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Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"

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rr 

AKCH^OLOGIA JULIANA 



OR, 

ractg 
RELATING TO ANTIQUITY. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUABIES OE NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



N1W SERIES, 

VOLUME I. 




NEWCASTLE-UPON TYNE : 

PRINTED BY THOMAS AND JAMES PTGG, CLAYTON STREET, 
M.DCCC.LVII. 




7. ^sr 



CONTENTS. 



ANNUAL REPORT AND OTHER BUSINESS PAPERS i. 

ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE, DORSET, AND MONTGOMERY. By the Rev. 

JAMES RAINE, Jun., M.A. , 1 

LOCAL MUNIMENTS. Lent by THOMAS BELL, Esq. 

ROBERT RICHARDSON DEES, Esq. ... 36 
Edited by W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, Esq., F.S.A. 

CORNAGE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. By JOHN HODGSON HlNDE, Esq. . . 44 

ST. LEONARD'S HOSPITAL, ALNWICK. By WILLIAM DICKSON, Esq., F.S.A. . 48 

ORDER FOR THE REPAIR OF WEST GATE, NEWCASTLE. From the Rev. JAMES 

RAINE, M.A , . . 50 

CASE AND OPINION ON THE RATING OF CHURCH LANDS, &c., IN THE COUNTY OF 

DURHAM, 1630. From W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, Esq., F.S.A. . 51 

EXTRACTS FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS OF ECCLESIASTICAL POSSESSIONS 
IN NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM, 1650. From the Subscribers to the 
HODGSON FUND. , 53 

LOCAL MUNIMENTS. From the Collections of the late J. BROUGH TAYLOR, 

Esq., F.S.A. Edited by W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, Esq., F.S.A. . 61 

LETTER ALLUSIVE TO THE SERVICES OF MAJOR SOWLE AT NEWCASTLE IN THE 
RIOTS OF 1740. In the BRITISH MUSEUM. From SIR WALTER CALVERLEY 
TREVELYAN, Bart., F.S.A 67 

ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATIONS AT THE ROMAN STATION OF BREMENIUM, 1855. 

By the Rev. J. COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D., F.S.A. . . .69 

DEPOSITION CONCERNING THE HEDLEY Kow. From the AUan'MSS. in posses- 
sion of ROBERT HENRY ALLAN, Esq., F S.A. . . . . . .86 

THE BOOK OF THE CIRCUIT AND CECAYS OF THE TOWN AND CASTLE OF BERWICK, 
IN THE TIME OF HENRY VIII. From the Subscribers to the HODGSON 
FUND 87 

FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. Chiefly from papers 
presented by W, J. FORSTER, Esq., and others in the possession of JOHN 
FENWICK, Esq., F.S.A. By W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, Esq., F.S.A. 95 



CONTENTS. 

THE PROCESSION AT THE FUNERAL OF Sin RALPH MII/BANKE, BART., 1748. 

From W. HYLTON DVER LONGSTAFFE, Esq., F.S.A. . . . .131 

THE RENTAL FOR THE EARL OF WESTMERLAND'S LORDSHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526. 
From the Subscribers to the HODGSON FUND. By JOHN HODGSON HINDE, 
Esq ....... 133 

THE MANOR OF BEARL. Estreat. From JOHN HODGSON HINDE, Esq. . .139 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE IN THE CLOSE, NEWCASTLE, ON THE EAST SIDE OF 
THE TUTHILL STAIRS. From Muniments submitted by the Rev. JAMES 
RAINE, Jun, M.A. Edited by W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, Esq., F.S.A. 140 

THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. By the Rev. Dr. D. H. HAIGH. . .149 

THE INVENTORY OF THE GOODS OF HUGH FITZ-ELYAS DE RICHEMUND AND 
JULIANA HIS WIFE, TAKEN AT HER DEATH, 1316. From SIR WILLIAM 
LAWSON, Bart., F.S.A 196 

SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFB, OF DILSTON. Chiefly from Wills and from Papers 
submitted by JOHN FENWICK, Esq., F.S.A. By the Rev. JAMES RAINE, 
Jun., M.A 197 

CATALOGUE OF THE INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES IN THE POSSES- 
SION OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. By 
the Rev. J. COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D., FS.A 221 

THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. By ROBERT WHITE, Esq 271 

APPENDIX TO THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

No. 1. The Cross taken from David King of Scotland. . . .292 

2. Memoir of John de Coupland 293 

3. Commencement of a Poem by the late Rev. John Hodgson, 

on the Battle of Neville's Cross 295 

4. Ancient Latin Poems on the Subject of the Battle. . . 297 



EEPOET 



OP 

^octets of 

OP 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 
M.DCCC.LV. 



IN presenting the forty-third -annual Report, the Council have to con- 
gratulate the Society of Antiquaries on the prosperous condition and 
steady progress that have marked the course of the past year. Many 
papers of much interest have been read, and many donations, both of 
books and of objects of antiquity, have been made, attesting the in- 
terest taken both by the members and by the public in the welfare of 
the Society. 

The new and auspicious era of the Society's taking possession of the 
fine old Norman building where it now holds its meetings, has been 
perpetuated by the fresh life infused at that period and subsequently 
into the Society's operations. The rapid accumulation of papers and 
of antiquities has since then been such, that not only has the Society 
now completed the fourth volume of its Transactions, but it is already 
in possession of papers amply sufficient to form another volume of 
goodly size, and which it is hoped will more speedily be distributed to 
the members than has hitherto been the case. 

While, therefore, your Council see good reason to rejoice at the pro- 
gress already made, they wish to impress upon the members, that in 
order to preserve the well won reputation of this, one of the earliest 
provincial institutions of the kind, it is absolutely requisite that un- 
ceasing efforts should be made to provide a constant series of papers for 
the meetings, and to seek out every where the numerous objects of an- 
tiquarian interest that continually present themselves. Archaeology 
has now become so favourite a study, and so many young energetic 
societies have recently engaged in its pursuit, that there is danger of 



11. BEPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

the older institutions being left behind, if their members do not use 
their best exertions to keep pace with the rapid advance of this inter- 
esting study. 

At the last anniversary meeting it was determined that the Proceed- 
ings of the Society should be regularly reported, and published monthly 
in a neat demy octavo form, for distribution to the members. This has 
been done by the Gateshead Observer printing office, the reports having 
been duly drawn up by Mr. James Clephan ; and your Council does 
not hesitate to say that no measure has given more general satisfaction. 
The value of these monthly Reports of the Proceedings is fully appre- 
ciated also by the public, as is evinced by the eagerness manifested to 
obtain copies. The Secretaries have received numerous letters from 
archaeologists in other parts of England, requesting as a signal favour to 
be allowed copies of these Proceedings. The Secretaries have not as 
yet felt themselves justified in complying with this request, as the cir- 
culation is limited by the original resolution to the members alone ; but 
your Council would suggest that a certain number of copies should be 
allowed to be sent to various Archaeological Societies, and to such gen- 
tlemen as may be considered entitled to them from the interest they 
take in the study of antiquities. 

During the past year the excavations at Housesteads and elsewhere 
along the line of the Roman "Wall have been continued by the energetic 
proprietor, Ifr. John Clayton. The results have been important, espe- 
cially as regards the discovery of one of the exploratory turrets of the 
Wall, at the Knag-burn, a little east of Housesteads. 

The excavations at Bremenium, which have been carried on at so much 
expense by the munificent Patron of the Society, the Duke of Northum- 
berland, have been this year as far as possible completed by some of the 
members, aided by a further donation of 25. from his Grace. The 
very satisfactory results of these additional explorations have been fully 
detailed by Dr. Bruce at the monthly meeting in December last; and 
a full description of the whole, with plans of the station, will be pub- 
lished in the Transactions. 

The exertions of the Society have likewise been directed to the pre- 
servation of the monuments of antiquity in this neighbourhood. The 
opening out cf the roadway from the High Level Bridge to St. Nicholas' 
Square has exposed fully to view the well known " Black Gate," one 
of the main entrances to the Castle of this town. It was at one time 
much to be feared that this fine structure would fall a sacrifice to mo- 
dern convenience, and would be swept away with the surrounding 
buildings. Against the proposed destruction of this venerable edifice, 



OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 111. 

the Society most energetically appealed to the Corporation, and your 
Council is happy to report, with signal success. Not only did the Cor- 
poration determine to retain the Black Gate entire, but they offered a 
reward of 50. for the best design for the approach in question, with a 
clause specially insisting on the preservation of the Black Gate. These 
designs, which have been recently exhibited in the Merchants' Court, 
have no doubt been seen and studied by all who take an interest in 
archeology. 

Nor has the vigilance of the Society been confined to local antiquities, 
but in May last it forwarded a petition to Parliament praying that the 
valuable collection of London antiquities, the property of that eminent 
antiquary, Mr. Charles Roach Smith, might be purchased by the nation. 
Your Council has recently learned that there is some prospect of this 
most desirable object being carried into effect. The excavations now 
going on at Tynemouth for improving the fortifications there, will be 
sedulously watched by the Society, and it is hoped that many interest- 
ing objects will be discovered during their progress. 

The want of additional accommodation for the Society's increasing 
collections is now beginning to be severely felt. Not only is space 
deficient, but the essential article of light penetrates but sparingly 
through the deep windows of the Castle Keep. The Roman altars 
and inscriptions require to be ranged under a strong light to be cor- 
rectly examined, and still more is this required with regard to many of 
the smaller and more delicate objects arranged under glass. For the 
latter a strong light from above is by far the most appropriate. 

Two plans have been proposed for obtaining the requisite accommo- 
dation. 

The one is to provide the additional space within the Castle itself; 
the other to obtain a lease of some of the arches of the adjacent railway, 
and to fit them up for the reception of the larger antiquities. 

The only means of obtaining the requisite space witliin the Castle is 
by restoring the apartment which by many is considered to have existed 
over the Great Hall, and for this a plan has been prepared and laid 
before the Society by Mr. Dobson. Mr. Dobson proposes to perforate 
the present brick arched roof (which was put up in 1813) with a six 
feet domed light, and this would give the Society an apartment 15 feet 
high by 30 in length and 24 in breadth. The cost of this is estimated, 
with the flooring, &c., at 134., and the top-light thus obtained would 
be very favourable for the smaller specimens. 

By the other plan, that of enclosing some of the railway arches, if 
they can be obtained on lease at a reasonable rate, a large space, with a 



IV. REPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

good side light would be provided, and if the whole could be connected 
by a wall with the Castle, so as to enclose the area, and form a passage, 
ample room would be secured. 

The progress made in preparing the Illustrated Catalogue of Eoman 
Antiquities has been necessarily slow, from the long time required to 
complete all the wood engravings wanted for the purpose. The Council 
is glad to report that these engravings are now finished, and that the 
Catalogue of this most important part of the Society's collections, pre- 
pared by Dr. Bruce, will speedily be published. 

The concluding Part of Vol. IV. of the Transactions of the Society 
is this day laid upon the table. A notice of a motion has been given 
by Mr. ~W. H. Longstaffe to reduce the future size of the publications 
to demy octavo, similar to that of the Proceedings ; and that the Trans- 
actions so printed shall be issued quarterly to the members, free of 
carriage. It will be for the Society to determine, this day, whether 
the important change shall be carried into effect or not, and the decision 
come to will necessarily affect also the monthly publication of the Pro- 
ceedings. 

The Council have had under their serious consideration the important 
subject of the completion of the History of Northumberland, which was 
left imperfect by the lamented death of the late Rev. John Hodgson, 
one of the Vice-presidents of this Society. It is unnecessary to enlarge 
upon the qualifications which pre-eminently fitted that gentleman for 
the execution of the great work which he undertook. His extensive 
general and antiquarian learning, unwearied industry, and minute local 
knowledge, are widely known, and have been duly appreciated ; nor 
can we doubt that if his life had been prolonged, the county of North- 
umberland would have possessed a record of its history and antiquities 
equally distinguished for comprehensiveness of plan, minuteness of de- 
tail, fulness of information, and perspecuity of style. These charac- 
teristics are eminently displayed in the published volumes ; but the 
original design is unfortunately far from being completed. 

Mr. Hodgson proposed to divide his work into three parts : 

1 . The genera] history of the county. 

2. The topography and local antiquities, arranged in parishes. 

3. A collection of documents, forming at once the materials for the 
compilation and the vouchers for the accuracy and fidelity of its exe- 
cution . 

Of these, the third part only is complete according to the author's in- 
tention, and this unfortunately is the portion that is least interesting to 
the general reader, although it contains a rich fund of information for 
the antiquary. 



OP NEWCASTLE-TFPON-TYNE. V. 

Of the second part, three volumes have been printed, embracing the 
description of less than one half of the county, and it would require at 
least as many additional volumes to comprise a satisfactory description 
of the remainder. 

Of the first part nothing as yet has been published. 

Such being the state of the work at the time of Mr. Hodgson's de- 
cease, and no steps having been taken for its further prosecution, the 
Council have endeavoured, but in vain, to find some competent person 
willing to devote himself to the completion of an undertaking so deeply 
interesting to the public in this locality, but which unfortunately holds 
out no more solid inducement for the exercise of very laborious appli- 
cation than the approval of those who appreciate this branch of literary 
study. They are not however without hopes that parties may be met 
with who are both competent and willing to undertake the history of 
particular parishes or districts within the county, and that by a com- 
bination of the eiforts of several individuals, it may be possible to 
complete the topographical part, not perhaps in a manner altogether 
worthy of the companionship of the preceding volumes, but so as, at all 
events, to present an immense mass of original and authentic informa- 
tion. 

In order to obtain the assistance of such persons in their several 
localities, and to ensure as far as possible uniformity of plan, and also 
to solicit information and the inspection of documents from the landed 
proprietors and others, the Council would suggest the appointment of a 
small committee, to whom the general superintendence of the work 
should be entrusted. In this way, they trust they may look forward to 
the completion of the second part at no distant period. In the mean- 
time, however, they are strongly impressed with the importance of 
supplying as early as possible the want of the first part, or General 
History, that the work at once may be complete as far as it goes ; 
whereas it is at present not only imperfect in its conclusion, but defective 
in its commencement, and thus the general plan is with difliculty un- 
derstood by the reader. 

This part may, without undue curtailment, be comprised in a single 
volume ; and as the materials have not here to be sought by personal 
inquiry, or in private repositories, but in the pages of our early his- 
torians, which are now readily accessible, there can be no difficulty in 
securing its completion at an early day if it is placed by the Committee 
in the hands of a party conversant with the subject. 

Another object which the Society has in view, is the preservation of 
the ancient music of this Border county. These records of the past, in 



VI. KEPOET OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

the shape of ballads, &c., have indeed received considerable attention, 
but many of the old airs are now with difficulty recoverable, and ere 
long will have entirely disappeared. Much solicitude has been expressed 
by the noble Patron of the Society, that these interesting records of 
former times should be preserved, and the Council suggests the appoint- 
ment of a small committee of such gentlemen as are willing to give 
their attention to the subject. 

During the present year the Society has lost by death one of its 
earliest members, the Senior Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. John 
Adamson- Mr. Adamson had been connected with the Society from its 
formation in 1813, and had acted as its Secretary during the long pe- 
riod of forty-three years. During this time Mr. Adamson contributed 
several important papers to the Society's Transactions, and from his ex- 
tensive correspondence with archaeologists in all parts of the country, 
he was enabled to obtain much important information, and many do- 
nations of works of value for the Society's library. Mr. Adamson was 
well known to the literary world as a diligent student of Portuguese 
literature, and had published several works relating to Portuguese 
authors. For thirty years he had also held the office of Secretary to 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of this town, which Society he 
first joined in 1811. He was likewise one of the founders of the 
Natural History Society, a pursuit to which he was always much at- 
tached. 

The Society has also to deplore the loss of Captain Widdrington, of 
Newton Hall, in this county, a gentleman of cultivated mind and taste, 
an ardent naturalist and traveller, and who ever took much interest in 
the proceedings of the Society. 

One of the most active members of the Society, Mr. H. G. Potter, 
has resigned his connexion with the Society, on occasion of his removal 
to the South of England for his health. Mr. Potter was a diligent ex- 
cavator on the line of the Roman Wall, and the results of his researches 
at Amboglanna are well known to all the readers of the Transactions of 
the Society. 

The Council, in deploring these losses to the Society, see yet good 
reason to believe that the renewed spirit and vitality manifested in the 
Society since its removal to its present locality, will not only continue 
unabated, but will increase'year by year. 



OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. Vll. 

PAPERS READ. 

February, 1855. Anniversary Meeting. 
Mr. JOHN CLAYTON. On an Altar to Cocidius discovered at Housesteads. 

March. 
Mr. W. HYLTON LONGSTAFFE. On the Pilgrimage of Grace. 

April. 
Mr. "W. HYLTON LONGSTAFFE. On the Pilgrimage of Grace. 

May. 
Rev. JAMES RAINE, Junr. Memoir of Anne Countess of Pembroke, &c. 

June. 

Mr. "W. HYLTON LONGSTAFFE. Abstract of thirty-four Local Muni- 
ments belonging to Mr. Thos. Bell. 

October. 

Mr. "W. HYLTON LONGSTAFFE. Continuation of Paper On the Pilgri- 
mage of Grace. 

November. 
Mr. HODGSON HINDE. Transcripts of Returns of Dean and Chapter 

Property in Northumberland, 1654. 

Mr. R. R. DEES. Old Deeds relative to Property in the Broad Chare, &c. 
Dr. CHAELTON. On the Bilingual Inscription from Palstone ; and on 

the Runic Inscription in Carlisle Cathedral. 



Rev. Dr. BEUCE. Description of the Excavations at Bremenium. 

January, 1856. 

Dr. CHAELTON. On the Bewcastle Cross. 

Mr. WM. DICKSON. On Malcolm's "Well, and the Hospital of St. 
Leonard, at Alnwick. 



DONATIONS. 

February, 1855. Anniversary Meeting. 

Mr. E. "W. CHALLONEE. Rubbings of Monumental Brasses from the 
neighbourhood of Newmarket. 



V. REPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

March. 

Rev. DIXON CLARKE, Belford. Fragment of Iron Casting from the 
Castle of Belford. Transactions of Ossianic Society, 1853. 

April. 

Messrs. LISTER AND SONS. A Bronze Celt and two Bronze vessels. 
Mr. DONKIN, High Friar Street. Forty Copper Tokens. 
Mr. JOHN GREENE, Gateshead. Inscribed Stones formerly in the 
Trollope Monument, Gateshead. 

June. 
The LIBRARY COMMITTEE, Guildhall, London. Catalogue of the Beaufoy 

Collection of Tokens. 

Mr. JOHN BRITTON. Memoir of Edward James Wilson, Esq. 
Mr. RICHARD SAINTHILL, Cork. "Numismatic Crumbs." 
Mr. ROACH SMITH. Notice of his Museum of London Antiquities. 
KILKENNY ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. Transactions. 
LORD LONDESBOROUGH. Miscellanea Graphica. 
REV. H. CHRISTMAS. Letter on the London Society of Antiquaries. 
Mr. J. ADAMSON. A Bone Instrument found in Ireland. A Leader 

for the Distaff. 
Messrs. GEORGE GREENE AND F. P. IONN. Piscina and Sedilia of St. 

Mary's Church, Gateshead. 
Mr. H. G. POTTER. Roman Remains from Burdoswald Head of a 

Statue, Sculptured Stones, &c. 

August. 

CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. Report. 

Mr. J. LINDSAY, Cork. Observation on an Ancient Syrian Talisman. 

Mr. R. SAINTHILL. Medal of Mr. S. Engraved by Wyon. 

Mr. W. H. SCOTT, Edinburgh. Observations on Oriental Coins. Tran- 
sactions of Kilkenny Archaeological Society. 

Mr. WM. KELLY. Royal Progresses to Leicester. 

Mr. BARRASS, per Mr. John Bell. Silver English Coins and Foreign 
Copper Coins. 

Mr. HOWARD, of Blackheath. Impressions of Copper Plates in his pos- 
session. 

Mr. M. A. DENHAM, of Piersebridge. Proverbial Folk Lore of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. 



LIVERPOOL ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. Proceedings 
of, Vol. I. 



NEWCASTLE-TJPON-TYNE. IX. 

October. 

LIVERPOOL ARCH^IOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Part I. Yol. ii. 
LORD LONDESBOROTTCH. Miscellanea Graphica. 

Mr. GEORGE KIELL, Inland Kevenue Office, London. Bactrian Coins 
found in Samarcand. 

Mr. "WEBSTER, Douglas, Isle of Man. Cast of a Seal of George II. 

DONOR UNKNOWN. Two Halberts. Three Spears. and a Broadsword. 

Mr. A. H. RHIND. Pamphlet on British Antiquities. 

Mr. YENTRESS, Newcastle. Portion of one of the Links formerly used 
in lighting the streets of Newcastle. Nimbed Head weeping, in 
Stained Glass, from the Old Duke of Cumberland public house, near 
the Castle, recently pulled down. Creeing-trough. 
December. 

ARTJNDEL SOCIETY. Catalogue of Fictile Ivory Casts. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE. Their Transactions, 
two volumes. 

Mr. W. BOYNE, Tenterden Street, London. Six Rare Tokens of the 
1 7th century. 

Rev. J. C. BRTJCE. Bayeux Tapestry. 

Mr. DIXON DIXON. Four Yaluable Yolumes of Maps, Plans, &c. 
Memoirs relating to Collieries in the neighbourhood of Newcastle. 
A Punch Ladle, containing a Medal presented to his Grandfather. 

January. 

KILKENNY ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. Transactions. 
G. RIP PON, Esq., North Shields. Chinese Cannon captured at Chusan. 
W. J. FORSTER, Esq. Roman Silver Coin. 



THE LATE JOHN ADAMSON, ESQ. IN ACCOUNT WITH 

SOCIETY'S 
i9r. 

. s. d. 

1853-4. To Balance due the Society 62 18 1 

Admittances to Castle 58 4 6 

Less left in Dr. Charlton's hands to meet cur- 
rent expenses . . . . . 11 11 8^ 

46 12 9 



109 10 

1854-5. To Balance brought down 1898 

Receipts from Members 80 17 

Admittances to Castle . . . . 65 4 10 
Less left in Dr. Charlton's hands to meet cur- 
rent expenses 12 14 10^ 

52 9 11 



151 16 

1855-6. To Balance 41 19 7 

Receipts from Members 95 8 

Error in charging Mr. J. H. Hinde's account twice over . 9 18 6 

Cash from Dr. Charlton . . . . . . . 23 



1856. To Balance due the Society 63 5 8 




EDWAKD CHAKLTON, ESQ., M.D., IN ACCOUNT WITH 

CASTLE 
Jit, 

. s. d 

1855. FEBRUARY 10. } 

to >-To cash received for Admittances to the Castle 63 4 3 

1856. FEBRUARY 2. 3 



63 4 3 



To Balance due the Society on this account 716 9 
on the general account 167 



934 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 
ACCOUNT. 

r. 

. s. d. 

1853-4. By Balance due Mr. Adamson 25 1 

Sundry Payments 66 1 l 

., Balance 18 9 8 

In Dr. Charlton's hands 11 11 8 



109 10 



1854-5. By Disbursements 

Additional Disbursements . 

,, Balance .... 
In Dr. Charlton's hands last year 
In Dr. Charlton's hands this year 



56 17 1 
52 19 11 
41 19 7 



11 11 8 

12 14 10 

24 6 7 



151 16 

1855-6. By Disbursements 104 10 5 

Error in not charging Paxton's Salary, 9th May . . . 2100 

In Dr. Charlton's hands 24 6 7 

Dr. Charlton paid Mr. Adamson . . . 23 

Remains to be accounted for by Dr. Charlton . 167 

By Balance 63 5 8 



170 6 1 



February 2, 1856, 

Examined and found correct, 
ROBERT WHITE. 
W. HYLTON D. LONGSTAFFE. 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

ACCOUNT. 

Cr. 

. s. d. 

1855. FEBRUARY. By paid Warden's Salary 46 16 

For Coals, Carriages, and other Sundries . 616 

Mr. Paxton, late Warden, one Quarter's Salary 210 

Balance in hand ... 7169 



63 4 3 



February 2, 1856, 

Examined and found correct, 

ROBERT WHITE. 

W. HYLTON D. LONGSTAFFE. 



HONORARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

ELECTED. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen, F.R.S., F.S.A. 1 Dec. 1813 

David Hawks, Esq. . . . .4 Jan. 1815 

JosephHunter, Esq.,F.S. A., Record Office, Carlton Ride 3 Mar. 1819 

John Britton, Esq. ..... April, 1821 

Professor Rafn, Secretary of the Society of Ancient 

Inscriptions, Copenhagen . . .6 Sept. 1826 

His Grace the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, F.S.A. 3 Jan. 1827 

Charles Frost, Esq., F.S.A., Hull . . .5 Dec. 
David Lairig, Esq., Librarian to the Signet Library, 

Edinburgh . . . . .2 Jan. 1828 

Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel, D.D., Bodleian Library . ,, ,, 

Sir Walter CalverleyTrevelyan,Bart.F.S. A., Wallington 6 Feb. 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., Middle Hall, Broadway, 

F.R.S., F.S.A. . . . .4 July, 1832 

Marc Isambard Brunei, Esq., V.P.R.S., London . 5 Aug. 1835 
The Right Rev. William Lord Bishop of Durham, . 

F.R.S., F.S.A 7 Sept. 1836 

William Andrew Chatto, Esq., F.S. A., London . 2 July, 1839 
James Orchard Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. . 5 Nov. 
John Yonge Akerman, Esq., Seer. S.A. . . 3 Feb. 1840 
His Excellency John Sigismund von Mosting, Copen- 
hagen . 
John Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. . . ,, 
Robert William Billings, Esq., . . .7 July 
John Richards, Esq., F.S.A., Reading . ,, 
Robert Bigsby, Esq., Repton, Burton-on-Trent . ,, 
Richard Shanks, Esq., Risingham . . .7 Dec. 1841 
Monsieur Dillon, late French Consul at Newcastle 3 Jan. 1843 
Rev. J. Bosworth, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. . ,, 
Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., London . . 6 Feb. 1844 
W. B. D. Turnbull, Esq., Lincoln's Inn, London . 2 Dec. 1845 
John Richard Walbran, Esq., F.S. A., Ripon, Yorkshire 2 Feb. 1846 
George Hudson, Esq., M.P. . . . .4 July 1848 
Charles Newton, Esq., M.A., H.B.M. Yice-Consul at 

Mitylene . . . . .5 Sept. ,, 
Mons. Ferdinand Denis, Keeper of the Library of St. 

Genevieve at Paris . 3 Feb. 1851 






HONORARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. Xlll. 

ELECTED. 

Right Honourable Lord Talbot de Malahide, F.S.A., 

M.R.I. A., Malahide Castle, Ireland . . 1 Sept. 1852 

Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne, M.A., Holdenby . ,, 

The Honourable Richard C. Neville, F.S.A., Audley 

End, Saffron Walden . . . 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., F.R.S., F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 
William Henry Blaauw, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Secretary 
of the Sussex Archaeological Society, Beech- 
lands, Uckfield . . . . ,, ,, 
Albert Way, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Wonham Manor, 

Reigate . . . . 

Rev. John Montgomery Traherne, F.S.A., late Chan- 
cellor of Llandaff Cath., Coedriglan, Cardiff . ,, 
Edwin Guest, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, 

Cambridge, . . 

Rev. J. L. Petit, M.A., F.S.A., Old Square, Lincoln's 

Inn . 

James Yates, Esq., F.R.S., Lauderdale House, High- 
gate ..... 
William Watkin E. Wynne, Esq., M.P., F.S.A., 

Aberamffra, Barmouth . . . 

Sir Charles Anderson, Bart., Lea Hall, Gainsborough ,, ,, 

Daniel Wilson, Esq., LL.D., late Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh, now Pro- 
fessor of English Literature in the Univer- 
sity of Toronto . . . . ,, ,, 
Anthony Salvin, Esq., F.S.A., Finchley, Middlesex . 
Sir William Lawson, Bart., F.S.A., Brough Hall . 
John Mitchell Kemble, Esq., M.A., London . . ,, 
William Beamont, Esq., Warrington . . ,, 
Henry Maclauchlan, Esq. . . . . ,, 
Mark Antony Lower, Esq., F.S.A., Lewes . . 1 Dec. 
Charles Bridger, Esq., 3, Keppel Street, London . 3 May, 1854 
Richard Sainthill, Esq., Cork . . .6 Dec. 
John Lindsay, Esq., Cork . . . . 
William Webster, Esq., Isle of Man . . 
Joseph Jackson Howard, Esq., F.S.A., Blackheath, 

London . . .3 Jan. 1855 

Aquilla Smith, Esq., M.D., Dublin . . .14 April, 

The Right Honourable Lord Londesborough, F.R.S., 

F.S.A. . . . . .2 May 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

ADAMSON, Eev. Edward Hussey, Heworth, Durham. 
Allan, Robert Henry, F.S.A., Blackwell Hall, Durham. 
Atkinson, George Clayton, West Denton, Northumberland. 
Atkinson, Rev. William, Gateshead Fell, Durham. 
Austin, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Baker, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bell, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Blackett, Sir Edward, Bart., Matfen Hall, Northumberland. 

Blackwell, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bruce, Rev. John Collingwood, LL.D., F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bulman, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Burdon, George, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland. 

Cail, Richard, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Carr, Ralph, Dunston Hill, Durham. 

Charlton, Edward, M.D., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Charlton, William Henry, Hesleyside, Northumberland. 

Clarke, Rev. Dixon, Belford, Northumberland. 

Clavering, Edward, Callaley Castle, Northumberland. 

Clayton, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Collingwood, Edward, Dissington, Northumberland. 

Coulson, Lieutenant-Colonel, Blenkinsop Castle, Northumberland. 

Cresswell, A. J. B., Cresswell, Northumberland. 

Crighton, William, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Co wen, Joseph, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Dees, Robert Richardson, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Dickson, William, F.S.A., Alnwick. 
Dixon, Dixon, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Dobson, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Dunn, Martin, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Ellison, Nathaniel, Morton House, Durham. 
Everett, Rev. James, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Eyre, Yery Rev. Charles, Haggerston Castle, Northumberland. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. XV. 

Falconar, John Brunton, sen., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Falconar, John Brunton, jun., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Featherstonhaugh, Rev. "Walker, Hermitage, Durham. 
Fenwick, John, F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Fenwick, John Clerevaulx, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Forster, "William John, Tynemouth. 

Gibson, "William Sydney, F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Gilpin, Benjamin, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Gray, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Green, Benjamin, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Greenwell, Rev. W., Ovingham, Northumberland. 

Hardcastle, George, Sunderland. 

Hawks, George, Gateshead. 

Hewison, Ions, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Hinde, John Hodgson, Acton House, Northumberland. 

Howard, P. H., F.S.A., Corby Castle, Cumberland. 

Heath, William 

Ingham, Robert, M.P., Westoe, Durham. 
Ingledew, Henry, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

KeU, William, F.S.A., Gateshead. 

Lamb, Joseph, Axwell Park, Durham. 

Langhorn, J. B., Richmond. 

Latimer, W. J., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Laws, Cuthbert Umfreville, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Leadbitter, Robert, Ryton, Durham. 

Longstaffe, WiUiam Hylton Dyer, F.S.A., Gateshead. 

Mather, Edward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mewburn, Francis, Darlington. 

Monck, Sir Charles, Bart., Belsay Castle, Northumberland. 

Mounsey, G. G., Carlisle. 

Noel, J. A. North Shields. 

Northumberland, His Grace the Duke of, F.R.S.,F.S.A., Alnwick 
Castle. 

Ormston, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



i. OEDINAHY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Ossulston, The Right Honorable Lord, Chillingham Castle. 
Pigg, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Raine, Rev. James, sen., Crook Hall, Durham. 

Raine, Rev. James, jun., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Ravensworth, The Right Honorable Lord, Ravens-worth Castle. 

Raymond, The Yenerable Archdeacon, Auckland Castle, Durham. 

Ridley, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Ridley, Sir Matthew "White, Bart., Blagdon, Northumberland. 

Reed, Stephen, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Salmon, Robert Stephen, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Sopwith, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Spoor, Edward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
St. Paul, Sir Horace, Bart., Ewart Park, Northumberland. 
Storey, John, jun., York. 

Swinburne, Sir John Edward, F.R.S., F.S.A., Capheaton, North- 
umberland. 

Taylor, Hugh, Earsdon, Northumberland. 
Taylor, Thomas John, Earsdon, Northumberland. 
Thorpe, The Yenerable Archdeacon, Ryton, Durham. 
Thorpe, Rev. Charles, Blanchland. 
Turner, Henry, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Turner, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Yentress, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Waldie, John, Henderside Park, Kelso. 
"Warden, Gr. C., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Wheatley, Matthew, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
White, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
"Williamson, R. H., Lamesley. 
Woodman, William, Morpeth. 



At the ANNIYEBSAHY MEETING of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, held in the Castle of Newcastle, 4 Feb. 
1856. 

Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe brought forward his motion for changing 
the size of the Publications of the Society from 4to to 8vo. Seconded 
by Mr. Ingledew and unanimously carried. 

COTJNCIL MEETING, 6 Feb., 1856. 

Resolved, That Mr. Longstaffe, the Rev. James Raine, jun., and the 
Secretaries, form a Committee to take charge of printing the 
Transactions, and that Mr. Longstaffe be Chairman of the Com- 
mittee. That the Committee prepare a code of regulations for 
their guidance, and that this be submitted to the Council at the 
next meeting. 

COUNCIL MEETING, 5 March, 1856. 

The Printing Committee presented a draught of the Rules proposed 
by them for guiding their labours, as the editors of future publications. 
This was confirmed and ordered to be printed. 



STATUTES FOR REGULATING AND DEFINING THE POWERS 
OF THE PRINTING COMMITTEE. 

1. The Publications of the Society shall be printed in demy 8vo, and 
be illustrated in such a manner as the Committee may order. 

2. They shall consist of the Archaeologia JEliana, New Series, (in- 
cluding Catalogues and Reports) and of the Proceedings of the Society, 
and shall be furnished with Indexes. 

3. These two publications shall be paged for binding separately, but 
shall be issued to members, gratuitously, in one cover, ^on May 1, Aug. 
2, Nov. 11, and Feb. 2, in each year. 

4. The number of impressions of the Archseologia .^Eliana shall be 
250; of the Proceedings 150, the latter being of a temporary and 
local interest, and not issuable to other Societies. 

5. The sale price of each quarterly part to non-members and mem- 
bers in arrear shall be 7s. 6d. with the Proceedings, and 5s. without, 
and to members desiring an extra copy 5s. and 3s. 6d. respectively. 

6. The price of each part of the late quarto series of the Archa?ologia 
JEliana shall be 2s. 6d. to members whose subscriptions are paid up, 
and 5s. to non-members and members in arrear. 

7. The publishers of the Society's publications shall issue the mem- 
ber's copies by post (the Society paying the postage), and keep an 
account of the numbers of the publications received and issued, and to 
whom. They shall be remunerated by the exclusive right of sale of 
other copies, and the allowance of 25 per cent, thereon. 

8. On any ordinary member's subscription falling into arrear for 
more than a year, the publishers shall cease to send him the current 
publications of the Society until the arrears are fully paid up. 



RULES RELATING TO THE PRINTING COMMITTEE. XIX. 

9. The Committee may print in a separate form extra copies of such 
articles in the Archaeologia ^Eliana as may appear to them to be of 
sufficient importance and interest to command a separate sale, and may 
allot a number of copies of such reprinted article, not exceeding 25, to 
the author or communicator thereof. The printers may print extra 
copies of all articles for authors and communicators at their expense. 

12. The Committee may, in the absence or delay of papers and 
documents laid before the Council, select such original matter from 
other sources as shall be necessary to complete the quarterly issue in 
hand. 

11. The Committee shall have power to decline the publication of 
papers and documents laid before them; and an absolute power of selec- 
tion from documentary matter submitted to them. They shall also, by 
obtaining the author's consent to their alterations, have power to amend 
and compress other papers. 

12. In all cases where translations of documents are submitted for 
publication, the Committee shall require to be furnished with the 
original language for inspection ; and they may amend the translation 
and submit their emendations to the communicator. 

13. If any author, annotator, translator, or communicator, refuse to 
accept the alterations of the Committee, they may print the article in 
dispute in its original form, adding such editorial notes, distinguished 
as such, as they shall think fit ; and, in the case of a translation they 
may reject it entirely, and print the document in the original language. 

14. The Committee may decline to order illustrations at the cost of 
the Society, and may, in their discretion, print the paper or document 
to which they allude partially or wholly without them. 

15. The Committee may advertise the Publications and Constitution 
of the Society. 

16. The Committee may, if they think it necessary, appoint an 
Editor from their own body or otherwise, and with or without pecuni- 
ary remuneration, who shall keep minutes of the proceedings of the 
Committee, conduct their correspondence, be responsible for the reading 
of their proofs, report upon papers and documents submitted to them, 
and execute all such powers of the Committee, subject to the right of 
appeal to them, as they shall entrust him with. 



OFFICERS, M.DCCC.LVI. 



Patron. 
HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBLRAND, K.G. 



SIR JT. E. SWINBURNE, BAET. 



THE RIGHT HON. LORD RAVENSWORTH 
SIR C. M. L. MONCK, BART. 
JOHN HODGSON HINDE, ESQ. 
JOHN CLAYTON, ESQ. 



EDWARD CHARLTON, ESQ., M.D. 

THE REV. JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D. 



JOHN FENWICK, ESQ. 

Council. 

THE REV. JAMES RAINE, Juw., M.A. 

WILLIAM KELL, ESQ. 

MATTHEW WHEATLEY, ESQ. 

ROBERT WHITE, ESQ. 

THOMAS BELL, ESQ. 

THE REV. EDWARD HUSSEY ADAMSON. 

W. HYLTON DYER LOXGSTAFFE, ESQ. 

JOHN DOBSON, ESQ. 

MARTIN DUNN, ESQ. 

WILLIAM WOODMAN, ESQ. 

EDWARD SPOOR, ESQ. 

WILLIAM DICKSON, ESQ. 



ARCH^OLOGIA JELIAXA. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE, DORSET, AND 
MONTGOMERY. 

IN bringing before your notice the following Memoir of Anne Countess 
of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, I feel that I owe some apology 
for introducing to you a character with whom all of you are more or 
less acquainted. Whenever the canvass re-creates for us some familiar 
face, we are apt to ascribe to each several delineation of it some pecu- 
liar and distinctive charm ; and so, too, I trust that the present attempt 
to pourtray the life and character of an illustrious lady will, in some 
respects, not be devoid of interest, although it be wanting in novelty. 1 

The life of the daughter may be prefaced with a brief account of her 
father and mother. 

Her father, George, third Earl of Cumberland, the head of the noble 
house of Clifford, was in many respects a remarkable man. As a courtier, 
he was one of the most distinguished ornaments of the court of Eliza- 
beth towards the close of her long reign, and he was by her created a 
Knight of the Garter. He was also a member of the Privy Council of 
James I. As a soldier, the Earl was especially famous, worthily main- 
taining the warlike reputation of his ancestors. On the land, he was 
Governor of Carlisle, and "Warden of the Western Marches. By sea, he 
adventured his life in no less than nine voyages, many of them to the 

1 Many lives of this celebrated lady have already been published. I may refer my 
readers to Atkinson's Worthies of "Westmerland, Coleridge's Northern "Worthies, Noble 
and Grainger' s Biographical History of England, Gilpin on the Picturesque, Ballard's 
Memoirs of Illustrious Ladies, and Nicholson and Burn's History of "SVestmerland. 
The best account of her is to be found in Dr. Whitaker's History of Craven, which 
contains many most interesting notices of the family of Clifford. The present Memoir 
is little more than a compilation from all these authorities, and was written to introduce 
and illustrate the will of the Countess, which is now, I believe, brought before the 
public for the first time. 

NEW SERIES. B 



2 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

"West Indies, and his numerous exploits, especially against the Spaniards, 
added greatly to the honours of his country and himself. A suit of his 
tilting armour, which is still preserved at Appleby Castle, proves him 
to have been a strongly built and stalwart man. As a public character, 
the Earl was certainly one of the most popular and distinguished men 
of his day, but, as a husband and a father, he is open to the gravest cen- 
sure. His many voyages were ruinous to his fortune, which was also 
impoverished by the suits of law in which he was engaged. His reck- 
less life was the cause of much domestic affliction, and occasioned his 
separation from his wife ; and his profligacy and prodigality almost de- 
stroyed a splendid estate, which he had received without an encum- 
brance. At the early age of forty-seven, his constitution, weakened by 
wounds and hardships, began to give way; a bloody-flux assailed him, 
and he died in London on the 29th of October, 1605. Part of his 
remains were interred at Skip ton, where his daughter raised a sump- 
tuous monument to his memory. In his will dated on the 19th of 
October previously, when he was in his last illness, which continued 
for a month, he says, that he has great and good reason to alter his 
previous disposition of his property, seeing that his debts have become 
much greater, owing to his many occasions of charge and great expense 
of late and within the last few years. He therefore makes over all his 
lands and leases, together with the license which he has from the King 
for the exportation of undressed cloths, to Robert Earl of Salisbury, 
Edward Lord "VYotton, Sir Francis Clifford, and John Taylor his servant, 
in trust, to pay Ids debts and to satisfy the portion of his only daughter 
the Lady Anne Clifford. This portion he makes 15,000?. He leaves to 
his wife the furniture which was used in his house in Clerkenwell 
when he kept house there. Some time before, in 33 Eliz., he had by 
fine barred his father's entail, and settled his lands, and this arrange- 
ment he now confirms, both by the will and a deed of the same year, 
the 3rd of James. By these repeated assurances the lands were settled upon 
his brother, Sir Erancis Clifford ; 2 after whose death, without issue 
male, they were to come to the Lady Anne Clifford, the testator's daugh- 
ter. To each of his brother's two daughters, Margaret 3 and Frances 

2 Sir Francis Clifford, on his brother's death, became fourth Earl of Cumberland. 
He married Grisseld, daughter of Thomas Hughes, of Uxbridge, Esq., and widow of 
Edward Lord Abcrgavenny, and dying in 1640, in the 80th year of his age, was interred 
at Skipton. He was succeeded in the title by Henry, his only surviving son, who was 
the last Earl of Cumberland. 

3 Margaret, eldest daughter of Sir Francis Clifford, became the first wife of the 
celebrated Earl of StrafFord, then Sir Thomas Wentworth, of "Wentworth "VVoodhouse. 
She was married to him on the 22nd of October, 1611, and died, childless, in Septem- 
ber, 1622. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 3 

Clifford, 4 he leaves 4,000?. He then says, " I desire my trustees topre- 
sente this my laste requeste to my most gratious Sovereigne that it will 
please his Ma tie to grante unto my said brother those lands in Cumber- 
land for which I have bene a longe suiter unto his Ma tie , when I had 
noe doubte but to haue prevaled, accordinge to his Ma ties princelie worde 
and promisse, if it had pleased God to have spared me life." To the 
Earl of Salisbury 5 he leaves his pointed diamond ring which he used to 
wear, with a bason and ewer of silver. To the Lord Wotton 6 his bald 7 
jennet now at Gunston. To his loving brother, the Lord Wharton, 8 his 
gelding called Grey Smithfield, which he used for his own saddle. To 
his most approved and excellent friend, Sir William Inglcby, 9 his gelding 

4 Frances, youngest daughter of Sir Francis Clifford, became the second wife of Sir 
Gervase Clifton, of Clifton, co. Notts, by whom she had several children. She died 
on the 22nd of November, 1627, aged 33, and was buried in the church of Clifton. 
Her husband took to himself five more wives after her decease, and died full of years 
and honours in 1669. 

5 Robert Cecil, youngest son of the celebrated Lord Burghley, and a distinguished 
statesman. He was created Earl of Salisbury by James I., on the 4th of May, 1605, 
a short time before the present will was made. His daughter Frances married Henry 
Clifford, the testator's nephew, the last Earl of Cumberland. 

6 Edward, first Lord "Wotton. He was raised to the peerage by the letters patent of 
James I., 13 May, 1603. He married Esther, one of the coheirs of Sir "William 
Pickering, of Oswaldkirk, co. Ebor., by whom ho left issue. 

7 Hal, in the Celtic, is white- faced. In the Gaelic bed signifies a spot or mark; 
and ballach spotted: In Welsh, ceyffyl bal is a horse with much whiteness in his 
forehead. Hence the word piebald, i. e. black and white. Balins, Letting is a horse 
with a white mark in his forehead or feet. Procopius, describing the horse of 
Belisarius, tells us that his general colour was brown, with the exception of the lower 
part of his muzzle, which was white: " OVTOV EXX^gg ftw <3>>./oi/, jSag.Sagrf* 5e 
/3Xv xfajKHfiS'tf. Boucher's Provincial Glotsary. 

8 Philip, third Lord "Wharton, the husband of Frances, daughter of Henry Earl of 
Cumberland, the testator's sister. She was unmarried in 1569, when her father made 
his will, by which he settles upon her the sum of 2,000. in case she marries an earl 
or an earl's son and heir, 2,000 marks if she marries a baron or a baron's son and heir, 
and 800 marks only if she is wedded to a knight or his eldest son. 

9 Sir William Ingleby, of Ripley, Knight, the head of an ancient Yorkshire family, 
and a man of great worth and ability. His father was an executor to the will of the 
testator's father. Sir William was twice married, but left no issue. His estates 
came into the possession of his nephew, William, son of Sampson Inglcby, who was 
afterwards houoxired with a baronetcy. On the 29th of December, 1617, Sir William 
made his will, " being aged and weake of bodie, and by reason of some infirmities where- 
with I am troubled, more likely to die than others of yonger yeares." He directs his 
body to be buried "in the chanccll in my parish churche of Ripley, where my father 
was buiyed." I give a few extracts from his will, which is a long and interesting 
document. "To my nephew, William Inglcby, my best silver basen and ewer, parcel! 
gilt, 2 of my best silver flagons and one great gilt salte, and all my armour. To my 
neece, his wife, my watch which shee now hath in kepinge, in token of my love. 
To my welbeloved necce, the Lady Midleton, 10 unitts of gould to make her a peece 
of plate or a Jewell, in token of my love. To my welbeloved nephew, Sir Peter 
Midleton, my baie Barbaric horse which he now hath of myne, and my striking 
clocke, w T hich was Sir Robert Stapleton's, which I give in token of my love. To my 
ancient worthie friend, Sir Richard Hutton, Knight, and one of his Majesty's Justices 



4 AXXE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

called Gray Lambert. To Richard Hutton, 10 serjeant at the law, 
100 angels. Finally, he desired that his body should be buried with 
as little charge as possible, as he would have nothing done which could 
give any hindrance to the payment of his debts ; and he gives most 
hearty thanks to God for giving him time for repentance and to settle 
his estates. 11 

I now pass on to his exemplary consort, Margaret, youngest daughter 
of Erancis Russell, second Earl of Bedford. This illustrious lady was 
born in 1560, and was married in the seventeenth year of her age to 
the Earl of Cumberland. This union was by no means a fortunate one 
for her. The death of her two sons, who did not survive their infancy, 
caused her the deepest affliction, and the profligacy of their sire re- 
moved her from a home which promised once to be so bright and happy. 
She was present, however, with her only child at the death-bed of her 
lord, and was there happily assured of his repentance and affection. 
The Countess was now placed in a position of extraordinary difficulty. 
Her only child required her utmost attention, and she was obliged to 
defend the scanty remnant of her inheritance against the ill- concealed 
enmity of the Sovereign and the rapacity of her kinsman. Her spirit 
rose with the crisis, and the brightness of her character came out in 
stronger relief when opposed to the dark cloud by which she was sur- 
rounded. Her life was now devoted to the interests of her daughter, 
and the vindication of her rights against her uncle, Erancis Earl of 
Cumberland. Immediately after her husband's death the Countess began 
to sue, in her daughter's name, for a livery of all the Clifford estates, 
and she was at great pains and cost in endeavouring to establish her 

of the Common Place, 5 unitts of gould to make him a peece of plate, in token of my 
love. To my lovingc neecc, Ladie Plompton, my watch, which my wife did wear, in 
token of my love." 

10 The legal adviser of the Cliffords. He was the second son of Anthony Hutton, 
of Penrith, Esq. On the 3rd March, 1617, he was made one of the Justices of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and "he became a veiy venerable judge, and a man famous 
in his generation." He died, aged 79, on the 26th of February, 1638, and was buried 
in the church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-"West, London, with the following inscription to 
commemorate him : Hie requiescunt ossa Richardi Hutton, militis, unius justiciario- 
rum Dom. Regis de. Com. Banco, qui obiit 26 Feb. 1638, annoque aetatis suae 79, 
summere felix iter a seculo ad coelum." He purchased the estates of Hooton Paynel 
and Goldsbrough, in Yorkshire, which descended to his son, Sir Richard Hutton, who 
was a Colonel of Foot on the King's part, and was killed at Sherburn 15 Oct. 1645. 
The wills of Sir Richard Hutton the younger, and of Dame Agnes, his mother, a 
daughter of Thomas Briggs, of Caumire, in Westmorland, were proved together at 
York in April, 1648. 

11 This will was proved at York on the 8th of January, 1606, and administration 
was granted to the testator's brother, Francis Earl of Cumberland, Robert Earl of 
Salisbury renouncing, and the power of granting administration to the rest of the 
executors being reserved. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 5 

daughter's title. In this claim she was unsuccessful, but her daughter 
seems never to have given up possession of Skipton and some other 
unsettled estates. The Countess was not dispirited by her many re- 
verses. During the remainder of her life she continued to prosecute 
the claims of her daughter whom she loved so well, and no misfortune 
could check the flow of her piety and benevolence. Many, besides her 
daughter, had reason to bless the memory of the Countess Dowager of 
Cumberland. This illustrious lady died at the Castle of Brougham, in 
the same room in which her lord was born, on the 24th of May, 1616. 
She was interred, not among her noble predecessors at Skipton, but in a 
humbler resting place, the church of Appleby. I add a few extracts 
from her will, which must necessarily be short, as I have a still more 
interesting character before me. 

April 27, 1616. I, Margaret Countesse Dowager of Cumberland, 
beinge sicke of body consideringe myselfe that there is noe thiuge 
more certaine then death, though noethinge more uncertaine then the 
tyme thereof, and esteemeinge it a necessarie duty of a Christian to 
order the things of this lyfe in tyme convenient, thereby to prevente the 
impediments to heavenly meditacions at the passage from hence to meete 
the heavenly bridegroome, our blessed Saviour, w ch often falleth out by 
neglecte of a provident disposition of the things of this lyfe when tyme 
served ; therefore I doe hereby in the feare of God and due regard of 
my postiritye and freinds revocate and disanull all former wills, testa- 
ments and bequests whatsoever made by me, and I doe make and or- 
daine this my laste will and testament in manner and forme followinge. 
First, I commend my soule into the hands of God Allmightye who gave 
it me, and my body to the earth till the appoynted tyme of the generall 
resurreccion, when my soule beinge joyned with the same, my body shall 
through the onely meritts of Jesus Christe, my Saviour, behould him my 
Redemer with comforte unspeakeable, face to face, with these my 
boclyely eies in his full majestye and glorye. And now to beginne 
with the paymente of my debts, w ch allthough they be growen without 
any falte in me, partely through the want of those meanes which my 
late lord should have paid me, and that by special! order and command- 
ment both from the Kinge and Queene, and partely in respecte of my 
necessarye charges in lawe, sustained for the preservacion of my 
daughter's inheritance and my own joynture, yet my will and meaneinge 
is that the same my debts shall be first paid out of my estate and 
meanes which I shall leave at my death, to the full contentment of my 
creditors. I desire that the almeshouse which I have taken order 12 for 

12 To make arrangements for, or found, or settle. A witness from Berwick in the 
Ecclesiastical Court at Durham, in 1575, says, "When he hard y* Matthew Morton 
was syke, he went to take order with hym for fyve nobles yt this deponent aught hym." 
Shakespere also uses the phrase, which was a very common one, in the Comedy of 
EiTors, Act V., Sc. 1. 

" Whilst to take order for the wrongs I went." 



6 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

may be perfected, and for the maintenance 13 thereof I give all my lands, 
&c. in Harwood and Stockton, co. Yorke, by me of late purch d of 
Albony Butler, Gent., and Eliz. his wife; all my goods, chattells, and. 
Jewells, I give to my honourable and trustye freinds, my nephewes, the 
Earle of Bedford and my Lord Eussell, to the onely use and behoofe of 
my noble and deare dau., the Countesse of Dorset, and my sweete grand- 
child, the Lady Margaret ; and all my freehould and inheritance to my 
said dau. and her heires rem. to my Lord Fitzwarren and his heires 
rem. to my worthye nephewe, the lord Francis Eussell, and his heires 
rem. to my heires. 

Fines on my joynture lands. If I shall happen shortly to dcparte this 
lyfe my tenants will be driven to fine againe, and that happilye before 
they have recovered there charge sustained that way ; if I dye within 
a yeare, they to have a 3rd of their fines spaired them, and if within 
two years, having received their whole fines, a 3rd to be given back. 
I desire my faithfull friend, Sir. Chr. Pickeringe, Kt., as he hath in" 
high degree deserved well of the commonweale, to take authoritye over 
my househould servants, and for the safe keepinge of my goods and 
chattells. My friends, Sir Phillip Tirwhitc, Kt., Mr. Doctor Layfeild, 
my cosen Oldsworth, and my cos. Hen. Vincent, and my trustye serv* 
Eaiphe Coniston, exrs. I desire that if I dcparte this lyfe in Westmor- 
land my body may be buried in that parishe churche where m) r deare 
bro r Francis Lord Eussell lyeth interred. My nephewes, the Earle of 
Bedford and the Lord Eussell, overseers. And thus I take my levc of 
all the worlde with assurance to meet with God's electe in the greate 
cittye, in the presence of the Lambe, by whose victorye wee are de- 
livered, and by whose meritts wee are redemed and addopted co-heires 
with him of lyfe everlastinge. MAEGAKET CUMBERLAND. 

SCHEDALL. To my Lord of Shrewsburyc" a gilte bowle of twentye 
markes. To the Countesse of Shrewsburye a ringe with seaven diamonds. 
To my nephewe, the Earle of Bedford, 15 a cabinet with drawers. To my 
neece, the Countesse of Bedford, a satton canopye imbrodered, with the 
stoole belonginge to it. To my nephewe, my Lord Fitzwarren, 16 my 

13 The almhousc of which the Countess is speaking was at Beamsley in Craven. It 
was for a mother and twelve sisters. The wishes of the munificent foundress were 
fully attended to by her daughter, who added to the establishment, and watched over 
it with a motherly care. 

14 Gilbert Talbot, seventh and last Earl of Shrewsbury, and the hapless inheritor of 
the honours of his ancient house. He died in London on the 8th of May, 1616, hardly 
ten days after the date of the present will, and was interred among his noble ancestors 
in the church of Sheffield. His countess, Mary, daughter of Sir William Cavendish, 
of Chatsworth, was laid by her lord's side on the 14th of April, 1632. Their daughters 
became the representatives of the house of Talbot, on,c of whom allied herself in 
marriage with "William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. 

15 Edward Eussell, third Earl of Bedford, married Jane Sibilla, daughter of Sir 
Richard Morrison. He died childless in 1627, and the title descended to his nephew, 
Francis, son of his younger brother, Sir William Russell. 

16 The eldest son and heir of William Bouchicr, Earl of Bath, by Elizabeth, daughter 
of Francis Earl of Bedford, and the sister of the testatrix. He was twice married, but 
left no issue male behind him. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 7 

best horse or 201 To my Lady Herbert, 17 my neece, Duplesses Booke of 
the Sacrament of the Masse, and to her sonne, Mr. John, a gilt porringer 
with a cover. To the Lady Hauward of Effingham 18 a ringe with five 
diamondes. To my Lady Hastings one dozen of pearle buttons with 
true love knotts. To my Lady Barrowghes one dozen of the [same ?] 
To my Lady Bowes one dozen of garnetts. To my nephewe, my Lord 
Francis Russell, a gould ringe with five diamounds, and to his lady, 
Arnatis with three pearles, and to them both two pieces of cloth of gould 
embrodered with greate pearle and seed pearle. To my Lady Chan- 
doues a case of glasses with silver toppes. To my Lady Dudley my 
coultt and two horses, and to her dau. Mrs. Margt. Wl. To Mr. 
Henry Vincent three of the lesser silver dishes. To Doctor Layfeild 
two greater dishes of silver. To Mr. Oldesworth my bason and ewer. 
To Sir Phillipp Tirwhitt 19 halfe a dozen of silver plates, and to his lady 
my gould mantle, and to Mrs. Matte, her dau., a ringe with fowre little 
diamonds. To Mrs. Oldsworth a silver boule of Ql To my cozen, 
Eliz. Apsley, a petticote of clothe of silver embrodered with hopps. 
To Mr. Shute, preacher, a bible. To my cozen Hall a boule of 61, 
and to his wife a velvet gowne. To Sir Edward Yorke 20 WL, and to his 
lady a curtell of cloth of gould. To Mr. Cole and Mrs. Cole, the younger, 
two cabinettes of glasses. To Doctor Hawkins a boule of 41. To my 
worthie trustye friend, Sir. Chr. Pickeringe, 21 kt, of whose integritye 

17 Anne, daughter and heir of John Lord Russell, married Henry Lord Herbert, son 
and heir-apparent of Edward Earl of "Worcester, Lord Privy Seal. (Collins.} 

18 Margaret, daughter of James Stewart, Earl of Murray in Scotland, and second 
wife to Charles Howard Earl of Effingham. After the death of the Earl of Effingham, 
by whom she had two sons, she re-married Sir William Monson, afterwards Viscount 
Castlemain in Ireland. 

19 Sir Philip Tyrwhit, of Stainfield, co. Lincoln, a member of an ancient Lincoln- 
shire family. On the 29th of June, 1611, he was created a Baronet. His wife was 
Martha, daughter of Sir' Anthony Thorald. 

20 Sir Edward York, of Ripon, Bart., a younger son of Sir John York, Lord Mayor 
of London. By his will dated 28 June, 1621 (pr. at York 19 Sep. 1622), he desired 
to he huried in the church of Ripon. "To my verie kinde friend Sir Thomas Fare- 
fax, of Denton, Kt., the picture of myself, and two hampers. One carpit cloth with a 
gold fringe to the church of Ripon." The residue of his estate is bequeathed to his 
nephew and executor, Sir John York, Kt. 

21 Sir Christopher Pickering, of Threlkeld and Ormcside, co. Westmorland, Knight, 
a scion of the house of Pickering of Crosby Ravenswath. He was High Sheriff of 
Cumberland in 1591, 1606, 1608, and 1612. By a milkmaid of the name of Tod- 
hunter on his estate at Threlkeld, he left a natural daughter, Frances, who became the 
heiress of her father. She took to her first husband a lawyer, John Dudley, of Duf- 
ton, a member of the family of Dudley of Yanwath, after whose decease she remar- 
ried Cyprian Hilton, of Burton, Esq., by whom she left several children. Sir 
Christopher made his will at Ormeside on the 10th of December, 1620, which was 
proved at York on the 15th of February following. By it he left all his lands in West- 
morland to his son-in-law Dudley and his daughter Frances, making his said son-in- 
law and his nephew, Wm. Crakenthorpe, of Hutton, in the Forest of Inglewood, gen., 
his executors and residuary legatees. To his sister, Mrs. Mary Dalston, he gives 100/. 
To his nephew, Mr. John Dalston, son and heir apparent to his brother-in-law, 
Thomas Dalston, of Thwaitcy 'Esq., he leaves IQQL "for that I have received more 
love and kindness from him than any of his other brothers." To his niece, the Lady 
Fletcher, and her son Henry, son of his nephew, Sir Richard Fletcher, Kt., his house- 



8 AXNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

and fidelitye I have had speciall triall, my best gilded cupp. I desiie 
my honorable dau. to respecte, favor, and countenance Mr. Bradly, 22 
parson of Brogham, that he sustaine noe wronge, as she should doe for 
myselfe, seinge he hath many enimies for my sake, and will find op- 
posites for speakeinge the truth. 

Legacies to my Servants. To Mrs. Wetherington a silke grogram 
gowne and Wl. To Mrs. Washburne \Ql. Mrs. Fletcher 20/. Mrs. 
Crakenthorpe two Jacobus peeces in gould. Mrs. Bellosses one of my 
best mares and her fole. Mr. Dawson two peices of hanginge of 
Deborah. To the poore of the parishe in Northumberland where it 
shall please God my body shall be interred 61. 13s. 4d. Poore of 
Brogham and Applebye 61. 13s. 4d. To threescore pooere men and 
women threescore gownes. 

CODICIL NUNC. As she had declared that her body should be buried, 
if she dyed in Westmorland, in the parishe church where her deare 
brother, Francis Lord Russell, 24 was buried, which was att Anwick, in 
Northumberland, she now left it to be interred where the Right 
Hon ble Anne Countesse of Dorsett, her deare and noble sole dau. and 
heire, should thinke fitt. 

[Pr. I July, 1616; pr. at Cant., and adm. to John Lay field, S.T.P. 
27 Jan, 1616-17; pr. here, and adm. to Ralph Conniston.~] 

hold stuff at Threlkeld. " To my cosen, Chr. Laithes, my young dunned mare, which 
was of the getting of Old Spinke." The testator died on the 14th of January, and 
was interred on the following day in the church of Ormeside. His tombstone occupies 
no inconsiderable portion of the church, and upon it is a brass plate, with the following 
inscription : 

Loe here interr'd lyes underneath this stone 

True wisdom, virtue, justice, all in one, 

Sir Christopher Pickeringe, knt., who after he had 

Been 5 times Shereriffe oV Cumherlande 

Dyed ye 14th of Jan. AO Dni., 1620. ^Etatis suae 76. 

22 Cuthbert Bradley was presented to the rectory of Brougham by George Earl of 
Cumberland in 1583, and died in 1624. It would be interesting to know by what 
services he had secured the good opinion of the testatrix. The word opposite instead 
of opponent is not now in use, but it occurs several times in Shakespere. 

" You imagine me too unhurtf'ul au opposite." 

Mausvrt-for Measure, Act III. Sc. 2. 

" Your opposite hath in him what youth, strength, skill, and wrath can furnish man withal." 

Twelfth Night, Act II, Sc. 5. 

23 It will be observed that the servants of the testatrix and her daughter were gen- 
tlewomen of good north country families. It was deemed an honour to be numbered 
among the household of so distinguished a house as that of Clifford. 

24 Francis Lord Russell, third son of Francis Earl of Bedford. He married Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir John Forster, Lord "Warden of the Middle Marches, by whom he left 
an only son. He was no inconsiderable personage in our Border History. In 1575 
he was chamberlain of Berwick, and in 1577, he was sheriff of Northumberland, 
which county he represented in Parliament from 1572 to 1585. On the 27th of July, 
1585, he was treacherously slain at a Border meeting held at Hexpethgatehead, and 
was interred in Alnwick Church. A full account of his death may be found in the 
Archaeqlogia JEliana, Vol. II., Part iii. The feud which existed between the testa- 
trix and the Cliffords probably deterred her from asking to have her body laid in the 
family vault at Skipton. She woidd no doubt wish to rest by her lord's side, but she 
scorned to ask such a favour from her oppressor. The distance of Alnwick from 
Brougham Castle was, in all probability, the reason why the Countess changed her 
intention with reference to the place of her burial. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 9 

Of these illustrious parents the Lady Anne Clifford was the sole sur- 
viving issue the last and noblest daughter of a princely house, and the 
greatest lady of her age. She was born in Skipton Castle on the 30th 
of January, 1589-90, and was baptized in the parish church there on 
the 22nd of February following. Her infancy and her youth were 
watched over by her loving mother, who seemed to live for her sake 
alone. The celebrated Samuel Daniel was her tutor, and under his able 
guidance she made rapid progress in her studies. Her private accounts, 
which are still in existence, contain some interesting particulars of the 
expenditure of her earlier years even to the copy-book in which she 
was to write her catechism. The Lady Anne was brought up from her 
infancy as the inheritress of a noble name ; she was the pet of the aged 
Elizabeth, and the darling of her friends and kinsfolk. With her father 
she was always a favourite ; she was present with her mother at his 
deathbed, and had there the satisfaction of witnessing their complete 
reconciliation, and received the blessing of her dying sire. After his 
decease she was at once forced into a prominent position unsuited for 
her tender years. Her mother, conceiving that the possession of all her 
husband's lands belonged to her daughter by inheritance, strove to 
wrest them from her brother-in-law, on whom they had been settled. 
This claim was not finally adjusted when the Lady Anne lost her mother, 
to whom she was so much indebted. This event, however, did not 
quell her indomitable courage, and she continued to withstand her uncle 
till all opposition was of no avail. Verdict after verdict had been given 
against her ; the King was notoriously opposed to her cause ; and when 
he gave his final award in favour of her uncle, she treated his proposal 
and offers of mediation with the utmost scorn. Before this painful and 
unfortunate litigation was terminated, the Lady Anne had taken to her- 
self a husband in the person of Eichard Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, to 
whom she was married on 25 Feb. 1609-10. Lord Buckhurst succeeded 
to the Earldom of Dorset very soon after his marriage, in consequence 
of the death of his father. He was a brave and a high-spirited noble- 
man, but his prodigality and licentiousness made the home of his 
Countess by no means a happy one. He was the father of five children 
by her, three sons, all of whom died in their infancy, and two daughters, 
the elder of whom, Margaret, became the wife of John Tufton, Earl of 
Thanet, whilst the second, Isabella, took for her lord James Compton, 
Earl of Northampton. The Earl of Dorset died on his 35th birthday, 
the 28th of March, 1624. After his decease, the Lady Anne resolved to 
die his widow ; and it was perhaps the only time in her life that she al- 
tered her determination, when she took for her second consort Philip 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, to whom she allied herself 



10 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

in 1630. Her selection, however, reflects but little credit on her dis- 
crimination. 25 A scion of so great a house, with a Sidney for his mother, 
could not fail to be brave and magnificent. Herbert, however, was a 
spendthrift, and a libertine besides, and his wife, on more than one oc- 
casion, did not experience at his hands that kindness and courtesy of 
demeanour which she had every reason and right to expect from him. 
He died in 1650, and was buried at Salisbury. The Lady Anne was 
once more a widow, and her own mistress. She had now fortunately a 
wide field for her generosity and magnificence. Seven years before the 
decease of her last husband death had won for her a vast inheritance, the 
object of her early hopes and energies, the ancient lands of the house of 
Clifford. The last Earl of Cumberland having died without issue male, 
all the extensive possessions of his family reverted to the Countess of Pem- 
broke. To these northern estates the Countess retired, and there she 
passed the remainder of her life. She now went about doing good, in a 
time too when perfidy and suspicion had taken the place of generosity 
and benevolence. She found her northern houses ruinous and dis- 
mantled, but she restored them all in spite of Parliament and Protector. 
The Castles of Skipton, Appleby, Brougham, Brough, and Pendragon, 
and the tower of Bardon, were all renovated by her ; and the churches 
and chapels of Appleby, Bondgate, Brougham, Nine-kirks, and Maller- 
stang, were rebuilt or restored by her benevolence. I cannot now speak 
of the almshouses she founded, and her many other charitable works, 
which have made her name illustrious. The last 25 years of her life 
were spent in the castles of her ancestors, happy in the presence of her 
children's children, and scattering her benevolence with no sparing 
hand, simple in her grandeur and lowly in her exaltation. I now pro- 
ceed, before I close this memoir, to give some extracts from her will, 
which is perhaps the most interesting document of the kind that I have 
ever seen. It is such a will as a queen would make, admirably tempered 
at the same time with true Christian feeling. You must remember, 
before I begin, that it is the composition of a lady who was in her 86th 
year. 

Nay I, 1674. I, Ann Lady Clifford, Countesse Dowager of Pembroke, 
Dorsett, and Montgomery, sole daughter and heire to the late right noble 
George Clifford, Earle of Cumberland, and by my birth from him Lady 
of the Honor of Skipton in Craven, Barronesse Clifford, Westmorland, 

25 "In her first widowhood (as I have heard her say) she resolved, if God ordained 
a second husband for her, never to have one that had children, and was a courtier, a 
curser, and swearer. And it was her fortune to light on one with all these qualifica- 
tions in the extreme." (SedgwicKs Autobiography.} 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 11 

and Vessey, and High Sheriffesse 26 by inheritance of the county of West- 
morland, being att this present in indifferent health of body, and very good 

memorie, thanks be given to God for the same 1 give and bequeath 

my soule to the Holy and Blessed Trinity, Almighty God the Creator of 
the world, Jesus Christ the Eedeemer of the world, and the Holy Ghost 
the Sanctifier of the world, being confident, through the mercies, passion, 
bloud and meritts of the same my deare Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus 
Christ, to have free pardon and remission of all my sins, and to be re- 
ceived in the number of the faithfull into the New Jerusalem, the habita- 
tion of the blessed, and into that kingdome which shall have noe end, 
and my firme hope and resolution is, by God's grace, to dye a true childe 
of the Church of England and a professor of the true orthodox faith and 
religion established and mainetained in that church in which myselfe 
was borne, bred, and educated by my blessed mother. And, as for my 
body, I desire that itt may be buried decently, and with as little 
charge as may be, being sensible of the folly and vanity of superflousse 
pomps and solemnities. And I desire that my body may be unopened, 
wrapt onely in a sear cloth 27 and lead, with an inscription on the breast 
whose bodie it is ; and soe to be interred in the vault in Appleby church, 
in Westmerland, which I caused to be made there with a tombe over itt 
for my selfe. In which church my deare and blessed mother, Margarett 
Kussell, Countesse of Cumberland, lyes alsoe interred, by whose prudence, 
goodnesse, and industrie, the right of inheritance to the lands both in 
Westmerland and in Craven, was discovered to the Courts of Judicature in 
this nation to appertaine unto me, as right and next lawfull heire to my 
noble father, George Earle of Cumberland, and his noble progenitors, the 
Veteriponts, Cliffords, and Vessycs, which otherwise had bene possessed 
by others who had noe right thereunto : and, therefore, as I doe myselfe, 
soe I desire my succeeding posteritye to have her in memory, love, and 
reverence, who was one of the most vertuousse and religiousse ladies that 
lived in her time. 

26 This office continued in the possession of her descendants. The Countess availed 
herself of the privileges of her post, and used to take her seat on the bench with 
the judges at the "Westmerland Assizes. 

27 A cere-cloth or cerement (cera) was a cloth smeared over with wax and other 
glutinous matter, in which the bodies of the dead were wrapped. It was always used 
when the corpse was embalmed. In 1618 James Aiscough, a Richmondshire man, 
who had thriven in the world and become a wealthy merchant in London, orders his 
body to be brought down from his house in the parish of St. Lawrence, Jewry, to be 
interred in the parish church of his manor of Nutthall, co. Notts, "in the closett be- 
longing to my mannor of Nutthall, to sitt in there, and that it bee embalmed, seared, 
and encoffind, or any other waie so as it maie bee carried safelie and in good sorte to 
Nutthall aforesaid, without feare or damage of bursting open or other disgrace in the 
waie, and in a coatche or otherwise as it shall bee more fit." It was by no means 
unusual to shroud in lead the remains of persons of consequence, and in selecting 
this mode of interment the Countess followed the example of her sire. When Dr. 
Whitaker inspected the family vault at Skipton he found in it the remains of the 
Earl, "whose lead coffin precisely resembled the outer case of an Egyptian mummy, 
with a rude face and something like female mammae cast upon it ; as were also the 
figures and letters G. C. 1605. The body was closely wrapt in ten folds of coarse cere- 
cloth." In the Memorials of the Charter House, p. 158, an engraving is given of the 
remains of the munificent Sutton, as they may still be seen, shrouded in their leaden 
cerements, with his name upon his breast. Bishop Skirlaw's leaden coffin was pre- 
cisely the shape of the body. 



12 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

To my deare daughter, and now onely surviving childe, the Lady 
Margarett, Countesse Dowager of Thanett, 28 for her life, my castles of 
Appleby, Brougham alias Browham, Brough alias Burgh-under-Stayn- 
more, and Pendragon, 29 in the county of Westmerland with the fower 
antient forrests to the sayd fower castles belonging, viz., the forrest of 
Hieland belonging to the castle of Appleby, the forrest of Ouglebird to 
the castle of Brougham, the forrest of Stainemore to the castle of Brough, 
and the forest of Mallerstang to the castle of Pendragon, &c. together 
with the lordshipps and manners of Appleby, Skittergate and Burrells, 
Bondgate and Langton Knocke alias Shalcocke, Brampton, King's Mea- 
borne, Temple Sowerby, Kirby Thure, Woodside and Moore-houses, 
Brough, East Stanmore, South Staynmore, Sowerby juxta Brough, War- 
ton, Kirby Stephen, and Mallerstange, in the county of Westmorland, 
the parke and chase of Whinfell, mills, mines, homages, the hereditary 
sheriffewicke of Westmerland, and those dues called nout gelt, ser- 
jeant oates, and foster hens, 30 and all fellons' goods, waifes and strayes, in 
the county of Westmerland and barony of Kendall all which were 
granted by King John, King of England, unto 'Robert de Yeteriponte, 31 
my ancestor (to whom I am lineall heire), in the fifth yeare of the said 
King's reigne, and were in the possession of my noble father, George 
Earle of Cumberland." After the decease of the said Countess Dowager 
of Thanet, all these to remain " to my now second grandsonne, Mr. 

23 Margaret, eldest and now only surviving child of the Countess, by her first hus- 
band, was born at Dorset House, July 2nd, 1614, and was married on April 21st, 
1629, to John Tufton, Earl of Thanet, by whom she had six sons and six daughters. 
Her husband died in London on the 7th day of May, 1664, aged 55, and his estimable 
consort survived him 12 years, and died on the 14th of August, 1676, very shortly 
after the decease of her mother. 

29 All of these castles were either rebuilt or repaired by the Countess. Appleby 
is still habitable, Broiigh and Pendragon are in ruins, and Brougham has passed 
into the possession of that illustrious nobleman who derives his title from his 
residence. 

30 These dues belonged of old time to the Cliffords as lords of the fee and seigniory 
of "Westmerland. Nout-gelt answers to the cornage of the Palatinate of Durham, 
and my readers will find this obscure term explained at some length in one of the 
publications of the Surtees Society (Boldon Buke, App. Iv.) ; at this time it was a 
money payment. Serjeant-oats, were a sort of tythe of oats paid in kind by the ten- 
ant to the land-serjeant or bailiff of the lord. Foster-hens, or Pout-hens, as they are 
also called, were rendered by the tenant to the lord according to the old feudal custom, 
which prevailed also in the Bishoprick. All these rights were disputed by the ten- 
ants. In 1634 the Lord Keeper made his decree confirming the legality of the pay- 
ment of nout-gelt and serj cant-oats. The Lady Anne, herself, had a law suit about 
a similar rent of hens, at Skipton, or rather the hen, for one hen alone was the subject 
of the contest between her and a person who by purchase had become her tenant. 
The action was an expensive one, but after it was decided in her favour she is said to 
have invited her refractory subject to share with her, at her own table, the unfortu- 
nate hen which had been the cause of the litigation. 

31 A most powerful baron, and high in the favour of King John. On Feb. 21, 
1203, the King gave him the custody of his castles of Appleby and Brough, and 
ordered them to be given up to Ivo de Beauchamp, his nephew. Shortly afterwards 
John orders the same castles, together with their honors and the whole of the bailif- 
wick of "Westmerland, to be delivered to Robt. de Boell and John de Ormsheud, 
Veteriponte's servants, on behalf of their master. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 13 

John Tufton, 3 - second sonne to my said daughter and to his heirs" 
after him to Mr. Richard Tufton, Mr. [Thomas] Tufton, 33 and Mr. Sack- 
vile Tufton, her 3rd, 4th, and 5th sons, and their heirs successively 
then after them to " Nicholas Lord Tufton, Earl of Thanett, her eldest 
sonne, 34 (whome I name in the last place, not for want of affection or 
good will in me towards him, but because he is now by the death of his 
father possest of a greate inheritance in the southerne parts), and his 
heirs," then to the Lady Margaret Coventry, 35 wife to George Lord 
Coventry, her eldest daughter and her heirs, to Mr. John Coventry, 
her eldest sonne, and then to Mrs. Margaret Coventry, her eldest daughter. 
After them, to remain to Mrs. Ann Hatton, eldest daughter to my grand- 
child, Lady Cicil Hatton, 36 deceased, and second dau. to the said Lady 
Margarett, Countess Dowager of Thanet and after her, to Mrs. Marg* 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Hatton, her 2nd and 3rd daughters in succession 
then to Mr. John Walter, only surviving son of my grandchild, the Lady 
Mary Walter, 37 deceased, 3rd dau. of my said dau., and after her, to Mrs. 
Mary Walter, her only dau. Then to my grandchild, Lady Amy 
[Anne ?] Grimston, 38 wife to Mr. Samuel Grimstone, and 4th dau. to my 
dau. Then to my grandchild, the Lady Alathea Compton, now only 
surviving child of my younger dau., the Lady Isabella, Countess of 

32 Afterwards fourth. Earl of Thanet. He did not long enjoy his honours, and died, 
unmarried, in 1680. By his will, dated 22 Oct., 1679, in which he is styled John 
Tufton, Esq., (alias Comes Thanet} he leaves all his lands, &c., in England, to his 
brothers Eichard, John, and Sackville Tufton, Esqs., "reserveing alwaies to myselfe 
2000^. to such uses as I shall think fitt." This document was proved at York, 1 Eeb., 
1680-1. 

33 Eichard and Thomas Tufton were successively Earls of Thanet ; as, however, 
both of them died without issue male, the peerage came into the family of Sackville 
Tufton. For a full account of the Tuftons, which I do not profess to give here, I 
may refer my readers to Collins' Peerage, and to a work entitled "Memorials of the 
Family of Tufton," which was published at Gravesend in 1800. 

34 Nicholas, third Earl of Thanet, died childless in November, 1679. His lady 
was a daughter of Eichard Earl of Burlington. 

35 "Wife of George, third Lord Coventry of Aylesbro', co. Worcester, by whom she 
had two children, John, afterwards fourth Lord Coventry, and Margaret, who 
married Charles Earl of Wiltshire, afterwards Duke of Bolton, and died without 
issue in 1683. 

36 Wife of Christopher Lord Hatton, Governor of Guernsey. She lost her life 
through a most lamentable accident. Her husband and his family were residing, in 1672, 
at Cornet Castle, in Guernsey, when the magazine of powder was fired in the night 
time by a flash of lightning. The explosion was most terrific. The Lady Cecily and 
several of her women were blown into the sea and killed. Her lord was blown 
through the window of his bed-room upon the ramparts of the castle, but he and his 
children received little or no injury. Aubrey, the antiquary, tells a remarkable story 
how "the Countess of Thanet (Earl John's Lady) saw as she was in bed with her 
lord in London (the candle then burning in her chamber), the apparition of her 
daughter, my Lady Hatton, who was then in Northamptonshire." The catastrophe 
occurred shortly afterwards. 

37 The lady of Sir William Walter, of Saresden, co. Oxford, Bart., by whom she 
had several children. Her son John was the third Baronet, and her daughter Mary 
married Sir Eobert Eich, of Sunning, co. Berks. 

38 Wife to Sir Samuel Grimston, of Colchester and Missinghall. 



14 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

Northampton and then to my right heirs ; and none of them to sell or 
destroy any wood or timber. " Whereas it hath pleased God to take 
out of this world my younger dau., the Lady Isabella, Countesse of 
Northampton, on the 14th of October, 1661, and about a month before, 
her then eldest son, William Lord Compton, and since that, James Lord 
Compton and other of her children, to my greate greife and sorrow, soe 
she hath now left noe surviving issue behinde her but the Lady Alathea 
Compton, her now onely childe I settle upon her my lands of inherit- 
ance in Craven all which were granted by King Edward II. unto 
Robert Lord Cliiford, 39 my ancestor (to whome I am lineall heire), in 
the 5th yeare of his raigne," with a repetition of the previous entail 
" and if her noble father, James Compton, Earle of Northampton, 40 
shall happen to dye during her infancy, I will that she be committed 
to the custodye of my noble cossen, William Russell, 41 Earle of Bed- 
ford, and I doe this the rather, in regard that my deceased blessed 
mother was daughter to Francis Russell, Earle of Bedford, that dyed 
in July, 1585, from whome this present Earle of Bedford is dissended : 
And I doe earnestly desire my true frind and godsonne, George Morley, 43 
now Bishopp of Winchester, to represent to his sacred Majestic, in all 
humilitye, this desier of mine, humbly beseeching him to approve thereof 
for the good of my sayd grandchilde. My daughter to have nothing to 
doe with the lands called Brougham Hall demesne, co. Westmerland, 
which I purchased of Captaine James Browne, nor with those lands 
called St. Nicholas, near Appleby, which I purchased of William 
Fielding, 43 of Startforth, co. York ; all which are settled for the maine- 

39 One of the most powerful nobles of his age, and the greatest of the Cliffords. He 
was slain at Bannockburn in 1314. 

40 A gallant soldier and a most distinguished loyalist. He was married in July, 
1647, to the youngest daughter of the testatrix, by whom he had several children, all 
of whom died in their infancy, with the exception of the Lady Alathea who became 
the wife of Edward Hungerford, Esq. 

41 An excellent account of the family of Russell, to which I can add nothing, may 
be found in Collins' Peerage. 

42 George Morley, S. T. P., a very eminent scholar and divine. He was Chaplain 
in Ordinary to Charles I. and shared the fortunes of his royal master. When all 
assistance was of no avail he crossed the seas and continued abroad till the Restora- 
tion. On his return to England his loyalty was at once rewarded. He became, s\ic- 
cessively, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Worcester, Dean of the Chapel Royal, 
and Bishop of Winchester. After a long life, spent in the severest study as well as 
in the exercise of his religious duties, he died in October, 1684, and was interred in 
Winchester Cathedral. He was in truth one of the noblest of our English prelates in 
that age of giants, and one of the chroniclers of his many virtues says with truth, "0 
that but a single portion of this spirit might always rest on the Established Clergy." 
This good man was chaplain to the second husband of the Countess and when he was 
compelled to seek refuge in foreign countries, he and several other ecclesiastical 
refugees were supported by her munificence. 

43 A lineal descendant of the old Counts of Hapsburgh. By his will, dated in 
1703, he directed his body to be buried in Startforth Church, under the marble stone, 
near his wife. All his lands, including those at Plumpton Head, in Cumberland, to 
Israel his son, who was then an officer in St. James' Palace. The lady of Ignatius 
Bonomi, Esq., late of Durham, is now one of the representatives of this a'ncient house. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 15 

tenance of a mother, reader and 12 sisters, for ever, in the Almeshouse 
att Appleby which I caused to be built there in the years 1651, 1652, 
and 1653 nor with the fineable rents of Brougham Hall manner, which 
I have assigned to be distributed every second of Aprill, yearely, for ever, 
att the pillar neare unto Brougham Castle, to the poore of the parish of 
Brougham, which pillar was some yeares since sett up there by my direc- 
tion, in memory of the last parting betwene my blessed mother and me 44 
nor with a house and lands called Kittigarth att Temple Sowerbye, 
of the yearely rent of 11., to keepe in repaire the church, bridge, schoole, 
and court-house in Appleby. All my household stuffe (though but of 
small value) to remaine as heire-loomes, &c. 

To my right honorable and noble son-in-law, James Compton, Earle 
of Northampton, one gold cupp with a cover to itt, all of massie gold, 
which cost me about 100Z, whereon his armes and the armes of his first 
wife (my daughter), and some of my armes, are engraven, desiring his 
lordshipp that the same may remaine, after his decease, to his daughter, 
my grandchild, the Lady Aletheia Compton, (if it please God she sur- 
vive him) as a memorial of her good mother, deceased. To my right 
honorable and noble grandsonne, Nicholas Earle of Thanett, one other 
gold cupp with a cover to itt, all of massie gold, which cost me alsoe 
about 100/., whereon the armes of his father, my deceased son-in-law, 
and of his mother, my daughter, and some of my owne armes, are en- 
graven, desiring his lordshipp that the same remaine after his decease 
(if he soe please) to his wife, my honorable cossen and goddaughter, if 
she survive him, as a remembrance of me. Memorandum, I doe give to 
my noble sonne-in-law, the Earle of Northampton, six of the best peices 
of my father's armors that he shall chuse, hoping he will leave them to 
his daughter, the Lady Alathea Compton, my grandchild. To the said 
Earle and Countesse of Thanett, my silver bason and ewer, with the 
Scripture history, and some of the kings of England, curioussly en- 
graven upon them, and 12 silver plates of the same workemanshipp, 
which were my last lord's, the Earle of Pembroke's. To my honorable 
grandchildren, Nicholas Earle of Thanett, and Mr. John Tufton, his 
brother, the remainder of the two rich armors which were my'noble father's, 
to remaine to them and their posterity (if they soe please) as a remem- 
brance of him. To mydeare daughter, the Countesse Dowager of Thanett, 
my bracelett of little pomander 45 beads, sett in gold and enamelling, con- 
taining fifty-seaven beads in number, which usually I ware under my 

44 This celebrated pillar is still remaining ; and it is to be hoped that it will long 
remain as an enduring memorial of a daughter's love, which, in fervency and sincerity, 
has, perhaps, never yet been equalled. It is gray with age and has been battered by 
many a storm, yet that beautiful country in which it stands presents no object 
more interesting to the tourist than this solitary monument. 

45 From the French pomme d'ambre, i. e. an amber apple. A sweet-ball, a per- 
fumed ball or powder. Bacon. (Bailey.) This splendid jewel was probably a wed- 
ding present to Queen Mary. John Earl of Bedford, the husband of the lady upon 
whom the Queen bestowed it, had been sent to escort Philip on his wedding voyage 
to England. It may, perhaps, appear singular that such a gift should be given away 
at all, but in those days when there was a constant interchange of presents between 
the sovereign and the members of the court, the most costly gifts were parted with 
without any scruple. 



16 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

stomacher ; which bracelett is above an hundred yeares old, and was given 
by Philip the Second, King of Spaine, to Mary Queene of England, [and 
by her?] to my greate grandmother, Ann Countesse of Bedford : and alsoe 
two little peices of my father and mother, sett in a tablett of gold, and 
enamelled with blew ; and all those seaven or eight old truncks and all 
that is within them, being for the most part old things that were my 
deare and blessed mother's, which truncks commonly stand in my owne 
chamber or the next unto it. To my grandchilde, the Lady Althaea 
Compton, my Terra-Lemma jugg 46 with cover to itt, sett in gold and en- 
amelling, which was bought by me of my last lord the Earle Pem- 
broke's executors, and the picture of her good mother, deceased, in 
limning worke, sett in blew stone. To my eldest granddaughter, the 
Lady Margarett Coventry, a little Helioiropian cupp, sett in silver and 
guilt, which was my noble father's; and to her now eldest sonn, Mr. 
John Coventry, one agatt jugg, trimmed with gold, and a gold cover to 
itt, bought alsoe by me of my last lord the Earle of Pembroke's execu- 
tors. 47 To Mrs. Margaret Coventry, eldest daughter to the said Lady 
Margaret Coventry, twenty silver plates, whereon the armes of my last 
lord, the Earle of Pembroke, and my owne armes are ingraven, and a 
little picture of her owne mother in lynming worke, sett in gold. To 
my greate grandchild and goddaughter, Mrs. Ann Hatton, 100?., and 
my pauncye picture case with a diamond on the one side and a rubie on 
the other side of itt, which was my good aunt of Bathe's, 48 and wherein 
my last lord's picture is sett. To my greate grandchild, Mr. John Wal- 
ter, 100?., and my best ring with a greate orientall amethyst, which was 
my worthy antt of Warwick's; 49 and to his sister, Mrs. Mary Walter, 
my owne picture 50 when I was about twenty yeares of age, sett in a 
table case of gold with blacke enamelling. To my granddaughter, the 
Lady Ann Grimstone, 100?., and the chrystall cann which was bought 
by me of my last lord the Earl of Pembrooke's executors, and was by my 
directions delivered to her by my sayd daughter, the Countesse Dowager 
of Thanett, shortly after the marriage of the sayd Lady Ann Grimstone. 
To my third, fourth, and fifth grandsons, Mr. Richard, Mr. Thomas, and 
Mr. Sackville Tufton, 100?. each, to buy themselves a peece of plate. 
To the right honorable Ann Countesse of Bedford my large silver stand- 
ish that was given me as a legacy by her husband's grandfather, Wil- 
liam Lord Russell, my worthy unckle. To my honorable grandchild, 

46 Made of a kind of red earth which is found in the island of Lemnos. 

47 It would seem that the establishment of the earl had been broken up and dis- 
persed at his decease. 

48 Elizabeth, second daughter of Francis Earl of Bedford, and the wife of "William 
Bourchier, Earl of Bath. 

49 Anne, eldest daughter of Francis Earl of Bedford, was married to Ambrose 
Dudley, Earl of Warwick. She was Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, 
and had the bringing up of the testatrix in her earlier years. 

50 In the accounts of the testatrix in her childhood, from which Dr. "VVhitaker gives 
some extracts, there is a reward of 2s. given " for fynding her ladyship's golden 
picture lost," and a charge of \1d. " for a boxe of ivory to putt a picture in." " For 
drawing your ladyshipp in canvas, iiijs." These items refer, probably, to some 
picture which the testatrix does not mention in this will. (Whitaker's Whalley, 
314, 15.) 






ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 17 

Charles Earle of Carnarvon, my christall cupp, cutt in flowers, and made 
in the fashon of a boate, and a peice of white stayned cloth of silver, 
with the Herberts' armes and divers flowers wroughte in itt. To my 
honorable grandsonne, Philip Herbert, Earle of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomerye, the picture of his grandfather, my last lord, Philip Earle of 
Pembrooke, 51 sett in a gold case and enamelled with blew, drawne by Hel- 
yard 52 the famous lymner; and alsoe a silver medall, and case for itt, 
with the picture of his great great grandfather, William Herbert, first 
Earle of Pembrooke of that familye, on the one syde of itt, and on the 
other side the Temple of Yertue, guarded by a dragon, with an inscrip- 
tion in Latine about itt. To my worthy cossen, Sir Philipp Musgrave, 
of Edenhall, Bart., 53 my worthy cossen. Sir John Lowther, of Lowther, 
Bart., M my antient frind, the Lady Margaret Boswell, of Bradburne, co. 
Kent, widow of Sir William Boswell, kt., to the Lady Katherine 
Shaftoe, wife to Sir Robert Shaftoe, 55 Eecorder of Newcastle, daughter 
to my very good frind Sir Thomas Widdrington, 56 deceased, each 201. to 

51 An excellent account of the great house of Herbert, in all its branches, may be 
found in Collins' Peerage. 

52 Nicholas Hilliard, an eminent English, painter. Queen Elizabeth made him her 
goldsmith, carver, and portrait painter, and sat to him several times. She also 
appointed him, by patent, her principal drawer of small portraits and emhosser of 
medals in gold. He was one of the most popular of the artists of his day, and 
many of the chief persons of that time sat to him. 

53 Sir Philip Musgrave, of Edenhall, was one of the most faithful supporters of 
Charles I. in the Civil Wars. He suffered very severely for his loyalty, and had a 
peerage offered to him after the Restoration, which he declined. Among the corres- 
pondence of Bishop Cosin, in his library at Durham, there are several most interest- 
ing letters from this truly Christian gentleman. 

54 The head of the house of Lowther, who had just succeeded to the estate and 
baronetcy. In 1696 he was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Lowther and 
Viscount Lonsdale, which still remains in his family. 

55 Recorder of Newcastle, and ancestor of the Shaffcos of Whitworth. He died 21 
May 1705, and was interred in the church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle. There is a 
pedigree of this family in Surtees' Durham, iii., 264. 

56 Sir Thomas "Widdrington, eldest son of Lewis "Widdrington, of Cheeseburn 
Grange, Esq., a distinguished lawyer and antiquary. His talents soon raised him to 
eminence. He represented the town of Berwick, the city of York, and the county of 
Northumberland, in Parliament, and he was Recorder of the two former places. In 
1639, upon the vist of King Charles to York, he made a most fulsome address to him, 
as recorder of the city, and was rewarded with the honour of knighthood. During 
the Commonwealth Sir Thomas became an advocate of the Protector, who was always 
ready to shew his appreciation of men of ability. Widdrington now became a 
Commissioner of the Great Seal, Speaker of the House of Commons, and in 1658 he 
was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer. At the Restoration Widdrington tem- 
porized again, and suffered but little by the change. Sir Thomas allied himself in 
marriage with Frances, daughter of Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, the Parliamentary 
General, who died on the 6th of August, 1640, aged 36, and was buried at St. Giles' - 
in- the -Fields. By her he had six children, four of whom, daughters and co-heirs, 
survived him: 1. Frances, who married Sir John Legard, of Ganton, by whom she 
had issue ; 2. Catharine, wife of Sir Robert Shafto ; 3. Mary, who became the wife 
of Sir Robert Markham, Bart., of Sedgebrooke, Notts; and 4. Ursula, who was the 
second wife of Thomas Earl of Plymouth, by whom she had several children ; she was 
born November 11, 1647, and died April 22, 1717, aged 70. Sir Thomas had an only 
son, who bore his father's name ; he died, aged about 20. Dorothy, his sister, died at 



18 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

buy a peece of plate. To the Lady Howell, wife to Sir John Howell, 57 
now Recorder of London (whome I have knowne from her childhood), 
two of my best silver fruite dishes. To Mr. Thomas Gabetis, my depu- 
tie sheriffe for the countie of Westmorland, and to his wife, two other of 
my best silver fruite dishes. To Mrs. Elizabeth Gilmore (whoe formerly 
served me for many yeares together) 201. and my fugard sattin mantle 
lyned with a white furr mixt, with haire collar ; and to her daughter, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Kelloway, WL, and my best riding coate of haird col- 
loured sattin. To Mr. George Sedgwicke, one of my cheife officers and 
servants, 200/. To Mr. Thomas Strickland, another of my officers, and 
receiver of Westmorland rents, 30/. To Mr. Peter Collings, receiver of 
my rents in Craven, (son to Mr. Robert Collings, deceased, my late re- 
ceiver there ) fower of my best oxen. To Mr. "William Edge, receiver of 
my joynture rents in Sussex, and in the Isle of Sheppey, 40?., to buy 

an earlier age. Sir Thomas Widdrington died on the 13th of May, 1664, and was buried 
by the side of his wife, at St. Giles' -in-the-Fields. It is not unlikely that the loyalty 
of Sir Thomas suffered by his alliance with the family of Fairfax. He was, however, 
in all probability, the means of inspiring the members of that distinguished family 
with his own love for antiquities. Thomas Fairfax, Lord Cameron, the patron of the 
literary men of his day, was his brother-in-law, and posterity has every reason to 
feel grateful to Widdrington, if he was the means of inducing his high-spirited relative 
to turn from the battle field to the gentler pursuits of literature and taste. We owe 
a deeper debt of gratitude to the patron of Roger Dodsworth than to the conqueror of 
Prince Rupert. Sir Thomas Widdrington was the compiler of a History of York, 
from which Drake makes large quotations. He offered to dedicate his work to the 
Mayor and Corporation, but as it was thought that he had neglected the interests of 
his constituents by not getting an act passed for improving the navigation of the river, 
the honour was angrily declined. He was told "that if he had employed his power 
towards the relief of their present distressed condition, it would have been of much 
more advantage to the city and satisfaction to them, than shewing them the grandeur, 
wealth, and honour of their predecessors." Sir Thomas was so offended at this reply 
that he would not publish his work, and left orders that it should never be given to 
the world. Sir Thomas Widdrington made his will on the 1st of September, 1663. 
It is his wish that "if my departure out of this world be in or neare London, then 
my minde is that my body be interred in the Church of St. Gyles' -in-the-Fields, neare 
the body of my late deare wife and of my deare daughter Dorothy as may be. To 
my foure daughters Frances, Katherine, Mary, and Ursula, the severall rings and 
plates given unto them by my late deare wife their good and religious mother deceased. 
To my grandchildren John and Thomas Legard and to my grandson Marke Shafto all 
my bookes and manuscripts, except such divinity and history bookes as my said foure 
daughters shall make choyce of, saving such reports as I tooke myselfe with my owne 
handwryting which I give to my sonne, Robert Shafto, Esq. To the poore of the 
parish of Standfordham where I was borne 101. To the Lady Fairfax of Appleton, 
my sister-in-law the Lady Selby, the Lady Craven, Mrs. Arthington of Arthington, 
and Mrs. Hutton of Popleton, to my sister-in-law Mrs. Ursula Fairfax, the youngest 
daughter of Fardinando Lord Fairfax, to my uncles, Mr. Henry Fairfax of Oglethorpe 
and Charles Fairfax, of Menston, Esq., my worthy friends, John Archer, sergeant at 
law, and William Ellis, Esq., one of the readers of Gray's Inn, and to my schoole- 
fellow "Walter Strickland, of Flambrough, Esq., each a gold ring of 40*. in value. To 
my cozen John Rushworth 101. per. ann. To Sir John Legard my best horse. I 
owe to my sister- in-law, Ursula Fairfax, 1350/., which I have secured out of my 
lands of Castles, the wryting whereof is in my cabinett in an inner closett at my 
chamber att Serjeants' Inne, which moneys I have had in my hands since the begin- 
ning of August, 1659. I owe to my brother Ralph Widdrington, 700^., and to my 
brother Nicholas, 300Z," 

57 John Howell, Esq., became Recorder of London in 1668, and held that office till 
1676. 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 19 

him a peece of plate. To the right reverend father in God, George, now 
Bishop of Winchester, my first godson, 40?., to buy a peece of plate 
to keepe in memorie of me. To my household servants, all wages due 
to them, and such other sums as shall be affixed to each of their names 
in a checque roll hereunto annexed. My weareing apparell to my ser- 
vants, and my linnen to my daughter. 100?. to be bestowed in mourn- 
ing blacks att my death for some few of my frinds and servants. To the 
poore of the parishes of Skipton, Appleby, and Brougham, each, 10?. ; 
and to the poore of that parish where it shall please God to take me out 
of this world, 10?. I doe further desire that at my decease my body 
may be attended to the grave onely by my household servants, and 
family, in a private fashion, unlesse some of my frinds or kinred 
should happen to be neare to the place of my buriall, and so to 
be present therewith little trouble, and my household and family to be kept 
together, as it was in my lifetime, for the space of one month after 
my death. My deare daughter, the Countesse Dowager of Thanett, 
and her posterity, to take care for the well ordering of my almes- 
houses at Appleby, and also of my almeshouse att Beamesley, 
nere Skipton, in Craven, which was founded by my blessed mother, 
Margarett Countess of Cumberland, in the raigne of the late Queene 
Elizabeth, of happy memory. My said daughter to be my sole execu- 
trix : I give her all the rents, and arrears at rents, out of my joynture 
lands in Sussex, and in the He of Sheppey, and 1000?. now in her 
hands for which I have her bond, 200?. owing to me by Mr. John Tuf- 
ton, 1400?. in the hands of Mrs. Covell, late citizen and goldsmith of 
London, 1000?. in the hands of Sir Robert Yiner, knt., 58 alderman of Lon- 
don ; all to the use of my daughter, my first and now onely childe, the Lady 
Margarett Countesse Dowager of Thanett. 

ANNE PEMBROOKE. 
Att Pendragon Castle. 

Witnesses George Sedgwicke, Thomas and Allan Strickland, 
Hen. Machell, Geo. Goodgion, Edm. Foster, Edward Hasell. 

The cheque roll of schedule of my household servants to be rewarded 
by my executrix : 

Mrs. Frances Place, one of my gentlewomen, 50?. Mrs. Susan Machell, 
my other gentlewoman, 10?. Dorothy Demaine, one of my laundry 
maides, 40?. Margarett Dargue, another of my laundry mayds, 10?. 
Ann Chippindale and Jane Steddall, two other of my laundry maids, 5?. 
and 4?. Geo. Sedgwicke, 59 one of my cheife officers and servants, 40/. 

58 Sheriff of the city of London in 1666, and Lord Mayor in 1675. On the 10th 
of May, 1666, he was created a Baronet, but, as he died without issue, the title 
became extinct at his death. 

59 A trusty and confidential servant of the testatrix. In Burn and Nicholson's 
History of Westmorland, (i. 294, et seq, ) are many extracts from his autobiography, 
which are extremely interesting ; they shew that the favour which the Countess 
shewed to Sedgwick was well merited, and they illustrate, to no slight extent, the 
present will. Sedgwick died on the 10th of June, 1685, aged 67, and was interred in 
Kendal Church. 



20 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

Edward Hasell, my secretarie, and one of my cheife officers, 20/. 
Thomas Strickland, another of them, and receiver of my rents in West- 
morland, 30/. Henry Machell, steward of my house and gentleman of 
my horse, 201. Edmond Foster, my cheife butler, 10?. George Goodgeon, 
caterer and clarke of the kitchen, 3QL Allan Strickland, groome of the 
chambers, 15L Arthur Swindin, my under buttler and fyer maker, 6/. 
John Hall, cheife groome of my stables, 61. Abraham Tittin, another 
groome of my stables, 61 Isaacke Walker, another groome of my sta- 
bles, 4L Wm. Dargue, cooke, Si. Wm. Buckle, that helpes in the 
kitchin, 3. Wm. Johnson, housekeeper of Appleby Castle, 31. Eichard 
Lewis, housekeeper of Brougham Castle, 31. Robert Harrison, of 
Brough Castle, 31. Richard Reignoldson, my baker and brewer, 51. 

ANNE PEMBROOKE. 

The Countess survived the completion of this remarkable document 
for more than a year ; and dying 22 March, 1675, aged 87, was interred 
in the parish church of St. Lawrence, in Appleby, near her beloved 
mother. A sumptuous monument still remains to commemorate her. 

A few words on her personal appearance and character, and then I 
close my paper. 

In her earlier years, the Lady Anne, I take her own description of 
herself, was a handsome woman. Her figure was exceedingly good. 
Her eyes were black, like her father's, and in the peak of hair on 
her forehead, and the dimple on her chin, she also resembled her sire. 
Her round face and full cheeks were taken from her mother. This de- 
scription of herself, which is certainly a favourable one, is confirmed 
by the likeness of her which is engraved in Lodge's British Portraits. 
This is probably the same likeness which, as she tells us in her will, was 
taken when she was about twenty years of age. In her old age, how- 
ever, she had lost all those personal charms for which her youth was 
famous ; and this loss was mainly owing to a violent attack of small-pox 
soon after the death of her first husband. The later portraits of the 
Lady Anne represent a dignified but austere countenance, a strange con- 
tradiction to the gentleness and amiability which were paramount 
within. 

One of the strongest features in the character of the Lady Anne was 
her indomitable independence and firmness of temper. The spirit of the 
Cliffords would not brook any interference. When she was but a girl 
she set at nought the unjust award of James. Twice had she crossed 
the path of Cromwell, and twice did the Protector give way in admira- 
tion. On the latter occasion on which she might have aroused his 
anger, she told the Commissioners who had been appointed by the Com- 
monwealth to settle the differences between her and her tenants, that 
" she would never refer any of her concerns of that kind to the Protector, 



ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 21 

or any person living, but leave it wholly to the discretion of the law ; 
adding further, that she that had refused to submit to King James on 
the like account, would never do it to the Protector, whatever hazard or 
danger she incurred thereby." Her famous answer to the minister of 
Charles II. is too well known to be repeated here. This celebrated let- 
ter is not very well authenticated, but considering the character of the 
supposed writer, it is extremely probable that it was really her com- 
position. 

Her learning was varied and extensive. She had read very much 
herself, and we are told by the celebrated Dr. Donne, that she could 
talk on any subject from predestination to sleeve silk. She was fond of 
perusing works upon alchemy and magic, and she was exceedingly well 
read in history a taste which she probably derived from her tutor. 
When her sight failed her, and she was no longer able to read herself, 
she employed a reader, who marked upon his book the day on which 
he began and concluded his task. The Countess was also fond of pa- 
tronizing literary men. Samuel Daniel was her tutor, and she caused a 
memorial of him to be erected in the shape of an epitaph. Spenser's 
monument in "Westminster Abbey was raised by her. She employed 
the laborious Eoger Dodsworth to collect materials for the history of her 
family, and in the arrangement of these collections she was assisted by 
the celebrated Sir Matthew Hale. 

Of her piety we require no assurance after the extracts which I have 
given from her will. But she does not tell us there of the churches, the 
schools, and almshouses that she rebuilt and founded. The scriptures 
she knew almost by heart. The Liturgy of the Church of England was 
regularly performed in her private chapel in times when it was almost 
more perilous to worship God than to serve the King. Of her love to 
her family we need no proof. The affection with which she speaks of 
her two husbands, who were both unworthy of her, and the reverent 
manner in which she mentions her mother, are indeed most striking. 
She was passionately fond of her children and their families. I cannot 
now stay to record her kindness and liberality to the suffering loyalists, 
or to the aged friends and servants of her house ; and I am sure that I 
cannot do better than conclude in the eloquent words of Dr. Whitaker. 

" She was one of the most illustrious women of her own or of any age. 
By the blessing of a religious education, and the example of an excellent 
mother, she imbibed in childhood those principles which, in middle life, 
preserved her untainted from the profligacy of one husband and the 
fanaticism of another ; and, after her deliverance from both, conducted 
her to the close of a long life in the uniform exercise of every virtue 



22 ANNE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. 

which became her sex, her rank, and her Christian profession. Remov- 
ing from castle to castle, she diffused plenty and happiness arround her, 
by consuming on the spot the produce of her vast domains in hospitality 
and charity. Equally remote from the undistinguishing profusion of 
ancient times, and the parsimonious elegance of modern habits, her 
house was a school for the young, and a retreat for the aged, an asylum 
for the persecuted, a college for the learned, and a pattern for all." 



JAMES RAINE, JUN. M.A. 



Neville Hall, 

Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 



23 



LOCAL MTJNIMEOTS. 

LENT BY THOMAS BELL, ESQ. 

THE Society is particularly desirous to record in their Archseologia the 
general effect and curiosities in detail of the evidences preserved in pri- 
vate collections. Exposed to neglect, loss, and destruction, resulting 
from many causes, these interesting memorials are every day becoming 
more precious in their scarcity. A hope is therefore expressed that 
our county families will place the Society in a position to render its 
publications an interesting reference, not only for such of their widely- 
spreading descendants as feel an honest pride in tracing their descent 
and the transmission and former state of their properties, but also for 
the investigator of the habits and domestic policy of our ancestors. 

From the valuable collections of Mr. Thomas Bell, the Society has 
been obligingly furnished with the loan of the thirty-four documents 
following. 

STATKCROFTS IN TYNDALE. 1. 22 Nov. 36 Edw. III. (1362). 
David de Strabolgy, Earl of Athell, leases to Roger de "Wydryngton one 
third of the lands of Stayncrofts, in the franchise of Tyndale, for 15 
years. Seal elegant. Within a quatrefoil of tracery, and hanging from 
a tree, is a shield charged with three pales. Between the shield and 
the foliage of the tree is a lion or leopard passant, and a fleur-de-lis and 
wheatsheaf are introduced on each side of the shield. The coat of arms 
here given was not personal, but a feudal one attached to the dignity of 
Athol. In later times for the Stewarts Earls of Athol, it was marshalled 
paly of six or and sable, instead of or, three pales sable. On the seal of 
John de Strathbolgi, Earl of Athol in 1292, the lion or leopard 
passant is introduced both above and below the shield, and on each side 
is a griffin segreant. This John, after the slaughter of John Comyn 
and coronation of Brus, fled from his country, and Edward's vengeance, 
but was driven back from sea by contrary winds, and carried to London. 
In respect of his descent from royal blood (his maternal grandfather 
was, it is believed, a base son of King John, see Surtees, iv., 61), he was 



24 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

not drawn, but set on horseback, and hanged up on a gibbet fifty feet high, 
his head fixed on London Bridge, and his body burnt to ashes, 1306. 
His son David, on the contrary, was an active English partisan. He 
married Joane, daughter of the murdered Comyn, and the sister and 
co-heir of John Comyn, of Badenagh, niece and coheir of Adomare de 
Valence, Earl of Pembroke. Hence the garbs of Comyn on his grand- 
son's seal. He died in 1327. His son David will occur hereafter ; but 
it may here be mentioned, that he married a Beaumont, the daughter of 
his guardian, Henry de Beaumont, the brother of Bishop Beaumont of 
Durham. The Beaumonts were said to be immediate descendants of the 
royal house of Erance ; their shield was covered with golden fleurs-de-lis 
on the regal azure, and hence no doubt the fleur-de-lis on the seal of the 
next David, our lessor. His daughters and coheirs carried the barony 
of Strabolgi into abeyance amongst Percys. With regard to the lion 
or leopard passant, the latter animal is probably meant; for in St. 
Andrew's Church, Newcastle, the feet of the brazen effigy of Sir 
Aymer de Athol, Lord of Jesmond, who was brother to the Earl who 
married Beaumont, and who placed a golden lion or leopard passant on 
his centre pale for difference (see the quarterings of Lisle of Felton in 
Yisit. 1615), there is a leopard unmistakeably spotted. 

CHOPPINGTON. 2. 12 Oct. 1621. Thomas Ogle, Esq., Matthew Ogle 
and Luke Ogle, Gentlemen, all of ...... tlington, in Northumberland, 

bind themselves to Gregory Ogle, of Chappington, co. Dunelm, Esq., for 
the annual payment of 30. by Thomas to Gregory, "in the south church 
porch of Bothell," until Thomas recovers possession of the "manner house 
and demeanse of Cheapington, Clefwell Hill, a water corne mill, and 
Slackhouses," by right of tenant-right of Gregory, and by lease from the 
Bishop of Durham. 



.- 3. William, son of Henry de Bilton, grants to Robert de 
Umfranvill, senior, Knight, the reversion of the manor and vill of 
Bylton, in Northumberland, which John de Belyngham holds during 
the life of Alianor, who was the wife of Richard de Bylton, of the 
grantor's inheritance, and which, after Alianor' s death, will revert. 
Monday before the Eeast of St. John Baptist, 32 Edw. III. (1358). 
Seal, a talbot dog, s SISSILIE. 

BYWELL. 4. John, son of Richard de Talyour, of Naustedis, conveys 
to Hugh, son of Richard de le Syde, of Corbrigs, chaplain, residing in 
Bywell, all his lands and tenements in the vill and field of Bywell 
which he had by gift of his father, Richard le Talyour. Sunday, the 
Eeast of St. George, 1340. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 25 

WELLINGTON. 5. Lucyde "Walyngton releases to her daughter Isabella 
the reversion of three messuages and 30 acres in West Walyngton, 
which William, the grantor's son, has of her gift for his life. The day 
of St. John Baptist, 1308. Seal, pointed oval, a crescent surmounted by 
a star of six points, s' A[LICIE DE ?] LONDIN. This seal may lead to 
the discovery of the lady's maiden name. She and her issue seem to be 
unknown to genealogists. Some scattered notices of the Wallingtons, 
one of whom is said to marry Strother, may be seen in Hodgson. 

6. Alan de Strothre, of Lyam, conveys to Alan de Strothre the elder, 
his brother, Henry de Strothre, son of the same Alan, Bertram Herre, 
chaplain, and John de Marley (evidently trustees), all his manors and 
tenements of Kirkharle, Walyngton, Est Walyngton, West Denum, 
Great Babington, Swethop, Hawyk, and Croketon. Sunday after 
Easter, 1376. Seal, a shield bearing an engrailed bend charged with 
three eagles displayed, and surrounded by tracery of great beauty. 
SIGILLVM . ALANI . DE . STROTHiE. Chaucer, in his Reve's Tale, men- 
tions as his contemporaries, at Cambridge, " two clerkes of Seller' s-hall," 
"yonge pore scholleris two," who were 

" John hight that one, and Alein hight that other, 
Of oo toune were they both, that highte Strother, 
Fer in the north, I cannot tellen where. 

and who tricked Denyse Simkin, the thievish miller of Trumpington, 
for cheating them, by getting to bed with his wife and daughter. Mr. 
Hodgson supposed that Chaucer's hero was Alan Strother, junior, and 
so he might be; but as it now turns out that Alan Strother, senior, was 
not Alan the father, but another Alan, the elder brother of Alan, junior, 
according to a not unusual practice of baptising two brothers by the 
same name, the identity is rendered doubtful. The fact is, that this 
deed makes sad havoc with the printed pedigree of Strother, which 
requires a thorough revisal. Even with evidences hitherto known, a 
William, living in 1452, is said in it to have been Mayor of Newcastle 
in 1355, nearly a hundred years before, and Peter Draper is stated to have 
been M.P. for the same town in 1297, and again in 1348, full fifty 
years after. This deed is noticed in a conveyance of its trust estate in 
1408, Hodgson, i., 241. 

7. Thomas del Strother, son and heir of Alan del Strother, conveys 
to Robert de Clyfford (apparently a trustee) all his right in the vills 
and territories of Est Walyngton and West Walyngton. This deed is 
dated at Est Walyngton, 30 April, 18 Ric. II. (1395), and is of great 
interest on account of its seals. One is a signet seal containing the 
Strother eagle, or other bird, regardant. The other seal presents a castle 



26 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

within a crescent, rather roughly executed, and is of a class of seals not 
usual at the period. It is the sheriff's seal of office, and the sheriff who 
used it was Hotspur's father, a nobleman for whom we have three or 
four personal seals before. The deed refers to it thus: "To this pre- 
sent writing I [Strother] have set to my seal. And for greater 
security [i. e. on account of the greater notoriety of the seal as genuine] 
I have procured the seal of office of Henry de Percy, Earl and Sheriff of 
Northumberland, to be set to." 

8. William de Swyneborne, Knt., conveys to Eobert de Clifford all 
his right in the vills and territories of Est and West Walyngton, 30 
April, (18 Bie. II., 1395). Seal, a signet, one of the cinquefoils of 
Swinburne pierced, an elegant device. Sir William was head of the 
house of Capheaton, and conservator of the truces between England and 
Scotland in 1386, in which year he was taken prisoner at the capture of 
Wark Castle, which, in 1374, had been let' to him by Sir John Mon- 
tague, its lord. He had a life annuity of 201. granted to him by John 
of Gaunt ; and in the last years of his life was receiver general for Sir 
Hen. Percy for Denbigh, steward of the same district, and constable of 
Beaumaris. His widow, Mary, one of the co-heiresses of the Hetons of 
Chillingham, remarried John del Strother, who died in 1415, and does 
not appear in the Strother pedigrees. 

9. Robert de Walyngton, son and heir of Walter de Walyngton, con- 
veys to Eobert de Clyfford all his right in the vills of Est Walyngton 
and West Walyngton. 17 May, 18 Ric. II. Seal, the initials & fj in- 
terlaced, probably the seal of 

10. Bartholomew Har, chaplain, who conveys all his lands and tene- 
ments in the two vills to Richard Clifford, clerk, and Robert Clifford, 
his brother. 20 Jan. 19 Ric. II., (1395-6). 

1 1 . John del Strother, son of Alan del Strother, and Agnes [Bedford] 
the wife of the said John, constitute David Fawsehide, Esq., and Nicho- 
las de Wetewang, merchant, to receive seisin of the property in the 
vills and territories of West and Est Walyngton, which formerly were 
Robert Clifford's, and which Richard Keelby, merchant, now living, and 
others his joint feoffees, now deceased, lately had by feoffment of the 
said John del Strother in order to perform his will according to an in- 
denture. By that indenture the property was in trust for the said 
John and Agnes, and the heirs of their bodies, remainder to William 
del Strother, John's brother, on condition that he paid to the executors 
of John's testament (for the will of course only affected his real property) 
100 marks within a year after the failure of John and his issue, in de- 
fault, the property to be sold, and the money to be disposed according 
to John's testament. 2 Feb. 1423[-4]. Seal, the Strother coat, 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 27 

but the bend is invected and not engrailed; crest, a demi-eagle. 
9. to&aniug [tre $tr] ot&er. 



WOODHORN AND NEWBiGGiJsr. 12. This deed recites the following cir- 
cumstances. David de Strabolgi, Earl of Athol, father of the David in 
No. 1, granted two parts of Ponteland manor and other lands in North- 
umberland to John de Denton (an opulent inhabitant of Newcastle), for 
5 years, conditioned that if within the term the Earl should pay a cer- 
tain sum of money to Denton, he should have the property at once. 
The Earl adhering to the Scottish enemies and rebels of Edward III, 
his possessions were forfeit, and the King stood in his shoes as to the 
power to buy out Denton' s interest; but John, being a useful man, re- 
ceived a grant from the King of the reversion, on condition that if he 
the king choose to take the property from him, before doing so, he was 
to recompence him by a grant of other property of the same value. The 
Earl returns to Edward's peace, and obtains a re-delivery of his 
English property. And now Denton must be dealt with. The King, 
taking into account the good and laudable service which John had often 
rendered him, as well in the siege of Berwick as in the war of Scotland, 
and on the marches of the realm, not without costly sacrifices and la- 
bours, now by the assent of the Prelates, Earls, Barons, and other mag- 
nates of the realm assisting him, grants to Denton the reversion of the 
manor of Wodehorn, in Northumberland, (excepting the town and port 
of Neubiggyng) in lieu of the former grant, after the life estate held by 
Mary Countess of Pembroke by the same King's grant. The charter is 
dated at Newcastle, 26 Nov. 9 Edw. Ill (1335). The King seems to 
have resided here from 16 Nov., or earlier, to the 31st December. A 
truce with Scotland was prorogued at Newcastle first for a week, and 
then for a fortnight. 

Of the King's seal little more remains than the King's head on each 
side. Edward III., as is well known, used seven or eight different great 
seals. The seal to this deed is Professor Willis's seal B, used from 1326 
to 1336, and inaccurately engraved in Gibson's Tynemouth. Casts from 
more perfect impressions of the seal are preserved in the Society's 
collections. 

13. Mary Countess of Pembroke, royally styling herself ""We" at- 
torns for the manor of Wodehorn to Sir William de Emeldon, clerk, 
the attorney for that purpose of John de Denton. 26 Feb. 10 Edw. III. 
(1336). The seal has been very beautiful, composed of arms on roundels, 
each enclosed in a delicate foiled circle, the foils sprinkled with quarter- 
foiled ornaments at intervals. One coat remains, chequy a canton 
ermine, for Brittany and Richmond. She was daughter of Guy de 



28 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

Chastillon, Earl of St. Paul, by Gray, daughter of John de Dreux, Earl 
of Brittany and Richmond, by Beatrix, daughter of Henry III. By 
this descent she was second cousin to the King. At an early period of 
her life she married Adomar de Valence, Earl of Pembroke and Lord of 
Mitford, who must have been very much her senior, and who had been 
married twice before. He was in attendance upon Edward the First's 
deathbed, and the dying monarch enjoined him and others not to suffer 
Piers de Gaveston to come into England again. Hence Piers hated him 
and called him Joseph tJie Jew ; in regard he was tall and pale of counte- 
nance. He assisted in the seige of Scarborough Castle, in which the 
favourite was captured, previous to his execution. Being made prisoner 
in his journey towards Rome by John Moilley, a Burgundian, and sent to 
the Emperor, he had to give 20,000 pounds of silver for ransom, be- 
cause, as Moilley said, he himself had never been paid for serving the 
King of England. He was one of the Lords who condemned Thomas 
Earl of Lancaster ; but this act of infamy was atoned by his own murder 
two years after, 27 June, 1323, while in attendance upon the she-wolf 
of France, " by reason he had a hand in the death of the Earl." So say 
the Peerages, and Leland, but old Fuller has a romantic story which 
perhaps hardly hints at wilful murder. " Mary de Saint Paul," 
he says, " daughter to Guido Castillion, Earle of Saint Paul, in France, 
third wife to Audomare de Yalentia, Earle of Pembroke, maide, wife, and 
widow, all in a day (her husband being unhappily slain at a tilting at 
her nuptials), sequestred herself on that sad accident from all worldly 
delights, bequeathed her soul to God, and her estate to pious uses, amongst 
which this a principall, that she founded in Cambridge, the Colledge of 
Mary de Yalentia, commonly called Pembroke Hall. She survived the 
death of her husband forty-two yeares, and died full of days and good 
deeds. The aforesaid Mary also founded Denny Abbey, nigh Cambridge, 
richly endowed, and filled it with nuns, whom she removed from Water- 
Beach. She enjoyned also her fellows of Pembrook Hall to visit those 
nuns, and give them ghostly counsel on just occasion; who may be pre- 
sumed (having not only a fair invitation, but full injunction) that they 
were not wanting both in their courteous and conscientious addresses 
unto them. Amongst the ancient plate of this Hall, two peeces are 
most remarkable, one silver and gilt, of the foundresses, (produced on 
festivals) who, being of French extraction, was much attached to their 
tutelar saint, witness this inscription, as I remember it : ' Saint Dionyse 
is my .deer, Where/ore be merry and make good cheere. ' ' The ergo is not 
clear. 

The manors of Woodhorn and Newbigging had belonged to the Baliols, 
and Agnes de Valence, sister of the above Adomar, and widow of Hugh 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 29 

de Baliol, had dower in them. Her sister Joane married John Comyn, 
and was grandmother to the Earl of Athol, the grantee of 1335. In 
1296 they were granted to John Dreux, Earl of Brittany and Richmond ; 
in 1326 they were seized from his son, John de Dreux, Earl of Rich- 
mond, and now we find them in the hands of the first John's grand- 
daughter. She lived to March, 1377, fifty-four years after her husband's 
death, Fuller stinting her age ; and the manors are included in the In- 
quisition after her death. 

14. Copies of two records. The first, 10 Jan., Edw. Ill, (1337) 
memorialises Edward's grant to Denton of the reversion of the vill of 
Neubigging excepted by the former grant. But he had to pay the ex- 
tent per annum to be ascertained, that is, a fair rent to the crown. The 
second record, 6 Mar., 11 Edw. III. (1337), fixes this at 101 6s. The 
lands had been extended by Thomas de Howestodes, and Thomas de 
Punchardon. 

JESMOND, AND NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYKE. 15. John de Trewyck conveys 
to Nicholas de Carliol (several times Mayor of Newcastle) all suit of his 
court and of his mill of Gesemuth, and all other services in respect of 
Carliol' s lands in Gesemuth town and field. Wednesday after the feast 
of the Holy Trinity, 1312. Seal, in white wax, apparently a bird dis- 
played. CAPVT AMICE SVE. Nicholas de Carliol stands at the head of 
the pedigree of his race in Surtees, i, 196. The name of Carliol is not 
extinct in Newcastle topography. Leland speaks of " the Gray Freres 
in Newcastel, of the Cairluelles foundation, originally marchauntes of the 
same towne, and after, men of land. The Thirgilles (Thirkelds) of the 
Wold of Yorkshir, have now by heyre generalles Cairluell's landes." 

16. William Godeman, senior, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, conveys to 
Robert de Haliwell, a burgess of that town, 22 j acres of land in Gese- 
mue field, with common of pasture from the town of New Castle to the 
said lands. Sir John de Lilleburne, Sheriff of Northumberland, John de 
Faudon, lord of the same vill [of Jesmond], and Robert de Milneburne, 
coroner, are among the witnesses. Wednesday after the Feast of St. George, 
1331. Seal, a castle or fortified bridge, perhaps a device for Newcastle. 

WILM GODMAN. 

17. Robert de Tughale conveys to William de Swynhow a tenement 
in the town of Newcastle, which he had by grant of Thomas de Carliol. 
22 Mar., 1360[61]. Sea] of arms, ermine, a fess, enclosed in tracery. 

S' EOBERTI DE TVGKEALE. 

18. William de Swynhowe conveys to Sir John de Sancta Insula, 
vicar of Berewick-upon-Twed, John de Hesilrigge, and John de Werk, 
[trustees], a messuage in Newcastle, in the street called Merket-gate, (in 



30 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

No. 20, called le Sere merket) between the tenement which was Thomas 
de Duxesfeld's, on the E., and the tenement of the Abbot of Newmin- 
ster, on the W., and two messuages and forty acres in Scrafton, near 
No wham. Yigils of All Saints, 1367. Witnesses, John Dunkan, 
Mayor of Berewic, "William del Bocht, bailiff of the same town, &c. 
Prom No. 20 we gather that this property was that conveyed in No. 17 
by Tughale. 

19. Thomas de Benteley, chaplain, Thomas del Strother, Knt., son of 
Henry del Strother, and Hugh Hawkin, convey to Laurence de Acton, 
junior, all right in the lands in Newcastle, Jesemuth, Elsewyk, Crame- 
lyngton, Blakeden, and Haysand, and within the liberty of Kedysdale, 
which belonged to Laurence de Acton, senior. 15 Jan. 10 Eic. II. (1387) 
The centre seal only remains. In order it should belong to Strother, 
but it looks like the chaplain's seal. The device is a hare or rabbit, and 
there is some French motto proceeding from its mouth. The Actons 
gave name to some waste ground between the castle of Newcastle and 
the Side, called " Laurence Acton's waste." Their representation, like 
that of Carliol, feU into Thirkeld. 

20. William de Swynhowe conveys to William de Duram, son of William 
de Duram le Draper, the tenement in Newcastle in which Eobert de Togale 
formerly lived, in the street called le Beremarket, as it lies in width between 
the tenement of the Abbot of Newminster on the N. and the tenement of 
the same Abbot which formerly was Thomas de Musgrave's, on the S., and 
in length from the king's highway to the garden of the Yicar of Newcastle. 
A yearly rent of 5 marks during the first six years, and of 4 marks aft- 
erwards, is reserved. Thursday after the Translation of St. Thomas 
the Archbishop, 1388. Both parties sealed. Swynhowe, because his 
seal is not generally known, has procured the seal of the office of mayor 
to be affixed. Only the first seal remains, but it is the arms used by the 
Durhams (who were powerful merchants here), a fess between two 
crescents in chief, and a mullet of five points and pierced in base. This 
coat is a variation from that of the Scotch Durhams, who place their 
crescents and mullets in more complicated fashion, and is evidently 
more ancient. The witnesses are John (not Adam, as the accepted lists 
have it) Bulhame, Mayor, and Laurence de Acton, Thomas de Herington 
(not Robert de Raynton), Sampson Hardyng, and John de Horton, 
Bailiffs of Newcastle. 

21. William de Swynhowe, son of William de Swynhowe, constitutes 
William Hesilrig and John his son attornies to deliver seisin of all 
Swynhowe' s possessions in Newcastle to Gerard Heron, Knt. 3 Jan. 
12 Ric. II. [1388-9]. Seal, the device of a hunting horn between a 
crescent and a star. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 31 

22. William de Duresme, son of William de Duresme, draper, of 
Newcastle, conveys to William de Meryngton, chaplain, and John 
de Hesilrygs, all the lands and tenements in Newcastle which were 
William de Swynhowe's. 16 Jan. 12 Ric. II. (1388-9). Seal same as 
No. 20. Witnesses, Robert de Raynton, Mayor of Newcastle, Laurence 
de Acton, John de Horton, John de Aukland, and Thomas de Gryndon, 
Bailiifs of that town. These names again differ seriously from the re- 
ceived lists, and a few years afterwards Brand notices another discrep- 
ancy or two. In all these instances, the variation happens where the 
lists repeat the officers of a preceding year, stating that they continued 
in office. From which I infer that these repetitions are to be taken cum 
grano salis, that the recorder made up his list from existing documents 
as best he could, and filled up the blanks with dittos. 

23. Inquisition taken at Newcastle "in Guyhalda ejusdem villae " 29 
Nov., 7 Hen. YI. (1428), before Laurence de Acton (not John Rhodes), 
Mayor of Newcastle, and escheator of the King there. Here is another 
variation in the list of mayors. 

The jurors find that Alianor, who was the wife of Conan Ask, held 
in her demesne as of fee, the half of a third part of the waste messuage 
called Emilden Place, in the suburbs of Newcastle, near the Hospital of 
Blessed Mary Magdalene, without the Newe Yhate. Which half, with 
the other half of the said third part, is held of the King in free burgage 
as parcel of the said town. Rendering yearly to the Master of Tyne 
Bridge, towards the repair thereof, 2d. The clear yearly value of the 
property is nothing, because it is totally wasted. The said Eleanor died 
5 Oct. last past. Roger de Ask is her son and next heir, and is aged 37 
and upwards. 

The lady here mentioned was the daughter of Roger Middleham . Her 
husband, Conan Aske, of Aske, in Richmondshire, Esq., was a witness 
for Lord Scrope in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy, and served in 
the wars of Prance, Spain, and Scotland. The son Roger survived his 
mother 1 1 years, and his son Conan had the grant of a private oratory 
in his manor of Aske. 

24. William Camby, of Newcastle, merchant, conveys to Christopher 
Thrylkeld, and Joan his wife, daughter and heir apparent of Lady 
Eleanor Percy, late wife of Ralph Percy, Knt., deceased, in their posses- 
sion already being, all right in a waste place upon which a burgage was 
lately built, as it lies in the street called Sidgate, with the New Gate of 
the town of Newcastle ; and in 12 selions [ridges] of land as they separ- 
ately lie without the walls of the town in the Castle-feld [Leazes], and 
in 24 selions without the said town in the Welflatte, in Elstwyk field ; 
and in all the lands, &c., in Jesmound field, in the county of Northum- 



32 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

berland, lately in the tenure of John Yestr' ; and in a waste place upon 
which a burgage was lately built, in Newcastle, in the street called the 
Cloth Merkett. 26 June, 6 Hen. VII. Seal, a hedgehog. The Castle 
Leazes, it may be observed, were, at this period, private property, 
having been granted to those burgesses who suffered by the making of 
the Castle mote. 

25. John Kyllyngworth, ofKyllynworth, Gent., for 26s. Sd. conveys, by 
demise in perpetuity, to John Hayton, of Newcastle, maryner, two selions 
called Two Leasses,m Gesmonde field, between the land of William Carr, of 
Newcastle, gentleman, on the north, and Sandeford Deane, on the south, 
the lands of the Hospital of Blessed Mary Magdalene, on the east, and the 
King's highway leading to Gesmonde town, on the west. 3 Feb., 2 and 
3 Phil. & Mar. (1556). The Seal is much earlier in date, and contains 
the coat [argent], two bars [sable], in chief three cinquefoils [of the 
last] pierced [or], hanging from foliage. 

This coat is mentioned in Harl. MS., 1448, 40, as on the Seal of 
William Killingworth, of Killingworth, Esq., 3 Edw. IV. It also oc- 
curs in Long Benton church, upon the gravestone of Mr. John Killing- 
worth, who died 20 Dec., 1587. The later visitation coat of the family 
gives the pierced cinquefoils only, two and one, without the bars. 

26. George Dent, of Newcastle, merchant, Eobert Dente, his son and 
heir, and George Barker, of Newcastle, allutor, are bound to pay to 
Richard Johnson, of the same town, tanner, ten pounds before 4 Aug. 
next, at the now dwelling-house of George Cock, cordiner, in a streete 
in Newcastle called the Iron Merkett, 18 Jan., 1587. George Dent 
seals with a crest, a griffin's head. The visitation crest is a griffin's 
head ermine, vomiting fire. Robert Dent seals with a cock, probably 
the seal of John Cocke, a witness, or the above George Cock. George 
Barker seals with some spiny flower, perhaps a thistle. 

27. Marmaduke Thirkild, of Estropp, co. Ebor., Esq., [representative 
of Carliol] for the advancement of his natural daughter Dorothy [she 
married Wilfrid Grimston, of Holderness], gives to William Hilton, Kt., 
Michael Constable and Ralph Hilton, Esquires [his brothers-in-law, he 
having married Elizabeth, sister of the two Hiltons], his office of keepers 
of beasts [belluarum custodencium], called the Nowtershipp of the town 
of Newcastell-upon-Tine, with all commodities, profits, &c., thereto be- 
longing. And all his lands, &c., in the fields and territories of the town 
of Jesmond, with his coal pits \Joviis carlonarum}. To the use of him- 
self for life rem. to Dorothy and her issue, 6 Feb., 1595. Seal of arms, 
a fess between three griffins' (?) heads erased, on the fess a crescent, a 
coat which belongs neither to Thirkeld nor the witnesses to the deed. 
Endorsed is this note : "Resaved the vj. of Aprele, the yeare within 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 33 

written, of Mr. Atchenson, of Nucastel, a naturnam'te for the nouturdshep 
of Nuecastel, iiijd. in the nam of the mare, aldermen, burgesis, and kom- 
mons of the same, to the use of the within named Marmaduck Thirkeld, 
and Dorithe Thirkeld." 

28. Robert Lewen, of Newcastle, gentleman, conveys to Anthony 
Felton of the same place, gentleman, a tenement in Newcastle, in a 
street called Overden Brigg, abutting between a tenement in the tenure 
of George Richardson, on the east, and a tenement in the tenure of 
George Baker, of Newcastle, cordiner, on the west, and the said King's 
highway, called Overden-brigg, on the south, to the wall of the orchard 
of Anthony Felton, on the north. 9 Mar., 34 Eliz. (1591-2). Seal, a 
talbot dog. Among the witnesses to the seisin are Garethe Woodrington, 
who can only sign a rude "W, and John Morray, minister of the parish of 
St. John. The wills of Robert Lewin, of Newcastle, Esq., 1563, and 
his widow Jeanne, 1569, have been printed by the Surtees Society. 
They had a son Robert, who received " on standinge cupe of sylver with 
a cover gylt." A ring with the former testator's seal of arms, and a dozen 
silver spoons, with his arms upon them, went to other sons. The 
widow leaves the house in which she dwelt in, of old tyme called Yorkes 
Place, to her son Christofor, remainder to her son Edward, remainder to 
her son Robert. 

GATESHEAD. 29. Edward Edle (Hedle cancelled) conveys to John 
Allenson of Gatesheued a tenement in that town, between the tenement 
of Robert Tomson on the north, and that of Katherine Walker on the 
south, and extending from the king's highway [High Street], on the 
east, to the common highway which leads to Durham [West Street], on 
the west. Rendering yearly to the vendor 5s. 4d., and to the chantry 
of Blessed Mary of Gateshead 12s. of silver. Witnesses, Master Thomas 
Nebest, chaplain, John Qwitt, Robert Barton, William Brome, &c., 
Feast of the Invention of Holy Cross (May 3), 4 Hen. VII. (1489;. 
Seal, a fox sitting on its hind legs t n, probably the seal of the chaplain, 
Thomas Nebest. The Hedleys were coheirs of the old Redheughs, and 
in the Durham Book of Rates, temp, Eliz., Hedley's Lands are mentioned 
under Gateshead. They lived at Lyntz, near Tanfield. 

30. William Tempest, of Haddon, co. Oxon , gentleman; reciting that 
Richard Hodshone, of Newcastle, Esq., was his tenant at will of a cottage 
and divers lands in Gatesyde parish, called Field Howses, in the county 
of the Bishoprick of Durham, late parcel of the lands of Robert Tempest, 
lately of high treason attainted ; now for a sum of money conveys to 
Robert Hodshone, the tenant's son and heir, the cottage or tenement 
called Feldehouses, and adjacent lands, as fully as he himself had them 



34 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

from John Mershe and "Win. Mershe (evidently the crown grantees) by 
indenture, 3 Feb., 18 Eliz. Seal, the initials M T, probably that of his 
mother, Margaret, daughter of Tho. Lenthall, of Lachford, co. Oxon., 
Esq. Robert Tempest, of Holmside, the rebel here mentioned, was 
father of the vendor William. The father, and his eldest son Michael, 
were both ruined in the Rising of the North, and died in exile. "Wil- 
liam had made a fortunate match with an Oxfordshire heiress, and, in 
spite of the decay of his house, founded the gentlemanly line of Tem- 
pest of "Whaddon. Michael's descendants are unknown. If still exis- 
ting, they are the heads of Tempest. 

"With regard to Hodshone, Jane, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Hodshone, of Brancepeth, married John Wilson, the private secretary to 
the last unfortunate Neville ; and their son, Ralph "Wilson, was of Field 
House in 1639. He also held Joppes-riding, and Cramer-dykes, near it. 
These it seems were acquired from the Hodgsons in 1567, by settlement 
of Richard Hodgson on himself for life, remainder to Ralph Wilson and 
his heirs male. The Wilsons, though the Nevilles had sunk below the 
horizon, were still to be connected with aristocracy. They became 
stewards for the Lumleys, and suffered severely for the crown and their 
patrons' cause. The Hodgsons were a Catholic family at Hebborne and 
Lanchester. 

PENCHER AND JESMOND. 31. Elizabeth, widow of William Lumley, 
Knt. [of Ravenshelme], lately wife of John Carlell, Knt., grants to her 
son, John Carlell, a messuage which William Halywell holds in the 
town of Penchare, with a toft and croft adjacent, and 48 acres of arable 
and 3 of meadow land there, which she holds as her dower of the in- 
heritance of her said son : and also 40 acres in Jesmond field, which she 
holds for her life of the same inheritance. 7 Dec., 12 Edw. IV. (1472). 
The lady died in 1483 ; her maiden name is unknown. Her seal is 
simple and elegant, a lion's head in full front. 

STANEHOP. 32. Admittance at the Halmot Court of the King, held at 
Wolsingham, of Isabella, widow of Richard Hogeson, to a whole tenura, 
viz., 2 acres of land in the Westfeild, and a parcel of land called Snayp- 
gayst, which were her husband's, to hold to her by widow's right ac- 
cording to custom. 

COLYEKLY AND FuosxEELEY. 33. Robert Tempest, of Gretham [the 
rebel of 1569], Esq., settles his hereditaments in Clolyerly and Froster- 
ley to the use of his wife Margaret for life remainder to Robert his 
son for life remainder to himself and heirs male rem. to Thomas 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 35 

Tempest, of Lanchestre, gent, [the founder of the Tempests of Stella 
and Old Durham]. 29 Mar., 5 Eliz. (1562-3). Seal, a martlet stand- 
ing upon a cinquefoil, a most interesting device. " The martlet and the 
cinqfoyle notes the Tempest's and UmfreviWs coates" In 1540, when he 
joined his uncle, Sir Thomas Tempest, in founding a chantry for the 
souls of the TJmfrevilles and Tempests at Holmside, he sealed with the 
cinquefoil only. 

MEDOMSLEY? 34. General release from Robert Smyth, of Benfelde- 
syde, co. Dur., yeoman, and Annes his wife, late wife and administratrix 
of Thomas Hopper, of Edesbrydge, co. Northd., yoman, to Eichard 
Hodshon, of Newcastle, merchant. 3 Aug., 21 Eliz. (1579). A most 
lively account of this Thomas Hopper's distracted death and dubious 
will is in the Ecclesiastical Proceedings, published by the Surtees Society. 
The release probably refers to a conveyance from Hodshon to Hopper in 
1571. 

As the recitals of this conveyance are interesting, the following 
abridgement in the words of the original is appended : 

Indenture made 4 Aug., 13 Eliz. Betwixt Rychard Hodshon of the 
towne of Newcastell upon Tyne, marchaunte and alderman, and Thomas 
Hopper, of Eides brigge, in the countie of Northumberland, yeoman. 
WITKESSYTHE that WHERE Kinge Edward the Syxte by his letteres patent, 
xxv Marche, in the seaventhe yeare of his reigne, dyde give unto Symon 
Welburye, of Castle Eden, yeoman, and Christofer Horlande, of Pytting- 
ton, yeoman, emongeste otheres, hismessuage and howse of the late College 
or Deanrie of Langchester, and all houses, landes, glebe landes, and other 
his hereditamentes, in Langchester, Meddomesleye, Eshe, Grenecrofte, 
Usshaw, and Cornesey, in the parishinge of Langchester, nowe or late 
in the tenur of Thomas Jarrard, Esquier, or his assignes, and to the 
late college aforsaide lately e belonginge; and his two messuages and 
tenementes, and all other landes, nowe or late in the severall tenures of 
John Smerthe, other wyse callede Snethe, and George Smerthe, other 
wyse Snethe, in Langchester, and to the late dyssolvede monestarye of 
Hexham somtyme belonginge ; and his yearlye rente of foure shillinges 
pennye halfpennye, and the service to our saide late Sovereigne Lord be- 
longinge, in Stanleye, in the countie of Durham, somtyme parcell of the 
late possessions of the late commandrye of the Mounte of Saincte John, in 
the countye of Yorke, 2 and to the late pryorie or hospitall of Saincte 
John in Jerusalem, in England, late belonginge ; and also all other landes 
and his hereditamentes whatsoever in Stanley aforsaide, somtyme of the 
saide late Commandrye. The possessions of the saide late College or 
Deanrie of Langchester to be holden of our saide late Sovereigne Lord 
his heires and successors as of his manor of Easte Grenewych in cheffe 
by the service of the foriie parte of one knightes fee ; and the posses- 
sions of the monasterie of Hexam, or of the Commandrye of the Mounte 

2 Mount Saint John, near Thirsk. 



36 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

of Saincte John, to be holden of our late Sovereigne, as of his manor of 
Easte Grenewyche, by fealtye onlye, in fee soeage, and not in cheffe. 
AND WHERE the said Symon Welburye and Christofer Morlande, 20 
July, 1 Marye, for 152?. 13s. \\d. haithe gevyn to Hodgshon the saide 
messuages, landes, and other there hereditamentes, in Langchester, Med- 
domesleye, Eshe, Grenecrofte, Usshaw, Cornesay, and Stanlaye. NOWE 
Hodshon, for 661. 13s. 4d., HAITHE gevyne unto the said Thomas Hop- 
per his messuage or tenemente in Meddomesley, late in the tenur of 
James Hunter, of Meddomesley, husbandman, "deceased, and also all 
landes, glebe landes, and other his hereditaments in Meddomesley. 1571. 
EYCHERD HODSHON. (Seal a tradesman's mark and E. H.) 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

LENT BY ROBERT RICHARDSON DEES, ESQ. 

These deeds relate exclusively to the eastern part of Newcastle ; and, as 
it will be observed, are of considerable interest in many respects. 

30 Nov., 38 Hen VI. (1451). Ealph Gray, Knt., 1 demises in per- 
petuity at 6s. 8d. rent, to William Jeynakres, a tenement in le Brad- 
chare, in the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which John Glanton lately 
held to himself, his heirs and assigns, of Gray and his heirs, and inha- 
bited while he lived. To hold to Jeynakres in fee. 

4 April, 11 Hen. VIII. (1520). John Snow, 2 of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, grants to John Doxforth, George Houghall, John Tode, and 
Eobert "Wilkynson, a house or stable near a messuage in le Brodechear 
now in the tenure of Snow, and late of John Coke, of the same town, 
merchant, deceased ; within these bounds, viz., between the said mes- 
suage on the west as far as the rivulet running under the said messuage 
on the east, and from the great messuage of the Lord of Luraley on the 
north as far as the said tenement late of John Coke on the south. 
Which house or stable Snow lately had by demise in perpetuity of 
Conand Barton. 3 To hold to Doxforth, &c. To the use specified on the 

1 Of TVarke, Heton, and Chillingham. Beheaded at Doncaster 4 Edw. IV. 

2 A person of that name was mayor in 1503. 

3 Representative of the Dolphanbys of Gateshcad. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 37 

back of this charter. Witnesses, John Brandlyng, 4 one of the aldermen 
of the said town, Robert Brandlyng, George Brandlyng, Thomas Her- 
bottell, &c. Seal, i & c 

Endorsement. " Memorandum that I John Snow wyll my said 

feoffes named in this said dede shall suffre the churchwardens for 

the tyme beyng of the church and chapell of Alhalowes in the town of 
Newcastell upon Tyne and ther successors .... to take levy and per- 
ceyve all the profyttes revenues and rents comyng and growyng out 
of the said house and stable to the onely use and for th'agmentacion 
of the reparacions of the said church and chapell of Alhalowes for ever." 

" Jhon Snow for the stabell." 

The last deed and that following (which is given at length) are cu- 
rious as evidencing the methods by which the churchwardens of those 
days kept their edifices in repair by means of trust property. The 
comparative plainness of town churches is a subject which might be en- 
larged on. 

John Cook, Coke, or Cokke, the donor, occurs as Mayor of Newcastle 
in 1477 and 1482. Edward Baxter, the purchaser, was Sheriff in 1609 
and Mayor in 1517, 1522, and 1523. He was a very eminent merchant 
of the town. In 1516-17 the Merchants' Company owed him 81 Qs. 
for money lent by his servant beyond sea, " for the sewyng down of 
of our towlls." The memorandum of this in the Company's books is 
signed " p 1 me Edward Baxter cler.' " There is a slight pedigree of 
his family in the Visitation of 1615. His wife was Alice, daughter of 
William Davell. His sons were, Matthew Baxter, who married the co- 
heir of Highfield, and Edward Baxter, who married a daughter of Lord 
Ogle. His mother was an heiress of Marshall, and her mother a co- 
heiress of De Euda. The death of John do Euda, the brother of the last 
lady, was singular. He was slain in Beverley West Wood by his child- 
less uncle, Sir John de Euda, Knight, to whom he seems to have been 
heir presumptive. 

THIS INDENTURE maide the Twenty day of May the xiij th yere of the 
reigne of Kyng Henry after the Conquest of England the Eight (1521) 
Bitwen the Meyre Aldremen Shirreff and Communaltie of the town of 
Newcastell upon Tyne, upon that one partie And Edward Baxter mer- 
chaunnt of the same town upon that other partie WITNESSETH that 
where the kyrkmaisters and parocheyns of the Churche of Alhalowes of 
the same town were seased of and in one house with the Appurtenancez 
lyggyng and sett in a strete within the said town and paroche called 
the Brodechear boundyng bitwen a tenement late of Bartram' Yong- 
husbandes now in the holdyng of James Cokerell on the North parte 

* The father of Sir Robert Brandling. 
F 



38 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

And a certeyn wast bylongyng to th' eyres of Conand Barton on the 
south parte And from the Kynges strete on the west parte to a tene- 
ment late of Robert Grene And now in the tenur of John Stelle wever 
on th'est parte by the right divises to theym and ther successors par- 
ocheyns of the same for ever Of the gifft and graunnt of John Coke 
late meyre & one of th' aldermen of the said town Which house sum- 
tym was the dwellyng place of the said John Cokke And late of John 
Snowe AND WHERE that John Tode John Doxforth Robert Wilkyn- 
son, and George Houghall late Kirkmaisters of the said Church by the as- 
sent of the nolle parocheyns aforsaid have fully solde gyven and graunnted 
the said house tenement & stabull with the appurtenauncez and Imple- 
mentes 5 to the same belongyng to the said Edward Baxter and his heyres 
forever as by ther dede with delyvere of seasyng beryng date the fourth 
day of May the yere of our soveraine lord kyng Henry the eight the 
thryttenth it aperith for the some of threscore and six poundes thrytten 
shillinges and four pens to theym paid in ther greate necessite for the 
buyldynges and reparacions of the said church of Alhalowes which was 
in greate ruyne and decaye at that tym And without the speciall ayde 
and helpe of the said Edward Baxter couthe nott at that tym have ben 
buylded As all We the said Meyre Aldermen Schirreff and communaltie 
well knowes and confesses by theiz presentez and that the said some of 
money was well & trewly bystowed of & for the buyldynge & Repara- 
cions aforsaid IN CONSIDERACTON wherof & in Recompence & Satisfac- 
tion of the said some of money All We the said Meyre Aldermen Shir- 
reff & communaltie Asmuch as in us is by thiez presentez gyves & graunts 
the same house tenement & stabull with th' appurtenancez to the said 
Edward Baxter To HAVE AND HOLDE the said tenement & house & stabull 
with all and everyt ther appurtenancez to the same Edward Baxter his 
heyres and assignes forever of the cheyff lordez of the fee by the service 
therof dewe & accustumed without any thyng therefor doyng or paying 
to the said Churche or to th'use therof in tym commyng AND MOROVER 
We the said Meyre Aldremen Shirreff & communaltie Ratifiez & con- 
fermez by thiez presentez to the said Edward Baxter his heyres and 
assignes forever all th'estate title possession & interest which he or eny 
other persone or personnes to his use have in the said house tenement 
& stabull with th' appurtenancez of the gifft of the said John Tode John 
Doxforth Robert Wilkynson & George Houghall Kirkmaisters of the 
church of Alhalowes aforsaid and of other the parocheyns of the same 
in as ample & large maner as they the same have gyven to hym for 
the causes aforsaid ALL THE WHICH giffts graunnts & confirmation We 
the aforsaid Meyre Aldermen Shirreff & communaltie have maide & 
done forasmuch as the said Edward Baxter hath well & trewly paid & 
contentid the said some of threscore & six poundes thrytten shillinges 
& four pens to the kyrkmaisters & parocheyns aforsaid for the well & 
profitte of the said church and for & aboute the same the said some 
hath bene well & trewly bystowed and employed without which money 
the buyldynges of the same cowth nott have bene hade Butt of lyklyhode 
the said church workes shuld nott have bene doone or performed AND 
MOROVER upon the salle yevyng and graunntyng of the said house & 

5 See this expression explained by a deed of 1564 infra. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 39 

stabull with th'appurtenancez and Implementes in forme afor reherced 
the said Edward covenanteth graunnteth & byndeth hym and his heyres 
unto the said John Tode John Doxforth Robert Wilkynson & George 
Houghall and all the parocheyns of the said paroche church of Al- 
halowes And to ther successors that every yere yerely forever The said 
Edward & his heyres upon ther propir costs & expenses shall cause to 
be celebrate & songen one Aniversary in the said churche of Alhalowes 
the sixten day of Juyne placebo & dirige with the masse of Requiem 
with noote And all the belles rongen 6 with the belman goyng aboute 
the towne as the maner is And a hedemasspenny offered at the masse 
for the soules of John Coke his wiffe ther faders & moders soules and all 
cristyn soules to the some of thre shillinges & seven pens AND FURTHER- 
MORE the said Edward wole & graunnteth by thiez presentez that if the 
saide Aniversary service aforsaid be nott done celebrate & songen every 
yere yerely and at the day afor reherced or within eight daies next 
after the said day That then it shalbe lefull to the church wardens of the 
said church for the tym beyng parocheyns of the said paroche & ther 
successors in all the said house with all th'apurtenancez & Implementes 
to Entre & distreyn & the distresses ther taken to leide here & dryve 
away and toward theym holde to tym the said Aniversary service be 
done celebrate & songen as is aforsaid Any graunnt maide to the contrary 
nott withstondyng IN WITKES wherof to the one partie of this Inden- 
tur remaynyng with the said Edward his heyres & assignes the said 
Kyrkmaisters hath sett ther Scales And for the more corroboracion 
therof the Meyre Aldremen Shirreff & communaltie to the said parte 
hath sett the common Seall of the said town And to the other parte 
therof remaynyng with the said Kirkmaisters parocheyns and ther 
successors the said Edward hath sett his Seall YEVEN at the said town 
of Newcastell the xx tt day of May and the yere afor reherced. 

[First seal wanting. Second, a signet, with a rude representation of 
the Virgin and Child. Third, broken and illegible. Fourth wanting. 
Fifth (the town seal) wanting.] Sigillat' et deliberat' in presencia 
scriptoris R Laivson scr. [Endorsed] For the housse in the Brod Chayre. 
[The date is filled in by a lawyer of the 17th or 18th century, "20 
May 13 K. Henry 1st. 1113."] 

12 March, 17 Hen. VIII. (1525-6). John Lumley, Lord of Lumley. 
Knt., demises in perpetuity to Agnes Arnalde, of Newcastle, widow, a 
tenement or messuage in le Erode Cheare between a tenement of Lord 
Lumley now in the tenure of Edmund Snowe on the north and a tene- 
ment of the same Lord Lumley on the south, and now in the tenure of 

6 "When the Bels be merrily rung, 
And the Mass devoutly sung, 
And the meat merrily eaten, 

Then is Rohert Traps, his wife and children quite forgotten. 
Wherefore Jhesu that of Mary sprong, 
Set their souls the Saints among ; 
Though it be undeserved on their side, 
Let them evermore thy mercy abide." 



40 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

Clays Clere, 1 and extending from the King's highway called le Erode 
Chear on the west unto le Burn Banke backward towards the east. Rent 
reserved, 7s. Signed, JTwn lord Lumley. 

In dorso. " Raffe Horden Cap. of the Mary Anne of Newcastell. 
Annes Arnold." 

9 Sep. 1 Edw. VI. (1547). This document is given at length. 

" Too all trewe Cristine people to whome thies presente lettres testi- 
monyalles shall come or the same shall here see or reed Henry Anderson 
maior of the Kings Majesties towne of Newcastle upon Tyne sendeth 
greatinge in our Lorde God everlastinge to whome apperteane dewe 
honoure and reverence Knowe you that where ther doo depende certane 
contrauersie bitwixt Agnes Arnolde laite wif to Richarde Arnolde laite 
of the saide towne of Newcastle upon Tyne Mariner decessed And Rauf 
Hardinge and Johannet his wif laite wif of "William Blacke of the saide 
towne Mariner decessed for and concerninge the title righte and Inter- 
este of one tenemente with th' appurtenances lyinge within the saide 
towne of Newcastle upon Tyne in a strete ther called Spicer Chare The 
whiche tenemente with th' appurtenances latelie did belonge to John 
laite Lord Lomley Knighte The saide Rauf Hardinge and Johannet his 
wif for the justificacion of ther Intereste in the saide tenemente with 
th' appurtenances the daye of makinge of thies presentes have broughte 
bifore me the said maior Robert Brandlinge 8 of the said towne of New- 
castle upon Tyne marchaunte one of the Justices of peax within tbe said 
towne and laite fermor of all the londes rentes and tenements latelie 
belonginge to the said laite Lorde Lomley within the said towne and 
nighe ther aboutes and Sir Thomas Halyman 9 preiste lately Receyver 
of all the londes belonginge to the said Lord Lomley of th' aige of xlix 
yeares Who have sworne and corporally deposed before me the said maior 
upon the holie evangeliste : That, if the said Agnes Arnolde or hir 
Antecessours were seased of and in the said tenemente or had any 
estaite of enheritaunnce in the same that the said Lord Lomley did not 
make his reentre for defalte of paymente of the rente dewe to hime at 
the daies accustumed to be paied but for the waiste maide upon the saide 
tenemente contrary his graunnte (as they suppose). For the saide 
deponentes saye, that they knowe the Lorde Lomley had his rente deulie 
paied at all times within sevon yeres before his reentre into the said 
tenemente All whiche premisses the said deponentes affirme to be trewe 
upon ther owne mere knowledge Wherfore I the said Maior require youre 
universities to accepte and take thies Lettres testimonialles for a suffici- 
ent declaracion in this bihalve IN WITNES whereof I &c. have put the 
Seall of my office." 9 Sep 1 Edw. YI. Seal. See Brand, plate ii., fig. 
2. A small foliated counter seal. 

7 In the recital of this deed in 4 Edward VI., this singular name is spelt Claice Clere. 

8 Knighted at Musselburgh hy the Duke of Somerset. 

9 The Hallimans were stewards to the Lords Lumley for some descents. They 
originated at Fulthorpe, near Grindon. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 41 

25 Feb., 4 Edw\ VI. (1550-1). Richard Busshe, citezen and Lether- 
seller, of London, and Agnes his wife, daughter and heire of Agnes 
Arnolde, wedowe, deceassed, convey all their estate in the premises 
granted by Lumley in 17 Hen. VIII., to John More, citizen, and 
Parisshe Clarke of London, yielding 7s. yearly to Lord Lumley. "p. 
me Rycherd JBusshye" Seal, a merchant's marke. Agnes signs by mark. 

26 May, 4 and 5 Phil, and Mar. (1558). William Dent, of New- 
castle, gent., demises in perpetuity to Henry Brandlynge, of the same 
town, merchant, 10 a garden in the street called Erode Chaire, between a 
tenement belonging to Lord Lumley, lately in the tenure of Isabella 
Foderbie, widow, on the south, and a vennel called the Heade of the 
Erode Chaire, on the north, and extending from the said street before on 
the west unto a rivulet called Pandon Borne backward to the east. 
Endorsed " Wyllm. Dent for Walknowll Mr. Dent for the wast besyd 
Fotherbie in the St'k brige." 

4 Sep., 4 Eliz., 1562. Robert Brandelinge, of Newcastle, 11 Knight, 
conveys to Edward Johnson, of Newcastle, mariner, two burgages or 
tenements lying together in Spycer Lane, abutting on a vennel called 
the Stonye Hyll, 12 on the north, a burgage, in the tenure of John Grene, 
on the south, the King's street called Spycer Lane on the east, and a 
burgage belonging to John Bower, taylor, on the west : and a rent of 
10s. proceeding from a burgage in Spycer Lane in which Johnson now 
lives, abutting on a burgage in the tenure of Richard Smalcheare, on the 
south, a burgage in the tenure and occupation of Thomas Atcheson, on 
the north, Spicer Lane on the west, and on the rivulet called le Burne 
Eancke on the east : and a burgage in Spycer Lane now in the tenure 
and occupation of the said Thomas Atcheson, abutting on the burgage in 
which Johnson lives, on the south, a tenement belonging to Robert 
Hallyman, and in the several tenures of Thomas Fyeffe and Robert 
Raye, on the north, on Syycer Lane on the west, and on Burne Bancke 
on the east : and a burgage in Erode Chayre, abutting upon a house 
called a Horse Mylne, on the north, a mansion house called The Mansion 
Place, belonging to the said Robert Hallyman, 13 on the south, le Erode 
Chayre on the west, unto le courte garthe of the mansion of the said Robert 

10 Younger brother to Sir Robert Brandlyng mentioned below, and the same 
Henry that comes hereafter 

11 He acquired Felling and Gosforth by his marriage with Anne Place, the coheir 
of her mother, Catherine Surtecs. Dying" childless, these estates passed to the blood 
of his brother, Thomas Brandling. 

12 Vide Brand, i, sub tit. 

13 Of Lumley Castle. 



42 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

Hallyman on the east. Seal, the crest of Brandling, the burning brand. 

In 1564, John Baxter, of Hebburne, 14 co. Durham, Esq., son and 
heir of Matthew Baxter, late of Newcastle, merchant, conveys to Henrye 
Brandelinge, of Newcastell, marchante, his great mansyon house or 
tenemente in the Brode Chare, now in the occupacion of Brandlinge, 
betweene a tenement in the occupacion of Edward Creake onn the 
northe, and a horse mylne in the occupacion of Brandelinge onn the 
south, and extendethe frome the Broade Chayre onn the weste, unto a 
tenemente in Pandon, in the tenure of wedowe Brockehouse, otherwyse 
callede wedowe Stele, onn the easte : and his burgage or tenemente in 
Sandegate ; and one house, commonlye called a Maste House, with a 
piece of waste grounde adjoyninge to the said tenemente ; which tene- 
mente, and parcell of waste, and maste house, lyethe betweene a tene- 
mente in the occupation of John Taylyer, maryner, onn the easte, and 
the tenemente nowe in the occupacion of John Kyrksoppe onn the weste, 
and extendethe from Sandgate, onn the northe, unto the grounde ebe of 
the water of Tyne, onn the southe : and all brewe leades, steape leades, 
seasters, pressers, and all other implements 15 in the said greate mansyone 
house, and other the premyses. Henry Wicliffe is one of the witnesses. 

10 July, 1578 [proved 19 Jan. 1578-9]. "Will of Henry Brandlinge, 
of Newcastle, marchant. 16 " To be buried in St. Nicholas church as nye 
my father [John Brandling, often Mayor] as may be. To the vicar for 
my forgotten tieth 6s. 8d., with my mortuarie. To my welbeloved 
sonne, Robert Brandling, begotten of my first wife, Margaret, my two 
winde mills, called the Easter and Wester Mills, with a close perteyninge 
to the Easter Mill, and fower leazes wherupon the Wester Mill doth 
stande ; alsoe a greate house called Pandon Hall ; one other tenement in 
the tenure of James Watson, weaver ; one tenement in the tenure of 
Margaret Wilkinson, wedowe; three tenements above the stares, and 
one cellar under the same; two tenements adjoyninge to the same, 

wherein John Lawson doth dwell ; the late in the tenure of 

John English, mariner ; and one tenement on the Plesher Rawe, in the 
tenure of Eichard Burnup, merchant : To holde to my sonne Eobert [in 
tail male, rem.] to my sonne, Richard Brandlinge, begotten of my wife 
Ursula [in tail male, rem.] to my sonne William Brandling [in tail male, 
rem. over.] To my sonne Richard Brandlinge, begotten of my wife 

14 The Hebburn estate was acquired by his grandfather Edward. It was sold by 
this John to the Hodshon family. 

15 See the Indenture of 1521. 

16 See his marriages and issue in Surtees, ii, 92. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 43 

Ursula, my house new builded in the Close ; one house called the Maste 
House, with a tenement to the forestreet, and a waist grounde perteyn- 
ing to the same, in Sandegate ; two garths with three riggs or leazes, and 
one tenement with one garth and one rigg without Pilgrim Street gate, 
on the east side. \_Cetera desunt.~] 

The remaining deeds relate only to to the great mansion house in Broad 
Chare. The seven sons of Robert Brandling 17 enumerated by Surtees, 
seem to have died without male issue; and in 1615 we find Elizabeth, 
the widow of Richard his brother, a merchant of Newcastle (having 
dower or jointure), and Henry Brandling, of Newcastle, gent., her son, 
the persons interested in the mansion. A dreary array of mortgages 
follow ; some of them to Anthony Swinborne, a gentleman of Elswick ; 
and in 1617 the property was alienated by the mother and son to 
William Cooke, a master and mariner, of Newcastle. One of Brandling's 
seals in that year is remarkable. It never had any device. In lieu, a 
lay leaf is doubled and placed on the front, and the wax being turned 
down on one side fixes it there. "William Matthew, in an exceedingly 
delicate hand, attests the livery of seisin to Cooke. He was the 
draughtsman of Speed's Map of Newcastle, and unfortunately has omitted 
the names of the streets. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

Gateshead. 



17 His wife's name was Margaret, and he is evidently the person commemorated in 
the obliterated rhymes at All Saints' church which conclude with 
" Like as the brand doth flame and burn 
So we from di-ath to life must turn." 

*** 1 Jan., 1624. Agnes Norris, of Newcastle, widow, leases to William Mongey 
and Thomas Harrison, of the same town, mariners, a burgage in the Broad Garth or 
Chare, formerley used as a lofte and sellor. The counterpart is signed by Mongey 
and Harrison by marks, and they seal with a swan or perhaps a pelican, and W. 
(Qu. the pelican crest of Norris of Scotland ?) Thomas Claphamson is a witness. 



44 



ACCOUNT OF THE CORNAGE OP THE COUNTY OF NORTH- 
UMBERLAND, RENDEEED AT THE EXCHEOJJEE, IN THE 49iH YEAE 
or HENEY III., BY ROBEET DE LISLE, SHEEIFF. 

THE following account is derived from the Red Book of the Exchequer, 
in which it immediately follows the account of the Castle- ward rents 
payable to the Castle of Newcastle, communicated on a previous occasion 
to this Society. Bourne has assumed that Cornage, as well as Castle- 
ward, was a "rent or revenue arising to this Castle, " and has printed 
an imperfect statement of the Cornage of those Baronies of Northumber- 
land which also paid Castle-ward to Newcastle. Of these, however, the 
number was only 11, whereas all the Baronies of Northumberland, 23 
in number, as well as 9 other estates, held by a different tenure (Dren- 
gage), were charged with Cornage. 

Cornage was also paid in the counties of Cumberland, "Westmor- 
land, and Durham, as well as in Northumberland. In the two first it 
was designated Geldum animalium, Neat-geld, or Nout-geld; in the 
third, on one occasion, Cornagium animalium. 1 

This seems to imply either that the Cornage in those counties was a 
rent for the depasturing of cattle, or was paid in cattle. In Northum- 
berland the term Cornagium is used alone, and may either mean simply a 
Crown-rent ( Coronagium) ', or a rent payable in horned c,ati\.Q(CornuagiumJ. 

The popular notion of the tenure involving the winding of a horn in 
case of invasion, although repeated by Judge Littleton, is too ridiculous 
to be entertained. In Cumberland the Cornage tenants were bound to 
attend the King in his expeditions into Scotland, in the van in going, 
and in the rear in returning. 2 In Northumberland (except the Drengs 
mentioned above), they held by Knight-service, and were subject to all 
the imposts incident to that tenure, as well as to the payment of 
Cornage. It was possibly on this account that the Cornage of North- 
umberland was so much smaller in amount than that of Cumberland 
or even of "Westmorland ; or it may have been (assuming the payment 
to have been originally made in cattle), that a commutation was 
effected in Northumberland at an earlier period, when the relative value 

1 Pipe Eolls, Cumberland, "Westmorland, and Durham. 
3 Testa de Nevil. 



ACCOUNT OF THE CORNAGE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 45 

of specie was higher. The Cornage of the several counties, as appears 
from the Pipe Rolls, was at an early period as follows : 

Cumberland 31st of Henry I 85 8 8 

Westmorland 23rd of Henry II 55 19 3 

Durham 31st of Henry II 110 5 5 

Northumberland . . 10th of Henry II 20 

Until the above year (10th of Henry II.) no payment of Cornage is 
recorded in the accounts of the Sheriffs of Northumberland. A pay- 
ment is then made for three years together, and this system of account- 
ing triennially is continued till the 4th of John, after which the 
payments are made annually. 

In the 10th of Henry II. an allowance is made to the Sheriff of 8?,, 
being at the rate of 4 marks per annum, in respect of the Cornage 
of the Liberty of Tyndale, "the land of William the brother of the 
King of Scotland," which had not been received. This allowance was 
subsequently reduced to 2J marks, and was discontinued altogether 
from the 19th of Henry II. (in which the King of Scotland aided the 
young King Henry in his rebellion against his father) to the 10th of 
Richard I. From this date the allowance of 2^ marks is resumed. 
In the 4th or 5th of John, the Prior of Tynemouth was relieved from 
the payment of Cornage in respect of all his lands in Northumberland, 
amounting to 24*. The amount which appears in the Pipe Rolls as 
actually paid by the Sheriff under the head of Cornage in the 49th of 
Henry III. is 171. 2s. 8d. } and not ISl. 4s. 6d., as it is returned in the 
document in the Red Book. The former sum represents the old rent 
of 20?., less the deductions of 1\ marks, the Cornage of Tyndale, 
and II. 4*. remitted to the Prior of Tynemouth. A larger sum, there- 
fore, appears to have been received by the Sheriff than he was bound 
to pay over to the Exchequer ; nor were the receipts of the Sheriff uni- 
form, though the payments to the crown were so, as we find that the 
181. 4s. 6d. returned by Robert de Lisle was more by Is. Wd. than the 
receipts of his predecessors. 

In like manner, the sums charged by the tenants in capite against 
their mesne tenants were larger than their own payments in respect of 
Cornage. Thus we find the Cornage of the Barony of Appleby, in West- 
morland, was 41?. 12s. 11^., whilst the mesne tenants paid 52. Is. 6d. 3 
In the same way the Prior of Tynemouth paid II. 4s., and received from 
his tenants 2l. 9*. 7d* In both these instances the lord of the fee was 

3 Nicholson and Burn's Westmorland. 

4 Tynemouth Cartulary, in Brand's Newcastle. 



46 ACCOUNT OF THE CORKAGE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

ultimately relieved from the impost altogether, but no remission was 
made to the sub-tenants. 

Besides the Baronies and Drengage tenements, there were several 
estates in Northumberland held by Serjeanty, but none of these appear 
in the Sheriff's return as liable to Cornage, if we except the Barony of 
Beanley (Baronia Comitis PatriciiJ, which, although entitled a Barony, 
was held by Grand Serjeanty. 

JOHN HODGSON HINDE. 

Acton Howe. 



In the Book called "The Red Book of the Exchequer" (remaining in 
the custody of the Queen's Remembrancer of the Court of Exchequer, 
at Westminster), at folio 195J, there is found amongst other matters 
as follows : that is to say. 

Compotus de Cornagiis N"orthumbri(zredditu8 ad Scaccariam anno 
Regis Henrici xlix. per Holer turn de Insula Vicomitem. 

De Baronia de Yescy lx*. 

De Baronia de Werck' xxvs. 

De Baronia de Musco Campo xxvii*. 

De Baronia Comitis Patricii xx. xdf. 

De Baronia de Mitforde xxxis. iiii 

De Baronia de Bothale viiis. viii^. 

De Baronia de Morpath' xxv. vi^. 

De Baronia de Walton' xs. 

De Baronia de Bayllol xxv*. 

De Baronia de Bolebek' xxxii*. 

De Baronia Dumfraunvill' xxis. viiid. 

De Baronia de Heron vs. ~x.d. 

De Baronia de Boliun viiis. 

De Baronia de Diveliston' xiiii*?. 

De Baronia de Laval iiis. Hid. 

De Baronia de Surtays xiiii^. 

De Baronia de Gaugy viis. 

De Baronia de Bradeforde xiiii^. 

De Baronia de Tindale viiis. i 

De Baronia Johannis Vicomitis quam Ed- 

mundus filius Regis Henrici tenet .... viii*. 
De Baronia Radulphi filii Rogeri iiii*. 



ACCOUNT OF THE CORNAGE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 47 

De Terra de Wytinham et Wlielmi de Es- 

selinton' , iiii*. 

De Johanne de Esselinton xiiii*?. 

De Caluley ii*. iiiic?. 

De Baronia de Heppehale ixs. 

De Hawilton' ii*. iii 

De Terra Thomae filii Liulphi iii*. 

De Trockelawe xiiiid?. 

De Bedenlial xiiiit?. 

De Mollifen' xiiiR 

De Chyvinton' (Baronia) xiiiuZ. 

De Kyhille xiiiit?. 

Summa xviii?. iiii*. \id. videlicet xxii<?. plus quam 
alii solebant respondere preter priorem de Tine- 
mue et terras Regis Scotiae. 

/"Office Copy.} 



48 



THE HOSPITAL OE ST. LEONARD, 

IN THE PAJBISH OF ALNWICK. 

SINCE I sent the communication to your Society respecting this Hos- 
pital (printed in the Archseologia ^Sliana, iii., p. 48), much further 
information has been obtained concerning it. I must first correct former 
errors, before I allude to the discovery of its true site. 

This Hospital, it is stated, was founded by Eustace de Yescy for the 
soul of his wife's grandfather, Malcolm III. ; but it should have been 
his wife's great great grandfather thus : 

MALCOLM, slain 1093, =F 
at Alnwick. 



DAVID, King of Scot-=r= 
land, died 1153. 



HENRY, died 1152, 
vit& patris. 



WILLIAM THE LION, -r 
died 1214. 

jMM 

LORD EUSTACE DE VESCY, = MARGARET, his natural 
died 1216. daughter. 

I stated, in my former communication, that the well called Malcolm's 
"Well "does not now exist." This was thought to be the case at 
that time ; but the well has since been discovered. And it was also 
supposed that the present cross, at the top of the hill, marked the place 
where the Hospital stood ; by the late discoveries, however, that is also 
proved not to be correct. 

With these three exceptions, my former paper upon the subject may 
be depended upon for accuracy. 

It is stated in the chronicles of the Abbey 

1st. That the Chapel of St. Leonard was founded on the spot where 
King Malcolm was mortally wounded. 

2nd. That that event took place near to a certain spring, thencefor- 
ward called " Malcolm's Well." 



THE HOSPITAL OF ST. LEONARD. 49 

On the 5th of June, 1845, on ploughing a field on the flat ground a 
little lower down the hill than the present cross, several carved stones 
were turned up ; and, upon examination, the foundations of a chapel 
and other buildings were discovered. On further search, it was found 
that there had been on this spot an ancient burial ground. About thirty 
skeletons of human remains were observed, and all with their faces laid 
towards the east many of them children, as well as adults. Several 
portions of the building were dug up, such as a holy- water vase the 
stones of a Norman arch and doorway, with a lozenge pattern upon it 
a considerable portion of the water table, shewing the slope of the 
roof to have been what is called ''high-pitched" the socket which 
formed the apex of the gable, into which the shaft of a cross had been 
inserted portions of the capitals, shafts, and bases of columns frag- 
ments of ornamental bordering dog-toothed and chevron mouldings 
several coffin lids, with crosses carved upon them but no inscriptions. 
One stone coffin was of an elegant shape, with a complete skeleton in it ; 
being near the surface, it was taken up, but it was sunk again into its 
resting place six feet deep. 

From this discovery, there can be no doubt that these stones formed 
part of the building of the Chapel of the Hospital of St. Leonard. Near 
to it were the foundations of many other buildings. 

A few yards to the north-west of the Chapel an ancient well was found, 
where water had been drawn by the inmates of the Hospital ; it was 
about four or five feet deep, and the sides of the stones were worn by 
constant use in letting down vessels to bring up water. Prom its antique 
appearance, and being so near to the Chapel, there can be no doubt that 
this was the identical spring which the old chronicler mentions as that 
which was called "in the English tongue Malcolm's "Well." 

The stones which were discovered buried in this site in 1845, have 
been rebuilt to a certain extent, on the spot, at the expense of His Grace 
the Duke of Northumberland, under the advice of Mr. Salvin, his 
Grace's architect, in this present year, 1855. 

The Norman arch is a very good one, and almost perfect ; it shews the 
style of architecture to have been of a Norman character. 

Much more information might be collected respecting this event, but 
it would not be advisable to load the proceedings of this Society with 
them ; it is sufficient to place upon record the leading features of the 
case, and thus to point out the spot where an event of so much import- 
ance took place as the slaying of the King and his eldest son and heir- 
apparent to his throne. 

WM. DICKSON, F.S.A. 
Alnwich, 29 Dec. 1855. 



50 



ORDER FOR THE REPAIR OF THE WEST GATE, 

NEWCA.STLE-UPON-TYNE. 

ROT. CLAUS. xi. EDW. 3. (1337.) 
De portd quos vocatur Westgate in Villa Novi Castri super Tinam 



REX dilectis sibi Major! et Ballivis villse suoe Novi Castri super Tynam 
salutem. Mandamus vobis quod, de firma vestra quam nobis reddere 
tenemini ad scaccarium nostrum pro villa predicta de annis presenti et 
preterite, per visum et testimonium dilectorum nobis Ricardi de Acton 
et Roberti de Shilvyngton seu eorum alterius, usque ad summam quadra- 
ginta librarum, in reparacionem et construccionem iilius portaa quae voca- 
tur le Westgate et pontis versatilis ibidem, quse quidem porta in debiliori 
loco clausturae villse predictse situata existit et in magna sua parte dirruta 
est et confracta, cum celeritate qua commode fieri potent, poni facietis. 
Et custus quos, circa reparacionem et construccionem portaD et pontis, 
predictorum, usque ad summam dictarum quadraginta librarum, sic appo- 
sueritis, cum illos sciverimus, vobis in firma vestra predicta allocari 
faciemus. Teste Rege apud Turrim London vj die Aprilis. 

Per ipsum Regem. 

JAMES RAINE, M.A. 
Crook Hall, Durham. 



51 



CERTAIN DOUBTS WHEREIN THE FREEHOLDERS OF THE 

COUNTY OF DTJEHAM DESIRE TO BE RESOLVED BY HIS MAJESTIE's JUDGES 
OF ASSISE OF THE SAME COUNTIE ACCORDING TO AN ORDER BY THEM 
MADE AT THE LAST ASSISTS HOLDEN AT DURHAM THE lllH OF AUG. 1628. 

(Hunter's MSS.J 

THE Deane and Chapter of Durham are seised in fee in right of their 
Church of diverse Manners, Townes, Hamletts, Granges, and Tenements, 
within the Countie of Durham ; all which are sett and valued in the 
General Book of Rates of the County. And the Townships which or- 
dinarily consist of the Tenements usually demised by them to their 
tenants do without contradiction contribute to the Common Charge of 
the Country according to the Rates. 

The Demaines of the Manners, the Granges, and some of the Ham- 
letts, are by the statutes of their House severally allotted to the Deane 
and Prebends, for their Lay Corps [Enumerating them]. 

All these the Deane and Prebends respectively, for the time being, 
have in their own Manuall occupations, or demise them to others at a 
rack rent, and themselves take leases of them from the Corporation de- 
terminable at Michaelmas after their deaths or removealles ; upon which 
leases are reserved to the church the antient rents. 

Now the Question growes whether the Deane and Prebends should 
not contribute for those lands, according to their Rates, to the Common 
Charges of the Country, as namely, to the charges of 

His Majesties Purveyance, for which the Country payes the Com- 
position of 100^. per annum. 

The Bridges, 22 Hen. 8, cap. 5. 

The Gaole, 14 Eliz. cap. 50. 

The Marshalsey and King's Bench. 

The Poore, 43 Eliz. cap 2. 

Mariners and Soldiers, 43 Eliz. cap. 3. 

The House of Correction, 39 Eliz. cap. 4, and 7 Jacob. I. cap. 2. 

Infected Persons of the plague, 1 Jacobi. 

Common Armor of the Country. 

Provision for Powder, Shott, and Match, for the Common Trayned 
Bands, and "Watching of Beacons. By several Directions from 
his Majestye and the Lord of the Counsell. 

Setting forth of Soldiers, and furnishing of them for his Majestic' s 
Service, as of late there hath been two several times ; and set- 
ting forth of Shipps for his Majestie's Service. 

And all other such like Common Charge of the Country. 

All which, except that for the poor, upon the statute 43 Eliz., are 
usually rated and taxed, and antiently have been levyed according to 
the said Book of Rates, which they of late years refuse to bear or con- 



52 RATING OF CHURCH LANDS. 

tribute unto, as also the charge of the poor in the several parishes, 
where their lay corps lyes, whereby the burthen of the said charge growes 
heavy to the other freeholders and layetie there. 

And the like question is for the lands belonging to the Hospitalls of 
Shereburn House and Gretham, which have large possessions : of which 
the Hospitall of Shereburn House stands in the Book of Eates, and 
hath paid till of late that they not only refuse to contribute towards the 
said charges for their lands in their own occupations ; but also will not 
suffer their tenants, which have leases of them for lives or years, to pay 
for the lands so demised. 

And so likewise whether the Glebe lands of Parsonages ought not to 
contribute to all or some of the said Common Charges. 

And whether Parks, whereof there is great profitt made by the her- 
bage, are not likewise to contribute, of which Lumley Parke stands in 
the Book of Eates, and hath paid till of late. 

And whether Parkes that are now of late disparked, and some other 
lands in the countrye, which have not heretofore been taxed and rated, 
ought not likewise to pay, and by whom and in what sort they are to be 
taxed and rated. 

And whether the Glebe Lands and Tythes of the Deaneryes of Darne- 
ton, Chester, Lanchester, and St. Andrew Auckland, which came upon 
the Dissolution to the Croune, and have not yet been charged, and 
being now in Laymen's hands, ought to contribute to sessments in the 
country. 

And lastly, whether the JJishop's Demaines which stands antiently 
taxed in the Book of Eates, and paid accordingly till of late years, and 
are for the most part letten forth upon the Eack to farmers, ought not 
still to contribute, and be lyable to the foresaid charges as formerly they 
were accustomed. 

"Wee know no differences in being subject to the rates above men- 
tioned between the possessions of the clergye, either in their own 
hands, or of their tenants and the laitye. And Wee conceive 
that the Demesnes of Bishops, Deanes or Prebends, Parkes which 
yeild profitt, and Glebe of Eectories, are subject to contribute to 
the Eates and Charges above mentioned, as well as the farmers 
and possessions of other laymen. 

Ni: Hyde Jo. Walter 

Tho : Eichardson John Denham 

Eichard Hutton Will. Johnes 

James Whitlock Geo. Coake 

Fr. Harvey H. Yelverton 

Tho. Trevor George Yernon. 

I am of the same opinion, 

Humfray Davenport. 

27 July, 1630. 



53 



EXTRACTS FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS OF 
ECCLESIASTICAL POSSESSIONS, PRESERVED IN LAMBETH 
PALACE. 

FOR a copy of the extracts here given, the Society is indebted to the 
subscribers to the Hodgson Fund, established by the Mends of the late 
Rev. John Hodgson, the Historian of Northumberland, for the purchase 
or transcription of MSS. connected with the subjects of his unfinished 
labours. 

They contain all the surveys which relate to Cathedral property in 
Northumberland; but similar particulars are preserved at Lambeth of 
all the Rectories in the county of Durham, belonging to the Dean and 
Chapter, of which that of Jarrow only is here printed. 

THE RECTORIE or CORBRIDGE WITHIN THE COUNTIE OF 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 

ALL that the Rectory or Parsonage of Corbridge, within the county of 
Northumberland, with all houses and barnes, edifices, oblacions, tithes 
of corne and sheaves, and all other the appurtenances, profnts, and com- 
modities belonginge to the saide Parsonage of Corbridge, except and 
allwayes reserved the tithes and sheaves of Dilston, in the holdinge of 
Roger Gray, of Chillingham, Esq., and alsoe the mansion-house with 
the tithes thereof, and the appurtenances thereunto belonginge, in the 
houldinge of Thomas Hudspeth, and with the temporall lands and tene- 
ments and theire appurtenances thereunto belonginge, now in the hold- 
inge and occupacion of severall tenants : that is to say, the tithe of corne 
and sheaves of corne and graine, comeinge, growinge, ariseinge, and 
yearelye and every yeare reneweing, within the towneshipps, feilds, and 
closes of the severall townes, villages, and hamletts of Corbridge, Halton, 
Aden Castell, the towne of Aden, Greate Whittington, Little Whitting- 
ton, Halton Sheilds, Carr-houses, Clarewood, and Linnells, together 
with all oblations, profitts, and comodities, with all and singuler the ap- 
purtenances to the aforesaid Rectory or Parsonage of Corbridge (except 
before excepted) whatsoevr belonginge. All which aforesayde Rectory 
or Parsonage of Corbridge, with all and singulare the appurtenances 
thereunto belonginge or appertayneinge, are now in the possession of 
Cuthbt. Heron, of Chipchase, in the county of Northumberland, Esqr., 
or his assignes, and are worth, upon improvement, per annum / 200?. 



34 EXTRACTS FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS 

Memorandum. That the afforesayde Cuthbt Heron by indenture 
of lease dated the third day of June, in the xvj . yeare of the raigne 
of the late king Charles, graunted by Thomas Cumber, Dean, and the 
Chapter of Carlile, unto him the aforesaid Cuthbt. Heron, his executors 
and assignes, holds all the last mentioned premisses from the date for 
and dureinge the tenne of xxi tie yeares, yeeldinge and payeing there- 
fore to the sayde Deane and Chapter, and theire successors, the 
yearely rent of twentie pounds eighteene shillings and eightpence att 
the feasts of the purification and St. Peter Advincula, comonly 
called Lammas-day, or within xl tie dayes, but are worth upon im- 
provement, over and above the old rent, communibus annis 1 79. Is. 4d. 

With covenant that if the rent bee behind and unpaid at the dayes 
lymited the lease to be voyde. 

The lessee to repaire the chauncell of the church of Corbridge with 
all necessary reparacion, and alsoe all the houses, barnes, and edifices 
belonginge to the premisses, att his or their chardge, and soe to leave 
them sufficiently repay red att the end of the lease. 

There were to come of the lease the third of June, 1649, twelve 
yeares. 

DILSTON, PARTE OF THE RECTORY OF CORBRIDGE. 

ALL the come tithe, and sheaves of corne and graine comeing, growe- 
ing, chaunceing and renewing, within the towneshipp, fields, closes, ter- 
ritoryes, precincts, and bounds of Dilston, alias Devilston, parte and 
parcell of the Eectoryof Corbridge, within the countye of Northumberland, 
with all ways, easements, profitts, comodities, and appurtenances to the 
same belonginge, and therewith leased and enjoyed as parte, parcell, and 
member, of the same. All which said tithe of corne and graine of Dil- 
ston, with the appurtenances, are now in the possession of Orsula Rad- 
cliffe, daughter of Sir Edward Radcliffe, within the county of North- 
umberland, or his assignes, and are worth per annum 27 7. 

Memorandum. That the afforesayde Ursula Radcliffe, by indenture 
of lease dated the xxij th day of May, in the xvij 411 yeare of the late 
Kinge Charles, graunted by Thomas Cumber, Deane of the Chapter 
of Carlile, holds all the last mentioned premises, with appur- 
tenances, from the date for the terme of xxj tie yeares, payeinge there- 
fore the yearly rente of five pounds att the feasts of St. Peter 
Advincula and the Puriffication or within xl tie dayes, but are worth 
uppon improvement over and above the ould rent, communibus annis, 
44J. 

"With covenant, &c. 

There were to come of the said lease the xvij th day of May, 1650, 
twelve yeares. 

THE TITHE CORNE OF THE RECTORYE OF WHITTINGHAM IN THE COUNTY 
OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

ALL that the corne, and sheaves of corne, and graine of what kind 
soever comeing, &c., within the towneshipp, feilds, closes, territories, and 



OF ECCLESIASTICAL POSSESSIONS. 55 

precincts of Eslington, Great Ryle, Thrunton, Barton, and Shawdon, 
belonging and apperteyninge to the Rectory and Parsonage of Whitting- 
ham, within the countye of Northumberland, with all and singular the 
appurtenances thereunto belonging and appertayneing. All, &c., now in 
the possession of Cuthbt. Collingwood or his assignes, 47. 6s. Sd. 

Memorandum. That the aforesayde Cuthbert Collingwood, by in- 
denture of lease dated the sixt day of October, in the xiiij th yeare of 
late king Charles, graunted by Thomas Cumber, Deane, and the Chapp- 
ter of Carlile, unto him the said Cuthbert Collingwood, his executors, 
administrators, and assignes, holds all the last mencioned premisses 
from the date for and dureing the terme of xxi tie yeares, payeinge 
therefore unto the sayde Deane and Chapter, and theire successors, 
the yearely rent of eight pounds three shillings and fowre pence 
within the porch of the parish church of St. Nicholas, in the Towne 
of Newcastle uppon Tine, at the feast of St. Peter Advincula, comonly 
called Lamas day, or the next morning in the forenoon; but are 
worth uppon improvement, over and above the saide old rent, 39/. 3s. 4d. 

With covenant, &c. 

The lessee to repaire the chancell of the church of Whittingham, 
according to his proportion, with all necessarie repaireacions, and not to 
clayme or challenge any such tithes as the Viccar of Whittingham, 
his predecessors or successors, nowe have or had, or at any time heer- 
after may haue in right of the said Viccaridge. 

There were to come of this lease the sixt of October, 1649, tenn 
yeares. 

THE TITHE CORNE OF THE TOWNESHIPP OF WHITTINGHAM, PASTE OF THE. 
SAIDE RECTORIE, WITHIN THE COUNTY OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

ALL the tithe come, and sheaves of corne, and graine, comeing, &c., 
within the towenshipp, feilds, closes, territories, and precincts, an& 
bounds of Whittingham, in the countye of Northumberland, with all 
wayes, &c., All &c., nowe in the possession of Henry Tallentire^ of 
Whittingham, aforesayde, clerke, or his assignes, and are worth per an- 
num, 2QL 

Memorandum. That the aforesayde Henry Tallentire, assigneee of 
Thomas Tallentire, of the cyttie of Carlisle, within the countye of 
Cumberland, gentleman, by indenture of lease dated the xxiij th of 
November in the xvij th yeare of the late kinge Charles, graunted by 
Thomas Cumber, Deane, and the Capter of Carlyle, holds all the last 
mencioned premisses from the date for the terme of xx tie yeares, paye- 
inge anually five pounds att the feasts of St. Peter Advincula, com- 
monly called Lamas Day, or within xl tie dayes. But are worth upon 
improvement, over and above the old rent, communibus annis, 411. 

With covenant &c. 

There were to come of the lease the 25 th of November, 1 649, xiij 
yeares. 



56 EXTRACTS FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS 

THE TITHE CORNE OF CALLALEY, YETLINGTON, LITTLE RYLE, GLANTON, 
AND CARESLEY HOUSE, PARTE or THE EECTORY OP WHITTINGHAM, IN 

THE COUNTIE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

ALL that the tith corne, and sheaves of come, and graine, cominge, 
&c., within all and every of the severall towneshipp feilds, closes, ter- 
ritories, precincts, and bounds of the severall townes, villages and ham- 
letts of Callaley, Yetlington, Little Rile, Glanton, and Caresley House, 
parte of the Rectorie of Whittingham, in the countie of Northumberland, 
and with all wayes, &c., late in the possession of Sir John Claveringe, 
of Callaley, in the countie of Northumberland, kt., deceased, but since 
sequestred and fin] the hands of the publicke, worth per annum 63L 6s. Sd. 

Memorandum. That the aforesaide Sir John Clavering, knight, by 
indenture of lease dated the 21st day of July, in the xiiij th yeare of 
the late King Charles, graunted by the late Deane and Chapter of 
Carlile, held all the last mentioned premisses to him, his executors 
and assignes, from the date for and dureing the terme of xxi tie yeares, 
yeelding and payeing therefore yearely vijl. xvis. viijd. att the Feast of 
St. Peter Advincula, comonly called Lamas day, or within xl tie dayes 
after ; but worth uppon improvement, over and above the old rente, 
communibus annis, 56/. 

With covenant, &c. 

There were to come of the lease the xi tti day of July, 1650, nyne 
yeares. 

LORBOTTLE, PARTE OF THE RECTORY OF WHITTINGHAM. 

ALL that the tithe corne, and sheaves of corne, and graine, cominge 
&c., within the towneshipp, feilds, closes, territories, precincts, and 
bounds of Lorbottle, within the parish of Whittingham, and county 
of Northumberland, with all wayes, &c. All, &c., now in the possession 
of Robert Laton, of West Laton, in the countie of Yorke, gentleman, or 
his assignes, and are worth per annum SQL 

Memorandum. That the aforesaide Robert Laton, by indenture 
of lease datted the xvij th day of May, in the xvij th yeare of the late 
King Charles, graunted by Thomas Cumber, late Dean, and Chapter of 
Carlile, holds all the last mentioned premises to him, his executors 
and assignes, from the date for the terme of xxj tie yeares, payeing 
therefore yearely to the saide Deane and Chapter and theire successors 
fowre pounds the first day of May, or within xl tie dayes ; but are 
worth uppon improvement, over and above the old rent, communibus 
annis, 261. 

With covenant that if the rent bee unpaide att the feasts and dayes 
att which it ought to bee payde, the lease to be voyde. 

There were to come of the said lease the xvij th day of May, 1650, 
twelve yeares. 

NEWCASTLE. 

ALL that moyetie or one half of the tith corne, and sheaves of come 
and graine, comeing, &c., within the feilds and territories belonging to 



OF ECCLESIASTICAL POSSESSIONS. 57 

the parish of St. Nicholas, in Newcastle upon Tyne, with all wayes, &c., 
late in the tenure or occupacion of William Barwicke or his assignes, and 
nowe in the tenure and occupacion of Ralph Salked, sonne of John Sal- 
keld of Hull Abby, in Hull Parke, within the county e of Northumber- 
land, or his assignes, 95Z. 

Memorandum. That the said moyetie of tithes and premisses were 
by the late Deane and Chapter of Carlyle, by their indenture beareing 
date the xx th day of November, in the x th yeare of the raigne of the 
late King Charles. Anno Domini, 1634, demised to the said Ralfe Sal- 
keld, for the terme of xxi tle yeares from the date of the sayde inden- 
ture, payeing yearely the summe of eleaven pounds att St. Peters day, 
comonly called Lamas day. Which saide premisses are worth uppon 
improvement, over and above the old rent, per annum, 84Z. 

There were six yeares to come of the sayde terme the xx th day of 
November, 1649. 

MEMORANDUMS. 

THAT there is a annual fee farm rent of eighty-fower pounds of late 
due to the crowne out of the Deanery of the cathedrall church of St. 
Maryes, of Carlile, of which there is reprized out of the Rectoryes of 
Wetherall and Warwicke ifowre pounds ; and out of the Rectoryes of 
Corbridge, Whittingham, and halfe the Rectorye of St. Nicholas of 
Newcastle uppon Tyne, 40 1. 

REPRIZES. 

THERE is due to bee reprized out of the Rectoryes of Corbridge, Whit- 
tingham, and halfe the Rectorie of Nicholas of Newcastle uppon Tine, 
as a fee farme rent due to the state, the annuall rent of 401. 

THE ABSTRACTE. 

THE present proffitts reserved uppon the leasehoulds of the Rectoryes 
of Corbridge, Whittingham, and the halfe Rectorye of St. Nicholas, 
Newcastle uppon Tyne, per annum, 611. ISs. Sd. The futture im- 
provements of the aforesaid Rectoryes are, per annum, 427Z. 4s. Sd. 

Returned into the Registers Office for the Keepinge the Surveys of 
Deanes and Chapters Lands, The first j of August, 1650. 
Henry Lamley. Thomas Canby. 

Will. Perkinson. 



A SURVEY OF THE MANOR OF CORBRIDGE, WITH THE RIGHTS, MEMBERS, AND 
appurtenances thereof, sett, lyinge, and beinge in the Countye of 
Northumberland, late parcell of the possessions of the Deane and 
Chapter of the Cathedrall Church of St. Maryes, Carlyle, made and 
taken by us, whose names are hereunto subscribed, in the month of 
July, 1650. By vertue of a Comission to us graunted, grounded 
upon an Acte of the Comons of England assembled in Parliament, for 
the abolisheinge of Deanes, Deanes and Chapter, Cannons, Prebends, 



58 EXTRACTS FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS 

and other offices and titles of and belonginge to any Cathedrall or 
Collegiatte Church or Chappell in England and Walles, under the 
hands and scales of five or more of the trustees in the sayde Acte 
named or appointed. 

THE VlCCARIDGE OF CORBEJDGE IN NORTHUMBERLAND . 

ALL that the Viccarridge howse, a fowlde, garth, two little ruinous 
outhouses, a garden, a dovecote, and a grasse garthe abutting uppon 
Prince Streete on the east, and Thomas Sniithe ground on the west, 
conteyninge one acre, worth per annum ll. 10s. 

Certaine parcells of arrable ground lyinge disperssed in the towne 
feilds of Corbridge, intermixt with other lands, and conteyne by es- 
timacion sixe acres, worth per annum 18s. 

The tithe woole and lambes worth per annum 10?. 

The tithe hay worth per annum 51. 10s. 

Prescription money payde for haye and other tythes worth per 
annum 6?. 

The tithes of piggs, geese, hens, calfes, mortuaries, oblacions, and 
other church dues, worth per annum 6/. 10s. 

Summe, 301 8s. 

THE VICCARIDGE OF WHITTINGHAM. 

ALL that the Viccaridge howse, with one byar, one barne, a stable, a 
courte yarde, a fould garth, a garden, and one close on the backe syde, 
parte arrable, called the Viccar Close, uppon a close called Staine Acres 
on the easte, and upon a parcel! of ground called the Guide Bighte on 
the west, conteynes \4a. 41. 10s. 

One close of pasture ground called Prior Leases, abuttinge upon 
Thrunton feilde on the south, and the Miller Close on the northe, con- 
teyninge by estimation 5a. ll. 

One pasture close called the Wood Close, abuttinge upon Whitting- 
ham Wood on the west, and Horse Close on the east, 5a. 15s. 

Two closes within the feildes of Barton, converted into one parte 
arrable, abuttinge uppon the lands of Jane Barker on the east, and the 
land of Thomas Gibson and George Jackeson on the west, conteyninge 
by estimation I6a. 3/. 

Foure ridges of meadowe grounde abuttinge upon Whitton Ley on 
the southe, conteyninge by estimation 30. 8s. 

Three ridges of arrable land abuttinge uppon the land of Thomas 
Whitton on the south, and the lands of William Gowerley on the north, 
conteyneing 4a. 5s. 

One parcell of meadowe grounde lyeing in Whittingham Houghe, 
abuttinge on Mr. Collingwood's land south and west, 3a. 10s. 

One pasture close on the Moore syde, Mr. Collingwood's lands lyinge 
about it, conteyninge by estimation 3a. 7s. 6^. 

Summe totalle of the accres is 5la. 10?. 15s. 6d. 

The tythes, calves, woole, and lambes, of the abovesayde places is 
worth, communibus annis, 36?. 



OF ECCLESIASTICAL POSSESSIONS. 59 

The tythe haye, and prescription money paid for the tythe haye, 
communibus annis, 51. 

The Easter booke, tythe piggs, geese, hens, milke, oblacions, mortu- 
aryes, and all other smalle dues, are worth, communibus annis, 101. 6s. 8d. 

Summe totall on this and the other syde is per annum 621. 2s. 4d. 

Payde out of the sayde Yiccaridge, as a pension due to the lorde, per 
annum, 21. 

That the presentation, nomination, and donation to the severall Vic- 
caridges of Corbridge and Whittingham are in the lord of the manner. 

The present incumbent of Corbridge is Stephen Anderton, 2 a preach- 
inge minister. 

The present incumbent cf Whittingham is Henry Tallentyre, a 
preacheing minister. 

Returned amongst other things the 1st August, 1650. 

Henry Lamley. William Perkinson. 

Tho. Canby. 



[THE RECTORY OF JARROE, IN THE COUNTY OF DURHAM.] 

ALL that the tythe come, and sheaves of corne, comeinge, &c., within 
the towneshipps, territories, and feilds of Munckton, Westoe, and Sheele- 
heugh, beinge parte or parcell of the Rectory of Jarroe, aforesaid ; and 
all that howse scittuate and beeinge within the towneshipp of Westoe, 
now used for a tythe barne, and a garth thereunto adjoyneinge, with all 
wayes, &c., late in the tenor or occupacion of Mary Liveley, daughter of 
John Liveley, viccar of Kelloe, or her assignes. 

Memorandum. That the said tythes and premisses were by the late 
Deane and Chapter of Durham, by their indenture beareinge date the 
fourth day of Octob r , in the fourteenth year of the raigne of the late 
Kinge Charles, Anno Domini, 1638, demised to the said Mary Liveley, 
habend' for twentye-one yeares [from the date of the] indenture; redd' 
per annum tenne pounds eleaven shillings, vizt., for the tithe corne of 
Munkton two pounds tenn shillings, for the tythe corne of Wiuestoe six 
pounds eighteene shillings six pence, for the tythe corne of Sheeleheugh 
one pound and one shillinge sixpence, and for the howse and garthe one 
shillinge, att Purificacion onely ; which said premises are worth upon 
improvement, over and above the said rent, per annum, the sum of 
60/. 

Memorandum. That the said Mary Liveley, the lessee, assigned the 
premisses to Sarah and Margaret Liveley, by her indenture dated the 
fifth day of June, Anno Domini, 1649. And they in possession. 
There was tenne yeares of the said tearme to come the 4th Octob r , 
1649. 

1 "Corbridge. Stephen Anderton, gentl. for Prins Landes, Ss."adcli/eltental t 1671. 



60 EXTRACTS FROM THE PART JA MEN TARY SURVEYS, &c. 

ALL that the tythe come, and sheaves of corne, comeinge, &c., within 
the towneshipp, territories, and feilds of Harton, within the county of 
Durham, beeinge parcell of the Rectorye of Jarroe, with all wayes, &c., 
late in the tenor and oceupacion of Robert Hutton, gentleman, the lessee, 
deceased, or his assignes, and now or late in the tenor and occupacion of 
Grace Hutton, daughter of the said Robert deceased. 

Memorandum. That the said tythes and premisses were by the late 
Deane and Chapter of Durham, by theire indenture bearinge date the 
fourth day of June, in the fifth yeare of the raigne of the late Kinge 
Charles, Anno Domini, 1630, demised to the said Robert Hutton, 
habend' for twentye-one yeares from the date of the said indenture; 
redd' per annum nine pounds and term shillings att Purificacion onely ; 
which said premisses are worth upon improvement, over and above 
the said rent, per annum, the sum of 261. 8s. Id. 

There was twoe yeares of the said tearme to come the fourth day 
of June, 1649. 

Returned amongst other things in the Survey of Wiuestow, the 2nd 
of Aprill, 1650. By Will. Hopkins. 

Antho. Wilson, Gilbert Marshall, ) 

Will. Feilder, ! Surveyors. 

FELIX KNYVETT, 

Keeper of the Records. 
Lambeth Palace, 23rd Octo. 1855, 



61 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

THE originals of the following deeds are among the collections of the 
late J. Brough Taylor, Esq., P.S.A. 

THE OLD BOROUGH OF DURHAM. 1. Adam fitz- William de Brun- 
hopp, conveys to Gilbert, son of Ealph de Kemolesworth, a burgage in 
Milneburngate, in the Old Borough of Durham. It lies between the 
land formerly Robert the Smith's and the land of Master John of 
Barnard's Castle. Paying yearly to the light of the chapel of Blessed 
Margaret, in Durham, before the high cross, 5s. ; and to the light of 
Blessed Mary, in the said chapel, one pound of wax on the Feast of 
the Assumption. The keepers of the said light may distrain when 
necessary. Witnesses, Thomas Fitz-William, now Bailiff of the Old 
Borough of Durham, John de Houeden, Roger de Esche, Richard de 
Chilton, Symon de Northampton, Richard fitz-David, Roger de Egges- 
clyve, &c. 

Thomas fitz-William-fitz-Hugh de Crosgate was Bailiff of the Old 
Borough in 1291 and 1293. This Old Borough was that of Framwell- 
gate, which was incorporated with the City by the charters of Bishops 
Pilkington and Mathew. Richard de Chilton, one of the witnesses, 
was Lord of Little Chilton in 1271. Roger de Esche, another of them, 
died before 1313, seised of the manor of Eshe. 

2. Nicholas de Granario, for the salvation of his soul, and that of 
Cecily his wife, and those of the faithful dead, conveys to the light of 
the church of Blessed Margaret, in Durham, and to the keepers of the 
same light, a yearly rent of 20^. of silver, issuing out of the tenement 
which Stephen del Croke 1 holds in the street of Framwelgate, in Dur- 
ham, as it lies on the east part of that street in length, and in breadth 
from the king's highway even to the water of "Were; for the susten- 
ance of the light before the altar of Blessed Thomas the Martyr, in 
the said church. Witnesses, Sir Yido, parish chaplain, Nicholas Albard, 
Robert Lewyn, Symon de Harlaw, William son of the Apothecary, 

1 No doubt one of the Crook-hall race. See Surtees, IV., ii. 137. 

I 



62 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

ffilio medicij, Walter Spicer, ( Specearimj, Thomas TJnfrey, Robert the 
Clerk, &c. 

Seal, a star of many rays, s' IOHAN. . s LESVEXS. The N of the Sur- 
name is doubtful. 

3. William Biwell, John Maynsford, and John Freynd, keepers of 
the light of the chapel of St. Margaret, in Durham, with the consent of 
the good and lawful men, parishioners of the said chapel, viz. William 
de Billyngham, John Paynter, John de Newton, John Kunett, and 
John de Dodyngton, and also with the consent of the whole communalty, 
parishioners of the said chapel, convey to William Pome, chaplain, 
keeper of the light of the said chapel, a burgage in South stret, in the 
Old Borough of Durham, between a burgage of Thomas Wayt on the 
( south and a burgage of John Palman on the north. To hold to Pome 
for life, he to build and sustain the burgage at his own charges. The 
Old Borough of Durham, 29 Mar. 1405. 

Seal, a sleeping lion within two squares interlaced. This is the only 
seal, and therefore is doubtless that of Pome. The deed was indented 
into two parts, interchangably executed. 



4. John Halywell demises for the remainder of his term to John Pol- 
lard, of Durham, lyttester, a burgage in Crosgate, in the Old Borough 
of Durham, between a burgage of the Lady of Esch on the east, and a 
burgage of William Hoton of Herdwyk and Joan his wife on the west, 
which burgage Halywell has by demise of the said William and Joan, 
with the confirmation of William, son and heir of John de Hoton of 
Tuddowe, for 100 years. Rent of 4s. reserved to Halywell. If Pollard 
has to pay any other rent, he may hold of the chief lords of the fee 
other two burgages of Halywell in the same Old Borough, between the 
burgage of the Abbat of Blauncheland on the east and a burgage of John 
Horsle on the west, for the same term. Witnesses, William Pome, 
chaplain, &c. The Old Borough of Durham, Wednesday after the Feast 
of the Holy Trinity, 1426. 

Of the very confused Hoton s, a fragmentary account may be derived 
from Surtees, sub Hoton juxta Holome, and Hardwick, par. Sedgefield. 
The Lady of Esch was Joan, daughter and heiress of Thomas Esh. See 
Surtees, ii., 336. 

5. Memorandum to the following effect : Tuesday after the Feast of 
St. Matthew, 1477. Before us, Sir JohnManbe, Chancellor and Official 
of the Lord Prior of the Cathedral Church of Durham, having Archdea- 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 63 

con's jurisdiction 2 in all the churches and chapels appropriated to the 
said church, and Master John Pikeryng, LL.B., in the parish church of 
St. Oswald, sitting, appeared John Stavert, who married Benedicta, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Coken, deceased. It is objected by us 
that Stavert for three years has withholden a yearly rent of ISd. issuing 
out of the tenement in Frainwelgate belonging to him in right of his 
wife, sometime assigned to the Chapel of Blessed Margaret, near Dur- 
ham, or the fabrick thereof, and which the deceased Thomas Coken held 
in his lifetime, whereby Stavert has incurred the major excommunica- 
tion. Stavert is swoin, acknowledges the existence of the rent, and 
that for these three years he has paid I2d. Says nothing why he ought 
not to pay the residue. Ordered to pay 3s. 6d. to the present church- 
wardens ficonimis} of the chapel, and he and his wife, their heirs and 
assigns, to pay the full rent in future. Under the seal of our Archdea- 
con's Jurisdiction. 

6. George Lomley, Knight, Lord of Lomley, quitclaims to William 
Raket, of Durham, his right to all the burgages, lands, tenements, 
rents, reversions, and services, which he lately had by feoffment of the 
said William in the Barony of Elvett, Crossgate, and Framwelgate, in 
Durham. 4 May, 2 Ric. III. [1485.] 

Seal, a popinjay. 

The style and date of this charter are observable. Sir Thomas Lum- 
ley, Lord George's father, is said by Edmondson to have died in 1485. 
Sir Harris Nicolas, in his Synopsis of the Peerage, considers this date 
to be erroneous, as the summons to Parliament continues in the name 
of Thomas to 1497. Collins, on the other hand, finds George called 
Lord Lumley as a commander of forces at Berwick, as early as 1480-1, 
being made a knight- banneret for his services the same year, and quotes 
as authority " Norn. Milit. MS. sub manu Tho. Jekyl, armig." If 1497 
really was the date of Thomas' death, George would not be summoned 
at all, but there are other instances of a name remaining unaltered in 
the scribe's list long after the death of its possessor. 

George Lumley married the daughter and heiress of Roger Thornton, 
jun., and slew Giles Thornton in the ditch of Windsor Castle. In 1506 
he entailed all his possessions, and died in 1508, being succeeded by his 
grandson Richard. 

2 " Et super ecclesias et clericos ecclesiis deservientes, quas in episcopatu Dunelmensi, 
cujuscunque largicione canonice adipisci valebit, Archidiaconatus officium ejus discre- 
tion! delegamus." Sulla Papa, 1083. And see King William's charter of the same 
period. 



64 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

NORTON. 7. Thomas de Tange appoints John Rand, clerk, to give 
seisin to Thomas Holden, Esq., of two messuages and 63 acres of land 
in Norton and Stokton, pursuant to a charter. Durham, Monday before 
the Feast of St. Mark, 1426, 4 Hen. VI. 

Seal, a quatrefoil of four knob-like leaves within tracery. 

AUCKLAND. 8. Eleanor Cressyngham, in her widowhood, appoints 
Thomas Spence to give seisin to Joan Androwson, her daughter, of a 
burgage and an acre of land in the town and territory of North Auk- 
land, pursuant to a charter. Durham, 20 Dec., 3 Edw. IV. 

OTTNGTON. 9. "William fitz-Jurdan conveys to Roger Cook, parson of 
Ovingeham, la. Ir. of land in the field of Ovintun, viz., %a. near Lucis- 
wrde; H0. between the land of Sir John de Baylol and the land of Sir 
Simon, chaplain of Ovingeham, on the south part of Eulbrig; l^r. near 
the land of the parson of Ovingeham, in a place called Hardebayn. Pay- 
ing yearly a pair of white gloves to the grantor and his heirs on Easter 
Day, in lieu of all other services. Witnesses, Adam de Mykeley, Rich- 
ard de Ruchester, Walter de Bromley, Philip de Chilt', Adam de 
Heldringeham, Elyas de Bywel, &c. 

Seal, pointed oval. A crescent surmounted by a star. s. wi . . . . DANI. 

The handwriting of this charter may be assigned to about the end of 
the twelfth century, or commencement of the thirteenth. 

CORBRIDGE. 10. Margaret, daughter and coheiress of Robert de 
Redeware, in her maidenhood and lawful power, conveys to Laurence 
de Duresme, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a moiety of a tenement in the 
town of Corbridge, in vico Sancta Maries [the charter is endorsed " Our 
Lady gat"], which in breadth lies between the land of Robert de Mer- 
ington on the west, and the highway which leads to Tyne Bridge on the 
east ; and in length from the said vicus Sancta Maria unto the Tyne, 
viz. that moiety which lies nearest the sun fpropinquius soli). Wit- 
nesses, John de Fennewyk, now Sheriff of Northumberland, William de 
Tyndale," Lord of Develeston, John de Hoga, &c. Corbridge, 13 Jan. 
16 Edw. II. 

Seal, pointed oval. A star of eight points, s' MARGARETI REDWAR. 

11. John Lawson and John de Tyrwhyt, of Corbrigg, convey to Sir 
Peter Blonk and Sir Adam de Corbrigg, chaplains, a burgage in Cor- 
brigg, in vico Sancta Maria, between a burgage of John Eayt on the 
east and a burgage of John de Merington on the west. Corbrigg, 20 
Jan. 1371. 




The Seal of John Lawson, 1371. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 65> 

Seals. 1. Oval. Tabernacle work. Under the Virgin and Child a 
standing figure, probably John the Baptist. On the dexter side, St. 
Catherine with her wheel; on the sinister St. Margaret ? 2. Circular. 
"Within tracery a shield of arms, a chevron between three martlets. 

FIL' LAVRINCII. The arms are still worn by the Lawsons of 

Brough Hall, near Catterick, and the seal (of which Sir William Lawson, 
Bart, has kindly presented the accompanying engraving) is interesting 
for its demonstration of the origin of the name. The conflicting Yisita- 
tion pedigrees of the family do not reach to the date of the charter. 
John Lawson, coroner, no doubt the same person, witnesses a Whitton- 
stall charter, in conpany with John de Corbrigg, son of the Forester of 
Corbridge, in 1366. (Surtees' Durham, i. 30.) 

12. John Fayt conveys to John de Penereth, a tenement in Corbryg, 
at the head of the new street, between a tenement of Penereth on the 
east and a tenement of Fayt on the west, and containing in length 4 
perches 5 ells, and in breadth 3 perches; in exchange. For which 
Penereth conveys a tenement there lying between tenements of Fayt, 
and of the same dimensions as the tenement conveyed by Fayt. Wit- 
nesses, William Hog, 3 John Calvehyde, &c. Corbryg, Sunday before 
the Feast of St. Cuthbert, in March, 1375. 

Seal of arms, in chief a cross crosslet between two mascles, in base 
three saltires, 2 and 1 . s' AWELVN : DE : . . . . OP. 

13. Thomas Squire (Armiger), of Corbrige, and Emma his wife, con- 
vey to Eichard Reynauld, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, clerk, a messuage 
in Corbrige, in the Market-place, lying in breadth between the messuage 
of Hugh fitz-Simon and a messuage formerly of Hugh fitz-Astelm, and 
in length from the highway unto a stone wall formerly the said Hugh 
fitz-Astelin's. Corbridge, Monday in Easter week, 1316, 9 Edw. II. 

Seals. 1. Circular. A crescent surmounted by a star. . . .E. ARI^I. . . . 
2. Pointed oval. A star of six points, s' EME. AKMIG. 

14. William de Herle quitclaims to John-fitz-John de Corbrigge all 
his right in a messuage in Corbrigge, in the street of the Fishers' Mar- 
ket, which the same John had by feoffment of Agnes, formerly wife of 
Hugh-fitz-Asselm de Corbrigge. Blanchland Abbey, Wednesday after 
the Feast of the Holy Trinity, 8 Edw. III. 

Seal of arms, a fess inter three martlets. Above the shield a crescent ; 
at each of its sides a star of six points. SIGILLVM : WILLELMI : HEELE. 

3 The name De Hoga in the deed of 16 Edw. II. seems to be Hog in this. 



66 LOCAL MUNIMENTS 

The tracery of the seal (of which some notion may be formed from fig. 
34 of Surtees' Plate II. of Seals) is studded with quatrefoils. 

15. John le Glover, of Carlisle, and Angnes his wife, convey by in- 
denture to Angnes Ferchane, of Corbrige, a tenement in le Marketgate, 
in Corbrige, as it lies between the place of the Hospital of Stanistan and 
a tenement of the said Angnes Ferchane, one head abutting on the 
king's highway, and the other head upon the cemetery of St. Andrew's. 4 
To hold of the chief lord of the fee. Rent of 3s. reserved. Witnesses, 
Adam fitz-Alan, now steward of Sir Henry de Perci, John de Tirwyte, &c. 

Seal (only one, and therefore probably Agnes Ferchane' s,) circular. 
A lion rampant. SVM LEO FORTIS. A similar seal has been attributed 
to the lion-bearing house of Mowbray. 



16. 20 Nov. 1591. Michaell Dood and Issable Dood, of Slealie, in 
Bywell Lordship, and within the countie of Northumberland, yeoman, 
convey to George Hurde, of Corbridge, yeoman, all their estate in one 
burgage in Corbridge, and in a street there called Preinstreet, between 
a burgage of Cuthbert Baxter's on tive south, and a common water gait 
called the Gormire on the north : with 3^ acres of land within the 
fields and territories of Corbridge, whereof one acre lieth in the east 
feald of Corbridge, on the east side [of] the Common, between the land 
of Thomas Elrington on the east, and the said common on the west ; 
one other acre in the Loweryding between the Lord's demaine on the 
east ; and one acre and a half on a place in the said fealds called the 
Laymes beyond the Barne. To be holden according to custom of the 
manor and fee. 5 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

Gateshead. 



4 The Parish Church. 

6 This deed was found blowing about the streets of Corbridge in 1856. 



67 






MAJOR SOWLE. 

IN the year 1740, the town of Newcastle suffered most severely from 
the outrages of a mob. Riots on account, as was pretended, of the 
scarcity of corn, broke out on June 9. A number of merchants' appren- 
tices, and gentlemen, chiefly young ones, became a volunteer militia on 
the occasion, and, from their wearing white stockings, received the name 
of the White Stocking Eegiment. The mob were pacified by the an- 
nouncement that the cornfactors had set a certain fixed price on their 
grain; but on the 21st some granaries were plundered, in consequence 
of the factors shutting their shops, and absconding. On the 22nd, 23rd, 
and 24th, nothing happened, except the discovery of an exportation of 
rye, which was stopped, and sold at the stipulated prices. On the 25th, 
the militia very imprudently were disbanded, and on the 26th, the riots 
became of a most destructive description. One of the rioters being 
killed by a shot from the Guildhall, the rabble broke in, maltreated the 
gentlemen there, destroyed the glass and pictures, plundered the town's 
hutch of nearly 1,200, and would probably have set fire to the town, 
according to their threats, had not three companies of Howard's Regi- 
ment, under the command of Captain Sowle, arrived in the evening by 
a forced march from the North. They soon dispersed the rioters, forty 
of whom were committed to prison, and seven transported for seven 
years at the next assizes. The affair is said to have cost the Newcastle 
Corporation upwards of 4,OOOZ. A few weeks afterwards, they voted 
that the freedom of the town should be presented to Captain Sowle in a 
gold box, value fifty guineas, a plate, value forty guineas, to Captain 
Fielding, one of thirty guineas to Ensign Hewitt, and ten guineas to 
each of the three companies. 

The following letter, alluding to Captain Sowle' s services, has been 
communicated to the Society by Sir Walter Calverley Trevelyan. He 
states that it is in " a collection of autographs, in four volumes, left to 

the Museum by Sir Musgrave. In every case the signature has 

been cut off from the document or letter, and pasted into a separate 



68 MAJOR SCTVVLE. 

volume, which accounts for the blank at the commencement of this let- 
ter, the signature and conclusion having been at the back of the first 
sheet." 

SIR WALTEE BLACKETT TO LOUD BUTE. (Additional MSS. British 
Museum, No. 5726, C.f. 40. 

Half Moon Street, 

31 May, 1762. 

MY LOED, 

Lordship, and the same pr . . . . which actuated me 

to make application to the Duke of Newcastle a year or two ago obliges 
me now to repeat it to you. 

Major Marmaduke Sowle, by his extraordinary personal behaviour, in 
the year 1740, preserved the town of Newcastle most probably from 
being plundered by rioters ; through infirmities, he was obliged some 
time since to quit the army, which somewhat streightened him in his 
circumstances. The Duke of Newcastle was so obliging as to promise 
me that he should have (as now) the first Commission in the Appeale 
or the Alienation Office that should become vacant; and if your Lordship 
will please to renew that engagement you will confer a particular obli- 
gation upon your Lordship's most obed* Serv*, 

WE. BLACKETT. 

I shall take the earliest opportunity of waiting upon your Lordship 
to know your pleasure. 



69 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATIONS MADE AT THE ROMAN 
STATION or BREMENIUM DURING THE SUMMER OF 1855. 

IN giving an account of the excavations which have been carried OB. 
during the last summer at BREMENIUM, at the instance of this Society, 
it will be necessary to revert to some facts previously ascertained. 1 

The Station of BREMENIUM has probably been planted on its present 
site in order to guard the Watling Street in its passage across the river 
Rede, and through the mountain pass which it traverses shortly after 
attaining the north bank of the river. The advantages of its position 
are well shown in Mr. Mac Lauchlan's very accurate and beautiful Sur- 
vey of the Watling Street. 2 The Station stands, as he has ascertained, 
at an elevation of 950 feet above the sea. Its position, although con- 
siderably exposed, is yet sheltered to some extent by the still higher 
elevations which on every side environ it. Its capabilities of defence 
are great. On the north the ground rapidly sinks from it ; on the west 
it slopes into the valley of the Sills bum ; on the south it falls into the 
valley of the Reed, and " is rocky and strewn with large loose stones." 
Its eastern side is the weakest ; but in ancient days this was in part 
defended by a marsh, which is now drained. 

An earthern rampart, with a corresponding moat, has been drawn 
around its whole area ; but on the eastern and southern sides, on account 
of their greater liability to attack, three lines of rampart and fosse have 
been formed instead of one. These are still visible, and are shewn in 
Mr. Mac Lauchlan's plan. 

The area of the station is 4 acres 2 roods 33 poles, including the 
walls. Its form is nearly that of a square, rounded off as usual at the 
corners. 

The walls form one of its peculiar features, and to them considerable 
attention has been paid during the recent examinations. They are 
formed of large well dressed freestones, strongly cemented with mortar 
of excellent quality. No bonding-tiles are used, as is usually the case 

1 See an Account of the Excavations of 1852, in the Newcastle volume of the 
Archaeological Institute, and " The Roman "Wall," 2nd edition, p. 450. 

2 Map of the Watling Street from the River Swale to the Scotch Border, from a 
Survey made in the years 1850 and 1851, by direction of his Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland, with an accompanying Memoir. 



70 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 

in the Roman work of the Southern counties ; but occasionally a layer 
of thin slaty stone is inserted between the ordinary courses. The eastern 
wall has suffered from the hand of the spoiler more than the others, 
but even of it distinct traces remain. The western wall stands nine or 
ten feet above its foundation, and in some parts eight or nine courses of 
the facing stones remain undisturbed, The walls bear marks of having 
undergone repairs at some period subsequent to their original formation. 
This is well shewn at the north-west angle, which was exposed by Mr. 
"William Coulson a few years ago, stones of a larger size than the 
original wall being inserted near the base. 

The mass of debris encumbering both sides of the walls renders it 
difficult to ascertain their exact thickness. To this point the Committee 
of Exploration turned their attention. The thickness of the south wall, 
west of the gateway, was found to be 16^ feet, which may be assumed 
to be the general thickness of the curtain wall throughout its whole cir- 
cuit. There are some portions, however, which exceed even this great 
thickness ; thus the south wall, east of the gateway, was at one place 
(K in the plan) found to be 20 feet, and the west wall (L), south of the 
gateway, 28 feet thick. The walls do not consist of solid masonry 
throughout their entire thickness, there being a mass of solid clay in the 
interior. This body of clay, which is 4 feet thick at a yard above the 
foundation, is nearer the inside than the outside of the wall, there being 
9J feet of solid masonry on the exposed side of the wall, and only 3 feet 
on the inner side. To what height the clay was carried there are no 
means of knowing. If the wall diminished in thickness as it rose, 
as Mr. Mac Lauchlan with much probability conjectures, the clay would 
probably die out. As far as the excavators could observe, it did so. 

None of the Stations upon the Roman "Wall are known to have walls 
at all approaching in thickness those of BEEMENIUM. The walls of 
CILTJENUM and AMBOGLANNA, both of them large and important forts, 
are only 5 feet thick ; the walls of BORCOVICUS are 8 feet thick. The 
exposed situation of BEEMENIUIH upwards of twenty miles to the north 
of Hadrian's Bariier is probably the reason of the great strength of 
this part of the fortification. 

Remains of the four gates by which the Station was entered exist ; all 
of them, however, are nearly destroyed, except the west gate, which is 
perfect as far up as the springer of the arch. 

An opinion has been entertained, that there were two gateways on 
the eastern and western sides of the Station, as is the case at AMBO- 
GLANNA. The recent excavations have proved that this was not the case. 
No trace of a second gateway could be found in the western rampart 
at least. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM- 71 

Before leaving the walls, one or two additional facts must be noticed. 
In the thickness of the south wall, about midway between the gate- 
way and the west angle of the fort, a small chamber (E, 1) was found. 
Its length from east to west is 8 feet 2 inches, and its breadth 7 feet 8 
inches. It is entered by a door from the inside of the camp. The 
threshold is much worn, but the doorway has been built up before the 
abandonment of the Station. The walls of this chamber are standing in 
one place 9 feet 6 inches high, and, up to nearly the top of the existing 
remains, are formed of peculiarly massive blocks of stone, well fitted to- 
gether. The chamber is not exactly in the middle of the wall, a thick- 
ness of 5 feet being left on the outer or exposed side of it, and 3 feet 
only on the inner. The upper courses of the walls of the chamber con- 
sist of stones of the ordinary size and character. The use of this cavity 
in the wall can only be matter of conjecture. A large quantity of rub- 
bish was found encumbering the floor of it ; and as this was of a character 
similar to that which covered the whole station, it may be well here to 
introduce the remarks which the very careful superintendent of the ex- 
cavations, Mr. Edward Milburn, has recorded in his journal respecting it. 
" Commencing at the top, the rubbish was composed of soil, stones, and 
lime, until nearly half way down, when wood ashes or similar burnt ma- 
terial became mixed with the other matter. At the bottom of these 
ashes, and on a level with the scarcement, was a layer of gray slates, 
in several of which the holes for fastening them remained. Below the 
slates, the rubbish was thickly mixed with ashes ; so much so indeed, 
that in some parts the matter consisted almost entirely of them, to the 
thickness of about a foot. Next a bed of lime was met with, about a 
foot thick, and below this another bed of ashes, three inches thick, 
blacker than those formerly noticed, and thickly mixed with small 
pieces of charcoal. The ashes last mentioned had the appearance of hav- 
ing been those of burnt heath or brushwood. There was a great quantity 
of bones mixed with the other rubbish throughout the whole of the apart- 
ment." Let us, before proceeding further, attempt to account for these ap- 
pearances. The lowest layer of ashes was doubtless caused by the means 
adopted by the Romans to prepare the site of the Station for the buildings 
they were about to erect. A similar layer of ashes has been found at a 
low level in other parts of the Station. It was found beneath the founda- 
tion course of the west wall, near the gateway. It was also found 
when a deep drain (a) was cut, in 1852, from the north wall of the 
Station to the vicinity of the via principalis. It is not improbable that 
the ancient Britons had a settlement on this advantageous spot before the 
Romans took possession of it. If their huts resembled those of the Gauls, 
as shown on the column of Antonine, fire would afford the readiest 



72 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 

means of destroying them. This is the most satisfactory way of ac- 
counting for the first layer of ashes. If so, it is the silent chronicler of 
woes undescribed by the pen of the historian. Should this theory not 
be admitted, we must suppose that the ashes resulted from the com- 
bustion of the brushwood which naturally covered the site. The thick 
layer of lime, above this, was probably the original floor of compost 
formed by the builders of the Station. The bed of ashes above the 
floor most likely resulted from the roof and timbers of the chamber 
when enveloped in flames, for the first time, by the enemies of Borne, 
probably in the time of Commodus. The gray slates lay on the top of 
these ashes. Next we have another layer of ashes, not so thick as the 
former, indicating the subsequent destruction of a roof less solidly 
formed than the other, and probably thatched. On the top of this layer 
lay soil and stones and lime the remains of the walls which, after the 
conflagration, fell in upon the mass of ruin. Shall we be wrong in 
supposing that the Station was repaired under the auspices of Severus, 
and that it fell into final ruin during the usurpation of Carausius ? 

The mixture of bones with the other debris is a thing of constant occur- 
rence in the Stations in the North of England, and can only be accounted 
for on the supposition that the inmates of the chambers threw the re- 
fuse of their food on the floor, and suffered it to remain there among 
the straw or rushes which probably covered it. 

Since the discovery of the chamber now described, another (E, 2) in 
the same wall, but to the east of the gateway, has been ascertained ; it 
is of larger dimensions than the other, but has not been so carefully 
explored. 

Eor about 50 feet south of the west gateway, and probably also 
for some little distance to the north of it, the wall (L) is 28 feet 
thick. The clay in the interior of this part of the wall is about five 
or six feet thick. Where the wall resumes its ordinary thickness the 
remains of a square tower of solid masonry were found. This tower is 
built of larger and better dressed stones than the rest of the wall, the 
rubble of its interior is more thoroughly embedded in mortar, and its 
ruins still rise a little higher than the adjacent parts. Again, somewhat 
to the south of this tower, a flagged way may be traced leading to the 
tower. Has this been a covered path leading to the tower, protected 
on the one side by the internal buildings and on the other by the 
battlements of the wall ? 3 Unfortunately, the main wall, on its western 
side, has been robbed to too great an extent to allow of a satisfactory 
solution of the question. 

3 The buildings (in, m, m) which come up to this wall, are quite independent of it. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 73 

This part of the camp presents yet another feature of interest. On 
the outside of the wall, midway between the gateway and the square 
tower, are the remains of a strong building abutting upon the wall. 
Only the party- walls of it are left, but they are very strong, being be- 
tween three and four feet thick. Have we here the traces of another 
tower, giving additional security to the western gateway ? A tower 
projecting beyond the wall would give the advantage of a flank fire. 
This, however, is an unusual feature in the castra of the Worth of Eng- 
land. 

It is not easy to assign a special use for all the peculiarities of this 
part of the western wall. Perhaps, however, we see in some of them 
provision made for the planting of the lallistce or other engines for pro- 
jecting stones and heavy missiles against a foe. 

Two inscriptions found at this station make mention of a battistarium. 
One of these was found this summer outside the western wall ; the other 
was found in the interior of the Station in 1852. A considerable num- 
ber of roughly rounded stones of a large size, and such as we may sup- 
pose would be prepared for the lallistce, have been found in the Station. 
One, found on the outside of the west wall, was 4 feet 6 inches in cir- 
cumference. We have certain information that the Romans projected 
stones from their lallistoe with prodigious effect. It is perhaps not too 
bold a statement to suppose that one of the towers we have described 
was a lallistarium. A considerable number of flat rounded stones, an 
inch and a half or two inches in diameter, have also been found inside 
the west wall. The workmen, on coming upon them, saw that the 
occurrence of so many stones of the same character was not a mere casual 
occurrence, and at once pronounced them to be sling stones. Can the'un- 
usually broad part of the wall have been intended as a station for a body 
of slingers? 

But still the question recurs, Why was the western wall fortified to 
a greater extent than the others ? It is by no means the weakest or 
most exposed side. A reference to Mr. Mac Lauchlau's plan may per- 
haps solve the difficulty. On the western side of the Sills Burn we see 
two camps, with earthen ramparts. One of them is of a large size, and 
has the circular traverse which is supposed to be peculiar to the camps 
of the 9th Legion. "Within it is a smaller, but more perfect fortification. 
It is highly probable that this was reared by the garrison of BREME- 
NruM, and was used by them as a summer residence. To have remained 
the whole year, cooped up within the narrow compass of the camp, 
would have been highly prejudicial to the health of the cohort. The 
site of this earthen encampment is a very advantageous one; it is 
not so high or so exposed as that of BBEMEKITTM, and yet it commands 



74 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMEXIUM. 

an extensive prospect down the valley of the Rede and along the line of 
the Watling street. 

Is it not possible that the western wall of the Station of BREMENITJM 
was supplied with additional fortifications, in order the more thoroughly 
to command the space which separated it from the summer encamp- 
ment ? The theory is not without difficulties the chief of which are, 
that the summer encampment is scarcely within range of the lallistce of 
BKEMENIUM, and that no traces of a road connecting the two camps have 
been found, though Mr. Mac Lauchlan carefully examined the ground 
with the view of ascertaining them still no better explanation has 
been suggested. 

We now enter the interior of the Station. The first thing that strikes 
us on inspecting the excavations or examining the plan of them, is the 
extreme economy of space which has been exercised. Every part of the 
area which has been explored is covered with buildings. These are for 
the most part small and crowded together. The main streets vary in 
width from 14J feet to 10 feet; the subsidiary ways leading to the 
several habitations are usually less than three feet wide. The houses 
are strongly built, having stone walls of from two to four feet thick. It 
is probable that windows were very sparingly used, very little window 
glass having been found among the ruins. 

One of the first things which a garrison drawn from southern 
Europe would demand would be warmth. For this the internal 
arrangements of the camp have provided. When the houses, with 
their low, thick, stone walls, stood in their integrity, clustering to- 
gether in a mass, as they did, the winter tempests, broken in the first 
instance by the outer ramparts of the Station, would howl over them with- 
out finding chink or cranny by which to gain an entrance. The impression 
made upon the minds of some of the Committee of Exploration, when 
lingering in the narrow streets of this city of adventurous warriors was, 
that it would have many of the advantages of an under-ground encamp- 
ment. The great difficulty would be to carry off the water which fell 
upon the conglomerated stone huts ; this seems to have been provided for 
by the complete system of sewerage which was adopted. 

The Station resembles, in its main features, the plan of a Polybian 
camp, though it does not adhere to it. One main street has no doubt 
originally gone from the northern to the southern gateway ; another has 
crossed from the eastern to the western (G, G, G) ; all the other streets 
are made to run parallel with these. On looking at the plan it will 
be seen that the original design of the Station has been at some time 
subsequent to its original formation interfered with. The roadway from 
the northern to the southern gateway has been in part blocked up with 
buildings. Some of the streets are not continued in the same straight 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 75 

line (e. g. that marked M, M, in the plan). Other irregularities show 
themselves. The truth seems to be, that the streets, as they now appear, 
are the work of two if not of three periods. On more than one occasion 
the city has been visited with devastation. Each reconstruction was 
inferior to the former, and appears to have been performed in a hasty 
manner. "Wherever the excavations have gone deep enough, at least 
two sets of foundations and paved ways have been found, having a mass 
of rubbish between them. On rebuilding the city (or portions of it) it 
is not at all improbable that the original symmetry of the plan was de- 
parted from. 

It seems needless to enter upon a detailed description of the buildings 
which the city contains. Such observations only will be given as may 
serve to render the plan more instructive. 

The northern portion of the Station has not been examined (as it is 
private property), with the exception of a single line of cutting (a), 
having been made in the direction of the gateway. Here several walls 
w ere met with, showing that the buildings have been as closely clustered 
together in this as in other parts of the Station. A square block of 
building in the centre of the Station has probably been dedicated to 
some public purpose. For want of a better name it has since its ex- 
humation received that of the Praetorium. It contains no less than 
three tanks. One (D) on the face of its northern wall, one in its in- 
terior (C 2), and one against the face of its southern wall (C 1). 
Another tank (C) has also been found on the other side of the street 
(H, H, H) that runs past its southern side. It is difficult to divine the 
use of these tanks. Water is abundant in the neighbourhood ; and these 
receptacles would furnish but a short supply to a numerous garrison. 
One of them, which has a flight of steps descending into it, has also a 
somewhat wide circular sewer leading off from the bottom of it which 
does not seem to have been provided with a gate or sluice for clos- 
ing it. This tank has been arched over. Can this underground 
receptacle have been a place for storing away the treasures of the city, 
or preserving some of its most valuable but least perishable effects ? 
Places in which the salted provisions for winter could be stowed would 
be required these tanks seem suitable for such a purpose. The only 
one into which a water conduit (b, b) is seen to go is that in the centre 
of the Prsetorium (C 2). 

The street on the east side of this square block of buildings (N) is 
carefully paved; and is provided with a flagged footpath (g) on its 
west side, raised above the level of the street by the thickness of the 
flags. The footpath is about a yard wide ; it is worn hollow in the mid- 
dle by the tread of passengers. 



76 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 

The buildings (J, J, J, J) on each side of the central structure are of 
excellent masonry ; and have been provided with a thorough system of 
flues for maintaining within them an equable temperature. 4 

The street (H, H) on the south of the central range of buildings now 
hastily described, is 10 feet wide. Throughout the greater part of its 
course it is well flagged ; the western portion of it is paved. Generally 
speaking, the streets of earlier formation are flagged, those of later 
paved. On walking along, it is interesting to notice the thresholds 
(h, h, h) of some of the houses remaining, on which the soldier had 
often gladly trod when returning from his cold and dreary station on 
guard, or from doing perilous battle with his foes in the Wastes to the 
north. There is a space (0) on the south side of the street and 
nearly in its middle which is comparatively clear. There are some 
stone pedestals (i, i, i) in it with a dowel-hole in each for receiving up- 
rights. Can this space have been the market-place of the camp ; and 
may we infer, from the presence of uprights, that the forum of BEEME- 
NITJM, has been provided with a piazza ? Similar arrangements were no- 
ticed in the interior of the station of HABITANCUM. In the bass-reliefs 
on Trajan's column piazzas form by no means an unimportant part of 
the camp structures. 

Just within the northern margin of the next street (M), proceeding 
southwards, and near its middle, are remains of an apartment which 
must be described. It has been formed by flags set upright, having 
their ends let into a groove prepared to receive them. The flags have 
been supported in their places by stone uprights which are grooved in 
their sides. To what object this apartment or trough has been appro- 
priated does not appear. It has however been a place of great resort, 
for the flags outside it are much worn. Has the chief of the commissa- 
riat stored up his provisions there previous to making a distribution of 
them to the troops ? A chamber similar to this was discovered last 
spring in the Station of CILTTEIOJM: by Mr. Clayton. The CILUKNTJM 
chamber had, however, in addition to the arrangements noticed here, a 
gutter running all round the enclosure, just within the upright flags, 
and making its escape at one angle. 

The other buildings on the line of this street are chiefly remarkable 
for some very small rooms which they contain, and the network of very 
narrow lanes by which they are approached. These narrow passages are 
all either paved or flagged. They are for the most part about a foot and 
a half below the level of the floors of the houses. This arrangement 

4 The buildings (J, J ) on the east of the Prsetorium have not been laid bare, they 
have however been examined to a sufficient extent to assure us that they in all re- 
spects resemble those on the west side. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM, 77 

would contribute to the dryness of the habitations, but would by no 
means promote the comfort of foot passengers during a heavy fall of rain. 

The buildings in the south-east corner of the Station are inferior in 
their construction to most of the others in the camp, and are supposed 
to be of later date. 

Little need be said of the houses near the vicinity of the mural cham- 
ber (E, 1). They are of two dates, the one series being built upon the 
uncleared ruins of the former. Below the lowest foundations stone gut- 
ters for the conveyance of water were found. The drainage and the 
water-supply of the castrum must have been the first thing attended to 
by the engineer. Thoroughly, however, to understand the course of the 
drains and the fresh water gutters, it would have Jbeen necessary to 
have upturned the whole city from the foundations. At present we 
have but hints of the completeness of these arrangements. 

One of the principal buildings of the Station has been in the south- 
west angle. Some portions of it are undoubtedly of the earliest period. 
The walls of the chamber (p) are four feet thick, and of excellent ma- 
sonry. Its floor is supported upon pillars. A flue, formed of a tiled 
arch, has brought the heated air from an adjoining apartment or fur- 
nace, which has not been explored. The tiles forming this arch are 
wedge-shaped. The practice of moulding bricks of such a form as that 
they naturally arrange themselves in an arch has only recently been re- 
introduced into this country. The floor of the building has been covered 
with the usual thick coating of concrete, and the walls carefully plas- 
tered. 

The semicircular apse at the northern extremity of the building will 
be noticed. The doorway which led from the room (p) into the adjoin- 
ing apartment (n) has been arched ; one of the springers now remains. 
The apartment (n) is of two dates, the upper building being of inferior 
workmanship to the one on the ruins of which it stands. It is a pity that 
the means at the disposal of this Society did not allow of the explorations 
in this part of the camp being completed. 

Against the western wall several barracks (m, m, m) have been placed. 
A somewhat similar arrangement prevails at BORCOVICUS. In one of 
these apartments (m, 1) a range of flues was found, reminding the spec- 
tator of what in modern times is known as a " flat" for drying earthen- 
ware before it is sent to the kiln. 

We may now attend to 'the miscellaneous antiquities discovered during 
these investigations. It is not a little remarkable, considering the large 
surface of ground explored, the hopeful nature of many of the spots, 
and the numerous and important inscriptions which previous excava- 
tions have yielded, that only one lettered stone has been discovered on 

L 



78 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMEXITIM. 

the present occasion. This is, however, one of considerable historical in- 
terest. 5 The inscription is imperfect ; what remains of it, (the ligatures 
being resolved) assumes the following form : 

IMP. CAES. M. AV. . . 

PIO.F. . . . 

TRIE. POT . .COS. ... 
P.P.BALLI8T. A SO. . 

VARDVL 

TIB.CL.PAVL 

PR.PR.FEC 

P.AEL 

and may be read in the following manner : 

To the emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the Pious and Happy, invested 
with tribunitian power and consular dignity for the third time, the Father of his 
Country, this ballastarium [is dedicated.] It was reared from the ground by the 
first cohort of the Varduli during the propraetorship of Tiberius Claudius Paulinus 
[under the superintendence of] Publius JElius. ...-..,. 

The emperor here referred to is no doubt Heliogabalus. He assumed 
the same titles as Caracalla ; but the character of the letters, and the 
evidently intentional erasure of the distinctive part of his name, indi- 
cate the later rather than the earlier monarch. Fortunately the erasure 
in the second line has not been so effectually performed as to prevent 
the word ANTONTNO being discernible. 

A slab was discovered during the excavations conducted in 1852 by 
direction of the Duke of Northumberland, which contained the word 
BALLIS. As such a word had not previously been met with, some doubt 
was entertained whether it represented vallis, or lalneis, or lalUs[tarium]. 
This new inscription containing one more letter of the word, (a T,) settles 
the question. Again, the former slab, which is broken into at least ten 
pieces, contains the name of a legate which is only partially legible. 
The latter part of the name of the propraetor is wanting in the new slab, 
but a comparison of the two stones enables us with some confidence to 
supply the deficiencies of each. 6 The name of Claudius Paulinus now 
for the first time takes its place on the list of Eoman proprastors in 
Britain. At Vieux, a village about six miles from Caen, in Normandy, 

5 It was found outside the west wall with its face downward. All the inscribed 
and sculptured stones discovered in 1852 were found with their faces to the ground. 
This stone is now preserved in the Museum of British Antiquities, in Alnwick Castle, 
where it is placed side by side with its kindred inscription. 

6 A comparison of the two inscriptions does not remove all the difficulties attending 
the reading of the name of the Propraetor on the slab found in 1852 ; but if the name 
of this dignitary be not (Tiberius) Claudius Paulinus, it is difficult to sav what it is. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 79 

the pedestal of a statue was dug up some years ago, having an inscrip- 
tion on three of its sides. The inscription on one side commences in 
this manner, "Copy of a letter from Claudius Paulinus, imperial legate 
and propraetor of the province of Britain, to Severus Sollemnis." Until 
the discovery of this shattered slab outside the walls of BEEMENIUM no 
British memorial confirmed the statement of the Yieux stone, and bore 
testimony to the fact that a Boman named Claudius Paulinus had once 
held high office in this island. To Mr. C. Eoach Smith English antiquaries 
are indebted for having brought under their notice the Yieux inscription. 7 
Next in importance to this inscribed slab are the coins which have 
been met with. Those discovered during the recent excavations amount 
to about ninety in number, but about one third of them are quite ille- 
gible. The following classified catalogue includes the coins found 
during the excavations of 1852, which our most noble Patron, his Grace 
the Duke of Northumberland, has presented to the Society, together 
with several other objects of interest found at BEEMENIUM on the same 
occasion. A common observer, on looking at the coins, would suppose 
that it was impossible to extract from them any fact of importance. 
Mr. C. B-oach Smith, 8 on examining them, was struck with the absence 
of the coins of the Lower Empire, particularly those of the Constantines. 
From the time of Otho down to the days of Carausius, there exists a 
tolerably complete list of Boman Emperors, but here the series ends. 
He naturally deduced the inference that, during the usurpation of 
Carausius, the garrison was withdrawn from BEEMENIUM, and never 
again restored. A few years ago some extensive excavations were made 
in the Station of HABITANCUM, situated, like BEEMENIUM, considerably 
to the north of the Wall, and on the line of the "Watling Street. The 
only records that have been preserved of the coins discovered on that 
occasion, warrant us in supposing that, here too, there was an absence 
of coins of the Lower Empire. The following are the notices given of 
them in the Archa3ologia ^Eliana. 9 " A copper or plated coin of Geta, 
three brass Coins of Gallienus, a first brass coin of Hadrian, two third 
brass coins of Yictorinus, a plated coin of Yalerian, a first brass coin of 
Antoninus Pius, a silver coin of ditto, four silver or plated coins of Julia 
Domna, two third brass coins of Claudius, and a first brass coin of 
Faustina." Afterwards, it is recorded " There were two silver coins of 
Julia Domna, wife of Antoninus, and four or five brass Boman coins 

7 See Collectanea Antiqua, vol. iii. p. 95, -where several interesting particulars are 
given respecting Paulinus and his connexion with Britain. 

8 Formerly of London, now of Temple Place, Strood, Kent. To this gentleman's 
kindness, and skill in numismatics, I am indebted for the description of the coins. 

9 1st Series, Vol. iii. pp. 155, 158. 



80 EXCAVATIONS AT BKEMENIUM. 

found, but the latter were so much corroded as not to be made out." 
Now as on the line of the Roman Wall itself coins are found extending 
down to the latest period of the Roman occupation of Britain, the con- 
clusion is by no means a forced one, that the more exposed forts were 
abandoned several years before those which were occupied by the troops 
which garrisoned the Wall. 

THE COINS FOUND IN BREMENIUM IN 1852 AND 1855, 

OTHO, 
A denarius. 

Obv OTHO c . . . . Head to the left. 

Rev. SECVR Female figure, standing, 

VESPASIANUS. 
Four denarii. 

(1) Obv STVS VESP Head of Vespasian, 

Rev. Two capricorns back to back; above, a buckler ; below, a globe. 

(2) Rev. A soldier with a trophy. 

(3) ... A sedent figure. 

(4) ... Detrited. 

(These denarii of Vespasian are of good silver.) 

DOMITIANUS. 
A denarius. 

Rev. Pallas. Titles. 
A middle brass. 

Rev. A group of arms. 

A second brass ? detrited, 

HADRIAWUS. 

Four large brass. 

(1) Obv . HADRIANVS AVG. COS. IIII. P.P. 

Rev. FORTVNA AVG. s. c. Fortuna with cornucopia and rudder, standing", 

(2) Obv. As the preceding. 

Rev. s. c. Diana with bow, standing, 

(3) Rev. A galley. 

(4) Oxidized. 

ANTONINUS Pius. 
A denarius. 

Rev. cos mi. A female figure, standing, holding a pair of scales and 

a cornucopia. 
Two large brass. 

(1) Rev. A Quadriga. (2) 

A middle brass ; in bad preservation. 

FAUSTINA SENIOR. 
A large brass. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 81 

FAUSTINA JUNIOR. 
Alarge brass ; oxidized. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. 
A denarius ; detrited. 
Two large brass. 

(1) Obv. .... AVG. TR. P. x. ... Laureated head of M. Aurelius, 

Rev. SALUti . . s. c. A female figure feeding a serpent rising from an altar, 

(2) ... 

YERUS. 
A large brass. 

COMMODUS. 
A denarius. 

Rev. Titles ; in the exergue LIB. AVG. The Emperor seated upon an 
estrade, with two attendants, dispensing the liberalitas, 

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. 
Seven denarii. 

(1) Obv. SEP. SEVERVS AVG. IMP. Laureated head. 
Rev. Titles. A female figure, seated. 

(2) ObV. IMP. CAES. SEP. SEV. AVG. 

Rev . FELICITAS PVB. An ear of corn between two cornucopias. 

(3) Obv. SEVERVS prvs AVG. Laureated head of Severus to the right, 
Rev. RESTITVTORVRBIS. Rome seated upon a shield. 

Two others are badly preserved. 



JULIA DOMNA. 
Two denarii. 

(1) Obv. IVLIA AVGVSTA. Head of Julia Domna to the right, 
Rev. PVDICITIA. A veiled female figure, seated. 

(2) ... Broken. 
A large brass. 

Obv. IVLIA AVGUSTA. Head of Julia, wife of Severus. 
Rev. HILARITAS. s. c. A female figure holding a cornucopia; a 
branch before her. 

CARACALLA. 
A denarius. 

Obv. ANTONINVS PIUS AVG. Laureated head of Caracalla. 
Rev. CONCORDIA FELIX. The Emperor and his wife Plautilla, stand- 
ing, joining hands. 



DlADUMENIANUS. 

A denarius. 

Rev. PRINCEPS IWENTVTIS. The young Csesar, standing, and three 
military standards. 



82 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 

ELAGABALUS. 
Two denarii. 

(1) Obv. IMP. CAES. ANTONINVS Avo. Laureated head to the right. 

Rev. VICT. ANTONINI Avo. Victory with wreath and palm branch, 
marching to the right. 

(2) Illegible. 

JULIA SOAEMIAS, 
A denarius. 

Obv. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG. Naked head of Julia Soaemias. 
Rev, VENVS CAELESTIS. Venus, seated. 

JULIA PAULA. 
A denarius. 

Rev. CONCORDIA AVGG. A female figure, seated, holding a globe and 
cornucopia. 

ALEXANDER SEVERUS. 
Three denarii. 

(1) Obv. IMP. c. M. AVR. SEV. ALEXAND. AVG. Laureated head to the right. 
Rev. VICTORIA AVG. Victory with wreath and palm branch, marching. 

(In good silver.) 

(2) Obv. Idem. 

Rev. VIRTVS AVG. Rome seated on armour. 

(3) Rev. VICTORIA AVG. Victory, marching. 
A large brass. 

Rev. VIRTVS AVGVSTI. s.c. A military figure with his right foot upon 
a helmet ; in his right hand a globe ; his left arm resting upon 
the hastapura. 

MAMJEA. 
Two denarii. 

(1) ObV. IVLIA MAMAEA 

Rev. VENVS. A figure, standing. 

(2) Rev . IVNO CONSERVATRIX ET VESTA. 

GORDIANUS. 

A denarius. 

Obv. IMP. GORDIANVS pivs FEL. AVG. Laureated head to the right. 
Rev. SECVRITAS PVBLICA. Type of security seated. 

PHILIPPUS. 
A denarius. 

Rev. SECVRIT. ORBIS: A female figure, seated. 

VALERIANUS. 
A denarius 

Obv . IMP. VALERIANVS P.P. AVG. Radiated head of Valerian. 
Rev. ORIENS AVG. The Sun, with right hand extended, and holding a 
whip in his left, marching. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMEXIUM. 

GALLIENUS. 
Six small brass. 

VALERIANUS JUNIOK. 
A denarius. 

Rev. PIETAS AVGG. Sacrificing vessels. 

POSTHUMUS. 

Three small brass. 

VICTORINUS. 
A small brass. 

Rev. VIKTVS AVG. A soldier with spear and shield. 

TETRICUS. 
Two small brass. 

CLAUDIUS GOTHICUS. 
Two small brass. 

TETRICUS JUNIOR. 
A small brass. 

CARAUSIUS. 
A small brass. Pax type. 

In connexion with the subject of coins, it may be mentioned that in 
one of the buildings on the south west of the Praetorium a hearth was 
found (o), bearing marks of having been exposed to a great heat, and 
near to it (o 1) was a pellet of lead, weighing about Wlbs. Several 
smaller pellets too have been found. Some lumps of litharge have also 
been picked up, precisely similar in appearance and composition to the 
oxidized matter which is produced in the extraction of silver from its 
combination with lead, by the modern process of cupellation. From 
this it would appear that the Romans were not unacquainted with this 
mode, and that they practised it at BKEMEISTHTM. Can the pellets of lead 
have been used for the fabrication of spurious denarii, mixed with a 
greater or less proportion of silver ? 

We now proceed to the miscellaneous articles. 

Some iron bells have been found ; the largest of them, with the clap- 
per adhering to its side, was found on the inside of the west wall. Has 
its use been to sound an alarm in the time of danger ? A bell smaller 
in size, but similar in shape, has recently been found in CILTJENUM. 

The handle of a patera, apparently of bronze, two spoons, and some 
fibulae, have been found. 



84 EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 

A pair of tweezers of a small size, and apparently intended as an ap- 
pendage to the toilet, is amongst the bronze articles which have been 
turned up. 

Amongst the iron implements may be reckoned some spear and arrow 
heads, and some keys. 

An object resembling a modern trowel was found pretty far down in 
the heart of the western rampart. 

A pick in very good preservation was found. 

Some beads and a jet pin, very carefully carved, will excite attention, 
as well as some rings of jet of a large size. 

Under the head of glass may be reckoned some fragments of vessels 
formed of a very pure material, and "cut ;" some window glass, and some 
fragments of bottles of the ordinary green shade. There are besides 
some scoriae of glass ; but whether they have resulted from the manu- 
facture of the article, or have been produced by the burning of houses 
in which glass vessels were, it is difficult to determine. 

"We meet with all the usual kinds of pottery : 

Samian ware, plain and figured. Some of the figured patterns are rare. 
The head of a wolf, the mouth of which acts as a spout to a patera, is in- 
geniously formed, and is less common than the corresponding device of 
the lion's head. One piece of Samian ware bears marks of having been 
cut upon the wheel after the manner of glass. Another specimen of this 
manufacture, but more elaborate, was found in 1852, and is now in the 
collection at Alnwick Castle. Some very good specimens of Caistor 
ware, 8 exhibiting light coloured embossed figures, upon a dark ground, 
have been met with. There is some pottery of the same kind in which 
coloured lines are substituted for the embossed figures. Some portions 
of vessels, of a dark metallic hue, very light, and exhibiting proofs of 
skilful manufacture, have been found. Several of these have had their 
sides intentionally bulged in. Others, of a reddish brown colour, show 
us that what we call the "engine-turned" pattern is at least a thousand 
years old. 

Again, we have vessels of various shades of gray and brown, which 
owe their colour to their having been " smoked " in the kiln during the 
process of firing. 

"We have also some vessels of red clay, which have probably been 
formed in Britain, in imitation of the Samian. They are destitute of 
the peculiar glaze of the Samian, Some of them are rudely embossed, 
in imitation of the Samian patterns. These specimens show that the 
clay has been rudely pressed into the mould, whilst moist, by the appli- 
cation of a finger to the inside. 

8 See Artis's Durobrivte. 



EXCAVATIONS AT BREMENIUM. 85 

Fragments of amphorae too have been found, inducing the belief that 
the luxury of Falernian, or other vintages, was not unknown in ancient 
days on the banks of the Rede. 

Several specimens of mortaria, vessels partly intended for the tritura- 
tion of grain, and partly for the maceration of their contents on the 
hearth, have been produced. 

Some vessels of coarse earthen-ware, admirably adapted for standing 
heat, and which have no doubt been intended for cooking pans, are 
amongst the spoils. 

A great number of whetstones have been found in the Station. As 
many as ten were exhumed in one day. The Romans, if they had 
no powder to keep dry, at all events kept their swords sharp. Some of 
them have been very much used, and consist of stone of the finest grain. 

Amongst the animal remains which have been met with, are those of 
the ox (a small species), the deer, the sheep, and the pig. Besides re- 
mains of the full grown pig or boar, the unprotruded teeth of the animal 
in its immature state have been met with, a tolerably emphatic symptom 
that the Praefect of the Yarduli occasionally indulged in a luxury not 
unknown on modern tables. 

Besides these animals adapted for human food, we have the remains 
of the rat, the badger, the dog (apparently a mastiff or a large bull-ter- 
rier), and the fox. 11 

A portion of the shank bone of an ox has been rudely fabricated for 
use as a spoon. The core of the horn of an ox, which has probably been 
used as a goad, or as a hone. 

The luxury of an oyster was not unknown to the praefects of BKE- 
ICENIUM, as is proved by the shells which remain. 

Such are some of the results of the recent excavations. 

Although the whole Station has not been explored, enough has pro- 
bably been done to give a correct view of a border fortress in the days 
of Roman occupation. In order to meet the requirements of those who 
have wants to satisfy, more pressing than a thirst for antiquarian lore, 
the excavated buildings have once again been buried beneath the sod, 
and the whole station has been made to assume a level and verdant sur- 
face. The spade and pickaxe will probably not again invade this 
classic soil ; still we may rejoice that these humble implements have, 
under the auspices of our princely Patron, and of the Council of this 
Society, educed facts which the historians of our country will not 

despise. 

JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D., F.S.A. 

11 To Dr. Embleton, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, I am indebted for the identification 
of the animal remains found in the Station. 



86 



THE HEDLEY KOW. 

AMONG the MSS. of George Allan the Antiquary, which are still in the 
possession of his relative, Robert Henry Allan, Esq., E.S.A., a very 
singular illustration of a Northumbrian superstition occurs. The 
Antiquary is cataloguing some books, which were sold in 1748, and 
one of them was a MS. transcript of Inquisitions, Deputacions, Sheriff's 
Precepts, &c., in the county palatine of Durham, in 4to. He thus 
proceeds : 

" At the end of this vol. there is a declaration made and signed by one 
Thomas Stevenson, of Framwellgate, in Durham, before Justice Burdus, 
and by him witnessed at the bottom, that on 7 Aug., 1729, between 
eight and nine at night, the said Stevenson, returning from Hedley, in 
Northumberland, saw an apparition that looked sometimes in the shape 
of a foal, sometimes of a man, which took the bridle from off his horse 
and beat him till he was sore, and misled him on foot three miles to 
Coalburne. And that a guide he had with him was beat in the same 
manner, and that it vanished not till daybreak, and then though he 
touched not the bridle, after it was taken from his horse, but as he felt 
the stripes of it, he found it bound about his waist. His horse he found 
where he first saw the apparition, by the Green bank top, and saith it 
was commonly reported by the neighbourhood, that a spirit called 
HEDLEY Kow did haunt that place." 

The Hedley Kow's character was " mischievous rather than ma- 
lignant." Assuming various shapes, he led his victims into mires 
and ponds, or would be a beast of burthen or a milch cow, and 
would slip out of the harness or upset the pail, always vanishing 
with a loud nicker. He was generally present at increases of the popu- 
lation, and full of mocking and tricks at such occasions. Altogether, 
the bogle was a type of a very numerous class of goblins, and those who 
are curious in his own particular frolics may refer to the Rambles in 
Northumberland and Ricliardson '$ Table ItooJc, leg. div., i., 60. 

W. H. D. L. 



87 



THE BOOKE OF THE CIRCUYTE AND PARTICULER DECAYES 
OE THE TOWN AND CASTELL OF BARWICKE DECLAYRED 
IN ARTICLES. 1 (Tempore Hen. VIII.) 

A Declaration of the Circuytte of the Wawlles of the Town and Castell 
of Barwicke, with the Towers of the same; and of .the particuler 
Decay es necessary to be repaired) and other diverse thinges to be noted 
for the strength of the said Town. 

FIRST, frome a tower called Percy Tower, beinge th'entre furth of the 
town into the castell, unto the tower at the gaite called Saint Mare 
Gayte, beinge th'entre towarte Scoteland, is the distaunce of v xx yerdes 
of waulle, wherof the most parte of the foundacion is decayed, which 
must be underset with stoone and lyme, and a part of the same is bowgyt 
and lyke to fawll to the grounde within breve tyme. 

Item, The same tower called Saint Mary Gaite is in divers places 
rysted through the waulles, and the wawll therof conteigneth in thike- 
nes of the part towart Scoteland in some places, iiij foote, in some places 
bot iij foote, and the syd towarte the town bot ij foote, in hieght frome the 
ground upwart xl foote, and in compase within xl foote sqwayre. 

Item, Betwen the same gaithowse or tower of the north part of the 
town, towart Scoteland, and the tower called the Brode Stair Hed 
Tower, beinge a tower of defence estwart, is distaunce of a hundreth 
and xij yerdes of waulle, the moost part wherof beinge maide of stoone 
and blake erth is soore bowged and like to fawll down within breif 
tyme. And the entre into the said tower furth of the town through the 
Countermoore contenith in length xxxij foote, and in bred iiij foote, 
and is maid of stone and lyme, and overheled with tymber, which tym- 
ber is now soore rotten, waisted, and fallen down, by occasion wherof 
the Countermoore discendith, fallith down, and stoppith the entre. 
And the same tower conteignith in widenes within wher the gunners 
should occuppye their ordenance xij foote, and the mayne wawll of the 
same tower owtwart vj foote in thikenes, which tower maikes no de- 
fence bot by the grounde allonges the wawlle of either syd, and the 
overpart of the same tower is fylled with erth and dampned. 

1 Among the records in the Public Eecord Office, Bolls House, and in the custody 
of the Master of the Rolls, pursuant to the statute 1 and 2 Viet., c. 94, to wit, among 
the Records of the Treasury of the Receipt of the Exchequer, in the Book marked 
"B. 1, 24." From an office copy communicated by the Subscribers to the Hodgson 
Fund. 



88 THE BOOKE OF THE CIRCUYTE AND PARTICITLER DECAYES 

Item, Bitwen the said tower at the Braid Stair Hed, and a tower 
beinge dampned and fylled full of erth, estwart, is the distaunce of 
vij xx viij yerdes, wherof diverse partes beinge maid of stone and blake 
erth is soore bowget and like to fawll shortely, to the value of iij xx viij 
yerdes. 

Item, On th'est parte of the same tower is one other tower dampned 
and filled full of erth, called Wawlles Tower, distaunte from the other 
tower xlviij yerdes. The most part of which wawll, beinge likewies 
maid of stone and erth, is bowged and in danger of fawllinge to the 
grounde. 

Item, It is to be noted that the said twoo towers beinge thus filled 
and dampned is a great decaye of the defence of that part of the town. 

Item, Bitwen the said Walles Tower and the Bell Tower, estward of 
the said north parte of the town, is the distaunce of xx li viij yerdes, 
wherof is fawllyn to the grounde xix* yerdes. And the same Belle Tower 
conteignith in widenes for the gunners to occupye their ordenance, xij 
foote. And the mayne wawll of the same tower is in thikenes xj foote. 
And the entre in to the same, furth of the Countermoore, is substanciall 
and good, and cummyth frome above the Countermoore downewarte, and 
maikith no defence hot allonges the wawlle by the grounde, and the over- 
part above the vault is filled full of erth. 

Item, Furth of the same Bell Tower, standinge upon the corner of the 
wawlles, is a Posteron to issue in a Bullwarke adjonynge unto the same, 
which bulwarke was maid in haist by maister Candisch, in tyme of need, 
of duffet, for the scoringe and defending of the said north part of the 
town, and specially of a great large castyn dyke called the Sterlinge 
Dike, towart the see, wherin a greate company of enemyes might ells 
savely lye without danger of th' ordenance of the town ; and now the 
same bulwark is rotten and fallen in decay, and conteignith in length 
from the said Bell Tower, owtward, iij xx x yerdes, and in widenes in 
th'end next the wawll xxj yerdes, and in the other end ix yerdes. 

Item, Bitwen the said Bell Tower called the Murderer, on th'est parte 
of the town, south wart frome the Bell Tower, is the distaunce of vj xx x 
yerdes, wherof is of laite buyldinge iiij" yerdes, and the rest of aid 
buylding of stone and erth from thre yerdes above the erth upward. 
And the entre into the same Murderer, through the Countermoor, con- 
teignith in length xxxij foote, maide with stoone and lyme, and in bred 
iiij foote. And the same entre is overheled which tymber, which tymber 
is rotten, and fallith down and stoppith the entre. And the same Mur- 
derer contenyth in wydnes viij foote, and in hyght within viij foote, and 

without foote. The mayne wawlle in thikeness bot ij foote. And 

the same Murderer is mayd of lyme and stoone, and joyned unto the 
tower clere without the wawlle, which tower doith serve for no defence, 
bot for oone entre into the said Murderer, and is filled from the vault 
upwart with erth. 

Item, For against the said Murderer owtwart is a hed and perticion, 
maide of erth, bitwixt two stankes of the length of xx" and viij yerdes, 
and the bred of yj yerdes, and doith lye oppyn, so as ennemyes may 
come over the same in a darke night hard to the wawlles, and slay the 
scoutwatch, as thei have doon befor tymes, or enterprise other dangers, 
which wer necessary to be mayd upe with stone and lym. 



OF THE TOWN AND CASTELL OF BARWICKE. 89 

Item, Betwen the said Murderer and a tower called the Myddyll 
Tower, beinge dampned and filled with erth, of the same part is the 
distaunce of v xx yerdes of aid wawll. 

Item, Betwen the same dampned tower and a tower called the Rede 
Tower, is the distaunce of v xx and iij yerdes of lyke wawll, and the 
entre into the same Rede Tower, through the Contermoyre, is in length 
xxviij footte, and in bred iiij foote and a half. The over helinge of the 
same, for beringe upe the Countermore, was maid of tymber, and the 
same is rotten, and the Countermore fallith down and stoppith the entre 
so as the guners can not have incurse into the same. The same tower 
is in wydenes within viij footte, and the mayne wawll is vj foote thike, 
owtward, and fylled with erth frome the vaulte upwart, and maykith 
defence onely by the erth allonges the wawlles, as the other for said 
towers doith. 

Item, Betwen the saide Rede Tower and the Cowgaite Tower is the 
distance of v xx and viij yerdes, wherof diverse places ar ruynned and 
nedfull to be repayred. And the same Cowgaite Tower haith two places 
for ordenance of either syd, one conteynynge in wydnes viij foote a 
pece, which onely shottith by grounde allonges the wawll, so as thei 
maike no defence outward. The mayne waulle is in thikenes on the 
one syde iiij foote, and on the other syd iij foote. And the same tower 
is covered with flagges, wherthrough the weit haith issue and rottith 
and waistith the tymber. 

Item, Without the same gaite and tower, and streight bifor the same, 
is a Bulwarke of erth and duffet, mayd for the defence of the same gaite, 
which is soore decayed and necessary to be repayred. 

Item, Betwen the same gaite, and a tower of the southsyd of the same, 
on the said est parte of the town, is the dystauncc of v xx and viij yerdes. 
And the entre into the same tower forth of the town, through the 
Countermoor is xviij foote in length, and in bred v foote. And the over- 
helinge thereof, maid of tymber, is rotten and fallyn down in lyke 
forme as the other entres of towers ar. The wydenes of the same tower 
within is x foote, and the mayne wawll of the same is vij foote in 
thikenes owtwart, and doith mayke no defence bot by the ground 
allonges the waull, and is fylled frome the vault upwarte with erth and 
dampned. 

Item, Ther is a Posteron on the southsyd of the said tower, goinge 
furth of the town, to a Bulwarke called the Great Bulwarke, in the 
Snooke, the entre wherof extendith in length through the Countermoyr 
xxij foote, and bred v foote and a half. And the overhelinge of the same, 
mayd of tymber, is rotten and decayed in like caace as th' entres into 
the towers be. 

Item, The Bulwarke, without the said posteron, is mayd of erth and 
duffet, for the great strength and defence of th'est part of the town, and 
is now sore waisted and decayed, and verray nedfull to be repayred. 

Item, Betwen the tower next aforsaid and the tower next byneth the 
same posteron, sowthwart, is the distaunce of vj xx and xj yerdes, and the 
entre into the same tower, through the Countermoor e, conteigneth in 
length xxiiij fote, and in bred v foote, the overhelinge of the same, being 
of tymber, is rotten and fallen down, so that the Countermoore fawllith 
and stoppith the entre. And the same tower beinge of compas within 



90 THE BOOKE OF THE CIRCUYTE AND PARTICULER DECAYED 

viij foote, and the mayn waulle of the same vj fote thike outward, is so 
decayed and craysed as the gunners dar not within the same occupy any 
ordenance for fear of fawllinge of the same tower to the erth, and doith 
maike no defence, bot as the other aforsaid towers doith. 

Item, Betwen the same tower and a tower called the Conduyte Tower 
is the distaunce of vj xx yerdes, and the entre into the same Conduyte 
tower, through the Countermoore, conteignith in length xx foote, and in 
bred v foote. And the overhelinge of the same, maid of tymber, decayed 
and rotten, the countermoore fawllen down, whereby the entre is stop- 
ped. The tower within is in wydenes ix foote, and the mayne wawlle 
owtwarte in thikenes iiij foote, and is filled, in lyke manner, from the 
vault upwarte with erth. 

Item, Betwen the Conduyt Tower and the Tower against the "Wynde 
Myll, is the distaunce of vj ix x yerdes, and the entre into the same tower, 
through the Counter moor is xx 11 foote in length, and in bred v foote, 
covered and overheled with tymber, which now is rotten, and in like 
caace as the other entres aforsaid be. The tower within is viij foote 
wyde and the mayn wawlle iiij foote thike, and is filled with erth frome 
the vaulte upwart. 

Item, For against the same tower, without the wawlles, ther is a 
hede or a particion of erth maid bitwixt two stankes in the manner of 
a bulwark, which now doith lie oppyn, so as eennemyes may come hard 
to the wawlles and danger the scowt watch, or enterprice other dangers 
in a darke night. And the same hed doith conteign in length frome 
the wawll owtwart xxviij yerdes, and in bred viij yerdes. 

Item, Betwen the same tower for against the Wynde myll and Saint 
Nicolles Tower is the distaunce of vj* 1 yerdes, and the same Saint 
Nicolles Tower contenith in wydnes bot iiij foote, and in thikenes bot 
two foote, and so sore decayed that the gunners dar not occupie any 
ordenance within the same. And the foundacion of a botterace mayd 
for the strengthinge of the same, with the foundacion of the same tower 
self, is waisted, and by sourges of the wattir shronkyn and fallyn down, 
BO as the same tower beinge on of the earners of the wawlle of the said 
tower is right lyke to fawll within breyf tyme, oneles it be the rather 
repayred and amendyt. 

Item, Ther is oone entre or a posteron to yssue, yf cause should re- 
quyer, furth of the same town, nigh above the sa[me Saint] Nicolles Tow- 
er, and of the north syd of the same, throug[h the] Countermoor, con- 
teignynge in length xxx foote and [in bred] v foote, and tymber above 
of the overhelinge therof is r[otten], and fallyn down like as other 
entres ar. 

Item, Without the same posteron ther is a hed of erth mayd for kep- 
ing in of the watter to the stanke and for issuynge of men to the feldes, 
which hed conteigneth in length xx t! and viij yerdes, and in bred viij 
yerdes, and is mayd with payll, which rotteth and waisteth, and were 
necessary to be mayd with lyme and stone. 

Item, Bitwen the said Nycolles Tower and the Blakewatchowse Tower 
is the distaunce of vj xx yerdes, the foundacion of divers playces wherof, 
with of a butterace laitely mayd for strengthinge of the same, is worn away 
by sourges of the wattir, to the danger of the fallinge of a part of the 
same wawll within breve tyrae, without the same be the moore haistely . 



OF THE TOWN AND CASTELL OF BERWYKE. 91 

repayred and amendyt. The entre into the sam Blake watchhowse Tower 
is through the Countermoor xxij* foote in length, and v foot and a half 
in bred, and in wydnes within viij foot. And the mayne wawll of the 
same tower outwart is viij foote thike, and is so revyn and in such decay 
as the gunners dar not occupye any pece of ordenance within the same 
for doubt of fawllinge therof, and is fylled with erth frome the vault 
upwart. 

Item, Bitwen the Blake Watchhouse Tower and the Watchhowse 
Tower is the distaunce of vj xx yerdes, and is in right soore decay, and 
in danger of fawllinge a great part of it. The entringe into the same 
tower is in length xxvi foote, and in bred v foote, and the tymber above 
rotten, and in such caace as other entres aforsaid be. The tower within 
is in wydenes viij foote, and the mayn wawll of the same owtwort viij 
foote thike, and in such ruyn as it is lyke to fawll to the ground, for 
doubt wherof ther dar no gunner occupy any ordenance within the same. 

Item, Bitwen the same Watchowse Tower and the Plommers Tower 
is the distaunce of iiij xx yerdes, all which is in soore decay by sourges of 
the wattir. And the wawll must in some partes be takyn downe and 
made of new, and in other some parttes it must be substauncially pynned 
and poynted with stone and lyme. The entre into the sam Plommers 
Tower conteignith in length xxxvi foote throwgh the Countermoore, 
and in bred v foot, the overhelinge wherof maid of tymber in lyke de- 
cayes as the other entres aforsaid. The widnes of the tower within is 
vij foot, and the mayne wawll owtward vij foot thike, and in such de- 
cay as it is lyke to fawll to the ground, for doubt wherof ther dar no 
gunner occupye any ordenance within the same. And the overpart frome 
the vault upward is fylled with erth. 

Item, Bitwen the Plommers Tower and the Tower within the Stoone 
Bulwarke of the Sandes is the distaunce of iiij xx xviij yerdes, wherof 
diverse parttes ar in soore decay. And the same tower doith serve for 
no defence, bot for one entre into the said bulwark, which bulwarke is 
set unto the said tower, and so dangered with the see as in the tyme of 
full see ther can no gunner remayn within the same, ne any ordenance 
keped dry ther, and is oppyn above, and haith no manner of coveringe, 
and contenith within in wydenes ix foote, and the mayne wawll in 
thikenes iiij foote, and in hight xiiij footte frome the ground. 

Item, Betwen the saide bulwarke and the New Tower of the Sandes 
is the distaunce of vj xx yerdes, the foundacion wherof is in great decay 
by the sourginge of the wattir, and must be underset in diverse parttes 
with stone and lyme. And the same new tower conteignith within in 
wydenes ix foote, and the mayne wawll in thikenes iiij foote. 

Item, Betwen the same tower and the Gaite that goith into the Nese 
is the distaunce of Ixvij yerdes, a parte wherof must be underset at 
the foundacion, which is worne by sourges of the wattir. 

Item, Betwen the same Gaite that goith into the Nes and the Wattir 
Gaite is the distaunce of v xx and xj yerdes of aid wawll maid of stone 
and erth far in decay. 

Item, The same Wattir Gaite being mayd of yeron is in such exstreme 
decaye as it is unneth habill to be oppynned and lokked, so that in theyr 
playces other new gaittes must be maid and set upe. 

Item, Betwen the "Wattir Gaite and the Maysyndue Gaite is ix" and 



92 THE BOOKE OF THE CIRCUYTE AND PARflCULER DECAYES 

xviij yerdes, the moost part wherof maid of stone and claye, and in 
soore decaye. 

Item, Bitwen the Maysyndew Gaite and theBrigeGaite, beinge the entre 
frome over the brige into the town, is the distaunce of irj xx xxvj yerdes. 

Item, The gayte at the said Briggaite is mayd of wood and in great 
decaye, and the wawlles abowt the same gaite ar neither of any strength 
ne good like to the avewe. 

Item, Bitwen the Briggaite and the Percy Tower is the distaunce of 
v hundreth and iiij** yerdes, the moost parte beinge maid of stoone and 
clay, is soo low that a man may stond within the wawll and tak a 
nother by the hand without the wawll, and diverse partes of the same 
like to fawll. And one part contenyng in bred xij yerdes is all redy 
fawllyn to the erth. 

Item, It is to be noted that bitwixt the New Tower upon the Sandes, 
and the Percy Tower, at the entre into the Castell furth of the town, 
beinge the distaunce of viij hundreth iiij xx and xvj yerdes, ther is not in 
any parte of the wawll any manner of tower, bulwarke, or seperate place 
of owtwart defence to be mayd, bot onely upon the hieght of the wawll. 

Item, It is necessary that the New Tower upon the Brige be buyldt 
upe, which might be a great strength for that part of the town, for the 
same tower standinge as it doith, and the wawll uncovered, grewith 
greatly in decay by reason that the rayn gyttith entre into the wawll 
above and discendith and perishith the same in weshinge away the lyme. 

Item, The towers of defence abowt the wawlles restith uncovered, by 
reson wherof the rayn fallen upon the Countermore discendith through 
the same and perishith the vawlt, and mosturith the ordenance and 
powder within the same towers. 

THE CASTELL. 

FIRST the entre frome the Percy Tower into the said castell, unto the 
Draw Brige is the distaunce of l tt yerdes, and the same draw brige is 
iiij yerdes over. And bitwixt the sam draw brige and the Dongean, 
beinge the entre into the Court of the castell, is xxj yerdes, which 

entre conteignith in bred yerdes, and is mayd of lyme and stoone, 

and a parte therof shronk in and revyn. 

Item. Betwixt the saide Dongeon and the Counstable Tower, stond- 
inge southward frome the same, is the distaunce of xxvj yerdes, and 
the same Constabill Tower conteignith in wydenes within xvj foote for 
the gunners to occupye their ordenance, and the thikenes of the wawll 
in the lawer parte iiij foote, and above the vault ij foote. 

Item, Betwen the same tower and the Posteron Tower, on the south 
syd of the castell, is the distaunce of xx ti yerdes, which tower is dampned 
within, and a greate part of the same tower toward the castell, inward, 
is fallen down, and the rest of the same will fawll verray shortely owt- 
wart. And nyegh the same tower, on the west syd, is a Posteron of 
ieron, with a woode gaite without, good and stronge. 

Item, Bitwen that tower and the Chappell Tower is the distaunce of 
twentie and thre yerdes. The same tower conteignith in wydenes within 
.... foote, and so soore decayed as at every great wynd it doith shak so 
dangerosly as no man dar aventur to lye in the lodginge of the same of 



OF THE TOWN AND CASTELL OF BERWYKE. 93 

the over part, and by all likelihed will fawll to the ground right shortely. 

Item, Bitwen the same Chappell Tower and a Buttres mayd with a 
Tower casten owt apon the tope, myd against the Hawll, is xxix tl yerdes 
of the same south syd, and is in right soore decay booth at the ground 
and the most part of the same upward, and a great parte therof in dan- 
ger of fallinge. The compase of the same botterase is iiij yerdes. 

Item, Bitwen the same Butteres and the wawll called the Whit 
Wawll, goinge streight from the owtwart corner of the castell to the 
watter of Twed, is the distaunce of xl yerdes, a great part wherof beinge 
the wawll of the Hawll and the Lodginges for the Captaigne, is in exs- 
treme decay, and many steannes fawllen fiirth of the same, without 
spedye repay ringe wherof it will put a great parte of the same wawll in 
danger of fawllinge. 

Item, The said Whit Wawll, goinge south wart frome the utter corner 
of the castell down to the watter of Twed, conteignith of length 
iiij xx xiiij yerdes, in the myddest wherof is oone yeron Posteron to issue 
into the feldes ; and at the end of the same wawll is a tower mayd for 
occupyynge of ordenance, and stondith in the wattir, the foundacion 
wherof is under niyned by the watter, and the corners of the same 
dryven away, wherby the same tower by all likelyhed will right 
shortely fawll into the wattir. The same tower conteignith in widenes 
within ix foote, the wawll in thikenes iiij foote. The entringe into 
the sam frome above the wawlle was covered with tymbre, and the tower 
self with flagges of stoone. The tymber is rotten and decayed so as ther 
dar no gunners neither lye within the same as hath ben accustomat, ne 
yet occupy any ordenance, for doubt of fawlliuge therof. 

Item, Frome th'end of the said wawll called the Whit Wawll, adjoned 
to the castell, to a Botteres of the west syd of the same castell northwart 
frome the same Whyt Wawll is the distaunce of xix yerdes, which 
wawll in diverse places reven and shronkin. And the same botteres is 
in compase x yerdes. 

Item, Betwen the same Botteres and the wawll goinge down frome the 
castell to the stanke, northward, is the distaunce of Ix yerdes, diverse 
places wherof is craysed and reven, and nedefull to be amendyt. And 
of the same west syd, and that part of the wawll, is one yeron Posteron, 
to issue furth of the castell in to the feld. 

Item, without the saide posteron is a Barmeking, of stoone, for the de- 
fence of the posteron and of that parte of the castell, the most part 
wherof is decayed and fallen to the ground, and so lyyth oppyn, 

Item, The same waulle goinge down, northwart, frome the castell to 
the stanke conteignith in length yerdes. 

Item, Bitwen the hed of the same wawll and the Bakhowse Tower is- 
the distaunce of x yerdes, and the same tower is dampned and fylled 
with erth frome the grounde to the myddest. The entre into the same 
tower, through the myddest of the Countermoore is xij foote in length, 
and in brede v foote. Which tower is overheled with tymber and count- 
ermoored above, and the same tymber is rotten and fallen down, and a 
part of the countermoor into the said tower, and haith stopped the same 
so as neither ther can any ordenance be occupycd within it, ne dis- 
charged upon the tope of the same, for doubt of fawllinge of the rest of 
the rest of the said coimtermoor. The same tower conteignith in wydencs 
x foote, the mayne wawll in thikenes vj foote. 



94 THE TOWN AND CASTELL OF BERWYKE, 

Item, Bitwen the same tower and the Boukill Tower is the distaunee 
of xx yerdes. The entre into the tower is v yerdes in length, under 

the Countermoor, and in bred yerdes. The same tower conteignith 

in widenes within xvj tb footte, and the mayne wawll in thikenes ix 
foote. The vawlt of the same tower is so craysed, as for doubt of 
fallinge therof, ther is a prope of wod set upe to the same, and the gun- 
ner dar unneth occupie any ordenance within it. The same tower 
frome the vawlt tipwarte is fylled with erth and dampned. 

Item, Bitwen the same tower and the Gunners Tower is the distaunce 
of xxiij yerdes. The entre into the same is in length .... foote, and in 
bred .... foote. The same tower eonteignith in wydnes within xx foote, 
and the mayne wawll in thikenes iiij feete. 

Item, Bitwen the same Gunners Tower and the Dangean is the dis- 
taunce of xxxv yerdes of slender wawll ; and the same dongeon of the 
utter part contenith xxxvj yerdes, the wydenes of the yaite of the same, 
beinge the passage into the castell, is x foote ; and the same dongeon is 
in wydenes within xv yerdes, and in diverse places craysed and decayed . 

And forsomuch as ther is not within the said castell neither brewhowse, 
myin, garners for kepinge of stoore of corne, ne howse to kepe any 
ordenance, so as yf any haisty danger shold come unto the same castell, 
or that the town should be woon, as Gode forbed, or yf th'inhabitanttes* 
should rebell against the capetaign, all the kinges ordenance, saving 
such as ar stondinge upon the wawlles of the castell, should so be in 
ennemyes handes, the mylnes and brewhows barred from the castell, 
and the capetane his stoore of corne beinge in garners within the town, 
to the great danger of the same and the strength of the ennemyes. For 
the avoding of all which dangers it wer verray necessary and expedient 
that a myln, with a brewhowse, a garner, and a howse for the kepinge 
of th' ordenance wer mayd and set upe within the said castell. 

Item, It is to be noted that the same Bakehowse Tower and Boukill 
Tower is not covered above, by reason wherof the rayne wattir discendith 
throwgh the countennore and moostith the towers, so as the ordenance 
nor powder can no be keped dry within the same. 

Item, It is also to be noted that the castell stondith in such forme and 
so lowe under the town, as yf the town by any meanes be against 
the castell, either woon by enemyes or by rebellinge of th'inhabitauntes- 
against the capetane, the said castell can no waies hurte or danger the 
town, and the town greatly hurte and danger the castell. 

Item, Ther is a wawll at the entringe into the haven called Holdeman 
"Wawll, which was maide for savegard of the same haven. And the same 
wawll is now decayed, by reason wherof the mowth and entringe into 
the same havyn gatherith and is filled so with sand, that oneles spedy 
remedy be provydyt for the same, the said haven shall within breve 
tyme to come be clerly stopped and sanded. 

Item, Over and above thes special noticions of decayes, declayred in 
the articles above writtyn, ther ar divers playces of the said wawlles of 
the town and castell, which had much neid to be pynned, poynted, and 
brittished with stoone and lym, the doinge wherof in tyme shall save the 
kinges hieghnes the oone half of the charges which within breve tyme 
he shalbe inforced els to maike for the repayringe of the sam. 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER, 

CERTAIN of the letters here printed having been presented to the Society 
by William John Forster, Esq., of Tynemouth, application was made by 
the Printing Committee of the Society to John Fenwick, Esq., F.S.A., 
of Newcastle, for permission to select from his extensive "Radclyffiana" 
such matter relating to the Earl as appeared to be of general interest, and 
suitable for publication with Mr. Forster' s present. The request was 
immediately complied with, and the Society will be glad to learn that, 
in consequence of Mr. Fenwick' s kindness, articles illustrative of the 
lives of other members of the Radclyffe race are in preparation. Since 
the blotting out of the great house of Neville of Raby by a treason as 
crude and incapable of success as that of 1715, no family has, even to 
the present day, so firm a hold upon the affections of the natives of 
ancient Northumbria, as that of the Radclyffes. They fell before a general 
change of manners took place, before the exchange of old hospitality and 
patronage on one side, and of deferential respect on the other, gave way 
to greater coldness, but more sturdy independence, on both. Therefore 
the memories attached to Dilston in the feelings arise in more than affec- 
tion to an amiable family, and appreciation of mistaken devotedness to 
the cause of a line which was supposed to possess hereditary rights to 
the crown. They arise also in the glowing colours which attach to an 
obsolete state of society, as to all departed things, in total forgetfulness 
of the defects which, while the now lamented past was a matter of 
present contemplation, _sho wed that the heart of man was foolish and evil 
continually. 

Francis Radclyffe (afterwards Earl of Derwentwater) was the son and 
heir of Sir Edward Radclyffe, Bart., by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Thomas Barton, Esq., of Whenby, in Yorkshire. He was born in 
1624, and married Katherine, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir 
William Fenwick, Knt., of Meldon, who was alike his father-in-law and 
brother-in-law ; for Sir William married his sister Elizabeth. Kathe- 
rine was a widow when she married Radclyffe, her former husband, 
Henry Lawson, of Brough Hall, having fallen in the service of his 
sovereign at Melton Mowbray. 



96 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF 

The Radclyffe family suffered most severely during the Usurpation. 
On 2 7 Oct., 1652, " The Commisioners for removing obstructions inlands 
and estates forfeited to the Commonwealth for treason appointed by act 
of Parliament to be sold for the use of the navy," allowed the claims of 
Francis Radclyffe, Esq., son and heir of Sir Edward Radclyffe, a delin- 
quent, of his brothers and sisters, Mary, Elizabeth, Margaret, Dorothy, 
Ann, Clare, Barbara, and Ursula, of his mother, Dame Elizabeth Kad- 
clyffe, daughter and sole heir of Thomas Barton, Esq., deceased, and of 
Alice Barton, relict of the same Thomas, out of the estate of Sir Edward, 
under a deed of 20 Oct., 1614. Shortly afterwards, the Fenwick 
estates were to be dealt with, and the co-heirs had (through a third 
party, who advanced the requisite purchase money at the usual rate of 
interest, 8 per cent.) to buy their own inheritance, Sir William Fenwick 
having also been a malignant. In March, 1662-3, Sir Francis, by 
means of another loan, purchased up the shares of his wife's sisters in 
Meldon and the other Fenwick estates. He seems to have resided at 
Meldon occasionally, probably for the purpose of viewing his estates ; 
for, in granting a lease of the house and outgrounds outside of the park 
wall, in 1679, to George Stokoe, gent., of Barwick Hill, he reserves four 
of the best chambers furnished with his goods, the kitchen, hall, cellars, 
and closet in the parlour, for his own use when he and his lady should 
come there. He was, by this lease, to pay the parliamentary assess- 
ment for as many chimneys in Meldou House as the lessee should not 
use, to uphold the leaden roof, and have liberty to appoint his own 
dresser of the fruit trees, and to remove them at pleasure. 

It would appear that there had been proceedings against Lady Rad- 
clyffe personally; for in 1663 we have an authority from Sir Francis to 
Dame Mary Longueville to receive some money from the parties who 
received it out of the lands of his wife, who was formerly named 
Katherine Lawson, by virtue of some proceedings against her for re- 
cusancy, and which money was, by writ of restitutio, ordered to be 
restored. 

Lady Mary Longueville had been married to Sir Andrew Young, of 
Bourne, near Selby, and was now the wife of Sir Thomas Longueville, 
of Wolverton, a baronet of Nova Scotia. She was the eldest of the 
three co-heiresses of Sir William Fenwick. Her sister, Lady Radcliffe, 
and her husband (who had, on his father's death in Dec. 1663, suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy) seem to have been enjoying Sir Thomas' hos- 
pitality when the great plague was a horrible shadow over the land. 
To enable Sir Francis and his Lady to comply with the arrangements for 
arresting the spread of the decease, his host had to issue the following 
paper : 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWEXTWATER. 97 



A COPPT or A CEETIFICAT FROM A JUSTIS OF PEACE TO TEAVILL IN 

TlME OF PESTILENCE. 1 

Hear ar to sartifie, that the bearrir hearof, Sir Francis Radclyffe, 
Baronitt, with his lady and children and servants, have been with mee 
att my house att "Wolverton, in the county of Buckingham, for a fort- 
night past and upward, and ar all (God bee praysid) free from anie 
pestilence or other infectious disseas : and therefore, as one of his Ma- 
jestis Justis of the Peace for this county, I desyer yow will suffer the 
said Sir Francis, with his lady, children, and sarvants, to passe to his 
house at Meldon, in Northomberland, without lett or molestacion, and 
to accomodat and furnish him and them with all things nessary to his 
quality. Dated from Wolverton, this ninthnth daie of July : 1655. 

To all Mayors, Sherriffs, Baliffs, Constables, Head 
Boroughs, and other Officers and Ministers whom 
these may concerne. 

Under the date of 14 Dec. 1666, we have the following list of Roman 
Catholic ecclesiastics of English birth. The second column appears to 
bring the enumeration up to a later date. 

1666. LIST OF PEEISTS, MOKES, AND JESUITS.* 
14 Decembris, '66. 

Clergymen. 1 Dr. Godden 3 Doctor Waring 

2 Mr. Metcalf* Doctor Godden 

3 Mr. Sutton Mr. Metcalf 

4 Mr. Riding Mr. Sutton 

5 Mr. Duckett Mr. Duckett 

6 Mr. Merriman Mr. Merriman 

7 Mr. Goodrick Mr. Goodrick 

8 Mr. Thweng 5 Mr. Thweng, senior 

9 Mr. Stevenson Mr. Stevenson 

10 Mr. Boast Mr. Boast 

11 Mr. Jennison Mr. Jennison 

1 Copy from the original at Greenwich Hospital. (Mr. Fenwick's Collections.} 

2 Copy from the original at Greenwich Hospital. (Mr. FenwicVs Collections J 

3 He was said to be destined for the See of Salisbury, did the alleged Popish Plot 
succeed. (History of the Plot, 1680, p. 105.) 

4 The Rey. Philip Metcalfe, a Jesuit chaplain to James II., preached before Sir 
Win. Creagh, Mayor, and the Corporation of Newcastle, at the Roman Catholic Chapel, 
White Hart Yard, Flesh Market, on 29 Jan., 1688, the day of public thanksgiving 
for the queen's having proved with child. (Mackenzie.} Mr. Fenwick has some of the 
stained glass which was in this chapel. In the medieval portions are the head of 
Gabriel and a device of a nimbed Eagle standing on a ton marked blax for John Blaxton. 
In glass of the 17th century was the impalement of Radclvffe and Cartinffton and the 
Crest of Radclyffe. 

5 Thomas Thweng, a priest, of the line settled at Heworth, near York, was con- 
demned to death for his participation in the " Popish Plot," and was buried in Cas- 
tlegate Church, York, 1680. 



98 FRANCIS KADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWEXT WATER. 

12 Mr. Hodgson (Mr. Hodgson erased) Mr. Duf- 

field 

13 Mr. "Watts (Mr. Watts erased) Mr. Thweng, 

junior 

14 Mr. Giffard Mr. Giffard 

15 Mr. Ma. Chambers Mr. Robt. Chambers 

16 Mr. Et. Chambers Mr. Leighton 

17 Mr. Leighton Mr. Gascoign 

18 Mr. Gascoign Mr. Sergeant 

19 Mr. Salisbury Mr. Salisbury 
Monies. 20 Mr. Robinson Mr. Chambers 

21 Mr. Huddleston 6 Mr. Robinson 

22 Mr. Lawson Mr. Huddleston 

23 Mr. Thornton Mr. Lawson 

24 Mr. Whitfeld Mr. Thornton 

25 Mr. Cunstable Mr. Whitfeld 

26 Mr. Addy Mr. Cunstable 

27 Mr. Jackson Mr. Addy, Mr. Jackson 
Bernardin. 28 Mr. Lowick Mr. (Lowick erased) 

29 Mr. Golden Mr. Smithson, Mr. Shepherd 
SO Mr. (Widdrington erased) Mr. Barton, Mr. Barton 

31 Mr. Smithson (Mr. Danby erased) 

Jesuites. 32 Mr. Barton Mr. Durham 

33 Mr. Danby Mr. Whitfeld 

Mr. Durham Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Whitfeld 

" The hall or mansion which was added to the antient tower or castle 
of the Radclyffe family at Dilston [which had already been enlarged by 
Sir Francis, the first baronet], was built by Sir Francis. The mansion 
which he built, the material of which seems to have been partly brick, 
stood to the northward of the existing tower. The hall, thus enlarged, 
had three facades, one of which was formed by the stone tower or older 
mansion. It seems to have consisted of three floors," and fell into such 
decay, that in 1768 its remains were removed, leaving the older stone 
tower once more alone. The hall was furnished with the customary 
complement of an avenue of trees chesnuts. 7 

In 1672, Sir Francis produced a rent roll of 62637, when treating 
for a marriage between his son and Lady Charlotte, illegitimate daugh- 
ter of Charles II. by the Duchess of Cleveland. He was also wishful 
to be created Earl of Sussex, a quondam title of another branch of 
Radclyffe. " When the estate is thus settled, and the young people 
are married with years of consent, the King to confer the title of Earl 

6 Father Huddleston, confessor to the queen of Charles II., and who administered 
the sacraments to that monarch on his death bed. 

7 Gibson's Dilston, and the notice of the spot in Howitt's Visits to Eemarkable 
Places, which see for a more minute description of the grounds of Dilston. 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 99 

of Sussex upon Sir Francis and his heirs male." Neither marriage nor 
title graced his house at that time, but he was gratified in his wishes 
to have a title and a daughter of Charles II. in his family when the 
succeeding reign set in. Meantime the coveted title was given to Mr. 
Lennard, the husband of another daughter of the Duchess of Cleveland. 

It was not to be expected that a member of the family of Radclyffe, 
so notorious for tenacious attachment to the medieval faith, should 
escape the effects of the deep excitement caused by the disputed " Popish 
Plot." He was denounced in no measured terms; for it was stated 
that upon the successful issue of the conspiracy, he was to hold no less 
important an office than that of Major-General of the Forces of the 
realm, and that he held a commission to that effect by transmission 
from Rome. 8 In 1679, he was in custody of the Sergeant -at- Arms at- 
tending Parliament, for this supposed treason, but on June 4, he was 
discharged on giving 5000?. security for good behaviour and close re- 
sidence at Dilston. 9 Daniel Collingwood, Esq., who resided in Middle- 
sex, and David Nairne, M.D., of Newcastle, were the sureties. 

Common misfortunes unite the followers of varied creeds. The 
reader will not be surprised to find that Mr. Ambrose Barnes, the 
famous dissenter, of Newcastle, was intimate with three generations of 
the Radclyffe family. And there was much, besides his misfortunes, 
to commend Mr. Barnes to the notice of the house of Dilston. He 
had, in consequence of his commercial pursuits, large connections of 
ability in the troublous times of the seventeenth century, and his 
geneial character commanded the respect even of his opponents in poli- 
tics and views of church government. Sir Francis Radclyffe used, in 
his absence, to call him his Honest Whig, and now, in the temporary 
shadows which passed across the star of the Radclyffe, he gave a signal 
proof of his opinion, by settling upon Mr. Barnes his whole estate in 
trust. The transaction only appears in the MS. memoir of Barnes, 
and was perhaps wholly suppressed in dealing with the title to the 
estates afterwards. Besides these means of contact with the Baronet, 
Mr. Barnes had another relation to him, as one of the lessees of his lead 
mines at Aldstone Moor. The lessees in a lease of 1677 10 were Michael 

8 The History of the Popish Plot, London, 1680, p. 106. 
Gibson's Dilston Hall. 

10 In July, 1664, Sir Francis, then of Spindlestone, let to George Bacon, gent., of 
East Allendale, all the lead ore in the manor of Aldstone Moore for three years, at 
the sum of 37*. " for every bing load of lead oare that is or shall he gotten within 
the said liberties dureing the said terme, being fifths or otherwise due to the said 
Sir Francis." (Mr. FenwicVs Coll.) 

A bing was four horse loads, as appears from the following account : 



100 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIKST EARL OF DERWEXTWATEH, 

Blackett, Ambrose Barnes, John Eumney, Richard Mowbray, Thomas 
Dawson, and John Hornesby. The mines leased were at Read Groves, 
in Nenthead, and were, in 1689, again leased to John Errington, Esq., 
of Beaufront, 11 John Rumney, Esq., of Newcastle, and Ambrose Barnes. 

Barnes, though a spare feaster, partook of the hospitality of Sir 
Francis, and the host respected the moderation of his guest. When treat- 
ing the merchant on one occasion with some very rich wine, he said to 
him, "That I may have your company the longer, I will leave you to 
your own glass, for I love to drink with my friend ad liilaritatem, to 
cheerfulness, but ad elrietatem, to drunkenness, I hate it." 

One of Sir Francis' younger sons, the Honorable Colonel Thomas 
Radclyffe, is named among those who kept up an inviolable confederacy 
with Mr. Barnes in the greatest risks of fortune ; and it was in return- 
ing home from an appointment in Newcastle with the grandson of Sir 
Francis, the unfortunate James third Earl of Derwentwater, then in the 
pride of his young honour and estate, that Mr. Barnes perceived Ids last 
illness. 

The Catholic houses had necessarily to keep themselves well informed 
of the various phases of events during Charles II.' s disgraceful reign. 
Some of the following correspondence will show the character of the letters 
of intelligence they received. From a household book, which is printed 
with them, it will be gathered that the Dilston footman was pretty con- 
stantly occupied with going to Newcastle for letters, and in the dearth 
of side posts, this seems to have been the only means of ensuring the 
receipt of epistles in time to make them of use. 

The following letter is to Richard Hayles, who, as steward, kept the 
Dilston Household Book of 1682, before alluded to. 

" This account is sence June the seaventh, 1675, what oar has beane delivered in Aldston moore 
untell now, beiiige the six of December, '75. 

Binges, horses, ponkes. 

Delivered at Greengill 16l6 1 

Delivered at Blagffl 130 

Delivered at Longblugh 50 1 

Delivered at Keaiburne 70 

Delivered at Dowpotsike 7 

Inall 1874 1~ 

RICHARD VAZIE. 

In a letter dated Lawbyar, Sep. 4, 1675, Richard Vazye tells the Baronet that 
there is little oar got except at Greingill (Sir William Blackat's), Blagill (Mrs. 
Bacon's), and Reshburn (Richard Teasdel's). At Greengill, 418 bings had been got 
in a month. The dues which John Swinburn took away were not yet much above 
200 bings, but Yazye conceives "he ames at the best, and leaves the worst." 

(Mr. FenwicVs Collections.} 

Lowbyer is near Aldstone. It is an old stonehouse, containing a room called "the 
Earl's Bedroom." It is pointed out as the last Earl's halting place on his journeys 
to Deiwentwater. 

11 A strong friend to Barnes, "of great paits, great breeding, and of a magnificent 
soul, John Errington, Esq., commonly called the Chief of Beaufront." 

(Memoir of Barnes.) 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 101 

H. W. TO RICHARD HAYLES. 12 

Freind I must be plain to tell that I can't get thy work don at the 
Atorney General's, for he hath not so much as past one plea yet in, litle 
or great. Here's no news, but threats of storms or crowds of petitions 
for the sitting of the Parliament. People murmuring much for want of 
itt, for some hidden cause or other. In so much as the tymes look so 
black as if they tended towards an insurreccion, which God prevent. 
The King, God bless him, looks melancholy or troubled in mind. 13 I 
hope you have receaved the seeds, plants, &c., and heare to your content 
from Mr. Parke. I pray God keep the land from the French (whom we 
fear), and thou and thyne in good health, is the praier of thyne 

H. W h . 

8 Jan., 1679-80. I fayled last post. 

For my f rein A Richard Hayles, at Hexham, 
Newcastle, Northumberland, dd. 

Joshua Bowes, the animated writer of one or two of the following 
letters, might possibly be the personage of that name, who, in dating 
from Epsom, in 1709, describes himself as late lieutenant, and as aged 
64. He then had a wife and daughter, and a nephew, Jonathan Bowes, 
M.D., of the Friary, at Chelmsford. He states that he has a great value 
for all the gentlemen of the name of Bowes, and knows more of them 
than any one person in England. Mr. Surtees prints Joshua's very ori- 
ginal letter, in re Bowes, in the History of Durham, iv., 117, and hints 
that his knowledge and enthusiasm were "perhaps somewhat to his 
advantage." 

JOSHUA BOWES TO SIR FRANCIS EADCLYF.FE. U 

Feb. 1th, [16]81[82] Two dayes since Mr. Prance came into my 
house and call'd for a dish of coffee (for now I keep a coffee house in 
the King's Playhouse Yard). * * * * I went and told Prance's 
wife of it, who labour' d to get him home, but could not, for he went 
rambling abroad elsewhere. * * * * When he was sober the 
next day he asked me if I knew Sir Francis Radclyffe. I told him I 
did. He told me that you seldome kept less then four priests in your 

12 Original presented by Mr. Forster. 

13 Burnet says that Charles II. at this time was highly offended with several of 
his counsellors and other ministers desiring their discharges, in consequence of the 
King wanting to pass the winter without a parliament : and became more sullen and 
intractable than he had ever been before. Seventeen peers joined in the prayers for 
parliament ; but the court issued a proclamation against improper petitions, and can- 
vassed for counter petitions, which arrived filled with passionate expressions of 
loyalty and attachment to the hereditary succession to the crown. The Lower House 
was bent on the disinherison of the Duke of York. As to the French, there was 
little fear of a war with them, Charles being in Louis's pay, but the rumour of a war 
was a good ground for taxation. 

11 From the original, presented by Mr. Forster. 



102 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENT WATER, 

house. I told him I was there the two last summers and saw none. 
* *, said he, they are kept safely out of your sight. I askt him where. 
He told me, in a litle loft that they goe up to by a ladder, and, when 
they carry them meat, the ladder was taken away. I told him I had 
seen most of the rooms in the house, but saw no such place. He said 
it was certainly true, for your cook had told him it for a reall truth, and 
particularly that Mr. Carnaby was one of them. Now who this Mr. 
Carnaby is I know not, for I never saw him. He said further that the 
cook told him he had cutt their meat often for them. That I beleevd 
to be a lye, for once or twice I remember I have seen a young man 
take meat at the table where the cook seldom or never came, that I sup- 
posd to belong to a preist by the report of your old groome. 

The Dutchess of Portsmouth was very sick yesterday, and last night. 

I saw your sonne and Mr. Errington goe by my door to see the new 
play calld the Loyall Brother, which is very much commended. The 
prologue and epilogue I woud have inclosd, but that I beleeve you 
have all the printed papers sent downe. 

I gave one orders to write thrice a week to your honour, and chargd 
him not to write any forraigne (more particularly French) newes, nor 
any thing that comes out in print that post ; and I hope he observes 
the directions. I doe not see his letter, so that if his newes be not 
pleasing or satisfactory, if I may have the honour to know it from you 
or your sonne, I will take care to prevent his giveing you any further 
trouble. This is from your honours most obedient and much obliged 
servant, JOSHUA BOWES. 

To the Honourable Sir Francis Radclyffe, Baronet, 
at Dilston, per Newcastle, in Northumberland, 
these humlly present. 

Mr. Prance was no doubt Miles Prance, the Eoman Catholic gold- 
smith, who had worked about the Queen's Chapel, and was arrested in 
1678 for his supposed concern in the murder of Sir Edmundbury 
Godfrey. The severities of his imprisonment elicited a confession im- 
plicating two other Roman Catholics and a Protestant, and, although he 
recanted the story, which he again alleged to be true, and though it 
is considered to be widely different from the depositions of Bedloe, it 
had the effect of hanging the men. After that event, Prance began to 
enlarge his discoveries, and holds a prominent position in the affair of 
the Popish Plot. Sir Erancis Badclyffe naturally felt an interest in 
the swearers to the plot. 

The details of Mr. Prance's domestic treason in the above letter are 
too indecently put to admit of publication. The document evinces a 
curious state of society, considering the relative rank of the correspond- 
ents, and shows how deeply the vices of the merry monarch's court 
infected domestic relations in general. 

" The Loyal Brother, or the Persian Prince," a tragedy, was the first 
play wrttten by Thomas Southern, who had quitted the study of the 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 103 

law for " the more pleasing entertainment of the muses." The piece 
was built on the novel of Tachmas, Prince of Persia. The anxiety to 
obtain copies of new plays in the country, and the dependence on 
private correspondents for public news, do indeed belong to days differ- 
ent from our own. 

Mr. Thomas Carnaby, of Durham, is found in the Dilston Household 
Book of 1682, providing a coat for Mr. Ellis, of Durham, by the cha- 
rity of Sir Francis. Perhaps he was the Mr. Carnaby referred to 
by Prance. 

JOSHUA BOWES TO SIR FBANCIS RADCLYFFE. IS 
[This letter has been rather inaccurately printed by Mr. Howitt.] 

Aprill the 8th, 1682. 

I have no newes to present your honour with [but] that, to well- 
come home his Majesty and his Eoy[al] Highness, Jack Presbyter 
was trust up like a Jack [o'] Lent with great formallity in Drury 
Lane .... near the place where I now live ; he was mounted at the 
toppe [of] a pyramid made of faggotts, standing in a tubb, with Treason 
on one arm, Rebellion on the other, and Anarchy on his breast. A 
pretty litle plane presbiterian band was about his neck, which was no 
sooner fyred then a shout was given that one might have heard from 
Dilston to By well. Great rejoycing appears in every street for their 
return, and the more because of the Duke's being come, who has been 
so long absent. The Queen came yesternight ; the Morocco Embassa- 
dor on Thursday. I must mention him, for he is admired next to the 
Royall Family. I saw Mr. Swann to-day, and he hopes that when any 
of your sonnes come to towne, they will doe him the honour to lodge 
with him. The truth is, his lodgings are very genteel and in a good 
ayry place, but on the borders of Whiggland, near So hoe, in the Land 
of Promise. I have no more to write, but that I am Your Honour's 
most obedient servant, JOSH. BOWES. 

The verses I made of his Royal Highness' return are printed, but I 
could not gett one of them to-night. In Common Garden there was the 
Rump burnt with the same formallity as before. 

To the Honourable Sir Francis Radclyffe, Baronet, at Dilston, 
per Newcastle, in Northumberland, these humbly present. 

The Jack o'Lent was a puppet, formerly thrown at by boys in Lent, 
like Shrove-cocks. They seem to have thrown at it with cudgels, 
" three throws a penny," and it stood during the six weeks of Lent. 16 

Leave for the return of James was obtained by an intrigue of Charles' 
French mistress and the Earl of Sunderland. He remained a couple of 

15 Copy from the original at Greemvich Hospital. (Mr, Fenwick's Collections, ) 

16 See Ellis's Brand, 4to, i., 85. 



104 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWEXT WATER. 

months, and then returned to Scotland for his Duchess, and to take 
means for a continuance of his severities there against the different 
classes of Presbyterians. 

The following household book of Dilston for half a year affords so 
very complete a view of the establishment maintained there, that it is 
printed at length. The chief members of the household are found in 
another class of records, the Churchwardens' Presentments of Recusants. 

On May 9, 1681, the Churchwardens of Corbridge presented Sir 
Prancis Radcliffe, the Lady Elizabeth Eadcliffe, 17 Mr. Prancis Radcliffe, 
Madame Dorothy Massey, Madam Anne Radcliffe, Maddam Barbara 
Radcliffe, 18 Mr. Richard Hailes, 19 Thomas Braidley, Esq., Mrs. Katherine 
Penwick, Dorothy Eliot, and Bridget, the wife of Thomas Gibson, as 
Popish recusants. On October 25, Richard Cooke, of Dilston, gardener, 
and Bridget Logan, wife of Patrick Logan, gardener, were presented as 
Papists, and for not coming to church to hear divine service. At 
Michaelmas, 1683 and 1684, were presented, for not coming to church, 
Sir Prancis, and Catherine his wife, Edward, Thomas, and Prancis, 
Anne and Barbara, all of the name of Radclyffe, and Dorothy Massey. 
At Michaelmas, 1682, John Hutchinson and the Churchwardens them- 
selves were presented by Matthew Armstronge, clerk, for not paying 
for washing the church linen. 20 

A BOOKE OP DISBURSED MONEYS FOR THE USE OF THE HONORABLE SIR 
PRANCIS RADCLYFFE, BARONETT, FROM MARTINMAS, 1681, TILL 
PENTECOST, 1682. PER RICHD. 



Servants' Wages. 

Nov. 15. Phillip Horseman, in full of his halfe yeares wages, ended 
at Martinmas, 51. 17. Tom Brown, herd, his Martinmas wages, \l. 
15s. More, for his oune charges coming and going to Tyne head, Is.; and 
2s. and more, which he agreed with a man to help him, to drive the 
sheepe from Tyne Head to Dilston, and pro going back. Ralphe 
Tompson, his halfe yeare wages, due and ended at Martinmas, II. 2s. 6d. 
18. William Laverick, his halfe yeare wages, ended at Martinmas, 
21. 19. Marke Stokoe, one halfe yeare and 10 weekes and odd dayes 
wages at 61. per annum, viz., from 25 Pebruaiy, 1680[1], till Martin- 
mas, 1681, which is to settle him to Martinmas and Pentecost, 41. 3s. 4d. 

17 Qu. If not an error for Katherine ; Sir Francis' mother, Lady Elizabeth, died 
in 1668. 

19 The Baronet's sisters. Qu. If Dorothy Massey was not his sister Dorothy who 
was unmarried in 1668. The Masseys are a Cheshire family. 

19 The steward. 

20 Extracts from a book of Northumberland Presentments, poss, Mr, John Bell, of 
Gateshead. 

21 Original in Mr. Fenwick's collections. 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 105 

December. Mr. Asmall 23 wliich he had, at Sir Francis' request, given 
to Mr. Edward Wilson when he went away from Dilston, either as 
wages or else in charity, 21. 3. Mabell Pattison, chamber maide, her 
halfe yeare wages, ended at Martinmas, \l. 5. Thomas Barron, under 
groome, his wages for the halfe yeare ended Martinmas, ll. 10s. Mrs. 
Hebden, huswife, her halfe yeares wages, ended at Martinmas, 21. 10s.- 
More then, by Ladye's order, in full of her charges at her first coming 
to serve at Dilston out of Yorshire, as per bill appeares, 9s. 7. Peggie 
Smart, her halfe yeares wages, ended Martinmas, II. 11. Peggie Lam- 
bert, her halfe yeares wages, ended at Martinmas, II. 13. Peggie Carr, 
her halfe yeares wages, ended at Martinmas, 21. 21. Thomas Ratterey, 
footman, his whole yeare' s wages, ended att December the 5th, 4?. 
Mary Wear, plate maid, in full of her halfe yeares wages, ended at 
Martinmas, ll. John Hoggert, his halfe yeares wages, ended at Mar- 
tinmas, 31. 6s. 29. Robert Maughen, his halfe yeare wages, ended at 
Martinmas, 21. 5s. Jan. 12. William Weare, for helping to brew, when 
we had no other brewer to assist Mrs. Jackson, 5s. Sd. } at 4d. a day, and 
2s. 6d. for five dayes helpeing to make a Lodge in the Garden, in all 
8s. 2d. 19. Marke Potts, 2 monthes wages, due from Martinmas, 1680, 
till the tyme he went away, ll. 22. Mrs. Jane Harris, a halfe yeares 
wages, ended at Martinmas, 1681, 31. 26. Eichard Yazie, for lookeing 
to the Lead Mynes for one whole yeare, due and ended the 6th day of 
December, 51. Paid him more then, for the Herd's table att Tyne Head, 
and other out-layes there, as appeares by Tho. Browne's and Yazie' s 
notes, 41. Os. 4d. Mabell Addison, kitchin maid, one halfe yeares 
wages, ended at Martinmas, 15s. Jane Thorp, kitchin maid, her halfe 
yeares wages, ended at Martinmas, ll Feb. 1. Matthew Gill, the but- 
ler, his halfe yeares wages, ended 20th January, 21. 10s. 22. Margaret 
Lambert, chamber maid, in full for fifteen weekes service, she going 
now away sick, 11s. 6d. 25. Thomas Redshaw, husbandman, his halfe 
yeares wages, due 4 February, 21. March 2. Beeley 23 Barron, under 
maid in Ladye's chamber, one halfe yeare wages, ended at Candlemas 
last, 15s. 13. Richard Brisby, cooke, 12 weekes wages, at 101. per 
annum, due 1 1th March, 21. 6s. 6d. George Maine, gardener, his halfe 
yeares wages, due 24th February, 51. April 9. Mr. Lomas, 24 for his 
table, 33 weekes, at 2s. 6d. per weeke, 41. 2s. 6d. } and for his horse 
grasse and oates in winter, as much as to make it up, as by bill appears, 
in all, 71 13s. 6d. This was from Aug. 13, 1681, till Aprill 9, 1682. 
18. George Dixson, his halfe yeare's wages, ended 25 Feb., 21. 10s. 
June I . Mrs. Anne Jackson, the brewer, one yeare wages, due at May- 
day, 31. Elizabeth Selby, Madam Catherin's maid, for 3 quarters of a 
yeare's wages, ended 24 March, 31. 
[Total, 801. 13s. lOd.'] 

22 A priest who had 12?. per annum from Sir Francis, and was second son of 
Thomas Ashmall, of Amerston, par. Elwick, co. Durham, by Dorothy, daughter of 
Ferdinando Huddleston, of Millum. He was named Ferdinando after his grand- 
father, and died in 1712, at Lady Mary Radclyffe's, with whom he resided in Old 
Elvet, Durham, aged about 16. 

23 A contraction for Isabella. Beele Dethick was buried at Hartlepool in 1607. 

24 See some items paid to him under the head of Reparations, &c. 



106 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWEXTWATER. 



Annuity es and other Consideration Moneys paid, and Allowances paid. 

Nov. 21. Parson George Forster, his halfe yeare rent for the Eectory 
of Meldon, ended at Martinmas, 61. 13s. 4d. Anne Mushchamp, her 
halfe yeares annuity, ended at Martinmas, 51. 23. Margarett Lawes, her 
halfe yeare annuity, ended at Martinmas, 10s. Jo n . Forster, his halfe 
yeares annuity, ended at Martinmas, 10s. March 31. Anne Swinborne, 
her halfe yeare annuity, due at Martinmas last past, 21. 10s. May 18. 
John Jefferson, Esqr., 25 for one halfe yeare sallary for keepeing the courts, 
this being the first halfe yeare he kept the courts, and we held Warke, 
Langley, Aldston Moore, Kesswick, Thornthwait, Whittingstall, 51. 
March 6. Mr. Francis Eadclyffe, 26 by order of Sir Francis Eadclyffe, for 
his halfe yeare allowance, due at Martinmas, 20?. Dec. 17. Madam 
Dorothy Massey, one whole yeare consideration of 1000?., due at Mar- 
tinmas, 66?. 13s. 4d. At the same tyme, Mrs. Elizabeth Tunstall, 3 
halfe yeares consideration of 800?., due at Martinmas, 72?. Jan. 12. 
Madam Catherine Eadelyffe 27 for her halfe yeares alloweance for close, 
[clothes] ended at Martinmas, 20?. 22. Madam Elizabeth Eadclyffe, 28 
one halfe yeares alloweance, ended Martinmas, and for one halfe yeare 
consideration of 100?., ended then, in all, 23?. 27. Madam Anne Ead- 
clyffe, 29 for two halfe yeares consideration money of 5000?., due at 
Martinmas, 300?. Feb. 4. Paid then and before to my Lady Eadclyffe, 
for three halfe yeares allowance for close for her Ladyship, and Mrs. 
Mary Eadclyffe 30 for close, due at Martinmas, 150?. 20. Mr. Ashmall for 
one halfe yeare, ended 6 Nov., 6?. March 4. Mr. Francis Lawson, by 
the appointment of Eobert Brent, Esqr., for three half yeares interest 
money for 900?., due at Christmas, upon a morgage to William Brent 
and Edward Burdet, Esquires, trustees for Mrs. Clare and Mrs. Ursula 
Eadclyffes, sisters of Sir Francis Eadclyffe, 81?. Aprill 4. Mr. Alex- 
ander Browne, one halfe yeare annuity due out of Whit Chapell, 22 
Jan., 6?. Mrs. Anne Howard, one halfe yeare consideration of 800?., 
due 25 March, 24?. May. Adam Daile, by the appointment of Mr. 
William Meynell, in full of one whole yeares pention, due to the Col- 
ledge the 8 Aprill, for Mr. William and Mr. Arthur Eadclyffes, 31 50?. 

[Total, 838?. 16s. 8&] 

King's Rents and other out-going Rents. 

Nov. 14. Marke Ansley, one yeare Vacandell rent due and ended 
at Michaelmas, out of Thorlrough to Galley Hill, 13s. 4d. Corlridge, 

25 A very eminent lawyer of Durham. 

26 The Baronet's second son. He died a bachelor in 1704. 

27 The eldest unmarried daughter, of whom see more hereafter. Her eldest sister, 
Margaret, was the lady of Sir Philip Mark Constable, Bart. 

28 The third daughter. 29 Sister to Sir Francis. She died unmarried in 1705. 

30 The Baronet's youngest daughter, who died unmarried at Durham in 1725. 
She purchased Redheugh, near Gateshead. 

31 For the education of these youngest sons of Sir Francis, no doubt. Both died 
unmarried. "William departed this life at Rome in 1732, and bequeathed a curious 
collection of gold medals to the Chevalier St. George. 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENT WATER. 107 

Dec. 9. Mrs. Hudspeth, 33 one whole yeare rent, due at Lamas, 1681, to 
the Deane and Chapter of Carlile, for lands in Corbridge, 15s. Wd. 
Dilston, Dec. 12, Balphe Reed, the Vancandell rent of Dilston, due at 
Michaelmas, being the yeare Francis Bowes, Esqr., was sheriffe, 6s. 6d. 
Aldston More.** Richard Yazie, which he had paid to Richard Smith, 
the King's receiver, in full of two halfe yeares' rent, due there at 
Michaelmas, with Sd. pro acquittances, 61. 14s. Scremerston. Bishop's 
rent. Sir Thomas Haggerston, for one halfe yeare rent, due at Midso- 
mer, and St. Cuthbert's day in September, II. 10s. Coastley Come Tyth. 
John Barren and Cuthbert Stobbert, which they had paid for the Corne 
Tyth there due to Sir John Fenwick for a quitt rent, due at Michaelmas, 
II. Is. Newlands and Farle. Mr. Robert Fenwicke, of By well, one 
halfe yeare fee farme rent, due to the King and Queene's Majesties at 
Lady day, 21. Is. 2d. Ay don Sheilds, Coastley, fyc. Mr. Benn. Carr, 
one halfe yeares fee farme rent, due to the King and Queen's Majesties 
att Ladyday last past, March 30, 1682, 61 7s. 3%d. Spindleston, 
Whelpington, Harborne, fyc., and West Wood. Mr. "William Urwen, the 
fee farme rents collected by him for the halfe yeare, ended at Ladyday, 
as per his acquittance appears, 262. 19*. IQd. His acquittance money 
being for 1 2 places, 4s. 
[Total, 46Z. 12s. 



Apr. 24. Mr. Reynold Harle, collector, for 22 harthes in Dilston 
Hall for the halfe yeare ending at Lady day last past, \l. 2s. 
[Total, II 2s.] 



Royall Ayde Assesments, and other Sesses. 

Meldon, Nov. 16. Allowed to Mr. George Stokell, of Meldon, for 
Sesses for Sir Francis' part of Meldon, and for Henry Hand's stents, 
151. IQd. Dilston, Dec. 5. George Herron, constable, for the Cow sess 
for Dilston demaine, tyth, and milne, and for two farm.es in our oun 
hands and cottage closes, I/. Os. 5d. Dilston, Dec. 14. William Milbone, 
churchwarden, a double sesse for the church and mantayning a wave 
child [i.e. a waif, found, and its owner unknown] in Dilston, 35 I/. 8d. 
Middleton Hall. William Artchbald, bailife to the Countess Dowadger 
Ogle Piercy, for the halfe yeare rent, ended at Lady day, 12s. l^d. 
Middleton Hall The halfe yeare Whit rent to William Smart, by Mr. 
John Clanell, for the use of Mr. Francis Forster for the halfe yeare, ended 
at Ladyday, 6s. 6d. Dilston, Feb. 18. George Herron, a sesse for Bridges, 
for Dilston demane, tyth, milne, and cottage closes, and two farmes, 6s. 

32 Viscountal or Sheriff's Rent. It occurs as Vicontall, Yacontall, and in other cor- 
rupt forms in stewards' accounts. 

33 See page 53. 

34 Purchased from Henry Hilton, the melancholy Baron. 

35 On May 17, 1682, the churchwardens presented Mr. Edward Radcliffe, and Mr. 
Thomas Radcliffe, among many others, for Papists, and for refusing to pay assesse- 
ments for the church, and for the maintenance of a bastard child found at Dilston. 

Book of Presentments, poss. Mr. John Bell. 



108 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DER WENT WATER. 

8d. per. lib., 36 10s. 2d. April 20. William Milborne, for a churche 
sesse for repairs, for Dilston demane, tyth, mill, two farmes, and cottage 
closes, 10s. 4d. High Wood and Wiles Lees. John Barron, which he 
had paid for a church sesse for High Wood and Wiles Lees, in the yeare 
1680 to John Mowbray, 5s. 6d. High Wood. John Barron, which he 
had paid for county keeping sesse for the yeare 1681, 3s. Qd. High 
Wood, Feb. 18. Paid him more for another sesse for highwayes and 
bridges, Is. 3d. Lee Houses and Whittleyes, June, 2, 1682. Thomas 
Pattison, per master's order there, for sesses he had paid for when he 
was herd there, in 1677 and 1678, as appeares by old receipts, 10s. IQd. 
[Total, 20?. 12s. 



Disbursed Moneys for the House Use. 

Dec. 6. Mrs. Jane Harris, by Ladye's order, for Mrs. Mcholson to 
buy hamms at Newcastle for the house use at Dilston, 1?. 6. My 
Lady, a bill for severall things bought at Newcastle, for Sir Francis 
Radclyffe, as per acquittance from my Lady appears, 31. Os. \<l. Her Lady- 
ship, more at the same tyme, a bill for Cloath, &c., bought, 91. 7s. Id. 
Feb. 25. Claudus Carr, for a ferret delivered to John Hoggert for the 
warren, Dilston, 5s. March 2. Mr. Richard Wall, for garden seeds 
bought by George Mayne, gardner, 13s. \\\<L. 23. John Kellet, of 
Newcastle, smith and hardwaireman, for nailes, tacketts, tenter-hooks, 
locks, &c., 10s. l^d. Mr. Lewen, for 9lb. of tobacco I bought then, 
per Ladye's order, 9s. 9d. Mr. Lewen more then, which was due in 
September last for Jib. of Spanish Tobacco, 2s., 37 pipes, 2d., for Sir 
Francis, per the footman, 2. Mr. James Crow, 9 yards of Printe 
Cloth for hangings, at 2s. 2d. per yard; for threed, Is. for it, \l. 
6d. 23. Mr. Hall, dish covers, fish plates, brushes, a bed cord, 1?. 4s. 
9d. 24. Mr. Gawen Preston, upholsterer, 26 yards print, at 2s. 2d. 
per yd., for the New Roomes at Dilston, 21. 16s. 4d. More for threed, 
Is. 6d. Christopher Shadforth, pitch and tarr, 10s. 10^. 21. Anne 
Davison, salt fish had from 19 May, 1681, till March 21, 1681[2], 15?. 
13s. For two large pewter basons, the bigger marked with E:R:, the 
lesser with F:R:, for Mr. Radclyffe [the eldest son, Edward] and Mr. 
Francis Radclyffe, per Ladye's order, 6s. 4d. Mr. Hutchinson, an ac- 
count from Aprill 1, 1681, till March 22, 135?. 18s. 1% 24. Anne 
Swinborne, 9 quarts and a pint of hunney, 9s. 6d. June 6. My Lady, 
which she had paid for 40 yards of cloath, at 9d. per yard, II. 10s. 

[Total, 174?. 19s. 10^.] 



Moneys delivered to my Lady for the House Use. 

Nov. 12. My Lady Radclyffe then for the house use, 30?. Feb. 17. 
My Lady Radclyffe then for the house use, 30?. May 30. My Lady 
Radclyffe then for the house use, 30?. 

[Total, 90?.] 

37 The "Spanish tobacco" was therefore 8*. per Ib. ; the ordinary article only Is. \d. 
36 The sums in the Books of Rates were merely nominal. They fixed the propor- 
tions, which were all that were wanted. 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 109 



[Leading of Coals.'] 

Jan. 4. Robert Procter, his bill for hyred fetcht coales at the pitt, 
being for 72 foothers of coales, from 11 June, 1681, till Jan. 4, 31 12*. 
[Total, 31. 12s.] 

Malt. 

Dec. 19. William Robinson, of Newton, 7 bowles of malt, Hexham 
measure, at 12s., 41. 4s. [The Hexham bushel of wheat and rye con- 
tained 2 Winchester bushels ; of oats and barley, 2^ Winchester bushels. 
"Hexham measure" in Newcastle denotes full, or heaped, or over 
measure. " There now, you've got Hexham measure running over. " 
Jan. 30. Mr. John Byfeild, by the appointment and for the use of 
Mr. Ralphe Milborne, in part of a long bill for malt, commencing 
from 16 Aprill, 1681, and ending the 30 January, for malt had to 
Dilston Hall, some of it at 2s. 6d. per bushel, and some at 3s. per 
bushel, and some at 2s. IQd. per bushel, in all 975 bushels, but there 
is left unpaid for of this bill 24 bushels, it being at the carryer, 
Matthew Coulson's house, and not yet come hither to Dilston, which 
was the reason of not paying all the bill now, 134?. 2s. March 21. 
Mr. Ralphe Milborne, in full of the before mentioned bill, it all being 
since delivered at Dilston, 31. 8s. 

[Total, 14U 14s.] 

Hay and Straw. 

Aprill 5. Phillip Horseman, 38 which he paid to Ralphe Readhead, 3 
thrave of Rye Straw, 6s. Michael Davison, a small foother of hay 
bought by Phillip Horseman, 3?. I Os. Ralph Readhead, bought by 
Phillip Horseman for 4 trave Rye Straw, 8s. William Richaelly, of 
Corbridge, 2 carr fulls of hay and 4 bottles, II. 14. One thrave more 
of straw, Is. March 13. Phillip Horseman, which he paid for a ruck 
of hay, bought of John Hutchinson, of Thornbrough, being 6 fathom 
and ^, about, and computed to be 3 foother, 51. 10s. 

[Total, Wl. 15s.] 

Gates. 

Nov. 15. Mr. Bradley, for oates bought at the markett, at 7s. Sd. and 
7s. 10^. per bowle, 4 bowles 4 pecks, II. 15s. Id. March 8. Phillip 
Horseman, oates bought at 7s, 6d. per bowle, and some under that rate, 
15 bowles. 1 peck, 51. 7s. 8^.. 9. Phillip Horseman, oates he bought 
at the markett divers tymes, and at severall rates, some at 7s. 6d. and 
some at 7s. per bowle, 36 bowles, 5 pecks, 131. lls. I^d. 12. My 
wife, which she had laid out for two peckes of pease she had bought 
per order and delivered there to Marke Stokoe, 39 for the roes, one peck, 
3s. 

[Total 10Z. 15s.] 

38 One of the servants. 39 One of the servants, 



110 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

Wheat and Rye. 
[Skmk.] 

Bigg. 

Aprill 18. John Herron, 4 bowles of bigg, at 10s. 8d., 21 2s. Sd. 
Phillip Horseman, per master's order, which he had paid for 4 bowles 
and a bushell of seede bigg, at 13s. per bowle, to saw the orchard with, 
21. 18s. 6d., and for his charges 3 market dayes at Hexham, Is. May 
23. Paid him another bill for big to sow widow Chatts close, 3 pecks, 
5s. 3jd. 

[Total, 51 7s. 



May 26. Thomas Forster, of Whittall, a long bill for rye and oates 
and hay, had from July 4, 1675, till January 10, 1677. "The reason 
why it was soe long unpaid was because he was still in a great arreare 
of rents, but now was ordered to be paid by my master. It comes to in 
all, as appears per the receipt and the acquittances, 31?. 4s. Sd. 

[Total, 311 4s. 8rf.] 

Reparations of Houses, Hedges, with all manner of Labourers 1 and Trades- 
men's wages, with materially loughtfor the same. 

Nov. 15. Mr. John Wilkinson for his master, Michaell Blackett, Esqr., 
iron, bought by Mr. Bradley in 1678, II. 11s. Id. John Newton, 
shoing from 10 Oct., till 10 Nov., 6s. 7d. 19. John Taylor, smith, 2 
tan'd hydes, bought of William Robson for makeing new bellowes for 
the lead milne at Woodhall, 2?. 21. Mr. Bradley, fetching dales, &c., 
from Newcastle to Dilston. They are for Haydon mills, &c., 10s. Id. 
John Bell, worke at Haydon Bridge Milne house, from Oct. 22, till 
Nov. 16, 21 5s. 24. William Wright, for his father Richard Wright, 
an old account and a new account for workeing the new brewing vessell, 
31. 18s. Dec. 4. John Bell and his sonn, plaineing and ruff shoteing of 
160 dayles for lofting at Haydon Bridge Milne, 11. 5. Phillip Horse- 
man, for the Slaters at Dilston mending the house, 3s. 6d. Natt. Raw, 
nailes for slateing the Oare House at Woodhall lead milne, and for 
divers other things, 16s. Sd. 9. John Coulson, of Hexham, 3 hydes 
bought of him by John Taylor, smith, for bellowes for the Woodhall lead 
milne, 21 5s. Dec. George Mayne, for William Weare labouring in the 
garden, 21 dayes at 6d., 10s. 6d. The smith for shoing the sadle- 
horses from 10 Nov. till 10 Dec., 4s. 4d. 18. Henry Farlam, slater, 
for slateing the oare house at Wood Hall lead milne, 31. 6s. Wd. 19. 
The smith, for shoing the draught horses from the 10 Nov. to 10 Dec., 
4s. 4d. Phillip Horseman, 24 yards garth webb, 3s. 29. Arthur 
Radclyffe and Thomas Holliday, wrightes, in full for repair of the 
wrightes' work of Meldon Church, 41. 26. John Weldon, wheele 
wright, in full for makeing 3 pair of wheeles, and axling and limmering 
them, haveing received 15s. formerly, in the yeare, September, 1676, 5s. 
Jan. 1. William Lorraine, plummer, repaireing the leads, andforsow- 
ther at Spindleston, 16s. 12. The smithe's bill, for shoing the sadle 
horses from December 10, to Jan. 10, 6s. 3d. 2. Ralphe Hopper 10s 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. Ill 

for makeing of 10 paire of wheeles, axle trees, limmers, and carts at 9s. a 
peece, he haveing received 4/. formerly in the yeare 1677, and Is. Qd. 
more for putting in 3 fellies into a wayne wheele, and mending it, that 
came from Meldon to Dilston, it being broken, in all lls. Qd. 6. 
George Dixson, the groome, for horse cloathes, and other things for the 
stables, lls. lid. 7. John Bell, wright, for worke don about the lead 
milne by him and his son, as by bill appears, 15s. 18. Old William 
Weldon, for the cooper's dyet with him when they got the wood for the 
new brewing vessel!, II. 5s. Qd. Feb. 12. Mr. Lomas, the charge of a 
lyme kilne for the use of the lead milne at Woodhall, 11. 3s. 2d. John 
Newton, smith, for shooing the sadle horses from 10 Jan. to 10 Feb., 4s. 
March 5. Charles Bailes, sadler, for mending and fixing of 4 troop 
sadles, &c., 18s. Id. 8. Mr. Lomas, worke done to the Oare house and 
for glaseing it, &c., 13s. 3d. The smith Newton, for shoing the draught 
horses, from 10 Oct. to 10 Feb., 13s. 11^. Paid him more for shoing the 
sadle horses, from 10 Feb. to 10 March, Is. Qd. Paid him then another 
bill for laying plow irons, &c., Is. 3d. Apr. 4. John Browell, joyner, 6 
dayes' worke, 6s. 9. George Maine, for labourers in the garden till 9 
Aprill, 24 dayes, at Qd. per diem, 12s. 10. John Newton, smith, for hus- 
bandry worke, from 10 March to 10 Aprill, 2s. 10^. More for shoing the 
sadle horses from the 10 March to the 10 Aprill, 6s. Id. 24. Kichard 
Thornebrough, for hedging in the Wide Haugh, 5s. Qd. The Smith, 
for shoing from 10 Aprill to 10 May, 4s. 11 d. Paid him for shooing 
the troope horses 40 then, as per bill, 5s. 4d. Paid him an other bill of 
Phillip Horseman's for smithes worke to Husbandry geere, from Aprill 
10 till May 10, 3s. Id. May 22. William Olivant, plaisteres, for his 
wages and dyet at Haydon Bridge come milne, for latting and plaister- 
ing these, II. 9s. Qd. 14. Marke Stokoe, which he had paid by Sir 
Francis his order to Ealph Hudspeth, of Corbridge, in part of payment 
for winning 100 foother of lyme stones, winn at Corbridge, 12s. 27. 
Thomas Nixson, for himselfe and partners, for walling 9 rood of dry 
wall, wantting 2 yards, at 2s. per rood, but if it be not soe much when 
Sir Francis causeth it to be measured, then Mxson to returne the over 
plush if such happen to be. This was the wall driven doune with the great 
riood at Meldon on Aprill 26, 1682. 41 II. 12s. 9d. Mr. Bradley, his biU 
of particulars disbursed at Meldon then, about watching the wall, 
wrights worke, &c., and his own charges being 10 dayes there, II. 11s. 
3d. May 22. George Mayne's Bill for William Weare, 17 dayes in the 
garden, 8s. Qd. 30. Phillip Horseman for clipping sheepe and some 
other worke, as by it appeares, 5s. 7^. Paid him another bill for hus- 
bandry worke, from the 7 May to 3 June, 12s. IQd. 6. Phillip Horse- 
man, by the order of my master, in part of 5 several bills for hedging 
and some other worke, which 5 bills comes to 71. 4s. 2d., whereof I 
paid Ql. 4s. 2^., soe there rests unpaid of said bills II. Paid since, by 
the order of my master, in full of the said bills, 1?. -Allowed to Thomas 

40 The militia horses. See Accidental Expenditure. 

41 From some other notices of this flood in the account, it appears that it was 
general, for the posts did not come into Newcastle in order. John Nicholson rode in 
the flood to Dilston, to notify the damage at Meldon, and received 2s. for his pains. 
Thomas Barron was engaged in catching the militia horses in Meldon Park. 



1 12 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

Maughen for 46 fothers of lime, att Is. per fother, for the use of the 
Lead Milne, as by Mr. Lomas' note appears, 21. 6s. Mr. William Hall, 
a bill for lattin 42 candlestickes, extingquishers, snuffers, brushers, silke 
streaners, pottingers, potts, &c., as appears by bill, dated 21 Oct., and 
should have beene placed sooner but was forgot, 18s. 9d. 
[Total, 517. 9*. lid.'] 

Disbursed Moneys to the Poore and upon Accidental Occations. 

Nov. 14. Tom Barron, 43 letters 3s. 6d., charges 6d. 16. Ealphe, 4 * 
letters only, Is. 9d. 18. Tom, 45 footman, letters Is. 6d., charges 6d. 
19. Delivered to Madam Barbara Eadclyffe, 45 by my master's order, 
which she was to give to the poore in charity by his order, 10s. Given 
at the same tyme, by his order, in charity, to old Grace White, of Dil- 
ston, 2s. 6d. 18. Tom, footman, for letters, Is. 3d.; his charges 
staying all night then, Is. 19. Paid him then for charges all night, 
he being sent back againe with Fowle to the Doctor, Is. 20. Paid to 
him then for charges staying all night for letters, 9d. Charges for let- 
ters, Is. 26. Ealphe, for letters, Is. 28. Letters myself at Newcastle, 
Is. Tom, footman, for his charges the same day at Newcastle, 6d. 30. 
Balphe Tomson, for letters, 4s. 9d. Dec. I. Given by master's order to 
Dorothy Yarrow, of Hexham, in charity, 2s. 6d. 2. Tom, the foot- 
man, for letters 3s. 3d., charges 6d. John Herron, for makeing the 
boy Yoll two coates and one pair of britches, Is. IQd. 5. Tom, foot- 
man, for letters 6d., charges 6^. 7. Ealphe, for letters, Is. 9d. 9. Tom, 
footman, for letters, Is. 3d. 12. Tom, footman, for letters 2s. 9d., 
charges 6d. 15. Ealphe, for letter, 9d. 17. Madam Catherine, which 
she had, by Sir Francis' order, given to Mr. Palmer, the organist of 
Newcastle, atDilston, ll. Mrs. Jane Skelton, which she, by Sir Francis' 
order, gave in charity to the Ellin Makepeace, her brother being sick 
at Newcastle, 5s. Tom, the footman, for one letter that had a parch- 
ment deede in it, 3s. 6d., charges 6d. 19. Paid him then for letters 
Qd., charges 6d. Marke Stokoe, which he had given in charity, by Sir 
Francis' order, to a poore man with a passe, Is. To Stokoe, more, when 
he had given, by like order, to Tom Chatt, for helping master's shooes, 
6d. 22. Ealphe, for letters, 9d. 24. Tom, footman, for letters Is., 
charges 6d. Marke Stokoe, which, by Sir Francis' order, he had given 
in charity to old John Legg on Tuesday last, 2s. 26, Given, by Sir 
Francis' order, to Sir Cuthbert Herron' s keeper 47 for a fallow doe sent, 

42 At the late date of this account the word is perhaps used for brass ; but, strictly, 
latten was a distinctive hard mixed metal. " Sepulchral Brasses " were made of 
latten, and in its finest state it probably was imported, as the effigy of Richard Beau- 
champ, in 1454, was to be made, of latten or " Cullen [Cologne] plate." 

43 Under groom. ** Ralph Thompson. 43 Thomas Rattery. 

46 Sister to Sir Francis. She seems to have lived at Dilston, and was buried in 
the chapel there four months after her brother, in 1696. 

47 Sir Cuthbert seems to have been on thorough good terms with Sir Francis, and 
did not scruple to strain a point of law for his friend. In February. 30 Car. II., 
1677, an information was laid against divers Gibsons (including Katherine Gibson, 
widow), and other tradesmen of Hexham, for entering the warren at Dilston, and chas- 
ing, taking, and killing conies and rabbits there, against the Game Act of 22 and 23 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 113 

10s. Tom, footman, for a letter 3d., charges 6d. 28. George Mayne, 
for letters, 9d., charges 6d. Mr. Bradley, which he had paid to Dr. 
Nairne's footboy, for bringing a cage and a squerell to Dilston, by Sir 
Francis' order, 5s. Given, by his order, to a man that brought a booke 
to him, which Mr. Baker brought from Mr. John Errington, at London, 
called Lord Shaftsburie' s Tryall by master's order, Qd. 30. Delivered to 
Madame Catherine Radclyffe, which she was ordered to call for to me 
by master, to give to one Mr. Howard, an old man, who was both an 
to organist and tuned the verginalls at Dilston, and came with Dr. Nairne 
sell a pair 49 organs, 10s. Given, per master's order, to old Arthur Tomp- 
son, of Hexham, the blind man, in charity, 2s. 6d. 31. Tom, footman, 
for letters Is. 3d., for charges 6d. January 2. Tom, the footeman, for 
charges onely to Newcastle, for letters (but got none), Qd. 4. Tom 
Barren, for letters Is. 3d., charges Qd. 5. Given by Sir Francis his 
order to the players that came from about Stella and Bladon to Dilston, 
and there played the pla called Musadores, 50 II. 7. Mr. Ben: Carr, 
for letters, Qd. Tom, footman, for letters, Is., charges, Qd. Marke 
Stokoe, which he had paid to John Herron, for mending something of 
Sir Francis his close, Qd. Memorandum, that on or about the 20 De- 
cember last, twenty pounds was delivered to be distributed to the poore ; 
being left soe to be by the Lady Elizabeth Hadclyffe, late deceased, 51 
vizt., to Bywell parish 41., Hexham, 41., Corbridge, 51. 10s., Dilston, 
41 10s., Slayley Chappelry, 21., 2Ql.Dec. 30. To Mr. Thomas Car- 
naby, 52 of Durham, a bill which he had paid for a coate and trimming, 
and rnakeing of it, for one Mr. Ellos of Durham, given to him in charity 
by Sir Francis Kadclyffe, and paid for by his order to me, 11. 9s. 6^. 
Jan. 12. Jerry Kinleyside, his Christmas wages for pypeing, per mas- 
ter's order, 14s. 14. Tom, the footman, for letters Qd., charges Qd. 18. 
Tom, the footman, for letters Is. 3d , charges Qd. 21. Paid him for letters 
Qd., charges 6^.- Marke Stokoe, which he had given by Sir Francis' or- 
der to a lame man that had beene lamed at the Gray Mare Colliary, in 
Newlands, Is. 23. Tom, footman, for a letter 3d., charges Qd. 25. 

Car. II. The information professes to be laid before Sir Cuthbert and Francis Ad- 
dison, Esqrs., but Sir Cuthbert only signs, and he bolsters the document with this 
odd postscript, "I can and is ready to affirme, if theireto required, Frances Addison, 
of Ovingham, Esqr., one of his majestie's justicers of the peace, was present when the 
above mentioned information was taken. CUTHBERT HERON." 

The rabbit warren is shown on Armstrong's Map of Northumberland. It was in 
the bend of the Tyne, between that river and the Devils- water. 

48 All the arts which this " great driver " was believed to have employed to forward 
the evidence in the Popish Plot were turned against him by the court, yet, to the de- 
light of the Londoners, the grand jury threw out the bill against him. 

49 Pair is here used in its old sense of a set of articles similar to each other, not 
necessarily two in number, and refers to the pipes of the organs. 

50 This was the comedy called " Mucedorus, the King's son of Valencia; and 
Amadon, the King's daughter of Arragon; with the Merry Conceits of Mouse," 4to, 
1668. It was acted at the Globe, and afterwards before the King, at White Hall. 
The author of the play is unknown ; it was once supposed to be written by Shakspere. 

51 The mother of Sir Francis. She died in 1668. The distribution was to be an- 
nually made among poor Roman Catholics, on St. Lucy's day, (Dec. 13) or thereabouts. 

52 See Bowes's letter of 7 Feb. 1681-2, supra. 



114 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

Ralphe, for letters, Is. 3d. 28. Tom, footman, for letters Is., charges 
6d. 30. Tom, footman, for letters Is. 3d., charges 6^. Feb. I. Ralphe, 
for letters, Is. John Carre, of Newton Hall, per Sir Francis' order, 
which Carre had laid out at Newborne in ale and bread for men with 
4 draughts with dayles, about Michaelmas last, Is. 4. Mr. Benn Carr, 
for letters, Is. 6. Tom, for letters Is. 3d., charges 6d.8. Ralphe, for 
letters, Is. 3d. 9. William Lawson, being agreed and sent by John 
Vazie with a letter to acquaint my master that the storme was great in 
Aldston Moore, and that the bease at Tyne head had eaten most of the 
hay, and that it would not last above another week, &c., 2s 11. Tom, 
for letters Is. 6d., charges 6d. 13. Tom, for letters 9d., charges Qd. 
Given to poore people with a passe from the Maior of Newcastle, and had 
their ship lost neere Holy Island, per master's order, Is. 15. Ralphe, 
for letters, Is. 3d. Delivered to my master, which he gave to Mr. 
Browne, of Arron, an Irish gentleman, II. 18. Tom, footman, for let- 
ters Is. 3d., and charges 6^., and for 1 yeard of small redd sattin ribbin for 
Sir Francis, 4d. 20. Given by Sir Francis order in charity to old John 
Legg, 5s. 22. Ralphe, for letters, Is. 25. Tom, the footeman, for let- 
ters Is. 3d., charges 6d. 28. Tom, the footman, for letters 3d., charges 
6d. March 1. Mr. Bradley, for letters Is. 9d., charges 6d. Ned 
Selby, which Sir Francis gives in charity to Elizabeth Selby, the iu- 
ocent, for the halfe yeare ended at Martinmas, 1681, (January 17, 1681) 
10s. Mr. Lancelot Algood, for a suite wherin Mr. William Charleton 
and Mr. William Pearson were concerned, and for some other things 
Mr. Algood did for Sir Francis, which he ordered me to pay (Jan. 18.), 
22?. 19s. 8^. Thomas Forster, Junior, of Whittall, for two cowes' 
grasse, which my master was pleased to give in charity to Jane Reed, 
the nurse (Jan. 23.), 16s. Madam Catherine Radclyffe, which she had 
given by my master's order to a poet that came out of Scotland to New- 
castle, and so to Dilston, about Candlemas, 5s. Feb. 16. Sir Francis 
Radclyffe, Bart., upon the account of John Charleton' s acquittance for 
Mitford Rectory, 51. 23. Robert Maughen, &c., charges bringing 
20 bease to Tyne head, 5s. Doctor Nairne, for Electuaryes, and oynt- 
ments and cordiall, &c., as per acquittance dated Dec. 8, 13s. 6d. 
March 24. Mr. Geo. Morton for 4 yards blew cloth, at 5s. 6d, for 
the footman and groome's liveryes, II. 3s. Mr. Thomas Salkeld, 
taylor, for makeing up the two said liveryes, with all things thereto 
belonging, 71. 17 s. IQd. 4. Tom, footman, for letters Is., charges 
all night Is. 6. Paid him for letters Is., charges 6d. 8. Paid him 
for letters 9d., charges 6^. 11. Tom, footman, for letters 9d., charges 
Cd. Marke Stokoe, for John Herron, taylor, for something he did for 
my master in his chamber, 6d. To a seaman that had lost his shipp, 
which my master ordered to be given in charity, 6d. 15. Tom, foot- 
man, for letters Is., for charges 6d. 18. Paid him more for letters 9d., 
charges 6d. 20. For letters, myselfe at Newcastle, Is. 9d., sent them 
to Dilston by the gardner, his charges that day Qd. 21. For letters to 
Capt. Talbott, which he had to Dilston, 2s. 3d. 24. For letters, myselfe 
at Newcastle, Is. 3d. For by letters then to Yorke to Mr. Mitford, 4d., 
Mr. Wai worth, 2d. t to Spindleston, 2d. 25. My owne charges and my 
horse's for five dayes at Newcastle, paying severall bills of, which we 
were owing for in the towne, and accounting with Mr. Hutchinson and 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 115 

others, and buying divers provision and other things for the house use 
for Lent, &c., II. 5s. Spent more of the carriage men that came from 
Dilston to Newcastle for goods I bought at 2 severall dayes, 2 horses 
a-peece, and for hay, 2s. 8d. 27. Tom, footman, for letters Is. 6^., charges 
6d. 29. Ralphe, for letters, Is. 6d. 31. Paid him more for letters 
then, and by letters, Is. 9d. Aprill 3. Tom, for letters Is. 3d., charges 
6^. 5. Robert Gray, for letters Is. 9d., charges 6d. 5. Given by Sir 
Francis Radclyffe' s order for charity to old Gilbert Usher, 10s. 8. Mr. 
Benn. Carr, for letters Is. 9d. Given by Sir Francis Radclyffe' s order 
in charity to a briefe to Mrs. Mary Graves, widow, and Mary Graves, 
the daughter, in the county of Devonshire, who sustayned losse to the 
value of 1900?. She was widow to one Captain John Graves; Mr. 
Roaper seemed to my master as if he knew them, and that he beleeived 
it to be reall, 10s. 10. Tom, footman, for letters 9d., charges 6rf. 12. 
Ralphe, for letters, 9d. 15. Mr. Benn. Carr, for letters then being 
Easter Eve, Is. Tom, footman, for letters nothing, charges 6d. 15. 
Delivered to my master, which he gave to Mr. William Errington's man 
of the Grange, he bringing a present of two great rolls of brawn and other 
civilities from Mr. Errington, as offers of hay, in the greatest scarcity, 
10s. Mr. Francis Radclyffe, which he had delivered to his father, Sir 
Francis Radclyffe, which he gave to Mr. [blank] in charity, 10s. 17. 
Tom, footman, for letters 9d., charges 6^. 20. Ralphe, for letters, Is. 
3d. 22. Tom, footman, for letters 6d., charges 6d. Given in carity by 
my master's order, to Tompson, the blind man, of Hexham, 2s. 6d., and 
to Dorothy Yarrow, of the same towne, 2s. 6d., this given of Easter Eve. 
24. Tom, footman, for letters 6d., and charges Is., staying all night 
by reason of the flood. 27. Paid him for letters 3d., and charges 
all night, the Frydaye's post not comeing inn till Sunday by reason of 
the flood, Is. My charges at Morpeth Sessions and at Meldon, 12s. 6d. 
To the Light Horses 3 dayes pay, vizt. at 2s. 6d. a horse and man, 
being four men at Easter Sessions, II. 10s. For fixing one of the pistolls 
at Morpeth for poowder, 6^. [To the Muster Master for 2 years' pay, 
erased^ May 3. Tom, footman, for letters 9^., charges 6^. 4. Two 
nights and two dayes charges at Newcastle about getting money returned, 
1500?., from Mr. Robson and Mr. Jefferson, but could not get it returned, 
10s. Marke Stokoe, which he had laid out by master's order, vizt. To 
John Herron the taylor, at twice, Is. More to him, given in charity to 
a woman called Mrs. Harris, with a pass, Is. To John Nicholson for 
comeing to Dilston in the flood to bring newes the parke wall was 
brought downe, 2s. John Legg, in charity, 2s. 6d. To a German that 
stayd here at Dilston 14 dayes, an loron potter, 5s. Thomas Barren, 
for his charges 2 nights at Meldon, catching the Malitia horse in the 
parke, being stopt with the flood one of the nights, Is. 6. Dr. Nairne, 
for letters 2s. Mr. Bradley, which he had spent of John Barron and 
Cuthbert Stobbert's draughts bringpng] the iron materialls from Dilston 
to "Woodhall Lead Milne, 8d. John Hoggert, which was due to him 
for charges when he went to fetch the armes from Sir Ralph Jennison 
for the Malitia horse, 6d., and for one letter then 6d. May 8. To Mr. 
Thomas Lumley, inkeeper at Hexham, by my master's order for Mr. 
Jefferson's horses and men's dyet and the Doctor's horse, from Satureday 
till Monday, for oates, hay, litter, meat and drinke, (we had no hay at 



116 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

Dilston) 16*. 4d. 6. Dr. David Nairne, for letters then, 2s. 9d. 8. 
Tom, footman, for charges, he going on Sautireday at night to put let- 
ters in, and staying till Monday morning, expecting till the Sondaye's 
post came in, 2s., and for letters then for Sir Francis, 6^. 10. Paid him 
more for charges on Tuisday night, staying till next day for the post 
comeing in, Is., and for letters 6d. 13. Paid him more for letters 9d., 
charges 6d. 15. For letters 2s., charges 6^". 17. To him, for letters 
6d., charges 6d. 20. To him, for a letter 3d., charges Qd. 22. Paid 
him then for charges to Newcastle, 6d. only. George Dixson for the 
letters that tyme 3d., charges 6^.~ 24. Tom, footman, for charges only, Qd. 
At Warke Courte, for a bushell of oates, the first day, for the Stew- 
ard's horses and my owne, &c., 4s. Qd. To the reckoning that day, for 
ale, &c., 5s. 6d. For oates the second day there, 2s. 3d. The reckon- 
ing there that day, 6s. 6d. Given at "Wallick Grange to the servants, 
by Mr. Jeiferson's order, we staying all night, with our horses for 
oates and hay, 5s. 11. Paid for the Court dinner at Haydon Bridge, 
and for the Steward's charges and horses whilest we stayd there, being 
a day and one night in all, ll. Is. Alston Moore, May 13th, \_Uanlc} 
Spent at Salkeld whilest the Steward's horse got a shoe set on, Is. 
For a boat there, 6d. Oats and hay and our dinners at Graystock towne, 
5s. Sd. At Thirkeld, for ale, whilest Mr. Errington's horse was shod, 
4*?.- At Kesswicke, for 4 nights' charges for the Steward and his men, 
and Mr. Gilbert Errington, and for Mr. Wrenn's and John "Wethereld's 
charges there in that tyme, ll. 13s. Id. Oates there for the horses, 8s. 
Hay for the Steward's horse 4 nights, 4s. At Thornthwait Court, for 
ale for the Steward and Jury, 2s. Oates and hay and dinners at Coale 
Fell, as we came back homwards, 4s. Sd. For a guid there over the 
moores, Is. Att Haydon Bridge, as we came back, being all night there, 
for our horses and selves, 10s. 6d. 18. At Newlands Court, at William 
Browne's house, for the Court dinner there for the Steward and his men, 
Mr. Simpson the parson of Bywell, Mr. Maddison and his sonne, Mr. 
Reed, &c., 9s. 8d. For oates for the Steward's horses there, Is. 6d. 

27. Paid Ealphe Tompson, for letters, Is. 3d. 28. Tho. Barren, for 
charges only, 6d. Marke Stokoe, which he had given by my master's 
order to Capt. Bickerstaffe's man that brought two little beagles to 
Dilston, 5s. 30. Tom, footman, for a letter only, and noe charges, 3d. 
June 2. Paid him for a letter Qd., charges 6d. My charges at Stagshaw- 
faire, on Whitson Eve, about severall businesses, 2s. 6d. Tom, foot- 
man, for charges only, 6d. Anthoney Buckles, for one yeare's charity 
which my master gives to his wife, Margarett Buckles, as per acquit- 
tance appears, dated Aprill 24, 21 Madame Catherine Radclyffe, as 
appears by her acquittance, which she had given by her father's order 
to Mr. Prichard the last tyme he was at Dilston, June 1, ll. Given by 
master's orders to Law son, a poor travellar that calls my master Ms tenant, 
and all other gentlemen that gives him sixpence, 6d. 
[Total 93Z. 7s. SW.] 
In. all, 161 ll 4s. Wd. 

Of Mr. Prichard, mentioned in one of the last items in connection 
with the Baronet's daughter Catherine, a very odd idea is acquired by 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 117 

the perusal of the next letter. He seems to have been in holy orders 
derived from Rome, and is covetous of promotion and power. 

CATHERINE HOWARD TO SIR FRANCIS BADCLYFFE. 

Honored Sir, I am moch ashamed to give you this truble ; yet could 
not satisfie my selfe without acquainting you with these things. Mr. 
Prichard has been plesed to saye, that lett all others use what indevours 
the could, hee had made a marriage for your daughters ; and they should 
goe too it ; that they then had thoughts of goeing to one place, but 
should goe to another ; and that the had so great an opinion of him, 
that they would never make use of any other till hee was forced to co- 
mand them when he was to be absent about a quarter of a yeere, and 
that if Madam Catherine did ever mary, it should not bee in the North. 
And verie lately he was heard have this Mowing discorse with hir. Hee 
said ther was severall semed to love and admire hir moch, but none did 
soe much as hee, and, after many praises and great expressions, desired to 
bee satisfied when and where she went to. Shee saide she did not 
know, leaveing those things much to hir parents. Hee seemed to bee 
much dissatisfied that she would not resolve of both, but then asked 
what portions you would give, which she likewaies said she did not 
know, but had hear some say you spoke of 50QU. a-peece, and she 
thought it verie well : but hee saide, lett that never be named againe, 
she must urge both you and my lady not only to give a much greater 
some att present, but WQU. a yeare a-peece during life, and then it 
would both sett up the monasterie and hee would take care to have 
something settled upon them in case any extraordinarie things did 
haperi ; and bid hir have a great care of changeing hir intentions. She 
answered, she though ther was little danger : but she beged of God to 
derect hir to what was best. All this makes [me] beelive what I have 
sevarall times heard, that he was not satisfied as he was, and did intend, 
by bringing your daughters, to bee confesor to the monastarie, and hee 
is somthing guided by humer that hee will lett it be seen hee can doe 
what hee hase said, for I canot understand it to to bee altogether pietie. 
This I leave to your prudence to make what use of you plese ; but I beg 
you will burne this, and not take any notice of it for some time, least it 
bee suspected whence you had it ; and that may give some displeasure 
and doe my nephew an injurie, tho' hee dose not know the least of my 
acquainting you with it ; which would more afflict me did he receive 
any prejudice, since I have done it without his leave or knolige : but, 
were it to any purpose, I assure you I could prove what I have said by 
undeniable authours. I sopose it likewayes to bee him that hase put 
the scruple into my lady and your sisters, that it is a sine to say the 
least against anys beeing religious, and that those who have had such 
intentions canot be fortunat, tho' many contrarie exeamples may be 
proved : as Mrs. Garard, who was as solicitous to goe as any could bee, 
yett was prevailed with to marie, and is hapie as any I know, both in 
husband, chillder, and increse of fortune ; my Lady Haggerston, who did 
trie it, and, God bee thanked, noe great signes of being unfortunate. 
And, if preventing another's misirie can bee any motive, I am sartaine 
none can have more reson then Madam Catherine, for, till I see him, I 



118 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

did not thinke it posible for any man in the world to have that consarne 
upon any acount, and sertainly the hole satisfaction of his life depends 
upon it. I know not what to say for my great impertinence in giveing 
you so great a truble ; but I asure you I should never have done it 
for myselfe, nor is ther any thing that is not unjust, but I would doe it 
for him. But, to add noe more to what I thinke allredie much amis, I 
subscribe my selfe ever, Honored Sir, your most humble and obliged 
servant, , KATE HOWARD. 

Lady Catherine Eadcliffe did not marry Kate Howard's nephew, but 
died a spinster at Brussels or Louvaine 53 in 1 746, after witnessing the 
ruin of her house. 

Kate Howard was a spinster daughter of JBauld Wyllie's second son, 
Sir Francis Howard, Knt., and she selects instances of happy matrimony 
from houses with which she was nearly connected. The following 
genealogical extract will show the means of her alliance with the 
Gerards and Haggerstons. The "Lady Haggerston" of the letter must 
have been the heiress of Carnaby, as the writer's sister Margaret died 
the same year in which her husband succeeded to the baronetcy, as also 
did old Lady Haggerston, and the letter was written before May, 1683, 
when Kate Howard died. 

Sir Francis Howard, Knt., of Corby Castle, second =5= 1. Margaret, dau. =f= 2. Mary, dau. of Sir Hen- 
son of Lord William Howard. Born Aug. 1588 ; ------- 

died May, 1660. He sold two estates at Newsham 
and Brereton, co. Durham, for 7000/. to pay a regi- 
ment of 400 horse, which he raised in the service 
of Charles I. , 



of John Preston, 
of the manor of 
Furness, Esqr., 
died September, 
1625. 



ry Widdrington, of Wid- 
drington Castle, Knt. by 
Mary, dau. of Sir Richd. 
Curwen, Knt., died in 
July, 16. . rafter 1662). 



Elizabeth, Francis How-=pl. Anne, dau. 2. Mary Ann William How-^=Jane, d. Margaret* mar- 
wifeofEd- ard, of Cor-/^ of Wi lliam ^ Dorothy, dr. ard, 2nd son,/fyof John ried Thomas 



wardStan- 
dish, of 
Standish, 
eo. Lane. 

Thos. How- 
ard, col. in 
his father's 
regiment, b 
1618, slain 
in the arms 
of victory 
atAtherton 
Moor, June 
1643. 



by, Captain 
in the Army 
& Governor 
ofCarlisle,b. 
June 1635, 
d. Dec, 1702. 



Gerard, of 
Brinne, co. 
Lane., died 
24Mar.l679, 
having borne 
a dau. Eliz. 



of Richard 
Townley, of 
Townley, d. 
1712, hav- 
ing had four 
childi 



lost his leg Dalston Haggerston, of 
in a naval of Acorn Haggerston, in 
engagement -bank, No. Durham, 
against the county Esq., who, as is 
Dutch. of West said, after his 

-morl'd. marriage, rode 
with his wife 

behind him, in one day, from Corby to Haggerston. She had about a dozen children 
by him, and died in childbed of the last, in June. 1673. Her husband succeeded to his 
father's baronetcy, and married, 2. Jane, sole daughter and heiress of Sir William 
Carnaby. of Farnham, co. Northumberland, Knt. who died in Sep. 1710, 9. p. 



iren. 



Alatheia, died abroad unmarried, 
probably a nun. 



Catherine, died unmarried 
May, 1683. 



Anne, died June, 
1683. 



HUMPHREY HUGHES TO SIR FRANCIS RADCLYFFE. M 



[The letter is imperfectly given by Mr. Howitt.] 

Spindleston, llth of January, 1683-4. 

May it please your honour, I humbly take the boldness to present 
these. few lines unto you, which are to lett your honour know how all 



63 Gibsons' Dilston. 

M Copy from the original in Greenwich Hospital. 



(Mr. FenwicVs Collections.} 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 119 

things are heer this longe and sad storme, which hath continued for these 
40 dayes, that we have not seen the ground, and the greatest part of the 
tyme a very deep snow, that wee were forct to feed all your sheep with 
hay, bothe old and yonge. Blessed be the Lord, they are very well yet, 
and the beass alsoe. This day it doth make an offer as if it would be 
fresh wether. Sir, I doe humbly desyre to know your pleasure con- 
eerninge the servants, your sheepherds and others, whether your honor 
intends to change any of them, or wether it be your pleasure they 
should continue. Candlemass drawes nye, at which tyme they will ex- 
pect to know what they must trust too. Soe I humbly desyre to re- 
ceive your honor's comands before that tyme concerninge them. As to 
their honesty, I must declare my consciens I canot tax any of them, and 
most of them lived upon the ground when George Fram lived heer, and 
are his friends and relations. Honored Sir, I make bold to acquaint 
you with a litle Scotts newes, which is this. My Lord Hume hath 
been at London for some season. In his absence this Chrismas, his 
lady sent for some gentlemen that were her freinds and neigbours to 
bear her company these Chrismass hollydayes, amongst the rest the 
Leard of Nynehole, and the Leard of Hilton. On Saint Steephen's day 
at night, the fell to cardes with the Lord Hume's brother, who is Sherrife 
of the Merce. One of the Leards won all the Sherrife' s monie, which 
made him angry. Some reflecting words did pass amongst them at that 
tyme. At last they all went to their three severall chambers. Hilton 
being in his bed, the Sherreife came up a pair of backstayrs, with a can- 
dle in one hand, and his sword drawn in the other, and came into Hil- 
ton's chamber, and bid him rise, and give him sattisfaction. Hilton 
ariseinge to gett up, Hume runn him throw the body in his bed, and 
gave him seven wounds more. Wynehole's chamber beinge by, [he], 
hearinge the scufle and Hilton cryinge " Murder," came to see what 
was the matter. Hume meets him at the door, runn him throw alsoe, 
and gave him eleven wounds. He dyed presently ; the other is yett 
alive. Hume came downe stayres, and meets one of their servants and 
gave him four wounds, and then fled, his man holdinge his horse all 
this tyme at the gate. He was at Eglinggam three dayes after. Be 
pleased to excuse my boldness and tediousness. "With my humble service 
to your honor, I humbly subscribe myselfe, honored Sir, your humble 
servant, HUMP. HUGHES. 

For Sir Francis Badcliffe, fiart., 
These at Dilston, Dilston. 

At Middleton Hall, par. Ilderton, one of the estates of the Radclyffes, 
which was kept in hand as a sheep stock farm, is preserved a marking 
iron containing the letters "g. It is stated, that on receiving some 
particular services from a person of the name of Hughes (apparently 
the writer of the foregoing letter), the Baronet offered him any of his 
farms to live on. Hughes declined to be the means of turning any 
worthy tenant away, and suggested that, as Middleton was not let, he 
might occupy it without detriment to any one. Sir Francis assented, 



120 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

and Hughes entered upon the farm in question, and he and his family 
cultivated it until the fall of the Radclyffes, after which their descend- 
ants continued their tenancy under Greenwich Hospital. About 1828, 
George Hughes, Esq., of Middleton Hall, Lieut-Col. Royal Cheviot 
Legion, purchased the estate for upwards of 30,000?, and died in Nov. 
1834, aged 87, having devised it to George Hughes Pringle, a son of 
his housekeeper, who in March, 1835, had the royal license to take the 
name of Hughes, vice Pringle. 55 I am informed that Mr. Hughes' sheep 
are still marked with the old iron. 

JOHN RADCLIFFE TO SIR FRANCIS RADCLYFFE. M 

August the 26th, 1684. 

is not much newes but 

give you an account of went from Winsor 

toward to remaine their 5 weekes his last 

forraign letters did assure him Buda was not taken. All is false, the 
Gazette contains to that purpose. Their be some alterations amongst 

at court this very junckture, viz. : Lord Radnor, the president, 

turned out of the councill, Lord Rochistir maid president in his place ; 
Mr. Godolphin in my Lord Rochistir' s place to rule the treasury; and 
my Lord Middleton, from secretary of Scotland, maid secretary here in 
Mr. Godolphin's place ; who suckceeds him in Scotland I know not. 
Before my coming from "Winsor I begd of his majesty the next grant his 
Majesty had in the Charter House for two of my sons in law, their being 
allwayes two put in togethir upon his Majesty's grant : obtained it with 
the greatest mark of the King's favor towards me imaginable, and [he] 
signed a letter presently himself e, directed to his trusty and well be- 
loved cozens and councillors the governors of the said Charter House, to 
admitt my two sons in his next grant accordingly. It is beleaved by some 
that my Lord Hallyfax will now be lord treasurer ; for when my Lord 
Rochistirs designed to be treasurer, his indeavor was to get my Lord 
Hallyfax maid president, which last yeare was very neigh efected, their 
being a sham message conveyed to my Lord Radnir that his majesty 
was very willing to excuse him from his great trouble, and would give 
him 10,000??. and his approbation to retire, which my [Lord Radnir] 
being willing to comply with, did wait upon the King accordingly [who] 
knew nothing of it. This being all at present, I will now hast [to con- 
clude], I am, honorable Sir, your truly obedient JOHN RADCLIFFE. 
To the Honorable Sir Francis Radcliffe, Barronet, 
These, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, present. 

The above letter refers to the successful intrigues of Halifax, and the 
end of the vain rivalry of Lord Rochester, the late Clarendon's second 
son. The presidency of the council was a post of nominal dignity, and 

55 Mr. John Bell, Gateshead. 

56 Copy from the original in Greenwich Hospital. (Mr, Fenwick's Collections .) 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF D ERWENTWATER. 121 

Halifax risked a jest upon Rochester's removal to it, " He had," he 
said, " heard of many kicked down stairs, but never of any that was 
kicked up stairs before." Burnett says that Radnor had for years lost 
his character of a steady cynical Englishman. 

After the decease of Charles II., the questionable taste which had 
prompted a matrimonial alliance with his illicit issue again manifested 
itself in Sir Francis Radclyffe. He selected Lady Mary Tudor, the 
daughter of Moll Davis, to match with Edward his son and heir. His 
second son Francis was the negociator for the alliance, and Mr. Ellis, of 
Otterburn, appends to his Genealogy of Radclyffe (printed by Mr. 
Fenwick in 1850) a curious letter of 17 May, 1687, from Sir Francis 
to his son of the same name, in which he expresses himself well satis- 
fied with what Frank had done in obedience to the King's command. 
Lady Mary was a Protestant. " I must confess," writes Sir Francis, 
" I thought myself obliged to use my utmost endeavours for the lady's 
conversion (or at least her promise) before marriage, but seeing his Ma- 
jesty is of another opinion, I do most humbly acquiesce, knowing that 
none is more tender in that point than his sacred Majesty, whom heaven 
preserve." 5033Z. per annum out of the general rental of the Baronet 
are to be settled on the marriage. Out of this the bridegroom may 
choose " 2, 000?. per annum present maintenance, where he pleaseth, 
only Dilston excepted. Out of this 2000Z. present maintenance, the lady 
is to have 400?. per annum, for clothes, &c., if desired." 57 Frank is to 
call upon Mr. Heath for a deed of the estate, which was made to the 
Baronet's sister Ann, " to fence against Major Christion's persecution," 
to enable counsel to draw the settlement. 

The marriage took place in the same year. The bride's age was 14, 
and a fine and scarce mezzotinto, displaying her at full length, in gor- 
geous apparel trimmed with feathers, stamps her as possessor of much 
elegance and beauty. A title (but not the title longed for in 1672) was 
in March, 1688, conferred on Sir Francis, the now famous earldom of 
Derwentwater. Tradition, according to Mr. Gibson, treats the creation 
as for the sake of the royal issue engrafted into the house of Radclyffe. 
This idea receives some support from the following letter, whence it 
appears that it was at first thought that Sir Francis himself would not 
share in the honour. 

ME. AMBROSE BAENES TO 

Newcastle, the 16th March, 1686-7. 
Right Honorable, 
Because the newes of the last post hath some particulars relateinge to 

57 These terms were carried out, as appears by subsequent acquittances at Green- 
\vich Hospital. Lady Mary received her full allowance, but Sir Edward in practice 
made an abatement, probably in consideration of residence at Dilston. 



122 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER.^ 

your honor's famely, I thought it my deuty to acquaint yow with it. 

It hath pleased his Majestic to create Mr. Fitz- James, 58 Duke of Bar- 
wick, Earle of Tinmouth, and Barron of Bosworth ; he goes this cam- 
paigne for the Morea. 

That Sir Francis Radcliff's eldest son is to marry Madam Mary Tudor, 
daughter to his late Majestic, and is to be created Earle. 

That Sir Edward Hughes, Sir Thomas Gage, and Mr. Carryll are to be 
made Barrens. 

That the Grand Jury of St. Albons, at the Lent Assizees have pre- 
sented all sorts of Dissenters, and its said some of the Judges did give 
the panall statutes in charge against them all. 

My Lord Arrundell, of Wardor, is made Lord Privie Seale ; My Lord 
Powis is to be made Marques Powis. 

Teckley is yet alive, and in great favor with the Turks, and hath 
promised the Grand Senier that if he will furnish him with an army 
[he] will doe great things in Hungary. 

Yice Admirall Harbert is displaced from all his officees and trust. 

I had a letter last post from Mr. Errington, but I have not a word of 
what relates to your honer makes me doubt the truth of it. 

Dr. Barnet hath lately writt a booke, wherewith his Majestie is much 
displeased, and hath sent to the Prince of Oringe to discharge [him] 
from thence. 

The most of the particulars above are in a letter of newes to our 
Maior. I am, Honored Sir, your most affectionate humble servant, 

AMB. BAENES. 

The Dissenters need not have been alarmed, for in this month of 
March, the King announced to his Council the forthcoming appearance 
of his Declaration for Liberty of Conscience. Mr. Barnes went fully into 
the King's views on the bare abstract point of general toleration, and 
was considerably compromised. He was accused of being a Jesuit, and 
his maligners were composed of all classes of society. He certainly 
appears to have been party to a packed municipal election, and was such 
a favourite with the King, that the very followers of the King's religion 
were jealous, and complained of him as "not to be depended on, as to the 
grand secret then on foot." And the charge was probably true, for Mr. 
Barnes is represented as rejoicing at William III.'s success, and as 
having found King James II. 's blind side. 

Herbert's dismissal was for refusing his promise to vote for the repeal 
of the tests in civil employments. As to Doctor Burnett, the eminent 
historian, then in exile, the King had in vain on former occasions en- 
deavoured to procure the cessation of his intercourse with the Court of 
Holland ; but now a new English Ambassador was instructed to insist 
upon it before entering upon business, and, to prevent a breach, it was 
effected in a friendly way. 

58 The King's son. 



FRANCIS EADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 123 

The title conferred on Sir Francis Radclyffe necessitated the grant of 
supporters to his heraldric insignia, and again his son Francis was his 
right-hand man, and we have a curious heraldric letter from the latter 
to Sir Thomas St. George in Mr. Raine's North Durham, p. 239, which 
may very properly be reprinted here. 

FEANCIS RADCLYFFE TO GABTER KING OF ASMS, 

Sir, I sent my father by Saturday's post the draught of his arms, 
which I found left for me on Fryday night at Mr. Holford's. They mis- 
took in the Fenwicke's coate, and putt the marteletts three and three, 
whereas I minded your little draught had marked them (as they ought 
to be) three, two, and one. In my opinion he makes his bull's heads 
a great deal too long. That supporter which you had drawen had much 
the truer aaire of a bull. But, Sir, I give you this trouble chiefly be- 
cause I observed that you have made the crest much otherwise than that 
which you may remember I showed you, and which my father sent me 
as a very exact one. You have putt the ducall crowne quite under the 
neck, whereas the other has it close under the head, the arraized part 
of the neck appearing below. The string, too, is wanting in yours ; 
besides that (I know not how to terme it) which seems to support all. 
Then I see, Sir, you have marked the crown Or, whereas this I have is 
Argent. I think if the crest's crown be to be Or, it will be best to have 
those about the supporters so to. Sir, I shall waite upon you againe as 
soon as I have received my father's answer how he likes the supporters. 
In the meantime I beg, if you are anything at leisure, a line or two by 
the bearer concerning what I have writt here about the crest, and you 
will very much oblige, Sir, your humble servant, F. RADCLYFFE. 

Sir, I have sent the crest I showed you before, that you may look at 
it again. F. RADCLYFFE. 

For Sir Thomas St. George. 



The ornaments of the supporters and crest seem to have been settled 
Argent, but those of the crest in the old stained glass from the Roman 
Catholic chapel, Newcastle, are certainly Or. 

Francis, although, judging by the letter of 17 May, 1687, he seems 
to have pleased his father in his management of the treaty for 
his brother's marriage at that time, had, it would appear, become too 
fond of dangling about the court, and vexed the Earl by his long ab- 
sence. Not having seen the original, I do not venture on any specula- 
tions on the authorship of the following letter of advice to the foolish 
young adventurer. The initials, if they mean anything, would suggest 
the name of Ambrose Barnes. 



124 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

A. B. TO MR. RADCLYFFE. 59 

August the 3rd, 1688. 

Sir,- There are some reasons that make me soe much your wel wisher, 
that I cannot forbear sending you some advise, and some informacion. I 
am assured, and by such as are noe strangers in the North, that you have 
done yourselfe a very great injury with my Lord Darinwater, by staying 
soe long from home. Have a care you loose not a substance by follow- 
ing a shadow. There are but two waies of getting anything at Court, 
money or a zealous powerfull friend. The first I hear you doe not use, 
and as to the second, what can you expect from people that have nei- 
ther relation nor obligation to your family ? They may peradventure 
give you a good character; but after that, can you beleive they 
are not very indifferent what becomes of you. The \_King~\ him- 
self e, notwithstanding e his soe much applauded justice, was never yet known 
to doe any thing for a silent merit, he must be teized and importuned; 
and who, in this age, will for pure love and friendship take soe much 
pains? There is not one of the favourites but have round summes 
proffered them for every good thing that falls, and when they have such 
clyents, you that pay nothing but respect and visits, are sure to be 
postponed. Overabove these difficulties, I have heard from very good 

hands, that the [King] has a prejudice to you for the delays that 

were made in your brother's match, for you are suspected to be under- 
hand the contriver of them. In fyne, sir, your best and safest game is 
most undoubtedly at home ; stick close to your duty there, and nature 
will never faile to provide well for you, and it will be time enough and 
much easier to push your fortune a dozen years hence, when age will 
have made you fitter for such imployments as I know you aime at, and 
when perhaps you will be master of what will best make you freinds. 
For my part, besides the prudence of your retiring, if I were in your 
place, I could not submit to stay where you make but the figure of a 
hang-on ; for it is evident your brother and sister desire not your com- 
pany, otherwise they might surely have found you a little chamber in 

their house and lastly, more than all this, by staying you expose 

yourselfe te.be blamed for aU the miscarrie[ages in] your brother's fam- 
ly, without being able to prevent them. I know you will not wonder 
to fynd at [the foot] of this letter no other subscription then Your 
humble servant, A. B. 

There is one thing more that I must not omit. They say you are 
accused at home of being married, or at least of designing to marry very 
foolishly, and, this woman being now in towne, it is concluded that 
your love for her is that which chiefly keeps you here. It is very dan- 
gerous to give my Lord your father any cause to beleive this. 

In dorso. For Mr. Ratclif, att the Black Posts, in Greate Eussell 
Street, nere Southampton House, Bloomsberrye. 

The mad reign of James II. was fast hastening to a close, and the 
39 Copy from the original at Greenwich Hospital. (Mr. lenwick's Collections.; 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 125 

letter does not tend to remove the ordinary opinions of the King and 
his court. Francis Radclyffe did not marry foolishly, nor at alL 
The next letter is dated in the following reign. 



JOHN PEIBSON TO GERALD 

London, June the 10, '90, 
Honored Sir, 

These noo lines are to lett you know what it is repported. Itt is said 
the High Landeres have given us a deffeatt, and to the lose of 700 men, 
and I am sory to menchen this which, I will promes you, I had from 
the gennerell genttellman of horse, which is my Lord Cherchell man : 
and hee said that his Lord said that there is a sad distemper off a breeking 
outt amongestt the horsses in Darbes hamb h . 61 armey, and that we have 
loste two rigementes of horsse, and with the breaking in billes [boils]. 
This weeke here landed 40 saill off shippes from the Cannel, leooden with 
all spices and wine, and itt is saide the King customes will amounte to 
one hundered thousande punde. Mr. Robertt Fergesson and Sr. John 
[llank~] was bailled off for giving aperence in New Sessenshose, and 
inded wee say thatt Mr. Fergesson is consarned amongestt the papesttes 
and there is papesttes presstes consarned with him, and wee with time 
will finde all out. God presarve his Maigisty, and send him safe to his 
armey in lerland 62 , thoo itt bee saide his Maigisty had some thing off a 
lowessnes one the way to Chester, and soden fitt off itt, and the papestes 
repporttes there will [not ?] bee any occasion off his going for lerlande ; 
and all there gerefe will come whome by them. And I am affraidde 
off some thing off ann understanding betwixt the Emperer and the 
Frenche, as is saide abroade in ann somising waye, thoo not for sartten, 
and the Frenche flett is att Bresste still, and is said to have twenty 
thousand land men aboorde, and all thinges is privett, and God con- 
tinnew them in quiettenes till his Maigisty returne, which wee whope 
all will bee presently sided att his landing amongeste his peopell. These 
is to begg your pardon, and commande your humbel and obedentt sar- 
vantt att till death, or not JOHN PEIBSON. 

These for Mr. Garalld Connan, att Dillston, to lee left with 
the postemaster off Newcastell upon Tyne, Northumberland. 
Per Scotland. 
[Seal of Arms, Per fess embattled, three suns displayed.] 

The above letter is written in an extremely loose and illiterate hand, 
although tlje writer seals with the coat armour of Pearson of London. 

It has been remarked by a member of the Society, that for an insight 
into the feelings of the people during the momentous reign of "William 
III. we are very little indebted to private correspondence. 

60 Original : Presented by Mr. Forster. 

61 This seems to be the reading of the two preceding words ; but the whole letter 
is illiterate, and difficult of perusal. 

62 He landed at Belfast on the 14th. 



126 FRAXCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 

A few days after the date of the above letter, a French invasion was 
hourly expected. Tourville's fleet left the port of Brest, and, on June 
29, defeated the English and Dutch squadron at Beachy-head. The 
news about the Highlanders was false. Buchan's rebellion signally 
failed. 

The year of the Earl of Derwentwater's death is variously given 1696 
and 1697. The former date is correct. He died 21 April, 1696, aged 
T2, 63 as appears by his leaden coffin in the family vault at Dilston Cha- 
pel. The following letter is from his successor, a novice in the duties 
of the Peerage. 

EDWARD EARL OF DERWENTWATER TO HIS BROTHER. 64 

London, July 16, [16]96. 

I received yours, Dear Brother, with our High Sheriff's letter in- 
closed, wherein you state the case about the Livery Coates. I sent to 
enquire, by the by, at my Lord Careliles, and my Lord TankarvilTs, 
(but the last of these Lords is at the Bath.) Gypson met with one of 
my Lord Carlile' s stewards of his Courts, and he told him that my Lord, 
nor the Lords his fathers, had not sent any coats this thirty years, nor 
woud he send any this year. My Lord Carlile is a good president for 
me, unless Papist Lords have not the same previlege as other Lords. If 
I should doe it once, I must continue, or else the next sheriff would have 
reason to take it ill. 65 Pray enquire how my Lord Tankervil dos in this 
affair, and, if he dos as my Lord of Carlile, I thinke they are the best 
rule and president I can follow. I am your affectionate brother and 
humble servant, DARWENTWATER. 

My service to all where due. 

Seal, an anchor. 

It is not very clear whether the coats only were claimed of the lords, 
or coats with men to wear them, at the assizes. 

There is perhaps no direct evidence of any thing very peculiar or 
striking about the talents of the old Earl ; but we may gather from our 
scanty knowledge of him, that he was devoted to his religion and fa- 
mily, and was a liberal and hospitable head of his house, with a spice of 
vanity and ambition. He could indeed look with some self-complacency 

63 " His will is dated 10 Apr., 1696. The testator devised to his grandsons James, 
(executed in 1715) and Francis, and their heirs, equally to be divided between them, 
all his messuages and lands in Reedsdale, and all monies due to him. Under this 
devise the Earl's grandsons became tenants in common ; and on the death of Francis, 
intestate, and without issue, his moiety of personalty became divisible, by the Statute 
of Distributions, between his brothers, James and Charles, and their sister. The 
brothers being afterwards attainted of high treason, five-sixths of the bequest were 
declared forfeited to the crown." Gibson. 

64 Original, presented by Mr. Forster. 

65 The italics are his Lordship's. 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIEST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 127 

on the admirable management of his revenues in troublous times, which 
had enabled him to bear the oppressions of civil disruption, to consoli- 
date the shares of the Fenwick coheirs in himself, to erect an imposing 
mansion, and thus to bring his bark safely and in new honour through 
the storms and changes which had ruined so many of the cavaliers 
around him. But, to show the utter emptiness of his objects of pursuit, 
in twenty years from his death, his titles were extinct, his consolidated 
lands confiscated, and his grandson's head had rolled on the scaffold, in 
the service of that weak, heartless, and tyrannical race whose alliance 
he had longed for. 



* # * Since the above article was written, it has been suggested that 
an enumeration of the Earl's possessions might have its interest. The 
following abstract of his rent roll, in which I have inserted a few of 
the tenants' names, will probably give the best notion of them. The 
figures of the account are not always filled in, and there are discrepan- 
cies which render their publication undesirable. 



BENTS DUE TO SIE FEANCIS RADCLYFFE, BAB" IN SEVEEALL PLACES, 
DUE AT PENTECOST, 1671. 66 

BAEEONEY OF LANGLEY. -Lowhall. Hill Cloase. Strother Cloase. Little 
Hill Cloase ...... 11 and Bogle. Teadcastle. Lees. Loaning foot. 

Planckey. Yause. Harsingdale. Silliwrea. Harlow Hill, alias Lough. 
Deanraw. Langley Castle (Humphrey Little and Robert Hudspeth, 30Z.) 
Xightbirks. Dennetley. Elrington (John Ellington, Esq., 12s. ; Mr. 
John Radclyffe, ll 13s. 4d.; Benn. Carr, two farmes, 31 6s. 8d., &c.) 
Woodhall. Woodhall and Milne House. Woodhall Mill. Lipwood. 
Cuttshill. WMnatley. Peelwell. East Brokenheugh (Eichard and 
John Ord, gentl., 16/.) Rattan Raw. Broomhill. Haydon Bridge 
(Francis Elrington, gentl., for Jane Maughen, "Widow, ll. 6s. 8d., &c.) 
Haydon Towne. Tofts and Hall Orchard. Page Croft. Millhills. At- 
tonside. Plender Heath. Haydon Bridg Mill, New Mill, and Bote 
fblank). Land Ends. Allerwash. Westbrokenheugh. Fowstons 
(Mr. William Charleton, late Jo n . Errington, 61, &c.) Fowstons Col- 
lyary (Arthur Shaftoe, late John Legg, 51.) Coastley Demane. Bag- 
raw. Stackfoard. Langhopp. Spittle. Fences (Mr. William Car- 
naby (81} Thornbrough (John Charleton, 651) Westwood (Mr. 
Richard Gipson, 24?.) "Wheathaugh. Greenlands (Mr. Richard Gipson, 

66 Original, in Mr. Fenwick' s Collections, The few figures given only represent 
half a year's rent, 



128 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF BERWEXT WATER. 

41. 15s.) "Wiles Leases. Watson Cloase and Calfe Cloase. Wheat- 
haugh. High wood (Mr. Bichard Gipson, 141. 15s.) Hay don Bridg 
Walke MiU (Mr. John Badclyffe, 15s.) Grindon (Mr. Alexander 
Stokoe, II) Whitefeild. Budeland (Mr. Wm. Widdrington, 421 10s.) 

KESWICK BENTS. Deare Cloase. Eskham Spring. Allenhead and 
Kilne Holme (in Sir Francis' owne hand, 21. 10s.) Stable Hills. Horse 
Cloase. Hedsmire. Heads (in my master's owne hand, 51) Watter- 
house Banck (in Sir Francis' owne hand, 21.) Espnes Hill and Loan- 
head. Castle Head. Ground End. Wamthwait old Bent (collected by 
Thomas Crosthwait, 31 12s. 4d.) Eskham feeld. Malls. Wamthwaite 
Milne. Gooswell. Skinners Kill Hill. Castlerigg old Bent (collected by 
Francis Haw and Jo n Bancks, 61 Is. tyd.) Nadle old Bent (coll ectedby 
Bobert Harrison, 31. 9s.) Burns old Bent (collected by John Grave, 
\l. 19s. 2^d.) Boonsday worke (Gawen Grave, Martinmas only, 7s.) 
Keswick old Bent (collected by John "Wetherell, 51 12s. Q^d.) Court- 
house. Shops and Shambles (Miles Hobson, late Jo n Wetherell, now lett 
at 41. 10s. per annum.) Adamson's House. Toll Office (Si.) Fishing (5s.) 
Long Oaks hill. New Parke (Mr. Gawen Wren, 21 15s.) The Lsles, 
carriage loads about 150, at 4d. per load; rent hens 75, at 4d. per 
peece, due at Martinmas only. TJllock Cloase the East (Mr. Gawen 
Wreen, at Martinmas only, 51.) TJllock Cloase. Keswick Burrow rents, 
collected by Cuthlert Raddyffe. Old Parke. Burns rent hens (Gawen 
Grave, payable at Martinmas only, 2s. 4d.) Pertinscall old Bent. 
Thornthwait old Bent and brew farme (Mrs. Catherin Burrastall Grave, 
51. 2s. 4d.) : carriage loads : (the same Grave, at Martinmas only, 
7s. 3^.) : rent hens : (the same, at Martinmas only, 10s. 4d.) Milne 
Bent. Lands Meadows. The Lsle (10s.) Westergarth, (burrow rent and 
sesses to be allowed.) 

BENTS IN SEVEEALL PLACES. Middleton Hall (Mr. Thomas Swin- 
burne, 651.) Spindleston (Mrs. Margaret Butler and her son, 250Z.) 
East Thornton (Mr. Edward Gray, 55/.) Brough, in Yorkshire, (Mrs. 
Margaret Butler and her son, 651. 10s.; November the 3Qth. Beceived 
of Sir John Lawson, Bt.) East Thornton Milne (now in my master's 
owne hand, 51.) Spittle Newbiggon. Kirkwhelpington. East and 
West Whittley. Ambell hall corn (281.) Ambell conny warrant 
(51. 12s. 6d.) Ambell garth and cottage house. Lee houses. Meldon 
towne (in my master's owne hand 86/.) Meldon demane (in my mas- 
ter's owne hand 401.) Harburn Grange. Cramlington (Sir John 
Lawson, Baronett, 351.) Morrick Milne (Mr. Bell III. 10s.) Scre- 
merston East demaine (Mrs. Green and Mr. Edward Moore (401.) 
Scremerston towne side (Mrs. Green and Mr. Edward Moore (III. 5s.) 
Scremerston North demane. Scremerston mill. Scremerston collyury 
(Hank, formerly let at 20Z. per ann.) Byker (Baiph and Jo n . Ayns- 
ley, 631. 5s.) Byker shore. Ballis shore (Sir John Lawson, Barronet, 
llank.J Houses in Useburn. Whittleys. Togston moore houses. 
Alnewick house (in my master's own hand.) Alnewick cloases. Spin- 
dleston mill. Midford Bectory (Cornelius Henderson, 30Z.) Broxfeild 
tyth (John Boddam, Esq., II.) Harburn Bectory (Beceived by 



FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER. 129 

Robert Wood from John Smith, John Barber, and Matthew Wardell, 
for the tyth of West Thornton and Long Witton, being one halfe 
yeares rent due at Lammas, 1671, 15?.) East Shafto, West Shaftoe 
(Received of William Arthur, for the tythes of East and West Shafto, 
being one yeares rent due by bill at Lamas, 1671, 13/. 6s. 8d.) Fairne- 
law, Harterton, and Donckenrigg (Wm. Arthur, of North Middleton.) 
Greenlighton. Camma (Sir Francis RadclifFe, Bartt., 16s. 6^.) Longe 
Witton and West Thornton tyth (Sir Francis Radcliffe, Bartt. 16/. 10s. 
ante.) 



MANNOK OF ALDSTON MOORE, due at Ladyday, 1671, only Lowbyre, 
which is due Pentecost, 1671. Auncient Rent (the whole yeares 
rent (551 Os. 3^.) Cottage Rents. The Cloases (free rent, Is.) Par- 
son's peece (this is the minister's right to pay at Michaelmas only, 2s.) 
Garrigill brew rent. Aldston moor brew rent. Tyth Rent. (The above 
three rents payable at Michaelmas only.) Cole pitt rent (payable at 
Michaelmas and Lady day.j Milne rent. Lowbyre (Richard Vazey, 
161 2s. 6d.) Tynehead. 



DILSTON. Dilston tyth corn (in my master's owne hand, 12?. 10s.; 
Whittle. Throckley (the heirs of William Chicken, a free rent, 9d. ; 
Jeromy Tolhurst, gentl., for every goeing pitt there, 221., p. a.) New- 
ton Hall Aydon Shields (Whittley milne and hall, Rawgreen, the 
Staples, John Cartington for Netherholmes, Myrehouse, the Bush, the 
Peacock House and the Wood, Turfehouse and Gairsheild.) Wooley. 
Corbridge (Stephen Anderton, gentl., for Prins Lands, 3s.) Whitting- 
stall. Newlands (Edward Selby, 6?., allowed for his sister 10s., 
received 51. 10s. : Joseph Hoper, for Ebchester Mildam, 3s. 4d.) 
High-feild. Farle. Colepitt rent (Cuthbert Selby and William Sure- 
tesse 3?. 10s.) Whitechaple (Mr. Nicholas Ellington, 9/.) Lip wood 
well. Whinatley. 

FEE FAEM RENTS, due at Pentecost. Sir Raiph Delavall, Bartt., 21. 
Luke Killingworth, gentl., II. 4s. 3d. Robert Dow, for land in Tyne- 
mouth, 13s. 4d. The heirs of Thomas Potts, for land in Woodhorn 
Seaton, 41. John Athy, for a house in Pypergate, Is. Nicholas Fen- 
wick, for a farme in Longe Framlington, 5s. Roger Wardell, for the 
like, 5s. John Wardle, for the like, 5s. George Wilson, for the like, 5s. 
Sir Thomas Horsley, for two farmes in Longehorsley, 10s. The same 
for a farme in Todburn, 10s. Wm. Aynsley, George Aynsley, and John 
Cowter, for land in Riplington, 19s. lid. 

TYTH RENTS due at seaverall tearm in the yeare and Pentecost. 
Whinatley tyth (John Maughen, 61 10s.) Kirkwhelpington tyth, July 
25 only, (Tho. Errington, gentl., 501. 5s. 4d. : Raiph Fenwick, gentl., 
for the rest of the tyth, July 25 only, 61 13s. 4d.) Lurbottle tyth, 
Michaelmas only (Gilbert Parke, gentl., 271.) East Thornton (Sir 
Francis RadclyfFe, Bartt,, 141) 



130 FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, FIRST EARL OF DERWENTWATER, 

The reader will observe the introduction of some of the well-known 
Lawson estates (Brough, Cramlington, Byker, and possibly others) in 
the rental. This circumstance is doubtless owing to the right of the 
Earl's lady to dower or jointure out of the estates belonging to the fa- 
mily of her first husband, Henry Lawson. On the other hand, the list 
must not be read as an enumeration of the lands forfeited in 1715. 
For instance, the great barony of Wark, Vhich was purchased by this 
Earl, in 1664, must be added to it. 

Besides his ordinary income, the Earl derived considerable profit from 
his lead mines. In 1698, two years after his death, in " An Essay on 
the Yalue of the Mines late of Sir Carnaby Price, by Wm. Waller, gent., 
Steward of the said Mines," the writer says, for the encourage- 
ment of the projectors, that the Earl of Derwentwater then had, or 
lately had, mines of lead in Alston Moor, on which above 1000 men 
were employed, and his Duty, (one-fifth of the work) produced him 
12,000?. a year, a statement which probably is exaggerated. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 
Gateshead. 



131 



A PROCESSION OF THE FUNERALL OF THE CORPS OF SIR 
RALPH MILBANKE, or HALNABY, co. EBOR., BART., 1 [WHO DIED 
IN MAY, 1748, AND WAS BURIED AT CROFT,] TAKEN DOWN BY JOHN 
MARSH, CLERK TO MR. [RALPH] ROBSON, [ATTORNEY AT LAW, DAR- 
LINGTON.] 

CORPS to be taken out of the State Room, and carryed to the Hall Door, 
followed by the four Mutes, two and two, and there taken upon the 
shoulders of eight men. 

The pall there to be supported by 

Right side. The Duke of Cleveland. 2 Left side. Henry Vane, Esqr. 

Sir Hugh Smithson. 3 Richd. Shuttleworth, Esqr. 

John York, Esqr. "Wingate Pulleine, Esqr. 

Henry Witham, Esqr. George Allan, Esqr. 4 

The two Porters or Staffmen, standing at the Hall Door, then walk- 
ing before the Corps, supported as above, to the Iron Gates ; when the 
two Porters, standing at the gate, are to proceed before the Hearse. 
But the Mourners are imediately to follow the Corps from the Hall- 
door, to the Hearse in the following order : Acklomb Milbank, Esqr., 
JohnMilbank, Esqr., Mark Milbank, Esqr., Mark Milbank, Junr., Ralph 
Carr, Esqr., Henry Thomas Carr, Esqr., James Carr, Esqr., Cuthbert 
Routh, Esqr. 

The Corpse to be placed in the Hearse, the Pall being turned up 
upon the Corps, and the Procession to begin, viz. : 

Sir Ralph's Tenants, two and two. At a little distance, the four 
Porters or Staffmen (John Stelling, Garthfoot, Richard Simm, John 
Atkinson), two and two, on horseback, in cloaks, scarves, and hatbands. 
At a little distance from the Porters, the four Mutes on horseback, in 
cloaks, scarves, and hatbands, two and two. The Mutes are Edward 
Gibson, John Middleton, Ovington Johnson, and Pearson's Man. A lit- 
tle distance from the Mutes, two Cloakmen on horseback abreast. The 
Horsemen are "William White and Thomas Lazenby. 

A little distance from that, the Standard alone, carryed by Alexander 
the Gardner, in a scarf, without a cloak. 

1 He was great-grandfather to the lady of Lord Byron. Marsh's programme is 
contained in one of Mr. Eobson's book of precedents, which was kindly presented to 
me by J. J. Wilkinson, Esq., of Stoke Newington. (W. H. D. L.) 

2 Of the Fitz-Roy family. 

3 Afterwards Duke of Northumberland. 

4 Of Blackwell Grange; father of "the good Miss Allan." The paU at his own 
funeral, in 1753, was supported by the Duke of Cleveland, Lord Barnard, the Hon. 
Thomas Vane, Capt. Edward Milbanke, Mr. Carr, Mr. Bendlowes, Mr. Bland, and 
Mr. Whitley. 



132 FUXERAL PROCESSION OF SIR RALPH MILBANKE, BART. 

The two men in cloaks, on horseback, vizt., Charles and Jonathan. 

A little distant, the Gantlot and Spurs, and also the surcoate. These 
to be carryed by William the Groom, and James Jobling, abreast, in 
scarves, without cloaks. 

Then the two men in cloaks, to wit, Young Jolly and William 
Allinson. 

A little distant, the Helmet and Crest, Shield and Dagger, carried 
abreast by Harrison and Bolton, in scarves, without cloaks. 

Then, a little distant, Sir Ralph's Stewards on horseback, in scarves 
without cloaks. Then, a little distant, Mr. Williamson and Mr. West, 
the undertakers, in scarves. 

A little distant, the Lid of Feathers, carryed by Robert Cock (in a 
cloak) upon his head, 

Then the Hearse. 

Then the ten Pages, five and five on a side, one page opposite to 
every horse and every wheel. The pages are David Peirse, Francis 
Smales, Thomas Branson, William Garthorne, Christopher Pybuss, 
William Dobson, John Wilkinson, Thomas Wilkinson, William Jolly, 
Thomas Eeles. Four Banneroll men two and two, on the outside of 
the pages ; Baker and Grey, one on each side ; Burn and Aron, one on 
each side. Carryers of the Corps to and from the Hearse are William 
Robinson, George Longstaff, Nicholas Gyll, Jonathan Goldsbrough, 
George Raisbeck, Thomas Beaver, Thomas Dowthwaite, aud Christopher 
Garnet. 

Two Mourning Coaches with the Mourners as they go in procession. 

Then 

The Duke of Cleveland's coach ) . , 

Tir TT > -, > in one coacn. 

Mr. Vane fl coach. ) 

Sir Hugh Smithson's coach. 
Richard Shuttleworth, Esqr's. coach. 
John York Esqr., had no coach. 
Wingate Pullein's coach. 
Henry Witham, Esqr's. coach. 
George Allan, Esqr's. coach. 
The Rector of Croft's coach. 

The rest of the Coaches in their due order. Then the Gentlemen on 
horseback, who are not in or have not coaches, two and two. Then 
the Common People and Neighbours on horseback, two and two. The 
gentlemen's Footmen on horseback, two and two. 

When the Corps comes to the church-gates, the Tenants dismount and 
wheele to the left, and to the Corpse back, and walk two and two into 
the church, and up into the chancell. Then the Staffmen, two and 
two. Then the Mutes, two and two. Then the cloakmen, two and 
two. Then the Standard alone. Then the two men in cloaks. Then 
the Gantlot, Spurs, and Surcoate. Then the Helmet, Crest, Shield, and 
Dagger. Then the Stewards. Then the Undertakers. Then the Lid 
of Feathers. Then the Hearse. Then the Mourners. Then the Gen- 
tlemen, two and two. Then the Neighbours, two and two. Then the 
Servants, two and two. 



133 



THE RENTAL FOR THE EARL OP WESTMERLAND'S LORD- 
SHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526. 1 

BlWELL WITH ITS MEMBERS. 

A Rental of the lord's lands and tenements within the same, renewed the 
Tenth day of February, in the 1 6th year of the reign of King 
Henry VIII. [1525-6] before Thomas Grice, counsellor at law, and 
Matthew Thompson, the lord's auditor. 

Free Rents* 

CTJTHBEBT Radclyffe, Esq., a free rent issuing out of his lands in Ferle 
[Fairlemay], 9s. and one pound of pepper; for Newlands, 31. 13s. 4d. ; 
41. 2s. 4d. and lib. pepper. From the same, an ancient free rent out 
of his lands in Bromlegh, lib. of pepper. Cuthbert Newton, an an- 
cient free rent out of the township of Eltringham, 21. and 6 hens. 
Robert Lewyn, a free rent out of his lands in Bromlegh, lib. pepper. 
Thomas Fenwick, the like out of his lands in Miklee, lib. pepper. 
John Lawson, the like out of his lands in Biwell, Is. Id. Ancient free 
rent out of lands and tenements of the Chantry of Biwell, Is. 4d. 
Free rent payable by Robert Erie, Sd. Free rent payable by Thomas 
Nevyll, Sd. 

[Total, 61. 6s. Id. and 4lb. pepper.] 

Moore-silver. 

William Lisle, Knt., for a certain custom issuing out of "lee Sheldon 
Moore," called More-silver, 3s. The township of Weldon [Welton], for 
the Moore-silver, 13s. 4d. The township of Halton Sheles for the cus- 
tom aforesaid called More-silver, 13s. 4d. 

[Total, II. 9s. Sd.~\ 

Rents at the will of the lord. 

Rent of a close there called Eddersley close, in two payments, at 
Whitsuntide and Martinmass, 13s. 4d. Rent of a little garth \_gard4nf] 
there, called "lee Halgarth," in the like payments, 2s. Rent of ano- 
ther close of meadow there called Nykke's Medowe, in the like pay- 
ments, 3s. Rent of a tenement within the lordship there called Minstre- 
acres, in the tenure of Richard Swynborne, ll. 13s. 4d. Rent of a 
place or grange within the lordship there called Acorn, in the tenure of 
Richard Welden, 21. Rent of a grange or place within the lordship 

1 The original in Latin is among the records removed from the Chapter House, 
"Westminster, and now in the custody of the Master of the Rolls. A copy was com- 
municated by the subscribers to the Hodgson Fund. 

2 The sums throughout are annual, 



134 RENTAL FOE THE LORDSHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526. 

there called Stiford, in the tenure of John Swynborne, 13?. Eent of 
the lord's water-mills at Biwell and Bidlee, in the tenure of Thomas 
Baytes, Wl. Rent of the ferry across the water of Tyne at Biwell, in 
the tenure of Robert Kent, 3s. 4d. The rent or profit of the fishery in 
the Tyne within the lordship, quantum accidit. Thomas Baytes took of 
the lord a quarry of milnestones within the lordship, for 24 years 
from Feby. 2, 16 Henry VIII. [1525-6] ; the said Thomas also to find 
millstones for the lord's mills at Biwell and Ridlee, when necessary, 
13s. 4d. John Stamp, clerk, vicar of the church of St. Andrew the 
Apostle there, took of the lord three parts of a husband-land, late in the 
occupation of his predecessor, containing by estimation 15 acres, for the 
above term, 8s. Of*?. Robert Kent took of the lord a cottage with a 
garth there, and three rigs of land in Biwell, for the above term, 2s. &d. 
John and Cuthbert Robynson took of the lord a messuage, late in the 
tenure of Robert Belley, for the above term, 12s. lid. Richard Horsley 
took a tenement and land called " Half-a-land," 8s. 0^. Niehs. 
Skelton took a tenement called Baytes' -house, late in the tenure of John 
Skelton, II. 4s. 4d. David Loksmyth took a cottage, late in the tenure 
of James Loksmyth, 2s. Sd. John Nicholson took half a husband-land, 
5s. 4^d. Wm. Lesshaman took a cottage and one quarter of a husband- 
land, 4s. 10^. Robert Nicholson took the like, 6s. George Hyne 
took a tenement and two husband-lands, late in the tenure of Thomas 
Hyne, his father, II. 3s. 4d. Nichs. Lawson took a tenement and one 
husband-land, late in the tenure of Lawrence Hyne, 12s. lid. John 
Giles took half a husband-land, 5s. 4^d. Alexander Hewme took half 
a husband-land, late John Browne's, 5s. 4^d. John Hewme took a cot- 
tage, late John Hunt's, 2s. 2d. Philip Hewme took one husband-land, 
10s. 9d. Marion, relict of Thomas Newton, took one cottage, 2s. 2d. 
Elizabeth, relict of John Jennyn, took one cottage, 3s. 4d. Simon 
Horsley took a cottage, 2s. Id. John Fewler took a cottage, late 
John Browne's, 2s. Matthew Davy son took a cottage and one 
husband -land, late Lionel Forster' s, 13s. 5^d. Agnes, relict of 
William Taillour, took three quarters of a husband-land, late in 
the tenure of the same William, 8s. Ofd. Henry Foderley took 
one quarter of a husband-land, late Robert Robynson' s, 2s. 8^. Wil- 
liam Dawson took a tenement and one husband-land, late William 
Baytes', 14s. Robert Taillour took a cottage, and three parts of 
a husband-land, 10s. 9d. John Forster, chaplain, Isabel relict of 
Thomas Forster, and John Forster, took a cottage and land to the same 
appertaining, which the same Isabel held before, and also a parcel of 
meadowe called Greffe's Medowe, 11s. 4d. Nicholas Newton and 
Roger Newton jointly took that part of the Halgarth, previously in the 
tenure of the same Nicholas, II. 5s. 4d. Cuthbert Newton took a close 
appertaining to the tenure of Halgarth, now in his tenure, 5s. The 
price of 28 bolls and 1 bushel of oats, 11s. 8^. The like of 31 hens, 3s. 
Thomas Todd, chaplain, took a cottage, late in the tenure of Edward 
Gresden, chaplain, IQd. 

[Total, 401 16s. 2<f.] 

The close late in the tenure of John Hopper, at the rent of I6d. per 
annum lies waste, and no profit is derived therefrom, as is said. 



RENTAL FOR THE LORDSHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526, 135 



Thomas Burrell, senior, and Thomas Burrell, junior, jointly took 35 
ridges of arable land and meadow within the field there, Is. 8^. 
George Belley, and Wm. Belley his son, jointly took a messuage, with a 
garth and land thereto appertaining, 17s. 7d. John Forster took a 
messuage and the tenure in Ovington which he previously held, 11s. Qd. 

Agnes, relict of John Belley; and Robert Belley, jointly took one 
tenement which they previously held, 15s. 4^. "William Dykerawe took 
one tenement which he previously held, 15s. 4d. The relict of Cuthbert 
Grenacres, and Edward Grenacres, took a cottage and 4 ridges, 3s. Wd. 

John Harry son and Robert Harryson jointly took a tenement lately 
Robert Harryson' s, 15s. 4d. Richard Belley took one tenement pre- 
viously in his tenure, 15s. 4d. "William Ettyll and Isabella Ettyll, his 
mother, took one tenement, 15s. 4d. Roland "Watson holds certain 
lands, 6s. 7d. William Hyne took a tenement, 12s. 2d. George 
Lomley holds another tenement, 15s. 4<?. John Robynson holds another 
tenement, 7s. 8^. John Redehede took a tenement lately in his tenure, 
2s. 4d. 

[Total SI. Is. 4d.~] 

Free Rents. 

From the heirs of George Carr a free rent issuing out of their lands 
there, 3s. An ancient free rent issuing from land there called Chauntrie 
land, lately in the tenure of John Den, now of Thomas Baytes, Is. 2d. 

From Cuthbert Newton, an ancient free rent issuing from a close 
there, Is. 

[Total, 5s. 2<?.] 

SHOTLEGH. 

William Comyn took a parcel of a tenure, late in the tenure of John 
Comyn, lls. 1-Jrf. Thomas Smyth took another parcel of the above 
tenure, 5s. 6^d. ...... Andrewe took one tenement, late in the ten- 

ure of Cuthbert Andrewe, 16s. Matthew Kyrkehouse took one tene- 
ment, 15s. 4d. Robert Layburn took a tenement, 6s. Sd. Cuthbert 
Pottes took a tenement, late in the tenure of Thomas Kirkhouse, 14s. 4d. 
John Swynborne took a tenement late Roland Hopper's, 12s. 4d. 
The relict of Thomas Redeshawe holds one tenement, late in the tenure 
of her said husband, 14s., with Sd. for the moiety of the rent of a close 
there, 14s. Sd. Robert Comyn took a cottage, Is. 

[Total, 41 17s.] 

New Rent. 

The same Robert took a parcel of land lately enclosed from the lord's 
waste, and 3 acres of waste, Is. Sd. 

Still SHOTLEGH CUM BIEZYNSIDE. 

Free Rents. 

The Abbot of Blauncheland, a free rent issuing from a tenement in 
Birkinsyde, in the tenure of the widow of Christopher Snawball, 2s. Qd. 

John Comyn, 3s. John Warde, Is. 6^. Heirs of George Lawson, 
3s. 4d. The same heirs, for the rent of a new approvement, 2s. 
Christopher Hopper, 5s.-John Andrewe, 5s. John Heron, for lands, 



136 RENTAL FOR THE LORDSHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526. 

late of Middleton, called Willage, Mosseford, and Hoolrawe, ll. 16s. 
The same, for a parcel of the lord's land there called Yole Landes, 3s. 4d. 
Eent issuing out of a mill there called Buysshop Milne, Is. 
[Total, 3J. Os. 10&] 

SHOTLEE FEILDE. 

Eobert "Walker and Cuthbert "Walker his son, jointly took a tene- 
ment and arable land thereto appertaining, with 3s. 4d. increase of rent, 
6s. Sd. Robert Buck took a tenement, with 3s. 4d. increase, 6s. Sd. 
Christopher Walker took a tenement with 3s. 4d. increase, 6s. Sd. 
Anthony Walker took a tenement, with 3s. 4<Z. increase, 6s. Sd. 

[Total, II 6s. Sd.'] 

SHELFORD. 
Gilbert Carnabe holds a tenement and land thereto belonging, \l. 17*. 

BROMEHALGH. 

Edward Wilkynson holds a tenement, ll. Is. 3^. Philip Ussher and 
John Ussher, junior, took a tenement, 14s. 9^. John Ussher took a 
tenement, lately in the tenure of John Wales, 6s. 4d. William Horseley 
took a tenement, 7s. Id. Eichard Fyrbek holds a tenement, late in the 
tenure of Thomas Short, 11s. 3d. John Huddespeth holds a tenement, 
lately in the tenure of Thomas Horde, 11s. Wd. 

[Total, 31 13s. !<?.] 

BIDDINGS. 

Thomas Lomley took one tenement, lately in his tenure, 17s. John 
Lomley took the like, 17s. Nich. Anderson took a tenement, lately in 
his tenure, 7s. 2d. Edward Armestrong took a tenement, late in the 
tenure of Wm. Donnyng, 10s. Sd. John Pareman took a messuage and 
7 acres of arable land, late in the tenure of Wm. Ussher, lls. The 
rent of Eiddynge Water Mill, in the tenure of John Burne, ll. 

Total, 4Z. 2s. 10^.] 

MlKLEGH. 

A free rent from the Earl of Northumberland, issuing out of land in 
Edgewell, 8^. The like from Edward Watson, l|d. The like from 
George Horseley, Is. O^d. The like from George Fenwyk, Is. From 
the heirs of Thomas Swynborne, Is. 2^. Eichard Snawball took one 
messuage and certain lands thereto appertaining, ll. 6s. Philip Swarlow 
took the like, 9s. 5d. The relict of Edward Eltringham took a mes- 
suage and lands thereto appertaining, and a cottage late in the tenure 
of John Grene, 17s. 3d. Edward Newton took a messuage and land 
there, late in the tenure of John Doddes, 15s. Eobert Brown took a 
cottage and 6 acres of land, late in the tenure of Thomas Horseley, 
5s. 8^. The township of Mikley, for a parcel of the lord's waste lately 
enclosed, 7s. 

[Total, 3Z. 14s. lOrf.] 



EENTAL FOR THE LORDSHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526. 137 

SLAVELEY. 

John Swynborne the bailiff, and George Teisdale, jointly took a mes- 
suage, and land to the same appertaining, 10s. Richard Parthus took 
the like, Us. John Blakelok, junior, took a messuage, and 4 acres of 
arable land thereto appertaining, 6s. The above John Swynborne the 
bailiff took the demesne lands, ll. George Horde took a tenement and 
land called Stelehall, late in the tenure of Thomas Horde, ll. 3s. 4d. 
The tenants of Newbigging took the whole place of Newbigging, ll. 10s. 
The Abbot of Blauncheland for a parcel of moore called Sissinghop, 
6s. 8(?. The relict of William Ferbek, of Dewkesfield, and William 
Carre her son, jointly took a moiety of a tenement, late in the tenure of 
Thomas Dover, 8s. The relict of William Ferbek, of Slaley, took the 
other moiety, 8s. John Hidwyn took a tenement called lez Sheles, 14s. 

[Total, 61. 17s.] 

Free Rents. 

The same John for an ancient free rent issuing out of his lands and 
tenements there, 3s. Eobert Johnson holds land there appertaining to 
to the chantry of Slalee, at 2s. 6d. 

[Total, 5s. 6<J.] 

New Rent. 

The tenants of the town of Slaveley hold a parcel of the waste there 
at 2s, 

BKOMELEGH. 

John Fyrbek, senior, took a tenement, late in his tenure, 12s. 
Thomas Firbek took half of a tenement and of a cottage, late in the tenure 
of his father, Eobert Firbek, 8s. Id. John Fyrbek, junior, took the 
other half tenement, 8s. Id. Nicholas Colstayne took a tenement and 
three husband-lands, late Eobert Colstayne' s, ll. 3s. $d. Cuthbert 
Wilkynson took a tenement, 8s. Eobert Sharpeharowe took a tene- 
ment, late in the tenure of William Sharpeharowe his father, 15s. 4d. 
Thomas Baytes took a tenement, late John Wardale's, 8s. Cuthbert 
Eadclyff, Esq., for a free rent out of his land, late the property of John 
Cartington, 9d. 

[Total, 41. 5s.] 

NEWTON. 

Joan, relict of Christopher Eobynson, and William Eobynson, jointly 
took a tenement and certain lands thereto appertaining, ll. 8s. 4d. 
Isabella, relict of John Harryson, and Eichard Harryson, took half a 
tenement, 14s. 2d. Joan, relict of Eobert Dawson, and Anthony Daw- 
son, took half a tenement, 14s. 2d. George Moland took half a tene- 
ment, 14s. 2d. William Wilkynson took half a tenement, 14s. 2d. 
John Maland took half a tenement, 14s. 2d. Margaret, relict of 
Thomas Eedehede, took half a tenement, 14s. 2d. 

[Total, 51. 13s. 4&] 

LEE. 

John Dobson took one tenement, late in his tenure, 1 5s. William 
Stobberd took another tenement, 11s. Edward Smyth took another 



138 RENTAL FOR THE LORDSHIP OF BYWELL IN 1526. 

tenement, late in his tenure, 7s. John Anderson took a tenement, 
5s. 3d. Isabella Dobson took the like, 7s. John Forster took the 
like, 5s. 3d. 

[Total, 21. 10s. 6dL] 

[SUMMARY. 

By well cum Membris : Free Rents, 61. 6s. Id. ; Moor Silver, II. 9s. Sd. ; 
Eents at the will of the lord, 4QI. 19s. [48?. 14s. Sd.^Ovington : 
Rents at will, 8?. Is. 4d. ; Free Rents, 5s. 2d. [8?. 6s. 6d.~\Shotley 
with Birkenside: Rents at will, 41. 17s.; New Rent, Is. Sd. ; Free 
Rents, 3s. Os. IQd. [7?. 19s. 6d.~]Shotley Field: ll 6s. Sd. Shelf or d: 
II. 17s. Broomhaugh: 31. 13s. Id. Ryding : 41 2s. 10s. Mickley : 
31 14s. IQd.Slaley: Rents at will, 61. 17s.; Free Rents, 5s. 6d. ; 
New Rent, 2s. [7?. 4s. 6^.] Bromley: 41. 5s. Newton: 51 13s. 4d. 
Lee: 21 10s. 6^.] 

Sum total of the rental of the Lordship of By well, besides the profits 
of the Fisheries there, and 411. of pepper, 99?. 8s. 6d. 

ELLINGTON. 

The demise of the lord's lands and tenements there \_parcel of the Barony of 
Biweir], made the 14th day of February, in the 16th year of the reign 
of King Henry VIII. [1525-6.] 

John Wilkynson and Alice his wife, and Robert "Wilkinson son of the 
same John, jointly took a capital messuage, three husband-lands (at 10s. 
each) and certain parcels of the demesne lands worth 20s., for a term of 
24 years, from the 2nd of February last, at the ancient rent of 21. 10s. 
Roger Atkynson took a messuage and lands, arable and meadow, thereto 
appertaining, late in the tenure of John Singleton, ll. 10s. HenryTurne- 
bull took a messuage and lands, arable and meadow, thereto appertain- 
ing, late John Leng's, ll. 5s. 4d. Launcelot Horsebrek took a messuage 
and lands, arable and meadow, thereto appertaining, late Robert Mil- 
ner's, 3 ll. 5s. 5d. The third part of the free rent of Richard Atkynson, 
for his land, for the lord's part, besides the other two thirds payable to 
his coparceners, 2s. The free rent of John Yevars, for his lands, lib. of 
pepper. The third part of the rent of the water mill, of which the 
other two thirds are payable to the coparceners of the lord, ll. The 
third part of the house beside the mill, called the Milne House, Is. 4d. 
The lord's tenants, for the farm of one husband-land amongst them, 
by ancient occupation, 10s. 

Total, including 2s. the price of lib. of pepper, Si. 6s. Id. 

Out of which is payable to the king by the hands of the sheriff of 
Northumberland, 2s. Id. 

JOHN HODGSON HINDE. 
Acton House. 



3 To each of the above five items a " grissum " or fine is prefixed : the sums vary 
in their proportions to the rents, and afford no certain data. 



139 



THE MANOR OP BEARL. 

THE following document is perhaps the only existing evidence of the 
holding of courts at Bearl, in By well St. Andrew's parish. It is one 
of the estreats or steward's extracts from his rolls, for the use of the 
lord's bailiff in collecting the amerciaments, and has been submitted by 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq. At Mr. Hinde's request, the late Duke of 
Portland caused a search to be made among his papers for court-rolls, 
but none were found. 

In a subsidy-roll for the two parishes of By well, dated 1627, and in 
Mr. Hinde's possession, the tenants in Bearl are stated to be, " "William 
Hunter and his brother, George Coustone, Thomas Jennings, and Peter 
Dridone." 

MANERIT/M DE BEA.BLE. The Extractes as well of the Courte Lete as of the 
Courte Barrone houlding ther in the right of the Eight Honorable 
Catherine Lady Cavendish, the xxiij* day of September, Anno Domini 
1624, before Sir William Carnabey, Knight, by Dionis Wilson, 
Steward for the tyme beinge. 

Robert Hunter, for his geise 1 goinge in the Co we pasture contrery 
ther auntient order, cullect xijdL William Hunter, the like, xij^. 
John Moure, the like, xijd. John Jennynge, the like, xij^.- George 
Cowstone, 2 the like, xijd. William Hunter, pledge for Roger Hynmers, 
for cuttinge of wood in the East Nucke, cullect ijs. vjd. John Simp- 
sone, of Ovington, for cuttinge and ceryinge wood in the same place, 
cullect ijs. vj^. Robert Hunter, for fall of courte upon one action 
brought by him against George Cowstone, cullect, vjd. 

The whole some is xs. vjd. Besides what is due for Greme 3 Heugh 
or Commone Fyne, 4 if any such have bene usually payed. 

1 In Wormleighton v. Burton (Cro. Eliz. 448), plaintiff had been amerced for 
putting his geese on the common. Held, that this was not an article inquirable or 
punishable in a Court Leet. 

2 Colestone and Coulson in other papers. 

3 Possibly Greine. 

4 A certain sum pro certd Letd payable to the lord, who is presumed in law to 
have had a grant of it when he purchased the Leet for the ease of his tenants, that 
they might have no occasion to go to the Sheriff's tourn or King's Leet, but do their 
services at home. It was also called Head-money, Head-pence, and Cert-money, (6 
Rep. 77. Mullen's Case.) 



140 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE IN THE CLOSE, NEWCASTLE, 
ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE TTJTHILL STAIRS. 

BT the kindness of the Eev. James Baine, jun., a bundle of early deeds, 
relating to the House in the Close, formerly the residence of Edward 
Stote, and Mr. Alvey, the royalist Yicar of Newcastle, have been sub- 
mitted to the Society. 

The house in question is thoroughly modernized, and the dingy as- 
pect of the site calls for no slight stretch of the fancy to enable us to 
recal the appearance of the residence when, from 1587 to 1650 at all 
events, it had its orchard on the north. 

It is easily identified. To the south was "theCloase" (1587), to 
the west were the " Tuthill Stayres" (1650). Behind was the or- 
chard belonging to it. Further north, adjoining to the orchard, was a 
messuage and garth, described in 1587 as in a street called "the 
Towtehill" (the continuation of the Stairs). In 1637 the same street 
was "the TutehiU," and in 1650 "Fenckle Streate." As to these 
names of the lower part of the Westgate, see Brand, i, 121, the name 
of Finkle Street being now very differently applied. 

The owner in 1587 was HENRY CHAPMAN, 'marchant ' (a word which 
the scribe dutifully renders into marcator) and alderman. His wife's 
name was Joan. In Hilary Term, 4 Car., a merchant and alderman 
of the same name 1 levied a fine of this and other property in the town 
to William Hall and ALEXANDER DAVISON. Davison seems really to have 
been the purchaser. He was a merchant, became Sir Alexander at 
York, 1 April, 1639, was as "thorough" as Laud and Straftbrd could 
possibly desire, and was killed under arms at the siege of Newcastle, 
11 Nov., 1644, aged eighty. He was ancestor of the Davisons of Blakis- 
ton, the noble monuments of whom are so enriching a characteristic of 
Norton Church. On 10 Jan. 1637, Alexander Davison leased the house to 
his son-in-law Thomas Eiddell, and his daughter Barbara, Biddell's wife. 
Eiddell at that time was an esquire of Newcastle ; in fact he was occu- 
pant of the property. He was afterwards Sir Thomas Eiddell, of Fen- 
ham, knt. On the 15th of the same month of January, Alexander 
Davison, in anticipation of a marriage to be solemnized between his son 

1 See Kichardson's Mon. Ins. of St. Nicholas', i, 20. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF A HOUSE IN THE CLOSE, NEWCASTLE, 141 

' Ralph ' Davison, gent, and Timothea Belasys, 2 a daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Belasis of Morton, co. pal. Durham, knight, high sheriff of the said 
co. pal., and in satisfaction of " the portion and child's part" which the 
same Raiph might claim of his father's goods after his death, settles 3 the 
messuage in the Close ; two little burgages on the east part of that 
messuage ; a tenement or burgage 4 at or near the north part of the 
orchard belonging to the same messuage, now or late in the tenure 
of Yeldred Alva, and in a street or place called the Tutehill ; Dent's 
Close, in Blindman's chaire ; Tenter's Close, with a house thereupon, 
without Newgate, in Sidgate ; meadow grounds in the Castle Feild, 
purchased of Michael "Weldon, whereof there are two small parcells 
called the Newkes; a close of meadow or pasture without and near 
unto the walls of the town, containing 4 acres, purchased of Leonard 
Carr, and sometymes the inheritance of George Spoore ; and Hart Close 
within the liberties of Newcastle, (a burgage with a steepe leade 
therein, in Pilgrim Street j and the Spittle Tongues near the 
town, erased). The uses are to Alexander the settler for life, and 
then in tail general to his sons, Raiph, Edward, 6 Samuel, 6 and 

2 Living the wife of Davison in 1650. The Davisons of Thornley Gore and Elvet 
were the offspring of the marriage. 

3 He also settled lands in Thornley Gore, 15 June [January?] 1637. Surtees. 

4 This and a messuage on the west also belonged to Chapman in 1622. 

5 Baptized 1611, buried 1641 at St. NIC., Newcastle. 

6 Samuel Davison, Esq., of Wingate, the third husband of Bp. Cosin's daughter 
Elizabeth. Her conduct seems to have been "marked at least with levity." Her 
previous husbands were Henry Hutton and Sir Thomas Burton, and after Davison' s 
decease she undertook a fourth, the younger Isaac Basire. The Bishop had his own 
troubles with his daughters and their husbands. He had " a rogueing letter from 
Mr. Jo. Blakiston," boasting of having ruined his daughter Burton in an alehouse in 
Westmoreland. Davison met with some opposition in acquiring her. " Samuel 
Davison, now he has throwne out the plump Dean [probably Carleton, Dean of Dur- 
ham and Bishop of Chichester] and is to have the lady, does come out with his drie 
jests, and is good company, especially at dinner, when the Deane is by." The effect of 
our remainder-man's burial in Auckland Chapel before the renovator thereof is 
amusing enough. 

" Mr. Stapylton, concerning Mr. Davisons buryall in Auckland Chappel, and the 
consultation had by Deveflport with you about it, you seem to take it for granted 
that it was in my daughter Burton's power to appoint and order it there if she 
pleased : for you say that you made it a question whether it had been fit or no for 
my daughter to have denyed such a small request of her dying husband, as if it had 
been in her power to grant and order it so without any address made to me about it, 
and therefore you would not disswade either Mr. Devenport or her to abstaine from 
burying her husband in the ehappel, unlesse hee had desired to be buried in the vault 
which I made for myselfe : and truly you had no reason either to bury him there, or 
elsewhere in the ehappel, till I had been first consulted, for I never gave my daughter 
leave to dispose either of house or ehappel at her pleasure or any body else but my owne, 
neither is there any body that I speake withall here but condemms it for a sudden 
and rash act to suffer any one to be buryed there before myself: but since Mr, Deven- 
port and my daughter, together with yourselfe, have thus clapt up the matter which 
cannot be now undone againe, I must be content to let it be as it is and say Eequies- 
cat in pace. Jo. DURESME. 

2 May, 1671." T 



142 SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE IN THE CLOSE, NEWCASTLE, 

Joseph, 7 successively ; remainder to the settler's son and heir apparent 
Thomas Davison 8 in fee. There is a provision for avoidance of the 
settlement by payment of 750?. to Raiph within ten years at one 
payment. Alexander and * Ralph ' Davison seal with the usual Davison 
shield. 9 Timothea Bellasys seals with the arms and crest of Swinburne, 
T. Swinburne being a witness. 

RAPHE DAVISON, of "Winyeard, co. Dur. Esq., on 20 Oct., 1647, 
leases the burgage in the Close, late in the tenure of Sir Thomas Rid- 
dell the younger, knt., and now of Edward Stott 10 [signs Stote] of 
Newcastle, merchant, for seven years. On 11 Eeb., 1650, Ralph con- 
veys the same property, including an orchard now occupied by Jane 
Stote, widow, and bounded by Tuthill Stayres on the west ; and the 
messuage on the east of it, and the messuage east of that; and a mess, in 
Fenckle Streate on the east side thereof, boundering on an orchard in 
the possession of the said Jane Stote on the south ; to James Briggs of 
Newcastle, merchant. Ralph Davison seals with the arms of Davison dif- 
ferenced by a crescent. Edward Man, merchant, seals with the arms, on 
a fess between three goats passant as many pellets ; crest, above a mu- 
ral coronet, a goat's head erased. John Butler, merchant, seals with a 
chevron between three covered cups, a crescent for difference. On 
Sep. 1, 1651, Briggs, with his wife Agnes, re-conveys all the property 
to Davison, and seals with three bars (or possibly barry of 8), a canton, 
a mullet for difference. On Aug. 5, 1653, Davison, 11 and Timothea his 
wife, convey the same to 

THOMAS DAVISON, of Newcastle, merchant, 12 who in 1662 purchased a 
rent of 14 marks issuing out of one messuage in the Close, formerly 
occupied by Henry Chapman, alderman, from Richard Morpeth, of Stil- 
lington, co. pal., gent. Morpeth seals with a merchant's mark and i. s. 

Some notice of one or two tenants of the property may be properly 
introduced in connection with it. 

YELDABD ALVEY became vicar in 1630, on the election of the previous 
incumbent, Dr. Thomas Jackson, " the ornament of the University of 
Oxford," to be President of Corpus Christi College. The Doctor seems 
to have been the means of Alvey's appointment. " As preferments (says 

7 Killed during the seige of Newcastle, and buried 25 Oct., 1644. 

8 Ancestor of the Davisons of Blakiston. 

9 Granted in 1631. 

10 He married Jane dau. of Cuthbert Bewick, Esq., and had issue Sir Robert Stott, 
and, as it is presumed, Cuthbert. 

11 He died in 1684. 

12 He was Governor of the Merchants' Company, and stands at the head of the 
pedigree of Davison, of Norton and Beamish. 



ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE TUTHILL STAIRS. 143 

Lloyd) were heaped upon him without his suit or knowledge, so there 
was nothing in his power to give which he was not ready and willing 
to part withal to the deserving and indigent man. His vicarage of St. 
Nicholas, in Newcastle, he gave to Master Alvey, of Trinity College, 
upon no other relation, but out of the good opinion he conceived of his 
merits." 

Alvey had been collated to the vicarage of Eglingham three years 
before (1627). A license to preach in Newcastle had been granted to 
him by the title of A.M. of Trinity College, but in his vicarage he 
sometimes occurs as Doctor Alvey. He retained Eglingham with 
Newcastle. 

When Jackson's promotions were laid to the charge of Archbishop 
Laud, and he answered that he thought him " learned, honest, and ortho- 
dox," it was replied, that " though learned and honest, he was an 
Arminian." 13 We need not wonder therefore that his protege occurs 
in Prynne's Hidden Works of Darkness as " the Arminian and super- 
stitious Vicar of Newcastle." 

The town of Newcastle was generally at loggerheads with the Bish- 
ops of Durham, and it may be questionable whether the Vicar's place 
was one of halcyon ease. A dead set had been made at Newcastle by 
its industrious laymen against the claim of the clergy to be exempt from 
the common taxes of the country. A curious case on the subject sub- 
mitted by the freeholders of the Bishop's own county palatine, and the 
legal opinion in their favour, is printed in this volume at page 51. It 
could not well be a matter of grave reprobation if the Newcastle peo- 
ple trod in their steps, but their proceedings were exceedingly annoying 
to Bishop Morton. On Feb. 10, 1634, he writes to Mr. Eichard Bad- 
deley, at London, that " our greate business in this country is provi- 
sion for a ship, and the sages in Newcastle have soe advanced the mat- 
ter for exoneration of themselves, and burdeninge their neighbours, 
that they are become odious that way, soe that wee of the church, who 
thought we might plead imunity, I doubt shall be found chargeable, 
notwithstanding that the sheriffs are all propitious unto us, but yett wee 
want directions. Therefore I having hereby my harty remembrance 
to Sir Edmond Scott, shall desire him to understand if possible hee may 
by my Lord's grace, what I and the church of Durham may presume 
upon, because as wee would not bee awantinge to any service for his 
Majestie, soe would wee preserve freedome in that wee may. This will 
require an expedite returne. Our Lord Jesus blesse us with his speciall 



grace." 14 



" Lloyd, 68. " Copy in J. B. Taylor's MSS. 



144 SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE IN THE CLOSE, NEWCASTLE, 

A few months before, -we find some dinner chat at Auckland Castle 
about the sitting of some above the communion table in St. Nicholas* 
Church, Newcastle. A person who had seen this strange arrangement 
remarked, that " It was not fit that any should sit above God him- 
self." 14 It may with great probability be assumed, that this passage 
has reference to one of the rude disfigurements of churches which were 
so rife in the early stages of the reformed Church of England, and were 
so congenial to the Puritans, and that this was " the gallery which 
obstructs the chancel" commanded by his Majesty to be removed. The 
churchwardens did not obey the order, whereupon "the churchwardens 
of All Hallows, who were afterwards commanded the like, presumed 
that theirs might likewise stand." The Bishop, on this, gives Mr. 
Alvey the unpleasant duty of calling upon his churchwardens to per- 
form the King's command without further delay. " If they shall neg- 
lect to do it, let me understand, that I may question them accordingly ; 
and as soon as they begin, require the same performance of the church- 
wardens of All Hallows for their gallery ; for, without further ques- 
tioning, both must be down." 16 The All Saints' officers sent John Hall 
and William Robson to Auckland "to entreat the Bishop for the stand- 
ing of the gallery." Their expenses stand in the churchwardens' ac- 
counts after those for ringing the bells on King Charles's march against 
the Covenanters in May, 1639, from which we may gather that the 
offensive erections had attracted his Majesty's attention during his 
seventeen days' stay. The mission was unsuccessful, and " the joyners 
for takeing down the gallery over the quire, by the Chanchlor's special 
directions," were paid 5s. 17 Brand and Sopwith suppose that the gal- 
leries removed were the ancient roodlofts, but it is difficult to see how 
they could be over or obstruct the chancels. It is not likely that they 
would be termed galleries, or that Charles I. would order their destruc- 
tion at that time. 

We have very little intelligence of Master Alvey' s ministry. John 
Fenwick, the republican merchant of Newcastle, in his curious tract, called 
Christ Ruling in tlte Midst of his Enemies, complains of the molestations 
of Dr. Jackson, and his successor, Mr. Alvey. The Yicar fled on the 
panic which followed the battle of Newburn (Aug. 28, 1640). " Surely" 
says Fenwick, " Vicar Alvey would have given his vicarage for a horse, 
when he for haste leapt on horseback behind a countryman, without a 

15 Travels of Sir William Brereton, 1634. Richardson's Tracts. The altar of St. 
Nicholas was then considerably in advance of the east widow. 

16 Brand, i. 265. 

17 Sopwith's All Saints' Church, 127. 



ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE TUTHILL STAIRS. 145 

cushion ; his faith and qualifications failing him, he might well fear to 
fall from grace by the Scots' coming. "We leave him in his flight to 
the grace of Canterbury until the Scots were gone home again. The 
next bout, if the Scots come again, he may perhaps learn to foot it into 
Prance, and to dance and sing, ' Alas, poor Yicar, whither wilt thou go.' " 
All the other clergy also fled, meanly mounted. On Sunday, Fenwick, 
who had accompanied the Scots, led Lesley to St. Nicholas', where 
Mr. Alexander Henderson preached. Mr. Andrew Cant (whose sir- 
name, by the efforts of himself and his son Alexander, is immortal,) 
preached at All Saints'. Great destruction of church ornaments seems 
to have followed. " The organs," says Fen wick, " and sackbuts and 
cornets were struck breathless with the fright of their vicars, and 
others of best friends' flight on Friday at night before, after Newburne 
fight, in token of mourning that they should never meet again ; for not 
long after, the wrath of the Scots' covenant in the Scottish soldiers did 
blow them down, both root and branch, with their altars and railing, 
service book and fonts, and all such fopperies as the honest Scots lads 
found without a warrant or salvo-guard from their King Jesus, who 
sent them out." 

A royalist alderman of Newcastle complained that in his sermon Mr. 
Henderson " forgot so much of his text and the duty of his calling, that 
he fell to a strange extravagant way of applau*ling their victorious suc- 
cess and debasing the English, making that the whole subject of his 
discourse." The Bishop of Durham and the Newcastle royalists gen- 
erally drew up a narrative of the grievances occasioned by the invaders. 
Two of the answers of the Scots are these : ' For the complaints of the 
Bishops, Deans, Prebends, Parsons, they rifled their own houses them- 
selves, left their doors open, and fled from them ; so that if there were 
more justice in the land, they may be accused before the Chief Justice, 
for the pillaging their own houses, and accusing others. The Parson of 
Eye [Eyton] and of Whickham first rifled their own houses, and then 
fled, leaving nothing but a few playbooks and pamphlets, and one old 
cloak, with an old woman, being the only living Christian in the town, 
the rest being fled." 18 

On Oct. 16, Alvey writes to the Archbishop of Canterbury with the 
following account of his sufferings. " I am for the present outed of aH 
my spiritual promotions, to the yearly value of 300?., and have most of 
my movable goods seized upon by the rebels ; being forced (upon some 
threatening speeches given out by them, that they would deal more 
rigorously with me than others) suddenly to desert all, and to provide for 
18 Richardson's Tracts. 



146 SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE IN THE CLOSE, NEWCASTLE. 

the safety of myself, wife, and seven children, by a speedy flight in the 
night time. How they would have dealt with me they have since made 
evident by their harsh dealing with two of my curates, whom I left to 
officiate for me in my absence ; who have not only been interrupted in 
reading divine service, but threatened to be pistolled if they would not 
desist from the execution of their office. And whereas I had lately 
purchased 60/. per annum in Northumberland, and hoped to have been 
supplied that way in these calamitous times, till I might with safety 
return, they have, since I presented my petition to his Majesty, seized 
upon that also, and commanded my servant to be accountable to them 
for it. This is my case at that time." "Walker perceives from this let- 
ter that the Yicar had been active as well as passive in the King's ser- 
vice, " by which means he had so far recommended himself to the 
favour and esteem of that prince that he had designed some reward for 
him, which in all probability the Rebellion prevented the King from 
bestowing." 

Immediately after the departure of the Scots, Mr. Alvey returned. 
The scene of the next Sunday must really be given in Fenwick's 
own queer style. " The first Sabbath day after the Scots were gone, 
Vicar Alvey appears in public again, new drest up in his pontificality, 
with surplice and service book, whereof the churches had been purged 
by the Scots lads, and therefore now become innovations, and very 
offensive to many, who could digest such things before ; but my wife 
being less used to have her food so drest, growing stomack-sick, set 
some other weak stomacks on working, who fell upon the vicar's new 
dressing (the surplice and the service book) which set the malignant 
superstitious people in such a fire, as men and women fell upon my wife 
like wild beasts, tore her clothes, and gave her at least an hundred 
blows, and had slain her if the mayor had not stept out of his pew to 
rescue her, he and his officers both well beaten for their pains, such was 
the people's madness after their idols, as God wonderfully preserved her 
life and brought her to me to London. Some men carried away pieces 
of her clothes, and made as much of them, as if they were holy reliques. 
This was a bold affront, the parliament then sitting." 

The affront, however, speaks volumes in favour of the Yicar. 

"Walker says that Yicar Alvey " was not only pulled out of his pulpit 
by two Holy Sisters, but imprisoned at Newcastle, at Holy Island, and 
at Norwich." This was perhaps a second feminine attack, consequent 
on his ejectment by his own countrymen in 1645. He had, after his 
restoration, lost his beloved wife Jane. She died in 1643, the fertile 
mother of ten children, five of either sex, aged only 34. On the monu- 



ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE TUTHILL STAIRS. 147 

ment erected by her husband in St. Nicholas Church, she is stated to 
have been a bright example in her worship of God, her deference to her 
husband, her attachment to her offspring, her love for her kindred, her 
charity to the poor. Three of her childern had been born since 1640, 
and we cannot but feel for the incumbered parent when, on 26 May, 
1645, he was deposed by order of the two Houses 17 from his vicarage of 
Newcastle, then worth above 200J. l8 He was also ejected from Egling- 
ham. 

No honest minister could in fact remain in his clerical office. His 
purity might preserve him from ejection for what his enemies thought 
to be scandalous living; his peaceful and Christian deference to the 
times might shield him from the charge of malignancy ; but the fate of 
the learned of the land was sealed. An ordinance of Feb. 1644, en- 
joined the taking of the Covenant by all persons above eighteen years 
of age, and swept the Church of all ministers who, honouring the King, 
would not disobey his Majesty's order of Oct. 1643, that they should 
not take it, and who could not conscientiously swear to endeavour "the 
extirpation of Prelacy." 

The liturgy was silenced. Not even the toleration of Cromwell ex- 
tended to the oppressed sons of the National Church ; it left it still a 
crime to pray in the unequalled language adopted by those who had 
made their blood its imprimatur. But before that powerful man's 
Protectorate, Vicar Alvey had departed to the dust of his Church of St. 
Nicholas. In 1647, a cry under his persecution broke out under the title of 
The Humble Confession and Vindication of them who suffered much, and 
still suffer, under the Name of Malignants and Delinquents, $c. "Walker 
had not seen it, but he was told that "it showed its author to be a very 
honest, good man, and a true son of the Church of England." 

On March 19, 1648, Alvey was borne to his grave, his death being 
hastened, as was thought, by his sufferings. His ten children were re- 
duced to great straights, and subsisted in good measure by charity. 19 

EDWAKD STOTE, merchant, another tenant of the house, has become a 
person of considerable notoriety in connection with his descendants in 
the great cause of Manly v. Bewick and Craster. As is well known, 
he married Jane, the daughter of Cuthbert Bewick, Esq., and in 1641, 
is mentioned in the will of Robert Bewick, a merchant of Newcastle, 
as "my cousin, Edward Stott." He died on the 19th, and was buried 
on the 2 1st of December, 1648, at St. Nicholas'. His relict, "Jane 
Stote, widow," still occupied the premises in 1651. On 6 Aug. 1660, 
"Mrs. Jane Stote, widow," was buried at St. Nicholas'. 

17 See their Journals. 18 Walker. " Ibid. 



148 HOUSE ON THE EAST OF THE TUTHILL STAIRS. 

"Mrs. Jane Stote" was buried at Tollerton, near York, 1 Dec. 1663. 
She might be a sister of Cuthbert Stote, who was Eector of that place 
at the time, though it has been submitted (apparently in ignorance of 
the above entry of 6 Aug. 1660), that she was the widow of Edward 
Stote of Newcastle, and that Cuthbert was his son, and brother of Sir 
Richard Stote, whose parentage is ascertained. 

"Without being in a position to settle the question, we may observe, that 
the position in the reports of Manly v. Bewick, that the first known mention 
of Cuthbert Stote is in the register of St. Nicholas', Newcastle, 2 Mar. 1661, 
is incorrect. Cuthbert Stote was an intruding Eector of "Whickham. A 
son JSdwardfWho apparently was named after his presumed grandfather, 
was buried there on the 30 Jan.1656-7. In 1658, Cuthbert Stote occurs as 
minister of Whickham, in the list of collections in the county of Dur- 
ham for the persecuted Christians in Poland, contained in the MS. 
Journal of Timothy Whittingham, Esq., of Holmside. On the 21 
Mar. 1659-60, Mr. Stote buried a daughter Ann at Whickham. Under 
the name of Scot, he is said by Calamy to have conformed on the Re- 
storation. In the lists of Whickham Rectors there there is no notice of 
a successor till 1671, but he does not appear to have retained his living, 
for on 2 Mar. 1661, he buried a son Richard at St. Nicholas', Newcastle. 
On 10 Sep. 1662, he buried there a daughter Margaret, who had been 
born the day before. We next find him at Tollerton, 13 Sep. 1663. It 
has been questioned whether the Curate of St. Nicholas' occurring in 
Bishop Cosin's Register in 1663 as Nicholas Stote was really our Cuth- 
bert. It is remarkable that Hutchinson and Surtees also call the in- 
truder at Whickham Nicholas. The difficulty is increased by the fact, 
that Edward Stote had a son Nicholas, bap. 29 Sep. 1632, who on the 
plaintiff's assumptions will stand as Cuthbert' s brother. It is possible 
that the brothers might act in concert at "WTiickham, and that Nicholas 
might acquire the curacy at Newcastle on his conforming. The acknow- 
ledged minister at "Whickham most certainly was Cuthbert. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

Gateshead. 



149 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

BEFORE we proceed to notice this monument, another of somewhat 
earlier date claims a brief notice. It is the broken cross in the church- 
yard of Beckermont, in Cumberland, of which Lysons, in his Magna 
Britannia, has given a representation, -very good as far as the general 
character is concerned, but not so as regards the inscription. Impres- 
sions of this have been kindly forwarded to me by the Rev. Dr. 
Parkinson, of St. Bees, who says that in the neighbourhood of the 
church, which shews no traces of antiquity, " there are evidently 
marks of old foundations." He continues, " Its situation is striking. 
It stands far from the population, in a corner of the parish, on a knoll 
surrounded on all sides by an amphitheatre of higher knolls. It is just 
such a spot where we generally find Druidical circles in this country ; 
and some religious associations may have determined its site." 1 In the 
centre of the churchyard there are two broken crosses, exactly alike in 
character, cylindrical columns, bevelled to a square near the top, and fixed 
in separate sockets, contiguous, but not joined. The smaller of the two 
is of inferior workmanship to the other, which stands within two feet of 
it, to the south. On one of the sides of the latter is an inscription of 
six lines (Fig. IJ, probably but a portion of what was originally en- 
graved upon it. It is 



TUDASC-^AR 
QU-^LMTER 
FORANF^ELSE 
RXNAUUANG 



and it is evidently two couplets of alliterative verse. 

Hir tsegaed Here enclosed 

Tuda sca3ar Tuda bishop 

Q,ua3lm-ter foran the plague destruction before 

Faels erxnawangas seftaer the reward of Paradise after 

1 It is a fact established by abundant evidence, that the places which had been 
sanctuaries of superstition in the days of Paganism, were chosen for that very reason 
for the sites of monasteries in the early age of Christianity in this country ; so that 
Dr. Parkinson's conjecture is far from improhable. 

U 



150 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

Tcegad seems to be the participle of a verb, which is represented by 
the more modem tigian. Qucelm for cwealm is " pestilence, " slaughter," 
" death," and ter is the root of term, " to tear, destroy." The North- 
umbrian Ritual gives sceawar as the equivalent of "pontifex." It really 
means " overseer," and therefore is the literal translation of " episcopus." 
For this word I suppose sccear is intended. Feels is a word which has 
not hitherto occurred, but we have felsan, " to reward." Erexnawong 
occurs in the Rushworth Gospels, as the translation of " Paradisus," 
and neirxnawangas (in the genitive case) for the same word in the 
Durham Ritual. 

Of Tuda, whom this inscription commemorates, Venerable Bede gives 
us the following particulars : " When Colman was returned to his 
native land, Tuda the servant of Christ undertook the bishopric of the 
Northumbrians in his place. He had been instructed and ordained 
bishop amongst the southern Scots, had the crown of the ecclesiastical 
tonsure according to the custom of that province, and observed the 
catholic rule of Easter- tide, and was a good and religious man, but 
ruled the church a very short sime. He had come out of Scotland 
whilst Colman still held the pontificate, and diligently both by word 
and work instructed all in the things that pertained to faith and truth." 
Again, " In the year of the Incarnation of our Lord 664, a sudden 
plague of pestilence, having first depopulated the southern coasts of 
Britain, attacking also the provinces of the Northumbrians, and raging 
far and wide for a long time with bitter slaughter, destroyed a great 
multitude of men. By which plague the aforesaid priest of the Lord, 
Tuda, was taken from the world, and honorably buried in the monastery 
which is called Peegnalsech." 2 

Tuda, then, undertook the charge of the see of York, A.D. 664, and 
died of the pestilence the same year. The date of this monument, 
therefore, is clearly ascertained ; and Beckermont determined to be the 
site of the lost monastery of Peegnalsech. The celebrated pillar of 
Eliseg, at Yale Crucis, a work of the seventh century also, is of the 
same type as this ; and in the churchyard of Gosforth, a few miles 
distant from Beckermont, there is another of the same type, but more 
perfect, and terminating in a cross, which may safely be pronounced to 
be of nearly equal antiquity. 

This monument having received the attention which its earlier date 
claimed for it, we proceed to notice that at Bewcastle. 

It is afoursided column, about 14 feet 6 inches high, tapering gently 
from the bottom to the top, fixed with lead in an irregular octagonal 

2 Waghele (Sax. Chron.J -Wemalet (Hen. Hunt.} 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 151 

plinth. The cross which once crowned it has disappeared; but, saving the 
injury done to it on the eastern and southern sides by wrenching it from 
its socket, the shaft remains entire, and owing to the goodness of the ma- 
terial, a hard white freestone, it has suffered less from exposure to the 
storms of well nigh twelve hundred winters, than from wanton violence. 
The tradition of the country points out the place from which the stone 
was taken, a ridge of rocks called the Langbar, on "White Lyne Common, 
five miles to the north of Bewcastle, and this tradition is verified by the 
fact that in the same place there is still lying a stone the very counter- 
part of this, which shows distinctly on its western side, (which is much 
fresher than the others) , the marks of the chisels which were used in 
splitting the block when the monument was taken from it which now 
stands in Bewcastle churchyard. Only at the Langbar, and in the neig- 
bouring rocks on the south side of the "White Lyne river, and in no other 
part of the country, is the same kind of stone found. 3 The monument 
now stands alone, but once, in all probability, there were two, one at 
the head, the other at the foot of the grave, as in the example which 
still remains at Penrith. If so, the other has disappeared, yet it may 
be still in existence, if the conjecture which will be hazarded in the 
sequel be considered under all the circumstances probable. 

The cross, as we have already observed, is gone, but all record of it 
has not perished. It appears from a note in the handwriting of Mr. 
Camden in his own copy of his Britannia (now in the Bodleian Library), 
that Lord William Howard sent it to Lord Arundel, and he to Mr. 
Camden. It had an inscription on the transverse limb, which Mr. 
Camden gives from an impression he had taken (Fig. 2J, and the read- 
ing is clearly EICJES DEIHTN^:. Another copy supplies an ' s' at the end 
of the second word. Lord William Howard had previously sent to 
Olaus Wormius a copy of an inscription on this monument, which the 
latter published in his Monumenta Danica. In this copy the word BIC^S 
is plain, DEIHTNJES very much blundered, and after these, quite plain, 
the word STIC^IH, of which traces still remain on the top of the western 
face of the monument. These, taken in connection with the former, 
give us a meaning which undoubtedly alludes to the cross, EICJES 
DEIHTN^S STIC^TH. " The Staff of the Mighty Lord." Beneath, in an 
oblong compartment, is the effigy of St. John the Baptist, pointing 
with his right hand to the Holy Lamb, which rests on his left arm. 
This figure had been supposed to be the Blessed Virgin with the Infant 
Jesus. Mr. Lysons, however, corrected this error in part, representing 
as a lamb what had been supposed to be the Holy Child, but the figure 

3 For this information I am indebted to the Rev. J. Maughan. 



152 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

which holds it, has in his engraving the appearance of a female. It is, 
though in flowing robes, decidedly a male figure, and the face is bearded. 
Below it is an inscription in two lines of Runes (Fig, 3J 

% GESSVS 
CRISTTVS 

written above an arched recess in which is a majestic figure of our Blessed 
Lord, who holds in His left hand a scroll, and gives His blessing with 
His right, and stands upon the heads of swine. Then follows the long 
inscription of nine lines of Runes, commemorating the personage to 
whom this monument was erected. (Fig. 4^ 

* THISSIGBEC 
UNSETT^H 
W^TEEDEOM 
G^RFLWOLD 



_ 

YMBCYNING 
ALCFRID^G 
ICEG^EDHE 
OSVMSAWLVM 

Lastly, in another arched recess is a fine figure in profile, holding a 
hawk in his left hand, above a perch. This doubtless represents the 
king whose name is mentioned in the inscription above it. 

The eastern side of this monument presents a continuous scroll 
with foliage and fruit, amidst which are a lion, two monsters, two 
birds and two squirrels feeding on the fruit. Above these doubtless 
there was an inscription, but the stone is too much broken on this side 
to show the trace of even a single letter. 

On the northern side we read distinctly, in Runic letters nearly six 
inches long (Fig. 5J, the Holy Name ^ GESSU. Below this we have a 
scroll, then an inscription (Fig. 6J, OSLAAC CYNING ; then a knot, 
another inscription (Fig. 1J, WILFBID PEEASTEK ; an oblong space filled 
with chequers, a third inscription, read by the Rev. J. Maughan CYNI- 
wisi or CYNISWID ; a second knot, a fourth inscription (Fig. 8J, CYNI- 
BTrauG ; and lastly, a double scroll. 

On the southern side, at the top, are the remains of the name CKISTUS 
(Fig. 9J, corresponding to GESSU on the north. Below this is a knot, 
an inscription (Fig. 10), EANFLJED CYNGN ; a scroll, in the midst of which 
a dial is introduced, a second inscription (Fig. 11), ECGFRID CYNING; 
another knot, a third inscription (Fig. 12), CYNIBTJETTG CYNGN; another 
scroll, a fourth inscription (Fig. 13), oswu CYNINGELT, and a third knot. 

Such is the Bewcastle monument ; a monument interesting in many 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 153 

respects ; as one to which we can assign a certain date, and which, 
therefore, is a material help to us in ascertaining the age of others of the 
same class, that at Ruthwell in particular ; as an evidence of the state 
of the art of sculpture in the seventh century, the three figures on the 
west side being equal to any thing we have until the thirteenth ; as a 
monument of our language almost the earliest we have ; as belonging to 
a class of monuments, the memorials of the kings of England before the 
Conquest, which have almost entirely disappeared; and as such, es- 
pecially interesting, because the king to whose memory it was raised, 
played a most important part in the history of his times. 

The inscriptions claim our first attention. They are written in the 
early Saxon dialect of Northumbria, except the names of our Blessed 
Lord, which have a Latin form, since it was only from missionaries to 
whom the Latin language was as their mother tongue that our fore- 
fathers learned His name ; and down to the latest period of their history 
they followed the same role, as the Germans do still of adopting, with- 
out alteration, into their language, Latin proper names. The spelling 
of the name GESSTJS is particularly interesting, for I believe this is the 
only monument on which it occurs. Throughout the Durham Ritual 
and the Northumbrian Gospels, we find instead of it, the word Hcelend 
" Saviour." The initial G has the power of Y, and the double s is pro- 
bably not^a false spelling since it occurs twice. 

The long inscription resolves itself into three couplets of alliterative 
verse; thus, 

This sigbecun This beacon of honour 4 

Settae Hwaetred set HwaBtred 

Eom ga3r f [e]lwoldu in the year of the great pestilence 

JEftser barae after the ruler 

Ymb cyning Alcfrida3 after King Alcfrid 

Gicegaad heosum sawlum pray for their souls 

I have supposed the omission of a letter, e, beween/and I. Fel, as a 
prefix, has the sense of " much" or "many." Woldu I take to be an 
adjective, derived, as well as wol, a pestilence, from the same root as 
weallan " to burn or boil," and wyllan "to make to burner boil," (just 
as fold, a flat surface, is derived from feallan "to fall," and fyllan to 
make to fall), and therefore to have the sense of "pestilential." It does 
not, however, occur in the glossaries, having probably fallen into disuse. 
The termination in u would not have occurred at a later period, but 
the Durham Ritual shows us that the declension of nouns and adjectives, 
and the conjugation of verbs, in the early Northumbrian dialect, dif- 

4 Sig implies triumph. In composition it seems to imply special honour. Beg is 
a bracelet, which any one might bear, but Sigbeg is a crown. 



154 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

fered in many respects from the later forms of the language on which 
our modern grammars are founded. This Ritual supplies us with many 
instances of adjectives ending in o (which, as will be seen later, is the 
equivalent of u on these monuments) in the oblique cases ; as, for in- 
stance, in ceastre gilialgado, "in civitate sanctificata," in eco wuldur "in 
seterna gloria." That there may, however, have been a noun woldu? 
and that this may have been the ancient form of wot is not impossible, 
since from the verb swelan "to burn" we have not only swol but also 
swoluth and swoleth, heat, fever, or pestilence, and from stcelan, to place, 
we have steald as well as steal, a station, place or abode. If it were so, I 
should read, without any alteration of the sense, "in the year of the great 
pestilence." I have read the letters L and w as they are in the rubbing 
with which I was furnished by the Rev. J. Maughan. If I could 
suppose that marks had been obliterated which would change these let- 
ters into js 6 and B, I should propose another reading, eom goerfce boldu 
"also carved this building," supposing gcerfce the ancient form of cearf, 
from ceorfan to carve, and loldu, a building, the ancient form of bold. 
Verbs of the strong or complex order, to which ceorfan belongs, did not 
in later times add a syllable in the third person singular of the past 
tense, but the Durham "Ritual gives us an example in the word ahofe 
" erexit" which shows that in early times they did ; and we have other 
examples of nouns ending in u, which dropped this syllable in later 
times. The rules of alliteration rendered necessary the use of gicegad 
(a word which under a slightly different form, gicegath, occurs in the 
Durham Ritual) instead of the more usual gibiddced. Hcosum is another 
obsolete word, the dative plural regularly formed from the possessive 
pronoun " heora," their. I can find no trace of this word elsewhere, 
the indeclinable Mora invariably occurring in the Durham Ritual ; but 
as in modern German the possessive pronouns of the third person are 
declinable, equally with those of the first and second, I think it not im- 
probable that the same might be the case with the early Saxon language, 
and that the disuse of the oblique cases might be the effect of Latin 
influence. 

It seems to have been the custom with our forefathers to compose the 
inscriptions of their monuments in alliterative verse : nor is it surprising 
that it should have been so : for it was by means of verses, committed 
to memory and sung at their feasts, that the records of past events were 

5 Still I feel inclined to regard it as originally a participle, even if it did become a 
noun, jiist as fold and bold and other similar words, now nouns, seem to have been 
past participles. 

6 Mr. Howard's representation of this letter in the Archseologia (Vol. XIV) seems 
to give this letter JE. 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 156 

preserved amongst them, and several of these historical ballads are still 
preserved incorporated in the Saxon Chronicle. Not only are the 
Beckennont inscription already noticed, and this at Bewcastle, com- 
posed in verse, but all the others that have yet been discovered are con- 
structed in the same way. In illustration of this curious fact, a brief 
notice of these, in passing, may be desirable here. 

The first is on a stone, which has evidently formed part of a small 
memorial cross, found some years ago at Dewsbury, 7 in Yorkshire. It 
reads as follows. {Fig. 14.) 

RHTAEBECUNAEFTERBEORNAEGIBIDDADDERSAULE 

i. e rhtae .... rht 

Becun aefter beornse a beacon after his son 

Gibiddad der saule pray for the soul 

The second is on a stone, now in the Museum of the Society, found 
at Falstone in 1813. It is remarkable for the double inscription it 
presents, the same words being written, first in Roman minuscules and 
then in Anglo-Saxon Runes. In this respect I believe it is unique. 
They read as follows. (Fig. 15.) 

02 

w 

* EONAERTHE T* EOM JERTHCESCETT 



TAEAEFTAER 

HROETHBERHTJ3 

BECUNAEFTAER 



^FT^RROETBERH 



GEBID^EDDERSAULE 



EOMAEGEBIDAED DER SAULE 

and as they are identical we are enabled by means of each to correct 
the trifling mistakes which occur in the other. With these corrections 
the double inscription resolves itself into the following couplets. 

%* Eomser the settee Eomaer this set 

Aeftser Hroethberhtee after Hroethberht 

Becun a3ftaer eoma3 a beacon after his uncle 

Gebidsed der saule pray for the soul 

The Dewsbury inscription I take to be of the seventh century, the 
Falstone about the close of that century or early in the eighth ; for 

7 A place where several interesting remains of Anglo-Saxon antiquity have been 
found, and are now preserved in the Vicarage garden. They are, part of a coped tomb, 
and some fragments carved with figures of Our Blessed Lord and his Apostles, relics, 
probably, of the famous cross which Leland saw there, with the inscription PAULINTJS 
HIC PBJEDICAVIT ET CELEBRAViT, and of which an old ballad, preserving a more an- 
cient tradition, makes mention in the following words : 

In the churchyard once a cross did stand 

Of Apostles sculptured there ; 
And had engraven thereupon, 

" Paulinus preached here." 



156 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

the use of the uncials N R and S warrant us in supposing the Dews- 
bury inscription to be the earlier of the two, as in this respect it agrees 
with the writing of the Gospels of St. Chad. In those of St. Cuthbert 
whilst the uncial forms of these letters prevail, the minuscules frequently 
occur. 

The third inscription is on a fragment of a cross found in the year 
1778 between "Wycliffe and Greta Bridge, (figured in Gough's Camden, 

vol. III. pi. v.) 

BAEDA 

. . T . . 

AEFTE 

RBEEC 

HTVINI 

BECVN 

AEFTERF 

The last two letters of the first line seem in the engraving to be in- 
distinct, owing to an injury done to the stone, but from the traces which 
remain I think there can be no doubt that the name is Baeda. 

The second line, which is defaced, seems to have been in smaller 
characters, and therefore probably contained more than the others ; the 
last of the whole seems to be F; and the whole inscription may have 
been like the above. 

Baeda [the settee] Baeda [this set] 

Aefter Berchtuini after Berchtuini 

Becun aefter f[athorae a beacon after [his father 

Gebidsed der saule] pray for the soul] 

This monument is very remarkable as presenting the same name as 
that of the venerable father of our history, and as it seems to be of his 
time, it may possibly have been erected by him. In his life of St. Cuth- 
bert another of the same name is mentioned but he was a monk of Lin- 
disfarne, much farther of course from Greta Bridge than Jarrow. The 
expression "cura propinquorum " in his history of his own life has 
been made the ground of a conjecture that his parents were dead before 
he went to Jarrow ; but parents as well as other relatives might be in- 
cluded in the word "propinqui." 

It is necessary to enter at some length int9 the history of the illus- 
trious prince to whose memory the Bewcastle monument was raised, 
because, from want of attention to the spelling of Saxon names, many 
of which very much resemble each other, he has been confounded with 
another, an illegitimate brother of his, Aldfrid. 8 Alcfrid was the eldest 

8 How necessary it is to attend to the spelling of these names will appear from the 
following circumstances. In Dr. Giles' translation of Venerable Bede's History we 
are told (in Book III. Chapter xxi.) that Peada, King of Middle Angles, came to 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 157 

son of Os win King of Northumbria, by his first wife, whom the Cum- 
brian genealogist (in Nennius' History of the Britons], calls Biemmelth, 
the daughter of Royth, son of Hum. He first appears in history along 
with Eihilwald, the son of Oswald, in alliance with Penda King of 
Mercia, engaged in hostilities against his father Oswiu. Geoffrey of 
Monmouth tells us, what Venerable Bede does not, that these two 
princes acted in concert, and says that the reason of their rebellion was, 
that Oswiu submitted to Csedwalla King of the Britons; that, not being 
able to prevail against him, they fled to the court of Penda, and endea- 
voured te excite him against Oswiu. This circumstance will account 
for what follows, the affinity which Alcfiid contracted with the royal 
family of IVtercia. 9 All that we are told of his subsequent history shews 
that he was a prince of sincere piety, and he was the means, in the in- 
fancy of the Northumbrian Church, of establishing it, and bringing it 
into conformity with the rest of the Church throughout Christendom. 
He married Cyniburga, the daughter of his ally Penda, and was pro- 
bably the instrument of her conversion. Nor was this the only good 
resulting from his connection with the royal family of Mercia. It led 
to the conversion of the whole nation through his instrumentalit)*-. 
For, as Yenerable Bede relates, in the year 653, " the Middle Angles, 
under their prince, Peada, received the faith and the sacraments of 
Christ. He being an excellent youth, and most worthy of the title and 
dignity of a king, had been raised by his father to the kingdom of that 
nation, and came to Oswiu King of the Northumbrians, requesting 
to have his daughter Alcflaed given him to wife, but could not obtain 
his request, unless, with the nation which he governed, he would receive 
the faith of Christ and baptism. "When he heard the preaching of 

the court of Oswiu, requesting to have his daughter Elfleda given him in marriage, 
A.D. 653. Two years later, A.D. 055, we read (chapter xxiiii.) that Oswiu com- 
mitted his daughter Elfleda, then scarcely a year old, to the care of St. Hilda, with 
whom she remained, until on her death she succeeded her as Abbess of Whitby . This 
inconsistency at once disappears on referring to Mr. Stevenson's valuable and accurate 
edition of Venerable Bede's historical works. The lady whom Peada sought in mar- 
riage was Alcflaed, and the saintly Abbess of "Whitby, born in the year following, was 
JElbflffid. Through a similar inaccuracy, Alcfrid and Aldfrid have been confounded 
together under one name, Alfrid : and this has misled almost every writer who has 
treated of the events of the seventh century in which these princes took part 

9 I should never, of course, think of appealing to Geoffrey of Monmouth as an 
authority in matter of history. Still I think that the latter part of his Chronicle may 
contain some facts which are not noticed elsewhere, and may be made use of to a cer- 
tain extent where, as in the present instance, he is consistent with authentic histories, 
and supplies details which they have not recorded. Several passages in his history 
convince me that he is not to be altogether set aside. One of these I will mention 
here. Venerable Bede calls the place, where the battle was fought in which St. Oswald 
fell, Maserfelth, and this has generally been supposed to be Oswestry in Shropshire. 
This conjecture is confirmed by Geoffrey, who says it occurred at Burne, and close to 
Oswestry there is a place called Broom. 



158 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

truth, the promise of the heavenly kingdom, and the hope of resurrec- 
tion and future immortality, he declared that he would willingly become 
a Christian, even though he should be refused the virgin, being chiefly 
persuaded to receive the faith by King Oswiu's son Alcfrid, who was 
his relation, and had married his sister Cyniburga. Accordingly, he 
was baptised by Bishop Finan, with all his earls and soldiers, at a noted 
village belonging to the King, called " At the Wall," 10 and having re- 
ceived four priests, who, from their learning and holy life, were deemed 
proper to instruct and baptize his nation, he returned home with great 
joy. These priests were Cedd, Adda, Betti, and Diuma, of whom the 
last was a Scot, the others English ; and arriving in the province with 
the prince, they preached the word, and were willingly listened to, 
and many, as well of the nobility as of the common sort, renouncing 
the filth of idolatry, were baptized daily." 

Two years later, he appears assisting his father in the great battle of 
"Winwaedneld, 11 in which Penda was defeated and slain, and by which 
peace was restored to Northumbria : and not long afterwards he became 
king of Deira, 12 the government of which was, probably, committed to 
him by his father, in whose counsels he seems to have had great in- 
fluence. His residence was mostly in the neighbourhood of Ripon, 13 to 
which place he invited a colony of monks from Melrose to assist him in 
the conversion of his people, and it was in the monastery there founded 
that the disputes began which resulted in the most important event of 
his life. That we may understand the nature of these disputes, and of 
the service Alcfrid rendered to his country in bringing them to a satis- 
factory settlement, it will be necessary briefly to consider the position 
and circumstances of the Northumbrian church at this period. 

Pagan Northumbria was twice evangelized. First, on the marriage of 
the Kentish princess Ethilburga to king Edwin, a Roman missionary, St. 
Paulinus, came with her as her chaplain, and laboured for the conver- 

10 This, doubtless was "Wallbottle, the name of which signifies "the palace (hotel) 
by the wall." 

11 The exact scene of this conflict has never been determined. It was in the district 
called Lcedis, a name which is still preserved in that of Leeds, as well as in those of 
Ledsham, and Ledstone, two villages about eight miles to the west of it : and it was 
by the river Winwced, which is unquestionably the Aire. But this river retains its 
Celtic name, and the etymology of the name Winwsed, shows that it must have be- 
longed rather to the scene of the battle, than to the river itself ; win, battle ; weed 
ford. Within this district, six miles below Leeds, on the Aire, is Woodlesford the 
name of which may be supposed to indicate one consequence of such a battle, the 
corruption of the unburied bodies of the slain (widl, pollution, ford). 

12 Florence of Worcester says that he succeeded ^Ethelwald, the son of Oswald, in 
that kingdom. 

13 Eddi says that Alcfrid asked Agilbert to ordain St. Wilfrid, in order that he 
might be with him as his chaplain, and then he gave him the monastery at Ripon, 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 159 

sion of the people for some months with little or no success. At length, 
on Easter-day, A.D. 626, the king had in the morning a very narrow 
escape from assassination, attempted by an emissary of the West Saxon 
King, Cwichelm, and in the evening the Queen was delivered of a 
daughter. The King, in the presence of St. Paulinus, was giving thanks 
to his gods for her birth, when the latter, returning thanks to Christ, 
told the King that he had obtained of God by his prayers that the 
Queen should bring forth her child in safety, and without pain. Hia 
words made an impression on the heart of the King, and he promised, 
that if the same God would give him victory over the King by whom 
his life had been attempted, he would renounce his idols, and embrace 
the Christian faith ; and as a pledge that he meant to perform his pro- 
mise, he gave his newborn child to the bishop, to be consecrated to God. 
This child, Eanflsed, was the first baptized of the Northumbrian nation, 
and, along with her, twelve others of her family received the same holy 
sacrament on Whitsunday in that year ; and this auspicious event was 
followed in the succeeding year by the baptism of her father, his court, 
and many of his people, and the Christian church thus planted in ]N"or- 
thumbria flourished until the battle of Haethfeld, where Edwin fell r 
A.D. 633. A cruel persecution was then begun by Csedwalla and Penda, 
and St. Paulinus regarding himself as the guardian of queen Ethilburga, 
fled with her and her daughter Eanflaed, and some others of the royal 
family, into Kent. Thus was nearly rooted out the first plantation of 
the Christian faith in Northumbria, but not entirely ; for in spite of the 
persecution, James, the deacon of St. Paulinus, continued to preach and 
baptize, confirmed many in the faith, and made many converts. After 
a year of anarchy, St. Oswald, son of Ethilfrid, who had been living an 
exile in Scotland during the reign of Edwin, planted his famous cross 
on the spot which still bears his name, 14 near Hexham, and marching 
thence, attacked and defeated the forces of Caedwalla, and recovered the 
kingdom. He had become a Christian during his exile, and, once es- 
tablished on the throne of his fathers, it was his first care to extend to 
his subjects the blessing of the faith. He turned to the land of his exile, 
and requested that a bishop might be sent to him to labour for their 
conversion, and St. Aidan came. With his aid he succeeded in evan- 
gelizing the whole of his dominions, he himself, in the ardour of his 
zeal, becoming a missionary, sitting by the holy bishop whilst he 
preached, and translating what he delivered in the Scottish language 
into the English tongue. This, then, the second conversion of North- 
umbria was from Scotland, as the first had been from Kent. But, 

u St. Oswald's chapel, by the Wall, 



160 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE, 

whilst they agreed in all the articles of the faith with their brethren iii 
the rest of the world, the northern Scots, as well as the Picts, had in- 
herited from their apostle, St. Columba, a peculiar custom in the time 
of keeping the great feast of Easter, on which all the moveable feasts 
which precede and follow it depend : their brethren in the south of Ire- 
land, as well as all the nations of Christendom, keeping it from the 
fifteenth to the twenty-first day of the equinoctial moon, as we now do r 
they and the Britons from the fourteenth to the twentieth. Conse- 
quently, there would be in IS"orthumbria at this time, the disciples of 
the Kentish missionaries following one rule, and those of the monks of 
Hii following another. This would not be so much felt in the years in 
which the Scottish and the Catholic Easter fell on the same day, but in 
those in which they fell on different days, it would doubtless occasion 
great scandal ; because the converts to the Christian faith, whether in- 
structed by the clergy who had come in the train of St. Paulinus, or by 
the monks of Hii, had learned from their teachers that it was a rule laid 
down by St. Paul, that they were to speak the same thing, that there 
were to be no divisions amongst them, and that as members of one body 
they were to mourn and to rejoice together. Yet in certain years the 
Scots would begin Lent a week earlier than the Catholics, and would 
be rejoicing in the celebration of Easter, whilst they were keeping the 
most solemn week of Lent. So long, however, as this affected the lower 
classes only, whilst the King and the nobility, as knowing nothing bet- 
ter, held to the traditions of Hii, nothing was done ; but soon after St. 
Oswald fell in battle, and his brother Oswiu succeeded him, A.D. 642, 
the court itself was divided on this question. Oswiu, soon after his 
accession, sent into Kent to ask in marriage the hand of the princess 
Eanflaed, 15 who had been brought up under the care of St. Paulinus, and, 
of course, followed the Catholic rule. Her coming was the first step 
towards unity, as, in her person, the leaven of St. Paulinus' teaching 
was once more infused into the ^Northumbrian court. It was from her, 
no doubt, and from her chaplain, Romanus, that Alcfrid learned to sus- 
pect that the customs were wrong in which the Scottish church differed 
from the rest of Christendom. He conceived the desire of visiting Rome 
in person, with the object of thoroughly investigating the matter for 
himself, and making himself acquainted with the customs and discipline 
of the church there. A favourable opportunity of accomplishing his 
wishes seemed to present itself. St. Benedict Biscop had returned from 

15 It is worthy of remark that Queen Eanflsed who began this great work was born 
on Easter day, A.D. 626, and St. Ecgberht to whom the task of completing it, by 
bringing the Monks of Hii to conformity, was reserved, died on the same great festi- 
val, A.D. 729. 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 161 

his first journey to Rome, and Alcfrid fixed upon him as the companion 
of his intended pilgrimage, and was upon the point of setting out, when 
his father, Oswiu, feeling the need of his assistance in the government 
of his extensive dominions, interposed his parental authority to retain 
him at home. Alcfrid yielded prompt obedience to his wishes, and St. 
Benedict proceded on his journey alone. His mind, however, was un- 
settled, and he longed for an opportunity of satisfying himself as to the 
grounds of the difference between the two observances. At this 
juncture he formed the acquaintance of St. Wilfrid, who had formerly 
been brought up at his father's court, thence had entered the monastery 
of Lindisfarne, and thence had gone to Rome, with the very same ob- 
ject as Alcfrid himself had desired to go thither, in consequence of the 
disputes which had arisen on the question of Easter, even in that monas- 
tery, the head-quarters of the Scottish mission. Hearing of his arrival 
in England, and of his zeal in preaching the duty of conformity on this 
and other points of discipline with the Roman church, from his friend 
Ccenwalch, King of the West Saxons, he sent to invite him to his 
court ; and was so much delighted with his conversation, that he re- 
quested him to remain with him, and preach the word of God to his 
people. This St. Wilfrid consented to do, and he and Alcfrid were 
thenceforward united in the bonds of the closest friendship. Perfectly 
convinced by his arguments that the Roman calculation of Easter was- 
the true one, and the Scottish false, Alcfrid gave to his monks at Ripon 
the option of following the Roman custom, or giving up their establish- 
ment there. They chose the latter alternative, and returned to Mel- 
rose. Alcfrid had previously given to St. Wilfrid an estate of ten 
families for the foundation of a monastery at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, 19 
and now invited him to take charge of the deserted monastery of 
Ripon. Soon afterwards, he took advantage of an opportunity which 
a visit paid to him by Agilbert, Bishop of the West Saxons afforded 
him, to recommend him to his notice . as one every way worthy of 
the priesthood, and to request that he might receive ordination, so 
that he might be constantly with him as his chaplain and counsellor. 
Agilbert, remarking that such a man was worthy even of the more 
exalted rank of the episcopate, ordained him at once, in accordance 
with the King's request. The time had now arrived for the set- 
tlement of the long agitated question, and the visit of Agilbert to the 
north was made the occasion of it. It was agreed that the matter 
should be discussed in a synod of the Northumbrian Church, and the 

16 Probably the dowry of Alcfrid's wife, who afterwards established a monastery at 
Caistor, eight miles distance. 



162 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

monastery of the venerable Abbess Hilda was chosen as the place of 
meeting. Thither accordingly repaired King Oswiu, who favoured the 
Scottish party, Bishop Colman and his party, and St. Cedd, Bishop of 
the East Saxons, who was at the time on a visit to his monastery of 
La3stingseu; whilst on the other side, appeared King Alcfrid, Bishop 
Agilbert, Romanus the chaplain of Queen Eanflasd, Agatho, and the 
Venerable James, the deacon of St. Paulinus, now a priest : and, as St, 
Hilda and her disciples were on the Scottish side, that party in the 
synod far outnumbered the other. Bishop Colman spoke first, and, at 
Agilbert' s request, St. Wilfrid replied, and hi& arguments were so con- 
vincing to Oswiu, that he decided on following for the future the Catho- 
lic rule. Bishop Colman, seeing that the decision was against him, 
withdrew from his see, 17 and returned to Scotland, whilst the rest of the 
Scottish party who were present agreed to renounce their traditions. 
Thus was decided for England for ever the question of Easter, and that 
it was so decided, was owing primarily to the influence of Eanflaed 
over Alcfrid, and then to that of Alcfrid over his father. 

Tttda was elected to fill the place of Colman, but he governed the 
Church of Northunibria for a few months only. On his death, in 664, 
Oswiu and Alcfrid called their Witenagemote together 18 , to deliberate on 
the choice of a successor, and St. Wilfrid, who had played so important 
a part in the late synod, was unanimously chosen : and as he declined 
receiving episcopal consecration from any of the Bishops who were then 
in England, he was sent to France to be consecrated by Agilbert, who 
now filled the see of Paris. This is the last recorded act of Alcfrid, 
his last appearance in history. When, in the year following, the pro- 
longed absence of St. Wilfrid made Oswiu impatient, St. Ceadda wa& 
chosen to fill the see which had been given to him : but in this trans- 
action Alcfrid does not appear ; it was the act of Oswiu alone. How 
is the absence of Alcfrid from his father's council on this occasion of 
Alcfrid, whom he had found so necessary to him, that he interposed 
his parental authority but a few years before to prevent his going to 
to Rome to be accounted for? Only, it seems to me, by the sup- 
position that he died during the interval which elapsed between the 
nominations of St. Wilfrid and St. Ceadda, Had it been otherwise, 
certainly we should have heard of his protesting against the injustice 
that was done his friend, or at any rate expressing his sympathy with him 
during his exile from his see. It is most probable that he died in the 

17 Cohnan restored the see to York, for Eddi in his account of the synod of Whitby 
calls him " Eboracoe civitatis episcopus metropolitanus." The first Scotch bishops 
resided at Lindisfarne. 

18 Eddi, chap. xi. 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 163 

year 664 ; and in the pestilence of that year, to which so many persons 
of historical celebrity fell victims, we have the possible cause of his death. 
This monument marks the place of his burial, and its epitaph confirms 
the conclusion I had arrived at before I had an opportunity of reading 
it, and tells us the year of his death. Whilst yet this inscription re- 
mained a mystery, the tradition of the country declared that a king was 
buried at Bewcastle, and the confirmation of this tradition by the in- 
scription (now, it is hoped, correctly read), is a proof, in addition to the 
many we have from other sources, that the traditions of the people, in 
remote districts where, without thought of change, the same families 
continue to occupy the homesteads their fathers did before them, are 
founded in truth. Alcfrid is the king of whose burial this tradition 
has preserved the recollection, and he died in the year of the great pes- 
tilence, A.D. 664. 

A brief notice will suffice of the other illustrious personages whose 
names occur upon this monument. 

CYNIBVRUG. This name occurs upon the north and south sides; 
in the latter instance with the addition of some letters which we have 
read CYNGN ; but, as the character which stands for NO- is very like that 
for OE, it is possible that these letters may express CTJOEN or CWOEN, 
" queen." If, however, they be really as we have read them, we must 
suppose them an abbreviation of CTNINGIN, i. e. cyning with the usual 
female termination in, equivalent to the modern German word Koniginn. 
The signification is the same. This illustrious lady, the wife of Alcfrid, 
has been already mentioned. She was one of the daughters of King 
Penda, and was united to Alcfrid before the year 653, yet soon after 
her marriage persuaded him to live in continence with her, as a brother 
with a sister, being filled with the desire of devoting herself exclusively 
to a religious life. Whilst her husband lived, her court more resembled 
a monastery than a palace, for she had collected around her many young 
females of noble as well as of plebeian rank, who regarded her as their 
spiritual mother. In the year 664 she and her younger sister Cyniswid 
appear as witnesses to the foundation charter of Peterborough Minster, 
along with St. Wilfrid, then on his journey to France for consecration : 
so that it is probable her husband was already dead. Soon after this 
she obtained from her brother Wulfhere a grant of land at the place 
which is now called Caistor, and there she founded a monastery of which 
she was the first abbess, and her sisters Cyniswid and Cynithryth her 
successors. The year of her death is not recorded, but the youngest of 
her sisters, Cynithryth, was abbess in the year of St. Wilfrid's death, 
A.D. 709. Her character is thus briefly summed up by her biographer : 
" She was compassionate to the poor, a tender mother to the afflicted, 



164 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

and was constantly exciting to works of mercy the Kings her brothers," 
(i. e. Peada, Wulfhere, and Ethelred). I am informed that the Eev. J. 
Maughan has traced letters on the third slip of the north side, which he 
thinks may express the name of Cyniwm or Cyniswid. I certainly did 
not observe any letters myself in the place, though I examined it care- 
fully ; but if there be really any traces of such an inscription there, I 
should think the latter name the more probable reading. 

OSWTT CYXING JELT."Oswm King the Elder." This prince 
succeeded St. Oswald. A.D. 642, in the thirtieth year of his age. One 
dark crime stains his memory, the murder of St. Oswin, who had 
governed for some years the kingdom of Deira, A.D. 650. In other re- 
spects he seems to have been a good king, and to have fostered the 
infant church in his dominions. The conversion by his arguments of 
Sigebert, King of the East Saxons, who was baptized at Wallbottle, A.D. 
654, and, through him, of his subjects, and the foundation of many mo- 
nasteries, are proofs of his zeal for religion. By his victory over Penda, 
A.D. 655, he became paramount sovereign of all the other kingdoms 
except Kent; and his own dominions, which he held in peace until the 
end of his reign, extended from the Forth to the Humber. After the 
death of Alcfrid he allowed himself to be influenced by those who still 
adhered to the Scottish views, nominated St. Ceadda to the see of York, 
and maintained him therein to the prej udice of St. Wilfrid, until the 
coming of St. Theodore : but when, by the authority of that illustrious 
prelate, St. Wilfrid was restored, he became sincerely reconciled to him, 
and was guided by his counsels until the end of his life, which was not 
long afterwards. He died on the 15th of February, A.D. 670, in the 
fifty-eighth year of his age, and was buried in the monastery of Whitby. 
" At that time" says Venerable Bede, "he was filled with so great a 
love of the Roman and Apostolical institution, that if he had recovered of 
his sickness, he had arranged to go to Rome, and end his life at the holy 
places, and requested bishop Wilfrid, by the promise of a large gift of 
money, to be the guide of his journey." 

EANFLMD GYNGN; or, perhaps, CWOEN. Such seems to be 
the reading on the highest slip on the south side. Of this princess, to 
what has been said in our account of the Easter controversy, we may 
add, that she was the early patroness of St. Wilfrid when, a boy of 
twelve years old, he repaired to the court of Oswiu, that she encouraged 
him to go to Lindisfarne, and afterwards, when he desired to visit Rome, 
she furnished him with letters of recommendation to her relative Ear- 
conberht King of Kent. When Oswiu died she retired to the monastery 
of Whitby, and, after the death of St. Hilda, she assisted her daughter 
JElfleed in the government of it until her own death, and there was 
buried with her husband. 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 165 

ECGFRID CYNING. During the lifetime of his father, Ecgfrid is 
mentioned but once, and that in the year 665, when it is said that the 
reason why he was not present at the battle of Winwsedfield, (at which 
time, however, he was but ten years of age), was, that he was then de- 
tained as a hostage at the court of Queen Cyniwise, in the province of 
the Mercians. The victory then gained was probably the occasion of 
his liberation ; and the occurrence of his name on this monument shews 
that he was permitted to assume the title of king during his father's 
lifetime, perhaps as successor to his brother. On this point history is 
silent. On the death of his father, A.D. 670, he succeeded to the largest 
and most powerful of the Saxon kingdoms, and for a time he ruled it 
well and prosperously: but from the year 678, when he began to per- 
secute St. Wilfrid, his fortunes were observed to wane. As St. Wilfrid 
left the court when the sentence had been passed upon him, depriving 
him of his bishopric, his last words addressed to the courtiers who were 
mocking at his fall were, " On the very anniversary of this day on which 
you are jeering at my invidious condemnation, you will weep bitterly 
in your own confusion." In the following year a battle was fought 
between Eogfrid and Ethelred King of the Mercians, on the banks of the 
Trent, which resulted in the defeat of the former, and his loss of the 
province of Lindsey ; and the body of JSlfwin his brother, a youth of 
eighteen years, the darling of both nations, slain in the battle, was 
brought into the city of York amid the lamentations of the whole people, 
on the very anniversary of St. Wilfrid's condemnation : and Eddi, who 
relates this, says, that Ecgfrid reigned without victory from that timt> 
forward until the day of his death. He did, indeed, in opposition to the 
remonstrances of St. Egbert, in the year 684, send an army into Ireland 
and miserably wasted that harmless nation, which had always shown 
itself most friendly to the English, but this unprovoked cruelty was 
generally believed to be the occasion of his downfall, for it was not long 
before the vengeance of Almighty God overtook him. In the following 
year, against the advice of his friends, and especially of St. Cuthbert, he 
no less rashly and cruelly invaded the province of the Picts, and was by 
them defeated and slain, A.D. 685, at Drunmechtan, 19 and left to his bro- 
ther and successor Aldfrid a kingdom far inferior to that which he had 
inherited from his father : for the Picts recovered their own lands which 
had been held by the English, and the Scots that were in Britain and 
many of the Britons became independent ; and the kingdom of North- 
umbria never recovered the predominance it had enjoyed in the days of 
Oswiu. 

19 " Nechtanesmcre quod est Stagnum Nectani." &imeo.n. 



166 THE SAXOX CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

SLA AC CYNING. Of the prince whose name seems to be 
written here, we have but one notice in history. Under the year 617, 
the Saxon Chronicle says that Edwin, after his victory over Ethelfrid, 
by which he recovered his kingdom, drove out the ^Ethelings, Eanfrid, 
Oswald, Oswiu, Oslac, Oswudu, Oslaf, and Offa. Of these, Eanfrid be- 
came King of Bernicia, A.D. 633, and reigned scarcely a year; Oswald, 
A.D. 634, and Oswiu, A.D. 642, were successively kings of Northum- 
bria (the province of Deira, which had kings of its own, being subject 
to them). There are scattered notices here and there of an Offa, whom 
further research may prove to be the same as the last mentioned of these 
princes ; but of Oslac, Oswudu, and Oslaf, there is no further notice in 
history. Oslac, whose name occurs here with the title of king, may 
have reigned, subject to his brother Oswiu, in some part of his do- 
minions. 

WILFRID PREASTER, "Wilfrid Priest." This is a name of 
exceeding interest, as found on the monument of his friend and patron, 
and its occurrence indicates that the death of the latter took place before 
his departure for France. 

The long inscription, that of two lines above it, the single line on 
the south side, and another on the north, were all that had hitherto 
been noticed. A suspicion crossed my mind, whilst engaged in deci- 
phering these, that there must be some letters in the space above 
the head of St. John the Baptist, and further, that the reason 
why the the northern and southern sides are broken up into com- 
partments, instead of being filled with a continuous ornament as the 
eastern side is, must be, that spaces might be left for inscriptions. On 
this account, and because I felt the great need of scrupulous accuracy 
in publishing a reading of so important a monument of our language as 
the long inscription is, I took advantage of an opportunity which a 
journey into the north afforded me, and extended it to Bewcastle, and 
the discovery of these inscriptions was the result a result far exceeding 
anything I had anticipated. 

Thus, as in a Saxon charter after the act of donation we have the names 
of the witnesses thereto in the order of their rank, so here in the funeral 
monument of king Alcfrid, after his epitaph, we have the names of those 
who we may believe assisted at his obsequies, his father Oswiu, his 
mother-in-law Eanflaed, his widow Cyniburug, and her sister Cyniswid, 
his uncle Oslaac, his brother Ecgfrid, and his chaplain Wilfrid, bishop 
elect of York ; and above them all the Holy Name of Jesus, reminding 
us of that beautiful prayer which is found in some ancient liturgies, 
" Almighty and everlasting God, who hast created and redeemed us, 
mercifully regard our prayers : that, Thy Grace being poured into our 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 167 

hearts, we may rejoice that our names are written in heaven beneath 
the glorious Name of Jesus, the head of the book of eternal predestina- 
tion. Through the same Jesus Christ our Lord." 



I reserve the remarks I have to make on the ornaments of this monu- 
ment, until having described the very similar monument at Euthwell, 
I can speak of them both together. They are indeed so much alike, 
that a notice of the latter forms an appropriate sequel to what has been 
said : and, although it has been already described, much remains to be 
said in illustration of it, and in correction of the mistakes into which 
those who have described it have inadvertently fallen ; and the ascertained 
date of the Bewcastle monument enables us to fix its age with certainty. 
It is formed of two blocks of reddish sandstone, apparently from different 
quarries, the upper stone being distinctly of a different kind from the 
other. 

The tradition of the country says that it was cast by shipwreck on 
the shore, and first set up at Priestwoodside, and that it was after- 
wards removed, a distance of six miles, to Euthwell, where a church 
was built to receive it. There it remained until the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when it was broken by a decree of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland. The fragments still remained in the 
church until late in the last century, when they were cast into the 
churchyard. Dr. Duncan, the minister of Euthwell, rescued them from 
destruction, and set them up in the garden of the manse, where they 
are yet to be seen. Owing to its having been sheltered from the wea- 
ther for so many centuries within the walls of the church, the inscrip- 
tions upon it were for the most part so legible, that even persons un- 
acquainted with the Eunic character were able to make copies of them, 
of the general accuracy of which there can be no doubt ; and it is for- 
tunate that copies were made, for the Eunic inscriptions are now quite 
illegible, except that upon the upper stone. 

Its form and general character are the same as those of the Bewcastle 
monument, and as the upper and lower limbs of the cross which ter- 
minated it, have been preserved, it serves to shew what was probably 
the appearance of that monument when complete. 

Its two fronts, originally its eastern and western faces, are covered 
with sacred imagery in oblong compartments, surrounded by inscrip- 
tions referring to the subjects they contain. These are as follow : 

1 . In the upper limb of the cross two half-figures, and the same in 
the lower. 

2. St. John the Baptist, with the Holy Lamb, to which he points 



168 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

with his right hand, resting on his left arm. Around it are the remains 
of an inscription ADORAMUS. 

3. Our Blessed Lord, holding a scroll in His left hand, giving His 
blessing with His right, and trampling on demons personified by swine. 
The inscription, a little disarranged, is %< IHS XPS IVDEX AEQVITATIS . 

BESTIAB ET DRA CONES COGNOVEEVNT IN DESERTO SALVATQREM MVNDT. 

4. St. Paul and St. Antony breaking a loaf of bread between them. 

%* SCS PAVLYS ET AN[TON1US EEEMITAE] FREGERVNT PANEM IN DESERTO. 

The incident represented in this panel is thus related by St. .Jerome in 
his life of St. Antony. 

" St. Antony having attained the age of ninety years, was one day 
thinking that no one among the religious of Egypt had penetrated far- 
ther into the wilderness than himself. Whereupon he was admonished 
in a dream that there was one still farther on in the desert, much better 
than himself, and that he should make haste to visit him. In compli- 
ance with this divine admonition he set out at break of day in quest of 
the servant of God, and after travelling for two days at length found 
him, when falling each upon the other's neck, and mutually embracing 
one another, and each calling the other by his proper name, they united 
in giving thanks to God. Whilst they were conversing, St. Antony 
perceived a raven alighting upon one of the branches of a neighbouring 
palm tree, which, descending gently, dropped a loaf of bread before them, 
and then flew away. " Behold " said Paul, " how our loving and mer- 
ciful Lord has sent us a dinner. Sixty years have now elapsed since 
I have daily received from Him a loaf, but upon thy coming Christ hath 
been pleased to send His soldier a double portion." Then, after praying 
and giving thanks, they sat down by the edge of a spring to take the 
food that God had sent them, but not without an humble contention who 
should break the loaf, which they at last decided by breaking it con- 
jointly. After taking a moderate refreshment, they lay down to sip at 
the spring, and then returned to prayer and the praises of God, and in 
this holy exercise they spent the evening and the whole of the following 
night." 

5. The Blessed Virgin and the child Jesus in her arms, riding upon 
an ass : the head of St. Joseph, who conducts them, appears in the 
corner. The inscription is almost entirely gone. What remains is 

%t MARIA ET IO[SEF ... .] 

6. There has been another subject, but it is impossible to make out the 
design. 

On the opposite face we have 

1. In the lower limb of the cross an archer taking aim, and in the 
upper an eagle grasping a branch. 

2. Two figures embracing each other. This may be intended to re- 
present the Visitation. 

3. St. Mary Magdalene washing the feet of Jesus. %* ATTVLIT 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 169 

ALABASTRYM VN/GVENTI ET STAN'S RETROSECVS PEDES EIYS LACRIMIS COEPIT 
RIGARE PEDES EIYS ET CAPILLIS CAPITIS SVI TERGEBAT. 

4. Jesus restoring sight to the blind man. %< ET PRAETERIENS VIDIT 

COECVH A 1STATIBITATE ET SANAVIT EVM AB INFIRMITATE. 

5. The Angel Gabriel announcing to the Blessed Virgin the mystery 
of the Incarnation. Both figures are standing. * INGRESSVS ANGELVS 

AD MARIAM DIXIT AD EAM AYE GRATIA PLENA DOMINV& TECYM BENEDICTA TY 
IN MYLIERIBYS. 

6. The outlines, nearly obliterated, of the crucifixion : the sun and 
moon appear above the arms of the cross and other figures below. 

The design of the sides of this cross is the same as that of the eastern 
face of that at Bewcastle, a scroll, with fruit and foliage, interspersed 
with animals, viz. ; a quadruped, two birds, and two monsters appear- 
ing upon each. Much of the lower part of each side is defaced. On 
the lower stone, which is about three fourths of the entire length, the 
composition is complete, and bounded by the inscribed border. What 
is above is on a stone of a different kind, but the pattern is of the same 
character. It is evident that the monument was intended to be com- 
plete, when much less than at present, but that the artist whose task 
was to carve the imagery, finding it not long enough for all the subjects 
he wished to introduce, had it lengthened by the addition of the upper 
stone, and then an ornament was carved, resembling that on the lower 
part. That this was a different artist from the person who worked the 
scroll is very probable ; for Dr. Duncan says that the upper scroll is of 
inferior workmanship to the lower ; and the inscription on the upper 
stone is written along the descending line of the border in the same way 
as the latin inscriptions on the two fronts, whereas that of the lower is 
so written as to be read at one view, all the letters being upright. This 
inscription on each side begins at the top in the left hand corner, is 
continued down the right side, begins again at the top of the left side, 
and probably was continued along the bottom to the right hand corner. 
It is evident that what remains is not much more than half what was 
originally engraved upon the monument, nearly as much being obliter- 
ated in the middle and at the end of each as can still be read. They 
are written in Anglo-Saxon Runes of the same forms as those on the 
Bewcastle cross, and after they had exercised the ingenuity of the anti- 
quaries of England, Scotland, and Denmark for two hundred years, 
the key to their correct interpretation was found by that learned Anglo- 
Saxon scholar, and judicious antiquary, J. M. Kemble, Esq. He dis- 
covered them to be fragments of a poem in the early Saxon dialect of 
Northumbria. Through the kindness of James Scott, Esq., of Clarence- 
field, I have been furnished with a copy of these inscriptions made many 



170 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



years ago, more complete and accurate than those which guided Mr. 
Kemble in his interpretation. On the upper stone, the margin adjoin- 
ing that on which the word ADOEA.MFS is found gives clearly the letters 
ID^GISC^:. The lower stone, on the two opposite sides, gives the fol- 
lowing reading : 



UNGERE 




AHOF 


DM 


ICR 


HI 


IICN 


NJE 


JECY 


GO 


NIFG 


DM 


CHI 


LM 


FUN 


EEO 


2ESH 


TTI 


LAF 


GTH 


ARD 


AH 


HJEL 


EW 


DAIC 


AL 


NIDA 


DE 


RST2E 


AN 


BISM 


GA 


JERJED 


LG 


EUF~G 


UG 


CET 


1ST 


MEN 


IGA 


BMJ&T 


MOD 


G2ED 


IGF 


REIC 


ORE 


MITHB 


MEN 



LODI 
BIST 
EMI 
D 



NYG 





II. 


i CRIST 


WJES AN 


MJ 


RO 


THS 


DI 


TRE 


HW 


LU 


ETH 


MG 


R2E 


IW 


THE 


UN 


RF 


DMD 


VSM 


ALE 


FEAR 


GDU 


RAN 


NHI^J 


CWO 


HIN.IE 


MUN 


LIMW 


JETHIL 


OERI.G 


.ETIL 


NJEGI 


JENU 


STO 


MIC 


DDU 


THJET M 


NHIM 


LBIH 


...LI 


EOL 


... M 


ICW 


...M 


-51SM 


...IT 


..AL 


.. GW 


GU^E 



E 



GID 
ROE 
FID 

. M 



Beginning at the left-hand corner of the first inscription, and proceed- 
ing down the right side, we read as follows : 

ungeredae hinae God aelmeeottig prepared Himself God Almighty 

tha he walde an galgu gistiga when he would to the cross ascend 

modig fore men courageously before men 

[an ma]nyg[ra . . . . ] [in sight of] many. 



then returning to the left sid< 

ahof ic riicnae cyningc 
hifunaes hlafard 



I raised the mighty King 
heaven's Lord 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



171 



haelda ic ni darstee 
bismaeraede ungcet men 
bee aetgaedre 
ic mith blodi bistemid 



fall down I durst not 
They reviled us two 
both together 
I with blood stained 



These fragments relate to the crucifixion of Jesus ; those which follow 
to the taking of His Sacred Body down from the cross. Beginning as 
before at the left-hand corner of the second inscription, and reading 
down the right side 



%* Crist wses an rodi 

hwethrse ther fusse 

fearran cwomun 

aethilse ti laemim 

ic thaat ael biheold 

gaer ic wees m[ith] dalguae 

gidrcefid 

then returning to the left side 

mith strelum giwundaed 
alegdun hiae hinge limwoerignee 
gistoddun him [set] lifclaes 
[h>f[du]m 



%* Christ was on the rood 

Lo ! thither hastening 

from afar came 

nobles to him in misery 

I that all beheld 

I was with the wound of sorrow 

vexed 



with shafts wounded 
they laid Him down limb-weary 
they stood by him at his corpse's 
head 



And as Mr. Kemble was the first to interpret these inscriptions, which 
had baffled every one who before him had undertaken the task, so for 
him also was reserved the satisfaction of discovering also the verifica- 
tion of his reading. This he found in a poem entitled The Dream of 
the Holy Rood, one of a collection discovered by Dr. Blum at Vercelli, 
and since published by the Record Commission. In this poem the fol- 
lowing passages occur, supposed to be spoken by the Cross of our Lord, 
narrating to the Christian who is favoured with the vision the events 
of the Crucifixion, and its own feelings upon being made the instru- 
ment of torture to the Son of God. 



Ongyrede hine tha geong haeleth 



thaet wees God 
strang and stlthmod 
gestah he on gealgan heanne 
modig on manigra gesihthe 
tha he wolde mancyn lysan 
Bifode ic tha me se beorn ymb- 

clypte 
ne dorste ic hwaethre bugan to 

eorthan 
feallan to foldan sceatum 



Then the young hero prepared 
himself, 

that was God Almighty. 

Strong and firm of mood, 

He mounted the lofty cross, 

courageously in the sight of many ; 

when He would mankind redeem. 

I trembled when the hero em- 
braced me, 

yet dared I not bow down to 
earth, 

fall to the bosom of the ground, 



172 



THE SAXOX CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



ac ic sceolde feeste standan 
Rod wa3s ic araared 
ahof ic ricne cyning 
heofona hlaford ; 
hyldan me ne dorste. 
Bysmeredon hie unc butu set ga3- 

dere 

Eal ic wses mid blode bestemed 
begoten of tha3s guman sidan 



but I was compelled to stand fast. 

A cross was I reared, 

I raised the powerful King, 

heaven's lord. 

I durst not fall down. 

They reviled us both together. 

I was all stained with blood 
poured from the man's side. 



Crist wses on rode 
hweethre theer fusee 
feorran cwoinon 
to tham eethelinge 
Ic thast eal beheold 
sare ic wses mid gedrefed 



Christ was on the cross, 

yet, thither hastening 

men came from far 

to the noble one. 

I beheld that all, 

with sorrow I was afflicted. 



Forleton me tha hilderincas 
standan steame bedrifenne 
ealicwaBsmid stibium forwund- 

od 

Aledon hie thser limwerigne ; 
gestodon him a3t his lieaBs heaf- 

duni. 
beheoldon hie thasr heofenes 

dryhten, 

and he hine thaBr hwile reste 
methe aefter tham miclan gewinne 



The wamors left me there, 
standing denied with gore. 
I was all wounded with shafts. 

They laid Him down limb-weary. 
They stood at the corpse's head. 

They beheld the Lord of heaven. 

And He rested Himself there awhile, 
weary after His mighty contest. 



Thus in this poem Mr. Kemble found the very same passages as he 
had previously found upon the cross ; and, rightly read, they prove to 
be in precisely the same order, two passages, one referring to the cruci- 
fixion, the other to the taking down from the cross, extracted from a 
longer poem, embracing the whole subject. The discovery of the poem, 
whilst it established the general correctness of his interpretation, ena- 
bled Mr. Kemble to correct the trifling mistakes into which he had 
fallen, and, with the imperfect copies he had to guide him, the wonder 
is they that were so few. It is beyond all doubt the most interesting dis- 
covery that has ever been made in the field of Anglo-Saxon antiquities ; 
for these lines inscribed upon the cross prove the existence in the middle 
of the seventh century of a poem, of which they form a part, written 
in the Northumbrian dialect, and of which that in the Yercelli MS. 
(which Mr. Kemble considers a poem of very high character), is a 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 17-3 

later version in the West Saxon dialect, with some additions and altera- 
tions. Fortunately, the history of the period enables us, almost with 
certainty, to determine the author of this poem, for there was but one 
person then living to whom it can be ascribed. For reasons which 
will appear in the sequel, I believe this monument, and that at Bew- 
castle, to be of the same age, and the work of the same hand, and the 
latter must have been erected A.D. 664 or 5. Now this was precisely 
the period at which Caedmon, first of all the English nation, began to 
compose religious poems, in the monastery of the Abbess Hilda. 

Of him Venerable Bede records that he was the first to compose 
sacred poems in the English language ; that their subjects were the In- 
carnation, Passion, and other mysteries of the life of Our Lord ; and 
that, although others after him attempted to do the same, no one could 
be compared to him. As then what is related of his inspiration 20 must 
have taken place about this time, for the monastery of St. Hilda was 
founded in the year 655, are we not justified in regarding the lines upon 
the Ruthwell cross as fragments of a lost poem of his, a poem, however, 
which a. later poet in the tenth century undertook to modernize and 
adapt to the taste of his own times, as Dryden did with some of the 
poems of Chaucer ? I submit to the judgment of others this conjec- 
ture, based upon these grounds, viz. that on this monument, erected 
about A.D. 666, we have fragments of a religious poem of very high 
character, and that there was but one man living in England at the 
time worthy to be named as a religious poet, and that was Csedmon. 

In proceeding to notice the sculptured decorations of these two mon- 
uments, our attention is first arrested by the mutilated delineation of 
the crucifixion on that at Ruthwell, and this because M. Didron and 
others are of opinion that representations of this subject do not, or very 
rarely, occur before the tenth century. Here, however, we find it on a 
monument to which we can certainly assign an earlier date, (the seventh 
century), and there are several other examples on monuments which we 
have good reason to suppose belong to the seventh or eighth centuries. 
In the walls of the church of Kirkdale, in Yorkshire, built out of the 
ruins of St. Gregory's monastery (which I conceive to have been that of 
Laestingaeu) are three crosses, one of which is entirely filled by a very 
rude crucifixion. On another found at Bothbury, and now in the 
Museum of the Society, the image of Our Saviour crucified fills the head 
of the cross, as on the ruder example at Kirkdale. The curious frag- 
ments of the cross at Alnwick, (from "Woden's Church, Alnmouth), 
deserve special notice here, because they and the Buthwell cross mutu- 
ally illustrate each other. The position of the crucifixion on the cross 
20 Bede's Eccl. Hist., book iv., cap 24, 



174 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



at Ruthwell shews what was probably the relation of the fragments at 
Alnwick to the cross of which they formed a part ; and the carving on the 
latter, being in better preservation than that on the former, shews what 
was its general design ; viz. Onr Saviour extended on the cross, (not 
depending), the sun and moon above, below apparently the two thieves, 
and lower still two executioners. Very similar in design to these is the 
crucifixion represented on one of the crosses at Aycliffe, (of which by the 
kindness of "W. H. D. Longstaffe, Esq., I am enabled to give a repre- 
sentation), where we have the two executioners only, without the thieves. 

Not to mention other examples on crosses. 
the west front of the little church of Head- 
bourne Worthy, near "Winchester, is nearly 
filled by a very large crucifix, with the hand 
of the Eternal Father issuing from clouds 
above the head of our Lord, and on either 
side the figures of the Elessed Virgin and St. 
John : and so sacred was this deemed in early 
times, that in the fifteenth century a porch, 
w ith a little chapel over it, was attached to 





Cross at Aycliffe. 



Crucifix at Headbourne Worthy 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 175 

this front, in which was an altar in front of the Holy Rood, thus en- 
closing it for particular veneration. All this care bestowed on it, and 
reverence shown towards it, seems only to have provoked the violence 
of the sixteenth century, when it was chiselled away level with the 
surface of the wall, leaving only the outlines to shew what it had once 
been. At Romsey, however, there still remains, quite perfect, a similar 
crucifix on the exterior wall of the south transept. It seems to be of 
equal antiquity, and has been saved out of the ruins of an earlier 
church : and a piscina near it shews that there must have been a little 
chapel, as at Headbourne Worthy, built to enclose it. 

The three figures on the cross at Bewcastle are very superior in dig- 
nity and grace to any thing I have ever observed, even of Norman art, 
and the same may be said of those on the Ruthwell monument. Two 
of them, St. John the Baptist holding the Holy Lamb, and Our Blessed 
Saviour trampling on the heads of demons personified by swine, are 
nearly the same on each monument, the differences of treatment being 
very slight. For the choice of the other subjects at Ruthwell it is 
difficult to account ; we have the Annunciation, the Visitation (pro- 
bably), and the Flight into Egypt, but not in order ; and I may remark 
that these three subjects, with a fourth an angel appearing in a vision 
to St. Joseph are represented on a curious tablet in the wall of the 
tower of Hovingham church in Yorkshire. 91 Then we have a miracle 
of Our Blessed Lord His restoring sight to the blind man and St. 
Mary Magdalene washing His feet, and lastly, an incident from the lives 
of St. Paul and St. Anthony. Certainly this collection of subjects 
seems very incongruous ; but some good reasons probably dictated the 
choice, and were we better acquainted with the history of the person 
whose monument it is, the incongruity would doubtless disappear. 
The period, however, to which this monument must be ascribed, makes 
it probable that the person to whose memory it was erected was a con- 

21 A representation of this tablet appears in the Archaeological Journal, vol. VI., p. 
189 ; but not a very accurate one. Under eight arches are as many figures, forming 
four distinct subjects, as follows : 

1. The Angel ; 2. The Blessed Virgin, seated. 

3 and 4. Two female figures, standing, each facing the other. This I take to be 
the Visitation. 

5. A male figure walking and following 6, a female figure with a swathed infant in 
her arms. This seems to be the Flight into Egypt, or, perhaps, the journey to Jeru- 
salem for the Presentation. 

7. A figure reclining, apparently asleep, and 8, an angel, appearing to him. This 
is probably the dream of St. Joseph. The whole work is decidedly Saxon, and it is 
built into the walls of a tower which is as decided a specimen of Saxon architecture 
as any that I am acquainted with. Over the west door is a cross of a type peculiar 
to early Saxon and Irish monuments, and the double splayed windows of the lower 
stage, and rude baluster windows of the belfry stage, are all indications of its early 
date. 



176 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

yert from paganism to the faith, and whilst on the monument of any 
Christian the mysteries of the Incarnation and Passion of Our Blessed 
Lord would be appropriate, the restoration of sight to the blind as 
typical of the greater miracle of opening the eyes of the soul to the light 
of faith, and the forgiveness of St. Mary Magdalene and her loving 
penitence, on the monument of a convert, would be peculiarly so. The 
choice of St. John the Baptist, and of the scene from the history of St. 
Paul and St. Anthony might be the result of a special veneration on his 
part to those saints. 

The scroll-work on the eastern side of the Bewcastle monument, and 
on the two sides of that at Ruthwell, is identical in design, and differs 
very much from that which is found on other Saxon crosses. In fact I 
know of nothing like it except small portions on a fragment of a cross 
in the York Museum, on another fragment preserved in Jarrow church, 
and on a cross at Hexham. This resemblance, and that already noticed, 
in the style of the carving of the imagery, convince me that the two- 
crosses are the work of the same artist or artists, (if we suppose that 
then, as is the case now-a-days, one who was competent to execute 
statuary left the carving of flowers and mere ornaments to less skilful 
hands), and, therefore, that the date of the one cannot be much later 
than that of the other ; nay, I feel inclined to go farther than this, and 
to hazard the conjecture that the two once formed the same monument, 
one at the head and the other at the foot of the grave. Believing, as I 
do, that all these ancient crosses are sepulchral monuments, the absence 
of an epitaph at Euthwell, on the lower stone at least, convinces me 
that something is wanting to make the monument complete. The 
inscriptions on its fronts are Latin antiphons, allusive to the subjects 
pourtrayed thereon, and those on its sides English verses descriptive of 
the Passion. In such company a memorial inscription would have 
seemed incongruous. Something seems wanting to the completeness of 
the monument, and that is supplied by the cross at Bewcastle, where 
we find an inscription to the memory of king Alcfrid, and the names of 
other persons of his family. The verification of the Bewcastle tradi- 
tions disposes me the more readily to credit that which tells us that the 
Ruthwell cross came thither by sea, and was cast on the shore by ship- 
wreck. If this be really true, whence did it come? Most probably 
from Cumberland ; carried off, perhaps, on account of its beauty, by an 
army of Danes or Scots, and cast upon the shore of the Solway by a 
sudden storm. 

Before I thought of the connection between these two crosses, it oc- 
curred to me that the reason why St. John the Baptist was introduced 
upon that at Bewcastle might be, that he was the patron saint of King 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 177 

Alcfrid, and this seemed to clear up a difficulty which I had felt for 
some years on another point of antiquarian research. At Barnack, in 
Northamptonshire, three miles from Stamford, there is a church the 
tower of which, presenting on three sides scrolls with birds, and win- 
dows filled with tracery of interlacing knotwork, is certainly a work of 
the seventh century, and one which I always regarded as a relic of the 
monastery built by St. Wilfrid in this neighbourhood on land granted 
to him by Alcfrid. But we know that St. "Wilfrid's monasteries were all 
dedicated to St. Peter and St. Andrew j 22 and how was the supposition 
that Barnack is St. Wilfrid's work to be reconciled with its dedication 
to St. John the Baptist ? Very easily, if St. John the Baptist were in- 
deed the patron of Alcfrid. And if this were so, then his appearance on 
the Euthwell cross adds to the probability that it belonged to the monu- 
ment erected in his honour at Bewcastle : and that monument, we may 
suppose, consisted of two crosses, one at the head, the other at the foot 
of the grave, both presenting the image of our Blessed Lord, and of 
Alcfrid' s patron saint; one devoted to sacred imagery and inscriptions 
calculated for the edification of the beholder, tho other presenting his 
portraiture and an inscription to his memory. It is even possible that the 
inscription upon the upper stone at Ruthwell may have contained his 
name. The letters which remain are ID^ GISCM. Of these GISCJS is 
evidently the beginning of a word such as gesceapan, to form or shape, 
gesceadan, to divide or separate, or gescea, sobbing, and the rest may be 
the ending of the word Alcfrida. If any other letters could be traced 
confirming this conjecture, I should regard this inscription as a sort of 
postscript to that on the other cross. Nor would such a supposition 
militate against what I have said above of the incongruity of a memorial 
inscription with such as the rest of those upon this monument : for the 
lower stone on which they occur is evidently complete in itself, and as 
evidently the addition of the upper stone was an afterthought, for which 
the wish to add such an inscription as this might easily account, and 
which I cannot but think detracts from the beauty of the monument by 
destroying its unity. 

I must now call the attention of the reader to the dial which is in- 
troduced in the midst of a scroll in the southern face of the monument 
at Bewcastle. Such dials, though by no means common, are more so 
than is generally supposed ; and for this reason I will mention all that 
have come under my notice. At Corhampton, in Hampshire, there is 



22 Eddi, chap, liv., records a vision (A.D. 705), in which St. "Wilfrid is reproached 
for having done this, and having neglected to Wild one in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin, and four yeais of life are granted him to supply this omission, 



178 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



one in its original position in the 
south wall of the very interesting 
Saxon church there, which I believe 
to be one of St. Wilfrid's works, be- 
cause its architecture corresponds 
with that of churches in other parts 
of the country which on other 
grounds I believe to be his, and it is 
situated in one of the scenes of St. 
"Wilfrid V labours, the ancient dis- 
trict of the Meanwara. My con- 
jecture with regard to this church is 
strengthened by the occurrence of a 
similar, though smaller and less or- 
namented dial, in the neighbouring church at Warnford. This church is 
Norman, erected in the twelfth century by Adam de Portu, but an in- 
scription of that period testifies that it stands on the site of an earlier 
church founded by St. "Wilfrid, and the dial is probably a relic of that 
earlier church inserted in the walls of the Norman building. 'Again, a 
dial closely resembling the last appears in the walls of St. Michael's 
church, Winchester. These three have been figured in the Proceedings 






Dial at Warnford. 



Dial at Winchester. 



of the Archaeological Association at Winchester, in 1845. Probably of 
equal antiquity with these, is a small and very plain one at Head- 
bourne Worthy, near Winchester. It is not in its original position, but 
there are parts of the church, including the west front with the rood 
already mentioned, of equal antiquity with Corhampton. At Barnack, 
in Northamptonshire, there is another in the south wall of the Saxon 
tower. Like the four already mentioned it is enclosed in a circle, but 
it differs from the three first in the omission of the flowered ornaments 
attached to the outer circumference, and in the introduction of one 
which fills the upper half of the circle above the dial. At Swillington, in 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



179 




Yorkshire, there is another, which I mention in this place, because, as in 
all the above instances, the circle is complete, the lower half being 
marked for the dial. It is evidently a relic of an earlier building built 
into the south wall of a church of the fourteenth century. At Bishop- 
stone, in Sussex, there is a very cu- 
rious one, figured in the Archceolo- 
gical Journal, vol. xi., p. 40, and 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, Nov., 
1840, of an entirely different de- 
sign. It is introduced in a semi- 
circular arch, has an ornament 
above it, not unlike what appears 
in some Anglo-Saxon MSS., and 
the name ^ EADEIC, which may be 
that of the prince of the South- 
Saxons, son of Ecgberht King of 
Kent, who killed his uncle Hlothari, 
A.D. 685, and reigned in his stead 
for a year and a half afterwards. 
All the above I take to be of the 
seventh century. Of later date I 
have seen one at Old Byland, in 
Yorkshire. It is semicircular, and has an inscription of which I could 

only read the words .... TIDEMAW ME FECIT. The latest is the 

well-known dial over the south door of the church at Kirkdale, exe- 
cuted in the reign of St. Edward the Confessor. It has been remarked 
that this dial differs from that at Bishopstone in having a single dividing 
line between each of the crossed lines. In this respect the Bewcastle, 
Bishopstone, and Winchester dials agree. These nine, which I have 
seen, and that at Bishopstone, which I have not seen, are all that 
I know of, but it is probable there may be many more, since so many 
have fallen under the notice of a single individual. 

The value of these monuments, as illustrating the state of civilization 
of our forefathers in the seventh century, can scarcely be overrated. 
First, they afford incontestible evidence that the Angles of Northumbria 
were in possession of a system of writing of their own before the intro- 
duction of Roman characters by the Latin missionaries : and that their 
alphabet was more complete than the Eoman, containing more letters, 
expressive of sounds peculiar to their language. Erom the series of 
Runic alphabets which Mr. Kemble has published, 23 taken from MSS. 
of the ninth and tenth centuries, (a period when this kind of writing 

23 Archseologia, vol. xxviii. 



Dial at Bishopstone. 



180 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

had fallen into disuse in England) it appears that the Anglo-Saxon 
Runic alphabet consisted of thirty characters ; and of these, twenty- six 
are found on the Bewcastle and Ruthwell monuments, a nearly com- 
plete alphabet of the letters which were in use in the seventh century. 
Whence these were derived there can be no doubt, for they are nearly 
the same as those which were in use amongst the Teutonic tribes who 
inhabited those districts of the Continent whence the Angles came, and 
we may regard it as certain that they brought these letters with them 
at their first coming to England, and used them constantly during the 
century and a half previous to their conversion to Christianity. It is 
true that these monuments present the earliest examples that have yet 
been noticed of this kind of writing in England, but it is very possible 
that others may be discovered, since records much earlier than these once 
existed. The venerable father of English history had undoubtedly ac- 
cess to chronological tables, in which, under each successive year of the 
reigning king, events were recorded as they occurred, and from the 
minuteness with which he details the transactions of the reign of King 
Edwin, it is evident that these annals must have extended beyond the 
date of the conversion of the Northumbrian kingdom to Christianity. 
Euture research may yet discover some of Jbhese, buried perhaps in such 
places as Goodmanham, the site of the famous temple of Northumbria, 
or Wallbottle, the palace of King Oswiu. Here, however, we have un- 
doubted examples of the writing which was in use amongst the Angles 
of the seventh century, and had been for centuries previous to the in- 
troduction of the Roman alphabet by Christian missionaries. I do not 
lose sight of the fact, that that alphabet was known to and used by the 
Britons, nor do I doubt that they could read the inscriptions on the 
many monuments which the Romans left behind them ; but so great 
was their hatred of the Anglo-Saxon race, and so little, in consequence, 
their intercourse with them, that the latter were quite ignorant of any 
letters but their own ; and those which the Roman missionaries intro- 
duced were as strange to them as the language they were used to ex- 
press. Many years, in all probability, would pass away after the in- 
troduction of Christianity, and the foreign influence which we know 
accompanied it, before the old system of writing would be abandoned, 
and the new take its place : and Runes would continue to be used for 
English records, and Roman letters for Latin. This we find to be the 
case. The Latin inscriptions at Ruthwell are written in Roman char- 
acters ; the English inscriptions there, at Bewcastle, and at Kirkdale, in 
Runes. After the conversion of the northern nations to Christianity, 
the clergy laboured to do away with the ancient system of writing, and 
to substitute the Roman in its stead, and their efforts were everywhere 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 181 

successful. The Anglo-Saxon Runes were probably the first to be dis- 
used ; whilst those of the Scandinavian nations maintained their ground 
for several centuries. Thus the inscription to the memory of Bishop 
Tuda, though in English, is in Roman characters, because it was written 
in a monastery under ecclesiastical influence. In the Ealstone inscrip- 
tion we have an early example of the endeavours that were made to 
familiarize the eyes of our forefathers with the Roman letters by 
writing the same words first in Runes and then in Roman minuscules ; 
and had the Dewsbury inscription been perfect we should perhaps 
have had another earlier still. Hence arises the probability that the 
inscription on the cross at Halton, and any others that may exist, or 
may hereafter be found, written in pure Anglo-Saxon Runes, must be 
referred to the same age as these. 

The earliest Anglo-Saxon coins that can be appropriated with any 
degree of probability, have the names of the kings by whose authority 
they were struck written in Runes. These are coins which seem to 
bear the name of Peada, and his brother Ethelred, Kings of Mercia. 
A coin in Ruding, pi. 26, Appendix, fig. 4, has the letters PADA in 
Runes, quite distinct ; and as the upper stroke of the A is joined to the 
D, it may be read PEADA. In this instance the letters are large, occupy- 
ing nearly the whole field. Another coin which I have seen in an 
English collection, and which is figured in Combrouse's Monnaies de 
France, Yol. III., pi. 28, fig. 1, presents the letters P^DA on one side 
of a square on the reverse ; its obverse being of the same type as the 
last. The same work, Yol. IIIL, pi. 154, figure 4, gives another 
variety, with the same letters in the field. The coin figured by Ruding, 
pi. 3, as one of Ethilberht, reads distinctly .ETHILIJLED. I know of no 
Anglo-Saxon kings to whom these pieces can be assigned with more 
probability than to Peada and Ethelred. This attribution is new, but 
would have been published long ago, had I been enabled to complete 
the work I once projected on the Anglo-Saxon coinage. The 
earliest with Roman legends are those of Ecgfrid and his successors, 
Kings of Northumbria ; but still, even to a comparatively late period, in 
the occasional use of Runes, we discern a lingering affection for the 
old characters. Thus a coin has been cited of Offa, King of Mercia, 
with the moneyer's name, BOTRED, in Runes, and on others of his coins 
Runes are occasionally found introduced amongst Roman letters, and on 
a coin of his contemporary, Ethilberht of East Anglia, after the King's 
name in Roman letters, we have that of the moneyer, LVL in Runes. 
So, also, we have Runes and Roman letters on the supposed East Anglian 
coins of Beonna. The stycas of Eanred, King of Northumbria, of the 
moneyers BROTHER and WIHTRED, present the latest examples of the use 
of these characters. 2 A 



182 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

All the examples above cited belong to the three Anglian kingdoms, 
Northumbria, Mercia, and East Anglia. The Jutish kingdom of Kent 
supplies one monument of this class, the tombstone discovered some 
years ago at Dover, with the name GFISLHEARIT ; and possibly two others 
in the terminal (?) stone discovered near Canterbury, and the sword- 
hilt in Mr. Eolfe's possession, but I do not know whether the Eunes 
on these are Anglo-Saxon or not. In the three kingdoms founded 
by the Saxon race there has not been found as yet a single Runic 
monument, that which was discovered in London a few years ago beingf 
purely Danish. 

Thus have we traced the occasional use of Anglo-Saxon Eunes 
in Northumbria almost to the time when it became a Danish kingdom. 
At that time probably the invaders introduced their own letters, which 
differ very much from those of which we have been speaking ; and 
although no early examples of the use of "N"orse Eunes have yet occurred 
in Northumbria, there are two inscriptions in this character, later than 
the Conquest that lately discovered at Carlisle, and the famous one 
on the font at Bridekirk. The former written in Norse Eunes, and 
in the Norse language, has lately been brought under the notice of the 
Society at one of the monthly meetings. The latter is written in 
characters which bear a considerable resemblance to Norse Eunes, but 
are yet not entirely the same. It is in two rhyming verses. (Fig. 16. } 
RICARD HE ME IWROCTE 
1 TO DIS MERTH GERNR ME BROCTE 

which, on comparing it with the same words in Anglo-Saxon and in 
modern English 

Eicard he me gewrohte Eichard he me wrought 

And to this maBrthe geornor me And to this beauty carefully me 
brohte brought 

appears to be intermediate between the two versions, and may be re- 
garded as a specimen of the English of the eleventh or twelfth century. 
The following couplet from the Life of St. Gofoic,'* by Eeginald (a 
work of the twelfth century), aifords an apt illustration of this inscrip- 
tion, and a confirmation of the date assigned to it. 

Seinte Marie sio on scamel me iledde 

Thaet ic on this hi-herthe ne sculde wit mine bare fot itreide. 

Saint Marie she on footstool me led, 

That I on this earth should not with my bare foot tread. 

The forms iledde and itreide corresponding to iwrocte ; the exact sirni- 
** St. Godric died A.D. 1170, and this life was compiled whilst he was yet living. 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



183 



larity of construction, Seinte Marie sio me iledde and Richard he me 
iwrocte ; and of the style of versification, are I think sufficient to con- 
vince any one that they are of the same age, i. e. the twelfth century, a 
date which the character of the carving on the font perfectly warrants. 

Prom this reading, taken from impressions kindly forwarded to me 
by the Rev. James Carter, Yicar of Bridekirk, it will be seen that Mr. 
Hamper's reading (published in the Archmlogia, vol xix) was very 
near the truth. He erred in two letters only, and into these errors he 
was led by faults in Mr. Howard's copy. 

Not less valuable are these monuments as presenting the very earliest 
examples of our language, and almost the only examples of the lan- 
guage as it was written in the seventh century. The forms of the 
words in these inscriptions differ materially from those which were in 
use in those centuries, and in those districts, to which most of the existing 
monuments of the Anglo-Saxon language belong. The Yercelli poem, as 
we have seen, affords us the means of comparing the early forms of the 
Northumbrian with the late forms of the West Saxon dialect ; and the 
information thus derived has been of material assistance in explaining 
the Bewcastie inscription, and will be equally valuable to any one who 
may undertake the reading of any others that may hereafter be disco- 
vered. For this reason, we give here a table of the contrast between 
the early and late forms of the language, the letters B, D, E, R, de- 
noting that the words are found respectively in the Bewcastie, Dews- 
bury, Falstone, and Ruthwell inscriptions. 



R an 



on 



dalguse dolge 
darstae dorste 
hlafard hlaford 



hwethrae hwsethre 
** ' strelum strselum 
ther tha3r 



walde 



bee 
saer 



wolde 



sar 



^ ! fearran feorran 
B preaster preost 



o 
o3 

) D beornae 
t0 { eomaa 



bearne 
eame 



* 



R bismaeraede bysmeredon 

,, darstse dorste 

,, fusee fuse 

,, hiae, hinae hie, hine 

,, riicnae ricne 

B settae sette 

t R ungeredee ongyrede 



R aelmeottig ealmihtig 
B ga3r gear 

R haelda healdan 



eo/0riR selmeottig ealmihtig 

/- biheold beheold 

' ,, bistemid bestemed 

,, blodi blode 

I) gibiddad gebidath 

B gicegsed gecigath 

R gidrcefid gedrefed 

gistiga gestigan 

,, gistoddun gestodon 

,, giwundeed gewundod 
rodi rode 



184 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



if or eon hifunses heofenes 

,, alegdun aledon 

,, cwomun cwomon 

cM lingered se ongyrede 



B Alcfrid Ealhfrith 

Ecgfrid Ecgfrith 

D gibiddad gebidath 

B gicegeed gecigath 



Besides the above, which differ from later forms in the vowels only, 
we have dalgu and galgu for dolg and gealga ; infinitives in a, gistiga 
and Jicelda, foigestigan &nd.healdan ; and participles past in ced, giwundced 
and tcegced (the latter at Beckermont), for gewundod and tigod. In the 
absence of any other monument of early date, we may derive some 
information on this point from Venerable Bede. His history, it is true, 
is written in Latin, but it contains many names of persons and places ; 
and as these had always a meaning, they generally represent forms of 
words in use when he wrote ; and of that history fortunately one 
MS. is in existence, written two 
years after his death, in which 
these words are found just as he 
would write them. I have there- 
fore thought it desirable to give, 
as an Appendix to this memoir, 
a list of the names which occur 
therein, with their meanings as 
far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain them ; for many of them 
seem to have afterwards fallen 
into disuse, andno glossary gives 
their meaning. On reference to 
this list it will be found that 
nearly all the early modes of 
spelling noted above occur there- 
in, and several others besides. 

Having given to these monu- 
ments the attention which they 
justly claim, let us proceed to 
notice one or two others. In 
the churchyard of the village of 
Hauxwell, near Richmond, in 
Yorkshire, there is a small cross 
(See annexed cutj, of which the 
head is broken away. It is fixed 







THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 185 

in a square plinth. Its ornaments are simply interlacing patterns, but 
in the midst of them, on the front, there is a small panel, and in this is 
an inscription, almost obliterated, which (by means of impressions kindly 
forwarded to me by Miss Pattison) I read (Fig. 11) 

HAEC E_ST 
CEVX SO 
GACOBI 

Short as this inscription is, it is very valuable, inasmuch as it assists us 
in settling another point in the geography of Venerable Bede, for there 
can be no doubt as to the indentity of the person who is commemorated 
here. It is James, whom Venerable Bede mentions as assisting St. Paulinus 
when he was baptizing the people of Lindsey, A.D. 628, He says of him, 
"He had with him in the ministry, James the deacon, a man truly zealous, 
and noble, in Christ and in the church, who lived even to our days;" 
and again, ".Ee left in the church of York (A.D. 633) James the dea- 
con, a truly ecclesiastical and holy man, who for a long time afterwards 
continuing in that church, rescued much prey from the old enemy by 
teaching and baptizing, from whose name the village near Catterick, 
where he mostly resided, is named to this day ; and as he was most 
skilful in singing in the church, when peace was afterwards restored in 
the province, and the number of the faithful increased, he began to be 
master of singing, according to the custom of the Romans, or people of 
Kent, to many persons ; and he being old and full of days, according to 
the words of Scripture, followed the way of his fathers," He is men- 
tioned again as present at the synod of Whitby, when he had the satis- 
faction of seeing the return of the Northumbrian church to unity, ac- 
cording to the rule of the church in which he had been brought up ; 
and as Venerable Bede says that he lived to his own days, he probably 
died about the year 690, when he would be upwards of eighty years of 
age, if we suppose him to have been nineteen (the age at which the 
office of deacon was then occasionally conferred) in 628. This cross 
probably marks the place of his burial, and the epithet Sancti in its 
short inscription bears out the character given him by our venerable 
historian. If Hauxwell be "the village where he mostly resided," it 
may have been called after him originally 25 " Jacobus- waella," and after- 
wards abbreviated to its present form. 

The fragments of the Alnwick cross present inscriptions on each 
broad face a single line (Fig. 18^, MYBEDEH . MEH . WO'[EHTE], "Myredeh 

25 The memory of this venerable man is also preserved in Lindsey, another field of 
his labours, where, not far from Barton-on-Humber, there is a cross which bears his 
name, St. James' Cross. 



186 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

me wrought," and [HL]VDWYG . MEH . PEG [DE], " Hludwyg me fixed ; " 
(Fig. 19 J ; and on the sides an inscription of which two lines remain, on 
one EADYLFES . TH (Fig. 20 J, and a single line on the other containing the 
word SAVL. Though a single letter only occurs after the word "Eadulfes," 
it is evidently the termination of the inscription on that side; and, 
therefore, must either stand for a word, or he the commencement of a 
word which was continued on the other side, where there was evidently 
a prayer for the soul of the person commemorated. The whole inscrip- 
tion, probably, was something like this 

* THIS. IS GEBI 

CYNING DDAD 

EADV TH^ERE 

LFES.TH[nuH] SAVLE 

This is King Eadulf 's grave. Pray for his soul. 

Most of the letters on these fragments agree in their forms with those 
of the Latin inscriptions at Euthwell, but the G more resembles those 
on the cross at Hackness, which is of the eighth century, and I think 
the beginning of this century is the date of these fragments. At this 
period we have an Eadulf figuring for a short time in history, and 
although we know but little about him, that little tells us that his 
reign and life ended in the neighbourhood of Alnmouth, where this 
cross was found. He usurped the crown on the death of Aldfrid, A.D. 
705, and at the head of his partisans besieged Berchtfrid, the 
guardian of the young King Osred, in the fortress of Bamborough, but 
was repulsed, put to night, and slain. Bamborough is not many miles 
to the north of Alnmouth, and still nearer to it on the south-west is a 
place which may possibly bear his name, and mark the direction of his 
flight, Edlingham (formerly Eadulf ingham). If the probability be ad- 
mitted that the cross at Alnmouth marked the grave of this Eadulf, its 
date must be referred to the year 705. 

I may remark that of the two names inscribed on the broad faces of 
this monument, the former, "Myredeh," is undoubtedly Irish. 

The task I imposed upon myself of drawing the attention of the 
Society to the few remaining monuments of Anglo-Saxon antiquity, and 
pointing out their value, is now accomplished, however imperfectly ; and 
if what I have said shall serve to excite a deeper interest in these re- 
mains in the minds of any of the members, and stimulate them to far- 
ther research, my object will be gained. I have spared no pains to 
attain to accuracy in all that I have advanced, especially in the readings 
of the several inscriptions. Still I cannot expect that I have altogether 
escaped falling into errors, and whilst I hope that these may be cor- 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 187 

rected for the sake of truth, by those who may detect them, I may be 
excused expressing the desire that this may be done in the spirit of for- 
bearance, which is due from one to another by all who are liable to 
error. The assistance I have received in the course of my researches I 
have been careful to acknowledge, and I take this opportunity, in^con- 
clusion, to express my warmest thanks to all who have so assisted me 

for their courtesy and kindness. 

D. H. HAIGH. 

Erdington, Birmingham. 



APPENDIX. 

Proper names, or words entering into the composition of names, occurring in 
the earliest MS. of the Ecclesiastical History of Venerable Bede 
(Cambridge Public Library, K.k. 5. 16.), with their meaning as far 
as can le ascertained, shewing the variation of the latter from the 
earlier forms of the same words. 

It may be necessary to remark that as Venerable Bede wrote in 
Latin, the pronounciation of that language obliged him to make some 
variation from the true spelling of some of these names. "We find, for 
instance, in several words the use of the diphthong oi, viz. in Oidiluald, 
Oiddi, Discing, Loidis. There can be no doubt that the reason of this 
is, that the Latin i, being pronounced like the English e, he used the 
diphthong oi to express the sound of oe. 1 Oidil, then, is intended for 
Oedil, and this form occurs in the name of Oedilburga on the fragments 
of the cross at Hackness. Oiscing, also, is for Oescing, and Loidis for 
Loedis, which is very near the modem name Leeds. In the following 
table, then, I have no hesitation in substituting oe for oi wherever it 
occurs. 

Again, as the Latin language had no w, Bede was obliged to use u 
instead of it. I therefore take the same liberty in substituting w for u, 
wherever the latter, coming before a vowel, is used as a consonant. 

In the names of females, also, I have changed the Latin termination 
a into e, believing that no Saxon female name could end in a. 

My object being simply to illustrate the language of Northumbria in 
the eighth century, I take no notice of the foreign names which occur 
in this history. 

1 Properly speaking, neither oe, nor ae, ea, eo, were diphthongs in the Anglo-Saxon 
language, but vowels, each expressed by a single character in the Runic alphabet. 
The substitution of the Roman for the Runic alphabet rendered the introduction of 
diphthongs necessary to express these sounds. 



188 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



I have thought it better, in order to avoid the frequent repetition 
which a complete catalogue of the names, many of them very similar, 
would have occasioned, to give merely the elements of compound names, 
distinguishing the simple names from them by capitals. The following 
list then forms a little glossary of the language spoken in the seventh 
century, giving in parallel columns, 1. the ancient, 2. the more recent, 
forms, 3. the meaning, 4. names into the composition of which these 
words enter. I have added a few words from contemporary sources. 



Acca 

Ache 

Adda 

Addi 

Mtibe 

JEcci 



JEddi and (Eddi 
aedil and oedil 
selb and self 



JEsica 
seu and eu 



alch 

aid 

Anna 

ax 

bad 

badu 

Breda 

bald 

Baru 

Bass 

Bebbe 

Begu 

Beret 

berge 

bern 

Betti 

bil 

Bisi 

Blecca 

Bosa 

Bosel 

bot 

bregu 

brord 

burg 

caed 

Crclin 3 



ac an oak 

ace ache or pain 

ad a pile 

an adjective formed from the last 
ebbe ebb, reflux 

advantageous 
happy 



ebbe 

eacig 

ead 

eadig 

aethel 

lf 



eal 

ealh 

eald 





noble 
an elf 



an ash 
water 

all 

a hall 
old 



ar 


glory 


bad 


a pledge 


beado 


war 


beada 


a counsellor 


bald 


bold 


bearo 


a grove 


basu 


a scarlet cloak 


beaf 


a gadfly 


bfeh, beag, beah, 


a bracelet 


beh 




berht, bearht, 


bright 


beorht, briht 




beorh 


a hill 


beorn 


a prince 


beotig 
bil 


threatening 
an axe or sword 


bisig 


busy 


bleec 


black 


b6s 


a stable 


bosel 


a stable man 


bot 


a ransom 


brego 
brord 


a prince 
a sword 


burh 


a city 


ced 


a boat 


ceawl 


a basket 



JEdwini 

^dilberct 
lbflse 
wini 



JBlf- 



Laestingaeu, Her- 

uteu 
Alric 
Alchfrid 
Aldfrid 

Arwald 

Canebad 

Badudegn 

Baldbelm 
jEt Baruse 



Bercthun 

-ZEdilberge 
Bernwini 

Cynibil 



Bothelm 

Breguswid 

Wilbrord 

Cyniburg 

Csedmon 



and JElli. Probably these names are the same, and the latter the correct 
form, of which the former is a Latinized version, since it occurs in an account of St. 
Gregory's conversation relative to the slaves in the market at Rome. 

3 The West-Saxon form of this name is Ceaulin. 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



189 



csestir 

Cane 

Ceadda 

Cearl 

Cedd 

ceol, Ceola 

Ccefi 

coen, Coena 

cud, Cudda 

cwic 

cwcen 

cyni 

Deda 



drict 
dun 
Eabe, Eafa 4 



earcon 

earp 

caster 

Eata 

ecg 

ei 



Eolla 
eu 
fel 
felth 



for . 

ford 

forth 

frea 

fri 

frid 

frod 

fyrdi 

gar 

geb 

geld 

gils 

gneub 

gote 

gud 

P d 
hadu 

hsed, Hsede 
haeni 



ceaster 

czen 

ceod 

ceorl 

ced 

ceol 

caf 

c6ne 

cuth 

cwic 

cwen 

cyne 

d&ed 

thegn 

driht 

dun 

eaf 

can 

geap 

eorcen 

eorp 

eoster 

gat, geat, 

ecg 

1 S 

fel or el 

enge 

geol 

eoh 

fela 

feld 

flede 

f6r 

ford 

forth 

fre6 

another fo 

frith 

fr6d 

ford 

gar 

geaf 

geld 

gisel 

geneofe 

gote 

guth 

heatho 

had 8 

hean 



iat 



a city 

a pine 

a purse 

afreernan 

a boat 

a ship 

quick 

bold 

a friend 

quick 

a queen 

noble or royal 

an action 

a servant 

noble 

a hill 

strong 

one 

wide 

precious 

a troop 



a sword 
an island 



narrow 
merry 
a horse 
much 
afield 
a flood 
a journey 
a ford 
forward 
free 
of the last 

peace 
wise 
a ford 
a, spear 
a gift 



a pledge 
a neice 



war 
a song 
war 

condition 
poor 



Cseleacsestir 
Canebad 



Ceolfrid 

Cosnwalch 

Cudberct 

Cwichelm 

Cwoenburg 

Cyniberct 

Badudegn 
Dricthelm 
Wilfarsesdun 

Eanflsed 

Earconwald 

Earpwald 

Easterwini 

Ecgberct 
Cerotesei 



Eumer 6 
Felgeld 
Hajthfelth 



Oftfor 

Hreutford 

Fortheri 

"Wuscfrea 

Frigyd 

Herefrid 

Frodheri 

Twifyrdi 

Eadgar 

Gebmund 

Felgeld 



Canegneub 

Earcongote 

Gudfrid 

Eadgyd 

Hadulac 

Eadhaed 

Haenigils 



4 Eabe and Eafa I take to be the same word, of which the later form is Eoba, and 
the root of which I suppose to be an adjective eaf, strong or brave. This adjective 
does not appear in our glossaries, but the substantive derived from it does eafoth, 
strength. 

5 Yate (pr. yat) for gate is a provincialism in use in Yorkshire. 

6 Later names which seem to have the same element are Eoma3r and Eohric. 

7 FUde)jt6d)fi&d) are all derived from the past participle offaowan to flow. 

8 In later times we have Willihad, Wulfhad. 

2-B 



190 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



haleh 

ham 

hard 

he 

Heiu 

helm 

heri 

herut 

Hiddila 

Hild, hildi 

hkth 

hoch 

hreut 

hun 

hwa3t 

kyg 

iaru 

Imma* 

Immir* 

Ini 

irmia 

kc 

tech 



Lilla 
lycciJ 



mon 



heal 

ham 

heard, heord 

hea 

heg 

helm 

here 

heorot 

hyd 

hild 

hloth 

hoh 

hreod 

hun 

hwa3t 

hyge 

earh 



a corner, a bay 
a dwelling 
power 
high 

an enclosure 
a helmet 
an army 
a hart 



affection 

one who casts lots 

a heel 

a reed 

a staff 

quick 

mind 



Strenaeshalch 
Hruringahani 
Sighard 
Hewald 

Swidhelm 
Heriburg 
Heruteu 

Hildimser 

Hlotheri 

Clofeshoch 

Hreutford 

Hunwald 

Hwsetberct 

Hygbald 

laruman 



eormen 
laac 


great 
a song 


Inninburg 
Hadulac 


Ia3g 


a district or ter- 


Pa3gnalaech 




ritory 




ieoth, lioth 


a song 


Hildilid 


lei 


a scar 




licit 


a corpse 


Lyccidfelth 


masra 


great 


Hildima3r 


mon 


a man 


Csedmon 


mund 


a hand 


Gebmund 


noth 


bold 


Nothhelm 


I oht, or 


fear or reproach 




luht 


dawn 




uf 


a vulture 




oft 


often 


Oftfor 


6s 


a, hero 


Oswald 


t pada or 


a kite 




\ pad 


a tunic 




pseth 


a path 




peoht 


a Pict 


Pecthelm 


pocca, pochcha 


a poke, pouch 




reoc 


savage 


Racwulf 


red 


counsel 


Rsedfrid 


regen 
ric 


a prince 
dominion 


Regenheri 
Ricberct 


regol 


a law (? lawgiver} 





Both 
Octa 

Offa 
oft 

OS 

Padda 

Peada 

Penda 1 * 

pect 11 

Puch 

Putta 12 

rac 13 

rsed 

regen 

ric 

Ricule 

9 Modern German lied. 

10 This word seems to be identical with the root of pending and pening, a penny r 
and pund, a pound, and probably signifies "weight" or "weighed." 

11 This word occurs under the form peht in the name Pehtat in a Mercian charter 
of the seventh century ; and in the ninth century, under different forms, in such 
names as Peohthun and Piahtred. The Picts are called, in different MSS., Pehtas, 
Peahtas, Peohtas, Pihtas, Py1itas, names apparently identical with this word ; yei I 
think it. may possibly mean "craft" or "guile," equivalent to p&t. Paca is a 
deceiver, and ptecan to deceive. These generic names had a meaning. 

12 We have the word "pot;" can this be the meaning of Putta ? 

13 We have the word "rach" for a hound, 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 



191 



Sebbi 

sex 

sig 

stod 

stren, strenaes 

swef 14 

swid 

tat, Tate 

Tidi 

til 

tond 

torct 

trum 

Tunna 

twi 

Utta 

walch 

wald 

Werce 

wict 

wig 

Wini 

wise 

wit, Witta 

wiu 

Wuffa 

wulf 

wusc 

wyn 

thruid and thryd 



sea 

sibig 

seax 

sig 

stod, studu 

streone 

sweb or swef 

swith 

tat 

tidig 

til 

tond 

torht 

trum 

tun 

twf 

uta 

wealh 

wealda 

weorc 

Wiht 

wig 

wil 

wine 

wise 

wit 

woff 
wulf 
wosc 
wyn 
thrfth 



the sea 


Ssethryd 


peaceful 




a knife 


Sexburg 


victory 


Sigberct 


a staff 


Walchstod 


a, watch-tower 


Strenaeshalch 


sleep 


Swefred 


strong 


Swidhelm 


tender 


Tatfrid 


timely 




a husbandman 


Tilmoa 


thunder 


Tondberct 


bright 


Torctgyd 


strong 


Trumwini 


a town 


Tunberct 


two 


Mi Twifyrdi 


without 




a stranger 


Walchstod 


a ruler 


Waldheri 


work 




a wight, creature 


"Wictberct 


war 


Wighard 


good 


Wilbrord 


a friend 


Trumwini 


a princess 


Cynwise 


wise 


Witmser 


war 


Oswiu 


a brawler 




a wolf 


Sexwulf 


washed 


Wuscfrea 


Jy 


Wynfrid 


strength 


Thruidred,Th 



wulf 



Besides the variations above mentioned in the later from the earlier 
forms, the most remarkable which this list supplies is that we have 
noticed in the words beret, drict, pect, and wict. In later times the c 
was changed into h. Intermediate between these was the change of c 
into ch, of which we have an example on the Hartlepool tombstone 
Berchtgyd. This ch, afterwards changed into h, we have in the words 
alch, halch, and walch. Of one of these the Bewcastle monument gives 
us the earlier form in the name Alcfridce. In addition to the words 
above named, ending in u, afterwards changed into g or h. we have begu, 
hew, iaru, and wiu. Then we have a number of adjectives in i, addi, 
acci, ceddi, letti, lisi, ccefi, eni, h&ni, ini (?}, seUi, and tidi, which in 
later times would end in ig. 



POSTSCRIPT, 



Whilst these sheets were in the printer's hands, I have had an oppor- 
tunity of perusing Mr. Kemble's very interesting essay on Anglo-Saxon 
names, nicnames, and surnames ( Winchester Volume of the Archceologi- 



u Swef, like Pect, may be a national name, that of the Swefas or 



192 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

cal Institute, p. 81). He gives a list of the terminations of proper 
names, which may be rendered more complete by the addition of three 
or four to those of each gender, thus 

EXCLUSIVELY MASCULINE. 

Adjectives. Beald, Beorht, Fus, Hat, Heah, Heard, N6th, Ric. 
Substantives. Beam, Beorn, Gar, Geld, Had, Helm, Here, Hun, L&c, Laf, Man, Mod, 
Mund, Rsed, Sige, Stan, Weald, Wealh, "Weard, Wig, Wine, Thegn. 

EXCLUSIVELY FEMININE. 

Adjective. Swith. 
Substantives. Bad, Beorh, Burh, Flsed, Gyfu, Gyth, Hild, Run, Waru, Wen, Thrytlj. 

The frequent occurrence of the same prefix, in the names of members 
of the same family had often struck me, and I think his conjecture, 
accounting for it, a very satisfactory one. 

The word Tat, which I have ventured to translate " tender," should, 
according to Mr. Kemble, be replaced by a lost adjective (the corres- 
pondent of which, however, exists in Old German and Norse), tat, 
"pleasant." 

With respect to the names which Mr. Kemble regards as abbreviated, 
I cannot altogether agree with him. He has cited the following five 
instances in which a simple and a compound name, very much resembling 
each other, belonged to the same person, viz., Saba, Scelerct ; Toita, 
Torhthelm : Eda, Eadwine ; ^Eti, Eadsige ; and JEHe, JElfwine ; and a 
sixth, which is doubtful, Sicga. The number of instances given does 
not seem to me sufficient to establish a general rule, and when we con- 
sider the fondness of our ancestors for alliteration, it seems to me at 
least equally probable, that this influenced the giving of the second 
name to those who already bore the first. But the instances are far 
more numerous of those who had simple names entirely different from 
their compound names. If it be difficult in most instances, and impos- 
sible in some, to find out the meaning of these simple names, we must 
remember, that many words in use in early times probably became ob- 
solete ; that our glossary of Anglo-Saxon words is far from complete 
(for if we had only as many books in modern English as we have in 
Anglo-Saxon, it is not likely they would contain all the words that we 
know) ; that we have many words, in universal as well as in provincial 
use, of which the Anglo-Saxon forms are lost. Mr. Kemble' s discovery of 
the word ungcet in the Ruthwell inscriptions is but a sample of what 
might have been expected, had not the monuments of our early history 
been destroyed, as they have been. 

I believe that these simple names are the most ancient, that they be- 
long originally to periods beyond the reach of history. They prevail in 
the dawn of our annals, as the compounds do in their noon ; and it 
seems to me quite as probable that many of them were given from motives 
of association with the memory of persons who had gone before, (as 
Mr. Kemble supposes that the prefixes above alluded to, and the name 
Biscop, to him who was afterwards called Benedict, were), as that they 
were given on account of personal peculiarities. Thus in the eighth 
century, when almost all of the sovereigns of the Heptarchy bore com- 
pounded names, one of these simple names appears almost alone, and 



Dewabiny. 




THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 193 

that belonging to the most illustrious prince of his time, Offa. His 
name had been originally Winifrid, but he received that of Offa, in 
memory of one who had ruled over the Angles, his ancestors, before 
their coming into Britain ; a name which had been already borne by a 
King of the East Saxons, and perhaps for a similar reason, for he also 
counted an Offa among his ancestors. 

The example, above referred to, of the name of Biscop adopted from 
motives of association with the memory of one who is named in the 
genealogy of the princes of Lindsey, is confirmed by a well known fact. 
After he had founded his monastery of Wearmouth, a child of seven 
years old, destined to hand down his memory to all succeeding ages, 
was placed under his care. Whether that child were related to him or 
not, can it be considered a fanciful conjecture that the name of Baeda 
was given to him by way of compliment to the holy abbot, when we 
know that that was the name of the first Biscop' s father ? 

Again, in the genealogy of the Kings of Deira, Wyscfrea appears as 
the father of the first King Yffi, who was the grandfather of JEdwine. 
JEdwine, by his first wife Cwenburgh, had a son Osfrith, who again had 
a son Ifii, and by his second wife, JEthelbeorh, he had a son Wuscfrea. 
The etymology of the last name suggests a reference to baptism, yet it 
is evident that both Wuscfrea and Ifii, born about the same time, were 
named after their ancestors ; and this example teaches us, I think, not to 
be too hasty in supposing that names were given on account of personal 
peculiarities. 

Again, four holy brothers are conspicuous in the church history of 
the seventh century, Ceadda, Cedd, Cynibil, and Caelin. Eeferring to 
the genealogy of the West Saxon Kings, we find Ceadda, son of Cutha, 
son of Ceaulin, son of Cynric. Thus, of the four brothers, one has a 
name of which the prefix Cyne occurs in that of Cynric, and in those of 
two of his great-grandsons, Cynebald and Cynegils ; two, Ceadda 
and Csslin, have names identical with others in this line ; Cedd, 
the name of the fourth, is the first element in that of Caedwealha, the 
grandson of Ceadda. I)o not these names seem to suggest a probability 
that this family claimed kindred with the royal line of Wessex ; or, at 
any rate, that they were chosen with reference to those of the posterity 
of Cerdic ? Eeferring to this genealogy again, we read that Cynric had 
three sons, Ceaulin Cutha, and Cuthwulf; Ceaulin had two, Cutha 
and Cuthwine ; and Cuthwine again two, Cutha and Cynebald. Cutha 
(son of Cynric) had two, Ceol and Ceolwulf ; of whom the former was 
the father of Cynegils, and the latter of Cuthgils. Cuthwulf (son of 
Cynric) had a "son, Ceol. Thus, in three generations we have Cutha 
thrice, names compounded with it twice, Ceol twice and one name de- 
rived from it, and two names which have the prefix Cyne in common 
with that of the common ancestor, Cynric. Amongst the descendants 
of Eoppa, we find this succession, Ceolwulf, son of Cutha, son of Cuth- 
wine, King of Bernicia. When, then, and amongst the princes of 
Oswiu's court (" ex sodalilus regis" JEddi.J, we find another Cudda, 
which is the Northumbrian form of Cutha, afterwards Abbot of Lindis- 
farne, I cannot look upon Cutha or Cudda as an abbreviated name, but 
feel sure that they who bore it were called after some common ancestor. 



194 THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 

I will content myself with one example more. We have in the 
eighth century a curious coincidence. We have a King of Northum- 
bria, Eadberht, and his brother Ecgberht, Archbishop of York, the 
sons of Eata ; and contemporary with them we have a King of Kent, 
who, in an undoubted charter dated A.D. 741, called himself Eadbriht, 
surnamed Eating. Now as the latter was the son of Wihtraed, it seems 
to follow that Eata was an additional name of Wihtrsed, and his father 
was Ecgberht ; and I cannot help thinking that the occurrence of this 
name in two families, which were in no way connected, points to some 
hero of very remote antiquity, even to that Geata, who stands sixth 
above Wodin, the common ancestor of both. Its occurrence, too, in 
connection with Eadberht illustrates that fondness for alliteration 
which influenced our forefathers in the choice of names. Eata and J?ad, 
though similar, are not the same word ; and so I think there is no ne- 
cessity to suppose that JEti is an abbreviation of the name of Eadsige, 
who may also have been of this race, and have been called Eata. 
So also JElwine, Bishop of Lichfield, may have been called ^Elle from 
association with the memory of the father of King ^Edwine, who had a 
brother ^Elfric. Something of the same kind may have influenced the 
choice of the names Totta and Torhthelm, Saba and Saeberct. 

All names of this class I regard as of ancestral origin. I allude 
only to that peculiar class of names which Mr. Kemble is disposed 
to consider as abbreviations, Acca, Bceda, Becca, Beonna, Bugga, 
Bubla, Dudda, Dunna, Hecca, Lulla, Odda, Podda and Tudda ; of 
which some appear in the genealogies of the Anglo-Saxon kings ; others 
were in use at all periods of Anglo-Saxon history, and some, (in sur- 
names such as Bubb, Dodd, and Todd), have come down even to our 
times. Of some of these Mr. Kemble has given the meaning ; others in 
the above table, I have ventured to interpret, (perhaps not always cor- 
rectly) ; and of the rest there are two or three which seem susceptible of 
interpretation. Becca, for instance, means "a mattock"; Beonna, (spelt 
also Benna}, seems derived from ben "a prayer " ; Dudda fo? Dudj is from 
duth " a sound" ; and BuUa and VlAa y (like Utta in the above table) 
seem derived from prepositions lufa and ufa " above" ; and if the rest 
be unintelligible, I think a reason for it is to be found in the imperfec- 
tion of our glossaries. One name, Bucge, which Mr. Kemble has tran- 
slated, I should prefer to put back into the untranslateable class, (be- 
lieving that it had once a meaning which is now lost), than to give it 
the meaning which Mr. Kemble, not without some repugnance, has 
given to it ; for it was no uncommon name in the seventh and eighth 
centuries, born^, besides those whom he has instanced, by the princess 
Bugge, daughter of Centwine, King of the West-Saxons ; by the cele- 
brated abbess Bugge, the correspondent of St. Boniface ; as a surname 
by another lady, Heaburg (JEp. Bonif. xxx) ; and of course with the 
masculine termination a, by a priest (Ibid. xx). Lulla or Lul, another 
common name, is certainly not a nicname in the case of the illustrious 
successor of St. Boniface, for a letter to him by the abbot Hereca, 
(Ep. Bonif. cxii), calls to his remembrance how when he was a youth 
in the abbey of Malmesbury, the abbot Eaba gave him the name of 
Irtel, (which I suppose means " farmer " or "husbandman," though 
our glossaries do not give it). 



THE SAXON CROSS AT BEWCASTLE. 195 

Sicga and Sigefrith are not identical, for two charters (Cod. Dip. 
MI & MX) shew that the latter was Bishop of Selsey after Osa, about 
A.D. 774, about thirty years after Sicga, and his name must be added to 
the list of bishops of that see. 

Ccena is certainly a name of this class. It occurs in the list which 
Florence of Worcester gives of the Archbishops of York, yet the person 
who bore it was undoubtedly named JEthelberht, who, in Florence's 
history, the Saxon Chronicle, &c., is mentioned as the successor of 
Ecgberht, A.D. 766 to 781. It was, however, the name he used, and by 
which he was addressed, for we have two letters, one from him to Lul, 
the other from Lul to him, (Ep. Bonif. cxviii., and cxxi.), and it is 
hardly likely that he would have used, or have been addressed by, a 
nicname, in such a correspondence as this, especially one which can 
have no other meaning than "the bold one." I have no doubt it was 
his original name, conferred upon him with reference to that of some 
person whose memory was preserved in the traditions of that age, per- 
petuated in simple names, such as his and that of another, a female and 
probably a nun, Gene, who corresponded with St. Boniface (J&p. Bonif. 
xxxiv.), and in compound names such as Ccenwalch and Ccenrsed. 

Surnames or nicnames derived from personal peculiarities, our fore- 
fathers undoubtedly had, but I cannot consider these (if one or two be 
excepted) as belonging to that class. On the contrary, as I have said, 
I believe them to be very ancient names, more ancient than those which 
are compounded, which in some instances (as in that of Eadsige or 
jEelfwine) might give way to more dignified compound ones, but which 
in other instances (as in that of Off a) were assumed in their place on 
account of particular associations. 

D. H. H. 



*** I have alluded (p, 178) to churches which I believe to contain remains of 
the very buildings erected by St. "Wilfrid. It may be well to mention briefly the 
grounds of my belief. In a memoir which. I communicated to the Archaeological As- 
sociation at Winchester, in 1845, (printed in their Winchester volume), I proved that 
the tower of the church at Monk-Wearmouth must be a part of the building of St. 
Benedict Biscop. In the valley of the Tyne there are three churches, St. Andrew's, 
Ovingham, St. Peter's and St. Andrew's, Bywell, two of which have towers of the 
same type as that at Monk-Wearmouth. When we take into accounl the facts, that St. 
Wilfrid and St. Benedict were intimately acquainted, that both brought masons from 
abroad to build their churches, that St. Wilfrid's churches were dedicated to St. 
Peter and St. Andrew ; and that these churches are in a district where we know St. 
Wilfrid's influence prevailed; the resemblance between them, and that at Monk- 
Wearmouth, surely warrants the conjecture that they are St. Wilfrid's work, or at 
least of his time. Again, in the city of York there is a church, St. Mary, Bishophill 
Junior, with a tower of the same character as this at Monk-Wearmouth. This also I 
regard as St. Wilfrid's work, and as probably the very building for the erection of 
which, according to Eddi, four years of life were granted to him, A.D. 705. 



196 



INVENTARIUM OMNIUM BONOEIJM HTJGONIS EILII 

DE EICHEMUND l ET JULIANA UXOEIS STJJE, TEMPOKE 
MOB.TIS DICT^J JULIAN-2E, VIDELICET AD FESTUM ^ATIVITATIS SANCTI 
JOHANNIS BAPTISTS, ANNO DOMINI MILLESIMO TRECENTESIMO SEXTO- 
DECIMO. 

IN PEIMIS, in Granario et Grangia vj quarteria frumenti, precium quar- 
terii 24s. Summa hujus 71. 4s. iiij quarteria ordei, precium quartern 
13s. 4d. Summa 53s. 4d. ij quarteria pisarum, precium 26s. Sd. 
xv quarteria avenge, precium quartern 8s. Summa hujus 6?. ij boves, 
precium 26s. 8d. iiij plumba, j ossa aenea magna et alia minor cum 
quodam pocenet 2 et duabus patellis cum ceteris utensilibus domus, pre- 
cium omnium vasorum et utensilium 20s. Summa omnium premisso- 
rum, 19?. 10s. Sd. In pecunia numerata, 60?. In plumbo venali, 
20?. Summa 80?. ij acrae frumento seminatse, precium 13s. 4d. j acra 
ordei, precium 6s. iij acrae avense, precium 15s. Summa 34s. 4d. 
lELsEC STJNT DEBITA quae debebantur eisdem tempore supradicto. De 
AVarino de Quassington' 6?. De Eogero de Skytheby 40s. De . . . . de 
Herneby 40s. De Henrico de Crakepotes 13?. 6s. Sd. Summa debito- 
rum 23?. 6s. Sd. SUMMA TOTALIS hujus Inventarii cum debitis ut patet 
superius 124?. 11s .Sd. [Medietas quse est porcio defunetee 62?. 5s. 10^. 

De qua porcione deductis legatis et mortuario prout in summa 

8?. 19s., remanet pro residue relicto Sibillse filiee defunctas, 53?. 6s. 10<?.] 3 
LIBEEACIONES. De qua summa predicta. Eicardus de Huddeswell et 
Eogerus filius Johannis de Herneby execu tores testamenti dictse 

Julianse computant in cera empta pro luminar' circa corpus 

In distribucione pauperum die sepulturae dictae Julianas 60s. Fratribus 

Minoribus Eichemund Eichemund 2d. Clerico 

ejusdem 6d. Duodecim clericis psalteria sua dicentibus . . viduis vigil- 
antibus circa corpus per duas noctes, 2s. Petro filio dicta? Julianae 20s. 

Julianae filiae Willielmi Clargenet' 2s. Pueris Adae del 

Grene 13*? t' 4 de Eiehemund Is. Fabricae pontis Eichemund 

2s. Eabricse nd 6d. In factione luminis 6d. Clerico et 

precatori villae pro p et aliis laboribus suis 3d. Clerico officialis pro 

testamento probando 2s. Domino "Willielmo tune capellano parochiali 
Eichemund, pro labore suo ad capitulum circa probacionem dicti testa- 
menti 2s. Summa 7?. 18s. Id. EXPENSE FACTJE DIE SEPULTTJB^:. In 
pane et cervisia 16s. 4d. In pisce, allece et carnibus 9s. Summa 
25s. 4d. SUMMA omnium liberacionum et expensarum 9?. 3s. 5d. 

1 The Richmonds were ancestors of the Burghs and Lawsons of Brough Hall, near 
Catterick. The Inventory is from the archives of Sir William Lawson, Bart., of that 
seat. The numerals are all Roman in the original. 

2 A posnet or pipkin. 

3 The portion in brackets is added in a smaller hand, and does not quite agree with 
the figures of the sequel. 

4 Anchoretse r 



197 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 

A MEMOIR of the second Sir Francis Radclyffe, of Dilston, was recently 
laid before the members of the Society by Mr. Longstaffe. They are 
now presented with a short biography of Sir Edward Radclyffe, his 
father. For the greater part of the documentary evidence which leavens 
the narrative, the Society is again indebted to the courtesy of its 
treasurer, John Fenwick, Esq., F.S.A. 

Sir Edward Radclyffe, the second baronet of the house of Dilston, was 
the second son and the sixth child of Sir Francis Radclyffe, of Derwent- 
water. He was born on the 1st of June, 1589. His mother was Isa- 
bel, a daughter of Sir Ralph Grey, of Chillingham, the gallant head of 
one of the most illustrious of the Northumbrian families. This alliance 
brought the Radclyffes into a close connection with the gentry of North- 
umberland, and probably induced the main line of that house to migrate 
from its wild home in Cumberland to the grey towers of Dilston. Here, 
on the banks of the Devilswater, near the fortalice of their ancestress, 
they reared for themselves a stately mansion, in which they continued 
to abide. The Lord's Island, on the fair lake of Derwentwater, was 
given up to a younger branch, and, with it, soon fell into decay. The 
Church of Crosthwaite is still filled with the monuments of the family, 
but none of the Radclyffes of Dilston are interred with their forefathers 
within its walls. 

Edward Radclyffe, the subject of this memoir, by the decease of his 
elder brother in his infancy, became heir-apparent to the estates and 
honours of his ancient house. Of his education and early life we are in 
complete ignorance. In those times it was generally the custom among 
the Roman Catholic gentry to bring up their families in the privacy of 
their own homes. Here there was frequently in residence some priest, 
himself, perchance, the portionless scion of some respectable family, who 
held the double office of chaplain to the household and tutor to the 
children of his patron. To his care the education of the younger mem- 

2c 



198 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTW. 

bers of the family was consigned, and they grew up under his tutelage 
thoroughly imbued with the principles of their religion, and devotedly 
submissive to their parents, but entirely unacquainted with the manners 
and customs of the world around them. The younger son, indeed, 
who was destined to preach the religion which he professed, was usually 
sent to Douay, or to some other continental seminary, but his elder 
brother was rarely permitted to accompany him, and they often separated 
to see each other no more. 

Sir Francis Radclyffe died in 1622, and was succeeded in his baro- 
netcy and estates by Edward his eldest surviving son. Upon his father's 
decease, Sir Edward, in accordance with the heraldic etiquette of the 
day, ought to have notified that event to the College of Arms in London. 
This duty he had neglected to perform, and after the lapse of more than 
sixteen years he was reminded of his omission by an officer of the col- 
lege. 1 In obedience to his summons, Sir Edward sends in the following 
certificate. 

THE CERTIFICATE of Sir Edward Radclyffe, Baronet, son and heire of 
Sir Francis Radclyffe of Dilston in the County of Northum- 
berland deceased, to the office of Armes neare Panics Chaine in 
London etc. 
Imprimis : the said S r Francis Radclyffe was marryed to Isabell, 

daughter of S r Ralph Gray, of Chillingham, in Comitatu predicto, about 

the 18th yeare of the late Queene Elizabeth, etc. 

2. He had issue by his said wife 6 sonns and 7 daughters, 2 vizt. 
Thomas, who died an infant ; Edward (now livinge) ; Francis, who 
died younge ; John, 3 Francis, and Cuthbert. Mary, Margaret, Elizabeth, 
Katheran, Dorothy, Annan, Janie. 

3. The paternal coate of the said S r Francis Radclyffe is a bend in- 
gralled Sabell, in a field Argent, etc. 

1 The summons of the officer runs as follows : 

" COM. NORTHUMBERLAND. Sir Edward Radclyffe. You are to retume a certifi- 
cate to the Office of Armes, neare Paule chaine, in London, of the death, marriage, 
issue, armes, and place of buriall of Sir Francis Radclyffe, Baronet, deceased, accord- 
inge to the order constituted in that behalfe, before the 3th day of February next, or a 
monition will be awarded against you in the Earle Marshalls Court. Dated the 14th 
day of January, Anno Domini 1638. JOHN NEWTON, Deputatus pro officio Armorum." 

2 From some memoranda, preserved among the muniments at Greenwich Hospital, 
I am enabled to give the birthdays of these children. Mary was born 1 June, 1582 ; 
Margaret, 13 January, 1583-4; Elizabeth, 17 August, 1585; Thomas, 24 February, 
1586-7; Catharine, 14 April, 1588; Edward, June 1, 1589; Francis, 8 September, 
1590 ; John, 27 October, 1591 ; Dorothy, January 1, 1592-3 ; Anne, 12 August, 
1594; Jane, 17 November, 1595; Frances, 10 March, 1599-1600; Cuthbert, 18 
September, 1603. 

3 John Radcliffe, of Corbridge, gent., makes his will, November 9, 1669, desiring 
to be buried in Corbridge Church. To Isabell his wife, who is the residuary legatee 
and executrix, he leaves a life annuity of ISl. and the boat at Corbridge. After her 
death, all his lands and estate are to be divided between his three sons, John, Edward, 
and Francis. 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTo.N. 199 

4. He died the 23th day of December, Anno Domini 1622, etc. 

5. He was buried at his parish church, called Corbridge Church, in the 
said County of Northumberland, etc. 

His armes and issue will more at large appeare by his pedegree made 
Anno Domini 1618, under the proper hand of S r Bi. St. George, Norroy, 
late Kinge of Armes. EDWARD BADCLYFFE. 

Dilston, 16 January, 1638. 

Although Sir Edward complied with the demand of the officer, he 
seems to have been surprized at the request, and still more astonished 
at the succession fee which was required by the heralds. He, there- 
fore, cautiously encloses his certificate in a letter to some friend or kins- 
man of his in London, begging him to make the necessary enquiries into 
the legality of the demand. I give his letter. 

Thomas, Yeasterday there came to my house one EdwardBeale, gent., 
an Attorney in Yorke, who hath a deputacion under scale from one M r 
Newton, deputy for the Office of Armes, as by this inclosed coppes which 
he served of mee yow may better understand. Hee demands not onely 
a Certificate from mee, which I send you here inclosed, but especially 
hee would have mee to give him a very large fee, dew uppon the death 
of my father, as hee affirms, to the Harrolds, by vertue of an order made 
by the Lords of the Marshalls Courte in February xvth of kinge James, 
vizt. every Baronet twentty markes, every Knight Wl. etc. I am in- 
formed that he was att the Sessions at Morpeth amongst other gent: but 
I heare not of any that pays him, beeing a matter not herd of in this 
County formerly makes all of [us] unwilling to give him any thinge, 
because hee demands so much, wherefore I desyre you for my better 
satisfac'on that presently uppon the receipt hereof you repaire to the 
said Office of Armes there ; informe yourselfe as particularly as you can 
what fee I and others in this kinde must or ought to pay, for now I am 
onely required to make my certificate, which I send you inclosed, re- 
quireing you to deliver it into the said Office, which I doe for preventing 
any advantage that might be alledged against mee in sitting contempts 
of that Courte. I pray informe yourselfe as well as possibly you can 
what is to bee done herein, and speake with S r Henry St. George, kt. 
now kinge of Armes for the North telling him that what shall appeare 
to bee dew and right I shal bee as willing as others of my quality. But 
the some demanded is too lardge. I have promised the said Mr Beale 
my answer to his demand before the next terme, so I desyre a satisfac- 
tory answer from yow at your coming home, and in the interim rest 

Your loving frend, 
Dilston, 16 Jan., 1638. EDWARD BADCLYFFE. 

Informe yourself of others as well as of the Harrolds what fees are 
paid in this kind. 

Sir Edward's messenger seems to have carried this letter down with 
him to the College of Arms. He there obtained the opinion of Henry 



200 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 

St. George, Nbrroy, 4 in support of the claim made by the heralds. As 
St. George had been holding visitations in the North, Sir Edward was 
perhaps acquainted with him, and in deference to his high authority, 
the fee was probably paid without farther controversy. 

When Sir Edward succeeded to the family estates there was no comfort- 
able residence at Dilston to receive him. Part of the ancient mansion of 
his forefathers was being enlarged, and a new and a statelier edifice was 
rising near it. Several months before his father died he had entered 
into an agreement with a Yorkshire contractor, 5 and the house which 
that person had pledged himself to erect, was not completed at the death 
of Sir Francis Radclyffe. This contract is still preserved, and as some of 
my readers, perhaps, will be curious to know the manner, as well as the 
terms, on which our Jacobean mansions were erected, I place it before 
them, abridged only by the omission of purely legal technicalities. 
Documents of this kind do not frequently occur, and of the architecture 
of this period we, unfortunately, know too little. 

Artickles of an Agreement Indented, made, fyc., the second day of Jan- 
uary r , in the nyntenth yeare of the reigne of our Soverigne lorde 
James, fyc., 1621. Betwixt Edward Radclyffe, of Devilston, 
within the Countye of Northumberland, Esquire, of the' one par tie, 
and John Johnson, of Lytle Langton, of th' other partie. 

FIRST yt is covenanted . . that he the said John Johnson, his heires &c. 
shall before the feaste of St. Michael! the Archangell next ensuinge the 
daythearof, at his owne proper costes and chardges, well and suffyceynt- 
lie erecte, make, and build . . at Devilston aforesaid a parte of the house 
wherin Sir Frauncis Radcliffe Barronet now dwelleth, of thre stories 
heighe, of good and suffycyent free stone and other stone of the best he 
can or may convenientlie gytt, within one myle next to the same house 
accordinge to the plottes therof maid, bearinge dayt of these presents and 
subscribed with the hand of the said John Johnson, in forme in effecte 
followinge, viz. 

In the first and lowest storye six stone doores, wherof two of them 
muste stand in the porch which is to be wrought with mouldinge and 
the rest playne ; also two chimneys in the same storye for the kytchinge 
and fower wyndowes, with fower leightes in every wyndowe on the 

4 " Sir. The fee demanded for takinge a Certificate after the death of your father 
Sir Francis Ratcliff, beinge a Baronett, is 131. 6*. 8d. of which we can make no 
abatement. In testimony whereof I have subscribed my name. 

HEN. ST. GEORGE, Norroy. 

Every Gent., 31. 6s. Sd. ; Esquire, 61. 13. 4<f. ; Knight, 101. ; Baronett, 13/. 6*. 
Sd. ; Baron, 251. ; Bishop, 251. ; Viscount. 301. ; Earle, 351. ; Marques, 40*. ; Duke, 
451. ; Archbishop, 45. 

5 Some alterations had been made by Sir Edward's father, for on a stone gateway, 
to the south of the old castle, are the initials of the names of Sir Francis and his lady 
F. R. I. R. 1616. 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 201 

foresyde, and two wyndowes with two leightes in eyther wyndowe and 
two wyndowes with thre leightes for either wyndowe on the backsyde, 
with suffycyent tables over every of the said wyndowes suflycyently and 
well wrought, and to be of three foote heighe of cleare leight, and fiftene 
inches in breadth ; all the walles of the same storye to be perfectly 
walled according to the length and breadth of the same plott, and to 
conteyne in breadth three foote and about three yeardes in height to the 
first flower. Also one payre of stone stares to the height of the hall 
flower, And one payre of round stares to the lowe roome at the east end 
of the court ; And to build and bringe upp the porch with hewen stone 
and fower pillers to the height of the first storie. 

The second story the walles thereof to be two foote and a halfe in 
thicknes with the porch of hewen stone; And a windowe of nyne 
leightes transomd, and fower more with fower leightes wyndowes tran- 
somd, with tables over the same ; Also fyve windowes of thre leightes 
transomd, and two of two leightes untransomed, three foote in height, 
all of these to be likewise tabled ; alsoe thre hewen stone chimnes, two 
hewen stone doores in the same storye. 

The wall of the thirde story to be two foote in thicknes to the full 
height of the wall of the ould house whereon yt must adjoyne with the 
hewen porch, and a windowe of nyne leightes untransomed and thre fote 
of cleare leight ; Also fower more of fower leightes untransomd on the 
same height and on the foresyde, and fyve three leight wyndowes on 
the backsyde, and of the same height with all their tables, thre chimnes 
of hewen stone in the same storye ; Alsoe a batlement of stone called 
vent and creaste over the porch and turrett of the same story, toge- 
ther with sufficyent fynnells for the corners of the same house. 

And that all the walls of the same house be well wrought with 
lyme well tempered with sand, and all thinges necessary for the 
same. 

In consideracion wherof the said Edward Eadcliife doth . . covenante 
. .that he the said Edward Eadcliffe. .shall at th'endof every moneth 
next after the begynnynge of the said recyted worke by the said John 
Johnson as aforesaid untill the said feaste of St. Michael th'arkangell 
next, well and trewlie content and pay . . unto the said John Johnson . . 
twentie pounds . . or more or lesse, at the seight of indeferent persons, 
ratably, as the said John Johnson . . shall have deserved the same in for- 
wardnes in performinge of his said bargaine . . until! the sume of two 
hundred and fyve pounds be paid. And yf any parte of the said sume of 
two hundred and fyve pounds shalbe behinde and unpaid at the said 
feast of St. Michael th'arkangell next, then the said Edward or his 
assignes shall well and trewlie pay. .the remainder, .at the finishinge 
and final endinge of all the covenantes before specyfied on the partie of 
the said John Johnson to be performed. And likewise graunteth hearby 
full licence and authory tie for the said John Johnson . . to digg, sincke, 
and wynn quarries of stone, and to hewe and dresse the same upon or 
in any parte or parcell of his parke at Devilstone . . And . . to lead and 
carry the same the most conveniente waye and waies. .for the finishing 
and buildinge of the said newe house. And that the said Edward Kad- 
cliffe . . shall bringe unto the said newe worke . . sufficyent tymber and 



202 SIR EDWARD IUDCLYFFE, OF DILSTOX. 

fleakes 6 for scaifoldinge in and about the said workes, and cause such 
suffy event number and quantitie of coles to be carried and conveyed unto 
such kills as the said John Johnson or his assignes shall build for burn- 
inge of lyme to erecte the said new house as the said John Johnson shall 
buy and pay for at Whittingstall pittes and mynes. And shall find and 
allowe unto him the said John suffycyent wood for him the said John 
Johnson to burne in and about the said lyme kylls. .at all tymes 
duringe the continuance of the buildinge of the said newe house. 

In witnesse wherof the parties first above named to these presents 
have put ther handes and scales interchaunably the day and yeare above 
written. JOHN JOHNSON (L.S.J Sealed signed and delivered in the 
presence of these, FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, JOHN RADLIFFE, THO. WAISIEY, 
WILL'M HUDSPETH, JAMES YARD, GEORGE AYDON. 

[_In dorso.~\ Memorandum, That Mr. Edward Radclyffe within named 
ys to find and wynn all the walling stones to be used in and about the 
buildinge of the new house, and I John Johnson within named am to 
lead the same. JOHN JOHNSON. 

Memorandum. Paid to the within named John Johnson, in parte of 
the summe of 205?. within written, just 144Z. this 24th day of Julye, 
anno Domini 1622. E. R. Moore paide to the abovenamed John Johnson 
this 5 of October 1622, 41 18s. 6d. in full paiment of 205/. E. R. 

In this mansion its builder lived and died. It was incorporated with 
the large additions made by the second Sir Francis, and for nearly 
a century and a half formed part of the principal residence of the family 
of Radclyffe. From the gates of that residence Sir Edward's unfortunate 
descendant rode forth on his ill-starred enterprize ; and after his exe- 
cution his remains were brought down from London in haste and secrecy 
to be interred in the little chapel within its walls. In that humble, 
though wished-for resting place he is still sleeping, but his " pleasant 
Dilston Hall" is no longer there. The greater part of it was removed 
in 1768 to make room for a plainer and less striking edifice so anxious 
were the new lords of Dilston to banish the house of Radclyffe from 
the recollections of the peasantry, and to destroy the temple of their idol. 

6 A fleak is, generally speaking, a hurdle. In 1401 the contractor for the new 
dormitory at Durham was bound to provide for his work " scaffolds, seyntres, ct fakes." 
(Hist. Dunelm. Scriptores Tres. App. p. 188.^ In 1486-7 the monks of Finchale pay 
42*. " pro factura, lez fakes, lez stakez, et acquisicione ramalium ac fodicione turbarum, 
ac factura le were pro reparacione stagni molendini de Fynkhall." (Lib. Finchale. 
App. p. 375.^ The remains of this mill and thefaaks may still be seen in the Wear 
at Finchale. Thefaaks are large, rudely shaped oak trees, fastened down in the water 
with iron cramps, hurdle-wise, and pinned down with large coble stones in the inter- 
stices. 

In later times, in Yorkshire and elsewhere, a faak was a hurdle, suspended hori- 
zontally, a foot or two from the top of a room. I have seen it frequently. It gener- 
ally bears the cheese, bacon, &c., of the household. In 1609-10 Sir John Conyers 
had in his apple-house at Sockburne, " 1 faake hanging." Farther information about 
this word may be gained by consulting Mr. Way's excellent edition of the Prompt. 
Parv. p. 165, and Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, snb voce fatik. 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 203 

As soon as his mansion was erected, Sir Edward, with a praiseworthy 
diligence, began to turn his attention to his estates. In them he had a 
goodly inheritance. The heiresses of Derwentwater and Cartington 
had brought to the house of Radclyffe a noble dower of -broad lands and 
streams and towers. Their descendants had husbanded and improved 
their possessions with scrupulous care, and when Sir Edward became 
the owner of the estates, he found himself, comparatively speaking, a 
wealthy man. To add to his domains was now his chief ambition. An 
alliance with the wealthy heiress of the house of Barton, of Whenby, 
brought with it a great estate in Yorkshire In October, 1629, he 
acquired the manor of Alston from Henry Hilton, Esq., the Melancholy 
Baron, paying for it 2,500?. ; and, in the spring of 1632, he purchased 
the extensive barony of Langley, for a very large sum, from the Earl of 
Annandale. 7 

Sir Edward was now in the height of his prosperity. He had added 
largely to his inheritance. He had children to whom he could leave 
his wealth, and he had secured for his family a high position among 
the gentry of Northumberland. He was himself in the prime of life, 
and the favourite of fortune. What could he wish for more ! Alas, a 
cloud was even now beginning to gather over his head which was 
to overshadow the remainder of his days, and to turn his gladness into 
sorrow ! Sorrows, also, too frequently " come not single spies." 

The first check to Sir Edward's prosperity was a claim laid by the 
Earl of Northumberland, in 1635, to certain portions of his estate in the 
neighbourhood of Dilston, viz., Dunston "Wood, Middridge, Dilston 
Eales, and the common of pasture on the south bank of the Tyne be- 
longing to Corbridge and Dilston. 8 Sir Edward, in answer to this de- 
mand, endeavoured to establish his title by prescription as well as by 
documentary evidence. Whether his replication was deemed sufficient 
or not, we have at present no means of ascertaining ; but we may be 
sure that the suit would cause him considerable anxiety and no small 
expense. 

The next blow which fell upon Sir Edward was the ban of ecclesias- 
tical censure. Like the rest of his family, he was devotedly attached to 
the Roman Catholic religion, a faith which was then regarded with 

7 On the 26th of September, 1632, Sir Edward writes from Dilston to Elizabeth 
Countess of Annandale, saying that in Easter term last he had purchased the barony 
of Langley from the Earl of Annandale for a very large sum of money. He wishes 
to know if her jointure depends upon his new estate. 

8 The bill was put in by Richard Lambert, of Corbridge, clerk, and Martin Fen- 
wick, gen., on behalf of the Earl of Northumberland. Sir Edward put in his answer 
on the 22nd of November. With reference to Dunston Wood he exhibited deeds 
confirming the same to his ancestors, made by the Percies 300 years before. 



204 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON, 

suspicion by the State, and subjected to many harsh and intolerant sta- 
tutes. The Reformation was by no means an acceptable change to the 
people of the North, and their dislike to it was unmistakeably evinced 
by more than one insurrection. These repeated outbreaks caused no 
little alarm to the executive, and an ecclesiastical tribunal, called the 
Council for the North Parts, was established at York, to hold the tur- 
bulent in check, and to enforce, as far as they could, conformity to the 
Protestant religion. This powerful body, which could number among 
its members many of the nobles and gentlemen of the North, soon rose 
into importance. In the reign of James I., when intolerance was ram- 
pant, so many cases were submitted to the decision of this tribunal, 
that it was found necessary to establish a second court at Durham. 
Before it, in 1639, Sir Edward was summoned to appear. He was 
charged with suffering his children to be baptized, if they were bap- 
tized at all, by an unlawful minister. To this charge Sir Edward 
pleaded guilty, acknowledging that two of his children had been bap- 
tized at his own house at Dilston. He stated that he was ignorant of 
the law, but the members of the Council adhered to the old maxim, 
" ignorantia legis non excusat," and the culprit was fined 100. for 
each offence. Sir Edward was inclined to appeal against their decision, 
and placed his case in the hands of Dr. George Riddell, who had prac- 
tised with great success in the court in which his client had been pun- 
ished. Riddell, however, advised him to sue for a mitigation of his 
sentence and not to impeach its validity, stating at the same time his 
conviction, that, if the case had been in other hands, the result might 
have been a very different one. "You have foyled your businesse by 
want of advice at the first." 

A heavier trouble than this was now at hand a trouble which was 
the ruin of many a gallant honse. The time was come when the Great 
Rebellion broke out, and the aid of every loyal subject was demanded by 
his king. To this appeal the gentry of Northumberland lent a ready 
ear. Sir Edward Radclyffe, with his two sons in law, Sir William Fen- 
wick and Wm. Tunstall, were stout supporters of King Charles. Many 
of Sir Edward's friends and kinsmen adopted the same cause. The 
Carnabies, the Erringtons, the Swinburnes, the Claverings, and the 
Lawsons, were all in arms. Many a gallant cavalier rode to join the 
royal standard from Northumberland, and many left their homes to re- 
visit them no more. There is no evidence to shew that the good knight 
of Dilston actually took the field ; but, if we judge from the disasters that 
befel him, we have good reason for believing that he gave very valuable 
assistance to the royalists. In 1642 he was obliged, from the necessities 
of the times, to borrow 1200/. from his wife, and he also prevailed upon 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 205 

her, for the saving of his inheritance, to pass away her estates in York- 
shire. We cannot but suppose too that he suffered from the depreda- 
tions of the Scottish army when it advanced into England. The village 
of Newburn, the scene of a sharp combat between the Royalists and the 
Scots, is situated at no great distance from Hexham, and Dilston, the 
chief residence of so distinguished a Eoyalist as Sir Edward, would hardly 
escape a visit from the marauders. But the worst, unfortunately, was 
still to come. By an act of Parliament passed on the 4th of August, 
1652, all his vast estates were declared to be forfeited, and were ordered 
to be sold for the use of the English navy. Nor were his sons-in-law 
more fortunate. The broad lands of Sir "William Fenwiek, of Meldon, 
were confiscated for the purposes of the state in the same year, and 
Marmaduke Tunstall, of Wycliffe, Esq., was compelled to redeem his 
ancient inheritance from the clutches of the Commonwealth by the pay- 
ment of the large sum of 1,788. 16s. Sd., the heaviest fine in ready 
money that was inflicted in the North Riding of the County of York. 

Sir Edward was now literally reduced to beggary. His estates were 
gone, and he was almost penniless. The cause for which he and his 
sons had spent their treasure and hazarded their lives had been an unsuc- 
cessful one. Old age was coming upon him, and poverty was investing 
it with new horrors. Well might he mourn in silence over the past, 
and look forward to the future with no hopeful eye. And when that 
day, so long wished for, so long expected, did arrive, when the rightful 
monarch was restored to his throne, it found Sir Edward Radclyffe a 
broken down old man in the 71st year of his age. His estates were in- 
deed restored to him, but they were restored to a man whose head " was 
white with the blossoms of the grave." 

Three years before this restoration took place, Sir Edward had made 
his will, in which he mad his peace with God and the world. As this 
interesting document throws no little light upon his religious feelings, 
and gives us some insight into the trials which had assailed him, I am 
tempted to place it before my readers entire. 

IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. I, Sir Edward Radcliffe, of Dilston, in 
the County of Northumberland, Baronet, beeinge at this present in per- 
fect health and memorye, (thankes be to God), and well knowing the 
certainty of death, and the uncertainety of the time, place, and manner 
thereof; as also greatly feareinge that if it shal please God to call me 
sodainlie out of this transitorie life, when I shall least expect it, that by 
reason thereof those to whom I am most bound in charitie and nature 
to doe for, might be lefte altogether unprovided for, or at least uncer- 
taine what meanes everie of them might or should expect, which neg- 
lect would be a great charge to my soule, when I shall make my ac- 
compt to God in the next life, and not little occasion of questions and 

2D 



206 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTOX. 

jarres amongst my nearest frends. THEREFORE, by his grace and assist- 
ance, I shall now instantlie doe what is in my power to prevent the 
same by makeinge this my last will and testament in forme following. 
FIRST, I doe give and bequeath my soule into the hands of the most 
Holie and Indivisible Trinitie, God the Father, God the Son, and God 
the Holye Ghost, one Almighty God and three Persons, beleeveing and 
hopeinge assuredly and undoubtedly by and through the death and pas- 
sion of my sweet Saviour Jesus Christ to be saved ; the meritts of whose 
passion I doe beleve to be applyed unto me by his sacraments as institu- 
ted and ordained by himselfe and lefte in our mother his holie Catholique 
and Apostolique Romane Church, and I a true member thereof, united 
to that head, hopeth by his grace to be capable of the benefitts of that 
Church which is, and must be, to the end of the world the onely saveing 
Church, so that for the better obtaineinge thereof I doe in respect of my 
unworthyness earnestly and humbly entreate and crave the intercession 
of my Patroness, the Blessed and Glorious Virgin Marye, the Mother of 
God, with my Patronesses St. Marie Magdalen, St. Katherine of Syenna, 
and St. Katherine of Alexandria, and my holie Patron St. Edward 
Kinge and Confessor, with all the triumphant Church of Angells and 
Saints in Heaven, together with the prayers of his true militant Church 
in earth, and my bodie to be buryed in my Chappie at Dilston, if I die 
in this Countie, which I will and desire, as my father did, who I hope 
is with God, be dedicated to the service of God in honnour of our bles- 
sed Ladie the mother of God. 9 EDWARD RADCLYPEE, 1657. 

FIRST, I will and disire and by this my last "Will and Testement doe 
declare that Dame Elizabeth my wife shall, during her life naturall, 
have and quietly houlde my Manor of Dillston, with all the other 
manors and lands to her by me assigned, limited and particularly nom- 
inated in a stayte 10 by me made in the year of God 1638, and lawfully 

9 The preamble is in a different hand, and has been pasted on to the will which is 
in the handwriting of the testator. It had probably been prepared for Sir Edward by 
his confessor and kept in readiness for any emergency. 

10 A state or an estate is equivalent to a settlement. To estate is to settle or en- 
tail. In the Richmondshire wills, p. 29, 30, is a will of Thomas Walker, of Bedale, 
dated in 1542-3, in which he leaves money for an obit and for the guilds at Bedale 
" and the covenauntez of the said lande to remayng to myn executores, and the xxiiij 
to gaive a stait in it, to the use of the said will." In the Ecclesiastical Proceedings 
in the Court at Durham in 1624, it is said that " Richard Hilton, about 27 years ago, 
sold a parcell of ground in Bellerby, which he had bought and estated upon his son." 
Shakespere also uses the word, as in As You Like It, Act V. Sc. II., he says " For 
my father's house, and all the revenue that was old Sir Rowland's, will I estate upon 
you." 

The word occurs both as a noun and a verb in the marriage articles of Sir William 
Fenwick and Elizabeth Radclyffe referred to hereafter. " Shall state all his lands. . 
To the onely use of the said Sir William Fenwick " [in special tail male] " The said 
states or assurances to be made, &c." 

The lay reader will perhaps allow me to remind him that, in law, an estate is not 
the land, but the title or interest in fee or tail, for life or years, which a man has in it. 
In the above cited order to the Bedale Four and Twenty to create an estate, the noun 
is used in that sense. The verb as used above signifies " to create or convey 
an estate"; but the noun in the Fenwick settlement and Sir Edward's will is ano- 
malous and confusing ; it means " the instrument by which an estate is conveyed or 
created." 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 207 

executed, as by the writings and indenture therof under my proper 
hand and seale at armes will more at large appear, which stayte cannot 
nor ought not to be questoned by my heaire, for that I was then abso- 
lutlye seased in fee semple and had the same drawen by learned Counsell 
accordinge to the Lawes of England, and senc pleaded, and allowed be- 
fore the Commissaners for obstrucktions at Worster-House, An. Do. 1653, 
as maye at large appeare by the entre therof at Drury House by the ap- 
poyntment of the Trustees for saile of Lands and Estates, etc., dated 
June the xith the said yeare, 1653. And in the same stayte is the 
severall portions of my daughters charged upon several! lands, everye 
of them not yet maryed, one thousand and five hundred pounds, I 
meane my four daughters that are not yet prefered in maradge, or other- 
wais, namely, Margret, Dorothy, Ann, and Barbary ; for two of them, 
namely, Clare, and TJrsalye, my son, Francis Radclyffe, hath entred 
securyty for their portion monys at their request, with which they weare 
well contented, all which he faithfully promised me well and truly to 
paie to everye of his sisters above named, which I charge him to doe 
and performe faithfully to the best of his powre as he will answere me 
before the Allmightie (I meane shuch of them as I have not paide in 
my life tyme), and then the lands are to be absolutly discharged of the 
portions limited to the saide Clare and TJrsalye and not otherwayes ; the 
said portions was allso pleaded and allowed to them at Worster-House 
aforesaide at the same tyme in shuch sorte as is above declared, therfore 
not to be quistaned, beinge their undoubted right and childs portions, 
which God forbid any shoulde attempte to defraude them of, but con- 
trarywise to rease the monys upon the Lands charged with all speade, 
accordinge to my intencion who purchased moore then three parts of the 
whole estayte, theirfore both in reason, concienc, and gratitude, the 
heaire ought to be charged, for yf theis lamentable tymes had not so 
extremly disabeled me, I had undoubtedly freede my heare of all these 
paymens as well as of his two maryed sisters, but God's will be dun 
now and at all tymes. I doe allso by this my last will declare and 
make knowen to all men, that wheareas by five severall deads indented 
bearinge date the first daie of March, An. Do., 1648, their is lemited 
severall manors, granges, lands, and tenements particulerly to six of my 
daughters above named for the tearme of one hundred or ninety-nine 
years for better secureing of the saide portions, beinge the same lands 
in the saide indenture or stayte by me made mensaned, dated An. 1638, 
which was by me dun for the better decleringe the tru meaninge of the 
saide Indenture of uses for and concerninge my saide daughters por- 
cions, and their is a proviso in every of the saide five indentures of the 
first of March, 1648, that yf the said Sir Edward Radclyffe should at 
any tyme intende to alter or make voide the saide deedes of demise, and 
declare so much in writinge before two witnesses, that then the saide 
deade or deads of demise and tearme of years shall be voyd and of no 
effecte. And I, the saide Sir Edward Radclyffe, is now determaned 
and mynded to revoucke and alter the same, and doe by these presents 
make voyde and of no effecte all and every of the saide five demised 
leases which is of the date of the first of March, 1648, above mensaned, 
accordinge to the power therin to me reserved, and for other good and 
lawfull consederations. 



208 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 

AND FURTHERMORE, I, the saide Sir Edward Radclyffe, doe by these 
presents give, grant, assigne, and set over, to Dame Elizabeth my saide 
wife, all my rent-charges, fee farm rents, and all other rents of that 
naime as I have or ought to have out of other mens lands within the 
Commen-welth or realme of England, ether with clause or without 
clause of redemption, as by the writings of every of them maye appeare, 
as well shuch free, or fee farme rents, as came to me from my ansistors> 
of all which I stand seased in fee-semple, as of all other rents of that 
nature, purchased by my selfe, and allso all that my rectory of Kirke- 
whelpington, in the county of Northumberland, which I ame seased of 
in fee semple. And in like sorte I, the said Sir Edward, doe give and 
bequith, to my saide wife, Dame Elizabeth, all my Coppiehoulde Lands 
in Hexham shire, in the saide eountye, nainly, ^Whitley-milne and 
Gayre-shele, etc. : to have, and to houlde to her, and her assigns, and 
to dispose of all of them as she best pleasses, for her best profitt and 
eommoditye in consideration of 1200. she lent me, at my house in 
Cumberland, Anno 1642, in my great nesassatye, which I faithfully 
promised to repaie to her agayne, and allways so intended, as I con- 
ceved both reason and contienc obledgeth me to doe, but least death 
prevent my reall intention, I thought it good and just thus to make it 
known to my heaire, for takinge awaye all occations of contraversie and 
contentions that might happen hearafter concerninge the premyses, etc. 
Allso I give and bequith ta my saide wife, all my playte, and the leasses 
of the tythes of Dillston and Lourbottle, and all the rest of my goods 
and chatties, movable and unmovable, whom I make my sole executrix 
of this my last will and testement : I haveinge greate reason so to doe> 
and moore then ordenarye motives, especially for what at my motion and 
perswation I gott her to passe awaye her present right of Whenby, and 
Scousby, the lands in Yorkshire, to which she is haire from her father, 
which yf she had denyed, as many woulde, our whole steate (as the 
tymes then weare) had been in greate hazarde to have ben lost, as both 
my sonn and myselfe well knowes, for when it came to the point, no 
other lands would be tacken for securytie. Mr. Tho. Eiddelll clameth 
term pounds yearly, duringe his life, payable the therd daie of Maye 
only, out of my estayte, which yf he require to contenu after my death, 
then my desire is that my sonn, Francis Eadclyife, paie and discharge 
the same from tyme to tyme, as it shall growe due, which, I hope he 
will, yf he be importunated by the saide partie who now clames the 
saide annuatye of IQl. per annum for his life, as is above declered. 
Lastly, I earnestly require, disire, and charge my saide sonn and haire, 
Francis Radclyffe, Esq., that he be allways lovinge, obedient and as- 
sistant to his said mother, as in nature and dughtie he ought to be, and 
that he performe and macke good to the uttermost of his powre, what 
is above declared, specified, and bequethed, by this my last will, as he 
will answere me before the trybunyall of God Allinightye, which I ame 
confident he will undoubtedlye doe and performe, my disires beinge 
both so resenable and concivable to the judgement of all unabyased men 
as I veryly thinke, and that for severall consederations as the worlde 
knowes, which I need not further to insiste upon. And for my saide 
wife's right, for her life, to her father's lands in Yorkshire, allthough 
she haith pased awaye her present right by fyne about 3 years sence, at 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 209 

my earnest request, yet the tru meaninge is, and so acknowledged by 
my saide sonn, who was then personally present at Dillston, before sev- 
erall witnesses, that his said mother shall neverthelesse have and houlde 
for her life the said lands in Yorkeshire, as the same shall hapen to fall, 
and accrue, after the death of my mother-in-law, and the now wife of 
one Collenel Crumwell, in shuch sort as is stated and limited in her 
father's deede of seltlement at our maredge. 

[The following is in another ink and written at a different time, but 
in the same hand.] I doe make supervisors of this mi will my trustye 
freinds and kinsmen Harmaduke Tunstall, 11 of Wicliffe, Esqr., and 
Robert Delevale, 12 of South-Dissington, Esqr., whose best assistance I 
request in the premises, etc. "Witnesse my hande and seale hearunto 
putt the 29th daie of June, Anno Dom. 1657. 13 EDWARD RADCLYFFE. 

E. RADCLYFFE. JOHN ORDE. RALPH EMERSON. ERANCIS AYDON. 
RICHARD THORNBOROTIGH. EDWARD BROWELL. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 
29 Junii, 1657. 

Sir Edward did not long survive the Restoration. His frame was 
worn out with the weight of cares and the infirmities of age, and he de- 
parted this life in December, 1663, in the 75th year of his age. His 
remains, it is said, were interred, according to his desire, in the little 
chapel of Dilston ; but the subsequent investigations into the family 
vault in which the Radclyffes were interred revealed no trace of the 
coffins either of him or of his lady. 

Upon the character of Sir Edward Radclyffe we may pass a favourable 
judgment. Some lines there are which time has effaced, and these we 
must retrace with a charitable pencil. It is the part of a mean spirit to 
speak unkindly of the departed. Other traits there are which stand 
out boldly, in spite of time and calumny, and out of them we may fairly 
build up the character of a loyal gentleman. Of his affection to his 
king his sufferings are the proof. He passed through a fiery furnace 
into which many were cast, and in which many were destroyed. And 
to the honour of the Roman Catholic gentlemen be it spoken, that they 
set a glorious example to the cavaliers of England in wasting their 
treasure and shedding their blood for a king who had been anything but 
tolerant of their religion. Of Sir Edward's affection to his faith suffi- 
cient evidence will be found in the preamble to his will, as well as in 

11 Marmaduke Tunstall, of Scargill, Esq., was married about 1606 to Catherine 
one of the two daughters and coheiresses of "William "Wycliffe. of Wycliffe, Esq. 
Through this marriage he received a large addition to his estates, and took up his 
residence at Wycliffe. As he was buried at Barningham on the 18th of August, 
1656, it is somewhat singular that Sir Edward Radclyife should appoint him one of 
his executors. His eldest son, William Tunstall, married Sir Edward's daughter. 

12 Robert Delaval, a member of the house of Delaval of Seaton Delaval. 

13 This will and that of Lady Radclyffe were proved at Durham. 



210 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTOX. 

the letter of condolence to his widow which I shall shortly mention. 
And yet, on one occasion at least, he shewed a kindness to the Church of 
England. 14 Of his affection to his family, let his will speak. His 
children were brought up in a troublous time, but they seem to have 
had an education and a provision which befitted their position. And 
to come to minuter points, the jewels which set off a portrait, we can ob- 
serve the caution which is the attendant of a man of business, the desire 
for news which in a North Country gentleman of those days may well 
be excused, and the love for field sports 13 which the seclusion from the 
world which the Eoman Catholic religion encourages had not extin- 
guished. Mr. Gibson in his history of Dilston Hall has printed 
a letter of condolence, dated 23 [December?] 1663, which was 
written to Lady Radclyffe by John Holland, the Secretary of the 
Dean and Chapter of the English College in Lisbon, after her husband's 
decease, of which they had been apprized by letters from Mr. Salisbury. 
In this letter, Mr. Holland would sweeten Lady Radclyffe' s sorrow by 
the reflection that her husband's " exemplary life in the best of virtues, 
especially in that of suffering in so eminent a manner for his faith, [will] 
embalme his fame, and so consecrate his memory to posterity, that nothing 
but the proposal of some high authority wants to enroll his name amongst 
the glorious confessors of Christ's faith." " Amongst his other pious 
works which follow him (continues the writer), we understand he hath 

14 Whitley Chapel, in Hexhamshire, dedicated to St. Helen, which had been long 
in ruins, was rebuilt shortly before the Restoration. Sir Edward Radclyffe 
was asked to subscribe to its renovation, and, in reply, wrote as follows : " I do well 
approve of this charitable work, and desire "Wm. Rowland that he will deliver three 
trees in Dotland Park, for my part, for that use." Account of Chanties in Tynedale 

Ward, Hexham, 1780. 

15 In the following letter, Sir Henry Babington asks for a subscription to the 
horse races on Killingworth Moor a course of no mean reputation. In 1673, John 
Dodsworth, of Thornton Watlass, Esq., leaves by will to Mr. Thos. Gabetis, of Crosby 
Ravensworth, " my silver flaggon which I wonne first at Killingworth Moore." 

"Worthy Sir, Being presently to goe to London, and to collect the money for the 
horse race, for Sir John Fenwicke, whose yeare it is to bring in the plate, I have sent this 
bearer, my man, to j ow first being the worthyest benefactor to our country[sports 
with the note of al the forinders' names, to set a crose before every ons name that 
hath payd, and so remembring my service to yourselfe and brothers, I rest Your 
affectionat frend, HENRY BABINGTON. March 17th, 1621. 

Received by me, Robert Butcher, servant to Sir Henry Babington, Knt., the sum 
of five pounds from the hands of Sir Edward Radcliffe, Baronet, for the contribucion, 
amongst other gentlemen, to the horse race at Killingworth, payable yearly during 
the pleasure of the said Sir Edward, and in this yeare collected by Sr Henry Babing- 
ton. ROBERT BUTCHER + his marke. March 18, 1621. 

In dor so. To my honourable frend Sr Edward Ratcliffe, Baronett, at Dilston, this. 

Sir Edward Radcliffe, Bart 51. 

Sir John Fenwicke, Kt 61. 

Sir Ralph Delavall, Kt 51. 

Sir William Selby, Kt 51. 

Sir William Widdrington 51. 



SIE EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTOX. 211 

pleased to bestow 400?. on our College at Lisbon, which, as it obliges us 
to pour out our prayers for the soul of so liberal a benefactor, so, by 
reason of the perfect union betwixt your hearts, we cannot but acknow- 
ledge we owe in part to the concurrence of your Ladyship's charity. 
Our care shall be so to take order, that it be duly applied to the end he 
intended it for, as withal to enjoin that house to place his name amongst 
their benefactors, for whom by obligation of their rules they all daily 
pray, and with his your Ladyship's." 

The lady to whom this consolatory letter was addressed was Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Barton, Esq., of Whenby. The Bar- 
tons were a Yorkshire family of great antiquity and respectability, and 
were the owners of considerable estates. A goodly share of these were 
brought by their alliance into the house of Kadclyife. This was gener- 
ously sacrificed by its inheritress during the civil war, for the relief of 
her husband and his property. Her ladyship, according to the letter 
which has just been given, was possessed of many of those virtues for 
which her husband was distinguished during his lifetime. " In their 
death they were not divided." She survived her lord about five years, 
and dying on the 19th of December, 1668, was laid beside him in the 
tomb. I give the following extracts from her will. 

Lsr THE NAME OF GOD, AMBIT. TJie 18th of December, 1668, I, Dame 
Elizabeth Radcliffe, of Dilston, in the County of Northumberland, wid- 
dow, beinge weake of body . . desire that my body may be interred in the 
vault of the Chappell at Dilston, neare the tombe of my deceased hus- 
band . . Whereas I have an annuity or rent charge of twenty pounds per 
annum, lawful! English money, payable to me by Francis Sutton, of 
Greencroft, in the County palatyne of Durham, gent., yearely, at one 
in tire payment, that is to say, at the feast of St. Martin Bpp. in winter, 
I doe give tenn pounds yearly out of the said rent charge to the poore 
within the parish of Corbridge for ever, to be distributed to them yearely 
on St. Lucye's Day, or then abouts. Likewise I give foure pounds out 
of the aforesaid rent charge to the poore Roman Catholics of Hexham, 
which is to be yearely and for ever distributed to them on St. Lucye's 
daye, or then abouts. I give also foure pounds per annum to the poore 
of Bywell parish, but especially those of "Whittenstall and Newlands, out 
of the aforesaid rent charge, which is yearely and for ever to be distri- 
buted amongst them on St. Lucye's day, or then abouts. And for the 
other two pounds of the aforesaid rent charge I give to the poore within 
the parish of Slely, yearely and for ever, which is to be distributed 
amongst them on St. Lucye's day, or then abouts. 

[The testatrix then charges another rent charge of sixty pounds per 
annum, payable to her by the same Francis Sutton, with the following 
life annuities : Francis Swinburne, five pounds ; Ann Blenkinsop, five 
pounds ; Richard Thornbrough, five pounds ; Ann Ridley, four pounds ; 
Mary Brabin, two pounds ; Francis Merchand, two pounds ; Margarett 
Clarke, two pounds ; John Forster, one pound ; Margrett Browne, one 



212 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 

pound ; William Duckett, ten pounds ; Robert Salisbury, fifteen pounds. 
The will then proceeds thus : ]I give to my grandchilde, Mr. Thomas 
Radcliffe, all the overplus of the aforesaid rent charge of sixty pounds 
per annum, as alsoe the reversions of the aforesaid annuityes abovenamed 
when they shall become due, after the deaths of the abovenamed 
respectively, soe that my will is that the aforesaid rent charge of sixty 
pounds per annum, in reversion, shall be put forwards for the use of my 
said grandchilde. . . I give one hundred pounds to be disposed of as my 
executors know. I give two hundred pounds to my daughter Dorothy 
Radcliffe. I give two hundred pounds to my daughter Barbara Rad- 
cliffe. Whereas my sonn in law, Mr. Nicholas Fenwicke, haith of mine 
in his hands two hundred pounds, I give the use of the said two hun- 
dred pounds to my daughter Margarett, his wife, dureinge her life 
naturall, which she is to devide among her three children at her death 
as followeth, to witt, sixty pounds to her son Robert, forty pounds to 
her sonn Andrew, and one hundred pounds to her daughter Elizabeth. 
I give to my daughter, dame Elizabeth Slingeby, the use of one hun- 
dred pounds, which she hath of mine in her hands, dureinge her life 
naturall, and att her death I give the said hundred pounds to her 
daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Slingesbye. Whereas my grandchild, Francis 
Tunstall, Esq., hath in his hands one hundred pounds of mine, I give 
itt as followeth, to witt, I give to him, my said grandchilde, Francis 
Tunstall, twenty pounds ; to his brother, Mr. Thomas Tunstall, I give 
fifteene pounds ; and to his sister, Mrs. Maiy Liddell, I give twenty 
pounds ; to his sister, Mrs. Christian Tunstall, I give fifteene pounds ; 
to his sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Tunstall, I give fifteene pounds ; to his 
sister, Mrs. Ann Crathorne, 16 1 alsoe give fifteene pounds ; I give to my 
two daughters, Clara and Ursula Radcliffe, fiftye pounds betwixt them ; 
I give to my grandchild^ and god-daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Radcliffe, 
one hundred pounds ; I give twenty pounds a peece to each of these my 
grandchildren, to witt, Edward Radcliffe, Esq., and Mr. Francis Rad- 
cliffe, and Mr. William Radcliffe, and Mr. Arthur Radcliffe, and Mrs. 
Margarett Radcliffe, and Mrs. Catharin Radcliffe, and Mrs. Mary Rad- 
cliffe, to each of these, I say, I give twenty pounds, to buy each of them 
a peece of plate as a remembrance of me. I give fifty pounds to be 
distributed at my death amongst poore people, according as my executors 
shall judge most expedient. The rest . . to my sonn, Sir Francis Radcliffe, 
Baronett, and to my daughter, Mrs. Ann Radcliffe, whom I make and 
ordaine joynt executors of this my last will and testament. In witness 
whereof, &c. Test. WILLIAM DUCKETT, RICHARD THORNBROUGH, ROBERT 
SALISBURY. 

By the lady whose will has just been given, Sir Edward had a family 
of ten children, two sons and eight daughters. 

16 The children of William Tunstall and Mary Radclyffe. Of these, Francis, the eld- 
est son, married Cecilia, daughter of Lord Viscount Dunbar, and was buried at Wycliffe 
on the 4th of May, 1713, leaving a family hy her. Thomas Tunstall is said to have 
died at York. Mary became the wife of Henry Liddell, of Farnacres,E sq. Christian 
was a nun. Elizabeth married an Irish gentleman of the name of Carrol, and Anne 
married Ralph Crathorne, Esq., of Crathorne and Ness. Poulson, in his History of 
Holderness, adds another daughter, Margaret, who became a nun. 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 213 

Both of the sons bore their grandfather's name, Francis. The elder 
of the two died in his infancy, and as the younger has already been 
brought before you in the pages of this journal, I shall not allude to 
him here. 

Of the daughters, MABY RADCLYFFE was the eldest born. She was 
married to the eldest son of an ancient house, WILLIAM TUNSTALL, Esq., 
of Wycliffe, in Richmondshire, by whom she had several children. The 
family of Tunstall was of illustrious descent, and in the last genera- 
tion had acquired one-half of the possessions of the "Wycliifes of 
Wycliffe, by an alliance with the co-heiress of that time-honoured 
house. Tunstall was born in 1613, and came into possession of the 
family estates on the death of his father in 1656. His father was a 
stout cavalier, and compounded with the Parliament for his estates by 
a fine of 1788Z. 16s. Sd. The son was also devoted to the royal cause, 
but the heavy fine which was laid upon the sire seems to have atoned 
for the iniquities of the son. I insert a couple of letters addressed by 
"William Tunstall to his father-in-law, Sir Edward, which shew that he 
took no little interest in the politics of the day. It is not improbable 
that he was a soldier himself. My father possesses a portrait represent- 
ing either him or his sire, shewing a stern-faced man, rather short in 
stature, arrayed in his corslet of steel, and looking war. 

Worthey Sir, I am mightley glade of your fredum, for I was much 
afraid of it when I hearde that the Frenchman was trested with it, fear- 
ing that he might have bene as long in his returne as he was a cuming, 
for Sir Nicolas Thornton and I was much greved that William Porter 
should not have brought it to Richmond, for I had tould Sir TsTiccolas 
that I would bring it to you. Sir, upon Weddensday gon a sennet, the 
Scotes set upon a littel fort at the Sheldes 17 and was forsed baeke, but 
the horse would not let the foute rune. Upon the place where they 
furst asalted it there laye maney deade bodeyes. Upon the next asalt, 
being the same daye, 18 they brought of there men, but with greate losse 
to them, Tinmouth Castel and the fort playing hotley upon them, and 
it was thought they lost towe hundred men that daye ; but theye gave 
it not over. Soe for the last Weddensdaye 19 they set upon it againe, 
and gained the fort and five 20 eyron pesse of ordenance in it, our men 
fleying doune to a penisse in which it was reported that Sir John Pen- 
nington was in, but the penisse dischargeing sume ordenance at the 

17 These details of the Shields engagements are of considerable importance to the 
local historian. The account of the Scots may be seen in a letter, written from their 
army at Wetherby, 20 April, 1644, in Richardson's Reprints. 

18 The Scot places the first attack on Friday, 15th March, and the second on 
Saturday, the 16th. These days seem to be correct, as in 1644 the 17th of March 
was on a Sunday. 

19 The Scot agrees. Tuesday was a solemn fast. 

20 The Scot's letter gives the same number. 

2E 



214 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTOX. 

Scotes ?they retreated ; and, it is said, they lost 3 houndred men at the 
takeing of it, and we losing but five men. 21 I heard this daye that 
Curonel Hastings hath taken 3 hundred of the enimies horse heard 
beyont Neworke, it haveing bene beseged ; it is said that Prince Rupert 
hath raised the seige there and is cuming for Bushuprige. This with 
my dutey to you and my good mother in lawe, and my love to brother 
Radclife and my sisters, I humbley take leve, and rest 

Your son in lawe to command, 
Wicliffe, this 22th of March, [1643-4.] WILLIAM TONSTALL. 

Most Honored Sir, I give you many thankes for your care and 
truble conserning the horse I have reseved by Robert Graye. I went 
to Richerd Smithson to inquire of him conserning the businesse you 
writ to me about ; as far as I can perseve by him it nothing conserneth 
you. It is twentie pound a year out of Befront, granted to one whose 
name is Knight ; this is all conserning that busines I could doe. Sir, 
conserning your busines at Whenby, I can doe nothing in it, for since 
my coming home I have hired a scole master into the house, soe that 
my journey thether is stopped ; if I can learne of aney that goeth thether 
I shall git them to in quire whether she reseved your former letter or 
noe ; but not knoweing of aney I thought good to send you your letter 
bak to you againe. For newes I heare none but that Barwicke should 
be taken by the Scotes ; I suppose you will heare the sartantey of that 
before this cometh to your handes ; I have it from a verey good hand. 
My wiffe and I give you and my mother in lawe maney thankes for 
your rabebetes. Thus with mine and my wiffes dutie to you and my 
good mother, desireinge your blessinges to us all, with our loves to my 
brother Radcliffe and all my sisters, I humbly take leave, and rest 

Your obedient son in lawe while I am 
Hutton, this 1th of January, 1649. "WILLIAM TONSTALL. 

TunstalTs will is before me, dated at Barningham, May 9, 1668, in 
which he desires 

To be interred among my ancestours in a decent sorte at the descre- 
tion of my deare wife. And for my worldly goods, I thus dispose them 
which are not allready setled. All my ancient lands (except Barning- 
ham) are already setled upon my son Tunstall's marriage, and Barning- 
ham is charged with my son Thomas his annuity and my brother 
Francis and his wive's, and so charged 'tis setled upon my marriage 
to my now wife. Whereas by my marriage covenant I am obliged 
when her portion should come to me, to add so much as should purchase 
100/. per annum in land of inheritance for my issue by her, and since 

21 The discrepancy of numbers is amusing. Evidently those of the above letter 
are exaggerated. The Scot's letter states that sixteen of the besieged were killed, and 
that a lieutenant and five soldiers, who stood out to the last, were taken. The rest fled 
by boats. " The providence of God wonderfully preserved our men, for only seven of 
them were killed, some few hurt with stones and cut iron, but none deadly." But in 
military numbers these ex parte letters are as false as are our old chronicles. 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 215 

which covenants I have had occasion for 1000?. of her portion, which 
her friends have advanced to me, and I have disposed of it for my 
daughters' portions and other uses, instead of the said 100?. per annum, 
I will that my house in Barningham and as much of my land as shall 
come to the sum of 120?. per ann. shall come to my said wife, with re- 
mainder to my son Thomas Tunstall and my brother Francis. 22 To my 
uncle Matthew Middleton, of Stokeld, gent., and my brother Raphe 
Clavering, of Callaly, Esq., my lands and tolls in Bowes, on trust to 
pay my debts. To my brother Clavering 100?., to be disposed to such 
uses as I have directed him. 23 

The testator died at Barningham on the 30th of August, 1668, and 
was interred in the parish church on the 2nd of September following. 
His widow proved his will seven days afterwards. 24 

ELIZABETH RADCLYFFE, Sir Edward's third daughter, became the second 
wife of SIR WILLIAM FENWICZ, of Meldon. Sir William was the second 
son of Sir "William Eenwick, of Wallington, and was knighted by James 
I. at Cavers, in Scotland, in 1616. The marriage articles between Sir 
William and his father-in-law (therein described as of the Isle in Der- 
wentwater) are dated on the 18th of September, 1641. Fenwick 
pledged himself to settle all his lands, of which he was seized either in 
fee simple or fee tail, upon his issue by his intended wife, and pro- 
mised to give in a rent roll shewing a clear yearly income of 1000?. as a 

22 Francis Tunstall, the younger brother of the testator, was connected with North- 
umberland by his marriage with Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Riddell, of Fenham. 
He was united to her before Timothy Whittingham of Holmeside Esq. on the 18th of 
January, 1659-60. Some of his descendants in the male line are, I believe, still living. 

23 From the Registry at Richmond. 

24 There is not in this will any evidence of the existence of those treasures for 
which, in after times, the family of Tunstall became distinguished. In the inventory 
the plate enumerated consists only of a silver presenter, three tankards, one sugar box, 
23 silver spoons, large and small, six salts, two porringers, four tasters, and a caudle 
cup. These are valued at 40. The testator's study contained merely a case of 
drawers, an iron chest, a desk, two old cabinets, and some law books worth 51. The 
collection of works of art, and the magnificent library which were at Wycliife in the 
latter part of the succeeding century had not yet been formed. These treasures were 
afterwards dispersed by public sale. The splendid museum of natural history and curi- 
osities was sold to Mr. Allan, of Grange, and was resold, some thirty years ago, to 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-iipon-Tyne. The greater part of 
the books were bought by Mr. Todd, of York, and from one or two articles in his catalogue 
we can form some notion of the value of his purchases. He advertises "A capital, _rare, 
and curious collection of Portraits, British and Foreign, selected and adapted to History, 
and inserted in their proper places ; including above two thousand Portraits of Royal and 
Noble Personages, &c., &c., by the most eminent artists, formed by Marm. Tunstall, 
Esq., and bound in twelve volumes, atlas folio, 300/. A very curious collection of 
books in manuscript, mostly upon Heraldical subjects, viz, Visitations of Counties, 
Miscellaneous Pedigrees, Ancient Arms, Heraldry, Anecdotes, Alphabets of Arms, 
Crests, Old Deeds, Seals, &c., &c., in one hundred and fifty volumes, 200/. ! At 
another sale in 1824, the furniture and pictures were dispersed. My father became 
the purchaser of several interesting portraits, including an original of Cuthbert 
Tunstall, Bishop of Durham. 



216 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTOX. 

dowry for his wife. He engaged also to allow his estates to be charged 
with the portions of his daughters by the same wife. Sir Edward, on 
his side, undertook to give his daughter a marriage present of 1500?., 
the whole of it to be paid before the month of December, 1643. A long 
time seems to- have elapsed before these articles were fulfilled. The 
alliance, a childless one, was probably consummated at once, but there 
were many things to prevent the immediate completion of the contract. 
The Great Rebellion broke out soon afterwards, in which Sir "William 
Fenwick took the King's part and became a stout ally to the royal cause. 
His long absences from home would not permit of any conference with 
his father-in-law or his lawyers. The pen was laid aside for the sword, 
and his marriage articles were forgotten. In June, 1650, Sir Edward 
writes to him on the subject in the following terms. 

Sonne Fenwicke, I thinke it convenient to put yow in mynd of such 
particulars as are menconed in the articles betwixt us about the tyme of 
your marriage, concerninge the dowry and interest my daughter, your 
now wife, ought to have out of your estate, according to the true mean- 
ing of the said articles, and what yow then declared and promised, which 
was testified under your hand and seale, etc. ; the performance whereof 
both in conscience and creditt I did not much doubt, neither doe I yet, 
otherwise I had not delayed the calling upon you for effecting and per- 
fecting the same by advice of counsel ere now ; but, seeing that in regard 
of those miserable tymes wee cannot with conveniency have verball con- 
ference together, I doe by this my letter, in the behalfe of my said daugh- 
ter, demaund performance of the said articles and agreement, especially in 
these 2 particulars. First, that wee may have a particular in writeing 
of your lands, etc., that shall amount to bee of the cleare yearely value 
of one thousand pounds, which is or shall bee lyable for her dowry or 
widdow right, if she happen to survive you ; or soe much land particu- 
larly nominated, and discharged of all incumberances, as shall bee a full 
third part att least of the said some ; and for better discovering thereof 
I pray bee pleased to deliver the writings and states of the said lands to 
your wife, that they may bee perused for her best advantage in settling 
the said joynture, for better avoiding any questions or contentions that 
may arise hereafter, for neglect thereof, amongst your children and 
friends, which I suppose yow earnestly desire now in your lifetyme. 
In pursuance whereof I request your answer in writeing, and that the 
busines may bee speedily perfected by your approbation and directions 
upon conference with your wife, whom it most concernes to sollicite yow 
in the premises. And soe in the interim, commendinge my best wishes 
to your selfe, rests Your loving Father in lawe, E. E. 1650. 
Dilston, June the sixt, 1650. 25 

I remember you told me long since that diverse lands of yours were 
purchased in other menns names, all which, I would advise you, might 

25 "The articles of agreement between Sir Edward Radclyffe and Sir William 
Fenwicke was sent backe to Meldon this sixt of June, 1650." 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 217 

be speedily taken notice of and assigned to your selfe, they being seized 
in trust only, etc. 

For Sir William Fenwicke, Knt. att his house att Meldon, these. 

Whether this letter obtained its end or not we have no means of 
ascertaining. It is quite possible that the emergencies of the period 26 
rendered any settlement impossible. 27 Sir "William was in great jeopardy 
of losing his estates for his adherence to King Charles ; and, in the 
spring of 1652, he was in London to avert, if possible, the threatened 
ruin. He was here attacked by the illness which brought him to his 
grave, accelerated, no doubt, by his many cares and troubles. His 
complaints had assumed so serious a form that Sir Edward sent a mes- 
senger to enquire after his health, and it was in answer to his messages 
and kind offices that Sir William wrote the following letter, the last, in 
all probability, that proceeded from his pen. The epistle is a charac- 
teristic one, and it is amusing to see how the gallant cavalier turns from 
his own complaints to give the news which his father-in-law would be 
so glad to hear. 

Loving Sir, Heare was on Forster cam from you to see me, I thank 
you, and thow I be a very ill penman at this time, God send better, for 
my pane will hardly suffer me to writ to my wife, but I hop Hee doth 
all for the best, thou I am hopeles of any remydy but from Him, yet I 
am not much trubiled with sicknes, but in dead my pane is worse then 
any sicklies. For neuse here is littill sturing. The King of Franc is verily 
beleaved to have got a defeat of 2 or 3000 by the Prence of Cundy, and 
the Spaniard have beseged Gaveling and is thought to cary it as the 
rumor goyes, and is thought to have tackin Bassalond in Catelone. The 
Inglish 28 and we ar thought absolutly to agre for sending for the adde- 
tionall bill of sail. Ther is nothing acted as yet, but every one mack 
ther condetion known to ther freindes and by petetiones to the house in 
generall, least they may suffer whearin they ar not gilty, for it is thought 
ther wille be tow or 3 quallificationes for the Catholickes petetion, they 

26 On the llth of the month following the date of the letter July one of Oliver's 
companies quartered "at Sir William Fen-wick' s, 4 miles beyond Morpeth." (Me- 
moirs of Capt. John Hodgson.} This was in the Dunbar campaign. 

27 This letter from Lady Fenwick refers to her marriage articles. 

" Deare father, I have desired this bearer, Robert Barron, to come on purpose to 
you for the other part of the artickles which you were pleased to promis to send mee 
this day, I would gladly have them for I perceave, by my cosen Fenwicke, that Mr. 
Brownell intends to bee in these parts at Lamas next. Thus with my dutie presented 
to you and my deare mother, desiringe your blissings, 1 rest, Your lovinge daughter 
till death, ELIZABETH FENWICKE. Meldon, this 16th of July, 1654. 

My sister presents her dutie to you and my mother and desires your blissinge. 

For her deare and Honrd. Father, Sr Edward Radclyffe, Baronnet, these present at 
Dilston." 

The bearer obtained "the articles under the hand and scale of Sir William Fen- 
wicke" for " my daughter Fenwicke." 

28 The members of the Church of England, 



218 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 

have had sevell and curteus answeres, and respectes, so few ar in great 
hopes and otheres in as great feares ; God, no dut, doth all for the best. 
Thus, seasing to be trubilsom, with my best wishis to yourselfe, your 
good lady my mother in law, and all youres, I tack leave, and rest 

Your loving sonn in law, 
From London, the 12 of April, 1652. WILLIAM FENWICKE. 

In dorso. To the much Honored and my very loving father in law, Sr 
Edward Ratlife, Knight Baronet, these. Received from Robert Foster, 
of Duxfeild, Aprill 22, 1652. [manu E. R.] 

The forebodings of the writer were soon realized. In a month's time 
he was in his grave. On the 31st of May his remains were carried from 
his lodgings, in Gray's Inn lane, to the church of St. Andrew's Holborn, 
where they were interred. An unknown bard, perchance honest George 
Forster, the ejected rector of his parish, sang the praises of the deceased 
knight in an epicedium which was addressed to his father-in-law, and 
which passed away with the muniments of the Radclyffes to Greenwich 
Hospital. 

EPECEDIUM 

SACRED TO THE HONOURED MEMORIE OF THE 
REALLY RELIGIOUS AND TRULY VIRTUOUS SIR 
WILLIAM FENWICK, OF MELDEN, IN COUN- 
TY OF NORTHUMBERLAND, KNIGHT 
DECEASED 

The much honoured 

Sir 
W ith all the wealthy epethites of Verse, 

F ame (virtues garland) decks a good man's herse. 
I n times vast mines marble may lye lost ; 

E ngraven Brass bears no eternal boast. 
L ong life's a soon tould Tale, a toye, cal'd Breath ; 

N othing but virtue outlives time and Death. 
L ong this belov'd true Gentleman did live 

W ith all the praise impartial fame could give. 
I n spight of En vie that due praise shall last ; 

I njurious Lightning cannot Laurel blast. 
A nd though Earth shroud his earth, his purer part 

C onsocial s Angells : and virtues desert 
M akes his much honour' d, antient, belov'd name 

K eep in the Sphear of a Refulgent Fame. 

Of Melden, in the County of Northumberland, 
Knight, Deceased. 

On the 2nd of November the blow which had hastened the death 
of this brave gentleman fell upon his family; the whole of his 



SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 219 

estates were forfeited to the Commonwealth for treason. I am not 
aware that there is any memorial of the sufferer in the church of 
St. Andrew's Holborn, but in the south wall of the little church which 
looked down upon his mansion in Northumberland, there lies an effigy 
of a knight in armour, rudely carved in sandstone, which is supposed to 
commemorate the first and the last of the Fen wicks of Meldon. 

A portrait of Sir William Fen wick, on wood, representing him in a 
white vest, playing with a monkey, was at Ford Castle in 1813. It 
was formerly at Dissington, and was called by the people of the place, 
Admiral George Delaval. 29 

Dame Elizabeth Fenwick, Sir William's widow, remarried Sir Robert 
Slingsby, of Nowsells, in Hertfordshire, by whom she had an only 
daughter. 

Margaret, Sir Edward Radclyffe's second daughter, became the wife 
of Nicholas Fenwick, of Wylam. About her and her five sisters, all of 
whom died unmarried, I can state nothing with which my readers are 
unacquainted. 

With Sir Edward and his family I have now done. Of the fortunes 
of his descendants much has been elsewhere said. Few families have 
been more unfortunate and more beloved. Sir Edward reared for him- 
self a house of that house not one stone remains upon another. He 
endeavoured to raise his family to greatness who does not know the 
issue of this greatness when it was at length secured ? The very honours 
of the Radclyffes were their ruin. He married three of his daughters 
into three antient houses each of those houses has withered branch and 
stem ! There seemed to be a curse resting upon the house which no 
offering could expiate and no disaster banish. Other lords have entered 
upon the estates which he collected for his children, and the inheritance 
of the E-adclyffes is among strangers. The aged seaman, who has been 
a trusty servant to his country, can now have an asylum where he can 
rest in peace till the storms of life are over, but little does he know or 
think of the brave deeds and the misfortunes of those once loyal gentle- 
men whose estates have enriched the Royal Hospital of Greenwich. 

JAMES RAINE, JUN., M.A. 
Crook Hall, Durham. 

* # * FEA^CIS RAECLYFFE, Sir Edward's brother, born 10 March, 1599- 
1600, was a knight of Coastley, in Northumberland; and, having mar- 

29 Mr. Hodgson's History of the Parish of Meldon, ex inform. Rad. Spearman de 
Eachwick arm, 



220 SIR EDWARD RADCLYFFE, OF DILSTON. 

ried Margaret, 30 daughter of Sir Thomas Eiddell, of Gateshead, afterwards 
lived there. He died issueless, and, to judge from his scanty substance as 
detailed in the inventory taken after his death, had given up housekeep- 
ing and retired to East Denton. The following is the marrow of his 
will, accompanied by the inventory : 

Sir Francis EadclifF, of East Denton, knt., infirme in body Whereas 
I am seized in fee of an annuity of 40?., granted to me by Sir Thomas 
Eiddall, knt., my late father in lawe, deceased, for 500?. lent to him in 
his life, being parte of the marriage porcion of Margaret Eiddell, my late 
deare wife, deceased, by indenture dated 30 Aug. 12 Car. I. out of St. 
Edmond's Lands, I give it to my welbeloved servant and freind "Wm. 
Porter, of East Denton, gent. To Mrs. Margarett Thorneton, of Witton 
Sheilds, 40?. To my neece, Mrs. Anne Errington, of East Denton, 
widdow, 401 To my neece, Mrs. Oath. Eiddell, 20?. To my two 
neeces, Mrs. Jane and Mrs. Margt. Eiddell, each 51. To my loveing 
freind, Mrs. Jane Kirkbride, 51. "Whereas Ealph Clavering, of Callaly, 
Esq., is indebted to me in 30?. principall money, and in the principall 
summe of 250?. parcell of 500?. which is secured to me by a rent charge 
of 40?. per ann. out of the manners of Callaly and Duddo, if within 6 
mo. after my decease he pays 200?. the rest to be forgiven him. Wm. 
Porter, sole executor. 3 Oct. 26 Car. 

Inventory. 12 Aprill, 1675. East Denton. 

His pursse and apparell, 80?. One watch, with a duble silver caise, 
and one silver tobacko box, 2?. 10s. 5bookes, 1?. Summe, 83?. 10s. 



30 In Mr. Surtees's Radclyffe Pedigree her name is correctly given, biit in that of 
Riddell she is called Mary, and her husband is styled " of Dilston, Bart.," by a con- 
fusion with Sir Edward's heir. 



221 



CATALOGUE OF THE INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN 
STONES IN THE POSSESSION OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF 
NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

No Museum is so rich in the memorials of the dominion of the Romans 
in Britain as that in the Castle of Newcastle. The material employed 
in the formation of these statues and slabs and altars sandstone is 
unquestionably inferior to that of which the lapidarian treasures of the 
Vatican consist ; and they are, for the most part, immeasurably below 
them in artistic design and skilful execution. To Englishmen, however, 
they have an interest which all the glories of the Vatican and the Capi- 
tol can never surpass. They fill up a gap in our history. They give us 
the names and they reveal the movements and the feelings of the men 
who first taught the inhabitants of Britain the arts of civilized life, 
and gave them their earliest lessons in the equally difficult tasks of obey- 
ing and commanding. If we bear in mind, that in Italy the statues 
which adorned their cities were the result of the highest genius which 
wealth could command, and that in Britain the furthest verge of the 
empire the sculptures and inscriptions were, necessarily, often the result 
of unprofessional effort the work of legionary soldiers our surprise 
will be, that they are so good as they are. Do modern English soldiers 
leave behind them in the countries which they visit relics of taste and 
skill so creditable as those which the troops of Hadrian and Antonine 
did ? Even the most shapeless of the sculptures in our Museum have 
their value ; they speak more powerfully than historians can of the 
state of the Roman empire in Britain. 

The wood-cuts which illustrate this Catalogue are for the most part 
executed in outline. They have been prepared by Mr. Utting, from 
drawings carefully made by Mr. John Storey, jun., the draftsman of the 
Society, who has, in this instance, with great generosity, given his valu- 
able services gratuitously. When the size of the object is not specially 
mentioned, it is to be understood that the wood-cut is drawn to the 
scale of three-quarters of an inch to the foot. In most instances the 
descriptions have been taken from the originals ; hence occasional dis- 
crepancies with the* cuts will appear, for each new light brings out, 
in weather-beaten stones, new features. For the convenience of the 
student, reference is made, in the case of those stones which were known 
to our great authorities, Horsley and Hodgson, to the numbers which 
they occupy on their lists. As the Catalogue is intended for the casual 

2D 



222 



INSCEIBED AND SCULPTUEED ROMAN STONES. 



visitor to the Museum, as well as for the antiquary, some passages are 
inserted which the scholar may deem superfluous. 



UPON THE STAIRS OF ENTRANCE. 

1. A Figure of Hercules. It probahly at 
one time adorned some temple in PONS 
^ELII, or its vicinity, though the precise 
spot where it was originally exhumed is 
not known. It was standing in the garden 
of Mr. Peareth's house, in Pilgrim Street, 
Newcastle (now occupied by the Poor-Law 
Guardians), when the premises were pur- 
chased by the Newcastle and North Shields 
Eailway Company, and was presented to 
the Society by the Directors of that Com- 
pany May 7th, 1839. As is the case with 
most of the figures found upon the line of 
the Bom an Wall, the head and every part 
of the statue which could easily be de- 
tached have been struck off. The lion's 
skin, the apples of the garden of the Hes- 
perides, and the club, the usual emblems of 
the deity, will be observed. 

2. An elegantly-shaped Altar. Described by 
Horsley; Northumberland, cv., and by Hodg- 
son, ccxvir. It has had an inscription, which is 
now illegible. On one side is a soldier holding 
a bow; on the other is a figure dragging some- 
thing resembling an amphora. This altar for- 
merly formed the base of the market cross at 
Corbridge, the ancient CORSTOPITUM. The focus 
of it has been enlarged into a square hole, six 
inches deep, to admit the shaft. The altar is 
4 ft. 4 in. high. 

3. The Capital of a Column of the composite 
order, from Housesteads, the ancient BOKCOVI- 
ctrs ; the mutilated figure of a warrior ; and 
several millstones, some of which are composed 
of the volcanic grit peculiar to Andernach, on the Rhine. 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



223 




4. Two squared Stones, resembling those of which the gateways of 
the mile-castles on the Wall were built. 

Hodgson, ccxcvi. 5. Presented to the 
Society by the late Sir Matthew White 
Ridley, Bart. When first noticed, they 
were in a garden wall at Heaton Flint 
Mill. Have they been originally de- 
rived from the mile-castle which com- 
manded the passage of the Wall over 
the defile of the Ouseburn ? One of 

them bears the rude and hitherto undeciphered inscription shown in 
the cut. 

5. An Altar, without an inscription, from Boncovicus. Horsley, N. 
xxxvn r. ; Hodgson, XLII. On one side it contains a patera encircled by 
a garland. 

6. Fragment of a Lion, reddened by the action of fire. Probably 
one of those represented by Horsley, N. civ. It is from COKSTOPITFM. 



IN THE ORATORY, 



7. A Koman Soldier from BOKCOVICTJS. 
LXII. He holds a bow in his left 
hand; the object in his right Hors- 
ley describes as a poniard ; it more 
nearly resembles a rude key or small 
axe. A belt, crossing his body di- 
agonally, suspends a quiver from the 
right shoulder. The folds of the 
sagum, or military cloak, are gathered 
upon his chest. His sword, which 
is attached to a belt that girds his 
loins, is on his right side ; the handle 
of it terminates in a bird-headed 
ornament. The head is bare. A 
portion of the stone has been left to 
secure the head to the upper part of 
the niche, giving the appearance of a 
helmet. There is a band on the left 
arm probably to protect it from the 
action of the arrows in their flight 
from the bow. 



Horsley, N, XLVI.; Hodgson, 




224 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



8. A Figure of Victory, careering, with outstretched wings, over 
the round earth. From BORCOVICUS. Horsley, IS"., XLV. ; Hodgson, L. 
Her face is mutilated, and her arms knocked off, but the figure is other- 
wise in good condition. 




Victory, as might be expected, was a favourite goddess with the 
Romans, and statues similar to the present are not of uncommon occur- 
rence in stationary camps. The treatment of the figure in this instance 
resembles that upon a rare coin of Antoninus Pius commemorative of 
his successes in Britain. The peculiar curl of the lower portions of the 
drapery has many examples in the sculptures which encircle the 
columns of Trajan and Antonine at Rome. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



225 



9. A Roman Soldier. BORCOVICUS. 
Horsley, K"., XLVII. Hodgson, LXIII. The 
figure has lost its head and right arm. 
His shield is gently upheld by the fingers 
of the left hand. Horsley remarks, 
" His two belts are visible crossing each 
other, agreeable to the description of 
Ajax's armour in Homer." 

" But there no pass the crossing belts afford, 
One braced his shield, and one sustained his 
sword." Pope. 

His sword is on his left side, which judg- 
ing from the examples in Trajan's co- 
lumn, shows that he was a person of 
some rank. 




IN THE WELL ROOM. 



10. This Group of objects is from BOKCOVICUS. The upper slab has 
apparently been used as a drain in one of the narrow streets of this 




military city. Two of the pedestals have probably been used in sup- 
porting the floor of a hypocaust. The third is a pilaster that has been 
used in a building of some pretensions. 



226 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



1 1 . This Slab, which commemorates the re-erection, in the time of 
Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235), of a granary which had become di- 
lapidated through age, was found at the Station of JEsicA, the modern 




RVSALEXANDEKF1E 



COH!!ASTVRVMS*A 
ASOLOREST1TVERV 

PROV MGAR F 

KAX1M01EG 

MAP; 




Great Chesters. One peculiarity of this inscription is, that it bears the 
name of the "COH. n. ASTVEVM" ; whereas the Notitia places at this 
Station " Tribunus cohortis primce Asturum." A fragment of a tile re- 
cently found at ^EsiCA, having stamped upon it the legend n ASTVB, 
confirms the testimony of the slab, that at one period at least the 
Second Cohort of the Astures were settled here. At the time when 
the Notitia was written it may have been replaced by the First. 
The tablet was presented to the Society by the late Rev. Henry AVastal, 
of Newbrough. It is figured in Brand's Newcastle, vol. i., p. 611; 
Hodgson, LXXXVII. (See also p. 292.) It may be read thus : 

IMPERATOR CESAR MARCVS AVKELIVS SEVE- 

RVS ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX 

AVGVSTVS. HORREVM VETV- 

STATE CONLABSVM M (?) 

COHORS SECVNDA ASTVRVM SECT\*XDVM ARTEM 

A SOLO RESTITVERVNT 

PROVINCIA REGNANTE 

MAXIMO LEGATO 

KALENDIS MARTII 

The Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander, the pious, happy, and 
august. The Second Cohort of the Astures restored from the ground, in a workman- 
like manner, this granary which had fallen down through age, in the kalends of 
March , Maximus governing the province as (Augustal) Legate- 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



227 



12. Inscribed Slab found at BREMENKTM, High Rochester, in Redesdale. 
Presented to the Society by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, Bart. Described 
in Hodgson's Northumberland, Pt. II., vol. i., p. 139. 



FELICD&C-PARTHlCi 

IfviAX'BRlTMAX-GERMl] 

f R ! E-POT;E STJwiiWivp.i 

Si!l!PRbC<t>SPPC< 

J AXAKDVI ^ (? P EO(X)/ 
I WAN AnniSVBCVR A? 

Ly8i ''JR. 1 1' 1 !'.*, .. _. f ..Af HI V.I. -f r*-*'VA.r ^ 



IMPERATORI C^SARI MARCO AVRELIO 

8EVERO ANTONINO 

PIO FELICI AVGVSTO PARTHICO 

MAXIMO BRITANNICO MAXIMO GERMANICO 

MAXIMO PONTIFICI MAXIMO 

TRIBVNITIAE POTESTATIS VNDEVIGESIMVM IMPERATORIAE SECVNDVM 

CONSVLARIS QVARTVM, PROCONSVLI, PATRI PATRI.E COHORS PRIMA 

FIDA VARDVLORVM, CIVIVM ROMANORVM EQVITATA ANTO- 

NINIANA FECIT SVB CVRA 

LEGATI AVGVSTALIS PROPR^ETORIS 

To the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, pious, happy, august r 
styled Parthicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus, * chief priest r 
possessed of the tribunitian power for the nineteenth time, of the imperial for the 
second time, the consular for the fourth time, the father of his country ; The First 
Cohort of the Varduli, stirnamed the faithful, composed of Roman citizens, a miliary 
cohort, with its due proportion of cavalry attached, and honoured with the name of 

Antonine, erected this under the superintendence of an augustal 

legate and propraetor. 

The Antonine here referred to is the eldest son of Severus, com- 
monly known as Caracalla; he was Consul for the fourth time A.D. 213. 

* It is difficult to translate Maximus in these instances. Probably it was intended 
to intensify the epithet to which it is joined. 



228 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



IN THE GREAT HALL. 

13. A Roman Soldier, much mutilated. BORCOVICTTS. Hodgson, LXY. 
He wears a tunic, over which is thrown the usual military cloak. 
The tunic is bound round the waist by a thin sash, the end of which 
hangs down. The cloak is fastened near the right shoulder by a circular 
fibula. The figure was found " lying on the ridge in the hollow of the 
field west of the Mithraic cave." Hodgson conjectures that this and 
several similar sculptures found in this locality were sepulchral monu- 
ments. 





14. Figure of Victory, holding in her hands an ornament 
what resembling a pelta or light 

shield. From CORSTOPITUM. Hors- 
ley, N". cm. ; Hodgson, ccxxv. 
Another figure probably occupied 
the right extremity of the slab, and 
an inscription inclosed in a circular 
garland was placed in the centre. 

15. A Roman Soldier in his civic 
dress ; the head and feet broken off. 
From BOECOVICVS. He is clad in a 
tunic and mantle. The left hand 
gracefully suspends a portion of the 
mantle, which has a fringe at the 
bottom three inches deep. The fringe 
is common to Romano-Gaulish cos- 
tume. (See Collectanea Antiqua, \ 
v. iii., p. 81. 



some- 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



229 



Nos. 16, 17, 18, 19, and 21, consist of female figures seated in chairs. 
Each figure forms a separate statue, though they have no doubt been 
arranged in groups of three. From BOECOVICTJS. Horsley, N. XLIX. ; 
Hodgson, xLVin. Three of these, Horsley tells us, were found near the 
side of a brook (probably the Knag-burn), on the east of the station. 





There can be little doubt that these figures were intended to represent 
Matres deities extensively worshipped in the northern pro- 
vinces of the Roman empire. The deities are for the most part re- 
presented as triple, seated, and having baskets of fruit on their laps. 
The heads and hands of all the figures before us have been knocked 
off. Fig. 16 is very rough, bearing distinct marks of the pick-axe; 
probably it has never been finished. All the figures are clothed in 
an under garment, which falls in plaits to the feet ; and an over robe, 
which, in most of them, after being gathered into a drooping fold upon 
the lap, falls about half way down the legs. A band encircles the body 
a little below the swell of the bosom. The peculiar arrangement of the 
drapery in fig. 21, which is characteristic of the Imperial period, led 
Horsley 's correspondent, Mr. "Ward, to suppose that the deity was tied 
to her chair to prevent her departure. There can be no doubt, from 
the instances which Mr. Ward cites, that such a practice was occasion- 
ally resorted to, but the figure before us is certainly not a case in point. 

2 E 



230 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



20. Prom HABITANCUM, the modern Eisingham. Presented by Mr. 
Richard Shanks, and described by Mr. Thos. Hodgson in the Arch- 
seologia JEliana (0. S.) vol. iv., p. 20. It was found among the 



(9SCV?AKE(f)!ANADV^Ro 




debris of the South gateway of the station. The upper portion of the 
slab which is now lost, has probably contained the name and titles of 
Severus. From the centre of the stone the name of Geta has been pur- 
posely erased ; probably, after being murdered by his brother. The 
slab was probably placed upon the front of the south gateway of 
HABITANCUM, A.D. 207. Mr. Thomas Hodgson thus restores the inscrip- 
tion ; the portions wanting being printed in a different character. 

Imperatoribvs Ccesaribvs. 

Lvcio Septimio Severo Pio Pertinaci Pontifici Maximo Arabico Parthico ADIABENICO 
MAXIMO. 

CONSVLI TERTIVM, ET MARCO AVRELIO ANTONINO PIO 

CONSVLI SECVNDO AVGVSTis et PvUio Septimio Geta nobilissimo Casari Consvli 

PORTAM CVM MVRIS VETVSTATE DI- 
LAPSIS IVSSV ALFENI SENECINIS VIRI 
CONSVLARIS CVRANTE ANTISTIO ADVENTO PRO. . 
AVGVSTIS NOSTRIS COHORS PRIMA VANGIONVM EQ. . 
CVM JEMILIO SALVIANO TRIBVNO 
BVO A SOLO RESTITVIT. 

To the Emperors, the Caesars to Lucius Septimius Severus Pius, chief priest, styled 
Arabicus, Partlucus, Adiabenicus Maximus, consul for the third time; (and) to 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, consul for the se.cond time both styled August 
and to Publius Septimius Geta, the most noble Caesar. The First Cohort of the Yan- 
giones, with Aemilius Salvianus their tribune, at the command of Alfenus Senecinis, 
a man of consular rank, under the care of Antistius Adventus, restored from the 
ground this gate with the contiguous walls, which had become dilapidated through age. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



231 




22. From BORCOVICUS. Horsley, K". L. ; Hodgson, XLIX. Three female 
figures, partially clothed and 
standing. Are they nymphs 
at their ablutions, or dece ma- 
tres? The upper portion of 
the stone, which is now lost, 
contained the figures of two 
fish and a sea goat intended, 
probably, as the emblems of 
the second legion. The lower 
part appears to have contained 
a recumbent figure, probably 
a river-god. 



23. An inscription in Iambic verse, in praise of Ceres, the mother of 
the gods. From the Roman station of MAGNA, the modern Carvoran. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. Hodgson, Pt. II., vol. iii., p. 138.; 
Archeeologia JEliana, vol. i., p. 107. The inscription is unusually 
long, and is without ligatures or contractions. It is here arranged as 
the scansion requires. 



IMMINET LEONI VIRGO CJELESTI SITV 
SPICIFERA JVSTI 1NVENTRIX VRBIVM CON- 

DITRIX 

EX QVIS MVNERIBVS NOSSE CONTIGIT DEOS 
ERGO EADEM MATER DIWM PAX VIRTVS 

CERES 

DEA SYRIA LANCE VITAM ET JVRA PENSITANS 
IN OiELO VISVM SYRIA SIDVS EDIDIT 
LYBI^E COLENDVM INDE CVNCTI DIDICIMVS 
ITA INTELLEXIT NVMINE INDVCTVS TVO 
MARCVS C^CILIVS DONATINVS MILITANS 
TRIBVNYS IN PRJEFECTOJDONO PRINCIPIS 



The Virgin in her celestial seat overhangs the Lion, 
Producer of corn, Inventress of right, Foundress of cities, 




232 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



By which, functions it has been our good fortune to know the deities. 

Therefore the same Virgin is the Mother of the gods, is Peace, is Virtue, is Ceres, 

Is the Syrian goddess, poising life and laws in a balance. 

The constellation beheld in the sky hath Syria sent forth 

To Lybia to be worshipped, thence have all of us learnt it ; 

Thus hath understood, overspread by thy protecting influence, 

Marcus Csecilius Donatinus, a war-faring 

Tribune in the office of prefect, by the bounty of the emperor. 

24. The fragment of a stone inscribed on both sides. From BORCO- 
VICTJS. Hodgson, LVTI. The inscriptions are evidently of different 
dates. The form of the letters and the absence of ligatures in a, show 



PAVUM 

PRAETEN 




it to have been the earlier. It has also been of larger size than the 
other. It contains the name of an officer, PAULiNus, 1 who would 
appear to have been engaged in the construction of the PEJETENTTJRJE. 
The slab, after having suffered from the mischances of war, has supplied 
the material for a second inscription, #, of a smaller size. The lines 
of the second inscription which remain read 

IMPERATORIBVS 
C-ffilSARIBVS 

[M.] AURELIO AN[TONINO.] 



To the Emperors, the Caesars, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 



The emperor here named is Caracalla ; the other emperor referred to 
must have been his brother Geta. As Geta was slain in the first year 
of their united reign, the date of the inscription will be A.D. 211. 

25. A Slab, inscribed FVLGVE 
DIVOM the lightning of the gods 
from the western approach to HTJN- 
KUM, the modern Halton Chesters. 
Presented by Rowland Errington, 
Esq. It no doubt marked the spot 
where some Roman soldier was 
struck down by lightning. 

1 The final letters of the prsenomen seem to be NTIO, which would give some us 
such word as Pontio, Quintio, Terentio, &c. 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



233 



26. The upper part of the figure 
of a Roman soldier in low relief, 
and much weathered. He rests 
upon his spear, and has his sword 
at his right side. It somewhat 
resembles a more perfect figure 
given in Horsley, N. LI. 




27. A mutilated figure of Neptune in bas-relief, from the station of 
PE.OCOLITIA, the modern Carrawburgh. Presented by Sir Walter C. 
Trevelyan, Bart. Hodgson, 
xxxvi. ; ArchaBologia JBliana 
(Old Series), Vol. I., p. 203. 
The Romans were not a mari- 
time people; and we find but 
few traces of their chief marine 
deity in the north of England. 

The Batavi, who garrisoned ^H^^gj^^gigM/ JfJffll / 
the Station where this figure 
was found, may have brought 
with them from their own 
island 2 home to that of their 
adoption those predictions 
which have in modern times 
characterized the inhabitants of the Delta of the Ehine. 



28. The upper portion of a hu- 
man figure set in a niche. Prom 
BOECOVICUS. It is probably part of 
a funereal monument. 





2 Insula Batavorum. Caesar. 



234 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



IN THE WINDOWS OF TSE LONGITUDINAL STAIRCASE. 

29. A Slab discovered, in excavating one of the gateways of AMBOG- 
LANNA, by H. GLASFOKD POTTER, Esq., to whom the Society is indebted, 



OLEGAVCPR 



PRAEEST 
1ENANDE 




not only for the stone itself, but the cut representing it. The reading 
seems to be 

SVB MODIO IV- 

LIO LEGATO AVGUSTALI PRO- 
PRJETORE COHORS PRIMA 1ELIA. DACORVM 
CVI PRAEEST MARCV8 
CLAVDIVS MENANDER 
TRIE VN VS. 

f " The First Cohort of the Dacians (styled the -ZElian), commanded hy Marcus Clau- 
dius Menander, the Tribune, (erected this) hy direction of Modius Julius, Augusta! 
Legate and Propraetor. 

Mr. Potter gives a slightly different reading, for which, and particu- 
lars of the discovery of the stone, see Arch. JEliana, vol. iv. p. 141. 

30. Prom HABITANCTJM, Bisingham. Presented by Mr. "William 
Shanks. Part of an altar inscribed 



PRO SALVTE 

ARRII PAVLINI 

THEODOTV8 

LIBENS MERITO POSV1T 



SALVTE 

fAR.RtPAVUNI 
TffiODOTVS/ 



K'.x" 



.X 



For the safety of 
Arrius Paulinus, 
Theodotus dedicated 
(this altar) willingly 
and deservedly. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



235 



31. From HABITANCFM. Presented by Mr. Wm. 
Shanks. The fragment of a slab bearing the 
words 



MAXIMI BRITANNICI 
HADRIANI ABNEPOTI. 




which doubtless referred to M. Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla), the son of 
Septimius Severus, (styled) Parthicus Maximus and Britannicus Max- 
imus, and the great grandson of Hadrian. 

32. From HABITANCUM. Presented by Mr. Wm. Shanks. These 
are fragments of a large inscription, evideatly dedicated to Caracalla. 



Imperatori Ccesari 

DIVI SEPTIMII Severifilio 

Marci ANTONINI PII SARMATICI 

nepoti 

Marco Aurelio ANTONINO 
PROCONSVLI 



To the Emperor Caesar Marcus 
Aurelius Antoninus, proconsul, the 
son of the deified Septimius Severus, 
the grandson of Marcus Antoninus 
Pius,, (styled) Sarmaticus 



SEf? 

SARMA' 

,NJON 

SENATpHAd 
l-ONVOTBTJEM! 

R V" .*f .Mi: M "/y*L*;_ *, -JT^" 



The latter part of the inscription is too incomplete to admit of even 
a conjectural interpretation ; the words decretum senatus and legionum 
are, however, distinct. 



Z2^ TJT^ SOUTH GALLERY OF THE GREAT HALL. 

33. From HABITANCTJM. The gift of Mr. Wm. Shanks. This frag- 
ment of an inscription also, 
probably, refers to Cara- 
calla, the son of Severus, 
one of whose titles was 
ADIABENICTJS. 




HIPHPRC 



34. HABITANCTTM. Mr. 
33 William Shanks. A frag- 

ment also probably belonging to the age of Caracalla. 




236 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



35. HABITANCUM. Mr. Wm.. Shanks. A fragment of an inscribed 
Tablet. Some of the letters are worn out as if by the treading of feet 
upon it ; those which remain seem to be the following : 



. . CON .... 

ETATI 

. TI ET EXPL . 



36. HABITANCUM. Mr. Wm. Shanks. A fragment of an inscription. 



PATRIE 
BAETICAE 



37. HABITANCUM. Mr. Wm. Shanks. 

Imperatori Ccesari divi Septimii Severi Britan- 
nici MAXIMI FILIO DIVI Antonini Pii PARTHICI 
(?j ET nepoti Pontijici MAXIMO TRI- 

BVNITIA POTESTATE Et MATRI AVGVSTI 

POSVERVNT. 

(The army) erected (this building and dedi- 
cated it) to the Emperor Csesar the son of the 
deified Septimius Severus (surnamed) Britanni- 
cus Maximus and grandson of Antoninus Pius 
(surnamed) Parthicus and to the Mother of the 
emperor (Julia Domna). 




IN THE VESTIBULE OF THE LIBRARY. 

38. A small rude figure of Silvanus (?). It was found in digging the 
Carlisle canal, at Burgh - on - the - 
Sands, and was presented by the 
engineer, the late Wm. Chapman, Esq. 
Several figures similar to this have 
been found in the Roman stations in 
the north of England. 

39. From HABITANCUM. The mu- 
tilated figure of a Roman soldier. 





INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



237 



40. Fragment of a Monumental Stone from BORCOVICUS. It consists 
of a figure in a niche a cornucopias is at its left side ; something like 




a quiver appears on the right shoulder. This cut, and the two preceding 
ones, are drawn to the scale of an inch and a half to the foot. 

Nos. 41 to 49 consist of Heads which have been severed by the violence 
of the enemies of Rome, or some casualty, from the trunks of the 
statues which once adorned the stations. 

41. A laureated Head of larger size than is usual, from Blake- 
Chesters, North Shields, the gift of Cuthbert Rippon, Esq. 

42. A male Head, bearded ; the locality not known. 



43. The Head of a female, with 
the hair turned back, probably be. 
longing to one of the dece matres 
found at BORCOVICUS, where this 
was obtained. See ISTos. 16, &c. 

44. A rude colossal Head of Pan, 
found at MAGNA. Presented by the 
late Mr. Greo. Armstrong Dickson. 



45. A rude Head of Hercules, 
from BORCOVICUS. 

46. Head of a female figure, 
BORCOVICUS, probably belonging to 
one of the Dea Matres already de- 
scribed. 

47. Head bearing a crown. 







238 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 





48. Head of a female, found at AMBOGLAN^A, the modern Birdoswald. 
Presented by H. Glasford Potter, Esq. This head belongs to the statue 

of a Dea Mater, discovered by Mr. Potter several years after 
the head had been disinterred. Archeelo- 
gia ^Eliana, vol. iv., p. 68. The hair 
of the head is turned back, much in the 
way it is worn at present (1856). A foli- 
ated band of some elegance, tied behind, 
keeps it back. 3 

49. Head of a male figure; the hair short and curly. 

Nos. 5G# to 50# consist of Roman Tiles or Bricks, for the most part 
10 inches long by 9j broad, and lj thick. The one marked a has 
been impressed while soft by the foot of a dog, or, more probably, 
judging from the length of the claws, a wolf, running over it ; I is 
wedge-shaped, and has been used in forming a barrel drain ; it is from 
BREMENITIM. Those marked c, d, and e have impressed on them the 
legend LEG. vr. v. The Sixth Legion, (surnamed) the Victorious ; one 
of them fdj is from CORSTOPITUM, and was presented by the late Sir 
David Smith, Bart. The specimen /has had the word TIPRINVS scratched 
upon it with a stick or some 
rough instrument ; g, which 
is thicker than the others 
(about 2 inches), is from HA- 
BITANCUM, and is the gift of 
Mr. "W. Shanks. 

51. An important Sculp- 
ture, from a Mithraic cave in 
the vicinity of BOECOVICUS. 
Hodgson, LIV. ; Archseologia 
^lliana, vol. i., p. 283. The 
god Mithras is in the centre, 
holding a sword (?) in his 
right hand, a torch in his 
left. Surrounding him, in an 
egg-shaped border, are the 
signs of the zodiac. "The 
signs commence, after the 
Roman manner, at Aquarius 
or January, and end with Cap- 

3 Fig. 48 is drawn to the scale of tlirce quarters of an inch to the foot, the other 
heads to the scale of an inch and a half. 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



239 



ricorn, or December." The upper part of the stone, which contained 
Cancer and part of Leo, has been lost. The fracture between Virgo 
and Scorpio has probably obliterated Libra. " Mithraism was a species 
of Sabaism, which in old times prevailed from China, through Asia and 
Europe, as far as Britain. During the reign of Commodus the former 
had become common among the Romans ; and in the time of Severus 
had extended over all the western part of the empire. It was imported 
from Syria, and was synonymous with the worship of Baal and Bel in 




that country ; for in it, as in the mysteries of Osiris in Egypt, and 
of Apollo in Greece and Rome, the sun was the immediate object of 
adoration . ' ' Hodgson . 



240 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



52. Several fragments of a large Tablet found in the Mithraic cave 
at BORCOVICUS. The tablet unfortunately was 
broken up for draining-stones, and to a great 
extent irrecoverably lost, before its value was 
known. The wood-cut on the preceding page 
exhibits the usual form of these Mithraic sculp- 
tures. The parts of the BORCOVICUS tablet which 
remain are a fragment of the bull's head, the dog 
jumping up to lick the blood, a hand grasping a 
sword, and two figures of Mithras with an up- 
lifted torch, one of which had stood on the right 
side of the tablet, the other on the left. One 
of them is shown in the accompanying cut. 
Hodgson, LV. ; Archaeologia ^Eliana, vol. i.^ 
p. 283. 



53. A mutilated and much weathered figure of a 
Roman Soldier in his coat of mail. From CORSTOPI- 
TTJM ; presented by Mr. Spoor. 

54. The lower part of a figure of ^Esculapius, rudely 
carved. From AMBOGLANNA. 






55. A carved Stone, probably the base of an altar, representing a 
wild bull in the woods. HABITANCTTM ; presented by Mr. Shanks. 



56 A Centurial Stone, from Walbottle, presented by the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle -upon - 
Tyne. 



DRP 



57. A Centurial Stone, from MAGNA. Some of the letters are indis- 
tinct, but the inscription seems to intimate that the Century 4 under 

4 A century was a body of troops consisting, when complete, of a hundred men, 
and commanded by a Centurion. A (C) reversed, or an angular figure like a (V) laid 
upon its side, is the usual contraction for the word Centttria. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 241 

Valerius Cassianus executed work to the extent of nineteen paces. 
Several slabs of large size and ornate character have 
been found on the Antonine Wall, in Scotland, record- 
* Dg ^e execu tion, by various bodies of troops, of por- 
tions of the Vallum, amounting usually to one or two 




thousand paces. The absence of similar inscriptions on the Wall of 
Hadrian is remarkable. The only approaches to them are stones such 
as that under notice, that below, No. 67, and one in the museum of 
Alnwick Castle, which bears the inscription 

o FLORINI 

P XXll 

Centuria Florini, passus viginti duo. The Century of Florinus (erected) twenty 

two paces. 

We may perhaps account for the smallness of the numbers on these 
stones by supposing that they related to the walls of the stations, and 
included not only the walls themselves, but the garrison buildings 
within them. 

58. A Centurial Stone, bearing the inscription 

COH VIII 
CAECILI 
CLEM .... 

Cohortis octavae Centuria Csecilii Clementis. (This work was performed by) a Cen- 
tury of the Eighth Cohort under the command of Caecilius Clemens. 

59. Fragment of a Stone, rudely sculptured. From BREMENITJM. 
Part of the figure of a dog, or other quadruped, appears. 

60. A Centurial Stone ; the inscription, which is much weathered, 
seems to be this co iv PR. 



61. A round Globe, of large size, with the foot of Victory firmly planted 
on it ; the rest of the statue is wanting. From the Roman Station of 
Stanwix ; presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., Carlisle. 

62. The leg (wanting the foot) of a Statue. The front of the shin is 
unusually sharp ; the upper fastenings of the cothurnus appear. From 
Stanwix; presented by J. D- Carr, Esq., Carlisle. 



242 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 




63. A square Slab, ornamented on the sides with circles containing a 
cross within each. The inscription, which has consisted of at least six 
lines, is nearly effaced. The first line has begun thus, > PET A . . . . ; the 
last line consists of the letters p . E . E . p. 

64. Part of the shoulder of a large mailed 
statue. From Blake-chesters ; presented by 
George Bippon, Esq. 

65. A figure of Victory, with outstretched 
wings. The peculiar curl of the lower part 
of the drapery will be noticed. From the 
Roman Station of Stanwix. It had been 
used in the building of the old church at 
Stanwix, and was rescued when that build- 
ing was pulled down to be replaced by the 
present church. Presented by the Rev. 
Thomas Wilkinson. 

66. A Centurial Stone, from Chester-le- Street ; broken through the 
middle; inscription illegible. Presented by the Rev. W. Featherston- 
haugh. 

67. A Centurial Stone ; illegible. 

68. A "Walling Stone, inscribed 

LEG II 
AVG 

Legio Secunda Augusta. The Second Legion, the August (erected this). 

69. A fragment of a Sculptured Stone, having on one side a bird 
pecking at a string of foliage, and on the other an object or ornament 
resembling a sacrificing knife. 

70. Part of a Slab, from VINDOLANA, the modern Chesterholm, pre- 

sented by the late Rev. Anthony Hedley. Its 
right bears a Roman vexillam, or standard; the 
left is gone. The inscription is very imperfect. 
The first line has the letters COH., the second 
PBOM. 

71. A Centurial Stone, bearing the inscription 

con v 

> CAECILI 
PB.OCLI 

Cohortis quintse centuria Csecilii Procli. The Century of Caecilius Proclus, of the 

Fifth Cohort. 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 
72 A Centurial Stone, bearing, the letters ELIX. Qu. Felix ? 



243 



73. A Centurial Stone, containing the inscription ' K- A"'"^ 

Centuria Claudii passus triginta The Century of Claudius C 
(erected) thirty paces. 



74. The figure of a Roman Soldier ; the head 
and shoulders are knocked off. From BORCO- 
vicus. The lower part of his tunic consists of 
" scales, composed of horn or metal, sowed on 
to a basis of leather or quilted linen, and formed 
to imitate the scales of a fish." 5 

75. Three Flue Tiles, for carrying the hot air 
from the hypocaust up into the walls of the 
building. Probably from COB.STOPITUM ; pre- 
sented by the late Rev. S. Clarke, Hexham. 




76. Part of a small, rudely executed female figure. 

77. A rude figure of Silvanus(?) resembling No. 38. In his left 
hand he holds the head of some animal, probably a goat. 




78. A small Stone Mortar or crucible, with a spout. 

79. Fragments of roofing tiles : on one of them is stamped LEG. YI. T. 

80. A squared Stone, with a moulding, bearing the inscription 



LEGIO.VI 
PI.E.F.VEX 



Legionis sextse pise et fidelis vexillatio refecit ; a vexillation of the Sixth Legion pious 
and faithful restored (this). 

From the vicinity of COESTOPITTJM ; presented by John Grey, Esq., 
Dilston House. 

5 See Rich's Companion to the Latin Dictionary, p. 193. 



244 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



81. Part of an Altar, which has been split down the middle to form 
i gate-post. Prom HABITANCFM ; presented by Mr. James Forster. 
Hodgson, who describes the altar (Hist. Nor., Pt. II., vol, i., p. 186), 




IPERCEl 
FERWNf 
( IN 
D 
EFIQ NE 



. .IN 

. . . .ED 

R<JEL 

. .VINE 



UBhPRo 

CEPRS 

EM1NII/S\ 
~PROFV/VP'\ 
GEMVOEV 
EREVITAE 



FICIN 

EF PAG 

1BIPRO 

LVCEPPO 

, . . FLAMINIV8 
,ET PRO FVNE 

CEMVOLV 

, DE BE VITAE 



suspects the inscription was in hexameter verse. Mr. Hodgson's copy of 
the inscription is here placed side by side with the engraving ; a compari- 
son of the two will enable the reader to ascertain on which of the let- 
ters he may rely. 

82. Part of an Inscribed Stone, having on 
the right a banner, upheld by the arm of a 
soldier. From BOKCOVICUS. 

83. The upper part of a Slab, apparently 
monumental. On it is a carving of the cres- 
cent moon, embracing in its horns the fir-cone 
ornament. 

84. An Altar to Fortune. From HABITANCUM. Presented by Mr. 
Shanks. Described in the Archaeologia .^Eliana, vol. iii., p. 150. 
"When discovered, the altar, as represented in the cut, stood upon a 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



245 



mass of masonry about three feet high. The great peculiarity of this 
altar is that the inscription is repeated on the basement slab, which is 
also provided with a focus. 




Cams Valerius the Tribune dedicated 
(this altar) to Fortune. 

The altar bears no indications of having been exposed to the weather. 
The patera on one of its sides bears distinct marks of the chisel. The 
rest of the surface is dotted over by the indentations of a fine pick-axe or 
similar tool. The head of the altar has at some time been forcibly 
separated from the body. 



in- 



85. A Stone, from COBSTOPITTJM, 
scribed Legio Sexta victrix, pia, fidelis. 
The Sixth Legion (styled) the victorius, 
the affectionate, and faithful. The marks 
of the mason's chisel are distinct. Presented by Mr. Eewcastle, of 
Gateshead. 2 G 



, - p ----- _. 
Ldelis.- JLEC'V/V 
ictorius, L^,.,.., nr J 




246 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



86. Part of an Altar, from HABITANCUH ; apparently 
inscribed Jovi Optimo Maximo et Imperatoribus. To 
Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the Emperors. 
The Emperors in question are probably, Sevems and 
his sons. Presented by Mr. Richard Shanks. 

87. A Stone from the Roman Wall near Walbottle. f~ 
Presented by Mr. Wilson. 

CENTURIA PEREGBINI. The Century of Peregrinus. 







88. A Slab, containing an inscription, which, in the opinion of Hodg- 
son, is "of all the inscriptions discovered in Britain of the greatest his- 



IMPCAE5TRAIAN 

V HADRIAN lAV 
' LEG II AVC 
APLAMQNEPOTEEGPilPR' 



torical importance." Hodgson, cccvu. It reads Imperatoris Cassaris 
Trajani Hadriani Legio Secunda Augusta Aulo Platorio Nepote 
Legato Propraetore. The second Legion (styled) the August (erected 
this building in honour) of the Emperor Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus 
Augustus, Aulus Platorius Nepos, being Legate and Propraetor. Wallis, 
in his History of Northumberland, is the first to mention this stone, vol. 
ii., p. 27, and he says it was found " in digging up the foundations of 
a castellum or miliary turret, in the Wai!, in an opening of the preci- 
pice by Crag-Lake, called Lough-End-Crag or Milking-Gap, for stones 
for building a farm-house belonging to William Lowes, of Newcastle, 
Esq." He was probably misinformed as to the precise locality. The 
Milking-Gap Mile-Castle did not belong to Mr. Lowes; the Castle- 
Nick Mile-Castle did belong to him, and is placed in an opening in the 
precipice west of what is now called the Milking-Gap. Half of an 
inscription, precisely similar to this, was found built up in the farm- 
house of Bradley, 6 which is in the immediate vicinity of Milking-Gap, 

6 This moiety of the stone is now at Matfen ; another fractured stone, now in the 
Library of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, exactly fits it, and completes the 
inscription. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 247 

This, probably, is the one which was derived from the Milking-Gap 
castellum. In the Housesteads Mile-Castle, which is the next to the 
east of the Castle-Nick Castle, the fragment of a similar inscription was 
found in 1851, when it was excavated by its owner, John Clayton, 
Esq. Mr. Clayton also found a portion of a similar inscription in the 
Cawfields castellum, which is about three miles to the West of the Milk- 
ing-Gap. But, although he excavated the imposing remains of the 
Castle-Nick castellum in 1852, no inscribed stone was found ; hence he 
has come to the very probable conclusion that the slab before us was 
obtained by Mr. Lowes from the Castle-Nick. The importance of the 
stone consists in its giving us the true reading of the fragments already 
referred to, as well as of some others; and in proving that these mile- 
castles were built (and hence the Wall also) in the time of Hadrian. 
The stone was presented to the Society by the late John Davidson, Esq. 

89. The part of a Stone, containing the inscription, separated from 
the rest, probably for the convenience of carriage. It reads 

c FAVI 

SEBANI 

Centuria Favi Sebani. The Century of Favus Sebanus. 



90. A Centurial Stone, much weathered; the inscription is very 
obscure. 

COH 

> VAL S VEL 



91. A Centurial Stone, much weathered, and the inscription very 
obscure. 

COltll X 
> S1XIROX (?) 
VALER (?) 

92. Part of a large but severely fractured Slab, from ^EsicA ; pre- 
sented by Capt. Coulson. The portion of the inscription remaining is 
as follows : 



VS ANTONINO ET 
THIC1S MEDICIS 
M * IKAETOIIV 
TAT . . CiT ET. 



* A hole has been bored through the stone at the place marked by the asterisk. 



248 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



This stone 



93. From Jarrow ; presented by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. 
is, probably, the base of an altar, or it may 

have been part of the decorations of a sepul- 
chral monument. The much - weathered 
sculpture represents an archer shooting at 
a stag. See Brand's Newcastle, vol. ii. 
p. 62. 

94. A Stone, which, subsequently to its use by the Romans, has been 
employed in the construction of the Saxon Church at Jarrow. On 





the edge of this slab is a portion of a cross in relievo, with a central 
boss, and similar in design to the cross occurring on some of the Hartle- 
pool head-stones, and to that on the Durham Priory seal, known as St. 
Cuthbert' s cross. The cross must have been wrought upon many stones, 
most probably after they had been placed in situ. It was surrounded 
by the cable moulding so frequent in Saxon work. The Roman inscrip- 
tion is much effaced, but, as suggested by Brand, it seems to have been 
erected in honour of the adopted sons of Hadrian, of whom Antoninus 
Pius, his successor, was one. Presented by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. 
Brand, ii., 63; Hodgson, CLXXI. 



DEO MAR 
MILVM 
8ENIVS 
VSLM 




DEOVI 
TERINE 
C 1\ 1-A /A 
I 




DKO YE 
TERINE 
CALAM 
ESVSL 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



249 



95. A small Altar, from MAGNA ; kindly deposited in the Museum by 
Col. Coulson. The inscription is obscure, but the reading may be 
Deo Marti Militari Valerius Marcus Senius 7 VSLM To the martial god 
Mars this altar is dedicated, in discharge of a vow willingly and de- 
servedly made. 

96. A small Altar, from MAGNA ; deposited by Col. Coulson. The 
letters are tolerably distinct, but the reading is doubtful. It may be 
Deo Yeteri Nepos Calames (?) votum solvit libens. Willingly dedicated 
to the ancient god, in discharge of a vow. In every age there have 
been setters forth and denouncers of " strange gods" advocates and 
opponents of the " new" and the " old learning." Hodgson reads 
it "To the veterinary god." Hist. Nor., Part II., vol. iii., p. 141. 
It must also be borne in mind, in judging of this and a class of similar 
altars, that there seems to have been a local god named Yitris or 
Yeteres. 



97. From JEsiCA ; presented by Capt. Coul- 
son. An altar was found at MAGNA, which 
Horsley (N. LXIX) reads Dirus Yitiribus Dec- 
cius votum solvit libens merito ; understanding 
the first three words to be the name of the dedi- 
cator. The discovery of the altar, figured in 
the margin, which has the letter B of DIB[VS], 
quite plain, makes it probable that Horsley should 
have read DIBVS, not DIRVS. The inscription 
may be translated Romana erected this altar to the ancient gods 




IHBVS 
VETEK.I 
BVS POS 
VIT ROMA 
NA 



98. The head of a small Altar, from Chester-le-street ; presented by 
the Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh. The inscription is 



DEO APOLI 
NI LEG II A 



To the god Apollo, by the second legion the August. 

99. From MAGNA; deposited by Colonel Coulson. The inscription may 
be translated Titus Flavius Secundus, Prefect of the First Cohort of the 
Hamian Archers, according to a vision, in the due and voluntary per- 
formance of a vow, (erected this altar) to Fortune the August, for the 
safety of Lucius -<3lius Caesar. Fortune was solicited on this occasion 



7 This word may be BINIUS or HINIUS. 



250 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



in vain. Lucius JElius Caesar, who was the adopted son of Hadrian, 
died in the lifetime of that Emperor, A.D. 137. 



RTVNAEAVC* 

O'SALVTE'l-AELI 

A.ESARIS-EX-VISV, 

FLA V SECVNDVS V 

PRAEF-COHT HAM 

IORVM*SACIT7AB 




FORTVNAE AVGVSTVAE 
PRO SALVTE AELII 
CAESARIS EX VISV 
TITVS FLAVIVS SECVNDVS 
PRAEFECTVS COHORTIS I HAM 
IORVM SAG1TTARIORVM 
VOTVM SOLVIT LIBENS MERITO. 



When the Kbtitia was written the Dalmatians occupied the garrison at 
MAGNA. Three other inscriptions, besides this, found here, mention the 
Hamii. The Hamii, as Hodgson shrewdly conjectures, were from Hamah, 
the Hamath of Scripture, a city of Syria. Hodgson, Hist. Nor., II. iii., 
p. 139 and p. 205. 




100. A small headless figure of Fortune, from 
MAGNA ; deposited by Colonel Coulson. She has the 
wheel in her right hand, the Cornucopia in her 
left. 

101. Fragment of an Inscription, from MAGNA ; de- 
posited by Col. Coulson. The name of Calpurniu 
Agricola occurs upon two or three inscriptions in 
connection with the Hamii at MAGNA. There can 
be no doubt that we have before us frag- 
ments of the words 

CALPVRNIVS AGRICOLA 
HAMIORVM 

The date of these inscriptions is not known. 



102. A Funereal Inscription, from MAGNA; deposited by Col. Coul- 
on. Hodgson, Hist. North., II. iii., p. 142. The inscription may pro- 
bably be read thus Caius Valerius Caii (films) Yoltinia (tribu) Tullus 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



251 



vixit annos quinquaginta miles Legionis Vicesimse Yalentis Yictricis. 
(In memory of) Cains Valerius Tullus the son of Gains, of the Voltinian 
tribe, a soldier of the Twentieth 
Legion (styled) Valiant and Vic- 
torious (who) lived fifty years. 
Hodgson's reading is Caius 
Valerius Caius Voltinius Julius 
vixit annos &c. The palm branch, 
the type of victory, will be no- 
ticed in the triangular head of 
the stone, and at the commence- 
ment and close of the last line. 
The age of the soldier has been 
cut upon a nodule of ferruginous 
matter which has fallen out; there is not space for two letters so that 
there is little doubt that the inscription originally had L. 




103. A headless figure of Mercury, from COESTOPITTJM ; presented 
by the Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh. A purse is on the ground, near his 
left foot ; a cock adorns the pedestal. 




103 




104. A figure of Mercury, found in digging the foundations of the 
High Level Bridge, in the immediate vicinity of the Castle of JNewcastle- 
upon-Tyne one of the few relics of PONS ^Eui. Presented by George 
Hudson, Esq. He has the money bag in his right hand, the caduceus 
in his left ; a ram kneels at his feet. 



252 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



105. A plaister cast of a large Altar, found in the station near Mary- 
port, and now in the grounds of Government House, Castletown, Isle of 
Man. Presented by Dr. Bruce. Horsley, Cumberland, LXIII ; Hodgson, 
cxcv. The first account of this altar appears in the Appendix to Gor- 
don's Itinerarium Septentrionale, and from this source most writers have 
drawn their information respecting it. Some important parts of the 
inscription are obliterated. The following is the reading given by 
Gordon's correspondent : Jovi Augusto Marcus Censorius Marci films, 
Voltinia [tribu] Cornelianus, Centurio Legionis Decimaa Eretensis, 
Prsefectus Cohortis Primae Hispanorum, ex provincia Narbonensi, domo 
Nemausensis, votum solvit laetus lubens merito. To Jupiter the August, 
Marcus Censorius Cornelianus, son of Marcus, of the Yoltinian tribe, 
Centurion of the Tenth Legion (styled) Eretensian (and) prefect of the 
First Cohort of Spaniards of the province of Narbonne of the city of 
Nemausus (Nismes) willingly and deservedly performs a vow. 



IN THE MURAL CHAMBER COMMUNICATING WITH THE LIBRARY. 



106. A Eoman Tombstone, 
found in cutting down Gallow- 
Hill, near Carlisle. Arch. ^Eli- 
ana, vol. ii., p. 419. The in- 
scription runs 

DIIS MANIBVS AVRELIA AVRELIA. VTXSIT 
ANNOS QUADRA GINTA VNVM VLPIVS 
APOLINARIS CONIVGI CARISSIME 
POSVIT. 

To the Divine Manes. Aurelia Aure- 
liana(?) lived forty-one years. Ulpius 
Apolinaris erected this to his beloved 
wife. 



The character of the carving 
and the orthography of the in- 
scription render it probable that 
this slab belongs to a late pe- 
riod of the Roman occupation of 
Britain. 




D'M'AVRAVRELIA'VIXS-IT 

ANNOSXXXXIWLPTVS 

A POUNARlSCONHVCICARISSlNE 



PO.SVJT 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



253 



107. From HABITANCIFM ; presented by Mr. Shanks. Arch. JEliana, 
vol. iii., p. 155. It was not usual with 
the Romans to mention death upon a tomb- 
stone, though the length of the life of the 
deceased is generally mentioned with great 
particularity. 



DIIS MANIBVS 

8ATBJVS 

HONORATVS 

VIXIT AN- 

NIS QVINQVE ME[Nj 

SIBVS OCTO. 



To the Divine 
Manes. Satrius 
Honoratus lived 
five years and five 
months. 



107 



108. A Fragment of a Funereal Inscrip- 
tion. On the right of the slab is a floral 
border, resembling in character that which 
adorns the sides of the capital of the altar 
to Fortune found at HABITANCTTM (No. 84). 
orthography of the wordvmY is the only 
remarkable feature in this fragment. 



AV .......... 

MEM ........ 

FILIAE ...... 

NICONI ...... 

M . AVRELIO . . . 
VICXITA ...... 

XXXVII ...... 



109. 



A Funereal Monument, from 
Horsley, N. LXIV. 7 ; Hodgson, 
xci. The carving is very rude, and is 
probably of the latest period of the 
empire. The inscription is not clear, 
and has been variously given ; it seems 
to be 

D 1 8 M 
PERVICAB FILIAE 

To the divine Manes of the daughter of 
Pervica. 

On the line of the Roman Wall many 
cases occur of the dead having been 
buried instead of being subjected to 
the process of cremation. Judging 
from the excellent preservation in 



From HABITANCUM: (?) The 




254 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



which many of the funereal inscriptions are, the occasional rudeness of 
the sculptures, and from the circumstance that the backs of the stones 
are often entirely undressed, it would seem as if the tombstones had 
been used to cover the cist in which the body was placed (with their faces 
downwards), and that a heap of earth was then thrown over the whole. 
In the cut the rudiments of the " chevron" and the " cable-pattern" of 
the Norman style of ornament will be observed. 

110. An Inscribed Stone, which was first noticed at Walltown, but 
is supposed to have come from .^EsicA. Presented by the late Rev. 
Henry "Wastal, Newbrough. Hodgson, Lxxxvm. It reads Yictoriae 
Augusti Conors Sexta Nerviorum cui 

praeest Caius Julius Barbaras prsefectus 

votuin solvit libens merito. To the vie- 

torious Genius of the Emperor. The Sixth 

Cohort of the Nervii, commanded by 

Caius Julius Barbaras the Prefect, (erected this) in discharge of a vow 

freely and deservedly made. 

111. A Monumental Stone, fromHABiTANcuir; presented by Mr. Shanks. 
Arch. JEliana, vol. iii. p. 153. This stone is remarkably fresh, and 



VlCTp i R'rAEv-/CG>M t Vy. 
hERV('6 ; RM'C'r < RABEST : o 




DM5 
AVRVPV 

LEMATRI 
PIISSIME 
DIONY3KS 
FORTVNA 
TVS PiLIVS 




DLLS MANIBVS SACRVM" 

AVRELI^E LVPV- 

LJE. MATR1 

PlISSIM^S 

DIONYSIVS 

FORTVNA- 

TVS FILIVS. 

SIT TIBI TERRA LEVIS. 9 

Sacred to the divine Manes of Aurelia 
Lupula. Dionysius Fortunatus 
erected this to the memory of his 
most loving mother. May the 
earth lie light upon you. 



has the appearance of having but just left the hands of the sculptor. 

s As an authority for expanding s into SACRVM the following inscription in Gruter 
may be cited 

DIS INFERIS SACRVM 

<J Careful examination reveals a small L in the upper limb of the s. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



255 



112. A Tomb-stone, from BORCOVICUS. 
cated to the Divine Manes on 
behalf of Anicius Ingenuus, 
physician in ordinary to the 
First Cohort of the Tun- 
grians, who lived twenty-five 
years. The figure in the up- 
per part of the stone is a hare. 



DIIS MANIBVS 
ANICIO 
INGENVO 
MEDICO 

ORDTNARIO COIIORTIS 
PRIMAE TVNGRORVM 
VIXIT ANNOS XXV. 



113. Another fragment of 
a Monumental Stone ; it seems 
to have been erected to the 
memory of a person named 
Heres, who lived thirty years. 



Hodgson, LXI. It is dedi- 



VS HERES VIX 
ANNOS XXX. 




114. A Tombstone, from Rising-ham; presented by Mr. Shanks. 
Arch. ^Eliana, vol. iii., p. 153. The inscription is to the following 

effect Sacred to the Divine Shades. 
\ Aurelia Quartela lived thirteen years 
five months and twenty-two days. 
Aurelius Quartinus erected this to the 
memory of his daughter. 




NISXIIIWV 



QVART1NVS 
POSVIT-FIL1 

A&SVAE- t 



DIIS MANIBVS SACRVM. 

AVRELIA QVARTE- 

LA VIXIT AN- 

NIS XIII MENSIBVS V 

DIEBVS XXII. AVRELIVS 

dVARTINVS 

POSVIT FILI- 

AE SVAE. 



256 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



115. A Monumental Stone, found in or near MAGNA. Hodgson, CCCYIII. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. 




DII8 MANIBVS 
AVRELIAE FAIAE 
DOMO SALONA8. 
AVRELIV8 MARCV8 
CENTVR1O OBSEQIO CON- 
IVGIS SANCTIS- 
SIMAE QYAE VI- 
XIT ANNIS XXXIII 
SINE VLLA MACTV T LA. 



To the divine Manes of 

Anrelia Faia, 
Of a house of Salona. 

Aurelius Marcus 

A centurion, out of affection 

For his most holy wife 

Who lived 

Thirty three years, 

"Without any stain, erected this. 



J.STOREV.DEU 



116. Part of a Monumental Stone in- 
scribed 

IVLIVS VICTOR 
8IGNIFER VIXIT ANNOS 
QVINQVAGINTA 




Julius Victor, the standard bearer, lived 
fifty-five years. 



From HABITANCUM ; presented by Mr. Shanks. Arch. JEliana, iv., 153. 

w The lower Hmb of the L is very feebly developed, so that the numeral will at first 
sight be mistaken for iv ; the office of the person (signifer) to whom the stone is 
dedicated renders it necessary that the higher number should be understood. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 257 

117. Fragment of a Monumental Stone, bearing the inscription 



. . . .FRA VEO. . . . 

RI. COMMVNI. 

. . . .CELERITEBLVC 
. .V1XSIT . AN. . 



The letters are well cut, but the stone is somewhat weathered. The 
last letter of the first line and the last three of the third (as here set 
down) are doubtful. 

118. An Inscribed Stone, from MA GN A; presented by Col. Coulson, 
Hodgson, Part II., vol. iii., p. 141. It reads 



COHORS PRIMA BAT- 
AVORVM FECIT 



O RV AA 



The first Cohort of the 
Batavians erected this. 



The First Cohort of the Batavians were, when the Notitia list was 
compiled, garrisoned at PROCOLITIA, the third station to the east of 
MAGNA. It is most probable that when this stone was carved the 
Batavians had been rendering temporary assistance to their fellow- 
soldiers at MAGNA. The stone is much worn by exposure to the weather. 

119. Fragment of a Monumental Stone, from HA- 
BITANCTIM:; presented by Mr. Shanks. The cutting 
of the letters is clean and good. The stone has 
suffered from violence, but not from exposure. 

120. An Inscribed Stone, from HABITAN- 
CTJM. In the process of adapting it to its 
position in some modern building, a large 
part of the inscription of the fragment has 
been effaced. The words CASTBORVM and 
SENATVS are distinct in the last line. The re- 
ference may be to Julia, wife of Severus, as Mater Castrorum. 




121. Fragment of a rudely carved 
Monumental Stone, from HABI- 
TANCTTM. The letters placed beside 
the cut are those which appeared 
most probable when the stone was 
placed under a strong light. 




SDECEF 
ANNXXII 
FALIVN 
REHITIA 
ITCOSC 

F 

VPFITVICT 
VINCVLV 



258 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES, 



122. Fragment of a Slab, from HABITANCTTM, con- 
taining a dedication to Marcus Antoninus (Caracalla), 
the son of Severus who was styled Adiabenicus. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. Archaeologia ^Eliana, vol. 
vi , p. 155. 




7^ THE GUARD CHAMBER. 

123. A defaced and much injured Altar, from "Wark, on the Worth 
Tyne, presented by John Fenwick, Esq. For a long time it was used 
as a step in the stile at the foot of the Moot Hill. It may perhaps be 
regarded as a proof that the Romans had a post at "Wark, which is 
about eight miles to the north of the Wall. One of the sides of the 
altar is adorned with a patera, the other with a pr&fericulum. 



124. A defaced Altar, four feet high ; traces of letters may be noticed, 
but nothing satisfactory can be made out. 



125 



125. A broken and defaced Altar. The greater part 
of the face of the capital on which the name of the 
deity to whom it was dedicated was inscribed, has 
scaled off ; some traces of letters however remain, 
which render it probable that the dedication was 



MATRIBVS 
DOMESTICIS. 



126. An Altar to Fortune, from HABIT ANCTJM ; pre- 
sented by Mr. Shanks. The inscription has been 
clearly cut, but the letters are a good deal blurred by 
having been struck by a picke-axe at some period 
subsequent to their original formation. The inscrip- 
tion is 




FORTUNE REDVCI 
rVLIUS SEVERINVS 
TRIE. EXPLICITO 
BAL1NEO . 



Fortunes Reduci Julius Severinus 
Tribunus explicito balineo votum solvit 
libens merito. 



To Fortune the Restorer, Julius Severinus the Tribune, the Bath being opened, 
erected this altar in discharge of a vow freely and deservedly made. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



259 



The focus on the top is very roughly tooled. Near to it is another 
and smaller cavity ; perhaps a second focus. On the roll forming the 
right side of the capital is a carving, probably a mason's mark, closely 
resembling the gammadion or gamma-formed cross. On the right side 
of the altar are the securis and cutter, on the left the patera and 
prcefericulum. 

127. An Altar to the Sun, under the character of Mithras, from the 
famous Mithraic cave at BORCOVICTJS (SeeNos. 51, 52). Hodgson, LII. ; 




Archaeologia ^liana, vol. i., p. 302. The inscription may be read thus 

To the god 
The Sun the in- 
vincible Mithras 
The Lord of ages 

Litorius 
Pacatianus 

A consular beneficiary ; for 

himself and family discharges a vow 

Willingly and deservedly. 



DEO 
SOLI INVI- 

CTO MYTRJE 

SAECVLABI 

L1TORIVS 

PACATIANVS 

BENEFICIARIVS CONSVLARI8 PRO 
SE ET SVI8 VOTVM SOLVIT 
LIBENS MERITO. 



260 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



128. An Inscribed Altar; the tool-marks upon it are rough and dis- 
tinct. To all appearance the altar has never been finished. 

129. An Altar, 2 feet 4 inches high, with the following inscription 

clearly cut upon it : 

DISC- To the gods the 

RIBVS HVIVS fosterers of this 

LOCI IVL place, Julius 

VICTOR TRIB. Victor a tribune. 

From HABITANCUM. See Hodgson, Pt. II., vol. iii., p. 439. 



130. This Altar also was 
found in the Mithraic cave at 
BOECOVICTTS. It bears upon 
its capital a rude effigy of the 
sun, and is dedicated to that 
luminary by Herionus(P) 
Hodgson, LIII. Arch. JEliana, 
vol.i., p. 291. 




SOLI 

HERIONVS 
VOTVM SOLVIT L1BEN8 MERITO. 

To the sun 

Herionus (Hieronymus ?) 
in discharge of a vow willing- 
ly and deservedly made. 



131. From the Mithraic cave, BOECOVICUS. Hodgson, LI. ; Arch. 

p. 299. 

_^fi^S^S^^^ 

DEO OPTIMO MAXIMO 

INVICTO MIT- 

RAE S^ECVLARl 

PVBLIV8 PROCVLI- 

NVS PRO SE 

ET PROCVLO FILIO 

SVO VOTVM SOLVIT LIBENS MERITO. 

DOMINIS NOSTRI8 GALLO ET 
VOLVSINO CONSVLIBVS 

To the god the best and greatest, 
Mithras, the unconquered and the 
eternal ; Publius Proculinus a Cen- 
turion dedicates this, for himself 
and Proculus his son, in discharge 
of a vow freely and deservedly 
made. 

In the year that our lords Gallus 
and Volusinus were consuls (A.D- 
252). 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



261 



132. An Altar to the Sun, under the 
character of Apollo. Prom VINDOBALA, the 
modern Rutehester, where it was found toge- 
ther with three others of Mithraic character. 
Presented by Thomas James, Esq., Otterburn 
Castle. The third line is somewhat obscure, 
and the subsequent lines are nearly oblitera- 
ted by the action of the weather. Mr. 
Thomas Hodgson has described this and 
the other altars found on the same occa- 
sion in the Arch, ^lliana, vol. iv., p. 6. 



133. An Altar, 2 feet 2 inches high and 
7 inches wide, very roughly tooled, and 
having no trace of an description. From 
VINDOBALA ; presented by T. James, Esq. 



SQLI 

APOJLLINI 

ANICERO 




132 



134. A Slab from BORCOVICUS. Hodgson, XLV. 
without any contractions or com- 
pound letters. 



The inscription is 



DIIS DEABVSQVE SE- 
CVNDVM 1NTERPRE- 
TATIONEM ORACV- 
LI CLARI APOLLINIS 
COHORS PRIMA TVNGRORVM. 

It may be thus translated: 
The First Cohort of the Tungri- 
ians (dedicated this structure) to 
the gods and the goddesses, accord-! 
ing to the direction of the oracle of;, 
the illustrious Apollo. Like most of I 
the other inscribed stones found up- j 
on the "Wall, it bears marks of hav 
ing been purposely broken. 



'IIP 



DllSDEABVSQVESE 
CVNDVMINTERPRE 

TATIONEMOKAQU 
JlCLARlAPOitrffs 



CO H-I-TV 

(A 




2i 



262 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

136. This Altar was dug up at Chapel Hill, in the immediate vicinity 
of the station of BOKCOVICUS. Horsley, BT. xxxvr. ; Hodgson, xxxix. 
The inscription may be translated The first Cohort of the Tungrians, 




JOVI OPTIMO MAXIMO 
ET NVMINIBVS 

AVGVSTI COHORS I. TVNGRORVM 

MILLIARIA CVI PRjEE 

ST QVINTVS VERIVS 

SVPERSTIS 

PRJEFECTVS. 



a milliary one, commanded by Qnintus Yerius Superstis, Prefect, (dedi- 
cated this altar) to Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the Deities of 
the Emperor. The scrolls on the top of the altar are bound down by 
transverse cords. 



136. The upper half of a large Altar; the inscription is almost en- 
tirely obliterated. The letters of the first line may be i o M, and on 
the second are some traces of the letters COH in AE ; in which case it 
has been dedicated to Jupiter by the Fourth Cohort of the Dacians 
(styled the JElian) which was in garrison at AMBOGLAITNA. On the 
side of it is carved a figure applying a long straight trumpet (tula) to 
its mouth ; it supports the trumpet with both hands. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



263 



135, and some others, at the 




137. Found together with the altar No. 
foot of the hill on which BORCOYICUS 
stood. Horsley, N., xxxix.; Hodgson, 
XLI. The inscription is nearly effaced. 
Horsley discerned on the first line (left 
blank in the cut) the words i o M, and they 
may yet be traced upon careful examina- 
tion. 

JOVI OPTIMO MAXIMO 

ET NVMINIBVS AVGVSTI 

COHOBS PRIMA TVNGRORVM 

CVI PRJEEST QVINTVS IVLIVS PBJBFECTV8. 

To Jupiter the best and greatest and to 
the deities of Augustus, the First Cohort 
of the Tungri commanded by Quintus 
Julius Maximus (?) the Prefect dedicated 
this. 



138. Probably from BOECOVICUS. The altar appears never to have 



ETNVMINIBVSAVC* 

COHtTVNGROK 

CYIPRAEESTQ1VL1Y 

SVS> PRAEF 

r _ 




been finished; for the focus, though roughly 
formed, has not been hollowed out. On the 
face of the capital is inscribed the word DEO ; 
the deity here referred to is probably Mithras. 

139. A small uninscribed and much injured 
Altar, 1 foot 10 inches high. 

140. From VINDOBALA ; presented by the 
Rev. John Collinson. Hodgson, xv. This altar 
was long built up in the garden wall of the 
parsonage house of Gateshead. Brand, who en- 
graves and describes it (vol. i. p. 608), says 
that on it is " plainly inscribed the monogram 
of Christ," Brand's opinion can hardly be sup- 
ported. The monogram is anything but plain. 
The altar has been sadly tampered with ; can 
we be sure that what is supposed to be the 
monogram is not of the same age as the let- 
ters which have been rudely cut upon the face 



DEO 




264 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

140 

of the stone, and which are evidently mo- 
dern. 11 Or supposing the monogram to be 
of the same age as the altar, how do we know 
that it was intended to symbolize the Ke- 
deemer? " The sign called the Christian 
monogram is very ancient ; it was the mono- 
gram of ^Osiris and Jupiter Ammon ; it de- 
corated the hands of the sculptured images 
of Egypt; and in India stamped its form 
upon the most majestic of the shrines of the 
deities." 12 Unless this be one, no Christian 
inscription belonging to the Boman era has 
been found upon the line of the Eoman Wall. 
This altar has an unusually high capital, but 
is destitute of a focus. 




141. An unin- 
scribed Altar; the 
upper part of it has 
been much injured. 
It is 2 feet 10 
inches high. 



142. From Eoncovicus. 
Hodgson XLIII. But for 



Horsley, N". xl. 
the assistance of 



D E 
MARTIQVIN 1 
FLDRIVSMA 
TTERNVSPKAEI 

COH-ITVNG 
V S L M 




DEO 

MARTI QVINTVS 
FLORIVS MA- 
TERNVS PRAEFECTVS 
COHORTIS I TVNGRORVM 
VOTVM SOLVIT LIBENS MERITO. 

To the god Mars 

Quintus Florius Maternus Prefect of the First 
Cohort of Tungrians (dedicates this altar) in 
discharge of a vow willingly and deservedly 
made. 



Horsley, who saw the altar when it was in a less j 

weathered state than at present, the inscription 142 

would be nearly illegible. The focus is unusually capacious, being ten 

inches in diameter. The globe on the base of the altar will be noticed. 

11 Hodgson says "Rutchester, for a long time, was the estate and residence of a 
family of gentry called Rutherford. Could R. H. and A. H. be two sisters to whom 
w. R. and i. R., two young men of this family were attached r" 

12 Hodgson's Nor., II., iii., p. 178." 




INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 265 

143. From BORCOVICUS. Horsley, K, XLI. ; Hodgson, XLIV. The 



HERCVLI 
COHORS'PRIMA TVNGRORVM 

MILLIARIA 

CVI PRAEE8T PVBLIVS AELIVS 
MODESTVS PRAEFECTYS. 




Dedicated to Hercules by the First Cohort of the 
Tungrians, (consisting of one thousand men), of which 
Publius -Elius Modestus is Prefect. 



- HERCYL1 

COH-lTVNGfoR 

MIL 
CVlBRAEESfPAH 







inscription could not easily be deciphered without the aid of Horsey' s 
reading. 



144. The inscription on the body of 
the Altar has all the appearance of hav- 
ing been purposely erased ; on the capital 
are the letters D.O.M. DEO OPTIMO MAXIMO 
The god the greatest and best. It has 
probably been dedicated to Mithras. 

145. The lower part of a Statue of Her- 
cules, from BOKCOVICUS. The figure is 
muscular, and holds a club in the right 
hand; traces of the lion's skin are seen 
hanging down on the left side. 

146. A large uninscribed Altar (3 
feet 9 inches high), from Chester-le- 
Street; presented by the Eev. Walker 
Featherstonhaugh. 

147. A rude uninscribed Altar, 1 foot 
3 inches in height. 

148. A small neatly carved Altar, without inscription. On one face, 
in a slightly recessed niche, is a figure of a woman or a robed priest j 




144 



266 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 




149 



it is 9 inches high. Prom Chester-le- Street ; presented by the Rev. 
Walker Featherstonhaugh. 



149. A small Altar, from Chester-le-Street ; pre- 
sented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. Being 
formed of a coarse-grained sandstone, and much 
weathered, the inscription is indistinct ; the en. 
graving accurately represents it. 

150. A neatly formed Altar, 9 inches high, from 
Chester-le-Street; presented by the Rev. Walker 
Featherstonhaugh. Its inscription is obliterated by 
exposure. 

151. An Altar, from Chester-le-Street; presented 
by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. The inscrip- 
tion is indistinct. It has probably been addressed 

DEABVS 

VET[ERI]BVS 



152. A rudely formed uninscribed Altar. 



153. A rudely formed Altar, from Brougham Castle, Westmoreland; 




DEO 

B[E]LATVCADRO 
AVDACVS 
VOTVM 8OLVIT PRO SA.LVTE 

SVA. 




To the God 
Belatucader. 

Audacus 

discharges his vow for his 
well-being. 



presented by Mr. George Armstrong Dickson. It is made of red sand- 
stone. 

154. The lower fragment of a small Altar, having on it apparently 
the following letters : 

VITRI 
VOTVM 



The second line is very doubtful. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 



267 



155. A small Altar, from BORCOVICFS. The inscription is very faint, 
but it appears to be 



COCIDI[O ET] 
GENI[O] P[BJE] 

SIDI . , 




To Cocidius 
and the Genius 
of the garrison 



The letters on the left side are more obliterated than those on the right. 
On the base of the altar are figured two dolphins. 

156. The lower portion of a small Altar, having the inscription 



HVITE 
BIBV8 



157. An uninscribed square -built Altar, 14 inches high. Uninscribed 
altars would be convenient vehicles on which to offer incense to any 
deity whom fashion or caprice might recommend to the worshipper. 

158. A small Altar, 11 inches high ; it has never had an inscription. 

159. An Altar, formed of very rough coarse-grained sandstone. The 
inscription is very obscure . The last line seems to be BANNAE. From 
PEOCOLITIA; discovered and presented by the pilgrim band of 1849. 



160. From BBEMENITJM. 



DIS 
MOVNTl- 

BVS rvxrvs 

FIBMIN- 
VS DEC. FECIT. 




To the gods of 
the mountains 

Julius 
Firminus 

a Decurion dedicates 
this. 



The cut is drawn to twice the usual scale. 



268 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

161. A rudely formed Altar, from PONS JEi.ii. The inscription, if 
it ever had any, is entirely obliterated. 

162. A rude Altar, from PONS JEin. The face of the lower portion 
has been broken off. The letters . . NANO are tolerably distinct. It 
has been conjectured that the dedication has been SILVANO. There is, 
however, scarcely room for the first three letters. Arch. 2El. t vol. iii., 
p. 148. 



Some general observations may not be out of place in reviewing the 
collection of antiquities described in this Catalogue. 

1. The extent and the duration of the Eoman occupation of Britain 
is made strikingly apparent by it. Though the lettered memorials of 
the empire were assiduously destroyed on the departure of the Romans 
by the barbarian tribes which succeeded them, and though in after 
ages almost to the present day ignorance and superstition carried on 
the work of destruction which commenced in passion and excitement 
it is gratifying to see so many stones, sculptured by Roman hands, 
from every part of the North of England, and of every age from that 
of Hadrian to a very late period of the Roman occupation collected in 
one place, and to know that, besides this collection, there are several 
others of great value in this district of the country. 

2. The amount of religious feeling among the Romans is strongly 
brought out. However corrupt and impure their religion was, they 
carried it with them wherever they went, and boldly professed it. 

3. The nature of their religion is set impressively before us. They 
had " gods many and lords many." Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, Apollo, 
and Mercury are invoked. The Caesars themselves are worshipped, 
as well as Yictory and Fortune, and the Ancient gods, and the 
Unnamed or " Unknown" gods, to whom the dedicators were referred 
by the oracle of Apollo, and the gods of the Mountains, and the 
gods of the Shades below. We see also the tendency of polytheism to 
multiply itself, for here are deities evidently local, such as Belatucader 
and Cocidius, deities that the Romans found were worshipped by the 
tribes they had subjugated, and whom accordingly they felt it prudent 
to propitiate. 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 269 

4. "We are surprised to find no traces of Christianity in the lapidarian 
treasure-house of the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Many of the 
altars, judging from the rudeness of their style and the character of 
their lettering, belong to the latest period of Roman occupation. The 
only altar which bears a date belongs to the middle of the third cen- 
tury. Judging from the evidence before us, it would appear that, al- 
though Christianity may have been introduced into this island in the 
apostolic age, or very soon after, it was long before the whole mass of 
the people, at least in these Northern parts, were leavened with the vi- 
talizing principles of the gospel. The struggle between light and dark- 
ness prevailed long before it was fully day. This circumstance may 
encourage those whose hearts experience the sickness of hope deferred 
in reference to the teeming millions of other lands. 

5. And yet there are some altars which, though heathen, indicate the 
influence of Christianity. Polytheism could not maintain its ground 
against the advance of evangelical truth. The advocates of error felt 
constrained to abandon a multiplicity of objects of worship, and to wor- 
ship one alone the sun or Mithras. Hence we find in the collection 
inscriptions which at first sight appear to refer to the one living and 
true God. 

6. The yearnings of affection which some of the tomb-stones exhibit 
are peculiarly refreshing to the student of human nature, in its rougher 
as well as in its softer aspects. 

7. The confirmation which the ancient historians receive from these 
lettered remnants of a former age is striking. Who can trace the names 
of Hadrianus, and Severus, and Antoninus upon them, without feeling 
summoned, as it were, into the presence of those who once were lords 
of this lower world ! 

8. Britons, in modern days, distribute themselves throughout the 
globe. They feel that their own home is secure. An inspection of 
this collection makes us acquainted with a different state of things. 
Nervii, Hamii, Batavi, Tungri, and other foreign troops (besides native 
Italians) were settled in the land to hold in subjection the aboriginal 
inhabitants. 

9. The influence which the laws and institutions of ancient Rome 
exert upon England at the present hour is very considerable. One 
slight but expressive indication of this is apparent from most of the 

2 K 



270 INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED ROMAN STONES. 

illustrations of this catalogue. The letters of which the inscriptions 
are composed, are the same with which we became familiar in our first 
attempts to climb the ladder of learning. 

Such are some of the thoughts suggested by the perusal of the pre- 
ceding pages, which would, at first sight, appear to be barren and un- 
inviting. 



JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LLD., F.S.A. 



Newcastle-upon- Tyne, 

Jan. 23, 1857- 



[In preparing this Catalogue for the press I have enjoyed the assistance of Mr. 
Charles Roach Smith, of Temple Place, Strood, Kent, and of Mr. Clayton, of 
Chesters, Northumberland. These gentlemen have kindly read over the "proofs," 
and offered me many valuable suggestions.] 



271 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS, 
FOUGHT 17 OCT., 1346. 

King Edward invaded France in 1346, arrangements were made 
for the defence of England against the Scots, and, accordingly, on the 
20th of August, the English Regency issued a proclamation of array, 1 
appointing William de la Zouch, Archbishop of York, Henry de Percy, 
and Ralph de Neville, or any of them, to the command of all the forces 
in the north. Again, after the battle of Crescy, when the King, with 
the chief military strength of the kingdom, sat down to besiege Calais, 
that port affording a safe entrance into France, he despatched John de 
Moubray, William de Ros, and Thomas de Lucy, 2 for the purpose of en- 
deavouring to persuade the Scots to remain at peace, and forbear to in- 
vade England; or, if on that point they were unsuccessful, these 
leaders were to assist his subjects to defend themselves. In this crisis 
the English commissioners proposed to deliver up to Scotland possession 
of the town and castle of Berwick, and some writers say 3 they also prof- 
fered to hand over Baliol, for whose sake the war was ostensibly 
commenced, on condition that an amicable position should be maintained 
between the two kingdoms. 

But the loss of the battle of Crescy being a severe blow to France, 
Philip the King considered how to raise the siege of Calais. The 
likeliest way he conceived to accomplish this movement was to induce 
the Scots to plunder and waste England to the uttermost, so that Ed- 
ward might be compelled to return home to save his own territory. 4 

1 Rotuli Scotia, i. 673. 

2 Barnes' Hist, of Edward III., p. 376. 

3 Boece, Hollinshead, and Barnes. 

4 " About the same time did Edward King of England beseige the towne of Calais. 
The French King therefore devising all waies possible, whereby to save that towne, 
and to cause bis adversarie to raise his seige, sent ambassadors into Scotland to re- 
quire King David, tbat witb an armie he would enter into England, and doo what 
damage be migbt into tbe Englishmen, to trie if by tbat meanes, King Edward would 
be constrained to leave bis seige, and to return borne for defence of his own country 
and subjects." Hollinsbead's Hist of Scotland, ed. 1585, p. 240. 



272 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

Accordingly he wrote to King David, praying him to make war upon 
the English, and he himself engaged to combat with them also, so that 
between both, he observed, they should be hardly beset. 5 Some authors 
say he sent over to Scotland a number of troops, 6 and an amount of 
money ; also, by way of encouragement, he represented to the Scottish 
King that the whole of the fighting men of England were with Edward 
before Calais. 7 David communicated the proposals from England and 
France to his council. Several of his wisest senators deemed it ad- 
visable to accept the offers of England : others wished to accede to the 
request of France ; and as no correct tidings could be obtained of the 
actual military force that might be raised in England, these advisers 
probably supposed they had now a chance of being avenged for all the 
wrongs Scotland had endured from that quarter. David, swayed also 
by the kindness and liberality he had experienced at the court of 
France, felt anxious to perform the request of his ally. 8 He was in his 
twenty-third year, and being, " stout and right jolly, and desirous to 
see fighting," 9 he held a meeting of parliament at Perth, when it was 
determined he should invade England at the head of a large army. 
True it is he stood in close relationship with King Edward, 10 who in 
the early part of his reign styled him " his dearest brother," yet he 
could not entertain any feelings of amity towards a prince by whom, 
in the words of our great Durham historian, " he had been driven into 
exile, and persecuted from his cradle." " 

A mandate went forth accordingly over all Scotland, ordering the 

6 "Wyntown, ii. 256. 

6 Barnes, p. 377, most inaccurately transfers the whole 15,000 Genoese cross- 
bowmen who he says fought at Crescy, to the assistance of the Scottish King. Some 
auxiliaries might be sent, but they would be few, for Philip had ample occasion for 
whatever forces he could raise. Besides, England was in possession of the channel, 
and would, if possible, prevent all communication with Scotland. 

7 "It was suggested to the Scots there did not remain in England any unless hus- 
bandmen and shepherds, and imbecile and decrepit chaplains." Knyghton. 

8 "David concluded that Edward sought only to amuse him until he should have 
humbled a more powerful adversary, that he might subdue Scotland at his leisure 
when she should have no ally upon' whose assistance she could depend." Smollet's 
Hist, of England. 

9 Wyntown, ii. 256. 

10 Edward himself had slight reluctance to make war upon his relations. David 
married his sister, yet up to the time of the battle of Neville's Cross, the King of 
England never ceased to do his brother-in-law injury. Philip de Valois, of France, 
was his uncle, the mother of his Queen being Jane of Hainault, who was sister to 
Philip (Andrews' Hist of Britain, i. 356), yet Edward strove with all his power to 
wrest from him his crown. 

11 Surtees' Hist. f>f Durham, i. xlviii. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 273 

whole martial force of the kingdom to assemble at Perth before the end 
of September. Numbers came at the appointed day, even from the 
most northern parts of the land, and a tragical incident occurred, shew- 
ing how the law could be broken almost in the presence of royalty, 
"William Earl of Ross, who was at enmity with a most worthy chieftain, 
Raynald of the Isles, caused him to be murdered in his bed, with seven 
of his household, in the neighbouring monastery of Elcho, and instantly 
retreated to his own mountainous territory. Those who had come with 
Raynald departed also, in company with several neighbouring chieftains, 
who quitted the royal camp in order to preserve their lands from being 
wasted, as destructive war was anticipated between the conflicting par- 
ties. Many considered this cruel act foreboded much evil to the en- 
terprise, and, impressed with that conviction, silently withdrew, by 
which the army was considerably diminished. 12 The advisers of the 
King urged him to punish Ross for the murder, but the season being 
far advanced, David would admit of no delay, and instantly ordered 
the army to march to England. 

Quitting Perth, a few days' march brought the whole force to the 
Western Marches, and the King laid siege to the Pile of Liddel, a for- 
talice upon a steep clay cliff, overlooking the stream of that name, on the 
extreme border of Cumberland, and about two miles north of Netherby. 13 
It belonged to Thomas de Wake, one of the Disinherited, 1 ^ but was then 
commanded by Walter Selby, who, twenty-nine years before, assisted 
Gilbert Middleton to rob the two cardinals, and take Lewis Beaumont, 
Bishop of Durham, and his brother, prisoners at Rushyford, After a 
siege of four days, 15 the place was taken by storm, and, except the 
women and children, all within were put to the sword, Selby himself 
being beheaded without time granted him for confession. 16 The fortress 

12 Wyntown, ii. 258. 

13 Camden's Brit., ed. 1806, iii. 453. 

14 These were the English barons who possessed estates in Scotland, and the Scot- 
tish nobles who leagued with England, both of whom were disinherited by Bruce, and 
their lands seized by the crown. Among them were Henry de Beaumont, Gilbert de 
Umfreville, David de Strathbogie, Bichd. Talbot, Thos. de Wake, and others. Hen- 
ry de Percy was of the number, but he obtained restitution. Hailes' Annals, ii., 142. 

15 Chronicon de Lanercost. 

16 In 1342 Selby commanded the castle of Lochmaben, which was besieged by the 
Scots, but by his energy and the assistance of the Bishop of Carlisle, with Thomas 
de Lucy, the assailants were constrained to retire. Hailes' Annals of Scotland, ii, 
211. He had a grant from Baliolofthe lands of Plenderleith, in Roxburghshire, 
which were restored to his son James by Edward III. in the beginning of 1358. 
Rot. Scot. i. 820. Stowe and Barnes say that King David caused two of Selby's 
children to be strangled in the sight of their father before he was put to death, but 
this statement, not being borne out by other historians, is liable to objection. 



274 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

was utterly demolished, whereupon Sir Win. Douglas, who was considered 
to have had the greatest experience in war, well knowing what oppo- 
sition his countrymen were likely to experience in England, endeavoured 
to dissuade the King and the other leaders from entering that kingdom. 
But as the knight of Liddesdale, after the murder of Sir Alexander 
Ramsay, 17 did not possess the confidence of the King and his subjects, 
his advice was rejected, and the barons observed that having by their 
valour taken and destroyed the Pile of Liddel, they had more effectually 
secured the territory of Douglas, 18 and it was unfair in him endeavour- 
ing to prevent them from carrying off the spoil which was now within 
their reach, especially as they might march to London, none being left 
to oppose them save ecclesiastics and base-born artizans. 

This agree^ with the desire of the King, who was partly influenced 
by the advice of Malcolm Fleming, Earl of Wigton, 19 and hence, about 
the time of full moon, which took place on Tuesday the 3rd Oct, he ad- 
vanced with his army through Cumberland, and wasted the Abbey of 
Lanercost. Thence, proceeding by Naworth Castle, 20 he entered Nor- 
thumberland, and keeping near the course of the Tyne, sacked the Ab- 

17 Four years previously, Ramsay, by the King's approval of his valour, su- 
perseded Douglas in the sheriffship of Teviotdale. Douglas, at first, appeared to be 
reconciled ; but when Ramsay presided at the court of justice which was held in the 
church of Hawick, the knight of Liddesdale, through revenge, entered with his arm- 
ed followers, and dragging Ramsay from the bench, carried him bound on horseback 
wounded and bleeding to the castle of Hermitage, where that noble patriot, after 
living fer seventeen days on some grains of corn which fell from an upper apartment, 
died of hunger. 

is i Xu satis abundas de bonis Anglorum, nee velles in lucro socios habere, sed in 
bello ;' Fordun, L. xiv, c. i. The expression is highly characteristical, but the full 
force of it could not be conveyed in the narrative ; the castle of Lidel was connected 
wi;h the territory of "W. Douglas, and it served as a frontier garrison to his castle of 
Hermitage. The meaning of the Barons was this : ' By our valour in storming the 
castle of Lidel, you have rounded, as it were, and secured your own territories, and 
now your ambition is satisfied.'" Hailes' Annals of Scotland, ii. 214. 
"Wyntown is also very clear on this point : 

" Than consalyd Williame of Dowglas, 

That of Weris mst wys than was, 

To turne agayne in thaire Cuntre : 

Hesayd, that wyth thair Huneate 

Thai mycht agayne repaire rycht welle, 

Syne thai of fors had tane that Pele. 

fJot othir Lordis, that war by, 

Sayd. he had fillyd fullyly 

His Baggis, and tharris all twme war. 

Thai sayd, that thai mycht rycht welle fare 

Til Lwndyn, for in Ingland than 

Of gret mycht wes left na man, 

For, thai sayd, all war in Krawns, 

Bot Sowteris, Skynneris, or RIarchawns." Cronykil, ii. 259. 

19 Latin Poem. 

20 " Owing to a truce the Scots were prevented from marching towards Carlisle." 
Chron. fo Lanercost. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 275 

bey of Hexham, and plundered the town. That place and Corbridge, 
which must then have been of importance, with Durham and Darling- 
ton, he intended to preserve as depositories for provisions and spoil 
during his continuance in England. Hereby we have another proof 
that it was the resolution of David to remain in England for a consider- 
able period, 21 wasting and destroying it, so that Edward might be in- 
duced to raise the siege of Calais, and return to his own country. Re- 
maining at Hexham three days, he numbered his army, and found the 
knights, squires, and men at arms, all fully equipped for war, amounted 
to 2000. The other portion of his army were only half armed, of which 
the principal effective soldiers were spearmen, and the whole might 
number from 15,000 to 18,000 men. 23 Moving down to Corbridge, the 
Scots assaulted Aydon Castle,- in the neighbourhood, which was given 
up on condition the inmates were allowed to depart with their lives. 
Thence they proceeded in the direction of Newcastle, and again crossed 
the Tyne at Ryton, where the King was warned in a vision by night 
that he should forbear to spoil or otherwise destroy the territory of 
Saint Cuthbert, otherwise his expedition should have a miserable end. 24 
But considering an admonition of that kind undeserving of notice, he 
rejected it and, advancing into the Bishoprick, crossed the Derwent 
and halted at Ebchester. Pursuing his way still onward to the south- 
east, he reached Beaurepaire, the manor-house of which he occupied, 
while his army encamped near a wood within the park. Thence large 
detachments roamed over the neighbourhood, pillaging the churches, 
burning the granges, wasting wherever they went, and bringing cattle 
and plunder to the camp. They also levied a capitation tax from every 
person without distinction, and those who refused to pay it are said to 

21 " It was the King's intention to spend the winter in England." Chron. de 
Lanercost. 

22 The numbers quoted of the armies of England and Scotland by our old histori- 
ans are exceedingly apocryphal. On this occasion, in the Scottish army, 

Knyghton says there were 36,000 men. 

Hollinshead 40,000 

Froissart, from 40,000 to 50,000 

Hume, Henry, and Smollet 50,000 ,, 

"Walsingham 62,000 

In Chronicon de Lanercost, we are told King David had 20,000 hobilers and 10,000 
foot and archers. Our own Surtees puts down 28,000 or 30,000. Men do not grow 
up in a dozen years, and it is highly improbable that after the wars and famine which 
devastated Scotland previously, any such numbers of warriors as are mentioned above 
could possibly be raised in that country. The infantry might number from six to 
seven times the men-at-arms ; but, in this expedition, the camp followers would be 
numerous, from the expectation of sharing the spoil collected in England. See Xote 
on the numbers of our early armies in the History of the Battle of Ottcrlurn, p. 115. 

23 Prior Forser's Letter. 24 Fordun, ii. 341. 



276 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

have been put to the sword. 25 As the crops had recently been gathered, 
much property and corn was destroyed the labourers with their fam- 
ilies flying southward for safety, 26 and still more would have been con- 
sumed had not some of the monks, who were either taken prisoners, or 
who went forward and compounded with the enemy by promise of a 
payment of one thousand pounds, that the lands, manors, and tenants of 
the church might be spared. 27 Then the Scots made great mirth, and 
feasted most plentifully upon the abundance they had collected the 
King, and those around him, not even supposing that the chief men of 
the neighbouring counties would make any attempt for defence. 28 

"With that alacrity, however, for which the people of England have 
ever been distinguished when the line of duty was clear before them, 
all the military men north of Trent, including the sheriffs of the northern 
counties, with many of the most powerful barons, and large numbers of 
ecclesiastics 29 had assembled together on the Monday next before the feast 
of Saint Luke, 16th Oct., at Auckland Park. The Archbishop of York, 
Henry de Percy, and Ralph de Neville, already mentioned, were pre- 
sent. The army consisted, as usual, of knights, squires, and men-at- 
arms, which are said to have numbered 1,200, the archers 3,000, the 
spearmen, including the "Welch, 7,000 ; and some say, in addition to 
these, there were 4,800 expert soldiers, who either came from before 
Calais, or being about to be sent there, were ordered back to defend the 
northern frontiers of England, the main portion of whom were likely 

25 "A penny was demanded from every English person." Knyghton. "The 
Scots took one penny for every head and one penny for every foot, which done, they 
were left free." Barnes, p. 378. " Save the monks, they made all others pay three 
pence a head for their lives." Tyrrell' s Hist, of England, iii. 534. 

26 Latin Poem. 

27 "In consequence of the battle being fought "before the time of settlement, the 
money was not paid." Knyghton. 

2 Wyntown, ii. 261. 

29 "A certain person testified that when the priests of the north parts were called 
against the Scots to battle, he saw a great crowd of them assembled at Beverley, who 
coming to the end of the town, took off their shoes, and with uncovered heads, having 
swords and arrows under the thigh, bows under the arm, marched in procession, so 
prepared for the expedition to which they were called, beating the ears of God and his 
saints, invoking his mercy and grace, to prosper the business of their journey for the 
delivery of the English nation from their enemies, who wish to exterminate them 
utterly. The populace truly seeing their indescribable devotion, turned to an admir- 
able repentance, bent their knees with a lamentable countenance and ejaculations, 
beating the clemency of the Saviour that he would afford helping hands to them in 
such a necessity ; not in vain, for God was their helper to the full. * * The same 
thing is said to have been done by the priests and people, as well in York as in many 
other places." Knyghton. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CKOSS. 277 

archers. 30 Surtees quotes the whole as numbering from 16,000 to 
18,000 men, and they may even have exceeded that amount. Looking 
considerately at this matter, we know ; that, when opposed to their 
enemies in battle-array, they had one-fourth of their force in reserve j 
and besides being the assailing party, every movement they made was 
conducted with such perfect confidence and admirable judgment, and 
calculated even to the advantage of the sun's rays, that the probability 
is they equalled, if they did not exceed, in number the whole effective 
force of the Scottish army. 31 

The Scots being altogether ignorant of this movement, 32 it was pro- 
bably on the morning of the said Monday, the 16th October, 33 that Sir 
William Douglas, having left the camp with a large number of horse- 
men, proceeded to Perry-hill, either for the purpose of observation, or 
with intent to plunder, when the English cavalry from Merrington 
appeared against him, and, being surprised, he endeavoured to retreat, 

30 These numbers I have given from Barnes, p. 378, who supplies them from Giov. 
Villani, the Florentine historian, L. xii., c. 75. Lord Hailes, in his Annals, ii. 213, 
observes that " Villani's account of the battle of Durham is exceedingly superficial ; 
and which is remarkable, he says nothing of what Barnes quotes as from him. See 
Muratori Script. Ital., T. xiii. p. 759." Bower in Fordun says the archers were 
10,000, while Wyntown makes them amount to 20,000. According to the Latin 
Poem, Angus had 200, and Percy 20,000 men. Tytler's statement of 30,000 men is 
also without confirmation. Hist, of Scotland, ii. 68. 

31 Abercromby remarks, " The English authors talk of no more than 16,000 men, 
whereas it is more probable that they were by far more numerous than the Scots. I 
am sure that England, Ireland, and "Wales, could not be so much depopulated by the 
army under King Edward's command in France, which did not amount to 40,000 
men, as not to be able to raise twice that number in defence of their own habitations 
and that all the King's subjects in England (Foed. v., p. 624), and no doubt else- 
where, had been previously commanded to take arms in opposition to the Scots." 

Martial Achievements, ii. 95. 

32 Wynton, ii. 261. 

33 Carte in his History of England, ii. 467, is the only authority I have seen who 
remarks the excursion of Douglas took place on the day proceeding that of the battle. 
I adopt his view for this reason, that if he went very early, as is generally stated, he 
had no light, for it was new moon on the 18th, the day after that when the battle was 
fought ; and as the sun would rise about half-past six, three hours were insufficient 
for riding to Ferry-hill, fighting at Sunderland Bridge, returning to the Scottish 
camp, and affording leisure for marshalling both armies in due order on the Red Hills. 
Surtees tells us that King David disposed his army for the contest on the day proceed- 
ing that of the battle, and as "Wyntown, alluding to the English who were collected 
in Auckland Park, previous to the departure of Douglas, expressly observes : 

" The S?otti9 men 

Wyst right noucht of that Gadryng." 

"We have here something like proof that Douglas with his horsemen rode to Ferry- 
hill on the Monday morning. Besides, the strength of the English army would, in all 
probability, be considerably increased by many connected with the church at Durham, 
and we have evidence the leaders had leisurely communication with those dwelling 
in the city, for the monks knew exactly what particular services to perform before 
the strife commenced. 

2 L 



278 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

but was so closely pursued that, on his return, at Sunderland Bridge a 
skirmish took place, in which he lost 500 of his best men. 34 Escaping 
himself, he carried back to the King tidings that the English in large 
numbers were only a few miles distant. Percy, also, is said to have 
dispatched a herald at arms to King David, requiring him to desist from 
wasting the land, and return to Scotland till a peace might be agreed 
upon between him and the King of England, else he should have instant 
battle. 35 But the King of Scotland, inheriting the bravery, though not 
the wisdom of his father Robert Bruce, despised this message, 36 and 
resolving not to retire without trying his fortune in war, he disposed 
his army on Durham Moor, with standards flying in order of battle. 
Other foraying parties, as they came into camp, were detained for the 
approaching struggle; while the King himself, most imprudently, 
passed the night in Beaurepaire Park and wood, without the precaution 
of a scout or sentinel on the watch. 37 

Of the identical locality where the battle was fought, we have satis- 
factory evidence. A few days after the conflict, Prior Eorser wrote to 
the Bishop of Durham, telling him it was stricken on the Moor of 
Beaurepaire, between the city of Durham and the rise of Eyndon Hill. 
This would lead us to suppose we must search for the scene half-way 
up from the first to the last-mentioned place ; but as a check to this 
statement, letters of thanks to twelve of the English leaders, including 
the Archbishop of York, were written from the Tower of London on the 
third day after the battle, dated the 20th of October, and in the title to 
that document, as it stands in our records, we learn it was fought near 
to Neville's Cross, 38 thereby drawing the line slightly to the south. 
Moreover, in a Scottish historian, and the narrator appears to have 
derived his information from eye-witnesses, we have evidence precisely 
to the same effect. 39 Now where the present cross stands, we have 

34 The Chron. deLanercost "relates Douglas was overtaken by severe weather before 
the English cavalry appeared ; and that he had 500 horsemen with him, of whom he 
lost 300. Robert de Ogle killed many of the Scots with his own hand. 

35 Hollinshead's Hist, of Scot., p. 241. 

36 "We learn from Chron. de Lanercost, "that two black monks went from Durham to 
treat with King David for a truce, but the monarch being enraged at the supposition 
they had come to induce him to defer putting his troops in battle array, ordered them 
for instant execution. Owing, however, to the bustle which prevailed in the army, 
the poor churchmen escaped." 

37 Surtees, i. 1. 

38 The words are, "in praelio apud NevilTs Cross." Rot. Scot., i., 675 In 
Foedera, alluding to the conflict, the words are either " apud Dunelmum," or "in 
Bello Dunolmensi." 

39 The Scots were drawn out " super moram de Beaurepair ; " they then advanced 
" et Hit ad eandem moram se in quodam loco, juxta crucem quse Ncvilcross dicitur 
prope Dunelmum," formed into three divisions, as if disposed for battle. Fordun, ii , 
342. 



THE BATTLE OF SEVILLE'S CROSS. 279 

conclusive authority that a Neville's Cross stood on the spot long before 
the battle of 1346 was fought. 40 "William de Packing-ton, a contempor- 
ary, who was clerk and treasurer to Edward the Black Prince, also 
states that King David issued from the park of Beaurepaire, "and 
fought upon a more nere to Duresme towne." 41 Again, from a Scottish 
chronicler, we learn that towards the close of the conflict, the standards 
were seen upwards of two miles by those who fled from the field;* 2 
whence the deduction is, that the struggle took place on elevated waste 
ground ; and as the Bed Hills agree to all these sources of authority, 
we arrive at the conclusion that the battle must undoubtedly have been 
fought there. They were probably open upon the higher portion, over 
which an old path leads from the main road on the west toward the city 
of Durham ; but either where this track branches off from the said road, 
or farther north and nearly opposite to Harbour House, the ground was 
intersected by ditches and high fences, consisting of paling or upright 
stakes, wattled with branches of trees, 43 so that the place was most 
unfavourable for the movement of any portion of an army. 

Before mention is made of the principal English commanders, it may 
be necessary to observe there were three individuals, if not more, whom 
superficial writers, following Eroissart, have attached to that number, 
and of whose presence at the battle we have no direct proof. Queen 
Philippa is by the Frenchman represented to have been on horseback, 
and to have exhorted each division to defend the honour of her lord the 
King. That royal lady, according to the testimony of the last of our 
three chief county historians, to whom we have already alluded, was, 
at the time, in the south of England. 44 Edward Baliol is said to have 
commanded the reserve division of cavalry ; but from the doubt which 
the chief historian of Durham, 45 with mature judgment, has thrown 

40 "I have seen documents in the Treasury of a date long antecedent to the battle 
in question, which prove that there was then and there a Neville's oross, but whether 
of wood or stone I know not." Eaine's Saint Cuthbert, p. 106. 

41 Leland Coll., i., 470. 

42 Wyntown, ii., 263. 

43 Would the fence of the park of Beaurepaire extend on its south-east corner near 
to the Red Hills ? The description given of the paling, &c., by our old historians 
would appear almost^ to warrant this conclusion. Speed, in his Map comprises 
Neville's Cross within the park, but this, I suspect, like the tent he placed between 
Durham and Shincliffe to indicate where the battle was fought, is a mistake. " The 
ground," observes Lord Hailes, "where the army formed, was intersected by ditches 
and enclosures." Annals of Scotland, ii , 216 

44 Raine's Saint Cuthbert, p. 105. Grafton, in his Abridgement of the Chronicles of 
England, 1572, at the close of 1346, first folio, 93, says, "this yere the Queene of 
England was delivered of a daughter named Margaret." 

45 Surtees, iv., 57. 



280 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

over the statement, and as Lord Hailes, with the sound discrimination 
of a lawyer, 46 observes, " the whole strain of Foedera is inconsistent with 
the hypothesis of Baliol having had any such command," he cannot be 
admitted to that honour. Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, who 
was tutor to Edward the Black Prince, is also reported to have been 
present, but who, on good authority, in 1346, "appeared at the siege of 
Calais with eighty archers. 47 Moreover, the letter already mentioned, 
written to him by the Prior, giving an account of the battle, furnishes 
ample proof of the absence of that prelate. Prom the ancient records I 
have examined, I find no corroborative evidence of the presence of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Bishops of Lincoln and Carlisle, though 
several writers embody them among the leaders on that occasion. 

Accordingly on Tuesday morning, the 1 7th day of October, the whole 
English force, in four divisions, under the chief command of Ealph 
Lord Neville, proceeded forward, past Neville's Cross, to the Red Hills. 48 
In front of the lines was borne a large crucifix, " the English trusting 
confidently in the cross;" and around on every side waved the flags and 
standards of the principal men of the northern English counties. Some 
of the clergymen bore their crosses as banners before the men of war, 
singing " Miserere," ere the battle commenced. 49 At that period, and 
long afterwards, the right wing formed the van of an army, and this 
division was under charge of Lord Percy, who "led the way." "With 
him were Gilbert de TJmfreville, third Earl of Angus, Henry le 
Scrope of Masham, and Thomas Musgrave, heading chiefly the brave 
Northumbrian warriors. The central body was commanded by Ralph 
Lord Neville himself, his son Sir John Neville, the Archbishop of 
York, 50 and Ralph Lord Hastings, and consisted mainly of the forces of 
the Bishoprick. At the head of the left wing was Sir Thomas Rokeby, 
Sheriff of Yorkshire, John Lord Moubray, and John de Leyburue, with 
the military strength of the district south of the Tees, and the archers 
of Lancashire. 61 The fourth division, we are told, consisting chiefly of 

46 Among the intricate labyrinths of Scottish History, we have no guide more 
certain than Lord Hailes, and his account of the battle of Neville's Cross, though 
brief, is very clear. I, among others, regret that his Annals of Scotland were not 
continued down to a recent period. 

47 Surtees, i., xlviii. 

48 The Latin Poem telb us the English came in three divisions. The fourth pro- 
bably followed. 

49 Knyghton. 

50 " The Archbishop was a good shepherd, and having called his men together, 
blessed them. Another bishop of the order of Friars Minors, for his blessing com- 
manded the English to fight manfully, and not to spare the Scots, under threat of 
the greatest punishment." Chron. de Lanercost. 

51 Stowe's Annales,-$. 243. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 281 

cavalry, was placed in reserve, and commanded by William Eoss of 
Hamlake and other barons, for Thomas de Lucy, Thomas de Grey (the 
author of Scala ChronicaJ, Robert de Ogle, John de Coupland, Robert 
Bertram, and William Deyncourt, were on the field. 53 On selecting their 
ground, most judiciously, upon the Red Hills, the three first divisions fell 
into their proper places, Lord Percy on the right, Lord Neville in the 
centre, and Sir Thomas Rokeby on the left. The knights, squires, and 
men at arms dismounted, being fully armed with spears in hand, and 
delivering the horses to their attendants, took up their position in the 
respective lines. Each body was flanked by archers, and, in particular, 
the third division, under Sir Thomas Rokeby, seemed best supplied with 
these stern warriors. Behind each of these three divisions a large number 
of servants and horses were accordingly collected together. 53 

The King of Scotland being aware of the approach of the English, 
put his troops in motion on Durham moor, 5i and descended along the 
highest part of the ground to meet them Sir Alexander Ramsay, bear- 
ing the royal banner, Separating his whole force into three divisions, 
he placed the van or right wing under command of John Earl of Moray, 65 
and Sir William Douglas. The latter, possessing great knowledge ofmil- 
itary movements, was probably selected by the King to lead the army ; 
though one authority states 56 he was taunted by his sovereign, and, 

52 The leaders of the divisions of the English army I have supplied from Barnes, 
p. 379, rejecting those who were not authenticated by Dugdale, in his Baronage. 
These are the names of the twelve commanders who received the especial thanks of 
the Regent, written from the Tower of London on the third day after the battle, 20th 
Oct. 1346 : 

"Wollm. Archbishop of York. Thomas de Rokeby. 

Gilbert de Umframvill. Thomas de Gray. 

Henry de Percy. Robert de Ogle 

Ralph de NevilL. John de Coupeland. 

John de Moubray. Robert Bertram. 

Thomas de Lucy. William Dyencourt. 

Sot. Scot, i., 675. 

53 I consider it as a display of no mean skill for the English, to take up their posi- 
tion on tbe highest part of the Red Hills, extending their lines across the old path, 
not far from the angle where it bends towards IJurham. Having sufficient room 
themselves, their foes were confined before them to a space not half the width which 
they themselves occupied. A careful examination of the ground will convince any 
prudent observer that if the Scots had possessed a good general, he had not fought on 
such a field. 

54 " The King would appear on that eventful morning to have had no breakfast, for, 
the servants allowed the pot containing that meal to boil over, by which it was' 
spoiled." Chron. de Lanercost. 

55 " The honour of commanding the van was first oifered to Patrick Earl of March, 
who declined it." Chi on. de Lanercost. The Earl of Moray was March's brother-in- 
law. 

56 Latin Poem. 



282 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

being of a proud spirit, rushed to the first encounter. King David in 
person led the central division, surrounded by the officers of the crown, 
and the principal nobility of Scotland. The left wing being much more 
numerous than any other, 57 was placed under charge of Robert the High 
Steward of Scotland, and Patrick Earl of March. A slight depression 
intervenes between Durham Moor and the ground of the Eed Hills, so 
that when the King had passed that hollow, a gentle ascent led him to 
the point of strife. On his way pipes and clarions filled the air with 
martial music. 58 It would appear that he had advanced beyond the nar- 
rowest part of the ridge, and was nearly in an eastern direction from 
Harbour House, when his lines were confronted by the English. Con- 
fiding in his own strength, he probably regarded his situation with in- 
difference, and was only desirous to bring forward his forces to the 
struggle ; else he had not reached the ground he intended, for our best 
authorities say he was taken by surprise that the position of his right 
wing was most disadvantageous for battle and. that he himself occu- 
pied an inconvenient place, where his troops were unable to raise their 
arms either for assault or in self-defence. The general narrowness of 
the field may in some measure account for these unpropitious circum- 
stances on the side of the Scots, who, being thus crowded together, pre- 
sented a fair mark to the English archers. 59 The left wing was less 
confined ; for the high land widens eastward, and the flank of that body 
would overlook the valley north-west of Durham. The chief portion of 
the horsemen dismounted, and with their spears and battle-axes were 
ready for battle, while the attendants and horses were placed as usual 
in the rear of each division. 

Erom the long vista of departed centuries a voice like an echo 
comes down to us, whether of truth or tradition we cannot tell, 
that the Church was no idle spectator of this eventful scene. The 
brethren of the convent at Durham, from the tower of the cathedral, 
witnessed the march of both armies to battle, and poured forth hymns 
and prayers on behalf of their countrymen. Also, we are apprised by 
the like uncertain sound, that at the same time, the Prior of Durham, 
influenced by a vision of the previous night, bore out from the Cathe- 
dral, in company with a few of the monks, the holy corporax cloth of 

57 " That wes the mast be mekil dele." Wyntown, ii., 262. 

58 Knyghton. 

59 "It is not possible to conceive how upon the ground such forces could be ar- 
rayed, and engage in any order." Hutchinson's Durham, ii, 341. That the Scottish 
divisions were much crowded, there can he no doubt : here, however, we have in 
direct proof that the numhcrs of that army were not so large as are represented by 
our English historians. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 283 

Saint Cuthbcrt, elevated on the point of a spear, to the valley adjoining 
the battle field, and there, placing the sacred relic on a little romantic 
hillock, which may still be seen, these devout men knelt around it, and 
implored heaven and the saint to bestow victory upon the English. 60 

The sun had been above the horizon nearly two and a half hours ; 
and, if the sky was clear, as it frequently is after harvest, he shone full 
in the faces of the Scots. On both sides the trumpets sounded ; and the 
English left wing, probably approaching the place where the old path 
runs eastward from the main road, was about to commence the battle, 
when Sir John Graham, a sagacious Scottish knight, observing the ar- 
chers attached to that division, and well knowing the tremendous power 
of their arrows, implored the King for one hundred mounted horsemen 
to break and disperse them. 61 The request was denied ; and Graham, 
with his own horsemen, rode forward and compelled them to give way ; 
but, being unsupported, he had his horse killed under him, and he es- 
caped, wounded and bleeding, to his own party. The archers then at- 
tacked the infantry under Moray and Douglas, who were entangled 
among the ditches and enclosures already mentioned, and being thereby 
unable to charge their assailants with the spear, a shower of steel fell 
incessantly upon them, and they were slaughtered in great numbers. 62 

The English van or right wing under Lord Percy, with Angus, met the 
Steward and March most vigorously, and they fought long without gaining 
any advantage. From the Scottish infantry using constantly the spear and 
battle-axe, with a knife or dagger, and as archers could not maintain 
their place when opposed to such arms, it may have been that the men 
of Northumberland at that period had partly laid aside the bow, and 



GO Rites and Monuments of the Cathedral Church of Durham, 1842, p. 20. The 
work is shewn on the plate accompanying this paper. 

61 " A movement like that proposed by Graham decided the battle of Bannockburn. 
It was the English archery which proved fatal to our countrymen at Halidon." 
Hailcs' Annals, ii, 217. Their prowess at Homeldon was even more remarkably 
displayed. 

62 "Wyntown is very graphic at this point of the narrative. He says : 



" The Earle of Murrawe and his menyhe 1 
Than nere we? that assemble: 
At hey Dykis assemb'id thai, 
And that brak gretly thaire Aray; 
Tharfor thai war swne dyscumfyte. 
Thai that held hale, sped thame full tyte 
To the Kyng, that assemblid was 
In-til a fu:l anoyus plas 
That narie, but hurt, mycht ]yft his hand, 
Quhen thai thaire Fayis mycht noucht withstand. 
To the Stewartis Rowt than went thai, 
That was assemblyd nere that way. 
Thare had thai rowme to stand in fycht ; 
Thare mycht thai welle assay thare mycht, 
Than bdthe the fyrst Rowtis' rycht thare 
At that assemble wenoust war." 

Cronykil, ii., 263. 



284 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

met their enemies with weapons whereby they might be more effectu- 
ally repelled. From the same cause the warriors of the Bishoprick, 
under Lord Neville and the Archbishop, may not have been so success- 
ful in their attack on the middle line of the Scots. Eut upon the divi- 
sion of Moray and Douglas the English long bow was doing its usual 
execution. It is probable that Sir Thomas Rokeby, on perceiving this 
wing was more easily assailable, from the confined nature of its posi- 
tion, bent his whole force against it, and continued the attack, till, 
broken and beaten down, the Scots gave way the Earl of Moray being 
killed, and Douglas captured by Sir Eobert Bertram of Bothal. Those 
warriors in this body who were unhurt, drew back to the King's divi- 
sion, and when they could not fight there, they again removed to that 
of the High Steward. While, therefore, the men of the Bishoprick op- 
posed, spear to spear, the middle division of the Scots, the archers of 
the midland counties, with the whole left Aving, who had dispersed their 
opponents, followed up their advantage, and assailed forthwith the ex- 
posed right flank of the King's contral division. 63 In this position both 
maintained the conflict most fiercely ; nor, from the commencement to 
the close thereof, did the Scots ever succeed in driving back to a dis- 
tance any detachment of the English. 64 The sun rising high and higher 
shone probably still in the faces of the invaders ; but they also, with 
most enduring fortitude, though pierced everywhere by arrowy steel, 
remained firm, and fought on like desperate men in extremity. 

On the left wing of the Scots, Robert the Steward is said to have assailed 
Percy so successfully for a brief period, that the division of the latter, be- 
ing partly broken, was on the point of defeat ; but fortunately for the 
honour of Northumberland, the reserve of cavalry came up, and, assist- 
ing Percy, turned again the tide of battle in favour of England. They 
who relate this seem to be mistaken ; for, at that time and long after, 
the battles of this country were chiefly fought on foot. No cavalry 

63 Some allusions to the principal English warriors from the Chronicon de Lanercost 
are interesting : " Great praise to Angus. Percy, a short man, of much forethought, 
and putting forward his own body to meet the enemy, encouraged all to do the same, 
Neville was strong, truthful, cautious and brave, much to he feared, and he fought 
so that traces of his blows stuck to the enemy. Sir Henry de Scrope took his station 
in front, cutting down the foe. John de Moiibray was full of grace and goodness ; 
his worthy fame was widely spread, and he and his men performed their duty so as 
redound to their honour long afterwards. Sir Thomas de Ilokeby like a noble leader 
gave the Scots such a cup that they who drank of it, were not desirous to taste it 
again. John de Coupland distributed such blows among his enemies, that feeling as 
it was said, the weight of his thumps, they did not care to fight any longer." 

64 In the recent cut made for the railway, north of Neville's Cross, no human re- 
mains' deserving of notice have been discovered, proving the English uniformly kept 
the ground upon which they first encountered the enemy. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 285 

effected any important movement either at Otterburn, Shrewsbury, or 
Flodden. Some commanders, heralds, or an occasional detachment in 
reserve, might remain on horseback, but when about to engage in close 
combat, the knights, squires, and men-at-arms, generally dismounted 
and left the horses in charge of their attendants. From the weight of 
the armour they wore, they could not travel save on horseback ; and 
when engaged in conflict, the servants waited behind with the horses, 
ready for their masters to mount, either in flight if the battle went 
against them, or in pursuit of the vanquished if victory was won. 
When seated in the saddle they could only hope to be successful if they 
bore down upon broken and dispersed infantry, or archers who, at that 
period, had no staves pointed with iron to strike slantingly into the 
ground before them, as at Agincourt. Many years previously the ser- 
ried masses of Flemish and Scottish spearmen, at Courtray and Ban- 
nockburn, had shown they were able to withstand and defeat the most 
vigorous attacks of French and English cavalry. 65 Indeed, from before 
this period down to the time of the Commonwealth, mounted horsemen 
never performed any important part in gaining the battles of England. 66 
Hence we draw the conclusion that the assistance Percy derived was 
either from the spears of the men-at-arms, or perhaps from a body of 
those archers who had already dispersed the Scottish right wing, and 
who plied their shafts upon every point they could assail with the most 
fatal effect. 

Still close and more closely did the English lines press upon the Scots, 
till those who had witnessed battles before, saw enough to convince them 
that the latter, though they " dealt many severe strokes with hard and 
sharp axes," would ultimately be defeated. This appears to have been 
the impression of the High Steward, who, to save his division from 
death or captivity, resolved to withdraw from the field not without 
suspicion of perfidiously deserting the King, by whom, for that and 
other causes, he was never afterwards forgiven. This movement he 
and the Earl of March accomplished in full view of the Northumbrians, 

65 At the battle, of Courtray, fought in 1302, the horsemen of France were totally 
discomfitted by the spearmen "of Flanders. At Bannockburn, in 1314, the success of 
Randolph's foot soldiers over Clifford's mounted warriors, and the subsequent repulse 
of tbe wbole English cavalry by the spearmen of Scotland, prove that horsemen had 
no chance to compete with, armed footmen, when the latter, as in the hollow squares 
at Waterloo, kept closely together. 

66 Cromwell's Ironsides, were indeed invincible, but the arms of the foot soldiers 
had then undergone a change, and the bayonet of modern times was not introduced. 
Besides, that great general's mode of attack was altogether new, for his cavalry, like 
the waves of a stormy sea, charged again and again into the enemy's lines, till they 
were compelled to give way. 

2M 



286 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

Lord Percy permitting them to depart without molestation ; nor would 
it appear that any troop of men-at arms attempted to give them chase. 67 
Their absence only hastened the termination of the battle, for then the 
English right wing fell upon the unprotected left flank of King David's 
remaining division. 

Loyalty and devotion to a monarch, though observed in an enemy, 
cannot fail to inspire us with feelings of admiration and respect. David 
the Second had errors, but Fortune had gone hardly with him ; and as 
he exhibited both courage and determination, a gallant band of nobles 
placed themselves around him like a strong tower of defence, and fought 
with the most unwavering resolution. 68 They were hemmed in by the 
fierce squadrons of England, whence there was indeed slight chance of 
escape ; yet the devoted band saw floating above them the royal stan- 
dard, whereon, within the double tressure, 

" The ruddy Lion ramped in gold ;" 

and their monarch being the only son of Robert Bruce, the great deli- 
verer of his country, those brave men, influenced by many dear asso- 
ciations, confronted their foes foot to foot, and repelled every attack, 
till one by one they were stricken down. 69 We are informed by a chro- 
nicler, who undoubtedly learned the particulars from those who were 
present on that occasion, that such "hard fighting" occurred at this 
period of the battle, the like was never witnessed before. 70 If no scene 

67 A slight difference on this point exists among our historians some observing 
that the Steward and March did not quit the field till after the capture of the King. 
Our best historians, however, agree upon what is related in the text. 

68 "The residue of the Scots continuing faithfully with the king, stood about Mm 
like a round tower, keeping him in the middle, who so continued till there were 
scarce forty oi them, left alive, of the which not one of them could escape." Stowe's 
Annales, p. 243. 

69 As an illustration to the text we may introduce a passage penned by the great- 
est of our chivalrous poets, when describing the strife of another Border battle-field, 
still more fatal to Scottish royalty : 

" The English shafts in volleys hail'd, 
In headlong charge their horse assail'd; 
Front, flank, and rear, the squadrons sweep 
To break the Scottish circle deep, 

That fought around their King. 
But yet, though thick the shafts as snow, 
Though charging knights like whirlwinds go, 
Though bill-men ply the ghastly blow, 

Unbroken was the ring ; 
The stubborn spear -men still made good 
Their dark impenetrable wood, 
Each stepping where his comrade stood, 

The instant that he fell. 
No thought was there of dastard flight, 
Link'd in the serried phalanx tight, 
Groom fought like noble, squire like knight, 

As fearlessly and well." 

Scott's Poetical Works, vii, 353-4. 
~ (1 Wyntuvvn/H, 203 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 287 

in the battles of Bannockburn, of Dupplin, or Halidon Hill could be 
compared to what took place here, the struggle must indeed have been 
tremendous, and maintained with indomitable energy to the last. 

Noon came, and the fight had continued three long hours. Arrow 
after arrow went pouring in upon the enemy man after man fell till 
out of the whole division only from forty to eighty remained. Nearly 
all the nobility and those of the royal household were slain. David 
himself was severely wounded with one arrow in the leg and another in 
the face. Still no thought of retreating ever seems to have entered his 
mind ; for he fought as if unwilling to live, and resolved to sell his life 
as dearly as possible. Eventually, John de Coupland, a squire of North- 
umberland, who commanded a hundred men-at-arms, 71 and one of the 
leaders to whom the letter of thanks already mentioned was addressed 
from the Tower, rushed upon the King, and dashed the axe or sword 
out of his hand ; but when attempting to seize him, the latter, either 
with a knife or his gauntlet, struck Coupland so forcibly on the mouth, 
he drove out two of his teeth. 73 Well knowing, however, the value of 

71 Abercromby's Martial ^Achievements , ii, 97. 

72 In the Lat. Poem the account of the capture of David differs from that given in 
the text. The monkish poet says that Thomas Carre, a standard -bearer in the Scot- 
tish, ranks, who being near the King, was desirous to save his own life, and seeing 
nothing save death before him if the struggle was prolonged, said to his opponent, 
John de Coupland, " that is the King : take him !" Again, Leland, in his Itinerary, 
viii. 6, supplies the following passage : " Thomas Carre vexillarius dixit Joanni 
Copland ' cape Davidem regem.' " 

Some authorities say King David was not captured in the field fighting, but that 
he withdrew, and was caught while endeavouring to escape. " The King of Scot- 
land," observes Knyghton, "fled from battle, and was wounded by an arrow in the 
head, and was taken at Merrington by a servant of John Coupland, and led to the 
castle of Bambrough." Lord Hailes, in a note on this passage, says " Meryngton 
is considerably to the south of Durham. It is impossible to imagine that the King, 
if he had left the field, would have passed forward into England." Annals, ii. 218. 

From a paper (of which more will be said hereafter) in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for July, 1822, contributed by the Rev. John Hodgson, the historian of Northumber- 
land, we are told, "a tradition still preserved on the banks of the Browney, (a small 
stream near the field of battle) relates, that David, after the discomfiture of his army, 
fled from the field of battle, and was taken prisoner under the bridge on that stream, 
on the road from Witton- Gilbert to Ash." Also, from information kindly communi- 
cated by my respected friend, the Rev. James Raine, jun,, M.A., and others, I learn 
the above tradition has been prevalent in Durham and the neighbourhood from time 
immemorial, with this difference, that the King was captured by John de Coupland 
below Alden Bridge, over the same stream. If David tied, the circumstance of his 
being taken below one of these bridges is not unlikely ; for, in either case, a great 
breadth of waste land lay before him, and he had a better chance of reaching his own 
kingdom. The ancient report also embraces a circumstance noticed by some of our 
historians, that King David would not yield to any one whose degree was below that 
of a knight ; and the stern resistance he made agrees with that statement, for it is evi- 
dent he was taken by force alone. I am willing to give a tradition of that kind its due 
weight, and it is even possible it may have had its origin in truth. Still, the testi- 
mony of our most authentic historians is opposed to this view of the subject, and, on 



288 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

his prize, the squire secured him, 74 and with great promptitude, as- 
sisted by eight chosen companions, placed his captive on horseback, 
and conveyed him off the field, riding twenty-four miles, till about the 
time of vespers they reached Ogle Castle on the Blyth. This fortalice 
had been newly erected; and from Coupland's intimacy with its owner, 
Sir Eobert Ogle, he deemed it a suitable place for the safe keeping of 
his royal prisoner. 

During the whole period of the battle, we are told, the monks, both 
on the tower of Durham Cathedral and on the hillock in the depth of 
the valley, put up orisons without intermission, that heaven and the 
saint would be propitious to the English. Hence, when victory was 
proclaimed by sound of trumpet, 75 the brethren upon the high tower 
sang the Te Deum ; and the Church ascribed the success of the English, 
not to the unshaken fortitude and consummate bravery they had evinced, 
but to the hallowed relic of Saint Cuthbert being borne towards the 
battle-field, and to a gracious return from above, vouchsafed to the sup- 
plications of her ministering sons. 76 

With the capture of the King, however, the slaughter of the invaders 
did not terminate. It is certain that a great number of the Scots not 

calmly examining it, one is apt to ask, if the King fled, why was such a determined 
stand made on the field to the last by the nobility of Scotland and the officers of the 
royal household, who were nearly all killed ? This consideration induced me to re- 
gard the matter as stated in the text. 

74 " The King himself was taken prisoner by John Coupland, but not till he had 
wrested Coupland's dart from his hand, and struck out two of his teeth with his fist, 
though he himself was cruelly wounded with two arrows." Rev. John Hodgson. 

75 u The victory was declared by sound of trumpet at noon." Hutchinson's 
Durham, ii. 341. 

76 " The monks being on the bell- tower of their church, and seeing the flying 
Scots, lift up their voice, and filled the air with the sound of their acclamations, 
crying out and praising God, and weeping with tears of joy, saying ' Te Deum 
laudamus" AVhich voice the English heard as if they had come near to the back of 
them, and thence taking greater courage in God, more sharply followed their ene- 
mies, and more strongly trode them under foot." Knyghton. 

"According to the firm belief of the church of Durham the victory was mainly 
owing to a relic of St. Cuthbert, and to the prayers of the monks by whom that relic 
was carried to the field of strife." Raine's Saint Cut/ibert, p. 106. And in an illus- 
trative note the historian proceeds : " The story goes that whilst a few of the monks 
guarded the sacred relic at the foot of the hill upon which the battle was fought, the 
rest of their body was stationed in awful anxiety upon the middle tower of the 
Cathedral, and that seeing the result, they sang forth their Tc Deum in glad cxiilta- 
tion. In commemoration of the event, long after the Reformation, and in fact till 
the year 1811, the organist, singing men, and singing boys of the Cathedral, went 
once a year to the summit of the middle tower, and sang the Tc Deum to an audience 
in the churchyard below. For some time before the custom fell into disuse, the 29th 
of May was the day on which it was observed ; but I have good authority for stating 
that it was the battle of Seville's Cross which was intended to be commemorated. 
Twenty shillings were divided among those who took a pail in the ceremony." 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 289 

only sought their safety by flight, but that they were closely pursued 
and many killed; for the Prior's letter, already mentioned, says the 
fight extended to the rise of Fyndon Hill, showing that in retreat they 
had fought with their pursuers even to this place. When that venerable 
head of the convent rode out on his mule through Shaw Wood, and up- 
ward along the east side of his park at Beaurepaire for a mile or two, 
he may have seen by the dead bodies lying around him sufficient proof 
of what he stated, that "the most powerful of the Scottish nobles lay 
dead and despoiled of their arms, and stripped bare on Beaurepaire 
Moor." This forms a striking picture of the insatiable love of plunder 
which on that occasion prevailed among our countrymen, and we have 
evidence it was drawn in accordance with truth. 77 Great activity was 
likewise manifested in taking prisoners, for a document contained in our 
Records shows the names of forty-eight of the chief men of the English 
army who had captured a like number of the Scots, whose names are 
also supplied. 78 Besides, we have proof that many of the victorious 
party connived at the escape of the enemy, who doubtless paid them 
money to be set free. 79 Still, a large number of the fugitives would 
appear to have been killed. The camp-followers also, in their flight, 
may have suffered as severely as their armed countrymen. Packing- 
ton says there were " greate numbre of the communes of Scotland 
slayne; 80 andStowe observes, " The Englishmen pursued the chase after 
them which were fled, slaying and taking them, as farre as Prudhow and 
Corbridge," 81 indicating that the fugitives strove to gain the Roman way 
of Watling Street, as the most direct road to their own country. 

The whole loss of the Scots is by some stated to have been 1,000, 
and by others 15,000 ; so that if the first is too small, the last is greatly 
overrated. 82 Of the actual number, however, we have no certain ac- 

77 "Walsingham observes " that day would have been the last of Scottish rebellion, 
had the English, neglecting the spoil and the making of captives, urged the pursuit 
of the fugitives, and cut oif from the land of the living that nation which has ever 
been rebellious." " We can now smile" says Lord Hailes, " at the pious regret of 
Walsingham a regret which has been impatiently reiterated on other occasions." 

78 Eotuli Scotia, i. 678. Annals, ii. 219. 

79 " The English commanders, allured by the lucre of ransom, connived at the es- 
cape of many of their prisoners. This practice became so prevalent, and seemed of 
such hazardous example, that it was prohibited by proclamation under pain of 
death." Hailes' Annals, ii, 219. 

so Leland, Coll. i. 470. 81 Annales, p. 243. 

82 Fordun, ii. 343, relates that one thousand were slain. Wyntown writes the same : 
" Fyve hundyr slayne ware, as sayd thai, 
liut thai, that deyd in the For ray ; 
Swa thai all, that slayne war thare, 
Nowmryde til a thowsand ware ." Cronykil, ii. 264. 

Stubbs apud Twysden says, that more than nine Imndred armed men were killed. 
Froissart and his followers quote the loss at 15,000. 



290 THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

count ; nor do any of our historians even allude to the common men 
who were either wounded or taken prisoners. Among ^the slain were 
the Earl of Moray 83 already mentioned; the Earl of Strathearn; David de 
la Haye, constable ; Robert Keith, marshall ; Robert de Peebles, cham- 
berlain, and Thomas Charters, chancellor of Scotland, with other nobles, 
amounting altogether to about thirty-seven. Of the captives, exclusive 
of the King, were the Earls of Fife, Mentieth, and Wigton, the Knight 
of Liddesdale, and about fifty other barons and knights. 84 The loss of 
the English was comparatively small some say, four knights and five 
esquires, though on the authority of Proissart " they lost many of 
their men," and Ralph Lord Hastings was mortally wounded after he 
had made Roger Kirkpatrick prisoner. Of the common people who fell 
we have no account whatever. 

After the battle, Ralph Lord Neville and his brave companions went 
to the Church of Durham, and there, with great solemnity, at the fere- 
tory of St. Cuthbert, 85 offered up most grateful thanks for the victory 
presenting at the same time, within that venerable place, his own and 
King David's royal banner, with many other standards and ancients 
(or flags), both of England and Scotland, which continued to wave over 
the shrine of the saint down to the Dissolution. 86 He alsoj>resented to 
the said shrine the HOLY CROSS of Holy-rood-house, " none knowing 
whether it was of metal, stone, or wood," which had come to David the 
First of Scotland in a marvellous manner, and which was takenTrom 
the person of David II., who, with superstitious reverence, had brought 
it with him, deeming it a safeguard from personal danger and disaster. 87 

About the beginning of the following year the King of Scots was 
committed to a long confinement in the Tower of London, where the 
parsimonious Edward, with ungenerous economy, compelled his captive 
to j bear the whole expenses of his establishment, and imposed the same 

83 "He was the younger son of Randolph the Regent. With him the male line of 
that heroic family ended. He was succeeded in his honours and estate by his sister 
the Countess of March, commonly called Black Agnes" Hailes' Annals, ii, 322. 

84 See a u List of the persons of distinction in the Scottish army killed or made 
prisoners at the battle of Durham," in Hailes' Annals, ii, 321-29. 

85 A place beyond all comparison the most remarkable in the northern counties of 
England. The great men who in successive centuries have visited the venerable '* 
spot, only make it more sacred and solemn. The very pillars of that majestic tem- 
ple look down upon us as we enter the hallowed ground, and indicate by their silence: 
" You are the beings of little more than half -a- century ; we have stood for nearly 
a thousand years, and like the everlasting hills, exhibit no symptom of decay." For 
much interesting information, both of Durham Cathedral and the early history of the 
church in the northern counties, see u Saiut Cnthbert" and " A Brief Account of 
Durham Cathedral" both by the Rev. James Raine, M.A. 

86 Raine's Saint Cuthbert, p. 109. 

87 For an account of this Cross, sec Appendix, Xo. 1. 



THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 291 

charge upon the other Scotish prisoners. 88 Subsequently, he was at times 
permitted to visit Scotland on business, and for periods of some dura- 
tion he was detained in the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, chiefly 
under the charge of his captor, John de Coupland. High rewards and 
honours were bestowed upon the latter, who was made a knight-ban- 
neret, and had lands and manors assigned to him in Northumberland, 
Westmorland, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Lincolnshire. But he was 
chiefly employed in responsible offices on the Borders, being occasion- 
ally Warden of Eoxburgh Castle, and more frequently Governor of 
Berwick ; besides, he was Sheriff" of Northumberland from 1349 to 1355. 69 
Such was the battle of Neville's Cross It was most disastrous to 
Scotland, and not attended with any especial benefit to England. On 
looking over the scene where it occurred, no cherished associations of 
liberty to a people, or the stern impression that tyranny was beaten 
back there, arise in the mind, to make us prize more dearly our own 
freedom, and heave a sigh for nations that are still under the despot's 
sway. Yet an Englishman may justly be proud of the locality of the 
battle, since upon it was consummated one triumphant proof that if his 
countrymen be true to themselves they need fear no enemy and should 
the time again come when an insolent foe shall dare to set foot npon 
England, may he remember that, like his ancestors, his duty is either to 
die in her defence or live for her renown ! 

ROBERT WHITE. 

Newcastle-npon- Tyne. 



88 Rot. Scot. i. 690. 696, 705, 706. 

89 Some particulars of his history will be found in the Appendix, No. 2. 



[In collecting material for the above narrative, Mr. Garvin, classical assistant to the 
Rev. Dr. Bruce, supplied me with translations of the Latin Poem on the battle of 
Neville's Cross, in Hutchinson's History of Durham, ii. 342, and of Prior Forcer's 
Letter to the Bishop of Durham on the same subject, written a few days after the 
conflict, printed in the volume of Wills and Inventories, 1835, p. 30, and in that 
of Hist. Dunelm. Scriptores Tres, 1839, p. ccccxxxiv, both issued by the " Surtees 
Society." W. Hylton Dyer Longstafie, Esq., also placed at my service his trans- 
lations of Knyghton's account of the said battle, with some fragments of collateral 
history from one or two other sources, embodied in Twysden's Decent Scriptores. 
I have likewise availed myself of a few notes I took down from a statement of the 
same battle in the Chronicon de Lanercost, which was kindly read to me in English 
by the Rev. James Raine, M.A., the historian of "North Durham."] 



292 



APPENDIX. 

No. I. 
THE CROSS TAKEN FROM DAVID KING OF SCOTLAND. 

The work entitled, " The Ancient Rites and Monuments of the Monas- 
tical and Cathedral Church of Durham, fyc." is erroneous in another 
point than that of the date of Neville's Cross. It tells us the 23!adt 
i\ooft of Jpcotlantf was taken from King David in this battle. Had 
such been the case, he must have conveyed it with the army in a kind 
of portable chapel, for it had " Pictures of our Lady on one side of our 
Saviour, and St. John on the other side ; which Rood and Pictures 
were all three very richly wrought in silver, and were all smoaked 
black over, being large pictures of a yard or five quarters long." On 
this subject some inquiries were made in Notes and Queries, ii., pp. 308 
and 400, whence this rood appears to have been taken into Scotland by 
St. Margaret, on the occasion of her marriage with Malcolm III. On 
August 23rd, 1292, it occurs in the Catalogue of Scottish Muniments 
received within the Castle of Edinburgh in presence of the Abbot of 
Dunfermline and Holy -rood, and the Commissioners of Edward I., and 
was conveyed to Berwick-upon-Tweed. Robertson's Index of Charters, 
p. xiii. Simeon says it was bequeathed to Durham Priory by St. Mar- 
garet; and it occurs in " a list of the reliques preserved in the Fere- 
tory of St. Cuthbert, under care of the shrine-keeper, which was drawn 
up in 1383, by Richard de Sedgbrok. "See MS. Dunelm, B ii. 35. 

Bellenden's translation of the History of Scotland by Hector Boece 
(Edin. 1821), vol. ii. p. 296, contains the representation of a Rood, 
and probably the one in question. It is copied from that in the edition 
of 1536, and to local collectors may possess some interest, being, with 
another cut in vol i. p. 1 19, from the burine of Thomas Bewick, the cele- 
brated wood engraver. 

But the cross which was taken from King David must have been of 
small size, when he bore it upon his person with other jewels. In the 
absence of better authority, the succeeding quaint extract from the work 
last mentioned, in which the apocryphal history of the relic is given, 
may not be unacceptable to the reader, King David I., in the fourth 
year of his reign, 1128, had gone to visit the castle of Edinburgh, when 
all around that fortress were woods and meadows. On Rood-day, after 
the services of the church were over, several of the barons came, and 
earnestly desired him to hunt in the adjoining forest, to which he at 
length consented : 

" At last quhen he wes cumin throw th e vail that lyis to the gret cist fra the said 
castell, quhare now lyis the Cannogait ; the staill past throw the wod with sic noyis 
and din of rachis and bugilles, that all the bestis wer rasit fra thair dennis. Now 



APPENDIX TO THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS, 293 

wes the King cumin to the fute of the crag, and all his noblis severit, heir and thair, 
fra him, at thair game and solace, quhen suddanlie appearit to his sicht, the farest 
hart that evir wes sene afore with leavand creatour. The nois and din of this hart, 
rinnand, as apperit, with auful and braid tindis, maid the kingis hors so effrayit, that 
na renyeis micht hald him ; bot ran, perforce, ouir mire and mossis, away with the 
king. Nochtheles, the hart followit so fast, that he dang baith the king and his 
hors to the ground. Then the king kest abak his handis betwix the tindis of this 
hart, to haif savit him fra the strak thairof ; and the haly cross slaid, incontinent, in 
his handis. The hart fled away with gret violence, and evanist in the same place 
quhare now springis the Rude Well. The pepill, richt affrayitly, returnit to him out of 
ail partis of the wod, to comfort him efter his trubill ; and fell on kneis, devotly ador- 
ing the haly croce : for it was not cumin but sum hevinly providence, as weil ap- 
peris ; for thaire is na man can shaw of quhat mater it is of, metal or tre. Sone efter, 
the king returnit to his castel ; and in the nicht following, he was admonist, be ane 
vision in his sleip, to big ane abbay of channonis regular in the same place quhare 
he gat the croce. Als sone as he was awalkinnit, he schew his vision to Alkwine, 
his confessour; and he naithing suspendit his gud mind, bot erar innammit him with 
maist fervent devotion thairto. The king, incontinent, send his traist servandis in 
France and Flanderis, and brocht richt crafty masonis to big this abbay ; syne dedi- 
cat it in the honour of this haly croce. This croce remanit continewally in the said 
abbay, to the time of King David Bruce ; quhilk was unhappely tane with it at 
Durame, quhare it is halden yit in gret veneration." Groniklis of Scotland, ii. 298 



No. 2. 
MEMOIE OF JOHN DE COTJPLA.NI). 

Prom the important duty performed by John de Coupland in cap- 
turing the King of Scots, it seems desirable to annex some particulars 
of his life, and the part he took in public affairs. Among other sources, 
the compiler has derived much information from two papers, entitled 
" Coupland Castle," written by the Rev. John Hodgson, which appear- 
ed in the Gentleman's Magazine for July and August, 1822. 

Bitson, in his Notes to Minors Poems, says, that John de Coupland' s 
residence was at South Coupland, near Wooler. That he lived chiefly 
in that district there can be no doubt, for the manor of Wooler occurs 
under his name in Cal. Inq. p. m. ii. 172. He married Joan, sister of 
Henry del Strother, of Kirknewton. He would appear to have been 
with the Earl of Salisbury in 1338, at the siege of the Castle of Dun- 
bar, for when a secret agreement had been made for that commander to 
enter one of the gates of the fortress, John Coupland pressed on before 
him, but the portcullis being let down, he was taken prisoner. He 
had an annuity of 20?. out of the manor of Edrington, and other pro- 
perty in Berwickshire, in lieu of certain lands at Ormeston, in Rox- 
burghshire, which the King took from him and bestowed on their for- 
mer owner. In company with Thomas Grey the elder, and Robert 
Manners with the garrison of Roxburgh, he routed in 1340 the Earls 
of March and Sutherland, who had made an incursion into England. 
(Hollinshead's Hist. Scot. p. 238.) Three years afterwards, he was 
associated with the Bishop of Durham and others to keep the truce 
with Scotland, being appointed one of the justices for punishing the 
violators of the said truce. In the year following he was a com- 

2 N 



294 APPENDIX TO THE 

missioner for raising forces in the northern parts, and had an order to 
see two ruined windmills repaired at Berwick. 

There is a tradition that Crook Hall, near Durham, was his property 
about the time of the battle of Neville's Cross, and that he slept there 
one night preceding the conflict. His fortune was greatly advanced 
by the capture of King David, though for some time after the battle 
he was much occupied, with others, in making arrangements for the 
safe keeping of the Scottish prisoners. The King created him a Knight- 
banneret, the patent for which, though given by Prynne, appears also 
in Fcedera, v. 542, which conferred upon him, in addition to that 
honour, an annuity of 500Z., of which 400/. was payable out of the 
customs of London, and 100?. out of those of Berwick. About two 
months after the battle he and others were summoned to Westminster 
to confer with the council about certain state affairs. From this and 
other facts it seems improbable that he went to Calais as represented 
by Eroissart. Early next year, in lieu of his annuity of 500, he had 
a grant from the King to himself and his wife of that part of the barony 
of Kendal called the Richmond fee, which comprised moieties of Kirkby, 
in Kendale, and Ulverstone, in Lancashire, the manors of Coghulle, in 
Yorkshire, of Morholm, Warton, Cranford, and Lynheved, " for his ac- 
ceptable and laudable services done unto us, and the good state which 
he has holden in our wars, and particularly for his valiant behaviour in 
the battle of Durham." Ablrev. Rot. Orig. ii. 187-8, 

After this period the King put him into places of great responsibility. 
Prom 1347 his name occurs as governor and constable of the castle of 
Roxburgh, and sheriff of Roxburghshire. In 1348 he was a com- 
missioner for treating with the Scots about prolonging the truce ; and 
from 1350 to 1354 he was high sheriff of Northumberland. He had an 
order in 1351 (Fcedera, v. 727/ to keep David de Brus in the castle of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, unless Henry de Percy and Ralph de Neville 
agreed at Berwick to release him for certain hostages. Again, in the 
year following, he had directions to receive David, who had been per- 
mitted to go into Scotland on business, at the hands of the Bishop of 
Durham and others, and to relieve all the hostages for him then de- 
tained at Berwick. Also, in 1352, he had WQl. a year as warden of 
Roxburgh Castle (Rot. Scot. i. 749.), when he succeeded to the collect- 
orship of the forests of Selkirk, Ettrick and Peebles, and was permitted 
to levy, collect, and receive the fee-farm rents, proceeds and profits of 
Roxburghshire . 

In the following year, 1353 (Foedera v. 756.), he was again ap- 
pointed to receive David de Brus, whose days of captivity were not 
completed ; and in 1354 he was ordered to deliver in Newcastle-upon- 
Tynethe Scottish monarch " now remaining in our castle there/' to the 
Bishop of Durham and others. About the same period he was appointed 
a conservator of the truces on the East Marches. But in 1355 he had 
an order to resign the offices of governor and constable of the castle of 
Roxburgh, and sheriff of Roxburghshire, in favour of Henry de Percy 
(Rot: Scot. i. 781.); and, in the same year, his advice and assistance 
were solicited by the garrison of Berwick. During 1357 he was or- 



BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 295 

dered with Ei chard Tempest (Fadera v. 876.) to superintend the works 
upon the " Douglas Tower" in the same place \ and that year, he was 
made governor of Berwick. The chamberlain thereof had an order to 
pay him 10s. a year out of lands and tenements in Berwick, and Robert 
Erskyn was put into his custody as an hostage for payment of Bruce' s 
ransom. Mandates to him occur at this time respecting repairs in the 
fortifications, and appointing a market without the walls, to which the 
Scots might resort for all kinds of merchandise, save war-horses, bows 
and arrows. 

He and Richard Tempest in 1359 were appointed lieutenants to the 
Earl of Angus and Ralph Neville, Wardens of the East Marches, who 
were called thence on urgent business ; and on 24th June of the fol- 
lowing year f Fcedera, vi. 201), the King acknowledged to have re- 
ceived the third payment of 10,000 marks from John de Couplandfor 
redemption of David de Brus. He was appointed "Warden of the 
Marches in 1361, and was also re-appointed to the Sheriffalty of Rox- 
burghshire, In the following year he had directions to repair the 
Castle of Roxburgh. Subsequently, however, on account probably of 
declining health, he had an order to deliver up the office of Governor 
of Berwick to Richard Tempest (Rot. Scot. i. 864.) Considerable 
obscurity hangs over the close of his life. Hodgson says he died at 
Werk, but, judging from the evidence before us, we think there is 
truth in Knyghton's statement, that he was slain, or rather murdered 
in 1362, or the following year, and not by the Scots, but by his own 
countrymen, for in 1366 the county of Northumberland obtained a par- 
don for his death by the payment of 1000 marks. (Ablrev. Rot. Or iff., 
ii. 290, and Fcedera, vi. 494.) He was buried at Carham, but his 
widow obtained a license to remove his body to the Priory of Kirkham, 
in Yorkshire. His will, dated 9th Oct., 1359, is printed in the volume 
of Wills and Inventories, p. 29, 1835, issued by the "Surtees Society," and 
was proved in London by his widow, 12 July, 1365. She received 
large profits from lands in Werk, a receipt for which is printed by Mr. 
Hodgson. The Col. Inq. p. m. ii. 340, 49 Edw. III., shows her 
property to have been very extensive, comprising manors in Lincoln- 
shire, Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Westmorland. 



No. 3. 
COMMENCEMENT OF A POKM ox THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

By intimation of the Rev. James Raine, M.A., and the liberality of 
Richard W. Hodgson, Esq., I am enabled to supply an extract from the 
commencement of a poem by the Rev. John Hodgson, the historian of 
Northumberland, on the Battle of Neville's Cross. What he wrote was 
in blank verse, and it comprehends a dialogue between King David and 
the barons of Scotland, when meditating the inroad upon England. It 
is singular how the poetic vein will run through the mind of one capable 
of attaining the highest degree of excellence as a county historian ; and 



296 APPENDIX TO THE 

this is exemplified not more in the case of Mr. Hodgson, than in that of 
his renowned friend, Mr. Surtees. But, indeed, were a historian not 
possessed of something like a poet's enthusiasm, he could not accomplish 
the labour necessary to his success. The scene is a large hall, and the 
following forms part of the speech of the monarch and that of Sir 
William Douglas : 

" . . . This land of mountains and of vales, 
Of hills, of hazels, and of gloomy pines, 
You all must equally adore. Here lived 
Our sires, and here our helpless babes were laid 
On bosoms of affection. Records show 
No time when Scotland yielded to the yoke 
Of foreign power. Preferring stormy hills 

To loss of liberty, 

The sons of Scotland stood at bay with Borne, 
Till from the oppressor's hand, imbecile dropt 
The reins of Tyranny ; and shall the sons 
Of ancestors like these, inglorious kiss 
The feet of conquerors?" 

Then Douglas, chieftain of the warlike race 
That dwelt by Liddel from his seat arose. 

" My counsel is for peace : 

Let us go back, and in our halls suspend 
Our bilged shields, not like despairing men, 
But with determined purpose of revenge. 
While Danger on our frontier stalks around, 
We need not fear our soldiers will repose 
Upon the lap of indolence or ease : 
Our poverty our bravery will protect ; 
And while by day, o'er rugged hills we drive 
The stag wind-footed, and by night enjoy 
The hunter's mirth, and each domestic bliss, 
We shall increase in numbers and in strength ; 
Our hearts for Scotland glow with warmer love ; 
Our ruined forts will rise, our valleys smile 
With joyful harvests, and our armies rush 
Cheerful to battle, as the lark that sings 
Sweet roundelays to hail the blushing morn." 



BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 297 



No. 4. 
LATIN POEM ON THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 

A copy of this Poem was transmitted by Eitson to George Allan, Esq., but it was not 
printed in Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham. See that Work, ii., 342. 

{Cotton MSS. Titus, A. xx. Fol. 82. *.] 

The following documents are in a hand nearly cotemporary with the events they 
mention, in a sort of olio of poetry. The writer has not understood all the bar- 
barous Latin of his original, and has made it more corrupt still. After some 
time spent in collation, there are still words in almost hopeless corruption, and we 
do not venture to do more than to print the verses merely as they stand. They 
have their interest as a manifestation of the feelings of the day, and are amusing 
in more points of view than one. 

DE BELLO SCOTIE, TTBI DAVID BRTJS ERAT cAPTus. 1 

Dux Yaleys hinnit Francia grinnit territa tinnit 

Francia plorat falsa colorat se dehonorat 

Fortes ecce greges ventos contraria fila 

Pugnabunt reges rex leo rex aquila 2 

Rex leo vincetur cor cauda capud ferietur 

Yincet rex aquila regia flos simila 

Fictus non fortis leo films est cito mortis 

Se regnum gentes leo parde jure carentes 

Anglia gens' jubila metuas leo nescius ausis 

Est leo rex Francus Anglicus est aquila 

Cecus era plene qui prselia secus emit 

Laudem quaesivit cessant sibi laudis avene 

Ecce Deus pro te rex pugnat ubique 

Sis tibi sincerus cultor faciens nil unquam 

In Justus cupidus cecidi veracia nolens 

Elatus rugidus se bene non recolens 

Rex esto Justus paciens dans ore venustus 

Mitis et ignoscens tacitus tua te bene noscens 

Contra nos populi multi veniunt caveamus 

Ad te sunt oculi nostri Jesu ne pereamus 

Tu scis qua3 cogitant in nos nos respice Christe 

Justiciam vitant cor eorum destrue Christe 

Bella premunt et corda tremunt nos respice Christe 

Mens gemit arte fremit hostis da Christe tuis te 

Non est pro nobis qui pugnet ni Deus unus 

Demus ei munus dat se pro nmnere nobis 

Corde superborum Scotorum destrue Christe 

1 This title and that of the subsequent article are added in a later hand. 

2 The eagle was a badge of Edward III., but the designation of the English King 
as the eagle, and of the French King as the lion, sound strangely to modern ears. 



298 APPENDIX TO THE 

Hostibus Anglorum Scotis bone Christe resiste 
Idrais capita sunt Scotis cesa polita 
Tres uno ceso crescunt sine corpore laeso 
Tutus Brus care cum Francigenis sociatus 
Estimat elatus Anglorum corda vorare 
Res ut mercatur vendendo malum paciatur 
Nos sic mercari voluit nequit inde lucrari 
Ecce spei fortis intendens spiracula mortis 
Anglos invadit In mala fata cadit 
Scotorum banua surgient clame 9 Osanna 
Scotos obsanna[?] Deus ut clame 9 Osanna 
Scoti leviathan sunt sint Abiron Chore Dathan 
Felle nigro pleni Gebal Amon Agareni 
Dum rex longinquas abiit noster regiones 
Scoti felones guerras movere propinquas 
False credentes boream virtute carere 
Insurrexere pomposo corde tumentes 
Se fore Sampsones Machabeos vel Gedeones 
Credunt ratones cito fugiunt et stricones 
Sub duce Erus David gens Scotica corda levavit 
Pars nobis davit fit reddet spoliavit 
Scoti vim faciunt vastant erraria jura 
Occidunt rapiunt faciunt incendia plura 
Multiplicem nummum quaarunt pacem fugientes 
Ergo bonum summum confundantur renuentes 
Durn pax offertur Scotis motu pietatis 
Anglis infertur bellum dire feritatis 
Inveniunt certam bonam probitate refertam 
Fidam confertam probitatis honore disertam 
Patria collecta primate suo duce recta 
Concordi secta probitatis amore refecta 
Ymnis insistens Scotis ex corde resistens 
Insultis cantos fecit divinitus antos 
Terram defendit et praslia dira reprendit 
Terrentur Scoti mira formidine moti 
Exacuunt corda viri fidei sine corda 
Ruperunt pacta nature lege peracta 
Siccant confracta fera corda timore subacta 
Elati cordis fuit autrix Scocia cordis 
Egressi mures ausi sunt bella movere 
Volentes fures a bello se cohibere 
In campo Duram statuunt pugnam sibi duram 
Nos protecturam dat Christi gratia curam 
Confidunt in equis in cruribus in probitate 
Credentes ne quis sit eis par nobilitate 
Est domini nomen nobis fortissima turris 
Stantis scurris nos Christi protogat omen 
In Sancti Luce festo celi duce luce 
Sub ductrice cruce Scoti perire caduce 



BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 299 

Drui [duri ?] dente bruco silens pleni miro fuco 
In Duram luco morbo cecidere caduco 
Ut leo venerunt dispergere nos voluerunt 
Errabant ut oves et rediere boves 
Anglorum primas docet eleyson ymas 
Scotorum primas sedes deduxit ad yraas 
Cor capud ora pedes fecit deponere sedes 
Scotorum sedes Anglorum protegit sedes 
Id repeti Scoti siciu't vertigine moti 
Cum siciit Scotus diros dedit Anglia motus 
Scocia militia perit et multi moriuntur 
Capti vincuntur nos defendente Maria 
Rex regum Scotis facit ut servitur Olofernus 
Temporibus imis nostris dulcedine focis 
Inclitus Henricus Pertiboro pacis amicus 
Fit Scotis amicus instans obstans munitus 
Mos girfalconis fuit illi cor Gedeonis 
Virtus Sampsonis Joab ars sensus Salomonis 
Totus divinus urbanus ut ille Gawynus 
Fit sibi dulcori nescia fama mori 
Se probis armavit et carcia forcia stravit 
Sepe ronitravit acies fortes penetravit 
Scoti fugerunt latuerunt morte ruerunt 
Percy persequitur permutus rapit arte potitur 
Percy Machabeus fuit et Brus David Etheus 
Percy non pigritat se clari nomine ditat 
lllustris miles Titus Hecto Brutus Achilles 
Hunc Deus instilles Scotos fecit fore viles 
Fortes parti leo quia gigas par Machabeo 
Junctus amore Deo necat hostes cum jubileo 
Mittit ad infernum Scotos multos bene pictus 
Semper in eternnm suus ensis sit benedictus 
Et benedicantur generosi Percy parentes 
Sed maledicantur Scoti sibi mala volentes 
Utens lorica fidei probitatis amicae 
Pugnans magnified vicit nobis inimica 
Magnates tales debemus semper amare 
Qui defensare quaerunt populos animales 
Scoto deludit et aves prius falco recludit 
Yictos confudit et eoruin vicera fudit 
Ut mors non parcit nee quasi marsupia farcit 
Christo conndit Scotorum bella recidit 
Quos infestabat aquila velocior omni 
Temporibus sompni vigilans dorrnire vetabat 
Intrat in eclipse fines ejus David ipse 
Yirus dans dipse frustrabitur apocalipse 
Brus David affugit fugiendo quasi leo rugit 
Coplond attingit fugiente vulnere cingit 



300 APPENDIX TO THE 

Copland arestat David cito se manifestat 3 
Rex fugiens capitur et honos regis sepelitur 
Regem Scotorum vicuit [liceat ?] captum retinere 
Regem scaccorum jura vetant capere 
Copland cogn[atus ?] est Johannes sibi vere 
Qui Brus accepit sibi gratia crescere cepit 
Ore noraen habens cui cogn[atus ?] cape terram 
Capto Brus guerram finit sic Scocia labens 
Orung' ipse bonus fugientes exanimavit 
Letum cepit onus Brus capiendo David 
Prede mane rapax In vespere dividis escas 
Epicharis crescas Bruys probitate capax 
Expers dulcoris fuit expers est Bruys honoris 
Fercula fetoris In primis obtulit horis 
Dum puerum David prsesul baptismate lavit 
Ventrem laxavit baptisterium rnaeulavit 
Fontem fedavit In quo mingendo cacavit 4 
San eta prophanavit olei feces reseravit 
Brus nimis eiunxit cum stercore sacra perunxit 
Se male disjunxit urine stercora junxit 
Dum baptizatur altare Dei maculatur 
Nam super altare fertur mingendo cacare 
Eat singularis puer his celestibus aris 
Optulit in primis stercora feda nimis 
Discinctus lumbis mirum thinnama refudit 
Optulit et fudit pro turtura sive columbis 
Mirram thesaurum non optulit iste renatus 
Sed proprium staurum ventris rumpendo meatus 
Stercora concepit peperit quae ventre recepit 
Qui non dum repit fedare turn sacra cepit 
Sic domus alma Dei fedo repletus odore 
Anthiochi more fsetor adheret ei 
Ecclesiae Christi non competit hostia talis 
Laus baptismalis violatur munere tristi 
Credo prophanavit qui templa Dei violaret 
Facto firmavit qui ei mala gratia flaret 
Filius altare mox stercoribus temeravit 
Sanguine fedare pater ecclesiam properavit 
Ergo prophanarunt qui jus regni viciarunt 
Ex quo sincero cultu domini caruere 
Prave vixerunt Manasses Amon duo reges 
In sacras leges committere non timuerunt 
Rex Bruys Robertus feritatis mole refertus 
Dux homicida ferus patens et aptus 

3 This version of the capture of David is accordant with the English statements. 
Probably the English and Scotch accounts are to be reconciled by the supposition that 
the King had retired from the field of fight, but fiercely assailed his captor. It is 
stated by a very old native of Durham, that when under Alden Bridge, as has been 
stated, the King, refused to submit to any person under the degree of a knight. 

4 The same improper conduct is ascribed to Ethelred the Unready. 



BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CEOSS. 301 

Filius uxorem contempnit adulter adultus 
Stupor consul tus fidei miro perdit amorem 
Non est ipse davit manibus vultu venerandus 
Ut siba clamavit a rege David superandus 
In David forti nullas partes habuit ille 
Tradendus morti forti privatur Achille 
Fit lepra pena patri confusio capcio proli 
Suse proli soli superest sibi pena baratri 
Privatur prole quia conjugii bona sprevit 
Oppressus mole mala messuit et mala sevit 
Scotorum comites quorum Patrik fuit unus 
Prsesto fugit comites sunt nobis nobile munus 
Clamabant In a day gowe to the tyrie 5 TFyth-hay 
Ipsis sit Waleway* Meschef tristissiraa Woday 
Scoti triphones nos invenire tirones 
Hii sunt dolones et eramus corde leones 
His nox fervoris fuit illis arra doloris 
Fitque dies Martis Scote confusio partis 
Vincere credebant Deus hoc et jura vetabant 
"Wo propinabant sua pocula prima bibebant 
Quse cum gustassent et mortis dona vorassent 
Nostri steterunt et pocula tela dederunt 
Ibant gaudebant deridentes veniebant 
Confusi flebant victi redeundo dolebant 
David deductus est sunt sua gaudia luctus 
Achab Michee non credit sed Sedechie 
Presumens nummas vires sunt corde perito 
Surgit Amasias corruit ipse cito 
Londonias vere Scoti novere venire 
Hoc notum mirere multi meruere tenere 
Scoti vicine sunt per mala nota ruine 
Est miser insultus sibi magna tamen tumultus 
Jampropter peccata laus est Scotis breviata 
Anglia nunc timeat crimina praseaveat 
Christo dbvotum gentis electum sibi notum 
Turma sacerdotum facit illos solvere votum 
Tales novere debent qui voto tenere 
Optant et jurant et hoc se ponere curant 
Cor Levitarum Scotis donat cor amarum 
Sit cor Sanctorum benedictum presbiterorum 
Visio magnarum vovetur Londoniarum 
Hii vovent vane quos votum perdit mane 
Invite solvent veniens solvendo dolebunt 
Yires dissolvent sibi nil sua vota valebunt 
Ibunt et flebunt nolentes vota tenebunt 
Debent debebunt se plus non posse tenebunt 
Callidus ille comes Patrik per devia fugit 
Fraus sibi cara comes quia vox cornupeta rugit 
6 What is tyrie ? 6 Well-away. 

2o 



302 APPENDIX TO THE 

Hie nostre fidei quondam se sen do subegit 
Saepe fidem fregit nee habet loca nunc requiei 
Mentis eontritse patuere sui ter godite 
Ceduntur rite quia non fugere perite 
Gente reinvita redit cum fraude polita 
Fraus sibi mentita confusa fuit sua vita 
Willielmus Duglas sal Scotis sit que nitam 
In bello Douglas sit nobis ductile vitam 
Laudis honore caret fere Scocia viribus aret 
Convenit tristis tibi sors in partibus istis 
Languens ponetur in carcere nee redimetur 
Falsus marcessit sua vis ut cera liquessit 
Vires nobilium vicit per nos Deus almus 
Scotorum palmus migrat in exilium 
Mentis mentitur in campo morte feritur 
Vivit perdit vitam modica bonitate potitam 
Ecce senescallus Scotorum falsus onallus 
Festinans fugere non cessat corde pavere 
Anglia letare bellum domini meditare 
Clerum preclare collaudando venerare 



Explicit de bello Scocie ubi David Brus fuit captus qui erat rex eorum et 

alii magnates. 

[Folio 86.] 

BELLA DE CEESSY ET NEVYLE CEOSSE 1346. 

Annis bis sex C quater X bis ter simul et C 
Carmina pando lira tune contingentia mira 
Gallia mota nimis declinat forte minis 
Dum properat Vesci bello sub nemore Cressi 
Corruit ecise per E. Subito gens Gallica sub P. 
Funeris ex pen a Periunt tria milia dena 
Bina dies vere post festum Bartholomei 
Hsec virtute Dei testatur mira patere 
Plebs nitet Edwardi de gestu Machabeorum 
Laus patet Anglorum sub vexillo leopardi 

^f Eastu commotos percussit et Anglia Scotos 
Sub rcgente David quatuor ter milia stravit 
Cruxque Nove Yille belli sit testis et ille 
Qui verum scivit que Scocia victa subivit 
Prse festo Jude [sic] lux Anglis dena vacavit 
Sed tune calcavit Scotos sors aspera rude 
Sanguine stillante necat illos gens borealis 
Quos ibi regalis presumptio duxerat ante 



BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS. 303 

51 Reges dux et comites barones et milites qui tune bellaverunt 
Prioratus praesules plures viri nobiles nece ceciderunt 
Mox audaces Angliae tune majores Scocia3 
Plures tacti vulnere Rex et Duglas propere capti carcerantur 
Sub-dola Scotorum gens laudem perdit honoris 



Isti versus sunt de bellis de Cressi et de Nevilecros. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Abergavenny, Lord, 2 

Acomb, 133 

Acton, family, 30, 31, 50 

Adamson, John, vi., x 

Adamson's House, 128 

Adda, 158 

Addison, 105, 113 

Addy, Mr., a monk, 98 

Aden Castle and town, 53 

^Elbflffid, 157 

2Elian Cohort, 234, 262 

JElius Csesar, Lucius, 249 

JElius, Publius, 78 

jEsculapius, 240 

2Esica, Eoman remains from, 226, 247, 
249, 253, 254 

Agricola, Calpurnius, 250 

Ainsley, 106 

Aiscough, family, 11 

Albard, 61 

Alcflsed, 157 

Alcfrid, King, 152, 153 et seq. 

Alden Bridge, 287, 300 

Aldfrid, 156 

Alexander Severus, 82, 226 

Algood, 114 

Allan, George, Esq., of Grange, 131 
the Antiquary, 86, 131 

R. H., Esq. Contribution of a No- 
tice of the Hedley Kow from George 
Allan's MSS., 86. The like of draw- 
ings of Neville's Cross and Maiden 
Bower, 131. 

Allendale, 99 

Allenhead, 128 

Allerwash, 127 

AUinson, 33, 131 

Alnmouth, cross from, 173, 185 

Alnwick, 128 

Castle, Museum at, 78, 84, 241 

, Hospital of St. Leonard at, 48 

Alston Moor, 99, 106, 107, 114, 116, 120, 
129, 130, 203 

Alvey, Vicar of Newcastle, 140, 142 

Amble, 128 

Amboglanna, vi., 70, 234, 238, 240, 262 

Anderson family, 40, 136, 138 

Anderton family, 59, 129 

Andrew family, 135 

Andre wson family, 64 

Angnes for Agnes, 66 



Annandale, Earl of, 203 

Anthony, St., 168 

Antonine Cohort, 227 

Wall, 241 

Antoninus Pius, 79, 80, 224, 235, 236 

Apolinaris, Ulpius, 252 

Apollo, 239, 249, 261 

Apothecary at Durham, 62 

Appleby, 8, 12, 14, 15, 19 

Barony, 45 

Castle, 2, 10, 12 

Church, 10 

Apsley, name, 7 

Archbold, 107 

Archer, family, 18 

Archidiaconal jurisdiction of the Chan- 
cellor of the Prior of Durham, 62 

Armiger, name, 65 

Armstrong, 104, 106 

Arnalde family, 39, 40, 41 

Arthington, 18 

Arthur family, 129 

Ashmall, Ferdinando, 105 [for " aged 16" 
read "aged 61"], 106 

Aske family, 31 

Astures, 226 

Atchenson, 33 

Atcheson, 41 

Athol family, 24 

dignity, 23, 29 

Athy family, 129 

Atkinson, 131, 138 

Attonside, 127 

Auckland, 31 

Deanery, 52 

, North, 64 

Castle, 144 

Park, 276 

Audacus, 266 
Aurelius, Marcus, 81 
Aycliffe, Cross at, 174 
Aydon Castle, 275 

Shields, 107, 129 

family, 209 

Aynsley family, 128, 129 

B. 

Baal or Bel, 239 
Babington, Great, 25 

family, 210 

Bacon family, 99 
Baddeley family, 143 



306 



INDEX. 



Badenagh, 24 

Badge of Tempest aud Umfreville, 35 

Bagraw, 127 

Baker, 33, 113, 132 

Bald, origin of the word, 3 

Baliol family, 28, 64, 271, 273, 279 

Barony, 46 

Ballast Shore, 128 

Ballistarium and Ballistse at Bremenium, 

73, 78 

Bamborough, 186, 287 
Banks family, 128 
Banna, 267 
Barber family, 129 
Bardon Tower, 10 
Barker, 32, 58 
Barnack, Saxon tower at, 177 

dial at, 178 

Barnard Castle, name, 61 

Barnes, Ambrose, 99, 100, 121, 123 

Barningham, 214 

Barrass, viii. 

BaiTon, family, 105 et seq. 217 

Barroughes, 7 

Barton, family, 33, 36, 38, 95, 96, 98, 

203, 208 et seq, 

, place, 55, 58 

on Humber, cross near, 185 

Barwick, name, 57 

Hill, 96 

Basire family, 141 
Batavi, 233, 257 
Bates family. 134, 135, 137 
Baxter, 37, 42, 66 
Bay leaf used in a seal, 43 
Beale, Edward, 199 
Beamsley, 6, 19 
Beanley Barony, 46 
Bearle, Manor of, 139 
Beaver, family, 132 
Beauchamp, de, 12 
Beaufront, 214 

, Chief of, 100 

Beaumont, 24, 273 

, Bishop, 273 

Beaurepaire, 275, 279, 289 
Beckermont, Tuda's monument at, 149, 

181 
Beda, his monument to his father, 156 

, Venerable, proper names in, 187 

, name of, 193 

Bedale, 206 

Bedenhal, 47 

Beeley, for Isabella, 105 

Belatucader, 266 

Belford Castle, viii. 

Bell, family, 110 et seq. 128 

, Thomas, his Local Muniments, 23 

Bellasis family, 8, 141, 142 
Bellerby, 206 



Belley family, 134, 135 

Bells rung on an obit, 39 

Bellingham, 24 

Benedict Biscop, 161, 192, 195 

Bendlowes, family, 131 

Benteley, 30 

Beonna, coins of, 181 

Berchtfrid, 186 

Berchtuini, 156 

Bernicia, names of the kings of, 193 

Bertram family, 281, 284 

Berwick, 5, 29, 30, 214, 271, 294 

, Walls of the Town and Castle 

of, temp. Hen. VIII., 87 
Betti, 158 

Bewcastle, Saxon cross at, 149 
Beverley, 37, 276 
Bewick family, 142, 147 
Bickerstaffe, Capt., 116 
Bigg and Wheat, 110 
Billingham family, 62 
Bilton, 24 

Bing of Lead Ore, contents of, 99 
Birkinside, 135 
Bishop Mill at By well, 136 
Bishopstone, dial at, 179 
Bishop's Demesnes, rating of, 52 
Blacke family, 40 
Blackett, Sir Walter, 68 

Sir William, 100 

Michael, 100, 110 

Blacklock family, 137 

Black Kood of Scotland, 292 

Blagil, 100 

Blake Chesters, Eoman antiquities from, 

237, 242 
Blakeden, 30 
Blakiston, 140 

family, 141 

Blanchland Abbey, 62, 65, 135, 137 

Bland, 131 

Blaydon, 113 

Blaxton, John, his rebus, 97 

Blenkinsop family, 211 

Boast, Mr., a priest, 97 

Bocht, 30 

Bogle, 127 

Bolbeck Barony, 46 

Boliun Barony, 46 

Bondgate, 12 

Bonomi, 14 

Boonsday work, 128 

Borcovicus, 70, 77, 222 to 267 passim 

Boswell, 17 

Bothal, 24 

Barony, 26 

Bourchier, 6, 16 
Bower family, 41 
Bowes, 215 
family, 7, 107 



rxi>r;x. 



:J()7 



Bowes, Joshua, 101, 103 
Brabant family, 211 
Bradford Barony, 46 
Bradley, 8 

family, 104, 110, 115 

Brampton, 12 

Brancepeth, 34 

Brandling, 37, 40, 41, 42 

Branson, 132 

Bremenium, Excavations at, during 1855, 

and plan, 69 ; Roman antiquities from, 

227, 238, 241, 267 
Brent, 106 

Brereton, co. Durham, 118 
Brew Rent, 129 

Bridekirk font, inscription on, 182 
Bridge sess, 107 
Briggs family, 4, 142 
Brisby, family, 105 
Brittany, 27 
Brockhouse, widow, 42 
Brokenheugh, 127 
Brome family, 33 
Bromehalgh, 136 
Broomhill, 127 
Bromley, de, 64, 133, 137 
Brough Castle and Manor, 12 

, near Catterick, 128, 130 

Brougham, 8, 19 

Castle, 5, 10, 12, 15; Roman 

altai from, 266 

Church, 10 

Hall demesne, 14 

Manor, 15 

Browell Manor, 111, 209 

Brown, 14, 104, 110, 115, 134, 136, 211 

Brownell family, 217 

Browney river, 287 

Broxfield, 128 

Bruce, Rev. J. C., LL.D., his account of 
excavations at Bremenium, 69 ; his 
Catalogue of Inscribed and Sculptured 
Stones in the Castle of Newcastle, 151 

Brunhopp, de, 61 

Brus, 23, 271 et seq. 

Bubb, name of, 194 

Buck family, 136 

Buckle, 20 

Buckles family, 116 

Budeland, 128 

Bugge, name of, 194 

Building Contract for Dilston Hall, 200 

Bulhame, 30 

Bull, wild, sculpture of, 240 

Burdet, 106 

Burdoswald. viii. See Amboglanna. 

Burdus family, 86 

Burgh-on -the- Sands, Roman object from, 
236 

family, 196 



Burn family, 132, 13.6 

Burnett, Bishop, 122 

Burns, 128 

Burnup family, 42 

Burrell family, 135 

BurreUs, 12 

Burton family, 141 

Bush family, 41 

Butcher family, 210 

Bute, Lord, 68 

Butler family, 6, 128, 142 

Byfeild family, 109 

Byker, 128, 130 

Byland, Old, dial at, 179 

Byron, Lady, 131 

Bywell, 24, 103, 116, 133, 211 

Lordship, 66, 113 ; Rental of, 133 

family, 62, 64, 107 

, churches at, 195 

C. 

Csedmon, Saxon poem supposed to be 
his, 173 

Csedwalla, 157 

Caistor, 161, 163 

CaUaley, 47, 56 

Calvehyde family, 65 

Camby, 31 

Camden's own copy of his Britannia, 151 

Camma, 129 

Canby family, 57, 59 

Cant family, 145 

Canterbury, terminal stone near, 182 

Capheaton, 26 

Caracalla, 78, 81, 227, 230, 232, 235, 
236, 246, 258 

Carausius, 72, 79, 83 

Caresley House, 56 

Carham, 295 

Carleton family, 141 

Carliol, 29, 32, 34 

Carlisle, 55; Norse Runes at, 182; Ro- 
man stone from, 252 

, Dean and Chapter, their pro- 
perty, 54, 107 
-, Lord, 126 



Carnaby, Mr. Tho., 102, 103, 113 

family, 118, 127, 136, 139 

Carnarvon, Charles Earl of, 17 

Carr family, 32, 105, 107, 108 et seq. 

122, 131, 135, 137, 141, 241, 287 
Carrawburgh. See Procolitia. 
Carrhouscs, 53 
Carryll family, 122 
Cartington family, 97, 129, 137 
Carvoran. See Magna. 
Cassianus, 241 
Castle Nick Mile Castle, 246 
Castle Ward, 44 



308 



INDEX. 



Catalogue of Roman stones in the Soci- 
ety's possession, 221 

Catterick, 185 

Cavendish family, 6 

, Lady, 139 

Cecil, 2, 3, 4 

Cedd, 158, 193 

Centurial Stones, 240, 242, 246, 247 

Ceres, 231 

Cert-money, 139 

Cere- cloth, 11 

Challoner, E. W., presentation by, vii. 

Chambers, Mr. Mark, a priest, 98 

, Mr. Robert, a priest, 98 

Chancellor of Durham Priory, 62 

Chandos family, 7 

Chapman family, 140, 236 

Chastillon, 28 

Charles II., daughters of, 98, 99, 121 ; 
appearance of, 101 ; changes in his 
ministry, 120 

Charlton family, 114, 127 

, Edward, M.D., papers by, vii.; 

his accounts, x. 

Charters; Tho., 290 

Chatt family, 112 

Chaucer, 25 

Chelmsford, 101 

Chesterholme. See Yindolana 

Chester-le-Street, Roman antiquities 
from, 242, 249, 265, 266 

Deanery, 52 

Chesters, Great. See -ZEsica. 

Chicken family, 129 

Chillingham, 53 

Chilton, 61 

family, 61, 64 

Chipehase, 53* 

Chippindale, 19 

Choppington, 24 

Christion, Major, 121 

Christmas at Lady Hume's, 119 

Church Lands, Rating of, 52, 143 

Churchwardens presented, 104 

Chyvinton Barony, 47 

Cilurmim, 70, 76, 83 

Claice Clere, a name, 40 

Clanell, 107 

Claphamson, Tho., 43 

Clarewood, 53 

Clarke, Rev. Dixon, viii ; Rev. S., 243 

family, 211 

Claudius, 179 

Gothicus, 83 

, century of, 243 

Clavering family, 56, 215, 220 

Clayton, John, his excavations, ii., 247 ; 
his paper on an altar to Cocidius, vii. 

Clefwell Hill, 24 

Clemens, Csecilius, 241 



Clephan, James, hid reports, ii. 

Clergenet family, 196 

Clerkenwell, 2 

Cleveland, Fitz Roy, Duke of, 131 

, Duchess of, 98 

Clifford, Memoir of Ann and her rela- 
tives, 1 

, family of, 25, 26 

Clifton, 3 

Coalburne, 86 

Coalfell, 116 

Coal-pits at Jesmond, 32 

Coals, 109 

Coastley, 107, 127 

Cocidius, 267 

Cock family, 32, 132 

Cocken family, 63 

Coena, 195 

Coghulla, 294 

Cohort, Fourth, 241 ; Fifth, 242; Eighth, 
241. (For other cohorts, see their 
names). 

Coins, Roman, from Bremenium, 79 ; 
with Runes, 181 

Coke family, 37, 38, 52 

Cokerell family, 37 

Cole family, 7 

Collieries, maps of, ix. 

Collierly Deed, 34 

Collings, 18 

Colling wood family, 55, 58, 99 

Collinson, Rev. John, 263 

Colman, Bishop, 150, 162 

Colstayne family, 137 

Common fine, 139 

Commodus, 72, 81, 239 

Compton family, 9, 13, 15, 16 

Comyn, 23, 24, 29, 135 

Coniston family, 6, 8 

Connan, Gerald, 125 

Constable family, 32, 106 

, Mr., a priest, 98 

Constantines, The, 79 

Conyers family, 202 

Cooke family, 43, 64, 104 

Corbridge, 24, 64, 111, 113, 199,275, 289 

Rectory, 53, 57 

Vicarage, 58, 59, 107 

Recusants, 104 

Manor, 57 

, Roman antiquities from, 222, 

223, 228, 238, 240, 243, 245, 251 
Corbrigg, de, 65 
Corhampton, 177 
Cornage, 12 

of Northumberland, 44 

of Cumberland, 44 

Cornelianus, 252 

Cornsay, 35 

Corstopitum. See Corbridge 



INDEX. 



309 



Coulson family, 70, 109, 139, 231, 247, 

249, 250, 256, 257 
Counter-moor, 87 
Countess's pillar, 15 
Coupland, John, 281, 284, 287, 291, 299, 

300 ; memoir of, 293 
Court Garth, 141 
Covell, 19 

Coventry family, 13, 16 
Cow sess, 107 
Cowter family, 129 
Crakenthorp family, 7, 8 
Crakepotes, de, 196 
Cramlington, 30, 128, 130 
Cranford, 294 
Craster family, 147 
Crathorne family, 212 
Craven, Lady, 18 

Creagh, Sir Wm., Mayor of Newcastle, 97 
Creake, Edward, 42 
Cressingham family, 164 
Cressy, Poem on the Battle of, 302 
Croft in Yorkshire, 131 
Croke, del, 61 
Croketon, 25 
Cromwell, 20 
Crook Hall, Durham, 294 
Crosses at Bewcastle, &c., 149; at Jar- 
row, 248; from Scotland, 290, 292 
Crosthwaite family, 128 

church, 197 

Crow family, 108 

Crown Lands, Rating of, 52 

Crucifixion, representations of, 173 

Cumber, Tho., 54 

Cumberland, Cornage of, 44 

Curwen family, 118 

Cuthbert's (St.) day in September, 107 

corporax cloth, 283, 288 

Cutts Hill, 127 

Cyniburug, or Cyniburga, Queen, 152 et 

seq. 

Cynithryth, 163 
Cyniwisi, orCyniswid, 152, 163, 164 

D. 

Dacians, cohort of, 234, 262 
Dale family, 106 
Dalmatians, cohort of, 250 
Dalston family, 7, 118 
Danby, Mr., a Jesuit, 98 
Daniel, Samuel, 9, 21 
Dargue, 19, 20 
Darlington, 275 

Deanery, 52 

Davell family, 37 

Davenport, Humphrey, 52; Mr., 141 

David I. of Scotland, 292 ; David Bnis, 

271 et Kcq. 
Davidson, John, 247 



Davison family, 108, 109, 134, 140 

Dawson, 8, 100, 134, 137 

De Matres, 229, 231, 237, 238 

Deaneries, Rating of, 52 

Deanraw, 127 

Dees, R.R., his communication of deeds, 36 

Deira, kings of, their names, 193 

Delaval Barony, 46 

family, 129, 209, 211, 219 

Den family, 135 
Dennetley, 127 
Denny Abbey, 28 
Denham, M. A., viii. 

, John, 52 

Dent, 32, 41 
Denton family, 27, 29 
Denum, West, 25 

Derwentwater Title. Vide Radclyffe 
Dewsbury, Saxon monument at, 155 
Deyncourt family, 281 
Diadumenianus, 81 
Dials, Saxon, 177 
Dickson, G. A., 237, 266 
Wm., his paper on the Hos- 
pital of St. Leonard, Alnwick, 48 
Dilston, 64, 98 et seq., 197 et seq. 

Barony, 46, 129 

Tithes, 53, 54 

Disinherited, The, 273 
Diuma, 158 

Dixon Dixon, ix. 

Dixson, 105, &c. 

Dobson, iii., 132, 137, 138 

Dodd, name of, 194 

Dodds family, 136 

Dodington family, 62 

Dods worth, 21, 210 

Dolphanby family, 36 

Domitianus, 80 

Donatinus, 232 

Donations, vii. 

Donckenrigg, 129 

Donkin, Mr., viii. 

Donne, Dr., 21 

Donning family, 136 

Dood family, 66 

Dorset, Countess of. See Clifford. 

Dotland Park, 210 

Douglas family, 274 to 290 passim, 302 

Tower at Berwick, 295 

Dover, Tombstone in Runes found at, 182 

family, 137 

Dow family, 129 
Dowpot sike, 100 
Dowthwaite family, 132 
Doxforth family, 36, 38 
Draper, 25 
Drengage, 44 
Dreux, 28, 29 
Dryden family, 139 



310 



INDEX. 



Duckett, Mr., a priest, 97 

, Wm., 212 

Dudley family, 7, 16 
Duffield, Mr.," a priest, 98 
Duncan, 30 

Dunston, near Dilston, 203 
Durham, County, Co-mage of, 44 

, Hating of Church 

Lands in, 51 

family, 30, 31, 64 

, Mr., a Jesuit, 98 

City, Various properties in the 



Old Borough or Framwellgate, 61 ; 
Bailiffs of the Old Borough, ib. ; Fram- 
wellgate, 86 ; Barony of Elvet, 63 ; St. 
Margaret's, 61 ; St. Oswald's, 63 

, Battle of, 271 et seq. 

, Cathedral of, 288 

-, Dean and Chapter of, 51, 59; 



Roman stone in their library, 246 
Duxesfeld family, 30 
Dykerawe family, 135 

E. 

Eadric, 179 

Eadulf's grave, 186 

Eagle, an appellation of Edward III., 297 

Eanred, coins of, 181 

Easter controversy, 159 

Ebchester, 129, 275 

Ecle family, 132 

Ecclesiastical possessions in Durham and 

Northumberland, 53 
Ecgfrid, King, 152, 165; coins of, 181 
Edesbridge, 35 
Edge, William, 18 
Edlingham, 186 
Edmund, son of Henry III., 46 
Edward III., seal of, 27 ; transactions in 

1346, 271 et seq.; his badge of an 

Eagle, 297 
Edwin, 158 
Egglescliffe, de, 61 
Egglingham, 119, 143, 147 
Elizabeth, Queen, 9, 17 
Ellington, 138 
Ellis, 18 

, Mr., of Durham, 103, 113 

Ellison, Cuthbert, 248 
Eliot family, 104 
Ellington family, 66, 127, 129 
Elswick, 30, 31, 43 
Eltringham, 133 

family, 136 

Embleton, Dr., 85 
Emeldon family, 42 

place, 31 

Emerson family, 209 
English family, 42 



English, the members of the Church of 

England, 217 
Eoma3r, 155 
Epsom, 101 
Erie family, 1 33 
Errington family, 100, 102, 113, 115, 116, 

122, 129, 220, 232 
Erxnawangas, meaning of, 149 
Esh, 287 

family, 35, 61, 62 

Eslington, 55 

family, 47 

Estropp, 32 
Ethelred, coins of, 181 
Ethilbcrht, coins of, 181 
Ethilburga, 158 
Ethilwald, 157 
Ettyll family, 135 

F. 

Faels, meaning of, 150 

Fairfax, 7, 17, 18 

Fairlamb family, 110 

Fairnelaw, 129 

Fall of Court, 139 

Falstone, Saxon monument from, 155 

Faiie, 107, 129, 133 

Faudon, 29 

Faustina, 79 ; senior, 80 ; junior, 81 

Faweshide, 26 

Fayt family, 64, 65 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. W., 242, 249, 
251, 265, 266 

Feilder family, CO 

Fel, in composition, 153 

Felton family, 33 

Fences, 127' 

Fenwick family, 64, 107, 110, 129, 133, 
136, 144, 203, 210, 212 

of Meldon, 95, 96, 204, 205, 215 

, Mrs. Catherine, 104 

arms, 123 

, John, his contributions ol Rad- 

clyffiana, 95, 197 ; his stained glass 
from Roman Catholic Chapel, 97 ; his 
gift of a Roman altar from Wark, 258 

Ferchane family, 66 

Ferret for Dilston Warren, 108 

Ferry Hill, 277 

Fewler family, 134 

Fielding, William, 14 

5 Captain, 67 

Fife, Earl of, 290 

, Thomas, 41 

Finchale, 202 

Findon Hill, 278, 289 

Firbeck family, 136, 137 

Firminus, 267 

Fitz-Allan, 66 

Fitz-Asteline, 65 



INDEX. 



311 



Fitz -David, 61 

Fits-Hugh, 61 

Fitz- James, 122 

Fitz-Jordan, 64 

Fitz-Roy, 131 

Fitz-Simon, 65 

Fitz-Warren, 6 

Fitz- William, 61 

Fleak, meaning of, 202 

Fleming, Malcolm, 274, 290 

Fletcher, 7 

Floods, 111, 115 

Florinus, 241 

Foderley family, 134 

Forests belonging to the Castles of the 

Cliffords, 12 
Forser, Prior, 278 
Forster, ix., 106, 107, 114, 134, 135, 

138, 211, 217 

, Rev. George, 106, 218 

, W. J., his donation of Radclyffe 

letters, 95 

, James, 244 

Fortune, 244, 249, 250, 258 

Foster, 19, 20 

Foster-hens, 12 

Fotherby family, 41 

Fowstons, 127 

Fram family, 119 

Framlington, Long, 129 

Freeholders of Durham, their case as to 

Rates against the Dean and Chapter, 51 
Fretensian Legion, 252 
Freynd family, 62 
Frosterley deed, 34 
Fulthorpe, near Grindon, 40 
Funeral of Sir Ralph Milbank, 131 

G. 

Gabetis, Thomas, 18, 211 
Gage family, 122 
Galleries in churches, 144 
Galley Hill, 106 
Gallienus, 79, 83 
Gallus, 260 
Garnett family, 132 
Garragill, 129 
Garth, Gardinum, 133 
Garthfoot family, 131 
Garthorne family, 132 
Gascoign, Mr., a priest, 98 
Gateshead deeds, 83 

, St. Edmund's Lands, 220 

, Trollope monument at, viii. 

, Piscina and sedilia from, viii. 

, Roman altar formerly at, 263 

Gaugi Barony, 46 

Gayreshele, 208 

Geese trespassing on commons, 139 

Geldum animalium, 44 



Gerard, 117, 118 
German atDilston, 115 
Gessus, for Jesus, 152, 153 
Geta, 79, 230, 232, 246 
Gibson, 58, 104, 112, 127, 131 
Giffard, Mr., a priest, 97 
Giles family, 134 
Gill family, 105, 132 
Gilmore, 18 
Glanton, 56 

family, 36 

Glebe Land, Rating of, 52 

Glover, le, 66 

Godden, Dr., 97 

Godeman family, 29 

Godfrey, Sir Edmundbury, 102 

Godric, Saint, couplet from life of, 1 82 

Golden, Mr., a Bernardin, 98 

Goldsbrough family, 132 

Goodgion, 19, 20 

Goodrick, Mr., a priest, 97 

Gordianus, 82 

Gormire, a Watergate, 66 

Gosforth, in Cumberland, cross at, 150 

Gowerley family, 58 

Graham family, 283 

Granario, de, 61 

Grand Serjeanty, 46 

Grave family, 128 

Graves of Devon, 115 

Graye family, 214 

Graystock town, 116 

Greatham Hospital, 52 

Greenacres family, 135 

Greene family, viii., 38, 41, 128, 136, 196 

Greencroft, 35 

Greengill, 100 

Greenlands, 127 

Greenlighton, 129 

Grene, del, 196 

Gresden family, 134 

Gressoms or fines, 138 

Greta Bridge, Saxon cross near, 156 

Grey family, 36, 53, 115, 132, 197, 243, 

281, 293 ' 
Grice family, 133 
Grimstone family, 13, 16, 32 
Grindon, 31, 128 
Gunston, 3 

H. 

Habitancum, 76, 79, 230 to 258 passim. 
Hadrianus, 70, 79, 80, 235, 246 

, sons of, 248, 250 

Haggerston family, 107, 117, 118 
Ilaigh, Rev. Dr., his paper on Saxon re- 
mains at Bewcastle, &c., 149 
Hale, Sir Matthew, 21 
Haliwdl family, 29, 34, 62 
Hall family, 7, 20, 108 T 140, 114 



312 



INDEX. 



Halliman family, 40, 4 1 
Halnaby, 131 
Halton, 53 

Chesters. See Huimum 

Shields, 53, 133 

, cross at, 181 

Hamian Archers, 249 

Hand family, 107 

Hapsburgh, Counts of, 14 

Harbottel, 37 

Harborne, 107, 128 

Harbour House, 279, 282 

Harding family, 30, 40 

Hare, 25 

Harlaw family, 61 

Harlow Hill or Lough, 127 

Harle family, 107 

Harris, 105, 108 

Harrison, 20, 43, 128, 134, 137 

Harsingdale, 127 

Harterton, 129 

Harton, 60 

Harvey, Francis, 52 

Harwood, 6 

Hasell, 19, 20 

Hastings family, 7, 280, 290 

Hat-field, Bishop, 280 

Hatton family, 13, 16 

Hauxwell, cross at, 184 

Hawick, 25 

Hawilton, 47 

Hawkin, 30 

Hawkins, Dr., 7 

Hay and Straw, 109, 114, 115 

Haydon Bridge, 110, 111, 116, 127, 128 

Haye, de la, 290 

Hayles, Rd., 100, et scq. 

Haysand, 30 

Hayton, 32 

Headbourne Worthy, crucifix at, 174 ; 

dial at, 178 
Hcadmasspenny, 39 
Head-money or pence, 139 
Heath family, 121 
Hearth money, 107 
Heaton, Roman stone from, 223 
Hebburn, 34, 42 
Hebden family, 105 
Hedley family, 33 

, Rev.' Anthony, 242 

Kow, the, 86 

Heldringham, de, 64 

Heliogabalus, 78, 82 

Heliotropian cup, 16 

Henderson, 128, 145 

Henry III., 28 

Heosum, meaning of, 154 

Hephale. Barony, 47 

Heralds, fees of, 199 

Herbert family, 6, 7, 9, 1.5, K>, 17 

Hercules, 222, 237, 2(5-5 



Herdwick near Sedgfield, 62, 
Herle family, 65 
Herneby, de, 196 

Heron family, 30, 53, 54, 107 et seq., 
112, 135 

barony, 46 



Herrington, 30 

Hesilrigge, 29, 30, 31 

Heton 26 

Hexham, 101, 110, 113 et seq., 211, 275 

measure, 109 

poachers, 112 

priory, 35 

, cross at, 176 

Hewitt, Ensign, 67 

Hidwyn family, 137 

Hieland Forest, 12 

Highfield, 129 
family, 37 

High Wood, 108 

Hii, mode of keeping Easter at, 160 

Hilliard, Nich., the painter, 17 

Hilton, Hemy, the melancholy Baron 
of, 107, 203 

, Baronial family of, 32 

of Burton, 7 

of Bellerby, 206 

, Laird of, 119 

Hinde, J. H., his article on the Cornage 
of Northumberland, 45 ; his transla- 
tion of the By well Rental, 138; his 
communication of an Estreat of the 
Manor of Bearl, 139 

Hobson family, 128 

Hodgson, 33, 34, 35, 42 

, Mr., a priest, 98 

, Rev. J., iv, ; his collection of 

Roman inscriptions illustrated, 221 ; 
his papers on Coupland Castle, 293 ; 
his poem on the Battle of Neville's 
Cross, 295 

Fund, subscribers to, their com- 



munications, 53, 87, 133 
Hoga or Hog, surname, 64, 65 
Hoggert, 105, 108 
Holden family, 62 
Holford family, 123 
Holland John, 210 
Holliday, 110 
Holy Island, 114 
Holy Rood, Dream of the, 171 
Hopkins family, 60 
Hopper family, 35, 110, 129, 134, 135 
Horde family, 136, 137 
Horden family, 40 
Homsby family, 100 
Horsebrek family, 138 
Horseman family, 104, 109 ct -sry. 
Horse Mill, 41, 42 
Horses, 3 
Horsley, Long, 129 



INDEX. 



313 



Horsley family, 62, 129, 134, 136 

Horsley's collection of Eoman inscrip- 
tions illustrated, 221 

Horton, 30, 31 

Hospital Lands, Rating of, 52 

Hoton family, 62 

Houeden family, 62 

Houghall family, 36, 38 

Household Book of Dilston, 104 

Housesteads, Excavations at, ii. See 
Borcovicus ; family, 29 

Hovingham, sculpture at, 175 

How family, 128 

Howard, J. H., viii. 

family, 7, 106 

, Catherine, letter to Sir Francis 

Radclyffe, 117, 118 

, Lord William, 151 

, a poor organist, 113 

Howard's Regiment, 67 

Howell, Sir John, 18 

Hroethberht, 155 

Huddeswell, de, 196 

Huddleston, Father, 98 

family, 105 

Hudson, George, 251 

Hudspeth family, 53, 107, 111, 127, 136 

Hughes, 2, 118, 120, 122 

Hulne Abbey, 57 

Hume, Lord, 119; his brother the She- 
riff of the Merce, 119 

family, 134 

Hungerford, Edward, 14 

Hunnum, Roman stone from, 232 

Hunter family, 36, 139 

Hurde family, 66 

Husband-lands at By well, 134 

Hutchinson, 108, 109, 114 

Hutton family, 3, 4, 18, 52, 60, 141 

Hwaetred, 152, 153 

Hyde, Nicholas, 73 

Hymers family, 139 

Hyne family, 134, 135 

I. 

Iconimi, 63 

Implements belonging to a house, ex- 
planation of the term, 38, 42 

Ingleby, 3 

Ingledew, xvii. 

Inscribed and Sculptured Roman Stones 
in the Society's museum, 242 

Irish mendicants, 114 

Isles, RaynaldEarl of the, 273 

J. 

Jack o' Lent, 103 

Jackson family, 58, 105, 142 

, a monk, 98 

James I,, 3, 9 



James II., 103, 121 et sea.; character 

of, 124 
, the deacon of Paulinus, cross 

of, 185 

', Thomas, 261 

Jarrard family, 35 
Jarrow Rectory, 39 

, sculpture at, 176 

, Roman antiquities from, 248 

Jefferson, 106, 115, 116 
Jenning family, 134, 139 
Jennison, 115 

, Mr., a priest, 97 

Jesmond deeds, 29, 34 

Jeynacres family, 36 

Jobling family, 131 

John, King, 23 

Johnes, William, 52 

Johnson, 20, 32, 41, 131, 137, 200 

Jolly family, 131 

Julia Domna, 79, 81, 236, 257 

Mamsea, 82 

Paula, 82 

Sosemias, 82 

Julius Modius, 236 
Jupiter, 246, 252, 262, 263 

K. 

Keelby, 26 
Keenlyside, 113 
Keith family, 290 
Kellet family, 108 
KeUoway, 18 

Kemble, J. M., on the Dream of the 
Holy Rood, 169; on Saxon names, 192 
Kemelesworth, de, 61 
Kendal barony, 294 
Kent family, 134 
Keswick, 106, 116, 128 
Killingworth family, 32, 129 

races, 210 

King's Meaborne, 12 
Rents, 106 



Kirby Stephen, 1 2 

Thore, 12 

Kirkbride family, 220 

Kirkby in Kendal, 294 

Kirkdale, crosses at, 173 ; dialect, 179 

Kirkham Priory, 295 

Kirkharle, 25 

Kirkhouse family, 135 

Kirkmasters of All Saints, Newcastle, 37 

Kirkpatrick family, 290 

Kirksoppe, 42 

Kirkwhelpington, 128, 129 

Kittigarth, 15 

Knight family, 214 

Knight's service, 44 

Knocke, 12 

Kunett family, 62 



314 



INDEX. 



L. 

Laestingaeu monastery, site of, 173 

Laithes, 8 

Lambert, 105, 203 

Lanchester, 34, 35 

Deanery, 35, 52 

Land of Promise in London, 103 

Lanercost Abbey, 274 

Langhopp, 127 

Langley Barony and Castle of, 127, 203 

Court, 106 

Langton, 12 

Laton family, 56 

Latten, objects made of, at Dilston, 112 

Laverick family, 104 

Lawes family, 106 

Larson family, 39, 42, 95, 114, 116, 128, 
130, 133, 134, 135 

, John, of Corbridge, seal of, 

shewing the origin of the name, 64 

, Sir William, his contribution of 

an engraving of the above seal, 65 ; of 
the Inventory of Hugh Richmond, 
and Juliana his wife, 196 

,a monk, 98 

Layburn family, 135 

Layfield, Dr., 6, 7, 8 

Laymes near Corbridge, 66 

Lazenby family, 131 

Lead Mines, 100, 130 

Leazes, 32, 42, 43 

Lee, 137 

Houses, 108, 128 

Leeds, 158 

Legard, 17, 18 

Legg family, 112, 114, 127 

Legio secunda, 242 ; sexta, 238, 243, 245 

Leighton, Mr., a priest, 98 

Leng family, 138 

Lennard, Duke of Sussex, 99 

Lesley, 145 

Lesshaman (Lishman), 134 

Lewen family, 33, 61, 108, 133 

Lewis, 20 

Leyburne family, 280 

Liddell family, 212 

, pile of, 273, 274 

Light Birks, 127 

House, 115 

Lilburn, 29 

Lindisfarne, See of, 162 

Linnells, 53 

Lion, an appellation of Philip de Valois, 

297 

Lipwood, 127, 129 
Lisbon, English college of, 210 
Lisle, 24, 44, 133 
Lister & Sons, viii. 
Little family, 127 
Litster at Durham, 62 



Liulph, Thomas Fitz, 47 

Lively family, 59 

Livery coats claimed from the peers by 

the sheriff of Northumberland, 126 
Local Muniments, communicated by Tho. 

Bell, 23 ; by R. R. Dees, 36 ; from J. 

B. Taylor's collections, 61 
Locksmith family, 134 
Logan family, 104 
Lomas family, 105, etc. 
London family, 25 

, Danish runes at, 182 

Long Benton church, 32 

Longblugh, 100 

Longinus, 245 

Longstaffe family, 132 

, W. H. D., iv., vii., xi., xvii., 

23, 36, 61, 95, 131, 148 
Loraine, 110 
Lorbottle, 56, 129, 208 
Lowbyer, 100, 128 
Lowhall, 127 
Lower Empire, 79 
Lowes, William, 246 
Lowick, Mr., a Benardine, 98 
Lowther, Sir John, 17 
Loyal Brother, a play, 102 
Lucy family, 271, 273, 281 
Lumley family, 34, 36, 39, 40, 57, 59, 

63, 115, 135, 136 
park, 52 



Lyam, 25 
Lynheued, 294 
Lyntz, 33 



M. 



MacheU, 19, 20 

MacLauchlan, Henry, his map of Wat- 
ling Street, 69 

Maddison, 116 

Magna, Roman antiquities from, 231, 237, 
240, 249, 250, 256, 257 

Maine family, 105, 108 et seq. 

Mainsforth, surname, 62 

Makepeace, 112 

Maland family, 137 

Malcolm's WeU, 48 

Malt, 109 

Mallerstang church, 10 

forest, 12 

manor, 12 



Man family, 142 

Manby family, 62, 147 

Manners family, 293 

Mareh, Earl of, 281 to 285, 301 

Marchant Marcator, 140 

Margaret, Saint, of Scotland, her cross, 292 

Markham, 17 

Marley, 25 

Mars, 248 



INDEX. 



315 



Marshall family, 37, 60 

Marshe family, 34, 131 

Mary, Queen, her bracelet, 15 

Maryport, Roman stone from, 252 

Maserfelth, site of, 157 

Massey family, 104, 106 

Maste House, 42, 43 

Maternus, 264 

Matfen, Roman inscription at, 246 

Matthew, Win., Speed's draughtsman, 62 

Maughen, 105, 112, 114, 129 

Maximus, 226 

Medomsley deeds, 35 

Meldon, 96, 97 et seq. 128, and see Fn- 
wick 

Menander, 234 

Menteith, Earl of, 290 

Merchand family, 211 

Mercury, 251 

Merriman, Mr., a priest, 97 

Merrington, 31, 277, 287 

, de, 64 

Meynell, 106 

Mickley, 133, 136 

Middleham, 31 

Middleton Hall, 107, 119, 128 

, North, 129 

family, 3, 131, 136, 215, 273 

Milhank, Sir Ralph, his funeral, 131 

Milburne family, 29, 71, 107, 108, 109 

Militia horses, 111, 115 

Milking Gap, Mile Castle, 246 

Millstone quarry at By well, 134 
Milner family, 138 
Minster- Acres, 133 
Mitford, 28 ; Barony, 46 

Rectory, 114, 128 

family, 114 

Mithras, 238, 259, 260, 261, 263, 265 

Modestus, 265 

Modius Julius, 234 

Moilly, 28 

MoUifen, 47 

Mongey family, 43 

Monkton tithes, 59 

Monkwearmouth church, 195 

Monson, 7 

Montague family, 26 

Moore family, 128, 139 

Moorehouses, 12 

Moor silver, 133 

Moray, Earl of, 281, 283, 284, 290 

More family, 41 

Morholm, 294 

Morland family, 35 

Morley, George, Bp. of Winchester 14 18 

Morpeth Sessions, 115, 199 

Barony, 46 

family, 142 

Morrison family, 6 
Morton family, 5, 114 



Morton, Bishop, 143 

Morwick, 128 

Mount St. John commandry, 35 

Mowbray, de, 66, 100, 271, 280, 281, 284 

Mucedorus, a play, 113 

Murderer, The, a tower at Berwick, 88 

Muschamp, 106 

, Barony of, 46 

Musgrave family, 17, 30, 67, 280 
Music, ancient, of the Border, v. 
Mykeley family, 64 

N. 

Nadle, 128 
Names in Beda, 187 

, Anglo-Saxon, 191 

Nairne, Dr., 99, 112 et seq, 

Naustedis, 24 

Naworth Castle, 274 

Nebest, 33 

Nechtansmere, 165 

Nenthead, 100 

Neptune, 233 

Nervii, cohort of, 254 

Neville, 34, 133, 271 to 295 passim 

Neville's Cross, 278 

, Battle of, 271 

, ancient poems 

on, 297 

Newbiggin-by-the-Sea deeds, 27 
, near Slaley, 137 



Newburne, Battle of, 144 
Newcastle, 27, 35 

Altars, Roman, 268 

Bere Market, 30 

Bishops of Durham, disputes 

with, 143 

Black Gate, ii. 

Blindman's Chare, 141 

Broad Chare, 36 to 43 

Burn Bank, 40, 41 

Castle, proposed alterations in, 

iii.; David Bras imprisoned 

in, 294 
, Roman inscribed 



sculptured stones in, 221 

field, 31, 32, 141 

ward, 44 



and 



Church of St. Andrew, 24 

All Saints, 37, 144, 145 
St. Nicholas, 55, 144, 145 



Close, 43, 140 



Cloth Market, 32 

Corporation, 37, 97 

Creeing trough, ix. 

Deeds, 29, 36, 140 

Dent's Close, 141 

Easter and Wester Mills, 42 

Emilden Place, 31 

Fenkle Street, 140 
Flesher Raw, 42 



316 



INDEX. 



Newcastle, Folk Lore, viii. 

Grey Friars, 29 

Guildhall, 31 

Hart Close, 141 

Horse Mill, 41 

Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, 

31, 32 

Iron Market, 32 

Link for lighting, ix. 

Mansion Place, 41 

Market-gate, 29 

Maste House, 42, 43 

Mayors and Bailiffs, 30, 31, 114 

Mayor's certificate to perpetuate 

evidence, 40 

Newgate, 31, 141 

Nowt-herds, 32 

Organist, 112 

Ouseburn, 128, 223 

Overdene Bridge, 33 

Pandon, 42; Hall, ib.; Burn, 41 

Pilgrim Street Gate, 43 

Pilgrim Street, 141, 222 

Poet from Scotland, 114 

Post, 112 

Riots, 67 

Roman altar from, 221 ; figure of 

Hercules at, 22; of Mercury, 
251 

Roman Church, the old chapel of 

the, 97, 123 

Sandgate, 42 

Sandyford Dene, 32 

Sidgate, 31, 141 

Spittle Tongues, 141 

Stained Glass, ix. 

Speed's map, 43 

Spicer Chare, 40, 41 

Stock Bridge, 41 

Stony Hill, 41 

Tenter's Close, 141 

Tithes, 57 

Tuthill Stairs, 140 

Tyne Bridge, 31, 64 

Vicar's Garden, 30 

Vicar Alvey and his residence, 140 

Walknowl, 41 

Wellflatt, 31 

Westgate, 50 

street, 140 



Yorks Place, 33 



Newlands, 107, 113, 116, 129, 133, 211 

Newmarket, brasses from the neighbour- 
hood of, vii. 

Newminster, Abhot of, 30 

Newsham, co. Durham, 118 

Newton near Bywell, 137 

Newton. Hall, 129 

family, 62, 110 etaeq., 133, 134, 

135, 136 



Nicholson, 108, 134 

Nicnames, Saxon, 191 

Ninehole, Laird of, 119 

Ninekirks church, 10 

Nixon, 111 

Norris, Agnes, 43 

Northampton, de, 61 

Northumberland, Duke of, his excava- 
tions at Bremenium, ii., 79 ; his reno- 
vation of St. Leonard's Chapel, Aln- 
wick, 49 

, Baronies and Coinage of, 

, History of, iv. 

, Shrievalty of, 26, 44, 126, 



44 



138 



-, Earls of, 136 



Northumbria, conversion of, 159 
Norton, co. Durham, 64, 140 
Noutgelt, 12, 44 
Nowtherdship, 32 
Nutthall, co. Notts, 11 

0. 

Oats, 109 

Offa of Northumberland, 166 

, King of Mercia, coins of, 181 

name of, 193 
Officers, xx. 
Ogle family, 24, 37, 278, 288 

Castle, 288 

Oldsworth family, 6, 7 

Olivant, 111 

Opposite, meaning of, 8 

Ord family, 127, 209 

Order, to take, meaning of, 5 

Oslaac, King, 152, 166 

Osiris, 239 

Oslaf, 166 

Osred, 186 

Oswald, 157, 159, 166 

Oswestry, 157 

Oswiu, King, 152 et seq. 

Oswudu, 166 

Otho, 79, 80 

Ouglebird forest, 12 

Ovingham, 64 ; church, 195 

Ovington, 64, 135 

P. 

Pacatianus, 259 

Psegnalech, now Beckermont, 150 

Page Croft, 127 

Pair of Organs, 113 

Palman family, 62 

Palmer, organist of Newcastle, 112 

Pan, 237 

Pandon. See Newcastle 

Papers read, vii. 

Pareman family, 136 



INDEX. 



317 



Parishioners' consent to alienation of 

church property, 101 
Parke family, 101, 129 
Parkinson, Rev. Dr., 149 
Parks, Rating of, 52 
Parliamentary surveys of ecclesiastical 

possessions, 53 
Parson's piece, 129 
Parthus family, 137 
Partricius, Earl, 46 
Pattison, 105, 108 
Paul, Saint, 168 ; title of, 28 
Paulinus, Roman officers of the name, 78, 

232, 234 

, Saint, 155, 158 

Paynter family, 62 
Peada, 157 ; coins of, 181 
Pearson, 114 
Peebles family, 290 
Peelwell, 127 
Peirse, 132 
Peirson, John, 125 
Pembroke Hall, 28 

, title of, 1 et seq., 24, 27 

Pencher deed, 34 

Penda, 157 

Pendragon Castle, 10, 12 

Pennington family, 213 

Penreth, de, 65 

Penrith, 151 

Percy, 24, 26, 31, 66, 87, 107, 203, 271 

to 299 passim; seal of Hotspur's fa- 
ther, 26 

Peregrinus, century of, 246 
Perkinson, 57, 59 
Pertiboro, Henry, 299 
Pestilence, certificate to travel in time 

of, 97 
Philippa, Queen, not at Neville's Cross, 

279 

Philippus, 82 

Physician, monument to a Roman, 255 
Pickering family, 3, 6, 7, 63 
Picts, meaning of the name, 190 
Pipe Rolls, 45 
Place, 19, 41 

Plague in Northunibria, 152 
Planckey, 127 
Plautilla, 81 
Players, -wandering, 113 
Plender Heath, 127 
Plompton family, 4 
Plumpton head, 14 
Plymouth, Thomas Earl of, 17 
Poems on the Battle of Neville's Cross, 

297 

Poet from Scotland, 114 
Pollard family, 62 
Pomander beads, 15 
Pome, a chaplain, 62 



Pons JSlii. See Newcastle 

Ponteland, 27 

Popish plot, 99 

Porter family, 213, 220 

Portland, Duke of, 139 

Portsmouth, Duchess of, 102 

Portu, de, 178 

Post to Dilston, 112 

Posthumus, 83 

Potter, H. G., vi., viii., 234, 238 

Potts family, 105, 129, 135 

Pout hens, 12 

Prance, Mr. Miles, 101 

Preston family, 108, 118 

Price, Sir Carnaby, 130 

Prichard, Mr. 116 

Printing Committee, xvii., xviii. 

Proclus, Csecilius, 242 

Procolitia, 257 ; Roman antiquities from, 

233, 267 

Procter family, 109 
Proculinus, 260 
Prudhoe, 289 
Pulleine family, 131 
Punchardon, 29 
Pybus, 132 
Pypergate, 129 

Q. 

Quselm, meaning of, 150 
Quassington, de, 196 
Quitt, 32 

R. 

Radclyffe family, their lease of Dilston 
tithes, 54 ; property in Bywell Lord- 
ship, 133, 137 

, Sir Francis and family, memoir 

of, 95 

arms, 1 23, 198 

, Sir Edward and family, memoir 

of, 197 

, Francis, of Coastley and Gates- 



head, 220. 

Raine, Rev. James, sen., his communica- 
tion of an order for repair of the West- 
Gate, Newcastle, 50 

, Rev. James, jun., vii. xviL ; his 

paper on Anne Clifford, 1 ; on Sir Ed- 
ward Radclyffe, 197 ; communication 
of deeds relating to Vicar Alvey's re- 
sidence, 140 

Raisbeck family, 132 

Raket family, 63 

Ramsay family, 274, 281 

Rand family, 64 

Rates in 1628, 51 

, Books of, 108 

Ratterey family, 105 

Ravenshelm, 34 



318 



INDEX. 



Raw family, 110 

Raye, Robert, 41 

Raynton, 30, 31 

Read Groves, 100 

Redesdale, 30 

Redeware, de, 64 

Redhead family, 109, 135, 137 

Redheugh, 106 

family, 33 

Redshaw family, 105, 135 
Reed Valley, 69 

family, 107, 116 

Reignoldson, 20 

Rent Roll of Radclyffe, 127 

By well Lordship, 133 

Report of the Society for 1855, i. 
Reshburne, 100 
Rewcastle, Mr., 245 
Reynauld, Rd. 65 
Rhodes, 31 
Rich, Sir Rob., 13 
Richardson, 33, 52 
Richmond, 196, 213 

arms, 27 

family, 196 

fee, 294 

title, 29 

Riddell family, 140, 142, 204, 215, 220 

Ridding, 136 

Riding, Mr., a priest, 97 

Ridley, 134, 211, 223 

Riemmelth, 157 

Riggs of land, 43 

Riplington, 129 

Ripon, 159, 161 

Rippon, Geo., ix. 242 ; Cuthbert, 237 

Risingham, flee Habitancum 

Robinson, 132, 134, 135, 137 

Mr., a monk, 98 

Robson, 110, 115, 131, 144 

Rochester, High. See Bremeninm. 

Roddam family, 128 

Roger, Ralph fitz, 46 

Rokeby family, 280, 281, 284 

Roman church, ecclesiastics of, in 1666 

in England, 97 
Roman Inscribed and Sculptured Stones 

in the Society's possession, 221 
Roman Wall. See "Wall. 
Romans, 162 
Romsey, crucifix at, 175 
Roper, Mr., 115 
Ros, de, 271, 281 
Ross, Earl of, 273 
Rothbury, cross from, 173 
Routh family, 131 
Roxburghshire, Coupland sheriff of, 294, 

295 
Rowland family, 210 



Royal Aids, 107 

Routh, 157 

Rutchester, de, 64 

Ruda, de, 37 

Rum, 157 

Rumney family, 100 

Runes, use of, in England, 180 

Rupert, Prince, marching for Durham, 

214 

Rushworth, John, 18 
RusseU family, 4, 6, 7, 14, 16 
Rutchester. See Yindobala 
Rutherford family, 264 
Ruthwell monument, 167, 181 
Ryhille, 47 

Ryle, Great, 55 ; Little, 56 
Ryton, 275 
, Rector of, 145 

S. 
Sackville, Lord Buckhurst and Earl of 

Dorset, 9 
Saint George, 123 

, Henry and Richard, 199 

Salisbury, Robert Earl of, 2, 3, 4 

, Mr., a priest, 98 

, Robert, 212 

Salkeld, 116 

family, 57, 114 

Salvianus, 230 

Salvin, Mr., architect, 49 

Samian ware cut like glass, 84 

Sancta Insula, John de, 29 

Saxon Cross at Bewcastle, and other re- 
mains, and inscriptions, 149. (This 
paper contains much information on 
Saxon words, names, and grammar.) 

Saxon Cross from Jarrow, 248 

Scsear, meaning of, 150 

Scotland, kings of, 45, 47, 48 

Scott, Sir Edmond, 143 

Scrafton, 30 

Scremerston, 107, 128 

Scrope, 31, 280, 284 

Seals, 23 to 43, 61, &c. 

Sebanus, 247 

Sedgwick, 18, 19 

Selby family, 18, 105, 114, 129, 273 

Selions, 31, 32 

Serjeant oats, 12 

, Mr., a priest, 98 

Serjeanty tenure, 46 

Servants' wages, 105 

Severinus, 258 

Severus, 72, 81, 230, 235, 236, 239, 246 

Shadworth family, 108 

Shaftoe, 129 

family, 17, 127 

Shaftesbury, Lord, 113 
Shakspere, 113 



INDEX. 



319 



Shalcock, 12 

Shanks, Messrs., their gifts of Roman 
stones, 230 to 258 passim 

Sharpharrow family, 137 

Shawdon, 55 

Sheldon Moor, 133 

Shelford, 136 

Shepherd, Mr., a Bernardine, 98 

Sheppey, Isle of, 18 

Sherburn Hospital, 52 

Shields tithes, 59 

, Scots' attack on, 213 

Shilvington family, 50 

Ship-money, 143 

Short family, 136 

Shotley, 135 

Shrievalty of Northumberland, 26, 44, 
126 

of Westmorland, 11, 12 

Shute, Mr., preacher, 7 

Shuttleworth, 131 

Sig, meaning of, 153 

Sills Burn, 69 

Sillyura, 127 

Silvanus (?), 236, 243, 268 

Simm, Richard, 131 

Simpson, 116, 139 

Singleton family, 138 

Skelton family, 112, 134 

Skipton, 2, 12, 19 

castle, 9, 10 

Skittergate, 12 

Skytheby, de, 196 

Slackhouses, 24 

Slaley, 66, 113, 137, 211 

Slingsby family, 212, 219 

Smalcheare, Ric., 41 

Smales, Fra., 132 

Smart, 105, 107 

Smerth alias Snethe, 35 

Smith family, 35, 58, 61, 128, 135, 137 

, Charles Roach, iii., viii., 79, 270 

Smithson, 131, 214 

, Mr., a Bernardine, 98 

Snow family, 36, 38, 39 

Snowball family, 135, 136 

Sollemnis, Severus, 79 

Southern, Thomas, author of plays, 102 

Sowerby juxta Brough, 12 

Sowle, Major, letter relating to his ser- 
vices, 67 

Spaniards, cohort of, 252 

Speed's map of Newcastle, 43 

Spence family, 64 

Spindleston, 99 et seq., 128 

Spittle, 127 

Newbiggin, 128 

Spoore family, 141, 240 

Squire family, 65 

Stackfoard, 127 



Stainmore forest, 12 

manors, 12 

Stamford, 161 

Stamfordham, 18 

Stamp family, 134 

Standard-bearer, Roman, monument to, 

256 

Standish family, 118 
Stanhope admittance, 34 
Stanley near Lanchester, 35 
Stanwix, Roman stones from, 241, 242 
Stapleton family, 3 
Startforth, 14 
State, meaning of, 206 
Statutes of Printing Conmittee, xviii. 
Stavert family, 63 
Stayncrofts, 23 
SteddaU, 19 
Steel, Widow, 42 
Stell family, 38 
Stella, 35, 113 
Stalling, 131 
Stevenson, 86 

, Mr., a priest, 97 

Steward, Robert the, 282 to 285 

Stewart, 7, 23 

Stillington, co. Durham, 142 

Stobbert, 107, 137 

Stockton, co. Durham, 64; co. York, 6 

Stokell family, 107 

Stokoe family, 96, 104, 109, &c., 128 

Storey, John, his gratuitous services, 221 

Stote family, 142, 147 

Strabolgy, 23, 27, 273 

Strathern, Earl of, 290 

Strickland, 18, 19, 20 

Strother family, 25, 26, 30, 293 

Close, 127 

Styford, 134 
Sunderland Bridge, 278 
Surnames, Saxon, 191 
Surtees, 41, 129 ; barony, 46 
Sussex title, 98 
Sutton, Mr., a priest, 97 

of Greencroft, 211 

Swan, Mr., 103 

Swarlow family, 136 

Swethope, 25 

Swillington, dial at, 178 

Swinburne family, 26, 43, 100, 106, 108, 

128, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 142,211 
Swinhoe, 29, 30, 31 
Swindin, 20 
Syde, de le, 24 

T. 

Tsegsed, meaning of, 150 
Talbot family, 6, 114, 273 
Tallentire family, 55, 59 
Tango family, 64 



320 



INDEX. 



Tankerville, 126 
Taylor, 2, 24, 42, 110, 134 
, J. Brough, his Local Muni- 
ments, 61 
Tadcastle, 127 
Teasdale family, 100, 137 
Teckley, 122 
Tempest, 33, 34, 295 
Temple Sowerby, 12, 15 
Tenura, definition of, 34 
Ter, meaning of, 150 
Terra-Lemnia jug, 16 
Tetricus, 83; Junior, 83 
Thanet. See Tufton 
Theodotus, 234 
Thirkeld, 116 

family, 29, 30, 31, 32 

Thirsk, 35 

Thomson and Thompson, 33, 104, 133 

Thorald, 7 

Thornbrough, 106, 109, 127 

family, 111, 209, 211 

Thornthwaite, 106, 116 
Thornton, 128, 129 

family, 63, 213, 220 

, Mr., a monk, 98 

Thorp family, 105 

Throckley, 129 

Thrunton, 55, 58 

Thweng, Mr , a priest, 97 ; do. junior, 98 

Tiles, Roman, 238 

Tiprinus, 238 

Tirwhite family, 6, 7, 64, 66 

Tittin, 20 

Tobacco, prices of English and Spanish, 

108 

Todburn, 129 

Todd family, 36, 38, 134, 194, 215 
Todhunter, 7 
Togston, 128 
Tolhurst family, 129 
Townley family, 118 
Trevelyan, Sir W. C., his communication 

respecting Major Sowle, 67, 227, 233 
Trevor, Tho., 52 
Trewyck, 29 
Trockelawe, 47 
Trollope monument, viii. 
Trumpington, 25 
Tuda, Bishop, 149, 181 
Tuddow, 62 

Tudor, Lady Mary, 121, 122 
Tufton family, 9, 12, 13, 15, 19 
Tughall, 29, 30 
Tullus, 251 
Tungrians, cohort of, 255, 261, 262, 263, 

264, 265 
Tunstall family, 204, 209, 212, 213; 

museum and library, 215 
Tumbull family, 138 



Tyndale, 23, 45 

barony, 46 

family, 64 

Tyne, ground ebb of, 42 

head, 104, 105, 129 

, storm at, 114 

Tynemouth, 129 

, castle of, 213 

, prior of, 45, 47 

-, title of, 122 



Tyrie, a Scotch word, 301 

U. 

Ulverstone, 294 

Umfreville, 24, 35, 273, 280, 283, 284, 295 

barony, 46 

Unfrey family, 62 

Universersities, meaning " all men," 40 

Urwen, 107 

TIshaw, 35 

Usher, 115, 136 

V. 

Vacandell or Viscountal Rent, 106, 107 

Yale Crucis, 150 

Valence, 24, 28 

Valerianus, 79, 82; Junior, 83 

Vane family, 131 

Vangiones, 230 

Varduli, 78, 227 

Vause, 127 

Vazie family, 100, 105, 107, 114 

Ventress, John, ix. 

Vernon, George, 52 

Verus, 81 

Vescy family, 11, 48, 302 

barony, 46 

Vespasianus, 80 

Veteriponte, 11, 12 

Victor, Julius, 258, 260 

Victorinus, 79, 83 

Victory, figures of, 224, 241, 242 

Vicus translated gate, 64 

Vieux, Roman inscription at, 78 

Vincent family, 6, 7 

Vindobala, Roman stones from, 261, 263 

Vindolana, Roman stone from, 242 

Viner, 19 

\ itris or Veteris, 249, 266 

Voll, a boy at Dilston, 112 

Voltinian tribe, 251, 352 

Volusinus, 260 

W. 

Wake family, 273 

Walker family, 20, 33, 136, 206 

Wall family, 108 

, Roman, ii., 79 

Wallbottle, 158 ; Roman stones from, 
240, 246 



INDEX. 



321 



Walles, Wm., 130 

"Wallington, 25 

Walltown, Roman stone from, 254 

Walter family, 13, 16, 52 

Walwick Grange, 116 

Walworth family, 114 

Ward family, 135 

Wardell family, 129,137 

Warnford, dial at, 178 

"Waring, Dr., a priest, 97 

Wark, 26, 29, 295 

barony, 46, 130 

court, 106, 116 

, Roman altar from, 258 

Warton, 12, 294 

Warwick Rectory, Cumberland, 57 

Washbourne, 8 

Washington family, 196 

Wastal, Rev. H., 226, 254 

Watling Street, 69, 79, 289 

Watson, 42, 128, 135, 136 

Watts, Mr., a priest, 98 

Wave (wayf) child, 107 

Wayt family, 62 

Wear river, 61 

family, 105 et seq. 

Welbury family, 35 

Weldon family, 110, &c., 133, 141 

Welton, 133 

Wentworth, 2 

West family, 131 

Westwood, 127 

Westmoreland, 11 

, cornage of, 44 

, Earl of, 133 

Westoe tithes, 59 

West wood, 107 

Wetherall Rectory, 57 

Wethereld family, 116, 128 

Wetwang, 26 

Whalton barony, 46 

Wharton, Lord, 3 

Wheathaugh, 127, 128 

Whelpington, 107, 128, 129 

Whenby, 203, 208, 214 

Whickham, Rector of, 145, 148 

Whiggland, 103 

Whinatley, 127, 129 

Whinfell park, 12 

Whit Rent, 107 

Whitaker, Dr., 21 

Whitby monastery, 164, &c. 

White family, 131 

White, Robert, his History of the Battle 

of Neville's Cross, 271 
Whitechapel, 106, 129 
Whitefield, 128 
Whitfield, Mr., a monk, 98 
, a Jesuit, ib. 



Whitley Milne, 208 

family, 131 

chapel, 210 

Whitlock, James, 52 

Whittingham rectory and tithes, 54, 55, 

57 

vicarage, 58, 59 

Houghe, 58 

family, 148, 215 

Whittington, 53 
Whittle, 129 
Whittley, 128 
Whittleyes, 108 
Whitton Ley, 58 

family, 58 

WhittonstaU, 65, 106, 129, 202 

Widow's right, 34 

Widdrington family, vi., 8, 17, 23, 33, 

118, 128 

, Mr., a Bernardine, 98 

Wigton, Earl of, 274, 290 
Wiles Lees, 108, 128 
Wilfrid, St., 152, 158 et seq. 

, his churches, 177, 178, 195 

Wilkinson, 36, 38, 42, 110, 132, 136, 

137, 138 

, J. J., his MSS., 131 

, Rev. T., 242 

William III., Letter concerning, 125 
Wilson, 34, 60, 105, 129, 139, 246 
Winchester, dial at, 178 
Winwsedfield, 158, 165 
Witham family, 131 
Witton Gilbert, 287 
Witton, Long, 129 
Woldu, meaning of, 153 
Wolverton, co. Bucks, 97 
Wood family, 129 
Woodhall, 110, 127 
Woodhorn deeds, 27 

Seaton, 129 

Woodlesford, 158 
Woodside, 12 
Wooler manor, 293 
Wooley, 129 

Wolton, Edward Lord, 2, 3 
Wren family, 116, 128 
Wright family, 110 
Wycliffe, Tunstall of, 213 

, Saxon cross near, 156 

family, 42 



Wytinham, 47 



Y. 



Yarrow family, 112 
Yelverton, H., 52 
Yestr', 32 
Yetlington, 56 
Yevars family, 138 



322 



INDEX. 



Yido, Sir, 61 

Yole lands at Shotley, 136 

York, cross at, 176 

Young family, 96 

Younghusband family, 37 

York, Widdrington's History of, 18 

See of, 150, et seq. 



York, St. Mary Bishophill Jun., church 

of, 195 
Yorke family, 7, 131 

Z. 

Zodiac, Mithraic, 238 
Zouch, Archbishop of York, 271, 276, 
278, 280, 281, 283 



END OF VOL I. 



ERRATUM. Page 196, line 10, for ossa, read olla. 



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