mr. Way.) Perhaps thia is tlie crowned panther 
which appears on a pennon of the sixth earl, and being there marked 
'Percy/ is distinct from the incensed panther and crowned lion of 
Beaufort, which came with the wife of the fifth earl. 

The cornice in question was incorrectly restored in the last century. 
The original sculptures are still preserved in the Duke of K^orthumber- 
land's museum. 

A lion and a unieorn, for Percy and Poynings. These support the 
central badge, apparently a bird full faced, on the cornice. Both are 
regardant, looking at the supporters of the badges on each side. The 
supporters of the bascule of Herbert, the third badge, are the same. 

A [iiher'] unioom, chained, for Poynings, and a [siher'] hoar. Sup- 
porting the quartered coat within the garter, on the dexter spandril of 
the canopy over the earl's tomb. (Dugdale. Torr.) The brawn seems 
to have come through Poynings, perhaps from Bryan or Eitzpayne. 

A lion and a dragon. Supporting the locket within a garter in- 
scribed Esperanee, on the sinister spandril. The dragon may be con- 
nected with the crest of Poynings, or more probably the famous Green 
Dragon or <' Herbert's Dragon." The animals on the seal of Guy de 
Bryan in 1380, if supporters at all, appear to be griffins, not dragons. 

Standard. — '' Cressant silver," 1-475. (2 B«tr. Eev., N. S., 515.) 

Badges.—*^ golden ereaeent. Above the quartered coat in the Bever- 
ley glass. The interior of the crescent, black as it is, has an appearance 
of something per pale in it. 

A silver orescent. Standard, 1475. It is somewhere stated that as 
Bichard III. left Leicester the day before the battle of Bosworth, a poor 
old blind man, who had been a wheelwright, and sat begging near the 
bridge, cried out that if the moon changed twice that day. King Eichard 
would lose both life and crown. The moon in the heavens did change 
that day, and was followed by the crescent on earth. The red rose for 
which the heir of Poynings had suffered in his youth, again blossomed. 
He remained inactive on the field, and Crouchback fell. 

Two remarkable works could hardly have been previously executed 
by this earl. One is the effigy of his sainted master, the sixth Henry, 
standing above his supporters, the lion and antelope, in Alnwick Church. 
The other arose upon Hedgley Moor, where the earl's great uncle. Sir 
Ealph Percy, died in 1464, with the joyous cry on his lips : — " I have 
saved the bird in my bosom." (Grafton.) It is ingeniously argued 
(4 Arch. -^1., 0. S., 33) that this singular expression referred to Sir 
Ralph's care for the queen's safety, and not to his loyalty, which indeed 
had been actively transferred to Edward IV. only a short time before. 



HEAFORLAW TOWER. 



107 



'^ The cross was erected on the spot where he fell, to remind passen- 
gers to pray for his soul, and has been much distinguished by the 
Northumbrians of the circumjacent villages. Here they were ac- 
customed to dissemble annually to play at foot-ball, cudgels, and other 
rustic games ; and they have invented circumstances that particularize 
every thing near it. Thus a spring of water, that issues not far from 
the cross, is still called Percy's "Well, at which this chieftain is said to 
have drunk in the heat of the battle. At some distance to the north- 
west, stood two large stones (one of which was broken to furnish ma- 
terials when the turnpike road was made) ; these, although they were 
several yards asunder, were called Percy's Leap." (4 Ant. Kep., 392.) 

The four pxincipal sides of the pillar exhibit a profusion of crescents, 
lockets, lucies, and fusils, differently arranged on each. The crescent 
appears in one instance as an increscent, and in another as a deoresent. 
The crescent is frequent on the earl's tomb, and was so on its canopy. 
A ereaesfU, tnarked mth ffi^eranre* Lion Tower, Warkworth. On 
the cornice the word Esperarwe forms the commencement of the inscrip- 
tion Bsperanee ma Comfort, but on the lion's neck the crescent contains 
Mperanee only. 

A orescent and a lion passant. Alternately 
on the chamfered ledge of the earl's tomb, 
below the next arrangement. 

A orescent and a locket. Porch of Wark- 
worth Church, each on the head of a buttress. 
Alternately on the moulding of the earl's 
tomb, immediately under the battlement. 

A crescent enclosing a loeket, Hedgley 
Gross. K^orth window of the chapel, Bever- 
ley. (See engraving.) Heaforlaw Peel, near 
Alnwick. 
I have no evidences of this joint badge 
earlier than this Henry's time, but thero fleems to be a difference of 

date on the Heaforlaw examples, which apper- 
tain to the abbey of Alnwick. On the east 
face the orescent is plain, and the heart-shaped 
lings touch so closely as to appear to intersect, 
and in Hartshorne, p. 81, are actually given aa 
interweaving. The crosiers are also very plain, 
and at each side of them is one of two very 
doubtful letters, possibly b. h. On the south 
foce of the tower the rings are more distinct, the 
crescent is beaded, the crosiers crocketted, and 





VOL. IV. 



2c 



198 



THE BASCULE OF HEEBEET. 




^^^^/^j tains Ma Comfort, part of the 
=~\ sjL armorial window splay at Bey 



the lettesrs are something like d. b. (Mr. Way,) An engraying of the 
latter example is given by the kind assistance of Mr. F. B. Wilson, of 
Alnwick. 

A locket On Hedgley Cross, frequent. This appears to have heen 
a very favoarite badge of the earl ; so much so, that it is placed on the 
canopy of his tomb, encircled by a garter inscribed (Sl^tVHnttf and ac- 
companied by supporters, as on the barbican cornice at Alnwick. Other 
lockets also occur upon the monument. The angel which bears a dra- 
conic badge on the north window also wears the locket, and has been 
engraved under the first earl. 

Afideon displayed? within a circle. This appears to be the second 
or central badge on the Alnwick barbican. (Mr. Way.) 

A bascule, for Herbert This curious badge appears in this generation 
only, as Maud Herbert was not an heiress. It is the third badge on the 

barbican, and it occurs in a more conventional form 
"l on the lion Tower at "Warkworth, where it con- 
motto, and on the 

^^ ^^.^j _. Beverley, where a cres- 

,^^f cent accompanies. By the kindness of Mr. King, 
York Hendd, I am enabled to add more formal 
examples. One is from Yincent's MS. 172, among 
the Herbert badges, and resembles that engraved 
in Excerpta Historica, from the MS. I. 2. GoU. 
Arm., where it is given for Charles Somerset the 
Lord Chamberlain, who married lady Northumber- 
land's niece the heiress of Herbert, and became 
lord Herbert himself. The other is a sketch £rom 
Raglan Castle, the seat of the Herberts. 

The word Bascule is thus explained in James's 
Military Dictionary :— " Bascule, Fr., a counter- 
poise which serves to lift up the drawbridge of a 
town ; likewise a term used in fortifications to ex- 
press a door that shuts and opens like a trap-door." 
The way in which the bascule moves is shown in 
the Baglan example. According to a sketch by 
Sir Samuel Meyrick, when the bridge was down, 
the bascule hung in a horizontal position above the 
head of the passenger. The chains fitted to the 
end of the platform and the bascule was made to 
assist in letting it down, or pulling it up, by being 
poised exactly. 



Warkworth. 




Berarlef, 




Tinoent. 




ESPEEANGE MA COMFORr. 199 

Qent calls the Beverley example a pilgrim's purse 
(Hist. HuJl), and Gough says that there is " a 
figure with the pilgrim's purse on a capital in the 

rn yy"^^ Itr^ north cross." 

Ifll ^ ' 1 In X -^ untoom, for Poynings, appears to be intended 

in one of the shields of the Beverley window. This 
is scarcely a badge of retainers ; it is rather the 
beast of Poynings. 
A Draff on ? — The badge borne by the angel wear- 
ing the locket is very difficult to make out, Torr's "comer chepel'^ 
being somewhat^ dark. Perhaps the Green Dragon of Herbert, holding 
a hand and chained, may be meant, if there is no reference to the 
dragon's head of Poynings. 

A Um rampant. Barbican, Alnwick, under the cornice so often alluded 
to. Scarcely a true badge. 

ZueisB or pikejkh are used without a shield on the Hedgley Hoor cross, 
two and three together. (4 Ajit. B.ep, 390. 1 Sykes' Loo. Rec. 61.) 

Fu8%h are similarly used on the cross. Three of them are laid on 
their sides, one above another. (Ibid.) These lucies and fusils are 
scarcely true badges, but only arms drawn in this strange way. 

\A blue or black hugle-horn sans strings^ tipped and garnished with 
gold, for Bryan, henceforth appears as a badge of Percy. It appears as 
the crest of Sir William de Bryan on his brass of 1395, and Beltz gives 
it from the stall plate of Sir Guy de Bryan, the father, as on a red 
chapeau, faced ermine, a black hunting horn, garnished gold. 

A falchion, for ^Ys^ayn^.-— Skelton, who was patronized by the fifth 
earl, wrote an elegy on the dolorous death of his father, whom he 
calls, " of knightly prowess the sword pomel and hilt — the mighty lyoun 
[re]doubted by sea and land." 

TAoTTO -'^.Esperanee Ma Comfort This appears to be the form on the 
badges on the cornice of the Lion Tower. The word comfort, as Mey- 
rick observes, implies exhortation or excitement, a rallying appeal. Odo, 
in the Bayeux Tapestry, urges on a body of troops, and the explanation 
is, " Hie Odo confortat pueros." The word comfort is the mot, word, 
or cry of English writers, and we find Hotspur's army using Esperanoe 
as such. In the Mirror for Magistrates, 1574, the first earl's spirit is 
made to translate the motto literally : — '' Add therefore this to JSsper- 
anee my word^ 

I do not know Surtees's authority for ascribing the motto '' Esperaunce 
ma Comforte" to the devils, but in a roll of standards, about 1522, 
*' Espoure me comfort" is given to Strangewayes. (Coll. Top. and Gen.) 



200 NORTHUMBERLAND AND PERCY HERALDS. 

The motto is, I thinks pecolimr to this earL It ooourred as Etperance 
ma Canfart on two scrolls below the amis in the Beverley glass. (Bug- 
dale.) On the cornice of the Alnwick barbican it mns, (crescent) 
Esperaunee (locket) Mu C<mforU (a little branch ?) and again, under 
the lion there, we haye it repeated. In all these instances we have the 
Etperame separated from Ma ChmfcrU^ in the last instance by initials 
looking like those of the earl and countess, )|« fBi^ but there is some- 
thing between them, hardly the contraction for $t. Through these 
characters a slender chain runs from EtperawMe to Ma. (Mr. Way.) 
This motto was engraven on a ring found in taking up the foundation 
of a tower at Alnwick Castle in 1763, the central word being me* 
(Sykes.) 

JSsperance en Dim ma Comforte, On the ceiling of Wressel Chapel 
(since burned), which Bishop Percy considered as apparently earlier 
than the fifth earl's decorations. (Household Book, Appendix.) The 
words ma comforte seem to fix this compound motto to this earl. It is 
the first appearance of the present form, Mperanee en Dieu, 

JSsperance. Formerly above the earl's arms in the Beverley glass. 
(Dugdale.) On the garter round the locket, upon the monument, and 
on a scroll on the same. (Dugdale. Torr.) On the crescent round the 
lion's neck at Warkworth. 

HsBALD. — Nbrthumherland Herald. Boll of heralds, temp. Edw. lY. 
(1 Heame's Ant. Disc. 161.) In 1472, an herald by this title attended 
on the creation of the earl of Winchester. In 22 Edw. IV. he was 
sent with Oarter king of arms into Scotland, to declare Edward's re- 
fusal to marry his daughter with the Scottish king's son. Under 
Kichard III. Northumberland Herald had instructions given him re- 
lating, to the Scotch ambassadors. (1 Edmondson, 114.) We find 
sereral other officers well known by their titles as private heralds, 
acting for the croWn and receiving recompense for their special services.'^ 

^ Erroneously restored as Eaperance, S, P. JEn Dieu, 

M Peucy Hebald. — ^There is some obscurity respecting the ancient officer, or 
officers, public or private, or both, of this name. We first find him in the orders of 
John of Gaunt to the marshal of his army, Sir Thomas Percy (afterwards earl of 
Worcester), to open a treaty with the inhalntants of Orense. Sir Thomas, * calling 
to him a herald^ sent him to speak to the besieged. The herald entered the ditdb 
* clothed in a coat of arms which had belonged to the duke of Lancaster.' '* Herald, 
what is it you want } ^* said the bastard D'Aubroy on the walls. '* I am one of the 
captains in this town, with whom I fancy you come to speak.'' ** It is so," replied 
*the herald, whose name was Percy,' "my lord marshall bids you come to the bar- 
riers, for he is desirous to parley and treat with you." It does not appear that the 
improvised coat of arms was the one which the herald was accustomed to wear, and 
in 1380 Froissart has a similar instance of the heralds wearing the coat of the sender, 
when the heralds Gloucester and Aquitaine wore the emblazoned arms of the eari of 
Buckingham in going from him to the duke of Burgundy. *' Wales Herald, in 2 Hen. 







X 

t 



z 

h 



i 



I 

* 

o 



3 

oe 



S 
3 
Z 
h 



Z 
h 

K 
3 
O 



z 

h 
O 

z 

oe 

f 



ESPERANCE PURSUIVANT. 201 

PuBsxjiviJsrc. — Esperanee PurHdvant. Roll of Heralds, temp. Edw. 
IV. (1 Heame's Ant, Disc, 161.) " In which office there was a suc- 
cession, as appears by a petition of one of them for the settlement of the 
Bsual salary. (M. 16, in GoU. Arm., p. 154.) In 1369, the duke of 
Bourbon took this word Uj^enmeBj and instituted an order of knight- 
hood by that denomination/' (1 Edmondson, 128.) 

HENRY PERCY, Fifth Eabl, 1489-1527. 

Bishop Percy, in printing the celebrated Household Book of this earl, 
calls him Henry Algernon. Neither his legal documents, his autographs, 
his chaplain Peeris's metrical history, nor the contemporary prose 
chronicle in Harl. MS., 692, give him the second name. On his garter 
plate, however, he is called "Henricus Algernon Piercy, comes North- 
umbrisB, hujus nominis quintus," and he probably assumed the name of 
Algernon as one older than Percy, ''Gemons first named, Brutus' blood 
of Troy," and in his standards he seems to have treated the blue lion 
passant as speciaUy representing his race under that name.^ The 
jealousy of the Tudors on the subject of badges is well known, and it is 
fortunate that the earl's love of pomp and show, as well as of poetry, 
discloses a mass of evidence touching the uses of the bearings of Percy 
just before their true spirit expired. His very autograph often carries 
with it a magnificence. This appears gloriously in the bold 
** Harry Northumberland" in Capheaton archives of 1499 and 1501; 
but years produce idleness, and in 1515, a meaner autograph '' w^ the 
rude fest of hym that hys yoris, H. Northu'berland " ends a letter to 
the prior of Durham. 

BuBiAX. — Beverley Mimter. His countess Katherine, the co-heiress 
of Spencer, Beaufort, and Beauchamp, by will dated and proved in 
1542, desires burial "within the monasterie of Beverley, and in the 
tombe ther of my saide late lorde and husbande." 

Abms. — Quarterly of ^e. — ^I. Percy and Lucy quarterly. II. Old 
Percy. III. Poynings. IV. Fitupaine. V. Bryan. Garter plate.* 

v., surrendered the patent made to him by King Richard II., and obtained a new one 
by tlie title of F&t-cy Herald, as will be shown hereafter. — Shrewsbury Herald, in 7 
Hen. IV., was sent by the lords of the council with letters to the King, and was 
thence made Fercy Herald** (1 Edmondson, 115.) '< The office of an herald hath also 
oceasionally been given as a reward for some considerable services, and sometimes for 
bringing the first tidings of good news." Tlbid. 118.) "P<T<?y was Herald to the 
earl of Northumberland in the reigns of Ricnard II. and Hen. IV." (Ibid. 129.) 

^ In more than one quartered escutcheon of the Percys in Elizabeth's time I haye 
seen the new arms of rercy, the blae lion, called Algernon, and tiie old ones, the 
fusils, called Percy. 

^ JoscELiNE Peecy his brother, fourth son, who died 1632. The same arms, 
differenced by a martlet, impaling Frost quarterly with Amyas. Badge, the crescent 
and fetterlocK, Pew at Sandal. (Gough's Sep. Mon., 310.) 



) 



202 THE FIFTH EAEL. 

The same coat occurred ''in the castle of Skipton, sculptured upon a 
certain wooden table in the ambulatory there," impaled with Clifford, 
in reference to the marriage of this earl's daughter to the earl of Cum- 
berland. (Dugdale's Notes.) In both instances the first and second 
quarterings occupy the upper half of the coat. In the first, the Poynings 
quarterings are spread equally oyer the lower portion; in the second, 
Sryan occapies a Ml half of the shield under old Percy. 

Quarterly of six. — ^I. and VI. Ferey and Old Percy quarterly. II. 
Luey. III. Poynings, IV. FiUpayne. V. Bryan. This singular coat 
is impaled with Fitzalan and Maltravers on "the sepulchral chapel at 
Petworth of Wm. Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, who married Anne, this 
earl's sister, and died at a great age in 1543." (Dallaway.) I apply it 
to this earl, as there is no trace of Beaufort. 

Percy and Old Percy quarterly. East window of Sutton church, in 
the lordship of Petworth. (Dallaway.) 

It would appear from these examples that out of the Lucy estates, 
and in the old fee of Percy in the honor of Arundel, it was not con- 
sidered necessary at this time to quarter Lucy in the grand quarter, or 
even at all. 

Percy and Luey quarterly. The Earl's MS., Reg. Bib., No. 18, D. 11. 
'' The order of the whole preparation and carriage of the Bight Honor- 
able Henry Earl of Northumberland, when he went to the siege of 
Turwin, in France, 5 Hen. VIII." [1514] (4 Ant. Eep. 346.)" contains 
the following items :— 

'' Two coats of arms for my lord, of satin, viz., crimson, blue, and 
green, with his arms beaten upon it with fine gold in oil colours.—* 
Banners for my lord. — Two staffs painted red and block for my lord's 
banners.— 6 banners for trumpets, beaten upon sarcenet with my lord's 
whole arms in oil colours.-— 30 scutcheons in metal,^ wrought in oil 
colours upon huokramy with my lord's whole arms in a scutcheon for to 
be set upon my lord's tents when they be set up. — 300 scutcheons in 
metal within the garter, wrought upon paper for to set upon my lord's 
own lodgings. — . . . .scutcheons in colours, wrought upon paper, within 
the garter, for to set upon my lord's captain's lodgings." The servants' 
lodgings had crescents only. 

Bannebolle. — " 24 banner roUes of red and black buckram, with my 
lord's name and coynizances beaten in oil colours for to set upon my 

67 There is a somewliat similar inventory in L. 8, Coll. Ann. It begins : — ^Fnret a 
perre of cnress' with a sallet &c., with gussetts, cressaunts, and yche of male.*' Miy 
lord's arms quarterly, his device, word, &c., are mentioned, not described. There 
are " standers with corantynes, pennons with demysentts," and " cressaunts for my 
lord's conisaunts" to set on jackets for my lord's ** sourgeours." — (A. W.) 

68 This expression appears to refer to gold and silver in opposition to yellow and 
white. 



BANNEROULES AND STANDAEDS OF PERCY. 203 

lord's carriages. 34 etares painted nd and hlach, for the foresaid ban- 
ner rolles for carriages," (Turwia Bi^je.) BanneroIJes were sc[uar6 like 
booneTS, but much Hmaller. The earl's HS. contains a drawing whicb 
probably is an exact copy of bis bannerolle. It is throughout divided 
per pale of the lireiy colours, red and black, on which ia placed a shield 
of Feroy and Lnoy quarterly, within the garter. Between the shield 
and the gaiter, on the livery colours, are the letters H. F., and at the 
comers of the panel are silver crescents and golden lockets, quarterly, 
if I may so speak. 1st and 4th comers, acrescent^ 2nd and 3id, a 
locket. 

C&ESI.— On a ekapeau ermine, a lion paesant, the tail lathed. Oait^r 
plate. 

SuPFOSTEsa. — A iilvsr hoar dueally gorged and chained in gold, and a 
giher unicorn nmilarly gorged and chained. Garter plate. 

A blue 2ton.— Standard. Given as the Binister supporter in the im- 
palement at SHpton, the dexter being the dragon of Clifford. 

Stakdasd.— " Standards for my lord. — Two staves for my lord's 
standers, painted red and black, and bound about with iron plate." 
(Tnrwin siege.) 



GuTDHOKKE.— " Five 'gideholmes' of sarcenet with my lor^i device 
and word, *eith sundrg leattt, and sundry potedcringi, for my lord's five 
captains, viz. to every 100 men a 'gideholme.' — 5 staffs painted red and 
black for the said five 'guidehomes.' " (Turwin si^fe.) The guidhomme 
was smaller than the standard. " Every standard and gnidhomme is to 
have in the chief the cross of St. George, to be slit at the end, and to 
contain the erest oi tupporter with the poesy, word, and devise of the 
owner." (Hail. MS. 2358.) The abfjve standard or guidhomme is fixim 
Hail. MS. 4632. The unpporter or beast is the bine lion of Feroy, the 
device is the crescent inclosing the locket, the powdeiings are the lockets. 
The word was Etperanee en Dim. The colours ate the gold and green 
of Foyuings. 



304 THE 0BB80EHT OF PEROT. 

FsKiToiroeLLB. — " ' poncella ' of saroenet for my lord's demy- 

Unces, of ni and hlaet witk orMiowUi. — . . . . penoeles of backram for my 
lord's demy-lanoeB, punted of 
red and black, vitta oressent 
npon them." (Tnrwin eeige.) 
A penuoncelle is the diminu- 
tion of the pennon, which I do 
not see. The fourth pen- 
nonoelle given under the neit 
earl admirably illnatrateg the 
above passage and is repeated here. 

BiB&KB. — A liher eretetni.~~. . , , white erettawtts aet npon rtd mi 
hiaok paper for my lord's servanta' lodgings.-^ 70 coats of plain white 
cloth guarded with green cloth, for my lord's soldiers and carriflgemen. 
— 100 coats of white oloth guarded with gteen and imbroidered, for my 
lord's guard.— 940 roses, as crosses, of red buckram, with as many mhtt 
entsmt to them, fbr to set upon the aforesaid coats of cloth." " 46 neck 
cloths fez my lord's draoght horse, called ' tappetts,' of tvi and bhtl 
tapestry, with cretMuntt npon them, and lined with oanTas.— 11^ yards 
of red cloth, for three gowns for three chaplains that went over with my 
lord. — 3 bends of white sarcenet and green, with 6 cross, 6 rose, aod 
6 cmiauttt for the said three chaplains." (Turwin siege.) 

A tiher creteent and a golden loeiet leparaUly. The Earl's KS., nt 
Bupra. 

A golden erttMnt. The earl having made all the above preparations, 
is described by the French ambassador in the old poem on the battle of 
Floddon, among the absent English nobles, and James lY. immediately 
identifies him by " a half-moon in gold glistering gay," as Weber has 
it," or " a hcdf-moon in a golden ray " according to Lambe and Benson. 
This badge has already ooonrred sparii^ly, hst the poet may not be 
more scrupuloudy correct in the metal than he is in ^ving "banner" 
as the article oontaining the cognizance. IHngley in bis verses npon 
the battle of Floddon alludes to the Percies, or their retainers,** when 

» " There U on earl, of antdmia nee, 
Paasii^ in ^ido and oosUy snsy ; 
In his bannn hrave he duphye 

A half-inooa ia gold glistering gay." 
" TTiat is the lusty Piercy plain," 

The king can say, and gave a Btamp ; 
" Theie is not euch a lard sgnin. 
Ho, not in JI King Henry's ramp." 
" .... air WilUam Percy atood 

Who went with the Earl Piercy'a power. 

CLambe'a Battle of Floddon.) 



THE LOCKET OE TUBEET OF PEECY. 206 

1m aaya that "the noon that day did ahine fall bright." (Mirror for 
Uagistratea, 1587.) 

The countess Katherine givea to Mary Percy {a granddaughter) "a 
cope of asaey gilte with a orttanda sett over the bodome," and to Isabel 
Percy (another but illegitimate granddaughter) "a cope of asaey with a 
eresandt." 

A creKtnt tnthsing a sthtr loeht or fun-et.— Standard, nt anpia. 
Badge of "com. de Northumbria," inthe same US. See tinder the first 
earl. In neither caee is the metal of the locket indicated as gold. At 
the siege of Turwin were prepared ; — " 2 short coats of red and black 
velvet for my lord's two footmen to run in.— 4 rieh« erettaunti and iur- 
retli of batiett warit for the said two coats. — 2 short coats of red and 
black damaak for the said footmen to ran. in. — 4 ertsttauntt Kith turreld 
cf Vennyi stiver for the foresaid footmen's ooatB.^2 pair of plain white 
hose for the said two footmen to run in. — 2 long arrows like standarts 
with sockets of steel, for my lord's two footmen to bear in their hands 
when they run with my lord." The turrets are only mentioned in conneo- 
tion with these footmen. Turret is an old word applied to anything turn- 
ing — here to the locket in connection with ita swivel. The lockets in 
the crescents are also found of silver in the next earl's time. The 
form of the badges was probably more Uionght of than colour. No other 
family used the device and necessitated distinction of tincture* 
" A hcitt. Standard. Tlie earl's signet, where a locket occurs between 
every letter of the motto, ia affixed 
to tlie letter of ISIS. 

A Hon rampant. The same sesL 
Scarcely a true badge. 

d silver demi-hoar ducally gorged 
and chained gold, cAove a silver cres- 
cent enclosing a leaf. In an initial 
letter of the Earl's MS. 

A silver demi-umcom, hoo/ed, dn~ 
cally gorged and chained gold. The 
same MS. 

A silver demi-vnteom, plain, issuing 
from a rayed cloud. The same MS. 
A Icty erect, dueaBgerowiudteith gold, for Poynings. Harl. MS. 4632, 
Of the earl's use of the key of Poynings, we seem to have a very curions 
instance in a letter of 1S23 from "Wolsey to the king. 

" Finally, sir, where your highness was informed that my lord of 
Korthumberlaud in this his proceeding against the Soots, wore the cross 



206 THE KEY OF POYNINGS. 

keys, which is the badge of your church of York, wherewith (though it 
had BO been) your highness of your great goodness was contented to me, 
yet for the more perfect knowledge thereof I haye communed with your 
servant my treasurer, Sir William Gascoyne, who sheweth me, assuredly 
and undoubtedly, as he will abide by, and is ready to justify upon his 
oath made unto your grace, that neither the said earl of Northumber- 
land, ne any of his retinue, ware the cross keys, but that they were your 
highness cognizance'^ only, and imder that his own badge. Wherefore, 
sir, your grace hath cause to give the less credence unto those, which 
would make unto the same such feigned and untrue reports. Beseeching 
your grace, that after the reading of the said letters, it may be your 
pleasure to remit them to me accordingly." (1 State Papers, 146.) 

A hugle-hom unstrung, end to the dexter, mounted with coronal orna- 
ments, for Bryan. Panels in the possession of Eob. Davies, esq., York, 
and probably from the Percy Inn, in Walmgate, in that city, but more 
recently in a house of the Beddem. There are six of them, in the fol- 
foUowiDg order :— 

1. Female profile, reticulated headdress, 2. Male profile, with a sort of winged 
a shield charged with a crescent be- headdress, 

hind her. 

3. Female profile, homed headdress, 4. Male profile, with cap of the Tudor 

shield with crescent. Lower border period. Lower border of double 

of pomegranates. (Badge of Gather- roses. (Badge of Henry YIII.) 
ine of Arragon.) 

5. Male and female dancing. 6. Male piping. 

Crescent. Locket. Crescent. Horn. 

Crowned key. Horn. Crowned key. Locket 

LivEET Colours.® — Red and block " 300 arrow-cases of red and 
Hack leather. — 500 party hats of red and black for my lord's soldiers of 
his lordship's retinue."— A close car for my lord's stuflfe painted red and 
black, with my lord's devices and cognizances.— 6 sumpter cloths of red 
and black tapestry, with my lord's arms and cognizances, and lined with 
canvas, for my lord's sumpter-horse." (Turwin siege.) Numerous in- 
stances of these old Percy colours have been given under other heads. 

81 The rose, so abundantly provided in the preparations for Turwin. To the quota- 
tions already given may be added another : — *^ 2 rich roses of damask gold, set upon 
two crosses of crimson velvet, wrought witii gold of Venus for my lord's coat, to wear 
upon his harness. — 19 coats of white damask, viz. 10 of them guarded with green 
damask, for my lord's chief captains and gentlemen.— 9 coats of white damask satin 
of Brigis, guarded with green satin of Brigus, for my lord's petty captains. — 28 pair 
of crosses and roses, viz. 9 pair of rich roses and crosses of crimson velvet, and 19 
pair of coarser roses and crosses of crimson satin, for the foresaid 28 coats of silk." 
' Roses' is ' rosses' in the original. 

^ In conducting the Princess Margaret into Scotland in 1503, he was accompanied 
by 400 tall horsemen, apparelled in his colours. (Hall.) 



THE LIYERY COLOUES OP PERCY. 207 

Gold and green. The Poynings colours on the standard. 

Yellow. "500 yelloio bonnets, single necked, for 100 of my lord's 
guard. — 300 yellow bonnets, double necked, for my lord's captains and 
gentlemen." (Turwin siege, and see under the next colour.) 

Tawny. " 2 doublets of green satin for the said two footmen.— 4 
doublets of satin of Briguse for the said two footmen, viz., two doublets 
of yellow, and two of orange colour tawney. — 2 pair of guarded hose of 
red and black cloth for the said two footmen." Such was their attire 
for Turwin when not running; Eosset (which does not occur in the 
retainers' preparations at all), gold, and tawny axe the prevailing 
colours in the standard and pennons described imder the next earl. 

White and green ? 60 ostrich feathers for my lord's captains and gen- 
tlemen, yiz. 30 white and 30 green^ after 2 feathers to every of them.— 
100 white feathers for my lord's guard." In this and the many other 
quotations from the siege arrangements which have been given, where 
white and green are mentioned, they are probably the corresponding 
regal Tudor livery adopted with the roses, like the cross of St. George, 
from national feelings, and still more to please the king. 

The earl's own dresses enumerated were of very various colours, crim- 
son; scarlet; green; white; russet; black; yellow; orange tawney; 
purple ; russet, guarded with green and lined with black ; green tinsel, 
guarded with silver and lined with black ; silver, guarded with green 
cloth of gold and lined with black ; crimson, guarded with green cloth 
of gold and lined with black ; crimson tinsel, lined with black ; black, 
edged with gold of Venice; black, fringed with red silk and gold. 
The only mention of blue is in "12 yerds of blew rybens for garters for 
my lorde to were under his harnes." 

MoTTOS.— Tbw^ Loyal. Signet. 

Esperance en Dieu. Standard. Of the following curious couplets 
from the Earl's MS., Bp. Percy quotes four or five in the Household 
Book, The rest will be new. In the original, each two lines are separ- 
ate as a proverb, and every line ends with a period. But they fall na- 
turally into stanzas, with a kind of chorus terminating each. 

The proverhis in the rooffe of the hyest chawmhre in the gardinge at 
Lekingfelde. 

Esperannce en Dieu : 

Truste in hym, he is moste trewe. 

En Dieu Esperannce : 

In hym put thyne afiiaunce. 

Esperannce in the worlde, nay : 

The worlde variethe every day. 



208 BSPSRA5CE KN DEBU. 

Esperannce in riches, naj Dot so : 
Biohes slidithe and sone will go. 
Esperannoe in exaltaoion of hononre : 
Nay, it widderitthe away, lyke a flonre. 

JBaperannee en Di&u, in hym is all : 

Whiche is aboye fortunes falL 

Esperannoe in fortune when she smylithe : 
Nay, beware, for she begilithe. 
Ssperannce in bloode ai^ highe lynage : 
At moste nede hot esy ayauntage. 
Esperannoe in prosperite : 
Nay, beware of adyersite. 
Esperannoe in trust aud grete attctorite : 
So thou may and yit dissayede be. 
Esperannoe in countenaunce of fortunes grace : 
Nay, at her pleasure thou must gyre place. 
Esperannoe in glory and magnificens hye : 
Nay, beware, thou may fall sodeynly. 
Esperannoe in strength and greate myght : 
Nay, seknes febelith eyery wight. 

JSspm'annee en Dieu, in hym is all : 

For he is aboye fortunes fall. 

Esperannoe in golde and other treasure : 

Nay, therof commythe displeasure. 

Esperannoe in frendeshipe, nay, and why : 

For at the last thy frende must dye. 

Esperannoe in bewte and lusty arrage : 

Nay, beuty is blemysshide by the stormys of age. 

Esperannce in helthe and longe lyf : 

Beware of dethis sodeyne kn^^. 

Esperannce in witt and poUice : 

Yet, I say, beware of poyerte. 

Esperannce in crafte and suttelte : 

Yet, trouthe shall begyle the. 

Esperannce in trouthe and yerite : 

Yea, trouthe shall delyyer the. 

JSsperannce en Lieu, in hym is all : 

For he is aboye fortunes fall. 

Esperannce in multitude of men : 

Nay, sum one is worthe ten. 

Esperannce in hasty adyengynge of thy will : 

Nay, wysdome biddithe the abyde and bestill. 

Esperannce in ordyannce and other artillary : 

Nay, where hym listith God gjryithe the yictory. 

Esperannce manhode and coragius hart : 

Nay, dethe will math® the, where so oyer thow art. 

^ A math is a mowing. Here we seem to haye the same word applied as a yerb 
to the scythe of Death. 



NORTHUMBERLAND HERALD. iJ09 

Esperaimce in argumentis of greate reason : 

Nay, suche craft is to seke at sum season. 

Esperannce in cunnynge that moste prevalithe : 

Nay, cunnynge witboute maner no tbynge avaytlythe. 

Esperannce in joye and gladnes : 

Nay, beware, sodyenly comes sad&es. 
Eaperamwe en Dieu, in bym is all : 
Be thou contente and tbou art aboye fortunes fall. 



Hebau). — ** Northumberland HeraW Henry YIL sent ''our well 
beloved Northumberland JIer:ald" to attend on Chr. Urswicke, the ambas- 
sador into Scotland, and for these services he received payment at the 
Exchequer in 1491, as he likewise did as "our well beloved servant 
Northumberland Herald of arms " in 1493, for attending the French am- 
bassador who had been stonu'-driven into Sh^pey Island. (1 Edmond- 
son, 115.) Hall says that in conducting the princess Margaret into 
Scotland, in 1530, the earl had with him his officer of arms so named, 
arrayed in his livery of velvet, being his surcoai of arms.—" I wit to 
the church of Hundmanby to the byeng of a bell xx«. and a torch to 
bume dayly at the levacion, while he wyll endure, to the entent they 
schall praye specially for the saule of Henry Percye erle of Northumbur- 
lond. Item, I wit to John Bee, otherwyse callyd Northumberlond Iferod, 
V. marc." (Will of Wm. Blackbume of Fyly, and bayly of Hundmanby, 
18 Mar. 1501-2.) — '*Cotts of armys for my lord's harroude." (Turwin 
siege.) 

PuitsuiVANT. — ** MperanceJ* " 2 coats of arms for my lord's pursui- 
vant, of sarsnet, with my lorS's whole arms beaten upon them in oil 
colours and gold.— 8 yards of green damask for a coat for Esperanee, my 
lord's pursuivant, and for J yard of white damaske for guarding of the 
said coat." (Order for the siege of Turwin, 1514.) In the early part of 
his life he does not seem to have had a pursuivant. The roll quoted 
under his father shows what heralds and pursuivants were in the reign 
of Edward IV., and how they decayed in the time of Henry VII. 
"Now the king's grace bath but, &c. and no estate hath any but only 
the lord marquis, that hath Grobie pursuivant, and the earl of North- 
umberland, that bath Northumberland herald. This was in the time of 
King Henry VII. God save King Henry VIII." The precise days of 
Henry VII., aUuded to, were between 28 Jan., 1489, and 14 Feb., 
1492, during which time William de Berkeley, whose mother was an 
heiress of Ferrers of Groby, was the only marquis in England. 



210 THE UNTHRIFTY SIXTH EARL. 

HENRY ALGERNON PERCY, Sixth Eael, 1527-1637, caUed 
Bmry the Unthrifty^ from bis haying contracted debts, wbicb, with 
those of his father, amounted to 6,000 marks on his coming to his 
estates. After numerous sales and a loyeless marriage and separation, 
he devised his lands to the king, who had already robbed him of Aime 
Boleyn. The name of Algernon is omitted in a seal of 1531 or after- 
wards. (Hartsbome, 305.) 

BxTBiAL. — Choir of JECachney Church, in the same month as his brother 
was executed. Weever copies his epitaph. 

Abhs. — Quarterly of five, — ^I. Grand quarter of 1, Ferey, 2, Beaufort, 
(France and England, no border visible), 3, Luey, 4, Spencer (Black, 
two ermine bars nebulee.). U, Old Percy, 111. Foymngs. lY, Fitz- 
payne. Y. Bryan* Seal, 1528. (Hartsbome, fig. 19.) 

The same arms, except that Beaufort has the proper border of blue and 
silver golony, and that instead of Spencer is a coat, Barry of 6 gold (sil- 
ver in the banner) and blue, a red bend, — Banner and arms, MS. I. 2. 
Heralds' College.^ Any little variations between my quotations from, 
the MS. and those in Excerpta Historica, are made advisedly. The coat 
substituted for Spencer, if the metal is gold, looks like Gaunt, a some- 
what distant quartering in the Spencer shield, but it was not agaia 
commonly quartered, and I suspect some error. 

CsEST.— 0» a chapeau, a lion statant. Seal. 

SuppoaTEES.— ^ blue Hon for " Algernons." Pennon. Bearing the 
banner in MS. Coll. Arm. I. 2., in its ordinary rampant form. 

A silver panther, powdered mth red and^blue spots, and ducally crowned 
in gold, not guardant, for " Percy." Pennon. The dexter supporter on 
the seal is a crowned lion or panther, no appearance of collar or spots ia 
Hartshome's engraving. See under the fourth earl for a similar beast 
on the barbican at Alnwick. 

A silver unicorn, ducally gorged and chained in gold for *' Ponynges." 
Pennon. Seal, sinister supporter. 

A silver boar, ducally gorged and chained in gold. Pennon. 

«* The preparation of the MS. appears to have extended over many years. It con- 
tains persons, such as Sir Edw. Poynings, who died before 1524. The duke of 
Eichmond, one of the peers, was only so created in 1525. The lord chamberlain, 
Lord Herbert, mentioned several times in it, died 1526, while Sir John Baldwin, 
Chief Justice of the Common Fleas, also mentioned, was not made so imtil 1535, and 
Dudley did not acquire his dukedom of Northumberland until 1551. The practice of 
impaling arms and quartering those of ancestresses had now run much into its present 
etsiifiy and the occurrence of Somerset, as on the sixth earl's seal, seems to fix the 
standards to him, not to speak of the want of russet or roset in the fifth earl's prepar* 
ations, while it so prevails in this MS. 



THE SfrPORTERS OF SOMERSET. 211 

[By the earl'a mother eame the right to the following two supportera, 
both given to Percy by Vincent, the firat whereof became the Binister 
aappoiter in Elizabeth's time, and so oontiniies, with slight alteration. 

A ffoldm lion gwirdant, duealhf orounud in gold, and gorgti mih a 
collar gohony of ermine and Hue, for " Somersitt." 

ji uher panther, apotied with silver, gold blue, black, green, and 
red, duealh/ gorged in Hue, fire ittuani from the mouth and ears, 
for " Sometsett,"] 



SiAtTDAED. — "Paly of thre peeaes of thyg collert, Eoaet, yekw, and 
tawny," powdered teith silver ereacenle and loeieta separately, a blue Hon 
paggant. Above him, a eilver key, eroiened teith gold (for Poynings), 
behind him a blue bugle-horn unitringed, gamtthed with gold (for Bryan). 
Between the motto-hmdi, a Uaek falchion sheathed, gamiehed, pomelUd 
and hilted with gold (for Fitapayne.) MS. Her. Coll. I. 2. There is 
no motto filled into the original. 

Fehboitb. — 
ThesameUS. 



Sed,gold, and 
rottet, a blue 
lion passant 
between three 
eilvtr ores- 
cents. 

"Ponyngea." Seeset, gold, 
and tawny, a silver unicorn 
passant, ducally gorged and 

, chained in gold, between three 

' siher crescents. 



PENNONS iJTD PENNON0BLLE8 OP PEECY. 



Jiottet, gold, md Uumy, a 
rilver boar statant, dueailif 
gorged and chained in gold, 
between three lUeer ereMente. 

*' Percy," Boaet,geld, and 
Uuimg, a tUvtr panther sta- 
tant, powdered wkh red and 
blue spoti, and crowned in 
gold, between thru silver crot- 
centt. 

PBMMONC&LLIB. — The Bamfl 
MS. 

" PoDjcges." Roaaet, gold, 
and tawny, the eilver ieg as 
before. 

" Bryan." — Rouel, gold, 
and tawny, tk$ bvgle-horn at 
before. 

Red, rossit, red, and roaset, 
a silver crescent. 

" Percy."— i&d and black, 
a silver crescent. Exactly like 
the " penceles of buckTam" 
used by Uie previous earl 
"painted of red and black, 
with crescents upon tbem." 

Sed and black, a silver 
locket. 

Red, gold, and black, a silver 
locket within the horns of a 
silver cescent. 

" Fitzpayn," Rosset, gold, 
and lawny, the black falchion 
as before. 



PENHONCELLBS OF PEECT. 21S 

In the Torwin amu]gement« 
"rosea" is given as " roBBes," 
and the word " rosset " osed 
in the US. may either be 
niBBetorroBet. " Grind oetuBS 
with a weak water of gum- 
lake, ro»it, and vennillion, 
which maketh it a jfair carna- 
tion," (Peaeham.) Probably 
Tueeet is meant, as it is striped 
with red in one instance.** 

None of the flags here term- 
ed pennons and peunonoeUes 
are split. That of Algemona 
only ia longer than the others, 
which alBO differs, in not hav- 
ing St. George's oroBs; battle 
separation of fiunilies, and dis- 
tinotivo charact«i of design, 
appear to warrant the division 
here sugK^ted. The guid- 
homme probably was like the 
standard. 
Badoes.— ^ Hon mi^ant. GoantoTseal, 1528. (Hartshome, fig- 18.) 
Scarcely a true badge. 

A aiher iey, erounud in geld, for Poyninga. Standard and pennoncelle. 
A. hlu« bugle-horn, gamithtd m gold, for Bryan. Standard and pen- 
noncelle. 

A black ftlcMon sksathed, gamitAed, hiUtd, and pomelled tn gold, for 
Pitzpajne. Standard and pennoncelle. 

A nher oretomt. Standard, pennons, and pennoncelles. Counterseal, 
alternately with the lockets. In other respeota this signet resembles 
the last earl's. Mr. P. B. Surtees, in his Lamente of Henry Percye 
over Anne Boleyn, happily weaves metal, badge, and motto together : — 
" Paie is the enscettt of my hope." 

A liker loek«t. Standard and pennoncelle. In the former the metal 
is not indicated, hut it is distinctly marked b. in the latter. Counterseal. 
A nUior locket within the homt of a nher cruoent. Pennoncelle. 
LiVEBT CoLOiras. — Red and black. PennonccUcB. 
Soitet, gold, and tamny. Standard, pennons, and pennoncelles. 
■* When russet is mentiooed in iLe earl's own tUiM ia the Twwiu «i 



214 THE SEVENTH H-^BT. 

Hed, gold, and routt. Pennon. 

R»d and roatet. Penooncelld. 

Bed, gold, and blaei. Pemioncelle. 

UoiTO.— Tbwf loyal. Counterseal. 

Etp*nme«. — Seal. This ma; have been tbe filling np of the vacant 
bends in the standard, but both forms were now used, and E^eranee m 
Dint has been adopted in the out in the authority of the preTions 
eoil's standard. 

8IE THOMAS PERCY, knt., the brother and heir premmptive of 
the sixth earl, was beguiled into the Pilgrimage of Grace by Aake, who, 
with all his force, shouted Thoiuanda for a Percy I at Wresael gates. 

He was executed at Tyburn in 1637. His wife Eleanor, the co- 
heiress of Harbottle of Beamish, whose qnarteringa appear with the 
next earl, remarried ; but in her second widowhood she still signs 
Elynor fey, and seals with E. F. without armorial derice. (Capheaton 
Arcbires, anno 1S60.] 

THOMAS PERCY, K. G., Sktemth Eabl (from 1557), 1537-1572, 
often celled " the Jfwm" in the poetry of Elizabeth's time relating to the 
Rising of the North, owing to which ha perished. 

Betkul.— 5f. Crux, York, after his execution~at York. "Simple 
Thome," he s^d, "must die to set up cruel Henry." Bis portrait and 
autograph are given in Sharp's Uemorials of the Rebellion, and tlie 
former gives us a great notion of his mmplicity. 
Abvs. — Qtuirterly of ux.—I. Percy and Luey quarterly. II. Old 
Percy. III. Poyningt. IV. Fitt^yne. 
T. Bryan. TI. Qaarierly, 1. Three 
lotiUe f lottet f {bate) or icicUt ; 2 
Three etealhpt, two and one ; 3. Three 
ewere, two and one; 4. Three u>ater- 
hougete, two and otte. An oaken man- 
Uepiece, considerably out down, in an 
old post and pan house at Thorpfield, 
neat Topcliffe, in 1844, and now in the 
possession of Urs. Ruddock of Whitby. 
The garter, which has been turned up- 
side down since the removal, fixes the 
date to the six years after 1563. This 
attainted earl's garter plate is, as of 
/^m^V course, not forthcoming, and his issue, 

^^t^M the heirs general of Percy, are, it ia 



HARBOTTLE, MONBOUCHER, AND CHARON. 216 

believed, incapable, through corruption of blood, of bearing the arms of 
their ancestor, eyen according to modem usage. 

The Harbottle quarterings thus occur in the present Percy shield :— 
SdrhottU, Blue, three golden guttes bendwise. Vhkmmm, Silver, three 
red escaUops. Jfonboaeherf Silver, three red ewers within a black border 
bezants." Charran, Black, three silver water bougets. A manuscript 
roll of peers' arms, temp. Eliz., in my possession, gives these coats to 
Harbottle, Cliveden, Monboucher, and Lilbume, names which correspond 
well enough, but I cannot trace all the descents. The ordinaries give 
the red escallops to Harbottle as well as Glivedon, Chidcroffc, and Kelk, 
and also contain a coat where the colours are reversed, being of Red, a 
chevron between three escallops of silver, for Charran. There are three 
water bougets on the castle of the Hiltous, who were connected with 
^e Actons, of whom the Harbottles were coheirs. 

CsEST. — The chapeau only is left in the Thorpfield carving. During 
the time of shadow on the earl's house. Lord Surrey, the brave and 
graceful poet, fell a victim to the Tudor, who made heraldry serve 
his purpose, and perhaps exercised a perpetual influence on the leonine 
crests of other families. 

From the first appearance of the king of beasts as a royal crest in the 
reign of Edward III. (omitting the quasi-crest shown on the seal of 
Eichard L) the noble brute droops his tail as he does in the seal of 
the second earl of Northumberland, and, until the Bretigny tjrpe of seal 
ceased in Edward IV s. reign, the same usage prevailed. With the 
seal which followed a lashed form commences, a form similar to that used 
long before that day and until the present time in the arms of England. 
It was not unnatural for families bearing similar crests to keep up a 
similitude by changing their attitude with the varying fashion of royalty, 
most of all for the Howards, the heirs of Brotherton. Eichard II., in Ids 
17th year, acknowledged the right of their ancestor, Thomas Mowbray, 

M See the descent of Charron, Monboucher, and Harbottle, in 2 Snr., 225. 
Bertram db Montbcuchibr. Silver, three red pitchers, with bezants in a black 
border. (Roll of Karlaverock.) 

MoirsR. Bertram Monbooher. Silver, three red pitchers : 
on a black border twelve bezants. (Roll, 1392-7. Seal, 1393, 
Surtees, Seals, ix. 19, where the bezants are eleven.) 

Sir Ralph Harbottll, knt. Three pitchers, on a bor^ 
der 27 bezants. (Seal, 1487. Capheaton archives.) 

I give the extraordinary paternal coat of Harbottle in the 
margin, from a drawing by the late John Taylor of Whick- 
ham, out of Vincent's MSS., and the more orcunary form will 
be found above in the Thorpfield shield, which contains some 
peculiarities of treatment in the other quarterings. 




216 THE PEROT LION'S TAIL. 

to wear for his crest a leopard (». $, a lion goardaat") of gold, with a 
whitelabel; and, stating that this would be the crest of his own eldest 
son if he begat one, he conceded that Mowbray and his heirs should 
for a difEerenoe wear a leopard and a crown of silyer in lieu of the label. 
In the copy grant in Cott. ICSS. Jnlius o. Tiii, p. 237-8, the leopard is 
drawn with a crown round its neck, and the tail is lashed. The 
crowned lion in the Yenice scolptore made by, or relating to, the 
banished earl (Bee Howard Memorials), has also the tail lashed, and in 
itself may either refer to the king or the earl» for it is probable that the 
true sense of the grant was that the label was to be omitted, but the 
crown on the head to be of silyer instead of gold, and so I belieye the 
crown has been of silyer eyer since. In a seal of one of the John Mow- 
brays (Watson's Earls of Warren and Howard Memorials), the lion is only 
crowned, bat after the Howards saoceeded, the brass of the unfortunate 
Surrey's grandfather, who died in 1524, giyes the crowned lion with a 
label also, and the tail is wayed. That Surrey would use this form is 
highly probable. In stone or brass, where the colour could not be seen, 
it was exactly the crest of the Prince of Wales ; and though Richard II.'s 
grant might not bar a concurrent right to the old crest, it was im- 
prudent to court the confusion he wished to ayoid. When therefore we 
find the jealous Henry, in 1546, resenting Surrey's placing Brotherton 
in the first quarter of his coat, '' the yery place only of the heir male " 
of England (1 State papers, 891), which at least his father the doke had 
a right to do, we cannot feel surprised that it was urged against the 
earl that h$ had waved Ma IMs tail/" In the stall plate of the next 
duke, who was installed in 1559, the crest is in profile, and, though 
it is both crowned and labelled, its tail is straight, and in a book of 
Elizabethan peers' arms I haye the same form in lions, both in profile and 
guardant. Li the same MS. the tails of the lions of Percy and Talbot, al- 
though these are in profile, and not easily confounded with the royal crest, 
are drawn straight, but in the margin they are lashed, from ' Mr. Stele's 
MS.' Vincent giyes the tail lashed, other Elizabethan authorities straight 






|LMi(£5iW~ 



« See Edmondson and the GloBsary of Heraldry under the irord leopard, and most 
satififiaotorily in the new edition of Planch^'s Pursuivant of Arms. 

^ Howard Memorials. Dethick's drawing of the arms for which Surrey was at- 
tainted (HarL MS. 1463) giyes the tail almost straight, and neither crown or label 
(Howard Memorials), but, althou^^ Dethick's &ther was a herald at the time, the 
aims are so discordant with Henry's complaints, that I attach no credit to them. 



THE PEBOY CKESCENT. 217 

The cut shows the Percy crest in 1347, in Vincent's MS., and in my 
own, and will snficiently elucidate these remarks. 

We haye already seen that the Percy lion drooped his tail like that 
of England £rom an early date, and that, on the first garter plates of 
the family, the lash was adopted after it appears on the royal seals. 
The peculiar forms on the standards are not to be taken into account, the 
blue lion there being the supporter, passant, and altogether differently 
used from the lion statant of the crest ; and the drooping tail on the 
rough seal of 1528 is only because the inscription prevents a lash. 
The stall plate of the eighth earl, 1577*85, gives the tail straight, confirm- 
ing the general run of the Elizabethan drawings. And so it has sinoe 
continued. 

That Surrey's matter had much to do with the change cannot weU 
be doubted. 

SirppoBTEBS. — Dexter^ a Hon rampant Sinister, a unicorn ducally 
gorged and chained, for Poynif^e* Panel from Thorpfield. 

Badge.— ^ crescent. Divers ballads of the time, " when good hope 
was past" 

Erie Percy there his ancyent spred, 
The halfe moone shining all soe faire. 

(Ballad of the Bising of the North.) 

When that the Moone, in Northumberland, 

After the chaynge, in age well coune, 
Did rise with force, then to withstande, 

The light and bright beames of the Sonne. 
The sorrowful dolers soone began, 

Through Percie's pride to many a man. 
But then anone, the Westmere Bull, 

Beholde the rysinge of this moone, 
Thinking that shoe had byn at full, 

He hastyd then anone full soone, 
With horse, and armes, and all his might, 

From perfect daye, to uncertaine lyght. 

(Quoth John Barker. — The Plagues of Northumberland.) 

The moone and the star are fallen so at strife, 
I never knewe wane so strange in my lyfe. 

(News from Northumberland.) 

The Westmerlande Bull and man in the Moone, 
The beare [Dudley] hath brought their braverie downe. 

(Joyful Newes for True Subjects.) 

Now spred thy ancyent, Westmorland, 

Thy dun bull faine would we spye ; 
And thou, the Erie o' Northumberland, 

Now rayse thy half moone up on hye. 



^ * 



218 THE AJIMS OP PEECY. 

But the dun bulle is fled and gone, 
And the hal/e motme yanished away. 

(The Eising of the North.) 
[Now the Percie'a ereteent is set in blood. 

(Clazton's Lament, by Surtees)] 

Thus does the sentiment of heraldry lighten the nide poetry of the 
day. On the trial of the dnke of Noifolk in 1571, it was proved that 
he had an old blind prophecy, to wit "at the exaltation of the Moon 
(Percy) the Lion (Elizabeth) shall stoop, and the Lion (of Mowbray, 
Norfolk) shall be joined with a Lion (Mary queen of Soots), and their 
whelps {etdvK) shall reign." — (State Trials) 

The chnrch of Ejiaresbrongh contains the recnmbent effigy of Mary 
Slingsby, the only sister of the rebel earl, " jnstly called a heavenly 
star of piety." The arms of her honse are npon the skirt of her robe, 
and one foot rests against a crescent, as the other formerly did against 
a lion statant. The crescent also appears in several places npon the 
hall ceiling of Percy's, at Scotton, near Knaresbrongh, where a yonnger 
line of the house resided. Upon the same ceiling is the coat of Percy 
and Lacy quarterly. (Hargrove's Enaresbrongh.) 

A loeiet within the horns of tho ore»eont. Panel from Thorpfield, 
where this badge occurs four times in the ends of the label containing 
the motto. 

Motto. — Esperance \jm\ Lieu, Panel from Thorpfield, the central 
word cut out. 



With the accession of Elizabeth, the simplicity of old heraldry con- 
cludes, and my further remarks will be general. 

ABMS. — ^Henry the eighth earl succeeded under entail, notwithstand- 
ing the attainder of his brother, and married a coheiress of Nevil lord 
Latimer who broi^ght in an extensive representation. According to the 
modem Percy shield of 892 qnarterings,^ the quarterings due after this 
match, and before that with Wriothesley in the serenteenth century, were 
273, but herelds had not then reached the absurdity of giving undiffer- 
enced quarterings or quarterings at all of kings and territorial dukes, or 
of repeating the same arms when they came through different channels. 
Indeed, if I rightly interpret the instructions in Glover's MSS., xv. 36, 
—-adverse to ancient usage though many of them are — ^land was still an 

^ Giyen in full in Illustrations of the CastLes of Alnwick, Warkworth, and Pnidhoe, 
edited by Mr. Hartsbome, for private distribution. 



THE QUARTERINGS OF PERCY. 219 

element in denoting remoter heirships. ^' If a man bearing arms marry 
an inheritrix whose progenitors have, before that time, married with 
other inheritrixes, by whom both lands and arms have descended, the 
father of his wife having no son legitimate, the same man so marrying 
may and shall lawfully bear her father and mother's arms, in so large 
and ample manner as any of them before that time did bear, or any of 
her progenitors." I am not acquainled with the territorial position of 
the Percys at the time or the different titles to their lands, bnt certain 
it is, that I have not hitherto fonnd them at this period using more than 
the following quarterings, which are made up from various authorities, 
for scarcely two agree :— 

Pereff and Luey. Old Ferey* Poynings. Grey. Fitzpayne* Bryan. 
Speneer. Beaufort, Holland* Molland earl of Kent.^ Beauchamp. 
Newhurgh or Warwick. Berkley . Lisle. Fit%- Gerald or Lisle. ITar- 
bottle. 'Clevedon.' Monboucher. 'Lilbum* [Charon?]. 'Baby* 
{i.e. Nevil, with a black annulet to difference the Latimer line.) 
Old Nevil. Tyes. Vere. Bolbeck. Sandford. Badlesmere. Clare. 
Seriaubc. Soward. Escales. Place. Stafford. Lichfield. In all 33. 

The following is an analysis of the quarters of the present coat :— 
Pe^y^dLueyj ,,,_, , 

Smithson 3 

Seymour 563 

OM Pewy ^''''^ ) ^^^^^^^ 2 In the 17th century 2 

Poynings 19 4 

Spencer 120 9 

Harbottle 4 4 

Nevil 128 14 



Wriothesley 35 33 

Thynne • • 25 now 

Percy and Lucy 1 273 

Present shield • • 892 quarterings. 

A splendid assemblage, a gorgeous result, according to recent rules, 
and a useful one for genealogical purposes, but wholly unsuitable for 
the decorative purposes of heraldry, and very unjust to the * flowers of 
the flock ' which must be picked out by a skilled eye from the equal 
blaze of crimson and gold in their less important companions. The or- 

^ The two coats of HoUand do not occur to me until the tenth earl's time. The 
coats used on the seals of the ninth and tenth earls are given in italics. 



220 THE CREST OF PEBct. 

dinaiy spectator, who might acquire some idea of theoomparatiye status 
ofa&mily by a few indicatioiis of marriages which oaiiied green acres 
and jewelled coronets with them, is lost in the medley presented here. 

80 obvious indeed is the- inutility, nay, impossibility, of using such a 
shield, even when much reduced by discarding the repetitions of co- 
heiresses' coats, that in practice Percy and Lucy haye simply been quar- 
tered with Percy ancient. Owing to the coat of the first duke of North- 
umberland being the same as his duchess's, and to the rules about not 
giving the wife's arms in the garter, a very singular and multitudinous 
array of lions, lucies, and fusils, are presented in their two shields in 
one of the achievements in Alnwick church. On the gartered shield 
both Percy and Lucy are as it were impaled in each grand quarter, as 
England and Scotland used to be worn, but in the other they are sub- 
quartered, and in this the whole bearings are repeated on an escutcheon 
of pretence. 

In the stained glass series of Percy coats by Oliver, in Petworth 
chapel, closing with that of Henry the Ninth, or the Wi%ard JSarl, (whose 
companion mathematicians, Hariot, Hues, and Warner, were termed the 
Earl of Northumberland's Three Ma^i), the lion rampant quarters the 
fusils of Old Percy instead of the lucies. (Dallaway.) 

The proud duke of Somerset retained his own insignia, being re- 
leased by his heiress-wife from his obligation to take her name and 
arms. The general remarks in this article therefore must not be under- 
stood to apply to the Seymours while they represented the Percys. 

CKEST. — The old crest has uniformly been retained, viz., on a red 
chapeau, turned with ermine^ a blue lion etatant, with outetretehed tail. 
The last characteristic appears on the garter plate of the eighth earl, 
and Vincent's drawing with the tail lashed must be referred to right, 
and not to usage. 

The crest is very familiar to the public from its conspicuous appear- 
ance on Northumberland House, in the Strand, *' a noble specimen of 
Jacobean architecture. . . . AH that is old of the present building is the 
portal towards the Strand ; but even of this there is a good deal that 
is new. . . The date 1749, on thefaqade, as it at present stands, refers 
to the work of reparation, which commenced in that year ; and the let- 
ters A. s., F. K., stand for Algernon Somerset, Princeps NorthumbrisB." 
(Cunningham's London.) There is a story of a wag who pretended to 
see the lion's tail move, and gathered a crowd of persons whose imagin- 
tions were worked upon until they believed that they saw it moTo too. 
The word cognizance was now indiscriminately employed for both 
badges and crests, and great confusion arose, a notion being prevalent 



CRESTS OF PERCJr. 221 

that crests were generally used as badges, a practice which, though oc- 
casionally found, was certainly the exception. We find it with the horn 
of Bryan and the well-known ragged staff of Beauchamp : — '* Now by 
my father's had^e, old Nevirs erest — the rampant bear chained to the 
ragged staff." The Kingmaker, however, derived the device from his 
wife, not his father Nevil. 

The confusion alluded to is strikingly developed in Vincent's MS. 172. 
There we have ten objects, each used on a wreath, chapeau, or coronet, 
and yet many of these are pure badges, while others are exclusively 
crests. Erom his time, however, not only has the crescent often been 
used on a wreath — (a familiar instance is in Armstrong's map of North- 
umberland) — as it was indeed by a son and heir of the house in the 
York glass, but, with ludicrous absurdity, Vincent's placing of the very 
livery colours within it in such use has occasionally been adopted. His 
assemblage is as follows : — 

1. "Lysley." On a tcreath of silver and red, a silver Hon passant 
guardant ducally crowned in gold, tail lashed^ This lion passant is ascribed 
in the Percy quarterings to the house of Pitzgerald, whose heiress mar- 
ried into the Lisles of Kingston Lisle, and is given in the old arms col- 
lected by Glover for Gerard Lisle of that house. In the same collection 
is the other coat of Lisle, a fess between two chevrons, for John de Lisle, 
and it is given in the shield of Percy, for the name of Lisle* The Lisles 
of Northumberland wore the white lion. The Percys had these quarter- 
ings through two channels, Somerset and Nevil. 

2. ** Poynings." On a toreath of gold and green, a black dt*agon*s head 
and wings. A genuine crest 

3. '' Lovayne." The usual blue lion erest of Percy, tail lashed, 

4. ** VercjJ* On a wreath, a silver crescent. A badge occurs once in 
the York glass as a crest of a son and heir, but marked as of gold. 

5. ** Percie." On a wreath, a silver crescent, the interior divided per 
pale, black and red, thereon a golden locket. Badges and livery colours. 

6. On a wreath, a golden locket. Only known as a badge of Percy. 

1. On a wreath, a falchion, with a strap. Previously engraved. The 
falchion is only known as a badge of Fitzpayne. 

8. " Bryan." On a wreath of gold and blub, a blacx («., the letter b 
for blue, twice erased) bugle-horn, without strings, garnished with gold. 
Occurs both as crest and badg^. There appears to be some discrepancy 
as to colour, but it is blue in a standard and pennoncelle of Percy, 
already engraved. 

9. *' Beawchampe." A silver swanks head {the beak red) and wings, 
issuing out of a red ducal coronet A crest. 

VOL. nr. 2 F 



222 SUPPORTERS OP PERCY. 

10, " Poynings." On a wreath of gold and green, a silver hey erect 
dueaUy crowned toith gold. Only known as a badge. 

SUPPOKTERS.— Yincent also giyes fiye rampant beasts, not on the 
dangerons carpenter's ornaments on which supporters have since been ex- 
pected to find foot-room, but on good substantial mounds of terra firma. 
All are represented as sinbter supporters, except the first. 

1. ** Somersitt." A golden lion guardant, ducally croumed in gold, and 
coloured gohong, ermine, and blue. This supporter, with slight modifi- 
cations, has served as the sinister rapporter of the Percy arms ever since. 
In my Elizabethan MS. the face is drawn as a man's, like the lion of 
Hastings, with a note, *' alibi a lion's face." I have never seen it hu- 
man elsewhere. The crown is marked "Argent, alibi Or." In the funeral 
certificates of the tenth and eleventh earls, the coronet is silver. Edmond- 
son gives it as of gold for the first duke, and so it is still worn. As to 
the collar, an Elizabethan drawing in Dr. J. J. Howard's collections 
agrees with Vincent in making it ermine and blue, but mine makes it 
silver and blue, as do the funeral certificates, Edmondson, and present 
usage. It will be remembered that the fifth earl married a coheiress of 
Beaufort, duke of Somerset. 

2. " Latymer." A golden griffin. The well known beast of Nevil 
lord Latimer, through the coheiress of that house, wife to the eighth 
earl. It appears on the standard of the then lord in Harl. MS. 4632. 

3. [Poynings.] A silver unicorn, homed, hoofed, ducally gorged, and 
chained with gold. This supporter has frequently come before us. It 
appears on the garter plate of the eighth earl and in my Elizabethan 
MS. as the ' aliter' supporter sinister of the ninth earl. It then disap- 
pears, and must be distinguished from the silver unicorn which after- 
wards appears with the Seymours and their heiress the duchess of 
Northumberland. Though very similar to that of Poynings, and a re- 
markable coincidence, the latter is a genuine ancient Seymour supporter. 

4. " Somersett." A silver panther spotted with silver, gold, blue, 
block, green, and red, ducally gorged with blue, fire issuant from the 
mouth and ears. This supporter is used to the present time by the 
duke of Beaufort through an illegitimate channel. 

5. [Bryan ?] A silver boar, tusked, hoofed, ducally gorged, and chained 
in gold. 

6. Most singularly, Yincent omits the old blue Hon of Percy, still the 
dexter supporter of the Northumberland coat, and only disused for a 
short time by the Seymours. It occurs as such in the garter plates and 
funeral certificates.''^ 

'0 The engraving from an impression of a seal of the tenth earl, in Mr. Harts- 
home's book, gives the dexter lion as guardant. The matrix shows that this was 
owing to some imperfection. 



BADGES OF PERCY. 223 

MOTTO. — Eaperanee enDieu is also constant as the motto. Elizabethan 
MSS., garter plates, seals, and funeral certificates may be quoted as 
authorities. 

BADGES. — The locket separately. The falchion and the bugle horn 
have already been enumerated among Vincent's crests, and if they occur 
as badges since Elizabeth's time at all, must be of the greatest rarity as 
such. 

Mr. Gage, in noticing the seal of Michael de Poynings (95 Gent. 
Mag., ii. 297., A.D. 1825), speaks of a MS. ^0«nj7. Jac. I., in his pos- 
session, which gave as a Percy badge the Poynings Jcey turned up and 
passed through the crown. 

The locket in confunction with the crescent appears on the ninth earl's 
seal in 1588 (2 Coll. Top., 173), but was at least of rare occurrence in 
the seventeenth century. The double badge has been partially revived 
in later times, with the livery colours of red and black in pale. The 
locket is worn in gold. 

On the whole, we may consider that the silver crescent is the only 
badge of Percy that has remained in very active and continuous use.''^ 

Dr. Eaine had a work, in three volumes, entitled " Disquisitionum 
Magicarum libri sex, auctore Martino Debrio S. I. P. Lovanii, ex ofici- 
na Gerardi Bivii, 1599," which had evidently come down from the eighth 
or Wizard Earl. On the side of each volume was a crescent surrounded 
by the garter, which was surmounted by an earl's coronet. This now 
became the usual way of wearing the badge.^^ And here comes in 
Camden's minute of the anagram '' for the Earl of J^orthumberland— 
Henricus Percius. — Hic Pube Sincbbtis. Upon which, with relation to 
the crescent or silver moon his cognisance, was formed thus — 

Percius Hic Pure Sincebus, Percia Luna 
Candida tota micat, pallet at iUa polo." 

This earl obtained a grant of Sion House, and I have seen the crescent 
and coronet very brightly shining on the blue sign of an inn at the ad- 
joing town of Brentford. 

"7^ A number of brave gallants, some knights and some esquires, 
Attended at this triumph great, clad in complete attires. 
The silver halfe-mooney gloriously, upon their sleeves did stand, 
To blaze the praise of great Northumberland. 

All these on stately horses that ill endured the bit, 
Were mounted in magnific sort, as to the time was fit. 
Their feathers, white and red, show like a martial band, 
To blaz& the praise of great Northumberland. 

(Installation of Algernon Earl of Northumberland into the Order of the Garter, 
1635, reprinted by J. G. Bell.) 

'* See the tenth earl's seal in Hartshorne. 



224 



BADGES OF FEECT. 



A itar ofjm poinU oooun above the crescent on two fonts in North- 
umberland^ in parishes containing Percy possessions, viz., Ingram and 
and Alnham. Erom drawings which were obligingly furnished by l£r. 
F. R. Wilson of Alnwick, I observe that the former is dated '^ Mabch 
THB U, 1632/' which would be 1633, the latter 1664. In the example 
at Ingram, which presents two other curious additions to the crescent 
(see engrarlng), the rays are waved ; on the Alnham font they are leaf- 








shaped. We seem to have another instance in the counterseal of the 
tenth earl, where, on the scroll containing the motto, are six pierced 
mullets. Now the star of the Veres, which was worn as a mullet 
in their shield, is traditioned to have arisen from a miraculous adven- 
ture very similar to that applied to the crescent of Percy, and it is 
natural enough that the Percys, struck with the coincidence, should 
like to perpetuate both symbols. 

The last occasion of any importance being attached to this celebrated 
symbol is one of great curiosity. James Percy, the trunkmaker, on 
claiming the earldom of Northumberland by reason of some male descent 
(which probably did in a manner exist, though from a date long before 
the restitution of that honour in tail male), was confronted by his il- 
legitimate, or, at all events, younger brother, one William Percy, dlioi 
Tamon. Ke appears to have been a mere puppet in the hands of the 
opponents of the claim made by the trunkmaker, who, instead of con- 
tenting himself with natural facts, gravely stated that " he was bom 
into the world with a mole, like a half-moon, upon his body, therefore 
no brand, but it signifies a crescent, which belongs to the Percies' arms ; 
and it is reported that he is not the first that hath been so bom of that 
family.'' '' When you came first to me," says this earnest and singular 
individual, " I shewed you a mold like a half moon upon my body 
(born into the world with it), as hath been the like on some of the 
Percys formerly. Now search William Percy, and see if God hath 
marked him so ? Surely God did foresee these troubles, although the 



LIVERY COLOURS OF PERCY. 225 

law takes no notice ; but God makes a true decision, even as he has 
pleased to make Esau hairy and Jacob smooth/' ** Gk)d himself is the 
claimant's witness ; for he hath set to his seal a crescent, a badge which 
belongs to the Percy family, which he was bom into the^world with ; 
and is descended of a family of near thirty generations." " Gk>d doth 
not set the half-moon in vain upon the claimant, but the world may 
look upon it to be the Almighty's candle to find out the true heir male." 
Nor was the trunkmaker anxious for himself and his own issue alone. 
He felt for those obscure relatives who might, if his claim was allowed, 
be one day in the difficult position, as he was, to prove heirship. He 
wishes the heralds therefore to help a gentleman of Ireland that rides 
in the life-guards, a shoemaker at Charing Gross, a shoemaker at Gam- 
bridge, and his brother, a tailor, to find out the truth of seniority. 
He himself acknowledges them to be cousins, and, says he, " my cordial 
endeavours are to preserve the moon from being misted or eclipsed any 
more.'"* 

LIVERY COLOTJES.— The only remembrance of the rich red and 
Mack occurs within the horns of the crescent in the paly field, when the 
locket is there placed. At the time that Percy wrote of the minstrels 
" all clad in robes of blue with silver crescents on their arms," there 
seems to have been an adoption of the colour of the azure lion and of a 
notion that it was anciently used in the same way. The ducal' livery 
at present is a blue coat with white lining, yellow collar and cuffs, and 
silver lace and buttons, a white waistcoat, and white knee-breeches. 
The present duke's servants wear a silver aigulette, and silver band to 
the hat : the late duke's wore silver epaulettes. 



My pleasant task has placed me under fresh obligations to old and 
tried friends, fostered pleasant relations with new ones, and necessitated 
delightful inspections of many beautiful objects.'* Further lights will 
break in upon such a subject ; and it is not one which can readily 

73 4 Craik's Romance of the Peerage, 306, whence some of the foregoing extracts 
from the trunkmaker's manifestoes are taken, and where a very readable and clear 
memoir of his struggles may be found. 

'* Mr. Fenwick, Mr. White, and Mr. Way, have kindly allowed the use of half-a- 
dozen cuts, in adcUtion to the useful series specially engraved. 

The references to seals given by Surtees and Hartshome have relation of course 
to Surtees's History of Durham, and Hartshomc's share of the Archaeological 
Institute's Newcastle Congress volumes. 



226 INSIGNIA OF PEBCY. 

be diBmissed from consideration, accessary as it is to the personal and 
territorial history of a sequence of nobles, who, if they did often choose 
the unsafe, if not unpopular, side in the current of events, were even in 
their faults the same magnificent and unselfish, race that they have been 
in the sunshine of wealth and power. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A* 
January, 1860. 



The following tabular statement will be some guide to the foregoing 
paper, indicating the person under whom each bearing is first noticed. 

Abm8. — ^Azure, fiye golden mill-picks or fiuils in feaa. (Joeceline de Loyaine, pro- 
bably in right of his wife, Agnes de Percy.) 

Mr. Way draws my attention to the early military weapon of the same shape as 
the handled mill-pick, and it probably is wbiat is alluded to in heraldry. 

Yarions feudal coats deriyed from rercy may be Been in the ordinaries. A striking 
one is that giyen to Balph de Alnehamy tne precise Percy shield coyered with a red 
bend. The same, the bend being silyer, is giyen to John de Sutton. Ferlington 
had the fusils gold on a black field. Henry Ferlington married Joan, a daughter of 
'William de Percy, who died in 1245, and a coheir of her mother Joan Brewere. 

The following aims occur for the name of Percy itself. Blue, four or fiye fusils in 
fess, silyer. Blue, three golden fusils in fess, wimin a double tressure, flory ooun- 
terflory,.(four for Percy of Islington/) Silyer, four black fusils in fess, for Fercy of 
Ardingworth, Northamptonshire. The same, with the field gold, for a family of the 
same county. Gold, a red fusil in pale engrailed. Silyer, fiye black fusils in fess, on 
each three golden pales. The same without pales. Silyer, three black fusils in fess, 
on each a bezant. Blue, a silyer pale fusilly. The like tinctures reyersed. Other 
examples haye already been adduced. The secretum mentioned under the second 
lord of Alnwick as used by Robert de Percy is on the deed Harl. Cart. 54, G. 18, dated 
1317| a settlement by Robert de Percy, knt., and Beatrice his wife, of their rights in 
the manor of Sutton on Derwent. For this branch from Robert, a son of Josceline of 
Loyaine, see 2 Foss's Judges, 102, and 1 Test. £bor., 83. The lions at the side of his 
shield are probably allusiye rather than supporters. His ancestors are said to haye 
assumed the name of Sutton. 

Gold, a blue lion rampant. (Henry de Percy, d. 1315.) Mr. Planch^ states that the 
leonine arms of the duchy of Louyaine were allusiye: — "Leuwon: Leewen; Leones." 
— quoting 1 Oliy. Vred., 36. 

Red, three silyer lucies or pike-fish, for Lucy. (First earU 

Barry of six, gold and green, a red bend, for Poynings. (Third earl.) 

Bed, three silyer lions passant, oyer all a blue bend, for Fitzpayne. (The same.) 

Gold, three blue piles, conjoined at the base, for Bryan. (Fourth earl.^ 

France and England wiuiin a border of blue and silyer gobony, for Beaufort. 
(Sixth earl.) 

Black, two ermine bars nebulee, for Spencer. (The same.) 

Blue, three golden hottles, hottes (bats), icicles, or guttes, bendwise, for Harbottle. 
(Seyenth earl.) 

Silyer, three red escallops, for Gharron ? (The same.) 

Silyer, three red ewers, within a black oorder bezant^, for Monboucher. (The 
same.) 

Black, three silyer hougets, for Acton ? (The same.) 

For subsequent quarterings, see the text. 



INSIGNIA OF PERCY. 227 

Crest.— On a red chepeau, turned up ermine, a blue lion statant. (Henry de 
Percy, d. 1353.) 

A golden crescent. (Third earl.) 

A black dragon's bead and wings, for Poynings. (The same.) 

A blue or black bugle-bom stringless, garnished with gold, for Bryan. (Fourth earl.) 

A silver swan's head and wings, issuing out of a red duc£d coronet, for Beauchamp. 
(Ninth earl.) 

A silver Hon passant guardant, ducally crowned in gold, for Lisle or Fitzgerald. 
(The same.) 

Some of the badges were also placed on wreaths in the ninth earl's time. 

SuFFOBTEBS. — Bluo liou or lions. (Second earl.) 

A crowned lion (or panther .>) guardant (Fourth earl.) 

A silver unicorn, ducally gorged and chained with gold, for Poynings. (The same.) 

A silver boar, ducaUy gorged and chained with gold, for Bryan ? (The same.) 

A dragon. (The same.) 

A silver panther, powdered with red and blue spots, and ducally crowned in gold, 
for Percy. (Sixth earl.) 

^ A goldon lion guardant (sometimes with a human face), ducally crowned in gold or 
silver, and goi^d with a collar gobony of ermine and blue, or argent and blue, for 
Somerset, i. e. Beaufort. (Sixth earl.) 

A silver panther, spotted with silver, gold, blue, black, green, and red, ducally 
gorged with blue, fire issuant from the mouth and ears, for Somerset, (The same.) 

A golden griffin, for Nevil Lord Latimer. (Ninth earl.) 

" And boldly the great griffin up the hill is gone." 

(Dingley's Battle of Branxton, alluding to Lord Latimer.) 

Wae-Crt.— Percy ! Percy I (First earl.) 
Esperance ! Percy ! (The same.) 

Motto. — ^Esperance. (Second earl.) 
Je espoyr. (The same.) 
Esperance ma Comfort. (Fourth earl only.) 
Esperance en Dieu ma Comfort. (The same.) 
Esperance en Bieu. (Fifth earl.) 
Tout loyal. (The same.) 

Nicolas, in his RoU of Karlaverok, mentions a good punning motto proposed for 
Percy — one true to both line and lion — Per se nobilis. 

Beast. — ^A white lion sejant guardant. (Second earl.) 

The same gorged with a crescent which is inscribed Esperance. (Fourth earl.) 

Badobs. — ^A white lion guardant. (First earl.) 

A locket or turrets, silver or golden. (The same.) " About his arme he [Henry V. 
while prince] ware a dog's-coUar, set full of SS. of gold, the tireta thereof being most 
fine gdd. (Speed.) 

A crescent, silver or golden. fThe same.) 

A crescent round a castle. (The same.) 

A lion rampant (Second earl.) 

A lion rampant between the horns of a crescent (The same.) 

A lion sejant guardant, gorged with a crescent. (The same.) 

A white imicom, for Poynings. (Third carl.) 

A silver key, crowned with gold, for Poynings. (The same.) 

A black falchion, mounted with gold, for Fitzpayne. (The same.) 

A crescent and lion passant (Fourth earl.) 

A silver crescent enclosing a gold or silver locket or turrets. (The same.) 

A falcon displayed, within a circle. (The same.) 

A golden bascule, for Herbert. (Fourth earl only.) 

A dragon. (The same.) 

A blue or black bugle-nom unstringed, tipped and garnished with gold, for Bryan. 
(Fourth earl.) 

A silver demi-boar, ducally gorged and chained with gold. (Fifth earl.) 



228 INSIGNIA OF PERCY. 

A tUrer demi-nnieom, KimetinieB ducall; gorged, cliamed utd armed id gold. 
(The same.) 

A mallet, for Vere ? (Tenth earl.) 

A crescent auimonnted by an eatoile or mullet. (Tlie Btune.) 

A creicent aaimounled by an octapetaloua flowei. (The nmo.) 

A uteteeaX •nnnoonted bj a fleur-de-lu. (The same.) 

LiTBHT Coi«VBS. — Bed and black. (Second earl.) 

Gold and green, for Poyninga. (Fifth earl.) 

Tellow. [The iame.) 

Tawny, meflame.L 

White and green ? (The lame.) 

RoBset, gold, and tawny. (SiiUi earl.) 

Red, gidd, and roaset (The same.) 

Red and rosset. (The same.) 

Red, gold, and black. (The Bame.) 

White and blue. (Modnnt usage.) 

HsbtLSs. — PercyHerald. (First earl's, noticed ander the fourth eml.} 

Nurthomberiand Herald. (Fourth earL) 

PtiMwiviHT. — Egpetaaoe Punuirant. (Fourth earL) 

Btakdaxds, GniDHOxma, PimoNS, avd PsmieNCELLBS.— See under the fourth 
and fifth eariiS. 



229 



PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

I. NEWCASTLE RACES. 

The earliest notice of these races is in the year 1632, when we find 
the following item in the Corporation accounts : — ** Paid 20/. to John 
Blakiston, chamberlain, which he disbursed for two silver potts granted 
by the Common Council, for the race on Eillingworth Moor after Whit- 
suntide." 

The following year, 1633, the races appear to have been in a flourish- 
ing condition. In a letter from Thomas Bowes, Esq., to Matthew 
Hutton, Esq., of Marsk, dated June 5th, the former, speaking of his 
nephew. Sir George Bowes, says, "He is now at Newcastle, and it 
seems he thinks his money will never have an end, for he is making 
matches with the lords of the horse-courses, and as we hear, hath made 
two matches, the one for 40L the other for 100/.'' 

This meeting, with all others of a similar kind, was suppressed in the 
time of the Commonwealth ; which caused Daniel CoUingwood, son of 
Sir Bobert CoUingwood, of Branton, to say in a public company that 
" there were none now in power but the rascality, who envied that 
gentlemen should enjoy their amusements." For this offence he was 
summoned by the Parliament as a delinquent, June 11th, 1657. The 
races we|e revived after the Restoration, being held as before, the week 
after Whitsuntide. In 1659, they are noticed in the Common Council 
books, the course being still on Killingworth Moor. In 1707, there is 
an order in the books that " for the future no cords be used or paid ibr " 
at that place. 

Mackenzie mentions a Ihwn PJaie, value 25^., in 1715. 

In 1716, there was a County Plate, the entry for which is preserved 
in the Courant of that day, and is here given, as the earliest " list of 
all the Running Horses " for any race at Newcastle* 

*' Newcastle, May 28th. A list of the names of the owners of the 
horses, and their riders, that are entered for the County Plate, vi^. :— - 

" Edward Carr, of Whitburn, in the county of Durham, Esq., a bay 
mare, called Silversnout, James Garth rider, in white. 

'^ Fenwick Bowman, Gent., (Uias Bonner, a bay mare, called Creeping 
Kate, Fenwick Bowman rider, in white. 

VOL. ly. 2 o 



230 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

''Sir Wm. Blaokett, a chesnut horse, called Bag<piper, Jonathaa 

Cooper rider, in blae. 
*' Mr. Robert Todd, a bay gelding, called Bouncer, Jerimiah Porster 

rider, in white." 

In 1721, the meeting was at the nsual time, the races being held 
every day thronghout the week ; the County Plate, yalue 25/., the gift 
of Edward Delaval, Esq., High Sheriff, being ran for on Tuesday at 
Killingworth, all the other races on the Town Moor. On Tuesday the 
prize was a Gold Cup, yalue 60 guineas, the gift of the Corporation of 
Newcastle. The entries for the County Plate and Gold Cup were made 
not to the Clerk of the Course, but for the one to the Clerk of the Peace 
for Northumberland, for the other to the Town Clerk of Newcastle. 
The weights were in each case 10 stone, and 4 mile heats. 

The other races were Monday, the Oenilemen*8 Plate, 257. ; Wednes- 
day, the Fi'eemen'a Plate, 40/. ; Friday, the Galloway Plate, 15/. ; 
Saturday, the Little Qalloway Plate, 5/. ; all in heats except the first. 
Entries to Mr, Bol)ert Hill, at the Black Bull and Crown. '' For the 
gentlemen's diyersion. Cock-fighting every forenoon at Mr. Hill's Pit." 

This is the earliest notice of cock-fighting in connection with the 
races ; but firom 1712 downwards, it is continually advertised at other 
times, chiefiy at Mr. Hill's pit, and at the Crown without the West- 
gate, as well as at many of the neighbouring towns and villages. 

This was the last year for the County Plate at Killingworth ; neither 
was there any Gbld Cup the following year, the programme being as 
follows :— 'Monday, the Ladiee^ Plate, for hunters, 10/. ; Tuesday, the 
Gentlemen^ Plate, 30/. ; Wednesday, the Innkeepers* Plate, for gallo- 
ways, 20/. ; Thursday, the Town Plate, given by the Corporati)n, 30/. ; 
Friday, the Freemm*9 Plate, 40/. ; Saturday, the lAttU OaUoway*9 
Plate, 10/. 

After the racing on Monday, was '' A Free Plate, yalue 2 guineas, by 
hounds, a Trail Scent of a live fox, six miles ; no gentleman allowed to 
shout or cap his dog, under the penalty of losing the plate." This plate 
was not continued after this year. 

In 1723, besides the regular meeting, there were races in the assise- 
week. Wednesday, the JF%inmcal Plate, 10/, ; Thursday and Friday, 
QaUoway Plates, 15/. and 5/. Cock-fighting daily. 

In 1724, the (Gentlemen's Plate was on Monday, and the Hunters' 
Plate on Tuesday. 

In 1727, the Corporation gaye two Gold Cups, on Monday, value 40/. ; 
on Thursday, 50 guineas. On Tuesday, was the Gentlemen's Plate, 60 



NEWCASTLE RACES. 231 

guineas ; Wednesday, the Innkeeper's Plate, for galloways, 20/. ; Friday, 
li'eemen's Plate, 401. ; Saturday, a Hunter's Plate, 25 guineas. 

In 1728, the second Gold Cup was given up, and yarious Alterations 
were made from year to year. 

In 1732, in addition to the other prizes, a Plate of 307. was given hy 
Walter Blaokett, Esq., High Sheriff of Northumherland, for hunters, 
1 1 stones, heats, thrice round, on Tuesday. 

The gift of a plate to be run for was not an unusual thing on the part 
of gentlemen serving the office of High Sheriff, though it was by no 
means invariably run for at Newcastle. In 1721, as we have seen, Mr. 
Delaval gave 257. to be run for at Eillingworth ; and in 1728, Mr. 
Fenwick of Bywell gave 10 guineas to be run for on Tyne Green, 
Hexham, and 20 at Alnwick. 

In 1737, the races were as follows : Monday,. Oentlemerie Plate, 207. > 
Tuesday, 30 guinea Plate; Wednesday 20 guineas for galloways; 
Thursday, Corporation Plate, 40 guineas ; Friday, Freemen's Plate, 407. 

In 1739, the Corporation gave a Gold Cup, value 407., on Thursday, 
and a purse of 257. on Friday. 

In 1740, an Act of Parliament was passed, with a view of suppress- 
ing the petty races which were held annually at almost every village 
in the country, by which it was made illegal to run for any plate or 
stake of less value than 507. This also curtailed very considerably the 
number of prizes at meetings of greater consideration, wh»e two or 
three plates of 507. had to be substituted for twice the number of smaller 
amount. The immediate result was to limit Newcastle races to three 
days, the prizes being, Tuesday, Innkeepers^ Plate, 507. ; Wednesday, 
Freemen's Plate, 507. ; Thursday, Gold Cup, 507. At the same time, 
the sports at Doncaster races, now so celebrated, were reduced to two 
plates of 507. each. 

In 1745, there was a plate on each of four days, Monday, Tuesday, 
Thursday, and Friday, Wednesday being blank ; and this arrangement 
was continued till 1749, when, in consequence of a virulent and de- 
structive disease amongst horned cattle, all races, fairs, cock-fights, and 
other public gatherings were prohibited, to diminish as much as posuble 
the spreading of the infection. There was no regular race meeting in 
Newcastle either in 1749 or 1750. In the latter year a single race was 
run, which excited great interest, being a match for 200 guineas be- 
tween the Duke of Cleveland and Mr. Fenwick of Bywell. It was won 
by Mr. Fenwick. 

In 1751, on the revival of the races, an important alteration was made 
in their fixture. Hitherto, for cousiderably more than a century, pro^ 



233 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

bably for twice that period, they had been held in Trinity week, fiacta- 
ating with the cycle of the moreable feasts. This was found to be an 
inconyenient arrangement^ frequently interfering with other race meet- 
ings, which were held at fixed periods, and it was determined that 
henceforth Newcastle races should be held in midsummer week. This 
fixture has been adhered to up to the present time, with the exception 
of a few years during the present century, when the races were held in 
July. The experiment preying unsncoessM, the Mae step was re- 
traced, and the week nearest to midsummer day is the established period 
of the meeting. 

In 1751, a match for 120/. came o£^ on Wednesday, but the following 
year that day was again blank. 

In 1753, for the first time, a E%ng^% Plate of 100 guineas was granted 
to Newcastle, and five days' racing was thus secured. Occa^onally a 
race was got up on the Saturday, and there are even instances when the 
meeting was protracted into the following week. 

A few years later, sweepstakes, by subscription amongst the owners 
of horses, were introduced, iu addition to the plates. These were de- 
cided in single races ; the plates continued to be run for in heats. In 
1785, there were two sweepstakes by subscription of 20 guineas each, 
one for three-year-olds, the other for four-year-olds. This year much 
excitement was occasioned by a race between two mules, one the 
property of Sir H. Q. Liddell, Bart, the other of Bichard Bell, Esq., 
which came off on the last day of the races. The mules were ridden 
by their owners, and Mr. BeU was the winner. The race on Thursday 
for a Gold Cup, value 100 guineas, which for so many years was the 
popular feature of Newcastle Races, was not introduced till the last 
year of the eighteenth century. The changes which have been made 
since that date may be reserved for some other chronicler one hundred 
years hence. 

Originally, the races were superintended by a Committee of " Mana- 
gers," or, as we should now term them, a Eaoe Committee ; but no 
stewards were appointed till 176S, when Eobert Shafboe, Esq., of Ben- 
well» and Abraham Dixon, Esq., of Belford, officiated in that capacity. 
Since that date two or more gentlemen have been annually selected for 
the office. Aiter KilHngworth and Newcastle, the oldest established 
races in Northumberland were held on Tughall Moor, where two plates 
of 20/. and 10/. were run for annually, on two consecutive days in Sep- 
tember. Between 1713 and 1721, these races were transferred to 
Alnwick Moor, being advertised in the latter year to be run '' on the 
usual course of Hobberlaw Edge ** in July. 



THEATRICAL PERFORMANCES. 233 

In 1712, a plate of 6^., and in 1713, of 52., was run for at Wolsing'- 
ton, near Newcastle; and in 1716, a tankard, value 4 guineas, at 
Pilmoor, near Eotbbnry. 

In 1721, Morpeth Baces were held on Cottingwood ; and Hexham on 
Tyne Green. 

In 1723, were the first races on record on the fine natural turf of 
Milfield Plain, on which occasion Sir William Middleton gave a cup of 
60 guineas value to be run for, besides which there was a lOh plate for 
galloways. 

In 1724, there were races at (Gateshead. 

At this period there were also races at Sunderland, Durham, Stock* 
ton, Barnard Castle, Auckland, and Yarm. Durham races were held 
on alternate days on Elyet and Framwellgate Moors ; and Auckland on 
alternate days on Auckland Holm and Hunwick Edge. Stockton races 
were held on the Cars on the south side of the Tees, then accessible only 
by a ferry-boat. 

In the intervening period between 1724 and 1740, advertisements 
occur of races at the following places in Northumberland and Durham, 
in addition to those already noticed :— Tynemouth, Blyth, Felton, Bam- 
burgh, Alnmouth, Stamfordham, Long Benton, Newbum, Stagshaw- 
bank, Druridge, Sleekbum, Bywell, Willington Quay, and Newham ; 
South Shields, Darlington, Wolsingham, Hartlepool, Staindrop, Sedge- 
field, Chester-le-Street, Lanchester, Witton-Gilbert, Hamsterley, 
Heighington, Whickham, Byton, Winlaton, Blaydon, Tanfield, Brians- 
leap, Hebburn. After the passing of the Act above referred to in 1740, 
only Newcastle, Morpeth, Hexham, Durham, Bishop Auckland, and 
Stockton races were continued on a legal footing. Alnwick, Milfield, 
Barnard Castle, and Sunderland, were afterwards revived; besides 
which there are frequent presentmeuts by grand-juries of illegal race 
meetiogs at other places. 

II. THEATRICAL PERFORMANCES. 

About the middle of the sixteenth century, secular plays began to 
take the place of the Mysteries and Moralities which had been the de- 
light of the populace during the middle ages, and companies of strolling 
actors itinerated from town to town under the protection of some no- 
bleman's name, whose servants they professed to be, in order to evade 
the penalties which they would otherwise have incurred for vagrancy. 
The accounts of the Corporation of Newcastle give evidence of numer-* 
ous visits of these strolling companies, who received gratuities for per* 



234 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

forming before the mayor in the Merchants' Gonrt The earliest pay- 
ment of this sort is in July, 1561, when 20s. is giyen by Mr. Mayor^s 
commandment to the Duchess of Suffolk's playersy who again haye 12«. 
for drink in September. In the interral they had no doubt been playing 
to the public, as was usual, on a stage in the streets. 

In 1563, my Lord of Bedford's players had 20«. for playing before the 
mayor and his brethren ; and in 1565, the same sum was given to those 
of my Lord of Worcester, with an additional expenditure for ** 8 lb. of 
wax to be candles for the chamber." 

In 1567, a local company from Durham had 3J., besides the provision 
of links for the play, a quart of wine for the playersy and three load of 
coals. 

In 1568, the play was got up by Bobert Watson, and apparently per- 
formed by the townsmen. The charges are given in detail, and are 
worthy of transcription. *' Paid Bobert Watson for the bone of the 
play : first, for 60 mens' dinners, 50$, ; for 35 horses for the players, at 
4d. a horse, lis. Sd.; for wine for their dinners, 6«. 8i.; more for a 
drome (drum), Ss. ; to the waits for playing before the players, 2$, ; 
for painting the sergeant's staffs, 28.; more for John Hardcastle for 
making 46 little castles and 6 great castles for the bone of the play 8«. ; 
more for Belzebub's cloak, id.*' Total, 4/. 1«. id. 

In 1576, my Lord of Leicester's players had 50«., besides a farther 
sum of 10«. *' given in reward to him that had the lion." 

Similar payments occur in 1590, 93, and 99, to the players of the 
Earl of Hertford, the Earl of Sussex, and Lord Stafford. 

During the reigns of James I. and Charles I. the the drama made a 
great advance ; but we have no evidence of its progress in Newcastle, 
except J&om the theatrical taste which lingered there even under the 
austere government of the Commonwealth, when plays, in common with 
all public amusements, were prohibited, in overstrained obedience to an 
Act of Elizabeth. When actors wera no longer patronised by " the 
Mayor and his brethren " they betook themselves to the outskirts, and 
exercised their vocation by stealth, as much perhaps to the delight of a 
Sandgate audience (for their theatre appears to have been in the eastern 
suburbs of the town) as their predecessors had done to the gratification 
of more refined patrons. An amusing account is given in a letter ad- 
dressed to the Weekly Flying Post of the 10th of January, 1656, of the 
interruption of the performance, and the punishment of the actors, 
which would lose half its interest if it were not inserted in the glowing 
language of the relator.—- 



THEATRICAL PERFORMANCES. 235 

Letter from Neweoitle-on-Tyne. 

I here send you a piece of exemplary justice, which as it sets an 
example to other magistrates of this nation, so also can not be unfitly 
communicated to you. On the 28th of December, a cluster of lewd 
fellows, advertising to act a comedy within the precincts and bounds of 
this town, daring, as it were, authority, and outfacing justice ; our 
vigilant magistrates, hearing of it, resolved to set a boundary to their 
sinful courses, and clip the harvest of their hopes ; concluding such 
enormities the proper nurseries of impiety, and therefore they repaired 
to the place, where having begun. Alderman Bobert Johnson, Mr. 
Sheriff, and divers godly men, step in to see their sport. But their 
sudden approach changed the scene both of their play and countenances, 
so that the interlude, proving ominous, boded no less than a tragedy to 
the actors, turning the play into a tragicomedy. After they had done, 
they were apprehended and examined before the Mayor, and other 
Justices of the Peace, and found guilty of being common players of in- 
terludes, according to a statute made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
and according to law adjudged to be whipped : which accordingly was 
performed in the public market-pleu^e, when a great concourse of people 
thronged to see them act the last part of their play, their robes of honour 
hanging in public view. Therefore let the nation know their names 
and habitations, that all that have converse with them may look upon 
them to be such aa the laws of the land hath concluded them to be, 
rogues and vagabonds, as followeth :— 

John Blaiklock of Jesmond, 
John Blaiklock his son, both Papists, 
James Morehead of Newcastle, 
Edward Liddell of Jesmond, a Papist, 
James Edwards of Usebum, 
Thomas Rawkstraw of Newcastle, 
Eichard Byerley of Usebum. 

All whipt in Newcastle for rogues and vagabonds." 

Even after the Kestoration the members of the theatrical profession 
seem to have been unwilling to subject themselves to the authority of 
of the Newcastle magistrates. For many years the performances took 
place in the Moot-haU, in the Castle Garth, the Court-house of the 
county of Northumberland, a rather singular appropriation of such a 
building. 

In 1711, an order was made at the Northumberland Michaelmas 
Sessions '^ that the Moot-hall should not be let for the performance of 
plays, or other purposes, without the consent of five justices.'' On the 
8th of December, 1716, it was let to Mr. Peirson and his company. 

In 1721, it was let to " the Company of Comedians that plays at 
York, Nottingham, and Leicester Races," for a season of six weeks from 



286 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

the 5th of June. The performances the first week, being the races, 
were as follows : — ^Monday, the Twin Biyals; Tuesday, the Country 
Lasses, or the Custom of the Manor; on Wednesday, the Man's 
Bewitched, or the Devil to do about Her; Thursday, Woman's a Biddle ; 
Friday, the Fair Example, or the Modish Citicen ; Saturday, the In« 
constant, or the Way to Win Him, with sereral new entertainments of 
singing and dancing. 

The following Monday, " that celebrated home story, called the 
Unhappy Fayourite, or the Earl of Essex ; the part of Essex to be per- 
formed by a gentleman of this town for his diversion, who neyer yet 
appeared on any stage." 

On the week commencing July 3rd, "The Incomparable English 
Opera, called the Island Princess, or the Oenerous Portuguese, with all 
the yocal and instrumental music as it was originally performed at the 
£ing's Theatre, with several entertainments of dancing, yiz., the 
Autumn Dance ; the Milk-pail Dance ; the most celebrated music and 
dancing by Corydon, Daphne, Shepherds and Shepherdesses ; and a 
grand warlike dance by six pike-men and an Amazonian. At the open- 
ing of the opera, a sea-scene, wherein Neptune, tritons and mermaids, are 
floating on the waves. Notwithstanding the vast charge, we shall play 
^^ common prices, although at other places the prices were doubled. 
The last week but one, being obliged to be at York Assizes." 

On Monday in the following week, " Hannibal's Overthrow, with the 
Deaths of King Massinissa and Sophonisba, written by those ingenious 
gentlemen, Mr. Dryden and Mr. Lea, authors of the famed Alexander 
the Great." 

For some years the York company, under the management of Mr. 
Keregan, continued to yisit Newcastle at the same season, and to perform 
at the Moot-hall. 

In 1728, another company under Mr. Herbert secured the Moot-hall 
in April, as we learn by the following announcement: — " Mr. Herbert 
with his Company of Comedians (by letters of recommendation) is come 
to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to attend the quality and gentry, and shall 
stay the races." 

Mr. £eregan's company also arrived at their usual time, and adver- 
tised their performances to commence in the race-week " in the Great 
Booth in Mr. Usher's Deal Yard." The great attraction of both houses 
was the *' celebrated dramatic entertainment called the Beggar's Opera, 
as it was performed at the Theatre Eoyal, in Lincoln's Inn Fields." 
Mr. Eeregan had secured Mr. Hullet, the original Macheath from Lon- 
don, whilst the same part was performed in Mr. Herbert's theatre by 



THEATEICAL PERFOKMANCES. 237 

Mr. Woodward " who lately performed it at York, in Mr. Eer^;an'8 
Company." 

The competition does not appear to have extended beyond this year, 
as we hare no notice for some years of any otiier place of performance 
than the Moot-hall. 

In 1730, the performances on the 27th of May were "by the com- 
mand of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons," and 
consisted of ** the Play called the Committee, or the Faithful Irishman, 
with a Prologue and Epilogue suitable to the occasion, and likewise the 
Freemason's Song, with Hob's Opera and the Song of Molly Mog for 
their entertainment." " Never," we are told, " such an appearance of 
ladies and gentlemen were ever seen together in this place." 

In 1732, the Moot-hall was occupied for a winter season, commencing 
on Monday, the 6th of November, by Mr. Orfeur's company, who an- 
nounce that they will perform twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays, 
during the quarter. They opened with " The Tempest, or the En- 
chanted Island, written originally by Shakspeare, and altered by Sir 
William Davenant and Mr. Dryden, with the sea-scene, all the music, 
songs, flyings, sinkings, dresses, and other decorations proper to the 
play, and an artificial shower of fire, as performed at the Theatre Eoyal 
in Drury Lane, London." 

In 1740, the season extended fix»m March till after the assizes, with 
^e exception of an interval in which the company performed at Hex- 
ham during the races. 

In 1741, the Moot-hall was taken by Mr. Hallam, of the New Wells' 
Theatre, Goodman's Fields, London, for a season of three montiis, com- 
mencing in November, for the representation of pantomimes, baUets, 
interludes, and minor pieces ; also rope-dancing, singing, &c. 

From this period, for some years, in order to evade the laws relating 
to the performance of stage plays, the entertainments were advertised as 
subscription concerts, between the parts of which a tragedy or a comedy, 
as the case might be, would be represented gratis. 

In 1743, the Edinburgh company performed here, opening on the 
12th of November with the Beggar's Opera. 

In 1747, the performances were removed to the Turk's Head Long- 
room, which had been recently erected, and was opened by the York 
company with the play of the Suspicious Husband. At this room, 
described as the Theatre in the Bigg Market, the head-quarters of the 
drama in Newcastle were established for forty years, though not always 
without opposition. 

In 1753, the Moot-hall was opened by Mr. Lee, an actor of some 

r 

VOL. IV. 2 H 



238 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

eminence, afterwards manager of the Edinburgh company, the manager 
at the other theatre being Mr. Baker. The competition was continued 
the following season. 

Again, in 1781 and 1782, a rival company was established at " The 
New Theatre, in the Castle Garth," a temporary building erected at a 
considerable expense. 

In 1786, Messrs. Emery and Cumberland fitted up a theatre at Mr. 
Methuen's long-room, in Gateshead, for a summer season, commencing 
in the assize week, when the other theatre was not open. The Moot- 
hall was at this period, when not required for judicial purposes, let to 
an auctioneer as a sale-room. 

From the aboye details it will be seen that Mackenzie's statement as 
to three theatres being open at the same time, is incorrect. He is also 
in error both as to the date and the situation of the " Great Booth in 
Usher's Kaff-yard,'' which was erected in 1728, and was at the Head of 
the Side, not in Queen Street. 

The subject of the erection of a new theatre in Newcastle was brought 
before a meeting convened by advertisement, Dec. Uth, 1784, and 
1,125^. was subscribed at the time towards an estimated expenditure of 
2,0007. The whole amount was raised in 25L ^ares, which were sub- 
sequently increased to 30/. Another meeting was held at Bella's 
Coffee House, on the Sandhill, on the 1 1th of July, when the site and 
plans were determined on, and the necessary steps were taken to procure 
a patent, under which the new building in Mosley Street assumed the 
distinction of a Theatre Boyal. 

The theatre was not completed for opening till January, 1788, by 
which time the actual expenditure exceeded 6,000i. 

The first managers were Messrs. Austin and Whitlock, who had 
previously been the lessees of the theatre at the Turk's Head. 

III. EXHIBITIONS. 

The Shows which itinerated the country for the amusement of our fore- 
fathers in the beginning of the eighteenth century, were very similar to 
those with which we are ourselves familiar. Jugglers, Prize-fighters, 
Collections of Birds and Beasts, Natural Monstrosities, Wax-works, In- 
genious Mechanism, &c., &c., &c. 

In 1713, we have "two profound masters of the noble science of 
Defence/' Thomas Soon of London, known as the " Bold Welshman," 
and William Emm erson, the "Norfolk Champion," who lately fought 



EXHIBITIONS. 239 

the "Bold Indian/' at Bridge-Town, Barbadoes. These heroes exhibited 
their skill with back-sword, sword-and-dagger, sword-and-buckler, sin- 
gle-falchion, case-of-falchions, and quarter-staff, at the Nag's Head, 
Gateshead, "where there was convenience made for gentlemen and 
ladies," and concluded the performance by a fight for 10 guineas aside. 

In 1723, and again in 1729, we meet with the renowned Matthew 
Buckinger, a German Dwarf, 2 feet 5 inches high, who had neither 
hands nor thighs, "yet performs abundance of curiosities, makes his own 
pens, writes curiously several hands, draws pictures to the life, and coats 
of arms to admiration, threads a needle, plays at skittles and nine-pins, 
performs on the fiute, dulcimer, hautboy and tnimpet, charges and fires 
a gun, and dances a hornpipe in a highland dress as well as any man 
without legs." 

On his second appearance there was offered the additional attraction 
of " a new entertainment called Scaramouch and Clown." 

In 1731, there was an exhibition of " The Little Man," who, from the 
identity of the description, and similarity of his performances, was no 
doubt Buckinger ; but on this occasion he is not put forward as the 
chief attraction, but follows, with a six-legged horse, in the train of a 
conjurer who plays tricks with cards, birds, eggs, &c. ; " caases a mill to 
appear before all the company, and the sails to move round ; raises an 
oak tree with King Charles II. in it, and soldiers marching round, calls 
cards down from the ceiling at his pleasure, and other curiosities." 

In 1732, was an exhibition of Birds and Beasts, the description of 
which is worthy of Pollitoe. "Amongst the Birds is the grand Cassewar, 
having no tongue, and feeding on raw onions, carrots, and pebble-stones. 
The next, having the appearance of a crown upon his head, is called the 
King of the Yavvous. The third is the Cockatore, from the Island of 
Zelone, the fourth a Macao or Bird of Paradise, the fifth a Vulture of 
tremendous size. Now as to the Beasts, there is a great Asian Tiger, a 
handsome Leopard, a large Panther, a beautifol Amongoos, a young 
Mountain Monster, a Possome with a false belly, where her young ones 
in danger retire from savage beasts, and a Civit Cat affording the choicest 
perfumes." 

In 1734, was another collection of Wild Beasts, including a Great 
Camel, and at the same time was exhibited "Mr. Motel's celebrated 
Swiss Chaise, which travels without horses, his Persian Statues, and 
other curiosities." 

At the same time was another exhibition of Anatomical Figures in 
wax, the veins and arteries of glass, filled with a red liquor, representing 
the circulation of the blood, the action of the heart and lungs, &c. 



240 PUBLIC AMU&EMBNT& IN NEWCASTLE. 

In 1744, was an exhibition of Cariosities in Glass. 

In 1747, amongst other wild beasts, a Rhinoceros was exhibited. 

In 1750, was an exhibition of Sculpture, consisting of upwards of 40O 
figures in marble illustratiye of the life of our Saviour. These figures 
were intended for the Rojal Chapel at Yersailles, but were captured 
with the French South Sea Fleet, and brought to England. 

The same year were advertised for exhibition a Mummy, a Porpoise, 
and a Mermaid, the two last alive ; in 1752, Tumbling and Bope-dancing. 
In 1754, a collection of Wax- work. 

The same year was exhibited the '' Learned Dog, who reads, write8> 
and casts accounts, answers various questions in Ovid's Metamorphoses, 
Geography, Boman, English, and Sacred History, knows the Greek 
Alphabet, &o., &o., &o. ; also shews the impenetrable science, and tells 
every body's thoughts in company and distinguishes all sorts of colours." 

The Learned Bog was succeeded by Powell the £j:e-eater, who after 
devouriag live coals, laying his tongue on a plate of red-hot iron, and 
other feats of the same kind, wound up the performance '* by mixing a 
quantity of rosin, pitch, bee's-wax, sealing-wax, brimstone, alum, and 
lead, melting them together over a chafing-dish of coals, and eating the 
said combustibles with a spoon, as natural as a porringer of broth, to the 
great surprize of all spectators." 

These exhibitions became now so frequent that it would be tedious to 
pursue the subject farther ; but before quitting it we may advert to the 
magnificient display of Fire- works in celebration of the Peace in 1741, 
at the expense of the Corporation. A largo wood-cut representing the 
arrangement of the exhibition, is given in the NewoastU Journal, being 
an early instance of an illustrated newspaper. 

Here also we may briefly notice the early exhibitions of Flowers. 

The Society of Florists and Botanists was established in Newcastle in 
1724. For some years their exhibitions were held in the month of 
August, at Mr. David Wright's house at Elswick, where a dinner was 
provided for the company at half-a-crown a head. The flrst meeting 
was attended by the Mayor, Sheriff, and nearly 100 gentlemen. A great 
variety of carnations were exhibited, and the finest melons and other 
fruits which had ever been seen in the North. The choicest flower was 
shown by "William Davison, Esq., of Beamish, and a prize for the best 
carnation of 40 shillings value was offered for competition in succeeding 
years. 

This was won in 1727 by Mr. Jonathan Tyzao, with the Camation- 
July-Flower called the Large Painted Lady. William Carr, Esq., and 
Matthew White, Esq., were chosen Stewards for 1728. 



ASSEMBLIES. 241 

In 1731, the exhibition and dinner were held at Mr. John Macdonald'Sy 
Postern Gate, when the prize was a gold ring. 

In 1743, the anniversary was again held at David Wright's at Els- 
wick, " when there was the largest company of gentlemen, and other 
florists, that had been known for many years. There was a great dis- 
play of flowers, and the prize was adjudged to the Carnation caUed the 
Standard of England.^^ 

In 1744, the Standard of England shown by Mr. Anthony Teasdale, 
was again the prize-flower. Mr. John Harris and Mr. Thomas Aubone 
were the stewards. This year the Society offered a reward of 10 guineas 
for the apprehension of certain " hardened rogues," who had been guilty 
of ''the villainous practice of breaking into gardens and stealing valuable 
flower roots." 

In 1745, the meeting was held at Widow Gun's without Pilgrim 
Street Gate, where a tent was pitched for dinner in the Bowling-green 
behind the house. Besides the August show for Carnations, an ex- 
hibition of Auriculas was instituted the following year, and was held for 
many years in the month of April, sometimes at Elswick, at others in 
various houses in Newcastle and Gateshead. Since that period Newcas- 
tle has never been without Floral and Horticultural Exhibitions, and 
kindred societies have been established in every town, almost in every 
village, of the neighbouring counties. 

III. ASSEMBLIES. 

Public Assemblies for dancing and card-playing were introduced into 
the North of England in the early part of the eighteenth century. At 
first they appear to have encountered considerable opposition, as objec- 
tionable on moral grounds. Even Thomas Whittell, whom we hardly 
expect to meet with in the character of a censor morum, wielded his 
poetic pen in defence, as he assumed, of outraged propriety. His satire 
is entitled *' On the New Nocturnal Assemblies," which he describes as 
devoted to 

<* Revels, and Dances, Cards, and Vile Amours." 

The first notice of an assembly in Newcastle occurs in 1716, when 
the following advertisement appears in the Courant of Monday, May 
28th, being the race-week: — "These are to let the gentlemen and 
ladies know that there will be two Assemblies kept this week, the one 
upon Tuesday, the other upon Thursday, in the house formerly belong- 
ing to Sir Wm. Creagh, in Westgate." 



1 



242 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

In 1724 and 1725, th^ house is described as '' the Assembly Hoase in 
Westgate/' and was occupied by Mrs. Fawcit as a school for young 
ladies. Her successsor, Mrs. Gorsnch, in addition to the duties of 
tuition^ officiated as a tire-woman, and ladies' hairdresser. Mr. Sykes 
was informed that the Assembly House of that day was the mansion 
which was occupied a few years ago by the late Mr. Peters, and is now 
the property of William Wharton Burden, Esq., on the opposite side of 
the street to the present Assembly Rooms. 

In 1723, ''Plays, Masquerades, and Assemblies," are advertised 
"every night during the Races"; and in 1724 and in 1725, assemblies 
took place preceded in each case by ''a raffle for 12 fine fans, the 
*' highest three guineas, the worst five shillings," at half-a-crown a 
ticket. 

In 1727, there were three assemblies in the race -week, on Monday, 
Tuesday, and Thursday. The last notice which occurs of the old As- 
sembly House is in 1730, in an advertisement of Mrs. Gorsuch's school ,* 
but it appears to have been in use for a few years later. The new 
Assembly Room in the Groat Market was erected about 1 736. Hitherto, 
with the single exception of an assembly after a raffle in the assize- 
week of 1724, we have no notice of any balls but in the race-week. 
We must not, however, infer from this that assize, and perhaps other 
balls, were not of annual occurrence before this date, as advertisements 
seem only to have been resorted to when any change was made in the 
customary arrangements, and it is probable that if a perfect set of New- 
castle newspapers had been forthcoming, more advertisements would 
have been found. 

In 1737, three assemblies are announced in the assize- week; and in 
1743, three in the race- week, and three in the assize-week, and these 
were continued without change for many years. 

About the same time we have indications of the estabUshment of the 
guild balls, which continued to be held thrice a year, at Michaelmas, 
Christmas, and Easter, until a recent period, and these were followed by 
assemblies on alternate Tuesdays during the five or six winter months. 
The earliest announcement by advertisement of the Easter guild ball is 
in 1743, of the Christmas in 1745, and the Michaelmas in 1746. In 
the advertisement of the Michaelmas ball in 1754, and the Easter ball 
in 1756, the public is further informed that "Assemblies will be held 
afterwards ones a fortnight as ustial/* shewing that the arrangement 
was of some standing. 

On the suppression of the Rebellion in 1746, and once or twice after- 
wards, the king's birth -day was celebrated by a ball; as was the con- 
clusion of peace in 1749, by a ball and other festivities on the 27th of 



ASSEMBLIES. 243 

Pebruary. In the succeeding reign of George III., assemblies were 
annually held in honour of both the king's and queen's birth-days. 

The proceedings relative to the erection of the present Assembly Rooms 
in Westgate Street, are duly chronicled by Brand, and need not be re- 
peated here. 

The last ball held in the Assembly Boom in the Groat Market was 
the Easter guild on the 15th of April. The same advertisement which 
gives notice of the ball, announces also the sale -of the furniture, plate, 
and china belonging to the establishment, and offers the ball room to 
be let for entertainments, sales, or other purposes. Mackenzie records 
its subsequent occupation first by Mr. George Brown, as a linen ware- 
house, and afterwards by Mr. Elinlock, as a dancing school. From 
1797 to 1826 it was used as the library of the Literary and Philo- 
sophiced Society, and subsequently as a hall for the Freemasons. 

The ball in celebration of the king's birth-day intervened between 
the closing of the old Assembly Boom and the opening of the new suite, 
and was held in the Long Boom of the Turk's Head. 

The new building was inaugurated in the race- week. 

Assemblies in the City of Durham were probably of as early date as 
in Newcastle ; but the first notice we have of them is in the following 
advertisement nn the Newcastle Courant of July 29th, 1727 : — **This 
is to give notice to aU gentlemen and ladies that an Assembly will 
be kept during the Assizes at Durham, by Mrs. Thorpe, at the house 
where Mr. Dempsey lately lived and kept the Assembly, and where 
Mr. Lax now teaches to dance, in Sadler's Street. And also an As- 
sembly by the same gentlewoman will be kept at Sunderland this 
season during the time of the Baces. 

** N.B. The same gentlewoman kept the Assembly at Sunderland the 
last season during the Baces. Tickets, 2a. 6d. each, will be given out 
by Mrs. Thorpe at her house, near El vet Bridge, and nowhere else." 

Assemblies at Sunderland were first advertised in 1724, to take place 
every day of the races. 

In 1728, besides Mrs. Thorpe's assemblies '' at the usual place in the 
High Street, in Sunderland, during the time of the Baces," Mr. 
Christopher Craggs advertises an opposition assembly every night " in 
a large new-built room in the High Street, nigh Mrs. Sarah Bobson's." 
In succeeding years the assemblies were held in Mrs. Crags' new room. 

In 1727, assemblies are advertised to take place every night during 
the races at Alnwick, and the following year is a similar announcement 
in respect to Hexham and Bishop Auckland. 

In June, 1730, assemblies are advertised to be "kept once every week 
at Hartlepool during the bathing season." 



244 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 



IV. MASQUERADES. 

It will have been noticed that on one occasion, during the race-week 
of 1723, Masquerades are announced as a part of the evening's amuse- 
ments, along with assemblies and plays. This announcement is not 
repeated in any succeeding year, which was no doubt owing to the 
current of public feeling against this species of entertainment. In the 
same year, the grand jury of Middlesex presented an assembly called 
the Eidotto as a common nuisance ; but in a subsequent presentment, 
in 1729, they state " that the Masquerade, which they have reason to 
believe is a meeting of much more pernicious consequences, soon after 
succeeded in its place, supported by persons of rank and quality, 
where, under various disguises, crimes equal to barefaced impieties 
are practised, which if not seasonably prevented, will, as it has al- 
ready very much debauched, in a short time absolutely ruin his 
majesty's best subjects." This strong expression of opinion by the 
metropolitan grand jury had no doubt a powerful effect in checking the 
progress of the masquerade in rural districts. 

V. CONCERTS. 

In 1736, a party of gentlemen in Newcastle established a series of 
Subscription Concerts, under the leadership of Mr. Avison, the celebrated 
musician, who had recently been appointed organist of St. Nicholas. 
They were held in the Assembly Eoom in the Groat Market, commenc- 
ing soon after Michaelmas, and continuing during the winter. 

In 1737, there was a concert on the Wednesday in the race- week, 
and again on the Wednesday in the assize-week, the latter for the be- 
nefit of Mr. Avison, and the subscription concerts were repeated on the 
plan of the previous year. 

In 1738, Mr. Avison had again a benefit concert in the assize-week, 
and this year he took on himself the sole liability of the subscription 
concerts. The hour of commencement, which had previously been 9 p.m:., 
was changed to 6. The subscription was ten-and-sixpence for a ticket, 
which admitted one gentleman or two ladies to the whole series. The 
admission to the concerts in the race and assize- weeks was two-and-six- 
pence each. 

The following year, the concerts were conducted with increased suc- 
cess. On the 29th of November, " there was a grand performance of 
three celebrated pieces of vocal and instrumental music, viz. : — To 



INNS, TAVERNS, AND COFFEE-HOUSES. 245 

Arms and Britom Strike Some; the Oratorio of Saul; and the Masque 
of Aeie^ There were twenty-six instruinental performers, and the 
proper number of yoices from Durham. The gentlemen and ladies 
joined in the chorus, and all present saluted the performers with loud 
peals of clapSy acknowledging a general satisfaction. There was the 
greatest audience that ever was known on a like occasion in New- 
castle." 

The concerts continued under the management of Mr. Avison till his 
death in 1770, and afterwards under that of his son Edward. The latter 
died in 1776, and was succeeded as organist of St. Nicholas, and also as 
conductor of the concerts, by Mr. Matthias Hawdon. In 1783, Mr. 
Ebdon of Durham was associated in the concerts with Mr. Hawdon. In 
1786, Messrs. Ebdon and Meredith occur as conductors. The latter had 
been for some years the principal yocal performer at these concerts. In 
1790, Messrs. Charles Avison and Hawdon were joint conductors. In 
1 796, a Grand Musical Festival was undertaken by Messrs. Meredith and 
Thompson, at which three oratorios were performed in St. Nicholas' 
Church, and concerts in the eyening at the Theatre. Mr. Thomas 
Thompson, the organist of St. Nicholas, and son of one of the conduc- 
tors, performed on the organ on this occasion, and continued the sub- 
scription concerts till 1813, when they ceased, after having been carried 
on for nearly 90 years from their fjrst establishment by Mr. Avison. 
They were originally held in the Assembly Uoom in the Groat Market, 
and occasionally, when that room was otherwise engaged, in the Free 
Grammar School. After the building of the Assembly Booms in West- 
gate Street, they were transferred thither, being held on a few occasions 
at the long room at the Turk's Head. 

After the establishment of Avison's concerts, musical performances 
were occasionally given by other parties, but none of an earlier date, nor 
indeed for some years after the commencement of his. These occasional 
concerts were generally given by performers on their route to Edin- 
burgh. 

In 1763, weekly concerts were established at the Spring Gardens, 
head of Gallowgate', and were held for several years, on Thursday even- 
ings, during the months of May, June, July, and August. 

VI. INNS, TAVEENS, AND COFFEE-HOUSES. 

An account of the places of public resort in the town of Newcastie 
would be imperfect without some notice of the Inns which existed in it 
in the early part of the 18th century. The meetings of societies for all 
purposes were held at an inn, and were celebrated by a dinner. The 



246 PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

Society of the Sons of the Clergy, the oldest charitable association in the 
North of England, dined annually at one or other of the principal inns. 
The Ereemasous also, from the date of the first public notice of their 
proceedings in Newcastle in 1730, held their anniversary at an inn. A 
frequent inducement to convivial meetings was found in the numerous 
raffles which were held at the inns and taverns. These were especially 
frequent about 1712 and 1713, when notices respecting them form a con* 
siderable proportion of the advertisements in the early Newcastle news- 
papers. The subjects of the ruffle were generally horses, ranging in 
value from 9^. to 30/., and the lots varying from five shillings to a guinea. 
Generally speaking, it was left to the discretion of the parties concerned 
how much they chose to spend ** for the good of the house,'' but some- 
times there was a stipulation on this liead. Tims in a raffle for a horse 
in 1751, it is provided that *' the owner shall spend a guinea, and he who 
wins another." lleference has been already made to two raffles for' 
fans at the Assembly House in the Westgate in 1724 and 1725, and it 
may not be without interest to insert the advertisement of one for a cu- 
rious clock in 1716. ''At ]Mr. Thibous' Coffee-house is a fine Spring 
Clock, to be sold or raffled for, valued at 251, It goes a week, and 
strikes the hours and quarters upon 8 bells as it goes, and repeats the 
same when pulled ; and in the arch of the dial-plate shews the ages 
of man, from a child to an old man ; and Death, and afterwards a re- 
semblance of the Resurrection. If not sold, to be raffled for in the 
assize-week in 25 lots of twenty shillings each." Many of the inns 
had bowling-greens, and others cock-pits attached to them. 

In the early part of the last century the principal inns were the 
Black Horse, at the White Cross in Newgate Street ; the Black Bull, 
Bigg Market ; the White Hart and Bull, Flesh Market ; the Bull and 
Crown, Flesh Market; the Angel, Bigg Market ; and the Sing's Head, 
Quayside. 

The Black Horse was the house where the grand jury dinners were 
held in the assize- week, at one of which the quarrel originated which 
led to the death of Mr. Porster, the member for Northumberland, by the 
hand of Mr. Fenwick of Hock, for which the latter was tried and ex- 
ecuted the same assizes, a.d. 1701. In 1751, it was advertised to be let 
by the then proprietor and occupier, Alexander Brown, " with a good 
garden, large conveniences down the yard, and a good pump with 
fine water to supply the house at all times ; also a good malting, lofts, 
brewhouse, &c.'' In later times it degenerated into a mere public- 
house, and the buildings down the yard being let in tenements, were 
occupied, under the title of the ** Black Horse Entry/' by lodging-house 



INNS, TAVERNS, AND COFFEE-HOUSES, 247 

keepers, notorious for the entertainment of tramps and vagrants. The 
whole was swept away in forming the access to "West Clayton Street 
from Newgate Street iu 1838. 

The Black Bull was also an inn of the first class. The Sons of the 
Clergy dinner was held here in 1712, at which time it was occupied by 
Mr. Francis Elrington. 

The White Hart and Bull, so called to distinguish it from the 
White Hart and Star, a public- house on the Sandhill from which 
the London carriers started, was the stopping-place of the London, 
York, and Edinburgh coaches. The Sons of the Clergy dinner 
was held here in 1716, when it was kept by Mr. Adam Filbridge. He 
removed in the following November to the White Hart and Star, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Bartholomew Pratt. Tt was previously adver- 
tised to be let as ''tho Great Inn c&lled the White Hart and Bull.'' 
The first public meeting of the Freemasons was held here in 1730. 
After Mr. Pratt's death it was kept by his widow, and afterwards in 
succession by Mr. Bichard Hill, his widow, and his daughter, Miss 
Sally Hill. Hill's Long Room often occurs as the place where auctions and 
exhibitions are advertised to take place, and in 1745 it was occupied by 
a Miss Thompson as a dancing-school. In 1751 the White Hart passed 
into the hands of Mr. Debord, of the Half-Moon, Durham. In more 
recent times it was carried on by Mr. Loftus, previous to the building 
•of the Turf Hotel. 

The Bull and Crown was kept in 1712 by Robert Hill, the clerk of 
the course at the races. Attached to the house was the principal cock- 
pit in the town. After his death his widow carried on both the inn and 
cock-pit till 1745, when she removed to the Black Bull, which is de- 
scribed in her advertisement as a much more commodious house. 
After her departure the house ceased to maintain its position as a first- 
class inn. Part of it was let oiF separately for a shop and other pur- 
poses, and even the glories of the cock- pit were ecb'psed by one recently 
erected by Mr. Parker at the Turk's Head. 

The Angel was immediately opposite to the Black Bull, and was the 
house to which Mr. Elrington removed from the latter in 1712, at 
which time he describes the Angel as fiilly equal to the other in accom- 
modation. 

The King's Head was the only inn of any pretensions, as distinguished 
tfrom taverns, of which there were several, in the low part of the town. 
The Sons of the Clergy dinner was held here in 1713, at which time it 
was kept by Mr. John Baxter. The Freemasons met here in 1731. 

The principal taverns were the Queen's Head, at the Nuns-gate ; 



S4S PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS IN NEWCASTLE. 

Crown, QnajBide ; Old Fleece, Custom-house Entry ; Fountain, Quay- 
ride; Rose, Quayside; Globe, Sandhill; and the Forth House. In 

1712 the charges at the Old Fleece were for '< Portugal wines neat and 
natural, as imported by Brooke and Hellier, 14i. per quart without 
doors, 16i^. within;" at the Globe in 1716, ''Lisbon white wine and 
claret I6d, per quart, canary Is. lOd,, best brandy 2«., new mum lOd., 
best red-streak cider or Burton ale 5d. a quart or 6«. the dozen, bottles 
included." Brandy is advertised at the Custom House about the same 
time, Coniac 9s, 6d. per gallon ; good French 45«. per half anker. In 

1713 there was a sale of the stock at the Queen's Head, in consequence 
of the bankruptcy of the landlord, when the wines advertised consisted 
of " clarets, sack, and white wine." 

The Coffee-houses in 1712-3 were Biilman's, in the Flesh Market; 
Thibou's, in the Side ; and Jasper Harrison's, on the Sandhill. 

Besides the inns and taverns mentioned above, the following occur 
previous to 1730 : — The Grapes, Fox and Lamb, Bird and Bush, Grey- 
hound, and Three Storks, in Pilgrim Street ; the Nag's Head, Butcher 
Bank; Unicam, Broad Chare; Peacock, and Three Kings, Quay« 
ride ; White Hall, and Pack Horse, Foot of Side; Blue Bell, Cross Keys, 
and Cock, Head of Side; Green Dragon, and Three Bulls' Heads, 
Castle Garth ; White Swan, Flesh Market ; Sun, Unicorn, Fighting 
Cocks, Eoyal Oak, and Scotch Arms, Bigg Market; Plough, New- 
gate Street ; the Crown, without the Westgate : and the Nag's Head, 
Geoi^e, Eose and Crown, and Blue Anchor, in Gateshead. 

The Turk's Head, in the Bigg Market, was built about 1744 by Mi. 
William Parker, who had previously kept a cock-pit at Dunston-bank. 
The cock-pit at the Tark's Head was also a prominent feature in the 
new establishment. 

About the same time we first meet with the Bull and Post-boy, in the 
Bigg Market, which was a rival of the Turk's Head a few years later 
in the coaching department. 

The Queen's Head, in Pilgrim Street, was not established till some 
years later. It is remarkable that this house stands on the very spot 
indicated by Bourne as the site of the ancient Pilgrims' Inn, where the 
way-farers were entertained from whom the street took ite name. 

JOHN HODGSON HINDE. 



249 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Monthly Meeting ^ 1 November, 1859. 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., Y.P., in the Chair. 

CoMHumoATiONS.— ^om Mr. Henry Iforman.-^An account of recent 
excavations at Amboglanna (Birdoswald). 

" In levelling the broken ground in front of the farm house, to form a 
new garden, about 8 feet below the debris of buildings of an evidently 
much later date, we came upon a very perfect specimen of a Roman 
building of the first period. Following up the wall, we found that it 
extended, from east to west, some 92 feet long, and 3 feet 6 inches 
broad. Upon excavating downwards, buttresses appeared also 8 feet 6 
inches broad, and eight in number, the distance between each about 7 
feet 6 inches. The wall has loop-holes or flues [between the buttresses], 
at 4 feet from the top, and 2 feet high, passing through the wall, some 
8 feet or more, into tiie space beyond. The projections of the buttresses 




preservation runs parallel [6 
wall, and 2 feet 6 inches from the face of the buttresses], forming a pas- 
sage between, [alternately of those widths], in which we found some 
arch stones. As at present opened out, the two walls stand about 5 feet, 
but in one place we dag 3 feet deeper without finding any foundation. 
The mass of matter removed being principally large stones (rough flags 
and slates for rooflng, many being perforated with nail-holes), caused 
the labour to be very heavy and consequently slow. It may be here 
noticed that at the eastern end of this wall another runs at right angles, 
which re-appears at 60 feet, so that a building of considerable extent 
must have occupied this portion of the station.'' 

By Dr. Bruce. — ^An account of several recent discoveries of Roman 
remains, and observations on the articles exhibited. 

The Chairman announced the following additional subscriptions to- 
wards the proposed museum : — Sir W. Calverley Trevelyan, Bt., 50Z. ; 
Dr. Bruce, 25Z. ; Matthew Wheatley, Esq., 10/. ; Philip Henry Howard, 
Esq., 51, ; Rev. James Everett, 51. 

Mr. Dobson's elevation of the intended building was on the table, and 
a circular appealing for donations to the museum fund was adopted. 

TOL. IT. 2 O 



250 PEOCEEDINOS OF THE SOCIETY. 

EzHiBivioNS. — Firom Mr. iVbnnafi.— Bronze objects from Amboglanna. 

1. A bull's head springing from the centre of four erect leaves. The 
bronze below the leaves is broken away, and is hollow* It has been 
filled with some whitish substance, but no iron remains. If a handle 
is indicated, it must have been most heavy, angular, and uncomfortable. 

2. A handle to a vase, fcrmed to its shape and ending in the head of an 
animal, which fitted over tL^e edge and would appear to be looking into 
the vessel. 3. A naked torso, probably of a gladiator. 4. A naked 
gladiator, with the remains of a weapon in his right hand, which is ele- 
vated, and over his left is fixed a small maunch^like appendage, which 
is jagged at the edges into a leafy form. 5. Another and larger figure, 
in the same attitude. The weapon is wholly gone, leaving a round hole 
in which it was inserted. The left arm is supplied with the same 
maunch-like appendage as designates No. 4, but it is broader, with plain 
edges, and has a foliated surface ornamentation. The faces of these 
two figures are purposely barbarous, and the use of the cloth hanging 
from their arms was probably that of the small flags employed by the 
Spanish bull-fighters, denoting that here we have figures of the poor 
creatures who fought with beasts to make a Boman's holiday. 6. Se- 
veral coins, ranging from Domitian to Magnentius. 7. Two large 
rings. 

By Dr. £ruc0. — Numerous coloured drawings by Mr. Mossman of 
Boman remains in the North of England. 

JBtf the Chairman. — Transcripts of the Northumberland visitations of 
1575 and 1615, from the Harl. MSS. 

DoiiTikTioirs. — Drom Mr. Challoner.-^k box of the coals which were 
found in a depository near the baths of Habitancum (Bisingham) in 
1848. (See Arch. JEl., O.S., iii,, 156.) The present specimens were 
purchased from Mr. John Bell. — Dr. BrtMe observed that the Boman 
stations in this country yielded more ashes of coal than of wood. 

IVom the Kilkennyi Archasohgioal Society. — Its proceedings and 
papers. 

EuBonoNS. — Ordinary Memkera. — William Cuthb^rt, Esq., of Beau- 
front, and the Bev. Bly the Hurst, of Collierly. 

BssoLiJTioif .— That the use of the great hall of the castle be granted 
to the Volunteer Bifle Corps for the purpose of extra drills of the more 
recent members. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY, 251 



Monthly Meeting ^ 7 Decemlber, 1859. 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq.^ Y.P., in the Chair. 

CoMMUiacikTioKS. — By the Chairman. — A paper on the Public Amuse- 
ments in Newcastle. Fiinted. 

The Chairman reported the following additional subscriptions towards 
a museum :— Lord Bavensworth, 50?. ; Robert Ormston, Esq., 50/. ; 
Sir E. Blackett, Bt., 10/. j Albert Way, Esq., 6l ; Dr. Gibb, 5/. ; W. H. 
Charlton of Hesleyside, Esq., 5/. ; Hugh Taylor, Esq., 51. 

Dr. Charlton referred to the objects given by Sir John E. Swinburne 
to the Society in 1813, and then described in the list of donations as '' a 
Roman copper ressel and some pieces of copper which had apparently 
belonged to it, two fibulse, and a ring, all found in a tumulus near Cap- 
heaton." Mr. "Way had lately noticed their exact correspondence with 
the brass basins described in Faussef s Inyentorium Sepulchrale, pp. 55, 
78, and there figured in plate xvi. The supposed fibulae were orna- 
mental loops (as in the plate) $oldered to the sides, allowing three rings 
to play in them as handles. One of these loops is quite polished by 
the friction of its ring. Under the vessel are the fastenings of a circu- 
lar ornament as in the Kent examples, which were famished with small 
brass trivets or stands. Traces of rich gilding occur. It is obvious 
that all these remains are Saxon, not Roman, and that they would not 
bear the heat of a fire. It has been suggested that they were used on 
the table. [Our members will not overlook the desirability of a severe 
comparison of Saxon relics in the North with the peculiar types of the 
Jutes in Kent, as they may form important evidence on the question of 
bow far the early Tutish settlers of Lothian extended their range.] 

Dr. Charlton drew attention to the Italian romance, "Fortnnatus 
Siculus, ossia rawenturoso Ciciliano, di Busone da Gubbio," written in 
1311, and published by G. F. Nott, F.S.A., in 1832. A copy had been 
lent to Dr. C. by Mr. Bligh Peacock, of Sunderland. The adventurer 
comes to England, and the floods of 1290, recorded by Walsingham 
and in Pope Nicholas's taxation, are mentioned. The rest is romance, 
relating to a rebellion against Edward I., the conspirators taking pos- 
session of the castles of Newcastle and Durham. The former by the 
copyist is oddly written " Castello nuovo sopra Tino, in Orto, in Ber- 
landa." [Northumberland.] At Newcastle we also find mention of 
"Magione di Dio, o di nostra Donna di Capo di ponte." Several 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

persons present at Newcastle are enumerated, but they are fumislied 
with names hopelessly corrupt, and are perhaps as fabulous as their 
doings. 

Lr. Bruce reported that a fragmentary Eoman inscription had been 
found at Birdoswald, and read some extracts from a letter of the Rev. 
Geo. Wilkinson of Whicham, Whitehayen, now superintending the 
excavations at the Moresby station, ordered by Lord Lonsdale, who is 
erecting at Lowther a receptacle for Eoman remains. 

** We found the south gateway at the first opening ; but only its 
foundation stones. On each side of these there were a few flags, and a 

building stone here and there, as if thrown out of their places The 

outer walls have almost wholly disappeared. On the west side, near 
the gateway, we traced a well covered drain for many yards, until it 
led us to a building very similar to the smaller, marked A in your 
western portion of the camp [of Bremenium]. It is 31 feet by 15| feet. 
• . . .In another part we are tracing the eastern flagged way towards its 
angles, so as to determine the exact size of the camp. I am inclined, 
however, to believe that what I call a ' flagged way ' is the foundation 

of the eastern wall, though not a stone is left on the flags We 

have not yet found half-a-dozen coins The large filab which I 

found nearly 40 years ago on the eastern side of the station, under a 
large heap of building stones, taken in conjunction with coins of Con- 
stantino found here, will serve to show that Boman soldiers occupied 
this station for some centuries.'' 

J>r. Bruce read the following letter from Mr. WiUiam Hawkes, 5, 
Vicarage Bead, Edgbaston, Birmingham, and stated that bricks were 
not found along the Wall, but only in the stations : — 

''I think that I mentioned to you, I was, at the request of others, 
continuing my experiments upon the strength of bricks, when subject to 
a transverse strain, and that I stated the great strength of the Boman 
compared with any more modem-made bricks in this country. I dare 
say you are aware of the many inventions that have been brought out 
for tempering, dressing, pugging, &c., the clay, previously to its being 
moulded into bricks. Over 240 patents have been taken out in the last 
12 years for this purpose, yet up to the present time the strongest brick 
I have met with, in this country, is not half the strength of those made 
sixteen centuries since. The American bricks, both £rom Boston and 
Baltimore, come very close upon the strength of the Eoman brick or tile. 
They are much thinner than those made in this country, but little 
exceeding 2 or 2^ thick by 3^ by 8, and they are kiln-burnt with 
wood, not coal. I am having samples sent me from India (Calcutta) 
and the south part of Africa. In both these quarters wood as well as 
coal is used. Are you of opinion that the Eoman bricks and tiles were 
burnt with wood instead of coal ? and could you refer me to any work 
where I can And a description of the kilns in which the burning took 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 253 

place ? I have C. B. Smith's Eoman London, but he only deacribes the 
kilns for pottery ware. Vitruvius says that the sun-burnt bricks were 
dried five years before using, and the baked bricks exposed on the roofs' 
of houses for one year, in order that the effect of weather upon them 
might be ascertained. Time then was not the costly element with all 
kinds of manufactures that it now is. I find in India that what we 
effect in four days (the kiln-drying or burning) they take from 30 to 40 
days, although the temperature of the sun heat is 160<^ in the drying 
ground to which they are exposed before burning. I have samples of 
different kinds of bricks &om Wroxeter, but it appears that all have 
been kiln-burnt. Have you met with any of the Eoman sun-dried 
bricks along the "Wall ? 

Mr* Cail stated that the American biicks were formed from clay 
which in a state of powder was spread out and exposed for some time to 
the sun, so as to be perfectly dry before compression into form. 

ExHiBmows. — From Mr. H^oy.-:— Gutta-percha impression of "Hot- 
spur's seal. (See p. 183.) 

Frwm Mr^ John Ord, — A collection of objects of every date, turned 
up by the plough on his estate at Newton Ketton, near Darlington. It 
lies near a most ancient road called Catkill Lonnin (see the Newcastle 
volumes of the Archaeological Institute, i. 64.) which preserves the 
root of the name Xetton, anciently Cattun. The flint implements were 
very numerous, and in every stage of manufacture and finish, apparently 
for saws, knives, and warlike purposes, presenting, on a smaller scale, 
the rude forms of the " antediluvian relics " and their facile manipula- 
tions, up to the finished and more recent barb— evidence of a long con- 
tinued British settlement. Mr. Ord had remarked the curious fact that 
no flints of natural form occurred on his farm, the rudest being at the 
least splinters in manufacture ; and that the material must have been 
brought a considerable distance. 

lyom Mr. Sunter Allgood. — One of three long leaf-shaped bronare 
swords found together at Ingram ; the other two are at Alnwick Castle. 

DoNATioKs.— i^oOT Mr. Way. — Illustrated Catalogue of Antiquities, 
Works of Art, and Historical Scottish Kelics, exhibited in 1856, at the 
Edinburgh Congress of the Archeeological Institute, 1859. 

From the Canadian Imtitute. — The Canadian Journal, Nos. XXIII,, 
XXIV., Sept. and Nov. 185.9. 

From Mr. John Fvans, F.S.A. — ^His Account of Coins found at ancient 
Verulam.. 

From Mr. Ric. Castles Fmhleton. — Hexham's Translation of the Atlas 
of Mercator and Hond. Amsterdam, 1636. 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

IVtm the Royai Society of Northern Anttqtiartes, Copenhagen. — Anti- 
qnarisk Tidsskrifti, ndgivet af det Eongelige Nordiske Oldskrift, Selskab, 
1852-4.— Ditto, 1856-7. — ^En Yandring gjennem Jagerspris's have og 
Lund, ndgiyen af det Eongelige Nordiske Oldskrift. — Sur la Construc- 
tion des Salles dites des Grants, x)ar 8. M. Roi Fr^d^ric YII. de Dane- 
mark. 

From Mr. Joseph Cookson. — Engraving of the south porch of the 
church of St. Mary Bedcliffe, Bristol, as restored by Mr. Godwin. 

ELEcnoifrB. — Ordinary JHembers,"^. J, Gibb, Esq., M.D., "Westgate 
Street, Newcastle; Mr. George Clarke, 19 Westgate Street, Newcastle. 

RxsoLxmoMB.— That in order to promote the efficiency of this Society 
it is very desirable to secure a permanent increase in the number of its 
members: that, with this view, the gentlemen connected with the 
Northern Counties, whose names have been inserted in the list now in 
the hands of the Chairman, be invited to join it : and that a short state- 
ment be prepared of the objects and present position of the Society, to 
accompany such invitations. 

That the back parts of the Archseologia ^liana, N. S., be published 
at 3«. 6d. each to new members, and that the Pipe-EoUs of Cumberland 
and Westmorland be sold at 7«. 6d,, with the usual discount to book- 
sellers. 



Monthly Meeting, January 4, 1860. 
William Kell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Communication. — By Br. Charlton. — ^A paper on the early German 
versions of the Bible. To be printed. 

Exhibitions. — By Br. Charlton. — Several early Bibles and books 
mentioned in the above paper, and the German edition in 1493 of the 
Nuremberg Chronicle. 

JF)^om Mr. Brochtt. — Vita di S. Oswaldo re di Nortumberlani e 
Martire. In XJdine per Antonio del Pedro, 1769. 

By Mr. Longataffe. — A photogram, by tKe Eev. J. W. Dunn, of sun- 
dry relics found in the upper portion of the north chancel wall of his 
church at Warkworth. They are chiefly Norman, but among them is a 
small headstone with a cross and interlaced knotwork, which Mr. Dunn 
correctly assigns to the Saxon period. Symeon, in mentioning the gift 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 255 

of Werceworde with its appendages to the church of Lindisfame by 
King Ceolwulf in 738, couples with them " the church which he had 
built there." The foundations of the early church have since appeared 
under the present floors, and we trust to give a Ml account from Mr. 
Dunn's pen of his discoveries. 

D^om Mr. William Wyiam,'—'A. stone found on his estate of North 
Learn, near Gateshead, at about a field's distance north of the Boman 
road called Learn Lane or Wrekendike. It appeared at some depth 
in old grass land, which was in the same condition sixty or seventy 
years ago, and presents a fragment of conventional foliage in low relief, 
resembling that used in late Eoman and Saxon times. 

Donations. — From the Society of Antiquaries of Seotland.'-^lta Trans- 
actions, Vol. II., Part III., 1859. 

lyom Mr, John Lindsay — ^His Supplement to the Coinage of Scotland. 

From the Kilkenny Archceologieal Society, ^^1\a Proceedings, Vol. II., 
N. S., No. XXIII., Sep. 1859. 

From Mr, Goold, — An old Scottish spur. 

Elections. — Ordinary Members, — John Henry Rollis Atkinson, Esq , 
Angerton ; The Rev. Dixon Brown, Howick Grange and Unthank ; 
Joseph Pease, Esq., Southend, Darlington; Henry Silvertop, Esq., 
Minsteracres. 



INDEX. 



Abbeville, flintB ttom, 153 
Acklington, 1, 2 
Acome, 9 
Acton, 2 

— in Suffolk, 195 

— family, 215 ; Laurenoe, 134 ; bia 
waste at the castle, 101, 104 

Ad Murum, 56 

Aeb^d, abbot of Rieyanlz, 22, 23 

Aginconrt, battle o^ 177 

Aierson of Durham, 106 

Albini, Nigel, 60 

Aide, Walter and Agnes, 150 

Aldvyck,"9 

Alenwyk, 9 

Alexander of Scotland, 67 

Algernon, 160, 167, 179, 201, 210, 211 

Allerton, 37, 61 

Allgood, Hunter, 253 

Alnham font, 224 ; arms of Balph de, 
226 

Alnmouth races, 283 

Alnwick abbey, 1, 3, 4, 5, 171, 172, 
185; barony, 5, 184; castle, 6, 7, 64, 
65, 164, 170, 172, 195, 198, 199, 200, 
253 ; church, 196 ; Percy insignia in 
town of, 185, 187; pilgrim's token 
found at, 40 ; ' golden ornaments found 
near, 36 ; assemblies, 243 ; races, 231, 
232, 233 ; John de, 45 

Alston Moor, 8, 9, 10 

Alwentdale chapel, 9, 10 

Amboglanna, 140, 146, 249, 250, 252 

Amethyst, the frigate, grapeshot from, 
144 

Amiens, flints from, 153, 154 

Amyas arms, 201 

Anderson, Eliz., 34 

— of Newcastle, 106, 135 
Andover tokens, 140 
Angus, earl of, 81 
Anstey, Tho. Ghisholm, 6 
Antediluyian antiquities, 153 
Appleby castle, 64, 65, 66 
ArchsBologia iGliana, price of, 254 
Arkilles sune, 12 

Arms, ancient usage of, 158 ; of the 
Mayors of Newcastle, 1 34. Sse under 
the names of the yarious famiUes. 
VOL. rv. 2 H 



Armstrongs, the, 81 ; executed, 133 
Arragon, Catherine of^ badge of, 206 
Arthur, king, 140 
Artillery, derivation of, 101 
Arundel, 161, 163, 165, 167, 169, 171, 

202; church, 187 
Aske arms, 162 
Assemblies, 241 
Atkinson, J. H. H., elected a member, 

255 
Auckland assemblies, 243; races, 233 
Austin, Tho., 146 
Ayer, Adun, 48. 

B. 

Bacon of Hazon, 4 

Badges, &o. of tiie Percies and families 

represented by them, 157 
Badlesmere arms, 219 
Baiard, Ralph, 66 

Baliol barony, 46, 48, 74, 75, 76 ; Ber- 
nard de, 65 ; Hugh de, 67 ; John de, 

68, 103 
Bamburgh castle, 7, 59, 60, 61, 62 ; 

races, 233 ; Moral of, 164 
Bannerolles, 202, 228 
Bannockbum, battle of, 47, 48, 68, 69 
Barbicans, 98 
Barford, 9 
Bamardcastle, 57, 75 ; races, 233 ; John 

de, 49 
Bamhill, 2, 5 
Barton, J. Adkins, 40 
Bascule, badge of the, 198 
Bateman, Bp., his arms, 35 
Baty, John, 48 
Baules Bum, new Boman inscription at, 

144 
Baydale, 56 
Beaucbamp family and insignia, 201 et 

seq., 219, 221 
Beaufort family and insignia, 196, 201, 

et aeq, 
Beaufort, 8 
Beda, Venerable, relics of, 15 $t aeq, 

scull of 33 ; shrine, &o., 25, 26, 27, 

28 
Bedlington, hereditary saoerdotage of^ 

13, 19 
BedneU family, 5 



258 



INDEX. 



Bee, John, Korthumberland herald, 209 

Bek, Bishop, aims of, 167 

Bell, Chr, Seymoar, 5 ; £dw., 8 ; Eic, 
232 

BeUiniu, 33, 37 

Belted Will, 151 

Beringfteld, 8 

Berkley fiimilj and arms, 209, 219 

Bertram, Sir Sob., 47, 48 

Berwick, 7 

Beyerley minater, Percy and other monu- 
ments and armis in, 167, 172, 178, 184, 
192, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201 

Bereratock, Bey. Mr., 4 

Bewcastle, 140 

Bewick of Newcastle, 106 

Beyngfleld, 9 ; chapel, 10 

Bierespark, 9 

Billingham, 187 ; church, 92 

Binchester, 33 

Bird of Newcastle, 135 

Birdoswald, See Amboglanna 

Birtley, 9 

Black, Barbara and Patrick, 71 

Blaokbume of Fyley, 209 

Bhickett, Walter, £!sq., 231 ; Sir Wm., 
137, 230 ; Gualter, 29 

Blakeston of Farringdon Hall, 9 

Blanchland, abbot and oonyent of, 10 

Blaydon races, 233 

Blundell, Esperance, 187 

Blyth races, 233 

Bolam, 75 

Bolbeck arms, 219 ; barony, 46, 48, 75, 
76, 150 

Boleyn, Anne, 210, 213 

Bonmarch, Hen., 48 

Borcoyicus, 140 

Bordure, a difference of ecclesiastics' 
arms, 173, 188 

Borne, John, 134 

Boroughdon, Gilbert de, 48 

Bothal barony, 47, 48, 75 

B6ulron fam., 34 

Bowes of Newcastle, 106, 107 ; of Streat- 
lam, 229 

Bowman, Fenwick, 229 

Bowtry-House, 9 

Brabant, dukedom and arms of, 162, 

Brace, Sir Pers de, 5, 7 

Brainshaugh, 1, 2, 8, 4, 5 

Brampton church, tomb from, 152 

Brancepeth church, 19 

Brandling of Alnwick abbey, 3, 82 

Brawby, 9 

Bredderwick, 2 

Bremenium, 252 

Brentford, 223 

Brewes, a Scotchman, 82 

Briansleap races, 233 

Bricks, relatiye strength of, 252 



Brim of Newcastle, 136 

Brighton, Boger de, 45 

Brinkbum priory, 45, 97 

Brinklawe, John de, 53, 130 

Britannia, representation of on coins, 140 

Britby, Wm. de, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 

Brittany, Oonan earl of, 66 

Brockie, Wm., 153 

Brodrick of Bichmond, 41 

Brotherton, arms and crest of, 215 

Brough castle, 64, 65, 66 

Broughton, Little, 9 

Brown of Newcastle, 135 ; Bey. Dizon, 
elected a member, 255 

Bruce, Dayid, 69 ; Bey. J. G., LL.D., 
31, 86, 140, 141, 144, 249, 250, 252 

Bryan fam. and arms, 189 $t aeq, 

Bures arms, 195 

Burgh, the word, 60 

Burnett, Thos. Hayton, elected a mem- 
ber, 156 

Bundl of Newcastle, 135 

Butler of Wemme, 149, 151 

Byker, Eobert de, 47, 66 

Byry, John de, 49 

By well barony, 74; wood, 69; races, 233 

0. 

Gaerlebn, 140 

Gaeryoran, 145. See Magna. 

Gaerwent, 140 

Gail, Bichard, 145, 253 

Galyerley of NewcaErtle, 107, HI, 136 

Gambridge, Trinity Hall, arms of, 35 

Ganterhiuy, archbishop of, holdmg an 

inquisition at Newcastle, 47 
Garham barony, 75, 76, 
Gapheaton, archiyes at, 201, 214. See 

Swinbiune ; objects from, Sazon not 

Boman, 251 
Garliol, John de, 49 
Garlisle, 18, 20 ; castle, 64, 65, 66 ; Wm. 

Percy, bishop of, 188 
Gamaby, Sir Ralph, 8 
Garr of Whitton, 5, 80 ; of Hatton, 81 ; 

ofNewcasUe, 108, 135, 136; of Whit- 

bume, 229 ; Wm., esq., 240 
Garrawe, 8 
Case, Wm., 69 
Castle of Newcastle, history of, 45 ; to 

be opened on hoEday eyenings, 141 ; 

wardership of, 31 
Castle, latinized castellum and oastnun^ 

61 
Castle, Wm. de, 50 to 53, 130 
Castleguard, 60, 74, 95 
Gatkill lonnin, 252 
Oaugy barony, 46, 48, 75, 76 
CauDton, Sir John de, 48 
Cawood, clock at, 142 
Chapel of the New Castle, 91 



INDEX. 



259 



Charlton of HesleyBide, 81 ; Edw., M.D., 

36, 156 
GharltoDB executed, 133 
Gharron arms, 215, 219 
Gheesebum Grange, 8 
Ghester, the word, latinized civitaa, 60 
Ghester-le-Street races, 233 
Ghidioke, Sir John, 189 
Chipchase, 9 

Ghollerton, 9; church, 10 
Gircumcision knife, 33 
Glare arms, 219 
Glareburah, Sir John, 143 
Gierke, veo., elected a member, 254 
Glarkson's surrey, 1 
Glaveiing of Newcastle^ 106, 107, 135, 

136 
Glephan, James, 142 
Gleyedon arms, 215, 219 
Gleveland, Duke of, 231 
Glifford, arms, 169, 202, 203; Idonea 

de, 168, 169, 172; Bobert de, of 

Newentead, 46, 48, 76 
Glock, the word and early uses o^ 142 
Glun, arms of^ 169 
Goals in Koman stations, 250 
Goates, family, 34 
Gock, Agnes, 33 
Gocken, 23 

Gockermouth, 173, 174, 176 
Gocklodge, 192. [There is a tradition 

that me earl of Northumberland was 

slain under the elm tree on St. James 

Green in Thirsk.] 
Gockpits, 246, 247 
Goffeehouses, 245 
Goite (colt), a surname, 13 
Gokely 9 

Gole,Hen., 136; SirNic, 134 
Gollrfof liveiT, 186 
Golyille, Hugn de, 45 
GoUingwoodofBranton, 229; Bobert, 81 
Golnewell, 9 

Golthird of Newcastle, 106 
Gomfort, in mottos, meaning of, 199 
Gonan, earl of Brittany, 66 
Goncerts, 244 
Gonyers arms, 165, 170 
Gook of Brainshaugh, 4 : of Newcastle, 

106, 135: Bobert, 50,52, 130 
Goome Crag, new Boman inscription at, 

144 
Gopeland, John de, 69 
*Copiun' (Carham), 75, 76 
Coquet river, 2,5 
Corbridge, 150 

Cospatric, sheriff in Tevietedale, 13 
Govyngtree, "Walter de, 45 
Crawford, Lord, 88 
Creagh« Sir William, 241 
Cropping, Bob. de, 67 



Crescent, bato of, 173, 179 $t t^q, 
Cretel (car), Unred sumamed, 3 
Crookes, St. John, 33 
Grosthwaite church, 29 
Cruso, Acquila, 187 
Cuthbert, St., II et aeq» 
Cuthbert, Wm., Esq. elected, 250 

D. 

Dacia, representation of on coins, 140 

Dacre, Lords of the North, 9,81 ; monu- 
ments and arms of, 148 et seq.f 159 ; 
of the South, 150. 

Dacre of Lanercost, 147, 150, 151 

Dalbyngstours, 129 

Dalton (Hezhamshiie), 8 

Darcjjr, badge of a sun of, 179 

— Bn John, le cosyn, 47, 77 

Darell of Sessay, arms of, 163 ; Mr. 
Auditor PhiUp, 71 

Darlington, church o( 92, 93 ; races, 
233 ; lie's property at, 34. 

Darreynes, Bobert, 48 

David of Scotland, 61, 62, 63 

Davison of Beamish, 240 ; of Newcastle, 
106, 135 ; Alexander, executed, 133 

Downay of Sessay, 163 

Dawtrey arms, 162 

Deincourt fEumly, 189 

Delaval barony, 47, 48, 75, 77 ; Edward, 
esq., 230 

Delf^ clockmakers from, 143 

Denmark and Norway, differences be- 
tween the remains of, 156 

Denton of Newcastle, 45, 103, 105 

Derwent, region of, 7 

Devices, 203 

Dilston barony, 46, 48, 75, 76 ; Bob. de, 
63,66 

Dixon of Belford, 232 

Dobson of Newcastle 106, 135, 136; 
John, 153 

Dodds, Henry, executed, 133 

Doncaster, 7 ; races, 231 

Dotland,8 

Doubleday, John, 3 

Dover casde, 66 

Druridge races, 233 

Duckett or Dovecote in the New Castle, 
134 

Dudley insignia, 30,217 

Dunn, Bev. J. W., 254 

Dunstable, Bichard of, 7 

Donstanbrough castle, 7 

Durham, 7, 95 ; bishops and franchise of, 
11; castle, 57; cathedral, 171, 182, 
184, 186 ; relics at, 24 ; galUee of, 24, 
93 ; horologe at, 144; convent of, 10, 
187 ; chronicle of Lawson a monk of, 
155: players, 234; assemblies, 243; 
races, 233 ; singors, 245. 



260 



INDEX. 



E. 

Eachwick, 8 

Easby, 41 

Eden of Newcastle, 106, 135 

Edlingham, 4, 5 

EdBton, 9 

Edward, Prince, son of Henry YI., 6 

Edward IV., King, 6, 7 

Egremont, Percy Lord, 187 

Ellis of Newcastle, 99 

Ellison of Newcastle, 84, 136 

Elrington of Newcastle, 134 

Elswick, 240 

Elwood, William, executed, 183 

Emildon, Ric, 105 

Erlegh, Mai^garet, 190 

Erring^n, 9 

Errington of ParkcheUs and Fourstans, 

81 ; Grace, 34 
Ersdon of Rothbury, 80 
Escales, arms, 219 
Esperance, 176 et teq, 
EsUandbord, 127 
EstuteyUle, William de, 65 
Eure, Sir William, 81 
Evesyngbord, 129 
Exhibitions, 238 

P. 

Fairfax, Sir Tho., 80 
Fandon, John de, 47 
Fantosme, Chronicle of Jordan, 68, 64, 

65 
Fame, horologe at, 143 
Farrington-htdl, 9 
Fauconbridge, Lord; 7 
Felton, 4 ; races, 233 ; Sir William, 47, 

68 
Fenwick of Fawnys, 81; of Bywell, 231; 

John de, 48 ; Roger, 69, 83, 122; John, 

39. 
Ferlington, arms, 226 
Ferrers of Wemmes, arms of, 48,151 
Fibula, shell-shaped, 156 
Finchale, 56 ; clock at, 144 
Findem, Lord, 6, 7 
Fireworks, 240 
Fitz-Alan, arms, 195, 202; Eleanor de, 

167 
Fitz-Eve, Rob., 63 
Fitz-Gerald insignia, 219, 221 
Fitz-Payne family and arms, 188 ei seq. 
Fitz-Richard, Roger, 63, 64, 65 
Fitz- Walter, arms, 171 
Flendhachet, John, 54, 130 
Flint implements, 153 
Flodden field, battle of, 152, 177, 178, 

204 
Floods of 1290, 251 
Florists, Society of, 240 
Foot-rule, Roman, 140 



Fonter, Sir Jolm, 2, 3 
Forster, Aldennan, 85, 91 
Fountains Abbey, 166, 178 
Fourstones, 19 

Fox, surname, 14; William, 122 
France, arms of, when quartered, 169 
170, 171 
I Freemasons, 246 
Frismar, Tho. de, 49 
Frost arms, 201 

G. 

Gabroeentum, 56 

Gainford, 75 

Gale way, Richard de, 125 

Galilee of Durham, 24, 93 

GaJlatlev, Rey. David, 73 

Gamel elde or Hamel and Chunel lunge, 
curates of Hexham, 14 

Gaolegrip, etymology o^ 126 

Garden on the top of the New Castle, 
84, 85 

Gardiner, Bp. Stephen, seal of, 86 

Garmondsway, 56 

Garthside for Gateside, 121 

Gascoigne arms, 178 ; Sir William, 206 ; 
claims the Neyil arms and earldom 
of Westmoreland, 15ft 

Gateshead, 34, 55, 57, S3; Pipewellgate 
in, 104 ; races at, 233 ; exhibitions in, 
239 ; theatricals at, 238 ; inns in, 248 

Gaunt, John of, his arms, 200 

Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield, 72 

German Bibles, 254 

Geta's name erased, 140 

Gibb, C. J., elected, 254 

Gibbins of Gateshead, 84 

Gibson, Jasper, 6, 8 ; Robert, 3 

Giffard family and arms, 188 

Gilsland, 147 

Gladiators, 250 

Glanville, Randolph, 65, 67 ; Roger de, 
63 

Glendower, Owen, 173 

Glenwhelt, 145 

Gloster-hiU, 4 

Gonnerton, 9 

Gosforth barony, 46, 48, 75, 76 

Goy, a man called, 7 

Gray of Codnor, 189, 219 ; Sir Ralph, 6, 

7 ; George, 100 
Grandison fiunily and arms, 190, 1&6 
Green of Kewcastie, 123, 134 
Greenhead, 145 
Greetam of Newcastle, 34 
Grenwod of Newcastie, 134 
Gregson, T. L., 40 
Greystock and Grimthorpe, monuments 

And arms of, 148, et seq, 
Grobie, Marquis of, 209 
Grotington, 8 



INDEX. 



261 



Grys, Wm., 49 

Guidiiommes, 203 

Guyzance church and town, 1 to 6 

H 
Habitancum, 250 
Hackney church, 210 
Haddeston, loid of, 48, 77 
Haigh, Bey. D. H , 39 
Haiiston, Bey. E., 30 
Hall of Newcastle, 106, 135 ; John, ex- 
ecuted, 133 
HaUs of castles, 88 
Halton Cheaters, 54 
Hamsterley races, 233 
Hammers, stone, perforations of, 156 
Hampton, Bobert de, 104 
Handcock of Newcastle, 106, 135 
Harbottle family and arms, 214, 215, 

219 
Harcla, Andrew, 80 ; Sir Wm. de, 46, 

76 
Hardy, Luke, 101 
Haresley, 9 
Harleston, John de, 47 
Harrington, Henry, 8 
Harrop of Newcastle, 134, 136 
Hartlepool church, 92 ; stone shot from, 

155 ; races, 233 ; assemblies, 243 
HasweU, 56 

Hatherick of Newcastle, 107 
Hauffhton le Skeme, 57 
Hawkes, Wm., 252 
Hawthorn, William, elected a member, 

30 
Hay, Thomas del, 49 
Haydon Bridge, 9 
Haysand, 2, 4, 5 
Heaforlaw Peel, 197 
Hebbum races, 23 
Hedgley moor, battle and cross, 6, 197, 

198, 199 
Hegge's works, MS. of, penes Sir W. C. 

Treyelyan, 155 
Heighington races, 233 
Henry Yl., 6, 7 ; miracles by and prayers 

to, 142 ; effigy of, at Alnwick, 196 
Henry YIIL's testament, 44 
Henry, Prince, 63 
Heraldry, old, 157, 218 ; of the Percys, 

157 
Heralds of the Percys, 200, et seq. 
Herald's house in the New OasUe, 134 
Heralds' College, MS. I. 2 in, 210 
Herbert arms and badges, 194, 195, 196, 

198; Maud, 168 
Hereditary sacerdotage, 12 
Herle, Bartholomew, 100 
Heron barony, 47, 75, 77 ; of Chipchase, 

180 ; Wm. de, 67, 104 ; Henry, 2 ; 

Gilbert, 82 



Hefyng, The, 105 

Hetton, 56 

Heugh, 9; quarry at, 33; castle, 104, 
105 

Hexham, battle of, 6 ; priory, minister's 
account of, 8 ; hereditary sacerdotage 
of, comprising notices of its bishops, 
proyosts, priests, relics, &c., 11 ; coins 
trom, 39 ; brazen ornament found near, 
141 ; Thomas de, 48 ; Wm. de, 49 

High Castle, 73, 81, &c. 

Hildely, John de, 45 

Hilton castle, 169, 184, 215; family, 1 

Hinde, J. Hodgson, 31, 39, 248 

Hirst, Edw. 8 

Holdemess, 7 

Holland arms, 219 

Hollinside, mill at, 143 

Horologes, 142 

Horsley, John, 3 ; Edmund, 8 

Hotham arms, 171 

Hotspur, 182 

Howard insignia, 151, 177, 215, 219 

Howard, Lord William, 151 ; John, the 
philanthropist, 84 ; Dr. J. J., 35 

Howden church, 167 

Hoxne, flints from, 153, 154 

Hudson of Newcastle, 106, 135 

Hugate, Nicholas de, 168 

Hundmanby church, 209 

Hungerford, Lord, 6, 7 

Hunnum, 140 

Huntley of Newcasae, 108, 136 ; of 
Teyering, 123 

Hurst, Hey. Blythe, 150 

Hutton of Marske, 229 

I. 

He of Newcastle, 106, 108, 134, 135, 
136; Bulmer, spoon and will of, 33 
Mey, 9 
Ilyinges sune, 12 

Impalements instead of quarterings, 150 
Ingeniator, 92 ; Bichard sumamed, 92 
Ingilwod, John, 48 
Ingo mill, 8 
Ingram, 253 ; font, 224 
Inns, tayems, and coflfoehouses, 245 
Ions, Dr., 153 
Ireland, Margaret, 29 
Irthing riyer, 146 
Isell,9 

J. 

Jargoun, Emma, 48 

Jarrow, Beda's sepulture at, 15 

Jesmond, Adam of^ 102 

John's (St.) chapel, 9, 10 

JoUf, Bobert, 49 

Jordan of Newcastle, 123, 135 

Jutish relics, 251 



262 



INDEX. 



K. 

Kelsow, Tho. de, 62, 130 

Kempe the ballister, 101 

Kepike, 9 

Keswick, 30 

Ketton, 263 

Key, badge of, 191, 205, &c. 

Kildale, 163, 165 

Kinge, John, 34 

Kirkham, Walter de, 88 

Kirkharle, Adam, 54 

Kirkley of Newcastle, 106; 135 

Kirketon, 8 

Knaresbrough church, 218 

Knight, MatUda, 48 

Kyme, Tailbois Earl of, 6, 7. 

L. 

Lainge, Jane, 34 
Lambert of Fourstanes, 81 
Lambley, John de, 50 to 54 
Lancaster arms, 170, 171 
J.anchester, 9 ; races, 233 
Laneroost priory, 147, 159 ; chronicle of, 

155 
Langston, John and Jane, 71 
Lapidarium of the Roman Wall, 31 
Lasinbie, Mary, 34 
Latimer, John Lord, 10 
Lawson MS., the, 11 
Lawreu, Eylaf, 17, 19 
Lawson's chronicle, 155 
Leam, North, on Learn Lane or Wreken- 

dike, 255 
Leastall, a dunghill, 77 
Leek, John, 70 
Legh, Wm., 8 
Leopard, the heraldic, 216 
Letwell, John, 50 to 53, 130 
Lewes, Lodowic, 187 
Lewes, Prior of, 187 ' 

Lichfield arms, 219 
Liddell of Newcastle, 106, 135; of 

Bavensworth, 73, 135, 232 
Lillebonne, 140 
Lilbum of Shawdon and Belford, 81 ; 

arms, 215, 219 ; John de, 48 
Lindisfiime see, 11 
Linnels, near Hexham, 6 
Lion's tail, form of, 217 
Lisle, of Woodbum, 41 ; of Felton, 81 ; 

Robert de, 76 ; insignia of^ 177, 219, 

221. 
Lister (Lidster, Littaster) of Newcastle, 

49,99 
Locket, badge of the, 178 et nq. 
London bridge, 7 
Long Benton races, 233 
Lon^spee of Salisbury, 191 
Lord Northumberland's aims, 164, 186 
Loyaine, arms of, 226. {See Brabant) ; 

JosceUne de, 161 



Lucy, Maude de, and her arms, 173, 174 

et aeq., passim *, Richard de, 64, 65 
Lumley, 56 ; castle, 169, 174, 176 
Lunne of Newcastle, 34 
Lyall, George, 153 
Lymleder, Andrew le, 52, 130 

M. 

Maclauchlan's (Hen.) Survey of the Ro- 
man WaU, 31, 38, 40 

Maddison of Newcastle, 106, 135 

Magna, 145 

Maiden, meaning of, 145; way, 145 

Malcolm of ScotLmd's death, 164 

Maltmen's company, Newcastle, 73 

Maltrayers family and arms, 188, ld5, 
202 

Man, arms o^ 170 

Mantle, meaning of, 119 

Margaret, Princess, her joumej into 
Scotland, 206^ 209 

Margaret of Anjou, 6 

Marley, Sir Jolm, 72, 78, 82, 113 

Marshall of Newcastle, 136 ; John, 100 

Masquerades, 244 

Matfen, East and West, 9 

Maton, Richard de. Canon of Beverley, 
19 

Mauduyt, Roger, 47, 48, 68, 69 

Mauley? arms, 170 

Maurice the engineer, 66, 92 

Maxwell of Newcastle, 107 ; Lord, 83 

Melrose, relics at, 15 

Melton, badge of a sun, 179 ; represent- 
ing Lucy, 175 

Merley barony, 75 

Merlin's prophecies, 173 

Meryng, Tho., 9 

Mewbum, Fra., 29 

Middleham, John de, 51, 52, 63, 130 

Middletcm of Newcastle, 136 ; Sir Gil- 
bert de, 80 ; Sir Wm., 233 

MiLbanke of Newcastle, 108, 136 

Milbame Grange, 8 

Mile, Saxon, 56 

Miller, curious trade-arms of, 164 

MiUfield-plam races, 233 

Millpicks, 160 et aeq,, 226 

Milnebum, Robert de, 47 

Mining operations of the Romans, 141 

Molins, Lord, 6, 7 

Monboucher aims, 215, 219 

Monkchester, 66, 67 f 60 

Montagu family, 6, 7, 46, 76, 88, 190, 
194 

Moore of Newcastle, 107, 135, 136 

Morpeth castle, 81 ; races, 233 ; An- 
thony, 135 

Morville, arms of, 148 et seq. 

Moseley arms, 164 

Moss petrified, 140 



INDEX. 



263 



Mowbray, arms and crest, 215, 218; 

Robert, 69, 60, 165 ; Boger de, 64 ; 

Roger de, died 1298, 166 
Miilton of Cockermouth, arms of, 174 ; 

of Gilsland, arms of, 148 et seq. ; Sir 

Robert, 69 
* Municiuncula,' 57 
Murray, Earl, 69 
Museum, proposed, 35, 37, 39, 142, 153, 

155, 249, 251 
Musgra^e, Wm., 8; Robert, 122 

N. 

Naworth, 151 

Necton, Robert de, 45 

Ncddreton, Adam de, 49 

Neisbie, 8 

Nevil of Raby, 46, 76, 81 ; arms of, 174, 
182, 185; Grascoigne's claim to, 158; 
motto, 199 

Nevil, Lord Latimer, insignia of, 218, 
219, 222, 227 

Neyil of Lincolnsbire, arms of, 149 

Nevil, Lord John, of Hornby, 69 

Nevil, Margaret, Baroness Percy, 176, 
182. [She was buried in the quire of 
the Carmelites at Northallerton. Wri- 
othesley's MS., L. 8. Coll. Arms.] 

Nevil, Humphrey de, 6, 7 

Newburgh, 9, 192; ;Ambrose de, 45, 47 

Newburgh (Warwick) arms, 219 

Newbum, 9, 63 ; arms, 233 

Newcastle, 9 ; proposed history of, 31 ; 
view of, from Fandon dene, 33 ; spoon 
found' at, 33 ; Roman and Saxon, 54 ; 
races, 229 ; theatrical performances, 
234 ; mentioned in an Itidian romance, 
251 ; Sandhill, 7, 103, 104, 105 ; 
Friars, minors, 7 ; Augustine, 71 ; 
Close, 104; Side, 33, 34, 104, 105; 
Castle -street, 73, 74 ; Castle-field and 
Forth, 71, 102; Kempe's Lands, 101 ; 
Clothmarket, 102 ; Sandgate, 127, 
130: Keyside, 52, 130; Limekilns, 
130 ; Pink tower, 99; St. Nicholas' 
church, Nesbit's cut of, 40; south 
porch of, lately built, 33 ; east win- 
dow of, removed, 152. [A great 
number of places are incidentally 
mentioned in the articles commencing 
p. 45 and p. 229.1 New Castle, the, 
copies of records concerning, and 
history of, 45; Mount, 74; Stable, 
76 ; Barons' houses, 76 ; Three 
Bulls' Heads, 76, 120, 121; Inner 
wall, 77 ; Dunghill, 77 ; Keep, 68, 
80 ; Cross wall, 95 ; Old or Bailey 
gate, 98 ; South postern, 99 ; East 
postern, 101 ; Moat, 103; Outer wall, 
106 ; New hall (Moot hall) and New 
chamber, 108, 235, 236, 237, 238; 



Half-moon and Queen's mantle, 113; 
Gamers, 120 ; Chapel, 120 ; Bridges, 
121; Black gate. Second gate, &c., 
121 ; Exchequer house, 125 ; Gaols 
and the Gaol-grip, 125 ; Great pit, 
126, 155 ; Heron pit and walls be- 
tween the Black gate and Second 
gate, 127 ; Second gate, 133 ; Gal- 
lows, 133; Dovecote, 133 ; Herald's 
house, 134; Castle garth, 134. 

Newham races, 233 

Newton Ketton, flints from, 154, 253 

Nicholson of Newcastle, 136 

Nickson, Geoige, 133 

Norfolk, Lord, 81 

Norham castle, 92 ; stone shot from, 156 

Norham, Henry, 249, 250 

Norreys, Tho.,'49 

Northumberland, History of, 31 ; earl- 
dom of, 61, 62, 63, 67, 76, 179 ; shri- 
valty seals of, 179, 180; house, 220 ; 
household book, 201, &c ; duke of, 1, 
31, 38, 40, 159 

Norton church, 92 

Norway and Denmark, differences of re- 
mains in, 156 

Norwich, 36 

Nunmonkton church, 93 

Nutmeg ornament, 93 


Officers for 1859, 35 
Ogle, Lords de, 6, 72 ; Gilbert de, 45 ; 

insignia, 178, 179 
Ord, John, 253 
Oriole or overstorye, 90 
Orleyns, Wm. de, 50 to 54, 130 
Ormesby, 165 

Oswald, St., 254 ; chapel of, 9 
Otterbum, battle of, 176, 177, 186 
Ovingham church, 10 



Page, Adam, 45 
Palicium, meaning of, 98 
Pailynge of Kyllom, 122 
Pampeden, 65 
Pandon, 55 

Pante or Penta, river, 55 
Parker, Archbishop, 44 
Parlebien, John, 48 
Parr, arms of, 1 49 

Peacock of Newcastle, 107, 137; Edw.,29 
Peada Pending, 56 

Pease, Joseph, elected a member, 255 
Pembroke, Countess of, 46, 69, 76 
Penda, King, 56 
Pennoncelles, 204 
Percy's hall, Scotton, 218 
Percy, Earl Henry, steward of Hexham 
priory, 10 ; Sir Ralph, 6 



-V 



'^ 



264 



INDEX. 



Percya, old heraldry of, 167. [This 
paper contains a large mass of matter 
generally relative to the family.] 

Perthes, M. Boucher de, 40, 153 

Petworth, 161, 163, 187, 202 

Peynture, Henry, 48 

Pickle of Newcastle, 123, 124, 135, 137 

Piersebridge, 33, 37 

Pigot arms, 164 

Pilgrims' tokens, 40 

Pipe rolls of Cumberland and West- 
moreland, 254 

Pittingdon, 92 

Place arms, 219 

Plantagenet, Mary, 172 

Players, strolling, 233 

Plunmier, Benjamin, elected, 39 

Plumpton of ifewcastle, 136 j arms, 167 

Pollard of Newcastle, 34 

Pons ^lii, 54 

Post and pan work, 128 

Potter, J6hn, 45 

Potts, Bertram, executed, 133 

Powderings, 203 

Poynings, family and arms of, 188 et 
seq. 

Pratiman, Wm. and Gilbert, 50, 51, 52, 
53, 130 

Preston of Newcastle, 123, 136 

Prestwich, Mr., 154 

Prior's house, 9 

Proceedings of the Society, 29, 145, 249 

ProcQlitia, 141 

Proyinces, representations of, on Roman 
coins, 140 

Prudhoe castle, 64, 65. 175 

Public amusements in Newcastle, 229 

Pudsey, Bishop, 92 

Pulhore, Alan, 45, 47 

Punchardon, Nicholas de, 47 

Purdo, 8 

R. 
Kaby castle, 81 
Races, 229 
fiaddiffe, arms, 30 ; family of, 29, 30, 

81, 141 
Radinges, 160 
Raffles, 246 

Raglan castle, 198, 199 
Rame, Rev. Dr. 32, 33; Rey. James, 

33 ; Rey. John, 37. 
Rap (rope), Stithard sumamed, 13 
Rea, Lord, 83 

Red and black, the Percy colours, 186 
Red bull of Dacre, 150, 151 
Reed of Newcastle, 35, 123, 136; Archie, 

executed, 133 
Report, annual, 30 
RessheUes, 9 
Reyeley of Chatton, 81 



Reynald, John, 45, 47 

Richard III., 196 

Richardson, G. B., 31 

Richmond castle, 57, 65, 66, 79, 88, 92, 

93 ; plague at, 41 ; minister of, 42 
Riddel, Wm., 48 
Riddesdale, 7 

Ridley, James, 10 ; Sir Matthew, 38 
Ripiugton, Richard de, 54 
Ripon, 186 

Rising of the North, 214 
Risingham, 250 
Robert, Duke, 57 
Robinson, Wm., a herald^ 134; Rey. 

Gha. Best, 140 
Robsons executed, 133 
Rochester of Newcastle, 135 
Roderforthe, Clement, executed, 133 
Rogers, Archie, executed, 133 
Roman masonry, poorness of, 145 ; 

remains not found in .Scandinavia, 156; 

remains at the castle of Newcastle, 116 
Ros, Lord de, 6, 7 ; arms, 149, 171 
' Roset,' 213 
Rote, Thomas, 122 
Rothbury races, 233 
Rufus, Gosceline, 63 
Rumney of Newcastle, 136 
Rutchester, 56 
Rutter of Gateshead, 34 
Ryhill, Robert de, 47 
Ryton churchyard, 164 ; races, 233 

S. 
Sadberge wapentake, 75 
Saint Alban's abbey, 184 
Sainthill, Mr., 40 

Saints, relics of several local, 14 et seq. 
Salley abbey, 161, 163^ 166, 166, 175, 

180 
Saluce arms, 169 
Sandal, arms at, 201 
Sandford arms, 219 
Sandhowe, Sandhouse, 9 
Sawton, 10 ; prebend of, 9 
Sawyer, John, 51, 52, 53, 130 
Saxon cross and foundations at Wark- 

worth, 254 ; remains from Capheaton, 

251 
Scot, Nic, 48, 49, 104 ; Adam, 61 
Scotch Relief Presbyterians, 138 
Scotter par. register, 29 
Scotton near Knaresbrough, 218 
Scrope family and arms, 7y 47, 77, 126, 

170, 171 
Seals with straws and red crosses, 187 
Seaton Delaval hall, 141 
Second legion, 140 
Secular canons, 13 
Sedgefield church, 19 ; races, 233 
Seriaulx arms, 219 



3 



INDEX. 



265 



Sessay, tradition at, 163 

Seymour family and insignia, 190, 219, 
222 *' 

Shadford of Newcastle, 106 

Shaftoo of Benwell, 232 

Sheffield of Newcastle, 136 

Shields (South) races, 233 

ShilbotUe, I, 2, 4, 5, 184 

Shrewsbury, battle of, 176, 181 

Silvertop, Henry, esq., elected a member, 
265 

Skipton Castle, 202, 203 

Slaley, 9 ; chapel, 10 

Sleekbum races, 233 

SlingFby, Mary, 218 

Smith, of Newcastle, 34 ; of Byton, 164 ; 
of Easby, 41 ; Charles Boach, 141 

Smithson arms, 219 

Snathense, Chronicon Fretiosum, 140 

Snape, Thomas de, 48 

Society of Sons of the Clergy, 246 

Somerset Lord Herbert, 198, 211 et aeq. 

Somerset, Duke of, 6 

Southern of Newcastle, 123, 134 

Spence of Newcastle, 136 

Spencer family and insignia, 201 et seq, 

Stafford arms, 219 

Stagshaw Bank races, 233 

Staindrop races, 233 

Stainton, co. Durham, 9 

Stainton near Barnard Castle, 76 

Stamfordham races, 233 

Standards, 203 

Stannington, 9 

Stelling, 8 

Stephen, King, 59, 61, 62 

Stephenson of Newcastle, 134 

Stevenson, Alexander, 70, 72, 75, 82, 
124, 134 

Stockton races, 233 

Stokesfield hall, 9 

Storey of Newcastle, 135 ; "William, 8 

Stowe of Bipon and "Warkworth, 186 

* Strabrodde,' 129 

Strangwayes of Newcastle, 136 ; motto, 
199 

Strother, Alan de, 49 

Stuart, John, Esq., 33 ; elected a mem- 
ber, 30 

Sunderland races, 233 ; assemblies, 243 

Surrey's insignia, 215 

Surtees of Newcastle, 106, 107, 135; 
Sir Thomas, 46, 76 ; Walter, 76 

Sutor, Benedictus, 48 

Sutton in Sussex, 187, 202 

Sutton arms, 30, 226 

Swinburne of Capheaton, 134, 180 ; of 
Newcastle, 134; Adam de, 48; Oawen, 
8; Thomas, 8; Sir Thomas, 82 

Swinhoe of Newcastle, 99 

Symeon of Durham, author of the Law- 
son MS., 17 



T. 
Tailbois, Earl of Kyme, 6, 7 
Tanfield races, 233 
Tate of Bankhouse, 314 
Tayemer, Bobert, 49 
Taverns, 246 
Taylors, Company of, at Newcastle, 70, 

82 
Tea, curious advertisement concerning, 

38 
Teviotdale, 13, 18, 20 
Tewkesbury, 194 
'Thack,' 128 

Theatrical performances, 233 
Thewe, John, 49 
Thirlwall castle, 145, 146 
Thirsk, 192 
Thompson, of KiUom, 122; Isaac, his 

plan of Newcastle, 117; Edward, 33, 

40 
Thornton, Temple, 9 ; Boger de, 153 
Thyngden, Bobert de, 50, 69 
Thynne arms, 2 1 9 
Tinclier, Thomas, 49 
Tinctures, heraldic, 30 
Tintem abbey, 140 
Tison family, 1, 63, 170 
Todd (fox) a surname, at Bedlington, 

13 ; of Newcastle, 136 : Bobert, 230 
Tolland, Bobert, 9 
Tonge, Bobert de, 69 
Topcliffe, 163, 166 ; castle and Thorp- 
field, 192, 214, 215, 217, 218 ; church, 

185, 188 
Townley family, 21 
Towton, battle of, 188 
Transitional architecture, 92 
Trevelyan, Sir W. C. 141, 142, 144, 

155 
Trobe of Guyzance mill, 3, 4 
TipUop, Bob., 134 
Trunkmaker, Percy the, 224 
Tughale, Bobert de, 69 
Tughail Moor races, 232 
Tully of Newcastle, 136 
Tune, Inscription at, 39 
Tunstall, Bishop, his death and burial, 

44 
Tumbull or Trumble of Newcastle, 134 
Turner, family, lessees of the New Castle, 

73, 85, 101, 134; T. Hudson, 86 
* Turrets', 205, 227 
Turwin siege, 202 et aeq, 
Tyes arms, 219 
, Tympron, Wm. de, 45 
Tynedale, 18, 63, 81 ; Wm. de, 46, 48, 

76 
Tynemouth, 55y 56; castle, 69, 60; 

monastery, 69, 62, 92, 93 ; church, 

15; races, 233 
Tyzac, Mr. Jonathan, 240 



266 



INDEX. 



U. 
Ufton, Nicholas, 122 
Uleoote, Philip de, 67 
UUdlles sune, 12 
XJmfreyil fiunilj and arms, 65, 76, 174, 

176 
nricomom, 141, 142 
Urpeth of Halywell and Eothbury, 80 
Unirick, Ghr., 209 



Valentine of Newcastle, 134 

VaUum, 146, 147 

Vaux of GilsUind, insignia of, 148 $i seg, ; 

of Tryermaine, 150, 152 ; Robert de, 

64, 65 
Yeache of Newcastle, 107, 108, 123, 137 
Ventress, John, 139 
Vcre insignia, 219, 224 
Vescy, arms, 185 ; Wm. de, 65 
Vespasian, denarius of, 146 
Vindobala, 56 
Vipont arms, 170 

W. 

Wak, John, 47 

WaU Roman, 78, 140, 141, 146, 147 ; 

survey of; 31, 38, 40 
Walles of Newingfield and Aykheld, 122 
Wallis, Giles, 70, 82 
*Waltiles,' 130 
Walton, 9 : Nichohis, 78 
Walwick church, 168 
Ward, John, 34 
Warden, Wm., 9 
Warden, 9 ; church, 10 
Wark barony, 46, 48, 75, 76, 99 ; castle, 

63, 64 
Warkworth, 4, 63, 64 ; ring found at, 

40; castle, 185, 195, 197, 198, 200; 

church, 195, 197, 254 ; hermitage, 

182 
Warmouth, Wm., 34; John, 187 
Warren, arms of, 169, 170, 171 
Warwick, Earl of, 6,7 
Waterbeach, 30 

Waterhouse of Newcastle, 106, 135 
Watford, William de, 122 
Weardale, 18 
Wearmouth, church and saints of, 15, 

16 
Wedrell of Newcastle, 136 



Westmoreland bull, 217 ; earldom of, 158 
Weston or Westou sune, Alfred, 14, 23, 

24, 25 
Whalley, hereditary deans of, 21 
Whalton barony, 47, 48, 75, 77 
Whickham, 30 ; races, 233 
Whitbem, Wm. de, 51, 63, 54, 128 
Whitby abbey, 160, 161, 165 
White, Matthew, esq., 240 
Whitley, Gilbert, 50 
Whittell, 2 ; Thomas, 251 
Widdrington of Hauzley, 3 
Wigton, Robert de, 50 to 54 
Wilfrid, Saint, 13 
William the Lion, 62, 63 
Willington Quay races, 233 
Wilson, Gilderd, 2 
Wincunes sune, 12 
Winlaton races, 233 
Witton Gilbert races, 233 
Wodseller, John, 50, 61, 52, 130 
WoLsey, Cardinal, 205 
Wolsingham races, 233 
Wolsington races, 233 
Wolviston, 92 
Word, a motto, equivalent to ' comfort*, 

199 
Wrekendike, 255 
Wressel chapel, 200 ; casUe, 214 
Wriothesley arms, 218, 219 
Wroxeter, 141, 142 
Wroxhall manor, 190 
Wydeslade, John de, 47 
Wylara, William, 255 
Wylom, William de, 45 



Yarm races, 233 

Yarwick, 8 

Yetlington manor, 125 

York, 6, 7 ; sheriff of, 10 ; chapter of, 
10 ; choristers of, 10; archbishops of, 
in connection with Hexham, 12 et seq-. ; 
minster, 171, 173, 177, 183, 192; 
clock at, 142 ; cross keys, badge of 
see of, 206; Saxon mint at, 182; 
badgp of house of, 182; Walmgate 
barbican at, 39 ; St Denis' church at, 
184, 188, 191 ; St. Crux's church at, 
214 ; Beddem at, 192, 206 

Yorkshire, 30 ; House of Salutation in, 
10 



END OF VOL. IV. 



NEWCASTLE-UPOX-TYNE ; 
PRINTED BY J. G. FORSTEtt, CLAYTON STREET. 



\. 



' \ p 




,%■■•'*■;''■■ j%^^