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Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"




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THE ROYAL CANADIAN INSTITUTE 



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Arch 

A ARCELEOLOGIA ^ELIANA: 

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OR, 



RELATING TO ANTIQUITY. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

NEW SERIES, 

VOLUME II. 




NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 

PEINTED BT THOMAS AND JAMES PIGG, CLAYTON STREET. 



M.DCCC.LVIII. 



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b] O 

MiqAb 



CONTENTS. 



ANNUAL REPORT AND OTHER BUSINESS PAPERS i. 

THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. From the LAWSON MS. Lent 

by SIR WILLIAM LAWSON, Bart., F.S.A. By the EDITOR ... 1 

LOCAL MUNIMENTS. From SIR WILLIAM LAWSON'S Archives. Illustrated 

with Engravings of Seals presented by him 10 

ROMAN REMAINS FOUND AT ADDERSTONE (with Engravings). By MR. J. 

ARCHBOLD 15 

THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, NEWCASTLE. By MR. JOHN VENTRESS. 17 

LOCAL MUNIMENTS. From the VESTRY OF ST. MARGARET'S, DURHAM, and 

other Sources. By the EDITOR 25 

CARDINAL WOLSEY'S INSTRUCTIONS TO HIS OFFICERS AT DURHAM. From the 

EDITOR 39 

ROLL OF PRAYERS FORMERLY BELONGING TO HENRY VIII. WHEN PRINCE. By 

EDWARD CHARLTON, Esq., M.D 41 

LEADEN Box AND CROSSES FROM RICHMOND. By the same . . . .46 

UMBO OF A ROMAN SHIELD FOUND NEAR MATFEN. By the same 49 

THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT, with Engraving. By the EDITOR 51 

ST. CUTHBERT'S RING, with Engraving. By the Very Rev. MONSIGNOR EYRE 66 

THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE 

OF KILLINGHALL, with Engravings ........ 69 

APPENDIX A. KILLINGHALL OF BERWICK AND LONDON . . .105 

APPENDIX B. KILLINGHALL OF HOLY ISLAND 106 

By the EDITOR . 

BISHOP BEK'S CHARTER OF LANDS AT NETTLESWORTH. By the EDITOR . . 107 

LUMLEY LETTERS. From MR. TRUEMAN 109 

REPORT ON THE PITMEN'S STRIKE AT NEWBOTTLE IN 1734. From Mr. TRUEMAN 111 
SCHEME FOR A NAVIGABLE RIVER TO DURHAM. From MR. VENTRESS . .118 

WASHINGTON LETTERS. From Mr. TRUEMAN and WILLIAM GREEN, Jun., Esq. 120 

THE HINDE PAPERS. From Materials furnished by JOHN HODGSON HINDE, 

Esq .127 



CONTENTS. 

EARLY MENTION OF COFFEE IN DURHAM. By the EDITOR . . . .136 

THE HEIRS-GENERAL TO RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, AND THE HEIRS-MALE 
TO DACRE OP GREYSTOCK. By tiie EDITOR, from Documents lent by JOHN 
FENWICK, Esq., F.S.A 137 

EXTRACTS FROM THE ACCOUNTS OF THE STEWARD OF SIR FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, 
BART., AT DILSTON, from June, 1686, to June 1687. From JOHN FENWICK, 
Esq., F.S.A . . 159 

THE FIRST MANTUA-MAKERS IN DURHAM. From MR. TRUEMAN . . .165 
THE BLADESMITHS AND CUTLERS OF DURHAM. From MR. TRUEMAN . .171 
THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. By the Eev. JAMES RAINE, Jun., M.A. . .173 
TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES NUNCUPATIVE WILLS. By the same . . .191 
Is THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? By the EDITOR . . 203 
BAKING IN DURHAM. From MR. TRUEMAN 216 

THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE IN 1575. From the State 

Papers 219 

THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. From the Gateshead Vestry Re- 
cords .... ,226 



REPORT 



OF 



Society of 



OF 

NEWCASTLE-TJPON-TYNE. 
M.DCCC.LVI. 



THE Council of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in 
presenting the forty-fourth annual Beport, begs to congratulate the mem- 
bers on the continued prosperity of the Society. The improvement in 
the Society's prospects, which may be said to have commenced with its 
removal in 1848 into the present building, has suffered no abatement; 
the attendance at the monthly meetings, the accession of new members, 
and the character and number of the papers contributed, all attest the 
exertions of the members to maintain this, one of the earliest provin- 
cial institutions for the study of archseology, in all the vigour and ac- 
tivity that characterizes the growth of younger societies of the kind. 

The important change in the mode of publication, adopted at the last 
anniversary meeting, has, your Council would submit, been most favour- 
ably received, and has already been productive of many advantages to 
the Society. In place of the thin broad-margined 4to part, which at 
rare and uncertain intervals was issued in former years, each member of 
the Society now receives punctually, at the end of every three months, 
a well-printed and more portable 8vo part, containing far more matter 
than under the former system. This day the Printing Committee have 
the honour of laying on the table the concluding part of the first volume 
of the new Archseologia -ZEliana, and your Council believe that, with 
its numerous illustrations and the value of the papers it contains, this 
volume may be regarded as giving good hope of future success, beyond 
whatever has already been achieved. 

In addition to the papers contained in the quarterly part, each mem- 
ber receives a copy of the Proceedings of the Society at the monthly 
meetings, so that the whole history of each meeting is duly preserved. 



11. EEPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQFAKIES 

Tour Council has every reason to believe that this publication of their 
proceedings is most acceptable to the members, and that it tends like- 
wise, by being published in the local journal by whose editor the Pro- 
ceedings are so ably reported, to keep up the interest of the public in 
the study of archaeology, and in the welfare of this Society. 

It has been repeatedly urged against the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastle that its attention has been too exclusively devoted to the 
study of Roman antiquities. Your Council would refer to the now com- 
pleted annual volume for a refutation of this objection, and in proof of 
how wide a range of research has been embraced in the papers recently 
read. 

In the present volume two papers, viz., the "Account of the Exca- 
vations at Bremenium," in the 2nd part, and the " Illustrated Catalogue 
of Roman Antiquities," in the 4th, are all that relate to this important 
branch of archaeology, and to both of these papers your Council can 
refer with great pride and satisfaction. The important researches at 
Bremenium are accompanied by a lithographed plan of the excavated 
station, and the Illustrated Catalogue of Roman Antiquities, the first of 
the kind that has been attempted in this country, will, they trust, be 
duly appreciated, both by visitors to the Castle, and by the archaeologists 
of all countries. 

The present volume likewise contains interpretations, now for the first 
time published, of the Anglo-Saxon Runic inscriptions at Bewcastle ; 
and of the bilingual inscription in Runes and in Romano-Saxon letters 
on a stone which has been for forty-three years in the possession of the 
Society. Both these inscriptions had hitherto baffled all the attempts of 
antiquaries to decipher them. 

Of local muniments, charters and deeds, a very considerable number 
are to be found in this volume, and your Council is glad to state that 
the number of papers remaining for publication is large, and the sub- 
jects they treat of are of much importance. 

The desire evinced by the public for the continuance and, if possible, 
the completion of the History of Northumberland, by the late Rev. 
John Hodgson, vicar of Hartburn, is now in the course of being realized. 
Two of the most active members of the Society, Mr. J. H. Hinde and 
the Rev. Dr. Bruce, have jointly prepared the General History of Bri- 
tish and Roman Northumberland ; and your Council is enabled to state 
that the work, in a handsome 4to. volume, is now in the press, and will 
shortly be issued to the public. The inquiries that have been made re- 
lative to this proposed publication by parties at a distance, shew that 
this is not merely a subject of local interest, but that from its forming 



OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 111. 

a part of a most valuable county history, and from the high reputation 
of the writers engaged upon it, it will be most acceptable to the lovers 
of archaeological science in all parts of the kingdom. 

One of the papers of 1856 is invested with peculiar interest, from 
the circumstance of its having been read by its author, Mr. Robert 
White, on the scene of the event of which it treats. It was prepared 
for the annual country meeting of the Society ; and those of the mem- 
bers who had the pleasure of hearing it read by Mr. White, with his 
characteristic animation and emphasis, on the spot presumed to have 
been occupied by King David on the memorable day which proved so 
adverse to his arms, will never rue, as the royal fugitive must have 
done, their instructive visit to the Field of Neville's Cross. Nor can 
your Council take leave of this subject without expressing their grateful 
sense of the obligations of the Society to Mr. Hodgson, the engineer, 
and Mr. Cail, the contractor, of the Auckland Branch Railway, and to 
the Rev. James Raine, the librarian of Durham Cathedral, for those kind 
and hospitable attentions and services which conferred so many facilities 
and enjoyments on the country meeting of the members, and made it 
doubly valuable and agreeable. 

The necessity for increased accommodation for the Society's collections 
is every year more and more sensibly felt. Many of the more impor- 
tant inscriptions and altars are badly placed for want of room to display 
them to the best advantage, while, as regards light, it is almost impos- 
sible to read many of them when the sunshine struggles with difficulty 
through the embayed windows of the Castle. A well lighted apartment 
is therefore required, and must ere long be provided; and if it cannot 
be obtained within the Castle walls, it should, if possible, be in the im- 
mediate vicinity of that building. 

The recent noble offer of the Patron of this Society to transfer to this 
Society's care the collection of altars and inscriptions now preserved at 
Alnwick Castle, should be met by the Society in a spirit of correspond- 
ing liberality. The value of these inscriptions and altars is very great, 
and when united to those already in the Society's possession, would form, 
a gallery of Roman archeology as cannot be found north of the Alps. 

It has been the wish of the Council to obtain a portion of ground in 
the immediate vicinity of the Castle, whereon to erect the proposed 
Lapidarian gallery, but as the sites about the Black Gate and leading to 
the High Level Bridge are not as yet disposed of, your Council has 
been contented with communications upon the subject with the Finance 
Committee of the Town Council, without attempting an immediate 
settlement of the question. 



IV. REPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

On the occasion of the visit to Alnwick Castle of the Commendatore 
Luigi Canina, Conservator of the Museum of the Capitol in Borne, a 
special meeting of the Society was held on the 23rd of July last, at 
which Signor Canina was unanimously elected an honorary member of 
this Society. Your Council regret to state that Signor Canina died at 
Florence on his return to Italy from England. 

During the past year nine new members have joined the Society, 
viz. : Mr. J. Yentress (April 2) ; Mr. J. T. Abbott, of Darlington 
(May 7th) ; Mr. St. John Crookes, Sunderland (June 4th) ; Mr. Robert 
Robson, Sunderland ; Mr. William Dodd, Newcastle ; Mr. Edward 
Thompson, Newcastle (August 6th); W. B. Beaumont, Esq., M.P., 
and Mr. Archibald Dunn, Newcastle (October 1st); Mr. J. Dangerfield, 
London (November 5th). 

Feb. 2. 1857. 



PAPERS READ 1856-1857. 
1856. March 5. 
Rev. D. HAIGH. On the Inscriptions on the Bewcastle Cross, Part I. 

April 2. 
Rev. D. HAIGH. On the Bewcastle Cross, Part II. 1 

At this meeting Mr. Clayton reported the discovery of an altar at 
^Isica, with the words " Dibus Yeteribus," doubtless the real reading of 
Horsley's altar, which appeared to give " Dims Yeteribus." 

The Rev. "\V. Featherstonhaugh reported the opening out of the 
sedilia and piscina of Chester-le-Street Church, and the consequent dis- 
covery of a fragment of a Saxon pillar, covered with interlacing and 
characteristic ornaments on all sides. 

May 7. 

Rev. W. FEATHERSTONHAUGH. On a recently-discovered Roman Hypo- 

caust 2 at Chester-le-Street. 
Mr. J. H. HINDE. On Roman Northumberland, Part I. 



1 Printed, Vol. i., 149. 

2 The . remains of the Roman villa in which this occurred adjoined the station on 

wfthTn 70 ^ad f th CC T ed ^ ^ I* 3 ^?' The ch * mber first found was 
within 70 yards of the Deanery garden, closely contiguous to the su^osed south 
rampart of the Roman castrum and running parallel with it. A L3SSfftS3 
of Roman tiles, well-shaped and joined together with a very small quantity of n?or 
tar had previously been discovered. A building-stone, recently exhumed 
scribed "LEG ii AV. An unshapen mass of ir?n, weighing not less than 2^cwT" 

4 by the w of charcoal > fnd Sar ftTiS -; 



OP NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. V. 

June 4th. 
Communicated by Sir W. C. TREVELYAN, Bart. A letter from Sir 

Walter Blackett (1762), relative to the Bread Riots in Newcastle in 

1740. 3 
Mr. J. H. HINDE. On Roman Northumberland, Part II. 4 

September 3. 

Rev. D. HAIGH. On the Anglo-Saxon Inscription at Hackness Church, 
Yorkshire. 

October 1. 
Mr. AECHBOLD, Alnwick (communicated by Mr. J. Latimer). On a 

Discovery of Roman Remains at Adderstone. 
Rev. Dr. BRUCE. On the Wall of Antoninus. 

November 5. 

Mr. JOHN DIXON, Consett Iron Works. On the Discovery of an Ancient 
Grave near Shotley Bridge. 5 

Mr. WM. KELL. On some Roman Milestones in the Museum at Augs- 
burg. 

Mr. J. VENTEESS. On the Bells of St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle. 

Mr. JOHN CLAYTON. On a Passage recently discovered through the Ro- 
man Wall east of the Knag Burn, Housesteads. 

December 3. 
Dr. CHARLTON. On the Bronze Umbo of a Shield found near Matfen. 

1857. January 7. 

Communicated by Rev. JAS. RAINE, Jun. A Letter from the Rev. John 
Ellison, formerly curate of St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle, to the 
Rev. Mr. Burgess, of Winston Rectory, relative to the Escape of a 
Sailor (a free burgess of Morpoth) from a French prison during the 
Revolutionary War. 

3 Printed, Vol. L, 67. 

4 To appear in the continuation of Hodgson's Northumberland. 

5 The grave was described as being about a foot beneath the surface, on a sloping 
hill side, and the bones were hardly recognizable. The bottom is said to have been 
paved with small stones, the bearing was N.W. and S.E., and the space was very 
short. A piece of flint occurred. No remains of urns. 



REPORT OF THE SOCtETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



ANTIQUITIES, &c. EXHIBITED. 

1856. April 2. 

Dr. DAWSON, Newcastle. Iron Candlestick, 1 found at Barnard-Castle. 
Rev. Dr. BRUCE. Gold Armlets, &c., found in Anglesea. 

May 7. 

Mr. PURDAY. Pair of Spectacles, fastening across the nose by a spring, 
found under the stalls of Carlisle Cathedral. 

June 4. 

Mr. HENRY MURTON. Bronze Umbo of Shield, found near Matfen. 

Mr. BELL, of the Nook. Drawing of an Altar, found in the High 
Holm, in Cambeck Hill estate, 60 yards south of the Wall, 140 
yards west of the Carnbeck, and about 300 yards north of Petriana 
station. 2 

August 6. 

Mr. YENTRESS. Drawings of two Decorated Spandrils, lying at Tyne- 
mouth, each carved with an Agnus Dei. 3 

Yery Rev. Mons. EYRE. Facsimile (by M. Didron) of the Sapphire 
Ring found on the body of St. Cuthbert at the Dissolution of Mo- 
nasteries, and afterwards possessed by the English Cauonesses at 
Paris. 

Sept. 3. 
Mr. THOMAS ANDERSON, Little Harle. Kail Pot, found in a peat bog 

in the present park at Little Harle, about 2 J feet from the surface, 

in 1847 ; and a Mortar, found at Little Harle. 
Mr: EDW. SPOOR. Drawing of the Merchant's Mark on the Ancient 

Font of All Saints' Church, Newcastle, now at Little Harle, and of 

others from Grave-stones in St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle. 

October 1. 
Mr. ARCHBOLD. Roman Remains, found near Adderston. 

1 By taking out the candle with the fingers, and inserting the wick within the 
moveable jaws of the framework, it could be snuffed. 

2 The legend appeared to he N AVG DIIOVANA VNTIAVREL ARMIGER DEC PRINC, 
the spaces denoting the separation of lines. Mr. Bell considered that in the word 
" Vanaunti" we had the name of a local deity, reading the whole legend as "Numim 
Augusti Deo Vanaunti, Aurelius, Armiger Decurio Principalis (sive Decurionum 
Princeps.)" Mr. Roach Smith considered that Armiger was a proper name. 

3 The stones have since been removed from their exposed position and placed in the 
Castle-yard, by direction of the Duke of Northumberland. 



OP NEWCASTLE-TTPON-TYNE. vii. 

Mr. LONGSTAFFE. A MS. Book entitled " Chaos," vol. i., belonging to 

the late Mr. J. Brough Taylor, containing drawings of three faces of 

the Pedestal of Rothbury Font. 4 
The Very Rev. Mons. EYRE. Letter of Fellowship given in 1469 by 

the Order of Friars Minors of England to John Wormleigh and 

Cecilia his wife. 

Dec. 3. 

Mr. Jos. FAIRLESS. Drawing of Bronze Object, found near Hexham. 
Mr. ROBERT STOKOE. Drawing of Clay Urn, found near Warden. 5 



BOOKS PURCHASED. 

Charles Roach Smith's Famsett Collection, 1 vol. 4to. 
Sims' Manual for Genealogists, 1 vol. 8vo. 



DONATIONS. 

February 6, 1856. Monthly Meeting. 
Mr. "W. H. BROCZETT. Extra Sheet of Documents, relating to Sherburn 

Hospital, and not given by Surtees. 
Rev. JAMES RAINE, Jun. Thirty-one Roman Coins, in third brass, from 

Heddon-on-the- Wall. Seven ditto ditto, from Hawk's Nest, near 

Brampton, in Cumberland. Defaced Roman Silver Coin from 

Housesteads. 6 

March 5. Monthly Meeting. 

W. J. FORSTER, Esq., Tynemouth. Old Letters, including an Auto- 
graph Letter of Edward Earl of Derwentwater. 7 
Lord LONDESBOROTJGH. Miscellanea Graphica, Nos. vii. and viii. 
OSSIANIC SOCIETY. Transactions, Yol. I. 

4 If the measurements agree, here seems to be the base of the fragments of a cross 
from Rothbury, in the Society's possession, and described in Vol. iv. of the Arch. 
JEliana, old series. In that case, three sides of the cross appear to have double sub- 
jects : The ascension and glorification of the Saviour the heavenly host above the 
dragons of darkness the cure of a blind man and other groups. The fourth side 

s running foliage. ED. 

5 During excavations for the Border Counties Railway, two graves were discovered 
in a light gravelly soil, on the banks of the North Tyne, opposite "Warden. Each 
contained a scull and a number of bones ; and in one of them there was this vessel. 

6 One of these Roman coins was of Constantinus Junior, with the celebrated reverse 
of " Hoc signo victor eris." Another (from Heddon) was of Arcadius, who reignedj 
just before the recal of the eagles from Britain. 

7 Printed in Yol. i., 95. 



REPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

Mr. JOHN FENWICK. Cotton's Abridgement of Eecords in the Tower of 
London. 

April 2. Monthly Meeting. 

NETHERLANDS SOCIETY OF LETTERS, Leyden. Fragments on Literature, 
History and Antiquities. 

Mr. R. W. GREY, Chipchase Castle. Roman and other Coins. 

Rev. W. FEATHERSTONHATJGH. Roman Remains from Chester-le-Street, 
viz., an Altar with an Inscription to Apollo; 8 Portion of a Hand- 
mill ; Samian Ware ; Handle of Amphora, &c. 

His Grace the DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. A Copper Piece of Charles I. 
representing 2s. 6d., found at Cockermouth Castle. The whole of 
the Coins discovered at Bremenium, during the recent excavations 
there. 9 A Mass of Iron Chain-mail and several Iron Implements 
from ditto. 

May 7. Monthly Meeting. 

SUSSEX ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Collections, Yols. VII. and IV., being 
the volumes deficient in the Society's library. 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES, Copenhagen. Annaler for 
Nordisk Aldkyndighed, 2 vols. 8vo., 1852-53. Mernoires des An- 
tiquaires du Nord, 1 vol. 8vo., 1848-49. Vestiges d'Asserbo et de 
Sjb'borg, 1 vol. 8vo., 1854. Antiquarisk Tidskrift, 1 vol. 8vo., 
1852-54. 

Mr. VENTRESS. Four Red-deer Horns, found at a depth of 16 feet be- 
low the surface of the ground, in the Blue Bell yard, Newcastle. 
Two Creeing-troughs, found at Newcastle, one of them in Grindon 
Chare. 

Mr. SILVERTOP, Minsteracres. Four Coins 10 of the temporary Roman 
Republic of 1849. 

Mr. ALBERT WAY. Fac-simile in Gutta Percha of the Capitular Seal of 
Brechin, N.B. 

Mr. PURDAY, Carlisle. Impressions of Obverse and Reverse of Seal of 
Carlisle. 

Mr. SPOOR. A small Engraved Map of the County of Durham. 

June 4. Monthly Meeting. 
The AUTHOR. Voyage a Constantinople, par Mons. Boucher de Perthes, 

2 vols. 12mo , 1855. 
KILKENNY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Proceedings, Vol. I., new series, 

Part II. 

8 Vol. i., 249. 9 Vol. i., 69. 10 One is cast, not struck. 



OP NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNK. ix. 

Ilev. E. H. ADAMSON. Obituary Notice of the late John Adamson, Esq. 

The NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. Numismatic Chronicle, No. 71. 

Dr. CHARLTON. Cronebaiik Halfpenny Token, and Halfpenny of 
Charles II., with inscription, " Carolus a Carolo." 

CORPORATION OF NEWCASTLE. Two Boards painted in distemper, from 
an old house recently pulled down in Castle Garth. 

Mr. PIGG. Impression of the Palatine Seal of Bishop Trevor of Dur- 
ham, 1752. 

Mr. W. R. BELL. Oak and Bones, lately discovered in Christmyre, 
Norton, county of Durham, 11 in works connected with Messrs. War- 
ner and Barrett's Iron Works. 

August 6. Monthly Meeting 

His Grace the DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. Northumberland Cabinet of 

Roman Family Coins, by R. A. William Henry Smyth, 1 vol. 4to. 

(privately printed). 

Mr. JOHN BELL. Tynemouth; a Paneygyrick Poem. 
Mr. HODGSON HINDE. 100 Copies, for distribution to the Members, of 

Mr. Hodgson Hinde's Paper on the Position of Lothian prior to ita 

Annexation to Scotland, read to the Archaeological Institute at its 

Edinburgh Congress. 

KILKENNY ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. Transactions, Part III. 
Mr. MAYER, Liverpool. Catalogue of Fejervary Ivories. 
Mr. HOBT. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh. Scottish Ballads with Airs. 
Ilev. E. H. ADAMSIN. Several Etruscan and South American Painted 

Vessels. Copies of the Newcastle and Carlisle Eailway Act, and 

the Morpeth Bridge Act. 
Lord HAVENSWORTH. " A Plan of a new-invented Machine to convey 

11 Under 4| feet of diluvium (2 feet of yellow clay at the top, the remainder fresh- 
water shells, &c.,) which was continuous, and appeared to have heen wholly deposited 
upon the oak it covered, a piece of hlack oak, 1 If feet long, was found. In form 
it was as if two planks, 2 or 3 inches thick, had been nailed together at right-angles ; 
but here the two sides were formed by cutting away the solid trunk. It lay like the 
roof of a house, three transverse pieces of oak as supporters, and under it were bones 
of varying sizes, apparently of some quadruped. The field is one of the low lands of 
"bottoms," between Norton and Wynyard, opposite the iron works of Warner and 
Barrett ; and the whole remains were much below water-level, and lay north and 
south in the south-eastern corner. In a line with them, a little farther north, was the 
mouth of a square oaken chamber, constructed of two pieces of oak timber, like the 
above object, thus [~I_J> an( l perhaps we have a very early attempt at draining, 
which has survived the original level of all around it, Bones have been found at the 
same depth in the south-western corner of the same field. A beck divides it on the 
south from a field called Halliwell, or Holywell Bank Field, and, in operating upon 
it, a small ochry spring was laid open. 



X. REPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

Goods, Merchandise, Passengers, &c., from one place to another, 
without horses, but by the power or force of steam only, invented 
by Thomas Allen, of London, 1789." 12 

TOWN SURVEYOR. A " Gospel," or portion of first Chapter of St. John, 
in Latin, enclosed in a circular silk case, found in pulling down the 
old houses at the Head of the Side. Stone carved with a Thistle, 
and Decorated Window Tracery, from the same locality. 

Mr. RirroN. Two fragments of Sculptured Stones, found at Blake 
Chesters. 

Mr. PIGG. Richardson's Mezzotint Engraving of St. Nicholas' Church. 

llev. W. PEATHERSTONHAUGH. Two pieces of Chain Armour, corroded 
into lumps, from Chester-le- Street. 

September 3. Monthly Meeting. 
The EDITOR. Canadian Journal, January, 1856. 
CORPORATION OF NEWCASTLE. Rosary of the last Century, from an old 

house at the Head of the Side. 
HISTORIC SOCIETY OF LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE. Transactions, 

Yol. Till. 

12 Mr. Allen thus describes his invention : "It is well known that steam, judiciously 
applied, may be made siibscrvient to many mechanical purposes. Altho' the steam engine, 
nntiil very 'lately, has been solely confined to the purpose of raising water in large 
bodies from mines and coalworks, yet it is now become in general use for turning of 
wheels for many mechanical arts, particularly for grinding of corn, as may be daily 
seen at Albion Mills, near Blackfriars' Bridge ; also at Mr. "Whitbread's brewhousc, 
and many other places in and about the metropolis : it is therefore obvious that if the 
steam engine can turn a wheel for one purpose, it can for another. These consider- 
ations induced me to apply it for the purpose of turning the wheels of carriages, as I 
conceive that to be the most important object to the community that the steam engine 
can possibly be applied to ; which, in my opinion, nothing appears more practicable ; 
to illustrate which let there be a case (A) made in the form of a carravan, 6 feet in 
length and 4| in breadth, in which the whole of the steam engine is contained. 
Through the roof of the carravan the main or principle acting lever (B) projects. At 
the end of this lever an iron rod (c) is fastened, and the other end [of the iron rod] to 
an iron crank (withinsidc the carravan), by which a uniform and constant motion of 
the lever (B) is kept in a regular rotation. At the extreme ends of said crank, iron 
wheels [which appear externally and are cogged] is fixed, whose diameters are 12 
inches. These wheels turn two others of 6 inches diameter, which are fixed to the 
naves of the hind wheels of the carriage, which are 7 feet in diameter or 22 feet in 
circumference ; and, as the said wheels will make 40 revolutions in a minuit, of course 
the carriage will proceed on the road at the rate of somewhat better than ten miles an 
hour." To this description, we may add that the " carravan" is a simple square box 
with the "lever" appearing above its top, and with a tap below : that from it pro- 
ceeds a long shaft in front, on which a spring seat is placed. In this the operator had 
to hold a driving rod to direct the course of the front wheels, and two ropes run from 
his seat into the " carravan," no doubt to regulate the movement of the "machine " 
No room for other passengers or goods appears, nor do we perceive any chimney. A 
plan for locomotion by steam had been suggested in one of Watt's patents in 1784 
but neither he nor any other inventor carried out their ideas until about 1802, when 
Messrs. Trcvithick and Vivian patented a high-pressure engine, which was admirably 
adapted for locomotion. 






OP NB \VCASTLE-TJroX-l INE. XI. 

Mr. EDW. SPOOR. Pottery, Concrete, and other Roman Remains, from 

the Camp Hill, 13 Elsdon. 

Rev. D. HAIGH. Five Copperplates of Early Northumbrian Coins. 
J". D. CARR, Esq., Carlisle. Foot of Victory on a Globe. Buskined Leg 

of Roman Figure, from Stanwix Station. See Yol. i., p. 241, 

Nos. 61, 62. 

October 1. Monthly Meeting. 

Lord LONDESBOROTJGH. Miscellanea Graphica, No. IX. 
Mr. R. SAINTHTLL, On some Foreign and Counterfeit Shillings, by J. 
13. Rayne. 

November 5. Monthly Meeting. 
Mr. JOSEPH H. HOWARD, Blackheath, Kent. An Oval Engraving of 

King James the First, his Queen, and Prince Henry. 
The AUTHOR. Proverbial Folk-lore, &c., by Mr. M. A. Denham, Pierse- 

bridge. 
Mr. EDW. SPOOR. Two Stone Balls. Portion of a Piscina. SquareTiles. 

Portion of Brass Tube. Earthenware Jug. Spur. Glass Pipes 

for smoking, all found in making excavations for cellaring in 

Neville Street. 14 
Mr. J. H. HINDE. A. Flash Bank-note for Is. Scots, of the year 1761. 

December 3. Monthly Meeting. 
Mr. J. GREY, Dilston, Roman Inscription, discovered in June last, at 

Corbridge. 15 
Mr. CAPE. Rubbing of Brass of Sir Marmaduke Constable, 10 at Flanibo- 

rough Church, 

" 13 The three pieces of concrete I took out of what had once formed the pavement 
of the principal roadway up the south side of this hill. Mr. Hall, of Elsdon Mill, 
who found the pottery and iron instrument, whilst ploughing near the Camp Hill, 
informed me that he found the road quite perfect, during some draining operations. I 
also discovered some traces of a building at the top of this artificial mound, which 
appears to have been surrounded by an earthwork battery, and the further protection 
of a moat at the basement is evident." EDWARD SPOOR, 

14 The ancient well on the spot remains in the cellar. Foundations and portions of 
a pillar were discovered, and Mr. Spoor suggested that here we have vestiges of the 
Spital Almshouses. 

See p. 243, No. 80, 

10 Sir Marmaduke (says Mr. Cape) was born in the reign of Henry the Sixth, A.D. 
1443 ; and attended Edward the Fourth into France, 1475, and Henry VII., 1492. 
By the former monarch he was appointed Governor of Berwick, 1482 ; and during the 
absence of Henry the Eighth in France, being then 70 years of age, he accompanied 
Sir Edward Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, to Flodden Field (Brankston Moor) 
where, jointly with that nobleman, he commanded the third division of the English 
forces, (1513). The exact period of Sir Marmaduke' s death is uncertain, but it is 
supposed to have happened not earlier than 1530, when he would he 87 years old. 
He lived in the reigns of six kings Henrv VI., Edward IV., Edward V., Richard 
III., Henry VII., and Henry VIII." 



Xii. REPORT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE. 

Lord LONDESBOEOUGH. Miscellanea Graphica, Part X. 
KILKENNY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Transactions, No, 5, New Series. 
Mr. H. PERRING, Carlisle. Impression of massive Gold Ring, found 
near Carlisle. 

February 2. Anniversary Meeting. 

Rev. E. H. ADAMSON. Ancient Clock, in ornamental Brass Case. 
Mr. ROBT. STOKOE, Hexham.- Cast of Bronze Horseman (Mediaeval). 
Sir AY. C. TREVELYAN, Bart., AYallington. Origines Parochiales Scotia3, 

3 vols., 4to. Trevelyan's Roundhead Letters. AtthilTs Middleham 

Church. 



HONORARY MEMBERS OP THE SOCIETY. 

ELECTED. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen, F.R.S.,F.S.A. 1 Dec. 1813 
David Hawks, Esq., Newcastle-upon-Tyne . . . . 4 Jan. 1815 

Joseph Hunter, Esq., E.S.A., Record Office, Carlton Ride 3 Mar. 1819 
Professor Rafn, Secretary of the Society of Ancient 

Inscriptions, Copenhagen .. .. ..6 Sept. 1826 

His Grace the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, F.S.A. 3 Jaw. 1827 

Charles Frost, Esq., F.S.A., Hull 5 Dec. 

David Laing, Esq., Librarian to the Signet Library, 

Edinburgh . 2 Jan. 1828 

Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel, D.D., Bodleian Library . . ,, ,, 

Sir WalterCalverleyTrevelyan, Bart. F.S.A., Wellington 6 Feb. 
Sir Thomas Phillips, Bart., Middle Hill, Broadway, 

F.R.S ., F.S.A. 4 July, 1832 

Marc Isambard Brunei, Esq., V.P.R.S., London . . 5 Aug. 1835 
The Right Rev. Bishop Maltby, F.R.S., F.S.A. . . 7 Sept. 1836 
William Andrew Chatto, Esq., F.S.A., London . . 2 July, 1839 
James Orchard Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S A. . . 5 Nov. 
John Yonge Akerman, Esq., Seer. S.A. .. ..3 Feb. 1840 
His Excellency John Sigismund von Mosting, Copen- 
hagen 

John Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. . . . . . . ,, 

Robert William Billings, Esq., 7 July 

John Richards, Esq., F.S.A., Reading . . . . 

Robert Bigsby, Esq., Rep ton, Burton-on-Trent . . ,, 

Richard Shanks, Esq., Risingham 3 Dec. 1841 

Monsieur Dillon, late French Consul at Newcastle . . 7 Jan. 1843 

Rev. J. Bosworth, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., London . . . . 6 Feb. 1844 
W. B. D. Turnbull, Esq., Lincoln's Inn, London . . 2 Dec. 1845 
John Richard Walbran, Esq., F.S.A., Ripon, Yorkshire 2 Feb. 1846 

George Hudson, Esq., M.P 4 July. 1841 

Charles Newton, Esq., M.A., H.B.M. Vice-Consul at 

Mitylene. . .. .. .. .. ..5 Sept. ,, 

Mons. Ferdinand Denis, Keeper of the Library of St. 

Genevieve at Paris . . . . . . . . 3 Feb. 1851 

Right Honourable Lord Talbot de Malahide, F.S.A., 

M.R.I.A., Malahide Castle, Ireland . . . . 1 Sept. 1852 



XIV. HONORARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

ELECTED . 

Eev. Charles Henry Hartshorne, M.A., Holdenby . . ,, 

The Honourable Bichard C. Neville, E.S.A., Audley 

End, Saffron Walden ........ ,, 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., E.B.S,, E.S.A., M.RI.A. 

William Henry Blaauw, Esq , M.A., E.S.A., Secretary 

of the Sussex Archaeological Society, Beech- 

lands, Uckfield . . . . . . . . . . ,, ,, 

Albert Way, Esq., M.A., E.S.A., Wonharn Manor, 

Beigate ............ 

Kev. John Montgomery Traheme, P.S.A., late Chan- 

cellor of Llandaff Cath., Coedriglan, Cardiff . . 

Edwin Guest, Esq,, LL.D., Master of Caius College, 

Cambridge, ........ . . 

Eev. J. L. Petit, M.A., E.S.A., Old Square, Lincoln's 



James Yates, Esq,, F.B.S., Lauderdale House, High- 

gate ............ 

William Watkin E. Wynne, Esq., M.P., E.S.A., 

AberamfFra, Barmouth . . . . . . . . }) 

Sir Charles Anderson, Bart., Lea Hall, Gainsborough ,, 

Daniel Wilson, Esq., LL.D., late Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh, now Pro- 
fessor of English Literature in the University of 
Toronto .... .... 

Anthony Salvin, Esq., P.S.A., Einchley, Middlesex 

Sir William Lawson, Bart,, E.S.A., Brough Hull 

John Mitchell Kemble, Esq., M.A., London 

William Beamont, Esq., Warrington 

Henry Maclauchlan, Esq. 

Mark Antony Lower, Esq., E.S.A., Lewes . . . . 1 Jj ec . 

Charles Bridger, Esq., 3, Kepple Street, London . . 3 May, 18")4 

Eichard Sainthill, Esq., Cork . . . . . . 6 Dec. 

William Webster, Esq., Isle of Man 

John Lindsay, Esq., Cork 

Joseph Jackson Howard, Esq., E.S.A., .Blackheath, 

London . . . . ...... 3 j an% 1855 

Aquilla Smith, Esq , M.D., Dublin . . . , . .14 April, 

The Eight Honourable Lord Londesborough, E.E.S., 

F.S.A .............. 2 May, 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

ABBOTT, John Thomas, Stamp Office, Darlington, Durham 

Adamson, Rev. Edward Hussey, Heworth, Durham 

Allan, Robert Henry, F.S.A,, Blackwell Hall, Darlington, Durham 

Atkinson, George Clayton, West Denton, Northumberland 

Atkinson, Rev, William, Gateshead Fell, Durham 

Austin, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Baker, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Barker, C. D., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Beaumont, Wentworth Blackett, M.P., Bywell, Northumberland 

Bell, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Blackett, Sir Edward, Bart., Mat fen Hall, Northumberland 

Blackwell, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Brockett, William Henry, Gateshead, Durham 

Bruce, Rev. John Collingwood, LL.D., F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Bulman, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Burdon, George, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland 

Cail, Richard, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Carr, Ralph, Dunston Hill, Durham 

Charlton, Edward, M.D , Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Charlton, William Henry, Hesleyside, Northumberland 

Clarke, Rev. John Dixon, M.A., Belford Hall, Northumberland 

Clavering, Edward, Callaley Castle, Northumberland 

Clayton, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Collingwood, Edward, Dissington, Northumberland 

Coulson, Lieutenant-Colonel, Blenkinsop Castle, Northumberland 

Cresswell, A. J. B., Cresswell, Northumberland 

Crighton, William, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Cowen, Joseph, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Crookes, St. John, Sundeiiand, Durham 

Dangerfield, John, 68, Chancery Lane, London 
Dees, Robert Richardson, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Dickson, William, F.S.A., Alnwick, Northumberland 
Dixon, Dixon, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Dobson, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Dodd, William, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Dunn, Archibald, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Dunn, Martin, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 



Xvi. ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Ellison, Nathaniel, Morton House, Durham 

Everett, Rev. James, 4, St. Thomas' Crescent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Eyre, Very Rev. Consignor Charles, 6, Derwent Place, Newcastle - 
upon-Tyne 

Falconar, John Brunton, sen., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Falconar, John Brunton, jun., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmondbyers Rectory, Gateshead 

Fenwick, John, F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Feuwick, John Clerevaulx, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Fisher, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Forster, William John, Tynemouth, Northumberland 

Gilpin, Benjamin, Newcastle-npon-Tyne 
Gray, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Green, Benjamin, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Green well, Rev. Willam, M.A., Durham 
Gregson, Thomas Leslie, Newcastle-upon -Tyne 

Hawks, George, Gateshead, Durham 
Hiude, John Hodgson, Acton House, Northumberland 
Howard, P. H., F.S.A., Corby Castle, Cumberland 
Heath, William 

Ingham, Robert, M.P., Westoe, Durham 
Ingledew, Henry, ISTewcastle-upon-Tyne 

Kell, William, F.S.A., Gateshead 

Lamb, Joseph, Ax well Park, Durham 

Langhorne, John Bailey, Richmond, Yorkshire 

Latimer, W. J., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Laws, Cuthbert Umfi-eville, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Leadbitter, Robert, Ryton, Durham 

Longstaffe, William Hylton Dyer, F.S.A., Gateshead 

Mather, Edward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Mewburn, Francis, Darlington, Durham 

Monck, Sir Charles M. L., Bart., Belsay Castle, Northumberland 

Mossman, David, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Mounsey, George Gill, Carlisle 

Noel, J. A., North Shields, Northumberland 

Northumberland, His Grace the Duke of, KG., F.R.S., F.S.A., Alnwick 
Castle 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, XV11. 

Oliver, Thomas, jun., Sunclerland 

Ord, Rev. J. Blackett, Newcastle- upon-Tyne 

Ormston, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Ossulston, The Right Honorable Lord, Chillingham Castle 

Pigg, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Raine, Rev. James, sen., M.A., Crook Hall, Durham 

Raine, Rev. James, jun., M A., Crook Hall, Durham 

Ravensworth, The Right Honorable Lord, Ravensworth Castle 

Raymond, The Venerable Archdeacon 

Ridley, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Ridley, Sir Matthew White, Bart., Blagdon, Northumberland 

Reed, Stephen, Newcastle -upon-Tyne 

Robson, Robert, 7, Walworth Street, Sunderland, Durham 

Salmon, Robert Stephen, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Scott, W. B., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Sopwith, Thomas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Spoor, Edward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
St. Paul, Sir Horace, Bart., Ewart Park, Northumberland 
Storey, John, jun., York 

Swinburne, Sir John Edward, F.R.S., F.S.A., Capheaton, Northum- 
berland 

Taylor, Hugh, Earsdon, Northumberland 
Taylor, Thomas John, Earsdon, Northumberland 
Thorpe, The Yenerable Archdeacon, Ryton, Durham 
Thorpe, Rev. Charles, Ellingham 
Turner, Henry, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Turner, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Thompson, Edward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Ventress, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Waldie, John, Henderside Park, Kelso 
Warden, G. C., Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Wheatley, Matthew, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
White, Robert, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Williamson, Rev. R. H., Lamesley 
Woodman, William, Morpeth 



XV111. 

JOHN FENWICK, ESQ., IN ACCOUNT WITH THE 
Dr. 

1856. . s. d. 
March 11. To Cash of Charles Murray Adamson, Esq., being the Balance 
of Cash in the hands of the late John Adamson, Esq., the 

Treasurer of the Society at the time of his death .. ..63 5 8 

To Subscriptions . . " . . . . 46 4 

By Balance due the Treasurer 29 5 



Examined and found correct, 
ROBERT 
MARTIN 
Ftbnwry ?, 18o7. 



138 15 5 



EDWARD CHARLTON , ESQ., M.D., IN ACCOUNT WITH THE 

CASTLE 

3Br, 

To Balance in hand last year . . 93 '4 

Amount of Cash received at Castle from Feb. 9, 1856, to Jan. 31,' 1857,' 66 15 8 



75 19 



SOCIETY 9 ACCOUNTS. 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-OBT-TYNE. 



1856. . s . d. 

Feb. 7. By paid John Hernaman's Bill .. .. .. .. ..050 

Mar. 6. ,, Postage Stamps 050 

T. & J. Pigg, for Binding and Printing 40 8 3 

,, ,, Courant Proprietors, for Advertising . . . . . . 050 

7. ,, George Andrews, for Surtees Society Publications . . . . 4 10 

25. ,, Newcastle Fire Office, for Insurance in the name of Sir John 

Edward Swinburne, Bart 126 

26. ,, Henry Paxton, Warder, one quarter's salary. . . . 2 10 

April 2. D. Dunglinson's Bill for Printing 276 

,, ,, Gateshead Observer, for Advertising , . . . . . ..056 

May 17. ,, Henry Paxton, Warder's Salary .. .. .. .. 2100 

June 6. ,, Charles Roach Smith, for Faussett's Inventorium Sepulchrale, 

and Post-office Order 226 

23. ,, John Rogerson, for Coals .. .. .. .. .. 1 12 

24. ,, Corporation Rent, due Lady-day last . . . . . . ..026 

July 5. ,, a Parcel from the Duke of Northumberland . . . . 002 

18. ,, Gas Company, for Gas and Fittings .. .. .. ..5108 

22. ,, George Andrews, for Hutton Correspondence . . . . 076 

Aug. 2. Warder's Salary <. . . . 2 10 

6. John Bell, for Local Music 150 

,, ,, W. II, D. Longstaffe, for preparing Index . . : ..550 

Sept. 3. Messrs. Spoor & Son's Bill 5180 

4. Messrs. T. & J. Pigg's ditto 35 3 8 

5 D. Donkin's ditto _ . . 251 

9. ,, Post-office Order in favour of Mr. John Russell Smith, for 

Simms' Manual for Genealogists . . . . . . . . 10 9 

Nov. 7- ,, D. Dunglinsou's Bill for Printing 336 

,, ,, Subscription to the Surtees Society for 1854, 1855, and 1856 3 3 

14. Gas Rent 099 

15 Warder's Salary 2100 

18. ,, Mr. Holdstock, for transcription of Latin Poems .. 2 10 

Dec. 11. ,, John Ventress, for a Packing-case .. .. .. ..026 

1857. 
Jan. 7. ,, Surtees Society, Subscription towards Bishop Hatfield's 

Survey . . ' 550 

8.- Robert -Cooper, for Brushes, &o 10 7 

16. ,, W. J. Bell, for Gentleman's Magazine 360 

23. ,, Hemaman's Bill for Advertising 040 

,, ,, Newcastle Chronicle for ditto . . . . . . . . 096 

138 15 5 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NE WCASTLE-TTPON-TYNE. 

ACCOUNT. 

Ci% 

. s. d. 
By Paid Dr. Bruce on account of woodcuts ., .. .. .. 1000 

Warder's Salary .. 4616 

,, Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 

Balance in hands 1617 

75 19 



OFFICERS FOR M.DCCC.LVII. 



HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K.G. 



SIR JOHN EDWARD SWINBURNE,' BART. 



THE RIGHT HON. LORD RAYENSWORTH. 
SIR C. M. L. MONCK, BART. 
JOHN HODGSON HINDE, ESQ. 
JOHN CLAYTON, ESQ. 



JOHN FEXWICK, ESQ. 



EDWARD CHARLTON, ESQ., M.D. 

THE REY. JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D. 

Council 

THE REY. EDWARD HUSSEY ADAMSON. 

THOMAS BELL, ESQ. 

WILLIAM DICKSON, ESQ. 

JOHN DOBSON, ESQ. 

MARTIN DUNN, ESQ. 

WILLIAM KELL, ESQ. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, ESQ. 

THE REY. JAMES RAINE, Jux., M.A. 

EDWARD SPOOR, ESQ. 

MATTHEW WHEATLEY, ESQ. 

ROBERT WHITE, ESQ. 

WILLIAM WOODMAN, ESQ. 



ARCHJEOLOGIA J2LIANA. 



THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 

THE LA.WSON MS. 

THE beautiful MS. preserved at Brough Hall, near Catterick, which, 
furnished so many characteristic illustrations to Mr. Raine's " Saint 
Cuthbert" has, with Sir William Lawson's usual liberality, been sub- 
mitted for examination and notice in the Society's Transactions. "We 
need not enlarge upon the importance of thoroughly ascertaining the 
contents of a MS. of so much intrinsic value. 

Not later than 1210 is its date. Perhaps we should rank it rather 
earlier in time. Its illuminations are the work of English artists, and 
their general outline are already familiar to the public by the examples 
engraved. Brilliant as they are, their treatment is chaste and simple. 
It is remarkable that no emblem of St. Cuthbert occurs. We neither 
find his usual accompaniment, St. Oswald's head, nor anything to throw 
light upon the form of St. Cuthbert' s cross at the date of the book. 
Nor do we remember the introduction of " St. Cuthbert' s Ducks." 

The volume commences with a full length figure of St. Cuthbert 
(Raine, 14), his right foot clasped by a recluse; and a representation of 
the scribe at work. Then follows " Liber Sancti Cuthberti," which 
is the prose " Yita Sancti Cuthberti" of Beda. After the usual pre- 
fatory epistle to the Lindisfarne congregation, is the epistle to the 
presbyter John which usually appears before Beda's metrical Life of 
the Saint. 

In the illumination to Cap. xviii., the spades used by Cuthbert and 
one of the brethren in digging a well in the Saint's dwelling are wholly 
of wood, save a binding on the edge. The handle too is fixed to one 
side of the implement. Exactly the same spade is seen in the Bayeux 

NEW SERIES. VOL. II. B 



2 THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 

Tapestry employed by the persons who are digging a castellum at Hast- 
ings. 1 

The figures represented as lying in bed in this MS. are in all cases 
clothed with a white garment. 

The Yita St. Cuthberti is followed by the additional miracles narrated 
in Beda's Ecclesiastical History, Book iv., cap. xxxi., xxxii. 

The remainder of the book is filled with miracles by other hands. 
"We have the story of King Alfred and the beggar, the voyage of the 
monks with the holy body in the Irish Sea, their wanderings, the sac- 
rilege and punishment of Onlafbal, 2 all of which first occur in the old 
Historia Cuthberti in Twysden's Decem Scriptores. The swallowing 
up, in Guthred's days, of an invading Scotch host "in loco qui Anglo- 
rum lingua Mundingedene usque ad prsesens nuncupatur," succeeds. 3 
In these narratives there is much of the language of Symeon's shorter 
notices transferred from his History of the Church of Durham, and we 
really believe that they are also his composition. 

It will be remembered that in mentioning the overthrow of the 
Scotch host, Symeon says, " Qualiter autem gestum sit alibi constat 
esse scriptum :" and in page 174 he says, " Quo tempore et illud quod 
alibi plenius legitur super Barcwid miraculum contigit." This latter 
miracle comes next in the Lawson MS., and is printed in Bollandus, 
March 20, p. 134. The flight to Lindisfarne in 1069 follows, with 
an attestation "nobis," and corresponds with the account in Symeon, 
and is in many of his words. 

The story of Mundingdene (which in an authority quoted by Leland 
is stated to be one mile south of Norham), 4 though more imposingly 
told, gives no further information than what Symeon affords. 5 The 
story of Barcwith, a soldier of Earl Tosti, is more interesting. The 
Earl had laid a notorious thief, murderer, and incendiary, called Aldan 
Hamal, 6 in heavy irons in the town of Durham, and refused all ransom 
for him. The thief endeavours to rid himself of the fetters, and flee to 
the monastery, and the Earl doubles his vigilance to prevent him. He 

1 Brace's edition, pi. xi., p. 116. 

2 A pagan king called Rcginwaldus (Reingwald, Sijmeon) invaded Yorkshire, 
and afterwards occupied the whole land of Saint Cuthbert, and divided his towns 
equally between two powerful soldiers in his ranks. " Quorum unus Scula [yulga- 
liter~\ vocabatur, alter vero {secundum stuz gentis proprietateni] Onalafbal appellaba- 
tur." The words in Italics are not in Symeon or Bollandus. 

3 Vide Symeon, 122 ; Reginald, 149. 

4 De Episcopis Lindisfarn. et Dunelm., vol. ii., 329. See also the miracle men- 
tioned in vol. ii., 372, from an anonymous work, "Episcopis Lindisfarnensibus." 

5 Hist. Dun. 122. 

6 Haldanhamal. Bollandus. 



THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 3 

appeals to St. Cuthbert, promises amendment, and his fetters loosen. 
Shaking them off, he eludes his unsuspecting custodiers, enters the 
monastery, and fastens all the gates from within. Barcwith 7 " qui 
omnes in curia potestate precessit," proceeded to the gates, asked why 
they should delay to break them open, and declared that it was intoler- 
able that " the peace of this dead man" should protect robbers and 
homicides. He was instantly struck as by an arrow, and crying out in 
torment was borne ad hospitium, where he died the third day, at the 
same hour. His grave for a year gave out a stench that caused all pas- 
sengers to avoid its proximity. All the parties to the violence, fearing 
the like revenge, collected gold and silver and gems not a few, and laid 
them on the Saint's sepulchre ; and from them were made a cross of 
marvellous work, and the cover of gold and gems for a copy of the 
Evangelists, which things remained in the days of the writer. 

In the next chapter the murderers of "Walcher are represented as fly- 
ing to the woods and unknown places. 8 The people at large, confiding in 
their innocency, and the protection of the Saint, take their goods to his 
monastery. Some are in the castle, A theft is committed by a traitor 
watchman, and the thief returns in torments. 

The next chapter relates to the reign of "William Eufus. A concourse 
of people are assembled at the annual festivities on the anniversary of 
the Saint's translation. A man brings a horse to sell at Durham on the 
occasion, and sets it to feed on the laid up grain of the church, and per- 
sists in his offence. The horse suddenly dies. 

The same King and Malcolm King of Scots are at war. Malcolm 
puts to flight the Northumbrians. Some retire to the woods, &c. ; 
others, " et prascipue qui proprie Sancti Cuthberti populus dicuntur," 
betake themselves as usual, on account of the protection of the Saint, 
to Durham, which scarcely holds the concourse of men and cattle. The 
cemetery is full of the latter. Malcolm arrives. A multitude of women, 
boys, and children surround the walls of the church, and disturb the 
choristers within. The Scots, moved by some sudden fear, move off. The 
Bishop is restored from exile the same time, and his officials enter as 
the emancipated people depart. 

The Prsepositus of the monastery, earnest for the good of the church 
and people, goes into the parts of the South English with people not a 
few, and two of the brethren. One is dead at the time of the writer, 
the other with the Prapositus survives and tells the tale. One winter's 
night the company are received in a town, and a narrow cottage re- 

7 Barwic. Bollandus. 



4 THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 

mains for the monks, with no accommodation for their horses. They 
put them up at a neighbouring house, by leave of a lady, whose hus- 
band is from home. He returns, and furiously commands them to be 
turned out. A brother, sent by the Prsepositus, endeavours to calm him, 
and asks his hospitality for St. Cuthbert's sake. He refuses, is almost 
insane with anger, and falls as if dead, to arise a humbled admirer of 
St. Cuthbert. 

The Saint renews a miracle in the writer's own days. A famine oc- 
curs at Easter, when, after Lent, food is most necessary to the weak. 
The sea heaves on the shore a number of great fishes at Lindisfarne 
island, but on a spot belonging to another and not to the brethren. The 
tithe of old time, by the custom of the province belonging to the church, 
is refused in so much abundance. The brethren are relieved by a simi- 
lar gift of dolphins left on their own shore. 

Robert de Mowbray (Mulreio) vexes the church. He takes away 
the church of Tinemouthe and gives it to Paul, an abbot, at a distance. 
Paul is seized with sudden disease at first seeing his new church, and 
is borne dead to the home he had left in health. The earl falls from 
his high estate, Tinemuthe shares in the history of his ruin, and he 
lives in chains at the date of the history. 

A south-country clerk, vexed with fever, undertakes a long and pain- 
ful journey to Durham, and is cured bypassing the night before the 
tomb of St. Cuthbert. 

A thief steals a girdle from the ass-herd of the church, and is struck 
almost blind. 

The Northumbrians afEict one another with thefts. Lindisfarne is 
exempt by its sanctity. A Northumbrian has a fine and valuable 
horse, and takes it thither for safety. A thief rides it away at the 
time that the passage between the land and the island is dry. The sea 
suddenly rises, and he is almost drowned. He prays to the Saint, re- 
gains the island, looks back at the passage, finds it dry, and crosses it 
dryshod. 

Durham Cathedral is rebuilt in a comely fashion. Wood is brought 
to it from a distance, and of such bulk that eight oxen can barely draw 
it. At the gate of the city a rest is given to the oxen, that they may 
be refreshed for climbing the hill. The boys of the place play upon 
the apparatus (machinam} on which the wood was borne. An ox be- 
comes excited, the beams move, and a boy has his leg crushed by the 
fall of wood which scarce sixteen men can lift. The boy is unhurt. 

^ A ship in the service of the church, laden with goods, is seized by 
pirates. A storm arises and casts it on Lindisfarne island. 



THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 5 

The narrative of the tradition of the saint's body in 1104, printed in 
Holland's Acta Sanctorum, and Raine's St. Cuthbert, p. 75, follows. 
The day appointed for the translation is stated to be "iiij kal. Septem- 
bris" (Aug. 29). A subsequent hand has altered this to "iiij nonas 
Septembris" (2 Sep.) The feast of the translation was kept on 4 Sep. 
" Facta est hsec incorrupta corporis manifestatio sive translatio post 
annos depositionis ejus quadringentos xviij et v. menses et duodecim 
dies. Hie est anno ab Incarnatione Domini M C iiij qui est quintus 
annus regni Henrici, episcopatus vero Rannulfi sextus." 

A miracle succeeds, which stands in Bollandus as Chapter III. of 
the Historia Translationis. 

The copy of St. John read by Cuthbert with the dying Boisil (Beda's 
Life of the former, cap. viii.), was preserved at Durham in a bag of red 
leather, which, by means of a strap of silk, dissolved by age into threads, 
hung, as was said, around the necks of Boisil and his pious disciple. 
The Bishop, in his sermon at the translation, displayed this book to the 
people. A bearer holds the pouch and carelessly allows one of the Bi- 
shop's officials to steal one of the threads of the suspendiculum. The 
thief hides it between his stockings and shoes. At night his leg against 
which the thread had been is seized with a tremor. He restores the 
thread and is cured. 

The same prior orders a bell of great weight to be made at London 
for Durham Cathedral. It is placed on a wooden conveyance of much 
strength and cleverness in construction, and is drawn by 22 oxen. A 
careless youth is drawn under the wheel by his tunic, and is passed over 
without hurt. He accompanies the bell to Durham in order to return 
thanks to the Saint. 

Hegge in his Legend of St. Cuthbert says of Bishop Pudsey that he 
built " the Galilie or our Ladie's Chappell, now called the Consistorie, 
into which he translated St. Beed's bones, which there lyes interred 
under a tombe of black marble without an inscription. From this 
place I conjecture the great bell in the Abby hath its name, and per- 
chance is the same which in an old manuscript I finde to be drawne 
from London to Durham by two and twentie oxen." 

We then have a series of more well-known narrations The miracle 
at the ecclesiola virgea, in the words of Symeon, p. 146 of Budd's edi- 
tion The history of " Gillemichael," by Symeon, p. 186 Symeon's 
Vision of Boso, p. 238 Symeon's Preface, p. 1, with a portion of p. 
225 Symeon's cap. lx., p. 217, with a portion of p. 226, commencing 
" Denique," &c. His cap. Ixiv., Ixv., p. 229 The greater part of his 
cap. Ixvii., p. 234 Part of his cap. liii., p. 192, and of cap. Ivi., p. 200 



6 THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 

Part of cap. Iviii., commencing with the 1st line of p. 209, and end- 
ing with occubuit on the same page Cap. lix., p. 213. 

This is a strange jumble of Symeon's chapters, and from some of the 
omissions I am inclined to think that the scribe was copying from an 
early MS. of Symeon anterior to his finished work. 

"Explicit" after which word the book ends with the follow- 
ing chapter, the conclusion of which, in relation to the church of Etex- 
ham and English personal names, is very interesting : 

Quo anno sanctus Cuthbertus ordinatus est, et quantum amabatur et vvne- 
rabatur db antiquis Regibus. 

Anno dominicae incarnationis sexcentesimo lxxxv. ordinatus est 
beatus pater Cuthbertus in ipsa sollempnitate paschali, id est vij. kal. 
Aprilis, ad Lindisfarnensem ecclesiam, Egfrido rege presente, et semp- 
tem ad ejus consecrationem venientibus episcopis. In quibus Theodorus 
primatum tenuit sub papa Agatone. In die ordinationis Sancti Cuth- 
berti comnmtaverunt ipse [sic] Eata sedes episcopales, communi con- 
silio Egfridi regis et Theodori archiepiscopi et aliorum, scilicet Ceadde 
et Cedde et aliorum quinque episcoporum et omnium majorum. Sicque 
Eata apud Hestelham sedit. Sanctus vero Cuthbertus Lindisfarnensem 
cathedram optinuit. 

Cujus Lindisfarniae terminus est a fluvio Tvcda usque ad "Warnemu- 
tham ; et inde superius usque ad locum ubi aqua Warned oritur juxta 
montem Hiberdune : et inde usque ad nuvium Bromwich : et inde 
usque ad nuvium Tyl. Et terrain illam ultra Tvedam a numine Edre 
ab aquilone usque ad locum quo cadit in Tvedam : et totam terram quse 
jacet inter istum nuvium Edre et alterum qui vocatur Ledre : et totam 
terram quae pertinet ad monasterium sancti Baldredi quod est in Tynig- 
ham, a Lambremore usque ad Esmude. 

Et dederunt rex Egfridus et archiepiscopus Theodorus terram in Ebo- 
raco sancto Cuthberto, a muro sancti Petri usque ad magnam portam 
occidentalem, et usque ad murum civitatis versus austrum. Et dede- 
runt eis villam quas dicitur Creich, et tria miliaria in circuitu ut ibi 
posset manere in eundo et redeundo de Eboraco. Ibi sanctus Cuthbertus 
congregationem monachorum et abbatem nomine Gevem, ut quidam 
dicunt, statuit. Huic adjecerunt civitatem Luel, id est Carleol, et 
in circuitu quindecim miliaria, et ibi sanctus Cuthbertus congre- 
gationem sanctimonialium et abbatissam ordinavit et scolas ibi consti- 
tuit. 

Postquam vero sanctus Cuthbertus suscitavit puerum a mortuis in 
villa quse dicitur Exanforda, dedit ei rex Egfridus terram quae vocatur 
Ceartmel, et omnes Britanni cum eo et villam quse dicitur Sudgedlin et 
quicquid ad earn pertinet. Haec omnia bonus abbas Cyneuerth sub sancto 
Cuthberto ordinavit sapienter ut voluit. 

Ea tempestate pugnavit rex Egfridus contra regem Merciorum Wlfere 
nlium Pendici, et caeso exercitu ejus fugavit eum. Postea dedit Egfri- 



THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 7 

dus rex sancto Cuthberto Meylros et Carrum et quicquid ad earn per- 
tinct. 

Non multum post hunc Egfridum successit in regnum Ceolfus filius 
Cuth wining seque sancto Cuthberto subdidit, et dimisso regno cum uxore 
pro amore Dei se cum magno tesatiro ad Lindisfarnense monasterium 
contulit, barbam deposuit, coronam accepit, et sancto Cuthberto villam 
dedit, nomine Werkewrthe cum suis appendiciis. Sed post hoc quidam 
rex nomine Osbertus "Werkewrthe abstulit sancto, sed post annum 
vitam cum regno perdidit. Post eum regnavit Elle qui bene promisit, 
sed male egit. Abstulit enim sancto duas villas Byliugham et Yleclif, 
sed cito per Vbban ducem Fresonum fugatus et caesus vitam dedecorose 
finivit. 

Statim post Ceolwfum factum monachum obiit sanctus Cuthbertus, et 
successit Eddred episcopus qui reedificavit ecclesiam in Norham, et 
transportavit illuc corpus Ceolfi regis, ipsamque villam dedit sancto 
Cuthberto, et Gedewrthe, et alteram Gedewrth, et edificavit villam 
Geinsford, deditque earn sancto Cuthberto, Et postea edincavit Biling- 
ham et Yleclif, et Wicheclif, deditque sancto. 

Quando sanctus Cuthbertus factus est monachus, regnabat Oswigius, 
et alii dicunt quod iste fuit Oswiu frater Oswaldi regis, et interfecit 
Oswinum regem Berniciorum filium Osrici regis Edwini filii. Mortuo 
Oswigio regnavit filius ejus ; post eum Ceolfridus ; et post hunc Gun- 
dredus qui per sanctum Cuthbertum apparentem per visionem abbati 
Eddredo in Luercestre, factus fuit rex, Eardulfo episcopante anno ab 
incarnatione Domini octingentesimo nonogesimo. Post hunc Elfredus 
qui dedit sancto totam terram inter Tesam et Tynam. 

Isti Gudredus et Eluredus reges adjecerunt Dunelmensi episcopatui 
omnia quse ad episcopatum Haugustaldensem pertinuerunt. Per quin- 
quaginta enim et quatuor annos ante devastationem Northymbriae sedes 
episcopalis ibi cessaverat. JEluredo defuncto, regnavit filius ejus 
^Edwardus, et post hunc Edelstan filius ejus, et post Edmundus frater 
Edelstan. Quo mortuo anno Dominicse incarnationis nongentesimo 
quadragesimo octavo, Eluredum 9 fratrem heredem regni reliquit. Hii 
omnes cultores Sancti Cuthberti leges ejus et privilegia confirmaverunt 
et servaverunt, et terras cum multis aliis donariis sancto contulerunt. 
Sed Edred moriens reliquit heredein filium fratris sui Edmundi, nomine 
Edwi, malignee mentis hominem, omnibus odiosum. Hie a finibus 
tocius AngliaB expulit Sanctum Dunstanum de incestu eum corripien- 
tem. Unde omnes ab Ymbre usque ad Tamisiam contra Edwinum 
offensi ultra Tamisiam eum fugaverunt, et juniorem fratrem suum 
regem fecerunt, nomine Edgarum. Qui, cum multos annos feliciter 
regnasset, filio suo Edwardo, qui jacet in Scatecberi, regnum moriens 
reliquit. Qui, in brevi novercali fraude occisus, Edelredum fratrem 
heredem habuit. Deinde Knud regno Anglorum potitus, et ad Dunel- 
murn veniens per quinque miliaria a loco qui Garmundi Yia dicitur 
nudis pedibus incedens ad sepulcrum Sancti Cuthberti venit, et ibi op- 
tulit ei et dedit liberam et quietam Steindrop cum omnibus appendiciis 
suis. 

9 An error for Edredum. 



8 THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 

Post hunc regnavit Edwardus films Edelredi et Ernmse. Qui, primo 
anno regni sui monachum quendam nomine Egelricum de Euro episco- 
pum prefecit ecclesiaB Dunelmensi, sed, earn regere non valens, ad pro- 
prium monasterium rediit, sicque sine episcopatu vitani finivit. 

Postea anno Dominicse incarnationis M Ixxiij , sui regni anno octavo, 
"Willielmus rex post Haraldum occisum potentissimus versus Scotiam 
regnum suura visurus, et siqui ei rebelles essent subditurus ad sanctum 
Cuthbertum oraturus venit. Cui sciscitanti de vita et miraculis sancti, 
et de antiquitate et origine episcopatus, prudentiores ecclesise dixerunt 
ei Sanctum Oswaldum regem, accito Sancto Aidano de Scotia, sedem 
episcopalem in Lindisfarnensi insula primitus instituisse et ci dedisse. 
Dixerunt etiam quomodo rex Egfridus et Theodoras archiepiscopus in- 
vitum de solitaria vita extractum episcopum fucerunt, et quanta vene- 
ratione ab eodem rege dum vixit semper habebatur, et a subsequentibus 
Christianis regibus post mortem quantum diligebatur et quomodo omnia 
ad eum pertinentia semper augmentabant et sua auctoritate confirma- 
bant, ut in perpetua libertate et quietudine permanerent, et cum omni- 
bus consuetudinibus ut ipsi in sua inanu habuerant. Haec cum rex et 
alia multa audisset, propria manu, cum auro et pallio in perpetuum 
servanda tribuit, libere et quiete Deo et Sancto Cuthberto et Walchero 
episcopo Waltham cum omnibus appendiciis suis dedit et quinquaginta 
mansiones in Lyndesia, et adjecit postea Willielmo episcopo WeHetonam 
t Houedene cum omnibus suis appendiciis, cum saca et socna, et omni- 
bus legibus sicut ipse in propria manu habuit. 

Isto eodem rege Willielmo laudante et concedente, Edgarus rex 
Scoti donavit et reddidit Sancto Cuthberto et Willielmo episcopo, in 
Lodoneio Berewich cum omnibus suis appendiciis, et monachis in 
-ecclesia Dunelmi Deo et Sancto Cuthberto servientibus Coldingham 
cum suis omnibus appendiciis sicut in carta continetur quam ipse et 
fratres sui propria manu signaverunt et firmaverunt. 

Edwardm qui regnavit ante Willielmum fuit filius Ethelredi regis. 
JEthelredus fuit filius Eadgari regis. Eadgarus fuit filius Eadmundi 
regis. Edmundus fuit filius Edwardi regis senioris. Edwardus senior 
fuit filius Ealuredi regis. Iste Eluredus rex Australium Anglorum, et 
Guthred rex Norhanhynbrorum primi statuere Sancto Cuthberto omnes 
leges suas et consuetudines ; eique ad increnientum sui episcopatus 
adauxit Episcopatum Hagustaldensem qui antiquitus erat Wlfridi : et 
hoc statuerunt et firmaverunt cum consensu totius Anglias sicut inveniri 
potest in antiquissima scriptura chronica. Et in fine decretorum 
suorum excommunicationis sententiam protulerunt in eum qui sua sta- 
bilita presumeret convellere. Legat antiquam scripturam qui voluerit. 

Post illud tempus episcopi apud Sanctum Cuthbertum ilium locum 
tenuerunt, et ibidem, scilicet, in Hagustald' suos presbiteros statuerunt, 
-et prepositos. Edmundus episcopus ibi constituit prepositum ULKILLUM 
ArUlles sune, Wincunes sune. Et post eum Egelricus episcopus posuit 
ibi prepositum COLLANTJM ; et post Collanum, YLKILLUM Iluinges sune ; 
et post Egelricum Ealgelwinus episcopus constituit ibi prepositum 
VTHEEDTJM Vlkilles sune. 10 Iste TJthredus est pater Cospatrici qui nunc 
10 One of these names must surely be our Wilkinson. 



THE CHURCHES OF DURHAM AND HEXHAM. 9 

est vicecomes in Tevietedale. ELTTEEDUS Westou sune secretarius Dunel- 
mensis ecclesiae dono domini sui Edmundi Episcopi tenuit ecclesiam de 
Hagustaldaham ; et postea posuit in ea presbiterum GAMEL elde, qui 
dictus est GAMEL HAMEL ; et postea posuit ibi presbiterum GAMEL iunge. 
Iste Eluredus partein de reliquiis Episcoporum, qui apud Hagustal'h* 
antiquitus fuerant ibidemque sepulti, transtulit Dunelmo, et cum Sane to 
Cuthberto incorrupto collocavit. Post Eluredum films ejus EYLEF 
LAWREF, thesaurarius Dunelmensis ecclesia3, ab Egelrico et Egelwino 
Episcopis Dunelmensibus tenuit ecclesiam de Hagustal'h', ponens ibi 
presbiterum SPEOH. Habuit illam quamdiu terra erat inhabitata. Post- 
quam enim Franci venerant in Angliam, et Eobertus comes cum sep- 
tingentis militibus occisus esset in Dunelmo, quinque diebus ante puri- 
ficationem Sanctae Maria3, atque post eodem anno castella Eboraci a 
Danis atque Anglis destructa ; magnaque multitude Erancorum fuerat 
occisa : ad vindictam horum omnium, Willielmo rege cum magno super- 
veniente exercitu et per mensem Decembrem, Januarium, Februarium, 
omnia vastante, fugientibus omnibus ubi latere poterant, et etiam extra 
patriam peregrinantibus, tota terra ab Umbra usque Tvedam per multum 
tempus in solitudinem redacta est, praeter Eboracum et Dunelmum et 
Benbanburc. Tune Egelwino episcopo, propter timorem regis Willielmi, 
episcopatum fugiente per duos pene annos, pastore vacabat ecclesia. 
Interim VCTEED Vlkilles sune, quern ut supradictum est episcopus 
Egelwinus constituerat in Hagustal'h' prepositum, ad Thomam archie- 
piscopum seniorem profectus, indicavit locum talem facile ilium posse 
sub dominium suum redigere, cum tota ubique terra vacaret cultore. 
Cujus hortatu archiepiscopus intravit Hagustalham, nullotunc existente 
episcopo in Dunelmo, terra ubique vastata ; nee aliquo prohibente ubi 
quisque vellet habitare. Post hsec EZLAF LAWREU cum offerente Wil- 
lielmo episcopo monachatum recusaret, ad Thomam archiepiscopum 
abiit, et tune ab eo Hagustaldensem ecclesiam recepit, quam quondam 
ab Egelwino episcopo acceperat. Quo mortuo filius ejus EYLAF per 
predictum archiepiscopum Hagustaldensem ecclesiam ingreditur. 

*** The above MS. is not very strict in orthography and construction, but it con- 
tains much that is valuable to the annalist of Saxon Durham. The subject is too 
abstruse for treatment by annotation, but we trust that some of our members may 
review the whole authorities in a separate paper. 



VOL. II. 



10 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

FOB the following documents and the engravings of seals which accom- 
pany them, the Society is indebted to the continued liberality of Sir 
William Lawson, Bart., F.S.A., Brough Hall. 

" CARTA DE TERRA DE FORSET." * Margareta, Comitissa Brit', 2 Omni- 
bus hominibus et amicis suis tarn futuris quam presentibus, salutem. 
Notum sit vobis omnibus me dedisse et hac mea carta confirmasse En- 
geramo pincernas meo pro servicio suo unam carucatam terras in Fceseta. 
Scilicet illam dimidiam carrucatam terroe de escaeta quee fuit "Warini et 
quatuor bovatas 3 terras propinquiores illi dimidias carrucatae terrae 
quas Turstinus et Reginaldus tenuerunt, reddendo inde mihi et heredibus 
meis singulis annis quinque solidos pro omni servicio scilicet ad Pente- 
costen ij sol. et vj d. et ad festum Sancti Martini ij sol. et vj d. Quare 
volo et precipio quod predictus Engeramus et heredes sui habeant et 
teneant de me et de heredibus meis illam carrucatam terrse prenomina- 
tam libere et quiete et integre in bosco et piano in pratis in pascuis in 
viis et semitis in turbariis in redditibus in terra arabili et non arabili et 
in omnibus locis eidem teiras pertinentibus cum omnibus libertati- 
bus et liberis consuetudinibus ; faciendo annuatim supradictum servi- 
cium. Tcstibus hiis Warin' de Bassingeburn, Henrico de Bohun, Alano 
de Bassingeburn, Eudone de Chedestan, 4 Godefrido de Spicteshal, 
Eicardo cleAng', Alano deSuatham,Elya Clerico,Pag[inello]Marescallo." 

[ Seal of green wax. 5 Pointed oval. A full length female figure with 
conspicuously long maunches. In the right hand an orb surmounted 
by a cross, in the left a bird.] [S]IGILLVM : MARGA [RETE : BRITTAN] 
ORVM : DVCISS[E.] 

"ROGERI BERTRAM DE MiTFORB. Antiquo, et magna charta."'' Eogerus 
Bertram Dominus de Midford Domino Hugoni de Euer, pro homagio 

1 In Richmondshire. 

2 She is called " Brittanorum Ducissa" on her seal. She was daughter of William 
the Lion, King of Scotland, and wife to Conan Duke of Brittany and Earl of Rich- 
mond, who built the present tower of the latter place in 1171. The scribe probably 
at first intended to describe the Duchess as Countess of Richmond, for as such she 
gave the charter. ED. 

3 The carucate at Forcett was therefore eight oxgangs. The change of expression from 
half a carucate to fovir oxgangs is observable. ED. 

4 Even with the application of galls I cannot be absolutely certain about the second 
and third letters of this word. ED. 

5 The minute parallel lines in the robe are not mere indications of shading, but 
actual folds in the original. ED. 

6 The third of the name. 

7 On the charter-rolls of the 52nd of Henry III. is enrolled a confirmation of this 
grant, which is not of much earlier date. John de Vescy, one of the witnesses, was 
under age at the time of his father's death, 37th Henry III. The extent of Eoger 
Bertram's alienations is set forth in the Hundred Eolls at the beginning of the next 




The Seal of Margaret daughter of William the Lion, Duchess of Brittany, 
and Countess of Richmond. 




The Seal of the third Roger Bertram, Lord of Mitford. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 11 

et servicio suo, hornagiain et servicium Johannis de Woderington, et 
Constancies uxoris suae, et heredum dictae Constancies, de omnibus 
terris et tenementis quae de me tenuerunt in Berwyk', Pikeden', et 
Edington' et alibi infra comitatum Northumbriae ; et homagium et servi- 
cium Rogeri de Areynes et heredum suorum de omnibus terris et tene- 
mentis quae idem Rogerus tenuit in Calverdon' et alibi infra comitatum 
Northumbriae ; et homagium et servicium Roberti de Menevile et here- 
dum suorum de omnibus terris et tenementis quae idem Robertus de me 
tenuit in Milneburne et alibi infra comitatum Northumbriae cum wardis 
releviis maritagiis escaetis et omnibus aliis pertinenciis faciendo sectam 
ad curiam dicti Domini Hugonis apud Creklawe, et faciendo dicto 
Domino Hugoni wardam et clausturam quam rnihi et antecessoribus 
meis ad Castrum meum de Midford et ad parcum meum ejusdem villae 
facere consueverunt ; ethaec facient in warda et claustura velin valore 
denariorum ad voluntatem dicti Domini Hugonis Salva tamen mihi 
secta predictorum Johannis [&c.] ad molendinum meum de Midford et 
Eland' ad tricesimum vas antecessorwm [sic] meorum facere consueverunt. 
Reddendo inde annuatim mihi et heredibus meis unam sagittam barba- 
tam. Hiis testibus, Dominis Johanne de Balliolo, Johanne de Vescy, 
Adam de Gcsemue, Johanne de Plasseto, Johanne de Aulton', . . . .Mau- 
dut, Waltero Eamon, Johanne de Hoggel, inilitibus ; Rogero de Woder- 

3 ton', Ricardo Benet, Hugone Yigrus. 
Seal of green wax. Circular. A knight on horseback : on his shield 
on the caparison of his steed the arms of Bertram of Mitford.] 
s' RO[GERI . BERTRAM . MILITI?]S . DE . MIDFORDE. 

[An earlier seal of the family is engraved in Surtees, Plate VII., but 
the crosses are not fitchee as they appear to be in this example, in 
which, however, fleurs-de-lis may possibly be intended.] 

" WETLAW" [ET CRAMLINGTON.J Radulfus de Gaugi films domini 
Radulfi de Gaugi. Johanni de Pampedene, pro homagio et servicio suo, 
octo bovatas terrae cum quatuor toltis in villa de Witelawe Habenda 
de me et heredibus meis in feodo et hereditate cum omnibus commu- 
nibus libertatibus et asiamentis ad predictam [sic"] villam de Crameling- 
ton' 8 et ad villam de Witelawe pertinentibus exceptis defensis meis 
Reddendo inde annuatim mihi et heredibus meis duodecim denarios 
pro omni servicio consuetudine auxiliis et demanda, salvo forinseco servicio 
domini Regis quantum pertinet ad tantam terrain illius feodi. Johannes 
et heredes sui et sui assignati quieti et soluti erunt imperpetuum a secta 
curiee meae Preterea dabunt pro relevio suo duos solidos et erunt sine 
warda Hiis testibus, Domino Hugone de Bolebec tune vicecomite; 

reign, including Creklaw (Kirkley), which was already the property of Hugo de 
Euer at the date of the present grant. 

This is the only document hitherto printed which exhibits John de Widdrington as 
the mesne lord of Berwick-on-the-Hill, Pigdon, and Edington, in right of Constance 
his wife. She is described in the Hundred Rolls as Constance de St. Peter, being the 
heiress of a family of that name, who held these manors under the Bertrams at least 
as early as the reign of Henry II,, by the same service of two knights. J. H. H. 

8 Sir William Lawson quarters the arms of Cramlington of Cramlington. 



12 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

Koberto de Camou subvicecomite ; 9 Eustacio de Laval ; Henrico de 
Laval; Koberto de Faudona ; Hugone de Borutona; Ada de Jesemuia; 
Radulfo Baarth : Rogero de Witelawe ; Waltero de Perisiis ; Ricardo de 
Herford; Willielmo le Clorc de Crarnelingtona; Ricardo deWideslade; 
Galfrido de Wideslade, et multis aliis. 

[Seal of green wax. Oval. A Eoman gem engraved with a female 
figure.] SIGILL' [RADVLFI D]E GAVGI. 

[CRAMLINGTON, 1331.] Willielmus de Burdon' capellanus, tune per- 
petuus vicarius Novi castri super Tynam Willielmo de Kibelesworth et 
Cecilise uxori sua?, totum Manerium meum in villa de Cramelington' 
cum omnibus terris meis dominicis et duabus acris prati eidem manerio 
adjacentibus; Et etiam quartam partem dominii ejusdem villse; cum 
advocatione medietatis capellse Sancti Nicholai in eadem; ac etiam 
omnia alia et singula terras et tenementa cum singulis servitiis libere 
tenentium quae habuit ex donation e Johannis filii Willielmi de T rowyk 
in Cramlingtori' et Whitelawe Habenda Willielmo et Cecilise et here- 
dibus de assignatis ipsius Willielmi una cum wardis, releviis, escaetis 
et omnibus aliis pertinentiis Hiis testibus, Domino Johanne de Lille- 
burn' tune vicecomite Northumbriee ; Domiriis Eoberto de la Vale, Jo- 
hanne de Fenwyk militibus ; Thoma de Fenwyk, Thoma de Hidewyn, 
Roberto de Byker, Roberto de Rihill', Johanne de Wydslade, Johanne 
de Plessetis, 10 Johanne de Lyam, Willielmo de Whitlawe, apud Crame- 
lington' die Mercurii proxima ante festum Sancti Lucse EwanglistaB. 
Anno Domini, Millessimo tricentesimo tricesimo primo. 11 

\_Seal of brown wax. Oval. A Roman gem, engraved with a Cupid 
riding on a lion ? The vicar had probably picked this up in his own 
churchyard.] s' WILELMI DE BVKDVN. 

"DE ROBKRTO DE LA LAWE." Robertus de la Lawe de Morpath pro 
salute animas mea3, Deo et BeataB Mariae Abbati et Monachis Novi Mo- 
nasterii, in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam, unum toftum cum edi- 
ficiis in villa de Morpath quod Robertus Pudding' tenet, quod jacet 
inter domum Walteri Quaryur et domum Mathei Pelleter Facicndo 
annuatim capitali domino et villa3 de Morpath debitum servicium. Et 
ego Robertus et heredes mei predictum toftum contra omnes homines 
et feminas warantizabimus. Hiis testibus, Domino Johanne de Plessez, 
Ada del Hou, Alano Clericode Morpath, 12 Thoraldo, Nicholaode Parcho 12 
de eadem villa. 

[_Seal of green wax. Pointed oval. A fleur-de-lis. Legend de- 
faced, but enough remains to show that the seal was not constructed for 
the user. 13 Handwriting similar to that of Roger Bertram's charter.] 

9 The date of the charter is ascertained within two years and a half by this attesta- 
tion. Robert de Cambhou filled the office of under-sheriff for Hugh de Bolbec, in 
the 28th, 29th, and the first half of the 30th year of Henry III. J. H. H. 

10 The nephew of the witness of the same name in two previous charters. Hodg- 
son's Northumberland, Part ii., Vol. ii., contains a Plessey pedigree. J. H. H. 

11 Brand mentions Burdon as Vicar in 1316-27. 

12 These personages frequently occur circa 12 Edw. I. 

13 Oval seals are always used by females or churchmen. The exceptions are few 
indeed. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 13 

11 TESTAMENTUM JOHANNIS DE AUKLAND." 1399. Die veneris proxima 
ante festum Sanctse Marias Magdalene Anno Domini Millesimo trescen- 
tesimo nonagesimo nono. Ego Johannes de Aukeland, Burgensis villaD 
Novi castri super Tynam condo testamentum meum. In primis lego 
animam meam Deo Omnipotenti, beatse Mariae, et omnibus sanctis ejus, 
et corpus meum ad sepeliendum in ecclesia Sancti Nicholai in eadem 
villa. Yicario ejusdem ecclesieepro decimis et oblacionibus meis oblitis 
xls. Fabricae ejusdem ecclesiae v. marcas. Et fabricee capellee 
Omnium Sanctorum in eadem villa xxs. Et fabricse capellee Sancti 
Johannis in eadem villa xxs. Et fabricae capellae Sancti Andreae in 
eadem villa xxs. Et fabricae Ecclesiae parochialis de Gatesheued xx. 
Fabricae et operi de le Denebrig juxta ecclesiam Sancti Nicholai predicti 
xxs., sub conditione quod procuratores inde operentur et exaltent 
muros. Cuilibet capellano predictae ecclesise Sancti Nicholai xiiflJ. 
xxxii. marcas duobus capellanis idoneis ad divina servicia in predicta 
ecclesia Sancti Nicholai pro anima mea animabus et omnium fidelium 
per duos annos integros celebrandis. Isabellae consanguineae meae x. 
marcas ad maritagium suum. Roberto Johanson, Johanni Pullo, et 
"VValtero Barker servientibus meis Ixs. Quinque servientibus meis tan- 
natoribus xxxs. iiijd. Eesiduum bonorum meorum do et lego executo- 
nibus meis ut ipsi fideliter disporiant et facient pro anima mea. Et 
Johannem del Halle capellanum et Johannem Kirkeby meos ordino 
executores. Et Henricum de Bynkfeld et Robertum Gabyfore hujus 
testamenti et voluntatis mea3 facio supervisores. Item do Margaretae 
uxori meae unum annuum redditum x. librarum exeuntem de omnibus 
terris et tenementis meis in villis de Novo Castro super Tynam et 
Gatesheued -ad terminum vitae ipsius. Et similiter Aliciaa sorori mese 
unum annuum redditum xx. solidorum. Item do et lego Alicias filige 
meae omnia predicta terras et tenementa ac redditus et possessiones 
quse habeo in predictis villis, [in feodo talliato] remaneant Johanni de 
Bynkfeld filio Henrici de Bynkfeld [in feodo talliato] remaneant Wil- 
lielmo de Bynkfeld fratri ipsius Johannis de Bynkfeld [in feodo talliato] 
remaneant Roberto de Bynkfeld fratri ipsius Willielmi [in feodo tall- 
iato] remaneant Henrico dc Bynkfeld fratri ipsius Roberti [in feodo 

j_11' j. ~i x rm 3 _ T> i-./?~i .1 j?. i : TT : t:~* f^~A~ 

talliato 
talliato'_ 

volo extunc quod omnia predicta terroe [&c.] sine fraude et dolo vend- 
antur per predictos executores meos seu eorum executores per visum 
dictorum supervisorum seu eorum executorum et denarii inde per- 
cipiendi pro anima mea et animabus omnium fidelium defunctorum 
fideliter disponantur. Hiis testibus Domino Willielmo de Stillyngton' 
capellano parochiali 14 ecclesise Sancti Nicholai supradictee et aliis. 
Datum apud predictam villam Novi Castri. 

Probatum auttoritate Domini Dunolmensis episcopi officialis in ca- 
pella Sancti Thoma3, villae Novi Castri super Tynam vij. die Augusti 
Anno infrascripto. 

[First Seal gone. A fragment of the official's seal remaining in red 
wax.] 

14 A parochial chaplain of St. Nicholas, distinct from the Vicar, who is a legatee. 



remaneant Thomse de Bynkfeld fratri ipsius Henrici [in feodo 
remaneant Aliciae de Bynkfeld sorori ipsius Thomse [in feodo 
si eadem Alicia sine herede de corpore suo exeunte obierit, 



15 



ROMAN REMAINS FOUND AT ADDERSTONE, NEAR BAM- 
BURGH, NORTHUMBERLAND. 

IN May, 1856, as some labourers were engaged in draining a field at Ad- 
derstone, on the farm of Mr. Anderson, the property of George Wilson, 
Esq., Alnwick, they came upon a vessel containing a quantity of Roman 
remains, consisting of 28 coins, a brass scale beam and weights, with 
remains of scales, and an article of remarkably unique appearance, 
composed of a metal resembling the consistency of tin and lead. 

The coins extend over the reigns which took place from Hadrian to 
Aurelian inclusive, embracing a period of nearly 160 years, during the 
occupation of Britain by the Romans, beginning about A.D. 117, 
and ending A.D. 275, taking the extremes of those reigns. Six of the 
coins are so much corroded and decomposed as to make the task of de- 
ciphering them, to even the most practised eye, utterly hopeless; the 
remainder are in a better state of preservation, and have all been de- 
termined. There are 28 of them in all, 16 large bronze (9th size ac- 
cording to Ackerman), and 12 small ones of billon (5th size, following 
the same authority). 

The following is the chronological series, with the periods of the 
reigns of the several emperors : 

1 HADRIAN, from A.D. 117 to 138 1 CARACALLA, from A.D. 196 to 217 

1 ANTONINUS Pius 138 .. 161 8 POSTUMUS 260 . . 267 

1 VERUS 161 .. 169 1 SALONIKA, WIFE OF GALLI- 

2 COMMODUS 166 . . 192 ENUS 253 . . 268 

1 M. AURELIUS 161 ,. 180 1 AURELIANUS 270 . . 275 

3 FAUSTINA THE YOUNGER, 1 Lucius JELius. 

WIFE OF M. AURELIUS. 3 small, illegible. 

1 SEVERUS 197 .. 211 3 large, ditto. 

The coins have been submitted to the examination of Mr. Roach 
Smith, and the above determinations have been confirmed by him. 



The scale beam, which is of bronze, about 8 inches long, still quite 
perfect and nearly evenly balanced, has the rings still attached by which 




EOMAN REMAINS FOUND AT ADDERSTONE. 15 

the beam and scales, when in use, were suspended. The rings are 
formed of wire of the same metal as the beam, soldered together, but 
the solder has been decomposed, and the parts where they were joined 
are now open. The scales are very much wasted. The parties who 
made the discovery unfortunately scoured the beam with sand, leaving 
it in its present state. A Eoman beam of a similar description has, I 
am informed, been recently found in Kent, and is now in the possession 
of Mr. Eoach Smith. 

The nondescript article consists 
of two circular rings, about 2j 
inches in diameter, made of a rod 
of metal a quarter of an inch thick, 
the rod twisted together for about 
an inch and a half in the centre, 
bridle-bit fashion, forming the junction by which the rings are con- 
nected. Some persons who have seen it are of opinion that the whole 
has been cast solid. It has been examined by several experienced anti- 
quaries, but none of them have been able to guess at its use, and their 
ingenuity has been baffled to offer a conjecture as to its object in Eoman 
economy. Has it not formed a part of the mountings of the harness of 
a Eoman chariot ? Probably there are many things in common use by 
distant nations of the present day, the purposes of which we should, 
without information respecting them, be utterly unable to divine. 

The field in which the remains were discovered lies in an angle formed 
by the great north road on the west, and the road running eastward by 
Adderstone to Lucker on the north. It would appear formerly to have 
been in a forest state, and subsequently a bog, as in the course of drain- 
ing through the dark peaty soil the workmen came upon the trunks of 
several large oak trees, some of which they cut through ; others, where 
the placing of draining tiles could be accomplished with less labour, 
they excavated underneath, leaving the trees otherwise undisturbed 
further than was necessary for the completion of the work in which 
they were engaged. The man who discovered them was digging in a 
drain, between four and five feet deep, and threw them to the side in 
what appeared to be a box, but which when thrown out went immedi- 
ately and completely to pieces, so much so that no part of it was at- 
tempted to be preserved. The coins and other articles were scattered 
on the side of the drain, but were afterwards collected by the workmen 
present. 

What gives additional interest to the discovery, is the locality in 
which it was made. At a short distance stand Waren, Budle, Spindle- 



16 ROMAN REMAINS FOUND AT ADDERSTONE. 

ston, and Outchester, at the latter of which places are still the remains 
of Roman works. Outchester or TJlchester, evidently a name alluding 
to Roman occupation, stands on the north side of the Warn rivulet, 
and seems to have been intended to secure the pass of the river 
and the harbour of Warn, and it is within two miles from that 
place where the present remains were found. The most eminent of 
our local antiquaries have advanced the theory, that there was an 
ancient Roman way from Budle by the Charltons southwards, and 
the present discovery is an additional fact tending to confirm that 
opinion. Adderstone, whichever direction that route might take, would 
be in its immediate proximity, and a further and more careful investi- 
gation of the district would, in all likelihood, be productive of corrobo- 
rative evidence elucidatory of that theory, and would probably repay 
the labour of the Northumbrian archaeologist. 

J. ARCHBOLD. 
Alnwick, 



17 



THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHUKCH, NEWCASTLE. 

DETEREED, probably, by exaggerated fears of dirt, danger, and fatigue, 
none of the topographers of Newcastle appear to have examined the 
bells of the parish church ; and their inscriptions are unnoticed in the 
histories of the town. Having recently taken careful rubbings of the 
legends on these bells, I am enabled to supply this remarkable omis- 
sion. 

Until the Corporation (who, for the use of the bells, repair the tower,) 
presented three additional bells in what Bourne (who died in 1732) terms 
"late years," the church possessed only five bells in the steeple. Of 
these five, three are inscribed in mediaeval black letter, and are con- 
nected with saints. 

I. One of them was named after St. Nicholas, the patron of the 
church, and bears a rhyme in Latin : 

Cuiutfe iHotruTamuta * 



(" Bearing modulations to all, I am rejoicing Nicholas. ""> The mark at the 
commencement, is a merchant's or bellfounder's. It is composed of 
a cross saltire, surmounted by a plain cross. 

II. Another bell bears the same mark, but is of superior workman- 
ship. It exhibits two figures a flower between them. The" Annunci- 
ation to the Yirgin, to whom the bell is dedicated, is evidently intended 
to be represented. The legend is 

* 4&. mater, trfa. me. gana. fotrgo 3< maria. 

(" 0, Divine Mother, Mary the Yirgin, heal me.") At Heighington, 
county Durham, is a bell of the same good workmanship, adorned with 
a figure of the Yirgin and the arms of Neville, and bearing nearly the 
same legend. The second cross in our reading occupies the place of the 
mark. 



18 THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH NEWCASTLE. 

III. The third bell of ancient date was that of St. Michael : 
Cam^ana . Watov . JHtolfe . iiulcfe . g>feto . JHelfe. 

This seems to be the reading, but there is something wrong at the end. 
Between each word is a circular device. On each of two large leaves or 
branches of a central stem, which is surmounted by a cross, is perched 
a bird looking backwards. Bound this subject is an illegible blackletter 
legend. On the top of the same bell is a shield repeated four times. 
Its bearings are a chevron between three vases or covered eups with 
handles and spouts. This coat does not occur among the enumerated 
arms of companies, but it may be certainly considered as allusive to the 
moulders or other workmen employed in some particular branch of bell- 
founding. It occurs on one of the bells of St. Bartholomew's, 
London. On the bells of Scorton chapel, near Bievaulx, a similar 
device occurs twice in conjunction with the bells of the bellfounders. 
The smaller bell is old, though it is not that which was removed from 
Byland by Abbot Eoger in 1146. On the dexter side of a crozier is a 
bell. On the sinister, a bell and double-handed vessel standing on three 
legs. Eound this device runs the legend in the shape of a heater shield, 
informing us that John Copgraf made the bell. On the greater bell, 
dated 1676, a shield occurs thrice, with the initials P. "W. under it. 
Three of the tripod cups (no chevron) are impaled with a chevron be- 
tween three bells, the cups occupying the dexter portion of the shield. 1 

IY. There appears always to have been one bell more exclusively de- 
voted to municipal purposes, called the COMMON, GKEAT, or THIEF and 
REIVER BELL. The last name was applied to it in consequence of its 
taking the place of (or accompanying) the curfew or 8 o'clock bell on 
the occasion of each of the fairs of the town at which, by a custom 
widely dispersed, none but the greatest malefactors were liable to arrest. 
In Germany, according to Fynes Moryson, " at the time of public fairs, 
after the sound of a bell, it is free for debtors, harlots, and banished 
people to enter the citie." Another special use of this bell, from which 
the name of Common Bell seems to be derived, was that of its being 

1 At Norton, county Durham, on a bell dated 1664, the same bearings occurred 
seven times, the bells being to the dexter. This bell was recast a few years ago. On 
an old bell at Egglescliffe, dedicated to St. Mark, a bell and a bell-rope occur alter- 
nately between each word. At the church of Ellerker, in 1585, were three beUs in 
the steeple. One of them had two trefoiled compartments, one with three flours de 
hs, 1 and 2, the other with, three talbot's heads, 1 and 2; an eagle upon a swaddled 
child also occurred, and the legend MAY FORTUNE 1577 ABOUT THIS BELL." On 
another bell, with an oratory legend to Christ and the Virgin, was a shield with three 
bells, 2 and 1, no chevron. (Harl. MS. 1394, p. 312). ED 



THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, NEWCASTLE. 19 

tolled to convene the burgesses, and other business. On the great 
annual election, it begins (says Brand) " at nine o'clock in the morning, 
and with little or no intermission continues to toll till three o'clock, 
when they begin to elect the mayor, &c. Its beginning so early was 
doubtless intended to call together the several companies to their respec- 
tive meeting-houses, in order to choose the former .and latter electors, 
&c. A popular notion prevails, that it is for the old mayor's dying, as 
they call his going out of office the tolling, as it were, of his passing 
bell." The great bell was also tolled at twelve o'clock at noon of Pan- 
cake or Shrove Tuesday, when a general holiday for the rest of the day 
commenced. Bourne quotes Carr's MSS. for the statement that this 
bell appears to have been cast in 1593. In October of that year, the 
Corporation paid " for two band ropes, one to the common bell, and 
another to the 8 o'clock bell, 3s. 4d. a piece." In October, 1595, (per- 
haps the date to be substituted for the 1593 of Bourne,) they paid "to 
William Borne, in consideration of a hauser which was spoilede in 
haylinge upp the common bell of Sainte Nichol church to steple, 20s." 
As soon, however, as 1615, according to Bourne, the "great bell called 
the common bell," weighing 3,120 or 3,130ZJ., was sent to Colchester 
to be new cast. Yet it is stated that it was cast again in 1622, and 
weighed 33 cwt. Certain it is that in 1754, when it was again sent 
to be recast, it weighed at the High Crane 32 cwt. 3 qrs. 14 Ib. good. 
It cracked during a great improvement in the Newcastle school of 
bellringing. On February 7, 1754, a young society of ringers rang 
2,520 changes of bob triples in 1 hour 36 minutes, being half the com- 
plete peal, which had never been performed on these bells before. To 
complete the whole peal was thought impossible, by reason of the bad 
hanging. On April 11, as the ringers were about halfway through a 
peal of grandsire triples, the great bell cracked, and on September 25 
was taken down for transmission to London. About Wd. a pound was 
allowed for it, producing 1531. The new bell cost Is. Id. per pound, 
amounting to 218?. 8s. It weighed 3Qcwt. or 4,032ZJ. It was landed 
on the quay from London on December 20, 1 754, and was first rung on 
January 1, 1755. Mr. Lawrence, a noted bellhanger of London, was 
sent for by the magistrates. He hung all the bells so effectually that, 
notwithstanding the weight of the new tenor bell, a complete peal of 
bob triples was rung with the greatest ease in 3 hours 13 minutes and a 
quarter, on April 10. 2 The inscription of the present bell is " CTTTH- 

2 In the steeple are tablets with the following records of " native talent " 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1808. Nov. 15. A true peal of Holt's grandsire triples, 
consisting of 5040 changes, was rung by the Newcastle Union Society in three hours 
and twenty minutes. Artes liberales ab omnibus nisi impmdentibus diliguntur. 



20 THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, NEWCASTLE. 

BERT SMITH, ESQ., MAYOE. WILLIAM BOWELL, ESQ., SHERIFF. 1754. 
THOMAS LESTER & THOMAS PACK FECIT." 3 

V. One more bell of the old five remains to be noticed. It has the 
arms of Newcastle, supporters and crest, the tails of the seahorses being 
twisted in an unusual form. It runs on two lines thus : 

4 COVRT . TO . THIS . HEIGHT . TOW . WHEN . THIS . TOWRE . 
WHEN . 1658 . . . I . H . . SEE . IT . WAS . BYILT . 



Such were the five bells of St. Nicholas up to 1717. We have seen 
an entry mentioning the " 8 a'clocke bell," or curfew, as distinct from 
a common bell; and in 1594 the Corporation paid "the under clarke of 
Sainte Nichol's churche towlinge the 6 a'clocke bell for schollers in the 
morninge, 3s. 4d" This is the bell alluded to by Brand in his "Po- 
pular Antiquities," as "rung at six every morning, except Sunday sand 
holidays, with a view, it should seem, of calling up the artisans to their 
daily employment" and practically, here and elsewhere, this was 
doubtless its principal end. 

The records of the various occasions on which these bells were rung, 
belong rather to the illustration of general history and the local feelings 
of the people, than to that of the bells. They do not, therefore, enter 
into this brief notice. It may, however, be in place to allude to the 
peculiar expression used by the Corporation official in stating his pay- 
ment to the clerk for commemorating Queen Elizabeth's accession on 
the 17th of November. It is "for joie of our Majesties raign" " our 
Majesty" being his frequent designation of the Virgin Queen. The 

Netvcastle-upon-Tyne, 1809. Jubilee, Oct. 25. Was rung a 5040 of Holt's grand- 
sire triples by the Union Society of this town in three hours and twenty minutes, 
being the only peal rung in England in commemoration of his majesty King George 
the Third entering into the fiftieth year of his reign. 

St. Nicholas, 1842. March 27 (Easter Sunday). The Union Society of Newcastle 
and Gateshead Change Ringers, in company with J. Cox, and J. Freeman, two mem- 
bers of the Society of St. James' Youths, London, rung a complete peal of Holt's 
grandsire triples, 5040 changes, in the unprecedented short period of two hours and 
fifty-nine minutes. 

1848, Dec. 8. Eight members of the Ancient Union Society of Change Eingers of 
Newcastle and Gateshead rung a true and complete peal of grandsire triples, 5040 
changes, in two hours and fifty-five minutes, the quickest peal on record. This in- 
genious peal is the composition of Mr. Thurston, of Birmingham, it consists of 170 
singles and 75 bobs. The first peal rung by native talent since the Jubilee of Geo. 

3 The word fecit is below the rest of the inscription. 

4 There is a small mark or character here, something like M or a black letter t with 
a curved top to it. " "When caught to this height you see when this tower it was 
built." 



THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, NEWCASTLE. 21 

bells of St. Nicholas are muffled on the anniversary of King Charles 
the First's execution (1810) a most unusual custom. Brand suggests 
that it probably dates from the Restoration, and may be accounted for 
by the singular loyalty of the King's town of Newcastle. 

It remains to glance at the modern additions to the belfry. The 
three bells which had been added in Bourne's days, were, he says, given 
by the Corporation. 

VI., VII. Two of them read RALPH. READ, ESQ., MAYOR. FEANCIS 
JOHNSON, ESQE., SHEEIF. 1717. R. PHELPS LONDINI FECIT. 

VIII. The third seems to have been recast as it reads THOMAS 
MEAES, LATE LESTEE, PACK, AND CHAPMAN, LONDON, FECIT, 1791. It is a 
" maiden bell, a clean casting in no need of chipping." The above 
eight bells, only, constitute the fine peal of St. Nicholas. But, above 
one of the bells of 1717, hangs the largest bell of the steeple, and on it 
the hours are struck. 

IX. This bell was presented in pursuance of the will of Major George 
Anderson, of Newcastle, dated 17 April, 1824, proved 1831, which 
contained the following singular bequests for public purposes : "I 
leave to the church of St. Andrew's, in the town of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 100?. for the purpose of repairing and ornamenting the tower 
thereof; and if that the tower aforesaid after being repaired and orna- 
mented shall be found capable of bearing and admitting a spire of 
height of from 50 to 100ft. high, then in that case I leave it 400 
more for that purpose. My wish is that it may be seen from Durham 
Cathedral, and give an exterior dignity to the town of New- 
castle. I leave to the church of St. John's, Newcastle, in Westgate 
Street, 200Z. for the purpose of creating a spire on the top of the tower 
thereof, of the height of 50 feet high which said spire shall have my 
name and arms thereon, with the date thereof. I leave to the church of 
St. Nicholas, Newcastle, 500J. for the purpose of purchasing a large 
bell for the clock to strike upon which said bell shall have my name 
and arms thereon, with the date thereof, and the purpose for which it 
was given. These gifts above mentioned I trust the Reverend the Vicar 
of Newcastle will see properly and correctly apply ed. But if that the 
Vicar of Newcastle and the Churchwardens of the aforesaid churches 
will not comply with the above conditions in the course of three years, 



22 THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, NEWCASTLE. 

then the aforesaid sums shall be forfeited, and become the property of 
my godson, Gteorge Anderson. I wish that my executors to my will 
see the bequests left to the churches before-mentioned correctly complied 
with, as they are intended to be of general ornament, use, and benefit to 
the town of Newcastle, and also an example to others to imitate of the 
Church of England as I hold it in opinion it is the duty of every one 
to keep up the magnificence and dignity of the buildings erected to the 
Supreme Being." 

Major Anderson's intentions as to church-towers not having been car- 
ried out, the bequests, so far, sunk into the residue. 

On December 3, 1833, the bell bequeathed to the parish-church of 
St. Nicholas was christened "The Major," and on the 10th hoisted into 
the belfry. It is hung some four or five feet above the first bell in the 
north east angle. Inscription: "PURCHASED FOE, THE CLOCK TO STRIKE 

UPON, AGREEABLY TO THE WlLL OF GEORGE ANDERSON, ESQ., 1833. CAST 

AT THE FOUNDRY OF SIR ROBERT SHAFTOE HAWKS & Co., BY JAMES HAR- 
RISON, OF BARTON-UPON-HUMBER, NOVEMBER 23, 1833." (Arms.) 

" The Major" is a very imperfect bell, and I have been told by Mr. 
Laurie that the tenor can be heard at twice the distance. Harrison, the 
founder, was a son of the celebrated chronometer -maker, who won 
the Government prize of 20,OOOZ. ; but he blundered the bell. Bell- 
metal is a mixture, as everybody knows, of copper and tin. Harrison 
came to Mr. Robert Watson's foundry in the High Bridge, and got 
about a hundredweight of brass a mixture of copper and zinc to mix 
with the proper materials. The consequence was, with all the chipping 
and other expedients he could resort to, the sound was unsatisfac- 
tory : the thing was blundered altogether. 5 

For the guidance of those who may wish to inspect the bells, I sub- 
join a rough idea of their positions in the tower. The Roman nume- 

5 From the information of Mr. Robert White. Harrison, nevertheless, bore a 
good professional reputation. The Rev. John Byron, of Killingholme, Line., has 
obligingly transmitted the following information from a correspondent, of whom, in 
consequence of that reputation, he had made enquiries about the failure of skill at 
Newcastle : " I have heard from a man that knew Harrison the bell -founder, that 
the bell at Newcastle was doubtless the result of an experiment. He was too poor to 
try it on his own account, so he gave the next customer, after the idea originated, the 
benefit of it. The same person tells me that he was once at a place where Harrison 
had cast bells for the church. For a time they stood in the church-yard, where the 
boys frequently took great liberties with them, such as throwing bricks at them, &c. 
One day Harrison himself, who was a very little man, went to the bells, and began 
hammering at them with a chisel. The clergyman going past saw him, and be- 
stowed a tremendous whack on the side of the bell- founder's head, asking what he 
was doing there and what he had to do with the bells. To his surprise the answer 
was, ' I cast them.' " 



THE BELLS OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, NEWCASTLE. 23 

rals refer to the descriptions in this paper, the Arabic signs denote the 
order of ringing. 



NORTH. 





11. 7. 
8. MARY. 


IX. 




MAJOR. 


t 




1831. 

(above VI.) 

VI. 1. 
1717. 


r 


Platform. 


I. 6. 
S. NICHOLAS. 










r 


IV 


. 8. 








Common or 
Great Bell. 

1754. 


VII. 2. 
1717. 








Trap Door. 








VIII. 5. 
1791. 










III. 4. 


V. 3. 




8. MICHAEL. 


1658. 



SOUTH. 



JOHN VENTKESS. 



Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 



24 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

SINCE the publication of the abstract of deeds on p. 61 et seq., it has 
been found that the whole of them, except the last, refer to property of 
the various foundations connected with the chapel of St. Margaret, 
Crossgate, Durham. It appears that several others are in the vestry of 
St. Margaret' s,?of which copies were made some time ago; and among 
Mr. Raine's minutes of charters, are notices of others. It is natural to 
suppose that many more are dispersed with the modern title-deeds of 
the properties to which they relate. As Corbridge is entirely inedited, 
and St. Margaret's chapelry only imperfectly so, it appears desirable to 
place these additional evidences on record ; especially as, even without 
reference to persons and places, a state of society and dealing with 
church property is shown in violent contrast with parochial usages of 
the present day. The notes derived from Mr. Raine's MSS. are marked 
(R), the remainder are from the copies before mentioned, with the ex- 
ception of one document which has been communicated by Mr. Allan, 
as stated in the proper place, 

1477. John Blenkarn and John Lonesdale, proctors or churchmas- 
ters (procuratores seu ycomini} of the church of St. Margaret the Yirgin 
in Durham, by consent and will of all the parishioners, have delivered 
an antiphoner, which they had by gift of John Hoton, chaplain of the 
chapel of Hareton (Harraton), to the same Hoton, to hold for his 
life, and afterwards to remain to the said church. At Durham, 21 April. 
"Witnesses, Master William Rackett, Justice of the Peace of the Lord 
Bishop of Durham, Cuthbert Byllyngham, Esq., &c. 

"WALBTDGE. 1513. Cuthbert Billingham, Ralph German and Tho- 
mas Trotter, Alderman and Proctors of the Guild of St. Margaret in 
the chapel of St. Margaret, to Richard Punshon of Walrage be- 
side Chester in the Street. Lease of a messuage in "Walrage, late in the 
tenure of Thomas Walshe, for 15 years, at the rent of 12<. to the 
Guild, and 6s. to the Dean of Chester in the Street. 5 April. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 25 

COATHAM MUNDEVILLE, GnAYSTONES, AND WHESSOE. [1.460.] Tho- 

mas Eltoft, esq., Thomas Dytcheburn, Robert Strynger and John 

Walker to William Eure, knt., Christopher Conyers of Sokburn, 

esq., Ralph Dalton, rector of Sokeburn church, and Thomas Segiswyk. 
Release of all the lands and tenements which were John Eltoft's in 
Cotom Mondevyle, Graystones and Whessoe. 20 Jan. 38 Hen. VI* 

DURHAM. WHARHAM FAMILY. 1426. Thomas de Tang . to 

Thomas Holden, esq. Conveyance of two messuages, and 63 acres in 
Norton and Stokton : in exchange for a burgage in the Marketplace of 
Durham between a tenement of John Kellowe's heirs and that some- 
time "Richard de Moreton's in which Robert Spycer dwells, and 4s, rent 
issuing out of a tenement which William Wharrome holds by gift of 
Holden in Framwelgate. At Norton, Monday before the feast of St. 
Mark the Evangelist, 4 Hen. VI. [See as to the livery of seisin, No. 
7, p. 64, vol. i.] 

Same date. A corresponding charter from Holden to Tang of tho 
Durham property, dated at Durham. 

1428. William Wharham of Durham to his son Robert Whar- 

ham. Conveyance of all his lands, tenements, &c. in the Borough and 
in the Old Borough of Durham and all the leaden vessels in them. 
April 20. 

1442. John Pertryk and William Tronesdale, chaplains, to Ro- 
bert Wharrome and Eleanor his wife. Conveyance of a burgage in 
Framwelgate between a burgage late Robert Walker's on the N., and a 
burgage of William Shoruton on the S., which the grantors lately had 
by feoffment of the said Robert Wharrome. In special tail ; remainder to 
the heirs of Robert. Eeast of the Assumption. 

[1473.] Robert Wharum to William Raket. A burgage in 

Framwelgate between the burgage late Robert Raket' s and that late 
William Schoroton's. 3 Feb. 12 Edw. IV. [See No. 6, p. 63, vol. i.] 

[1502.] Agnes Raket of Preston, widow of William Raket, to 

John Coll of Durham and Isabella his wife. Release of a burgage in 
Framwelgate, in which the said John and Isabella now dwell. 1 Oct. 
18 Henry VII. 

1489. Robert Wharram of the Manor of Longley beside Est Bran- 
don to John Pottes and John Tedcaster, churchmasters ficominis) 

and proctors of the chapel of St. Margaret, founded in the Old Borough 
of Durham, and their successors. Conveyance of a tenement in the Old 
Borough in Crosgat, on the north side of the street, between a tenement 
of the chapel late in the tenure of Richard Baxter and a tenement late 
of John Pollard. 21 Sep. 

VOL. II. B 



26 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

[The following document, reciting the above conveyance, gives a rea- 
son for it.] 

THIS INDENTFK mayd at Duresme the xxij day of Septembr' in the 
yeir of oure Lord God M'cccciiij" and ix BETWIX Robert Wharram of 
the Maner of Longley besiyd Est Brandon in the county of Duresme of 
on part And John of Pottes and John Tedcaster of Duresme Kyrk- 
maisters and proktors of the chapell of Saynt Margareyt in the Aide 
Burgh of Duresme on the tother part WITNES WHEIB, the for sayd Ro- 
bert Wharram has grantted and a reles has mayd appon a deyd of giyffc 
And ther oppon possession delyvered and takyn be John of Pottes and 
John Tedcastr afor sayd of A tenement with the purtenance in the Aide 
Burghe of Duresme aforsayd liyng betwix the tenement layt in the 
haldyng of Richard Baxster of the North part of Crosgat and a tene- 
ment sum tiym in the haldyng of John Pollard ther on the tother part 
AND WHEIR the for sayd John and John kirkmasters and proktors of the 
chapell a for sayd has graunted be the concent of all the parissheyng of 
the sayd chapell unto the for sayd Robert Wharram for his giyft of the 
tenement be a deyd with a relesse and possession of the sayd tenement meyd 
and doon THERFOR, the for[sayd] Robert Wharram. eftur his deeth shall 
with Grod grace and leve shall be beried in the for sayd chapell of Saynt 
Margareyt and his childer of his body lawfully gatyn. IN WITNES and 
in fulfilling of all condicions and covenants afor writyn the partes a for 
sayd to this indentor interchangeable has putte ther seales the place day 
and the yeire a bove writen. 

1493. Robert Wharham, senior, of the manor of Longley, to 

Richard Lewyn, Robert Cokyn, John Lonesdale and John Pottis, church- 
masters and proctors [now four instead of two] of St. Margaret's chapel. 
Release of the tenement comprised in the last deed, and another burgage 
in Milburngate in the Old Borough between the burgage of the sacristan 
of Durham on the !N",, and that of John Hagthorp on the S. 5 July. 

DURHAM. ALLERTONGATE. 1328. John de Hert and Adam Tanner, 
keepers of the Light of the Chapel of Blessed Margaret in Crossegat in 
Durham, by consent of good and lawful men parishioners of the said 
chapel, viz. Sir John Gikes, chaplain, John de Barnard Castle, clerk, 
Roger Lord of Neuton, Cuthbert fitz-John, John de Aldwood, Hugh de 
Coken, Adam Wythir, and also by consent of all other the whole com- 
monalty fcommunitatisj of the parishioners of the same, convey to Ro- 
bert de Plauseworth and Agnes his wife, a burgage in Allertongat in the 
Old Borough of Durham, between the burgage of Roger de Hert and 
that of Adam de Rylley. "Which burgage was formerly William de 
Craven's. Rendering to the said keepers and their successors 4s. yearly. 
Witnesses, John de Hanlakeby, bailiff of the Old Borough, John Goce, 
&c. In curia Veteris Burgi, Wednesday, feast of St. Peter in cathedra. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 27 

[This charter has been submitted to us by Kobert Henry Allan, Esq., 
F.S.A., of Blackwell Hall.] 

DURHAM. SOUTH STREET. 1328. John de Hert, keeper of the lights 

in Blessed Margaret's chapel in Durham, to Robert Jakes and 

Isabella his wife. Conveyance of the burgage which he had by gift of 
William fits- Walter de Eysche, butcher, of Durham. It lies in South- 
strete in the Old Borough of Durham between land of Robert de Hedley 
smith, and land late Walter de Brafferton's. Rendering yearly 4s. for 
the maintenance of the wax lights before the imago of Blessed Marga- 
ret in the chancel of the said chapel. At Durham, Wednesday after 
the feast of St. Peter ad vincula. Witnesses, John de Hanlakeby, 
bailiff of the Old Borough, &c. [Mr. Surtees quotes a conveyance of 
1355 from Richard Tanyer, son of Michael de Aukland, and Maude his 
wife, to William Lardener of a burgage in Suth-strete, charged with 
I2d. rent to the chaplain of St. Mary's altar.] 

DURHAM. CROSGATE AND MILNEBURNGATE. s. d. Peter, servant of 
Robert de Bruninghill and Ysabella his wife, formerly that of Walter 
de Hesse, give to God and Blessed Margaret 2s. rent to issue out of a 
burgage in Crossegate, between the land of Roger Cissor, 1 and that 
which was Roger Wallis's, to the maintaining the waxlights burning 
before the cross in the church of St. Margaret in Durham, for the 
soul of the late John Geri, and for a sum of money which his execu- 
tors gave to the grantors. Witnesses, Henry de Horneby, William 
fitz-Hugh, John de Grendon, Robert le Wyn, William Welle, Thomas 
de Pontefract, Richard de la Slade, Robert called Plays, Henry the clerk. 

1335. Thomas Steyll, who was then the owner of the same burgage 
by gift of Richard de Chilton, 2 deceased, and had refused to pay the 2s., 
appeared before the Bishop's official in the Galilee at Durham, and after 
a long altercation, confessed the justice of the claim, and submitted to a 
decree to which the official attached si 'g ilium officialitatis Dunohn'. 
Wednesday after the feast of St. Gregory the pope. 

1303. John fitz-Alan Goldsmyth of Durham and Adam Russell, 
keepers of the light of Margaret's Chapel in Durham, chosen by tho 
parishioners of the said chapel, and for this purpose specially deputed, 

to Alan Barbour and his heirs. Reciting that Barbour holds a 

burgage in Crossegate in the Old Borough of Durham, between the te- 
nement late Thomas de Qwerington's and the tenement late Bertram 
Webester's, charged with 5s. to the said light; which burgage is now 

1 Bailiff of the Old Borough 1294. 

2 In 1294, Richard fitz-David Wulpuller conveyed to Richard de Chilton a place 
abutting on the rivulet of Milneburne. 



28 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

waste and unbuilt. Remise to Barbour and his heirs, of 2s. of the said 
rent for 20 years, for the building the said burgage anew within two 
years. Power of distress upon the goods in Barbour' s tenements in 
Alvertongate, late those of John de Insula, heir of Margaret Hamit', 
between the tenement late of John fitz-Thomas fitz-Hugh and that of 
"William Packe Walas. At Durham, Wednesday after the feast of St. 
Cuthbert in March. 

1338. Alice del Slade in her widowhood to Thomas her son. 

Conveyance of a tenement in Crossegate in the Old Borough of Durham, 
between her own tenement and a tenement of the altar of Blessed Mary 
in the chapel of Blessed Margaret in Durham. Rendering yearly to the 
keepers of the light of that chapel 2 pounds of wax to supply two wax- 
lights before the altar of Blessed Mary for ever. And the said tenement 
shall sustain and provide a lamp burning before Blessed Mary's altar 
for ever, as in a charter of the said Alice is set forth. If Thomas dies 
issueless, the tenement is to remain to the grantor's daughter Cecily and 
her issue : remainder over. At Durham, in full court of the Old Bo- 
rough, Wednesday after the feast of St. Faith the Virgin. Witnesses, 
John de Barnard Castle, clerk, and William de Chilton, Bailiffs of the 
Old Ehrough. [Quoted by Surtees, IV. ii., 130, as in the possession of 
Sir C. Sharpe.] 

1341. William de Stayndropp, fitz-Nicholas 3 fitz-Robert, the Scribe, 

to Alice fitz-Richard Durisall of Durham in her maidenhood. 

Conveyance of his tenement in Crossegate in the Old Borough of Dur- 
ham between the cemetery of the church of St. Margaret and the tene- 
ment of John fitz- Stephen Cissor and of William his brother. Witness, 
John de Castle Barnard, clerk, bailiff of the said borough. Tuesday 
after Martinmas. In dorso, Willelmus Scriptor. 

[1414.] John Hoton of Tudowe to William Henryson of Hun- 

wyk and Agnes his wife. Conveyance of a burgage in the Old Borough 
between a burgage of Hoton and a common vennel. Tuesday in the first 
wec-k of Lent, 1 Hen. V. 

[1499.] John Henryson, son and heir of William Henryson, son 
and heir of John Henryson sometime of Durham, barker, deceased, 

to John Potter of Durham. Release of a burgage in Crocegate 

between two burgages belonging to the Guild of St. Cuthbert on the 
west and east. The burgige to the west was formerly a vennell leading 
to the Westorchare and is now newly built as one tenement by the 
Brethren of the Guild. Another vennell leading to the Westorchare is 
newly formed and is situate to the west of the same burgage belonging 
to the Guild. 20 May, 14 Hen. VII. 

3 Qu. Nicholas Staindrop, clerk, who occ. 1316. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 29 

1395. Juliana daughter and heiress of Richard de Bolom to 

Joan her daughter and her issue. Conveyance of a burgage in the Old 
Borough, between a burgage of the Prior and convent of Durham, and 
that of John de Hall's heirs, which she had by inheritance of her fa- 
ther ; rem. to Adam Whelp. Eve of Ascension day. 

1447. John Fysher of Ncwcastle-upon-Tyne, glover, to "Wil- 
liam Rouceby of Durham, barker. Conveyance of the same premises. 
The morrow of the Assumption. 

1439. John Fysher of Newcastle-upon-Tyne to William de 

Tobell of Durham. Conveyance of a tenement in Crosegat between the 
burgage of John Pollard, litster and that of the sacristan of Durham 
Cathedral church, yielding to the grantor 4s. Qd. yearly. 22 Oct. 

[See a demise from Halywell to Pollard of a burgage formerly 
Hoton's, 1426, No. 4, p. 62, vol. i.] 

1428. John Pollard of Durham, littester to John Halywell of 

the same place, barkar. Release of the premises demised to Halywell 
by William Hoton of Herdwyk and Joan his wife with the confirmation 
of William son and heir of John de Hoton of Tuddowe, and by Haly- 
well to Pollard by No. 4, p. 62, vol. i. ante, where by an oversight they 
are described as one burgage instead of two bargages. Tuesday alter 
Michaelmas. 

[1465 ] William Qwhelpdale senior of Durham to William 

Warcop. Release of a burgage in the Old Borough of Durham between 
the burgage of John Cateryk on the N., and that of the said William 
Qwhelpdale on the S. in Milneburngate ; which burgage lies beside the 
rivulet of Milneburne. 4 8 June, 5 Edw. IV. 

[1498 ] Richard Smyrke of Crosgate to Thomas Fairhar, Al- 
derman of the Guild of Blessed Mary in the chapel of St. Margaret in 
Durham, and William Betson, John Prior, Ralph German and Lawrence 
Toller, proctors of the said guild. Conveyance of: a burgage in .Cros- 
gate on the east side, between that of Richard Lewyn on the N. and 
that of William Hagthorp's heirs on the S., the rivulet called Miln- 
burn running under the said burgage ; and another burgage in Crosgate 
between John Cateryk' s burgage on the N. and a burgage of the said 
Chapel on the S. ; which burgages were lately in the tenure of William 
Warcop. 1 June, 13 Hen. VII. On the 10th of the same month the 
alderman and proctors demise the same property to Smyrke for 24 years 
if he shall so long live, at I d. rent. 

1481. John Smyth, chaplain to Thomas Smyth and Margery 

The boundary between the Old Borough and the Priory lands. Sur. IV. ii., 135, 



30 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

his wife. Release of a burgage in Crocegate between a burgage of the 
Guild of St. Cuthbert on the W., and a burgage of the heirs of John 
Tornor on the E. 4 March. 

[1485.] Thomas Smyth of Durham, shomaker, and Margery his 

wife, to Thomas Farrhare, alderman of the Guild of Blessed Mary 

in the chapel of St. Margaret, and his successors. Release of the same 
premises. 15 Nov. 3 Ric. III. [1485 (?). If this date is correctly 
copied, it is remarkable. The third year of Richard III. began 26 
June, 1485, and terminated with his death on 22 Aug., 1485.] 

[1505-6.] Robert Wright, son and heir of "William "Wright and 
Agnes his wife, daughter and heir of William Rippon lately deceased, 
binds himself for the quiet enjoyment for 49 years from Pentecost last, 
by John Wodnesse of Durham, cissor, of a burgage in Crossgait, which 
Rippon had by demise of William Nesse and Robert Johnson, sometime 
churchmasters of the chapel of St. Margaret, for 99 years from Pente- 
cost, 1506. Dated 19 Jan., 21 Hen. VII. [Qu. if not some discre- 
pancy in the dates.] 

DURHAM. FRAMWELLGATE. 1337. John Salter of Durham to 

Adam Russell, burgess of Durham. Conveyance of his tenement in 
Framwelgate in the Borough of Durham between a tenement of Russell 
and a tenement of Adam Wyther. Witnesses, John de Durham, Bailiff of 
the said Borough, &c. In the court of the same Borough. Tuesday 
before the feast of the conversion of St. Paul. 

1343. Adam Russell to Richard de Otteley, chappeman. Con- 
veyance of a tenement in Framwellegate in the Borough of Durham, 
between one of Russell and the high street leading to the water of Were. 
Yielding 9d. yearly. Tuesday after Easter. 

1415. Agnes sometime the wife of William Payntour of Durham 

to John Barkire of Framwelgate. Conveyance of a burgage in 

Framwelgate, as it lies in length and breadth between a burgage of the 
Lord Prior of Durham on the S., and that of the heirs of John de 
Wyndgates on the N". Yielding a red rose on the feast of the nativity 
of St. John the Baptist. If Barkire quietly enjoys the burgage for 100 
years, at their expiration the heirs and assigns of the grantor may re- 
enter. Jan. 31. 

1425. John Pollard, littester, to John Halewelle. Release of 

a burgage in Durham between that of the Prior of Durham on the 
south, and that of John de Wyndacres on the north. 16 April. 

1418. Thomas Glover of Durham and Alice his wife to John de 
Bynchestre, chaplain, and Thomas de Ryhall of Durham. Conveyance 
of two burgages in Framwellgate. One of them lies in breadth be- 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 31 

tween the burgage of Win. Shorowton on the S., and a burgage of Tho- 
mas Cokyn on the JN". ; and in length from the king's highway before to 
the water of Were behind. The other lies waste, in breadth between 
the gardens of the burgages of Eramwelgate on the E., and a burgage 
sometime of Sir William Pome, chaplain, on the W.; and in length 
from the king's highway called the Stanerpeth in front to the meadow 
of the said Thomas Cokyn behind. 1 May, 6 Hen. Y. 

1428. John de Bynchestre of Durham, chaplain, to William Gose- 
wyke, barkar, and Alice his wife, of Durham. The same premises. 
Eecites the last deed. 1 June. 

[1503.] Thomas Clyff, junior, son and heir of Thomas Clyff, senior, 
late of Durham, fletcher, and Alice his wife, daughter and heiress of 
Eobert Pluramer and of Alice his wife sister and heiress of Thomas Goa- 
wyk, chaplain, son and heir of William Goswyk late of Durham de- 
ceased, to Eobert Lewyn, Esq., John Prior, John Wodmowse and 

Thomas Spark of Durham. Conveyance of two burgages alike lying in 
the street of Eramwelgate on its east side, between the burgage late 
Eobert Cokyn's on the N., and a burgage of the said Eobert Lewyn on 
the S. 18 Aug., 18 Hen. IV. 

[1477.] John Herbotell of Tynmoth to Eoger Stevynson. Ee- 

lease of a burgage in Durham, in the street of Framamgayt in the pa- 
rish of St. Margaret, which Herbotell lately had by feoffment of Thomas 
Symson. 3 Mar., 16 Edw. IV. 

[1482.] John Stavert otherwise called John Stafford, 6 of Durham, 
shomaker, and Benedicta his wife, daughter and heir of Thomas Coken 
deceased, to William Eouceby of Durham, senior, barkar. Con- 
veyance of a burgage in Eramwelgate, on the west side of the street, 
between the burgages of Eobert Coken on either side : and three bur- 
gages there, between the messuage of Ealph Bowes, knt., on the IS"., 
and the Castell-chare on the S : And an acre of land there, between the 
land of John Eaket on the N., and the Castell-way on the S. 23 Eeb., 
21 Edw. IY. [See No. 5, p. 62, vol. i., from which it appears that 
Benedicta took the burgage in Framwellgate by inheritance, and that it 
was subject to 18^. rent to the fabric of St. Margaret's chapel. In 16 
Eliz. the Queen granted to Alexander Eigbie and Percival Gunston, 
trustees for Eobert Bowes, a burgage in Eramwellgate, called Paynter'a 
Place, lying on the N. of the Castle Chaire, and on the South of a bur- 
gage sometime belonging to the Guild of St. Margaret. In 1316, Alice 
and Christian de Horneby, coheirs of Margery Gaunte, release to Nicho- 
las Staindrop, clerk, Sd. rent, issuing out of the burgage called the 

Bichard de Stafforth was Bailiff of the Old Borough in 1S55. 



32 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

Gyldhous in Framwellgate, and out of the meadow adjoining it which 
belonged to Roger de Pontchardon, grandsire of Margery Gaunte. 6 ] 

[1511.] Kathorine Smethirst daughter of William Smethirst of 

Durham to Roland Tempest, esq., Thomas Tempest, esq., Nicholas 

Tempest, gent., John Gamyll, chaplain, William Hogeson, John Marley, 
Edward Strynger, Christopher Emerson, and John Wernod. Convey- 
ance of a burgage in Framwelgate lying in length and breadth between 
a tenement late Thomas Werwyk's on the IS"., and a tenement of the 
Prior and Convent of Durham on the S. Habendum to the use con- 
tained in indentures between the said Gamyll of the one part and tho 
said Roland, &c. of the other part. Anthony Smethirst attorney to de- 
liver seisin. 20 Aug., 3 Henry VIII. 

NEWCASTLE-urox-TrNE. 13 . . 2. 7 Adam Tang, burgess of Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne, to Alice Tang his wife. Conveyance of his tenement 

in that town called the Poldhall, which he had by gift of Robert de 
Angirton, as it is situate in the Melemarketgate, between the tenement 
which Beatrix de Bedlyngton holds in fee of the Master and Brethren of 
the Hospital of St. Mary in the Westgate on- the S., and the tenement 
which William de Kellowe held in fee of Sir Peter Swayne, chaplain, 
on the N., and extends in length from the Melemarketgate to the front 
the Westgate. Rendering to the heirs and assigns of Robert de Angir- 
ton 50s. p. a. Witnesses, William de Bissopdale, mayor of the town, 
Lawrence de Acton, Richard Scot, Thomas de Mordon, Robert de Y. . . . 
bailiffs of the same, William de Ogle chaplain and clerk &c. At New- 
castle, Thursday in the week of Pentecost. 

1406. William de Hoton of Brandon to Master John Fayt, 

clerk. Reciting that Fayt may hold a tenement called the Poldhall in 
the town of Newcastle in the Melemarket; between a tenement which 
Beatryx de Bedlyngton holds in fee of the Master of Westspethill 
on the south, and a tenement which John Aukeland held in fee of John 
Bulkham on the North ; and in length from the Melemarket to the street 
of Westgate ; and in which said tenement John de Chester when alive 
dwelt, holding it for life, and the reversion of which, on his death, 
ought to come to the said John Fayt by the form of the grant to the 
said John de Chester for life by the said Hoton. Now Hoton quit- 
claims to Fait the premises. Witnesses, William Johanson mayor of the 
said town, William Redmershill sheriff, 8 Roger de Thornton, William de 

6 Sin-tees. 

7 The date is blotted. William de Biscopdale -was mayor in both 1382 and 1392. 
The bailiffs do not correspond with the received lists. 

8 More variations from the lists. 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 33 

Esyngton, "William de Langton and others. At Newcastle, 8 Nov., 14 
Hen. IV. 

CARLISLE. [13 . .] Alice, widow of Robert Glover (cyrothecarii) of 

Carlisle, to John le Fitteler and Mariot his wife and to their heirs, 

and the assigns of John. Conveyance of a place of land within Car- 
lisle from her tenement in Fishergate (in vico piscatorum) containing in 
length 60 feet, between her land, and that of Hugh de Tibay ; along 
with a chamber upon the same place built and containing in breadth at 
one end [caput\ towards Fishergate 20 feet with free entrance and exit 
from and to the said street for the space of 3 feet to the same place and 
chamber, and at the other end, towards the wall within the curtilage, 
containing in breadth 26 feet. Rent reserved, 3*. during the grantor's 
life. Witnesses Sir Andrew de Harcla, governor of Carlisle, Reginald 
Bonkes and Andrew le Seraunt bailiffs of Carlisle &c. [temp. Edw. II.] 

[13 . . ] Adam de Sandeforth, chaplain of the parish of Blessed Mary 

of Carlisle to "William called Parsonman of Hoton and Margaret 

daughter of John Glover his wife. Conveyance of all messuages &c. in 
the city of Carlisle and in the town of Corbrygh. Witnesses, Sir 
Richard de Denton, sheriff of Cumberland, Robert de Tibay, mayor of 
Carlisle &c. [Denton was sheriff in 10, 24 and 25 Edw. III. 1337, 
1350, 1351.] 

CORBRIDGE. FAIT FAMILY. s. d. John Musgrave, son and heir of 

Robert Musgrave his late father and of Agnes his mother, to Sir 

Adam de Corbryk, chaplain, and John Fayt, burgess of Newcastle. Re- 
lease of a rent of 8s. 6d. due to him in the town of Corbrige out of a 
tenement in Smethingate, between Fayt's tenement on the east and a te- 
nement formerly John Forster's on the west. 

1352. Thomas Fayt of Corbrig to Thomas Cissor and Agnes 

his wife daughter of the said Thomas Fayt. Conveyance of a tenement 
in Corbrig in the Smithygat between a tenement of Sir Hugh de Rogh- 
syd chaplain and a tenement of Sir Gilbert de Mynsteracres, perpetual 
vicar of By well. (R.) 

[1372.] John Fait 9 and Agnes his wife, and William Fait and Ma- 
tilda his wife, to Adam de Corbrigg and Peter Blonk, chaplains. 10 Fine 
of 28 messuages and 30 acres in Corbrigge. Hilary Term, 46 Edw. III. 

1381. Thomas de Musgrave, burgess of the town of Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne, to John Fayte of Corbrigge, Sir Peter de Blonk and Sir 

Adam de Corbrigg, chaplains. Conveyance of three messuages and two 
acres in the town and territory of Corbrigg. One messuage lies in Mar- 
ket-place (in vico fori] between a messuage of William de Blenkhowe 

9 See No. 11, .p. 64, vol. i. 
TOL. II. F 



34 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

on the N., and a messuage of William de Duxfeld on the S. Another 
lies in the same street on the East side between a common spout (spow- 
tam) on the "W. and a messuage formerly Alan de Felton's on the E. 
The third messuage is at Corwell between a messuage of John de Eb- 
chester, chaplain, on the N., and a common vennel leading to the Tyne 
on the S. Of the two acres, one is called Lymekilnes : the other lies at 
Briggepolles between Thomas Baxter's land on the N., and land for- 
merly William Fayte's on the S. At Corbrigg, Thursday, 18 April. 

1395. William Martyne and Katherine his wife to John Fayte 

and Anot (Anotce} his wife. "Release of all actions &c. by reason of the 
paternal gooc's by the decease of Katherine' s father or by bequest in 
his testament to the same Katherine and also the profits of the lands be- 
longing to the said Katherine after the death of her brother Thomas, 
and all other actions &c. At Hextildesham, 4 May. 

1406. Adam Prest of Corbrigg to Sir John Fayt, vicar of Sy- 

mondburn, son of the late Sir William Fayt and Matilda. Conveyance 
of all lands &c. in the town and fields of Corbrig which he had by gift 
of William Fayt and Matilda his wife. (R.) 

[1464.] William Rousby, senior, of Durham to Robert Patson, 

Robert Cokyn, and Richard Prior [a surname] of Durham. Release of 
all the tenements burgages rents and services which he lately had by 
feoffment of Nicholas Ingilwoud son and heir of Joan Ingilwoud widow 
deceased, the daughter and heir of Richard Cressyngham and Alice his 
wife the cousin and next heir of Master John Fayt late vicar of Acley, 
of and in all lands &c. in the town and fields of Corbrig, the town of 
Newcastle, the town of Nort Aukland ml al^bi. At Durham, 4 May, 
21 |Edw. IY. [See an earlier evidence concerning the Cressyngham 
property at Auckland, No. 8, p. 64, vol. i.] 

1491. John Lonesdale of Durham, barbure, and attorney of Nicho- 
las Ingilwod, appoints Richard Lewynn Robert Sylby and John Blunt 
his attorneys to receive seisin in his (Lonesdale's name) of 28 messuages 
and 30 acres in Corbrige which Lonsdale recovered in the name of Ingil- 
wode in the court held at Corbrige 31 May, 22 Edw. IV. [1482.] At 
Durham, 10 Oct. 

CORBKEDGE. MISCELLANEOUS TITLES. s. d. Walter son of Hugh the 

Butcher of Corbrigges to Hugh called Whinnvylle of Corbrigge. 

Conveyance of a toft there, on the south side of the cemetery of Blessed 
Andrew of Corbrigge, between a toft of Andrew Kinbel on the E., 
and the shop (celda) formerly of John del Corner on the W. Rent 
3*. 3d. Witnesses, William de Tyndal, Alan fitz -Richard, Hugh fitz- 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 35 

Asceline, 11 Adam de Routhsyde, Ralph de Wywell, Alan de Erington, 
Thomas called Prest the clerk, and others, (temp. Edw. I.) 

s. d. Thomas son of Hugh the Butcher to Michael Smith \_Falro~] 

of Corbrigge and Alice his wife. Conveyance of a toft in Corbrigge 
between the messuage of Richard called Prest on the south and the 
messuage of Blessed Mary which Sir Thomas the chaplain of Midegat 
holds on the north. Yielding to the Abbot and Convent of Blanchland 
1 8d. per annum. Witnesses, Robert de Barton and the witnesses to the 
last charter. 

1288. Hugh son of Hugh late Butcher to Thomas called Gray. 

Conveyance of a place of a curtilage behind the tenement formerly of 
Andrew called Kenebell, and extended in breadth from a tenement of 
the said Andrew to a tenement formerly William de Dythton's, and in 
length from a tenement formerly of the said Hugh the Butcher to the 
tenement formerly John de Lund's in the street of the Fishers' market 
(in vico fori piscatorum). Witnesses, Alan de Erinton, Thomas called 
Prest &c. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, St. Hilary's day, 16 Edw. I. 

1316. Isabella daughter of the late Nicholas Stone of Corbrige 

to Reynauld of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Release of a messuage in Cor- 
brige in the Market-place. (R.) 

1322. Reynauld of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, clerk to Thomas 

Gray. Conveyance of a messuage in the town of Corbrige in the Mar- 
ket-place. Witnesses, Thomas Preest, 12 &c. 1 May. (R.) 

\_Cir. 1296.] Margaret late \quafuit~] wife of Gilbert Ferure of Cor- 

bryg to Agatha late wife of William de Herford. Conveyance of 

her part of the shops fceldarumj on the east side of the cemetery of 
Blessed Andrew of Corbryg which belong to her in the name of dower 
by the death of William de Karleton formerly \_quondam] her husband. 
Yielding 6*. rent for her life. Witnesses, William de Tyndal, Robert 
de Barton, John de Horseley, Richard Prest, Alan de Erinton. (R.) 

\_Cir. 1316 ] Hugh de Blunvile to William de Lundon and 

Agnes his wife. Conveyance of his shop fceldaj beside the church of 
St. Andrew of Corbrigg. Yielding 3s. rent. (R.) 

1316. Symon Kymbelle of Corbrig to William de London, 

merchant. Release of 2s. rent which he used to receive out of the above 
shop. Dated at Newcastle. (R.) 

11 Asteline in the copy; and there are errors as to this name on^?. 65, vol. i. It is 
hard to judge between the medieval c and t, but from a spelling Asseline hereafter, I 
decide for c in this instance. 

12 Prest was therefore pronounced as is our modern priest. Richard Reynauld 
occursjn No, 1.3, p. 65, vol. i. 



36 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

*. d. Gilbert de Ebchester and Matilda his wife to Thomas Gray. 

Belease of 3s. rent issuing out of the shop which Gray bought of Wil- 
liam de Oundon. 13 "Witnesses, Adam fitz- Alan, Alan de Erington, Tho- 
mas son of Richard prest, John de Lund, Adam Palmer, Hugh fitz- 
Simon. 

[1322.] Eichard Eeynauld, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to Thomas 
Gray. Conveyance of a messuage in the town of Corbridge, in the Mar- 
ket Place, as it lies in breadth between a messuage which was Hugh 
fitz-Symon's and a messuage formerly Hugh fitz-Asceline's, and extends 
in length from the high way to a stone wall formerly the said Hugh fitz- 
Asceline's. "Witnesses Thomas Preest &c. At Corbridge 1 May 15 
Edw. fitz-Edw. [See the conveyance to Reynauld from Thomas Squire 
and Emma his wife, No. 13, p. 65, vol. i.] 

[1322.] Kentegern Scheley to Thomas called Gray. Convey- 
ance of the seven burgages in Corbrigg of which Stephen de Stanton 
and Agatha his wife enfeoffed the said Thomas Gray. "Witnesses, Alan 
de Errinton, Thomas called Prest &c. At Newcastle, the feast of St. 
Peter in cathedra, 15 Edw. fitz-Edw. 

[1328.] Henry de Delmtham to Thomas called Gray of Cor- 
brygg. Lease for five years from Michaelmas 1328 of all the lands and 
tenements in Corbrygg which he previously held of the said Henry. 
(No rent reserved.) Gray shall do the services to the chief lords of the 
fee, and keep up the house where Richard de Gatesheued dwells. Delm- 
tham shall pay to Gray a mark of silver at the end of the term, and on 
payment and not till then, may reenter. After the term, until pay- 
ment, Gray shall continue in possession as tenant from year to year. 

[1330.] Hugh Somervile and Helota his wife to Thomas called 

Gray of Corbrygg. Conveyance of all their land in Corbrygg on the 
north side of the way which leads from Stagschawe to [apud~] Ayne- 
wyke between the land of Gray on either side. At Corbrygg, Sunday 
before the feast of St. Cuthbert in September, 4 Edw. III. 

1329. John fitz- Alice de Corbrige to Matilda daughter of John 

his son. Conveyance of a toft in Corbrig in Prencstrete between a toft 
formerly Hugh fitz-Asceline's and a messuage of Alan Chyri. At Cor- 
brige, Thursday after the feast of St. Barnabas. Endorsed " the tenement 
which Alan Cherry formerly held of John Jonson." 

1334. John fitz-Thomas de Wotton to John fitz- John de Core- 

briggs. Release of a messuage in Corebrigg in the street of the Eisner's 
Market, which the same John [fitz-John] had by feoffment of Agnes 
late wife of Hugh fitz-Asseline of Corebrigg. Dated in the Abbey of 

13 Lundon ? 



LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 37 

Blancheland, Tuesday after the feast of the Holy Trinity. (R.) [See 
a release of the property by William de Herle, No. 14, p. 65, vol. i.] 

1322. Christina called Feynane of Corbrigg to Thomas called 

Prest of Corbrigg. Release of a parcel (placea) of land in Corbrigg, 
which the said Thomas lately held in fee of Thomas the husband of the 
said Christiana, and of 2s. rent issuing thereof. "Witnesses Sir William 
de Grlaston vicar of Corbrigg, &c. Dated at Newcastle. ^R.) 

1324. John de Porta of Corbrige to Laurence de Durham, 

burgess of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Conveyance of a parcel 
of land in the town of Corbrigg in a street called the Hydmarket. 
Witnesses, Sir Gilbert de Boroughdon, sheriff of Northumberland, &c. 
19 June. (R.) 

1356. Emma, daughter of the late William Sawer of Corbrigg 

to John de Cotesford perpetual vicar of Corbrig. Conveyance of half an 
acre in the field of Corbrigg, viz. in Colchestr, (E.) 

[Here is an early notice of the Roman station, and once for all, I 
would earnestly beg of our etymologists and Eoman antiquaries to study 
our collections of old charters very carefully. The former might save 
themselves many vain speculations on corrupt forms of names, and the 
latter may discover many a Chester and trace lines of road with much 
greater ease when they have lists of the suggestive appellations which 
appear in those thin parchments, which have survived road and camp, 
and wall, and altar. In the old Life of St. Oswin, published by the 
Surtees Society, Colebrige is put for Corebrige. So also in some records 
(Hodgson's Northumberland,, iii., i., 43, 50, 142). Eeferring to two 
charters relating to William fitz-Aluric, cir. 1130, we find that in one 
he is termed de Colulrugia, in the other de Corlrugia (II. ii., iii., 17). 
On the common seal and in charters about 1234 we have Corelrigia. 
All the charters here abstracted read Cor for the first syllable. Some 
writers give the name of Cor to the brook on which the decayed town 
stands. Leland thought that it was called Corve, though the name 
was not well known. He mentions Colecester and its fabulous tenant, 
a giant called Yoton. Divers streets of the town had " quite gone down," 
though they retained their names. Gordon calls the camp Corchester ; 
Horsley Corbow and Colchester ; and the latter states that he was told 
on the spot that Corbow was a small space included in Colchester. 
The station is the Corstopitum of Antoninus. As to the name of Cor 
for the brook, Corbrook and Corbridge Burn are the more modest mo- 
dern terms, and Cor is connected in legend with a giant Cor, perhaps 
Leland' s Yoton. Indeed, Cor is not a likely name for a stream, and if the 
name was not well known in Leland's time, it will hardly have be- 



38 LOCAL MUNIMENTS. 

come more patent now. Cor certainly seems to be the first syllable of 
Corstopitum retained in composition, as the Vin of Yinovium is in Bin- 
chester.] 

[1517.] Cuthbert Billynghamof Crukhall besyd Durham, Esquyer, 
John Bentley of Trillesden, Thomas Marmaduk, prest, Hugh Waker- 
feld, prest, Robert Harby of Durham, John Colson, Hugh Rowll, Robert 
Crak, Richerd Merley, and Robert Wilsett, reciting a conveyance by de- 
mise in perpetuity of lands and tenements in the town and fields of Cor- 
brige to Roger Heron of Halyden, co. Northumberland, gent, dated 
8 July 9 Hen. VIII. , covenant to produce all their evidences concerning 
the same when required. Dated 1 1 July, 9 Hen. VIII. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

Gateshead. 



39 



CARDINAL WOLSEY'S INSTRUCTIONS TO HIS OFFICERS 

AT DURHAM. 

(Chapter House Records, Rolls House, First Series, No. 270^ 

Instructyons devysed by my Lord Legate his grace for Doctour Strang- 
wysshe Surveyour of Duresme and Rycharde Bellysis Esquier and to 
be executed by them within his Busshopricke of Duresme. 

First that they be diligent to oversee and survey all the mynes of 
lede or any other metall and also cole mynes or any other myneralles 
within the saide Busshoprick the same to be converted imployed and 
improuved to my lord his most proffyte and advantage. 1 

Item where of late my lorde his grace hathe caused a certen new 
house and furnes to be made for the melting and tryeing of lede with 
see coles that they do se the saide house and furnes perfyted and also 
preserved in the best wyse. 

And that they shall devyse with the fyners which have taken uppon 
them to melte the saide lede with see coles that they with diligence 
may precede unto the melting of the same Forseing alwayes that no 
waste of money or losse of tyme be had aboutes the same but that dili- 
gence be gyven thereunto so that in as brief tyme as possible may be my 
lorde his grace may be acerteyned what proffyte ys lyke to insew of 
the melting of the saide lede and what the yerely value by estymacyon 
will amounte unto. 

Item that they shall devyse with certen persons of Berwyk for a re- 
lesse to be made unto them for my lordes fisshinges there and also to 
cause suche fynes to be levyed for the same as shalbe to my saide lorde 
his most proffyte and advantage with also certen barelles of salmon to 
be payed unto my lordes grace yerely according to suche instruxions 
as is gyven to them by monthe that ys to meane xx barelles of salmon 
yerely during my lordes lyf. 

Item that if there be any other fermes fisshynges or any other im- 
prouvements which may laufully be taken within the saide Busshopryk 
that then they joyning togither shall by their good discression comon 
with any suche person or persons as shall be wylling to take the same 
And theruppon to certefye my lord hys grace of such fynes and proffytes 
as may arryse unto his grace by the same. 

Item that my lord his ship of Tynmouth may with all goodly spede 
be takeled and put in a redynes. 

And that the fyners in no wyse lacke any ower or any other neces- 
sary thing belonging to theyr facultee by reason whereof they might or 
shoulde alledge any impedyment in their workes whereby my lord his 
1 See Frankeleyn's letter, Hutch, Durham, i. 405. 



40 CARDINAL WOLSEY'S INSTRUCTIONS. 

grace might be put to charges without taking any advantage or proffyte. 

Item that my lordes wardes may be seased and the proffytes of theyr 
londes taken to my lorde his use And that comonycacion may be had 
with suche persons as will bye the maryages of the same And that his 
grace may be certefyed who wilbe most proffytable to his grace And 
uppon his pleasure knowen the same to be ordered. 

Item that no arrerages be left unlevyed of any the fermors or tenantes 
within the said Busshopricke but that the same may be payed to th'use 
of my saide lorde at the termes accustomed without ferther delaye. 

Item that they do speke unto Mr. Bowes to be my lorde his Exchet- 
our within his saide Busshoprick and to advertise him on my Lorde his 
behalf that he se my lorde his grace take no wronge as in his wardes and 
other exchetes within the saide Busshoprycke. 

Item that the saide exchetor shall with all spede precede unto the 
fynding offyces of all suche wardes as my lordes grace at this present 
or hereafter shalbe intyteled unto So that the londes and bodyes of the 
saide wardes may be ordered according to the lawes And that his grace 
may be answered of all th'issues and profyttes of their londes as also for 
the maryages of the persons of the same wardes And if in case that any 
feoffement be alledged to th'use and performaunce of any will or wylles 
or th'use of any joynctour or joynetours Or that the mothers of any 
of the said wardes shoulde be indowed after the customes and law there 
That then circumspectly the saide feoffementes may be sene And the 
ffeoffes knowen so that my lordes grace may know his tenante And 
also that his grace may be answered of the rest of th'issues and proffytes 
of the saide wardes londes Porseing alwayes that no ffeoffement ne will 
be amytted unto such tyme that suffycyent prof be had of lyveree and 
season concernyng the feoffement whereby the same will or willes 
might or may take any effecte. 

Item that my said lorde his attorney and other the offycers of his 
courtes within his saide Busshopricke shall in as convenyent tyme as 
may be certefye his grace of all fynes for alyenacyons amercyamentes 
for being nonesuytes fynes uppon the sheryf for none retorning nor ex- 
ecuting of proces forfaytures uppon statutes penall recognisances weves 
strayes felons goodes felons londes forfaycte deodandes and all other 
exchetes amercyamentes proffytes and casualtees which have happened 
these vj yeres now last passed And that my Lordes grace may be certe- 
fyed what the proffytes of the same yerely may be worth within his 
said county e palentyne. 

Item that my Lordes Ship ymedyatly uppon his arryvayll there may 
be laden with coles and sent to my Lordes Colledge in Gipswiche. 1 

1 See "Wolsey's Letter in Raine's Auckland Castle, 03. 



41 



ROLL OF PRAYERS FORMERLY BELONGING TO HENRY YIII. 
WHEN PRINCE. 

IN the library of Ushaw College 'is a roll of prayers, the interest of 
which is much greater than our knowledge of its history. All that we 
can learn is, that it was sent to the library by a gentleman, from Liver- 
pool, along with some other antiquities. The roll is a collection of 
prayers, to many of which indulgences seem to have been attached. 
The setting forth of these indulgences, as also of certain temporal bene- 
fits to be obtained by these prayers, is in almost all instances in a thin 
purplish red ink, not the ordinary vermilion of manuscripts. From the 
style of the illumination, we could have decided at once upon the age of 
this roll, even if King Henry VII., as the then reigning king, had not 
been named in it. That it belonged at one time to Prince Henry, after- 
wards King Henry VIII., is evident from the autograph of that Prince ; 
and in all probability the roll was originally written for him, if we may 
judge from the repetition of the Tudor rose and other emblems apper- 
taining to his royal race. The illuminations on the first and last strips 
have been much disfigured through the free use of some antimony or 
lead in the flesh tints ; the faces, hands, &c., of many of the figures 
having become perfectly black. In Italy several such bede-rolls are 
still preserved in various libraries, and some of them are very richly 
illuminated, but we are not aware that many such are preserved in Eng- 
land. At all events, a MS. by an English scribe, as this undoubtedly 
is, cannot fail to be interesting. 1 

The roll in question is about eleven feet in length by nearly five inches 
in breadth. It is formed of four strips of parchment, united by silk 
thread. The first and last of these are much more dirty and injured 
than their fellows, and their illuminations are considerably defaced. At 
the commencement of the roll, in the centre, there is the appearance of 
the washing out of an illumination, possibly an expanded roll or shield. 
A faint cross flory is all that now meets the eye. On either side of this 
is the Tudor rose en soleil, beneath which, on the dexter side, is the 

1 For an account of a bede-roll in the possession of Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Vide 
Archaeologia JEliana, 0. S. iv., 1. 



42 ROLL OF PRAYERS FORMERLY BELONGING 

Prince's badge of a feather springing from another Tudor rose 2 en soleil and 
encircled with a crown, and traversed below the crown with a label. On 
the opposite side are the remains of illumination, where the crown is 
again to be traced, with something like a quiver of arrows 3 beneath. 

In the centre below the shield of arms is the t $ t surrounded by the 
crown of thorns. 

Beneath this is the first illumination, nine inches long by two in 
breadth, and representing in the upper part the Blessed Trinity, typified 
by three figures holding the globe. The centre figure of God the 
Father is crowned, as also is that on the left hand representing the 
Holy Ghost. The figure of our Saviour is uncrowned, and bleeding. 
Beneath this is a mitred figure of a bishop praying on his knees before a 
window, and holding a crosier. Behind is an angel holding a shield, 
gyronny Gules and Argent, 4 a cross engrailed between four cinquefoils 
slipped Or. Immediately beneath this is a prayer of thirty lines for 
victory over enemies, followed by the initial verses of the three Psalms 
" Deus in nomine tuo salvum me fac" "Deus misereatur nostri" 
and " Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam." Then follows a very 
beautiful prayer for deliverance from dangers and for remission of sins 
(18 lines). Both the above prayers are in Latin, as indeed are all the 
prayers on this bede-roll. 

The second illumination, of nearly equal length and breadth to the 
former, represents the Crucifixion of our Lord between two thieves. 
The crosses are Tau-shaped, and the two thieves have their hands nailed 
to the back of the crosses. In one case the arms are taken over the 
cross at the shoulders, in the other at the wrists, and in the former case 
the head reclines over the top of the cross. Our Lord is suspended in 
the usual manner; immediately beneath is the following written in red 
ink : " Iff ye be in synne or tribulacion knele downe on your knees be- 
for the Eood, and pray God to have mercy on you, and that he will for- 
yeve you your synnes, and to graunt you your peticion as he graunted 
Paradise to the thefe, desire your peticion ryghtfully. And than de- 

2 The roses appear to be white ones in the centre of red ones, the turned-over edges 
of which seem to be white. ED. 

3 There is the appearance of 6 or 7 arrows star- wise, passing through an object 
like a yellow tower, which, if not a quiver, may be the castle of Castile. It is evi- 
dent that the roll is subsequent to Prince Arthur's death, and it probably was Henry's 
gift. The badge of Henry and Catherine in a window of Yarnton church Oxford- 
shire, is a double white rose crowned, behind which are 9 arrows, one in pale, the 
rest starwise, points downward, Or, feathered Argent. ED. 

* Azure would be poorish heraldry, yet there are some faint traces which induce us 
of GuletS A!UI e heSltatl n> The initial letters * the r ' U gold upon a ground 



TO HENRY VIII. WHEN PRINCE. 43 

vowtedly behold the fete and sey, ' Adoramus te Jhesu Christe, et bene- 
dicimus tibi, quia per sanctam crucem tuam redemisti mundum, miserere 
nobis.' 6 And then sey this psalm, ' Ad te levavi oculos meos,' with 
' Gloria Patri.' And then sey this anthem, ' Qui crucis in patibulo, 
oblatus es pro populo, clavis fossus et lancea per tua quinque vulnera 
pie Jhesu succurre nobis in hac angustia.' And then sey ' Pater Noster 
Ave Maria.' And then stedefastly behold the sydes, and sey, 
' Adoramus Qui crucis Ps : Deus nomine tuo Pater Noster Ave 
Maria.' And so behold the hands, and sey, &c. And then behold the 
hed, and sey, < Adoramus, &c.' And so, with a holl mynde to all the 
body, sey, ' Adoramus, &c.' " the form in each case being the same, with 
varied psalms. The last instance concludes with " Credo in Deum." 

On the top of the succeeding piece of parchment, we find the follow- 
ing important autograph : " Willy am Thomas I pray yow pray for me 
your lovyng master Pry nee JETenry." 

Beneath this autograph is an illumination representing our Lord in the 
sepulchre, or rather sitting upright therein. Two Tau- shaped crosses, 
with figures thereon, appear in openings behind the canopy which 
hangs over the sepulchre. The figures in this illumination are not in 
the least discoloured. Blood is spouting from the sacred wounds in the 
side, the hands, and the head. Beneath this are the following lines in 
English, and, like all the other English words, written in red ink : 
" To all them that befor this ymage of pyte devowtely sey v. Pater 
Foster, v. Ave Maria, and i. Credo, shall have lij. M. vij. c. xij. yere and 
xl. days of pardon graunted be S. Gregory and other holy men." This 
is similar to S. Gregory's " ymage of pitye," often given in old illumi- 
nations, but not exactly identical. 

Here follow seven prayers, each commencing with an illuminated let- 
ter, and addressed to our Lord in his sacred Passion. Beneath this is a 
large illumination of our Lord hanging on a Tau-shaped cross. This is 
one of the best illuminations on the whole roll. On either side of the 
cross are angels holding scrolls, running nearly the whole length of the 
figure. The inscription on the right hand scroll is in red letters and in 
English, that on the left is in Latin. 

At the foot of the cross are two angels holding a cloth, on which 
drops the blood from the wounds of our Lord. The English inscription 
is as follows : " This cros xv. times moten is the length of our Lord 
Jhesu Criste, and that day that ye here it upon you ther shal no evyl 
spirit have power of yow on londe ne on water, ne with thonder ne liten- 

5 A similar prayer to this is used in some of the modern devotions relating to the 
Crucifixion. 



44 ROLL OF PRAYERS FORMERLY BELONGING 

yng be hurt, ne dye in dedely synne withowte confession, ne with fyer 
be brent, ne water be drowned : and it shal breke your enemys power and 
encres your worldly goodes, and if a woman be in travell off childe, ley 
this on her body and she shal be delyverd withowte parel, the childe 
crystendom, and the moder purificacyon. S. Cire and his moder S. 
Julitt 6 desired these petitions of our Lord." 

The prayers and hymn on the opposite scroll are curious : " Salve 
decus parvulorum miles reges angelorum, Cirici, cum beata genetrici tua 
Julitta. Christus et Maria nos sal vent mortis in hora," &c. Then fol- 
lows a Latin prayer, begging of God, through the intercession of St. 
Ciricus and Julitta, various graces and favours. 

Immediately beneath this is an illumination of the three nails of the 
Passion passing through the crown of thorns, and with the feet and 
hands pierced by the nails ; the wounded heart is laid upon the centre 
nail. The nails are about four inches in length, and the heads are dia- 
mond shaped. Below the crown of thorns, and about halfway of the length 
of the nails, is another English inscription as follows : " Pope Innocent 
hath graunted to every man and woman y* berith upon them the length 
of these nails, seying daily v. Pater Noster, v. Ave Maria, and i. Credo, 
shall have seven gifts. The first is he shal not dye no soden deth. 
The secund is he shal not be slayne with no sword ne knyfe. . The iijde. 
is he shal not be poysoned. The iiij. his enemys shal not overcom hym. 
The v. is he shall have sufficient goodes to his lyves ende. The vj. is 
he shal not dye withoute all the sacramentes of holy church. The vij. 
is he shal be defendid fro al evell spirites, pestilens, fevers, and all 
other infirmities on londe and on water. " 

live prayers to the wounds of our Lord follow, each commencing with 
a well illuminated letter. Then follows an illumination representing 
the Blessed Virgin and Child, with a town in the distance, and the an- 
gelic host looking down from the clouds. Beneath, in red ink, but in 
Latin, are the following lines, preceding a prayer to the Yirgin : 
" Sequens ha3c oracio data fuit beato Bernardo ab Angelo quse et dixit, 
'Sicut aurum est pretiosissimum metallum, sic ista oracio praecellit 
alias oraciones.' " The next picture is that of St. Michael conquering 
the evil spirit, personified by a dragon-like monster with six heads and 
a tail ending in another head. The archangel is clothed in a tight-fitting 
feathered garment, of a bright red colour, relieved with gold. Beneath 
is a hymn to the saint. Following this is a picture* of St. George slay- 
ing the dragon, with a hymn and prayer for the saint's intercession. 

6 The martyrdom of SS. Cyr or Cyrique, infant, and his mother Julitta, occurred 
in the reign of Diocletian. Ciricus and Julitta MM. , June 1 6th, Rome : June 1st, Paris. 



TO HENRY VIII. WHEN PKINCE. 45 

The next illumination is a singular one, and represents St. Herasmus 
of Campania extended on a rack or board, naked, but with his episcopal 
mitre on his head, while two executioners are winding out his bowels 
upon a reel, constructed in the boldest defiance of perspective. Beneath 
is a hymn recording the various torments endured by the saint, and ter- 
minating in a prayer for his intercession. The colossal figure of St. 
Christopher follows, bearing, according to the old legend, the child 
Jesus on his shoulders, with a hymn and prayer. The figure of St. 
Anthony has been well drawn, and the black drapery is fine, but the 
flesh has now become black also. He wears two Tau-shaped crosses, 
one blue, the other white. In the hymn and prayer St. Anthony is in- 
voked against the St. Anthony's fire, the erysipelas of modern days. 
St. Pantaleon, a famous saint of the Greek church, occupies the next 
picture. The saint is represented in a green cope, while an executioner 
is in the act of beheading him with a sword. He seems to have been 
invoked against fevers. 

The concluding picture represents St. Armyl or Armagil, perhaps the 
same as the famous St. Armoul of Brittany. The saint is represented 
praying before a crucifix, and holding by a band or stole passed round 
its neck a huge dragon which he appears to have vanquished. Beneath 
this, in red ink, are the following lines : " He that prayeth hartily to 
God and to Seint Armyl shal be delyverd fro all these sekenes under- 
writen. That is to sey of all gowtis, aches, agwis .... fevers and 
pockes, and mony other infirmytes: as it apperith in his life and 
legende the which was brought out of Britaiyne at the ynstans oft the 
Kyng owre Sovereyne Lord Harry the vij th ." 

Then follows the prayer, and the whole is ornamented by the crown 
of thorns surrounding m'tt. 

EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D. 

Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 






46 



LEADEN BOX AND CROSSES FROM RICHMOND. 

WE beg to call the attention of the members of the Society to a curious 
relic of antiquity recently discovered at Richmond, and which has been 
kindly placed in our hands by Sir William Lawson, Bart., of Brough 
Hall. 

It is a small leaden box, and was picked up on the 9th of 
March last, near the river Swale, amongst the debris and rubbish cast 
out of the Castle yard at Richmond, while levelling the ground there for 
the Barrack lately built therein. The person who found the box picked 
it up close to the river side, and in a hurry, no doubt, to get at the 
treasures contained within it, he broke it open by means of a stone, 
and thereby scattered much of the powder it contained, and in all 
probability likewise broke the glass, as he only found the glass in frag- 
ments in the box. The box was firmly soldered down, so that it re- 
quired some violence to open it. It is of lead, about 1-1 Oth of an inch 
thick, 2J inches long by If inches in breadth, and about an inch in depth. 

It contained four rude leaden crucifixes, of a plain Latin form, and a 
quantity of fine greyish calcareous powder, and the whole was probably 
covered over on the top beneath the lead by a plate of thick greenish 
glass, of which several fragments remain. 1 

The four small leaden crucifixes are extremely rudely cast, and what 
is also interesting, they have all been cast or struck in different moulds. 
On one side of each of them is the figure of our Lord ; on the reverse 
are what may be considered rude attempts at characters, but none of 
them are legible to us, and indeed we doubt much if they are characters 
at all. We might suggest that they were intended for the instruments 
of the Passion of our Lord, were it not that they do not bear the most 
distant resemblance to the ordinary representations of such objects. The 
crucifixes were probably laid upon, or were imbedded in, the light- 
coloured calcareous earth, which probably filled up the box. We have 
examined this earth with a powerful microscope, but can detect in it no 
fragments of animal matter ; it seems to consist of clay, with fragments 

1 The glass was found in fragments in the box ; there was quite enough of it to 
have formed a plate across the box above the earth, which nearly filled one half of the 
whole. The glass has a peculiar beryl tint by reflected light ; its surface is rougher, 

. On shewing it to a per- 
he at once unhesitatingly 



. n y reece 

and its texture coarser than that of our modern plate glass. On shewing it to a per- 
son well acquainted with the varieties of modern glass, 



pronounced it to be of ancient manufacture. 



LEADEN BOX AND CROSSES FROM RICHMOND. 47 

of heavy spar or gypsum. From the form of the crystals, which are 
however very minute, we should consider them to be sulphate of lime or 
gypsum, a much more likely substance to be found in ordinary soil than 
the sulphate of barytes. On adding muriatic acid a certain effervescence 
takes place, but the majority of the white masses are not dissolved. 
We are not able to discover amid this earth traces of any animal matter 
whatsoever. 

How are we then to account for the extraordinary care with which these 
crosses and the dust have been guarded ? The box has evidently been 
coated with pitch or with bitumen, as portions of this can be found on 
every part where the lead has not been exposed by recent scraping with 
a knife. The precise spot where the box was turned up is of course 
unknown, but the scite of the Castle Chapel was much disturbed dur- 
ing the excavations for building the Barracks. In all probability the 
box had been interred with some person who had been buried there, and 
all else had perished around it. The burial of the carefully soldered 
leaden box, containing objects in themselves of such little intrinsic value, 
would indicate that some peculiar sanctity or veneration was attached to 
the objects in question, and it was suggested at first, that the earthy matter 
probably was the dust from the tomb of a saint, or perhaps a portion of 
the remains themselves. This, however, is completely disproved by the 
chemical and microscopical investigation of the earth in question ; for it 
contains no animal remains whatsoever. Nor would this account for 
the four leaden crosses so carefully preserved. A cross of gold, silver, 
or even of lead, was often buried with the corpse of an ecclesiastic or 
great personage, as is the case even at the present day, but in such in- 
stances a single cross was placed on the breast of the corpse. 

In the middle ages the pilgrims who had visited various shrines, re- 
turned bearing with them leaden tokens of various shapes and device, 
indicative of the spots they had visited, and purchased at the time of 
their attendance at the shrine or holy place. In an elaborate paper by 
C. Roach Smith, On Pilgrims' Signs and Leaden Tokens, published in 
the first volume of the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 
we find a full description of many of these signs or tokens 2 which have 

2 The leaden signs and tokens are alluded to by Erasmus in his Colloquy of the 
Pilgrimage for Religion's Sake, as also by Chaucer, or rather by the author of the 
Supplement to the Canterbury Tales, and by the author of Pierce Ploughman's 
Vision. 

" An hundred of Ampulles And keyes of Rome 

On his hat seten And the vernycle bifore 

Signes of Synay For men should know 

And shells of Galice And se bi hise signes 

And many a crouch on his cloak Whom he sought hadde." 

Vision of Pierce Ploughman, 1. 3533, Wright's edition. 



48 LEADEN BOX AND CROSSES FROM RICHMOND. 

been discovered in London and elsewhere. Some of them bear inscrip- 
tions indicating from whence they came as St. Thomas of Canterbury 
Amiens in France, &c. None of these, however, seem to have been in 
the shape of a cross or crucifix, and may we not be justified in the sup- 
position, that this, the holiest sign of our redemption, was chiefly re- 
served to indicate those who had visited the Holy Places in Judea ? 
Great quantities of these tokens, which had been laid on various shrines, 
were no doubt occasionally brought home ; but the fact of four crosses 
of different moulds being placed in the same casket, would indicate 
that the pilgrim with whose corpse these were interred had obtained 
these crosses at various places sanctified by the memory of our Saviour's 
life, or possibly at distinct spots in Jerusalem venerated as the localities 
of the respective stages of his Passion. 

The earth in the box we may with justice suppose to have been 
brought by the pilgrim from the Holy Land. No higher privilege could 
be accorded than that of burial in the Campo Santo at Pisa, in earth 
brought specially from Jerusalem ; and may we not imagine, that, next 
to interment in the sacred earth itself, the devout pilgrim valued the 
possession of a small quantity of that soil which had been watered by 
the blood of Christ, and wished it to be interred with him in the grave ? 

EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D. 
Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 



49 



UMBO OF A ROMAN SHIELD FOUND NEAR MATFEN. 

A FEW meetings ago we had the pleasure of exhibiting to the Society 
the article here noticed, with the view of ascertaining the purpose to 
which it had been devoted. At that time it was our impression that it 
was the brazen boss of a shield, and though we were probably then in 
error as to the real nature of the material, we believe we were correct 
as to its probable use. It did not excite much attention at the 
time, for many even doubted its having any claim to be considered 
an antique at all. On shewing it afterwards to Sir "W. Trevelyan, he 
immediately detected the existence of an inscription which had before 
escaped our notice on the flat external rim, and Mr. Albert Way has 
called our attention to a similar boss found some years ago in Lancashire. 

The article in question was discovered about 30 years ago by some 
labourers in draining a field near Matfen. It lay about 3 feet under- 
ground, and was unaccompanied by any other relics of old times. The 
men who found it looked on it as the top or cover of a brass vessel 
which would no doubt contain treasure, and we are told that they de- 
voted a day or two afterwards to trenching the spot to secure the ex- 
pected prize. 

The old cover, as it was no doubt called, was then wondered at, and 
hung up in the farm house ; and every Saturday was submitted to a 
most careful polishing by the gudewife, who certainly thereby enhanced 
the brilliancy of the auld piece of brass, but by no means improved 
the inscription, and perhaps even obliterated other marks upon the boss. 

In shape this boss presents the usual flat surface to fit the wood of 
the shield, and a central projection of unusually large size. Indeed it was 
considerable time before we could bring ourselves to believe in its original 
use, as, with the exception of some Scandinavian shields in the Chris- 
tiana Museum, we had never seen any bosses so prominent. The 
diameter of the whole is 8^ inches; that of the boss is 4/ inches. 
The prominence of the boss is about 2 3 in. ; the thickness of the metal 
is greatest in the projecting part, and materially thinner at the edge. 
The breadth of the flat rim is almost exactly two inches. The rim ap- 
pears to have been turned in a lathe, and is formed into three divisions 
by circular double lines about half an inch apart. In one of these 
spaces the inscription is found. Four holes are seen in the rim, through 
which .square nails have evidently been driven to attach it to the wood 
of the shield. 

The material of which this relic is composed appears at first sight to 



50 UMBO OF A SHIELD FOUND NEAR MATFEN. 

be brass, but its deep golden hue, and mellow tone when struck, shews, 
even without the aid of chemical analysis, that it is in reality yellow 
bronze, a material which seems frequently to have been used by the 
Romans in Great Britain. Mr. Thomas Wright has remarked that the 
Roman bronze, " under certain circumstances, especially when it has 
lain in the water where it was subjected to friction, bears an extraor- 
dinary resemblance to gold." The polishing in the present case is pro- 
bably due in a great measure to the weekly rubbings it underwent 
during the many years it hung in the farmer's kitchen. Its colour is 
deeper than in the bronze strainer in the museum of the Society. 

The boss or umbo in this instance is certainly of unusual size, but, if 
we mistake not, it is exceeded by that figured at p. 457 of Whitaker's 
History of Richmondshire, and described there as having been found 
about the year 1800 near Garstang, in Lancashire, on the line of the 
Roman road to Lancaster. Here the diameter of the umbo is more by 
an inch and quarter than that of the present specimen, and the margin 
is not so broad, so that the whole diameter is somewhat less. Tour 
holes, as here, are visible in the flat rim, for attaching the umbo to the 
wood of the shield. The Garstang umbo, which is now in the British 
Museum, is covered over with figures of great interest, and engraved 
with considerable skill. On the boss is a fine sitting figure of Mars, 
surmounted by a wreath of laurel, and on the rim are two spirited nude 
figures, an eagle with its claw upon a globe, and other curious emblems. 

The specimen before us exhibits no signs of art- workmanship, except 
that in the central band of the rim there is a short inscription rudely 
struck with a pointed instrument. As far as we are able to decipher 
the letters, they give the word DON i p IOVINTI. Of the first word we 
are by no means certain ; the D and the N are pretty plain, but the se- 
cond letter bears some resemblance to A. The other letters seem pretty 
plain, but those more accustomed to the reading of Roman inscriptions 
may probably correct our reading. 

The inscription, we would suggest, may possibly mean that the shield 
was the gift of Julius Publius lovintus. In the list of potters' names, 
given by Mr. Thomas Wright, occurs the name of lovantus. 

Whoever the owner may have been, the shield was probably lost by 
Borne Roman soldier in a skirmish to the north of the Wall, from which 
great barrier the spot where it was found is distant only about two 
miles. The wood and leather have rotted away long since ; the impe- 
rishable bronze has handed down to us, in all probability, the name of 
another defender of the Wall. 

EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D. 

Newcastle-wpon- Tyne. 



51 



THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CTJTHBERT. 

No relic of the saintly Bishop of Lindisfarne was so much mixed up 
with public affairs as the celebrated ensign which was supposed to return 
never with defeat in its train " the Banner of Saint Cuthbert." Its 
history has not been very minutely attended to, and it has generally 
been supposed to have originated in the battle of Neville's Cross. The 
notion rests upon the authority of the Rites and Monuments of Durham, a 
work of incalculable value in its pictures of what remained in the church 
at the Dissolution, but of no very high credit in its versions of ancient 
events. That this book gives a tolerably correct idea of the appearance 
of the banner cannot well be doubted, and as it is important that we 
should have the object in our mind's eye, I will take its description 
from the Rites first. 

It is prefaced by a statement that, the night before the battle, Prior 
Fossour received, by vision, a command to take " the holie corporax 
cloth, which was within the corporax, wherewith Saint Cuthbert did 
cover the chalice, when he used to say masse, and to put the same holie 
relique, like unto a banner [var. banner cloth] upon a speare point," 
and to repair to the Red-Hills, and there to remain with the relic during 
the whole of the battle. Accordingly, he and the monks sallied forth, 
and knelt at the Red-Hills, in prayer for their countrymen's victory; a 
great multitude of Scots " running and pressinge by them, both one 
waie and other, with intention to have spoiled them : but yctt they had 
no power or suffrance to commyt any violence or force unto such holie 
persons, so occupied in praiers." 

" Shortlelie after (continues the account) the said Prior caused a 
goodly and sumptuous banner to be maid, and, with pippes of silver, 
to be put on a staffe, being fyve yerds longe, with a device to taike of 
and on the said pipes at pleasure, and to be keapt in a chyste in the 
Ferretorie, when they weare taken down. Which banner was shewed 
and carried in the said abbey on festival and principall daies. On the 
highte of the overmost pipe was a faire pretie crosse of silver and a 
wand of silver, having a fyne wroughte knopp of silver at either end, 
that went overthwart the banner cloth, whereunto the banner cloth was 
fastened and tyed, which wand was of the bignes of a man's fynger, and 
at either end of the saide wande there was a fyne silver bell. The wand 



52 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

was fast by the myddle to the banner staffe, hard under the crosse. 
The banner clothe was a yerd brode, and five quarters deape, and 
the nether part of it was indented in five parts, and frenged, and 
maid fast withall about with read silke and gold. And also the said 
banner cloth was maid of read velvett, of both sydes most sumptuously 
imbrodered and wrought with flowers of grene silke and gold. And in 
the mydes of the said banner cloth was the sayde holie relique and cor- 
porax cloth inclosed and placed therein, which corporax cloth was 
covered over with white velvett, half a yerd square every way, having 
a red crosse of read velvett on both sydes over the same holie relique, 
[here the writer seems to return to the banner as a whole] most artifi- 
ciallie and cunynglie compiled and framed, being fynely fringed about 
the edge and scirts with frenge of read silke and golde, and three litle fyne 
silver bells fast to the scirts of the said banner cloth, like unto sackring 
bells, and, so sumptuouslie finished and absolutely perfitted, was dedi- 
cated to holie Saint Cuthbert, of intent and purpose that the same should 
be alwaies after presented and carried to any battell, as occasion should 
serve ; and which was never caryed or shewed at any battell, but, by 
the especiall grace of God Almightie, and the mediacione of holie Saint 
Cuthbert, it browghte home the victorie." 

This is a very circumstantial account, and an equally minute one 
follows of the cross of stone called " Neivell's Crosse." That the 
descriptions of these objects are true, that the corporax cloth was at the 
Battle of Durham, perhaps near Maydes Bower as stated in the Bites, 
and that the cross of stone was erected in consequence of the victory, I 
by no means deny. But as there was already a Neville's Cross, so also 
there was already a Banner of Saint Cuthbert, one of such consequence 
as to render it a matter of certainty that it would not be wanting on 
the field of fight. There may have been some repairs and restorations 
of it afterwards ; it had acquired a new value ; its silver fittings, possibly 
its bells, and its staff, might be new ; but I need hardly point out to 
you that here is a banner as obviously older than the battle, as the stone 
cross of Neville, with crests and other marks of full Gothic, was obvious- 
ly of the period of the great event. The banner is of the identical 
design which appears in the Conqueror's standard in the Bayeux Tapestry, 
on Stephen's great seal, and in one of the saintly banners on the celebrated 
standard which gave name to the Battle of the Standard. Some writers 
have made the Banner of St. Cuthbert to be present at that encounter, 
a mistake set down with much probability by Mr. Surtees to the credit 
of a passage in Leland's Collectanea, read with a stop in the wrong 
place : Procedentes versus Alverton in campo quodam de feudo Sancti 
Cuthbert, Standart id est malum navis erexerunt, vexillum S. Petri et 
S. Joannis de Beverlac et S. Wilfridi Ripun in eo suspendentes, et corpus 
Domini superimponentes." This standard was, like St. Cuthbert' s, sur- 
mounted by a cross. 



THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 53 

Had the Banner of St. Cuthbert been of a late date it would in all 
probability have contained the arms which were found for him when 
the use of founders' arms became general in the monasteries. " These," 
says the Visitation of 1530, " ben the armes of the monastery of Dur- 
ham which ys founded by the Bysshop of Durham, in the honor of 
Saint Cuthbert, and these annis present ys the armes of Saint Cuthbert," 
Azure, a cross flory Or between four lions rampant Argent insignia 
frequently used by the Bishops cotemporaneously with their other coat 
with the plain cross, which apparently alluded to St. Oswald. In both 
the lions have, in modern times, been altered from silver to gold. 

There is, besides, the express authority of an historian who wrote soon 
after the battle of Neville's Cross, in antagonism to the romantic details 
of the Rites. 1 I allude to Knighton, who places the presence of the 
monks upon the Bell Tower of their church on a firmer footing than 
that of their semi-traditionary position near Maydes Bower. He speaks 
expressly to the fact of their singing the Te Deum on seeing the 
victory from the summit. He also speaks of the special faith of the 
English in the sign of the Cross which was borne with other ensigns 
before the army. That cross may reasonably be supposed to have sur- 
mounted the Banner of St. Cuthbert, for it is out of all reason to exclude 
from such a scene the standard which had so often accompanied the 
English to the North and fluttered near their kings ; and the glory which 
the monks placed in their relic in connection with Neville's Cross had 
no doubt arisen in fact, though the details of their picture were rubbed 
away by time, and fancifully renewed after the lapse of two centuries. 

The story, indeed, bears a most suspicious resemblance to one in Fordun's 
Scotichronicon, (i. 278), which, whatever be its individual credit, shows 
that the Banner of St. Cuthbert was a well known thing for ages before 
the Battle of Neville's Cross. It runs to the effect that when, in 1098, 
Edgar the heir of Scotland was about to assert his right to the crown 
against Donald, he was astonished by a night vision of St. Cuthbert, 
who bid the youth take his banner from the monastery of Durham, and, 
when it was elevated, he himself would rise in his aid and his enemies 
should flee before him. The youth told the vision to his uncle Edgar 
Atheling, and committed himself to God and the defence of St. 
Cuthbert. His injunctions were obeyed, and, " Sancti Cuthberti vexillo 
levato" an English soldier, Robert fitz-Godwin, rushed against the 
enemy with two soldiers only in his company, inaugurated the flight 
of the enemy and gained a bloodless victory. Not unmindful of 
his patron, the new king gave to the monks of Durham his land of 
1 All the other authorities are silent. 



54 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

Coldingham, and to the Bishop of the same place and his successors 
his noble town of Berwick. Bishop Flambard had not grace to keep 
the gift. While Robert fitz-Godwin, by licence of his King, was 
building a castle in Lothian, on land given him by Edgar, he was seized 
by neighbours and the Barons of Durham, (baronibus Dunelmemilus) 
on the Bishop's instigation. Edgar was at the English court, and not 
only was the means of taking Robert back to Scotland in liberty and 
honour, but immediately resumed his gift. 

The question will naturally arise : What was the form of the red 
cross which distinguished the banner. Was it that which is generally 
called St. Cuthbert's Cross and appears in the arms given to the 
University of Durham ? 

The subject is confessedly obscure; there is the same absence of the 
badge of a cross as of the arms of the See and Monastery in the com- 
position of the arms of the tenants of the Church. The early MSS. 
respecting St. Cuthbert, such as that at Brough, lend no assistance ; 
and even the well-authenticated ecclesiastical symbol of St. Cuthbert 
the head of St. Oswald in his hand is wanting in these remains. 
The only mention of St. Cuthbert's cross, as such, is in the Rites 
and Monuments, where it is said that every person accepting the pro- 
tection of the Sanctuary at Durham was " to have a gowne of blacke 
cloth maid with a cross of yeallowe cloth, called Sancte Cuthbert's Cross, 
sett on his lefte shoulder of his arme, to the intent that every one 
might se that there was a frelige graunted by God and Sancte Cuthbert." 
It does not follow from this per se, that there was any general use of 
the cross; but there is other evidence of the existence of such a badge. 

St. Cuthbert's Banner, in form and device, was not strictly a banner; 
but rather, as it is sometimes called, a standard. A banner-proper con- 
tained only the arms of the owner : a standard, on the other hand, dis- 
played only his devices and badges. 

Now, St. Cuthbert's standard did not present the arms of the Church, 
but a red cross ; and though it was older than the science of heraldry, it 
was not so as respected badges and devices ; and, even if the fact were 
otherwise, the cross would in time be in the nature of a badge. Badges 
were not generally identical with or derived from arms as witness the 
Ragged Staff of Beau champ ; and it would have been a strange thing if 
so powerful a fee as the palatinate were without the adjunct of a badge. 
Primd facie, the red cross of the banner occupied that position, but we 
shall find the tenants of the Bishoprick coming to the Pilgrimage 
of Grace, wearing Hack crosses. Thus we have crosses, red, black, 
and yellow: the distinction from other crosses must therefore have 
been in the shape of that of St. Cuthbert. 






THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 55 

Such a device would change its form in the course of architectural 
variety, and possibty the cross patee, which, in blue, is ascribed as the 
personal coat of Bishops Pudsey and Dudley, and appears on the breast 
of pennies of Edward I. and Richard II. struck at Durham, was event- 
ually the settled shape. This view is aided by the fact that in Mr. 
Raine's beautiful little church at Durham, there are three limbs of a red 
cross of this very shape in ancient glass. 

I must now go back into the early annals of the Church. There lay 
upon the body of St. Outhbert, at its discovery in 1827, a small and 
beautiful Saxon cross of patee form, golden and set with garnets, which 
either was hidden from view at the translation of 1104, or, like the 
sapphire ring and met- wand of gold, found at the Dissolution of monas- 
teries, was, from forgetfulness or ignorance, omitted in the narration 
of the Eroissart of Durham historians who wrote some seventy years 
after the event Reginald. With the singular objects of the Saxon period, 
it had survived the visits of Government officials and relic-collectors. 
At the angles of the cross a knob occurs, a feature not uncommon in 
Saxon MSS. ; but altogether, the cross is of unusual contour more 
curved in all its parts than is ordinary. Its Saxon date is indubitable, 
and that it was, or was considered to be, a personal relic of the saint, 
is highly probable, from a circumstance next to be noticed. The 
Priory of Durham formed a singular exception in its seal to establish- 
ments of very inferior importance. Prom its foundation to its dissol- 
ution, it used one of the greatest simplicity a cross surrounded by a 
legend in letters almost Saxon, and evidently not later than the found- 
ation, " 3B SIGILLVM CVDBERHTI Pw^svLis Scxi." The language of the 
seal is peculiar ; and the form of the cross, in the matrix now in the 
possession of the Dean and Chapter, so similar to that found on the 
body of the saint, that attention to the fact was drawn by Mr. Raine. 
The cross is conventionalized, as might have been expected ; and the 
squarish form of the intersection, produced by the knobs above men- 
tioned, is an actual square in the seal. Monsignore Eyre remarks that 
the cross is not directly called the cross, but the seal of St. Cuthbert; 
and this circumstance, with the occurrence of a single inner line between 
the legend and the field in his cut, induced me to make inquires whether 
the matrix were really of one piece ; for I began to suspect (as we now 
know that seals were used in Saxon times,) that the centre was passed 
off as the very seal used by St. Cuthbert. I found that this line did 
not exist in the matrix, and that the latter is solid. Nevertheless, the 
line had its origin in truth, and I must now say how. 

At what time this matrix was fabricated, whether before or after the 



56 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

Dissolution I do not know, but it certainly is not the seal with which 
the charters at all events the earlier ones that bear its device are 
sealed. It is a copy and not a very literate one. The copier was 
not a native of China, nor did he understand the characters of the legend. 
The M of Prcesulis is an E ; and the top of the initial letter of Cvd- 
lerhti is omitted ; while the lettering is taller and ruder, and less spirited 
and characteristic, than that of the period of William. But the cross 
has suffered the most remarkable alteration. The limbs and centre boss 
have been flattened, the former equalized, and the latter squared from 
a sort of quatrefoil boss, which bears much greater resemblance to the 
cross found on the body. At the extremities of the foils of the boss are 
small bead-like spots, probably to represent gems. These are entirely 
wanting in the copy. The original has been inaccurately engraved 
in Hutchinson and Surtees from impressions ; and the modern matrix is 
given by Mr. Eaine, and, with the addition of the inner line from the 
original, it also appears in Monsignore Eyre's work on St. Cuthbert. 

This line must now be noticed. It is but an irregular circle, almost 
angular in places, and so illdisposed to the marginal line that the letters 
of the legend, which are cut completely into both circles, are much 
longer in some parts than in others. The circles running from, letter to 
letter give a singular raised appearance to the whole border, at first 
sight resembling that of the 1799 pennies of George III. The lettering, 
where the circles are tolerably concentric, is not badly executed, and 
various indications convince me that the circles existed before the 
engraver began his work, and that the inner one represents the 
setting and irregular form of some seal of greater antiquity than 
the legend, old as the latter is and that it was, or was thought to 
be, or was put forth as, the seal of Cuthbert himself. Every one has 
heard of the Roman head of Jupiter, which, by a similar addition of a 
legend, passed muster as that of St. Oswald on the reverse of the Dur- 
ham seal. I do not know, however, why the cross may not be Cuthbert' s 
or of very high antiquity. The gem-like ornaments would suggest its 
origin in the pendant gold cross or some similar personal ornament, 
though the extra length of the lowest limb might point to a standing 
cross possibly the very one that Cuthbert erected at the Fame 
Island, and which he might copy from the gold ornament he wore, or 
from that set up by Bishop Ethelwold his successor, which was pre- 
cious enough to accompany the saint in his wanderings. 

I am confirmed in this idea by another interesting seal of more 
modern date of the 13th century perhaps one of Kepyer Hospital : 
SIGILLV' SANCTI EGIDII DTJNELMIE. Exactly the same cross again appears ; 
but, in consequence of the pointed oval in which it is contained, the lower 




. Seal of Durham Friary, p. Existing copy of 
Oljeca.lUt~sire to tkc, dedication. ofJhtsham. 
Sf.JIfajry f CiUkoert;. A. &. Seals of Kcpyer Xospitvl. 



THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 57 

limb is considerably more lengthened. Another cross appears on a 
third seal (SIGILLVM SANCTI EGIDII,) the patriarchal cross of two 
transverse bars, such as appears on the seal of Bishop Beke as patriarch 
of Jerusalem, to whom it possibly refers. In the former seal, the cross 
has no particular allusion to St. Giles, though it had to the place- 
Durham ; and, as the Banner of St. Cuthbert was already in existence, 
its cross was doubtless the same. 

The central knob was very common in the crosses of Saxon times, as 
may be seen on the edge of a Eoman slab from Jarrow Church, in which 
it must have formed part of a cross carved against the wall and on the 
Hartlepool gravestones. The seal of St. Giles brings it down at Durham 
to the 13th century ; but there is one more occurrence of it, in connec- 
tion with S.t. Cuthbert, of a still later date. It is a large slab of English 
marble, which lay in the ruined chapel of Bishop Farnham at Gateshead, 
dedicated to St. Edmund and St. Cuthbert, confessors. The cross had 
been of brass, but the metal had long disappeared. 

This is all I can say upon this neglected subject. My suspicions that 
the cross descended to the ordinary patee form, may probably be without 
firm foundation ; for the use of the knobbed cross for a seal down to the 
Dissolution was continuous. From this notice of its device, I now pro- 
ceed to the history of the banner. 

During Edward I.'s wars with Scotland, we have frequent mention 
of his use of consecrated banners, and that of St. Cuthbert appears in 
the grave records of the realm. On Oct. 13, 24 Edw. I., 1296, the 
kings makes one of his cheap grants of Scotch livings to his clerk Gil- 
bert de Grymmesby, who bore the Banner of St. John of Beverley. He 
was to have the first vacant church in Scotland producing 20 marks or 
pounds a year. 2 The monks of Durham, a month before, had made 
more advantageous terms, knowing the old adage, " a bird in hand, &c." 
On the 16 Sep. the King, when at Berwick, had granted to their church 
40?. per annum out of the royal exchequer at Berwick, until some 
appropriation should be made of equal value out of the churches of 
Scotland. The expenditure of this yearly sum was directed to be for 
the maintenance of solemn festivals of the monks on the two anniver- 
saries of St. Cuthbert, viz. on the principal feast (*. e. March 20) and 
on the feast of his translation (Sep. 4), on which days 3000 poor were 
to receive a penny each. A priest was to say the mass of the same 
saint in the place called la Galileye every day ; while, near the high 
altar, when mass was celebrating, two great wax lights, each of 20lbs., 
were to burn before his feretory, and, what is more to our purpose, two 

3 Rymer, ii. 732. 
i 



58 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

smaller lights before the Banner of St. Cuthbert, on Sundays, and the 
feasts of the apostles and other principal feasts during the celebration 
of matins and mass at the high altar. 3 "We can hardly doubt that in 
all this we have the consideration for the loan of the banner. Like 
that of Beverley, it was borne by an ecclasiastic, and in the wardrobe 
amount of 28 Edw. I. (1 299-1 300) 4 we have a payment at Wigeton, of 
21. 13s. 4d. to "Sir (Dompno) William de Gretham, monk of Durham, 
following the king cum vexillo Sancti Cutfiberti, in the Scotch war this 
present year, by gift of the king, to buy him a habit." So also in the 
29th year (1300-1) there is paid to "Sir "William de Gretham, monk 
of Durham, following the king cum vexillo Sancti Cuthlerti, in the war of 
Scotland this present year, for his expenses from July 3 to August 24, 
both inclusive, for staying 53 days in the king's army, and for his ex- 
pences for 4 days following in returning to Durham by leave of the 
king." 

In 1309, in Edward II. 's days, we find the Prior of Coldingham 
quarrelling with his superior the Prior of Durham, and going to the 
King at the parliament at Stamford, vainly trusting in his supposed 
favour to himself, because, says Graystanes, "he was known to the 
king and court, for he had borne the Banner (vexillum) of Saint 
Cuthbert, with the king in the war of Scotland." This Prior was 
the above William de Gretham. There was a former prior of the 
same place called Henry de Hornecaster, who threw off his allegiance 
to Durham, and Hutchinson and Surtees say that he bore the banner in 
Edward I.' s days; but I suspect that they are confusing the quarrels 
and the Priors too. At least, I do not see how the chronology will allow 
of the statement. 

This seems to be the proper place for the mode of the carriage of the 
banner as given in the Rites. It was in the keeping of the Master of 
the Feretory and Deece (vice) Prior; and " yt was thought to be 
one of the goodliest reliques that was in England, and yt was 
not borne but of principall daies when ther was a generall pros- 
session, as Easter daie, the Assention day, Whitsonday, Corpus Christ! 
daie, and Sancte Cuthbert' s day. And at other festivall daies it was 
eett up at the east end of the shrine, because yt was so chargable 
(weighty.) Also, when so ever yt was borne, yt was the clarke of the 
Fereture's office to wayte upon yt, with his surplice on, with a faire 
reade paynted staffe, with a forke or clove on the upper end of the 
Btaffe, which clove was lyned with softe silke and softe downe, in under 
the silke, for hurtinge or brusing of the pipes of the banner, being of 
Rymer, ii, 730. 4 p . 159. 



THE BANNER AND CEOSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 59 

sylver, to taike it downe and raise yt up againe, for the weightenes 
thereof. [And there was also a strong girdle of white leather, that he 
that did bear St. Cuthbert's Banner did wear it when it was carry ed 
abroad, and also it was made fast unto the said girdle with two peices 
of white leather, and at either end of the said two peices of white 
leather a socket of horn was made fast to them, that the end of the 
banner-staff might be put into it, for to ease him that did carry the said 
Banner of St. Cuthbert, it was so chargeable and heavy. There were 
four men always appointed to wait upon it, besides the dark and he that 
bare it. 5 ] 

I refer to the Rites for the details. In the procession of Holy Thurs- 
day the banner was borne foremost. On Corpus Christi day, it met a 
shrine from Saint Nicholas' Church, which being carried into the choir of 
the Abbey, solemn service was done before it, and Te Deum solemnly 
sung and played on the organs. On this day the trades had all their 
banners with torches in a very grand procession. I mention this great 
day in Durham more particularly, because of a supposition that the 
singing of Te Deum by the cathedral choir, on May 29, for some years 
previously to 1811 had a reference to the song of Te Deum at the battle 
of Neville's Cross. There is no mention in the Bites of any annual 
and special Te Deum except that of Corpus Christi day, which was in 
a very different season to the October anniversary of Neville's Cross. 
The custom appears to have been disused before 1811 and revived again. 
The statement about Neville's Cross] may be sustained, but the custom, 
certainly was, in 1776, understood to allude to the great doings on Cor- 
pus Christi day, which frequently fell on May 29. The reasons for 
perpetuating it on that day and so paying a triple debt, are obvious. 
In the above year 1776, John Ogle, of Durham, thus annotates Sander- 
son's account of the Corpus Christi procession. : " This custom of 
going with the banners of the different trades of the city to the abbey 
church annually on the twenty -ninth of May, when the singing loys sung an 
anthem on the top of the steeple, was continued to about the year 1770." 
I need hardly remark that singing and procession of all the banners 
that the churches and trades could muster were not confined on Corpus 
Christi day to the ancient city of Durham. But I may add one more 
reason for a Te Deum on Corpus Christi day there. In 1422, the cen- 
tral tower was fired by lightning during the night before this great 
feast, to the infinite peril of the whole pile. It was extinguished in the 

6 The words in brackets are not in the Norton Roll, and are supplied from a copy 
in Hunter's MSS. at the Hermitage, apparently from Mrs. Milner's MS. mentioned 
by Mr. Raine as not traced. It contains much that only occurred in Davies, but ii 
far more genuine. 



60 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

afternoon, and the whole multitude of monks and spectators devoutly 
sang the Te Deum.* 

In 1355-6 (nine years after the struggle of Neville's Cross) the Bursar 
of Durham Monastery paid " the expences of Sir William de Masham, 
the Terrarer, towards Scotland with the Banner of St. Cuthbert, in the 
suite of our Lord the King, with a pipe of wine, and a tent bought for 
the same," and those " of William de Cheker at Newcastle with the 
Banner of St. Cuthbert, to be carried to our Lord the King." Thus 
the banner witnessed the recovery of Berwick and the "Burnt Candle- 
mas." In 1383 " a cup of silver gilt, the gift of the Countess of Kent 
(kept) along with the Banner of St. Cuthbert," lay upon the first or 
highest step or shelf to the south of the shrine. The shrinekeeper also 
had a " red coffer, containing the Banner of Saint Oswald" This was 
possibly a mere relic, like the portion of St. Oswald's coat of mail, and 
equally genuine, or it might contain the arms ascribed to that saint. 
Two years later, in 1385-6, there is a payment of 2Qd. for "the ex- 
pences of the standard towards Scotland" in Richard II.'s expedition. 
The banner had no chance of victory, for the Scots were too few to 
fight. In 1389-90, 6d. was paid to the bearer of St. Cuthbert's Banner 
[in one of the processions]. In 1397-8, Alan Bower was fined for non- 
attendance, and Mr. Raine explains that, by an ancient custom, which 
probably originated when the Prior was ex-officio Archdeacon of the 
Diocese, all Rectors, Yicars, and parochial Curates were bound to ap- 
pear at Durham twice a year, and to be present at the Prior's visitation 
of his appropriate churches in the church of St. Oswald's, clad in their 
copes and surplices ; and, moreover, they were to be attended by their 
respective parish ck-rks, bearing each the Banner of Ms Church, " in 
sign of subjection and in honour of the church of Durham." When 
this numerous body was gathered together, the Banner of St. Cuthbert 
took the lead, and the whole assemblage moved on in procession to the 
church aforesaid. The above expenses are from Mr. Raine's St. Cuth- 
lert, and the following are thrown together from the same valuable 
source. 

1398-9. To a chaplain carrying the Banner of St. Cuthbert for two 
years 2s. 1400-1. To John Knowte, goldsmith, for making a cross 
for the Banner of St. Cuthbert, [that at the top of the banner], for 
hooks for the shrine, and for repairing a cup belonging to the refectory 
4*. For a belt bought for carrying the banner, and for expenses incur- 
red twice at Newcastle, and towards the march with the banner of St. 
Cuthbert, by order of the Lord King and Prior, 8s. [This was in 

* Raine's St, Cuth. 149. 



THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 61 

Henry IV.'s invasion of Scotland, which was remarkable for its lenity, 
arising affectedly from gratitude for old hospitality to his father, hut 
rather from domestic dangers and a wish for the friendship of Scotland.] 
1403-4. To a priest carrying the Banner of St. Cuthbert, 12s. 
1406-7. Received from the banner 4s. 3d. [in the procession as above.] 
Beceived of many who were absent from procession at Pentecost, 8s. 
10^. 1407-8. Received from the banners, 6*. 9^. 1411-12. Re- 
ceived from the banner in "Whitsun week, 7s. Id. 1411-12. For re- 
pairing a cup for the banner of St. Cuthbert, Wd. [The cup was the 
socket fixed to the carrier's girdle, in which socket the foot of the ban- 
ner staff rested this is Mr. Raine's explanation.] 1417-8. The state 
of the office of Feretrar. Five pypes of silver, with a cross of silver gilt 
for the Banner of St. Cuthbert, with two silver bells. Two poles for 
carrying the Banner of St. Cuthbert in processions and in time of war 
[this seems to be a different arrangement to that given by the Rites], 
with a cover of hide containing the said banner. 1422-3. Received 
from the processions in Whitsun week, 5s. Sd. Received for the fines 
of Rectors and Vicars not appearing in the procession, 4s. To the Ap- 
paritor of our Lord Bishop for calling the clergy in Whitsun week, 6d. 
1446-7. To John Binchester, carrying the Banner of St. Cuthbert, 
>d. 1480-1. H?QT painting the staff of St. Cuthbert's Banner, IQd. 

On the coronation of Richard III. in the Chapter-house at York his 
second coronation the keeper of the wardrobe was directed to furnish, 
inter alia, banners of the Holy Trinity, our Lady, St. George, St. Ed- 
ward, St. CuthbertS and the King's arms. There is much to show the 
leaning of Richard III. to the county wherein Barnard- Castle stood. 
One of the stalls in his collegiate church of Middleham was dedicated 
to St. Cuthbert. 

1513-4, Sir John Forster was paid IQd. for carrying the Banner of 
St. Cuthbert, and the rather large sum of 13s. 4d. was paid for its re- 
paration, but the occasion was one of great glory to the faded relic. 
Lord Surrey was on his march to the red field of Flodden, and on hear- 
ing mass at Durham, appointed with the Prior 8 (or " prayed the prayer 
of that place," as the editions of the old Poem of Flodden Field absurdly 
have it) " Saint Cuthbert's Banner for to bear." The banner which 
had witnessed the fight of Neville's Cross was accordingly borne in the 
foreward or first line, commanded by the Earl's son Lord Thomas Howard, 
Admiral of England, in which was Sir Wm. Bulmer, with the power 
of the Bishoprick. 

St. Cuthberd's Banner withe the Byshop's men bolde, 

In the vauntgard forwarde fast did hye 
That Royal Relyke more precious than golde, 
And Sir "William Bowmer nere stood it by. 9 

7 Probably the " arms of St. Cuthbert" composed the design, rather than a copy of 
the banner. 

* Hall. 9 Mirrour for Magistrates. 



62 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

" The sayd banner was at the wynnyng of Brankston 10 feilde and 
dyd bring home with it the Kynge of Scottes banner, and dyvers other 
noble mens auncyentes of Scots, and that was loste that day : and did 
sett them up at Sancte Cuthbert's Fereture, where they dyd stande and 
hynge unto the suppression of the howse." 11 

In 1522 the banner was again out against Scotland, and in 1523 a 
letter from the Earl of Surrey (to which Mr. Hillier has called my at- 
tention) contains a remarkable passage which may either suggest some 
faith of Henry himself in the relic, or that he did not consider that it 
would be prudent to trust to the presence or valour of the Bishoprick 
men 12 beyond the limits for which their standard had been lent. The 
passage is this : " And where your Highness sent me word by my Lord 
Marquis that in nowise I should goo no further than St. Cuthbert's Ban- 
ner might go with me." Surrey who, when Lord Thomas Howard, had 
led the van of his father's army at Flodden Field, accompanied by the 
banner, was destined to another success under its folds, for this same 
year 1523 witnessed Albany's flight from Wark, the Admiral's army 
marching 

With the noble powre 

Of my Lorde Cardynall 

As an hoost royall, 

After the auncient manner, 

"With Sainct Cuthberdes Banner 

And Sainct "William's also." 13 

The Admiral had been advised of Albany's attack upon Wark, when 
he was at Holy Island, and he immediately sent letters "to my Lord 
Cardynallis company, my Lord of Northumberland, my Lord of West- 
mereland at Sainte Cuthbertes Baner lying at Anwike and thereabouts 
to mete me at Banner woode v. myles from Werk on Mondaye, whoo 
soo dede." u 

I need scarcely remind you that my Lord Cardinal "Wolsey was then 
Bishop of Durham, as well as Archbishop of York. He would have 
the Banner of St. "William in the latter capacity. 

We now come to the last sad appearance of the Banner of St. Cuth- 
bert its share in the fatal Pilgrimage of Grace. It was perhaps only 
out in the first rising and so, if not victorious, was not unsuccessful, 
but the sequel of the history is melancholy, and the appearance of the 
banner might not tend to allay suspicions of the loyalty of men high in 

10 Hunter's MS. n Rites and Mon. 

12 Sir "William Buhner was at Ids post this year. (Ridpatk, 515.) 

13 Dyce's Skelton, ii. 70. u Notes to Skelton, ii., 377- 



THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 63 

station at Durham. Of the fact I found abundant proof in the State- 
paper Office, among the various depositions made by Aske himself. After 
the surrender of Pomfret Castle by Lord Darcy, 

" The contre [he says] daly assembled of all partes and the said 
Aske tried out the men and then after came in the Lord Nevill, Laty- 
mer and Lumley and ten thousand men with them and above, with the 
Banner and 15 [var. or 16 ] army 8 of Seint Cutbert." [And again] " The 
sayd Aske sayth that they iiij [apparently himself, .Robert Bowes, Lord 
Darcy, and Sir Robert Constable] wer togeder aboutes thre or iiij seve- 
rall tymes. The furst tyme was when thos of the Bisshopreke came 
with the Baner of Seint Cuthbert to Pomfret with the Lord Nevill, 
Latymer and Lumley, and then it was ther spokyn and agreyd upon 
that the Baner of Seint Cuthbert should be in the vay ward in wich bend 
the sayd Robert Bowes was in." * 7 

This arrangement was carried out, for Aske says again : 

" The harrold came to the host at Doncastre then being in two wardis, 
that was, in the vay ward being with Saint Cutlert Baner and ac- 
companied with the Lord Nevill, Lumley, Sir Lord Latymer, Sir Thomas 
Hilton, Sir Thomas Percy, and all the bendes of Bischopreke, Cleve- 
land and parte of Richmond shir, and in the second ward the Lord Darcy, 
&c." 18 

Connected with this coming of Saint Cuthbert' s Banner is the inte- 
resting circumstance which has already been alluded to in connection 
with Saint Cuthbert's Cross. Aske in the Tower, 1 1 Ap. 28 Hen. VIII., 
deposed thus : 

" The Lord Darcy gaf him a Crose with the v. woundes in it, albeit 
who yt was the furst inventor of that bage Aske cannot say, but, as lie 
remembreth, that bage with a Blake Crose 19 came furst with them of 
Seint Cutbert Baner : but he saythe the cause why al men wore the 
seyd v. Woundes or els the bage of Jhs was for this cause. Mr. 
Bowes, befor our furst meting at Dancastre scrymaged with his com- 
pany with the scoweres of the Duke of Northfolk host, and then one 
of Mr. Uowes's own servaunts rane at a nother of his own fellows because 
he had a crose on his bake [evidently confounding it with St. George's 

13 Chapter House Records, A. 2, 28, p. 54. 

16 Ib., p. 76. It lias been suggested to me, with much reason, that any banner 
heading the tenants of the See, might be called the Banner of Saint Cuthbert. This 
is the only passage which would tend to instance such a usage of the term, and it is of 
too doubtful a character for the purpose. We have seen that, in Henry's reign, it 
was still the " royal relic" that was known as St. Cuthbert's Banner. 

" Chapter House Records, first series, 1401. 18 A. 2. 28. p. 54. 

is The cross of Bishop Aidan, preserved at Durham, was of black jet. (Haine's 
S. Outh., 9.) 



64 THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 

cross], and went he had been on the partie of the Doke host, and ther 
with after killyd his own fellow and for that chance then was a cry al 
men to have the bage of Jhs or the Fyve Wounds on him both befor 
and hynd them, and ther to his knowlage was al the men that was 
slayne or hurt of eyther parte during al the tyme of busynes." 20 [On 
the arrival of the pardon, Aske renounced the name of Capitane], " and 
in the presens of all the said lordes pulled of his bage and Crosses with 
v. Woundes, and in semblable maner dyd all the lordes ther, and all 
other ther present, saying all these wordes, We will all wer no bage 
nor figure but the bage of our soveryng Lord." 21 

Thirty- three years afterwards, and this joint cognizance was connected 
with more disastrous effects in the north. In the Rising which blotted 
out the main lines of Percy and of Neville from the rolls of nobility 
and honour, 

The Norton's ancient had the Cross 

With the Five "Wounds our Lord did bear: 

And in this earlier rebellion the badge was to aid in sending the white 
hairs of Lord Darcy to the scaffold, but not before, while upbraiding 
Thomas Cromwell for ignoring his pardon, he had promised the favourite 
a similar fate. 22 There is something so curious in the ingenuity with 
which the Interrogatories are framed on this point, evidently by Henry 
himself, that I may be excused the digression to introduce this unpub- 
lished detail. 

" Why did you gyve badges of the Fyve Woundes of Christ ? Was 
not that badge of v. Woundes your badge my Lord Darcy when ye were 
in Spayne ? Were those badges new made, or were the same wich ye 
gave in Spayne ? Could you not have disposed the said badges afore 
this insurrections ? Whether kept ye thaim sty lie for that purpose ? 
If they were newe made who made and embrodered them when and in 
what place for what intent? If ye were sodenly takin in of the 
Comons whether it is like that than ye hadleisur to make suche badges? 
Did you cause your souldiours and servantes within Pomfrett Castell 
or without to were those badges in the kynge's part afore ye were 
joyned with the rebellys ? Why brought you forth those badges when 
ye were joyned with the rebelles rather than afore when ye shewed 
yourself to stande for the kinge's part." 23 

The result of the rebellion and the new tone of the times alike seem 
to have divested the Banner of St. Cuthbert of its ancient renown, and 
2 A. 2. 29. p. 239. 21 A. 2. 28. p. 60. 

M I have not seen the State Paper containing this remarkable prophecy, but I wna 
informed of its existence in the Rolls House by a gentleman on whose accuracy I 
can rely. 

A. 2. 28. p. 87. 



THE BANNER AND CROSS OF SAINT CUTHBERT. 65 

we hear of its glories no more. In Wilfrid Holme's metrical account 
of the Pilgrimage, the King, in his answer to the rebels, is made to enu- 
merate the objects of local faith, which (he says) " thanked be God," 
were " spied." Among them we find " St. CutJibertfs Standard of 
Duresme to make their foes to flee." It is not probable that it again 
preceded an army to the field, but it does not seem to have been de- 
stroyed immediately. In one part of the " Rites," indeed, it is stated 
by Davies and Mrs. Milner's MS. that 

" At the suppression of the House the aforesaid Banner of Saint 
Cuthbert and all the antients of the noblemen of Scotland, as principally 
the King of Scotts' Banner and divers noblemen's antients of Scotland, 
were shortly after clearly defaced, to the intent there should be no memory 
of the said Battle, and of their antients being spoiled, which were worn 
at the said battel of Brankesfield, that there should be no remembrance 
at least of them within the Monastical Church of Durham." 

But it elsewhere in the same work appears that the banner of the 
saint existed at least twenty-three years after the Suppression. 

" Which banner cloth [thus it reads], after the Dissolution of the 
Abbey, fell into the possession of one Deane Whittingham, whose wife 
called Katherine, beinge a Ereanche woman, as is most credably reported 
by those which weare eye-witnesses, did most injuriously burne and 
consume the same in hir fire, in the notable contempt and disgrace of 
all anncyent and goodly reliques." 

Whittingham was Dean from 1563, and the banner was probably de- 
stroyed before 1569, as I do not remember to have seen mention of it 
during the Rising of the North. 

It was a thing of mighty age and renown. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

Gateshead. 

*** It is a pleasure to acknowledge the kind loan by Mr. Trueman, of Durham, of 
electrotype casts from the interesting seals referred to in this paper. Since the above 
remarks were printed, he has placed in my hands a most interesting ornament of 
copper, gilt and enamelled with St. Cuthhert's Cross, which may have been given to 
a pilgrim at the shrine. I. The cross is red, corresponding with those in the banner 
and Mr. Raine's church, and we may infer that this was the usual colour. II. It is 
on a shield, as badges were used, concurrently with arms-proper, and Aske's expression 
"the banner or arms of St. Cuthbert" is explained. III. It is a simple cross patee, 
confirming my suggestions that the Cross sunk into that form. The space between 
the shield and legend is blue. The colour of the inscription AVE MARIA GRACIA 
(alluding to the joint dedication of the cathedral) is entirely gone. This unique 
object was among the late Mr. Matthew Thompson's collections of Durham relics. 



66 






ST. CUTHBERT'S 

THE ring, represented in full size by the accompanying engravings, 
was found in St. Cuthbert's coffin in the year 1537. Harpsfield, Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, describes the occasion and circumstances of the 
discovery. He lived at the very time, and was then a Fellow of New 
Hall, Oxford. His w r ords are " When, at the order of King Henry 
VIII. (A.D. 1537), the shrines of the saints were plundered and broken 
to pieces in every part of England, and their holy relics were cast into 
vile places ; the wooden chest, which was covered with white marble, 
was also broken. And when he whose task it was to destroy and 
break the tomb, had broken the coffin with a heavy blow, the stroke 
fell upon the body of the saint, and wounded the leg ; and of the wound 
the flesh soon gave a manifest sign. As soon as this was seen, as also 
that the whole body was entire, except that the tip of the nose, I know 
not why, was wanting, the circumstance was laid before Cuthbert Tun- 
stall, at that time Bishop of Durham. He was consulted as to what 
he might order to be done with the body ; and, at his order, a grave 
was dug, and the body was replaced in that spot where its precious 
shrine had been before. Not only the body, but also the vestments in 
which he was robed, were perfectly entire, and free and clear of all 
stain and decay. He had on his finger a gold ring, ornamented with a 



ST. CUTHBEBT'S RING. 67 

sapphire, which I once saw and touched, and which, as a holy relic 
more precious than any treasure, I earnestly laid hold of and kissed." 1 

The ring came into the possession of Thomas Watson, the Catholic 
dean appointed when Home, the Protestant dean, was dismissed. 
Dean Watson gave it to Sir Eobert Hare. He gave it to Anthony 
Brown, created Yiscount Montague by Queen Mary in 1554. This no- 
bleman gave it to Dr. Eichard Smith, bishop of Ghalcedon in partilus 
infidelium, and Vicar Apostolic of the Northern District, whom he had 
for a long time sheltered in his house from the persecution. Bishop 
Smith gave the ring to the monastery of the English Canonesses of St. 
Augustine at Paris, Eue Fossee St. Victoire. He was the founder of 
their house, spent the last 13 years of his life with them, and deceased 
there in 1655, esteemed and beloved for his piety and learning. 

The ring is above the ordinary size ; and though evidently a pastoral 
ring, would now be considered heavy and rude. It is massive, of dark 
coloured gold, with a large sapphire in it. For exactly 200 years it 
has been in the keeping of the English nuns at Paris, highly valued by 
them " because," as the reverend Mother wrote me in October, 1848, 
" it came to us from our holy and venerated founder, as a legacy to his 
dear children, and as such we treasure it doubly." A few months ago, 
however, they consented to part with it, and it is now the property of 
St. Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, Durham. 

A question may naturally be raised Is this the ring that St. Cuth- 
bert received at his consecration, and with which he would be buried at 
his decease in 687 ? We do not find mention of a ring, but we may 
not doubt his being buried with one. Anglo-Saxon bishops wore the 
ring, and were buried with it. For in the three Anglo-Saxon pontificals 
now in France (two at Paris and one at Eouen) the pontifical ring 
is especially mentioned by the rubrics at the consecration of a bishop. 
And at the beginning of the 1 3th century, when the grave of a bishop, 
supposed to be St. Birinus, was opened in Dorchester church, near 
Oxford, among other things a ring was found. 

Or would this ring have been put upon the body of St. Cuthbert, 
when it was dis-interred eleven years afterwards, i e. A.D. 698, at the 
time of his canonization ? A new robe was on this occasion put on the 
body in the place of one removed, but there is no mention of a ring : at 
the same time they took away the face-cloth from off his head, cut off a 
portion of the hair, and exchanged the sandals on his feet for others of 
greater value. 

1 Hist. Eccles. Angl., p. 105. 



68 ST. CUTHBERT' S RING. 

Or again, might not this ring have been put into the coffin of St. 
Cuthbert, when it was opened and the body examined on the occasion 
of its translation into the new cathedral at Durham, A.D. 1104 ? Though 
the hands were examined at the re-interment, no ring is spoken of. 

It can only be a matter of conjecture whether this ring had been worn 
by St. Cuthbert during his life time, or had been buried with him at any 
of the dates named, *. e. A.D. 687 or 689 or 1104. Some have been led* 
to suppose that the rings of Anglo Saxon bishops were graven to be used 
as seals. And the Anglo- Saxon^pontifical at Rouen, and St. Dunstan's at 
Paris, both have " cum annulus datur Jicec oratio dicitur : " Accipe ergo 
annulumdiscretionis et honoris, fidei signum, ut qua3 signanda suntsignes, 
et quse aperienda sunt prodas &c." Arguments may be advanced in 
favour of each of these dates. 

In all probability, it will ever remain an open question -whether this 
ring was received by the Saint when he was consecrated bishop, or was 
worn by him during his life time, or was made or procured for his burial 
in the year 687, or for either of the interments in 698 or 1104. An 
opinion, without any very satisfactory reason to back it, can be of little 
value ; but, if I were to form an opinion, it would be in favour of the date 
A.D. 698. 

C. E. 



69 



THE TENURES OP MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, AND SOME 
ACCOUNT OE THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 

WHEN the wapentake of Sadberge was granted by Richard the First to 
Bishop Pudsey, the services of certain holders of knights' fees therein 
were included by express mention, probably with a view to prevent the 
claims to the important military services of Brus and Baliol which, 
after all, were pertinaciously laid by the succeeding Bishops of Durham. 
The services granted were few in number, those of the Carrow family 
for Seaton and Owton, of the Amundevilles for Coatham and Trafford, 
and "the service of the son of Godfrey Baard and his heirs for a fee of 
two parts of one knight's fee for Midelton and for Hertburn." 

This last service demands our attention in connection with the 
family of the Killinghalls, concerning whom our valued member and the 
quarterer of their ancient coat, Robert Henry Allan, Esq., of the now 
classic seat of Blackwell Grange, has submitted the documents which 
are incorporated with this memoir. 

Although, owing to some convenient arrangement, a Baard appears in 
Richard's charter of 1189 as sole owner of the two -thirds, he was not 
so beneficially. The tenure seems to have comprised the whole parish 
of Middleton St. George, which was divided into two great portions : 
Nether Middleton (or Middleton St. George proper) with West Hart- 
burn ; and Over Middleton or Middleton-on-the-Raw. Each of these 
portions represented one-third of a knight's fee. 

VER MIDDLETON, held by ONE-THIHD or A FEE, was from the 
earliest times the possession of the House of Surtees. The Black Book 
of the Exchequer mentions that in 1166 William Eitz-Siward, their 
ancestor, held Gosforth and half of Mileton by one knight's fee. That 
Miletonis an error for Middleton is evident from the circumstance that, 
in 1241, the component parts of this knight's fee are stated to be, Gos- 
ford by two parts of a fee, 1 and a third of a knight's fee in the wapen- 

1 In 13 John, Gosford was held by half a fee of the old feoffment. Surtees, iii., 
234. The Surtees family occurs in the Pipe Rolls of Northumberland as holding 
two parts of a fee. 



70 THE TENURE OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

take of Sadberge. 2 In confirmation of this, the holding of one-third in 
barony by Surtees in the wapentake between 1208 and 1214, 3 and in 
the time of Bishop Beke, is given in the Testa de Nevil and the Feodary 
published by Mr. Surtees in the Appendix to his General History. It 
was not Dinsdale, 4 for that manor was not holden in capite, but of the 
Baliol fee ; yet it may often, from its vicinity, have been popularly con- 
founded with Dinsdale, for Mr. Surtees states that it does not appear 
as an integral manor until the Inquisition after the death of Sir Thomas 
Surtees in 1434, 5 an expression which militates against his enumeration 
elsewhere of the manor as the possession of Sir Thomas, who died in 
in 1379. 6 That the Surteeses, notwithstanding this confusion, or the 
leasing out of the beneficial interest, were still the tenants in capite, is 
proved by the license of Bishop Bury (1333-1345) to Sir Thomas Sur- 
teys to settle the reversion of a messuage and 6 acres in the vill which 
Eichard Fitz-Robert and his children held for life. In 1434 7 Sir Tho- 
mas Surtees died-seized of the whole vill of Over Middleton, then held 
by a money payment of 4s. 6d., and of Pountes Mill, which stood near 
a most ancient bridge across the Tees at Middleton. The name of 
Pounteys is probably an exact translation of the Latin Super Teysam 
and French Surteys, and in this way we have a place opposite the old 
ford at Nesham, called in the Clervaux Cartulary " Eryome a Poun- 
tesse." 8 There was a family called "De Puntayse," which was con- 
nected with that of Bowes. 9 The manor (except Pountees Mill, which, 
from the expression in 1434, was hardly part of it, and went to the 
heiress of the whole blood of Surtees) continued in the male line of 
Surtees until the last male sold it in 1598. 10 

NETHER MIDDLETON and WEST HARTBTTRN, also held 
by ONE-THIKD or A FEE, was, in very early times, divided into moieties, 

2 Sur. iii., 234. 

3 The Testa de Nevil seems to speak of the Sadberge fees in the vacancy after Bp. 
Philip's death. 

4 Nor Morton, for the three carucates there are separately enumerated, 
s Vol. iii., 225. 6 j^d. 231. 

7 In 1417 John Killinghall was subtenant, and held of Surtees four messuages and 
eight oxgangs in Over-Middleton. 

8 Mr. Surtees inclines to the synonym of Pons Teyse applied to the Bridge as the 
true origin of the word, treating the contemporary Pons de Pountays as a mere redupli- 
cation. 

9 Hist. Darlington, Ixiv. 

10 Once for all, the statements without references are from our county historians. 
I have tried to put them into something like order. Those who wish to see the 
tenures and constitution of Durham methodized would heartily thank the Surtees 
Society for a grave abstract of the Durham Inquisitiones post mortem. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 71 

or sixth parts of a fee. It appears from the Black Book that in 1166 
GODFREY BAIARD held the moiety of one-third of a fee, by partition be- 
tween two sisters, one of whom seems to have been his wife. His one- 
sixth became the Bart moiety, descending to his family of that ortho- 
graphy and to the First House of Killinghall. The other moiety was 
in 1166 held in right of the other sister by another person of the same 
family name, ROLAND BAARD. U The division extended through both 
the vills of Nether Middleton and "West Hartburn, 12 and, from a gift of 
land in the latter place to Pountees Bridge, it appears that WALTER DE 
CADAMO (Caen, Came) purchased from Roland fitz-Pagan, who, we may 
suppose, is the same person as Eoland Baiard, and it seems likely 
enough that Godfrey and he took the name of Baiard in right of their 
sister-wives. But Came seems only to have purchased one-half of Eo- 
land' s sixth part. 13 Consequently, in the Testa de Nevil, Walter de 
Kain occurs as holding one-twelfth part only in barony; the other 
twelfth part being held in barony by EGBERT DE MIDDLETON. u 

This twelfth part belonging to Middleton is never expressed as part 
of the manor of Nether Middleton and "West Hartburn 15 (which in prac- 
tice was considered to be composed of three parts, two belonging to Bart 
and one to Came), nor did it participate in the Eectory which was di- 
vided between Bart and Came. It must therefore be sought for as a 
separate manor, or as part of some larger one in its neighbourhood. 16 
Two possessions of Surtees seem to answer the enquiry. One was 
Stodhoo, a manor of which, in 1511, Thomas Surtees had two parts. 
It is north of Dinsdale, but was of a radically distinct tenure, being 
held of the Baron of Greystock and not of the Honour of Barnardcastle. 
But, as it is situate in Dinsdale parish and not Middleton, and, in the 
closes contiguous to it, the tenants of Over and not Nether Middleton 
had intercommon, it is more probable Middle ton's twelfth was the estate 
of Pountees, which, though not included in Over Middleton, is in the 
parish of Middleton. Its tenure is quite an anomaly, and seems to 
point to a possession by Amundeville after Eobert Middleton. County 

11 Godfrey Bayard and Holland Bayard are witnesses to an early Surtees charter of 
Bishop Pudsey's time. Sur., hi., 393. 

12 And, apparently, to Urlaw Close in Egglescliffe or Long Newton. 

13 In 1197, Roland Baard's son paid 13s. 4d. towards Pudsey's debt to the crown. 

14 In 1264, "Rauffde Middleton a Petit Halghton" occurs in the list of knights 
present at the Battle of Lewes. 

15 Yet it was such, and accounts for the one-sixth of Bart being occasionally called 
a half of the manor. 

16 Unless these are the lands held by the Surteeses in Nether Middleton under the 
other owners by an arrangement. 



72 THE TENURE OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE. 

Flatt, which no doubt was close to County-lane (the representative of 
the old Roman road from Pountees Bridge), was held by a younger 
Surtees in 1385, of the manor of Trafford, and in 1387 his representa- 
tives came into court and acknowledged that Counts flat 17 parcel of that 
manor was held, not of Tempest (then Lord of Trafford), but of the 
Bishop. The secret of all this was, that the Amundeville fee consisted 
of Coatham and Trafford : that the Bishop had, by grant of one of the 
owners of Coatham, become direct superior of those who held of it, and 
that Trafford itself, which had gone a different channel, was held by 
suit of court at Coatham. There were, probably, special reasons, in the 
case of Pountees, for considering it as held directly of the manor of 
Coatham, for the main line of Surtees held lands, perhaps by the same 
title, at Coatham. It is needless to enlarge on the Pountees lands. 
Their extent is unknown, and they were subdivided among the mem- 
bers of the Surtees race. County Flatt, before 1 509, had been acquired 
by the First House of Killinghall, was still stated to be in Trafford, 
and, as such, was, in 1569, alienated with the Bart portion of Nether- 
Middleton. 

The advowson o Middleton is frequently mentioned in connection 
with the Bart and Came shares, and the arrangement concerning it is 
very singular, and must have been come to at an early period, as " John 
and William, Parsons of Middleton," are witnesses to a charter in the 
time of Bishop Philip. 18 There were two rectors or portionaries. One 
was appointed by the owners of Bart's sixth, and had a complete sine- 
cure, " ab omni onere liberam et immunem, nomine Personatus:" the 
other by those of Game's twelfth, who had all the parochial cure of 
souls, " cum omni cura et onere, nomine vicarice in Ecclesia de Midleton 
George," This partition of revenues between an idle Parson, 19 and an 
industrious Vicar, was confirmed by Bishop Kellaw in 1312. 

THE BART FEE. GODFREY BAIAED, as we have seen, held one- 
sixth of a fee in 1166, and his son's service for a fee of two parts of a 
knight's fee for Midelton and for Hartburn is given to Bishop Pudsey 
by Eichard's grant of Sadberge, 20 a tenure, as already explained, which 

17 Can this be the Morkarflatt near Pountees in an early Surtees charter ? and was 
the Count the well known Earl Morkar ? Countyford is called Countesworth in 1594. 

18 Sur., iii., 229. 

19 Yet there is, says Surtees, a tradition of some religious establishment having 
stood in the grounds of Low Middleton, where a handsome cross (reported to have 
been brought from Nesham Abbey) stands. The story "possibly refers to some do- 
mestic oratory, which the owners of the lay or portionary rectory might very probably 
maintain." 

20 Hist. Tres. Dunelm. lx., Ixii. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 73 

included the other holdings in the parish omitted by name in the char- 
ter. In 1197 RALPH BAARD, probably the son in question, paid 40s. 
towards Bishop Pudsey's debt to the crown, by some arrangement, and 
not because he was owner in the wapentake, for the list of payments is 
made up of very heterogeneous items. The list of Sadberge fees in the 
Testa de Neville (1208-1214) gives the old tenure of one-sixth in ba- 
rony for Ralph Baard ; and about this time there were two persons of 
the name, one of Middleton, the other of Hartburn. 21 In 1312 22 ano- 
ther RALPH BART held the sinecure portion of the advowson, and in 
1320 ROWLAND BART'S death transmitted half 28 the manor to his son 
RALPH BART. The military tenure had disappeared, and this portion 
was now held by suit at the Wapentake Court and 25. 3<. In 1345 
RICHARD BARD of West Hartburne gives a title of 5 marks to an ecclesi- 
astic for ordination. 24 In 1364, the same names occur, another ROWLAND 
giving place to another RALPH for the same holding. He was still 
owner in 1367, Goceline Surteys then holding some of his lands in "West 
Hartburn under him by 5s. Qd., but he had ceased to be so in 1379, 
when Sir Thomas Surteys held them under "WILLIAM DE WALWORTH. 

This personage was a knight, as appears by Hatfield's Survey, 
wherein he occurs as holder of lands at Haughton le Skerne. He 
seems to have been no other than the redoubtable Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don, who turned the tide of rebellion in 1381, was knighted on the 
occasion, and in the same year was appointed an executor of the will of 
Bishop Hatfield, for whom he had perhaps acted as sheriff in 1356. 
Mr. Greenwell thinks that Hatfield's Survey was not compiled until 
after the death of the prelate from whom it receives its name. The 
collection of materials for it was not made until between 1377 and 1380, 
so that the formal drawing up would not be made until perhaps 1382 
or 1383. The Middletons and Hartburne are only mentioned in this 
way: "De warda castri de Middelton St. George et Over Myddel- 
ton ad festum Pascha3 9s." The Lord Mayor, by his will in 1385, for- 
gave the convent of Durham 100 marks on condition that they prayed 
for the soul of himself and John Lovekyn. 25 His name appears among 
those of his relatives in the Durham Book of Life, and his arms, Gules, 
a bend raguly Argent between two garbs Or, 26 adorned the cloister of 
St. Cuthbert's Cathedral. 

21 Vide Surtees' charter, Surtees' Dur., iii. 229. 

22 In the preceding interval we may perhaps rank the name of "William Baardt, who 
is inscribed in the Durham Book of Life, in a hand of the 13th century. 

23 Correct, taking Middleton' s twelfth into account. 

24 Reg. Epi. Dunelm. 26 Excepta Historica. 

26 Glover's Ordinary. Stew's London. Sir William was a fishmonger. In the 
Archseologia, vol. 30, there is an interesting paper by J. G. Nichols, Esq., on the in- 

L 



74 



THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 



That the knight was a relative of the previous owners of Middleton, 
is evident from the will of the only relative of his own name whom he 
mentions, Master THOMAS WALWOETH, his brother, who was a legatee 
of his plate, books, &c. This Thomas, who was a canon of York, was an 
executor in 1401 to his cousin Master William W'alleworth, rector of 
Haughton le Skerne, 27 and by his own will, dated 1409, left to his 
sister Agnes a gilt piece which formerly belonged to Sir William Wai- 
worth, knight, his deceased brother \ to William Walleworth his cousin, 
40., and to Thomas Harde, his cousin, 40Z. 28 

Neither of these wills contains any evidence of the heirship of the two 
brothers, or of the transmission of the Durham estates of the Lord 
Mayor. Eight years after the death of Thomas, however, we find the 
the Bart fee in the hands of JOHN KELYNGHALL, whose relationship to- 
them seems certain, by the fact that his descendants placed their own 
paternal arms in the background, through the general adoption of the coat 
worn by the Lord Mayor. The persons named as in relationship are 
briefly given below, and in such a ragged pedigree we dare not even 
guess the probable place of the Kelynghalls, the inheritors of the land 
and arms. 



William Je Walleworthe, grantee, about 1314, of 'and in Darlington, Margery, grantee with 
from John fit/ William fitz JBenet, of that place her husband. 

L -i 

Emma. 



William de Walle- 
worde, son of Wil- 
liam, 1320, when he 
had a grant from 
John Benette. Inn. 
p ra. 8 Hatf. 1353. 



Olive, Inn. p.m. 14 
Hatf. 1358 or 59. 
Died seized of two 
mess, and four ox- 
gangs at Great 
Burdon. , 



Richard de Walle- , 
worth, named with his j 
wife and sons before Sir 
Wm. Walleworth, in | 
Durham Book of Life. I 



Walle- 
worth. 



Thomas de=p.. Maslcr Wil- 

Walleworth Ham Walle- 

son & heir. worth, Rec- 

Born circ. tor of Hangh 

1328. Aged ton le Skerne 

21.1859. In Will dated & 

1367thepro- proved May, 

perty which 1401. To be 

he heired buried before 

from his St. Nicholas' 

mother, at altar, Yoik 

Eurdon, be- Cathedral, 

longed to Mentions his 

Goceline cousin and 

Surteys. servant Ric. 
Hall. 



Sir * 
John 
Walle- 
worth, 
and 
Peter 
Walle- 
worth. 



Cath- 
erine, 
1385. 



Cecily, 
dead 
1385, 
leav- 
ing 5 
daughters, 



Qu. the 
heiresa 
of Bard. 



Agues, = 



f385 
and 
1409. 




William Wai- Margaret, men- 

worthe.cou- tioned 1401 and 

sin to Mas- 1409, and at the 

ter Thomas, latterdatepreg- 

1409. nant. 



Agnes de Aclom, spinster, cousin to Master 
Thomas Walleworth, 1409. 



.... Sir William Walle- 

Sal- worthe, of London, 

ford Fishmonger and 
Alderman, Lord 
Mayor 1381. Will 
1385. =Margaret; 
she had a sister 
Joan, who was maried to John Oliver, 
and had issue by him, William and 
Alice, which Alice resided with Wai- 
worth in 1385. 

Master Thomas Walleworth, Canon of 
York and Rector of Hemmingburgh ; 
mentioned 1385 and 1401. Will 1 
Aug. 1409. To be buried in the enclo- 
sure of B.V- Mary, near Archbishop 
Scrope's tomb in York Minster. 

Robert Peter Salford, kins- 
de man to Sir Willi- 

Acclome, am Wall worth. 
1401. Nigel. Joan. 

Margery. 



Wil- 

Atte 
Lee, 
1385 



Brothers and sisters, 
1409. 



WilliamAtte 

Lee. 
ThomasAtte 

Lee. 

Matilda. 
Juliana. 



fluence of the amity existing between the companies of Goldsmiths and Fishmongers 

upon the arms of the members of the latter in the 14th century. Fishes and the 

leopards' heads of the assayers are blended in various ways, and in three cases in 

27 Test. Ebor. i. 279. 28 Test. Ebor. i. 353. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 75 





Of the older arms of Kelyrighall we shall presently 
but first we dispose of those of Walworth. 
They were borne by the Killinghalls in different 
ways ; sometimes in their original form 29 ; sometimes 
with three garbs, the bend going over all, and nearly 
hiding one of the garbs 30 ; at others, the garbs are 
three, the bend being between them 31 ; and, in one 
instance, an oaken shield, in Mr. Allan'spos- 
ssesion 32 the bearing is but a single garb to 
economise space. Glover gives a variation 
for Wayworthe, a bend engrailed between 
two garbs argent. 33 It may be added that 
the second line of Killinghalls held the pos- 
sessions of the Benets and Walworths in 
Hundon and Ness, 34 (which latter estate be- 
longs to R. H. Allan, Esq.) at Darlington. 
A portion of these may have been purchased 
of Lumley in 1566, 35 but the Killinghalls 
had lands at Darlington before 1503. 

The name of Killinghall or Kelynghale seems to point unmistakeably 
to Killinghall, near Ripley, the seat of the Inglebys, as the cradle of the 
race, 36 and it is a coincidence that, at its first appearance in the palatin- 

5 Edw. III., garbs are added. Mr. Nichols observes that Walworth's coat had garbs, 
and suggests that an alliance with the Bakers also is implied. 

One thing is not explained. The Fishmongers (as stated in the paper) anciently 
bore dolphins and St. Peter's keys, the Stock-fishmongers two sea-lucies or stockfish 
in saltire, with crowns over their mouths, and the two companies were not united 
till 1509. There was an impalement of dolphins and keys with the arms of the Gold-- 
smiths in old St. Paul's. Nevertheless, in the combined arms given by Mr. Nichols, 
the fish are not dolphins but lucies, and, in one case, they are in saltire, exactly as 
the Stock-fishmongers bore them, save the crowns. We believe Sir William was a 
Stock-fishmonger, and the question arises, whether these old coats do not refer to an 
alliance of the Goldsmiths with that craft. But see the whole paper. The subject 
appears to be confused. Stow calls the two companies the Stock-fishmongers and the 
Salt-fishmongers, and seems to speak of them generally as Fishmongers. He calls 
Wai worth "the glory of their company." 

29 Seal of Margaret Killinghall, of Middleton St. George, widow, 1652 (Chaytor 
Archives) . The dictionaries give the same coat for Killinghall of Cumberland. 

30 Glover's Ordinary. J. B. Taylor's copy. 

31 Latterly this was the usual form, and it was so allowed by the Heralds among 
the Allan quarterings. 

32 There was a duplicate in the Allan Museum, now at Newcastle. 

33 And another for Walworth. Sable, a bend raguly Argent between six bszants Or. 
3 * Vide Hist. Darlington. 35 Sur. iii. 354. 

36 Agnes, widow of Robert de Kelynghale, in good circumstances, made her will at 
York in 1414, but she names none of her husband's relatives. (Test. Ebor, i. 373.J 
John Kyllyngall occurs in a York will of 1406 as vicar of Kirkby Stephen. (Test. 
Ebor. 342.^ 



76 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

ate, the rich rectory of Haughton was filled by Henry de Ingleby, 
(1354-1375) a prebendary of Darlington and divers other churches. In 
1366 we have Thomas de Killinghall among the Oxford students at the 
expence of the church of Durham 37 ; and sometime between 1338 and 
1374, Master John Kyllinghall witnesses a release from Marmaduke de 
Lumley in the Prior's Chamber. 38 John de Kyllynghall appears in 
Hatfield's Survey (circa 1380) as holding Edmondsley, a messuage and 
60 acres at Sadberge, late Eichard Lelom's, and a garden on the outside 
of Kyngsgate (the narrow Dun Cow Lane), Durham. In 1385 he 
was clerk to Bishop Fordham's justices itinerant, 39 In 1395 he 
had the satisfaction of seeing a son and heir to his legal gains, the 
mother was a wealthy widow, suitable to a lawyer of his prudence. 
She was Agnes, daughter and heiress of John de Herdwyk (who died 
dr. 1390), and widow of Gilbert de Hoton. Killinghall held several 
estates in her right for his life, and in 1413 had mounted from his 
clerkship to the bench, and served Cardinal Langley as Justice Itiner- 
ant. 40 He died four years afterwards. His widow survived him, and 
from a grant in 1432, she seems to have reassumed the name of Hoton. 41 
Her inheritance went to her issue by her first spouse, and the Killing- 
halls appear to have taken little or nothing by her, 
save her ancient blood, coheirship, and arms, for the 
quartering of Killinghall, Or, a maunch sable, between 
three martlets (hirundines ?J Gules, is ascribed to her. 
The maunch alludes, perhaps, to Conyers, as the 
Hotons wore three trefoil leaves as a crest, a close re- 
semblance to that of Conyers of Hornby and Horden. 
At the time of his death in 1417 the Justice held nine messuages in 
the Bailey, Durham, by Castle-ward, viz., by finding an archer to de- 
fend the pass of Kyngesgate in time of war, and three burgages by land- 
male, &c. He also held the manor of Nether Middleton of the Bishop 
by 9j$., considerable property in Over Middleton of Thomas Surtees, 
and the manor of Graystanes of the Bishop as of his manor of Gotham 
Mundeville by the service of keeping the gaol of Sadberge. 42 

37 He occurs as such in the rolls of Finchale and Holy Island, both cells contri- 
buting to the cost. On Easter Eve, 1357, he was ordained an acolyte, and in 1358 
a subdeacon, being described as monk of Durham. (Reg. Epi. Dwnelm.) 

38 Surtees, ii. 104. 

39 Rot. Fordham. Hutch, i. 316. In the same year, John Killinghall and John 
de Egglescliffe granted one moiety of the manor of Sunderland [by the Bridge! to 
Sir John Nevile of Raby. (Sur. iv., \Ti.) 

40 Surtees, iii. 221. Sur. iii. 33. 
42 See Surtees, iii. 274, 





AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 77 

His son JOHN KELYNGHALL (1417-1442) had in his father's lifetime 
strengthened his hands by an alliance with a knightly family, Beatrix, 
sister of Sir John Clervaux of Croft, knight, 43 and grandaughter of Sir John 
Clervaux of Croft, knight, by Beatrix, daughter of Sir John de Maule- 
verer, being the lady, who bore him his heir about 1412. His arms are 
given as Sable, a chevron Or, 44 between three kelynges 
Argent. 46 But what was a kelynge ? The reader of 
Urquhart's Rabelais may remember that the soling of 
Gargantua's shoes required " 1 100 hides of brown cows, 
shapen like the tail of a keeling" ** The codfish ap- 
pears to be meant. "Keling he tok, and tumberel, 
hering and the makerel." 4T " Morus, a hadok, a ke- 
lynge or a codlynge." tt At the great inthronization feast of Archbi- 
shop Neville, 1464, there were served "Kelyng, codlyng, and hadocke 
boyled." Of course the pun has no bearing on the origin of the name 
Kelynghall, which seems to be cognate to Killingholm in Lincolnshire, 
and Chillingham in Northumberland (both of which were Cheveling- 
ham, or rather perhaps Cheuelingham), and to many other similar com- 
pounds. The old bearing lingered in the family long after the adoption 
of the Walworth coat, in fact to the last days of the second house of 
Killinghall, appearing on the seal of Robert Killinghall, Esq., in 1721, 
as three kelynges in pale. The same variation occurs on the oaken 
shield already noticed and engraved ; and on the seal of John Killing- 
hall, who died in 1574, we shall find a single kelynge used as a device 
or badge. The crest of a cockatrice appears on a seal of a Killinghall 
of the second half of the 17th century, in the possession of Leonard 
Hartley, Esq., and on the plate of the last Robert Killinghall, which 
bears the assay mark of 1719, and belongs to Robert Henry Allan, Esq., 
by the descent hereinafter mentioned. 

In 1434, John Kelynghall presented his son Robert to the sinecure 

43 See Test. Ebor. 

44 In a drawing of this coat for " Henrie Killinghall of Myddleton Georg, armiger " 
in a roll of Durham arms, temp. Eliz., belonging to the Rev. James Eaine, jun., the 
chevron appears to be Argent. 

45 Clervaux Roll Pedigree at Clervaux Castle, and Harl. MS., 1540, p. 163. In a 
catalogue of bearings of Yorkshire families from a MS. belonging to Robert Legard, 
Esq., Anlabie, appended to Glover's Visitation (J. B. Taylor's copy), we have Sable a 
chevron Or between three lances of the second, for Killinghall. 

46 OzelTs note on the passages says that the Camb. Diet, explains keeling as "what 
the Latins or rather the Greeks call Salpa, i. e. a Stockfish. Rather, as Cotgrave 
says, a kind of small cod, whereof Stockfish is made." Had the pun not been very 
obvious, another allusion to "Walworth the Fishmonger might have been suspected. 
The Killinghall fishes are expressly called kelynges by the Heralds. 

47 Havelock. 4e See Promptorium Parvulorum i., 72, 210, 296. 



78 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

rectory, and dying in 1442, was succeeded by his son JOHN KELYNGHALL 
(1442-1486), of Middleton George, Esq., whose younger son, Eobert, 
stands as head of the second house of Killinghall. His son Thomas was 
born about 1438, and in 1469, he, with "William Kelynghall, of Durham, 
Esq., and Thomas Kelynghall, of Egglescliffe, Esq., probably his uncle 
and his own son, both resident on the family estates, entered into a 
bond to Richard Alwent. A William Kelynghall, gent., was a witness 
to a sanctuary claim at Durham in 1484. 

This John died seized 49 of 140 acres called West Hartburne ly 
Knight's service, so that the the money payment of 1320 had given way 
to the old tenure. 

THOMAS KELYNGHALL (1486-1493) was succeeded 50 by his son HUGH 
KELYNGHALL, 51 who was a sanctuary witness at Durham in 1490, and 
died in June, 1509, leaving a widow, Elizabeth. The inquest after his 
death comprises property at Nether Middleton, Middleton George, Cunt- 
flatt, Trafford, Middleton a raw, Durham, Gateshead, West Hartburne, 
Graystones, Fawlees, 52 Brickclose, Wolsingham, Huntley Field, Stan- 
hopp. 53 

WILLIAM KELYNGHALL, Esq., of Nether Middleton, bom about 1494, 
succeeded. His wife Eleanor was a widow in 1526, and his will from 
Mr. Allan's archives shows the whole status of the house five years be- 
fore that time, with an uncle Christopher and sister Elizabeth, who 
are new to genealogists. 

To ALL TEEU CftiSTEN MEN to whome this my deide and last will shall 
come I William Kelyngale of Midilton George in the Countie of Dur- 
esme esquyer sendis gretyng in oure Lorde God everlastyng. WHEREAS 
I the said William Kelyngale by my deide dated the eight day of May 
in the thirten yere of the [1521] reigne of oure sovereigne lorde Kyng 
Henry the eight have inffeoffed William Eure, knyght, Robert Bowes, 
Marmaduke Surteys, esquyers, John Surteis, clerk, Christoler Kelyng- 
ale and Christofer Conyers gentilmen off and in tbe maner of Midilton 

^A small estate at Brafferton, and Urlaw Flatt at Egglescliffe, occur in his In- 
quisition. The latter, we presume, is at the modern Early Nook. 

50 Isabella his wife, who stands as mother to his heir, occurs 1479-80. Cecily was 
his widow. 

51 "Margery, sister of Hugh Killinghall," married Ralph Bransby, of Birdforth, 
about this time. (Glovers Visit., Yorkshire.} 

53 Way decreed between Fawleeze and Killinghall-birk. Liber Cancell. Dunelm. 
D. fo. 7. (temp. Eliz. et Jacobi.) J. J. Wilkinson's MSS. xi., 174. 

53 Old Catalogue of inquests found in the Exchequer of Durham, 1856. Urlaw is, 
in this Inquisition, and that on the death of William, 1527, we believe, said to be in 
Long Newton. (See Surtees, iii., 213.) It was perhaps considered appurtenant to 
vyest Hartburn, and shared in its division, for it occurs in the younger line of Kil- 
linghall in 1541, but the tenure would be of Castle Barnard, if it was in Long 
Newton. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 79 

George and of and in all and singuler the landes tenementes rentes 
revercions and services in Midilton George afforeseid, West Hertburn, 
Graistayns, Eglyscliffe, Brafferton, Over Midilton, Midilton in Teasdale, 
Durham, Gateshed, and elles where within the Bishopbrige of Dur- 
esme : and also of and in all my landes and tenementes in the town of 
Newcastell uppon Tyne ; and Cramlyngton in the cotmtie of Northum- 
berland : and also of and in all my landes and tenements in West- 
rungton [West Rounton] and Over Ditensale in the countie of Yorke 
to and for the use and entent that my last will may therof be fulfilled 
and performed as by my seid deide more playnly doith appere KNOW 
THEY ME the afforseid William Kelyngale by this my present deide to 
haiife esspecified and declared my last will of and in my seid maner'and 
other landes and tenementes in my seid deide conteigned in maner and 
forme as followith First I will that my seid feoffes stand and be seased 
of and in my seid maner of Midilton George and all the other landes 
and tenementes afforseid to the use of me the seid William Kelyngale 
for terme of my lyffe naturall and duryng the seid terme suffer me the 
seid William peaseably and withoute interupcion to take and perceyve 
the issues and profites therof and immediately after my discesse I will 
that my seid feoffes stand and be seassed of and in all my landes and 
tenementes in Eglisclyff and Brafferton', Midilton' in Teasdale, Dur- 
ham, and Gateshed within the Bishopbrige of Duresme, and West- 
rungton in the countie of York to the use and behove of Elynore my 
wiffe duryng hir naturall lyffe in full recompence and satisfaccion of 
hir joyntor and dower to hir of right belongyng of and in all the seid 
maner landes and tenementes and every parte and parcell therof iffe 
che so list to accept it and if che will nott so accept it than I will that 
my seid feoffes stand and be seased therof to the perfourmance of this 
my will and than my seid wiffe to have hir joyntor and dower as the 
law will assign e hir in favorable maner [fi& Also I will that my seid 
feoffes suffer Elizabeth my suster and hir assign es to take and perceyve 
yerly xli. of the issues and profites of my landes and tenementes in 
West Hartburn' to such tyme as che or hir assignes shall therof 
resceyve the somme of eight score poundes to and for the preferment 
of hir mariage and hir fynding, erased ly the testator'] And also I 
will that my seid feoffes suffer Christofer Kelyngale myne unkill 
to take and perceyve of the issues and profites of my landes 
and tenementes in Graistayns xlyjs. viijd. yerly duryng his lyffe 
And also I will that my seid feoffes shall take and perceyve 
the residue of all the issues and profites of all my landes and 
tenementes in Hartburn' and Graistaynes to and for the sustenta- 
cion and salary of an honest preste which I will shall sing for the 
sawles of me myn auncestors and heires in the parish e church of 
Midilton George by the space of seven yeres next after my deathe 
perceyving yerly for his salary vij markes. Also I will that my seid 
feoffes shall suffer Eobert Thomson my servant to take of the issues 
and profites of my landes and tenementes in Over Ditensale xxs. yerly 
duryng his liffe. And also I will that my seid feoffes suffer Richerd 
Henryson to take and perceyve of the issues and profites of the seid 



80 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

landes in Over Ditensale xx$. yerly duryng his liffe. And if Elioner 
my wiffe aftir my deth refusse suche dower as I haiffe by this will 
assigned to hir and take hir dower by the comen lawe so that therby 
any person or persons to whome I haiffe assigned any profite by this 
my will can nott have the full profites therof Than I will that every 
suche person or persons shall take of the issues and profites of such 
landes as I haiffe assigned by this will for my wiffe dower so myche 
yerly as they shal be mynished by hir dower assigned by the comen 
law. And if at the tyme of my deth my goodes and catalles be not of 
sufficiaunt valew to pay all my dettes and my legaces conteigned in my 
testement Than I will that my seid feoffes shall take the issues and 
profites of all my landes and tenementes not by fore assigned by this my 
will to such tyme as they shall therof content and pay the remanent of 
my dettes and legaces wherunto my goodes will nott extend And this my 
affor reherced will I notifie and declare to my seid feoffes to be my last 
will and all other writtynges or cedulles conteynyng any will heretofore 
to be made by me I revoke and renounce to be my deide And this my 
last will of my landes I desire my seid feoffes by way of charitie to se 
performed And what coste that they or any of theym shall haiffe in 
and abowte the perfourmyng therof I will it be borne of the issues and 
profites of my seid landes And after this my will performed I will my 
seid feoffes stand and be seased of all the seid maner landes and tenementes 
to the use and profett of my right heires for ever In witnes wherof to 
this my last will I haiffe sett my seale Yeven at Midilton George the 
xth daye of May the yere of the reigne of oure Sovereigne Lorde Kyng 
Henry the Eight the xiijth [1521]. 









[In dorso.~\ A Also I declare by thys myn [hawne erased] 
awne hand wrytyng y* I by gud delyberation and for special! 
cawse haue cansellytt and putt owthe of thys w*in wrytyng my 
wyll the arte ke lyffe cdfnyg the legasye of Weste Hartebru to my 
sys? In wytnessyd hereof I hawue subcrybytt w* my name. 

Wyll a m Kyllyngall. 

FBANCTS KELYNGHALL, the successor, dissipated the estates of his an- 
cestors, and probably thought he was doing quite enough for his 
relations if he was the means of obtaining a captaincy in the garrison at 
Berwick for his cousin Ralph, of the second house of Killinghall. There 
he was captain himself for many years, and there he died in 1587, 
leaving a widow, Katharine. 54 His share of West Hartburne was sold 
to William Wrenn, 55 who died in 1558-9 seised of half the manor, which 

54 Hugh Killinghall was buried at the same place in 1580. 

55 The estates at Egglescliffe and Brafferton appear to have been included in this sale. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 81 

in 1628 was aliened by his grandson to Francis Forster. Before 1567, 
he sold the manor of Graystones to Edward Perkinson. In 1569, the 
manor of Nether Middleton, and County Flatt, and County Acre in 
Trefford, shared a similar fate, the purchaser being 

RALPH TAYLBOYS of Thornton Hall, Esq., who had married Eleanor, 
daughter of Henry Killinghall, Esq., of Middleton St. George. This 
Henry does not occur in the Killinghall pedigrees. His great grand- 
son Ealph Tailbois (who died an infant) was born in 1591, and Henry 
Killinghall of the second house was not married till 1572. Eleanor's 
father was probably the Henry Kelynghall who witnessed a claim to 
sanctuary at Durham in 1517, and as to time would stand as uncle to 
Francis Killinghall. 55 But her husband could not keep the estate of her 
ancestors, for, in 1573, he sold the manor of Middleton St. George and 
lands in Traiford field to 

ROWLAND JOHNSON, Surveyor of Berwick, and of course well ac- 
quainted with the Killinghalls. He died seized of two parts of the 
manor and adyowson, leaving CUTHBERT JOHNSON, his son and heir, who 
who had livery in 1584, and built the Red House or New-Hall, which 
he seems to have sold, accompanied apparently with his manor, to 

NINIAN GIIILINGTON, of Girlington, gent., who probably claimed some 
latent equity, for he was the husband of Ellen, a daughter of Francis 
Kelynghall, the former possessor, who was his second wife. On the 18 
Feb., 1593, the will of Katherine, her mother, was proved at Rich- 
mond, and the Rev. James Raine, jun., has obliged me with his copy 
of it : 

In Dei Nomine. Amen. Katheron Kyllynghall, of the paroche of 
Wyclyf, wydowe, layte wyffe of Francis Kyllynghall of Myddleton 
George. To be buryed wher it plesethe my executors. TJnto my 
dough ter Margery Stafferton 15?. to be payd of such bonds as Henry 
Kyllinghall and Henry Parkinson standeth bound unto me for and in 
consyderacion of my thyrds or dower in Graystones behynd and unpayed 
synce the deathe of my husband every one of hyr chyldren 20s. to be 
payed in lyke manner fourthe of the sayd bonds Anthony Gyrlington 66 
my gylted goblett, and, yf he dye, to John Gyrlington hys brother, and, 
yf John and he dy, to Anne Parkinson ther syster my grand chyld 
John Gyrlington 4 marks every one of my sonne Gyrlington his dough- 
ters 57 10s. The rest of my goods to Anne Parkinson my sole executor. 
I make my sonne Gyrlington my supervysor and do gyve him a double 

55 In the note * of Surtees, iii., 222, for Henry son of Henry, read Henry son of 
Ralph. (Mr. Raine' s Copy of the Berwick Register.} 

56 Her eldest grandson. He seems to have died s. p. before 1593. 
67 Probably those by his first wife. 

M 



82 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

soveraigne of gold which is twenty shillings for his payns. Wytnesses, 
Nynyan Gyrlington, He : Bullmer. [Signs with a cross. Seal, a 
tradesman's mark.] 

Before 20 Nov., 1596, Richard Madockes, a goldsmith of London, 
who had married Cuthhert Johnson's sister, had purchased Red House 
of the same Cuthbert or of Mnian Girlington. In 1598-9 JOHN GIR- 
LINGTON (retaining "the Grange") granted the manor and advowson to 
RICHARD HEIGHINGTON, a yeoman, who resided here in 1601, and after- 
wards settled at Greystones, another of Francis Killinghall's alienations. 
He must have aliened to the above RICHARD MADOCKES (perhaps in trust 
for Killinghall 58 ), who, in 1606, conveyed the manor of Middleton George 
to HENRY KILLINGHALL, of the Second House of Killinghall, and his 
wife for life, remainder to their son William and his wife Susan (Moore) 
and their heirs. The sinecure rectory is found afterwards in the same 
family. 

The Madockes family had Skirmingham, of which see Surtees's ac- 
count. Richard's widow and daughter were buried in Darlington 
church, the latter at the cost of the above William Killinghall in 
1643. 69 

THE CAME FEE We now take up the twelfth of a fee held by 
WALTER DE CAME, being half of the sixth previously held by Roland 
Baard. It was called one-third of the manor of Middleton St. George, 
and had the working rectory attached to it. Before 1208, William de 
Cadamo and Robert de Cadamo witness a charter in the neighbourhood, 60 
and, in the Testa de Nevil, Walter de Kain is represented as holding 
one-twelfth in Barony. In 1312, JOHN DE CAMBE held the working 
rectory (to which he presented his son John, a priest), and in 1337 
ROBERT DE CAMBE died, holding half a messuage and 30 acres in Nether 
Middleton by suit at Sadberge, and 13^. castle ward, and JOHN DE 
CAMBE his son succeeded. In 1367 Goceline Surtees held lands at Ne- 
ther Middleton of JOHN DE CAMBE, 61 and at West Hartburne of John de 
Cambe's heirs. 62 In 1384, another Goceline held 4 oxg. 13 mess, in 

58 See the conveyance from him in Surtees. 

59 " 1640, Mrs. Maddockes for her mother lairestall, 3s. 4^. 1643, Mrs. Judith 
Maddockes (spinster, Par. Reg.} for her lairestall which Mr. Killinghall senior hath 
promised to pay for." (Darlington Church Accounts.} 

60 Surtees, iii., 229. Surtees, iii, 229. 

62 Ib. 226. There seems to be some error, unless, as is probahle, another John had 
succeeded. In 1379 it is stated hy Mr. Surtees that all Goceline Surtees's lands at 
West Hartburne were held hy Sir Thomas Surtees of Sir William Walworth, but it 
is evident from the sequel that the Games had not alienated their third of the manor. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 83 

Nether Middleton of John de Cambe, by a pound of cumin, 63 derived 
from Sir Thomas, the heir of the former Goceline. 64 In 1384, MATANIA 
DE CAME died, seized of a messuage and 12 oxgangs 65 by the services of 
1337, and WALTEE DE CAME was heir of his brother John. 66 His In- 
quisition is dated 10 iSkirlaw (1398). Between 1507 and 1521 THOMAS 
CAYME of Theddlethorp in Lincolnshire, gent., sold his third part of 
the manor of Middleton George, 67 and the advowson, to ELIZABETH 
KILLING HALL, widow of Robert Killinghall of the second house of that 
name, who presented a rector in 1531. 

Robert Kelynghall (younger brother of the Thomas Kelynghall who 
was born in 1438) accompanied Thomas Blakiston, who married his 
sister Joane, on the latter doing homage for Blakiston to the Prior in 
1477, and is called brother by him in a settlement of 1482. His first 
wife Agnes appears to have kept him childless for great part of his life. 
In 1491 he and she were admitted to the fraternity of the monastery 
of Durham, and she died shortly after. Her husband's heir Christo- 
pher was born in 1494 or 1495, and, unless all his father's lands were 
settled, the doctrine of half-blood did not intervene between him and 
the next surviving son, William, who was born about 1505. These 
were evidently children of an old man by a young wife, for he died in 
1507, and she survived him 34 years. She was daughter of Thomas 
Surtees, Esq., of Dinsdale, and in 1503 her husband enfeoffed some 
members of her family of lands in Darlington, Newbiggin-upon-the- 
Dike, 68 Sadberge, Long-Newton, 69 and Stillington, for her use as long as 
she remained his widow and unmarried. She was evidently a grave 
and prudent person, and she spent her savings in the honorable occupa- 
tion of founding a new family of Killinghalls in wealth and property, 
to take the place of their decadent cousins; and here followeth the 
pith of the record of her investments, from her descendant's archives 
at Blackwell. 

To all . . to whome this present will indented shall come here or see. 
Elizabeth Kelynghall of Myddilton George in the Bishopprick of 

e3 Inq.'p. m. 4 Fordh. 64 Radclyffe's ped. of Surtees. J. B. Taylor's MSS. 

65 These discrepancies frequently occur, perhaps by the different modes of includ- 
ing or excluding wastes, &c. 
60 Inq. p. m. 4 Fordh. 

67 From the enumerations of the estates of the Killinghalls afterwards, it appears 
that this designation included West Harthurn and Urlaw. 

68 The Great Whinstone Dike. 

69 Three oxgangs, held of Castle Barnard. (Inq. p. m.) "We do not know the 
origin of this, or of some others of the estates of Robert Killinghall. Possibly 
they came by his first wife. At Sadbei'ge, however, his father had property which 
probably passed to him by settlement. 



84 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

Duresme wedowe sendeth greting . . Where as I . . and John Surtes 
clerk, Rauff Surtes and Arthure Surtes gentilmen, 70 stonde . . seased 
to . . the use of me and rny heirs of and in thre croftes foure score and six 
acres of lande thre acres of medowe and ten acres of pasture . .. in Schil- 
done besides Auklande . . by force of a recovere in a writt of entre in le 
post hade ayenst Thomas Cayme of Thedilthorp in the countie of Lin- 
coln gentilman And where also the abovenamed John. .Rauff. .and 
Arthure Surtes gentilmen stonde . . seased to . . the use of me . . and myn 
heirs of and in oone mesuage a hundreth and fourty acres of lande 
thirty acres of medowes foure score acres of pasture fowre acres of 
wodde in Myddiltone George . . ooiie fysshing their in the water of Tease 
. . the third parte of the inaner of Myddiltone George . . and the advow- 
son of the chirch of Myddiltone George, .as by two. .recoveres. .maid 
for the performaunce of certen grauntes bargane and sale of. .the 
premisses maid by the said Thomas Cayme unto me. .appareth. .1. . 
have maid . . my last will . . and requyre my said feoffes . . to stonde . . 
seased . . to . . the use of me . . for terme of my lyff And aftir my .de- 
cease the said John Surtes and other his coorecoverers . . to stonde . . 
seased to. .the use of paiement of my dettes. . And after my dettes 
fully paid . . and other sich legaces as I shall declare in my last will to 
be taken of the said landes then I will that the. . corecoverers . .shall 
stonde . . seased of all the landes . . in Schildone . . for the use of John 
Kelinghall my yonger sonne [in tail male, rem.J to the use of Willyam 
Kelinghall my eldest sonne [in tail male, rem.] to the use and per- 
formaunce of my will And of all my landes . . and other the premises in 
Myddiltone George, .for the use of Willyam Kelinghall my eldest sonne 
[in tail male, rem.] to the use of the abovewriten John Kelinghall [in 
tail male] And for defaute of siche issue, .the. .coorecoverers shall 
stonde. . seased of and in all the abovewriten. .premisses in Schildone and 
Myddiltone George . . for sich use . . as I. . . by my last will shall hereafter 
therupon make ordre and declare Moreour it is the full mynde and 
will of me the foresaid Elizabeth that the abovenamed John Surtes and 
othir his coorecoverers and their heirs and the heir or heirs of the over- 
lever of eny of theym shall stonde and be continually seased of and in 
all the foresaide landes and tenementes to and for the uses above ex- 
pressed without any estate or gift of the said landes and tenementes 
hereaftir to be hade and maide to the abovenamed Willyam and John or 
to their heires masles or the heirs of any of theym soo that the said 
Willyam and John and their heirs shall not have eny possession of the 
said landes but oonely in use of estate taill to theym and their heirs 
masles of their bodies lawfully begoten aftir the maner and forme as 
is abovewriten. 71 Alweys provyded and foreseen that I. .at my pleasour 
shall and maye chaunge alterate adde mynyshe putt in or putt out eny 

70 John and Ralph were her brothers, and Arthur is named with them in the Inq. 
p. m. 1511 or 1512, of her nephew Thomas Surteys whose death caused such misery 
to her house by the doctrine of the half-blood. (RadclyflVs ped. of Surtees, J. B. 
Taylor's MSS.) 

71 In this curious clause the testatrix wishes to prevent a common recovery by 
preventing the existence of a legal tenant to the praecipe, and, not anticipating the 
Statute of Uses, 27 Hen.^VTIL, attempts to create a mere equitable estate tail in 
perpetuity. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 85 

article or articles worde or wordes conteyned and specified in theis 
presentes and that sich alteration &c. shall be accepted, .as my dede 
and to be as parcell and parte of this my will. .11 July, 1'J Hen. VIII. 

[1527] 

Before 1536, for bequests are made to the monasteries of Mount 
Grace and Nesham, Ralph Surtees, her brother, left to his " sister 
Kyllinghall vi puderde salmon." 72 She died in 1541, and was suc- 
ceeded by her eldest surviving son, WILLIAM KILLINGHALL, Esq. In 
1529, he and his brother John were bound over to keep the peace 
towards Edward Oglethorpe of Newsham, near Egglescliffe, 73 and he 
seems to have had a sister who married Thadye, for, in 1558, Richard 
Thadye, of Bruntoft, gent., leaves to his uncle William Killinghall his 
white gelding, and appoints him guardian and supervisor. 74 He died 
in Dec. 1559, seized of one third of the manor of Middleton Saint 
George, and of lands in Sadberge, Newbigging, Long Newton, Darling- 
ton, Stillington, and West Hartburn. 

JOHN KILLINGHALL, Esq., Middleton George, was brother and heir. 
Mr. Surtees says he was " aged 25, Sept. 3 Eliz,, 1561 ", but the stops 
are erroneous and the age omitted, the 25 referring to the day of Sep- 
tember on which his brother's inquisition is dated. Probably he was 
poorly off in this world's wealth before his 
brother's death, as Richard Thadye, in 1558, 
forgives John Killinghall all such debts as 
he was owing unto him, and makes a be- 
quest unto John KillinghaH's children ; 75 
and in 1548-9 we have his name as one of 
the " poor gentlemen" brethren of the col- 
lege of Staindrop, which was founded "as 
well for the praying for the dead as for the 
Bustentation of such poor men as have served 
the Earl" of Westmerland for the time 
being. 76 Here, perhaps, is the reason of his 
son Henry joining in the Rising of the 
North. Afterwards he appears as a " pru- 
dent and wealthy man," and in 8 Eliz. added to the family estate at 
Darlington, by a purchase from Lord Lumley. 77 His seal, used by his- 
son Henry in 1586, is given in the margin from the Chaytor Archives,, 
and the following are extracts from his will. 78 

72 Will proved 1549. Durham Wills, Sur. Soc. 133. 

Surtees, iii., 208. 74 Durham Wills. 

Durham Wills. 76 Barnes ' Proceedings, Sur. Soc. 

" Close Rolls, quoted by Surtees. 78 Allan Archives. 




86 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

1572, Dec. 14. John Killinghall of Middlelon George to be buried in 
the parish churche of Middleton to the poore people of Darlington, 
10s. (besides to those of Middleton, Consclif, Dinsdaile, Eglisclife, and 
Windlerton) my sonne Henrie J of leases of my cole pittes of Wynd- 
lerton and Ryton my sonnes Raufe, John, and Robert, the other J 
in contentacion of there childes portions and such bequests as there 
uncle William Killinghall my brother haithe geaven them Anne my 
doughter 200 markes my daughter Elizabeth 79 200 markes my dough - 
ter Isabell 200 markes in full, &c., (as before) the 600 markes to be 
raised of my godes, &c., at Kerleberye 80 Dimdaile and Trasfourthe 
hill to my lovinge Anne Parkinson, 81 Kerleburie, to use at hir discre- 
tion to hir contentacion and to the profitt of my children if she shall 
thinke meit my sonne Thomas K. 82 40?. Myles Blenkinshopp my 
servaunte Henrye my sonne, Traforde Hill said sonne Henrye in 
consideracion of suche landes as I purchased and have in Darlington, 
whereof I leave hym my heire, to paye yerelie fourthe of the same to 
every one of his said thre bretheryn Raphe, 83 John, 84 and Robert, or to 
there governers for there behoufe, fyve markes a peice so longe as they 
and every of them leaves sister Anne Parkinson brother and sister 
Clarvax 85 sister Parkinson my thre chistes in my chamber that I laye 
in at My die ton, and the stuffe therein my said thre daughters shall have 
said sister my standishe 86 nephe Henrye Parkinson a baye colte 
Raphe Jameson my baye farralas 87 horse Robert Bankes my horse 
cauld lumpe in the houghe 305. Mr. Thomas Euire owith unto me 
Thomas Brystowe my graye gason 88 horse brother Richerd Clarvax 
Proved 1574. 

79 She married Marmacluke Norton of Stranton, Esq. 

10 The manor of Carlbury, in the parish of Conscliffe, was at this time in the 
Queen's hands by the attainder of the Nevilles. Dinsdale and Trefford Hill were in 
private owners. Killinghall seems to have been an extensive speculator in coals and 
agriculture. 

81 The testator's wife was Anne, daughter of Richard Perkynson of Beamond 
Hill, co. pal. Esq. The sister Anne Perkinson of the will seems to be Anne the 
daughter of Ralph Hedworth. She survived her husband Edward Perkinson, Mr. 
Killinghall's brother-in-law, who, by will, 1567, leaves to his " sister Killinghall, 
for a token of remembrance, his silver heeds." 

82 Died without issue. Harl. MS. 1540, p. 163. 

83 Ancestor of Killinghall of Berwick and London. See Appendix. 

84 He had abase son, John Killinghall. Harl. MS. 1 540, p. 163. The marriage of 
John Killinghall with Anne Billingham at Darlington in 1618 must be taken to his 
nephew John, who was baptized in 1574. 

85 Margery Killinghall, the testator's sister, married 1. Rowland Place, of Halnaby, 
Esq., and 2. Richard Clervaux of Croft, Esq. On 8 Feb., 1571-2, John Place of York, 
gent., leaves to his father in law, Mr. Richard Clarvaus, his best winter gelding which 
he used to ride upon in winter himself, called Graye Tempest : to his mother Clarvaus 
all the money she owes him : and to his uncle Killinghall one oulde angell. (MSS. 
Jac. Raine, jun.) 

56 An inkstand, which constitutes the bearing of the Standish family. 
* 7 Farralas is still used in the sense of barren. 
88 Gar.son, a youth. Here a young horse. 




AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 87 

HENRY KILLINGHALL, Esq., son and heir, who succeeded in 1574, and 
died in 1620, had, in his father's lifetime, become unfortunately con- 
nected with the Rising of the North, but was received into the protec- 
tion of the Earl of Warwick and the Lord Admiral on Jan. 9, 1569-70. 
Probably he had been led into the Rising more through his family alli- 
ances than any controlling principle. His mother's relations (the 
Parkinsons) were much connected with the Nevilles ; his sister was wife 
of Marmaduke Norton, eighth son of old Richard the 
rebel patriarch ; and we have his father's name in con- 
nection with the college of Staindrop. After the Re- 
bellion, in 1572, he married Anne, daughter and 
coheiress of Robert Lay ton of Sproxton and Scutter- 
scelfe, co. York. Whether he was of a thoughtless, 
rash disposition, or was hopelessly involved by his 
share in the Rebellion, does not appear, but he parted with his principal 
Darlington possessions to a family of Foster, who had also acquired 
West Hartburn, an old manor of the elder line of Killinghalls, by pur- 
chase from the Wrens, and who in 1649 use the arms of Killinghall on 
a seal. They had perhaps picked it up on their purchase. Other sales 
were made in 1586, and about the same time we find him making some 
compensation to his injured Queen by discovering for her some lands 
which he thought she ought to have had in the great dispersal of church 
possessions. The history of these lands is rather amusing as they ap- 
pear in the proceedings taken before the Council in the North Parts. 

Whether they constitute the small close in Middleton-one-Row now 
part of the glebe of Dinsdale, we cannot tell, but the story opens in 
1578 with Thomas Blakiston, the Rector of Dinsdale, being disturbed in 
the possession of two ox-gangs in Middleton-one-Row, which he, and, 
as he stated, all his predecessors had enjoyed in right of the rectory, 88 
by John Surtees, the Lord of the Manor of Over-Middleton and George 
Gladley, his tenant. The Rector brings suit, and the defendants make 
it out that the land had been leased by the Surtees family to one of 
its members, who happened to be Rector, and that the lease had expired. 

YORK, 9 Oct., 20 Eliz. [1578] THOMAS BLAXSTON, v. JOHN SEWER- 

TIES and GEORGE GLADLEY. Depositions for defendants. 
John Hudson of Morton, grassman, aged 54. Marmaduke Sewerties 90 

B9 Inquisitio de valore Beneficii de Dinsdale, 1466. " Item in redditu pro ii. 
bovatis terrse in Midelton Superiori xs." " Item in decimis garbarum de eadem 
ammatim xviii^. Sur. iii., 239. Probably the premises had long been leased to the 
rectors out of favour to them. 

90 Born about 1494, aged 17 in 1511, when he was heir of the half blood to his 
brother Thomas, and maintained his ground in Over Middleton in spite of common 
law. The date of 1557 as that of his death, is a misprint in Mr. Surtees' s History. 
He lived some years later, to " extreme old age." 



88 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

was seized of the manner of Middleton one Rawe. The premises are 
part of it. Hath sene a writing wherebie the said Marmaduke graunted 
the same unto John Sewerties 91 uncle unto the said Marmaduke and 
parson of Dinsdell for the life of John and twenty years after. Depo- 
nent, then but a boy of a dozen or thirteen years of age, 92 was present 
at the buriall of the said John Sewerties, and then had a penny [the 
funeral dole] given him. The lease expired 24 yeres ago. The said 
Marmaduke borrowing xs. of Rowland Clerk [rector 1561 to 1571] upon 
his signett, and the said Rowland within or about a moneth after com- 
yng to the said Marmaduke and requesting to have his money, the said 
Marmaduke tolde the said Rowland that it was but a small thing that 
he the said Marmaduke had of him, and that therefore he thought that 
the said Rowland would not have bene so hastie with him. For, quoth 
the said Marmaduke, if I would, I could take the two oxganges of land, 
which thoue occupiest herein this towne, from the, which is a hundreth 
tymes better than the money thow lent me. Nay then, quoth the said 
Rowland, that I thinck yow cannot do. Yes, quoth the said Marma- 
duke, that I can : but be thow good to me, and I will be good to thee. 
"Why, sir, quoth the said Rowland, any thing I have yow shall com- 
aunde. And well then, quoth the said Marmaduke, come hither to me 
againe such a day, and I will show the good specialtie that the two 
oxganges is myne to do with what I list. And so, for that tyme, the 
said Rowland departed. And, comyng again to the said Marmaduke, at 
the tyme appointed, which was within or about thre weekes then next 
after, the said Marmaduke showed such evidence unto the said Rowland 
Clerk, towching the said two oxganges of land, that the said Rowland 
Clerk perceived that he had not any right thereunto : for thereupon, 
this examinant is privie, and doth right well know, that the said Row- 
land Clerk did compounde and agree with the said Marmaduke for the 
said tenement and two oxganges of land, and paid unto the said Mar- 
maduke fower poundes xs., besides the xs. which the said Marmaduke 
ought him, which made upp fyve poundes ; and that, in consideracion 
thereof, the said Marmaduke did fullie conclude and agree to and with 
the said Rowland, that he the said Rowland should have and enjoy the 
said tenement and premisses during his naturall life. Defendant John 
Sewerties was th'onlie sonne of and next heire unto Marmaduke. 
About St. Ellenmas last he entered the premises and was seized, and 
demised them to the said George Gladley as tenant at will. 

Raphe Archer of Middleton one Rawe, laborer, ag. 30 [confirms Hud- 
son's statement] Did receive at th'ands of the said Rowland Clerk, 
at thre severall tymes, fower pounds tenn shillings, parcell of the some 
of vli.j to the use of the said Marmaduke, in consideracion of the afore- 
said agrement, and paid the same over to him accordinglie. And after- 
wards this examinant was present at Darlington ; and, then and there, 

91 John Surtees was Rector from 1498 to 1529, so this might well be ; but Hudson, 
in his deposition ten years after, says that Marmaduke told him that his ancestors 
had given the oxgangs to his uncle for the ahove term. 

92 This, and a succeeding statement ahout the termination of the lease, would make 
John Surtees die about 1535, hut the lists of Dinsdale rectors kill him in 1529, 
George Reed succeeding p. m. Surtees in that year. Rowland Clarke p. m. Reed 
comes in 1561, and Thomas Blaxton the plaintiff in 1571, p. m. Clarke. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 89 

did heare and see the said Rowland come to the said Marnmduke, and 
speake thus to him, Sir, now I have paide yow all my money according 
to our agrement, and therefore I pray yow now let me have assurance 
made for my life that I be not any more troubled. Marrie, parson, 
quoth the said M armaduke, that I will with good will : and come, go 
with me to Mr. Hailes. And so they went together to Mr. Hailes to 
have assuraunce made of the premisses according to the said agrement. 

The copies of depositions are sealed with "her highness signette 93 
remaining with her majestie's secretarie there" [at York] 1589, on the 
occasion of another suit to be noticed immediately. The rector asked 
for his ten shillings in an evil day. It is obvious that the affections of 
the Surteeses, supplanted in Dinsdale by the Places, would be transferred 
to the parish of Middleton. 

How the suit ended does not appear, but it is probable that the rec- 
tor won his ends, for a new ground against him had to be taken, an 
allegation that the augmentation was for superstitious purposes. This 
was substantiated to the satisfaction of the queen's officers by Henry 
Killinghall, and on 25 Apr., 28 Eliz. [1586], a grant of the premises 
was made to John Owbray (or Awbrey), and John Radcliffe ; and Kil- 
linghall purchased from them, probably by collusion. The indefatigable 
parson and his tenant were exchequered in 1588 by the new owner, 
who describes himself as "Henry Kyllinghall of Midleton George, 
gent., fermor to her majestic of one messe, one litle close, and two ox- 
ganges, eonteyninge by estymacion fourteen acres [each ?], in Midleton 
one rowe in the tenure of Thomas Blakeston, clerke, and George Bayne- 
brigge, gent., which were geven for a priest to say masse, and to praye 
for the deade soules for ever within the churche of Dynsdell," and 
complains that Blakeston and Bainbrigg had got divers evidences "by 
colour whereof they had entered to the great hinderance of the orator 
who had at his own costes discovered the tytle for her majestie." 

The defendants answered that "the Deane and chapiter are seased of 
the advowson of Dedinsdell/' that the incumbents have been seized of 
the property in dispute as parcell of the glebe, and Blakiston was pre- 

93 It contains the royal arms, with a sword held at either side. Diev et mon droit. 
At the foundation of the Council of the North, in Henry VIII' s. time, Bishop Tunstall 
thus writes from York to Cromwell, "Your Lordship at my departing said, that the 
king's seal, that we should use here, was not ready. Master Uvedale hath a goodly 
signet of the king's delivered unto him by your Lordship at his departing, as he 
saith, which containeth a difference from all other the king's signets, having on 
either side of the king's arms, a hand with a sword upright in it : which signet, if the 
king be so pleased, would suffice for these parts, the print whereof in paper I send 
you herein enclosed; desiring to know the king's pleasure, whether we shalHise the 
said seal or not, for in the meantime necessity compelleth us to use it." State 
Papers. 



90 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

sented about 17 years sythence and that Baynbrigge only dealt as ser- 
vant to him. The gift for superstitious uses is denied, and all the 
rest of Killinghall's statement is traversed. 

Deposicions taken at Darlington for Henry Killinghall, gent., before 
John Coniers and Henry Lawson, Esquires, and Eaphe Tonstall and 
George Pudsaye, gentlemen, 30 July, 30 Eliz. [1588] James Urpyn 
of Middleton one rowe, clarke, aged four score, says that the property 
pays tithe to Middleton George. John Hudson of Murton, aged 65, had 
hard one Mr. Marmaduke Surties his master say that the premisses 
was geiven by his auncestors to one John Surties, some times parson of 
Dinsdell, for the terme of his life and 20 yeares after his decease. 
Hath seene a deede in one Sir Rowland Clarke's handes then parson of 
Dinsdell, delivered by one Marmaduke Surties to the said Sir Rowland 
for to reade, by which it appeared to the said parson that the right of 
th' inheritance was appertaininge to the heires of the Surtises, and then 
the said parson did compounde with the said Marmaduke to have the 
premisses duringe his life, payinge 5L for a fine to the said Marmaduke. 
For thirty yeares past the parson of Dinsdell hathe receaved the pro- 
fittes. The premisses are within Middleton George, and payeth tithe 
unto the said parson. 9 * Robert Place of Nether Dinsdell, gent., aged 65 
yeares, sworne at Dinsdell 27 September, hard yt to be the Surtis land. 
Robert Nelson of Middelton one rowe, aged 80, says that the tenants 
have bine constables of Middleton George. It lyethe within the Lord- 
shipp of Middleton one Rowe. George Myers of Middleton one Rowe, 
aged 54 yeares, says that the tenants have been churchwardens of 
Middleton. 

For the defendants Christopher Warde of Martin in Cleavland, aged 
54, says that for 46 yeares the premises have been parcells of the gleebe 
of Dinsdell. His father was tenant to the parson of Dinsdell for 24 
yeares, and he 4 yeares after. Nicholas Wasse of Stoddaw, aged 55, 
says that parson Reade, parson Clarke, and parson Blackstone, enjoyed 
the same for 26 yeares. George Ward of Hurworthe, aged 60, says 
that his father was tennent to Sir George Reade for 20 yeares. Robert 
Ward of Hurworthe, aged 60, says that his uncle 95 was parson of Dins- 
dell and his father was teunant. 

Probably the parson again won the day, practically so at all events. 

In 1605-6, as we have seen, Henry Eillinghall obtained the two- 
thirds of the manor of Nether Middleton which had been comprised 
in the Bard fee, accompanied by the sinecure a&vowson. But he does 
not appear to have recovered his difficulties, for we learn from the Dins- 
dale abstract that in 1607 he and Richard Maddocks, for 300Z., granted 
three closes called Night Fold, the Middle Close, and the West Close in 

94 See note on page 87. 

95 Sir George Reed, who, in an interesting will printed in Surtees, iii., 241, men- 
tions aU these Wards. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL, 91 

Sadbury, to Christopher Place. In 1608, they levied a fine of lands in 
Haughton and Long Newton to Place. And on 28 Jan., 1608-9, we 
have a mortgage in the shape of a lease, from Killinghall and Richard 
Maddockes of Skirningham, gent., to Ralfe Cotesfurth of Newtonne 
Ketton, gent., for 100 years, at 12<. rent, of a messuage in Sadbury on 
the Hill, alias Sadbargh, on the west side of the Gaoele, 96 late in the oc- 
cupation of "William Killinghall, gent., son and heir of the said Henry, 
with all the arable lands and meadows within the three corn fields in 
Sadbury, alias Sadbargh, which are not within the compass of the com- 
mission for partition of the outsides of the said arable fields there. 97 
Cotesfurth was a mere trustee for Lambton of Stainton, for, on 26 May, 
1615, in consideration of 105Z. paid by "William Staveley of Thormonby, 
co. York, gent., to Margarett Lampton of Hough ton Feild, widow and 
executrix of William Lampton, Esq., for the due debt of Henry Kil- 
linghall, she and Raffe Cotesfurth of Winton, co. York, gent., adminis- 
trators of the former Ralph, with Killinghall' s approval, grant the lease 
to Staveley and George Tomlinson of Burdforth, co. York, gent. Mr. 
Killinghall died in 1620. His brother Ralph was a captain in the gar- 
rison of Berwick, probably through his kinsman Francis of the first 
House of Killinghall, and founded a family, of whom something may 
be seen in Appendix A. 

WILLIAM KILLINGHALL, Esq., son and heir (1620-1644) succeeded. 
He was twice married. His first wife was Susan, daughter of John 
Moore of the Myntgarth [Sir George Saville's property], York, 
Sergeant-at-law, " who never obstinately defended an unright- 
eous cause." The inventory post mortem ejus is in the possession 
of R. H. Allan, Esq., being sixteen feet long?* The honest lawyer had 

" one old black cloth night gowne ; a faire new satten doblet and a pare 
of tafety hose ; an old sleveles jackett and doblet of rash of two co- 
lors, &c. &c. ; a tablet of gold with a blew sapher and vi. pearles given 
to his daughter Suzan More as well before his will makyng as since 
[a good girl, evidently, for the old man trusted 51. 3s. "in his 
coffer standing in his doughter Suzan' s chamber"] ; one gold chayne 
weighing ix. ounces, and halfe a frensh crowne at 53s. 4d. the ounce ; 
one bracelet of gold 61 ; one nutt set in silver gilted with gold 40s. ; a 
stone pott set in silver with a cover gilted 13s. 4d. ; an halbert and a 

96 It will be remembered that the elder house held Graystanes by the service of 
keeping this gaol. 

97 Chaytor Archives. 

98 It would be well worth, printing at length, as a most minute description of a 
wealthy lawyer's household, and the place of his abode has its interest. The docu- 
ment is as a brand from the burning, for it was found accompanied by a pair of rusty 
scissors. 



92 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETOtf ST. GEOEGE, 

battle axe [in his bedchamber] ; a cote of plaite, a corslet for a horsman 
with one gantlet, a shaife of arrowes, and a black bill [these in the 
hall] ; \_chaple chamber mentioned, and quisshings made of nedleworke, 
cope and vestments, &c.]; an Irish rugg of chekker work, a Turky car- 
pett for a table ; her majesties picture , one great brasse pott of 43 pound, 
6d. per pound, one brode oversea panne weying 36 poundes, two chawf- 
yng dishes and perfumyng panne [in the kitchen]; Mr. Mores owne 
picture, two other pictures and a table of armes; a pare of tables Is. 
[chess board ?] ; one gray mare called Suzams mare 33s. 4d. To paid 
"to Mr. Bowsfell the draper for blacks to the mourners 13Z. 8s.; for 
spices, strawleryes [the lawyer died in September], wyne, cakes, and 
other things spent of the funerall day 36s. Id. ; for wry ting the inven- 
taryes into paper and parchment and for the will and probacion thereof 
and other charges about the same, 41. 10s." Net value of goods and 
debts 8471. 15s. 6d. Legacies: "to his son Francis More, a signet of 
gold praysed to 31. 6s. Sd. ; Katheryn More his wife a nest of sylver 
tonnes gilt being six in nomber, with a cover, &c." Susan got " his best 
silver salt doble gilt and the cover thereof, a gilt goblet without a cover, 
a dozen of his best silver spones with the apostles at th'ends of them, a 
gold ring with a blew sapher stone in it, a tablet of gold (see above), 
and one of his best fether bedds." 

Serjeant Moore was twice married. " Margrete Moure wif to Mr. 
Sergeant Moure, aboute Ix yeares of age" was buried 5 Dec. 1572, at 
St. Michael le Belfrey, York. "We do not therefore understand Poul- 
son's statement that he married Catherine Holme (who survived her 
first husband Marinaduke Constable 60 years) at Sigglesthorne, in 
1569." " Susane daughter of Mr. Sergeant Moure" was christened at 
St. Michael le Belfrey, on 15 April, 1576, and was married to Killing- 
hall in or before 1 605-6. 10 Five years afterwards, in 1611, she must 
have been exceedingly annoyed with the Spiritual Court proceedings 
against her spouse, who " entertayneth in his house as kitchin wench a 
woman that hath had two bastards at a birth (as if that made the mat- 
ter worse !) it is not pretended that he is suspected with her, but he 
owes 8s. 4d. sessement, and licks the churchwarden with his staffe when 
he calls for it." Mr. K. answered that "he acted out of charitie, and 
struck the churchwarden lightlie with a small gold-headed cane which 
he useth to walk with ordinarily." 101 The entry is headed Middleton 
St. George, and the rate was probably for lands there ; but the children 
of Killinghall at this time were baptized at Sockburn. About 1620, 
he questioned Mr. Francis Foster (the owner of the Bard fee in "West 

99 Holder-ness, ii., 23. 

100 See the settlement of that date. Snrtees, iii., 222. 

101 Surtccs to J". B. Taylor. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 93 

Hartburn) for his tithes in kind, [in respect of his sinecure rectory, no 
doubt already held in lease from its incumbent] and would have had 
Mr. William Case, then rector [of the working rectory] to have joined 
him in suit. But the rector refused because he had received of Foster 
" twenty shillings in money to buy a cloke, three bush ells of ry, and 
besides the said Francis Foster being a good friend unto him." The 
subject was renewed by John Killinghall, his successor. All his 
children were by Susan Moore, but on 11 July, 1625, 102 "William 
Killinghall married Margaret Pepper, at Middleton, and the mention 
of Mr. Cuthbert Pepper and his wife's daughters in his will, induces 
us to give the marriage to old Mr. William and not to his son. 

1642, July 8 (proved 1649). "William Killinghall late of Middleton 
George, Esq., if it please God to call me to his mercie nere home to be 
buryed amongst my ancestors att Middleton aforesayd [this so happened] 
but without pompe vaine glory or unnecessary ostentacion or charges, 
but if I dye not att or nere home then to be buried where it shall please 
Almightie God to appoint my loveing wife all her Jewells, my silver 
cann, six spoones, my lesser silver salt sonne John my evidence chist 
my painted deske, &c. daughter Margarett my sonn John's wife my 
silke curtains and vallance as a token of my love and aifection sonne 
Robert all my schoole books and law books with desire he may make 
good use of them and follow that profession son Henrie daughter 
Katherine Sir Thomas "Widdrington and Cuthbert Pepper for the 
benefitt of my sonne Robert the next presentacion which shall happen 
after my death of that part of my parsonage which Mr. Joseph Cradocke 
hath. 103 And whereas alsoe I have a lease from the sayd Mr. Cradocke 
of that part of the parsonage which he hath at the yearly rent of 101. 
during the life of the sayd Joseph Cradocke graunted in my sonne 
John's name in trust and whereof neverthelesse I doe receive the bene- 
fitt I doe hereby give the sayd lease and all the benefitt and profitt 
thereof to my sonne Eobert for his better maintenance to be educated 
in learning Greate Stainton to sonne Eobert and issue male [he died 
childless], rem. to my grandchild Wm. Killinghall, my sonne Thomas, 104 
his eldest sonne Thomas, and my daughter his wife sonne "William 
daughter Susan Nelson son John my here vessell and the lead ces- 
terne in the kilne and to his wife 5s. sister Margery 105 sister Kath- 
erine every one of my wives daughters a noble to be made in rings to 
weare in remembrance of me to the poore of Midleton parish 20s. to 

102 Copies of registers in the Allan Archives. 

103 The sinecure rectory. Cradock was appointed in 1625. It is now a mere lay 
rectory, in the hands of the present owners of the manor. 

104 See Appendix A. 

105 Among some recusants on a flyleaf of Darlington register is a Margery Kil- 
linghall of that place, buried in 1644-5. The entry may relate to this Margaret or 
to the " pretended wife," by a " clandestine and unlawful marriage" of Mr. Francis 
Killinghall (of Middleton George, gent., aged 63, 1642) her brother. 




94 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

be paid yearly by the space of three years after my death out of the 
lands due to my sonne Robert wife and sonne Robert residuary lega- 
tees and executors Sir Tho. Laiton and Sir Tho. Widdrington knts., 
John Wytham and Cuthbert Pepper Esqs., supervisors to each a noble 
to wear in a ring. 

JOHN KILLINGHALL, son and heir (1644-1652), fell 
upon evil times soon after his marriage in 1637 with 
Margaret, a daughter and (on her brother's death in 
1649) a coheir of William Lambton, Esq., of Stainton, 106 
by whom he obtained half of Stainton and Haughton 
Field. Of gentle blood, he of course adhered to the 
milder tyranny of Charles I. in preference to that which was to succeed 
it, and at the first outset of the troubles he and his brother-in-law Ni- 
cholas Chaytor (who married the other heiress of Lambton) were con- 
cerned in the great questions of the day. 

During the Ripon treaty of 1640, "a great complaint was made to 
the English commissioners by two Durham gentlemen against Meldrum, 
secretary to the Scotch General Lesley, who at the time the new assess- 
ment was laid upon the Bishoprick, publicly spoke these words in the 
Shire House : ' I wonder you are so ignorant, that you cannot see what 
is good for yourselves : For they in the South are sensible of the ensu- 
ing good, and that we came not unsent for, and that oftner than once or 
twice, by your Great Ones.' There being a doubt made at these words, 
Great Ones ; he replyed to them 'your own Lords/ with a further ex- 
planation. All this was offered upon oath by the two gentlemen to the 
commissioners; but the Lords only required them to write down the 
words, and subscribe their names, which were John KillingTiall and 
Nicolas Chayter. The paper being shewn to the Scotch Commissioners, 
they sent it to General Lesley at Newcastle, who sent back another 
paper to Rippon, in which his secretary denyed the words. "Where- 
upon some of the English Commissioners required they should go to the 
Scotch camp at Newcastle, and give in their testimony before Lesley 
himself. The gentlemen replyed, ' They had rather, and could more 
safely testify it in any court of England ; yet they would do it there, 
provided they might have a safe conduct from the Scotch Commission- 
ers ;' there being as yet no cessation of arms. Hereupon a messenger 
was sent to them for a safe conduct for the gentlemen ; but he brought 
this answer from the Earl of Dumferling, * that the two gentlemen were 
unwise, if they went to give such testimony at the camp.' And then 
speaking with the Lord Lowdon, he again told the messenger 'that 
such a safe conduct could not be granted, and that he would satisfy the 
Earl of Bedford.' Upon which last answer the two gentlemen were 
dismissed, and the business seemed to be at an end. However, by 

ice We purposely abstain from breaking into much, new detail concerning this 
family here. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 95 

means of private intercourses, another discovery was made of more than 
ordinary importance; which was a forged ingagement of the Lord 
Savile's, formerly hinted at, which having the names of many English 
Lords and great men, seems to have had greater effects than all the real 
invitations." 107 Lord Savile had forged them, and now the Scots had 
been disgusted at what they considered the bad faith of their owners. 

In 1642 being lessee, like his father, of Cradock's sinecure rectory, 
he renewed the dispute with the Fosters, and filed a bill in Durham 
Chancery against Richard Poster of Darlington, and others, for non- 
payment of tithe in kind from the township of West Hartburn. The 
defendants pleaded a composition. For Killinghall the following per- 
sons were produced as witnesses : Magdalen Case of Middleton one 
Eawe, widow, aged 53, who spoke to Wm. KilHnghaLL's dispute 22 
years before, and that she received the cloke-money and corn at Darling- 
ton from Francis Foster for her father-in-law, Rector Case ; William 
Case of Middleton one Rowe, yeoman, aged 29, the rector's grandson ; 
Francis Killinghall of Middleton George, gent., aged about 63, who had 
taken tithe for his father Henry Killinghall, Esq. ; Thomas Killinghall 
of Middleton George, gent., aged 44, &c. 108 "West Hartburn now pays a 
modus only. 

During the great rebellion Mr. Killinghall had to pay for his loyalty 
in the sum of 4401. as composition for his estates, and died in January 
1651-2. "Our good frend Mrs. Hiington and her husband are both 
ded, and Mr. John Kilingoul," was the intelligence transmitted on Feb. 
19 by Mrs. Basire to her exile husband touching his political compani- 
ons. In less than a year after Mr. Killinghall' s death, his widow had 
to submit to the ruling powers in the following form : 

I doe declare and promise to be true and faithftill to the Common 
Wealth of England as it is now established without a king or house of 
lords. MARGARETT KILLINGHALL. 

These are to certify whome it may concerne that Margaret Killinghall 
of Midleton George in the county of Durham widdow came before us, 
James Clavering, Esq., and John Walton, Esq., Justices assigned to 
keepe the publique peace in the county of Durham, at Durham, in the 
county aforesaid, the eleaventh day of January, in the yeare of our 
Lord One thousand six hundred fifty two ; and did, then and there, 
before us, and in our presence, take and subscribe the ingagement above 
written according to the Act of this present Parliament in that behalfe 
set fourth and provided. In Witnesse, &c., JA : CLAVERINGE [Seal, the 
arms of MascaU], JOHN WALTON [Seal, the arms and crest of Danby of 
Danby on Yore/] Witnesses, &c., ED : PARKINSON, THOMAS KILLING- 
HALL, THO m . MASCALL. 109 

108 AUan Archives. 107 Echard's England, p. 482. 109 Chaytor Archives. 




96 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

Cotes worth, who has already passed us as a trustee for the Lambtons, 
shared the misfortunes of his friends, for, 1654, the coheiresses were 
unjustly kept out of certain lands, the inheritance of William Lambton, 
deceased, by reason of the recusancy and delinquency of Ralph Cotes- 
worth, who conveyed to William Rickarby. On this occasion there was 
an affidavit of Thomas Killinghall ofMiddleton St. George, gent, aged 40. 110 

WILLIAM KILLINGHALL (1652-94) son and heir of John, was now re- 
presentative of the family. In 1673, he married Elizabeth one of the 
daughters and coheiresses of Robert Dodsworth, Esq., 111 of Barton, in 
Richmondshire, by Margaret daughter of Arthur Hebburne, of Heb- 
burne, and through this marriage, and that of his brother 
Robert Killinghall with Mary Dodsworth, the other co- 
heiress, the whole possessions of the Dodsworths were 
eventually brought into the Killinghall family, Thomas 
Dodsworth, the only brother of the ladies, dying in 1680, 
childless. Mr. Killinghall was concerned in the famous 
Fishgarth Riot of 1 Sep. 1681, for which see Surtees's 
Durham, iii, p. 203, and the cause of the rioters was ultimately succes- 
ful, for on "Dec. 12th, 1682, the fish-garth belonging to Sir Henry 
Marwood and Mr. Belkington was pulled down to the halfe water as far 
as did concerne the county of Durham. Mr. William Bowes came with 
a posse comitatis when it was pulled downe. It was indited as a com- 
mon newsance, whereupon a verdict was given and judgment and exe- 
cution upon the verdict." 113 

In 1678, Mr. Killinghall had lost his wife after a marriage of only 
six years, and, in 1691, his mother, the coheiress of Lambton, died, 
having, on 31 May, 1688, made a will, of which the following portions 
may be preserved. 

Margaret Killinghall of Middleton St. George, widdow, well stricken 
in yeares and somewhat indisposed, but of a sound perfect disposing 
mind and memory soon William Killinghall one little guilt bowle, one 
great case of drawers, and my great Cambridge Bible grandsoon Wil- 
liam Killinghall the younger 10?. and one silver tanckard grand 
daughter Margaret Killinghall 10?. and one flowered silver beaker, or 
cupp with ears ; and a little silver taster grandchildren Robert Kil- 
linghall and Elizabeth Killinghall, children of my sonn John Killing- 
hall late deceased 10?. each said Robert Killinghall one plaine silver 



10 Sworn 1654. Chaytor Archives. 

111 A branch from Thornton "Watlass 
anor of Barton. 

112 Killinghall Rent Accounts. Allan Archives. 



111 A branch from Thornton Watlass. The history of his family belongs to the 
manor of Barton. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 97 

tumbler said Elizabeth Killinghall one silver pottinger, and a small 
silver tumbler daughter Ann Woolridge 113 wife of Phillipp Woolridge 
gentleman William Killinghall and Thomas Killinghall soons of my 
nephew Thomas Killinghall late deceased 114 rings 20s. each, to my 
nephew Sir "William Chaytor Barronet, nephew Mr. Henry Chaytor, 
neise Ann Oagle, soon in law Phillipp Woolridge, daughter Ann Wool- 
ridge, sooji William Killinghall, daughter in law Mary Pemberton, 
Rowland Place of Dinsdale, Esq., Mr. Francis Place Residue of per- 
sonalty to daughter Ann Woolridge she executor. 115 

Mr. Killinghall was on good terms with his unfortunate cousin Sir 
William Chaytor of Croft, in writing to whom, in 1684, he uses gilt- 
edged paper. 116 He died in January 1 694-5, u7 having made his will 
in June previous. 

William Killinghall of Middleton St. George, Esq., 13 June, 1694 
to be buried in my parish church of Middleton son William Killing- 
hall unkles Mr. Robert Killinghall and Mr. Henry Killinghall sister 
Mrs. Ann Woolrich daughter Margaret Killinghall 1000?. in six years, 
but if she shall refuse to consult with and take the advice of the super- 
visors to this will and do undervalue and cast herself away in marriage 
with any person against their consent, only 500?. mother-in-law Mrs. 
Margaret Chaytor, Rowland Place, Esq., Lyonell Vane, Esq., Robert 
Bowes, Esq., William Pennyman, Esq., Sir William Chaytor, Mr. 
Henry Chaytor, uncles Mr. Robert and Henry Killinghall, nephew 
Robert Killinghall and neece Elizabeth Killinghall, children of my late 
brother John Killinghall, sister Mrs. Mary Pemberton, 118 brother Wool- 
rich, sister Woolrich, Mr. Raigne the minister of this parish, Mr. 
Simon Teale, Captain Arthur Hebborn, Mr. Parcivall Teale, 20s. a 
peice for rings my servant Ann Teale 50?. in gratification for her faith- 
full and good services [meretrix ejusfuit, GEO. AILAIT,] and 10?. to buy 
mourning cloaths son William executor Robert Bowes, Esq., William 
Penniman of Normanby, Esq.., Rowland Place, Esq., and Lyonell Vane, 
Esq., supervisors. 119 

WILLIAM KILLINGHALL, Esq., son and heir (1695-1703), soon found 
it necessary to put an end to the incumbrances on his Lambton estates, 

113 Mrs. Anne Woolrich, an old widow gentlewoman at Darlington, bur. there 4 
Nov., 1733 [aged 91]. 

114 See Appendix B. 

115 Copy by Richard Hilton of Darlington, one of the witnesses. Allan Archives. 

116 Chaytor Archives. in Surtees. 

118 Mary Dodsworth, after John Killinghall's death in 1682, re-married John Pem- 
berton of York a year afterwards, and their children by their former spouses also 
made a match. This arrangement, which made husband and wife brother and 
sister in law, very frequently occurs in old pedigrees. 

110 Attested copy. Allan Archives. 



98 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

which had probably existed from the times of the civil troubles. The 
year after he succeeded, there was a sale by his trustees, and a curious 
history his steward gives of it. 

" Robert Colling of Long-Newton bought all the estate at Haughton 
field at 1 20Q. Note. Mr. Colling would not stand to the bargaine with- 
out abatement of 10Z. by reason his money had laid ready some time; 
and Mr. Spearman calling in his 1600?., at this juncture [we] were 
glad to comply with him and Mr. Ogle, by reason wee could not raise 
moneys any other way to pay Mr. Spearman of. He had lent the same 
to Mr. Yane [Lyonel Vane, Esq.] for Sir Humphrey Harbort, soe wee 
paid it to Mr. Yane for his use as above per Mr. Colling 6421. By Mr. 
Robert Hilton his purchase money for Ralph Pincher farme with half 
tyth of it and one Mr. Hilton had in the town before 500?. Of Mr. 
Ogle's that C. Pinckney received and paid Mr. Yane 300?. Item paid 
him by other money had of Mr. Richard Wetherelt and Mr. Francis 
Place 120 [of York] as account with Mr. Yane 158?. = 1600?. 

Mr. Thomas Ogle bought all Mr. Killinghalls moiety of Stainton at 
1650?., but bafled him out of 25?. on account of a gentlewoman Mr. Ogle 
proposed as a match for Mr. J^illinghall, 1 ^ which if he had married the 
purchase was to be 1600?. onely, but [he] was to pay 1625?." 

In charging interest against Robert Colling in 1699 for the Haughton 
field sale money, "Mr. Killinghall thinks tis very unreasonable he shod 
pay interest for his very purchase money and Mr. Colling have the rent 
of the land which should have paid it. And as Mr. Colling made him 
abate 10?. for not inakeing out the title to Counsell in the time first fixed 
upon, it is very unreasonable he should suffer for the wrightings not 
beeing ready to execute at Candlemas when he should have seald and 
paid the moneys which had sunck soe much interest to him." 

In the account the items are 

To the Purchase moneys for Haughton fieild, which by the agreement 
between Mr. Killinghalls trustees and Mr. Robt. Hilton of Stockton was 
to be paid or interest sunck the second of February 1696-7, in consider- 
ation of which the purchaser to have the May day rents next following 
1200?. To the interest of that money from the 2d of February 96-7 to 
the 12 Aprill 97, 13?. 19s. 5^.=1213?. 19*. 5d. 

" The jointured widow long survives." Never was there truer say- 
ing in respect of this gentleman's grandmother. The widow of Robert 
Bodsworth had been snapped up by a gallant and impoverished loyalist, 
Colonel Henry Chaytor, professedly to afford him the very means of 
subsistence. 122 "The burial of my noble friend Collonel Chaytor, was 

120 The celebrated painter and engraver. See Sykes' Loc. Rec,, sub 1728, 
ffil He never married. 
522 Charter Archives 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL, 99 

the 25th Oct., 1664." 123 His widow was then three score and five 
years old. Thirty five years have passed, trouble after trouble has 
reduced the Chaytors to something near akin to beggary literal beg- 
gary as to the head of the house, the poor Baronet of the Fleet prison 14 
and here, in 1699, Margaret Chaytor of Barton, widow, is still entitled 
to 90. per annum out of Croft estate. There were great arrears, as 
well there might be, and William Killinghall of Barton had advanced to 
her 401. He is her descendant, and the Chaytors have no privity of 
blood, yet for the love she bears to the old baronet's spendthrift sons, 
she agrees to take 301. per annum only, "William Killinghall' s score is 
to be cleared oif by 41. per annum for four years, and the remainder of 
the 90Z. is parcelled out among the young Chaytors and their sister 
Anne. 123 The old lady will outlive that grandson Killinghall, for he 
breaks his leg by falling down stairs in the Manor House at Barton, 
and his death is the result about New-year's day, 1702-3. On 25 Sep- 
tember, 1703, the veteran of three centuries (she was born about 1598) 
thinks she must make her will, but she can only sign it with three 
strokes, though in " health of body and of sound, good, and perfect me- 
mory." It belongs to the history of the Dodsworths, and it is sufficient 
to say here, that among her bequests to her granddaughter Elizabeth 
Killinghall (afterwards Pemberton), she leaves " her bed wherein her 
dear grandson William Killinghall, Esq., deceased, did formerly lie," 
and to her residuary legatee, " her dearly beloved grandchild Margaret 
Killinghall, in tender consideration of the love and respect she bore 
unto her and of 7/. which she borrowed and did owe her, the bed in 
her own chamber whereon she now laid." She died 24 Feb., 1703-4, 
aged 105. 

MARGARET KILLINGHALL (1703-1706), sister and solo heir of William, 
on 22 Nov., 1704, made her will. 

Margarett Killinghall of Barton co. Yorke spinster I do entirely 
and sincerly submitt my selfe, soul and body, and all that I have, to the 
gracious providence of Almighty God ; not doubting but, when he shall 
call me out of this mortall and sinfull state to appear before him in his 
glory, he will mercifully receive my soul, and accept of that ransom 
which my blessed Savior Jesus Christ hath paid as a propitiacion for 

183 St. Cuthbert's, Barton, Par. Register. 

124 He was continually pawning an old ancestral ring of considerable value, which 
he calls "old Clervaux." But his troubles form a long and curious subject, and 
must not be disturbed piecemeal- 

J25 Chaytor Archives. 



100 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

my sins, in whose meritts entirely I confide, having been educated and 
bred up in that and other articles of faith professed in the Church of 
England, in whose communion I have lived, and hope, by the mercy 
and favor of Almighty God, to do property at Middleton St. George, 
Trafford Hill, and Dinsdale to couzen Robert Killinghall of Middleton 
St. George as by former deed rem., being desirous that all my heredi- 
taments shall remain and be in the name or blood of the Killinghalls so 
long as it shall please God to continue the same, to cozen William Kil- 
linghall of Holy Island and heirs male rem. to Thomas Killing- 
hall, 125 my cozen, brother of the said William Killinghall and heirs 
male rem. to my right heirs. [the Manner of Barton alias Barton 
Graing with same remainders, but in the case of llobert Killinghall 
only they are enlarged to his daughters as tenants in common]. To 
Elizabeth wife of Wm. Pemberton of New Castle upon Tine Gent. 20?. 
p. ann. aunt Mary Pemberton her three sons John, Thomas, and 
Francis children 126 of my uncle Henry Killinghall 20Z. to poor of 
Barton, same to poor of Middleton St. George unto my kind friend 
Mr. Christopher Pinckney of Eriholme co. Yorke Gent, in considera- 
cion of his great kindness and service done to me and my family 20?., 
to be by him laid out in a piece of plate with my late brother's coat of 
armes to be engraven thereupon to the said Elizabeth Pemberton 
linnen in the closett at Barton and the large silver tanckerd which was 
my grandmothers Chaytors and also two silver porringers to my aunt 
Woolridge the silver caudlecup which she gave me residue to my said 
cozen Robert he sole executor. 



KillingJiall quartering \ 
Lamlton. Crest, the ram's > 
head of Lanibton. } 

This will was useless, for on the 5th May following the worthy spin- 
ster entered into marriage settlements with Cuthbert Pepper, Esq., of 
Moulton, and was buried exactly ten months afterwards, 5 March, 
1705-6, dying, in all probability, in child-birth. 

ROBERT KILLINGHALL, Esq., son 
and heir of John Killinghall, bro- 
ther of William Killinghall, father 
of Mrs. Pepper, succeeded. 128 
(1706-1758.) Engravings of the 
seal used by him, and the crest 
uponhis plate, both already referred 

125 See Appendix B. 

120 Probably females, as the Holy Island cousins are preferred as inheritors of the 
estate. m Allan Archives. Original. 

128 Add to Surtees : "born 30 May (Family Bible) : bap. 8 June, 1682, at Hur- 
worth." In 1717, his cousin Henry Chaytor, Esq., by a will which was a firebrand 
in his family, makes him a trustee), and leaves him 20. and a young grey mare. 
Mrs. "Woolrich was a witness to support the will. 





AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGI1ALL. 101 

to, are presented by Mr. Allan. By his first wife Jane, daughter of 
George Allan of Darlington, Esq., he had issue. 

JOHN KILLINGHALL, Esq,, ultimus suorum, who died 20 June, 1762, 
aged 35, unmarried, The funeral ceremonies of the last heir male of 
his ancient house cannot be uninteresting. 

JOHN KTLLINGHALL, Esoji., FUNERAL, Saturday, 26 June 1762, one o'clock. 

ORDER OF FUNERAL. 

Boom with corps. Mutes with cloaks, hatbands [gloves] and staves. 
Half an hour past ten. John Dunn, John Bell. 

To stand at Mrs. Eden's door. Half an hour past ten. Mutes with 
cloaks, hatbands [gloves] and staves. Jonathan Bellanby, 129 Thomas 
Hobson. 

To stand at Posthouse door. Mutes with cloaks, hatbands [gloves] 
and staves. Half an hour past ten. Bichard Beah, John Bymer. 

To shew mourners, gentlemen with scarfs, and tenants, to the Post- 
house to dine there, as named in the list, 11 o'clock. Bichard Bland. 

To shew Darlington gentlemen with scarfs to Mrs. Eden's house, 
Yellow Boom, one o'clock, as named in the list. Francis Wilson, 
clerk. 

Darlington other people to be shewn into Mrs. Eden's house as long 
as there's room. Then to be shewn to Mr. Bichard Bland and Mr. 
Cloudsley's houses. Erancis Wilson. 

Company : Mrs. Eden's house. To serve round with a glass of white 
wine first. Then a glass of red. Erancis Hunt, Edward Dunning. 

Company: Mr. Bichardson's, Bichard Bland' s, Mr, Cloudsley's, Mrs. 
Shepherd's houses. To serve round with a glass of white wine first. 
Then a glass of red. Mrs. Killinghall's servant, William Morgan. 

Tenants : Posthouse : Isaac Bobinson's room. To serve tenants and 
gentlemen's servants with a glass of white wine first. Then a glass of 
red. Mrs. Killinghall's servant, William Morgan. 

Tenants' hatbands and gloves to be delivered as directed by list. Mrs. 
Greenhow's man. 

Hatbands and gloves to be given to gentlemen's servants as they come. 
Mrs. Greenhow's man. 

To give Mr. Allan notice when all are served and ready to move. 
Erancis Hunt, John Boys, Edward Dunning, Mrs. Killinghall's servant, 
William Morgan. 

Mourners to go on notice from Posthouse to Mrs. Eden's parlour and 
there put on cloaks. 

Corps put in the Hearse. 

Coachman, Hearse; John Joyrden; Mrs. Eden's George; Mr. Boys' 
post-boy All to be ready with cloaks on at Mrs. Eden's door exactly at 
2 o'clock. Mrs. Greenhow's man. 

129 In another list Bellanby and Beah are transposed in their localities. 



102 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 

Four mutes with staves, 2 and 2. To be ready mounted on horse- 
back to go before the hearse before the corps are brought out. Mrs. 
Greenhow's man. 

Tenants all to be mounted on horseback, before the corps are brought 
out, and to be ready to go off before the mutes 2 and 2. Mrs. Green- 
how's man. 

Tenants go first, 2 and 2. [Barton tenants, hatbands and gloves. 
Tho. Lax, James Dunn, Andrew Armstrong, James Forster, Thomas 
Watson, Thomas Marshall. Middleton Tenants. Robert Kay, John 
Wright, Thomas Wilkinson, John E-oantree, Thomas Mitchinson, John 
Robson, Christopher Jackson, Christopher Richardson (scarf). Yarm 
Tenants. Mr. Waldie, George Merry wether, Richard Ellis, Michael 
Welsh, Roger Shepherd at Maltby near Yarm.] 

Mutes follow, 2 and 2. [Hatbands and gloves.] 

[To ride before the corps with cloaks. Francis Hunt, Edward Dun- 
ning, William Morgan, Ralph Wilson, hatbands and gloves. 130 

Hearse [coachman, hearse, hatband and gloves, postilion the same]. 

Mourners' coaches. 

Miss Allan's coach [John Joyrden, hatband and gloves.] Mrs. 
Eden's chaise [Mrs. Eden's George, hatband and gloves.] Miss Allan's 
chaise [John Boys, postboy, hatband and gloves]. 

Bearers, 2 and 2. 

Gentlemen with scarfs, 2 and 2. [Darlington scarfs; Dr. Trotter, 
Mr. Rudd, Mr. Thomas Lee, Mr. Holmes, Hen. Ornsby, Capt. Clement, 
Mr. Francis Lowson, Mr. Cloudsley, Mr. Robson, Mr. John Boyes 
(house used), Mr. Truman, Dr. Laidman, Dr. Turner, Mr. Plewes, 
Francis Wilson, clerk (invited), Mr. Thirkeld, Mr. Wood (parson), 
Richard Bland (invited company), Mr. Richard Richardson (house 
used). Other places, scarfs; Mr. Hodgson, Fieldhouse; Mr. John 
Mewburn, Mr. Harrison, Blackwell ; Mr. Simpson, Richmond ; Mr. 
Hartley, Middleton Tyas ; Mr. Colling, Mr. Harrison, Hurworth ; Mr. 
Ward, Mr. Addison, Dindsdale ; Mr. Cowper, S.H.G., Mr. Richardson, 
tenant, Mr. Stephenson, Middleton; Dr. Kirton, Mr. Isaac Sparke, 
Mr. Thomas Newsham, Mr. Appleton, Mr. Michael Robinson, Mr. 
Hppkinson, Yarm ; Mr. Hardcastle, Haughton ; Mr. Mewburn, Croft ; 
Richard Ellis, tenant, Yarm; Mr. William Newsham, Yarm.] 

All other persons to follow. [Middleton Parish out houses ; gloves 
sent to Middleton; Mr. Wrightson; Wm. Smith; Tho. Wilkinson ; 
Wm. Stonehouse ; Wm. lanson ; Jonathan Garbut ; Robert Todd ; 
Matt. Middleton, B. ; George Middleton ; Wm. Middleton ; John 
Ware ; Michael Sadler ; Nicholas Salvin ; Silvanus Arrowsmith ; John 
Pincher, Junr., B. ; James Cooke ; John Wright, B. Hiddleton-one- 
Row ; Robert Pearson; Edward Walker ; Wm. Bamlet; John Ditch- 
burn ; Isaac Garbut; Matt. Graham, B. ; Nicholas Gascoigne ; John 
Pincher, clerk; Tho. Oliver; Peter Douglas; Martin Cock; John 

130 Mrs. Killinghall's servant follows in the list of hatbands and gloves, hut the 
mark of delivery is wanting, and he is not bracketed into the number to ride. Yet 
perhaps he did so, as he was with the rest in giving Mr. Allan notice of readiness to 
move. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 103 

Christillow ; Ralph Wright, B. ; Edward Wright, B. ; James Carter ; 
George Addison, B. ; "William Allan, B. ; William Kirk ; Wm. Smith, 
miller. Darlington List. Edw. Colling ; John Appleby ; Mr. Wright ; 
Dr. Trotter's servant (hatband) ; Mr. Morland ; Mr. Burrell ; Michael 
Colling ; Mr. Curry ; Mr- Darnton ; Mr. Sober ; Mr. Rudd's appren- 
tice j Mr. Kirton ; Mr. Angle j Henry Watson ; Mr. Richardson, re- 
turned, quaker ; Mr. Thorne ; Mr. Lax ; Mr. William Dent ; Mr. Reed ; 
Mr. Stobbs, Old Hall j John Wilson ; Mr. Wharton ; Joseph Cunning- 
ham ; Tho. Robinson ; Mr. Wakefield, returned, quaker ; Mr. Coates ; 
Mr. Daniel ; Mr. Maddeson ; Mr. Kendry ; Mr. Grundy ; Thomas Stel- 
ling j Thomas Hedley ; Isaac Linsley, returned, quaker ; Thomas Col- 
ling ; James Manners ; Richard Booth ; John Hayton ; Hen. Wright ; 
Wm. Moor; George Mempress; Mr. Hedley, returned, quaker; Mr. 
Backhouse, ditto; Mr. Philips, ditto; Mr. Hall; Isaac Atkinson; 131 
Richard Lee ; Mr. John Clement ; Mr. Wastell ; Mr. Stobbs ; Mr. Edw. 
Lowson 132 ; Mr. Era. Lowson, his clerk, Peter Collier ; Richard Preston, 
sexton; Geo.Chrisop; Mr. Terry; Phil. Carter; John Norton; Robert 
Dunn ; Robert Ward; Mr. Page; Hump Thompson; Mr. Aire; Wm.Stel- 
ling ; Ed. Pease, returned, quaker ; Christopher Wardale ; Isaac Rob- 
inson ; Mr. Parkin ; Mr. Wilson ; Mr. Litster ; Mr. Pease ; Mr. Thorn- 
hill, not well, returned ; Mr. Pratt ; George Shaw ; Mr. Greenhow's 
man ; Mr. Forster ; Mr. Ogden ; William Trace ; Mr. Granger ; Mr. 
Ridsdale; Geo. Bainbridge; Mr. Stowell; Mr. Steadman; Francis 
Boyes; Tho. Stalling; Tho. Robson; Rob. Luck; John Coarson; Hal- 
lowell ; Mr. Duperoy ; Thos. Johnson ; John Greathead ; Mr. Tunstall ; 
George Appleton; Nicholas Cooke ; William English. Darlingtori, Women. 
Gloves Mrs. Chipsis; Mrs. Hilton; Mrs. York; Mrs. Plummer; Mrs. 
Newby; Mrs. Shepherd; Mrs. Hall; Mrs. Stephenson ; Mrs. Maulev- 
ererj Mrs. Bowes; Miss Smart; Mrs. Noble; Mrs Shepherd; Miss 
Madgson; Mrs. Allinson ; Miss Brockett; Mrs. Greenhow ; Mrs. Hall; 
Mrs. Mary Plewes ; Ann Hedley ; Lonsdale ; Sarah Santas ; Mrs. 
Parkinson ; Mrs. Cade, Greentree ; Bechy Dobson ; Mrs. Proctor ; Cordy 
Dickinson ; John Wright's wife, tenant at Middleton ; Citty Richard- 
son's wife ; John Allinson, Yarm ; Margery Wood ; Alice Adamson.~| 

Corps to be set down on the thistles standing in the field before church- 
yard. 

Under bearers to take up corps, shoulder height. 

Bearers in order to take hold of pall and walk forward to church. 

Left hand bearer. Right hand bearer. 

Scarf upon right shoulder. Scarf on left shoulder. 

Mr. Holmes '98 "WW -^ r - Bendlowes 

Mr. Eden <91 Mr. Bland 

Mr. Witham 'aunf OS ^10 ^ r - Farmer 

Mr. Arderne -bsg; n BT t^ n !ITT3[ n W -^ r - Chaytor 



131 No mark of delivery. 13a No mark of delivery, 



104 



THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, 



Mourners. 

Left hand. Eight hand. 

Francis Pemberton John Pemberton 

Sober Allan John Allan 

James Allan, Junr. James Allan 

Leonard Eobinson Robert Allan 

To give dole, 6d. and 3d. Henry Ornsby, Mr. Christopher Eichardson. 
Eings. 8 bearers, 8 mourners, Dr. Trotter, Mr. Eudd, Mr. Cowper, 
Mr. Wood, Mrs. Brown, Mrs, Pinckney, Miss Allan, Mrs. Eden. 

WILLIAM PEMBERTON, grandson of Elizabeth the aunt of John Kil- 
linghall and devisee (1762-1778) married Winifred 




Cocks of Plymouth, and his son and heir WILLIAM 
PEMBEBTON, Esq. (1778-1801) devised the manor to 
his maternal aunts, to the prejudice of his cousin and 
heir-at-law, George Allan, Esq., M.P., who, with a 
view to invalidate the will, had a trial at law at the 
Durham Assizes in 1806, when a verdict passed in 
favor of the parties claiming under the will, and the Cocks family have 
since remained in the undisturbed enjoyment of the estate. 133 

The representation of Killinghall, however, vested in the descend- 
ants of James Allan, Esq., of Blackwell Grange, by Elizabeth Pem- 
berton, the only daughter of John Killinghall's aunt 
who left issue, and through a devise from the latter 
gentleman to his maternal aunt Hannah Eden (for- 
merly Allan) the manors of Barton eventually fol- 
lowed the blood of their ancient owners, and are now 
vested in Eobert Henry Allan, Esq., of Blackwell 
Hall, High Sheriif of the county of Durham in 1851, 
and chief of the House of Allan, who quarters the shields given in 
this article. 




133 Hist, of Darlington. 



AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE HOUSE OF KILLINGHALL. 105 



APPENDIX A. 

KILLING HA.LL OP BEBWICK AND LONDON. 

THE following descent from Ralph Killinghall, brother to Henry Kil- 
linghall, stands in the Harl. MS., 1540, p. 163, as given in italics. 
Some Berwick Registers are applied in ordinary type. 

RALPH KILLINGHALL, Captain of the Garrison of Berwick, married 
Dorothy and had issue 

Mary, bur. 25 Aug., 1578. 

Henry, bur 22 Jan., 1589. 

Elizabeth, bap. 26 Ap., 1591, bur. 3 Feb. 1604. 

Joseph, bap. 8 Dec., 1594. 

Eobert, bap. 10 Aug., 1596. 

Phillis, bur. 15 Dec., 1596. 

His wife Dorothy was bur. 10 Sep., 1596. He married secondly, 
Isabel daughter of Thomas Manners of CheswicL 1 [Ralph Killinghall 
and Esabel Ogle were married 13 Oct., 1597.] and ly her had issue 

? Elenor, bur. 26 Sep., 1599 [perhaps of the former marriage]. 
RALPH, bap. 30 May, 1599, of whom below. 
Margery, bap. 19 May, 1-601. 

George, bap. Dec., 1603, bur. 26 Feb., 1608, died without issue. 
Elizabeth, bap. 30 March, 1609, bur. 18 May, 1609, died without issue. 
[Perhaps the MS. refers to a third Elizabeth.] 

Isabella Killinghall, widow, was buried 5 Nov., 1642. 
RALPH KILLINGHALL of London, married Elizabeth daughter of Myles 
Preseott of Hackney, co. Middlesex, and ly her had issue 

? Elizabeth, daughter of Ralph, bap. 25 Nov., 1639, at Berwick. 

1. Ralph, died young. 

2. John. 

3. Frances, died young. 

1 The marriage occurs in Mundy's pedigree of Manners. Her mother was 
Margaret eldest daughter of Sir Henry Orde of Orde. She seems to have been pre- 
viously married to an Ogle. 



106 THE TENURES OF MIDDLETON ST. GEORGE, &c. 



APPENDIX B. 

KILLINGHALL OF HOLY ISLAND. 

This branch appears to stand thus : 

William Killinghall, of Middleton St. George, Esq., bur. 1644.=pSusan Moore. 

John Killinghall, Thomas Killinghall, bap. at Sockbnrn 21 July, 1607 ; of London ; men-=j= 

of Middleton St. tioned in his father's will 1642. Qu. Thomas Killinghall of Middleton living 

George, buried St. George, gent., aged 40, 1654. Thomas Killine;hall bur. 24 June, 1642. 

1651. yf, 1663, at Middleton. 

1. Thomas Killinghall, eldest son, mentioned by his =5= Qu. " Mrs Mary Kiliinghall 2. William, 
grandfather. 1642. " Master Thomas Killinghall of Middletonin Yorkshire," 



bur. I Aug. 1682," at Holy Island; mentioned by 
Mrs. Margaret Killinghall as late deceased, 1688. 



bur. 3 June, 1688, at Holy 
Island. 



William Killinghall, mentioned by Mrs. Margaret Killing- Thomas, mentioned 1688; of=^= 
hall, 1688; of Holy Island 1704, when he was put in Holy Island, yeoman, 1697 ; in j 

remainder to the Middleton estate by his second cousin remainder to his brother Wil- 

Margaret. Ham 1704. 

l ______ _____i _____ ____________ _____ ,., . J 

Thomas Killinghall, apprenticed to John Morresby of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, barber-chirurgeon. 
21 Oct. 1697. On 11 July, 1699, he chose to serve out the remainder of histimewith John Raine. 
He does not appear to have been made free. 



W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 
Gateshead. 



107 



BISHOP BEE'S CHARTER OF LANDS AT NETTLESWORTH. 

THE interesting charter which is given below, is from the muniments of 
title relating to the manor of Nettlesworth, and is the carving out from 
the demesne of the see of a considerable estate of new freehold in the 
county of Durham, in 1308. Tn 1378, John Gategang died seized of 
the manor of Nettlesworth, held by homage, fealty, and 26s. Sd. Ex- 
chequer rent. In Hatfield's Survey Master John de Hagthorp appears 
among the free tenants of Framwelgate as holding the manor of 
Nettilwortb and 41 acres of land, late Master William de Lambeton's, 
by foreign service and the rent of 27*. Among the Exchequer lands of 
Framwellgate we find him holding an acre of land, formerly Simon 
Stelley's, and afterwards the Master of Sherburn's, and the 27 acres 
and 1 rood in Holyside, comprised in the following charter, (the same 
master of Sherburn occuring as successor to James Spicer) by the rent 
of 26s. Sd. He also held 3 acres extra portam de Nettilworth, by 
2s. 4d., and a toft and 35 acres of land called Bararce by 17s. 6d. The 
Hagthorpes held the manor estate until 1607, when they sold it to the 
Conyers family of Horden. In 1 769, the co-heiresses of Sir Baldwin 
Conyers alienated to Henry Askew, Esq., of Redheugh, and the estate 
remains in his family, to whose kindness the Society is indebted for 
this valuable communication to the territorial history of the Palatinate. 

Antonius, permissione divina sanctas lerosolomitanaB Ecclesiae Patri- 
archa, et Episcopus Dunolm', &c. Dilecto et fideli nostro Jacobo le 
Spicer de Dunolm', novem acras et dimidiam terree juxta parcum de 
Beaurepaire : Item, quatuordecim acras terrse juxta le Nunneker : Item, 
octo acras et dimidiam, et dimidiam rodam terree juxta Surmilkeden : x 
Item, viginti septem acras unam rodam et dimidiam terrse in Holleyside 
juxta Nettelworth : Et in Nettelworth duas acras terree quse fuerunt 
Johannis Madur : Item, sexdecim acras et tres rodas terraB in Whiteley 
"Wode qua3 fuerunt Gilberti de Overindon : Item, decem acras terrae in 
le Greneker : et dimidiam acram prati in Surmilkeden. Habend', &c., 
Jacobo et heredibus suis, de nobis et successoribus nostris Episcopis 
Dunolm' imperpetuum. Reddendo, &c., ad scaccarium nostrum Dunolm' 

1 Souremylkden is mentioned in Hatfield's Survey under Framwellgate, 16 acres 
near it were waste land. 



1 08 BISHOP BEK'S CHARTER OF LANDS AT NETTLESWORTH. 

sexagiata unum solidos et quatuor denarios, ad quatuor anni terminos 
in episcopatu nostro Dunolm' generaliter constitutos. Yolentes et con- 
cedentes eidem Jacobo quod ipse et heredes sui habeant communam 
pasturae in omnibus boscis et pasturis nostris de Cestria et circa Dunolm', 
ubi alii tenentes nostri de Cestria et de Framwellegate communeant. 2 
Salvis nobis et successoribus nostris predictis approwamentis nostris in 
vastis nostris ubicunque ad voluntatem nostram faciendis. In cujus, 
&c. Hiis testibus, Domino Stephano de Maulay Archidiacono Clive- 
land, tune senescallo nostro Dunolm' ; Roberto de Hilton, Bicardo 
Marmeduk, Thoma de Whiteworth, militibus; Domino Rogero de 
Waltham cauonico London, cancellario nostro ; Magistris Johanne de 
Insula, Johanne de Botheby et Domino Roberto de Littelbiry receptore 
nostro Dunolm', clericis nostris ; Johanne Schirlok, Ricardo de Stanlawe 
tune vicecoraite nostro Dunolm', Petro de Bolton et aliis. Dat. apud 
Aukeland nono die mensis Februarii, Anno Domini Millesimo Trecen- 
tesimo Octavo, Patriarchatus nostri tertio, et consecrationis nostrse 
vicesimo sexto. 3 In dorso, in manu recentiori. Hollysyde alias Grene- 
syd et 2 acras terrse in Nettlesworth. 

- Sic. C'onimnnio, are, is the verb given in the Law-Latin Dictionary from Ras- 
tall's Entries, 539. 

3 The seal is sewn up, and is a mass of fragments. 



109 



LUMLEY LETTERS. 1 

RICHAED LUMLEY, EAEL OF SCAEBEOUGH, 2 TO ME. RALPH GOWLAND. 

I HAVE receaved yours of the 18, of the 21, and of the 26 of the last. lam 
very sorry to heare that Mr. Henry Liddle did not advise with you, but Sir 
Henry told me he did with Mr. Barnes. Pray let Mr. Tempest 3 know that 
commend his charity in the supporting the Mayor of Hartlepole, but 
that he must not expect to see my title* tel he forces me to it, and pray 
take all just methodes for the gitting of what is due to me. Lord 
Lumley 5 gives you many thanks for your kind enquirey after his health, 
and his brother 6 is your sarvant. Lord Lumley, the night after the 
battell, 7 was commanded out of his bed to assist at the buriall of the 
dead bodies, where he got a violent feaver, which turned to a quarterne 
ague, but I hope the by the care of Doctor Garth, 8 whoe is his phycitian, 
he will have noe more of it, 9 excuse my not writing to you souner. I 
have labored under severall troubles sence I saw you, and I doe hartily 
condole yours, for I am most sencerely yours and your families sarvant. 
SCAEBEOUGH. December 1, 1709. Por Mr. Ralph Gowland, Attorney, 
at his house in Durham, Durham. Frank, SCAEBEOUGH. 

1 Communicated by Mr. Trueman of Durham. 

2 Surtees characterizes Mm as "one of the most honourable and unimpeached 
characters of the age." Although he had but lately withdrawn himself from the 
Roman church, he marched his Sussex militia for James II. against the western in- 
surrection, sent forth his parties in every direction to secure Monmouth after his 
flight, and shared with Portman the duty of watching him day and night until he 
was within the walls of Whitehall. Notwithstanding this eminent service he found 
himself abhorred by the court as a renegade, and, when the sins and stupidity of the 
house of Stuart had reached their climax, he openly countenanced the seven* bishops 
on their trial, and was one of the seven men who signed the invitation to "William. 
He seized Newcastle, where he was welcomed with transport; argued powerfully 
for the vacancy of the throne, and the settlement on the Prince and Princess of 
Orange ; attended "William in all his campaigns; and died in 1721, full of honours. 
He was Lord Lieutenant and Vice Admiral of both Durham and Northumberland, 
and the last of his race who bore such offices, or had much connection with Durham. 

3 John Tempest, Esq., was Mayor of Hartlepool that year. 

4 The Earl was lord of Hart and Hartness. 

5 Henry Lord Viscount Lumley, who died in his father's lifetime. 

6 Bichard, afterwards Earl. 

7 Qu. That of Blaregnies or Malplaquet, won by Marlborough in September. 

8 The great Sir Samuel. 

9 Lord Henry died of the small pox 24 July, 1710, seven months after the date of 
the letter. 



110 LUMLEY LETTERS. 

MR. THOMAS MADDISON TO ME. GOWIAND. 

Dear Sir, When I saw you at Lumley Castle, you proposed answer- 
ing Mr. Airey's letter next day, but have heard nothing from you since. 
When these unhappy troubles begun in the north, I thought it im- 
proper to make any inquirys, for I presumed as little business went 
forward with you as with us. But as we have troops with us, and 
more coming, we begin to be easy, and I hope we shall have a good 
account of those rebellious desperate wretches. The term beginning to- 
morrow, I beg your advice what is to be done &c. I am with respects 
to you and the family, Sir, your obliged and humble servant, THO : 
MADDISON, Newcastle, Oct. 21, 1745. As to news, we have none from 
Edinburgh. The rebels are still there, and according to what I have 
heard, above 10,000 fighting men. A letter from Berwick last night, 
says Lord Lowdon is at the head of 6000 well affected clans. Only 
General Howard's Eegiment, which is thin, is landed at Shields ; about 
seven more transports are at the Bar, the rest expected soon, they 
seperated last Fry day in thick weather. Howard's Kegiment are the 
old Buffs, and came here yesterday from Shields. One of them taking 
a piece of candle to bed with [him] last night, the landlord refused his 
having it, which the soldier still kepd. Upon this, the landlord made 
complaint to three Dutch soldiers, 10 who came down from their cham- 
ber, and cut him desperately with their swords. The landlord is sent 
to Newgate, and the Dutch soldiers to the guard. \_In dorso~] Tran- 
sports at the Bar only five. To Mr. Gowland, in Durham. 

THE HON. JAMES LUMLEY" TO MR. GOWLAND, 

October 19, 1761. Sir, I received the favour of your letter, and am 
mightily oblidged to you for the trouble I gave you some time past above 
the river Were, but it would not answer, and should be a great loser by 
it, which made me drop it. I hope you will get your election. My 
compliments to Mrs. Gowland. This is from, Sir, Your most humble 
servant, JAMES LTJMLET. 

10 "Whitehall, Oct. 28. All the troops expected from Flanders were arrived at 
Newcastle, Berwick, and Holy Island. 

11 Another son of the writer of the last letter. He held some court appointments. 
His sister, Lady Mary, married George Montagu, afterwards Earl of Halifax, to 
whom, in 1745, Horace "Walpole writes : " Your friend Jemmy Lumley, I beg 
pardon, I meant your kin, is not he ? I am sure he is not your friend ; well, he 
has had an assembly, and he would write all the cards himself, and every one of 
them was to desire he's company and she's company, with other pieces of curious 
orthography," 



Ill 



BEPOBT ON THE PITMEN'S STlilKE AT NEWBOTTLE 
IN 1734. 1 

To the Queen's most excellent Majesty, Guardian of the realm of 
Great Britain. 

MAY IT PLEASE TOUB MAJESTY. In humble obedience to .His Majestie's 
commands, I have considered the petition of John Nesham, of Sunder- 
land, near the sea, gent., 2 which sets forth that the petitioner, together 
with John Hilton of Hilton Castle, Esquire, being lessees of a colliery 
at Newbottle, did, in July, 1 733, hire several colliers or pitmen, who 
continued to work therein untill February following. On the 13th day 
of that month about 100 of the paid pitmen assembled at the colliery in 
a riotous manner, and threatned to destroy it, and that they would not suffer 
any man to work there, and beat and abused the persons then at work, 
and threatned to pull down the fire engines and the petitioner's dwel- 
ling house, and declared with horrid oaths they would murder the 
petitioner. Petitioner being informed thereof, sent his agents to ex- 
postulate, and to know the reason of such behaviour, and was informed 
that the pitmen demanded one guinea per man to be paid them, or they 
would put their threats in execution. The pitmen continuing their 
proceedings untill the 27th, the petitioner, with three or four persons, 
went to the colliery to appease them. He found near 300 persons with 
great clubbs, amongst whom was John Grey, then of Lumley. As 
soon as they saw him, a great number of them threw of their cloths and 
violently assaulted him and the persons with him without provoca- 
tion. Petitioner spoke in a mild manner, intreating them to declare 
the reason of their being so disorderly, promising that if any of them 
had been injured he would do all in his power to redress them ; not- 
withstanding which they grew more outrageous, and assaulted and al- 
most killed several of those who came with him, and endeavoured to 
knock petitioner of his horse. Grey struck several times at petitioner 
and his company, who endeavoured to defend themselves, and in the 
scuffle Grey received a wound of which he after dyed, but by whom the 
wound was given is not known. Petitioner hoped his Majesty would 

1 This document is given in the words of the original, but is abridged. It is com- 
municated by Mr. Trueman. 

2 He stands at the head of the pedigree of Nesham of Houghton-le- Spring. Born 
1691. (Qu, John, son of Mr. Robert Neasham, of Chester-le- Street, bap. there, 
5 Sep., 1693.) He mar. Jane Finkney, of Blackwell, and died in 1769. " Hilton 
and Nesham' s" staith, on the south side of the river Wear, is shown on the en- 
graved plan of 1737- 



112 REPORT ON THE PITMEN'S STRIKE 

be pleased to grant his most gracious pardon to the petitioner of the 
offence, and of all penalties and forfeitures by reason of the same. 

Edmund Bourn by his affidavit sweares that on 6th Feb., the pitmen 
began to mutiny and desist from working, and assembled in great 
bodies after a very disorderly manner, and continued so for several days, 
threatning to pull down the engine and drown the colliery. On 26 
Feb., deponent was present when petitioner told Tho. Bartram and 
John Maddison, keelmen employed by petitioner, to go to the engine 
next day, and stay in the enginehouse to defend the same, but not to 
meddle with any of the pitmen unless in necessary defence. On 27 
Feb. deponent went to the house of Samuel Anderson and got four guns 
to defend the engine, which Anderson advised deponent to send in a 
ballast waggon and not on horseback, lest the pitmen should see them 
and take them. "Went to the engine with the guns and lodged there to 
defend the same. Had not been long there till he observed a great number 
of pitmen following petitioner, and striking at him with great clubbs 
and staves, and ready to knock him from his horse. Saw Mr. Dean, 
who was with petitioner, coming from among the pitmen sore beaten, 
and with several wounds in his head, and all blood. Then the pitmen 
making towards the engine in a great body and furious manner, depo- 
nent made off with all speed. 3 As he was going he heard several pit- 
men threaten they would murder him and also the petitioner if they 
could meet with them. Heard them curse and sweare that petitioner 
might thank God he had a good horse to carry him of, otherwise he 
should not have escaped with his life, for that they would have beat him 
to death. 

Joseph Bolt on. On 27 Feb., as he was going with Mr. Dean, Mr. 
Hobson, Mr. Eoper, and others, from Hobson's house towards the 
engine, to prevent it from being pulled down, they met with petitioner 
and one or persons with him near a gate, leading to one of the pits of 
the colliery. There were hundreds of men and women, and many of 
them threatning that if they got hold of petitioner they would tear him 
liinb from limb. Petitioner rode towards them and asked them what 
reason they had to lay off the works, and being answered they wanted 
their right, he replyed, that if they were imposed upon they should be 
righted, and desired them to desperse, whereupon they began to 
be very abusive. Petitioner desired the king's proclamation might 
be read to keep the peace, but the pitmen swore it should not, 
and immediately fell upon deponent, Mr. Deane, and the petitioner, 
with their clubbs and staves, and then knocked down deponent 
before he heard any arms fired or discharged, and afterwards several 
of the pitmen took him by the head and heels and carried him 
to a pitt's mouth, and swore they would throw him down, but 
some of the women perswaded them from it. They then began 
again to beat him. Got upon his feet, and in a weak condition 
made towards Hobson's house. The pitmen beat him all the way 
thither. A little time after a great number of them came to the house, 
and bid the people turn deponent out or they would pull down the 
house, and did break the windows and went away, but about an hour 
3 Bartram and Maddison depose that they ran also, 



AT NEWBOTTLE, IN 1734. 113 

afterwards returned in a greater body, and swore they would* murder 
him, and that if the people in the house did not turn him out some of 
them should dye in his room. "Was forced to come down stairs where 
he had been hid to avoid their fury, and was struck at through the 
windows which they had broke. Begging in the most submissive man- 
ner, they did at last agree to spare his life. Grey was very active 
amongst the pitmen. No arms were fired untill the pitmen had several 
times struck at petitioner and Mr. Dean, and knocked deponent down, 
and no assault was made or violence offered by petitioner, or any per- 
son with him, before that time. 

John Potter, being employed by petitioner and his partner, to take 
care of their engine and keep it in repair, went on 7 Feb. and found it 
stopped by the pitmen, who, in number about 100, threatned to murder 
him and pull down the engine if he set her to work again. Two or 
three days afterwards went again to set her to work, but was opposed 
by about 100 pitmen, who forced him to get speedily away, and told 
him that when petitioner came from London they would tear him limb 
from limb. A few days afterward they consented that deponent might 
set her to work, which he did, and as he has been going to and from the 
engine, as well before as after the 27 Feb., he frequently heard them 
swear to murder petitioner and destroy the fire engine if he did not 
agree with their terms. Several times during the mutinying was present 
when the corves were gaged by, or in the presence of, the pitmen's 
friends, and the same, one with another, were no bigger that they were 
agreed to be. If the pitmen had destroyed the engine, the colliery must 
have been drowned. 

MatJiew Hobson. On 14 Feb. deponent, as viewer to petitioner, had 
prevailed with five of the pitmen to work in the colliery at Southeron's 
pitt. One hundred persons or thereabouts went to the pitt, set the gin 
a main, threw the pitt ropes down the pitt, and broke the gin, and 
would not suffer the pitmen in the pitt to be drawn out for several 
hours after the usual time of leaving work, and swore that if they had 
them above ground they would beat them to death, for working there 
without their leave. Deponent at length thinking he had appeased their 
anger, desired he might draw them above ground, which he caused to 
be done, when several of the riotous persons fell upon the workmen and 
beat them violently. They run away, and thereby escaped further 
damage. They hindered other workmen from sinking in another pitt, 
and threatned to pull up the waggon way, destroy the fire engine, 
drown the colliery, and demolish the petitioner's dwelling house at 
Houghton. Petitioner was at London. On 23 Feb. the riotous persons, 
having heard that petitioner was got home, told deponent that if peti- 
tioner would not give them a guinea a man for lying idle, which would 
have amounted to near 300., they would pull down his engine, pull up 
the waggon way, drown the colliery, and set fire to the coal heaps, and 
if he came to the works, they would kill him. Deponent on 25 Feb. 
told petitioner that the pitmen would meet him at Lumley Castle the 
next day, to see if they could agree. Petitioner went accordingly, but 
that morning about 100 pitmen told deponent that they would not meet 
there, for fear petitioner might get them taken into custody. Deponent 



114 REPORT OX THE PITMEN'S STRIKE 

proposed Lumley Park gate, but they swore " D them, if they would 
meet him at any place but at the pitts," and bid deponent tell petitioner 
that if he did not the next day (the 27th), send them a guinea a 
man, and agree with them, they would pull down the engine, &c. On 
27 Feb. petitioner sent men and firearms in a waggon, to be put into 
the engine house. Deponent going from his house to the engine with 
Mr. Eoper and others sent to defend it, met petitioner with A very Ro- 
binson, constable of Houghton, who turned back to go to the engine 
house. At a gate leading to Southeron's pitt, they found hundreds of 
the pitmen and their wives with great clubbs, &c. &c. Petitioner 
retreated upon a pitheap. Deponent endeavoured to keep them from 
going up the same, till they overpowered him by numbers and got upon 
the heap, and beat petitioner and his horse off the heap. He rode off 
and escaped them. The pitmen struck several times at petitioner, and 
barbarously beat others almost to death before any arms were fired, and 
before they were fired deponent desired Robinson to read the proclama- 
tion for dispersing rioters, who then declared that he durst not do it, 
and that if he did they would kill him and pull down his house. Some 
time after the pitmen broke the windows of deponent's house, and 
threatned other damages, which he prevented by giving them ale. They 
insisted on it, and forced deponent to go to Kewbottle Town to see for 
the petitioner, and tell him again that if he did not send them a 
guinea, &c. 

James Wilson, being servant to petitioner, did, on 27 Feb., go with 
him from his dwelling house in Sunderland. They met by accident Mr. 
Richard Bryan and Mr. Thomas Starn, and afterwards Avery Robinson. 
Petitioner called Robinson back and asked him if he was not constable 
of Houghton, who answered that he was. Petitioner desired him to go 
along with him, if he could conveniently, 4 and he accordingly went. 
They called at the house of Ralph Bates of Newbottle, esquire, one of his 
Majestie's Justices of the Peace. "When the petitioner had got clear 
of the pitmen, he rode towards the engine, where he met the said Mr. 
Bates, whom he desired to read the proclamation, but they would not 
suffer him, and swore if they did not get hold of him then, they would 
catch him at Newbottle, if he read it. Bryan and Starn had no weapons, 
nor intermeddled in the affray, but sate on horseback at a distance as 
spectators. 

IN ANSWER to which, George Clarke swears that he and other pitmen 
refused to work till they had justice done them in the corves. In pur- 
suance of a notice given deponent to meet petitioner at the house of 
Ma the w Hobson, he and others, on 27 Feb., went, and being got to a 
gate not farr distant from Hobson' s house, the petitioner and three or 
four people on horseback came, and petitioner asked them what they 
came there for, and bid them go home and be civil ; and they replyed 
that they were come to make an agreement with him, and intended to 
use no incivility to him. Petitioner went towards Hobson' s house, and 
was met by Hobson, a serjeant drummer, and several others, who came 

4 Robinson deposes that the pc.'titioner told him he must go with him to his colliery, 
for he had something for him to do when he came there. 



AT NEWBOTTLE, IN 1734. 115 

back with him, which they seeing, drew off towards a pitheap, where 
more pitmen were assembled, whither petitioner followed them, and 
swore he would shoot them all, and accordingly fired a pistol or gun 
amongst them, and bid the other persons fire likewise, which they did, 
by which shooting John Grey, a pitman, received a wound in his right 
leg and thigh, of which he died on 1 March next following. 

John Walton. Petitioner overtook him as he was going along the 
heap, presented a pistol to him, and threatned that if he went not im- 
mediately off the heap he would shoot him. 

Margaret Thompson. Petitioner said it should be the blackest day 
that ever they saw, and immediately rode up to the pitheap. Saw him 
fire among the pitmen, and ordered a serjeant to fire or else he would 
him, upon which she heard several guns or pistols fired. Petitioner 
fired another pistol over his right arm at her, and then rode of. 

Isabell Currey. Petitioner spoke " D you, dogs, what do you 
want ?" The pitmen, after they pulled of their hats in a very hum- 
ble manner, answered that they were come thither by his viewer's ap- 
pointment to meet him, and make an agreement about the size of their 
corves, which were much bigger than they ought to be by the contract. 
He replyed he would not speak to them, for if they got anything of him 
it should be by fair means, whereupon he rode up to the viewer's house 
and brought a serjeant and drummer with fire arms, whereupon the pit- 
men retired from the gate toward Colliery Row, being the place of the 
habitations of most of them ; but before they could get thither, peti- 
tioner, with the serjeant and drummer, overtook them near a hedge, and 
before they could get over the hedge into the lane where their habita- 
tions were, petitioner fired a pistol among them, and drove them into a 
ditch next the hedge. The pitmen told petitioner that unless he would 
leave of firing, they would defend themselves as well as they could, for 
they had rather dye like men than be killed like dogs. Petitioner said, 
" Come up, serjeant," three times, and said, " D you, serjeant, if you 
don't shoot, I will shoot you." The serjeant fired and drew his broad 
sword, and was going to cleave the head of William Walker. Was pre- 
vented by other pitmen putting their sticks over his head and receiving 
the blow. Immediately after heard several guns fired, by which John 
Grey received a wound and dyed. 

Avery Rolimon, constable of Houghton. Petitioner told them he 
would not agree with them unless they would work with the same 
corves, otherwise take what follows. Petitioner then rode towards the 
viewer's house, and was met by his viewer, one Mr. Roper, a serjeant, 
drummer, and new recruit, and other persons, who came back with him 
to the place where he had left the colliers. After some words had 
passed, deponent heard some one, but who he cannot tell, but verily be- 
lieves it was petitioner, say, " Shoot ! D you, why don't you shoot?" 
Upon which he heard some guns or pistols shot off, and particularly 
saw the serjeant and another person fire their pieces, after which the 
said other person ran to petitioner and desired him to take him up be- 
hind him, which petitioner's servant did; and after the person was got 
up behind the servant, heard him say, " D it, I have shot one man, if 
not two." 



lltf REPORT OF THE PITMEN'S STRIKE 

Richard Oyston, Anthony Allen, Tho. Curry, Thomas Galley, and 
Robert Thompson. By their agreement they were to work only with a 
fourteen peck corf, but upon measuring some of the corves they were 
found considerably bigger. Petitioner returned with a serjeant, 
drummer, and a new raised man, all armed, who came on foot, but 
petitioner continued on horseback. Before they came to the gate, de- 
ponents and the rest of the pitmen perceiving and believing that petitioner 
had some mischievous and desperate designs against them, all run away 
towards Collier Eow, where most of them lived, but, before they could 
get so far, petitioner overtook them, and bid them stand, and desired 
two or three of them would come to him and speak with him. Wm. 
"Walker and two or three more of them, and, at the said Hobson's re- 
quest, one John Walton also went to petitioner to speak to him, but, 
before they were got up to petitioner, he fired a pistol among them, and, 
after that, fired one or two more pistols, and, immediately afterwards, 
the serjeant and a new raised man fired, and one other person in the 
petitioner's company, by which firing John Grey received a wound of 
which he dyed. 

Samuel Anderson. On 26 Feb. was in company with petitioner, and 
asked him if he had agreed with his pitmen. Petitioner answered he 
had not, but intended to be with them in a day or two, and would make 
it the worst day to them they ever saw in their lives, and used several 
other angry and passionate expressions against them. Next day, 
being 27 Feb., deponent, being employed as staithman by petitioner, 
had orders to meet him at the engine, which he did, and went from 
thence to the house of Matthew Hobson, where -there was a serjeant and 
a drummer, armed with pistols and a sword, and one Brown with a 
gun, and petitioner had a pair of pistols. There was also six or seven 
other persons not armed. Petitioner ordered both the armed and un- 
armed men to go with him, which they did, to a gate called Curry's 
Gate, about forty or fifty yards distant from the pitheap where Grey 
was afterwards shot. Deponent refused to go further than the gate, at 
which petitioner was very angry, and desired him to go with him, but, 
deponent telling him he saw no reason nor occasion for it, petitioner 
said "D you, go along with me." On the other side of the gate 
about forty or fifty pitmen were assembled, who, upon petitioner 
appearing, put off their hats in a quiet and civil manner, and 
about four or five of them told him they were come there according 
to his viewer's appointment. Petitioner was then in a great rage and 
passion, 'and bidd tfrem be gone. Deponent refusing to go with 
petitioner, he went first through the said gate, and the armed men, and 
the others without arms, after him, upon which the pitmen retired 
towards the said pitheap. The first acts of violence which he observed 
was the discharging two fire arms upon or amongst the pitmen. 
Petitioner dkcharged one of his pistols. John Grey was shot by the 
discharging of one of the fire arms, and afterwards dyed. After Grey 
was shot, another gun or pistol was discharged, but by whom deponent 
knows not. Upon discharging the fire arms a great number of pitmen 
assembled, and, being much enraged, beat the petitioner and the per- 
sons with him from the pitheap, who then rode away. 



AT NEWBOTTLE, IN 1734. 117 

The affidavits on the part of the pitmen omit giving any account of 
what happened before the 27th of February, and in respect" to the tran- 
sactions of the 27th February, are drawn in such a manner as plainly 
shews that they do not discover the whole truth of the case. The affida- 
vits on the part of the petitioner all agree in one very material circum- 
stance, that whatever was done by petitioner and those who came to his 
assistance upon 27 Feb., was done in defence of the colliery and them- 
selves, and that no fire arms were discharged till they had been very 
severely beaten, and their lives were in danger. 

I am humbly of opinion that the petitioner has done nothing but what 
was absolutely necessary for the defence of his colliery, and that if he 
had been the unfortunate person who had given the wound of which 
John Grey died (which does not appear), yet he would have been at 
least excusable, if not strictly justifiable. 

In cases of homicide where there is anything of malice, I shall never 
advise his Majesty to interpose, but am humbly of opinion that the per- 
son committing the fact, ought always to be left to the ordinary course 
of justice. But there does not appear to have been the least malice in 
the present case. 

I cannot think that any jury could find the petitioner guilty of mur- 
der, and I think there is not a sufficient foundation to convict him even 
of manslaughter, but, as he will be liable to very severe penalties if he 
should be found guilty of manslaughter, and as I think he deserves no 
punishment at all, I am therefore of opinion that the petitioner is a very 
proper object of his Majestie's great goodness and compassion, and that 
it may be very fit for his Majesty to grant to the petitioner his most 
gracious pardon. 

J. WlLLES, 

June llth, 1735. 

In dorso. To be heard att my Lord Privy Seal's office at Whitehall, 
on Friday the 4th of July next, at 5 of the clock in the afternoon. 10 
guineas. 

[Counsel's notes.] ISTo foundation for complaint about the corves. 
Affidavit of the maker, George Hedley. May indict all our witnesses. 

[Addressed] 

For Mr. Samuel Gowland att Durham. 



us; 



SCHEME FOE A NAVIGABLE EIVEE TO DUEHAM. 

THE draft 1 of an Act (temp. Geo. II.) for Improving the Navigation of 
the Eiver Wear, and making and continuing the same river navigable 
from Mr. Allen's staith up to the city of Durham, is submitted to the 
notice of the Society. 

It recites the Act of 3 Geo. I. for the improvement of the river and 
port and haven of Sunderland, whereby a commission was appointed for 
21 years with these limits: Erom the promontory or point called 
Souter point, about two miles from Sunderland Barr towards the N.E., 
and so into the sea to five fathoms at low water, and from thence in a 
supposed direct line till it fall opposite to that land called Eyhope 
Dean, about two miles from Sunderland Barr towards the S., and con- 
tinuing "W. from the said barr and limits up the river to a place called 
Newbridge, par. Chester-le- Street, and thence to the city of Durham. 
Tolls were to be levied from 24 June, 1717 ; those arising by coals and 
cinders brought to the river below the Newbridge to be applied only to 
that part of the stream ; those arising by coals and cinders loaded or 
unloaded above the Newbridge to be applied only towards making the 
river navigable between that point and the city of Durham. Eecitals 
follow to the effect that, notwithstanding the above Act, the "Wear is 
not navigable higher than Mr. Allen's staiths, below the Newbridge, and 
that the tolls to be levied below Newbridge would not suffice to carry 
navigation further. Shoals and sands must be removed, cuts for the 
passage of water below Newbridge, and locks, dams, sluices and cuts for 
the passage above and near it up to Durham, are required. Navigation 
to the city will benefit trade and the poor, will greatly encourage the 
woollen manufactory in the city, and be convenient for the carriage of 
lead, coals, lime, stone, timber, deals, butter, tallow, &c., to and from 
Durham, Westmoreland, Cumberland, Yorkshire, and other counties, to 
and from Sunderland, London, and other parts, British and Eoreign, 
and will very much tend to the employing and increase of watermen 
and seamen, and be a means to preserve the highways. The Mayor and 
Aldermen of the city of Durham have proposed to carry out the work to 
accommodate boats and vessels of twenty tons burden or more. It is now 
enacted that the Mayor and Aldermen shall be a Corporation by the 
name of the Mayor and Aldermen of the city of Durham, and have a 
common seal, and very extensive powers for altering and deepening the 
river are then given to them. No ground except mansion-houses, out- 

1 Communicated by Mr. John Yentress. 



SCHEME FOR A NAVIGABLE RIVER TO DURHAM. 119 

bouses, and gardens, are safe from interference. The first lock or dam 
is to be at or near Newbridge, in Mr. Mascall's ground. The Act of 3 
Geo. I. as relates to the limits of this Act is repealed. The commision- 
ers must not touch existing ballast quays, wharfs, or coal staithes, 
otherwise than by imposing penalties for nonrepair. Tolls are given 
to them, but not to affect Henry Lambton of Lambton, Esq., his heirs or 
assigns, for coals or cinders gotten out of his estates at Lambton or Harra- 
ton, and laid on his staithes within the limits of the Act. Winches or 
or other engines may be erecte4 to draw vessels. Passages over the 
towing-paths, cuts, &c., to be made for convenient occupation of the 
adjoining lands, and bridges, fords, highways, &c., not to be destroyed 
until substitutes are made. Provisions occur against leaving open the 
" locks or cloughs " to be made in the cuts, which in dry seasons may 
prejudice the mills and works upon the river. [The passage is men- 
tioned in consequence of this sense of the word clough being altogether 
omitted in our local and archaic glossaries. " The clough " at Thirsk 
is the place where the waste waters of the Codbeck throw themselves 
over a dam, being regulated by a screw upon the mill-race which there 
separates from the old course. On the Wear works, the boatmen, as 
soon as their vessel had passed the lock were "to shut the said lock, 
and the gates and cloughs thereof."] Rights of fishing and fowling are 
reserved, and pleasure boats are to have free passage through the locks 
though not paying toll. Lords of manors and owners of riverside lands 
may erect warehouses, weighbeams, cranes, keys, landing places or 
wharfs, on their own wastes or grounds upon the river or cuts, and levy 
rates for themselves. 

The scheme shared the fate of many other fantasies of corporate 
bodies, and Durham is yet free from vessels of burden. " Mr. Allen " 
was Thomas Allan, Esq., of Allan's Platts, near Chester-le-Street. See 
the pedigrees of Allan of Elackwell, &c., in Hist. Darlington, 



120 



WASHINGTON LETTERS, 1 

GENERAL WASHINGTON TO ME. J. RUMNEY. 

Mount Vernon, April 6, 1787. I can say little more at this time re- 
specting the estate of the deceased Coll. Thos. Colvill 2 than what is 
contained in my account of it to Major Swan (recited in one of the 
letters which you put into my hand) except that I have used every 
means in my power to collect materials (and very defective they are) 
for a final settlement of the administration of it. 'What the surplus of 
the estate will be when the debts and legacies are all paid, is more than 
I can inform you. The testator himself, as will appear by his will, had 
a doubt of there being any. And what will be done with it if there 
should, must be a matter for future determination. When the adminis- 
tration is closed, which it is my sincere wish to do as soon as the 
nature of the case will admit, I shall, for my own justification and 
security, take council with respect to the application of the surplus, if 
any, under the existing laws of this country. The author of the letters 
of instruction to you is mistaken, I conceive, when he says the claim of 
one Clawson was admitted, unless by admission he means that it was 
received. If this was not his idea, it will give him no pleasure to be 
informed that near twenty others, I believe, have been admitted in the 
same manner, under the indefinite and, I may add, indigested clause of the 
will which has stirred up so many pretenders, as to render it a matter 
of difficult investigation to determine rightly in the case. 

GEO. WASHINGTON. 

Mr. J. KUMNEI TO MR. JAMES SCORER. 

Alexandria, April 6, 1787. Sir, I have to acknowledge receipt of 
your favour per Capt. Atkinson, and, agreeable to your request, have 
made every inquiry respecting Coll. Colville's estate that was in my 
power. I have seen Mr. Tom West, who is son to the old gentleman, 
one of the executors ; he does not know much of the business, but gave 

1 All these letters, except the last, are communicated by Mr. Trueman of Durham. 

2 It is evident from the sequel, that this gentleman was nearly related to the Col- 
villes of Whitchouse, near Gateshead. Adam Colville of Boldon, gent., had a son 
Edward, butcher and hostman of Newcastle, who purchased Whitehouse, and died in 
1750, aged 105. By his first wife Anne Ladler (mar. 1682, bur. 1686) he had a son 
Anthony, bap. 1683, bur. 1685. By his second, Sarah (bur. 1713), he had issue, 
Edward, bap. 1700, bur. 1783 ; Robert, bap. 1705 ; and John, bap. 1708, who re- 
sided at Whitehouse. John married Joan, the daughter of "Wni. Fawcctt, of West 
Boldon, gent., to whom he left his estate in fee. and died childless in 1781. She died 
in 1785. 



WASHINGTON LETTERS 121 

up the papers to the other executors. I have wrote to Mr. Swan at 
Baltimore, but have not received an answer, which I wonder at. I dined 
last Sunday with General Washington at his house, a few miles from 
hence, and had a long conversation on the subject with him. He was 
very much averse to being an executor in this business, and had not 
taken any active part untill Mr. West's death. He says, so many claims 
have been made, that they do not know who is entitled to what was 
left ; he therefore means to lodge what is their due in the hands of the 
Lord Chancellor in England, to be paid to those whose right it seems to 
be. He does not think there will be much, but whatever there is, it 
ought to be ascertained, and made an end of, and you may rely on my 
endeavours to forward it. The General begged I would leave your 
memorandum and letter with him for his perusal, which I did. I hope 
soon to see him again, and when anything further is done, you shall 
hear from me. J. RUMNEY. Since writing the above, I have received 
a letter from the General, and enclosed I send you a copy of that part 
of it which relates to your business. I think it is not favourable by 
any means. 

MR. JAMES SCORER to MR. JOHN CLA.RKSON. 

W*.Haven, June, 1787. Dear Sirs, On the other side you have two 
copies of letters, the one from my friend Mr. Rumney to me, and the 
other from General Washington to him., by which you will see the ac- 
tive part my friend has taken in your business, and how little the 
expectation is of bringing any thing to a period. The General now 
thinks there will [be] very little due to the claments, and you see 
denies your claim ever being admitted any more then it might have 
been received amongest the many claims that has been made. 1 always 
understood by you that your claim was admitted by the opinion of 
Councelar Wyth, &c., and as such was the style of my letters to Mr. 
Rumney. I wrote to Mr. Swan by the same oppertunity as I wrote 
Mr. Rumney, telling him Mr. Rumney would correspond with him on 
the business, as he was so near the executor's. You see Mr. Rumney 
has likewise wrote him, but can get no answer, and, as Mr. Swan is 
empowered from you to act in this business, I don't see any thing more 
my friend can do in it then assist Mr. Swan in any thing he may chuse 
to communicate to him, but it disnot appear to me that he means to 
correspond with him about it. It would likewise appear by General 
Washington's letter to Mr. Rumney, that he and Mr. Swan has corres- 
ponded on the business, but this may refer to the copy of the letters 
you sent me ; if so, it is very old. The General seems to wish to have 
the matter brought to an esue, and it appears to me if it ever be done, 
it must be by him. You will judge for yourselves what steps is further 
to be taken, but I think you should get your friends in London to 
write out again to Mr. Swan to push the business as he has your powers 
to do it, and I am sure that Mr. Rumney would do any thing in con- 
junction with him to bring you to your right, if there be anything for 
you, and that your claim is admitted of. If you have anything more 
to communicate to me upon this a vessel will sail for Alexandria the 



122 WASHINGTON LETTERS. 

latter end of this month, and it will always give me pleasure to render 
you any service in my poor, and am, D r S, your very humble servant, 
JAMES SCORER. Please to give my love to my mother, then she will 
know I have got home. J. S. Mr. John Clawson, 5, Framwel Gate, 
Durham. 

SIR WILLIAM AppLEBY 3 TO MR. JOHN SWAN. 

Mr. John Swan. Sir, since my arrival from London, I have had the 
pleasure of reading a letter from you in answer to mine, as well as one 
from Mr. Scorer annexing two from Mr. Washington and Mr. Eumney 
to him, concerning Clarson's demand upon Washington as executor to 
Coll. Colvill's effects. I think it my duty as a man of honour and 
veracity again to assure you that every word contained in mine was the 
truth. Let Washington say what he will, or still use what evasive 
subterfuges he may, as he has always done, and ever will find some pre- 
tence to keep the immense property devised, in his own possession, and 
thereby defraud the legatees. He dare not show you my letters to him 
upon that occasion when he played the same game as at present, but had 
Mr. James Balfour (agent to Mr. Hanbury) only survived, he would long 
ere now have been compelled to make a distribution. Whatever opinion 
other people may have of him / clearly see by his letter, dated Apl, 6, 
1787, now before me, to Mr. Eumney, it wont alter mine, which, he well 
knows, was always adverse to him, and well founded for the reasons 
assigned. He alledges there are such numerous claimants, which is 
false respecting the quota justly demanded that there can no dis- 
tribution be made properly. The present claimants have nothing to do 
with them, if there were a thousand upon three parts of the property, 
for they are solely and incontestably intitled to one fourth thereof as 
the legal inheritors to Stott's family mentioned in Colvill's will, and I 
know there are other legal claimants now living in this neighbourhood 
who shall instantly agitate their just right if he does not immediately 
satisfye the present claimants Clarsons, or he shall be publickly exposed 
both here and in America by me, and at my expence, for he well de- 
serves it. Mr. Eumney can easily let you see Wasshington's letter to 
him, and, if you please, may let the last mentioned peruse this, who, I 
am confident, will never finish the business, unless he is shamed out of 
it publickly, which indeed will be a very hard matter to do. The present 
claimants are much obliged to Mr. Eumney and you, and make no 
doubt but by this time our worthy and honourable clerk of the peace, 
George Pearson, Esq., has sent you and him, through favour of Messrs. 
Harrison, Ainsley, and Co., of London, every necessary credential to 
compel Washington to do them justice. I am certain that Washington's 
litteral expressions in a letter sent to me above ten years ago, when the 
affair was in the hands of Mr. Balfour, were these, " I admit the claim*, 

3 One of the Peg Nicholson knights. He is said to have refused to pay the usual 
fees to the officers of Heralds' College after being knighted, objecting that they could 
not unknight him. The italics are his own. 

4 Washington by such an expression probably only meant to say " I admit the ex- 
istence of your clients claim as a claim their right must be legally established for 
mv safety." 






WASHINGTON LETTERS. 123 

/ admit the possession of the property, but I will not pay one shilling, 
UNLESS I am compelld to it, in our own Court of Chancery, for my own 
justification." Such was then, such is, and such ever will be the lan- 
guage of the modern Falius in war as well as executorships, if not com- 
pelled to do the parties justice. I have taken the liberty to send this to 
Mr. Rumney, and to entreat he will forward it to you, and if I am 
favoured with any answer from either upon the subject, may either 
address it to George Pearson, Esq., or Sir "William Appleby, Durham, 
which will much oblige, Sir, your most humble servant, WILL. APPLEBY, 
Durham. Augt. 8, 1787. 

SIR WILLIAM APPLEBY TO ME. RUMNEY. 

Durham, Augt. 8, 1787. Mr. Rumney, Sir, I have taken the liberty 
to transmit the above to you, entreating, after your perusal thereof, and 
looking upon it as also addressed to you, as well as Mr. Swan, you'll 
please to send him it, and am, with many thanks for your attention to 
the interest of the present just claimants upon Washington, as acting 
executor to Col. Colvill, am, Sir, your most humble servant, WILL. 
APPLEBY. P. S. My opinion of and reflections upon Mr. Washington, 
I do assure you, are very just. I understand Col. Colvill's brother left 
many thousands to the present Lord Tankerville, 5 who got it all : the 
late gentlemen left his property to a greater amount to four families here, 
but which I dare say they will be all cheated of, and by as before- 
mentioned. Mr. J. Eumney, at Alexandria, in America. 



ME. JAMES KEITH TO ME. C. RICHMOND. 

Alexandria, 15th December, 1790. The estate of the late Colonel 
Thomas Colvill consisted of lands, slaves, and a large debt due from the 
estate of his brother Col John Colvill. Part of his lands and slaves he 
gave to particular friends, the residue he directed to be sold for the 
payment of his debts and legacies. This has been done, and the money 
1 believe chiefly received. His brother John Colvill had directed a 
tract to be sold for the payment of his debts ; this had for some causes 
been delayed till a short time before the death of Thomas Colvill, and 
but a very inconsiderable part of the purchase money paid in his life- 
time. Several bills of exchange had been passed to him on account of 
the purchase, but those were chiefly returned protested, either just be- 
fore or immediately after the death of Colonel Colvill. The purchaser's 

5 John Colville of Whitehouse had several sisters, viz., 1. Elizabeth, bap. 1689. 
2. Susanna, bap. 1690, mar. Lionel Allan, Esq., an eminent merchant at Rotterdam, 
and died 1783, having survived her husband, ten brothers and sisters, and buried ten 
children. 3. Ann, bap. 1693, mar. 1710, to "William Hanby of Newcastle, barber- 
chirurgeon. 4. Sarah, bap. with Ann. 5. Rosamond, bap. 1695, mar. to Roger 
Pearson of Tritlington, Esq. 6. Camilla, bap. 1698, mar. Charles Bennet, Earl of 
Tankerville, who died 1753. She died 1775. 7. Catherine, bap. 1701. 8. Jane, 
bap. 1703, mar. successively to Charles Clarke, of Gray's Inn, attorney, and Robert 
Fen wick, of Lemington, Esq., but d. s. p. There is a romantic relation of the 
wooing and winning of Camilla. See Hist. Darlington, iv. 



124 WASHINGTON LETTERS. 

circumstances about that time became desperate ; the executors of Tho- 
mas Colvill in vain applied for payments, it was out of his power to 
make any. Things remained in this state till the begin ing of the 
year 1772, when some of the creditors of the purchaser's conceiving 
the land to be worth considerably more at that time, proposed paying 
the balance of the purchase money, upon condition the land was con- 
veyed to them. This, after some time, was agreed upon, and commis- 
sioners appointed to settle the accounts and ascertain the balances then 
due. This was done ; a part of the balance was then paid, and a bond 
given for the balance. A suspension of all law business soon after tak- 
ing place in Virginia, and hostilities commencing in 1775, nothing fur- 
ther was done until peace was restored, and General Washington 
returned home. During that period two of the executors died, one of 
them the person who had transacted the whole business of the estate, 
which, as well as his own affairs, he had left in the greatest confusion. 
General "Washington, soon after his return home, put such of that gen- 
tlemen's papers as related to the transactions of Colvill' s estate in my 
hands, to endeavour to state an account of his transactions. After much 
time spent, I formed as just an one as the lights I could procure from 
different parts would enable me. In the course of this business, I dis- 
covered that the commissioners who had settled the accounts between 
the purchaser of the land and the executors had made a gross blunder, 
which, if not rectified, will fall upon the estate of Thomas Colvill. A 
suit is instituted and now depending to get that error rectified, and to 
settle the question of interest upon the bond. Those suits I expect 
will be determined in May next, and immediately after the determina- 
tion the President will close the account of that transaction. JA". KEITH. 
If the error alluded to is rectified there may probably be a surplus of 
600/. Virginia money. 

ME. C. EICHMOND TO GEOEGE PEARSON, ESQ. 

Philadelphia, 14th April, 1791. Sir, You will no doubt have been 
surprised that the affairs of Mr. Clarkson committed to my care have 
seemingly been unattended to by me, but you will find by the copy of 
Mr. Keith's answer to my application on the subject, that I have not 
altogether neglected the business. When I arrived in London from the 
North in February, 1790, I found the gentleman (Mr. John Eumney) 
who was joined with me in the letter of attorney had left Virginia, and 
was then in London. I told him of the power I had received ; he an- 
swered, he wished me success in the execution of it, but was affraid 
little would be obtained upon it, from what he had been able to learn. 
My being engaged in public business soon after I arrived in Maryland, 
to attend the officers of Congress at New York, as agent to settle ac- 
counts between Maryland and the United States, prevented my journey 
to Alexandria until December, since which my chest and papers have 
been detained by the i<-,e in the bay and rivers until this few weeks 
past, when they came to my hands, and with them that of which I 
now send you the copy. General Washington, the President of the 
United States, is now on a tour to the Carolinas and Georgia. I think 



WASHINGTON LETTERS, 125 

it probable I shall be able to procure some intelligence from him 
relating to this matter when he has returned to this city, which will be 
about the begining of July next. After which time you shall hear 
from me again. With great respect, I am, Sir, Your obedt. humble 
servant, C. RICHMOND. P.S. Will you be so good as to remember me to 
my brother Joseph and his family, and tell him I have not heard of or 
received a letter from any of my relations since I left England.- 
George Pearson, Esq., Clerk of the Peace, City of Durham, N. Eng- 
land, per the Harmony, Cap. Osman, of Philadelphia. 

MES. SAEAH ADDISON TO ME. WASHINGTON SMIRK,* 

Oct. 1836. 

DEAE BEOTHEE, I write this to inform you of our decent, the papers 
I have seen, and what my dear mother told me respecting it. Our 
grandfather's name was Thomas Washington, 2 brother to General George 
Washington, of North America. Our grandfather was a planter of Virgi- 
nia, Nevis, and St. Kits, and that he traded in his own vessel to England. 
The ports he used were Liverpool and Newcastle. The last ship he 
came to Newcastle in was the Duke of Argyle. He died suddenly, at 
Gateshead, without a will, leaving our grandmother with three daughters, 
Mary, Sarah, and Hannah, who at her death were taken by Alderman 
Baker, Alderman Peareth, and Alderman Yernal, each one with a 
promise of bringing them up according to their decent, but were made 
servants of, and they remained so until marriage. Our grandmother's 
name was Mary Smith, a native of Alnwick, Northumberland. She 
had an annuity from N. . .wick \_partially illegible] estate for her life ; 
but how that was left I do not know. Mr. William Peareth never let 
the sisters rest untill he got the papers from them to do them justice, 
but he never would confess with them after. He sent them to America. 
A gentleman belonging to Burn Hall, near Durham, told our aunt Mary 
he had seen a letter wrote by the General's own hand concerning three 
orphan sisters, a sum of 20,OOOZ. for them. Mr. Peareth would never 
confess anything after that, which caused my father to go to London. 
He could make nothing out, but that the money came, received by who 
they would not say ; and having no one to advise him, came home and 
would never see after it again ; so it was lost. I read myself, in the 
Newcastle paper, put in by a Mr. Wilson, of Newcastle, son of Eector 
Wilson, that the niece of General Washington called upon him, and he 
presented her with 51. as a token of respect ; and that person was aunt 
Mary. I have to inform you Eector Wilson married our father and 
mother in the year of our Lord 1 780, the 23d of May, at Washington 

1 Communicated by "William Green, Jun., Esq., of Findon Cottage, near Durham. 

2 The name of Washington is so unusual in the North of England, and the con- 
nection of this person with America so minutely set out, that it is difficult to resist 
the impression that lie was a near connexion with the General, who certainly had 
brothers, planters in Virginia, though not of the name of Thomas. Possibly Mrs. 
Addison is in error as to the baptismal name of her grandfather. 



126 WASHINGTON LETTERS. 

Church, near Usworth. 3 Our mother was up mostly at Usworth Hall.^ 
Oar father Edward Smirk was respectfully decended from the Wylams' 
family. 4 The Miss Peareths alwayes looked upon aunt Mary's son, and 
always gave him whenever he went on our mother's account; but we 
never went. They are all dead but an old lady, the last time I heard of 
them. My dear mother many a time has sat and wept when she looked 
at her sons and daughters, to think how they were wronged. She al- 
ways committed her case to the God of her salvation, and she used to 
say He would always avenge the case of the innocent. Our hairs are 
numbered, and a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without His per- 
mission. I know what I have said to be truth. 

So dear brother, farewell. 

To Washington Smirk, SAKAH ADDISON. 

Butterknowle Colliery. 

3 The following is the entry of the marriage in "Washington Register : " Ed- 
ward Smirk and Hannah Washington, both of this parish, married, by banns duly- 
published on the 22d day of May, 1780, by me, E. WILSON, rector. Marriage 
solemnized on the day and year above written between us, EDWARD SMIRK, 
Hannah M Washington's mark. In the presence of JNO. FATHERLEY, JNO. HALL." 

4 Edward Smirk's mother was Ann, eldest daughter of Mr. John Wylam of 
North Bicldick, par. Washington, farmer, by Catherine, who was living a widow at 
Woodhouse, North Biddick, in 1746, and on 3 July, 1750, was married at Washing- 
ton to Robert Wade of Ousterly, afterwards of Fatfield, yeoman. Mr. Wylam was 
grandfather of our highly respected neighbour, Mr. Ralph Wylam of Gateshead, who 
states that, in reference to his aunt's marriage to Smirk, it was said that she pleased 
her eyes, and grieved her heart. The ceremony took place at Washington, 27 Mar., 
1749, and her husband, Thomas Smirk, was then of the parish of Chester-le- Street. 
In 1751, when, on 11 Dec., his daughter Catherine was baptized at Washington, he 
is stated to reside at Cat Dean. His son, Edward Smirk, was a horsekeeper at the 
New Stables in 1781, the year after his marriage with Hannah Washington, when, 
on 8 March, he baptized a daughter Anne at Washington. On 14 Oct., 1783, 
"Edward Washington, the son of Edward Smirk of Washington and Hannah, his 
wife," was baptized there. Both these children probably died very young. 
From 1783 to 1793 there is a barren gap in the register, perhaps in consequence of 
Edward Smirk's desertion of his wife, as it is only broken on 5 July, 1789, by a 
disreputable entry of the baptism of "John, illegitimate son of Hannah Smirk of 
Washington. John Churnside, supposed father." On 22 Dec. 1793, was baptized 
another Anne, described as " daughter of Edward and Hannah Smirk, North Bed- 
ick;" and on 28 Aug. 1796, we have the baptism of another Edward, the parents 
being described in the same way. The above letter gives the names of two other 
children, Washington and Sarah. 



127 



THE HINDE PAPERS. 

IN the collections of John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., whence an estreate of 
the manor of Bearle was derived for our vol. i., p. 139, are several other 
materials for the history of the parish of By well. Some of these are 
here briefly noticed. 

In 1476 we have a conveyance from David Lowre to Alexander Pors- 
ter of the town of By well, comprising seven acres of land and meadow 
called Jakys Leyes in the field of Bywell, between the land of Thomas 
Liyll called Akshawe on the north, and land of the Lord of Bywell on 
the south. The deed, which bears date at Bywell, 1 Apr., 16 Edw. IY., 
and is witnessed by John Blakhos, the vicar of St. Andrew's of Bywell, 
and Robert "Wright, chaplain, records an ordinary feoffment with livery 
of seisin, and is endorsed. " Davide Lower, his estaite, bargane, and con- 
veiaunce." (See vol. i., p. 206.) In 1651 Sir Edward Eadcliffe, of 
Dilston, Bart., sold the same "meadow close of 7 acres called Jakys 
Close, adjoining his [purchased] lands called Ackeshaw on the north, 
and Bywell on the south, late the property of Michael Porster of By- 
well, and sometime the property of David Lowrey," to Anthony, son of 
Matthew Coulson of Newton Hall. In 1697 Anthony Coulson of ]STew 
Ridley, and Matthew, his son and heir, mortgaged to Eobert Porster of 
Whittonstal, and in 1 700 Matthew sold it to Michael Spain of Corbridge, 
who, with Mary his wife, finally alienated it to William Hind of Stel- 
lingin 1713. The little field is still called Porster's Close, after its 
early owners. 

The Hindes were, for many generations, the lessees of Stelling, a pos- 
session of the monastery of Hexham. ROWLAND HYND was lessee at the 
time of the Dissolution, and the Muster Roll of 1538, under " SteUyn 
and Acorn," contains the names of Rolland Hyne and Thomas Hyne. 
Rowland had a son, WILLIAM HYND, the lessee of Bearl in 1560. This 
William was father of another WILLIAM HYND or Hine, a yeoman, of 
Bearle, who, from 1582 to 1616, is the leading spirit of the papers. In 
1582, a singular and serious clerical error occurs in a lease for 21 years 
to him from Cuthbert Lord Ogle of Bothell. The whole description of 
the parcels demised is omitted, and we only know, by another portion of 



128 THE HINDE PAPERS. 

the deed, that they were lying in Bearle. It is stipulated that " Wil- 
liam Hynd shall repaier the tenement (tymher excepted) according to 
the custome of the said towne of Bearle aforesaid" 

The Hindes appear to have been possessed of unusual spirit in agri- 
cultural enterprize. Besides holding the tenement at Bearle, we find 
William leasing land at Acomb, the Stelling, and Nafferton. At Acomb 
he took a fourth part of the tenement called Acorn Hall tenement, in 
1603, for 9 years, from John Dobson of Acorn. Dobson had received 
3/. 4.d. and 41 9s. 8d., " and one qwy stirke to my wiff Ursula to be 
payed, wherfore, 31 6s. Sd. for the fynne and gresson of the said fourth 
part; and the rest to be payed at or before Lent next." He held Stel- 
linge under the Swinburne family, who again held of the Eenwicks of 
Wallington, the owners of the monastery lands. In 1565 Thomas Swin- 
burne of Haughton, co. Northumberland, fourth son of George Swin- 
burne of Edlingham Castle, Esq., bequeathed to t his brother Gawyne 
Swinburne his farmhold of the Stellinge, 1 and mentions his niece Annes 
Heron [daughter of his sister Marian, by George Heron of Chipchase.] 
In 1576 Gawyn Swinburne of Cheeseborough Grange, gent., gave his 
interest in the Stellinge to one of his nephew John Hearon his sons of 
Chipchase, whom he himself should think good to bestow it upon, with 
4 oxen to help to occupy that farmhold. (Test. Dunelm. Surt. Soc., 
236, 409). In 1605, " William Heinne of the Stellinge" pays to Peter 
Bell, collector for " The Eight Worsheppfull Sir John Fenwick, kneght, 
of Wallinton," 26s. 8d. the "Whettayn sondaye remit." A similar 
sum for the Martinmas_rent of the Stelling, in the same year, was paid 
by Hynd " as in the behalf of Mrs. Annas Bowes," to Eobert Jefferson, 
Sir John's then collector. In 1611 the Stelling was sold by Sir John 
Fenwiek, Knt., to Anne Bowes of Newburn Hall, widow, and Cuthbert 
Heron of Chipchase, Esq. [her son.] The demesnes of Nafferton were 
also held under the Swinburn.es. In 1613 Hynd was "fermor of the 
one half" of the same, under John Swinburne and Gilbert Lawe, at a 
rent of 45?. ; and Mr. Swinburne seems to have drawn upon him for 
money in those bankless days, as his necessities called. Thus, in 1616, 
Lancelot Errington of " Fowerstones, within the Barranrie of Langlie," 
receives 20s. from William Hyne of Bearle, " for my mayster Mr. Swin- 
burne of Edlingham, due unto me the said Lanslot at Penticost by past 
for my anuatie." Again we have the following " bill :" " William, I 
pray yow lende me xZ. of your Martinmas rent for my father's use, if 

1 The stock at Stelling at that time may be seen in Surtees ii., 281. The rent paid 
to the Fenwicks then and afterwards was 26s. Sd. half-yearly. 



THE HINDE PAPERS. 129 

yow can spar it, and this bill shalbe your discharg : Your loving freind, 
MARGRATE SWINBURNE. To my loving freind, W- Hynde, dd." 

"William Hynde died in 1617, and the name of HENRY HYNDE, yeo- 
man, follows from 1618 to 1659. Like his predecessor, he sometimes 
resided at Bearle, at others at Stelling. He continued William's leases, 
but was also an extensive lessee of tithes in the parish of Ovingham 
under the Addison family, impropriators there, and increased the Naffer- 
ton take, holding the whole "demaynes of Nafferton" under "William 
Swynborne of Capteton, Esq." for 50/. per aunum. We have rather a 
sharp letter from his landlord. "Henry : I wonder yow are so longe in 
paying me for the bowl of rye which yow said Cutbert Newton bought 
of yow. If yow pay me not presently, I will not crave it any more, 
but sew yow for it. Also give the heard of Nafferton warneing that he 
loke to the dikes at his perell now when they are made tenantable : 
Your freind, W. SWINBURN. To my loving freind Henry Hynd, dd." 
In 1657, there is a receipt on 21 Dec. by Matthew Bee for William 
Swinburne of Hallywell, Esq., from Henry Hinde of Stellin, of 201. to 
be paid at Candlemas next ensuing. 

The fourth of the tenement at Acomb was now in the name of Ten- 
wick. In 1623 Henry Fenwicke of the Hugh, co. Northumb., gent., 
assigns it to Henry Hynde, its late tenant, for the residue of a term of 
31 years, demised by the King, on 20 Nov., 21 2 anno regni, to Sir Henry 
Fane, knt., whose estate Fenwicke now enjoys. On the expiration of 
the term, the Fenwicks appear to have obtained a renewal of their lease, 
as in 1659 we find Hinde paying 21. per annum to William Fenwick, 3 
for the fourth part, and in 1660 Oswold Hind^aid the same. 

In 1620, "Ann Bowes of Newborne, co. Nd., widowe, late wife of 
Henry Bowes, Esq.," conveyed her moiety of Stelling to her " son Cuth- 
bert Heron of Chipchase, Esq.," the copurchaser signing " Anne Bowes," 
and sealing with the Heron crest. " Thomas Fyttz als. Fyttzherbert" 
is an attesting witness, in court-hand. " Geo. Collingwood" is another. 
A memorandum endorsed states that Mr. Heron had "redemised" the 
tenement unto Mrs. Ann Bowes for 40 years, if she should so long 
live. George CoUingwood was husband of a grandniece of Gawen Swin- 
burne, Jane, daughter of Thomas Swinburne of Edlingharn, Esq., and 
there must have been a coexistent lease to her, for on Mr. Cuthbert 
Heron's sale of Stelling, in 1623, to Henry Hind, previously tenant, 

* The assignment is dated 10 Nov. 21 Jac. There is, therefore, some discrepancy 
in the date. 

In 1681 the Hindes were paying Robert Fenwick 21. 10. for his Martinmas 
rent. 



130 THE HINDE PAPERS. 

such a lease is mentioned as held by " Mrs. Collingwood." Accordingly 
in 1625, George Collingwood of Dalden, " in right of his wife," received 
in. 6s. Sd. of the rent of Stelling. In 1633 Henry Hinde paid this, 
and there are receipts in 1635. Mr. Hinde also purchased a freehold 
farm at Ovington, of John Belly, in 1635, and another freehold farm at 
the same place, of Thomas Harrison, in 1636. 

Under Lady Cavendish, Mr. Hinde filled the office of bailiff for New- 
ton Hall and Bearle. In 1624 he paid 56s. 8^. for the half year's rent 
of Bearle, 4 to Francis Carnaby for Lady Catherine's use; in 1632 he 
paid I7L 17 s. 4d. to William Carnaby, for the Martinmas half year's 
rent for Bearle and Newton Hall, and similar payments occur in Novem- 
ber, 1633, May, 1631, November, 1635, and June, 1636. At Whitsun- 
tide, 1633, 18?. 7s. Sd. was paid, and Hinde is called "Bayliff for New- 
tonn Hale, and Bare." In June, 1636, Matfen is included with Bearle 
and Newton Hall in the 1 71. 1 7s. 4d, The rents were for the use of 
"William Earl of Newcastle. In July, 1634, we have a bond from 
Henry Hind, George Coulson, William Moure, and "Richard Coulson, all 
yeomen of Bearl, to Sir William Carnaby of Bothell, conditioned for 
payment of 15/. at Pentecost next. The form of the instrument is pe- 
culiar, for the binding and testing clause is repeated after the condition 
instead of the avoiding clause. In connection with Hinde's office, we 
have, in 1626, a letter from Francis Carnaby to William Eydly at Mo- 
rale, commanding " yow, in my ladye's name, that yow and the rest of 
the tanens of Morale be redye, upon notyes given by the balef of Bearle, 
to brynge mylstones for Bottell rnylne, and brynge thym to Bearle. 
Henry Hynde will dereck yow when and where yow shall receve thym." 
The same year gives us a receipt by John Gambling, deputy bailiff of 
the manor of Bywell, to Hinde for 25s., "for the castle gard and cor- 
neage, as fee farme to the manner of Bywell, dew att the feast of St. 
Mychaell the arkangell." 

Mr. Hinde, of course, shared the burdens of the heavy period in which 
he lived, and the following papers will show very clearly the mode in 
which they bore upon the middle ranks of society. The first item is a 
subsidy roll of a few years previous to the turning point of English 
history. 

SUBSIDY ROLL FOR THE PARISHES OF BYWELL ST. PETER AND 
BYWELL ST. ANDREW, A.D. 1627. 

1627. BEABEEES TO THE FIVE SUBSIDIES [BYWELL ST. PETEE.] 
[EsPEEsiiiELS, HEALEI, &c.] Mr. Elleringtone, 5s. Mr. Saunder- 
sonne, 5s. John Swinburne, 12^. -Richard Suirties, 2s. Robert Tees- 

4 " And Newton Halle" erased. 



THE HINDE PAPEKS: 131 

daill, 2s. Izaac Nicholsone, 4d. Jaine Newtone, 4d. Robert Hunter, 
12^. William Suirties, Qd. John Usher, 4d. Thomas March, Qd. 
Thomas Andrewe, 4d. Thomas Snawball, 4d. Eaphe Carr, Qd. Chris- 
tofor Newton, 4d. John Wilkinsone, 12d. Summe, 20s. Qd. 

BROMLEY GREVESHIPP. Robert Newton, \8d. William Newton, 18^. 
Peter Newton, 12d. Edward Newton, ISd. Uswold Usher, I2d. 
Raphe Newton, I2d. Christofor Farbrigg, 4d. John Richardsone, 4d. 
Robert Foster, 4d. Thomas Palliser, 4^. William Taillor, 12d. 
Thomas Augood, 12d. Thomas Sharpray, Qd. -William Anguish, Qd. 
John Belly, Qd Mathew Birkes, 4d. Edwa'rd Taillor, Qd. George 
Hedley, 4a. Thomas Lawsone, 4d. Edward Thompsone, 4d. Summe, 
Us. Qd. 

BYWELL GREVESHIPP. George Winshipp, I8d, Bart. Kentt, 12d. 
Roger Newton, 12d. John Nicholsone, 6^-Cuthbert Newton, Qd. 
William Dawson, Qd. William Hume, Qd. Edward Robinsonne, 4d. 
John Malliburne, 8^. George Taillor, Qd. Michael Foster, Qd. Summe, 
7s. Qd. 

NEWTON. "William Robinsone, 18^. John Robinsonne, ISd. Rich- 
ard Herrisone, Qd. William Wilkinsone, Qd. Henry Hind, 5s. 
William Lawsone, Qd. John Browne, Qd. Anthony Hunter, Qd. 
Wedow Davison, 4d. Ellexander Malliburn, Qd. George Wilkinsone, 
Qd. Cuthbert Ridley, Qd. William Browne, Qd. Mathew Cowston, 
6^. George Dobsone, Qd. Henry Winshopp, 6^. [Summe] 14s. 4d. 

Summe of all, 665. IQd. 

1627. BYWELL ANDHEWE RATE TO FIYE SUBSIDIES. 

Mr. Mathew Newton, 5s. John Foster, 2s. 6^. John Ridley, 2s. Qd. 
Robert Hunter, 2s. Mr. John Hodshon, 2s. Stiphorthe, 2s. Bart. 
Richardsone, Qd. George Farbrigge, Qd. George Lumley, Qd. John 
Taillor, 6d. For Lumle Fermhould, 6^. William Smith, Qd. John 
Usher, d. 5 Bar. Taillor, I2d. George Usher, Qd. Thomas Hudspith, 
Qd. Shilforthe, I2d. George Cowstone, I2d. Thomas Jeninge, 8^. 
William Hunter and his brother, 8d. Peter Dridone, I2d. 

Summe, 27s. Qd. 



1639-40. March 16. 15 Car. RECEIPT given by Lancelot Allgood to 
Henry Hynde of Stelling, collector of the assessment for the ship mo- 
nies, for 13/., viz. : " Buywell towne, 3?, ; Buywell Hall, 4s. ; Acombe, 
31. ; Newton, Bearle, and Stelling, 31. ; Newton Hall, 11. 16s.; more 
for Buywell Peter rectorie, 11. 5s. ; for By well mylnes, 5s. ; for personall 
estates of Mathew Colson of Newton Hall, and Cuthbert Ridley of New- 
ton, each 5s." An additional receipt for 4s. assessed upon Henry Win- 
shopp of Acomb. [The writs for ship-money were dated 10 Nov. pre- 
viously. Northumberland was to furnish one ship of 68 men and 168 
tons. The county was in heavy arrears for former years, 700Z. (out of 
2100Z.) for 1636, 900/. for 1637, and 700?. for 1638.] 

5 This item looks like vjjW. changed into xjjd. Unless neither form is accurate the 
account is wrongly cast up. The other items amount to 11. 5s. 4d., 2s. 2d. being re- 
quired to make up the sum total. 



132 THE HINDE PAPERS. 

June the 16th, 1643. Thes are to whome it may concerne, that the 
bearer hereof, John Grene, is entertained a horseman under the com- 
mand of Captaine Raiph Errington, therfor I would desire all officers 
what soever not to molest nor troble him, he behavinge himselfe like an 
honest man. Given under my hand the day and yeare above. 

HEN. TROTTER, Liuetennant. 

From my quarters at Topliffe. 

THE HUMBLE PETITION OF HENRY HlNDE OP SlELLING. 

[1643.] To the right honorable Sir Thomas Glemham, knight and 
barronett, his Majestic' s Commander-in-Cheife for these northern 
counties, and to the rest of the Committee now assembled. 

The humble petition of Henry Hinde of Stelling, in Northumberland, 
yeoman. 

Humbly sheweth, That your petitioner was a souldiour under the 
Earle of Newcastle, and haveing a wife and a great charge, and none to 
loke to what he hath, hired a man in his place, and besides, to shew his 
affection for this present expedition, paid divers cessmentes and 40s. in 
particuler to Captaine Errington, and soe it is that he was assessed by the 
Committee 201. , whereof he paid 10?. to Major "Widdrington, and now 
he is much putt upon for the remainder thereof, although he is very 
unable to pay the same, because of late he had stolne from him twenty 
beastes, which was better worth than 60?., and never got any of them 
againe, or ought for them, and hath had souldiours quartered with him 
for a long tyme. 

May it therefore please your good honour and this Committee to con- 
sider of your petitioner's great losse, and of his cessmentes paid, and of 
the souldiours he hath quartered with him, and soe of his inability fur- 
ther to contribute, though very willing soe to doe if able ; and to graunt 
him his discharge for the remainder of his cesse of 201. 

And he, his wife, and family, as in duty bound, shall ever pray, &c. 

Northumberland, 29 die Novembris, 1643.. 

It is ordered this daie by the Committee, that the withinnamed peti- 
cioner beinge assessed 20?. for contribution money, whereof hee hath 
paid 12?. 6 to Major Widdrington, which, his estate considered, wee con- 
ceive to be sufficient, and doe order that hee shalbe freed of the other 
eight poundes. GILBERT SWINHOE, JOHN DELAVAL, NICH. TEMPEST, 
CUTHBERT HERON, EAPH CARNABY, MARK ERRINGTON. 

A TRUE COPY OF GOODES TAKEN FROM MEE HENRY HlNDE of the Stel- 
ling, in the parish of Bywell Peter, in the county of Northumberland, 
Anno 1643 [4.] 

At their leager on Tine- Water. 

Imprimis. Artillery Eegiment tooke from mee 7 stacks of rye, 12 
boules in every stack, 521 Ss. Seaven stacks of otes, 12 boulesin every 
stacke, taken by the army, 25?. 4s. One stack of bigge, conteyning 10 
boules, 51 One and thirty beastes taken by CaseelTs regiment, 46?. 10s. 

6 Altered from 101. The 121. includes tlie 40*. paid to Errington. 



THE HINDE PAPERS. 133 

60 sheepe, 151 Five swine, II. 5s. 40 foother of hay, 20Z. 3 horses, 
61. 3 iron harrowes, 10s. 2 short waines, 21. 2 long waines, 21. 9 
yokes, 9s. In linning and woollen clothes, 31. 20 boules of winnowed 
otes, 61. 4 boules of winnowed rye, 21. 8s. 3 bushells of malt, II. 5 
quarters of beefe, ll. Paid for releeseing of some beastes by the Scotts, 
18s. In pewter, brass, bedding, and other house stuffe/20?. Axes, 
wimbles, and other iron worke, ll. A Bible, a Testament, and other 
bookes, 1 3s. Summe, 215?. 5s. 

Paid to Major Houston, in cess and bilett, 3?. 8s. Paid to Capt. 
Sterling, in Edenbrough regiment, in mony and other provision, ll. Us. 
Quartering 3 men and 3 horses 9 daies, belonging to Capt. Casenes, 
ll. Is.; to Capt. Ogle and Capt. Burton, lls. Summe, 61. 17s. 

The whole together is 222? 2s. 

THE PETICION OF THE INHABITANTES OF NUETON HALL. 

To the Right Worshippfull Commissioners to the high and mighty Court 
of Parlament. The humble peticion of Henry Hinde, William 
Browne, Anthony Hunter, Mathew Colestone, tenantes to Baron 
lladcliffe of Dilstone, for the whole hamlett of Nueton Hall, in the 
county of Northumberland, 1644. 

Humbly sheweth that, whereas some of us have been a long time 
tenants and inhabitants there, and farmed that land of him : And all of. 
us conditioned with him that he was to undergoe (in his rent) all and all 
manner of ceasementes, the ceasementes laid on the church only excepted : 
And now the rent of the said land is demanded of us by Mr. Bootenower, 7 
which wee did not expect should be required, neyther of the landlord 
nor any others, in regard that at Candlemus last our hay, corne, horses, 
sheepe, and beastes, were violently taken from us by the Scottish army, 
the traine of Artillery lay in our poore steede five dayes and six nightes, 
the which our losses wee made partly to appere in our scedells given in 
lately at Hexam, and the charge of continuall biliting and ceasements 
both before that and ever since, soe that the whole rent (for some yeares 
to come) will not countervaile our great losses and charge imposed uppon 
that land, and the which wee are unable to pay and to releeve our fami- 
lies, all which wee leave to your pious consideracion. And humbly take 
our leaves. 

The truth hereof wee are ready to bee deposed, and wee have some 
officers' hand to a note in parte hereof. 

1650. Mar. 3. RECEIPT from Ralph Anderson to Henry Hynde of 
Stalling, for 4s., " being the sesse of 6s. on the pound, ancient rent." 

? A name frequent in the district. In 1617 George Bowtflower of Apperley, co. 
Nd., gent., bought from Henry Robson of Hyndeley, co. Nd., yeoman, a messuage or 
free tenement of the ancient rent of 5s. in Hyndeley, to hold of the chief lord by the 
rent and services accustomed. Robson signs by an H, and seals the bond with the 
device of a boar passant, in the presence of " Petter Newton, William Boutflower, 
John Boutflower, meique Johannis More." Another bond of 1619 is witnessed by 
" Edmunde Knolles, clarke, and Christopher Gill." (Deeds communicated by the 
Rev. E. H. Adamson.) 

T 



134 THE HINDE PAPERS, 

1651. July 26. EECEIPT from the same to the same for 12s. 6d., 
" being the sesse of thre pounds and seven shillings of the pound, for 
Stelling : after the new Booke of Raites : for the use of this armey for 
this Commonwealth." 

PETITION of Henry Hynde of Stellin to the Justices of the Peace for 
Northumberland. He recites that he " was charged in the last new 
Booke of Rates at the yearly valew of 16?. for Stellin, and that upon 
due examination, and hath continued the payment for the same accord- 
ing to that value." He is " now charged after the valew of 30?. by 
warrant issued foorth for payment of the monethlie sesse, whereby your 
petitioner and his posteritie are likely hereby to be impoverished and 
undone if ease be not herein had." He prays " such redre&se as may 
stand with equity and your good worshipps* pleasures." 

1651. Feb. 20. RECEIPT from Ralph Anderson to Henry Hinde of 
Stelling, for 2s., "for the cess of 20s. per pound for the use of Captaine 
Doffinby." 

1652. Oct. 12. RECEIPT from Richard Newton to "Hendry Hynde," 
for 5s. 2d., being " the ses of 21. 11s. on the pound for six months ses 
towardes the mantinance of the armes [armies] in England, Ireland, and 
Scotland " ; and also for 2s. "for Capten Ogell who is to save harmeles 
this cuntie from felonious s telling of goods by mostroopers and others." 
Another receipt for 2s,, "being the ses of 20s. on the pound for Capten 
Ogell for keeping this countie," is dated June 8, 1653. 

The name of Os WOLD HIND occurs in 1660, but we need not follow 
the details of the papers at a later date. To the latter half of the 17th 
century the handwriting of the following charm may be ascribed : 

" By this High and Mighty power and name Tetragrammaton and In 
the name of the Blessed Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, I Charge 
and Command the Devil and unclean Spirits, to go forth of his Chamber, 
and to depart from me in peace, and not to molest or troble me any 
more." 

We conclude with a dispute in 1756, about the tithe of new inclosures 
on Shildon Common, in Northumberland. 

In 1754 George Smith of Burn Hall had received from Oswald Hind 
of the Stelling 6s. Set., " for prescription money, and for all tyths what- 
soever due for the Stelling at Easter day." But in 1756 he writes to 
the then Mr. Hind that he understood from Mr. H.'s son that his father 
refused to pay the tithes of his share of Shildon Common, and, with the 
hint of a law suit, he annexes an opinion he had taken, which was 
this: "I am of opinion that the antient modus or prescript rent can- 
not extend to more lands than those for which they have been antiently 



THE HINDE TAPERS. 135 

and immemorially paid, but that all new enclosures and allottments will 
be liable to the payment of tiths in kind. N. FAZAKERLEY" The con- 
troversy seeins to have lingered, for in 1764, William Archer writes, 
from Durham, to his honored father, that he had tendered the modus to 
Mrs. Smith. He had told her that it was in lieu of all tythes due for 
the S telling. She refused to receive it except as for the old inclosures 
only. " I asked her why she gave me such a note to send you, and 
told her I thought she use you very ill by given you so much trouble, 
and would not receive the modius when it was tendered to her. She 
said Mr. Shuttleworth had a share with her, and if he was willing to 
take it she was very agreeable, but could not without his consent. . . . 
I went and wated upon him, and his answer was, that before he would 
take it any otherwise then for the old inclosures only, he would have the 
opinion of a court, so I did not think proper to pay it." The Hindes 
seem to have won the day, for in 1801 and following years, annual re- 
ceipts for 6s. 8< " for prescription money and for all tithes whatsoever 
due for the Stelling at Easter," are given to Mr. George Hind by the 
steward of the Silvertops. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 



136 



EARLY MENTION OF COFFEE IN DURHAM. 

THE following local notices of coffee occur in the Journal 1 of Timothy 
"Whittingham, Esq., of Holmside, co. Durham. It will be observed 
that there is considerable variation in the price. It is said that coffee 
was introduced into England in 1652, ten years previous to Mr. Whit- 
tingham's purchases, by a Turkey merchant named Edwards, who also 
imported a Greek servant accustomed to prepare it, and whom he set 
up in a coffee house on the site of the Virginian Coffee House in St. 
Michael's Alley, Cornhill. 2 

1662. Nov. 3. Halfe pound of coffee powder then cost 3s. 
Then also 1 quarter of coffee from Durham Is. 
Nov. 25. Halfe pound of coffee powder cost 3s. 
Dec. 24. One quarter of coffee powder 2s. 

At a much later period the supply of coffee at Durham was uncer- 
tain. In 1722 Ralph Gowland writes to his son Samuel in London as 
follows : " You must send or bring with you some raw coffee. There 
is little to be had here at present; but wee expect much from Hol- 
land." 3 

1 In the possession of his descendant, Mrs. Algood of the Hermitage. 

2 Pictorial Hist, of England, iii., 548. 

3 Letter communicated by Mr, Trueman. " Pray move my Lord Chancellor 
against the officer that neglects drawing upp the decree for Blacket, now 2 or 3 years. 

It is very scandalous, and yet we must resent it My wig I very much dislike. 

It is too thin of hair, not wide enough in the head, and the tyes too short and too 
thin, soe thin that they cannot be of any service. Therefore I must know what is to 
be done with it. He must blame himselfe for his folly in not shewing it to you be- 
fore he sent it down. The hair is the only thing I like of it." 



137 



THE HEIRS-GENERAL TO RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 
AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 1 

THE Radclyffes, occupying in many of their branches an eminent posi- 
tion in the history of their country, have been unfortunate in their 
chroniclers as in their fate. Their origin, their consanguinity, and their 
priority of representation, are alike obscure and disputed. Even in those 
lines which produced the most brilliant results this remark holds good. 
Opposed to the various houses which doubled the engrailed bend, the 
line of Radclyffe of that ilk, and the houses of Sussex, 2 Farmesdon, and 
Wymersley, who were successively in remainder to it, all bore the beau- 
tiful bearing of the single bend ; yet the exact positions of these allied 
families is by no means exemplified to demonstration. Fortunately, our 
northern counties are only interested to any great extent in the Wy- 
mersley family ; but it is a host in itself, widely scattered in long- 
continued and separate descents, all much overshadowed by the 
glory of one of its members, the ennobled House of Dilston. In the 
possession of the Isle of Derwentwater, and the eventual male represen- 
tation of the spouse of Der went water's heiress, vested in the Dilston 
baronets and earls, we lose sight of the circumstance that the heirship- 
general was running in a very different channel. It was running in 
individuals who were racked with long and unhappy dissensions, which 
ended in the double misfortune of their losing most of the Radclyffe 
lands as heirs-general, the Dacre lands as heirs-male. 

"We say the heirship-general of the heiress of Derwentwater' s husband, 
for that of the Wymersley house in general continued in an elder stream. 

1 This article is chiefly grounded upon papers in Greenwich Hospital, copies of 
which were made atjthe expence of John Fenwick, Esq., F.S.A., who gives the Soci- 
ety the advantage of his zeal for the elucidation of North Country history. 

2 The standard of Katcliffe, Lord Fitzwater in 1513, was composed of "a babyon, 
with a hatte upon hys hed, and a bull's hed sabull rassed, the homes sylver, wyth a 
crown and a cheyn at hyt, about hys nek sylver, and a elbow gard and the sonne, 
gold." Near the elbow guard (which in 1475 is called a garbralle] is written the 
motto "Jerey" 



138 HEIRS-GENERAL TO RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

Thomas Radclyffe of "Wymersley, 3 in whom that house separated from 
the chiefs at Radclyffe Tower, was father of Sir Richard Eadclyffe of 
"Wymersley and Clitheroe, Sir Nicholas who married Elizabeth de Der- 
wentwater, and Sir Ralph. Sir Richard 4 was summoned to parliament 
in 1405, was at Agincourt in 1415, and died in 1433-4. His eldest son 
Sir Thomas, by marriage with his relation Catherine, the half sister to 
Bishop Booth of Durham, had a son Richard, who continued the line at 
"Wymersley, and Henry, 5 who settled at Tunstall, near Stranton, by 
marriage with a coheiress of the Pulthorpes. Of his branch a full ped- 
igree will be found in Surtees's Durham, vol. iii. The members of it 
who were settled at Ugthorpe, in Yorkshire, fell into great decay. In 
1809 the representative was "William Radclyffe, a cottager, of the age of 
70, at Stillington, in Yorkshire. " This poor man (says Radclyffe the 
herald) has been so improvident as to spend the wreck of the trifling 
inheritance which his ancestors for some generations past appeared to 
have preserved with much difficulty, having often been mortgaged. He 
now exists on the precarious bounty of his friends, and is, I believe, 
little above a common labourer." A younger line, settled at Coxwold 
as gentry, shared no better fate. Joseph Radclyffe of Coxwold, born in 
1726, married the heiress of James Clayton of Nottingham. " Having 
some little fortune of his own, which was improved by that of his wife, 
he soon after his marriage kept a house in Grosvenor Square, with a 
coach and four, and kept it up as the means lasted. His widow, a clever 
sensible woman, kept a ready-made shoe shop, in about 1795, in Oxford 
Street, and is now (1810) in Edinburgh, on the bounty, I believe, of 
some old female acquaintance." At that time there were numerous de- 
scendants of both lines derived from Ugthorpe. 

But to return to SIR NICHOLAS RADCLYFFE, the younger son of Thomas 
of "Wymersley. He was so fortunate as to secure the hand of the heir- 
ess of the isle about 1417, and with the son and heir of the marriage, 
SIR THOMAS RADCLYFFE, who lived upon the isle, and married the aunt 
of Queen Katherine Parr, we find the extraordinary disinherison of the 
right heir to which we have already alluded. 

We must premise that (besides eleven 6 daughters) he had six sons : 

3 ARMS. "Thomas Radclyffe de "Wymerley, 2 filius, bears [Argent], abend in- 
greined Sable, with a libard's heade in the dexter point." Pedigree at Greenwich 
Hospital. 

4 AJRMS. " Sir Rychard Ratcleff of "Wymbreley." Argent, a bend engrailed Sable, 
in the sinister chief point an escallop Sable [Gules, according to Whitaker] for differ- 
ence. Sari. MSS., 4632, f. 117. 

5 ARMS. Argent, a bend engrailed Sable, in the dexter point a mullet. 

6 Visit. Northumb. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 139 

1. John, his heir; 2. Sir Richard, the favourite of Richard III.; 3. 
Sir Edward, who married the heiress of Cartington, Lady of Cartington, 
Dilston, 7 and "Whittonstall, co. Northd., and of Hawthorne, co. Durham ; 
4. Nicholas of Keswick, gent. ; 5, 6. Christopher, a priest, and Row- 
land, religious. In 1480 he suffered a recovery of his manor of Castle- 
rigg, Keswicke [alias DerwentwaterJ, Naddell, Burnes, Smaythwayte, 
Legbarthwait, and Furnesett, to his third son Edward, who immedi- 
ately entailed them, by conveying them back to his father and Sir Rich- 
ard, the second son, for their lives ; remainder to the heirs male of the 
bodies of 1, Sir Richard; 2, Sir Edward; 3, Nicholas; 4, Christopher; 
and 5, Rowland, 8 successively. Thus the heir is entirely omitted, but 
it appears by a deed of 1530 that, on this recovery, Richard and Ed- 
ward were sworn that John, the heir, should enjoy the manor of Der- 
wentwater for life, if he overlived his father and his brother Richard. 
This event took place, for Sir Richard Radclyffe, K.G., came to an un- 
timely death under the banners of his namesake, at Bosworth Eield, in 
1485. 9 He was, in fact, one of those triumvirs, "The Cat, the Rat, 
and Lovell the Dog," who " ruled all England under the Hog." A 
man he was that was " short and rude in speech, and as far from pity 
as from all fear of God." He had resided at Sadbury, near Richmond, 
in consequence of his marriage with Widow Boynton of that place, a 
daughter of Lord Scrope of Bolton, and he left a son Richard to become 
first of entail. 

Old Sir Thomas survived his knightly son for ten years, dying in 
1495, a month after the younger Richard had, by act of Parliament, 
obtained the restoration of his interest in the Derwentwater estates, and 
the reversal of his father's attainder. The disinherited son, JOHN BA.D- 
CLYFFE, immediately entered. He " had nothing by descent, but only 
had occupation by sufferance of Richard [dead] and Edward, his bro- 
thers, in respect of their oath." He died after 1509, leaving, by Anne, 
fifth daughter and coheir of Henry Fenwick of Fenwick, Esq., two 
children, Sir JOHN RADCLYFFE, his heir, and Anne Radclyffe, who, in 
the Greenwich papers relative to this complex business, is said to have 
married Bo well, identified by Mr. Surtees with her cousin, John 

7 ARMS. " Ratclyfe of Relyston." Argent, a bend engrailed Sable, in the dexter 
point an escallop for difference In Visit. Northumb. the difference is a quartrefoil 
Or, in the crest as well as the arms. Sari. MSS., 4632, f. 117. 

8 Christopher and Rowland, being under vows of celibacy, occur no more in the 
story. 

9 ARMS. Argent, a bend engrailed Sable : on a bordure Gules 11 escallops of the 
fi rs t. Glover's Ordinary. Whitaker's Whattey, 



140 HEIRS-MALE TO EADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

Eadclyffe, 10 a younger son of Sir Edward Eadclyffe, the second in entail. 
Her issue was " John Eowell, alias Badclif," according to the papers. 

Although the occupation by the eldest line was confined to John the 
elder, Sir John the younger entered, on his father's death, without vio- 
lent interruption, if any, and not only held it to his death, but also pre- 
sumed to devise the estate. His second will was made "at the He of 
Darwenwater, the first day of Pebruarii, in the yere of God a thousand 
fyve hundreth twentye and nyne [thirty] yeres, and in the xxj. yere of 
the reigne of our soveraing Lord King Henry the Eight." The date is 
important, as it has been stated that he died on 2 Feb., 1527, on the 
authority of the brass plate to his memory in Crossthwaite church, as 
copied by Nicholson and Burn. He wishes to be buried there. He 
appears to have viewed the house of Dacre with profound affection. 
" My Lord Dacre" is to have "my baye hobye." " My Ladye Dacre 
two copies of my best howndes." " To Sir Christofer Dacre, knight, 11 
a gosse hawk." Such servants as will continue with his wife are to do 
so; those who depart are to have their full wages. " To John Eadcliffe, 
my kynnesman, the moore and gratter graye horse." Mass is to be 
yearly said, and daily is a priest to sing for the testator and his wife 
before our Lady of Pity, in the church of Crossethwaite, the provision 
for the purpose being temporary until lands are given for the finding of 
a priest, "in the said chapell of our said Ladye," for ever. "John 
B-adcliffe, my kynnesman, to be in the service of my Lord Dacre, and to 
be ordonned, and holye rewlled by my said Lord, which John Eadcliffe 
is my sister sonne, called Anne Radcliffe, which I ordeigne to be myne 
heire, and to have my nolle landes after the death of Alice my wife, 
according to my will thereof, mad at London," 22 Nov., 19 Hen. YIII. 
On the day of his burial, " penny e dole" shall be "dalte to poore 
folkes," for the health of his soul. Every priest that shall come to his 
burial shall have Sd. a peece and their dinners. Twelve poore folks 
shall have each a black gowne and 4d., who shall bear torches at the 
burial. The residue of his goods goes to his wife, the sole executrix, 
and " I make supervisor of this my last will, my Lord Dacre and of 
Graystock, and doe put in his gouverance and rewlle my said wiife, with 
my foresaid nephnewe John Eadcliife, beseching his Lordshipp to be 
good lord unto them." 
The knight died next day, and his lady, ALICE EADCLYFFE, who was 

10 But the papers are silent, and this John Radclyffe, the cousin, is said in Visit. 
Northumb. to have died s. p. 

11 Uncle to ray Lord. He lived at Croglin. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 141 

a daughter of Sir Edmond Sutton, alias Dudley of Dudley, was soon in 
antagonism with her husband's relatives. He had three cousins, Rich- 
ard, the son of the Bosworth knight, first in tail ; Sir Cuthbert of Dil- 
ston, son of Sir Edward, second ; and James, the son of Nicholas Rad- 
clyffe of Keswick, the third. Richard, having no issue, 12 had attorned 
to Cuthbert, who entered upon Derwentwater on John's death, by virtue 
of the entail, but the widow carried the day. She kept him out for the 
term of her life, by agreement with him and Richard, and survived her 
spouse for 24 years. She died in 1554, and was interred in the proud 
cathedral of Salisbury. 

Nor was the testamentary heir, JOHN ROWELL, alias RADCLYFFE, of 
Derwentwater, Esq., less attentive to his interests. On Cuthbert's 
entry, he also entered. It is not very clear whether he wholly relied 
upon the will, for it is said that he kept possession of a great part of the 
estates, claiming as heir of his mother. He was not unsuccessful. In 
1531 or 1532 Richard Radclyffe of Derwentwater, the first in tail, had 
released all his estate, by fine and recovery, to Cuthbert, with whom, 
consequently, as immediate heir in entail, had John to deal. Their dis- 
putes ended by an arbitrament of May, 1540, by which some part was 
awarded to John, and other part to Cuthbert. 

So matters stood for the remaining five years of Sir Cuthbert's life. 
He died in 1545, leaving Sir George Radclyffe, his heir, and two 
younger sons, and we shall finish the tangled history of his portion 
before proceeding with the elder line. Sir George's first acts were to 
sell and convey parts of the estate without fine. The purchaser died 
seized, and his heir alienated by fine, all in Sir George's lifetime ; and 
it afterwards became a question whether this was good against the heir 
of Sir George, he being only tenant in tail. In 1552 or 3 he proceeded, 
more legitimately, to levy a fine of his part of the estates to himself, 
and the heirs-male of his body. But this movement put the heir of 
Nicholas (originally the third in entail) on the alert, although there was 
little chance of his receiving any further benefit from the estates than 
the pleasure of making them unmarketable, or of extortion from the 
possessors. James Radclyffe, the son of Nicholas, accordingly entered 
within five years of the fine, the time prescribed for the preservation of 
rights. Probably his object was gained. Probably he did extract 
money from, the knight of Dilston, for afterwards we find him releasing 
his claim. Provoking, however, as it may seem, the enemy was scotched, 

12 So say the papers, but possibly the word should be qualified with " inheritable 
under the entail." The Visitation of Northumberland gives him three daughters and 
co-heirs, but does not mention their names. 



142 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

not killed. James died, and he left a son Gawen, who had a son Francis. 
Gawen threw his fangs into the peace of Sir George with his own claims, 
and re-entered. The result does not appear, but the questions were 
these. " 1. What Gawen gaineth by his entry, for the heirs of Sir 
Richard is dead, and the heirs of Edward is Sir George and his heirs. 
2. Whether Edward and his heirs are inheritable by the grant of Edward 
[meaning the original entail] ; for he seeraeth to be both donor and 
donee in remainder, but, for the title of remainder, it did not fall to 
Edward, for the issue of Richard was not extinguished unto long time 
after the death of Edward. 3. Whether the remainder to Edward's 
issue be void or no. 4. What passeth by the release of James son of 
Nicholas. 5. Whether the fine by Sir George and the release of James 
doth debar Gawen, son and heir male of James, who hath now entered." 

In 1577 Sir George, by fine and recovery, assured all his lands to 
Francis his son in tail, with remainders over ; and it was doubted 
whether this fine and recovery prejudiced Sir Erancis' right to the lands 
formerly sold without fine. 

Dilston, meanwhile, had descended in much smoother waters. Joane 
Cartington, widow (formerly Claxton), Lady of Dilston, Hawthorne, 
&c., in her own right, by will made between 1521 and 1535, charged 
Dilston with portions of 100?., on the marriage of Jane, her grandson's 
(Sir Cuthbert Radclyffe) eldest daughter ; 60?. on that of Eliza- 
beth his second (wherefore less?); and 100?. to Dorothy his third, and 
devised it to Sir Cuthbert in tail male. In 1535 he settled it on him- 
self and wife for life, remainder to his heirs. Sir George, in 1576, 
settled it on the marriage of Sir Francis, his son, with Isabella Grey of 
Chillingham. In this settlement, after the settlor and the young couple, 
come Sir George's brother Anthony of Cartington, and his son Cuthbert 
of Blanchland 13 ; and then, strange to say, (but Gawen's conduct must 
be taken into consideration) the next remainder is to the distant colla- 
teral relative Thomas Earl of Sussex, in tail male, remainder over. It 
is clear that the House of Dilston was assiduous in keeping up a con- 
nection with the titled one of Sussex, and there is much to convince us 
that, on the extinction of the male blood of the peers, notwithstanding 
the senior members of the Wymersley house, the first Earl of Derwent- 
water affected to be next heir male and chief of the Radclyffes. 

Sir Francis, besides ignoring the paternal alienations, endeavoured to 
set aside the arrangement with John Rowell, alias Radclyffe, to whom 

13 From Anthony's son by his second wife descended the Radclyffes of Brierley, 
Thrybergh, and Darley Hall, co. York, a spendthrift and loyal line, from which pro- 
ceeded William Radclyffe, Esq., Rouge Croix. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK, 143 

we now return. Some of the latter history of Dilston will be found 
under the memoirs of Sir Edward Radclyife and of Francis first Earl 
of Derwentwater, elsewhere in this work. 

JOHN ROWELL, als. RADCLYFFE, of Derwentwater, Esq., levied a fine 
of his part when Sir George levied one of his, in 1552 or 3, and entailed 
the same. By Catherine, daughter of .... Grimstone, he had an only 
daughter and heir, DOEOTHY RADCLYFFE, who married FEANCIS DACEE, 
Esq., a gentleman who was, or thought he was, pressed by poverty, as 
we shall presently see. He and his wife aliened all their part of the 
Derwentwater estates by fine and recovery in the lifetime of Sir George, 
and Sir Francis questioned whether he was bound by such acts ; with 
what result is not shown. 

We now turn to the history of this Francis Dacre. 

WILLIAM third LOED DACEE of Gillesland, Greystock, or the North, 
the supervisor of Sir John RadclyfiVs will of 1530, died in 1563, 
leaving four sons Thomas, Leonard, Edward, and the above Francis. 

THOMAS, the eldest son, fourth LOED DACRE of Gillesland, died in 
1566, leaving issue George, Anne countess of Philip Howard Earl 
of Arundel, Mary, lady of Thomas Lord Howard of Walden, who 
died childless, and Elizabeth, " Bessie with the braid apron," the 
lady of the celebrated Lord William Howard, " Bauld Willie." 
GEOEGE, the son, became fifth LOED DACEE of Gillesland, 14 but died a 
minor in 1569, his brains being " bruised out of his head" by the fall 
of a vaunting horse of wood, upon which he meant to have vaunted. 15 
Upon this, his barony and estates (with the exception of some " ancient 
Dacre lands") fell into coheirship among his sisters as heirs general. 
The " ancient Dacre lands" and the heirship-male of the whole house, 
went to their uncles in succession. 

LEONAED DACEE, the eldest, was not content with these. He also 
blamed the Howards for his nephew's death, stomached the turn of 
things highly, and laid claim not only to the estates, 16 but also to the 
title. The same circumstances had occurred in his family at an earlier 

14 1566 ? Leonard Bates of Welbury, Yorks., to Cecill. Held the manor of "Wei- 
bury from the late William Lord Dacre, on condition of marrying Margery, widdow 
of James Kyrton, and bringing up his son, an infant, which he had done, but was now 
troubled by Bennett Chomelly for the possession thereof. Prays for undisturbed pos- 
session during the minority of George Lord Dacre. Col. State Papers. 

15 Stow. 

- 16 The matter had probably been agitated in the young lord's lifetime. " 1566. Oct. 
14. Declaration of the opinions and resolutions of Sir William Cordall, M.E., and 
others, to the Duke of Norfolk, committee of the body of George now Lord Dacre of 
Gillesland, touching the supposed deed of entail made by William late Lord Dacre." 
CaL State Papers. 



144 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

period. Thomas Dacre, an eldest son, had died in the 15th century, 
leaving a daughter, the heiress-general, and two brothers, who took 
Gillesland, &c., by virtue of a fine. The husband of the lady, Sir 
Richard Fiennes (a quo the Lords Dacre of the South), and Ralph, the 
elder brother, were alike summoned to the parliament of 1459. Ralph 
died . attainted in 1461. 17 Then Humphrey, his brother, claimed the 
original barony against Fiennes. Edward IY. confirmed it in the latter, 
but summoned Dacre as a .Baron in 1482, with place next below Fiennes* 
Hence arose the Lords Dacre of the North. Whether Leonard merely 
wished a collateral barony like that of Ralph, or an exclusive possession 
of the dignity, does not appear ; probably the latter, as he claimed the 
estates also-, 

In 1566, he had been termed by his correspondent, the Queen of 
Scots, "Dacres with the croked bake," and Baker says "though he 
were crookt backt, he behaved himself valiantly." In the year of his* 
nephew's death, the Rising of the North took place. He professed io 
serve the Queen, and was even thanked for his service against the 
rebels. But he used the troubles of the times for his personal advan- 
tage. He held secret communication with the rebel lords, yet disap- 
pointed their hopes. He seized upon the castles of Greystock and 
Naworth as his own inheritance, and made the people believe that the 
Queen's troops wanted to take his land from him. He gathered together 
the " rank-riders of the borders," and those 'who were most devoted to 
the " name of great reputation in that tract the name of the Dacres" 
He was called Lord Dacres, alleged that he had tendered his livery in 
the court, and that it had been accepted, and ignored his brother's grants 
beyond his life, as beyond his powers. Lord Scrope was baffled. He 
had orders to apprehend him, but " by the force of this country he 
is not to be touched. I may levy a good number, yet very few will be 
found to execute their force against a Dacre" "When he invited Dacre 
to meet him to confer at Carlisle, Dacre pleaded the sores of his leg, the 
extremity of a journey to Brougham, and an " outragious agieu" caused 
thereby ; and, in fine, invited his lordship to a friendly dinner with him 
at Naworth. Next Dacre feared the Scots, and would defend himself. 
At last he fired beacons. Then came a proclamation against him. His 
disloyalty was no longer in doubt. And as Lord Hunsdon was riding 
to join Scrope, Dacre' s footmen "gave the proudest charge upon his 

1T He seems to have acquired the old Dacre manors of Irthington, Dacre, Kirk-Os- 
wald, &c., which on his attainder were bestowed on Lord Dacre of the South, whose 
descendant, Thomas Dacre, forfeited them for murder in 1541. Kirk-Oswald was 
purchased by Lord William Howard, who took some of its ornaments to Naworth. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 145 

shot that ever he saw." Hunsdon turned with his cavalry and made a 
deadly slaughter. Dacre fled from his horsemen, " like a tall gentle- 
man," and rested not until he reached Liddesdale. "I took then (saya 
Lord Hunsdon) his guyddown, with the Redd Bull which is the Lord 
Baker's badge, which I trust the law of arms will allow me to bear 
and if it will please her Majesty to bestow Leonard Daker's land upon 
me in Yorkshire, which was the Strangwyshys, 18 1 shall be better able 
to serve her." Lord Hunsdon caused possession of " Naworthe, Rocke- 
laye, and other places of the said Leonard Dacres, to be taken for the 
Queen's Majesty, and so delivered them to my Lord Scroope ; and hath 
delivered the possession of Kirkeoswalde and Graiestocke to the Duke's 
Grace's officer's hands, in the same state as they were, before Leonard 
Dacres took them." 

Leonard Dacre crossed the sea. 19 He stood in King Philip's pension 
list as next in rank and remuneration (100 florins a month) to the Earl 
of Westmoreland and the Countess of Northumberland (200 florins 
each) : and when in 1573 he died, the usual quarterings of the Dacres 
were carved upon his tomb in St. Nicholas', Brussells, with the empty 
style of Baron Dacre, of Gilsland, Brough, Barton, &C. 20 

EDWARD DACRE, 21 the next brother, shared his fate, and died in 21 
Eliz. (1578-9.) 22 

FRANCIS DACRE, the youngest, waa now the male heir of his once 
powerful race. He had been much connected with his brethren in their 
acts, 23 but when his brother Edward made entry to the houses, he gave 
notice thereof to the Sheriff of Cumberland, and as soon as he perceived 
active treason in Leonard, he left him and offered his service to Scrope. 
Scrope certified this, and Francis escaped the fate of a rebel. Hi 
expectations were more moderate, probably his courage less daring, than 

18 1558. Pleadings in a suit of intrusion, versus Win. Lord Dacre and Leonard 
Dacre in the manors of Ekington, West Harilsey, Assulby, Upsall, Whawton, and 
Heyton, claimed by James Strangways. Cal. State Papers. See Ord's Cleveland, 
p. 447. 

19 His brother-in-law, Mr. Culpepper, fell under Archbishop Parker's notice as aV 
senting himself from the communion, and was therefore cited to appear before him. 
The Archbishop expressly tells Cecil that he has married the sister of Leonard Dacre, 
no doubt a sufficient reason for strictness. 

20 Sharp's Rebellion. See State Papers for 1575, vol. cv., No. 10, and cvi., No. 69. 
Memorial touching the grant of lands belonging to Lord Dacre, and the agreement 
between him, Lord Norreis, and Leonard Dacre. The Earl of Leicester's suit for 
confirmation of the leases taken under such agreement. 

21 See Sharp's Memorials of the Rebellion, 161. 1563. Particulars of Edward 
Dacre' s leases of the parsonages of Plumpton, Bolton, and Langothbye, and of the 
rectories of Kyrkeland and Camberton. Cal. State Papers. 

22 Nic. and Burn, ii., 351. 23 See Sharp, 161. 



146 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENT WATER, 

those of his brothers. But he, too, called himself Lord Dacre, and as 
to the estates, he was perhaps more really troublesome to the heiresses 
than his bolder relatives. 

All the Dacres followed the medieval faith. Philip Lord Arundel, 
Lord William Howard's brother, who had married the elder coheiress 
of Dacre, declared himself of the E-omish communion, attempted to go 
to the continent, and was intercepted and thrown into the Tower. 
Lord William, who had formerly offered to accompany him, was also 
sent to that fortress. The Crown held a long and deadly grasp on the 
large estates of the coheiresses, taking advantage of doubts and disputes, 
and raising them when none existed. The following is Lord William's 
own account of the affair : 

" Leonard and Edward Dacre, uncles to the Ladies Ann and Eliza- 
beth, were attainted of treason by Parliament, by which means so much 
of William Lord Dacre' s inheritance (their grandfather's) as was en- 
tailed to the heirs-male, did escheat to the Crown, and to distinguish 
what escheated by the said attaintures, and what of right descended to 
the heirs-general, was the principal reason that moved the Lord Trea- 
surer to urge (15 Eliz., in which year the late Duke of Norfolk died) 
Mr. Lawrence Banistre [the Duke of Norfolk's law-agent, who had been 
put to torture to make discoveries against him], to whom only the title 
and state of the said Lord Dacre' s inheritance in the behalf of the heirs- 
general was then known. And he, then remaining close prisoner in the 
Tower, by the commandment of the Lord Burgeley, then Lord Treasurer, 
writ a treatise declaring plainly the whole title of those possessions, 
wherein appeared both his honesty in dealing and his sufficiency in 
learning. At that time Anne, now Countess of Arundel, and the now 
Lady Elizabeth Howard, the sisters and coheirs of George, late Lord 
Dacre, were wards to the Queen ; and after they did accomplish age, 
sued livery for the land, which they quietly enjoyed 24 until 27 Eliz. 
(1584-5), at which time the said Leonard and Edward were both dead, 
arid Mr. Francis Dacre, their younger brother, as heir-male, by colour 
of his father's supposed entail, entered upon the lands, claiming them 
for his own. The Earl of Arundel and the Lord William Howard, 
husbands of the said coheirs, defended their right, and kept possession 
of the lands and houses. About Easter after, by the permission of Al- 
mighty God, the said Earl of Arundell and his brother the Lord Wil- 
liam Howard, were committed close prisoners to the Tower of London, 

2 4 From their father's death, in 1565, to 1572, the income had been received by 
Thomas Duke of Norfolk, as guardian. From that time to 1585, it had been received 
for the co-heiresses. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 147 

and their lands then in controversie, by the earnest suit of Mr. Francis 
Dacre, sequestered from them." 25 

The right to the inheritance was tried the same year. On March 6, 
Mr. Edward Hansley (rector of Greystock, who had been presented by 
the Crown in right of the wardship of George, the last Lord Dacre) 
died. A caveat was entered by Francis Dacre, then of Croglin ; ano- 
ther by the Earl and Countess of Arundel, 26 who granted the advowson 
to Wm. Cantrell, Esq., und a commission of Jus Patronatus was issued. 
" Mr. Erancis Dacre, not omitting his advantage of time, prosecuted his 
cause with great violence when both his adversaries were close prisoners, 
in danger of their lives, and in so deep disgrace of the time, as scarce 
any friend or servant durst adventure to shew themselves in their 
cause ; nay, the counsellors at law refused to plead their title when 
they had been formerly retained. Eriends were made, and letters were 
written in favour of Mr. Erancis Dacre, jurors chosen of his near kin- 
dred and professed friends. Sed magna est veritas, for even that trial 
passed for the coheirs." 27 The jurors gave their verdict on Aug. 16, 
finding that the parsonage was appendant to the manor of Greystock, 
that two persons pretended title to present to it, viz., the Earl of Arun- 
del and his wife and Mr. Erancis Dacre, and that the former had granted 
an advowson of the parsonage to William Cantrell, under hand and seal. 
Seven of the jurors answered : " That, whereas Mr. Erancis Dacre 
made his title to the patronage . . by an entail supposed to be made by 
his father William late Lord Dacre, which entail was impugned for 
divers imperfections therein alleged by the counsel learned of "William 
Cantrell ; yet we, by reason of other matter of record given us in evi- 
dence, not entering into the consideration of the validity or invalidity 
of the same entail, do find that William Cantrell hath right to present 
to the church of Graystock for this time, as by grant thereof made from 
the Earl of Arundel and Lady Anne the Countess his wife." The other 
five answered more generally: "That according to such evidence as 
we have had, we find the right of the patronage of Graystock in Wil- 
liam Cantrell, as in the right and by the grant of Philip Earl of Arundel 
and Lady Anne his wife." So all twelve agreed in the main for the 
title of William Cantrell, and Mr. Hugh Thornly, his presentee, had 
the living in opposition to Mr. Henry Evans, the nominee of Mr. Erancis 
Dacre. Nine years after, however, Mr. Thornly was again instituted 

25 Howard Memorials. 

26 There had been a partition of the estates between the heiresses. 

27 Lord William Howard, in Howard Memorials. 



148 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

on a presentation from the Queen, to prevent any hazard, by lapse or 
otherwise in the former title. 28 

When the brothers were released (Arundel being fined 10,000?. by the 
Star Chamber), they presented a petition to Lord Burghley, claiming that 
the trials might proceed without delay. In the mean time the cause 
proceeded under different pleas, and on St. Peter's day, 28 Eliz. (30 
June, 1586) the cause being debated at large, the Lord Chancellor, 
Judges, and Queen's learned Counsell, were fully satisfied and agreed 
for the title of the coheirs. 29 

In 1588 the Earl was again arrested, and in 1589 condemned, and 
" Lord William again, upon a quarrel purposely picked unto him, was 
kept close prisoner, but as soon as the office was found and returned, he 
was presently set at liberty, so as thereby the whole world may easily 
guess the cause of his close imprisonment ; thus was the Dacres' land 
gotten from them, and the Queen colorably possessed thereof." 30 

Yet from this step Francis Dacre reaped no advantage. Driven to 
desperation, his Radclyffe lands all spent before Sir George's death in 
1588, he determined in 1589 to quit England. But before he left Eng- 
land he wrote to the Queen, explaining his hard circumstances. Of his 
letter (dated at Crogling, 17 Sep.) he sent copies to several of his ac- 
quaintances. His forced departure is the first act wherein he might 
hazard her displeasure. He is free from all disloyalty, whatsoever hath 
been informed by his unfriends, whereof he has gained many by his 
father's possessions, especially such as have been brought up by his 
father from mean estate to be gentlemen, and now live in all wealth 
and pleasure upon the lands that were his ancestors'. Their untruths 
had taken effect with the council, whereby he has endured many and 
great distresses, but never with her Majesty till now, upon whom, 
under God, he has always trusted, and hopes still for performance of 
her promises. His love and obedience to her have driven him to hard 
shifts for maintenance, after all he had was spent, with the benevolence 
of his friends, and to suffer such open injuries at his adversaries' hands 
as the world may wonder that flesh and blood were able to suffer them. 
Still in hope, he had made his last and most hard shift in selling 
his house, at a great loss, to bring him up to the Queen ; but in the 
mean time, within a week of his journey, her commissioners in the 
survey of the lands have not only dispossessed him by virtue of a letter 
from the Lord Treasurer by her command of all the tenements which 
were returned to him both of the Graystocks' lands, and also of the 

28 Nicholson and Burn, ii., 365. 29 Howard Memorials. 

30 Lord William in Howard Memorials, 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 149 

Dacres', which were purchased and out of the concealment, but also 
have earnestly demanded the rents again that he has received thereof, 
a hard case that Arundel's attainder should forfeit his lawful possession. 
He has no friends to further her Majesty's good meaning, but mighty 
adversaries near her. Many are the delays for answer of his last peti- 
tion at Easter, wherein he said he could not endure without speedy 
relief. The rents of the Dacres' lands, which were the most part of his 
maintenance, are received to her use without consideration of his poor 
estate, and now his lawful possession of all the rest is taken from him 
by another's fault. The Lowthers 31 and Carletons, which never deserved 
well, 33 are like to receive of his ancestors' lands, 33 gone, not by his 
offence, and by his only life and his son's her majesty doth keep them. 
His heart cannot endure such evil men as they, maintainers of theft, of 
notoriously bad behaviour, who have concealed her majesty's title these 
20 years, and would have done so for ever, if his adversaries' right had 
proved better than his. They made means for a composition with them 
to defraud her, which if he had done he would have made a better match 
for himself than he has done as the case standeth. And now they are 
so liberally dealt with. His title is clear to Strangwaies' lands, but 
considering the interest of my Lord Chamberlain and Sir Thomas 
Scisell's son in those lands with her, he must let them rest in their 
hands that have no right. All that were towards Arundel and Lord 
"William do receive credit and commodity of those lands. All that were 
with him are displaced of their offices with most hard speeches. He 
has the last penny of maintenance that ever he can make. The debt he 
is in is great. He has no shift left whereby to live. To beg he is 
ashamed. To work he cannot. To want he will not. He must seek 
for maintenance where he may with credit gain it. He will employ that 
little that should have brought him to attend upon her majesty, to cany 
him elsewhere. He has taken his son, for he has left him nothing to 
tarry withal. His daughters he commits to God's provision. He ends 
with a prayer for toleration of so forced and unwilling a departure, and 
will daily pray for his queen's long reign. 34 

Such were the contents of Dacre's letter. His intention seems to have 
been carried out, and it was probably at this time that he was attainted, 
as his name does not occur in the attainders of 1570. He was still in 

31 After this letter, in 1597, Richard Lowther, Esq., of Lowther, bad the grant of 
an avoidance of Greystock rectory, 

32 Yet we shall find Francis in league with a Carleton in the next r<n<*n. 

33 The ancient entailed lands. 

34 Nicholson and Bum, ii., 353. 

x 



150 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DER WENT WATER, 

Scotland in July 1599, when he called himself Lord Dacre, and had sent 
for his son out of the Low Countries into Scotland, and 150Z. to pay 
his debts withal. There can be no doubt, therefore, that his loyalty 
had at last given way to his necessities. "If he inherit no more 
land from his father, he will be a poor lord." a 

Meanwhile the Queen, whether under the mere cloak of Arundel's at- 
tainder, or on the new treason of Francis Dacre, kept a firm hold upon 
all the Dacre estates. In 1595 Lord William justified his conduct, and 
denied having made any application implying distrust in his title. It 
was in vain. After Arundel's death in the Tower, his widow had to 
join with Lord William to recover her own estates and her jointure, and 
they eventually were compelled to purchase their own lands in 1601 for 
10,000/., but in the names of Mr. Edward Carrill and others, "because 
they would not in any sort prejudice their own right." The grant was 
also confined to the adverse claims of Francis Dacre, " until and so long 
as there should be an heir male of the body of Francis Dacre, esquire, 
late attainted of treason, in full life." 36 

Elizabeth died. Once more the harassed Dacre might look for relief. 
But the Howards, true to the new King's mother in her dark downward 
career, had strong claims upon him. The title to the peerage came un- 
der notice the first year of his reign, and the Attorney- General had 
instructions to draw up a grant of the baronies of Dacre of Gillesland 
and Greystock to the Countess of Arundel and her heirs, as coheir to 
her brother the last baron, with remainder to Lord William Howard 
and his heirs by her younger sister Elizabeth. 37 A shade continued 
upon the male heir of Dacre. His enemies the Cecils were still in 
power. In 1605, after the Gunpowder Plot was discovered, Sir Edward 
Coke's interrogatories for the examination of Guy Fawkes were indorsed 
with a query whether Edward Neville, titular Earl of Westmoreland, 
and the titular Lord Dacre were connected with the treason. Both 
gentlemen escaped taintless. The sequel of the history of Dacre ap- 
pears in the following representations among the Badclyffe papers at 
Greenwich hospital. 

35 Sharp's Memorials, 223. 

36 Nic. and Burn, ii, 351. 

37 S. P. Cal. 1603, p. 61. This grant does not appear to have been completed. 
There has indeed been an idea that the abeyance of the barony of Greystock was ter- 
minated by the Crown in favour of the Arundel line ; but as to that of Dacre, Lord 
William's great grandson, Charles Howard, was created Baron Dacre of Gillesland by 
patent, in 1661. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK, 151 

15 Augusti. 1614. A TRUE DECLARATION OF THE PASSAGES BETWEENE 

THE COUNTESSE OF AfiUNDELL AND THE LORD WlLLIAM HOWARD ON THE 
ONE P ARTIE, AND MR. ERANCIS DACRE ON THE OTHER SENSE. ANN. 1607. 

About Michaelmas, 1607, Anno 5 Regis Jacobi, Mr. Francis Dacre 
sent for Mr. Daniell Pullen, and by him made a voluntarie offer to my 
Ladie of Arundell and my Lord to releasse to them his claime or title 
he pretended to suche lande as they then injoyed ; presuming of their 
kindness and best assistance in obtaining out of the crowne for him the 
ancient Dacre landes forfeited by his brother's and his attentures. 

The offer, as it proceeded voluntarie from him, soe at that time it came 
to them unexpected : yet the demand soe verie reasonable, as they had 
uoe reason to refuse the same. 

Uppon returne of some messages betweene them, uppon noe other 
conditions but onely a note in paper under their handes promissing to 
doe their best indeavours on his behalfe by thereselves and friendes 
for those ancient Dacre landes, he releasced to them all his title 
of all such landes as they possessed in the county of Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Northumberland, Yorke, the cittie of Yorke, Saloppe, and 
Bishopperick of Durham, with a covenant to make further assurance 
uppon demaund during five yeares, be it by fine, feoffment, recoverie, 
&c., as by the said releasse dated 10 October, the yeare abovesaid, under 
his hand and seale and enroulled appeareth. At which time he also 
levied a fine of all but the landes 38 in the Bisshoppericke of Durham, 
which was after to be executed at Durham (for the Bishopp's special! 
allowance was to be had) and soe could not then be performed at 
London. 

Having thus farre proceeded (noe waie distrusting his further perform- 
ance) they did their best indeavours to get him those ancient landes ; 
brought him to the then Lord Privie Sealle and Lord Chamberlaine, 
who promissed him their best helppe therein ; preferred his suit, and 
drave it soe farre as they could, but in trueth the laite Lord Treasurer 
Salisburie, hating Mr. Dacre mortallie, chienie it is thought for some 
courses he ran with the lait Earle of Essex, in the lait Queene's tyme, 
while he lived in Scotland, would by noe meanes suffer the suite to take 
success, but with all violence crossed the same. Faylling herin, my 
Lady of Arundell and my Lord tooke the next best for him, procured 
for himself, his wife, and sonne, an annuite of 350Z. 39 per annum, and 
the annuitie of 250Z. 40 per annum, formerlie given to his daughters by 
the late Queene, alsoe confirmed to them. To this, voluntarie of there- 
selves, they did contribute unto him 3 or 400?. in money, and have 
yearely since given him 100?. out off free bountie, being not hereunto 
tyed, but onley during pleasure. At that tyme also, at his request, 

38 Brereton manor, Nesham manor, and the manors of High and Low Coniscliff. 

39 1608-9. Feb. 12. Grant to Francis, son of the late Lord Dacre, a pension of 2001. 
per annum, with 1QOI. per annum to Alice his wife, and 50/. to Randal his son. 
Cal. State Papers. 

40 1607. Aug. 15. "Warrant to pay to Elizabeth, Frances, and Ann Dacres, daugh- 
ters of Francis Dacres, their pensions of 501. per annum each. Gal, State Papers. 



152 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

they procured him a protection from aresting in soe ample maner as 
Mr. Sergeant Hutton, his owne counsaill, directed the same ; and, after, 
my Lord himself, by such means as he procured, renewed the same pro- 
tection for him after the former was expired. 41 He also sent to him and 
offered him Croglin, which he scornefullie refused, albeit he hath sence 
lett the same at an under value for 40?. per annum, reserving the wood 
and timber, and the house did formerlie content him, as alsoe, before 
him, his father's uncle, Sir Christopher Dacre. Likewise after he had 
bought Kirckoswold Castle, to save it from devasting, 42 he was willing 
to have bestowed that uppon him, which he refused, alledging that he 
had resolved never to come into Cumberland, except he might obtaine 
the ancient landes and dignities of Lord Dacres, which answere he allso 
returned him when my Lord offered him his part of Corkby, for which 
he paied to Mr. Henrie Blenkinsoppe almost 800?., and for his interest 
in Kirkoswold he hath bin offered above 500?. My Lord alsoe gave 
him, besides his annuitie, 100?, in Michaellnias tearme, 1612, being 
then in distresse as he seemed ; before which time he had caused him to 
be often moved to levie a fine according to his covenant of the Bishopp- 
rick landes. Sometimes he desired to deferr it untill he came into the 
countrie ; att another time he tould my Lord his sonne Anderton dis- 
wadcd him from it, which seemed strange to my Lord, because Mr. 
Anderton had bin formerlie with him and tould him he was determined 
to levie the fine. But when my Lord sent his servant to him at sum- 
mer assizes gone a yeare directly to have him to acknowledge the same 
at the said assizes, according to his covenant, he did then flattly refusse 
to performe it ; saying, he had vowed never to doe it, unlesse my Lord 
would undertake to procure his annuitie to be confirmed uppon his 
sonne after his death. Wherupon my Lord resolved that he would 
never give him 6d. to doe that which he had bound himself unto by his 
hand and sealle. Uppon this occasion he forbare his benevolence of 50?. 
per annum ; but it must not be omitted that, the last tearme, Mr. Ander- 
ton tould my Lord, he had a letter from Mr. Francis Dacre acknowledg- 
ing under his hand that he had promissed my Lord to levie the fine of 
the Bishopprick landes. My Lord, uppon hearing some injurious reportes 
that have bene given abroad, delivered in effect what I have here 
related, but concluded word for word himself as followeth :-^ 

Charitie and conscience bindes all men, especiallie such as are, or 
should be, lanternes to give light to others, to walke in a right path, to 
forbeare to censure in anie controversie betweane partie and partie, till 
the accused be heard in his owne defence. I tax none bycause I know 
none in particuler, but in generall I am charged, and in generall I have 

41 In 1608 he received protection for a year. Privy Seal Records, per Sharp. 

42 1610. June 28. Grant to Sir. "Wm. Anstruther of all the materials of the decayed 
castle of Kirk Oswald, co. dumb., also lease of the land on which the castle stands, 
the gardens, &c. Nov. 16. Lease to Owen Shepherd and John Dudley, at the suit of 
Sir Wm. Anstruther, of the decayed castle of Kirk Oswald, the previous grant of it to 
Anstruther being called in question, because he is an alien and no denizen. CaL 
State Papers. 

I presume that Lord William purchased Kirk Oswald for Anstruther's term, for he 
only speaks of his interest in it. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO CACHE OF GREYSTOCK. 153 

declared the trueth of my proceedings. Yf I weare dispossed nowe to 
change my habit, and become from an accused an accuser, I could 
toutch Mr. Francis Dacre with a strange plott and course intended by 
him against me, the last tearme at London, if God the just judge and 
author of all justice had not mightilie protected my just cause, contrarie 
to the expectation of my adversaries. I conclude in silence and charitie. 
Man determineth, and God disposeth. 



CONCERN INGE THE PROCEEDINGE BETWEEN THE RIGHT HONORABLE THE 
LORD WILLIAM HOWARD AND MR. FRANCIS DACRE. An. Dom. 1614. 

1 . That Mr. Francis Dacre did release to my Lady of Arundell and 
Lord William, &c., himselfe denieth not; whether offred by him or sought 
for by them is nowe the only question. He barely denieth that he sent 
Pullein to them, and bindeth the same with a deepe protestacion ; the 
affirmative wilbe mainteined by some yett living to whom Pullein com- 
plained whiles he was in management of those affaires, that he was 
much wearie and tired with Mr. Dacre' s importunitie and continuall 
sending for him to speake with him and imploye him therin. And 
note that Mr. Dacres in the next article followinge acknowledgeth that 
his wants and dispaire to prevaile in his suites forced him to release to 
the said Lady of Arundell, &c., but doth not charge them for seeking the 
same of him. 

2. Mr. Dacre had taken, and by the king's expresse commandment 
had delivred upp the possession of Kirkoswald Castle before the Lady of 
Arundell or Lord William did ever dreame thereof. No man will 
imagine while Mr. Dacre stood in opposition with them that eyther of 
them would be so simple as to give him any furtherance in his suites, 
wherby he might be enabled to sue or trouble them ; yet that the Lord 
Win. should after confesse to him that they weare the meanes to dis- 
possesse him of Kirkoswald, as it most sencelesse that they could doe it, 
so is it most false and untrue that evere the Lord William did so con- 
fesse unto him. 

3. Mr. Dacre in the 3 article would have the 2 precedent admited to 
be true (which maye not be, seing they are both most false), and then 
appelleth to the indifferent judg whether his release was voluntary or 
driven unto it by extreame want. The other side is not to examine 
what particuler or inward motives moved Mr. Dacre to release, but to 
meinteine the first assertion, that when he did release he voluntarilie 
offred them, and they sought not him, and till he produce better proof e, 
or, at least, some probable circumstances to make good his former bare 
protestacion, it shalbe cast to the indifferent judg to whom he appealleth, 
as now it standeth to decide and determine. 

4. For a note under their hands lett the same be viewed, and their 
accusations therin duely examined, whearin it shall apeare that they 
have beene very precise in observing to him, till he brake promise and 
covenant to them contrarie to his hand and seale. Whear in his answer 
to this pointe, he chargeth them that they promised him to gett him a 
graimt of the ancient Dacre lands formerly given him by the Kinge, and 



154 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, 

by their procurement recalled, lett him looke on his noate and produce 
the same to open vie we ; and if any such thinge be in the same, all other 
parts of his declaration (as he calleth it) shalbe acknowledged to be true, 
yf otherwise, lett him with shame confesse his error and his immoderate 
passion be pleaded for his excuse. Tor any others his suittes they per- 
formed justly for him so farre as their power extended accordinge to 
their promise, but the exceding hatred of the late Treasorer Salysbury 
conceived against him crossed all mocions of his preferment, the cause 
therof by most liklyhood best knowen to Mr- Dacre him selfe. 

5. For the money bestowed upon him, the certeine somme can not 
without great labour and search of sundrie books be of the suddeine ex- 
actly collected. When it cometh to a strickt reckoninge Mr. Dacre will 
not prove the best auditor. 

6. Mr. Dacre' s sundrie requests and propositions to them must not 
stand and be accented for promises made by them, all that ever they 
promised he hath under their hands, which was not absolute, but re- 
strained to do their best indevour by their friendes, which they per- 
formed really and so farre as their power extended, and the contrarie he 
shall never prove ; all others promises they absolutely disclaime. For 
renewinge his pencion to his sonne by the Commissiouners for the office 
of the Lord Treasurer, lett him call him selfe to remembrance yf when 
he first moved my Lord William therein, he did not dissuade him from 
it as a tyme then unseasonable, and that after he went to the Lord 
Woton who (as he saied) did incourage him in the procedinges, yett being 
one of the Commissiouners did refuse to shewe him selfe therin on his 
behalfe. The petition being preferred, the then Lord Privie Seale and 
Lord Chamberlane used him with the best respect of all the companye, 
(as Mr. Dacre him selfe did presentlie after acknowledge) butt his suitte 
being out of their commission to graunt was referred to his Majestie, 
whean Mr. Dacre leaft it and persecuted it no further, being at that 
time in dispaire to prevaile. The Lord Wm. no waye then under- 
taking the businesse for him, for yf he would have ben advised 
by him he should not at that tyme have preferred his suitte, in 
which, as in many others, the Lord Wm. is most wrongfully burdened 
and charged. Oportet mendacem esse memorem. Mr. Dacre first 
forgeteth his covenant under his hand and seale to make further 
assurance, and next remembreth not his letter dated at Cochein, 17 
Decembris, 1610, which was before the death of Treasurer Salisbury, 
written evey worrde with his owne hande to the Lord Wm. Howard, in 
which verbatim as followeth : " I have, according to the aggreement, 
made release of svhat was in your Lordship's possessions, which I pre- 
sume have been sufficient. But your Lordship requestinge an other 
fine for lands in Bishopprike, I supose some deffect in the former, these 
are therfore to resolve your Lordshipp that yf any other fyne for these 
lands be necessarie, I ame and will be ready to acknowledge the same 
in this countrie, when your Lordshipp wil call it upon me." Howe he 
after performed this can be best testiffied by Mr. Lancellott Skellton 43 

43 1608 ? Ill conduct of Lord William Howard in encouraging recusants in the 
North. Skelton of "Wetherall, a dependant of his, took the sacrament at Easter, but 






AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 155 

and Wm. Bowman, the one his ancient frend, the other his ould servant, 
in whose presence he flately refused to levie the said fine, affirming he 
had vowed the contrarie, unlesse the Lord "William would assure his 
sonne 100Z. per annum during his life, or els procure his pencion from 
his Majestie, to be assured upon his sonne. By this it is evident that 
his vowe is against his covenant under his hand and seale, and contra- 
dictorie to his voluntarie offer, under his owne hand writtinge. Howe 
small creditt is to he given to any part of his declaracion (as he tearmeth 
it), or to the deepe protestacion he takes in answere to the first article, 
and howe weake a pillar his sonne hath to relie upon after his death, 
which he pretendeth to be a cheefe motive of his declaracion, I leave to 
the judgement of the world, and the censure of any indifferent and 
understandinge person. 

7. Lett Mr. Anderton and his wiffe writte what they please, it shalbe 
affirmed by their betters that the Countess of Arundell and Lord William 
weare meanes to renewe his daughter pencions, and yf Mr. Anderton 
will affirme under his hand yf he did not in Trinitie tearme, 1614, tell 
the Lord Wm. Howard that he had a letter under Mr. Dacre hand, that 
he promised to the Lord William to levie a fine of the Bishopprike 
lands, then shall it be plainely proved to the shame of them both. Till 
Mr. Ander ton's hand be shewed, it will not be beleeved that he will denye 
so manifest a truthe, but it is rather conceived that Mr. Dacre maketh 
bold in this degree to wronge his sonne in lawe for his owne advantage, 
which is not the fyrst tyme he hath used him so (yf reporte be true). 
Howesoever maters stand betwene Mr. Dacre and his sonne in lawe, it 
is most evident by his letter, under his owne hand, 1610, above men- 
cioned and ready to be shewed as occasion shalbe offered, he did then 
absolutely promise that which nowe he peremptorilie denieth. 

8. Kirkoswald Castle, Corkeby, and Crogling, weare all more freelie 
and kindlie, not skornefully, offred to Mr. Dacre then he deserved, to 
no bad end, thoughe proudly and unadvisedly refused, and ungratefully 
interpreted and rejected by him, howsoever for one of them his refusall 
now cloaked with a shewe of scrupule of concience. 

9. Lett Mr. Dacre surmise what best pleaseth his owne fancie; what- 
soever the Court of Wardes determineth in the minoritie of the "Wardes, 
doth no waie binde them after livery sued ; as things never before heard 
of nor materiail to the matter nowe in hande, they maie for this tyme 
passe in silence. But Mr. Dacre might observe that my Lord Montague, 
being his brother in lawe, 44 and a principall mainteiner of him in his 
suittes, could not be accepted of for an indifferent mediator in this busi- 
nesse, much lesse my Lord Lumley who was then the onely man that 
the Earle of Arundell did account his principall adversarie, and the pro- 
curer of the displeasure his grandfather Henry [Fitz-Alan], then Earle 

spat it out. Lord William's servant erected a lord of misrule at Christmas last, who 
disturbed the congregation at Hampton, Westmoreland. By his influence at Court 
he overrules the course of law in the North, and is aiming at the sheriffwiek of West- 
moreland, that he may have a sheriff of his own faction. Col, State Papers. 

44 Anthony Brown, Lord Montague, married one of Dacre' s sisters for his second 
wife. 



156 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWAT ER, 

of Arundell, 45 had towards him, by which he gaineth to himselfe the most 
parte of the said Earle's possessions, which discontentment betwene 
the said Philip Earle of Arundell and Lord Lumley, did continewe in 
extreame bitter teannes till after the tyme mentioned and supposed in 
Mr. Dacre's declaracion, at which tyme the Lord William was newly 
come from Cambridg, and not 16 yeares of age. For further answeare 
to this article observe Mr. Dacre owne confession in the next 10 
article, which I doute not will satisfy e any indifferent reader, viz : 

10. That howe soever in his letter to them he demaundes their con- 
sideracions uppon the former surmises, yett when they denied his de- 
matmd, and weare contented to bestowe 1001. per annum on him, of 
their countie, at their will and pleasure, he did willingly accept there- 
of, &c. 

11. Mr. Thomas Addis, a surveior, then dwelling about Drewrie 
Lane, did the last yeare, and will still affirme and prove, that he was 
earnestly intreated and dealt with to interteine in his house and sojorne 
Mr. Francis Dacre, who was come to London, and went to staie ther, 
aboute to prosecute causes against the Lord "William Howard, and to be 
a suttor to his Majestie against him, and howe farr then he did irnbarke 
himselfe with the Lord of Hunsdon, is best knowent to himselfe and 
not all together unknown to others. Neither will Mr. Dacres wippe 
this blemish awaie so easelie with an untrue surmise and sleight instance 
of a former assumption cast uppon him that then failled in proofe, for 
seeing he will have the worlde knowe more than some weare willing to 
publishe; first omitting the practice that he, Mr. Tho. Salkeld, and 
others hadd platted by force to take the Lord William Howard in his 
bedd at Brampton, coming thether to keepe court, it maie be uppon due 
examination there is more knowen and more apparent proofe therof from 
some of the actors themselves, imployed by Mr. Dacre him selfe, then 
is imagined. Secondly, Lancellott Carlton did practice with Mr. Dacre 
well affected freindes and followers, to shoote the Lord William with a 
pistolle, is plainly confessed by diverse, and openely acknowledg uppon 
oath of one the principall agents at the generall assisses at Carlile, 1612, 
before the Justices of Assisses and all the countie ther assembled. 
Thirdly and lastly, that Lancellot Carlton did after that practise againe 
against the Lord Win. Howard, with some of Mr. Dacre's most neere 
and deere freindes, and Mr. Dacre him selfe was accointed therewith, 
thoughe perhapps with no ill intention at that tyme to the said Lord Wm. 
Howard. Littera scripta manet. 

After Mr. Dacre had made his conclusion, affirming and denying all 
uppon his bare word and large protestation, without any other testimony 
or proofe, being no good or authentik evidence in his owne cause, he 
addeth with an " Also," a 12 article, but not of the creede no more then 
the precedente, wherein he affirmeth all convenantes to be fully per- 
formed on his parte, referring himselfe to his release, which, for all the 
doubt he maketh, is ready to be shewed, and by the very viewe thereof 

45 Who had two daughters and coheirs, Joanna, the wife of John Lord Lumley, 
by whom she bad no surviving issue, and Mary Duchess of Norfolk, Philip Lord 
Arundel's mother. 



AND THE HEIRS-MALE TO DACRE OF GREYSTOCK. 157 

will appeare to be inrolled as hath been affirmed. And for a finall ende 
and full conclusion of all the controversie, setting aside any more re- 
plyes, rejoinders, or other tedious and needlesse discourses in writtinge, 
the only uppshott, yssue, and closse shalbe in the judgement of indiffer- 
ent men of understanding and knowledge, uppon full viewe and consi- 
deracion of Mr. Dacre's said release, whether he hath performed all 
convenantes on his parte or no : yf he have, all that he hath said is true, 
and the other side hath done him most apparant and open wronge and 
injurie : yf he hath not, lett him ask Grod forgivenesse, and latt all others 
that have any thinge or nothinge to do in these affaires, whether it con- 
cerne them or concerne them not, be sparring in their censures, and bee- 
leve charitably till the trueth be tried, and ther appeare just cause to 
the contrarie. 



There can be little doubt that we have here the composition of Lord 
William himself. 

The close of the titular Lord Dacre's history does not appear, but 
he lingered out his existence until 8 Car. I., 1632-3. In 1634, the 
burial register of Graystock contains the entry of " RANDAL DACRE, 
Esquire, sonne and hyre to Francis Dacre, Esquire, deceased, being the 
youngest sonne of the late Lord William Dacre, deceased, being the 
last hyre male of that lyne ; which said Randal dyed at London, and was 
brought downe at the charges of the right honourable Thomas Earle of 
Arundell and Surreye, and Earle Marshal of England." The rest of 
the family probably settled at Chester-le- Street. Dacre makes no men- 
tion of a wife, in his letter of 1589, to the Queen, but only of his son and 
daughters, and we may suppose that Dorothy Eadclyffe, whose inheri- 
tance was dissipated before 1588, had ceased to sorrow. In 1609 the 
wife receiving a pension is called Alice. With respect to the daughters, 
Lord Wm. Howard says that a pension of 2501. was awarded them. 
15QL of this is accounted for in the grant of 1607, which mentions 
Elizabeth, Frances, and Ann, each of whom received 50?. Mrs. Ander- 
ton would probably be a fourth daughter, and the fifth is found in Mary, 
who is said to have lived to a very great age, and to have died child- 
less. 48 Frances accounts for the burial at Chester-le- Street, on 19 Feb., 
1632-3, of "Mrs. Frances Dacres, al. Frances L. Dacre." 47 Mary, be- 
fore her good old age, had to pass through an adventure. She, " borne 
of noble blood and parentage," eloped in the night time, in 1635, from 
her mother's house in Chester, with Marmaduke Hedworth, and married 
him at Thornaby, in Cleveland. They soon separated, and Marmaduke, 
for profaning the ceremony of matrimony, he being under precontract 
* 6 NIC. and Burn, ii., 351. 47 Surtees, ii., 146. 



158 HEIRS-GENERAL OF RADCLYFFE OF DERWENTWATER, &c. 

with Margaret Key, whom he had seduced, was fined 1,000 marks, had to 
make confession, was excommunicate, and imprisoned three years. And, 
(thoroughly unable to trace the heirship-general of her father, or of the 
Radclyffes of Derwentwater), with so grievous an insult to the fallen 
house of Dacre, we conclude this imperfect sketch of its last days. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 



had married the coheiresses of Martindale, were also attainted for joining Leonard 
Dacre, and that their estate at Grinsdale was granted to Whitmore, who conveyed to 
Dacre of Kirklington, who already possessed the rectory of Grinsdale. Nicholson and 
Burn, ii., 227. The Dacres of Kirklington were formerly named Appleby, and are 
descended through an heiress from Sir Thomas " Bastard Dacre" of Lanercost, an 
illegitimate uncle of Leonard Dacre. Ibid., 501. 

f4-f The dispute concerning the Strangwayes lands arose in a disposition of Sir 
James Strangwayes, the last male of his race, whose mother was a Dacre. See the 
circumstances in Hodgson, ii., 380. 

** # William Lord Dacre " growing discontented with himself for entangling his 
estate . . grew distempered in his brain, and so till near the time of his death continued 
in a dull melancholy, I will not say frenzy. By the said intended entail he. .sowed 
the seed of dissension betwixt his own children . . .Yea, he himself conceived so great 
dislike of his younger sons, Leonard, Edward, and Francis Dacre, who drew and per- 
suaded him to that unfortunate course of entailing his land, as they coming unto him 
lying upon his death bed, and desiring his blessing, he, in the bitterness of heart and 
detestation of their former sinister practice, left among them, instead of a blessing, 
the curse that God gave Cain, which every one of them hath happened too truly to 
feel." Lord William Howard, See Hodgson, ii., 380. 



159 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ACCOUNTS OF THE STEWARD OF 
SIR FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, BART., AT DILSTOtf, FROM 
JUNE, 1686, TO JUNE, 1687. 1 

1686. 

June. Given to a man that brought a young roe buck, per my mas- 
ter's order, 5s. Mrs. Mary Brabant, 2 in full of her whole yeare's an- 
nuity, due at Pent., 21. Ann Muschamp [the like], 5?. Richard 
Teasdale of Slealey, high constable, in full of ann assess for the militia 
for trumpetts, drums, &c., laid on by act of parliament in the 15th yeare 
of our late Soveragne Charles the Second, att 3s. 4^. per U. on the lands 
of Dilston and for accquit., in all 7s. Magnus Cuningham, 3 in full for 
a bay horse which Mr. Millor bought of him for draweing in the drought 
att Dilston, 31. 10s. Mr. George Forster of Bollam, one halfe yeare's 
rent due at Pent, last for Meldon Rectory, 61. 13s. 4^. : more to him for 
the tenths of Meldon Rectory, as appears by John Mitford's accquittance, 
and allowed by Sir Francis, and for the parator and accquit., in all 11s. 
l^d. John Pigg of the Lynell Wood, for a bull bought of him to serve 
the cow stents att the High Wood, lett there this yeare, II. 9s. Madam 
Mary Radclyffe, for the house use at Dilston, 201. Mrs. Eliz. Park, her 
whole yeare's wages, 41. Tho. Radclyffe, 4 for a letter for Sir Francis, 
3d. Mr. Wm. Radclyffe's nurse, in charity, by Sir Francis' order, 5s. 
Mr. George Jordan, in part of money due to him for building the new 
bridge over against the Roe Park wall, 61. Four chistes for the young 
pheasants, and one chist for Hogort's firits, and other worke, II. \d. 

July Mr. Wm. Radclyffe, 5 his halfe yeare's allowance, due at Pent., 
2QI. Mr. Athur Radclyffe [the like], 20J. Madam Mary Radclyffe 
[the like], 201. Mr. Miller, for sythes, wayne-ropes, hallters, trases, 
ox-bo wes, and weeding clipps, all belonging to husbandry, IL 5s. In 
charity to 5 seamen, 6d. Mr. William Widdrington, for out rents for 
Buteland and Bywell Castle, for one whole yeare, ending att Mich, last, 

1 These accounts have come into Mr. Fen wick's possession since the classified ac- 
count for 1681-2 was printed at full length, in the Memoir of Sir Francis Radclyffe. 
They do not descend into the smaller items, and it is unnecessary to print them in 
extenso. 

2 Bequeathed hy Sir Francis Radclyffe's mother, Lady Eli/aheth, in 1668. 

3 The gardener at Dilston. 

4 A servant of the house at 4:1. wages. 

5 The allow ances to the two youngest sons and a daughter of Sir Francis. 



160 HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES OF 

17s. Sd. Given by master's order to Mr. John Collingwood, in charity, 
5s. Carriage of 26 futher hired coales, att 2s. 6d. per father, 3?. 5s. 
Mr. John Clenell, for one halfe yeare's rent, due at Mich, to Charles 
Duke of Somersitt, 6 for Midleton Hall, 12s. Id. : more to him for one 
whole yeare's rent, called the vicandale rent, due Mich, for Midleton 
Hall, 10s. : more to him for a white rent due to the castle of Bambrough, 
for a halfe yeare, due at Mich., 6s. 6d. Edward Selby, his sister's halfe 
yeare's annuity, due att Whitsontyde last, which Sir Francis was pleased 
to give her in charity, 10s. Mr. Roger Midford, as by his bill for to 
returne to Mr. Tho. Radclyffe 7 att Boom, 81?. 4s. Jos. Bittleston, for 
smelting of lead, carriage of lead-oare, choping chopwood, and other 
things belonging to the lead mill, 81?. 19s. 4j<i : more to him for the 
carriage of 85 foder and 6 peece of lead from the Woodhall lead milne 
to Dilston, from June 28 till July 26, at 3s. Qd. per foder, 14?. 18s. 9f<Z. 

August. Mr. James Nicholson of Carlile, for one whole yeare's rent, 
due at Lamas, to the Dean and Chapter of Carlile, for the tythes of Lor- 
bitle and Dilston, and for accquits. (8rf.), 9?. Sd. Mr. Ashmall, 8 one 
quarter's salary, 3?, and paid him more 15s. IQd., which he hade laid out 
more then 40?. when the two young ladys 9 went to Lovaine. "Wm. 
Smith, for 1,160 oysters, att ISd. per hundred, which he bought last 
Lent, 17s. 3^?. : more for halfe a yeare's rent out of Scremerston, to Sir 
Tho. Haggerston, att St. Cuthbert day in March, 1?. 10s. Sess for re- 
paireing the militia for the High Wood and Green Lands, in Sir Francis' 
hand, Qd. Mr. Gawen Preston, uppholsterer, for 2 dossen sett worke 
chaires, att 7s. a pece, at charges 2s., 20?. 10s. Margret Browne, her 
halfe yeare's annuity, 10 due at Pent., 10s. George Emerson, collector 
of the chimney money for 22 fire hearths in Dilston House, due att Lady- 
day, 1?. 2s. 

September. Lent to John Heron, Esq., 20?., for which he gave his 
bond, and it is in my master Sir Francis his hand, and payable at Pent, 
next, 20?. Lent att the same tyme to George Jordan and John "Whit- 
field, massons, 19?., for which they gave their bond, and it is in master's 
(Sir Francis) hand. Mr. Midford's charges and Tho. Errington's at 
Durham, when they paid the Dean and Chapter's rent for the corne 
tythes of Norham. Mr. John Simpson, for one yeare's rent due to the 
Dean and Chapter, for the corne tythes of Norham parish, and for ace- 
quit., 6^?., 60?. 6d. Paid att Newcastle, by the appointment of my mas- 
ter Sir Francis Radclyffe, Bartt., to Mr. Edmund Aston of the citty of 
London, 1,300?. for the morrgage of the lands of Old Bewicke, New 
Bewicke, and East Lilborn, and the writeings for these lands is in my 
master Sir Francis' owne hand. 



6 " And his Dutchess." ' (Next payment.) 

7 The Baronet's third son, "sometime a Colonel in the British service." At the 
date of the account he was 28 years of age. He died unmarried. 

8 Ferdinando Ashmall, a priest. 

9 Catherine, the Baronet's second daughter, who died 1746, was one. The other 
sister must have been Elizabeth, the third daughter, for the eldest was married, and 
Lady Mary, the youngest, was at Dilston. 

10 Bequeathed by Lady Elizabeth Radclyffe. 



SIR FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, BART. 161 

October. Mr. Serjeant Jefferson, for keeping courts and standing 
counsell, as by acquit, for his sallary due at Michalmas, 10?. Pd. Mr. 
Hayles, 11 which he paid to Tho. Heron of Corbridge for 2 baliffes' fees 
for a warrent concerning the highwayes between Corbridge and Dilston, 
which my master was fined for att Hexham sessions, 6s. Sd. Ann 
Swinborn, 12 her halfe yeare's annuity, due att Pent., 21 10s. Mr. Tho. 
Butler, his halfe yeare's wages, due att Lamas, 31. Sir Eobert Fenwicke, 
one halfe yeare's rent for lands in Kewlands and Farle, due to Catherin, 
Queen Dowager, att Michaelmas, 21. Is. 2d. Mr. John Jenkins, for one 
halfe yeare's fee farme rent, viz., "Whelpington rectory, 61 6s. 8^., Spin- 
dlston tyth, 21. 13s. 4d., land in Spindlston, 3s. 4d., Broxfeild tyth, 2s., 
Shaftoe tyth, 21. 10s-, land in Temple Thornton, 17s. 2d. } Abbey Side 
in Alnwicke, 3d., Hartborn rectory, 51., AmbellHall corn tyth, 31. Is. 3d., 
Ambell cole mynes and Cunygarth, II 9s. 2d., land in Wooley, ll 3s. 4d., 
Westwood, 31. 13s. 4d. } for rent due to Sir Samuel Dash wood, knt., Tho. 
Lewes, and Edward Neel, Esqrs., at Michealmas ; in all, 26/. 19s. 10^. 
Mr. Ben. Carr, for Aydon Sheels and appurtenances, 21. 9s. 8^., Coastley 
and appurtenances, 21. 19s. 2%d., Edsbush, 2s. 5d., Gare Sheel, 2s. 6d., 
Turfe House, 2d., Whinitley Mill, 13s 4d., for halfe a yeare's rent due 
to the Queen Dowager att Michealmas, 61. 7s. 3%d. Thomas Heron, 
taylor, for a pair of britches for my master Sir Francis, 21. 14s. 2d. 
Mrs. Margrett Gaire, her halfe yeare's wages, 21. 15s My Lady Rad- 
clyffe, for her 3 nursery maids' wages, being 3 quarters of a yeare, IL 
10s. -Mr. John Pearson, his two whole yeares' wages, 12/. 13 Robert 
Wood, to buy bease with, att Midleam Moore faire, for wintring att Dil- 
ston, 140?. John Forster of Whittall, his halfe yeare's annuity, 14 due att 
Pent., 10s. 

November. Mrs. Fenwicke, for the poor people, 11. Mr. Richard 
Featherstonhaugh, his whole yeare's sallary for setting out a militia 
horse and man for all Sir Francis' lands in Cumberland, due 23 Sep., 
51. Madam Mary Carnaby of Halton, for a brawne bought of her, 21 
10s. Mr. Rich. Thornbrough, his halfe yeare's annuity and his wife's, 
due Pentecost, 4. 15 John Hogartt, warrener, his halfe yeare's wages, 
due att Mart., 31. 6s. Mr. Alexander Millar, his halfe yeare's wages, 
due att Mart., 51. Mr. Francis' man, Thomas Butler, for 2 doss, cass 
[case] knives bought att London per Madam Selby, 21. 4s. 4d. Cuth- 
bert Stobert of West Wood, by my master's order, for 2 mares taken 
from [him] by Cuth. Studdam and Edmond Gibson, two of the Sheriff's 
bayliffes for an arreare of rent, which they had a warrent for from the 
High Sheriffe, Sir Marke Milbankes, but did neither mention who it was 
due to or in what yeare, and the said two mares was sold to one Wm. 
Robson of Hexham by the said two bayliffes, 31. 15s. 

11 The steward of 1681 ? 

12 Qu. Ann Blenk^nsop, an annuitant of 51. tinder Lady Elizabeth's will. 

13 The other wages are much the same as those of the account of 1681. 

14 Bequeathed by Lady Elizabeth Radclyffe. 

15 He was an annuitant of 51. under Lady Elizabeth's will. Ann Ridley had 4, 
but we do not find an annuitant of 31. to answer to his wife. 



162 HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES OF 

December. Mr. Miller, his bill from 29 Nov. till Dec. 6, for thresh- 
ing corne, mending the highwayes between Corbridge and Dilston, and 
the wreights makeing 4 stone carts and 1 stone sledd, all at Dilston, 
II. 7s. 3d. Madam Dorothy Massey, halfe yeare's intrest of 1,000?., 
331 Qs. 8d. Mr. Marke Stokoe, halfe yeare's wages, due att Mart., 31. 
Tho. Grey, brasier, in Gateshead, for mending the great kettle in the 
brewhouse att Dilston, 21 Dec. 20. Mich. Robinson, which Sir Fran- 
cis was pleased to give in charity to Mr. Thomas Tempest, in Durham 
goal, 5L Mr. Ealph Milborn, for malt, from 13 Mar., 1685, till 23 
Dec., 1686, 153?. 11s. 4c?. Mr. Roger Garstall, in full for aU sorts of 
wine, and all other accounts whatsoever from the begining of the world, 
361. l\d. Mr. Richard Wall of Newcastle, his bill from 22 Oct., 1685, 
till 29 Dec., 1686, 169?, Is. Id. 



1687. 

January. Wm. Wreight, porter brewer and baker, his halfe yeare's 
wages, due 11 Dec., 31.', Mrs. Hellin Emerson, his wife, her halfe 
yeare's wages, due 28 June, 31. Rob. Wilkinson, collector of the chim- 
ney money, for twenty-two fire harths in Dilston House, for one halfe 
yeare, due att Mich., I/. 2s. Mr. Roger Midford, 10?. for a yearely 
annuity or rent charge, isueing out of Harborn Grange, and 6?. for the 
yearely consideration of 100?., both due att Mart, last past. Mr. Roger 
Midford, his charges from 25 Aug. till 22 Sep., when he went to Ber- 
wick and.Norham to lett the tythes this yeare, 2?. 12s. 2d. Mr. Fran- 
cis RadclyfFe, his halfe yeare's allowance, due att Mart., 20?. ; paid him 
more, for a night gowne bought by him att Newcastle att Lamas faire 
last, for my master, 1?. 8s. Mr. Roger Midford, for to returne to Mr. 
Tho. RadclyfFe at Roome, 80?. ; more, to returne to Mr. Wm. Heath att 
London, 20?. [Other allowances as in July.] 

February. Hellin Forster of Whittall, widdow, in full of her hus- 
band's halfe yeare's anuity, due att Mart, last, and he dyeing att Xmas 
following, 10s. John Jopling, my master tennant att Whittall, for one 
cow stent for Jane Reed, Madam Mary's nurse, which my master was 
plased to give her in charity for this yeare, 8s. John Bell, in part of 
money due to him for building a house att the Highwood for Mr. Wil- 
liam Stokoe, 3?. Mathew Barren, as by Mr. Rob. Lorrain's accquit. for 
5 yeares tyth rent, insueing out of Coastley to Sir John Fenwicke, att 
Mart., 5?. 5s. Mr. Nicholas Ridley, for salt fish, viz., for 2 couple of 
codd, at Is. 9d. per couple, and 1 couple of ling, 5s., and 40 couple of 
codd, at Is. 9d. per couple, and 15 couple of ling, at 3s. 6d. per couple, 
and 1 barrell of white heron, 1?. 4s., and 500 reed herring, att 2s. 6d. 
per lb., for cords and matt for packing up the fish, and 1 cast, 3s. 6d., 
in all, 8?. 11s. Mrs. Julian Skelton, for the use of Mrs. Eliz. Turnbull 
for the consideration of 800?. for one whole yeare, 48?. John Heron, 
for bringing up 40 couple of codd fish and 15 couple of ling from New- 
castle to Newborne, and his owne charges and his horse, 6s. 6^. Mrs. 
Eliz. Fen wick, which my master was pleased to lend to Mrs Margrett 



SIR FRANCIS RADCLYFFE, BART. 163 

Fenwicke her mother, 10Z. 16 My owne whole yeare's wages, due 22 
Jan., 51. 

March. Chimney money for the forge for one halfe yeare, Is. 2 fire 
harths att the lead mill for halfe a yeare, 2s., and for arreares, 5s. 
Francis Addison, 17 which my master was pleased to give him, 21. 10s. 
Mr. John Page, as by his bill, for a deodand taken up within the man- 
nor of Warke, and charges att London aboute it, 41. The clarke's wife 
of Corbridge, for clarke's fees for the whole mannour of Dilston for 1686, 
due att Easter last, 12s. 6d. 

April. Mr. Roger Midford, for cloathes and other things bought at 
Newcastle for the use of Edward Radclyffe, Esq., 18 231. 13s. lOd. Mr. 
Pye, the clarke of the peace, for my master's comision 19 and his son's, 
and for letters and other small disbursements [this weeke], 111. 2s. 
Mrs. Alice Hudspeth, one yeare's prescribed custome money for the petty 
tythes of Dilston, due at Michaelmas, to the vicar of Corbridge, and 2s. 
for Easter reckonings, due att Easter, 1686, for the whole family of 
Dilston, ll. Is. Mr. Urwin, for one yeare's fee farm rent, ended at 
Lady-day last, for Spindleston tyth, 51. 6s. 8d., lands in Spindleton, 65. 
Sd., Croxfield tyth, 4s., Temple Thornton, ll. Us. 4d., Abey side in 
Alnwick, Qd., due to the King's Majestie and for acquit, money, 2s. 8^. 
Geo. Lee, smith, for miller's husbandry, 10s. 5d. Mr. John Pearson, 
for all the 4 young gentlemen's 20 charges att Newcastle att Lamas, 1686, 
and for charges given to the servants att Capheaton, att a christning, 
9Z. 19s. 9d. Paid him another bill, for his master and Francis Rad- 
clyffe, Esq.., and there servants, att Morpeth Sessions last, 51. 2s. 4d. 
Francis Radclyffe, Esq., for to carry his brother Edward Radclyff, 
Esq. and there servants to London, 201. Mrs. Eliz. Nicholson, for hoi- 
land for shirts, and dimity for wascoates for my master, bought att New- 
castle, 51. 14s. 7d. Thomas Radclyffe, his whole yeare's wages, due 
7 Apr. inst., 4.1. 

May. Mr. Geo. Jordan and Mr. John Whitfeild, masons, in full for 
building the new stone bridge over against the Roe Parke wall, IQl. 
Mr. Roger Midford, for the use of Thomas Radclyffe, Esq., to returne 
to him att Roome, SQL Mr. Wm. Widdrington, as by his note to be 
stated in the account of the morgage of Buteland, 61. Sir Win. Creagh, 
for wines, 181. 17s. Qd. John Heron, for 4 shirife's leveries, and 3 
leveries for the grooms and footman, and other disbursements, 201. 2s. 
3|^. My Lady Radclyffe, to buy cloath att Whitson faire att Stag- 
shaw, 10?, Paid to my Lady Creagh, as by bill of exchange for the 
like value, received att London by Francis Radclyffe, Esq., from Sir 
Wm. Creagh, 21 10H. 10s. Mr. William Widdrington, for the morgage 
of Buteland, 600/., and the writeings for the same is in my master's 

16 The Baronet's sister Margaret married Robert Feirwick of Wylam. 

17 A footman who went errands to Newcastle. 

18 The heir apparent. 

19 The reader must remember, in reference to the offices apparently exercised by 
the Radclyffes, that James II. was on the throne, using a dispensing power. 

20 Edward, Francis, "William, and Arthur. Thomas was at Rome. 

21 Mayor of Newcastle this year. 



164 HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES. 

own hand, 600?. Mr. Win. Widdrington, for -| of a militia horse for 7 
yeares, ended at Candlemas, 1679, for my master's part of Buteland, 
and paid him a small out rent, due to the Duke of Somersitt, and By well 
Castle, att Michaelmas, 9?. 12s. 8d. Mr. Roger Midford, to returne to 
Madam Catherin Radclyffe and her sister at Lovaine, 100?. My Lady 
Creagh, as by bill of exchange for the like value, received att London 
from Sir William Creagh by Francis Radclyffe, Esq., 203?. 

June. Mrs. Jane Harris, her whole yeare's wages, due att Whit- 
sontyd, Ql Ealph Eeed, shirrife bayliffe, one yeare's vacandale rent 
for the whole mannour of Dilston, at Mich., 5s. Qd. 



165 



THE FIRST MANTUA MAKERS IN DURHAM. 

IN 1705 the company of Drapers and Tailors of the city of Durham had 
the following " grievances to be redressed." 

To put off the Manty-makers. 

To put of the Skinners from making leather britches. 
To put off Breakers from selling old eloaths, (except they be free- 
men or freemen's widows,) 1 

"With reference to the first object, there was an attempt made in the 
following year to put the mantua-makers off. The evidence as to the 
introduction of "Mantoes" is curious, and the case is interesting in 
topography, the jurisdiction of Castle Chair, a narrow lane formerly the 
high road from Framwellgate to Witton Gilbert, having come in ques- 
tion. The Society is indebted to Mr. Trueman for the communication 
of the Brief for the Relator in the palatine Court of Chancery. 

It will be observed that the form of the word is Mantoe. Bailey 
gives it as " MANTUA, MANTOE, Manteau, probably so called from Man- 
tua, a dukedom in Italy a loose gown worn by women, an upper gar- 
ment." Johnson has " Mantua [pronounced] mant-ta. perhaps cor- 
rupted from Manteau, Fr. A lady's gown. 'Not Cynthia, when her 
mantua's pinned awry, E'er felt such rage,' &c- Pope. ' How natu- 
rally do you apply your hands to each other's lappets, ruffles, and 
mantuas.' Swift." Halliwell calls "Manto, a gown, properly a gar- 
ment made of manto, a kind of stuff." Cotgrave's manteau, a cloak, 
synonymous with mantel, is no doubt the garment, a loose upper dress 
encompassing the wearer like the mantle or enclosure of a castle, instead 
of the close habits previously in use. 

As time rolled on, the expression Mantua-maker changed, or rather 
enlarged, its meaning. A few years ago a Mantua-maker was the name 
of an artizan who had no shop, but went out and made various dresses 
at the wearers' houses ; whereas the keeper of a shop was Johnson's 

1 Surtees, iv. ii., 22. 
7. 



166 THE FIRST MANTUA MAKERS IN DURHAM. 

" Milliner, (I believe from Milaner, an inhabitant of Milan, as a Lom- 
bard is a banker) one who sells ribands and dresses for women. ' He 
was perfumed like a milliner.' Shalcspeare, Hen. IV" In the march 
of affectation, our " dressmakers " scout their old appellation, but the 
milliners are much in statu quo. 

IN THE CHANCERY OF DURHAM. Sitting, 27 March, 1706. HENRY 
LAMBTON, Esq., Attorney Generall to the Rt. Honble. Nathaniel Lord 
Crew, Lord Bpp. of Durham, of the relacion of Anthony Hall, Esqr., 
[and] John Brice, Wardens, [and] Martin Wilkinson, Henry Anderson, 
Bryan "Foster, and Richard Johnson, Searchers of the art, craft, and 
mistery of Drapers and Taylors within the City of Durham and Burrow 
of Fraimvelgate and the suburbs thereof, Relators ; against CHRISTOPHER 
WARD, THOMAS NICHOLSON, NICHOLAS JOHNSON, and ELIZABETH BROWNE, 
Defendants. 

INFORM ACION. (1.) Within the said city, burrow, and suburbs, there 

hath been beyond the memory of man, an antient corporacion, company, 

and fraternity of Drapers and Taylors. (2.) The corporacion used 

severall antient franchises and privileges, as well by severall grants from 

the Bishopps as by antient usage, custome, and prescription, time out of 

mind : that no forreigner, not being free of the company, should exercise 

the trades within the city, burrow, or suburbs (3.) The members 

have, time out of mind, yearly, within ten days of Corpus Christi day, 

mett and chosen six of the most discreet men of their crafts to be their 

Wardens and Searchers, who, by the consent of the rest of the members, 

have made bylaws to exclude forreigners from exercising the trades 

within the city, &c. under reasonable penalties. (4.) Severall antient 

By Laws made by the company were confirmed by Cuthbert [Tun stall] 

late Bpp. of Durham, where it was ordeined that no man which hath 

not served his apprenticeshipp or been a freeman's son of the said trades 

within the city, &c., should sett up to worke or occupy the crafts untill 

he should be admitted for an able workeman, and thought to be able to 

work at his owne hand by the Wardens and Searchers, and untill he 

should pay to the Bishopp 20s., and to the Wardens and Searchers 31. 

6s. 8^., upon paine of forfeiture to the Bpp. 51., and the Wardens and 

Searchers 51. (5-) The By Laws have been constantly observed, or 

if any forreigner did at any time exercise the trades contrary to the 

same, the Wardens and Searchers have either compelled them to pay 

the forfeitures or submitt themselves to the Wardens by entering into 

bonds not to exercise the trades. (6.) The By Laws have been 

established by decrees of this court. (7.) Defendants, foreigners, 

combine to infringe the libertys of the cityzens. (8.) Ward," about 

eight months agoe, came to reside at Castle Chaire in the Burrow 

of Framwellgate, where he hath publickly sold Broad Cloaths and 

other cloaths. (9.) The other Defendants for twelve months by 

past publickly have exercised the trades of a taylor, and not 

onely threaten to continue but will introduce others into the city, &c., 

and set up several other trades and draw away the greatest part of the 



THE FIRST MANTUA MAKERS IN DURHAM. 167 

trade, whereby hundreds of poor familyes are maintained, pretending 
they are not subject to the By Lawes, though they have had frequent 
notice thereof, and have been desired to desist. 

Prayer. That the defendants may set forth, &c. That they may be 
restrained, &c. Prays subpoena, &c. 

ANSWER. [Know not the facts in (1) to (6) of the Informacion.] Are 
natives and naturall subjects of this kingdome, and noe aliens or for- 
reigners. Ward, about 9 months agoe, did come to and reside at an 
outhouse adjoyning to Castle Chaire, leading from the towne of Durham 
to the towne of Witton Gilbert, where he hath used the trade of a woolen 
draper, and there sold broad cloaths, as he hopes was lawfull, he having 
served as an apprentice to a freeman of the trade for 7 yeares at Dar- 
lington before he came. Denyes that the outhouse is within the city of 
Durham suburbs or burrow of Framwelgate, or that he hath used the 
trade at Castle Chaire, which he believes is a lane which is a common 
highway leading from Durham to Witton Gilbert. Hath been informed 
that the outhouse stands in the country apart from the city, &c., and 
that divers persons, which were noe freemen of the city and burrow, 
have used trades, and particularly that of a taylor, at the outhouse, as 
being without the limitts of the city, &c., without restraint. The other 
three defendants deny that they have exercised the trades of a taylor, 
or threaten soe to doe, or to introduce forreigners or sett up other trades. 
All say they are not free of the Drapers' and Taylors' Company within 
the city and burrow : Ward and Brown, that neither of them are free 
of any trade within the city : Nicholson, that he is free of the Joyners 
and Carpenters within the city : Johnson, that he is son of a freeman of 
the Company of Weavers, but not admitted. All deny notice of the By 
Laws, and deny combinacion. 

RELATORS' PROOFES. (1.) See the charter, anno 19 translacionis 
Cuthberti Epi. Dunelm., which was in the yeare of our Lord 1549, 
wherein the By Laws of the Drapers and Taylors are confirmed, and 
particularly, &c. (2.) To prove above 30 yeares since John Moor lived 
at Castle Chair. The same was reputed part of the suburbs of the city 
and burrow. Moor was a taylor, and wrought there, but noe freeman. 
Was disturbed by the Company. Gave a bond to the trade not to worke 
there any more. Castle Chair, time beyond all memory, hath been part 
of the suburbs. The inhabitants of Castle Chaire, and the lands and 
grounds thereto belonging, have paid all taxes and sesses with the bur- 
row of Framwelgate, as part thereof. The lands adjoyning and thereto 
belonging are all intercommon, and at the usuall time of the yeare are 
all laid open and eaten by the catle of the freemen of the city and bur- 
row, among other the intercommons belonging to the city and burrow 
and the suburbs. Ward lives at Castle Chair. Tho. Wills, Isaac Rut- 
ter, Tho. Johnson, Mr. Rob. Parkinson, Wm. Sharpe, Tho. ThirMd. 
(3.) About 50 yeares since, one Maurice was disturbed for exercising 
the trade of a taylor (not being a freeman) at Dryburne, some distance 
from the burrow of Framwelgate, but part of the same constablery. 
Mary Maurice, not very material. (4.) The Drapers and Taylors yearly, 
on Corpus Christi day, choose 2 wardens and 4 searchers. Eelators 



168 THE FIRST MANTUA MAKERS IN DURHAM. 

were duely chosen and elected on Corpus Christi day, being the 7th of 
June last. Mr. Jo. Airson, Mr. Tho. Forster. (5.) Two bonds, one 
from Moor, and another from one Smith, not to exercise the irades. Mr. 
Rob. Parkinson. (6.) Ward's selling. Mr. Chr. Burrell. (7.) Ni- 
cholas Johnson's wife's making of manto's and pettycoates, and taking 
money for the same. Adelin French, Nic. Sparke, JEliz. Welsh. (8.) 
Brown's making of manto's and pettycoates, and taking money for the 
same, and imploying journeywomen. Eln. Lee, Mrs. Ann Midleton, 
Mrs. Ann Machon, Mrs. Eln. Baker. (9.) The like against Thomas 
Nicholson's wife. Nich. Sparke, Magdalin Snawdon, Eliz. Welsh. 
(10.) See severall bonds by forreigners not to exercise the trade of a 
draper or taylor within the city or suburbs or liberties of the same, ex- 
cept it be with a freeman of the society, from 1614 till 1679. 

OBSEEVACIONS ON THE RELATORS' PROOFS TOUCHING CASTLE CHAIR. 
Thomas Wills speaks for 75 years. The Castle Chair was reputed, re- 
ported, and taken to be part of the suburbs of the city and burrow. 
Has lived in the burrow for 80 years, and served in all offices. Isaac 
Rutter, for 20 years. Has lived there all that time, and served in all 
offices. Believes, for time beyond all memory, the burrow of Framwel- 
gate, whereof Castle Chair is part, hath been reputed part of the suburbs 
of the city. Thomas Johnson, for 65 years. Castle Chair always paid 
their taxes with the burrow of Framwelgate, and it was alwaies reputed 
part of the suburbs of the city. Robert Parkinson, aged 50. All the 
time of his remembrance Castle Chair hath been deemed part of the su- 
burbs of the city. Wm. Sharpe, for 55 j-ears Castle Chair is part of 
the burrow of Framwelgate. Tho. Thirkeld, for 40 years and upwards. 
Castle Chair hath been esteemed as part of the burrow of Framwellgate, 
or pait of the suburbs of the city, llemembers when there was noe 
houses at Castle Chair, he lived there, 2 and wrought of the taylors' 
trade, but was forced to remove by reason the freemen of the city would 
not lett him worke there. 

DEFENDANTS' PHOOFES. (1.) Ward was bound an apprentice by in- 
dentures to Robert Ward of Darlington, and served him 7 yeares. Wm. 
Bell. (2.) Mantoes is a forreigne invencion, and brought from beyond 
sea, and not used in England till about the year 167 . This deponent 
Wood lived with one Hope, Clerke of the Spicery to King Charles the 
Second. Remembers the Dutchess of Mazarene, who came from beyond 
sea that yeare, and brought the garb of Mantoes with her. Her mis- 
tress had her first Mantoe made by a Frenchman. Beleives they are 
usually made both by taylors and women, but the women exceed the 
taylors. The taylors doe usually exercise the said trade, and instruct 
their apprentices therein. Isabel Wood, mother of the defendant 
Browne. (3.) The taylors, or the major part of them, doe not under- 
stand the art of Mantoe-makeing soe well as women. Had one or two 
spoiled by a man taylor in Durham, who was a man imployed in that 
worke. Was forced to apply to defendant Browne, but the same was 
soe spoiled that she could not help them. Beleives that the women tay- 

1 In Framwellgate, or in a hut in Castle Chair ? 



THE FIRST MANTUA MAKERS IN DURHAM. 169 

lors are greatest artists at women's work then men taylors. Mary 
Mitford. Margt. .ZZ^much to the same purpose. (4.) Cannot set out 
the bounds of the burrow of Framwelgate, nor ever could be informed 
how far they extend. Has served as a juryman at the Mayor's court 
for the city and burrow, and enquired, with his fellows, after such nui- 
sances as were in and about the same, but never made any enquiry 
about Castle Chair, where "Ward now or lately lived, which induced him 
to beleive the Castle Chair to be no part of the said burrow. Does not 
remember or beleives the same paid any suit or service to the Mayor's 
court. Tho. Johnson. (In his deposicion on the other side, says Castle 
Chair was always reputed part of the suburbs of the city of Durham.) 
Tho. Wills speaks to the same purpose, but says that he always lookt 
upon Castle Chair to be part of the said burrow. (5.) Castle Chair is 
a lane leading from Framwelgate to Witton Gilbert. The houses are 
inclosed with the lands adjoyning upon Castle Chair, and no part of the 
lane or street. The houses are 12 score yards from Framwelgate. The 
houses inhabited by "Ward, belonging to Mr. Mascall, in the chappelry 
of St. Margaret's, and the house lately farmed by the defendant of Mrs. 
Bell, are outhouses and stands within the enclosed grounds of Mascall 
and Bell, and no part of the lane or street of Castle Chair that he knows 
of. Idm. Test., Tho. Wills, Cuth. Hutchinson. (6.) Knows the bound- 
ary of Framwelgate constablery. Hath collected sesses of the out 
hamletts of Newton, Dryburne, and several! other places, and from the 
houses adjoyning upon Castle Chair, but whether they be within the 
said burrow he cannot say. Idm. Test., Tho. Wills. (7.) The houses 
about Castle Chair have been inhabited during his time with taylors, one 
dyer, smiths, weavers, and other trades, without any interruption that 
he heard of, though none of them freemen. Idm. Test., Tho. Wills, ex- 
cepting John Moor, which agrees with his deposicion on the relators' 
part. (8.) Knows not that any of the inhabitants of the houses 
belonging to Mr. Mascall and Mr. Bell, and other outhouses and 
hamletts within the constablery of Framwelgate, did ever appeare 
were summoned otherwise than by proclamacion, to appeare at the 
Mayor's Court or were amerced for not appearing. Knows not that 
any of the said houses were admitted or obliged to be admitted at 
the Mayor's Court. The Burrowholders of Framwelgate are. Win. 
Middleton (speaks onely for 8 years), Cuthbert Hutchinson. (Neither 
does Gillygate, Elvett, or the Bayleys appeare to the Mayor's Court, 
though all within the suburbs of the said city.) (9.) Knows Framwel- 
gate Castle Chair, but not the limits of the burrow, nor whether Castle 
Chair be part, but looks upon it to be part of the burrow, for they have 
paid their sesses together, and serveing in offices. Moor, who lived at 
Castle Chair when deponent was Mayor about 26 yeares agoe, served as 
one of his constables for that yeare, Cuth. Hutchinson, alderman. (10.) 
Castle Chair has been inhabited with tradesmen not free of the city or 
burrow, but lookt upon them to stay there some small time purely by 
the neglect of the severall officers, not that they had any priviledge to 
exercise their trades there. Idm. 



170 THE FIEST MANTUA MAKERS IN DURHAM. 

DECREES IN THIS COURT RELATIVE TO TfiADES. 3 Note Liber G. fo. 106. 
16 Dec., 1611. The Wardens of the Fellowshipp of JIabber dashers, Mer- 
cers, and Grocers of the City of Durham, against Fisher. For exercising 
the trade of a grocer in Elvett, not being admitted a freeman, though he 
had served his time and was the son of a freeman. Decreed he shall 
not use the trade after Shrovetide, except he compound with the War- 
dens and be by them admitted a freeman. 

Liber L. fo. 391. The Attorney Generall, of the relacion of John Hall 
and others, Drapers and Taylors, against John White. For exercising 
the trade of a taylor in Hall Garth in Elvett, the relators averring Hall 
Garth in parcell of the street called Elvet, which is part of the suburbs 
of the city. Some contrariety of proofes. Issue at law directed, 
whether or noe the precinct of the freedom e of the corporacion of 
Drapers and Taylors of the city do extend unto Hall Garth. In the mean 
time the defendant to be restrained from exercising, [&c.] but never 
tryed. 

Liber H. fo. 519. The Wardens and Searchers of the said Company 
agt. Blunt. For exercising the trade of a taylor within the city, not 
having served as an apprentice. Answere that he was the son of a 
freeman of the city (but does not say of what trade) : that he wrought 
as a journey man with divers freemen of the trade; that in that time 
he made two doubletts and two pair of breeches, not intending to have 
offended the Company and was sory for the same, and afterwards bound 
himselfe an apprentice to the same trade and served 7 years, and prayed 
the court would pardon his ignorance of the orders of the trade. The 
Court considering that defendant took noe money for his work, and had 
served 7 yeares to a freeman, yet though the oifence was ignorantly 
done, it was against the orders of the company, Decreed to pay 20s. 
and his indenture to be inrolled by the Company. 



3 In dot-so. Carter, 114, Mayor and Commonalty contra Goodwin. 4 Mod. 373. 
Hobs qui tain contra Young. 



171 



THE BLADESMITHS AND CUTLERS OF DURHAM. 

THE following paper, communicated by Mr. Trueman, gives an earlier 
date to two companies at Durham than had occurred to Surtees, who 
only refers to an " original consent" of the Blacksmiths in 1610, and a 
" general consent" (probably owing to these chancery proceedings) of 
the Whitesmiths, Lorimers, Locksmiths, Cutlers, and Blacksmiths, in 
1730. The city charter of Matthew only mentions " Smiths," and there 
had perhaps been some temporary junction of the crafts at a distant pe- 
riod. By the consent of 1730, no Blacksmith was to hire any journey- 
man that was a Lorimer or Locksmith, nor vice versa. So that the 
Lorimers were perhaps, formerly, a distinct body. 

IN THE CHANCERY OF DURHAM. Between HENRY LAMBTON, Esq., 
Attorney-General of the Bishop of Durham, on the relation of John 
Johnson and Matthew Shaw, wardens of the Society of Blacksmiths, 
Lorimers, and Locksmiths, Informants; and MICHAEL WATSON, warden 
of the Society of Cutlers and Bladesmiths. 

REASONS AGAINST THE STJBPCENA. Whereas the informant, on the rela- 
cion abovesaid, purchased his Majestic' s writt of subpoena, under the 
seale of this honorable court, in the nature of a scire facias to the de- 
fendant directed : reciting that, in a cause depending in this court, 
between Thomas Cradocke, Esq., then Attorney-Generall of John [Cosin], 
late Bishopp, at the relacion of George Ridley and Win. Johnson, 
wardens and searchers of the Society of Blacksmiths within the city of 
Durham, plaintiff, and Henry Fairlesse and Edward Fairlesse, defend- 
ants, it was decreed by consent that the relators and defendants and the 
members of each society should be admitted free of each others' company, 
as if they were present members, and the fines to be paid upon such 
admittances were referred to Sir James Clavering; that Sir James 
awarded that the relators should admitt the then defendants and all 
other members of their society free of the Society of Blacksmiths, upon 
payment of 6s. 8d. ; and that the Society of Cutlers and Bladesmiths 
should admitt the Blacksmiths free of their company, upon the payment 
of 40s. apeice, and for the future the members of each society should be 
admitted free of each others company, upon payment of 6s. 8d. apeice ; 
and that the award was confirmed by a decree of this court : commanded 
the defendant to show cause why the decrees should not be revived : 



172 THE BLADESMITIIS AND CUTLERS OF DURHAM. 

Now the defendant doth for causes show : (I.) Edward Fahiesse is still 
liveing, and if the decree be revived, it must be against him only, for 
[he] Watson is neither/party nor privy to the decree. (2.) Is not served 
with the decrees or award, and knows not the contents. (3.) The So- 
ciety of Bladesmiths and Cutlers is an ancient corporacion, and had their 
Bylaws and Constitucions confirmed by Bpp. Tonstall, at the same time 
that he confirmed the Smiths' and Lorimers' Bylaws, and then the cor- 
poracions were not thought fitt to be consolidated, and neither can they 
be without the consent and confirmacion of the Bishopp. (4.) Every 
corporacion, being a body politick, speaks by their common seale and 
common consent, and are not bound by any decree where they are not 
partys, and noe particular member can, by their consents, bind the cor- 
poracion. (5.) The suits were against Henry and Edward Fairlesse, in 
their private capacitys, and not as wardens or searchers of the Society 
of Bladesmiths and Cutlers, nor were they wardens and searchers of that 
Society when the informacion was exhibited, or at the time the sub- 
mission, award, decree, or other proceedings were made. ^6.) It noe 
ways appears that the corporacion of Bladesmiths and Cutlers were par- 
tys to the submission. (7.) Soe farr from agreeing to the decree, they 
never would admitt any smith a freeman of their trade, nor did any 
smith or lorimer, since the decree, till the relator Johnson, set up the 
defendant's trade. (8.) If the whole Company be bound by the decree, 
then the writt ought to have been directed to the Warden and Company 
or Society, and not to Watson only as Warden. 

Demands judgment whether he is concerned by the decree or award, 
or the same can be revived against the Corporation of Bladesmiths and 
Cutlers. And prays to be dismissed with his costs. 



173 



THE PUDSAYS OF BAKFOKD. 

THROUGH the kindness of a friend, I was recently permitted to examine, 
and make extracts from, a manuscript of considerable interest and im- 
portance. It contained, among other things, the genealogical notices of 
the family of Pudsay of Barford, which form the basis of the present 
paper. 

The volume is a small octavo, and was probably written in the begin- 
ning of the 15th century. It is bound in strong oaken boards, but the 
purple velvet with which they are still covered is much tarnished. The 
corners are tipped with brass, but the clasps, which were probably of 
silver, have been torn away. The manuscript has been carefully pre- 
served, and must have been in the family of the Pudsays for at least 
three centuries. 

It contains some of the services of the Roman Catholic Church. At 
the commencement is the office of our Saviour, followed by that of the 
Yirgin, with Matins, Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, None and Vespers, 
with the hymn Ave, Maria Stella ! Complin and the Salve, Regina ! 
come next. After them are the Seven Penitential psalms and the Me- 
mento, Domine, David, in full, with the titles of several others. These 
are followed by the Litany of the Saints, the office for the dead and the 
commendationes, which begin with a finely illuminated page. The ma- 
nuscript is well written, and is illuminated in more places than one. 
The spoiler, however, has been busy with it, as several of the decora- 
tions are missing, and in more places than one a leaf has been ab- 
stracted. 

On the leaf preceding the Calendar is written as follows : 

%* Jhesus. 

Here is the brithe day of all the children of Mr. Thomas Pudsay of 
Barforth, noted in the Calender folowing, which he had by Elizabeth 
Pudsay, daughter to John Lord Scroope of Bolton, and, lastlie, the day of 
the death of the sayd Mr. Thomas Pudsay, who died in Yorke, prisoner 
for his conscience, a trewe confessor of the Catholik faythe. He left 
this wretched world and went to God the forthe day of September, on 
whose soule I pray God have mercye. Anno Domini 1576. 

In the Calendar itself these genealogical notices occur : 

JANUARY. 
Anna Pudsey filia Michaelis Pudsey nata anno 1650 die 30 mo . 

VOL. II. 2 A 



174 THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 

FEBETJAEY. 

Margareta Pudsey nata 13, an 1652, filia Michaelis Pudsey, 
Kodolphus Pudsey filius Tho. Pudsey natus vigessimo die Feb. 

1688-9 et obiit die nono Martii. 
Grandmother Pudsey was born y e 24 Feb. 1618-19 : dyed y e 

28th Feb. 1705-6. 

MAECH. 

Uncle Nicolas Salvin dyed y e 8th March. 

Grandfather Pudsey dyed y e 12th March, 1697-8; was born 29th 

Sept., 1619. 
Uncle Smith 15. 
(25.) Nat. Franci Pudsay. 

Isto die natus fait Tho. Pudsey filius Michaelis, 1654. 
My dear wife dyed y e 29 March, 1729, in y e evening. 
Uncle Charles 30. 

APEIL. 
My dear father dyed y 6 19th April, at Croxdale, 1723. 

MAY. 

Mother dyed y e 1st May, 1724. 

) Isto die natus fuit \Vyllielmus Pudsaye, anno Domini 1556. 
10.) Nat. Georgi Pudsay. 
Maria Pudsey filia Tho. Pudsey nata 24 to die Maii Anno Dom. 1690. 

JULY. 

(4.) Hoc die natus fuit Ambrosius Pudsaye, anno Domini 1565. 
(15.) Isto die natus fuit Margareta Pudsaye, anno Domini 1560. 
Auntt Pudsey dyed July 19. 

AUGUST. 
Mary Pudsey, daughter of Michael Pudsey, was born y e 8th day 

Augt., 1714. 

(17.) Nat. Thorns Pudsay, 1567. 
Catherin Pudsey, daughter of Michael Pudsey, was born y e 26 

August, 1720, and dyed y e 7 May, 1721. 
Mr. Michal Pudsey dyed Augst. 30, 1749. 

SEPTEMBEB. 

(2.) Nat: Marine Pudsay, 1573. 

Obiit mortem Thomas Pudsay horum liberomm pater Eboraci in 

carcere, propter Catholicam fidem, cujus syncerus professor 

erat, quarto die Septemb: A. Dni. 1576. 
Elizabeth Pudsey filia Michaelis Pudsey, nata An 1648, die &c. 

dyedy e 2d Octo r ., aged 83, 1731. 
Nativitas Mychaelis Pudsay filius Ambrosii Pudsay 29 of Septein* 

bris, anno Domini 1618. 
Thomas Pudsey, son of Mich 1 . Pudsey, was born y 10th day 

Septenv, 1715. Dyed 8 Augt. 



THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 175 

OCTOBER. 

Maria Pudsey, filia Michaelis Pudsey, nata 14, An 1643. 

A* Berry dyed Octo : 3d [in pencil in the hand of the last Michael 

Pudsey. ~\ 
.NOVEMBER. 

3. Natalitium Wenefride Pudsay, 1570. 

(24 or 25. ?) Natalitium Johannae Pudsaye, 1560. 

DECEMBER. 

12. Isto die natus fuit Henricus Pudsaye Anno Domini 1561. 
Ambrose Pudsay dyed the 12th of December, 1623. 
Michael Pudsey films Tho : Pudsey natus 27 die Decembris, 1680. 
(28.) tfat. Mariae Pudsay. 

From the above extracts it will appear that the MS was in the posses- 
sion of the family of Pudsay for at least two centuries. But there is 
evidence in the volume to shew that it belonged to that ancient house at 
a much earlier period. That which I am going to lay before my readers 
is of far greater interest and importance than the genealogical notices 
which have just been given. On the fly-leaves at the commencement of 
the volume are the following invocations in prose and verse to the ill- 
fated monarch Henry the Sixth. 

Oratio beati Henrici Sexti, regis Angliae et Franciae etc. Hie vir 
disspiens [despiciens P] 1 mundum et terrena, triumphans, divicias cela 
condidit corde, ore et manu. Ora pro nobis, beate He[n]rice, ut dig[ni] 
eff[iciamur]. 

Deus, qui unigenitum Filium Tuum, Dominum nostrum Jhesum 
Christum famulo tuo regi nostro Henrico corpore et anima glorificatum 
demonstrare voluisti, praesta, quaesumus, ut ejus mentis et precibus ad 
eternam ejusdem Domini nostri Jhesu Christi visionem pertingere 
mereamur ; per Dominum nostrum Jhesum Christum, Filium Tuum, Qui 
Tecum vivit etc. \_per~\ omnia saecula sseculorum. Amen. 

On another fly-leaf, but in a different hand, is the following hymn. 

Ave ante ortum prophetatus, 
Regnorum bis coronatus 
Quorum regimini es donatus, 

Ex nobili progenie. 
Tua vita singularis 
Anglorum rite lucerna vocaris, 
Henricus sextus vulgo nominaris, 

De regali serie. 
Ave, tutor ecclesiasticorum, 
Utens norma religiosorum, 
Bespuens vana mundanorum, 

Misericors in omnibus. 

1 This sentence is in a confused state. It may be arranged so as to form a couplet. 
Hie vir despiciens mundum et terrena, triumphans 

Divitias cselo condidit, ore, manu ! 
Ora, &c. 



176 THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 

Mitis lit agnus paciens, 
Fuisti in Christo confidens, 
Mira diversa faciens, 

Brutis et hominibus. 
Ave, post necem tui prolis, 
Misericordiam desiderans absque dolis, 
Penetrasti radium solis, 

Migratus ex hoc sseculo. 
Schertesey senobio es sepultus, 
Eodem loco dm occultus, 
Integer remanens ut Dei cultus 

Fossus in diluculo. 
Ave, per quern plures sanantur 
JEgroti : cseci iUuminantur, 
Peregrinantes vero liberantur 

De magno periculo. 
Dementes etiam restituuntur, 
Claudi decrepiti graduuntur, 
Paralitici eonsequuntur 

Salutem in vehiculo. 
Ave revelator carceratorum, 
Pestis medicina, spes moestorum, 
Maculas pellens desperatorum, 

Febribus fatigatis. 
Resuscitator tu innocentis 
Yermes feminae intus habentis, 
Sedeam[?] purgans esto petentis 

Protector in datis. 



Ora pro nobis, Christi accleta, ne dampnemur morte perpetua. 

Deus qui in electis tuis, semper es mirabilis et eos choruscare facis 
miraculo; concede propicius ut regem Henricum quern habuimus patro- 
num in terris intercessorem habere mereamur in ca3lis : per Christum. 

As far as hope will yn lengthe 

On the, kyng Henry, I fix my mynde, 

That be thy pray our I may have strenhith 

In vertuous lyfe my warks to bynde. 

Though I to the have ben unkynde 

Off wilfulnesse long tyme and space. 

Off forgevenesse I aske y e grace, 

Hop hathe me movyde to seke y 18 place, 

In trust of socor by thyn olde properte, 

"Was never man cam be forne y 1 face 

Rebellion or oder yn adversite 

Off thyr compassion commaundid them goo free. 

Now, for thi pety, to Hym that all schall deme, 

Pray for me thy servant and pilgreme. 



THE PUDS AYS OF BARFORD. 177 

These prayers, to judge from the hand, were written in the latter part 
of the 15th century, and they derive an additional interest from the con- 
nection which is said to have existed between the Pudsays and Henry the 
Sixth. It has been the uniform tradition in Craven that that unhappy 
monarch was sheltered and entertained by Sir Ralph Pudsay, at Bolton 
Hall, after his defeat at Hexham. That the popular report is, in this in- 
stance, correct I have little doubt, as it is supported by the following 
evidence, which is now for the first time produced. In the will of 
Ambrose Pudsay of Bolton, gentleman, which was made in 1521, 
is the following most remarkable passage : " Jn witnes wherofthis my 
last will and testament, I did write it with my owne hande at Bolton 
haull, in a chamer that goode JZyng Henry the Sexte lay in, and therfor 
it is called his chamer to this presente daye" This most valuable docu- 
ment was executed some sixty years after the royal visit to which I am 
alluding took place, and it is quite possible that the testator might in 
his younger days have clung to the knees of the monarch of whom, at 
the close of his life, he speaks with so much respect. 

As a memorial of his visit to Bolton, and of the hospitality which he 
had there met with, the King probably left behind the glove, boot, and 
spoon, which are still most carefully treasured up by the representatives 
of the Pudsays. And if these relics of an unfortunate sovereign are 
treated in these days with so much consideration, with what reverence 
must they have been regarded when their donor was worshipped as a 
saint 1 How lovingly would they be brought out and handled, and how 
carefully would they be preserved ! And, surely, it is not unreasonable 
to conjecture that in the private oratory at Bolton the family chaplain 
would say his prayers " upon" the very book to which the reader has 
been introduced, and incorporate into his daily services the invocations 
which I have just given. It will be observed that the last of the 
prayers is especially adapted to a pilgrim. To what shrine did the 
pious Lancastrian resort ? In the Minsters of York and Eipon he 
would find an image of the monarch whom he beatified, whilst in the 
little chapel at Bolton Hall he might kiss the relics of his saint, and 
address him in a set form of prayer from the service book which lay 
upon the altar. 2 

It may, I think, be fairly conjectured that the service book, which 
has been described belonged either to the host of Henry the Sixth, or to 
his son. From them it descended, in one family and in one faith, to 

2 I trust to be able, before long, to lay before the members of the Society a more 
detailed account of the wanderings of Henry the Sixth in the North of England. 



178 THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 

Thomas Pudsay, Esq.,who, in Queen Mary's days, began to inscribe in 
the Calendar the nativities of his children. After his death, and that 
of his widow, who survived him for many years, the volume came into 
the possession of one of her younger children who resided in the 
vicinity of Barford, of which she had been for so long a time the 
possessor. It continued with his descendants till they became extinct 
in the 18th century. An account, therefore, of the Pudsays of Bar- 
ford, as illustrating the genealogical notices recorded in the Calendar, 
will make the present paper more complete. 

The manor house of Barford lies pleasantly upon the southern bank 
of the Tees, facing the pretty village of Gainford. It was built, proba- 
bly, in the 15th century, but modern improvements have shorn it of its 
architectural beauties. On the summit of the hill may be seen the 
traces of a village which has long since disappeared, and the picturesque 
ruins of a chapel of a date long anterior to the manor house. There is 
a careful and minute description of the place in Mr. Walbran's History 
of Gainford, but Dr. Whitaker in his description of Bichmondshire does 
not once allude to its existence. 

The earliest owners of the estate that have occurred to me are the 
Latons of West Laton. In the year 1338, John de Laton and Christiana 
his wife recognize the ownership of Thomas de Laton, kt., to 2 mes- 
uages, 13 tofts, 160 acres of arable land and 7 of meadow in Berford 
super These and Cleseby juxta Manfield, two parts of which he holds by 
their gift ; whereupon the said Sir Thomas conveys the two parts to 
John and Christiana, together with the third part, after the decease of 
Petronella, widow of John de Hudeleston, who holds it as her dower. 
In 1353, Thomas de Laton, rector of Marsk, and William de Forset, 
chaplain, convey to John son of Sir Thomas de Laton, kt., and Christiana 
his wife, with remainder to their heirs male, and failing them, to Eliza- 
beth their daughter, a carucate of land in Appilby super Tese, and the 
manors of Barford ; 2 messuages, 83 acres of arable land and an acre 
and a half of meadow being specially excepted. 

In the Chartulary of the Latons, from which these notices are derived, 
it is stated that this Christiana Laton was the daughter of Christopher 
Sheffield. From the same source I continue the descent of Barford. 

" This John Laton heere menconed and Christian his wyefe had no 
yssue but onely Elizabeth theire sole daughter and heire, whoe was 
maryed to Henry Pudesay son and heir to John Pudsey of Boulton in 
Craven." 

" The said Elizabeth lyeth buryed in the parishe churche of East Laton, 



THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 179 

in the pew called Laton's pew with this inscription folio winge ingraven 
in brasse upon her grave. 

Hie jacet Elizabetha filia et heres 
Johis Laton de Berforth quondam 
uxor Henrici Pudesey que obiit 10 
die Novembris anno d'ni 1424. 
Cujus animse propitietur Deus. Amen." 

Upon the marriage of Henry Pudsay with Elizabeth Laton, there 
seems to have been a general settlement of the estates upon their issue. 
This was made in the year 1353, when the lady is mentioned as Pudsey' s 
wife. From this period, for more than three centuries, the Pudseys 
retained possession of Barford. It passed out of their hands in 1659, 
being then sold to Barrington Bourchier of Benningbrough, Esq., " by 
the trustees for the payment of the debts of Ambrose Pudsey, for 
10,050?. It is now the property of the Earl of Harewood, who pur- 
chased it of "Walter Fawkes, Esq., of Earneley." 

The first original document relating to Barford that has come before 
me is the Inventory of the effects of Margaret, widow of Thomas 
Pudsay, Esq. It is preserved in the Eegistry of the Dean and Chapter 
of York, and was drawn up in the year 1552. The lady was the 
eldest of six daughters and coheirs of Sir Roger Pilkington of Pilking- 
ton in Lancashire, by Alice, dau. of Sir John Savage, kt. She was the 
mother of four children, one son, Henry Pudsay, and three daughters, 
of whom Grace the eldest married and had issue by Thos. Metharn of 
Metham, Esq., and Thos. Trollop of Thornley, Esq. ; 2. Catherine, the 
wife of Anthony Eshe of Patrick Brompton ; and, 3 Mary, who mar- 
ried and had issue by Mr. Serjeant Meynell. On the 16th of January, 
1552-3, Margaret Pudsay' s sons in law, Meynell and Trollop, make an 
agreement about the administration of her effects. It was at this time 
that the Inventory was made which is now for the first time printed. 
There is circumstantial evidence to connect it with Barford, and it gives 
us a full and minute catalogue of the contents of the manor house and its 
appendages, which I give without compression. 



-Enbentorfe of Margarett Pudsey, lait wyffe of Thomas Pudsey, 
Esquier, disceissed, of all suche goodes and cattelles, as well move- 
able as unmoveable, which she had at the tyme of her deith. 

IN THE HALL. iiij tables and iiij formes, vjs. viijd. One cubbord, 
and ij chares for women, v. iij pewther basynges and one ewer, x*. 
One pare of tengges, ij cooke nettes, with the hangynges of the hall of 
grene say, iiijs. iiij^. 

IN THE LAW PARLOR. One standyng bed, the hangynges of yalowe 



180 THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 

and blowe say, one fether bed, one pair of blankettes, one coverlett and 
one coveryng of tapes', xvs. One nother bed, with one fether bed, ij 
blankettes, one coverlett, one boster, and ij pilleberes, xxvjs. viiid. One 
counter, one cubbord with a cloith of yalowe and blowe say, one chare, 
with the hangynges of the said parlor of stayn' worke, xxvjs. viijd. 

IN THE LOEDES CHAMBER. One standyng bed, one mattres, one fether 
bed, one pair of fuschon blankettes, one covereign, one coverlett, one 
boster, ij pillebers, the hangynges of yalowe say, iiijli. One nother 
borded bed with one fether bed, one pair of blankettes, one coverlett, one 
boster, and ij pillebers, xxvjs. viij^. One trussyng chare, vs. One 
cnp stoill with a clothe of yalowe say, and the hangynges of the said 
chamber of yalowe and grene say, xxvjs. viijd. 

IN THE CHAMBER OVER THE BUTTERY. One borded bed, one fether bed, 
one pare of blankettes, two coverlettes, one boster, one pilleber with 
hangynges of reid and yalowe say, xxvjs. viij^. One nother borded 
bed with one mattres, one blanket, ij coverlettes, one boster and one 
paynted tester, xiijs. iiij^. One cubbord and iij chestes, xs. One 
bord, ij trisselles, one forme, and one pare of tenges, xvjd. 

IN THE NTJRCEY. One borded bed, one mattres, one blankett, ij cover- 
lettes, one boster, the tester of reid and yalowe say, one nother bed with 
one coverlett, and one blankett, xvjs. ij cootes of plait and ij jackes, 
(blank.) 

IN THE CHAMBER OVER THE GREAT PARLOR. One borded bed, one 
fether bed, one pare of blankettes, ij coverlettes, one covereign, one bos- 
ter, ij pillebers, the tester and corteynes of reid and yalowe say, xls. 
One nother borded bed, one fether bed, ij blankettes, two coverlettes, 
one boster, with one tester of reid and yalowe say, xxxiijs. iiij^. One 
nother borded bed with one mattres, one blankett, iij coverlettes, and 
one boster, one palyet with one mattres, one fether bed, ij blankettes, 
one coverlett, one boster and ij pillebers, xls. One chest and one chare, 
xs. The hangynges of the chamber of payntid worke, xiijs. iiijd. 

IN THE CLOSETT. Of lynnyng and game cloithe, foure score and fyve 
yerdes, vli. vjs. viijd. Fyve pair of sheetes, Ivjs. xx kirchers, xix 
vaylles, xx pair of lynne sieves, xx u sarkes, xj smokes, and iij bed 
sheles, iij?*. xxxiiij* yeardes of wullyng cloith, liijs. iiijc?. xij hankes 
of lyone game and other xij hankes of harne, xls. ij sloppes and one 
kirtill, liijs. iiijd. xx score of lynne and xx score of hempe, xxs. One 
Flaunder cheste, one chare, one borde, iiij trisselles, one nyght gowne, 
and one chest, and one coffer, vs. Charges, iijs. 

IN THE GREAT PARLOR. One longe table with a tap' covereign, vs. 
One counter, v chares, ij formes, ij great chestes and one rounde table, 
xiijs. iiij^. One standyng bed with one mattres, one fether bed, ij 
blankettes, one coverlett, one covereign, one boster, ij pillebers, the tes- 
ter of velvett and the corteynes of yalowe and blowe say, and one tryn- 
dell bed with one mattres, two blankettes, ij coverlettes and one pille- 
ber, iiijli. The hangynges of the parlor of payntid antike worke, one 
pair of tenges and one land iron, xxvjs. viijd. 



THE PUDS AYS OF BARFORD. 181 

IN THE CHAPPELL. iiij alter cloithes, viijs. iiij vestementes, xjs. 
iiij cooppes, xiijs. iiij^. ij challases, iiijfo'. The communyon booke, ijs. 



IN THE MADES CHAMBER. One bed, one mattres, ij blankettes, ij 
coverlettes and one happyng, xiijs. iiij^. ij spynnyng wheles, iiij pare 
of wulle cardes, one pair of wull conies and one pair of wull weightes, 
iijs. iiijd. 

IN THE STORE-HOWSE CHAMBER. ij beds, ij mattresses, ij bosters, ij 
blankettes, ij coverlettes, ij coverynges, xxs. 

IN HENRY PATTTER CHAMBER. One bed, one mattres, ij coverlettes 
and one boster, xs. ij battell axes and one bill, 



AT THE MILNE. One bed, one mattres, one blankett, ij coverlettes, 
one happyng and one codde, vjs viij^. ix milne pickes and one gave- 
locke, iijs. ij thistelles, ij wombelles, one axe and one hand sawe, ijs. 

IN THE SCOLE HOWSE. ij bed stokes, one mattres, one fether bed, ij 
pair of blankettes, iiij coverlettes, one boster, and ij pillebers, xxxiijs. 
iiijd. One chare and one presse, iiij//. One nother bed, one mattres, one 
pare of blankettes, ij coverlettes, and one boster, xiijs. iiij^. One nother 
bed, one mattres, ij coverlettes, and one boster, xs. 



IN THE NEWE CHAMBER. One bord, ij trisselles, and ij formes, 
ij bed stokes, ij mattresses, ij bosters, vj coverlettes, one pilleber, and ij 
payntid testers, xxs. 

IN THE STABLE. One bed, one coverlett, one happyng, and one blan- 
kett, iijs. iiij^. 



IN THE MILKE HOWSE. xx bolles, iij chernes, vj skelles, and ij 
standes, xiijs. iiijd. One bord, ij trisselles, one cheis trowght, and ij 
wesshen tubbes, iijs. One calderon, one kettell, one great panne, one 
brandreth, and one reakyng crooke, xxs. 

IN THE STORE HOWSE. One great arke, vjs. viij*?. v tabbes, ijs. 
One girdell and xxiiij ti salt fysshes, xls. 

IN THE KYLNE. Seisteron of luid, xls. One kylne hair and sexe 
seckes, xs. 

IN THE WTTLLE HOWSE. One hundreth stone of wulle or ther a 
bowtes, xl&'. 

AT THE OXE HOWSE. iij woune waynges, iij cowppes, vj plowghes, 
temes and yokes for xxiiij" oxen, iiijli. At the henne howse, one mat- 
tres, one coverlett, iijs. Hid. At the oxe howse, one mattres, one cover- 
lett, and one happyng, vs. In the sheperdes chamber, one coverlet, one 
blankett, and one happyng, iijs. iiij^. 



IN THE BUTTERY. xij candelstickes, vjs. viijd. x hoggesheides to 
tunne bere in, vjs. viij^. viij aille judges, and sex littill aill cuppes to 
drynke in, xij<?. One ambery, ijs. ij pewther basynges, ijs. vjd. One 

VOL. n. 2 B 






182 THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD, 

lymbecke, ijs. iiijd. iij bottelles, one basket, and one scuttell, 
One barrell, iij bolles, one tunnell, and one stop to tunne withe, viijd. 
One secke full of hoppes, iiijs. One arke for bread, one littill forme, 
and viij Cannes, xvjd. 

IN THE WYNE SELLER. One ambery, ij chestes, and one coffer, iiijs. 
iij pewther basynges, and one ewer, viijs. ij bordes, and iiij trisselles, 
viijd. One brasyng morter and one pestell, and iiij pare of sheres, vis. viijd. 
One pewther bottell, one grape bottell, and one wanded bottell, ijs. iiijd. 
One cercle, ij graters, and one pare of waxe weis, xijd. iij barrelles, 
one hoggeshed, iij baskettes, and one old tunne, ijs. iiij seaves, \iijd. 
ij gaddes of iron, vjs. viijd. x newe pewther disshes, vjs. viijd. 



IN THE KECHEN. ij ranges of iron with sex iron barres, xiijs. iiij^?. 
iiij speles, vjs. viijd. xj brasse pottes, and seven pannes, iiij 2*. One 
chaffyng disshe and one chaffer, iijs. ij latten laddeUes, and one nesshe 
crooke, iiij^. iiij iron rackes, iijs. iiij^. ij fryeng pannes, and iij 
cressettes, iijs. iiij^. iij bordes, and one stoill to chopp herbes of, xijc?. 
vj pott lyddes, vj knyffes, and one grater, vjd. ij rost-irons, ij chestes, 
one stayne morter, one old busshell, and one littill forme, ijs. viijc?. One 
pare of nmsterd whernes, one pare of tengges, one fyer per, and one fyer 
panne, xvjd iij games of pewther vessell, vjfo'. xiijs. iiijd. xxvj" old 
pewther dublers, xij old disshes and salsers, xxxiijs. iiijc?. One pare of 
pot kylpes, ijd. 

IN THE SLAWGHTEE HOWSE. ij salten tubbes, ij choppyng bordes, one 
pare of wyndowes, ij roopes, and one boll, iiijs. 

IN THE BEEWEHOUSE. ij leiddes, xxvjs. viijd. ij gyle fattes, ij keel- 
lyng tubbes, and one masse fatt, xs. One knedyng tubbe, one old tubbe, 
one tunne, one trowghe, and one bord, ijs. One brasse panne, iij bolles 
and ij skeles, vs. iij seves, iij standes, iiij salt tubbes, vj seckes, and 
ij shetes, vjs. yiij^. ij wyndercloithes and ij wodde basynges, ij bowt 
cloithes, and iiij mast riders, xvjd. One pecke, ij stray fannes, one 
knyfe, and one scrapill, ijd. One iron peill, one iron coll raike, ij iron 
froggons, and one axe, xij vj busshelles of salt or ther abowtes, 
vjs. 



^ IN THE PEESTE'S CHAMBEE.One mattres, one boster, one pilleber, and 
ij coverlettes, viijs. 

NAPPEEIE WAIE. xv pair of lynnyng shetes, vij^'. xxvj pair of 
game shetes, vli. xiij lynne bordcloithes, xls. xvi game bordcloithes, 
xxs. xinj table napkynges, ijs. iiij^. xj towelles, xjs. xiij pilleber 
covereigns, xiijs. iij cupbord cloithes, vjs. viije*. One dyaper bordcloith 
and one diaper drawght, xiijs. iiijd. vj diaper naptkynges, xx<Z. One 

xx^ii 116 She * 



CATTELL. viij horse and meres, xWt. xxiiij drawght oxen, iij.xij7t. 
x latt oxen, xxxnj^. vjs. viijd. ix stottes, xxl. xiijs. iiijd. xxx kye, 
iij^. vij whyes and kye, ixU. vjs. viijtf. xxiij spayned calfes, xiij/*. 



THE PUDS AYS OF BARFORD. 183 

xvj$. cce.iiij** wethers and tuppes, cxij/e. xiij xx yowes and gymberes, 
xlyjVf. xj scoie and eight hogges, xxxiijfo'. Eyve swyne, xvjs. viijd. 
One bull, xxvjs. viijW. All the hay, xyjfo'. ij bee hyves, ("blank) All 
the corne in the laithes and garners at Barfurth, Manfeild, and Bolton in 
Craven, iij xx x&. All the corne of the earthe, xvijft. x*. In hennes 
and capons xxx or ther abowtes, xiijs. iiijd. 

PLAIT. iij eylver saltes, ij of them duble gylt with ij covereigns, 
and the third s-tlt parcell gilt without covereign, ij sylver cuppes with 
covereigns, ij silver bolles with one silver covereign, ij standyng 
cuppes dubble gilt with ij covereigns, xj silver knoped spones, xij 
silver spones w ithout knoppis, and other ij silver spones dubble gylt, 
iij"vj&*. xiijs. \iijd. 

IN THE CASK ETT. xliiij aungelles in gold, (blank) One old ryall, 
(Hank) In m >ney, xvjfo'. iiij gold rynges, liijs. iiijd. 

DETTES AWX NG TTNTO THE SATD MAE.GARETT. Item, by the lait Lord 
Scropp and his executores, viij^xfo 



Henry Puds.iy, the only son of Thomas and Margaret Pudsay, suc- 
ceeded to the family estates, and died in 1542. He married a daughter 
of Sir Ealph ]<<ure of Witton Castle. Thomas Pudsay, who began the 
genealogical notices which have been given, was their eldest son, and to 
him, therefore, and to his descendants, I shall principally confine my- 
self. 

Thomas Pudsay was eleven years of age when his father died, in 1542. 
A noble alliance was prepared for him. He was married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Lord Scrope of Bolton, by Catherine, daughter of 
Henry Earl of Cumberland, and by her he seems to have had seven 
children. His life was not a long one. In 1576, when the hand of per- 
secution fell upon the Eoman Catholic gentry, he was thrown into pri- 
son, and never left it alive. He died in York Castle on the 4th of 
September. William, his son and heir, administered to his effects on 
May 31, 1577. 

For more than forty years did his widow survive him constant to 
her early vows ; for she was not again married. She witnessed many a 
change during the half century of her widowhood. She saw the end of 
the golden reign of Elizabeth, and could see that the sceptre was be- 
ginning to tremble in the grasp of James. During the same period 
there had been four Archbishops of York, and she had paid her spiritual 
allegiance to eight Popes. But there had been greater changes still 
among her kinsmen and friends. The storm of 1569 had blown down 
the House of Neville, and the Percies were but slowly recovering from 
the effects of the same tempest. The Cliffords, her cousins, were broken 



184 THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 

down with lawsuits and impoverished with debt. The glory, too, of her 
father's house had departed, as the honours of the Scropes were soon 
to be entrusted to the basely born daughters of the Lord President of 
the Council in the North. 

On the 20th of October, 1620, the aged widow executed her last will 
and testament at Barford, where she seems to have resided. There is 
little in it to excite the curiosity of the antiquary, and a few brief ex- 
tracts from it will suffice. I give them in the words of the testatrix. 

I, Elizabeth Pudsay, of Barfurthe, wydowe, sycke in bodye, doe make 
this my last will and testament. My body to be buried where my 
frends shall thincke good. To my sonne William's fower daughters 
which he had by his first wyfe, viz., Mary Pudsaye, Issabell Pudsaye, 
Trothye Pudsaye, and Elizabeth Pudsaye, all my househoulde stuffe 
beinge my owne, exceptinge a bedd standinge in the closett within the 
greene chamber, and all the furniture thereunto belonginge, the which I 
give unto Elizabeth Pudsay, daughter unto my sonne Ambrose. To 
Ambrose Pudsaye, my grandchylde, and sonne unto my sonne William 
Pudsaye, a sylver bowle. To my sonne William Pudsaye all my hard 
corne now sowne upon the grounde, viz., upon the Twenthy lands and 
Trumpett flatt. To my soune Ambrose Pudsaye of the Hye Cloase, my 
clocke in my chamber. To my servantes sutche legasies as my sonne 
Ambrose shall thinckke fittinge. To my sayde sonne the rest of my 
goods. I make my lovinge frends William Buckle and Thomas Shawe 
executors, and for ther paynes to be taken theiin, give to eyther of them 
a xxs. peece. Witnesses, Francis Radclliffe, Richard Hall, Thomas 
Slinger, Thomas Slinger [c], Thomas Newcom and Robert Dent. 

This document, which is greatly injured by damp, was proved in the 
Court of Richmond on Nov. 18, 1620 ; her son William administering to 
her effects. The testatrix had been interred in the little church of 
Forcet twelve days previously. 

The Inventory of her effects is still preserved at Richmond, and some 
extracts from it are subjoined. It specifies the ordinary accompaniments 
of a country house. It will be observed that green was the prevailing 
colour in the principal apartments, a colour which was equally para- 
mount in the arms of the family of Pudsay. 

%L true Jnbcntarg of all the Goodes of the Right Wor 1 Eliz. Pudsay, 
late of Barforth, widowe, diseased, by Henry Newcome, Francis 
Slinger, Anthony Wilkinson. xviiij th Nov. 1620. 

Her purse and apparellj v?. vj oxen, xxvijj. ix kyne and one bull, 
xxv/. vij twinter beastes, xl. vj stirkesvj/. vij calves, \l. ij mares, 
one foale, and a filly, xl xl ewes and xij wethers, &c. THE LOBDES 



THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 185 

CHAMBER, ij bedsteades and one trucle bedsteade, and a little cup- 
boorde, x. ij*. yiijd. One chaire covered with red stuff, and one 
throwne chaire, iijs. ij stooles, 3 mattresses, 4 fethir bedes, 3 cover- 
letts, and one grene rugg, xZ. One oversea coveringe, 3 boulsteres, 5 
pillowes, 3 paire of blankets, one basinge and ewer, and a cupboord 
cloath, xxs. IN HIE CLOSETT. One presse for cloathes, ij trunks, ij 
chistes, and some other small houselments, xvs. IN HER BED CHAMBER. 
Hir owne bedstead, covered with grene cloothe, xxs. One little cup- 
boord, one livery cupboord, one table with a turky carpett, xs. 2 fether 
beddes, 3 boulsters, and 2 paire of blanketts, xls. ij mattresses, iiij 
pillowes, one grene rugg, and 3 coverletts, xxxs. One grene chaire, 
one little chaire, ij greate chistes, and a little lowe table, iiij stooles and 
2 formes, iijs. iiijd. One little trunke and 2 greene carpets, ij ande- 
irons, a paire of tonges, and some other small houselments, iiijs. xij 
quishions, xxs. IN THE KITCHEN. CHAMBER, xiijs. iiijd. THE BUTTRY 
CHAMBER. THE NURSE PARLOR. THE GREATE PARLOR. One longe 
table, a livery cupboord, one longe forme, and some other small housel- 
ments, xiijs. iiijc?. THE GRENK CHAMBER, ijs. THE MILK HOUSE. 
THE KICHIN LARDER. THE MAYDES PARLER. THE LITTLE PARLER. 
THE BREWHOUSE. THE HALL. 2 longe tables, and a square table with 
formes and seates thereto, xs. THE BUTTRY. THE WYNE SELLER. 
Wyne and kaskes with little runletts, boords, and some other things, 
xxs. THE OXHOUSE. Bedsteade, coverletts, &c., iijs. iiijc?. THE GAR- 
DEN. One hive of bees, vs. THE BREWHOUSE CHAMBER. THE BARNE. 
THE COURT. Coales there, xs. Summa totalis, ccxxijZ. xvs. iiijc?. 

Mrs. Pudsay, as I have said before, had seven children. Four of them 
were sons William, Henry, Ambrose, and Thomas and three were 
daughters. Of the daughters, Margaret, the eldest, became the wife of 
llobert Trotter of Skelton Castle, Esq. ; "Winifred married Thomas 
Meynell of North Kilvington, Esq. ; and Mary Pudsay, her sister, to the 
best of my belief, died unmarried. 

"William Pudsay, the eldest born of the family, seems to have lived in 
a retired manner upon his estate in Craven. He was just of age when 
he administered to his father's effects in 1577, and he enjoyed the fa- 
mily estates for more than fifty years. There is a complimentary allu- 
sion to his birth and accomplishments upon a fly-leaf of the Book of 
Hours, which has been already mentioned. It is as follows : 

Hear lyes the body of "Win. Pudsey, Esq r . 
Noble descended of y e mother but nott of y* sire. 

A Scroop in condition, 
A Clifford in face, 
A Nevell in voise, 
A Evers in pace. 

God rest his soul ! Amen. 



186 THE PUDSAYS OF BAKFORD. 

Through his mother he inherited the characteristics of the three great 
houses of Scrope, Clifford, and Neville, but the "pace" and the blood 
of the gallant family of Eure came to him from his grandmother. The 
chronicler seems to have been partial to the honours of the Scropes, as 
the Pudsays too could boast of illustrious blood and an ancient ancestry. 
The great Prince-Bishop of Durham, from whom, as I believe, they 
undoubtedly sprung, was the son of a sister of King Stephen. His 
descendants had secured for themselves alliances out of ancient and 
noble houses, and one of our own poets has sung of one of the bravest 
barons in the house of Eure, with whom they were in several ways 
connected 

" Lord Eurie is of noble blood, 

A knightes son sooth to say ; 
He is heir to the Nevill and to the Percy, 
And is married upon a Willoughby." 

There is one romantic incident in the even life of the Esquire of 
Bolton, to which Dr. WMtaker alludes in his History of Craven. A 
mine from which silver was derived was discovered upon his estate in 
Craven, and Pudsay yielded to the temptation and invaded the preroga- 
tive of royalty. "Webster, in his Metallurgies, tells us how " one Mr. 
Pudsay, an antient esquire, and owner of Bolton Hall juxta Bolland, in 
the reign of Elizabeth, did get good store of silver ore and convert it to 
his own use, or rather coined it, as many do believe, there being many 
shillings marked with an escallop, which the people of that country call 
Pudsay shillings to this day." The offence, however, was overlooked, and 
the culprit was permitted to go down to his grave in peace. 

To that grave he came at a good old age, with his children and his 
grandchildren about him. His eldest son had died before him, but he 
had still a very numerous family to carry on his name and line. In his 
will, which is dated at Bolton on 12 August, 1629, he makes abundant 
provision for his children ; but the order which he makes for the sale of 
his manor of Hackforth, seems to shew that those pecuniary difficulties 
had already begun which obliged his grandson, a generation afterwards, 
to sell his estate of Barford. 

I shall not now bring before my readers the history of his many 
children, as they are not mentioned in the calendar which it is my pre- 
sent object to illustrate. To his brothers and their descendants I shall 
now revert. Of them there were three Henry, Ambrose, and Thomas. 
Of Henry Pudsay, the eldest of the three brothers, there is nothing 
known. I do not find him mentioned in the wills of his brethren, and 
the probability is that he died in early life. 



THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 187 

The will of Thomas Pudsay is preserved at York, and is dated on 
Feb. 20, 1619-20. It appears from it that he resided at Hackforth. He 
leaves all his lands in that place, in which Sir Thomas Metham, Kt., Sir 
Thos. Fairfax of Walton, Kt., and Anthony Meynell of Kilvington, 
Esq., were enfeoffed, to his wife for her life, and after her decease to his 
only child, Philippa Pudsay, with remainder, if she dies issueless, to 
Michael Pudsay, son of his brother Ambrose. He orders his lands at 
Ainderby and Dalby to be sold by his executors, Metham and Fairfax. 
On May 31, 1620, his widow administered to his effects. 

I now come to the remaining brother, Ambrose Pudsay. He was the 
owner of the estate of Picton in Cleveland, but was for some time resi- 
dent at High Close, in the parish of St. John's, Stanwick. From the 
position which he occupies in his mother's will, it would appear that he 
was her favourite son. He was twice married. His first wife was Anne, 
dau. of Robert Place of Dinsdale, Esq., the widow of William Dent of 
Piersbridge, gent. By her he had an only daughter, Elizabeth. After 
the death of his first wife, which happened before 1612, he took to him- 
self a second consort, Jane, dau. of Edward Wilkinson of North allerton, 
by whom he left three children a son, Michael, and two daughters 
Margaret, who married Phillip Anne of Frickley, Esq., and Catharine, 
the wife of Robert, second son of Chr. Place of Dinsdale, Esq. His 
will runs as follows : 

June 23, 1623. Ambrose Pudsey of Picton to be buried at the plea- 
sure and disposeing of my freindes. To my daughter Elizabeth Pudsey, 
which I had by my first wife, 110?., to be raised out of my goods within 
three yeares, in consideration of the goodes and money given her by 
Elizabeth Pudsey, her grandmother, late of Barforth, deceased. To my 
wife, Jane Pudsey, three of my best kyne. To my mother-in-law, Cici- 
lie Eshall, my nephew and godsonne, Richard Mennell, my neece, Phil- 
lipp Pudsey, and to my sister, Margaret Trotter, each an 11*. peece. 
To everie pore bodie in Pickton, 6d. To my daughters Margaret and 
Katherin Pudsey, each 60Z., in consideration of the legacies given them 
by theire grandfather, John Eshall, deceased, or by theire grandmother, 
Elizabeth Pudsey, deceased. I give 40s. to be bestowed for cawseing of 
so much ground and mending the hie way lyeing on the foreside of my 
dwelling howse and frontstead in Picton. 

My cosin Mr. John Witham of Cliffe, my uncle Anthonie Metcalfe of 
Audbrough, my cosin Mr. Lawrence Saire of Worsall, and my wife Jane 
Pudsey, executors. My wife to have the tuition of my sonne Michaell 
Pudsey. The residue to my two daughters. [Proved 13 Feb., 1623-4, 
and administration granted to the executrix.] 

Michael Pudsay, his only son, was born in 1618. He took to wife 
Mary, second dau. of Gerard Salvin of Croxdale, Esq., who was born on 



188 THE PUD SAYS OF BARFORD. 

Feb. 24, 1618-19. By her he had a large family. When the great re- 
bellion broke out, Michael Pudsay, with the rest of his kinsmen and 
connections, supported the royal cause. He suffered severely for his 
loyalty. By the Act of 1652, in which he is described of Middleton 
George, all his lands were declared to be forfeited to the Commonwealth. 
Nor were his kinsmen more fortunate. One or two of the sons of 
"William Pudsay of Bolton were killed in the field. His cousin Ealph 
Pudsay of Stapleton, a captain in the royal army, was killed at Naseby, 
and the Act of 1652 took away his estate from his widow. He had 
made himself peculiarly obnoxious to the rebels on more than one occa- 
sion. A royalist broadside, issued in 1640, tells us " how about a hun- 
dred of the Scottish rebels, intending to plunder the house of M. Pudsie 
(at Stapleton), were set upon by a troupe of our horsemen; thirty-nine 
of them are taken prisoners, the rest all slaine except four or five which 
fled, whereof two are drowned." 2 

Michael Pudsay, however, survived these commotions, and recovered 
his confiscated property. When Sir William Dugdale made his Visita- 
tion of Yorkshire in 1665, he recorded his pedigree before him, being 
then resident at Lowfield. He had five children : Thomas, his only 
son; Mary, who was 22 years of age in 1665 ; Elizabeth, was was born 
in 1648, and died in 1731, aged 83; Margaret, born in 1652, who was 
buried at St. Oswald's, Durham, 21 July, 1717, being, as the Eegister 
calls her, "an old maid, a Papist;" Anne, born in 1650-1; Catharine, 
buried fit Forcett, 12 Aug., 1661. In addition to these children, the 
parish register of Forcett informs us that a " Mr. Michael Pudsey of 
Lowfield had a young child buried 9 Dec., 1661." 

Thomas, the eldest son of Michael Pudsay, was 21 years of age in 
1665. In his will, dated 7 April, 1723, which was proved at Durham, 
he calls himself of Blackwell and of Picton. It is a short and uninte- 
resting document. His death took place whilst he was on a visit to his 
kinsmen, the Salvins of Croxdale, and his bones were laid beside those 
of his sister Margaret, in the burial place of that ancient house, at St. 
Oswald's in Durham, on the 20th of April, 1723. 

His widow, Mrs. Lucy Pudsay, with whose maiden name I am not 
acquainted, was buried at Barnard-castle on May 3, 1724, leaving two 
children behind her, Michael, an only son, and Mary, who was married 
at Haughton le Skerne, 24 May, 1708, to an ancestor of the late Baron 
Hullock, William Hullock of Barnard -castle, merchant. 

Michael Pudsay administered to his father's effects at Durham on 

2 Longstaffe's Darlington, 133. 



THE PUDSAYS OF BARFORD. 189 

Sep. 17, 1723, having at that time his residence at Staindrop. Among 
the papers in the Crown Office at Durham, under the year 1710, we find 
that one Richard Simpson, of Barnard-castle, carrier, was sentenced to 
be burned on the left hand for committing a burglary in the house of 
Michael Pudsay, merchant, in Barnard-castle, on the 26th of Jan. The 
thief had abstracted a silver tankard, worth 4., six table spoons, two 
pair of silver cock spurs, a silver chain, two silver seals, nineteen 
yards of silver lace, six laced cravats, and IQl. in money. 

Of the history of this the last of the Pudsays of High Close and Low- 
field, there is little known. He had two sons, both of them bearing his 
father's name, Thomas ; both, however, died young. One was buried at 
Barnard-castle on Feb. 9, 1707, and the other on Aug. 9, 1719. He had 
two daughters, Catherine, who died in her infancy in 1720, and Mary, 
who was baptized at Eomaldkirk Sep. 7, 1714. I have every reason to 
believe that she survived all her family and connections, and died in 
loneliness and poverty at Yarm, about the year 1810, the last person who 
lore the time-honoured name of Pudsay. 

The mother of these children was buried by her husband at Staindrop 
on the 31st of March, 1729. He survived her more than twenty years. 
With his last resting place I am not acquainted ; but it is probable that 
he was laid beside his wife. He was close upon three score years and ten 
when he died. Let us hope that his last days were not embittered by 
extravagance or shortened by want. 

In the Calendar of the Book of Hours which had descended to him 
from his ancestors he made several entries. On one of the fly-leaves he 
inscribed the complimentary verses upon William Pudsay, Esq., which 
have been already given, and below them he has written as follows : 

As below was found wrote on a grave stone in Gainford Church, and 
taken up when Mr. Craddock was buried, July 9, 1736. 

Hie jacent Dom 8 . Willi'mus Pudsey Miles, et Elizabeth uxor ejus 
quorum animabis (sic) propitietur Deus. Amen. 

This monument may still be partially seen in Gainford Church. It was 
probably entirely uncovered when Mr. Cradock was buried, nor can we 
feel surprised at finding a copy of the inscription in the handwriting of 
Michael Pudsay. He would deem it worthy of being recorded in the 
volume in which there were so many notices of his ancestors. 

After the death of Michael Pudsay in 1749, this volume, in all proba- 
bility, passed into strange hands. In 1835 it was in the possession of 
J. Bawling Wilson, Esq., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, who permitted the late 
VOL. IT. 2 c 



190 THE PUDS AYS OF BARFORD. 

Sir Cuthbert Sharp to draw up that imperfect notice of its contents 
which is to be found in the Collectanea Topographies, ii. 1 76. It is now 
in the possession of Captain Ducane, R.E., who purchased it from a book- 
seller in Newcastle, and kindly allowed the extracts to be made which 
suggested the compilation of the present paper. 

.JAMES RAINE, JUN., M.A. 
York, January, 1858. 



191 



TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

NUNCUPATIVE WILLS. 

I PROPOSE in this paper to introduce to my readers a class of wills of 
peculiar interest and novelty I mean those which were made by word 
of mouth, or, in a single word, nuncupatively. They were generally 
executed by persons in some emergency, or in the extremity of sickness, 
when writing materials could not easily be obtained, and the testator 
entrusted the disposition of his property to the memory of the by- 
standers. Before the reign of Elizabeth such documents are rarely to 
be met with. They are generally brief, but they are very interesting. 
The prodigal, the profligate, and the careless come before us. Here is 
a poor person who is stricken with the plague, and fears the too common 
end of that awful and now unknown complaint. Here is the labourer 
arrested by the hand of death in the midst of his employment, and 
anxious only for the weal of his wife and children. Here is the worldly- 
minded man, who is summoned from his counter to the grave, and 
whose thoughts in the very hour of death are fixed upon his farm and 
merchandise. And here, again, comes the aged man before us with all 
his childish petulance and distrust, brooding still over some imaginary 
wrong, and speaking his bitter words from the very gates of the grave. 
How many little miniatures are here before us, speaking likenesses of 
those who are now among the dead. How much do they recall to us 
how many memories from the dead how many warnings to the living ! 
Here is the account of an old man's deathbed. 

Memorandum, That Richard Watson of Catton in the Countie of 
Yorke, yoman, beinge sicke of bodie but of perfite remembrance, sente 
for William Speight e of the said towne, upon Saterday, the xvth day of 
October, Anno Domini 1575, betwene vij and ix of the clocke at nighte 
or therabouts, to be a witnes of his laste will and testamente : wher at 
his comminge the said William asked the said Richard Watson how he 
did, and the said Richard awnswered and said, "sicke," and further 
said, " Thes folkes do treble me, wolde they lette me alone I wolde open 
my mynde to yowe and John Johnson ; " the said Speighte aunsweringe 
said, "Richarde, I will tarrie with yow a good while, you shall have 
leysure enoughe, lette the folkes goe furthe, and putte the candle from 
your eyes and se yf you can sleep a litle, and I will come to yowe 






192 TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

agane." And then the said "William wente oute of the celler into the 
fier house and tarried furthe aboute thre quarters of an ower, or ther- 
abouts : after which tyme he called for the said Speighte and the said 
John Johnson, who wente into the celler to hym, and the said John 
Johnson said, " Goodman Watson, hear is Mr. Speighte and I, what is 
yourmynde?" the said Richard Watson answering said, " The false 
preiste haythe deceaved me." The said Speighte then awnswering said, 
"Richarde, wherein." Then the said Richarde aunsweringe said, 
" They say I have gyven my childe nothinge," poynting his hand to a 
litle girle called Eliz: Foxton, whom he was grandfather unto, then 
standinge by the said Speighte, which girle he had broughte upp from 
her infancie, which girle of custom did call hym father, and he called 
her his childe of like custome, and which girle, as it is notoriouslie 
knowen, he loved above all other. Then the said Speight aunsweringe 
said, " Richarde, what do you give her ?" The said Richard Watson 
then aunsweringe said, "I give her my howse and the four crofts to 
yt." Then quoth the said Speighte, " Richarde, and what els do you 
give her ?" Then the said Richarde Watson aunsweringe said, " Even 
all." Then the said Speighte aunsweringe said, " Richard, is it not 
your will and playne meaninge that your wife and this childe shalbe 
your executors, and that they two shall have the bennefitte of your 
goods ? " Then the said Richarde Watson aunsweringe, as it semed 
with a more gladnes of mynde for the expressinge of the premisses, 
sayinge, "Yes, yf yt were worthe ten thowsand millions." Then and 
ther beinge presente the said William Speighte, John Johnson, Alice 
Speighte, wife of the said William Speighte, Isabel Harison, Anne 
Rodley, John Rodley, Richarde Caid, Vid. Smeton, Margaret Mathewe, 
wife of Henry Mathewe, John Smeton, and Roberte Clarke yonger, 
and diverse others. And after the said will was thus ended and maid, 
ther came in Isabell Smeton, wife of John Smeton and mother in 
la we to Roberte Clarke the yonger, and said, " Goodman Watson, I 
pray God comforthe yowe and sende us mery metinge," or suche lyke 
wordes in effectt, to whom the said Richarde Watson aunsweringe said, 
" They budd have all, they budd neide have all," meaninge his wyfe 
and that childe, as they that were presente did understande him, and 
the said Smeton wyfe aunsweringe agayne said, "And very good 
reason." [Pr. 31 Dec., 1575.] 

As a contrast to this, I shall give you that of a young man, one of 
the Richmondshire family of Laton, which was made in 1577. He was 
probably in the extremity of his sickness when 

"Taking his father, John Laton, by y e hande, he said, Father, I do 
knowe all y* I have came by you, and by your good meanes, and there- 
fore I frelie leave it and geve it all to you." 

Poor young man ! he was the heir apparent to a good estate, and his 
father's eldest son. Prom his inventory we learn that his only property 
was his dress, valued at 131 6s. Sd., a jewel of gold, prized at the some- 



NUNCUPATIVE WILLS 193 

what large sum of 10?., and six horses, which were worth 30Z. But we 
gather from the same document that there was owing to him the large 
sum of 5701. 10s. Surely, without any great amount of ingenuity, we 
may fill up the picture, and place before us the gallant, gay young gen- 
tleman in the golden days of Elizabeth, free-handed to a fault, and un- 
kind only to himself. He was probably fond of a little racing too, for 
Richmondshire was a dangerous neighbourhood, and we find that he was 
the owner of six horses. I have seen several articles of attire of the 
Elizabethan age, which have descended with the representation of the 
family of Laton into the possession of the present Chancellor of Durham. 
Very fair they are, and sparkling with embroidery ; and^I can well 
imagine what a gallant show young Laton would make when he ap- 
peared attired in them, and decked with his golden jewel, upon the 
great race course upon Gaterley Moor, which is close to his own 
residence. What a contrast it is to turn from this to the few affection- 
ate words which he uttered on his deathbed to his sorrowing father, 
who had summoned two of his old servants to listen with himself to the 
last words of their youthful master. 

Here is another deathbed scene. 

" These wordes followinge Rauffe Byerly of Tuddo, deceased, of per- 
fit reason and memorie, spoke and said to Raufe Watson and Henrye 
Rychardson, his neighbers, the night before he dyed, viz. vij mo die Octo- 
bris, Anno Domini 1573, at which tyme lyeng secke in his forehouse at 
Tuddo, willed his bodye to buryed within the churche of Brauncepethe 
as nighe his father and mother as convenientlie myght be, and witlid 
his wyffe to make an arvaill dynner for hym, and incontynentlie after he 
had spoken theis words, the hickcoupe troubled him so core that the 
aforesaid Rauffe Watson and Henrye Ry chard son hard hym speake no 
more in this world." 

The testator had barely time to say where he wished to be buried, 
and to desire that there should be a dinner at his funeral, before he 
became speechless. Few people who have witnessed a deathbed can 
fail to know what the hiccough means. 

I shall now give you a few instances of wills which were made when 
that fearful and devastating epidemic, the plague, was raging. 

Memorandum, That Nichols Hedlie of Tanfield, finding him selffe 
scant well, said unto me, Robart Archar, curate of Tanfield, and to 
Thomas Browen, parishe clarke there, these words, " My wyll ys, that 
yf I showld catche this new sickenes, or yf God showld call up jn me, 
then my will ys that my brother Thomas Hedly shall have my lease of 
Tanfield during my tearme, yeres and interest." These words he spake 



194 TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

in my howse the ix dale of Novembre, 1587, And in his syckenes con- 
fessed to hys syster Barbary Hedlye, alias Sotherne, iilsoe. By me, 
Robart Archer, curate of Tanfield Thomas Brown. 

Md. That Bryane Gule, lait of Blackwell, within the parische of 
Darneton, about the second or thirde weeke in Lent, last past, then be- 
ing sicke, but of perfect mynde and memorie, and being asked by one 
Thomas Addie, to whome he wovld give his goods if he died, the said 
Brvane answered and said, that "he wowldgive all his goods, if it weare 
mo*re, to Mr. Garnett and Mrs. Garnett," (meaning Mr. Bartholmewe 
Garnett and his wiffe,) and said, "it was all to litle for them, for they 
had bene his and his wives succor in ther sicknes :" And about one or 
two dayes after he died, then and ther being presentt the said Thomas 
Addie, nowe dead, William "Wild, Thomas Kendall, Elizabethe Lyne, 
and others. [Pr. 159?, June 25.] 

Aug. 3, 1604. Barbarey Errington of the citty of York, spinster, 
being sick and a plague sore risen upon her, being asked by her mother 
howe she would give her porcion, she aunswered, she would give all to 
her father and mother. Her mother said " They neded it not," there- 
fore asked her if she would give Elizabeth Tebb xZ. She aunswered 
' Noe, she gave me noe warme drinck when she demaunded, therefore 
she should not have soe much," but her mother said she should give 
her Wl 

Thursday evening, July 3, 1623. Edward Buckle of Yorke, glover, 
willed that his two apprentices or servants, John Robinson and Thos. 
Hunter, should have all his apperell (except his two gownes) and 
willed withall that they would see two glasses of phisicke or oyntment 
which he had from the doctors to be satisfied and paid for. 

The next instance is still more curious. The testatrix was a person 
bearing my own name, and lived at Richmond, in Yorkshire. On Sun- 
day afternoon, the 18th of May, 1645, between three and five, her 
house in Bargate being shut up on account of the plague, she sent for 
her lawyer, who stood below her in the street while she made her will 
to him from the open casement. On the following Saturday, the testa- 
trix having died in the interim, her will was proved, the writer of the 
will informing us that he himself and every legatee in that document 
had been shut up in their own houses whilst the pestilence was raging. 
Those who have read the fabled narrative of Defoe, and have looked 
into the annals of the plague, can form some notion of the terror and 
consternation of those days, when the cross marked in red upon the 
doors told the wayfarer that the hand of death was within the house. 
Bitterly, indeed, did the little town of Richmond suffer from its vio- 
lence. Three-fourths of its population were destroyed. The sufferers 
were interred upon the north side of the church, and these fearful visit- 



NUNCUPATIVE WILLS. 195 

ations were remembered even at the close of the last century, for even 
at that time, curiously enough, every one refused to be buried upon that 
side of the church, " for fear they should let out the plague." 

The following copies or extracts from nuncupative wills are thrown 
into chronological order, and given without comment. They are de- 
rived from many sources, and none of them have been printed. Large 
additions might be made to the list. 

Memorandum, That I, Francis Birnand, lait of Knaresbrughe, 
Esquiere, beyng of perfect mynde and memoiye, upon the xxv th day of 
November, being Mundaye, and about xj, xij, or one of the clocke the 
same daye, beyng mov'd by his cosing Eichard Hudson to make his 
will, did answeare that he had maid his will, and had mayd his brother 
Bichard Birnand his sole and full executor, and had geven hym all his 
leases and goods, and to his brother William Birnand xxfo'., and to his 
brother Edmund iij^'., and to his sister Susan Ixxfo'., and to Bell 
Linghram Crokesnabbe his farme. After which words, stayinge, he said 
"but I shall charge hym (meaninge his executor) verry sore," and then 
required he might have rest to slepe. And after about thre of y e clocke, 
after the gyfte of a lease to Myles Burnet and his wife of their farme, 
beinge moved agayne by y e above named Eichard Hudson to declare 
further, yf he would, towching his will, he declared and sayd agayne, 
" That his will then was that his brother Eichard should have all his 
leases, and be his sole executor." And, after about five of y e clocke, 
being moved by Mr. Nettelton to make a further declaracion of his 
mynd for y e gyfte of xxfo'. to his brother William, yt shuld be xxfo*. by 
yeare. And for how manye yeares, he said these wordes, or y e like in 
effect, " xxfo*. y e yeare, that is muche, stay, maisters, I am not able to 
expresse my mynd." [Prob: 18 December, 1582.] 

An. 1586. Memd. That y e fifte daie of April, John Greane, ly- 
inge at y e poynte of death, did aknowledge himself to owe unto Alis 
Greane his sister xj*., and his will was that his wyffe showld paye unto 
her (if hit pleased God to take him hence) that said xjs., and ix. more^ 
so xx*. in the whole. Then I demandid of him what other depts he 
awght, and he wold name non particuler to me save his rente, but said 
as for other depts his wyffe knew thereof and wolde pay all. Now his 
will was that Cicle his wife should have his goodes and paye his depts 
withall, and to live upon, etc* More in this behalf I can not testifye, 
for I was called sodenly to him and he was nigh spent when I cam to 
him, yet of perfect remembraunce to my perseveraunce, and I departed 
not from him so longe as any lyffe remayned in him. Per me Thomam 
Brugendm' curattum de Eichmond. 

Memorandum. That the xix th daie of February e, 1586, Ealffe Ewrie 
of Edgnoll, within the dioces of Durham, esquier, beinge sicke, did of 
him selffe will his father-in-law, Thomas Turner, to tarrye a little, and 
he wold make his will, the which the said Thomas Turner willed him 



196 TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

to doo, where uppon the said Ealffe Ewrie beinge of perfett minde and 
memory, by worde of mowthe said as folio wethe : "I have no lands, 
but all my goodes, bothe moveable and unmoveable, I give unto my 
wiffe," meaninge Barbara his wieff; and then did the said Thomas 
Turner saie unto him the said Ealffe Ewrie, " Is there non other unto 
whome you will give any of your goodes?" who aunswered and said, 
"Never one penye of my goodes will I give to anye but to my wieffe 
onlie." Then there beinge three wittnesses, viz., Thomas Turner, Ealffe 
Wawen, and Leonard Jackson. 

1587. About Myehaelmas. George Lampleughe of Cockermouth, 
Esquier, beinge sicke in his bodie and myndfull of his mortalitie, said, 
"All that I have whatsoever I give unto Elline my wyfe, thinkinge 
that they are all over little for her, and yf I had more she should 
have yt." 

Nov. 7, 1608. Henrie Lindley, Knight, of Middleham Castle, to be 
buried in the church or chancell of Middleham. To Jeronima my wife 
and ladie all my parks and possessions of Middleham and the Castle of 
Middleham, &c., for her life. "Witnesses, Sir Charles Wren, Knight, 
Henrie Paget. 

On the same day, aboute one quarter of an houre after, he gave to his 
nephew Edward Hoppie 601. out of Wodroffe in Kent during all the 
terme of his lease thereof, which request was then in the lifetyme of 
the said Sir Henrie Linley putt in writing. On the same day, aboute 
eleven of the clocke, he did give to his servant John Sarkey 100Z. ; and, 
a little after, he did give to John Coxe his servant the lodge in the west 
parke of Middleham, &c., for his life ; and, about one o'clocke, he gave 
to Wm. George, Lawr: Fishenden, and Thomas Denison, 40. each, and 
to Thos. Todd, 2Ql A little after he gave to his sister, Mrs. Stubley, 
501., and on the same day he gave to everie one of his women servants 
51. each. 

^ April 11, 1611. Eobert Best of Kepeswick, labourer, left all to his 
wiefe Barbaric Best, charginge her to pay all his debts and to bring 
him honestly furthe att his buryali, and thereupon called for drinck and 
willed Thomas Nelson to drincke with him. 

About 19 March, 1609. Wm. Eranckelande of Glaisdale, par. Danby, 
left his farme, &c., to Agnes his wife, whether she would marie to the 
said farme or give consent that her sonne Thomas should marrie to the 
same. 

^ Aug. 5, 1622. "William Bethell of Yorke, gent., said that he had 
given all to Elizabeth his wife, and she and noe other should have all 
that ever he had to be at his dispose; whereat Wm. Knight replied, 
sayeing that " Sir Walter Bethell, kt., would expecte to have some 
thinge after his death, and might trouble and molest his said wife for 
the same," to which the said Wm. answered that Sir Gualter Bethell, 
kt., nor any of his, should ever have any parte of his goods. 



NUNCUPATIVE WILLS. 197 

March 13, 1621-2. Amer Walton of Tadcaster beinge demaunded 
by Doiothie Beane whether he would give anie legacie or anie parte of 
his goods to any of his freinds, replied and said, that his wife Katherine 
should have the lease of his house and all that small goods that hee had, 
affirmeinge that it was all to litle for her maintenance, she beinge both 
ould and laime. 

The maner in what words Mr. Edward Conyeres of Hoppon did make 
in worde his last will and testement, uppon the submession of his sone 
Ho: Conyeres, to him of his knees, the fourth day of March, 1622, in 
the pressint of Thomas Bradforth, Robert Conyeres, his wyfe Thomas- 
son Conyeres, Ed: Ogell, Richard Haine, and Jane Horsly, in maner and 
forme following : 

First he begune to relat how all was his and corned by his meanes, 
and that the full power was in him to dispose as he pleassed, and it was 
answard both by his wyfe and otheres ther pressent, that it was trew all 
was his and corned by his meanes ; then he repleyed that his wyfe showld 
have the thirdes of all his landes dewering his lyfe, and that she showld 
have the hulfe of all his goods and chatalles, movabell and unmovable, 
and that the boy, meneing his granchyll, Edward Conyeres, showld have 
tine powindes a yere, and that his said wyfe showld have the tewession 
of the boye, and that the said boy, Ed. Conyer, should have the inheri- 
tance of his landes after his father, Ro: Conyeres his death. Whear- 
npon Tho. Bradforth, his wyfe, and his son Ro: did all give him thanks, 
and Thomas Bradforth called for the former will, which was syned and 
sealled, and asked the said Edward Conyeres whether he showld pull of 
the seall thearof from his former will, and he answared, "Yes;" whear- 
upon the said Thomas Bradforth, in the sight of the said Ed. Conyeres, 
did according to his mynd pull from the former will the seall therof and 
therew it in the fyre, and so cansselled the forsaid will to make it frus- 
terat, and this was all doune in the pressint of us whose names and 
markes ar heanmto set, the day and year first above written. Tho: 
Bradforth, Thomazin Conyers, Robert Conyers, Edward Ogell, Richard 
Haine, Jane Horsly. 

Robert Phenicke, gent., late of Scarborough, On Monday and Tues- 
day, 29th and 30th March, 1624, beeing in the house of Ann Tole of 
Thorneton, and then aged and weake in bodie through divers infirmities, 
taking occasion to speake of Thomas Salvin of Thornton, gent., whom 
hee acknowledged himselfe to be greatlye affected unto, in regard of 
divers kind passages and freindship betwixt them, did voluntarilye saye, 
that hee did give unto the said Thomas Salvin, gent., tenn peeces, 
meaneing thereby tenn poundes, and did further saye that hee would 
make him and that hee should bee as his child at the tyme of his 
death, meaneing thereby that hee should have all or the most parte of 
his estate, as the witnesses who were then present and heard his said 
speech did verilie beleeve and conceive thereof; and the rather for that 
the said deceased did reiterate and use the same words in the town of 
Scarborough, some five or six weeks before his death. 

VOL. II. 2 D 



198 TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

1625. George Atherton of Foxton, beeing visited with sicknes, about 
two or three daies next before his death, beeing in his chamber at Fox- 
ton, did say that hee did not well knowe what his filiall and childes 
porcion and rights was, but he gave it freelie to his mother, sayeing 
further of his said mother, and acknowledging that hee had often 
offended her, and thereupon craved pardon at her handes, and did 
entreat her that shee would cause a bridge to be made and laid over 
Barton Sike to helpe poore people over the becke when the water was 
upp and high, which otherwise would cause the poore people to goe farr 
about. 

1625-6. 29 March. Thos. Bower, curat of Treeton, Notts. To his 
cozen Wm. Bower and his son an English Testament with singinge 
psalmes. To sunderie younge folkes certaine Englishe bookes, and his 
will was further that all his godchildren should be remembered with 
somethinge. 

1626. Raiphe Thriske of Skitby, clerke, aboute Cristenmas two yeares 
before his death. To his godsonne Raiphe Thriske his purse and his 
ring and all his bookes. All the rest he gave to his brother Thomas 
Thriske, and said " all was to little for him," sayeing, " he might have 
layd in the streete but for him ; " and upon the day wherein he dyed, 
viz., upon Sunday the vth of March last, he sent for the said Thos. and 
gave him the key of his chist and bayd him give him a capp, and said 
that he gave him the said key in possession thereof. 

1627. 15 April. John Dowthwaite of Westhome, the younger, gent., 
beeing sick in bodie, did say " I give all whatsoever is due unto me unto 
my grandmother," sayeing further, "yea, if it were a thousand times 
more, God defend, who should have it else ? " 

1627. May 16. Jennet Acy of Kirkeby, spinster. She did give to 
Peter Acye one bee stall, and to his two girles one redd whie in the 
"Would carr to make them a cowe betwixt' them. To Wm. Acy her two 
acres of land with the arders. The rest she did give to the said William 
Acy her brother, and tooke him by the hand and said " Billie, thou art 
worthie to have it all." 

1635. Apr. 9. Robert Spender of the cittie of York, being sick in 
body, but of perfect remembrance, was demaunded by Frances Killing- 
worth of the said citty, widow, how he ment to dispose of the meanes 
God had lent him in case he should dye of that sicknes, and whither he 
would make a will in writeinge or noe, his answeare was, that for other 
will he would make none saveing that he did give his silver buttons to 
his sonn Thomas if he were liveing, if not then to his sonn Francis. 
And he dyed the 12 of Aprill. 

Hemd. That Anthony Midleton, gent., late of Hartelpoole, who de- 
parted this life about fower months since, did about 7 or 8 years or 



NUNCUPATIVE WILLS 199 

thereabouts next before his death make his last will in writing, and 
signe and seale it in the presence of John Heath, Esq., Mrs. Margeiy 
Linsey, and George Midleton, gent., and it was delivered to the said Mr. 
Heath to be kept by the directions of the said testator, but the same 
since is accidentally lost, and for the present cannot be found ; and in 
that last will was given to Geo. and Eliz. Midleton, children of Mr. Geo. 
Midleton, one of the witnesses aforenamed, being his kinsman, 20 m ki a 
peece, and the said Mr. George Midleton averreth that to the best of his 
now remembrance he gave to his dau. Dor. Midleton 100Z., and he no- 
minated Mrs. Jane Midletou, who was then his wife, but afterwards 
dyed before the said testator, sole executrix. Geo. Myddleton. [Pr. 
30 Jul. 1649, and adm. to Dor. M. his dau.] 

1660. July 4. William Calverley of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (for which 
town he was M.P.), dying in the parish of St. Andrew's, Holburn, said, 
" Brother Ralph (speaking unto his brother, Mr. Kalph Grey, then pre- 
sent), I will that you have a care of my said mother, Mrs. Barbara Grey 
of Newcastle, for I give all unto my said mother, and tell her I am her 
dutifull son." 

1671-2. 20 March. Eichard Tothall, late chaplin of His Majesties 
shipp the Crowne Friggott, batchellour, being att the house of Captaine 
John Tonge, in the parish of St. Gyles in the Feilds, in the county of 
Middlesex, and in his perfect minde and memory, but ready to goe 
aboard the aforesaid shipp or friggott, did say, " If I dye before my 
returne I doe give all that I have in the world either bookes, money, or 
pay, to my nephew John Tonge, my sister's sonne, and make him my 
heire." 

1672. April 3. Katheren Gilpin of Kentmere Hall, "Westmerland. 
" My will is soone made, for all that I have I give and bequeath to my 
maid Jane Hodgson, and she to see me buryed in Lord Parke's (sic} quire 
in Kendall Church, and all dues to be paid for the same." 

1673-4. March 1. John Stoope of Gateside, co. Durham. "If it 
please God I never returne (hee being takeing a voyage to sea), my will 
is that all I have in this worlde shall be equally divided amongst yow 
my executors," meaning Thos., Tomasin, Anne and Alice Stoupe, his 
brothers and sisters. 

1673-4. March 16. Susanna Topham, par. St. Giles in the Feilds, 
widow, being asked whether the 590. which remained to her of the 
house in Yorkshire, which she had given to Edward Nicholson, a minor, 
should goe to him, she said " Ai," and being asked further whether shee 
did intend her two daughters to have her personall estate, she said, 
" Ai, ai, all but my wedding ring to my sonne." 

1674. 31 August. Mr. Henry Lascells of Ayryholme, par. Hovingham, 
gen. Eight dayes before his death, haveing formerly made his will in 



200 TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

writeing, did call for it, which being brought unto him, he declared that 
the same was contrary to what he had promised his wife upon marriage, 
and therefore he would and did destroy and cancell it, and gave all he 
had to his wife. 

1673. Latter end of July. Mr. George Shuttleworth, merchant, in 
England, sometimes of Aysterley, co. Lancaster, and lately residing at 
Stockholme in the kingdom of Sweedland. His nephew Wm. to be his 
exr., paying such legacies to his kindred, frinds, and a free schoole in 
Lancashire, as he had made knowne to Mr. Thos. Erere and Mr. Wm. 
Smith, English merchants residing with him at Stockholme. 

1673-4. Jan. 23. Henry Gill of Benwell, in the chapelry of St. 
John's, Newcastle-on-Tyne. "All that I have I give to my wife, 
and neither the Gills nor the Bells shall have one groate of my estate." 

Nor must the ladies be forgotten, for they could make nuncupative 
wills as well as their lords. With them, frequently, the only thing to be 
left was their wedding-ring or some article of apparel. One of the most 
interesting and aifecting documents of the kind that I ever met with is 
the following : 

"Upon Mounday, after twelve of the clocke at night, 21 June, 1630, 
Agnes Gascoigne of Otley, widdowe, lyeing sicke, upon the sicknesse 
whereof she dyed, sent for John Eisheworth, gent., her brother, to come 
to speake with her, he being then at the house of Anthonie Hirst of 
Otley, who then presently came to her where she lay, and said, ' Sister, 
I pray you be good to your servants,' to which she answered, ' What 
would you have me to doe ?' to which he replyed, ' I would have you 
to give to Alice Gascoigne Wl, to Ester (meaning Ester Streete) 5J., 
and to Anne (meaninge Anne Laicocke) 40s. ;' to which she answered 
and said, ' Yes, with all my hearte.' And further she said, ' I give 
either of my cosen Hoppeys (meaninge Nicholas and Mathew Hoppey, 
gent.), 5s. ; and I forgive you, brother Risheworth, all that is betwixt 
us, and I make you my whole executor of all that I have. And soe, 
good brother, lye your cheeke to myne,' which he accordingly did, and 
then she said ' Good night.' Whereupon the said Mr. Risheworth tooke 
a cup and drunke to her, and she then drunke and pledged him." 

What parting could be more affecting ? It may perhaps seem strange 
that the wine cup was introduced, but the brother and the sister were 
following what was then the custom, when they drank to their happy 
meeting in another world. 

Sondaye, Dec. 15, 1605. Margaret Strangwayes of Galley Greene, 
par. Smeton, widow. All to Anne Cooke, her sister's daughter, whom 
she had brought up in her house, and her children, and did say, " Good 
wives and good maides, for the passion of Christ, remember this, I doe 



NUNCUPATIVE WILLS. 201 

give my lass (meaninge the said Anne Cooke) and her children my house 
and all that I have." 

June 3, 1623. Alice Hall of Long Riston, widow. All that now I 
have I give to my sonne Richard, saieing farther, that if it had beene 
fifteene tymes as much she did thinke it to litle, and hereupon did deli- 
ver unto the said Richard a redd flecht cowe. 

1631. 23 Oct. Marie Rider, alias Swift, late of Armthorp, and late 
wife of Robert Rider, Esq., and dau. of Sir Roberte Swifte, kt., late of 
Doncaster, deceased. She did give to Eliz. Hill of Mizen, her beaver 
hat with a gould band, and a cambricke apron then upon her, whether 
it should please her to accept of. The rest to her loving freind, Francis 
Gresham of Armthorpe. 

When we have such examples as these among the lower grades of so- 
ciety, we must not forget that some of the noblest in the land set them 
the example. I can give you instances among the peers spiritual as well 
as temporal so common was it to defer the making of a will to the very 
close of even a long life, or to make it depend upon a few words, per- 
haps hastily spoken, many years before. 

Such an instance have we in Emmanuel Scrope, the Lord President 
of the Great Council in the North, He had been recently elevated to a 
higher grade among the peers of England, by the title of Earl of Sun- 
derland, but he left no son to carry on his honours after him, and the 
title expired, as it began, with him. He had been in a decline for a 
long while, which was considerably accelerated by a blow which he had 
received whilst he was playing at the then popular game of football. He 
languished for some time, and died in the autumn of 1630, the last noble 
in his illustrious house. 

The will of Jane Countess Dowager of Shrewsbury was made in the 
same way in 1625. She was one of the coheiresses of the baronial 
family of Ogle, so renowned in Border warfare, and was allied in mar- 
riage with Edward Talbot, the eighth and last earl of Shrewsbury of the 
ancient line. She requested that her body should be interred at West- 
minster by her lord's side. The residue of her estate, after a few tri- 
fling legacies, she bequeathed to her only sister the Lady Cavendish, her 
executor, and in conclusion she kissed her sister's hand, and said, " I 
doe seale this my last will with my lippes." 

Through that sister the castle of Bothal and the lordly inheritance of 
the Ogles has descended to the Ducal house of Portland. She was at 
that time a widow, and had made her own will in the preceding year, 
not hastily like her sister, but slowly and discreetly as became a lady of 
her rank and greatness. In it she had left a cup of gold to her dear 



202 TESTAMENTARY CURIOSITIES. 

sister of Shrewsbury. There is, however, many a slip between the cup 
and the lip. Lady Shrewsbury never lived to receive this token of the 
love of her only sister, who followed her to the tomb in the stately 
Abbey of Westminster. They were a pair of noble-hearted sisters. 
They had suffered and they had lived together. Each had deserted the 
North for a Southern home. " They were beautiful in their lives, and 
in their deaths they were not divided." 

Another instance, and the last that I shall give, is a person of high 
rank and greatness the Primate of England Dr. George Mountaigne, 
the Lord Archbishop of York. He came to York in 1628, having pre- 
sided over three of our English sees before that time. It will seem 
strange that he was ever removed to York, as the celebrated Dr. Mead, 
in a letter which describes the ceremony of his translation, says of the 
new Primate, " His Grace of York carries death in his face, and looks 
as though he c d not live twelve monthes to an end. He was brought 
and carried forth in his chaire, being both lame and deaf." The learned 
doctor's fears were too well founded, for the Archbishop, as Fuller the 
historian tells us, was " scarce warm in his church before he was cold 
in his coffin." Exactly four months after this letter was written, the 
new Primate died. The only will he left behind him was one which he 
executed by word of mouth in the preceding year, when he was Bishop 
of London. The whole of his estate was given to his brother, with the 
exception of two interesting legacies ; "he willed and bequeathed 100?. 
unto and amongst the poore people of Cawood, where he was borne, and 
hee also gave and bequeathed fower rings unto fower little girles whome 
his lordshipp had used to call his wives." Who these little girles were 
we cannot now discover, but it is not unreasonable to suppose that they 
lived at the place of his nativity. He had risen from a low degree to a 
high estate. Fifty years before his death he was a poor country lad, 
running about Cawood with his companions and schoolmates, and those 
days seem to have been well remembered by him. In the church of his 
native place his bones, according to his desire, were laid. A tablet on 
the wall still marks the place of his interment. He is the only worthy 
of whom that little town can boast, but it may well be proud of Arch- 
bishop Mountaigne. 

JAMES RAINE, JUN., M.A. 
York, January, 1858. 



203 



IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DUEHAM ? 

THE Castle of Durham defends the land approach to a fortified en- 
closure, all the other walls of which have the Wear flowing helow them. 
To the founder of Framwellgate Bridge (Bp. Flambard) this fortifica- 
tion owed great part of its strength, and the Place Green its beauty. 
" Urbem licet hanc natura munierit, muro ipse reddidit fortiorem et 
augustiorem. A cancello ecclesiee ad arcem usque castelli producta 
muro construxit longitudine. Locum inter ecclesiam et castellum, quern 
multa occupaverant habitacula, in patentis campi redigit planitiem ; ne 
vel ex sordibus contaminatio, vel ex ignibus ecclesiam attingerent peri- 
cula." And the builder of Elvet Bridge, to whom the burgesses of 
Durham owed their first charter, emulated his predecessor in the Castle 
also, "Murum quoque a porta aquilonari usque ad australem novum 
fecit." 

In this " stately close," which, in Leland's opinion, " alonely might 
be called the walled town of Durham," stood the church and cloister, 
which of themselves were " very strong and fair," the various buildings 
of the monastery and afterwards of the college of Dean and prebendaries, 
the churches of Saint Mary-le-Bow and Saint Mary-the-Less, and a 
street immediately parallel with the eastern wall, of houses of military 
tenants holding by their defence of the castle. Shut out locally and by 
its use from the houses of the burgesses (which themselves were par- 
tially defended by a second line of fortification, running from Elvet 
Bridge by the " Porta de Clayport," 1 to the north side of St. Nicholas' 
Church, and so again to the river, by the neck of the peninsula), the 
enclosure was free from the Mayor's jurisdiction. The massive Bailey- 
gate, or gaol, which stopped his worship's progress, stood across the 
street where the line of demarcation ran. Within the close an inner 
wall confined a still more distinct locality, approached by another gate- 
way out of the Bailey, which not only was free from the Mayor's juris- 

1 In 1347 we have a messuage " juxta portam de Clayport ex opposit. Eccles. S. 
Nicholai," having the messuage of John de Eaby on the south, and " the wall of the 
Borough of Durham on the north. See Sur. iv., ii., 162. 



204 IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 

diction, but was also extra-parochial, 2 arid this, comprising the college 
and the church, the clergy contended was not within the city or its su- 
burbs, or the jurisdiction of the Incorporated Companies. The burgesses 
denied the privilege, and treated the wall of the larger close as the 
" ancient city 3 wall," ignoring the distinction of the castle walls. The 
claim for exemption of the lay-houses of the Baileys, which were not 
within the smaller enclosure, was thought to be of still more doubtful 
validity. The defendants in the following suit had heard that they were 
within the suburbs, though not within the city or liberty of the Mayor. 
Boldon Buke is brief and obscure, for the tenancies of Hatfield's 
Survey would not have arisen, but the latter document places it beyond 
doubt that in the 14th century, the Borough of Durham, which then as 
in Pudsey's time, was at farm, did not comprise the Baileys, the tenan- 
cies of which are set out ; and the exception went further than the 
enclosure, for it comprehended various tenements (never called burga- 
ges) to the north of it, in Sadlergate and other places in the moat 4 which 
had existed across the peninsula, but was now, like the moat of New- 
castle, appropriated for domestic purposes. 5 So the Convent, in enu- 
merating their possessions in 1446, mention the Borough of Durham 
distinctly from Old Borough, 6 Saint Giles' Gate, and the North and 
South Baileys. Bp. Pilkington incorporated Framwellgate with the 
city, but no mention of the suburbs is made. Neither is there any in 
Bishop Matthew's charter. The curriers in their bye-laws, indeed, use 

2 Another small extraparochial place marks the site of the gaol. 

3 The word City was used in two senses. In its confined sense, it was the Borough. 
The Burgus of Hatfield, like the Civitas of Boldon Book, was at farm, yet in both 
cases the whole of Durham was not included. The exceptions of the mills and hake- 
house in Boldon Book are remarkable. In its wider and popular sense, it included the 
town generally. In this paper, where the boundaries of the city are in dispute, the 
word is used in its confined sense. 

4 Sadler Street is sometimes called Northgate Street. Reginald Sesse conveys 
"TJnam sceldam in Yico Sellarii, contin. septem pedes in lat. juxta viam regiam et 
septemdecim pedes in longit. versus Motem Castri." " Unam celdam super solarium 
Reginaldi Sesse in Vico Portae Borealis et in longit. versus Motam Castri. Sur. iv., 
ii., 164. This last property was perhaps not on the Castle Mote, and did service to the 
Borough and the Bishop. Sadler Street seems to have derived its appellation from a 
Ralph Sadeler, mentioned in Hatfield's Survey as a former owner of property in it. 

6 1670. Robert Smyth of the city of Durbam, gent., and Anne his wife, Nicholas 
Palmer, stone mason, and various other persons (all described as not of the city, but 
as of Elvett in the county of Durham), dug stones in a piece of land called le Banks, 
alias le Motesyde, in the city of Durham, so near to a house belonging to Samuel Mar- 
tin, clerk, called le Gardenhouse, alias le House on the Wall, that the same house and 
a party wall of stone enclosing its garden, fell down. Martin brought suit and had a 
verdict./. J. Wilkinson's MS S. y vi., 29. .The Moteside Lane (Forster's Plan, 1754,) 
runs from the Old Gaol to Silver Street, outside of the Castle Wall. 

6 Given by Carileph to the Convent as " terra ex occidentali parte Dunelmi ultra 
aquam de Were usque aquam de Brun." The boundaries, as fixed by Bp. Bek, are 
given in 4 Sur., ii., 135. 



IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 205 

the word, and the question arises, not whether they or any other company 
could so enlarge their district, for their powers only extended to the 
premises of Bishop Pilkington's charter, but whether if, in the event of 
their obtaining the Bishop's confirmation, his power of creating boroughs 
would aid them. If it would, the intent of the word < suburbs" would 
be an open question, but it is believed that the power would not avail. 
Most of the houses in the Baileys were held by the honorable tenure of 
castle-ward. We find holders by military service obtaining licences to 
erect boroughs and having confirmations of them, but it is inconceivable 
that a military holding could, at the caprice of the Lord, be degraded to 
a burgage tenure. 

If the case were so with ordinary tenants, much stronger would appear 
to be the position of the owners of the Church and College. They held 
an imperium in imperio. Bishop Walcher endowed them with posses- 
sions, with all the liberties in them that the bishops had in their own 
lands ; and Bp, Carileph, on their removal to Durham, gave them Elvet 
and other lands free from all episcopal service. The King released to 
them the rights of the Crown in all their lands, present or of future ac- 
quisition, and the Bishop confirms the King's grant of a court, with all 
royal customs which were granted to St. Cuthbert by the kings of Eng- 
land. Elvet was given to the monks for the express purpose of having 
16 houses of merchants for their own use, and in the Bishop's confirma- 
tion of the court, the words "infra burgum et extra" are used. Under 
these words or subsequent powers as to the "New Borough in Elvet- 
halch," conferred by Bishop Pudsey, the Prior had a Borough in Elvet, 
the remainder of his grant there being called the Barony of Elvet. Col- 
dingharn says that Pudsey had erected the Borough himself and yielded 
it up, on finding that it of right belonged to the monks. The suburb of 
Elvet had been burned by Cumin, and perhaps Carileph' s Borough pe- 
rished, if, indeed, it over existed under that name. Can the burgesses 
of Durham, who also procured a charter from Pudsey, have already co- 
veted the possession of the new foundation of Elvet? The case much 
resembles that of Newcastle and Gateshead. 

I am not sure that there ever was an old Borough of Elvet. By an- 
other charter of Carileph, the monks had acquired property on the north- 
west of Durham, which became the Prior's " Old Borough of Durham." 
The charter granting it only mentions the church of Elvet and the town- 
ship of Shincliffe. One would almost suspect an equitable exchange, but 
rightly or wrongly the monks held both estates. The New Borough in 
Elvet-halgh perhaps alluded to the Prior's old one rather than Pudsey's 
chartered one in Durham, for though the latter may have had an exist- 

TOL. II. 2 E 



206 IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 

enco prior to his grant of extra liberties, the style of the Old Borough of 
(not Elvet or the Priory, but) Durham, seems to point to a still earlier 
foundation. 

By Pudsey's charter the Prior's right to have a Borough of Elvet wag 
indisputable, and although the Bishops did occasionally exercise high 
regal prerogatives touching the Prior's lands, the power as to burghal 
privileges was gone by Bishop Pudsey's grant to the Prior himself. Yet 
the Companies of Durham, through that undefined word " suburbs," 
stretched their jurisdiction to Elvet. 

The right of the Monastery to the Cathedral and the Cathedral Close 
was not conferred by express words, but arose by implication from the 
assignment of tho Abbot's scat and the decanal power to the Prior, the 
introduction of the monks to their dwellings, and long possession. The 
acquisition would conic under the words " ad honorem et ob amorem 
Sancti," and confer the immunities granted by the charters. .Henry 
VIII. 's charter of re-foundation gave all the site and precinct of the 
Monastery, and all the Church there, with their ancient privileges, to the 
Dean and Chapter, and the situation within the Castle conferred an ad- 
ditional claim to exemption from the restrictions of the Borough. 

But, whatever were the rights of the parties, a place like Durham 
could scarcely maintain a double set of Companies, and the Freemen who 
chanced to live in Elvet would be but too glad, in spite of their clerical 
lords, to unite with their neighbours of Durham. Elvet, by degrees, 
came to be considered as a suburb. Gowland, who appears to have been 
engaged for the Freemen, in the case which will presently be particularly 
set out, notes a decree of the Durham Chancery, between 1531 and 
1586, to the effect that " New Elvet is in the city of Durham." 7 In 
another, between 1609 and 1630, which restrained one not free from 
exercising the trade of a mercer in Elvet, it was held to bo ;< in the su- 
burbs." 8 And in a third, between 1661 and 1670, against a foreign 
tailor, the issue had been whether Hallgarth in Elvet (the very caput 
laroniaj was within the limits of the Corporation. 9 

The Castle precincts waged a longer contest. Sometime after 1671, 
it was decided that the " North and South Balys were within the City, 
and bound to grind at the Bishopp's Mills." 10 At Hatfield's Survey the 
" toll of the mill" was leased with the Borough, but as the soke of the 

7 Lib. C. 217. Gowland's Praxis Curiarum Dunelm, in J. J. Wilkinson's MSS. 

8 Lib. G. 106. Ibid. Lib. L. 364, 391. Ibid. 

10 This is from Gowland's Index, but ho is more bi'ief in the note to which the in- 
dex refers, " Uisliopp's Durham Mills. North and South Baileys within the custom. 
Lib. M. fo. 244, 289." 



IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 207 

mill was not necessarily co-extensive with the Borough, the case was 
not conclusive. In 1676 or 1677, the meaning of the word City, as 
used untechnically by a testator, came into question. The Mayor and 
Aldermen had refused to pay to the churchwardens and overseers of the 
two parishes of the North and South Baileys a proportion of Baron 
Hilton's charity, which was bequeathed to the City poor generally. 
"Whether the Mayor and his brethren considered that "City" did not 
include " suburbs," or did not extend their jurisdiction with the same 
avidity as the Companies, or were paying the complainants in their own 
coin, their strict and unjust interpretation in such a case was not allowed, 
A decree went against them, and the victorious churchwardens of the 
North Bailey " charged 8s. they drunke in blew clarett to the poore's 
accompt." 

The extension of the Hilton Charity to the Castle precincts is men- 
tioned in the following brief, which relates to the innermost or Cathedral 
Close. It is without date, but the omission is supplied by a minute of 
the contribution of II. by the Company of Carpenters and Joiners to the 
City Masons, " to prosecute the suit in Chancery then depending against 
the Country Masons, for working in the College in Durham." The date 
of that is 8 June, 1699. 11 It was not the first time that the Companies 
had united against the Church when buildings were rising in the stately 
close by the help of foreign hands. The County House, upon the Place 
Green, was, it appears, built by a Quaker of Auckland, John Lang- 
staffe, one who had been concerned in Sir Arthur Hesilrig's alterations at 
Auckland, who had, in 1662, acted as prophet and professor, but who, 
two years afterwards, demolishes his previous constructions at Auckland, 
and afterwards is continually employed by the same patron, the Bishop. 
In 1670 he had got into a scrape, by inventing a scheme of leasing the 
coal of Auckland Park to the Bishop's son-in-law and one of his officers, 
a scheme likely to be smoky and offensive to future bishops, and one 
which Cosin refused to carry out. Two years is a short period for the 
reduction of a fanatic, and Mr. Raine, in his Auckland Castle, naturally 
enquires, " Had the Bishop converted him by dint of argument or the 
promise of a job ?" Surely we may accept the latter explanation as the 
truth, for here we have him as " a Quaker, whose goods Bishop Cozens 
had seized, but who told him he should be no loser, for he should build 
the County House and he (the Bishop) would keep him harmless " 
against the Freemen. The Freemen feared the successor of their incor- 
porators, and were inactive, if not silent, and the Bishop's indemnity 

11 Sur. IT., ii., 23. 



208 IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 

was never called into exercise, though he may have had to pay in another 
shape. The subscriptions hoped for from the Companies failed, and it 
is not difficult to divine the cause. On 18 April, 1664, the Carpenters 
and Joiners " agreed that nothing be given to the building of the County 
House, as is by my Lord Bishop desired," and on 18 April, 1665, the 
Cordwainers " refuse to give any further assistance towards building the 
New County House." 

The meeting of the Skinners on Skinners' Hill, the dates given to 
lanthorns in the choir, to the font, and some of the woodwork in the 
Cathedral, the Bishop's Library, woodwork in the Chapter's Library, and 
renovation of the Castle, with other curious details, will also present 
themselves in this document. 

It only remains to be noted that Bp. Egerton granted a new charter of 
incorporation, the old one having legally run out through the quarrels 
of the citizens. He recites the preceding charter of Bishop Matthew, 
and extends the residence of the electors and elected to the arts, myste- 
ries, and faculties residing in the said [referring to the former charter] 
City of Durham and Framwellgate, or the several parishes of St. Nicho- 
las, St. Mary-le-Bow, and St. Mary-the-Less, or the extra-parochial 
places of or belonging to the Castle of Durham, and the College or Ca- 
thedral Church of Durham, or the parochial chapelry of St. Margaret, 
the Borough of Framwellgate, or the several parishes of St. Oswald and 
St. Giles, near the said City of Durham and Framwellgate." The char- 
ter only professed to revive the old one, the byelaws contemplated were 
only to extend to the Mayor, Aldermen, and Communalty of " the said 
City of D. and F.," and all trades, &c., " within the said City of D. and 
F," The extended limits only cure the defect of the old charter by 
which the residence of an alderman within the City of Durham, at the 
time of his election, was an indispensible qualification. The new dis- 
trict was formed by the advice of the Bishop's Attorney- General. 12 

It does not, therefore, appear that the precincts of the Castle and pos- 
sessions of the Prior there and in Elvet formed any portion of the Bo- 
rough or City (in its burghal sense) of Durham, until the application of 
the Municipal Corporations Reform Act, which abolished the monopoly 
of the Companies. 

HENRY LAMBTON, Esq., Attorney general to the Lord Bishopp of 
Durham, on the relacion of Nicholas Rowell and John "Wilkinson, 
Wardens ; Mathew Brown and John Johnson, Stewards ; Thomas 
Buchanan and Thomas Watson, Searchers of the Company of Free- 

13 See Hutch, ii., 41. 



IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 209 

Masons, Rough -Masons, Wallers, Slay tors, Pavers, Plaisterers, and 
Bricklayers, 13 in the City of Durham and Suburbs of the same ; as well 
on behalfe of the Bishopp as the Relators, Informant. ROBERT THOMP- 
SON the elder, and ROBEET THOMPSON the younger, Defendants. 

INFORMACION. (1.) The City of Durham is an ancient City, and hath 
had diverse ancient suburbs thereunto adjoineing and belonging. "Which 
City and suburbs have in them many ancient Companies, created and 
confirmed 14 by the Bishopps of Durham, and have had their continuance 
by succession for many yeares, time whereof, &c., amongst which the 
said ancient Company hath been for all the said time and yet is one. 
(2.) And have by the like time, once in the yeare, i. e. on or about the 
feast day of St. Andrew, assembled to elect two Wardens, two Stewards, 
and two Searchers out of the Company, to governe the said Corporacion 
for one year. Which Wardens, Stewards, and Searchers have been a 
Corporation and had power to plead, be impleaded, make, constitute, and 
ordaine wholsome laws for the better government and order of the said 
Corporacion, and for the punishment of offenders against the said Cor- 
poracion, whether Freemen of the said Corporacion or forreigners. (3.) 
The Company being much oppressed by forreigners and strangers, at 
their request Thomas [Morton] Bishopp of Durham, by his letters 
patents (16 April, 1638, 10 Car. and 6 transl. Episcopi) under the Great 
Seal of the County Pallatine, did confirme the laws, ancient customes 
and usages of the Corporacion, and (inter alia) this ancient custome is 
confirmed : " That noe person which hath not served his apprentice- 
shipp within the said City or suburbs shall set upp to work at the said 
craft or trade within the said City or suburbs, or any part thereof, until 
such time as he hath compounded with the Wardens, Stewards, and 
Searchers of the said trade ; and hath paid and satisfy ed unto the 
Bishopp of Durham for the time being the summe of 40s. for his agrea- 
ment ; and to the Wardens, Stewards, and Searchers of the said trade 
for the use of the said trade, 31. ; and shal alsoe pay to the said War- 
dens, Stewards, and Searchers 20s., to be distributed by them for the 
reliefe of the poor decayed brethren of the said trade and occupation, 
upon paine of forfeiting to the Bishopp of Durham for the time being 
40s. ; and to the said Wardens, Stewards, and Searchers, for the use of 
the said trade and craft, 31. , to be recovered and levied as is thereinafter 
expressed." And it is thereby alsoe provided that all the fines, forfeitures 
and forfeitures shal be sued for by the Wardens, Stewards, and Searchers 
in the Burrough Court within the City of Durham, before the Maior, or 
in this court ; and that such suit as shal be begun in their time may be 
proceeded in by them and not abated by the choice of any new Wardens, 
Stewards, and Searchers. (4.) The relators were duly elected. (5.) 
Defendants not free or admitted into the Company but strangers and 
forreigners, in contempt of the said antient custome have several times 

13 See Surtees, iv., ii., 24. 

14 The " Rough Masons, Wallers, and Slaters" were incorporated by Bp. Hutton in 
1594. Bp. James confirmed the byelaws of the " Rough Masons, "Wallers, Slaters, 
Paviors, Tylers, and Plaisterers" in 1609. Their arms are entered in the Visit, of 1615. 



210 IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 

wrought at the trade within the City and suburbs, especially about 
December last, without makeing composicion, whereby they have 
respectively forfeited to the Bishopp 40s., and to the relators 3L, which 
have been demanded and they requested to desist useing the trade, yet 
they have refused, and say they will use it in despight of the Bishopp 
and the custome. (6.) That defendants may answere, &c., may shew 
cause against relief, may be restrained, &c., the relators pray subpoena. 

ANSWERES. (1.) It may be true that the City is an ancient 
City, &c., and have several ancient Companies, &c. (2.) Know 
not that the relators' fellowship is one, or that they have mett 
to choose "Wardens, &c. Are advised they have noe power to 
make lawes to bind or punish strangers or forreigners. But, for 
anything they know to the contrary, any forreigners or strangers who 
served an apprenticeship for seven years according to the statute, 
might exercise their trades within the City or suburbs. (3.) Know not 
that Thomas Lord Bishopp of Durham by letters patents confirmed any 
lawes, &c. ; but if such be, referrs to it. Are advised the same is 
against the liberties of the subject, and contrary to the lawes of this 
kingdome. (4.) Know not that the relators were duely elected or quali- 
fied. (5.) Neither served apprenticeshipps within the City or suburbs, 
nor are free thereof, but served to the trades of mason and bricklayer 
seven years within the county according to the statute, and are enabled 
to exercise their trade by law. Deny that they at any time, in con- 
tempt of any such ancient usage as in the informacion, wrought within 
the City or suburbs. Till the exhibiteing of the informacion they had 
not any notice of such usage, and it not thereby appearing how farr the 
City or suburbs extend, they cannot directly answere whether they 
have exercised their trades within them. Did not in December last or 
at any other time exercise their trades in any place which to their know- 
ledge or beliefe is within them : save 28 years ago, and not since, Robert 
Thompson senior wrought at Mr. Neile's house in the North Baly, 
which he beleives is not in the City or liberty of the Maior. Hath 
heard but knows not that it is within the suburbs. Noe accion hath 
been brought against him till this informacion, and the relators not 
being chosen till St. Andrew day last, the informant is not entituled to 
proceed against him. He wrought in noe place which to his knowledge 
or beleife is in the City or suburbs. Deny they were requested to de- 
sist useing the trade contrary to the pretended ancient custome, or that 
they give out that they use the trade as often as they have occasion in 
despight of the Bishopp and the pretended ancient custome, or that 
they will take noe notice thereof. Have not compounded. Deny they 
have to their knowledge forfeited any money or that the money pre- 
tended to be forfeited was demanded of them. (6.) As the forfeitures 
are to be sued for before the Maior or in this court, the Attorney 
Generall ought not to proceed in this court for the penalties payable to 
the trade ; for if the information be dismissed they can have noe costs, 
as they might against the Wardens, &c., upon a bill exhibited by them 
alone. Deny combination and traverse. 



IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 211 

THE RELATORS' PKOOFES. Knows the city of Durham and suburbs, the 
streets called the North and South Baley, the Colledge or Prebendaries' 
houses, and hath known them for seventy years and upwards, and Elvett 
Bridge 15 and New Bridge 16 for all the said time. And all his remem- 
brance there is and hath been a Blew Stone 17 on Elvett Bridge ; which 
parts the City and suburbs. The said streets and the Colledge and Pre- 
bends' houses are all within the ancient City wall, and the liberties and 
priviledges of the Freemen of the said city were always reputed to ex- 
tend to all the said places. Noe forreigners nor outmen (not being Free- 
men) could have liberty to work of their trades within the said street or 
Colledge, or within any part thereof, unlesse imployed by a Freeman. 
Twenty years since he was servant to Mr. Marmaduke Blakiston, one of 
the Prebendaries, and his Prebend's house in the Colledge being out of 
repaire, he imployed nonfreemen, or outmen, to repaire the same. But 
the Freemen insisted on their priviledges, and obstructed them, and 
either sued them, or threatened to sue them ; and, as Hugh Bo well, a 
Freeman, declared, forced them to desist. And afterwards employed 
Hugh Rowell to finish the work. (Richard Rashall, 87 yeares, speaks 
for 70 yeares. John Robinson, aged 93, speaks for 70 yeares. John Bar- 
racleugh, 50 yeares, for 40 yeares a labourer to the masons, and fre- 
quently wrought at the Colledge houses. Richard Oates, for 56 yeares 
speaks to several old men (masons) worke at the repaire of the Colledge 
houses. But never any forreigners. William Reed, for 60 yeares, and 
was labourer above 30 yeares agoe about repaireing severall Prebends' 
houses, which he names, and never any forreigners wrought there but 
under Freemen. The inhabitants in the two Baleys have right on the 
City Common, and the poor there have part of Hilton's Charity given to 
the city. Richard Brown, for 50 yeares, to the same effect. Arthur 
Smith, for 50 yeares, to the same effect. John Baker, for 50 yeares, to 
the same effect, and never knew but Freemen repaire the Colledge houses 
or New Bridge, but Freemen, (but the defendants). Ralph Jackson, to 
the same effect for 50 yeares, and 30 yeares a labourer to masons who 
wrought in the Colledge. (Note. Baker and Jackson are the defendants' 
witnesses.) Michael Belley, for 50 yeares, to the same effect. The 
Skinners and Glovers meet on Skinners' Hill, beyond New Bridge, and 
soe takes that bridge within the city 18 priviledges, and wrought at Dr. 
Adams' house (now rebuilding by the defendants) 40 yeares agoe, and 
at several other Prebend houses. William Bell, for 3 yeares.) 

Relators' trades have been incorporated (ut credit) beyond memory, 
and proves their meeting and chooseing officers many yeares, and the 

15 Elvet, as before stated, was the manor of the Convent, and partially a Borough. 

16 New Bridge adjoined the southern point of the walls. The present Prebend's 
Bridge is a little lower down the stream. 

17 At the termination of the two -thirds of the bridge belonging to Saint Nicholas' 
parish. The blue stone was a common mark of boundary, witness Tyne and Tees 
Bridges over the water-boundaries of the palatinate. 

18 This scarcely follows. The City might surround the walled close without com- 
prising the river. 



212 IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 

relatois being chosen last St. Andrew day for a yeare. Hath been their 
clerk many yeares, and entered their orders. (Mr. John Wood. John 
Barracleugh, to the same effect. Arthur Smith.) 

A yeare agoe, two of Thompson junior's servants were workeing at 
Dr. Dobson's house in the Colledge, and notice being given to the Warden 
of the relators' trade, he sent one of the Stewards to discharge them 
from workeing and threatened to sue them. Thompson came ime- 
diately to the Warden, desired him to passe it by, and not put them to 
trouble, for he knew not that the Colledge was within the Freemen's 
Liberty, otherwise he would not have presumed to have sett his men at 
worke there, and he would give him any satisfaccion therefore. Both 
the defendants two yeares since for about three months together wrought 
about the New Bridge, and deponent was a labourer under him. About 
Martinmas gone a yeare Thompson junior flagged a kitchin for Dr. 
Pickering at his house in the Colledge at 3s. a yard, and deponent was 
his labourer and dressed and fitted the flaggs at Dr. Adams his house 
in the Colledge, where the defendants are workeing, and have wrought 
for several months last past, saith 8 or 9 months. ( Thomas Richardson. 
Edward Stout. Arthur Smith, to the same effect. The ladders stood 
in the North Baley, and the labourers served him that way. Thomas 
Johnson, to the same effect, and was a labourer at Dr. Dobson's house 
for Thompson, and acquainted the Dr. before he went to the Warden to 
subrnitt. William Bell. John Barracleugh.'] 

In Juty, 1696, Thompson junior wrought at the trade of a mason in 
deponent's house in the South Baley, in mending the topp of an oven 
and an hearth, but took nothing for it. (Mr. Thomas Wharton.) 

Twelve months agoe Thompson senior for 3 or 4 dayes together wrought 
and helpt to repaire Elvet Bridge, for which deponent paid him (he 
being the undertaker for bridges in the county of Durham). Heard 
him say that he had wrought severall yeares by times in Durham at 
several places above the Gaol gates without interrupcion by the Free- 
men. (John Hedley.) 

The Skinners keep their head meeting on Skinners' Hill beyond 
New Bridge, believes beyond memory. Hath been their clerke 23 
yeares. (Henry Rutledge. Michael Belley ut supra ) 

THE DEFENDANTS' PROOFES. Hath known the Cathedral and Colledge 
65 yeares, which, or a great part thereof, is built about with a wall. 
For what use or intent it was built first, knows not. The Deane and 
Prebends have repaired on their parts several times soe farr as their gar- 
dens, orchards, or houses extend that joine on the wall. How farr the 
wall extends or they repaire knows not, or whether it was to seperate 
the Colledge from the City, but exempt from the Maior's jurisdiction. 
Mr. Bowes The Colledge hath great gates and a wall, and the Deane 
and Chapter's porter locks the gates at 10 o'clock every night, and lets 
none passe but such as he knows. A paire of stocks are kept there for 
the punishing offenders in the Colledge. Ergo, the Church and Colledge 
noe part of the City. The Maior exercises noe jurisdiction there. 
Thomas Simpson. Mr. [ Cuthbert in dorso] Bowes, speaks for 20 yeares. 



IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 213 

Humphrey Stevenson, 60 yeares. The Colledge reputed a distinct place. 
Neither City, suburbs, or any parish, kept a constable there. Maior 
hath noe jurisdiction. Once [did] ride the bound' down the Baly, but 
stopt at the gates, in Oliver's time. (Mr. John Rowell, for 40 yeares. 
The Church and Colledge are inclosed round with a wall, and the Deane 
and Chapter repaire both at their charge. Abel Longstaffe, to the wall, 
but knows not to what purpose.) 

(Nota [in margine.~] The town wall is one side, and the churchyard 
wall two sides, and the houses the other side. They have great gates 
they enter by into the Colledge, but that is noe argument of exempcion : 
then every gentleman's house in a city, or the City Halls in London, 
must be noe part of the city.) 

Knows not or ever heard it reputed that the Colledge was within any 
of the parishes or suburbs of Durham, but extra-parochial, and paid noe 
parish taxes, soe beleives it to be independent on the Maior or Corpora- 
cion. Mr. Bowell He is the Deane and Chapter register, and perused 
diverse ancient grants of great exempcions priviledges and endowments 
made to the church by diverse Kings of England and Bishopps of Dur- 
ham, now in their custody. (Thomas Simpson. Mr. Bowes. Mr. 
Rowell.} 

(Nota. The Maior never did claime priviledge or jurisdiccion above 
the gaol. 19 But that is not the question, but whether the Freemen's 
priviiedges extend, and that they touch not. Let them produce the 
grants and see if any exempt from the Freemen's priviiedges, for the 
words are only generall.) 

Both the Bishopp and Deane and Chapter have at work men not free. 
Thirty three yeares since John Brasse, a Freeman, had undertaken to 
build some lanthornes in the Cathedral Quire, and imployed James Hull, 
John Fairelasse, William Hogg, Thomas Sharper, Henry Wallas, John 
Heron, and others, noe Freemen, to worke at that worke. Twenty nine 
yeares since, Hull and Todd built the font, and they imployed men not 
free, and never were disturbed. Hull undertook several other bargaines 
with the Dean and Prebends for their houses, doors, and woodwork in 
the Cathedrall, and he imployed several servants not Freemen ; and at 
the Deanery, Dr. Grey's, Dr. Basire's, and several other prebends' 
houses ; the Bishopp' s Library and the Hall in the Castle for nine years 
together ; without any interrupcion from the Freemen. (James Hull. 
Thomas Parkinson speaks to Hull and Todd's workeing in the Cathedrall, 
and Thomas Brown a Freeman, but whether under Hull knows not. 
Thomas Simpson, to Hull's workeing and Taylor, a forreigner. Sur- 
veyed the work. Humphrey Stephenson. Mr. Bowes. Mr. Rowell. 
Edward Hodshon. 

(Nota mbers any the Prebends' houses.) 

Twenty years agoe Christopher Crawforth wrought plumbers' work 
(and his two sons) at the Cathedrall (and noe Freemen), and three or 
four dayes mending the Deanery leads: fifteen yeares agoe at Dr. 
Brevint's house : and eight years agoe he wrought at the Deanery with- 

19 The Bailey Gate. 
YOL. II. 2 E 



214 IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM ? 

out interruption : and twenty years agoe at the County House and GaoL 
Soe Mr. Bowell beleives they may imploy who they please to work at 
the Church or Colledge. (Christopher Crawforth, Thomas Parkinson r 
Mr. Eowdl to the same effect, and that 13 years agoe forreigne joiners 
wrought at the Bean and Chapter's Library in the Colledge. 

(Nota plumber then in Burham but two- 

or three of them, and they d not wage wan-.) 

(Ralph Jackson, Int. 5 [the defendants' own interrogatory], a labourer 
about the Church and Prebend houses 40 years and never knew any but 
Freemen work there except "William Heaviside and Edward Lambton, 
who wrought under Christopher Shaddock, a Freeman, at Br. Grey's 
house.) 

Beleives there is noe such custome in the City that none but Freemen 
have liberty to work in the Cathedral and Colledge. Beleives the Bi- 
shopp, Bean, and Prebends may imploy who they please. (James Hull. 
Sum. Stephenson saith to the same effect. But, as remembers, Freemen 
have been all along imployed about the Colledge Houses.) 

The Castle re-building was undertaken by Christopher Skirrey, a Free- 
man, and none wrought there but who he imployed. The stone worke 
of the County House was built by John Langstaffe, a Quaker, whose 
goods Bishopp Cozens had seised, but told him he should be noe looser, 
for he should build the County House. Langstaffe said he could not for 
the Freemen. The Bishopp said he would keep him harmlesse, and soe 
he went on and built it. But the Library and Castle were built or un- 
dertaken by Skirrey and his partners. (Ralph Jackson to Int. 7 [as to 
Skirrey.] William Reed, to Langstaffe' s building the County House. 
John Baker. George Becroft. Tho. Simpson, Int. 7, and to Langstaffe's 
rep. . . . Wm. Douthwaite to the same and to the workem. . . .and 
building a place at the end the Library, and he and other forreign .... 
imployed under him, and noe interruption. Humphrey Stephenson* 
Abel Longstaffe, to Langstaffe's repaireing the County House.) 

(Nota cannot be witnesses for the relators; soe forreigners 

(workemen) cannot be for the defendants, they swearing for their own 
advantage, for to destroy the City priviledges, that they may work there 
as Hull, Crawforth, Bouthwaite, and Longstaffe. None of their wit- 
nesses speaks to above 33 years workeing and that in the Cathedral, few 
to the Colledge. Nay, their own witnesses Jackson and Stephenson say, 
noe forreigners wrought there. As to the County House, the Bishopp 
promised to indempnify him, and the Freemen would not contest with 
the Bishopp whom they have their confirmation from, and soe great a 
man.) 

New Bridge stands without the City walls, and always repaired by 
the Beane and Chapter, but whether with Freemen or forreigners knows 
not till two yeares since the defendants and their servants rebuilt the 
same for the Bean and Chapter, but whether the Freemen's priviledges 
extend thereto know not. Beleives the Maior hath noe jurisdiction 
there. Mr. Bowes Thomas Eowell a Freeman askt 30GJ. for rebuild- 
ing the bridge, and the defendants did it for 140?. and Wl more if it 
was done to Mr. Bowes' satisfaction. (Thomas Simpson. Mr. Bowes.} 






IS THE CATHEDRAL WITHIN THE CITY OF DURHAM? 215 

The Hall garth in Elvet helongs to the Dean and Chapter, who keep 
their courts there, and is part of two of the Prehends' corps, which for 
his remembrance (60 years) hath been reputed a priviledged place from, 
the City, and forreigners Henry Morris and John Baister wrought pub- 
lickly there without interrupcion : and White a taylor, what interrup- 
cion he met with cannot tell. 
(Nota th is answered White.) 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F,S,A. 



216 



BAKING IN DURHAM. 1 

IN THE CHANCERY OF DURHAM. Between HENRY LAMBTON, Esq., Attor- 
ney-General of Nathaniel Lord Bishop of Durham, on the relation of 
MARY BLAKISTON, widow, FRANCIS BLAKISTON, clerk, and DOROTHY 
BLAKISTON, spinster, Plaintiffs, and EDWARD NICHOLSON and CHRISTO- 
PHER MANN, Defendants. 

1694. April 4. Upon the originall hearing, the matter appeared to be 
for the establishing of the suit and service of the defendants, being 
Common Bakers of bread for sale inhabiting within the City and Borough 
of Durham and Framwellgate, to bake all their bread for sale at the oven 
of the ancient common bakehouse, called the Bishop's Bakehouse, in the 
parish of Saint Nicholas, which is, and time out of mind hath been, the 
ancient common bakehouse of the Bishop of Durham and his predeces- 
sors, and parcell of the possession of the Bishoprick, and anciently de- 
misable and demised by such bishopps for one and twenty yeares under 
ancient rents, and which is now held by the relators by lease from the 
present Bishop under the ancient rents. Whereunto all common bakers, 
victuallers, and regrators, living within the City and Borough, are bound 
by ancient custome to bake all there bread for sale at the said bakehouse 
ovens, after reasonable rates anciently used for such baking; to wit, 
2cl. for every bushell of corne of Durham old measure, 2 so made into 
bread and baked, and soe proportionably for greater or lesser quantityes, 
which is after the rate of five pence for foure bushells of Winchester 
measure, since the late Act of Parliament made for reducing all the 
measures of corne to that standard. Upon which custom the Attorney- 
Generall prayed the aid and releife of this court, as it is the ancient 
Court of Exchequer of the Bishopp of Durham for the time being, and 
hath cognizance of the revenue of the Bishoprick. 

The defendants denyed the custom, and issue joined thereupon. 

The court upon hearing of all the proofes on both sides was fully sa- 
tisfied of the custome and right of the said ancient common bakehouse 
of the Bishopp, who is alsoe Lord of the City and Borough in right of 
the Bishoppricke, and confirmed the same. But upon the defendantes 
objecting the bakehouse or ovens not to be capable to perform all such 
bakeings, and for satisfaccion of the court in that particular, it was or- 
dered that a triall at law should be therein before Mr. Chancellar in the 
Court of Pleas of this county palatine, at the sitting following, upon a 
feigned wager. 

1 Office copy decree in Mr. Trueman's Collections. In one of the order-books of 
the Durham Chancery, there is an earlier decree concerning the Bishop's bakehouse. 
At Durham, after an issue at law, it confirmed the verdict, ascertaining the custom. 
Gowland quotes Liber EE. (1604 to 1609) fo. 38. 

2 _" Each score consisting of one and twenty corves [of coals] and every corve con- 
sisting of eleven pecks and a half of Durham usuall old measure, one halfe heaped, 
the other halfe streaked." Lease of Coal in Low Wood, Great Lwnley^from Tho, 
Fatherly to Alderman John DucJc, 1676. 



BAKING IN DURHAM. 217 

Which trial, directed att the first sitting after, by reason of a mistake 
in omitting Mister Chancellor's name in the commission of pleas was had 
afterwards. 

[The issue was upon the old set form. The defendants were repre- 
sented as holding a conversation with the plaintiff Henry Lambton 
touching the bakehouse. The plaintiff alleged that it was sufficient, 
the defendant denied it. Then in consideration of 5s. the defendant 
promised to pay the plaintiff 100s. if it was sufficient.] 

EVIDENCE FOR THE PLAINTIFF. There are about 12 publique bakers of 
rye bread, and about 16 bakers of white bread and penny pies, and such 
like, within the City and Borough. All which by computacion doe 
usually bake every weeke about 112 bushells of rye bread, and about 
112 bushells of white bread, and other small wares. The two ovens be- 
longing to the bakehouse can with ease baike 140 bushells of rye bread, 
and as much white bread, weekly. They can take in over and above 
the bound custome doubly every day of the white bread, and about 30 
bushells of rye bread every day more then the bound custome. 3 For 
want of bread from those that are bound to bake they take in every day 
of such as are not bound, and alsoe great numbers of pyes, puddings, 
and other things from private houses, which they need not take in un- 
lesse they pleased ; and if they did not take them in they would want a 
great deale of imployment, and often times wee have one oven full of 
bread, and not above two or three dayes in the weeke they have bread 
in both ovens. Robert Clarke, John Cogdon, Jane Kempe, Elizabeth Lee, 
[Mrs. Carr erased] Margaret Cartar, John Haire, Anne Peart, Elianor 
Sail 

OBJECTION. At the bakehouse they order them to bring their bread 
at a certaine hour betwixt 11 and 12 of the clocke of the day, and sett 
it not into the ovens till 2 a clock, and keep their stuffe till 11 or 12 at 
night and have it often burnt o'th outside and paist only within, and if 
they bring all their bread on one day it would be impossible for the 
Bishopp's two ovens to dispatch them. 

ANSWER. They usually appoint 2 of the clock in the afternoone, 
and if any will bring their bread soone it is their own fault. And as to 
the burneing the bread, others baked at the same time in the same oven, 
and had their bread well baked ; and those that had not, it was their own 
fault in not fetching their bread away in time, as particularly "Whitfeild's 
wife, who left her bread and went to harvest work. And as to bringing 
all in of one day, that is not usuall. But some bakes one day and some 
another. (lidem. Sarah Etherington.} 

If there be any defalt in the bakehouse man he is answerable to the 
party, and makes them satisfaccion, as particularly Mrs. Bell had two 
pyes and [they] run out, and the bakehouse man paid 5s. for the pyes. 
(Robert Clarke.) 

3 I cannot reconcile this evidence with the former. In one copy of the brief " a 
considerable quantity" is written above the "140 bushells." 



218 BAKING IN DURHAM, 

1695. Aprill 1. Upon evidence given on both sides att the sitting 
holden heare, the verdict was given for the defendents that the bake- 
house was not sufficient to bake all the sale bread. Whereupon this 
court having taken time to consider thereof until! 

1695. Aug. 14. At this sitting it was moved by Mister Atturney 
Generall, in the presence of Mister Davison and other counsell for the 
defendents, to have judgment that the said custome may be preserved. 
The whole matter was debated on both sides, and some presidents in 
this court touching the custome of grinding at the Bishop's Mills, and 
divers affidavits on the defendants' parts were heard. 

The court considered that the custome was allowed upon the hearing 
before the verdict at law, as well by records of antient trialls and ver- 
dicts at law and orders or decrees of this court, as by the new proofes 
in this cause, which would be all defeated or frustrated by setting the 
bound customes at a generall liberty, who will have sufficient benefit 
of their verdict by liberty to bake elsewhere if the Lord's antient bake- 
house cannot perform the bakeing brought thither in a reasonable time, 
or upon timely notice given over night. Therefore 

DECEEED by the Right "Worshipfull Robert Dormer, Esqr., Chancellor 
of the County Palatine of Durham and Sadberge, that the custome and 
duty and service of baking all the sale bread and other things used or to 
be used by the Common Bakers of bread for sale, and other Common 
Victuallers, living within the City of Durham and the Borough of Fram- 
wellgate, shalbe hereby confirmed and continued. All the defendants 
subject or bound to the custome shall give notice or sett steven 4 with 
the bakehouse man, farmer or occupier of the relators' Common Bake- 
house over night before hand, of the quantity and time of bakeing, or 
else they shall carry or cause to be carryed to the bakehouse all their 
bread or things to Ife baked and their to attend and expect the making 
of the oven ready for bakinge thereof by the space of halfe an houre if 
needfull, and, if it be not ready in that time, they shall then be at 
liberty to carry away all such their bread and other bakeing to bee 
baked elsewhere att their respective wills and pleasure. And soe the 
duty and service shall bee observed untill the nixt sitting of this court. 
And then if occasion bee both sides may resort back to bee further heard 
therein, or if any further or better expedient be founde out in the meane 
time, the same shall then alsoe be considered. 

4 Steven, a time of performing any action previously agreed upon. " They setten 
steven," they appointed a time. Morte d' Arthur, i., 266. 



*** The following is a fragment of the interrogatories in the foregoing case ; " Can 
defendant Edward carry or send his bread to he haked att the Bishopp's bakehouse in 
rayny weather or wett and stormy weather without hazarding the loss of the same or 
without apparent damage or prejudice to his stuff or bread ? Doth the other defendant 
Christopher Mann live nearer to Gilligate bakehouse than to the Bishopp's bake- 
house ? 



219 



THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE 

IN 1575. 

THERE were at least three attempts made to annex Gateshead to New- 
castle. One was carried out in 1552, during the disturbing reign of 
Edward VI., and while the see was vacant by the deprivation of Tun- 
stal. The reasons assigned for the act were the flight of offenders from 
Newcastle into the jurisdiction of Gateshead, the deposit or rubbish in 
the Tyne by Gatesiders, and the ruinous state of the Gateshead portion 
of the bridge. The act was repealed by Mary when she restored Bishop 
Tunstal to his see of Durham, the annexing statute having been com- 
passed by the " sinister labour, great malice, and corrupt means" of am- 
bitious persons then in power. 

Concerning the second attempt, during Elizabeth's reign, we have 
highly interesting evidences among the State Papers, and these are now 
submitted to the Society. It must be premised that the see was again 
vacant by the death of Bishop Pilkington. The first document is written 
in ignorance of some considerations submitted to Lord Burghley by 
Newcastle. 

To THE EIGHT HONORABLE THE LORD BURGHLET, LORD HIGHB TREA- 
STJROR OF ENGLANDE. 

In most humble wise showe to your honorable Lordshipp the Bur 
geses and Comunaltye of the borroughe of Gateshed, in the countye of 
Durham, in whiche borrowghe there are to the nomber of fower hundred 
housholders and dyvers artificers usinge freelye their artes and misteries 
and other lawdable customes of theyr said towne ; and the said Burgeses 
and Comynaltie doe holde the said bourrough of the Bisshoppe of Derham, 
and have had a corporacion of Baylies, Burgeses, and Comynaltie, and 
have had cognizaunce of plea and execution of justice in the said bor- 
roughe. So yt is and yt please your good lordshippe that your lord- 
shippes said oratours are given to understande that the Maiour and 
Aldermen of Newcastell nowe beinge (there nowe beinge no Bisshoppe 
to open his righte, tytle, and liberties of his said towne), have made 
sute to your lordshippe to have the said borrough annexed and incor- 
porated to the towne of Newcastell, in prejudice of the said bisshopp- 



220 THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE. 

ricke, surmysinge dy vers consideracions (as your lordshipps said oralours 
have harde) the rather to induce your lordshippe to yeilde to their de- 
maunde. Whereunto your lordshippes said oratours can make no aun- 
swere, for that they have not as yet understandinge of the verye maner 
and certentye of their said surmyses and consideracions, whiche, when 
they shall understande of, they doubte not but to aunswere to the same 
fullie and sufficientlie, and make prouife that the requeste and suy te of the 
said towne of JSTewcastell ys to the prejudice and againste the former 
priviledges of the said borroughe of Gateshed and inheritaunce of 
the bisshoppricke of Durham, and that all the causes, mischeiffes, 
and consideracions alledged by the said towne of Newcastell, to 
induce your lordshippe to yeilde to their suyte therein, are eyther 
untrewe or deservinge small remedye, or els suche as maye easelie 
receyve remedie without eyther prejudice to the said bishoppricke or 
alteringe the state and corporacion of your lordshipp's said oratours, and 
other greate myscheiifes which therbye will growe to your lordshippes 
said oratours, to their utter undoinge, yf they maye not be receyved to 
objecte againste suche their suyte and demaunde. Maye yt therefore 
please your honorable lordshipp, of your accustomed goodnes, to receyve 
and admytte your lordshipp's said oratours to make their aunswere and 
defence to the said suyte and demaunde, as to here the matters and 
causes that your lordshippes said oratours shall open to your good lord- 
shippe in the premisses, for the preservacion of their liberties, rightes, 
and freedome, before your lordshipp offer eyther your lordshippe's favour, 
aide, or helpe to the said suyte of the said towne of Newcastell. For yf 
their said suyte shoulde take effecte as larglie and amplye as they pre- 
tende, the same will tourae to the utter overthrowe of the whole 
borroughe of Gateshed, and but to the pryvate proffitte of a fewe of the 
said towne of Neweeastell. For which your lordshipp's honorable favour 
herein, your lordship's said oratours shall moste hartelye praye for 
your good lordshipp in all honour and felicytie longe to lyve. 

On parchment, endorsed "3 Martij. The Maiour, 1 
Burgesses, and Cominalty of Gatesyde, against the sute 
.of the Maiour and Connninaltie of Newcastle, for the 
annexing of that borrough to theires." 

On the 7th, we have a rough document scarcely better than a draft 
(upon paper), to the following effect : 

CERTEN INCONVEYNIANCES THAT MAY ARISE BY THE UNYTING or THE 
BROTJGH or GATESHED UNTO THE TOWNE OF KEWCASTELL. 

Itm. That where as the brough of Gateshed, having Bailife, Bur- 
gesies, and a greate nombre of Comynaltie, to the nombre at the least 
of iij. m> parsons or their aboutes, have heretofore, for the space of iiij. c> 
yeres and above, occupied freely their artes and mysteryes, which was 
only the stay of their lyvrng : It may by this unyting come to passe 

1 For this designation the orators are not responsible. It proceeds from some one 
in the Lord Treasurer's chambers. 



THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE. 221 

that the Maiour of Newcastell and his brethren shall shutt upp their 
shoppes of the said artifycers, and stopp thyer trades and occupieing, 
which heretofore they have frely used, the which, if it so shall fall out, 
wilbe an utter undoing and a beggeryng of the whole towne. 

Itm. That where as certen poore men of Gateshed have by the con - 
sent of the Bushopp, nowe decessed, and the Justices of the Shire, 
buylded certen shoppes and howses upon that part of the bridge which 
doth apperteyne unto countie of Busshoprick, the which shoppes and 
houses were seassed [cessed] and rented by the said Busshopp and 
Justices for the repayring of the said bridge : It may come to passe that 
the Maiour of Newcastle and his brethren, shall, by vertue of the said 
unyting, take the said howses and shoppes to them selves, and sease the 
same at thier owne pleasures, which shalbe an utter undoing to certen 
poore men and thier children, who at thier great costes and chardges 
buylded the same. 

Thirdly. That where as their doth apperteyne unto the Bailife, Bur- 
geses, and Comminaltie of Gateshed, by vertue of a certen auncyant 
grant, certen commens and pastures, which the said towne of Gateshed 
have of a longe tyme enjoyed without any lett or disturbance : It may 
come to passe by the said unyting that the towne of Newcastell shall 
clayine an enterest or title unto thies commodities, the which will bring 
the poore brough of Gateshed to extreme myserye. 

Last of alle, we are the rather induced to thinke that thies thinges 
will come to passe by the said unyting of the townes, for that heretofore, 
contrary, as it may seme, to all justice, they have had a great disdayne 
at the said towne of Gateshed, in so moche that they have, by thier 
aucthoritie, heretofore prohibited the said townsmen of Gateshed, as tan- 
ners and others, to buy and selle in the Quenes high markett, so that 
those which have come to buy wares or sell any in the said markett, 
they have troubled them by way of arrest and ymprisonment ; and this 
wee dare be bold to prove, or else to suffer punyshment accordingly. 

Many more inconveniaunces myght ensue by this unytinge of the 
townes, which we are not able to declare, because we have not [con- 
ferred with the burgesses of the said towne erased^ time to con sy dor 
of the premises, and therefor are ignoraunte of such inconveniaunces 
Endorsed" 7 Mar. 1575 [6]." 

Accompanying this is a fair paper writing, with the same title as the 
last. It is printed by Mr. Surtees, 2 as in opposition to the passing of th e 
Act of Edward VI. ; but the mention of the Queen and the late rebel- 
lion of the Rising of the North sufficiently identify it with the present 
proceeding, independently of its address to Master Bell, the Speaker of 
Parliament, and its existence as a State Paper of the reign of Elizabeth. 
It states the situation of Gateshead and its charge to the assessments of 
Durham, which ought to be continued if the act passed. The town was 
ruled by the Bailiff and Burgesses, and was as well governed, as to justice 

2 Vol. ii., p. 111. 
VOL. ii. 2 G 



222 THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE. 

and keeping clean the river, as Newcastle, the South side of the stream 
being deeper than the North side. The act proposed to be revived an- 
nexed Gateshead to Newcastle, to be parcel thereof and not of the County 
Palatine; and yet had a proviso leaving the inhabitants for punishment 
in Durham, so that they would be under the rule and correction of the 
Corporation of Newcastle, the Justices of Durham, and the "Wardens and 
Stewards of the Trades in Gateshead. The act provided that it should 
not extend to take away any common; and there were 1,000 acres and 
more belonging to Gateshead and adjoining towns. But if these towns 
\_sic'] were annexed, they might put all their cattle to eat with Gateshead, 
or enclose, and have the coal of Gateshead Moor, which, if won, were a 
disinherison to the see of 10,000?. The county would want the help of 
Gateshead in bearing the assessed charges of the county. Finally, if the 
union took place, Gateshead would be replenished with evil persons and 
thieves, being outside the walls, as was the north part of Newcastle ; 
whereas, now, there were a great number of substantial find true sub- 
jects, as the late rebellion testified, merchants, drapers, and other arti- 
ficers, envied by Newcastle because they dwelt so nigh to it. 

This was addressed to Master Bell, 3 the Speaker of Parliament. An- 
other paper was sent to Lord Burghley : 

To THE RIGHT HONORABLE SIR WILLIAM CECTLL, KNIGHT, BARON OF 
BURGHLEY, AND LORDE HIGHE TREASORER OF ENGLAND. 

Humblye shewen and besechen your honour your poore ora tours the 
inhabytauntes of the brough of Gateside, in the countye of Durisrne. 
That where as there is exhibited into the Highe Courte of Parlyament 
one bill for the unitinge of the townes of New Castell and Gateside 
aforesaid together, thies inconvenyences ensuinge by the unitinge of the 
same townes will ensue unto the said boroughe of Gateside, to the utter 
undoinge of the poore inhabytauntes therof, if the same bill shall take 
eifecte. 

1. First, Whereas it is said, in the said bill, that the nowe inhabyt- 
auntes of Gatesyde shall not be hyndred to occupie suche trades as they 
have used ; nevertheles by equitye of the said bill, when the nowe in- 
habytauntes are dedd or gon, theire preentices and children, and suche as 
shall succede them, shalbe utterly barred of all occupyinge. 

2. Item, It is likewise said, in the said bill, that the said inhabyt- 

3 Robert Bell, Esq., afterwards Sir Robert Bell, was presented by the Commons for 
their Speaker, and, with the usual ceremonies, approved on the 10th May, 1572. 
John Popham, Esq., Solicitor- General, was chosen by the Commons, on the 20th 
January, 1580, in the place of " Sir Robert Bell, Knight, Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, their mouth and speaker, lately dead." 



THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE. 223 

auntes shall not be charged with the repayre of the bridge above iijd. 
the pounde of theire goodes and landes, and the towne of Newe Castell 
to be theire cessours, whereby it is ment that the inhabytauntes of Gate- 
syde shall be charged and cessed by theire goodes, which exaccion was 
never before laid upon the [poore erased^ inhabytauntes of Gateside. 

3. Item, Whereas it is said, in the said bill, that every inhabitant of 
Gateside, servinge with a free man in Newe Castell in any arte or mis- 
tery, shalbe afterward demed as a free man, whiche is no benefite to the 
towne of Gateside, for they will never take any of the towne of Gateside 
to be theire prentices, nether suffer, by vertue of theire private orders 
which they have amonge them selfes, any of Gateside to take aprentyce. 
Wherof it will ensue, that the poore men of Gatesyde, becomyng aged 
and cannot take apprentices, shall be dryven to begge when they be past 
labour, so that of free burgesses they shall be brought into extreme 
bondage. 

4. Item, By reason of the said statute, if it precede, the sonnes and 
prentices of the inhabitauntes of Gateside shall never be made free, so 
as in contynuaunce of tyme the towne shall be dispeopled, and so of an 
auncyent boroughe shalbe made a deflate place. 

5. Item, Whereas every straunger commynge into the towne did first 
agree with the Bisshop and the Company of his occupacion before he was 
suffered to occupie, this benefyte by this bill is ment to be taken bothe 
from the Bisshopp and the artifycers of the towne. 

6. Item, Wheras the Bisshopp' s Steward kepte a eourte every fort- 
night, or as often as nede did require, if this statute precede that bene- 
fyte shalbe taken from hym. 

7. Item, Wheras there is a suggestyon made that they seke to unite 
the townes for preservacion of the river, there are such noisome consty- 
tucions, ordennances, and lawes, made in the courtes of Gateside, by the 
Baylifes and Burgesses, and the same so well kepte, that the ryver is 
cleper on that side that belongeth to Gatesyde then the other syde is. 

8. Item, Wheras the Bailif hathe his office by patent from the Bisshop, 
a parte wherof is to ponnyshe the offenders, yf this statute may precede, 
that parte of his office shalbe taken awaye. 

9. Item, Wheras the p'son hathe a certen pryveledge in a strete in 
one parte of the towne. by vertue wherof he dothe yerely kepe a eourte, 
havinge his officer to se faltes corrected, which are founde by twelve 
men at the same eourte, this benefyte shall by this bill be taken awaie. 

Wherfore and forasmuche, right honorable, as not only thies incon- 
veniences, but a greate nomber moe, are like to ensue to the poore towne 
and inhabitauntes of Gateside, to the overthrowe of nere m l m 1 m 1 
[3 000] people, if this bill maye take effecte, bysides a nomber also of 



224 THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE. 

inconveniencies whiche maye ensue to the Bishop therby, it maye please 
your honour for charitie's sake to be a meane that the said bill do not 
precede, or els that your oratours maye be free of Newe Castell. And 
your poore oratours shall dailye praie for your honour in helth, with 
increase of happy felycytie, longe to ly ve. 

Endorsed (date hidden, but apparently 12 Mar.) 
" The Inhabetauntz of Gatesyde. Articles against the 
Bill exhibited by those of Newcastle." 

Yet probably all this would have gone for little, had not private influ- 
ence been used. Sir 'William Eleetwood, Eecorder of London, was also 
Escheator of Durham under Bishop Pilkington, and during the vacancy of 
the see after his death. And here is his warm representation : 

To THE RIGHT HONORABLE AND MY SYNGULER GOOD LORD, MY LORD TREA- 
SOUHER OF ENGLAND. 

My very good Lord, As I have great cause to thanke your honour for 
my selff, even so I doo most humbly render the lyke to your good lord- 
shipp for the bisshopryke of Duresme. I have alweys found your lord- 
shipp the pratron of that countrey. Your lordshipp haithe those that in 
that countrey dowe pray for your lordshipp and love yow. I do most 
humbly beseche yowr honour to continue your favorable countenaunce 
towardes the same countrye. How derely I love that countie, and all 
the partes thereof, God, that knoweth the secrettes of all mens hartes, 
can witnes. There is no bishopp in the parliament to speake fortheym. 
They have neyther knyghtes for the shire nor burges of any 
towne in that countrey. Surely, my Lord, God will blesse theym 
that shall speake for the countrey. The towne of Gatessyde is 
a corporate towne, an auncient borowgh, the keye of the countie 
pallantyne, the people religeus, godly, and good Protestannes> and, 
besides, men of good welthe, and very civill of behaveier. The towne 
of Newcastell are all Papistes, save Anderson, and yet is he so knitt in 
suche sort with the Papistes that A.iunt, ant ; negant, negat. I under- 
stand that the towne of Newcastell, enflamed with ambicion and malice, 
sycke in a sorte to joyne Gatessyde to the Newcastell. My Lorde, I 
beseeche your lordshipp, lett us not be trobled with it in the Common 
Howse, but stay it above, and the poore towne, and all wee of the 
bisshoprick, shall pray for your lordshipp. 

Your lordshipp's most humble 

W. ELETEWOODE. 

Endorsed " 12 Mart. 1575. The Eecorder of London 
to my L., that the Bill concerninge Gateshede may not 
passe." 

The bill did not pass. Another attempt was made to the same effect 
in 1646, the troubles of the times being taken advantage of, as were the 



THE ATTEMPT TO ANNEX GATESHEAD TO NEWCASTLE. 225 

vacancies on previous occasions. That there was some reason for the 
assertion concerning the state of religion in Newcastle cannot be doubted. 
We have in it an explanation of the opposition to Knox, and of the per- 
mission to bury Mrs. Dorothy Lawson after the manner of her own 
church. I was about to add, that here was one reason that the fires of 
Smithfield never blazed here ; but Tunstall's diocese contained Gates- 
head also. I find a more genuine explanation in his own heart, and 
perhaps the remembrance that he had served other masters. 

W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 



226 



THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. 

FOILED in their attempt to annex Gateshead to Newcastle, we find 
the Mayor, Aldermen, and Coramunalty of Newcastle resorting, almost 
the very next year, to the rather notorious " York Court" against the 
usages of the southern borough. An office copy of the depositions is or 
was in the vestry of Gateshead Church, and their contents form an ap- 
propriate appendage to the foregoing paper. The language of the inter- 
rogatories is repeated in the answers, and the Gateshead witnesses 
were so agreed, that the statement of one witness, with the little ad- 
ditions furnished by others, will generally suffice. The evidence is mar- 
shalled here under the numbers of the interrogatories, so as to keep that 
on each subject together, and while technicalities and tautology are 
struck out, the remaining words of the original are adhered to. 

THE MAYOR, BURGESSES, AND COMONALTYE OP NEWCASTLE, Plaintiffs, 

against RICHARD NATTRES, Defendant. 

DEPOSYTIONS or DIVERS WYTNESSES PRODUCT AND SWORNE BEFORE THE 
LORDE PRESYDENT AND COUNSELL ESTABLYSHED IN THE NORTH PARTES 

AND EXAMYNED BY THE ExAMYNER THERE. 

DEPOSICIONS ON BEHALF OF RICHARD NATTRES, DEFENDANT. 

1. Eborum. 10 Junii 20 Eliz. [1578.] John Browne of Gatesyde, 
marchant, about the age of 46. Doth knowe the complaynant and de- 
fendant and the towne of Gatesyde : hath knowne the same by the space 
of 22 yeres. Eborum 3 Julii, Robert Plomptone of "Bowdone, husband- 
man, lower skore. Hath knowne defendant 12 yeres, and Gatesyde three 
skore yeres and more. Thomas Thomsone of Gatesyde, joyner, 75. Hath 
knowne defendant about a dosen yeres, and Gatesyde ever synce he colde 
remember anye thinge, for he was borne there. Wyllm. Dixon of 
Gaytesyde, butcher, thre skore and thre. Hath knowne defendant 12 
yeres, and Gatesyde ever synce he colde remember anye thinge. 

Wyllm. Wylkinsone of Gaytesyde, butcher, thre skore and sex. Hath 
knowne defendant 12 yeres, and Gatesyde ever synce he colde remember. 
Robert Ayer of "Whitborne, husbandman, thre skore and sex. Hath 
knowne defendant 9 or 10 yeres, and Gatesyde 50 yeres and more. 

Wyllm. Roweslye of Whitborne, thre skore and thre. Hath knowne de- 
fendant 12 yeres, and Gatesyde all his lyfe synce he was of anye yeres 
of discretyon. Christofer Atkinson of Whitborne, husbandman, 75. 



THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. 227 

Hath knowne defendant 12 yeres, and Gatesydo thre skore yeres and 
more. Johne Hutchensone of Whitborne, husbandman, thre skore and 
sex. Hath knowne defendant 7 yeres, but Gatesyde these thre skore 
yeres. John Browne of Gatesyde, pedler, 42. Hath knowne the 
towne 30 yeres, and defendant 26 yeres. 

2. Browne. The towne of Gatesyde ys as yt is reported ane antyent 
towne or broughe belonginge the Byshope of Durhame and his prede- 
cessors. Plompton. The towne ys and duryng all examinate's remem- 
brance hath bene ane antyent towne, &c. Hath all his lyf used to 
resort thyther, and hath knowne borough courtes kept there by the 
Baylif and Burgesses of the towne in the name of the Byshop of Dur- 
ham. Thomsons. The towne ys and by reporte tyme out of mynde of 
man hath bene ane antyent towne, &c. Knoweth by that that he was 
borne there. Is privye that there ys and allwayes hath bene duringe 
examinate's remembrance borowe courtes, &c. Hath knowne a toll 
taken within the town [at the south end of the Bridge, Dixon] to th' use 
of the Byshopp. Dixon. Was borne within a myle thereof. There 
are borow courtes kept there by the Baylyf and Burgeses in the name of 
the Byshop ; besydes which courtes there ar comonlye every fortenighte 
courtes kept there in the name of the Bishop by the Baylyf and Bur- 
geses. Wilkinsone. Examinate's knowledge extendeth to 50 yeres, 
for so long examinate hath dwelt in Gatesyde, and for 20 yeres hath 
bene one of the burgeses. Browne, pedler. Hath dwelt in Gatesyde 
and resorted thither at tymes 30 yeres. Is now a fre man and one of 
the Burgeses. 

3. Brown. Hath sene and harde certayne old and antyent recordes or 
writinges red, whereby yt doth apeare that th'inhabytantes within the 
towne or broughe of Gatesyde were incorporated by the name of Baylif, 
Burgesses, and Comonaltye [or by the names of Burgeses, Interrogatory^, 
by a Byshop of Durhame, and the same hath bene also ratyfyed and al- 
lowed by the successors of the Byshopp. Plomptone. He verylye 
taketh that th'enhabytants ys and durynge examinate's remembrance 
and by reporte tyme out of mynde hath been incorporate, &c., by a 
Byshop of Duihame, &c. The inhabytantes have severall companyes of 
sundrye occupatyons which are counted Freemen and Burgesses of the 
towne, who will not permyt any person that hath not bene apprentyce 
there to sett up and worke in the towne unles the persone do agree with 
theme that ar of the occupacion that he is of and with the Baylif [and 
Burgeses, Wylkinsone.~\ Th^msone. Ys a Freeman of the towne. 
Hath sene and harde certaine old writings red, &c. Dixon. For 30 
yeres hath bene one of the Burgeses. Wylkimone. Hath sene stalledge 
moneye taken to th'use of the Byshopp within the towne of persons not 
fre there. There are Fre men of dyvers companyes, whereof examinant 
is one. Browne, pedler. The inhabytants have a comon seale belong- 
ing to the towne. 

4. Browne. The marchantes, occupyers, handy craftesmen, and others 
the inhabitantes within the towne duryng examinate's knowledge, and 
by repute tyme out of mynde, have had and used to bye, bargaine, utter, 



228 THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. 

retayle, and put to sayle in theyre houses and shoppes within the towne 
or broughe all such wares, marchandices, and goodes as they have used 
to trade or traficke, and to use all lawfull bargaines [and chivanses, 
Plomptone] at theire will and pleasure. Plomtone. Hath bought 
dyvers things that he stode nede of of the inhabytantes and artificers 
there. 

5. Browne. Hath harde yt reported that there hath bene heretofore 
two market dayes in the weke kept in the towne, enenst the- Towle 
Boothe, and about a crosse which stood there. Plomptone. Hath sene 
a market or fayer kept wekelye in the towne uppon two dayes in the 
weke, that ys to saye uppon the Tewsdaye and Frydaye or Saterdaye, 
betwene the Toll Bothe and the Pante or condyte there, and at the 
south ende of Tyne Brige, at a place there called Brige Yeate. 
Thomsone. Hath sene a market kept betwene the Toll Bothe and the 
condyte or Pante wekely, upon Tewsdaye and Frydaye, uppon which 
market dayes there was breade, beanes, salte, and other thynges solde at 
the south ende of the Bridge of Tyne, on the south side of a stone called 
the Blewe Stone. Also hath knowne a fayer kept in the aforesayd places 
uppon the feast daye of St. Peter ad vincula comonly called Lamas 
daye. Dixon. Hath knowne and sene that there hath bene a market 
kept weekelye uppon the Tewsdaye and Saterdaye, howbeyt althoughe 
one of the said market dayes was kept uppon the Saterdaye, yet Fry- 
daye was accounted the market daye by right. Cannot remember of 
any fayer that hath been kept there, savinge that allways uppon Lamas 
daye, uppon which daye there ys a fayer holden in Newcastell, th'en- 
habytants of Gatesyde do make all thinges redye and prepare for a fayer 
in Gaytesyde, and sett out theire wares to sale. There ys a Bull Ringe in 
Gaytesyde and and there was also a crosse standinge there which was 
used to be called the Market Crosse. Ayer. There hath bene a mar- 
ket within the said towne or broughe within these fyftye yeres wekelye 
uppon the Tewsdaye and Frydaye. There was a fayer kept yerelye 
uppon Lamas daye, throughout the said towne, for uppon that daye 
th'enhabytantes there dyd comonly e prepare for a fayer, and dyvers 
thynges that daye were broughte thither and there placed to be solde, 
and solde accordinglye. Browne, pedler. Hathe harde yt reported 
that there hathe bene a market kepte wekelye twice in the weke uppon 
the Tewsdaye and Frydaye. 

6. Browne. Dyd never knowe or see any market kept there, and 
therefore cannot anye furder depose, savynge that within these fyve 
ycres last past he hath sene horses brought to the towne and there sold 
openlye uppon anye daye in the weke about the Toll Boothe, where, 
by report, the market was kept. Plomptone. Hath sene both corne 
andcattell and other marchandyces brought and placed within the towne 
there to be openlye sold within the market in the foresaid places upon 
the foresaid market dayes thre skore yeres agoo and synce. Howbeyt 
now of late tyme the market hath not so muche bene occupyed with 
corne and cattell as heretofore examinate hath sene the same occupyed. 
About thre skore yeres synce he hath known wheat and bigg, and 



THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. 229 

cattell brought and placed between the Toll Both and the Pante or 
condyte, and beanes, and pease, otemeale, and other things brought and 
placed at the Brigg Yeate and there sold. And as yet there ys corne 
used to be brought thither and solde there and sometimes cattell. *- 
Thomsone. Hath sene corne, cattells, and other merchandyces brought and 
placed upon the market and fayer dayes to be openlye solde in the places 
aforesayd, where and when exam, hath sene the sayd merchandyces 
openlye bought and solde. Dixon. Hath sene wheat, rye, bigge, and 
cattell brought and placed betwene the Toll Bothe and the Pante, to be 
openlye sold in the said market and solde accordinglye ; and peas and 
beanes, salte, bread, and grotes lykewise at the Brigg Yeate to be open- 
lye solde in the said market and solde accordinglye. Wylkinsone* 
Say the as is deposed by his cotestis Thomsone, howbeyt he hath not 
sene cattell brought to the market or fayer or solde there. Ayer. To 
both places he hath sene corne and other goods brought and placed to 
be openly sold uppon the market dayes. For these 50 yeres hath yerely 
frequented and used to the towne and the markets, and hath sene bothe 
corne and other goods brought thither to be openlye solde and solde 
accordingly e. Hymselfe hath openlye sold corne there. Hath bene at 
the said fayer [uppon Lamas daye] and bought such thynges as he 
nedede. Rowesbye. Saythe as Ayer, for himselfe hathe alsoe broughte 
and sent corne to the said market, and there solde the same and bought 
such thinges as he neded. - Atkinson. Saithe as Ayer. Hath brought 
corne to the market and there sold the same. There was used to be 
solde at the Southe ende of the Bridge, beanes, peas, salte, otemeale, 
eggs, breade butter, and chese; and betwene the Toll Bothe and the 
Pante there was solde wheate and bigge, and sometymes there was 
cattells brought thither to the said market and solde. Hutchinsone. As 
Ayer, and addethe as Atkinsone. Browne, pedler. Hathe bene informed 
by olde men there, there hath bene corne, as wheate and bigge, broughte 
and placed between the Toll Bothe and the Pante to be solde and there 
solde, and beanes, peas, salte, otemeale, bread, and other things on this 
syde the Blewe Stone. Hath heretofore tyrne sene a toll takeim at the 
southe ende of the Bridge by th'enhabytantes of the towne to the use of 
the By shop, which toll th'enhabytantes of Newcassell no we hath in 
farme of the By shop. 

7. Browne. Defendant doth and for these 15 yeres hath inhabited in 
the towne of Gatesyde, and all that tyme hath used the scyence and fac- 
ultye of a raarchant and chapman within the sayd towne. \Browne, 
pedler, agrees.] Plumptone, 12 yeres. [The other witnesses agree 
with him, except Ayer and Hutchinson, who only speak during their 
knowledge of defendant.] 

ON THE PARTYE AND BEHALF OF THE MAYOR, BURGESSES, AND COMMON- 
ALTYE OF NEWCASTELL TJPPON TYNE, COMPLAINANT. 

Eborum. 1 Oct. 20 Eliz. Nycholas Alleyne, of Gatesyde, chapman, 
about the age of thre skore yeres, product, sworn and examined. 

1 . [Whether the complaynants ar lawfullye seazed in theire demeane 
YOL. n. 2 H. 



230 THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. 

as of fee as in the righte of theire corporacion of and upon the same 
towne [of Newcastell], and of all fayers, towles, and comodytyes to the 
same belonginge ; and hold the same of the Queene's Majestye by pay- 
enge for the same 100/. yerelye for a fee farme:] he cannot certainlye 
depose, for he is not prevye to theire corporacion. Useth to paye toll in 
Newcastell for all suche thinges as he buyethe there. 

2. Duringe tyme of examinate's remembrance, which is 30 yeres, and 
by reporte tyme out of mynde of man, there hath bene wekely two mar- 
ket dayes yerelye in the same towne. And men maye daylye everye 
daye in the weke by wares at the merchantes' handes there. 

3. Hath not known anye other markets betwene the said towne and 
the sea in anye place adjoyning the ryver of Tyne. Ho whey t as exam, 
hath harde yt reported there hath heretofore tyme bene a market kept 
in Gatesyde," where exam, now dwellethe. And indede at this daye and 
all the tyme of exam, remembrance, there hath bene open shoppes kept 
and wares sold openlye out of the same. And exam, usethe to bye any 
thinge there that he lyst. And [whether by prescryption and inquy- 
sy tione, the towne of Newcastell have this priviledge and liberty e, that 
no other persone dwellinge on eyther syde of the ryver of Tyne betwixte 
the said towne and the sea, sholde kepe any shopp or seller for mer- 
chandyces save such persones as dwell in Newcastell] exam, cannot de- 
pose. 

4. [As to whether exam, hath knowne any fayers or markets kept by 
the inhabitants of Gatesyde, and by what authorytye, or whether they 
oughte to kepe any fayers or markets at all there, or to kepe any mar- 
chant or draper shoppes therein, or comonlye to sette forthe and offer to 
sale anye wares], exam, cannot depose, savinge that duringe the tyme 
of exam, remembrance be hath sene marchants or chapmen and drapers 
shoppes kept within Gatesyde by th'enhabytants, and dothe and hath 
comonly used to sett forth theire wares. And as yt is reported there 
hath bene markets and fayers kept within the said towne. 

5. 6. [Whether the towne of Newcastell is seazed upon all the same 
fayers and markets, and oughte to have the libertye and benefite of the 
same by especyall prescription, and whether exam, hath knowne the 
inhabytantes of Gatesyde restrayned or forbidden by complainants or 
their predecessors to keep any fayers or markets in Gatesyde or openlye 
to sett to sayle any wares in Gatesyde, or to open or kepe any mar- 
chants shopp therein, or to sett forthe any stalls or boothes with anye 
kind of wares to be solde there : Item, whether the inhabitants of Gates- 
syde dyd thereupon refuse or leve of to kepe any fayers or markets or to 
sell or sett to be solde anye wares], exam, cannot depose, savinge that 
the complts. or their predecessors have forbydden defendant and others 
of Gatesyde to offer anye wares openly to be solde, or to open or kepe 
any marchant's shopp therein. Howbeit the inhabytantes have allways 
kept open theire shopes and solde their wares and marchandyce in 
Gatesyde. 



THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD. 231 

7. Th' enhabitants of Gatesyde during tyme of exam, knowledge have 
used and bene allowed to sell any kynde of wares, &c., and not re- 
strayned to sell anye thinge, but do account theme selfes in Gatesyde as 
fre as th'enhabytantes of Newcastell in Newcastle. 

8. Cannot depose whether deft, hath wrongfullye sett and levyed a 
market for all kind of marchandyces within Gatesyde, sytuate uppon 
the banke of the ryver Tyne, betwene the towne of Newcastell and the 
sea, on everye of the market dayes whereon markets have bene kept in 
Newcastell. 

9. But [referring to Interr. 9, whether hath he by meanes thereof 
gathered great assemblies of people at the same markets in Gatesyde, and 
stayed great nombers of people there which were comynge towards the 
markets in Newcastell] deft, hath kepte open shoppe for these tenn yeres 
nere unto the Bridge ende, and uppon all dayes in the weke hath kept 
open shop and solde all such kinde of wares as he had, by means 
whereof defendant's shop is greatlye frequented : and indede many per- 
sons will now bye wares at his shope as well on the market dayes kept 
at Newcastell as on other dayes. 

10. 11. [Whether the markets and fayers in Newcastell by meanes of 
the markets kepte by defendant in Gatesyde ar greatly hindered or de- 
cayed, Item what losse complt. hath sustayned] exarn. cannot depose. 

12. For 30 yeres hath knowne other inhabytants within Gatesyde bye 
and put to sale any kind of marchandyce within theire houses and 
shopes. 

13. The first marchantes, byers or sellers of marchandyces, that 
exam, did knowe in shopes or houses within Gatesyde, when he came to 
dwell there, about 30 yeares agoo or rather more, were Willm. Potts, 
Willm. Donkin, Tho. Potts, and one Thomas Chambers, and dyvers 
others, whose names exam, remembrethe not, but as it is reported there 
hath bene chapmen byers and sellers of wares there tyme out of mynde 
of man. 



At the "humble sute. and request" of the defendant, the court 
"caused her Majesty's signet remayninge with her Highnes' secretarye 
attendant uppon the said Lord Presydent and Counsell" to be set to the 
copies of the depositions in testimony that they were true. 

The York Court fell with the High Commission and Star Chamber, 
being abolished by the act of 16 Car. 10. Mr. Hudson Turner could 
find no proceedings of it among the London Record Offices, and 
doubted whether they were regularly kept, as the Wardens of the 
Marches transacted much of the business in their several districts. 
But this would not apply to the records of private causes between 
parties. Mr. Hodgson, the historian, had occasionally met with deprees 



232 THE MARKET AND FAIR AT GATESHEAD, 

signed by the President, but made nothing out at York about 
any continuous records, and therefore concluded that " they were de- 
stroyed by the liberals in the reign of Charles I." alluding to the siege 
of York, when the tower used by the Lord President, and containing the 
evidences of the religious houses in the North, was blown up. Dods- 
worth says that the greater part of its contents were removed by one 
Thomas Thomson, at the hazard of his life, to the Archbishop's archives, 
but he seems to refer to the monastic charters. (See Hunter's Three 
Catalogues, pp. 73, 94.) We cannot, therefore, hope for the decree in 
this case. 

One of the most important of the ancient records mentioned by the 
witnesses was doubtless Bp. Pudsey's charter to the Burgesses of Gates- 
head, printed by Mr. Greenwell in his Boldon Book, xl. Bp. Poictou's 
confirmation, privately printed by Mr. Brockett, gives portante instead 
of piscante, and indeed a fisherman might long range the Bishop's 
riverless forest of Gateshead Fell, before he recovered his payment of a 
penny in a draught of fish. 1 By these charters, every burgess of 
Gateshead was to have the same liberty of his burgage as the burgesses 
of Newcastle had of theirs. 

1 Bourne has a ludicrously inaccurate translation of Poictou's charter. He trans- 
forms the "homo portans" into a hog! and " quadriga quoe ad nemus ibit," into 
" a whey or ox, the which goes to grass ! " 






INDEX. 



A. 

Acclome family, 74 

Acombe, 128, 129 

Acton, Laurence, 32 

Acy, of Kirkeby, 198 

Adams, Dr., 211, 212 

Adamson, Rev. E. H., 133 : John, ix. 

Adderstone, Roman remains from, 14 

Addie, Tho., 194 

Addis, Tho., 156 

Addison family, 125, 129 

JEsica, altar discovered at, iv. 

Aidan, Bishop, 63 

Ainderby, 187 

Airey, Mr., 110 

Airson, John, 168 

Alfred, King, 2, 7, 8 
Allan family, of Allan's Flatts, 118, of 
Rotterdam, 123, of Blackwell, 101, 
et seq. ; R. H. 5 his muniments, 27, 69 
Allen, Anth., 116; Tho., his steam car- 
riage, x. 

Alleyne of Gatesyde, 229 
Allgood family, 131, 136 
Alnwick, 36, 62 ; Abbey side, 161, 163 ; 

Castle, Museum at, 111 
Alwent, Ric., 78 
Amble Hall, 161 
Amundeville family, 71 
Anderson of Newcastle, 224 ; Major 
George, his singular bequests, 21 ; 
Ralph, 133; Samuel, 112, 116 
Anderton, Mr., 152, 157 
Angirton family, 32 
Anne of Frickley, 187 
Anstruther, Sir'Wm., 152 
Anthony, St., 45 
Appleby on Tees, 178 
Appleby, Sir Wm., 122 
Arcadius, coin of, vii. 
Archbold, J., his account of Roman re- 
mains at Adderstone, 15 
Archer family, 135 ; Ralph, 88 ; Robert, 

193 

Arden family, 103 
Areynes, Roger de, 11 
Armoul, St., 145 
Ashmall, Ferdinando, 160 
Aske, Robert, Depositions of, 63 
Askew family, 107 
Assulby, 145 



Aston, Edmund, 160 
Athelstan, King, 7 
Atherton of Foxton, 198 
Atkinson of Whitborne, 226 et seq. 
Auckland, North, 34 ; Castle, 207 ; fam- 
ily of, 13, 27, 32 
Awbrey, John, 89 
Aydon Sheels, 161 
Ayer of Whitborne, 226 et seq. 
Ayryholme, 199 
Aysterley, co. Lane., 200 

B. 

Baard family, 12, 69 

Bailiffs of Hexham, 8 

Baking in Durham, 217 

Baker, Eliz., 168; John, 211, 214 

Balfour, James, 122 

Baliol, John de, 11 

Bambrough Castle, 160 

Banister, Wm., 146 

Banner of St. Cuthbert, 51 

Banners of parish churches, 60 

Barbour family, 27 

Barcwid, miracle on, 2 

Barford near Gainford, 173 et seq. 

Barker family, 30 

Barnard Castle, 188, 189; Candlestick 

from, vi. ; John de, 26, 28 
Barnes, Mr., 109 
Barracleugh, John, 211, 212 
Barton family, 35 ; manor of, 96, 99, 100 
Bartram, Thomas, 112 
Basire, Dr., 213 
Bates family, 114, 143 
Baxter family, 25, 34 
Bearle, manor of, 127 et seq. 
Beaupaire, 107 
Becroft, Geo., 214 
Bede-Rolls, 41 
Bedlington family, 32 
Bee family, 129 
Beke, Bishop, 57 
Bell for Durham Cathedral, 5 
Bells of St. Nicholas', Newcastle, 17 
Bell family, 168, 169, 202, 212, 222. 
Bellasis family, 39 
Belley family, 130, 211, 212 
Bendlowes family, 103 
Bentley family, 3& 
Benwell, 200 



234 



INDEX. 



Bernard, St., 44 

Bertram, Roger de, 10 

Berwick, 8, 11, 54, 110 ; fisheries at, 39 ; 

Killinghall of, 105 
Best of Kepeswick, 196 
Bethel of Yorke, 196 
Bewicke, Old and New, 160 
Billingham, 7 ; family, 24, 38 
Binchester, John de, 30, 31, 61 
Birnard of Knaresbrough, 195 
Bishopdale family, 32 
Blackwell, 188, 194 
Blake Chesters, sculptures from, x. 
Blakiston family, 83, 87, 211, 216 
Blanchlatid Abbey, 37 
Bland family, 103 
Blenkhowe family, 33 
Blenkinsop family, 86, 152, 161 
Blue stones on bridges, 211, 229 
Blunt family, 34 
Blunville family, 35 
Boisil, 5 

Bolebec, Hugh de, 11 
Bolom family, 29 
Bolton, 145 ; in Craven, 178 
Bolton, Jos., 112 

Borcovicus, Roman coin from, vii. 
Boroughdon family, 37 
Boruton family, 12 
Bourchier of Benningbrough, 179 
Bourn, Edm., 112 
Boutflower, Geo., 133 
Bower, Alan, 60; of Treeton, 198 
Bowes family, 31, 40, 63. 70, 78, 96, 97, 

128, 212, 213, 214 
Boynton of Sadbury, 139 
Brabant family, 159 
Bradforth, Tho., 197 
Brafferton family, 27, 78 
Brampton, 156; Roman coins from, vii, 
Brancepeth Church, 193 
Brandon, East, 25, 26 
Bransby family, 78 
Brechin, capitular seal of, viii. 
Brereton, 151 
Brevint, Dr., 213 
Bristoe family, 86 
Brittany, Duke and Duchess of, 10 
Bromley, 131 
Brown 'of Gateshead, 226, 227 et seq, ; 

Elizabeth, 166 ; Richard, 211 
Brown, Lord Montague, 67, 155 
Broxfield, 161 
Bruninghill family, 27 
Bryan, Rio., 114 
Buckle of York, 194 
Budle, 16 

Bulkham family, 32 
Buhner family 61, 82 
Burdon, Win. de, 12 



Burghley, Lord, 219, et seq. 
Burnett family, 195 
Burrell, Chr. 168 
Burton, Capt., 133 
Buteland, 159, 163 
Butter, Mr. Thomas, 161 
Byerly of Tuddo, 193 
Byker family, 12 
Bynkfield family, 13 
Byron, Rev. John, 22 
Bywell, 127 ; Castle, 159 ; subsidy roll, 
130 ; Vicar of, 33, 

C. 

Caen (de Cadamo) family, 71, 82 

Calverdon, 11 

Calverley of Newcastle, 199 

Camberton, 145 

Camboe family, 12 

Candlestick from Barnard Castle, vi. 

Cantrell, "VVm., 147 

Capheaton, 163 

Carbarn, 7 

Carlbury, 86 

Carlisle, 6; Dean and Chapter of, 160; 

property at, 33 ; ring found near, xii. ; 

Cathedral, spectacles from, vi. ; seal 

of, viii, 

Carlton family, 35, 149, 156 
Carnaby family, 130, 132, 161 
Carr family, 161, 217 
Carrill, Edw., 150 
Carter, Margt., 217 
Carting-ton, family 139, 142 
Carucate, contents of, 10 
Case family, 93, 95 
Catterick family, 29 
Catton, co York, 191 
Cavendish family, 130, 201 
Cawood, 202 
Ceartmel, 6 
Cecil family, 150, 151 
Ceolwulf, King, 7 

Chain Armour from Chester-le-Street, x. 
Chambers of Gateshead, 231 
Charlton, Dr., 45, 48, 50 
Chaytor family, 94, 97, 99, 103 
Cheker, Wm., de, 60 
Cherry, Alan, 36 
Chester, family of, 32 
Chester-le-Street, Dacre of, 157; Dean 

of, 24 ; Church of, discoveries in ? iv. ; 

Roman station at, iv. ; Roman remains 

from, viii., x. ; Commons of, 108 
Chillingham, 77 
Chilton, 27, 28 
Chimney money, 160 
Chomelly family, 143 
Clarke, Rowland, 88, 90; George, 114; 

Robert, 217 ; of London, 123 



INDEX. 



235 



Clarkson family, 120 et seq. 

Clavering, James, 95; Sir James, 171 

Claxton family, 142 

Cleasby, 178 

Clenell, John, 160 

Clervaux family, 77, 86 

Clifford family, 185, 186 

Clock, ancient, xii. 

Clyff family, 31 

Cnut, King, 7 

Coal measure, 216; works in Durham, 

39 

Coastley, 161 

Coatham Mundeville, 25, 72, 76 
Cocken family, 26, 31 
Cockermouth, 196 
Cocks of Plymouth, 104 
Coffee in Durham, 136 
Cogdon, John, 217 
Coins, Roman, found at Adderstone, 14 ; 

Northumbrian, xi. 
Colchester at Corbridge, 37 
Coldingham, 54; priory, 8, 58 
Coll family, 25 
Colling family, 98 
Collingwood family, 129, 160 
Colville of Whitehouse, &c., 120, 122 
Coniscliffe, 86, 151 
Constable family, 63, 92; Sir Marma- 

duke, xi. 

Constantinus Junior, coin of, vii. 
Conyers family, 25, 76, 78, 90, 107, 197 
Cooke, Ann, 200 
Cor, a giant, 37 
Corbridge, 33, 162; clerk' s fees at, 163 ; 

Roman station at, 37 
Corkby, 152, 155 
Corpus Christi Day, 59 
Corstopitum, 38 
Cosin, Bishop, 207, 214 
Cotesforth family, 91, 96 
Coulson family, 127, 130, 131 
Council of the' North, seal of, 89 
County flatt, 72 
Cradock family, 93, 171 
Crake, gift of, to St. Cuthbert, 6 
Cramlingion, 11, 12, 79 
Craven, Adam de, 26 
Crawforth, Chr., 213, 214 
Creagh, Sir Wm., and Lady, 163, 164 
Creklawe, 11 
Cressingharn family, 34 
Croglin, 140, 148, 152, 155 
Crookhall, near Durham, 38 
Cross and banner of St. Cuthbert, 51 
Crosthwaite Church, 140 
Croxdale, 174 
Croxfield, 163 
Cunningham family, 159 
Curry family, 11 5,' 116 



Cuthbert, St., 5, 6 ; banner and cross of, 

51 ; arms of, 53 ; ring of, 66 
Cynewerth, Abbot, 6 
Cyr, St., 44 

D. 

Dacre family, of Greystock, heirs male 
of, 137 et seq. 

Dalby, 187 

Dalton family, 25 

Davison, Mr., 218 

Darcy, Lord, 63, 64 

Darlington, 75 et seq., 83, 85, 86 et seq., 101 

Dashwood, Sir Sam., 161 

Dean, Mr., 112; Dorothy, 197 

Delaval family, 12, 132 

Delmtham family, 36 

Dent family, 184, 187 

Denton family, 33 

Derwentwater, 139, &c. 

Dilston, 139 et seq. ; household accounts 
of, 159 

Dinsdale, 70, 86 et seq., 100 

Dinsdale, Over, 79 

Dixon of Gateshead, 226 

Dobson of Acombe, 128; Dr. 212 

Dodsworth of Barton, 96 

Doffinby, Captain, 134 

Doncaster, 63 

Donkin of Gateshead, 231 

Dormer, Robert, 218 

Dowthwaite family, 198, 214 

Dryburne, 167 169 

Ducane, Capt., 190 

Duck, Alderman John, 216 

Dudley, Bishop, 55 ; John, 153 ; of 
Dudley, 141 

Durham, baking in, 216; Blacksmiths 
v. the Bladesmiths of, 171 ; Drapers 
and Taylors v. the Mantuamakers of, 
166 ; the like v. White, 170 ; the like 
v. Blunt, 170; the Haberdashers of v. 
Blunt, 170 ; the like v. Fisher, 170 ; 
the Carpenters of, 207 ; the Masons, 
207, 208; the Skinners of, 208, 211, 
212; coffee at, 136; jurisdiction as 
to Castle Chare in Framwellgate 166 ; 
the like as to Elvet, 170 ; the like as 
to the Cathedral, College, and the 
Baileys, 203, 206, 211,; antiquities 
of the Church of, 1 ; Cathedral of, 
repairs, 213; relics of St. Cuthbert 
formerly at, 51, 66 ; priory, seal of, 
55 : St. Margaret's, 24 ; St. Oswald's 
60 ; Old Borough of, 26 ; map of, 
viii. ; Moor, 108; navigation to, 118; 
County House, 207, 214; property at, 
25, 76, 78, 79 ; family of, 37 

Durisall family, 28 

Duxfield, Wm. de, 34. 



236 



INDEX. 



E. 

Eamon family, 1 1 

Eardulf, Bishop, 7 

Ebchester family, 36 

Eddred, Bishop, 7 

Eden family, 103 

Edgar, King, 7 ; King of Scotland, 8, 
53; Atheling, 53 

Edgeknoll, 195 

Edington, 11 

Edmondsley, 76 

Edmund, King, 7 

Edred, King, 7 

Edward the Confessor, 8 ; the Elder, 7 ; 

the Martyr, 7 ; the First, 57 
Eclwy, King, 7 
Egelric, Bishop, 8 
Egfrid, King, 6 

Egglescliffo, 18, 78, 79, 86 ; John de, 76 
Ekington, 145 
Eland, 11 
Elfred, King, 7 
Elleringtoii family, 130 
Ellerker, 18 

Elsdon, Roman remains from, xi. 
Eltofte family, 25 
Emerson, Helen, 162 
Errington family, 35, 36, 128, 132, 194 
Eshall family, 187 
Eshe family, 27, 179 
Espershiels, 130 
Ethelred the Unready, 7 
Etheriugton, Sarah, 217 
Euro family, 10, 25, 78, 86, 183, 185, 

186, 195 

Evans, Mr. Henry, 147 
Exanford, 6 
Eyre, Mousignor Charles, 68 

F. 

Fairfax of Walton, 187 

Fairhair family, 29, 30 

Fairless family, 171 

Fait family, 32, 33 

Farle, 161 

Farmer family, 103 

Fatherly, Tho., 216 

Fawcett of Boldon, 120 

Fawdon family, 12 

Fawkcs of Farneley, 179 

Felton, Alan de, 34 

Fenwick family, 12, 123, 129, 139, 161, 

162, 197; John, 137 
Ferure family, 35 
Fetherstonhaugh family, 161 
Feynane, Christina, 37 
Fisher family, 29 
Fishgarth riot, 96 
Fitz-Alan family, 155 
Fitz-Asceline family, 35, 36 



Fitz-Hugh family, 28 
Fitz-Godwin, Robert, 53, 54 
Fitz-Herbert family, 129 
Five wounds, badge of, 64 
Flambard, Bishop, 54 
Flamborough church, brass at, xi. 
Fleetwood, Sir "William, 224 
Flodden field, battle of, 61, 65 
Forcett, 10, 184, 188 
Forster family, 92, 95, 127, 159, 161, 

162, 168 
Fourstones, 128 
Foxton, 198 ; John, 192 
Framwellgate, 107, 166 
Frankland of Glaisdale, 196 
French, Adeline, 168 
Frere, Mr. Tho., 200 
Funeral of Mr. John Killinghall, 101 _ 

G. 

Gainford, 7 ; Church, 189 

Gaire, Eliz., 161 

Galley, Tho. 116. 

Garmundsway, 7 

Garnett of Blackwell, 194 

Garstall, Mr. Roger, 162 

Garstang, umbo found at, 50 

Garth, Sir Samuel, 109 

Gascoigne of Otley, 200 

Gategang family, 107 

Gaterley Moor, 193 

Gateshead, 13, 78, 79, 162, 199; at- 
tempted annexation of, to Newcastle, 
219 ; tombstone at, 57 ; markets and 
fairs at, 226 ; Moor, 222 ; Rector of, 
223 ; toll book and pant at, 229 ; fa- 
mily of, 36. 

Gaugi family, 11 
Gaunte family, 31, 32 
Geri, John, 27 
Gesmouth, Adam de, 11 
Giles, St., of Durham, seals of, 56 
Gill, Chr., 133 ; of BenweU, 200 
Gilpin of Kentmere Hall, 199 
Girlington family, 81 
Glaisdale, 196 
Glemham, Sir Tho., 132 
Glover family, 30, 33 
Gosewyke family, 31 
Gosforth, 69 

' Gospel' found at Newcastle, x. 
Gowland family, 109, 117, 136. 
Gray family, 35, 36 
Graystones, 25, 76, 78, 79, 81, 91 
Green family, 125, 132, 195 
Gregory, St., 43 
Gresham of Armthorpe, 201 
Gretham, Wm. de, 58 
Grey of Chillingham, 142 ; of Newcas- 
tle, 199; of Lumley, 112, 115, 116; 
Dr., 113, 214. See Gray 



INDEX. 



237 



Greystock Castle, 144, 145 ; Rectory, 

147, 149 
Grinsdale, 158 
Grymmesby, Eob., de, 57 
Gule of Blackwell, 194 
Gundred, King, 7 
Gunston, Percival, 31 
Guthred, King, 8 

H. 

Hackforth, 186, 187 

Haggerston, Sir Tho., 160 

Hagthorp family, 26, 29, 107 

Haine family, 197 

Haire, John, 217 

HaU family, 29, 166, 169, 184, 201, 217 

Halton family, 11 

Halyden, 38 

Halywell family, 29, 30 

Hamel, Aldan, 2; Gamel, 9 

Hanby, Will., 123 

Hanlakeby, John de, 26, 27 

Hansley, Mr. Edw., 147 

Harbottle family, 31 

Harcla family, 33 

Hardwick, 29 

Hare, Sir Robert, 67 

Harlsey, West, 145 

Harraton, chapel of, 24 

Harrison the bellfounder, 22 ; family of, 
130 

Hartborn, 161 

Hartburn, West, tenures of, 69 et seq. 

Hartlepool, 198 ; gravestones at, 57 ; 
Mayor of, 109 

Hartley, Leonard, 77 

Harwood, Earl of, 179 

Haughton, 73, 74, 91 

Hawthorne, co Dur., 139, 142 

Hayles, Mr., 161 

Healey, 130 

Heath family, 199 

Hebborne family, 97 

Hedley family, 27, 193, 212 

Heddon-on- the- Wall, Roman coins from, 
vii. 

Hedwin family, 12 

Hedworth, Marmaduke, 157 

Heighington, 17; family, 82 

Henry VI., prayers to, and hymn con- 
cerning, 175 ; his residence at Bolton, 
177 

Henry VIII., roll of prayers belonging 
to, 41 

Henryson family, 28 

Herasmus, St., 45 

Herdwyk family, 76 

Herford, de, family of, 35 

Heron family, 38, 128, 129, 132, 160 

Hert family, 26, 27 



Hexham, Church history of, 1, 6 ; priests 
and bailiffs of, 8 

Hey ton, 145 

HiU of Mizen, 201 

Hilton family, 63, 98, 108, 111, 207, 
211 

Hinde of Stelling, 127 

Hirst of Otley, 200 

Hodgson the Historian, 231; continua- 
tion of his History of Northumber- 
land, ii. 

Hodshon family, 131, 213 

Holden family, 25 

Holme, Cath., 91 

Holmes family, 103 

Holy Island, 62, 106 

Hoppey family, 196, 200 

Hoppon, 197 

Horneby family, 31 

Hornecaster, Hen. de, 58 

Horsley family, 35, 197 

Hoton family, 24, 28, 29, 32, 33, 76 

Houghton-le- Spring, 111, 114, 115 

Hovingham, 199 

Howard family, 61, 62, 143, 146 et seq. 

Howden, 8 

Huddleston family, 178 

Hudson family, 90, 195 

Hudspeth, Alice, 163 

Hull, James, 213, 214 

Hullock of Barnard Castle, 188 

Hunsdon, Lord, 144 

Hunwick, 28 

Hutchinson family, 169, 227 et seq. 

Hutton, Mr. Serjeant, 152. See Hoton. 

I. 

Ingleby, Henry de, 76 
Inglewood family, 34 
Ipswich, 40 
Irthington, 144 

J. 

Jackson family, 211, 214 

Jakes family, 27 

Jarrow Church, slab from, 57 

Jedworth, 7 

Jefferson, Mr. Serjeant, 161 

Jenkins. John, 161 

Jesmond, Adam de, 12 

John of Beverley, banner of, 57 

Johnson family, 32, 36, 81, 166, 167, 

168, 169, 171, 191, 212 
Jordan family, 159, 160, 163 
Jovintus, 50 
Julitta, St., 44 

K. 

Keith, James, 123 
Keling, fish called the, 77 



2 I 



238 



INDEX. 



Kellow family, 25, 32 

Kemble family, 34, 35 

Kempe, Jane, 217 

Kendall Church, 199 

Kent, Countess of, 60 

Kentmere, 199 

Kepeswick, 196 

Kepyer Hospital, seals of, 56 

Kibblesworth family, 12 

Killinghall, House of, 69 

Killingworth family, 198 

Kirkeby, 198 

Kirkland, 145 

Kirk Oswald, 144, 145, 152, 153, 155 

Kirklington, Dean of, 158 

Kirtou family, 143 

Knaresbrough, 195 

Knight family, 196 

Knowte, John, 60 

Knox, John, 225 

L. 

Lambton family, 91, 94, 100, 107, 119, 

208, 216 

Larnpleugh of Cockermouth, 196 
Langley, near Brandon, 25, 26 
Langotiily, 145 
Langstaffe, John, 207, 214. See Long- 

staffe 

Lardener family, 27 
Lascelles of Ayryholme, 199 
Laton family, 178, 192. See Layton 
Lawe, Rob. de la, 12 
Lawreu, Eylaf, 9 
Lawson family, 90; MS., 1, 54; Sir 

William, 1, 10, 46; Mrs. Dorothy, 

225 

Laycock family, 200 
Layton family, 87, 94. See Laton 
Leaden box and crosses from Richmond, 

46 

Lead works in Durham, 39 
Lee, Atte, family of, 74 
Lee family, 168, 217 
Lelom, Richard, 76 
Lesley, General, 94 
Lewes, Tho., 161 
Lewyn family, 29, 31, 34 
LiddeU, Hen., 109 
Lilborn, East, 160 
Lilburn family, 12 
Lindisfarne, 4 ; See of, 6 
Lindley of Middleham Castle, 196 
Lindsey, 8 

Linsey, Mrs. Margery, 199 
Lisle family, 127 
Little Harle, antiquities from, vi. 
Local Muniments, 10, 24 
Locomotive Steam Carriage, invented 

bv Tho. Allen, x. 



London family, 35, 36 

Long Newton, 83, 85, 91 

Longstaffe, Abel, 213, 214; W. H. D., 

passim. See Langstaffe 
Lonsdale family, 34 
Lorbittle, 160 

Lothian, early history of, ix. 
Lovekyn, John, 73 
Lowrey family, 127 
Lowther of Lowther, 149 
Lumley Castle, 113; park gate, 114; 

letters, 109 ; family of, 63, 85, 109, 

131, 156 
Lumley, Great, coal at, 217 

M. 

Machon, Ann, 168 

Maddison, Tho., 110, 112 

Maddocks family, 82, 90 

Malcolm, King of Scots, 3 

Mann, Chr., 216 

Manners family, 105 

Mantua-makers in Durham, 165 

Marmaduke family, 38, 108 

Martin family, 34, 204 

Martindale family, 158 

Marwood, Sir Henry, 96 

Mascall family, 119, 169 

Masham, Sir Wm. de, 60 

Massey, Dor., 162 

Matfen, 130 ; Roman umbo from, 49 

Mauleverer family, 77 

Maurice, Mary, 167 

Mazarene, Duchess of, brought in man- 
toes, 168 

Meldon rectory, 159 

Melrose, 7 

Members, Honorary of the Society xiii. ; 
Ordinary, xv. 

Menevile, Rob., de, 11 

Merley family, 38 

Metcalfe of Aldbrough, 187 

Metham family, 179, 187 

Meynell family, 179, 185, 187 

Middleham Castle, 196; Moor fair, 161 

Midford, 10; family, 160, 162, 163, 169 

Middleton Hall, 160 ; St. George, 188 ; 
tenures of Middleton St. George and 
Middleton-one-Row, 69; family, 71, 
168, 169, 198 

Milbanke, Sir Mark, 161 

Milborn, Mr. Ralph, 162 

Miller family, 159, 161 

Milliners, 165 

Milneburne, 11 

Montague, Earl of Halifax, 110 

Moore of Yorke, 91 

Morpeth, 12 

Morton, near Dinsdale, 70 

Morton family, 25 ; Bishop, 209 



INDEX. 



239 



Mountaigne, Archbishop of York, 202 
Mowbray, .Robert de, 4 
Mundingdene, miracle at, 2 
Muschamp family, 159 
Musgrave family, 33 
Myers, George, 90. 

N. 

Nafferton, 128, 129 

Naworth Castle, 144 

Neel, Edw., 161 

Neile, Mr., 210 

Nelson family, 90, 93, 196 

Nesham of Houghton, 111 

Nettles worth, Bishop Bek's charter of 
lands at, 107 

Nevil family, 62, 63, 150, 185, 186 

Nevil's Cross, iii., 51, 59 

Newbiggin-on-the-Dike, 83, 85 

Newbottle, pitmen's strike at, 111 

Newbridge, near Chester-le- Street, 118 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 29, 35, 60, 199; 
Castle of, iii. ; painted boards from a 
house near the Castle, ix. ; 'Gospel' 
found there, x. ; antiquities from the 
Side, x, ; red-deer horns and creeing- 
troughs found at, viii. ; clergy of St. 
Nicholas' Church, 13 ; legaices to 
churches, 13; Major Anderson's be- 
quests to, 21 ; Bells of St. Nicholas, 
17; the town in 1745, 110; the 
Poldhall, 32; Mealmarketgate, 32; 
hospital of St. Mary in Westgate, 32 ; 
attempt to annex Gateshead to New- 
castle, 219 ; Mayor, &c., v. Nattress 
as to trading in Gateshead, 226 : Earl 
of Newcastle, 132 

Newcomb family, 184 

Newlands, 161 

New members of the Society, iv. 

Newminster, 12 

Newsham-on-Tees, 85, 151 

Newton, near Durham, 169 

Newton Hall, 130 et seq. 

Newton, Lord of, 26 

Newton family, 131 

Nicholson family, 160, 163, 166, 199, 
216 

Norfolk, Duke of, 63 

Norham, 2, 7, 160 

Northumbrian coins, xi. 

Norton, 18, 25 ; Oakwood and bones 
found at, ix. 

Norton family, 64, 86 

Nuncupative wills, 191 

0. 

Gates, Richard, 211 

Officers of the Society for 1857, xx. 



Ogle family, 11, 32, 59, 97, 98, 105, 

127, 133, 197 
Oglethorpe family, 85 
Onalafbal, 2 
Osbert, King, 7 
Oswald, St., banner of, 60 
Otley, 200 
Otley family, 30 
Outchester, remains at, 16 
Oyston, Richard, 116. 

P. 

Pagan, Roland-Fitz, 71 

Page, John, 163 

Paget family, 196 

Painter family, 30, 31 

Palmer family, 36 

Pampedene, John de, 11 

Pantaleon, St., 45 

Papers read 1856-7, iv. 

Paris, English Canonesses at, 67 

Park family, 12, 159, 

Parkinson family, 86, 87, 167, 168, 213, 

214 
Parr's (Lord) choir in Kendal Church, 

199 

Parsonman, William called, 33 
Peareth family, 125 
Pearson, Geo., 122, 123, 125, 161, 163 
Peart, Anne, 217 
Pemberton family, 97, 100, 104 
Pennyman family, 97 
Pepper family, 93, 100 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland, 62, 63 
Perkinson family, 81 
Petriana, altar from, vi. 
Pickering, Dr., 212 
Picton, 187, 188 
Pigg family, 159 
Pikeden, 11 
Pilgrims' tokens, 47 
Pilgrimage of Grace, 62 
Pilkington of Pilkington, 179 
Pinkney family, 100 
Pitmen's strike at Newbottle, 111 
Place family, 27, 86, 90, 91, 97, 98, 187 
Plaws worth family, 26 
Plessey family, 11, 12 
Plornpton of Boldon, 226 et seq. 
Plummer family, 31 
Plumpton, 145 

Poictou's (Bp.) Charter to Gateshead, 232 
Pollard family, 25, 29, 30 
Pome, William, 31 
Pomfret Castle, 63, 64 
Pontchardon family, 32 
Potter family, 28, 113 
Potts of Gateshead, 231 
Pountees, tenures of, 70 et seq. 
Prescott family, 105 



240 



INDEX. 



Prest, pronunciation of, 35 ; family of, 

34, 35, 36 

Preston, 25 ; Gawen, 160 
Prior family, 31 
Pudding family, 12 
Pudsay, Bishop, 55 ; Ms charter to 

Gateshead, 232 ; family of, at Barford 

and Bolton, 90, 173 
Pullen, Dan., 15 
Punshon family, 24 
Pye, Mr., 163. 

Q. 

Quarrington family, 27 
Qwhelpdale family, 29 

E. 

Eaby, John de, 203 

Eadclyffe of Derwentwater, heirs general 
of, and notice of other branches of the 
family, 137; extracts from the ac- 
counts of Sir Francis, 159 ; of Dilston, 
133 ; Francis, 184 ; John, 89 

Eaine family, 97, 104 ; Eev. James, jun. 
190, 202 

Eaket family, 24, 25, 31 

Eashall, Eichard, 211 

Eedmarshall family, 32 

Eeed, Wm., 211, 214 

Eeingwald, King, 2 

Eeport of the Society, i- 

Eeynauld family, 35, 36 

Eichard III., 61 

Eichardson family, 193, 212 

.Richmond, 195; plague of, 194; castle, 
123, 124; leaden box and crosses from, 
46 ; Earl and Countess of, 10 ' 

Eickarby, 96 

Eider of Armthorpe, 201 

Eidley family, 130, 131, 161, 162, 171 

Eigby Alex., 31 

Eiley, Adam de, 26 

Eing of St. Cuthbert, 66 

Eipon, treaty of, 30 ; family of, 30 

Eish worth family, 200 

Eites and Monuments of Durham, Hun- 
ter's copy of, 59 

Eobinson family, 104, 114, 115, 211 

Eobson of Hindeley, 133 

Eomaldkird, 189 

Eoman Eepublic of 1849, coins of, viii. 

Eoper, Mr., 112, 114, 115 

Eosary found at Newcastle, x. 

Eothbury, Saxon antiquities of, vii. 

Eouceby family, 29, 31, 34, 226 et seq. 

Eounton, West, 79 

Eouthsyde family, 35 

Eoutledge, Hen., 212 

Eowell, als. Eadclyffe, HO, 141 

Eowell family, 207, 213, 214 



Eumney family, 120, 122, 123 
Eussell family, 27, 30 
Eutter, Isaac, 167, 168 
Eyehall, Tho. de, 30 
Eyehill family, 12 
Eyhope Dean, 118 
Eyton, 86 

S. 
Sadberge, 76, 83, 85, 91 ; wapentake of, 

69 
Saint Cuthbert, laws of, 7 ; the Lawson 

MS. relating to, 1 ; banner and cross 

of, 51 ; ring of, 66 
Saint, Peter de, family of, 11 
Salford family, 74 
Salkeld family, 156 
Salter family, 36 
Salvin family, 174, 187, 188, 197 
Sanderson family, 130 
Savage family, 179 
SaviUe, Lord, 95 
Sawer family, 37 
Sayer of Worsall, 187 
Scalebeam, Eoman, 14 
Scarbrough, 197 
Scheley family, 36 
Scorer, James, 120, 121 
Scorton, near Eievaulx, 18 
Scot, Eic., 32 
Scremerston, 160 
Scrope family, 139, 173, 183, 185, 186, 

201 

Scula, 2 

Selby family, 34, 160, 161 
Shaftoe, 161 
Sharpe, Wm., 167, 168 
Shaw, Matt., 171 
Shepherd, Owen, 152 
Sheraton family, 25. 31 
Sherburn Hospital, vii., 107 
Shields in 1745, 110 
Shildon, 84; common, 134 
Shotley Bridge, ancient grave at, v. 
Shrewsbury, Lady, 202 
Shuttleworth family, 135, 200 
Silvertop family, 135 
Simpson family, 31, 189 212, 214 
Skelton family, 154, 162 
Skirmingham, 82 
Skitby, 198 
Slade family, 28 
Slinger family, 184 
Smeaton, 200 
Smethirst family, 32 
Smeton family/ 192 
Smirke family, 29, 125 
Smith family, 29, 35, 69, 134, 200, 204, 

211,212 
Snawdon, Magdalene, 168 



INDEX. 



241 



Sockburn, 25 

Somerville family, 36 

Souter Point, 118 

Spades, early form of, 1 

Sparke family, 31, 168 

Spearman family, 98 

Spectacles from Carlisle Cathedral, v. ' 

Speight family, 191 

Spender of York, 198 

Spicer family, 25, 107 

Spindleston, 161, 163 

Stafferton family, 81 

Stafford family, 31 

Stagshaw, 36 

Staindrop, 7, 85; family of, 28, 31 

Stainton, Great, 93, 94 

Standard, Battle of, 52 

Stanhope, 78 

Stanton, Stephen de, 36 

Stanwick, St. John's, 187, 189 

Stanwlx, Eoman remains from, xi> 

Stapleton, 188 

Starn, Tho., 114 

Staveley of Thormanby, 91 

Steel, Tho., 27 

Stelling, 127 et seq. 

Stevenson, 31, 213, 214 

Stillington, 83, 85 

Stockton, 25 

Stodhoo, near Dinsdale, 71 

Stokoe, Marke, 162 

Stone family, 35 

Stoop of Gateshead, 199 

Stott family, 122 

Strangwayes family, 39, 145, 158, 200 

Stubley, Mrs., 196 

Streete family, 200 

Sudgethlin, 6 

Sunderland, 118; by-the-Bridge, 76 

Surrey Lord, 61 

Surtees family, 69, 73, 78, 83, 84, 85, 87, 

Suttonof Dudley, 141 

Swan family, 120, 122 

Swifte of Doncaster, 201 

Swinburne family, 128, 129, 161 

Swinhoe, Gilbert, 132 

Symeon's History, 9 

T. 

Tadcaster, 197 

Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 201 

Tanfield, 193 

Tang family, 25, 32 

Tankerville, Earl of, 123 

Taylboys family, 81 

Teale family, 97 

Teasdale of Slaley, 159 

Tebay family, 33 

Tebb, Elizabeth, 194 

Tees and Tyne, land between the, 7 



Tempest family, 32, 72, 109, 132, 162 

Temple Thornton, 161, 163 

Testamentary curiosities, 191 

Tetragrammaton, 134 

Thady family, 85 

Theddlethorp, 83, 84 

Theodore, Archbp., 6 

Thirkeld, Tho., 167, 168 

Thomas, Wm., 43 

Thompson family, 65, 115, 116, 209, 226 

Thornbrough, Eic., 161 

Thornby, Mr. Hugh, 147 

Thornton, 197 

Thornton Hall, 81 

Thornton family, 81 

Thriske of Skitby, 198 

Tobell family, 29 

Tole of Thornton, 197 

Tomlinson of Birdforth, 91 

Tonge family, 199 

Topcliffe, 132 

Topham, Susanna, 197 

Tothall, Ric., 199 

Trafford Hill, 72, 78, 86, 1.00 

Treasurer's account, xviii. 

Treeton, Notts, 198 

Trevor, Bishop, seal of, ix. 

Trewick family, 12 

Trillesden, 38 

Trinity, representation of, 42 

Trollop of Thornley, 179 

Trotter family, 132, 185, 187 

Trueman, Mr. Will., 65, 109, 111, 120, 

165, 171, 216 
Tudhoe, 28, 29, 193 
Tunstall, Bishop, 66, 166, 172, 225; 

family of, 90 
Turnbull, Eliz., 162 
Turner family, 30, 195; Mr. Hudson, 

231 

Tyndal family, 34, 35 
Tynemouth, vi., 4, 39 
Tyningham monastery, 6 
Tythes on allotments, 135 

U. 

Ugthorpe, Radclyffe of, 138 

Umbo of Roman Shield, 49 

Upsal, 145 

Urpyn, John, 90 

Urwin, Mr , 163 

Ushaw College, roll of papers from, 41 

Usworth, 126 

V. 

Vane family, 97, 98 
Ventress, John, 17, 118 
Vesey family, 10, 11 
Vicandale rent, 160 



242 



INDEX. 



W. 

"Wade of Ousterly, 126 

Walcher, Bishop, 3, 8 

Walker family, 25, 115, 116 

Wall, Mr. Ric., 162 

Wallis family, 27 

Walpole, Horace, 110 

Walridge, 24 

Waltham, 8 

Walton family, 95, 115, 116, 197 

Walworth family, 73 

Warcop family, 29 

Ward family, 90, 166, 168 

Warden, graves at, vii. 

Wark, 62 

Warke manor, deodand within, 163 

Warkworth, 7 

Warn river, 16 

Washington letters and family, 120 

Wasse, Nicholas, 90 

Watson family, 67, 171, 191, 193 

Wear, river, 110, 118 

Webster, Bertram, 27 

Welbury manor, 143 

Welch, Eliz., 168 

WeUeton, 8 

Werwick family, 32 

West, Tho., 121 

Westholme, 198 

Westou sune, Elured, 9 

Westwood, 161 

Wharham family, 25 

Wharton, Tho., 212 

Whawton, 145 

Whelp family, 29 

Whelpington Rectory, 161 

Whessoe, 25 

Whinnvylle, Hugh de, 34 

Whitehouse, near Gateshead, 120 

Whitfield, John, 160, 163 

Whittall, 162 

Whittingham family, 65, 136 



Withworth family, 108 

Wideslade family, 12 

Widdrington family, 11, 93, 94, 132, 

159, 163 
Wigeton, 58 
Wilkinson, surname of, 8 ; family of, 

184, 187, 208, 226 
William the Conqueror, 8, 9 
William, Saint, Banner of, 62 
Wills family, 117, 167, 168, 169 
Wilson family, 114, 125, 189 
Windacres family, 30 
Windgates family, 30 
Winlaton, 86 

Witelaw, and family of that name, 11,12 
Witham family, 94, 103, 187 
Wither family, 30 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 62 ; his instructions 

to his officers at Durham, 39 
Wolsingham, 78 
Wodhowse family, 31 
Wodroffe in Kent, 196 
Wood, Isabella, 168; Mr. John, 212 
Woodhall leadmine, 160 
Woodness family, 30 
Wooley, 161 
Woodpuller family, 27 
Woolridge family, 97 
Wormleigh family, vii. 
Wren family, 80, 196 
Wright family, 30 
Wycliffe, 7, 81 
Wylam family, 126 
Wywell family, 35 

Y. 

Yarm, 189 

Yleclif, 7 

York, 194, 196, 198; court of the Presi- 
dent of the North at, 226, 231 ; land 
at, given to St. Cuthbert, 6 



END OF VOL. II. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 
PRINTED BY THOMAS AND JAMES TIGG, CLAYTON STREET. 



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