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At page 40, fourth line from bottom, for 'printer-hand' 

read 'by her own hand.' 
On page 198 the second woodcut is upside down. 




$JltStcUaneous Cracts 










List of Plates, &c iii- 

Contributions of Plates, etc. ... ... iv. 

Report of the Society for 1886 (i.) v. 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet (iv.) viii. 

Officers for 1886 (vi.) x. 

Report of the Society for 1887 xi. 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet... ... xiv. 

Officers for 1887 xvi. 

List of Members xvii. 

I. Catalogue of the Inscribed and Sculptured Stones of the Roman 
Era in possession of the Society of Antiquaries. Newcastle 

(Illustrated) 1 

II. Slat-urn Bulgiwni ; or Notes on the Camps of Birrens and 

Burnswark. By Thos. Hodgkin, D.C.L. (Illustrated) ... 101 

III. The Bigg Market Military Execution, 1640: The Year of 

Newburn. By James Clephan 112 

IV. An Account of the Discovery of a British perforated Axe-hammer 
and a Roman Silver Coin, near Barrasford, with Notices of 
other Stone Implements from this locality. By the Rev. 

G. Rome Hall, F.S.A. (Illustrated) ... 116 

V. On a Building at Cilurnum, supposed to be Roman Baths. By 

Sheriton Holmes (Illustrated) 124 

VI. Remarks on two Mediaeval Grave Covers, from St. Nicholas's 
Church, Newcastle, discovered in June, 1886. By C. C. 

Hodges (Illustrated) 130 

VII. Old Tyne Bridge and its Story. By James Clephan 135 

Vila. Report on Old Tyne Bridge. By John Smeaton 148 

VIII. The late Sir C. E. Trevdlyan, Bart. By the Rev. Dr. Bruce, 

D.C.L., F.S.A., etc. (Portrait) 150 

Villa. Notes on a Pie-Historic Camp and Avenue of Stones on 
Thockrington Quarry House Farm. By R. Cecil Hedley 

(Plan) ... 165 

IX. Report of Excavations in Cumberland, per lineam Valli, 
undertaken by, and at the cost of the Cumberland and 
Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society 

(Illustrated) 159 

X. A Terrier of Lands in the Manor of Tinemouth, in 1649; with 

Notes by Horatio A. Adamson ... ... ... 172 

XI. Three Papal Bulls confirmatory of the Possessions of the 

Riddells of lliddell. By Cadwallader J. Bates, M.A. ... 191 

XII. On a Roman Tombstone in the Carlisle Museum. By Dr. 

Hulsebos (Illustrated) 205 

XIII. Departure of the Quayside Wall ; and what became of it. By 

James Clephan ... 210 


XTV. An attempt to trace the Delavals from the time of the Norman 
Conquest to the present day. By the Rev. E. H. Adamson, 
Vice-President (Illustrated) . ... 215 

XIV. Notes on the Chapel of our Lady, Seaton Delaval. By W. S. 

Hicks 229 

XV. The Walls of Newcastle in 1638. By Richard Welford 

(Illustrated) 230 

XVI. The Plate and Insignia of the Corporation of Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. By the Rev. J. R. Boyle (Illustrated) ... 236 

XVII. Recent Explorations in Ancient British Barrows, containing 

Cup-marked Stones, near Birtley. By the Rev. G. Rome Hall, 

F.S.A. (Illustrated) 241 

XVIII. On some Cup-incised Stones, found in an Ancient British Burial- 
Mound at Pitland Hills, near Birtley. By the Rev. G. Rome 
Hall, F.S.A. (Illustrated) 268 

XIX. On some recently discovered Inscriptions of the Roman Period 

1. On Altars at Chester-le-Street, Caervoran. and Corbridge. 

By the Rev. Dr. Bruce 284 

2. On Altars at West Harrington and Birdoswald. By the Rev. 

Dr. Bruce 287 

3. On Inscriptions at Cliburn, &c. 

a. By R. S. Ferguson 289 

b. By W. Thompson Watkin 290 

4. On Altar from Chester-le-Street. By W. Thompson Watkin... 292 
6. On a Greek Inscription from Risingham. By Prof. E. C. Clark, 

Hon. Member 294 

6. On a Roman Tombstone at Mertola, Portugal. By the Rev. 

Dr. Bruce 297 

XX. The Bells of the Priory Church of St. Andrew, Hexham. By J. P. 

Gibson 299 


In the pagination of the Report for 1886, for i-vi. read v-x. 

Page 130. The grave covers were discovered in making alterations in the 
vestries ; the churchwardens caused them to be taken up and cleaned and placed 
in the Bewicke chapel. 

Page 134, line 11, for "fifteenth" read "sixteenth." 




Roman Altar at Burnfoot, Ecclefechan I. 101 

Plan of Roman Camp at Birrens II. 104 

Plan, etc., of Burnswark ... III. 108 

Ancient British Axe-hammers IV. 118 

Koman Buildings at Cilurnnm ... ... ... ... V. 124 

Portrait of Sir C. E. Trevelyan, Bart VI. 150 

Plan of Ancient British Camp, etc., at Thockrington VII. 156 

Plan of Roman Buildings at Gilsland VIII. 160 

Plan of Stanegate at Poltross Burn IX. 16C 

Plan of Koman Station at Stanwix, etc. ... X. 170 

Roman Tombstone in Carlisle Museum ... ... XI. 205 

Seaton Delaval Hall ... XII. 215 

The Walls of Newcastle in 1638 XIII 230 

Sir Jacob Astley's Plan of Newcastle XIV. 234 

'Loving Cup' belonging to the Corporation of Newcastle XV. 238 

Ancient British Urns from North Tindale XVI. 244 

Cup-marked Stones from North Tindale XVII. 272 

Cup-marked Stone from Cilurnnm, now at Chesters XVIII. 278 



Ancient British Urn, Black Gate Museum ... iv. 

Roman Altars, &c., in Black Gate Museum 2-94 

Altar at Burnfoot (from a drawing by Mrs. Hodgkin) ... ... 100 

Mediaeval Grave Covers, St. Nicholas's Church (drawn by C. C. Hodges)... 131 

Fac-simile of Autograph of John Smeaton ... ... ... ... ... 14l 

Roman Tombstone, Carlisle Museum ... ... ... ... ... ... 204 

Seaton Sluice (drawn by C. J. Spence) 222 

Interior of Chapel at Seaton Delaval (drawn by C. J. Spence) 221 

Ancient British Beads of Gold from Chesterhope (cut by Bewick) ... 248 

,, Urn from Hallington, in Black Gate Museum ... . 253 

Roman Altars, Chester-le- Street 284,292 

(Jaervoran s ... 285, 286 

Altar, Amboglanna ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 288 

Inscribed Stone at Cliburn 289 

Greek Inscription on fragment of Pottery, from Habitaneum ... ... l!95 

Roman Christian Inscription, from Mertola, Portugal ... 297 

' Creeing Trough,' Black Gate Museum ... ., 316 



J. Clayton, V.P., F.S.A. : Plate xviii., and Woodcuts at pages 285 and 286. 
E. C. Hedley : Plan of Ancient British Camp, page 156. 
Sheriton Holmes : Plan of Roman buildings at Cilurnum (pi. v.). page 124. 
C. J. Spence : Etching facing page 215, and Drawings at pages 223 and 224. 
R. Welford : Plans of Newcastle, pages 230 and 234 (pi. xiii. and xiv.). 

Plate vi., from a photo, by W. & D. Downey, of London and Newcastle. 

Plates xvi. (centre and right hand urn), xvii., and xviii. are from photograph* 

by J. P. Gibson, of Hexham, a Member of the Society. 
Plate xvi. (left hand urn^ from a photo, by J. Bacon of Newcastle. 



jfeocfetg of 



IN the year which has just closed, the Society of Antiquaries of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne has held on its way without meeting with many 
events that call for special remark. 

Twenty-five new members have been added to its list ; but as the 
losses by deaths, resignations, etc., amount to twenty-three, the net 
accession to our membership is only two. Our numbers now stand at 
257, of whom 19 are Honorary Members. 

The monthly meetings of the Society have been kept up with 
spirit, our only difficulties arising from the occasional presence of more 
members than our room could comfortably accommodate, and the pre- 
sentation of more papers than could conveniently be read in the short 
space allotted to our evening meetings. 

Among these papers we may especially refer to the "Notes" by 
Dr. Bruce "on the Founders and Early Members of the Society," and 
to papers read by Mr. Cadwallader J. Bates and the Rev. J. L. Low 
on the respective parishes of Heddon-on-the-Wall and Whittonstall. 

Dr. Brace's "Notes" will, we hope, prevent the members of this 
Society (whose sole object is enquiry into the records of the past) from 
being ill-informed as to the past of their own body ; while the descrip- 
tions of the two parishes above named, each carefully prepared by the 
inhabitant who is most thoroughly acquainted with its past history, 
seem to indicate the mode in which, by a well-devised system of co- 
operation, we may yet attain that great desideratum of Northern 
Archaeology, a complete, accurate, and interesting History of the 
County of Northumberland. 

In connection' with this subject we may refer to the important work 
which the writer of one of the above-mentioned papers is preparing, in 


illustration of the feudal antiquities of the county of Northumberland. 
During the past year Mr. Bates has been engaged in collecting further 
materials for his account of "The Border Strengths of Northumber- 
land," and at the country meetings held by the Society at Dunstanburgh 
and Bothal, he read the notes he had already prepared with reference to 
these castles. Photographs of most of the mediaeval towers, taken by 
Mr. J. P. Gibson, of Hexham, at the time of the visit of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, have been most generously placed by him at the 
disposal of the Society ; and the following, among others, have hand- 
somely contributed towards reproducing this series by the Autotype, 
Ink-photo, and other processes : The Duke of Portland (Bothal and 
Cockle Park), The Duke of Rutland (Etal), The Earl of Tankerville 
(Chillingham and Hebburn), The Earl of Ravensworth (Whittingham), 
Sir W. B. Riddell, Bart. (Hepple), Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart., M.P. (Willi- 
moteswick), Mr. George Howard (Morpeth and Thirlwall), Sir W. G. 
Armstrong (Cartington and Tosson), Mr. Watson Askew (Howtell), 
Mr. C. B. P. Bosanquet (Rock), Miss Cresswell (Preston), Mr. John 
Clayton (Cocklaw), Mr. H. T. Morton (Hethpool), Mr. Hugh Taylor 
(Chipchase), Mr. John Hall (Bywell), Mr. Adamson (Tynemouth), 
etc., etc. The Duke of Northumberland has given a considerable sum 
for the purpose of illustrating, in a similar manner, the Castles of 
Alnwick, Warkworth, and Prudhoe, Newburn Hall, etc., besides 
lending to the Society the valuable blocks engraved for Hartshorne's 
Volume. Views have still to be taken of several other buildings in the 
County, and much has to be done in providing satisfactory ground 
plans. We are sure that our members will agree that this work is one 
worthy of the Society which has already produced the Lapidarium 
Septentrionale to illustrate the antiquities of a yet earlier age, and will 
wish Mr. Bates all success in completing his arduous and voluntarily 
undertaken labours. Mr. Bates suggested that a sum not exceeding 
20 be voted by the Society for copying documents in the Record 
Office and the Bodleian, and this expenditure the Council recommend 
to the Society, believing that it will be fully justified by the results. 

During the past year one of the old towers of Newcastle, that 
known as the Gunner Tower, situate in Pink Lane, has been demolished. 
Standing as it did in the immediate neighbourhood of the Central 
Station, where every yard of land is precious, it had of necessity an 
unusually precarious life, and, owing to the alterations which it had 
undergone in comparatively recent times, it had lost much of its in 
terest for archaeologists. Your Council accordingly, which desires never 
to trouble the Corporation with unnecessary remonstrances, did not 


make any effort to avert the destruction of the Gunner Tower. They 
are disposed to take a different view of the question of the preservation 
of the Corner Tower, which is in some degree threatened by contem- 
plated improvements in its neighbourhood. They suggest that a 
committee be appointed to report upon the antiquarian value of this 
building, and, if necessary, to prepare a memorial to the City Council 
against the demolition. 

While on this subject we may mention that the interesting and 
valuable thirteenth century Chapel of St. Edmund's, Gateshead, is in 
danger of utter destruction owing to its site being required for a new 
church. It is earnestly hoped that in so large a town as Gateshead 
some other site for the needed church may be obtained, without des- 
troying so precious a monument of ecclesiastical antiquity. 

We have not many archaeological discoveries to record for the past 
year, but we may mention the interesting find of Roman milestones, 
five in number, which have been discovered on Mr. Clayton's property 
at a spot exactly one Roman mile to the east of Chesterholm, the 
ancient VINDOLANA. These milestones bear the names of various 
Emperors, the earliest of whom is Severus Alexander and the latest is 

In the course of the past year excursions have been made to Ryton, 
Dunstanburgh, Bishop Auckland and Bothal the first and the last con- 
jointly with the Durham and Northumberland Archaeological Society. 
For hospitality received and offered during our visits, we have to thank 
the Bishop of Durham, our colleague Mr. Bosanquet, Mr. Craster, the 
Yicars of Longhoughton and Escomb, and Mr. Sample. 

It is proposed in the course of the present year to repeat the ex- 
periment of a pilgrimage along the line of the Roman Wall which was 
so successfully performed thirty-seven years ago, under the leadership 
of Dr. Bruce, and the Society will, we trust, be again favoured with 
the same experienced guidance. 

The British Archaeological Association propose to hold their annual 
congress in the neighbouring county of Durham under the presidency 
of the Bishop of the Diocese, and it is not improbable that our Society, 
may be invited to join in some of their excursions. 

The Treasurer of the Black Gate Reparation Fund reports a balance 
in hand of 141 8s. 4d. The liabilities to the contractor and archi- 
tect amount to 332 14s. lid. It will thus be seen that he still 
requires nearly 100 to enable him to close the accounts, and for this 
sum he earnestly appeals to the liberality of the members, especially 
those who have not yet contributed to this most successful work. 




January. To Balance brought forward 
,, Collections at the Castle 
Interest ... 
Books sold 


358 1 

244 18 

91 1 

13 10 

46 10 

Examined with the Vouchers and found correct, 
for self and 


January 26th, 1886. 

753 15 11 




1886. s. d. s. d. 


Andrew Reid 93 16 

Geo. Nicholson 51 10 6 

Journal Office 3411 

179 17 6 


R. B. Utting 22 6 

Sprague & Co. ... . . 15 15 

Photo- Engraving Co 987 

Autotype Co. ... ... ... ... 6 19 5 

The Meisenbach Co 3 12 

J. P. Gibson 10 

58 11 


Asher&Co 400 

T. W. Waters 590 

Jos. Foster 330 

Lukis's Stone Monuments of Cornwall 15 

A. Reid 076 

C. Robinson 15 

Griffin & Co 076 

Douglas & Foulis 18 

Palmer's The Ty ne 10 6 

Rev. J. R. Boyle, Brand MSS. ... 10 

W. Downing 116 

Whiting & Co 084 

R. Robinson 13 

28 8 4 

J. Gibson, 1 year's Salary ... 65 

S. Burton, for Bookcase 1312 

J. Ventriss 5 17 6 

G.H.Moor 050 

J. A. Dotchin 16 

H. Watson 074 

Rent, Castle and Black Gate ... 126 

Insurance do. ... ... 376 

Income Tax 14 

Milling & Co 066 

Subscription to Surtees Society ... ... ... ... 110 

Do. Harleian Society ... ... ... ... 110 

Compiling Index Archaeologia and Proceedings ... 550 

2 Cheque Books 050 

Postage and Carriage 20 19 5 

Expenses, Country Meetings ... ... ... ... 1 12 3 

Coals and Firewood ... ... ... ... ... 256 

Commission on Subscriptions ... ... ... ... 11 10 

Sundries -.... 086 

Balance . 351 3 1 

753 15 11 


patron : 


president : 





THE REV. J. C. BRUCE, LL.D., D.C.L., F.S.A. 


Secretaries : 


treasurer : 


Eottor : 


Council : 





R. R, DEES. 


F.S.A., F.S.A. SCOT. (HoN.) 







THE chief event in the history of our Society during the year just 
ended has been the expedition (usually termed the "pilgrimage") to 
the Eoman Wall. The last days of June and the first days of July 
had been fixed long previously for this excursion, which pilgrims from 
all parts of England, from Holland, and from Germany, had announced 
their intention of joining. Almost at the last moment we learned 
that the Ministers of the Crown, with that neglect for the interests of 
Archaeology which too often mark the proceedings of Statesmen, had 
fixed upon this very week for the central portion of a general Parliamen- 
tary election one of the most important and exciting that has taken 
place in modern times. However, it was decided that on this occasion 
Archaeology should not give way to politics. The pilgrimage was 
made, according to arrangement, by about sixty of our members and 
their friends, and was highly successful, notwithstanding the enforced 
absence of some who would otherwise have taken part in it. The fact 
that our venerable Vice-President, Dr. Bruce, the originator of the 
pilgrimage of 1849, should have been able to undertake and most effi- 
ciently to discharge the duties of guide to the pilgrims of 1886 is one 
which speaks favourably for the influence of archaeological pursuits 
on the preservation of the bodily and mental faculties, and at the same 
time calls for grateful acknowledgment from Dr. Bruce's many friends 
to the Author of all good for having so long preserved a life which is 


dear to them. Owing to the success of the pilgrimage, the idea lias 
been thrown out by some of our members that a prolonged excursion 
to some place or district of importance might be undertaken every 

Other societies besides our own have this year turned their atten- 
tion to Hadrian's great Bulwark. In the month of August, at the 
close of the annual Congress of the British Archaeological Association, 
which was held at Darlington, a large and important body of its 
members repaired to Chesters and Housesteads, and were much 
gratified with the splendid remains of the Wall in the vicinity of 
these Roman Stations. The members of the Geologists' Association 
also visited Housesteads and the Wall in the same month. 

There have been six country meetings during the year, which 
have contributed largely to promote friendly fellowship among the 
members of the Society, and to advance their knowledge of the arch- 
aeology of the North of England. 

The first excursion took place on the 28th of May. The places 
visited were Hollinside and Whickham. The ancient manor house at 
Hollinside and the church at Whickham were the chief points of 
attraction. The weather on this occasion was unfavourable. 

The second excursion was the Roman Wall pilgrimage, which has 
been described at length in the Proceedings. The tea at Naworth 
Castle, so kindly supplied by our member, Mr. George Howard, was 
most welcome to the thirsty pilgrims. 

The third excursion took place on the 6th August. The members 
of our Society, in conjunction with the members of the Durham and 
Northumberland Architectural and Archaeological Society, met at 
Coldingham. The weather was fine, the scenery grand, and the whole 
excursion most enjoyable. 

Rothbury was the central meeting place for the Society on its 
fourth excursion, which was held on the 3rd September. There was 
a large gathering. Whitton Tower, the residence of the Rector of 
Rothbury, was first examined, and then the Church. The members 
afterwards proceeded to Thropton, Cartington Castle, and Cragside 
where they were cordially welcomed by Sir William and Lady Arm- 
strong. An examination of Brinkburn Priory finished the labours of 
the day. 


The fifth excursion took place on September 30th, when the Castle 
of Raby and the Church at Staindrop were examined. 

The last excursion was held on 14th October. Assembling at 
Darlington, the members proceeded to Haughton-le-Skerne ; here they 
were hospitably entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Orde of Haughton Hall. 
They afterwards visited Heighington Church, Walworth Castle, being 
kindly received there by Mrs. Cassel, Thornton Hall, and Croft. 

The thanks of the Society are heartily offered to Sir William and 
Lady Armstrong, Mr. George Howard, Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Orde, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Cassel, for the hospitality extended to us on these 

The papers read at the Monthly Meetings of our Society have been 
numerous and important, and have ranged over a great variety of 
subjects, extending from the period of the Pharaohs down to the close 
of the Middle Ages. 

"We regret that we have to record the loss by death of our lamented 
Vice-President, Sir Charles E. Trevelyan, 1 and of two of our oldest 
members, Mr. Martin Dunn (a member of the Council of the Society) 
and Mr. Thomas Arkle. By resignation and removal we have lost 13 
members, and have elected 28 ordinary and 4 honorary members. Our 
membership now stands at 272. 

We venture to remind our members that if they have any objects 
of local antiquarian interest which they are willing to give to the 
Society, or even lend until the close of the Jubilee Exhibition, there 
is now abundance of room in the Black Gate Museum for their recep- 
tion and adequate display. 

1 For obituary notice by Dr. Bruce, see p. 150-4. 



1887. s. d. 

January, To Balance in hand 351 3 1 

,. Subscriptions 243 12 

Collections at Castle 8616 

Do. Black Gate 25 16 

Books sold 28 19 8 

., Interest 13 10 

,. Cash of R. 0. Heslop 13 6 

Examined with the Books and found correct, 

January 26th. 1887. 

750 10 3 








































G Nicholson .. ... ... ... ... 

E B Utting 









Meisenbach Co. ... ... ... ... 

Photo Engraving Company 
R. Robinson ... ... ... ... ... 

T Wilson 

R. Mack, for Copy of Lapid. Sep 












Whiting & Co., Cart. Saxonicum 
W. D. Learmount, for Cohen's Roman Coins, &c. 
Griffin & Co 

T. Milligan, for Murray's Cathedrals... 
Sir G. Duckett 

W. T. Watkin, Rom. Cheshire 

W Dodd, Orelli ... 

Douglas & Foulis, Scottish Architecture 
T. Waters, Binding 

Attendant ... ... ... ... ... 









Land Tax . ...... 

J. Ventress, fixing Bayeux Tapestry, &c. 

Coals . ... . . . ... ... 



G H. Moor 

H Watson . 

Hardy, for Frames 

Rent of Castle ... . . ... ... 

Coals and Firewood 

J Rutherford, Reporter ... 

C George do. ... ... ... 

Subscription to Harleian Society ... ... 

Do Surtees Society ... ... 

Snowball for Cloth 

Hunter Hire of Carriage... .. . .. ... 

An old Anchor ... ... ... ... 







































James Orchard Halliwell - Phillipps, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., Brighton 5 Nov., 1839 

His Excellency John Sigismund von Mosting, Copen- 
hagen 3 Feb., 1840 

Sir Charles Newton, M.A 5 Sept., 1841 

*Charles Roach Smith, F.S.A., Strood, Kent 6 Feb., 1844 

Ferdinand Denis, Keeper of the Library of St. Gene- 

vieve, at Paris 3 Feb., 1851 

Sir Charles Anderson, Barfc., Lea Hall, Gainsborough 
Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Principal of the University 

of Toronto 

William Beamont, Warrington 

Aquilla Smith, M.D., Dublin U April, 1855 

Giovanni Montiroli, Rome 7 Nov., I860 

The Duca di Brolo 5 April, 1865 

*Professor Emil Hiibner, LL.D., Berlin 27 June, 1883 

Professor Mommsen, Berlin 

*Professor George Stephens, Copenhagen 

Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, 


*A. W. Franks, Keeper of British Antiquities in the 

British Museum 

Ernest Chantre, Lyons 

*A. von Cohausen, Wiesbaden 31 Dec., 1883 

*Ellen King Ware (Mrs), Kirkby Lonsdale Vicarage, 

Westmorland 30 June, 1886 

*Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, 


*Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge 

*David Mackinlay, 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow 

* See next pag-e. 


In addition to the Hon. Members whose names are marked with a * on the 
previous page, the Proceedings of the Society are sent to the following : 
Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 
The British Museum, London. 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Prof. Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Lieve 9, Ghent, Belgium. 
The Rev. Dr. Cox, Barton-le-Street Rectory, Malton. 
W. J. Cripps, Sandgate, Kent, and Cirencester. 
Dr. J. Evans, Pres. S. A., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 
J. Hardy, Sec. Berw. Nat. Club, Oldcambus, Cockbnrnspath, N.B. 
Rev. C. W. King, Trin. Coll., Cambridge. 

Rev. S. S. Lewis, Sec. Camb. Antiq. Socy., Corpus Christi Coll., Cambs. 
Lit. and Phil. Socy., Newcastle. 
R. Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 
W. T. Watkin, 2i2 West Derby Road, Liverpool. 




Adamson, Rev. Edward Hussey, Felling, Gateshead. 
Appleton.* John Reed, F.S.A., Western Hill, Durham. 
Adamson, William, Cullercoats. 
Adamson, Horatio A., North Shields. 

Bruce. Rev. John Collingwood, LL.D., D.C.L., F.S.A., Newcastle. 
Barker, Chris. Dove, Radnor House, Great Malvern, "Worcestershire. 
Brown, Ralph, Newcastle. 

Brooks, John Crosse, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
Booth, John, Shotley Bridge. 
Brown, Rev. Dixon, Unthank Hall, Haltwhistle. 
Blair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 
Boyd, Miss Julia, Moor House, Leamside. Durham. 
Barnes, John Wheeldon, F.S.A., Durham. 
Browne, Sir Benjamin Chapman, Granville Road, Newcastle. 
Bates, Cadwallader John, M.A., Heddon Banks, Wylam. 
Barkus, Benjamin, M.D., 3 Jesrnond Terrace, Newcastle. 
Cail, Richard, Beaconsfield, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Clayton, John, F.S.A., Chesters, Humshaugh-on-Tyne. 
Crawshay, George, Haughton Castle, Hexham. 
Calverfc, Rev. Thomas, 15 Albion Villas, Hove, Brighton. 
Cadogan, C. H., Brinkburn Priory, Northumberland. 
Carr, Rev. Henry Byne, Whickham, R.S.O. 
Carr, William Cochrane, Low Benwell, Newcastle. 
Coppin, John, Bingfield House, Corbridge. 
Carr, W. J., Printing Court Buildings, Newcastle. 
Carr, Rev. T. W., Barming Rectory, Maidstone, Kent. 
Dees, Robert Richardson, Newcastle. 
Dodd, William, 45 Eldon Street, Newcastle. 
Daglish, W. S., Newcastle. 
Elliott, George, 47 Rosedale Terrace, Newcastle. 
Edwards, Harry Smith, Bythorn, Corbridge. 
Fenwick, George A., Newcastle. 
Fenwick, John George, Moorlands, Newcastle. 

* Subscription compounded for. 


Gibb,. Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 

Glendenning, William, Newcastle. 

Greenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A. 

Scot., Durham. 

Gregory, J. V., 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
Gibson, Thomas George, Newcastle. 
Hailstone, Edward, Walton Hall, Wakefield. 
Hall, Rev. George Rome, F.S.A., Birtley Vicarage, Wark-on-Tyne. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., Benwelldene, Newcastle. 
Hoyle, William Aubone, Den ton Hall, Newcastle. 
Hooppell, Rev. {Robert Eli, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.A.S., Byers 

Green, Spennymoor. 

Holmes, Sheriton, Moor View House, Newcastle. 
Hunter, J. J., Whickham, R.S.O. 
Hodges, Charles Clement, West End Terrace, Hexham. 
Hopper, John, Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Haythornthwaite, Rev. Edward, Vicar of Felling, Gateshead. 
Johnson, Robert James, Newcastle. 
Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 
Jackson, Thomas, Jun., 2 Camp Terrace, North Shields. 
Longstaffe, William Hilton Dyer, Gateshead. 
Lyall, William, Lit. and Phil. Society, Newcastle. 
McDowell, Dr., The Asylum, Morpeth. 
Martin, N. H., F.L.S., Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 

Northumberland, The Duke of. Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 
Nelson, Thomas, 9 Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 
Ord, Mrs. Blackett-, Whitfield Hall, Allendale. 
Oswald, Septimus. Newcastle. 
Philipson, John, Victoria Square, Newcastle. 
Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 
Pickering, William, Courant Office, Newcastle. 
Philipson, George Hare, M.A., M.D., Newcastle. 
Pease, John William, Pendower, Benwell, Newcastle. 
Pybus, Robert, Newcastle. 
Raine, Rev. Canon, York. 
Ravensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 

Ridley, Sir M. W., Bart., M.P., Blagdon, Northumberland. 

Eiddell, Sir Walter B., Bart., 65, Eaton Place, London, S.W. 

Robinson, T. W. U./F.S.A., Hardwick Hall, Sedgefield. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., Rector of Simonburn, Humsbaugh-on-Tyne. 

Robinson, William Harris, 2 Ashfield Terrace, Newcastle. 

Robinson, J. W., 6 Gladstone Terrace, Gateshead. 

Swithinbank, George E., Ormleigh, Mowbray Road, Upper Norwood, 

London, S.E. 

Spence, Robert, North Shields. 

Spence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 
Swinburne, Sir John, Bart., M.P., Capheaton, Northumberland. 
Stevenson, Alexander Shannan, Tyneinouth. 
Swan, Henry F., Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Strangeways, William Nicholas, Westmoreland Road, Newcastle. 
Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 
Steele, Rev. James, Heworth Vicarage, Gateshead. 
Steavenson, A. L., Holliwell Hall, Durham. 
Taylor, Hugh, 57 Gracechurch Street, London. 
Thompson, Henry, St. Nicholas's Chambers, Newcastle. 
Williamson, Rev. Robert Hopper, Whickham, R.S.O. 
Woodman, William, Morpeth. 

Warwick, John, 11 Ashfield Terrace West, Newcastle. 
Watson, Henry, Millfield House, Newcastle. 
Welford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 


Adamson, Rev. Cuthbert E., Westoe, South Shields. 
Adamson, Lawrence W., Whitley, Newcastle. 
Aldam, William, Frickley Hall, near Doncaster. 
Armstrong, Thomas Hugh, Saltwell, Gateshead. 
Boyle. Rev. John Roberts, West Boldon, Newcastle. 
Bowman, W., 15 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Northumberland. 
Boutflower, Rev. D. S., Newbottle Vicarage, Fence Houses. 
Brown, J. W., 24 Percy Gardens, Tyneniouth. 
Clephan, James, Picton Place, Newcastle. 


Clephan, Robert Coltman, High Bridge, Newcastle. 

Dixon, John A., Gateshead. 

Eeles, J. Proctor, 8 St. Edmund's Terrace, Gateshead. 

Franklin, The Rev. Oanon R. J., St. Mary's Cathedral, Newcastle. 

Greenwell, Francis John, Newcastle. 

Green, Robert Yeoman, Newcastle. 

Glover, William, 16 Market Street, Newcastle. 

Heslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Prince's Buildings, Akenside Hill, 


Hicks, William Searle, 19 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Hume, Geo. H., M.D., Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Hall, John, Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Hall, James, Tynemouth. 

I'Anson, Dr. W., Westgate Hill House, Newcastle. 
Joicey, James, M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 
Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 
Lloyd, The Rev. Arthur T., D.D., Vicar of Newcastle. 
Low, Rev. John Low, Vicar of Whittonstall, Stocksfield. 
Morton, Henry Thomas, Biddick Hall, Durham. 
Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 
Morrow, T. R., Woodhouse Terrace, Gateshead. 
Morton, Joseph Hall, South Shields. 
Mackey, Matthew, Lily Avenue, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Mason, Rev. H. B., Carr's Hill, Gateshead. 
Motum, Hill, Newcastle. 

Montgomery, W. H., 11 St. James's Street, Newcastle. 
Nicholson, George, Barrington Street, South Shields. 
Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 
Nelson, Ralph, Bishop Auckland. 
Ormond, Richard, 3 Bellegrove Terrace, Newcastle. 
Pease, Alfred Edward, M.P., Pinchinthorpe, Guisbro'. 
Robinson, Alfred J., 90 Ryehill, Newcastle. 
Redmayne, R. Norman, 27 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Reid, George, Leazes House, Newcastle. 
Redpath, Robert, Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 
Rogerson, John, Croxdale Hall, Durham. 
Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 


Robson, Arnold H., Esplanade, Sunderland. 

Sheppee, Lieutenant-Colonel, Picktree House, Chester-le-Street. 

Scott, George, Shield Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 

Short, Rev. Edward, Vicar of Woodhom, Northumberland. 

South Shields Public Library (Thomas Pyke, Librarian). 

Spencer, J. W., Millfield, Newburu-on-Tyne. 

Steel, Thomas, Sunderland. 

Tennent, James, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Usher, Robert Thomas J., Orchard House, Jesmoud, Newcastle. 

Young, J. R., 20 "Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 


Armstrong, T. J., 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, Luke, M.D., Newcastle. 

Briggs, Miss, Hylton Castle, Sunderland. 

Bruce, Gainsford, Q.C., 2 Harcourt Buildings, Temple, London. 

Burton, S. B., Ridley Villas, Newcastle. 

Clarke, William, The Hermitage, Gateshead. 

Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

Dunn, William H., Belle Vue Terrace, Gateshead. 

Dixon, D. D., Rothbury. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Dixon, Rev. Canon, Vicar of Warkworth. 

Dickenson, Isaac G., Portland House, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Emley, Fred., Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Ellison, J. R. Carr-, Dunston Hill, Whickham, R.S.O. 

Ferguson. Richard S., F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle, Lowther Street, 


Gibson, J. P., Hexham. 
Goddard, F. R., Newcastle. 
Henzell, Charles William, Tynemouth. 
Harrison, Miss Bertha, A 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., I Howdon Dene, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Harrison, Miss Grace, J 

Hodgson, J. G., County Club, Newcastle. 
Kirkley, James, South Shields. 
Knowles, W. H., Catherine Terrace, Gateshead. 


Marshall, Frank, 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Mackey. Matthew, 8 Milton Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 
Maling, Chr. Thompson, Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Newcastle Public Library (W. J. Haggerston, Librarian). 
Peile,^George, Greenwood, Shotley Bridge. 
Park, James, 7 Fern Avenue, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Parkin, J. S., New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 
Pattinson, J. W., Felling House, Felling, Gateshead. 
Phillips, Maberly, 12 Graf ton Road, Whitley, Newcastle. 
Eobinson, John, 6 Choppington Street, Newcastle. 
Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Surtees, Rev. Scott F., Manor House, Dinsdale, Darlington. 
Swaby, Rev. W. P., Vicar of St. Mark's, Millfield, Sunderland. 
Schaeffer, Anton Georg, 38 Eldon Street, Newcastle. 
Taylor, Rev. W., Catholic Church, Whittingham, Alnwick. 
Thompson, John, The Willows, Walker. 
Tweddell, George, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Watson, Mrs. Henry, Burnopfield. 
Waddington, Thomas, Eslington Villa, Gateshead. 
Wilkinson, The Rev. G. P., Harpeiiey, Darlington. 

ELECTED m 1885. 

Adams, W. E., 32 Holly Avenue, Newcastle. 

Adie, George, 2 Hutton Terrace, Newcastle. 

Allgood, Anne Jane (Miss), Hermitage, Hexham. 

Armstrong, Lord, Cragside, Rothbury. 

Burn, John Henry, Jun., Beaconsfield, Cullercoats. 

Charlton, W. L. S., 23 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester (J. E. Tinkler, Librarian). 

Clark, Thomas Thompson, Chirton, North Shields. 

Daggett, William, Newcastle. 

Farmer, Cottingham, M.R.C.S., Abbey House, Hexham. 

Farrow, Rev. John Ellis, Felling-on-Tyne. 

Fleming, John, Gresham House, Newcastle. 

Hicks, Rev. Herbert S., Vicar of Tynemouth Priory. 

Howard, Geo., Naworth Castle, Brampton. 

Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 


Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth. 

Marshall, Rev. J. M., Grammar School, Durham. 
Xorman, William, 29 Clayton Street East, Newcastle. 
Potts, Joseph, North Cliff, Roker, Sunderland. 
Stephenson, Thomas, 3 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
Wilson, John, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 


Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Nunwick, Humshaugh-on-Tyne. 

Churchward, G. R., Hexham. 

Corder, Percy, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Dore, John B.. 9, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Embleton, Dennis, M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Shotley Bridge. 

Gooderham, Rev. A. (Vicar of St. Anne's), 6 Granville Road, N'castle. 

Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Cheviott, Corbridge. 

Huddart, Rev. G. A. W., LL.D., Kirklington Rectory, Bedale. 

Irving, George, 1 Portland Terrace, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Lilburn, Charles, Sunderland. 

Magill, Rev. William, St. Cuthbert's Grammar School, Newcastle. 

Murray, Win., M.D., Newcastle. 

Reid, Andrew, Akenside Hill, Newcastle. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richmond, Rev. Henry James, Sherburn Vicarage, co. Durham. 

Ross, John, F.R.I.B.A., Manor House, Whitley, Newcastle. 

.Scott, Walter, Newcastle. 

Simpson, Walter C., 6 Falconar Street, Newcastle. 

Svendsen, Svend A., Bentinck Terrace, Newcastle. 

Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., Holly House, Tynemouth. 

Wilson, Frederick R., Alnwick. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 


ELECTED ix 1887. 

Jan. 26. Cowen, Joseph, Stella Hall, Blaydon. 

Hodgson, "William, Elmcroft, Darlington. 
Ryott, William Henry, Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Feb. 23. Evans, Joseph John Ogilvie, Teignmouth. 
Walker, Charles, Clifton Road, Newcastle. 
Watson, J. G., Harrison Place, Newcastle. 

Mar. 30. Halliday, Thomas, Myrtle Cottage, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Priestman, Jonathan, Derwent Lodge, Shotley Bridge. 
Eichardson, Rev. Edward S., Gormire Row, Corbridge r 


Straker, Joseph Henry, Stagshaw House, Corbridge. 
Watson, Joseph Henry, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
Apr. 27. Lister, Rev. J. Martin, St. Andrew's Vicarage, Eldon Square, 


Young, Oliver, 1 High West Street, Gateshead. 
June 29. Holcroft, Rev. T. Austen, Mitford Vicarage, Morpeth. 

Lockhart, Henry F., Hexham. 
Aug. 31. Dendy, Frederick Walter, Newcastle. 

Reavell, George, Jun., Alnwick. 

Sep. 29. Riddell, Francis Henry, Cheeseburn Grange, near Newcastle. 
Oct. 26. Challoner, John Dixon, 56 Dean Street, Newcastle. 
Nov. 30. Cackett, Jas. Thoburn, 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Charlton, William Oswald, Hesleyside, Bellingham. 
Tarver, J. V., Eskdale Lodge, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Dec. 28. Forster, John, Dean Street, Newcastle. 

Medd, Rev. Augustus Octavius, Rector of Rothbury. 
Richmond, Rev. George Edward, Riding Mill-on-Tyne. 

$gr On change of address would Members please notify same, at 
once, to R. Blair, South Shields. 



Antiquaries of London, The Society of, Burlington House, London 

(Assistant Secretary, W. H. St. John Hope, M.A.) 
Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of. 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The 

(Hellier Gosselin, Secretary, Oxford Mansion, Oxford Street, 

London, W.C.). 

Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, The. 
Royal Irish Academy, The. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The. 
Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania. 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, W. de Gray 

Birch, F.S.A., British Museum, and E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., 

3G Great Russell St., London, W.C ). 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The (Rev. S. S. Lewis, Secretary, 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge). 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 

The (R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., Editor, Lowther Street, Carlisle). 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The. 
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The. 
Manx Society, The. 
Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The 

(Verein fur nassanische Alfcerthumskunde und Geschichte 

Numismatic Society of London, The, 4 St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar 

Square, London (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head). 
Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A. 
Powys-land Club, The (Editor, Morris C. Jones, F.S.A., Gungrog 

Hall, Welshpool). 
Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, U.S.A. 


Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The (Editor. 

Rev. TV. A. Leighton, Luciefelde, Shrewsbury). 
Surrey Archaeological Society, The. 
Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, The (Verein fiir 

Thiiringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde) Jena, (Professor 

Dr. D. Schafer, Jena). 
Wiltshire Archaeological Society, The. 
Yorkshire Topographical and Archaeological Association, The (G. TV. 

Tomlinson, The Elms, Huddersfield, Hon. Sec.}. 



No Museum is so rich in the memorials of the dominion of the Romans 
in Britain as that belonging to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle. 
The material employed in the formation of these statues and slabs and 
altars sandstone is unquestionably inferior to that of which the 
lapidarian treasures of the Vatican consist ; and they are, for the most 
part, immeasurably below them in artistic design and skilful execution. 
To Englishmen, however, they have an interest which all the glories 
of the Vatican and the Capitol can never surpass. They fill up a gap 
in our history. They give us the names and they reveal the move- 
ments and the feelings of the men who first taught the inhabitants of 
Britain the arts of civilized life, and gave them their earliest lessons in 
the equally difficult tasks of obeying and commanding. If we bear in 
mind that in Italy the statues which adorned their cities were the 
result of the highest genius which wealth could command, and that in 
Britain the furthest verge of the empire the sculptures and inscrip- 
tions were, necessarily, often the result of unprofessional effort the 
work of legionary soldiers our surprise will be, that they are so good 
as they are. Do modern English soldiers leave behind them in the 
countries which they visit relics of taste and skill so creditable as those 
which the troops of Hadrian and Antonine did ? Even the most 
shapeless of the sculptures in our Museum have their value ; they 
speak more powerfully than the pen of the historian can, of the state 
of the Roman empire in Britain. 

The woodcuts originally used in the illustration of this Catalogue 
were drawn in outline to the scale of three-quarters of an inch to the 
foot. Some of these are still retained ; but for the most part cuts of 



a higher character, and drawn to the scale of an inch and a half to the 
foot, have in this edition been introduced. To avoid mistake, the size 
of each stone is given. A reference is in each case made to the Lapid- 
arium Septentrionale of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, where 
the stones are more fully discussed, and where the authors who have 
previously treated of them are named. Reference is also made to the 
seventh volume of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (C. I. L, in 
the following pages) of the Royal Academy of Berlin, in cases where 
the views of the able author of that volume Professor Hiibner are 
referred to or adopted. 

Letters between parentheses ( ) represent the expansion of an 

abridged word, thus 
i(ovi) ; those be- 
tween brackets [ ] 
represent the re- 
storation of de- 
stroyed letters, thus 
DEA[BVS]; while/// 
represent destroyed 
letters which can- 
not be restored. 

L A Stone, 
which, subsequent- 
ly to its use by the 
Romans, has been 
employed in the 
construction of the 
Saxon Church at 
Jarrow. On the 
edge of this slab 
is a portion of a 
cross in relief, and 
similar in design to 
the cross occur- 
ring on some of the Hartlepool headstones, and to that on the "Durham 
Priory seal, known us St. Cuthbert's cross. The cross must have been 


wrought upon several stones, most probably after they had been placed 
in situ. It was surrounded by the cable moulding so frequent in 
Roman and Saxon work. The inscription is much effaced, but, as 
suggested by Brand, it seems to have been conceived in honour of 
the adopted sons of Hadrian, of whom Antoninus Pius, his successor, 
was one. Presented by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. Lap. Sep., No. 539 ; 
0. I. L., VII., No. 498, where the Editor shews that it is in fact one 
of the most important epigraphical monuments found along the line 
of the WALL, because it is to be referred to the very foundation, or 
the inauguration, of the great fortification destined to unite the two 
parts of the sea by murus and vallum, and the fortresses placed upon 
them. An inscribed stone from Jarrow, similar to this, and which 
may have been a portion of it, is in possession of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London. 

2. This Stone was found built into the wall formerly occupied by 
the Messrs. Mitchell, printers of the Tyne Mercury, in St. Nicholas's 
Church-yard, Newcastle. It may have been brought by the elder 
Mr. Mitchell from Cumberland, of which county he was a native. 

2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 





" Aurelins Juvenalis dedicates this to the transmarine Mother god- 
desses of his fatherland." The Mother goddesses were generally 
represented in triplets, and seated. They were known as the " good 
mothers," but no special name was given to them. They were 
chiefly worshipped by the Germanic branch of the Roman family. 
Lap. /Sep., No. 12. 

3. A defaced Altar, 4 feet high. There are traces of letters upon 
it, but nothing of a satisfactory nature can be made out. 

4. This Stone was found 
lying on the ground in the 
station of SEGEDUNUM, Walls- 
end. It was surrounded by 
twelve stones lying in a circle. 
This circumstance, together with 
the fact that rudely formed rays 
project from a perforation ex- 
tending through it, renders it 
probable that the altar had been 
dedicated to the Persian Sun- 
god, Mithras. Lap. Sep., 
No. 3. 

5. The upper half of a 
large Altar ; the inscription is 
almost entirely obliterated. The 
letters of the first line may be 
1 M, and on the second are 
some traces of the letters COH in 
AE ; in which case it has pro- 
bably been dedicated to Jupiter 

by the Fourth Cohort of the Dacians (styled the ^Elian) which was 
in garrison at AMBOGLANXA. On the side of it is carved a figure 
applying a long straight trumpet (tiiba) to its mouth ; it supports the 
trumpet with both hands. 

2 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 4 n. 


6. A small Altar, found upon the line of the Roman Wall to the 
south of the Byker Bridge. Owing to the altar having been made 
use of as a sharpening stone, a great 
part of the inscription is obliterated. 
Usually an inscription upon an altar 
begins with the name or names of the 
god or gods to whom it is dedicated ; 
here the inscription begins with the 
name of the dedicator. The inscrip- 
tion may have been as follows: 

o [MITHRAE] ? 

PE / / / / 

ov / / / / 

/ / / V.S.L.M. 

1 ft. 9| in. by 10 in. 

" Julius Maximus, a priest, to the unconquered god Mithras, dedicates 
this altar willingly, in discharging a vow, to a most worthy object." 

7. A Roman Soldier. BORCOVICUS. 
Horsley, N., 47 ; Hodgson, 63. The 
figure has lost its head and right arm. 
His shield is gently upheld by the fingers 
of the left hand. Horsley remarks: 
" His two belts are visible crossing each 
other, agreeable to the description of 
Ajax's armour in Homer." 

" But there no pass the crossing belts afford, 
One braced his shield, and one sustained his 
sword." Pope. 

His sword is on his left side, similar to 
other examples on Trajan's column. 

3 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 

8. A large but much damaged Altar. Its locality is unknown ; pos- 


sibly BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. On the upper portion of its face letters 
may be traced ; the lower part of the inscription is completely effaced. 

9. A figure of Mercury, found in 
digging the foundations of the High 
Level Bridge, in the immediate vicinity 
of the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
one of the few relics of PONS MIAI. 
Presented by George Hudson, Esq. 
He has the money bag in his right 
hand, the caduceus in his left ; a ram 
kneels at his feet. In the upper part 
of the stone a cock, the emblem of 
vigilance, has been introduced. Lap. 
Sep., No. 15. 

1 ft. 5 in. by 9 in. 

10. A small Figure, dredged out of 
the Tyne at Newcastle. It probably re- 
presents Fortune. She holds a cornuco- 
pise in her left hand, and with her right 
she places some object in a basket a 
modius (?) 

11. An Altar from BORCOVICUS, 
Housesteads (?) On the upper part we 
have lines of the cable pattern, and on 
its face and sides are festoons in relief. 
It hns not been inscribed. 

1 ft. 9 in. by 1 in. 

1~2. From J arrow ; presented by 
Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. This Stone is 
probably the base of an altar, or it may 
have been part of the decorations of 
a sepulchral monument. The much- 
weathered sculpture represents au archer 
shooting at a stag. Lap. Sep., 540. 


3. A carefully carved Altar, dedicated to Xeptune by the Sixth 

4 ft. by 1 ft. 8 in, 


Legion. It was dredged up from the bottom of the Tyne at Newcastle, 
in three several pieces, and at different times, when the works of the 
Swing Bridge were in progress. The inscription reads : 


" To Neptune, the Sixth Legion, surnamed the victorious, pious, and 
faithful, [erects this altar]." The Sixth Legion, or some important 
detachment of it, having crossed the North Sea from Germany, were 
right thankful at once more setting foot on solid land, and so reared 
this altar to the god of the Seas. The trident and the dolphin are 
emblematic of the marine deity. 

14. This fragmentary inscription is supposed to have been found 

1 ft. 1 in. by 7 in. 

in the vicinity of CONDERCUM, Benwell. Little can be made of it ; 
the last line may be RIV ? P(EDES) xxx, the latter characters repre- 
senting the number of feet erected in some building by a body of 
troops. Lap. Sep., No. 42. 

15. From the Roman station of CONDERCUM, Benwell. It is the 
base of a large and apparently ornate Altar. The remaining portion 
of the inscription is : Centurio Legionis vicesimae Valeriae Viclricis 
votum solvit libens merito. ... "A centurion of the Twentieth 
Legion, styled the Valerian and victorious, erects this altar in dis- 
charge of a vow, willingly, and to a most worthy object." The 
angular mark > represents the word centur-io, the commander of a 
troop of a hundred men, or centnria, the troop itself. It is wrongly 
supposed to represent a vine twig, and to indicate that the officer 
had the power to inflict corporal punishment on his men. The mark 


is, in reality, the initial letter C, inverted, thus o. Lap. Sep., 
No. 16. 

16. Two squared Stones, resembling those of which the gateways 
of the mile-castles on the Wall were built. Presented to the Society 
by Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. When first noticed, they were 
in a garden wall at Heaton Flint Mill. Have they been originally 
derived from the mile-castle which commanded the passage of the Wall 
over the defile of the Ouseburn ? One of them bears the rude inscrip- 
tion shown in the cut. It is read with difficulty, but it may be 




" The century of Julius Numisianus, Ulpius Canalius, and Licinius 


Goufcius [have superintended this part of the work.]" C. I. L., 
VII., No. 502 ; Lap. Sep., No. 14. 

2 ft. by 11 ft. 

17. A Centurial Stone found at 
MAGNA, Caervoran. The second line 
of the inscription is indistinct: 


P[E]D(ES) xxxs. 

"The century of Claudius (erected) 
thirty and a half feet." Lap. Sap., 
No. 344 ; G. I. L., VII., No. 782. 

18. Probably from CONDERCUM, Ben- 
well Hill. Part of a monumental stone. 


" May the earth lie light upon you." Lap. 
Sep., No. 32. 

19. The frag- 
ment of a Slab, per- 
haps from BORCOVI- 

cus, Housesteads. It has on it letters which 
may be DCAE, or [IM]P. CAE(SAR). 

9 in. by 7 in. 


20. A Centurial Stone, much wea- 
thered. Its inscription is somewhat 
obscure ; it seems to read 


" The century of Valerius Yerus of the 
Seventh Cohort." 

11 in. by 7 in. 

21. Part of an Altar, from HABITANCUM, Risingham ; apparently 
inscribed I ( OVI ) O (PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 

" To Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the Em- 
perors." The Emperors in question are, probably, 
Severus and his sons. Presented by Mr. Richard 
Shanks. Lap. Sep., No. 575. 

jg L \S J.J- 


11 in. by 7J in. 

22. A broken Slab without inscription. 

23. A Centurial Stone found at CON- 
DERCUM, Benwell. The inscription is 
O(ENTVRIA) ARRI(I). " The century of 
Arrius." The tail of the first R has been 
removed by a fracture in the stone a trace 
of it is left. Lap. Sep., No. 44. 


in. by 6 in 

11 in. by 6 in. 

24. This Stone is from the same 
X locality as the last, and bears the same in- 
-' scription. The one stone was probably 
affixed to one extremity of the portion of 
the Wall that was built by this body of 
troops, the other at the other. Lap. Sep., 
No. 44. 

25. A Centurial Stone from VIN- 
DOBALA, Rutchester. It reads 

"The century of Arrius." Lap. Sep., 
No. 'J2<>. 

II in. l.y ( in 


26. The fragment of an inscription found at VINDOBALA, Rut- 
chester. Professor Hiibner suggests the 
reading: [ D M ] 




Lap. Sep., No. 921. 

11 in. by 6 in. 

27. A roughly-carved Figure (Mars ?), holding 
in his right hand a spear, in his left a patera, on a 
building stone of the size used in the stations. It 
is not known where it was found. 

28. A Centurial 
Stone from Walbottle, 
bearing the letters 

[F]ELIX (?) 
Lap. Sep., No. 50. 

10i in. by 6 in. 

10 in. by 6 in. 

12 in. by 8 in. 

29. A Stone from the Roman "Wall 
near "Walbottle. Presented by Mr. Wilson. 

" The century of Peregrinus." Lap. Sep., 
No. 49. 

30. A small flat Stone, from an un- 
known quarter, bearing an inscription some- 
thing like the following : 



1 ft. 1 in. by 10 in. 

10 in. by 5 in. 

31. This stone was found in 
Clavering Place, Newcastle, the PONS 
^EiJi of the Romans. It reads 

' The first cohort of the Thracians." 
There are traces of the palm branch 
at the lower right-hand corner of the 
stone. This regiment was not per- 
manently located in Newcastle. Lap. 
Sep., No. 1;5. 


32. An Altar from COXDERCUM, Benwell Hill. 

! ft. 1 in. by 2 ft. 1 in. 









" To Jupiter Dolichenus the best and greatest, and to the guardian 
divinities of Augustus, for the safety of the Emperor Caesar Titus 
^iElius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, the father of his country, 
and for that of the Second Legion surnamed the Imperial, Marcus 
Liburnius Fronto, a centurion of this legion, dedicates this altar in 
discharge of a vow, willingly and to most worthy objects." Jupiter 
obtained the epithet Dolichenus from Doliche, a town in Macedonia, 
which abounded in iron. The Romans wrought coal at Benwell ; 
they may have smelted iron here also. According to Horace (Ep. II., 
2, 187, &c.), each person has a presiding genius : 

" That mystic genius, which our actions guides, 
Attends our stars, and o'er our lives pi'esides." Francis. 

This altar was probably reared before Lollius Urbicus advanced into 
Caledonia, where he built the Antonine Wall. Lap. Sep., No. 16; 
C. I. L., VII., 506. 

33. The head of Pan, from MAGNA, Caervoran. 

34. A Stone of the Centurial kind. The inscription is illegible. 
Its locality is unknown. 

35. A defaced and much injured Altar, from Wark, on the 
North Tyne. Presented by John Fenwick, Esq. For a long time 
it was used as a step in the stile at the foot of the Moot Hill. It 
may perhaps be regarded as a proof that the Romans had a post at 
Wark, which is about eight miles to the north of the Wall. One of 
the sides of the altar is adorned with a patera, the other with a 

36. An Inscribed Stone, from MAGNA, Caervorun. Presented 

by Colonel Coulson. 
Lap. Sep., No. 331 ; 
0. I. L., 111. It 


i ft. s in. b> 6 in " The First Cohort of 


the Batavians erected this." The First Cohort of the Batavians was, 
when the Notitia list was compiled, in garrison at PROCOLITIA, the 
third station to the east of MAGNA. It is most probable that when 
this stone was carved the Batavians had been rendering temporary 
assistance to their fellow- soldiers at MAGNA. The stone is much worn 
by exposure to the weather, 

37. Found at Hatheridge, near CILURNUM, Chesters. Professor 

Hiibner reads the inscription thus : 


" The century of Naevius Bassus, of the first rank, belonging to the 
First Cohort." Brand's History of Newcastle, Vol. I., p. 609w ; Lap. 
Sep., No. 127 ; C. L L., VII., 597. 

38. A Centurial Stone, from Walbottle. 
Presented by the Literary and Philosophical 
Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
O(ENTVRIA) p. p. 

These letters may signify such names as 
Pompeius, Primus, or the like. Lap. Sep., 
No. 51. 

39. Probably from the vicinity of 
CONDERCUM, Benwell Hill. It formerly 
belonged to Archdeacon Thorp. 

COH(ORS) vin. 

" The Eighth Cohort." The upper part 
of the stone is broken off, and may have 
contained the name of the legion to which 
the cohort belonged. Lap. Sep., No. 41. 

9 in. hy 9 in. 

1 ft. hy 5 in. 


40. Found at Risingham (?) On inscriptions found at BREM- 
ENIUM, High Rochester, and at Lan- 
chester, the name ofEgnatins Lucilianns, 
an imperial legate, occurs; we perhaps 
have a trace of the same individual here 
EGNATIVS. The last line is OPTANDVS, 
which may be the name of a soldier of 
inferior position. Lap. Sep., No. 631. 

1 ft, liy 

41. A small Tablet ; the inscription is defaced. Its locality is 

42. Found at Wallsend. 


" The century of Floras of the First 
Cohort." Lap. Sep., No. 5. 

43. A small broken Tablet, with 
an unknown object in relief carved 
upon it. 

1 ft. 1 in. by 9 in. 

44. Found, together with the altar, No. 124, and some others, 
at the foot of the hill on which BORCOVICUS, Housesteads, stood. 
Horsley, N., 39. The inscription is nearly effaced : 

i(ovi) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 
v. / / 

" To Jupiter the best and greatest, and to the deities of Augustus, 
the First Cohort of the Tungri, commanded by Quintus Julius 
Maximus (?) the Prefect, dedicated this." In the words Numinibus 
Augusti, the emperor himself is probably hailed as a god. Lap. Sep., 
No. 176 ; G. I. L., 039. 


3 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 1 in. 


45. A large uninscribed Altar (3 ft. 9 in. high), from Chester-le- 
Street. Presented by the Rev. Walker Feather stonhaugh. 

46. From VINDOBALA, Rutchester. Presented by the Rev. John 
Collinson. This Altar was long built up in the garden wall of the 
parsonage house of Gateshead. Brand, who 
engraves and describes it (Vol. I., p. 608), 
says that on it is "plainly inscribed the 
monogram of Christ." Brand's opinion can 
hardly be supported ; the monogram is any- 
thing but plain. The altar has been sadly 
tampered with. Can we be sure that what 
is supposed to be the monogram is not of 
the same age as the letters which have been 
rudely cut upon the face of the stone, and 
which are evidently modern ? Or, suppos- 
ing the monogram to be of the same age as 
the altar, how do we know that it was in- 
tended to symbolize the Redeemer ? " The 
sign called the Christian monogram is very 
ancient ; it was the monogram of Osiris and 
Jupiter Arnmon ; it decorated the hands of 
the sculptured images of Egypt ; and in 
India stamped its form upon the most ma- 
jestic of the shrines of the deities." * In 
all probability the altar, as represented in 
the woodcut, is standing upside down, and 
was so when the modern young gentlemen whose initials appear upon 
it carved the letters. Lap. Sep., No. 61. 

47. Part of an Altar, which has been split down the middle to 
form a gate-post. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. Presented by 
Mr. James Forster. Hodgson, who describes the altar (Hist. Nor., 
Part II., Vol. I., p. 186), suspects the inscription was in hexameter 
verse. Mr. Hodgson's copy of the inscription, together with Dr. 
Hiibner's, are here placed side by side with the engraving ; a compari- 

* Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland. Part II., Vol. III., p. 178, 

4 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. 


son of these with the stone itself will enable the reader to ascertain 


i i r i 

I ED / / / 

/ / / RGKL 




INHC / / / / AE 

E / / / (JIT IMP 

/ M / / PERGEL 

T / / / / RVINI 

M / / /. IS / / 


/ / / / C EF PAG 

/ / / I TIBI PRO 




/ / / CEM VOLV 


4 ft. by 10 in. 

on which of the letters he may rely. Dr. Hiibncr is of the opinion 


3 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 

1 ft. 3 in. by 11 in. 

that we have here a sepulchral ode in 
heroic verse. Lap. tiep.,No. 609 ; G. I. L., 
VII., No. 1020. 

48. From BoRCOVicus, Housesteads. 
The inscription on the body of the Altar 
has all the appearance of having been 
purposely erased. On the capital are the 


" To Jupiter, the greatest and best." 
Lap. Sep., No. 175. 

49. A small uninscribed Altar, of 
which no account exists. 

50. A headless Figure of Mercury, 
from CORSTOPITUM, Corbridge. Presented 
by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. A 
purse is on the ground, near his left foot ; a 
goat is on his right ; a cock adorns the pedestal. 
Lap. Sep., No. 649. 

51. An Altar, 2 ft. 2 in. high and 7 in. 
wide, very roughly tooled, and having no trace 
of an inscription, from VINDOBALA, Rutchester. 
Presented by Thos. James, Esq. 

52. A small uninscribed 
and much injured Altar, 1 ft. 
10 in. high. 

53. Another, small Altar, in a much injured con- 

54. A mutilated and much weathered Figure of 
a Roman Soldier in his leathern corslet. From COR- 
STOPITUM, Corbridge. Presented by Mr. Spoor. 

1 ft. 11 in. high. 


1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 2 in 

55. A small headless Figure of Fortune sitting in an arm chair, 
from MAGNA, Caervoran. She has the wheel in 
her right hand, and the cornucopias in her left. 

56. A Figure of Victory, with outstretched 
wings. The peculiar 
curl of the lower part 
of the drapery will be 
noticed. From the 
Roman station at 
Stanwix. It had been 
used in the building of the old church 
there, and was rescued when that build- 
ing was pulled down to be replaced by 
the present structure. Presented by the 
Rev. Thomas Wilkinson. Lap. Sep., 
No. 482. 

2 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. 

57. A small rude Figure of Silvanus (?) It was 
found in digging the Carlisle canal, at Burgh-on-the- 
Sands, and was presented by the engineer, the late Wm. 
Chapman, Esq. Several figures similar to this have 
been found in the Roman stations in the North of 

58. The lower portion of an ornamental Column. 

59. The lower portion of a Slab, on which the 
figure of a man has been engraved. 

60. A Centurial Stone from 
the WALL, west of Sewingshields. 
The inscription is obscure ; it seems 
to be this 


MANV (?) 

" The century of Primanus of the i ft. by 9 in. 

Fifth Cohort" Lap. Sep., No. 163 ; C. L L., 626. 

1 ft. l in. by 7 in. 


61. Part of a Slab from VINDOLANA, the modern Chesterholm. 
Presented by the late Rev. Anthony Hedley. Its right bears a 
Roman vexillum, or standard ; the left is gone. 
The inscription is very imperfect. Professor 
Hiibner gives the reading of it, conjecturally, 
as COH(ORS) / / 






I lW S 


1 ft. 2 in. by 8 in. 

Lap. Sep., No. 267; C. I. L., 719. 

62. A Centurial Stone from MAGNA, Caervoran. Some of the 
letters are indistinct ; but the in- 
scription seems to be 



" The century of Valerius Cassianus 
(erected) 19 feet backwards." See 
Hiibner, G. I. L., No. 789 ; Lap. 
Sep., No. 340. 

68. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. The 
mutilated figure of Mars, or of a Roman Soldier. 

64. A Centurial Stone, with a nearly ob- 
literated inscription. 

1 ft. by 11 in. 

65. A Centurial Stone from the WALL, at 
Sewingshields, bearing the inscription 



PROC(V)LI (?) 

"The century of Casoilius Proculus, of 
the Fifth Cohort." Lap. Sep., No. 162. 

1 ft. 1 in. hy 6J in. 

66. Fragment of a Monumental Stone from BORCOVICUS. It 


consists of a figure in a niche a 
cornucopias is at its left side ; some- 
thing like a quiver appears on the 
right shoulder. 

67. A Centurial Stone from VIN- 
DOLANA, Chesterholm, bearing the 
inscription : 


" (This work was performed by) 
a Century of the Eighth Cohort 
under the command of Cascilins \' 
Clemens." Lap. Sep., No. 265. 

1ft. 2 in. by 8 in. 

This Slab has probably been 

68. From MAGNA, Caervoran. 
inserted in a temple dedicated to 
the worship of the gods men- 
tioned on it. The inscription is 
obscure, and the right-hand por- 
tion of it is wanting 



/ / A SOLO / / / 


" To the god Mars and the August 

deities, Julius .... erected (this 

temple) from the ground in discharge of a vow." Brand's Hist, of 

Newcastle, I., 613 ; Lap. Sep., No. 300; C. I. L., VII., No. 755. 

69. This is probably a funereal inscription. It comes from 
MAGNA, Caervoran. Dr. Hiibner reads the inscription thus : 




\ ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. 


"Caius Valerius Tullus, the son of Cains of the Yoltinian tribe, a 
native of Vienne (S. of France), a soldier of the Twentieth Legion, 
surnamed the Valerian and Victorious." The palm branch, the type 

2 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. 

of victory, will be noticed in the triangular head of the stone, and at 
the commencement and close of the last line. C. I. L. } VII., 794 ; 
Lap. Sep., No. 322. 

70. An important Sculpture, from a Mithraic cave in the vicinity 
of BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. The cave was partly sunk in the 
ground ; the sides of it faced the four cardinal points of the compass. 
The god Mithras, coming out of an egg, is in the centre of the slab 
holding a sword ( ?) in his right hand, a torch in his left. Surround- 
ing him, in an oval-shaped border, are the signs of the zodiac. " The 


signs commence, after the Roman manner, at Aquarius or .January, 
and end with Capricorn, or December." The upper part of the stone, 

4 ft. 7 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. 


which contained Cancer and part of Leo, has been lost. The fracture 
between Virgo and Scorpio has probably obliterated Libra. " Mith- 
raisin was a species of Sabaism which in old times prevailed from 
China, through Asia and Europe, as far as Britain. During the reign 
of Commodus the former had become common among the Romans, 

and in the time of Severus had extended over all the western part of 
the empire. It was imported from Syria, and was synonymous with 
the worship of Baal and Bel in that country ; for in it, as in the 
mysteries of Osiris in Egypt, and of Apollo in Greece and Rome, the 
sun was the immediate object of adoration." Archaologia ^Eliana, 
O.S., Vol. I., p. 283 ; Lap. Sep., No. 188. 

71 and 72. Several fragments of a large tablet found in the 
Mithraic cave at BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. The tablet, unfortun- 


ately, was broken up for draining-stones, and to a great extent irre- 
coverably lost, before its value was known. 
The woodcut on the previous page exhibits the 
usual form of these Mithraic sculptures. The 
parts of the BORCOVICUS tablet which remain 
are a fragment of the bull's head, the dog 
jumping up to lick the blood, a hand grasping 

2 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. 

1 ft. 10 in. by 8 in. 

a sword, and two figures of Mithras with an 
uplifted torch, one of which had stood on the 
right side of the tablet, the other on the left. 
Lap. Sep., No. 192. 

5 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 

73. This Stone was found at ^EsiCA, Great Chesters. It is but 
a fragment of the original inscription, and in its 
present state nothing can be made of it. Lap. 
Sep., No. 287 ; 0. L />., VII., No. 742. 

74. A Slab, inscribed 


" The lightning of the gods." Found in a field 
about a mile west of HUNNUM, the modern Halton 


Chesters. Presented by Rowland Errington, Esq. These stones, which 

are frequent in every part of the 
Roman world, mark the so - called 
"tombs of lightning." "Where any 
lightning went to the earth, the 
Romans placed such a stone on the 
spot. Professor Hiibner says that the 
1 lettering seemed to him to belong to 
the end of the second or the beginning 
of the third century. Lap. Sep., 

No. 104 ; C. I. L., VII., No. 561. 

2 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. 

1 ft. by 9 in. 

75. Fragment of an Inscription from MAGNA, Carvoran. 


" Calpurnius Agricola [imperial legate] 
the First Cohort of the Hamians." 
About the year A.D. 163, when Marcus 
Aurelius and Lucius Verus were em- 
perors, there was a rising in Britain, 
and Calpurnius Agricola was sent to 
repress it. The Hamians are supposed to have come from Hamah, in 
Syria. They were in Britain as early as the time of Hadrian. See 
Hodgson's Hist. Nor., Part II., VoL III., p. 205 ; Lap. Sep., No. 
328 ; C. L L., VII., No. 774. 

76. An Inscription in iambic verse, in praise of Ceres, the mother 
of the gods. From the station of MAGNA, the modern Caervoran. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. Lap. Sep., No. 306 ; C. I. L., VII., No. 
759. The inscription, which is in iambic verse, is unusually long, and 
without ligatures or contractions. It is here arranged as the scansion 



VRB I 'MCO N D (TR iX; ; 



3 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 2 in. 

" The Virgin in her celestial seat overhangs the Lion, 
Producer of corn. Inventress of right, Foundress of cities, 
By which gifts it has been our good fortune to know the deities. 
Therefore the same Virgin is the Mother of the gods, is Peace, is Virtue, is Ceres, 
Is the Syrian goddess, poising life and laws in a balance. 
The constellation beheld in the sky hath Syria sent forth 
To Libya to be worshipped, thence have all of us learnt it ; 
Thus hath understood, overspread by thy protecting influence, 
Marcus Csecilius Donatianus, a war-faring 
Tribune in the office of prefect, by the bounty of the Emperor." 


77. This Slab was found at CONDERCUM, Benwell Hill. It was 
probably originally placed in front of a temple dedicated to the good 
mothers. As already stated, they were worshipped in triplets. 

2 ft. 8 in. by 2 ft. 



" To the three Campestrian Mothers, and to the Genius of the first Ala 

of Spanish Asturians (styled the) and Gordiari, Terentius 

Agrippa, the prefect, restored this temple from the ground." The 
horse regiments in the Roman army were called alae, or wings, as in 
early times they formed the wings of the force. The latter part of 
the third line and the beginning of the fourth line of this inscription 
has been purposely erased. The vacant space has, no doubt, con- 
tained an epithet derived from the name of some emperor who had 
fallen into disgrace ; what that epithet was cannot with certainty 
be ascertained ANTONINIANAE (with reference to Elagabalus), 


SEVERIANAE ALEXANDRIANAE, and MAxiMiANAE, have severally been 
suggested. Zap. Sep., No. 22 ; C. I. L., VII., No. 510. 

78. From the WALL, west of Sew- 
ingshields : 

LEG(IO)II -/I'llAy 


"The Second Legion, the imperial." 
Lap.Sep.,T$o.l*l. ift.uTbTnn. 

79. This Slab, which commemorates the re-erection, in the time 
of Severus Alexander (A.D. 222-235), of a granary which had become 
dilapidated through age, was found at the station of ^JEsiCA, the 
modern Great Chesters. One peculiarity of this inscription is, that it 


4 ft. 1 in. by 3 ft. 4 in. 

bears the name of the " COH. n. ASTVRVM," whereas the Notttia places 
at this station " Tribunus cohorfcis primae Astururn." A fragment of 
a tile recently found at JilsiCA, having stamped upon it the legend 
ii ASTVR., confirms the testimony of the slab : that at one period, at 
least, the Second Cohort of the Astures was settled here. The tablet 
was presented to the Society by the late Rev. Henry Wastal, of New- 
brough. It may be read thus : 












"The Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander, pious, 
happy, Augustus. The soldiers of the Second Cohort of the Asturians, 
(surnamed) the Severian Alexandrian, restored from the ground this 
granary, which had fallen down through age, Maximus being the 
legate of the province, under the charge of Valerius Martianus ; 
Fuscus, for the second time, and Dexter being consuls." This cor- 
responds with the year A.D. 225. Lap. Sep., No. 285 ; C. I. L., VII., 
No. 732. 

80. Fragment of a Monumental Stone from 
HABITANCUM. Presented by Mr. Shanks. The 
cutting of the letters is clean and good. The stone 

has suffered from 

violence, but not 

from exposure. 

The reading of the inscription is 

doubtful.^. Sep., No. G24. 

81. A Roman in his civic 
dress, the head and feet broken 
off. From BORCOVICUS, House- 
steads. He is clad in a tunic and 
mantle ; the left hand gracefully 
supports a portion of the mantle, 
which has a fringe at the bottom 
three inches deep. The fringe is 
common to Romano - Gaulish cos- 
tume. This has probably been part 
of a sepulchral stone ; the inscription 
would be beneath. Lap. Sep., No. 

1 ft. 1 in. by 11 in. 

3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. 


82. A square Slab, ornamented on the sides, with circles contain- 
ing a cross within each. The inscription, which has consisted of at 
least six lines, is nearly effaced. Dr. Hiibner (C. I. L., VII., No. 
502) reads it : 



1 V / / 

sv ,' / / 




" The century of Primitivus (erect- 
ed this) under the superintend- 
ence of Flavius Secundus the 

83. A Monumental Stone, found in or near MAGNA, Caervoran. 
Presented by Col. Coulson. 


" To the divine Manes of Aurelia 
Faia, a native of Salona. Aurelius 
Marcus, of the century of Obse- 
quens, to his most holy wife, who 
lived thirty-three years, without 
any stain, erected this." Lap. 
Sep., No. 321; Hiibner reads the 
second line, AVR. ITALAE (C. I. 
Z., VII., 793). 

5 ft. 2 in. by 2 ft. 9 in 


84. A Figure, much mutilated, from BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 
He wears a tunic, over which is thrown 
a cloak. The tunic is bound round 
the waist by a thin sash, the end of 
which hangs down ; the cloak is fastened 
near the right shoulder by a circular 
fibula. The figure was found " lying on 
the ridge in the hollow of the field west 
of the Mithraic cave." Hodgson con- 
jectures that this and several similar 
sculptures found in this locality were 
sepulchral monuments. Lap. Sep., No. 

2 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. 242 

85. Figure of Victory, holding in her hands an ornament some- 
what resembling a pelta, or light 
shield, Avhich probably ornamented 
the left-hand side of an inscribed 
slab. From CORSTOPITUM, Cor- 
bridge. A similar "figure probably 
occupied the other extremity of the 
same slab, and the inscription, in- 
closed in a circular garland, was 
placed in the centre. Lap. Sep., 
No. 650. 


86. A Figure of Hercules. 
From VINDOBALA, Rutchester. He 
3 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. holds a ponderous club in his right 

hand, the apples of the garden of 

the Hesperides are in his left, and the skin of the Nemean lion is 
thrown over his shoulders. Lap. Sep., No. 82. 

87. The leg (wanting the foot) of a Statue. The front of the 
shin is unusually sharp ; the upper fastenings of the cothurnus appear. 
From Stanwix. Presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., Carlisle, 


4 ft. by 2 ft. 


. A Roman Soldier, from BORCOVICUS, Honsesteads. He holds 
a bow in his left hand ; the object in 
his right Horsley describes as a poniard 
it more nearly resembles a rude key 
or small axe. A belt, crossing his body 
diagonally, suspends a quiver from the 
right shoulder. The folds of the sagwn, 
or military cloak, are gathered upon 
his chest. His sword, which is attached 
to a belt that girds his loins, is on his 
right side ; the handle of it terminates 
in a bird-headed ornament. The head 
is bare ; a portion of the stone has been 
left to secure the head to the upper 
part of the niche, giving the appear- 
ance of a helmet. There is a band on 
the left arm, probably to protect it 
from the action of the arrows in their 

flight fr()m the bow . fl^ in the Middle 

3 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 11 in. 

Ages, was called " a bracer." Professor Hiibner thinks that this " is 
very likely a man of the Cohors prima Hamiorum Sagittariorum, in 
garrison at MAGNA, as no other archers are known in Britain." Lap. 
Sep., No. 240. 

89. A plaster cast of a large Altar, found in the station near 
Maryport, and now in the grounds of Government House, Castletown, 
Isle of Man. The first account of this altar appears in the Appendix to 
Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale. Some portions of the inscription 
are obliterated, but the following is probably the correct reading : 

lovi AVG(VSTO) 










"To Jupiter the August, Marcus Censorius Cornelianus, son of 
Marcus, of the Voltinian 
tribe, centurion of the 
Tenth Legion, (styled) 
Fretensian, (and) prefect 
of the First Cohort of 
Spaniards, of the city of 
Nemausus (Nimes), in the 
province of Narbonne, 
erects this altar in dis- 
charge of a vow, willingly, 
to a most deserving ob- 
jecfo" Lap. Sep., No. 
860 j G. /. L., VII., 371. 

90. An uninscribed 

91. A Sculptured 
Stone, which has the ap- 
pearance of being the 
upper part of an altar, 
but has been used as a 
building stone. 

92. An Altar, which 
has been put to some 
secondary use. The lower 
part is uninjured. 

93. A Figure of Vic- 
tory, careering with out- 
stretched wings over the 
round Earth. From BOR- 
covicus, Housesteads. Her face is mutilated, and her arms knocked 
off, but the figure is otherwise in good condition. When entire, she 
would hold a palm branch in her left hand, and a coronal wreath, 
wherewith to deck the victor's brow, in her right. Victory, as might 

hi. by 1 ft. 5 in. 


4 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft. 3 in. 


be expected, was a favourite goddess with the Romans, and statues, 
or portions of them, similar to the present, all imitations of some 
renowned Greek model, are not of uncommon occurrence in the camps 
on the Wall. Zap. Sep., No. 235. 

94. A fragment of a Funereal Inscription, from HABITANCUM, 
Eisingham. On the right of the slab is a floral border resembling in 
character that which adorns the sides of the capital of the altar to 

2 ft. 2 in. by 2 ft. 

Fortune found at this Station (No. 102). Unfortunately the inscrip- 
tion is incomplete, the names of the lady, her father, and husband, 

being deficient: [D M] 

AV[RELIAE] / / / / 

MENI / / / / ' / / 
FILIAE ////// 
NI CONl[VGIS] / / / 


XXXVII / / / 

" To the Divine Shades of Aurelia .... the daughter of . . the 


2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. 

wife of Marcus Aurelius C . . . . she lived thirty- 
seven years." Lap. Sep., No. 618. 

95. The fragment of a Monumental Stone 
found at HABITANCUM, Eisingham. The letters 
are badly made, and a good deal abraded. Nothing 
satisfactory can be made out of the inscription. 
The last line in it seems to be AWNCVLVS, an uncle 
of the deceased having probably erected the monu- 
ment. p. &p.,No 623 ; <?./.., VII., No. 1021. 

96. A Slab discovered, in excavating one of the gateways of 


AMBOGLANNA, Birdoswald, by H. Glasford Potter, Esq., to whom the 
Society is indebted, not only for the stone itself, but for the cut 
representing it. The reading seems to be 



"The First Cohort of the Dacians (styled ^JElia), commanded by 
Marcus Claudius Menander, the Tribune, (erected this) by direction 
of Modius Julius, Imperial Legate and Proprsetor." Mr. Potter and 
Dr. McCaul give slightly different readings, for which see Arch. 
jfflliana, O.S., Vol. IV., p. 141; and Britanno- Roman Inscriptions, 
p. 29. Lap. Sep., No. 389 ; C. I. L., VII., 838. 

97. The fragment of a Stone, inscribed on both sides. From 
BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. The inscriptions are evidently of different 
dates. The form of the letters and the absence of ligatures in the 

2 ft. 5 in. by 11 in. 

face here shown prove the inscription upon it to have been the earlier. 
It is probably of the second century. It reads 

/ / / / 


but no definite information can be derived from it. Lap. Sep., No. 
208a ; C. I. L., VII., 634. 



97 W> The other side of the stone has an inscription of a some- 
what smaller size than the former. The letters are 




2 ft. 5 in. by 11 in. 

" To the Emperors, the Caesars, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus . . . ." 
The emperors here referred to were probably either Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus and Verus, or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Commodus, 
or Caracalla and Geta. Lap. Sep., No. 203& ; 0. 1. L., VII., 664. 

98. A Slab containing an inscription, which, in the opinion of 
Hodgson, is "of all the inscriptions discovered in Britain of the 
greatest historical interest." The reading of it is 



"(For the safety of) the Emperor Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus, the 
Second Legion, surnamed the Imperial, (erects this by authority of) 
Aulus Platorius Nepos, Legate and Propraetor." The stone is believed 
to have been found in the Castle-nick Mile Castle, which is to the 
west of BORCOVICUS.* Fragments of stones, bearing an inscription 
identical with this, have been found in three other neighbouring mile- 
castles. The conclusion is not unnatural, that they were originally 
to be found in all the mile-castles along the Wall. Now, if the 
mile-castles, which are essential parts of the "Wall, were built by 

* See a paper, by Mr. Clayton, in the Archaologia ^Eliana. Vol. IV., O.S., 
p. 273. 


Hadrian, the whole Wall must have been built by him ; hence the 
historical importance of the inscription before us. The stone was 

presented to the Society by John Davidson, Esq. Lap. Sep., No. 199 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 660. 

98. Four Roman Tiles. Two of them bear the stamp of the 
Sixth Legion, surnained the Victorious LEG. vi. v. Another, found 


at Cramlington, has the name T(ITIVS) 
PRIMVS scratched upon it. The craftsman 
may have taken this method of immortalis- 
ing himself. The fourth has the impression 
on it of the feet of a dog or wolf. 

99. Inscribed Slab, found at BREMEN- 
IUM, High Rochester, in Redesdale. Pre- 
10 in. by 10 in sented to the Society by Sir "Walter C. 

Trevelyan, Bart. 










(L'Ai 1 ^ 

3 ft. 1 in. by 2 ft. 10 in. 

" To the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, pious, 
happy, august, styled Parthicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus, 


Germanicus Maximus,* chief priest, possessed of the tribunicial 
power for the nineteenth time, proclaimed Imperator for the second 
time, consul for the fourth time, the father of his country ; The 
First Cohort of the Varduli, surnamed the Faithful, composed of 
Roman citizens, having a due proportion of cavalry, consisting of a 
thousand men, and honoured with the name of Antoninian, erected 

this under the superintendence of imperial legate and pro- 

prsetor." The Antonine here referred to is probably the eldest son of 
Severus, commonly known as Caracalla ; he was Consul for the fourth 
time A.D. 213. Lap. Sep., No. 568 ; 0. I. L., VII., 1,043. 

100. A round Globe of large size, with 
the foot of Victory firmly planted on it. 
The rest of the statue, which, judging from 
this fragment, must have been a very fine 
one, is wanting. From the Roman station 
of Stanwix. Presented by J. D. Carr, Esq., 
Carlisle. Lap. Sep., No. 483. 

101. A Roman Tombstone, found in 
cutting down Gallowhill, near Carlisle. The 

. , . 1 ft. 2 in. by 11 hi. 

inscription runs : 



"To the Divine Manes. Aurelia Aureliana (?) lived forty-one years. 
Ulpius Apolinaris erected this to his beloved wife." The figure is 
probably a representation of the deceased. She holds a bunch of 
flowers in her left hand in token, probably, of the hope of a blooming 
futurity. The fir-cone ornaments which, surmount the pilaster on 
each side are also supposed to point to the life to come. Lap. Sep., 
No. 497; C. I. L., VII., 931. 

* It is difficult to translate Maximus in these instances. Probably it was 
intended to intensify the epithet to which it is joined, that he was the greatest 
Parthicus the greatest vanquisher of the Parthians, &c. 


5ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 9 in. 


102. An Altar to Fortune. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. When discovered, the altar stood upon a 
mass of masonry about three feet high. The great peculiarity of this 
altar is, that the inscription is repeated on the basement slab, which 
is also provided with a focus. 

Altar, 3 ft. 4. in. by 1 ft. 8 in. ; base, 8 in. by 3 ft. 1 in. 


" Sacred to Fortune. Caius Valerius Longinus, the Tribune." The 
altar bears no indications of having been exposed to the weather. 
The patera on one of its sides bears distinct marks of the chisel ; the 
rest of the surface is dotted over by the indentations of a fine pick- 


axe or similar tool. The head of the altar has at some time been 
forcibly separated from the body. Lap. Sep., No. 600 ; C. I. L., 
VII., 986. 

103. An Altar to Fortune. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. The inscription has been clearly cut, but 
the letters are a good deal blurred by having been struck by a pick- 
axe at some period subsequent to their original formation. The 
inscription is 


" To Fortune the Re- 
storer, Julius Severi- 
uus the Tribune, the 
Bath being finished, 
(erected this altar) in 
discharge of a vow 
freely made, and to a 
deserving object." 
Lap. Sep., No. 602 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 984. 

3 ft. by t ft. 5 in. 

104. As most of the Altars in this collection have been derived 


from Housesteads, it is 
presumed that this altar 
is from that locality. The 
inscription on it is so de- 
faced that it is vain to 
attempt a reading. Lap. 
Sep., No. 181; C. I. L., 
VII., 655. 

105. An uninscribed 
square-built Altar, 14 in. 
high. Uninscribed altars 
would be convenient ve- 
hicles on which to offer 
incense to any deity whom 
fashion or caprice might 
recommend to the wor- 

JOG. A Centurial 
Stone from Chester -le- 
Street. Broken through 
the middle ; inscription 
illegible. Presented by the 
Eev. Walker Featherston- 

;2ft. 8iu. by 1ft. 2 in. 

107. Found on taking down the White- 
friars Tower, Newcastle-upon-Tyne the PONS ' 
MIAI of the Notitia. 


/ / / 
"To the god Silvanus." Lap. Sep., No. 11 ; 

C. I. L., VII., 500. 

108. The capital of a column. 

109. This Stone was found in the ruins of 
a mile-castle near Chapel House, which is to 

16 in by 9J in. 


the west of Birdoswald. Public attention was first called to it 
by the Pilgrim Band of 1849. The portions of the inscription 
which are wanting are easily supplied from others of a kindred 






2 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 

" To the Emperor Gaesar Trajanus Hadrianus Augustus, of the deified 
Trajan surnamed Parthicus, son, of the deified Nerva, grandson, the 
Twentieth Legion, surnamed the "Valerian and victorious (dedicates 
this)." Lap. Sep., No. 325 ; C. 7. L., VII., No. 835. 

110. From MAGNA, Caervoran. 




G (?) S (?) F(ECIT) 

"The century of Marcus Antonius 
Viator .... made this." Professor 
Hiibner says, respecting the first two 
letters in the last line : " Quid G s 
litera, quae videntur certae esse, signi- 
ficant ignoro"Lap. Sep., No. 338 : 
C. I. L., VII., 781. 

1 ft. 1 in. square. 


111. The fragment of a Funereal Stone, derived probably from 
HABITANCUM, Risingham. The letters of the inscription are well 
cut, but the stone is a good 
deal weathered. Nothing 
can be made of the first 
line, and the reading of 
the whole is uncertain. 

I I I I 


Lap. Sep., No. 621 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 1022. 

1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 

112. An Inscribed Stone from BREMENIUM, High Rochester. 
In the process of adapting it to its position in 
some modern building, a large part of the i v~~~7 V r - 
inscription of the fragment has been effaced. _^Vv^ [7\( 
Major Mowat reads " [FOR]TISSIMI AVG[VSTI] r/- A CFfP C3\Y/ 
in the second line, with reference to Caracalla. (j^^^i-- -- ^ ^J 

1 ft. 6 in. by 11 In. 

in the second line, with reference to Caracalla. 

The letters ss twine round each other in the 

shape of 8 ; the letters AV are interwoven in 

the shape of xx." The words CASTROR(VM) and SENA[TVS] are distinct 

in the last line. The reference may be to Julia, wife of Severus, 

Mater Gastrorum, Senatus ac Patriae. Lap. Sep., No. 579 ; C. I. L., 

VII., 1047. 

113. Fragment of a Slab, from HABITANCUM, Risingham. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Shanks. 


" The Emperor Caesar Marcus (Aurelius) Antoninus, 

pious, [happy, the Augustus], (surnamed) Adiabeni- 

cus." This is an inscription to Caracalla, the son of 

Severus." Adiabenicus " was a title which Septimius Severus received 

10 in. by 10 in. 


in the third year of his reign, in consequence of his reduction of 
Adiabene, a province of Assyria. The title was occasionally, as 
in this instance, given to his son Caracalla. Lap. Sep., No. 629 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 1004. 

114. From HABITANCUM, Bisingham. Presented by Mr. William 
Shanks. This is, apparently, part of an altar which has been broken 
up for building purposes. 

1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 1 in. 

" For the safety of Arrius Paulinus ; Theo- 
dotus dedicated (this altar) willingly and 
deservedly." Professor Hiibner reads the 
last line LIB(ERTVS). Lap. Sep., No. 610 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 1000. 

115. The fragment of an Inscription, giving us the letters 
MIL(?) of a very large size. The magnitude of the letters suggests 
the probability that the inscription was an important one, and of an 
early date. 

116. The lower portion of a small Altar, having the inscription 



It is not known from what locality it has been de- 
rived. The inscription is puzzling. Several altars 
exist, which are dedicated DIBVS VETERIBVS "To 
the ancient gods ; " but, besides these, there are dedi- 
cations to a god VETERIS, VITIRIS, or VITRIS. Lap. Sep., Nos. 116, 
24, 109, 110. Professor Hiibner (C. L L., VII., 502, 502J) seems 
to read correctly, N(VMINIBVS) VITERIBVS. 

6 in. by 6 in. 

117. An Altar, first observed in Beltingham Churchyard, 
about a mile and a half to the south of the Roman Station of 
VINDOLANA, Chesterholm, and on the south side of the Tyne. The 


inscription is a difficult one. Major Mowat suggests the following 

reading : 






2 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 

Major Mowat remarks that "in provincial towns citizens were divided 
into Curiae, or electoral colleges." On the sides of the altar the 

instruments of sacrifice are carved, and on the back is a wreath. 

Lap. Sep., No. 117; C. I. L., VII., 712. 


118. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. Presented by Mr. Shanks. 





NIS v ME(N) 


" To the Divine Manes. Satrius Honoratus lived five years and five 
months." It was not usual with the Romans to mention death upon 


a tombstone, though the length of the life of the deceased is generally 
mentioned with great particularity. Lap. Sep., No. 617; G. I. L., 
VII., No. 1019. 

119. A Tombstone from HABI- 
TANCUM, Risingham. Presented by 
Mr. Shanks. 

A&SVAE* : 

NIS xiii M(ENSIBVS) v 


" Sacred to the Divine Shades. Au- 

relia Quartilla lived thirteen years, five 

months, and twenty-two days. Aurelius Quartinus erected this to 

the memory of his daughter." Lap. Sep., No. 620 ; C. I. L., VII., 






3 ft. by 2 ft. 2 in. 

120. A Monumental Stone from HABITANCUM, Risingham. 
Presented by Mr. Shanks. 





" Sacred to the divine Manes of Aurelia Lupula. Dionysius Fortun- 
atus erected this to the memory of his most affectionate mother. 
May the earth lie light upon thee ! " This stone is remarkably fresh, 


and has the ap- 
pearance of hav- 
ing but just left 
the hands of the 
sculptor. Lap. 
Sep., No. 616 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 

121. An Altar 
to the Sun (see 
woodcut on next 
page), under the 
character of Mith- 
ras, from the 
famous Mithraic 
cave at BORCOVI- 
cus. (See Xos. 
70, 71, 72, and 
140). The in- 
scription may be 
read thus : 

" To the god the Sun, the 
invincible Mithras, the 
Lord of Ages,* Litorius 
Pacatianus, a beneficiary 
of the Consularis (that 
is, the Imperial legate), 
for himself and family, dis- 
charges a vow willingly 
and deservedly." Zap. Sep., No. 182 ; C. L L., VII., 645. 

* The Rev. John Hodgson translates the word SAECVLAEIS, as here given, 
" Lord of Ages." Dr. McCaul thinks that the god was so called in reference to 
the ludi saeculares, which were celebrated, in honour of the thousandth year of the 
city, in A.D. 248. just, four years before the consulship of Gallus and Volusianus 
(see Nos. 70, 71, 72, and 140). The worshippers of Mithras might wish him to be 
regarded as the true Sfpcular deity. 

2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 9 in. 









4 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 9 in 


122. From BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 

3 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. 


"(Dedicated) to Hercules by the 
GROR(VM) First Cohort of the Tungrians (con- 
cvi PRAEEST P(VBLIVS) AEL(IVS) sisting of a thousand men), of which 
MODESTVS PRAE(FECTVS) Publius Aelius Modestus is Prefect." 



The Tungnans were a Germanic tribe who, having crossed the 
Rhine, took up a position in Belgic Gaul. The present town of 
Tongres is a relic of their residence here. The first cohort of Tun- 
grians is named in the Malpas diploma (see Lap. Sep., p. 4), and in 
this case the word milliaria is given in full. Lap. Sep., No. 179 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 635. 

123. A Slab from BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. The inscription is 
without any contractions or compound letters. 


It may be thus translated : 
"The First Cohort of the 
Tungrians (dedicated this struc- 
ture) to the gods and the god- 
desses, according to the direc- 
tion of the oracle of the Clarian 
Apollo." There was a famous 
oracle at Clarus, a city of Ionia, 
whence Apollo is occasionally 
called the Clarian god. Like 
most of the other inscribed 
stones found upon the Wall, it 
bears marks of having been 
purposely broken. Lap. Sep., No. 95 ; C. I. L., VII., 633. 

124. This Altar was dug up at Chapel Hill, in the immediate 
vicinity of the station of BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 
i(ovi) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 




3 ft. 7 in. by 2 ft. 7 in. 


The inscription may be translated: "The First Cohort of the Tun- 

3 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 

grians, a railliary one, commanded by Quintus Verius Superstis, 


Prefect, (dedicated this altar) to Jupiter the best and greatest, and to 
the Deities of the Emperor." * The volutes on the top of the altar 
are bound down by transverse cords. These volutes may represent 
the faggots used in burning the offering. Lap. Sep., No. 172 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 640. 

125. From JEsiCA, Great Chesters. Presented by Capt. Coulson. 




"To the ancient gods (?) Eomana erected 
(this altar)." (See No. 116). As in the Ee- 
formation times, there were the advocates of 
the Old Learning and of the New; so when 
Christianity began to spread over heathen 
lands, there were those who received the glad 
tidings and those who adhered to the gods 
whom they had been taught to venerate from 
their youth. Lap. Sep., No. 277; C. I. L., 
VII., 728. 

126. An inscribed Stone, which was first 
noticed at Walltown, but is supposed to have 
come from ^EsiCA, Great Chesters. Pre- 

5 In. by 10J in. 

sented by the late Rev. Henry Wastal, Newbrough. 

2 ft. 3 in. by 7i in. 



" To Imperial Victory, the Sixth Cohort of Nervii, commanded by 

* Or, more probably, the Emperor himself \vas addressed as a deity. 


Cains Julius Barbaras, the prefect, erects this in discharge of a vow, 
willingly, to a most deserving object." This stone was probably 
inserted in the front wall of some small chapel dedicated to the deity. 
The Nervii were a people of Belgic G-aul. Lap. Sep., No. 275 ; 
0. I. L., VII., 726. 

127. From BREMENIUM, High Rochester. 



" To the gods of the mountains Julius Firminus, 
a Decurion, dedicates this." Lap. Sep., No. 
554 ; 0. I. L., VII., 1036. 

128. A small, neatly carved Altar, without 
inscription. On one face, in a slightly re- 
i ft. by s in. cessed niche, is the figure of a woman, or a 

robed priest; it is 9 inches high. From Chester-le-Street. Presented 
by the Rev. "Walker Featherstonhaugh. 

129. A small Altar, found at PROCO- 
LITIA, Carrawburgh, by the Pilgrim Baud of 
1849. The inscription is very rude, and 
scarcely decipherable. It may be 


/ / / AM 

130. From MAGNA, Caervoran. 







"To Fortune, the August, for the safety of Lucius Julius Caesar, 
Titus Flavius Secundus, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamiau archers, 


warned in a vision, and in discharge of a vow, (erected this altar) 
willingly to a most worthy 
object." Fortune was soli- 
cited on this occasion in vain. 
Lucius ^Elius Caesar, who 
was the adopted son of 
Hadrian, died in the life- 
time of that Emperor, A.D- 
137. When the Notitia was 
written, the Dalmatians oc- 
cupied the garrison at M AGNA. 
Three other inscriptions, 
however, besides this, have 
been found here, which men- 
tion the Hamii. The Hamii, 
as Hodgson shrewdly con- 
jectures, were from Hamah, 
the Hamath of Scripture, a 
city of Syria. Hodgson, 
Hist. Nor., II., iii., pp. 139 
and 205; Lap. Sep., No. 301. 

2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. 

131. A small Altar from MAGNA, Caervoran. The letters of 
this inscription are feebly traced upon a hard and 
crystalline block of millstone grit, and are conse- 
quently indistinct ; they are also rude in form. 
Probably no two persons would read them alike. 
See Lap. Sep., No. 298, and C. I. L., VII., 748. 

132. A rudely formed Altar 
from Brougham Castle, West- 
moreland. Presented by Mr. 
George Armstrong Dickson. It 
i ft. by 7 in. j g m ade of red sandstone. 

DEO ,__ ^___ ,__ 

B(E)LATVCA(D)RO t ft . 3 in . by i ft . 




" To the god Belatucadrus, Audagus discharges his vow for his well- 
being." The god Belatucadrus, or Belatucader, is a local deity, his 
altars being only found in Cumberland and the western border of 
Northumberland. It has been thought, but certainly without the 
slightest probability, that his name is a compound of Baal or Bel, 
and the Arabic epithet, du cader, the powerful. Lap, Sep., No. 808 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 295. 

133. A small Altar from Chester-le-Street. Presented by the 
Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. Being formed of 
a coarse-grained sandstone, and much weathered, the 
inscription is indistinct. The engraving accurately 
represents it. Professor Hiibner, writing upon it, 
says : " Contuli, sed de lectione desperavi." C. I. L., 
VII., 453 ; Lap. Sep., No. 543. 

10 in. by 6 in. 

134. This Altar was found in the Mithraic 
cave at BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. It bears upon 
its capital a rude effigy of the Sun, and is dedicated 
to that luminary by Herionus ( ?) 




" To the Sun, Herionis in discharge of a vow 
willingly and deservedly made." Lap. Sep., No. 
191: C.I. L., VII., 647. 

135. An uninscribed Altar, locality un- 

1 ft. 10 in. by 10 in. 

136. A Funereal Stone found on the line of the Vallum at Low 
Benwell, a village a little to the west of Newcastle. 

-; D(IIS) ^ M(ANIBYS) <* 


46 ALI 4fr 

" To the Divine Shades. To Publius Sermullius Martialis." 


^aiijafi^iiil 1 !! 'Hi 


2 ft. 9[iu. by 1 ft. 10 iii. 

187. A Walling Stone, found at Brunton, west of HUNNUM, 
Halton Chesters. It is inscribed 


"The Second Legion, the Imperial 
(erected this)." Lap. Sep., No. 93 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 562a. 

138. From HABITANCUH, the 
modern Risingham. Presented by Mr. 
Richard Shanks. It was found among the debris of the south gateway 
of the Station. The upper portion of the slab, which is now lost, 
has doubtless contained the name and titles of Septimius Severus. 
From the centre of the stone the name of Geta has been purposely 
erased, after having been murdered by his brother. The slab was pro- 
bably placed upon the front of the south gateway of the Station, A.D. 
207. A close examination of the stone shows that its surface has 
been worn away by the action of the weather to the depth of nearly 
one-eighth of an inch. In consequence of this some of the letters are 

2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. 


so obscure they can only be made out by the help of contemporary 
documents. On the right of the stone is a figure of Victory, and on 
the left of Mars. 


I I I I I I I 








" (To the honour of Septimius Severus) 

Adiabenicus Maximus, Consul for the third 

time, and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, Consul for the second time, 

the August! 

the gate, with the adjacent walls, which had become dilapidated 
through age, was, by command of Alfenius Senecio, an illustrious man 
and of consular rank, and under the care of Oclatinius Adventus 
the procurator of our emperors, by the First Cohort of Vangiones a 
thousand strong, and provided with cavalry, together with ^Emilius 
Salvianus their tribune, raised from the ground." The Vangiones 
occupied the most eastern part of Belgic Gaul. Lap. Sep., No. 626 ; 
C. I. L., VIL, 1003. 

139. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. 


"To the gods the fosterers of this place, Julius 
Victor a tribune.'' Julius Victor was tribune of 
the First Cohort of Vangiones, as we learn from 
another inscription which was found at this station, 
but is now lost. Lap. Sep., No. 605 ; C. I. L., 
VIL, 980. 

140. From the Mithraic cave, BoRCOViCUS. 2 ft. in. ty i ft. 2 in. 
Hodgson, LI. ; Arch. ^?., p. 299. Dr. Hiibner 
conjectures that this Altar has been originally dedicated to Jupiter, 
and that the marks on the capital are the remains of the first inscrip- 
tion, I.O.M. The rest of the inscription had been entirely erased, and 
the new one carved upon its face. The stone bears marks of having 
undergone this process. When the spread of Christianity had exposed 


the absurdities of the mythology of Greece and Rome, those who 

D(EO) O(PTIMO) / / / M(AXIMO) 




" To the god the best and 
greatest, Mithras, the uncon- 
quered and the enduring for 
ages, Publius Proculinus, a 
Centurion, dedicates this, for 
himself and Proculns his son, 
iu discharge of a vow freely 
made to a deserving object, 
our lords Gall us and Volusi- 
anus being consuls." 

would not submit to the humbling doctrines of the Cross, betook them- 


selves to the worship of that vague and indefinite thing called Nature. 
As the sun is the chief agent in the hand of God of producing light 
and warmth, and without which neither animal nor vegetable life could 
exist, it became the prime object of their worship. The Abbe Banier, 
in his Mythology of the Ancients (English translation: London, 1740), 
at the close of an article upon Mithras (Yol. II., Book VII., p. 126), 
has the following passage : " We may remark, before we have done 
with this article, that the principal feast of Mithras was that of his 
nativity, which a Roman kalendar placed on the 8th of the kalends of 
January : that is, the 25th of December, a day on which, besides the 
Mysteries that were celebrated with the greatest solemnity, were like- 
wise exhibited the games of the Circus that were consecrated to the 
Sun, or to Mithras. 'Tis true, the kalendar does not name this god, 
but only says, ' 8 Kal. Jan. n. Invicti :' that is to say, the day of the 
nativity of the Invincible ; but the learned have very well judged from 
the epithet of Invicti, so often applied to him in inscriptions, that 
Mithras is here intended." When the shortest day of a year is passed, 
the new year may be said to have its birth. Lap. Sep., No. 190 ; 
C. I. L., VII., 646. 

141. Found at Shotton, County of Durham, sup- 
posed to have come from MAGNA, Caervoran. It was 
once in the possession of Horsley. Presented by the 
Rev. R. Taylor, of Monk Hesleden. 





V 8 L M 

"To the god Vitiris, Menius Dada dedicates this 
altar, in discharge of a vow." 

142. An Altar from Chester-le-Street. Pre- 
sented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. The 
inscription is indistinct ; it has probably been 

addressed DEAB(V)S 

VIAS (?) 

VADRI (?) 

"To the ancient gods . . . ." Lap. Sep.. No. 542. Jft 2jn t) 7jn 

9 in. >>y,5 in. 



14:>. The upper portion of a small Altar, from Chester-le-Street. 
Presented by the Eev. W. Featherstonhaugh. The 
inscription is 



V S L M 

' To the god Apollo (this altar is dedicated), by 
the Second Legion, surnamed the August, in dis- 
charge of a vow." Lap. Sep., No. 541 ; C. I. L., 
VII., 452. 

9 in. by 8 in. 

144. The lower portion of an Altar from CONDERCUM, Benwell. 
\Ve know not to what god it has been 
dedicated, and the remaining letters can 
only be read conjecturally. Perhaps the 
expansion of them may be 




"(Erected) for (the welfare of) Justus, a 
centurion, and his family, in discharge of a 
vow most willingly made, and for a most 
deserving object." Lap. Stp., No. 26; 
C. L L., VII., 516. 

9 in. by 6 in. 

11 in. by 7 in. 

145. A small Altar from MAGNA, Caer- 
voran. No certain reading of the inscrip- 
tion has been hit upon. It may be 




" To the ancient god (?), Nepos Calames dedicates 
this altar, in discharge of a vow willingly." Even 
if this reading is right, who is this ancient god ? 
M. Mowat considers VETIRIS to be the name of 
the god ; NECAIMES that of the dedicator. Lap. 
Sep., No. 820 ; C. T. />., YIL, 761. 


146. A neatly formed Altar, 9 inches high, from Chester-le-Street. 
Presented by the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh. Its inscription is 
obliterated by exposure. 

147. A Stone from CORSTOPITUM, Corchester, inscribed 
" The Sixth Legion, (styled) the victori- 
ous, the affectionate, and the faithful." 
Presented by Mr. Rewcastle, of Gates- 
head. Lap. Sep., No. 647. 

/ _j 


1ft. 11 in. by 7 in. 

148. Part of a Monumental Stone from CORSTOPITUM, Corchester. 

LEG[IONIS vi ( ?)] 

" To the divine shades. A soldier of 

the Sixth Legion." Professor Hubner 

remarks that in some elder Republican 

inscriptions we have the word MILES 

preceding the name, but in Britanuo- 

Roman inscriptions it usually follows it. See Proc. Soc, Antiq., Newc., 

Vol. I. (N.S.), p. 45. 

1 ft. 1 in. by 10 in. 

149. From CORSTOPITUM, Corchester. 
Harle, of Corbridge. 

COH(ORS) [in] 

"The Third Cohort of the 
Second Legion, surnamed 
Augusta." This Stone was 
probably placed in the front 
of some building reared 
by this regiment. In the 
upper part of the stone 
we have a carving of the 
sea- goat and Pegasus, the 
badges of the Second 
Legion, and the crescent 

Presented by Mr. Robert 

1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft, 


150. From COR- 
STOPITUM, Corchester. 
This is part of a Fune- 
real Monument. "We 
have a representation on 
it of two invalids upon 
a bed. Presented by the 
late Captain Walker, of 

151. From COR- 
STOPITUM, Corchester. 
Presented by Mr. Joseph 
Cousins, of Corbridge. 


" The Third Cohort of the Second 
Legion, surnamed Augusta, 
erected (this)." 

152. A squared Stone from 
the vicinity of COHSTOPITUM, 
Corchester (presented by John 
Grey, Esq., Dilston House), with 
a moulding, bearing the inscrip- 

1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. \ in. 




" The Vexillarii of the Sixth Legion, 
the pious and faithful, restored (this 
building)." By a careful examina- 
tion of the various passages in 
Tacitus where vexillarii are men- 
tioned, it will be seen that he 

1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 1 in. 


designates by this appellation any body of soldiers serving apart from 
the legion under a separate 
ensign. Smith's Diet, of 
Antiquities; Lap. Sep., No. 
646 ; C. I. L., VII., 476. 

. A much muti- 
lated Altar from CORSTO- 
PITUM, Corbridge. Pre- 
sented by Messrs. Lawson 
& Turnbull, of Corbridge. 

i(ovi) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 


N]VM LEG(IONIS) [xxn] 
/ / / / / 

" To Jupiter, the best and 
greatest, for the welfare of 
Vexillations of the Twenty- 
Second Legion, surnamed 
Primigenia." The occur- 
rence of something like 
the letters IMI in the fifth 
line suggested to Professor 
Hiibner the idea that the 
legion in question was the 
twenty-second, which took 
the epithet of primigenia. 
An inscription, mentioning 
a vexillation of this legion, 
has been found at Plump- 
ton. See Lap. Sep., No. 
804, and C. I. L., VII., 
846, for other inscriptions of the Twenty-Second Legion. 

153. A small Altar from BORCOVICUS. The inscription is very 
faint, and the reading of some parts of it very doubtful : 

3 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 




SIDl(l) VAL / / / 
/ / MILES LE- 


" To Cocidius, the genius of the garrison ; Val- 
erius a soldier of the Sixth Legion, 

the pious and faithful, has erected this altar in 
discharge of a vow." Cocidius is a local deity; 
his attributes seem to have resembled those of 
Mars. On the base of the altar are figured two 
dolphins. Lap. Sep., No. 183 ; C. I. L., VII., 

1 ft. 5 in. by 8 in. 

154. A carved Stone, probably the base of an altar, representing 
a wild bull in the woods. From HABITANCUM, Risingham. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Shanks. The bull may have some reference to Mithraic 

155. Fragments of an elongated Slab from HABITANCUM, Eising- 
ham, the gift of Mr. "Win. Shanks. Professor Hiibner first saw that the 
fragments were pieces of one stone, and with his aid they were put into 
juxtaposition. The reading here given is his. Some of the missing 
portions, included within brackets, are supplied from contemporary 
documents : " To the Emperor Caesar, of the deified Septimius 
Severus (styled) Pius, Arabicus, Adiabenicus, Parthicus - maximus, 
Britannicus-maximus, son ; of the deified Marcus Antoninus (styled) 
Pius, Germanicus, Sarmaticus, grandson ; of the deified Antoninus 
Pius, great grandson ; of the deified Hadrian, great-great grandson ; 
of the deified Trajan (styled) Parthicus, and of the deified Nerva, a 
descendant ; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, happy, the Augustus, 
(styled) Parthicus - maximus, Britannicus - maximus, Germanicus- 
maximus, possessed of the tribunicial power, imperator, consul, the 

extender of the Empire, proconsul, and to Julia 

Domna, styled Augusta, the mother of our Augustus, of the camp, 

of the senate, and so of our country the First Cohort 

of the Vangiones, also the Raetians armed with the spear, and the 


Scouts erected Lap. Sep., No. 628 ; C. I. L., VII., 

No. 1002. 


i i 









i i 






i i 








i i 









1 1 










1 1 



r i 





















i i 




1 ) 




i i 
















- < 





















2 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. 

156. The figure of a Roman Soldier, from 
BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. The head and 
shoulders are knocked off. The lower part of 
the tunic consists of scales composed of horn or 
metal, sewed on to a basis of leather or quilted 
linen, and formed to imitate the scales of a fish. 

157. A mutilated Figure of Neptune, in 
bas-relief, from the station of PROCOLITIA, the 
modern Carrawburgh. Presented by SirWalter C. 
Trevelyan, Bart. The 
Romans were not a 
maritime people, and 

we find but few traces of their 

chief marine deity in the North 

of England. The Batavi, who 

garrisoned the Station where 

this figure was found, may 

have carved it in token of 

their thankfulness at being 

safely carried across the Ger- 
man Ocean. The Batavi oc- 

2 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. 

cupied that part of the country 
which lies to the south of the 
Rhine, near its confluence 
with the sea. Lap. Sep., No. 

158. From BORCOVICUS, 
Housesteads. Three Female 
Figures, partially clothed, and 
standing. The Deae Matres, 
like these, are usually repre- 
sented in triplets ; but they 
2 ft. s in. by -jft. 10 in. appear seated. These are pro- 

bably an inferior class of beings called Matronae, to whom the word 


deae is not given. (See Proceedings Soc. Ant., April 15th, i860.) 
Lap. Sep., No. 234. 

159. The lower part of a Statue of Hercules, from BORCOVICUS, 
Housesteads. The figure is muscular, and holds a club in the right 
hand. Traces of the lion's skin are seen hanging down on the left 

160. The fragment 
of a Sculptured Lion, 
probably one of those 
represented by Horsley, 
N., CIV. A lion over- 
powering a man, or some 
animal, is a common 
Mithraic emblem repre- 
sentative of the extreme 
force of the rays of the 
sun when in Leo. It is 
bridge. A similar figure 
is built into the stable wall of the Parsonage at Corbridse. 

1 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. 

161. A small Altar, bearing traces of an inscription; but any 
attempt to read it must be in a high degree conjectural. The 
following may be some of the letters which appear upon it : 


NEM / / / 




162. A small Altar, 11 inches high. It has never had an in- 
scription. Uninscribed altars would probably be kept in stock by 
the dealers of such articles, ready to receive any inscription which a 
purchaser might wish. 

163. A rude and diminutive Altar. If it has ever had an inscrip- 
tion, it is now quite illegible. 


164. An uninscribed square-built Altar, 14 inches high. It bears 
upon its face an ansated tablet. 

8 in. by 7 in. 

165. The lower portion of a small Altar. It is not known where 
it was found. The second line of the inscription is 
indistinct : 


vs sv 

S L M 

"To the ancient (gods) in discharge of 

a vow." Lap. Sep., No. 279. 

166. A fragment of a small uninscribed Altar, 
having a zig-zag ornament on its base. 

167. A small and much damaged Female 
Figure. Jt has probably been intended for 

168. Fragment of a Figure found at BRE- 
MENIUM, High Rochester. Lap. Sep., No. 586. 

169. The lower part of the figure of a 
Roman Soldier. He is clad in a tunic, and stands 

170. Part of an Inscribed Stone, having 
on the right a banner upheld by the arm of a 
soldier. From BORCOVICUS. 

170. Three small fragments of Inscribed 
Stones, which, as they are, yield us no infor- 

1 ft. 3 in. by 8i in. 

1 ft. 5i in. by 1 ft. 1 in. 

171. The upper part of a Slab, apparently monumental. On it 
is a carving of a crescent-like object, forming a canopy to something 
like a human head beneath it. 


172. The upper portion of a 
Human Figure, set in a niche. From 
BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. It is pro- 
bably part of a funereal monument, 
giving a representation of the de- 

173. The upper part of the figure 
of a Koman Soldier in low relief, and 2 ft. 2 in. by i ft. 10 in. 

much weathered. He rests upon 
his spear, and has his sword at his 
right side. It somewhat resembles 
a more per- 
fect figure 
given in 

2 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. 

from BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 


V S L M 

174. From BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 


" To the god Mars, Quintus Florius Maternus, 

Prefect of the First Cohort of Tungrians, 

(dedicates this altar) in discharge of a vow 

willingly and deservedly made." But for the 

assistance of Horsley, who saw the altar when 

it was in a less weathered state than at present, 

the inscription would be nearly illegible. The 

focus is unusually capacious, being 10 inches in diameter. The globe 

on the base of the altar will be noticed ; the equinoctial and solsticial 

lines are shown upon it. Lap. Sep., No. 180 ; C. I. L., VII., 651. 

4 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. 


175, 176, 177, 178, 
chairs. Figures are 
here given of three 
of them. Each fig- 
ure forms a separate 
statue, though they 
have, no doubt, been 
arranged in groups 
of three. FromBoR- 
covicus, House- 
steads. Three of 
these, Horsley tells 
us, were found near 
the side of a brook 
(probably the Knag- 
burn) on the east of 
the Station. There 

and 179, consist of 

Female Figures seated in 
can be little doubt 
that these figures 
were intended to re- 
present Deae Matres 
deities extensively 
worshipped in the 
northern provinces 
of theRoman empire. 
It was not usual to 
give them personal 
names : they were just 
the " good mothers." 
The deities are for 
the most part re- 
presented as triple, 
seated, and having 

3 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. 

baskets of 

fruit on their 

laps. The 

heads and 

hands of all 

the figures 

before us 

have been 

knocked off. 

All the fig- 
ures are 

clothed in an 

under gar- 
ment, which 

falls in plai ts 3 ft . by i ft. e m. 

to the feet; 

and an over robe, which, in most of them, 
after being gathered into a drooping fold upon the lap, falls about 
half way down the legs. A band encircles the body of some of them, 
a little below the swell of the bosom. The peculiar arrangement of 

3 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. 


the drapery in the third figure, which is characteristic of the Imperial 
period, led Horsley's correspondent, Mr. Ward, to suppose that the 
deity was tied to her chair to prevent her departure. There can be 
no doubt that such a practice was occasionally resorted to to prevent 
the gods, in a time of calamity, deserting a city. Lap. Sep., No. 
231, &c. 

180. This Group of 
Objects is from BORCO- 
vicus,Housesteads. The 
upper slab has appar- 
ently been used as a 
drain in one of the nar- 
row streets of this mili- 
tary city. Two of the 
pedestals are pilae, which 

3/t. 9 in. by 2 ft.'.6 in. 

have been used in supporting the floor of a 
hypocaust. The third is a pilaster that has 
been used in a building of some pretensions. 

181. An Altar to the Sun, under the 
character of Apollo. From VINDOBALA, Rut- 
chester, where it was found, together with 
three others of Mithraic character. Presented 
by Thomas James, Esq., Otterburn Castle. 



/ / / 

"To the Sun, Apollo the unconquered." 
Lap. Sep., No. 64. 




3 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. 

182. Part of a Funereal Tablet from CONDERCUM, Ben well. 

AVRE / (?) 


2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. by 1 ft. 

Horsley thought he saw in the last line a refer- 
ence to the first Ala of Asturians, who were in 
garrison here. Major Mowat suggests the 



RCELL(A)E / / / 

to complete the reading. Lap. Sep., No. 30. 

183. Part of a Funereal Slab, probably 
from CONDERCUM, Benwell. 


DEC / / / 

DIEB[VS] / / / 



" To the Divine Shades. Dec .... who lived . . . 

days, and Blaesus who lived ten years, and " 

The stone seems to record the death of two persons, 
both of whom died early, one of them having breathed 
the air of CONDERCUM only for a few days. Lap. 
Sep., No. 31. 

184. This Monumental Stone was first noticed by Dr. Hunter, 
who published an account of it in the Philosophical Transactions. It 
was then lying against a hedge about a quarter of a mile from 
BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. Horsley saw it in this position ; but he 
declares there was not one letter visible upon it. It is nothing sur- 
prising, therefore, if no satisfactory reading can be given of it. The 
following letters are the result of a comparison of our own reading 
of it with that of Dr. Hiibner, who personally inspected the stone : 


/ / / s / / / 





It is not possible to translate this. The last two lines, however, state 


that the monument has been reared by " the heir Delfinus, the son 

3 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. 

of Rautio from Upper (ieniiauy'' EX G(ERMANIA) S(VPERIORE). 
Lap. Sep., No. 197; C. I. L., VII., 698. 

185. A Funereal Stone from Corbridge. 






" Julia Materna, nine years of age. Julius Marcellinus reared this 
to his very dear daughter." Lap. Sep., No. 640. 

2 ft. by 1 ft. 11 in. 

186. Part of a Monumental Stone, 


" Julius Victor, the standard bearer, lived 
fifty-five years." From HABITANCUM, 
2ft. im.b y ?ft*Tta. Ptisingham. Presented by Mr. Shanks. 

Lap. Sep., No. 622. 

187. A broken and defaced Altar, from, it is believed, BORCO- 
Vicus, Housesteads. The greater part of the face of the capital on 
which the name of the deity to whom it was dedicated was inscribed, 


has scaled off. It may have been de- 
dicated to Mars, or to the Deae Matres, 
by some one whose name was Marcus 
Senec[io]nius ; but all is uncertain. 
Lap. Sep., No. 186. 

188. A Tombstone from BORCO- 
vicus, Housesteads. It is dedicated 
to the Divine Manes on behalf of 
Anicius Ingenuus, physician in ordi- 
nary to the First Cohort of the Tun- 
grians, who lived twenty-five years. 

5 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 



VIX(IT) AN(NIS) xxv 

The figure on the upper part of 
the slab appears to be a hare, the 
meaning of which it is difficult 
to ascertain. A rabbit was the 

badge of Spain. Lap. Sep., No. 196. 


.189. A rudely formed Stone Mortar. 

100. An upright Stone, with a slight sculpturing on its face. 

191. A Centurial Stone from 
SEGEDUNUM, Wallsend. The letter- 
ing is obscure, and cannot be read 
with certainty. 

COH(ORTIS) / / / 


" The century of Sentius Priscus of 

the Cohort (built this). 

Lap. Sep., No. 6. 

192. Found at Pierse Bridge. 

2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 

In its fragmentary state we learn nothing from this Stone. Lap. 
Sep., No. 726. 

193. The Capital of a Column of the composite order, from 
BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 

194. Part of a large but severely fractured Slab, from 
Great Chesters. Presented by Captain Coulson. The portion of the 
inscription remaining appears to be as follows . 




This stone has probably been placed in a building dedicated to Marcus 


Aurelius and his young colleague Lucius Verus, both of whom took 
the epithets of Parthicus and Medicus. The building had probably 

1 ft, 9 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. 

been reared, or reconstructed, by some one holding a command in 

the First Cohort of Raetians. We have a trace of the Raetians in a 

slab found at Risingham 

(see No. 155), on an altar 

built into Jedburgh Abbey, . ^ 

and on one found in Man- mv [ f /\ 

Chester. C. I. L., TIL, 


195. Part of a Fune- jFjQ 
real Slab, which is sup- 
posed to have come from ^ 
HABITANCUM, Risingham. 
It seems to have contained 
the names of two persons, 

one of whom lived seven 


years (?), the other thirty. : ft 5 ; 

The names of the individuals have perished. 


196. Part of the shoulder of a large mailed Statue, from Blake- 
chesters, North Shields. Presented by George Rippon, Esq. 

197. Another fragment 
of a Monumental Stone, be- 
lieved to have come from 
HABITANCUM, Risinghani. It 
seems to have been erected to 
the memory of a person named 
Heres, who lived thirty years. 

AN(N)OS xxx 

Lap. Sep., No. 625. 

1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. 

198. A fragment of a Sculptured Stone. On one part of it is 
seen a bird picking at a piece of foliage. 

199. Probably from BORCOVICUS, House- 
steads. The Altar appears never to have been 
finished ; for the focus, though roughly formed, 
has not been hollowed out. On the face of the 
capital is inscribed the word DEO. The deity 
here referred to is probably Mithras. Lap. 
Sep., No. 185. 

200. A Funereal Monument from the 
grave-yard of ^EsiCA, Great Chesters, nearly a 
mile south of the station. The inscription has 
been variously given. On rudely carved stones 
it is often difficult to distinguish letters from 
chance strokes : 


Major Mowat reads the word after D.M., SALVIAE 
" To the Divine Shades of Salvia, the daughter 
of Pervica." On the line of the Roman Wall 
many cases occur of the dead having been buried without being 


4 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. 


subjected to the process of crema- 
tion. Judging from the excellent 
preservation in which many of the 
funereal inscriptions are, the occa- 
sional rudeness of the sculptures, and 
from the circumstance that the backs 
of the stones are often entirely un- 
dressed, it would seem as if the 
tombstones (with their faces down- 
wards) had been used to cover the 
cist in which the body was placed, 
and that a heap of earth, or stones, 
was then thrown over the whole. In 
the slab the rudiments of the "chev- 
ron," and the " cable-pattern" of the 

4 ft. 7 iu. by 3 ft. 

5 ft. by 2 ft. 2 in. 

Norman style of ornament, will be 
observed. Lap. Sep., Xo. 281. 

201. In the Guard-room of the 
Black Gate. An elegantly-shaped Altar. 
It has had an inscription, which is 
now illegible. On one side is a soldier 
holding a "bow, on the other is a figure 
dragging something resembling an 
amphora. This altar formerly formed 
the base of the market cross at Cor- 
bridge, the ancient CORSTOPITUM. The 



focus of it luis been enlarged into a square hole to admit the shaft. 
Lap. Sep., No. 639. 

202. In the Guard-room. An uninscribed Altar from Boncovi- 
cus, Housesteads. On one side of it is carved a patera, surrounded 

by a wreath. The patera was a dish that was used in putting the 
offering on the altar. Lap. /S'ep., No. 174. 

203. A Roman Centurial Stone, 
found on the Roman Wall as it passes 
over Walltown Crags, near their west- 
ern extremity. Presented by the 
Greenhead Quarry Company, through 
Dr. Barkus. 



" The century of Julius Valerianus of 
the Fifth Cohort." It is a little un- 
certain whether the contraction VALE is intended for Valens, Valen- 
tin us, or Valerianus. 

l.ft. IMin.'sby 8J in. 


2<)4. A fragment of a Funereal Stone from HABITANCUM, Rising- 
ham. Presented by Robert Blair, one of the Secretaries of the Society. 
The inscription is evidently a peculiar one ; and as so large a portion 
of it is wanting, the correct reading of it is necessarily a task of great 
difficulty. Professor Hlibner suggests the following expansion : 

/ / / DVL 


The meaning seems to be, that 
whereas some one, whose name 
has been broken off, intended to 
erect a monument " to his very - 
dear parents, but who being 
hindered by weakness in the 
ordinary course of nature, ;i 
grandson being substituted for 
a son (did the work)." Here 
SVBSTITVS is written for SVB- 


not unfrequently put for RESTI- 

TVTVS. Mr. Watkin has some 

remarks on this stone in the i ft. 4 m. by i ft. 2 in. 

Archaeological Journal, Vol. XXXV., p. 65. 

205. On a shelf at the south end of the room are placed a 
number of heads which have probably been knocked off their respec- 
tive statues when the Roman forces withdrew from the Wall : 

a. A Male Head, bearded; the locality not known. 

b. The Head of a Female figure, probably a Dea 
Mater, found at AMBOGLANNA, Birdoswald. The head 
was found about thirty years before the body, and was 
brought away by the farmer who then occupied the 
farm. The body is still at Birdoswald. Lnp. Sep., 
Xo. 418. 


c. The Head of a Male figure ; the hair short and 

d. The Head of a Female figure, 
from BORCOVICUS, Housesteads ; pro- 
bably belonging to one of the Deae 
Matres already described. 

e. A rude Head of Hercules, 
from BORCOVICUS, Housesteads. 

/. A rude Head of Pan. 

g. The Head of a Female, 
with the hair turned back ; pro- 
bably belonging to another of the 
Deae Matres from BORCOVICUS, Housesteads, where 
this was obtained. 

206. Shelf at the north end of the room, on 
which are placed some miscellaneous objects : 

a, b, c, d. Flue tiles, or fragments of them. These 
were used in carrying the hot air up the sides of rooms from the 
hypocaust beneath. 

e. A Draining Pipe. 

/. The Neck of an Amphora. 

y, h, i. Semi-circular Roofing Tiles. These were used for covering 
the flanges of the flat roofing tiles. 

k, I. Two Fir-cone Ornaments. These are usually found in Bornan 
burying grounds. They are supposed to be 
emblematic of animal life a life beyond the 

m. A small Stone Mortar, or Crucible, 
with a spout. 


n. An Amphora Handle from Binchester, inscribed VR $ Fi. 


207. A cast, in Portland cement, of a Slab found in 1865 on the 
Antonine Wall (North Britain), near Castlehill. It was bought from 
a dealer in Glasgow by Professor McChesney, at that time American 
Consul in Newcastle, before the Antiquaries of Scotland were aware of 
its existence, and by him sent to Chicago, U.S., where it perished in 
the great fire which took place shortly after its arrival. This copy of 
it, happily, was made by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle 
before the slab left Newcastle : 





" (In honour of) the Emperor, Caesar, Titus Aelius Hadrianus Anto- 
ninus, Augustus, Pius, the Father of his country ; a Vexillation of 
the Twentieth Legion, (styled) the Valerian and Victorious, reared 
three miles (of this Wall)." On each side of the inscription is a 
winged genius, having in its hand a bunch of grapes ; and below it is 
a boar, the badge of the Twentieth Legion ; and a tree, the represen- 
tative, probably, of a forest. C. I, L., VII., 1133. 

208. A cast, in plaster of Paris, of a Roman Inscription built into 
a staircase in Jedburgh Abbey. Presented by the Marquis of Lothian. 
This has evidently been a Roman altar, which has been cut down by 


the masons of the Abbey, and fitted for use as a common building 
stone. The inscription may be read : 

i(ovi) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) VE[XI]- 





" To Jupiter, the best 
and greatest, the vex- 
illatiou of Raetian 
spearmen, under the 
command of Julius 
Severinus the tribune 
(reared this altar)." 
The Gaesati were 
a body of soldiers 
armed with a pecu- 
liar spear named , ae- 
This body of 

1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 1J in. 

men are named in the slab No. 155 in this Museum. The name 
Julius Severinus has already occurred in an altar to Fortuna Redux, 
found at HABITANCUM, No. 103 in this Catalogue. 

Some general observations may not be out of place in reviewing 
the collection of antiquities described in this Catalogue. 

1. The number of the sculptured and inscribed stones of the 
Roman era contained in this collection will strike most observers ; 
and besides this collection, there are several others in the North of 
England of considerable extent, particularly those at Chesters, Carlisle, 
Netherby, and Maryport. The number of these lettered memorials of 
the great Empire is the more remarkable when we consider that, on 
the departure of the Romans, the barbarous tribes who took possession 
of the settlements of this great people on their departure made havoc 
of the monuments of their artistic skill, and that the work of destruc- 
tion which was then commenced, through the ignorance and supersti- 
tion of the people, has been continued almost to the present day. 


In the midland and southern counties of England comparatively lew 
Roman inscriptions are met with. The reason of this probably is, 
that though these districts were under Roman rule, the people were 
contented with their position, and did not require the presence of 
Roman armies to keep them in subjection. Their towns and cities 
were governed by native officers, and they would consequently be but 
rarely visited by men having the culture of the superior citizens of 
Rome. The troops that for three centuries had their quarters in the 
North of England were commanded by officers from Rome, bringing 
with them the knowledge and refinement of the Eternal City. To 
this source, probably, is to be ascribed the comparative abundance of 
lettered memorials in the North of England. 

2. It is well that these memorials are so numerous ; for, in con- 
sequence of the scantiness of the notices which, after the days of 
Tacitus, the Roman historians have left us of Britain, it is to them 
that we are chiefly indebted for the history of our country for more 
than three centuries. 

It is interesting, whilst looking upon the inscriptions in our 
museums, to notice that the letters used by the Romans those im- 
portant mediums of the communication of thought are precisely 
those which we, and all the English-speaking people throughout the 
world, employ at present, and that there are signs that ere long they 
will be generally adopted by all civilized nations, even by the Arabs, 
the Chinese, and the inhabitants of Japan ; indeed, they are already 
being partially used by these people. 

3. The Romans were the means of conferring many blessings 
upon us. They brought the conflicting tribes of the greater part of 
Britain into unity, they taught us the art of government, they made 
us acquainted with letters, and there cannot be a doubt that they 
brought with them the blessings of Christianity. As there were 
Christians in Nero's household (Phil. iv. 22), there would be many 
disciples of the persecuted Nazarene in Hadrian's army. " "We are 
but of yesterday," says Tertullian, " and have filled all places belong- 
ing to you ; your cities, islands, castles, towns, councils ; your very 
camps, wards, companies, the palace, senate, and forum we have left 
you only your temples" 

4. The amount of religious feeling among the Romans is inipres- 


sively brought before us in the altars they have left behind them. 
However corrupt and impure the religion of the majority was, they 
carried it with them wherever they went, and boldly professed it. 
The four letters at the conclusion of the dedication of their altars, 
V s L M, convey a lesson to Christians. If, as heathens, they pre- 
sented their offerings willingly to the gods whom they worshipped, 
and whom they counted worthy of all honour, how much more 
willingly should we serve our God and Redeemer ? 

5. The nature of their religion is set impressively before us. 
They had " gods many and lords many." Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, 
Neptune, Minerva, Mithras, Apollo, Mercury, and others, are invoked ; 
the Caesars themselves are worshipped ; as well as Victory and Fortune, 
and the Ancient gods, and the Unnamed or " Unknown" gods, to 
whom the dedicators were referred by the oracle of Apollo, the nymphs 
of the Springs, the gods of the Mountains, and the deities of the 
Shades below. "We see also the tendency of polytheism to multiply 
itself. Besides the gods of the Roman mythology, we find many altars 
dedicated to deities of a local origin, such as Cocidius, Belatucader, 
Mogon, Coventina, and others. The soldiers of the various garrisons 
would necessarily contract alliances with the daughters of the soil, and 
would thus be induced to pay regard to the deities whom their loved 
ones held dear. The altars to these local deities are, for the most 
part, of late date. 

6. At first sight we may be surprised that, amongst the lettered 
remains of the Roman age, there are no stony records of the faith of 
Christianity. Some reasons may, perhaps, be assigned for this ; but 
this is not the place for entering upon the discussion. Let us hope 
that the Christians of that early day, by their life and conversation, if 
not by records in stone, gave evidence of the reality of their faith. 
If so, they would be epistles "known and read of all men" (2 Cor. 
iii. 2). 

7. But there are some negative proofs of the influence of Christ- 
ianity in our collection. The worship of the one god. Mithras shows 
that the folly of polytheism had been found out ; and the altars dedi- 
cated to the "ancient gods" show that a system of belief different 
from that in which the mass of the people had been educated (let us 
hope that it was Christianity) was at the time prevalent. In other 


collections besides this there are examples of altars inscribed DIBVS 


In one of the guard chambers of Housesteads a part of an altar 
to Jupiter, with the letters I. o. M. carved upon it, had been used as 
a common building stone ; and in the Station of CAERLEON an altar 
to the goddess Fortuna had been converted in Roman times into a 
common gutter-stone. These facts seem to lead to the conclusion 
that a change had come over the people. 

8. There is one important lesson which Englishmen may learn 
from these monuments. So large an amount of blessing has been 
allowed to rest upon us as a nation for centuries past, that we are 
disposed to reckon that the present state of things is to be perpetual. 
"When we visit foreign nations, our national pride is apt to assert itself. 
We think that we are to be always the rulers of the world. When we 
look at our lettered stones we find a different state of things from the 
present : we find that, in addition to native Romans, Gauls, Spaniards, 
Batavians, Tungrians, Dacians, and other auxiliary troops were settled 
in our land to hold us in subjection. At the time when the figures 
of Victory which our Museum contains were carved, Rome had its 
heel upon the neck of Britain. What has been may yet be. It 
becomes us, therefore, to be humble, and to take heed to our ways, 
lest we be again visited with a season of rebuke and calamity. 



AESICA (see Great Chesters). 
AMBOGLANNA (see Birdoswald). 
Heltingham, No. 117. 
Benwell, Nos. 14, 15. 18, 23, 24, 32, 39, 

77, 136, 144, 182, 183. 
Binchester, No. 206. 
Birdoswald, Nos. 5, 96, 2056. 
BoBCOVictrs (see Housesteads). 
BEEMENITTM (see High Rochester). 
Brougham Castle, No. 132. 
Brunton, No. 137. 

Burgh-on-Sands, No. 57. 

Caervoran, Nos. 17, 33, 36, 55, 62, 68. 

69, 75, 76, 83, 110, 130, 131, 141, 145. 
Carlisle, No. 101. 
Carrawburgh, No. 157. 
Castle Hill, N.B., No. 207. 
Chapel House, No. 109. 
Chesterholm, Nos. 61, 67, 117. 
Chester-le-Street, Nos. 45, 106, 128, 133, 

142, 143, 146. 
CONDEECUM (see Benwell). 



Corbridge (Corchester), Nos. 50, 54, 85, 
147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 152a,160, 

COKSTOPITUM (see Corbridge). 

Cramlington, No. 98a. 

Great Chesters, Nos. 73, 79, 125, 126, 194, 

HABITANCTTM (see Risingham). 

Halton Chesters, Nos. 74, 137. 

Hatheridge, No. 37. 

Heaton, No. 16. 

Higb Rochester, Nos. 99, 112, 127, 168. 

Housesteads, Nos. 7, 8, 11, 19,44, 48, 66, 
70, 71, 72, 81, 84, 88, 93, 97, 97a, 98, 
104, 121, 122, 123, 124, 134, 140, 153, 
156, 158, 159, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 
176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 184, 187, 188, 
193, 199, 202, 205rf, 205e, 205^. 

HTJNNTTM (see Halton Chesters). 

Jarrow, Nos. 1, 12. 

Jedburgh Abbey, No. 208. 

Mary port, No. 89. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nos. 2, 6, 9, :10, 

13, 16, 31, 107. 
North Shields, No. 196. 
Pierse Bridge, No. 192. 
PONS AELII (see Newcastle). 
PROCOLITIA (see Carrawburgh). 
Risingham, Nos. 21, 40, 47, 63, 80, 94, 

95, 102, 103, 111, 113, 114, 118, 119, 

120, 138, 139, 154, 155, 186, 195, 197, 


Rutchester, Nos. 25, 26, 46, 51, 86. 181. 
Sewingshields, Nos. 60, 65, 78. 
Shotton (Co. Durham), No. 141. 
Stanwix, Nos. 56, 87, 100. 
VINDOBALA (see Rutchester). 
VINDOLANA (see Chesterholm). 
Wallbottle, Nos. 28, 29, 38. 
Wallsend, Nos. 4, 42, 191. 
Walltown Crags, No, 203. 
Wark-on-Tyne, No. 35. 


Nos. 3, 8, 20, 22, 27, 30, 34, 41, 43, 49, 
52, 53, 58, 59, 64, 82, 90, 91, 92, 105, 
108, 115, 116, 135, 161, 162, 163, 164, 

165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 171, 189, 190, 
198, 205a, 205c, 205/, 


Apollo, Nos. 143, 161, 181. 

Belatucader, No. 132. 

Ceres, No. 28. 

Cocidius, No. 153. 

Deae Matres, Nos. 2, 77, 158, 175, 176, 

177, 178, 179, 187, 203S, 205d, 2Q5ff. 
DeusVeteris, Nos. 116, 125, 141, 142, 

145, 165. 

Fortune, Nos. 10, 55, 102, 103. 113. 
Hercules, Nos. 86, 122, 159, 205e. 

Jupiter, Nos. 5, 21, 32, 44, 48, 89. 124, 

152<z, 208. 

Mars, Nos. 27, 63, 68, 174, 187. 
Mercury, Nos. 9, 50. 
Mithras, Nos. 4. 6, 70, 71, 72. 121, 140, 


Neptune, Nos. 13, 157. 
Pan, Nos. 33, 205/. 
Silvanus, Nos. 57, 107. 
Sun, Nos. 134, 181. 
Victory, Nos. 56, 85, 93, 100, 126. 




Legio II. Nos. 32, 78, 137, 143, 149, 


VI. Nos. 13, 147, 148, 152. 
XX. Nos. 15, 69, 109, 207- 
XXII. No. 152a. 
Cohors I. Nos. 37, 42. 
III. No. 149. 

V. Nos. 60, 65, 203. 
VII. No. 20. 
VIII. Nos. 39, 67. 
I. Aelia Dacorum, No. 96. 

Cohors 1. Batavorum, No. 36. 
I. Hamiorum, Nos. 75, 130. 

I. Raetoruin, Nos. 155 , 194, 208. 

I. Thracum, No. 31. 
I. Tungrorum, Nos. 44, 122, 

123, 124, 174, 188. 
I. Vangionum, Nos. 138, 155. 

I. Varduloruin, No. 99. 
,, II. Asturum, No. 79. 
Ala I. Hispanorum Asturutn, No. 77. 


Nos. 6. 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 34, 37, 38, 42, 60, 62, 64, 65, 
67, 82, 106, 110, 191. 


Nos. 30 and 98o (T PEIMVS) are from Cramlington, and were presented by Mr. 
Lavvson de Cardonnel. (See 1st Report [1813], p. 43.) 

No. 33. The laureated head of Pan, of larger size than usual, thus numbered, is 
not from Caervoran, but from Blake Chesters. It was presented by Mr. 
George Rippon. 

No. 34. A Centurial Stone from the Walltown Crags, inscribed CHO in | LK 
xxv (?). Presented by the Greenhead Quarry Company. 

No. 82. Mr. W. T. Watkin thinks this is from Caervoran. 

No. 205/ 1 . The rude head of Pan thus numbered, is from Caervoran. 

See page 102. 
(From a drawing by Mrs. Hodgkiu.) 



[Read on the 30fch September, 1885.] 

I PROPOSE to lay before our Society to-night some notes of a recent 
visit of mine, or, to speak more accurately, of two recent visits to the 
Roman Camps in Dumfriesshire, which are generally identified with 
the BLATUM BULGIUM of the Itinerary of Antoninus. 

These camps are interesting in themselves as relics of the Roman 
occupation of Britain. They have an interest for rne, because, for 
reasons which I shall state at the end of this paper, I believe them to 
be connected with an important event in the history of our Saxon 
forefathers, and, lastly, they are in a neighbourhood which is interest- 
ing to all of us as being connected with the birth and burial of the 
great writer whom we have lately lost Thomas Carlyle. 

A traveller coming from Glasgow southwards by the Caledonian 
Railway, if he looks eastwards soon after passing the station of 
Lockerbie, will see a long, flat hill, with most peculiar and unmistak- 
able outline. That hill bears the name of Birrenswark or Burnswark, 
and it is covered with some Roman Camps which I shall describe in 
the latter part of this paper. Two or three miles from its foot, be- 
tween it and the River Annan, lies the camp of Birrens, which is sup- 
posed to be specially denoted by the name BLATUM BULGIUM. Close 
to us we are in fact already slackening speed for its station, if we 
are travelling by a stopping train lies the little village of Ecclef echan. 

"We alight from the train, and about a mile's walk brings us to 
this village. It is not remarkable, either for beauty or ugliness, but 
looks trim and comfortable, and is rather prettily set off by a wooded 
hill in the back ground. The chief building is the United Presby- 
terian Kirk, built of the red Silurian stone of the neighbourhood. 
In the churchyard adjoining this building lie many Carlyles, for the 



clan Carlyle has evidently been a numerous one in the neighbourhood, 
and among them is a large, but simple tombstone, bearing the name of 
Thomas Carlyle, born at Ecclefechan, December 4th, 1795, and died 
at Chelsea, February 5th, 1881. 

In the main street, about five minutes' walk from the kirk, one 
sees the house, unpretending, but not squalid or ruinous, just the 
typical house of a respectable and thriving working man, which 
was built for himself by James Carlyle, and in which his son Thomas 
was born. Here is the window of the moderate-sized bedroom in 
which the latter first saw the light. There is the window of the little 
room which served him for a study, when he was toiling at his mathe- 
matics or his German in the intervals of his University life at 

Having thus paid our respects at the cradle and the grave of the 
greatest Scotchman of recent days, let us travel backwards into the 
first century of our era ; and, for this purpose, let us walk south-east- 
wards, along the Carlisle road (generally called the Glasgow road by 
the people of the district) towards the not distant camp of Birrens or 

We come before long to the pleasant woods which surround the 
mansion of Burnfoot, belonging to Mr. Irvine, and here we turn in, 
for there is something in the house to attract the attention of a 
Roman antiquary. In the hall, duly honoured, in a niche built 
expressly to receive it, stands an altar. "We find with much 
satisfaction that this is the same altar which is described by Hiibner 
as No. 1071 in the seventh volume of the Corpus Inscription-urn 
Latinarum. It was found by a certain Mr. Clow seventy or eighty years 
ago in ploughing up the procestrium, as Eoy calls it, of the camp at 
Birrens. On Mr. Clow selling his property, it passed into the hands 
of the Mr. Irvine of that day, the father, I think, of the present laird 
of Burnfoot. It seems to have been kept for thirty years or so in the 
garden (supporting a sun-dial, one writer says), but the present owner 
brought it indoors, and, as before said, has put it in a niche specially 
prepared for it in his wall. Dr. Hiibner, who says, " Ubi extet 
ignoro," will be glad to learn that it is not worse but better preserved 
than when he last heard of it. The inscription on the altar is thus 
expanded by him : 


" Deae Minervae cohors II Tungrorum miliaria equitata civium 
Latinorum, cui praeesfc C. Silvius Auspex* praefectus." 

The Second Cohort of Tungrians, as we are informed by the 
Notitia, was posted at the Station of PETRIANA as the First was at 
BORCOVICUS. From PETRIANA (if Castlesteads be PETRIAKA) to Birrens 
would be a distance of some eighteen or nineteen miles in a straight 
line, such line being drawn through Netherby, which is identified with 
CASTRA EXPLORATORY, the next station south of BLATUM BULGIUM 
in the Antonine Itinerary. In two altars found at Castlesteads,f the 
Cohort is described precisely as it is here, " miliaria," " equitata," 
and with the addition of C.L., which is interpreted as meaning 
" civium Latinorum." Another altar, dedicated to Mars and Victory 
by the Raetians in the same Cohort, and bearing the name of the 
same prefect, Silvius Auspex was found at Birrens, apparently soon 
after the discovery of the altar dedicated to Minerva, and is now in 
the Museum at Edinburgh.^ 

Before we leave the pleasant park of Burnfoot, it may be well to 
visit a considerable circular mound about a furlong east of the house, 
which goes by the name of Thor Law. A theory has been formed, 
so I was told by Mr. Graham, a local antiquary, that Druidic worship 
was once celebrated here, that there was a gate on the south-west side 
which was called the Gate of Fire, on the north-east the Gate of 
Justice,! and so forth. I suppose most archaeologists now button up 
the pockets of their belief when they hear the Druids talked about, 
but whatever may be the truth of this Druidical theory, this apparently 
artificial mound with its name so suggestive of the gods of Walhalla 
may, one would think, easily have once possessed a sanctity in Anglian 
or Danish eyes, even if it were no holy place of the Cymry. 

Leaving the plantations of Burnfoot, and returning to the Carlisle 
road, we proceed along it for a little more than a mile, and then turn 
up a lane to the left which leads us under the railway to the Middleby 
road. Again to the left, we turn up this road, and after, about ten 

* There is an apparent interpunctuation between AVS and PEX, but this must 
be either a mistake of the carver or a blemish in the stone. 

t 879, 882, probably also 880 in C. I. L., Vol. VII. 

% This is 1068 iu Hlibner. He says it was found about 1812 ; the Minerva in 

Now Welhicetown. j| Now called Yetts. 

104 fcLATUil BULGItM. 

minutes' walk we cross the Mein Water and are climbing up the 
embankment of Birrens Camp. 

To one who has made Roman Camps his study, the best idea of a 
new camp is given by saying which of his old friends it most resembles. 
Acting on this principle, I would say that Birrens reminds me a little 
of HABITANCUM in the relation of course, a purely accidental one 
which it bears to the railroad and carriage road in its neighbourhood, 
and also in its sheltered and comparatively comfortable situation, 
well-chosen I should imagine, to mitigate for the Tungrian soldiers 
the rigours of a winter in Annandale. The steep escarpments rising 
above the bed of the stream (or rather of the two streams) remind one 
somewhat of VIXDOLANA, and the five great ridges protecting the camp 
on its north-eastern side bear some resemblance to those of Ardoch, 
though certainly not on so colossal a scale. Taking the average 
length of the camp at 150 yards, and its width at 120 (and I believe 
these measurements will be found approximately correct), the super- 
ficial area is nearly three acres and three-quarters. This puts it rather 
low down in the list, if we compare it with the camps on the 
Northumbrian Wall. It is almost exactly the same size as Rut- 
chester ; exceeded by five camps (Birdoswald, Chesters, Benwell, 
Housesteads, and Halton Chesters) ; and exceeding three (Carraw- 
burgh, Caervoran, and Great Chesters). 

I will now refer the reader to the accompanying plan for those 
details, as to shape and measurement, which are better given by a plan 
than by a description. The Mein Water and the little stream which 
runs into it from the north have probably done something to wear 
away the southern end and south-eastern angle of the camp, and if 
General Eoy's plan be correct, the former stream now flows a little 
further from the Camp than it did a hundred years ago. 

Birrens Camp itself (as distinguished from the land immediately to 
the west of it) belongs to the Duke of Buccleuch, and has always been 
kept scrupulously inviolate by the plough. There are lines in it which 
wecannot be mistaken in considering as marking the course of streets and 
the boundaries of buildings. My impression is that few Roman Camps 
would better repay a series of excavations, such as those which were 
undertaken about thirty years ago at BEEMENIUM, by order of the late 
Duke of Northumberland. The object of such excavations should be 

Arohaeologia Aeliana, Vol. XII. 

Plate II. 

BIKKK-NS near M11)I)I.KBY in ANNAN1IAI.K , supposed to he the Bl.ATTM BULGHJH of ttw ROJM 


not primarily to search for coins, or gems, or inscribed stones, valuable 
as such relics of antiquity are when we meet with them, but to recover 
the lines of the streets, and the disposition of the various buildings 
pre-eminently to fix the position of the praetorium, and ascertain 
what rooms formed part of it; to notice which parts of the 
camp were furnished with hypocausts, and where these appliances 
were absent; to compare, at every point, the arrangements 
revealed by the spade and pickaxe with those expounded in the 
Liber de Munitionibus Castrorum of Hyginus ; and, above all, to 
endeavour so to preserve, while exploring, this long buried antiquity, 
that future generations of students may still be able to examine it 
for themselves ; and that the excavators may not deserve the too often 
merited censure of von Cohausen, " The greatest of all destroyers are 
the archaeologists." 

I have said that it is the camp only which belongs to the Duke of 
Buccleuch. As soon as we pass its western escarpment we come to 
another ownership, and meet with evidences of lamentable, though 
not recent, desolation. On this side there was, in General Roy's 
time, a kind of fortified suburb, or procestrium* which was about half 
as large as the camp, and was traversed in a diagonal direction by the 
great Eoman Way, which led northwards up Annandale. All trace of 
this road, however, and of the mounds which Roy seems to have seen 
there, is now obliterated. About the beginning of this century, the 
then owner of the place, Mr. Clow (stimulated, possibly, by the high 
price of corn in those days of Protection), caused the whole of this 
portion of the ground to be ploughed up. As far as I know, the only 
compensation which Archaeology received for this destructive work, 
was the discovery of the fine altar to Minerva, of which I have already 
spoken as preserved in the hall at Burnfoot. Mr. Clow's agricultural 
operations do not appear to have been successful. The altar, and the 
field in which it was found, and the whole of the adjoining property 
passed out of his hands into those of the predecessor of Mr. Irvine, 
and he, himself, emigrated to the United States. 

About a third of a mile distant from Birrens is the farm house 
which is marked Lawn in General Roy's map and the Ordnance Survey, 

* This is the name given to it by Robert Stuart (Caledonia Romano,, p. 123). 
Roy gives a very interesting plan of the camp, but adds very little by way of 


but which, the present occupant assures me, should really be called 
Land. This farm house was formerly the dwelling of Mr. Clow, and 
here, outside the house, is a collection of stones which were brought 
from the procestrium. They look like a kind of finial, three of 
them being conical in shape, and two pyramidal, about 18 inches 
high (to the best of my recollection) by a foot in diameter. As far as 
I could ascertain, there are no inscribed stones at this place. 

Striking across country, northwards from Land farm, one soon 
sees the striking outline of Burnswark, like a long, sharply-cut altar, 
cutting the northern horizon. It is so conspicuous, that there is no 
difficulty in making one's way to it, through hedges and ditches, and 
across an occasional ravine with a burn flowing through it. After 
about three miles' walk from Land, one finds oneself at the foot of the 
hill, and sees the great Roman Camp lying on its southern slope. 
From the measurements taken between my first and second visits by 
Mr. "Wilson, the Secretary of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society, I find that its length from north- 
east to south-west is 750 feet, and its width 375 feet, and its extent, 
therefore, is almost exactly seven acres. "It is surrounded," says 
the same observer, " by a single ditch and parapet, except at the 
northern angle where, on the north-eastern face, there is a parapet 
external as well as internal to the fosse. From crest to crest of this 
double rampart is a distance of 30 feet, and the ditch between is 
about 8 feet deep. The line of earthworks is very indistinct on the 
south-eastern and southern parts of the camp. Five gateways are 
still apparent, and it is highly probable that at least a sixth must have 
existed. On the north-eastern rampart, 160 feet from the north 
corner of the camp, is the Porta Praetoria. It is about 45 feet in 
width, and is guarded externally by a straight traverse of a similar 
extent, 36 feet beyond the lines. Opposite to this entrance is one 
which may be considered as the Porta Decumana on the south-western 
aspect of the camp. It is"of the same size as the Praetoria, and is 
similarly defended by a straight traverse." 

The most interesting features of this camp, and those which would 
at once attract the notice of the least experienced observer, are the 
Praetorium, and the external defences on the north-west. 

The Praetorium, which is situated in the northern angle of the 


camp (the camp itself lying north-west and south-east), "occupies" 
(I again quote from Mr. Wilson's description) " the space between 
the Porta Praetoria and the most northern of the turret-guarded 
doorways, and runs for 104 feet along the north-east rampart, 
coming close up to the Praetorian Gate, and for 76 feet along the 
north-west rampart. On the north-east it is guarded by the double 
parapet and ditch, already referred to as forming part of the outer 
defences of the camp. On the north-west, for half its extent, the 
single parapet and ditch of the camp alone defend it, and, for the 
other half, an inner fosse and high rampart supplement the outer line. 
The two sides of the Praetorium facing the camp are protected by a 
single fosse and parapet continuous with the inner ditch. The entrance 
to the Praetorium is an aperture of 36 feet at the north-east angle, 
close to the Porta Praetoria." 

As all of these earthworks are well preserved, about seven or eight 
feet high (I speak from recollection only), and with a steep slope on 
their outer side, the effect of this Praetorium is very striking, quite 
equal, I think, to anything of the same kind that can be shown along 
the line of the Wall of Hadrian. 

Even more striking, however, because so unlike anything that one 
sees elsewhere, are the three great mounds " redoubts " I feel disposed 
to call them which are erected along the north-western side of the 
camp, to guard it from the downward rush of the barbarians massed 
upon the hill above. Each of these redoubts (or turrets, as Mr. 
Wilson calls them) is interposed in front of one of the gateways of 
the camp. They are " placed some 40 feet external to the lines, and 
are now conical earth-heaps about 12 feet high, the centre one being 
about 162 feet in circumference. They are each surrounded externally 
by a horse-shoe shaped ditch." 

When one sees them in their relation to the camp below, one can 
hardly doubt that the object of their construction was that which I 
have just mentioned. The Roman general who planned the<camp 
(or rather, the system of camps) to which they belong, evidently 
intended to use the high solitary hill of Burnswark as a post of 
observation, overlooking the lower part of Annandale and a portion of 
the Solway Firth. He would not post his soldiers on the bleak hill top, 
but preferred to quarter them snugly in camps near its foot, especially 



on the sunny southern side. But though he certainly meant to keep 
the hill above as an outpost for Roman soldiers, he had to face the 
possibility that it might be wrested from him by a sudden attack of 
the barbarous Brigantes. In that case, it would be important to pre- 
vent them from dashing down the hill, and storming the north- 
western gates by mere weight of headlong-rushing numbers. A few 
brave men stationed in each of the three redoubts, by a well-directed 
fire of missiles, would at least arrest such a charge, and give the sol- 
diers in the camp time to close the gates, and take up strong positions 
for their defence. 

Having thoroughly surveyed this camp, I traced with some diffi- 
culty, by the help of Mr. Geo. Johnstone of Kettleholm, the faint 
traces of the Roman road running from Birrens Camp, past the foot 
of the hill in the direction of Lockerbie. This road seems to be, on 
the whole, correctly laid down in the Ordnance Survey. An old pack- 
horse road from Carlisle to Glasgow coincides with it for about a 
quarter of a mile, but on the whole keeps to the south of it. The 
country traversed by this pack-horse road is still common land, and 
one can trace its direction for some distance by the whin bushes 
growing upon it. 

Just at this corner, to the south-west of the hill, is a small camp 
of half -oval shape. When I first saw it, from its shape I supposed it 
to be British ; but General Roy, who is followed by the local anti- 
quaries, deems "it to be Roman. It is noteworthy, that from this 
south-western outpost, one can see the high hill of Criffel which 
dominates all this part of Dumfriesshire, but which cannot be seen 
from the large camp already described. Probably the Romans would 
sometimes communicate tidings of the outbreak of a barbarian incur- 
sion by lighting a beacon fire on the top of Criffel. 

We then mounted to the top of Burnswark, a steep though short 
climb, the summit of the mountain being 900 feet above the level of 
the sea. The hill is variously described as composed of trap rock, or 
of metamorphic Silurian. Mr. Johnstone gave me a specimen showing 
the great holes made by the bubbles of air in the seething mass, 
exactly like the holes in bread. All the range of lower hills, which 
run nearly east and west from Burnswark Hill, are of the same forma- 
tion. To the north and north-west of this range the hills are Silurian 

Ix'loii'i'in'i to it, suj>pol'el to I>P oocupiotl by tlin (i 1 ) 1 Legion. 


in its unmodified condition, tilted to a high angle. To the south, 
between Burnswark and the Solway Firth, the rock is Permian sand- 
stone. Evidences of glacial action are everywhere present. 

From the top of Burnswark we gain a magnificent view of Annan- 
dale, a beautiful and prosperous-looking country, with (I think) the 
hills about Moffat closing up the northern horizon. The Solway Firth 
is gleaming in the south, and Criffel towers in the south-west. 

On the summit of the hill is " an oval earthwork, with a semi- 
circular expansion projecting from its southern aspect," which 
measures about 150 feet by 100. This is sometimes described as a 
British camp, but the Ordnance Survey is probably right in marking 
it as a sepulchral tumulus. It seems to me to bear a considerable 
general resemblance to the barrows in the hills above North Tyne. 

But the most interesting object which meets our view from the 
top of the hill is the large oblong Eoman camp which lies at its foot 
on the northern side. Though presenting fewer features of interest 
than the corresponding southern camp, it is very plainly marked on 
two out of its four sides the south-east and the north-east. Its 
dimensions are 792 feet from north-east to south-west, and 268 feet 
from south-east to north-west, and it consequently contained nearly 
four acres. It is very accurately figured by General Eoy, in fact, he 
is rather more exact than the Ordnance Survey, in distinguishing 
between those lines that are obliterated and those that still exist. 

There is also a little semi-oval camp on the north-east base of the 
hill, corresponding with the similar one on the south-west Evidently 
those four camps, two large and two small, formed part of one system 
of fortification. In Roy's time (or rather, perhaps, in Gordon's, for 
Eoy does not seem to describe it from his own observation), a rampart 
ran round the hill, connecting all the four camps with one another. 
But for the disappearance of this rampart, we seem still to be able to 
discern all that was visible in the early part of last century. 

The question now presents itself. What was the name by which 
this extensive series of defensive works were known to the Romans ? 
The answer given by Dr. Gale and John Horsley has been accepted 
for a century and a half by antiquaries, and there seems no reason for 
doubting its correctness. According to these scholars, the camp 
" near Middleby," that is, the Camp of Birrens, is the same as the 


BLATUM BULGIUM, which forms the starting point of the second Iter 
in the Antonine Itinerary of Britain. This Iter which goes " A vallo 
ad Porfcum Ritupis," i.e., from the Wall to Richborough, a distance of 
481 Roman miles, begins thus : 

A Blato Bulgio [ad] Castra Exploratoruni M. P XII 
Luguvallio XII 

Voreda XIII 

The first four stations are now generally identified as follows : 

BLATUM BULGIUM Birrens, near Middleby. 


LUGUVALLIUM = Carlisle. 

VOREDA = Old Penrith or Plumpton Wall. 

There is an obvious difficulty in the fact that the Iter, which is said 
to begin "A Vallo" is thus made to begin twenty-four miles north of 
the Wall of Hadrian, yet not far enough north to start from the 
Wall of Antoninus ; but having respect to the undoubted identifica- 
tion of LUGUVALLIUM with Carlisle (an identification which rests on 
the authority of Bede and Simeon of Durham), it is universally 
admitted that " A Vallo " can only be taken in a general sense. And 
in truth, in the description of a road which traverses 481 Roman miles 
from Dumfriesshire to Kent, the twenty-four miles of its course north 
of the actual Vallum might very fairly be disregarded. 

Horsley (p. 115) thinks that both Middleby and Netherby had 
been already abandoned at the time when our portion of the Notitia 
was prepared, and that is the reason why neither BLATUM BULGIUM 
nor CASTRA EXPLORATORUM is mentioned in that document. He is 
also of opinion that Burnswark Camp may have been the Castra 
, Aestiva for the garrison then. 

Gale (in his Antoninilter, page 34) suggests that "A Blato Bulgio" 
should be read "Ab Lato Bulgio," and translated "from the broad 
estuary," meaning the Solway Firth.* My ignorance of Celtic pre- 
vents me from forming any opinion as to the probability of this deri- 
vation; but, looking at the remarkable outline of the broad hill, 
which goes by the name of Birrenswark, I cannot help thinking that 

* Jamq. etiam Britannorum Lingua Bwlch est Incile, vel quidvis fractum. 


this may have somehow given its name to the camp, and that "Ab 
Lato " rather than "A Blato " may prove to be the true reading. 

How the camp below came by its present name of Birrens, I fear it 
is hopeless to inquire. It has seemed to me just possible that the name 
of the Brigantes, which appears in some of the inscriptions found in 
the neighbourhood, might have been corrupted through Bruns into 
Birrens, but this suggestion does not find favour with those to whom 
I have mentioned it. 

Though I have wished to deal in this paper only with the Roman 
interest of BLATUM BULGIUM, I may just record my own convic- 
tion that we have here the site of the great battle of Brunanburh, in 
which Athelstane, in the year 937, defeated the confederate armies of 
the Scots, the Strath-clyde men, the Danes from Dublin, and the 
Angles of Bernicia. 

My strongest point in favour of this identification is that the 
scene of the battle is placed by Geoffrey Gaimar (a somewhat late 
chronicler it is true,* but who may have preserved a genuine form of 
the name) at Bruneswerce. The transition from this form to Burns- 
wark is obvious and easy. The Welsh authorities name the battle- 
field Brune, which again might pass easily into Birrens. 

It is true that Florence of Worcester, and William of Malmesbury, 
appear to place the battle in the East Riding of Yorkshire, but the 
Saxon Chronicle and Aethelweard, our two most nearly contemporary 
authorities, say nothing about this ; and I think it may be safely as- 
serted that there is not one of the details of the battle given in the 
Chronicle, which does not fit far better with a conflict near the waters 
of the Solway Firth than with one in the East of Yorkshire. The 
Chronicle says that the fight raged "ymbe Brunanburh," around 
Brunanburh. Aethelweard says that it was " in loco Brunan^me," 
and my belief is strong that the high hill or " dune " of Burnswark, 
overlooking the Roman Road and the two Roman Camps, was the well- 
known eminence round which raged " the roar of battle " on that 
eventful day which made the King of Wessex the undoubted mightiest 
one in Britain. 

* Geoffrey Gaimar composed his Estorie either in Yorkshire or Lincolnshire 
about the middle of the twelfth century. The basis of his work is the Saxon 




[Read on the 31st March, 1886.] 

THE Bigg Market of Newcastle attests its antiquity by its name. The 
commodity of which it was once the mart has long since ceased to be 
sold within its borders. I had come to the conclusion, indeed, in my 
lack of knowledge, that it was, so to speak, obsolete in the land, until, 
midway in this nineteenth century, it happened to me to see in the 
Island of lona a standing crop of peculiar aspect, and, inquiring its 
name, was answered " Bigg ; " " bear or bigg," says Sir Walter Scott, 
" a coarse kind of barley, usually sown with oats on alternate ridges." 

Memorable was the year in which a soldier was shot in our Bigg 
Market for mutiny. It gave birth to the Short Parliament that came 
and went with the spring, and saw the opening of the Long Parlia- 
ment that endured from year to year, and lives for ever. In its month 
of May was written, in the church books of St. Andrew's, the burial 
record since copied with reiteration by our local annalists. In the 
autumn was fought the brief battle of Newburn that gave protracted 
occupation of Newcastle to the victorious Scots. Notable texts, 
threatening long discourse, but preliminary only to a few pages of 
trespass on the Transactions of the Society. 

Let us first turn to the quaint tale told in the parish register when 
the soldier had been shot ; of which, some few years ago, a careful 
copy was made for me through the courtesy of the Rev. W. B. East, 
now Vicar of Matfen : " 2 sogers, for denying the Kinge's pay, were 
by a kownsell of war apoyted to be shot at, and a pare of galos set up 
befor Tho. Malabers dore in the byg market. Thay kust lotes wich 
should dy, and the lotes did fall of one Mr. Anthone Wiccers, and he 
was set against a wall, and shot at by 6 lyght horsmen, and was bured 
in owre church yard the sam day. May, 16 day." 


The parochial narrative is not without its difficulties ; it has its 
obscurities and perplexities ; but the fabled horn gives forth its fulness 
in time, and the locked-up story becomes vocal in our ears. Centuries 
after the year of Newburn comes the Calendar of State Papers {Domes- 
tic), scattered among whoss leaves of 1640 are passages which make 
the dry bones live. Little thought the church historian of the month 
of May, while making his artless record, that Viscount Conway, 
then in chief command on the Tyne, was preparing dispatches, 
whose contents, condensed in a distant day into the SI. Andrew's 
Church Worker, should make the parishioners so much better informed 
than their forefathers as to the mutiny of the year of Newburn. It 
was in the interval between the two Parliaments of 1640 that the 
death of Viccars was registered. Sir Fulke Huncks had arrived in 
Newcastle on the 29th of April, with his troop of seventy horse ; and 
it was within its ranks, in the ensuing month, that the mutiny 
occurred giving rise to the execution. It had been intended that the 
sentence of death should be carried into effect by the gallows, and, as 
the register shows, preparations were made accordingly. The inten- 
tion, however, proved abortive ; and the explanation of the difficulty 
appeai-s in one of the letters written from Newcastle, on Wednesday 
in the week subsequent to the burial, by Lord Conway, General of the 
Horse and Deputy-General of the Army, who commanded the English 
forces at Newburn in the month of August thereafter. 

Making report of the mutiny to Archbishop Laud, his lordship 
writes : "We had a mutiny here last week upon the pay-day for the 
twopence which is taken for arms. The spokesman on the occasion 
was apprehended. The next day, when I sent for the prisoner, twenty 
or more soldiers of the troop came very mutinously to my door. I 
took one of them, and condemned both to be hanged ; but believing 
that the death of one would terrify the rest sufficiently, I caused them 
to cast dice, and one of them was shot dead by five of his fellows, be- 
cause I could not get one to hang him. The soldiers and townsmen 
thought the one that I would not put him to death, the other that 
I durst not. I hear (adds his lordship) that there has been a mutiny 
at London. If there should be occasion to use the horse that way, I 
think it would not be amiss to show them favour in not taking the 
twopence for arms, because that it is dear travelling, and it would not 
be fit to grieve the country," 


To Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, Lord High Admiral of 
England and Lord General of the Army, Conway sends a similar 
account of the mutiny, and suggests that it might be well for him 
" to consider how that the horseman pays for all that he has, and dear 
enough. They are made to pay 20d. the pound for powder, which, if 
they must pay for at all, ought to be sold at the usual rate ; and their 
arms are so very bad that many soldiers have had to pay 8s. or 10s. 
for mending them, but they can never be made good. Whosoever 
thinks that he does the King good service in putting off ill arms to 
them, shall be deceived if the King please to take notice of his losses." 

In like manner, after reporting the mutiny to Secretary Sir Henry 
Vane, Treasurer of the Household, Conway closes his communication 
with a statement of the defects of the arms supplied to the troopers. 
Hardly any of the pistols sound : divers of the barrels without touch- 
holes. Prices of gunpowder and provisions excessive. 

To Secretary Sir Francis Windebank his lordship had the like tale 
to tell ; and on the 8th June he is writing to "Wentworth, Earl of Straf- 
ford, Lieutenant-General of the Army in the North. " There are," 
says Conway, " two things which ought to be taken into considera- 
tion, the price of pistol-powder, and the extreme naughtiness [bad- 
ness] of the pistols and carbines. They are patched up, and now that 
they come to trial they prove unserviceable, and it is not possible to 
mend them. Should the soldiers buy two case of pistols ? 1 have 
written of it, but can get no answer. I verily believe that there be 
some that would be glad if the troops did mutiny ; which they will do, 
if there be no consideration had of what they pay." 

Thus did his lordship keep writing- from Newcastle to men in 
office and authority. June and July wore away. English doubts as to 
a Scotch invasion lingered into August, despite Conway's contrary 
conclusions ; confirmed, when the month was far spent, by information 
received from Sir John Clavering, of the crossing of the Tweed by the 
Covenanters on the 20th, "a world of men." Kept back in 1639, 
they are irrepressible in 1640. Horse and foot, sword and pike, 
musket and pistol, they stream over the Borders, " the Highlanders 
with bows and arrows, some swords, some none, the nakedest men 
ever I saw." Astounded is " Dugald Dalgetty, of Mareschal College, 
Aberdeen, follower of the immortal Gustavus," when, in the seven- 


teenth century, " and in civilised war," he beholds the apparition of 
" the old artillery." " Bows and arrows ! " he exclaims, " have we 
Eobin Hood and Little John back again ? " 

From Lieutenant-General Sir John Conyers, Governor of Berwick, 
there is word that the invaders have "11 pieces of cannon, 54 field 
pieces, little drakes, and 80 frams, alias Sandy Hamilton's guns ; " 
those "bend-leather guns," of which, in The ffeart of Midlothian, Mrs. 
Bartoline Saddletree discourses with less rigid regard to the require- 
ments of history than Dr. Robert Chambers in his Traditions of Edin- 
burgh. Alexander Hamilton, General of Artillery in the Army of the 
Scots, a cadet of the noble house of Haddington, is at Newburn on the 
28th with his leathern ordnance, known as " Sandy's stoups." Our 
forerunners in the Bigg Market beheld the invading host, with their 
motley arms, ancient and modern, in possession of the conquered and 
humiliated town. Here they were remaining from month to month, 
till 1640 gave place to 1641 ; and in July of the latter year, the St. 
Andrew's books are again contributing to our chapter of local history 
a significant burial note: "James Ffylder, the 17 day, which fell of 
the walles and brand [brained] himself, one of the Skotes army, 
being one of the watch at Pilgram stre gayt." And so the story of 
the time moves on, Newcastle only passing away from the swift cap- 
ture of 1640 to encounter the slow-coming shadow of the siege of 



[Read on the 31st March, 1886.] 

IN the Newcastle Daily Journal, of January 30th last (1886), the 
following paragraph appeared in the column of " Local News : " " An 
interesting discovery of ancient British and Roman remains has been 
made at the new whinstone quarry, recently opened by Messrs. Steel 
and Turner, near to Barrasford, consisting of spear-heads, coins, &c." 
In the issue of the same journal of the ensuing Saturday, February 
6th, " the spear-heads, coins, &c., ancient British and Roman remains" 
were said to have been forwarded to me. 

In connection with an archaeological "find," it has not often 
occurred that so much has been made of so little, that so great a 
smoke has arisen from so small a fire. When I undertook a walk over 
snow-covered hills for some miles, to search into a matter apparently 
of so considerable an interest to antiquaries, " imagination bodied 
forth" a large and important hoard of pre-historic implements and 
weapons, stone and bronze, together with Roman coins of silver and 
so-called "brass" perhaps one or more British coins, like that 
solitary specimen recently found at the Lawe Camp, South Shields,* or 
that of the Welsh prince Boduoc, discovered in Dumfriesshire, their 
highest geographical limit hitherto. 

On my arrival, however, and after careful inquiry of the foreman 
of the new whinstone quarry, Mr. Humphreys, formerly my most 
efficient helper in exploring the Brito-Roman camp on the slope of the 
Gunnar Peak, I was informed that only two objects of archaeological 
interest had come to light a few days previous to my visit. These 
were an Ancient British perforated stone axe-hammer, and a Roman 
silver coin a denarius of Hadrian. 

Proc. Soc. Ant. Newc., vol. ii., p. 115. 



In addition to the older and well-known whinstone quarry, close to 
the North British Railway, a new one, about one and a quarter rnile to 
the east, also on a large scale, has recently been added to the limited 
industries of the district, through the enterprise of the proprietors of 
the adjoining freestone quarry at Gunnarton Camp Hill, or " Pity 
Me." As the earlier has broken into the western outburst of this part 
of the great basaltic fault or whin dyke, the newer quarry is nearly at its 
eastern extremity on the Reiver Crag Farm. Both are on the Barrasford 
estate of the Duke of Northumberland.* The picturesque grey cliffs of 
columnar basalt, 60 to 80 feet in perpendicular height, look toward the 
north, and stand out very boldly near where these relics of antiquity 
were found. The whole abrupt face of the crags was left bare, long 
before Briton or Roman appeared in the valley of the North Tyne, by 
the erosive action of glaciers moving in a south-east direction, as we 
know from the traces left by them in striations and smoothening on 
rock surfaces, and erratic boulders. But since the glacial epoch a 
vast mass of debris (the talus of the geologist), angular fragments of 
varying size splintered off the whinstone cliffs by sub-aerial forces of 
frost, weathering, etc., has accumulated against the crag face to nearly 
half its height at this spot. A rich brown soil, differing in depth here 
and there, and covered in part with green sward, has spread itself over 
the talus slope, during the lapse of so many centuries, or rather 
thousands of years. Here the quarrymen had removed a considerable 
portion of the loose whinstone, and in the process had undermined the 
overhanging soil and sward, which then suddenly rushed down into 
the hollow below, and amongst the stones. Two young men, 
separately, found, in clearing out this mass of soil and whinstones, 
both the axe-hammer and the silver coin. They were within about 
three yards from each other, though the exact depth below the surface 
of the sward cannot, unfortunately, now be ascertained under these 

In a brief and fairly accurate notice of this " find," contributed 
to the Hexham Herald of the 6th inst., it is stated that " a few days 
previous to the discovery of this, a smaller but similar axe-head was 
picked up by one of the workmen, but he, not knowing its value, 
carelessly threw it aside." No details, however, have come to my 



knowledge respecting this second stone implement, nor of any other 
relic than the two which will now be described. 


Is made of gray basalt of a bastard kind, different from that of the 
adjoining whin crags, and is very hard but not very heavy. It seems 
to have been formed out of a small detached boulder, such as may 
still be met with in marshy ground north of the line of crags. This 
implement or weapon belongs to the fourth class of perforated axe- 
hammers, sharp at one end and more or less hammer-like at the other, 
the shaft hole being usually in the centre. 

Mr. Evans, in his Ancient Stone Implements, chap, viii., p. 163, 
whose classification is here followed (Ibid., p. 164), speaks of these 
stone axes or axe-hammers, with a hole for the insertion of a shaft, as 
" a very important class of antiquities." They are, no doubt, later in 
date than the solid unperforated stone hatchets, one of which, a large 
and finely polished specimen, was found a few years since in draining 
a little to the east of the present site, and which passed from the 
possession of the late Rev. John Bigge, vicar of ,Stamfordham, to that 
of the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, F.S.A., Durham, in whose collection it 
now is. This specimen, now under notice, is of the large form 
somewhat common in Cumberland, Northumberland, and the North 
of England generally. It is ? inches long, 3| inches broad at the 
well-preserved cutting edge, 3- inches in the middle, which is the 
length of the shaft-hole (where the sides are slightly curved inwards 
longitudinally), and 3| inches at the hammer end. The thickness 
across at the centre, the widest part, is 2f inches, in which is bored 
the hole for the insertion of a handle, made, probably, of a 
tough sapling of the ash tree, or some other suitable wood. The 
perforation, not parallel, but expanding from the centre, is very 
nearly circular, being If inch across, and If inch lengthwise of the 
implement, and is bored through in the direction of the cutting 
edge, like our ordinary axes in present use. Thus it differs from the 
smaller stone axes or hammers which, like hoes or adzes, are perforated 
through the thinner and broader face, like a small one, made from a 
pebble of silurian grit,* which was discovered in clearing away the 

* Ancient Stone Implements, chap, ix., p. 204, Fig. 155, is very similar to this. 

ABCH. AEL. Vol. xii. to face p. 118. 

Plate 4. 



debris (or talus) close to, and east of the Gunnar " Nick," or ravine, 
that runs between two ancient British or Romano-British camps or 
forts crowning the summit of these basaltic cliffs, about three-quarters 
of a mile distant. (This perforated hammer is in my possession, but 
' lent at present to Mr. Hugh Miller, F.G.S.) 

The large axe-hammer, recently found, has one peculiarity not at 
all common, like a similar but larger specimen in Mr. Evans's collec- 
tion from Plumpton, near Penrith.* It is partially rounded and flat 
at the butt-end, where it has suffered from long-continued abrasion. 
But it is unsymmetrical, owing to a natural plane of cleavage inter- 
fering with the usual convex shape, and, as it were, taking off a slice 
from the stone. This flattened side has been smoothened, and also 
bears marks of abrasion from use. The shape resembles that of 
Fig. 35 in Evans's book (p. 185), but, though fairly polished, is less 
elaborately finished. 

A finer specimen, of a perfectly symmetrical form, made of fel- 
stone, is in my possession, which came from the village of Colwell, 
about two miles distant to the south-east from the new whinstone 
quarry. It was used as a wedge for keeping open a cottage door, 
and on one side are two shallow grooves, not parallel but converging,! 
as if for ornamentation, not for sharpening weapons. It is similar in 
appearance to Fig. 131 (in Evans, p. 180), from Wigton, Cumberland. 

The same great authority mentions three perforated axe-hammers 
in our Newcastle Museum, one of mottled green stone found in the 
river Wear, at Sunderland, and the other two from Kirkoswald, in 
Cumberland, and Haydon Bridge ; and examples exist elsewhere from 
Thirstone, Shilbottle, and Hipsburn in our county. 

These perforated implements seem to have been first brought into 
shape and polished over the whole surface, and the position for the 
shafthole was then chosen. The process of boring was probably car- 
ried out with a flint, or even a piece of elder or other soft wood, work- 
ing probably in drill fashion with sand and water. The proverbial 
patience of the semi-savage nature would be required, as the process 

* Ibid., chap, viii., p. 178. It is 9 inches long, and only 2| inches wide. 

t Compare Evans, Ibid., chap, viii., p. 181, Fig. 132, from Wollaton Park, Notts, 
where the sides of a large perforated axe-hammer have each t four -parallel grooves 
worked into them. This Colwell specimen was given to me by the Rev. C. Bird, 
Vicar of Chollerton. 


would be an elaborate and tedious one. This is exemplified in the 
lower half of an axe in Mr. Greenwell's collection, found at Sprouston, 
near Kelso. It had been broken half way across the hole. "The 
conical cup-shaped depressions produced by the boring instrument 
extend to some depth in the stone, but are still inch from meeting" 
(Evans, chap, viii., p. 184). 

Though the smoothened and perforated axe-hammers may be called 
Neolithic, as belonging to the New or Polished Stone Age of Pre- 
historic Archaeology, there is reason to believe, that at least in the 
North of England they belong to the bronze period. A finely- 
finished specimen was discovered by Mr. Greenwell in a barrow at 
Cowlain, near Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire. It lay in front of a con- 
tracted skeleton, the edge towards the face, and the remains of the 
wooden handle still grasped by the right hand. The cutting edge 
had been carefully removed, so that it was probably a battle-axe. Con- 
nected with this burial was that of a woman with two bronze ear-rings 
at her head. (Evans, p. 185 ; British Barrows, LVIIL, p. 222-225 ; 
Pro. Soc. Ant. Land., 2nd S., Vol. IV., p. 61.) Thus the date may be 
approximately fixed as that of the early Bronze Age, the same as that 
of the ancient British barrows recently opened near Birtley, although 
no bronze implement or ornament was found in the cists, or with the 
cinerary urns. From about 500 or 600 years B.C. (when the use of 
bronze may be supposed to have been in general use in this 
country), these polished stone tools and weapons fell into com- 
parative desuetude, though long lingering in use, as they were in some 
form at the Battle of Hastings, and in remote parts of the island 
almost to the present time. As an adaptation of ancient implements 
to modern uses, Sir "W. Wilde mentions a large axe-hammer in the 
Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, which is said to have been re- 
cently in use. Mr. Greenwell has another which was used for felling 
pigs in Yorkshire. 

In my possession is a curious perforated implement of hard-grained 
gray basalt, weathered, formed of a flat whin boulder. The surface of 
one side is carefully smoothened, as is also the rounded, narrower 
edge, which is semi-circular, and half of the other side, the rest being 
left in the rough state. It is exactly the same length as the Barras- 
ford perforated axe-hammer, 7 inches ; greatest width, 5 inches : 


narrower upper edge, If to 2 inches ; and wider at bottom, 2^ inches. 
The stone takes a shape almost like that of a gibbous moon, and the 
perforation has been intentionally formed askew, the nearly circular 
hole in the centre expanding outwards, as if to fit the grasp of the 
fingers, into an oval, 2 and 2| inches in diameter. The lower surface 
appears to be smoothened by long continued use, perhaps as a beetle for 
domestic needs, and it has also served the purpose of a hammer from the 
decided marks of abrasion at the more massive end. The implement is 
of unknown antiquity, and may be, though this is not very probable, 
comparatively modern. But its only ascertained purpose within the 
present century connects it with the superstitious observances of far 
distant times, as it was hung up in the cow-house of a cottager of 
Birtley till his ninetieth year as " a charm to keep off witches." 

The position and formation of the hole in the Barrasford axe- 
hammer is such, that there is a very exact equipoise when grasped in 
the right hand, and used as a hammer-pounder or smoothenmg instru- 
ment, either with the flattened face or partially rounded end. We 
might, therefore, infer from this fact, what has otherwise seemed a 
reasonable supposition that, while the smaller perforated stone axes 
might, and would probably be used as battle-axes, these larger speci- 
mens were too heavy for this purpose, or for missiles. Bishop Lyttel- 
ton, in the last century, held to their use as warlike weapons, but 
Pegge then asserted the contrary opinion. Professor Nilsson more re- 
cently has arrived at Pegge's conclusion, and considers them most 
suitable for being held in the left hand by a short handle, and driven 
into wood by blows from a club held in the right hand. He has sug- 
gested for them the name of " handled wedges." Mr. Evans remarks 
(chap, viii., p. 181, 182) that in some parts of France he has seen 
extremely heavy iron axes, much resembling these stone implements in 
form, used for splitting wood. " It seems possible," he adds, and this 
is not only possible but probable, I think, in connection with the 
limited cereal cultivation of the Ancient Britons on the numerous 
terraced slopes of our North Tyne valley, " that in old times these 
heavy stone implements may also have been employed in agriculture." 

Within the memory of the present generation, I am informed that 
the ordinary paints or colours for common sale in chemists' shops used 
to be regularly ground or pulverised there by a rude implement, or 


pestle, of hard stone, before the grindstones of the manufactory came 
to be applied to this purpose. In his Past in the Present, Ehind 
Lectures on Archaeology, Dr. Arthur Mitchell gives many illustrations 
of the modern survival of the rude arts and appliances of the far 
distant Stone Age period. 

From the greater labour bestowed upon them, such perforated axe- 
hammers as this from the Barrasford Crags, would serve as marks of 
distinction for their possessors. In many countries they have "shared 
with the more simply formed celts the attribution of a heavenly origin 
as thunderbolts, together with the superstitious reverence due to their 
supernatural origin." This seems to be exemplified in the singular 
use to which the holed hammer-and-beetle-stone from Birtley was put, 
even in the present day. Professor Daniel Wilson, in his Pre-Mstoric 
Annals of Scotland * remarks that the name by which such implements 
were popularly known in the sister-country, almost till the close of the 
last century, was that of the " Purgatory Hammer," buried with its 
owner, that he might have the wherewithal " to thunder at the gates 
of purgatory till the heavenly janitor appeared." 


The only other object of antiquity discovered with the British 
perforated axe-hammer, and in proximity to it, was a small silver coin 
of the early Roman empire. It will not need any detailed descrip- 
tion. The denarius is in fine condition the bust of the Emperor 
with face to the right on the obverse, and the name HADRIANVS 
AVGVSTVS. On the reverse, a figure facing the left, the nearest 
description to which in Cohen's Description Historique des Monnaies 
is, as Mr. Blair informs me, " Nemesis standing to left, holding her 
dress with the right hand (in this coin there is a spear also), and 
a purse (?) in her left, a wheel at her feet." The inscription is 
Cos. III., the two latter letters being indistinct, but the requirements 
of space on the coin show clearly they must have been there originally. 
Hadrian began his third consulship in A.u.c. 872 (A.D. 119). The 
large brass coin, struck by decree of the Eoman senate in A.D. 121 
(it is figured by Dr. Bruce in the Roman Wall, from Akerman), to 

* Vol. I., p. 191 ; Arch. Scot., Vol. I., p. 391. 


commemorate the great Emperor's arrival in Britain, bears on the 
obverse this inscription : Cos. III., and on the reverse, ADVENTVS 
AVG. BRITANNIAE. When Hadrian's prowess and far sighted states- 
manship had secured the Roman conquests in our island, as far as was 
deemed needful or prudent, by the building of the great Wall or 
Barrier of the Lower Isthmus of Britain, it will be remembered that 
" This circumstance was announced to the world in another coin, bear- 
ing, on the reverse, a name destined to sound through regions Hadrian 
never knew BRITANNIA and representing a female figure seated on 
a rock, having a spear in her left hand, and a shield by her side." 
This second brass of Hadrian has also upon the obverse, Cos. III. 

Thus the denarius found in the new whinstone quarry, at Barras- 
ford, was passing from hand to hand, as part of the currency of the 
Roman empire in the North Tyne Valley at or, probably from its fine 
condition, not long after the building of Hadrian's murus and vallum. 

We cannot, of course, imply any necessary connection, from the 
mere association of these two objects, the British implement and 
Roman coin, found in the same fall of soil, in this particular quarry. 
We would require much more accurate knowledge than is possible in a 
case of casual finding like this to enable us to form any just estimate 
of approximate time as to when each relic was dropped and by whom. 
It is certainly, however, a fact of interest, that on the green slope of 
the whin crag above the quarry, may still be traced the foundations of 
the ramparts, intersecting lines of division, and oblong and circular 
dwellings of an ancient " camp " or settlement.* It is of considerable 
size, larger than the other camps on the Gunnar Crags, and has pro- 
bably been occupied by primitive pastoral tribes in the British, and 
Romano-British, or even later times. Also the spot where the stone 
hammer-axe and denarius were found is at the descent of the crags, 
most easily available to any Roman or Romanised Briton, who might 
desire to pass in the most direct line from this hill fort on the basaltic 
ridge to the adjoining camp of Pity Me or Camp-hill, an oval-shaped 
fort defended by a ditch and ramparts, and situate on a very com- 
manding position, about half-a-mile distant. 

* Arch. Aeliana, New Sei'ies, Vol. VII.. p. 7. 



[Read on the 28th July, 1886.] 

AT the Station of CILURNUM, on the line of the Roman Wall, there has 
recently been discovered a building, consisting of from twelve to thir- 
teen rooms. It is situated between the eastern side of the camp and 
the river North Tyne, and the walls remain from 2 to 1 2 feet high. 
Generally, the doorways communicating between the rooms can be 
seen, and at some of them the stone slabs which lined the walls at 
each side remain intact ; there is only the lower portion of one window 

I have made a survey of the ruins from which the accompanying 
plan has been prepared, and upon it are also shown the special stones 
found in making the excavation. Upon the plan the various rooms 
have been distinguished by letters for ease of reference. 

As the buildings have, apparently, been erected at different dates, 
and out of previously used materials, and have been otherwise altered 
in many ways, it is probable that after the Romans ceased their occu- 
pation they were used for shelter by the inhabitants of the country, 
who had lighted fires against the walls at points below the level of the 
original hypocaust or flued floors. At the places where these fires had 
been, the wall stones have been deeply burnt, and have crumbled or 
fallen away to the depth of a foot or fifteen inches. 

Before stating what I conceive to have been the use of the build- 
ing, it will be well to describe the various rooms, giving (so far as can 
be ascertained) the condition in which they were when excavated, and 
the articles found in them. 

Commencing with the room marked A, winch occupies the greater 
portion of the northern side of the building, and which is much larger 
than any of the others, being 45 feet by 29 feet inside of the walls. 
The entrance to this room has been about midway along the northern 

Archaeologia Aehana, Vol. XII. to /ace- p. 12 4. 

Plate V. 

Section, of drain, sldnc. JSlcvation, (f Wall <jfxn.i-n.qs 

James Akerman,Photo-lith, London.W C. 


wall, as indicated by a portion of one of its door slabs yet remaining in 
position, and along its western end wall there are seven arched recesses 
formed in the thickness of the wall, these are 1 foot 6 inches, back to 
front, 2 feet wide, and 3 feet high to the inside of the arched top, 
which is formed of one stone over each recess. 

When first excavated, this room had a stone flagged floor placed 
upon a thick bed of loose rubble, which was about 2 feet 6 inches 
above the level of the original floor. There are no signs of this room 
having had a hypocaust or other means of heating, but there are some 
ventilating drains which must have been immediately below the 
original floor. Near the south-west corner of room A a doorway leads 
into a cross corridor, which communicates at its western end with the 
rooms D and B, on its southern side with the room E, and at its 
eastern end with the room K and others adjoining. It is thus quite 
enclosed in the building, and must have been very dark, unless it had 
been lighted from the roof or the walls carried up higher than those 
adjoining, so as to admit of lighting above the level of the other roofs. 
The rooms B and D being in direct communication with the firehole 
C, would be more highly heated than any other portion of the building. 
The hypocausts underneath these two rooms remain in good order, 
and, in addition, the room D has a flue pipe embedded in the wall, 
which communicates with the hypocaust at its lower end, and has side 
openings to allow the heat to circulate within the walls, though it is 
not clear that the walls have been specially Sued for the purpose. 
The pipe reaches up to about 3 feet above the level of the floor, and 
there may have been means of opening it and letting the heated air 
direct into the room when proper incandescence had been obtained at 
the furnace, in a similar manner to that adopted in Russian houses, 
where, after the stove has ceased to emit smoke, a flap opening in the 
flue allows the heated air to come freely into the room. 

The doorway between rooms B and D has the side slabs remaining 
in position. These are 6 feet 2 inches long by 2 feet 7 inches wide 
and 7 inches thick, and on one of them there appears to have been 
some letters cut, 'but excepting the initial S they are doubtful. It is 
curious that this letter S seems to have been cut in the stone in several 
places, S3metimes it is upright, at other times leaning or across. 

From the hypocaust, under room D, a flue passes to the outside of 



the building, and swells out to form a small hot air chamber, from 
which the flue is continued through the wall into the room E, and from 
it into the other rooms which have had heated floors. 

In the room K, at the eastern end of the corridor, there is a stone 
with a circular hollow cut in it, which seems to have formed the base 
of a fountain basin. Two portions of the basin remain of a some- 
what elegant form, and I estimate from these that the basin, when 
whole, would be about i feet 8 inches diameter within the run. The 
water arrangements for supply and discharge in relation to this basin 
are not very easy to understand from what remains of them. In all 
probability the supply would be drawn from a cistern adjoining, which 
is formed by a jutting-out of the wall separating K from A, and which 
has a leaden pipe leading out of the bottom into the room A. A 
channel, deeply cut in large stones, leads by a considerable declivity 
from underneath the cistern to the fountain base, and must have had 
communication with the cistern, though at present it is difficult to 
see how. From the fountain basin there is a built waste drain, run- 
ning through the wall into the room A, then curving round the tank, 
and discharging above the main stone drain of the building. There is a 
clumsiness about this arrangement of waste drain, which seems to be 
the result of an afterthought, or an alteration from the original design 
of the building 

Adjoining room K, on the east, is the room L, which has cemented 
floors, as though it had contained baths. Against the eastern wall is 
a square block of masonry, which appears to have formed a base upon 
which some object might have stood. 

Leading out of room K towards the south there is a small room I, 
which has been under-heated by a flue leading through the wall from 
the room E. When excavated there was about 2 feet depth of sand 
in this room, and at the bottom two red tiles, with figured patterns 
upon them. Beyond this is a large room H, which has also had a 
heated floor, communicating by three openings with the hypocaust 
under I, and having one opening in the centre of its southern wall 
leading to the outside of the building. Underneath the hypocaust 
floor of this room there are three ventilating drains, and its eastern 
wall has counterforts against it on the outside. 

The room E, on the southern side of the corridor, may have been 


originally divided into two almost equal portions by a cross wall. There 
is nothing of this wall remaining, but the side walls show where it has 
been torn away from them. Jutting out from this room is an apart- 
ment with a circular end, in the centre of which is the lower portion 
of a window with splayed jambs, and at the southern end of E there is 
another apartment ; both these have been heated by flues, which re- 
main intact, excepting that the covers have been removed, and they 
seem to have been connected with E by arched openings, the arches 
springing from pilasters. 

A number of arched stones and arch voussoirs, seemingly formed of 
concrete, were found in the room E. Their shapes are peculiar, and 
favour the belief that they have been faced with some better material. 

At the eastern end of the room A there has been added some 
masonry of a totally different character from any in other parts of the 
building, consisting of a casing wall, with counterforts composed of 
large stones, similar to those of which the two bridges have been 
built, and which have lewis holes cut in them. The foundation of 
this portion of the building is on quicksand and deep loam, and it is 
probable that shrinkage of the building had taken place in conse- 
quence, and that this additional masonry had been built to support 
it at the time when the later bridge works were in progress, or with 
some unused material prepared for that structure. 

The steps leading from the doorways into the rooms are very 
heavily worn, and the peculiar manner in which the step leading from 
the corridor to the room K is worn, shows that the people entering 
had to turn sharply to the right to avoid the fountain basin. 

The floor of the room G had been at a higher level than any other 
portion of the building. 

The construction of the main drain of the building is elaborate, 
the channel, 7 inches wide by 9 inches deep, is cut in large rectangu- 
lar stones, and each stone, at its end, has grooves, into which cement 
had been run to form a watertight joint. There are other channel 
stones of a different description, in these^ the channel is semi-circular, 
and there are grooves cut across the channel near each end of the 
stone, into which lead has been poured to cover over the joint between 
the stones. The lead and cement yet remain in some of the channel 
stone grooves. 


After carefully considering the relation of the various apartments 
and their heating arrangements, I have come to the conclusion that 
they had been a set of baths, and I am strengthened in this belief by 
the assurance of a gentleman who has on various occasions visited the 
ruins of Pompeii and studied the bath arrangements there, that the 
wall recesses in the room A are similar to those at the Pompeian baths, 
and that their use had been to hold the clothes of the bathers. And as 
the end opening nearest the corridor has holes in the stone, indicative 
of its having been closed by a door, it is probable that in it were kept 
the olive oil and spices used in the anointing before bathing. 

In the ruins of the Thermae of Titus, at Eome, was found a wall 
painting, representing a section elevation of a Roman bath. In the 
first room named upon the drawing, the Eloeothesium, or room for 
anointing, the wall is depicted with similar recesses, in which there 
appear to be jars, but these cover the whole wall up to the springing 
of the arched roof. The room A would be the Frigidarium, or, possi- 
bly in this case, the Frigidarium and Tepidarium combined, where the 
bathers would undress, and probably also be anointed. 

From this they would pass into the corridor, which, being in con- 
nection with the heated chambers, would form an intermediate stage 
between the hot and cold rooms. They would then pass into the 
heated rooms D and B, where they would undergo the sweating pro- 
cess, returning into the corridor to cool preparatory to going into the 
cold lavatory room K, where water would be laved over them from the 
stone basin, and then into the further room L, where there appears to 
have been cold baths. The floor of this room K has had drains to lead 
away the waters thrown about the room. These drains have been cut 
out of the floor stones, one of which remains in position, snecked into 
the inlet channel. 

It is not easy to assign special uses for the other rooms, but, sup- 
posing the wall across E restored, the remaining southern portion of 
that room would be symmetrical with the circular-ended room F, and 
might have been a music room, or a place were poems were recited. 

It is likely that the walls of the rooms would be cased with slabs 
of stone or other material, as was commonly done in Roman baths, 
upon a coating of cement mixed with broken tile, portions of which 
yet adhere to them. There are none of these slabs remaining in posi- 


tion, but it seems probable that the flags forming the later floor of the 
room A had been used for the purpose. In the room E a number of 
the holdfasts yet remain in the wall, by which the wall slabs had been 
secured in their position.* 

In making the excavations an altar to Fortune was found,f and a 
number of female trinkets. The latter were found in the room A, and 
consisted of beads, brooches, and a jet ring. In room I was found a 
piece of delicate gold chain, about 4 inches long, and hair pins were 
scattered about over the rooms generally. There is just one circum- 
stance which militates somewhat against the use of the rooms as baths, 
and that is the excessive wear of the stone steps at the entrances to 
the various rooms ; for the bathers and their attendants would likely 
be either barefooted or have their feet clothed with soft sandals. But 
it is quite possible that if the buildings were erected during the early 
period of the Roman occupation, they might have been used for many 
purposes before being finally abandoned by that people. The 
wearing of the steps leading from the corridor into the room A had 
taken place before the floor of that room had been altered and raised 
to a higher level, indicating that the building must have been in use 
for a very long time before the floor had been altered. 


' A little distance west of these buildings are the remains of a Roman house, 
the bath rooms of which have yet the wall slabs remaining in position. 

f For description of this see Arch. Ael., Vol. XI., p. 117. 

JUNE, 1886. 


[Read on the 28th day of August, 1886.] 

NEWCASTLE is rich in examples of the interesting memorials of the 
dead of past ages. Of the horizontal slabs which were used to 
cover the graves, as lids to stone coffins and as laid in the pavements 
of the churches to mark the resting places of the dead during the 
middle ages, a considerable number of examples remain. Our 
Society is the fortunate possessor of the majority of these, which it 
has saved from destruction and oblivion, by having them placed in 
the Castle. They are from various sources, the greater number 
having been derived from the destroyed Hospital of St. Mary Magda- 
lene. At St. Andrew's Church are three fine examples ; and three 
others are built into the garden wall of the Hermitage, Gateshead. 
These came from the Franciscan Friary which stood in Pilgrim Street. 
In St. Nicholas's Church is a fine collection of grave covers, which 
are preserved in the Bewick Chapel. Twelve of these we have long 
been familiar with, but two more examples are now happily added 
to the list. They were discovered in making some alterations which 
had become necessary, in order to provide better accommodation for 
the gas meters, which are placed on the south side of the choir ; and 
we are indebted to our member, Mr. Samuel B. Burton, the contractor 
who carried out these works, for the very careful manner in which he 
has exhumed, cleaned, and transferred them to the Bewick Chapel 
without injury. I lay drawings before you, from which you will see 
how beautifully these two slabs are designed and executed, and how 
well they have been preserved. They were found lying under one of 
the buttresses on the south side of the choir, and, as they were turned 
face downwards, we know that they had been moved from the graves 
on which they had been laid, in order that they might occupy their 



recent position. The choir was erected about the middle of the four- 
teenth century, and these large stones were made use of by the 
builders for its foundations. The one bearing the key is probably 
very few years earlier in date than the choir, but the other cannot be 
much later than 1250, and may be some years earlier. 


I will now say a few words about the crosses and symbols carved 
upon these slabs, taking the earlier example first. This bears a 
design of the most exquisite beauty, and, though not the largest, it is 
by far the finest and most perfect of all the remaining mediaeval 


sepulchral slabs in Newcastle. It is the more valuable and instructive, 
as it belongs to a period of which we have so very few examples re- 
maining in any part of the country, coming, as it does, at the time 
when the conventional foliage, so largely used during the earlier years 
of the thirteenth century, was being changed and refined into those exact 
copies of natural foliage which adorn the works executed at its close. 
The trefoil form of the terminations was introduced before the end of 
the twelfth century, and received little variation in its intrinsic char- 
acter for nearly fifty years, though its multiplication and disposition 
over the surface of the slab was carried to the utmost limit of the 
designer's skill. Between the years 1240 and 1250, we find the stiff 
conventionality of the earlier period suddenly and rapidly changing 
into natural forms, till, at the close of the thirteenth century, the 
artists copied the foliage of the trees and plants with which they were 
surrounded, as well as flowers, birds, and insects, with the utmost 

It was at the time that the carvers were beginning to grow tired of 
conventionality, and adopting the forms of nature in their work, that 
the beautiful slab under our consideration was produced. There is no 
trace left of the trefoil ornament, and yet it would be impossible to 
say what natural leaf had been laid under contribution to furnish the 
motive of the design. That natural forms were as closely followed 
in the designs of these sepulchral memorials as they were in the 
carved details of the churches, erected during the last forty years of 
the thirteenth century, we have abundant evidence. 

At Sedgefield is a most beautiful example, covered with delicately 
sculptured oak leaves and acorns, and bearing on a shield the cross 
moline of the Fulthorpes. At Corsenside and at Sockburn are other 
specimens of the same type. 

The design of the cross in our example is an elaboration of the 
crude and early form, formed by placing four circles more or less 
closely together. This form had its birth contemporaneously with the 
introduction of Christianity into these islands, and is used in most of 
the beautiful sculptured crosses of the Celtic period. It appears again 
on the incised and sculptured grave covers of the Norman period, and, 
after running through a large number of variations, develops into 
the beautifully floriated head, of which the well-known " vine leaf" slab 


at Hexham is our finest northern example. In the slab before us, the 
head is formed by placing four semi-circles in the angles of a cross, and 
floriating all the terminations, so that the leaves appear in clusters of 
three. Four bands cross the arms, and seem to bind the semi-circles 
to the cross. The stem is interrupted by leaves, from which spring 
branches bearing pairs of leaves, and at the base two leaves spread over 
the roots. Thus, the idea of a tree, of which the cross forms the chief 
flower or head, is fully carried out. 

On the dexter side of the cross are carved two symbols, a pair of 
shears and a book. It is now generally accepted that where the shears 
occur on one of these grave covers the individual buried beneath 
was of the female sex, but what was meant when a book was placed 
in conjunction with them it is very difficult to determine. 

Two other northern examples may be cited, as proving that the book 
is sometimes used in conjunction with the shears as a female symbol. 
One of these is at Chollerton, and is illustrated in the Archaeologia 
Aeliana (4to series), Vol. III., p. 76. It is a fine double slab of about 
the middle of the fourteenth century. It bears two crosses of bold 
design, both alike. The middle of the stem of each is overlaid by a 
shield ; that on the dexter bears the arms of SWINBURNE three cinque- 
foils impaling chequy for DE VAUX* Above the shield on the dexter 
side of the cross, is a book. The shield on the sinister cross bears 
the SWINBURNE arms only ; to the sinister of the shield is a long 
sword, so cut as to appear as lying behind the shield. 

The other example is at East Harlsey, Yorkshire. It is also a large 
double slab, laid in memory of a man and his wife, probably not later 
than 1300. It bears two crosses, which are both alike. Over- 
lying the stem of the dexter cross is a shield bearing three codes, the 
arms of Salcock of Salcock (hodie Sawcock), a hamlet in the parish 
of East Harlsey. Behind the shield is a fine long sword lying in 
"bend dexter. On the dexter side of the stem of the sinister cross is a 
pair of shears of the spring type, and on the sinister side a book. I 
have met with many examples of books occurring in conjunction with 
shears on grave covers, but the two foregoing double slabs clearly 
prove that the book was used to signify a woman, as it was likewise to 

* Sir William de Swinburne married Alicia daughter of John de Vaux in 
1306. The slab no doubt was laid over the grave of these two persons. 


signify an ecclesiastic when placed in conjunction with the chalice and 
paten, or the hand raised in benediction. 

Our other Newcastle slab bears a cross, witkfleur de Us terminations. 
It is represented by incised lines cut in the stone, instead of the whole 
surface of the slab being lowered and the ornamental parts left in 
relief as in the example which we have just been considering. The 
form of the cross is an exceedingly common one, and was used over a 
very long period ; in fact, it was in vogue during the whole of the 
period of mediaeval architecture which has been styled " Perpen- 
dicular," or, in other words, from the middle of the fourteenth to the 
middle of the fifteenth century. The bands, or binding straps, which 
appear in the earlier and more beautiful cross survive, but the lines 
representing them are no longer carried across the arms, but stop at 
them. The key incised on the sinister side is supposed by our most 
learned ecclesiologists to allude to a married woman in her capacity as 
housewife. It is frequently found in conjunction with the shears, and 
many examples bearing two keys may be cited ; but an example bear- 
ing the key in conjunction with any symbol alluding to the male sex, 
such as the sword, fleshing knife, shepherd's qrook, blacksmith's, or 
mason's tools, etc., is unknown. 



[Read on November 24th, 1886.] 

SINCE the appearance in the Transactions* of the brief paper on "Old 
Tyne Bridge and its 'Cellars,'" I have given it a marginal note, which 
may as well pass into print ; and should my pen not wander beyond it to 
an unreasonable length, the transgression may be more than pardoned, 
now that a restoration of the quaint Plantagenet structure has been 
projected, with a change of site to the Jubilee Exhibition of 1887 on 
Newcastle Moor. 

At the time of the destructive November inundation, by which 
Old Tyne Bridge was wrecked in 1771, with all the bridges of the 
Tyne, save one, there were upwards of twenty tenements south of 
the Blue Stone (the St. Cuthbert's stone of a former day), eleven on 
the east side, ten on the west ; the Bishop of Durham's third of the 
thoroughfare being more densely peopled than the two-thirds of the 
Corporation of Newcastle. John Hilbert's picture, which appropriately 
illustrates the instructive paperf of Dr. Bruce, "The Three Bridges 
over the Tyne at Newcastle," shows how clustered was the southern 
extremity of the viaduct ; and the statue of the " Merry Monarch," 
pointing down from its niche in the Magazine Grate, to the extract 
from the small folio of the Rev. Henry Bourne, published in 1736, 
courteously admonishes us that the print must have been engraved for 
Cuthbert Fenwick's mayoralty of 1739, not for his accession to the 
chair in 1727. In a note on the engraving, made by Sykes in his 
Local Records, he remarks : " The arches of this bridge were some 
of them Gothic, and others scheme arches. They had no regular 
decrease from the middle to the ends, and the passage over them was 
very narrow, and crowded with houses, built of wood," the curling 
smoke of whose chimneys is not overlooked by the artist. 

When the bridge gave way in 1771, there went with it, at the 
Gateshead end, considerable revenue. John Clarke, mercer, one of 
* Arch. AeL, Vol. IX., pp. 237-240. f Arch. AeL, Vol. X., pp. 1-11 


the lessees, carrying on business next door to Dr. Oliphant, on the 
west side, held premises worth 22 a year ; three, of whom Oliphant's 
was one, 20; until, dwindling down, 6 is reached. In whole, 
286, equally divided between the two sides of the way; the supposed 
value of the property altogether being 3,803. 

The Oliphants, when unhoused by the flood, found temporary 
refuge in Church Chare, Gateshead, (the narrow thoroughfare preceding 
the Church Street of the present day) ; being indebted for the hospit- 
able arrangement, we may safely assume, to the good offices of the 
benevolent and energetic Sector, the Eev. Andrew Wood, M.A., one 
of the heroes and benefactors of the hour, whose death by fever, in 
the month of March thereafter, was ascribed to his ceaseless labours of 
love and duty. His mural monument in the church, offspring of the 
esteem, affection, and gratitude of the people of Gateshead, informs us 
that in the 57th year of his age he was " interred amidst the tears of 
his parishioners " a touching tribute to his worth. 

In the year 1772, the Oliphant family removed from the scene of 
their twofold trials and sorrows to Scotland. Their old friend and 
neighbour, John Greene, a leading inhabitant of Gateshead, appeared 
in the Mayor's Chamber of Newcastle, in the month of October, " for 
and on behalf of Mr. James Oliphant in Scotland, owner of a house at 
the south end of the old stone bridge," and stated that " the present 
slanting stays were not sufficient to support it," and it was consequently 
" in danger of falling into the river ;" whereupon Mr. John Stephenson, 
at that time employed in the construction of a temporary viaduct 
across the Tyne, was instructed to apply additional props if necessary. 

The river, at Newcastle and Gateshead, was now bridgeless ; the 
crossing roadway had, in the eighteenth century, perished by water, as 
in the meridian of the thirteenth it had been destroyed by fire ; and 
once again it must be restored. Let us go back to bygone times, and 
fulfil, so far as space may permit, the promise of following the fortunes 
of Old Tyne Bridge ; and, in writing the present paper, I must draw, 
to some extent, upon the columns of my former self, when dealing 
with the subject for the readers of the Newcastle Chronicle. The 
historical curate of All Saints' is helpful. " Wasteful conflagrations," 
says he, " had in 1248 reduced cities to ashes in many countries ; " and 
"the towne of Newcastle-upon-Tine, for the most part, with the 


bridge, was burned with an unquenchable fire ; " after which ill- 
fortune, the Burgesses, who had charge of two-thirds, and the Bishop, 
who owned the other, made it their endeavour to raise up a bridge of 
stone. The Bishop of Durham sent out indulgences, and other Bishops 
were induced by the Burgesses to follow his example, that all who 
could lend a hand, in money or in labour, if not in both, might join 
in the erection ; and by this means the necessary aid was obtained. 
" The Archdeacon of Northumberland," states our local historian, 
" wrote to the clergy of his archdeaconry, telling them their venerable 
Father, the Lord Bishop of Durham, by his letters patent, had com- 
manded them, without any let or delay, to go about the affair of 
indulgences, and that they were to prefer the episcopal indulgences to 
others ; and what arose from them was to be given to the Master of 
the Bridge, who was then Laurentius, for the use of the bridge. Its 
national importance was recognised throughout the kingdom. Its 
restoration was of much more than local moment. The inability of the 
town, suffering as were the inhabitants from the flames which had 
consumed the viaduct, to supply its place unaided, was everywhere 
acknowledged ; and contributions for carrying on the work flowed in 
from all quarters. The maintenance, indeed, of Tyne Bridge, had 
long been considered a more than municipal duty. The Archbishop 
of York granted an indulgence of thirty days, in 1257, to all benefactors 
of the bridge. So also, in 1277, the Bishop of Eochester. The 
Bishop of Caithness in Scotland, and of Waterford in Ireland, were 
assistant in the work ; and many were the laymen who contributed to 
its execution. The new bridge stood upon twelve bold arches ; but 
now (in 1731) there are only nine, the rest being turned into cellaring 
at the building of the keys. It is a pretty street, beset with houses on 
each side for a great part of it. In the entrance from the North stands 
the chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, sometime Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, so called because it was dedicated to him. Who the founder of 
it was, I have never been able to learn, nor the time of its building; but 
it must have been after 1171, the year when the martyr suffered ; and 
it must have been before the year 1248, because then it was in being." 
The Burgesses had evidently a sore struggle to keep up the new 
bridge when they had got it. If it was more useful than the white 
elephant of the story, it was also more costly. Its maintenance was a 


heavy burden. The townspeople had continually to be casting about 
them for casual relief on behalf of their thoroughfare across the Tyne. 
It was largely dependent upon chance supplies. In 1362, when it was 
in a ruinous condition, Edward the Third was granting a ten years' 
toll for repairs ; yet in 1370 it was still ricketty ; and, in 1394, there 
was a charge on the Customs for its maintenance. An annual pay- 
ment of 10s. from a tenement in the Side, occupied by Edward Surtees, 
a bowyer, occurs for the benefit of the bridge in 1517. The incor- 
porated companies rendered aid from time to time. Fullers and Dyers, 
when they fined a brother for employing a Scot or taking an appren- 
tice from beyond the Borders, passed over the proceeds to Old Tyne 
Bridge. In 1577, the local authorities were besieging Secretary Wal- 
singham for his influence in recovering a lost annuity of 40, granted 
by Richard the Third out of the custom-house of the port, " towards 
the maintenance of the great bridge and walls, at present in great 
ruin." Richard had marked their condition in 1482, when he passed 
through Newcastle as Duke of Gloucester, marching at the head of an 
army against the Scots ; and Sir Francis Walsingham, Minister of 
Queen Elizabeth, was entreated to consider that the renewal of this 
substantial aid would tend to great " public commodity," in the main- 
tenance of " the bridge and walls of this, Her Grace's town, standing 
towards the frontiers of Scotland." The Lord President of the 
Council of the North, the Earl of Huntingdon, a not unfrequent 
visitor in Newcastle, backed the suit of the Corporation. He bore 
witness, in a letter written from York to the Privy Council, that the 
Mayor and Aldermen, ever since his coming into the district, had been 
at great charges in respect of the bridge, which could neither be 
brought into repair, nor maintained, without continued cost ; " and 
you know," said he, " how meet it is that the walls and bridges of 
that town should be always well maintained." 

It was a bridge, however, evidently not easy to maintain. It was 
always getting out of repair in one place when cobbled in another. 
The annuity bestowed upon it by the last of the Plantagenets, and 
allowed to lapse, was greatly needed ; but we do not learn that it was 
regained under the last of the Tudors. Charles the First granted it 
a supply of trees out of Chopwell Woods, and his boon may serve as 
some clue to the construction and condition of the venerable viaduct. 


By hook or by crook it was kept standing most wonderfully, and 
prolonged in serviceable existence generations after it was feared that 
it would fall. " Originally very ill-built, and in general of too small 
stones, and not of the best kind," was the report* of Smeaton on the 
near eve of the completion of its span of life. The builder of the 
Eddystone Lighthouse " found it in a general state of disrepair ;" 
Tyne Bridge being at that time not of any one age, but of various 
ages altered, mended, patched, overloaded, and propped through the 
whole course of its servitude of centuries ; but the distinguished 
engineer shook his head when asked how much longer he thought it 
might endure ; for "creaking carts go long on the road." 

" The Case of Mr. James Oliphant, Surgeon," which in 1768 was 
sold by Benjamin Fleming, "Bookseller and Stationer under the 
Magazine Gate on the Bridge," gives a description of one of the 
houses that stood at its southernmost end, as quoted in the ninth 
volume of the Transactions,! from attic to " cellar," to which the 
curious reader may turn back as an instructive study. 

A divided estate, Old Tyne Bridge had depended for its steward- 
ship on two proprietors the Bishop of Durham and the Corporation 
of Newcastle sometimes at peace, sometimes at loggerheads. In 
1383, the then Chief Magistrate, William Bishopdale, with his 
colleagues and the commonalty, began to build a tower at the 
southern end, and displaced and carried away the boundary stones, 
one on each side. A charter of King John was the authority under 
which they claimed to act ; but the courts of law, to which the Bishop, 
the Count Palatine, appealed, gave judgment against the Corporation. 
Then, in 1416, came the Sheriffs of Durham and Westmorland, and 
took possession for Cardinal Langley, Bishop of Durham. The stones 
were replaced : his lordship had restitution of the disputed bulwark, 
"with all his chivalry." When Bishopdale was Mayor, he had 
leave from the Crown, for himself and successors, to be preceded by an 
uplifted sword. Yet the Corporation could not, for all that, have 
their own way in the world, even though, with a sword in their front, 
they had a charter of King John at their back. A wondrous man in 
tradition is King John ; for has it not been averred, among other 
things, that he built Tyne Bridge ! 

* See Smeaton's Report, at p. 148. f ^rcli. Acl., p. 238. 


Times change, and we with them. Durham had a bishop, after 
Langley, who sailed on quite a different tack. He was for throwing 
off the burden of the bridge, and casting it upon the county. But 
the attempt to get rid of the charge, made in 1582, was a failure. 
The Court of Exchequer ruled against it. 

"When, north and south of St. Cuthbert's boundary line, Church 
and Corporation were at issue, a solitary recluse was looking out upon 
the quarrel from his peaceable hermitage on the bridge. As the tide 
of life rolled past him, smooth or ruffled on its way, the priest in his 
cell could see the " stir of the great Babel," and quietly enjoy the 
spectacle, in whatever mood the current flowed. On the death of 
Eoger Thornton, in 1429, the hermit was one of the priests remem- 
bered in the princely merchant's will. He was to sing psalms for the 
soul of the deceased, and have his bequest among the others. The 
roadside priest was still there in 1562, when the Mayor and his 
Brethren were expending half-a-crown over the clock of " the chappell 
of the bridge," near the central tower ; and in 1643, when the clock 
of the State was out of gear, and a crown could not put it to rights, 
the secluded anchorite was peeping as before from his " loophole of 
retreat." His position between the combatants must have been 
critical in the siege of 1644 ; and curiosity looks but looks in vain 
over the leaves of local story, to learn what became of him in 
the fiery storm, when Newcastle was won from the King by the 

St. Mary's Church, looking down upon Tyne Bridge, had its 
anchoress when Newcastle had an anchorite. That munificent prelate, 
Bishop de Bury, lover of literature and learning, granted a license in 
13 40 for the selection of a site in the churchyard of Gateshead on 
which to build a habitation for an anchoress, the " Anchorage School" 
perpetuating the memory of the foundation to the present century. 
Life is strange. We wonder over its contradictions and incon- 
sistencies, or, at least, what seem to be such. Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses were having massive walls built round about them, and 
perplexed as to their maintenance, while the good lady on the opposite 
bank of the Tyne was calmly seated in her lofty nook, unsheltered by 
the sword. Singular was the aspect of the structure she beheld below! 
Watching the procession of the passengers, it was as though a street 


had been swung across the river, its supporting pillars filling up a full 
third of the way. The Great Tower, serving the purpose of a prison, 
bestrode the road about midway. Leland, who gazed upon it with 
admiration in the reign of Henry the Eighth, tells us of a " gate at the 
bridge ende " on the north, and a " stronge wardyd gate at Geteshed " 
on the south. There were ten arches beneath, and a strong " warde 
and towre " above. On both sides of the river the marvellous edifice 
was a source of local pride. Few were the bridges of the kind which 
England could show to travellers. " Impartial persons allowed it to 
be the third in order of English bridges before that at Westminster 
was erected, viz., London, Rochester, and Newcastle." The author 
of Gcphyrologia, writing in 1751, " did not remember any other bridge 
in England, except those of Bristol and Newcastle, and that of London, 
which was thus converted into a street." 

As Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry the Seventh, passed into 
Newcastle in the summer of 1502, moving northward to her Scottish 
bridal, she was borne along this picturesque avenue in great pomp. 
" At the bryge end, upon the gatt, war many children, revested of 
surpeliz, syngyng mellodiously hympnes, and playing on instruments 
of many partes ;" a scene that will, of course, be melodiously repeated 
in the orchestra of the revived bridge on the Moor, when Newcastle 
commemorates the Jubilee of Queen Victoria. 

James the Sixth of Scotland, coming to Newcastle a century after 
his Tudor ancestress, admired "the manner and beautie of the bridge 
and key ;" and "before he came to Gateside," on his southward pro- 
gress, "he made Mr. Eobert Dudley, Mayor of Newcastle, a knight," 
in acknowledgment of his hospitable attentions. His grandson, 
Charles the Second, had his memory honoured by the erection of a 
statue in a Eoman habit, with a complimentary legend, in front of 
the Magazine Gate on the bridge. Narrowly it escaped the fortunes of 
the fall in November, 1771. In the spring of that year the gate had 
been taken down to give the town a more commodious entrance ; and 
the statue had a place assigned to it on the Sandhill, which since that 
period has more than once been changed, the world being mutable. 

Old Tyne Bridge had been reared in the reign of Henry the Third, 
builder of the Black Gate, now doing duty as a museum for the Society 
of Antiquaries. George the Third succeeded to the throne five cen- 


turies afterwards ; and by a succession of spans the durable viaduct 
was still making its way over the river, surviving the storms and 
shocks of full one-half of a thousand years, the bumping of keels, 
the assaults of war, the negligent inattentions of peace, the fears and 
forebodings of the community whom it had so long contrived to 
serve. Let us see how it stood when the time of its departure was at 
hand. Many were its too contracted arches, its too massive piers ; 
aged and frail ; picturesque to perfection for the artist ; a butt for the 
wind and the rain above, and the restless waves below. The seventh arch 
from Newcastle, and fourth from Gateshead, was the Keelmen's, placed 
in mid-stream, and bearing the name of a stalwart race of men, famous 
in story, but now almost altogether passed away. The Great Arch was 
the sixth from Newcastle, with the boundary pier of the Bishop and 
Corporation between it and the Keelmen's. The White Arch was the 
fifth. There was also a Drawbridge Arch, the second from Gateshead, 
whose name conveys its purpose. At the Drawbridge, as also at the 
Central Tower, there had anciently been, conjecturally, a portcullis, 
for further defence. In the summer of the year, 1770, Bishop Trevor 
was repairing with stone the Drawbridge Arch. Tyne Bridge was 
closed, and there were ferries from the east end of Hillgate and 
west end of Pipewellgate. Smeaton, examining the viaduct before it 
fell, ascertained that where the drawbridge had been, there was a floor 
of timber, covered with earth and pavement, the work "roughly 
executed," and "having all the appearance of a job done in a hurry;" 
done in some emergency which I leave to any or everybody's imagina- 
tion. Charles Hutton, the famous mathematician, writing calmly the 
epitaph of the bridge in 1772, says, "it had stood five hundred years, 
and might have stood much longer, if the lowness of the arches, and 
too great thickness of the piers, had not so much contracted the passage 
of the water." Its life-work had been done long and well. 

In the removal of the wreck, to make way for its successor, a stone 
coffin was found in the pier on which the Great Tower had stood, 5 feet 
below the pavement another tax on the imagination ; and one more offers 
itself in the form of a mystic scroll, inscribed with characters on paper 
or parchment that vanished into dust, "a moment seen, then gone for 
ever," curiosity whetted and disappointed. Perchance, however, the 
parchment or paper, like Canning's knifegrinder, had "no story to tell.'* 


Among the Imprints and Reprints of Eichardson there are tracts 
which have stories many. One of them, abounding with extracts from 
the Corporate Accounts, will throw some little light on Old Tyne Bridge. 
We have here, for example, an item apprising us that in the month of 
April, 1592, "the towne storehouse" was "on the bridge," and assisting 
in blocking up the way. " Robert Hedleie, wrighte," has six days' 
work, at tenpence a day, in the corporate repository, and is "makeinge 
railes to hing armor of." In the summer of the same year, "William 
Dickens has 40s. from the town chamberlains, "in parte of paymente 
of 12 for guilting the Quene's armes, and the tonne's, att the bridge 
end." Edward Waterson, seminary priest, is put to death in New- 
castle (priests made by Roman authority being forbidden to come into 
England under penalty of forfeiture of life) ; and in the month of 
January, 1593 or 4, there is "paide to Sandrs. Cheisman's man, for 
putting the pinicle for hinging the preist's head of the bridge, 6s.' 
With all the coolness of a counting house such records are made ; a 
succession of business entries, disbursements for "hinging" of armour, 
repairs of clock, gilding of arms, exhibition in terror em of the head of 
a priest done to death under the law ! illustrations of the life of Tyne 
Bridge from day to day. Strangers come and go, admiring the Great 
Tower ; and our local annals have to tell that it was not only a prison 
but a malt-house ! Harry Wallis, a master shipwright, is sent to the 
frowning keep, for the too free use of an abusive tongue, and finds a 
quantity of malt lying in the chamber where he is lodged, overlooking 
the river. "Merrily reflecting upon himself," he takes a shovel, "and 
throws it all into the water out at the window," improvising a verse 
that was to live in the story of Old Tyne Bridge : 

O base mault, 

Thou didst the fault, 

And into Tyne thou shalt. 

Into Tyne the bridge itself, with towers and gates, houses and 
shops, was to follow ; but the time was not yet. Trade and traffic 
ran on as before. Booksellers continued to flourish over the piers and 
arches, one of whom was the countryman and friend of Allan Ramsay ; 
and the author of Th& Gentle Shepherd sends him a letter, which 
finds its way to the renowned viaduct from the Edinburgh bookshop, 

addressed To Marton Bryson on Tyne Brigg. 

An upright, downright, honest Whigg 


It was a Bryson who printed in Edinburgh, quickly after the siege 
and surrender of Newcastle in 1644, Lithgow's triumphant account 
of the success of the Scottish arms ; and Martbn Bryson was possibly 
a kinsman. His site on Tyne Bridge is disclosed to us, incidentally, 
by a newspaper notice of a fire that broke out in premises by the river- 
side, beneath the bookseller's home and shop above, on the western 
side, and towards the northern end. One of his apprentices, William 
Charnley, son of a haberdasher in Penrith, became his partner and 
successor ; and the flood found Charnley at the receipt of custom, 
with his trumpet at his ear, in 1771. The " pretty street, beset with 
houses on each side," had received many a warning from the river 
since the fatal fire of 1248. Its populous houses and marts had often 
been threatened with overthrow by raging waters. But familiarity 
breeds proverbial contempt. Some few years before the fall, in a 
December storm of rain, the gathering flood stood " full three feet 
deep between the town-wall and the houses on the Quayside." More 
peremptory still was the notice to quit that came in the year 1771, 
and proved irresistible. In the month of November was the heaviest 
and by far the most protracted storm of rain known to memory or 
tradition. The river rose twelve feet above the ordinary mark of high 
tide : " three feet six inches higher at the bridge " than records ran. 
On the Quayside there was six feet more water than a few years before. 
The week ending Saturday, November 16, had been one of incessant 
rain over the whole watershed of the Tyne. The bridge had its arches 
filled to the brim. It stood with its houses in the flood as though it 
were an island. The Close and the Sandhill were submerged in 
common with the Quayside. Boats were plying where carriages had 
run. A shoemaker on the bridge (Peter Weatherley), roused in the 
early morning of a new week by the rushing torrent, opened his case- 
ment, and had an indistinct vision of two of his neighbours, Mr. and 
Mrs. Fiddes, who dwelt towards the north end, passing along the 
bridge in the direction of Gateshead, accompanied by their two children 
and a maid. He closed his window and was about to return to his 
bed, when suddenly the arch adjoining his house on the Newcastle 
side surged down into the raging depths, and the roadway was broken 
by a yawning gulf. The family whom he had seen passing had escaped 
to Gateshead in safety. But the servant girl, remembering a bundle 


she had left behind, prayed her master to go back with her for its 
recovery, and he consented. His wife remained with her children, 
watching their retreating steps ; and as she followed them with her 
eyes through the morning light, the arch went down, and master and 
maid were hid from her view. The shoemaker, who had witnessed 
the safe retreat of the family, was now attempting to make his own. 
The northern way he knew to be broken, but he expected to gain the 
southern shore. Soon, however, he was on the brink of the chasm 
which had proved fatal to Mr. Fiddes and his companion, Ann 
Tinkler. Before and behind him there was no passage left. He and 
his household, his wife, their two children, and a servant, were 
insulated on an area of not more than six feet square, which 
threatened to sink from under them at any moment. So rude and unruly 
were the waves, that no boat could put off for their rescue and hope to 
live. But a bricklayer in Gateshead, George Woodward, whose name 
has been preserved for us by Sykes, conceived and executed a measure 
for their deliverance. A. range of shops, then holding together on the 
east side of the bridge, supported only by timber, lay from pier 
to pier, extending from Gateshead to the place where "Weatherley and 
his little flock had been standing from about four o'clock to ten. The 
bricklayer saw in these tremulous structures his opportunity, and 
was prepared to peril life that lives might be saved. He broke a large 
hole through the side of every shop, all the way to the arch where the 
family stood, and through these openings he brought the whole of the 
household into Gateshead ; one of those deeds of heroism which dignify 
humanity, and command the admiration of mankind. 

The waste of waters had attained its greatest elevation in the 
morning of November 17, prior to the deliverance of the Weatherleys 
from impending death. The surface of the flood stood full twelve feet 
above the spring-tide level : six feet higher than was reached before. 
Buildings were everywhere distressingly invaded on both sides of the 
river, and extreme loss and misery inflicted on the inhabitants of the 
bridge. The Sandhill was a lake over which boats were floating. 
Ships were driven upon the Quayside, from which the town- wall had 
now been removed, and converted into a church. Appalling was the 
spectacle that afflicted the eye after break of day on Sunday, the shores 
no longer connected by the familiar bridge. Hundreds of the specta- 


tors had been bereft of their homes : the hearths of not a few were 
darkened by death. To Mr. Fiddes and his maid, who dwelt on the 
bridge, Sykes adds Christopher Byerley (hardwareman) and his son, as 
perishing by the falling arches ; together with an apprentice of John 
James, cheesemonger. Tradespeople of great variety were involved 
in the wreck : mercer and milliner, flax-merchant and bookseller. 
" The house of Mr. Patten, the mercer, was carried wholly away as far 
as Jarrow Slake, nothing left in it but a dog and cat, both alive." No 
wonder that in All Saints' Church, the annual school sermon had 
scant audience. The Mayor, who was one of the Borough Members, 
was among the few persons present. This was Sir Walter Blackett, 
the merchant prince whose memory has come down to us as that of 
one of the most munificent magnates 'of the Tyne. A cheerful and 
liberal giver on other occasions, it was observed with surprise that he 
now permitted the plate to pass without a contribution. At the close, 
however, of the service, he went into the vestry, and inquired of the 
churchwardens how much they had got, and what was the amount 
they usually received ? Then, having had his answer, he paid them 
the difference. It was an act of generosity characteristic of " The 
King of Newcastle ;" and in the urgency of the hour, the spirit of Sir 
Walter, and of Andrew Wood and George Woodward, found practical 
expression along the whole course of the Tyne. If there was lamen- 
tation and woe, there was sympathy and succour, and also resolute 
action to restore the broken roadway over the river. 

Divided counsels and conflicting interests stood in the way for a 
while in Newcastle and Gateshead. With a clear course there were 
castles in the air. Two high-level bridges captivated sanguine 
fancies ; one starting from the Castle Garth ; the other soaring over 
the Sandhill from the Head of the Side, a plan of which I have seen. 
But the time was not yet. The populous lower levels were predomin- 
ant. The Corporation of Newcastle, and the Boroughholders, Free- 
men, Freeholders, and Inhabitants of Gateshead, acting through a 
Committee, assisted by the facile pen of the Eector, were the chief 
forces to be brought into harmony. The former proposed a viaduct 
starting from the Javel Groop in the Close : the latter stood by the 
Roman site. Their "propositions, layed before the Corporation," 
they enclosed to Bishop Egerton, "first premising that their great 


object was to have the new bridge built on such a site as it might not 
be in art to design any other avenue thereunto more commodious than 
the line of street of Gateshead." The Bishop intimated, moreover, 
that if the bridge were built on the old site he would be at one-third 
of the expense ; but if it went westward, the Corporation would 
emancipate him from his liabilities, and he would not pay a penny. 
This was enough. The Boroughholders and their backers won. The 
Roman pass was saved. Old Tyne Bridge rose from its ashes on the 
old spot, a stone viaduct of nine arches; which Neptune speared 
long before five hundred years were gone. Trade and population 
had vastly increased above bridge and below ; and in the summer of 
1876 came the light and graceful platform of the Hydraulic Swing, 
with its convenient opening door, bringing the upper and lower reaches 
of the river into ready communication. Old Tyne Bridge, in its 
newest form, has the companionship of the much admired and much 
used Redheugh Bridge, and also of one of the two " High Levels " 
projected immediately on the catastrophe of 1771. Edward Hutchin- 
son, master mason, who was of the family of our departed friend, 
George Bouchier Richardson, was enthusiastic and eloquent in his 
advocacy of a lofty viaduct, on or about the Hue of Robert Stephen- 
son's celebrated High Level Bridge of the present century, " contrived 
a double debt to pay." With an " elegant plan," Hutchinson addressed 
the Mayor, Aldermen, and Council, unfolding his project. " As we 
build for posterity," said he, "let us do it in such a manner that 
remote ages may approve the justice and dignity of the plan." The 
Mayor and his Brethren had to deal, however, not with posterity, but 
with the Novocastrians and Gatesiders of the passing day ; and on 
the low level, and the ancient site, rose up the new bridge. 

The Story of Old Tyne Bridge I have but hinted at, not told. 
Requiring a volume, it is not to be compressed into the compass of a 
paper ; and other pens than mine may supply the deficiencies, and 
vary the interest of the tale, for the recreation and instruction of the 
members, their families and friends. The vanished viaduct, to which 
we look back with loving memory, had existed from " remotest ages." 
But time and tide wait neither for man nor bridges. The hour comes ; 
the clock strikes ; and they fall. 


THE following Report, referred to in Mr. Clephan's account of the 
Old Bridge (pp. 135-142), has been printed from the original docu- 
ment now in the possession of a member of the Society : 


Having carefully inspected the State of the South part of Tyne Bridge, the 
1 6th of September last, at low water, I found it in a general State of disrepair ; 
but as it has been originally ill built, I look upon it as impossible after standing 
so many years, to render it perfectly sound, unless the whole was new built 
which is not the present proposition; yet by occasional Repairs, seasonably ap- 
plied, it may last many Years. I shall therefore take the arches in order and 
confine myself to the pointing out of such things as more immediately call for 

The 1st arch, beginning from the South Side, is in a great measure blocked up 
by Cellars, for convenience of the houses above ; & has no Current of Water 
through it when the Water is below the Sturlings, or Jetties, as they are called, 
which surround all the Piers, in the manner of London Bridge ; this Arch 
seems at present to want no material repair. 

The 2nd arch has a passage between the Jetties at Low Water. The aislering 
of the Piers, on both sides this arch, want repairs many of them being loose, & 
some of them dropped out ; the aislering of the North Side appears worse than 
it really is, having been built originally bulging ; at least so it seems to me. 

The whole, or greatest part, of the arches of this Bridge have been lined with 
Ribs, as was customary formerly, with a view to strengthen them : but it so 
happens that a great many of those Ribs have separated themselves from the 
arches that they originally were in contact with, and have tumbled down ; one 
of the ribs now remaining in this arch vizt., that on the upstream or west side 
of the arch, is so far separated from the arch, & is in such imminent danger of 
falling, that to prevent mischief to any that may be under it, when it happens 
to fall, it will be proper to take it down. I do not apprehend it anyways neces- 
sary to rebuild it ; because I cannot suppose that it has ever been of any real use. 

In the middle of this arch, the stonework is entirely perforated by an area of 
about 4 yards by 6, & as the Bridge has been so constructed at first, it seems 
as if this area had once been covered by a Draw Bridge, by way of defence being 
so placed that if open, the passage over the Bridge as it now is between the 


Houses, would have been stopped thereby. This area is now floored with Timber 
covered with Earth, & paved at the Top like the rest of the Bridge ; so that 
when Carriages go over this part of it, the Vibration of the Timber makes it 
appear to shake. The main Timbers are pretty strong ; but the whole has been 
very roughly executed, & has all the appearance of a Jobb done in a great hurry. 
It seems also to have had some repairs occasioned by the rotting of the Ends of 
the great Beams, which have been supported by pieces put under them. Some 
of the small Wood that is supported by the greater, appears to be decayed ; but, 
while so supported nothing of great consequence can happen. In fact as I 
don't find the State of this flooring sensibly different from what it was when I 
viewed it in the year 1765, for that reason, it may be supposed possible to con- 
tinue for a number of Years to come ; but as it is a piece of Work so put together, 
that one cannot answer for it a failure may happen when it is least expected ; 
and as the Lives of Men depend upon it, & is in a visible state of decay it 
appears to me that it ought to be repaired ; & as it is very probable that it may 
never be wanted again to serve the original Intention while it is a doing I would 
recommend this area to be arched with Stone ; & as the Center may be erected 
underneath, & everything prepared for turning the arch before anything is 
disturbed upon the Top, I apprehend everything may be, with ease compleated 
in three days' Stoppage. 

The next arch North has lost all its Ribs, yet shows no Signs of Infirmity ex- 
cept, that as the Penstones are in a double Layer, composing an interiour & an 
exteriour arch, the former is a little separated from the latter, on the downstream 
side on the South Haunch. Some Repairs are wanted in the Setting of the Jetties 
of this arch, as also more or less in all the rest. 

The 4th arch from the South Side, or second from the draw Bridge arch, is 
called the Keelmans Arch ; it has originally had 5 Ribs underneath it, of 
which there is only one remaining but it shews no loss by the want of them. 
The upstream Shoulder of the Pier on the South Side of this arch wants repairs, 
& together with the rest, a number of small articles which it would be useless 
as well as tedious to mention. 

As the whole of the Repair is a kind of Jobbing Work, there is no ground upon 
which to form an Estimate of the Expence for when part of an old Edifice is 
pulled down in order to be repaired, it often discovers something unforeseen ; of 
which a Repair is equally necessary; for this Reason (except the arching of the 
draw Bridge Area) it cannot well be done by Contract ; because a Contractor 
will not do more than originally appeared, & thereby the Sore left unbottomed ; 
& if done by day's Work, the Expence will greatly depend upon the honesty & 
Address of the Workman ; but I should imagine the whole, stone Arching in the 
draw Bridge included, may be done as well as the general state of the Bridge 
will admit of, for 150, or at most 200. 


18th Oct., 1769. 


BY THE REV. J. C. BKUCE, D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A., &c. 

[Read on the 28th August, 1886.] 

SINCE I last had the pleasure of attending a meeting in this hall 
we have been deprived by death of one of our Vice-Presidents, Sir 
Charles Trevelyan. Our deceased friend was a man of so great 
eminence, and had conferred such important benefits upon England 
and England's brightest jewel, the Empire of India, that the circum- 
stance of his death has evoked the lamentations of the leading organs 
of public opinion, I may almost venture to say, throughout the whole 
civilised world, whilst at the same time the record of his deeds has 
excited their admiration. Little, therefore, is left for us to do besides 
saying what we saw of him as a friend and a neighbour. I may, 
however, be permitted to glance at his early career. 

The Trevelyans are an ancient family. The name indicates an 
early British date, long before the intrusion of the Norman William 
amongst us. I shall not, however, venture upon the pedigree of the 
family. Sir Charles was the son of the Rev. George Trevelyan, Rector 
of Nettlecombe, Somersetshire, and he was born there in 1807. So 
early as 1831 we find him holding an important appointment in the 
Civil Service of India. Here he exhibited marvellous energy of char- 
acter ; he was quick in discerning the right course to be pursued on 
all occasions, and was resolute in pursuing it. He not only did his 
duty himself, but he refused to screen those who betrayed the trust 
reposed in them. He nearly brought ruin upon himself at the outset 
of his career by exposing the shameful conduct of his superior in office; 
but he eventually succeeded in making good his charges and purging 
society to a great extent of the corruption which had previously 
prevailed in many of the public offices. 

In the midst of his anxious duties his eye fell lovingly upon the 
elder sister of Lord Macaulay, to whom in due course he was married. 
Lord Macaulay, in writing home and informing his younger sister of 


f '**Mk 


.: - .-. 


the engagement, thus speaks of the happy swain : "In this country 
he has distinguished himself beyond any man of his standing by his 
great talent for business, by his liberal and enlarged policy, and by his 
literary merit, which, for his opportunities, is remarkable." He 
further goes on to say : " He has no small talk. His mind is full of 
schemes of moral and political improvement, and his zeal boils over in 
his talk. His topics, even in courtship, are steam navigation, the 
education of the natives, the equalising of the sugar duties, the sub- 
stitution of the Eoman for the Arabic alphabet in the Oriental 
languages." This is a most pleasing picture of our late vice-president 
given by one who was well qualified to form an opinion upon the 
merits of the individual. There are two subjects in the last sentence 
of the quotation that I would like to refer to, " the education of the 
natives," and '''the substitution of the Eoman for the Arabic and 
other Eastern alphabets." At this period the question was being hotly 
debated in India shall the natives be educated in accordance with the 
teachings of Eastern or European literature ? Most persons, for fear 
of arousing the prejudices of the people, were in favour of excluding 
the literature of the Western world from the schools. Sir Charles 
Trevelyau, seeing that this would be in reality dooming them in per- 
petuity to the darkness of Hindooism, stoutly opposed the idea ; in 
doing so he was for long almost single-handed, but eventually he 
carried the day. In doing so he conferred an inestimable blessing 
upon the millions of India. And then, as to the substitution of the 
Roman for the Eastern alphabets, I am surprised that such an idea 
should have been entertained at that early period. When we compare 
the Arabic or Persic, or Japanese or Chinese, systems of writing with 
that of the Roman, how utterly different do they seem, and how 
absolutely impossible does it appear to substitute the one for the other. 
And yet the possibility and desirableness of it occurred to our friend 
half a century ago. Now we see the substitution being actually 
carried out, and books are being printed in the Arabic, Japanese, and 
even Chinese languages in the Roman characters. It would almost 
seem as if, before many more years have passed, we should see those 
characters which have been so well carved by the hands of the Romans 
themselves, on the tablets in our museum, made the means of the con- 
veyance of thought by all the nations of the earth. If so, our late 


vice-president will have a large share of the honour of having brought 
it to pass. 

The impetuosity of his nature in exposing what he believed to be 
errors in the administration of affairs in India led, when he was 
Governor of Madras, to his recall for a time, but he eventually went 
back again to discharge the important duties of Minister of Finance. 

In consequence of the failure of his health he was obliged, in 1865, 
to resign this post and quit for ever the shores of our great Eastern depen- 
dency. When in England, Sir Charles's energies could not be restrained. 
He laboured continually for the public good, and he effected many im- 
provements in the administration of public affairs without the people 
knowing to whom they were indebted for them. During the period 
which elapsed between his first and second residence in India, he held 
the office of Assistant-Secretary to the Treasury in London. Whilst 
in this position the Irish famine occurred, and he was despatched to 
the sister island to battle with the destitution which prevailed, and to 
guide the distribution of the relief which was sent out. In this task 
his powers of organisation were of great use, and he was on the whole ex- 
tremely successful. He was knighted for his services on this occasion. 

To Sir Charles Trevelyan is chiefly to be ascribed the radical change 
which has recently been made in the management of the army of Great 
Britain. He published two pamphlets upon the subject of the aboli- 
tion of the purchase of official rank in the army, and never allowed the 
subject to drop until his point was carried. In an article upon it in 
the Edinburgh Review for January, 1871, the following passage 
occurs : " Sir Charles Trevelyan has effectually disposed of the 
question of purchase ; it is doomed ; its existence is incompatible with 
the true nationalism of the British army." Whilst Sir Charles out of 
doors discussed the subject, his son, the present baronet, Sir George 
Otto Trevelyan, within the walls of the House of Commons urged and 
eventually carried it. 

On retiring from public life he did not cease to employ his energies 
for the good of mankind. In London he laboured to reform the abuses 
which had crept into the administration of some of the charities there, 
and to mitigate the pauperism which abounded on every hand. 

On the death of his cousin, Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, in 1879, Sir 
Charles succeeded by bequest to the estate of Wallington, and became 


a resident in Northumberland. He quickly joined our Society, and 
we gladly availed ourselves of the opportunity of adding him to our 
Yice-Presidents, in place of his departed relative. He was fond of 
antiquarian pursuits, and, as far as his opportunities extended, he 
promoted them. In our Transactions* is a paper written by him on 
the " Discovery of Ancient Bronze Implements near "Wellington," 
with chromo-lithographic plates of the objects. The hospitalities of 
Wallington, as I have had the happiness to know, were freely accorded 
to men of antiquarian tastes. Many of the members now present will 
remember the visit which not long ago they paid to Wallington, at the 
express invitation of Sir Charles. After enjoying the graceful hospi- 
talities of their host and hostess, the party were conducted over the 
house, when every object of antiquarian interest was lucidly explained 
by Sir Charles. In acknowledging the thanks, which, at the close 
of their visit, the party rendered to Sir Charles and Lady Trevelyan, 
he, as you may remember, observed that " he held the Newcastle Society 
of Antiquaries not only in public respect, but in personal affection. 
Ever since he was a boy he had interested himself in such subjects, as 
he had had opportunity, and he had watched through long years the 
constant successful labours of their Society." 

Sir Charles on taking up his residence in the north speedily set 
himself to discharge the duties becoming the Lord of Wallington. 
He sought the acquaintance of all his tenants, and became interested 
in their welfare. He knew everybody. Though not a Northumbrian 
himself, it is interesting to notice the good opinion which he had 
formed of us. Speaking at a Poor Law Conference in 1880, and de- 
nouncing the evil effects of out-door relief, he says, " In Northumber- 
land, the wages in his neighbourhood averaged 1 per week. Then, 
the people were a remarkable people, and he was proud of them. 
They had hitherto been uncorrupted by this horrible system of State 
relief, and they were a thoughtful, purpose-like, thrifty, sober people." 
He goes on to say that there was not a single pauper on his estate at Wal- 
lington. Would that all the landlords in England could say the same ! 

Sir Charles took an interest in most of the affairs transpiring in 
the county. He put forth vigorous efforts to have a railway carried 
direct from Newcastle to Rothbury, and so right through the centre of 

* Arch. Ael. IX., 52. 


Northumberland to Cornhill. If these efforts had been put forth 
before the railway was made from Morpeth to Rothbury, they would 
probably have been successful. He frequently attended the Poor Law 
Conferences of the northern district, which are usually held every 
autumn at Gilslaud. When present he was the life and soul of these 
meetings, having something to say upon every subject which was 
brought forward. His views upon out-door relief were very strong. 
" Legal out-door relief," he said upon one occasion, " was totally un- 
necessary and most mischievous ; it was by far the greatest demoralising 
influence in this country. Every man from bis youth upward, looked 
forward to the time when he would be no longer equal to hard labour, 
and at the age of 60, for that was fixed in the minds of our people, he 
went to claim his pension. As for the women, they generally went 
much sooner. These people looked for support, not to their own 
industry, their own self-restraint, or their own thrift, but to the pen- 
sions provided by the State. Nothing would go right in England until 
this was set right. Our people had been corrupted by it. In the 
south they were entirely corrupted ; in the north the people had more 
bone and sinew, but even there it had gone too far." When the Public 
Library in New Bridge Street was opened he was present, and took 
part in the proceedings. At the Church Congress held in Newcastle in 
1881, he read a paper. In October of the same year, he gave a lecture 
in the hall of the Literary and Philosophical Society upon the im- 
portant subject on which he was so well entitled to speak 
" Hindooism and Christianity contrasted ;" in it he showed what an 
unspeakable blessing Christianity was to the world ; and one felt, as 
one listened to him, that Christianity was to him not a mere thing of 
the intellect, but of the heart and of the life. 

The last time I saw our friend was, in November last, at Scots Gap 
station. We had but an interview of a few moments, and yet I still 
feel the eager grasp of his hand, and I shall never forget the sunshine 
of his beaming countenance. 

Sir Charles died on the 19th of June, 1886. 

I will now conclude these imperfect remarks by quoting a couple 
of lines from a leading article in the Times newspaper of the Monday 
(June 21) following his death : " He has passed away in his eightieth 
year, leaving a record long and varied, but spotless all through." 



[Read on the 29th September, 1886.] 

THE camp is situated on what is known as the "Kiln" or " Limestone 
Rigg," about half a mile N.N.E. from, the farmstead of Quarry House ; 
it is roughly six-sided, a shape which seems to have been prescribed 
by the nature of the ground whereon it is constructed. 
The dimensions of the outer rampart are as follows : 


Length of North side ... ... ... 48 

Do. North-west side 57 

Do. West side 17 

Do. South-west 26 

Do. South side 63 

Do. East side ... 70 

Making a circumference of 

The height of the outer earthwork is greatest immediately to the 
south of the entrance : it is here 3 feet 9 inches high, and at the place 
where it seems to approach nearest to its original condition it is 10 
feet wide at the base. The inner line measures, in circumference, 
rather more than 200 yards ; it is impossible to even approximate its 
original dimensions, as it exists at present only as an irregular mound, 
about 2 feet high, with several huge stones which have escaped the 
spoiler, and seem to have once formed part of a continuous facing of 
upright stones on the outer side of the earth mound. Both the outer 
and inner works would be probably defended by a stockade, making in 
fact a double vallum. 

The entrance at G is 44 yards from the N.E. corner of the outer 
rampart. A mound of earth connects the outer and inner lines of 
defence to the north of the entrance. The fosse runs at a much higher 


level to the north of this mound than it does south of the entrance. 
A morass encircles the site to the north and south, which, during the 
occupation of the camp would doubtless be impassable. 

Mounds of earth and stone are observable to the south of the 
existent lines. I believe these are the remains of a third line of 
defence, which was composed mainly of stone, and forming a con- 
venient quarry for the occupants of the farm. Through the removal 
of the stones it has assumed its present disjointed appearance. 
The present farm-tenant informs me that during his tenancy alone, 
hundreds of loads of stones have been quarried from the camp, the 
hut circles, and the stone avenue. Eemains of many circular 
dwellings are to be distinctly traced within the earthwork. One of 
these is of unusual size, being 26i feet in diameter. The prevailing 
size is from 15 to 20 feet. A unique feature in the camp is the exist- 
ence in the S.W. corner of the inner ramparts of two hut circles, as 
shown on the plan. Slightly to the north of the entrance is a cairn-like 
erection, which contains many large freestone blocks. This mound has 
been excavated, and presented a paved enclosure with a row of large 
stones disposed in the arc of a circle having a radius of 6 feet ; these 
stones are backed up on the outside with earth and smaller stones, 
leading to the conclusion that this is the ruinous and incomplete 
foundation of a circular dwelling ; but two very large stones occupy 
positions on their edges which seem to require explanation. 

These two seemingly erratic blocks are sunk beneath the line of 
pavement. Within the area excavated were found many stones which 
were reddened, and indeed powdered by heat ; these were mostly found 
in front of the stone marked A, which was itself much reddened on 
the face. One small piece of hard inferior coal was found, and a few 
fragments of what seems to have been earthenware of a very coarse 
description similar to ordinary draining pipes. The encircling stones 
are 18 inches deep. About 100 yards east of the camp is a cairn, 
which has very narrowly escaped destruction from the plough a fate 
which seems to have overtaken two other mounds of like nature to the 
south and north of this one. 

Ninety yards due west from the N.W. angle of the camp, and 
across the " bog," is a never failing well, surrounded by a line of free- 
stone slabs, set on edge in a circle 6 feet in diameter ; it is also com- 




pletely paved out at the bottom, and is about 1 foot deep at present. 
We have here, probably, the well which supplied the camp. It is 
known at the present time as " The Eoman Well." 

From the N.E. corner of the camp an escarpment of grey lime- 
stone stretches away towards the north ; along the foot of this "Lime- 
stone Rigg" are lying in seeming disorder a quantity of large freestone 
blocks. Upon the brow of the escarpment, and about 60 yards from 
the N.E. corner of the intrenchment, commences a double alignment 
of stone blocks, many of large size. 

This avenue may be traced for a distance of 300 yards eastward to 
the course of a small stream, although the eastern portion is nearly obliter- 
ated, its former existence being only verified by scattered mounds and 
fragments. That any of this interesting relic has descended to our 
time is due to the nature of the stone used, and the size of the pieces, 
which alike prevented their easy dismemberment and their removal 
entire. The stone presents a silvery-grey fracture ; it is very rich in 
silica. No stone of this nature exists in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. Exposure to the weather seems only to have affected the stcnes 
by hardening them. One of the larger blocks measures 5 feet long, 
3 feet deep, and 20 inches wide. This block, I was subsequently told, 
had been split and fully one-third tajcen away. 

There now remain on the southern line of the avenue about 34 
stones, which may fairly claim to be the full size as originally placed ; 
on the north line remain 84 similarly ; these represent less than 
one-fourth of the avenue, and not 10 consecutive yards retain any- 
thing like their original appearance. As far as can be inferred from 
what is left, the primitive workmen seem to have first constructed a 
rounded mound of earth and stones, and thereon to have placed the 
large blocks, which are the most striking feature of the works ; these, 
I am of opinion, have been originally placed in a double line, and 
almost touching each other, if not close together. 

The motive which prompted the erection at such an enormous cost 
of labour and time, of this class of rude stone monuments, of which 
that under consideration is but a humble type, was either the praise of 
achievement or the expression of religious feeling ; possibly a combina- 
tion of these caused the erection of the structure under consideration, 
as I discovered on my last visit to the spot, what is evidently a 



tumulus, which probably covers an interment made ages ago. This 
tumulus escaped my notice before, as it is across the stream from 
the end of the stone avenue, but the original course of the burn has 
been round the east side of the mound on which the tumulus was 
raised. Belief in a future state, no doubt, prevailed amongst the 
erectors of this monument ; they evidently expected their dead to par- 
ticipate in the pleasure they felt in its erection. May its orientation 
have any peculiar significance ? Or is it purely accidental ? 

I trust that the excavations I purpose making may supply some- 
what more of interest and worth communicating to the Society. 


BY R. S. FERGUSON, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A., &c. 

[Read on October 27th, 1886.] 

lis anticipation of the proposed pilgrimage along the line of the 
Roman Wall, projected by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle in 
conjunction with the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and 
Archaeological Society and now a happily accomplished fact, the 
Council of the latter Society appointed a committee to make the 
necessary local arrangements and further empowered that committee 
to make excavations at such points on the Wall as they should think 
likely to yield valuable results. The work was entrusted to the follow- 
ing members, Mr. Isaac Cartmell, Mr. J. A. Cory, the Rev. T. Lees, 
F.S.A., and Mr. R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A. 

The committee very shortly after their appointment got to work. 
In making the preparations for the pilgrimage it seemed to them, that 
in Cumberland, where enclosures and cultivated lands render it impos- 
sible for a large party to follow closely the course either of the Wall 
or of the Vallum, it would be necessary to mark the Wall and Vallum 
and the roads and camps by coloured flags ; it was therefore agreed to 
mark the Wall by red flags, the Vallum by olive,* the roads by white, 
and the camps by red and white. This was done ; about 150 flags 
were placed in such situations as to be visible to the pilgrims, and the 
committee have to thank the Rev. A. Wright of Gilsland, and his two 
sons, the Rev. H. J. Bulkeley of Lanercost, Mr. T. Carlisle of Tarraby, 
Mr. McKie of Carlisle (the city surveyor), Mr. Sibson of Carlisle, Mr. 

* This was an unfortunate choice, olive being almost indistinguishable against 
grass. Yellow was the colour originally chosen, but in consequence of its being 
a party colour in Cumberland, and political feeling running very high, owing to 
the elections, it was thought advisable to discard it. 


Mulcaster of Burgh, Mr. Matthew Hodgson of Dykesfield, the Rev. S. 
Medlicott of Bowness-on-Solway, and others, for kind assistance in 
placing the same. The committee also found it necessary to have some 
repairs done to a field road at Bleatarn to enable carriages to pass ; 
by a misapprehension more was done than the committee intended, 
and the cost was considerably more than they had anticipated. 

With regard to suitable places for excavation, the committee con- 
sidered it would be desirable to ascertain how the Wall crossed the 
various rivers in Cumberland, and if possible to find the piers of the 
bridges : the Poltross Burn at the entrance into Cumberland, the 
Irthing at Willowford, and the Eden at Carlisle seemed likely places 
to yield results. They thought also of tackling the great question of 
whether the Roman Wall went round or over Burgh Marsh ; they 
however found that their hands were full, and this problem still awaits 

Permission was readily given by Mr. Howard of Naworth Castle, 
to excavate at the Poltross Burn and at the Willowford, but on view 
of the latter place, it was seen that the damage to the grass crops, etc., 
would be too great, and the intention to excavate there was abandoned 
until a more suitable season. 

In the result, excavations were made at the Poltross Burn, and at 
Carlisle ; on these we proceed to report seriatim. 


The Poltross Burn, separating Cumberland from Northumberland, 
runs, near to the railway station on the North Eastern Railway formerly 
known as Rosehill but now as Gilsland, through a deep and narrow 
wooded ravine ; the Roman Wall, Vallum, and military road (the Stane 
or Carel Gate) cross the ravine close to the station, and on the left or 
west bank of the Poltross is what has been regarded as a mile castle, 
known as the King's Stables ; this was partly destroyed, fifty years ago, 
when the railway was made : a plan of the locality, drawn by Mr. 
Cory, is given with this report. 

Operations were first commenced in the ravine on the western 
bank, where the Vicar of Gilsland, Mr. Wright, had long ago pointed 
out to the Cumberland Society the existence of stone work. This 

All. to rare p. ii>o 

\~ A 1 h VII 

9.- ft 



ARCH. /EL. XII. p. 

68- ff 








6 -- 




W !!!',- 


turned out to be a regular faced wall of about three courses of 
ashlar work : at a distance of 12 feet 6 inches from it were about five 
courses of a similar wall. On examining the eastern bank, corre- 
sponding fragments of wall were found at a distance from each 
other of 14 feet, thus showing that the Roman road, known after- 
wards as the Stane or Carel Gate, had crossed the Poltross by a deep 
cutting, faced on each side by a regular stone wall ; on the east 
side this cutting ended on a platform of rock which was higher 
than the corresponding one on the ; western side, so that the bridge 
itself (a wooden one) must have been on a steep slope. Such a bridge, 
whose length would be some 70 feet, would require supports other than 
merely at its two ends, and in the bed of the stream close to the west 
bank is a large stone, not of the native rock, oval in section, and much 
water-worn, which may have been the foundation of a pier ; and at 
the east side is what appears to be a pier artificially built. A sketch 
plan by Mr. Wright, which we give with this report, shows the exact 
positions, and we also exhibit photographs. 

"We were much tempted, and it would be interesting, to clear out 
these deep cuttings, but we did not consider that the leave given us 
by Mr. Howard would authorise such extensive works, and we feared 
also that the sides of the cuttings, when cleared out, would probably 
collapse at once, unless supported by strong timber struts. 

"We also present with this report a plan of the results of our excav- 
ations at the King's Stables ; the external wall is eleven feet thick, 
built in the usual Roman fashion of a concrete body with ashlar 
facings of which the external one is much destroyed ; a passage or 
interval of about two feet intervened, and then came an inner wall 
two feet thick ; this would doubtless be a contrivance for making the 
building warmer than a single wall would have done ; apparently the 
interior had consisted of a number of small rooms, but the place had 
been so smashed about when the railway was made that a plan could 
not be got. The ancients of the vicinity, John o' Johnson and John 
o' th' Crook, talked of a vault having then been found, and a pot full 
of grey dust ; they also identified a skeleton found by us at the place 
marked in the plan, as that of a murdered Jew pedlar, whose uneasy 
ghost vexed the soul of Tib Mumps of Mumps Ha' by insisting on 
walking so long as his body lay upon the moor, and only desisted 


from that uncanny practice on its earthly tenement being lodged here, 
in front of Mumps Ha', under Tib's watchful eye. 

One thing is clear, the King's Stables are something more than a 
mere mile castle ; the crossing of the wall over the Irthing at Willow- 
ford and over the Eden at Stanwix * were each protected by a fort 
perched on the high ground above, and the office of the King's Stables 
was to protect the crossing over the Poltross, not so much we imagine 
to prevent an enemy crossing the Poltross itself, as to prevent one from 
wading up the stream, and so penetrating- the barrier of the Wall by 
getting under the bridge. One or two of us rather incline to believe 
that the passage under the bridges along the Wall was protected by 
a stockade or portcullis, movable in times of high floods. We could 
even venture to suggest that the machinery at Chollerford, whose use 
Mr. Sheriton Holmes has so well explained,! was to raise not the plat- 
form of the bridge, but a movable stockade or portcullis. We can 
see no object to be effected by having a movable platform in the 
bridge, no object in making a gap between one division of -the Roman 
troops and another,! but we do see a most important object to be 
attained in making it impossible for an enemy to crawl under the 

We must here express our sense of the kind assistance given us in 
these excavations by Mr. Wright and his two sons, and of the liberality 
of Miss Dobinson of Throp Farm, on which they are situate, in letting 

us dig as we pleased. 


Although no excavations were made here, a word or two will not 
be out of place. Mr. MacLauchlan in his survey of the Roman Wall 
says : 

Here (at Willowford farm house) it (the Wall) makes a considerable turn to 
the south, in the direction of the mile castle on the top of the cliff on the north 
of the Irthing ; but near the river, and in the low ground, the Wall is totally 

* Pennant cited infra. 

f Proc. Soc. Ant. of Newcastle, Vol. II., p. 178. 

J With these ideas in our minds it was interesting to note, while making the 
arrangements for the pilgrimage, that by the side of many modern bridges a rope 
of wire was suspended across the stream. On inquiry we found that this was 
for bushes to be suspended from to prevent cattle passing under the bridge ; 
notably this was so at the bridge over the King Water, close to where the Roman 
Wall crossed that stream. Other bridges were barred by a water heck. 


This is not quite correct, the Wall can be traced down from the Willow- 
ford Farm house to the low ground : there it terminates in a mound 
which caps it, exactly as the top of a capital letter "]~ caps the stem. 
This mound is the first or land pier of the bridge : it is now a mass of 
confused masonry overgrown by large trees and brushwood. Mr. 
Henry Laidler, the tenant of the Willowford Farm, informs Mr. "Wright 
that he can point out the remains of another pier between that and 
the river's southern bank. Search would probably reveal that the 
bridge had two or three openings : the remains of masonry clinging 
to the tall cliff that overhangs the Irthing on the north show that the 
river cannot have altered its course much to the north : we venture to 
think that in Koman times, as now, the Irthing left on its southern 
bank one opening at least of the bridge dry except in time of flood, 
and that dry opening we are inclined to think the Romans closed with 
a stockade, movable in time of flood. One thing we feel sure of : the 
Roman engineers would never have attempted to span the Irthing by 
a bridge of the summer width of that stream ; dry openings the bridge 
must generally have had, and these the Romans must somehow or 
other have closed against their foes on the north. 

A mile castle stands almost on the top of the cliff on the north side 
of the river Irthing. 


Before commencing excavations at Carlisle with a view to find the 
foundations of the Roman bridge, the committee consulted Mr. T. V. 
Holmes, F.G.S., on the geological conditions of the problem. 

The following is Mr. Holmes's reply : 

Though the broad alluvial flats bordering the Eden testify to very considerable 
change of channel between Wetheral Viaduct and the Solway, and I suppose the 
time when the " Sands " at Carlisle was an island is almost within the memory 
of the oldest inhabitant, I do not think the surroundings of the Roman Station 
at Stanwix have changed much since Roman times. Between Rickerby Park 
and Hyssop Holme Well the alluvial flats on the north bank are but narrow, 
while between Hyssop Holme and Etterby, the alluvium is entirely to the south 
of the river, which there eats into Etterby Scaur, and deposits on the Willow 
Holme. The Eden has never been north of its present channel at Etterby Scaur, 
or of the well-marked bank bounding the alluvium between Hyssop Holme Well 
and the western entrance to Rickerby Park. The question remains : Is it likely 
that the Eden has eaten largely into this bank since Roman times ? My impres- 
sion is that the greater part of the alluvium of the cricket ground and the field 


west of it is old. and probably pre-Roman: that its level is generally higher than 
that of the Sauceries opposite. But if I recollect rightly, there is a small allu- 
vial area close to Hyssop Holme Well which is alluvium of more recent date, and 
consequently lower in level. At the present day we see that the influx of the 
Caldew deflects the current of the Eden towards the northern bank, a deposit 
being left on the southern. 

Between Hyssop Holme -/Well and Etterby, I am inclined to think the Eden 
has been slowly and steadily cutting its way northward for centuries without 
any of those capricious shiftings of channel shown at and east of Carlisle. It is 
impossible to say at what rate it has been eating its way N., and apart from 
positive evidence where its channel was in Roman times. But my search for 
the bridge would be in the first place along the Willow Holme line for the 
Roman Wall (6 in. map) between Eden and Caldew, and then, if unsuccessful, 
W. of the latter stream. 

From the oldest maps that we can find, it would appear that the 
channel of the river Eden has not changed much near Hyssop Holme 
Well since the time of Queen Elizabeth. We give with this report a 
plan adapted from Mr. MacLauchlan's Survey, showing the places 
mentioned by Mr. Holmes, with the exception of the Solway and 
Wetheral Viaduct, which may be found in any Ordnance Map ; 
Wetheral Viaduct crosses the Eden, which there runs through a narrow 
gorge, about five miles above Carlisle. At Carlisle the distance across 
the alluvial flats from Hyssop Holme Well, where the Eoman Wall 
descends to those flats, to Parharn Beck near the Manure Works* 
where it rises again to the high ground, is about four-fifths of a mile : 
to the Castle Hill at Windy Corner is under one-third of a mile. 

Prior to 1854, it was a question in what manner the Roman Wall 
crossed these alluvial flats ; " whether bending towards the castle, or 
taking a straight course across the flat ground to the engine house at 
Newton (now known as the Manure Works), formerly used to supply 
the canal with water " see MacLauchlan's Survey, p. 75. The ques- 
tion was solved in that year by the foundations of the Wall being cut 
by the excavation for a sewer, at the point marked A in thef 25 inch 
Ordnance Map, Cumb., sheet 5XIIL 3, submitted with this report, 
thus proving that the Wall ran from the Hyssop Holme Well to the 
Pumping Engine House, or Manure Works. 

* Formerly known as the Pumping Engine House. 

f This is too large to be reproduced here, but copies are deposited with the 
Societies of Antiquaries of London and Newcastle, and with the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. Most of the places 
mentioned are on the plan given infra sub race Stanwix, 


Having laid down the geological and geographical conditions of 
the problem to find how and where the Roman Wall crossed the 
river Eden let us consider the historical conditions. 

In Gibson's edition of Camden's Britannia, published in 1695, p. 
833, is the following passage : 

The Picts Wall that was afterwards built, &c., is to be seen at Stanwix, a small 
village a little beyond the Eden (over which there is a wooden bridge). It 
passed the river over against the castle, where in the very channel the remains 
of it, namely great stones, appear to this day. 

On turning to earlier editions of Camden we find in the edition of 
1600, p. 704, the following : 

Murus enim ille Picticus, qui Seueri vallo postea impositus erat, parum vltra 
Itunam siue Eden fl : qui jam ponte ligneo conjungitur ad Stamvik sviculum 
cernitur, et ipsum flumen e regione castri transiit, vbi in fl : alueo ipsius vestigia, 
saxa scilicet ingentia adhuc extant. 

This passage does not appear in the earlier editions of 1586, 
1587, and 1590 ; the library of the Society of Antiquaries of London 
contains no editions between 1590 and 1600, so that we have not 
been able to consult such editions, if they exist, but the edition of 
1600 was published immediately after Camden's visit to the Roman 
Wall in 1599 in company with Sir Robert Cotton, (Arch. AeL, N.S., 
Vol. IX., p. 26), so that there can be no doubt that Camden saw the 
saxa ingentia in the channel of the river e regione castri. As the Wall 
can be traced from the east to the top of Hyssop Holme Bank, e regione 
castri must be there or thereabouts. 

Pennant, cited in Hutchinson's Cumberland, Vol. II., p. a79n, 
writes of the Roman Wall : 

From thence it passes behind Stanwix to Hissopholm Hank, an eminence 
above the water [Eden] ; on which are the vestiges of some dykes, describing a 
small square, the site of a fort to defend the pass ; for the wall reached the edge 
of the water, and continued to the opposite side, over Soceres meadow [hodie The 
Sauceries] &c. Possibly this was a station for cavalry ; for near Hissop Bank, is 
a stupendous number of horses bones, exposed by the falling of the cliff. 

This is interesting as recording, what is now obliterated by houses 
and gardens, the existence of a fort to guard the crossing of the river.* 

* Pennant suggests that this fort was held by cavalry; at the crossing over 
the Poltross the legendary name of the King's Stables points to the same thing ; 
at Chesters (CiLVENVM) which guards the bridge over the -North Tyne. the 
garrison was of cavalry. We have some idea that a legend of horses hangs about 
the mile castle over Willowford. 


Hutchinson, whose history of Cumberland was published in 1794, says: 

Severus' wall has formed the north rampart of the station, and has stretched 
through the gardens of the village, some of them being fenced with stones 
obtained from it. The ditch is distinctly to be traced from the west end of the 
village to the river's banks ; and the ridge which the wall has left is pretty 
eminent in many places, and may be accurately traced to the very brink of the 
precipice above the river Eden ; we discovered its apparent termination on tho 
edge of a steep precipice, not less than sixty perpendicular feet above the stream ; 
and at the bottom of the precipice, a few yards below Hissopholm Well, some 
of the remains are still to be seen, and the fishermen have frequently pulled up 
large oak stakes from the bottom of the river, which entangled their nets. 
Tradition also says, there was a wood bridge crossed the Eden near this place, and 
rested upon the castle bank opposite. Hutchinson, Vol. II., p. 578. 

Hutchinson does not say what the remains consisted of * : nothing 
is now to be seen. But in the river opposite to and extending below 
Hyssop Holme Well is a considerable gravel bed, which many have 
supposed to have been caused by, or to have concealed the piers on 
which the Roman Wall crossed the river Eden. The wood bridge 
whereof Pennant records the tradition must not be confounded with 
the wooden bridge [_qui jam ponlc ligneo conjungitur] of Camden. 
That bridge, or rather bridges of 1599, for there were two, over two 
separate channels, were near the site of the present fine stone bridge ; 
in 1600 an Act of Parliament was obtained to rebuild them, and 
they were replaced by two narrow stone bridges, which \vere again 
replaced in 181 '2, by the present structure. 

With the above data, we commenced our search for the remains 
mentioned by Camden and by Hutchinson, and the course of the 
Wall over the alluvial flats of the Eden. We had, as certain date, 
the point A where the foundations of the Wall were disclosed in 
1854, and the point on Hyssop Holme Bank where the Wall coming 
from the east was traceable to. Between these two points MacLauchlan 
and the Ordnance Survey draw a straight line for the course of the 
Wall : their lines do not quite agree, the Ordnance Survey taking as 
its point on Hyssop Holme Bank the north edge of the north ditch 
of the Wall, while MacLauchlan, more correctly takes the Wall itself. 

Our first proceeding was to cut trenches in the Sauceries in the 

* Hutchinson says nothing about saxa ingentia perhaps the great flood of 
1771 swept them away, if they remained so long. That flood swept away the 
foundations of the supposed bridge over the Tees at Fierse Bridge, five miles 
above Darlington. Jour. British Archaeol. Association, Vol. XLli., p. 221. 


angle between the Eden and the Caldew, as suggested by Mr. Holmes. 
Two were cut in echelon one with the other, each about 30 feet long, 
well overlapping the lines both of McLauchlan and the Ordnance 
Survey ; the alluvial soil was cut through until the water came in at 
a depth of about 6 feet 6 inches ; a depth of about two feet more was 
searched by iron bars ; not a sign of foundations, not a chip of stone 
was to be found, though the gravel below the alluvial deposit was 
reached. The Romans, as we afterwards proved, put their foundations 
on the top of this gravel. 

We then resolved to try near the known point A, and selected a 
clay pit in the angle between the Caledonian and Xorth British 
Railways, where tradition asserted the Wall to have been found when 
the latter railway was made. We found the foundations of the Wall 
at a depth of about eight feet from the surface of the ground, resting 
upon the gravel below the alluvial soil ; the stones of the Wall had 
been taken away down to the very foundation, but one or two bits of 
ashlar still in position enabled us to get the width of the Wall as 7 feet 
9 inches. The two places where we found it in the clay pit are 
marked B and C on the Ordnance Plan presented with this report : 
they are considerably to the south of MacLauchlan's and the Ordnance 
Survey line, something like 80 or 90 feet south of the latter. Our 
next trial was in the Willow Holme, on the east of the Caledonian 
Railway, where we found the Wall at the place marked D on the 
map. D was nearer to MacLauchlan's and the Ordnance Survey 
line than B or C, showing that the Wall had made an angle towards 
the north, and at D, it seemed to be pointing to a point on Hyssop 
Holme Bank, below where the Caldew now enters the Eden, and 
below where the Wall coming from the east is traceable to on the 
top of that bank. We marked the points A, C, and D, with three 
tall poles painted white and bearing red flags, and adjourned our 
proceedings to the Stanwix side of the river ; we dug a trench on the 
footpath on the top of the bank, and the forced earth in it gave us a 
section of the north ditch; we next started to dig in the "small 
alluvial area close to Hyssop Holme Well " (See Mr. Holmes's letter 
ante, p. 163) ; we dug no less than three trenches of great depth (11 
feet in one place) and length, but found no trace whatever of the 
Wall ; a halfpenny of George II.. and a few bits of broken stone 


all we found. Frustrated here, we then returned to the Willow Holme, 
and dug a trench about 25 yards in advance of D ; to our surprise, 
although we continued the trench on either side of the prolongation 
of the line C D, we found nothing. We then returned to D, and 
dug along C D, towards the river, but in a very few feet all trace 

We next employed a man to search the gravel bed in the river 
opposite Hyssop Holme Well : this he did with a crowbar, but nothing 
like foundations could be discovered, though some twenty squared 
stones were found of undoubted Roman work ; these were strewed 
promiscuously about the bed of the river, and might have rolled down 
from the top of the cliff ; they were of the ordinary size of the ashlar 
work of the Roman Wall, but too small, we should imagine, to have 
been used as foundations for the piers of the bridge. 

One more trench we dug : on the top of the Hyssop Holme Bank, 
near the verge of the cliff, across the line of the Wall itself ; the Wall 
here had been so thoroughly spoiled of its stones as to have been 
turned into a deep ditch or cutting filled up by made soil, not a stone 
remained. This is curious, because at the back of the row of villas on 
the top of Hyssop Holme Bank, the foundations of the Wall were 
found at the depth of 8 or 10 feet, and large pieces of concrete were 
taken up and conveyed to neighbouring garden rockeries. The Wall 
passes diagonally across the garden of two of these villas, and is there 
recognisable by the richer soil, the stones themselves having been all 
carried off.* 

It is quite evident that where the Wall existed in the alluvial flats 
of the river Eden, it has been utilised as a quarry and plundered to its 
very foundations, for, no doubt, the building of the castle, cathedral, 
and walls of Carlisle : in the time that has since elapsed, some 800 
years, the scant remains of its foundations have been buried seven 
or eight feet deep under a silent alluvial deposit, leaving no mark 
whatever on the surface. 

* We were at first much puzzled in our inquiries at Stanwix from builders, 
gardeners, etc., as to the site of the Wall and the north ditch, until we recognised 
the fact that the Wall is often so robbed of its stones as to have become a ditch 
or fosse, and then to have silted up ; thus we, at first, occasionally imagined from 
the description, that an informant was pointing out to us the north ditch, whereas 
it was the Wall itself. 


We are rather inclined to think that the actual bridge itself may 
have extended from the point D, where we lost trace of the foun- 
dations, to the foot of Hyssop Holme Bank, about one-third of a 
mile ; giving a bridge of some 50 openings, if we take the opening of 
the bridge over the North Tyne as a scale. There is nothing im- 
probable in this ; the vast floods that frequently cover the alluvial 
flats of the Eden would sweep away any solid wall across them ; the 
Romans must either have embanked the river in a narrow and deep 
channel by heavy earthworks, of which no evidence is now to be seen, 
or they must have had a bridge of some 50 openings. The engineers 
who took the Caledonian railway on an earthern embankment over 
these flats have made in that embankment no less than three bridges 
for the passage of flood waters, in addition to the one over the actual 
channel of the river. 

Unless there was an angle in this long bridge or causeway with 
openings, it must have hit Hyssop Holme Bank lower down than the 
point where the wall is traced to from the east, and have run to that 
point diagonally up the cliif, thus giving an easier ascent and descent 
than if it went straight up ; on this we refrain to speculate until we 
can discover more, but discovery is difficult with a veil of six or eight 
feet of alluvial soil over what we seek. 

We have to express our thanks to Mr. J. G. Mounsey, the agent of 
the Duke of Devonshire, for his kindness in giving us leave to 
excavate, where and as we found necessary, on the Duke's property ; 
to Mr. Bell, the Duke's tenant, for assistance and information ; to 
Mr. Maxwell, the tenant under the Corporation, for permitting us to 
excavate as we pleased in the Willow Holme ; and to Mr. McKie, the 
city surveyor, for the most valuable practicable assistance, and the 
genuine interest he displayed in the search. 

We recommend that the points A, B or C, and D, and also the 
places * where the Wall and North Ditch are traced to on Hyssop Holme 
Bank, be marked by stone posts at the expense of the Cumberland and 
Westmoreland Society. 

* Marked E and F, on the Ordnance Plan presented with the report. At the 
time of going to press, December 14th, 1886, the posts are placed, as stated in 
the text. They have on them : Roman Wall, site of, 1886. 



A few words on this Station may not be inappropriate ; we 
obtained, from Mr. Maclnnes, permission to dig in its suburbs, but 
time failed us. We refer readers to a plan of the camp from 
MacLauchlan's Survey, given with this report. 

Messrs. Horsley and War burton (cited in Hutchinson's Cumber- 
land, Vol. II., p. 579), say of this station : 

This situation will suit exactly well with those rules which the Romans 
observed in building these stations ; for here is a plain area for the station, and 
a gentle descent to the south, and towards the river for the out-buildings ; 
and by all accounts, and the usual evidences, it is upon this descent, and chiefly 
to the south-east, that the Roman buildings have stood. Abundance of stones 
have been lately dug up in this part ; some, by the description given of 
them, resembled the stones of an aqueduct. 

The Bishop of Cloyne says : 

The site is a good one on a south bank sloping to the Eden. The church 
stands within the area of the station, and the descent to the river is covered 
with ancient ruins of houses that extend into the street of Carlisle itself, which 
I have before contended was a British town occupied by the Romans and used 
as a vicus or suburb to the garrison. Lysons' Cumb. cxxxix. 

Most people, now-a-days, if ever they think about these passages, 
take the descent to the river to be that best known to them, down the 
high road to the present Eden bridge. But that is not what Horsley 
and Warburtou and the Bishop of Cloyne meant. On the Newcastle 
road, opposite to Stanwix churchyard, is a gate into a field belonging to 
Mr. Maclnnes, called, we believe, the King's Field or Chair ; an old 
road can be seen in it, and this is the old Roman road from the south 
of the camp, and the outbuildings and suburbs were in this field. We 
have, added it to the plan, taken from MacLauchlan's Survey and 
given with this report. It is singular that Mr. MacLauchlan has 
missed this road altogether, though he has got, correctly, the road 
going north from the camp (see his Survey, p. 75, and the plan 
herewith). Both were in use until modern times ; that to the south 
until the military road was made after the 1745; that to the north 
to a much later period, until the Glasgow road was made in this 
century.* In Matthias Reid's picture of Carlisle, circa 1720, in the 

* The late Mr. Ferguson said he had seen the mail coaches use the south road: 
in that case it must have been in use until the present Eden bridges were built ; 
they were commenced in 1812. 




Town Hall of Carlisle, this south road is shown with travellers coming 
down it. One of the committee thinks the Eoman bridge should be 
sought for where this road comes down to the Eden, a little east of 
the present Eden bridge. At this point, most of us are disposed to 
think the Eomans had, if not a bridge of which there is no evidence, 
a trajectus, a paved ford, in addition to the bridge near Hyssop Holme 
Bank ; an ancient ford exists to this day just a little to the eastward 
of the present Eden bridges. It is therefore quite possible that in 
addition to the bridge e regionc castri, that is at Hyssop Holme Bank, 
there was a Eoman ford, which may have been a paved one, east of 
the present Eden bridge. 

The eastern road from the camp at Stanwix is traceable in foot- 
path and byeway for many a mile : the western one survives in the 
main street of Stanwix and in an occupation lane leading towards 
Hyssop Holme Bank. 


To one or two miscellaneous points the committee wish to call 
attention. It has often been commented upon as curious that no 
mural camp exists between Castlesteads and Stauwix, a distance of 
eight miles. The reason is not difficult to give, though it has never 
yet been printed ; the country north of the Wall between those two 
points, was in Eoman times an impenetrable morass, part of which 
now survives and is well known as Scaleby Moss. 

At Hall Stones Bridge, just before entering Burgh-by-Sands, we 
were informed that a pavement existed, and Mr. Mulcaster of Burgh, 
had it uncovered for our inspection ; but it turned out not to be 
Eoman. Mr Mulcaster also informed us that in the marshy ground 
near this place (Speer-garth-holes, MacLauchlan's Survey, p. 81), the 
foundations of the Wall lie upon great beams of black oak, a fact 
which he had ascertained in some very deep draining. 


[Read on the 29th December, 1886.] 

SOMETIME ago, Mr. Robert Blair, one of your Hon. Secretaries, 
handed me a manuscript " Terraire or Accompt of Measure of certain 
Lands lying within the Territories of the Manor of Tinemouth and 
Preston, 1649." I looked over it, and found many of the names of 
places contained in it were unknown to me, but with others I was 

The earliest plan of the Manor of Tynemouth of which I am 
aware is that made by Mr. Isaac Thompson in 1757, which is in Syon 
House. Of this plan I have a copy, but very few names of places 
are marked upon it. There are numbers and letters which, I thought, 
indicated that there must be an index to it. I placed myself in cor- 
respondence with Mr. Joseph Snowball, Commissioner to the Duke of 
Northumberland, and, through the courtesy of his Grace, his London 
solicitors furnished me with information in answer to questions I 
forwarded to them. With the information thus obtained there was 
still more that was wanting. I then referred to the grants from 
Queen Elizabeth, in 1587, to Edmund Downing and Miles Dodding, 
of the Rectory and Church of Tynemouth ; and of the tithes from 
Preston, Tynemouth, and other townships, formerly belonging to the 
Monastery of Tynemouth. Also to the grant from King Charles I., 
in 1630, to William Collins and Edward Fenn, of the town of North 
Shields. But these documents gave little additional information, and 
the precise spots of some of the places mentioned in the Terrier are 
still unknown to me. I felt I would not be justified in longer delay- 
ing the notes which Mr. Blair asked me to write, and the Terrier now 
comes before the Society with such information as I have been able 
to obtain. 




Imprimis in the Dagger Letch 1 12,, 

Itm. att Mardonside 2 ... ... ... ... 1 

Itm. in y e Pow dean 3 ... ., 7 1 38 

9 3 38 

Impr. in Eobert Ottways New Close 1 R* ... 24 

Itm. on the Hundhill 5 1 R 1 20 

Itm. more there 2 Riggs ... ... ... ... 1 32 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 15 

Itm. on the south side of Millie House 3 R ... ,,32 

Itm. at Chadletch 3 R 3 9 

Itm. the West Feild of Preston 1 R ,,18 

1 Dagger Letch. In former years at the foot of the Wooden Bridge, Clive 
Street, was a place called the Dogger Letch, where fishing vessels from the 
Dogger Bank lay. 

2 Mardonside. Near Whitley. 

3 Powdean. The Pow Burn runs through the Spittle Dene, under the North- 
Eastern Railway, through the grounds of Mr. J. R. Procter at the Low Lights, 
and empties itself into the Tyne at the Fish Quay. 

* This Hospital was annexed to the Priory of Tynemouth, and is first 
mentioned in 1320. The site of the hospital is mentioned in Brand's History of 
Reiovastle. He states the ruins were still to be traced a little to the west of 
Tinmouth, on the road to Newcastle. It may be well to explain that the old 
road to Newcastle went past Holy Saviour Church, across the Spittle Dene, and 
along Tynemouth Old Road (now called Preston Avenue) to Preston Road, 
thence southward to Christ Church, and from there westward through the 
village of Chirton. The present direct road to Tynemouth was not made until 
after the peace of 1815. Brand refers to Thompson's Map of the Manor in 1757, 
and states the place where the hospital stood is called " Spittle Yards," and 
contained 5 acres, 2 roods and 37 perches. The Spittle was one of the old burial 
places of the parish of Tynemouth. The first mention of it in the parish 
records is in 1645. . The following is the entry : " It is ordered that the burials 
shall be in the place appointed for burying, and if any other ground be broken 
at ' Spittle,' to pay to John Cramlington for every burial out of the ordinary 
place 6d." The first mention of a burial at the Spittal is in 1662, when, on the 
19th April, is the following entry "Ralph Pearson of North Shields buried 
Spittle." In 1662, out of thirty-one burials recorded on one page of the register, 
nineteen were at the Spittal. The last recorded burial was on the 6 th January, 
170|. when Jane, daughter of Anthony Elsdon of Whitley, was buried. So com- 
pletely was all trace of the old burial ground obliterated, that there were few 
of the old inhabitants who knew the exact spot, until, in January, 1885, in laying 
out the new park on land given by the Duke of Northumberland, the workmen 
came upon the site of the Hospital of St. Leonard, and in the course of their 
excavations, they came across two stone coffins and a number of skeletons. The 
site of the hospital and the two coffins are now carefully preserved. 

5 Hundhill. Now known as Hunt-hill, in Hawkey's Lane, to the southward 
of the Corporation Burial Ground. 

* See note at p. 189. 



Acres R. P. 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,, 1 19 

Itm. another Syke 6 ... ... ... ... 1 19 

Itm. in the North Feild 1 R a Bank* 2 32 

Itm. in the South Feild att Fennie Well 3 R ... 1 ,,21 
Itm. in the Spittle Flatt 7 12 R and part of y e 

Headland* 2 2 19 

Itm. on short Stony Lands 2 R ... ... ... 338 

Itm. in the Brocks a peice of a Tongue ,,33 

Itm. more 3 R there ... ... ... ... 125 

Itm. in the Sheell Bank 9 4 R 3 32 

Itm. more in Brocks 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 37 

Itm. in Tinemouth South Feild Kirkway 1 R ... 1 24 

Itm. att the Brocks Dike 4 R 3 6 

Itm. in John Wolfs Park 2 R ,,30 

13 3 5 

There is more in John Bowes Close 4 R 

Itm. 1 R in Crawlie Close 

Itm. 1 R in Chirton house close 10 

Itm. in the Low Hope 1 R 
Itm. in Yarroes Hill 2 R 

Itm. in Chirton Sheell Bank 2 R 

But not medled w th all in this Division. 



Impr. in the Milne Leazes 2 R ... ... ... ,,12 

Itm. in Chedletch 1 R and a Headland ... ... 2 13 

Itm. more southerly 2 R ... ... ... ... 1 15 

Itm. more southerly 1 R ... ... ... ... 28 

Itm. in Moor Spotts 2 R 3 8 

Itm. more there 1 R 2 10 

Itm. Colly Potts 2 Butts* 1 32 

6 Syke. It is not known where this Syke was. It means the upper feeder of 
a burn, or a small brook or rill in low ground. 

7 Spittle Flatt. Was probably part of Spittle Yards, where the Hospital of 
St. Leonard stood. 

8 Brocks. Christ Church, which was commenced in 16oi) and consecrated in 
1668, is built in the Brock Close. The land from Tynemouth Road to Preston 
Avenue (formerly Tynemouth Old Road, and latterly Cut-throat Lane), and 
thence to the east end of the Avenue, and northward of Linskill Terrace, is 
known as the Brock Closes. 

9 Sheell Bank. The high land overlooking the low town of North Shields was 
called Shields Bank Head. 

10 Chirtou House Close. Chirton House is in the village of Chirton, and was 
devised to Lord Collingwood by his cousin. 

11 1 am not aware how Lord Howard became possessed of these lands. They 
remained in the possession of his family until 1796, when they were sold to John 
Wright of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gentleman, for 6,000. They comprised the 
land westward of Stephenson Street to Newcastle Street, and extended to Shields 
Bankhead and Henry Walker's land on the southward. 

* fcee note at p. 189. 




more there IE, 

att the Long Dike 4 R 

east from the Rake 12 3 R 

in the middle Sheath 2 R 
in broad Street 4 R ... 

in the Hundhill 3 R 

in the great Meadow Close 1 R 

in Robert Ottways South Close 1 R ... 

in Preston South Close 1 R ... 

in Chirton Crawlie Close 1 R 

in Yarrowes Hill near the Blew Pitt 1 R 

in the Delves 1 R 

more there 3 R 

att the Brock close Style 4 R 

more there 1 R 

in the Sheell Bank a Headland Stent 1 R 

more 3 R 

more the Lantern 1 R 

in Breadless Flatts 3 R 

more there 6 R 

more there 8 R 

more there 10 R 

more there 5 R and a peice ... 

on the dean Bank 2 R 

north from Breadless Flatt 8 R 

on the east side of the Brock Dike 4 R 

more there 1 R 

on the Bank of Hospitall 13 4 R 

in the Milne Close 1 R 

on the Milne hill 14 2 R 

more there 2 R 

more there 1 R 

more there 2 R 

more there 3 R 

att Whitley Chare 15 3 R 

more there 2 R 

more att Whittlay Chare 3 R 

att Dunstone or the Park Side 2 R . . . 

more there 6 R 

in the Crook 2 R 

more there 2 R 


R. P. 


1 5 


3 24 


3 36 


3 21 


2 28 


3 19 






1 4 


1 8 


1 14 


1 7 


1 7 


2 24 






3 39 


1 24 


3 9 




1 7 


3 18 


1 36 


1 29 


2 36 


2 1 






2 25 


1 21 


2 9 


1 24 


1 25 


3 9 




1 34 


3 13 


2 16 




-2 16 

12 Bake. At the north boundary of the Borough of Tynemouth is the Rake 
House Farm. 

13 Bank of Hospital. Part of the Hospital of St. Leonard. 

14 On the main road to Tynemouth, where the Master Mariners' Asylum now 
stands, there stood a mill, and the lands around it were called the Mill Hill and 
Mill Field Demesnes. 

13 Whitley Chare. This field is to the south-eastward of the Monk House 
Farm, and adjoins the main road to Whitley. 


Acres R. P. 

Itm. the Wayd Rigg there 128 

Itm. att Kennersdeen 16 Yate 3 R 2 21 

Itm. next the Dike there 2 E 1 

Itin. on Kennersdeen Bank 3 E, ... ... ... 3 28 

Itm. in the Broad Sheath next y e midle way 1 R 1 24 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 1 12 

Itm. next the March dike 5 Butts ... ... 1 ,,31 

Itm. on the broad Sheath 1 R 1 28 

Itm. next Whitley way Crook IB 16 

Itm. att the Crook 3 R 3 25 

Itm. more there 2 R 2 12 

Itm. att the Marsh Dike nook 3 R 1 2 14 

Itm. more 1 R ... ... ... ... ... 1 12 

Itm. beneath Stony Lands 1 R 1 10 

Itm. more there 4 Riggs 1 3 24 

Itm. att Mardonside 2 R ... ... ... ... 2 

Itm. a Dale of Meadow ... 1 1 25 

Totall 48 2 29 


Imp rs - in Mardonside 2 R 2 16 

Itm. more there 2 R 2 27 

Itm. in short Stony Lands 1 R 1 36 

Itm. more in the Hewes 1 R ... ... ... 34 

Itm. East the middle Way 1 R ,,27 

Itm. more there one Butt ... ... ... ... 33 

Itm. in Kennersdeen 1 R ... ... ... ... ,,12 

Itm. more there ^ a Rigg ... ... ... 1 13 

Itm. att Harestanns 2 R ... ... ... ... 1 15 

Itm. next the Park dike 1 R 1 35 

Itm. in the Brocks 1 R ,,21 

Itm. in the Southfeild 1 R 38 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... ,,18 

Itm. in the Hospitall dean 1 R ... ... ... 2 16 

Itm. in the Sheell Bank 1 R ,,25 

Itm. in the Milne Hill 1 R ,,33 

Itm. more half a Rigg ... ... ... ... 30 


16 Kennersdean is the name of the farm between Tynemouth and Cullercoats. 
The farm house is west of the Aquarium. 

17 Robert Otway was one of the gentlemen of the Four-and- Twenty of the 
Parish of Tynemouth in 1645. In 1651, he was appointed with others to present 
a petition to the Commissioners for means for the minister. In 1653, he was a 
churchwarden, and in 1657 he was appointed treasurer for the building of Christ 
Church, in place of the ancient Parish Church of St. Mary forming part of the 
ruins of Tynemouth Priory. On the 3rd March, 166f, he was buried in the 
middle of the chancel at Tynemouth. Christ Church, the present mother church 
of the Parish erf Tynemouth. was consecrated 5th July, l(i<58. 


FREELAND Acres R. p. 

Itm. Farm Lands in Tinemouth Feilds 6 2 7 

Itm. Farm Lands in Preston ... 3 1 23 

16 39 

Imp 18 - in the West Feild 1 R 131 

Itm. more there 1 R & 1 Butt ... ... ... 1 16 

Itm. more there 4 R ... ... ... ... 1 1 7 

Itm. more 4 R and 2 Banks ... ... ... 3 36 

Itm. in Shedletch 1 R 1 10 

Itm. more there 3 R .- ... ... ... 1 

Itm. att moor Dike 1 R and a Bank ... ... 2 10 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... 2 33 

Itm. more att the Long dike 1 R 1 20 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,,26 

Itm. one short Headland ... ... ... ... ,,11 

Itm. more 1 R ... ... ... ... ... ,,24 

Itm. more 1 R ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 32 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,, 1 24 

Itm. att Dikan Dubb 18 6 R 2 1 28 

Itm. more 3 R 1 ,. 

Itm. more 1 R ... ... ... ... ... ,,15 

Itm. next the Rake 3 R 1 32 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,,29 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 14 

Itm. more there 1 R 14 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... 1 

Itm. more there 4 R ... ... ... ... 3 

Itm. more there 1 R end ... ... ... ... 11 

Itm. att Morton way 1 Headland ,,29 

Itm. the watery Reens 3 R 1 1 20 

Itm. in the Burnetts 3 R 3 33 

Itm. in the Watery Reens 19 a Headland 17 

Freelands 15 16 


Imp rs - att Mardonside 1 R 1 36 

17 See note on previous page. 

18 Dikan Dubb. I have not been able to trace the position of this place. 
Dubb is a piece of deep and smooth water in a rapid river. 

la Watery Reens. 1 have been unable to trace this place. 

2J He belonged to the family of Spearman of Preston. In 1638, he is men- 
tioned in the list of freeholders. In 1647, he was churchwarden of the Parish 
of Tynemouth. In 1651, he was appointed, along with others, to present a 
petition to the Commissioners for means for the minister. On the 25th January, 
165 J, he was buried. His son, John Spearman, who was Under-Sheriff of the 
County of Durham, and who died about 1703, bequeathed a silver flagon, weigh- 
ing 36 oz. 12 dwt., to the Parish Church of Tinmouth, in which parish he was 
born. The flagon is still in use in the Parish Church. 



Itm. more there 4 E 

Itm. more there IE 

Itm. att short Stony Lands 1 E 

Itm. more there IE 

Itm. att the Hewes 2 E ... 

Itm. East the middle way 1 E 

Itm. in Long stony Lands 1 E 

Itm. in the South Feild 1 E 

Itm. more there IE 

Itm. more there 1 E 

Itm. more there 2 E 

Itm. on the Sheellbanks 1 

Itm. more there 1 E 

Itm. more there 1 E 

Itm. more there | a Eigg 

Itm. 1 E more 




Itm. in the west Feild 1 E 

Itm. in the miller Leazes IE 

Itm. in Chedletch 21 2 Eiggs 

Itm. more there 2 E 

Itm. att the long Dike 1 E 

Itm. more there 1 E 
Itm. more 1 E 

Itm. more 1 E 

Itm. more 1 E 

Itm. att Dikan Dubbs 3 E 

Itm. next the Eake 1 E ... 
Itm. more there 3 E 
Itm. more there 1 E 
Itm. more there 1 E 

Itm. more there 2 E 

Itm. att Morton Way 1 E 

Itm. more there 1 E 

Itm. more 1 E 

Itm. in the Bunnetts 1 E ... 

Itm. in the Wett Eeens 2 Butts 

Itm. in the Garland meadow 1 E and a meadow Spott 
Itm. 4 severall E in the Hundhill 


20 See note on previous page. 

21 The words Chedletch, Chadletch, and Shedletch, occur in the Terrier, but I 
cannot fix their position. Letch means a long narrow swamp, in which water 
moves slowly. 


res R. 






, 1 



, 2 



, 2 



, 1 



, 1 


, 2 



) 55 


> )5 



) 55 


5 55 



, 1 



5 1 


5 5) 



J 55 



5 1 



3 2 



5 1 


, 1 


, 2 


, 2 


, 2 


, 1 


, 2 


, 1 


, 1 


, 2 


, 2 


, 3 


, 2 


, 1 




5 55 


,-. - 


5 55 



J 55 


, 1 



, 1 



, 1 


L 1 



) 3 





Imp- a Meadow spott att Mardonside 1 2 8 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 29 

Itm. att the Marsh Dike 1 R ,,30 

Itm. att the Hewcs 1 R , 120 

Itm. East the Middle Way 1 R ,,12 

Itm. more 1 R there ... ... ... ... ,,18 

Itm. in Kennersdeen 1 R 1 24 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 15 

Itm. more there 1 R 35 

Itm. at the Harestones 2 R ... ... ... 1 30 

Itm. more there 2 R 1 20 

Itm. more 2 R 3 16 

Itm. more there 1 R ,,15 

Itm. more there 2 Butts ... ... ... ... 1 16 

Itm. Long Stony Land 1 R ... ... ... 1 30 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 2 24 

Itm. more there 1 R 2 12 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 34 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 36 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 32 

Itm. more there 1 R 2 

Itm. att Tinemouth cross 22 3 R 1 ,,18 

Itm. East of the Cross 1 R ... 210 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 2 2 

Itm. in the Southfeild att the Park Dike 1 R ... ,,23 

Itm. on the Milne Hill 1 R 31 

Itm. more a Headland and a \ ... ... ... 2 12 

Itm. more 2 R 120 

Itm. more 1 R ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Itm. more 1 R ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Itm. more 1 R 32 

Itm. morel R 1 16 

Itm. in the Hospitall dean 2 R 1 31 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,,24 

Itm. on the Sheill Bank 2 R 330 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 11 

Itm. more there 2 R 2 13 

Itm. more there 2 R ,,33 

Itm. more there 1 R ,,16 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ,,12 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 20 

Itm. in John Wolfs Park 3 R 11 

22 Tinemouth Cross. This field indicates the spot where the Monk's Stone now 
stands. In Grose's Military Antiquities is an account of this stone. 


Acres R. P. 

Itm. near the Lanthorn 23 1 E 1 9 

Itm. more there 1 E 23 

Itm. more there 1 E 36 

Itm. West of the Toolebank IE 36 

Itm. more there 1 E ... ... ... ... 24 

Itm. more there 1 E 1 24 

Itm. more there 1 E ... ... ... ... 2 

Itm. more 1 E 19 

Freeland 20 2 36 

More of Mark Lands ... 7 2 32 

Totall 28 1 28 



Itm. upon Yarrowes hill IE ... ... ... 1 

Itm. at the Fennywell 1 E 29 

Itm. near the Hospitall dean 1 Headland ... 1 3 

Itm. more there 1 E 1 20 

Itm. in the south feild 1 E ... ... ... 1 

Itm. more there IE ... ... ... ... ,,117 

Itm. more 1 E 1 

Itm. more 1 E 1 

Itm. more 1 E ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Itm. more IE ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Itm. more there 1 E 37 

Itm. att Tinemouth Cross IE ... ... ... 1 21 

Itm. more there 2 E ... ... ... ... 3 14 

Itm. more there 2 E ... ... ... ... 2 3 

Itm. att Long Stony Lands 1 E ,,23 

Itm. att Harestones 2 Butts 1 9 

Itm. more there 1 E ,,15 

Itm. East the middle way 1 E 1 17 

Itm. att the Hewes 2 E ,,36 

Itm. att Mardon side a Headland 1 15 

Itm. more att Tinmouth Cross 1 E .,29 

.Freeland 8 2 27 

More a mark Land 7 2 32 

Totall 16 1 19 

25 Lanthorn. This must have reference to the lighthouse which stood upon 
Shields Bank Head. 

24 He was stationed at Tynemouth Castle. In 1658. he engaged to give 10 
towards the building of Christ Church. In 1672. he was appointed, with others, 
to collect the contributions towards the maintenance of Thomas Dockwray, D.D., 
Vicar of Tynemouth. In 1674, be was one of the gentlemen of the Four-and- 
Twenty. On the 18th April, 1678, he was buried in the chancel at Tynemouth. 



Imp 13 - att the Marsh Dike 1 Headland ,, 128 

Itrn. more 3 R there 3 23 

Itm. att short Stony Lands 1 37 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 37 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 23 

Itm. more there 3 R 3 23 

Itm. att the Hewes ,,21 

Itm. more there 3 R 3 32 

Itm. East the middle way 2 R 328 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... 2 36 

Itm. in Kennersdeen 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 7 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ..., 27 

Itm. att the Harestones 2 R 1 16 

Itm. in the Crooks 6 R ... 1 3 16 

Itm. more 2 Butts 1 1 

Itm. in Long Stony Lands 1 R ... ... ... 2 28 

Itm. in the Park Flatt 2 R ... 3 16 

Itm. more 2 R 3 26 

Itm. more 2 R 337 

Itm. more 2 R , 337 

Itm. East from the Cross 1 R 1 32 

Itm. more there 2 R 1 32 

Itm. near Charter Dike 26 3 R 118 

Itm. on the Milne Hill one R ,,16 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... ,, 2 24 

Itm. in the Brocks 2 R 11,, 

Itm. more 1 R ., 1 32 

Itm. in the south feild 1 R 33 

Itm. more there 1 R 33 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 36 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,,14 

Itm. more 1 R there ... ... ... ... 1 11 

Itm. more there 1 R ,,14 

Itm. more there 1 R 1 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... l 17 

Itm. next the Hospitall dike 1 Headland ,,14 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... ,,14 

Itm. more there 1 Headland ,,20 

Itm. more there 1 R 1,23 

Itm. next the Lanthorn 4 R 3 13 

Itm. more there 5 R 3 15 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... 1 17 

23 In 1674, he was one of the gentlemen of the Four-and-Twenty. In 1677, 
he left Tynemouth where he resided, and went to live at Cullercoats, where he 
erected a dwelling house which still stands, and is known as Sparrow Hall. A 
description of this house appeared in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle of 13th 
October, 1883. He died 13th March, 169*. 

28 Charter Dyke. In Thompson's plan of the Manor of Tynemouth is a place 
marked ' Ghater Close," which is near to the river. 



Acres R. P. 

Itm. next the Toolebank 1 R ,,13 

Itm. more there 2 E ... ... ... ... ,,30 

Itm. near the Dagger Letch 2 R ... ... ... ,,17 

Itm. on the Sheell bank 4 R 2 35 

Itm. on the dean Bank 1 Butt meadow ... ... ,,12 

Itm. on the Castlevray 1 R 1 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 24 

More of Threep Land between him and Mr. Millburn 

Itm. in the Hospitall dean... ... ... ... 1 29 

Itm. more of that 1 R 1 21 

Itm. more of thai 2 R ... ... ... ... 1 25 

Itm. more of that 2 R 1 33 

Itm. more of that 2 R ,,25 

Freeland in all 28 2 11 


Imp 18 - att Mardon side 2 R 1 25 

Itm. East the middle way 2 R ... ... ... 3 

Itm. Collie Potts 3 R 1 2 25 

Itm. in the South Feild more 1 1 20 

Totall 4 3 30 


Imp 18 - in Kennersdeen 1 R . 1 

Itm. more in the Delves 2 R 3 32 

Freeland 1 ,,32 


Imp rs - att Fennywell 2 R ... ... ... ... 2 b 

Itm. near the Toolebanks 2 R 3 25 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... 1 21 

Itm. near the Lanthorn 1 R 12 

Itm. more there 2 Riggs 1 32 

Itm. on the Sheellbank 3 R ,,336 

Itm. more there 2 R 229 

Itm. in the Spittle dean 2 R 28 

Itm. more there 2 R , 325 

Itm. on the Milne hill one Headland ... ... , 1 5 

Itm. more there 1 R ... ... ... ... , 21 

Itm. more there 1 R ... , 35 

Itm. more there 2 R ... ... ... ... , 1 24 

27 He was one of the gentlemen of the Four-and-Twenty in 1645, and a 
churchwarden in 1647. 

2B His signature appears to the minutes of a meeting of the parishioners held 
in 1651. 




more there 2 E 

more called the Cow and Calf 

in the North feild East from the Cross 2 E ... 

in Long Stony Land 3 E 

more there 2 E ... 

att Harestones 2 E ... 
in Kennersdean 1 E ... 
more there 1 E 
more there 1 E 

att the Hewes 1 E 

att Mardonside 1 E ... 
att Mardon pi tts 1 Headland 
more there 2 Butts ... 
more there 1 E 

near Charter Dike IE 

near the Marsh Dike 29 1 E 

in Kennersdeen 4 E . . . 
att Marsh dike 1 E more 
in the Brocks 2 E 

in the Delves 2 E 

more there 2 E 

in the Sheellbank 1 E 

on the South of the Brock dike 2 E 

East from that, more 3 E 

on the Castle way 1 Headland 

more there 1 E 

near the Lantorn 1 E 

West of the Lands called the Salt Grass IE... 

more there 2 E 

more there next the Hollow IE 

more behind the Hospitall 2 E 

on the Milne hill Steadland and IB 

on the Bank edge 1 E 

more there 1 E , 

more there 2 E 

more there 3 E 

on the Milliie hill 1 E 

at Whittley Chair in the North Feild 2 E ... 

below the Cross 3 E ... 

there 2 E 

on the South W. Side of the Cross 3 E 

more there 1 Eigg 

att the Marsh dike 3 E ... 

more there 2 E 

East the middle way 2 E 

att the Marsh Dike 1 E 

att the Marsh Dike E , 


E. P. 


1 24 


2 25 




1 24 

3 38 

1 29 

1 32 


1 29 

1 11 

1 33 







1 5 




1 9 



w > 

1 8 



3 20 

3 15 














29 To the northward of the Monk House Farm is a close called the West 
Marsh. Probably the Marsh Dike is part of it. 


Acres R. P. 

Itm. east of Whittley Way 2 E ,,25 

Itm. more there 1 R 10 

Itm. in Kennersdean 2 E 2 

Itm. more there 4 E 2 

Itm. near Whitley Chare 1 E 22 

Itm. in the Low end of the Brocks 2 E 1 21 

Itrn. in Kennersdean 2 E . 22 

Freeland 33 1 13 


Imp 18 - next the Eake 1 E 1 

Itm. more there 1 E 39 

Itm. at Dykan Dubbs 1 E 1 10 

Itm. more att the Eake 1 E ... ... ... 1 

Itm. more there 1 E 1 36 

Itm. one other of the north side of the Lee Eigg 1 16 

Itm. in the Wett Eeens 2 E ~. ,,38 

Itm, in the Burnetts 3 E and p 1 - of a Headland... 3 28 

Freeland 327 


Imp rs - in the Miller Leazes 32 2E 216 

Itm. in the West Feild 3 Butts ,,27 

Itm. in Chedletch 6 E 2 

Itm. att the Moor Dike 1 E 138 

Itm. more a E and a Bank 2 16 

Itm. in the North Feild next the Eake 6 E ... 1 3 23 

Itm. in the new Close 3 E ,,34 

Itm. bought of Thomas Hall 2 E near j e Eake ... 2 14 

Itm. bought more 1 E ... ... ... ... ,,18 

Itm. att Dikan Dubbs 4 E 1 1 16 

Itm. one Lee Eigg more near the Eake ... ... 1 16 

Itm. more there 1 E ... ... 1 10 

Freeland 939 

30 Ralph Grey of Preston is mentioned in the list of freeholders in 1638. 
The family possessed land in Preston until about the year 1820, when it was sold 
to Mr. John Fenwick, who built Preston Villa, in which his son Mr. John 
Fenwick now resides. 

31 The first mention of him is in 1632, when a house, and some ground adjoin- 
ing, at the east end of Pow Panns near the village of North Shields, were sold 
to him. He is described in the deed as of the Town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
gentleman. He afterwards resided at Chirton, and died there in March, 1650. 
By his will he left 10s. a year to the poor of the Parish of Tynemouth, which is 
paid at the present time by Edward John Collingwood, Esq.. of Lilbuni Tower. 
George Milburne had a son, Ralph Milburne, who had an only child, Winifrid, 
who was married on 4th July, 1698, to John Roddam of Little Houghton, 
Esquire. By her he had three daughters, Winifrid, who died young ; Mary, who 
married Edward Collingwood of Byker, Esquire ; and Winiirid, who married 
Hilton Lawson, Esquire, on the 14th February, 173|. 

32 Miller leazes. This piece of ground was near to the village of Preston. A 
close of land belonging to the Rudyerd family was called High Miller Leazes. 


Itm. Demesne Lands falling w th - in this Division ... 
Itm. Lands belonging to the Hospitall of St. 
Leonard .. ... ... ... ... ... 



B. P. 

3 38 
3 5 

Itm. my Lord Howards called Dakers Lands 
Itm. Rob'- Ottways in Tinemouth 


2 29 
2 9 

Itm. Rob t- Spearmans in Tinemouth 
Itm more in Preston ... ... ... ... 


2 10 


2 36 

Itm. Mr. Will m - Collingson 


2 27 
2 11 

Itm. John Morton of Tinemouth 
Itm. John Morton of Willington ... 
Itm. Gerrard Robinson and John Bowes Land ... 
Itm. Mr. Ralph Greys in Preston 
Itm. Mr. George Millburn in Preston 


3 30 
1 13 
2 17 
3 9 

Totall ... 

Robert Ottway in Tinemouth Feilds 
More in Preston ... ... ... ... ... 



1 3 

2 7 
1 23 

Mr. John Carruth in Tynmouth ... 
Mr. Will- Collingson in Tynemouth 
In - Morton of Tynemouth 1 Mark Land 
Richard Pryor 33 Farm Lands 
lohn Button 33 Farm Lands 
Robert Rotherford 34 


2 32 
2 32 
2 32 
3 38 
2 24 

Lievtenn*- Doves 35 Farm Lands 



3 16 

MEMORAND That there were certain R or Lands lying 
mixt in Tynemouth Feilds and did belong to 
Preston, and the like of Tinemouth lying in 
Preston Feilds whose severall Quantities being 
taken and compared Preston gives to Tynemouth 
10 acres & 4 pches and it is cutt of and laid to 
the West Marsh att y e West side of itt 10 4 

AND certain Lands belonging to lohn Morton and 
lohn Bowes did lye in Monkseaton Feilds but is 
now taken into the West Marsh allso ... ... 4 24 

AND so much is taken of the East end of the West 
Marsh to make them more apt for dividing and 
that the Demesne Lands might lye together ... 14 28 

83 I find no trace of these names in the Registers or Eecords. 

st He was one of the gentlemen of the Four-and- Twenty in 1674, and until 
1685 attended the parish meetings. 

35 Lieut. Dove was probably one of the Dove family of Cullercoats, but as his 
Christian name is not given in the Terrier. I have not been able to identify him. 


Acres R. P. 


The Quantity of the South Feild of Tynemouth ... 188 109 

Whereof sett of to my Lord Howard att the West 
side in Delves and so Eastward for his Freeland 
both in Tynmouth and Preston w* h a high way 
through the same ... ... ... ... 50 00 

Itm. to Mr. Will m - Collinson for his Freehold 

land and Farm Lands ... ... ... 16 1 19 

Itm. to Mr. George Grey for his Freehold and Farm 
Lands Eastwards from the first now John 

Carruths 28 1 28 

Itm. next him again Eastwards Rob 1 - Dove 
for his Freehold and an acre for a con- 
venient watering Place ... ... ... 29 211 

Itm. on the North Side of that for Gerr d - Eobinson 

John Bowes Freehold 33 1 13 

Itm. reserved in my Lords Hands to remove the 

upper Light house when occasion requires ... 2 
Itm. the Salt Grass which is claimed by Mr. 

George Milburn "... 200 

Itm. in the high Way along the Brock close to 

Tynemouth 3 32 

Itm. lohn Morton's Freeland in the East- 
most pt 4 3 30 

Itm. his Farm or Mark Land 7 2 32 

Itm. Mr. lohn Morton of Willington his 

Freeland 1 32 

Itm. for the high Way from Sheilds to Tynmouth 2 1 20 
Itm. in the Remaind 1 - is part of lohn 

Mortons whole ffarm ... 8 2 32 

Totall ... ... 188 1 09 

Acres R. P. 


Whereof sett of in the East part the Hospitall A. R. P. 

Lands which were in Preston and Tynemouth 13 3 5 

West of that part of Robert Spearmans farm ... 9 2 10 

Itm. more his freeland ... ... ... ... 6 2 10 

Itm. allowed towards a high Way 1 

Totall 30 2 20 


Acres R. P. 

In the North Feild on the upper Side of Monkseaton way 51 1 32 

Whereof to Rob*- Ottway for Freeland 629 

And more in the Holes & Huksters flatt 36 farm ... 9 3 30 

Bob t- Spearman hath there to compleat his Farm 30 3 35 

Richard Pryor hath there for Farmlands... ... 3 3 38 

Totall 51 1 32 

In the North feild more East from that and more Northerly 206 1 30 

Imp rs - att the Southwest Nuke of the East Marsh - 
the Demesnes of Dagger Letch and of Mardon- 
side now joyning to that demesne. 2 2 21 

Itm. more Demesne Lands in Liew of the Pow Dean 
sett of att Whitley chare next to the West 
Demesne 7 1 38 

Itm. One ffann in the tenure of Gillbert Ottway 
beginning att Mardonside on the North side of 
that Feild above Whitley way 40 1 1 

Itm. one other whole Farm in the Tenure of 
Katherine Ogle adjoyning next on the South 
side of the other 40 1 1 

Itm. on the South side of it to compleat lohn 

Morton's Farm 31 2 9 

Sett of on the East of Whittley way and next to the 
East Marsh and on the side of that Demesne for 
Farm Lands called Lievtennt. Doves Tenement 12 

Itm. more Southerly for 1 Farm f of another Farm 
in the Tenure of lohn Bowe 70 128 

Itm. there adjoyning for Rob*- Rotherford Farm 
Lands 28 

Itm. there allso adjoyning Farm Lands for lohn 

Sutton 2 24 

Totall of this Feild 206 1 30 

FEILDS so much as was now prsented to be divided 

The severall Contents of every perticular Feild A. R. P. 

In the North Feild is 183 2 

In the West Feild is 137 1 

In the miller Leazes ... ... ... ... 16 1 31 

Totall 337 31 

36 The Holes and Huckster's Flatt lie to the northward of Preston, and 
adjoin the West Marsh. 


Acres R. P. 

Sett of to Tynemouth on the South west corner of 

the west marsh ... ... ... ... ... 10 4 

Sett of to Munkseaton for certain Lands w ch lay 
intermixt w th theirs of Preston on the North- 
side of the North feild ... ... ... ... 835 

Itm. abated out of the Totall for all high ways ... 8 3 

Itm. to Robert Spearman for his Freeland sett of on 
the south side of the Miller Leazes ... ... 10 3 1 

Itm. bo Mr. G-eorge Millburn for his Freeland sett of 

next on the north side of the other fall ... 9 3 9 

Itm. to Mr. George Grey for his Freeland sett of on 
the north side of his own Close as you ride to 
Tynemouth 2 3 17 

Itm. to Robert Ottway for his Freeland sett of 

along the south side of northernmost farm ... 15 ,,16 

Itm. more there his farm Lands in Preston ... 3 1 23 

To Robert Ottway 18 1 29 

The Reason why Mr. Grey wants of his measure above, is that he 
hath 2 R in the Hundhill which was part of his former expressed 
quantity the 3 R are 3 Roods w ch was 3 a. 2 r. 17 p. 

NUMBER OF FARMS IN PRESTON are Five each Farm in quantity 
being 53 acres but by reason of their severall quallities and con- 
veniences it is both by consent and lott thus divided 

A. R. P. 

Michaell Spearman by Lott did fall y e Marsh farm ) 53 
Therefore by consent he hath from the South- > 

most Farms ... ... ... ... ) 2 

And more the ^ of 6 a. 1 r. 22 p. which is taken 

of 4 farms ... 114 

These Farms 56 1 4 

Mr. Ralph Grey Northmost by Lott next the 

Rake 53 

Itm. the 2 Southmost Farms allowance 2 

Itm. part as above, his Hundhill Riggs being 
deducted ... 2 

55 2 5 


A. K. P. 

And a House and Garth in Preston lately belonging 

to Lo. Dakers but now exchanged 
Soe by Lott and these abatements Robert Ottways 

E. & "West Farms are 50 a. a peice 100 

And his middle Farms 53 ,,32 

153 32 

NOTE. That all the high ways within the Division of Tynemouth 
are his Lordshipps they were deducted out of his Farm Lands. 

NOTE. That where the now [? new] upper Lanthorue or Light 
house stands, there is reserved out of thatt fall for removeing the 
same upon occasion for his Lord pp - half an Acre. 

NOTE. That in the Pow Dean formerly Demesne Lands (besides 
the Way) there is Reserved one acre of Land for a comon watering 
place, the Land is his Lord pps and they have (both Freeholders and 
Tennants) Liberty there to water. 


The following extracts from The English Village Community (pp. 
2-8), by F. Seebohm (Longmans & Co., 1884), throw considerable 
light on the foregoing Terrier : 

A great part of the Township (speaking of Hitchin, in Hertfordshire) 
was divided up into little narrow strips. These strips, common to open fields 
all over England, were separated from each other not by hedges, but by 
green balks of unploughed turf, and are of great historieal interest. They 

vary, more or less, in size in the same fields There are 'long' 

strips and ' short ' strips. Taking them generally, the normal strip is roughly 

identical with the statute acre The strips are roughly cut 

'acres,' of the proper shape for ploughing. For the furlong is the 'furrow- 
long,' i.e., the length of the drive of the plough before it is turned ; and that this 
by long custom was fixed at 40 rods, is shown by the use of the Latin word 
' quarentena ' for furlong. The word ' rood ' naturally corresponds with as 
many furrows in the ploughing as are contained in the breadth of one rod. And 
four of these roods lying side by side made the acre strip in the open fields, and 
still make up the statute acre. This form of the acre is very ancient. Six 
hundred years ago, in the earliest English law fixing the size of the statute acre 
(33 Ed. I.), it is declared that ' 40 perches in length and 4 in breadth make an 

In many places the open fields were formerly divided into half -acre strips, 
which were called ' half -acres.' That is to say, a turf balk separated every 
two rods or roods in the ploughing, the length, of the furrow being the same. 
The strips are generally known by country folk as ' balks.' In Scotland and 
Ireland [and Ni England] as ' rigs.' 

The strips lie side by side in groups called ' shots ' or ' furlongs.' Through- 
out their whole length the furrows in the ploughing run . parallel from end to 
end. the balks which divide tbem into strips being simply two or three furrows 
left unploughed between them. The shots or furlongs are divided from one 
another by broader balk^, generally overgrown with bushes. This grouping of 


the strips in furlongs or shots is a further invariable feature of the English open 
field system. And it involves another little feature which is also universally 
met with, viz., the headland. Mostly a common field-way gives access to the 
strips [rigs], i.e., it runs along the side of the furlong and the ends of the strips 
[rigs] . But this is not always the case ; and when it is not, then there is a 
strip running along the length of the furlong inside its boundaries and across the 
ends of the strips [rigs] composing it. This is the headland. Sometimes when 
the strips of the one furlong run at right angles to the strips of its neighbour, 
the first strip in the one furlong does duty as the headland, giving access to the 
strips in the other. In either case all the owners of the strips [rigs] in a furlong 
have the right to turn' their plough upon the headland, and thus the owner of 
the headland must wait until all the other strips are ploughed before he can 
plough his own. The Scotch term for this is ' head-rig.' 


When the strips abruptly meet others, or abut upon a boundary at right 
angles, they are sometimes called butts. 

Corners of the field which, from their shape, could not be cut up into the 
usual acre or half -acre strips, were sometimes divided in tapering strips pointed 
at one end, and called ' gores,' or ' gored acres.' Little odds and ends of unused 
land remained, which, from time immemorial, were called ' no man's land,' or 
' any one's land,' or ' Jack's land.' 

The most remarkable and important feature of the open-field system where- 
ever it is found is the fact that neither the strips [rigs] nor the furlongs repre- 
sented a complete holding or property, but that the several holdings were made 
up of a multitude of strips [rigs] scattered about on all sides of the township 
(as at Tynemouth), one in this furlong and another in that, intermixed, and it 
might almost be said entangled together, as though some one blindfold had 

thrown them about on all sides of him The next fact to be noted is 

that under the English system the open fields were the common fields the 
arable land of a village community or township under a manorial lordship. 



[Read on the 28th August, 1886.] 

THROUGH the kindness of Sir Walter Buchanan Riddell, Bart., there 
have been exhibited for a considerable time, at the Black Gate Museum, 
three original documents of the 12th century, that, to say nothing of 
the great local interest that attaches to them, possess a peculiar value 
as examples of the far-reaching, all-embracing power of the Mediaeval 

Before relieving ourselves of the responsibility attendant on the 
custody of these Bulls of Adrian IV. and Alexander III., it would be 
ungrateful of this Society not to do something in the way of printing 
and editing them. 

The Empire and the various kingdoms of Europe were, we know, 
held through the Middle Ages to be in the gift of the Holy See. It 
was Adrian IV. who presented Ireland to our Henry II. To the 
Pope were finally referred all complications in home life connected 
with the subjects of marriage and divorce ; with him rested the power 
of annulling contracts, by absolving the parties to them from their 
oaths ; but that the title of a layman to property in the south of 
Scotland should have been secured by three Papal confirmations is a 
fact that will come to many, it is safe to say, with all the freshness of 

Of two things we may be certain : Bulls of this description would 
not have been applied for unless the right to the property which they 
confirmed was liable to be called in question, nor would they have 
been granted to persons not possessed of more than ordinary influence 
at the Papal Court. 1 

1 We have a Brief of Alexander III., which, though undated, was evidently 
written during his sojourn in France (April, 1162 Sept., 1165), addressed to 
R Fitz Henry, and confirming the restitution to him by Becket of certain land 
in Thanet : " Alexander Papa ad R. filio Henrici. Dilecto filio R. filio Henrici. 


There had been Ridels among the Normans who invaded Sicily 
and Apulia in the llth century. 2 There is still a village called Ridel 
in Touraine. On the Roll of Battle Abbey the names "Avenell, Ros 
et Ridel" stand in as close proximity as that in which we meet with 
them a century later in Northumberland. 3 

In the reign of Henry I., Geoffrey Ridel appears as an eminent 
lawyer. A decision "he gave in favour of the rights of sanctuary at 
Ripon, as against the Sheriff of Yorkshire, brought him to the front, 
and he became Great Justiciary of England ; but his son, of the same 
name, perished with the King's son in the White Ship, and his inherit- 
ance, that lay chiefly in Northamptonshire, passed with his daughter 
Maud to the Bassets, a family of equal legal reputation. 4 

In 1110, David of Scotland was made Earl of Huntingdon (pro- 
bably including Northamptonshire) on his marriage with Maud, 
daughter of Earl Waltheof, and this connection with the midland 
shires of England led a large number of the younger sons of the 
Norman families that had settled in them to follow him to the North, 
where, during the reign of his brother Alexander I., he ruled Cum- 
berland as an appanage. Among his Norman followers was Gervasius 
Ridel, who appears in the Inqitisitio Primipis Davidis (an inquiry into 
the possessions of the Church of Glasgow) as the first Sheriff of 
Roxburgh on record. The chartularies of Melrose, Jedburgh, and 
Kelso, foundations of David after his succession to the throne, are 
full of the names of Ridels, either as benefactors or witnesses. Ger- 
vasius Ridel became the Steward \_dapifer'] of David's son, Henry Earl 

Justis petentium desideriis. &c., assensu terram de insula Thanedos, quam vener- 
abilis frater noster Thomas Cantuarensis archiepiscopus tibi restituit, sicut 
ipsam cum pertinentiis suis tibi et haeredibus tuis tenendam concessit, devotioni 
tuae, &c." Materials for Hut. of BecJict (Rolls Series) V., p. 170. This con- 
firmation relates, however, not to lay property, but to what appears to have been 
part of the lands of the Church of Canterbury. 

In the reign of Mary, Paul IV. issued, 28th Nov., 1555, a Bull confirming Sir 
William Petre in certain possessions of the monastery of Buckfastleigh,' co. 
Devon, which had been bestowed on him by Henry VIII. Monast'won Diceccsis 
Exon. p. 372. This again was a case in which it was comparatively natural for a 
layman to endeavour to fortify his title with the highest ecclesiastical sanction. 

2 Border Memories, by Walter Eiddell-Carre an interesting book that con- 
tains much general information concerning the Eiddell family. 

3 Robert Avenell and Walter Ridel also attest the Foundation Charter of 
Dryburgh (A.D. 1150-1152.). Liber de Drybnrgh, Ixx. 

'Dugdale's Baronage I., p. 555. 


of Northumberland [1139-1152], and as such witnessed, with the 
other great officers of State (the Chancellor Eugenius and Gilbert de 
Umfreville the Constable), a confirmation by the Earl at Newcastle of 
the privileges of Tynemouth Priory. Earl Henry's exemption of the 
tenants of that house from military service was granted at Newcastle 
at Michaelmas, 1147, in the presence of a Thomas Ridell. 5 

To "Walter Ridel, 6 apparently a brother of Gervasius, King David 
[1125-1153] gave (or confirmed) the lands of Lillesclive and Whitton, 
together with a mediety of "Escheho" to be held as one knight's 
fee ; 7 and this fief received the name of the Barony of Riddell. 

The village of Lillesclive, in Roxburghshire, lies about half-way 
between Jedburgh and Selkirk. Through the parish flows the river 
Alne, or Aile Water, near the junction of which with the Teviot was 
held, in A.D. 684, the synod of Twyford-on-Alne, which insisted on St. 
Cuthbert accepting the Bishopric of Lindisfarne. Lillesclive was 

* Gibson's Tynemouth, II. App. No. XXIII. xviii. 

6 In " Notes on some papers evidencing the Antiquity of Iliddell of that Ilk," 
presumably drawn up by " Mr. Thomas Crauf urd, Regent of the Colledge of 
Edinburgh, anno, 1660," there appears a copy of a charter of Alexander I. (1107- 
1124), to Walter de Ridel, that seems otherwise to have been forgotten : " The 
charter itselfe is mislaide or lent out to copy, but there are several faire copies 
of it in the hands of relations of this family. The sume of it is : ' Alexander 
Rex Scotorum Episcopis Abbatibus Comitatibus Baronibus Vicecomitibus Prae- 
positis omnibusque hominibus teme SUES . . . sciant posteri et presentes me 
dedisse et concessisse Waltero de Ridel Wittones . . . et Lillescleve per suas 
rectas divisas cum omnibus appenditis suis juste ad eas pertinentibus in nemore 
piano . . . sicut unus Bai'onum meorum . . . Andrea episcopo de Catenis. 
Waltero filio Alani, Ricardo de Moreville, &c.' " Crawfurd adds that the only 
Andrew bishop of Caithness, who was contemporary with an Alexander King of 
Scots, was the second bishop of that See, who lived temp. Alexander I. Another 
Andrew was not elected bishop till 1288, three years after the death of Alex- 
ander III. Copies and Translations of Riddell Documents (MS. in poss. Sir W. 
B. Riddell), p. 19. 

7 "Per servitium unius militis sicut unus Baronum nostrorum." "I have seen 
a Charter by that King (David), to the said Walter Riddel of the Lands of 
Lillexcleve, $ Dimidiam dc Esclielw, $ Witttin. now called the Barony of 
Riddel, and the Charter as well as the Lands belonged to Sir John Riddel of 
that Ilk Baronet, and now to Sir Walter Riddel his son and success6r." 
Dalrymple's Collections. Edin., 1705, p. 348. This Charter of David I. was'"tran- 
sumpted in a Justice Court holden in Jedburgh by Andrew Lord Grey His 
Majesty's (James IV.) Justice on the south side of the Forth, November 4th, 1506, 
bearing that John Riddel of Whittouns compeared and delivered in this Charter 
and desired the same to be writ over and transumpted in regard of its oldness, 
which was accordingly done and sealed with a seal." T. Craufurd's Notes, Copies 
and Translations of Riddell Documents, p. 20. George Crauford, historiographer 
of Scotland (who wrote his Peerage of Scotland in 1716, and died 1748), states 
that in his time this "transumpt " was still preserved among the Riddell Archives. 
He seems to have read the names mentioned in the Charter as "Lilescleve. 
Piinadan. Elcheles et Wittnn." Ibid., p. 31. 


one of the mensal churches of the bishops of Glasgow. 8 It was con- 
firmed by Alexander III. to Bishop Engelram, in a Bull dated at 
Veruli on the nones of April, A.D. 1170 ; 9 and by him also to Bishop 
Jocelyn, in Bulls dated respectively at Ferentino and the Lateran in 
A.D. 1174 and A.D. 1179. 10 Whitton is on the Kail Water, among 
the Cheviot Hills. 

Walter de Eidel left by will surely a very early instance of real 
property being made the subject of bequest the vills of Lillesclive 
and Whitton to his brother Askitill. 

On the 8th of April, A.D. 1156, 11 Adrian IV. [Nicholas Breaks- 
peare], the only Englishman who has ever yet sat in the Chair of 
Peter, addressed from Benevento 12 the following Bull to Askitill de 
Bidale : 

" Adrian the Bishop, the Servant of the Servants of God, to the 
beloved Knight Askitill, greeting and Apostolic benediction. The Holy 
Roman Church has been wont the more readily to favour her devout 
and humble sons out of regard to their continual pious services, and 
like a pious mother, is accustomed to cherish them with the safeguard 
of her protection. Wherefore, beloved son in the Lord, perceiving 
the sincerity of the devotion to the blessed Peter and ourselves by 
which thou art distinguished, we' take thy person with the property 
which thou dost now justly and canonically hold, or mayest hereafter 
by the favour of God, regularly acquire, under the protection of 
the blessed Peter and ourselves ; but in especial that which Walter 
de Ridale thy brother, in making his will before death, is known 
to have left thee, namely the vills of Wittunes and Lilescleve. And 
all other property that any have justly conferred upon thee, we, by 
the authority of the Apostolic See, confirm entirely to thy devout 
use, and secure it by the protection of this present writing, decreeing 

8 Orig. Paroch. Scot. I., p. 307. ~LiUesclive would seem to be the same place 
as ' Eadwinesc&'re ' near Melrose, where, after three days' fighting. Ethel wald 
Moll, King of Northumberland, defeated and slew the rebel ealdorman Oswin 
on 6th of Aug., A.D. 761. If so, it is singular that it should have come to bear the 
name of Lilla the faithful thane, who, at the cost of his own life, saved that of 
Edwin from the poisoned dagger of the West Saxon envoy. 

9 Regist. Ep. Glasg. I., p. 24. 10 Ibid., p. 30. 

11 This was the only year in which Adrian IV. was at Benevento on the 8th 
of April. On the same day that he issued the Bull to Askitill de Ridale, he 
directed another, involving the highest claims of appellate jurisdiction, to the 
Bishop of Langres : " Godefrido, episcopo Lingonensi, nunciat, se Ludovici 
Francorum regis contra Burgundiae ducem sententiam confirmasse." Jaffe, 
Regesta Pontijicwn Romanoriim, Berlin, 1851, p. 666. 

12 At Benevento, on 9th June, 1156, Adrian IV. invested William the Norman 
with the Kingdom of Sicily and Duchy of Apulia. John of Salisbury was his 
guest there for three months, and draws a pathetic picture of the Pope's uu- 
happiness as disclosed in the course of intimate conversation. Collier's Ecclcs. 
ffvst. (ed. Barham). II., p. 258. quoting Job. Sarisbur. Polycrat. 1. 8. c. 23. 


that if thou shouldst feel thyself oppressed in any thing, it shall be 
freely permitted thee to appeal to the Apostolic See. Let it not there- 
fore be lawful for f.ny man at all to rashly trouble thy person or pro- 
perty, or to lessen the force of our confirmation on this page. But if 
anyone presume to assail it, let him incur the anger of Almighty God 
and of the blessed Peter and Paul the Apostles. 

Given at Benevento, the 6th of the Ides of April." 13 

Anskitill de Bidale appears to have succeeded at his brother's death 
to the vill of " Brahebi," 14 in addition to those of Whitton and Lilles- 
clive, which are specially mentioned in this Bull. Eespecting Lilles- 
clive, he found it necessary to come to an arrangement with Huctred 
the Priest, but this was only accomplished by the mediation of King 
Malcolm IV. [1153-1165.] The King incorporated this agreement 
in a charter. Anskitill, however, again had recourse to the Pope for a 
confirmation of these estates to himself and his heirs. 

Meanwhile a great change had come over Christendom. On the 
death of Adrian IV., a double election had occurred, and Alexander 
III., the Pope, supported by France and England, had been forced to 
fly from Italy and take shelter in the dominions of Louis YII. But this 
schism may be said to occupy only the second place in the contemporary 
history of the Church, the first being assigned to the great quarrel 
between Henry II. and Thomas Becket, in which the name of Geoffrey 
Ridel appears as one of the King's foremost partisans. 

On his election to the archbishopric, Becket was credited with the 
wish of still continuing to hold the rich archdeaconry of Canterbury. 15 
This was not permitted; Geoffrey Ridel 16 became archdeacon, or, as 
Becket in the heat of their hostilities preferred to call him, " non 
archidiaconus sed vero archidia'bolus" In the early part of 1164, 
Geoffrey was sent with John of Oxford on an embassy from the King 

13 See Appendix A. 

11 There seems no place in Roxburghshire with a name like " Brahebi;" and 
this name does not occur in any of the published chartularies of Abbeys, &c., &c., 
in the south of Scotland. Can it possibly be an error for " Eschebi ? " 

15 Milman, Hist, of Latin, Christ. V., p. 41n. 

16 The connection of Geoffrey Ridel with the lords of Lillesclive though it does 
not directly appear, may be safely assumed. Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London, the 
most stubborn adversary of Becket, also probably came from the south of Scot- 
land. One of Foliot's nearest relatives had forfeited his estate (in Northumber- 
land ?) for fidelity to the King of Scots. Epist. ii. cclxxviii, quoted in Milman, 
Hist, of Latin Christ. V.. p. 37n. Robert Foliot occurs as a witness to charters 
of Henry Earl of Northumberland, both at Selkirk and Huntingdon. Harts- 
horne's Feudal and Military Antiq. of Northumberland. App. cxv. 


to Sens, in order to try and obtain from the Pope a Legatine Commis- 
sion over the whole of England for Becket's enemy the Archbishop of 
York, and a monition to Becket to obey the Constitutions of Claren- 
don. Alexander granted the Commission, and enjoined Becket to 
show a spirit of greater forbearance. 17 

Even Becket himself complains of the tergiversation of the Pope 
and the venality of the College of Cardinals. His cause rose and fell 
in constant ratio with Alexander's prosperous or adverse fortunes. 18 
It is then certainly a most curious coincidence, if nothing more, that 
on the very morrow of the day on which Alexander took his last leave 
of Becket at Bourges, he should publish at Sauviny a Bull of pro- 
tection to one of the family of Bidel, probably a near relative of the 
archdeacon, whom Becket so thoroughly abhorred. 19 . 

Sauvigny, a small town situated to the west of the Allier near 
Moulins, was the cradle of the illustrious house of Bourbon. 20 Adhe- 
mar, Sire de Bourbon, had, in AD. 863, bestowed the town on the 
monks of Cluny. 21 It was here that Alexander III. had met Louis 
VII. in August, A.D. 1162, and during a momentous conference that 
lasted for two days, the King had in vain urged Alexander to accom- 
pany him on his way to meet the Emperor for the purpose of restoring 
peace to the Church, by procuring the general acknowledgment of one 
or neither of the two rival Popes. 22 

17 Milman, Hist. Lat. Christ. V., p. 53. ia Ibid. V., p. 11. 

19 Geoffrey Eidel, who of course had been excommunicated by Becket, took 
the King's Proclamation against both the Pope and the Archbishop to England 
in 1IC9. Ibid., p. 107. He became, after Becket's death, Bishop of Ely (1 174 
1189). Ibid., p. 128n. 

20 Elisee Eeclus, Nomelle GeograpMe Universellc, France, pp. 487-8. 

21 Bruzen de la Martiniere, Diet-. Geog., torn. 8., p. 64, quoting Mabillon, Hist, 
des Benedictins, p. 85. 

22 " (.kmvenerunt . . . Alexander et Ludovicus apud Silviniacum qui est 
vicus Monachorum Cluniacensium.'' Hist. Vizeliac., lib. IV. in D'Achery, 
Spicilegwm, Paris, 1723, p. 539. "Bex Francorum .... Alexandrum 
Pontificem apud Salvianum habuit obviam : in quo loco se invicem honorantes 
.... per bicluum tractaverunt." Baronius, Annal. Ecclcs. (Lucca, 1746), 
XIX.. p. 187. To which Pagius offers the sound criticism : "Apud Silviniacum,, 
non vero apud Salvianum., ut habetur apud Baronium." Ibid., p. 187n. III. On 
leaving Sauvigny in 1162, Alexander went to Bourges, and passed the winter in 
the monastery of Deols (dep. Indre) near Chateauroux : '' Alexander . . 
Catholicus Papa . . . transiit in Aquitanise Metropolim urbem Bituricorum, et 
in Dolense Monasterium quod est apud Castrum Radulphi, ibique hyemavit." 
Hist. Vizel. D'Achery, p. 540. Eohrbacher (Hist. Univ. de V Er/lisc CathoUqtie 
VIII., p. 462), says : ' Alexandre s'etait retire au monastcre de Bourg-Dieu pres 
de Chateauroux en Berri." These details are necessary in order to fix "the locality 


On the 17th May, A.D. 1165, Alexander III. left Bourges to pro- 
ceed to Clermont, and by the 25th of the month had arrived there. 23 
He had reached Sauvigny, about forty or fifty miles distant from 
Bourges, sufficiently early on the 18th of May to then and there date 
the second of these Biddell Bulls : 2i 

" Alexander the Bishop, the Servant of the Servants of God to his 
beloved son the Knight Anskitill de Eidale greeting and Apostolic 
benediction. It is right for us to lend a ready assent to the just 
wishes of petitioners, and promises that interfere not with the course 
of the ploughing should be carried into speedy fulfilment. For these 
reasons, beloved son in the Lord, being pleased to accede to thy just 
requests, we, by the authority of the Apostolic See, confirm entirely 
and secure by the protection of this present writing to thee and thy 
heirs those things that Walter de Bidale thy brother, in making his 
will at his death, is known to have left thee, namely, the vills 
of Whitton, Lillesclive, and ' UraJiebi,' and all other property that 
any have justly conferred on thee ; likewise also the agreement 
between thee and Huctred the Priest as to the vill of Lillesclive 
reasonably concluded with the assent of either party, through the 
mediation of our most dear son in Christ, Malcolm, the illustrious 
king of the Scots, and confirmed by the authentic writing of the 
same king, in the same manner as is known to be contained in that 
writing ; decreeing that to no one at all shall it be permitted to lessen 
the force of our confirmation on this page, nor in any wise to oppose 
it. Should however anyone venture to assail it, let him know that he 
will incur the anger of Almighty God and of the blessed Peter and 
Paul His Apostles. 

Given at Sauvigny, the 15th of the Kalends of June." 25 

The third Bull is from Alexander III. to Walter de Ridal, the son 
of Anschetill. Unfortunately the name of the place where it was 
written has been effaced, so that it becomes impossible to assign it to 

of ' Silviniacum,' there being so many places in France with similar names, The 
geography of Alexander's Itinerary is peculiarly difficult to master. Hermann 
Keuter in his Gesc/iichtc Alexanders dex Dritten (Berlin, 1845), p. 273 a very 
feeble performance instead of being of any assistance on the point, vaguely 
remarks of the place of conference between the Pope and Louis VII. : 
" In Silviniacum, einem Dorfe mit ienem Cluniacenser-Kloster, kamen beidc 

23 Jaffe, Regesta Pontificum Romano-urn, p. 704 

21 A.D. 1165 was the only year during his slay in France (Apr. 1162-Sept. 
1165) in which Alexander III. could have dated a Bull at Kauvigny (dep. Allier) 
on the 18th May. On the 17th and 22nd May, 1162, the Pope was still at 
Montpellier Jaffe Reg. Pontijitnim Rom., pp. 685-6 ; on the 16th and 19th May, 
1103, he was at Tours. Ibid., p. 691 ; and on the 19th May. 1164, at Sens. Ibid 
p. 698. 

'' See Appendix B. 


any definite year, and we must content ourselves with the day of the 
month May the 10th. 

In a certain sense this is the most interesting of all the three Bulls, 
as the fact it mentions of Sir Anschetill and his ancestors holding 
" Brahebi " of the Church of Hexham is the sole trace of that church 
having owned estates on the north side of the Tweed. It runs : 

"Alexander the Bishop, the Servant of the Servants of God, to his 
beloved son Walter de Ridale, greeting and Apostolic benediction. 
The Holy Eoman Church has been wont to favour her devout and 
humble sons with more ready care out of regard to their continual 
pious services, and lest they should be troubled by the molestations of 
wicked men, is, like a pious mother, accustomed to cherish them with 
the safeguard of her protection. On these accounts, beloved son in 
the Lord, recalling the more carefully to remembrance the devotion 
that thy father Auschetill, of blessed memory, showed to the blessed 
Peter and ourselves, we take thy person with all the property that thou 
dost at present lawfully hold, or which hereafter thou shalst be able, 
by the Lord's assistance, to acquire by just means, under the protection 
of the blessed Peter and ourselves ; but in especial the vill of Lilles- 
cleve and the half of Langetun, and the vill of Witun, with all that 
pertaineth to it, likewise the vill of Brahebi, in the same manner as thy 
father and thy ancestors held it from the church of [Hejxtoldesham. 
We further, by Apostolic authority, confirm to thy devout use the 
agreement as to the vill of Lillesclive, which was reasonably con- 
cluded between thy father aforesaid and Huctred the priest, and 
confirmed by us, and we strengthen it with the protection of the 
present writing ; appointing that if thou shouldst feel thyself in 
aught [aggrieved], it shall be freely permitted thee to appeal to the 
Apostolic See. Therefore we decree that it shall not be lawful for any 
one at all to lessen the force of the protection we have granted and 
confirmed on this page. But should anyone dare to assail [it] let him 
know that he will incur the anger of Almighty God and of the blessed 
Peter and Paul, His Apostles. 

Given at .... the 6th of the Ides of May." 26 

That there was some connection in history between the Ridels of 
Scotland and St. Thomas of Canterbury is rendered the more probable 
by a singular story inserted in the list of miracles attributed to his 
intercession. Possibly the hagiographer has spitefully given it a 
serio-comic turn, and dilated on it as showing that even the family of 
one of Becket's chief persecutors was forced to bear witness to his 
sanctity. The legend may not be very refined, but has many points 
that make it worth telling : 

25 See Appendix C. The date ''A.D. 1180," marked on the back, has no authority. 


" In the household of David, brother to the King of Scots, 27 a 
certain tanner [alutarius] named Robert, whose father, Thomas, had 
plied the same trade, lay sick unto death. Fifteen days had he 
lingered without food when, at what seemed his last hour, he was 
urged to put his trust in the Martyr and make a vow to him. He 

assented, made the vow, and the next day had quite recovered 

Restored to health, and intending to perform his vow, he said to 
his comrade, Hugh, surnamed Ridel, the son of a certain steward 
[cujusdam castaldij' 9 of the King of Scots ' See now, I am starting 
on a pilgrimage ; let us be fellow-pilgrims to the shrine of the Martyr 
Thomas.' Hugh replied that he was in no mind to go, on which the 
other remarked that he was sure to be going there before long. 
Thus it happened that he foretold what came to pass ; for a few days 
later as this Hugh was at dinner he took up a piece \_bucellam~\ of 
meat and threw it into the mouth of one of his companions, who, in 
his turn, pitched a piece into Hugh's mouth. But after they had thus 
played together for a little with boyish wantonness and no great 
regard for table manners \_mensarum rever entice, minus deferentes~\, 
their gaiety was turned into grief, for Hugh Ridel's wind-pipe was 
choked [spiramina obstrusa sunf], a piece of beef having lodged in 
the vital passage [came bovina vitce, canalibus inserta~\. Unable to 
draw breath, he fell to the ground with a ghastly pallor on his face 
[facie teterrima decolor atus\. Those present sprang up, and taking 
him from table began rubbing his throat and back, but not a sign of 
life was to be discovered. As they were wailing, his brother broke 
out in the lament ' Is it thus, my brother, that cruel death is to 
separate us ? Come to our aid, Thomas, thou Saint of God, thou 
worker of marvels and portents innumerable, and manifest in this thy 
power. See, I make the sign of a pilgrim ; I wrap up this coin (?) 
\_Ecce peregrinationis siynum, complico niimmum] in my brother's name. 
From me let this vow or the sin of breaking it be required. Help, 
Father, that the poor boy be not carried off in this pitiable way ! ' 
The others suggested obtaining water from a priest to pour down 
Hugh Ridel's throat. A boy was sent out, but came back to say the 
chapel was locked. Then said Abbot Richard, 29 ' I will go myself, and 
if I find it locked, the lock can be broken.' Coming to the door of 
the chapel he put out his hand to pull off the lock, but before he could 

27 David Earl of Huntingdon, brother to William the Lion, King of Scots 
This legend is thus placed between the death of Becket A.D. 1170, and that of 
King William, A.D. 1214. There is nothing to actually determine whether the 
scene of it is laid in Scotland or in Huntingdonshire. The fame of Becket as a 
wonder-worker soon spread to Scotland ; in the " Vita Oswini/' Surt. Soc. Pub., 
is a curious story of the pilgrimage of a woman of Edinburgh to his shrine. 
8. p. 50. 

28 " Castaldus " does not appear to have been a term applied to a high official : 
or it would seem probable that Gervasius de Eidel the ' Vicecomes" of Roxburgh, 
and "dapifer" of Earl Henry was intended. 

29 Possibly Richard, abbot of Welford. See Mat. for Hist, of Becket 
(Roll Series) I., p. 148. 


lay hold of it, it had, by the marvellous goodness of God and the 
benignity of the martyr, fallen off of itself. Who then can deny that 
the saint took pity on the sufferer, and for his sake pushed back the 
lock lest aid should arrive too late ? Having filled two flasks with 
holy water \_duabits arreplis ampidlis], Abbot Richard poured it into 
Hugh Ridel's mouth, who at once, like one woke from a sleep, sat 
up and burst forth into praise." 30 

A word or two about the Riddells in Northumberland the name 
of Jordan Ridel appears with that of Hugh in several Scotch charters 
at the end of the 12th century. In about A.D. 1240 we find a Jordan 
de Ridel possessed of Tilmouth, and mention also occurs of his son, 
Robert, in a deed relating to a tithe dispute at Norham. Jordan's 
seal attached to this deed has on it a shield harry wavy and a chief? 1 
This closely resembles the coat of the neighbouring family of Manners 
at Etal, or, two bars azure, a chief gules, and that of the Muscamps of 
Wooler, three bars, a chief. Sir "William Ridell of Tilmouth 32 was 
Sheriff of Northumberland in 1314 ; but the estate passed soon after 
with an heiress to the Claverings. A younger branch of the Ridell 
family, however, appears to have held on to certain husbandlands at 
Tilmouth till, at any rate, as late as A.D. 142 6. 33 

There is still preserved the very characteristic will of Thomas 
Ridell, senior burgess of the town of Berwick-on-Tweed in A.D. 1358. 
His connection with the Roxburghshire family is evident from his 
bequests to the building of a stone bridge at Roxburgh and to the 
chapel of St. Mary there, as also to the Abbey of Kelso. He leaves 
something too for the bridge of " Alwic," by which, probably, the 
Alnwick of the Percies is meant. Still more curious is it to notice 

aa Miracula S. Thomas Cantuarensis Lib. IV.. 15. De juvene qui per 
tcmcritatcm. ludi bvcella strangulates est. Mat. for Hist, of Bechet I., p. 326. 

31 Eaine, North Durham, p. 212n. 

3 - Do these coats (so like those of Heton and Grey), in Papworth's Ordinary, 
refer to the Riddells of Tilmouth : Gii., a lion rampant within a bordurc 
indented ar ; >. (Sir William Rydell, Haii. MS., 6157) ; the same within a bordurc 
ccrscle, (' Monsire Will. Ridell," Dunstable Roll A.D. 1308) ? The Riddells of 
Newcastle continued bearing this lion-coat at any rate till the time of Sir Peter 
Riddell, M.P. in 1635. The heralds at the Visitations took the singular course of 
passing the pedigree, but disallowing the arms. In recent times the Riddells of 
Northumberland have acquiesced in this decision and been contented to use the 
coat, or, afcssc between three garbs az., that of John Ridsdale, Sheriff of New- 
castle, A.D. 1479. 

33 Inq. p. m. Hen. Ridell, held at Norham, loth Ap., 1426. Henry his son 
aged 26. See 5tk Rep. Deputy Keep. Pub. Rfc 


that the strong- attachment of the Riddells to the Holy See which is 
manifested in the three Bulls, and the pilgrim spirit that his mira- 
culous recovery aroused in Hugh de Ridel, appears to have become 
hereditary in the family, since Thomas Ridell leaves six marks to a 
pilgrim to the Roman Court in honour of St. Peter, and five to one 
who should proceed in his name to the shrine of St. James of 
Compostella. 34 

It does not seem possible to prove the exact connection of the 
Riddells of Felton and Cheeseburn with the ancient lords of Riddell ; 
but, in spite of certain obvious difficulties that present themselves in 
the ordinary account of their lineage, it is difficult to help believing 
that their firm allegiance to the Roman Church may be traced back 
through seven centuries to the " sincere devotion " of Sir Askitill de 
Ridale to St. Peter and his one English successor. 

There is something melancholy in the fact that the three Bulls of 
Adrian IV. and Alexander III. are all that has been preserved of 
"Ancient Riddel's fair domain." K 

Circumstances have led* Sir Walter Ridd ell's family to settle at 
Hepple, in Northumberland, and by the marriage of one of his early 
ancestors with a daughter of the house of Vesci, he is the most 
direct representative of the Norman lords of Alnwick. 36 

34 Wills and Inventories. Stirt. Soc. Pnb. 2. p. 28. The Roman Court (Curia) 
was at that time at Avignon. 

35 Lay of the Last Minstrel, Canto I., St. xxviii. The note on this passage 
is an example of Sir Walter Scott's wide but uncritical reading. He mentions 
the three Riddell Bulls, but the dates he gives them 8th April, 1155 ; 17th 
June, 1160 ; and 10th March, 1120 (the last from Alexander III. !) are incorrect. 
His account of the discovery of two stone coffins in the chapel of Riddell. 
" bearing the legible dates A.D. 727 and 936," is suspicious. 

36 It will be seen that I have taken no notice of that monstrous fabrication, 
the genealogy of the Riddells of Ardnamurchan, given in Hutchinson's Durham, 
App. III., vii ; nor of the new American book, " The Riddells, Ridleys. and 
Ridlons " families that have as much to do with each other as Monmouth with 
Maccdou. The illustrations to the latter, however, are a most amusing medley 
of British country-houses and American manufactories. On this side of the 
Atlantic, the art of simultaneously puffing the pedigrees of families and their 
industrial produce is one yet to be learnt. 



Bull of Adrian IV. to the Knight Askitill, Benevenlo, 8 April, 1156. 

ADrianus episcopus Seruus Seruorum del Dilecto Askitillo militi - 
salutem et apostolicam benedictionem Sacrosancta romana ecclesia 
deuotos et bundles filios ex assuete pietatis officio propensius diligere 
consueuit et eos protectionis sue munimine tanquam pia mater Est 
solita confouere Quaecirca dilecte in domino fili sinceritatem tue 
deuotionis quam erga beatum Petrum et nos ipsos habere diuosceris 
attendentes personam tuam cum bonis que impresentiarum iuste et 
canonice possides aut in futurum deo propitio rationabiliter poteris 
adipisci sub beati Petri et nostram protectionem suscipimus specialiter 
autein ea que Walterius de ridale frater tuns testainentum ante obitum 
suum faciens tibi noscitur reliquisse uidelicet villas Wittunes et 
lilescleue et cetera bona a quibuscunque iuste tibi collata nos 
deuotioni tue auctoritate sedis apostolice integre confirmamus et 
presentis scripti patrocinio communimus Statuentes ut si te in 
aliquo grauari presenseris libere tibi liceat sedem apostolicam apel- 
lare Nulli ergo omnino liominum fas sit personam tuam uel bona 
temere perturbare sen hanc paginam nostre confirmationis infringere 
Si quis . . . attemptare presumpserit indignationem Omnipo- 
tentis dei it beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum incurrat Datum 
Beneuenti vj Idus Aprilis. 

Attached is a leaden Bulla of Adrian IV. 


Bull of Alexander III. to AnsMill de Ridale, Sauvigny, 18 May, 1165. 

ALEXANDEE episcopus seruus seruorum dei Dilecto filio Anski- 
tillo de ridale militi salutem et apostolicam benedictionem Justis 
petentium desideriis dignum est nos facilem prebere consensum et 
uota que arationis tramite non discordant effectu sunt prosequente 
complenda Eapropter dilecte in domino fili tuis iustis postulationibus 
grato concurrentes assensu ea que Walterius de ridale frater tuus 
testamentum in obitu suo faciens tibi noscitur reliquisse uidelicet 
uillas Witunes lilescleue et Brahebi et cetera bona a quibuscunque 
iuste tibi collata Conuentionem quoque inter te et Huctredum 
sacerdotem super uilla de lillescliue mediante Karissimo in Christo filio 
nostro M illustri Scotthorum rege de utriusque partis assensu ration- 
abiliter factam et autentico scripto eiusdem regis firmatam quern 
admodum in eodem scripto contineri diuoscitur tibi et heredibus tuis 
auctoritate apostolice sedis integre confirmamus et presentis scripti 
patrocinio communimus Statuentes ut nulli omnino hominum liceat 
hanc paginam nostre confirmationis infringere uel ei aliquatenus 
contraire Si quis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit indignationem 
omnipotentis dei et beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum. eius se 
noureit incursurum Datum Siluiniaci xv. Kal. Junii. 

Attached is a leaden Bulla of Alexander III. 


Bull of Alexander III. to Walter de Ridal, 10 May. . . . 

ALEXANDER episcopus seruus seniorum del Dilecto filio Walterio 
de Ridal salutem et apostolicam benedictionem Sacrosancta Romana 
ecclesia denotes et humiles filios ex assuete pietatis officio propensiori 
cura consueoit diligere et ne prauorum honiinuin molestiis agitentur 
eos sue protectionis munimine tanquam pia mater est solita confouere 
Eapropter dilecte in domino fili deuotionem quam bone meuiorie 
Ansclietillus pater tuns circa beatum Petrum et nos ipsos exhibuit 
studiosius in inemoriam reuocantes personam tuana cum omnibus 
bonis que impresentiarum legitime possides aut in futurum iustis 
modis prestante domino poteris adipisci sub beati Petri et nostram 
protectionem suscipimus Specialiter autem uillam de lillescliue et 
dimidiam langetune et uillarn de Witune cum omnibus pertinentiis 
suis uillam etiam de brahebi quemadmodum earn pater et pro- 
genitores tui ab ecclesia . . xtoldesham tenuerunt Conuentionem 
quoque inter huctredum sacerdotem et predictum patrem tuum super 
uilla de lillescliue rationabiliter factam et a nobis confirmatam 
deuotioni tue auctoritate apostolica confirmarnus et presentis scripti 
patrocinio communimus Statuentes ut si te in aliquo presenseris 
libere tibi ad sedem apostolicam appellare Decernimus ergo ut nulli 
omnino hominum fas sit hanc nostre protectionis et confirmation} s 
paginam infringere seu personam et bona tua temere perturbare Si 
quis autem attemptare presumpserit indignationem . . . nipotenfcis 
dei et beatormn Petri et Panli apostolorum eius se noverit iucur- 
sururn . . . vj Idus Maii. 

Attached is a leaden Bulla of Alexander III. 



[Read on the 23rd February, 1887.] 

ON the short visit I paid last year to the City Museum, Fenkle Street, 
Carlisle, I noticed, amongst other objects of interest to an antiquary, 
a large tombstone, described by Dr. Bruce in the third edition 
of his Handbook to the Roman Wall in these words 1 : "One of the 
latest acquisitions is a tombstone, which was found in the western 
suburbs of the city. The deceased lady, sitting in her chair, holds in 
her hand a fan of a form still in use in the island of Malta and else- 
where. Her left hand is lovingly placed upon the shoulder of her 
child, who strokes the back of a dove upon her lap. At the top of the 
slab are two lions with a human head in their claws, and a sphinx also 
holding a human head. The figures allude to the destruction of 
human life and the riddle (as it appears to the heathen) of death. 
The lower part of the inscription, which, we doubt not, gave the name 
of the lady, is lost." 

Mr. R. S. Ferguson has been so kind as to provide me with a good 
photographic representation of the interesting object, by Messrs. Scott 
& Son, Carlisle, which, I hope, will enable me to make some observations 
on the monument. It represents a kind of niche, not uncommon on 
tombstones, flanked by two channelled pilasters, surmounted by plain 
capitals. On the top of the niche we see the upper part of a winged 
human figure of which the head has been destroyed, holding a human 
head ; it is represented front-faced, and flanked by two lions, turned, 
one to the right and one to the left, each preparing to devour something 
according to Dr. Bruce, a human head but which, owing to the 
mutilated condition of the stone, is not clear on the photograph. In 
the niche is placed a chair (solinm) furnished with a cushion, in which 
is seated a stately lady, dressed in a long robe (stola} with a kind of 
strip (instita) and wide sleeves ; the upper part of the body is wrapped 

1 P. 229. A A 


in an amiculum, covering the left arm ; the right hand holds a large 
fan, the left rests upon the shoulder of a child clothed in two long 
shirts, the upper one with sleeves (tunica manicata), standing to the left 
of the lady, and either stroking the back or pointing with the finger of 
the extended right hand to a dove sitting on the lady's lap. I cannot 
make out whether the child is holding anything in its left hand. The 
lady's face (very much mutilated, alas !) is turned to the child, while 
she is cooling it with the expanded fan in her right hand. The part 
of the stone containing the feet of the child and of the lady, and per- 
haps a footstool (scabellum}, with the inscription, is lost. Let us hope 
that some day it may be found, and teach us the name of the noble 
matron who is so graciously represented in one of the most delightful 
and happy moments of her everyday life. As Dr. Bruce remarks, the 
lions and sphinx allude to the destruction of human life. Lions often 
appear on tombstones ; e.g., on the Stanwix stone, dedicated to her 
husband, Marcus Troianus, by his dear wife Aelia Ammillusima. 2 
On tombstones they have, no doubt, a symbolical meaning, and cannot 
be taken as merely ornamental. In the mysteries of Mithras and Attis, 
the beloved of the Magna Mater, the origin of the symbolical use of 
lions on tombstones may be hidden. Mithras, according to Lactantius, 
the scholiast of Statius, 3 was represented in a cave dressed as a Persian, 
with a lion's face and a tiara, pressing down with both his hands the 
horns of a bull (in spelaeo, Persico JiaNtu, leonis vultu cum tiara vtrisqm 
manibus bovis cornua comprimens). In the same action Attis is some- 
times represented. As to the sphinx, I only observe that it is repre- 
sented on the grave of Calventius at Pompeii. Here it is seen sitting 
on a rock ; opposite to it is Oedipus meditating on the sphinx riddle, 
as appears from the finger put to the forehead. . A body of one of 
those who have been killed by the monster appears from beneath the 
rock. Mystery and destruction are both indicated here. 

It is indeed very curious to see in the same monument combined 
the representation of a most simple and ingenuous scene of domestic 
life and the symbolism of the syncretic religion of Hadrian and his 
successors' times a kind of twilight between the materialism of earlier 
religion and the spiritualism of Christian faith and hope that was then 
conquering the old world. 

2 Sandbook, p. 223. * Thebais, Lib. I., v. 717. sqq. 


As in every matter of art, Rome followed Greece in sepulchral 
decoration, which commonly represented the dead on their graves in 
some act of daily life. The noble character of Attic art shows itself 
on many grave monuments, excavated in recent years in an ancient 
cemetery before the Dipylon at Athens. 4 On one of them a beautiful 
young woman is represented sitting in a chair, with a servant opposite 
to her, who reaches her a little box, from which she seems to take 
something resembling a necklace. On the architrave of the small 
temple, in which the scene is represented, are the names of the two, 
Hegeso and Proxeno ; on another the daughters of a Milesian, Hilara 
and Zozarion, are represented reaching each other the right hand. 
One of them must be the deceased. 

Banqueting scenes are often represented, especially on Roman 
stones. Some of that kind can be seen in the Wallraf-Richartz 
Museum in Cologne. One of them, representing a legionary soldier 
from Virunum in Nbricum, resting on a lectus tricliniaris, with napkin 
(mappa) in one, and drinking vessel in the other hand, attended by 
two servants standing at the foot of the lectus, is particularly interest- 
ing, on account of the lions' heads in both upper corners of the stone. 
A similar scene is very rudely represented on a stone from Cor- 
chester, in the Black Gate Museum at Newcastle, where a man and a 
woman are represented sitting on the lectus tricliniaris ; 5 and on the 
monument of Aelia Aeliana, in the Museum of the Yorkshire Philoso- 
phical Society, where a man and a woman are represented sitting on a 
lectus, in a similar niche or alcove as the Carlisle lady, and a young 
girl standing at one end of the couch. 6 With this the very interesting 
tombstone of Victor, found at South Shields, now in the possession of 
Mr. R. Blair, where the attendant is represented on a very small scale, 
may also be compared. 7 

The lady represented in our monument may be fancied sitting in 
her garden, in a kind of recess which can be compared to our bowers. 
The Romans had what they called hemicyclia small structures of a 
semi-circular form, provided with benches as resting places in their 

4 C. Curtius. Der attische Friedhof vor dem Dipylon. ArchdologiscTie 
' Zeituno, 1872. s Catalogue, p. 72, No. 150. 

6 Descriptive Account of the Antiquities, p. 38, No. 33 (6th edition). The 
object in the hand of the man, indicated in the account as something of uncertain 
character, may be the mappa. 7 Handbook, p. 240; Arch* AeL. X.. 311-18. 


parks and towns. Outside the Herculanean gate at Pompeii, next to 
the "Tomba del vaso divetro blu," is still standing a structure of that 
kind. It is a hot day, for she is cooling her face with a fan ; a dove, 
the favourite of the house, sits on her lap, and her child, playing in the 
garden, now stands at her knees to play with the pet. 

Fans (flabella) are often represented on Greek vases and other ob- 
jects. Some of the vases, exposed in the fourth vase-room of the British 
Museum, represent ladies provided with that luxurious article. They 
are very different in form. Sometimes they seem to be only a leaf of 
large size a lotus leaf, for instance ; sometimes they resemble more the 
fans now used ; at other times they seem to be made of thin painted 
boards ; often they were composed of feathers. They are usually stiff, 
and have a long handle, which was more convenient than a small one, 
because they were commonly handled by slaves to cool their mistresses. 
So Plautus, in his Trinummus, 8 amongst the servants of a lady, enu- 
merates fan- bearers (flahelliferae) ; and the supposed . eunuch in the 
Eunuchus 9 of Terentius receives his orders, when in attendance on a 
lady, thus : " Take this fan ; give her, in this manner, a little refrigera- 
tion whilst we are taking a bath " (cape hoc flalellum, ventulum huic 
sicfacito, dum lavamur). Propertius, in one of his elegies, 10 speaks of 
fans of the superb tail of a peacock (pavonis caudae flabella superlae) 
which were sometimes used in driving off flies, as appears from an 
epigram of Martial, 11 where a muscarium pavoninum is mentioned. A 
myrtle branch to drive off flies, and a green fan applied to cool a 
sensualist at his dinner, are spoken of by the same in another epigram 12 : 
Et aestuanti tenue vmtilat frigus supina prasino concubina flabello 
fugatque muscas myrtea puer virga. The same service was rendered 
to a lady by Eutropius, the unworthy favourite of Arcadius, as Clau- 
dianus testifies 13 in these words : El guum se rapido sessam proiecerat 
aestu, patricius roseis pavonum ventilat alis. 

Amongst the terra-cotta statuettes, placed in the: fourth vase-room 
of the British Museum, some from Tanagra, in Boeotia, " remarkable 
for grace and refinement," represent ladies with fans of the form of a 
leaf ; one has, moreover, a dove pressed to her bosom. 

I did not observe on the monuments in the British Museum or 

6 V. 251. 9 III., 5, 47. 10 III., 24, 11. n Apophoreta, 67. 

12 Epigr. III., 82. " In Eutropium. I., 109. 


elsewhere a fan of a form like that of the Carlisle lady. I asked in a 
shop in this town, if they had any fans of the same form, and was 
told, that they were no longer used, but that they were in use fifty 
years ago. I saw there a little pliable object of green silk, having 
precisely the same form as the fan in question, and adapted to be 
placed on a small standard, to serve as a kind of screen on a table 
against a too strong light of a lamp. The fan of our lady was probably 
made of a similar material, and could be folded, like our fans. 

Pet animals are often represented on ancient works of art. Poets 
made them the object of their songs. On painted vases sometimes 
birds are seen sitting on the knees of their mistresses. Dogs occur 
on tombstones as the faithful companions of their masters. Generally 
known are Catullus's two poems 14 on Lesbia's pet sparrow ; the third 
and fourth verses of the first of them 

Passer, deliciae meae puellae, quicum ludere, quern in sinu tenere, 
Quoi primum digitum dare adpetenti et acres solet incitare morsus, 

might serve as an illustration of our monument ; but here the mother 
has the bird on her lap, and the boy stretches the top of his finger to 
the pecking bird and incites the pecking. The second, on the death 
of the misellus passer, was famous, as appears from Martial 15 and 
Juvenal ; 16 it speaks of Lesbia as one whose bright eyes the dead 
sparrow had troubled (turlavit nitidos exstindus passer ocellos). One 
of Martial's friends, Aruntius Stella, who celebrated his wife Violan- 
tilla under the name of lanthis, had made a poem on the pet dove of 
his wife, 17 emus, as he says in another epigram, 18 in Elysio nigra 
columla volat. The same poet speaks in his Xenia of a magpie as 
a saturnalian gift, and of an ivory bird's cage. Ovid has made an 
elegy 19 on the death of the favoured parrot of his " Oorinna ;" and 
Statius has sung, in one of his Silvae^ the parrot of Atedius Melior, 
domini facunda voluptas. The son of Regulus had many ponies, 
which served partly as draught animals, partly as riding horses, large 
and small dogs, nightingales, parrots, and blackbirds, which were all 
slaughtered at his pile by his father. 21 The Anthologia Palatina con- 
tains several epigrams of Greek poets of the same kind ; so on the 
death of a partridge, whose head was bitten off by a cat, and even on 
the death of favoured locusts and crickets. 22 

14 2 and 3. 15 Ep. VII., 14, 3. w Sat. VI., 7. n Ep. I., 7. 

18 V1L, 14. 19 Amorum, II., 6. 20 II., 4. 2I Plinius, Ep. IV., 2. 

- Anth. Pal. No?. 189, 190, 197, and 204. 



[Read on the 23rd February, 1887.] 

WHEN the rebellion of 1745 had broken out in Scotland, and it was 
uncertain by what route England would be invaded, the inhabitants 
of Newcastle, acting in concert with the Government, placed them- 
selves in defensive array. Walls, and gates, and towers were made 
strong and secure, for the last time in our annals. 

Affairs in general were in this critical and uneasy posture, and 
there was especial anxiety in one of the historic homes of the fortified 
town on the Tyne the home of the famous coal-fitter in Love Lane. 
It was expedient that Mrs. Scott should, in the emergency, be removed ; 
and she was let down in the night-time from the Quayside Wall, and 
borne over the river to the southern shore ; where, at Heworth, in the 
county palatine of Durham, she became the mother of her husband's 
namesake, the future Lord Stowell. We are all familiar with the 
successful career of the two eminent Quaysiders, William and John 
Scott, in the Grammar School of Newcastle, and remember how, at 
Oxford University, they achieved fellowships in their teens, each of 
them passing onward to the House of Lords, and the younger of the 
two reaching the Woolsack. Is there any Novocastrian who has not 
pointed out to some stranger the narrow door of the wide window from 
which Bessie Surtees descended to the arms of her youthful lover on 
the Sandhill, the coronet of a countess hovering over her golden locks 
as she stepped down the ladder to her fortune ? It ie not, however, 
with this pretty romance of real life that we have to do, but with the 
Quayside Wall, running along by the river for generations ; how it 
passed away at the last ; and what became of it on its fall. 

The Scottish host came not across the Borders by the eastern but 
the western way ; and George the Second, whose throne they had 
menaced, wore the crown until the peaceful accession of his grandson, 


George the Third. The mural defences of Newcastle had been suffered 
gradually to drop into indolent decay. But the new reign would seem 
to have been as electric as the coming of the Prince in Tennyson's 
verse ; the town awoke out of slumber ; and among the movements of 
the time, the Quayside Wall was to have singular transformation. 
" The Sandgate Chappell " of Buck's " South East Prospect of New- 
castle," ruinous and insufficient why should it not be renewed and 
enlarged at the cost of the lingering and obstructive barrier ? The 
happy idea was broached in the Council Chamber, September, 1762, 
Aubone" Surtees, father of Lady Eldon, being Mayor ; and on the 
17th of November, a corporate petition, addressed to the King, was 
heard and considered by the youthful monarch, the Privy Council 
assembling at the Court of St. James. Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriff, etc., 
were there on behalf of the ancient town on the Tyne. The Quayside 
Wall, "from the Sandhill to the Sandgate Gate," was shown to be 
" not of any use for defence ; " and being " on the quay where all 
goods were landed and shipped off, it was a very great obstacle to 
carriages, and a hindrance to the dispatch of business." The Corpora- 
tion therefore prayed leave to remove it, "and make use of the stones 
and other materials for building a church." The prayer was granted, 
and the inhabitants of Newcastle had the prospect before them of 
possessing " one of the most convenient and beautiful quays in the 

All was now in trim for a beginning ; and early in January, 1763, 
workmen were busy pulling down the wall, one of whose latest exploits 
had been to extemporize, out of a December storm of rain, an oblong 
lake in front of the houses that it screened from the river. The un- 
picturesque pool was a parting tribulation ; and so unpopular had the 
antiquity already become, that not even the most tolerant of the Quay- 
side antiquaries regretted its departure. 

Let us look round about us, while its conversion into a church is 
in progress, and see what else is going on during the decade marked 
by this adventurous municipal project. The churchyards of St. 
Nicholas, St. John, and Allhallows, are enclosed. Oil-lamps are send- 
ing forth their feeble rays in enterprising endeavours to light the 
public streets ; and he who is conversant with the Anecdote Book of 
Lord Eldon, as instructive as it is entertaining, will not need to be 


reminded how, in the winter nights of the year, the tricksy juveniles 
are addicted to playing pranks on " the sad and discreet burgesses" of 
the borough. One of the imps creeps on hands and knees into the 
shop of some tradesman sitting at the receipt of custom in Cimmerian 
gloom, and, stealthily starting up to his feet, blows out the victim's 
light, and immerses him in total darkness. The seniors, however, 
have their joys, despite the embryo merchant adventurers of the 
Grammar School, who are the ringleaders in all such modes of mis- 
chief. A turtle of 53 Ibs., " sent as a present to the owners of the 
new sugar-house in Gateshead," is dressed for dinner, in the summer 
of 1764, at the King's Head on the Quayside ; after which, the River 
God Tyne forwards to Newcastle Market, in successful rivalry, a 
salmon of 57, trumping by 4 Ibs. the intrusive turtle. 

Meanwhile, not to lose sight too long of St. Ann's or the Wall, the 
Mayor (William Clayton), accompanied by sundry of his colleagues, is 
marking out a piece of ground for the new chapel, near the old, at the 
east end of Sandgate, to seat six hundred of the inhabitants ; and ere 
long the discovery is made that the crumbling edifice is in too 
advanced a state of decay to wait for a successor ; so the Carpenters' 
Tower (or Shipwrights' Hall) is temporarily fitted up for divine service. 

Facing the river, on the Quayside, a site is also cleared, midway in 
the decade, near the Low Crane, for a new custom-house ; and even 
the Newcastle waggon, leaving the Sandhill for London, catches up 
the quickening spirit, and is holding out a promise of being less 
drowsy on the road. Smollett, who knew the venerable vehicle, looks 
in upon the twin towns of the Tyne for one or more days, and leaves 
behind him, in Humphrey Clinker, a pleasant reminiscence of the 
prospect outspread before him from the summit of Gateshead Fell. 
About the time of the poet and novelist's visit, there is advertised 
" for sale by candle," at the Newcastle Coffee House in Billingsgate, 
"the good cat" Thomas and Jane, Yarmouth-built, throwing her 
suggestive light on the nursery story of Dick Whittington ; that young 
gentleman of good family, who became Lord Mayor of London. 

In the days of the Quayside Wall, and when time was hastening it 
away, weddings were recorded by the newspapers in florid fashion, of 
which an example offers itself in a foot-note of the quarto of Mr. 
Richard Welford on the Monuments and Tombstones of the Church 


of St. Nicholas, appropriate to the period of Lords Stowell and Eldon, 
for it commemorates the marriage of their renowned schoolmaster, 
August, 1764 : " On Thursday, the Ilev. Mr. Moises, M.A., head- 
master of the Free School, Newcastle, and Lecturer of All Saints' 
Church, was married at St. Andrew's Church to Mrs. Boag, a polite 
and agreeable widow, with a fortune of 10,000. (Newcastle 

Gallowgate had at this time its Spring Garden promenades and 
musical entertainments ; and then, as now, our climate being fickle 
and inconstant, a decree was made, that on account of the uncertainty 
of the weather, undress shall be the rule of the gay resort on concert 

The pillory is drawing vast crowds to the Sandhill. In 1776, Jean 
Gray is exhibited to the public for perjury. Six thousand of the in- 
habitants are assembled, who are licensed to assist the authorities in 
meting out the poor sinner's punishment. Lightfingered gentry, pro- 
fiting by the opportunity, reap a harvest from the pockets of the gaping 
multitude. Here, too, bulls are baited ; until, in January, 1768, a 
young mariner, Keenlyside Henzell by name, venturing too near the 
ring, is gored to death by the maddened prisoner, and the brutal sport 
is brought to an end. 

John Wesley, whose parish was the world, and who brought under 
correction so much of social rudeness and wrong, comes over from 
Ireland to Newcastle in August, 1767. He had laid the founda- 
tion stone of the Orphan House in 1742, and now revisits once 
more the scene of his beneficent labours ; while, in the ensuing 
month of September, George Whitefield also preaches, with his 
wonted fervour, in the Castle Garth, the last time of his presence in 

The spire of St. Ann's had received its vane in 1767. In Septem- 
ber, 1768, on the second day of the month, comes the Bishop of 
Durham, the munificent Trevor, preceded by massive gifts of com- 
munion plate, and the new structure, compiled out of the old Quayside 
Wall, has its consecration for use ; Dr. Fawcett, the Vicar of New- 
castle, delivering the opening discourse from Ephesians ii., 21, 22, 
with the Mayor and his Brethren forming part of the congregation. 
The good work which the Corporation had set on foot, and the King 



in Council had approved and sanctioned, was now accomplished ; and 
Sykes has in chronological reserve the improvement by which it was 
to be accompanied the more eligible way, to wit, from Newcastle to 
Shields, that was " struck out " in 1776 " behind Sandgate, ana called 
the New Eoad." 

The new road and the new church were in their newest gloss, when 
a "Lady Traveller" arrived on the Tyne, the prelude to "A Senti- 
mental Journey through Newcastle." " Seeing St. Ann's on her first 
round of the town," the fair tourist was " charmed with the neatness 
and simplicity which adorned the little chapel, both without and 
within ; " and " on inquiring who was the architect, we were told that 
it was built from a plan of Mr. Newton, a gentleman whose works we 
had more than once admired in the view of Newcastle. Whilst we 
were admiring the delightful prospect we had from this place of the 
river Tyne and its banks, Mr. Brookly informed us that there were 
several very extensive rope-walks in this neighbourhood, and that a 
great number of ships were built near the place." Her attention, 
moreover, was probably drawn to the extract in Bourne from Gray's 
Chorographia of 1649: "Below, east, is the Ballist Hill, where the 
women upon their heads carried ballist which was taken forth of ships 
which came empty for coales, which place was the first ballist shoare 
out of the towne." 

An airy suburban eminence, its suitableness as a drying ground 
was early recognised by the maids and matrons of the vicinity ; nor 
were the Newcastle apprentices slow to detect its amenity as a park 
and promenade Idyllic were the scenes thus presented by the margin 
of the Tyne. Hither, in the summer of 1638, on his way to Scotland, 
came Charles the First, knighting the Mayor, Lionel Maddison, on the 
4th of June. Next day, attended by his retinue and escorted by the 
Master and Brethren of the Trinity House, the King visited Tyne- 
mouth Castle. Voyaging to and fro, objects of interest were pointed 
out to the royal and illustrious passengers, not omitting the crowded 
Ballast Hills, the site of the so recent Shrovetide Riot, which had risen 
to the dignity of an affair of State. Not belonging to my subject, it 
must ba dismissed with this passing notice, and left to the forthcoming 
volume of Mr. Welford's History of Newcastle and Gafeshead, where 
it will have its proper chronological place. 


The Trinity barge returns from Tynemouth on the twilight tide ; 
and over the lapse of centuries we hear the stalwart oarsmen regaling 
their unwonted audience with " sailors' music." Nearing Newcastle, 
they "sing at St. Ann's their evening hymn ;" and, stroke after stroke, 
King and courtiers are drawn to the landing place at the Quayside 



[Read on the 24th November, 1886.] 

THOUGH the name of Delaval does not occur, we believe, on the Roll 
of Battle Abbey, yet is there no doubt, according to Mr. Planche" 
( The Conqueror and his Companions), that Hamon, second son of Guy 
de Laval in the province of Maine where the old castle is still in 
existence, together with his son Guy afterwards third Lord de Laval, 
did come over to England with the Conqueror, whose niece, Dionysia 
or Denise, the young lord married. The Delavals were rewarded with 
large grants of manors and estates in various counties of England, 
which they and their successors, some of whom are mentioned by 
Dugdale, held together with their French possessions until the reign 
of King John, when they forfeited the former by their rebellion. Of 
the French family, an account extending over many centuries may be 
seen in the work entitled L'Art de verifier les Dates, and it is only 
quite recently that the name of Montmorency-Laval has disappeared 
from the pages of the Almanack de, Gotha. How the Delavals of 
Northumberland were related to the main line we cannot say, for 
there is no reliance to be placed on the pedigrees so far as concerns 
the earlier descents, as they are self-contradictory and inconsistent 
with the public records. But it is certain that they were seated in 
this neighbourhood very soon after the Conquest. 


The Barony of Delaval, one of those which were constituted by 
the Conqueror himself (Hodgson Hinde's History of Northumberland, 
p. 205), was held of the king in capite for two knights fees of the old 
feoffment, and was afterwards chargeable with a payment of two marks 
for the defence of the New Castle. It comprised the manors of Seaton 
with Newsham, Dissington, and Black Callerton. The first of the 
name of whom we have any authentic record in connection with 
Northumberland, was Hubert de Laval, or de la Val, who, in the 
reign of William Eufus, gave the tithes of these estates to Tyne- 
mouth, which grant was confirmed by a charter of Henry tho First. 
His son, Robert of Seaton, with his mother, Richolda, gave to 
Hexham in the reign of Stephen the manor of Eachwick, held under 
the barony of Bolbeck. The next proprietor, possibly a grandson of 
Robert, of whom we find mention, is Hugh Fitz Roger, who was rated 
for scutage in respect of these estates in the reign of Henry the 
Second who granted him the right of free warren and other privileges, 
which his great-great-grandson claimed in the reign of Edward the 
First, and the claim was allowed. (Placita quo warranfo, Ed. I. 21.) 
Gilbert de Laval, son and successor of Hugh Fitz Roger, is expressly 
said to have held the barony of Callerton, or, as it was otherwise 
called, Delaval, as his ancestors had done since the time of the 
Conquest. He took up arms against King John, and was with the 
barons at Stamford at Easter, 1215, though he was not, as has been 
sometimes stated, one of the twenty-five magnates who were sworn to 
see the due execution and observance of Magna Charta and the 
Charta de Foresta. (Matt. Paris, new edition, Rolls Series, 11, 585.) 
He was succeeded by his son, Eustace de Laval, who gave lands at 
Hartley to Brinkburn, and shortly before his death was summoned to 
march with other northern barons into Scotland to rescue the king of 
that realm out of the hands of his rebellious subjects. On his dying 
without issue (42 Hen. III.), his brother Henry, who was then sixty 
years of age, was found to be his heir. He seems to have held New- 
sham as a younger brother's appanage, and also to have been possessed 
along with Robert de Whitchester of a moiety of the lordship of 
Benwell. His eldest son, Eustace de Laval, died (12 Ed. I.), leaving 
a son, Robert de Laval, who attained his majority on St. Alban's Day 
in that same year. He it was who had the privileges granted to hia. 


great-great-grandfather confirmed to him. He married Margaret, 
daughter of William, Lord Greystock, but had no issue, to whom 
succeeded in the possession of the property his sister Margery, wife of 
Andrew de Smetheton. On her death (5 Ed. II.) her cousin, Robert 
de la Val, was found to be her heir. He is described as the son of 
Hugh, Lord de Laval, uncle of the said Margery, and is stated to have 
been twenty-two years of age on St. Oswald's Day, /.<?., August 5th. 

This Hugh, Lord de Laval, a younger son of Henry above-men- 
tioned, though never himself lord of the barony of Delaval, was a man 
of great note and influence in his day, for he had married Matilda or 
Maud one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of Hugh de Bolbeck, 
and had large possessions both in Northumberland and elsewhere in 
right of his wife, to which on his death her nephew, John de Lancaster, 
succeeded. He was a benefactor to Hexham, and was summoned to 
attend Edward the First and his army into France in the twenty- 
second year of that king's reign. His wife, Maud, died without sur- 
viving issue (9 Ed. I.), but as he lived on until (30 Ed. I.) it was 
neither impossible nor improbable that he should contract a second 
marriage and leave a son behind him as the inquisition seems to prove 
he must have done, though it is usually stated he had no heir. It is 
true he had no heir so far as his wife's property was concerned, and 
on his death it reverted to her own relations. Hence we suppose 
originated the mistake. 

Sir Robert de la Yal had three sons. William, whom his father 
enfeoffed in Callerton ; William, junior, who had Benwell, and whose 
line failed after one or two generations ; and Robert, whom his father 
enfeoffed in Newsham, and to whom we shall refer presently. 

Sir Robert de la Val died (27 Ed. III.), having survived a short 
time his eldest son William, whose wife, Agnes, was probably an 
heiress, if we may judge from the mention of several places in North- 
umberland, Brandon, Branton, Bittleston, Duxfield, etc., henceforth 
occurring in the list of the family possessions. There was an 
inquest at Morpeth (40 Ed. III.) to ascertain the age of Henry, 
grandson and heir of Sir Robert de la Val (Arch. AeL, 0. S., TV., 
326), when it was proved that he was born at Seaton on Monday after 
the Epiphany (17 Ed. III.), and baptised in the chapel by William 
Brown, the chaplain. 


Sir Henry de la Val died without issue (12 Ric. II.), when his 
sister Alice, who married, firstly, John de Whitchester, and, secondly, 
Sir John Manners, Knight, of Etal, became entitled to two-thirds of 
the baronial estates, together with the reversion of the other third 
which was held in dower by Joan, her brother's widow, and subse- 
quently the wife of Sir Richard de Goldsborough, knight. Of these 
estates she died seized on St. Stephen's Day, 1402, and by an 
inquisition taken at Newcastle in the following year, her son, 
William de Whitchester, then thirty years of age, was found to be heir 
to his mother. (Collins's Peerage, I. 424.) He, however, died not 
long afterwards, and was succeeded by his son, Sir William de Whit- 
chester, whom we find in possession of Seaton circa 1416 (Hodgson, 
North. II. ii. 264). He left no issue ; his widow, Elizabeth daughter 
of Sir Thomas Grey by Lady Alice Neville, who afterwards married 
Roger Widdrington Esq., had for her dower North Dissington and 
Callerton; but all the estates, except Newsham, eventually centred 
in his sister, Elizabeth, wife of Sir John Burchester, Knight. She 
appears to have settled them on her kinsman James Horsley, probably 
with an injunction that he should take the name and assume the arms 
of Delaval. She died (9 Ed. IV.), and it is singular and worthy of 
note that Robert Rhodes, the famous Durham lawyer and builder of 
the unique tower and steeple of the cathedral church of St. Nicholas, 
included her name amongst others whom he desired to remember when 
he procured a license from Bishop Booth to found a chantry and 
provide a chaplain in St. John's Chapel, Weardale, to pray for their 
happy estate. James Horsley was the son of John Horsley of 
Ulchester, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Delaval of Newsham 
and Margaret his wife daughter of Sir John Mitford and grand- 
daughter of Sir Robert Delaval of Newsham third son of Sir Robert 
Delaval of Seaton Delaval who died (27 Ed. III.). 

This James Horsley, alias Delaval, to whose change of name there 
is an allusion in Camden's Remaines, 1 would appear to have in- 
herited all the Delaval estates, excepting Newsham which had passed 
to the Cramlingtons in the lifetime of his grandfather, and Benwell 

1 " James Horsey had married the daughter of De Le-valc of Northumber- 
land, his issue tooke the name of De-la-vale." Remaines, Ed. 1605, p. 125. It 
was, however, James Horsley's mother who was De La Vale. 


which the afore -mentioned Robert Rhodes had purchased of the Lady 
Elizabeth Burchester. John Delaval Esq., son of Jarnes, married 
Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Grey of Wark, Heton and Chillingham, 
by Margaret, daughter of Ralph, Lord Greystock, and had issue a 
son, and a daughter Margaret who became the wife of Sir William 
Ogle of Cockle Park Tower. The son, Sir John Delaval, was four 
times High Sheriff of Northumberland, and it is of him that Dr. 
Bullen in his Book of Simples speaks in terms of high commendation 
for his hospitality, observing that it was perhaps needless to mention 
him, for his memory would endure after his own work was forgotten. 
He is also thus described in a survey of the Borders "Sir John 
Delaval of Seaton may dispense one hundred marks by the year ; he 
may serve the king with fifty men ; he keepeth a good house, and is a 
true gentleman." He married Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Carey, 
Constable of Prudhoe Castle by Mary, daughter and co-heiress of Sir 
Robert Spencer of Spencer Combe and Eleanor his wife daughter of 
Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. He died in 15G2, and by his 
will, which is printed in Durham Wills and Inventories (Surtees Soc. 
Vol. II. pt. I. p. 204), he orders that Sir Richard Anderson, clerk and 
chaplain, should have, besides meat and drink, four pounds six shillings 
and eightpence for doing the duty, and that if he should, by age or 
otherwise, be devexed or blind he should still have the same provision as 
long as he lived. This Sir John was succeeded by his son, another 
Sir John, who was twice High Sheriff of the county in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, and married Anne, daughter of Ralph, third Lord 
Ogle, and widow of Sir Humphrey Lisle. His will is also printed at 
page 375 in the same volume ; and it is worth noting that he desires 
burial in the Chapel of our Lady at Seaton, whence we ascertain the 
fact that it was dedicated to St. Mary. Sir Robert Delaval, son and 
heir, was also High Sheriff more than once in the same reign, and 
married Dorothy, daughter of Sir Ralph Grey of Chillingham by 
Isabella, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Grey of Horton, by 
whom he had issue seven sons and one daughter, Jane, who married 
Michael Mitford Esq. of Seghill ; of the sons, besides Ralph, the 
heir, it may be well here to note that the second, John of Dissington, 
who was knighted by King James at Newcastle, May 14th, 1617, was a 
very active justice of the peace, and twice held the shrievalty. He 


married Anne, widow of Thomas Hilton Esq., and daughter of Sir 
George Bowes of Streatlam, by whom he had a son, Robert of Dissing- 
ton, who died without issue. By his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir George Selby of Newcastle, he became the ancestor of the later 
Delavals, as we shall see presently. 

Another son of Sir Robert was Edward of Bebside ; another was 
Robert of Cowpen, from whom, through the Boweses of Thornton, 
descend the Crofts, who are, or were, not long ago, owners of property 
at Waterloo. Another son was Claudius, sometime Town Clerk of 

Sir Robert Delaval purchased Hetton in the county of Durham, and 
held Horton in Northumberland (still in the possession of his descend- 
ant) of the Barony of Whalton by the annual payment of six pounds 
six shillings and eightpence. He died in 1606, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son and heir, Sir Ralph Delaval, who was three times High 
Sheriff in the reign of James the First. He married Jane, daughter 
of Thomas Hilton Esq., son and heir of Sir William Hilton of Hilton 
by Anne daughter of Sir George Bowes of Streatlam, and by her had 
a very large family of sons and daughters. Of these, besides the 
eldest, we need only specially notice two. Thomas, the third son, had 
Hetton, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Belasyse of 
Morton House, and their daughter married Robert Lambton Esq. of 
Biddick, afterwards of Newham in Northumberland, from whom were 
descended the Younghusbands of Budle and Tuggal. 

William, the sixth son of Sir Ralph Delaval of Seaton, is said by 
Le Neve to have married Mary, daughter of Sir Peter Riddell of 
Newcastle, and by her to have been the father of the famous Admiral, 
Sir Ralph Delaval, the contemporary and friend of Sir George Rooke 
and Sir Cloudesley Shovel. After the Revolution he was knighted by 
William the Third, and in May, 1692, had the principal share in the 
great victory off Cape La Hogue, when so many fine ships of the 
enemy were burnt, and England was saved from foreign invasion. He 
sat in Parliament for the borough of Great Bedwyn, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey, January 23rd, 1706-7. But to return to Sir 
Ralph Delaval of Seaton Delaval. He died November 24th, 1628, 
and was buried in his own chapel on the following day. His will, 
which is preserved at Durham, is dated January 10th, 1623, after 


the death of his eldest son, Robert Delaval Esq., who had married 
Barbara daughter of Sir George Selby of Newcastle and left an only 
child who, when he came of age, succeeded his grandfather. Sir 
Ralph, in order that his wife and family might continue to live 
together, bequeathed to her and three of his sons the mansion-house 
of Seaton Delaval for the term of twenty-one years, to be kept in 
proper repair, and at the expiration of that period to be handed over 
to the heir. He directs that during this term 300 wain loads of coal 
be supplied to them for firing yearly, out of his coal mine at Seaton 
Delaval. He provides handsome annuities for all the younger children 
out of the lordships of Seaton Delaval and Hartley, and he charges, 
wills, and commands his said dearly beloved wife, Dame Jane Delaval, 
and his three sons, " that they always do pay and keep in my house a 
sufficient honest and true Protestant preacher, both to guide and 
instruct them and all the rest of my children in following true religion 
and virtue, and then, as my hope is in them, that they will each show 
themselves faithful to God and discharge the trust I repose in them, 
whereby all the world may know their fear and service to God and 
their love to me, who loved them dearly while I lived." To the will 
is attached an inventory of the contents of the several halls, chambers, 
galleries, nurseries, kitchens, etc., from which we may gather some 
idea of the vast extent and ample accommodation of the old feudal 
residence, which was formerly known by the name of Delaval Castle. 2 
After having continued for many generations in the rank of 
knighthood, the Delaval family was advanced in dignity at the 
Restoration, when Sir Ralph Delaval, the young grandson of the last 
Sir Ralph, was created a baronet. He was member for the county 
during the entire reign of Charles the Second. The harbour at Seaton 
Sluice 3 was originally contrived and formed by him. The King, who 
had a great taste for matters of this kind, made him collector and 
surveyor of his own port. An interesting account of a visit paid to 
Sir Ralph Delaval by the Lord Keeper Guildford when on circuit may 
be seen in North's Lives of the Norths, Vol. I. p. 266. Sir Ralph had 
the alternate presentation (with the Duke of Somerset) to the Church 

* Extracts from the Will and Inventory contributed some years since by 
C. M. Caiiton of Durham, to the Newcastle Cmirant, 

* See Illustration on following page. 



of Tynemouth; and seems to have taken an interest in the affairs of 
that parish, being one of the Four-and-Twenty, and attending the 
vestry meetings the minutes of which are often signed by him as 
chairman. He married at St. Nicholas's, Newcastle, April 2nd, 1046, 
the Lady Anne Leslie, Mistress of Lovat, and daughter of the Earl of 
Leven, General of the Scottish army in England. He died in the 69th 
year of his age, August 29th, 1691, his wife, Madam Anne Delaval, 
surviving him five years. Their eldest son, Robert Delaval Esq., 
married the Lady Elizabeth Livingston, daughter of the loyal Earl of 


Newburgh, but died without issue, August 1st, 1682, aged 35 years, 
and was buried at St. George's, Windsor, his widow afterwards marrying 
Henry Hatcher Esq. The second son, Ralph, therefore succeeded his 
father in the baronetcy, who, however, did not live long to enjoy the 
dignity, for he died at the comparatively early age of 46, August 29th, 
1696, leaving by his wife, Lady Diana Booth, daughter of George, Lord 
Delamere, a daughter only, so that the baronetcy and representation of 
the family devolved on his brother John, sometime M.P. for Morpeth 
and afterwards for Northumberland. Sir John Delaval, third and last 
baronet, married Mary, daughter of E. Goodyer Esq.. who died October 


19th, 1683, aged 23 years, and was buried at Dogmersfield, in the county 
of Hants. He lived at the Lodge, Seaton Sluice, and is said to have 
boasted that it was the finest thatched house in the kingdom. He also 
had an only daughter, Anne, to whom, on her marriage with John 
Rogers Esq. of Denton and Newcastle, her kinsman, Admiral George 
Delaval, gave 10,000, and so would seem to have become the pro- 
prietor of the Seaton Delaval estates in Sir John Delaval's lifetime. 
Sir John died June 4th, 1729, aged 74 years, and was buried June 
8th with his ancestors in the chapel at Seaton Delaval. 

Admiral George Delaval was a younger son of George Delaval 
Esq. of Dissington and Margaret his wife daughter of Edward Grey 
Esq. of Bitchfield, and grandson of Sir John of Dissington, who was 
second son of Sir Eobert of Seaton Delaval. He entered the Eoyal 
Navy under the auspices of his distinguished relative, Admiral Sir 
Ralph Delaval, and having risen to high rank, and been employed in 
embassies to Portugal and Morocco, he amassed much wealth. As 
we have seen, he became the proprietor of Seaton Delaval, and com- 
menced the building of that sumptuous and stately palace, one of the 
finest of Sir John Vanbrugh's designs, which, after having been 
sadly injured by the calamitous fire of 1822, has within recent years 
been, to a certain extent, repaired, so that we may form some estimate 
of what it was when it excited the admiration and wonder of all who 
visited it. No trace of the old feudal castle was left save the Chapel 
of Our Lady, a venerable and interesting pile of Norman architecture, 
wherein divine service is still celebrated. Besides providing for the 
erection of this palatial edifice, which, with the estates, he bequeathed 
to his elder brother's son, the admiral purchased Bavington, the estate 
of the Shaftos, which had been forfeited in consequence of the then 
proprietor having taken part in the ill-fated insurrection of 1715. 
This estate he settled on his sister Mary, wife of Edward Shafto, a 
brother of its former owner, whose son was afterwards well known as 
George Shafto Delaval Esq., for some time M.P. for Northumberland 
and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Militia. Admiral Delaval sat in 
Parliament for the borough of Port Pigham, or Westlow ; and died 
in consequence of a fall from his horse, June 22, 1723, whilst the last 
baronet was still alive. 

Francis Blake Delaval, son of Edward Delaval Esq. of Dissington 


by Mary eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir Francis Blake of Ford 
Castle and widow of Thomas Orel Esq., succeeded to the estates, and 
to the task of completing the work which his uncle had left unfinished. 
He was also in the nary, and on the expulsion of Thomas Forster 
Esq., the general of the insurgents, was chosen in 1716, after a con- 
test, to represent the county. Besides Seaton Delaval, he inherited 


Ford Castle from his maternal grandfather, and Dissington from his 
father. Moreover, by his marriage with Ehoda daughter of Eobert 
Apreece Esq. of Washingley in the county of Huntingdon and 
grand-daughter of Sir Thomas Hussey of Doddington in Lincoln- 
shire, he became possessed of the latter fine estate also. Captain 
Delaval had a numerous progeny eight sons and four daughters 
some of whom died young and unmarried, but most of them were 
celebrated for their beauty, wit, and accomplishments. Of the 
daughters, Ehoda married Edward Asfcley Esq. afterwards Sir 


Edward Astley Baronet, of Melton Constable in Norfolk. Mrs. 
Astley was buried at Widcomb Church, Bath, where there is a monu- 
mental tablet. She was an artist. There is an engraving of her 
from a painting by herself. Sarah became Countess of Mexborough, 
and Anne Hussey was the wife of the Hon. Sir William Stanhope, K.B., 
brother to the Earl of Chesterfield. Captain Delaval was High Sheriff 
of the county in 1730, and died December 14th, 1752, having had 
the misfortune to break his leg a few days before. 

His eldest son was the celebrated wit and votary of fashion, Sir 
Francis Blake Delaval, of whom many amusing anecdotes might be 
told characteristic of the age in which he lived and made so con- 
spicuous a figure. He once laid a wager that he would compel the 
proud Duke of Somerset to give him precedence ; and he won it by 
emblazoning his carriage with the arms and dressing his servants in 
the livery of the Duke of Norfolk. As he passed the Duke's carriage, 
which had been drawn up close to the hedge to give room, he popped out 
his head and saluted His Grace, who was, doubtless, much annoyed at 
the trick, but only replied, " Oh, is it you, Mr. Delaval ?" He sat in 
Parliament for the Boroughs of Hindon and Andover. On one occasion, 
having met with an elector on whom he could make no impression, he 
tried to discover his weak point, and at last found out that he had never 
seen a fire-eater and doubted if ever such an extraordinary character 
existed. Off posted Sir Francis to London, and returned with Angelo 
who exhibited before the incredulous elector, and sent him cheerfully 
to poll for Delaval. It was to Sir Francis that his law agent sent in 
his bill as follows : " To being thrown out of the window of the 
George Inn, Andover; to my leg being thereby broken; to the 
surgeon's bill, to loss of time and business all in the service of Sir 
F. B. Delaval 500." He was an ardent admirer of the drama and 
an amateur actor, the friend of Foote, and pupil of Macklin. On one 
occasion he hired Drury Lane for the performance of "Othello "by 
himself and other members of his family, when all parts of the house 
were filled with persons of the highest rank, including some of the 
Royal Family, and Garrick himself even was heard to praise the acting. 
At a later period he fitted up a theatre in Westminster, where H.R.H. 
the Duke of York, George the Third's brother, joined with him and 
his brothers and sisters in acting plays. " The Fair Penitent " was 


especially noticed, Prince Edward taking the part of Lothario, and 
Lady Stanhope making an admirable Calista. In 1758 he accom- 
panied one of the expeditions to the coast of France as a volunteer, 
and distinguished himself so much on that occasion by his chivalrous 
conduct, that at George lll.'s coronation he was created a Knight of 
the Bath. There was a considerable wager between him and another 
gentleman which of them would be first on land. He swam ashore 
and won the wager, beating not only his antagonist but every one else 
save two Grenadiers. There is a fine portrait of him in uniform by 
Sir Joshua Eeynolds, at Ford Castle. Sir Francis married Isabella, 
widow of Lord Nassau Paulet, and one of the daughters and co-heiresses 
of Thomas, sixth Earl of Thanet, but left no legitimate issue. He 
died at a comparatively early age, August 7th, 1771, and was buried 
at Seaton Delaval. (Edgeworth's Memoirs.) See also a lecture by the 
late Dr. Charlton, founded on the Delaval correspondence, still remain- 
ing at Ford Castle in the possession of Lady Waterford, and entitled 
Society in Northumberland. 

Sir John Hussey Delaval succeeded. He had already possession 
of Doddington as his mother's heir, and also by arrangement with his 
brother, of Ford Castle which he almost entirely rebuilt, and materially 
improved the estate, previously one continued sheepwalk, by enclosure, 
tillage, and plantation. In him too, the baronetcy had been revived. 
He represented Berwick-upon-Tweed in several Parliaments, and 
unsuccessfully contested the county in 1774. He was raised to the 
peerage of Ireland in 1783, and in 1786 to the peerage of the United 
Kingdom by the title of Lord Delaval. His change of opinion on the 
East India Bill t which he at first supported, but afterwards opposed, 
brought upon him the sarcastic sneers of the Kolliad. 

" The noble convert, Berwick's honour'd choice, 
That faithful echo of the people's voice. 
One day to gain an Irish title glad, 
For Fox he voted so the people bade ; 
'Mongst English Lords ambitious grown to sit, 
Next day the people bade him vote for Pitt ; 
To join the stream our patriot nothing loth, 
By turns discreetly gave his vote for both." 

Lord Delaval, however, heeded not these lampoons, and lived to the 
age of four score years, dying at Seaton, May 17th, 1808. He kept 
up the name of the family for generosity and hospitality, and his 


memory we found some years ago still lived in the recollection of the 
older inhabitants. He greatly encouraged trade and commerce and 
gave employment to many families in the working of his collieries, and 
management of the copperas and glass works, which, under the direc- 
tion of his brother, Thomas Delaval Esq., sometime an eminent 
merchant in Hamburg, he established at Seaton Sluice and Hartley. 
And, above all, should be mentioned the improvement of the harbour, 
which he effected at great expense by cutting a passage through the 
solid rock 900 feet long, 54 feet deep, and 30 feet wide. Lord 
Delaval married Susanna (nee Robinson), widow of John Potter Esq. 
Under-Secretary of State, by whom (who died soon after his elevation 
to the peerage) he had six daughters, and an only son John who died 
in his father's lifetime before he was of age, and in whose memory the 
mausoleum at Seaton was erected. The son, however, was buried at 
Doddington, and Lord Delaval himself at Westminster Abbey, in St. 
Paul's Chapel, where also Lady Delaval and their daughter Sarah lie 
interred. Lord Delaval's other daughters were Susanna and Rhoda 
(died young), Sophia Anne wife of Maximilian Jadis Esq. who died 
in 1793 leaving a son, Elizabeth Lady Audley (vide "Peerage"), and 
Frances wife of J. F. Cawthome Esq. Ford Castle was left to the 
lady (Charlotte Susanna Knight), whom Lord Delaval espoused 
January 5th, 1803 (who died at Matlock Bath, in 1822), and after 
her decease to Lady Susan Carpenter, only daughter and heiress of his 
favourite daughter Sarah Countess of Tyrconnel, and wife of Henry, 
second Marquis of Waterford, in whose family it still remains. 

The entailed estates passed to his Lordship's next brother, Edward 
Hussey Delaval Esq., M.A., F.R.S., etc. of Parliament Place, West- 
minster, and Doddington in Lincolnshire. He had been a Fellow of 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, and was the contemporary and friend 
of the poets Gray and Mason. He was also author of various scientific 
and philosophical treatises, one of which, being an enquiry into the 
changes of colour in opaque and coloured bodies, was translated into 
French and Italian, and procured his enrolment amongst several learned 
societies at home and abroad. He was one of our earliest Honorary 
Members, and on his admission made a present of forty guineas to the 
Society. Being already advanced in years on his succession to the 
estates, Mr. Delaval never visited them, and during his tenure Seaton 


Delaval was occupied by Mr. Huthwaite who had married his niece. 
He was the last of his name, and died August 14th, 1814, aged 85 
years, leaving an only daughter, the wife of Francis Gunman Esq. of 
Dover. His widow survived until 1829, and I remember calling upon 
her with my father, when I was about nine or ten years old. On Mr. 
Delaval's decease the entailed estates passed to his nephew Sir Jacob 
Astley Bart, of Melton Constable in the county of Norfolk, whose 
son claimed and obtained the ancient barony of Hastings, and was 
grandfather of the present nobleman who, we are glad to find, has given 
his heir the name of Albert Edward Delaval. . 

The arms of Delaval were Ermine, two Mrs vert; the crest, a 
ram's head erased argent, attired or ; the motto, Dieu nous conduite, 
or Dieu me conduise. In the Visitation the arms are given as follows : 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, DELAVAL; 2, Gules, three eagles displayed argent ; 
3, Gules, a lion rampant ermine armed and crowned or. In another 
coat, in the 2nd quarter appears, Gules, three horses' heads argent, 
bridled or; 3 and 4 are as 2 and 3 in the former coat. The bearings 
in the 2nd and 3rd quarters of the first coat, and in the 3rd and 4th 
quarters of the second coat, appear to be respectively the arms of 
HERTFORD of Hertfordshire, and HAMLIN of Leicestershire ; but it is 
not easy to trace any connection between the Delavals and these other 
families. Of course, the horses' heads represent the Horsleys of Ul- 
chester (vide Genealogist, I. 297). On the monumental slab within 
the altar rails of Newburn Church, recording the deaths of Sir John 
Delaval of Dissington and his sons and grandson, there is a finely cut 
shield with the arms of Delaval in the 1st quarter, the eagles and the 
lion in the 2nd and 3rd, and in the 4th the arms of GRIMTHORP or 
GREYSTOCK Barry of six argent and azure, over all three annulets 
gules. Lord Delaval quartered the arms of BLAKE Argent, a chevron 
between three garbs sable; and those of HITSSEY Or, a cross vert. 
(See his arms before the dedication of Hutchinson's Northumberland.') 



THIS interesting little building is on the typical Norman plan of nave, 
choir, and chancel (possibly apsidal). The last having been rebuilt 
in the 14th century, all trace is lost of apsidal shape. The building 
is of lofty proportions. Its windows are all modern, but there is one 
small ancient window high in the north wall now blocked up. There 
is a small side door in the south side of the choir near the nave. Ifc 
is also built up and partly destroyed. 

The west door remains ; it has had a sculptured tympanum and a 
small zigzag indented label round it. The nave is about 25 feet long 
by 20 feet wide, and is separated from the choir by a handsome arch 1 
in the gable wall, 2 feet 9 inches thick. This arch, and a correspond- 
ing one separating the choir from the chancel or apse 2 feet 6 inches 
thick fix the date of the building early in the 12th century. 

The large plain cushion capitals, the rough zigzag arch, with the 
plain moulded inner order, and a billeted label, handsomely enriching 
both sides of both arches, somewhat resemble in character those in the 
little chapel of Old Bewick. The general plan resembles it closely. 

The choir between these arches measures about 11 feet 6 inches 
east and west, and 16 feet north and south. The chancel eastwards 
measures 11 feet 6 inches by 15 feet 6 inches. 

The alterations in the 14th century are chiefly indicated by the 
prettily designed, but rudely worked, piscina and credence of that 
period ; and also by the handsome tomb, or tombs, of a cross-legged 
knight and a lady, whose effigies are now placed on their bases at the 
west end, against the north and south walls. The panelled sides of 
the tombs have been removed, and inserted in the wall over the 
entrance door. These contain shields, two of them bearing the arms 
of Delaval and another a lion rampant. Some further panels of the 
same sort are hidden behind the modern hatchments on the west wall. 

1 See representation of interior of Chapel at p. 224. 




[Read on the 27th January, 1887.] 

THE accompanying sketches show the walls of Newcastle as they 
appeared in the year 1638, and illustrate a method by which it was 
supposed the town could be defended when threatened by invasion. 
The originals are preserved at the Record Office among the State 
Papers, and copies were taken for the Archaeologia Aeliana, because the 
drawings show (at least one of them shows) the course and elevation 
of the walls and the structure of the gates, towers, and turrets, with a 
minuteness that has not been attempted in any other known picture of 
a date anterior to the middle of the 18th century. No. 1 is a finished 
sketch, drawn to scale (363 yards to an inch), by a skilful draughts- 
man ; No. 2 is a rough design, hastily pencilled by a soldier. 

These sketches were made at a time when England was threatened 
by an invasion from the sister kingdom. An attempt which James I. 
had begun, and his son, Charles, was earnestly pursuing, to enforce 
uniformity of religious worship throughout the united realm, had 
failed. Scotland would not tolerate prelacy, and was prepared to fight 
for freedom. The National Covenant, which had for its object, Sir 
Walter Scott tells us, " to annul all the prelatic innovations that James's 
policy and his son's violence had been able to introduce into the 
Presbyterian Church," was sworn to in the spring and summer of 
1638 by hundreds of thousands of Scotchmen of every age and descrip- 
tion, " vowing, with uplifted hands and weeping eyes, that with the 
Divine assistance they would dedicate life and fortune to maintain the 
object of their solemn engagement ! " It was feared that, in fulfilment 
of these earnest declarations, they would cross the border, invest 
Carlisle and Berwick, and possibly advance as far as Newcastle. The 
Privy Council were thoroughly alarmed at the determined attitude 
which the Scots had taken up. They sent Sir Jacob Astley, Col. 
William Legge, and Sir Thomas Morton down to the North as com- 

Arcliaeologia Aa 

Plate XIII. 



missioners to inspect fortifications, and muster the train bands ; at the 
same time two ships of the navy were ordered to cruise in the North 
Sea to intercept supplies of arms and ammunition which it was 
reported the Scots were obtaining from the Continent. The following 
letter from the Corporation of Newcastle to their Eecorder (who was 
in London on the town's business), shows that one or more of the 
Commissioners had been here in the late summer or early autumn, 
and finding the walls in poor condition had ordered considerable work 
to be done to them at the burgesses' expense. 

Yo r Ire of the sixt of November instant we haue recieued, and hopes eare this 
yo u haue receiued ou ra in a u swere ['0] touching S r Robert Heathe's businesse 
and the Shipp money. We haue beene at excessiue charges in repaireinge o r 
walls, gates, percullises and doeing such other things as we are directed by the 
gentleman sent hither by Captaine Legg ; the truth is o r dayly charge is soe great, 
the towne in soe much debt, and the reuenues soe small, by occasion of the small 
trade of shipps, that we runne still further and further in debt, soe that it is 
not probable we shall get out of debt. What charges we haue beene at already 
we are content to beare, but if we shall be putt to any further or new charges, 
neither the Comon purse nor o r pticulers are able to support it. Yo w know o r 
pouerty as well as o r selves, and therefore we desire yo w to doe yo r best indeauour 
to p r uent any further charge that may be aboue in any respect imposed uppon 
vs, of w* nothing douteing, w th o r loues remembred, we rest, 

Yo r very loueing friendes, 

Nouemberthe PETER RIDDELL. 



The fall of y e ROBERT ANDERSON. 

Windoes will cost RAUFFE COCKE. 

vs aboue 1200Z/. JOHN MARLAY. 

[Addressed] To our verie loueinge freind Mr. Thomas Riddell at Mr. Scargells 
over against the Sunn Taverne in Holburne neare Chancerie laine end, be this 
dd (6d. London.) 

Sir Jacob Astley arrived in Newcastle as " Sergeant-Major-General 
of the Field," at the turn of the year, and on the 21st of January 
(1638-39), the Mayor and his brethren sent to the Earl Marshal and 
others a copy of the suggestions for the defence and safety of the town 
which Sir Jacob had made to them. The document reads as follows : 


Right honorable, 

We haue receiued yo r hono Ire by S r Jacob Ashley, who hath bene 
pleased to veiwe our trained bands, consisting of foure companies, each companie 
haueing f ourescore Musketteires and fforty Corsletts of whose sufficiencie and 
equipage we hope S r Jacob will giue yo r hono rs satisfaccon. We make bould to 
send yo r hono" here inclosed, a Copie of such direccons and instruccons as S r 
Jacob uppon conference w th our selues hath bene pleased to resolue vppon for 
the safety of this Towne. ffor what concernes our selues by these instruccons to 
be done we shall not f aile (god willinge) w th all expidicon to performe the 
same. And for what other thinges therein contained, w ch we haue made bould 
to craue the assistance of the right honorable the lordes of his Ma tes most 
hono blc priuie Councell, our humble suite to yo r Lo pe is that yo u wilbe pleased to 
doe vs that honorable favoure as to comend our suite therein to their Hoiio. 
And as duty bindes vs we shalbe, as we haue alwayes bene, most ready and 
forward to aduenture our liues and fortunes for the advancem* of his Ma tes 
service in the defence of this our ancient Towne and liberties. And soe we 
humbly take our leaues and reste, 

Yo r hono rs to be commanded, 

Newcastle vppon ALEXANDER DAVYSON, Maior. 

Tyne the 21 THOS. RIDDELL, recorder. 

Januarie, 1638. PETEE RIDDELL. 


Vppon consultacon had by S r Jacob Ashley Knight w th the 
Maior and Aldermen of Newcastle vppon Tyne for the 
safety of the same Towne the xviii th of January, 1638. 

ffirst, the said S r Jacob Ashley conceiues it necessarie that a draw-bridge be 
made at the South end of the Tyne bridge, where a draw-bridge formerly hath 
bene, and to be drawne vpp to the Towne side w th out any respect to the houses 
and shopps lately built vppon it, w ch ought to be broaken downe, in w ch case they 
are to treate w th the lord B p of Durham, in whose liberty the same is and whom 
it doth concerne. 

2<Hy Aboute the midle of the Bridge there would be a ffreese Rooter firmely 
fastened, and made to be opened on the day and shutt on the night as occasion 
shall require. 

[Endorsed] Jan. 1638. 
Lre from y e Maiore, etc., of 
Newcastle vpon Tyne touching 
S r Jacob Ashley's view of the 
trained bandes, etc. 


gdiy And being xthere lies vppon the Keay f oretene small peeces of ordin- 
ances belonging to the Towne, and other particuler men, shooteing a bullett of 
aboute thre pound weight & upwarde. It is fitt that these peeces be laid vppon 
shipp carriages, and placed vppon the flattest Towers of the Walls to defend the 
Fortes and passages to the Towne, and ouer against the hills w ch over looke the 
Towne, and that 50 bullettes be prouided for euerey peece, w th powder and all 
other things fitt for the same. 

4-iy The six. demiculverings of the King's being already vppon carriages, 
some would be placed vppon the sides of the Fortes, and others vppon convenient 
Batteries that shalbe appointed to hinder the enimies accesse to the Towne. 

5iy That the foure companies of the Towne, being 500 men, they be appointed 
their seuerall places, whereto meete to make good the Fortes and Walls vppon 

6 1 }' That we haue numbred 1500 men in the Towne and subbords besides the 
trained bandes all able of body to beare Annes vppon occation, and we suppose 
there wilbe at least 1000 more, that if there be occation will come into the 
Towne for their owne safetie. 

715- We humbly pray their LorP es there may be Armes and ammunition laid 
in the Towne to arme these men if there be occation, the Towne being only to be 
made good by strength of men, all other fortificacons being in vaine, the Towne 
is soe commanded by the hills adiacent. saue only the makinge of the Fortes 
defensible, a great part whereof is done, & the rest shalbe done w th all possible 
speede, by w ch addicon of Armes and ammunition We conceiue we may be the 
better enabled to maintaine this Towne for some time vntill his Ma tie shall send 
Succo rs . 

giy- There is in the handes of our merch tcs 3000 quarters of Ry besides other 
graine, and there is dayly expected more to be brought in by the said merch tes . 
And for other victualls we haue noe prouision, but it is all brought to vs weekely 
out of the country, and great store of fresh fish is brought from the Sea to the 
Towne w ch is a great releife to the inhabitantes thereof. 

9'y ffor Gunsmithes, Armorers or Fistoll makers, we haue not any, nor any 
that can mend them, if there be need, and therefore we humbly pray their 
Lor? 68 that they wilbe pleased to cause some Artificers of that kinde to be sent 
from London to this Towne, who may be resident here for the better accomo- 
dacon of the Towne and the adiacent countries. 

lO 1 ^' ffor all the moneys that haue been taken for his Ma tes Armes and 
ammunition being as yet but about 300H it is all receiued by M r Maior, who is 
ready to pay it when he shalbe therevnto required. 

11 J - V Being that there is much butter by licence exported out of the ports of 
Yorkshire, Durham, and this Fort, whereby it is become verie scant here, and the 
price almost double to that it hath bene of late Wee humbly pray that the same 
may be restrained in these times of scarsety. 

12 1 -" The Towne doth vndertake that there shalbe presentlie in their owne 


particuler storehouse fourescore barrelles of powder w th 600 weight of Match, 
32CO weight Muskett shott, 200 demiculvering shott, 150 Sacer-shott, and 500 
Minion shott, w ch shalbe distributed when occation serues for the vse of the 
fouretene peeces of Ordinance, and the 320 Musketteires. Vppon Saturday the 
19th of this instant Januarie S r Jacob Ashley & thre of the Aldermen w th two 
Engineires went to veiwe Tynemouth Castle, and the Sheeles, and the groundes 
on both sides of the Riuer neare the Harboure mouth, ffor the castle of Tyne- 
mouth it wilbe needlesse to demolish it, because the ground wherevppon it 
standes will command all the lower workes to the waterside. And for the 
makeinge of any fort vppon the side of the ground towardes sheeles being aboute 
a mile of Tynemouth Castle neare the vpper light, where we conceiue it would 
be most convenientest, the ground close by it to the land inward is soe hie, that 
it would overlooke any ffort that could be made by the side of the Riuer, and 
there is soe good ground to approach to it as an Army by land in six dayes may 
take it, and y e ground on the South side of the Riuer is fair worse to build any 
ffort vppon, soe that it is conceiued by vs all that the best safety for this Port, 
in time of Hostilitie wilbe for two of his Ma ties shipps to lie neare the harboure 

All w ch we humbly submitt to the graue wisdomes and further consideracon 
of the Lordes of his Ma tcs most honorable priue Councell. And in all obedience 
most humbly submitte our Hues and fortunes to his M fttc ' s service for whose 
happie and prosperous reigne we shall dayly pi-ay. 














[Endorsed] Jan. 1638. State of the Towne of Newcastle, w* 
the means to strengthen it : vpon a survey taken by S r 
Jacob Ashley, & the Maior and Inhabitants there. 

It must have been about this time, and probably to elucidate Sir 
Jacob Astley's Report, that Sketch No. 1 was taken. A day or two 
after that report was despatched, Sir Jacob followed up his suggestions 
by a letter and sketch of his own. He reported that he had viewed 






the circuit round about Newcastle and found the place "no ways 
possible " to be defended by its fortifications against a siege. But 
though the hills on every side commanded the town, and rendered 
efficient defence impracticable, partial protection might be given ; 
and he explains in his letter how this could be accomplished. For the 
local train bands he had nothing but words of praise. " The town 
takes pride in their well-doing," and he himself had not seen better 
companies " in any of these parts." Tynemouth Castle he had visited 
with three Newcastle Aldermen, and could find no means of fortifying 
it so as to enable it to stand a siege. In conclusion, he stated that he 
had sent with the letter " a card " of Newcastle, Shields, and Tyne- 
mouth, and that in the Newcastle part he had shown guns placed in 
position to hinder" the approach of an enemy. This is Sketch No. 2. 
There is not much in Sir Jacob Astley's outline map or " card " to 
arrest attention, but in the larger picture two or three noticeable 
features may be pointed out. First of all it is to be observed that 
there are no houses on the Newcastle end of the bridge all is clear 
from the Magazine Gate to the Central Tower ; but on the Gateshead 
side they are somewhat thickly clustered. In the next place it may 
be noticed that there is a turret on or overlooking the Quay Wall ; 
that the Maison Dieu has a square crenellated top ; that there is a 
similar crenellation on the summit of the castle keep ; that the inner 
bailey of the castle has a large south postern, and that the Moot Hall 
does not overlap the " Half -Moon Battery " which, by the way, is a 
full moon in the drawing. Further, it will be seen that Austin Tower 
is called "Millers'" Tower (because the Millers' Company at that 
time met in it) ; that there are no stone men in armour on the top of 
White Friar Tower ; that the relative positions of the four churches are 
incorrectly drawn, and that the tower of St. Andrew's is at the wrong 
end of the nave. Other peculiarities will, no doubt, disclose themselves 
Avhen the drawing comes to be examined by those who understand 
fortifications and are acquainted with the minute details of the walls 
published in the histories of Bourne and Brand. 



[Read on the 26th January, 1887.] 

THE insignia of the Corporation of Newcastle consist of a great mace, 
five Serjeant's maces, two swords, the mayor's chain, and a cap of 
maintenance. The two latter are modern, and require no special 

The great mace is of silver gilt, is 4 feet 11 inches in length, and 
is formed of eleven pieces. These are all fixed upon an oak shaft. 
None of these pieces bears any assay or 'date mark, but the maker's 
stamp the letters F. G. within a shield occurs once, sometimes 
twice, on every piece. This is the mark of Francis Garthorne, a 
silversmith of Smithin's Lane, London, by whom the great mace was 
made. The knob at the foot bears the following inscription : 



On opposite sides of the same knob are the arms of Newcastle, and 
those of COLE which are : Argent, afesse engrailed sable; between three 
scorpions, reversed, of the second. 

The shaft is divided by three knobs, and is engraved with a spiral 
pattern of roses and thistles. The bowl is divided into four com- 
partments, separated from each other by demi-figures and foliage. 
The first compartment contains a rose, the second a thistle, the third 
a fleur-de-lis, and the fourth a harp. Each of these national emblems 
is surmounted by an eight arched crown, and flanked by the letters 
c/. SI. (Jacobus Rex.) On the bowl rests an open arched crown, 
surmounted by orb and cross. On the plate beneath this cross the 
Royal arms are engraved : quarterly ; first and fourth, France and 
England quarterly ; second, Scotland ; third, Ireland ; with the motto 
" Honi soit qui mal y pense" upon the garter, and "Dieu et mon 


droit" beneath, and above all the initials I. R. The great mace of 
Newcastle is, I believe, the largest post-Restoration and pre-Revolu- 
tion mace in the kingdom. Indeed, the only larger mace of which I 
know anything is that of Winchester, which belongs to the reign of 
George I., and which is 5 feet 3 inches in length. 

The five Serjeant's maces are of one pattern and date. They differ 
slightly in length, the shortest measuring 16 and longest 17 inches. 
None of them bears any assay, date, or maker's mark ; but the 
character of the workmanship leaves no doubt in my mind that 
they are of about, if not of, the same date as the great mace. The 
bowl of each is divided into four compartments, which bear the same 
national devices as the great mace. Like it, they are surmounted by 
open arched crowns, beneath which a plate bears the same Royal 
arms, with garter and motto, but without initials. At various time? 
the initials, and in two instances the names, of some of the gentlemen 
who carried them have been engraved on the bottom of their knobs. 
The inscriptions are as follows : 

1. RI) 2. WT 

31 TP 

3. c/. Stodart 4. </ & 

S3 May 

Richard II. by letters patent, dated 25th January, 1491, granted to 
the mayors of Newcastle the privilege of having a sword carried before 
them. The grant reads as follows (translation).: "Richard by the 
grace of God King of England and France and Lord of Ireland to all 
to whom the present letters shall come, Greeting. Be it known that 



we considering the honour of the town of New Castle upon Tyne of 
our special grace grant to our beloved William Bishopdale now mayor 
of the same town as long as he shall be mayor, and to all others who 
in time to come shall be mayors of the aforesaid town, that they may 
have one sword carried before them. The which sword we truly grant 
for the aforesaid reason. Witnessed by myself at Westminster the 
25th day of January, in the 14th year of our reign." 

Both swords have mountings of silver gilt. The older one, which 
is 2 feet 2k inches in length, bears the Royal arms and the arms of 
Newcastle on the mountings of its sheath. The hilt is very beautifully 
chased. The silver bears neither assay, date, nor maker's mark, but 
is probably of about the same period as the great mace. The newer 
sword measures 4 feet 8 inches in length, and bears the arms of 
Newcastle on its hilt. On one of the mountings of the sheath there 
is an almost obliterated inscription, giving the maker's name as 
follows : 


. Smith, 

This sword was, doubtless, made by James Bland, who carried on a 
business in Bunhill Row, London, and who became a member of the 
London Goldsmiths' Company on the 16th September, 1791. 

The plate now owned by the Corporation consists of a dish, an ewer, 
a salver, a loving cup, the mayor's snuff-box, the sheriff's snuff-box, 
and a snuff-box presented by Lord Edward Collingwood. 

The dish and ewer were presented to the Corporation in 1GS1. 
The dish bears the following inscription : 

This Basin Sf Eiver was by >' Gilbert Gerrard Bar* fy his Two 
Sons Gilbert $ Samuel Gerrard's Esquires Grandchildren 
to the Rev<*- Father in God Dr- John Cosin's late Bishop 

of Durham, presented to , ' ' worshipful S r . Nathanael 
Johnson, <$f the court of Aldermen of y e ancient toione 
of Newcastle, and is designed for the use of the Major 
that anually Governs accordingly to bee delivered by the 
present Major to y e court of Aldermen fy hi/ them to the 
next Major that shall bee chosen <${ soe succesively for ever 
June 8. 1681. 

This dish bears four silver marks : (1) The maker's mark, obliterated; 
(2) Leopard's head crowned ; (3) Lion passant ; (4) London date 

,-IKCIf. A EL. VOL. XII. to face p. 238. 

Plate X.V. 


The properly of (he Corporation of Newcastle- upon -Tyne. 


letter (b) for the year 1679-80. It bears upon the edge three coats 
of arms, all without supporters, crests, or legends. The coats are 
those of : 
1. Newcastle. 
2. GEREAED : Quarterly : first and fourth, argent, a saltire gules ; second and 

third, argent, a lion rampant ermine crowned or. 

3. JOHNSON : Per pale sable and azure, a saltire argent charged with five 
cocks of the first, between three towers flaming, and two spears saltire- 
ways in base or. 

The dish is 1 foot 10 inches in diameter, and is of extremely plain 

The ewer, which is equally plain, bears the following inscription : 

This Ewer lolth, a Basin was presented by S r - Gilbert Gerrard Bart- fy 
his two Sons Gilbert fy Samuel Gerrard's Esquires to the use of the 
Annual Major of the ancient Toione of Newcastle for ever 
June 8. 1681. 

This piece also bears four silver marks. (1) The maker's mark TE oj, 
for Robert Cooper, a silversmith in the Strand; (2) Lion passant; 
(3) Leopard's head crowned ; (4) London date letter (b) for 1679-80. 
Beneath its inscription the ewer bears the same arms as the dish. 

In order of date the next piece is the large silver gilt loving-cup. 
It bears three silver marks (1) Lion passant; (2) Leopard's head 
crowned ; (3) London date letter (Q) for the year 1731-2. On its 
sides it bears the arms of Newcastle twice, with supporters, crest, and 
motto, but with two curious blunders in the latter 


The handles are formed of two charmingly wrought nude female 
figures, and the cover is surmounted by a figure of an intoxicated 
in! ant Bacchus, from whose hand a tankard, a drinking cup, and 
several broken wine bottles and glasses, have fallen. No Corporation 
in the kingdom possesses a more elegant piece of plate than this. Its 
exquisite design and workmanship leave no doubt in my mind that it 
is one of the productions of the famed silversmith Paul Lamerie. 
This is the cup in which, Brand says, "it was usual to present 
mulled wine to the new mayor, at his first entrance into the mansion 
house." He adds that the cup is said to have been given to the 
Corporation for this purpose. 

The last piece of plate I propose to notice is the large salver, 


measuring 1 foot 8 inches by 1 foot 6^ inches, with edges of fret 
work. It bears three silver marks (1) London date letter (ID) for 
1759-60; (2) Lion passant; (3) Leopard's hend crowned. It bears 
the following inscription: 

The first Royal Purse 
of One Hundred Guineas 

run for at 

Newcastle upon Tyne, 

was won 25 June 1753; 

by a Bay Horse, called CATO, 

belonging to George JBowes, Esq r - who 

generously presented it to y e Corporation 

to purchase a Piece of Plate in remembrance of 


Grace $ Faoor. 

I take it that Mr. Bowes gave the purse of gold, and not the horse. 
The gift resulted in the purchase of the salver and an epergne. The 
latter was sold in 1837. It is singular that, although Mr. Bowes gave 
the hundred guineas in 1753, the salver was not made till 1759. 
Besides the inscription, the salver bears three coats of arms : 

1. The Royal arras, with supporters, crest, garter, and mottoes. 

2. The arms of Newcastle, with supporters, crest, and motto. 

3. The arms of BOWES. Ermine, three boius strung in pale (jules, quartering 
the ensigns of Trayne, De la Hay, Dawden, Conyers of Boulby, Fitz Hugh, Grey, 
Conyers of South Cowton x and Aske. MOTTO : Sans variance et mon droit. 



[Read on 27th January, 1886.] 

THE Parish of Birtley, Northumberland, with the adjacent district 
between the North Tyne and the "Watling Street, is remarkable for 
the number of still existing remains of pre-historic times which can be 
readily traced upon the summits of its pastoral hills and along the 
slopes of its upland valleys. Most of these " camps " or hill and vale 
forts, lines of terrace-culture which are distinctly marked, and cairns 
or burial-barrows and so-called "Druid stones," have been already 
described in various antiquarian publications, with illustrative maps 
and plans. 1 Here and there, however, notwithstanding former careful 
examination of the district, since the writer's paper " On the Abori- 
ginal Occupation of North Tynedale and Western Northumberland " 
was read at the Newcastle-upon-Tyne meeting of the British Associa- 
tion for the Promotion of Science and Art in 1863, new and hitherto 
unobserved relics of these far-distant ages and of the early inhabitants 
of Britain have come to light either by accident or through scientific 

Many years ago explorations in what appeared to be a primeval 
cemetery upon the farm of Low Shield Green, near Birtley, had been 

1 Archaeologla Acliana, New Series, Vol. VII., pp. 3-17 " On Ancient British 
Remains near Birtley and Barrasford." 

Ibid., Vol. X., pp. 12-37 "An Account of the Gunnar Peak Camp, North 
Tynedale, and of Excavations in the Ancient Circular and other Dwellings." 

Nat. Hist. Trans, of Northumberland and Durham, New Series, Vol. I., pp. 
151-167 " On the Opening and Examination of a Barrow of the British Period 
at Warkshaugh, North Tynedale." 

Ibid., Vol. III., pp. 32-53 " An Enquiiy into the Origin of Certain Terraced 
Slopes in North Tynedale." 

Archatnlogia (Soc. Antiq. London), Vol. XLV., pp. 355-374 "An Account 
of Researches in Ancient Circular Dwellings near Birtley, Northumberland." 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. (London), Second Series, Vol. XL, pp. 187-189 "On an 
Ancient British Cist at Chollerford, North Tynedale." (See also Dr. Bruce's 
notice in Proc. Sor. Ant. Neirc.. ii.. 170.) 


made, when a great cairn of stones called " Dan's Cairn," and a large 
group of smaller cairns scattered over a plateau under the crags, were 
examined in detail ; but, as exemplifying the foregoing remark, we 
had passed close by the first burial-mound now to be described with- 
out noticing it, on our way to these prior diggings. There the chief 
tumulus and several of its satellites, bearing the local and distinctively 
Gadhelic or Erse name of "currachs," situated near the long ruined 
cottage of High Shield Green, and an ancient " camp," had either 
been rifled by former explorers, or, like similar mounds on the York- 
shire Wolds, had another sufficient reason for their unproductiveness. 
The vestiges of the humbler Britons buried therein had wholly disap- 
peared in the lapse of very many centuries, probably through the 
absence of any kind of protecting cist or stone-lined sepulchre. 2 This 
barrenness of result for three days' hard work made my friends and 
coadjutors, the Eev. "Wm. Greenwell, F.R.S. and the late Eev. J. Bigge, 
M.A., Vicar of Stamfordham, disinclined, as I was, to undertake fresh 
investigations in some neighbouring tumuli nearer to the village of 
Birtley at least on that occasion. The close proximity of the ancient 
" camp " with its surrounding ramparts and inclosed circular dwellings, 
rendered the disappointment the greater when the large "Dan's 
Cairn," and other mounds scattered over the plough-furrowed plateau 
near it, proved almost wholly unproductive. 

Our recent diggings began about half a mile to the south-west 
from " Dan's Cairn," on the same farm of Low Shield Green, about a 
quarter of a mile to the south of the well-known farm-house of that 
name, and the same distance, nearly due north, from the shepherd's 
cottage of Pitland Hills on the high road to Birtley village. All the 
four burial-mounds which we examined are upon the estate of the 
noble Patron of our Society of Antiquaries, the Duke of Northumber- 
land, under whose auspices and by whose liberal aid the researches in 
the Gunnar Peak " camp," near Barrasford, as well as in these cairns 
near Birtley, have been carried out. 

2 Arch. Acliana, New Series, Vol. VII., p. 13. British Barrows, pp. 340, 
341, where Mr. Greenwell decides against the supposition that " these now empty 
and tenantless barrows are cenotaphs ; that, in other words, no interment has 
ever taken place." The total decay of the inhumed body would be caused by 
the free admission of atmospheric influences by reason of the porous nature of 
the covering matter. Alsn compare " TntmductioTi :" pp. 27 ( 28. "Notes." 



In November, 1884, favoured by unusually fine weather for the 
season, two days were occupied in examining this Low Shield Green 
cairn or barrow. On the first day, November 6th, besides our usual 
diggers, who had been with me in other explorations, I had the advan- 
tage of the active co-operation and efficient help of the Bishop of 
Newcastle, Dr. Wilberforce, one of our colleagues much interested in 
archaeological research, and the Rev. G. B. Fenwick, M.A. ; the Eev. 
W. W. Perrin, M.A. of 'Southampton, and Mr. Percy Robson and his 
son, and Mr. T. Robson, tenants of the farm, being also present. 

The site chosen is remarkably fine, the mound having been raised 
upon the brow of the great line of high freestone crags, that lift a 
bold and rugged front to the north from the Mill Knock " camp" and 
quarry on the west, and trend round towards Tone Hall on the east. 
The Tone "Nick," or wide fissure in the crags, is visible from the 
Scottish hills at the head of the North Tyne and Keilder Burn, and this 
cleft is near the site of the barrow on the eastern side. A great portion 
of the valleys both of the Rede and North Tyne appear in the farther 
distance, while in the near foreground are spread out beneath the eye 
in panoramic view the terraced hill slopes of Buteland and its " camp," 
now almost obliterated, the beautiful " clints" or rocky cliffs and deep 
wooded "denes" of Countess Park, with another "camp" nearly 
effaced, and the glimmering sun-lit reaches of the broad and winding 
river (where the famous salmon stream of Hargroves, the best on the 
Tyne, tempts the angler) as far as the conical-shaped hill of Garret 
Hot still crowned with the natural growth of forest which gave its 
Saxon name, Holt opposite Reedsmouth. The elevated site bears, 
therefore, a typical character, and is such as the primeval chieftain 
desired for his last resting place, in order that his burial-cairn, " high 
and broad " like that of the renowned hero, Beowulf, on the great sea- 
washed promontory, should be placed so as 
" To be seen afar." 

It is evident that this barrow has been a time-honoured landmark 
and boundary mark. Two farms, on the Birtley estates of the Duke 
of Northumberland and the Duke of Portland respectively, meet in 
close proximity to it, and an ancient " peth," a bridle road or hollow 


way, rum against its circumference on the north. This road was used 
within memory. The adjoining high walls of the enclosed fields, taken 
from the "fell" land, have been formed out of the materials supplied 
by the great cairn, as of a quarry ready to hand. Thus its present 
surface, covered with short heather and coarse " bent " grass, is only 
about 2 \ feet above the natural level of the ground. 

In form it is, as usual, nearly circular, being 60 feet in diameter 
from east to west, and 54 feet from north to south. Above the undis- 
turbed level, unhewn stones brought from the neighbouring crags are 
mingled with " forced" soil, many stones, large and small, being much 
reddened by the action of fire, and others having apparently been 
chosen on account of their peculiar hollowed-ou-t and honey-combed 
appearance caused by natural accretions and crystallization. In the 
trench, 3 feet wide, which we opened from the southern limit north- 
wards for 27 feet, there were several large flagstones set up on edge 
towards the centre ; here were two white quartzite pebbles and a small 
indurated and glaciated boulder, while on the undisturbed surface we 
met with a well-preserved and carefully chipped scraper or thumb-flint, 
for use in preparing the skins of animals for various purposes of dress, 
etc., such as the Eskimo and other northern races still use in this way in 
adapting the produce of the chase for clothing especially. This 
worked flint is of an irregular oval shape, formed with skill. In 
length it is l inches and in breadth 1 inch. The original colour is 
lost, as it has now become a greyish- white from the calcining action 
of fire, shown also by slight cracks and flakings off at the thin cutting 

The first trench cut came very near to the centre of the barrow, 
as it were grazing the western side of a massive slab of freestone which 
was 2 feet 1 inch in length by 1 foot 11 inches in breadth, and 5^ 
inches in thickness. It lay north-east by south-west. 


After carefully removing this flat stone there was found beneath it 
a large cinerary urn of very rude material and character, lying on its 
side, having probably been overturned by the superincumbent pres- 
sure. Instead of a cist or stone-lined grave a hollow had been made 
iu the natural surface of white sandy clay, which had been beaten 

-^-^ '* - ..... . ' C 



into a hard and consistent mass almost like cement, as if during the 
funereal rites and obsequies of the British chief it had been rendered 
so by the tread of many feet, while the rainy season of that far-distant 
time was prevailing on the (then) forest-clad hills and valleys. The 
surface-soil, at the time of cremation, may also to some extent have 
been subjected to fire beforehand, judging from the indications. 
This urn is 9| inches high, 10 inches in diameter at the top, and 
6 inches at the bottom. The pottery is of a very thick and coarse 
kind, and the scoring or ornamentation is of the simplest character, 
impressions made by a notched stick, upon the upper portion of the 
exterior. The urn is now in the possession of the Bishop of Newcastle, 
at Benwell Tower, and his lordship has kindly presented a photo- 
graph of it to illustrate this paper. Being in an exceedingly damp 
and friable state, when discovered, a part of the rim unfortunately 
broke off and stuck to the covering slab in the act of raising it. 
The under-surface of this stone was blackened with an unctuous 
adhesive mould that seemed to have been laid over the rude vase. It 
had been very carefully wedged in against the sides of the artificially- 
made hollow by small stones and the cement-like clay, already referred 
to. Such was the extreme hardness and tenacity of this material that 
it resisted the application of smaller tools ; and the blows of a pick- 
axe, wielded by a powerful arm, were needed to make any adequate 
impression upon it. Then the urn, guarded by the spade during the 
difficult process of extrication, was at length displaced. This tenacity 
of the surrounding mass is a peculiar feature, which I had not 
previously met with in the barrows of Western Northumberland, 
though the Rev. "Wm. Greenwell informs me that he has observed it 
in the course of his very wide experience. The urn came forth still 
embedded in cement in one great block, which broke into two pieces, 
after which it was soon cleared of the incrustation. From the very 
damp and friable condition of the vase we were obliged at once to set 
on fire much dry grass and paper often a most necessary pre- 
caution in the interior as well as around the exterior, in order to 
dry and harden the frail and rude pottery. After this it could be 
safely placed on a prepared pile of hay procured from the neighbour- 
ing farm-house, where it became still more hardened in the flames of 
the great "bon-fire"' lighted in the "gloaming." In the fast-gather- 



ing darkness of a November evening it might well have been compared 
with the pre-historic chieftain's funereal pyre itself once lit on the 
same spot long ages since, or with the watch and beacon fires of 
mediaeval days on our Border hills ; for it must have been seen very 
far off in the valleys northward and southward, and across the 
"wastes" westward to Christenbury Crags in Cumberland. 

Another trench made towards the west from the centre was 4 feet 
broad and 17 feet long, but nothing of interest was here disclosed but 
a little charcoal and some fire-reddened stones. "We dug much below 
the level of the undisturbed surface into subsoil which consisted of 
yellowish-coloured sand, mixed with bands of a pure white sand. East- 
ward of the urn-deposit and close to it stood an upright monolith 
of irregular pyramidal form, with its solid base firmly set in the 
ground. It was 4 feet 4 inches high, 1 foot 6 inches broad at the 
widest part, and from 10 to 12 inches in thickness. The top of 
this pyramid-monolith, now truncated, seemed to have been broken 
off in comparatively recent times, probably at the building of the 
adjoining fence walls to bring it near the level of the present surface 
of the burial-mound. Originally the stone must have stood higher. 


Upon this monolith, laid prostrate, was placed the other half of 
the rude block of cement-like clay, which had broken off from the part 
in which the cinerary urn, just described, was imbedded. On return- 
ing to the spot four days after to finish the exploration of this barrow, 
we were surprised to find that by the drying action of the sun and 
wind a second rude cinerary urn had appeared in the interval and was 
now separated from the previously adhering mass as from a mould. 
It also had been lying on its side, with the bottom, towards the mouth 
of the other, and in closest proximity. It was smaller than the other, 
being 10 inches in height, and 7-g- and 5^- inches in diameter, respect- 
ively, at the top and the bottom. Unfortunately, by pressure from 
above, the second urn had been crushed inwards, and the broken part, 
nearly half round, now lies within it, covering the ashes of cremation, 
a portion of which can be seen protruding at the edge. The burnt 
bones, which are practically indestructible, were somewhat less than 
usual in quantity in both vases, as if the work had been done 


very effectually. They were mingled with small fragments of char- 
coal, and burnt earth much reddened by fire. 


Continuing the trench eastward to the circumference, 3 feet wide 
and 20 feet in length, we found no cist or deposit there, as might 
have been expected from the size of the mound. At the end of the 
trench but few stones had been left by the "dry-stone wallers," who 
had made that part roughly level with the soil. The south-east 
portion of a barrow is a direction often productive, as well as the east, 
and for the same reason ; because, as many think, connected with sun- 
worship, that oldest and most widely diffused of nature-cults. (This 
was found well illustrated some years since in the exploration of the 
Warkshaugh Family Barrow, on the east bank of the North Tyne.) 
We now, therefore, made another trench from the south-eastern edge, 
4 feet wide and running north-west for 13| feet to the centre. Near 
the latter we discovered a singular arrangement of flat slabs of no 
great size, set on end, two and two together, which had surrounded 
the central double cremation, instead of the more usual oblong cist 
or stone-lined grave. On the west side the plan adopted was most 
evident. In this way a rude circle had been formed all round, except 
on the east where smaller single stones had been set up in a line with 
the pyramidal-monolith, before described. The diameter was 9 feet 9 
inches, within the encircling stones, of this nearly circular space. 
This was probably the portion of the grave-mound first built over the 
urns when deposited in the central cist-like hollow. 

It may be considered a proof of the comparative poverty, even more 
than the extreme antiquity of the pre-historic tribe inhabiting the 
district, that nothing was found within this barrow except the cinerary 
urns of the Ancient Briton, and, it may be, of his wife (the very close 
association in death suggesting relationship in life, if not also her 
death by Sutteeism of which indications elsewhere exist) ; and a solitary 
specimen of worked flint, certainly brought from a distance, to denote 
human handiwork. About 2 miles distant, however, to the north- 
east, near Four-Laws Inn on the Roman road, the Watling Street, 
and near Agri cola's camp, a similar cairn produced a necklace of 
gold beads which had probably been attached to or strung upon a piece 


of bronze. Some of these beads are now in our Society's Museum at 
Newcastle, and others are in that of Alnwick Castle. 3 


In the middle of June, 1885, we were led to undertake the examin- 
ation of a group of mounds, apparently a so-called " Twin-Barrow," 
two being closely adjoining, and a third outlying about 80 yards 
distant to the north-west. The site is near the cottage of Pitland 
Hills, on the farm of Mr. Harle of Barrasford, who readily gave per- 
mission to make the explorations we desired. Here are numerous 
remarkable " pits " or hollows in the ground, not " swallow-holes " in 
the limestone rock, but evidently artificial, in some cases having a ring 
of earth thrown out in their exeavation surrounding them. Some of 
these circular hollows are from 6 to 8 feet in depth and from 10 
to 16 feet in diameter across the upper part, becoming very narrow 
at the bottom by a regular slope. They might easily be mistaken for 
Ancient British pit-dwellings, such as I have observed in Yorkshire and 
Cumberland, and which are met with in many districts in the south of 
England. But from the result of digging, when only nodules of iron- 
stone, whole or broken, came to light, they seem to be ironstone work- 
ings of uncertain date. The double or triple lines of these cup-like 
excavations pass eastward for some distance beyond the shepherd's 
cottage, and westwards, along the slope of the limestone escarpment 
above the freestone, for more than a mile by Cornacres and Birtley 
West Farm. Those near Pitland Hills, however, are by far the largest 
of the series, which not improbably may have been the work of late 
Ancient British, Eoman, or Eomano -British, and also of mediaeval 
seekers for the valuable ore, which is here found close to the day. 4 

8 See Arch. Ael. (O.S.), Vol. I., pp. 1-9. 

4 About two miles to the north in the valley of the " Steel-burn," a tribu- 
tary of the Rede, in the parish of Birtley, it is well-known that Sir W. G. 
Armstrong and Company, obtained until a few years since (till Spanish ores 
superseded it) a large quantity of iron ore of rich quality for their Elswick 
Ordnance Works. It should be here noted that a supposed Roman way from 
PKOCOLITIA, by Wark's ford across North Tyne to the Watling Street, passes close 
to Pitland Hills. Local tradition relates that it was " made" through the ancient 
forest before the Norman conquest. See Arch. Ael. (N.S.), Vol. VII., pp. 19-21. 


There is little doubt that these ironstone excavations give the 
origin and derivation of the place-name, "Pitland Hills" the "hills" 
being the mounds or " hillocks," now to be described, which alone 
break the level surface of the green plateau of limestone on which 
they have been raised. Yet another and interesting derivation is 
suggested by local tradition, which was mentioned to me many years 
ago by an intelligent neighbouring farmer. 6 He informed me that 
his " fore-elders " called the place not Pitland, but " Pic/land or Pick- 
land " Hills, and that the ancient people, the Picts, or " Picks," as he 
preferred to pronounce the word, had a settlement here, and in work- 
ing for iron and coal in the shallow pits on the moor first used the 
implements which our miners still call " picks," thus named after the 
people who introduced them ! It is noteworthy that the cairns 
scattered over our wild Northumbrian uplands, as at High Shield 
Green previously described in this paper, and on those of the Scottish 
Borders, are often associated with that fierce race of invaders from 
the north, whose name and deeds became a terror to the Eomanised 
Britons of the Lower Isthmus, and probably for long afterwards. 
" On the moors of Northumberland, such heaps are pointed out as 
places where a Pict's apron-string had broken, as he was carrying a 
load of stones to some of his superhuman erections." 6 

The Pitland Hills group of barrows stands about 600 yards south- 
south-west from that on the Low Shield Green Crags. The whole 
surrounding and adjacent land was once a portion of the common- 
field used for arable cultivation by the villagers of Birtley in what 
was formerly termed " rig-and-rean " cultivation. This seems to have 
been a kind of "survival" of the ancient system of the Aryan Village 

s The late Mr. Wm. Charlton of Rushy Law, which is the next farm to 
Pitland Hills eastward. His father lived to the great age of 103 years. Both 
were well-versed in the folk-lore of the district. PtcMand Hills is still the 
more common local pronunciation. 

6 Rambles in Northumberland, p. 104. Compare Mr. James Hardy's 
" Ancient Sepulchral Monuments in the East of Berwickshire'' (Proc. Bern. 
Nat. Club, Vol. III., p. 103). who describes the moorland tumuli of various 
dimensions as -'mere rounded conical eminences, overgrown with heath or long 
grass, with lichen-covered or white-bleached stones peering through. Tradition 
tells that they were put together by ' little strong men ' called ' Pechs.' This 
is so far correct if we regard the name ' Pechs ' as one applied indiscriminately 
to any of the original native tribes, and affords an indication that they belong 
to a class of antiquities, unconnected with the present Saxon population, and 
placed beyond the aera of their traditional reminiscences." 


Communities ; such as the late Sir Charles E. Trevelyan, Bart., has 
noticed as also occurring near Wellington. 7 The presence of these 
wide, not straight but curving furrows, made by oxen-ploughing, 
caused the Eev. Wm. Greenwell and myself, when examining the 
district, to infer that they were most probably heaps of stones gathered 
from the tillage land. But on later and closer inspection I found 
those which were exposed near the crown of the largest mound and 
on its east side proved to be weather-bleached sandstones, as were also 
those which had been removed thence to form the foundation of the 
closely adjoining " dyke " or hedge-row, on which a long line of 
tall hawthorn trees still flourishes, testifying to the native fertility of 
the soil. Further, it was observable that these hillocks had been in 
existence before this long-discontinued culture began ; because the 
furrows ran into the bases of and between the " Twin-Barrows." In 
the case of the larger mound they diverge at the western side, and 
make an acute-angled bifurcation ; the ridge and hollow of two 
furrows passing nearly north-east and south-east respectively, so as 
to render the shape of the barrow approximately like that of the 
half of a pear cut lengthwise. 

BARROW No. 1. 

These reasons decided me to test this largest mound, which was 
46 feet in diameter from east to west and 35 feet from north to 
south. The height from the undisturbed surface to the crown was 
found to be 5 feet 6 inches ; but the northern face was on a slight 
rise of the limestone rock, so that it appeared on that side 6 to 7 feet 
high. On the south it remained only from 3 feet 6 inches to 
4 feet high. The slope of the hill on the west was very gradual, 
and measured 28 feet from the meeting point of the furrows on the 
level up to the crown. 

A tradition, which I first heard during the progress of our excava- 
tions, was known to a former shepherd's wife, an aged dame, who 
had often spoken to her family of her desire to dig into the great 
mound in search of "the treasure of silver" said to be secreted in 
this great fairy knoll, so like the Gaelic " shian " associated with the 
hero Ossian. Children of the cottage have since told me they had 

7 See Seebohm's Village Communities ; also Arch, Ael., Vols. IX. p. 53, and 
XII. p. 189. 


often danced upon it and heard something "rattle and jingle" 
beneath their feet. Strange it is that the old dame's wish had "not 
long ago been gratified ; but, deterred by superstitious feeling, the 
mystery of the cairn remained unrevealed. 


Our diggers first opened a trench, 3 feet 6 inches wide on 
the south side, and proceeded 10 feet due north, when they came 
upon two sandstone slabs bearing upon them the singular incised 
cup-markings on both sides, which were found by their earliest dis- 
coverer, Mr. Langlands at Old Bewick, so long since as 1825, and 
afterwards by the Eev. W. Greenwell near Doddington in Northum- 
berland. Two of the hollows were very large, and one was not round 
but in shape like a gibbous moon. All the cavities were filled with 
clay, so that the men had not noticed the cup-markings when 
removing the stones. These at once served as indications that this 
was undoubtedly a pre-historic burial-barrow. Altogether, I may 
here add, seventeen stones bearing incised cups of various sizes and 
shapes were discovered in this mound, and not a single example in 
the other grave-hills, although there as well as here many sandstone 
blocks seemed to have been selected because they were naturally of a 
"honey-combed" character. A portion of an upper mill-stone a 
quern for grinding corn was found, an unique feature so far as Mr. 
Greenwell's wide experience in barrow-digging on the Yorkshire 
Wolds serves. The broken ends of this half-quern had each been 
graven with an incised cup, the tool-marks or dints by means of 
which they had been cut into the stone remaining perfectly fresh and 
distinct. One small slab had upon its upper surface more than a 
dozen shallow cups, each being only about an inch in diameter. The 
discovery of these cup-incised stones appears, however, to deserve to 
be treated more fully than the limits of time now at my disposal will 
permit. Ere long I hope to give some detailed description for the 
consideration of our members, and to discuss any special and peculiar 
features presented by them that may throw, perhaps, some light, feeble 
though it may be, upon this most difficult subject still confessedly 
one of the greatest enigmas of archaeology. A very comprehen- 
sive summary of all that had become known on this subject up to 


1881, both in the Old and New World, and of the various opinions 
respecting the origin and meaning of these mysterious archaic rock- 
sculpturings, is contained in an elaborate paper printed by the United 
States Government, in Contributions to North American Ethnology, 
Vol. V., pp. 7-112 (4to. 1882), entitled " Observations on Cup-shaped 
and other Lapidarian Sculpture in the Old World and in America," by 
Charles Eau. Thirty-five plates of engravings of examples are given, 
which have been found in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, 
Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and Denmark ; also in India, and in 
North and Central America. 


Passing over for that time a large flat slab of sandstone, a second 
trench was made at right angles to the first, bearing east for 10 feet. 
Here, close to the now lowered summit of the mound, so that the 
roots of the green sward were growing down into it, we came upon a 
small CINERARY URN inverted upon a flat stone. It had a very 
slight protection from other stones very rudely placed around it, 
for there was no cist, and no cover-stone remained, if there ever had 
been one, above it. From pressure by the tread of people, and of cattle 
and sheep, upon the overlying sward, the urn was unfortunately 
crushed into a hundred fragments, and therefore impossible to restore. 
This was the more to be regretted, as it had been probably a fine 
specimen, the pottery of good, hard-baked clay, well and carefully 
ornamented with lozenge-shaped scorings made by a twisted thong. 
Some of the cremated bones of a young child, which had been de- 
posited in it, lay amongst the sherds ; the rest had fallen into the 
interstices of the cairn beneath its resting place. 

CIST No. 1. 

On the next day, June Ifith, 1885, I had again the advantage of 
the presence and assistance of our colleague, the Bishop of Newcastle, 
and with his lordship were Dr. Hodgkin, one of our Secretaries, 
and the Rev. Mr. Wilson (late Archdeacon of the Isle of Wight). 
Another colleague Mr. J. G. Fenwick, Mr. Percy Robson and Mr. 
D. Wood, churchwardens of Birtley, with others, were also present. 
The weather favouring us, the results of our second day's explorations 
were of considerable interest. We were able to do a good deal of 


work, having several experienced diggers, and energetic help rendered 
by volunteers. FOOD-VESSEL. 

On carefully raising and removing the large freestone slab found, 
as previously mentioned, at the junction of the two trenches cut the 
day before, nothing appeared at first but a bed of clay level with the 
surface. The slab was of irregular form, 3 feet 6 inches long, 
and from 1 foot 6 inches to 2 feet 3 inches 
wide, by 4 to 5 inches in thickness. When 
about 3 inches of the clay had "been taken out 
at the top we discovered at the south-west 
corner another urn of the " jood-vessel" type. 
It was removed, after applying fire, in fair 
condition, and is now exhibited. A " herring 
bone " ornament runs around the inside of the 
rim, and upon the exterior on the upper part 
of the urn and all over its. surface are punctured dots, made with a 
pointed stick or bone, and lineal scorings. The vase is in diameter at 
the rim 6 inches, at the shoulder 6^, at bottom 2^, and in height 5^ 
inches. (In size and ornamentation it closely resembles the " food- 
vessel" from Halliugton, now in the Black Gate Museum, of which the 
above is a representation. See Proc. Soc. Ant. Newc., ii., 'p. 377/1.) 


This was a pretty sure indication of what might now be expected, 
for the outline of a cist or stone-lined grave was perceptible, of which 
the large stone was the cover. Working out the clay very carefully 
to the north of the food- vessel for a few inches the skull of an Ancient 
Briton appeared, and soon afterwards the whole of the skeleton, 
excepting the smaller bones of the hands and feet, was disclosed. He 
had been laid to rest on his right side, the direction being nearly due 
east and west, the head to the west, and the body was in the con- 
tracted posture, as if of sleep, with the knees doubled up towards the 
chin. The left hand was under the thigh,' and the right arm across 
the chest. Under the right cheek, as if it were supporting the head, 
was a rude pebble-hammer of rounded and flattened form, bearing 
marks of abrasion from use. From the position of the skull and 
the bony structure, embedded in clay for an unknown but very long 



period, the whole bony structure was in a most friable condition : 
yet the outward shape being well preserved in its clay-mould, it pre- 
sented a very striking appearance at the moment of discovery. The 
numerous fractures, probably of ancient date, caused by superincum- 
bent pressure, made it impossible, with the most careful manipulation 
to get even the skull out whole. 


The fragmentary portions of the entire skeleton were removed, and 
are now in the hands of the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, F.R.S., for further ex- 
amination, and, if possible, to restore the cranium. This was of the usual 
type found in Northumberland, namely, brachy-cephalic, of the broad 
or round-headed race. My eldest son, Mr. G. Rome Hall, M.B., took 
an interest in making out for us the special characteristics of the whole 
bony fabric, and his notes will be found as an Appendix to this paper. 

We were thus able to ascertain that the Ancient Briton was a man 
in all probability in the prime of life, that is, from forty to fifty years 
of age at the time of his death. But whether he had died by violence, 
as in battle, or from natural causes, there was nothing to indicate, as 
there was in the case of one or two of the (Romano-British ?) skulls 
from the G-unnar Peak talus below the camp, where a sword-stroke 
across the forehead had evidently given the death wound. The angle 
of the lower jaw of the Pitland Hills cranium sufficiently decided the 
age. From the length of the humerus his height might be approxi- 
mately fixed at 5 feet 4 inches ; and he was of a strongly built frame. 
He had enjoyed the enviable possession of a perfect set of teeth, 
though some were worn and flattened at the top, so that the dentine 
was exposed and bared of the enamel, perhaps caused by the friction 
of sandy particles left in the cereal food after grinding in the gritty 
stone querns or hand-mills which seem to have been in use from early 
pre-historic times. The great strength of the muscular markings of the 
ridge of the leg-bones, etc., denoted the male sex. The comparatively 
long os calcis or heel-bone is supposed to show that the man was of a 
weaker-muscled race than the Teutonic ; that is to say, of the preced- 
ing and conquered British or Celtic stock. The method of interment 
corroborated this inference. From the curvature of the frontal bone it 
was further judged that he possessed a very fair mental development. 


The cist itself was not so well-formed as the stone-lined graves 
found in the Warkshaugh barrow. A hollow, about 4 feet long and 
2 feet wide had been first rudely scooped out in the native limestone- 
rock, leaving a shelf at the western end as a pillow for the head which, 
as before-mentioned, was also supported by the pebble-hammer. Then 
three rough oblong slabs of freestone had been set up on the north, 
south, and east sides, with a smaller slab to fit in at the west, on which 
the cover-stone had been placed perfectly level. Much of the clay 
within the grave was of a very unctuous and adhesive character, and 
the peculiar yellow, oily, and waxy appearance of all the bones is 
thought to show a tendency in them to turn into adiposcere. 

CIST No. 2. 

Proceeding with our first trench due north from Cist No. 1, at 
1 1 feet distant from its south side we came upon a still more rudely 
made and smaller stone-lined grave of an irregularly oblong form, 
measuring about 2 feet 6 inches in length by 2 feet in greatest width, 
Under its covering slab it was filled to the top with stiff unctuous 
clay, so tenacious that it seemed almost as if kneaded with the hands 
and then filled in. The spade cut this clay into solid lumps, which 
retained their form as they rolled down the northern slope of the 
barrow. Nothing was found within, save small fragments of stone 
reddened by fire, and pieces of charcoal mixed with the clay. The 
position of this second cist was about 9 inches above that of the first, 
and of the undisturbed surface of the ground the original level. A 
large unshapely block of stone was placed so as to slightly project over 
the cist at the south-east corner which was near the site of the broken 
cinerary urn. Upon this stone on the upper face were two cup- 
markings, one of which was smoothened within the hemispherical 
cavity by use for some unknown purpose. This is the first instance of 
an incised pit or cup worn smooth in the interior which Mr. Greenwell 
has heard of, or which I have met with. The body originally inhumed 
here had entirely disappeared, as in so many similar instances. From 
the small dimensions of the grave it was probably that of a child. It 
was much nearer the exterior surface of the burial-mound than the 
first cist, and less carefully protected from the percolation of rain 
carrying air with it, which had probably caused the entire decay of 
the bony structure during the long lapse of time. 


East from Cist No. 1, we next drove a trench, and '2 feet 6 inches 
from its eastern extremity was an upright stone 1 foot 10 inches long 
by 1 foot 4 inches broad, much reddened by fire at the eastern side, 
where close to it we took out a large quantity of fiery-red earth and 
some pieces of charcoal. There were no burnt bones, except a few 
very small fragments which had dropped down from the cinerary urn 
that had been placed almost exactly over this spot. Passing 2 feet 
farther to the east, a yet larger block of freestone had been set up, 
3 feet 3 inches in length by 2 feet in height, which was wedged, as 
it were, into position by small stones fixed there above the limestone 
strata. This block also was reddened by the action of strong fire at 
its base on the east side. Continuing in the same easterly direction 
for 3 feet 3 inches we discovered near to the present edge of the grave- 
hill a small square stone with a cup incised both on the upper and 

under side. 


On either hand of this stone, to right and left, we noticed in ex- 
cavating that the barrow had been very carefully built. On the south 
side the stones were large and massive, laid perpendicularly one upon 
another for three courses in height. On the north side were several 
large flat slabs, three of which were in situ and overlapping each other 
like scale armour, diminishing in size from the bottom to the top. It 
seemed, further, as if a passage-way had been intentionally made from 
this east side of the mound to the central grave, the primary interment, 
as it may have been, though it is not the present centre. This way 
in some degree corresponding with the duct or channel leading out 
from the central cup through the incomplete concentric circle on many 
Northumbrian rock and stone sculpturings seemed to have been 
blocked up when the barrow was fully formed, the small cup-marked 
slab being placed to mark the entrance. The sloping inwards and 
overlapping arrangement of the barrow-builders externally was again 
evident at the north side, where there did not appear to have been so 
much disturbance in recent times as at the south, the plough having 
cut very largely into that portion of the mound. 

Passing to the west of Cist No. 1, a very massive flat slab was 
observed placed horizontally, which, though not one of the more usual 
positions in a barrow, we yet hoped might have covered an interment. 


It was left undisturbed for a while, until our noble patron, the Duke 
of Northumberland, when staying at Keilder Castle, should be able to 
visit the site of our explorations. Nothing, however, rewarded our 
efforts here when his Grace favoured us with a brief inspection of this 
group of barrows in August last. 


In one other direction there seemed a probability of finding 
another interment ; that is, on the south-east of the mound. This 
position would be in the full sun-light, which our Ancient British an- 
cestors most appreciated, generally neglecting the dark and colder 
north aspect in their funereal arrangements. A similar feeling with 
respect to the burial of the dead has survived to these late Christian 
times, the northern and shadowed part of our churchyards being- 
avoided as far as possible. In the large family-barrow opened at 
Warkshaugh, already referred to, we found the central, east, south- 
east, and south interments, which were likewise both by inhuma- 
tion and cremation. At the south-east of this chief barrow of the 
Pitland Hills group we were similarly successful, though the inter- 
ment was of so peculiar a character that it is said not to have pre- 
viously occurred in our county. 8 At a distance of 6^ feet from Cist 
No. 1, an afternoon's work, undertaken shortly after the Duke 
of Northumberland's visit, disclosed two large slabs of sandstone 
placed horizontally, side by side, and close together. (A kind of 
flagged way like this was also noticed between the south cist and a 
cinerary urn westwards in the Warkshaugh barrow.) Under both the 
slabs there was much reddened earth with pieces of charcoal, almost 
as if the fires of cremation had been set ablaze upon the spot. The 
slab farthest to the south-east from the first stone-lined grave had 
beneath it a very large deposit of burnt bones. The artificial hollow 
in the soil, covering, and partly in, the limestone rock, which had 
been made to contain them, was circular, 18 inches in diameter and 
the same in depth. The soil was thoroughly reddened by fire to the 
bottom, except on the east side, where the limestone showed itself. 

8 British Barroms, p. 9, Mr. Greenwell says : " Similar holes are found in 
the Long Barrows of the south-west of England ; but 1 have never observed 
anything like them in the barrows of the North Riding or of Northumberland, 
common as they are in those on the Wolds." 


Streaks of yellowish clayey soil intervened here and there around the 
pit, which may indicate that the cremated remains together with the 
earthy and other adjuncts had been roughly gathered together and 
then deposited in this prepared hollow. 

Thus the first and principal cairn contained, so far as the result of 
our explorations serve to enlighten us, a central cist for it was pro- 
bably near the original centre with inhumation (the skeleton of an 
adult male with his " food-vessel "), and a cremated body, sex or age 
uncertain, placed in a circular cavity in the same natural level of the 
ground. These may, therefore, in all likelihood, be safely considered 
the primary interments. The smaller cist on a higher level, filled 
with tenacious, unctuous clay, perhaps originally containing the body 
of a child, and also the crushed and inverted cinerary urn inclosing 
the burnt remains of an infant, may possibly have been secondary and 
later interments ; they may readily be supposed, however, to have all 
been the contemporary burials of members of the same family rather 
than of the same tribe. 

BABROW No. 2. 

The second burial-mound of this Pitland Hills group has a simpler 
record of contents, though it also is of considerable interest. It is 20 
feet distant to the south from the other the width of the broad 
furrow that the oxen-ploughing has cut into both barrows. At first 
the bases must have been nearly joined, thus forming what is often 
called a "Twin-Barrow." This smaller tumulus is now 27 feet in 
diameter from east to west, and 24 from north to south, and only 2 
feet 6 inches in height. Working near the centre, we first came upon 
a large flat stone about a foot above the undisturbed level, under 
which were several sherds of thin and rather fine British pottery. No 
urn seems to have ever been placed there. It may therefore be taken 
as another example of the ancient Pagan custom of casting broken 
pieces of earthenware, with flints and pebbles, upon the grave-mound 
of the dead, as Shakespeare speaks of the funereal obsequies of the fair 
suicide, Ophelia. Douglas, in the Nenia, p. 10, seems to have been 
the first to call attention to the passage of our great poet as illustrating 
the frequent presence of these in ancient graves, into which it is diffi- 
cult to think they could have come by accident. 

The priest in Hamlet, answering Laertes, the brother of Ophelia, 


respecting the " maimed rites " alone permitted in her case, answers 

(Act V., Scene I.): 

" Her obsequies have been as far enlarg'd 
As we have warranty : her death was doubtful ; 
And, but that great command o'ersways the order, 
She should in ground unsanctified have lodg'd 
Till the last trumpet ; for charitable prayers, 
Shards, flints, and pebbles, should be thrown on her." 


Only one interment had taken place in this second barrow, and 
that by cremation. Near the centre, about 2 feet westwards from the 
deposit of sherds of pottery, a large cinerary urn with broad projecting 
rim and two rows of intersecting twisted-thong lines for ornament 
upon it, was standing, mouth upwards, within an artificial hollow 
made in the ground, which seemed to be scarcely large enough to 
admit it. ' The soil all around it, as in the case of the similar crema- 
tion (without an urn) in the adjoining barrow, was much reddened 
and blackened by fire. With all the care we could exercise, by apply- 
ing heat to the exterior and interior of this rude and imperfectly burnt 
vase, we could not save it from falling into many pieces. It was near 
the present surface of the mound, which had suffered much from being 
used as a quarry ; thus through the single layer of rough stones the 
damp had penetrated, from which for a long time it had had no 
adequate protection. The height of the urn was approximately Ill- 
inches, diameter of the mouth 10 inches, at the rim or shoulder 11 
inches. The bottom was slightly convex, so that it could never have 
stood alone, and had therefore probably been made specially for its 
funereal purpose, and had not previously served for domestic use. Its 
diameter was 6| inches. The coarse dark pottery was half an inch in 


One of these curious, very small vessels called " incense cups," 
which are only found connected with cremations, rare even on the 
Yorkshire Wolds only six were found by Mr. Greenwell of this rarest 
class of sepulchral pottery though comparatively frequent in Wilt- 
shire, had been placed near but not in the urn. It had escaped our 
notice, and a few days after finding the cinerary vase a diligent searcher 


lighted upon one-half of the iucense cup, which was quite plain, of 
dark grey pottery, very rudely made, without any scoring upon it, 
or any perforation. When perfect, it was about 3 inches in diameter, 
and 1| inches in height. Different from the ordinary type, it did not 
expand from the mouth towards the middle, and then contract 
gradually again towards the bottom ; 9 but the sides were perpendicular, 
curving slightly towards the bottom. These small vessels are unknown 
amongst the various forms of pre-historic sepulchral pottery which have 
been discovered in Scandinavia, Germany, and France, but are found 
with more or less frequency in many districts throughout Great Britain 
and Ireland. As the name implies, the ." incense cups " have been 
regarded as vessels in which to burn incense, aromatic oils, or perfumes. 
As it is very doubtful if the latter could be obtained in the late Neo- 
lithic or early Bronze periods, a more natural supposition is that of the 
Hon. Mr. Stanley and Mr. Albert Way who incline to the belief that 
they may have been " chafers," " for conveying fire, whether a small 
quantity of glowing embers, or some inflammable substance, in which 
the latent spark might for a while be retained, such, for instance, as 
touchwood, fungus, or the like," with which to kindle the funereal fire. 
I have only heard of one other instance of an " incense cup " being 
found in North Tynedale. It was described to me by the man who 
came upon it in draining at Robin Hood's Well near Blindburn Hall, 
in Birtley parish, as resembling a " salt-cellar," which he kept in his 
house for some years. Nothing was found with it, and the site is 
about two miles westwards from Pitland Hills, close to the bank of 
the river. 

The cinerary urn from this second barrow was full to overflowing 
with burnt bones, so that the "incense cup" could not have been 
contained within it. No fragments of calcined bones were of sufficient 
size to indicate the sex with sufficient accuracy. A small part of the 
left temporal bone of the cranium, a piece of the vertebrae, a portion 
of a radius, femur, and finger-bone, could alone be distinguished. 

BARROW No. 3. 

But little appearance of the original tumulus remained here. It 
was about HO yards north-west from the largest Barrow No. 1, and 

9 See British Barrows, p. 74 et seq. 


was situated near the limestone escarpment along the abrupt slope 
of which run the numerous ironstone delves before referred to, east 
and west, and overlooking a lower plateau of freestone. Still there 
were in situ three irregularly-shaped blocks of sandstone, larger and 
more massive than any found in the other grave-hills, standing two 
or three feet above, and deep-set beneath the ground. They were 
surrounded by a low "cast" of earth, a portion of the primeval 
tumulus, which long cultivation on this site had nearly levelled. The 
grey, lichen- covered stone at the eastern side was deeply furrowed and 
guttered through the weathering of long ages of time, and it had 
evidently continued there undisturbed by human hands since the pre- 
historic inhabitants placed it and the other monoliths in position to 
form a monumental cairn to be seen from far. On removing the 
earth-fast blocks, a work of difficulty, and then clearing away soil and 
stones, the diggers thought they had come to the unbroken limestone 
strata. But proceeding a little further down near what appeared to 
be the centre of the original mound now only 15 feet from east to 
west, and 10 feet from north to south an artificial hollow was found. 
The cavity was about 3 feet 6 inches long, running north-east and 
south-west, by 3 feet wide, and about 3 feet deep. 


Here amongst many curiously-shaped angular masses of lime- 
stone, full of madrepore, we discovered an interment of an unburnt 
body. From the few remaining portions of the bony structure it was 
possible to determine that the individual had been an adult male. 
Among other indications we judged this from the large size of two 
fragments of the femur or thigh bone, in which the " linea aspera" 
^yas especially well-marked. 

Unless some very sharp-pointed limestones had been used as 
" rough-and-ready " weapons and implements (one small piece, thin 
and sharp-edged, of oval shape, might readily serve as a " scraper " 
for dressing skins and other work), nothing appeared to have been 
buried with this Ancient Briton. Xo " food- vessel " or worked flint 
had been provided in his case for the journey to the "happy hunting- 
grounds," or the Celtic "Valhalla" of " Annwyn," believed to exist 
far away under the glowing sun-set skies. 




If we consider merely the relics of ancient times and human handi- 
work, now first brought to light in these recent Barrow-diggings near 
Birtley, we might reasonably be inclined to class them among the 
grave-mounds of some isolated tribe who lived in the Neolithic 
period the New or Polished-Stone Age of Pre-historic Archaeology. 
Yet, I do not think, taking "the whole indications into account, 
-especially the cranium, in the rude cist of Barrow No. 1, the largest of 
the Pitland Hills group, as we saw it revealed to our gaze with the 
entire skeleton, that we would be justified in assigning these tumuli to 
that very remote date. There is as yet no evidence whatever of the 
existence of Paleolithic men in Northumberland, nor, indeed, north 
of Norfolk. Nor is there any proof of the existence of the Neolithic 
race in our county, if, as it is generally supposed, the latter buried 
their dead in the large and often chambered long barrows, many of 
which have been explored by Mr. G-reenwell on the Yorkshire Wolds, 
and by Dr. Thurnam in the south of England. No undoubted long 
barrow, belonging to the dolicho-cephalic or long-headed people, allied 
to the Basques and Eskimos, has been hitherto discovered north of 
Yorkshire. In the Warkshaugh barrow, to which reference has been 
made more than once, there were three stone-lined graves, which had 
probably contained unburnt bodies interred in the usual contracted 
position. In them, however, we found no bony relics whatever, but in 
the eastern cist were a " food- vessel," a thumb-flint or scraper of brown 
chert, and a split-nodule of ironstone which had the thin end carefully 
chipped to a sharp edge. The latter formed a large axe-head that might 
be used to advantage both as an implement of peace and an effective 
weapon of war. Many years since, after examining fully that interest- 
ing burial-mound, with the relics of its builders and occupants before 
me, I was induced to class them among the remains of Neolithic times. 
But cremation was met with there, as well as here in these Pitland 
Hills barrows. It is generally accepted that the Turanian or non- 
Aryan people of the New Stone Age used inhumation alone, and that 
in the succeeding transition-period and early Bronze Age, inhumation 
and cremation (now first introduced), were practised contemporane- 
ously. These rude sepulchral monuments may certainly be assigned to 
the pre-historic and pre-Roman period, because not the slightest trace 


of Roman or even of Saxon influence or art is found in them. There- 
fore they may be attributed with very high probability to the early 
Bronze period and to the first Celtic invaders of Britain, who, using 
well-tempered weapons of this metal, were able to conquer and 
subjugate the native tribes who had not advanced beyond the pos- 
session of polished stone weapons and implements. 

This conclusion seems to find corroboration in the place-name of 
the nearest of the ancient camps or fortified villages which, when the en- 
closed hut-circles and dwellings have been excavated, bring down their 
term of occupation to Eomano-British and late Celtic times, and end 
there. This large camp is described by the writer 10 as occupying " the 
summit of a lofty rounded hill," being an acre and a half in area, and 
commanding " a prospect only limited by the Cheviots and the Crossfell 
range." It is called the Mill Knock, or, as it is given in Sir David 
Smith's "Alnwick MS.," more in accordance with the local pro- 
nunciation and its original application, " Male Knock" that is, in the 
Gadhelic or earlier Celtic (occurring frequently in the Erse of Ireland 
and the Gaelic of the Scottish Highlands), the "maol" or "head- 
land," exactly descriptive of its position (exemplified in the " Mull of 
Cantyre "), and the simpler " Knock," a " hill." This camp is about 
half a mile distant to the north-west from the Pitland Hills barrows, 
and is well placed for defence on the rounded projecting spur of the 
Low Shield Green Crags, that forms their western extremity in a bold 
and striking headland, having a lofty precipice river-wards, now broken 
into as a quarry, with abrupt declivities on the north and south. 

We can scarcely doubt that the interments in these barrows, now 
first explored, were connected with the early inhabitants of this strong 
hill-fort or ramparted village, like the Maori " pahs," and that they 
belonged to the Gadhelic or elder branch of the great Celtic family, 
the first Aryan immigrants into Western Europe. They seem to have 
migrated into the British Isles from the valleys of the Khine and the 
Moselle, while the Cymry, the later Celts, came from the region of the 
Alps. 11 Dr. Frederick Wiborg suggests that the earlier Celts, the 

10 Archaeologia Aeliana, Vol. VII., p. 6 (New Series). See also Notes on 
Camps in Northumberland, by H. Maclauchlan, F.G.S. (printed for private 
circulation), 1867, p. 74, and Note. 

11 Compare the Rev. Canon Taylor's Words and Places, 2nd edition, pp. 233 
and 478. 


" Goidels," introduced the practice of cremation of their dead because 
they were probably fire-worshippers, like the modern Parsees of Bom- 
bay. Inhumation would, nevertheless, linger long into their time, it 
may be partly through intermarriages with the vanquished race that 
preceded them to our shores. 

It must be borne in mind, if we wish to compute approximately 
what may be the age of these Pitland Hills and Low Shield Green 
Crag barrows, that the historic times in the Mediterranean countries 
largely overlapped the pre-historic times in Britain. Nor would the 
inhabitants of our country be all in the same social condition at the 
same time. In its various districts there would be an overlapping of 
the different ages, of Polished Stone and Bronze especially, as the more 
isolated communities would be the less advanced. The tribes in these 
inland valleys of the North Tyne and Rede were on this account com- 
paratively poor, as their sepulchral relics testify. The gold beads 
found in the Four Laws Cairn on Chesterhope Common were of rude 
workmanship ; and when, as they are very rarely, discovered in tumuli, 
articles of gold are usually associated with those of bronze, as at 
Cressingham in Norfolk and Kelleythorpe near Driffield in York- 
shire. 12 The late Dr. Charlton mentions 13 the discovery about twenty 
years since of a gold armlet near Belling-ham. About two miles 
distant from Pitland Hills to the south-west two celts and two spear 
heads of bronze were found by the workmen hidden in the crevices of 
the rock at the Chipchase Park House freestone quarry. 14 Among as 
yet unrecorded "finds" in the district are those of a chert (flint) 
scraper, carefully chipped, and larger than the specimen from the 
Warkshaugh barrow, which Mr. Hugh Miller, F.GT.S., obtained from 
the gravel in the pool beneath the Holywell Linn and Devil's Rock 
near the Mill Knock Camp. Besides this I have a well-shaped barbed 
arrow-head of flint, which came from the foundations of the new 
tower of Birtley Church three years since. These implements and 
weapons of flint and bronze and ornaments of gold may all have been 
in contemporary use in the early Bronze period, when the first Celtic 
inhabitants probably raised these burial-mounds in honour of their 

12 British Barrows, pp. 55 and 436. 

13 North Tynedale and its Four Graynes, 2nd edition, p. 8. 

14 Archaeologia Aeliana (New Series). Vol. VII.. p. 209. 


dead kindred, and to save their remains from the ravages of the 
numerous wild beasts of the neighbouring primeval forests that would 
then cover hill and dale. 15 

Our colleague, Mr. G-reenwell, who is the chief authority on these 
Ancient British times, in cautiously discussing the very difficult subject 
of the age of the round barrows, remarks, 16 " The date of the intro- 
duction of bronze may be estimated as being somewhere about the 
year B.C. 1000." He adds, " There is a greater probability, I believe, 
of post-dating than of ante-dating them ; and we need not fear that 
we are attributing too high an antiquity to them if we say that they 
belong to a period which centres more or less in B.C. 500." In this 
estimate we may well concur. 

Whether in two cremations, so close to each other as apparently to 
form but one burial in the first described Crag barrow, and in that 
on the same level adjoining the inhumation in Cist No. 1 in the 
largest of the Pitland Hills tumuli, we may see grounds for conjecture 
that a wife had immolated herself, or been immolated, to accompany 
her husband into the ever-mysterious spirit-land, can only be a matter 
of opinion. Many authorities have pointed out that, as in the far 
East in the case of the Hindoo widow until recent days, so in the far 
West in Northern England in pre-historic times, it is at least probable 
that Sutteeism was sometimes practised as a funereal usage. 17 It is no 
unheard-of custom among semi -barbarous races in our own day who 
occupy a position in the scale of civilisation somewhat similar to that 
of our very remote British ancestors. 

We can at all events recognise in the more or less careful construc- 
tion of monumental cairn and inclosed cist, in the placing therein of 
cinerary urn and " food-vessel," often with implement or weapon for 
use in the unrevealed hereafter, in the incised cup-markings on stones, 
here without the later concentric circles around them, at the meaning 
and purpose of which archaeology can as yet but dimly guess, some 
recognition, partial and faint though it might be, of a life beyond this 
transitory mortal life. 

15 At Castle Carrock in Cumberland a very aged woman once assured me that 
" in the old times they always raised a great cairn to prevent the wolves from 
getting at the body." See Trans. Cumb. Sf Westm. Antiq. -fy Archaeol 
Soc. Vol. VI., p. 472, " On Ancient Remains (chiefly Pre-historic) in Geltsdale 
Cumberland," by the writer. 

16 British Barrows, p. 131. ' 7 Ibid. pp. 119, 120, and Notes. 


" This pleasing hope, this fond desire. 
This longing after immortality," 

which Plato felt, may have had at least a germinal existence in the 
hearts of these earliest vale-dwellers by the North Tyne. They buried 
their dead out of their sight with unmistakeable marks of family or 
tribal affection and reverential regard. And while we gaze at the 
principal barrow of the Pitland Hills group we may be inclined to 
repeat, as imagination conjures up the far-past scene of primitive 
mourning on the green plateau, the words of the old Breton song 
that of a kindred people who, for a similar purpose, raised the menhirs 
around Carnac 

11 Plus les morts etaient chers, plus leurs pierres sont grandes :" 

" The dearer the dead the larger their stones ;" the greater and more 
imposing would be their burial-mounds. 


Notes on the Human Bones found in the Ancient British Barroios at 
Pitlana Hills near Birtley, North Tynedale, by Mr. GK ROME 
HALL, M.B., M. S. 


Part of right temporal bone ; almost entire left temporal bone with 
the styloid process still attached ; all the apparatus of the ear well- 
marked. Part of the occipital bone, back of the skull with opening 
for the spinal cord. Part of the frontal bone, showing the super- 
ciliary ridges exceedingly well marked, and frontal eminence. The 
curve implies a very good menial development. Bones of skull do not 
show sutures from fragmentary condition. Parts of parietal bones 
from vault of cranium (from thickness, an adult), of frontal bones, 
and bones of the base of skull. Small portions of facial bones 
nothing special about them. Inferior maxillary bone (lower jaw-bone, 
which was fractured in front part in taking it out, but being replaced 
in position the angle was readily ascertained). Hence age probably 
between 40 and 50 a strongly-built man. 

Incisors and canine teeth are flattened at top and bared of enamel, 
dentine exposed at the top. 

Portions of upper maxillary bone on each side (upper jaw). The 
upper corresponding teeth show the same flattening and baring of the 
enamel. Some African tribes file down the tops of the teeth into a 


point ; but here the cause was probably the sand in the cereal food 
from grinding in the stone querns or hand-mills. 

The set of teeth was perfect in the present day to be envied. 
There were 31 out of the 32 counted, but all were there when first 


In neck and spine part of axis and most of atlas with the four 
next cervical vertebrae and part of the seventh whole of the cervical 
region. Some other vertebrae, but not nearly the whole when 

Whole of left humerus (shoulder-bone), broken into two pieces ; 
length about 12^ inches. Therefore height probably about 5 feet 4 
inches. Part of left scapula (shoulder-blade articulating with the left 
humerus). Corresponding part of right scapula, only most massive 
portion remaining. 

Parts of left radius and ulna. Lower end of both radii, the left 
showing a peculiar curve suggestive of fracture (?), especially if it 
happened when a child, and was not properly treated, as would most 
probably be the case here. 

The first and many other rib bones. 

The left os innominatum (haunch bone). 

Four portions of the left femur, measuring about 16 inches. 
Therefore height 5 feet 4 inches to 6 inches. Four portions of the 
right femur. Parts of tibiae and fibulae, both legs, but not enough to 
show which is right or left. 

The left astragalus and left os calcis (heel), practically the whole. 
Part of the right astragalus and right os calcis. Each os calcis was 
longer than usual at the present time therefore weaker-muscled than 
the Teutonic race. 

A male adult, from the great strength of the muscular markings, 
ridge of leg-bone, etc. 


All that can be made out are a part of the skull and portions of 
small ribs, probably of an infant of from three to six months old. 


Part of left temporal bone. Head of humerus splint of head of 
humerus ; some fragments of vertebrae ; part of radius (or ulna ?) ; part 
of upper end of femur ; part of a finger bone. Not enough remaining 
to determine sex or probable age. 


Two pieces of femur (thigh bone) ; chip of femur. A piece of lower 
end of humerus (the hinge-joint part) ; a piece of the fore-arm, pro- 
bably the radius, connected with the last ; not of sufficient size to tell 
whether of right or left leg or arm. Probably an adult male, the femur 
being too large for a female, and the linea aspera (the " rough line ") 
especially well-marked. 



[Read on^the 26th January, 1887.] 

THE subject of the archaic cup and circle markings on earth-fast rocks 
and detached boulders, on so-called " Druid stones" and monoliths, 
on the slabs forming " cists," or stone-lined graves, or intermingled 
with the materials of primeval tumuli has, for the last thirty-five years 
or more, engaged the attention of archaeologists not only in Great 
Britain and Ireland but in many other countries of the world. Not- 
withstanding much patient research, no wholly satisfactory conclusion 
as to their exact meaning and precise age, or with what race they 
originated, has as yet been obtainable. The mists of antiquity and the 
charm, of mystery still hang around this recondite study. A literature 
of considerable interest and value, like that respecting the long- 
undeciphered " written rocks " of the Wady Feiran in the Sinaitic 
Peninsula, has sprung up within recent years, to which the late 
Mr. G. Tate, F.G.S., 1 Sir. J. Y. Simpson, 2 and our Vice-President, 
Dr. Bruce, 3 have been chief contributors. 

First discovered on the rocks close to Ancient British " Camps," 
near. Old Bewick and Doddington, by Mr. Langlands and the Rev. 
Win. Greenwell, F.R.S., careful observers have since then met with very 
many examples elsewhere in this island, from Caithness to Cornwall. 
On the south-west coast of Ireland also they have been noticed by the 
Earl of Dunraven and the Bishop of Limerick, as if implying a Celtic 

1 Ancient British Sculptured Rocks of Northumberland and the Eastern 
Borders, 1865. Trans. erm. Nat. Club, Vol. V., p. 137. 

2 Archaic Sculpturing! of Cups, Circles, etc., upon Stones and Roclts in 
Scotland, England, and other Countries, 1867. 

3 Incised Markings on Stones in Northumberland, Argyleshire, etc., 1869. 
(By direction of the late Algernon, Duke of Northumberland. For private 


origin. Besides countries nearer home, Scandinavia, France, Germany, 
and Switzerland, these rock-sculpturings have now been discovered in 
Egypt and India, and the latest instance that has come to my 
knowledge is recorded by Professor K. K. Douglas in a letter to the 
Academy (June 26fch, 1886, pp. 452, 453), entitled, " Cup-Markings 
in North-Eastern China." On the Kushan Hills in the Province of 
Shantung, the Rev. A. G. Jones had noticed, among relics of pre- 
Chinese civilisation, several granite blocks with hemispherical cavities 
(locally, " fairy holes ") worked in them, the spot being wild and awe- 
inspiring, "just the place to favour the rudest form of worship." 4 

In the "Introduction" to that noble volume of illustrations of 
Incised Markings on Stones (p. 8), Dr. Bruce has observed, " The 
absence of these sculptures from certain localities of this country, and 
their presence in others is a somewhat significant fact. The part of 
North Northumberland where they chiefly occur is a triangular tract 
lying to the east of Cheviot Hills, and traversed by the rivers Greta 
and Till. They have been noticed at Cartington Cove, near Roth- 
bury, and some remarkable examples have been discovered by Mr. 
Green well at Lordenshaws, in the same locality." " It is remarkable," 
he adds, "that we do not find them in the mountainous districts 
watered by the Rede and the North Tyne." 

The present paper may, in some measure, aid in filling up this 
hiatus as to the district near the junction of the Rede with the North 
Tyne, where, previously, four " cup-incised " stones have been found 
by the writer, as " survivals " of an earlier period, in " camps " or 
Romano-British dwellings. The Swinburn Castle " standing stone " 
has also one or two cups upon it. 

In January last, at our anniversary meeting, I had the honour of 
bringing before our Society the results of recent explorations, made 
through the liberal aid of our noble Patron, the Duke of Northumber- 
land, in Pre-historic or Ancient British Barrows or Burial-Mounds 
near Low Shield Green and at Pitland Hills, near Birtley ; the site 
chosen for the interment and cremation of the primeval chieftains (see 
British Barrows, p. 112) being the summit of the freestone crags and 

4 See, for examples in the Western Hemisphere, " Observations on Cup- 
shaped and other Lapidarian Sculptures in the Old World and in America," in 
Contributions to North American Ethnoloyy, Vol. V., pp. 7-112. 



the adjoining plateau of limestone rock. It was then mentioned that 
time would not permit, in that paper, of any description with adequate 
details of several cup-incised stones which were discovered in the 
course of exploring the largest grave-hill of this group. I purpose 
now to remedy in some degree this omission, as every fresh example 
of such primitive stone or rock-sculpturings is of interest and import- 
ance, and should be carefully delineated and described ; so that, by 
comparison with others already known, more definite conclusions may, 
if possible, be drawn respecting these strange relics of, probably, our 
most remote Pre-Koman ancestors, which confessedly still form " one 
of the aenigmas of archaeology." (Scotland in Pagan Times, by Dr. 
Anderson, p. 299.) 


From this single barrow, which (No. 1 of the Pitland Hills group, 
in the previous paper) was 46 feet in diameter from east to west, 
and 35 feet from north to south, its present lessened height being 
about 6 feet, altogether seventeen of these cup-marked stones were 
taken. Though the site was upon the limestone rock, in every instance 
a rough block of sandstone, hard-grained, or soft and like shale, and 
of very varying size and shape, has been used ; whereon no trace 
of human handiwork is visible, except in one example and in the 
formation of the hollow sculpturings, in which the tool-marks are 
generally distinctly evident. The stones have been found, by the 
early inhabitants, among the talus of the freestone cliff about a quarter 
of a mile distant, or detached from the rock-face of the crags which 
run here, forming an uneven plateau below and to the north of the 
limestone escarpment, from above the farm-house of Low Shield Green 
to the Mill Knock quarry, its western limit. Religious worship, fune- 
real rites and symbolism, seem from the earliest times, both among 
the Aryan and Semitic races, to have been dissociated from artificial 
means in forming their material accessories. No implement was per- 
mitted by the Hebrew law to desecrate the hallowed stones built up as 
an altar to Jehovah. " There (in Mount Ebal) shalt thou build an 
altar unto the Lord thy God, an altar of stones ; thou shalt not lift up 
any iron tool upon them. Thou shalt build the altar of the Lord thy 
God of whole stones." (Deut, xxvii. 5, 6). And a reason is given in 


Exodus xx. 25 : " If thou wilt build me an altar of stone, thou shalt 
not build it of hewn stone (Heir. ' build them with hewing ') ; for if 
thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it." 

There can be no doubt that sacrifices were offered in connection 
with these Ancient British interments of their honoured dead. The 
burial-mounds were, in a certain sense, the pre-historic altars. The 
stones, of which they were formed, were evidently considered sacred, 
and were therefore left as Nature itself had framed them as to their 
outward presentment. Whether we see them in standing monolith or 
" Druid-stone," or in primeval cairn, the rule is that no tool-mark is 
discerned as used in bringing them into shape. There is no " dress- 
ing " of the often rude, uncouth, irregular forms ; and in this large 
Pitland Hills barrow this patriarchal law of construction has been 
fully exemplified, every stone there (with a single exception) being as 
Nature left it. The shapes of the various stones bearing the incised 
cups, of unmistakeable human handiwork, are exceedingly irregular 
no two of them at all resembling each other. They are nearly square, 
oblong, triangular, or without symmetry of any kind ; in size from 20 
inches in length to 10 inches or less, with proportionate width and 
thickness. 5 


It will be best to describe these their nature, form, and peculiari- 
ties in relation to each of the stones on which they appear. A 
glance at the excellent photograph, taken by our colleague, Mr. J. P. 

'* The only parallel instance of so large a number of cup-incised stones in a 
barrow is that examined by the Eev. Wm. Greenwell on Wass Moor, in the parish 
of Kilburn, in the North Riding of Yorkshire. He says (British Harrows, pp. 342, 
343). " A remarkable feature in this barrow was the very large number of stones 
(more than twenty), of various sizes, from 5 inches to 20 inches square, and of 
different and irregular shapes, on which pit or cup-markings had been formed. 
These hollows were both circular and oval, and differed in size from 1 inch in 
diameter to 3 inches, and their depth was about 2 inches. The oval pits, as a 
rule, were not very regular in outline. Some of the stones had only one pit- 
marking upon them, others had as many as six ; on some they were quite 
separate from each other, on others they were connected by a shallow but wide 
groove. They were all formed in a soft and -very light oolitic sandstone, and the 
pits were in most cases as fresh as if only made yesterday, showing most 
distinctly the marks of the tool, which appeared to have been a sharp-pointed 
instrument, and very probably of ' flint. It is not easy to attribute any special 
purpose to these stones or their markings. The condition of the pits, showing 
no signs of wear (for had anything been ground or rubbed in them the marks 
of the tooling upon so soft a stone would have been speedily effaced), seems to 
preclude the idea that they were intended for any domestic or manufacturing 
purpose. On the whole I prefer to regard them as symbolic representations." 


Gibson of Hexham, will give the general idea, conveniently placed as 
they are in front of and upon an old oaken rustic garden seat, with its 
back-ground of the ivy-covered rockery. We may take the lower row 
of stones first in their order, omitting for the present the two small 
rounded objects on the ground near the centre. 

No. 1 is a thin, oblong-shaped stone, split off the original larger 
block, which I rescued from a stone-wall builder who had carted it 
away to effect repairs at the sheep-fold of the adjoining cottage at Pit- 
land Hills. It had been already broken up, but fortunately the cup- 
marked portion was recovered ; and the rest of the block, originally 
12 inches by 8, and 7 inches deep, had nothing upon it. This stone 
is 1 foot in length by 8 to 5 inches in width, rounding off, as it now 
appears. The incised cup is in diameter 2 inches by If, and ^ inch 
deep, the marks of the primitive pick or drill distinct. A channel, 
lengthwise in the stone, seems natural. 

No. 2 is the largest stone of the series ; an irregular block, 20| 
inches long by 141 broad, and 9 to 6| in thickness. The two largest 
cups are cutting into each other very slightly ; the upper being oval 
and angular at the top, 3^ by 2| inches in its diameters, and 1 inch 
deep. At the bottom and at the lower side it is partly worn smooth. 
The rest of the cup bears pick-marks. The smaller of the twin cups, 
just below it, is circular, 2 inches in diameter, and 1 inch in depth. 
Near the top a few faint pick-marks have been left ; but it has the 
unique peculiarity, so far as our chief authority, the Rev. William 
Greenwell, F.R.S., is aware, of being carefully smoothened throughout 
its inner surface for some purpose unknown. No other instance of an 
incised cup similarly treated has as yet come to light among those from 
burial-barrows, whether single, like these, or with concentric circles. 
We can only conjecture the cause of it. I thought some pigment 
might have been ground in the hollow, but no trace of earthy matter 
or colour was discernible. Could the cup have been used for grinding 
beads or rings of shale or jet ? A long stroke, as of some sharpened 
instrument, has made a straight line, an inch in length, just below the 
junction with the upper cup. Three smaller cups appear in a line a 
little lower upon the stone at the right hand ; the largest is only If 
inches in diameter and 5 inch deep, while the two smaller ones above 
it have just been begun to be formed, and the dints of the instrument 

AELIANA, Vol.XH.Toface p.272. 

Plate XVI I. 

At Pitland Hills, near Birtley, North Tyndale. 


In the Collection of the REV. G. ROME HALL, F.S.A., Birtley Vicarage. North Tyndale. 


are very plain. The same may be said of a sixth cup, a little below 
the smoothened one, where eight pick-marks, strongly denned, made 
by a sharp implement, form an incipient hollow. The back of the 
stone is unshapely; but where it is level, one cup, 2^ inches across and 
f deep, near the edge, is very distinct. 

No. 3 is an oblong boulder, 13 inches long by 12 wide and 7 in thick- 
ness. A fragment has been split off square at the top corner. One cup 
appears nearly circular, 2f by 2^ inches in diameter, and f inch deep, the 
pick-marks very distinct ; the rest of the surface has been untouched. 

No. 4 is the largest stone of the series, except No. 2, measuring 18 
by 14 inches, and 7 inches in thickness. We come now to a different 
type of cup-sculpturing, of greater dimensions and of oval shape, or 
nearly so, the marks of the tool being strongly shown. 6 This incised 
hollow is 7 inches in length by 5 in width, and 3 inches in depth. No 
other cup appears on the upper surface ; but there are two small cups 
on the under surface, circular, 3 and 2^ inches in diameter, and 1 inch 
and | of an inch deep respectively. 

No. 5 possesses characteristics different from the preceding. It is 
of a truncated pyramidal form, of three faces, like that discovered at 
the Low Shield Green Crag cairn, and is 16 inches high 4 at the top, 
which is nearly square, and 11 at the base of each side. Near the 
bottom one small cup appears, | inch across, just begun ; but above 
this, crossing the surface horizontally, and parallel with the base line, 
are three channels or ducts, such as often appear in connection with 
a cup with concentric circles ; these are distinct, and a fourth, between 
the two topmost ones, is fainter all being about 4 inches in length. 
They seem worn rather than picked out perhaps as grooves for 
sharpening implements or weapons. There is a natural ( ?) channel 
running perpendicularly on the right, but towards the bottom it looks 
as if it had been artificially widened and picked or drilled out. 7 

6 Cf. Pre-histtoric Stone Monuments, Cornwall, by the Kev. W. C. Lukis, 
F.S.A., p. 10, Plate XXIIL, " The Three Brothers of Grugrith." 

7 Mr. Greenwell (British Barrows, p. 342,) mentions that in the same bar- 
row, already referred to as containing so many cup-incised stones, where the 
inhumated body had wholly disappeared through decay, " a stone was found in 
the east side of the mound having two grooves upon one face, which quarter it 
and form a cross ; the grooves appear to have been made by grinding the edge 
of some sharp instrument, and it is possible they may have been for sharpening 
the edge of a flint or other stone axe." Compare also the cup-incised stone. 
No. 6, with its peculiar channellings, as described in this paper. 


No. 6 is a rude block of sandstone shale, the fractured sides show- 
ing how easily the laminations would flake off by the application of 
slight force. It measures 14 inches by 12, and is G inches thick. 
Two well-formed cups are distinctly formed by pick or drill, the marks 
being larger than usual, as the material is of softer grain. The larger 
cup is nearly circular, 2f by 2f inches in diameter and f inch deep. At 
the bottom and side the stone has flaked off by the action of the pick. 
The other cup is 2 inches across, by only f inch in depth. Hence, 
nearly straight downwards to the edge runs an irregular line of small 
round dints, which do not seem natural. 

Here again two channels or ducts occur, that begin close to the 
two cups : the one above commencing near the larger cup with two 
small pick-marks, and continuing across to the edge, on the left hand, 
for 5 inches, being 1 inch wide by | inch deep ; the second channel is 
just below the smaller cup, and runs parallel with the other for 3 
inches, is only ^ inch wide, and ^ inch deep. The pick-marks are 
plain in each. If the stone had been so placed in process of photo- 
graphing as to show these grooves running perpendicularly instead of 
horizontally, they would have been seen to much better advantage. A 
less distinct channel is visible passing along the edge of the block and 
joining the other two nearly at right angles, and thence down to the 
bottom. This may be chiefly natural. The whole effect is to repre- 
sent a kind of plan of enclosures on the surface in front of the two 
incised cups. 

No. 7 is an oval-shaped block, coming to a point at the top, flat at 
the back, and with rounded surface forming a ridge in front, on the 
edge of which is placed an oval cup 3 by 2^- inches across, and \ inch 
deep, shallowing to the top. No other cup appears on the stone. 

Turning now to the upper row of incised stones, beginning, as 
before, at the left hand, we come to 

No. 8, an oblong block, 15 by 9 inches and 6g in thickness. One 
cup is visible upon it, 2 inches in diameter and f inch deep, the interior 
being ivorn comparatively smooth, the pick-marks being scarcely seen. 
A smaller cup has been just begun, and shows large dints of the 
instrument ; it is l inches across. 

No. 9 is an irregular boulder, sharp at the edge and partly rounded. 
An oval cup, 3 by 2 inches and 1 inch deep, has been formed at the 


pointed end. Another cup appears on one of the rounded sides, 2 inches 
by If in diameter, chipped to an angle in one part of the circumfer- 
ence. Over this surface are four more small cups just begun, with 
other still smaller indentations which appear all over the stone. To- 
wards the top are three of 1^ inches and 1 inch in diameter, shallow, 
which make an arc of a circle, the pick-marks being very noticeable. 

No. 10 takes the form of a nearly square massive block, rounded 
at the top and right-hand side, being 14 by 12 inches, and 7 inches 
in thickness. The great cup is like that upon No. 4 ; in size being 
purposely, it would seem, shaped like a gibbous moon, 7 inches long 
by 5^ broad, and 2| inches in depth, with the pick-markings very 
large. At the back, near the centre, is a single cup, circular and well- 
formed, 2^ inches in diameter and f of an inch deep. 

No. 11 is a small oblong stone narrowing at the end, its size being 
11 inches long by 5 to 1\ inches wide, and 5 inches in thickness. A 
third example of the very largest incised cups has been formed in this 
comparatively limited space. The oval cup is itself f>f inches long by 
4 in width and 2 inches deep, the pick or drill marks being very large. 
At the back of the stone is a small cup, If inches across and ^ inch 
deep, with four smaller cup beginnings. 

No. 12 contrasts with all the others, and is the singular exception 
that has come to my knowledge in connection with pre-historic burial- 
mounds, inasmuch as the stone now to be described is wholly of arti- 
ficial formation ; indeed, it is neither more nor less than a POKTION OF 


believe, has hitherto been noticed among the contents of an Ancient 
British barrow. 8 The material is a hard-grained sandstone, and the 
original rounded outline has been slightly altered by chipping away 
portions. The central hollow for corn is there, narrowing in the 
middle as usual, and widening at the top and bottom, the latter re- 
taining its flat surface. Here, in the centre, is a small cup, 1| inches 
across and f deep, the length of the stone segment being 1 foot, and 
its greatest breadth and thickness equal that is, 7 inches. By care- 
ful chipping a curious resemblance to rounded human limbs has been 

8 The writer above quoted (IHd. p. 115,) remarks, "I am hot aware that a 
quern, or hand mill-stone, has ever been discovered in a barrow upon the Wolds, 
though they have frequently been met with in the hut-circles (the foundations 
of houses) and in the camps or other fortified places of many parts of Britain." 


effected, though in the photograph one limb facing the spectator 
appears larger in proportion to the other, which, thus foreshortened, 
rests against the oaken uprights of the garden seat. The latter is a 
little smaller. Upon the surfaces, which have been cut off sharp across 
and present a nearly circular aspect, being 6 and 5 inches in diameter 
respectively, have been graven two cups, one upon each limb ; the size 
of one being 3 inches in diameter and 1 inch deep, the other 2 inches 
across and | in depth. 

No. 13 just below No. 12 as photographed will be observed as 
different from all the rest on account of the large number of minute 
cups incised upon the stone, which is roughly triangular in shape, 10 
inches across, 9^ high, and 6| in thickness. There are fourteen 
shallow cups, all about 1 inch in diameter, with finer pick or drill 
marks, very distinct in their formation. 9 On the left-hand sloping edge 
another of the same size appears, with two or three dints or tool impres- 
sions. Near the apex is faintly discernible what seems to be an arc of 
a circle partly surrounding the uppermost cup, with a radius from its 
centre of an inch and a half. This is the only example in the present 
"find" of an approximation to a concentric circle around the incised cup. 

No. 14 placed upon Xo. 9 in the upper row in the photograph 
is a thin slab, nearly square, with fractured angle 7 inches by 6, and 
4 in thickness. On the front face is a single circular cup, 2 inches 
across and 1 inch deep. The reverse side has a second cup, 2^ inches 
in diameter and 1 inch also in depth. 

No. 15 beneath which is No. 11 is an irregularly-rounded block 
pointed at one end, 11 inches long, 6 wide, and 4^ in thickness. 
Where the surface widens and is fairly level, the only cup incised upon 
this stone appears ; it is 2^ inches by 2 diameters of the oval, and f 
inch deep. 

Returning to the two small nearly hemispherical stones on the 
ground below Nos. 3 and 4, we recognise again a different type of 
primitive workmanship. 

9 At the entrance of the large earth-house at Tealing, Forfarshire, discovered 
in 1871, in which were found ten querns, a piece of Samian mare, &c., a stone 
with no fewer than forty -six cup-markings lay on the margin of a circular paved 
space. On one of the rude boulders, which form the walls, a number of cup- 
markings also appeared, one of which is surrounded by five concentric circles. 
See Scotland in Pagan Times The Iron Age, " The Rhind Lectures" for 1881. 
By Dr. Joseph Anderson, p. 299. 


No. 16, that to the left, is actually in itself a kind of STONE CUP 
4| inches deep, the nearly circular surface at the top being 5| inches 
across, broken into by a deep hollow 3 inches by 2^ inches in diameter, 
and l in depth. 10 The sides have been carefully chipped off not 
picked, of which there is no trace within the cup. It has been rendered 
easier to effect, because eight lines of natural cleavage in the stone, 
radiating from the original centre, have been followed. These are still 
noticeable around the present margin. On the sloping side a single 
cup has been just begun, 1^ inches in diameter. 

No. 17, to the right, may also have been intended for a stone cup, 
but the material, being of gritty sandstone without any natural lines 
of fracture, did not so readily lend itself to that purpose ; it is larger 
than the last described, 5 inches deep, and the nearly oval surface 
being 6| by 5 inches in diameter. In the hollow centre a rudely- 
shaped cup has been made, If inches in diameter and f deep ; but it 
seems to have been left unfinished. This stone has been exposed to 
the strong fires of cremation, and is thoroughly reddened over its 
whole surface, as two or three of the other blocks are in part. 11 


The foregoing details, though, I fear, a little wearying, appeared 
desirable, in order that our members may be better able to judge for 
themselves respecting the characteristic features of these cup-incised 
stones. As a kindly interest was manifested in the particulars when 
first noted, our members may now form their own conclusions as to 
the purpose which would be answered by them. 

1. They belong to the first type of the late Sir J. Y. Simpson's 
" Archaic Sculpt urings," being " cups of various sizes in rows, or irre- 
gularly grouped." There is only a faint trace of the existence of the 

10 There is no trace of ochre or pigment in the cup. At Skaill, in Orkney 
(Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., Vol. VII., p. 74), stone urns or cups were discovered in 
an underground, or rather sand-blown, Pict's House or Weem. " In one case a 
stone cup" was found with a circular lid, each showing traces of a red pigment. 
In another case the cup and lid were triangular." Mr. Evans (Ancient Stone 
Implements, pp. 397, 398) records several examples of stone cups found in 
Scotland chiefly, but of an ornamental character, and they " probably belong to 
no very remote antiquity." 

11 By the kindness of the Duke of Northumberland, Nos. 11/12, 13, 14. and 
16, being among the most characteristic and interesting of these cup-incised 
stones, have been presented to the Museum of our Society. 



second or later type in the Pitland Hills stone No. 13 namely, those 
where the cup is, he says, "surrounded with a single ring or circle, 
the ring complete or incomplete." The example No. 6 approaches 
his fourth type, having " a straight line or duct " connected with 
the cups. This also is the only instance among them which could 
be considered in the light of an " Archaic map or plan," which found 
favour at first among many excellent archaeologists, such as the 
Rev. Wm. Greenwell, Mr. Albert "Way, Dr. Graves, and Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson. The latter thought the more complicated forms of con- 
centric circles, single cups, and intersecting or radial grooves, might 
be compared to the plans traced in time of danger by the Arabs 
in the sand, to guide the movements of a force coming in their 
direction. The only specimen of this kind in North Tynedale may 
be seen in the portico at Chesters, where a large slab of sandstone 
is incised with cups, singly and in groups, and has intersecting 
irregular grooves or channels. I am not aware whence it has come, 
but it is evidently of Ancient British origin. 12 

2. "We cannot be wrong in attributing to these cup-marked stones 
a religious meaning and symbolism ; of what precise nature, it is diffi- 
cult to say, however. They suggest "the notion," Mr. Greenwell 
remarks (British Barrows, p. 343 ; see also Incised Markings on 
Stones, p. 10). " that they are or may have been figures, after a very 
rude and conventional manner, of some object embodying an idea 
that involved the deepest and most esoteric principle of the religion 
held by these people. The tau symbol of Egypt, the pine-cone of 
Assyria, the triangular-shaped stone of India, the cross of Christianity, 
outward expressions of that which has been in almost every religion 
its most sacred belief, may well have been, however different in form, 
yet the same in essence with these mysterious pits and circles." 
Being connected with funereal rites gives them a religious character, 
and probably symbolises the hope of a life beyond this life. They 
may be associated with the sun and moon worship, which is the 

12 This stone is 3 feet in length by 2 feet 6 inches in breadth, of irregular 
form. It has five incised cups on each side of a wide, slightly curved channel, 
which crosses the stone at nearly its widest part. Two other grooves intersect 
this longest channel, one forming a segment of a circle. At the opposite end of 
the slab are two nearly parallel grooves passing towards the largest hollow. 
The ten cups vary from 1J inches to 3 inches in diameter, and are from half an 
inch to an inch in depth. 

ARCH. AEL., VOL. XII., to face p. 278. 

Plate XVIII. 


Discovered a little to east of N. Gateivay, CILVRNVM. 

(This plate presented by J. CLAYTON, Esq., V.P.) 


oldest of religious " cults." When the diggers at the Pitland Hills 
burial-mound disinterred these stones, the oval, gibbous moon-shaped, 
and circular hollows were filled with clay, so that the cups had quite 
escaped their notice. When I removed the clay, it possessed unusual 
tenacity, and an unctuous feeling and nature. From the Pyrenees to 
Scandinavia the traditions of the people connect these cups and the 
larger bowls or basins called " marmites du diable," and in Germany 
" stones of the dead," with the holding of offerings to the souls of the 
departed, " who were waiting again to be clothed with a human body, 
to appear among mortals. The prosperity of the living would depend 
on their good will." I have almost come to the conclusion that in this 
Pitland Hills barrow, at least, these cup-incised stones have held the 
place of the floral wreaths and crosses which Christian mourners place 
upon the " last home " of their beloved dead. Even at the present 
day, M. Desor and others have found that in many places throughout 
Europe these hollowed stones are filled with butter or lard a super- 
stitious relic of a very far-distant age. 

3. These Archaic sculpturings, I consider, were probably the work 
of the Gadhelic or elder Celtic race not Neolithic, but very early 
Bronze-using men. 13 The same people gave the name to the neigh- 
bouring "Mill (or Mael) Knock" camp; and perhaps worshipped 
around the "Devil's Stone," by the Birtley Holy Well, on which 
great isolated rock appear several " cups," three of them being in a 
straight line, which can scarcely all have been formed by natural 
sub-aerial forces as geological " pot-holes." 14 

13 There is only one indication of a later date, if it be such, for this barrow 
and its cup-incised stones, namely, that a portion of a hand-mill or quern, No. 
12, is present. This has been thought to resemble some hand-mills found with 
Koman remains. I have found them broken up and used in building the walls 
of Romano-British dwellings. In the chief hut-circle in the Gunnar Peak camp, 
a rude mortar of stone was lying on the sunny side of the doorway with the 
stone pounder beside it. These seem to have been in later use than the querns 
in the camps of North Tynedale. Mealing-stones and corn-crushers with their 
bed-stones slightly concave have been discovered in the Swiss lake-dwellings. 
Querns and mortars were used at a very early date, and down to very recent 
times in the North of England. (See Note at the end of this paper.) 

14 A very curious legend associates the worn cups and hollows upon the 
weathered and channelled summit of this great detached rock with the foot- 
prints of a Satanic personage, who is said to have leapt towards the farther bank 
of the North Tyne river, about a mile distant, above Lee Hall. Miscalculating 
the distance, it is averred that in his descent he touched the projecting rocks in 
the river-bed, which bear much larger hollows upon them in the form of indu- 
bitable water-worn " pot-holes," about 2 feet in depth by 1 foot in diameter, 
and then fell into the deepest abyss, according to popular belief, in the whole 
course of the North Tyne, where he was drowned ! Hence the name by which 
it is still called" The Leap-Crag Pool." 


" The tomb was, to the Neolithic mind, as truly the habitation of 
the spirits of the dead as the hut was that of the living. It was the 
home of the dead chieftain, and the centre into which the members of 
the family or clan were gradually gathered, and where they led a 
joyous and happy life, similar to that which they enjoyed on earth." 
(Boyd Dawkin's Early Man in Britain, p. 289.) 

A similar belief prevailed in later pagan times in Britain and else- 
where, and among succeeding races. In this particular burial-mound 
cremation as well as inhumation occurs, the former practice being 
supposed to be unknown to the Iberian Neolithic, the later Stone- 
using Allophyllian or Turanian people, who, it is believed, buried their 
dead not in "round" but in "long" barrows, of which latter we have 
no example in Northumberland. Of the two stone-lined graves in 
this Pitland Hills cairn, one contained a human skeleton, almost 
perfectly preserved, the adult man having been laid to rest in the 
usual contracted position, with a " food- vessel " at the head. The 
cranium was of a markedly brachy-cephalic or round-headed type, 
distinct from the dolicho- cephalic or long-headed, whom the former 
conquered, because they were a metal, that is, a bronze-using race. 
This intruding race is now identified with the earliest Aryan immi- 
grants into "Western Europe and the British Isles, the " Goidels" as 
they are sometimes called, whom the later Welsh, iron-using invaders 
conquered in their turn and drove into the Highlands of Scotland, 
the Isle of Man, and Ireland. 

Two of the cup-sculptured stones I myself found in situ, project- 
ing over, in one case, the cover-slab of the larger cist at the south 
side, and, in the other case, over the smaller and more elevated cist at 
the south-east angle, which was filled with unctuous and very tena- 
cious clay, the body having entirely disappeared. Between the two 
inhumations, where most of the cup-incised stones were found, the 
fires of cremation and of the funereal feast had raged with great fierce- 
ness. These cup-marked slabs are especially associated with burnt 
bodies of which two examples were present in this barrow ; the cre- 
mated ashes of a child being contained in a beautifully-ornamented 
cinerary urn, unfortunately crushed, and those of an adult in a circular 
cavity scooped out of the solid limestone rock. There was thus, as on 
the Yorkshire Wolds and elsewhere, a contemporary use of both burial 


customs. No trace of metal, indeed, appears ; but in that probably 
transitional period after the conquest of the Neolithic people by the 
less numerous invaders, bronze weapons and implements would be too 
precious to the living in their comparative poverty to be willingly 
buried with their dead, however greatly lamented and honoured. 

It is not necessary to believe that these incised stones have been 
graven by tools of metal. A sharp-pointed implement of flint, or even 
angular fragments of native limestone such as were found with the 
inhumated chief, would answer the purpose, as a practical master- 
mason at Birtley assures me. Dr. Wise, in his History of Paganism 
in Caledonia (p. 59), mentions a suggestion of Mr. Stephens, in his 
Incidents of Travel in Central India, that the elaborately sculptured 
stones at Copan and elsewhere may have been prepared with pieces of 
flint or obsidian, or by the rotation of a piece of hard wood ; and he 
found that circles and cups, such as are also found on stones in that 
region, could be thus prepared without difficulty on whin-stone, on the 
Argyleshire schist, and even on hard Aberdeen granite. 15 

From the freshness of the sculpturings in this Pitland Hills bar- 
row these singular and mysterious memorial stones seem to have been 
graven at the time as part of the solemn obsequies of the more hon- 
oured dead. Hence a traditional sanctity may have attached to them 
through succeeding ages, because we find them placed occasionally as 
" survivals " of a past religious observance in the walls or upon the 
floors of dwellings in Romano-British times. They occur in the earth- 
house or " weern " at Tealing, in Forfarshire (Scotland in Pagan 
Times The Iron Age, by Dr. Joseph Anderson, pp. 299, 300) ; in the 
crannog or lake-dwelling of Lochlee, Tarbolton, Ayrshire (Ancient 
Scottish Lake-Dwellings, by Dr. Munro, p. 108) ; and elsewhere in 
Scotland. In North Tynedale I have met with one cup-marked stone 
in a hut-circle at High Carry House (Archaeologia, Vol. XLV., 
p. 3G3), and another in the West Farm " Camp," near Birtley. Also 
a third, like the preceding, with a single cup incised, in the large 
oblong dwelling in the Gunnar Peak Camp, near Barrasford (Arch. 

15 Sir J. Y. Simpson (Archaic Sculpturings, p. 122) describes a similar suc- 
cessful experiment made for him with a flint and a wooden mallet. The question 
was also practically solved during the International Anthropological Congress 
held at Paris in 1867, by M. Alexandra Bertrand, Director of the Museum of 
Saint Germain. 


Aeliana, New Series, Vol. X., p. 28), where a second and larger much- 
weathered slab was found, with five cups on one face and three on the 
other. Besides the large slab in the portico at Chesters, with at least 
ten cups and several intersecting channels, there is another in one of 
the recently-excavated Eoman buildings (from which the windowed 
apse projects), near the margin of the North Tyne, in the Chesters 
Park. It is placed in the interior wall, in what appears to be a 
built-up doorway, and has upon it five incised cups, small, and 
irregularly grouped. 

The modern Hindoo, I have somewhere read, uses these cups 
graven in stones and rocks as aids to religious meditation, and, failing 
their presence, he will gaze long and intently into the cup-like hollow 
of his own hand, in order to assist devotional feeling. The examples 
of the " survival " of such pit or cup-marked slabs among the Eoman- 
ized Britons on or near the Great Barrier Wall of Hadrian, even at 
CILURNUM, as well as in the out-lying hill and vale forts, bring us down 
to, at least, the second century of the Christian era. At that time 
the religion of Mithras, with whose worship these cup-symbols have 
been supposed to be associated, was the favourite religion over the 
whole Western Empire. But ere long, under Constantine the Great, 
if not before, the Persian Sun-god " paled his ineffectual fires " in 
presence, even in far-off Britain, of a luminary infinitely more glorious 
the Divine and Eternal " Sun of Eighteousness," Christ, who had 
arisen " with healing in his wings " for " all nations of men " that 
" dwell on all the face of the earth." 


It may be of advantage very briefly to describe the cup-incised 
stones, hand-mills, and mortar represented in the companion photo- 
graph given with this paper (p. 274). We may begin with the object 
on the left hand (18) a mortar, 16 inches long by 15 inches broad, 
and 6 inches in thickness, with the central hollow 7 inches in diameter 
and 5 inches in depth, much smoothened by use. It was found in a 
camp at the east end of the Gunnarton or Barrasford Crags, on 
Mr. EiddelPs propeity. Next to it (19) is a cup-marked stone from 


the Birtley West Farm Camp, 12 inches by 11 inches, and 6 inches 
thick. The cup is 3 inches in diameter, and three-quarters of an inch 
deep. The upper left-hand slab (20) is of indurated sandstone, which 
I found between "Wellington and Cambo ; it was given to me by the 
late Sir W. C. Trevelyan. It is 9 inches each way and 3 inches in 
thickness, and nearly resembles one found supporting a cinerary urn 
in a neighbouring cairn at "The Fawns," 16 by Mr. Greenwell and 
myself, only the latter had not the incomplete groove which, encircling 
the shallow cup, 2| inches in diameter, appears on this example. The 
third cup-incised stone (21) is from the large oblong dwelling in the 
Gunnar Peak Camp, and was found among the walling stones at the 
south-east angle. Its dimensions are 10^ inches by 7| inches, and 
3 inches in thickness. The cups seem much worn by weathering, are 
shallow, and vary from 1 inch to 2 inches in diameter five being on 
one side and three on the other. 

The remaining objects are : An octagonal hand-mill, upper and 
lower stone complete (22), which was used for grinding corn by a 
Cumberland farmer in this century, living on the " Fell-sides " near 
Penrith ; and it is one of the very few examples still in perfect con- 
dition. The others (23, 24, 25) are two upper stones and one nether 
mill-stone from the same district ; the remaining smaller upper stone 
(26) being from the Carry House Camp, near Birtley. 

16 British Barrows, p. 433. 


1. BY THE REV. J. C. BRUCE, D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A., &c. 

[Read on the 28th April, 1886.] 

I xow proceed to give an account of the Roman altars of which men- 
tion is made in the programme of this meeting. None of them are 
important ; but our Society may congratulate itself that at nearly 
every meeting we have a new Roman inscription to discuss, and that 
since our last meeting no less than four have to be added to the 
catalogue of our acquisitions. 

The most important of these is an altar discovered in the vicinity 

of the Roman Station of Chester-le- 
Street, to which my attention was 
called by our fellow-member, Mr. 
Oswald, in whose possession it now 
is. It was found on a spot about 
50 or 60 yards to the west of the 
street which passes the Roman 
Station there, and about 300 yards 
to the north of it. At this point 
(and this is a thing of importance) 
a brook the Chester Burn 
runs in its course to join the river 

The altar was found, with its 
face uppermost, buried about 6 feet 
deep in a mass of soil, chiefly of an 
alluvial character. 

The altar is a well formed one. 

and is perfect in all its parts. The letters of the inscription are 
formed by a series of pnncturings, a mode of sculpturing which is 
not unfrequently adopted. Dr. Hiibner. to whom I sent a paper 



impression of the inscription, thinks that it belongs to a period near 
the end of the second or the beginning of the third century. The 
reading seems to be 

" To the god Mars Condates, Valerius 
Probinus, for himself and his family, 
erects this altar, in discharge of a vow, 
willingly, to a most deserving object." 

The P, at the beginning of the third line, is scarcely visible ; but 
there is room for it, and Professor Hiibner says that PROBIXVS is not an 
uncommon name. "We may therefore adopt it. It is a pity that the 
dedicator does not tell us what rank he held in the "Roman army ; 
perhaps, however, he had none, in which case we can excuse him. 
The epithet COXDATES here given to Mars, calls for remark. There 
is an altar found at Piercebridge (recorded in the Lapidarium, No. 
725, and in the C. I. L., VII., 420) which has a similar dedication. 
Dr. Hiibner informs me that Celtic scholars consider that the word 
condates is equivalent to the Latin confluens, and that Mars Condates 
was a god who was worshipped at the confluence of two streams. The 
locality in which this altar was found seems to be confirmatory of 
this theory ; and I may mention that, on examining the Ordnance 
map of Yorkshire, I find that in the immediate vicinity of Pierce 
Bridge, where the altar was found, two streams, the Dyance Beck and 
the Sumrnerhouse Beck, after uniting together, ran into the Tees. 

The next two altars to which I have to call 
your attention have been derived from the 
mural Station of MAGXA, Caervoran. They 
are not of recent discovery, but having been 
built into the walls of the dwelling house 
there, have been inaccessible to antiquaries. 
Both of them are small, and do not supply us 
with anything new. 

On the face of one of them we have carved 
a female figure, sacrificing ; an altar stands by 
her side. The lower part of the stone has 
been broken off, leaving the inscription im- 
perfect. On the first line we have clearly carved the word MATRIBVS 
" To the Mothers.'' TVc have ouly the upper half of the last lour letters 




of the second line, which makes the reading of it uncertain ; yet it is 
possible that the name of the dedicator may have been [IVVE]NTIVS, or 
something like it. Dedications to the "good mothers," the weird 
triplets to whom it was unlucky to give a name, are not uncommon 
on the line of the "Wall. 

The other altar from Caervoran is a smaller one, and 
such of the letters as are still decipherable are very feebly 
traced. The inscription, as far as it can be made out, is 



"To the ancient gods dedicates this altar, in 

discharge of a vow, willingly, to a most deserving object." 

The name of the dedicator is, I fear, lost to us for ever. We have 
several dedications to the " ancient gods" similar to this, and also some 
altars inscribed DEO VITIRI. This latter dedication may be intended 
in honour of some local deity of the name of VITIRIS, but where a 
plurality of deities is named we cannot but regard the inscription as a 
dedication to " the ancient deities." We have here negative evidence 
of ideas antagonistic to the faith of the Greek and Eoman mythology 
having been widely promulgated in Britain at an early period. In 
the Reformation period we have frequent reference to the advocates of 
" the new learning " and " the old learning ;" and so in still earlier 
times, when many people had found out that an idol was nothing, 
there were still some who stuck up for Jupiter and Juno, and Neptune 
and Minerva, and a host of other gods, whom in their ignorance they 
supposed to have swayed the universe before Him who is from ever- 
lasting to everlasting. 

The last altar to which I have this month to call your attention is 
one which was found at Corbridge, on removing the foundations of a 
cottage there. The inscription on it seems to be 

i(ovi) O(PTIMO) M(AXIMO) 



N]VM LEG(IONIS) [xxii] 

"To Jupiter, the best and 
greatest, for the welfare of 
Vexillations of the Twenty- 
second Legion surnamed 



For this reading I am largely indebted to Professor Hiibner, who 
writes : " This is an inscription of no small historical importance. 
"We know already from an inscription at FERENTINUM, in Italy 
(Henzen, 5456), that a ' vexillation,' that is to say a detached number 
of a thousand men, of the Twenty-Second Legion named Primigmia, 
took part in Hadrian's expedition carried out in order to build the 
Wall. He ordered it for this war from its quarters in Germany at 
MOGONTIACUM (Mentz), together with a similar number from its 
sister legion, the Eighth Augusta. An inscription from Amiens, in 
France (in the Revue Archeologique, Vol. XL., 1880, p. 325), and a 
fragment at Old Penrith (C. I. L., VII. 846) proved this to be right. 
To this evidence comes the new Corbridge altar as a decisive addition." 
A woodcut of this stone is given at page 78 of this volume. 

2. BY THE REV. J. C. BRUCE, D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A., &c. 

[Read on the 28th July, 1886.] 

SINCE our last ordinary meeting my attention has been called to two 
new Roman inscriptions. Our associate, Dr. Hooppell, writing to me 
under the date of 28th May last, says : " A short time ago I paid a 
brief visit to West Cumberland, and was so fortunate, among other 
things, as to fall in with a hitherto unpublished fragment of a Roman 
inscription. It is on the lower half of an altar which was taken out 
of the inside of the wall of the church at Harrington, a few miles north 
of Moresby, last year, and is now in the Rectory grounds at Harring- 
ton."* Only the last two lines of the inscription are legible ; they 

////// "The Prefect of the Second 

I I I I PRAEF Cohort of Lingones." 

COM ii LING The name of the Prefect is illegible. 

At Moresby, which is a little to the north of Whitehaven, there 
are the well-defined remains of a Roman Station. Camden describes 

* Now (March. 1887) deposited with the .upper right hand corner of a second 
altar iu the Black Grate Museum. 



an altar, now lost, which was found there, and which was erected by 
this same cohort, the Second Cohort of Lingones, to Silvanus. The 
Notitia places the Second Cohort of Lingones at CONGAVATA. The 
occurrence of a second altar here by this cohort increases the proba- 
bility that Moresby is the COXGAVATA of the Romans. At Ilkley, in 
Yorkshire, is an altar inscribed by this cohort. At Tynemouth an 
altar was found bearing the name of the Fourth Cohort of Lingones. 
(See Arch. Ael, Vol. X., p. 224.) 

The Lingones occupied that part of Gallia Celtica in which the 
rivers Seine, and Marne take their rise. Their chief town was the 
modern Laugres. 

It was the singular good fortune of the Pilgrim Band, who traversed 
the Wall from end to end a month ago, to view a fine altar which, 
after having been buried for probably fourteen centuries, had just 
been brought from its obscurity. 

A countryman named Roger Smith had 
noticed on the front of the bank on which 
the Station of AMBOGLANNA stands, an an- 
gular stone slightly protruding above the 
surface. It occurred to him that the stone 
had an artificial appearance, and he at length 
resolved to examine it fully. Using his spade 
and pickaxe, he brought to light a fine altar, 
4 feet 2 inches high and 1 foot 9| inches 
broad. The inscription on it is deeply cut, 
and the letters are well formed, indicating an 
early date. The inscription is 
i o M 


The inscription is easily read, with the exception of the three 
letters c c A in the middle of the third line ; they are evidently the 
initial letters of three words. Not having met with them before, I 
appealed to my friend, the learned and experienced epigraphist, Dr. 



Hiibiier of Berlin. In writing to me he says : " The C c A of the 
Birdoswald inscription is a great puzzle. I propose, but only as a 
guess, c(vivs) C(VRAM) A(GIT)." With this suggestion, and with the 
addition of miles before LEG. 11., the inscription may be thus ex- 
panded : 

" Jovi optima maxima Cohors I. Aelin Dacorum cvjus curam agit 
Julius Marcellinus miles Legionis II. Augtistae" 

" To Jupiter the best and greatest, the First Cohort of Dacians, 
styled the Aelian, (erect this altar) under the care of Julius Marcel- 
linus, a soldier of the Second Legion styled the Imperial." 

I need not remark that many other inscriptions found at Birdos- 
wald bear testimony to the fact that a body of Dacians was in garri- 
son here during the period of the Eoman occupation of Britain. 


[Read on the 28th July, 1886.] 

" Lowther Street, Carlisle, July 28th, 1886. 
My dear Blair, 

I enclose the Cliburn rubbing, which is only just received, 
so that I have had no time to look at it, but it seems to read 

BALXEVil / / / / 
/ / VETERO / / / 
BLIS<IERCLLA / / . / / 
ALB / / / / 

Yours truly, 




[Read on the 30th March, 1887.] 

THIS inscription appears to be very erroneously engraved in the wood- 
cut at page 289. From a good photograph* of it I make the letters, 
divested of ligatures, to be : 



In the second line the I is formed by a prolongation of the upright of 
the E, and of the last letter (which is reversed and may be either p or 
E) only the upper loop remains. In the fourth line the first I is formed 
by the prolongation of the upright of the letter L, the T is ligulate with 
the E, the letter after c may be either p or R, and the s at the com- 
mencement of the last line has its upper portion somewhat erased, 
whilst a portion of a stroke on its left hand side (whether accidental 
or part of a ligulate letter) makes it resemble the head of an A. 

We cannot with certainty restore the whole of the inscription, nor 
shall I try to do so. Enough remains to show that the stone was 
erected on the restoration of a bath by the two aJae, the A la Petriana, 
and the Ala Sebusiana. The letters at the beginning of the second line 
(purposely erased) can, I think, still faintly be traced as ANA somewhat 
ligulate, and have no doubt been the termination of some such word as 
ANTONINIANA. But it is singular to find such a word in this position. 
In the second line we have either VETERIOE (the comparative of VETVS) 
or VETEEI, followed by a word like OP(ERI). In the third line we have 
part of (CO)NDLABSVM, a mis-spelling of which other instances occur in 
epigraphy. In the fourth line, I take BILIS to be part of NOBILIS, the 
abbreviation for Nobilissima, applied to the Ala Petriana as a prefix, 
in the same manner as it is elsewhere styled Augusta. After PETE, 
come either c. R. for Civium Romanorum, another well known title of 

* From a copy of this very photograph the woodcut was prepared by Utting. and 
in both the letters of the last line seem to be ALBTSII. 



the Ala, or c. P. for Cui Praeest. If the latter, the two last letters 
will be the commencement of the name of the commander, possibly 
L(ucius) A(lfenius) Paternus, an officer whose name occurs in an 
inscription at the adjoining Station of Kirkby Thore, and in the last 
line we have part of the title of the Second Ala of the Gauls (Sebu- 
siana), which for a long time formed the garrison of Lancaster. The 
upper parts of one or two letters of a line beneath, are visible, but not 
so as to be intelligible. 

The Ala Petriana was a most remarkable corps. It was the only 
one stationed in Britain which was decorated with the torques (bearing 
the epithet twquata). From Orelli, No. 516, we learn that it was Us 
tarquata, a fact unique in the Eoman world, unless recent discoveries, 
of which I am unaware, have shown that some other corps was so 
honoured. As the inscription came from (in all probability) Kirkby 
Thore, it follows that the ala must have been stationed there. That 
the garrison of this castrum was cavalry has been abundantly proved 
both by tombstones bearing the representations of horsemen upon 
them and the inscriptions from the Machell MSS. where (in two in- 
stances) a Decurio alae is named. 

No fresh light seems to be thrown upon the question of the site of 
PETRIANAE by this discovery. My idea that it was at Hexham remains, 
so far, unaffected. The only other alternative seems to be that Dr. 
McCaul (Canadian Journal, Vol. xii. pp. 120-121) might possibly be 
correct when he assumes that the Ala Augusta (ob virtutem appellatd) 
of which so many inscriptions occur at Old Carlisle, was the same as the 
Ala Augusta Petriana, the title Petriana being dropped as unnecessary, 
through the corps having such distinguished prominence. In that 
case Old Carlisle would be PETRIANAE, and the allocation would harmo- 
nise with the sites of ABALLAVA, CONGAVATA, and AXELODUNUM, being 
respectively at Papcastle, Moresby, and Maryport, as I first pointed 
out in 1870. But at present we can say nothing on the particular 
question as to PETRIANAE. Its site must still remain in abeyance. 




[Read on the 29th September, 1886.] 

AT the commencement of last month (August), I had sent to me the 
photograph of a Roman altar, discovered on the 28th July, at Chester- 
le-Street. It bore the inscription 





For many years it was supposed that the dedi- 
cation Deo Vitiri, of which there are numerous 
examples, was to a god named Vitiris, and 
totally different from the dedications to the 
Deus Veins (Deo Veteri), which are also 
frequent. But later discoveries prove that 
Vitiri is only a variation of Veteri, for we 
have also Vetiri and Viteri, whilst in the plural 
we have Dibus Veteribus, Dibus Vitiribus, and 
Dibus Viteribus. There is one instance, also 
from Chester-le-Street, of Deabus Viteribus, 
but none to a single goddess. It is plain, therefore, that these dedi- 
cations are, respectively, " to the ancient god," " to the ancient' gods," 
and " to the ancient goddesses," which is more than ever confirmed 
by the application of the term to Mogon, in an inscription at Netherby, 
where we have Deo Mogonti Vitire, " To the ancient god Mogon." 

An interesting question now arises, at what period were these altars 
erected ? This one is the thirty-third recorded as found in Britain. 
Were they erected as a protest against Mithraism or Christianity ? 
One feature in them is singular. They were, with one or two excep- 
tions, erected by persons who had only one name, and that a barbarous 
one, as in the example before us. It would appear that whilst the 
genuine, or naturalised, Roman citizen, willingly gave way to the 
current phase of religious opinion, amongst the auxiliary troops and 
native Britons there were a large number who sturdily resisted all 


innovations. At the same time, these facts, i.e., the name of a bar- 
barian god and the barbarous names of the dedicators, may point to 
the hypothesis that the auxiliaries, etc., preferred their own native 
deities, rather than adopt those of the Eoman Pantheon. 

In 1870, in Vol. XXVIII. of the ArctiaeologicalJournal, p. 129, I 
expressed the opinion that west of Lanercost, the great "Wall had been 
abandoned by the Romans, for a considerable time previous to their 
departure from Britain, basing that opinion upon the absence of 
necessary inscriptions to prove their presence upon the evidence of 
the Ravennate, and the state of the Wall in its western portion. 
Singularly enough, none of these altars to the ancient god, have been 
found on the western half of the Wall, an indication, as I think, that 
after the introduction of Christianity at least, there were no Roman 
troops there to erect them, and that the Stations named in the Notilia 
after AMBOGLANNA, were, with the exception of PETRIANA, on the 
Cumberland coast, as I stated sixteen years since. 

None of these inscriptions have been found in Scotland, for much 
the same reason i.e., the fact that after the insurrection in the reign 
of Commodus, the Scotch Wall was abandoned. North of the Wall of 
Hadrian, the only Station at which such inscriptions have occurred is 
Netherby. This place, evidently in the hands of the Romans till the 
last, I have a strong suspicion (which I have before published), is the 
TUNNOCELUM of the Notit'ia, though at the time of the compilation of 
the Antonine Itinerary, it bore the name of CASTRA EXPLORATORVM, 
It would not, however, bear this name, after the Roman boundary 
was advanced to the Scotch Wall. The occurrence of a stone naming 
the Pedatura of the British marines (or sailors) is very strong evidence. 
At the same time, I will not yet absolutely assert that Netherby was 
TUNNOCELUM, as we may at any moment have the question solved by 
an inscription. 

Until the year 1880, none of these inscriptions to the ancient god 
had been found further south than Lanchester, but in that year one 
was found at York which I have embodied in my annual list. Caer- 
voran (MAGNA) would seem to have contained the greatest number of 
devotees of the old system, as no less than ten of these altars have 
been found there, including one erected by the standard bearer of the 
second cohort of the Dalmatians, which is the sole instance of a 
member of a cohort, or of any other military force, being the dedicator. 

L L 



In the altar at present being described, the name of the dedicator 
is puzzling, though the lettering is plain. As it at present stands, 
DVIHNO would seem to be the reading, followed by v s for V(ptum) 
8(olvit). I am not satisfied with it, however, but the name is certainly 
a barbarous one. 

Another stone, in Corbridge Church, 
of which I have received an account 
from Mr. Blair, bears the following 
fragment of an inscription : ERIT | 
OALAE | / AE / /. It is manifestly 
impossible to speak with any certainty 
as to this, witht he exception of the 
word ALAE. I opine, however, that 
in the two last lines we have part of the 
words [EQ]Q. ALAE [PETRIANAE AVGVST]AE. The stone is 11^ inches 
by 10 inches. 

A few words as to one of the inscriptions communicated to the 
July meeting of the Society. That from Moresby (preserved at Har- 
rington),* and inscribed /////// | / / / / PRAEF | COH-IILING 
which I included in my list for 1885, read to the Royal Archaeological 
Institute in March last (though not yet published), I then considered 
as further strongly confirming my opinion of 1870, that Moresby was 
the CONGA VATA of the Notitia, an opinion that has not yet, at least as 
far as my knowledge goes, been endorsed by any English or Continental 
archaeologist, though every day the allocation is becoming more 


[Read on the 23rd February, 1887.] 

RISINGHAM, generally identified with the Roman HABITANCUM, was 
evidently an important outpost on the north of Hadrian's "Wall. 
Hence came the most important part of Sir Robert Cotton's collection 
of Roman sculptured stones, now at Trinity College, Cambridge ; and 

* Now in the Black Gate Museum. 



here was found, about thirty years ago, the subject of the present paper 
a small piece of coarse earthenware, obviously Roman. It cannot 
boast much artistic beauty, but it is interesting as bearing one of the 
few Greek inscriptions in Eornan England, and as testifying (if my 
interpretation be correct) to a form of sepulture of which we have but 
one or two oilier instances extant. The inscription is in bold and well 
formed characters, probably made by a stamp : 
The words are enclosed in a 
frame, showing that the legend 
is complete ; and there is a leaf- 
stop after the second word. 

My first impression, on being 
favoured with a "squeeze" by 
Mr. Blair, was that the word 
EYTYXI might possibly be short 
Doric dative, the whole signi- 
fying " Happiness to Irene ! " The Doric form, however, appeared 
somewhat unlikely to occur under the circumstances ; and, when I saw 
the original, I considered the leaf-stop fatal to the idea of an abbreviation, 
as the space occupied by it would have been quite sufficient for an A. 
Coming, then, to interpret the strange last word by parallels in the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, I find EYTYXI used for the impera- 
tive EYTYXEI, with a vocative, in places so widely separate as France, 
Sicily, Greece, and Palestine (0. L G., 6,794, 5,498, 9,299, 4,564). 
Generally the vocative follows, but in the first of these instances, and 
in one or two others, it precedes the word of benediction. The in- 
scriptions are all sepulchral, and in some of them the benediction, or 
valediction, is addressed to the dead under a second pet name, like the 
pathetic parentheses in some of our own obituary notices. Latinus 
Pyramus is bid farewell as Hyacynthius, Felicia Minna as Pentadis, 
and a Victorina as Nicasis (0. L G., 6,794-5-6). In the last case the 
pet name is a translation, which may be the case here. I take EIPHNAI 
to be a vocative from the female name Irenais a name actually occur- 
ring in an Attic inscription. Her Latin name may have been Pacata, 
the letters PAC (indicating Pacatus) being in fact in an inscrip- 
tion found at Elsdon, and probably taken from Risingham (Lap. 


Sep., No. 558 ; C. L L., VII., 995). " Ireuai's. mayst thon be 
happy!" is all that we are told. There is no decisive indication 
as to date. The leaf-stop does not, I believe, occur in England much 
before the third century of our era ; but beyond this neither the 
lettering nor the spelling gives any certain clue. 

The form of the fragment puzzled me a good deal. It is obviously 
no part of a vase or urn, but rather the small section of a sort of 
ridge, semicylindrical underneath.* In the British Museum, however, 
though I could see no sepulchral pottery with any portion like this, I 
found a drawing which gave me the key. This was the representation 
of a tomb discovered at York in 1768, and described by Dr. Burton 
iu Archaeologia, II., 177. Unfortunately, that tomb has disappeared ; 
but it is figured in Wellbeloved's Eburacum, pp. 104-5, with another, 
of more recent discovery, now in the Museum of the Yorkshire Philo- 
sophical Society. The latter was formed of two rows of roof tiles, in- 
clined to one another, so as to leave a drain-like space between them, 
and one tile at each end. Ridge-tiles were placed along the top, and 
also over the joinings of the side and end tiles. All bore the impress 
LEG. vi. vi. (LEGIO SEXTA VICTRIX). Since Mr. Wellbeloved's time 
two other tombs of the same kind, and also belonging to the Sixth 
Legion, have been discovered at York (see Handbook to the York 
Museum, p. 61 of 7th edition). 

The fragment from Risingharn has evidently belonged to a similar 
tomb. It is a portion of one of the ridge-tiles, and it bears the name 
of the private person to whose sepulture it was dedicated, instead of 
that of a legion. What remains, if any, were found near it, it is I 
suppose impossible, after the lapse of thirty years, to discover. 

Tombs of this kind are apparently rare. Mr. Wellbeloved quotes 
the description, by Schopfliu, of another, also legionary, discovered at 
Strasburg. Mr. Watkin (Roman Cheshire, p. 213) speaks of a number 
of such tombs being found at Chester in 1858. I do not remember 
noticing any tiles like this in the Grosvenor Museum. If they are to 
be found there, it would be worth while to compare a sketch of them 
and of the specimens in the York Museum, with the present fragment. 

* It seems to some to be a fragment of a large mortarmm. 



[Read on the 23rd February, 1887.] 

MR. THOMAS M. WARDEN has been kind enough to send me a rubbing 
of a Latin inscription which has been recently found in Portugal. As 
this inscription is of a Christian character, and is different from those 
with which we in the North of England are familiar, and as I have 
reason to believe, it has not bfeen put upon record in any work on 
Roman inscriptions, I venture to bring it under the notice of this 
Society. The stone was found at Mertola, a town which is situated 
upon the Guadiana, at about 40 miles from its mouth. It is the 
MYRTILIS IVLIA of the Romans, and here a great variety of the relics 
of bygone times have been found. 

The inscription has at 
its top a cross patee, and 
its sides are bounded by 
two architectural columns 
slightly ornamented. The 
first line of the inscription 
begins with the Christian 
monogram in its simplest 
form. It is just the Greek 
letter P (rho) with a hori- 
zontal stroke across it. The 
inscription is as follows: 









And may be thus expanded: "p Simplicras presbyterus famulus 
Dei vixit annos qninquaginta novem ; requievit in pace Domini die 


octavo Kalendas Septembres era quinquies centesima quintaque 
septuagesima ; " and thus translated : " Simplicius an elder, a servant 
of God ; he lived fifty-nine years ; he rested in the peace of the Lord 
on the eighth day of the Kalends of September, in the five hundred 
and seventy-fifth year of the aera." 

There is little to remark on the form of the inscription. We have 
presbyterus, the Greek form of the word, instead of presbyter, the 
Latin. We have in the vixit annos the form that we meet with so 
frequently in the inscriptions found upon the Roman Wall. The 
eighth day of the kalends of September answers to the 25th of August. 
There is some difficulty in explaining what is meant by the era at the 
close of the inscription. In the second volume of Orelli's Latin 
Inscriptions we are told that the Spanish aera corresponds with the 
38th year before the Christian era ; the year, therefore, on our tomb- 
stone is A.D. 537. What event occurred in the year B.C. 38 to induce 
the Spanish authorities to make it the starting point of their chrono- 
logical reckoning we do not as yet know. Professor Hiibner, in 
writing to me, says it is yet a great question with chronologists. 




[Read on the 27th April, 1887.] 

LOOKING back through the history of Hexham in Saxon times, we can 
find no record that "Wilfrid, who built the cathedral church of which 
he was the first bishop about A.D. 674, placed any bells in it. 

Probably Acca, the fifth bishop, who had accompanied Wilfrid as 
his chaplain in one of his journeys to Rome, may have furnished it 
with a bell or bells, as we are told that " he finished and decorated 
the church begun by St. Wilfrid," and that " vases, lamps, and other 
things which belong to the house of God were added by him." 

This church, which declined in importance after the termination of 
its bishopric,- was harried and wrecked by the Danes in 875, and again 
in 995. It remained in a ruinous state until the latter part of the 
eleventh century, when a partial restoration took place under Eilaf 
the priest. 

Thomas the Second, Archbishop of York, made it into a priory of 
Canons of St. Augustine in 1113. 

Richard, the third Prior of this order, who was formally installed 
in 1142, in his history of this church, does not make any mention of 

There is no definite record of the time when the building of the 
present Abbey Church dedicated to St. Andrew was commenced, but 
the style of the earliest portion of it seems to point to the last quarter 
of the twelfth century. It was erected on the spot where the cathedral 
church built by Wilfrid had stood, and his crypt still remains under 
the site of the nave. 

From the great massiveness and strength of the tower it seems 
evident that it was intended to be used as a belfry, and it was probably 
furnished with bells on its completion about 1240. 


If it had bells, the Scotch, in their invasion in 1296, must have 
taken account of them, as bell metal was of great value in those days. 
The town and the abbey continued to be pillaged at intervals 
until 1346, when King David, after plundering the church, marched 
southward and was defeated and taken prisoner at the battle of 
Neville's Cross. 

In 1369, a levee en masse was made in the regality of Hexhamshire 
of the whole of the male population between the ages of sixteen and 
sixty, by the command of Edward the Third, to meet a threatened 
Scottish incursion. 

Subsequent invasions do not seem to have much damaged the 
monastery, although the Scottish raids continued until the sixteenth 

Through all this troublous period the abbey bells would often ring- 
out upon the vale their wild notes of alarm, calling to arms the fight- 
ing men, and bringing within the precinct walls of the abbey and 
within the Peace of the Sanctuary the women and children, to find 
there such feeble defence against the murderous Scot as the harassed 
church was able to afford them. 

In documents relating to the Priory of Hexham, the first mention 
of bells occurs in a decree of excommunication issued against the 
canons by Archbishop Greenfield, who had appointed a Yorkshireman 
. as prior instead of allowing the canons as usual to elect a prior from 
their own body. This had roused the ire of the canons, and they 
refused to comply with the mandate of the Archbishop. On the 2nd 
day of August, 1311, they were excommunicated. 

In January of the following year a compromise was effected, the 
sturdy northern monks practically carrying their point, and no arch- 
bishop ever afterwards attempted to control their right of election. 

In the decree of excommunication the phrase pulsatis campanis 
(the bells being rung) may be only the usual formula, but it certainly 
goes to prove the existence of the bells. 

Again in 1467 from Archbishop Neville we have an edict of 
excommunication against a marauding party, who had burned the 
village of Acomb, about a mile and a half from Hexham. In this 
village there was property belonging both to the Archbishop and to 
the cathedral of York. 


The edict contains this phrase, Campanis pulsatis, candelis acc&nsis 
et extinclis, ac in eorum vituperium in terram projects cruceque in 
manibus reverenter erecta, (Bells being rung, candles lighted and 
extinguished, and in reproach of them being trodden under foot upon 
the ground and the cross being raised reverently in the hands.) 

As neither the names nor the persons of the offenders were known, 
this excommunication would not prove very efficacious. 

In 1475 an account of the election of William of Bywell to the 
Priorate records that after the chanting of the Te Deum, the bells 
were solemnly rung. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries throughout England, when 
the commissioners appointed by Henry VIII. arrived at Hexham on 
the 28th of September, 1536, the bells rang in the first act of the 
rebellion, called the Pilgrimage of Grace, which spread like wildfire 
through the Northern counties, and was not suppressed until the year 
following, when it was stamped out in blood by the Duke of Norfolk, 
who, acting on the instructions received from the King, caused " to be 
tied up without further delay all the monks and canons caught in open 

This " tying up " was by the neck, and Hexhain's last prior finished 
his days at Tyburn, although tradition reports he was hanged at the 
gate of his own monastery. 

On the entry of the Northumbrian Commissioners into the town 
(the Southerners had prudently remained at Corbridge), they found 
an armed assembly, headed by some of the canons, ready to meet 

The old chronicle says " the common bell of the town was rongen, 
and straight after the sound of it, the Grete bell of the monastery was 
likewise ronge." 

The common bell of the town may have been the bell of St. Mary's 
Church, which at that time was in existence, and which is supposed to 
have had no tower, but merely a bell gable. The Grete bell was the 
bell named Mary, which Wallis says was also called the Fray bell, and 
was never rung alone except on the occasion of a fire or the approach 
of an enemy. It is said to have weighed seventy hundredweights, 
which is also the weight of the present great bell of St. Dunstan of 


Wright, in his History of Hexham, written in 1823, states that 
the inscriptions of the six old bells were in Lombardic capitals and as 
follows : 

"Puisat " is here evidently a mistake, the word intended being " Pulsat." 

The incompleteness of this inscription leaves an opening for ingenious 






These inscriptions, giving us the date of 140-4, show us that at 
least three of the bells had been inadj during the Priorate of John of 
Hexham, who was appointed about ten years before by Archbishop 
Waldby, he, after enquiry, having displaced Prior Marton, who had 
become old and unfit for work, and had suffered the priory to fall into 
a state of decay. 

Prior John appears to have been a man of energy, and to have had 
much force of character, and we find that five years after the hanging 
of these bells he went out in rebellion against Henry IV., along with 
the Earl of Northumberland and his Scottish allies, and came near to 
being hanged himself, having had to flee from the monastery to save 
his life. He and his convent had, however, the good fortune to 
receive a free pardon from the King shortly afterwards. 

Usually the great or tenor bell is named after the patron saint of 
the church in which it is hung. In this case it was the second bell in 
size which was named after St. Andrew. 

The third bell, John, might be named after the prior himself. 
Wright says the other three were probably more ancient. 

These six bells are mentioned by Mr. William Bell, of High Shield, 
near Hexham, in a letter written by him to the editor of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, and published in 1755. He says : " Six bells, 


which were broken and in great disorder about sixteen years ago, we 
had re-cast into eight, and they are now, without controversy, as fine 
a ring as any in England of their weight. They were made and hung 
by your London artists." 

At this time change ringing had been introduced and had become 
a fashionable pastime, so fashionable indeed that in many of the 
belfries rules were posted up imposing fines on any one who should 
ring the bells in spurs or who should bring a whip into the belfry. 

The peal of eight bells was cast in 1742 by Thomas Lester, of 
London, who had at that time the celebrated foundry now carried on 
by the firm of Messrs. Hears & Stainbank. Thomas Lester had been 
foreman to Richard Phelps, under whose management the foundry 
had very much increased in importance. He had been taken into 
partnership, and at^the death of Richard Phelps in 1738 he bequeathed 
to him by will the whole plant of materials and implements on the 
premises. In 1743, a year after casting the Hexham bells, Thomas 
Lester cast two bells for Westminster Abbey, which are still in 

Of Thomas Lester's peal only two bells the treble and the tenor 
remain intact, the other six having been broken and re-cast. The 
inscriptions on the present bells fairly show their history. 

Treble. 1742. T. LESTER. 


3rd. THOMAS LESTER, 1742. 

4th has no inscription, but the date 1775 is roughly chiselled on the upper part of 

the bell, where an inscription has apparently been erased. 


REFECIT A.D. 1884. 






On Lester's bell, re-cast 1884, after the inscription there was scratched, 




Sir Walter Blackett, whose name occurs on the tenor bell, was 
nephew of the Lord of the Manor, at whose marriage rejoicings the 
great bell Mary was broken. The diameters of the bells are : 

Treble 28 inches. 

2nd 30 

3rd 32 

4th 34 

5th 36 

6th 40 

7th 43 

Tenor 48 

The treble bell has been very much chiselled on the edge in tuning, 
and is still scarcely in harmony with the rest of the peal. 

The 2nd, 4th, and 6th, have been chiselled inside on the sound- 
bow. The 3rd, 5th, and 7th, have been tuned by turning, the 5th, 
inside on the sound-bow, and the 3rd and 7th on the rim. The tenor 
bell has been slightly tuned by chiselling inside on the sound-bow, and 
a small piece of the central part of the cannons has been broken away, 
fortunately without injuring the tone of the bell. Lester's 7th bell, 
re-cast in 1884, was a maiden bell, never having been tuned. 

The note of the tenor bell is E flat, and its weight is about 21 

Tobias Benton, who hanged Lester's peal, used the oak beams of 
the old bell cage in constructing the new one. That built by him has 
a gangway about six feet wide around it, rendering access to the bells 
very easy. 

Two of the beams in the base of this, have marks showing where 
the bushes for the old bell gudgeons have been. These point out the 
fact that two of the old bell pits oceunied the whole width of the tower. 


On the east side of the cage is a peculiar old oak windlass, about 
7 feet long, of octagonal shape, having holes for the insertion of hand- 
spikes. This appears to have been used in the moving of the bells. 

There is no Sanctus bell, nor any record of the ringing of the 
Curfew bell. 

Formerly a bell was rung every week day morning at half-past five 
o'clock, to awaken the people who began work at six o'clock, and it 
was also rung at six o'clock in the evening as a signal for them to 
finish their day's work. The shortening of workmen's hours caused 
this old custom to be discontinued some years ago. 

On two occasions sets of 5,040 changes have been rung on these 
bells, once in 1848, and again in 1884, after the re-hanging of the 
three bells which were then re-cast. 

The bells are now rung on Sundays for fifteen minutes at ten a.m. 
and six p.m., and then the 5th bell is chimed for the quarter hours 
immediately preceding the church services. This is done by the 
Hexham Abbey Guild of Eingers, Mr. Eobert Robson, the clerk, 
taking the tenor bell. 

The clock put into the church this year by Messrs. Potts and Son, 
of Leeds, to replace the first clock, which was set up in 1822 by 
Messrs. Handley and Moore, of London, chimes the quarter hours on 
the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 7th, and strikes the hours on the tenor bell. 
The chimes are those known as the Cambridge chimes. 

The first clock had only chimes for three instead of four quarter 
hours, so that when they commenced correctly at mid-day, they got 
curiously inverted between one and three o'clock, and only resumed 
their normal order after three, six, and nine o'clock, for an hour each 

This paper is incomplete, as the books containing the accounts of 
the churchwardens before 1810 are missing, but a strict search is now 
being made for them, and it is to be hoped that they have not been 
destroyed, as they doubtless contain much valuable information re- 
specting the church and the bells. 

In the book at present accessible, we find the following payments 
to the bellringers and sexton : 

1810. Rejoicings. For the defeat of the French in Portugal, 
1 Os. Od. 


This was undoubtedly for the battle of Busaco, where "Wellington 
gained one of his first successes against Napoleon's Generals. 

From 1813 to 1815 there are seven days of rejoicings for victories 
not specified. There are payments of 6s. for tolling the Great Bell at 
the death of King George IV., and King William IV., and 1 for 
ringing muffled peals on the day of King William the IV.'s interment. 
In 1831, the ringers received 1 for ringing on Eoyal Oak Day. 
After that date the special days are not given, being classed generally 
under the head of holidays, and as this is the year of the Queen's 
Jubilee, we may fitly close our record with the payment of 2 to the 
ringers on the day of the Queen's Coronation fifty years ago. 



Acca, Bishop. 299. 

Adamson, Kev. K. H.. An attempt to 

trace the Dclnvals i'nun tlietimeof 

the Norman Conquest to the present 

day, 215. 

Adamson, H. A., Notes on a terrier of 

lands, manor of Tynemouth. 172. 
Adiabeaicux. ~> I . 
Adidbenicus Maximns, 66, 67. 
Adrian IV.. Pope, Bull of. 191, 191,202. 
Adventu.t, Oclatinins, 67. 
Aemilius Salvianus, 66, 67. 
Aeaica, Roman stones from, 27, 31, 61, 

86, 88. 

Agrippa, Tc.reniius. 30. 
Alexander III., Pope, Bull of. 191, 197, 

198, 202. 203. 
Alfenius tienecio, 66, 67. 
Altars, Roman, found at Chester-le- 

Street, 284. 292, 
Amboglanna, 4, 41, 91 ; altar found at 

Anderson's. Dr. Jos., Rliind lectures 

quoted, 276. 

Anderson, Sir Richard, clerk. 219. 
S. Andrew's Church, Newcastle, grave 
covers in, 130 ; extract from register 
of. 112. 

Anicius Infjenuitx, 85. 
S. Ann's Chapel, 212; consecration of, 


Antonine Wall, Cast of slab from. 93. 
Antoninus Pius. 3. 14, 66, 67- 74. 
Antoninus, Itinerary of. 101. 110. 
Apolinaris, Ulpius, 45. 
Apollo, 70, 81. 
Apollonius, 77. 
Apreece, Robert, 224. 
Archaic sculpturing*. Characteristics 

of, 271. 

Arrius, Century of, 11. 
Arrius Paulinus, 52. 
Aryan migration to British Isles, 263. 
Aryan village communities. 250. 
Astley, Edward. 224. 
Astley, Sir Jacob, 228, 230, 231, 234; 
report on the defences of Newcastle, 

Asturians, first ala of, 30; second co- 
hort of, 31, 32. 
Audafftis, 64. 

Audley, Elizabeth, Lady. 227. 

Aldus Platoritis Nepos, 42. 

Aurelia Aureh'ana. 15. 

A.urelia Faia, 33. 

Aurelia Lupii/a, 55. 

Aurelia Quarlilla, 55. 

Aurelius Juvenalis, 4. 

Aurelius Marcus. 33. 

Aitrpliua Quart-hum, 55. 

Auspex, C. Silo-fun. 103. 

Avenue of stones at Thockriutrton, 155, 

Axe-hammer, Ancient British, 116; de- 
scription of, 118. 


Ballast Hills, 214. 

Bank edge. The, 183. 

liarbarus, Caius Julins, 62. 

Bassus, Naevius, 15. 

Barrasford, Rev. G. It. Hall, on remains 
found near, 116. 

Barrows opened, 250, 258. 260; mode 
of building. 256. 

Barrows, Probable age of, 262, 261. 

Batavians, First cohort of, 14. 

Bates. C. J., on three Papal bulls, 191. 

Baths, Supposed, at Cilurnurn, 124 ; de- 
scription and plan of. 125 et seq. 

Bavington, 223. 

Beads of gold found. 247. 

Bebside, 220. 

Becket. Thomas, Archbishop, 195 ; mir- 
acle ascribed to, 199. 

Belasyse, Sir William, 220. 

Belalucadrus, or elatucader, 64. 

Beltingham, Altar from, 52. 

Benton, Tobias. 303, 304. 

Benwell, 216, 217. See Condercum. 

Biddick. 220. 

Bigg Market, origin of name, 112; 
military execution in, 112. 

Bitrge, Rev. John, 118, 242. 

Bird, Rev. C., 119. 

Birrcns, Camp of, 101, 104, 110. 

Birrenswark, 101. (See Burnswark.) 

Birtley, Ancient British barrows near, 
241, 270. 

Bishopdale, Win-., mayor, 238; builds 
tower on Tyne Bridge, 139. 

Bittleston, 2L7. 

Black Caller ton, 216, 218. 

N N 


Blackett, Sir W. C., Liberality of, 146. 

Blaesus, 82. 

Blake, Sir Francis, 224. 

Bland, James, 238. 

Blatum Bulqium, 101, 102, 110. 

Bolbeck, Hugh de, 217. 

Booth, Lady Diana, 222. 

Borcovicus, Roman stones from. 5. (i. 
10, 16. 20. 22, 24, 32, 34. 36, 37, 41, 
49, 56, 58, 59, 64, 67, 73, 76, 77. 78. 
79, 81, 84, 85. 86, 88, 90, 92. 

Bourne's account of Old Tvne Bridge, 

Bowes, John, 182 ; Sir George, 220. 

Bowes, Geo., presents the first royal 
purse to Corporation to purchase 
piece of plate. 240. 

Boyle. Rev. J. R., on the Plate and 
Insignia of the Corporation of New- 
castle, 236. 

Brandon, 217. 

Branton, 217. 

Breadless Flatts, 175. 

Bremenium. Roman stones from, 44. 51, 
62, 78. 

Bridge at Poltross Burn, 162 ; at Wil- 
lowford, 163. 

Brinkburn, Lands given to, 216. 

Britannia, Hadrian's coin of, 123. 

British barrows, Explorations in. 241, 

Broad Sheath. 176. 

Brocks, The, 174. 176, 181, 183. 

Brock close Style, 175. 

Brock Dike, 175. 

Bronze period, 263. 

Bronze implements found, 264. 

Brougham Castle, Altar from, 63. 

Bruce, Dr. J. C., memoir of Sir C. E. 
Trevelyan, 150; on recently dis- 
covered inscriptions of the Roman 
period. 284, 287 ; on a Roman tomb- 
stone of the Christian period found 
at Mertola. Portugal, 297. 

Brunanburh, Battle of, 111. 

Bryson, Martin, 143. 

Buccleuch, Duke of, 104. 

Bulkeley, Rev. H. J., 159. 

Bull-baiting on the Sandhill, 213. 

Bulls, On three Papal, 191. 

Burchester, Sir John and Elizabeth, 218. 

Burnetts, The, 177. 178, 184. 

Burnfoot, Roman altar at, 102. 

Burnswark, 101 ; camp of, 106 ; des- 
cription of. 106; the praetorium at, 
107; hill of, 108. 

Burton. S. B., 130. 

Bury, Bishop de, 140. 

Byerley, Christopher, 146. 

Byker, Altar found at, 5. 
B'lackett, Sir Walter, 304. 


Caervoran. See Magna. 
Caecilius Clemens, Century of, 23. 
Caecilius Proculus* Century of, 22. 
Caithness, Bishop of, assists in building 

Tyne Bridge, 137. 
Caius Julius Barbarus, 62. 
Caius Valerius Longinus, 47. 
Caius Valerius Tullus, 24. 
Calendar of State Papers, 1640, 113. 
Calames. Nepos, 70. 
Calpurnius Agricola, 28. 
Camden, W.. on the Roman Wall near 

Stanwix, 165. 

Camps on Burnswark hill, 109. 
Camp and avenue at Thockrington, 155. 
Canalius, Ulpius, 9. 
Caracalla, 44, 51. 
Carey. Sir Thomas, 219. 
Carlisle, T., 159. 
Carlisle, 110 ; excavations at, 163 ; 

Roman tombstone in museum at, 

Carlyle, Thomas, 101; birthplace of, 

102; James, 102. 
Carpenter's Tower, 212. 
Carruth, John, 179. 
Cartmell, Isaac, 159. 
Cassianus, Valerius, Century of, 22. 
Caecilius Proculus, Century of, 22. 
Caecilius Clemens, Century of, 23. 
Castle-nick mile castle, 42. 
Castlesteads, 103. 
Castleway, 182. 

Castra Exploratorum, 103, 110, 293. 
Catalogue of inscribed and sculptured 

stones, 1. 

Cawthorne. Frances, 227. 
Centurial stones, 10, 11, 12, 15, 21, 22, 

23, 49, 86. 

Ceres. Inscription to. 28. 
Chadletch, 173, 184. 
Charles I. makes grant of wood to Tyne 

Bridge, 138. 

Charles I. on the Tyne, 214. 
Charles II., Statue of, 141. 
Charlton, Wm., 249. 
Charnley, William, 144. 
Charter Dike, 181, 183. 
Chedletch, 174, 178. 
Chesters, Cup-incised stone at, 278. 
Chesterholm. see Vindolana, 23. 
Chester-le-Street. Roman stones from, 

18, 49, 62, 64, 69, 70, 71 ; altars found 

at, 284, 292. 
Chillingham, 219. 
Chirton Crawlie Close, 175. 
Chirton House Close. 174. 
Chirtou Sheel Bank, 174. 
Chollerton, Grave cover at, 133. 



Cilttrnutn. On a building at, supposed to 
be baths, 124. 

Cinerary urns found, 244, 246. 252, 259. 

Circle of stones, 247. 

Cists opened. 252. 255. 

Clark. E. C., on Greek inscription from 
Habitancwm, 294. 

Clarke, John, mercer, 135. 

Claudius, Century of, 10. 

Clemens, Caecilius, 23. 

Clavering, Sir John, 114. 

Clayton, William, 212. 

Clephan, James, the Bigg Market 
military execution and the year of 
Newburn, 112; old Tyne bridge and 
its story. 135 ; departure of the Quay- 
side wall, and what became of it. 210. 

Cliburn, Roman inscription found at, 
289; R. S. Ferguson on. 289; W. T. 
Watkin on. 290. 

Clow, Mr.. 102, 105. 

Cocidius, 74. 

Cohors, I., 15. 16; 111., 71, 72; V., 21. 
22; VII., 15, 23; . . . . , 86. 

Cole, Nicholas, mayor, 236. 

Collingson. Capt. Win., 180. 

Collingwood, E J., 184. 

Collinson, Rev. John, 18. 

Colly Potts, 174. 182. 

Colwell, Axe-hammer from. 119. 

Condates, Epithet of . given to Mars. 285. 

Condercum, Roman stones from, 8. 10, 
11, 13, 15, 30, 64, 70. 81, 82. 

Congavata, 294. 

Conway, General Lord. 113. 

Conyers, Sir John, 115. 

Cooper, Robert, silversmith. 239. 

Corbridge, 20, 89; altar found at, 286. 

Corbridge church. Roman stone in, 294. 
See Corstopitum. 

Cornelianus. Marcus Censorius, 37. 

Corsenside, Grave cover at. 132. 

Corstopitum, Sculptured stones from, 
20, 34, 71, 72. 73. 83, 89. 

Cory, J. A., 159. 

Cou'lson, Colonel, 14, 28, 33, 61. 86. 

Cow and calf. The, 183. 

Cowlan, Yorkshire, Axe-hammer found 
at, 120. 

Cowpen, 220. 

Crawlie Close, 174. 

Cremation deposit in pit, 257. 

Crook, The, 175. 

Crooks, The, 181. 

Crosses, Designs of. on grave covers, 132. 

Cumberland, Excavations in, per lineam 
valli, 159. 

Cup-incised stones. 25] : found in 
British burial mound, 268; descrip- 
tion of, 270 et, seq. 

Custom House. New. 212. 


Dacians. First cohort of, 41. 288. 

Dagger letch, 173, 182. 

" Dan's Cairn," 242. 

David I., King, 192; David II., 300. 

Davidson, John, 43. 

Davison, Thomas, 180. 

Dawkin's ' Earlv Man in Britain." 
quoted. 280. 

Dea Minda (?), 53. 

Deae Matres. 3, 30, 76. 80. 

Deae Viteres, 69. 

Dean Bank, 182. 

Delamere, George. Lord, 222. 

Delaval, Anne, 222; Anne Hussey, 225 ; 
Claudius, 220; Edward, 220; Edward 
Hussey, 227; Eustace, 216; Francis 
Blake.' 223; Sir Francis Blake, 225 ; 
George, 223 ; Admiral George, 223 ; 
George Shafto, 223; Gilbert, 216; 
Guy, 215 ; Henry, 216, 217 ; Hubert. 
216 ; Hugh, 217; Hugh Fit/ Roger, 
216; James. 218; John, 219; Sir 
John, 218,219.222; Sir John Hussey, 
226; Ralph. 219; Sir Ralph. 220. 221. 
222 ; Admiral Sir Ralph. 220 ; Rhoda, 
224; Robert. 216, 220. 221, 222; Sir 
Robert, 217, 218, 219; Sarah, 225; 
Thomas. 220, 227; William. 217, 220; 
Lord, 226. 

Delaval, Barony of, 216. 

Delaval armorial bearings, 228. 

Delavals from the Norman Conquest, 

Delves, The, 175, 182. 183. 

Devil's Stone, The. 279. 

Dexter, 32. 

Dickens, Win., Payment to, 143. 

Dii J'eteres, 52. 61, 70, 78. 

Dikan Dubb, 177, 178. 184. 

Dionysius Fortunatus. 55. 

Dish of silver, presented to Corporation 
of Newcastle, 238. 

Dissington. 216. 218, 223. 226. 

Doddington. 224. 226. 251. 

Donatianus. Marcus Caecilius. 28, 29. 

Dove, Robert, 181 ; Lieut., 185. 

Drains in baths, 127, 128. 

Drawbridge arch. Tyne Bridge, 142. 

Druidical mound. Supposed. 103. 

Dudley. Robert, mayor, knighted, 141. 

Dunstone. 175. 

Durham, Bishop of, 137, 139. 

Duxfield, 217. 


Eachwick civ en to Hexhani, 216. 
East, Rev. W. B., 112. 
East Harlsey, Yorkshire, Grave cover 
at, 133. 



Ecclefechaii, 101. 

Eden river, at Carlisle. 164; bridges 

over, 166 ; search for Roman bridge, 

Edward III. makes a grant for Tvne 

Bridge. 138. 
Egertoii, Bishop, 146. 
Ellison, Cuthbert, 3. 6. 
Evans's " Ancient Stone Implements " 

quoted. 118. 
Ewer of silver, presented to Corporation 

of Newcastle, 238. 
Excavations in Cumberland. 160. 

Fans used by the Roman*. 208. 
Fawcett, Dr., vicar, preaches at St. 

Ann's Chapel, 213. 
Featherstonhaugh, Rev. W.. 18, 20, 49, 

62, 64. 69, 70, 71. 
Fennywell, 180, 182. 
Fenw'ick. Cuthbert, 135; Rev. G. B., 

243; John, 184; J. G., 252. 
Ferguson. R. S., report of excavations 

in Cumberland, per lineam valli, 

159 ; on a Roman inscription, 289. 
ffylder, James, 115. 
Fiddes, Mr.. 145. 
Fi.rminus. Julius, 62. 
Flavins Secundus, 33. 
Flint implements, 264. 
Flood in the Tyne. 144. 
Florence of Worcester, 111. 
Floras, Century of, 16. 
Foliot, Gilbert,'l95 ; Robert, 195. 
Food-vessel, Ancient British, 253. 
Ford Castle, 224 226, 227. 
Fortunatus, Dionys/us, 55. 
Fortune, Altars to, 47, 48, 62, 129; 

figure of, 21 ; supposed figure of, 6. 
Four Laws Inn, Gold beads found near, 

Franciscan Friary, Newcastle. Grave 

covers from, 130. 
Fronto, Marcus Liburnius. 14. 
Fuscus, 32. 


Gaimar, Geoffrey, 111. 

Gams Favus (?) Sebanus (?), 12. 

Gale, Dr.. 109, 110. 

Gallowhill, Roman tombstone from, 45. 

Gallus, 69. 

Garland meadow. 178. 

Garthorne, Francis, silversmith, 236. 

Gerrard. Sir Geo., presents dish and 

ewer to Corporation of Newcastle. 

Gibson, J. P.. on the bells of the Priory 

Church of St. Andrew. Hexham. 299. 
Gilsland. 160. 

Gods, Altars to the ancient. 286. 292. 

Goldsboron^-li, Sir Richard do, 218. 

Goodyer, Mary, 222. 

Goutlun, L'ic-inius, 9. 

Grave covers. Mediaeval, from St. 

Nicholas's Church. 130 ; Hosp. S. 

Mary Magdalene, 130; at Sockburn, 

132; Arms of Swinburne and Vaus 

on, 133 ; Arms of Salcock on, 133. 
Gray. Jean, pilloried. 213. 
Great arch. Tyne Bridge, 142. 
Greene, John. 136. 
Greenfield, Archbishop of York, 300, 
Greek inscription on Roman pottery, 

Greenwell. Rev. W., 118. 120, 242, 265, 

272; on cup-incised stones, 271, 278. 
Grey, George, 179; Ralph, 184; Sir 

Italph, 219 ; Sir Thomas, 218, 219. 
Greystock. Margaret, 217; Ralph, Lord, 

Guildford, Lord Keeper, visit to Sir 

Ralph Delaval, 221. 
Gunman. Francis, 228. 
Gunnar Nick. 119. 
Gunnar Peak Camp. Cup-incised stone 

found at. 281. 
Gunnarton Camp Hill, 117. 


Habitancum, 104 ; Roman stones from, 
11, 16. 18. 22, 32, 39, 40, 47. 48, 51, 
52, 54. 55, 65, 67, 74. 84, 87, 88, 91 ; 
Greek inscription from, 294. 

Hadrian, 42, 50 ; denarius of, 116 ; des- 
cription of, 122. 

Hall. Rev. G. R., on remains found near 
Barrasford, 116; on explorations of 
ancient British barrows, 241 ; on some 
cup-incised stones found near Birtley, 

Hall, Dr. G. Rome, notes on human 
bones found in ancient British bar- 
rows, 266. 

Hall, Thomas, 184. 

Hamians, First cohort of, 28, 62. 

Hamilton, General Alexander, 115. 

Harestones, 176, 179. 180, 181, 183. 

Harrington. Inscription found at, 287. 

Hartley, Lands at, given to Brinkburn, 

Hastings, Baron, 228. 

Hatcher. Henry, 222. 

Hatheridge. Inscribed stone from, 15. 

Heaton, Stones from, 9. 

Hedley, Rev. Anthony. 22. 

Hedley, Robert, Payment to, 143. 

Hedley, R. C.. notes on a pro-historic 
cainp and avenue of stones on Thock- 
rington Quarry House Farm, 155. 



Henry, Earl of Northumberland, 193. 

Henzell, Keenlyside, 213. 

Hercules, Altar to, 58 ; figure of. 34, 77. 

Seres, 88. 

Her! onus, 64. 

Hermitage OH Tyne Bridge, 140; Roger 

Thornton's bequest to, 140. 
Hetton. 220. 

Hewed, The, 176, 178, 179, 180, 181. 183. 

Hexham, Benefactions to, 216, 217. 

Hexhaiu priory church, 299 ; Wilfrid, 

bishop of. 299 ; made into a priory, 

299 ; the bells of. 299-306 ; building 

of, 299; plundered by the Scotch, 

300 ; excommunication of the canons, 

300 ; dissolution of the monastery, 

301 ; the last prior, 301 ; the clock of. 

305 ; payments to bell-ringers. 306. 

Hicks. W. 8.. on Seaton Delaval chapel, 


High Carry House, Hut circle at, 281. 
Hilbert's view of Tyne bridge. 135; 

Sykes on, 135. 

Hilton, Thomas, 220 ; Sir William, 220. 
Hodges, C. C-, on two mediaeval grave 
covers from St. Nicholas's church, 

Hodgkin, Dr. Thomas, 252; Blatum 
Bulgium ; or, notes on the camps of 
Birrens and Bnrnswark, 101. 
Hodgson, Matthew, 160. 
Holes and Huckster's flatt, 187. 
Holmes, Sheritou. on a building at 
Cilurnum, supposed to be Roman 
baths, 124. 
Holmes, T. V., report on river Eden at 

Carlisle, 163. 
Hollow. The. 183. 

Hooppell, Rev. Dr.. on a Roman inscrip- 
tion. 287. 

Horsley. James, 218; John, 109. 110. 
Horton, 219. 220. 
Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene. Grave 

covers from, 130. 

Hospital Dean, 176, 179, 180, 182. 
Hospitall Dike, 181. 
Housesteads. See Borcovicus. 
Howard, Lord, Lands belonging to, 174. 
Howard, George, 160. 
Hiibner, Prof., 285, 287, 289 ; his " Cor- 
pus Inscriptionuvn," 2, 102. 
Hudson, George, 6. 
Hulsebos, Dr., on a Roman tombstone 

in the Carlisle museum. 205. 
Human bones found in British barrows, 

Notes on, 266. 
Humphreys, Mr., 11<>. 
Hundhill,' 173, 175, 178. 
Hunnum, Stone from, 27, 65. 
Huntingdon. Earl of, 138. 
Huucks, Sir Fulke, 113. 

Hunter, Dr., 82. 

Hussey, Sir Thomas, 224. 

Hut circles at Thockrington, 156. 

Hutchinson. Edward, proposes a high 

level bridge, 147. 
Hutchinson's 'Cumberland" quoted, 


Hutton, Charles, 142. 
Hyssop Holme Well, 164, 166. 
Hyssop Holme Bank. 166; remains of 

Roman Wall at, 168. 


Incense cup. 259. 

Inscriptions on bells, Hexham Abbey, 

302, 303, 304. 

Ironstone workings. Ancient, 248. 
Irthing river, 163. 
Irvine, Mr., 102. 


Jadis. Sophia Anne, 227- 

James I. in Newcastle, 141. 

James, Thomas, 20. 81. 

Jarrow Church. Stone from, 2. 

J arrow. Sculptured stone from, 6. 

Jedburgh Abbey, Cast of inscription at, 


John, Prior of Hexham, 302. 
S. John's Chapel. Weardale, 218. 
Johnstone, George, 108. 
Julia Materna. 84. 
Julia Myrtilis, Roman city of, 297. 
Julius Firminus. 62. 
Julius Marcellinus, 84, 288. 
Julius Maximus, 5. 
Julius, Modius, 41. 
Julius Ziumisianus, 9. 
Julius Severinus, 48, 94. 
Julius Talerianus, Century of, 90. 
Julius Victor. 67. 84. 
Jupiter, 4, 11, 16, 20, 37, 59, 60, 73, 94 

altars to, 286, 288. 
Jupiter Dolichenus, altar to, 13, 14. 
Justus, 70. 
Juvenalis. Aurelius, 4. 

Keelrnen's arch, Tvne Bridge, 142. 
Kennersdeen, 174* 179, 181. 182, 183, 


King's Stables. The, 161. 
Knight. Charlotte Susanna, 'I'M. 
Kirkby Thore. 291. 


Laidler, Henry. 163. 
Lambton, Robert. 220. 
Lamerie. Paul, silversmith, 239. 



Lancaster. John do, 217. 

Langland?, J. C., 251. 

Lantern. The. 175. 182. 183. 

Lanthorn, The.. 180, 181. 

Lapidarium Septentrional e. 2. 

Laval. See Delaval. 

Lawn or Land. Farm house of. 106. 

Leap-Crag pool, The, 279. 

Lee Rigg. 184. 

Lees, Rev. T., 159. 

Legge. Col. Wm.. 230. 

Legion, The second. 14, 31, 42, 65. 70, 
71, 72. 

Legion. The sixth, 8. 43, 71. 72, 296. 

Legion. The twentieth. 8, 21. 50. 

Legion. Vexillation of the twenty-second. 
73, 286. 

Leland's notice of Tyne Bridge, 141. 

S. Leonards, Hospital of. 173, 175. 

Leslie, Lady Anne, 222. 

Lester, Thomas, bell founder, 303. 

Leven, Earl of, 222. 

Lillesclive. 193. 

.Licinius Ooutius, 10. 

Lingones, Second cohort of. 287. 

Lions, Figures of, on Roman tombstones, 

Lisle. Sir Humphrey, 219. 

Litorius Pacatianus, 56. 57. 

Livingstone, Lady Elizabeth, 222. 

Long Dike, 174. 177, 178. 

Longinus, Caiu.s Valerius, 47. 

Long Stony Land. 179, 180. 181, 183. 

Louis VII., Conference with Pope Alex- 
ander III., 196. 

Loving-cup belonging to Corporation 
of Newcastle. 239. 

Low Hope, 174. 

Low Shield Green, Primeval cemetery 
at, 241 ; opening of barrow at. 243. 

Lucius Aelius Caesar, 62. 

Lucius Affenius Paternus, 291. 

Luguvallium. 110. 

Lupula, Aurelia. 55. 


Macaulay. Lord, opinion of Sir C. E. 

Trevelyan. 151. 
Mace of Newcastle, Description of the 

Great, 236. 

Madduon, Lionel, mayor, knighted, 214. 
Magna, Roman .stones from, 10. 14, 21, 

22. 23, 28. 33, 50, 62, 63. 70; altars 

found at. 285, 286. 
Malaber, Tho., 112. 
Manners. Sir John, 218. 
March Dike. 176, 179, 181, 183. 
Marcus Antonius Viator, 50. 
Marcus, Aurelius. 33. 

Marcus Aurelius, 40. 

Marcus Caecilius Donatianus, 28. 

Marcus Claudius Menander, 41. 

Marcus Censoring Cornelianus, 37. 

Mardon pitts. 183. 

Mardonside, 173, 176, 177, 179. 180, 182, 


Margaret, Queen, in Newcastle, 141. 
Mars, 22, 23, 79. 
Martianus, Valerius, 32. 
Mars Condates, altar to. 285. 
S. Mary's church, Gateshead, Anchoress 

at, 140. 

S. Mary's church. Hexham, 301. 
Maryport, Altar found at, 36. 
Materna, Julia, 83. 
Maternus, Quintus Florins, 79. 
Martialis. Publius tiermullius, 64. 
Matres. Deae, 3, 30. 80. 
Maximus, Julius, 5. 
Maximus. Quintus Julius, 16. 
Meadow Close, 175. 
Medlicott. Rev. S., 160. 
Mein Water, The. 104. 
Melton Constable, 225. 
Menander, Marcus Claudius, 41. 
Menius Dada, 69. 
Mercury, Figure of, 6, 20. 
Mertola, Roman tombs tone found at, 297. 
Mexborough, Sarah, Countess of, 225. 
McKie, Mi-., 159. 

McLauchlan s. H., survey quoted, 164. 
Middleby, 109. 
Middle Way, 179, 182. 
Millburn, George. 184; Ralph, 184. 
Mill Knock camp. 263, 279. 
Millie house, 173. 
Milne Close, 175. 

Milne hill. 175, 176, 179. 181. 182, 183. 
Milne Leazes, 174, 178, 184. 
Minerva, Altar to. 103. 
Mitchell, Messrs.. 3. 
Mitchell's Rhind Lectures. 122. 
Mitford. Sir John, 218; Michael, 219. 
Mithras. 5, 25, 26, 56, 57, 68, 206. 
Modestus, Piiblius Aelius, 58. 
Modius Julius, 41. 
Moises, Rev. H., Marriage of, 213. 
Moor Dike, 177, 184. 
Moor Spotts. 174. 

Morton. John, 182; Sir Thos., 230. 
Morton House, 220. 
Morton way, 177. 178. 
Mounsey. J. G.. 169. 
Mowat, Major, 51. 53. 
Mulcaster, Mr.. 160, 171. 
Mumps Ha', 161. 
Mucianus, J J rocilius. 23. 
Mutiny in Newcastle, 112, 113; repor 

on, by Lord Con way, 113. 
Myrtilis, Julia, Roman city, 297. 



Naenius Bassus, Century of. 15. 

National Covenant, The, 230. 

Nemesis. 77. 

Neolithic period. 262. 

Nepos Calami's, 70. 

Neptune, altar to, 7, 8 ; figure of, 76. 

Nervii. Sixth cohort of, 61. 

Netherby, 103, 110; supposed Tnnno- 
celum, 293. 

Nettlecombe. 150. 

Neville. Archbishop, 300. 

Neville, Lady Alice. 218. 

Newburgh, Earl of. 222. 

Newburn. Battle of, 112, 115. 

Newcastle, Scottish army in, 115 ; letter 
from the Corporation of, 231 ; letter 
of. to the Earl Marshal, 232 ; report 
on the defences of the town, 232, 235 
the plate and insignia of the Corpora- 
tion, 236 ; the great mace, 236 ; the 
sword, 238 ; dish, ewer, loving-cup, 
&c., 238; the walls of, in 1638, 230. 

Newcastle museum. Axe-hammers in. 

New road. The, 214. 

Newsham, 217. 

S. Nicholas'schurch. Newcastle. Mediae- 
val grave covers from, 130. 

North Field, 183. 

Northumberland, Algernon, Earl of, 114; 
Henry, Earl of, 193. 

Northumberland, Duke of, presents 
cup-incised stones, 277- 

Numisianus, Century of Julius, 9. 


Obsequens, Century of, 33. 

Oclatinius Adventus. 66, 67. 

Ogle, Sir William. 219; Ralph. Lord, 


Old Carlisle. 291. 
Old Penrith. 110. 
Oliphant, Dr. J., 136 ; his house on 

Tyne Bridge, 136, 139. 
Ottway, Robt., 173, 175. 176. 177. 


Pacatianus, Litorius. 56. 

Pace, Thomas, Sheriff, 236. 

Park Dike, 176. 179. 

Park Flatt, 181. 

Patten. Mr., mercer. 146. 

Paulet, Lady Isabella, 226. 

Paulimift, . . . ntius, 41. 

Pennant on the Roman Wall near 

Stanwix, 165. 

Pereqri'nv.s. Century of. 12. 
Perrin. Rev. W. \V''., 243. 

Pet animals and birds among^the Ro- 
mans, 209. 

Petriana, 103. 

Petriana, The ala, 291. 

Picts, Legends respecting the, 249. 

Pictland, or Pickland Hills, 249. 

Pilgrimage of Grace, The, 301. 

Pillory on the Sandhill, 213. 

Pitland Hills, barrows, 248; cup-in- 
cised stones found in British burial 
mound at, 268, 279. 

Poltross Burn, excavations at the. 160; 
remains of Roman Wall near, 16J ; 
bridge over, 162. 

Pompeii, baths at. 128. 

Pans Aelii, 6, 12.49. 

Potter, H. G.. 41 ; Susanna, 227. 

Powdean, 173. 

Preston, 177, 178, 184. 

Preston South Close, 175. 

Primanus, Century of, 21. 

Primigenis, Vexillation of 22nd legion 
called, 287. 

Primitivus, Century of, 33. 

Primus, Titius 44. 

Priscus, Sentius, 86. 

Procilius, Mueianus, 22. 

Procolitia, Roman stones from, 62. 76. 

Proculinus, Publius, 68. 

Proculus, 68. 

Proculus, Caecilius, 22. 

Pry or, Richard, 185. 

Publius Aelius Modesfus, 58. 

Publius Proculinus, 68. 

Publius Sermullius Martialis, 64. 

" Purgatory hammer," 122. 


Quartilla, Aurelia, 55. 
Quartinus, Aurelius, 55. 
Quayside Wall, Departure of the, 210. 
Quern found in barrow, 275, 279. 
Quintus Florius Maternus, 79. 
Quintus Julius Maximus, 16. 
Quintus J'erius Superstis, 59. 


Raetians, First cohort of, 74, 87, 94. 
Rake, The, 174. 177, 178, 184. - 
Ramsay, Allan, address of letter to 

Martin Bryson, 143. 
Redoubts or turrets at Burnswark, 107. 
Reiver Crag Farm, 117. 
Rental of houses on Tvne Bridge, 136. 
Rhodes. Robert, 218. 
Richard, prior of Hexham, 299. 
Richard II. grants sword to mayor of 

Newcastle, 237. 
Richard III. makes grant for Tyne 

Bridge, 138. 



Riddel! family, Papal bulls confirming 

possessions of, 191. 
Riddell, Geoffrey, 192 ; Gevvasius. 192 ; 

Thomas, 193 ;' Walter, 193 ; Askitill, 

194 ; Geoffrey. 195 ; Walter de, 197 ; 

Jordan, 200 ;' Robert, 200 ; Sir Wil- 
liam, 200 ; Thomas, 200. 
Riddell. Sir W. B., 191 ; Sir Peter. 220. 
Riddell, Thomas, Recorder, Letter to, 


Ridley, Sir M. W.. 9. 
" Rig-and-rean " cultivation, 249. 
Risingham. See Habitancum. 
Robin Hood's Well, 260. 
Robinson, Gerrard, 182. 
Robson, Percy, 243; T., 243. 
Rochester, Bp. of, assists in building 

Tyne Bridge, 137. 
Rock sculpturings, where found, 268, 

269 ; Dr. Bruce on. 269. 
Roddam, John, 184. 
Rogers, John, 223. 
Roman baths, supposed, at Cilurnum, 

Roman inscriptions recently discovered, 

Roman read, 108; at Poltross Burn, 


Roman tombstones, 207. 
Romana, 61. 
Rotherford, Robert, 185. 
Roy, General, 104, 109. 
Rutchester. See Vindobala. 


Salcock, Arms of, on grave cover, 133. 

Salt Grass, The, 183. 

Salver of silver, belonging to the Cor- 
poration of Newcastle, 240. 

Salvianus, Aemilius, 67- 

Sandgate Chapel, 211. 

" Sandy's stoups." 115. 

Satrius Honoratus, 54. 

Sauvigny, 196. 

Scott, William and John, 210. 

Scottish invasion, 114. 

Scottish invasion, Threatened, 230. 

Scottish raids on Hexham, 300. 

Seaton, 217, 218. 

Seaton Delaval, 218, 220, 221. 

Seaton Delaval Hall. Building of, 223. 

Seaton Delaval Chapel, 219/223, 224; 
notes on, 229. 

Seaton with Newsham, 216. 

Seaton Sluice, Harbour at, 221, 222. 

Secundus, Flavins 33. 

Secundus, Titus Flavins, G2. 

Sedgefield, Grave cover at, 132. 

Seebohm's " English Village Com- 
munity " quoted, 189. 

Seqedunum. Altar from, 4, 16, 86. 

Selby, Sir George, 220, 221. 

Senecio, Alfenius, 67. 

" Sentimental Journey through New- 
castle," 214. 

Sen-tins Prisous. Century of, 86. 

Serjeants' maces, 237. 

Severimis, Julius 48, 94. 

Severus, 66, 67, 74. 

Severus Alexander. 31, 32. 

Sewingshields, 21, 22, 31. 

Shafto, Edward, 223. 

Shanks, Messrs., 11, 48. 51, 52, 54, 55, 
65, 74. 

Shedletch. 177. 

Sheel Bank, 175, 176, 178, 179, 182, 183. 

Sibson, Mr., 159. 

Silvanus, figure of, 21 ; altar to, 49. 

Simplicius, Tombstone of, 297, 298. 

Simpson. Sir J. Y., "Archaic Sculptur- 
ings," 277. 

Skeleton found, 253 ; description of, 254. 

Smeaton, J., report on Tyne Bridge, 
139 ; copy of report, 148. 

Smetheton, Margery, 217. 

Smollett's *' Humphrey Clinker," 212. 

Snowball, Joseph, 172. 

Sockbnrn, Grave cover at, 132. 

Soldier, Roman, Figure of, 5, 20, 36, 

Solway Firth, 111. 

Somerset, Duke of, 225. 

Southfield, 176, 178, 180, 181, 182. 

Spaniards, First Cohort of, 37. 

Sparrow Hall, 181. 

Spearman, Robert. 177, 178.- 

Spencer, Sir Robert, 219. 

Sphinx, Figures of, on Roman tomb- 
stones, 206. 

Spittle Flatt. 174. 

Spring Garden promenades, 213. 

Stanhope, Anne Hussey, 225. 

Stanwix, Roman station at, 170; Roman 
Wall at, 165, 166; excavations near, 
167 ; figure of Victory from, 21 ; 
sculpture from, 34. 35. 

Stephenson, John, 136. 

Stone hammer heads, Recent uses of, 
120; various uses of, 121. 

Stones, Unhewn, used in ancient wor- 
ship, 270. 

Stony Lands, 176, 178, 181. 

Sun, Altars to the, 56, 57, 64, 81. 

Superstis. Quintus f^erius, 60. 

Surtees, Aubone, 211. 

Sutteeism, Supposed, 265. 

Sutton, John, 185. 

Sword granted to Mayor of Newcastle, 

Swinburne and Vans, Arms of. on grave 
cover, 133. 



Terentius Agrippa. 30. 

Theodotus, 52. 

Thermae of Titus at Rome, 128. 

Thockrington, Camp and avenue at, 155. 

S. Thomas the Martyr, Chapel of, 137. 

Thompson, Isaac, plan of the manor of 
Tynemouth, 172. 

Thor Law, 103. 

Thornton, Roger, bequest to hermit on 
Tyne Bridge, 140. 

Thracians, First cohort of, 12. 

Tilmouth, 200. 

Tinemouth, A Terrier of Lands in the 
Manor of, 172. 

Tir.emouth south field Kirk way, 174. 

Tinemouth feilds, 177. 

Tinemouth cross, 179, 180. 

Titius Primus, 44. 

Titus Flavius Secundus, 62. 

Tombs, Roman, found at York, 296. 

Tombstone, Roman, in the Carlisle 
museum, 205. 

Tone Nick, The, 243. 

Tools used for cup-incisions, 281. 

Toolebank. the, 180, 182. 

Trevelyan. Sir C. E., memoir of, 150; 
birth of. 150 ; in the Indian civil ser- 
vice, 150 ; marriage, 150 ; Lord 
Macaulay's opinion of him. 151 ; leaves 
India, 152 ; assistant secretary to the 
Treasury, 152 ; knighted, 152 ; suc- 
ceeds to Wellington estate, 152 ; 
elected a Vice- President of Society 
of Antiquaries, 153 ; his opinions on 
the Poor Laws, 154 ; lecture on 
"Hindooism and Christianity," 154; 
death of, 154. 

Trevelyan, Rev. Geo., 150; George Otto, 

Trevelyan, Sir W. C., 41, 76 ; bequeaths 
Wellington to SirC. E. Trevelyan, 152. 

Trevor, Bishop, 142; consecrates St. 
Ann's chapel, 213. 

Tullus, Caius Valerius, 24. 

Tungrians, first cohort of, 16, 58, 59, 
60, 79, 85 ; second cohort of, 103. 

Turanian people, 262. 

Twyford-on-Alne, Synod of, 193. 

Tyne, Altar found in the river, 7, 8. 

Tyne Bridge and its story, 135 ; tene- 
ments on bridge, 135 : Hilbert's pic- 
ture of, 135 ; Bourne's account of, 137. 

Tyne Bridge destroyed by fire (1248), 
136; rebuilding of, 137; grants for 
repairing of, 138 ; hermitage on, 140 ; 
destruction of, 144; disputes about 
rebuilding, 146; High Level Bridge, 
147; Swing Bridge, 147; Smeaton's 
report on, 148. 

Tyrcoanel, Sarah, Countess of, 227. 


Ulchester. 218. 

Ulpius Apolinaris, 45. 

Ulpius Canalius, 9. 

Urns, Cinerary, found, 24 1, 246. 252,259. 


Valerianiis Julius, 90. 

Valerius , 74. 

Valerius Cassianus, Century of, 22. 

Valerius Martianus, 32. 

Valerius Probinus. 285. 

Valerius Verus, Century of, 11. 

Vanbrugh. Sir John. 223. 

Vane, Sir Henry, 114. 

Vangiones, First cohort of, 66, 67 (bis), 


Varduli. First cohort of, 44, 45. 
Veteres Dii, 52. 61. 
Vexillation Leg. VI., 72; Leg. XXII., 


Victor, Julius, 67, 84. 
Victory, Figure of, 21, 34,37,45; Altar 

to, 61. 
J'indobala, Roman stones from, 11, 12, 

18, 20, 34. 81. 
Vindolana, inscriptions from, 22, 23, 

52, 104. 

Vitiris, Deus, 69. 
Volusiamis, 68. 
Voreda, 110. 


Waggon from Newcastle to London, 212. 
Walbottle, Inscribed stones from, 12, 15. 
Wellington, 152. 
Wallis, Harry, 143. 
Wallsend. See Segedunum. 
Walsingham, Sir F., Petition to, 138. 
Wark, Altar from, 14. 
Warkshaugh family barrow, 247, 257, 


Washingley. 224. 
Wastal, Rev. Henry, 31, 61. 
Waterford, Bp. of, assists in building 

Tyne Bridge, 137. 
Waterford, Marquis of, 227. 
Watery Reens, 177, 178, 184. 
Waterson, Edward, priest, executed, 143. 
Watkin, W. T., on Roman inscriptions, 

290, 292. 

Wayd Rigg. The, 176. 
Weatherley, Peter. 144 ; rescue of, 145. 
Welford, R., the walls of Newcastle in 

1638, 230. 
Well, Ancient, at Thockrington camp, 


Wellbeloved's Eburacum, 296. 
Wesley. Rev. John, in Newcastle, 213. 
West Farm Camp, Cup-incised stone 

found at, 281. 

O O 



West Feild, 177, 184. 

Wetlieral Viaduct, 164. 

Whalton. Barony of, 220. 

Whinstone quarry, near Barrast'ord, 117. 

Whitchester, Robert de, 216 ; John de, 

218 ; William de. 218. 
White arch. Tyne Bridge, 142. 
Whitetield, Rev. Geo.. preaches in Xevv- 

castle. 213. 

Whitley Chare, 175, 183, 184. 
Whitley way brook, 176. 
Whitton, 193. 
Wiborg, Dr. Fred., 263. 
Wiccers, Anthony, 112. 
Widdrington, Roger, 218. 
Wilberforce. Bishop, 243, 252. 
Wilde, Sir W., 120. 
S. Wilfrid, 299. 
William of Bywell, prior of Hexham, 


William of Malmesbury, 111. 

Willowford. Roman remains at, 163. 

Willow Holme, 164, 167. 

Wilson, Rev. Mr., 252. 

Wilson. Prof. Daniel, 122. 

Windebank, Sir Francis, 114. 

Wood, D., 252. 

Wood, Rev. Andrew. 136. 

Woodward. George, rescues a family on 

Tyiie Bridge, 145. 
Wright, Rev. A.. 159, 160. 
Wright's " History of Hexham," 302. 


Yarrowes Hill, 174, 175, 180. 
York, Tombs found at. 296. 
York, Archbishop of, assists in building 
Tyne Bridge, 137. 

Black Gate Museum. 


Archaeologia aeliana