(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"

x^ 







U. 







J 







^?>A^#e3;^ 




■\ 









Y 



a. 









'•" .> 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/archaeologiaaeli08sociuoft 



re 



A 



V 



AECHiEOLOGIA ^LIANA: 



OB, 



f-' 



rp:lating to antiquity. 

PFBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

XEW SERIES. 

VOLUME VIII. 




NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 
WILLIAM DODD. 13, NEW BRIDGE STREET. 

A. BKID, PRINTING COURT BUILDINGS, AKENSIDE HlI-1.. 



1880, 






HBWCASTLE-UPON-TYNK : 
A. KKIU, PRINTING COURT BUILDIKOS, AKENSIDE HILL. 



fil0577 

f 7 vS-i- 



CONTENTS 



New SxATrTES v 

Description of Roman Remaixb piscoyered near to Peocolitia, a 
Station on the Wall of Hadrian (with Illusti-ations). — Mr. John 

Clayton ... 1 

Continuation of Description of, and Resiarks on. the Temple of 
CoTENTiNA and ITS CONTENTS (with Illustrations). — Mr. John 

Clayton 20 

Observations of Dr. Bruce in presenting the subsequent Paper... 40 
Numerical View of Coins found in Well. — Mr. C. Roach Smith ... 43 
On the probable. significations of the Names of the Roman Sta- 
tions, " Per Lineam Valli." and on the probable positions of 

THOSE hitherto UNIDENTIFIED. — ReV. R. E. HoCPPELL 50 

Roman Leaden Seals (with Illustration). — Mr. Robert Blair 57 

Notes on Modern Surtiyals of Ancient Well-Worship in North 
Tynedale. in connection with the Well of Coyentina, at 
Carrawbrough (Procolitia), on the Roman Wall. — Rey. G. 

Rome Hall 60 

Coyentina. — Me. W. H. D. Longstaffe 88 

The Manufacture of Glass in England. Rise of the Art on the 

Tyne. — Mr. James Clephan 108 

A Roman Burial at York.— Rey. J. C. Bruce 127 

Report FOR 1878 ... 133 

Some Remarks on Mitheaic Worship in the Western World. — 

Rey. Samuel Beal 141 

The Westeen Stations.— Me. W. H. D. Longstaffe 154 

An Account of some of the Eaeliest Recoels connected with the 
Wobking of Coal on the Banks of the Rivee Tyne (with Illus- 
trations). — Mk. Robeet L. Galloway 167 



IV CONTENTS. 

PACK. 

An Account of ihk Excavation of the South Gateway of the 

Station of Cilurnum (with Illustrations). — Rev. J. C. Beucb ... 211 
Abigail and Timothy Tyzack, and Old Gateshead. — Mb. James 

Clephan 222 

On Two Insceibed Stones found at Jaerow in 1782. — Me. R. Case 

Ellison 243 

On a Votive Tablet, with Insceiption, becently found at Bin- 

chester. — Rev. R. E. Hooppell 247 

Discovery of a Hoard of Roman Coins on the Wall op Hadeian 

(with Illustrations). — Mb. John Clayton 256 

Escombe Church. — Me. W. H. D. Longstaffe 281 

The Nobtheen Stations of the Notitia. — Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe 287 
Index to Vol. VIII 293 



STATUTES OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF 
NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



At the Anmversaey Meeting of the Society of Anti- 
quaries OF Newcasti-e-upon-Tyne, held in the Apart- 
ments of the Society in the Castle of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, ON Monday, the 4th Day of February, 1878, 

It is proposed that the Statutes of this Society, which were 
made or passed at a General Meeting of the Society, held on the 
6th day of February, 1813, and which have been from time to 
time altered under a provision contained therein, should be further 
altered, and that such further alteration should be effected by the 
total repeal of the existing Statutes, and the substitution of the 
Statutes hereinafter set forth, and such proposal having been 
announced and inserted in the transactions of a General Meeting 
held on the 2nd day of January last. It is resolved, that the 
Statutes of this Society made and passed on the 6th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1813, and all other statutes, laws, rules, and regulations 
now in force, be and the same are hereby repealed, and that the 
Statutes hereinalter set forth shall be and are hereby adopted for 
the regulation and government of this Society. 

I. — This Society, under the style and title of " The Society Constitution 
OF Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne," shall consist of an?Efed;imf 
ordinary and honorary members. The persons named in the first of Members, 
schedule hereunto subjoined are and shall be the present ordinaiy 
members, and the persons named in the second schedule hereunto 
subjoined are and shall be the present honorary members. Candi- 
dates for election as ordinary members shall be proposed in 
writing by three ordinary members at a general meeting, and 
be elected or rejected by the majority of votes of ordinary 



VI 



STATUTES. 



Obligations 
of Members. 



Officers of 
the Society. 



Meetings of 
the Society 



members at that meeting, unless a ballot shall be demanded 
by any member, which in that case shall take place at the 
next meeting, and at such ballot three-fourths of the votes shall 
be necessary in order to the candidates election. The election of 
honorary members shall be conducted in like manner. 

II. — The ordinary members named in the said first schedule, 
and the ordinary members who shall be elected in manner above 
mentioned, shall be bound to conform to the Statutes for the time 
being and all future statutes, rules, and ordinances, and to pay in 
advance an annual subscription of £1 Is.; and so long as they 
so conform, and so long as they make such payment, and no 
longer, they shall be and continue ordinary members. The sub- 
scription shall be due on election and afterwards annually on the 
day of the Annual Meeting ; but a member elected at or after the 
meeting in October shall be exempt from a further payment at 
the then next Annual Meeting. 

III. — The officers of the Society shall consist of a Patron, a 
President, four Vice-Presidents, two Secretaries, twelve other 
members, who, with the President, Vice-Presidents, and Secre- 
taries (shall constitute the Council), one Treasurer, and two 
Auditors. These several officers shall be elected annually, except 
the Patron, who shall be elected for life. The elections shall be 
out of the class of ordinary members by lists to be delivered by 
the members in person at the Annual Meeting. The Council 
shall have the charge of the property and the direction of matters 
not provided for by the general meetings of the Society. Five of 
the Council must be present in order to constitute a meeting of 
the Council, and the Council may regulate their times of meeting 
and the order of their proceedings as they may see fit. 

IV. — A General Meeting of the members of the Society shall 
be held on the last Wednesday of every month, in the Castle of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The meeting in January shall be the 
Annual Meeting, and shall be held at one o'clock in the afternoon, 
and the meeting in each other month shall be held at seven o'clock 
in the evening. Bnt the Society or the Council may li-om time 



STATUTES. 



Vll 



to time appoint auy other place or day or hour for any of the 
meetings of the Society. The presence of seven ordinary mem- 
bers shall be necessary in order to constitute the Annual Meeting, 
and the presence of five ordinary members shall be necessary in 
order to constitute any other meeting. A Special General Meet- 
ing may be convened by the Council if, and when, they may deem 
it expedient. 

V. — The ordinary members only shall be interested in the Property of 
*' the Society. 

property of the Society. - The interest of each member therein 

shall continue so long only as he shall remain a member, and the 
property shall never be sold or otherwise disposed of (except in 
the case of duplicates hereinafter mentioned) so long as there 
remain seven members; but should the number of members be 
reduced below seven and so remain for twelve calendar months 
then next following, the Society shall be ipso facto dissolved, and 
after satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities the property of the 
Society shall be delivered unto and become the property of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, if 
that Society be then in existence and willing to receive the same ; 
and should that Society not be in existence and willing to receive 
the same, then the same shall be delivered to and become the 
property of the Mayor, xildermen, and Burgesses, of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

VI. — All papers shall ])e rend in tlie order in which they are Heading of 
received by the Society. A paper may be read by the author, or 
by any other member of the Society whom he may desire to read 
it, or by either of the Secretaries; but any paper which is to be 
read by the Secretaries shall be seiit to them a week previous to 
its being laid before the Society. 



VII. — The Council shall annually appoint three of the ordi- 
nary members (whether of the Council or not) to be, with the 
Secretaries, a Committee, to whom shall be entrusted the duty 
and charge of selecting papers for publication in the Transac- 
tions, and of revising and printing the papers so selected. 



Committee of 
Revisal. 



nil 



STAT [IT KS. 



Donations to 
the Society. 



Duplicates. 



Members en- 
titled to pub- 
lications. 



The use of the 
library. 



Repeal or 
alteration of 
Statutes. 



VIII. — All donations to the Society shall be presented through 
the Council, and a book shall be kept in which shall be regularly 
recorded their nature, the place and time of their discovery, and 
the donors' names. All duplicates of coins, books, and other 
objects, shall be at the disposal of the Council for the benefit of 
the Society. 

IX. — Every ordinary member shall be entitled to such publi- 
cations of the Society as may be printed after his election; and 
he may purchase any of the previous publications, of which copies 
remain, at the price at which the same are furnished to the 
booksellers. 

X. — Each member shall be entitled to the use of the Society's 
library, subject to the condition (which applies to all privileges 
of membership) that his subscription for the current year be paid. 
Not more than two volumes at a time shall be taken out by any 
member. Books may be retained for a month, and if this time 
be exceeded, a fine of one shilling per week shall be payable for 
each volume retained beyond the time. All books must, for the 
purpose of examination, be returned to the library on the Wed- 
nesday preceding the Annual Meeting under a fine of 28. 6d. ; 
and they shall remain in the library until aft^r that meeting. 
Manuscripts, and illustrated works of special value, shall not cir- 
culate without the leave of the Council. The Council may 
mitigate or remit fines in particular cases. 

XI. — ^These statutes, and any statutes which hereafter may be 
made or passed, may be repealed or altered, and new, or altered 
statutes, may be made and passed, at any Annual Meeting, pro- 
vided notice of such repeal or alteration, and of the proposed new 
or altered statutes, be given in writing at the next preceding, 
monthly meeting. 



ARCH^OLOGIA ^LIANA. 



descriptio:n^ of roman remains discovered near 
to procolitia, a station on the wall of 

HADRIAN. 



Read 2nd Decembek, 1876, by John Clayton, Esq. 



The discovery in the month of October last, on the line of the Roman 
Wall not far from Chollerford, of an underground structure, contain- 
ing an enormous quantity of Roman copper coins, twenty-four Roman 
altars, a massive votive tablet, with vases, rings, beads, brooches, and 
other objects, has excited much interest in the neighbourhood. 

The inscriptions are numerous, but some of them much worn and 
obUterated. The writer, with the efficient aid of Prof. Hiibner of 
Berlin, and Dr. Bruce, and with the benefit of the friendly suggestions 
of Mr. Charles Roach Smith and Mr. Carr-EUison, is now able to give a 
satisfactory reading of these inscriptions, so far as they are legible, and 
to lay before this Society a statement, which is made somewhat in 
detail, from a conviction that, since the publication of the " Lapi- 
darium Septentrionale," the antiquaries throughout the world rely on 
this Society for an authentic record of the Roman remains discovered 
in the four northern counties of England. 

The traveller from Chollerford, seeking the site of the discovery, 
will proceed westward along the Military Road (so called from its 
having been made for military purposes after the rebeUion of 1745) 
and, leaving the station of Cilurnum on the left, will, at the foot of the 
first ascent, come upon the Roman Wall, on the site of which the Road 
has been made ; the foundation stones of the Wall are seen in the bed 
of the road, which is continued westward for several miles, either 
on the site of the Wall, or on the Vallum, which runs parallel with 
it. Passing Walwick and proceeding westward for about a mile, the 

A 



2 DESCEIPTION OF KOMAJf REMAINS 

traveller reaches the summit of the hill beyond Tower-Tay, from which 
a striking view of the Roman works ahead is obtained. On the right 
the traveller wiU observe some portions of the Eoman Wall stand- 
ing to the height of six or seven feet, and the remains of one of the 
turrets, which it is said were placed along the Wall at the distance 
of 300 yards from each other, and which, with this exception, have 
been annihilated through the whole length of the Wall. Within the 
distance of a mile from the Tower-Tay HiU is reached the summit of 
the Limestone Bank, on which will be found the remains of gigantic 
Roman works, and from which there open two most magnificent views, 
one on the right hand looking upon the valley of the North Tyne, 
and closed on the north-east by the Cheviot Hills, and the other on 
the left hand looking upon the valley of the South Tyne, and closed 
on the south-west by Cross Fell and the mountains of Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, and Yorkshire. From this point the Military Road is 
on the site of the Roman Wall, and in about a mile passes the station 
of Procolitia, of which the Roman Wall formed the northern rampart; 
and, in the lowest part of the valley, about 150 yards distant from the 
western rampart of Procolitia, and about 100 yards within (on the 
south side of) the Roman Wall, is the site of the recent discovery. 

The structure, which has been now explored, did not escape the 
attention of that sagacious and diligent Northumbrian, John Horsley, 
who in his great standard work, the ".Britannia Romana," published 
in 1732, after referring to the remains of buildings to the west of 
Procolitia, adds the following passage : — " About a year ago they dis- 
covered a well; it is a good spring, and the receptacle for the water is 
about seven feet square within, and built on all sides with hewn stones. 
The depth could not be ascertained, because, when I saw it, it was 
almost filled with rubbish. There had also been a wall about it, or a 
house built over it, and some of the great stones belonging to it were 
yet lying there. The people called it a cold bath, and rightly judged 
it to be Roman."! 

The Rev. John Hodgson, the able historian of Northumberland, in 
the part of his book published in 1840, after quoting the passage from 
Horsley, describes as then existing on the west side of Procolitia " a 
small stream, and by the side of it a very copious spring of pure water," 

' See Horsley's " Britannia Romana," p. 145. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 8 

and adds, "in the year 1817 the shaft of a column was lying near the 
spring, but some years before that time most of the works about it had 
been removed for building purposes by the tenants of the lands." 

Dr. Bruce, in his complete and exhaustive work on the Roman 
Wall (the third edition of which was pubhshedin 1867), after referring 
to the passage in Horsley, tells us that no remains of the bath or w(;ll 
then existed. 

From oral testimony it appears that subsequent to the year 1817, 
and within the last forty years, those parts of the walls of the 
surrounding buildings mentioned by Horsley which remained undis- 
turbed by being underground, were partly dug up and used by the 
tenant of the lands. The copious spring of pure water mentioned 
by the historians was the source of a brook which flowed down 
the valley towards the river South Tyne ; and the well minutely 
described by Horsley being filled to its brim with solid substances, 
formed part of the bed of the stream, until a very recent period, when 
the spring and the rivulet flowing from it suddenly disappeared, and 
the disappearance was ascribed to underground operations in a lead 
mine nearly two miles distant. 

In the course of last summer, attention was drawn to this spot, 
which had always been looked upon as the site of a Roman bath; 
and in the month of October the excavation was commenced, which 
has disclosed an underground structure of massive masonry, measuring 
in the inside 8 feet 6 inches by 7 feet 9 inches, and a little exceeding 
7 feet in depth, and within it a most miscellaneous collection of objects. 
Within a foot of the surface the excavator in digging down came 
upon a mass of copper coins, many of them of the debased metal 
of the lower Empire, and a human skull, the concave part up- 
wards, filled with coins. He then began to meet with altars, and 
fragments of bowls of Samian ware, and glass, and bones of animals, 
and at the depth of about three feet found two elaborate vases 
of earthenware, both bearing inscriptions, and a sculptured stone re- 
presenting three Naiads, or water-nymphs. He had then come upon 
copper coins, of superior metal, of the higher Empire, which continued, 
with an admixture of the inferior coins of the lower Empire, to the 
bottom. He met with the head of a statue, represented at the 
end of this paper, and with other vases without inscriptions, and 
with brooches, rings, beads, dice, and other objects ; some of these. 



4 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAX REMAINS 

viz., three bronze heads, one of a female and two of males, apparently 
representing Mirth and Melancholy, an ivory stylus, with a female 
head carved at its top, three brooches, and a dice, are shown on 
the adjoining Plate. Going still lower, the excavator continued to 
find altars, and nearly at the bottom he met with a massive votive 
tablet, dedicated to the goddess Coventina, by Titus Domitius 
Cosconianus, a Eoman military Prefect, in command of the First 
Cohort of Batavian Auxiliaries. The lettering of this tablet is of 
the best character, and Professor Hiibner, who from his learning and 
experience is entitled to decide, whilst others hesitate, pronounces this 
tablet to be of the date of Antoninus Pius, a.d. 140. 

It is possible, and indeed probable, that the First Batavian Cohort 
should have been at Procolitia in the reign of Antoninus Pius. This 
cohort was doubtless one of the three Batavian cohorts, which, with 
two Tungrian cohorts, under Julius Agricola, fought and won the 
battle of the Grampian Hills, a.d. 84.^ We next hear of this cohort 
as one of the cohorts in the army of Aulus Platorius Nepos (the 
general employed in building the wall), to which Hadrian, in the 
fourth year of his reign, a.d. 124, granted the right of Eoman citi- 
zenship and liberty to marry .^ It is probable that the First Batavian 
cohort was placed about this period in garrison at Procolitia ; and ex- 
perience of the Eoman practice in other stations has sho\\Ti us that the 
Eomans treated the troops at the stations on the Wall as the basis of 
military colonies ; and we find, from an inscription found within the 
walls of Procolitia, that the First Cohort of Batavians was there in 
the reign of Maximinus, a.d. 233,^ and that the same cohort was in 
the same place at the date of the Notitia Imperii, a.d. 400. 

This tablet is inscribed to a goddess whose name is unrecorded on 
the roll of Eoman divinities. On it the goddess is represented as 
floating on the leaf of a gigantic water lily, and waving in her right 
hand a branch of palm or of some other tree. On one of the altars, 
described below, she is called Dea Nympha, and it is therefore clear 
that this goddess was a water deity, which is confirmed by the repre- 
sentation of her attendants on the sculpture here shoTVTi of the three 
Naiads, each of them raising in one hand a goblet, and in the other hand 

* See Tacitus' " Life of Agricola," cap. xxxvi. 

* See " Lapidarium Septentrionale," p. 7. 
' See " Lapidarinm Septentrionale," No. 157. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



holding a flagon from which is poured a stream of water, and by the 
existence of a well or reservoir for water within the walls of her temple. 
Whether the goddess Coventina was a British goddess, or a goddess 




imported by the Roman soldier, is a question not easily decided, nor 
can any satisfactory derivation be found for her name. She was pro- 
bably a local deity to whose name a Eoman termination has been 
given, as in the case of the god of the Brigantes Cocidius, for whose 
name we do not attempt to find a derivation. It has been suggested, 
from a quarter entitled to weight, that the name of the goddess 



6 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

Coventina may be derived from Convenae, a people of Aquitania, 
inhabiting a country of springs, and addicted to the worship of water 
deities. A cohort of Aquitani has left a record of its presence at Pro- 
colitia, in the reign of Hadrian.^ 

Some antiquarians are of opinion that, at least to some extent, the 
coins have been thrown into the well as offerings to the goddess, but 
this theory is open to the objection that an accumulation of copper, in 
so limited a space, must have spoiled the water ; moreover, it does not 
seem to be within the range of probability that the votive tablet, bearing 
the image and superscription of the goddess, and the altars dedicated 
to her should have been thrown into the well in compliment to her, 
and least of all the ugly head, broken off from the bust, which forms 
the tail-piece on page 19. The position in which the several objects 
were found does not seem to throw any light on the order of deposit, 
the heavy votive tablet and two of the very small altars were found 
at the bottom of the well. 

Another theory is that the Romans, weary of the new goddess, and 
convinced that her worship was a superstition derogatory to their 
ancient gods — 

" Vana superstitio, veterumque ignara Deorum,"' 

shut off the water, and applied to utilitarian purposes the reservoir 
which had contained it. The position of this structure outside the 
walls of the Fortress of Procolitia, the accumulation of coins of an early 
period, as well as those of later dates of Roman occupation, would seem 
to be inconsistent with this theory, unless it can be accounted for by 
the state of disquietude in which the garrison of this hne of fortification 
must have lived, attended with occasional abandonment of their quar- 
ters, and occasional concealment of valuables which could not be easily 
removed. 

Of this vast collection of copper, or in the language of numismatists, 
brass coins, a few dozens have lain in clay and been preserved ; many of 
the rest are so much worn or corroded as to render it very dilficult to 
identify them. Amongst those of the earlier period the coins of Trajan, 
Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and of the wives of the two 
latter emperors greatly preponderate, and there is an imusual number of 

' See " Lapidarium Septentrionale," No. 138, p. 83. 
* See " Virgil ^neid," Lib. VIII., 187. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



the coins of Antoninus Pius, which have Britannia on the reverse. The 
coins of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius are chiefly of first and 
second brass ; the building of the Walls of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius 
would necessarily occasion a large influx of such coins into Britain. The 
earliest coin which has been as yet identified is of the reign of Claudius, 
A.D. 41, and it is expected that the series will end, as has happened in the 
stations of Cilurnum and Borcovicus, with Gratian, a.d. 383, though in 
the vast quantity as yet undeciphered there may be found both earher 
and later coins. Four gold coins and some silver coins have been met 
with, which can scarcely have been part of the deposit ; they have 
probably been accidentally lost by the curators of the copper treasury. 

Let us now proceed to the examination of the inscriptions, which 
indicate various degrees of skill 
and education in the sculptors.^ 

We will begin with the in- 
scriptions on two very curious 
vases or cups of earthenware, 
which appear to have been offer- 
ings of Saturninus Gabinius to 
the goddess Coventina. The let- 
ters are distributed over the 
panels of each vase. From the 
letters on one of them (No. 1) we 
collect the following words: — 

COVETINA AGVSTA VOTV 

MANIBVS SVIS SATVRNINVS 

FECIT GABINIVS. 

Expanded reading. — Coven- 
tinse Augustae votum manibus 
suis Saturninus fecit Gabinius. 




' In the original paper the readings of the inscriptions are not in general expanded. 
It is now thought desirable, acting on the precedent of the " Lapidarium Septen- 
trionale," to add an expanded reading of each inscription. Engravings of each of 
the objects are also now given, — Ed. 



8 



DESCEIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 



It would appear from this inscription that the dedicator made the vase 
with his own hands. Whatever may be thought of the skill of Satur- 
ninus Gabinius as a manufacturer, his orthography is palpably defective. 
He gives to the goddess the title of Augusta, for which several prece- 
dents exist in the Nympheum, or Temple of the Water Deities at 
Nismes, the goddess addressed being styled Nympha Augusta. 

The inscription on the vase No. 2 is a barbarous abbreviation of 



the inscription on vase No. 1 



,^s^'^-^V ^'^^^ 




and, as Professor Hiibner observes, 
the dedicator, Saturninus Ga- 
binius, must have been con- 
tent to explain his intentions 
by the inscription on vase No. 
1, or he must have placed 
unlimited faith in the intelli- 
gence of the goddess; and 
at any rate if No. 1 had 
been destroyed. No. 2 would 
have been utterly uninteUi- 
gible. 

The letters in the several 
compartments seem to be the 
following : — 



cv? 



SA 



TV 



GST? 



GA 
BIN 



IV 



giving us the name of Satur- 
ninus Gabinius,! preceded by 
the principal characters in the words c[o]v[entina] [av]g[v]st[a]. 
The last (or first ?) compartment of the inscription seems to be occu- 
pied with the letter " v" or a leaf stop, and the reading may be — 

VOTUM COVENTIN^ AUGUSTS 
SATURNINUS GABINIUS. 

' The "b" makes an approach in both the inscriptions on the vases (to use the 
language of printers) to the lower case "b." — Ed. 



1 



DISCOVERED NEAE TO PROCOLITIA. 



9 



The lettering and the expanded reading of the votive tablet and of 
the several altars bearing inscriptions, so far as they are legible, remain 
to be dealt with. More than one-half of the whole number of twenty- 
four altars found have either had no inscription, or the inscriptions 
have been wholly worn out, and some of these are unfinished as if in 
a course of preparation for an inscription. 

The votive tablet on which the goddess is represented as floating 
on the leaf of a water lily, and holding a branch, has the following in- 
scription : — 



DEAE 

• COVVENTINAE 

T • D • COSCONIA 

NVS • PR • COH. 

I • BAT • L-M- 

Expanded reading. — Beae 

Coventinse Titus Domitius 

Cosconianus Preefectus Co- 

hortis primse Batavorum 

libens merito. 




The lettering is perfect. The use of a double "v" in the name of 
Coventina is a peculiarity, and may be accidental, or an example of 
the practice of doubling the consonant, in order to give greater 
emphasis to the syllable; this peculiarity also occurs on the altar No. 10. 



10 



DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 



ALTAR No. 1. 

This is the largest altar of the group. Its base is adorned with 
a couple of dolphins — symbols of a water deity. 




On this altar 
alone is the epi- 
thet Sanctse, ap- 
plied to the god- 
dess, and the letter 
"o" is used in the 
second syllable of 
her name. 

DEAE SANCT 

COVONTINE 

VINCENTIV8 

PRO SALVTE SVA 

V-L-L-M-D 

Expanded read- 
ing. — Deae Sanc- 
tse Coventinae Yin- 
centius pro salute 
sua votum libens 
laetus merito di- 
cavit. 



This is the only example of the use of "o" as the vowel in the 
second syllable of Coventina. The use of "e" instead of " m" in the 
dative case of the name of the goddess, which we find on this altar, 
frequently occurs in all these inscriptions. 



DISCOVEEED NEAR TO PEOCOLITIA. 



11 



ALTAR No. 2. 



DEAE NIM 

FAE COVEN 

TINE MA • D 

VHVS • GERM • 

POS • PRO • SE ET SV 

V-S-L-M 

Expanded reading. — Deae 
Nymphse Coventinae Manlius 
Dahus Germanus posuit pro se 
et suis votum solvens libens 
merito. 




The spelling of the sculptor of this altar is barbarous. The addition 
of nympha to the title of goddess is evidence of her aquatic attributes. 



ALTAR No. 3. 

DIE COVE 
NTINAE A 

VRELIVS 

GROTVS 

GERMAN 

Expanded reading. — Deae Co- 
ventinae Aurelius Grotus Ger- 
manus. 

The use of "i " in place of " e," 
and of "e" instead of " m" in the 
word Dea3 is a barbarism. 



These two altars are dedicated by recruits to the Batavian Cohort 
from the adjoining country of Germania. 




12 



DESCEIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 



ALTAE No. 4. 

This altar is plain in its general character, and the name of the 
goddess is spelt Conventinse. 

The dedicator is probably a recruit who takes, or makes, for him- 
self a Roman name of warlike sound. 




DIIAII 

CONVENTI 

NAE BELLICVS 

V-S -L-M-P 



Expanded reading. — 

Deae 

Coventi- 

naB Bellicus 

votum solvens libens merito 

posuit. 



The letters "e" in the word Deae on this altar are each represented 
by two down strokes or letters (ii), a singularity which sometimes occurs 
in Roman inscriptions, and on this altar and also on No. 7 the goddess 
is called Conventina, a peculiarity which is probably due to the 
ignorance of the sculptor. 



DISCOVERED NEAE TO. PROCOLITIA. 
ALTAR No. 5. 



13 



This altar brings under our notice a cohort not previously met 
with on Hadrian's Wall. 



DEAE CO 

VENTINE 
COH I CVBE 
ENORVM 
AVE CAMP 
EST EE (?) 
V . . . . 




Expanded reading. — Deas 
Coventinge Cohors prima Cuber- 
norum Aurelius Campestris (?) 



The lettering of the first four 
lines of this inscription is good ; 
that of the three last confased. 



The First Cohort of the Cugerni, or Cuberni, a people of Belgic 
Gaul, was one of the auxiliary cohorts serving in Britain in the 
Eoman army. It was in Britain in the times of Trajan and Hadrian, 
and is included in the diplomas of citizenship granted by these 
emperors ; it was in Scotland at the time of the building of the 
Antonine wall there, as appears from an inscription given by Horsley 
(Scot., XXV.) ; in all these instances it is called Cugerni. Tacitus, 
speaking of this people (Hist., Y., 16, 18), calls them Gugerni; Pliny, 
in his Natural History (lY., 31), denominates them Guherni. There 
are some more letters on the altar,- bearing probably the rank of the 
commanding officer of the cohort, but the letters are too indistinct 
to admit of a satisfactory reading. 



14 



DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 




ALTAR No. 6. 

DAE COVEN 

VI ? • NOMATI 

VS V'S-L-M 

Expanded reading. — Dea6 
Coventinge . . . Nomatius votum 
solvit libens merito. 

This altar has on its front a 
female face, and also the pecu- 
liarity of a square focus, a pe- 
culiarity which is not confined 
to this altar. The face is with- 
out doubt meant to represent 
the features of the goddess. 

ALTAR No. 7. 

DE CONVE 

NT 



OPTIO CH 

GERMAN? 



The letters on this altar 
are very much defaced, and 
nothing can be collected 
from them except that it 
was dedicated to the god- 
dess Coventina by an officer 
of the rank of optio, or 
lieutenant ; the name of 
the goddess appears to 
have the letter "n" in the 
first syllable, as on altar 
No. 4. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



15 



ALTAll No. 8. 



The focus of this altar is more than usually elaborate ; the stone 
has been discoloured by contact with copper. 



DEAE CO 

VETNE GR 

OTVS VTIB 

ES S L V PRO 

SA 



Expanded reading. — Deae 
Coventinae Grotus Utibes solvit 
libens votum pro salute.^ 




The letters on this altar have been very unskilfully executed by 
the sculptor, and there must be considerable uncertainty as to the 
reading of the inscription. 

There are two more inscribed altars dedicated to the goddess 
Coventina, but they are so much defaced that the inscriptions, beyond 



' This expansion of the inscription was given in the original paper as uncertain. 
In the first place it is not clear whether the name of the dedicator is Grotus or 
Crotus ; the six letters which follow are distinct, but their meaning is not clear. 
The dedicator was doubtless a recruit from one of the barbarous nations, and, 
probably, the letters which follow Grotus or Crotus may indicate his connection 
with the Utus, a river which falls into the Danube ; or the town of Utum, situate 
upon that river. It has also been suggested that the first letter of Utibes may be 
" V," the initial letter of Votum, one of the words of dedication with which inscrip- 
tions on altars generally conclude, but we find that letter in the last line, which is 
its proper place. 



16 



DESCfilPTION OF ROMAJ^ REMAINS 



the name of the goddess, cannot be satisfactorily read. They are 
represented in the next two wood cuts, from a desire that every object 
on which there are the sHghtest remains of an inscription should be 
brought before the Society. 



ALTAR No. 9. 




DEAE COVEN 
TINE .... 
NVS 

. : . VOTVM 



This altar is unusually ornate. It bears on the face of its capital 
a series of pointed arches. On one of its sides is sculptured a branch, 
and on the other a genius having a comucopiae in the left hand and a 
coronal wreath in the other. 



DISCOVEEED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



17 



ALTAR No. 10. 

This altar has the peculiarity noticed on the votive tablet, viz., 
the use of a double " v " in the name of the goddess. The title of Dea is 
not given to her ; probably the title Augusta followed the name and 
has been obhterated. 



CO WEN 



V • s • L • M 




This altar, like an altar to Fortune found at Procolitia some time 
since, has an iron ring fastened into its focus by means of lead. This 
has probably been for the purpose of carrying or suspending the altar. 
Most of the remaining altars appear to have never had any inscription, 
and some of them are only partly finished in workmanship. 

The only remaining inscribed altar found in this reservoir is a 
small altar dedicated to Minerva, by a Eoman soldier, bearing the 

c 



18 



DESCRIPTION OF ROMAII REMAIN'S 



.name of Venice ; the lettering of which is evidently not the work of 
a man of letters. 



■I ICO- 1 
K S 



ALTAR No. 11. 




1 DIE M 




H INER 




■ VE VE 




1 NICO 




1 PR S 




POS S V 




Expanded reading. - 


- Dese 


Minervse Venico pro salute 


posuit 


solvens votum. 





An altar to Minerva could not 
have been placed in the weU in 
compliment to Coventiua, what- 
ever may have been the object of 
placing in the well the altars dedi- 
cated to Coventiua herself. 



This seems to be a fit opportunity for bringing before this Society 
another altar dedicated to Minerva, which, since the publication of the 
" Lapidarium Septentrionale," has been found in the Station of Pro- 
colitia. It is a large well-shaped altar, and the lettering is good. The 
letters are — minervae q vnias pr coh. ci vslm. The following 
reading is suggested for consideration — Miuervae Quintus Unias Prae- 
fectus Cohortis Civium votum solvit libens merito. 

The auxiliary cohorts in the Eoman service frequently add to their 
title that of Gives Romani, having received from the Emperor the 
grant of citizenship; but there is no example found in Britain of a 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 19 

cohort styled Cohors Civium Romanorum. Several examples have 
been found on the continent. In the present case we have, apparently, 
a cohort styled simply Cohors Civium. Perhaps this may be regarded 
as an example of the cohors Urbana holding an intermediate position 
between regular troops and an armed pohoe. 

The writer has thus laid before the Society an inadequate descrip- 
tion of this extraordinary deposit of Roman objects. To examine 
eflFectually many thousand coins, nearly all more or less defaced, is a 
work of years rather than of days. The great variety of the objects 
deposited, and their singular intermixture, seem to defy any certainty 
of conjecture as to the past history or use of the well or reservoir in 
which they were found. We find coins, extending over more than 
three hundred years, twenty-four altars uninjured (except by wear), 
many unbroken vases, and a vast quantity of fragments of Samian 
ware of ornate character; we find enamelled brooches, and gilded beads, 
and mixed with these the tusks of wild boars, the horns of deer, and 
the bones of oxen and sheep. All that is attempted at present is to 
submit the facts to the consideration of antiquaries. 



20 DESCEIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 



CONTINUATION OF DESCRIPTION OF, AND REMARKS ON, 
THE TEMPLE OF COVENTINA AND ITS CONTENTS. 



Read 2nd August, 1877, by John Clayton, Esq. 



At the monthly meeting of this Society, held on the 2nd December last, 
a paper was read descriptive of a well or receptacle for water, and its 
multifarious contents, Avhich had been discovered in the month of 
October preceding, near to the station of Procolitia, on the Roman 
Wall, and which well or reservoir was, from its contents, supposed to 
have been within a temple of a water goddess bearing the name of 
COVENTINA, a divinity which had not previously been known or heard 
of. 

The object of that paper was to present to this Society an accurate 
statement of facts, and to invite the expression of the riews and 
opinions of antiquarians and scholars on the subject. 

The invitation so given has been largely accepted, and during the 
present summer the remains of the temple in which the well is placed 
have been exhumed, so that we now have before us the materials neces- 
sary for arriving at our own conclusions, which it is proposed that we 
should now endeavour to do, with due respect to the opinions of others, 
without assuming to ourselves infallibility. 

The wetness of the spring and early summer has delayed till this 
month the completion of the excavation around the weU ; the result of 
that excavation is to confirm the conjecture that the well had stood 
within a temple. The outer walls of the temple have been found 
standing to some extent, which put us in possession of a perfect outline 
of the building. A ground plan is now laid before the Society. 

The question which presents itself for our consideration, in the 
first instance, would seem to be : By whom was this temple of the 
goddess Coventina founded ? 



GROUND PLAN OFTHETEMPLEOFCONVENTINA, ATPROCOLITIA 



\ 



/ 



/ 



\ 




10 3876B4. 321 



7654. 3210 



Scale ofFeeb. 



,AjiJTR,eJA Se>KAs6e. 



DISCOVEEED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 21 

It certainly was not founded by the native Britons, for at the time 
of its foundation (which will be found to be tolerably certain), a few 
years only had elapsed since " Wild in woods the noble savage ran." 
The views and appetites of the Ancient Britons at that time would be 
altogether mundane, and they would be most unlikely to give any of 
their attention to an invisible goddess. 

So euphonious a name as Coventina would scarcely occur to the 
gallant Dutchmen, of whom were composed the rank and file of the 
First Batavian cohort which formed the garrison of Procolitia, and 
moreover, being troubled at home with a superfluity of water, they 
would have no predilection for a water deity. 

The founding of the temple of Coventina must be ascribed to the 
Eoman officers of the Batavian cohort, who had left a country where 
" the sun shines every day," and where, in Pagan times, springs and 
running waters were objects of adoration. 

So far there can be little difference of opinion. The next question 
which arises, viz., the derivation of the name of the goddess Coventina, 
admits of a variety of opinions. 

The goddess was a local goddess, and her worship has been con- 
fined to the locality ; no altar has been raised to her divinity elsewhere 
than at Procolitia ; the root of the name might therefore be expected 
to be found in some local object, or event, and in the Celtic language. 
Dr. "Wake Smart, of Cranbomne, suggests a Celtic (or Keltic) deri- 
vation from " Cover," in the Celtic language *' a rivulet or head of a 
rivulet ;" he adds that the iuitial letters "g" and "c" are often inter- 
changeably used, and that Roman ingenuity has supplied the rest of 
the name. 

Our colleague. Dr. Hooppell (strong in Celtic lore), takes a different 
view of a Celtic derivation. "Cof," pronounced "Cov" in the Celtic 
language, means memory ; and " Cofen," in that language pronounced 
" Coven," means a memorial. The temple might have been reared in 
memory of some event. 

Our colleague, Mr. Carr-Ellison, in a very learned paper read at a 
meeting of our Society, held on the 6 th February last, which -Rill be 
recorded in our proceedings, and therefore need not be repeated, sug- 
gested a Greek derivation for the goddess. 

Mr. Roach Smith, the distinguished antiquarian, contributes a 



22 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

suggestion that the goddess derived her name from the Convenae, a 
people of Aquitania, in Gaul, inhabiting a country abounding in 
springs and in rivulets. The first cohort of Aquitani was part of the 
forces employed in building the Roman Wall, and has left in the 
station of Procolitia a record of its presence there.^ 

From another source we receive a suggestion that the Roman officer 
who took the lead in the creation of the goddess and her temple, might 
possibly have named the goddess after some divine creature, the object 
of his adoration in Italy, who had declined to share his lot amongst the 
barbarians, " divisos ab orle Britannos" but to whom he continued 
to be devoted. 

None of these suggested derivations can be considered as conclu- 
sive, and the derivation of the name of the goddess may, without 
inconvenience, remain an open question ; but from whatever source 
derived, the name of Coventina must be admitted to be a female name 
of harmonious sound. Mr. Frank Buckland recommends its adoption 
as the Christian name of infant beauties hereafter bom on the banks 
of the Tyne.2 The only objection to the name is its length, but as the 
Roman practice no longer exists which required the admirer of a lady 
to drink to her in a bumper for every letter in her name — 

"Naevia sex cyathis, septem Justina bibatur." 

the length of the name is less objectionable than it was in Roman times. 

"We have not yet heard of an instance of the adoption of the recom- 
mendation of Mr. Frank Buckland in the case of a young lady bom 
on the banks of the Tyne, but we have heard of its adoption in 
christening a yacht. 

The history of the temple of the goddess Coventina, from its opening 
to its close, is connected with the historical events of the period, in re- 
ferring to which we may safely rely upon the authority of our great 
Roman historians. Gibbon and Merivale, who make no statement for 
which there are not sufficient grounds ; with their aid, and with the 
information which we have obtained, and the light which is thrown on 
the subject by antiquarians and scholars, we will endeavour to trace 
that history. 

* Vid. " Lapidarium Septentrionale," No. 158. 
« See " Land and Water," No. 570, 23rd October, 1876. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 28 

The facilities for similar establishments afforded by the Polytheism 
of the Pagan religion, on which the French writer, Bossuet, tersely 
observes, " Tout etait Dieu excepU Dieu lui meme" have afforded us 
means of learning much by comparison. 

At the meeting in December last, our friend and distinguished 
feUow-labourer in the field of antiquities. Canon GreenweU, called our 
attention to the discovery of the temple of the water goddess sequana 
at one of the sources of the Eiver Seine. 

We have now before us an able and full report of the discovery and 
excavation of the remains of that temple, by Monsieur Henri Baudot, 
President of the Conunission of Antiquities of the Department de la 
Cote d'Or. 

We collect from this report that, during the period of the Eoman 
occupation in Gaul, at one of the sources of the river Sequana (now 
the Seine), there was reared a temple to a water goddess, to Avhom the 
name of Sequana was given. 

We have lately found that, during the period of Eoman rule in 
Britain, at one of the sources of a rivulet flowing into the Eiver South 
Tyne, was reared a temple to a water goddess, to whom the name of 
Coventina was given. 

So far the cases of the two goddesses are alike. We must pursue 
their subsequent histories separately, and we shall find that they throw 
light on each other. 

In the month of May, 1836, the excavation of the temple of the 
goddess Sequana was commenced. The outline of the edifice was dis- 
tinctly traced, and within the exterior walls were found cells or small 
rooms, which the French antiquarian terms "cellae oupetites chapelles." 

Altars and objects of sculpture were found scattered about the 
ruins of the building, and beneath the floor of one of the cells or little 
chapels was found a large earthenware vessel, bearing on its neck the 
inscription, "Deae Sequanae Eufus donavit." This vessel is of the 
shape and size of those vessels which were used amongst the Eomans 
for containing oil or wine, and with its then contents had doubtless 
been at some period presented to the goddess by an individual bearing 
the name of Eufus. This vessel, when found in 1836, was empty, 
save in respect of a small earthenware vase ; and scattered around it were 
120 thin plates of bronze and silver, chiefly representing parts of the 



24 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

human body, and that class of objects to which antiquarians apply 
the term " ex voto." In the small vase were found 836 coins, of which 
285 were illegible, leaving 551 which were deciphered, of which more 
than one half were coins of Tetricus and his son,i and the rest extended 
over the period from Augustus down to Gratian, both inclusive, with the 
addition of a single coin of Magnus Maximus, the assassin of Gratian, 
and the usurper who took possession of and held Gaul, Spain, and Britain 
for about three years. These coins are supposed to represent the state 
of the treasury of the priests of the temple at the time of its destruction. 
The Pagan priests, who looked upon religion as a trade by which they 
must Uve, were always ready to promote the erection of temples to 
popular deities, and to attract offerings to them. 

No coins or other objects were found in the sacred weU or in the 
running waters inclosed within the walls of the temple. 

The French antiquaries do not hesitate to impute to the Christians 
the destruction of the temple of the goddess Sequana, and they seem 
to have sufficient grounds for that conclusion. They find in the ruins 
of the temple unmistakeable marks of destruction by fire, and they find 
the altars and objects of sculpture purposely mutilated ; and they give the 
date of the destruction as shortly before the close of the fourth century. 

A reference to the events of history will assist us in forming a 
judgment of the correctness of the assumptions of the French anti- 
quarians. 

The Emperor Gratian was a sincere Christian, but being a man of 
inactive mind, and, devoting all his energies to hunting and shooting, 
he made no effort to advance the Christian, or repress the Pagan 
religion. In his lifetime he gave up the Eastern Empire to Theodosius, 
a zealous Christian, who deemed it to be his mission on earth to exter- 
minate the Pagan superstition, which he did very effectually in. the 
Eastern Empire. On the murder of Gratian, in the year 383, 
his assassm, Magnus Maximus, took possession of Gaul, Spain, and 
Britain, and held them for three years, when, ambitious of wider 
dominions, he invaded Italy with a view to dethrone Valentinianus, the 
youthful brother of Gratian, and his successor as Emperor of the West. 

' The usurpation of Tetricus and his son continued from the year 268 to 273, 
when they surrendered themselves and their usurped dominions to Aurelius. — Vid. 
Gibbon's " Decline and Fall of the lloman Empire," Vol. II., cap. xi. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 25 

Yalentinianus invoked the aid of Theodosiiis, who came to his aid with 
the legions of the East ; and after the destruction of Magnus Maximus 
and his army in the year 386, became, in fact, the master of the Western 
as well as the Eastern Empire. Theodosius lost no time in applying to 
the Western Empire the system which he had successfully pursued 
in the Empire of the East, and the historian Gibbon thus speaks of the 
result: — "The ruin of Paganism in the age of Theodosius is perhaps 
the only example of the total extinction of an ancient and popular 
superstition, and may, therefore, deserve to be considered as a singular 
event in the history of the human mind." ^ 

In Gaul, the edicts of Theodosius seem to have been promptly acted 
upon. It is recorded in history, that " The holy Martin, Bishop of 
Tom-s, marched at the head of his faithful monks to destroy the idols, 
temples, and the consecrated trees of his extensive diocese." 

The same process was adopted by the Bishops of other dioceses, as 
well as by the holy Martin, and the temple of the goddess Sequana was 
demolished. 

In the temple of Sequana nothing escaped destruction but the 
large earthenware vessel and its contents, including the vase con- 
taining the coins, which had been, doubtless, placed by the priests of 
the temple iu a place of concealment when they heard of the fate of 
Magnus Maximus, and the termination of his Italian expedition, by 
means of the intervention of Theodosius. 

We are indebted to more than one con-espondent for reference to 
(and we were ourselves aware of it) a recent discovery in France, at the 
town of Bom-bonne les Bains, in the department of the Haute Marne. 
We have before us a full account of the discovery, from the pen of 
Mons. L'Abbe Auguste Doby. The learned -«Titer teUs us that the 
name of the place was at one time Aquse Borvonis, and afterwards 
successively Borvona, Borbona, Borbone, and at length Bourbonnc. 

It appears that at various times, in the town of Bourbonne les 
Bains, and in the vicinity of the baths, there have been found altars 
and votive tablets to a God called Borvonis, and a female Deity called 
Damona ; they are sometimes joined in the same dedication, and are 
sometimes the objects of separate dedications. The joint dedications 

' See Gibbon's " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," Vol. V., cap. xxvii. 

D 



26 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

are expressed deo borvoni et damonae ; in the separate dedication to 
Damona, she is styled AUGUSTA. 

The waters being thermal, the two Celtic words hor hot, and ivona 
a fountain, are suggested as forming the root of the names of the god 
and the town. 

In the month of January, 1876, in the course of some structural 
alterations connected with the thermal waters, there were found in a 
part of the structure which had been used by the Romans, 4,512 Roman 
coins, of which 4,214 were of bronze, 294 were of silver, and four of 
gold. No catalogue of the coins is given, but we collect that they 
commence with Augustus, and end Avith Honorius, the son of 
Theodosius. At the bottom of this deserted space were found 
votive tablets to Borvonis and Damona. The Pagan establishment at 
Bourbonne les Bains, seems to have escaped destruction for a few 
years beyond that of the goddess Sequana, a circumstance which might 
be due to respect for the sanitary qualities of the waters, and the absence 
of any temple to excite the passions of the destroyers of Paganism. 

We now tiuTi to Italy for precedents. 

A correspondent of the " Newcastle Chronicle," who takes for his 
signature the initial letters of the formal words of dedication, v • s • L • m, 
and whose suggestions are those of a scholar and a gentleman, calls 
our attention to the Ode of Horace addressed to the Fountain of Ban- 
dusia, one of those terse and sparkling odes of the great Roman lyrio 
poet, which, from youth to age, remain impressed on the memory : — 

fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero, non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis haedo, 
Cui frons turgida cornibus 

Primis et Venerem et proelia destinat, 
Frustra; nam gelidos iiificiet tibi 

Rubro sanguine rivos 

Lascivi suboles gregis. 

—Ode 13th, 3rd Book of Horace's Odes. 

In the first stanza the poet addresses the fountain as brighter than 
glass, and worthy of offerings of sweet wine and flowers. 

The second stanza is happily rendered in English by an accom- 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 27 

plished classical scholar, our noble President, the Earl of Eavensworth: — 

" A wanton kid with crested head. 

For love or war prepared in vain. 
Shall, with his life-blood newly shed, 

Tliy pure and sparkling current stain." 

— Vide translation of the Odes of Horace by Lord Ravensworth. 

The poet would seem to have contemplated the deposit in the 
stream of the blood only of the victim, which would soon be washed 
away, otherwise the fountain would soon have ceased to be brighter 
than glass. The priests or other curators of the fountain would 
doubtless utilize the flesh of the kid. 

We are indebted to the same gentleman for a reference to the case 
of the river Clitumnus and its temple, and for an accurate translation of 
the descriptive passage in the Epistles of the younger Pliny, from 
which we learn that offerings of coins were seen glittering in the bed of 
the river Clitumnus, rendered distinctly visible by the purity and 
brightness of its waters, and this is the first example which has been 
brought to our notice of the deposit of money as an offering in the bed 
of the stream. 

Yirgil also speaks of the sacred waters of the Clitumnus, not as 
receiving the offering, but as used to sprinkle the victim for sacrifice. 

" Hinc albi Clitumne greges, et maxima taurus 
Victima, ssepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro, 
Komanos ad templa Deum duxere triuniphos." 
"Virgil Georg," Lib 11., 146. 

Many a traveller is drawn to the Umbria of the ancients by the 
attractions of its capital Perugia, and few of them have not seen and 
admired the glassy purity of its ri^-er Clitumnus, which still deserves 
the epithets " purus et vitreus " applied to it by Pliny, and continues 
" a mirror and a bath for beauty's youngest daughters," as described by 
Byron. 

Our attention has been also drawn to a discovery which was made 
in the year 1852, at the Acque ApoUinari, a watering place about 
thirty miles distant from Rome. 

We have now before us a clear and minute description of that 
discovery, and its attendant circumstances, wiitten by an able but 
modest Italian, who gives us only his initials, which appears to have been 
printed at Rome at the Tipografia delle belle Arti, in 1852, under the 



28 DESCRIPTION OF EOMAN REMAINS 

title of "La Stipe Tributata alle Divinita delle Acque Apollinari." 
" The money paid in homage to the Divinities of the Acque Apollinari." 

These waters are thermal waters, having medicinal properties, and are 
distant according to the Itinerary of Antoninus, thirty-four Eoman miles 
from Rome, on the road to Cosa, in Etruria. They are still in repute for 
their medicinal virtues, and in the course of some alterations made in the 
modem building in the beginning of the year 1852, was discovered an 
abandoned receptacle of the thermal waters which was strewed with 
metallic objects, of copper or brass, apparently representing monies of 
very rude character. On the 22nd January, 1852, the Italian Savant 
from whom we quote, inspected them personally, and came to the 
conclusion that they were the tribute paid by the Pagans frequenting 
the baths to the Divinities, Guardians of the Fountain; and in support 
of that conclusion refers to the practice of the Eoman citizens to pay 
tribute to the Lake Cm-zio for the safety of Octavius Caesar, recorded 
by Suetonius, to the practice of the Egyptians (according to Seneca), 
to pay tribute to the Nile, and that of the Etruscans, to the Lake of 
Falterona, as well as of the Umbrians to the river Clitumnus, as 
described by Pliny. The Italian writer then proceeds to give us a 
general description of the " monies discovered," to the greater part of 
which he ascribes a prehistoric date, " ad una Eta anteriore alia nostra 
istoria," for the most pai't without inscription, and passing by weight ; 
and he brings them down no lower than the fourth century after the 
foundation of the city of Eome. Whether the deposits were made before 
or after this abandoned reservoir ceased to be used for its original 
purposes cannot now be ascertained, but it seems improbable in this case, 
as well as in the case of Borvona, that waters, having medicinal pro- 
perties, should have been polluted by enormous deposits of copper. 

In this abandoned reservoir were also found a quantity of cups 
and other vessels of bronze, and some of silver ; a correspondent of the 
newspapers describes them as vessels of gold and silver. Visions of 
Dr. Schliemann and Mycense have disturbed our notions of metals. 

Having thus investigated the several cases which have occurred 
abroad which can be considered in any degree analogous to the present 
case, finally we must consider discoveries in Britain where the worship 
of water deities, and of springs and running waters seems to have 
been less popular than in warmer climates. 

In the month of June, 1875, in a meadow near the village of 



DISCOVEEED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 29 

Horton, in the comity of Dorset, on a gravel bed, over part of which 
flowed a streamlet, were found some perfect fictile vases, and a quantity 
of fragments of similar vases ; and lying in the gravel amongst other 
objects 139 Roman coins, of which sixty-four were incapable of 
identification, and seventy-five were deciphered, the earliest being a coin 
of Augustus, and the latest a coin of Yalens, a.d. 364, more than half 
of the whole nimiber being of the Constantine family. The coins 
are described as first, second, and third brass and minimi, and as 
being generally in the worst possible condition, and many of them 
hopelessly illegible ; we are indebted to the unerring eye and perfect 
knowledge of Mr. Roach Smith for the identification which has been 
effected. 

Dr. Wake Smart suggests that "the objects so found are the 
remains of oflFerings to the Numen, Nymph, or Genius Loci, who was 
imagined to preside over the water of that spring." 

But there are no remains of buildings indicating the existence in 
times past of any temple or other structure for the purposes of the 
worship of the divinity of the stream, or the receipt of offerings. 

One of the correspondents of the newspapers refers to the excavation 
of the bridge of Cilurnum as productive of the discovery of a deposit 
of coins. This is altogether a mistake. The fact is that the eastern 
land abutment of the bridge of Cilumum was discovered in 1800, and 
was excavated in that and the following year. Xo deposit of coins was 
discovered, but amongst the ruins of the fortifications and buildings 
connected with the bridge were picked up in diiferent places some 
scattered coins not exceeding the average number produced by exca- 
vations on Roman gromid. The excavation is recorded in the 
" Archseologia u:Eliana."i 

The last case in England to which our attention has been called is 
the discovery of Roman coins in October, 1873, on Lord Selborne's 
estate of Blackmoor Park, in Hampsliire ; a paper descriptive of which 
was read by his lordship in the Town HaU of Alton, in February, 1877. 
We have before us a copy of that paper from which we learn how ably 
an able man can deal with any subject, however new to him. 

On the 30th October, 1873, were found at a depth of two feet 
below the present surface, on Lord Selborne's estate, two earthenware 

' See Vol. "VI., p. 80, New Series of " Archseologia /Eliana." 



30 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

vases or pots, containing 29,802 Roman coins, all of the lower empire. 
Of these coins 24,985 have been identified, extending over a period of 
about fifty years, viz., from Gordian III., a.d. 238, to Constans, a.d. 
292. About 5,000 of the coins were laid aside as incapable of identi- 
fication. 

It is a singular feature in this hoard of coins, that of the 24,985 
coins which have been identified no less than 14,254 are coins of Tetricus 
and his son. 

It is not stated that these coins were near any spring or rivulet, or 
the remains of any temple or other building, and it seems probable 
that they constituted the hoard of some provident individual, who did 
not contemplate their passing into any other hands than his own. 

Having thus before us aU the information we can obtain, either at 
home or abroad, bearing on the subject, and likely to afford precedents 
for our guidance, we must now trace the history of the goddess Coven- 
tina and her temple, and its contents, and consider the peculiar 
circumstances of the present case, and how far the precedents referred 
to are applicable to it. 

The date of the foundation of the temple may, with tolerable 
certainty, be assumed to be the reign of Antoninus Pius; that 
emperor, though he protected from persecution both the Christians 
and the Jews, was himself devotedly attached to the ancient religion 
established in his country, and was in fact a sincere and devout Pagan.i 
It is natural that the spirit of the emperor should be infused into his 
subjects, and that the military prefect in command of the garrison of 
Procolitia, should be aminded to erect a Pagan temple. In the selection 
of a divinity and a site for the temple, he probably had the assistance of 
the Pagan priests. The site fixed on was at that time a wooded glade, 
through which flowed a copious stream of pure water, and the divinity 
selected was a water deity. Thus rose from earth the temple of the 
goddess Coventina ; it was buUt of stone, and by inside measurement, 
was 40 feet by 38 feet ; the recent excavation has unearthed the lower 
courses of the outer walls of the temple, which are 3 feet in thickness. 
In the middle of the space iuclosed by these walls was placed a well 
encased with substantial masonry. The dimensions of the well, since it 

* See Merivale's "Romans under the Empire," Vol. VIII., cap. Ixvii. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 31 

was first opened, are diminished to a trifling extent since the well was 
emptied, in consequence of the walls having bulged inwards. The inside 
of the well now measures 8 feet 4 inches by 7 feet 2 inches, its depth is 
at present 7 feet ; but it has originally been deeper, as a higher course 
of stones has evidently been removed, and the floor of the temple has 
evidently been higher than the present level of the ground. This must 
be ascribed to the wearing away of the soil by a constant stream of 
water flowing do\\ii the valley. The well, outside the masonry, is cased 
with clay of the thickness of about 2 feet, the effect of which would be to 
render it watertight. The depth of the well, as well as its structure, 
would seem "unfavourable to the supposition that it was intended for 
or used as a bath. Inside the walls of the temple would be placed the 
votive tablet to the goddess, recording the name and rank of the dedi- 
cator, Titus Domitius Cosconianus. Around the temple and within 
its walls, no doubt, were ranged, as in the case of the goddess Sequana, 
the altars and vases inscribed to the goddess by individual worshippers ; 
and the priests seem to have kept in store in the temple a collection of 
blank altars, some wholly and others partially finished, ready to receive 
the dedication of devotees. The temple having been thus established, 
together with its priests, seems to have prospered. Offerings came 
in, altars were inscribed and dedicated, and love-sick damsels cast 
into the well then- spare trinkets in the hope of obtaining the counte- 
nance of the goddess in their views. To these interesting ladies we 
are doubtless indebted for the brooches, rings, and beads, found in 
the well. The waste of cuiTcnt money, if thrown to any extent into the 
water by way of offering, must have been most unsatisfactory to the 
Pagan priests, and is the most difficult feature with which we have to 
deal. Such a waste of current money did not take place in the case of 
the goddess Sequana, where the coins of three centuries, evidently the 
fruits of innumerable offerings, were found collected in a vase ; and it 
is impossible to say that such a waste did take place in the fountain of 
Bandusia, in the thermal waters of Borvona, or in the Acque Appol- 
linari, but it did take place, to some extent, in rivers and lakes, in the 
Clitumnus, the Nile, and in the lakes Cirzio and Faltirona, which would 
be free from the inspection or control of the Pagan priests. 

The opening of the temple of the goddess Coventina, in the reign 
of Antoninus Pius, would, no doubt, attract devotional ofPerings of 
money, which might possibly escape the grasp of the Pagan priests, and 



32 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

be thrown into the well. To this circumstance may probably be 
ascribed the deposit in the well of some portion of coins found in it, 
and this notion is favoured by the circumstance of there being found 
amongst the coins taken out of the well, coins of the third consulate 
(a.d. 140), and of the fourth consulate (a.d. 145), of Antoninus Pius, 
which have never been in circulation. Some of these are shown in the 
Plate which is here introduced. 

The temple and the worship of the goddess Coventina would seem 
to have been maintained for more than two centuries and a half. In 
the reign of Constantine the Great, the Pagan religion received its first 
heavy blow. But Constantine was no theologian, and introduced the 
Christian religion into the Eoman army, solely from motives of policy, 
as he found his Christian more reliable than his Pagan soldiers. 

The temple stood and the priests flourished during the reigns of 
the succeeding emperors, including that of Gratian, mth whom the 
collection of coins found in the well terminates. There are found none of 
the coins of Magnus Maximus, issued during his usurpation for three 
years of Britain, Gaul, and Spain. In the year 386 the edicts of 
Theodosius for the extermination of the Pagan superstition, which had 
been enforced in the Eastern Empire were extended to the Western 
Empire. The temple of the goddess Sequana, in Gaul, was sacked and 
burnt, and the altars and objects of sculpture in it were broken and 
defaced. The priests of the goddess Coventina seem to have foreseen 
the approaching storm, and to have saved from plunder the contents 
of their treasury, and from desecration the votive tablet and altars and 
other objects then in the temple, including a dozen blank altars prepared 
for the purpose of receiving inscriptions, by depositing them for con- 
cealment in the well; there is not a fractiu'e or a scratch on any of 
them, and amongst the altars so deposited were carefully placed two 
votive vases of fragile material and delicate workmanship, which are 
quite undamaged. The priests of the temple were probably glad 
to escape with their lives from the danger of the persecution of Theo- 
dosius. The fluid state of the interior of the well would naturally lead 
to mixture and confusion in the objects deposited. 

In the absence of positive proof the date and circumstances of the 
fate of the Temple of Coventina can only be matter of conjecture. So 
far our conjecture has been founded on the precedent of the fate of the 
Temple of the goddess Sequana. The peculiar position of the Temple of 






•75 



\ ?^ 



I 












DI8C0VEEED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 38 

Coventina, under shelter of the fortress of Procohtia, on the line of 
defence against an aggressive foe, renders it not improbable that the 
deposition in the well as a place of safety may have been occasioned 
by a successful inroad of the Caledonians ; or it may be supposed to 
be possible that in this remote part of the Roman Empire the worship 
of the goddess Coventina might possibly survive the edicts of Theodosius 
for a few years, and her temple might be preserved until the Romans 
abandoned Britain, and the brave Batavian cohort, after holding a post 
of danger in the face of the Caledonians for more than two centuries 
and a half, marched with the Sixth Legion^ to confront on the soil of 
Italy the invading hordes of Attila. 

In either of the latter cases the contents of the military chest might 
be added to the contents of the treasury of the temple, and swell the 
number of the coins. 

The value of coins is due to the light they thi-ow upon history, and 
it "win be obvious that they have not been useless in the present investi- 
gation. In the paper read in December last it was stated that the 
series of coins taken from the well of Coventina commenced with 
Claudius and ended with Gratian, but that probably earlier and later 
coins might be found on further examination. No later coins than 
those of Gratian have been identified, but earlier coins have been found, 
viz., coins of Augustus, Agrippa, Tiberius, Drusus, and Germanicus, and 
three silver coins of a still earlier period, viz., three of the coins of Marcus 
Antonius the Trium-^ir, which were coined by Mark Antony in honour of 
the legions which adhered to his cause, very shortly before the fatal battle 
of Actium, from which, "yielding to the timid tear in Cleopatra's eye," 
Mark Antony (a brave man) fled before the fortunes of Octavius. The 
battle of Actium dates thirty years before the Christian era, and Gratian, 
with whose coins the collection ends, became emperor a.d. 367, and 
was assassinated a.d. 383, so that the coins in Coventina's well may 
be considered as extending over 400 years. Many of the emperors 
during that period will be found represented in the series. That re- 

' The Sixth Legion, having its liead-quarters at York, unquestionably remained 
in the North of England till the final departure of the Romans from Britain, and 
was the legion to which Claudian refers : — 

" Venit et extremis Legio prsetenta Britannis, 
Quae Scoto dat f rajna tnici, ferroque notatas 
Perleglt exsangues Picto moriente figuras," 



84 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

presentation, however, would have been more complete, but for an 
untoward eircumslance. For a whole Sunday during the time occupied 
in emptying the well, a party of thirty or forty men, chiefly miners 
from the lead districts, were in fuU possession of it, and carried 
away two or three thousands of the coins. In the peaceful and 
well ordered county of Northumberland, where all classes are united 
in respect for, and in support of, the laws of their country, such a 
raid could not have been anticipated, and the presence of a single 
policeman would have prevented it. The perpetrators, it is be- 
lieved, were under the impresston that "the coins belonged to the 
Ancient Eomans," and that there could be no harm in taking them. 
On account of numismatists, this interruption to the series is much 
to be regretted, but we may console ourselves by the reflection, that 
the coins which remain are sufiicient for the purposes of history, and 
that to the world at large it is a matter of indifference whether coins 
are rare or common, or even whether Latin bronze coins of Otho have 
been found elsewhere than at Birmingham, in which seat of manufac- 
turing industry they have been occasionally produced. 

Considerable progress has been made by Dr. Bruce, Canon Green- 
well, and our colleague Mr. Blair (a skilled numismatist), in the 
identification of the coins, and an early visit to them of Mr. Roach 
Smith, the most accomplished numismatist of the age, is expected.^ 

Amongst the numerous individuals who have given us the benefit 
of their views and opinions, one individual only has entered upon a 
criticism of the readings of the inscriptions presented to the Society in 
the paper of December last, and we gratefully receive criticism as a 
test of truth. 

The readings in question, it will be remembered, were sanctioned 
by Professor Hiibner, of the University of Berlin, one of the learned 
men selected for the compilation of that great German work, the 
"Latin Inscriptions of the World," and by our colleague. Dr. Bruce, of 
whose high qualification and eminent fitness to deal with the subject, the 
fruits of a whole life devoted to it, we are every one of us fully sensible. 

The critic referred to is a gentleman of Liverpool, who addresses 

' Mr. Roach Smith has since, with the assistance of Mr. Blair and Dr. Bruce, 
made a thorough examination of the coins, and the result of that eminent anti- 
(juarian and numismatist's examinaticm is now appended to this paper. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 85 

a letter to the editor of the "Newcastle Daily Chronicle," which appears 
in the publication of that newspaper of the 27th December, 1876. 
The critic begins with the announcement of the grave fact, that " with the 
readings and expansions of the inscriptions he is by no means satisfied." 
. The gravity of the situation thus produced is, however, much miti- 
gated by the statement which follows of the grounds of dissatisfaction, 
which we will proceed to examine. 

The first in order of the objects of criticism are the inscriptions on 
the two unique fictile vases presented to the goddess as oflFerings by 
Satuminus Gabinius ; these inscriptlbns have been incised by some 
sharp pointed instrument on the clay of which the vase is composed 
whilst still wet, and the letters of the inscriptions are divided amongst 
the panels of the vases. 

We must not forget that in reading these inscriptions we are 
reading the manuscript of a potter and not of a scholar. 

The critic deals first with the vase No. 1, and asks " what meaning 
does Mr. Clayton put upon votv manibvs svis ?i It is obvious 
that the potter has omitted the final letter of Votum for want of room 
on the panel of the vase on which the syllable is \\Titten, and it surely 
cannot be necessary to remind this gentleman that the Latin word 
Votum is used to express the object offered to the deity, as weU as the 
vow to offer it, or to ask him to open his Virgil for an example. 

" Lustramurque Jovi, votisque incendimus aras." 

Vide " Virgil ^neid," Lib. III., 279. 

With this knowledge no one can have any difficulty in reading, and 
understanding this inscription. 

The critic takes exception to the form of some of the potter's letters, 
which we need not notice, and then gives us his own construction of 
the inscription as "a dedication to the goddess ly a vow to her shades ! ! ! 
This is " what the critic makes" of Votv Manibvs Svis.^ There is not, 

' The precise language of the critic, transcribed from his letter appearing in the 
"Newcastle Daily Chronicle" of the 27th December, 1876, is this, " What meaning 
does Mr. Clayton put upon totv manibvs stis, especially when it follotvs a 
dedication to the goddess ? ' To Coventina Augusta, hy a vow to her shades,' is, to 
say the least of it, very singular. ..." 

* If the critic had been a grammarian, he would have known that Manibts Svis 
belonged not to the goddess, but to the dedicator the potter, and then it might have 
occurred to him that the potter would have more occasion for his hands than for his 
shades in manufacturing his pots. 



86 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

and there cannot be the sKghtest difficulty or doubt as to any part of 
this inscription, as will be made apparent by a repetition of its letters 
and of the reading: — 

COVENTINA AGVSTA VOTV 
MA2IIBVS SVIS SATVRNINVS FECIT GABINIVS. 

The reading — 

COVENTINAE AVGVSTAE VOTVM MANIBV8 SVIS SATVRNINVS FECIT 

GABINIVS. 

The translation is obvious to the meanest capacity — " Satuminus 
Gabinius with his own hands made [this] offering to Coventina 
Augusta." 

This is "the meaning which Mr. Clayton puts on Votv Manibvs 
Svis." 

The peculiarity of the separation of the first from the second name 
of the dedicator by the interposition of the verb fecit confounds the 
critic. 

This peculiarity, however, may be easily and satisfactorily accounted 
for. From the skill displayed in the construction of the vase, the dedi- 
cator must have been a skilled artist, and must have acquired some 
celebrity in the exercise of his craft; he would probably be known in 
the Eoman camp as " Satuminus Fictor," Saturninus the potter, and 
his second name would be little used and little knoTvn. The dedicator, 
writing on the soft clay, probably in the first instance concluded the 
sentence with " Saturninus fecit," but it then occurred to him that he 
was not sufficiently identified, and that his second name must be added. 
He was unwilling to attempt to erase what he had inscribed on the 
clay and felt that he answered his purpose by placing it after the 
verb. 

The vase No. 2 next passes through the process of criticism. The 
critic says " Mr. Clayton does not give the inscription on this vase." 
What Mr. Clayton says of this inscription is that " it was a barbarous 
abbreviation of the inscription on vase No. 1." The critic persists in 
his objection to the form of the potter's letters, but he tells us that he 
collects from this inscription that Saturninus was the donor, and 
Gabinius the maker of the vase, which he says "accounts for the 



DISCOVEEED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 87 

position of the verb 'fecit' on the inscription on vase No. 1 between 
the two names of Saturninus and Gabinius " ! ! ! ^ 

By means of a transcript of the letters taken from the vase itself 
and a proper reading and expansion of those letters we shall be able to 
ascertain whether this inscription was rightly treated by Mr. Clayton 
as an abbreviation of the inscription on vase No. 1, or whether the 
light thro^^Ti upon it by the critic is a true light. 

The letters are somewhat barbarous in shape and much inferior in 
distinctness to those which we find in the inscription on vase No. 1 ; 
but, substantially, there is no doubt about their meaning and effect, 
nor can there be substantially any doubt about the reading and expan- 
sion. 

The letters are — 

V CV GST SATVENI GABINIVS. 

The reading — 

VOTVM COVENTINAE AVGVSTAE SATVENINUS GABINIVS. 

Translation — 
An offering to Coventina Augusta — Saturninus Gabinius.^ 

It is but an act of justice to the literary reputation of the potter 
to say that though he omits several letters in both inscriptions he intro- 
duces into neither of these a single ^Tong letter. 

The critic next takes in hand the votive tablet. 

The votive table is dedicated to the goddess Coventina by t. d. 
COSCONIANVS, the Prefect in command of the First Cohort of Bata\aans. 
As the inscription given supplies only the initial letters of the two first 
names of the Prefect they can only be expanded by reference to the 
names occurring elsewhere. We are indebted to the world-wide ex- 
perience of Professor Hiibner for the expansion of Titus Domitius. 
With this, however, our critical friend " is not by any means satisfied." 
In the first place, he insists upon the Prefect having four names in- 
stead of three, which addition he effects by converting a full stop, which 
follows the first initial letter " t " into one of the horizontal strokes of the 

' If the critic had been a scholar, he would have known that the interposition 
of words between the two names of the same individual not unfrequently occurs in 
the classics, and an example will be found in the first Ode in the Fourth Book of 
the Odes of Horace. The poet interposes several words between the two names of 
his friend, Paulus Maximus, without disturbing the sense. 

^ There is some doubt whether what appears to be the letter " v" may not be 
what is called a leaf -stop. This is, however, quite immaterial, as, if votvm is not 
expressed, it must be understood. 



38 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

letter "f," he thus interpolates flavius, he converts Professor Hiibner's 
Domitius into Decimus/ and, in happy self-confidence, gives us as the 
Prefect's names, "titvs flavivs decimvs cosconianvs." 

The inscription on altar No. 1 is allowed to pass M-ithout comment. 
The altar No 2, which is dedicated by a German recruit, is not so 
fortunate as to escape criticism ; but the only question seems to 
be whether the name of the dedicator, which on the stone is 
MA DVHVS, is to be read manlivs dvhvs, as expanded by Professor 
Hiibner, or madvnvs, as expanded by the Liverpool critic. If 
the recruit had been from Lancashire or Cheshire, the Liverpool 
authority would have been properly resorted to ; but as the recruit 
was from Germany, a reference to an authority at Berlin would seem 
on this occasion to be more to the purpose ; and whether the recruit 
used either one or the other name seems to be an immaterial fact. 

No objection is offered to the readings of the inscriptions on the 
remaining altars, save to that on altar No. 8, which was offered with 
difi&dence in consequence of the unskilfulness of the sculptor. 

Whatever doubt may exist as to the right reading of this inscrip- 
tion, it is quite clear that the reading of the critic is wrong. His 
amendment consists in reading the first letter of what appears to be a 
proper name as the first letter of the initials v s l M, with which the 
dedication of altars almost uniformly concludes, overlooking the cir- 
cumstance that the letter " v " occurs in a subsequent part of the inscrip- 
tion which is properly its place. 

Having thus gone through the several objections taken to the read- 
ings of the several inscriptions sanctioned by Professor Hiibner and Dr. 
Bruce, and placed before the Society on the 2nd of December last, we 
arrive at the conclusion that none of these objections are tenable. 

The owner of the well of Coventina and its contents presents to the 
Society engravings of the principal objects described, from which the 
accuracy of the description may be tested, and also of some minor ob- 
jects found in the well (already referred to, page 4), particularly a 
miniature bust in bronze of the goddess, which does justice to her 
features, which are somewhat flattened in the stone representation of 
them on the Votive Tablet. This bust is accompanied by two other 

' The critic, if he be at all versed in Roman nomenclature, must know that 
Decimus like Titus is a prsBnomen, and therefore, here entirely out of place. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 89 

bronze busts found with it, busts personifying mirth and melancholy, 
L'Allegro, and II Penseroso, the broad grin on the face of the one, and 
the length of visage of the other, are highly comic. 



At our meeting of the 2nd December last the attention of the 
Society was drawn to an altar to Minerva, which had been found at 
Procolitia since the publication of the " Lapidarium Septentrionale ; " 
this altar is dedicated by the prefect of a cohort, indicated by the letters 
COH. CI. The same critic in his letter to the press of the 20th of 
December last refers to a suggestion which he had made sometime 
previously to the effect that the letters "c i" must be expanded either 
" Celtiberorum" or " Cugernorum." However valuable may be this 
suggestion, we must be excused if we hesitate to accept it as conclusive. 
The Fnst Cohort of the Celtiberi was in Britain in the reign of Trajan, 
A.D. 106, as is evidenced by the diploma of that emperor, of that date 
(vide " Lapidarium Septentrionale, page 5"), but it has left no other 
record of its presence in Britain, and at the date of the "Xotitia Im- 
perii" this cohort was in Italy stationed in the province of Yenetia 
inferior. 

The First Cohort of the Cugerni, who are sometimes caUed Cuberni, 
is named in the diploma of Trajan, and is also named in the diploma 
of Hadrian, a.d. 124 (vide "Lapidarium Septentrionale," p. 7), as one 
of the cohorts of the army serving in Britain under Aulus Platorius 
Nepos, and doubtless employed in building the Eoman Wall. On an 
altar found in the well, the First Cohort of the Cugerni have inscribed 
on the face of the altar their national name at full length. In cases 
where the nationality of a cohort or an ala is expressed by a contrac- 
tion it almost uniformly consists of three letters, as bat. for Batavi and 
AST. for Astures ; and it seems probable that if either of these two 
cohorts had been the cohort dedicating this altar, and had adopted the 
unusual course of expressing its nationality by two letters, those letters 
would have been either c e. or c u. and not c i. as on the stone. 

Antiquarians in general are of opinion that two letters do not afford 
sufficient grounds for any conclusion, and we must hope that a stone 
may be found on which the cohort may give us more letters of its 
name. 



40 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 



OBSERVATIONS OF DE. BEUCE IN PRESENTING THE 
SUBSEQUENT PAPER TO THE SOCIETY. 

I HAVE to submit to the Society a paper prepared by Mr. C. Roach 
Smith upon the coins found in Coventina's Fountain at Procohtia. 
Those who looked upon the enormous mass of coin (for the most part 
in a highly corroded condition) when it was first brought to Mr. Clay- 
ton's residence, at Chesters, were disposed to despair of ever being 
able to give an intelligent account of it. By persevering diligence and 
hard work, the task has at last been accomplished. Canon Greenwell, 
Mr. Blair, of South Shields, and myself did a good deal (Mr. Blair 
especially) to reduce the heap to order and to arrange the several coins 
under the heads of the different emperors. Mr. C. Roach Smith, 
whose skill as a numismatist and extensive archaeological knowledge, 
especially in the Roman field, are weU known, then examined the 
whole, and has embodied his views in a paper which will be printed in 
the "Archaeologia ^hana." This paper I now submit to the 
meeting. 

The first part of it contains a tabular view of the coins, shoTving 
the number of gold, silver, and first, second, and third brass pieces 
belonging to each emperor. As this is scarcely adapted for reading 
aloud, I wdU here give a brief summary of it. 

The number of coins resulting from this "find" in Mr. Clayton's 
possession is 13,487 ; of these about two thousand are unrecognisable 
in consequence of wear and corrosion. In addition to these, at least 
three thousand came into the hands of other parties. The whole 
amount of treasure in the well must have been at least fifteen or six- 
teen thousand. 

Four gold coins are amongst the number — one of Nero, one of 
Sabina, the wife of Hadrian, one of Antoninus Pius, and one of Julia 
Domna, the wife of Severus. 

One hundred and eighty-four denarii (silver coins) have come into 
Mr. Clayton's possession. The rest are bronze and copper coins. The 
series begins with three silver coins of the time of Marc Antony, 
about 30 years before Christ, and it ends with Gratian, who was killed 



DISCOVEBED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 41 

A.D. 383. The number of emperors and imperial personages repre- 
sented is not less than 90. 

Of the early emperors, Augustus and Tiberius are scantily repre- 
sented. There are 20 coins of Claudius, and more than 50 of Nero. 
There are six of Galba and one of Otho. Of the coins of Vespasian 
and Titus there are 550. Domitian has 485 and Nerva 82. After 
this the coins become still more numerous. Of Trajan there are 
1,772, of Hadrian and his wife Sabina 2,481, of Antoninus Pius and 
his wife Faustina 2,829, of Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina, 
the younger, there are 1,355. After this the coins decrease in number, 
Lucius Verus and his wife Lucilla have 170, Commodus and his wife 
246. Up to this point the bronze coinage greatly preponderates, the 
silver coins being very few in number comparatively. About the 
time of Severus the silver preponderates. Of Septimius Severus and 
his wife, Julia Domna, there are only 64 pieces, but of these 36 are 
silver. CaracaUa has 10 denarii, but only three of bronze. Of the 
later emperors, Constantine the Great is most largely represented, 
there being 200 of his coins. The Constantine family are also largely 
represented. 

Another important section of Mr. C. Eoach Smith's paper consists 
of his remarks upon the rarer reverses found amongst the large mass of 
coins. He did not meet with any that are absolutely new to numis- 
matists, but with several that are rare, and many that are highly 
interesting. Amongst the rare coins may be mentioned a first brass 
of Didius Julianus, a denarius of Didia Clara, a second brass of Julia, 
the daughter of Titus, a denarius of Clodius Albinus, and a coin of 
Julia Aquilia. There is also a specimen of the DiscipJina type of 
Hadrian, which is rare, and one of the consecration tyjae of Antoninus 
Pius. In the list the reader will find others which need not be enu- 
merated here. 

Amongst the coins of great interest, though not ranking amongst 
those of great rarity, are specimens of a second brass Brikmnia of ■ 
Hadrian, of a large brass Britannia of Antoninus Pius, and a large 
brass Britannia of Commodus. But the most remarkable fact respect- 
ing this class of coins is that in Mr. Clayton's possession there are not 
less than 327 of the second brass coin struck in the reign of Anto- 
ninus Pius to commemorate the complete subjugation of Britain and 

F 



42 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

the building of the Scottish Wall. It was too bad to inundate the 
country with coin reminding the poor Britons of their humiliation 
and defeat. We have also in the "find" specimens of ih.Q Judaa 
Capta of Vespasian and Titus, the Fisci Judaici type of Nerva, several 
of the Adventus coins of Hadrian such as Achaia, Africa, Bithynia, 
Hispania; and the Christian monogram on the coins of Magnentius. 
There are many coins of the British Emperors Carausius and Allectus, 
but none of the rare type. 



POSTSCRIPT BY MR. CLAYTON. 

The coins taken out of the weU and preserved at The Chesters exceed 
in weight twenty-seven stones. 

A passage in the " History of Northumberland," published by the 
Rev. John Wallis, A.D. 1769 (Vol. I., p. 23), describes the appearance 
of the well at that date. It is as follows: — "Many springs and rivers 
were consecrated by the Romans for their religious rites, etc.; of this 
kind probably is the well at the station of Carrawbrough. It is between 
two sloping fields on the west side of the station, just under it, to the 
south of their famous Wall, about 400 or 500 yards from the 25th 
milestone on the military road, square, and faced with freestone of hewn 
work, and has either had a dome over it or been walled round; the 
stones are lying about it and nearly covered with water from the con- 
duits being stopped, and demolished by the carelessness or ignorance 
of a ploughman, as I am informed. It is fall up to the brim and over- 
flowing in the hottest summer; and, by that man's indiscretion, he 
that would satisfy his curiosity to see it must run the risk of wetting 
his feet, especially in winter or in a rainy season." 

Hutton, the veteran pedestrian of Birmingham, mentions this well, 
but by heresay only; it is palpable that he never saw the well or the 
station of Procolitia, mistaking a meadow field of seven acres sur- 
rounding the farmhouse at Carrawburgh for the station of Procolitia, 
which is nearly half-a-mile distant, and contains an area of three acres 
and a-half. (Hutton's "Roman Wall," published in 1802, p. 216.) 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



43 



NUMERICAL VIEW OF THE COINS. 



Read 4th February, 1878. 



Emperor. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


1st Brass. 


2nd Brass. 


total. 


Marc Antony 




3 






3 


Augustus 


... 


... 


2 


1 


3 


M. Agrippa 




... 


... 


.. . 


1 


1 


Tiberius 




... 




... 


1 


1 


Drusus 




... 


... 


... 


1 


1 


Germanicus 




... 


... 


... 


2 


2 


Claudius 




... 


... 


2 


18 


20 


Nero... 




1 


1 


... 


50 


52 


Galea 




... 


... 


6 


> > • 


6 


Otho ... 






1 


... 


• •• 


1 


Vespasian 
Titus 




... 


3] 


65 


476 


5501 


Julia Titi 




... 




... 


1 


1 


DOMITIAN 




... 


8 


139 


338 


485 


Nerva 




... 


1 


43 


38 


82 


Trajan 




... 


13 


980 


779 


1,772 


Hadrian 




... 


8 


1,404 


918 


2,330 


Sabina 




1 


1 


58 


41 


101 


L. Aelius 






... 


16 


14 


30 


Antoninus Pius ... 


1 


12 


910 


8911 
327 1 


2,141 


Do. Britannia type 


... 


... 




Faustina I 




6 


275 


407 


688 


M. Aurelius 


... 


8 


345 


314 


667 


Faustina II, 


... 


12 


259 


395 


666 


L. Verus 


.. 


... 


1 


56 


24 


81 


LUCILLA 


... 




2 


74 


13 


89 


COMMODUS . 


... 




5 


189 


13 


207 


Crispina 


... 


... 


1 


36 


2 


39 


DiDIUS JULIANUS ... 


, , 


• • • 


1 


• • . 


1 


DiDiA Clara 


... 


1 




• • • 


1 


Clodius Albinus ... 


... 


2 


• . • 


• •• 


2 


Sept. Severus ... 


.. . 


22 


20 


. . • 


42 


Julia Domna 


1 


17 


4 


... 


22 


Carried foi 


"ward ... 


10,087 



' Owing to the corroded state of most of the pieces, and the resemblance 
between the coins of Vespasian and Titus, it has not been found practicable to give 
them separately. 



44 DESCRIPTION OF EOMAN REMAINS 

NUMERICAL VIEW OP THE COINS.— Continued. 



Emperor. 


Silver. 


1st Brass. 


2nd Brass. 


Srs Brass. 


total. 


Brought forward ... 










10,087 


Caracalla 


10 


3 






13 


Plautilla 


2 


... 






2 


Geta 


1 


... 






1 


Elagabalus 


3 


... 






3 


Julia Paula... 


1 


... 






1 


Aquilia Sevtera 


1 


... 






1 


Julia Soaemias 


1 


... 






1 


Julia Maesa 


2 


... 






2 


Sev. Alexander ... 


4 


4 




2 


10 


Julia Mamaea 


6 


1 






8 


Maximinus I. 


... 


1 






1 


Maxtmus 


... 


1 






1 


GoRDiAifus Pius 


2 


1 






4 


Philippus I 


2 


2 






4 


Philippus II. 


1 


... 






2 


Etruscilla 


1 


... 






1 


Trebonianus Gallus 


1 


... 






1 


Valerian 


2 


... 




1 


3 


Gallienus 


3 


... 




80 


83 


Salonina 


2 


... 




2 


4 


Claudius Gothicus... 




... 




72 


72 


QUINTILLUS 




... 




8 


8 


Aurelian 




... 


... 


10 


10 


POSTUMUS 




1 




29 


35 


ViCTORINUS 




• •• 




71 


71 


Mabius 








1 


1 


The Tetrici 




• > • 




81 


81 


Tacitus 




... 




15 


15 


Probus 




... 




19 


19 


Carinus 




... 




1 


1 


Diocletian 




... 


18 


... 


18 


MAXIMIAlf 




... 


39 


7 


46 


Carausius 




... 


• •• 


25 


25 


Allectus 




... 


• •• 


16 


16 


Constantius 




• •• 


18 


12 


27 


Helena 




• •• 


... 


11 


11 


Theodora 




• •• 


... 


1 


1 


Severus II 




• • • 


2 


... 


2 


Maximinus II. 




... 


2 


7 


9 


Maxentius 

Carried forward ... 


... 


... 


2 


... 


2 


10,703 



DISCO VEEED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 



45 



NUMERICAL VIEW OF THE COINS.— Continxted. 



Emperor. 


Silver. 


1st Brass. 


2nd Brass. 3rd Brass. 


TOTAIi. 


Brought forward... 










10,703 


LlCINIUS 






1 


14 


15 


CONSTANTINE 




... 


3- 


197 


200 


Fausta 








3 


3 


Crispus 








21 


21 


CONSTANTINE II. 






... 


66 


66 


CONSTANS 






... 


25 


25 


Magnentius 






... 


30 


30 


Decentius 








3 


3 


CONSTANTIUS II. 






... 


12 


12 


CONSTANTINE FAMILY^ 






... 


... 


230 


Urbs Roma 






... 


... 


67 


CONSTANTINOPOLIS ... 








62 


Yalentinian 






... 


1 


1 


Yalens 








... 


6 


Gratian 








... 


15 


Small Brass, illegible 






... 


... 


27 


Illegible — chiefly 1 st 


}: 








2,000 


and 2nd Brass, about 








Greek of Neapolis, 


}■•■ 






1 


1 


much worn 

Total 


... 




13,487 



The prevailing state of tliis large accumulation of coins is decisive 
evidence of long circulation as a medium of traffic. By far the larger 
number is identified from the outlines only of portraits and reverses; 
and more than two thousand have been laid on one side as not to be 
identified, so detrited are they from the wear and tear of commerce. 
The latest in point of date are not exempt from this peculiar general 
condition. This fact must weigh materially in forming a verdict on 
the cause of the deposit of the coins ; on the time when they were 
deposited ; and also in considering whether they were thrown into the 
fountain from time to time as votive oflFerings ; or whether they were 
hastily buried in mass for concealment. To the former supposition 
the unusually large number is not favourable. On the contrary, so 
lavish an investment for the favours of a local divinity who, as other 



' In consequence of the corroded state of most of these coins it has been 
found impracticable to assign many to the proper individuals. 



46 DESCRIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

altars testify, did not monopolise the worship of the garrisons of Pro- 
coHtia, is beyond all reasonable belief in the extent of the wealth or 
the piety of the neighbourhood. That coins were offered at shrines 
is well known ; and those discovered at the sources of the Seine, given 
to the Dea Sequana, are an interesting example. But they do not 
support a votive offering theory applied to the coins in the fountain 
of the Dea Coventina. 

The money offerings to Sequana had been carefully placed in a small 
earthen vessel, inclosed in a large urn, upon the neck of which was an 
inscription testifying that it had been the gift of one Eufus. These coins, 
836 in number, range from Augustus to Magnus Maximus ; and they 
were mostly in a perfect state of preservation, indicating that they had 
been deposited at different epochs and by different individuals, who 
appear to have selected the freshest and least worn coins. It is pro- 
bable they had been preserved in the temple until the period when 
danger was at hand ; and that then one of the priests placed them in 
the vase, which he buried. It wiU be seen that the circumstances under 
which the two deposits are presented to our criticism are widely dif- 
ferent. Deposited in the large urn, and surrounding the small one, 
were 120 ex votos cut from thin plates of bronze and silver ; and scat- 
tered amongst the ruins of the temple were a great number of objects 
of marble, stone, bronze, and terra cotta, the offerings, doubtless, of 
persons who had benefitted by a resort to the shrine of the nymph, 
and which had originally been hung up in her temple.^ 

Whatever may have been the exact positions of the coins in the 
fountain, they do not indicate a careful and gradual deposit ; but on 
the contrary, a sudden and hurried concealment. The altars especially 
confirm this conclusion. They were intended for the eye, not for 
burial; but, as at Axelodunum, the altars when some great disaster 
was imminent, were carefully buried ; so at ProcoHtia, those in or 
around the temple of Coventina, were taken to what was properly 
considered a place of safety ; but while their guardians found for them 
a secure sanctuary, they never returned to reclaim their treasure or 
to record their last vows. 

The time when the coins were entrusted to the fountain could not 
have been before the latter part of the reign of Gratian ; and it may 

' Rapport sur les Decouvertes Archeologiques faites aux Sources de la Seine, 
par M. Henri Bandot. Dijon and Paris, 4to. 1845. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 47 

have been somewhat, but probably not much, later. The rebellion of 
Magnus Maximus and the withdrawal of many of the garrisons from 
Britain may be suggested. The castra on the line of the Wall must, 
at this period, have been left in an almost defenceless state; and 
although Britain and Gaul, by the defeat of Maximus, were recovered 
to the Empire, the military hold of the long line of fortresses of the 
Wall, must have been relaxed ; and probably never after eflFectually 
resisted the attacks of the Picts and Scots. 

Accepting this theory, that some panic was the cause of the con- 
cealment of the coins in mass, we may look upon the treasure as a fair 
representation of the money circulating at Procolitia at the close of 
the reign of Gratian. It is very ob\ious that in the times of Trajan, 
Hadrian, and the Antonines, an enormous amount of the larger copper 
coinage was sent into Britain, as well as into the other provinces ; 
for it is everywhere found in abundance, and prevailing over similar 
coinages in subsequent reigns. In the reign of Severus, silver pre- 
dominated ; and the imperial mint not only issued good silver, but 
also vast quantities of debased metal. In earlier times plated denarii 
were sent to the provinces ; but from Nero to Severus the practice 
seems to have been abolished. In the reign of Gordian the Third, 
and subsequently, a larger kind of silver coinage was struck. This 
also is of inferior metal, degenerating into billon, or a metal merely 
washed with silver. In the time of Constantine small copper coins 
of all sizes were issued by the imperial mints in the provinces ; and 
these coins formed much of the currency to the fall of the western 
empire. The earlier coinages circulated simultaneously ; and must 
have been used commercially for centuries, accepted probably by 
weight only. In the fall of the Roman Empire the coinage bears a 
corresponding decline until it at last becomes extinguished in what are 
called, and not improperly, the dark ages. 



REVERSES. 

The rarer reverses only are given; and most of these are so 
detrited from circulation as only to be recognized from familiarity with 
the types. 

Claudius. — Ob Gives Servatos, S.C. 
Vespasian and Titus. — Judsea Capta. — Titles : an elephant. 



48 DESOKIPTION OF ROMAN REMAINS 

DoMiTiAN. — Victory crowning the Emperor. 

JSTerva. — A palm tree ; the " Fisci Judaici " type. — Two mules un- 
yoked ; " Vehiculatione Italise Eemissa." 

Trajan. — Via Trajana. — Trophies. — A recumbent female (Tellus) 
extending her hand to a large globe at her feet. — Emperor on 
horseback. — Victory crowning the Emperor. — Arabia Adquisita. 
— Dacia Capta. — A temple. — A bridge. — The Emperor standing 
upon a pediment ; on either side two small eagles. 

Hadrian. — Britannia (in middle brass). — Adventus Aug. — Adventui 
Aug. Bithyniae. — Adventui Aug. Italiae. — Others of the Adven- 
tus type. — Adlocutio. — Discipulina. — Varieties of the Galley type. 
— Temple of twelve columns. — Restitutori types. — Emperor on 
horseback. — Neptune. — Dacia. — ^A river god.— Hispania. 

Lucius Aelius. — Pannonia. A personification of the Province, 
standing. 

Antonenus Pius. — Britannia. — Rex Armenis Datus. — Eex Parthis 
Datus. — Victory upon a globe (" Britannia " type). — Opi Aug. — 
Recumbent river god. — Aurelius Csesar. — Munificentia Aug. — 
Wolf and Twins. — Adventus. — Temple.— Bono Eventui. — Genio 
Senatus. — Emperor in Quadriga. — Junoni Sispitge. — Liberalitas 
Aug. — Concordise ; four figures. — Primi Decennales. — Divo Pio, 
Consecratio. — Md. Divi Aug, Rest. ; a temple. 

Faustina the Elder. — Veneri Augustae — Cybele, — Consecratio. 

Marcus Aurelius. — Primi Decennales. — Juventas. — Consecratio. 

Faustina the Younger. — Temporum Felicit. ; a woman with six 
infants. — Fecunditas ; with four infants. — Saeculi Felicitas ; two 
children in a light ornamented bed. — Moon and seven stars. — 
Sideribus Recepta. — Consecratio. 

Lucius Verus. — Liberalitas Augg. — Concordia Augg. — Consecratio. 

CoMMODUS. — Vict. Brit.— Serapidi Conservat. Aug. — Hercules by a 
Trophy. — Lib. Aug. HIT. The Emperor on an estrade and four 
figures. 

Clodius Albinus. — Cos. II. ^sculapius. 

Severus.— Victorias Parthicae.— Cereri Frug. 

JuiiiA DoMNA. — The Empress before four standards, as Mater Cas- 
trorum. 

Caracalla. — Vota Suscepta X. — a galley. — Vota Publica. — 

Profectio Aug. 



DISCOVERED NEAR TO PROCOLITIA. 49 

Elagabulus.— Sacerd. Dei Solis Elagab. 

Aquilia Severa. — Concordia. 

Julia Mamaea. — Pietas Augusta. — Juno Conserratrix. 

Philippus. — Ji^ternitas ; an elephant. 

PosTUMUS. — Restit. Galliarum. — Serapidi Comiti Aug. 

Of the remainder it may be sufficient to remark that the coins of 
Carausius and Allectus, all of common types, have for mint marks m.l. 
and c. (believed to be struck at Londinium and Camulodunum); and 
that the mint mark p.lon. occurs in coins of Crispus and the younger 
Constantine, the chief places of mintage being represented by the 
letters ptr., Treves ; plc, Lyons ; and const., Aries. 

C. ROACH SMITH. 



50 ON THE PROBABLE SIGNIFICATION OF 



ON THE PROBABLE SIGNIFICATIONS OF THE NAMES OF 
THE EOMAN STATIONS, " PER LTNEAM VALLI," AND 
ON THE PROBABLE POSITIONS OF THOSE HITHERTO 
UNIDENTIFIED. 



Read February 5th, 1877, by the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.A.S. 



Some time ago, my mind was forcibly drawn to the investigation of the 
meanings of the names of the Roman stations in the North of England. 
No one can read the list of the stations/?^ limam valli without feeling 
certain that those singularly-sounding appellations conveyed at one time 
to the minds of numbers the most vivid pictures, that they were ex- 
pressive of ideas or features, as distinctly marked as their own unmis- 
takeable individuality. 

Now, although they have Roman terminations, it is evident that 
the great majority of them are not Latin. One of course is, Pons ^hi, 
the name of the famous old station within the borders of which we are 
now assembled, but I doubt whether any of the others, even Magna, 
or ^sica, or Petriana, are. Nations in a high state of civilisation 
seem incapable of originating names. The names given to our children 
in baptism, the new surnames, which are not new, occasionally assumed, 
the names of our new streets and new parishes, indicate this truth. 
English settlers, when they go to distant lands, for a time almost in- 
variably do nothing else than reproduce the names familiar to them in 
the old country ; afterwards, when driven from these, and when better 
acquainted with the names of the places around them in use among the 
aborigines they are dispossessing, they adopt the names the natives 
have given to localities, without, probably, in many cases, knowing or 
caring for the significations they may bear. 



THE NAMES OF THE ROMAN STATIONS. 51 

This, I believe, was the process the nomenclature of the localities 
from the Tyne to the Solway underwent the better part of 2,000 years 
ago. I believe we must look for the significations of the names of the 
stations per lineam valli in the language of the people who roamed over 
the hills, or dwelt by the streams and springs, before the southern 
warriors set foot upon their heights and moorlands. 

With this conviction I examined some of the names some time ago, 
in connection with that language fortunately preserved to us still — and 
long may it survive in its fuU life and vigour — which, with very little, 
if any, difference from what it is at present, was spoken from the centre 
of Scotland to Kent and Cornwall — the Welsh, and much was I both 
surprised and gratified at the results obtained. It is these results, ^vith 
others arrived at more recently, I wish to bring before this learned 
Society to-day. 

At the outset, however, I must disclaim any pretensions to any pro- 
found Keltic scholarship. My knowledge of the ancient Briti sh language 
is little more than that which any person of an enquiring turn of mind 
would acquire by being thrown amongst Welsh people in early life, and 
by living several years in the midst of a Welsh-speaking community. 
It is possible I may have fallen into some errors which those of riper 
Keltic scholarship may be able to point out. I have a strong per- 
suasion, however, that I have also struck upon many truths. 

One of the first names which struck me very forcibly was that of 
the station so admirably preserved in the gTounds of our indefatigable, 
and most valued, and successful colleague, Mr. Clayton, viz., Cilurnum 
— Kilurnum, as doubtless the Romans called it. Cyl hyrn is the Welsh 
at this day for " narrow haugh," the most expressive desigiiation of the 
site of the station that could be given. *' Haugh" is, as all present 
doubtless are well aware, an early name for a green mead by a river's 
side. The same decided featm-e found expression again when the suc- 
cessors of the Romans and Britons seized the country, and "Humshaugh" 
and " Haughton Castle" embody to this day the very signification of 
the word so frequent for centuries on Roman tongues. 

Aballaba is another striking instance. I regret to be obliged to 
acknowledge that I have not visited all the stations, though I have very 
many. I do not know, therefore, by actual inspection the topographical 
character of every one, but I shall be surprised if I find at some future 



52 ON THE PROBABLE SIGNIFICATION OF 

time that the site of Aballaba, or of one of the stations which dispute 
for the appellation, does not correspond with the name. The signi- 
fication of the name is obvious, Y bala bach, " the little hill." 

Then, again, the origin of Condercum is not A^ery doubtful. Con 
derch " the elevated peak," or Com derch " the elevated round." If 
objection be taken to the former, the latter remains, but I may remark 
that the exploration of the station at the Lawe, South Shields, has 
shown that the lapse of ages tends to flatten very sensibly hills originally 
conical or peaked. 

Conga vata affords another instance of the word Com in composition, 
as also does Borcovicus. Congavata appears to be evidently Con cafad 
(or Comp gafad) " hollow round," a description, which (if my conjec- 
ture as to its locality be correct, viz.. Burgh on the Sands) was probably 
appropriate in British times. Borcovicus may be translated fi-om the 
Latin as " Borcom, or Barcom, Town ;" Bar com meaning " round top." 
Bor com " centre of round," either explanation describing accurately, 
if my memory serves me faithfully, the character of the well-known 
eminence. 

Amboglanna, Latin as the first half of it looks, is yet CAidently 
British; Am bo glannau meaning "enclosing banks," a description, I 
believe, peculiarly appropriate to the station which is now, without 
doubt, Birdoswald. 

Gabrosentum, wherever it was situated, is, I think, as plain in its 
derivation. 1 take it to be "Goat Fell" or " Goat Marsh," which in 
British is Gafr rhos. The term points to a time when wild goats were 
common in the locality. 

My reading of Procolitia points also to the abundance of another 
/era naturce — the badger. I have seen somewhere that Procolitia means 
" the fortress in the wood." I confess I cannot discover hoAv that sig- 
nification has been derived. To me it appears to be " Badgers' Lure," 
Brochau Llith. (It must be remembered that p and b are interchange- 
able letters, as are also v — in British f — and m, t and d, and several 
others.) The "lure" was the spring, to which our attention has been 
so forcibly and agreeably drawn so recently, and over which the goddess 
Coventina appears to have presided. The name of the goddess appears 
to have been formed from Cof, "memory," or ics derivative Cofen, 
"a memorial," and reminds one of the goddess worshipped by the 



THE NAMES OF THE ROMAN STATIONS. 53 

Greeks under the name of Mnemosjne, from fivrjfiq " memory," or 
fivTjfieiov " a memorial." 

It will be observed that in all the instances I have given, the names 
(if formed in the way I suggest) have been formed from natural features. 
This adds greatly to the probability that the derivations given are cor- 
rect. Savages, and uncivilised, or partly civilised, nations, invariably 
derive the names they confer from the most striking characteristics of 
the scsnery or circumstances of the spots they visit. A study of the 
meaning of the aboriginal names of places in America, Australia, New 
Zealand, and elsewhere, will, I believe, fully confirm this statement. I 
will not trouble you with the derivations I think may be assigned to 
the names of the rest of the identified stations joer limam vnUi, lest I 
make this communication too long, but will proceed now to discuss 
briefly the probable position of those hitherto unidentified, and the 
light that the probable signification of their names may throw upon the 
question of their locality. 

And, first, I may say that I can by no means agree with those who 
think we may look for the stations " per lineam valli," lyrocul a vallo, 
" at a distance from the Wall." I think there can be no doubt they 
must be sought in close proximity to the Wall, either very near, on 
either side, or else at the eastern extremity, as a chain of forti'esses, 
forming, what mathematicians would call, a discontinuous portion of 
the great barrier itself. 

If the latter be the truth, as I believe it to be, the reason they are 
placed last may be because, either they were looked upon as somewhat 
subordinate stations to the great chain from Wallsend to Bowness, or 
because they were built and garrisoned subsequently to the completion 
of the continuous line. 

I place Gabrosentum at Bowness, and in connection with this, and the 
signification I believe to be the correct one of the word, it would be inter- 
esting to know whether any notice exists in any record of the existence 
of wild goats in that locality, in ancient or more recent times, or whether 
any bones of such animals have ever been found imbedded in the soil, 
or in connection with Roman relics. 

Tlie last identified station, travelling westward, is Amboglanna, 
now Birdoswald. Between Amboglanna and Gabrosentum are four in 
the Notltia list, Petriana, x\ballaba, Congavata, Axelodunum. Petriana 



64 ON THE PROBABLE SIGNIFICATION OF 

I place at Walton House, Aballaba at Stanwix, Congavata at Burgh on 
the Sands, and Axelodunum at Drumburgh. I am aware that some 
authorities are of opinion that one more should be reckoned between 
Bu-doswald and Bowness, but although it is very probable that there 
were even several Roman stations near to the Wall, between those 
points, there appears certainly to have been no other on the Wall, and 
the fact that one so near as Carlisle was not reckoned per U?ieam valli 
seems to me absolutely conclusive that no other at Watch Cross, Laner- 
cost, or Old Brampton, would be so reckoned. 

There remain, therefore, six to be looked for elsewhere: — Tunno- 
celum, Glannibanta, Alionis, Bremetenracum,01enacum,and Virosidum. 
Of these Tunnocelmn must have been on the sea, for it was garrisoned 
by " the first marine cohort styled the ^lian." It must, therefore, 
have been, I think, at the mouth of the Tyne. And to that its name 
agrees, as also does the name of the next, Glannibanta. We know that 
Roman stations existed at Tynemouth and at South Shields. The ex- 
cavations of 1875-6 proved that the latter was one of very great im- 
portance, and one possessing extreme interest for antiquarians now. 
Tunnocelum signifies, according to my reading, " the encircling Tyne," 
Tyn celch. It is a fact that, till comparatively recent centuries, the 
Lawe was an island suiTounded by the Tyne, which found its way by 
two mouths to the sea.* Glannibanta signifies " the brink of the height." 
The words, as they stand, signify that, "Glan y bant." What more 
accurate description of the site of the Tynemouth Castle of to-day could 
be given? We have already had the word Glan (plural Glannau) in 
Amboglanna, and Bant or Ban we have in Banna — Bannau " the heights" 
— where the Roman officers reheved the tedium of the intervals be- 
tween their more active military duties by following the chase in the 
highlands near the central districts of the Wall. 

Tunnocelum then I locate at the Lawe, South Shields, and Glanni- 
banta at Tynemouth, on the other side of the river. Alionis, the next 
in order, I place at Jarrow, and Bremetenracum at North Shields. The 

* Another derivation of Tunnocelum, and jjerhaps the true one, is " Tin uchel," 
"lofty tail," descriptive of the high land stretching out northwards, in which the 
north-east portion of the county of Durham ends, and reminding one of the 
heights of Bolt " Head" and Bolt '• Tail" on the coast of Devon, and of a famous 
hill in the Peak of Derbyshire, which bears, however, a less easily quoted name. 



*rHE NAMES OF THE ROMAN STATIONS. 55 

former of these, Alionis, is one of the most interestina-, I think, as 
regards derivation. 

It seems to me evidently the Ijatinised form of Y Uion, " the meet- 
ing of floods," and to denote admirably the position of the station of 
Jarrow, which was situated, where the venerable church is now, at the 
junction of the Tyne and Don. The Don was manifestly, and by testi- 
mony of the ancient records which have come down to us, a far larger 
and more important stream in British times than it is now. The re- 
markable silting up of the Slake shows what torrents must have poured 
down it and the Tyne in ancient times, bringing with them the dehru 
of the lands and fields drained in their course, and old historians tell 
us how the Danish ships rode at anchor in the Slake and penetrated 
into the country by the Don. " The meeting of the floods" was there- 
fore a most expressive name for the point of land where afterwards 
stood the Roman camp, and it is singular that, after the Romans left, 
the Britons gave the station anotlipr British name (just as they did 
South Shields, which they called Caer Urfa, or "the fortress on the 
island," and I think also the station of Magna, which they called 
Carvoran, or " parted ridge,") expressive of the same striking charac- 
teristic of the spot. They called it Grirwy, which is the name given to 
Jarrow in (if I remember rightly) Bede's works, and other ancient 
books, and of which Jarrow itself is undoubtedly only the modern 
transmutation, if transmutation it can be called, for it is really hardly 
changed at all. Girwy is Gyru wy, " rushing, racing, water," or it might 
be Garw wy, " rough water," but the former I prefer. Indeed there is 
doubtless a close affinity between the two. 

Bremetenracum, I have said, I place at North Shields. At all these 
places it is certain there were Roman fortified stations. Bremetenracum 
seems to mean " fox hill," bre madryn, or bre madyn.* It is singular 
that there are two ways of spelling the word Madyn or IMadryn " fox," 
and two ways of spelling Bremetenracum, the "r" in each case being 
subject to omission. 

There remain Olenacum and Virosidum. The former I place at 
Wardley, near Pelaw Main, the latter at Gateshead, on the heights 
overlooking the river. Olenacum appears to signify " the pool of water," 
or " the place of pools," Y llyn ach, or Y llyniawg, and carries our 

* Or " hill of foxes," bre madrynau, or bre madynau. 



f)6 THte NAMES OF THfi ROMAN STATIONS. 

minds immediately to White Mare Pool, the very present name of which 
shows the permanence of its existence in that locality;* and Virosidum 
means " Fair fell," or " Fair fells," Mir ros or Mir rosydd, which, in 
connection with other words would be pronounced Yir ros or Yir rosydd, 
and is a most appropriate designation for the heights whence the lovely 
views, most of us are familiar with, of the valley of the Tyne, the heights 
of Elswick and Benwell, and the fields eastward to the ocean, were dis- 
placed to the admiring view of the nature-loving, nature-observing, 
Britons of old." 

I now conclude, thanking you for the attention with which you 
have kindly heard me, and commending the results of my examination 
of the names of the various stations per Unmm valli, and of the probable 
position of those hitherto unidentified, to your friendly criticism. 

* " White Mare Pool " seems to be simply an aggregation of the names given 
to the collection of water at the spot by the successive inhabitants. " Gwyth " is 
Keltic for a '' drain," being closely coiniected with " Glwy, ' " water ;" " Mere " 
is Saxon for a " pool ;"' while the latter word is the term used at the present time. 
The three words, consequently, have but one meaning, and that is identical with 
" Y Uyn ach;" and it Ls remarkable that in none of the four terms is any distinc- 
tive feature of tlie pool ex])ressed, but only its actual existence. 










Roman leaden seals 

FOUND AT 

SOUTH Shields 



ROMAN LEADEN SEALS. 57 



ROMAN LEADEN SEALS. 



By Robert Blair. 



Ab it is highly desirable that a record should be kept in the proceed- 
ings of this Society of the occurrence, more especially in the northern 
counties, of any objects ol" antiquarian interest, I hope this will be a 
sufficient reason for bringing under the notice of the Society the dis- 
covery on the site of the Roman Castrum at South Shields of several 
siffnmula in lead, or perhaps, more correctly speaking, in pewter, all of 
which, with one exception (No. 1), are now in my collection of objects 
from the station in question. 

They may be thus described : — 

No. 1. — Obverse, lvi (Legio Sexta); reverse, ova or vao. This is 
of an irregular shape, but the letters on both ob\'erse and reverse are 
well-formed and very legible. This is in the possession of Mr. Yint, 
of South Shields. 

No. 2. — Obverse, cvg ; reverse, the only letter legible is m. This seal 
is of special interest in connection with the Castrum at South Shields. 
The Fifth Cohort of Gauls, which it records, appears, from the number 
of tiles inscribed with its name which have been exhumed, to have been 
stationed there. The only other record of it in Britain is an inscrip- 
tion on an altar discovered some years ago at Cramond, near Edin- 
burgh. 

No. 3 is of an oval shape, and has on the obverse three portraits 
in profile, which, judging from the effigies on the coins, are, in my 
opinion, those of Septimius Severus and his two sons (Caracalla and 
Geta). The letters avgg appear above the heads. The reverse is 
quite plain. Of this type three specimens have been exhumed ; only 
one of them, however, showing the hole through which passed the 
string for suspension or attachment. 

No, 4. — This is very small, having on each side a rude profile, 
similar in appearance to those on coins of the period of Constantine. 

H 



58 ROMAN LEADEN SEALS. 

There are traces of letters round one side, bnt so mde as not to be 
decipherable. 

No. 5 is of an irregular shape, and has on the obverse, asa ; reverse, 
VBA or VBN. With respect to the obverse of this huUa, Mr. Roach 
Smith ^vrites me : — " Following my suggested mode of iuterpretiug 
these inscriptions, I should read A (la) sa (biniana)." Dr. Hiibner* 
agrees with this reading of the obverse; and while considering the reverse 
obscure, and the name accordingly uncertain, suggests Valerii Ba . . . 
as a probable reading. 

The Ala Sabiniana (so named, I presume, after Sabina, the wife of 
the Emperor Hadrian) is a regiment recorded in the Notitia as having 
been stationed at Hunnum, one of the stations "per Lineam Valli."t 

No. 6. — Obverse, cv ; reverse, fl*. The letters on the obverse 
are similar to No. 2, but more indistinct. 

The two preceding l)ulJ<e, and also Nos. 1 and 2, appear to be 
confirmatory of the military nature of these objects. With the 
exception of No. 4, all appear to be of the Higher Empire. They 
are of very rare occurrence, so rare as almost to have escaped 
the notice of antiquaries. With the exception of a large number 
found at Brough under Stainmoor {Verier ce of the Notitia and 
Itinerary), a few at Felixstowe, in Suffolk, and two at Richboro', 
in Kent, "not a single specimen has been detected among the 
numerous remains found in this country, not even at London, Col- 
chester, Exeter, Wroxeter, &c."| Dr. Hiibner has in vain sought 
for them on the continent. | It is difficult to determine for what 
purpose these hullx were intended. That learned antiquary, Mr. C. 
Roach Smith, remarks: " The leaden seals are a new contribution to our 
English archaeological materials. Interesting examples still attached 
to the strings are in the British Museum. They are apparently of the 
time of the Antonines, judging from the portraits upon them. It 
would be interesting to know Avhy such objects should have been found 
only at two Roman stations (Brough and Felixstowe), and those so 
wide apart. These seals were fastened to merchandise by strings 

* Corpus Insc. Lat., Vol. VII., Additamenta Altera, p. 318. 
f Lapidarium Septeutrionale, page 49. 
X Col. Antiq., Vol. VI.. p. 117. 
II Addit. Corp. Insc. Lat., Vol. VII., p. 145. 



ROMAN LEADEN SEALS. 59 

which passed through the centre" (parallel with the face) "in the 
same manner as the leaden seals or bullce were affixed to papal deeds." * 
There is this difference, however: the papal hullce were, as I am 
informed, made by submitting two flat pieces of lead to great pressure, 
the string being first placed between them, while the Roman seals 
appear to have been very rudely cast. 

In a subsequent part of the same valuable work Mr. Eoach 
Smith informs us "that, as the inscriptions appear to indicate, these 
seals were appended to some kind of property belonging to military 
bodies."t Illustrations are given of some of the Brough examples, 
and ascribed to the Cohors II. Nerviorum (c. ii ner), Cohors II. Aelia 
(c II. AE.), Cohors VII. Thracum or Trevirorura (c vii. tr.), etc., etc. 

Another writer on the same subject, Mr. H. C. Coote, F.S.A., in 
the Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archsological Society, 
considers these hulke to be military and not commercial in their 
general character and application, and gives in support of his opinion 
an extract fi'om " The Acts of the Passion of Maximilian" (a martyi- 
of the third centuiy), which had previously escaped the notice of 
archaBologists, where it is stated that under the Empire recruits on 
embracing the profession of arms received a. signaculum which was of 
lead, which every soldier wore round his neck, and which was the 
emblem of his miUtary initiation. 

This Dr. Hlibner thinks is the best iutei-pretation of them. 

After thus stating what the most experienced and best writers 
have been able to advance, I think that it would seem presumptuous 
in the WTiter of the present paper to add any remarks of his own 
beyond expressing a hope that ere long something will be discoA'ered 
to throw full light on this at present difficult subject, and thus 
remove it from the domain of doubtful and unsettled questions. 

* Collect. Antiq., Vol. III., p. 197. 
t Collect. Antiq., Vol. VI., pp. 119-120. 



60 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 



NOTES ON MODERN SURVIVALS OF ANCIENT WELL- 
WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE, IN CONNECTION 
WITH THE WELL OF COVENTINA, AT CARRAW- 
BROUGH (PROCOLITIA, ON THE ROMAN WALL). 



Read by the Rev. G. Rome Hall, F.S.A., 

At the Anniversary Meeting of the Society of Antiquaries 

OF Newcastle-upon-Tyne, February 4th, 1878. 



It has been appropriately remarked by our venerable Vice-President, 
Mr. Clayton, describing the discovery on his own property of a Roman 
altar at Procolitia (Carrawburgh), dedicated to the " genius of this 
place"— " Genio hujus loci" ("Archssologia ^liana," Vol. VII., Part 
XXII., p. 282) — "According to the Roman superstition, every person 
and every place had a presiding genius." But the cuUus here referred 
to was not restricted to the conquering Romans. It previously pre- 
vailed among the subject British or Celtic race, and afterwards among 
their Teutonic supplanters. Indeed, it is as widely spread as the 
human race itself, when tribes and peoples are living in the lower 
barbarian state, whether they are of the Aryan or non-Aiyan stock. 
Commander Cameron found it to be existing in Central Africa, con- 
nected especially with the veneration of trees and fountains. " Should 
the spring," he observes ("Across Africa," Vol. I., p. 144), "be dis- 
respectfully spoken of as ' Maji' merely, the ordinary word for water, 
instead of as ' Marwa,' which in different dialects signifies * pombe,' 
palm wine, and other kinds of drink ; or should anyone wearing boots 
pass the spot, or fire a gun in the immediate vicinity, the ghosts at 
once stop the supply. Upon drawing water a small present of beads 
or cloth is customarily thrown in to propitiate the guardian spirits of 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 61 

the well ; and, as I declined to conform to this rule, Bombay, fearing 
some terrible disaster if the ftUl ceremonies were not complied with, 
made the offering himself." 

Well-worship is part, therefore, of the extensive subject of Ani- 
mism, a kind of primaeval Pantheism. Mr. E. B. Tylor, who has 
treated it most fully in his "Primitive Culture," describes under this 
name " the local spirits which belong to mountain and valley, to well 
and stream and lake, in brief, to those natural objects and places 
which in early ages aroused the sa\age mind to mythological ideas, 
such as modern poets, in their altered intellectual atmosphere, strive 
to reproduce." (Vol. II., p. 186.) 

The re-discovery of the site of the remarkable fountain at the 
Roman town of Procolitia, whose tutelary or guardian spirit was wor- 
shipped by her votaries under the name of Coventina (a deity hitherto 
unknown to the Latin Pantheon), has added a new interest to this 
particular form of nature-worship. The sacred character of the well 
is ascertained with unusual clearness by means of the many inscribed 
votive altars and slabs : one of the latter, perhaps, representing the 
goddess herself, and another, by its three sculptured female figures, 
the three "springs"* marked in Mr. McLauchlan's plan of the station. 
These once adorned the temple of Coventina, which was built over the 
fountain, but were deposited, on some supreme emergency, with the 
unique inscribed vases, and other relics, within the stone-cased recep- 
tacle, and thus committed to the safe keeping of the water-goddess, 
whose name and fame they have recently revealed to us after so many 
centuries of oblivion. It is worthy of notice that Wallis ("Natural 
History and Antiquities of Northumberland," Vol. I., pp. 28, 24) seems 
to have divined its sacred purpose, and describes " the Eoman Well" at 
Carrawbrough, in his day, as "square, and faced with freestone, of 
hcAXTi-work ; and has either had a dome over it, or been walled round; 
the stones now lying, about it, nearly covered with water irom the con- 
duit's being stopt, and demolished by the carelessness or ignorance of 
a plowman, as I am informed; it is full up to the brim, and over- 

* In Ur. Brace's valuable monograph on " The Fountain of Coventina," p. 5, 
written " in honorem Theodori Mommseni," he speaks of tlie three \vater-nyni])hs 
carved with considerable skill on this slab, as " the attendants probably of the 
chief deity of the fountain." This opinion Mr. Clayton previously held. 



62 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

flowing in the hottest summer ; and by that man's indiscretion, he 
that would satisfy his curiosity to see it [as, no doubt, the writer would 
often desire to do, living so neai- to the scene as Simonbum Rectory 
at this time,] must risque the wetting his feet, especially in winter, or 
in a rainy season." 

When I considered that in the extraordinary veneration of Coven- 
tina might be found also (which is now generally acknowledged) one 
of the originating causes of the marvellous deposit of smaller relics of 
the Romano-British period, especially many of the several thousand 
coins of gold, silver, and copper or bronze, the enamelled and other 
fibulas, rings, styli, and beads, discovered within her walled fountain, 
it appeared to me not unlikely that I should meet with " survivals" 
(a word coined by Mr. Tylor), or modern reminiscences of this ancient 
cnlfiis, or well- worship, in North Tynedale, and the districts adjoining 
to Coventina's sacred well. Such I have found after enquiring, often 
to little purpose where traditionary lore is lightly regarded, or almost 
lost, in many different parishes. They are long lingering remains of 
unconscious heathenism in this nineteenth Christian century, which 
have very nearly died out in Western Northumberland in the present 
generation ; yet they were not only existent but flourishing only thirty 
or forty years since. The very memory of such singular and primi- 
tive customs seems now to be quickly disappearing before the invasion 
of the quiet life of these isolated valleys by the wonder-working powers 
of steam and electricity, which form an equally mysterious but more 
useful subject of contemplation for the rustic mind. 

SACRED WELLS. 

Sacred Wells, for our purpose, are of three kinds: — (1) Those con- 
nected with Christian places of worship or holy personages of early 
Christian times; (2) ordinary springs, but held in special estimation; 
and (3) medicinal or mineral wells. All these are usually known in 
their respective localities as " Holy Wells ;" in the vernacular, " Halli- 
weUs," like that which gives a name to the "Halliwell Dene" at 
Hexham, although the " holy well" there appeai-s to have faded out 
of all recollection, as to any sacred character or primitive usage 
attached to it, at least in these our own days. It is probably the 
Dene well, on the wooded bank south of the railway, a little to the 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. ^S 

east of the station, which is still in repute for the purity of its water, 
and is beautifully cool in the warmest summer day. A bath Avas for- 
merly connected with this favourite spring. 

That which is nearest to the now famous Procolitian fountain is 
St. Mungd's Well at Simonliirn, used for very many centuries as one 
of the sources of the water supply of that ancient villao-e. Wallis, 
with his fondness for botanical research, describes its position in con- 
nection with the habitat of the rarer alternate-leaved golden saxifi-age, 
and the tuberous moschatell, or musk-wood crowfoot, growing spa- 
ringly " about shadowy springs and water-courses," especially " on the 
bank under the hedge below St. Mungo's Well at Hall-barns, opposite 
to the church of Simonburn, close to the brook." (" Natural History 
of Northumberland," Vol. I., pp. 151, 212.) 

Not far distant, in Nunwick Park, there stood within memory a 
so-called Druid circle of five monoliths, or standing stones; and in 
the recent and excellent restoration of the parish church one relic was 
discovered — a portion of a cross, probably connected with the Saxon 
church which the Celtic Missionary, St. Mungo, or Kentigern, in his 
Apostolic journeys from his native Gallovegia, or Galloway, helped to 
found about the middle of the sixth century. Many of us will remember 
that this British Saint is said by tradition to have built his cell in a 
Druidical circle, within which was a well, on the site of the- present 
noble cathedral of Glasgow. The sacred well there first served for the 
Druidical lustrations, then for the daily drink of the Celtic Saint, and 
for the baptism of his rude Pictish converts. No doubt the same 
might, with but little change, be held true as regards St. Mungo's 
Well at Simonburn. As yet, however, I have not found any survival 
in recent popular customs of any worship of this undoubtedly once 
venerated well. 

Nor have I been able to ascertain anything definite, in local 
tradition or ceremony, respecting St. Guthherts Well at BeUingham. 
Here it is just outside the churchyard wall, not inside, as the late Dr. 
Charlton described it by an oversight. (My friend, the Rev. A. John- 
sou, has drawn my attention to this.) Still, being like many others in 
a similar position, it possesses the character of a churchyard well, which 
would supply the baptismal element to the first converts to Christianity 
there, as the fonts of the early Saxon times were usually open-air 



64 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

fountains, to which pilgrimages were often made in after ages, such as 
that of St. Mary of Walsinghara, in Norfolk, which Erasmus has de- 
scribed in his " De PeregTinatione." According to the usage of those 
days, these wells would be put under saintly invocations, and even 
though only pure cold water, miraculous virtues would be supposed to 
issue from them to the devout through their self-chosen patron. St. 
Cuthbert's name of power attaches both to the closely-adjoining and 
most interesting church, with its almost unique stone-groined roof, to 
the chief annual fair, held on the Saturday after the 14th day of Sep- 
tember, and to the well. Tradition records that Bellingham was one 
of the places where the undecaying remains of the gi-eat Saint of 
Northern England rested in the memorable flight of his followers 
from the ravaging hordes of heathen Danes. 

Reginald of Durham, who flourished about the year a.d. 1150, in 
supplying us with the first historic mention of the two principal vil- 
lages of North Tynedale — Wark and Bellingham — relates also the 
story of a miraculous cure with which the holy well, now, by the usual 
North-country abbreviation, called " Cuddy's Well," in the latter 
village, is characteristically as-^ociated. ^bout the period of the 
Norman Conquest a man named Sproich, by the almoner of Durham, 
set over the repairs of the bridges of the North Tyne, lived at " Bain- 
lingham," whose only daughter Eda had a great love of fine garments, 
and was foolishly indulged therein by her parents, though themselves 
poor. On the morn of a certain St. Laurence's feast, she was still 
working at the finishing of a rich dress — " quoddam de fusticatincto 
indumentum" — instead of preparing to go to church, notwithstanding 
her mother's rebuke. When she obstinately determined to finish it, 
as she was declaring her intention to work to what hour she liked, 
" her left hand, which held the stuff", contracted thereupon so that she 
could not move the fingers to open the hand, nor could they, by force, 
draw away the cloth they grasped." The story adds that, in this ex- 
tremity, human help being vain, the parents first caused the girl to 
drmk of the ivell of St. Outhhert by the way, and then prostrated 
themselves in the little adjoining church of St. Cuthbert all that night, 
in prayer to the " Glorious Confessor," whose figure, towards the dawn- 
ing of the day, arose at the altar, descended into the aisle, and touched 
the contracted hand of the maiden. The cloth now dropped from her 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 65 

fingers, but the miracle M'as incomplete : for, through terror of the 
saintly apparition, the mother had meanwhile also seized her daughter's 
hand, which she was unable to open fully until special prayers had 
been offered for her recovery at morning mass by the priest Samuel. 
Then she was able joyfully to hold up her hand in church in presence 
of all the congTegatiou, -who thenceforth, with the priest, the parents, 
and every villager of Bellingham, vouch for the reality of the miracle. 

The interest of this relation in connection with our subject rests 
■ in the preliminary draught at St. Cuthbert's Well, as necessary to any 
hope of the maiden's cure. Whether to supplication they added 
offerings, placed in or around the fountain, we cannot know ; but to 
that pure spring, which gushes forth to this day from beneath the 
covered stone pant into ample receptacles on the sunny hill-side 
between the \'illage and the church, they came eight hundred years 
since with simple faith in their great patron saint, as to a healing pool 
of Bethesda. (" Reg. Dunelm," Surtees Society, CVIIT., pp. 24.S-5 ;* 
Dr. Charlton's "North Tynedale," pp. 0, 10. 

Another remarkable well, closely adjoining the site of an ancient 
church and churchyard, of which no trace, however, now remains, exists 
at the village of Gunnarton called the fMilifs Well, or simply Margaret's 
Well. It springs forth in a picturesque fern-clad and moss-mantled 
hollow near the Gunnartou burn, beneath the hill on which the castle 
formerly stood, of which the ivy-covered wall is the sole vestige ; and 
its copious flow still furnishes the chief supply of this romantic hamlet. 
Indeed, it occupies, relatively to the former pre-Reformation chapel of 
the village (one of the four ancient cnpellm of the great parish of Chol- 
lerton) a position very similar to that of St. Cuthbert's Well at Bel- 
lingham ; and it is not improbable that its present name denotes the 
special dedication of the sacred building itself. 

Of this interesting spring I have not been able to learn anything 
satisfactory as to any ancient observance connected with it, denoting 
veneration ; but let us proceed about a mile further up the beautiful 
Lady's Wood, beyond the remarkable British earthwork, called the 



* The venerable monk of Durham describes the ceremony at tlie sacred well on 
the way to the church in these words : — " Nunc de fonte. qui sancti Cuthberti 
dicitur, aquas exhauriunt, et ori languentis vel manui contractae perf undunt" — the 
immemorial libation of the classic mythology, and still prevalent at the present day. 



66 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

" Money Hill" from the local tradition of a dragon-guarded hoard of 
treasure. The lovely ravine, and the parcel of land to the south, take 
the name of Dungill and Dungill-field respectively from this singular 
fortress of pre-historic times. At the extremity of these extensive 
woods we come to the Halliwell burn and the Halliivell itself, a chaly- 
beate spring, close by the margin of the stream in an open and undu- 
lating portion of Gunnarton Fell. Whether this sacred well partakes 
of the same tutelary patronage as that first described lower down the 
bum, that of " Our Lady," by analogy the " Blessed Virgin," I could 
not ascertain. But it has for a long time drawn numerous votaries to 
its healing waters, who, as my neighbour and guide, the Rev. C. Bird, 
and our colleague, Mr. Martin Dunn, inform me, frequently superadd 
to the normal veneration of the well a marked worship of Bacchus, 
bringing the " strong drink" for their libations with them in their 
pilgrimage to the al-fresco shiine. 

In the same parish of Chollerton the village of Colwell derives its 
present appellation from a well-kno^ATi spring, not far from the now 
almost-forgotten site of another early capella. With this an interest- 
ing relic of primitive worship used to be associated in a popular pil- 
gidmage and the bringing of flowers, perhaps a relic of the Roman 
Fontinalia, and of such rites as Horace describes at the " Tons Ban- 
dusiae," to dress the well on or about the Midsummer Sunday. Such 
a custom still prevails in connection ^dth St. Chadd's Well at Lich- 
field on Ascension Day, and the Avell-dressing at Tissington, in Derby- 
shire, a custom that of late years has been revived also at Buxton. 

But a more peculiar custom yet lingers in North Tynedale, which 
has recently come to my knowledge. There are three wells, which 
supply the wants of the inhabitants of the ancient village of Wark. 
The " town" takes its name from the great earthwork, partly artificial, 
called the Mote Hill, which was undoubtedly occupied by the ancient 
Britons, and afterwards by the Romans, as an altar found on the site, 
now in the Museum at Newcastle, bears witness, to defend the ford 
of the river North Tyne beneath it. These wells are ordinary springs 
of water. One, the Old Kirk Well, issues on the roadside, beyond the 
present modem church, near the Kirk-field, the site of the pre-Refor- 
mation church of " St. Michael of Were." The others are called the 
Upper or High Well, at the entrance to the village from the west by 



ANCIENT WELL-WOESHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 67 

the road leading from the Wastes — the " vastse" of Camden ; and the 
Lower or River-side Well, which forms an excellent gauge by which 
the disciples of Isaak Walton, as by a kind of Nilometer, measure the 
height of flood in North Tyne and the chances of salmon fishing. On 
New Year's morning, within memory, each of these wells was visited 
by the villagers in the hope of their being the first to take what was 
called the " Flower of the Well" — (see Brand's " Popular Antiquities," 
Vol. II., p. 36G, et seq., who refers to this curious custom) — that is, 
the first draught drunk by any one in the New Year. I have heard 
of one aged crone, who had the reputation of being " uncanny," and 
concerned in forbidden devices of witchcraft, endea^'ouring to antici- 
pate her rivals by going to the wells before the " witching midnight 
hour," so as to be in readiness for the advent of the incoming year. 
Whoever first drank of the spring would obtain, it was believed, mar- 
vellous powers throughout the next year, even to the extent, so my 
informant averred, of being able to pass through key-holes and take 
nocturnal flights in the air. And the fortunate recipient of such ex- 
traordinary powers notified his or her acquisition thereof by casting 
into the well an offering, as we may also consider it, of flowers or 
grass, hay or straw, fi-om seeing which the next earliest devotees 
would know that their labour was in vain, when they, too late, came 
to the spring in the hope of possessing the flower of the well. At 
Birfley (formerly Birlcley) the same custom was followed in the last 
generation. The Croft-foot Well, corrupted into the Crow-foot Well, 
as if from the ranunculus that grows near it, derives its name fi-om its 
position at the lower end of the field, called the Prior's Croft, a portion 
of land assigned by the Umfrevilles, Lords of Prndhoe, to the Prior of 
Hexham Abbey, on condition of services performed in the ancient 
chapel, now the parish church, of Birtley. There the villagers of a 
generation ago frequented the well in the early hours of the New 
Year, like their neighbours at Wark ; but they held that the fortunate 
first visitant of the well on New Year's morning who should fill his 
flask or bottle with the water, would find that it retained its freshness 
and purity throughout the whole year, and also brought good luck to 
the house in which it remained. 

The medicinal or mineral wells, par excellence, the Holy Wells of 
the district, are especially worthy of notice. The strong sulphur and 



68 ANCIENT WELL-WOESHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

chalybeate springs of Ramshaw's Mill, near Wark, seem until recently 
to have been the sites of pilgrimages on New Year's morning. Very 
beautiful scenery surrounds these wells, which issue beneath wooded 
rocks by the mill stream. Higher up in Wark's bum is another 
favourite sulphur spring, near the Rose's Bower waterfall, the scent of 
which, as Wallis says, can be discerned at a distance of two hundred 
yards in a dry summer, so powerfully is it impregnated. In this it 
resembles that at Wardrew or Gilsland, and no doubt once possessed 
similar religious associations. There is also a sulphur well springing 
from the rock in Humshaugh Wood, near Haughton Castle, where a 
small basin has been artificially formed on the margin of the North 
Tyne, and a channel cut to deliver its overflow into the river. It is a 
frequent resort of the inhabitants of the neighbouring village, but no 
special veneration, as far as I know, is paid to it. 

The Birtley Holywell, or Holy Well, a chalybeate spring, issuing 
from the face of the sandstone cliff, amidst the ferns, harebells, 
heather, and other flowers that adorn its interstices, close to the 
romantic waterfall of the Holywell Burn, and to the ciu"ious so-called 
Devil's Stone, or Rock, in the near neighbourhood also of two ancient 
British camps, or oppida, is worthy of special mention among the 
medicinal wells of North Tynedale. 

Though I cannot learn that any particular reverence was formerly 
shown to this well, which now merely trickles down the ochreous sides 
of the cliff, at Midsummer, yet I find that people " from far and near" 
used until recently to visit it on fine Sunday afternoons in summer, 
and itinerant vendors of refreshments from the village, which is about 
a mile distant, were wont to be present on the spot. Here, in close 
proximity, still exists the great upright, weather-worn monolith — 
apparently a detached fragment split from the adjacent rock by some 
natural convulsion — already spoken of as the Devil's Stone. Tradi- 
tion asserts this to have been, "once upon a time," the scene of a 
Satanic leap, the very " hoof-marks" being yet visible on its altar-like 
summit in the shape of what geologists would call "pot holes" — a leap 
intended to result in the demon's descent at Lee Hall, on the opposite 
bank of the river, about half a mile distant; but the interval not 
having been carefully estimated, the consequence was a fall into the 
deepest abyss of North Tyne, just below the Countess Park Clints — 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 69 

thence called the " Leap-Crag Pool," where the Satanic personage is 
said to have been drowned ! 

The chief well for the pilgrimage of our dales-folk in this district, 
especially in the last generation, seems to have been the Bore- Well on 
Errinyhurn, near Bingtield. In the centre of the curious peninsula 
formed by the winding stream, a copious spring of water, strongly 
impregnated with sulphur, issues to the day. On the Sunday follow- 
ing the 4th day of July, that is, about Midsummer Day, according to 
the Old Style, great crowds of people used to assemble here from all 
the san*ounding hamlets and villages. The scene has been described 
to me as resembling a fair, stalls for the sale of various refreshments 
being brought from a distance year by year at the summer solstice. 
The neighbouring slopes had been terraced, and seats formed for the 
convenience of pilgrims and visitors. One special object of female 
pilgrims was, I am informed, to pray at the well, or express a silent 
wish as they stood over it, for the cure of barrenness ; like Hannah, 
the wife of Elkanah, at Shiloh, or like the Eoman votaries of Juno 
Luciua at the great festival of the Matronalia, when women honoured 
their protectress, and, in particular, besought aid, her great office, to 
make them fi-uitful. If the pilgrim's faith were sufficient, lier wish 
at the Bore-well would be certain to be fulfilled within the twelve 
months. 

This locally-celebrated spring, which seems to have obtained its 
present name from having been enlarged in horiiifj for coal, still 
retains much of its former veneration. Its day is for irom being gone 
by for a very considerable number of visitors, with tents and pur- 
chaseable commodities, assembled (strange to say) even this last year 
to celebrate the old Midsummer Sunday at the Bore-AVell. Though 
eye-witnesses have related to me these evidences even of its present 
great repute, notwithstanding the popular respect for religion and 
advance in civilisation of our dales-folk, yet in this survival to our 
own day there is perceptible a considerable lessening of the former 
remarkable veneration of this Holy Well, and of Bore-AVell Sunday, 
which the inhabitants of distant villages, like Bii'tley, used to frequent 
in a past generation. 

Mr. Coppin, of Bingfield House, has brought to my notice another 
Eallnvell on Todridge Farm, in his vicinity, of whose once sacred 



70 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHir EST NORTH TYNEDALE. 

character, however, we can now discover no trace. He has kindly 
pointed out to me the entry in the " Rentale Prions et Conveutus 
de Hextildeshame" ("Hexham Priory," Vol. II.; "The Black Book," 
etc., p. 7 ; Surtees Society), where the spring is already a boundary 
mark, so far back as the year 1479. The extract runs thus: — Under 
Byngfield, " Et ex eadem parte versus or [ientem] super Halywel-flatie, 
inter villam de Bingfield et Todrige, xv acras." — Under Todrige, " Et 
continetur inter has divisas; videlicit inter le Blake-dyke ex parte or.; 
et sic descendendo per lez Oppots et Todryge-burn, et le Halywell, ex 
parte bor[eali], etc." 

This holy well is so near the site of the famous battle, a.d. 635, 
between St. Oswald, King of Northumbria, and Cadwalla, the Pagan 
King of Cumbria, where the former gained his great victory at a most 
momentous crisis, namely, Heavenfelth, or Heaven-field, that it is 
scarcely unreasonable to suppose that St. Oswald himself may have 
drank of the waters of the Bingfield holy well before or after the 
engagement. Bede's Well, at Houghton-le-Spring, is said to have 
taken its name from the fact of the saints and his companions having 
drank there in the year 700, as, no doubt, the custodians of St. Cuth- 
bert's sacred remains did at the Bellingham holy well. St. Oswald 
may have thus given additional sanctity to a pre\iously venerated 
spring, which may indeed have been within the limits of the historic 
" Heavenfield" (Bede's " Ecclesiastical History," Lib. III., c. 2, pp. 
109 et seq., Bohn's Edition.) For Dr. Smith (Ibid, Note) says, that 
" probably the whole country for two miles from Halliugton through 
Bingfield to the [Roman] Wall was called Heavenfelth." Bede ob- 
serves that many in his own day were wont to cut off' small chips 
from the wood of the holy cross, set up by St. Oswald where the little 
chapel still bearing the name of the royal saint and martyr stands 
croAATiing the hill. These " being put into water," the spring at Bing- 
field may often have been visited for the purpose, "men or cattle 
drinking thereof, or sprinkled with that water, are immediately re- 
stored to health." Have we not here a hint given us in connection 
with the origin of the veneration paid to such wells in mediaeval times, 
to which, if already reverenced, greater sanctity would be certain to 
arise from these reputed miraculous cures ? 

To pass for a moment to the east of North Tynedale for another 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 71 

instance of the survival of well-worship, Mr. Hodgson, respecting 
Longwitton, says : (" History of Northumberland," Vol. I., Part II.. 
p. 309) — " By the banks of the Hart, near Longwitton, in a wood, 
are three wells which rise beneath a thick stratum of sandstone 
rock, which Wallis calls Thruston Wells, probably from their coming 
through the stone ; but the people of the neighbourhood call them 
Our Lady's Wells and The Holy Wells. They are all chalybeate, 
contain sulphur and alumine, and were ibrmerly in high reputation 
•through the neighbourhood for their very virtuous qualities. That 
furthest to the east is called the Eye Well, on account of its beneficial 
eflPects in cases of inflammation of the eyes, and flux of the lachrymal 
humour. It has a very ancient inscription in four lines in the rock 
immediately above it, but many of the letters have been purposely 
defaced, and to me," Mr. Hodgson remarks, " it seemed illegible. 
Great concourses of people from all parts also used to assemble here, 
in the memory of the old people, on 'Midsummer Sunday and the 
Sunday following,' and amuse themselves with leaping, eating ginger- 
bread brought for sale to the spot, and drinking the waters of the well. 
A tremendous dragon, too, that could make itself visible, formerly 
guarded these fountains, till the famous knight, Guy, Earl of War- 
wick, wandering in quest of chivalrous employment, came this way, 
and waged battle with the monster. With words that could not be 
disobeyed, the winged serpent was commanded fi'om his den, and to 
keep his natural and visible form ; but as often as the knight wounded 
him, and his strength from loss of blood began to fail, he glided back, 
dipped his tail into the well, and returned healed and with new vigour 
to the combat, till the Earl, perceiving the cause of his long resist- 
ance, leapt between him and the wells, and in one furious onset 
stabbed him to the heart." (See Kichardson's Table Book, I., pp. 
145, 146; and Wallis, I., p. 17.) 

The last example which I will adduce, passing to the westward of 
the valley, is the most remarkable of all — I mean the famous Gilsland 
Wells. These much-valued sulphur and. chalybeate springs have drawn 
to their healing waters thousands of the votaries of the Goddess of 
Health, since about the middle of last century, from the North of 
England and the South of Scotland. It is supposed that Sir Walter 
Scott transferred many of the scenes witnessed by him here to his 



72 ANCIENT WELL- WORSHIP IX NORTH TYNEDALli. 

description of St. Ronan's Well. Within my own recollection, the 
yearly pilgrimage to Gilsland Wells on the Sunday after old Mid- 
summer Day, called the Head-Sunday, and the Sunday after it, was a 
very remarkable survival of the ancient cultus of primitive times. 
Hundreds, if not thousands, used to assemble there from all direc- 
tions by rail, when that was available, and by vehicles or on foot 
otherwise. They were wont to walk or drive annually at the summer 
solstice, even from North Tynedale, the neighbourhood of Wark and 
Birtley, to Fourstones, and thence by railway to Rose Hill Station, 
that they might take, unconsciously, it may be hoped, their part in a 
heathen solemnity. 

Dr. Bruce, speaking of the celebrated Rudge Cup (in the " Lapi- 
darium," pp. .S05-7), which, by the way, was found in the well of a. 
Roman building at Rudge Coppice, near Fuxfield, Wilts, considers 
that Banna, a name inscribed on that line enamelled vessel, dedicated 
by the " Venatores Bannae," is Gilsland, and that the cup itself " was 
intended as a votive offering to the presiding deity of some health- 
bringing fountain" in the neighbourhood of Amboglanna (Birdoswald), 
which fountain he identifies with this spa. " Certain it is," he justly 
remarks, " that no spa in the four northern counties of England is, in 
these modern days, so celebrated as that of Gilsland, which is so gene- 
rally resorted to for medicinal purposes." " There is not a spring in 
the whole mural region," was his previous observation, " so likely to 
attract the attention of the Romans as the spa of Gilsland, which is 
distant about two miles from this station of Amboglanna.'' 

From these survivals of an ancient culture, now very fast fading 
into oblinon, Ave may note the close connection between well-worship 
and solar adoration. In the Yggdrasil myth of the old Scandinavian 
religion, according to Finn Magnusen and others, the legend of Wuotan 
or Odin leaving his eye in pledge ere he could drink at Mimir's famous 
well of wisdom, signifies the sun's descent every evening into the sea, 
as the two swans swimming in the ethereal Urdar-fountain denote 
the sun and moon. (Mallet's " Northern Antiquities," Bohn's edit., 
p. 480; Edda's "Voluspa," p. 22; Grimm's "Deutche Myth," p. 133.) 
The primitive solar festival of Christmas, " Dies Natalis Soils Invtcft" 
reminding us of the dedication of so many of the coins of Constantine 



ANCIENT WELL-WOESHIP IN NOKTH TYNEDALE. 73 

the Great and Licinius from Coventma's Well, "Soli Invido Comiti" — 
which was held about the New Year of the modern style, is yet kept 
up in our popular use of yule-logs, portions of which are still often 
retained for the whole year till Christmas conies round again, for the 
sake of good fortune, in North Tynedale.* It has its natural sequence 
and pendant in the fire-festivals or bonfires of the summer solstice at 
the Old Midsummer, which until recently were commemorated on 
Christenburg Crags and elsewhere, by leaping through and dancing 
■round the fires, as those who have been present have told me. This 
custom may iudeed be still kept up in these remote parts of the valley; 
and, as we have already seen, the veneration of the once sacred foun- 
tains lingers at the same season into the present times. But of this 
conjoined worship of holy wells and of the sun-god Mithras, which was 
so widely prevalent in the last transition period between the fall of 
Paganism and the triumph of Christianity in the fourth century, and 
its connection also with Christian symbolism, there is now no time to 
speak. The driving of cattle through the smoke of the ueed-fire, as a 
supposed preventative of murrain, and the carrying from farm to farm 
as quickly as men could ride of the sacred self-lighted fire, made by two 
pieces of dry or rotten wood being rubbed together very rapidly, has 
occurred at Birtley within the last thirty years ; and this forms one of 
the most recent survivals of the adoration once so generally rendered 
to the great orb of day and to the element of fire. 

Hodgson, in his "History of Northumberland," (Vol. IT., Part II., 
p. 17(5), makes a remark very apposite to this subject, in a note, when 
he speaks of Ulphani Feast and Erard's Well, mentioned in Ranulph 
de Merlay's " Charter to the Abbot and Convent of Newminster," in 
1188, though it is no longer known as "the well of Erard." "On 
Old Midsummer's Day, July 5, the people of this country used formerly 
to assemble in large concourses at holy wells, and still do so in Ireland. 
In the old pagan theology it was the day of the feast of the summer 
solstice, when the sun entered the tropic of Cancer, which >vas the 
northern gate by which Mercury conducted souls to their birth." 
Wingate Spa, in that neighbourhood, in the beginning of the present 
century, had a bath to which great numbers resorted for the cure of 

* My informant and parishioner. Mr. Percy Robson, is a good anthoritv on iill 
questions relating to the folk-lore and customs of the district. 



74 ANCIENT WELL-WOESHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

scrofula and divers diseases from Scotland and other distant places. 
It is not said whether any special concourse assembled at the Old Mid- 
summer there.* 

Direct evidence of votive offerings, such as were made of old at 
Coventina's sacred fountain, is now difficult to obtain in connection 
with the holy wells of the surrounding district. Still, traces of such 
veneration as is yet extensively prevalent elsewhere may probably be 
discernible in the former dressing with flowers of the spring at the 
■spillage of Colwell, similar to the better-known well-flowering at Bre- 
wood and Bilwood in Staffbrdshire, at Nantwich, and, on St. Richard's 
Day, at Droitwich ; as well as at Tissington and Buxton in Derbyshire, 
which have been already named. A relic of the same primitive custom 
seems to appear in the casting in of the gi-ass, etc., at the well-watch- 
ings on New Year's Eve at Wark. These offerings of flowers represent 
that picturesque phase of well-worship which, in the days before Coven- 
tina's Temple arose over the (probably) long-previously venerated spring 
at Carrawbrough, attracted the graceful tributes of the Roman poets, 
Horace and Virgil, and in recent times of our own Milton and Dyer, 
when the nymph or genius of the spring, the gentle tutelary spirit of 
well or lake, stream or river, like Sabrina, goddess of the Severn, was 
propitiated for the future with these fitting floral oblations, or thanked 
for healing ministrations in the past. 

" The slie])lierds at their festivals. 
Carol her goodness lond in rustick lays. 
And throw sweet garland wreaths into her strejini. 
Of pansies, pinks, and gaudy dafFadils." — Comus. 

Thus far I have not been able to discover in West Northumberland 
the more usual associated votive offerings which are so frequently the 
concomitants of pilgrimages to sacred wells in other parts of Great 

* Such popular observances as I have here noted are not without a practical 
value even in these utilitarian days. In March, 1878, the Whaltou Green case was 
brought before Mr. Baron Pollock, at the Newcastle Assizes, and decided by the 
jury in favour of the right of user by the villagers. The Hector of Whalton gave 
evidence as to the constant use of the part of the green in question since 1843. 
" On the 4th July (Old Midsummer Eve) in every year a bonfire," he said, " was 
lighted a little to the north-east of the well at Vi^halton, and partly on the foot- 
path, and people danced round it and jumped through it. That was never inter- 
rupted." Here is an undoubted relic both of st)lar and (probably) of well-worship 
before unknown to me — a survival of pre-historic times — ^aiding in the decision of a 
question of law in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 75 

Britain and Ireland, as well as in foreign countries. In our county I 
only know of two authentic instances of such direct gifts still to this 
day presented by devotees, degenerate survi\-als indeed of the ancient 
veneration. 

About a mile-and-a-half north of Wooler, on the flanks of the 
Cheviot, near to an ancient British hill-fort called the Cup and Saucer 
Camp, is a copious spring of water — a " wishing well." Here my 
informant, the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, F.R.S., has seen pins, buttons, 
and even a penny rarely, placed as offerings in the well, the modern 
votary meanwhile appearing to expect that any wish then formed 
would certainly be fulfilled. It is, I believe, also called locally the 
" Pin Well," from the usual character of the votive gift, as at St. 
Helen's Well, near Sefton, in Lancashire ; at St. Madron's Well, near 
Penzance, in Cornwall ; and at another " pin well" in Westmorland. 
The passers-by, rich and poor, are supposed to drop therein a 
"crooked" pin, and country maidens especially keep up the time- 
honoured custom with this convenient propitiatory gift to the well- 
nymph or fairy, crooked things being considered lucky things, as a 
" crooked sixpence" is often treasured up and carried on the person 
for good fortune. 

The other instance is the Well of St. Ninian, at Holystone, near 
Alwinton, not far fi'om the junction of two Roman ways.* That 
noble Welshman, the Evangelist of the Southern Picts, who died in 
A.D. 432, and may possibly have visited Coventina's sacred spring at 
Carrawburgh, and her temple, ere its glory had quite departed, had 
no doubt used it for baptismal purposes. It is connected not only 
with the first introduction of Christianity by a missionary of the 
British Church, but it was also a place of note during the short-lived 
success of Paulinus, the apostle of the Latin Church in northern 
England. Here, under King Ecgbert, his patron, as at the famous 
well of Yevering, at Pallinsburn also, where we may still trace his 
name, and at the Wall-town Well, near the Roman station of Carvor- 
ran (Magna), Paulinus is said to have baptised three thousand souls. 
And no wonder that it should have been so highly honoured, both by 
primitive pagans, as it would certainly be with them an object of 

* See Mr. Maclauchlan's " Survey of the Eastern Watling Street," p. 21, 
Note, and Wallis, II., p. 22. It is also called "Our Latly's Well." 



76 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

veneration, and also consecrated as a " laver of regeneration" by the 
early Christian teachers. St. Ninian's Well at Holystone is still 
worthy of the description Wallis gave of it in 1769, as a " beautiful 
bason of water, rising at the east end in bubbles perpendicular to the 
horizon, with fine green sand. The bottom is variegated with it and 
white sand. It is walled round with freestone, hewn-work, two or 
three courses still standing, shaded with trees and shrubs." This most 
copious spring is said to discharge 560 gallons of water each minute. 
At the bottom, visible through the pellucid water. Dr. Embleton 
informs me he has formerly noticed many pins lying, undoubted votive 
offerings ; and proofs, as at the " Pin Well" near Wooler, of the yet- 
existing reverence with which, in isolated districts of our own land, 
such sacred fountains are regarded. 

Behind the ruined chapel at Jesmond, on the edge of the dene, 
and under a moss-grown arch, is the once celebrated St. Mary's Well, 
which is said to have had as many steps do^vn to it as there are articles 
in the creed. Grey, in his " Chorographia," tells us that "people 
came hither with great confluence and devotion from all parts of this 
land;" and Bourne declares that "Pilgrims came from all parts of the 
kingdom to worship here." They resorted to it " for the benefit of the 
supposed holy water." 

Not far distant, on the road to Benton, was another famous spring, 
called in Brand's time the " Rag Well," from the practice of votaries 
leaving — as a kind of offering — a portion of their garments on trees and 
bushes, growing near the sacred fountain, which appeared densely 
covered with rags; just as the good citizens of Inverness are described 
to have flocked, within memory, on a May morning eastward to the 
well at Culloden, to taste of its waters and to cover with their offering 
of rags the branches of the surrounding trees.* 

Greatly esteemed also, like St. Mary's Well at Jesmond, as of 
" more sanctity than common wells," was that of the Venerable Bede, 
at Monkton, near Jarrow. " Here," Brand says,| " As late as 1 740, it 

* See " The Celtic Magazine," January. 1878, pp. 101-2, concluding article on 
" Ancient Mythology and Modern Superstitions," by the Rev. Alexander Macgregor, 
M.A. Mr. Hugh Miller, F.G.S., tells me he has frequently observed such offerings 
at wells both in the Highlands and in Germany. 

t " Pop. Antiq.," Vol. I., p. 383 (note); and " History of Newcastle," Vol. II., 
p. 54. 



ANCIKNT WELL- WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 77 

was a prevailing custom to bring children troubled with any infirmity; 
a crooked pin Avas ])ut in, and the well laved dry between each dip- 
ping. Twenty children were brought together on a Sunday to be 
dipped in this well, and at Midsummer Eve there was a great resort of 
the neighbouring people." In the " Picture of Newcastle," it is added 
that the concourse at the summer solstice was attended with " bonfires, 
music, dancing, and other rural sports," bat that these customs have 
been many years discontinued; although persons then alive (in 1812) 
remember to have seen great numbers of infirm and diseased children 
dipped in expectation of their being restored to health. 

Quite recently I was myself told by an eye-witness at Eiccarton 
Junction of a man from that district of Liddesdale, who had taken 
the journey by the North British Railway to St. Boswells for the 
purpose (strange anachronism I) of visiting a Holy Well, not of attending 
any tryst, or the celebrated fair, the chief market for sheep and lambs 
for the South of Scotland. From which of the copious springs, and 
whether from one of those forming the beautiful petrifactions, the much- 
desired supply of healing water was obtained, was not known ; but the 
pilgrim of this present year of grace had duly paid his votive oflering 
to the sacred spring in the form of the very smallest current coin of 
the realm — one far thing — and returned home in full faith, apparently, 
that the cure of a near relative suffering from cancer would be effected 
by the application of the simple and certainly harmless lotion. 

Most miscellaneous in their variety are the smaller relics recovered 
by rustic searchers from the neighbouring hamlets when sifting in a 
close sieve the debris of sand and soil cast out from Coventina's Well, 
including, among many other articles, ear-rings and finger-rings, entire 
or broken, and chiefly of bronze, styli, dice, jet and glass beads, flint 
and quartz pebbles, shells, fragments of glass, and ii'on nails, from those 
of a large size to the tiniest specimens. 

These strikingly illustrate the descriptions given us of the votive 
offerings formerly, or even yet, paid to the sacred wells, especially in 
the Highlands. While at Kirk-Michael, in Banttshire, a small piece 
of money or a few fragrant flowers conciliated the Celtic spirit of the 
fountains, Neithe ; or, as at the pool of St. Fillan, a small bunch of 
heather ; elsewhere, the frugal offerings of " shells, pebbles, rags, or 
stuff worn out, pins, needles, or rusty nails," are mentioned by Brand. 



78 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

Mr. Macgregor says, the divinities of tlie wells in St. Kilda had to be 
propitiated by offerings " in the shape of shells, pins, needles, pebbles, 
coins, or rags," otherwise they would be inexorable. Old and young 
at the well of Craigie, in Munlochy Bay, in their pilgrimage on the 
first of May (Old Style), brought coloured threads and rags of cloth in 
thousands, and hung them upon the rocks and brushwood as pro- 
pitiatory gifts to the saint of the healing waters. Campbell, in his 
" Popular Tales of the West Highlands,"* relates how he has often 
deposited copper caps amongst a hoard of pins and buttons and similar 
gear placed in chinks in the rocks and trees at the edge of the 
" Witches' Well," in Islay. During the Queen's sojourn last summer 
in Ross-shire, she paid a visit to Isle Maree, in the picturesque loch of 
that name. Beside the ruined chapel there is on the island a sacred 
well, the water of which is, like St. Fillan's Pool, famous in tradition 
for its miraculous cures in cases of insanity. A drink of it had, how- 
ever, to be supplemented by a ducking within it and by the much 
more objectionable process of being towed round the island after a 
boat — an ordeal which was actually undergone some twenty years ago 
by a patient, with the not surprising result of changing quiet im- 
becility into raging madness. Close to the well stands a tree, into the 
bark of which every visitor is expected to place a coin — a custom 
which was doubtless observed by the Royal party.f 

Well might Macaulay remark of such meagre votive offerings as 
these, copper coins of the smallest value being the costliest tribute 
paid, and that rarely enough — speaking of a holy well in St. Kilda — 
that they are " the poorest acknowledgments that could be paid to a 
superior being, from whom they had either hopes or fears." Pennant 
says that a trifling money-payment used to be rendered to the genius 
loci at the wells of Spey and Drachaldy, and he specifies fourpence as 
the usual offering of the devotee at the wonder-working well of St. 
Tecla, at Llandegla, in Wales, who, if a male, offers in addition, like 
Socrates to yEsculapius, a cock; if of the fair sex, a hen, to the guardian 
saint of the sacred spring; attended with certain prescribed ceremonies 
in the adjoining church, probably not very different from those de- 

* Vol. 11., p. 13. 
t See the " Graphic" on '• Talladale and Loch Maree," October 6th, 1877. 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 70 

scribed in connection with Eeginald of Durham's account of the cure 
at St. Cuthbert's Church and well at Bellinghara. 

Still more striking are the instances of superstitious practices and 
offerings made to wells related by Dr. Arthur Mitchell in the last of 
his " Rhind Lectures on Archaeology" (First Series), given in Edin- 
burgh, in May, 187(5. There he speaks of such relics of old pagan 
beliefs as recently or even yet existing in Scotland among people by 
no means irreligious, and partaking " in all the advantages of the 
advanced civilisation of the country." The Presbytery records of the 
parish of Applecross state that, besides the sacrifice of a bull yearly on 
the 25th of August on the island of Innis Maree to the god or spirit 
Maree, or Maelrhubius, their patron saint, stones were consulted by 
the inhabitants as to future events, oblations were left on the bills, and 
the people gave adorations to wells. At least a dozen wells continue 
to be worshipped to this day in Scotland, in the south as well as the 
north, in Ayrshire and Kirkcudbright, equally with such better-known 
holy wells as that at Craiguck, in the parish of Arvoch, Ross-shire. 
"An anxious loving mother," he remarks, "would bring a sick child to 
such a well at early morning on the 1 st of May, bathe the child, then 
cause the child to drop an oflFering into the well — usually a pebble, but 
sometimes a small coin. Then a bit of the child's dress," as at the 
Rag Well of Benton, not far from J esmond, " was attached to a bush 
or tree growing on the side of the well. These visits were paid in a 
spirit of earnestness and faith, and were kept more or less secret. 
Some of the wells had names of Christian saints attached to them;" 
but Dr. Mitchell " never knew a case in which the saint was in any 
way recognised or prayed to, and there was reason to believe that these 
wells were the objects of adoration before the couutry was Christianised, 
and it was a survival of the earlier practice to which Seneca and Pliny 
referred." 

"We all know, not alone from the remarkable discovery oT the 
Roman treasure-well of Coventina, the water-nymph or presiding 
deity of the Procolitian spring, how the Latins paid this kind of 
nature-worship. The Romans valued and used the medicinal virtues 
of mineral springs especially, in all Western Europe, from the Rhenish 
country to the Pp-enees, as well as in our island, at Bath and else- 



80 AKCIEXT WELL-AVORSHIP IS NORTH TYXEUALE. 

where. The Greeks of the earlier ages considered the gods, not so 
much as personal deities, throned on the Olympian heights, but rather 
" in the hght of indefinite powers," with which particular woods, caves, 
and fountains, and 

" The liquid lapse of murmuring streams," 

were mysteriously associated, a relic, perhaps, as some have thought, 
of still earlier Pelasgian theology.* But we must retire to a past that 
is more distant still, to the remotest Aryan era, to find the primitive 
Well-Worship of the Indo-Germanic race in the " Fountain of Immoi-tal 
Youth," of which the Vedas tell, from which the bather emerged to 
enjoy thenceforwards whatever age he pleased, as Cyavana, the son of 
Bhregu, did. Such, so the Iranian thought, was the lake or fountain 
Ara, surrounding the world-tree Ilpa, growing in Brahma's world, 
beyond the ageless stream, which in like manner renews the youth of 
men. Such, too, it has been pointed out by Kelly in his " Curiosities 
of Indo-European Folk-Iiore," are the sacred fountains springing, by 
a mythological parallelism, from beneath the three roots of the great 
Ash Yggdrasil, the cloud-tree of the Norseman, from out of which the 
Norns or Fates drew water every morning, (Pp. ] 39-140.) 

The national reU(/io loci led the Saxons, as we know from Bede, to 
assemble occasionally at certain sacred places for the celebration of 
religious rites. These sacred places were often marked by consecrated 
trees, rocks, and wells. So deeply seated was this feeling of venera- 
tion in the superstitions of oiu' Old English ancestors, that laws were 
directed against it from time to time, down to a late period in the 
Saxon era. King Ecgbert's " Poenitentiale " proscribes adoration, 
offering libations, and sacrifices to fountains: "if any man vow or 
bring his oflFering to any well — f/if hwilc man Ms (tplmessan (jehdte oili- 

* Homer's picture of the great Olympian assembly, when " cloud-compelling 
Zens" snnmions the gods whilst the Greeks prei)are for battle, and lets them each 
favour their own party, belongs to a later age, when such beliefs were established 
by long use in the early classic world, with the halo of jiretry and art already snr- 
roui.ding them. All except Ocean c beyed the call of Jove, the Rivers and the 
Nymphs who dwell in lovely groves and at the sprivgs of streams, and in the 
veidant meadows. 

OwTfe T<v ovv Hotu^wv cnretjv, v6<T(p Qkcuvoio, 
Oi>T upa 'Svfi(pawi', an u\aeu kuKo, ve/iomui 
Kul nHFAS nOTAMfiN kuI irlaea iroii^ema. 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 81 

the hringe to hivilcon wijlle; if any one hold his vigils at any well — gif 
hwa his tvaetcan ad aenigum iinjJU haeibe." (Tylor's " Primitive Cul- 
ture," Vol. II., p. 194.) The 1 6th of the canons of the reign of Edgar, 
A.D. 963, enjoins the clergy to be diligent to advance Christianity and 
extinguish heathenism in withdrawing the people from the worship of 
trees, stones, and fountains, and other heathenish practices therein 
specified ; and the laws of Knut prohibit the worship of heathen gods, 
the sun, moon, fire, rivere, fountains, rocks, or trees — some of which 
had probably been venerated by the preceding Romano-British and 
ancient British inhabitants from time immemorial. No doubt Augus- 
tine and his successors would carry out the spirit of Grregory's famous 
letter to Mellitus (Bede, Lib. I., c. 30), and they would bid their mis- 
sionaries, passing ft-om village to village — as King Oswald and Bishop 
Aidan did throughout the wide bounds of ancient Xorthumbria — 
gather the people together in the sacred places at which they had been 
wont to assemble for their local rites ; the stone circle on the solitary 
moor, the dark grove of the primaeval forest, in the swelling mound or 
barrow, by hoary rock, or monolith, or the sacred fountain or holy 
well. In later times this superstitious practice is, however, not wholly 
forbidden. The 20th canon of St. Anselm, in the early Norman age, 
A.D. 1102, directs thus: — "Let no one attribute Reverence or Sanctity 
to a dead body, or a Fountain (or other things as sometimes is to our 
knowledge), icithout the Bishoji's anthoritgP Much later, similar prac- 
tices were forbidden, particularly at St. Edmund's Well, without St. 
Clement's, near Oxford, and St. Lawrence's, at Peterborough, by Dr. 
Oliver Sutton, Bishop of Lincoln. But beside these interdicts, we 
possess in the Lansdowne MS., 465., a " Pontificale ad usum Ecclesige 
Romanae et Anglicanae ;" that is, a form of benediction for a new well. 
In the romances of the Middle Ages we find the Yedic fountain of 
eternal youth reappears after a lon^ oblivion. 

In connection with the subject of these notes, we are naturally 
reminded of the Well of Coventina at Procolitia. What was the cause 
and the purpose of the vast accumulation there of Roman coins and 
antique relics? It may certainly, I think, be in gi'eat part attributed 
to the panic-fear of the dwellers around it on some sudden invasion, 
probably, of the fierce natives living north of the Mural Barrier. The 

K 



82 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

throwing in of the inscribed altars and tablets, and the large preponder- 
ance of coins of certain reigns, those especially of the earlier Antonines 
and of the first Constantine, would alone, I think, prove this. But 
another, at least partial, cause of the great deposit must also be sought, 
I believe, to account for the regular gradation of the series of imperial 
coinage of the Higher and Lower Empire. The number varies very- 
much, so far as I have observed it, according to the length and the 
prosperity of the different reigns. Even Didius Julianus and Marius 
are represented, and scarcely any appreciable interval is anyi^'here appa- 
rent from the age of Antony and the second triumvirate (even of the con- 
sular period there isacoin,one of the Greek-Italian city of N'eapolis)down 
to the age of Gratian, and of the latest Eomano-British currency, the small 
and debased, but very numerous imitations, called the minimi, which pre- 
ceded the Anglo-Saxon mintage of the sceata and styca.* The utter 
absence of these latter coins of the second historic race of conquerors 

* The minimi are not recorded in Mr. Roach Smith's catalogue of coins from 
Coventina's Well, at the end of Mr. Clayton's Memoir. They will now be noted 
by him in the "Collectanea Antiqua" and "Num. Chron.," as I have drawn 
attention to them. They are of the usual cliaracter, being apparently copied from 
the small brass of the Tetrici. Victorinus. Postumus, and the Constantine family. 
From the debris cast out of the well at least an hundred have been observed by 
myself, and many more must have been rescued by the sieve from the rubbish- 
heaps. Though poor in design and execution, they have an important bearing on 
the latest date of the well-deposit. There is, however, a decided conflict of opinion 
as to the time when thej' were minted and in currency. The decision of Mr. Roach 
Smith, to whom I have submitted several specimens, must be received with the 
utmost respect, coming from probably the highest authority. He writes : " That 
they were struck for small change, and without any care about the images or 
superscription, there can be no doubt. I believe they were struck at intervals late 
in the decline of the Empire, but not post-Roman. We have good coins of Magnus 
Maxiraus and of Constantine the Third after Gratian." 

But other eminent numismatists take in preference the view to which I had 
already refen-ed in this paper. Mr. Thomas Wright, F.S.A., in " The Celt, the 
Roman, and the Saxon" (First Edit., p. 430), remarks that the minimi "are sup- 
posed to have been struck during the period between the abandonment of the 
island hy the Imperial Government, and the establishment of the Saxon kingdoms." 
He instances the two hundred found of late years at Richborough, in Kent (Re- 
tupiae), as showing that "that post continued to be occupied as a place of importance 
during the period just mentioned." The same inference would hold good of the 
station of Procolitia. After twenty years Mr. Wright repeats his previous opinion 
in " Uriconium" (pp. 337-8), and gives two illusti-ations from minimi found at 
Wroxeter. Mr. J. Yonge Akerman agrees with this view (" Introduction to the 
Study of Ancient and Modern Coins," p. 107), and it is also received by authorities 
at the British Museum. 

As at Uriconium (see Wright, p. 407) after long inquiry, only one Saxon coin, a 
" styca" also, has been found, which I have seen among several Roman medals from 
the debris out of Coventina's Well. It is one of Ethelred, in fair preservation. 
No doubt it was accidentally dropped outside, like the Indian silver coin of Akbar 
the Mogul dropped inside Procolitia, long afterwards. 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 83 

from the Carrawburgh Well of Coventina seems to imply both that 
her worship had fallen into disrepute, and also a kind of superstitious 
dread of the water-goddess — the local deity of the subject race. It 
appears as if no Angle or Saxon had ever dared to disturb the sacred 
precincts of her temple, much less to rifle the buried treasures of her 
fountain in post-Romano-British days ; not that the Teuton was less 
given to the veneration of the phaenomena of nature, whether well, or 
stone, or tree, as the " Pcenitentiale" of Ecgbert, as well as the statutes 
of Edgar and Knut, against such idolatry abundantly testify. More- 
over, the presence of so many personal ornaments and implements, 
enamelled fibulae, signet and finger rings, beads, styli, etc., apparently 
denotes an intention in the minds of their former owners to propitiate 
the presiding Genius of the Procolitian spring, and the hope of 
obtaining some desired benefit, by the casting in of these propitiatory 
oflFerings — that is, the ancient well-worship, of which we yet perceive 
the lingering vestiges in this district of western Northumberland. 

Archaeologists in England have paid less attention than those of 
some other countries to the subject of well-worship, and to the " sur- 
vivals" of that culture in our still-remaining, but now fast-vanishing, 
folk-lore. . Our own well-known and valued authorities, Bourne and 
Brand, both Novocastrian clergymen, have preserved the memory of 
the local, once famous pilgrimage wells, where healing was expected 
and offerings made, at Jarrow and Jesmond, and elsewhere. In Hen- 
derson's " Folk-Lore of the Northern Comities of England and the 
Borders," an excellent recent work, the only reference — a partial one, 
though he refers to Loch Monar in the Scottish Highlands, (p. 1 ;)2) — 
is to the form of divination yet used by girls in Cleveland when they 
wish to ascertain whether they will be married or no, by suspending a 
borrowed wedding-ring over a tumbler of "south-running water:" 
that is, water from a stream which flows southwards, like that, the 
three springs of which fill the well of Coventina. The famous Worm 
of Lambton, first located in its well, and the Dragon Guardian of the- 
Longwitton Wells, are perhaps a reminiscence of the supposed indwel- 
ling and often malevolent spirit — the water-kelpie of later-times. 

Mr. W. Henderson relates a s^d scory from his personal knowledge 
(pp. 128-9), of a poor Northumbrian shepherd suffering from rheu- 
matism, who, on the advice of " the wise man" of the College and 



84 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

Bowmont district, was laid in the sharp-running stream that flowed 
close to his cottage, in full faith of a cure, though this was done in the 
depth of winter. His death a few days afterwards was the natural 
result of so desperate a remedy. Superstition of the worst character 
made him the water-spirit's victim even more certainly, and causing 
him to endure far greater agony, than if the swollen river had gripped 
him when bathing with chill and cramp ; or, when fallen by accident 
into the surging torrent, it had held him in its inexorable grasp until 
he drowned. 

" River of Dart ! river of Dart ! 

Every year thou claim'st a heart." 

Such is the old couplet of Devon Folk-Lore, personifying the malignant 
and cruel influences of the water's rush and fury, as of some river-demon 
of primaeval mythology. 

We have, however, an analogue closer at hand which, in its cold- 
blooded ruthlessness of expression, makes us understand something of 
the awful feehng that prevents the fishermen of Bohemia from ventur- 
ing to snatch a drowning man from the waters, lest the indwelling 
spirit, deprived of its sacrificial victim, should vent its anger on them- 
selves. 

" Tweed said to Till, 

' What gars ye rin sae still ?' 
Till said to Tweed, 

' Though ye rin wi' speed, 
And I rin slaw, 

Yet, where ye drown ae man, 
I drown twa.' " 

This darker phase of our subject may be fitly passed over with a 
reference to the well at Waver tree, near Liverpool, which is said to 
bear the following inscription: — "Qui non dat quod habet, daemon 
infra videt: 1414" — a parallel to which we find transferred only from 
water to land in respect of Satanic possession, as Mr. G. Henderson tells 
us in his " Popular Rhymes of Berwickshire," in the " Cloutie's Croft, 
or the Gudeman's Field," consisting of a small portion or corner of the 
best land, or, as other authorities say, a mere worthless scrap on the 
principle of " cheating the devil," which was set apart by the inhabi- 
tants of most Scottish villages as a propitiatory gift to the Evil One, 
on which property they never ventured to intrude. 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 85 

Such gloomy and degrading superstitions as these may be recorded, 
as being of some value in the elucidation of the strange mental and 
moral phenomena, that have caused so many pre-Christian and Pagan 
beliefs to survive in our midst in the cold and cloudy north. They 
have, however, none of the bright poetic beauty of the earlier Indo- 
Germanic myths and nature-personifications, offspring of sunnier skies. 
And, when we remember the ready credence given by thousands to, 
perhaps, the most recent attempt at a revival of well-worship; namely, 
at Marpingen, in Germany {Times, 25th January, 1878), we need not 
regret theu* fast-approaching extinction, as the certain result of the 
advance of knowledge and Christian enlightenment. 

At the meeting of our Society on December 5th, 1876, when Mr. 
Clayton read his first most interesting paper on his great discovery, the 
writer had the opportunity of making some remarks bearing on this 
subject which, after personal research over new ground, he has now 
been able to treat, he hopes, not with too great fulness, considering 
the special interest that attaches to everything connected with the 
WeU-Nymph Coventina, her sacred fountain and its treasures, and her 
temple, the foundations of which have since then been brought to light 
by Mr. Clayton. 

On the same occasion Mr. Greenwell appropriately instanced the 
Well of the Goddess Sequana at the fountain head of the River Seine. 
Dr. Bruce had not omitted a reference to this notable discovery in the 
"Lapidarium" (p. 205), where he quotes the opinion of the late ac- 
complished arcliEeologist, Mr. Albert Way, to the eflFect that it furnishes, 
besides the instance of the " Acque Apollinari," the ancient baths at 
VicareUo, and the Eudge Cup found in the well at Rudge Coppice in 
Wilts — " another remarkable illustration of the usage of throwing 
votive oflTerings into springs of water." 

We remember then the apparently gradual mode of the deposition 
of at least a large proportion of the coins in the walled fountain of 
Procolitia, through successive years and generations and centuries, 
without any perceptible interval; with some exceptions which may be 
accounted for, as many believe, the earliest coins being found at the 
bottom, the latest near the surface. We are mindful also of the very 
similar discovery in 1875 at the French Spa of Bourbonne-les-Bains, in 
the department of the Haute Marne, where 4,000 bronze coins, 300 of 



86 ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

silver, and a few gold were found, ranging from the reign of Augustus 
to that of Honorius. From similarly discovered inscribed stones found 
here on the site of the Eoman building, which had once been built 
around this spring, like the primitive Temple over Coventina's Well, a 
a Grod Borco and a Goddess Damona seem to have presided over the 
waters. In June, 1875, at the source of a small brook in the village 
of Horton, Dorsetshire, was found a number of Eoman vases containing 
coins, supposed to have been thrown in as offerings. We compare these 
instances with the fine altar discovered in 1821, near the "Abbot's 
Well," in the suburbs of Chester, inscribed both back and front Nymphis 
et Fontihus Leg. xx. v.v., " To the Nymphs aiid fountains, the twentieth 
legion, valiant and victorious." And we can scarcely doubt that the 
conclusion, as I understand it is, of the Eev. W. Barnes, B.D., of Pro- 
fessor Hiibner, the Eev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., and other authorities, 
which has been my own opinion from the fii'st discovery of Mr. Clayton's 
most recent treasure-find, is on the whole (though difficulties still exist 
which will never be fully unravelled), not unlikely to be coiTCct. The 
great hoard buried in the fountain represents, with the reservation — 
no doubt a considerable one — ^before mentioned as to the altars, etc., 
the various offerings from men, women, and children, for at least three 
centuries of the Eomano-British age, when they would propitiate for 
favours to be bestowed, or deprecate evils which they feared at the 
powerful hands, as they believed, of Coventina, the Goddess or Nymph 
of the WeU of ancient Procolitia. 

As suggestions have been desired in connection with the derivation 
of the name Coventina, one which has met with some approval may be 
offered in concluding these remarks. I do not think there can be much 
doubt as to the reference of the second part of the word, namely, Una; 
still the very name of both branches of the river Tyne, which the 
votaries of the goddess would daily look down upon from the heights 
of Carrawburgh. I am glad to find from my friend Mr. Blair that 
the eminent antiquary, Mr. Eoach Smith, in a recent letter to him 
gives this as his own conclusion. He takes, however, the first part 
from the Latin prefix co or con, together, and vent, as the probable 
British name of one branch of the Tyne. My own idea is to look for 
some native Celtic word, having a Latinized termination, descriptive 
of the position of the Well and the Temple of Coventina, such as we 



ANCIENT WELL-WORSHIP IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 87 

know has originated most of the hill and river names not only of 
Britain, but of the greater part of Em-ope, traversed by the earliest 
Aryan migration from the East. There is a term of local etymology 
of frequent use still in "Wales, mfn, pronounced Tceven, meaning a back 
or ridge, which occurs in the English form in the Chevin, a ridge in 
Wharfdale, Chevin Hill, near Derby, Chevington in SuflFolk and North- 
umberland, also in Chevy Chase and the Cheviot Hills, part of 
the Pennine Range, or backbone of England, as it has been called. 
Aurelius Grotus, the dedicator of one of the altars found in the well, 
changes the Covontina of Vincentius's inscription to Coventina. May 
we suppose that the Batavian cohort which was stationed at Procolitia 
had therefore heard varying pronunciations of the rude name of the 
goddess, which they rendered into their Low Teutonic speech as best 
they could ? If so, the meaning of the simple water or spring (from 
Dan or Tan, one of the five chief Celtic names for water, or Han, 
running water) is sufficient, with the accurate description prefixed, of 
its location on the Cefn (Keven), the ridge between the two Tynes. 
The great spring on this high ridge received, at all events, as we are 
all aware, the special veneration of the gallant cohort, whose original 
home was near the sea at the mouth of the Rhine. This perchance 
caused them to worship here, together with the water-nymph Coven- 
tina, the mighty sea-god, Father Neptune (still reverenced by the 
British tar when crossing the equator), whose recumbent figure, with 
the trident in the left hand, was carved by them at Procolitia, far 
inland though it be, and being found there was transferred to a more 
appropriate resting place within the walls of the Old Castle in the chief 
port and metropolis of the North of England. 

Note. — Since the above was written some additional points in favour of the 
panic theory of the origin of the great deposit in Coventina's fountain, as opposed 
to the votive-offering tlieory, liave been brouglit to my knowledge through the 
kindness of Mr. Clayton and Dr. Bruce, and also by Mr. Roach Smith in the 
correspondence with which he has favoured me. Certain new data not previously 
noted, I believe, which have been obtained from further personal research, combine 
with these to modify in a slight degree the result of my previous observations. 
But that very many oblations were presented in Coventina's Temple, or cast into 
her sacred well as gifts of votaries from time to time throughout the Roman 
occupation, is now conceded on all hands. With this compromise, seeing that full 
certainty is now impossible, we may be content, when truth, not controversy, is our 
object. 

An opportunity may present itself hereafter to bring such new facts as I have 
ascertained in connection with the great " find" of the Well of Procolitia before 
our Society ; and to give the opinion of a valued and competent correspondent, the 
Rev. Wm. Barnes, B.D., the well-known philologist and antiquary, on the probable 
derivation of the name of the newly-discovered goddess, Coventina herself. 



88 COVENTINA. 



COYENTINA. 



I 



By W. H. D. Longstaffe. 



I MAY appropriately commence this paper with the words of Mr. 
Coote : — " There are persons who cannot patiently estimate a mass 
of particular facts, howsoever laid before them ; in other words, cannot 
appreciate what lawyers call evidence. I (continues he) will examine 
this question of persistence (meaning his own subject) upon its 
probability also, viz., upon the general and admitted facts which have 
reference to, or are connected with, it. * * * But mere 
belief alone will not do much either for history or pedigree. There 
must be something else, which, if it is not evidence, must look a little 
like it — something that must make a theory possible or probable to 
some minds." 

It happily flashed across the brain of our friend Mr. James Clephan 
that the last part of the name of the goddess commemorated at 
ProcoKtia alluded to the South Tyne, into which the water from her 
temple, after receiving additional supplies, finds its way at no great 
distance. He requested me to consider whether this idea was feasible. 
I deemed it to be well worthy of attention, and, thinking it over, I 
asked myself what, in case the surmise were correct, could the former 
part of the name be ? And then, I sent myself to Coventry. 

Pulling old Holland's charming translation of Camden's Britannia 
out, I found two suppositions as to the derivation of the name of that 
" sweet and neat" city, both requiring the double use of the letter T, 
which we probably require in discussing the word Coventina. Premising 
that, as in the name of the goddess and that of Covent Garden, we find 
both Conventry and Coventry, it appears that Camden inclines (" ut 
credimus" are his words) to identify the first part of the words with a 
convent or covent of monks. Now there is a story of Canute having 
placed nuns at Coventry, who were displaced in 1016. In 1043 Earl 
Leofric, and, as some say, the famous Godiva, his wife, enlarged, and in 



COVENTINA. 89 

manner built anew, the monastery for male residents. In the charter 
of confirmation by Edward the Confessor in the same year, he makes 
no mention of the foraier foundation, nor of S. Osburo-a, said elsewhei'e 
to have been a former abbess, and to have been included in the 
dedication, nor of Lady Godiva. But this we learn, that Leofric (and 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle confirms this statement) did construct a 
monastery "in the town which is called Coventre," words which 
indicate that it was already so designated. Against any allusion to 
the earlier nunnery, it may fairly be argued that while nunneries were 
introduced into towns, a nunnery was an improbable origin of a town, 
and that a combination of the common British tre (identical with 
ioivn) and of the Latin or English convent is unlikely at so late a 
period of the Saxon occupation.* As a rule, the first parts of names 
are more ancient than their adjuncts, which are sometimes pleonastic. 
Camden himself hesitated, for after giving the optional derivation, to 
which we shall come presently, he proceeds to his description of the 
place with the preface " Well, whencesoever it was so called." 

The second proposition reads thus : — " Yet there be (some) that 
would have this name to be taken from that little brook that runneth 
within the citie at this day called Shirburu, and (which) in an ancient 
charter of the priorie is -written CuENTford." This little stream, like 
that a little below Procolitia, is composed of two streamlets. Xot that 
I think the two streamlets at Procolitia compose the Northumbrian 
Con-went. 

To me it is impossible to resist the junction of the British, and 
therefore earlier, part of this name Cuent^ord with the British ire, and 
identifying this name Cuenttre with the modern Coventry. And if, 
leaving Holland, we next turn to the valuable epitome of Leland's 
labours on our rivers — prefixed by Harrison to what is called the 
Shaksperian edition of Hollinshed's Chronicles (1577), and appearing 
in an altered form in the later edition of 158G — we find the course of 
the vein we have reached. Cursorily we drop upon the rivers Conwey, 
Colne (on which is Quenington, after the manner of our 'i'inningham 
on the Northern Tyne and Skerningham on the Skerne), Covine, flow- 
ing into the Severn, Queney, Kynel (giving name to Kenclsworth), 
Kensig, and Kent, with Kentmere, Colnehed, and Kendall upon it. 

* Neither convent nor covent is in Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 

L 



90 COVENTINA. 

There is, by the way, a little stream called Kent, which flows into the 
Tees near Darlington. 

In such names we have ample explanation of some part of that of 
Conventina, Coventina, or Cowentina, and it is very interesting to 
observe the attempt of the local sculptor at Procolitia or thereabouts 
trying with his two V's to produce the sound of Gu or W found in 
Horsley's river Wentfar, near Norwich, wherein he thought that the 
name Yenta of Venta Icenorum was " well enough preserved," as he 
puts it. This is on his page 443 ; and on his previous page 442 I 
observe the name Colnbrook in a distant locality. Before returning 
Horsley's volume to its shelf, let me note that he founds, on page 450, 
an argument upon an "if." " If (says he) Glanoventa signify a bank 
or hill near a river, ven or vetit in the British tongue signifying a 
river * * ." On the subject of W, Mr. Coote's page 33 may 
be usefully consulted. He states that " it had and has a sound always 
unknown to the whole of Germany and Scandinavia." 

From these details I inferred that Conventina was the goddess of 
the South Tyne, and that her name is merely that of the Tyne com- 
bined with other Celtic matter, about which there may be more trouble 
in coming to correct conclusions. 

When I first delighted in my friend's suggestion, a difficulty arose 
about this combination in my mind which never ought to have arisen ; 
for the poet of poets sings that " the lovely Bridegroome came, 

"The noble Thamis, with all his goodly traiiie; 
But him before there went, as best became. 
His auncient parents, namely th' auncient Thame, 
But much more aged was his wife than hee, 
Tlie Ouze, whom men do Isis rightly name." 

So that Conventina was as likely a name as well could exist nigh a 
river. Before laying the splendour of Spenser dowm, one line must be 
quoted : — 

" The Cle, the Were, the Quant, the Sture, the RowTie," 
and these lines must be referred to : — 

" Then came the Bride, the loving Medva came. 
Clad in a vesture of unknowen geare 
And uncouth fashion, yet her well became." 
***** 

" On her, two pretty handmaids did attend." 



COVENTINA. 91 

This is an interesting coincidence, and coincidences sometimes give a 
clue 'to the inner spirit of artisans the most barbarous. There is a 
stone from Procolitia on which a superior water-goddess, pouring 
water from an urn, has two inferior ones as supporters turned towards 
her and doing the like. 

From this stone it is clear that three streams were represented at 
Procohtia by three naiads, creating perpetually-running waters, of 
whom one was chief. Accordingly, on another stone, the chief god- 
.dess thereon, called Covventiua, is similarly employed in her solitary 
glory. 

Spenser's wonderful marriage of the Thames and Medway merely 
carries on an ancient and beautiful idea, adapted with singular deli- 
cacy by Scott when he speaks of the Greta meeting the Tees, and in 
rather an interesting way by the author of " The Marriage of the Coquet 
and the Alwine" — a little poem pruited by the late Mr. Adamson among 
the Newcastle Tracts. 

Bearing in mind the sleepy figure at Chesters (No. 148 of "Lapi- 
darium"), representing the male genius of a river, I may be pardoned 
for a flight of imagination that there might be an old poetical notion 
that the guardian of North Tyne was masculine, that of the South 
Tyne feminine, and that they wera wedded at the junction of their 
streams nigh Hexham. 

That names of males or females are sometimes derived from natural 
objects cannot well admit of doubt. Even our sceptical Surtees (who 
served Sir Walter Scott out in his own coin), when he reaches Dame 
Luneta de Stretelum, is compelled to ask the question : — " Is it too 
romantic to suppose that this lady's Christian name, which has never 
occurred to me elsewhere, was formed from the river Lune ?" Per- 
haps he might have been justified in asking, also, whether the final 
syllable did not allude to the first one of the name of the river into 
which that Lune flows, the compound name " Tu-esis," hodie Tees. 

Taking up Mr. Coote's " Eomans of Britain" again, it is well to 
note his instances of such names, and of nouns looking like female 
ones doing duty for masculuie cognomina. Euphrates was accurately 
the name of a male, Ida of a female. A sella and various such names 
quoted were names of males in the time of the Empire. Lucaena, a 
Roman name, was that of an Anglo-Saxon burgess of Canterbury, 



92 COVENTINA. 

Memphis was both a man's and a woman's name. Both the Anglo- 
Saxons person called ^sica were males. The Ida of Bernicia was a 
male. 

If, then, the North and South Tynes were each called Tina in 
ancient days, the name might be ajoplied to a male divinity of North 
Tyne, to a female divinity of South Tyne. 

That Conwent is not exclusively northern seems to be likely, re- 
membering Coventry and the Coviue. And here in the North we 
have evidences of Convent and Kent. Are there, in these forms, one 
word or two, used aU over ? Were these two words pleonastic ? We 
cannot shut our eyes to Colne being distinct. We cannot shut our 
eyes to the existences of the river Wye, of the Conwey, of Dare and 
Der-went, and of Went-fare and Wents-beck. 

Let me remind you of some general rules. 

1. — There are certain primitive words relating to water which are 
met with alone. 

2. — These primitive words are, very frequently indeed, combined. 

3. — The combinations may be pleonastic, referring to one river, or, 

4. — They may contain the names of more rivers than one. Taking 
Tame-Ouse in Thames, and Ouse-Eure in Ism'ium, as guides, it would 
appear that there was a practice of adding the name of a new-comer to 
that of the stream supposed to receive it. 

5. — The new-comer sometimes supplants a larger stream as to 
name. Thus the great Missouri gives way to the less Mississippi, and 
the Eure gives way to the Ouse. 

6. — On the other hand, sometimes the parent-river simply over- 
rides the new-comer ; sometimes for a period or for a distance it sur- 
vives in conjunction with it. There is a pregnant passage in Han'ison 
on this subject, as follows: — " Here, sayth Lelande, I am brought into 
no little streight, what to conjecture of the meeting of Isis and Ure, 
for some say that the Isis and the Ure doe meete at Borowbridge, 
which to me doth seme to be very unlikely, sith Isurium taketh his 
denomination of Isis and Uro, for it is often seene that the lesse ryvers 
doe mingle theyr names \sith the greater, as in the Tham-esis and 
others is easie to be found. Neyther is there any more mencion of 
the Ure after his passage under Borowbridge, but only of Isis and the 
Ouze in these dayes, although in olde tyme it helde unto Yorke itselfe, 



COVBNTINA. 93 

which of Ure is truely called Urewijc (or Yorke shorte), or else ray 
perswasioii doth fayle me. I liave red also Ewerijc and Yorwijc. 
From Borowbridge, the Ouze goeth to Aldbrough, and, receiving the 
Swale by the way, to Aldworke, taking in Usburne water from the 
south west, then to Linton upon Ouze, to Newton upon Ouze, and to 
Munketun, meeting with the Nydde ere long, and so going withall to 
the Readhouses, to Popleton, Clifton, Yorke, * * * and so into 
Humber." 

7. — From the foregohig passage, seeing that Isurium is above the 
junction of the Eure with Ouseburn, it appears that combined names 
may relate and work back to the entire main stream or a considerable 
part of it. 

8. — Combined streams may, from their point of juncture, receive 
a new name. " There is," sayeth Harrison, " no ryver called Humber 
from the heade, wherefore that which we now call Humber hath the 
same denomination no hygher than the confluence of Trent with the 
Ouze, as beside Leland, sundiy auncyent writers have noted before us 
both." Possibly the name of Eure did not anciently extend upwards 
beyond the junction of what, in the upper courses, is now also called 
the Eure, with the Cover. 

If etymology can be admitted at all as quasi-evidence, it can, as I 
think with Hinde, only be admitted in a corroborative fashion. 
Brand seldom relaxes into a smile, but he seems to enjoy the varied 
derivations of Tyne. One authority made it " the extended river," 
another the "^e//;' wi" river, a third "a river formed of two rivers." 
The last derivation is possibly under the other circumstances deserving 
of as much attention as the other two derivations, but only as cor- 
roborative. Erom the marriage of the twin rivers at Hexham, the 
W(jrd "tyn," if it means " double," is proper enough for the main stream. 
Nor, as to the couple, need we resort to the dogma that this appro- 
priate name might, under Rule 7, be extended to both of them, because 
it is applied to them after their union. Each of them was entitled to 
the epithet: North Tyne, from its junction with the Reed, South 
Tyne, from that with the joint stream formed by the twin rivers Allen; 
and then this joint stream itself might on the same ])rinciple well be 
called Tyne before it ran into the Con-vent. The facts (not to speak 
of the theoretic system) hardly justify opinions as to the name Tyne ; 



94 COVENTINA. 

but there are at least three reasons for believing that, from time 
whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary, the South 
Tyne was called Tyne, whatever might be the ancient name of the 
North Tyne :— 

1. — The junction of one Allen with the other. 

2. — The junction of the united Aliens with the South Tyne. 

3. — The occurrence of " Tina" in the name of the goddess wor- 
shipped nigh South Tyne. 

Pardon may be given for repeating Brand's quotation from Dray- 
ton's Polyolhion: — 

*• I could, if I did please, 
Of my two fountains tell, which of their sundry ways 
The South and North are named, entitled both of Tyne ; 
As how the prosperous springs of those two floods of mine 
Are distant thirty miles : how that the South Tyne named 
From Stanmore takes her spring for mines of brass that's famed ; 
How that named of the North is out of Wheel Fell sprung 
Amongst these English Alps, which, as they run along, 
England and Scotland here impartially divide ; 
How South-Tyne, setting out from Cumberland, is plyed 
With Hartley, which her hastes, and Tippall that doth strive, 
By her more sturdy stream, the Tyne along to drive ; 
How the Allans, the East and West, their bounties to her bring, 
Two fair and full-brimmed floods ; how also from her spring 
My other North -named Tyne through Tyndall maketh in." 

I now come, with much diflfidence, to the application of what I 
may call evidences, differing, I admit, in degree of quahty. 

The name of Convventina contains three numerous and well- 
known pre-historic names, whatever they may mean, of streams which, 
using distant nomenclatures, may be termed the Colne, the Guent, and 
the Tyne, the latter being eventually deified in the form of a female 
goddess, with her attendant naiads, the Con and the Went ; her name 
combining designations of three streams, as we have names combining 
those of two, such as Tamc-Tsis, Isis-Ure, Dare-Went, Wents-Beck, 
Con- Wye, Us- Wye, and so forth ad infinitum. To any certain mar- 
shalling the three in order, I do not, after many centuries, disguise 
the difficulties presented. I cannot presume to theorise as to whether 
the Ouse-Eure or the Team-Ouse formulary should be adopted ; but 



COVENTINA. 95 

we have the fact that there is a tendency to euphonise n by converting 
it into I. " Colchester," says Horsley, " stands on the river Cohie, and 
is owned to be Roman; and one would think that its name does much 
favour its being Colonia, which is the common opinion. I am rather 
inclined to think that Colonia is the British name Latinised than that 
it is the Latin appellative turned into a proper name, and given to the 
river." A curious and a fine question may occur whether when we 
find the Roman Corstopitum emerging as Colebridge (hodie Cor- 
bridge) we may not have had the ancient name of the river kept up 
through all revolutions. If the whole river was Colne in its earlier 
days, Colchester was exactly A\'hat one would expect to find as the 
name of the fortification where the travellers on Iter I. crossed a 
Colne. 

The peculiarity of the spelling of the name of Corbridge was not 
lost upon our earlier antiquaries. After mentioning the flowing of the 
"Ridde" into the North-Tine " a little lower than Belindgeham" [his 
spelling agrees with present pronunciation], Harrison proceeds thus : 
" Beneath the confluence in like sort of both the Tines, standeth Cor- 
bridge, a towne sometime inhabited by the Romaines, and about 
twelve myles from Newcastell, and hereby doth the Corue run [allud- 
ing to the little stream which passes the mill west of the Roman 
station] that meeteth ere long with the Tine. Not far oflF also is a 
place called Colchester, whereby Lelande gesseth that the name of the 
brooke should rather be Cole than Corue ; and in my judgement his 
conjecture is very likely, for in the life of S. Oswijn, otherwise a 
feeble authoritie, the worde Colbridge is alwaies used for Corbridg." 
It appears, however, from what is printed of Leland's MSS., that he 
only thought that " the pretty brook, where evident tokens were still 
to be seen of the old bridge, was called Corve, though the name was 
not well knowTi," and, " by this brook, as among the ruins of the old 
town, is a place called Colecester, where hath been a fortress or castle." 

Upon the same principle of n being apt to slide into I, and remem- 
bering how Dearnington became Darlington, but that the popular 
abbreviation Darn ton survives, it seems probable that the township 
of Cownwood, or Coanwood, or Collingwood, in the parish of Halt- 
whistle, refers to the ancient name of one of the streams which it 
adjoins. Conwentingwood, or Conningwood, would naturally become 



96 COVENTINA. 

Collingwood. The Coanwood-burn runs through it, but this is only 
an inconsiderable rivulet, which might easily take its appellation ft-om 
the land which, being a township, is necessarily of ancient date. It 
abuts upon the South Tyne itself. The only other word that may just 
possibly allude to the primitive appellation of the Tyne seems to be 
Condercum, the ancient name of Benwell. 

If any of these resemblances to the first syllable of Conwentina 
refers to that joint name, it must have retained and lost its rule over 
the whole course of what is now South T}^le and Tyne, just as a Went 
succumbed to Eure, which succumbed to Ouse, which succumbed to 
Humber, not without struggles as to the Went now Eure in Wensley- 
dale, or the Eure now Ouse at York. 

The present evidences of the second syllable of Con-vvent-tine are 
also scanty. Taking the analogy of Isurium, we find the word in the 
tributary Bavwejit, and as i, f, v, v, and//«, are convertible, we may 
remember Benfieldside on the Darwent, and Benwell on the Tyne (the 
last being the Bynwhalle and Ad Murum of the Saxon period, as it 
seemeth). Much more interesting in connection with both Conwen- 
tina and Glanoventa is the fact that, according to the late Mr. Bain- 
bridge's careful description of the Maiden- Way, after leaving the 
proximity of the Roman station at Whitley Castle, it " passes through 
the meadows, towards the north-west corner of PFa^ wood-Bent large 
pasture on the other side of Gilderdale Burn," crosses that tributary of 
the Tyne, and at the other side, crosses "the corner of Tfiawwood- 
Bent pasture, in its course to the Roman station at Kirby-Thore, 
called Burwens, or Burrans," at which Mr. Bainbridge ended his 
survey. But the identity of the Yent and its junction with the Tyne 
before Wanwood is reached does not depend upon mere similarities of 
name. Harrison, in 1577, is precise in his language. "The South 
Tine (says he) ariseth in the Cheviote Hilles [meaning that continua- 
tion of what we call the Cheviots, which is now known as the back- 
bone of England], and eare it hath gone farre from the head it meeteth 
with Esgyll on the east, and another rill on the west, and so going by 
the houses towards Awsten-moore, it joineth with Schud from by west, 
and soone after with the Uent from by east about Lowbiere ; from 
Lowbier it goeth to Whitehalton to Kyrke-Haugh, crossing the 
Gilders-Becke, to Thornhope, where it is inlarged with a water on 



COVENTINA. 97 

eache side to "William's-Stone." It is quite clear that here what is 
now the river Nent is intended by Uent; and in the old maps of Hond 
and Blome that river is called " Vent flu.," flowing past Lowbier, a 
place marked as opposite to Alston. In the form Nent we possibly 
have a trace of the last letter of Con ; but we must remember that 
there is a river N"en elsewhere. The truth is, that considering the 
total disappearance of Beda's Denisesburn, whereon the British king, 
Cad walla, died, which was only identified with Rowley-water by one 
insignificant charter, and the exclusive use of the name Tyne for many 
centuries, we could have felt no surprise had there been no traces 
whatever of Con and Vent on the river. 

There is on the banks of the joint-stream Con-vent (the latter 
name having perhaps had a tendency to extinguish Con, just as Tyne 
extinguished both the antecedent syllables) a notable Eoman station 
which, from no etymological surmises, but on totally dififerent grounds, 
Mr. Hodgson-Hinde conceived might be ^X^xvoventa. It is at present 
known as Whitley Castle. Mr. Hinde properly considered that ety- 
mology may be used "in corroboration of a conclusion otherwise 
probable, but is totally inadequate as independent testimony." His 
" grounds of etymological affinity, not certainly vague or fanciful, but 
such as we cannot fail to recognise so far as this species of evidence is 
admissible," are elucidated by his allusion to the Notitia station of 
Longovicum being (in spite of Harrison's assertion that the Lane or 
Lune giveth name to Lancaster, and Spenser's " stony shallow Lone 
that to old Loncaster his name doth lend") placed at Lancaster, 
and Derwentio on the Derwent in Yorkshire. He never goes into 
meanings of words, but only into local identities ; and so he, in 
support of Hodgson's views in his little book of poems written at Lan- 
chester, points out as to Longovicum, that Lancaster is on the Lune, 
while the first syllable of Lanchester {Lang in our old records) is 
undoubtedly identical with the first part of Longovicum, and that 
there is a Derwent at Ebchester as well as one in Yorkshire. It is 
clear that he did not trouble with the reasons for these names. His 
solution of the difficulty as between Vindomora and Derventio (which 
names, after aU, may have something in common) is that the road of 
the Itinerary crossed the Derwent at Vindomora, more than |-mile 
above the station Derventio of the Notitia at Ebchester. But all this 

H 



98 COVENTINA. 

use of etymological resemblance was in conjunction with the proba- 
bility, for other reasons, of Piersebridsre being Magae. We might 
even go further, and, all other reasons being favourable, point out, as 
to the large station of Piersebridge, and as to Moresby-on-the-Sea, 
that Magg8 was garrisoned by the Pacenses, and Glanoventa by the 
Morini, a seaside people, from whose port Caesar sailed. The former 
corroboration may be allowable, but there is no river Venta at 
Moresby; and it does not follow that the seaside people could not 
defend an inland fort. So, again, in considering the ri\al claims of 
Ptolemy's Ituna ^stuarium (Sol way Firth) and the mouth of our Tyne 
to the site of Tunnocelum on the sea coast, we must first consider the 
improbability that the compiler of the Notitia would, after proceeding 
from east to west, suddenly jump back to the east, and leave unnoticed 
the necessary precautions on the west coast against the Scots. After 
this, we may fairly use the circumstances that the Eden still flows into 
the Solway, and that Horsley considers that Ptolemy's river Tinna " is 
certainly Edin in Fife. Its situation between Boderia and Tava," says 
he, " proves this sufficiently ; and the latter part of Edin seems to 
retain some of the ancient name, for D and T are oft interchanged." 

Here again the meaning of words seems no more to have troubled 
Horsley's brain than it did Hinde's, when he was puzzled as to whether 
Iter X — which he had secured from Mancunium (Manchester) to Bre- 
metenracum (Ribchester), and to Galacum (Overborough), on good 
itinerary and inscriptional evidences — went north-east to Whitley 
Castle, or north-west to Moresby, at one of which places he would 
place Glanoventa. So far as he uses etymology, he says : — " It is 
remarkable that Camden had some suspicion of the identity of Gala- 
cum and Overborough in consequence of the name of the rivulet on 
which the latter stands, the Lac, being incorporated in the Latin 
word. Whitaker has pointed attention to some Roman remains at a 
place called Borough, a little to the left of Horsley's direct line, which 
in point of distance would answer very well for Alone, which name, if 
we were disposed to give ourselves up for a moment to the hazardous 
guidance of etymology, might be rendered Ad Lonam, on the Lon or 
Lune, whose waters flow past the station." He did not attempt to 
distinguish between the varying explanations of Glanoventa, alias 
Glannibanta, and, singularly enough, he does not say that Venta had 



COVENTINA. 99 

occurred to him, as it did to Camden, who, just as he traced lac in 
Galacum, remarks that " Glanoventa in the British tongue signifieth 
the shore or bank of Venta" not troubling to explain what Venta 
means, but in his own way entering his notice of Glanoventa under 
the " Wents-beck," hodie Wansbeck at Morpeth, and modestly say- 
ing: — "Upon the banks whereof, I have thought this great while, 
whether truely or upon a bare supposall I know not, that in old time 
Glanoventa stood, which was fortified by the Romans with a garrison 
of the first cohort of the Morini, for defense of the marches, which the 
very situation doth, as it were, perswade, and the river's name, to- 
gether with signification of the same, induceth mee to thinke. For 
it is seated within the raunge of the rampire or wall, even where the 
booke of Notices placeth it; the river's name is Wants-beck, and 
Glanoventa in the British tongue signifieth the shore or bank of 
Venta. Whence also Glanon, a city in France upon the sea shore, 
whereof Pomponius Mela hath made mention, may seeme to have 
drawn that appellation." In some earlier editions, Camden, who evi- 
dently thought that, wherever Glanoventa was, it must be on a river 
corresponding with Venta, gives the same etymology — combined with 
the occurrence of the letters vejsT on a shattered inscription — as a 
reason for placing it at Burgh, a fort close to Banbrig in Wentsedaie, 
as he spells the words. The occurrence of a second inscription, at the 
Burgh there, caused him to change his mind and to identify that camp 
with Bracchium, but the passage led me to observe that in the later 
edition he makes Baintbrig to be at the confluence of a little river 
called Baint (Beynt in 1228) \vith the Ure. This confluence is thus 
noted by Drayton: — 

" * # * tlig Your, 
From Morvil's mighty foot, which rising with the power 
That Bant from Sea-mere brings * * * " 

Seamer-water is a remarkable lake, and the river Baint " with a great 
noise streameth out of it." One cannot wonder at its issue giving 
name to the upper valley of the Eure, and Wanless, and Wendsley or 
Wentsley upon it. The whole river is now called the Eure, until it 
assumes the name of Ouse. The case reminds one of the Tyne. But 
the chief interest lies in this direct example of AVent and Bant being 
the same, though, even without it, no one accustomed to the converti- 



100 COVENTINA. 

bility of certain letters would hesitate to identify Glannibanta with 
Glanoventa. 

Although he does not express it, I suspect that one difficulty was 
passing thi-ough Hinde's head in submitting "Whitley Castle as Glano- 
venta. He did not like to resist the conclusion that Brobonacae or 
Braboniacum was the station near Kirby-Thore. I admit that Bra- 
boniacum was in that part of the country, for both name and locaHty 
come, where they should come, after Lavatris on the Laver [observe 
the river again giving name to the station, and sm^iving it to the 
present day !] that is Bowes, and again, after Yerteris— which, we have 
no reason to doubt, is Brough. Still, looking at Dr. Bruce's map, and 
what camps have to be served with roads, it does not follow that 
Kirby-Thore was the precise locality of Braboniacum. On the other 
hand, it may be that the Maiden Way did not strike off direct from 
Kirby-Thore southward, any more than it did from Magna north- 
ward, and the same argument as to Braboniacum we may apply 
to Gallava. There may well be two Eoman names near Kirby-Thore 
— not necessarily both names of stations — (as it is supposed that 
there were two names at Ebchester), or there might be two stations, 
as there are two railway stations at Darlington, with lines north and 
south through one, east and west through the other, there being no 
station at the crossing of these two lines, just as there are no traces of 
any fort at the distinct crossing at Wreckenton of the Eoman roads 
from Newcastle to Chester-le-Street, and from Shields to Lanchester. 
"Waiving, however, these intricate questions of crossings or running- 
powers between two lines, other evidences are in favour of Glanoventa 
being "Whitley Castle. Hinde's quiet explanation why Iter X might 
well begin there, and the northern part of the Maiden "Way be ignored 
in an Itinerary, is in our " Transactions" (4to, "Vol. III., p. 117), and 
the wonder to a numismatist would be that an iter did not begin there. 
Long after the Roman reign we know with what care our Edward I. 
reserved the mine and the miners of Alston — in other words, the silver 
mine called that of Cumberland or Carlisle — when, at the instance of 
his nephew Alexander, Prince of Scotland, he re-granted the manor to 
the Veteriponts. There was no possible reason why the silver should 
not go directly to Mancunium in the time of the Komans, instead of 
circuitously to Lugiivallium (Carlisle). The road northward might be 



COVENTINA. 101 

useful for some reasons, but southward it would be what we would 
now call a good lead-road, and Iter X seems to be confined to this 
more important part. It is self-evident that some of our best known 
Roman roads, eyen when as well formed and paved as the Wrecken- 
dike, find no place in the Itinerary, So also we find, by the complete 
disappearance of roads clear and perfect in the last century, how little 
dependence is to be placed on the mere presence or absence of remains 
of such works. 

It forms no part of my paper to investigate the history of the 
North Tyne. If l^yne means double, the north stream is by the junction 
of two powerful streams at Eeedsmouth fairly entitled to the name, 
and if it does not, there is nothing peculiar in the proximity of two 
rivers of the same name. Beyond the early appellation of Tindale I'or 
its territory, I have no other evidence as to its name Tyne. Wliether 
its name was of two or three syllables, the form of the syllable pre- 
ceeding Tyne cannot admit of much doubt. The river rises in a part 
of the mountain range which probably gives the origin of a numerous 
northern family, and which in the old maps is termed " the Belles." 
Let us now take up Harrison again. " The Tine (says he) ryseth of 
two heades, whereof that called North Tine is the first that followeth 
to be described. It springeth up above Belkirke in the hylles, and 
thence goes to Butterhawghe (where it receiveth the Shele), thence to 
Cragsheles, Leapelish, Shilhuvne, Yarro, Smalburne, Elis, Grenested, 
Heslaside, Billingham, and at Readsmouth taketh in the Reade. 
* * * * After the confluence it passeth to Leehall, to Carehouse, 
crossing ShiUlngtou. rill by west." All further that I shall do as to 
North Tyne is to remind you of Gilarimm, ChoUerton, and ChoUevfovd, 
in hinting that the Shele of North Tyne corresponds with the Vent of 
South Tyne. 

The likeness of the names of rivers and of the places, Venta or 
otherwise, to which they give name, is really an endless subject, and 
I must refer you to the whole of the pages of Horsley, and those of 
other honest, even if mistaken, authors. The proximity of rivers 
bearing the same name, or varieties of it, is remarkable, but I suppose 
that the inhabitants would simply talk about going down to the water 
for meat or for drink, and have as little communication with their 
neighbours, or the world at large using the same practices, as their 
conquerors would have. 



102 COVENTINA. 

For instance, we would hardly expect to find Alston at the junction 
of Con and Vent, and Ale-burn flowing into their joint stream which 
receives the combined two Aliens arising at no great distance from the 
head of Ale-burn, AIne being so prone to become Ale, especially in 
composition. So also we should hardly expect to find so near the 
origin of Convveutina, another river ''called Ken," which "cometh 
from Kentmeres Side," and leaves " Colnehed Park by east." I again 
quote Harrison. 

I only wish that some one would attempt to work out an archaeo- 
logical subject of such interest. "We appear to arrive at the substratum 
of some language of which comparatively modem evidences are but 
secondary proofs, and that he could complete his task, and save his 
successors poor Harrison's perplexity. " For (says he) so moth- 
eaten, mouldye, and rotten are those bookes of Lelande which I have, 
and besides that, his annotations are such, and so confounded, as no 
man can in maner picke out any sence fi'om them by a leafe together, 
wherefore I think that he dispersed and made his notes intricate of set 
purpose, or else he was loth that any man should easily come by that 
knowledge by readyng, which he, with his great charge, and no lesse 
traveile, attained unto by experience." 

P.S. — Just as I deemed it fit to prefix certain sentences to my 
original paper, I deem it right to say, as an appendix, that as an out- 
of-the-way writer on Coventina and Glanoventa, I was not aware of 
some western labours partly bearing upon the appropriation of Glano- 
venta and Gallava. The GentlemarCs Magazine was a most useful 
publication for antiquaries at large before the societies and archaeologia, 
and tracts and journals, and rival magazines, and " notes and queries," 
and papers, and speeches, and lectures, which have destroyed it, were 
invented. I have to bend to the miserable result, and seek for needles 
in numerous bottles of hay as best I can. 

With Mr. Hinde's first thoughts in placing Glanoventa on our 
northern Veuta at Whitley Castle we may agree, and from its ex- 
ceptional circumstances, I take it that no more interesting excavation 
could take place than that of the singular station so called. 

The suggestions that Coccium is at Wigan, and that Bravonacae is 
at Brougham, deserve careful consideration, and thefr acceptance, if 
justifiable, would remove difficulties. I regret very much that Mr. 



COVENTINA. 103 

Just's intended survey of the Kirby Thore district has not been made ; 
and I think that it is my wisest course not to disturb my cautious 
language. The detached but celebrated inns of Catterick Bridge and 
Rushyford may not have passed out of the minds of the surviving 
travellers on the Great North Koad which passes them, Iter I., as it 
may truly be called at Cataractonium. 

P.S. II. — The frequent independence and obliteration of the stony 
made-ways of the Romans near their stations, and the consequent diffi- 
culties experienced by Mr. Maclauchlan and others in determining the 
course of an Iter at those points, may have arisen from several circum- 
stances. Those which may naturally occur are: — (1) The dislike, in 
all ages, of some suburban, and, to a certain extent, of some urban, 
residents to a noisy thoroughfare being too close to their dwellings. 
(2) The need of a moderately open space outside of the station walls 
for military works or operations, for it is not to be supposed, fi'ora the 
siege of Troy downwards, that a great keep would be resorted to, and 
the enemy allowed to bring his means of attack up to the very walls, 
in the first instance. (3) The imprudence of providing the enemy 
with a good road for such a bringing of munitions of warfare either 
sooner or later, (4) In an emergency the roads, even though at a 
reasonable distance from a station, would be torn up against the foe; 
and that the stations were needed at one period, and were sometimes 
eventually attacked and destroyed, is obvious from the very fact of the 
construction of them, and from the evidence at such places as Lan- 
chester of the flames by which they occasionally perished. 

In connecting Convventina and the three urns on one of the sculp- 
tured stones at Procolitia with streams, no attack is made upon the 
sanctity of the well at Procolitia, or the votive character of a few at 
least of its long series of coins, some of the earliest of which seem to 
be the finest among them, and very unlikely to have been in circula- 
lation at a late period of the Empire, before which the decreased 
weight of the money would have a tendency to doom any rubbed 
heavy coins to the melting-pot. That the coins found, or the bulk of 
them, whether taken off the fm-nitnre of the shrine, or, in some other 
way, valuable chattels of public or private bodies or individuals, were 
not originally in the well, but suddenly hurled with the altars, seems 



104 COVENTINA. 

to be likely enough. Against the obvions suggestion to the mind accus- 
tomed to the later English coinages and discoveries of hoards of their 
produce, it may with great propriety be argued that this island could 
hardly be largely the seat of Roman coinage, and probably not at all 
so until a comparatively late i)eriod ; and that the small coins then 
struck were not of the splendid metal of which the earlier and larger 
brass coins are composed, either here or abroad, a fact opposed to the 
idea of recoinage here, or exportation of the coins themselves or the 
melted brass to be reminted. Just as our remodelled sovereign soon 
went for twenty-one shillings and was called a guinea, and the prac- 
tically inferior value of the inferior money of some of the Scottish 
Stuarts and the English Tudors necessitated a reform, the circulation 
of the old coins might continue with a much greater value for them 
comparati\ely. The difficulties of the votive theory which presented 
themselves to Mr. Roach Smith were the enormous number and the 
generally worn condition of the coins. To any quondam churchwarden 
the poverty of the offerings may not be a surprise ; and the elevation 
of Coventina to the rank of goddess of an important river, and of her 
well to that of an object of pilgi'image for all the Tynesiders of the 
time of her worship, decreases the difficulty of number. Still 
these points are difficulties, and the purely votive theory requires the 
belief in a possible but not probable idea that the goddess's priests, 
beyond being honest, were transcendently conservative, not only keep- 
ing the offerings unspent, but keeping them in the precise state in 
which they were presented ; although, as one would think, they and 
their establishment must have become more exile in revenue every 
year as the old beliefs of the west were sinking in consequence of the 
introduction of modified ones from the east. From every aspect, if it 
be conceded that the mass of ancient brass coin was sufficiently 
valuable to be taken care of, one question still remains : Did it belong 
to the station of Procolitia, or to the temple of Coventina ? The 
officers concerned, civil or ecclesiastical, would, upon any flight, intend 
to return to their deserted premises. Which body was most able to 
carry treasure? "Which could best subsist without it ? And why was 
there no attempt made to regain it ? Was one party, or were both 
parties, strictly honest, superstitious, reverential, or archasological, look- 
ing to future fortunes, or to the beliefs or information of future men ? 



i 



COVEM-INA. 105 

It certainly requires strong faith in human virtue to answer the 
last question in the affirmative. With such strange problems 
before me, I have thought it right to show my utter inability, 
after much thought, to solve the perplexities about the find. The 
extent, as to time, of the contents of this find, reminds one of that 
in the mineral waters of Yicarello, near Rome, where the ofiFerings are 
stated to have begun with ces rude, and to have run through the Re- 
public and the Empire. As to why Convventina was especially wor- 
. shipped at this particular well, one might just as well ask why the 
well at Stockton, in the chapelry of St. Thomas and parish of St. 
Mary, was St. John's Well, and what real connection there was be- 
tween the sanctity of the well at Jesmond and St. JMary ? Whether 
religious or civil commotion caused the final deposit in the well at 
Procolitia, can perhaps never be more than a matter of conjecture. In 
any case ancient reverence would prompt it. Such reverence long sur- 
vived, and as this is a Northumbrian case, it is proper to write a 
reminder that one of the evidences is, that in the North of England 
the enclosure around a sacred stone, tree, or fountain, as on the Conti- 
nent, seems to have become, or always had been regarded as, a sanc- 
tuary or place oi frUh or peace, like the substituted frith-stols in 
churches. In the Anglo-Saxon law of the Northumbrian priests this 
remnant of heathendom is expressly condemned in these words: — " If 
there be a frith-geard on any one's land, about a stone, or a tree, or a 
well, or any folly of such kind, then let him who made it pay lah-slit 
(a species of mulct), half to Christ, half to the land-rica (or lord of the 
soil) ; and if the land-rica will not aid in levying the fine, then let 
Christ and the king have the bote." The ofience was not confined to 
Northumbria. The canons enacted under King Edgar ran parallel: — 
"We enjoin that every priest zealously promote Christendom, and 
totally extinguish all heathendom; and forbid well-worshippings, and 
necromancies, and divinations, and enchantments, and man-worship- 
pings, and the vain practices which are carried on with various spells, 
and with frith-splots, and with elders, and also with various other 
trees, and with stones." There is another very similar and puzzling 
word, but as it also occurs in the law of Northumbrian priests, in a 
clause other than that already quoted, it would appear to be distinct 
from frith. The other clause in those laws imposed a fine, to be 



106 COVENTINA. 

divided between Christ and the king, against any one that should 
" practise any heathenship either by sacrifice, or by firhte, or in any 
way love witchcraft or worship idols." So also the laws of King 
Canute forbade all heathenism, and defined what it was: — " Heathen- 
ism is that men worship idols; that is, that they worship heathen 
gods, and the sun or the moon, fire or rivers, waier-ivells or stones, or 
forest trees of any kind, or love witchcraft, or promote mw/A-work in 
any wise; or by hlot, or by fyrht; or perform anything pertaining to 
such illusions." The continuous or temporary existence of a belief, 
true or false, once formed and approved, is a subject which has per- 
haps hardly received due attention. 

It may be a nice question of chronology as to which of two brains, 
both friendly to mine, the solution of the meaning of the last syllable 
of Ooventina, in which solution the three brains agree, was primarily 
presented. No searching and earnest enquirer is indisposed to waive 
his original ideas, or attempts to adhere tenaciously and untruly to them. 
It is interesting, but not astonishing, to know that Mr. Roach Smith, 
our veteran Roman antiquary (who, as we were, was rather startled 
with Tyne-born Coventina) had, before he read my paper developing 
Mr. Clephan's view as to the third syllable, and my own as to the two 
previous syllables of the name, himself suggested in the part (now in 
the press) of his valuable " Collectanea Antiqua" that the final syllable 
referred to the appellation which has long been that of the Tyne in its 
two fair branches, and of the noble joint stream. Premising that I have 
received his kind communication of what rough proof of his struck-ofiF 
sheets had remained with him while my postscript II. was lying else- 
where in uncorrected type, I think it best to determine, whatever it 
or ray paper may contain, to leave in their present plight all suggestive 
questions of detail, about which antiquaries may agree to differ, while 
their respective minds are quietly disposing of them in attempting to 
bring their general conclusions to a tolerably perfect bearing. 



COVENTINA. 107 

" Never wait to ask if you may print letters of mine." 

P.S. III. "Strood, January IS/h, 1879. 

" My dear Sir, — I am obliged by your kindly sending me your 
paper, which, of com*se, you will print in the " Archseologia 
-ffiliana." It is full of sound reasoning. You will not be disgusted to 
find that I have printed (Vol. VIL, C.A.) very briefly my notions of 
the etymology of Coventina, in which I make the tina of Ptolemy the 
very basis of my argument, as years ago, I did with " 7'M;mo-celum." 
The con-vent I have said and take to be equivalent with con-jluo, a 
coming or flowing together. I gave up the foreign Gon-vence, (much 
the same thing) on account of the Una, which I believe to be some- 
thing more than a common feminine ending like that in Faustina. 
I am sorry I did not know there was another of the same opinion as 
myself. I was glad with the chance of placing upon record the fact 
that you, I, and Mr. Blair walked together from Chesters to Procolitia. 
I shall be pleased if you find anything of interest in the impressions of 
the seals I send with this. — Believe me, yours very truly, 

C. Roach Smith." 



" Next these came Tyne, along whose stony banks 

That Romane Monarch built a brazen wall, 
Which mote the f eebled Britons strongly flanke 

Against the Picts, that swarmed ouer all, 
Which yet thereof Gualsener they doe call : 

And Twede the limit betwixt Logris land 
And Albany : and Eden though but small, 

Yet often staind with bloud of many a band 
Of Scots and English both, that tyned on his strand." 

— Spbnseb. 



' ( 



108 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 
RISE OF THE ART ON THE TYNE.* 



By James Clephan. 



When and by whom glass was first made in the world, there is no 
knowing; although dates have been determined, and legends related, 
from generation to generation. What is certain is that it was manu- 
factured in the land of " the dark continent " four thousand years ago. 
Before the British Isles were known to the Egyptians, those ingenious 
people were familiar with the art in a high style of development ; and 
what tongue shall proclaim the benefits it has bestowed on mankind ! 
The Romans carried it to a pitch of great perfection, and brought 
evidences of their skill — perhaps, also, the manufacture itself — to our 
own island. Westward the art travelled into Gaul, whose workmen 
were welcomed into Britain, on the banks of the Wear, two or three 
centuries after the departure of the Romans. In his Lives of the 
Abbots of Wearmouth and Jarrow, as translated by GUes, Bede 
informs us that the pious servant of Christ, Benedict Biscop, with 
the assistance of the Divine Grace, built a monastery in honour of the 
most holy of the Apostles, St. Peter, near the mouth of the river Wear, 
on the north side. Returning from his third visit to Rome he repaired 
to the Court of his friend Conwalh, King of the West Saxons; but this 
monarch suddenly dying (in 072), he thereupon directed his steps to his 
native province, and came to the Court of Egfrid, King of Northum- 

* An article on " Window Glass " was written for the Newcastle Chronicle in 
1864. In 1877 it was reprinted by Mr. Sydney Grazebrook, F.R.H.S., in his instruc- 
tive and most interesting book, entitled " Collections for a Genealogy of the Noble 
Families of Henzey, Tyttery, and Tyzack (De Hennezel, De Thietry, and Du 
Thisac), Qentilshommes Terriers, from Lorraine." It is now recast, and appears, 
in its second edition, in the Archoeologia. 



RISE OF THE ART ON THE TYNE. 109 

berland. * * * He found such favour in the eyes of 
Egfrid, that he forthwith gave him seventy hides of land out of his 
own estate, and ordered a monastery to be built for the first'pastor of 
his chm-ch. " This was done," adds Bede, " as I said before, at the 
mouth of the river Wear, on the left bank, in the 674th year of Our 
Lord's incarnation, in the second indiction, and in the fourth year of 
Egfrid's reign. After the interval of a year, Benedict crossed the sea 
into Gaul, and no sooner asked than he obtained and caiTied back 
with him some masons, to build him a church in the Roman style, 
which he had always admired. So much zeal did he show fi'om his 
love of St. Peter, iu whose honour he was building it, that within a 
year from the time of laying the foundation stone, you might have 
seen the roof on, and the solemnity of the mass celebrated therein." 

The moderns are apt to plume themselves on their celerity as 
compared with the ancients, yet swiftly went the work forward on the 
"Wear ; and " when it was drawing to completiou, Benedict sent 
messengers to Gaul, to fetch makers of glass (more properly artificers), 
who were at this time unknown in Britain, that they might glaze the 
windows of the church, with the cloisters and dining rooms." 

These words of the venerable historian are quoted in full, because 
many who refer to him name 674 as the year which he assigns to the 
introduction of window glass ; and Dhe reader, with the text before 
him, may judge whether 674 be not simply the date of Egfrid's gilt, 
and_ 676 may not more correctly be accepted as the time when 
the Continental " makers of glass," parenthetically described by Bede 
as " more properly artificers," were practising their art in Monk- 
wearmouth. 

Were these strangers, let us ask, whom the enteiprisiug ecclesiastic 
brought over to the Wear, the first workmen who, as is commonly un- 
derstood, glazed windows for the natives ' of Britain ? or was the 
famous Wilfrid beforehand with his contemporary and friend Benedict? 
Archbishop Theodorus, enthroned at Canterbury on the 27th of 
February, 669, restored Wilfrid to York as one of his first measures ; 
and, says Dean Hook, " Wilfrid immediately proceeded to act with 
characteristic munificence. He found his cathedral dilapidated; and 
he restored it. The thatched roof he covered with lead ; the ^vindows, 
hitherto open to the weather, he filled witli glass ; and sucli glass, says 



110 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND, 

Eddius, as permitted the sun to shine through." Wilfrid, enthroned 
in or about 669, was deposed in 678 ; so that it is hard to say, 
positively, whether York or Wearmouth took precedence as to glass 
windows ; but the evidence seems rather to turn in favour of York. 
Moreover, an inference might be founded on the words of Eddius, 
that dull glass — glass refusing to allow the sunshine to make its way 
through — was not unfamiliar to the eyes of our forerunners. 

There was also, contemporary with the ecclesiastic of York, another 
Wilfrid, who held the see of Worcester ; and he too, in an age when 
window glass was first coming into use in our Saxon churches, joined 
in the movement. " Wilfrid, Bishop of Worcester," says Notes and 
Queries, " about the same time took similar steps for substituting 
glass in lieu of the heavy shutters which were then in use ; and great 
astonishment was excited, and superstitious agency suspected, when 
the moon and stars were seen through a material which excluded the 
inclemency of the weather." 

But at Wearmouth, in 676, glass was not merely used : it was also 
(may we not infer ?) manufactured. The " makers of glass" who came 
over fi'om Gaul, " not only finished the work required, but," as Bede 
is careful to inform us, " taught the English nation their handicraft, 
which was weU adapted for enclosing the lanterns of the church, and 
for the vessels required for various uses." He also significantly remarks, 
as to these glass-makers, that " they were at this time unknown in 
Britain." Is it a legitimate conclusion that before his death in 735 
they had become familiar ? 

Be this as it may — whether the manufacture of glass was established 
on the coast of Northumbria or not — no such art seems to have been 
exercised in its then perfection in Britain at the time of the Norman 
Conquest, nor for some centuries afterwards. It probably was foreign 
glass that Eobert de Lindesay , the chosen Abbot of Peterborough in 1 2 1 4, 
used in beautitying thirty of the windows of his monastery, previously 
stufi'ed with straw to keep out the wind and the rain ; and for some 
generations later, the domestic windows of England were not furnished 
with glass, but lattice. When glass windows were first introduced 
into houses, they were not fixtures, as at present, but were regarded as 
moveable chattels. In the 21st of Henry VII. (1504-5), it was held 
that the framework of windows belonged to the heir, but that the 



RISE OF THE AET ON THE TYNE. Ill 

glass-work they enclosed was the property of the executors, and might 
be removed ; and in 1590, Robert Birkes, an alderman of Doncaster, 
bequeathing his dwelling-house to his wife for her hfe, left his son the 
glass windows. But in 1599, as Lord Coke makes a note, it was in the 
Common Pleas adjudged that glass annexed to window-frames by nails, 
or in any other manner, could not be removed ; for without glass it 
was no perfect house. {Notes a?id Queries, Series Four, iv., 99.) 

Windows were becoming as common as doors, and glass a branch 
of English manufacture, prior to the date sometimes assigned to the 
establishment of glass-works on the Tyne. Let us hear what our 
local historians have to say on this subject. The first of them, William 
Grey, published his little Chorographia of 34 pages in lfi49, not half- 
a-century away from the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and when the early 
glass-makers of the Tyne, if all of them were gone, were many of them 
still familiar to living memory. Yet, much as he might have told us, 
he has nothing to say about them. He barely mentions " the Glasse 
Houses, where plaine glasse for windows are made, which serves most 
part of the kingdom." 

Henry Bourne, whose small folio was issued in 1736, is more com- 
municative. " Sometime," says he, " in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
came over to England from Lorraine the Henzels, Tyzacks, and 
Tytorys. The reason of their coming hither" — between the years 
1558 and 1603, says Richardson in his "Table Book:" about 1590, 
says Brockie in his " Folks of Shields" — " was the persecution of the 
Protestants in their own country, of whose persuasion they were. 
They were by occupation glass-makers. At their first coming to 
Newcastle they wrought in their trade at the Close Gate. Alter that 
they removed into Stafibrdshire ; from whence they removed again, 
and settled at the river-side, at the place called, from their abiding in 
it, the Glass Houses. Deservedly, therefore, have so many of these 
families been named Peregrine, from the Latin word Peregrinus, 
which signifies a pilgrim or a stranger." 

Peregrine was a Christian name among the Henzells, and also 
among the Tyzacks. In the month of August, 1765, as may be read 
in the local newspapers. Miss Tyzack, daughter of Peregrine Tyzack, 
merchant, Newcastle, was mamed, in the meeting-house of the Society 
of Friends at Shields to Henry Rawlingson, an eminent West India 
merchant in Lancaster. 



112 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 

Peregrine Henzell and Jonathan Tyzack appear in Bourne's 
History as subscribers to All Saints' charity-school at its founda- 
tion in 1709 ; and Tyzack left a legacy to the school at his death. 
Peregrine Henzell was also a subscriber to Bourne's posthumous 
volume ; and it may safely be assumed that the worthy curate of 
All Saints' had his information concerning the introduction of the 
g-lass-manufacture on the Tyne irora the two families of Tyzack and 
Henzell, with whom he would be in familiar parochial intercourse, 
and whose descendants, it may be observed, remain on the river to 
this day. 

Mr. Sidney Grazebrook — of whose volume, so well worthy of 
perusal and consideration, there is a copy in the library of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle — has these words on 
his first page : — " Sometime in the sixteenth century, when the re- 
ligious persecutions were raging in France and the Low Countries, 
and the deienceless members of the reformed religion were being daily 
outraged and assassinated — persecutions which culminated in the 
awful massacre of St. Bartholomew — three noble Huguenots, natives 
of Lorraine, named respectively De Hennezel, De Thietry, and Du 
Thisac (Anglicized Henzell or Henzey, Tyttery, and Tyzack), all 
glass-makei-s, left their native land, and with their wives and families 
settled in this country. They came first, it is said, to London and 
Woolwich ; but, meeting with no encouragement there, removed, some 
to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and some to the neighbourhood of Stour- 
bridge, on the borders of Worcestershire and Staffordshire." 

There is much more of Mr. Grazebrook's that claims quotation, 
but the pen must restrain itself to one more passage (page 10): — 
" Notwithstanding what Bourne and others say, I do not think there 
is any proof that glass-works existed, either in the neighbourhood of 
Stourbridge or on the banks of the Tyne, before the year 1615, or 
thereabouts, when a patent was granted to Sir Robert Mansell, Knt., 
Vice- Admiral of England, by James I. And as Sir Robert possessed 
the exclusive right of making glass in England, we are forced to the 
conclusion that 'the foreigners' were in his employ, or licensed by 
him. Certain it is that in 1617 he had in his employ at Newcastle 
a person named Edward Henzey ; for in the parish registers of All 
Saints' in that town, which commence in 1600, is the following 
entry: — 'February 11 (1617-18), Edward Henzey, servant to Sir 



RISE OF THE ART ON THE TYNE. 1 1 8 

Robert Mansfield (sic), was buried.' The same registers recoid, on 
April 15, IGIO, the burial of * Anne, the daughter of "William Tizziock, 
mariner,' perhaps a seaman under Sir Robert. And at St. Nicholas' 
chm-ch, in the same town, was baptized, on November 22, 1619, 
' John, son of Tymothie Tesmcke, glasse-maker, a Frenchman,' His 
sureties were ' Henry Anderson, merchant, Abram Teswick, and Mrs. 
Barbary Milborn, wife to Mr. Milborn.' " 

Bourne's History of Newcastle was followed in 1789 by that of 
John Brand, who states that glass first began to be made in England 
in 1557, the finer sorts at Crutched Friars in London. In his account 
of " Glass Works on the River Tyne," Brand says: — "We may venture 
to fix the beginning about a.d. 1619, when they were established by 
Sir Robert Mansell, Knt., Vice-Admiral of England. The cheapness 
of sea-coal was no doubt his chief inducement for erecting them at so 
great a distance from London." 

Sixty years later than this date — (that is, on the 21st of September, 
1679) — there was an order of the Common Council of Newcastle to 
grant a lease to Jacob Henzey, William Tizacke, and Daniel Tittery, 
of the western glass-houses, to commence at Michaelmas (September 
29) following ; the glaziers of Newcastle to have the glass at a certain 
rate, and also the burgesses for their private use. There was at this 
time an Incorj^orated Company of Glaziers in Newcastle, anciently 
consisting of goldsmiths, plumbers, pewterers, and painters. The 
date of their ordinary was September 1, 1535; and they were bomid 
to take no Scotsman born as an apprentice, nor to allow any Scotsman 
to work in Newcastle, on pain of a fine of 3s. 4d., one-half of which 
was to go to the maintenance of Tyne Bridge. 

When Mr. Brand's invaluable quartoes were issued, the Henzells 
and the Tyzacks were still together, employed in the manufactm-e of 
glass on the Tyne. " Indeed," he remarks, " they will admit none of 
any other name to work with them. The Titorys are extinct." 

Whatever may be the date of the manufacture of glass on the Tyne, 
it began at an earlier time than 1557 in England, the year named 
by our local historian in 1789. Says Fuller in his W^orthies: — 
"Though coarse glass-making was in Sussex of great antiquity, yet 
* the first making of Venice glasses in England began at the Crutched 
Friars in London about the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth, by 





114 THE MAIJUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 

one Jacob Venaline, an Italian.'" (Stow's Chronicle.) "Glass," 
observes Mr. Roberts in his Social History of the Southern Counties 
(1856), "owing to the quantity of charcoal easily to be procured in 
Sussex, was manufactured at Chiddingfold in the reign of Henry VIII. 
In 1557 a poet writes : — 

"As for glass-makers they be scant in this land; 
Yet one there is, as I do understand j 
And in Sussex now is his habitation, 
At Chiddingfold he works of his occupation." 

Glass-makers were scant, but they were not absent. England had 
had them even before Tudor days. Window-glazing had not, for many 
generations prior to Elizabeth, been left altogether dependent in 
England on supplies of glass from abroad. The glazier who was con- 
tracting for window work in York Minster in 1338, was one of an 
order of craftsmen becoming common in England ; and in the next 
century it is certain they were not limited to foreign glass when sup- 
plying their customers. The executors of Isabel Countess of Warwick 
(who made her will in 1439), preparing to rear her husband's monu- 
ment, employed various artists and artij&cers in the construction and 
decoration of the tomb and chapel. John Prndde of Westminster, 
Master Glazier of Henry YI., appears (says Walpole) to have painted 
the windows; and it was particularly stipulated "that he should em- 
ploy no glass of England, but with glass of beyond the sea, and that 
in the finest wise, with the best, cleanest, and strongest glass of beyond 
the sea that may be had in England, and of the finest colour of blew, 
yellow, red, purpure, sanguine, and violet," etc. 

There was, therefore, both " glass of England," and foreign, to be 
had in the English market in the reign of Henry YI. The foreign 
was the better, and had the preference; but home-made went on in- 
creasing and improving under the Tudors, and had royal encourage- 
ment. In the reign of Edward YI. glazing was widespread, though not 
general, even in churches. The historian of the Church Bells of 
Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, Mr. Thomas North, F.S.A., has 
an incident appropriate for quotation in his illustrated volume of 1878. 
In 1552, Longthorpe, North Hants, had "an olde crackyd bell :" and 
the chapel, altogether, was out of sorts. A memorandum made at the 



RISE OF THE ART ON THE T YNE. 115 

period mentions "ij. olde albes and ij. latten candlesticks" as being in 
existence "at the last inventory," but "sith that tjme stolne, by 
reason the chapele windoes were vnglasyd ;" and "a broken hand bell" 
had been sold " towade the glasing of the windoes." The broken bell 
must go to make secure future albes and candlesticks ; and with such 
thrift were old church windows glazed. The question may possibly 
be raised whether Longthorpe Chapel had been sheltered with glass 
before, and was simply allowed to fall into disrepair ; but in the days 
of the "crackyd bell," glass was still struggling into common use. 
In the reign of Elizabeth there is a letter of ArmigiU Waade 
to Sir William Cecil, ^vritten from Belsize on the 7th of April, 
1565, and making report of the progress of the manufacture of glass 
and earthenware under Cornelius Lannoy; " a professed alchemist," 
says Mr. Grazebrook, " and apparently a great impostor." He notes 
the clumsiness of the English glass-makers, who had not yet become 
experts. Two years later the Queen was entering into an agi'eement 
with Anthony Becqu, otherwise Dolin (a name to become famous in 
our day as DoUand), and with John Quarre, afterwards called Carye 
and Carr. These were natives of the Low Countries, who undertook 
the making of window glass, such as was manufactured in France and 
Lorraine, and were willing to pay a duty to the Crown; at the same 
time asking permission to cut wood and make charcoal in Windsor 
Forest for their glass-works. They procured a lease, but, apparently, 
did not prosper in their enterprise. The assigns and deputies subse- 
quently occur as complaining of the importation of foreign glass, and 
obtaining a prohibition of imports, covenanting in return to teach the 
art to " a convenient number of Englishmen." 

Our antiquarian fiiend and townsman, Mr. G. B. Eichardson, who 
some years ago went from England to Austraha, was in 1853 directing 
the attention of his fellow-members to the early history of glass-making. 
He laid before them an agreement entered into in 1568, to which 
Thomas and Balthazar de Hennezes, dwelling at the glass-houses in 
the Vosges in LoiTaine, and John Chevalier, Chastelain and Receyvour 
of Fontenoy le Chastell, were parties; Chevalier, as well in his own 
name as in that of John Quarre of Antwerp, then dwelling in London, 
guaranteeing the execution of the engagement. Quarre having 
obtained for himself and Che\-alier the royal license to build and 



116 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 

manufacture, Thomas and Balthazar de Hennezes were to come over 
to this country to make " great glass," with four gentlemen glaziers 
(gentilshommes vert'iers); the sm*plus profits to be equally divided, one- 
half to the De Hennezes, the other to Quarre, Chevalier, and the 
fellowship. 

Mr. Eichardson, when he had concluded the reading of the full 
agreement, also laid before the Society of Antiquaries a communication 
of 1589, made to Cecil, now Lord Burleigh, by George Longe, setting 
forth that in the time of the beginning of the troubles in France and 
the Low Countries, so that glass could not conveniently be brought 
from Lorraine into England, certain glass-makers covenanted with 
Anthony Dollyne and John Carye to come over ; whereupon they 
obtained the patent of Queen Elizabeth. Having themselves no know- 
ledge of the art, they leased out their license to the Frenchmen, who 
would afterwards teach no EngKshman, nor pay one penny of custom. 
Carye being dead, Dollyne took sixpence on a case of glass. For non- 
performance of covenants, their patent being void, about six years 
after the grant (continued Longe) they set glass-houses on foot in 
sundry parts of the realm; " and having spent the woods in one place, 
doe dayly so continue, erecting newe workes in another place, without 
checke or controule." Some six years ago, his lordship called upon 
those who kept glass-houses to know who should pay the Queen's 
custom; and the answer generally was, that there was none due, no 
one enjoying any special privilege. Thus had Her Majesty been 
deceived, and still would be, without reformation. The petitioner, 
therefore, desired his lordship to gi-ant him the like patent; not that 
he might continue the making of glass, but that he might repress the 
abuse. And whereas there were now fifteen glass-houses in England, 
he suggested there should be no more than two, the rest in Ireland. 
The woods in England would thereupon be preserved, and the super- 
fluous woods in Ireland wasted, " than which in tyme of rebellion Her 
Majestic hath no greater enemy theare. The country wilbe much 
strengthened; for every glass-house wilbe so good as twenty men in 
gaiTison. The country wilbe sooner brought to civilitye; for many 
poore folke shalbe sett on worke. And wheras Her Majestic hath now 
no peny profiitt, a double custome must of necessity be paide. Glass 
be transported from Ireland to England." In conclusion, " George 



RISE OF THE ART ON THE TYNE. 117 

Longe, your honor's poore orator" (petitioner), prays Burleigh to be 
gracious to him, and promises, not only to guarantee the performance 
of all things concerning the patent, but will "repaire his lordship's 
buildings from tyme to tyme with the best glasse," and "allso 
bestowe one hundred angells" at Burleigh's appointment. 

The members, says the Gateshead Observer (whose report is 
reprinted by Mr. Grazebrook), were much amused with the "poor 
orator's" citation of " one hundred angells" to intercede for him; and 
Mr. Richardson, resuming his paper, speculated upon the whereabouts 
of the "fifteen glass-houses," and was constrained to confess that " we 
have only the slenderest circumstantial evidence to induce a belief 
that the manufacture of glass was established on the Tyne before the 
coming of James," but leaned to the reception of Bourne's averment 
that the Henzells, Tyzacks, and Tytorys, Protestants from Lorraine, 
established glass works on the Tyne at Newcastle in the reign of 
Elizabeth. " The evidence which he adduced was ingenious and 
interesting." 

At a subsequent meeting of the Society, held on the 7th of 
December, 1 853, Mr. Eichardson read a letter he had received from 
Mr. Henry Pidcock, of Woodficld, near Droitwich, " which was con- 
sidered as confirming, in some degree, the tradition of Bourne relating 
to the emigration of the Hennezcs or Henzeys to the midland coun- 
ties." 

One word as to the "fifteen glass-houses'' referred to by George 
Longe. Paul Hentzner of Braudenburgh, who ^^"as in England in 
August and September, 1598, makes a note saying "glass-houses are 
plenty here;" thus confirming the evidence of the multiplication of 
glass manufacturers in the time of Elizabeth. The fact is also borne 
out by the cry that was raised against them, lest they should make 
wood-fuel scarce and dear. An alarm had gone abroad on behalf of 
the forests of England, and measures were taken for their protection. 
Restrictions were even made on the industrial pursuits of Ireland, in 
the interests of the navy; for " if some reservation be not made in 
time, all the timbers will be suddenly consumed, esj)ecially in Munster 
and other parts near the sea." Among the common people, however, 
another notion was entertained. The " use of coal for smelting iron" 
was considered contrary to the course of nature, and it was opposed 
by Aiolence. "Wood was intended, they said, to smelt the metallic 



118 THE MANUrACTFEE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 

ores." (Roberts's Social History.) But in the present day, when we 
have navies of iron, millions of tons of coal are annually consumed in 
works whose demands are only to be satisfied by the mine. 

That fear about exhaustion, which has in modem times haunted 
the coal-field, troubled the woods in the reign of King James; and 
his laureate, Michael Drayton, gave forcible expression, in 1613, to 
the uneasiness with which his countrymen saw the swart workman 
making fuel of the forest with increasing consumption. The fiirnace 
had risen up where the tree flourished. Timber fell a sacrifice to its 
glowing fires; and the groves of Sussex were made to lament in the 
nervous verse of the Polyolbion: — 

" These iron times breed none that mind posterity. 
'Tis but in vain to tell M^hat we before have been. 
Or changes of the world that we in time have seen; 
When, not devising how to spend our wealth with waste, 
We to the savage swine let fall our larding mast. 
But now, alas ! ourselves we have not to sustain, 
Nor can our tops suffice to shield our roots from rain. 
Jove's oak, the warlike ash, veined elm, the softer beech. 
Short hazel, maple plain, light aspe, the bending wych, 
Tough holly, and smooth birch, must all together bum. 
What should the builder serve, supplies the forger's turn ; 
When under public good base private gain takes hold, 
And we poor woeful woods, to ruin lastly sold." 

Waltham Forest, taking up the song, bestows an admonition on 
Hatfield. " Wisely thus reproveth" the one forest the otb^r: — 

" Dear Sister, rest content, nor our declining rue : 
What thing is in the world (that we can say) is new ? 
The ridge and furrow shows that once the crooked plow 
Turned up the grassy turf where oaks are rooted now ; 
And at this hour we see the share and coulter tear 
The full corn -bearing glebe where sometimes forests were; 
And those but caitiffs are which most do seek our spoil, 
Who, haidng sold our woods, do lastly sell our soil." 

Sore was the disquietude with which Englishmen had come to look 
upon the progress of manufactures and the decay of forests. Wits 
were sharpened by the crisis; and in 1611 we hear of "a newly- 
invented process of making glass with sea coal." In 1615 the making 



RISE OF THE ART ON THE TYNE. . 119 

of it with wood was prohibited by proclamation, and also the impor- 
tation of foreign glass. And now we are brought back to Sir Robert 
ManseU, Treasurer of the Navy under King James. A grant was 
made to the Earl of Montgomery, Sir Thomas Howard, Sir Eobert 
Mansell, Sir Edward Zouch, and others, of all glass-ware forfeited for 
being imported contrary to order. Near the end of 1618, when Sir 
Robert, at that time sole manufacturer, by royal patent, of glass in 
England, had been appointed Vice- Admiral, and sold his office of 
Naval Treasurer to Sir William RusseU, he was applying to the Privy 
Council for power to put down all glass-makers who invaded his 
monopoly; otherwise (he said) he could not pay his annual rent of 
£1,000 to the King, and the £1,800 guaranteed to the patentees who 
had resigned in his favour. Mansell possessed the exclusive right to 
make glass in England; and in 1620 the monopolist had two persons in 
prison who had imported glass into the country to his prejudice. He 
would not even allow his countrymen the free run of his own glass 
works, to purchase at which they pleased. *' Hobson's choice" was 
Sir Robert's rule; and consumers chafed under the restraint. 

Ralph Colbourne, a maker of hom'-glasses, applied to the Duke of 
Lennox and others, who were Commissioners for Glass, to be relieved 
from the oppression of ManseU. Mansell constrained him to buy his 
glasses in London, which (he said) were bad and high-priced; and it 
was ordered that his reasonable request to have the privilege of pur- 
chasing at any of the glass-houses of the patentee be granted. 

There was also, about the same time, a petition of certain glaziers, 
who described Sir Robert's glass as scarce, bad, and brittle; to which 
imputations he replied, in a letter to the Privy Council, that the scar- 
city was no fault of his, (but the fault, he probably meant, of the 
speculators who bought up his glass); that he had gone to great 
expense to improve the quahty; and that the high price was caused by 
a rise in the cost of coals, etc.; and still (he said) it was lower than 
before his patent. The Council stood by Mansell. In vain was it 
prayed that all Englishmen should be permitted to manufacture glass 
who chose; the monopoly was continued in the hands of the Vice- 
Admiral, to whom our historian Brand ascribes the first estabhshment 
of glass works on the Tyne about the year 1019. 

In the year 1623 (May 22), there was granted to Mansell and his 



1 



1 20 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IS ENGLAND. 

assigns, for fifteen years to come, a special privilege of the sole making 
of glass within England and Wales, with sea coal, pit coal, or any 
other fuel, not being timber or wood, without payment of rent, but 
with freedom of importation to others. It was set forth in the grant 
that under former letters patent there was a reservation to the King 
of £1,000 a-year, which was now remitted in consideration of the 
petitioner's good services, and of his charge and expense in effecting 
the work. All importation, however, of foreign glass, which had been 
prohibited before, was now to be free. 

In 1624, one Isaac Bungard petitioned Parliament against the 
exclusive pri\ilege of manufacture. He had been accused to the Com- 
missioners, in April, 1621, by the Company of Glaziers, of endeavouring, 
with others, to engross the whole trade in glass, so as to have the prices 
at his own command; and in June of the same year he prayed the 
Privy Council to throw open the manufactiu-e. In 1624, when the 
Admiral had obtained a renewal of his monopoly, he appealed to the 
House of Commons against the patent; whereupon Sir Robert stated 
his case in reply, and we are thus enabled to gather a few facts of his 
progress in glass-making, valuable as history. Glass (he said) was 
formerly made with wood, to the great consumption of timber; and a 
patent having been granted for the substitution of sea coal, he bought 
the patent; and after erecting works in London, the Isle of Purbeck, 
Milford Haven, and on the Trent, which failed, he was successful in 
establishing the manufacture at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Bungard en- 
deavoured to ruin his works by corrupting his clay ; by enticing away 
his workmen, so that he was obliged to bring over others from abroad; 
and by raising the price of Scotch coal. The patent, he added, was 
complained of as a grievance in the last Parliament, but was continued 
down to Sir Robert's return fi-om sea-service; when he, sueing for a 
new patent, obtained it by recommendation of Council; and he now 
requested Parliament to ratify it, as being a great saving of wood, 
giving employment to shipping in transport of materials and glass, 
employing four thousand natives in the manufacture, and providing 
the article better and cheaper than before. To all which it was res- 
ponded, in a petition to Parliament, that the invention was practised 
by others before the patentees, and that it enhanced the price of glass 
to the consumers. 



RISE OF THE ART ON THE TYNB. 121 

Parliament had little disposition to take part with Sir Eobert 
Mansell. But from the Calendar of State Papers, which has lent 
considerable assistance in the preparation of these pages, it is manifest 
that he had a tower of strength in another quarter. The Privy 
Council, to whom, on the 6th of December, 1626, King Charles referred 
the complaints of one Bringer [Bungard ?] on the glass patent, directed 
that the same should stand. They thought it of dangerous consequence, 
and far trenching on the Prerogative, that patents, granted on just 
grounds, and of long continuance, should be referred to the strict trial 
of the Common Law; wherefore they ordered that all proceedings at 
law be stayed, and that "Bringer" do not presume further to trouble 
His Majesty on pain of punishment. Thus summarily was the com- 
plainant dismissed, and Mansell established in his monopoly. 

We have now entered the reign of Charles I. Let us pause for a 
moment on its threshold, and, before going further, look back on the 
action of Parliament, in this matter of glass, during the days of James. 
The "Journals" do not help us much, but they show the Commons to 
have been disquieted by the patent. There was a report on "the 
monopoly for glass, etc.," in 1614; and also a debate. Scantily are 
the speeches of honourable members handed down to us — little more 
than fragmentary notes or jottings. One of the speakers is Mr. Fuller. 
His mind was much exercised by the question; and, musing on the 
monopoly, he drops a few troubled words: — "Now to glass; after, to 
iron; after, to all other trades." Mr. Buncombe falls back on first 
principles: — "Free trade every man's inheritance by birthright." 
Soon the odour of the Indian weed steals fragrant through the House. 
" Many of the divines (remarks a senator) smoke tobacco, by which it 
appeareth" — (the reasoning is somewhat cloudy) — "they seek where 
the best." The laity also indulge. Even "poor men spend fourpence 
of their day's wage in smoke." And easily might this extravagance 
be committed, if they smoked at all; for it was in this year 1614 
that the Star Chamber appointed the duty on tobacco to be 6s. lOd. a 
pound! But neither excess of Excise, nor "Counterblast" of King, 
could put out the pipe. 

The patent for glass had its ft-iends in Parliament as well as its 
foes. Its advantages were pleaded no less than its drawbacks. Its 
opponents, however, were not convinced by the arguments adduced. 
Looking hard at the monopolists, they muttered: — "All their pretences, 

P 



122 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 

public good: all their end, private gain." Such was the ground taken, 
on the side of free trade, in 1614; and, finally, the patent was ordered 
to be brought in. This was done on the 6th of May, when it was 
delivered under protest, and we hear no more of it. Probably because, 
next month. Parliament was dissolved. For some years it had no suc- 
cessor; but in May, 1621, when the House of Commons was again in 
session, we have Sir Edward Coke presenting a further report on '*' the 
patent for glass." The Parhamentary Committee submitted to honour- 
able members, first, that "the consideration failed; for no new inven- 
tion." Secondly, that "the new invention was only of making 
furnaces." There was "not power thereby for the sole making of 
glass." The manufacture by wood was not excluded, "but only by 
sea coal." Thirdly, "the restriction of importation hindereth trade, 
shipping, merchants, etc." Fourthly, "the time of twenty years too 
long." Doubts were expressed whether glass was as good as before. 
" Inigo Jones, the surveyor, said not so good as in ancient times." 
Doubtful, also, whether not dearer than before. "Condemned in the 
last Parliament as a grievance; yet Sir Robert Mansell presently after 
procured this new patent. That £1,000 was reserved to the King, 
yet none paid. That this patent was a grievance, both in creation 
and execution." 

Again was the question before Parliament in 1624, when there 
seems to have been some Monopoly Bill under consideration. The 
report of a Committee was brought up by Sir Edward Coke, a resolu- 
tion having been adopted that the patent for glass, with all others, 
" be continued for their time, but not renewed." It was to run out, 
and then cease. 

The persevering Mansell, who gave occasion for so much contro- 
versy in the country, was no petty monopoHst. His patron had united 
two crowns, and Sir Eobert extended his sway over two kingdoms. 
He not only had a patent for England, but for Scotland also. James 
had granted to Lord George Hay, in 1610, the exclusive right for 
thirty-one years to manufacture glass in Scotland; and in 1627 his 
lordship transferred his monopoly to Thomas Robinson, a merchant 
tailor in London, who, for £2,50, made a second transfer to Mansell, 
and thus extended his sceptre over the whole island. 

Sir Robert's profession was the sea; his hobby was glass; and he 
is said to have " melted vast sums of money" in riding it. To King 



RISE OF THE AET ON THE TYNE. 128 

James it was a wonder " that Robin Mansell, being a sea man, whereby 
he got so much honour, should fall from water to tamper with fire, 
which were two contrary elements." But so it was; there is no knowing 
what a man will bum his fingers with; and in the year 1G38, the 
Admiral, having still no dread of the fire which had scorched him, 
was surrendering to the Corporation of Newcastle an unexpired lease, 
and taking a new one, for twenty-one years, "of certaine grounds, 
being the greatest part of the east ballast-shoares and the glass- 
houses," situated between the " Useburne on the west," and " the grounds 
of St. Lawi'ence on the east." Foui'teen years afterwards, in 1652, 
he applied, unsuccessfully, for a further renewal; and there is mention 
in the books of the Corporation, April, 1G53, of "new glass-houses;" 
four or five months after which, the Admiral's lease of life ran out. 
His labours, however, did not die with him. In the "Industrial 
Resources of the Tyne, Wear, and Tees," published in 1864, Mr. R. W. 
Swinburne, who contributes a paper on " The Manufacture of Glass," 
observes: — "In the year 1616, Admiral Sir Robert Mansell erected 
glass-works at Newcastle, which were carried on, without interruption, 
till nearly the middle of the present century, when they were closed." 
Of the Huguenot glass-makers named by Bourne, so intimately 
associated with the Admiral, several particulars appear in the foot-notes 
of Brand ; and although he fixes the introduction of glass-works on 
the Tyne no earlier than 1619, his extracts from our parish registers 
would seem to indicate that he might have " ventured" to go a little 
higher. "John Teswicke, sonne of Tymothie Teswicke, glasse-maker, 
a Frenchman," was baptised at St. Nicholas', November 22, 1619, and 
had for one of his godfathers "Abraham Teswick." " Isaack Hensey, 
glass-maker," and " Jacob Hensey, glass-maker," occur in the register 
of All Saints' in the same year ; and in 1620, " Samuel Tizick, glass- 
maker;" with also " David Tyttere alias Rusher, glass-maker." Thus, 
then, at the date assigned for the first introduction of glass-works on 
our river by Mansell, we have the Henzells, Tytorys, and Tyzacks, 
whose arrival is ascribed by Bourne to the reign of Elizabeth, settled 
in Newcastle as glass-makers, and an infant of the immigrants appearing 
at the font. What are we to conclude from the facts comprised in 
this paper? Are we to accept the version of Bourne, who dwelt 
among the descendants of the refugees ? or shall we assume that the 
pilgrims and strangers who were here in 1619 were but the workmen 



124 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS IN ENGLAND. 

brought to the Tyne by the enterprising Admiral ? The question has 
its difficulties ; yet the circumstances may justify at least a diffident 
inclination, mth Mr. Richardson, to the former conclusion. There is 
ground for thinking that the Timothy Tyzack, who was buried in 
St. Mary's church in 1684-85 (namesake, and perhaps son, of the 
" glasse-maker, a Frenchman," who was having his child John baptised 
in St. Nicholas' in 1619), came of a colony of foreign manufacturers 
of glass who practised their art in Newcastle before James the Sixth 
of Scotland crossed the Borders for his English throne. And who can 
look without reverence on the noble monumental stone of this Mer- 
chant Adventurer, with its inscription and arms, deposited in the 
chancel of the mother-church of Gateshead, before the vestry door ? 
The old record runs : — " Here lieth interred the body of Timothy 
Tizacke, Merchant Adventurer, and Elizabeth, his wife, who had issue 
by him seven children. Two survived them, viz., Timothy and 
George. She departed this life the 13th day of October, an. 1659. 
He departed this life the 6th day of February, 1684." 

Seigneur, je te prie garde ma vie, is the devout invocation that forms 
the merchant's motto, and closes the sculpture of 1684-85. Surtees, 
the historian of the county palatine, copying the inscription, adds the 
following outline of the arms : — " Three acorns slipped, two billets 
in chief; impaling a fesse inter three lambs passant; no colours." 
Crest, Henzell's fire-bolt and fire-ball. 

Of this man of mark, who flourished on the Tyne from the earlier 
years of the seventeenth century, and died on the same day with 
Charles the Second, history confines itself to what is written within 
the four corners of his tomb. If we would know somewhat more of 
him, we must turn to the parish register in the neighbouring vestry. 
There, within the space of httle more than eight years, are entered 
the christenings of six of the seven children borne to him by his 
wife Ehzabeth, viz. : — 

1650. Timothie, January 30, 1649-50. 

1651. Elizabeth, March 15, 1650-51. 
1653. George, March 25, 1652-53. 
1655. John, March 29. 

1657. Henrie, June 22. 

1658. William, May 16 (christening and burial). 

The mother's death, as the sculptor records in grey marble, oc- 




-£.Rtid.,jrei^ca.scU crvTyne.. 



RISE OF THE AET ON THE TYNE. 125 

curred on the 13th of October, 1659 ; and the parochial penman makes 
a note in his book of her burial next day : — " Elizabeth, wife to Mr. 
T. Tissack, October 14." One cliristening of the seven — that of the 
first-born — may have escaped a not too rigid search ; but a friend, 
more accustomed than myself to refer to old registers, informs me that 
such an omission is not uncommon, owing to the young wife returning 
to the mother's roof for the first birth ; which would consequently be 
recorded in another parish. 

To the foregoing entries may be added one more remembrance of 
the home-life of the Merchant Adventurer, whose surviving sons 
doubtless laid down this stone, viz., "Buried, November 12, 1657, 
Henrie CoUingwood, servant to Mr. Timothy Tyzack." 

Contemporary with Timothy Tyzack of Gateshead — (whom we 
conjecture to have been born into the family of the " Tymothie Tes- 
wicke, glasse-maker, a Frenchman," bearing his son for baptism to the 
church of St. Nicholas' in 1619) — was another of the name, now to 
be added to Mr. Grazebrook's Genealogical Collections. It comes to 
us from no parish register, but from an inscribed stone in the grounds 
of Mr. John Glover, of Heaton Cottage, where formerly resided Mr. 
Joseph Sewell, managing partner in the Broad and Crown Glass 
Works of Sir M. W. Ridley and Company. A generation ago, when 
the works were in process of extension, an old and unremembered 
burial-place was found, with remains of an enclosure, fragments of 
gravestones, and a whole stone inscribed with the Tyzack name. 
This memorial of the Huguenots was removed, with reverent care, to 
Heaton, and laid by Mr. Sewell on a grassy bank adjacent to his resi- 
dence, by the side of a sycamore tree, whose growing and spreading 
roots have broken it in two. The inscription is but partially legible. 
"Time's efiacing fingers have swept the lines." Enough remains, 
however, sufficiently clear, to show that the stone had been placed over 

the grave of "Abigail Tyzack, daughter of Sarah Tyzack;" 

and that her death took place "anno 167*." The fourth figure 
is indistinct, but the year is apparently 1678. An atmosphere of 
interest — not to say of romance — smTounds this voice from the for- 
gotten cemetery of the seventeenth century. On the pleasant banks 
of the Ouseburn, eloquent with memories of Sir Robert Mansell and 
the glass-makers of Lorraine, the "frail memorial," with its rude 



126 THE MANUFACTURE OF GLAS8 IN ENGLAND. 

" cross bones," has found an appropriate resting-place, and, by the 
margin of the woodland path, "implores the passing tribute of a 
sigh." 

Impressively numerous are the records on the Tyne of members 
of the Henzell, Tytory, and Tyzack families. The parish registers 
of a former age abound with them. Entries of birth, marriage, and 
death, in All Saints', Newcastle, down to the year 1750, communicated 
to Mr. Grazebrook by our townsman, Mr. W. M. Henzell, occupy 
upwards of fifteen pages of his book. Persistently do such memorials 
recur as the yellow leaves of parish books are turned over in 
vestry. It happened to me, a few years ago, to be in search of some 
other name, in St. Mary's, Gateshead ; and I paused in my quest to 
make a note of the burial of a nonogenarian : — "April 22, 1812, Jane 
Henzel, widow of Charles Henzel, glass-maker, aged 94." The old 
name and the old vocation were still together; and with this memorial 
of the *' gentilshommes veiTiers" of the Vosges in Lorraine, who were 
coming over to England in 1568, the present paper may fitly be 
brought to a close. 



A ROMAN BURIAL AT YORK. 127 



A ROMAN BURIAL AT YORK. 



By the Rev. J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D. 
March 2nd, 1876. 



I HAVE been directed by the Rev. Canon Raine of York to present to 
the Society a photograph of the back-hair of a yonng Roman lady, 
who, judging from a coin that was lying under her coffin, and the 
style of the coffin itself, probably lived about the time of Constantine. 
The hair is of an auburn colour. After being slightly twisted, it had 
been laid in a circular form on the back of her head, and secured in 
position by two jet pins of two or three inches long. The heads of 
the pins are neatly ornamented. I have here a small lock of the hair, 
which, however, was not connected with the main mass. "When first 
discovered the hair was darker than it now is, in consequence probably 
of its being in a damp condition. The hair is that of a young lady of 
about fifteen years of age. 

It is curious how the sight of a simple and inanimate object like 
this brings near far distant ages, and sets vividly before us scenes 
long past. Though fifteen or sixteen centuries have rolled away since 
this young lady breathed our air, we fancy we see her in the flush 
of her early youth, adorning her locks, and admiring the charms 
with which she was endowed. It seems so strange that she and 
the youths who sought her society should express their merry thoughts 
in the words which Tacitus and Terence used ; we can fancy, too, 
that she was not a stranger to the Celtic tongue. The slaves of 
her father's household were probably the inhabitants of the land. 
Her nurse would most likely be a native of Britain, and with her 
she would converse in the tongue of our Celtic forefathers. Sickness 
seizes her — how would her bright eyes be clouded — how would her 
parents' breast swell with deep anxiety. The healing truths of the gospel 
had been brought to our Island long before her time. Had she heard 
them ? And before she closed her eyes in death were they brightened 
by the blissful apprehension of coming glory ? I looked upon her 
empty eye-sockets, but could get no answer to my question. 



1 28 A ROMAN BURIAL AT YORK. 

Being much interested in this strange speciman of Roman humanity, 
I went to York the other day to see it. Canon Raine kindly accom- 
panied me to the museum, and supplied me with much information 
respecting the recent discoveries in that city, which was during several 
centuries the stronghold of Roman power in the North of England. 
The results of my inquiries I shall endeavom* to convey to you. 

In digging the foundations for the walls of the new station at 
York, it was found that the site had in Roman days formed a large 
burial ground outside the walls of the city. Very many ancient gi-aves 
were disturbed, in which were found numerous articles of great interest 
and beauty which had been interred with the deceased. Little childi'en 
had their pretty necklaces round their bony throats, their toys were by 
their sides ; women still wore their rings and their splendidly-carved 
jet armlets ; numerous vessels of glass and earthenware of peculiar 
patterns and exquisite workmanship were enclosed in the coffins. In 
some of these vessels were the remains of unguents, which, on being 
treated with hot water, gave forth powerful and fragrant odours. As 
the ground was disturbed only in places where the walls of the build- 
ing are being reared, it may be conceived what a mass of treasure 
remains behind, unseen, unmoved. The coffin of the young lady 
whose hair I have shoxNai you was found under one of the walls of the 
new booking office. The number of interments which have from time 
to time been discovered at York is quite extraordinary. They amount 
on a rough calculation to about three thousand. Other large grave- 
yards have been found beside the one I have been speaking of, and on 
the sides of some of the roads leading out of York tombs have been 
planted for a considerable distance on each side of them. The place 
must have been very populous. One extraordinary fact has come 
under Mr. Raine's notice during the recent excavations. It is well 
known that at Rome the dead bodies of slaves and of obscure persons 
who had no one to care for them were cast without covering into 
old quarries and sand pits. There they were left to decay to the great 
annoyance and injury of the living who occupied the neighbourhood. 
Horace tells us of one of these puteoU on the Esquiline Hill, which was 
acquired by Mecaenas, who turned it into a garden. Mr. Raine noticed 
one or two pits at York which had been filled with human bodies pro- 
miscuously thrown in. Some of the skeletons had their feet uppermost. 
It is humbling to think that such things should have taken place in 



A EOMAJS^ BURIAL AT YOllK. 129 

this land of ours, even sixteen hundred years ago. Amongst so many 
graves numerous skulls have been found, many of them in a perfect 
state. There is a noble collection of them in one of the underground 
chambers of the Museum. Most of them have a fine intellectual de- 
velopment. One of them has been pronounced by Professor Rolleston 
to be the finest he had ever seen. Several specimens of the fir-cone 
ornament have been found in the burial ground. These, as I have 
elsewhere endeavoured to show, are supposed to be emblematic of a 
resuscitated existence. 

We now retm'n to the young lady. Her remains were enclosed 
externally in a large stone cofiin, formed of a rough sandstone, resem- 
bling millstone grit, very roughly carved, and destitute of inscription 
or ornament. This, as well as most of the coffins, if I remember 
rightly, was lying south and north. Within the stone coffin was 
another of lead, which contained the body. The lead of this coffin 
has been cast in sheets and not rolled. The lid was tightly fastened 
to the coffin ; it had to be forced off by violence. We shall presently 
return to this subject. The lid of the lead coffin bore a simple orna- 
ment. It was divided into three compartments by an upright line 
representing a slender twig, round which was loosely twisted a fillet of 
ribbon. These compartments were occupied by two similar lines, 
crossing each other in the centre and terminating in the angles of the 
compartments. There was no inscription. The body seems to have 
been deposited in its resting place in the following manner. After 
being enveloped in some coarse cloth, a quantity of fluid plaster of 
Paris was poured into the coffin, in the midst of which, whilst still 
soft, the body was laid ; after which the rest of the coffin was filled in 
with more plaster of Paris. In this particular case it seems as if the 
head had been made to repose upon a pillow, so that it rose above the 
gypsum which entirely covered the rest of the young lady's person. 
On opening the coffin, the jaws, the bones of the face, and the frontal 
bones of the skull were found to have fallen forward, and were seen 
resting upon the covering of gyi:)sum; the back hair being deprived of 
its bony support, had also fallen down, and was resting in the place 
where these bones should have been. One other singular circum- 
stance is yet to be named. The lid of the stone coffin was found 
to be cracked not far from its middle. Immediately under this crack, 
and in the lid of the leaden shell, was a round jagged hole of about 

Q 



130 A ROMAN BURIAL AT YORK. 

the size of your fist ; a corresponding hollow penetrated the gypsnm, 
and the bottom of the stone coffin was cracked. What had caused 
these appearances? Possibly after death had done his worst by this 
young lady her narrow house had been stricken by the lightning's 
flash, or, to carry out the figure more correctly, by a thunderbolt. No 
other probable solution of the difficulty has been suggested. Before 
leaving our young lady I must mention that there is a record of hair 
having been found upon the head of another Eoman subject found in 
York, but it has long been lost sight of. These, so far as I can learn, 
are the only known instances. 

Roman antiquaries find that the instances in which the Romans 
used leaden cases in the burial of their dead are more numerous than 
was once supposed. At the present moment there are not less than 
twelve leaden coffins in the Museum at York, all derived from the 
graveyards of the city. If my memory does not deceive me, the 
late Mr. Denham, of Pierse Bridge, met with a leaden coffin in a 
Roman burying-ground near that station. In 1844 a leaden coffin 
was found on the site of a Roman burial place at Stratford-le- 
Bow. The coffin had been run in with lime. Mr. Roach Smith 
published an account of it in the " Archaeologia," Vol. XXXI., 
p. 308. In that gentleman's "Collectanea Antiqua," Vol. III., is 
a record of the finding of many others, from which I make a few 
extracts. "In 1739 a leaden coffin was ploughed up near Stilton, 
with Roman coins and a cinerary urn. At Colchester several Roman 
leaden coffins have been found from time to time, consisting each 
of two pieces of lead. At Southfleet, in Kent, in 1801, was found 
a tomb of stone, covered with two very large stones. The tomb con- 
tained two leaden coffins of the most simple construction ; the bottom 
pieces being turned up formed the sides of each, and the top pieces 
being turned down at each end and a little over at the sides, formed 
the tops and ends of the coffins." In London several instances have 
occurred besides that at Stratford-le-Bow already mentioned. In 
1811, one was dug up in Old Kent Road. On the lid were two 
figures of Minerva. In 1 844, a small leaden coffin containing the 
remains of a child was found in Mansell Street, Whitechapel. Several 
foreign examples are on record. Near the village of Savigny-sous- 
Beaune a leaden coffin was found in 1819. Other interments of the 
ordinary character had taken place near it, amongst which were four 



A ROMAN BURIAL AT YORK. 131 

jet pins worked in facets, and twelve small brass coins of Maximinus, 
Constans, and Constantius II. In 1828 two leaden coffins were fonnd 
at Rouen ; one contained a coin of Postumns, the other, which was 
that of a child, contained the playthings of the deceased and four 
Eoman coins, the effigies on which could not be detennined. In 1835 
one was found at Evreux ; it inclosed a coin of Constantiue. Others 
have been found near Nismes and at Amiens. Mr. Eoach Smith, in a 
letter which I had from him the other day, says, "I could cite some 
fifty or sixty examples, the latest being one at Ilchester." 

A question occurs to me in reference to these leaden coffins which 
I find it difficult to answer. What end had the Romans in view in 
making use of them ? 

We employ them in order hermetically to seal up the dead. So far as 
I have observed, the Roman coffins were not air tight. Some of those 
at York have been clumsily put together. In every case the lead 
has been cast, and the sheets are thick and heavy. In some cases the 
pieces of which the coffin is composed are nailed together. In one 
instance the lead has been held in position by being nailed to a strong 
external covering of wood, and this in turn has been strongly braced 
together by bars of iron. In the case of this young lady, Mr. Raine 
thinks the lid of the coffin was fastened on with cement. I may be 
wrong, but I do not think that the Romans used solder. Their leaden 
pipes were formed of long flat strips of metal, bent into shape and 
fastened at the edges. The fastening, so far as I have observed, was 
not effected by the intervention of easily fusible metal such as our 
solder. A jet of ignited hydrogen gas made to play upon the edges 
would partially melt them, so as to allow of their being brought into 
permanent union. In this way, possibly, the Roman pipes were 
formed. The process, however, is one which could not easily be 
a})plied to coffins. If the object had been simply to provide an im- 
perishable ark in which to deposit the precious remains of the departed 
one, why not rest satisfied with a stone sarcophagus? In the 
instance before us, both stone and lead were used. Perhaps it was to 
make security doubly secure. And yet, after all, in this particular 
case, the effort was vain ; first of all, the lightning invaded the care- 
fully guarded precinct, and then the modern navvy fairly bore the 
whole away. We are much obliged to the navvy for the information 
which he has afforded us. 



REPORT 



Ztt Soctetg of 0nttguarteS 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



M.DCCC.LXXVIII. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne has run its course, 
during the fifty-sixth year of its existence, in its ordinary quiet and 
useful manner. Its meetings have been held every month, without 
intermission, at which the subjects of antiquarian interest occurring 
in the district have been discussed. No gi'and discovery has been made 
during the year like that of the Well of Coventina, at Procolitia, which 
was referred to in the last report, but several important additions have 
been made to our knowledge by the spade of the excavator. The 
excavations at Binchester have been watched with interest, and the 
explorations of Newminster Abbey have been reported upon fi'om time 
to time. The splendid monumental stones of the Eoman ei-a, which 
have been disinterred at South Shields and at Carlisle, have furnished 
much interesting subject of discussion. Mr. Blair has occasionally 
exhibited the intaglios and other works of art which still continue to 
be found at the Lawe, South Shields ; and, at the October meeting, 
Mr. B,obinson exhibited an important collection of stone implements 
formed by him during a recent tour in the United States. 

At the meeting in March last, Messrs. Greenwell, Robinson, and 
Blair were appointed a committee to re-arrange the Society's coins. 
This work they have in part accomphshed, and have, in addition, paid 

E 



134 REPORT, 

some attention to the miscellaneous collection of antiquities, especially 
the Ancient British, in possession of the Society, attaching to them 
labels indicating the localities where they were found. 

It is some years since a catalogue was prepared of the Roman 
inscribed and sculptured stones in the museum. It is exceedingly 
desirable that the catalogue of the Society's possessions were extended, 
so as to include the Ancient British urns and stone and bronze imple- 
ments, as well as the Saxon remains and mediaeval objects. Perhaps 
the committee already named would undertake the important and 
interesting but somewhat laborious task. 

The attention of the Society was called at its last annual meeting 
to the state of the fund provided for the building of a new museum. 
The Council have now to report that Mr. Dees and Mr. Dodd have 
been added to the surviving trustees of the fund, and that the money 
has been invested in government stock to the amount of £879 10s.; 
the interest of which, as the dividends become due, will be duly added 
to the capital in future. 

It may be that the time is not far off when the money will be 
wanted for the purpose for which it was originally subscribed. It is 
perhaps not Utopian to suppose that a grand building, befitting the 
important town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, may yet be reared which 
shall contain a gallery of statuary and pictures, an antiquarian museum, 
a museum of such objects of interest as may from time to time be 
brought to it from all parts of the world by the shipping frequenting 
our port, a library of general reference, and perhaps also a school 
of art. 

According to previous arrangements several members of the Society 
took an excursion to Chesfcers on the 27th of June last. The newly- 
excavated turret on the Wall, at Brunten, was examined ; the forum 
in the station of Cilumum was surveyed with care ; and the "Well of 
Coven tina, at Procolitia, and the objects which had been found in it, 
were carefully scrutinized. The party were kindly entertained at 
luncheon by the hospitable owner of Chesters. 

Should the Society think fit to take an excursion this year. Bishop 
Auckland might be suggested as a fitting place to be visited, the 
excavations which are being conducted in the neighbouring station of 
Binchester, by Mr. Proud, being weU worthy of attention. 



BEPORT. 186 

On the 1st October last the Society held a special meeting, at which 
a memorial was unanimously adopted for presentation to the Corpora- 
tion of Newcastle, praying for " the preservation of the evidences of 
the history of Newcastle, and especially the ancient Carliol Tower and 
the other remaining towers and relics of the Wall." This memorial, 
which was in due course presented, was not in the first instance 
successful, but there is reason to hope that the object for which it was 
drawn up may yet be obtained, and one of the ancient landmarks of 
the town preserved. But even should the Carliol Tower be removed, 
and the work of our forefathers be for ever destroyed, the Society of 
Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne may be congratulated that it has 
not existed in vain. A few years ago, this tower, had it pleased the 
authorities, would have been removed, as other more important struc- 
tures have been, without remonstrance; but, through the influence of 
this Society and other agencies, the community has been so thorouglily 
instructed in the real value attaching to those memorials of the past, 
which teach us more impressively and more vividly than the lettered 
page can do, the struggles, the triumphs, the modes of thought and 
feeling of our forefathers, that as soon as it was known that this tower 
was threatened with destruction an amount of feeling and energetic 
action on the part of the community was educed which could not have 
been anticipated, and which bodes well for the future. 

On another subject the Society may perhaps be congratulated. 
Twenty years ago its noble Patron, the fourth Duke of Northumber- 
land, suggested that an eflFort should be made to collect and preserve 
the melodies and ballads of the border land, which were fast falling 
into oblivion. A Melodies Committee was formed, of which the late 
Mr. Kell and the late Mr. White were conspicuous members. Their 
labours are now bearing fruit, for considerable attention has of late 
been paid to the simple but stirring and peculiar music of the ancient 
inhabitants of Northumbria ; and one of the newspapers of the district, 
the " Newcastle Courant," has begun to publish a weU-edited series of 
the airs which from time immemorial have lived in the memories and 
imaginations of successive generations, but which have not as yet 
assumed a visible shape. Should the eftbrt be encouraged as it 
ought to be, the musical genius of our ancestry will be preserved in a 
permanent form. 



136 



REPORT. 



The first part of a new volume of the " Archgeologia ^liana" now 
lies upon the table. It contains several papers of great importance, 
more than one of which have been educed by the important discoveries 
recently made at Procolitia. The whole of the woodcuts and plates, 
illustrative of Mr. Clayton's papers upon " Coventina," have been con- 
tributed by that gentleman. 

• Should the lapidarian discoveries of the North of England go on 
at the rate which they have done since the completion of the " Lapi- 
darium Septentrionale" in 1875, the time may not be far distant when 
it would be well to undertake a new edition of that work, or an 
Appendix to it. 

Several important additions to the Library have been made by 
purchase during the year, and, as in former years, some very valuable 
books have been presented to the Society by Sir Walter 0. Trevelyan, 
Bart., one of your Vice-Presidents. 

Not long after our last anniversary meeting our noble President 
was gathered to his fathers. The late Earl of Eavensworth was a ripe 
scholar, especially excelling in a knowledge of Greek and Latin classics. 
He had a keen appreciation of the fine arts, and was a lover of archaBO- 
logical research. He was ever ready to lend his aid to this Society, 
and was an occasional contributor to its publications. He frequently 
took the chair at its annual meetings, and always presided with grace 
and dignity. The important duty of electing a successor to his 
Lordship devolves upon the Society to day. 



OFFICERS, M.DCCC.LXXIX. 



patron. 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OE NORTHUMBERLAND. 

THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OP RAVENSWORTH. 

SIR WALTER CALVERLEY TREVELYAN, Baet. 
JOHN CLAYTON, Esq., F.S.A. 
ROBERT HENRY ALLAN, Esq. 
THE REV. CANON RAINE. 

THE REV. J. COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D., F.S.A. 
W. H. D. LONGSTAFFE, Esq. 

Crfasftirfr. 

MR. WILLIAM DODD. 

Council. 

THE REV. E. H. ADAMSON. 
R. R. DEES, Esq. 
T. W. U. ROBINSON, Esq. 
RICHARD CAIL, Esq. 
JOHN PHILIPSON, Esq. 
J. C. BROOKS, Esq. 
MARTIN DUNN, Esq. 
R. CARR ELLISON, Esq. 
G. E. SWITHINBANK, Esq. 
WM. WOODMAN, Esq. 
CHARLES J. SPENCE, Esq. 
ALEX. S. STEVENSON, Esq. 



WILLIAM DODD, TREASURER, IN ACCOUNT WITH 



1879, 



To Balance brought forward 

„ Subscriptions 

„ Collections at Castle ... 

„ Cash, Interest ... 

„ Cash for " Lapidarium" Sold 

„ Cash Books Sold, less Commission 



£ 8. 


d. 


403 12 


9 


97 13 





75 16 


6 


15 





7 7 





ssion 1 2 


6 



£600 11 9 



To Balance 



.. £509 15 4 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE. 



1879. 



By paid J. Gibson, one year 

„ Subscription to Xewminster Excavations 

„ J. Ventress 

„ Stevenson and Dryden, Printing 

„ Asher and Co. 

„ Wm. Dodd, Account 

„ Rent of Castle 

„ Insurance 

„ Surtees' Society ... 

„ Frost, Wire Guards 

„ Pape, for Punches 

„ Coals and Firewood 

,. Postage and Carriage 

„ Commission on Subscriptions 

,, Sundries 

„ Balance 



Cr, 



£ s. 


d. 


46 16 





10 





3 





1 18 





4 5 





11 1 


9 


2 


6 


7 


6 


1 1 


3 


2 9 


6 


1 2 


6 


1 17 





1 13 


7 


4 16 


fi 


5 


4 


509 15 


4 



£600 11 9 



January 27th, 1879. 

. Examined and found correct, after comparing 
vouchers with statements. 



JOHN PHILIPSON. 
SHERITON HOLME. 



MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 141 



SOME REMARKS ON MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE 
WESTERN WORLD. 



By the Rev. Samuel Real, B.A., Rector of Falstone, North 
Tyne, Professor of Chinese in University College, London. 
Read January 29th, 1879. 



The worship of Mithras, so interesting on many accounts to the student 
of religion, originated amongst the primitive Aryan people, as yet not 
divided into the nations which afterwards peopled India, Persia, and 
Europe. 

The Persian Mithras and the Sanscrit Mitra are identical ; and 
although we do not meet with any early mention of Mithras in Greece, 
still we find the primitive idea of the Persian and Sanscrit deity, so 
named, embodied in the Greek Athene, both pointing to the light of 
day shed forth on the world at the opening dawn. It is one of those 
singular instances of perversion in the development of religion that the 
worship of Mitra, which was at one time a comparatively pure worship 
(like that of the uei Trapdevo<s), should have degenerated in later days 
to the degraded form it assumed in the Roman Empire. 

The earliest object of reverence among the undivided Aryan nation 
was the bright sky, Dyaus ; known as Zevs in Greece, and Jupiter in 
Rome. In this idea of the bright sky are contained two distinct 
elements, which afterwards came to be invoked separately, and in fact 
supplanted the worship of Dyaus amongst the Aryans in India. The 
two elements are the sky itself, i.e., the vault of heaven, called Varuna 
in Sanscrit, and ovpuuo^ in Greek, and the lighl of heaven, called 
Mitra in Sanscrit, and, as I have said, the same as the Greek Athene. 

Hence, in all the Vedic hymns, save one, Mitra and Varuna are 
associated. They are invoked together. Their union, in fact, is the 
same as Dyaus, and Dyaus consequently is no more heard of. 

s 



142 



MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 



Varuna, however, is worshipped separately, and to him is attributed 
supreme power, even when so distinguished from Mitra ; and the reason 
of this is plain, for though the light of heaven disappears, the vault of 
heaven remains unmoved. Hence, again, Varuna is very often iden- 
tified with the night, i.e., the vault of heaven without the light. Thus 
the old Vedic commentator, Sayana, says (Rig. Veda. I., 89, 3.) : 
" Mitra is the god who presides over the day," according to the Vedic 
text, " the day is Mitra's ;" and, again, " Varuna is derived from the 
root vri, " to cover." He envelopes the wicked in his snares, and is the 
god who rules over the night." It is to be observed, therefore, that 
the earhest idea of Mitra was not the Sun, but the light of the sun. 

This has been well brought out by Professor Roth, in his paper on 
" The Highest Gods of the Arian Nations" (Journal of the Germ. 
Oriental Soc, VI., p. 70). " Within the circle of the Adityas there 
subsists the oldest connection between Mitra and Varuna, who are 
invoked more frequently together than Varuna is invoked singly. 
"We find only one hymn in which Mitra is invoked singly. This dual 
invocation is observed in the Zend Avesta, under the form of Ahura 
and Mithra, which proves how close the ancient connection of the two 
was. The essential character of the two gods, as distinguished from 
one another, is nowhere expressed in the hymns, and was in fact 
originally one which could not be defined with intellectual precision; 
but the stage of religious culture which lies before us in the Rig Veda 
enables us to distinguish the difference as one ah-eady existing, viz., 
that Mitra is the celestial light in its manifestation by day, whilst 
Varuna, though the lord of all hght and of all time, yet rules especially 
over the nightly heaven. A hymn of Vaisishtha (VII., 36, 2.) says: — 
" One of you {i.e., Varuna) is the lord and unassailable guide, and 
he who is called the friend (Mitra) calls men into activity." Here it 
is shown that the light of day which calls men into activity, i.e., 
awakens life, and brings joy and activity to the world, is the narrower 
sphere of Mitra's power, though Varuna is not thereby relegated to the 
night alone, for he continues to be lord and the first ;" or, in other 
words, the vault, or covering canopy of the firmament, remains the 
same though his companion and friend (Mitra), the light, is absent. 

I said that the knowledge of Mithras was possessed by the entire 
Aryan race before their separation. In proof, let me quote the words 



MITHRAIC WCRSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 1 43 

of Dr. "Windischman, who, in his dissertation on the Persian Mithras, 
says : — " It is established that this god was known to the old Aryan 
race before its separation into the Iranian and Indian branches, 
though the conception of his character was subsequently modified by 
Zoroastrian ideas." That Mithras was worshipped in Persia in and 
previous to the age of Herodotus is proved, as Windischman remarks, 
by the common use of such names as Mitradates and Mitrobates. 
Herodotus, indeed (I., 131), speaks of Mitra as a goddess, and not a 
god ; but Xenophon (Cyrop. VIII., s. 53.), and Plutarch (Artax. 4) 
describe him as a god ; whilst Plutarch (de Iside et Osiride XLVI.) 
tells us that Zoroaster considered Mithras as standing intermediate 
between the deity Oromazdes and Areimanius ; that is, between light 
and darkness, or God and sin. 

Here we get hold of the idea of Manes, the Persian founder of the 
Manichoean sect, who said that Mithras was Christ. It is simply this : 
the light is mediator, or intermediate between the rising sun and the 
setting sun ; i.e., between Ahuramazda and Ahriman, the harbinger 
of day, and the power of darkness — the night. Manes, trying to 
reconcile the realistic teaching of nature worship with the Divine 
Revelation, introduced Mithras as mediator between GTod and man, 
and called him Christ. 

To show that the primitive idea of Mitra was not the sun itself, 
but the light of the sun, we need only quote Rig Veda, VII., 6, and 
VII., 63, 1, and X., 37, 1 ; where the sun is spoken of as the eye of 
Mitra, just as he is said by Hesiod to be the eye of Zeus wauTa i8wv 
A«os o^OuXfio'i KM iravja vorjcra^" (Op. ct dies, 265); or, as Shake- 
speare says (Henry VI., pt. 1, ] , 4): — 

" Tho' thy speech doth fail, 
One eye thou hast to look to heaven for grace. 
The Sun with one eye vieweth all the world." 

Or, again, King John, IV., 2 : — 

" To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish." 

And from this we shall have to show presently that the factor Mithras, 
in the resolution of Dyaus or Ze'vs into Varuna and Mitra, is often 
taken for the whole, viz., Ze'vs himself. I said that Mitra alone is 
only once celebrated in the Rig Veda (III., 59), but sufficient is 



144 MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 

afforded in the phrases employed in this hymn to lead to safe con- 
clusions as to his early character. First, it is stated, " Mitra uttering 
his voice calls men to activity." This is the voice of Nature, or the 
returning light of day. "Mitra, with unwinking eye, beholds all 
creatures." Here the idea of the sun, the source of light as the eye 
of the world, is presented, from which eventually sprang the confusion 
of cause and effect in making the sun equal to Mitra. " Mitra, son 
of Aditi {i.e., the Infinite), may the mortal who worships thee with 
sacred rites have food. He who is protected by thee is neither slain 
or conquered." Here comes in the idea of " invictus," again the cause 
confused with effect. " This Mitra, adorable, auspicious, a king strong 
and wise has been born." Here the idea of strength and wisdom 
anticipate the character of Athene. " This great Aditya {i.e., son of 
Aditi), who rouses men to exertion, who is favourable to his worshipper, 
is to be approached with reverence. Mitra, who by his greatness 
transcends the sky and the earth by his renown. The five classes of 
men have done homage to Mitra, the powerful helper who sustains all 
the gods." Here is the idea of Mitra as friend. 

In this hymn we have certain properties pointed out belonging to 
Mitra which are also essentially elements in the character of Athene, 
as we shall afterwards show. 

It is plain that in the Indian section of the Aryan family the 
worship of Mitra was preserved from the Vedic period, or the probable 
period of separation, downwards to a late date, at least as late as 
Buddha ; but in the Iranian section we have no specific mention of 
Mithras in the Gathas, and the name only comes into usage at the time 
when the Yasna was written, i.e., about the fifth century B.C. The 
tendency of the authors of the Yashts was to raise the dignity of • 
angels such as Mitra to that of Ahuramazda, with whom they were 
said to be equal. So says Haug. Now, this is a curious expansion of 
doctrine. The first idea of Mithras was " pure light," but then by a 
confusion of light and the Sun the Persians were led to frame the 
theory of angels ; so that Mithras now becomes the angel of the Sun. 
Hence the Sun, Khurshed, is plainly distinguished from Mithras, or 
Mihir, the angel of the sun, in the Yasna. This is evidently a corrup- 
tion of the primitive idea of light diffused by it from the rising 
Sun ; these rays are by the writers and the Yasna or Yashts called 



MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 146 

the Sim's angel. The probable reasou of the absence of all mention 
of Mithras in the earlier Vendidad writings of Zaratushtra is to be 
found in the fact that Zoroaster was entirely opposed to the Nature 
worship of the Indian Aryans. Hence the Devas, or bright gods of 
India, became Daevas or devils of Persia, and the Asuras or devils of 
India were the Ahuras or good beings (Ahuramazda being the chief) 
of Persia. So Mitra, the bright daylight, was for a time ignored by 
the Persians ; but at the period when the Yashts were \vTitten he 
became again the great and beneficent being he bad always been ere 
the Iranians and Indians were divided by a religious schism. If we 
come to consider the actual honour paid to Mithras in the later period 
of Persian history, we shall find enough for our purpose in the Mihir 
Yasht, or the songs used at the sacrificial celebration of Mithras or 
Mihir, tJie friend. In the first section of this Yasht, Ahuramazda 
says to Zaratushtra : — " I created Mithras, who rules over wide fields, 
to be of the same rank and dignity as I myself am. He who belies 
Mithras spoils the whole country. Therefore, never break a promise, 
neither that contracted with a fellow-religionist, .or with an infidel." 
* * * * Again, " Mithras, who always speaks the truth, has a 
thousand ears, and ten thousand eyes, and is always watching without 
falling asleep over the welfare of creation. He, first of all the celestial 
spirits, crosses the Mount Alborz on its eastern side, where the 
immortal sun with his swift horses is stationed ; he, first covered with 
gold, reaches the summit of the mount, and thence overlooks the 
whole of Iran. * * * * jje brings light to all the seven regions 
of the earth. Victory sounds in the ears of all those who by know- 
ledge of the appropriate rites and prayers continuously worship him 
with sacrifices." Here, then, we are getting nearer to the form under 
which the worship of Mithras was introduced into the West. The 
ideas of strength and victory are now associated with the beneficent 
purposes of light, shed over the world lying in darkness. 

This development was a simple one. When first "light" was 
adored as an " abstract element," derived from the compound Dyaus, 
the principal thought was that of "friendship" to men, and hence the 
name Mithras, or Mitra ; but afterwards, when the idea of light was 
lost in the concrete form of the visible sun, the source of light, then 
Mithras was clothed with other attributes derived from solar influences. 



146 MiTHRAiG Worship in the western world. 

He was clad in gold, strong and invincible, truthful and uniform. All 
these attributes were derived from the character of the deity with 
whom he was now identified. 

Hence, all solar phenomena are to be found in the later idea of 
Mithras. The unconquered Sun is in fact the unconquered Hercules, 
and it is, probably, on account of these physical qualities of strength 
and victory that this deity became so popular in Kome and "Western 
Europe. 

The idea of " invictus" is, of course, derived from the unsurpassed 
energy of the Sun in conquering the evil powers that would compel 
him to leave the world to darkness and woe. When he is drawn 
piercing the bull with his knife, the thought is simply this: the sun 
entering Taurus at the spring equinox, returns to the northern world 
again, and his light as he rises in the east, paling the stars of the 
zodiacal constellation, is simply the dagger of Mithras piercing the 
sides of the bull. So he is always spoken of as the strong, the 
victorious, the fully armed, with the silver helm, golden mail, armed 
with dagger, mighty, strong, lord of the clan, the warrior, and so on, 
all indicating the thought uppermost in the mind of the writer, that 
the power of the sun in contending with the powers of darkness, 
whether in its daily or yearly course, is invincible. 

The worship, then, of Mithras as a physical power would naturally 
recommend itself to the Eomans, who as a nation typified physical 
strength. The idea of " invictus" would be most congenial to that 
brave people, who remained unvanquished through ages of warfare, 
and who for so many years struggled against the talent and determina- 
tion of Mithradates YI. himself, a type of the unconquerable character 
of the power from which he derived his name. 

This probably is the secret of the first introduction of the worship 
of Mithras into the Roman Empire. As Athens had her Parthenon, so 
Rome had her Pantheon, a building, we are assured, consecrated to the 
worship of Apollo, the Roman Mithras ; a dome to represent the visible 
heaven or Varuna, and a vast space on the summit through which the 
light of the sun, after the vernal equinox, poured its rays into the 
interior of the building, to represent Mithras. 

It is a strange leap from the Pantheon and the altar erected in the 
Capitol to the god "Soli invicto, Mithrae" to the altars found in 



MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 147 

Britain, but yet it must be made ; and we find the same fealty to the 
"unconquered one" animating the legions who kept North Britain in 
cheek by the stupendous work of the Eoman Wall as influenced 
Lucullus or Sulla in their struggle with Mithradates VI., in Pontus 
and Asia. 

It will be as well, however, before going further, to say a word or 
two as to the agreement of the dawn myth of Athene with the descrip- 
tion given in the character of Mithras. 

We will select some few points of resemblance as they are found in 
the Iliad of Homer and the Mihr Yasht of the Persians. Assuming 
the idea of Athene, as the ever pure and invincible, to be derived fi'om 
the character of the dawn (Ahana), and also assuming, as Spiegel says 
in the Mihr Yasht, p. 58, n, " that Mithras was typified by the first 
sunbeams that illumine the mountain tops," we shall find some re- 
markable points of agreement between the two. First, as in the Iliad, 
IV., 150, Athene diverts the arrow of Pandarus from the breast of 
Menelaus: — 

" But not unmindful, then, the blissful gods, 

Of thee, great Menelaus ! In thy front 

First she, Zeus-born, the spoiler of the slain, 

Athene stood, and half repelled the dart. 

She brushed it from his form as from her child. 

Lapped in sweet sleep, a mother might a fly." 

— Cordery's Translation. 

Compare this characteristic with that of Mithras (Mihr Yasht, 39) — 

" Their arrows swift-flying from well-bent bows [compare the account of 
Pandarus bending his bow], flying out of sight, hit not the mark when Mithras, 
who possesses wide pastures, comes enraged, angered, displeased." 

Again, compare Iliad XL, 500, ss. : — 

" He spake, and on the orbed shield struck full ; 
Through the bright buckler passed the stout good lance, 
And through the enamelled corselet making way, 
Laid bare the ribs of flesh : Athen^ there 
Stay'd it, nor suffered it to reach his heart." 

with Mihr Yasht, 89 :— 

" Their lances well sharpened, pointed, long handled, reach not the mark 
when they fly from their arms, when Mithras, etc., comes." 



148 MTTHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 

Again, notice that Athene is described as a wrathful deity: — 

" He spoke, and kindled in Athene's breast 
A wi-ath, erst flaming high to higher flame. 
Down from Olympus heights she sprang, and seemed 
Some flashing meteor." 

So also Mithras is described as a wrathful deity (Mihr Yasht, 18: — 

" But if one lies to him * * * then Mithras, the wrathful, offended, 
destroys the dwelling, etc." — [vid. also extract quoted above ; Mihr Yasht, 39.] 

Again, observe the remarkable connection between Mithras, i.e., the 
Dawn, as denoted by the rays of the sun, and the Sun itself, and 
compare this with the marked relationship of Athene and Apollo. 

Again, observe the special offerings made to Athene — twelve 
heifers never touched by goad (Iliad VI., 93, 274, 308), etc. — with 
the special offerings made to Mithras : — " With offerings ly name, 
with fitting speech, will I offer to thee with gifts, strong Mithras." 
(Mihr Yasht, 31) [and in other places]. 

In short, the attributes and special characteristics of Mithra, 
summed up in the following invocation, might perfectly be applied to 
Athene : — " Give us the favours we pray thee for, hero, in accord- 
ance with the given prayers : kingdom, strength, victoriousness, full- 
ness, and sanctification, good fame, and purity of soul, greatness and 
knowledge of holiness, victory created by Ahm*a, iie blow which 
springs from above, from the best purity, instruction va the holy word; 
that we may be well-wishing and jfriendly-minded, loved and honoured, 
may slay all foes ; that we, well-\^dshing and friendly-minded, loved 
and honoured, may slay all evil wishers ; that we, etc., may slay all 
torment, etc." (Mihr Yasht, 33, 34.) 

That Mithras represents the Dawn is rendered probable from 
various passages in the Mihr Yasht, e.g. (13): — "Who, as the firet 
heavenly Yazata, rises over Hara before the sun." And compare the 
note on this passage in Bleek's version. 

Again, Mihr Yasht, 95 : " Mithras, who advances at sunrise, broad 
as the earth," etc. 

Again, compare the marked connection between Athen^ and Zeus; 
and compare with it the close union of Mithras with Ahuramazda 
(Mihr Yasht, 1): — "When I created Mithi-as, who possesses wide 



MITHEAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 



149 



pastures, holy, I created him as worthy of honour as praiseworthy, 
as I myself, Ahuramazda." 

Again, Mihr Yasht, 145: — "Mithras and Ahura, both great, im- 
perishable, pure, praise we." 

Again, compare the epithet constantly applied to Mithras, who has 
" ten thousand eyes," with the epithet ''i\avKu;7ri<i, where the idea 
appears " flashing or gleaming-eyed ;" atid so, again, in the Mihr 
Yasht, the idea of " brightness" is constantly attached to the character 
of Mithras, as the epithet Kv^iarrj is to Athene in Homer. 

With respect to the expression Tritogoneia, which Mr. Gladstone 
concludes ( Contemporary Revietv, July, 
1876, p. 284) is derived most probably 
from an old word, triio, for the head, 
there is a curious illustration bearing 
on this point in the Lapidarium Sep- 
tentrionaU, edited by Dr. Bruce (p. 40), 
where there is a figure of Mithras (so 
supposed) of the following character. 

It would seem from this that Mithras 
might either be called Tritogoneia, as 
born from the head, supposing the three 
rays represent the dawn ; or that the 
three rays themselves are the prelude or 

cause of the dawn, in which case the word trito would be allied to the 
Sanscrit tretd, in the sense of a triad or three-fold, corresponding to 
the expression tretini, a three-fold flame; tretagni, the three fires 
collectively ; or the other form of traita, " a collection of three ;" or 
perhaps from Trita, who is a son of the water, and is made by M. 
Williams (Sansc. Diet., Sub. Yoc.) to be the origin of the compound 
Tritogenes. At any rate, this curious illustration of Mithras throws 
light on the history of the " three rays," wiiich are so constantly 
connected with power, ivisdom, or the origin, as in the trisula, the 
st/damani, the trident, the three-forked crown of Buddha, and perhaps 
the Prince of Wales' jdume. 

The connection of Mithras with Athene is further signified by the 
description given of both as fully armed " him with the silver helm, 
golden coat of mail, armed with dagger, mighty, strong, lord of the 




1 50 



MITHRAIC WORSHIP IX THE WESTERN WORLD. 



clan, the warrior," etc. (Mihr Yasht, 112.) The hehn and spear of 

Minerva are well known. 

Again, Mithras is stated to be 
" the most understanding of the gods" 
(Mihr Yasht, 141); and, again, "the 
skilful" (Mihr Yasht, 54.) 

But I pass on now to offer some 
remarks on the Swastika, which is 
generally found on altars dedicated 
to Mithras. The Roman altar, 366, 
found at Amboglanna {Lapidarimn, 
p. 184) bears on it the mark of the 
Swastika, as shown in the woodcut. 
This is the correct form ; the circular 
cross or wheel in the centre indicating 
strength. The wheel is always so 
used in the East as the symbol of 
invincible might; hence the expression 

to turn tlm ivJieel of the laiv, etc. 

In the altar, No. 546 Lapidariiim Septentrionale, the upper portion 

of which is given in the woodcut, the Swastika is turned the wrong 

way, the reason of which we will explain presently. 





MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 1 51 

Again, 553 LaiMariim Sepfentrionale, is the following : — 




Where the Swastika is correct. 

With regard to the origin of this emblem, called in the Greek 
Church the gammadion, and by a singular coincidence corresponding 
to the letter G in the earliest Eunes (Prof. Stephens), it can be traced 
to the early idea of the good fortune attending the movement of the 
Sun in his apparent journey from east to west. In a Chinese book in 
my possession there is a treatise on the origin of this Avorld-wide 
opinion. The writer states that in the East it was customary to 
observe the sun's shadow cast on the ground by a gnomon, both to 
determine the hour of the day and the season of the year ; and as this 
shadow would always move from left to right in northern coimtries 
'beyond the tropic, so it was regarded as a sign of respect either in 
religious worship or in any ceremony of consequence, to move round 
the object reverenced in a direction agreeing with the sun's movement 
round the earth, i.e., always from left to right; Avhilst in coimtries 
tvithin the trojncs, when the sun was in high declination, the shadow 
would appear to move from right to left ; or the sun Avould be on our 
right hand instead of the left. Now, the earliest symbol of the earth 
was a plain cross, denoting the four cardinal points ; hence, we have 
the word Ghaturanta, i.e. the four sides, both in Pali and Sanscrit, for the 
earth ; and on the Nestorian tablet, found at Siganfu some years ago, 
the mode of saying "God created the earth," is simply this "God 
created the + ." Granting this — and we can gather it conclusively from 
the Chinese symbol for a " field" or an " enclosed space," which is 



152 MITHRAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTERN WORLD. 

simply the + surrounded by four straight hues, as a square or paral- 
lelogram l^rj denoting the earth enclosed — assuming this, it will be 
seen at once that to represent the sun's movement from left to right, 
a line drawn in that direction at the end of each arm of the + would 
be enough ; and to represent the same movement from right to left, 
the lines would be drawn in that direction. Hence the Swastika is 
drawn in both ways. It is universally regarded as a sign of good 
fortune; hence, in Scotland, to move round an object from right to 
left is considered most unlucky and called withershins ; and so Sir 
Walter Scott remarks (^Waverley, cap. xxiv.) that " the old mountain 
people always move round any one to whom they wish to show respect, 
or for whom they desire good fortune, in the direction known as densil ,- 
whilst to move in the contrary way is considered as wishing to curse 
one." Mr. Joyce (" Irish Names of Places," p. 29) makes the same 
remark with respect to Irish customs; it wiU be seen at once, then, 
why this symbol should be identified with Mitra, "the friend," the 
bringer of good fortune ; and accordingly we ever find it so. 

If we seek for other reasons except the natural one of " invincible 
strength" for the common worship of Mitra in the time of the Eoman 
Empire, we shall find it in the fact of Hadrian's putting an end to the 
monopoly held by Alexandria in the Indian trade, and admitting 
Palmyra into the commercial system of the empire. It is true that 
trade between India and Palmyra had existed for a long period before 
this, as Trajan, according to Cassius (L. 67, cap. 28.), when he 
descended the Tigris and came to the Ocean "saw a certain ship sailing 
to India," but it was under the patronage of Hadrian and that of his 
successors, the Antonines, who Hved much in the East, and followed 
put his policy, that Palmyra rapidly developed the advantages it derived 
from its position as the nearest route to India ; and when Emesa, 
almost on its frontiers, and on the high road to Antioch and Damascus, 
gave to Eome Julia Domna, the wife of one Emperor Severus, and the 
mother of another Caracalla ; and afterwards two emperors, Helio- 
gabalus and Alexander ; then Palmyra rose to be a power which for a 
while held with Rome divided Empire. It was during the reigns of 
Severus, Caracalla, and the pseudo- Antonines that Eoman intercourse 
with India was at its height, and Roman literature gave its attention 
to Indian matters, and did not as before satisfy itself simply by quoting 



^ 



MITHEAIC WORSHIP IN THE WESTEEN WORLD. 153 

ft'om the historians of Alexander. It was then that Clemens of 
Alexandria wrote an independent account of the gymnosophists and 
Buddhists (Stromata I., 15); then, also, Philostratns published his 
Romance of Apollonius of Tyana, and JElian his varicz Mstorice; then 
also Dio Cassius wrote his history, and then again Bardasanes gave to 
the world his Indica, the materials of which he derived from Dandas, 
at Babylon. It will be seen, then, that at this time the worship of 
Mitra, tJie fortunate and invincible, would be particularly familiar to 
the Roman merchants and the Roman soldiers, the latter of whom 
would carry their superstition into distant lands, and erect altars to 
the " Unconquered God," wherever they went. Hence they crop up 
in Britain and Germany at the present time, and are being brouglit 
to light as testimony of the vast energy, and at the same time the 
unbounded superstition, of those who erected them, 

I have before stated that Mitra was not only a symbol of the light 
of the Sun, but also of the light of Truth. To lie to Mitra was con- 
sidered by the Persians a great crime, and was certain to bring upon 
the criminal condign punishment. In this aspect tve may also in- 
scribe on our altars, " Deo invicto," the unconquered Truth, for when 
the Sun shall be darkened and the light of day extinguished, still the 
light of God's truth will remain unconquered, and those who have 
loved the truth shall shine for ever and ever. Magna est Veritas et 
prcBvalebit. 



154 THE WESTERN STATIONS. 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 



By Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe. Eead March 26th, 1879. 



That Banna is Bewcastle, Camboglans Cambeck-Fort, Petriaua Old 
Carlisle, Aballava Papcastle, Congavata Moresby, Uxelodunum Elleu- 
borougli, and Tunnocelum Bowness, are identifications which have, 
for varying reasons, presented themselves to other minds. These may, 
judging from the words in the Itinerary — " a limite, id est a vaUo," 
and again " a vallo," applied to the stations far north of the actual 
barrier — fairly be deemed to be " per lineam valli." Continuous works 
do indeed reach to Moresby on the west, and to Tynemouth on the 
east, and it is interesting to obser^'C that the Lingones occur at both 
places. The words of Camden (placing in his margin, " The sea side 
fensed"), are: — "From hence [i.e. from Egremont, to which a road 
from Papcastle led] the shore, drawing itselfe backe little and little, 
and as it appeareth by the heapes of rubbish, it hath beene fortified 
all along by the Komans, wheresoever there was easie landing. For, 
it was the outmost bound of the Roman empire, and the Scots lay 
sorest upon this coast and infested it most, when, as it were with con- 
tinuall surges of warre, they flowed and flocked hither by heapes out 
of Ireland. And certaine it is that Moresby, a little village, where is 
a roade for ships, was one of these fortifications. For there are many 
monumentes of antiquity, as vaultes under the ground, great founda- 
tions ; many caves, which they use to tearme Picts'-Holes." Then, 
after mentioning " the carcasse of an ancient castle, called Papcastle," 
in which the celebrated font of Bridekirk was said to have been found, 
the topographer crosses to Workinton, and informs us that "from 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 155 

hence some thinke there was a wall made to defend the shore in con- 
venient places, for foure miles, or thereabout, by Stilico the potent 
commander in the Eoman state, what time as the Scots annoyed these 
coasts out of Ireland. For thus speaketh Britaine of herselfe, in 
Claudian : — 

" And me likewise, at hands (quoth she) to perish, through despight 
Of neighbour-nations, Stilico fensed against their miglit. 
What time the Scots all Ireland moved offensive armes to take." 

" There are also, as yet, such continued ruins and broken walles to 
be scene as farre as to Elne-Mouth." This notion may have elements 
of truth in it. That Stilicho, not necessarily during his own sojourn 
here, did something in the way of fortifying Britain is obvious, and 
his Avorks were not confined to the west coast. I take up a newer 
translation : — 

" When the Scot moved all Ireland to my doom 
And hostile oars lashed all my waves to foam, 
This is his work — tliat I no longer fear 
The Pict, nor tremble at the Scottish spear ; 
Nor watch the doubtful winds around my coast, 
Lest they should waft in sight the Saxon host. ' 

" The Book of Notices," which tells us " what legion binds the 
Saxon, which the Scot," shows how the south-east Saxon shore, and 
the Linea Valli (against the Picts, a non-maritime power, on the 
east, and against the Scots of Ireland, necessarily a naval power, on 
the west,) were guarded. Very little attention is paid to the rest of 
Britain. The Roman protectorate was dying. And now comes the 
question-: — Who were the Attacotti ? the nation thought worthy of 
being recorded as one of the four nations that extinguished that pro- 
tectorate or empire or whatever ^ve may like to call it, seeing from 
Ptolemy and the liistory of Boadieea that the natives were distinguish- 
able into districts. Had these Attacotti had anything to do with the 
making of what is now called the Vallum ? That Hadrian had, like 
Stilicho, something to do with what we call the Wall, seems to be clear 
from documentary evidence on parchment and on stone, but while one 
party thinks that the Vallnm was the earlier work, and that its northern 
rampart was a well laid-out road, the__other party naturally objects that 



156 THE WESTERN STATIONS. 

there are blocks of stone which unfit that rampart for the purpose of 
a road. Taking the ordinary idea that, for some " why or wherefore," 
it was thought to be judicious to do what Hadrian's successor, Anto- 
ninus Pius, thought it unnecessary to do against more northern tribes, 
more dangerous, one would think, than the acquired southern ones, 
how is it that the Vallum is left in such a strange state ? But, as to 
these Attacotti, doctors differ. Baxter places them in the south-west 
of England, Hughes in the present Scotland. Neither doctor attempts 
to identify them with Ptolemy's Attrebatii. The evidence about them 
is of the sparest description, and one would not like to give a decision 
on the construction of Ammianus's words under the year 364 : — " The 
Picts the Saxons also and the Scots and the Attacotts." I purposely 
use no punctuation. The Picts lived north of the Frith of Forth, the 
Saxons lived in Sles^^dck-Holstein, the Scots lived in Ireland. But 
where were the Attacotti living ? I quote the same author again under 
308 : — " The Picts in two nations divided Dicalidons and Vecturions 
and also the Attacotts a bellicose nation of men and the Scots," Gaul 
being disturbed by Franks and Saxons. I again avoid punctuation. 
Jerome, about 393, speaks of having, in his youth, in Gaul, seen the 
" Atticots, a British race," feed upon human flesh, and gives some 
details as to their particular joints, much reminding us of our Christ- 
mas beef. Shepherds and shepherdesses keeping kine and swine in 
the woods appear to have been their temporaiy prey, and, apparently, 
they resembled the Africans in their habits of cutting steaks without 
sacrificing life. This grave theologist proceeds to the matrimonial 
usages of the Scots and brings in Plato and Cato. Once more, under 
400, he mentions the rite of the Scots and Attacots and Plato. And 
he has an exceedingly interesting passage about the Alpine and Scot- 
tish dogs and Cerberus. 

Now this scarcity, if the NoUtia are complete, of Roman garrisons 
in England at the time of the compilation of these Notices, is most in- 
structive. Either the interior was entirely in the hands of the Attacots 
or some other enemies, or it was thoroughly rebellious, or it was not 
rebellious and required no guarding. The whole tone of the history, 
as it presents itself to the mind, is that the Romans, bad as they 
might be [see Gibbon], were not unwelcome emperors or protectors, 
and I adhere to the original ideas which I entertained on the appear- 



THE WESTERN STATIONS, 157 

ancc of the S'arvcy of the Roman Wall that the Vallum is considerably 
later than the murus or its earlier ditch, and to those of Eobert White 
that the murus would be built much after the manner of a Gothic 
cathedral, with broached stones at Ouseburn, and plain stones else- 
where, the design, useful or useless, having to be carried out. 

Leaving the Roman Wall, I return to the independent works in 
its neighbourhood. 

There are many delicacies and honesties about Horsley's "Britannia 
Eomana," especially near the close of it and of him. In introducing 
the independent works, he says : — " I have taken some notice of the 
out-buildings at Walwick-Chesters between the fort and the river. I 
might have added, that these buildings seem to have been continued 
near the river lower down than the fort. I have also said that the 
shorter military-way from Carvoran has terminated eastward at this 
station, I should rather have said only, that it came up to this sta- 
tion ; for I am now of opinion that it has been farther continued, 'till 
it reached Watling-Street." As to this final opinion there can be 
little doubt about its accuracy. Two camps had to be served on the 
way, and the Devil's Causeway, running from Berwick, crosses Deor 
Street or Watliiig Street at an angle, falls into Stanegate and provides 
access to the four " independent stations," Little Chesters and Carvoran 
in Northumberland, and Castlesteads and Watchcross in Cumberland. 
These, like Carlisle itself, all lie south of the works now called the 
WaU. 

Glannibanta and other stations, though kept up by the Romans in 
the deadly times of the Notitia for some reason, probably in connec- 
tion with the " linea valli," seem to constitute a distinct series, and it 
will be remembered that in earlier days Glanoventa abruptly com- 
mences Iter X. without any mention of the limes, limit, or learn. 

My humble task will be to attempt to justify the identifications 
mentioned at my commencement, and to compai'e the evidences in the 
hope of detecting Gabrosentum and Maia. 

I have, without regard to scale, roughly coloured an ordnance map 
of Cumberland, simply as to the succession of civitates, but, in dealing 
with the Rudge Cup and the Notitia, I thought that it might be 
desirable to delineate roughly the Roman roads, observed or traditional. 
Not having minute local knowledge, it would be absurd to illustrate 



158 THE WESTERN STATIONS, 

my subject by more than simple straight lines. The blue line 
represents the arrangement in the Notitia, the red one that on the 
Rudge Cup and the Chorographia of Ravennas. The dotted brown 
lines show the roads merely as to their general courses, not as to their 
details. From Banna on the way to Axelodunum, and from Ambo- 
glanna to Aballaba, the two routes to a considerable extent might 
have been identified. But for clearness I preferred to keep them as 
distinct as possible. The courses of the roads are, however, in con- 
nection with the main subject, of much interest, and I have ventured 
by a black line to indicate how to a certain extent the two systems 
may coincide. The two names conmion to these two systems are 
Axelodunum and Aballaba. The consideration of the various iters 
may well be deferred, but as Glannibanta and Alione of the Notitia 
are clearly identical with the Glanoventa and Alone of Iter X., I have 
further ventured to extend my blue line to those places, and to indi- 
cate the road from them to Bremetenracum or Ribchester. 

Come we now to Amboglanna, because one cannot help feeling 
that the range from its neighbour Banna to Maia is earher than that 
of the Notitia. We cannot reject the evidence of the Rudge Cup, 
whatever we may think of copies of writings.* The corroboration by 
the Rudge Cup of the value of the Chorographia of Ravennas with aU 
its corruptions is striking when the two evidences are seen side by 
side ; and the Chorographia, for many reasons, deserves the most care- 
ful dissection. Here is a little piece of it : — " Juliocenon, Gabrocentio, 
Alauna, Bribra, Maio, Olerica, Derventione, Ravonia Bresnetenaci 
Veteranorum." I have, and other people may well have, notions about 
the items of this passage. I cannot bring them into any reasonable 
order. Possibly, although not widely separated, they have none, and 
they must not disturb our present progress. 

Commencing with Amboglann^,, and taking the names on the Rudge 
Cup inversely, there have been discovered at that station now called 
Burdoswald, a stone commemorating the Bannian hunters and a piece 
of pottery reading reversely Banna. There being no pretence to 
justify an identification of Banna with Amboglanna, but considering 

* " May of Lambton (sayeth Surtees) does not occur elsewhere" than in Bishop 
Kellaw's grant of an approvement, meadow, made from the waste by " Maia de 
Lambton [Leam-town]. Of course, this strange companionship of names connected 
with Roman localities is accidental. 



THE WESTEEN STATIONS. 159 

the proximity of the two places, and that a road has been distinctly 
traced between them, we can have little hesitation in indentifying 
Bewcastle with Banna. Whether there was a direct road from it to 
Cambeck-Fort, or travellers had to avoid the hunters' forest by coming 
round by Amboglanna, is a question left to local observers. 

The next station, omitted by the Chorographia of Ravennas, pos- 
sibly from its insignificance, is Camboglans, and here one of the four 
independent stations, on the Cambeck, anciently Camboc, seems to 
have claims, seeing that it is on the right route, until the contrary 
shall be shown. The next is Uxelodum, probably approached by the 
ascertained road through Petriana, and manifestly the Uxeludianum 
of the Chorographia and the Axelodunum of the Notitia. The name 
evidently refers to water or waters and to a hill. From the numerous 
inscriptions by the First Cohort of the Spaniards there can be no 
doubt that Ellenborough is Axelodunum. The name, probably, is 
compound or pleonastic. Ax or Ux is intelligible enough. El may well 
be the Elne, and as to Dunum we may take the site. 

Harking back from the sea-coast, we come to Aballaba, which is 
placed at Papcastle on the authority of an inscription mentioning the 
Aballavensian Frisons ; some Vinovian ones identifying Vinovium with 
Binchester, had other proof of identity been wanting. It is noteworthy 
that a Roman road from Aballaba to Egremont passes by Frisington. 

We now have to seek for Maia south of Papcastle, and in doing so 
we arrive at a remarkable fortress, which "from its situation appears 
evidently to have been made with a view of guarding one of the prin- 
cipal passes from the west coast into the inland country" (Bishop of 
Cloyne), and probably to have been connected with an occupation of 
the mouth of the Esk which rises near it. " Two rivers," says Holland's 
"Camden" of 1609 (Camden dying in 1623), "very commodiously 
enclose within them Ravenglass, a station or roade for ships, where 
also, as I have learned, were to bee scene, Roman inscriptions : some 
will have it called in old-time Aven-glasse, as one would say, the blew 
river, and they talke much of King Fueling, that heere had his court 
and roiall palace. One of these rivers named Eske springeth up at 
the foote of Hard-knot (nere Wrinose in the margin), an high steepe 
mountaine, in the top whereof were discovered of late huge stones and 
foundations of a castle not without great wonder, considering it is so 



160 THE WESTERN STATIONS. 

steepe and upright, that one can hardly ascend up to it." Hodgson 
observes that " Castle seems to have been the designation of a station 
in Cumberland — Chesters in Northumberland" (ii. iii., 222). Holland 
was not a Cumbrian, but the phrase castU for a camp occurs in Halli- 
well's " Dictionary of Archaic Words," and Holland was not unaware 
of its continuance in Cumberland, having elsewhere to speak of " the 
carcasse of an ancient castle, called Papcastle, which by a number of 
monuments laieth claime to bee a Romaine antiquity." So he uses 
the word for both ancient and modern bailies, as did his master Cam- 
den the word castrum. Speed, in the first edition of his maps, notes 
the Roman character of this castle, under Cumberland, in a passage 
worth quoting r — "Many memorable antiquities remaine and have 
beene found in this countie : for it being the confines of the Romans' 
possessions, was continually secured by their ganisons, where remaine 
at this day parts of that admirable wall built by Severus : also another 
fortification from Workinton to Elns-mouth, upon the sea-shoare 
toward Ireland, by Stilico raised when under Theodosius he suppressed 
the rage of the Picts and Irish, and freed the seas of the Saxon 
pyrats. Upon Hardknot Hill, Moresby, Old Carleil, Papcastle, along 
the Wall, and in many other places, their mines remaine, with altars, 
and inscriptions of their captaines and colonies, whereof many have 
beene found, and more as yet lie hid." Bishop Gibson can have had 
no personal knowledge of the place as he surmised that the stones were 
" possibly the ruins of some church or chapel," built on a mountain, as 
in Denmark, and as both nearer Heaven and more conspicuous. All 
doubt, if any were justifiable, as to the Roman nature of the castle on 
Hardknot Hill, is unavailing against the clear evidences in Hutchin- 
son's " History of Cumberland." Nicholson and Bum, in their other- 
wise excellent book, do not seem to mention it. But, in 1791 or 1792, 
E. L. Irton, Esq., and Mr. H, Serjeant had it excavated and surveyed, 
and the valuable results of their labours, showing a full-sized Roman 
station, "with a great many fragments of brick, apparently Roman, 
which must necessarily have been brought from a great distance," will 
be found in Hutchinson's History, i., 569, with the information that 
at the outside of the eastern gate there appeared to be preserved a 
space of about "two acres," used perhaps for a parade and mihtary 
exercise. On the north of this plot was an artificial bank of stones. 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 161 

"having a regular slope from the summit," near which, on the highest 
ground, were the remains of a round tower. From some works 
adjoining this, the road " is continued along the edge of the hill to the 
pass, where it joins the highest part of the present road to Kendal, 
from which road this fort, on the west side of Hardknot Hill, then 
known to the country people as Hardknot Castle, was about 120 yards 
to the left." The importance of this commencement of the gToup of 
stations receives corroboration from " the broken battle-axes of flint, 
arrow-heads, and coins of diflFerent people — many of them Roman, and 
some Saxon," found at Walls Castle, near Ravenglass. 

In this singular and skilfully-formed station, which was "as nearly 
square as the ground would admit," the irregularity of the position of 
the four gateways (all of which were flanked by two turrets) being 
owing to the ground also, the walls were of " the common fell stone," 
except the corners (in which were tuiTets) and the arching of the 
gateways, both of which items were of freestone. There is no freestone 
nearer than Gosforth, In 1792, all the corners had been robbed of 
their material for neighbouring buildings, and when Lysons visited 
the remains in 1813, "no part of the walls was to be seen standing; 
the stones having been thrown down on both sides formed a high 
ridge, which, in a spot more favourable to vegetation, would have long 
since been covered with turf There did not appear to have been any 
mortar used in the walls." 

The "esplanade at the distance of 150 yards, formed with much 
trouble, for the exercise or review of troops," as the Bishop of Cloyne 
puts it, is very interesting in connection with the sequence of fortresses 
under our consideration ; for Lysons has this note : — " A broad pave- 
ment of flat stones, intended probably for the same purpose, was found 
a little out of the gate at Cambeck Fort, on the "Wall [Camboglans], 
when that station was destroyed in 1791." 

We now may consider the Noiitia series. Leaving the Wall at 
Amboglanna, Banna and Camboglans being practically useless and 
unnoticed, we soon meet with an Ala Petriana in a quarry nigh 
Lanercost, which valuable cavalry, under the same name, has occurred 
at Old Penrith, and with the honourable addition of Augusta at 
Carlisle, both places being on the Petter-rill. They were clearly tlw 
wing of the west at the time of the Noiitia, and instead of taking the 



162 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 



name of their city, like the Dietenses, or Aballavensian Frisons, or the 
Vinovian Frisons, seem to have been the Petrian wing at the Petrian 
city to which they had given name. At this, their final resting place 
while in Cumberland, they have left numerous inscriptions, omitting 
the name by which they were known on out-service, and while at home 
in Petriana content with their dignified designations relating to the 
generic Augustus, and some particular Augustus. Old Carlisle appears 
to have been particularly suitable to a movable body such as theirs 
was. Holland, as to it, makes his author to read thus: — "Beneath 
this abbey [Holme Cultram] the brook called Wav&r runneth into the 
said arme of the sea, which brook taketh into it the riveret Wiza, at 
the head whereof lie the very bones and pitifull reliques of an ancient 
citie. The neighbours call it at this day Old Carlisle. • • • The 
situation to discover and descry afar off is passing fit and commodious, 
for, seated it is upon the top of a good high hill, from whence a man 
may easily take a full view of all the country round about. Howbeit, 
most certaine it is, that the wing of horsemen, which for their valour 
was named Augusta, and Augusta Gordiana kept resience here." I 
think that I should like to put upon further record that Camden, in 
this district, was indebted for copies of Roman inscriptions to " Oswald 
Dikes, a learned minister of God's word." Some people may blame 
Oswald Dikes, incumbent of "Wensley, for desiring to be buried under 
the magnificent brass of Master Simon of Wensley, rector of Wensley. 
Oswald Dikes's modest memorial on the same stone does not offend me. 

From Petriana the Notitia sequence proceeds to Aballava, hodie 
Papcastle as aforesaid, and then goes to Congavata, hodie Moresby, 
where the second cohort of the Lingones have, in accordance with 
the Notitia, left their mark. Then the course turns along the coast, for 
we come to Axelodunum (EUenborough) again. And we must again 
follow our noses to arrive at Tunnocelum, taking Gabrosentum on 
our way. 

There is a general notion, and perhaps it is rightly founded, that 
while the east coast is gradually sinking, at a rate more slowly possibly 
than that at which the ancient animal, the chalk producer, in fossil or 
in living times, performed and is performing his inevitable work, the 
west coast is rising. That the east coast has been sinking is obvious 
to anybody who knows the history of the destroyed churches and 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 168 

villages of Yorkshire, who seeks in vaiu for the capacious harbour of 
the Wear, or is accustomed to the submerged forest ranging from 
Seaton to Whitburn at least. Whether the west coast is really rising 
may admit of doubt. Before approaching Tunnocelum (Bowness) we, 
having to find Gabrosentum on our way, will refer to a perplexing 
page of Holland : — " The inhabitants at this day call it Bulnesse : and 
as small a village as it is, yet hath it a pile, and in token of the 
antiquity thereof, besides the tracts of streetes, ruinous walles ; and 
an haven now stopped up with mud ; there led a paved high way from 
hence along the sea-shore, as far as to Elen-Borough, if we may relie 
upon report of the by-dwellers. Beyond this a mile (as is to bee scene 
by the foundations at a nepe tide) beganne that Wall, the most 
renowned workes of the Eomans, which was the bound in times past of 
the Roman province ; raised of purpose to seclude and keepe out the 
barbarous nations, that in this tract, were evermore larking and haying 
(as an ancient writer saith) alout the Roman empire . I mer vailed 
at first, why they built here so great fortifications, considering that 
for eight miles or thereabout there lieth opposite a very great frith 
and arme of the sea : but now I understand, that at every ebbe the 
water is so low, that the borderers and beast-stealers may easily wade 
over. That the forme of these shores hath beene changed, it doth 
evidently appeare by the tree-rotes covered over with sand a good way 
off from the shore, which oftentimes, at a low ebbe, are discovered 
with the windes. I know not whether I may relate here, which the 
inhabitants reported, concerning trees without boughes, under the 
gTound, oftentimes found out here in the mosses, by the direction of 
deaw in the summer : for, they have observed, that the deaw never 
standeth on that ground under which they lie." 

If this were the plight of Bowness, we cannot feel surprise at 
Gabrosentum lying under the waves and sands of the Irish Sea. As 
Hardknot Castle had to be protected by Eavengiass, Papcastle by 
Moresby and Ellenborough, Carlisle by Bowness, so would Old Carlisle 
have to be. The nature of its own garrison, a flying body of cavalry, 
never very persistently within its walls, would necessitate particular 
attention to the custody of its stores, and the provision of them 
against the Scots of Ireland. We need, therefore, feel no surprise at 
the mouth of its river being well guarded, and emerging from the dim 



164 THE WESTERN STATIONS. 

ages as a port coutinuing to be of consequence, and used for purposes 
resembling those of its Roman days. Save a solitary inscribed stone 
figured in the "Lapidarium," 

"Not even the ruins of her pomp remain; 
Not even the dust they sank in ; by the breath 
Of the Omnipotent, offended, hurled 
Down to the bottom of the stormy deep." 

Even the later " chappel of the Grune," which stood aloof from 
the new Skinbumess as the church stands aloof from the modem 
Newbiggin, has disappeared. The dismal story of the last days of 
Gabrosentum may be best told in the simple words of Nicholson and 
Bum: — "In the year 1301, Bishop Halton being informed that the 
inhabitants of the village or town near the port in Skinburnese were 
at a great distance from all manner of divine service, grants a power 
to the abbot and convent of Holme Cultram to erect a church there. 
The town of Skrubumese was at this time not only privileged with a 
market, but seems also to have been the chief place for the king's 
magazines in these parts for supplying the armies then employed 
against the Scots. But the case was most miserably altered very soon 
after. For, in 1 305, we find it thus mentioned in the parliament 
records : 'at the petition of the abbot requesting that whereas he had 
paid a fine of 100 marks to the King for a fair and market to be had 
in Skinburnese, and now that town together with the loay hading to it 
is carried away by the sea, the King would grant that he may have 
such fair and market at his town of Kirkby Johan instead of the other 
place aforesaid, and that his charter upon this may be renewed ; it is 
answered, Let the first charter be annulled, and then let him have a 
like charter in the place as he desireth.' " 

And yet, as, past the forgotten Lavatris, the Laver floweth still, 
by its old name, so past the sunken city of Gabrosentum the ancient 
stream which conferred that appellation preserves its own to the 
present day. It seems to have been generally assumed by antiquarians 
that the first part of the name refers to the caprine species, and seeing 
that the same word is repeatedly found in application to rivers in the 
forms of "Waver, Babren, "Wever, Bever, and Wiver, Lloyd has to 
explain the circumstance in this fashion : — "Some rivers are metaphor- 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 165 

ically denominated from the nature of their cm*rent, as Gavr or Goat 
from its frequent leaping, in time of flood, over a great number of 
large stones and precipices, down from the Glyder to the Lhan-Beris 
in Carnarvonshire." If this is the case with the Cumbrian Waver, 
the idea was a likely one to have arisen in the minds of those who 
sojourned upon the river .which flows from that forest the goats 
whereof attracted Drayton's attention. Our word Waver, having a 
Saxon origin, can hardly be brought to bear, notwithstanding the 
sharp turns of this Waver, and those of the Wiver "then the which," 
Harrison "reade of no river in England that fetcheth more or halfe 
so many windlesses and crincklinges." The names of natural objects, 
however, deserve to be studied, without regard to comparatively 
modern forms of languages. Old Carlisle itself is upon the Wiza 
(Ouse ?), which flows into the Waver, a name suflficiently archaic to 
have produced the designation of a township upon it, Waverton. 

We thus arrive at Bowness, an exceptional station in the West, as 
Tunnocelum, by a process different from that of Horsley. At this par- 
ticular point, the Notitia, before proceeding to Iter X. at Glannibanta, 
rests, and the Eden, her "sweet lovely self, a river so complete," was 
considered to end : — 

" That mighty Roman fort, which of the Picts we call. 
But by them near those times was styled Severus' wall, 
Of that great emperor named, which first that work began. 
Betwixt the Irish-sea and German-ocean, 
Doth cut me in his course near Carlile, and doth end 
At Bouluesse, where myself I on the ocean spend." 

Drayton also chooses to end his wonderful "Polyolbion" at Solway 
Frith. "Under this Burgh [on the Sands], within the very frith 
(^says Holland's ' Camden') where the salt water ebbeth and floweth, 
the Enghsh and Scotish, by report of the inhabitants, fought with 
their fleetes at full sea, and also with their horsemen and footemen at 
the ebbe • • • This arme of the sea both nations call Solway-Frith, 
of Solway, a towne in Scotland, standing upon it. But Ptolomee more 
truely tearmeth it Ifuna. For Eden, that notable river, which wan- 
dereth through Westmorland and the inner partes of this shire, 
powreth forth into it a mighty masse of water, having not yet forgotten 
what a doe it had to passe away, strugliug and wrestling as it did, 

V 



166 



THE WESTERN STATIONS. 



among the carcasses of freebutters, lying dead in it on heapes, in the 
yeare of salvation 1216, when it swallowed them up loden with booties 
out of England, and so buried that rable of robbers under his waves." 
The Eden in Fife, it will be remembered, is considered by Horsley to 
be, clearly, Ptolemy's Tinna. As to the latter part of Tunnocelum, 
there may fairly be a diversity of opinion. The junction of the Eden 
and the ^o^way cannot be overlooked, on the other hand while this 
ocelum is represented by Boww^ss, Ptolemy's promontory of ocellum is 
represented by Holder;iess. As you are aware, I only use etymology as 
secondary or corroborative evidence of what may, irrespectively of it, 
be probable, and I offer no opinion on the questions arising when we 
have arrived at Tunnocelum. 



*#* " From hence the shore, shooting ont, bnncheth foorth as farre as to the 
Promontorie Nesse." (Holland's "Camden," 451). 



Sea Level 



SECTION FROM HEDDON on t^ 




SarvtorUal/ Scale 2rrdles-io conlnch/. 
TerUcal » ZOOQ-ft'toanlnciv. 



GEOLOGICAL PLAN , Shewing lie Outcrops of liie CoaBe; 






u 







n 



WALL TO TYNEMOUTH 



^Vallseiii 



Urcy Main 



TYNEMOUTH 



_ fforfclj. Sea 




«"^» "*'" 




I oj Seams near ike Eirei' Tyne . 



Scale^. Zrrales iu an i?wk. 




^ ^ 3/^ 



%. 



H 



X 



-A 



0- 



+ 



)^\ \ J^orik 



WallseB-cL 



SMelds 




arrow 



Monktou 



^ 



^ 



East 



West Boldoji^'^XJi 










ie. crvlyne.. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL OX THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 167 



AN ACCOUNT OF SOME OF THE EARLIEST RECOEDS 
CONNECTED WITH THE WORKING OF COAL ON 
THE BANKS OF THE RIVER TYNE. 



By Robert L. Galloway. 



Though a considerable amount of attention was given to the working 
of metalliferous ores in England during the twelfth centwy, the 
records of this period seem altogether silent regarding mineral fuel. 
Tin was being worked in Cornwall and Devon, iron notably in the 
Forest of Dean, lead in Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Cumberland, North- 
umberland, and Durham, and probably also in Somersetshire and 
Shropshire ; but there is no mention of the working of pit-coal for 
more than a century and a half after the Norman Conquest, during 
the period when the severe Forest Laws were in force. Under the 
Feudal system aU the mines in the kingdom appear to have been con- 
sidered to be the property of the Crown, and the most ancient mining 
districts, viz., the tin district of Cornwall and Devon, the iron district 
of the Forest of Dean, and a large portion of the lead district of 
Derbyshire, foi-med part of the demesne lands of the King. In each 
of these districts bodies of miners existed, who worked the mines not 
by virtue of any charter, but by immemorial custom, and who were 
regulated by laws and usages peculiar to themselves, and in some 
respects at variance with the common laws of the realm, the origin of 
which is lost in remote antiquity. 

During the twelfth century, however, we have no mention of the 
appropriation of pit-coal, nor any record of coal-mines being granted 
by charter, nor do they figure as a source of revenue in any of the 
accounts of this period. Grants of wood and peats for fuel, on the 
other hand, frequently occur. 



168 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

Perhaps we cjannot have a better illustration of the sources of the 
fuel supply of this time, than is to be found in the charter of Bishop 
Pudsey to the burgesses of Gateshead-on-Tyne, in the year 1164, 
which contains passages translated as follows : — " We have granted, 
and by the present charter have confirmed, to our burgesses of Gates- 
head, plenary liberty in forestage, rendering [each] in the half-year, 
that is from Pentecost to the Feast of Saint Martin, for every cart 
which shall go to the wood twopence, and for a horse twopence, and 
for a man carrying one penny, for all things which shall be necessary 
for his own use, save those which are prohibited. Neither shall it be 
lawful for any forester, within the bounds which have been appointed 
between our forest and the borough, to lay hand upon a burgess, or 
upon any one dwelling within the borough, or upon his cart or beasts 
of burden, for the purpose of hindering him, whether he have fire- 
wood or timber or any other thing. It shall be lawful 

to the said burgesses to have grass or rushes, and ferns and Kng, for 
their own use, wherever they are wont to have them ; but so that they 
sell none thereof. And if a burgess who shall dig turves for his own 
fire, and not have a cart of his own, shall bring several carts to carry 
the turves, he may be quit on his yielding, in respect of forestage, two- 
pence for all the carts. And it shall be lawful for any burgess to give 
of his woods to whomsoever he shall please, dwelling on this side of 
the Tyne, without intent to fraud ; but to sell to no one without the 
leave of the forester."^ 

Instances of grants of fuel might be multiplied, from charters to 
towns and religious houses during the twelfth century, but, so far as 
the writer is aware, without any allusion pointing to the use of mineral 
fuel being met with. 

Although the ores of gold, silver, tin, copper, and argentiferous 
lead, at the period under consideration, and for several centuries after, 
were regarded as belonging to the Crown, and mines of these metals 
found in the lands of subjects were liable to be appropriated by the 
Sovereign or granted by charter to be worked by others, there appears 
to be no instance until a later period of any claim being made on this 

' " Early Palatine Charters to the Burgesses of Gateshead." Pamphlet printed 
at Gateshead in 1853. Text of charter taken from appendix to " Boldon Buke ;" 
Surtees Society, Vol. 25. The pamphlet appears to be from the pen of Mr. 
Brockett. 



EAELY WOEKING OF COAL ON THE B\NKS OF THE TYNE. 169 

account to mines of iron ;i and at no time, in this country, has the 
right of subjects to work coal, as such, found in their own lands, been 
called into question. The exemption of these minerals from the claims 
of the Crown, may be explained by the circumstance that at the time 
when the royal prerogative in minerals was most firmly established, 
they performed a comparatively unimportant part in the economy of 
the kingdom, and might be regarded as beneath notice. 

After the war between King John and the barons, which resulted 
in this monarch being forced to sign the Magna Charta, in the year 
1215, a greatly increased security was given to subjects in the posses- 
sion of their lands and rights. The confirmation of this Charter by 
Henry III., and the granting of the Forest Charter soon after (a.d. 
1217), set the freemen of the kingdom on a new and much improved 
footing. 

In connection with the subject under consideration, chapter xii. 
of the Forest Charter is worthy of note. It is translated as follows: — 
" Every freeman, for the future, may, without danger, erect a mill in 
his own wood or upon his own land which he hath in the forest; or 
make a warren, or pond, or marie pit, or ditch, or turn it into arable 
land, so that it be not to the detriment of the neighbours.'"-^ In refer- 
ence to the concession of the liberty to make marie pits, it is to be 
remarked that the digging of pits for marie in the neighbourhood of 
forests, in ground not belonging to the King, was at one period 
frequently prosecuted in the Forest Courts, and punished with heavy 
fines, on account of the danger and inconvenience it occasioned to the 
hunters.^ 

The circumstance that we have no mention of the working of 
mineral coal, during the period preceding this amendment of the Forest 
Laws, would seem to point to the conclusion that it was the prohibi- 
tion against the breaking of ground involved in digging for coal, which 

' It would appear from pleadings in "Quo Waranto," in the early part of the 
reign of Edward I., that the right to work iron and also lead was tlien regarded as 
among "jura regalia," only to be exercised in virtue of a specific grant from the 
Crown (see " Placita de Quo Waranto," Com. Ebor. 7, 8, 9, Edward I., printed vol., 
p. 211). We find the same King also authorising the application of his treasure 
to the working of neicly -discovered mines of iron and lead, as well as of silver and 
copper, in Ireland, in the seventeenth year of his reign. See the case of " Vice 
against Thomas," by Edward Smirke, M.A. London, 1843. Appendix, p. 116. 

"^ The exercise of the same rights in all other ground in the kingdom is implied 
a fortiori. 

^ An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta, etc., by Richard Thompson. 
London, 1829. p. 351. 



170 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

operated as the principal check to its employmeut.i At all events, 
soon after the confirmation of the Forest Charter in the year 1224, we 
have evidence of the freemen of the realm, without any further con- 
cession on the part of the Crown, proceeding to treat the mineral coal 
found within their lands as absolutely their own property. In the 
North of England, as in Scotland at a somewhat earlier date, it appears 
first to have received attention on or near the sea-shore, which fact 
seems the most probable origin of the name sea-coal, by which this 
mineral was so long and so widely known, in contradistinction to coal 
proper, or, as it is now termed, charcoal. The variations which its 
Latm name has undergone point to the same conclusion, it being first 
designated " carbo maris," at a later period, "carbo marinus," and still 
later, when becoming an article of considerable traffic over sea, " carbo 
maritimus."^ 

The earliest mention of sea-coal, which has come under the notice 
of the writer, occurs about the year 1236, in a charter from Adam de 
Camhous (Camboise) to the monks of Newminster, in Northumberland. 
In this charter sea-coal is associated with sea-weed. The translation of 
the passage is as follows : — " And I have given and conceded to the 
same monks that they may take weed of the sea for fertilizing the 
same land, and a way for freely leading it upon the aforesaid lands, 
and for taking coal of the sea where it may have been found, from 
the aforesaid bounds as far as Blyth and towards the sea as much as 
belongs to the aforesaid lands."^ 

' The claim on the part of the vassals of the See of Durham of the right to 
work coal, which will be referred to hereafter, appears to be based upon the above 
chapter of the Forest Charter. 

^ Modern writers have not hesitated to assert that coal derived this name from 
being brought to London over sea, but a different opinion was advocated in earlier 
times. Leland remarks on this subject as follows: — " The vaynes of the se coles 
lye sometyme open apon clives of the se, as round about Coket Island and other 
shores, and they as some will be properly cauUyd se coale," etc. Itin., Vol. VIII., 
part 2, p. 19. This was the opinion also held by Sir John Pettus, who, in his 
" Essays on Words Metallick," divides the different sorts of coal into : — Wood-coal, 
chiefly used for metals ; Sea-coal (dig'd out of coal mines near the sea at Tinmuth, 
by Newcastle) ; and Pit-coal (in mines remote from the sea), near Coventry in 
Warwickshire, and in Staffordshire and Shropshire, &c., but these are not useful to 
metals. " Fleta Minor," London, 1686. 

' " Et dedi et concessi eisdem monachis ut capiant algam maris ad impinguen- 
dam eandem terram, et viam ad libere ducendum eam super prsedictas terras, et ad 
carbonem maris capiendum ubi inventus f uerit a prsedictis terminis usque Blithe 
et versus mare quantum ad priedictas terras pertinet," &c.^ — The Newminster 
Chartularv, published by the Surtees Society, Vol. 66, p. 55. There is no date 
attached to this charter, but it is immediately followed by a covenant between 
Newminster and Adam, Alan, and Richard de Camhus, dated a.d. 1236. 

In this case the sea-weed and sea-coal appear to have been alike regarded as 
wreccum maris. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 171 

The purpose for which the sea-coal was intended is not specified in 
the above charter, but a few years later (about a.d. 1240) the same 
monks obtained another grant of sea coals fi'om Nicholas de Ake- 
ton, for the forge in their grange of Stretton. The licence to get 
sea coals forms the special subject of this charter, which is couched 
in the following terms : — " Know ye that I have given, conceded, and 
by this present charter have confirmed to God, and the Blessed Mary 
of the Abbey, and the monks of Newminster and their successors, in 
unrestricted, unconditional, and perpetual alms, the power of approp- 
riating coals of the sea in my wood of Middlewood, wherever they shall 
have been found, for the forge of their grange of Stretton, without 
hindrance from me, or my heirs or assigns, or my men" &c.^ 

The smiths in various countries have shown a predilection for mineral 
fuel, and have used it for the purposes of their craft in preference to 
charcoal, whenever a supply of it of a suitable kind was to be had, at a 
period when this peculiar fuel was employed for few purposes and was 
regarded with prejudice by the bulk of the community — when, indeed, 
the construction of the fireplaces in common houses precluded the use 
of it for domestic purposes.^ 

That sea-coal was now beginning to receive attention, and to be 
sought after and dug up in different parts of England, is evidenced by 
its being named as one of the subjects to be enquired into by a com- 
mission appointed in the year 1245, to investigate into encroachments 
upon the Forest of the King since the commencement of the reign of 
Henry III. The inquisitions were conducted with great rigour, and 
occasioned the ruin of many.^ The digging of pits or trenches for 
sea-coal, and the taking of payment on account of the same and for 
toll, are mentioned under head 14 as follows : — " Let inquiry also be 
made touching coal of the sea found within the Forest, and who have 
taken payment for diggings made on account of that coal, and for toll."^ 

' " Potestatem accipiendi carbones maris in bosco meo de Midilwode, ubicumque 
fuerint inventse, ad forgiam grangias sua3 de Stretton," &c. — Ibid. p. 201. 

^ Fossil coal was used by tbe smiths of ancient Greece, as we learn from Theo- 
phrastus. Its use appears to have been confined to tliem. The legend ascribes the 
discovery of coal in Belgium to a pilgrim, who pointed it out to a smith. Schook 
on Turves, p. 223. Brand's " History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne," Vol. II., p. 252. 

' Matthew Paris. " Historia Major " ed. London, 1640. p. 661. 

** " Inquiratur etiam de carbone maris invento infra Forestam, et qui mercedem 
ceperint pro fossatis faciendis de carbone illo, et pro cheininagio." — Ibid, in 
Additamenta, " Inquisitiones de forisfacturis diversis super Foresta Domini Regis." 
The Forest Charter contains regulations as to the taking of cheminage or toll by 
foresters for timber, bark, and charcoal, but no provision as to sea-coal. [Chap, xiv.] 



172 EARLY WORKIJsG OF COAL OX THE BANKS OF THE TYNB. 

Close upon these early references to sea-coal we find it making its 
appearance in the great mart of London as an article of merchandise. 
As early as 1253 it had given a name to a lane in a suburb of the 
metropolis, viz., " Secole Lane," mentioned in a charter of this date.i 
This lane, which was situated in Farringdon Ward Without, appears 
to have been also called " Lime-burners' Lane,"^ a fact which is 
significant, as indicative of the purpose to which the sea-coal was 
doubtless applied, the burning of lime being one of the few uses to 
which mineral coal was put when it began to come into application. 

In a roll of expenses for works to the king's palace at Westminster 
[a.d. 1258-9], including among other things the taking down and re- 
building a chimney of the King's chamber,^ and binding and strength- 
ening the shaft of the chimney outside with iron, we have an account of 
two purchases of sea-coal for the forging of the iron work. The in- 
significant quantities bought points to the incipient state of the trade 
at this time. They were as follows : — 

(3rd payment.) ..." and for one hundred weight and a half 
of wrought iron, bought at London, for the use of the chimney afore- 
said, 25s. ; and for three quarters of sea-coal to forge the iron for the 
aforesaid chimney, with the carriage and freight by water [from 
London], 3s. 6d." 

(17th payment.) ..." and for three hundred weight of iron, 
bought at London, with the carriage and passage of the iron work for 
the use of the king's chimney, 50s. — price of the hundred weight, 
16s. 6d. ; and for ten quarters of sea coals, for forging the aforesaid 
iron work, 10s."* 

' Carta} Antiquae (Chancery). L. No. 20 (in dorso). The text of this charter 
is given below. Can it be inferred that from it that a traffic in sea-coal formed a 
connecting link between this lane and Plessey in Northumberland ? 

" Henricus dei gratia Rex Anglie, etc. Omnibus ad quos presentes littere per- 
venerint salutem. Sciatis quod dedimus et concessimus pro nobis et heredibus 
nostris Dilecto et fideli nostro Petro de Ryvall' totum jus et clamium quod habui- 
mus vel habere potuimus in domibus que fuerunt quondam Willielmi de Plessetis 

clerici in Secole Ian' extra Neugat' in suburbio London' Teste me ipso 

apud Wyndlesor' undecimo die Junii anno regni nostri tricesimo septimo." 

« The Survey of London (Stow's). Ed. 1618, p. 705. 

^ In the year 1251, Edward of Westminster was commanded, among other 
things, that the low chamber in the King's garden should be painted, " and that 
in the same chamber a chimney should be made." (History of the Ancient Palace, 
etc., at Westminster, by Brayley and Britton. 1836. p. 59.) From a " House- 
hold Roll " for a subsequent year, however [a.d. 1259-60], it is evident that wood 
"billets" was the fuel used by the King. (See Issues of the Exchequer, Henry III. 
to Henry VI., by F. Devon, p. 74.) 

* Issues of the Exchequer, Henry III. to Henry VI., by F. Devon. London, 
1837. pp. 48, 74 



EARLY WORKING OF COAF^ ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 173 

From " The Customs of Billyngesgate," in the time of Henry III., 
we learn that one of the duties leviable there was : — " For two 
quarters of sea coal, measured by the king's quarter, one farthing."^ 

Before leaving the reign of Henry III. it may be remarked that 
no reference has been made to the licences, said by Gardner^ to have 
been granted by this king to the good men of Newcastle, to dig coals 
in the common soil of the town, in certain places without the tvalls. 
It seems beyond doubt that the men of Newcastle traded in pit-coal 
during the thirteenth century, a fact which not improbably was the 
cause of the licences being assigned to this reign. The supposition 
that the town had become enclosed by the walls referred to, so early as 
the date assigned by Gardner to the first of these licences [a.d. 1238]^ 
seems opposed to the testimony of history, but, apart from this, the 
evidences that the grants in question belong to the reign of Edward 
III. can be shown to be of the most incontrovertible character, and 
will be adduced hereafter. 

The earliest direct notice regarding the coal trade on the Tyne, 
which has come under the observation of the writer, occurs in the 
return irom an inquisition held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in the ninth 
year of the reign of Edward I. [a.d. 1281], by order of the King, to 
investigate into certain trespasses and concealments on the part 
of the bailiffs and coroners of the town. From this it appears 
that between this date and the year 1213, when King John had 
gi^'en the toMoi into the hands of the burgesses, at a fee-farm rent 
of £100 per annum, a new industry in coals had sprung up, which 
was a source of considerable profit to the town. The passage in 
reference to this subject is translated as follows : — " Also in regard 
to its being stated that the town of Newcastle would be worth two 
hundred pounds jcer annum if it were in the hand of the lord the King: 
They say that the lord King John, the uncle of the present King, 
leased the town of Newcastle to the burgesses at fee-farm for an hun- 
dred pounds, to be paid annually to the lord the King at his exchequer 
of "Westminster for ever, which [town] at that time was not worth an 
hundi'ed pounds, but now it is so improved by coals, that at times it is 

' Liber Albus, translated by H. T. Riley. M.A. I;ondon, 1861, p. 208. 
' " England's Grievance discovered in relation to the Coal Trade.'' first pub- 
lished in the year 1655. 

^ The first day of December, in the thi-ee and twentieth year of his reign. 

W 



174 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

worth two hundred pounds and at other times less ; as often as coals 
fell short, by much it would not be worth two hundred pounds."^ 

It is remarkable that the simple word "coals " (carbones) is employed 
in this passage. It is also the term subsequently used in the grants 
made to the town by Edward III. This may have arisen from 
the circumstance of the mineral having already become such a common 
article of merchandise at Newcastle-on-Tyne, Elsewhere, both in 
England and Scotland, mineral coal appears to have been usually 
distinguished by the name of sea-coal at this period. 

Before the close of the thirteenth century, we find the Prior and 
Convent of Tynemouth turning to account the coal within their ex- 
tensive property. They were owners of a large portion of the lands 
bordering on the north bank of the Eiver Tyne. In the year 1292 
we have an account of the various sources of the revenue derived 
from their lands,^ from which it appears that collieries had then 
been opened out in the manors of Tynemouth and Wylam. For the 
former an entry occm's — " De carbonariis^ annuatim communiter 
estim' 61s. 3d. ;" and for the latter — " De bracina et carbonar' ibidem 
20s." 

Contemporaneously with these notices of the working of coal we 
have further mention of purchases of it at various places in the eastern 
counties. The following are the earliest instances given by J. E. T. 
Eogers, in his " History of Agriculture and Prices in England " : — ^ 

SEA-COAL GENERALLY SOLD BY THE QUARTER.* 

Dover 



s. d. 
4 @ 9 


1279 


4 „ 1 


1281 


1 „ 1 ... 


1284 



* " Item ad hoc quod dictum est quod villa Novi Castri valeret per annum 
ducentas libras si esset in manu domini Regis — Dicunt quod dominus Rex Johannes 
avunculus Regis nunc dimisit ad feodi firmam burgensibus Novi Castri villam illam 
pro centum libris annuatim solvendis' domino Regi ad scaccarium suum West- 
monasterii inperpetuum que tunc non valebat centum libras sed nunc est ita 
aproiata per carbones quod aliquando valet ducentas libras et aliquando minus 
toties carbones defecerint de multo non valeret ducentas libras." — Inquisitions 
{Post Mortem, etc.) Chancery. 9 Edward the First, No. 85, 

* Extract from Tynemouth Chartulary, given by Brand in Appendix to 
Vol. II., p. 591. 

* Carhonaria, originally a place where wood was converted into charcoal, at this 
period was also applied to coal-pits, which is without doubt the meaning attached 
to it in this case. See the same word again applied to collieries in subsequent 
extracts from this chartulary. 

* Vcl. I., p. 422, and Vol. II., p. 333. Oxford, 1866. 

* In Scotland, however, where coal appears to have come earlier and more 



19 „ 


8. d. 
1 


18 „ 


9 


16 „ 


11 


6 „ 


1 


5 „ 


1 4 


9i „ 


1 4 


8 „ 


1 4 



EARLY WOEKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. ] 75 

B. d. 
Waleton 19 „ 1 1291 

Weston 18 „ 9 1292 

1293 

1294 

1295 

1296 

1297 

In the taxing bill of Colchester, " sea-coal dealers" are mentioned, 
at the close of the thirteenth century.^ 

The writer is not aware of any certain reference to the working of 
coal in the Bishopric of Durham previous to the beginning of the four- 
teenth century.^ In the latter half of the episcopacy of Anthony Beck 
(who was Bishop of Durham fi-om 1283-1311) we find it receiving 
attention. The right to work the coal was a matter of dispute between 
the bishop and his vassals, and the latter referred their case to the 
king in the year 1302. The document which treats of this subject, 
among other things, is entitled, " Petition to the King of the Men 
of the Franchise of Durham, between the Tyne and the Tees, against 
Anthony, Bishop of Durham, with the King's answer thereto, or 
allowance made by the Bishop." The following is the translation of 
the part relating to the working of coal, the original being in Norman 
French : — " And whereas, where it is lawful for every free man to 
make a mill on his own land, and to take coal mine^ found in his 

rapidly into use, the clialder was the measure emjjloyed. In the account of the 
Sheriff of Berwick for the year 1265, there is a payment for 5 chalders supplied to 
the castle there : — '■ Item in quinque celdris carbonum marin' empt' ad warnisturam 
castri cum car' xvs." Chamberlain Rolls, Vol. I., p. *43. In the list of stores in 
the same castle, in 1292, 30 chalders are recorded : — " xxx cuedres de charbon de 
meir." — " Early Records relating to Mining in Scotland," by R. W. Cochran-Patrick. 
Edinburgh, 1878. Introduction, p. xliv. 

' Rot. Pari., Vol. I. Quoted in Report of the Royal Coal Commission. 
London, 1871. Vol. III., p. 4. 

* The passages so frequently quoted from the Boldon Buke are too indefinite 
and isolated to be regarded as such. 

It is perhaps scarcely necessary to advert to the fact that the word coal (carbo) 
originally signified charcoal, and collier (carbonarius) a charcoal-burner. These 
words came to be applied to mineral coal and mineral coal workers in some dis- 
tricts, while at the same time retaining their original meaning in others. At and 
pre\ious to this date, it is impossible to determine in which sense the words are 
used without subsidiary evidence. 

' The word " mine" is here used in its earliest signification of " ore" or 
" mineral." It was commonly so used in the metalliferous districts, and is still 
employed with tliis meaning in some parts of the kingdom. Several attempts have 
been made to explain the origin of this word, of which that advanced by Sir John 
Pettus is probably the most fanciful. He conceives that the word " mine" is no 
other than a translation of mens, and that " miners" may be from minores, being a 



176 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

own land, there come the bailijBFs of the bishop, and disturb as well 
the lords of the vills, as other freeholders, so that they cannot by 
the things aforesaid make their profit, against the common law of 
the land. — There the king doth will, and the bishop grant, that this 
article be held in all points, saving the right of his church."^ 

In the agreement between the Bishop and the commonalty, in the 
following year [a.d. 1303], the right to take iron ore, as well as coal, 
is conceded.2 

In a roU of the revenues of the See of Durham for the twenty- 
fifth year of Bishop Beck^ [a.d. 1307-8], we find mention of a' mine 
of coals belonging to the bishop. The entry — " Minera carbonum. Et 
de 12s. 6d. de minera carbonum in quarterio de Cestr'." — occurs at two 
terms in the account for this year. Other mines appear to have been 
opened out soon after. In 1314 Bishop Kellawe appointed Gilbert de 
Scaresbek' warden of his forests, chaces, parks, and all woods whatso- 
ever, also of mines of coals, within the liberty of Durham.* The 
mines are not mentioned in the appointment of a warden by the same 
bishop two years earlier® [a.d. 1312]. 

In the beginning of the fourteenth century the use of mineral coal 
had already taken considerable root in London, being employed by 
dyers, brewers, and others who required much fuel. For our know- 
ledge of this fact we are indebted to the curious circumstance that the 
heavy smoke arising from sea-coal fires was beginning to attract 
attention, and to be looked upon as an intolerable nuisance in the 

people of lesser quality than those aboveground ! A more probable hypothesis 
would appear to be that it is derived from an eastern root, the first idea of which is 
" weight," and which occurs in the Greek fiva and Latin mina. In mediaeval times 
mina signifying " ore," Minaria was a place where ore is got, a vein or mine. 
Minaria is the form of the word used in the Domesday Survey and commonly 
during the twelfth century, but subsequently it became contracted into minera. 

' " Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense." Ed. by Sir T. D. Hardy, D.C.L. VoL 
III., p. 41. Translation, p. 550. 

" Et par la ou il list a chescun fraunke homme faire molin en sa terre de- 
meigne, et prendre myne de carbon trove en sa terre demeigne, la venunt les baillives 
le evesque, et destourbent auxibicn les seigneurs des viUes, cum autres fraunkte- 
nauntes, que ceaux ne pount des choses avauntdites lour profit faire, encountre la 
commune ley de la terre — La vent le roy, et I'evesque le grant que cest article soit 
tenu en touz pointz save le dreite de sa egliz." 

Mr. Surtees states that in the Parliament of the year 1302, the Bishop effected 
a reconciliation with his vassals, by the concession or confirmation of several impor- 
tant privileges. Surtees' " Durham." Vol. I., p. xxxiii. 

* " Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense." Vol. III., p. 557. 

^ Published by the Surtees Society. Appendix No. 2, " Boldon Buke." 

* "Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense." Vol. I., p. 552. 

* Ibid, p. 114. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 177 

metropolis. Strangers repairing to the city, to attend Parliament and 
for other purposes, appear to have been specially struck with the effects 
produced upon the atmosphere of London by the use of sea-coal, and 
to have taken a leading part in the demonstrations against it. A 
royal proclamation prohibiting the use of the obnoxious fuel having 
produced little effect, stronger measures were resorted to. A com- 
mission of oyer and terminer was appointed^ (a.d. 1307) with instruc- 
tions "to enquire of all such who burnt sea-coals within the city or 
parts adjoining, and to punish them for the first offence with great 
fines and ransoms, and upon the second offence to demolish their 
furnaces.''^ 

Notwithstanding the gTeat opposition encountered by the new 
species of fuel in the city of London, its use continued to gain ground 
elsewhere, and even in the Thames it continued to arrive. Thei'e is 
an account of 10s. worth bought at London by John de Norton, clerk of 
the king's palace at Westminster, at the coronation of Edward 11.,^ 
in this same year (a.d. 1307), and a few years later (a.d. 1316) we find 
60s. paid to the same John de Norton, surveyor of the King's works 
within the King's palace at Westminster, etc., to purchase iron, steel, 
and sea-coal, to make divers heads for the King's lances, etc.* 

From the earliest extant accounts of the receipts and expenses of 
the monastery of Jarrow, it is evident that mineral coal was now being 
used to a considerable extent in the neighbourhood of the river Tyne. 
In the year 1313, a purchase of eighteen chalders was made for the 
monastery by the steward — " xviii. celdi'is carbonum ;" and in the same 
year nine chalders were bought by another agent of the house — "Et 
in "ix celdris carborum (sic) maritimorum cum omnibus expensis et 

' Patent Roll, 35 Edward the First, m. 5 (dorso). In this writ the use of fires 
of "carbones marini" in lieu of '"busca vel carbo bosci," is spoken of as a custom 
introduced " jam de novo." (See Appendix A.) 

' A Treatise on the Coal Trade, by Robert Edington. London, 1813, p. 41. 

May not the soubriquet of " Auld Reekie," which is applied at the present 
day to the Scotch metropolis, have originated in the use of mineral fuel there earlier 
than in the inland towns ? 

' Brand, Vol. II., p. 254. Petitiones in Parliamento, a.d. 1321 et 1322. " A 
notre Seigneur le Roi et a son counseil prie Richard del Hurst de Louudres q'il luy 
voille comandez de payer xs. pur carboun de meer q' Johan de Norton nazguers 
clerk du palleis, prist de li a Louudres al coronnement notre Seigneur le Roi : dont 
il ad bille del dit Johan et unke ne fut paye, E ceo f ut pur carboun pris al paleys 
al dit corouement." etc. 

* "Issues of the Exchequer," Henry III. — Henry VI., by F. Devon. London, 
1837, p. 130. 



1 78 EAKLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

aliis minutis vijs. iiijd."* Among the stores in the castle of Norham, 
in the following year (a.d. 1314), mention occurs of 40 quarters of 
sea-coal — " xl. quarters de garboun de mere."^ 

As early as 1325 coals were also exported from the Tyne to the 
territories of the Kling of England in France, mention occurring of a 
vessel belonging to one Thomas Eente, of Pontoise, as bringing a cargo 
of corn to Newcastle-on-Tyne and returning with a cargo of sea-coal.' 

In the roll of the revenues of the monastery of Tynemouth for the 
year 1292, already referred to, there is no allusion to the existence of 
any collieries at that period in the manor of Elswick. In 1326, how- 
ever, we find the Prior and his house obtaining possession of a loading 
berth on the bank of the Tyne at Newcastle, as appears from a charter 
translated as follows: — " Know all persons, etc., that I, John de Felton, 
Chaplain, have gi'anted to the Prior, etc., all that land, with all the 
buildings and appurtenances thereof, in the town of Newcastle, 
which I had of Master William de Bevercote, Clerk, upon 'les stathes' 
to the Tyne, and whatever could be gained from that water, etc."* 
Shortly after this date, we find the Prior and his house actively prose- 
cuting the opening out of collieries, in several parts of their adjoining 
manor of Elswick. The following are translations of entries which 
occur in their chartulary: — 

"Memorandum that the colliery of Elswick, called the Heygrove,^ 
has been leased to Adam de Colewell, from the feast of Saint Martin in 
the year of the Lord 1330 until the same feast a year turned, for 100s. 
at the feast of Pentecost and Saint Martin, the first payment to begin 
at the feast of Pentecost next following." 

' " The Inventories and Account Rolls of the Monasteries of Jarrow and Monk- 
wearmouth." Surtees Society, Vol. 29, pp. 5, 8. 

* " Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense." Vol. I., pp. 599, 671. 

^ Brand, Vol. II., p. 255. Rotuli Parliament, Vol. I., p. 433. Petitiones in 
Parliamento, a.d. 1325, 19 Ed. II. No, 9. " A notre Seigneur le Roi et son coun- 
seil supplie Thomas Rente le soen homme lige de Pontise qe come il mena sa neef 
charge de blee a Novel Chastel sur Tyne et carca arere sa dite neef de charboun de 
meer en son revener" etc. 

* " History of the Monastery of Tynemouth." by William S. Gibson, Vol. I. 
p. 138. In a two years' lease, evidently of this same land, granted by the Prior in 
1338, it is spoken of as " quandam placeam terre super quam carbones mariui reponi 
consueverunt." Brand, Vol. II., p. 255, note. 

* This colliery had evidently been in existence previous to this year. We have 
here the name by which it was popularly designated. In the vernacular, "grove" 
or "groove" was the term for a mine. A relic of the word exists in the neighbour- 
hood at the present day in the "Groove seam" of Walbottle colliery. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 179 

" Memorandum that another new colliery, which Hugh de Hechami 
once held, in the west field of Elswick, has been leased to the same 
Adam de Colewell, for a payment of six marks, the year to begin when 
he has dug it." 

"Memorandum, also, that the colliery of the west field, near the 
road, has been leased to Ralph Bullock, from the feast of the Annun- 
ciation of the blessed Mary in the year of the Lord 1331 until the 
feast of Saint Peter ad vincula next following, he paying for it each 
week 2s." 

"Memorandum that John the Carter, Richard de Colewell, and 
Geoffrey Lene, of Elswick, have taken one colliery to be newly dug 
upon the moor of Elswick, nigh to the Gallowflat, to be held from the 
feast of All Saints in the year of the Lord 1334 until the same feast a 
year turned, for 40s., to be paid at the feasts of the Purification of the 
blessed Mary and Saint Peter ad vincula, in equal portions."^ 

These ancient memoranda forcibly illustrate the extreme simplicity 
of the operation of coal-mining at this time. The last, especially, is 
curious, where a co-partnery of three have "taken" a colliery on 
Elswick moor, near Gallowflat, the term being for one year, though 
the pit requires to be dug, and the rent 40s.,^ payable half-yearly in 
equal portions. 

The activity displayed at this period in opening up new collieries 

' Hugh de Hecham was one of the bailiffs of Newcastle for several years at 
this period, and was mayor in 1331 and 1335. See Bourne, p. 193 et seq. The 
name occurs in the inquisition at Newcastle, 9 Edward I., referred to above. 

* " Memorandum de carbonar' de Elstewyk que vocatur le Heygrove demissa 
Ade de Colewell a festo Sancti Martini anno Domini 1330 usque ad idem festum 
anno revoluto pro 100s. ad festum Pentecost' et Sancti Martini, incipiente prima 
solutione ad festum Pent' proxime sequent'." 

"Mem' de alia carbonar' nova quam Hugo de Hecham quondam tenuit in 
campo Occident' de Elstewyke dimissa eidem Ade de Colewell, pro 6 marcis solvend' 
anno incipien' cum ipsam effoderit." 

" Item meinorand' de carbonar' del Westfield juxta viam dimissa Radulpho 
Bullock a festo Annunciationis beate Marie anno Domini 1331 incipien' usque ad 
festum ad vincula Sancti Petri proxime sequens reddend' inde pro qualibet septiman' 
2 sol." 

" Mem' quod Johannes le Carter, Ricardus de Colewell, et Galfridus Lene, de 
Elstewyk. ceperunt unam carbonariam de novo effodiend' super moram de Elstewyk 
juxta le Galowflat, habend' a festo Omnium Sanctorum anno Domini 1334 usque ad 
idem festum anno revoluto pro 40s. solvend' ad festa Pur' beate Marie et Sancti 
Petri ad vincula per equales porciones." Quoted by Brand. Vol. II., p. 255, note. 

^ In this, as in all other sums given in this paper, the money of the period 
must be understood to be quoted, which was about twenty times as valuable as 
that of the present day. Taking this fact into account, it will be seen that the 
monks of Tynemouth had already begun to derive a considerable revenue, in money, 
from the letting of collieries in Elswick. 



180 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

in Elswick, is indicative of the growth which was taking place in the 
demand for mineral fuel. An increase is also observable from time to 
time in the quantities purchased. In the year 1337, King Edward III. 
having ordered anchors to be made for his ships called the Christopher 
and the Cog Edward, he directed the Sheriff of London to provide for 
that purpose 5,000 lbs. of iron, 200 Eastland boards, and 100 quarters 
of sea-coal, to be delivered at the Tower.^ 

Other indications of the spread of the use of coal are observable in 
notices to be met with of the existence of coUieries at many points of 
the Great Northern coal-field, as also of the increasing employment of 
mineral fuel for domestic purposes. In opening out collieries at this 
period the choicest localities were open to selection, and the seams of 
coal being found at or close to the surface, little difficulty or expense 
was incuiTed in commencing operations. 

Out of various references to show that the working of coal was 
now being carried on pretty generally throughout the coal-field, the 
following may be cited : — 

The earliest notice of coal in Lumley on the Wear, according to 
Mr. Surtees, is contained in a charter which is without date or wit- 
ness, but was granted by ths father of Waleran de Lumley, Mayor of 
Newcastle 1339. It is translated as foUows : — 

" To all, etc. Henry, son of Peter de Lumley. Know ye that I 
have given, etc., to Gilbert de Lumley, all my mine and my part of 
the sea coals in the land of Great Lumley."^ 

In the tenth year of Bishop Beaumont [a.d. 1327-8], John de 
Denhum died seised of half the Yill of Coxhow, with mines of coal 
there, held of the Bishop by 40s. rent.^ 

In the roll of the bailiff of the manor of Auckland for the 
year 1337-8, among the petty expenses, an entry occurs, "Item comp. 
in xxiiij. quart, carbonum maritimorum empt., pro quodam thorali 
calcis comburendo, 2s."* The sea coals were not used alone, but in 

' Foedera, Vol. IV., p. 730. Quoted in '• Annals of Commerce," by David Mac- 
pherson. London, 1805. Vol. I., p. 517. On this passage Macpherson remarks — 
" This is the earliest express notice we have of so large a quantity of coals in London." 

* Surtees' " Durham," Vol. II., p. 165. " Omnibus, etc. Henricus fil. Petri 
de Lumeley. Sciatis me dedisse, etc, Gilberto de Lumley, totam mineram meam 
et partem meam carbonum maritimorum in campo de Magna Lumley." Sans dat. 
ni tesmoignes. 

» Surtees' " Durham," Vol. I., p. 70. 

* " Bishop Hatfield's Survey," Appendix I. Surtees Society, Vol. 32, p. 206. 
A translation of the roll is given in "Auckland Castle" by the Rev. J. Raine. 
Durham, 1852. p. 26, et seq. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 181 

conjunction with underwood ; the next entry being — " In bosco col- 
pando pro dicto opere 7gd." It was customary at this period, and 
even much later, to use only a proportion of mineral fiiel, the new 
fuel becoming as it were dovetailed on to the old, which it slowly but 
steadily supplanted, 

A coal-mine is mentioned in the ordination of the vicarage of Mer- 
rington in 1343: — "Necnonet medietatem pecuuiffi de decima minerae 
carbonum WUlielmi de Het," etc.^ " As also a moiety of money from 
the tithe of the mine of coals of William de Het." 

In the Inventories and Account Rolls of the Priory of Finchale for 
the year 1348-9, mention occurs of a coal-mine at Lumley, belonging 
to this monastery. Among the receipts for this year is an entry of 
198. 5d., obtained for coals sold: — "Et de xixs. vd. de carbonibus 
venditis hoc anno de minera nostra de Lumley."^ 

In the southern portion of the coal-field we have a curious account 
of the opening out of a new mine at Coundon in 1350, with the cost 
of the same and the appliances used: — "Item in 1 minera carbonum 
maritimorum de novo ftmdenda in campo de Coundon cum cordis, 
scopes, et wyndas emptis et factis pro eodem opere 5s. 6d."^ 

Coal mines at Plessey, near Blyth, are incidentally mentioned aa 
being worked at this date. In 1349 Roger de "Widdrington cove- 
nanted to build a house within the site of the manor of Plescys, for 
Margaret, the widow of Richard de Plessis. " The covenant for fuel 
to be used in this house," says jVIr. Hodgson, " was, that she should 
yearly have ten wain loads of peat, and liberty to pull as much ling as 
she pleased on the wastes of Plessys and Schotton ; besides two chal- 
drons (6 fothers) of sea coal at the mines of Plescys."* 

The notices which occur in the accounts of various religious houses 
in the North, indicate that mineral fuel was now very commonly used 
by them. 

' Surtees' "Durham." Vol. III., p. 396. 

^ " The Priory of Finchale." Surtees Society, Vol. 6. Inventories and Account 
Rolls, p. xxxi. 

3 "Bishop Hatfield's Survey." Surtees Society, Vol. 32, p. 219. In the 
Glossary, " scopes " is translated •' probably buckets." From a lease granted by the 
Prior of Durham in 1447 they appear to have been used for the conveyance of coal. 
The lessees were " to wirke and wyn cole every day overable with thre pikkes, and 
ilk pike to wyn every day overable Ix scopes." " Historiaj Dunelmensis Scriptores 
tres." Surtees Society, Vol. 9, Appendix, p. cccxiii. 

* Hodgson's " Northumberland," Vol. II., Part 2, p. 303. 



1 82 EARLY WORKING OP COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

In an inventory of the monastery of Monkwearmouth for the year 
1837, we find mention of 6 chalders of sea coals: — "de carbonibus 
marinis vi. cel^rcs"^ 

The accounts of the expenses for fael at the monastery on Holy 
Island, show that the bulk of the fuel used there consisted of coal. 
For the year 1344-45 the entries are : — 

" Fifty-seven and a half chaldrons of coals, for the brewhouse, lime- 
kiln, hall, prior's chamber, kitchen, and infirmary, £4 14s. 5d." 

" Brushwood, fewel, and bent bought, 438. 4d." 
In the year 1346-47 the entries are : — 

" Sixty-six chaldrons and a quarter of coals, 104s. 8d." 

" Twenty-six trusses of hather (de bather) for the bakehouse and 
brewhouse, for lack of other fuel, 9s. lOd." 

" Brushwood bought at Diehard, 53s. 4d." 

" To men digging peats at Howeburne Moss, 88."^ 

In the accoimts of Jarrow Monastery, we find wood and coal bought 
simultaneously for fuel. In 1346 an entry occurs " in focali empto 
per tempus compoti videlicet fagotis et carbonibus marinis ;" and in 
the account for the year 1351 the respective quantities of each are 
specified: — "Item in XV^. fagots et XXI. celdris de carbonibus emptis 
xxvijs. iiijd."^ 

The fiiel used at Finchale Priory at the same period, consisted 
variously of "ling, coals, and thorns;" the entry for the year 1346-7 
being : — " Item in empcione focalium diversorum, videlicet bruer', 
carbonum, et spinarum, xvijs. vijd.* 

There are numerous entries of purchases of small quantities of sea 
coals in the account roUs of the bailiffs of different manors in 
the Bishopric of Durham for the year 1349-50. In the Coundon 
account the purchase is stated to be made in order to save straw : — 
"In ij plaustris carbonum maritimorum empt. pro famulis curise in 
hieme, pro stramine salvando 6d."^ 

' Surtees Society, Vol. 29, p. 142. 

* Raine's " North Durham," pp. 86, 89. In 1358 the house was in debt £73 ISs. 
4d., of which sum a small item of 14s. was due to the pit owner (carhonarius) of 
Howburne. 

3 Surtees Society, Vol. 29, pp. 30, 35. 

* " The Priory of Finchale." Surtees Society, Vol. 6, p. xxiv. 

* "Bishop Hatfield's Survey." — Appendix 11. The terms "carbones," "car- 
bones marini," and " carbones maritimi," appear to be used indifferently in these 
rolls, according to the caprice of the individued making the return, lu the North, 



EARLY WORKINa OF COAL O^ THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 183 

The instances given above may be regarded as sufificient to show 
that coal was already largely employed in the North for domestic pur- 
poses. We are therefore prepared to expect an increased demand for 
it, and a proportionally increased vigour displayed in the opening out 
of collieries. 

Among situations favourable to the prosecution of mining, the 
high grounds on the north and south banks of the River Tyne, near 
Newcastle and Gateshead, presented a combination of natural advan- 
tages rarely to be met with. Seams of coal of good thickness and 
excellent quality were to be found cropping out on the hill sides.^ 
They were easy of access and water free ; while the proximity of the 
river provided a ready outlet for the produce of the mines to number- 
less markets. We have already seen that the men of Newcastle, 
and the monks of Tynemouth, had begun to derive a profit from the 
mineral resources of the lands on the north bank of the river. At 
what period the coal on the south bank first commenced to be worked 
we have less certain information. The men of Newcastle, in virtue of 
privileges conceded to them by various kings, disputed the right 
of the inhabitants of the Bishopric to traffic fi-eely upon the river. 
Several inquisitions were held with a view to arriving at the truth 
of the matter. In one of these, before the Sherifi" of Durham 
in 1323, the ancient division of the river was ascertained to have 
been as follows:— ''That a moiety of the water thereof, ft'om Stanley- 
Burn to Tynemouth, belonged to Saint Cuthbert and the Church of 
Durham, and another moiety to the County of Northumberland, and 
that the third part of the same water in the middle of the stream was 
common and free." The only allusion to coals in the return from this 
inquisition occurs in the following passage : — " preterea predicti ballivi 
perturbant omnes cariantes boscum carbones et meremium cum aliis 
necessariis descendere ad terram episcopatus sine redemptione." 
The authorities at Newcastle, however, continued to interfere with 
the traffic of the Bishopric, and in 1334, upon the application of 
Bishop Bury, King Edward III. issued a writ forbidding the mayor 
and bailiffs of Newcastle to hinder the mooring of ships on the 

where mineral fuel was now becoming an article of general use, the simple term 
" coal " was becoming attached to it, and was superseding the earlier name " sea 
coal." Coal-mines were also usually designated " minerse carbonum." 
' See the Geological Plan of the Tyne Valley, prefixed to this paper. 



184 EAELY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

south side of the river. In this writ " pisces, carnes, boscum, car- 
bones, etc.," are mentioned. Even this did not put an end to the 
dispute, the subject continuing to be a vexed question for a long time 
after.^ " The most important portion, perhaps, of the Borough history 
of G-ateshead," says Mr. Surtees, " is that of the perpetual dispute 
betwixt the See of Durham and the powerful and wealthy Corporation 
of Newcastle, for the free navigation of the river Tyne, and the right 
of building quays and ballast-shores on its banks,"^ 

The following allusion to the removal of obstructions in the river 
is interesting. In the 11th year of Bishop Bury [a.d. 1343-4], 
John, the Prior of Durham, and seven others, were appointed justices 
of Oyer and Terminer, to try forty-one individuals [including Richard 
de Galeway, mayor, and William de Akton', Thomas Flemyng, and 
John de Durham, three of the bailiffs of Newcastle-on-Tyne] " who, 
not being Bishop's officers, had forcibly broken and cut the weirs in 
the river Tyne at Gateshead, Quikham, and Eyton, and had taken 
away certain vessels laden with corn, coal, and other merchandize at 
Quikham, to unload without the liberty of the Bishop, and prevented 
vessels plying or unloading or bringing provisions or goods to Heworth- 
upon-Tyne, Hebeme, Jarou, or Wyvestowe; and fishermen from 
bringing and selling fish there. "^ 

"We have now arrived at the period when the men of Newcastle 
obtained their first licence from the king, to dig and to take coals and 
stone in certain portions of land outside the walls of the town, and to 
make their profit therefrom in aid of their fee-farm rent. In the year 
1350, upon supplication made, they obtained a grant in the following 
terms : — 

" The King to his beloved Mayor and Bailifife and good men of our 
town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, greeting. Because on your part petition 
has been made to us that since you hold the town aforesaid from us at 
fee-farm, we may be wiUing to concede to you that in the common 
ground of the town aforesaid, without the walls of the same town, in 
places called the Castlefield and the Frith, you may have the power to 
dig and to take coals and stone from thence, and to make your profit 

» See Brand, Vol. II., p. 10, et seq. 
* Surtees' " Durham," Vol. II., p. 109. 

^ Rot. Bury, 31st Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records, p. 61. 




^ART OF The \ 
'^.Castle \ 

^\M O OR 



Lands 







/The 
/Frith 






^* 



^>^ Part of The 
C A^s T L E Moor 

( rum th^Ihwtj Moor^ 



T H E 



T LE 



Y I Y.\ 



V CasUoLea^^y 




Plan of 

Newcastle uponTyne 

/ .AND 

7 Parts Adjoining 

' TIicToMu heirui takaitrom 
Speedk Map AJ). 1610 

Scale 5 Inches to IMlIb 
s 

^K J E S M N D 



Kitips maner 
K'iriQS Lcdciitigs 
Gratmner Schole 
D yihe manticr 

F \Newe houJ'e 
H \ Blacky Jncrs 
I ! Saint Johns 
K ' Hwh Caftle 
L Almc/i Mu/'cs 
M\ Saint NUkoLis 
N I Alhallcwes 




Trinittc J/biyi 
Pandon^fall 
Ihc wall laioll 
TlieStcncMU 
The mail en dceu 
jilrrwjh MhiAfi.^ 
TVe/t SrMh 
lV\-V^te FHers 
JC I Scottijh Innc 
Z Newe yatt 

3 I Weft ^atc 

4 \Pandon^yatc 
£ I S'andoaicjfaie 

7 j G^fc^gate 

8 \ThcK:ey 






EAELY WOEKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 185 

of the same in aid of your farm aforesaid, as often and in such a way 
as may seem to you to be expedient ; we, favourably acceding to 
your petition in this matter, have caused a licence of this kind to be 
granted to you. And this, to you and others whom it may concern, 
we signify by the present letter .... to have effect during our good- 
pleasure. Witness as above [witness the King at Westminster, the 
first day of December], by the King himself and council, and for 20s. 
paid into the hamper."^ 

The above payment is acknowledged in the Exchequer roll for the 
same year: — "Maior ballivi et probi homines ville Novi Castri super 
Tynam dant viginti solidos solutos pro licencia fodiendi carbones et 
petram in communi ville predicte extra muros ejusdem ville."^ 

The licence recited above occurs on the patent roll of the twenty- 
fourth year of Edward III. That this is the licence usually stated to 
have been granted to the men of Newcastle by Henry III., on the first 
day of December, in the twenty-third year of his reign, is evident, not 
only from the terms 6f the gi'ant, but also from the circumstance that 
Gardner (upon whose sole authority the statement seems to rest) having 
given it as belonging to the reign of Henry III., makes no allusion to 
it under the reign of Edward III., among the rolls of whose reign it 
is now to be found. Several '^Titers have noticed a difficulty in con- 
nection with the date which Gardner has assigned to this grant, bub 
the patent roll for the year to which it was referred happening to be 
one of the few which are missing,^ the detection of the error was the 
more difficult. The Exchequer roll for the twenty-third year of Henry 

' " Rex dilectis sibi Majori et Ballivis ac probis hominibus ville nostre Novi 
Castri super Tynam salutem. Quia ex parte vestra nobis est supplicatum ut cum 
vos teneatis villam predictam de nobis ad feodi firmam velimus concedere vobis quod 
in communi solo ville predicte extra muros ejusdem ville in locis vocatis le Castelfeld 
et le Frith fodere et carbones et petram inde extrahere et commodum vestrum inde 
facere possitis in auxilium firme vestre supradicte quociens et prout vobis videbitur 
expedire : Nos supplicacioni vestre in liac parte favorabiliter annuentes licenciam 
hujusmodi vobis duximus concedend'. Et hoc vobis et aliis quorum interest 
innotescimus per presentes. In cujus, etc.. pro nostro beneplacito duratur'. Teste 
ut supra [Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium primo die Decembris] per ipsum 
Regem et consilium et pro viginti solid' R' solut' in Hanaperio." — Patent Roll 24 
Edward III., Part 3, m. 6. 

^ "Abbreviatio Rotulorum Originalium," Vol. II., p. 215. 

^ " The series of Patent Rolls at the Tower is complete from the third of John 
to the end of the reign of Edward the Fourth, with the exception of the rolls of 
the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth years of Jphu's reign, and those of the twenty- 
third and twenty-fourth years of the reign of King Henry the Third, which are 
known to have been missing for some centuries, etc." — Introduction to '• Rotuli 
Literarum Pateutium." Vol. I., Part 1. Printed in 1835. 



1 86 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

III. is however extant, and there is no such payment from the men of 
Newcastle entered upon it. 

In regard to the second grant stated by Grardner to have been made 
to Newcastle by Henry III., in the thirty-first year of his reign, it 
need only be remarked that it is evidently a mistaken reference to that 
given to the town by Edward III., in the thirty-first year of his reign. 
The Patent and Charter RoUs for the thirty-first year of Henry III. 
are in existence, and in neither of them is such a grant to be found. 

Of the two tracts of ground outside the waUs of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, mentioned in the above licence of King Edward III., the Frith 
lay on the west side of the town, and, according to Grey, was a gift 
to the town from this king " for the good services of the townes-men."^ 
The Castle-field in the reign of Edward III. was claimed to have 
already belonged to the town " time out of mind," although the towns- 
men appear not to have been put into formal possession of it as yet. 

That the difficulties attending the shipment of coals occasioned by 
the interference of the men of Newcastle, did not prevent the working 
of the mines on the south bank of the river, is evident from a lease of 
mines there granted by Bishop Hatfield in 1356. This lease comprised 
five mines in the manor of Whickham, and was granted to Sir Thomas 
de Gray, knight, and Sir John Pulhore, rector of Whickham, for 12 
years, at 500 marks rent per annum. From the large sum paid, and 
the number of mines leased, it would appear that the working of coal 
had then already become an industry of some importance on this side 
of the river also. 

A transcript of this lease, taken fi'om the rolls of Bishop Hatfield, 
will be found in the Appendix.^ It is somewhat lengthy and detailed, 
but famishes us with some curious information regarding coal-mining 
in this neighbourhood at this early period. The following are a few of 
the points most worthy of note : — 

' "Chorographia, or a Survey of Newcastle-upon-Tyne." First printed in 1649. 
For the position of these tracts of ground outside the walls of the towTi, as 
also the outcrops of the coal seams therein, see the Plan of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
and parts adjoining, attached to this paper. 

^ See Appendix B. It is quite clear from this lease that the Whickham mines 
had already been working for some time. Mr. Surtees [" Durham," Vol. III., p. 239.] 
states that a lease of the mines in Whickham and Gateshead had been granted to 
the above parties by Bishop Bury, and refers to " Rot. Bury " as his authority. 
There is, however, no mention of this lease in the Calendar of Bury's Rolls, printed 
in the Thirty-first Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, and 
it appears from the above lease of Bishop Hatfield that the Gateshead mines were 
being worked by others. 



EAELY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 187 

The rent was to be paid in equal portions at the quarterly terms 
usual in the Bishopric, and if any payment were forty days in arrear, 
dot/hie the stipulated sum was to be required. 

No new mines were to be opened out on the water of Tyne, or else- 
where in these parts, by the Bishop or any other person, " save those 
of the said Bishop at Gateshead which are now going, and the coals 
from which will not be earned nor sold to ships." 

The lessees were to work the mines as far as they could be wrought 
by five harrowmen, according to the view and oath of the chief forester 
and of the viewers (veiours). 

They were not to draw from each mine more than one keel^ per day, 
in Hke manner as the custom had been in times past. 

They were to have a reasonable supply of timber from the Bishop's 
woods for repairing and keeping up the mines and the staiths. 

In the accounts of the coal-mining operations of this period we 
begin to find a drain or aqueduct for carrying oflF water, spoken of as 
a common appendage to the pits. 

In 1354, Thomas, son of Richard de Fery, leased to John, Prior 
of Durham, all his coals and seams of coal in certain lands in the north 
part of the vUl of Fery, for thirty yeai-s, \dth licence to dig in any 
place whatever, and cany on operations for his pits and Watergate 
"in quocimque loco fodere et manu operari pro puteis suis et water- 
gage," etc.2 

A few years after the men of Newcastle-upon-Tyne had obtained 
licence to dig coals in the Castle-field and the Frith, a complaint was 
made to the King by the Prior of Tynemouth, of trespasses upon the 
coal in the manor of Elswick, together with an attempt to damage 
a sewer or watercourse, from a mine in the moor of Elswick, which 
mine was the principal source of revenue to the Prior and his house. 
A commission was thereupon appointed, to ascertain and determine 
the true boundaries between the town lands and those of Elswick by 
a writ, issued 26th January, a.d. 1357, in the following terms : — 

" The King to his beloved and faithful Heniy de Percy, Thomas de 
Seton, Richard Tempest, John Heioun, John Moubray, and Roger de 
Blaykeston, greeting. Know ye that whereas lately, on the part of the 

' Probably about 20 tons. 

* Surtees' "Durham," Vol. III., p. 285. 



188 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OP THE TYNE. 

mayor and bailiffs and good men of our town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
petition was made to us, that since they hold the town aforesaid from 
ns at fee-farm we might be wUling to concede to them, that in the 
common ground of the town aforesaid without the walls of the same 
town, in places called the Castle-field and the Frith, they might have 
power to dig and to take out coals and stone from thence, and to make 
their profit therefrom in aid of their farm above mentioned, as often 
and in such a way as it might seem to them to be expedient ; and we, 
acceding to their petition in this matter, by our letters patent, to 
remain in force during our good-pleasure, made a licence of this thing 
to be granted to them ; and now, on the part of our beloved in 
Christ the Prior of Tynemouth, we have learnt that the aforesaid 
mayor and bailiffs and other men of the town aforesaid, overstepping 
our said licence so granted to them, under colour of the same licence, 
have dug in the moor of the Prior himself, adjoining to the said 
places called the Castle-field and the Frith, beyond the ground of the 
said town, as by Hmits and bounds anciently placed there evidently 
appears; and are endeavouring to cause to be destroyed a certain 
sewer there to a mine of coals of the said Prior in his moor aforesaid, 
which is the greatest part of the sustenance of the Prior himself and 
his Priory aforesaid, to the heavy loss and manifest ruin of the Prior 
himself and his Priory aforesaid ; on which account he has petitioned 
us concerning a remedy to be provided by us for him. And because, 
at the time of the concession of the licence aforesaid, it was not our 
intention, nor is it yet so, for anyone to be injured in his right under 
pretext of the same licence ; being desirous to be assured regarding 
the foregoing, we have appointed you five, four, three, and two of you, 
to survey the said places called the Castle-field and the Frith, and the 
moor and mine of the aforesaid Prior there ; and to inform yourselves 
by an inquisition thereafter, to be held in the presence of the mayor 
and bailiffs of the town aforesaid should they wish to take part, and 
by other ways and means which you shall see to be most expedient, 
concerning the ancient limits and bounds between the ground of the 
Prior himself and the ground of the town aforesaid there made : and, 
if it shall be needful, to cause them to be repaired and improved ; and 
in the case where there have been no limits and bounds there, to 
appoint and place anew, sure, and evident limits and bounds for ever 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 189 

to remain ; and to certiiy to us in our Chancery concerning the limits 
and bounds aforesaid, and concerning your whole proceeding in this 
matter, under your seals, five, four, three, or two of you, clearly and 
openly, etc." Witness the King at Westminster, the 26th day of 
January.^ 

In the same year [a.d. 1357], on the tenth day of May, Edward 
III. granted a charter to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, reciting and con- 
forming the liberties previously enjoyed by the town, and, upon 
supplication made, putting the burgesses into formal possession of the 
Castle-field and Castle-moor, with licence to dig and to have mines of 
coals and stones there, and to make their profit from thence in aid of 
their fee-farm rent. After a detailed description of the boundaries of 
the lands granted to the town, the right to work coals therein is 
conceded in the following terms : — " and that the Burgesses them- 
selves and their heirs may have power to dig in the same moor and 
land within the limits and separations aforesaid, and to have mines 
of coals and stones there, and to take out coals and stones from thence, 
and to make their profit from the same coals and stones and other 
proceeds arising from the same moor and land, in aid of the payment 
of their farm aforesaid, in such manner as it may seem to them best 
and most serviceably to be expedient, Ts-ithout hindrance from us or 
our heirs. . . . Given by our hand at Westminster, on the tenth 
day of May. — by the King himself and council, and for a fine of 40s. 
paid into the hamper.^ 

On the south bank of the river also the working of coal continued 
to progress. In 1364, Bishop Hatfield granted a lease of coal in the 
land of Gateshead to John Plummer, burgess of ISTewcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and Walter de Hesilden, burgess of Gateshead. The terms of this 
lease, as recited in its confirmation by King Edward III., are given 
below : — 

" The King to all to whom, etc., greeting. We have seen a certain 

' Patent Roll, 31 Edward III. Part 1, m. 25 dorso. (See Appendix C.) 
* " et quod ipsi Burgenses et eorum lieredes in eisdem mora et terra infra 
metas et divisas predictas fodere et mineras carbouum et petrarum ibidem habere 
et carbones et petras inde extraliere et commodum suum de eisdem carbonibus 
et petris ac aliis proficuis de eisdem mora et terra provenientibus in auxilium 
solucionis firme sue predicte facere possint prout eis melius et utilius videbitur 
expedire absque impedimento nostri vel heredum nostrorum, etc. Dat' per manum 
nostram apud Westmonasterium x. die Maii. — per ipsum Regem et consilium et per 
finem xls. solut' in hanaperio." — Charter Roll, 31 Edward the Third. No. 6. 



1 90 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TTNE. 

indenture between the venerable father Thomas, Bishop of Durham, 
and John Plummer, Burgess of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 
Walter de Hesilden, Burgess of Gateshead, made in these words : — 
This indenture made between the right honourable Father in God, 
Sir Thomas, by the grace of God Bishop of Durham, on the one 
part, and John Plummer, Burgess of the town of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
and Walter de Hesilden, Burgess of Gateshead, on the other part, 
witness eth that the aforesaid bishop, by his steward, grants and to 
farm lets to the aforesaid John and Walter, their heirs and their 
assigns, a mine [or seam] of coals within the land of Gateshead, to 
make a pit and get coals and work to their profit, to have and to hold 
the aforesaid mine to the aforesaid John and Walter, their heirs and 
their assigns, for a term of twenty-four years, [they] paying for it 
yearly to the said Bishop and his successors 100s. at the feasts of 
Pentecost and Saint [Martin] in winter by equal portions; com- 
mencing their term of payment from the hour when they have won 
a pit from which they can get and have full work of coals from day 
to day, in like manner as is taken from the pit within the land of 
Whickham, provided that they do not have at one time more than 
one pit working ; and commencing their term of payment at the next 
term of Pentecost or Saint Martin after a pit of coals is won in the 
manner above mentioned; and the aforesaid John and Walter will 
win the said mine at their own cost ; and to do this the said Bishop 
grants sufficient timber in his park of Gateshead, under the view of 
the forester, for constructing their pits, and their Watergate, and to 
make their Staiths in a place convenient for putting their coals upon 
the water of Tyne to make their profit, at the risk of the said John 
and Walter, which place will be shown to them by the master forester 
or some other minister the said Bishop has appointed for this purpose, 
as often as they shall require' to have timber to make these works 
during their term aforesaid ; and the said Bishop grants them a road 
[or wayleave], convenient for them and all others getting coals there, 
to the said pits, in going and returning for their profit from the said 
pits to the staiths, without disturbance from him, or any of his, or his 
successors ; and the said Bishop grants to them that no pit will either 
be let to farm, or made by him, or by another, within his land of 
Gateshead, during their term aforesaid; and should any be made 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS oF THE TYNE. 101 

during their said term, that it shall be quite lawful for the aforesaid 
John and Walter to destroy them without being hindered by the said 
Bishop or his successors ; and the said Bishop will guarantee to the 
aforesaid John and "Walter, their heirs and their assigns, the said mine 
in the form aforesaid during their term aforesaid. In witness of 
which things the aforesaid parties have interchangeably set their seals 
to these indentures. Given at Durham, the first day of April, the 
year of grace mccclxiiii. We, moreover, holding the aforesaid con- 
cessions and demises settled and agreeable, for ourselves and our heirs, 
as much as in us lies, have conceded and confirmed them in such 
manner as the indenture aforesaid reasonably witnesseth. In witness 
of which, etc. Witness the King at Westminster, the 10th day of 
November, for five marks paid into the hamper."^ 

The lessees of the coal in the manor of Gateshead having addressed 
a complaint to the king, regarding hindrance and disturbance which 
they suffered at the hands of certain of the town of Newcastle, who 
themselves had coals to sell, on the 20th of May, in the year 1367, a 
writ was issued taking them and all others bringing coals from the 
Bishopric of Durham, into the special protection of the king. It is 
translated as follows : — 

"The King to his faithful Sherifi's, Mayors, Bailiffs, Ministers, and 
others, to whom, etc., greeting. On the part of John Plomer and 
Walter de Hesilden', Merchants leading sea coals to divers places of 
our kingdom, for the use of the people of the same kingdom, it has 
been pointed out to us with grievous complaint, that since they, in the 
leading of this kind of coals, in boats, from the Bishopric of Durham 
across the water of Tyne to the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 
other places in the neighbourhood, have sufered manifold hindrance 
and disturbance, through certain of the said town of Newcastle who have 
coals there to sell, which is admitted to result not only in our damage, 
but also in the no small loss of us and our said people, and of the 
state, as also the losing altogether of our custom which is due to be 
paid from those coals in the same town of Newcastle and elsewhere, 
on this account petition has been made to us by the aforesaid 
merchants that we may cause a suitable remedy to be applied to 
hindrances and distm'bances of this kind. We, considering that by 

• Patent Roll, 38 Edward the Third. Part 2, m. 26. (See Appendix D.) 



192 EAELY WOEKESTG oF COAL ON THE BANKS OP THE TYNB. 

the leading of coals of this kind to all places within our kingdom, the 
greatest advantage will come to us and our people, and wishing to 
look to the benefit of the state in this matter, have taken the aforesaid 
John and Walter and their servants, as also all others leading sea 
coals from the aforesaid Bishopric in boats across the water of Tyne to 
our town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and from thence, after paying the 
customs due from the same, to other places within our kingdom by 
land and by water, into our special protection and defence. And 
therefore we command, and firmly enjoin upon you, and each one of 
you, that you maintain, protect, and defend the aforesaid John and 
Walter, and others so leading sea coals, and each one of them, not 
bringing upon them, or allowing to be brought upon them, any 
injury, hurt, loss, violence, hindrance, or grievance. And if any 
forfeiture or injm*y happen to them, you are to cause it to be duly 
corrected and remedied without delay. Always provided thkt they 
do not lead, or cause to be led, any coals without our kingdom, to 
any place except to our town of Calais, under our heavy forfeiture, 
in any way in opposition to the form of the ordinance made thereupon. 
In testimony of which, etc., to remain in force during one year. 
Witness the King at Westminster, the 20th day of May."^ 

The town of Calais, at this time, was the only market out of Eng- 
land to which the staple commodities of the country (including sea 
coals and grindstones)^ were allowed to be erported. 

A few days later (25th May), a writ regarding the above subject, 
was addressed to the mayor and bailiffs of Newcastle in the following 
terms : — 

" Edward, by the grace of God, King of England and France and 
Lord of Ireland, to the mayor and bailiffs of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
greeting. Eoger de Fulthorp, John Plomer, John de Britley, and 
Walter de Hesildon have petitioned us that we may be wilUng to con- 
cede to them a licence, that they may have power to lead sea coals 
which they have dug and hereafter shall dig in the lands of the town 
of Gateshead, in the Bishopric of Durham, near the water of Tyne, 
from mines there, to the said town of Newcastle across that water. 
We, assenting to their petition in this matter, have caused a hcence of 

' Patent Roll, 41 Edward III. Part 1, m. 19. (See Appendix E.) 
* "petrae vocatae gryndstones ac carboues maritimi." Fojdera. New ed. 
Vol. III., Part II., p. 688.' 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 193 

this kind to be conceded to the same Roger, John, John, and Walter, and 
therefore we command you to allow the aforesaid E,., J., J., and W. to 
load the foresaid coals into boats on the side of the said town of 
Gateshead, and to lead them to the said town of Newcastle, the custom 
due from thence being paid to us at the same town of Newcastle as it 
behoves. "Witness myself at Westminster, the 25th day of May."^ 

In connection with the subject of bringing coals across the Tyne 
from Gateshead to Newcastle, the attention of the king appears to 
have been directed to the customs due to him from sea coals. It had 
now become usual to treat coals in a more wholesale manner, doubtless 
owing to the great increase in the quantities purchased rendering the 
minute measuring of them impracticable, or at all events troublesome. 
The king being led to understand that a loss in the customs due 
resulted from the estimating of the coals in gross, addressed a writ to 
the mayor, bailiffs, and certain burgesses of Newcastle, appointing 
them to take charge of the measurement of coals. The writ is dated 
20th May, 1367> and is translated as follows : — 

" The King to the Mayor and Bailiff's of the town of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, Richard Scot, John de la Chaumbre, and Robert Reynald, 
burgesses of the same town, greeting. As we are made to understand 
that numbers of men of the town aforesaid, cause sea coals, fi'om mines 
of coals there, to be led in their boats called Keels by the water of Tyne 
to the port of the town aforesaid to sljips coming to the said port to 
buy cargoes of this kind of coals to be taken away from the same port, 
and to be placed in the aforesaid ships without measurement of the 
aforesaid coals, and thus because those coals are not measured by our 
standard measure before being put into the same ships, nor pay custom 
according to the measure of those coals but in the gross, great prejudice 
to us arises in many ways in connection with our customs due from this 
kind of coals : We, wishing to look to our indemnity in this matter, 
have appointed you jointly and severally to cause all sea coals led to 
the port aforesaid, to be loaded into ships in the manner aforesaid, to 
be measured previous to their being put into those ships, so that 
those coals be not at all put into ships of this kind pre^ious to the 
measure of the same being settled with you as beforesaid; and to arrest 
and cause to be arrested all boats which you shall have found at the 

' Patent Roll, 41 Edward III., m. 19. (See Appendix G.) Quoted by Brand. 
Vol. II., p. 257, note. 



194 EAELY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

port aforesaid leadiujj^ sea coals for loading those ships before the 
measurement of the same coals, together with the coals lying in the 
said boats, and to detain them under this arrest until you have received 
further instructions from us. And therefore we command you to be 
attentive in carrying out and performing the foregoing in the manner 
aforesaid, and to certify to us concerning an arrest of this kind when 
it shall have been made, as also concerning your whole proceeding in 
this matter into our Chancery, under your seals, clearly and openly 
from time to time. In witness of which, etc. Witness, the King, at 
"Westminster, on the 20th day of May."^ 

At the instance of the community of Newcastle and others, the 
above mandate was revoked in the following month, a certain fixed 
payment being allowed to the town of Newcastle in aid of their farm 
from every boat belonging to natives of this country loading coals 
there, the king reserving to himself only the usual customs due from 
merchants and other strangers who exported coals.^ 

Nicholas Coke, of Newcastle, was appointed keeper and vendor of 
the Bishop's coals within the manors of Gateshead and Whickham, on 
the 24th day of July, 1367,^ a duty for which he is stated to have 
been paid 13s. 4d. per annum.* 

In addition to the mines at Gateshead and Whickham, coal waa 
now also being worked at Winlaton on the same side of the river. 
There is a record of a large purchase of coal made there by the Sheriff 
of Northumberland in the year 1366-7, by order of the king, for the 
works at Windsor Castle. The coals were carried in keels and boats 
from Winlaton to Newcastle-on-Tyne, where they were re-loaded into 
the ships which conveyed them to London. The following translation 
of the particulars of this transaction, extracted from the "Pipe Roll,"® 

* Patent Roll, 41 Ed. III. Part 1, inem. 16, dorso, " De navibus vocatis 
Keles amensurandis." (See Appendix F.) 

* Patent Roll, 41 Ed. III. Part 1, mem. 11 and 12. (See Appendices H and I.) 
' " Thomas, etc. Omnibus, etc. Sciatis quod constituimus dilectum nobis 

Nicholaum Coke de Novo Castro super Tynara Custodem carbonum nostrorum 
de Gatisheved et Whicham et ad vendend' dictos carbones et de denariis inde 
provenientibus nobis respondend' et satisfaciend'. In cujus rei testimonium, 
etc., patentes quamdiu nobis placuerit duraturas. Dat' Dunelm', etc., xxiiij. die 
Julii." — Durham Cursitor's Records, No. 31 (23rd year of Bishop Hatfield). 

* " The Chronicles and Records of the Northern Coal Trade," by W. Green. 
Transactions of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical En- 
gineers, Vol. XV. 

* 40th, Edward III. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 195 

furnishes us with a picture of the coal trade of the Tyne, at this early 
period, from another point of view : — 

" Particulars of the account of Henry de Strothre, SheriflF of North- 
umberland, of moneys paid by him for the provision and purchase of 
sea coals for the requirements of the lord the King, bought in virtue of a 
letter of the lord the King, under his privy seal, addressed to the same 
sheriif, under date the 19th day of February, in the 40th year of 
the reign of the same lord the King of England. 

Purchase of Goals. — The same accounts for 576 chalders of sea 
coals by the long hundred bought at Wynlatone, the price of the 
chalder 17d., £47 17s. 8d. ; and for 33 keels and one boat, with men 
labouring in the same, namely, in each keel 5 men, and in the boat 4 
men, each of the said keels containing 20 chalders, and the boat 
aforesaid containing 16 chalders, employed in carrying the said coals 
from Wynlatone to the port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and there load- 
ing them into ships, each of the said men taking for his wage 6d., 
and for the hire of each of the said keels and the boat 12d., 118s. 6d.; 
and for the wages of one Johu Taverner, superintending the convey- 
ance and loading of the said coals, as also the procuring and freight- 
ing of divers ships, into which to put the said coals for carrying the 
same to London, namely, ft-om the 14th day of April, in the 40th 
year, to the 6th day of June next following, for 54 days, each day 
being reckoned, he receiving per day by agreement 12d., 54s. ; and to 
one Hugh Hankyn, for work and expenses in going to London and 
staying there to receive the aforesaid coals from the masters of the 
ships and delivering the same by indenture to Adam de Hertyngdone, 
clerk of the lord the King, and returning home, namely, for 74 days, 
he taking per day by agreement 18d., Ills. ; and to divers masters of 
ships for the freight of 589 chalders and 3 quarters of coals from the 
aforesaid port to London, and there delivered as appears by the inden- 
tures of delivery of the same coals indentured between the said Henry 
and the masters aforesaid testifying to the delivery aforesaid, namely, 
for each chalder 3s. 6d., £103 4s. Sum of the expenses, £165 5s. 2d. 

Sea-Goals. — The same accounts for 576 chalders of sea coals by 
the long hundred bought and provided for the requirements of the 
lord the King, in virtue of a letter of the said lord the King, under 
the privy seal, addressed to the same sheriflF as appears above, which 



196 EABLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

make (576 chaldcrs by the lesser hundred ; sum, 676 chalders by the lesser 
hundred ; regarding which he accounts in delivery made to Adam de 
Hertyngdone, clerk of the works of the King of the castle of Windsor, 
in virtue of the letter aforesaid, by indenture of the same Adam, 
testifying to the said delivery, by measure of the river Thames in 
London, 561 chalders and 3 quarters by the lesser hundred [which 
make by measure of the river Tyne, 504 chalders by the long hundred, 
as appears by the indenture aforesaid^], and to allowance given on 
the quantity aforesaid, according to the custom at London, that is to 
say on each score of chalders, one chalder, 28 chalders ; and in loss 
arising from the throwing overboard of coals on account of a great 
storm which came on suddenly at sea, as also by the excess of the 
London measure compared with the measure at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
86 chalders and a quarter. By a letter of the King, addressed to the 
Treasurers and Barons, dated the 24th day of May, in the forty-second 
year, the matters above written are set forth more at length, and on 
the oath of Henry himself. Sum as above, and it balances."^ 

The measures employed in the sale of coals underwent considerable 
change fi'om time to time, but at this date the weight of the chalder 
appears to have been about a ton. 

The working of coal was now being actively prosecuted at many 
points of the coal-field, among others in various parts of the lands 
belonging to the Prior of Durham and the Prior of Finchale, but it is 
beyond the scope of this paper to do more than allude to these opera- 
tions. Before concluding, however, a change which was taking place 
in the farniture of the domestic fire-hearth, consequent upon the substi- 
tution of mineral fuel for the wood and peats formerly employed, may 
be adverted to. The ancient hearth-stone and andirons were now 
giving way to the iron chimney or fire-grate which begins to appear 
frequently in the accounts, and which was better adapted to the use 

' This clause struck out in the original. 504 chaldrons is the quantity given 
by Mr. Taylor in his translation of the clause, but in the original Latin, which he 

X X 

also gives, it reads " Diiii. celdras." 

^ " The Archaeology of the Coal Trade," by T. J. Taylor, Appendix No. 2 ; 
Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1858, Vol. I. 

Though the stratum of coal known at the present day as the " High Main" 
seam, which came out to the surface at Newcaste and Gateshead, afforded coals 
admirably adapted for domestic purposes, the produce of some of the lower seams 
was peculiarly suitable for smith-work. This fact may possibly explain why the 
King obtained the above supply of coal from Winlaton, where the lower seams 
" crop out," 



EARLY WORKEJfG OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 197 

of coal. As early as the year 1310 the monks of Jarrow had ij camini 
ferrei in the hall of their monastery. In 1362 we find the monks of 
Holy Island having a chimney made of their own iron, and a little later 
[1379-80] they bought another iron chimney for 12s. In 1362, also, 
the monks of Monkwearmouth purchased an iron chimney for their 
hall. Regarding the iron chimney Mr. Eaine remarks that it was 
not a fixture attached to the wall like our modern fire-grates, but 
loose and moveable . from room to room. It was so important an 
article of furniture that it was frequently entailed by wiU upon son 
after son in succession.^ Subsequently we find " 1 porr and 1 pare of 
tangys," that is the familiar poker and tongs, mentioned as appendages 
to the iron chimney, these implements of the smith's craft having 
accompanied mineral fuel, in its passage from the forge, into a ^\'ider 
sphere in the " kitchen and hall." 

' Raiue's '• North Durham." 



\ 



198 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 



APPENDIX A. 

Patent Roll, 35 Edward the First. M. 5 (dorso). [Commission to 
enforce the observance of a proclamation prohibiting artificers 
from using sea coals in their fires in the city of London and 
neighbom^hood.] 

" Eex dilectis et fidelibus suis Radulpho de Sandewyco et Johanni 

le Blund salutem. Cum nuper ex gravi querela tam prelatorum et 

magnatum regni nostri frequent' London' pro utilitate reipublice 

de mandate nostro confluencium quam civium et tocius populi inibi et 

apud Suthwerk ac eciam apud Waplyng et Estsmythefeld habitancium 

accipientes quod rogorum artifices ipsos rogos qui in civitate et villis 

predictis ac earum confiniis ex busca vel carbone bosci fieri consueve- 

runt jam de novo preter solitum ex carbone marine concremant et 

conponunt de quo tantus et talis prosilit fectus intoUerabilis quod 

diffundens se per loca vicina aer ibidem inficitur in immensum prece- 

perimus majori et vicecomitibus nostris civitatis predicte quod in eadem 

civitate et vicecomitatu nostro Suit' quod in predicta villa de Suthwerk 

ac eciam vicecomitatu nostro Midd' quod in dictis villis de Wapling et 

Estsmythefeld publice facerent proclamari quod omnes qui in eisdem 

civitate et villis seu earum confiniis rogorum excercere vellent minis- 

terium ipsos ex busca seu carbone bosci more solito facerent carbonibus 

marinis in factura eorundem nullatenus utendo et jam ex iterata queri- 

monia eorundem prelatorum magnatum civium et aliorum intellexeri- 

mus quod predicti rogorum factores predictam proclamacionem parvi- 

pendentes et lucra sua incolumitati hominum preferentes dictos rogos 

marinis carbonibus nee sicut prius facere non desistunt in dictorum 

prelatorum magnatum civium et aliorum dispendium non modicum 

et sanitatis corporee detrimentum Nos hujusmodi periculo precavere 

et incolumitati prelatorum magnatum civium et aliorum prospicere 

volentes assignavimus vos ad inquirend' per sacramentum proborum 

et legalium hominum de civitate et comitatibus predictis per quos rei 

Veritas melius sciri poterit qui in civitate et villis predictis et earum 

confiniis post proclamacionem nostram predictam in factura hujusmodi 

rogorum usi sunt carbonibus marinis et ad omnes illos quos inde 



/T 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 199 

culpabiles inveneritis primo per graves redempciones et si iterate 
deliquerint per hujusmodi rogorum prostraciones puniendos et ad 
hanc ordinacionem in eisdem civitate et villis et earum confiniis invio- 

labiliter futuris temporibus observandam, etc Teste Rege apud 

Caldecotes, xxviij die Junii." [a.d. 1307.] 



APPENDIX B. 

Durham Cui'sitor's Eecords, No. 30, membrane 11 (dorso). [Lease 
granted by Bishop Hatfield to Sir Thomas de Gray, Knight, 
and Sir John Pulhore, parson of Whickham, of five mines of 
coals in Whickham.] 

" Ceste endentnre faite a Duresme le jour de seint Martyn I'an de 
grace Mil trois centz cynquant et sisme et du sacre I'onerable Piere en 
dieu Sire Thomas par la grace de dieu Evesque de Duresme duszisme 
tesmoigne que le dit Evesque ad lesse a ferme a monsieur Thomas de 
Gray Chivaler et a Sir John Pulhore parsone de Qwycham et a lour 
heirs et a lour assignez cynk Miners des charbons dedeinz le Champe 
de Qwycham del jour de la feissance de cestes tanqu' a terme de xij 
ans proscheins ensuantz pleinement acompliz Rendant au dit Evesque 
cynk cent marcz par [an] durant le terme susdit les queux ils ferront 
paier en I'escheker de Duresme a quatre grandes termes usez et a 
custumez en I'evesche de Duresme par owelles porcions par les meyns 
du Conestable de Duresme que pur le temps serra, par endenture 
faire entre eux et lui par la quele ils serront descharge devers le dit 
Evesque a le dit Constable charge sicome appertient et comencera le 
primer terme de lour paiement a la seint Cuthbert en Marz proschein 
et ensy de terme en terme come dessuis est dit Et si lour paiement au 
dit Evesque soit aderere par quarrante jours d'ascune terme ils paieront 
au dit Evesque la double soume de chescun terme qu'ensi sen-a aderere 
Et le dit Evesque ne ferra lever ne gaigner nulle novelle Miner dessus 
I'ewe de Tyne ne aillours en celles parties nen quantqu' il purra 
destourber par la ley ne soeflFra par nul autre estre gayne que purra 
estre en damage ou empairement de les Miners de Qwycham salve ceux 
du dit Evesque a Gatished que sont meyntenant allantz et les char- 



200 BABLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TTNE. 

bons de celles ne serront cariez ne venduz as Niefe les queux ils 
prendront a lour volente a tiel fenne come autres voillont doner pur 
eux apresque le terme de ceux que sent ore fermers soit acompli. Et 
les ditz monsieur Thomas et sire John ferront touz les coustages et 
despenses qu'appertiegnont estre faitz par nuUe voile entour les ditz 
Miners et eharbons sique le dit soume de cynk' cent marcz serra 
neitement paie au dit Evesque sanz riens abatre pur despenses ou 
coustages et averont deux Miners alantz en le novelle champe a lour 
volente et trois en le viel champe les queux ils ferront meynurer 
silongement come ils purront estre meynurez par cynk Barrowemen 
par la vewe et serrement du chief fforester et des veiours et ne ferrens 
treire de chescun Minere forsqu' un Keel le jour sicome adeste usee et 
fait en temps avant ces heures et ils ferront tutditz meynurer les 
Miners qu'ore sont alaitez et ceux qu'ils comenceront si longement come 
ils purront endurrer resonablement come dessus est dit sanz fraude ou 
malengrie et ils comenceront nul Miner a gaigner de novelle sanz la 
vewe et I'ordinance du chief fforeste[r] que ferra redresser et amendre 
touz les defautes et trespases des ouverours et autres gentz que serront 
trespassantz par ascune voie totefoitz quant besoigne y serra ou qu'il 
soit requis par les ditz monsieur Thomas et sire John auxi avant come 
il feiToit si les ditz Miners estoient en la mayn le dit Evesque les 
amerciementz reservez au Seignem- les amendes pur les trespases as 
ditz monsieur Thomas et sire John en manere come adeste usez et 
acustumez avant ces heures. Et si damage soit fait a nul des tenantes 
du dit Evesque a Qwycham par cariage des eharbons ou par gaigner 
des Miners parent ils perdonc^ le profit de lour terre les ditz monsieur 
Thomas et sire John ferront restorer a eux tantqu' appertient a la 
quantite de la ferme sique le dit Evesque ne perdra de sa ferme par ycelle 
cause durant le terme de dusze ans susditz. Et toutz soit qu'ils eient 
• meinz que cynk' Miners alantz rhentineinz ils paieront au dit Evesque 
cynk cent marcz par an come dessuis est dit. Et le dit Evesque veet 
et grant as ditz monsieur Thomas et sire John que nul de overours 
des ditz Miners ne serra pres hors de son overaigne d'aler ne de passer 
nulle part ovesque le dit Evesque encontre lour volonte ne le cariage 
des eharbons destourbez par lui ne par nul de ses Ministres qu'ils ne 
puissont carier lour eharbons toutditz quant temps serra a lour volonte. 

' ? Perdvout. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 201 

Et si ensi soit que par cause d'ascune gurre survenant les overours de 
les Miners nosont overer a les Miners ne les gentz du pans d'overrer a 
lour mesons pur la venu des esnemyes paront le profit des ditz mon- 
sieur Thomas et sire John soit retret et destourbe qu' adonques ils eient 
dewe allowance en lour paiement au dit Evesque du tant come apper- 
tient a la quantite du temps par jugement des bones gentz choisez 
d'une part et d'autre que sur ce serront serm^ntz la verite niger et les 
ditz monsieur Thomas et sire John ne serront constreyntz de gaigner 
nul Miner en la more de Qwycham tanque I'un champe ou I'autre 
purra endun-er. Et le dit Evesque voet et grant que les ditz monsieur 
Thomas et sir John puissont avoir et prendre compaignons a lour 
volonte que serra obHgez ovesques eux au dit Evesque par estatut de 
marchant et par recognisceance^ faite en la Chauncellarie de Duresme 
en manere resonable et come il plerra au conseil du dit Evesque. Et 
le dit Evesque par ceste endenture lui oblige et ses successours de tenir 
et garanter as ditz monsieur Thomas et sire John et a lour compaignons 
et a lour heirs et assignez toutez les condicions et covenantes susditz 
durant lour terme de dusze ans susditz et les ferra confermer par le 
Chapitre de Duresme. Et en cas qu' ensy aviegne que les ditz mon- 
sieur Thomas et sire John ou nul de lour compaignons denie dedeinz 
le terme de dusze ans susdit qu'ils voillont et grantont et chescun de 
eux voet et grant que lour heirs lour executours et lour assignez et 
touz lour biens moebles et meut moebles soient obligez au dit Evesque 
et ses successours de tenir et parfournir toutez les covenantz suisditz. 
Et le dit Evesque voet et grant que le chief flPorester que pur le 
temps serra lour face deliverer merryn de ses boys pur amendre et 
sustenir les dits Miners et les Estathes selonc ce que resonablement 
busoignera a gaigner et carier lour coustages. As queux covenantes 
Men et loiahnent faire d'une part et d'autre en manere come ils sont 
dessuis escriptz le dit Evesque et les ditz monsieur Thomas et sire 
John et lour conapaignons as parties de ceste endenture entrechange- 
ablement ont mys lour sealx. Escrit a Duresme le jour et I'an susditz." 

' In the Eecognizaiice the lessees admit that they owe the Bishop four thousand 
pounds of silver, of which they hind themselves to pay 500 marks per annum, viz., 
125 marks at each of the terms of — the feast of Saint Cuthhert in March, the feast 
of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, the feast of Saint Cuthhert in Sep- 
tember, and the feast of Saint Martin in winter, until the whole sum be paid. It 
is dated 14th November, 12th year of Bishop Hatfield. See Durham Cursitor's 
Records, No. 30, mcmbrar.c 11. 



202 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 



APPENDIX C. 

Patent Roll, 31 Edward the Third. Part 1, m. 25 dorso. [Com- 
mission appointed by the King upon the complaint of the Prior 
of Tynemouth, that the men of Newcastle-on-Tyne were digging 
beyond the boundaries of the town lands, and were endeavouring 
to destroy the watercourse from his mine of coals in Elswick 
Moor.] 

" Rex dilectis et fidehbus suis Henrico de Percy, Thome de Seton, 
Ricardo Tempest, Johanni Heroun, Johanni Moubray, et Rogero de 
Blaykeston salutem. Sciatis quod cum nuper ex parte ma j oris et 
baUivorum ac proborum hominum ville nostre Novi Castri super 
Tynam, nobis fuisset supplicatum ut cum ipsi teneant villam pre- 
dictam de nobis ad feodi firmam velimus eis concedere quod in 
communi solo viUe predicte extra muros ejusdem ville in locis vocatis 
le Chastelfeld et le Frith fodere et carbones et petram inde extrahere et 
commodum suum inde facere possent in auxilium firme sue supra- 
dicte quociens et prout sibi videretur expedire et nos eorum supplica- 
cioni in hac parte annuentes per literas nostras patentes pro nostro 
beneplacito duraturas licenciam hujus eis duximus concedend' ac 
jam ex parte dilecti nobis in Christo Prioris de Tynemuth acceperi- 
mus quod prefati major et baUivi ac alii homines viUe predicte dictam 
licenciam nostram sibi sic concessam excedentes colore ejusdem licencie 
in mora ipsius Prioris dictis locis vocatis le Chastelfeld et le Frith 
contigua extra solum dicte ville prout per metas et bundas ibidem ex 
antique positas evidenter apparet foderunt et quandam seweram ibidem 
ad mineram carbonum dicti Prioris in mora sua predicta que est 
maxima pars sustentacionis ipsius Prioris et Prioratus sui predicti 
destruendam facere moliuntur in ipsius Prions et Prioratus sui predicti 
grave dampnum et destruccionem manifestam ac contra fonnam licencie 
nostre supradicte super quo nobis supplicavit sibi per nos de remedio 
provideri. Et quia intencionis nostre tempore concessionis licencie 
predicte non extitit nee adhuc existit alicui super jure suo pretextu 
ejusdem licencie prejudicari volentes super premissis certiorari assig- 
navimus vos quinque quatuor tres et duos vestrum ad supervidend' 
dicta loca vocata le Chastelfeld et le Frith, ac moram et mineram 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TTSE. 203 

predict! Prions ibidem et ad informand' vos per inquisieionem inde 
in presencia majoris et ballivorum ville predicte si interesse voluerint 
capiendam, ac aliis Tiis et modis quibus melius videbitis expedire, de 
antiquis metis et buudis inter solum ipsius Prioris et solum ville 
predicte ibidem factis, et ad eas si necesse fuerit reparari et emendari 
faciend', et in casu quo mete et bunde ibidem non fuerint ad certas 
et evidentes metas et bundas perpetuo duraturas de novo ordinand' 
et ponend', et ad nos in Cancellaria nostra de metis et bundis pre- 
dictis ac de toto facto vestro in hac parte sub sigillis vestris, quinque, 
quatuor, trium, vel duorum distincte et aperte certificand'. Et ideo 
vobis mandamus quod ad certos dies quos, etc., ad hoc provideritis apud 
loca et moram predictam conveniatis et premissa omnia et singula 
fac' in forma predicta salvis, etc, Mandavimus enim coronatoribus 
nostris in Comitatu Northumbriae quod ad certos dies quos, etc., eis 
scire fac' venire fac' coram vobis, etc., apud loca et moram pre- 
dict' tot, etc., de Comitatu predicto tam infi-a libertates quam extra 
per quos, etc., et inquiri. In cujus, etc. Teste Eege apud West- 
monasterium, xxvi., die Januarii. [a.d. 1357.] Per consilium." 



APPENDIX D. 

Patent EoU, 38 Edward the Third. Part 2, m. 26. [Confirmation by 
the King of a lease of coal in Gateshead, granted by Bishop 
Hatfield.] 

" Rex omnibus ad quos, etc., salutem. Inspeximus quandam in- 
denturam inter venerabilem patrem Thomam, Episcopum Dunolm', et 
Johannem Plummer, Burgensem ville Novi Castri super Tynam, et 
Walterum de Hesilden', Burgensem de Gatesheved, factam in hec 
verba : — Ceste endenture fait parentre le treshonorable piere en dieu 
Sire Thomas, par la grace de dieu Evesque de Duresme, d'un part, et 
John Plummer, Burgeys de la ville de Noef Chastel sur Tyn, et 
Wauter de Hesilden, Burgeys de Gatisheved, d' autre part, tesmoigne 
que I'avantdit Evesque, par son senescheall, ad grante et a ferme lesse 
a les avantditz Johan et Wauter, lour heirs et lour assignes, un myne 
des charbons dedeinz le chaumpe de Gatesheved, a pusce faire et 
charbons quere et menurer a lour profitz, a avoir et tenir I'avantdit 
myne a les avantditz Johan et Wauter, lour heirs et lour assignes, a 



204 EABLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

terme de vynt et quatre ans, rendantz ent par an al dit Evesque et 
a les successours cent soldz as festes de Pentecost et seint^ en yver 
par oweles porcions, comenceant lour terme de paiement a quel heure 
qu'ils ont gaynez un pusce des quele ils purrout quere et avoir plein 
overeine des charbons de jour en jour come est pris de pusce dedeinz 
le chaumpe de Whicham, issint qu'ils neient a un temps forsqu' un 
pusce meynurant, et comenceant lour terme du paiement al proschein 
terme de Pentecost ou seint Martyn apres ce q'un pusce de charbons 
est gaigne en la manere comme dessus est dit. Et les avanditz Johan 
et Wauter ferront gainer le dit mine a lour custages demesne. Et a 
ce fuire le dit Evesque ad grantez merin suffisant dedeinz son park de 
Gatesheved par veue de fforester dedifier lour puscez et lour Watergate, 
et de faire lour Stathes en un place covenable pur mettre lour char- 
bons sm- I'ewe de Tyne, pur lour profit faire al peril des ditz Johan et 
Wauter, quele place lour serra livree par le mestre fforester ou aucun 
autre ministre le dit Evesque a ce deputee, tant foitz come ils 
enbusoignerent de meryn avoir pur yceux overaignes faire durant 
leur terme avantdit. Et le dit Evesque lour ad grante chmyne 
covenable pur eux, et touz autres querantz charbons illeoques a les 
ditz pusces en alant et revenant pm* lour profitz des ditz pusces tanqu' 
a les estathes, sanz estre destourbee par lui ou nul de soens ou ses 
successeurs. Et le dit Evesque lour ad grante que nul pusce ne serra 
lesse a ferme ne fait par lui ne par autre dedeinz son chaumpe de 
Gatisheved durantz lour termes avantditz. Et si nul soit faitz deinz 
lour ditz termes que bien list a les avantditz Johan et Wauter de les 
abatre sanz estre empeschee del dit Evesque ou ses successeurs. Et le 
dit Evesque garantera a les avantditz Johan et Wauter, lour heirs et a 
lour assignez, le dit mine en la fourme avantdite durante lour terme 
avantdite. En tesmoignance des quelles choses a cestes endentures les 
avantditz parties entrechangeablement ont mis lorn- sealx. Done 
a Duresme, le prime jaur d'aprill, I'an du grace, mill' ccclxiiii. Nos 
autem concessiones et dimissiones predictas ratas habentes et gratas 
eas pro nobis et heredibus nostris quantum in nobis est concedimus 
et confirmamus prout indentura predicta rationabiliter testatur. In 
cujas, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, x die Novembris. 
[a.d. 1364.] — pro quinque marcis solutis in hanaperio." 

' (?) "Martyn" omitted. 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 205 



APPENDIX E. 

Patent Roll, 41 Edward the Third. Part 1, membrane 19. [Man- 
date to the King's officers to protect persons bringing sea coals 
in boats across the River Tyne, from the Bishopric of Durham 
to Newcastle-on-Tyne, etc.] 

"Rex Yicecomitibus Maioribus Ballivis Ministrls et aliis fidelibus 
suis ad quos, etc., salutem. Ex parte Johannis Plomcr et Walteri de 
Hesilden' Mercatorum carbones maritimos ad diversa loca regni nostri 
pro utilitate populi ejusdem regni dacenciiim nobis sit graviter con- 
querendo monstratum quod cum ipsi super duccione carbonum hujus- 
modi per batellas de Episcopatu Dunolmeusi ultra aquam de Tyne ad 
villam Novi Castri super Tynam et alia loca'vicina per quosdam de 
dicta villa Xovi Castri carbones ibidem ad vendend' habentes sint 
multipliciter impedifci et iuqnietati quod non solum in nostri preju- 
dicium verura eciam in nostri et dicti populi nostri ac rei publice 
dampnum non modicum ac custume nostre (jue in eadem villa Novi 
Castri et alibi de carbonibus illis solvi debet amissionem cedere dinos- 
citur unde nobis est supplieatum ut predictis Mercatoribus super 
impedimentis et iuquietacionibus hujusuiodi remedium congruum 
apponi faciamus. Nos advertentes per duccionem carbonum hu jus- 
modi ad quecumque loca infra reguum nostrum nobis et populo nostro 
commodum maximum provenire ac volentes utilitati rei publice pros- 
picere in hac parte suscepimus predicttos Johannem et Walterum et 
eorum servientes ac quoscumque alios carbones maritimos de Episco- 
patu predicto per batellos ultra aquam de Tyne ad villam nostram 
Novi Castri super Tynam et abinde, solutis custumis inde debitis, ad 
alia loca infra regnum nostrum per terram et per aquam ducentes in 
proteccionem et defensionem nostras speciales. Et ideo vobis et 
cuilibet vestrum mandamus firmiter injungentes quod predictos 
Johannem et Walterum et alios carbones maritimos sic ducentes et 
eorum quemlibet manuteneatis protegatis et defendatis Non inferentes 
eis vel inferri permittentes injuriam molestiam dampnum violenciam 
impedimentum aliquod seu gravamen. Et si quid eis forisfactum vel 
injuriatum, id eis sine dilacione debite corrigi et emendari faciatis. 
Ita semper quod carbones aliquos extra regnum nostrum ad aliquem 

A A 



206 EARLY WOliKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 

locum preterquam ad villain nostram Calesii sub gravi forisfactura 
nostra non ducant seu duci faciant ullo modo contra form am ordina- 
cionis inde facte. In cujus, etc., per unum annum duratur'. Teste 
Rege apud Westmonasterium xx die Mali." [a.d. 1367.] 



APPENDIX P. 

Patenc Roll, 41 Edward the Third. Part 1, m. 16 dorse. [Writ 
appointing the Mayor, Bailiffs, and certain Burgesses of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, to take charge of the measurement of sea coals.] 

" Rex Majori et Ballivis ville Novi Castri super Tynam Ricardo 
Scot Johanni de la Chaumbre et Roberto Reynald' Burgensibus ejus- 
dem ville salutem. Quia datum est nobis intelligi quod quamplures 
homines de villa predicta carbones maritimos a mineris carbonum 
ibidem cum batellis suis vocatis Keles per aquam de Tyne ad portum 
ville predicte ad naves ad dictum portum pro hujusmodi carbonibus 
emendis et ab eodem portu educendis venientes carcand' duci et 
absque mensuracione carbonum predictorum in navibus predictis poni 
faciunt et sic pro eo quod carbones illi mensuracione standardi nostri 
antequam in eisdem navibus ponuntur non mensurantur nee juxta 
mensuram eorundem carbonum set in grosso custumantur grave pre- 
judicium nobis de custumis nostris de hujusmodi carbonibus debitis 
multipliciter generatur: Nos indempnitati nostre prospicere volentes in 
hac parte Assignavimus vos conjunctim et divisim ad omnes carbones 
maritimos ad portum predictum ad naves ibidem in forma predicta 
carcand' ducendos antequam in navibus illis ponantur mensurari 
faciend' Ita quod carbones illi in hujusmodi navibus prinsquam de 
mensura eorundem vobis constiterit nuUatenus ponantur ut predictum 
est et ad omnes batellos quos carbones maritimos ad naves illas 
carcand' ante mensuracionem eorundem carbonum ad portum pre- 
dictum inveneritis ducentes una cum carbonibus in dictis batelhs 
existentibus arestand' et arestari faciend' et eos sub hujusmodi 
aresto quousque aliud a nobis habueritis in mandatis detinend'. Et 
ideo vobis mandamus quod circa premissa faciend' et exequand' 
intentatis in forma predicta. Nos de hujusmodi aresto cum factum 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 207 

fuerit ac de toto facto vestro in hac parte in Cancellaria nostra sub 
sigillis vestris reddatis distincte et aperte de tempore in tempus 
cerciores. In cujus, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium xx die 
Maii, [a.d, 1367.] Per consilium." 



APPENDIX G. 

Patent Roll, 41 Edward the Third. M. 19. [Mandate to the Mayor 
and Bailiffs of Newcastle-on-Tyne, to allow certain parties to 
load sea coals into boats on the Gateshead side of the River 
Tyne, and to lead them across to Newcastle-on-Tyne.] 

" Edwardus Dei gratia Rex Anglie et Francie et Dominus Hibernie 
majori et ballivis ville Novi Castri super Tynam salutem. Supplica- 
runt nobis Rogerus de Fulthorp, Johannes Plomer, Johannes de 
Britley, et Walterus de Hesildon ut eis licentiam concedere velimus 
quod ipsi car bones maritimos quos ipsi in campis ville de Gateshead 
in episcopatu Dunehnen' prope aquam de Tyne in mineris ibidem 
foderint et exnunc fodient, ad dictam villam Novi Castri ultra aquam 
illam ducere possint ad commodum suum inde ibidem faciend' Nos 
eorum supplicationi in hac parte annuentes licentiam hujusmodi 
eisdem Rogero, Johanni, Johanni, et Waltero duximus concedend' et 
idee vobis mandamus quod predictos R.J.J, et W. carbones predictos 
in aqua predicta ex parte dicte ville de Gateshead in batellis carcare 
et usque ad dictam villam Novi Castri ducere permittatis solvend' 
nobis apud eandem villam Novi Castri custum' inde debit' prout decet. 
Teste meipso apud Westmon' vicesimo quinto die Maii."^ [a.d. 1367.] 



APPENDIX H. 

Patent Roll, 41 Edward the Third. Part 1, m. 11. [General re- 
vocation of the above Letters Patent, regarding the measurement 
of sea coals.] 

"Rex omnibus ad quos etc. salutem. Cum nuper dato nobis 
intelligi quod quamplures homines de villa Novi Castri super Tynam 

' Brand's History of Newcastle. Vol. II., p. 257. Note. 



208 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. ' 

carbones maritiraos a mineris carbonum ibidem cum batellis suis 

vocatis Kelis per aquam de Tyne ad portum ville predicte ad naves 

ibidem pro hujusmodi earbonibus educendis venientes duci et absque 

mesuracione carbonum eorundem in dictis navibus poni fecerunt et 

§ic pro eo quod carbones illi per standardum nostrum antequam in 

navibus illis ponebantur mesurati non fuerunt nee juxta mensuram 

standardi set in grosso custumabantur de custumis nostris carbonum 

illorum decepti eramus assignaverimus ballivos dicte ville' No vi Castri 

et quosdam alios ad omnes carbones maritimos ad portum predictum 

extunc ducendos mensurari faciend' prout in literis nostris patenti- 

bus inde confectis plenius continetur et quia tam per literas sigillo 

coDMuunitatis dicte ville Novi Castri signatas nobis directas quam 

alias per testimonium fidedignorum sumus plenius iuformati quod 

dicte litere de dictis earbonibus amensurandis ad procuracionem domi- 

norum minerarum carbonum illorum et Mercatorum eosdem carbones 

ab eisdem dominis emencium in dicta villa vendend' ut majus 

proficuum et lucrum de dictis earbonibus si per standardum amensu- 

rati fuissent quam si in dictis batellis vocatis Kelis sine amensuracione 

prout antea fieri consuevit positi essent habuerunt percipere possent 

impetrate extiterunt quod si toleraretur tam in nostri quam tocius 

populi nostri grave dispendium et jacturam presertim cum carbones 

illos undique per totum regnum nostrum ex diversis causis necessario 

duci et cariari oporteat cederet manifeste et quod custuma aliqua de 

hujusmodi earbonibus nisi tantum quoddam certum^ quod communitas 

dicte ville in auxilium firme ejusdem de quolibet batello earbonibus 

sic carcato percipiunt de indigenis nobis minima debetur Nos 

volentes indempnitati nostre et rei publice in hae parte providere 

dietas literas nostras patentes pro amensuracione de earbonibus iUis 

faciend' sic factas penitus revocamus et adnullamus per presentes. 

Proviso quod Mercatores et alii extranei in eduecione carbonum 

hujusmodi a portu predicto eustumas nobis solvant prout hactenus 

facere consueverunt. In cujus, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonaste- 

rimn, xxij die Junii. [a.d. 1367.] Per ipsum Regem et consilium." 

' A *• fixed payment." 



EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNE. 209 



APPENDIX I. 

Patent Roll, 41 Edward the Third. Part 1, m. 12. [Letter addressed 
to the Mayor and BailiflFs of Newcastle-on-Tyne on the same 
subject as the preceding.] 

" Rex dilectis sibi Majori et Ballivis ville nostre Novi Castri super 
Tynam salutem. Cum nuper dato nobis intelligi quod quamplures 
homines de villa predicta carbones maritimos a mineris carbonum 
ibidem cum bateUis suis vocatis Kelys per aquam de Tyne ad portum 
ville predicte ad naves ibidem pro hujusmodi carbonibus educendis 
venientes duci et absque mensuracione carbonum eorundem in dictis 
navibus poni fecerunt et sic pro eo quod carbones illi per standardum 
nostrum antequam in na^-ibus illis ponebantur mensurati non fuerunt 
nee juxta mensuram standardi set in grosso custumabantur de custu- 
mis uostris carbonum illorum decepti eramus assignaverimus vos et 
quosdam alios ad omnes carbones maritimos ad portum predictum 
extunc ducendos mensurari faeiend' et vobis mandaverimus quod in 
villa predicta publice proclamari et ex parte nostra firmiter inhiberi 
faceretis, ne quis cum batellis suis carbones maritimos ad portum 
predictum ad naves indc ibidem carcandas priusquam de mensura 
eorundem carbonum juxta standardum et non in gTosso per estima- 
cionem custumareutur vobis constiterit sub forislactura batellorum et 
carbonum predictorum ac omnium aliorum que nobis forisfacere posset 
duceret vel duci faceret clam vel palam prout in Uteris et mandato 
nostro predictis plenius continetur, et quia tarn per literas sigillo 
communitatis dicte ville Novi Castri signatas nobis directas quam alias 
per testimonium fidedignorum sumus plenius informati quod dicti 
litere de dictis carbonibus amensurandis ad procuracionera dominorum 
minerarum carbonum illorum et Mercatorum eosdem carbones ab 
eisdem dominis emencium in dicta villa vendend' ut majus profi- 
cuum et lucrum de dictis carbonibus si per standardum amensurati 
fuissent quam si in dictis batellis vocatis Kelys sine amensuracione 
prout an tea fieri consuevit positi essent habuerunt percipere possent 
imppetrate exstiterunt quod si toleraretur tam in nostri quam tocius 
populi nostri grave dispendium et jacturam presertim cum carbones 
illos undique per totum regnum nostrum ex diversis causis necessario 



210 EARLY WORKING OF COAL ON THE BANKS OF THE TYNB. 

duci et cariari oporteat cederet manifeste, efc quod custuma aliqua de 
hujusmodi carbonibus nisi tantum quoddara certum quod communitas 
dicte ville in auxilium firme ejusdem ville de quolibet batello carboni- 
bus sic carcato percipiunt de indigenis nobis minime debetur Nos 
volentes indempnitati nostra et rei publice in hac parte providere 
literas et mandatum nostrum predicta pro amensuracione de carboni- 
bus illis faciend' sic facta tenore presenciurn revocand' duximus 
penitus et adnulland'. Proviso quod Mercatores et alii extranei in 
educcione carbonum hujusmodi a portu predicto custumas nobis 
per ipsos inde debitas nobis solvant prout hactenus facere consueve- 
runt. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod execucioni literarum et mandati 
nostri predictorum et quibuscumque aliis sic directorum ulterius 
faciend' omnino supersedeatis. Et si quid inde feceritis vel per alios 
factum fuerit id sine dilacione revocari et adnullari faciatis. Teste 
Rege apud Westmonasterium, xxiiij die Junii. [a.d. 1367.] Per 
ipsum Regem et consilium." 



THE STATION OF CILUENUM. 211 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATION OF THE SOUTH 
GATEWAY OF THE STATION OF CILUENUM. 



By the Rev. J. Collingwood Beuce. Read August 27th, 1879. 



In the month of June last, Mr. Clayton, the proprietor of the estate 
on which it stands, excavated the southern gateway of the Roman 
station of Cilurnum, the modern Chesters, on the line of Hadrian's 
Wall. Being resident in the immediate neighbourhood at the time, I 
had the opportunity of daily inspecting the work as it proceeded ; and 
I now, at Mr. Clayton's request, propose to give an account of the 
results which have been obtained. 

As is well known to the members of this Society, many portions of 
this station had previously been laid bare, rendering us familiar with 
its northern and two eastern gateways, with the buildings of its pra3to- 
rium, and the forum. 

The southern gateway, which was selected as the next spot to be 
subjected to the spade of the excavator, did not before the commence- 
ment of operations promise important results. Its position was feebly 
indicated by a slight depression in the centre of the southern rampart 
of the station, and this rampart did not rise much above the general 
level of the adjoining ground. 

As one result of the excavation, we have before us the entire design 
of the gateway of a Roman station, which is perfect in all its parts. 
The carefnlly executed Plan with which Mr. Clayton has provided us 
exhibits its form. The whole of the masonry is remarkably solid and 
substantial, the workmanship being of the very best kind. Many of 
the stones exhibit on their face a kind of feathered tooling, similar 
to that which we find on the stones used in forming the land abut- 
ment of the Roman bridge at this station. 

The plan of the gateway is similar to that of the gateways of the 
stations in general; but this, as well as the other principal gateways of 



212 ACCOUKT OF THE EXCAVATION OF 

the station, is larger and more massive than those of some of the other 
stations. Thus, in this gateway the space between the pivot holes of 
each entrance is eleven feet nine inches, whereas at Borcovicus it is 
only nine feet six inches. This circumstance is of some importance. 
Several facts lead to the conclusion that the station of Cilurnum was 
erected by Agricola, soon after his subjugation of the country of the 
Brigantes. That general, we know, wished to exhibit to the natives 
of the North of England the resources of Eome, and to enamour 
them with her arts. Certainly in this station he has left nothing 
undone to impress them favourably. As the stations which he left 
in his rear stood alone and were not connected by a wall, it was 
necessary that they should be peculiarly strong and able to resist 
attack. Tacitus tells us that none of them were ever successfully 
assailed. (Agricola, cap. xxi., xxii.) 

The main gateways of a Roman station had two portals, and on 
each side of them was a guard room for the acconomodation of the 
soldiery who kept watch and ward. Each entrance was spanned by 
an arch both on its outer and inner face. None of the voussoirs 
have been found belonging to the arches of this gate, but the massive 
stones remain, and are shown in the Plan, which formed the solid 
basis on which it was upreared. As will be seen in the Plan, the 
wall separating the two portals has had a passage-way left in it, by 
means of which the soldiers on guard could more freely communicate 
with each other. Each entrance has been closed on its outer face by 
two leaved gates. These gates have moved on wooden pivots, the 
lower part of which has been shod with a circle of iron. In this 
instance the iron cylinders were found sticking fast in the pivot 
holes, traces of the wood which they had encircled being found inside 
them. The pivot on which the upper part of the gate moved has been 
received into a circular aperture bored right through a large stone 
built into the upper part of the structure. A stone of this kind is now 
lying amongst the debris of this gate. It has evidently been twice 
used for the purpose referred to, as it has two perforations through it ; 
the one is fractured, the other has a diameter of seven inches. The 
doors which closed the gates have evidently been strengthened with 
iron bars and studded with iron nails, considerable remains of oxydised 
iron, suggestive of such a use, having been found. As was usually the 



vSouTH Gateway, Cilurkum. 



W 3 8 1 G 5 4- 3 2 1 Q 
I >— ' I — I -1 [ I -I I — ] : 



J 



S('<iie' 




'^mk-^m^^:^^^^^^^^^\^^ 



I 



THE STATION OF CILUBNUM. 213 

case, the doors when closed have struck against a ridge of masonry 
rising three or four inches above the sill of the door. This ridge is 
increased in height in the middle. 

Immediately in front of the gates is a gutter cut out of sohd 
stone which has been covered over with flags. 

In excavating all the portions of this work, vast quantities of stone 
and rubbish were met with, as well as bones and horns of cattle 
and deer, and fragments of Samian ware and other pottery. In the 
eastern guard chamber two layers of wood ashes, sometimes as thick as 
three inches, were encountered. Similar appearances are met with 
whenever any of the buildings of the Wall are excavated. 

In the eastern guard chamber a quantity of thick plaster was found, 
with which no doubt the walls were coated. The plaster is covered 
with fresco painting, the colours used being chiefly brown, black, red, 
and yellow. 

The number of coins discovered is inconsiderable ; many of 
them are so worn and defaced as to be illegible. Of those which 
can be identified, the earliest is of Vespasian, and the latest of 
Postumus; they are all of brass. There was also discovered the head of 
a statue neatly executed in stone. In the highest course in the eastern 
wall of the eastern guard chamber is a stone bearing the inscription, 
LEG VI VI — Legio sexta, victrix : the Sixth Legion the Victorious. The 
lettering of the inscription is feeble, and of a character indicating a 
late date. The stone on which it is carved differs from the other 
stones of the apartment in which it is placed. It was probably 
an after insertion, and was not placed there until the time of Severus 
at the earliest. The Sixth Legion, as we are all aware, did not come 
to Britain until the time of Hadrian. 

But the most important of the results of this excavation was the 
discovery of two portions of a bronze tablet giving the privileges 
of Roman citizenship and the right of marriage to certain troops which 
were then serving in Britain. This interesting and important docu- 
ment was found in the eastern guard room, amongst the deiris, 
about four feet above the level of the original floor. 

Every reader of the New Testament is aware of the importance 
that was attached in the times of the early emperors to the privilege 
of being a citizen of Rome — that it was a privilege possessed not only 

BB 



214 ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATION OF 

by the natives of the Eternal City or even of Italy, but by the denizens 
of foreign parts — and that it was a privilege which descended from 
father to son. "And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto 
the centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that 
is a Roman and uncondemned ? When the centurion heard that, he 
went and told the chief captain, saying, Take heed what thou doest : 
for this man is a Eoman. Then the chief captain came and said unto 
him. Tell me, art thou a Roman ? He said. Yea. And the chief 
captain answered. With a great sum obtained I this freedom. And 
Paul said. But I was free born." On reading this passage we cannot 
but be struck, among other things, with the readiness with which the 
apostle's assertion that he was a Roman citizen was received : his word 
does not seem for a moment to have been doubted. One fact which is 
stated in the life of Claudius by Suetonius perhaps accounts for this — 
"Civitatem Romanam usurpantes in campo Esquilino securi per- 
cussit." Cap. XXV. — "Those that falsely pretended to the freedom of 
Rome he beheaded on the Esquiline." 

We shall presently see the care which the authorities at Rome took 
that pretenders might be easily detected, and that persons entitled to 
the citizenship might without any difficulty make good their claims. 

On three previous occasions bronze tablets or portions of them have 
been found in England, conferring upon certain troops serving in 
Britain the rights of citizenship. Two of these belonging to the reign 
of Trajan and the third belonging to the reign of Hadrian, are pre- 
served in the British Museum. The earliest of them, which was found 
at Malpas, in Cheshire, bears date a.d. 104. Fac-simile engravings of 
these, prepared with great care, are to be found in the " Lapidarium 
Septentrionale" of this Society, to which work they were presented 
by our noble patron, his Grace the Duke of Northumberland. In 
addition to these three diplomas the fragment of another tablet 
of like character seems to have been found at Walcot, near Bath, in 
1815. Mr. Charles Lysons mentioned the fact of its discovery, and ex- 
hibited a drawing of it to the Society of Antiquaries, but the original 
has for some time been lost sight of. The fragment is a very smaU 
one, and is chiefly occupied with the formal part of the document. 
Through the kindness of our colleague, Mr. C. Roach Smith, I am 
enabled to submit to the Society a " rubbing " taken from the plate 



THE STATION OF CILTIRNUM. 215 

itself. The fragment contains one word, procvleia, which will be 
useful to us in discussing the Chesters tablet. 

These tablets are generally called TaluJts Honeske Missionis, because, 
in addition to conferring the citizenship with the right of marriage, they 
testify that the individuals obtaining it have completed their full time 
of military service and have obtained an honourable discharge. More 
briefly they are termed militaiy diplomas. They are literally doubled- 
up documents. They consist of two small plates of bronze which have 
been fastened together at then* lower extremities, probably by thongs 
of leather, and so folded together for greater convenience of carriage. 
The deed was engraved both on the outside and inside of the 
plates. Being thus in duplicate, there could be no doubt as to the 
correctness of any word or expression ; and in order to show the indi- 
vidual's right to the envied privilege it was not necessary to open the 
document — a glance at its outside was sufficient. The lettering of the 
outside is usually more neatly and carefully executed than that of the 
interior. The lines of the interior are at right angles to those of the 
exterior; and more contractions are generally used in the interior copy 
than in the exterior. 

These documents uniformly begin by giving at full length 
the names, titles, and genealogy of the emperor issuing the decree. 
Then follow the names of the troops on whom the privilege is con- 
ferred ; alee or cavahy regiments being first mentioned, and after them 
cohortes or infantry. Both alee and cohorts are usually given in numer- 
ical order. Then follows the place where they are serving; and after 
that comes the important stipulation, that only those receive the citizen- 
ship who have honourably completed twenty-five campaigns at least. 
Along with the rights of citizenship the right of marriage was con- 
ferred, thus rendering legal the marriages which had already been 
contracted or which might afterwards take place. It was further 
declared that the children which were the fruits of such marriages 
should also be fi-ee ; but it was expressly stipulated that each man 
should have only one wife at a time — " dumtaxat siiigidi singulas." 
Next there follows the date of the decree, with the name of the consuls 
for the year, and after that the name of the person to whom the 
diploma is specially directed. Then we have a statement of the 
place, generally some temple in Rome, where the original document 



216 ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATION OF 

of which this is a copy was deposited for inspection ; and lastly, the 
names of seven witnesses who bear testimony to the fact that this 
diploma is a faithful and revised copy of the original. The whole on 
being folded up was sealed with the seals of the witnesses named in it. 

It is the opinion of some antiquaries of eminence that an abridged 
copy of the decree was sent to every individual interested in it, who 
would preserve it with care for the benefit of his posterity. Through- 
out the whole Eoman world only about sixty of these documents 
are known to exist, and these have been amply discussed by that 
profound scholar Professor Mommsen, in the third volume of the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, issued under the auspices of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Prussia. Of these fourteen have been 
found in Italy; fifteen in Pannonia, which corresponds pretty nearly 
with the modern Hungary ; three in Germany, upper and lower ; and 
six in Dacia, which embraces the modern Wallachia, Transylvania, and 
Moldavia. Gaul has yielded only one. 

The bronze tablet which we are now to examine consists of two 
pieces; one considerable piece and a small fragment. 

When the fragments were delivered by the excavator, "William Tail- 
ford, to Mr. Clayton, their nature was at once discerned, but only a few 
of the letters were distinctly legible. As the document promised to be of 
much importance we did not venture to attempt to remove the oxide 
of copper and earthy matters which covered the plates, but sought the 
aid of Mr. Ready, of the British Museum, an operator of great skill 
and experience. Every letter is now perfectly legible, and though we 
have only one leaf of the diploma (and some portions of it are wanting), 
we are able, with a single exception, to make out the names of all the 
troops mentioned in it. The parts that are wanting are chiefly the 
formal parts, which we can in a great measure restore from other 
diplomas belonging to the same reign. The drawing on the opposite 
page, of the size of the original, accurately represents it. 

I shall now give a copy of the inscription, taking that of the 
exterior as being more complete first, and then that of the interior. 
In doing thisT must mention that in the first place I have had the 
advantage of the assistance of Mr. Franks, of the British Museum ; 
and we read the inscriptions very nearly as I shall now give them. 
And further, that I sent a photograph of them to Professor Hiibner, 




<: 

o 

1—1 

Q 

CO 

en 

w 
:i: 
o 







THE STATION OF CILURNUM. 217 

of Berlin. He, in reply to my communication, says, "The same day 
I got your letter of July 21st, with the excellent photographs of the 
cleaned fragments, I gave the same to Professor Mommsen. He has 
succeeded, as I expected, in reading it, and I give you the text on the 
next page." 

I now give the Professor's reading, remarking that the letters of 
the inscription that actually exist on the tablet are given in Roman 
capitals ; those portions which have been supplied on the authority of 
similar documents are given in small letters. 

INSIDE. 

imp aaes divi 'B.XDriani f divi trajani part n 
divi nervce prON T kelivs hadrianvs an- 
TOninvs avg- PIVS pont max tr pot viiii 

IMp ii COS Ilu p p 
EQ ET PED qui mil in al Hi et coh xi q a avg- 

GAL PROG ET I ei i hisp astvr et i 

CELT ET I HISP ET i ael daaor et i ael classioa 
ET I FID ET II GALL et ii et vi nervior et Hi 
BRAC ET nil LING et HH g-allor et svnt in 
BRITTAN SVB PAPIRio aeliano qvinqve et vig- stip 
EMERIT M HON WLssione qvorvm nomina svbsaripta 
SVNT C R QVI EORVm, non haberent dedit et 
CONVB CVM VXORIBus qvas tvna habvi^sent 
CVM EST CIV IIS Data 



OUTSIDE. 
imp cAESAR DIVI HADRIANI F DIVI 
trajani PART NEPOS DIVI NERVAE PRO 
nep t aeLIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS 
avg pivs PONT MAX TR POT VIIII IMP II COS IIII 
p p eqvit et pEDIT QVI MILITAVER IN ALIS III 
et cohort XI gvAE APPELL AVG GALL PROCVL ET I 

. . ET I HISP ASTVR ET I CELTIB 

et i hisp et i AELIA DACOR ET I AELIA 
CLASSICa et i fid yARD ET II GALLOR ET II ET 
VI NERVIor et Hi braC ET IIII LING ET IIII GALL 
ET SVNT IN BrittaKSlA SVB PAPIRIO AELI 
AND QVINQue et vigiiHll STIPEND EMERIT 



218 ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATION OF 

Before giving a translation of the inscription, it may be convenient 
to lay the whole of it before the eye of the reader as it may be made 
out from both sides of the tablet and from contemporary documents. 

IMPERATOE CAESAE, DIVI HADKIANI FILIVS, DIVI TRAJANI 
PARTHICI NEPOS, DIVI NERVAE PRONEPOS, TITVS AELIVS HADRIANVS 
ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS, PONTIFEX MAXIMVS, TRIBVNITIA POTES- 
TATE Villi, IMPERATOE II., CONSVL IIII., PATER PATRIAE. 

EQVITIBVS ET PEDITIBVS QVI MILITAVERVNT IN ALIS III ET 
COHORTIBVS XI QVAB APPELLANTVR AVGVSTA GALLORVM PROCV- 

LEIANA ET I ET I HISPANORVM ASTVRVM ET I 

CELTIBERORVM ET I HISPANORVM ET I AELIA DACORVM ET I AELIA 
CLASSICA ET I FIDA [vARDVLLORVM] ET II GALLORVM ET II ET 
VI NERVIORVM ET III BRACARIORVM ET IIII LINGONVM ET IIII 
GALLORVM ET SVNT IN BRITTANNIA S.VB PAPIEIO AELIANO QVINQVE ET 
VIGINTI STIPENDIIS EMEEITIS MISSIS HONESTA MISSIONE. 

QVOEVM NOMINA SVBSCEIPTA SVNT CIVITATEM EOMANAM QVI 
EORVM NON HABERENT DEBIT ET CONVBIVM CVM VXORIBVS QVAS TVNC 
HABVISSENT CVM EST CIVITAS IIS DATA [AVT CVM IIS QVAS POSTEA 
DVXISSENT DVMTAXAT SINGVLIS] 

The document may be thus translated : — 

The emperor Caesar (son of the deified Hadrian, grandson of the 
deified Trajan styled Parthicus, great grandson of the deified Nerva), 
Titus -^lius Hadrianus Augustus Pius, chief priest, invested with 
tribunitian power for the ninth time, declared imperator for the second 
time, consul for the fourth time, the father of his country, to the 
cavalry and infantry in three alas and eleven cohorts, which are named 
the (ala) Augusta Gallorum Proculeiana (the imperial regiment of 
Gallic cavalry sumamed the Proculeian) and . . . , and the first 
ala of Celtiberians, and the first cohort of Spaniards and the first of 
the Dacians styled the' -^lian, and the first cohort of Marines styled the 
^lian, and the first of the Varduli surnamed the faithful, and the 
second of the Gauls, and the second and sixth of the Nervii, and the 
third of the Bracarians, and the fourth of the Lingones, and the 
fourth of the Gauls, and are in Britain under Papirius ^lianus, who 
having completed twenty-five campaigns and obtained an honourable 
discharge, whose names are written below, whoever of them does not 
already possess it, has granted the rights of Roman citizenship and 



Inside 




Outside 




The Walcot Diploma 



THE STATION OF CILURNUM. 219 

marriage with the wives whom they may have when the citizeaship is 
given, or if any of them are unmari'ied, with those whom they may 
afterwards take provided each have one only. 

Here the document ends. If the remainder of the plate had been 
found it would have given us the day of the month on which the edict 
was issued, together with the names of the consuls for the year. We 
know, however, the year: Antoninus Pius possessed the tribunitian 
power for the ninth time, was imperator a second time, and consul a 
fourth time in a.d. 146. The date is absolutely certain, as in the 
following year he accepted of the tribunitian power for the tenth time. 

All the troops mentioned in this tablet we have met with before, 
either upon other diplomas, in the Notitia, or in lapidarian inscriptions, 
with the exception, perhaps, of the first, the Ala prima Augusta 
Gallorum Proculeiana. We have an ala Augusta upon altars found at 
Old Carlisle, and we have an Ala Gallorum Sehosiana in the Malpas 
diploma, but we have nowhere else an ala bearing the designation of 
the one before us. Doubtless it is a different body of troops from 
those I have now referred to. 

As to the epithet of this ala, which is given in our tablet in the 
abbreviated form of peocvl, we get a little light fi-om the fragment of 
the Walcot diploma, of which a copy is here given,* where it appears 
in the more expanded form of procvi.eian. This leaves no doubt 
that the whole word is Proculeiana. Occasionally we find that 
a body of troops in ancient as well as in modern times has taken its 
secondaiy denomination fi'om its commander. Who the Proculeius was 
who gave name to this regiment we do not know. A knight of the 
name of C. Proculeius flourished in the reign of Augustus. Horace 
thus refers to him (Odes II., 2) : — 

" Vivet extento Proculeius sevo, 
Notus in fratres animi paterni." 

Thus rendered in English by our late lamented President, the Earl of 

Ravensworth : — 

Let Proculeius' generous name 
Survive to everlasting fame, 
Who paid with more than father's care 
Twice told his needy brethren's share. 

* This copy is taken from the rubbing before spoken of. The letters having, 
however, been traced over by an inexperienced hand, some obvious errors springing 
from this cause have been corrected. 



220 ACCOUNT OF THE EXCAVATION OF 

The circumstance which Horace refers to in these lines is beh'eved to be 
this — he divided his patrimony with his brothers who were ruined in 
the civil wars. This person may have given his name to the regiment, 
but more probably it was a later commander who did so. 

Of the troops mentioned in this diploma, as being in Britain in the 
year a.d. 146, it is worthy of notice that five of them (one ala and 
four cohorts) came from Spain, four (one ala and three cohorts) came 
from Gaul, and two cohorts came from the modern Belgium. One 
cohort, the Dacian, came from the east of Europe, the country now 
occupied by the Wallachians and Bulgarians. 

In the Riveling diploma, issued by Hadrian in the year A.D. 124, 
not less than twenty-seven bodies of troops are named, six ala and 
twenty-one cohorts. In this diploma only foiirteen regiments are 
named. In all probability there never were so many Roman troops in 
Britain as during the reign of Hadrian. It is true Antoninus Pius 
carried on war against the Caledonians by the agency of his lieutenant, 
Lollius Urbicus, and in his reign the wall between the Firths of Clyde 
and Forth was built ; these however seem to have been tasks of in- 
ferior difficulty to those which Hadrian achieved. At all events, if 
we may judge from the evidence of coins, the war in Caledonia was 
concluded five years before the issuing of the Chesters diploma. Two 
first brass coins of Antoninus Pius were struck at Rome in the year 
141, bearing on the reverse the figure of Britannia and the legend Bri- 
tannia. We may fairly suppose that these were struck in order to 
commemorate the emperor's victories in the island, and that the war 
was then virtually over. The famous second brass Britannic coin, of 
which such numbers were found in Coventina's well at Procolitia, bears 
the impress cos iiii ; Antoninus Pius became Consul for the fourth 
time A.D. 145, which is a year before the date of the diploma. 

Another fact of interest respecting the troops mentioned in our 
diploma is that we have proof that one half of them remained in 
Britain until nearly the close of the Roman occupation of the island. 
In the list given in the Notitia Imperii of the troops in garrison upon 
the WaU we have the names of seven of those in our diploma. The 
Notitia, as we have it, is believed to have been compiled early in the 
fifth century. We have thus evidence of these troops having re- 
mained in Britain, probably in the same stations, for two centuries 



THE STATION OF CILURNUM. 221 

and a half. Nay more; some of them are named in the Malpas 
diploma of the year a.d. 104 ; these, therefore, must have been in 
the island for three centm-ies. 

I have but one more observation to make. The Chesters tablet 
reveals to us the name of a governor of Britain of which we were 
ignorant before. Near the close of the inscription we have the words 
suh Papirio JEUano. Before holding the oflBce of legate Papirius 
-^lianus must have served the office of consul. His name, however, 
does not occur in any existing list of consuls. In the year a.d. 184 
a person named Cneius Papirius ^lianus appears in the consular lists. 
It is quite possible that this person may have been a descendant of the 
British legate, but we have no direct information respecting the legate 
himself beyond what this little fragment of bronze affords us. 

In addition to the tablet which we have now discussed a small 
fragment of another was found at the same time, which is probably 
part of a duplicate copy of this one. It certainly belongs to the 
reign of Antoninus Pius, though nothing else can be ascertained 
respecting it. 

I have perhaps extended my narrative to too great a length. The 
unusual character of the subject has tempted me. I have sometimes 
had the pleasure of making important communications to the Society, 
but never, I think, one more important than this. Professor Hiibner; of 
Berhn, in writing to me respecting it, says, " On the whole it is a very 
important and highly interesting find, upon which I congratulate 
most heartily Mr. Clayton and yourself." 



cc 



222 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 



ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, AND OLD GATESHEAD. 



By James Clephan. 



An error or two in my recent paper on the Huguenot glags-makers, 
of which I have had friendly apprisal, must plead my apology for this 
supplementary sheet. One of the slips would hardly have occurred if 
Brand's invaluable history had been crowned by a good index. With 
such a guide I should probably have known that the gravestone of 
Abigail Tyzack, lying in the grounds of Heaton Cottage, had already 
been copied by our vigilant local historian, and at a time when its 
inscription was more distinct and legible than at the present day. 
But in the absence of all clue to the greater part of his contents, I 
was not aware of the record till I heard of it from one who reaches 
instinctively every corner of a book, through highway and byeway, 
without finger-posts. Less lynx-eyed than he, I had not detected, 
lurking in a foot-note, the little life of the infant Abigail. " Quakers' 
Meeting House, 340," is the sole reference of the reverend author to 
her whereabout. There, on the page indicated, the historian quotes, 
in the first of his volumes, the acknowledgment made by George Fox 
of the welcome received from Gateshead in 1657, when Newcastle was 
hostile. " One Ledger, an alderman of the town, was very envious 
against truth and Friends ;" and his worship's companions were of 
kindred spirit. " So, when we could not have a public meeting among 
them, we got a little meeting among Friends and friendly people at 
the Gate-side, where a meeting is continued to this day." Among these 
Friends, as I now learn, the child Abigail was buried ; and a century 
afterwards the Rev. John Brand saw her stone " in the garden belong- 
ing to Captain Lambton, near the Middle Glass House," bearing this 
inscription : — " Abigail Tizacke, daughter of John and Sarah Tizacke, 
departed this life the 7th day of the 12th month, and in the 7th weack 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 223 

of her age, anno 1679." "The 12th month," he explains, "is an 
expression for December, which clearly marks the sect to which 
J. and S. Tizacke belonged." 

It is some comfort to me, in my shortcomings, to find Brand 
himself tripping, and that I have erred in such good company ; for 
when the inscription was carved the twelfth month was an expression, 
not for December, but for February. The Friends of George Fox's 
day were numbering their months after the Old Style, and March 
began their year. Not until the next century had half run out was 
the custom changed. In 1751, when the Act 24, George II., cap. 23, 
for the Reformation of the Calendar, had been placed on the Statute 
Book, the Yearly Meeting resolved : — " That in all the records and 
writings of Friends, from and after the last day of the tenth month, 
called December, next, the computation of time established by the said 
Act should be observed, and that, accordingly, the fii'st day of the 
eleventh month, commonly called January, next, shall be reckoned and 
deemed by Friends the first day of the first month of the year 1752 ;" 
and so on as to the other months following. — {Gentleman's Magazine, 
October, 1751.) 

It is important that this resolution should be borne in mind when 
we are reading "records and writings of Friends" older than 1752, if 
we would not go wrong as to dates. Take, for appropriate example, 
the title-page of the Journal of George Fox, published in 1694. He 
is there said to have departed "on the 13th of the 11th month, 1690 ;" 
and November 13th, 1690, is, in consequence, not uncommonly 
assigned as the day of his death ; although, in fact, he died on the 
13th of January, 1691. He who carries his perusal of the Journal 
below its title will meet with conclusive evidence that Fox's year began 
with March. Writing to the King of Poland, he dates his letter 
" London in England, the 10th of the 3rd month, commonly called 
May, 1684." And in like manner, Thomas Story, whose Journal 
was printed at Newcastle in 1747, refers to " the 1st of the 11th month, 
commonly called New Year's Day." 

Bearing this computation in mind, let us turn to the records of the 
Friends in this northern district. " The Story of the Registers" was 
told in September last, in the CarnhiU Magazine ; and the writer, in 
speaking of those of the Society, says that " no registers exist which 



224 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

have been prepared with more care." Owing to this care in the past, 
and the courtesy of Friends in the present, I am enabled to supply a 
fact or two about Abigail Tyzack not recorded by the mason's chisel. 
Her parents, John Tyzack and Sarah Langford, were married on the 
6th of the 6th month (August 6), 1674. Four children were bom to 
them on the Tyne, and received Scripture names : — Elizabeth, Samuel, 
Abigail, and Nathan. Abigail, with whom we are chiefly concerned, was 
added to the family on the 21st day of the 10th month (December 21), 
1679, and departed on the 7th of the 12th month (February 7), 1680. 
The record states that she was "buried in Gateshead," and describes 
her father as a " broad glass maker." Tenderly she must have been 
loved and mourned in the household, or a separate stone would hardly 
have been reared to one so young. At the time of her death the 
Friends had their meeting house in Gateshead. "The first place of 
meeting which the sect held in the vicinity of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
was in the street called Pipewell-Gate, in a house not many years ago 
the property of a Mr. Swift, who kept a tavern in it, with the sign of 
the Fountain." (Brand, 1789.) But in the first year of William and 
Mary a change occun-ed. On the 15th of January, 1690, an enrolment 
was made in Quarter Sessions, Durham, of " a meeting house for the 
people of God called Quakers in Gateshead, nigh the Tolbooth." 
(Mackenzie, 1827.) Similar registration took place, at the same time, 
as to South Shields, Sunderland, and Bishopwearmouth. The Society 
was now acquiring the shield of William and Mary, cap. 13, "An Act 
for exempting their Majesties' subjects dissenting from the Church of 
England from the penalty of certain laws." There were to be no more 
such "curious entries in Gateshead parish books" as the item of 1684 
copied by Sykes : — " For carrying twenty-six Quakers to Durham, 
£2 17s." 

About this time "Daniel Tittery" appears in the minutes as a 
member of the Gateshead Meeting; and on the 11th of the 2nd 
month (April 11), 1687, "Peregrine Tizacke is desired to write for 
some of William Penn's newly-printed books." "John and Sarah 
Tizacke" had left Newcastle for London in 1684 ; and on the 13th of 
the 12th month, 1687-88, otherwise February 13th, 1688, there is 
a certificate, with thii-ty-seveu signatures, from the monthly meeting 
in Gateshead, bearing testimony that they were of good report. A 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 225 

"sober, discreet woman," was Abigail's mother, "loving truth and 
Friends, and frequenting meetings." It was probably on the eve of 
leaving the Tyne for the Thames that the stone for her little one was 
raised. Whereabouts it first stood, in the parish of St. Mary, does 
not appear ; nor how it happened that it was transplanted to the 
enclosure beyond the river. From the time that Brand saw it there, 
prior to 1789, the garden continued to remain a green spot for 
generations, by the side of the St. Lawrence' road ; the general aspect 
of the scene much the same as when Captain Lambton received his 
reverend visitor, and showed him the inscription. Half-a-century 
afterwards, Mr. Councillor Cook, now of Byker, occupied the house in 
connection with the glass-works. The sculptured record had then 
passed away from view. An old summer-house was standing on the 
green, mth a stone step at the door, as it had stood for years. But 
the time came when this rustic relic of former days must depart. 
Building operations were in progress, and its site was required. The 
structure was taken down ; the doorstep removed ; and on the under- 
side was Abigail's inscription ! The attention of Mr. Justice Nichol 
and Mr. Joseph Sewell was called to the unlooked-for discovery ; and 
the stone was set apart for transport to the grounds of Heaton Cottage, 
now, by the generosity of Sir William Armstrong, the property of the 
people of Newcastle. Unfortunately, however, it accidentally got 
broken ere it could be taken to its place of rest. In my former paper 
I jumped to the conclusion (a dangerous feat) that the growth of a 
sycamore tree, near which it had lain for many years, was the cause of 
the fracture ; but through the obliging communication of Mr. Cook, I 
was speedily put right ; and I have to thank him for his contribution 
to the history of the wandering stone, over whose long home at the 
North Shore now runs the new road to Walker ! 

The babe Abigail, the heroine of this little episode in the romance 
of life, who never knew a letter, yet is the subject of so many, has 
numerous companions of her race in the register of the Society of 
Friends. Births and mai-riages and deaths of the Tyzacks are enrolled 
from the year 1G74 to 1746. Tittories are also to be found; but, 
beginning in 1671, they cease in 1688. Of the Henzells there are no 
entries. 

From the frail memorial of the daughter of John and Sarah Tyzack, 



226 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

rudely fashioned about the year 1680, the transition is easy to the 
sumptuous heraldiy that marks the tomb of Timothy Tyzack in the 
chancel of St. Mary. He and Abigail died within no long time of each 
other, and, probably enough, the aged burgess was present at the " burial 
in Gateshead" of the innocent whose days were less in number than his 
years. The parish register has disclosed to us the story of birth and 
death in his household ; what is told of him in the church, on parch- 
ment and in marble, has been copied in print; and now, of Timothy as 
of Abigail, something more may be said. The parochial papers come 
to our aid. Mr. Longstaffe has placed in my hands his jottings from 
the Vestry Minutes, in which there is frequent mention of the sub- 
stantial parishioner whose arms are depicted in the Transactions. He 
and his times rise up before us in these local records. He is entering 
upon public life, a young married man, in the earher years of the 
Commonwealth. In 1054, "Mr. Timothie Tisick" is elected "an 
oversear of the poore." He is afterwards " auditing the accounts of the 
churchwardens;" and in due season he becomes one of the Four-and- 
Twenty — a Select Vestryman. 

The Gateshead Vestry, with its cHques and controversies, had its 
alternations of prosperity and decay. It mirrored the parties and for- 
tunes of the nation — its ups and downs — in the disquieted seventeenth 
century. After the Protectorate comes the Restoration; and in the 
mouth of May, 1663, when notice had been given in church of a meet- 
ing on the morning of the 11th, there was a coup d'etat. Those who 
attended "judged it fitt to supplie the places of John Bulman and 
William Henderson, being dead ; of Mr. Ralph Carr and Lionel Maddison, 
seldom coming; and of William Coates, having bene a meanes of some 
losse to the towne, and much trouble to some of the officers therof." 
So, with one dissentient, they proceeded to elect five other parishioners, 
first among whom comes " Mr. Timothie Tizack." To secure, moreover, 
better attendance in future, a fine of twelvepence was to be imposed 
for absence; and the proceeds to be applied to the relief of the poor. 

The " one dissentient" seems to have represented an absent majority. 
With a dash of the pen the resolution is struck out: the transaction is 
disowned. Timothy Tyzack, however, continues to be a leading man 
in St. Maiy's. He is one of the four principal parishioners appointed 
in November, 1674, " to goe about with the parson and churchwardens 



AXD OLD GATESHEAD. 227 

throughout this whole parish, to make discovery of all such inmates, 
strangers or others, that are or may be troublesome to the parish, 
and the same so found to present to the Fower-and-Twenty, 
to the end such persons may be proceeded against according to 
law." Intruders were to be ferreted out and sent away: none but 
settled inhabitants suffered to remain. Strangers within the gates — 
aUen dwellers — must not abide. Whatever measures, however, were 
taken in 1674, they were not efficient. An alarm soon recurs of great 
increase of poor people in the parish, " by persons receiving strangers 
and foreigners, who, by continuance of time, become inhabitants, and 
so chargeable." The more established traders were jealous of the in- 
vasion of "foreigners:" "strangers" must avaunt. Wayfaring men 
had everywhere a hard time of it in the good old days. Waifs were 
not wanted. Many a passing vagrant was clawed by the " cat" in 
merry England at the expense of the parish. St. Hilary's had its «hip- 
ping-post in the reign of King James; and in the year when his son 
Charles, " touching for the e\\\" at Durham on his northward way, 
dined with Sir Lionel Maddison beyond the Blue Stone, " six roges" 
were whipped in Gateshead. 

Gateshead had its "roge stobe;" most parishes had; but if not, 
wanderers were whipped nevertheless. 80, too, were settled sinners. 
Not uncommonly the church tower had been made to do duty for the 
stob. On the eve of the War of the Roses, a false lover was sentenced, 
for breach of promise, to have a dozen floggings round Billingham 
Church. 

Although Gateshead had a church round which an offender might 
be whipped, and a " white shirt" for discipline within, it was not fully 
equipped for parochial correction. The late Mr. W. H. Brockett had 
to state, in his " Few Notes on Ducking Stools," that St. Mary's was 
fined 6s. 8d. in 1627 for wanting one. The omission was thereupon 
supplied; and there is an item of 12s. for a "doking stouU" in 1628. 
In a single generation it seems to have been worn out; for another was 
procured after the Restoration. It is an ancient device, venerable as 
Domesday, where its existence in England before the Conquest is 
recorded; and it still survives, as a shiecurist, in antiquarian museums. 

Gatesiders were shaking their heads in 1676 over local decay. 
" Great complaints had been made by the parishioners of the want of a 



228 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

Vestry, or Four-and-Twenty, to order and govern the affairs of the town 
and parish, by means whereof (of late years) the rights and privileges 
of the said town and parish were much weakened and decayed." Town 
and parish, be it observed, looked to the Select Vestry for order and 
government, civil and parochial. The movement for this object, in 
1676, led to the framing of a list in October on which Timothy Tyzack 
stands fourth. He is now a chief citizen; follows next after Rector 
Werge in 1681, when signing his name to a minute of the Church- 
wardens and Four-and-Twenty ; and sits in the same pew with Sir 
Ralph Carr. The men and women of the congregation are seated 
apart, unless by special favour. Married folk are in some cases allowed 
to sit together. 

In the closing year of Charles the Second, when Timothy Tyzack, 
in his old age, was enrolled in the minutes at the head of the Four-and- 
Twenty, there was a younger Timothy in middle life, who survived 
the first into the reign of William and Mary. The sons describe the 
father on his tombstone as Merchant Adventurer; and the books of 
the Vestry are not without some glimpses of the commodities in 
which he dealt; as, for instance, in 1660, "Mr. Tissick, for a pound 
of powder and math [match]. Is. 5d.;" and twenty years further on in 
the century, " Tim. Tyzack, for figgs, 2s. 6d. ;" three other tradesmen 
supplying prunes to the extent of Is. 4d. each. So extensive an invest- 
ment in dried fruit is eloquent of the day " when we ridd the bounderie," 
and scrambled prunes and figs among the boys. 

Gateshead was a place of considerable merchandise and manufacture. 
It made linen and woollen goods; had a name for stockings; and num- 
bered more than half-a-dozen incoi-porated companies. Our Merchant 
Adventurer was a member of the comprehensive company of Drapers, 
Tailors, Mercers, Hardwaremen, Coopers, and Chandlers, chartered by 
Bishop Mathew in 1595, when it was composed of six-and-twenty of 
the trading inhabitants. In the same year, the Cordwainers alone, 
fifteen in number, were sufiicient to constitute a separate fraternity. 
(Durham Records, ]876.) The manufacture of shoes was a staple 
branch of industry at the south end of Tyne Bridge. In former 
days, and down to the present century, the borough was famous for its 
annual Shoe Fair, to which dealers and customers came from far 
and near. Gradually, however, as shops increased in number and 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 229 

improved in quality, stalls declined. In 1845 there were but seven, 
" straggling from the top of Church Street to the railway bridge" over 
the High Street — " a mere patchwork of tradesmen's window-shutters 
and sugar-hogsheads." "Time, which spareth nothing, had laid a 
heavy hand upon the Shoe Fair, and almost crushed it out of existence." 
The fair continued to dwindle, hogshead by hogshead, till it was reduced 
to a final shutter. The climax came in 1853, when "one of the most 
courteous of the sons of St. Crispin" — "the last man" of an ancient 
institution — presented himself in the High Street, " a corporation sole." 
(Gateshead Observer.) 

The Company of Drapers, Tailors, Mercers, Hardwaremen, Coopers, 
and Chandlers, appears to have been too heterogeneous for harmony. 
The statement must be made, on the authority of Mr. LongstaflFe, that 
its members " seem to have been fond of quarrelling." They were at 
loggerheads under Oliver Cromwell, and brotherly love did not return 
with the Restoration. In 1660, as may be read in his paper on " The 
Trade Companies of Gateshead" just quoted, " Timothy Tizacke 
ignominiously branded the stewards and company with the names of 
fools and knaves, and imperiously departed the meeting, and encouraged 
thirteen brothers, and (worst of all) the company's clerk, to do the like 
without leave of the stewards; and in 1666, one of the said reprobates 
was fined for discovering the company's secrets." Is it possible that 
this ill blood had its origin in the atmosphere of the company's hall ? — 
"which seems to have been the Tolbooth," standing like an island "in 
the middle of the High Street." It certainly cannot be said of the 
annals of the brotherhood, as they come from the accomplished hands 
of its historian, that they are tedious. Let us hope, however, that the 
members were nevertheless happy. 

That the town had its mirth and music — its " cakes and ale" — the 
accounts bear witness. The waits discoursed in dulcet measure under 
the Monarchy. There was fifing and fiddling in Oliver's days. Bulls 
were baited and boundaries ridden whosoever ruled the roast; and 
beUs were rung and drums beaten all the year round. When the 
Town Fields were mown, the bow was rosined, and played duets with 
the scythe. The Four-and-Twenty were feeing the fiddler in 1651, 
and paying the piper in 1655. "Paid for pipeing to the mowders 
when they skailed the Town Fields, 2s." What Roger North, in his 

DD 



2fiO ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZAGK, 

life of the Lord Keeper Guilford, calls " the north-country organ" — 
the " four or five drone chanter" that kept time with the oars of the 
Mayor's barge in 1676 — animated the mower, and whetted the edge of 
his implement, as he laid low the grass in the meadows of Gateshead. 
Pipes and bells droned and rang whether Crown or Cromwell was 
uppermost. " For ringing the bells when His Majesty came to the 
town," in May, 1639, two shillings went up to the belfry ; the 
musicians at the ropes loftily careless of the fact that a printing press 
was in the royal train, and that, with every pull, they were proclaiming 
its advent to the Tyne. 

Coming events were casting their shadows over St. Mary's. The 
Scots were on the Tyne in 1640, troubling and perplexing the 
inhabitants on both sides of the river, and in no haste to go — " loth 
to depart," and ready to return. Billeting themselves in the houses 
or halls or churches of the citizens, one of the traces left behind by 
the war is in the books of the Gateshead Vestry: — "February 29, 
1644, for 2 horse lod of colls when the solgers was att the church, 8d." 
These, however, were English warriors on the watch. 'Twixt friend 
and foe there was much loss and suffering for the unwalled town. 
One of the smallest burdens of the period was the fourteenpence the 
Vestry had to pay for the ransom of " the great new gate" the Scots 
carried off to their quarters, " which gate did hang at the entering 
into the Town Fields." 

Witches as well as war troubled the minds, and were supposed to 
trouble also the bodies, of the Gatesiders, midway in the seventeenth 
century. In 1649-50 they cost the ratepayers much good money. 
The poor suspected creatures had sad treatment at the hands of blind 
justice. Arrested, examined, imprisoned, buried — at the charge of 
the community. 

£ 8. d. 

Going to the justices about the witches 4 

Paid at Mrs. Watson's when the justices sate to examine 

the witches ... ... ... ... ... ... 03 4 

Given them in the Tolebouthe, and carying the witches 

to Durham 40 

The constables, for carying the witches to jaile 4 

Trying the witches 150 

A grave for a witch 00 6 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 231 

Small was the cost when this poor " witch," in a manner hidden 
from our view, rose over her troubles. Profoundly were our forefathers 
possessed by this superstition of witchcraft ; not, peradventure, yet 
thoroughly cast out from amongst us. The parish clerk of Holy 
Island was on the 16th of July, 1691, calmly writing in his register of 
burials : — " William Cleugh, bewitched to death." And from the 
same insular record, while Dr. Eaine's "North Durham" is on the 
table, may be quoted, as belonging to the subject in hand, "October 2, 
1642, Elisone, doughter to Henry Tysick the Hollander." 

The departed witch of St. Mary's, buried at a charge of sixpence 
for her grave, would be committed to the earth in a parish coffin. 
Such coffins were in general use during the century of the civil war, 
doing service over and over again. " 1644-45, paid (in Gateshead) for 
making three coffins of five old formes, and mendynge a seat, 3s." 
"1661-62, paid for making a church coffin, 8d." Parish coffins, or 
shells, had a long reign. The Eev. John Brewster states, in his 
history of Stockton, that in that town they survived the days of Queen 
Anne. This he had learnt from John Chipchase, a famous school- 
master for half-a-century, whose uncle was parish clerk at the time the 
custom came to an end. The Rev. Greorge Walker, officiating at a 
funeral after his arrival in 1715, observed the body was about to be 
divested of its coffin, and was told, in answer to his inquiries, that it 
was wanted for further use. He insisted, however, that it should go 
into the grave ; and church coffins were heard of in Stockton no more. 

Mortality was aggravated in Gateshead, as in other haunts of men, 
by neglect of the laws of health. Epidemics were invited, and they 
came. Close cousin of the plague was the uncleanliness of the town — 
its reeking accumulations of refuse. There were other collections 
at the church door than those made for the relief of the stricken 
inhabitants. " For removing the dunghille out of the churchyard," 
5s. 6d. was paid in 1649-50; and in 1656-57, within a year of the 
payment of 3s. " for horse and expenses goeing to present the Papists," 
the Four-and-Twenty were better employed in setting their town in 
order, " carrying away the rubage which had lyen 4 years at the Lowe 
Pant, and was verie much noysome to people, and troublesome to all 
that passed by." The enormity of this mass may be estimated by the 
cost of clearance, and the price it brought to the town-purse, viz.. 



232 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

**£4, minus 10s. paid for this rubish." If all the consequences, in 
chamber and churchyard, of such monster middens could be brought 
home to them, they would be found answerable for much heavier costs 
than are set down in parish books. The dimensions of the Gateshead 
gathering are not given, as of that " within the site and circuit of the 
castle" on our own side of the Tyne. This was ascertained, by the 
inquest of 1620, to measure 98 yards in length, 10 in height, and 32 
in breadth — a mountain that, " by reason of its weight," threw down 
40 yards of the outer wall. Nuisances of this kind were not dislodged 
in a day. They kept their place from generation to generation. 
About two hundred years after the overturn of the castle wall, when 
the nineteenth century was entering on its course, the local authorities 
were complaining of " the scandalous practice of converting the public 
street into a public dunghill, by throwing ashes and other rubbish at 
the turn of almost every comer." {Newcastle Chronicle, February 21, 
1801.) 

" In olden times, people put up with much more than they do now. 
Each house " in Darlington " had a dunghill in its fore-front. As late 
as 1710, it was resolved ' that every one keep their dunghill in winter 
well shuffled up, and that the same be carried away before Whitsun- 
tide.'" Darlington streets occur as only "lately paved" in 1749, and 
are still spoken of in 1790 as " very dirty in winter, not being paved." 
(Longstaffe's " Darlington.") In October of 1G74, Stockton had but 
" common causeways," which the authorities were maintaining by an 
extra duty of twopence a last on com imported into the borough. 
Not until November, 1715, was an order made for paving the streets. 
(Richmond's " Local Records.") A pleasant anecdote, in which the 
story of Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth is unconsciously 
repeated by Thomas Baker and Mary JekyU, illustrates the state of 
Stockton streets, intersected by open drains and ditches, in the earlier 
years of George the Second. Baker, the " Farmer and Quaker 
Preacher" by whom the cultivation of the potato is understood to 
have been first introduced into the county palatine at Norton, had 
long wooed the damsel in vain. She was the richer of the two, and 
feared lest she was followed for her fortune more than for herself. 
The word he wished for was withheld ; till, one day walking together, 
they came to a wide kennel over which she knew not how to pass ; 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 233 

whereupon her lover planted his shoe in the middle of the muddy 
stream as a stepping-stone, and Mary, availing herself of his gallantry, 
skipped nimbly over to the other side. The courtly deed was decisive. 
His ready foot gained him the maiden's hand. (Brewster's "Stockton.") 
The thoroughfares of our old towns, in the absence of solid pave- 
ment, were apt to become noxious sloughs, the convenient receptacles 
of all manner of outcast stuff", and prejudicial to the public health. 
Pestilence walked in darkness, and destruction wasted at noonday. 
The Great Plague of 1635-36, sweeping out of Newcastle and Gates- 
head more than five thousand five hundred souls, is too historic to 
justify more than this passing glance ; and it were tedious to dweU in 
succession on the less obtrusive visitations of which history takes so 
little notice. The pest was an ever-recurring foe of our forefathers, 
constantly presenting itself in their records in incidental mention. 
In 1642-43, when the plague had been hanging about Gateshead for 
many months, the Four-and-Twenty were levying " a sess of 24 
weekes." " Every person to pay 24 tymes so much as he is now 
weekly rated." There were "collections at the church doore, at 
seaverall tymes," in 1645-46, amounting to £5 17s. 5d., "for releife 
of the poore infected people." Some were shored up in their homes, 
and fed from without. Others were camped on the common, with a 
shelter of sticks and sods, and supplied with food in their kraals. 
"Making loudges, and the releife of the poore infected people, in 
Bensham," is a frequent entry in the accounts of the Vestry. All 
that we know of some slow-wasting shadow of pestilence may come to 
us in the form of a parochial item, a line in a letter, or a few words in 
a will. "Allison Lawes of Gateshead, wedow, visited with the plage" 
in 1570, settled her worldly affairs in October. She and "all her 
children" were "in this visitac'on," and death took her. Whether it 
left the rest, does not appear ; but she wiUed all their bodies to the 
parish churchyard, if they should die. Her neighbour, " John 
Heworthe, quarehnan," was in the same strait in 1571, "his house 
visited, his wyflfe dep'ted to the m'cy of God, himself p'tlie craised." 
His quarry had been prosperous, enriching his only child, " doughter 
Jenett," whom he committed to the care of " his trustye friend James 
Cole." The "expencs maid" by this Gateshead burgess, in connection 
with the sickness and funerals, comprise many suggestive items : — 



£ 



B. a. 
3 10 





4 





1 4 



234 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

To the potticarie for triacle and certen other things 

For strawe and candles 

For sope and coles ... 

For the bering of John and his wyffe, for the churche, 

and for making ther grave ... ... ... ... 5 4 

To the p'ste & the clerke, for the burial, knoling and 

rynging ye bells 3 

For frankincense, jeunp"", and brom, for smoking the 

howse ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 010 

For clensing the howse, & for meat & driuke to hym & 

hir in the tyme of sicknes, & to two s'runts & 

clensers had. (Sum not named.) 
Delt to ye poore at ye first tyme ... ... ... ... 8 8 

At another tyme delt to the poore in bread and money ... 13 4 
To Ralf , Henrie, and Jenett Myddleton, for keping hym 

in his raige of sicknesse ... ... ... ... 042 

To the p'son, making the will, and writing it ou' thrise 6 8 
To Willm Mylnes for fetching John Heworthe f rends ... 010 
For bord waigs for Jenett Heworthe for xviij. weaks ... 1 

"Unto Richard Archbald" the dying quarryman bequeaths articles 
of armour — " a cott of plait, a stele cap with a covering, and a sword," 
and also "j)urse, dagger, and belt." Among the witnesses were 
James Cole, Nicholas Cole, and Lawrence Dodsworth, clerk. (Surtees 
Society : Wills and Inventories.) James Cole is the famous Gates- 
head smith, from whose anvil sprang a Mayor of Newcastle, Ralph 
Cole, depicted by the Norwich travellers of 1634 as "fat and rich," 
and " vested in a sack of sattin." His worship was the purchaser of 
princely Brancepeth ; which in the time of James I. had windows of 
" extraordenarie Normandie glasse, much of it wrought with armes 
and ymagery worke." With him, as Sheriff, sat his son Nicholas, 
who became a Baronet, and was father of Sir Ralph Cole, returned to 
Parliament by the county of Durham, at the head of the poll, in 1678. 
The great mansion of the Coles, with its grounds and gardens extend- 
ing back to Oakwellgate, long stood conspicuous in Old Gateshead ; 
and a picturesque portion of it, engraved for Richardson's Table Book 
in 1844, lingered in the High Street, opposite to Half Moon Lane, 
down to the month of June, 1865, when it disappeared. The accounts 
of the Four-and-Twenty have a note of the receipt in 1638-39 of 
38. 4d. from one of the family, viz., " James Cole, for his Ant Jane 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 



2S5 



Cole her larrestone;" that is, her "lair" (or grave)" stone ; a form of 
speech now obsolete by Tyne Bridge. 




Relic op Old Gateshead, 1844. Removed, 1865. 

At both ends of the bridge the paviours were in motion in 1633, 
quickened into action by the approaching coming of Charles the First. 
Not twenty years before, the rammer was resounding through the 
city of London. "At this time (1615), the citizens began their new 
pavement of broad free stone, close to their shops ; and the taking 
down of all high causies, all about London." (Stowe's Annals : 
Howes.) Eighteen years later, the Four-and-Twenty of Gateshead, 
in anticipation of the royal arrival, resolved "that the street from 
Helgate end to Pipewell-gate end be forthwith laid with hewen stone." 
The work went on apace ; and there was " paid for laying 48 yeardes 
of newe stone, and 6 yeardes of old, in the Botle Banke, £8 8s. 6d." 
Also, "to workmen for makeing the stretts even at the King's 
coming, 18s. 4d.;" and "for ringing three severall dayes, 9s. 4d." 

The King came and went ; the civil war broke out and passed 
away ; and the ordinary affairs of the world flowed on in Gateshead 
and everywhere. The Four-and-Twenty were "laying the Banke 
newe" in 1652, "being 45 yardes long, at 48. per yarde, £29." The 



236 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

whole town, apparently, was overhauled. The sum of 1 8s, 7(3, was 
laid out in " paving 89 yards in Collier Chare at 2^d, per yard ;" and 
"for mending the Hie Street and the Causeway, £1 10s." "For 
layinge the Bume Stone in Pipewellgate," a shilling was spent ; and 
the locality is named in connection with "a cistern." An item of 
1656-57 assists us in reconstructing the aspect of the approaches to 
the mother church in the days of the Commonwealth : — " 60 foote of 
stepp, at 7d. a foote, goeing up to the church. 10 yards of flagging, 
at 2s. per yard, goeing up there. Mending of the ould stepps, 3s. 4d." 
An earlier item — one of the year 1638 — contributes another feature to 
the picture : — " Mending the church stile, and tiles into it. Is. 6d." 
St. Mary's had her " lich gate," where the corpse was brought to rest 
and shelter till the priest came to meet the mourners. 

In the adjacent Anchorage dwelt thebellman— successor of the fair 
recluse whose churchyard cell had received the license of the Bishop 
three centuries before the coming of King Charles. "Mr. John 
Thompson, minister," occurs in 1657-58, " who teacheth schole in the 
Anchoridge." It was the meeting-place, moreover, of one of the incor- 
porated companies of the borough — the "Weavers' Tower" of Gateshead. 
"An amicable and contented race" were the inmates, yet ready to 
unite with "the weavers of Newcastle in endeavouring to extirpate 
* foreigners;' " those alien artists of the loom who were alike obnoxious to 
both. Foreigners and free, it is all one now. The law has abolished exclu- 
sive privileges of trade and manufacture; and the clock in the old church 
tower, that " beats out the little lives of men," has brought the shuttle 
to silence all roundabout the Anchorage. In directories and news- 
papers of the eighteenth century, we read of the weavers of Gateshead, 
who, when Old Tyne Bridge had fallen in 1771, were working at their 
webs in Oakwellgate and Hillgate, and in the neighbourhood of the 
Tolbooth, and in Pipewellgate and the Low Church Chare, responsive 
to the clack of the looms in the High Bridge and the Painter Heugh, 
and by the Castle Garth and the Ousebum. But the shadows shift on 
the dial; the old order changeth; and the pattern in the loom of Time 
is ever new, 

Gateshead had its sun-dial in bygone days, and was spending 14s. 6d. 
over " painting and cutting it" in 1655. About this time sprung up a 
movement for a church clock. A pubhc subscription was set on foot. 



AJS'D OLD GATESHEAD. 237 

The sum of £8 10s. 6d. was "received of divers inhabitants" in 1656, 
" as free contributions,-" and in 1657 there is a fee of " £1 for keeping 
of the clock for the year." The parish had now its silent horologe on 
the wall, and its tongue of time in the tower. It had also its hour-glass 
by the preacher's elbow, and could learn lessons with the laureate — 

From every grain of sand that runs, 

And every span of shade that steals. 

And every kiss of toothed wheels, 
And all the courses of the suns. 

" The iron that the hour-glass standeth in" had done such long service 
in St. Mary's that it needed repairs; and eventually there came a re- 
newal of the glass itself. The hour gave place to half-hour. Till, in 
the end, the last sand was run out, and sermons ceased to be measured 
by the grain. 

Were sermons shortening in the seventeenth century ? It might 
almost seem so. The church of All Saints' in Newcastle got "an 
half-houer glass " in 1 640, and " an hower and half-an-hower glasse " 
in 1641; and came down to "a 20-minute glass" in 1706. (Sop- 
with's " Historical Account.") 

The depreciated measure of the coinage impaired the resources of 
society. In common with the rest of the country, Gateshead suffered 
by the clippers. " Lost," in 1647, " by the chaingin of seaven pounds 
in dipt monies, 18s." "Lost by dipt monies," in 1652, "8s. llgd." 
Riots arose out of the covetousness of the shears. The Yorkshire 
antiquary, Abraham de La Pryme, was at Brigg in the summer of 1696, 
" to hear the newse," and was told of disturbances on the Tyne. In 
and around Newcastle, there was " a great risinge of the mob about the 
money not going." " Poor people are forced to let their clip'd shillings 
go" at a sacrifice of from twopence to sixpence each ; " and some at 
shops are forced to. give as much more for anything they by as is ask'd 
for it." The Four-and-Twenty vented their vexation in a dip of ink: 
the commons, with no rates to fall back upon, fell to rioting. 

All this time the parochial minutes were giving lessons as to the 
fauna of the surrounding country; and ever and anon the old church 
door, exhibiting a head m terrorem, threw in its leaf of natural history 
for popular perusal. Foxes and foumarts roamed over the common at 

EE 



238 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

the risk of their lives. With its open fields, its moor and fell, Gateshead 
had been a hunting ground from Magna Charta to the Bill of Eights, 
the chase dwindling down to rabbits before the time of the Eeform Bill. 
The late Mr. John Bell used to show, in his now scattered collections, 
a handbill, less ancient than "Waterloo, warning unlicensed Nimrods to 
avoid the Rabbit Banks! The four-footed folk of the grassy mount, 
down which the iron road now runs, were rigidly preserved. It were 
curious to know the day when the last inhabitant of the burrows was 
seen sitting at his door; but no Captain Cuttle has left a note of it in his 
pocket-book. Thanks to the Churchwardens and Four-and-Twenty, we 
do know when foumarts and foxes, running wild over the Town Fields, 
were prowling among hen-roosts and rabbit warrens, and were chased 
and captured in turn, not only without prohibition or penalty, but with 
prospect of reward. " Mr. SkeUton's man," as the Household Books of 
Naworth inform us, had 5s. from Lord Wilham Howard, on the 27th of 
October, 1612, for " caching a fox," (Surtees Society, vol. 68); and the 
Gateshead Vestry paid Is. 4d. for " a fox and a badger's head" in 1683. 
King James succeeded King Charles; and in the month of Jane, 1687, 
" a fox's head" brought a shilling, " a feomard's" threepence. Similar 
payments run through the subsequent century: — 1730, "a foumert's 
head naild to the church door, 4d." 1 760, "a vermin's head, 4d." 1 785, 
*' three foumerts' heads. Is." As many as " ten foumerts' heads" occur 
at one swoop in 1790. The customary payment for a head was a groat, 
save in the case of a fox. Eeynard was a special object of hatred, and 
a shiUing was set on his ravenous jaws. 

On the north as on the south side of the river, fox and foumart, 
and badger or "brock," brought remuneration in vestries. A fox's 
head, for which a shilling had been paid, was stuck on the "oh. dore" 
of All Saints' ; and down to the year 1731, the head of the otter came 
to the vestry for a groat. (Sopwith.) 

Ample are the materials for local history. The adventurous pen 
has but to thrust in its point, and reap. One large sheaf it may gather 
for a chapter on the mutations of language. When the "Waine 
Menne" of Gateshead were claiming " thorough toll" — sixpence for 
every wain and threepence for a cart — the besom and the shovel were 
" dighting" the main street to keep it passable for traflfic. " Dighting 



AND OLD GATESHEAD. 239 

the fore-street, and carrying away the rubish," brought a burden on the 
rates, in the month of February, 1637, amounting to £1 6s. 8d. The 
word, as unfamiliar, now, as " lairstone" or " skail" to the Tyneside ear, 
was in common use with our ancestors. It plays its part in the books 
of the Gateshead Yestry and in those of the Corporation of Newcastle. 
In the year 1561, "Robart Thompsonne, for dighting of the Cayll 
Cros"at the foot of Allhallows' Bank, was receiving a shilling as "his 
quarterige." The good woman who " dighted the Merchants' Hall and 
the Court against the Feste" in 1595, had sixpence for the service. It 
is a word of wide application in literature and in speech. It rises up 
from the making comely of a street or a room, to Milton's " storied 
windows richly dight." 

Some half-century ago, I first heard the word in living speech. 
In the year that gave a Supplement to Dr. Jamieson's Etymological 
Dictionary of the Scottish Language, it happened to me to be standing 
within the music of St. Giles's chimes in Edinburgh. Two youngsters, 
close at hand, came to words, one of whom bore down upon the other 
with the metaphor of an old proverb. " Gae wa'," he cried with scorn, 
" dight your neb, and flee up." I made a note of the phrase in memory, 
by the side of other colloquial evidences that words have wings. They 
" flee up," and are off ; and the place that knew them knows them no 
more. 

Narrow was formerly the peopled area on the southern slope of the 
Tyne, with its four Wards— " Pipewellgate " and "Pant," "Bank" 
and "High" — over which the Four-and-Twenty bore rule down to the 
"dighting of the fore-street" in 1637; nor was it much extended 
when the third George was approaching the meridian of his reign. 
Whitehead's Directory guides us to its limits by his roll of the 
tradesmen of the town in 1787, not quite one hundred and fifty in 
number. Somewhere about two dozen of them — not more — dwelt 
above what is now called Half Moon Lane. The business operations 
of Gateshead were chiefly carried on below the line of the railway 
bridge thrown over the High Street forty years ago. " High Street," 
however, is a name unknown to Whitehead. The localities given in 
his Directory are no more than sixteen ; and this, as will be seen, is 
not of the number. 



240 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK, 

Bottle Bank 64 

Pipewellgate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24 

South End of Tyne Bridge 3 

South Shore 9 

Near Pellon Hole, South Shore 1 

Hillgate 15 

Oakwellgate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

High Church Lane ... ... ... ... . . ... 1 

High Church Chare ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Low Church Chare ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

NearTolbooth 3 

Above Tolbooth ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Below Tolbooth 11 

Above Old Chapel (Trinity) 2 

Below Old Chapel 3 

Near Old Chapel 1 

Of these 149 tradesmen, 37 (say one-fourth) were publicans, one 
only of whom is described as " innkeeper." Bottle Bank and the river- 
side comprised the greater portion of the trade of the town. The 
three " Ships," the " Ship Launch," and the " Barge," betoken the 
prevalence of the shipping and shipbuilding interest in the borough. 
Among the business addresses that speak of an industrial condition 
differing from that of the present day, may be cited : — "Grey, Edward, 
weaver, above Tolbooth ;" " Hewitson, Saint, Ormston, & Co., sugar- 
house, Hillgate;" and "Summers, John, shipbuilder, Greenland 
Fishery, South Shore." 

The Bottle Bank of Whitehead's day was less limited than now. 
It rose from the east end of Pipewellgate to near the site of the 
railway crossing ; its course unbroken by " Church Street," not 
constructed until 1790. At the head of Bottle Bank, between the 
premises of Isaac Jopling (the enterprising marble-mason who received 
the gold medal of the Society of Arts in 1810), and one of the three 
Half Moons of Gateshead, ran westward a covered passage-way, lead- 
ing by Bailiff (or Bailey) Chare to that great high road of various 
denominations, the " Angiport" of the Eomans ; the "Dark" or "Mirk 
Chare" of our forefathers ; their " King's Way behind the Gardens," 
or "Way which leads from Collier Chare to Durham ;" not to mention 
numerous names more. In modern days it is known by a title taken 
from its position in relation to the High Street. But, in the period 



AND OLD GATESHKAD. 241 

of the piper and the Town Fields, " West Street," says Mr. Longstaffe 
(on whose manor of " Old Gateshead" I am poaching), "was really the 
high road to Durham, and High Street was but the town-street and 
cattle-gate to the Fell." 

The day came when the narrow pack-horse outlet from the " town 
street" to the " king's way" must be widened, and become a lane for 
wheeled vehicles. The time-worn Tolbooth, out of which an adventur- 
ous prisoner was breaking his way in the summer of 1771, had been 
removed as an obstruction in 1797. Other facilities for public inter- 
course were in general request ; and before the close of the century 
the alley that divided the Mason's Yard from the Half Moon was 
broadened into an uncovered lane. Mr. Jopling then proposed to 
himself, in the spirit of the old adage, to have the amended thorough- 
fare at his door named " Marble Street ;" but, not keeping his own 
counsel, before he had reared his sculptured slab, Mr. Birch, the 
landlord, stole a march upon him. To the surprise of the master- 
mason, he saw in the early morning the apparition of " Half Moon 
Lane" on the wall of the inn. Much disconcerted, he stuck up his 
inscription nevertheless. But the pubhc went with the innkeeper; the 
" Half Moon Lane" passed into common speech ; and the controversy 
was forgotten — forgotten until 1847 ; in which year further buildings 
were removed, to make the widened way still wider. The long-hidden 
tablet, which had been covered by a tradesman's sign, then came 
unexpectedly to light ; and the " old standards" had to interpret its 
meaning to a new generation. The railway age, with its extended 
requirements, had now led to the formation of one of the broadest streets 
in the borough ; and the seniors had to descant on the days of their 
youth, when a flaming forge stood on the spot, and in front of the 
smithy rose up a " huge wooden pump, flinging its long arm over the 
public street, by the side of the foot-road." 

Where the old Roman way approaches the river, and the iron road 
crosses its line in the rear of the Half Moon Inn, "The Butts" had 
once their place, and English bowmen sent their shafts in pursuit 
of the target. Here, in Elizabethan days, "John Heath, the great 
archer of Lamesley," would match his arrow against the field, and 
uphold the renown of islands that were rising to an empire surpassing 
that of the masters of the world who had subdued them. England 



242 ABIGAIL AND TIMOTHY TYZACK. 

won the dominant position filled by Eome in the time of the Emperor 
that builded iis our bridge and founded our town. Hadrian, who 
came to the Tyne, and singled out the strong position where, happily, 
forts and towers are now no longer required, and viaducts are multi- 
plied, was a wondrous traveller and keen observer. In one of his far- 
reaching excursions by sea and land, he sends home from Alexandria a 
pleasant letter to his brother-in-law, Servian, commemorating the art 
that led me to the -WTiting of this paper. Looking around him on 
the Egyptian capital, he exclaims, " Seditious, vain, impertinent 
generation ! Opulent, rich, productive city, where no one lives in 
idleness ! Some blow glass, others make paper, others are dyers. All 
profess and practise a business of some sort. ♦ * * j jj^ve 
forwarded to thee some allassontes glasses (of changing colour), offered 
to me by the priest of the temple. They are specially dedicated to 
thee and to my sister. Use them at dinner on festive occasions ; but 
see, however, that our Africanus do not let himself make too much use 
of them." {Contemporary Review, July, 1879.) 

The world " changes colour " more marvellously than the glasses 
dispatched by the imperial wanderer to his sister's table. Great would 
be the contrasts presented to him on his travels by Alexandria and 
the Tyne ; and how charmingly would he now sketch and moralize, 
could he revisit England and the Nile, and see, by the side of our 
transformed ^lian viaduct, the High Level Bridge of that engineer 
whose tubular roadways span the eastern waters of the Delta ! 



TWO INSCRIBED STONES FOUND AT JARROW. 243 



ON TWO INSCEIBED STONES FOUND AT JAEEOW 
IN 1782. 

The Slab found at Jarrow, No, 538 in the " Lapidarium Sep- 
tentrionale," was presented, as the society is aware, to 
THE EoYAL Society of Antiquaries in London, by the 

LATE CuTHBERT ElLISON, OF HeBBURN. 



I examined this important historical monument twice within recent 
years, before the removal of that Society's collection of antiquities from 
Somerset House to Burlington House, and have since examined it again 
in the latter site, during the past and present years of 1875, 1876. 
Brand's original plate of this stone and of its inscription still remains 
the best, and his reading (which was fully adopted by the Eev. John 
Hodgson) is stiU valuable, only that it is not quite complete, in conse- 
quence of two letters after the word exercitvs, and five more consti- 
tuting a line below, having escaped observation. 

I will now give the inscription complete, as it has appeared to my 
eyes upon the stone, now accessible to antiquaries at Burlington House. 
Nevertheless, I entirely concur with those who believe that the word 
DiFFVSis, which at present stands first, must have been preceded by a 
word or words forming a lost line above it. And this, because diffvsis 
PROViNCiis is a figurative mode of expression, only admissible after some 
term more simple and direct than diffvsis. 

The simplest and most probable introductory words that can perhaps 
be proposed for consideration are, extensis ac. These words I will 
then place at the beginning, within brackets. 

[extensis ac] 

diffvsis 
provinciis[in] 
britannia ad 

VTRVMQVE 0[STIVM] 

EXERCITVS P.P. (perpetuum) 
[p]ONi CVRAV (monumentum). 



24:4 TWO INSCBIBED STONES FOUND AT JAfiROW. 

It will be perceived that this inscription is perfect at its conclusion. 
It is certainly quite unconnected with the other stone numbered 539 
in the Lapidarium Septentrional. It does not seem to depend upon 
any other stone that is known to us in respect of its meaning and 
significancy. The sense, of course, would be: — "The Provinces in 
Britain being extended and diffused as far as either Estuary, the Army 
has taken care that an enduring memorial be now placed." 

RALPH CARR ELLISON. 
April 5, 1876, and July 20, 1876. 



The Inscbibed Stone found not far from the other, and now 
IN the Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne, numbered 539 in the 
" Lapidarium Septentrionale." 



Although the lower ends of three or four letters of a line at the 
top, which has been destroyed by fracture of the stone there, remain 
perceptible, the first legible portion of this inscription is this: — 

OMNIVM • FEL 

[ICISSJHADR 

lANI CES REL-AT- 

And I cannot doubt that it ought to be completed in the erased part 
with the syllables iciss, and read — 

Omnium fel- 

icissimi Hadr- 

iani Cesaris. 

In point of fact faint traces of the letters iciss are still present. 

This, indeed, is the reading which would first present itself to almost 
every student of the inscription. I well remember my own incapacity 
to accept the omnium filiorum, of Brand, or to understand why it 
should have been allowed to remain unquestioned ; when, in fact, to 
defend and maintain it would probably be impossible, in the face of a 
much more obvious phrase applied to the emperor himself. 



TWO INSCRIBED STONES FOUND AT JARROW. 246 

Brand, however, offers a valuable conjecture, that the lost line above 
" must have been Pro salute." 

In strong confirmation of this are the syllables REL • at • at the end 
of the third visible line, but the proper fourth. The " r" is, indeed, 
very feebly shown, and might easily be mistaken for " s." Careful ex- 
amination of the stone, and of the large photographs, will, nevertheless, 
re-establish the " r" in its proper place; and the natural inference will 
be that rel • at • is to be read as for relevata. 

PRO SALVTE 

OMNIVM FEL- 

ICISSIMI HADR- 

lANI CESAEIS RELEVATA 

Then follows — 

VATES IN OR • R 
YIT 

And as the initial figure in this latter sixth line is one which Horsley 
admits among those of "m" as in use by the Romans, I conceive that 
in this offering we may probably infer the homage of a Mithraic Priest, 
although Hadrian is said to have been no friend to the Mithraic worship. 
In the latter half of the sixth line I seem to read marino, but with a 
confusing interblending of mar, which renders the syllable difficult to 
recognize. The final line seems to contain, in faint and uncertain 
characters (but still well worthy of study), the mention of two cohorts 
and the usual votive formula : — 

VATES IN OR • R 

MIT MARINO 

COH • M COH IV VO SS 

? 

The whole seems to me to have run thus: — 

PRO SALVTE 
OMNIVM FEL- 
ICISS • HADR- 

lANi CES REL -AT (relcvata) 
VATES IN OR • R (ordine recto) 
MIT MARINO (MithraB marino) 

COH • M • COH IV VO SS. 

? PF 



24fi TWO INSCRIBED STONES FOUND AT JARROW. 

The two Jarrow stones or slabs are manifestly quite distinct and 
independent of each other, when we examine them closely and severely. 
And each inscription is perfect, or nearly so, in itself. The resemblance 
between them is confined to the size and dimensions of material, which 
may indicate that they occupied similar places in or against some public 
edifice. But the execution of the characters upon the two is widely 
different. That upon the stone in London shows all the care, depth, 
and precision proper to a public monument of importance; whilst that 
of the Newcastle stone is careless and unequal. 

RALPH CARR ELLISON. 
August 2, 1876. 



VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHBSTER. 247 



ON A VOTIVE TABLET, WITH INSCEIPTION, RECENTLY 
FOUND AT BINCHESTER. 



By the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, LL.D., F.R.A.S. 

A Paper read before the Society of An^tiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, October 29th, 1879. 



In February last I had the pleasure of bringing before the Society the 
discoveries which had been made by Mr. Proud, of Bishop Auckland, 
at Binchester, the ancient Vinoviura. Mr. Proud's researches have 
been continued since that time, and fuller results have been obtained. 
It will give me pleasure, at some future time, before the paper I read 
in February last is printed in the Transactions of the Society, to bring 
the account of the explorations up to date, that the whole may be 
included in the same printed record. In the meantime, however, I 
thought an account of an exceedingly interesting find, of a special 
character, which has very recently taken place, would be acceptable to 
the Society. 

It was on the 3rd of the present month (October, 1879) that the 
workman came upon the votive tablet with inscription, which is 
depicted in the photograph I have the pleasure of laying upon the 
table. It is of a soft grit stone, which probably came from Weardale, 
and measures 23 inches in length by 6 to 7 inches in thickness. Its 
original breadth was probably 18 inches. It was broken, doubtless in 
ancient times, and what we have is not the whole : our fragment is of 
the full length, but only 16 inches wide at the top, and 10 inches wide 
at the bottom. Consequently a considerable portion of the inscription 
is gone. Fortunately, however, there is little difficulty in supplying 
the part that is wanting. The tablet contained two sculptured figures, 



248 



VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHE8TER. 



one male, the other female, the latter of somewhat smaller proportions 
than the former. The male figure is partially draped ; probably the 
female figure was so also. With his right hand the male figure grasps 
the left hand of the female, and his left hand is on the neck of a serpent 
coiled round an upstanding balk of wood. Over and about the head 
of the female is the first part of the inscription, and beneath the feet 
of the two figures is the latter part. I sent impressions of the two 
portions of the inscription, as soon as I had seen the tablet, to our 
distinguished secretary. Dr. Bruce, to Mr, Roach Smith, Dr. Hiibner, 
Mr. Thompson Watkin, and other friends and correspondents. To 
Dr. Bruce and Mr. Eoach Smith 
I sent, at the same time, my 
restoration of the lost portion 

and expansion of the whole, ^mhIBWI^^ }W::!iW^^HM^ 

which were as follows: — 

[aes]cvlapio 

[etJsalvti 

[pro salv]te alae vet 

[tONVM-] C-R-M- AVRE 
[l • gloss] OCOMAS • MB 

[v-s-]l-m- 

Expanded : — 

aesculapio et saluti, 
pro salute alae vettonum, 

civium romanorum, 
marcus aurelius glossocomas, 

MEDICUS, 

votum solvit LIBENS MERITO 

(or? meritis). 

It is with much satisfaction that I am able to state that all concur 
in this restoration and expansion, reserving only the cognomen of the 
dedicator. With regard to it there must be doubt. What the first 
syllable may have been must remain matter of conjecture. Reserving 
that point Dr. Bruce and Mr. Roach Smith concurred fully in the 
interpretation given; and Dr. Hiibner and Mr. Watkin, to each of 
whom I sent impressions only, sent restorations and expansions iden- 




VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTEE. 249 

tical with mine. Mr. Watkin left the cognomen blank, while Dr. 
Hiibner suggested habrocomas. A learned prelate of our English 
Church, to whom I also gave impressions, suggested chrysocomas. 
For GLOSSOCOMAS I must confess I have not found any authority, 
though, when I suggested it, I thought I remembered it as a name. 
Habrocomas means in Greek, to which language the cognomen seems 
certainly to belong, " the soft-haired one," and chrysocomas means 
" the golden-haii-ed one." Each, if I have miderstood my friends aright, 
has actually occurred as a proper name. With the exception of the 
name of the dedicator, then, I think we may conclude that the inscrip- 
tion, in English, was certainly as follows : — 

" To Aesculapius and Salus, 

For the Health and Safety of the Ala of the Vettonians, 

Roman Citizens, 

Marcus Aurelius Habrocomas (or other name*), 

Physician, 

Has erected this 

In due and cheerful performance of his vow." 

A question of great interest now arises : — What light does this 
tablet throw upon the military occupation of Vinovium? Other sub- 
ordinate questions, also of much interest, such as the peculiarity of a 
dedication to Aesculapius and Salus, the probable nationality of the 
dedicator, his profession, &c., I shall at present pass over. But, with 
regard to the first question, it appears to me that this tablet is one of 
prime importance. It seems to intimate that the Ala Hispanorum 
Vettonum, Civium Romanorum, garrisoned Vinovium at one period 
of its history. The Vettones were a people of the Spanish Peninsula, 
dwelling in what is now the Province of Salamanca, between the rivers 
Douro and Tagus, the scene of several celebrated exploits in our own 
Peninsular War, and were renowned as horsemen. They are mentioned 
by the Roman poet Lucan in the 4:th Book of his Pharsalia : — 

His praeter Latias acies erat impiger Astur, 
Vectonesque leves, profugicpie a gente vetusta 
Gallorum, Celtae inisceiites iiomen Iberis. 

* Since the paper was read, Mr. R. Carr Ellison has suggested another name, 
LEUCOCOMAS, "The white-haired one." 



250 VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTER. 

"They," Afranius and Petreius, "had, besides their Itah'an troops, 
the unwearied Asturian, and the swift Vettonians, and the exiles from 
the ancient race of the Gauls who mingle in their designation the 
names of Celts and Iberians." Silius Italicus also speaks of them, and 
of the rare qualities of their horses, and of the marvellous manner in 
which it was believed the breed of their horses was maintained, in the 
3rd Book of his Punic War : — 

At Vettonum alas Balarus probat aequore aperto. 
Hie adeo cum ver placidum, flatusque, tepescit, 
Concubitus servans tacitos grex prostat equanim, 
Et venerem occultam genitali concipit &\itL 
Sed non inulta dies geiieri, properatque senectus, 
Septimaque his stabulis longissima ducitur aetas. 
At non Sarmaticos attoUens Susana muros 
Tam levibus persultat equis ; huic venit in arma 
Hand a«vi fragilis sonipes, crudoque vigore, 
Asper frena pati, aut jussis parere magistri. 

" On the other hand, Balaras displays the alae of the Vettonians in the 
open plain. Among these people, moreover, when peaceful spring 
comes and the air grows warm, the herd of mares, making silent 
unions, expose themselves to the breeze and conceive hidden offspring 
from the prolific air. But the race has not long life, and old age hastens 
on, and the seventh year in the stalls of this country is passed in extreme 
old age. But the city of Susa, raising aloft its Sarmatian walls, does 
not command such swift horses. The war horse comes hence to battle, 
not tender through youth, but fierce with crude vigour, to bear the rein 
and obey the behests of his rider." 

The Vettonians probably came into Britain with Hadrian. They 
are mentioned in the Malpas Diploma, with which it will be noticed 
the C'B,- of our inscription perfectly accords. They are mentioned, 
too, in inscriptions found at Bath and Bowes. Neither of those in- 
scriptions, however, necessarily suggests military occupation. On the 
contrary, the Bowes inscription, read by the light of ours, seems to lead 
to the conclusion that they were stationed at no great distance from 
Bowes, but not actually there. We will dismiss the Bath inscription 
fii-st. It was discovered in 1736, and is upon a sepulchral slab. It 
reads thus, according to Prebendary Scarth, who has described it in his 
" Roman Remains of Bath :" — 



VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTEE. 251 

L-VITELLIVS-MA 

NTAI F TANCINVS 

GIVES • HISP • CAVKIESIS 

EQ • ALAE • VETTONVM C-E- 

ANN • XXXXVI • STIP • XXVI 

H- S- E- 

That is to say: — "Lucius Vitellius Tancinus, the son of Mantaus, a 
Spanish citizen, of Caurium, a horseman of the Ala of the Yettonians, 
Roman citizens, who died aged 46 years, having served in the army 
26 years, lies buried here." 

Tancinus, when ill, may have gone to Bath for the benefit of the 
waters. In the absence of any further record of the Ala at Aquae Solis, 
we cannot conclude from his sepulchral monument that the Ala was 
stationed there. 

The Bowes inscription is very interesting. It was found there 
many years ago, and is on an altar dedicated to the goddess Fortune. 
It reads thus, according to Horsley : — "Deae Fortunae. Yirius Lupus 
Legatus Augustalis Propraetor. Balineum vi ignis exustum Cohors 
Prima Thracum restituit, Curante Valerio Frontone Praefecto Equitum 
Alae Vettonum." 

That is to say: — " To the goddess Fortune. Virius Lupus, Imperial 
Lieutenant, Grovernor of Britain. The baths bm*ned to the ground the 
First Cohort of the Thraciaiis rebuilt, under the superintendence of 
Valerius Fronto Praefect of the Cavalry of the Ala of the Yettonians." 

This is perfectly consistent with the location of the Ala of the Yet- 
tonians at Yinovium. The architect of the restoration was Yalerius 
Fronto, the Colonel of the Yettonian Dragoons, who may have acquired 
a reputation for skill in such matters, but the instruments were not 
his own soldiers, but the First Cohort of the Thracians. Bowes is at 
no great distance from Yinovium. There cannot be a doubt but that 
there was a direct road in Eoman times between the two places. What 
more natural than that the man specially qualified for the work, when 
so near at hand, should be called upon to superintend the re-erection of 
the building, especially if it was done by order of the Propraetor, the 
Governor of Britain, himself, as it is very possible it was.* 

* The Vettonians are also mentioned, Mr. Thompson Watkin informs me, in an 
inscription found, about two years since, on a portion of a sepulchral slab, near 



252 VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTER. 

It is remarkable how many important public edifices were re-erected 
in this frontier district within a generation, and for the same or similar 
assigned reasons. The baths at Bowes had been burned down, but a 
granary, probably the Commissariat stores, at Great Chesters, the 
arsenal, and general's headquarters, at Lan Chester, had " tumbled in 
through age." The words used, in each of these latter instances, are 
"conlabsum vetustate." I can understand them in no other sense 
than as implying a long absence of the Romans from the stations, a 
period of desolation, or, at any rate, of neglect, during their absence, — 
the natives woulduse other fortresses and other edifices, — a re-occupa- 
tion, and a re-edification of the burned or dilapidated structures. The 
baths at Bowes seem to have been rebuilt not far from the year a.d. 
202, the stores at Great Chesters about A.D. 225, the arsenal and 
general's headquarters at Lanchester about a.d. 239. I think the 
dedication of our tablet belongs probably to pretty nearly the same 
period as the rebuilding of the baths at Bowes. Possibly the army 
surgeon, Chrysocomas, or Habrocomas, accompanied the Vettonian 
cavalry, when the expedition was made from Eboracum or Isurium, 
which resulted in the re-conquest of the southern portion, at least, of 
the Highland district, and possibly he registered a vow to Aesculapius 
and Salus, that, if his charge escaped decimation by wounds or sick- 
ness or both combined, he would duly manifest his gratitude when the 
lost stronghold was recovered, and the eagles again spread their wings 
in our dangerous and difficult region. If so, the tablet is a witness to 
the stubbornness and prowess of our British forefathers. 

I do not think the Vettonian Ala can have been the first garrison 
of Yinovium, for the bricks and tiles, apparently used at the time of 
the first building, bear the stamp n con ; the meaning of the second 
portion of which inscription has never yet been made out. That the 
first conquest was a difficult oiie, we may be sure, not only from the 

Brecon, now in the possession of Mr. Baron Cleasby. It is, unfortunately, only 
fragmentary. What there is reads thus :— ^ 

Dis.u 

CAND 

NI.FILI 

HISP.TBTT 

CLEM. DOM 

AN.XX.STIP.III.H . . 



VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTER. 253 

nature of the country, and the acknowledged bravery of the Britons, 
but from the words of Juvenal in his 14th Satire : — 

Vitem posce libello ; 
Dirue Maurorum attegias, castella Brigantum, 
Ut locupletem aquilam tibi sexagesimus annus 
Afferat. 

Which may be freely rendered : — 

" Petition for a centurion's post. 
Enter the army, take active service. 

Destroy the tents of the Moors, the fortresses of the Brigantes, 
That, by the time you are sixty years old, you may 
Get appointed to some lucrative berth," 

A mode of reference to the hardy warriors of our northern counties 
which certainly seems to intimate that they gave the all-powerful 
Romans in Hadrian's days more trouble than Cabul and Candahar 
have given us, thus far, in these. Martial's words, also, in the 4th 
Book of his Epigrams : — 

Rides nomina ? Rideas licebit. 

Haec tam rustica malo quam Britannos. 

" You laugh at our Spanish names ? Laugh if you like. 
Uncouth as they are, I like them better than the Britons." 

imply the same, for they show that Vinovium, Vindomora, Cilurnum, 
and Eboracum, were in everybody's mouth in Rome at that time, as 
Ali Kheyl, Shutargardan, and Khoorum, have been in ours of late. 
And this view of the subject is confirmed, in a most interesting man- 
ner, by a Roman inscription lately found at Escombe Old Church. Mr. 
LongstaflFe was the first to point out that there were letters on a stone 
in the north wall of the nave of the Saxon Church there, which he gave 
as c -v • Mr. Pritchett, of Darlington, examining them more closely, 
and removing some of the plaster with which a portion of the inscrip- 
tion was covered, found that they were leg vi. I have not yet been 
able to examine them for myself, so cannot tell whether the leg vi 
was followed by another v.* But, whether so or not, it is plain, I think, 

* I have since examined it carefully, but without discovering any trace of a 
final V. It is possible, however, that the stone was shortened before it was built 
into the wall of the church. 

C! G 



254 VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTER. 

that the "Sixth Legion, the Victorious," was engaged in the first 
reduction of Vinovium, and that some circumstance of more than 
ordinary import induced it to leave a memorial of its presence there. 
Then the "Numerus Con " would, I take it, be left in perma- 
nent possession, until, in the lapse of time, and after an abandonment 
and a reconquest, that duty devolved upon the Ala Vettonum.* 

It will be interesting now to note how the occupation of Vinovium 
by the Vettonian cavahy, which I have been engaged in deducing from 
the tablet just found, fits in with the other inscriptions which have 
been discovered, in former times, at Binchester. 

I think these number, as far as have been recorded, eight. Unfor- 
tunately, but one of the whole number is known to be still in existence. 
Of the rest, one, I think, contained only the letters v-s-l-m- still 
legible. Another told us nothing of the dedicator but his cognomen. 
Gemellus. A third was erected by a consular beneficiary. Each of 
the other five has a direct bearing on our question. 

The inscription still known to be in existence is on an altar at 
Durham. The dedicator was Marcus Valerius Fulvianus, "praefec- 
tus equitum," — " colonel of horse." This entirely accords with an ala 
of cavalry being in gari'ison. Another was on a sepulchral slab erected 
to the memory of Nemontanus, "decurio" — "captain of horse." This 
equally accords with the arrangement. The slab was erected by the 
brother of Nemontanus " and his coheirs in obedience to his will." 
This looks very much like settled occupation of the post by the cavalry, 
and by cavalry who were Roman citizens. Another has always been a 
puzzle. It is given in a letter from the Rev. J. Farrer, of Witton-le- 
Wear, to the Rev. Mr. Randall, of Whitworth, now in the possession 
of the Rev. W. Green well, as : — 

.SVLP VIC 
VETT 

CANN 
V-S-L-M 

But Mr. Farrer intimates that it was far from being perfectly legible. 

* Unless the abbreviation " Con." stand for Concordiensium or Consaburen- 
sium, in which case the " Numerus " might be a portion of the Vettonian cavalry 
recruited from the neighbourhood of Concordia or of Consabrum. These were cities 
of Spain near to, if not actually within, the country of the Vettonians. 



VOTIVE TABLET AT BINCHESTER. 255 

I will not discuss now what letters the first and third lines probably 
consisted of, and what they meant, but the correspondence of the 
second line with the tablet recently discovered is obvious and remark- 
able. So, also, is one of the various readings of the inscription on 
another altar given by Camden, Cotton, and Sibbald. Camden's read- 
ing is well known. It contains the word caetov • • • • Sibbald's 
reading, however, runs thus : — 

teib-oi- • -T 

cart * OVAL 

MARTI VETTO 

GENIO LOCI 

LIT • IXT 

Whatever may be made of the rest, the remarkable coincidence of the 
word VETTO, again, with the tablet just found, and with the Eev. J. 
Farrer's altar, is very striking. 

The only inscription I have yet to notice is : — 

• • MANDVS 

EX • C • FRIS 

VINOVIE 

V- S-L-M 

This Mr. Watkin renders, "Amandus, one of the Cuneus of Frisians 
called the Yinovian;" Dr. Hiibner, "Amandus, one of the City of the 
Frisians, to the goddess Vinovia." A Cuneus was a body of soldiers. 
If Mr, Watkin's interpretation seem to militate against the occupation 
of the station by the Ala Vettonum, (though I do not think it neces- 
sarily does). Dr. Hiibner's interpretation certainly puts no obstacle in 
the way. I should add that a great number of horses' teeth have been 
dug up during the exploration, and that several of the large buildings 
explored last year, on the line of the main street, in the rearward por- 
tion of the station, presented appearances in every way consistent with 
the hypothesis that they had been used for stabling horses on an 
extensive scale. 



256 



ROMAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



DISCOVERY OF A HOARD OF ROMAN COINS ON THE 
WALL OF HADRIAN, IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



Read 28th December, 1879, by John Clayton, Esq. 



In the month of September last, at a point where the military road 
from Newcastle to Carlisle* has been made on the ruins of the "Wall 




SCALE OF INCHES. 

of Hadrian, and nearly midway between the Roman station of Con- 
dercum (Benwell) on the east, and that of Vindobala (Rudchester) 

* The military road was made by the Government soon after the Rebellion of 
1745 for military purposes, and its name is derived from this circumstance. It 
was made in many places for miles on the line of the Wall of Hadrian, where stones 
of the Wall may be traced in the bed of the road. It is now maintained as a turn- 
pike road. 



EOMAN COINS FOUND IN NOKTHUMBERLAND. 257 

on the west, was found an earthenware vessel full of Roman coins. 
The discovery was made by an Irish labourer employed in digging for 
the purpose of laying water-pipes in the bed of the road. He met 
with the vase at a depth of four feet beneath the surface of the road, 
and in close proximity to the southern face of the Wall of Hadrian, 
and at a spot where three or four courses of stones of that wall 
remain in situ buried in the road. The lucky " Patlander" proceeded 
to realize the fruits of his discovery, and in doing so has shown much 
commercial ability. 

At our monthly meeting in October the subject of this discovery 
was mentioned, and the coins which were the objects of it were 
described as the small copper coins of the Lower Empire, very many 
of them bearing traces of having been washed with silver, together 
with some coins of the base metal, which (after the French) we call 
" billon ;" and at that meeting an expectation was expressed " that, 
by means of the courtesy of the purchasers of the coins, a full 
description of them would be laid before a future meeting." 

This expectation, through the instrumentality of our colleague, 
Mr. Blair (an accomplished numismatist), is about to be realized. 

The vessel in which the coins were contained is represented in the 
engraving on the previous page ; it is of dark-coloured earthenware, 
and measures in height one foot two inches, and in girth or circum- 
ference at the widest part thirty-six inches. 

The coins contained in it appear to have somewhat exceeded 5,000 
in number. They are all of the same character, and all of the small 
brass of the Lower Empire, with the exception of a few which are of 
" billon." A very large proportion of the copper coins bear traces of 
having been washed with silver, and there is no doubt the whole have 
been intended to pass as Denarii, so that each of these copper coins, 
the metallic worth of which was less than half a farthing, was intended 
to represent a silver coin worth ten asses or pennies. Mr. Blair has 
prepared, as an appendix to this paper, a tabular description of the 
coins, with the legends on the reverse of such coins as he has had the 
means of fully describing. 

The total number of coins which have been inspected is 5,024, of 
which 4,597 are fully described in Mr. Blair's tabular statement. 
There remain in the hands of the finder 416, all of which have been 



258 ROMAN COINS FOUND m NORTHUMBEBLAND, 

examined so far as to ascertain that they contain no new type. 
Without doubt some of the coins have been sold in small parcels 
and cannot be traced, but the number of them must be very trifling; 
and it may be fairly assumed that the effect of an examination of 
them would only produce a proportionate increase of the number of 
each type of coin specified in the tabular statement. 

Some specimens of the coins, represented by the truthfiil process of 
autotype, are appended. 

At our meeting in October, an expectation was also expressed that 
these coins would be found of some historic interest, as illustrating a 
dark and disastrous period in the history of the Eoman Empire, from 
the defeat and capture of the Emperor Valerian by Sapor, King of 
Persia, a.d. 260, to the accession of Aurelian, a.d. 270. In con- 
sidering how far this expectation was well founded, it will be useful 
briefly to refer to the historic events of that period ; at least such a 
reference will be useful to those whose memories have been impaired 
by lapse of time. 

Of this hoard of coins there are only five anterior to the accession 
of Valerian. The first in date of these five coins is one of Otacilia, 
who was the wife of the Emperor Philip, who succeeded Gordian III., 
A.D. 244 ; and the remaining four are coins of Hostilianus, Tre- 
bonianus Gallus, Volusianus, and ^milianus, each of whom enjoyed 
the title of Emperor for a brief period between the years 249 and 253.* 

Valerian (P. Licinius Valerianus), by the voice of the anny, 
accepted by the Senate, was declared Emperor a.d. 253 ; and as the 
troops had been in the habit of unmaking, by murdering them, 
Emperors whom they had made, Valerian seems to have immediately 
provided for such an occurrence in his own case, by simultaneously 
with his own elevation, taking Jiis son Gallienus as his colleague, and 
giving him the title of Augustus. 

* In the month of October, 1873, were dug up on the estate of Blackmoor, in 
Hampshire, belonging to Lord Selborne, two earthenware vessels, containing 29,802 
Roman coins, extending over a period commencing about half a dozen years before, 
and ending about a quarter of a century after, this Northumbrian hoard. In the 
two hoards there is this singular coincidence, that each of them has five coins prior 
to Valerian. In the Hampshire hoard those five coins are of Gordianus, Philippus, 
Otacilia, Gallus, and Volusianus ; in the Northumbrian hoard those five coins are 
as in the text. In each of the hoards one of the five coins is in duplicate, viz., in 
the Hampshire hoard that of Gordianus, in the Northumbrian hoard that of 
Volusianus. 



KOilAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 259 

At this period the frontiers of the Roman Empire in Europe and 
Asia were disturbed by the aggressions of barbarian neighbours, and 
conflicts "with these aggressors gave to Valerian the opportunity of 
inscribing on the reverses of his coinage the legend of " Restitutor 
Orbis" and "Victoria Aug.;" and in the year 260 Valerian placed 
himself at the head of the Roman army in the East, for the purpose of 
chastising the Persians. It would seem that he anticipated success as 
a certainty, as we find inscribed on the coins of his last coinage the 
legend of " Restitutor Orientis." He advanced with his army, and, 
crossing the Euphrates, encountered Sapor, King of Persia, and a 
formidable army. The result of the encounter was the capture and 
permanent captivity of the Emperor Valerian, and the surrender of the 
shattered remnant of the Roman army. Thus terminated the joint 
reign of Valerian and his son Gallienus, which had lasted for seven 
years. 

Gallienus, it was believed, was not much grieved by the events 
which made him sole Emperor. 

The effect of those events on the Roman Empire will be best 
described by an extract fi-om the historian Gibbon's great work " The 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire :" — 

"At a time when the reins of Government were held with so loose 
a hand it is not surprising that a crowd of usurpers should start up in 
every province of the Empire against the son of Valerian. It was 
probably some ingenious fancy of comparing the thirty tyrants of 
Rome with the thirty tyrants of Athens that induced the writers of 
the Augustan history to select that celebrated number which has been 
gradually received into a popular appellation. But in every light the 
parallel is idle and defective. 

"What resemblance can we discover between a council of thirty 
persons, the united oppressors of a single city, and an uncertain list of 
independent rivals, who rose and fell in irregular succession through 
the extent of a vast Empire ? Nor can the number of thirty be com- 
pleted, unless we include in the account the women and children who 
were honoured with the imperial title. The reign of Gallienus, dis- 
tracted as it was, produced only nineteen pretenders to the throne ; 
Cyriades, Macrianus, Baliste, Odenatus, and Zenobia, in the east ; in 
Gaul and the Western Provinces, Posthumus, Lollianus, Victorinus, 
and his mother Victoria, Marius, and Tetricus. In Illyricum and 
the confines of the Danube, Ingenuus, Regilianus, and Aureolus ; in 
Pontus Saturninus ; in Isauria, Trebellianus ; Piso in Thessaly ; 
Valeres in Acliaia ; ^milianus in Egypt ; and Celsus in Africa. To 
illustrate the obscure memorials of the life and death of each 



260 ROMAN COINS POUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 

individual would prove a laborious task, alike barren of instruction 
and amusement. 

"We may content ourselves with investigating some general 
characters that most strongly mark the condition of the times, and 
the manners of the men, their pretentions, their motives, their fate> 
and the destructive consequences of their usurpation. 

" It is sufficiently known that the odious appellation of tyrant was 
employed by the ancients to express the illegal seizure of supreme 
power, wdthout any reference to the abuse of it. Several of the pre- 
tenders who raised the standard of rebellion agaiust the Emperor 
Gallienus were shining models of virtue, and almost all possessed a 
considerable share of vigour and ability. Their merit had recom- 
mended them to the favour of Valerian, and gradually promoted them 
to the most important commands of the Empire. The generals who 
assumed the title of Augustus were either respected by their troops 
for their able conduct and severe discipline or admired for valour, and 
success in war, or beloved for frankness and generosity. The field of 
victory was often the scene of their election ; and even the armourer 
Marius, the most contemptible of all the candidates for the purple, 
was distinguished, however, by intrepid courage, matchless strength, 
and blunt honesty. His mean and recent trade cast indeed an air of 
ridicule on his election ; but his birth could not be more obscure than 
was that of the greater part of his rivals, who were born of peasants, 
and enlisted in the army as private soldiers." 

The information given us by Gibbon as to these usurpers, the 
" Tyranni triginta," is scanty, and we must for further information as 
to those potentates refer to the work of the Latin Historian Trebellius 
PoUio "Vitge Diversorum Principum et Tyrannorum," from which 
Gibbon judiciously extracts whatever information he gives us on the 
subject. 

Gallienus having thus assumed the position as sole Emperor, was 
content to see the Eoman Empire dismembered, stripped of her 
provinces, and confined to the limits of Italy, and to spend his hfe 
at Rome in indolence, luxury, and vice. In his reign the fine bronze 
coin (first brass) of the earlier Empire ceased to be issued from the 
Roman mint, and the imperial coinage was shamefully debased. 
There was poured into the world an inundation of small copper coins 
which were washed with silver, or of the base metal styled " billon," 
all of which were passed as Denarii. During his repose at Rome we 
find him issuing coins with legends of " Felicitas Aug," " Pax Aug," 
"Laetitia Aug," and "Pax uEterna," not the "Peace with Honour" 
of our modern politician, but peace with disgrace. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAN]). 261 

The invasion of the north of Italy by Aureolus, one of the tyrants 
of lUyrium, a.d. 268, disturbed the repose and enjoyments of the 
Roman Emperor. Gallienus, who was not deficient in personal 
courage, put himself at the head of his legions, defeated the invader, 
and besieged him and the remnant of his army in Milan, During the 
Biege Gallienus was slain, it is said, by his own troops, and thus ended 
his reign of eight years after the capture of his father. Valerian, 

The coins of Valerian in this hoard number only 49, whilst those 
of Gallienus number upwards of 900. "VVe find two coins of Mariniana, 
the wife of Valerian, and 136 of Salonina, the wife of Gallienus, and 
21 coins of Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, who received from his father 
the title of Csesar immediately after the capture of Valerian, 

Saloninus seems to have lost no time in exercising the privilege 
of coining money, as he was then with the Roman Army of the Rhine, 
and was murdered by the troops on the formation of the Gallic Empire 
by Postumus. 

It will now be convenient to turn to the tyrants or usurpers, 
who during the reign of Gallienus held in succession the Gallic 
Empire, consisting of Gaul, Britain, and Spain. 

M, Cassius Latienus Postumus, a brave soldier and a wise and 
prudent man, in the languge of Pollio, " Vir in bello fortissimus, 
in pace constantissimus," was a tried and trusted general and friend 
of the Emperor Valerian, and was at the time of the capture of 
that Emperor in command of the Roman army stationed on the 
Rhenish frontier of Gaul. The fate of Valerian and the weakness 
of his son Gallienus led to anarchy and confusion throughout the 
Roman Empire. Postumus applied himself to the restoration of order 
and security in Gaul, Britain, and Spain, and assumed the title of 
Emperor. To him was imputed by some, complicity in the murder of 
Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, who had been confided to his care ; 
but, be that as it may, he governed his new empire wisely and well, 
and successfully repelled the aggressions of his German neighbours. 

Postumus vied with his contemporaneous Emperor at Rome in the 
quality, if not in the quantity, of his coinage. The coins of Postumus 
bear traces of exceptionally strong washings of silver. He conferred 
on his son Postumus the title of Augustus ; and the number of the 
coins of father and son in this hoard amounts to more than 450. 

HH 



262 ROMAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 

After a reign of seven years, Postumus and his son were slain at the 
instigation of Laelianus, who headed a rebellion against Postumus, 
and after his murder assumed the title of Emperor. His reign was 
very short, but he effected an issue of coins, which are scarce. 

In the Hampshire hoard of coins above refeiTed to there are only 
eight of Laelianus. In this Northumbrian hoard there are only six. 
Some doubts have been entertained as to the orthography of the name 
of this usurper, to whom is ascribed the name of Lollianus, originating 
without question in an error in the transmission of the work of PoUio 
by manuscript for a thousand years before the invention of printing. 
In the printed editions of the work of PoUio, the name has been 
printed " Lollianus." Gibbon follows the printed edition of Pollio, 
and continues the error, which has since been corrected by numis- 
matists, who find no coin, or record of a coin, of Lollianus in existence^ 
while there are several of Laelianus. 

M. Aurelius Victorinus, a brave soldier, who had been the com- 
panion in arms of Postumus, resisted the usui*pation of Laelianus, 
which was in a few days determined by the death of the usui*per, who 
was slain by the soldiers. Victorinus was declared Emperor by the 
army. He gave to his son the title of Augustus ; and in this hoard 
are no less than 1,678 of his coins. No coins of his son are found 
in it ; and Victorinus, after a brief reign, was, with his son, murdered 
by the soldiers. 

On the death of Victorinus, Marius, a blacksmith — in the language 
of Pollio, " faber ferrarius" — a brave and blunt soldier, assumed the 
title of Emperor ; but his imperial career lasted only three days — 
"una die factus est imperator, alia die visus est imperare, tertia 
interemptus est." He was slain with a sword manufactured by 
himself. 

Notwithstanding the shortness of his reign, Marius seems to have 
effected a moderate issue of coins. We find in this hoard twenty- 
four of them. Mionnet, the French numismatist, expresses an 
opinion that there must have been some mistake on the part of the 
historian ; but as Pollio wrote within fifty years of the occun-ence of 
the event which he recorded, it is probable that he was right. The 
coins might have been struck in anticipation of the assumption of the 
title of Emperor. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 263 

Two coins from a distance belonging to this period are found in 
this collection, one of them of Macrianus, one of the Eastern usurpers 
(Orientis tyranni), and the other a coin of Quietus, his son. These 
two coins, like the monument erected by a Palmyrene at the important 
Eoman station at South Shields, evidence the fact that the Romans in 
Britain, through the noble harbour of the Tyne, maintained com- 
mercial intercourse with all parts of the world. 

There followed, on the death of Victorinus, a brief interregnum, 
during which his mother, Victorina (or, as some write, Victoria), placed 
herself at the head of the army, and assumed the reins of Government, 
which she very soon afterwards handed over to Tetricus, a man of 
senatorial rank, a.d. 268. In the meantime, at Rome, Claudius, one 
of the bravest and ablest of the generals of Valerian and Gallienus, 
had been, by the unanimous voice of the army and the senate, declared 
the successor of the feeble Gallienus. Claudius accepted the imperial 
purple, with the studied purpose of restoring the Roman Empire to its 
meridian power and glory. To drive back the Goths was the first step 
in his victorious career, from which he received the addition to his 
name of the epithet of Gothicus, by which he was distinguished 
from the Claudius of the first century. His efforts were then 
directed to the recovery of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman 
Empire ; but his life was unhappily terminated by an infectious fever, 
a.d. 270. With his dying breath he expressed his earnest desire that 
Aurelian (a brave and experienced general of Valerian and Gallienus) 
should be selected as his successor, to complete the work of the 
restoration of the Empire, which he had begun. We have, in this 
hoard of coins, nearly 700 of this great man. 

The dying wishes of Claudius were fulfilled, and Aurelian (L. 
Domitius Aurelianus) became his successor. The elevation of Aurelian 
was not acquiesced in by Quintillus, the brother of Claudius, who 
took upon himself the title of emperor, and provided himself with 
money by a copious coinage, of which we have 95 specimens. Within 
a month, however, he gave up the enterprise and poisoned himself. 
We have only eight coins of Aurelian, on one of which is the head of 
his predecessor Claudius Gothicus, with the superscription of Aurelian, 
indicting a hasty coinage before the image of the new emperor had 
been prepared. 



264 ROMAII COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 

Tetricus (P. Pivesus Tetricus) at this time reigned over the Gallic 
Empire (comprising Gaul, Britain, and Spain), which he had held for 
about two years ; he had previously given to his son first the title of 
Caesar, and afterwards of Augustus ; and we find in this hoard of coins, 
coins of himself and his son, numbering in the aggregate 516.* 

Thus ends the story told by these coins. The day drew nigh 
when the reconstruction of the Eoman Empire was completed, and it 
was the fate of Tetricus and his son from the West, and Zenobia from 
the East, to appear as captives at Rome, and to swell the triumph of 
Aurelian. 

We arrive with tolerable certainty at the conclusion that this vase 
with its contents was placed in the earth in the early part of the reign 
of Aurelian, a.d. 270. 

The occasion and circumstances of the deposit remain to be con- 
sidered. At the time referred to the frontier line between the Romans 
and the Caledonians was, and for many years had been, the Wall of 
Hadrian. The Roman gai-rison and the Caledonians were and had 
been in the habit of reciprocal incursion into the countries of each 
other for the purposes of foraging and of fighting. 

" Egit amor dapis atque pugnae." 

We have been in the habit of ascribing to the dread of these in- 
cursions the concealment of coins on or about the Wall of Hadrian. 
In the present case, however, guided by the knowledge and experience 
of our distinguished colleague, Mr. Charles Roach Smith, we take a 
wider view of the subject. In the fifth volume of his " Collectanea 
Antiqua" we find an account of a discovery of a hoard of coins at 
Nunburnholme, in Yorkshire, beginning with Valerian and ending 
with four coins of Aurelian, numbering in the whole 3,095. 

And in the third volume of the " Collectanea Antiqua" will be 
found a very interesting description of Roman remains at Jublains, 
in Normandy ; and of the coins found there, ending with more than 
300 coins of Tetricus and his son, and a single coin of Aurelian. 

* The issue of coins by Tetricus and his son would seem to have been very 
copious. Of the Hampshire hoard of 29,802 coins, comprising those of thirty -three 
imperial persons, very nearly one-half — viz., 14,028 — are coins of Tetricus and hi« 
son. The Hampshire hoard extends over the whole reign of Tetricus and his son, 
whilst the Northumbrian hoard extends over one-third of their reigu. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 265 

Several similar hoards of coins have been found in other places, 
both in England and in France. 

On these facts Mr. Roach Smith makes remarks as follows : — " All 
these particular hoards of coins ending with a few of Aurelian point 
to the immediate prelude to the great conflict which wrested Gaul 
and Britain from Tetricus, and restored these provinces to the Empire 
through Aurelian. The numerous deposits of coins similar to this 
under consideration, discovered in various parts of the country, reveal 
a widespread apprehension of some imminent danger eai'ly in the 
reign of Aurelian. Troops were drawn by Tetricus from various 
stations to serve in Gaul, and they hid their money to be recovered 
should they return. It was the most certain way of preserving it 
when they had no relations or friends to entrust it to." 

"We arrive at the conclusion that the expectation that Aurelian 
would complete the task undertaken by Claudius of re-uniting the 
" disjecta membra" of the Roman Empire ; and the dread pervading 
all classes, both civil and military, that scenes of anarchy and con- 
fusion like those which preceded the formation of the Gallic Empire 
by Postumus would precede or accompany its dissolution by Aurelian, 
induced the deposit in the soil of Northumberland of these coins, 
where they have rested for one thousand six hundred and nine years. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND, 



SUMMARY OR NUMERICAL LIST OF THE COINS. 


Names. No. of Coins of eiich 


Otacilia 


1 


Hostilianus 


1 


Trebonianus Gallus 


I 


Volusianus 


2 


j5]milianus ... ... ... ... 


1 


Valerian 


49 


Mariniana 


2 


Gallienus 


915 


Salonina 


136 


Saloninus ... 


21 


Postumus 


454 


Laelianus 


6 


Victorinus ... 


1,678 


Marius 


24 


Tetricus, Sen 


424 


Tetricus, Jun. 


92 


Macrianus ... 


1 


Quietus 


1 


Claudius Gothicus 


696 


Quintillus 


95 


Aurelian 


8 



4,608 
Coins remaining in the hands of the finder, which 

have been inspected, but not particularly de- 
scribed 416 



Total 



5,024 



PLATE I 















PLATE II 






















PLATE III, 


















J 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF THE COINS. 



Legend of Reverse. 






6X 






) K I '-' ffl ft 



;^oi 



OTACILIA— 

PVmCITIA AVG 

C. VAL, HOSTILIANVS- 

SECVEITAS AVGG* ... 

TREBONIANVS GALLVS— 

ADVENTVS AVG (equestrian figure) ... 

C. VIB. VOLVSIANVS— 

1. COKCORDIA AVGG 

2. PIETAS AVGG ... 

C. IVL. AEMILIANVS- 

ERCVL VICTORI 

VALERIANVS— 

1. ANNONA AVG ... 

2. APOLINI CONSERVAf 

3. APOLLINI CONSERV 

4. CONSERVAT AVG 

5. DEO VOLKANOl 

6. EELICITAS AVGG 

7. DO. PVBLICA 

8. FIDES MILITVM 

9. lOVI CONSERVAT 

10. LIBERALITAS AVGG 

11. DO. DO. Ill ... 

12. ORIENS AVGG ... 

13. PMTRP III COS III PP (seated figure) 

14. DO. DO. DO (marching figure) 

1.5. DO. COS IIII PP|| 

16. PMTRP V COS IIII PP (two figures standing) 

17. PIETAS AVGG ... 

18. PROVIDENTIA AVGG 

19. RESTITVTOR ORBIS§ 

20. DO. ORIENTIS 

21. VICTORIA AVGG 

22. DO. DO. IT GERM ... 

23. DO. GERM... 

24. VIRTVS AVGG ... 

25. VOTA ORBIS 



Carried forward 



49 



55 



* See Plate I., No. 1. f See Plate I„ No. 2. t See Plate I., No. 12. 
II See Plate I., No. 3. § See Plate I., No. 4. 



268 



COINS FOUND IN NORTH UMBEJILAND. 



Legend of Reyerse. 


Letters 

in 
Field. 

Letters 

in 
Eier. 




«-§2 
1=1 


l-ss 


Brought forward 
MARINIANA- 


... 


... 


... 


... 


85 


1. CONSECRATIO (peacock bearing empressj * 


... 


... 


... 


1 




2. DO. (peacock with tail expanded) 






. .. 


1 i 












2 


GALLIENVS— 










I 


I. AETERNITAS AVG 


r 


... 


21 






2. DO. 


... 


... 


4 






3. DO. 


... 


MT 


6 






4. DO. (female standing) 


A 


... 


1 


32 




5. ABVNDANTIA AVG 


B 


... 


... 


38 




6. AEQVITAS AVG ... 




... 


V 


3 






7. DO. 


> 


Q 


... 


1 






8. DO. 


. 


€ 


... 


4 






9. DO. 


... 


... 


... 


6 












— 


14 




10. ANNONA AVG ... 


... 


... 


... 


1 




11. ANNONA AVGG ... 


Q 


... 


... 


1 




12. APOLLO CONSER 


... 


... 


... 


1 




,13. APOLLINI CONS AVG (centaur to Bpectator'sright) 


... 


z 


25 






14. DO. (do. left) 


... 


A 


24 






15. DO. (agriffla) 


... 


A 


12 


61 




16. BON EVEN AVG ... 




MT 


... 


6 




17. CONCORDIA AVG (standing figure) 






... 


... 


1 




1 8 . CONCOR AVG ' "eated figure) 






PMT 


... 


2 




19. CONCORDIA EXERCIT 








... 


... 


1 




20. CONSERVAT PIETAT 








XII 




3 




21. DIANA FELIX ... 








... 


... 


4 




22. DIANAE CONS AVG 








e 


29 






23. DO. 








X 


18 






24. DO. 








XI 


20 






25. DO. 








XII 


22 






26. DO. 


', 






r 


19 






27. DO. 










30 










... 


... 


138 




Carried forw 


ard 


•• 




302 


67 



* See Plate I., No. 5. 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



2(59 





Legend of Reverse. 




ias 






!l - »>■ 

s s Si 






^ ^ 


3 w 


^^ 


125 °W 






Brought forward 


... 


•• 


... 


.302 


57 


28. 


FELICIT AVG ... 


P 


... 


... 


7 




29. 


DO. PVBL (seated figure) ... 


... 


T 


... 


2 




30. 


FELICITAS AVGG 








1 




31. 


FIDES MILITVM ... 


N 


... 


3 






32. 


DO. 


A 


... 


2 






33. 


DO. 


... 


... 


3 


8 




34. 


FORTVNA — 


S 






2 




35. 


DO. RED (standing figure) 


SI 


... 


... 


4 




36. 


DO, REDVX (do.) 


s 


... 


45 






37. 


DO. DO. 


... 


... 


1 






38. 


DO. DO.* 


XII 




1 






39. 


DO. DO. (seated figure) 




MS 


4 


51 




40. 


GENIVS MIL 


V 


... 


. .. 


1 




41. 


HERCVLI CONS AVG 




6 




1 




42. 


INDVLG AVG (seated figure) 


... 


P 




1 




43. 


INDVLGENT AVG (standing figure) 


... 


P 




2 




44. 


DO. , (seated figure) 


... 


P 


... 


1 




45. 


INDVLGENTIA AVG 


XI 


.. 


... 


2 




46. 


lOVI CONS AVG la goat) 




s 




23 




47. 


DO. CONSERVAT 


N 


... 


... 


18 




48. 


DO. CONSERVA (eagle at feet) ... 






... 


2 




49. 


DO. CONSERVATORI (two figures standing) ... 


... 


... 


... 


1 




50. 


DO. PROPVGNAT 


XI 


... 


... 


8 




51. 


DO. PROPVGNATORI 


X 


... 


... 


1 




52. 


DO. VLTORI 


s 


... 


... 


7 




53. 


lOVIS STATOR ... 


s 


... 


... 


4 




54. 


LAETITIA AVG ... 


... 


s 


2 






55. 


DO. 


... 


V 


1 






56. 


DO. 


... 


P 


3 






57. 


DO. 






20 


26 






Carried forward 


... 


... 


... 


475 


57 



* See PUte I., No. 7. 



II 



270 



COINS POUND IN NORTHUMBEELAND. 



Legend of Reverse. 


S.g.2 5.3 H 


^1 


oil 


III 




^ h ^ w 


1°^ 


l"s| 


Brought forward 


... 


... 


... 


475 


57 


58. LAETITIA AVGG 


... 


... 








59. LEG I MIN VI P VI F 


... 


... 








60. LEG III ITAL VI P VI F ... 


... 


... 








61. LIBERAL AVG ... 


... 


... 








62. LIBERALITAS AVGG 


... 


... 








63. LIBERTAS AVG ... 


... 


... 








64. LIBERO P CONS AVG (panther) 


... 


B 




29 




65. MARTI PACIFERO 


... 


... 


4 






66. DO. 


A 


... 


24 


28 




6 7 . NEPT VNO CONS AVG 


... 


N 


16 






68. DO. 


... 


C 


1 


17 




69. ORIENS AVG 


... 


• • • 


12 






70. DO. 


Z 




8 






71. DO. 


... 


s 


3 






72. DO. 


s 


... 


2 






73. DO. 


... 


p 


2 


27 




74. ORIENS AVGG ... 


... 


... 




1 




75. PAX AVG 


S-I 


... 


7 






76. DO. 


... 




17 






77. DO. 


V 




10 






78. DO. 


s 


... 


6 






79. DO. 


A 


... 


2 






80. DO. 


T 


... 


5 






81. DO. (seated figure) 


... 


... 


1 


48 




82. PAX AVGG 


V 


... 




5 




83. DO. AVGVSTI . ... 


... 






2 




84. DO. PVBLICA ... 


s 


V 




2 




85. DO. AETERNA ... 


A 


... 




6 




86. DO. DO. AVG 


A 


... 




4 




87. PIETASAVG 


P 


... 


1 






88. DO. 


... 


MT 


4 






Canied forward 


... 


... 


... 


5 




655 


57 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



271 





Legend of Rerene. 


Jfll 


2 ri 




hi 








3""s 


^ w 


I°l 






Brought forward 


... 




... 


655 


57 


89. 


PMTRP XII COS ... 


... 


MP 


... 


4 




90. 


DO. (seated figure) ... 


... 


C 


... 


1 




91. 


DO. VII COS PP 


... 


MP 


... 


2 




92. 


DO. DO. nil PP ... 


... 


... 


... 


1 




93. 


PROVID AVG 




. . 


10 






94. 


DO. 


X 


... 


4 






95. 


DO. 


... 


MP 


3 


17 




96. 


PROYI AVG 


II 




... 


2 




97. 


PROVIDEN AVG ... 


... 




... 


4 




98. 


PROVIDENTIA AVGG 


... 






1 




99. 


SALVS AVG 


p 




3 






100. 


DO.* 


... 




5 






101. 


DO. 


... 


MS 


9 






102. 


DO, 


... 


P 


2 






103. 


DO. 


XII 


... 


1 


20 




104. 


SECVR TEMPO ... 




MS 


... 


1 




105. 


SECVRIT PERPET 


A 


... 


25 






106. 


DO, 




... 


5 


30 




107. 


SOLI CONS AVG ... 




A*B 


... 


20 




108. 


VBERITAS AVG ... 


6 




29 






109. 


DO.f 


... 




1 


30 




110. 


VICT GERMANICA 


• • • 




... 


2 




111. 


■n/-> /obverse head in armour \ 
-L"J' V to observer's left ) "• 






... 


1 




112. 


VICTORIA GERM... 








3 




. 113. 


VICTORIA AVG III 


T 






4 




114. 


DO. AVG ... 


Z 




3 






115. 


DO. DO. ... 


B 




2 


5 




116. 


DO. AV^G... 


... 




... 


5 




117. 


DO. AET ... 

Carried forward 


Z 


... 




15 




823 


57 



* One of these coins is exactly the same in every respect as the coin of Claudius 
II. with the same reverse, the profile being like that of Claudius II., but with 
the letters gallienvs atq round it. 



t See Plate I., No. 8. 



272 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBEELAND. 



Legend of Beverse. 


1 -d 


hi 


6-C 


«.ao 


hi 




3' s 


^ « 


^^ 


M 


ik 


Brought forward 


... 


... 


... 


823 


57 


118. VIRTVS AVGVSTI 


... 


... 


3 






119. DO. 


X 


... 


2 






120. DO. 


p 


... 


1 


6 




121. VIETVS AVG 


A 


... 


2 






122. DO. 


X 


... 


1 






123. DO. 


p 


... 


4 






124. DO. 


VI 


... 


3 






125. DO. 


... 


p 


1 






126. DO. 


X&P 


... 


14 


25 




127. VIRTVS AVGG* ... 


... 


... 


... 


1 




128. VOTA DECENNALIA 


• •• 


... 


... 


2 

857 




In possession of finder; not examined.. 


... 


... 


... 


58 


915 


SALONINA- 












1. AVG IN PACE ... 


... 






4 




2. AVGVSTA IN PACE 




... 






1 




3. CONCORDIA AVG 




... 






1 




4. DO. AVGG 




... 






2 




5. DEAE SEGETIAEf 




... 






2 




6. FECVNDITAS AVG J 




A 






25 




7. FELICIT PVBL ... 




... 






2 




8. IVNONI CONS AVG 




... 






10 




9. IVNO CONSERVAT 




N 






5 




10. DO. REGINA ... 




... 


... 




25 




11. DO. VICTRIX ... 




S 






2 




12. PIETAS AVG (standing figure) , 


:: 'i 








7 




1 3. DO. (seated figtire) 


/ 












14. PIETAS AVGG ... 




... 


■ ... 




2 




15. PVDICITIA (standing figure) 


.. 


Q 




7 






16. DO. (seated figure) 


.. 


... 


N 


2 














9 




Carried forward 


... 


... 


... 


97 


972 



• See PUte I., No. 6. t See Plate I., No. 9. X See Plate I., No. 10. 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



273 



Legend of Reverse. 


2 


tters 

in 

xer. 

0. of 
riety. 


OfRv. 

each 

peror. 

imber 
each 
peror. 




,3'S 


^ H !?^ 1 


1 °l 1 !^ °l 1 


Brought forward 




.«• 




97 


972 


17. VENVS DO. 


... 


... 


... 


1 




18. DO. GENETRIX 


VI 


... 


... 


6 




19. DO. VICTRIX 


X 


... 


... 


8 




20. VESTA (seated figure) 


... 


... 


9 






21. DO. (standing figure) 


... 


... 


2 


11 




22. DO. FELIX ... 


s 


• • • 


... 


3 

126 




In possession of finder; not examined... 


... 


... 


... 


10 


136 


SALONINVS- 












1. CONSECRATIO (eagle) 


... 


... 


5 






2. DO. (altar) * 


... 


... 


4 






3. DO. (eagle bearing emperor) «,. 


... 


... 


1 


10 




4. PIETAS AVG ... ... ...1 ... 


... 


... 


5 




5. PRINCI IVVENT ... 


... 


... 


... 


1 




6. SPESPVBLICA ... 


... 


... 


2 






7. DO. (two figures standing) 


... 


... 


1 


3 




Not examined 


... 


... 


... 


2 


21 


POSTVMVS- 












1. CONCORD EQVITVM 




... 


... 


6 




2. COS nil 




... 


... 


10 




3. COSV 




... 


... 


2 




4. DIANAE LVCIFERAE 




... 


... 


2 




5. FELICITAS AVG ... 




... 


... 


17 




6. FIDES EXERCITVS (four standards) 




... 


... 


1 




7. DO. AEQVIT (seated figure) ... 




... 


1 






8. DO. DO. 




P 


8 


9 




9. DO. MILITVM 




... 


... 


9 




10. FORTVNA AVG ... 




... 


... 


2 




11. HERO PACIFERO 




... 


... 


15 




12. DO. DEVSONIENSI 




... 


... 


19 




13. IMP X COS V 

Carried forward 


... 


... 


... 


14 




106 


1,129 



» See Plate I., No. 11. 



274 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



Legend of Reverse. 



N3 Si^ w 



6X 



O 0) o. 1 
hSoS I 






Brought forward 



14. lOVI PROPVGNATORI 

15. DO. STATORI ... 

16. DO. VICTORI ... 

17. DO. DO. 



18. LAETITIA AVG (a gaUey) 

19. MERCVRIO FELICI* 

20. MINER FAVTR ... 

21. MONET A AVG ... 

22. NEPTVNO REDVCI 

23. ORIENS AVG 

24. PACATOR ORBIS 

25. PAX AVG (standing figure) 

26. DO. (do.) 

27. DO. (figure nmrcliing to left) 



28. PAX EQVITVM ... 

29. PMTRP COS II PP 

30. DO. nil COS III PP 

31. DO. DO. nil PP (bow, quiver, &e.) .. 

32. DO. XCOSVPP(^^i^'^Sem""'^'I^)- 

33. PROVIDENTIA AVG 

34. REST ORBISf (emperor raising » kneeUng figure) 

35. SAECVLI FELICITAS 

36. SALVS AVG (^Bcuiapius) 

37. DO. (Salug) 



88. SALVS POSTVMI AVGJ 

39. DO. provinciarvmI 

40. SERAPI COMITI AVG 

41. VBERTAS AVG ... 

42. VICTORIA AVG ... 

43. VICT GERMANICA 



CA 



Carrie(3 forward 



16 
1 



11 

46 
1 



106 

4 
12 



17 

15 
1 
2 

41 

2 

26 

2 



58 

1 

29 

7 

1 

2 

13 

1 

16 



10 

1 
5 
5 
1 
18 
1 



1,129 



.397 



1,129 



• See Plate II., No. 15. f See Plate II., No. 14. + See Plate II., No. 13. 
II See Plate II., No. 16. Ascribed by some numismatists to Postumus, jun. 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



275 



Legend of Reverse. 






Brought forward 

44. viRTVS AVG (2 varieties)... 

45. DO. EQVIT ... 

46. DO. AEQVIT... 

47. VIRTVTI AVGVSTI 



In possession of finder; not examined. 

LAELIANVS— 

1. VICTORIA AVG*... 

VICTORINVS- 

1. AEQVITAS AVOf 

2. CONSECRATIO (obv., divo victorino 

3. FIDES MILITVM| 

4. FIDIE (sic) DO. ... 

5. INVICTVS|| 

6. PAX AVG 

7. D0.§ 

8. IP VAX AV (a rude coin) 

9. PIETAS AVG 

10. PROVIDENTIA AVG 

11. SALVS AVG** ... 

12. DO. (altar) ... 



13. VICTORIA AVG .. 

14. VIRTVS AVG 

15. DO. PVBLICA 



Not examined 



Carried forward 



I.SS 

3 « 



2 

402 



226 
105 



hi 


lo2 


397 


1,129 


12 




9 




1 




1 




420 




34 






454 


... 


6 


19 




2 




18 




2 




396 




404 




1 




162 




185 




331 




14 




131 




1 




1666 




12 




... 


1,678 


3,267 



* See Plate II., No. 17. 

t Some of the profiles on coins with this reverse are unlike Victorinus and very 
like his predecessor Postumus. For an instance of this, see the coin No. 18, Plate 
II. 



X See Plate II., No. 20. 
»* See Plate II., No. 19. 



See Plate II., No. 21. § See Plate II., No. 22. 



276 



COINS rOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



Legend of Reverse. 


3 E 


2 u 

las 

3 « 


•si 


hi 




Brought forward 
MARIVS— 


•• 








... 


... 


3,267 


1. CONCORDIA MILITVM* 










... 


5 




2. CONCORD MILIT 


.. 








... 


2 




3. SAECVLI FELICITAS 










... 


3 




4. SAEC DO.f 










... 


5 




5. VICTORIA AYG (2 varieties)} 


•• 








... 


9 


24 


TETRICVS, Sen.— 












1. COMES AVG 


.. 




... 




63 




2. FIDES MILITVM|1 


.. 










45 




3 . HILARITAS AVGO 


.. 










13 




4. LAETITIA AVG N§ 


.. 










82 




5. DO. AVGG 


.. 










3 




6. PAX AVG 


.. 










108 




7. PAX AVGG 


.. 










1 




8. SALVSAVG 


.. 










5 




9. SPES AVG 


.. 










2 




10. DO. PVBLICA ... 


.. 










49 




11. VICTORIA AVG ... 


.. 










14 




12, VIRTVSAVG 


.. 










11 




13. DO. AVGG ... 


•• 










1 












397 




In possession of finder; not examined... 


... 


... 


... 


27 


424 


TETRICVS, JUN.- 










1. COMES AVG 


... 


... 




2 




2. CONCORDIA AVGG 


.. 










2 




3. PAX AVG 


.. 










1 




4. PIETAS AVG 


.. 










3 




5. DO. AVGG ... 


.. 










1 




6. PIETAS AVGVSTOR 


.. 










23 




7. SPES AVGG** ... 


.. 










26 




8. DO. PVBLICA ... 


.. 










24 




9. PRINC IVVENT ... 


.. 










3 




10. VIRTVS AVGVSTO 


.. 










3 




11. CTETAS (sic) ... 


•• 










1 












89 




In possession of finder; not examined... 
Carried forward 


... 


... 


I 


3 


92 


•• 


• 




... 


3,807 



* See Plate III., No. 25. t See Plate II., No. 24. X See Plate II., No. 23. 
II See Plate III., No. 27. § See Plate III., No. 26. ** See Plate III., No. 28, 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



277 



Legend of Reverse. 



Brought forward 



MACRIANVS- 

1. 10 VI CONSERVATOEI 

QVIETVS— 

1. SPES PVBLICA ... 

CLAVDIVS GOTHICVS- 

1. ADVENTVS AVG ... 

2. AEQVITAS AVG*... 

3. AETERNIT AVG ... 

4. DO.f 

5. ANNONA AVG ... 

6. DO. 

7. APOLLINI CONS ... 

8. DO. 

9. DO. 

10. CONSECRATIO (eagle) 

11. DO. (altai) 

12. DO. (do.) (Obv. EITO CLAVDIC) + 

13. DO. (do.) 






14. 


DIANA LVCIF ... 


15. 


FELICITAS AVG... 


16. 


DO. 


17. 


DO. SAECVLI 


18. 


FELIC TEMPO ... 


19. 


FIDES EXERCI ... 


20. 


DO. 


21. 


DO. 



22. FIDES MILITVM 

23. DO. 



Carried forward 



XI 





2 

24 
3 

2 
2 
1 

26 

25 

1 

1 



16 

7 



25 

10 

1 

11 
6 






7 
27 



3,807 



53 




3 




23 




1 




16 




36 




17 




230 


3,809 



* Some coins with this reverse have " S" in field, 
t See Plate III., No. 30. J See Plate III., No. 31. 



J J 



278 



COINS FOUND IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



1 

Legend of Beverse. 


1 s 


tters 

in 

xer. 

0. of 
rietjr. 


S|2 


111 




f^s 


3 w ^^ 1 


l"S| 


;^o| 


Brought forward 








230 


3,809 


24. FORTVNA REDVX 


z 




... 


5 




25. GBNIVSAVG 


... 




6 






26. DO. 


r 




9 


15 




27. GENIVS EXERCI 






20 






28. DO. 


z 




5 






29. DO. 


E 




5 


30 




30. lOVI VICTORI ... 


... 




28 






31. DO. 


N 




6 


34 




32. lOVI STATORI ... 


... 




... 


15 




33. LAETITIA AVG ... 


... 




13 






34. DO. 


XII 




1 


14 




35. LIBERALITAS AVG 


... 




... 


6 




36. LIBERT AYG 


... 




7 






37. DO. 


X 




8 


15 




38. MARS VLTOR ... 


... 




... 


28 




39 . MARTI PACIFERO 


X 




... 


2 




40. PAX AVGV8TI ... 


A 




2 






41. DO. 


•• 




1 


3 




42. PAX AVG 


s 




6 






43. DO. (marching flgme) 


N 




8 






44. DO. 


... 




5 






45. DO. 


... 




1 






46. DO. (seated figure) 


... 




3 


23 




47. PMTRP II COS PP 


A 




10 






48. DO. 


... 




9 


19 




49. PROTIDENT AVG 


XII 




9 






50. DO. (obv., headtoleft, inannour)... 


... 




1 






51. DO.* 


s 




5 






52. DO. 


... 




22 






53. DO. 


T 




1 






Carried forward 


... 


... 


... 


38 




477 


3,809 



» See Plate III., No. 29. 



COINS FOUND IN NOETHUMBEELAND. 



279 



Legend o Reverse. 




1.2^ 


6-n 




ij - »<■ 




3 S 


3 « 


^^ 




l-sa 


Brought forward 








477 


3,809 


54. SALVS AVG (female flgnre) 


... 


... 


8 






55. DO. (male figure) 


... 


MP 


1 


9 




56. SECVEIT AVG ... 


XI 




... 


5 




57. SPES AVG 






1 






58. DO. 


N 


... 


4 


5 




59. SPES EXEEC 


... 


... 


... 


1 




60. DO. PVBLICA ... 


... 


P 




16 




61. VICTOEIA AVG ... 




r 


2 






62. DO. 


A 


... 


11 






63. DO. (figure to right) ... 




... 


7 






64. DO. 


r 


... 


6 






65. DO. (figure to left) ... 


... 


... 


34 


60 




66. VIETVS AVG (standing figure) ... 


3 


p 


9 






67. DO. (marching figure) .». 


9 


p 


5 






68. DO. 


B 




2 






69. DO. 


6 




7 






70. DO. 


A 




2 






71. DO. 




... 


41 






72. DO. 


3 




2 


68 
641 




In possession of finder; not examined... 








55 


696 


QVINTILLVS- 












1. AETERNIT AVG ... 


... 


X 




4 




2. APOLLIN CONS ... 


N 






2 




3. APOLLINI CONSERV 


... 






1 




4 . CONCORDIA AVG 


... 


A 




4 




5. CONCO AVG 


... 


... 




3 




6. FIDES MILITVM 


€ 


... 


6 






7. DO. 


A 




1 


7 




8 . FORT VN A RED VX 


X 


... 


4 






9. DO. 


Z 


... 


2 






Carried forward 


... 


... 




6 




27 


4,505 



280 



COINS FOUND IN NOETHTJMBERLAND. 



Legend of Eeyeree 


1.1 


2 c 
I.SS 


^1 
^1 




Ill 




S E 


» H 




!^°l 


Brought forward 








27 


4,505 


10. LAETITIA AVG ... 


... 


XII 


2 






11. DO. 




.. . 


7 






12. DO.* 


XII 


... 


3 


12 




13. MARTI PACIP ... 


X 


... 


... 


4 




14. PAX AVGVSTI ... 


A 


... 


... 


6 




15. PROVIDENT AVG 


... 


... 


6 






16. DO.f 


S 


... 


8 


14 




17. SECVRIT AVG ... 


XI 


... 


... 


9 




18. VICTORIA AVG ... 


... 


T 


... 


9 




19. VIRTVSAVG 


B 


• " 


• • . 


1 

88 




In possession of finder; not examined... 


... 


... 


•• 


7 


95 


AVRELIAN- 












1. CONCORDIA AVG... 


... 


XT 




1 




2. GENIVS ILLYR ... 


... 


P 




2 




3. 10 VI CONSERVATORI 


... 


... 




1 




4. PROVIDENT AVG| 


S 


... 




1 




5. ROMAE AETERNAE|| 


... 


P 




1 




6. VICTORIA AVG} § 


r 


... 




1 




7. VIRTV8 AVG 


B 


... 




1 


8 


In possession of finder, but not al 
Grand Total 


located, about 


... 


416 


•• 


•• 


• 


5,024 



* See Plate III., No. 33. 

t Same reverse as coin of Claudius, see Plate III., Nos. 29 & 32. 
X The profile on obverse of these coins is like that of Claudius II., see Plate III,, 
N^os. 34 and 35. 
U See Plate III., No. 3B. § See Plate III., No. 34. 



ESCOMBE CHURCH. 281 



ESCOMBE CHURCH. 



By W. H. D. LONGSTAFFE. 



The position of Escombe, near Auckland, up the Wear, apart from any 
old main road of much use, and its subjection as a parochial chapelry to 
the parish of St. Andrew, Auckland, have occasioned, in the absence of 
any proper notice by our writers, an entire oversight on the part of 
archaeologists of the only perfect example of a Saxon church now exist- 
ing in Bernicia. For the pre-Norman period we have divers towers, a 
chancel at Jarrow, a remarkable west end at Wearmouth of very early 
and superior workmanship, and a fine crypt at Hexham composed of 
small ornamental Roman stones. But at Escombe we find a church 
Saxon from end to end, and here the ruins of Vinovium formed a ready 
quarry, much more accessible in ancient times than now, the river having 
materially changed its course and thrown much of the intervening dis- 
trict to the other side of the water. 

The history of Escombe, as it has for some centuries been called, 
commences with its name Ediscum. "We may perhaps fairly consent to 
the proposition that the final syllable of that name refers to the low 
part of the township, or rather perhaps to its banks and ancient con- 
figuration, than to its more elevated portions. On the whole of the 
very difficult subject of the meaning, or rather meanings, of the word 
comb, Dufresne's Glossarium of Low-Latin, Bosworth's Dictionary 
of Anglo-Saxon, and Halliwell's Dictionary of Archaic, words may be 
usefully consulted. It extended all over the west of Europe, and had 
some sort of signification sufficiently precise to justify its employment 
in charters as devoting private property outside of the forest. Of course, 
under such circumstances, it is no index to either race or date. The 
first part of the word Ediscum seems to have a personal reference. It 
is spelt exactly in the same way as the commencement of Edisbrig, the 
name of an estate near Muggleswick, in the conventual inventory of 
1464. This name at the bridge over the Derwent there is now called 



282 ESCOMBB CHURCH. 

Eddysbridge, but the old spellings, Edyedsbridge, Eedesbrige, and 
Edeedsbrig, throw a doubt on the propriety of the pronunciation. In 
Cheshire there is an Edesbery, or Eddesbury, which was built in 914 
by ^thelflaBd, lady of the Mercians, and which, when in ruin, was called 
The Chamber in the Forest. 

Supposing that Ediscum was the corrib of some male or female Eda 
or Ede, no light is thrown upon its history by such an interpretation. 
In 801 Edwine, who was also called Eda, formerly a dvjx of the North- 
umbrians and then an abbot, was buried in his monastery of Gainford. 
But the name was common. On a single leaf of the Surtees Society's 
print of the Durham Book of Life we have Eda, Ida, ^da, and Ede. 
The abbreviation of the name may have taken place when Bishop Pudsey 
granted to Humphrey the Charioteer six acres in Edescumb. Yet in the 
celebrated Boldon Buke of the same prelate we have, as to this estate, 
the contracted form of Escumb. It must be confessed that the later 
copies of Boldon Buke, to which we are driven, vary provokingly. Thus 
we have both Edmansley and Edmondesley. The former is unquestion- 
ably the real name, as, in the miracles of St. Godric, we find "a woman, 
Eda by name, of Edemanneslaye." This occurrence shows how careful 
expounders of names should be that they obtain the early orthographies. 

The story of the building up of the eventual palatinate presents 
many difficulties which cannot be effectually discussed among these re- 
marks. In whatever way " Ediscum" came to the church, its first 
appearance is in the Oxford additions to the venerable History of St. 
Cuthbert's stores. There we have an enumeration of various estates, 
practically the modern parishes of Gainford and St. Andrew's Auckland, 
including, inter alia, two Alclits, Bynceastre, and Ediscum, lent or mort- 
gaged by Bishop Aldhun and the Congregation "to these three, Ethred 
eorle, and Northman eorle, and Uthred eorle," with a curse upon any 
one who should abstract anything in respect of them from St. Cuthbert. 
Of these four individuals Bishop Aldhun changed the see from Chester- 
le-Street to Durham in 995, and erected two successive churches of stone 
there. " Ethred and Northman nowhere occur as earls of Northum- 
berland, nor are they so described in our text. They were probably 
Danes, who exercised authority during the usurpation of Sweyn, to 
whom earl Uchtred refused his allegiance, as we know their countryman 
Yric did under Cnut." — (Hinde.) Next, according to the same history, 



ESCOMBE CHURCH. 283 

Canute gave to the church Staindrop and an Aclit and some other places 
not previously named, which seem principally to compose the modem 
parishes of Staindrop and St. Helen's Auckland. The substantial truth 
of the old historian's statements is supported by the independent evi- 
dence contained in the Durham Book of Life as to " Northman eorle " 
syling, i.e., selling, not necessarily for any pecuniary consideration, into 
St. Cuthbert "Ediscum." How the rest of the parish of St. Andrew's 
Auckland was recovered does not appear. That it was recovered is 
plain. That Gainford was lost is also plain. Symeon, who seems, even 
at his early period, to have felt the perplexities of the Durham history, 
after noticing some specific grants to the church of lands in the Dar- 
lington district, says, that there were other landed properties " which 
Bishop Aldhun, compelled by the pressure of the times, transferred for 
a period to the earls of the Northumbrians; but wear ?y a/Z of these were 
alienated from the church by the violence of their successors in the 
earldom. Some of them are here [he says] specified by name." Then 
he gives the old historian's list of places, spelhng our locus in quo 
" Ediscum" as before, and ends with : — " All these were once the pro- 
perty of that church which, while she sought to benefit those who were 
in necessity, thereby endangered her own interests." 

It is singular that our information should be so scanty, but we may 
infer that Escombe was returned to the church separately from other 
places which were, eventually, returned, and that the particulars of the 
return of the main portion of the parish of St. Andrew's Auckland, in 
which Escombe settled down as a township, prebend, and parochial 
chapelry, was unknown to our first reliable authorities. The oldest 
historian records the curse upon any tamperer with the reversion or 
equity of redemption ; the life-promiser records the surrender by North- 
man, a titular earl of Ediscum, and Symeon's " nearly all" must mean 
something or other. The character of the documents put forward as 
the early charters of Durham Cathedral is lamentable, and all that we 
can do is to be thankful for the generally firm ground on which we 
stand when we arrive at the episcopate of Bishop Pudsey, by the time 
of which the civil and ecclesiastical arrangements of the recovered and 
acquired estates would appear to have been tolerably well made in an 
altered form not much different from that which subsisted until a recent 
period. 



284 ESCOMBE CHURCH. 

In his Boldon Buke of 1183, non obstante any error of MS, detail, 
the history of Escombe emerges. Matters had been brought to some 
bearing. A Heghyngtonshire, in which one or two Thickleys (the name 
of Thiccelea being found in Aldhun's mortgage or loan, and Canute's 
grant) appear, had arisen. And Alcletshire and West Acletshire had 
arisen with mills for each. All the independence of Escombe, which 
must have existed when it alone had been returned to the church, had 
disappeared. Its villans worked as those of North Aclet did. This 
would probably only mean what is now known as " the custom of the 
country." A collier found coals, mineral or made from wood, for the 
making of the ploughshares of Goundou. "West Auckland had to do 
works between Tyne and Tees; and then to some extent West Aclet, 
like Escumb, had ceased to be independent. " All villans of Acletshire, 
to wit, of North Aclet and West Aclet, and Escumb and Newton, at the 
Bishop's great chases," did certain works. " Besides, all villans and 
fermors go in rahimt at the Bishop's summons, and to the working of the 
mills of West Acletshire." 

Escombe is a somewhat picturesque village, its main buildings sur- 
rounding a small God's-croft, occupying the centre of a quasi-town's- 
green. Some, many of us, must remember the beauty of the church- 
yards of England in our boyhood, with the footpaths, the sheep, the 
wild geraniums, the unlettered graves, the undestroyed and undisturbed 
tombstones high or low, railed or unrailed, and the solemn lessons now 
but little taught. The God's-croft of Escombe, whatever may have been 
its former state, differs. Its sepulchral purposes have ceased, and Flora 
reigns supremely. There is something about the old enclosure of 
Escombe and the ancient church within it which should be treated and 
helped by loving hearts within the earldom of Northumberland, includ- 
ing, of course, the so-called counties of Norham, Hexham, Durham, and 
Sadberge, with divers other franchises within that princely successor of 
the Linea Yalli and of the subsequent Bemicia. 

The church possesses that cyclopean masonry familiar to us by reason 
of the lower part of the north wall of Ebchester chancel, which is built 
within the walls of a station on or near to Iter I. ; and, at first sight, 
that at its angles might be taken for long-and-short work. It is, how- 
ever, good quoined work. Too much has been made of supposed chro- 
nological masonries. As far as long-and-short work is concerned, that 



ESCOMBE CHURCH. 286 

portion of Whittingham tower of which the custodiers of the fabric have 
suffered the existence is, probably, the only, or almost the only, example 
of such building in our diocese. Bloxham noticed the absence of it in 
the church of Brixworth, which he considered to be " perhaps the most 
complete specimen existing of the early Anglo-Saxon era," and in the 
chancel of Jarrow Church, which all authorities admit to be of Saxon 
date. Whether the remains at Jarrow are a portion of the main church 
of St. Paul, built shortly after the erection of that of St. Peter at Wear- 
mouth, is a question. From the absence of the baluster shafts, which 
are found in situ at Wearmouth, but only existed as building materials 
in another portion of Jarrow Church, the negative suggests itself. It 
forms, therefore, no portion of the plan of this paper to discuss a con- 
fessedly difficult point as to the precise period at which the later Saxon 
works were constructed, separated as they are from our early Norman 
works by documentary evidences and " sennons in stones." 

It may be premised that the lights in the south side and the west 
end (the distinction between a side and an end of a church or a table 
should always be observed in words and acts) of Escombe Church closely 
resemble those in Jarrow chancel, and that the chancel arch, tall in pro- 
portion, reminds one of that at Brigstock Church and of the tower arch 
at Corbridge. The next noticeable point is the considerable height of 
the church in combination with an exceptionally short chancel. The 
general pose of the building may, to some extent, be gained by Parker's 
cut of the church of Bradford-on-Avon. But the chancel of Escombe is 
proportionally still shorter than that at Bradford, and any exterior 
ornament is furnished not by panelling but by the broaching or cross- 
hatching and other conventialisms of the Romans. In the walls for 
most of their height we observe large stones, many of which large stones 
are so treated. Their hicklety-picklety occurrence shows plainly that 
they came from an earlier settlement. One unbroached stone presents 
CV upside down, possibly having no connection with Civitas or 
Vinovium* Another has a pellet within an annulet in relief. We 
are all of us familiar with the smaU ornamental and plain stones on 
the direct line of the Roman Wall and at Chesterholm and Hexham. 

* It appears from a later account of the church by Mr. Pritchett that this 
stone presents leg vi. In the south wall of the church is one pi'esenting " a serpent 
or eel-like fish." 



286 E8C0MBE CHURCH. 

But the startling size of the stones at Escombe, ornamented and plain, 
mural and corner, leads, like the Ebchester evidence, to much thought 
as to the structural differences between the line of the Wall and Iter I. 

There is another peculiarity about the walls at Escombe. At their 
tops there are a few courses of smaller stones. Our first idea was that 
the thrust of the roof had displaced its support, and that this portion of 
the building had been rebuilt. The masonry of the angles forbade the 
notion of an independent addition to the height at a later period, and 
it may at once be observed that, judging from Bradford-on-Avon Church, 
the timbers of the roof at Escombe seem to represent very fairly the 
original pitch of it — neither very high nor very low. The first idea 
had to be abandoned, because one of the Jarrow-like lights occurs in sitH 
among the smaller stones in the western gable. Two solutions present 
themselves. Either the Roman quarry failed, or the Escombe Com- 
missioners were unpleasantly reminded by some Earl of Binchester of 
the eighth commandment. The recent excavations at Vinovium may 
aid in determining the point in favour of the latter surmise. The fact 
that a portion of a Saxon cross lies at the northern springing of the 
eastern gable of the nave does not help us. It may have been placed 
there at any time, and, so far as can at present be judged, it seems to 
be of a period earlier than that of the present church, early though it 
be, and reminds one of the Hexham School of Art. And here is opened 
that question which has long exercised us — the relation of the dedi- 
cations to the ancient diocesan systems. St. Andrew's Auckland, with 
its piece of a Saxon cross of the Aycliffe type, is not the only place 
having a church dedicated, as was a church at Hexham, to St. Andrew. 
And what is the history of that St. Wolfrid's acre at Escombe whereof 
Sir Ralph Eure died seized in Cardinal Langley's time? The idea at 
the present day is that Escombe Church is dedicated to St. John. 

The one bell of 1577 is in substance, or by substitution, to the fore. 
There are two elegant " shouldered" early English lights, one lowered 
internally for sedilia, a simple semicircular piscina of the same date, 
and square-headed windows and a square-headed doorway on the north 
side of the nave. This doorway is in the centre of the nave, as is the 
doorway at Bradford. Finally, the font is of an oblong octagonal 
form, as if to suit immersion, and there is a miniature Norman grave- 
stone with two rosettes tied to the cross. 



THE NORTHERN STATIONS OF THE NOTrTIA, 287 



THE NORTHERN STATIONS OF THE NOTITIA. 



By W. H. D. Longstaffe. 



During the revision of a map to illustrate my paper on the north- 
western stations under the government of the honourable Duke of 
Britain in the period of Arcadius and Honorius, fresh evidences and 
considerations have occuri'ed to me, and, abandoning the supplement 
intended for the annual meeting, I propose to treat succinctly the whole 
of the Notitia relating to the North of England. 

I. — ^As to "the prefect of the Sixth Legion," its head-quarters were 
at York, but it was generally useful. 

II. — As to "the prefect of the Dalmatian horsemen at PraBsidium," 
much controversy has arisen as to whether it is the same with Pree- 
torium of the first Iter, as to the locality of the latter, and whether 
Prcpsidio may not merely mean "in garrison," at York or elsewhere. 
All difficulty seems to be removed by placing Prsesidium at what is 
considered to be Ptolemy's Petuaria, Brugh-upon-Humber, where the 
great road from Lincoln made its varia or passage over the river Abus 
or Humber, which is near to Ocellum Promontorium. Thus would the 
next station, Doncaster, be guarded by an outpost on this vast estuary 
at the south-eastern limit of the country comprised in these northern 
Notitia, exactly as Carlisle at its north-western limit was guarded by 
Tunnocelum. It is worthy of note that a fragment reading brexarc 
was found at Brugh, and that it appears by Gruter that the "Numer. 
Dalmat" had an officer called an Exarchus. (See Horsley, 314, 374, 407.) 

III. — As to "the prefect of the Crispian horsemen at Danum," 
this on itinerary evidence was Doncaster on one of the tributaries of 
the Humber, which is considered to be a boundary of the Brigantes 
and of the possibly subject Parisii. 

IV. — ^As to " the prefect of a body of cuirassiers at Morbium," by 
following the bounding stream and what is believed to be a mihtary 



288 THE NORTHERN STATIONS OF THE NOTITIA. 

way, we come to Templeborough, the recognised Morbium, an allocation 
which there is no reason to disturb. We have now arrived at the 
natural barrier against the west, and may grope our way northwards 
towards the linea valU to be specially defended. 

V. — ^As to " the prefect of a detachment of the Barcarii Trigrienses 
at Arbeia," we, keeping on the east side of the " backbone of England," 
first meet with Ilkley on the Wharfe, and I am doubtful whether 
Arbeia should be considered to be the name of the station or merely as 
descriptive of its situation, just as we have a great railway station called 
Trent. On a well-known altar found here, dedicated by a prefect of 
the second cohort of the Lingones, the "Wharfe is treated as Verbeia. 
Four or five roads met at lUdey. It has been supposed to be the 
Olicana of Ptolemy and the Olenacum of the Notitia, but, whatever may 
become of Olicana, Ilkley cannot well be Olenacum. The course to 
Lavatrae shall still be followed. 

YI. — As to "the prefect of a detachment of the Dictensian Nervii 
at Dictis," the next fort, that at Brugh, near Bainbridge, and about a 
mile from Askrigg in Wensleydale, produced an inscription com- 
memorating its construction with stone by the sixth cohort of the 
Nervians. A road is marked by Hughes as proceeding northwards 
from it towards the western Watling Street, leading from Greta Bridge 
to Bowes (Lavatras), and striking it midway between the two places. 

VII. — ^As to " the prefect of a detachment of watchers (vtgiks) at 
Concangium," we feel that, on arriving at this road which we have now 
to follow westwards until we shall be on the verge of the Unea valli, we 
have arrived at a perilous frontier region, for our three next prefects are, 
at well known itinerary stations, those of a detachment of exploratores 
at Lavatrae (Bowes), a detachment of directores at Verterse (Brugh), 
and a detachment of defensore^ at Braboniacum (at or near Kirby 
Thore), where we are stopped by the regular defenders of the linea valli. 
We can hardly refuse to recognize the primaiy claims of Greta Bridge 
to be Concangium, the easternmost of the stations occupied by the four 
parties of scouts, and since they were anonymous we cannot be sanguine 
as to any extraneous help from inscriptions. The proximity of the 
stations at Bowes and Greta Bridge is accounted for by the dangerous 
nature of the duties required from the garrisons of these Castra 
Exploratorum, etc. 



THE NORTHEEN STATIONS OF THE NOTITIA, 289 

VIII., IX., X. — Lavatrse and Verterse are so well ascertained that 
nothing more need be said about them. They occur in their proper 
order in the Notitia. As to Braboniacum and the itinerary Galava, 
both being at or near Kirby Thore, I observe that Hughes in his map 
gives two fortresses there, and as Braboniacum is excluded from the 
linea valli, while Iter X. is included in it, we may fairly infer that 
Braboniacum was the easternmost of the two. 

XI. — The locality of "the prefect of the detachment of Solenses of 
Maglova" is a more perplexing subject. There being no good reason 
to disturb the identification of the succeeding stations Magse, Longo- 
vicum, and Derventio with Piersebridge, Lanchester, and Ebchester, 
the writer now commencing a fresh series of forts leading in another 
way to the linea valli, which immediately follows, Maglova, not the 
residence of promiscuous outside defenders, but of named soldiers, is 
more likely to be near Piersebridge than to be near Kirby Thore. 
Besides, there is no available site for it near Kirby Thore, and it can 
hardly have been an isolated place in the carefully drawn Notitia. It 
is remarkable that there is no known defence at Teesmouth, but Pierse- 
bridge, though a large station, could scarcely have had the importance 
of a Luguvallium, a Petrianas, or a Mancunium, and the nature of the 
Tees would not render its protection a necessity. It is difficult to bring 
in any of the Cleveland or other inland Yorkshire settlements, and the 
only feasible idea seems to be that Maglova represents one of the camps 
in the triangle between Greta Bridge and Piersebridge bounded by the 
Tees on the north and the two arms of Watling Street on two other sides. 

XII., XIII., XIV. — Magas, of a detachment of the Pacenses {Pierse- 
bridge), Longovicum, of a detachment of the Longovicavn (Lanchester, 
anciently Lanffchestev), and Derventio, of the Derventian detachment 
(Ebchester, on the Derwent), require no comment, and the linea valli 
is soon reached. Horsley's translation of Derventio by " a station on 
the river Derwent" is neat, and reminds one of Danum, Arbeia, and 
Trent, removing any remaining difficulty as to Vindomova and Deri'mtio 
being practically the same. 

"With the next passage, "Item per lineam valli," I abandon my 
numerals, and, having attempted to convey my impression that there is 
much method and no madness in the Notitia, wiU, referring to the 
ordinary books and my former paper, attempt to end at Virosidum, 



290 THE NORTHERN STATIONS OF THE NOTITIA. 

without venturing upon the assumption or suggestion that the famous 
title per lineam valU ends at some point not disclosed by our present 
copies of the record. 

From the easternmost station, formerly supposed to be clearly 
identified, the stations proceeding from east to west seem with one ex- 
ception to be satisfactorily allocated in the same exact order which, to 
my mind, characterizes the outside stations already dealt with. The 
exception is Segedunum. One cannot well call Wallsend a dunum, and 
the inscriptional evidence as to the Lingones occurred at Tinmouth, 
opposite to Shields Law, which would satisfy the term. At the eastern, 
as well as at the western, termination of mural stonework, a succession 
of earthen barriers occurs, but if, on the west, the stations to which they 
led were included in the linea, there is no reason why that at the mouth 
of the Tyne should not be so also. 

From Amboglanna the courses of the Notitia and the Rudge Cup 
may be considered as coinciding, up to Petrian^ (Old Carlisle). 
There the Cup goes to Axetodunum (Ellmhorongh), the Notitia pro- 
ceeding to Aballaba (Papcastle), meeting the Cup arrived from Axelo- 
dunum and on its way to Maia (Hardknot Hill). The Notitia continue 
to CoNGAVATA on the sea (Moresby), garrisoned by the second cohort 
of the Lingones removed from Ilkley (Arbeia), and, turning along the 
coast, arrive at Axelodunum, whence the Cup had departed, and passing 
GabroSENTVM (Skinburness) on the Waver, complete the north-western 
defence at TunfiocELVM (Bowness), the ocellum of the Ituna or Eden, 
the safeguard of Carlisle. 

Having accomphshed this enumeration, the Notitia proceed to the 
eastern defences in the Cumbrian parts of the districts so strongly 
guarded from sea to sea. They commence, like Iter X., which is 
followed, with Glannibanta (Whitley Castle), Iter X. only viewing 
the road as a precious mineral one, and the Notitia having no object in 
rementioning Magna. Taking, for the hke reason, and because it was 
just out of the line, no notice of Braboniacum, they note Alione of 
Iter X., and next note Bremeteneacum, which was identified with 
Ribchester by Mr. Hinde through its Cuneus Sarmaturarum. Here 
I ended my paper, because I thought that the doubtfully-placed stations 
of the Cup and the Notitia had been identified from my own stand- 
point, and because it did not occiu- to me to impeach the ideas that the 



THE NORTHERN STATIONS OF THE NOTITIA. 291 

concluding stations of the Notitia, Olenacum and Virosidiim, were 
Ilkley and Adel. I now see that the method of the Notitia should 
have been better observed up to its ending, and that the writer's 
Roman-road onward course should have been detected, removing some 
grave difficulties. 

Admitting that there is a Eoman road from Ribchester to Ilkley 
and one from Ilkley through Adel to Tadcaster, it is in the last degree 
unlikely that the south-western boundary of the Brigantian territory, 
elsewhere so carefully protected, with that great centre of roads, Man- 
chester (Mancunium), should be left at the mercy of the Scots. A 
sudden divergence from Iter X. to Ilkley and Adel along the Roman 
road was worse than at right angles, and what possible object could be 
gained by ending an elaborate system of defence, illustrated by the 
Notitia, at an insignificant place in, possibly, a hostile inland country ? 

These difficulties and the method of the Notitia have now induced 
me to follow Iter X. in its geogi-aphical and defensive course, rather 
than in its itineraiy route to Mancunium, which, like the defended Lugu- 
vallium, is not mentioned in the Notitia, and we are led to a post 
on the Mersey in defence of Mancunium, and at the extreme boundary 
of the province of the Brigantes. The name of the post may possibly 
bear a trace of the word Virosidum. I am referring to Warrington, 
already presumed to be the Veratinum (somewhat near to Deva, 
Chester) of the Chorographia, a form of name not nearly so much 
removed from that of Virosidum as in similar cases. For the obvious 
right of WaiTington, popularly pronounced Warratin, with its con- 
currence of Roman roads, its passage over the bounding river, and its 
obvious use to Manchester, to be a Roman station, I need only refer 
to Whitaker. He has, as I fear, been rather neglected as being 
fanciful, but to my mind there is much sterling stufi", interrupted it 
may be with fantasies, in Whitaker's " Manchester." He caUs atten- 
tion to the records of Doomsday, wherein Warrington is written 
Wallintun, and gives a couple of instances wherein R passes into L. 
I am a little doubtful as to his reasoning, and should be slow to admit 
that, on the same principle, L may not pass into R. However this 
may be, there is every cause for concluding that WaUiutun, hodie 
Warrington, ought to be Virosidum, the end of the linm valli, 
completing a skilful military system directed against circumstances 



292 THE NORTHERN STATIONS OF THE NOTITIA. 

whereof we wot not. The si3ellings by foreigners in Domesday Book 
cannot be depended upon. 

I have anticipated Olenacum, which may or may not be Ptolemy's 
Ohcaiia. It should be between Bremetenracum and Virosidum, and, 
when I disagree with Whi taker as to identifying Blackrode, between 
Ribchester and Warrington, with Coccium, I cannot ignore its claims 
to be- Olenacum. Without local knowledge, I offer no opinion. The 
country between Ribchester and Warrington should be carefully 
surveyed. 

I wound up the paper intended to be read with some general 
observations as to the authorship and intention of the singular series of 
fortifications indicated in the Notitia ; but the questions as to the state 
of the inland countries which were the care of the scouts and the cause 
of the vallum, as to the respective works of Theodosius and Stilicho, as 
to those of Hadrian and Severus, and, it may be added, as to those of 
others, are too mysterious for hasty study. I have endeavoured to show 
that the province of the Duke of Britain was bounded by the Tyne and 
Solway on the north, and by the Humber and Mersey on the south. 
This district has hitherto been recognised as that of the Brigantes and 
Parisii, and as Maxima Caesariensis, Valentia being supposed to be upon 
the north of it. I merely follow Horsley in having misgivings as to the 
latter allocations. The nature of the enemies having the attention of 
the explorers, and the absence of stations along the east parts of York- 
shire and Durham, and in Britain generally, are subjects which should 
receive separate treatment. After every honest attempt to unfold a 
mystery, I think that the works between the Tyne and Eden are 
virgin soil for future antiquaries. I much fear that I may not have 
had local opinions before me; and, if I have trespassed upon the 
preserves of former writers, I beg pardon. At the risk, however, of 
finding that I may have stumbled upon a mare's nest, I think that it 
is right to print a reply to a question which I put. "The station 
which Warrington claims was not there but at Wilderspool in Cheshire, 
two miles away, and this station all our local antiquaries believe was 
Condate, which place is at the proper itinerary distance from Medio- 
lanum-Middlewick, the next station south of the 10th Iter of 
Antonine." 



INDEX. 



Aballaba, signification of name, 52 ; sup- 
posed site of, .")4 ; the modern Pap- 
castle, lo9, 290. 

Aclet, North and West, 284. 

Acque ApoUinari, coins, etc., discovered 
at, 28, 8o. 

>Emilianus, coin of, 267. 

^sculapius, votive tablet to, 248. 

^sica, ,'){). 

Ahuramazda, 144, H.'i, 148. 

Ala Sabiniana, 58. 

Ala Petriana, 161. 

Aldhiin, Bishop, 282. 

Alionis, signification of name, 5.") ; sup- 
posed site of, 55. 

Alone, station of, 98. 

Altars to Coven tina, 10 et seq. 

Altars to Minerva, 18, 39. 

Amandus, 25.5. 

Amboglanna, 156, 290 ; signification of 
name, 52. 

Anchorage, the, Gateshead, 236. 

Antoninus Pius, 4, 30, 220 ; reverses on 
coins of, 48. 

S. Andrew's Auckland, Parish of, 283. 

Apollo the Roman Mithras, 146. 

Aquilia Severa, reverse on coin of, 49. 

Aquitania, 6, 22. 

Arbeia, 288. 

Athene, 141, 144 ; resemblance between, 
and Mithras, 147 ; offerings to, 148. 

Attacotti, the, 155 ; opinions respecting, 
156 ; Jerome's account of, 156. 

Aulus Platorius Nepos, 4. 

Aurelian, 263 ; coins of, 280. 

Aurelius Campestris, 13. 

Aurelius Grotus Germanus, 11. 

Axelodunum, or Uxelodunum, 54, 159, 
290. 

B. 

Bainbridge on the Maiden-Way, 96. 
Baker, Thos., the " Fanner and Quaker 

Preacher," and Mary Jeykll, 232. 
Bandusia, the fountain of, Horace's ode 

to, quoted, 26. 
Banna, the modern Bewcastle, 159. 
Batavians, first cohort of, at Proco- 

litia, 4. 



Bath, inscription found at, 251. 
Baudot, H., report of excavation of 

temple to Goddess Sequana, 23. 
Beal, Rev. S., on Mithraic worship in 

the Western World, 141. 
Beck, Bishop, dispute with his vassals 

respecting working coals, 175. 
Becqu, or Jjolin, Anthony, 115, 116. 
Bede's Well, Houghton-le-Spring, 70. 
Bede's Well, Monkton, 76 ; custom."! 

connected with, 77. 
Bede's " Lives of the Abbots" quoted, 

108. 
Bellicus, 12. 

Bellingham, St. Cuthbert's well at, 63. 
Benwell, 96. 

Bewcastle, the Roman Banna, 159. 
Billon, coins made of, 257, 260. 
Binchester, votive tablet found at, 247. 
Bingfield, holy well near, 69, 70. 
Birtley Halywell. 68. 
Biscop, Bishop, builds church at Monk- 

wearmouth, 109 ; brings glassmakers 

from Gaul, 109. 
Blackmore Park, Roman coins found 

at, 29. 
Blair, Robert, 54 ; on Roman leaden 

seals, 57 ; descriptive list of Roman 

coins, 266. 
Boldon Buke, 282, 284. 
Bore-Well, on Erringburn, 69 ; customs 

connected with, 69. 
Bottle Bank, Gateshead, 240. 
Bourbonne les Bains, Roman remains 

and coins discovered at, 25, 26, 85. 
Bourne, Rev. H., 83 ; account of the first 

glassmakers on the Tyne, 111. 
Borvonis, a god, 25, 86. 
Bowes, inscription found at, 251. 
Bowness, 53 ; the Roman Tunnocelum, 

165. 
Braboniacum, station of, 100, 289. 
Brand, Rev. J., 83; his "History of 

Newcastle" quoted, 113. 
Bravonacae, station of, 102. 
Bremetenracum, signification of name, 

55 ; supposed site of, r^'^, 290. 
Bronze tablet or diploma found at Cil- 

urnum, 213 ; copy of inscription on, 

217 ; translation of, 218. 
Brough, Roman leaden seals found at, 58. 

LL 



294 



INJ)KX. 



Bnice, Dr. J. C, 1, 3, 34 ; observations 
on the coins found in well, 40 ; on the 
Rudge cup, 72 ; account of a Roman 
burial at York, 127 ; account of exca- 
vation of gateway at Cilurnum, 211. 

Bullock, Ralph, lease of colliery to, 179. 

Bungard, Isaac, petitions against Man- 
sell's patent, I'ZO. 

Burgh on the Sands, supposed site of 
Congavata, 54. 

C. 

Camboglans, 159. 

Camden's " Britannia," 88, 99. 

Camden's account of Roman remains on 
Western Coast, 154. 

Camhous, Adam de, charter to the 
monks of Newminster, 170. 

Caracalla, i-everses on coins of, 48. 

Chollerford, 1. 

Cilurnum, 1 ; derivation of name, 51 ; 
Bruce's account of excavation of gate- 
way at, 211 ; station at, erected by 
Agricola, 212 ; coins found at, 213 ; 
bronze tablet found at, 213. 

Claudius, reverse on coin of, 47. 

Claudius Gothicus, 263 ; coins of, 277. 

Clayton, John, on Roman remains near 
Procolitia, 1, 20 ; on the discovery of 
a hoard of Roman coins on the Wall 
of Hadrian, 25(5. 

Clephan, James, 88 ; on the manufac- 
ture of glass in En<^and, 108 ; on 
Abigad and Timothy Tyzack and Old 
Gateshead, 222. 

Clipped money, 237. 

Clitumnus, the river and its temple, 27. 

Clodius Albinus, reverse on coin of, 48. 

Cloutie's Croft, or the Gudeman's Field, 
84 

Coal, Galloway on early working of, 107 ; 
earliest mention of, 170 ; first impor- 
tation of, into London, 172 ; inquisi- 
tion at Newcastle respecting, 173 ; 
working of by prior and convent of 
Tynemouth, 174 ; retail prices of thir- 
teenth century, 174 ; export of, to 
France, 178 ; great increase in use of, 
180; writ to Mayor of Newcastle to 
measure all coals shipped there, 193 ; 
copy of writ, 206 ; copy of revocation 
of writ, 207. 

Coccium, station of, 102. 

Coffins, leaden, found in Roman burial 
places, 130. 

Coins, and other Roman remains, dis- 
covered, 3 ; Longstaffe on, 103 ; nu- 
merical view of, 43 ; discovery of, on 
the Wall of Hadrian, 256 ; descriptive 
list of, 267 ; debased, issued by Gal- 
lienus, 260. 

Colbourne, Ralph, maker of hour glasses, 
119. 

Colchester, 95. 

Cole, family of, 234. 

Colewell, Adam de, lease of colliery to, 
178, 179. 

Collingwood, 95. 



I Colwell, flower-dressing of well at, 66. 

Commodus, reverses on coins of, 48. 

Concangium, 288. 

Condercum, 96 ; origin of name of, 52 ; 

Congavata, supposed site of, 54, 162, 290. 
i Constantine the Great, 32. 

Conwent, 92. 

Coote's "Romans of Britain" quoted, 88. 

Corbridge, 95. 

Corstopitum, 95. 

Coundon, coal mine at, 181. 

Coventina, goddess, discovery of tablet 
to, 4 ; vases dedicated to, 7 ; descrip- 
tion and inscription on tablet to, 9; 
altars dedicated to, 10 et seq. ; deriva- 
tion of name, 21, 86, 94 ; C. R. Smith 
on, 107 ; probable reason of the deposit 
of coins, etc., in well, 33, 81 ; minimi 
found in well, 82 ; temple to, 20 ; pro- 
bable time of foundation of temple, 30; 
description of remains of temple, 31. 

Coventina, by W. H. D. Longstaffe, 88. 

Coventry, 88. 

Croft-foot Well, Birtley, 67. 

Cugerni or Cuberni, first cohort of, 13, 
39. 

S. Cuthbert's Well at Bellingham, 63 ; 
miraculous cure connected with, 64. 

D. 

Damona, goddess, 25, 86. 

Danum, 287. 

Derventio, 97, 289. 

Devil's Causeway, the, 157. 

Devil's Stone, Birtley, 68. 

Dictus, 288. 

Dight, use of the word, 239. 

Domitian, reverse on coin of, 48. 

Drayton s "Polyolbion" quoted, 94, 118. 

Drum burgh, supposed site of Axelo- 

dunum, 54. 
Dunghills in streets, 232. 
Dyans, the bright sky, 141. 

■p 

Ebchester, 97, 289. * 

Ecgbert's Poenitentiale, 80. 

Eddysbridge, 282. 

Eden, the river, 98. 

Ediscuni, 281. 

Edmondesley, 282. 

Egfrid grants land to Bishop Biscop, 
109. 

Elagabulus, reverse on coin of, 49. 

EUenborough, the Roman Axelodunum, 
159. 

Ellison, R. Carr, 1, 21 ; on inscribed 
stones found at JaiTow, 243. 

Elswick, working of coals at, 178 ; tres- 
pass in by Corporation of Newcastle, 
187. 

Escombe Church, by W. H. D. Long- 
staffe, 281 ; peculiarity of walls, 286 ; 
bell of, 286. 

Escombe, derivation of name, 282 ; vil- 
lage of, 284. 

Ethred eorle, 282. 



INDEX. 



295 



Faustina the Elder, revei-ses on coins of, 
48. 

Faustina the Younger, reverses on coins 
of, 48. 

Finchale Priory, coal mine belonging 
to, 181. 

Fire-grates, first introduction of, 196. 

Fire-worship, remains of, 73. 

Flower-dressing of wells, 66, 74. 

" Flower of the Well," New Year's cus- 
tom of taking the, 67. 

Forest charter, 16'.*. 

Fortune, the goddess, altar to, 

Foumarts and foxes, payments for des- 
troying, 238. 



G. 

Gabrosentum, 163, 290 ; derivation of 
name, .52 ; supposed site of, 53. 

Galava, 289. 

Gallienus, 2-59 ; coins of, 268. 

Galloway, R. L., on early workini^ of 
coal on the banks of the Tyne, 167. 

Gateshead, Bishop Pudsey's charter to, 
168 ; Bishop Hatfield gi-ants lease of 
coal in, 189 ; copy of confirmation by 
the King of lease, 203 ; complaint of 
lessees against Newcastle, 191 ; ri^ht 
to ship coals at Newcastle from, 192 ; 
copy of mandate allowing right, 2U7. 

Gateshead, James Clephan on old, 222; 
Friends' meeting house in, 224 ; duck- 
ing stool at, 227 ; select vestry of, 228 ; 
incorporated companies in, 228 ; shoe 
fair in, 229 ; ancient amusements in, 
229 ; witches prosecuted, 230 ; epidem- 
ics in, 231, 233 ; paving streets of, 23o ; 
weavers in, 236 ; sun-dial in, 236 ; 
"Wain men" of, 238; Whitehead's 
Directory of, 239 ; streets in, 240 ; 
tradesmen in, 240 ; tolbooth in, 241 ; 
Half Moon Lane in, 241. 

Gateshead, supposed site of Virosidum, 
55. 

Gauls, fifth cohort of, 57. 

Gibbon's "Roman History" quoted, 259. 

Gilsland Wells, 71 ; pilgfimagcs to, 72. 

Glannibanta, signification of name, 54 ; 
probable site of, 54 290. 

Glanoventa, 97, 98, 99. 
Glass, on the manufacture of, in Eng- 
land, by J. Clephan, 108 ; ancient 
manufacture of, 108 ; introduced into 
England. 109 ; manufacture of, in 
Sussex, 113 ; first use of coal in 
making, 118 ; free trade in, tliscus- 
sions on, in Pai'liament, 121, 122. 
Glass houses, lease of, granted, 113. 
Glass windows first used in houses, 110. 
Glaziers' Company, 113. 
Gi"atian, 24. 
Grazebrook, S., " Genealogy of Henzell, 

etc.," quoted, 112. 
Greenwell, Canon, 34. 
Grey's " Chorographia," 111. 



Grotus Utibes, 15. 
Gunnerton, Lady's Well at, 65. 

H. 

Hadrian, 4 ; reverses on coins of, 48. 
Half Moon Lane, Gateshead, 241. 
Hall, Rev. G. R., on modern survivals 

of well-worship in North Tynedale, 60. 
Halliwell Dene, Hexham, 62. 
Halliwell, Gunnerton Fell, 66. 
Hardlcnot Hill, Roman remains on, 160. 
Hatfield, Bishop, grants lease of coal 

mines at WhickTiam, 186 ; copy of 

lease, 199 ; grants lease of coal at 

Gateshead, 189. 
Heaton Cottage, tombstone of Abigail 

Tyzack at, 12 >. 
Heaven-field, battle of, 70. 
Henderson's "Folk-Lore," 83. 
Hennezes, Thomas and Balthazar de, 

115, 116. 
Hensey, Isaac, 123 ; Jacob, 123. 
Hentzner, Paul, 117. 
Henzells, Tyzacks, and Tittei">-s, first 

glassmakers on the Tyne, 111, 126. 
Henzell or Henzey, Peregrine, 112, 224 ; 

Edward, 112 ; John, 113 ; Jacob, 113 ; 

W. M., 12o; Jane, 126; Charles, 126. 
Hinde, J. H., on Iter X, 100. 
Hodgson, Rev. J., "History of Nor- 
thumberland" quoted, 2, 73. 
Holystone, near Alwinton, Well of St. 

Ninian at, 75. 
Hooppell, Rev. R. E., on the signification 

of the names of the Roman stations, 

"Per Lineam Valli," 50 ; on a votive 

tablet recently found at Binchester, 

247. 
Horace's Ode to the Fountain of Ban- 

dusia, 26. 
Hoi-sley, John, "Britannia Romana" 

quoted, 2, 98, 157. 
Horton, county of Dorset, coins found 

at, 29, 86. 
Hostilianus, coin of, 267. 
Hour glasses in churches, 237. 
Hlibner, Professoi-, 1, 4, 8. 
H umber, the river, 9.3. 
Humshaua^h Wood, sulphur well in, 68. 
Hutton, William, 42. 

I. 

Ilkley, 288, 291. 

Inscription found at Escombe Old 

Church, 253, 285. 
Insci'iptions found at Vino%ium, 254. 

J. 

JaiTow Church, 285. 
Jarrow, supposed site of Ahonis, o5. 
Jarrow, R. Carr Ellison on two in- 
scribed stones found at, 243. 
Jerome's account of the Atticots, 156. 
Julia Donnia, reverse on coin of, 48. 
Julia Mamaea, I'cverses on coins of, 49. 
Julius Agricola, 4. 
Juvenal's Satii-es quoted, 253. 



296 



INDEX. 



Kellawe, Bishop, appoints warden of 

mines, etc., 176. 
Kirby Thore, 100, 289. 



L. 

Lady's Well, or Margaret's Well, at 
Gunnerton, (55. 

Laelianus, 2'J'2 ; coins of, 275. 

Lanchester, 97, 289. 

Lavatrae, 289. 

Leaden coffins found in Honian burial 
places, 130. 

Leland on the Isis and Ure, 92. 

Limestone bank, Roman works on, 2. 

London, first importation of coal into, 
172 ; complaints as to smoke from 
coals, 177 ; use of coal prohibited, 177; 
copy of commission enforcing procla- 
mation, 198. 

Longe, (jieorge, petition to Lord Bur- 
leigh, 116. 

Longovicura, 97, 289. 

Longstaffe, W. H. D., on Coventina, 
88 ; on the Western Stations, 154 ; 
on Escombe Church, 281 ; on the 
Northern Stations of the Notitia, 287. 

Longthorpe Chapel, 115. 

Lucius Aelius, reverse on coin of, 48. 

Lucius Verus, reveises on coins of, 48. 

Lucius Vitellius Tancinus, 251. 

Lumley, earliest notice of coal in, 180 ; 
coal mine at, 181. 

M. 

Macrianus, coin of, 277. 

Maga;, 98, 289. 

Maglova, 289. 

Magna, 50. 

Magnus Maxiraus, 24. 

Maia, 159, 290. 

Manchester, 291. 

Mancunium, 291. 

Manes, his idea of Mithras as Christ, 143. 

Manlius Duhus Gerraanus 11. 

Mansell, Sir Robert, patent for glass 

making gi-anted to, 112, 113, 119 ; 

lease of land for glass houses granted 

to, 123. 
Marcus Aurelius, reverses on coins of, 

48. 
Marcus Valerius Fulvianus, 254. • 
Mariniana, coins of, 268. 
Marius, 262 ; coins of, 276. 
Mark Antony, coins of, 33. 
Marriage of the Coquet and the Alwine, 

91. 
Martial's Epigrams quoted, 253. 
Martin, Bishop of Tours, 25. 
S. Mary's Well, Jesmond, pilgrimages 

to, 76. 
Medicinal or mineral wells, 67. 
Merrington, coal mine at, 181. 
Military diplomas, description and use 

of, 215. 
Mine, origin of word, 175. 



Mines formerly the property of the 
Crown, 167. 

Minerva, altars to, 18, 39. 

Minimi found in Covcntina's Well, 82. 

Mithraic worship in the Western World, 
Rev. S. Beal on, 141. 

Mithras, worship of, 141 ; knowledge of, 
by Aryan race, 142 ; worshipped in 
Persia, 143 ; Manes' idea of, 143 ; 
the angel of the sun, 144 ; worship of, 
introduced into the West, 145 ; wor- 
ship of. among the Romans, 146 ; 
offerings to, 148 ; represents the dawn, 
148 ; connection of, with Athene, 148, 
149 ; reasons for worship of, by the 
Romans, 152. 

Mitra identical with Mithras, 141 ; the 
lii^ht of the sun, 143 ; hymn in the Rig 
Vida on, 144. 

Monasteries, fuel used in various, 182. 

Monkwearmouth, glass first used at, 109. 

Morbium, 287. 

Moresby on the Lea, 98. 

S. Mungo's Well, Simonburn, 63. 

N. 

Naiads, attendants on Coventina, sculp- 
tured tablet of, 5, 61, 91. 

Nemontanus, 254. 

Nerva, reverses on coins of, 48. 

Newcastle, dispute of Corporation of, 
with Bishop of Durham regarding 
traffic on the Tyne, 183, 184; first 
license granted to dig coal, 184 ; com- 
plaint against, by Prior of Tynemouth, 
of trespass, 187 ; charter to, granted 
by Edward III., 189; writ granting 
right for coals from Gateshead to be 
shipped at, 192 ; mayors and bailiffs 
to measure all coals shipped at, 193 ; 
copy of writ of appointment, 206 ; 
copy of letter to mayor and bailiffs, 
209. 

Newminster, grants of coal to the monks 
of, 170, 171. 

S. Ninian's Well at Holystone, 75, 76. 

Nomatius, 14. 

Northern stations of the Notitia, by W. 
H. D. Longstaffe. 287. 

Northman eorle, 282, 283. 

North Shields, supposed site of Breme- 
tenracum, 55. 

North Tyne, 101. 

Nunburnholme, find of coins at, 264. 

O. 

Offerings at wells, 74. 

Olenacum, signification of name, 55 ; 

supposed silSe of, 55, 291, 292. 
Otacilia, coin of, 267. 

P. 

Pantheon at Rome, 146. 
Papirus ^lianus, 221. 
Parish coffins, 231. 
Paulinus, baptisms by, at wells, 75. 
Petriana, 50, 162, 290 ; supposed site 
of, 54. 



INDEX. 



297 



Philippiis, reverse on coin of, 49. 

Piersebridge, 98, 289. 

"Pin wells," 75. 

Plague in Gateshead, 233. 

Plessey, coal mines at, 181. 

Pollio, Trebellius, his history referred 

to, 2G0. 
Pons ^lii, 50. 
Postumus, 261 ; coins of, 273 ; reverses 

on coins of, 49. 
Praesidium, 287. 
Procolitia, Roman remains discovered 

near, 1, 20 ; derivation of name, 52. 
Pi'oculeiana Ala, 219. 
Prudde, John, Master Glazier to Henry 

VI., 114. 
Pudsey, Bishop, Charter to Gateshead 

quoted, 1G8. 

Q- 

Quarr6 or Carye, John, 115, 116. 
Quietus, coin of, 277. 
Quintillus, 263 ; coins of, 279. 
Quintus Unias, 18. 

R. 

Rabbit Banks, 238. 

" Rag Well," near Benton, 76. 

Ramshaw's Mill, medicinal well near, 68. 

Ravennas' Chorograijhia, 156. 

Ravensworth, Earl of, his trarmlation of 
the Odes of Horace quoted, 27. 

Reginald of Durham, account of mira- 
culous cure at Bellingham, 64. 

Report for 1878, 133. 

Reverses on coins, 47. 

Richardson, G. B., 115, 116. 

Rig Veda, hymn on Mitra, 144. 

Roman burial at York, 127. 

Roman citizenship, importance of, 214. 

Roman coins, discovery of, on the Wall 
of Hadrian, 256. 

Roman garrisons in England, scarcity 
of, 156. 

Roman leaden seals found at South 
Shields, Robert Blair on, 57 ; other 
places where found, 58 ; opinions as 
to use of, 59. 

Roman remains discovered near Proco- 
litia, 1. 

Roman roads, obliteration of, near sta- 
tions, 103. 

Roman roads in Cumberland, 156. 

Roman stations, " I'er Lineam Valli," 
Rev. R. E. Hooppell on the significa- 
tion of the names of, 50. 

Romans, worship of Mithras among, 
145 ; reasons for, 152. 

Roth's " The Highest Gods of the 
Arians" quoted, 142. 

Rudge cup, 85, 156, 290 ; connection of, 
with Gilsland, 72. 

Rufus, 23. 

S. 
Sacred wells, 62. 
Sacred wells in Scotland, customs con- 



nected with, 77, 78 ; remains of Pagan 

practices made to, 79. 
Salonina, coins of, 272. 
Saloninus, 261 ; coins of, 273. 
Saturninus Gobinius, offerings of vases 

to Coventina, 7, 8. 
Scaresbek, Gilbert de, appointed warden 

of mines, etc., in Durham, 176. 
Sea coal, origin of name, 170 ; earliest 

mention of, 170. 
Seals, Roman leaden, found at South 

Shields, 57. 
Secole Lane, London, 172. 
Segedunum, 290. 
Sequana, temple to the Goddess, 23, 46, 

85 ; demolition of, 25. 
Severus, revei-ses on coins of, 48 ; effigy 

of, on seal, 57, 
Simonburn, St. Mungo's Well at, 63. 
Skinburness, 164, 21)0. 
Smart, Dr. Wake, 21, 29. 
Smith, C. Roach, 1, 21, 29, 34 ; nume- 
rical view of the coins found in well, 

43 ; on Roman leaden seals, 58 ; on 

etymology of Coventina, 107. 
South Shields, supposed site of Tunno- 

celum, 54 ; Roman leaden seals found 

at, 57. 
Speed's notice of Roman remains in 

Cumberland, 160. 
Spenser, E., quoted, 1^0. 
Stanwix, su])posed site of Aballaba,'"54. 
Stilico fortifies western coast, 155. 
Sun-dial in Gateshead, 236. 
Swastika, the, on altars to Mithras, 150 ; 

origin of, 151. 



T. 

Tablet to Coventina, 9, 91. 

Tancinus, Lucius Vitellius, 251. 

Teswicke, Tymothie, 113; John, 123; 
Abraham, 123. 

Tetricus, 263 ; coins of, 24, 276. 

Tetricus, jun., coins of, 276. 

Theodosius, 24, 25, 32. 

Thracians, first cohort of, 251. 

Thruston Wells, near Longwitton, 71 ; 
tradition connected witli, 71 

Tittery, Daniel, 113, 224 ; David, 123. 

Titus Domitius Coseonianus, 4 ; dedi- 
cates tablet to Coventina, 9 ; remarks 
on reading of inscription on tablet,'37. 

Tizziock, William, 113. 

Todridge J^'arm, holy well on, 69. 

Tolbooth, the, Gateshead, 241 

Tower-Tay, 2. 

Tradesmen in old Gateshead, 240. 

Trajan, reverses on coins of, 48. 

Trebonianus Gallus, coin of, 267. 

Tritogoneia, 149. 

Tunnocelum, signihcation of name 54 • 
probable site of, 54, 98, 165, 290 ' ' 

Tyne, derivation of name, 93. 

Tyne, North and South, 92 ; Drayton's 
description of, 94. 

Tyne, establishment of glass works on 



298 



INDEX. 



Tyne, Galloway on the early working of 
coal on the banks of, 167 ; first notice 
of coal trade on, 173 ; dispute as to 
right of traffic on, 183 ; mandate to 
King's officers to protect persons bring- 
ing coals across the river from Soutn 
Bank to Newcastle, 205. 

Tynemouth, supposed site of Glanni- 
banta, 54. 

Tynemouth, Prior and convent of, own 
coal mines, 174 ; grant leases of coal 
mines at Elswick, 178 ; complaint of, 
against Newcastle for trespass, 187 ; 
copy of commission appointed respect- 
ing trespass, 202. 

Tyzack, or Tizacke, Peregrine, 111 ; 
Jonathan, 112; William, 113; Samuel, 
123 ; Timothy, 124 ; tombstone of, 
124 ; armorial bearings of, 124 ; Eliza- 
beth, 125 ; Abigail, tombstone of, 125 ; 
inscription on, 222 ; John and Sarah, 
224. 

Tyzack, Timothy, extracts from Gates- 
head vestry minutes respecting, 226. 



U. 



Uthred, eorle, 282. 

V. 

Valentinianus, 25. 

Valerianus, 258 ; coins of, 267. 

Valerius Fronto, 251. 

Varuna, 141 ; worship of, 142. 

Vases found in well, inscriptions on, 7, 8; 

criticism on reading of, 35, 36. 
Venico, 18. 
Venta, the river, 98, 
Veratinum, 291. 
Verterae, 289. 
Vespasian and Titus, reverses on coins 

of, 47. 
Vettonians, Ala of the, 249, 251. 
Victorina, 263. 

Victorinus, 262 ; coins of, 275. 
Vincentius, 10. 
Vindomora, 97. 
Vinovium (Binchester), votive tablet 

found at, 247. _ 
Virius Lupus, 251. 
Virosidum, supposed site of, 50, 291 ; 

signification of name, 56. 



I Volusianus, coins of, 267. 
Votive tablet found at Binchester, Rev. 
R. E. Hooppell on, 247. 

W. 

Wallis, Rev. J., " History of Northum- 
berland" quoted, 42, 61. 
Walton House, supposed site of Pet- 

riana, 54, 
Walwick, 1, 

Wansbeck, the river, 99. 
Wardley, supposed site of Olenacum, 55. 
Wark, wells at, 66 ; New Year's custom 

connected with, 67. 
Wark's Burn, sulphur spring at, 68, 
Warrington, 291. 
Waver, the river, 165. 
Wavertree, near Liverpool, well at, 84, 
Weavers in Gateshead, 236. 
Well near Procolitia, excavation of, 3, 61, 
Well-worship in North Tynedale, on 

modern survivals of, by Kev. G. R. 

Hall, 60. 
Well-worship in ancient times, 80. 
West Street, Gateshead, 241, 
Western stations, Longstaife on the, 154. 
Whalton, remains of fire-worship and 

well-worship at, 74, 
Whickham, coal mines at, 186, 
Whitehead's Directory, 239. 
Whitley Castle, 97, 100, 290. 
Wilfrid, Bishop, uses glass at York, 109, 
Winrate Spa, 73. 
Winlaton, coals worked at, 194 ; extract 

from " Pipe Roll" respecting, 195. 
Witches in Gateshead, prosecution of, 

230. 
Woode, Armigill, letter to Sir William 

CecU, 115. 
Wooler, wishing well near, 75. 

Y. 

York, Roman burial at, 127, 

York, excavations in Roman cemetery 

at, 128 ; leaden coffins found at, 129, 

130. 



Z. 

Zoroaster's opinion of Mithras, 143. 



END OF VOL. VIII. 



NKWOASTLE-OPON-TYNE : A. RKID, PRINTING COURT BUILDINGS, AKENSIDE HILL. 



DA Archaeologia aeliana 

670 

N79A6 

n.s.v.S 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 
















^"t;^^:;' 

t'~ *-.:^^- 



,.-> V Tr 



r.^v;*rs^s>\. 



s.a^-^;:c\:_^>