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Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"

ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. 
VOL. XIX. 



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A 




ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA: 



In 



OB, 



Jfttecdlaneous &ractg 



RELATING TO ANTIQUITIES. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 
VOLUME XIX. 




LONDON AND NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 

ANDBBW REID & Co., LIMITED, PRINTING- COUBT BUILDINGS, AKENSIDB HIM,. 
LONDON OFFICE : 10, BOLT COURT, FLEET STREET, E.G. 



M.DCCC.XCVIII. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 

ANDREW REID AND COMPANY, LIMITED, PRINTING COURT BUILDINGS 
AKENSIDE HILL. 



610587 

. 7, 5TT 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Contributions of Photographs, etc .. vi 

Errata, etc., to volume xviii ... ... 92 

List of Plates, Woodcuts, etc vii 

Annual Keport for 1896, including Reports of Curators and Treasurer, ix. xi. xiv 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet xii 

Donations to Museum during 1896 ... ... xv 

Council and Officers of the Society, 1897 ... ... xvii 

Honorary Members xviii 

Ordinary Members ... xix 

Societies exchanging Publications ... ... xxvii 

I. Notices of the Family of Cramlington of Cramlington and 

Newsham. By J. Crawford Hodgson 1 

II. The Vicars of Haltwhistle. By the Rev. C. E. Adamson, Vicar 

of St. Michael's, South Shields 14 

III. The 'Camera' of Adam de Jesmond, Newcastle, popularly called 

' King John's Palace.' By W. H. Knowles 29 

IV. Book of Easter Offerings, Small Tithes, and 'Outen' Tithes 

of the Parish of Ryton. By the Rev. Johnson Baily, Rector 39 
V. Abbess Hilda's First Religious House. By the Rev. H. E. 

Savage, Vicar of St. Hild's, South Shields ... 47 

VI. Auckland Castle Chapel [Supplement]. By the Rev. J. F. 

Hodgson, Vicar of Witton-le-Wear 89 

VII. Gleanings from the Records of the Parish of Tynemouth. By 

Horatio A. Adamson, V. P. ... ... ... 93 

VIII. The Distance-Slabs of the Antonine Wall, and the Roman 

Names of its Fortresses. By Cadwallader J. Bates, V.P. ... 105 
IX. The Washington and Colville Families. By Dr. G. Alder 

Blumer of Utica, TJ.S.A 115 

X. Pedigree of the Family of Dove of Tynemouth, Cullercoats, and 

Whitley. By Maberly Phillips, F.S.A 125 

XI. Obituary Notice of the Rev. James Raine, D.C.L., etc. By 

Richard Welford, V.P 126 

XII. Sir Charles Brown. By the Rev. E. H. Adamson, V.P 133 

XIII. The late John Crosse Brooks, V.P. By Sheriton Holmes, 

treasurer 143 

XIV. The Beornicas and the Deras. By Cadwallader J. Bates ... 147 

XV. The Home of St. Cuthbert's Boyhood. By Cadwallader J. Bates 155 
XVI. The Escape of Two French Prisoners of War from Jedburgh in 

1813. By Maberly Phillips 160 



VI 

XVII. The Vicar's Pele, Corbridge. By W. H. Knowles 

XVIIL A New Roman Inscription at Chesters. By F. Haverfield, F.S.A. 
XIX. Winwedfield : The Overthrow of English Paganism. By Cad- 

wallader J. Bates 182 

XX. A Pre-Conquest Cross Shaft at Nunnykirk, Northumberland. 

By Maberly Phillips 

XXI. Tynemouth Parish Registers. By Horatio A. Adamson 
XXII.' Dargs and Day Workes.' 

1. By the Earl Percy, F.S.A .' 217 

2. By F. W. Dendy 220 

XXIII. Westmorland Place, Newcastle. By Richard Welford 223 

XXIV. The Ogle Monument in Bothal Church, Northumberland. By 

W. H. Knowles 243 

XXV. Chop well Woods. By W. W. Tomlinson 255 

XXVI. Newly discovered Roman Inscriptions. By F. Haverfield, F.S.A. 

1. Roman Altars, etc., at Aesioa (Great Chesters) ... ... 268 

2. Roman Altar at South Shields 273 



Index 275 



CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC. 



Thanks are due to the following : 

Corder, Walter S., for photographs of the Nunnykirk pre-Conquest Cross, 

plate V. 

Gibson, J. P., for photographs of the Aesica inscriptions, pp. 268-272. 
Knowles, W. H., for drawings to illustrate his papers, pp. 29, 30, 37, 172, 173, 

175, 177, and 243. 

Pybns, Rev. G., for photograph of Sir Charles Brown, plate Hot. 
Royal Archaeological Institute, for loan of woodcut of bulla, page xvi. 
Taylor, Miss, for photograph of Roman Inscription at Chesters, page viii. 
Welford, Richard, for the blocks to illustrate his paper on pp. 224, 226, 

229-231, 233-236, and 238. 



Vll 
LIST OF PLATES. 



I. Map of Tynemouth, temp, Henry VIII .... facing page 68 

II. Portrait of the late Rev. J. Raine, D.C.L., etc., Chancellor 

of York Minster, and a Vice-President of the Society... 126 

Ha. Portrait of Sir Charles Brown 133 

III. Portrait of the late John Crosse Brooks, a Vice-President 

of the Society n 143 

Ilia. The Vicar's Pele, Corbridge 171 

IV. Roman Inscribed Slab (aqua adducta) at Chesters ... 179 

V. Nunnykirk pre-Conquest Cross 192 



PEDIGREES. 



Cramlingtons of Cramlington ... ... facing page 12 

Lawsons of Cramlington ... ... ... ... ... ,.. ... 13 

Col villes of White House, etc. ... ... ... ... ...facing 116 

Doves of Tynemouth, etc 125 

Northumbrian Royal House ;.. ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Royal House of the Deras 183 



WOODCUTS, ETC. 

Roman Inscription from Procolitia page viii 

Roman bulla of Gold, Callaly Castle Museum xvi 

Camera of Adam of Jesmond, Heaton Park, Newcastle 29 

Interior of do. ... 37 

Plan, sections, etc., of do 30 

Fragment of a window mullion from do. ... ... ... 36 

Map of Antonine Wall 114 

Corbridge Vicar's Pele, plans of the floors ... 172 

Do., sections of ... 174 

Do., elevations of 176 

Do., grille on entrance door of ... ... ... ., 173 

Plan of Corbridge, from Fryer's Map 178 

Roman Altar to Anociticus from Benwell ... ... 180 

Westmorland Place, Newcastle, site of the real 224 

Westmorland Place, the so-called 226 

Seals of Margaret de Denton (?) _ 229 

Hugh de Brandon , 230 

John Baxter .... 231 

Do , ... 233 

Henry Wicliffe , 231 



Vlll 

Seals of Edward Lewens page 233 

Jane Taylboys 233 

Ralph Taylboys 234 

Frances Wythington (?) , 234 

Tobie Matthew, Bishop of Durham ,, 235 

George Bartram ... 236 

Henry Draper 238 

Anns of Ogle quartering Bertram 243 

Ogle Monument in Bothal Church, Northumberland, from a drawing 

in the British Museum ... 244 

Do. from drawing by W. H. Knowles 246 

Do. end view of Tomb ,, 247 

Do. Small Figures in niches 248 

Do. Arms of Ogle and others ., 249 

' The Sovereign of the Seas ' ,. 264 

Roman Inscriptions from Aesica ... ... ... pp. 268-272 

Roman Inscription at South Shields ... ... ... ...page 274 



The following plates, etc., are from photographs : 
By W. S. Corder : Nunnykirk Cross, facing page 192. 
By Fred. Downey : Roman Inscription at Chesters, facing page 274 and on 

page 179. 

By L. B. Fleming : Map of Tynemouth, temp. Henry VIII., facing page 68. 
By J. P. Gibson : Roman Inscriptions, etc., on pp. 268-272. 
By C. C. Hodges: Corbridge Pele, facing page 171. 
By the Rev. G. Pybus: Portrait of Sir Charles Brown, facing page 133. 
By R. Ruddock : Portrait of Mr. J. C. Brooks, facing page 143. 
By Miss Taylor of Chipchase Castle : Roman Inscription, on page viii. 




ROMAN INSCRIPTION FROM PROCOLIT1A, 

now iu Chosters Museum. 

. From a photograph by Miss Taylor, Chipchase Castle. 
(See Proc. jol viii. p. 95; also Lapid. Sept. no. 164, and C. I. L. vii. 627.) 



IX 

REPORT 

OF 



^octetg of 



OF 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



ANNUAL MEETING, M.DCCC.XCVIL 



THE year 1896 does not offer many events for the report of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The membership of 
the society has been well maintained, our numbers now amounting to 
345. Thirty-four new members have been elected during the year, 
while we have lost nineteen by deaths and resignations. By the death 
of the Rev. James Raine, D.C.L., chancellor and a canon residentiary 
of York, not only is the society deprived of a vice-president and an 
eminent member, but archaeology loses one of the best topographical 
writers and one of the most skilled among northern genealogists. In 
the course of this year the monument to our late vice-president Dr. 
Bruce, has been completed and placed in St. Margaret's chantry in the 
cathedral church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle, where it was unveiled on 
the 5th day of October last by our president the Earl of Ravensworth. 

In conjunction with the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society the third ' pilgrimage ' along the Roman 
Wall took place in June last. On the two former occasions the route 
was from east to west, but on this it was reversed being from west to 
east, from Bowness to Wallsend. On the whole it was a successful 
expedition notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather on three 
days. About 40 members and friends went from Carlisle to New- 
castle. 

The Excavation Committee regret that partly owing to the 
unfavourable character of the weather during the past autumn no 



progress has been made with the excavations at Great Chesters 
(Aesica). They hope to be able to describe a better state of things 
at the close of 1897. 

The members of the society have heard with deep regret that one 
of the few remaining medieval towers on the Walls of Newcastle 
is threatened with demolition. It is earnestly hoped that the 
corporation may be able to intervene to prevent such an act of 
barbarism and to preserve the Herber tower (as the structure is 
called), and the fine stretch of the walls adjoining, as a slight 
memorial for the citizens of Newcastle of the more stormy, but also 
more picturesque, age in which these works of defence were reared by 
their ancestors. 

The committee appointed by the council of the society upon the 
subject of the tower have had an interview with the mayor, who has 
expressed his sympathy with the movement for its preservation, and 
the committee has received assurances from the mayor, the town 
clerk, and many members of the city council of their desire that the 
tower should be spared. In order to ascertain if any way can be de- 
vised to effect this object, a sub-committee of the Town Improvement 
Committee has been appointed with instructions to confer with the 
society r s committee upon the subject. The two committees have not 
yet met, but the society's committee hopes to be in a position to 
make a further report at the February meeting. With respect to 
those portions of the town wall of Newcastle which the ravages of 
time and the hands of man have spared, an effort should be made, 
and that speedily, to prevent further destruction. 

Mr. W. H. Knowles, one of the council of this society, has attended 
a meeting of the Parks Committee of the corporation, and repeated the 
suggestions made by him in a paper which he read at the November 
meeting for the preservation of the interesting thirteenth century 
ruin, in Heaton park, known as 'King John's Palace' : it is hoped 
that the corporation will undertake the slight but necessary work for 
its protection. . 

It has been reported to the council that a portion of the south 
wall of Doddington pele, an interesting though late tower, has fallen 
down. The Earl of Tankerville is the owner. Mr. R. G. Bolam, 
his agent, one of our members, is taking steps to prevent further 



XI 

damage, and it is intended to remove the farm buildings which abut 
on the tower, so that there may be a clear space all round. 

The library has been enriched by the gift from Miss Woodman of 
the valuable and unique collection made by her late father Mr. William 
Woodman (a vice-president of the society), of MSS., prints, maps, 
and printed books relating to and illustrative of the history of 
Northumberland, more especially to the district of Morpeth and the 
valley of the Wansbeck. A new catalogue of the books in the 
library of the society has been prepared and printed and is now for 
sale. The general index to the transactions of the society has been 
printed down to the end of the letter N, and has been issued in two 
parts, the second of which is now ready for subscribers. 

The following is the 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

The number of members at the end of the year was 345, of whom 
5 are life members. The deaths during the year numbered 3, and 
the resignations 16, together making a loss of 19, which is more than 
compensated for by the election of 34 new members. 

The total revenue from all sources has been 535 16s. 3d., and the 
total expenditure 593 19s. 2d., showing a balance of expenditure over 
receipts of 58 2s. lid. The receipts from members' subscriptions 
amounted to 340 4s. 

During the year there has been paid for the completion of the 
book catalogue, and printing the same, 58 3s., making, with the 
expenditure of former years, a total of 88 5s. lOd. for card catalogue, 
shelf register, and printed book catalogue. On account of the general 
index there has been paid during the year 37 7s. 3d., making, with 
former payments, 67 17s. to date. There has also been paid, as a 
contribution to the excavation fund, a sum of 20, and for the cabinet, 
to contain the valuable gift of Woodman books and MSS., 9 5s. 6d. 
So that what may be considered as extraneous expenditure has 
amounted, during the twelve months, to the large sum of 124 15s. 9d. 

The Castle shows a balance of receipts, over expenditure, of 
29 8s. 4d., and the Black Gate, for the first time, has met its 
outlay, there being a credit balance upon it of a few shillings. 



Xll 

The Archaeologia Aeliana has cost 116 11s. 6d., the Proceedings 
and registers 53 16s. 3d., and the illustrations 59 6s. 6d. The 
sale of the society's publications continues steadily to increase. The 
sum received from this source having been 57 15s., which is an 
advance upon any former year. 

The balance carried forward to 1897 is 72 8s. lid. 

The capital account now stands at 49 14s. lid. 

The engraved plate of St. Nicholas's church, purchased by the 
society, and from which 50 impressions were taken to be sold to 
members at 7s. 6d. each, has just about repaid the cost of the plate 
and printing, and has left the plate, in good condition, an asset for 
the Black Gate museum. 

Sheriton Holmes, Hon. Treasurer. 



Sheriton Holmes, Treasurer, in account with the Society of Antiquaries 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE YEAR ENDING 
DECEMBER 31sT, 1896. 

Receipts. Expenditure. 

s. d. s. d. 

Balance on January 1st, 1896 1301110 

Members' Subscriptions (including bank interest 

2 I5s. 4d.) 342 19 4 

Castle 104 15 6 75 7 2 

Black Gate 30 6 5 2913 2 

Museum .. 16 6 

Books 57 15 121 10 2 

Archaeologia Aeliana ... 116 11 6 

Proceedings ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 16 3 

Illustrations ... 59 6 6 

Sundries ... 96 17 11 

Secretary (clerical assistance) ... 40 

Balance 72 8 11 



666 8 1 666 8 1 



Examined and approved, 

JOHN PHILIPSON. 
JOHN M. WINTER. 



26th January 1897. 



Xlll 

NOTE. Included in the item of books bought are for 
shelf register, catalogues, and printing the 

same (balance) 58 3 

And on account for the general index ... ... 37 7 3 

95 10 3 

The item of sundries includes a subscription 

towards the Excavation Fund ... ... 20 

And the Cabinet for the Woodman gift ... 956 

29 5 6 



Capital account. 

s. d. a. d. 

Invested in 2 per cent. Consols 42 18 5 

Dividends and interest ... ... ... ... ... 6 16 6 

49 14 11 



49 14 11 



2>etail6 of BjpenMture. 

CASTLE s. d. 

Salaries 66 

Gas and Water ; . ... 10 8 

Property Tax and Income Tax ' 330 

Insurance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 076 

Rent 026 

Pedestal for Ascalon Capital ... ... ... ... ... 1 11 

Wiring Windows 18 8 

Sundries: Coal, Candles, Brushes, etc. .. ... ... ... 2 13 10 



75 7 2 

BLACK GATE s. d. 

Salaries 20 16 

Gas 1 11 5 

Water 100 

Property Tax 2 10 

Insurance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 15 

Rent 100 

Paint 009 



29 13 2 

MUSEUM s. d. 

Carriage and Removal of Stones ... ... ... 16 6 

16 6 



xiv 

BOOKS BOUGHT s. d. 

Archaeologia Aeliana, parts 34, 38 and 47 ... 1 18 

New County History of Northumberland, vols. III. and IV. .., 220 

State Papers, William and Mary, 2 vols 136 

Northern Genealogist ... ... ... 110 

Transactions of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute 1 10 

Tear-book of Societies 076 

Smith's Retrospections, vol. 3 ... ... ... ... ... 12 6 

Collectanea Genealogica ... ... ... ... 060 

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. 16 100 

Antiquary ... ... 10 6 

Reliquary ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0100 

Stevenson's Rowan Coins ... ... .. 19 

German Roman Wall ... . ... 028 

Macgibbon and Ross, Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland, 

vols. 1 &2 3 10 

Binding... ... ... ... ... ... ... 633 

Indexing Proceedings, vol. VII. ... ... ... .. ... 330 

Catalogue and Shelf Register 58 3 

General Index (on account) 37 7 3 

120 9 2 



SUNDRIES s. d. 

Letter Rack for the Castle ... ... ... . . ... ... 016 

Nicholson, general printing... ... ... ... 30 16 

Reid & Co. do. do. and sundries 6 14 7 

Subscription Harleian Society ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 

. Do. Surtees Society 110 

Do. Register Society 110 

Entertainment to Roman Wall ' Pilgrims ' 2 13 6 

Cabinet for Woodman gift ... ... ... 956 

Secretary's expences ... ... ... ... 15 7 7 

Treasurer's do .. ... ... ... ... 178 

Letter-book for Secretary ... ... ... ... ... .. 076 

Gibson, postage and carriage 821 

Contribution to Excavation Fund . . 20 



97 18 11 

CURATORS' REPORT, JANUARY, 1897. 

The donations to the museum in the past year, as detailed in the 
accompanying list, amount to twelve in number. One of these is of 
prehistoric character ; three of the items are Roman, and eight are 
of more or less modern origin. 

These presentations include the collection of Roman antiquities 
formed by Mr. Robert Blair by purchase from 'prospectors,' after 



XV 

the close of the excavations on the site of the Roman Station at South 
Shields between the years 1875 and 1877. It embraces a very large 
number of objects, some of which possess special interest and artistic 
beauty, and it is particularly valuable in illustrating the Eoman occupa- 
tion of this portion of Britain. Up to the present time it has formed 
a prominent feature in the Black Gate museum, where it has been lent 
for exhibition. Its permanent possession is now assured ; for the 
entire collection has been purchased, and has been presented to the 
society. The conditions imposed are, that the collection shall be kept 
together, and that it shall henceforth be known as " The Blair Collec- 
tion." 

The presentation of show-cases, referred to in our last report, has 
enabled the work of re-arrangement to be continued, and the museum 
apartments already present a more attractive appearance to visitors. 
In this, as in all their work, your curators have had the able assistance 
of Mr. John Gibson, the warden of the castle, whose excellent services 
they gratefully acknowledge. 

C. J. SPENCE, | n 

R. OLIVER HESLOP, I Hm ' Curators ' 

DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

1896. 

Jan. 29. From Mr. H. McCALMONT, Bishopswood-on-Wye (per Mrs. Bagnall- 
Oakley). 135 Roman coins, small brass of the Constantine period, 
from the hoard discovered at Bishopswood in April, 1895 (Proc. 
vol. vii. p. 166). 

Mar. 25. From Mr. SHEBITON HOLMES, treasurer of the society. Fragment 
of delft ware, found during excavations in the ditch of the town 
wall, north of St. Andrew's church, Newcastle (Arch. Ael. vol. xviii. 
p. 110; Proc. vol. vii. p. 181). 

From Mr. A. E. INGLEDEW. Seven wrought iron coffin handles, from 

the site of the Nonconformists' burial ground, formerly existing at 

the corner of Percy street and St. Thomas's street, Newcastle 

(ibid. p. 181). 

From Mr. BBOWN (per Mr. G. Reavely, jun.) A cup-marked boulder, 

found in the walls of an old house at Wooler (ibid. p. 181). 
From Mr. M. MACKEY, jun., hon. librarian to the society. A ring sun- 
dial in brass, adapted for the pocket. Latitudes of London, York, 
Durham, Newcastle, Alnwick, and Berwick, indicate its use for the 
great north road. It is of London make, circa 1700 (ibid. pp. 181 
and 182). 



XVI 



July 29. From the Rev. W. R. BURNETT, vicar of Kelloe, hon. canon of 
Durham. A small window frame, enclosing two glass panes taken 
out of Coxhoe vicarage. On one of the panes, ' Charming Mrs. 
Barrett, Coxhoe beauty 11!,' is scratched with the words ' Pead Ned,' 
below (ibid. pp. 144 and 253). 

From Mr. R. OLIVER HESLOP, one of the hon. curators. A farm- 
house candle mould from Thockrington, Northumberland (Proc. 
vol. vii. p. 238). 

Through the Hon. Curators.' The Blair Collection ' of Roman 
antiquities found on the site of the station at the Lawe, South 
Shields (ibid. vii. p. 258). 

Sept. 30. From Mr. JOHN HOPPER. A pocket frizzle, or flint and steel in case. 
A steel is attached to the bottom of a small pocket for holding the 
flint (ibid. p. 250). 

Oct. 28 From Messrs. DINNING & COOKE, Newcastle. Metal fire back from 
the Old Mansion House, Close, Newcastle (ibid. p. 289). 

Nov. 25 From Mr. CHARLES MACDONALD, Wallsend (per Mr. A. Constable). 
Fragment of slab with a portion of a Roman inscription (ibid. p. 298). 
From Mr. JOHN GIBSON, warden of the castle. A series illustrating 
the methods of domestic lighting formerly in use, comprising rush- 
lights, straws, and home-made mould candles. 




ROMAN GOLD BULLA IN CALLALY CASTLE MUSEUM 
(see Proc. viii. i.) 



XV11 

THE COUNCIL AND OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR M.DCCC.XCVII. 



patron, 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OP NORTHUMBERLAND. 

presi&ent 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF RAVENSWORTH. 

IPice-jpresioents. 

THE REV. EDWARD HUSSEY ADAMSON. 

HORATIO ALFRED ADAMSON. 

CADWALLADER JOHN BATES, M.A. 

JOHN CROSSE BROOKS. 

SIR WILLIAM GROSSMAN, K.C.M.G., F.S.A. 

ROBERT RICHARDSON DEES. 

DENNIS EMBLETON, M.D. 

THE REV. WILLIAM GREENWELL, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. 

WILLIAM HILTON DYER LONGSTAFFE. 

JOHN PHILIPSON. 

ALEXANDER SHANNAN STEVENSON, F.S.A. SCOT. 

RICHARD WELFORD. 

Secretaries, 

THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L., F S.A. 
ROBERT BLAIR, F.S.A. 

treasurer. 

SHERITON HOLMES. 

Boftor. 

ROBERT BLAIR. 

^Librarian. 

MATTHEW MACKEY, JON. 

Curators. 

CHARLES JAMES SPENCE. 
RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP. 

Huoitors. 

' JOHN PHILIPSON. 

JOHN MARTIN WINTER. 

Council. 

REV. CUTHBERT EDWARD ADAMSON, M.A. 
ROBERT COLTMAN CLEPHAN. 
FREDERICK WALTER DENDY. 
JOHN PATTISON GIBSON. 
JOHN VESSEY GREGORY. 
RICHARD OLIVER HESLOP. 
REV. HENRY EDWIN SAVAGE. 
JOHN CRAWFORD HODGSON. 
WILLIAM HENRY KNOWLES. 
MABERLY PHILLIPS, F.S.A. 
CHARLES JAMES SPENCE. 
WILLIAM WEAVER TOMLINSON. 



XV111 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE ON THE 

IST FEBRUARY, 1897. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Date of Election. 
1855 Jan. 3 

1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 

1883 June 27 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1888 Jan. 25 
1892 Jan. 27 

1892 May 25 
1896 Oct. 28 



J. J. Howard, LL.D., F.S.A., Mayfield, Orchard Road, Blackheath, 

Kent. 

Professor Emil Hiibner, LL.D., Ahornstrasse 4, Berlin. 
Professor Mommsen, Marchstrasse 8, Charlottenburg bei Berlin. 
Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 
Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., P.S.A., 123 Victoria 

Street, London, S.W. 
Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 

Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 
Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 
Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 
David Mackinlay, 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow. 
General Pitt-Rivers, F.S.A., Rushmore, Salisbury. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c., &c., Nash Mills, Hemel 

Hempstead. 

Professor Karl Zangemeister, Heidelberg. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confrere 5, Ghent, Belgium. 



LIST OP MEMBERS. (1st February, 1897.) 
ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



XIX 



The sign * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, 
f that the member is one of the Council. J indicates a life-member. 



Date of Election. 
1885 Mar. 25 

1883 Aug. 29 
1843 April 4 

1873 July 

1892 Aug. 31 
1885 Oct. 28 

1895 July 31 

1885 June 24 

1886 Jan. 27 

1893 Sept. 27 
1885 Dec. 30 

1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 

1896 July 29 
1882 

1894 Mar. 25 

1893 Feb. 22 
1889 July 31 

1891 July 29 

1894 July 25 

1892 April 27 

1874 Jan. 7 
1892 Mar. 30 
1888 Sept. 26 
1896 Dec. 23 
1892 Dec. 28 
1892 June 29 
1888 April 25 

1891 July 29 
1871 

1883 Dec. 27 
1883 Dec. 27 
1883 June 27 

1892 May 25 
1888 Sept. 26 



Adams, William Edwin, 32 Holly Avenue, Newcastle. 
fAdamson, Rev. Cuthbert Edward, Westoe, South Shields. 
fAdamson, Rev. Edward Hussey, St. Alban's, Felling, R.S.O. 
fAdamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Adamson, Lawrence William, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle. 
Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road. Gateshead. 
Allan, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Allgood, Anne Jane (Miss), Hermitage, Hexham. 
Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 
Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 
Armstrong, Lord, Cragside, Rothbury. 

Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 
Armstrong, William Irving, South Park, Hexham. 
Baily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton. 
fBates, Cadwallader John, M.A., Langley Castle, Langley, North- 
umberland. 

Bates, Stuart Frederick, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Baumgartner, John Robert, 10 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
Bell, Charles Loraine, Woolsington, Newcastle. 
Bell, John E., The Cedars, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Bell, W. Heward, Holt, Trowbridge, Wiltshire. 
Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon Hall, near Sunderland. 
fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

Blenkinsopp, Thomas, 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 
Blindell, William A., Wester Hall, Humshaugh. 
Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Utica State Hospital, New York State, U.S.A. 
Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Bolam, Robert G., Berwick-upon-Tweed. 
Bond, William Bownas, Northumberland Street, Newcastle. 
Booth, John, Shotley Bridge. 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 
Boutflower, Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 
Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Bowes, John Bosworth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 
Boyd, George Fenwick, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 



XX THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OP NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



Date of Election. 
1894 Feb. 28 
1891 Dec. 23 

1891 Oct. 28 
1896 Nov. 25 

1892 Aug. 31 

1896 July 29 
1866 Mar. 7 
1860 Jan. 4 

1892 Feb. 24 
1865 Aug. 2 
1891 Dec. 23 
1891 July 29 

1893 June 28 
1884 Sept. 24 

1891 Sept. 30 

1889 April 24 
1888 Nov. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 

1897 Jan. 27 
1887 Nov. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 

1885 April 29 
1892 Dec. 28 
1892 July 27 
1882 

1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Feb. 27 

1894 Jan. 31 
1887 Oct, 26 

1885 Nov. 25 
1896 Aug. 26 

1892 Feb. 24 

1895 Sept. 25 

1885 May 27 

1895 Nov. 27 

1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Dec. 27 

1893 July 26 
1892 Aug. 31 

1886 Sept. 29 



Boyd, William, North House, Long Benton. 
Braithwaite, John, 19 Lansdowne Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Branford, William E., 90 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Brass, John George. The Grove, Barnard Castle. 
Brewis, Parker, 32 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Brock-Hollinshead, Mrs., Woodfoot House, Shap, Westmorland. 
fBrooks, John Crosse, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
Brown, Rev. Dixon. Unthank Hall, Halt whistle. 
Brown, George T., 17 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 
Brown, Ralph, BenweH Grange, Newcastle. 
Brown, The Rev. William, Old Elvet, Durham. 
*Browne, A. H., Callaly Castle, Whittingham, R.S.O. 
Browne, Thomas Procter, Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Bruce, The Hon. Mr. Justice, Yewhurst, Bromley. Kent. 
Burman, C. Clark, L.R.C.P.S. Ed., 12 Bondgate Without, 

Alnwick. 

Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Coxhoe, Durham. 
Burton, William Spelman, 19 Claremont Park, Gateshead. 
Burton, S. B., Ridley Villas, Newcastle. 
Butler, George Grey, Ewart Park, Wooler. 
Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Campbell, John McLeod, 4 Winchester Terrace, Newcastle. 
Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 
Carr, Frederick Ralph, Lympston, near Exeter. 
Carr, Sidney Storey, 14 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Carr, Rev. T. W., Barming Rectory, Maidstone, Kent. 
Carr-Ellison, W. G., 21 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 
Carr-Ellison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 
Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 
Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Charleton, William L., Reenes, Bellingham, North Tyne. 
Charlton, Henry, 1 Millfield Terrace, Gateshead. 
Charlton, Oswin J., B.A., LL.B., 18 Bentinck Street. Manchester 

Square, London. 

Chester, Mrs., Stamfordham, Newcastle. 
Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester (Walter T. Browne, 

Librarian). 

Clapham. William, Park Villa, Darlington. 

Clayton, John Bertram, Chesters, Humshaugh, Northumberland. 
fClephan, Kobert Coltman, Southdene Tower, Saltwell, Gateshead. 
Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 
Corder, Herbert, 10 Kensington Terrace, Sunderland. 
Corder, Percy, 41 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st February, 1897.) 



XXI 



Date of Election. 
1893 July 26 

1887 Jan. 26 

1892 Oct. 26 

1888 Feb. 29 
1896 Feb. 26 

1889 Aug. 28 
1888 Mar. 28 

1891 Nov. 18 
' 1844 about 

1887 Aug. 31 

1893 July 26 
1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Mar. 9 

1883 June 27 

1884 Aug. 27 
1884 July 2 

1894 July 25 
1884 July 30 

1892 Nov. 30 
1884 Mar. 26 

1891 Aug. 31 

1888 June 27 
1881 

1896 Mar. 25 
1886 May 26 

1883 Oct. 31 

1886 Aug. 28 
1865 Aug. 2 
1875 

1894 Nov. 28 

1884 Jan. 30 

1894 May 30 
1896 Aug. 26 

1887 Dec. 28 
1894 Oct. 31 

1894 Oct. 31 
1890 Mar. 26 

1895 Jan. 30 

1892 April 27 
1892 Aug. 31 
1859 Dec. 7 
1883 Oct. 31 



Corder, Walter Shewell, North Shields. 

Cowen, Joseph, Stella Hall, Blaydon. 

Cresswell, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W 
{Grossman, Sir William, K.C.M.G., Cheswick House, Beal. 

Cruddas, W. D., M.P., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 

Culley, The Rev. Matthew, Tow Law, co. Durham. 

Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 

Deacon, Thomas John Fuller, 10 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 
fDees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
fDendy, Frederick Walter, Eldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Denison, Joseph, Sanderson Road, Newcastle. 

Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

Dickinson, William Bowstead, Healey Hall, Riding Mill. 

Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead. 

Dixon, Rev. Canon, Warkworth Vicarage, Northumberland. 

Dixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 

Dolan, Robert T., 6 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Drury, John C., 31 Alma Place, North Shields. 

Dunn, William Henry, 5 St. Nicholas's Buildings, Newcastle. 

Durham Cathedral Library. 
East, John Goethe, 26 Side, Newcastle. 
Edwards, Harry Smith, Byethorn, Corbridge. 
Eltringham, Harry, Westgarth. Westoe. 
fEmbleton, Dennis, M.D., 19 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 
Emley, Fred., Ravenshill, Durham Road, Gateshead. 
Feather stonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Blackhill. 
Fenwick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 
Fenwick, John George, Moorlands, Newcastle. 
Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Ferguson, Richard Saul, F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle, Lowther 

Street, Carlisle. 

Forster, Fred. E., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Forster, George Baker, M.A., Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 
Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 
Forster, Robert Henry, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 
Forster, Thomas Emmerson, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 
Forster, William, Houghton Hall, Carlisle. 
Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle 
Francis, William, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Gayner, Francis, King's College, Cambridge. 
Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 
fGibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 



XX11 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



Date of Election 

1879 

1878 

1896 Jan. 29 

1886 June 30 

1886 Oct. 27 

1895 Sept. 25 

1888 Feb. 29 
1894 Aug. 29 

1886 Aug. 28 

1896 Dec. 23 
1883 Feb. 28 
1891 Oct. 28 
1845 June 3 

1883 Feb. 28 

1877 Dec. 5 

1891 Jan. 28 
1893 Mar. 8 
1883 Aug. 29 

1883 Aug. 29 

1887 Mar. 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Aug. 30 

1889 Feb. 27 
1882 

1894 May 30 
1893 Aug. 30 

1886 April 28 
1884 Feb. 27 
1891 Oct. 28 
1883 Feb. 28 

1883 Feb. 28 

1888 April 25 
1882 

1865 Aug. 2 

1895 Jan. 30 

1890 Jan. 29 

1884 April 30 

1887 Jan. 26 
1895 July 31 



Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Glendinning, William, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Glover, Rev. William, 48 Rothbury Terrace, Heaton, Newcastle. 
Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 
Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Gough, Rev. Edward John, Vicar and Hon. Canon of Newcastle. 
Grace, Herbert Wylam, Hallgarth Hall, Winlaton. 
Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 
Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 
Graham, Matthew Horner, 61 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Green, Robert Yeoman, 11 Lovaine Crescent, Newcastle. 
Greene, Charles R., Hill Croft, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
fGreenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L.. F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon, 

F.S.A. Scot., Durham. 
Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester, co. 

Durham. 

fGregory, John Vessey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
Haggie, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Hall, Edmund James, 9 Prior Terrace, Tynemouth. 
Hall, James, Tynemouth. 
Hall, John, Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Halliday, Thomas, Myrtle Cottage, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Harrison, John Adolphus, Saltwellville, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 
*Haverfield, F. J., M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 
Haythornthwaite, Rev. Edward, Felling Vicarage, Gateshead. 
Hedley, Edward Armorer, 8 Osborne Villas, Newcastle. 
Hedley, Ralph, 19 Bellegrove Terrace, Newcastle. 
Hedley, Robert Cecil, Cheviot, Corbridge. 
Henzell, Charles Wright, Tynemouth. 

Heslop, George Christopher, 8 Northumberland Terrace, Newcastle. 
Heslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Princes Buildings, Akenside Hill, 

Newcastle. 

Hicks, W,illiam Searle, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 
Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., F.S.A., Bank, Newcastle. 
Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bamburgh Castle, Belford. 
Hodgson, John Crawford, Warkworth. 

Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 
Hodgson, William, Elmer oft, Darlington. 
Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st February, 1897.) 



XX111 



Date of Election. 

1891 Oct. 28 
1877 July 4 

1892 June 29 
1882 

1895 Dec. 18 

1876 

1896 April 29 
1896 July 29 
1888 July 25 
1894 May 30 
1894 Feb. 28 

1886 May 26 
1882 

1883 Aug. 29 

1883 Feb. 28 

1884 Oct. 29 

1890 Jan. 29 
1896 Dec. 23 

1896 Sept. 20 
1894 Sept. 26 
1894 Oct. 31 

1897 Jan. 27 

1885 April 29 

1887 June 29 

1894 July 25 

1896 Nov. 25 
1850 Nov. 6 
1885 Aug. 26 

1888 June 27 
1877 

1884 Mar. 26 
1884 Aug. 27 

1891 May 27 

1897 Jan. 27 

1895 Sept. 25 
1884 Mar. 26 
1882 

1893 Oct. 25 
1891 Mar. 25 



Holmes, Kalph Sheriton, 8 Sanderson Koad, Newcastle, 
f Holmes, Sheriton, Moor View House, Newcastle. 

Hopper, Charles, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Hopper, John, Grey Street, Newcastle 

Houldsworth, David Arundell, 2 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, New- 
castle. 

Hoyle, William Aubone, Normount, Newcastle. 

Hudson, Robert, Hotspur Street, Tynemouth. 

Hulbert, Rev. E. C., Grange Clergy House, Jarrow. 

Hunter, Edward, 8 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Hunter, Thomas, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Ingledew, Alfred Edward, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Irving, George, 1 Portland Terrace, West Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 

Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 

Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 
fKnowles, William Henry, 38 Grainger Street West, Newcastle. 

Laing, Dr., Blyth. 

Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

Lee, Rev. Percy, Birtley Vicarage, Wark, North Tynedale. 

Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Lennox, A. B., 48 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Lightfoot, Miss, 5 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 

Lockhart, Henry F., Prospect House, Hexham. 

Long, Rev. H. F., Hon. Canon of Newcastle, The Glebe, Bamburgh, 
Belford. 

Longstaff, Dr. Geo. Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S. W. 
fJLongstaffe, William Hilton Dyer, The Crescent, Gateshead. 

Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 

Macarthy, George Eugene, 9 Dean Street, Newcastle. 

McDowell, Dr. T. W., East Cottingwood, Morpeth. 
f Mackey, Matthew, Jun., 8 Milton Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 

Maling, Christopher Thompson, 14- Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Manchester Reference Library (C. W. Button, Librarian). 

Mann, The Rev. Horace, St. Cuthbert's ' Grammar School, Bath 
Lane, Newcastle. 

Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 

Marshall, Frank, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Martin, N. H., F.L.S., 8 Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 

Mather, Philip E., Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Maudlen, William, Gosforth, Newcastle. 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE- UPON-TYNE. 



Date of Election. 

1888 Sept. 26 

1894 July 25 
1891 Jan. 28 

1891 Aug. 26 
1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Mar. 28 
1883 May 30 
1883 Feb. 28 
1883 Oct. 13 
1886 Dec. 29 
1896 Oct. 28 

1883 June 27 
1896 April 29 

1884 July 2 

1895 Feb. 27 
1883 Jan. 31 

1896 May 27 

1885 May 27 

1893 Feb. 22 

1889 Aug. 28 

1891 Feb. 18 

1883 Mar. 28 

1894 Dec. 19 
1889 Aug. 28 
1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 

1893 Mar. 29 
1882 

1891 Feb. 18 
1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Nov. 30 
1884 Sept. 24 
1880 

1871 

1888 Jan. 25 

1892 Oct. 26 

1880 

1896, Mar. 25 

1882 



Mayo, William Swatling, Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

Mearns, William, M.D., Bewick Road, Gateshead. 

Melbourne Free Library (c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 12 
Ludgate Square, London, E.G.) 

Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Mitchell, Charles William, Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 

Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 

Morrow, T. R., 2 St. Andrew's Villas, Watford, Herts. 

Morton, Henry Thomas, Twizell House, Belford, Northumberland. 

Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 

Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Neilson, Edward, 172 Portland Road, Newcastle. 

Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 

Newcastle Public Library. 

Newton, Robert, Brookfield, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Nicholson, George, Barrington Street, South Shields. 

Nisbet, Robert S., 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 
(Northumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Ord, John Robert, Haughton Hall, Darlington. 

Ormond, Richard, 35 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Oswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Park, A. D., 11 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John S., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 

Pattison, John, Colbeck Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Pearson, Rev. Samuel, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Pease, John William, Pendower, Benwell, Newcastle. 

Pease, Howard, Bank, Newcastle. 

Peile, George, Greenwood, Shotley Bridge. 

Percy, The Earl, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 
fPhillips, Ma*berly, F.S.A., 12 Grafton Road, Whitley, R.S.O. 

Philipson, George Hare, M.A., M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
(Philipson, John. Victoria Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., 2 Eslington Terrace, Newcastle. 

Proud, George, Woodside Cottage, Broom Lane, Whickham, R.S.O. 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Rev. George, Grange Rectory, Jarrow. 

Pybus, Robert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
j-Ravensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 



LIST OF HEJMBERS. (1st February, 1897.) 



XXV 



Date of Election 

1887 Aug. 3 
1882 

1883 June 2 

1888 May 3( 
1894 Feb. 28 
1892 June 29 
1883 Sept. 26 
1891 April 29 
1894 May 30 
1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Jan. 31 

1891 July 29 

1895 July 31 

1892 Mar. 30 
1889 July 31 
1877 

1892 June 29 

1883 Jan. 31 

1884 July 30 
1882 

1894 Mar. 25 
1877 

1893 Mar. 8 
1893 April 26 

1895 Oct. 30 

1892 Sept. 28 
1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 

1888 July 25 

1893 Nov. 29 

1891 Sept. 30 

1892 Aug. 31 
1886 Feb. 24 
1888 June 27 
1883 Feb. 28 
1891 July 29 

1894 July 25 

1894 Oct. 31 

1888 Oct. 31 

1895 May 29 

1889 May 29 



Keavell, George, Jun., Alnwick. 

Redmayne, R. Norman, 27 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Redpath, Robert, Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reed, The Rev. George, Killing worth, Newcastle. 

Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 

Rees, John, 4 Lambton Road, Brandling Park, Newcastle. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 

Reynolds, Charles H., Millbrook, Walker. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Elwick Hall, Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Miss Alice M., Esplanade, Sunderland. 

Richardson, Frank, South Ashfield, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thornholme, Sunderland. 

Riddell, Edward Francis, Cheeseburn Grange, near Newcastle. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 

Ridley, The Right Hon. Sir M. W., Bart., M.P., Blagdon, Northum- 
berland. 

Ridley, Thomas Dawson, Willimoteswick, Coatham, Redcar. 

Robinson, Alfred J., 136 Brighton Grove, Newcastle. 

Robinson, John, 7 Choppington Street, Newcastle. 

Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., Simonburn Rectory, Humshaugh. 

Rowell, George, 100 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Runciman, W., Fernwood House, Newcastle. 

Rushton, George, 247 Hamilton Street, Newcastle. 

Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Blyth. 

Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Ryott, William Stace, 7 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Sanderson, Richard Burdon, Warren House, Belford. 

Savage, Rev. H. E., Hon. Canon of Durham and Vicar of St. Hilda's, 

South Shields. 
Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Scott, Owen Stanley, Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle. 
Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 

Sheppee, Lieutenant-Colonel, Birtley House, Birtley, co. Durham. 
Sidney, Marlow William, Blyth. 
Silburn, Miss Jessie, 7 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
Silburn, Reginald J. S., 7 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
Simpson, J. B., Hedgefield House, Blaydon. 
Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields. 
Sisson, Richard William, 13 Grey Street, Newcastle. 



XXVi THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 



Date of Election. 

1892 Oct. 26 
1891 Nov. 18 

1893 Mar. 29 

1896 Dec. 23 
1883 June 27 
1866 Jan. 3 
1883 Dec. 27 
1895 Nov. 27 
1882 

1891 Jan. 28 

1883 Dec. 27 
1882 

1885 June 24 
1873 

1887 Mar. 30 
1880 

1897 Jan. 27 

1892 Jan. 27 

1879 

1866 Dec. 5 

1887 Nov. 30 

1895 Feb. 27 
1860 Jan. 6 
1892 April 27 

1884 Oct. 29 

1896 Nov. 25 

1896 Dec. 23 

1883 Jan. 31 

1888 Aug. 29 
1892 June 29 
1891 Jan. 28 
1888 Feb. 29 
1888 Oct. 31 

1888 Nov. 28 

1894 Mar. 28 

1895 Dec. 18 

1884 Mar. 26 

1889 Oct. 30 



Skelly, George, Alnwick. 

Smith, William, Gunnerton, Barrasford. 

Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street, South Shields. 

Sopwith, Henry Thomas, 2 Tankerville Terrace, Newcastle. 

South Shields Public Library (Thomas Pyke, Librarian). 
*fSpence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

Spencer, J. W., Millfield, Newburn, Newcastle. 

Stamper, Mrs., Mountain View, Caldbeck, via Wigton. 

Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 

Steel, The Rev. James, D.D., Vicarage, Heworth. 

Steel, Thomas, 51 John Street, Sunderland. 

Stephens, Rev. Thomas. Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 

Stephenson, Thomas, 3 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
fStevenson, Alexander Shannan, F.S.A. Scot., Oatlands Mere, 
Weybridge, Surrey. 

Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 

Strangeways, William Nicholas, Breffni Villa, Eglinton Road, 
Donnybrook, Dublin. 

Sunderland Public Library. 

Sutherland, Charles James, M.D., Dacre House, Laygate Lane, 
South Shields. 

Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Swinburne, Sir John, Bart., Capheaton, Northumberland. 

Tarver, J. V., Eskdale Tower, Eskdale Terrace, Newcastle. 

Taylor, Rev. E. J., 1 F.S.A., St. Cuthbert's, Durham. 

Taylor, Hugh, 5 Fenchurch Street, London. 

Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 

Taylor, Rev. William, Catholic Church, Whittingham, Alnwick. 

Temperley, Henry, LL.M., St. George's Terrace, Jesmond, New- 
castle. 

Temperley, Robert, M.A., Newcastle. 

Tennant, James, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 

Thomson, James, Jun., 22 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Thome, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Thorpe, R. Swarley, Devonshire Terrace, Newcastle. 

Todd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
fTonilinson, William W., 6 Bristol Terrace, Newcastle. 

Toovey, Alfred F., Ovington Cottage, Prudhoe. 

Turner, S. C., 5 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Tweddell, George, Grainger Ville, Newcastle. 

Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepoo" 
i Elected originally Jan. 31, 1876, resigned 1887 



SOCIETIES WITH WHICH PUBLICATIONS ARE EXCHANGED. XXV11 



Date of Election. 
1896 July 29 

1894 May 30 

1884 Feb. 27 

1891 Mar. 25 

1896 Nov. 25 

1890 Aug. 27 
1896 Oct. 28 

1889 Mar. 27 

1896 Aug. 26 

1887 Mar. 30 

1892 Oct. 26 
1887 Jan. 26 

1895 May 29 
1879 Mar. 26 
1889 Nov, 27 
1886 June 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1893 Aug. 30 

1896 May 27 

1891 Aug. 26 

1885 May 27 

1894 Jan. 31 
1891 Sept. 30 
1896 Feb. 26 1 

1886 Nov. 24 
1894 Oct. 31 
1896 Dec. 23 



"Ventress, John, 2 Wharncliffe Street, Newcastle. 

Vincent, William, 18 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 

Waddington, Thomas, Eslington Villa, Gateshead. 

Walker, The Rev. John, hon. canon of Newcastle, Whalton Vicarage, 
Morpeth. 

Walker, John Duguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Wallace, Henry, Trench Hall, near Gateshead. 

Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Square. 
London. 

Watson-Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 

Watson, Henry, West End, Haltwhistle. 

Watson, Joseph Henry, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Watson, Mrs. M. E., Burnopfield. 

Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle, 
f Welford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Wheler, E. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 

Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 

Wilkinson, The Rev. Ed., M.A., Whitworth Vicarage, Spennymoor. 

Wilkinson, William C., Dacre Street, Morpeth. 

Williams, Charles, Moot Hall, Newcastle. 

Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 

Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 

Wilson, William Teasdale, M.D., 8 Derwent Place, Newcastle. 

Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Wood, Herbert Maxwell, The Cottage, Whickham, R.S.O. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 

Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., 27 Lauder Road, Edinburgh. 

Young, William, 150 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 
2 Elected originally Aug. 6, 1856. 



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T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 






ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. 



I.NOTICES OP THE FAMILY OF CRAMLINGTON OF 
CRAMLINGTON AND NEWSHAM. 

By J. CRAWFORD HODGSON, a Member of the Council. 
[Read on the 27th May, 1896.] 

In the old reading room of the Literary and Philosophical Society 
hangs a coloured drawing, of a group of members of the unreformed 
corporation of Newcastle, and local notabilities of the period. 1 In 
the middle of the group, between aldermen Forster and Clayton, 
stands the tall figure of alderman William Cramlington. He is clad 
in a black coat, open to show his shirt and white stock, and grey 
tights finished off with tasselled Hessian boots. His long, grave, 
clean-shaven face, endorses the tradition that he was never known to 
laugh. 

Of the family to which he belonged I desire to lay some notes 
before you this evening, and for that purpose will use the pedigree of 
the Cramlingtons of Cramlington and Newsham, by Bigland, Somerset 
Herald, as a cord to which to attach the facts. 

The manor of Cramlington, a member of the barony of Gaugy, or 
Ellingham, was, for a considerable period, the seat of a family 
deriving thence its name. Though not of the first rank in the 
county, either for wealth or importance, members of the family were 
doubtless amongst ' the best and wisest men of Cramlington,' 2 who 
witnessed the gift by Nicholas de Grenville of the church of Elling- 
ham with certain lands at Cramlington, to St. Cuthbert ; and the Great 
Roll of the Pipe for the year 1258 records the receipt of half a mark 
from Walter de Cramlington. 3 

In 1322 Richard de Cramlington was found to have died seised of 
the manor of Cramlington, of half the extent, and of a messuage and 

1 The writer has been reminded of this by Mr. R. R. Dees. 

2 The new History of Northumberland, vol. ii. p. 226. 

3 Hodgson, part iii. vol. iii. p. 250. 



2 THE FAMILY OF CRAMLINGTON : 

twenty acres of land in Hatelawe. 4 The latter is doubtless Wytelawe, 
which has been identified with the White Hall in the same parish. 5 
From an inquisition taken three years later, we learn that this 
Richard was the son of Margaret de Cramlington, 6 probably an 
heiress. With him the registered pedigree begins. 

He left two sons, John, who died without issue in 1339, 7 and 
Richard, who succeeded his brother. The latter, in 1360, paid 3s. 4d. 
for castle ward to the castle of Newcastle in respect of his lands in the 
vill of Cramlington, 8 and died in 1385, 9 possessed of half the manor 
and of the advowson of the chapel of Cramlington, of 190 acres of 
land, 10 acres of meadow, two husband lands, and two cottages. His 
wife's name was Alianora. 10 

He left two sons, William, his heir, whose daughter and heiress 
carried the manor of Cramlington with the hamlet of Whitelawe in 
marriage to Thomas Lawson, ancestor of the long line of Lawsons of 
Cramlington and Chirton, and George. 

This George Cramlington was of Newsham in the reign of 
Henry VI. For, many years afterwards, a dispute having .arisen 
between his descendants and the Delavals, who had put forward a 
claim to the manor, a judicial enquiry was held, the finding of which 
was submitted to the Heralds in 1615. 

Robertus Delavale ar. Noveritis me prefatu' Joh'em remisisse, relaxisse, etc. 
Joh'i filio et heredi Georgii Cramlington heredibus et assignatis suis totu' ius, etc., 
quo habuit in territorio de Newsam in com. Northumbr. quod quidem ius prefatus 
Georgius habuit ex dono et feoffamento meo a 32 H. 6. 11 

A certificate to testifie that George Cramlington died seised of the manner of 
Newsam, and that after his death yt descended to John Cramlington his sonne, 
whoe like manner died seised thereof, after whose death, the said manner 
descended to Thomas his brother as his heire, who thereof died seised, and that 
James Delaval was never seised of that manner ; w c h is testified vnder the handes 
and seales of Roger Heron, John Lilborne the elder, John Lilborne the younger 
then sheriffe of the Countie of Northumberland and others. 11 

George Cramlington, son of the last-mentioned Thomas, married, 
about the year 1488, Eleanor, daughter of Gawen Ogle of Chopping- 
ton. The articles of agreement before marriage begin : 

4 Ibid, part iii. vol. i. p. 62. 

5 The new History of Northumberland, vol. ii. p. 225. 

8 Hodgson, part iii. vol i. p. 65. 7 Ibid, part iii. vol. i. p. 73. 

8 Brand, vol. i. p. 151. ' Hodgson, part iii. vol. ii. p. 253. 

10 Ibid, part iii. vol. ii. p. 333. 






LANCELOT CRAMLINGTON OF BLYTH NOOK. 3 

This Indenture, made the 4 th yeare of the raigne of Henry the 7 th , betwene 
Gawen Ogle of Chapington, in the Countie of Northumberland esquire, and 
Thomas Cramlington of Newsarn, in the said Countie, on the other partie 
Witnesseth, that yt is covenanted betweene the said parties, that George 
Cramlington, his sonne and heire, shall take to wife Elinor, da. of the said 
Gawen Ogle." 

The son 12 of this marriage, Thomas Cramlington, held the vill of 
Newsham in 1568, 13 and married Anne Lawson of Raskelf in York- 
shire, who brought him two sons, George and Lancelot. George 
Cramlington married Phillis, daughter of John Ogle of Ogle castle, 
and apparently died early, leaving an only son, Thomas. The widow 
re-married John Ogle of Newsham, and died, apparently at Leming- 
ton, near Alnwick, whence her will is dated, on the 22nd June, 1606. 14 

The heir, Thomas Cramlington, is mentioned in the will of sir 
John Delaval in 1562, 15 and takes a legacy of 'one whye with a 
calffe.' He afterwards married sir John's daughter, Anne, and died 
without issue, having made his will on the 26th February, 1572, in 
which he mentions his father-in-law (i.e., step-father), John Ogle, his 
brother-in-law, Eobert Delaval, and desires to be buried within the 
chapel of Seaton Delaval. 16 

He was succeeded by his uncle, Lancelot Cramlington of Blyth 
Nook, who married Mary, daughter of John Ogle, 17 described in the 
Heralds' Visitation and in the pedigree as of Cawsey park, but who 
may be more accurately described as of Newsham, on which he 
had probably settled on his marriage with Phillis, widow of George 
Cramlington. 

Lancelot Cramlington of Blyth Nook was buried at Earsdon, on 
the 14th September, 1602, leaving besides Thomas, his heir, at least 
four other sons, James, Stephen, Ealph, and John, of whom later. 

11 Heralds' Visitation of Northumberland, Forster, p. 35. 

12 There was probably other issue, for Isabel Ogle of the parish of Bothal by 
will dated 24th January, 1539, devises the half of Thrunton tithes to William 
Cramlington for ten years, and gives to William Cramlington's daughter three 
queys. Surt. Soc. Durham Wills, vol. i. p. 115. 

13 Hodgson, part iii. vol. iii. p. 71. 

14 Durham Wills, vol. ii. p. 130, Surt. Soc. 

13 Ibid. vol. i. p. 204. l6 Raine, Testa. 

" The will of John Ogle of Newsham, dated 18th January, 1586, devises 'to 
my son-in-law, Lancelote Cramlington, 40 in full payment of C.C. marks which 
I gave in marriage with my daughter Marye.' In the inventory, exhibited on 
proving the will, Mrs. Marie Cramlington owed the testator 'for v stone of 
butter, at 4 s the stone, and iii cheses, 1 2 d a peace 28 s . Lancelot Cramlington 
[owed] for ij stone of wool lo 8 .' Durham Wills, ii. p. 130 (38 Surt. Soc. publ.) 



4 THE FAMILY OF CRAMLITTOTON : 

Thomas Cramlington was of Newsham in 1615 when he entered 
his pedigree at the Heralds' Visitation. He had married his kins- 
woman, Grace, daughter of Robert Lawson of Cramlington, and at 
that time had two sons living, Robert, the eldest, aged fourteen years, 
and Thomas. Robert was buried at Earsdon on the 23rd January, 
1649, and was quickly followed to the grave by his daughter, Dorothy. 18 

At this point both the Visitation and family pedigrees fail us, but 
there is sufficient evidence that Robert Cramlington left as his heir 
a son, or perhaps a nephew, Philip Cramlington, who, in 1663, was 
rated at 200 for the whole township of Newsham. It is said that he 
became involved in the troubles of the period, and that his estate was 
sequestered. 19 The Sessions Records yield some gleanings. 

On the 28th January, 1680, William Urwin of Morpeth lodged an 
information before the justices of the county that two days before, 
being on Blyth rocks, on his own freehold, and about to approach a 
vessel ashore there, he was assailed and assaulted by John Cramlington 
of Newsham, who presented his fowling-piece at him, and only desisted 
when his brother, Henry Cramlington, ' did call upon him to forbear.' 
The magistrates issued a warrant to Thomas Gofton of Gosfortb, the 
high constable of the East Division of Castle Ward, to apprehend the 
offender, with his father and brother. On the 15th of July following 
Gofton deposed 

Having a warrant from His Majesty's Justices for the Peace for the appre- 
hending of Philip Cramlington, esq., and his two sons, this informant accordingly 
went to the house of the said Philip Cramlington, and the wife of him, the said 
Philip Cramlington, gave this informant noething but badd words, and said this 
informant was a bussy [illegible] fellow, and that he was over busy in his 
office. 

We do not know the outcome of the affair, which was probably a 
quarrel about the foreshore. 

18 A daughter of the house of Newsham seems to have married a Loraine, for 
on the 29th December, 1656, John, son of Captain Anthony Loraine of Newsham, 
was baptized at Earsdon, whilst on the 16th December, 1675, letters of adminis- 
tration were granted at Durham of the goods of Marie Cramlington of the 
parish of Long Benton, spinster, to John Loraine of the city of York, gent., 
nephew of the- deceased. The Long Benton .Register contains the following 
entry: 'Antonius Lorraine de Walker in catholica et apostolica fide, baud 
papicolarum, vigesiino primo die Novembris ex hac morrali ad immortalitatem 
feliciter emigrabat atque vigesimo tertio die ejusdem mensis extremus honor 
persolvebatur Milesimo sexcentesimo sexagesimo nouo.' 

19 The name of Robert Cramlington of Newsham, esq., appears in the third 
Royalist Confiscation Act, 1652. Peacock's Index of the names of Royalists, 
etc., Index Society. See also Wallis, vol. ii. p. 281. 



SALE OF NEWSHAM. 5 

Three years before, on the 21st January, 1677, Philip Oraralington 
and John, his son and heir, had conveyed certain lands, called 
Butcher's Close, the Green, the Orchard closes, the Whinny Loop, the 
Four and Twenty Riggs, all in the parish of Earsdon, and known as 
Newsham demesne, to Joseph Huddlestone of Newcastle, to secure an 
annuity payable to Mary [or Margaret ?] Huddlestone. 

John Cramlington died in his father's lifetime and before 1696, 
for on the 7th June, 7 William III., there was an indenture made 
between Ralph Brandling of Felling, esq., and Nathaniel Wyersdale (?) 
of London, draper, of the one part, and Philip Cramlington, esq., and 
Henry OrUmlington, esq., of Newsham, his son and then heir-apparent, 
of the other part. At the midsummer sessions of the same year 
' Philippus Oramlington de Newsarn arme,' and ' Henricus Cramlington 
de eodeni' were amongst the Roman Catholics who entered into 
recognizances. 

Henry Cramlsftgton seems to have married twice, for there is at 
Durham a bond of : marriage, dated 31st October, 1693, between 
Henry Cramlington of Newsham, esq., and Margaret Nearne [or 
Hearne ? Heron], spinster [for St. Nicholas or All Saints, Newcastle], 
and there is at York another bond of marriage, dated 2nd May, 1698, 
of Henry Cramlington of Newcastle, aged 37, and Frances Hamerton 
of Brotherstone, spinster, aged 29. 

It was not until the 26th August, 1723, that the long connection 
of the Cramlingtons with Newsham was finally severed, when the said 
Henry Cramlington, then ' of York, esquire,' conveyed Newsham ' to 
Richard Ridley of Newcastle, esquire and alderman, and to Matthew 
White of Blagdon, esquire.' 

Meanwhile cadet members of the family 20 had come to poverty, 
and the Sessions Records for 1708 contain the following pathetic 
petition : 

20 The following notices the writer is unable to apply : 

23rd April, 1635. Office of the court against Robert Cramlington for 
clandestine marriage. Ordered to repair to Mr. Johnson, parson of Bo thai, to 
confer with him on points of religion. Acts of High Commission Court of 
Durham, p. 122 (34 Surt. Soc. publ.) 

1656. Nicholas Cramlington, an apprentice to Mr. Henry Rawling of the 
Merchants' Company, Newcastle. Memoir of Ambrose Barnes, p. 186 (50 Surt. 
Soc. publ.) 

7th 7uly, 1664. Bond of marriage of Edward Cramlington of Newcastle and 
Grace Wall, widow. 

16th July, 1675. Administration of the goods of John Cramlington of the 
parish of All Saints granted to Margaret Armitage, widow. 



6 THE FAMILY OF CRAMLINGTON : 

To the Worshipfull the Justices to hold the Quarter Sessions for the county 
of Northumberland, the humble Petition of Mary Ogle of Backward, in the 
county of Northumberland aforesaid. 

Humbly sheweth 

That your peticoner (who was born in Tinmouth, being 
daughter 21 to John Cramlington who lived in the said place and dyed in the 
parish) lived all along in the said parish of Tinmouth, residing in Backward 
with her husband, Oliver Ogle, for many years, till it pleased God to take him 
from her, and since falling into adverse fortune, and being very ancient, and 
consequently uncapable of keeping herself or preventing her falling into extreme 
poverty, too much of which (God knows) she already feels. 

These are, therefore, humbly to implore your worships seriously to consider 
and piously to redress these her present circumstances by assigning her either 
a place and relief in her own parish, or otherwise by causing some to come 
yearly to her here. 

And your peticoner shall ever pray. 

The petitioner was ordered to be paid a shilling a week from the 
chapelry of Earsdon, which proved to be her settlement. 

The family pedigree constructed by Bigland continues the line 
from Stephen Cramlington of Morwick, second or third son of 
Lancelot of Blyth Nook. The same authority tells us that his wife 
was one of the Forsters of Fleetham, in whose pedigree, however, she 
does not appear. He must have farmed on that part of Morwick 
which belonged to the Greys of Wark and Chillingham. That he was 
living in 1646 and 1648 is shown by an entry in Nicholas Forster's 
ledger of the indebtedness of ' Mr. Stephen Crarnbleton of Morwick ' 
to the amount of 9 19s , which debt was discharged by the payment 
of the amount per ' my cosen Joseph Forster.' 22 

Lancelot Cramlington, eldest son of Stephen, was probably bound 
an apprentice to a freeman of Newcastle, for late in his life he was, 
on the 21st November, 1705, admitted to the Hoastmen's Company. 
He held the appointment of receiver of the land tax for Northumber- 
land and Durham, and on the 23rd December, 1670, married, at All 

The Registers of St. Nicholas yield the following baptisms of the children of 
William Cramlington of Newcastle, cooper, and Mary, his wife : 

John, baptised 28th September, 1679. 'Matthew, baptised 13th April, 1684. 
Lancelot, baptised 26th December, 1686; buried 18th April, 1688. James, 
baptised 30th May, 1689. Stephen, baptised 12th October, 1692; buried 7th 
June, 1695. Ann, baptised 30th November, 1681. Mrs. Cramlington, buried 
17th October, 1695. 

21 The following is doubtless the marriage of a sister of the petitioner: 
7th January, 1656. William Wood, gent., and Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Cramlington of Backworth. All Saints' Register. 

22 Proceedings, vol. vii., p. 194. 



LANCELOT CRAMLINGTON, RECEIVER OF LAND TAX. 7 

Saints, Jane, widow of Mills, and daughter of Captain White. He 
made his will on the 4th March, 1717, and gave his lands at West 
Hartford, and all other his real and personal estate to his grandson- 
in-law (i.e., his wife's grandson by her first marriage), William Reed 
of Newcastle, merchant. 23 

His younger brother, William, had predeceased him. He had 
married on the 28th October, 1691, 24 Eleanor, daughter of Toby 
Blakiston of Grays Inn and Newton Hall in the county of Durham. 
He made his will on the 6th September, 1707 : 25 

To my loving wife Elinor the sum of 50 due by Bond to me from Mr. W m 
Musgrave and Mr. Baptist Johnson to and in the name of Mr. Tobias Blakiston 
in trust for me. I give the further sum of 80 to my said wife. I give to my 
children Lancelot, Frances, Ralph, Margarett, Mary, and Isabella the sum of 250 
equally between them together with my two coal boats, with the tackle and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging, my wife however shall be entitled to all 
interest and stand possessed of the whole of my estate until my children shall 
attain 21 years. I appoint my loving friends, my brother Mr. Lancelot Cram- 
lington, and my wife's brother Tobias Blakiston, supervisors of my will. I appoint 
my said loving wife Elinor, sole executrix. 

The will was proved in 1708, and in the same year the tuition of 
the children was granted to the mother. 

That the widow married again may be inferred from the grant of 
administration of the goods of Ellenor Cramlington, alias Sowerby, of 
.... on the 15th March, 1725, to Lancelot Cramlington of Earsdon, 
gentleman, the son of the deceased. 

Lancelot Cramlington, eldest son of William and Eleanor Cram- 
lington, was baptized at All Saints in 1692, and consequently was 
under age at the time of his father's death. In his will he is styled a 
roper, and as of that trade he voted at the Newcastle election of 1741 
for Walter Blackett and Nicholas Fenwick. But he also followed the 
paternal calling of fitter, for the ' North Country Notes ' in a recent 
issue of the Newcastle Daily Journal record a policy of insurance 
effected in 1720 by Lancelot Cramlington, fitter, with Nicholas Ridley 
of Newcastle, merchant, for 160, at a premium of 4 10s., on the 

23 In 1722 and 1734 Wm. Reed of Newcastle voted for freehold at West 
Hartford. Poll Book. See also Hodgson, part ii. vol. ii. p. 276. 

24 Surtees, Durham, vol. iii. p. 164. 

23 It is possible that he may have been married before, for the Gateshead 
Register records the marriage on the 16th January, 1656-7, of William Cramling- 
ton of Newcastle and Mary Marshall. 



8 THE FAMILY OF CRAMLINGTON : 

' Friend's Goodwill,' then lying in the Tyne, and bound for London. 
On the 17th October, 1720, he was admitted to lands in the manor of 
Tynemouth as heir at law to his uncle, Lancelot Crarnlington ; and at 
Earsdon most of his children were born, his wife being Anne, one of 
the daughters of William Wharrier of Birling, of an old and respect- 
able family, in the parish of Warkworth. 

The will of Lancelot Cramlington of Earsdou, 26 roper, is dated 5th 
March, 1757, and was proved at Durham in 1765 : 

I charge my copyhold tenements situate at Earsdon and in the manor of 
Tynemouth with the annuity of 10 to my wife Ann Cramlington. I devise my 
said copyhold premises unto my son Henry Cramlington and his heirs: and 
failing issue, then to my son William Cramlington and his heirs : and failing 
issue to my daughter Ann Harrison wife of Kichard Harrison, of North Shields, 
brewer. 

Of the two sons only the younger, William, occupied any public 
position. He, too, was a roper, and, like many Newcastle mercantile 
men of his day, he had an interest in the salt trade. The Courant of 
18th November, 1752, advertises to be sold or let: 

Four good salt pans at South Shields, with dwelling houses for work people, 
public house, large key, granaries, warehouses, &c., all on the premises. Applica- 
tion to be made to Mr. William Cramlington, Rope-maker, Newcastle, or Mr. 
Richard Harrison, Beer-brewer, in North Shields. 

His first wife was Anne, eldest daughter of William Scott of 
Newcastle, Hoastman, by his first marriage with Isabella, daughter of 
George Noble, 27 and therefore half-sister to lord Stowell and to lord 
Eldon. She died in 1764, at the age of 32, and a contemporary 
newspaper gives her the following inflated character : 

A lady who, in the duties of wife, parent, and daughter, was equalled by few 
and excelled by none. Her humanity of temper, charity, and benevolence were 
so extensive that her death is deservedly lamented, and her known merit makes 
all panegyric unnecessary. 28 

William Cramlingtou remained a widower for eight years, and 
then married Ann, widow of Lewis Hick of Newcastle, hoastman. 

28 The Newcastle Courant, of 30th September, 1749, contains an advertise- 
ment offering a reward for information respecting a gelding stolen from Earsdon, 
and belonging to Lancelot Cramlington of Earsdon, the information to be com- 
municated to him or to his son, Wm. Cramlington, rope maker, ' Keyside,' New- 
castle, or to Henry Cramlington oE Warkworth. 

w Extracts from the letter-book of William Scott, etc. Newcastle, M. A. 
Richardson, 1848. 

"* Newcastle Courant. 2nd June, 1764. 



ANN, WIFE OF SIR JOHN TURNER. 9 

As she was sole executrix to her former husband, power was secured 
to her by the articles before her second marriage, dated 25th April, 
1772, that, notwithstanding coverture, she was to have the full and 
free disposal of all such further estate to which she should become 
entitled. 29 

In 1778 William Cramlington, then one of the Common Council, 
resided at St. Ann's, and had his offices as a fitter and rope maker at 
the foot of the Broad chare. 30 In 1804 he resided ' in Pilgrim Street, 
opposite the east end of Moslej Street,' and had a country house at 
Walbottle, near which place apparently were his coal mines. By his 
second marriage he had no issue, and by his first only one surviving 
child, whose marriage, 1779, is thus announced : 

On Saturday last at All Saints, John Crichloe Turner, esq., one of the auditors 
of the Governors of Greenwich Hospital, to the elegant Miss Cramlington, only 
daughter of Wm. Cramlington, esq., of St. Ann's, with a fortune of 10,000. 31 

Turner was knighted on the 13th February, 1786. Of the 
marriage there was but one child, Anne, who was born and died at 
Chester deanery in 1780. 32 

Alderman Cramlington made his will on the 2nd July, 1804, and 
devised to sir William Scott and John lord Eldon : 

The messuage, dwelling house, and premises wherein I now live, situate in 
Pilgrim Street opposite the east end of Mosley Street, with its appurtenances, 
in trust for my daughter Ann, Lady Turner. I give to my said daughter for life 
the silver cup and stand presented to me by the Corporation of Newcastle, as an 
acknowledgment of sundry services which I have rendered to that body : after 
her death, the same shall become the property of my nephew Henry Cramlington, 
absolutely. 

I give to my said daughter my pew in All Saints church, No. 45, which I 
purchased, and also my family vault in the church yard, of the same church, built 
at my expence. 

To my niece Margaret Cramlington, all furniture, &c., in my dwelling house at 
Walbottle, with all hot houses, gardens and materials used there. The books, 
pictures, and furniture in my private room, to my nephew Henry Cramlington, 
with residue of my estate, he executor. [Will proved 1810. personal estate 
sworn under 5,000.] 

29 The trustees of the settlement were John Baker and George Lake ; and Mrs. 
Cramlington exercised the power secured to her to devise certain personal estate, 
by will dated 1st November, 1800, to the daughters of her first marriage, Alice 
Hick and Elizabeth Hedley. 

30 Whitehead's Directory. 

31 Newcastle Journal, 9th January, 1779. 
311 Letter-book of William Scntt. 



10 THE FAMILY OF CRAMLINaTON : 

Cramlington died in 1810, and is buried at All Saints. 33 An 
account of his municipal career, and of his careful account keeping, 
when mayor, may be found in Mr. Welford's Men of Mark. 

Henry Cramlington, eldest son of Lancelot Cramlington of 
Earsdon, and elder brother of the alderman, succeeded to his father's 
copyhold lands at Earsdon and to his maternal grandfather's lease at 
Birling, on the Percy estates. He resided at the latter place, and 
married, in 1756, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Watson of Wark- 
worth Barns 34 (previously of Gloster Hill and of Newton-by-the-Sea), 
and by her had five sons and five daughters, none of whom married. 
His will, dated 18th July, 1808, devises his copyhold estate at 
Earsdon, and his freehold messuage at Warkworth, to his eldest son 
William, and his issue, with remainder to his other son, Henry. He 
requests that his four daughters, Margaret, Ann, Hannah, and Alice, 
* do live together at Birling in my present dwelling house, if his grace 
the Duke of Northumberland shall so permit.' 

William Cramlington, the eldest son, succeeded to the tenancy of 
Warkworth Barns, held by his maternal grandfather. In 1799 he was 
a cornet in the 2nd troop Percy tenantry volunteers, and died 
unmarried and intestate circa 1829. 35 

Henry Cramlington followed the family trade of roper, and was in 
some measure adopted by his uncle, alderman William Cramlington, 
whose executor and residuary legatee he was. In 1827 he was residing 
at No. 84 Pilgrim street, was an alderman, and three times mayor of 
Newcastle. He died unmarried at Birling on the 22nd May, 1844. 

The Misses Erskine of Warkworth possess two oil paintings by 

38 ' An Inscription on my tombstone in All Saints church yard | " The Family 
vault of William Cramlington Esq Alderman | and one of His Majesty's Deputy 
Lieutenants for the | Town and County of Newcastle upon Tyne | Ann his first 
wife paternal sister of | S r W m Scott, LL.D., His Majesty's Advocate General 
now | 1803 R* Hon S r W m Scott Knt LL.D. Judge of the | High Court of 
Admiralty of England and of his | Brother S r John Scott now Eight Hon. John, 
Lord Eldon | Lord High Chancellor of England. Died 18 May 1764 | aged 31, 
having survived four children who died young, | and leaving Ann her only child 
who married | S r John Greechloe \_sic~] Turner Knt | ." A note iu alderman 
Cramlington's handwriting at the foot of the family pedigree. 

81 Thomas Watson, married .... daughter and coheiress of John Davison, 
of Warkworth Barns, a house within the parish of Warkworth, built by Robert 
Davison in 1658. Cf. The new History of Northumberland, vol. ii. p. 434, and 
Border Holds, vol. i. p. 419. 

35 Letters of administration granted 5th January, 1830, to brother Henry. In 
marked contrast to his brother, William Cramlington had a round, florid, ever 
smiling face. 



ALICE CRAMLINGTON, ' ULTIMA SUOEUM.' 11 

an unknown artist, one is a portrait of Henry Cramlington and the 
other of his sister Miss Alice Cramlington, done at the time when she 
was mayoress of Newcastle. 

Lancelot Cramlington, the third son, in 1799, was a captain in 
the Percy tenantry volunteers. His death is thus recorded in the 
Newcastle Courant of 8th January, 1803 : 

On Sunday last, at his father's house at Birling, Mr. Lancelot Cramlington of 
Walbottle, nephew to Mr. Alderman Cramlington, much respected for his 
integrity and goodness of disposition. 

John Cramlington the fourth son went out to India as a ' Free 
Mariner' and died in Bombay in 1799. The Newcastle Courant of 
llth October, 1800, quotes the following notice from the India Gazette 
of 23rd December, 1799 : 

On Monday last Mr. John Cramlington, whose detail of the dreadful conflict 
between the ' Trincomalee' and 'Iphigenia' was inscribed in our last courier, 
arrived at Bombay in a very bad state of health, in a dow from Muscat, and we 
are sorry to say expired yesterday. 

The Courant adds : 

To a natural openness and candour of disposition he added an unremitted 
attention to the duties of his profession and an undaunted perseverance under 
every difficulty. He had not attained his 30th year and yet had encountered 
greater hardships than usually fall to the lot of humanity. 

The Newcastle Journal of 25th February, 1847, records the 
death : 

At Warkworth, after a long and painful illness, borne with, exemplary 
patience, on the 20th inst., much and deservedly lamented Hannah, fourth 
daughter of the late Henry Cramlington, esq., of Birling, and sister of Henry 
Cramlington, esq., of the same place. 

And there died at Birling on the 10th August, 1855, Miss 
Alice Cramlington, the last survivor of this ancient family. Her 
will is dated 6th September, 1852 : 

I bequeath to Roger Buston of Buston my large silver drinking cup as an 
acknowledgment of my gratitude for kind offices rendered to my late father by 
his father, the late Thos. Buston. To Margery Brunton of Sunderland widow of 
Thomas Brunton 3 * late of Southwick Lime burner 1000 ; to the rev. Robt. Green 
of Newcastle clerk my book case and all my books ; to Wm. Armstrong Treasurer 
of the Borough of Newcastle 200; to my executors 1000 to be applied by 
them to such charities in Newcastle as they shall select and 1 00 for the benefit 
for such poor persons in the village of Warkworth as my said trustees shall deem 
proper objects of charity. Trustees Roger Buston Robert Green and Wm. 

36 In 1808 Thos. Brunton, esq., purchased for 7,000 of E lizabeth countess 
Grey her part of Southwick. Surtees, Durham, vol. ii. p. 18 



12 THE FAMILY OF CRAMLINGTON : 

Armstrong 100 a piece. Estate subject to foregoing legacies to be divided 
amongst my cousins Margaret and Anna Maria Watson of Warkworth spinster, 
my cousin the Hon. Mrs. Erskine wife of the Hon & Rev. Thos. Erskine of 
Beighton clerk. John Thomas Edward and Mary Eeed, Elizabeth wife of Chas 
Eliot sons and daughters of John Reed of Warkworth Barns farmer and John 
Elliot Nelson of Argyle Terrace Newcastle a descendant of the late William 
Wharrier. 87 

The members of the family who died in the parish of Warkworth 
are buried in the nave of the parish church, against the north wall, 
and before the pulpit. 38 Neither epitaph nor any inscription com- 
memorates them, but the short lane north of Birling hamlet which 
conducts the visitor from the Warkworth and Lesbwy high road 
through the ravine in the links, called the Kim-houlan, was made by 
the last survivor of the family, and is still described as ' Miss Cram- 
lington's lane.' 39 

APPENDIX. 

With Bigland's pedigree of Cramlington is interlaced a portion of 
that of the cognate family of Lawson. This I have taken out and 
extended, the additions being shown by the use of italics. 

After the death of Hilton Lawson in 1767 a great .contest arose as 
to the proper construction of his will. It ended in the House of 
Lords on the 28th April, 1777, when the widow and devisee of the 
personalty recovered from the heir of the real estate the amount of 
the testator's debts. In a very few years the family became extinct, 
and the estates devolved, under a provision of Hilton Lawson's will, 
upon his maternal kinsman, Adam de Cardonnell. As the latter was 
not descended from either of the families dealt with in this paper, it 
is not necessary to trace his history, some particulars of which may be 
found under the head of Lawson's hall at Chirton, in the series of 
Mr. Horatio A. Adamson's papers on ' Old Land Marks.' 

17 For most of the wills and administrations quoted above the writer is indebted 
to Mr. J. J. Howe of Durham. 

38 Under pews now numbered 3 and 4. 

M In the possession of Mr. John Wilson of the Hermitage farm, Birling, is a 
handsome ' whistling ' tankard with cover, made in Newcastle in the early years 
of George III. ; on the upper part of the handle are these letters: 
/ C[ramlington] 

H[enry] Elizabeth] 

and on the front. ' Presented to | Mr. Matthew Wilson | of Birling by | Misses 
Ann and Alice Cramlington | for his skill in forming and his readiness in assist- 
ing | them in making a Road to the | Sea Beach | Birling 6th June 1848. | ' 



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13 



LAWSON OF CRAMLINGTON. 

ARMS: Quarterly 1 and 4, argent, a chevron between three martlets sable. 
2 and 3, barry of six argent and azure, in chief three annulets of the last, 
CRAMLINGTON. Visitation. 

Thomas Lawson, sen., de Cramlington tenuet Cramlington et alias terras pro termino vitae 
ex dono quorundamfeofatore A20 Edto. III. 

Thomas Lawson of Cramlington, = Agnes, daughter and heiress 
lieth buried at Cramlington, of Sir Wm. Cramlington. 
died 2nd July, 1489. She died A 1466, 6 Edw. IV. 



William Lawson of Cramlington, in the = daughter of . . Horsley , of 

county of Northumberland, esq. in the county of Northumberland. 



1 

Thomas = 
Lawson 
of Cram- 
lington, 
esq. 


= Eden, 
daughter 
of Sir 
Roger 
Gray of 
Horton, 
knight. 




(3) George 


Robert (a). 

Jane Lawson, 
lastpnoress 
of Nesham, 
will dated 
2nd June, 
1557 (c). 


Lawson, 
second son, 
mayor of 
Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 
1529. Pur- 
chased Byker 
from the \ 


daughter 
of George 
Bertram of 
Neweastle- 
upon-Tyne, 
will dated 
Uth Nov- 
/ ember, 1547 


Lawson (a). 1 daughter 
of Fenwick 
of Brink- 
1 burn (a), 
b 



Cr'jwn, 1540. (c). 
From whom the Lawsons of Brough 
in Richmond are descended. 



Robert Lawson of = 
Cramlington, esq. 
(Called Thomas in 
Visitation.) 


- Elizabeth, daughter 
of Lionel Fenwick 
of Blagdon, in 
Northumberland. 


1 i 
Gerard Lawson 
and William 
Lawson, died 
without issue. 


Mab 
La 
est 
Er 
toi 
Nc 



Thomas Lawson of Cram- = Adinel (Adelina), daughter of George 



lington, in the county of 
Northumberland, esq., 
living anno 1615. I mi. 
p.m. 3rd April, 17 Jos. 



nMUVW \.AU'Cl>fcftu/, llctU&UUCl UUL *JTGU1 gG 

Brabant of the East Park of Brans- 
peth, in the county of Durham. She 
married secondly Roger Anderson of 
Jesmond (who died in 1622), and thirdly, 
before 1636, James Cholmley, some time 
of Branspeth. She was living in 1645 (d). 



Other issue. 



,bell, daughter of Thos. 
Lawson of Cramlington, 
esq., married Lancelot 
Errington of East Den- 
ton, in the county of 
Northumberland, esq. 
~ 



Grace, daughter of Robt. Law- 
son of Cramlington, esq., 
married Thomas Cramling- 
ton of Newsham. She was 
buried at ...... 21st Feb., 

a 1649. . 

*" 



John Lawson of Cramlington. 
In 1619 found to be son and 
heir, under age in 1636. Inq. 
p.m. 15th May, 1645 (6). 



Ann, daughter of William Ross ; 
articles before marriage 30th 
July, 1636, living 1645 (b). 



Katherine, daughter of Thos. 
Lawson of Cramlington, aged 
1 year, anno 1615. 



John Lawson of Cramlington. 
In 1645 found to be son and 
heir. Will dated 2nd Nov., 
1680 (6). 



Mary Isaacson ; articles before 
marriage 26th July, 1670. 
Randolph Isaacson, mer- 
chant, and Anthony Isaacson, 
gent., trustees (b). 



Ralph Lawson, and his two 
sons, John and Richard, 
named in 1680 in will of John 
Lawson (b). 



Rebecca Farr, niece to 
John Lawson, doctor 
of physic. Articles 
before marriage 20th 
and 21st June, 1694 
(6). 


Robert Lawson of Cram.liiv.i- = Margaret, daughter of Henry 
tonandChirton, high sheriff Hilton, baron of Hilton, 
of Northumberland in 1708, Bond of marriage 5th July, 
buried in St. Nicholas' in 1701, buried at Christ Church, 
1737. Will dated 4th Octo- Tynemouth llth October, 
her, 1737 (b). 1729 (b). 


Ann, 
living 
1680. 


Robert Lawson ofCram- 
liugton, son and heir, 
baptised at Tiine- 
mouth, 4lh March, 
1707. A cornet in Field 
Marshal Wade's Re- 
giment of Horse. A d- 
ministration granted 
at Durham 24th Nov., 
1746, to brother, Hilton 
Lawson (b).* 


Hilton Lawson of = Winefred,daughter John Lawson = 
Cramlingion and Chir- and co-heiress of of Barton, 
ton, high sheriff of John Roddam of in Bedjord- 
Northumberland in Chirton. Bond of shire; living 
1767, and died during marriage 12th 1748; diedin 
hisyearofoffice,buried Feb., 1737, and lifetime of 
in St. Nicholas', New- married at Tyne- brother 
castle, 18th Dec., 1767, mouth Uth Feb., Hilton (b). 
aged 63 years. Will 1737/8. Will dated 
dated Uth April, 1748 8th March, 1786(6). 
(6). 




. Ann, 
buried 
at Tyne- 
mouth, 
lOtft 
Jan., 
1713/4(6). 



John Lawson, the younger, devisee of uncle 
Hilton Lawson, died 17.., s.p. (b). 

a Visitation, b Cramlington deeds, c Durham Wills (Start. Soc.). d Surtees, Durham, vol. ii. p. 269. 

* ' To be let at Cramlington, a genteel newly built house, lately inhabited by Robert La 
fit for a gentleman's family 13 acres of rich meadow. Enquire of Hilton Lawson, esq., at 
Newcastle Courant, 21st March, 1747. 



wson, esq. 
t Chirton.' 



14 



II. THE VICARS OF HALTWHISTLE. 

By the Rev. C. E. ADAMSON. 
[Read on the 26th August, 1896.] 

Some time in the last quarter of the twelfth century, William the 
Lion granted the church of Haltwhistle to the convent of Aber- 
brothock, and doubtless some provision was immediately made for the 
service of the church, but there does not seem to be any record of the 
'ordination of a vicarage,' or of a 'perpetual vicar' until one hundred 
years later. At the same time, we may note that the values assigned 
respectively to the rectory of Haltwhistle and to the portion of 
Radulphus de Bosco in the taxatio of 1254 are practically the same as 
those assigned in the ' Antigua Taxa Ecclesiarum ' of 1306 to the 
rectory and to the portion * Vicariae Eju&dem? suggesting chat 
Radulphus de Bosco was in that year at least an acting vicar. 

In 1277, Walter de Merton died, leaving 25 marks to 'Hautwyse' 
as one of the places where he had held preferment ; but we do not 
know whether that preferment was the rectory or the vicarage. 

The next notice appears to be a deed quoted by Hodgson to the 
effect that Thomas de Tughall, perpetual vicar of Haltwhistle, had a 
grant of land in Wydon from Alexander Fetherstonhalgh, 26 June, 
1306. 

The names of several vicars following each other in very rapid 
succession occur in Kellawe's register, covering the disturbed period 
which ensued upon the death of Edward I. on Burgh Sands, in 
Cumberland. The clergy had made a grant of one-fifteenth of their 
incomes to the king, but in 1314 the bishop reports that it is im- 
possible to levy anything at Halfcwhistle, because everything had been 
burnt by the Scots and other malefactors; and in 1315 the bishop 
further reports, in answer to a repeated application, that none of his 
servants dares to go to Haltwhistle for fear of the Scots, and that there 
are no parishioners living there. 

In 1329, Robert de Dyghton occurs as parson, having been 
instituted on the appointment of Edward II., but as his appointment 
was a mistake, and as the term 'parson' is usually equivalent to 
rector, it may be that he should not be included in a list of vicars, 



AD. 12541316 15 

and, indeed, there seems to be evidence that David de Harreys was 
vicar from 1316 until 1338, the one long incumbency of this period. 
The lists 1 in the Auckland MS. and in the Randal MS. (and prac- 
tically that in Hodgson also) commence with Thomas Fox (1352), and 
it seems likely that this denotes a change in patronage, but it was not 
until 1385 that a final settlement was made. In 1329, it was decided 
that the patronage was not in the king but in the abbot and convent 
of Aberbrothock, but the king seems shortly after to have resumed it 
as an escheat, and in 1385 it was settled that, while the rectory went 
to Tynemouth priory, the patronage of the vicarage should be in the 
bishop of Durham, with whom it remained until the re- arrangement 
of episcopal patronage which took place about the middle of this 
century. It has now been again transferred to the bishop of the 
diocese, i.e. of Newcastle. 

RADULPHUS DE Bosco, occurs 1254. 

? WALTER DE MERTON, died 1277. 

THOMAS DE TUGHALL, occurs 1306 as * perpetual vicar.' 

ROBERT DE PYKWBLL, occurs 1311. 

Having been carried off prisoner by the Scots, Robert de Pykwell 
received licence in 1311 to let his vicarage to pay his ransom. In 1313 
there is a release of a sequestration, as the abbot had fully satisfied the 
king. (Qu. Does this not apply to the rectory ?) 

ROBERT DE AVERNER, in 1315 was summoned to London to answer a 

plea. 
DAVID DE HARREYS : in 1316 a mandate for his induction was 

addressed to the vicar of Kirkhaugh. Hodgson quotes a deed 

about Williamston in Knaresdale, dated 1338, in which David 

Harate, vicar of Haltwhistle, is mentioned. 

During this incumbency there are records of the ordination of William 
de Hautwysill and Thomas de Hautwysell to be acolytes in 1334, of John de 
Hautwysel to the first tonsure in 1335, and in 1337 of Thomas de Hautwysel 
as priest, ' ad titulum quinque marcarum de Thoma de Blenkanshop.' 
William de Hautewysel died 1340, holding the chantry of Bathelspitel, near 
Darlington. 

In 1329 a commission sat at Newcastle to enquire into the case of 
Robert de Dyghton, who had been instituted as parson of Haltwhistle on 

1 The Auckland list is quoted as A., Randal's as R., and Hodgson's as H. 
The Auckland list appears to be in the writing of Dr. C. Hunter, and it may be 
that Hatfield's register was the earliest accessible to these antiquaries. 



16 THE VICARS OF HALT WHISTLE : 

the appointment of Edward II., when it was decided that the patronage did 
not lie in the king, but in the abbot of Aberbrothock. 

HUGO DE HAGWORTHINGHAM, ' Vicarius ecclesiae de Hautwesel,' and 
WALTER DE FARNEDALE, 'Vicarius sanctae Werburgae in Hoo 
Roffensis diocesis,' exchanged livings in 1338. 

Hugh had been ordained in 1337, ' ad titulttm domus de Burwell per 
literas dimissorias domini Lincolnensis.' He does not appear to have been 
instituted to Haltwhistle. 

Walter was instituted 5 Sep., 1338. In 1341 he was collated to the 
mastership of the chapel and manor of Leysingby [Lazenby], in Alverton- 
shire, and another reference, ' millesimo ccc mo , xlii, ii nonas Augusti,' 
describes him as master of the hospital of ' Illisshagh ' [Elishaw, in Redes- 
dale]. Kellawe's register II. pp. 408, 435. 

WILLIAM DE WYNSTONE was collated 8 April, 1339. 

The fact that he was ' collated ' suggests that the patronage had now 
passed as an escheat with the franchise of Tindale from the abbey of 
Aberbrothock or the crown of Scotland to the bishop of Durham. 

THOMAS Fox, 1852. 

JOHN DE LEDECOMBE, 1861, p.m. Fox. 

RICHARD DE BARTON, 1370, p.m. Ledcombe. 

JOHN DEYVILL, 1879, p. res. Barton. 

STEPHEN DE BROUGHTON, occurs 1380 (Hatfield's register, p. 175). 

Litera Purgationis vicarii de Hautwysill . . . Thoma Dunelmen. Epis. 
. . . D nm Stephanum de Broughton perpetuum Vicarium Ecclesiae parochiae 
de Hautwysill per nos fuisse vocatum ad respondendum super certis articulis 
salutem animae suae concernentibus quos eidem objecimus . . . quod ipse 
in Amplexibus fornicariis tenuisset quandam Agnetam de Rukeby postquam 
correctus fuerat. . . . Item quod adulteratus fuisset cum quadam Alicia 
uxore Henrici de Ditton mason : Item quod polluisset Ecclesiam suam prae- 
dictam fornicando cum quadam Johanna Famula Willielmi Brothok. . . . 
Hunter MSS. iii. 224, without date. In Hatfield's register it occurs in the 
records of the fifteenth year of his pontificate, dated 19th April, 1380. 
Hunter, in his very fragmentary list, places him before Dey vill, to whom he 
assigns the date 1384. 

THOMAS DE HEXHAM, occurs Aug. 5, 1391, not in A. or H., but R. 
gives ' p.m. Dey vill,' and quotes : 

' E copyhold Books anno 1 usque 12 mo Skirlaw Pag 25 Placita Halmo- 
torum apud Esynton Aug 5 anno p. 3 anno Regis Richardi II. 15 Dns 
Episcopus mandavit litteras Thoma Gray Senescallo quod T. de Hexham 
Vicarius de Hautevesell haberet ad firmam j gardinum et j vivarium in 
eodem gardino in villa de Esyngton et j stagnum vel vivarium in communi 
mora villae predictae &c Redd. an. xiij* iiij d .' 



A.D. 13161564. 17 

THOMAS BYEDALE, 1392. 

THOMAS DE WESTWYK, 1408, p. res. Byrdale. 

In 1423 a licence for an oratory in a chapel ' apud Wyllymoteswyke ' was 
granted to John Bellasis and Alice his wife to have mass, 2nd Octr. [Hunter 
MS.] The chapel may have been Beltingham chapel, which tradition has 
assigned to Willimoteswick as a private chapel. (See Rotherham's Visita- 
tion answers in 1774, quoted below.) 

JOHN BUENE, occurs 1432. 

In 1452 bishop Langley issued a commission to John Brygg, vicar of 
Corbridge, to warn the parishioners of Symonburn. Bothbury, Hautwysell, 
and Stamfordham to repair their churches. 

ROBEET FABIANE, vicar of Haltwhistle, witnesses a deed, August 4, 

1467, H. not in A. or R. 
ROBEET STEVENSON, presbyter of the parish and seneschal of * Hawt- 

wesill,' witnesses an admittance to a burgage in that town, 1473. 

H. not in A. and R. 
WILLIAM STEVENSON, occurs the same year. Probably the same 

person wrongly described. 
JOHN RAMESSEY, 1501. 

At the visitation of Thomas Savage, archbishop of York (sede Dunelm. 
vacante), the churchwardens ' Eeiginaldus Carricke, Nicholaus Ridley, Adam 
Bowman, Willielmus Ridley dicunt omnia bene.' 

JOHN RIDLEY, d'nus [Joseph : H.; not in A.] 

In Tunstall's register, at the collation of N. Lawes, the parchment is 
defective where the Christian name of his predecessor occurs, but it appears 
to be Johannis. 

NICHOLAS LAWES, cl., Aug. 6, 1535, p.m. Dni Rydley, cl.,not in A. 

D'nus N. Lawes, resign, p'bendam de Tytchys in Eccl. de Awklande, 
Jan. 1535, Tunstall, p. 23. R. and H. give 1553. 

NICHOLAS CAEHAWE, cl., 9 April, 1554, per deprivationem ultimi 
Incumbentis. 

This name is also spelt Crawhall, Crasshall, and Crawhawe. Carbawe is 
the spelling in Tunstall's register. 

He was formally inhibited ab ingressn ecclesiae, and cited to appear at 
Auckland manor house on 16th April, 1662, and, on not appearing, excom- 
municated 8th June, 1562, by bishop Pilkington for contumacy. 

THOMAS MAESHALL, Pbr., Dec. 18, 1564, p. depr. Carhawe. 

In 11 Nov., 1575, a complaint of irreverent behaviour at the communion 
at Beltingham chapel by Beatrix Crawhall, widow and gentlewoman, aged 

VOL. xix, 3 



18 THE VICARS OP HALTWHISTLE : 

about 60, is quoted in Surtees Soc. Publ. xxi. 301. She may have been the 
widow of the last incumbent. 

Thomas Marshall was reported ' aegrotat ' at the visitation of Jan. 1677-8, 
but he appeared personally later in the same year when he was not ex- 
amined, being ' probably a person of acknowledged learning.' In Jan., 
1578/9, he was infirm. The visitation lists show that Christopher Ridley 
was an unlicensed curate in 1577/8, and he was also present in 1579. 
Martaine Liddail occurs the next year. Jacob Golightly was parish clerk. 

1579, Hawtwesell . The office of judge against Matthew Ridley, Geo. 
Foster, William Tweddail, and Thomas Ormesby, churchwardens. 'Their 
churchyerd unfensed a pece of wyndow not repaired church unwhited.' 
Admonished. 

The value of the living is stated thus : ' Vic. Hawtewisill xijZ. iij*. [601. 
alias 50Z.]' Barnes, Clams Ecclesiastica, Surt. Soc. Publ. xxii. 9. 

Marshall died 1580 (his will being proved March 17, R.) 

ROBERT SIMPSON, A.B., Mar. 16, 1580, p.m. ult. Inc. (Barnes 

Register.) [A. 1579, i.e., 15|$.] H. gives Richard. 
ROBERT PEARSON. 1598. 
JOHN WILKINSON, March 13, 1613. 

Wilkinson, John, of Yorks. Pleb. Merton Coll., Matric. 18 May, 1604, 
aged 19, B.A., 13 Feb. 1606-7, perhaps vicar of Haltwhistle, Northumber- 
land. Foster. 

ROBERT DIXON, A.M., Mar. 23, 1616, p.m. Wilkinson. R. and H. 
(A. says Instit. Feb. 10, 1623.) 

The episcopal register for these dates is not in the diocesan registry. 

It appears as if the date in the Auckland list had got into the wrong line, 
and the compiler had supposed that 1623 in the second case was a miswriting 
for 1628. 

Dixon was previously rector of Cockfield : (Cockfield : Robt. Dixon, A.M., 
April 13, 1575, p.m. Baylis, Timothy Bossall p. res. Dixon, June 24, 1616. 
Staindrop : Rob. Dixon, 1616, curatus sequestrator, 1617. Mackenzie's 
Durham.) 

THOMAS ASTELL, A.B., Feb. 10, 1623, bp. Neile's register [A. has 
also 1628], p.m. Dixon cl. 

He may have been of the Newcastle family of this name. See Welf ord's 
Men of Mark, i. 122. 

In 1625 (apparently on taking his M.A. degree) he was appointed to 
preach and propound the Word of God throughout the whole diocese of 
Durham. 

He resigned the vicarage of Mitford, 10th October, 1621 : R. 

1627, October 5. ' Thomas Harriman clerke .... hath keept an aile 
house for 3 yeares last past and is much addicted to Drunkenesse. Heard 
Harriman call M r Astell asse and foole upon some suites that were then 



A.D. 15801633. 19 

depending betwixt them for tythes. About 5 years ago .... a child to 
be christened ... at which tyme Harriman was soe drunk that he could 
not stand. . . .' (Surtees Soc. Publ. xxxiv. 5.) 

' Apud Dunelm. xxif die Novemb A D ni 1627. The office of the com- 
missioners promoted by Astell vicar of Haltwesle ag 8 * Jo Ridley of Halt- 
wesle.' The subject-matter of the dispute is not mentioned, but see Surtees 
Soc. Publ. xxxiv. 6 'John Ridley's house is very neere to the churchyard 
of Haltwesle and hath a doore issueing into the church and hath heretofore 
made a common stackyard for hay and strawe in the Churchyard and 
pleadeth custom for the same. The denying of the said Ridley to make the 
Churchyard a stackyard is as deponent thinketh the first grudge that he 
had towards M r Thomas Astell vicar there,' etc. 

1629. The Consistory books contain the particulars of a suit against 
Astell for stealing a chest from the vestry, not accounting for sacramental 
offerings, etc. Surtees Soc. Publ. xxxiv. 5. 

HUMPHREY DACRES, A.M., 1633. 

Dacre, Humphrey, of Cumberland, Gent. Queen's Coll., Matric. 21 Nov., 
1628, aged 19, B.A.,from St. Edmund Hall, 17 Dec.. 1632, as Dacres vicar of 
Thirkleby, Yorks., 1634, and of Haltwhistle, Northumberland, 1635. Foster. 

1635. ' John Raper of Haltwesle clerk aiged 33 for 2 year's last past 
curat at Haltwesle. At Easter the vicar and curat both did goe (as usually 
every year they doe) to Beltingham chapell to administer the Holy 
Communion.' Surtees Soc. Publ. xxxiv. 136. 

' That the parish of Haltwistle is a viccaridge of the yearely value of 
Fiftye pounds that the donac'on thereof was formerly in the late Bishop of 
Durham and is now in the State the last Incumbent was Mr Humfrye 
Dacres lately dischardged from the said Cure by the Commission 1 " 8 for the 
Ministrye in the said Countye And Further the Jurye doe finde that the 
Rectorye of the said parish of Haltwistle is of the yearely value of one 
hundred thirtye and Nyne pounds and the proffitts thereof Received by 
Edward Fewicke of Stanton Esq re for the vse of the State and Francis 
Nevill of Cheate that their is belonging to the said parish of Haltwistle the 
Chappell of Beltingham, scittuate about Fowre myles from the said Church 
w ch is now allmost quite Ruinate att w ch Chappell those who formerly had 
the Rectorye of Haltwistle did maynteyne a Reading Minister. 2 An 
Inquisic'on Taken at Morpeth in the Countye of Northumberland the first 
daye of June in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand Six hundred and 
Fiftye.' The ' Oliverian Survey' Lambeth Palace Library, Parliamentary 
Surveys, vol. xiii., p. 168. 

2 The minor order of reader is now disused in our Church, but in the reign 
of Elizabeth readers, not being either priests or deacons, were in many cases 
appointed by the Bishops to read the service in churches by reason of the dearth 
of clergy and the poverty of benefices. They were not allowed to preach, or to 
administer either of the sacraments. They were taken out of the laity, trades- 
men or others ; any that was of sober conversation and honest behaviour, and 
that could read and write. They seemed not wholly to forbear their callings, 
but were not countenanced to follow them, especially if they were mechanical. 
And they went in some grave habit, as might distinguish them from others. 
Strype, Annals of the Reformation. 



20 THE VICARS OP HALTWHISTLE : 

There is no mention of Haltwhistle either in Calamy, or in Walker. 

' M r Humphrey Dacres of Haltwhistle is presented by the church- 
wardens for a notorious drunkard, being soe drunke on the first Sonday in 
this yeare as he could not doe service in the Church. There are sundry other 
foule & scandalous informac'ons, brought in publikely against him, by 
occasion where of many of that parish are said to be fallen away to popery.' 
With such a reputation, it is little wonder that we find ' Haltwesle : In bad 
repaire,' and yet again ' Haltwesle has been alwaies supplied. The im- 
propriator, Mr. Nevell of Cheat. The impropriac'on, valued at 300" per 
annu'. Hath a competent maintenance. The vicaridge being lett at p'sent 
at 70" p' annu'.' 'A View of the Ecclesiastical State within the Archdea- 
conry of Northumberland, anno 1663,' as quoted in Arch. Ael. xvii. 257. 

ROBERT PRIESTMAN, occurs Ap. 1677. R. [Not in A.] 

The bowl of the font seems to have been recut during his incumbency ; 
it bears the initials R. P., and the date 1676. 

THOMAS PATE, 01. 1687. 

He built the school house at his own ex pence. 

In 1689, several of y Lords of Mannors & tenants of Freehold estates 
scituate * * * * took down & built anew several stalls or pews 
standing within y c body of y Ch which were much out of Repair (to y e 
number in all of 23) at their own proper costs' & charges. After y e 
erection . . . com on . . . May 23 1689 directed to Major Algood cl. Geo. 
Ritschell cl. Tho. Pate cl. Geo. Lowthian cl. Rob. Troutbeck cl. and to 
some lay gentlemen .... to set out fitting seats to all ye parishioners 
answerable to their respective Degrees & Qualities. . . . We do assign 
unto y e s d Lord of y e Mannor [Mr. Pearson] . . . y e pew on y e north side 
next y e chancel. Randall MSS. B 46, page 40. 

With the exception of a few entries belonging to 1656 and 1657, the 
registers commence during this incumbency. The first entry in one book 
is ' 1691, March 8th, Barbara, daughter to Thomas Pate, Vicar of Halt- 
whistle.' Further on we find ' Judith, daughter of Thomas Pate and 
Elizabeth his wife,' was baptized Mar. 25, 1697, died Feb. 9, 1698, buried 
eodem die, and on Feb. 24, 1722/3 ' M r Thomas Pate, of the Woodhead, 
Vicar of Haltwestle, then buried.' 

The original writing in the Auckland list (i.e., that apparently 
by Dr. Hunter) ends here, the next entries having been added by 
later hands. 
MARTIN NIXON, A.M., Ap. 3, 1723 [R. 1720 3 *]. 

The true date is proved by the following entry in the church 
register : 

June y* 23 th 1723. We whose names are hereunder written do certify 
that Martin Nixon Master of Arts Vicar of Halt-whisle did read morning & 
evening prayer in y c Parish Church of Halt-wisle aforesaid w th y c 39 Art of 

* The date corrected thus. 



A.D. 16771755. 21 

the Church of England in y time divine service ; & at y e end thereof open, 
publickly before the Congregation then there assembled read the 2 Declara- 
tions requir'd by Act of Parliament in y c 14 of King Charles the second 
1662 wit' our hands the day & year above written. 

[Signed by ' Christopher Thompson' and five others.] 

Sometime curate under R d W. Wekett at Branspeth, co. Durham. R. 
Rector de Woller, 1749. A. In 1749, Geo. Scollough was licensed as 
curate at a salary of 25. A. Bur. Oct. 19, 1755. R. But the Church 
Register '1755, October 17 th the Rev M r Martin Nixon Vicar of Halt- 
whistle.' 

Archdeacon Sharpe visited the parish church in 1723, and he appears to 
have been quite satisfied with what he saw, except that there was no cover 
for the font, and this he did not press, because he understood that the parish 
was about to provide a new font. His visit to Beltingham chapel was not 
so satisfactory, nor were his endeavours to secure provision for a minister 
successful, as we see by the following reports : 

' Beltingham visited September 12th, 1723. I found an old font and an 
old Communion Table. But no vestm*. vessel or book, save one Common 
prayer book given by M r Ridley. The chancell paved, but very uneven. 
The Chappell never hath been paved. What seats there were are broken 
down. An old pulpit, no reading desk. The walls want plaistering. 
There is a large hole at y c west end, where pidgeons enter & make the 
Chappell a perfect Dove-court. It is capable of being well repaired & 
adorn'd at an easy expence, for notwithstanding these defects of furniture 
in y e inside, there is an excellent roof (y c timber mostly Irish oak), good 
walls, Good Windows & Doors, & were it in order would be a beautifull 
chappell. 

I did not visit this Chapell a second time when I was in those parts, 
because it was to no purpose to look after y e repairs or furniture of it till 
provision could be made for a minister to officiate therein. 

But notwithstanding it was certified to me that S r Edward Blackett 
had upon my former instances laid out a sufficient sum to put this Chappel 
into good repair & make it fit for divine service, but nothing is yet done 
towards ye provision of a minister, tho' I renewed my application to 
S r Edw d , & brought M r Ridley to consent he w d allow handsomely towards 
it if S r Edw d w d join in y c contribution.' 

' This chappel is in Haltwistle parish but hath at present no endowment. 
The late S r Edw d Blacket, who has an estate there did allow for many year 
10 1 ' per annum to a minister for serving there. I have applied to y e pres* 
S r Edw d & to Mr. Bacon of Staward for an allowance to y same use, but 
nothing is yet done. 

M r John Lowes of Whitsheilds who left 15 U to ye poor of Ridley 
Lordship, left it w 01 this condition that if there shall be a fund settled to 
keep a minister at Beltingham Chappell then the interest of y e said fifteen 
pound to go to y e maintenance of the said minister. 

M r Bacon did once propose to give an hundred pound towards y c aug- 
mentation of this place & to raise another hundred upon S r Edward 
Blacket, settling 10 1 p. ann. out of his estate during his life (for he hath 



22 THE VICARS OF HALTWHISTLE : 

only a life interest therein) but there being some sort of misunderstanding 
between M r Bacon & S r Edw" 1 this proposal could never be brought to bear 
tho' at the same time S r Edw d has declared himself willing to come into any 
measures to have that Chappell endowed. This I had from them both. 

M r Nixon, Vicar of Haltwhistle, likewise told me that if those gentle- 
men would raise between them 15 U p. ann. towards a curate's salary, he 
would allow him 15 1 more to take ye trouble of that part of ye parish off 
his hands.' 

The will of John Lowes, to which the archdeacon refers, proceeds : ' and 
to be ordered at the discretion of four men, vizt. : William Lowes of Ridley 
Hall George Woodman of Medgewham John Ridley of Burnhouse and 
William Atkinson of Penpugh.' The will is dated 26th October, 1709, and 
probate was granted 9th December, 1710. This bequest seems to have dis- 
appeared. 

Easter Tuesday 1725. Agreed by y e Vicar & Twelve gentlemen & Prin- 
cipal inhabitants of this Parish y* y c vacant places in y Church shall be 
supplyed with pues at y publick charge. Martin Nixon vicar. 

Bishop Chandler has left notes of a visitation, held probably in 1736, in 
which he calls the vicar Dan Nixon. Value 100 U . Catechism in summer, 
sacrament 3 times, 200 come at Easter, 30 at Whitsunday, 3 Presbyterian 
families, one Papist. A conventicle where they assemble in summer. 

EDWARD WILSON, 01. B.A., 1755, p.m. Nixon. 

[H. 1735, but the date of his subscription at Auckland is 20 Oct., ] 755, 
which agrees with the date of Nixon's death, and with the entry of his 
induction in the Haltwhistle register. He signs with a very neat signature.] 

Wilson, Edward, s. William, of Heversham, Westmorland, pleb. Queen's 
coll., matric. 29 Oct., 1735, aged 16, B.A. 1740, vicar of Haltwhistle, rector 
of Waddington, and Stockton-upon-Tees, died May 28, 1799, father of 
William, of Lincoln coll., 1776, who was afterwards rector of Wolsingham. 
See Gentleman's Mag. 1799, i. 531. Foster. 

He was licensed to Stainton, under the Rev. Vane, 20 Aug., 1754, at a 
salary of 30 : R. He married Nixon's youngest daughter Mary in 1756. 
One of the Haltwhistle registers contains a curious soliloquy on matrimony 
in this vicar's handwriting ; and there are various informal entries about 
other matters. He was inducted 'Oct. 25, 1755, by the Rev. Mr. Railton, 
Vicar of Knaresdale.' 

' Sacrament Days at Haltwhistle are as follow : On Christmas Day, 
December 25 ; on Good Friday, on Easter Day ; on Low Sunday, or first 
Sunday after Easter ; on Whit Sunday, and on Michaelmas Day when It 
happens on a Sunday ; or Else on the Sunday w ch is nearest to that festival. 
1765. Witness my hand, E. Wilson, Vicar. We have since fixed the last 
Sacrament day to the first Sunday in October in every year. 1768 E. 
Wilson, Vicar.' 

' N.B. Abraham Earnshaw was excommunicated on the 4 th day of Sep- 
tember, 1768, in the parish church of Haltwhistle by M r Railton, Rector of 
Knaresdale and curate pro tewpore for M r Edward Wilson, Vicar.' Halt- 
whistle register. 



A.D. 1755-1782. 23 

The dates of his subsequent appointments are thus given in Mackenzie's 
Durham: 'Washington: Rectors, Edward Wilson, 18 Aug. 1768, p.m. 
Bland ; Chas. Egerton, 4 Sep. 1786, p.r. Wilson. Stockton : Vicars, Edward 
Wilson, 1786, p. res. Anstey; John Brewster, 1799. 

THOMAS ROTHERHAM, M.A., Oct. 11, 1768, by resignation of Wilson. 

The elder son of the headmaster of Haydon Bridge school. 

Rotherham, Thomas, s. William, of Haydon Bridge, Northumberland, 
cler. Queen's coll., matric. 24 May, 1737, aged 18, B.A. 6 Feb., 1740-1, M.A. 
1744. Foster. 

From 1744-1753 he was a professor in Codrington college, Barbadoes. 
He was obliged to resign this appointment through ill-health, and on his 
return he was for a short time curate of Gt. Stainton. He was also vicar of 
Grindon and chaplain at Sherburn hospital. 

' The venerable simplicity of M r Rotherham's character & 'manners 
rendered him here & wherever he was known an object of universal 
esteem & respeqt.' One noticeable point in the character of this vicar was 
the affection which existed between himself and his younger brother John, 
whom he assisted through his college course, and who joined him at Cod- 
rington college. [Rotherham, John s. William, of Haydon Bridge, North- 
umberland, cler. Queen's coll., matric. 18 March, 1744-5, B.A. 1748, M.A. 
by decree 11 Dec., 1753. Percy fellow University college 1760, rector of 
Houghton-le-Spring and vicar of Seaham, co. Durham, 1769, until his death 
24 July, 1789. Foster.] 

1768, Oct. 14. John Sharp, D.D., Archdeacon of Northumberland, 
visited the church and ordered That all the pews in the church be furnished 
with moveable kneeling boards low flat and broad. That a Cover for the 
Font be provided. That a new stone Threshold for the Chancel Door be 
provided. That a new Bell at least of equal weight with the present one 
be provided. That the remaining heaps of Rubbish against the Church and 
Chancel be removed. That one Casement be made on each side of the 
Church and one on each side of the Chancel. That the pulpit and Reading 
Deask be raised in such manner as the Vicar shall direct & painted White. 
That a stool or moveable kneeling Board low and flatt be provided for the 
Reading Desk cover'd and stuff'd .... and monished Matthew Ridley and 
Isaac Thirlwell churchwardens &c., &c.' 

The vicar reports to the bishop, under date 18th July, 1774, that he has 
lately rebuilt part of the vicarage house, that public service is read every 
Lord's day, between the hours of ten and twelve in the morning and two and 
three in the afternoon. A sermon is constantly preached every Lord's day, on 
Christmas day, and Good Friday during morning service. Prayers are also 
read on the public fasts and festivals and in Passion week, beginning at 
eleven in the morning. Catechizing in Lent and on the four Sundays after 
Easter. The Holy Communion six times in each year, viz. : on Christmas 
Day, Good Friday, Easter Day, Sunday after Easter, Whit-Sunday, and the 
Sunday nearest to the Feast of S. Michael. Communicants, 60 at Christ- 
mas, 1 20 at Easter, 40 at Whitsuntide, and 30 at Michaelmas. There is a 
resident curate, John Farrer, who is in priest's orders but not licensed by 
his diocesan. 



24 THE VICARS OF HALTWHISTLE : 

Beltingham chapel is served by Rev. Mr. Harrison, master of the Free 
school at Haydon Bridge, once a fortnight in the afternoon. The chapel at 
Beltingham is not deemed parochial, but a domestic or private chapel to 
Willimotswick, formerly the seat of the ancient family of the Ridleys, of 
which Sir Edward Blackett is now proprietor. 

T. Rotherham died 5 April, 1782, while visiting his brother at Houghton- 
le-Spring, as ' John Farrer Curate ' has carefully recorded both in the 
Vestry Book and in the Register. 

The impression given by the vestry records during this incumbency is 
that Rotherham was an active vicar who took care to have all things 
decent and orderly and that he was very methodical in his conduct of 
his duties. 

RANDAL'S list now fails us, and it may 'be worth while to give 
his note on the church and parish as he found them at this date : 
'Archdeaconry of Northumberland, Deanery of Corbridge, Haute- 
wisill Vicarage Holy Cross w th Beltingham Chapel decy d S. Cuthbert, 
Kings B. 12. 13. 1^, year T 1. 4. 8|, Proc. Episc. 0. 7. 8, Proc. 
Arcid. 0. 12. 0, Pen. Epo. D. 0. 13. 4, real v. 150. 0. 0. The church 
consists of 3 Isles pewed w th oak, the roof lofty as is the acute Arch 
vnto y e chancel, the window above y e Altar gothick & stately. It & 
the Vicarage house stand on the S. side of the Tyne, by the river a 
peice ground now pt of the Vic. glebe called the Chy d where y e 
Church stood once.' 

The church and the vicarage are on the north side of the Tyne, 
but the ' peice ' of ground is on the south side near Bellister castle. 

The dedication is stated in the Auckland book to be to S. Aidan. 
See Arch. Ael xiii. 324. 
HUGH NANNEY, M.A., 12 Aug., 1782, on the death of Rotherham. 

Nanney, Hugh s. Lewis, of Dolgelly, co. Merioneth, arm. Jesus coll., 
matric. 21 March, 1763, aged 17, B.A. 1769, M.A. 1772 (Foster). 

He was ordained deacon at Oxford, 26 Dec., 1769, and priest at Hartle- 
bury castle, 21 Sept., 1771. He married Barbara, only daughter of Thomas 
Middleton of River Green, Northumberland, and his son Lewis Nanney, 
J.P., continued to reside at Haltwhistle on property which his father had 
acquired. Two Misses Nanney occupied a house near the north-west corner 
of the Market place. 

In 1792 he returns the same number of services as his predecessor in 
1774, but the number of communicants has fallen from 120 to 30. The 
Presbyterian meeting house in Haltwhistle is now served by a licensed 
preacher, Mr. Thomas Smith. The Methodists at Coanwood and the Quakers 
at Thorngrafton have riding preachers for their teachers. There is no 
Sunday school. Beltingham chapel is served by the curate of Whitfield. 



A.D. 17821829. 25 

1783, April 22. At a vestry meeting it was ' ordered that a proper Hood 
for the Rev d M r Nanney the Vicar of this parish, he being a Master of Arts, 
be ordered to be made as soon as possible.' 

In 1792 the roof of the church was pronounced ruinous, and it was deter- 
mined to take off the lead roof and ' to put on a substantial slate roof ' in 
accordance with the plans ' drawn by John Harley of this parish, carpenter.' 
The cost of this and other works was 229 15s. In 1799 a new roof was put 
upon the north aisle at a cost of 40. In 1800 the outside was covered with 
rough cast. 

On the whole Nanney seems to have been a popular vicar, and to have 
had the goodwill of the parish in his efforts to improve the church. 

NATHANIEL JOHN HOLLINGSWORTH, M.A., 29 July, 1809. 

Rollings worth, Nathaniel John s. John, of Battersea, Surrey, Gent. 
St. John's Coll., matric. 29 June, 1789, aged 18, scholar 1789-92, fellow 
1792, B.A. 1793, M.A. 1796, rector of Boldon, co. Durham, 1829, until his 
death 3 Oct., 1839. (Foster.) 

He married Lucy Compton, daughter of Timothy Neve, D.D., Margaret 
Professor of Divinity. He was the author, among other works, of ' A Few 
Practical Sermons,' and of ' Fleurs : a Poem in Four Books.' 

The following notice about Beltingham chapel appears to belong to this 
incumbency : About five or six miles from the mother church, claimed as 
a domestic ch. by Sir B. Blackett, who allows a salary of 5 ga s & the 
tenants subscribe about half that sum annually, being y e whole allowance. 
It not being liable to the visitation charge, y e sacram 1 is not administered 
in it, tho' attended by a decent & at times a numerous congregat". 
Prayers & a sermon once a fortnight on Sunday afternoon. 

Greenhead chapel was built mainly through the zeal and exertions of 
the Rev. N. J. Hollingsworth, who himself contributed 200 one quarter 
of the total cost. 

The early years of this incumbency were also a time of energetic efforts 
to ' improve ' the church and to increase the accommodation. The im- 
provements were in 1811 met by a voluntary subscription of 213. The 
increase in the accommodation was paid for by the sale of the new pews at 
an average price of about 12. Thos. Tinling, contractor for the various 
works, offered in 1812 to erect a new gallery costing 89 on the condition 
that the pews should be sold by auction, the church to receive any balance 
but not to make up any deficiency. The sale realized 115 14s. Od. 
Evidently the church prospered under Vicar Hollingsworth. 

October 8th, 1812. At a meeting .... resolved that the chapel of 
Beltingham be allowed by this meeting to be claimed as a chapel of ease 
by the three townships of Ridley, Henshaw, and Thorngrafton, in order 
that Sir Win. Blackett. Bart., according to the proposal of Mr. Hopper 
Williamson, may legally renounce his claim to the same. 

In 1826 the church accounts, under ' Collected on Sacramentall 
occasions,' show items for the first Sunday in each month in addition to 
Good Friday, Easter Day, Whit Sunday, and Christmas Day. The collec- 
tions at Beltingham occur quarterly. Under Vicar Ives the ' occasions ' at 
VOL. xix. 4 



26 THE VICARS OF HALTWHISTLE : 

Haltwhistle seem to be five times a year. Vicar Lowes on his appointment 
at once increased the ' occasions ' to monthly and Great Festivals, and after- 
wards to weekly. 

In 1 827 Rev. Mr. Benson occurs as curate officiating at Beltingham. 
In 1842 he was present when the archdeacon visited Haltwhistle church, 
and he is described as curate of Beltingham and Greenhead. 

' Memorandum of a Parochial Visitation held by the archdeacon of 
Northumberland, Sept. 12, 1828, held in the church of the Holy Cross in the 
vicarage of Haltwhistle. Present : The Rev. N. J. Hollingsworth, A.M., 
vicar ; the Rev. James Fox, A.B., curate ; the Rev. Francis Benson, A.M., 
do. ; Mr. Michael Walker, of Haltwhistle, M r Robert Dixon, of Ollalee, 
churchwardens. The church is in admirable order and reflects great credit 
on the liberality of the parishioners. The plate for the service of the altar 
is however insufficient. 

Signed, Thos. Singleton, Archdeacon of Northumberland.' 
' Haltwhistle. No canonical decoration is omitted in this church, from 
the king's arms at the west end to the crimson velvet cover of the com- 
munion table at the east end. I was well pleased to see over the vestry 
door a large table on which was painted a catalogue of benefactions. There 
are four churchwardens, appointed conjointly by the minister and select 
vestry of twelve. The revenues of the benefice amount to about 600 per 
annum, exclusive of 12 acres of ancient glebe in Haltwhistle and. 1 think, 
330 in Melkridge and Henshaw. The chancel is maintained by Sir E. 
Blackett of Matfen. Haltwhistle is full of uncouth but curious old houses, 
which betoken the state of constant insecurity and of dubious defence 
in which the inhabitants of the border were so long accustomed to live. 
The very pig-styes, which are objects not very discernible from the dwelling- 
house, have the crenellations and loopholes.' Archdeacon Singleton's 
Visitation, 1828, quoted Arch. Ael. xvii. 261. 

About the years 1826-30 Hollingsworth unfortunately became involved 
in a dispute with his parishioner and friend Thomas Bates concerning the 
Ridley Hall estate in Haltwhistle parish, of which he was a trustee. 
Although the bishop was at the time marking his sense of Hollingsworth's 
character by promoting him, and notwithstanding that Hollingsworth 
continued to enjoy the friendship and respect of his friends, yet Thomas 
Bates complained of his conduct in a printed letter to the bishop in 
acrimonious language. The history of the dispute is related in more 
measured terms in the recently published Thomas Sates and the Eirlt- 
levington Herd. 

1835, April 23. ' That the vestry clerk notify Rev. N. J. Hollingsworth 
by letter that the buildings now erecting in the Black Bull lane are pro- 
nounced encroachments and injurious to the churchyard wall : after having 
been deliberately viewed by the vicar churchwardens and Twelve men.' 

WILLIAM IVES, 1829, on the resignation of Hollingsworth. 

Ives, William s. Cornelius, of Bradden, Northants, arm. Balliol Coll., 
matric. 2 April, 1818, aged 18, B.A. 1822, vicar of Haltwhistle, Northumber- 
land, 1829-69, died 16 March, 1875. See Rugby School Reg. Foster. 



A.D. 18291897. 27 

He was a nephew of Bp. Van Mildert. He was thrice married ; firstly 
to Mary Ann, daughter of Henry Richmond of Humshaugh (died 1840) ; 
secondly to Sarah Green, daughter of Robert Green of South Shields (died 
1857) ; and thirdly to Ann Mewburn, cousin of Simon Mewburn of Acomb 
(who survived him). The relatives of his third wife have erected a reredos 
in the church to his memory. ' Besides acknowledging the value of the 
reredos as a work of art, the vestry cannot at the same time but feel great 
satisfaction that the parish where Mr. Ives so long laboured and the church 
wherein he so long ministered should be chosen as the place of a memorial 
to one where all who knew him so much respected and esteemed.' 

Visitation, Oct. 11, 1842: A table of degrees is wanted. The com- 
munion plate, with the exception of the chalice, is of pewter.f This should 
be of silver, and the archdeacon has no doubt that the opulent proprietors 
of the parish, and in particular sir Edward Blackett, as being lay rector, 
will when applied to perform this service to the church. The cloth which 
covers the kneeling board for communicants has become too bad in 
appearance to be further used. It should be supplied with a decent cloth 
corresponding to that on the communion table. The linen also for the 
communion table should be new. The Bible to be new bound, and a new 
Prayer Book got for the reading desk. The proprietors of pews will see in 
some instances the desirableness of new painting them. The general 
appearance of the church is satisfactory. The rails intended for the 
communicants to kneel at to be new painted. One new surplice to be got. 
W. J. Raymond, archdeacon. 

JOSEPH LOWE, M.A., 1869, on the death of Ives, on the presentation 
of the bishop of Manchester, to whom, on a rearrangement of 
patronage under bishop Longley's Act, it had now passed. 

Of Trinity coll., Cambridge, B.A. 1853, M.A. 1856, deacon 1853, and 
priest 1855, by the bishop of Manchester ; vicar of Holy Trinity, Bolton, 
1856-1869. 

In 1870, the church was completely restored at a cost of about 3,000, 
raised by voluntary subscription, the lay rector, sir E. Blackett, giving 350 
in lieu of separately restoring the chancel. 

In 1884, Beltingham chapel was also restored, and made in 1890 the 
parish church for the eastern portion of the old parish. A church was also 
erected at Henshaw, as a memorial to bishop Ridley, in 1888-9, at a cost of 
1,200. 

In 1892, the western portion was cut off, and attached to the chapel at 
Greenhead, built in 1827, and in 1876 entirely renewed at the cost (1,000) 
of the late Edward Joicey of Blenkinsop hall. 



POSTSCRIPT. 

JOHN PEIRSON, nominated December 9th, 1658. Although there is no 
mention of any intruding vicar of this parish, either in Calamy or 
t For note of communion vessels, see Proc. iii. 367. 



28 TIIK VIOARS OF HALTWHI8TLE : 

in Walker, the records in Lambeth library show that John Peirson 
was appointed in 1658 to the vicarage ' now become void through 
the death of the last incumbent.' This last incumbent was not 
Humphrey Dacres, because he survived the restoration. Possibly 
the individual who had died was Mr. Devereux, to whom the com- 
missioners at the sittings in Newcastle, in the year 1651, 1652, 
and 1653, had granted the tithes of Haltwhistle, as well as 
augmentations from the revenues of certain other parishes. How- 
ever this may be, there is no doubt about John Peirson, since 
there is a record of his nomination on December 9th, 1658, and of 
his admittance on the 9th February following. The Lambeth MSS. 
also state that 6 was allowed to Haltwhistle school out of the 
tithes of Bywell, but of this there seems to be no further notice. 

Lambeth Palace Library, Augmentations of Livings, vol. 983, page 136. 

To the Com rs for approbacon of publique Preachers wee Willm Steele 
&c the true & vndoubted Patrons of the Vicarage of the p'rish church of 
Haltwhistle in the County of Northumberland now become void by the 
death of the last Incumbent &c Have nominated & p'sented & by these 
p'sents doe nominate & p'sent John Peirson Minister of the Word to the 
said vicarage & church &c In witness thereof we have &c this ninth day 
of December in the yeare according to the Computation vsed in England 
One thousand six hund rd Fifty & Bight 

Jo : Thorowgood Ra : Hall Jo Humfrey 
Jo : Pocock Ri Yong. 

The same vol. 985, page 281, December 7th, 1658. Pm (?) Mr. Peirson. 

The same vol. 999, page 197. 

John Peirson Cl. Admitted the 9 th day of Feb r 1658 to the v. of Halt- 
whistle in the county of Northumb'land Vpon a Pres : exhibited the 12 th 
day of the same moneth from the Trustees for maintenance of Min rs 
And certificates from W m Brisco John Barwis Roland Nicols Eamin 
Eaglesfield. 

The same vol. 1006, page 426. 

An Abstract of the settlements of ministers in the Counties of Durham 
and Northumberland made by the Com rs appointed by Act of Parliament 
for propagating the gospell in the Counties of Northumberland Cumberland 
Westmoreland and Durham in the time of their sitting at Newcastle vpon 
Tyne in the yeares 1651 and 1652 and 1653. 

page 433 Haltwhistle. M r [blank] Devereux the tythes of Haltwhistle 10" 
out cf K[ n]arsdell and Kirkhaugh 30" out of Bywell Andrew 6" 13" 04 d out 
of the, tythes of Lamely. 



Schools. Haltwhistle 6" out of Bywell. 

page 374. Hereafter followeth allowances to schools as are specified page 

375 Haltwhistle VI" per ann. out of Bywell tythes. 



29 



III. THE CAMERA OF ADAM OF JESMOND, POPULAKLY 
CALLED 'KING JOHN'S PALACE.' 

BY W. H. KNOWLES. 

[Read on the 25th day of November, 1896.] 

THE camera of Adam of Jesmond, popularly called king John's palace, 1 
is situated in the Heaton public park, which lies on the east side of 




the town of Newcastle. The building stands about three hundred 
yards east of the Ouseburn, and is about a mile and a half north of 
the river Tyne. The site slopes from east to west, and is screened on 
the north side by higher ground. 

1 It is difficult to say why it is so called, as no part of the existing building is 
of the time of king John. 



'KING JOHN'S PALACE.' 31 

The townships of Heaton and Jesmond are contiguous, but are 
separated by the Ouseburn. The name Heaton denotes the high ton, 
or settlement, and the name Jesmond, which appears in early docu- 
ments as Gesmue, Gesemue, Gesemuthe, Jesemuthe, Jesmouth, is said 
to be derived from the ews-burn running by it. 2 

In the early part of the twelfth century, Heaton and Jesmond 
are mentioned as forming part of the barony of Ellingham, which 
was granted by Henry I. to Nicholas de Grenville, to be held by the 
service of three knights' fees. Nicholas was succeeded by his brother 
Walter. Before 1158 the barony passed into the possession of the 
family of Gaugy, by the marriage of Walter Grenville's daughter, 
Mabel, with Ralph de Gaugy. The barony was afterwards known as 
the barony of Gaugy, and comprised Ellingham, ' Osberwic,' Doxford, 
Cramlington, Heaton, Hartley, Jesmond, and Whitelawe. 

Ralph de Gaugy the second was a minor at the time of his father's 
death and became a ward of William de Vesci. He held one moiety 
of the barony of Gaugy in 1168, and died circa 1187. 

From 1195 to 1243, Ralph de Gaugy the third held the barony of 
the king, by the service of three knights' fees, as previously mentioned. 
He granted to a certain Adam of Jesmond a portion of the barony, 
including Jesmond and Hartley, to be held of him by the service of a 
knight's fee and a half. 3 Although Jesmond and Hartley are alone 
mentioned, we know that Adam also owned Cramlington, Whitelawe, 
and Heaton. 

The ruin now existing in Heaton park may be attributed to Adam 
of Jesmond, who was a sub-feudatory of the barony of Gaugy. Whether 
he was related to that family does not appear. He was a staunch 
adherent of Henry III., and rendered him services in Gascony in the 
year 1257. 4 In 1264, he acquired a portion of the barony of Mitford 
from Roger Bertram the third, who took an active part in the barons' 

- See an epitomized correspondence between professor Skeat, Mr. Richard 
Welford and others respecting the origin of the names Gosforth and Jesmond. 
Proc. Newcastle Soc. of Antiq. vol. vii. p. 299. 

* Baronia de Gaugy : Rad's de Gaugy tenet in capite de d'no Rege Elingh'm 
Osberwic Doxford Cramelington Heton Hertclawe Josemuth & Witelawe p' 
tria feoda de vet'i feoffam'to. De eodem Rado tenet Adam Josemuth' & de 
Hertelawe p' unu feodu & dimid' feodu de vetM feoffam'to. Rogus de Meringg' 
tenet Doxford' p' quarta p'te unius feodi de vet'i feoffamento. Testa de Nevill, 
vol. i. p. 382. 

4 Pipe Rolls, 41 Henry III., wherein the king is set down as indebted to Adam 
of Jesmond 21 -is. Od. Hodgson, Hist. Northd. III. iii. 239. 



82 'KING JOHN'S PALACE': 

war against the crown, and was taken prisoner at Northampton. 
Adam's portion comprised one messuage and one acre of land in 
Mitford, with the advowson of the church there, the vill of Benrig, 
and the wood of Wincheley. 8 He had, in 1269, a grant of a market 
and fair at Cramlington. 6 He was sheriff of Northumberland in 
1262-4, 7 and again in 1267, and must have attained to considerable 
prominence, since we find that in 1265 he 'was one of the northern 
barons summoned to treat for the liberation of prince Edward, who 
had been taken captive by earl Simon's party after the battle of Lewes. 8 

Like other sheriffs of that tune, Adam of Jesmond bore an ' odious 
character for peculation and extortion,' yet he appears in the Pipe Rolls 
as indebted to succeeding sheriffs. He also appropriated land which, 
after enquiry, he was obliged to relinquish. 

Among his benefactions may be mentioned one for the reparation 
of the Tyne bridge, which had been burnt in 1248. This is interest- 
ing as recalling the name of Grenville. Bourne quotes it as follows: 
' ADAM of Jesumuthia granted to GOD, and to the 7^0-Bridge, on 
Account of the Soul of William de Greenville and the Souls of his 
Ancestors, part of the Ground in the Land of Jesumuth.""* 

In 1274-5, Christiana, 10 the widow of Adam de Jesemuthe, became 
the second wife of Robert de Brus IV., lord of Annandale, ' better 
known as the competitor, from his having been one of the claimants 
to the throne of Scotland on the death of the Maid of Norway.' 

It may be conjectured that Adam of Jesmond died without 
children, because his estates were inherited in 1275 by Ralph de 
Stikelawe, chaplain, and Marjory de Trewick. 

s Patent Rolls, 48 Henry III. ; Hodgson, III. ii. 360. 

* Calendarium Rotulorum Chartariim; Hodgson, III. ii. 392. 

7 Also sheriff in 1265. See Brand's History of Newcastle, vol. i. p. 149, where 
he is sheriff and keeper of the castle in 50 Henry III., i.e. 1265-6. 

8 C. J. Bates, Proc. Nemc. Soc. of Antiq. vol. ii. 339. 

9 Bourne, Newcastle, p. 129. Does not this suggest the possibility that Adam 
was descended from a Gaugy 1 Adam was a Gaugy name. 

10 Christiana was daughter of William de Irreby, and grand-daughter of 
Odardus de Hodalmia, to whom king John granted the manors of Gamelsby and 
Glassanby in Cumberland. They [Christiana and Robert de Brus] were married 
as early as 1274-5, when they brought an action against Robert de Hampton 
about land in those two places. Her inquisitio post mortem was taken in 33 
Edward I., when it is stated she died without issue by her second husband. She 
appears to have been possessed of lands and tenements which through the failure 
of heirs by her marriage with Robert de Brus, reverted to John .of Seton. See 
paper by W. Brown, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, vol. 1. p. 254, and the 
Calendarium Genealogicvm, vols. i. and ii. 



THE MANOR OF JESMOND. 33 

In 1293, William of Stikelawe and Marjory of Trewick were sum- 
moned to show by what warrant they claimed to have free warren in 
all their demesne lands in Jesmond, Heaton, and Cramlington, to 
which they made answer that they had a certain charter of king 
Henry, made to their cousin Adam of Jesmond, dated 37 Henry III., 11 
by which the said king Henry granted to the said Adam that he and 
his heirs for ever should have free warren in all their demesne lands 
in Jesmond, Heaton, and Cramlington, so long as they were not 
within the bounds of the forest. The jurors found that the said 
William and Marjory did possess the licence, and had used all the 
liberties, etc. 

In 1298, William of Stikelawe held lands at Heaton and Jesmond, 
and Marjory de Trewick in the same year died possessed of lands in 
the manors of Cramlington, Heaton, and Jesmond. William de 
Trewick is mentioned in 1300, and Emma de Stikelawe in 1306. 
In 1312, John de Trewick conveyed to Nicholas de Carliol (several 
times mayor of Newcastle) all suit of his court, and of his mill of 
Gesemuth, and all other services in respect of Carliol's lands in G-ese- 
muth town and field (Wednesday after the feast of the Holy Trinity, 
1312). 12 

In 1315, Richard Emeldon, mayor of Newcastle, 13 paid to the king 
forty shillings for licence to receive from John Trewick a moiety of 
the manor of Jesmond. 

Though many references occur, and the same names reappear in 
connexion with portions of the ancient barony, it is unnecessary 
in this paper to trace the various owners up to the present time, 
but it may be well to quote, in a somewhat disjointed manner, the 
following facts which occur in various documents, viz.: Henry de 
Trewick is mentioned in 1329, Richard de Emeldon in 1334, and in 
1350 his daughters, Agnes, wife of Peter Graper, and Alice, afterwards 
wife of Nicholas Sabraham. In 1370, Matilda or Maud another of 

11 Hodgson, III. i. p. 123. I2 Arch. Acl. n.s. vol. i. p. 29. 

IS Flourished during the reigns of the three Flantagenet Edwards. Was 
appointed mayor eighteen times, and died possessed of the manors of Jesmuth, 
South Goseford, Blswick, Heaton, Jesmouth, etc., and divers lands in many 
other places in Northumberland, besides property in Newcastle. See Welford's 
Men of Mark, vol. ii. p. 180, for much valuable information about this distin- 
guished citizen. 

*.'/* T VTV " 



84 'KING JOHN'S PALACE': 

Emeldon's daughters, and wife of Alexander de Hilton, knt., is 
stated to hold a third part of the manor of Jesemuth, and as she had 
an only daughter, Elizabeth, who married Roger Widdrington, John 
de Widdrington, knt., son of Elizabeth, became her nearest heir. 

In 1396, at an inquisition held at Morpeth, the jury found that 
John de Midilton (who inherited through another of Emeldon's 
daughters, Jane wife of sir John Strivelyn) on the day of his death, 
August 9th, 1396, was conjointly enfeoffed with Christiana, late his 
wife, in a third part of the manor of Gesemouth, with the advowson 
of a third part of the chapel, and also the third part of a water mill 
there, valued at 4 a year, held of the king by military service. 14 
In the fifteenth century the names of Orde and Lawson occur. 
In 1553, the queen granted a pardon for all transgressions to 
Robert Constable of "Wallington, and Dorothy, his wife. Constable 
had married the widow of sir Roger Fenwick of Wallington, who was 
a daughter of sir John Widdrington. In 1546, sir Roger sold to 
Christopher Mitford, of Newcastle, for 108 all his lands in the fields 
of New and Old Heaton, and at his death he was seised of .... 

Heaton Mill, etc 18 . On May 31, 1581, died Alderman 

Christopher Mitford . . who gave to his son Henry . . all his 
lands at Heaton. . . . 16 . 

On June 1st, 1605, sir Ralph Lawson conveys to trustees on behalf 
of Dorothy, wife of Roger Lawson, his son, ' one moiety of the manor 
of Heaton, and so much of the manor of Byker as is situate on the 
east side of one water called or known by the name of the Ewes-Burne, 
reserving to sir Ralph and his heirs, the coal and coal mines,' etc. 17 . 

On August 29, 1613, died at Wallington sir William Fenwick, 
knight, son of sir Roger Fenwick by Dorothy (daughter of sir John 
Widdrington), who, after her husband's death, married Robert Con- 
stable. . . . Roger Fenwick by his will gave to his eldest son John 
. . . half a water-mill at Heaton, called ' Dust-little Mill.' . . . 18 

In 1613, Henry Babington purchased the estate of Heaton- Jes- 
mond; 19 and on May 1, 1617, he received king James I. at Heaton 

14 See Hodgson, pt. II. vol. i. pp. 354, 357, 358, 362. 

15 Welford, Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. ii. p. 302. 16 Ibid. vol. iii. p. 7. 
17 Welford, vol. iii. p. 167. 1S Ibid. vol. iii. p. 199. 

19 Babington, William (sir), knt., of Kiddington, who d. in 1577, leaving 



DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING. 35 

hall, being knighted by him on that occasion. He appears among 
the freeholders of Northumberland in 1628 as ' Sir Henry Babington 
of Heton, kt.' 19 

The camera of Adam of Jesmond was probably not in use at this 
time ; .but if not, where did Heaton hall stand ? It may have been 
incorporated with or have given place to the present building of that 
name, 20 which was erected in 1713 by aid. Matthew Ridley when he 
acquired part of the estate of Heaton. In 1840, sir M. W. Ridley 
disposed of a considerable area of land to Mr. A. L. Potter, and in 
1880 the portion including the ruin passed from colonel Potter, O.B., 
to lord Armstrong, who presented it to the town of Newcastle to be 
used as a public park. 

Of the camera of Adam of Jesmond, there are only scanty remains. 
It is built in a substantial manner with good angle quoins, the walling 
stones being roughly squared, both on the exterior and interior face. 
The portions remaining seem to indicate that the principal apartment 
was on the upper floor, and that its greatest dimension was from north 
to south. The walls now visible formed the north end and part of the 
east and west sides. 

The walls at the ground level are six feet in thickness. The door- 
way at the north end and the built-up opening on the west side are 
modern. The stones marked A, A, on the section looking north, are 
splayed, and are the internal quoins of a slit which Ifghted the base- 
ment. At a height of eight feet nine inches above the present ground 

several children. His grandson, Henry Babington, esq., sold his estates in 
Oxfordshire in 1613. Burke, Landed, Gentry, vol. iv. p. 514. 

BABINGTON, HENRY, of Oxon., arm, ORIEL COLL., matric. 10th June, 1597, 
aged 16; son of Philip of Kiddington, Oxon. ; aged 14 at the Heralds' Visitation 
in 1 595 ; sold his paternal estate, and purchased the estate of Heaton, Jesmond, 
in Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; knighted by James I., 1st May, 1617, either at Heaton 
or Hexham. Foster, Alumni Oxonienaes. 

BABINGTON, WILLIAM, Is. Henry, of Ogle castle, Northumberland, militis. 
UNIVERSITY COLL., matric. 16th April, 1624, aged 16 ; of Heaton Jesmond, 
Northumberland. Hid. 

BABINGTON, PHILIP, student of CHRIST CHURCH by parliamentary visitors 
1650, of Harnham, Northumberland (son of William, 1624) ; of Gray's Inn, 
1661 ; M.P. Berwick-on-Tweed, 1689-90 ; a colonel in the parliamentary army ; 
governor of Berwick for Charles II. Ibid. 

See also Monthly Chronicle for 1887, pp. 375-6. 

19 Arch. Acl. o.s. vol. ii. p. 317. 

20 I have recently been informed that some old buildings were removed when 
an addition was made on the north side of the hall. 



36 



'KING JOHN'S PALACE': 



line, the east and west walls are reduced in thickness by six inches, the 
projection thus formed serving for the support of the floor timbers. 

The main entrance doorway is on the west side, at the level of the 
first floor, and was reached by an external staircase. The doorway 
opened into a small lobby, whence a second door gave access to what 
was possibly the common room or hall, which was twenty-three feet 
four inches wide. Both doorways are two feet eight inches wide, and 
have semicircular heads formed of two stones only. The jambs and 
head are rebated for the doors, which were hung on the north side, and 
when open stood in recesses specially formed to receive them, as indi- 
cated on the plan. The outer door was secured by a bar sliding into 
a hole six inches square and four feet long in the south jamb of the 
doorway. The jambs and arches of the doorway are chamfered on 
the exterior face. Portions of two windows remain, one of two lights 
in the north wall, and the other a single light, in the west wall. The 
north window has a chamfered sill and jambs, rebated for shutters and 
iron bars. A seat for a mullion is worked on the sill, indicating that 
the window was of two lights, 20 each two feet six inches wide. The 
internal jambs are splayed, and the rear arch is segmental. The 
window in the east wall has widely splayed jambs internally, a stepped 
sill, and a pointed segmental rear arch ; it has been repaired on its 
exterior face. 

The walls still stand to a height of about twenty-five feet. The 
north end has been flanked by angle turrets, of which one remains 
at the north-west corner. There are two 
splayed courses on the exterior, at the height 
of four feet and twelve feet respectively above 
the* present ground level ; the remaining por- 
tions of the lower course are only slight, and 
almost confined to the north side. The 
masonry, at a point (not easily accessible) 
near the letter B on the west elevation, 
suggests a window. 

20 The writer found in his garden, which is about 
three-quarters of a mile north of the ruin, the lower 
portion of a mullion with a moulded base (shown in 
the accompanying sketch). This mullion fits the 
seat on the window sill and may have belonged to 
the window. 




DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING. 



37 



In 1840, a stable which had been erected within the walls, and 
some farm buildings, which abutted on the east and west sides of the 
ruin, were taken down. At the same time some foundations at the 
south end were removed, which proved that the length of the chamber 
was much greater than at present. Both at this time and when lord 
Armstrong presented the park to the Newcastle corporation consider- 
able repairs were carried out, whereby some portions were destroyed 
and others rendered more secure. 

In the Patent Kolls it is recorded that Tarset castle 21 is to be forti- 
fied after the manner of the camera of Adam of Jesmond at Heaton 




RUINS AT HEATON. INTERIOR (1839). 
(From Richardson's Table-Book, Historical, vol. iv. p. 121.) 

near Newcastle, with a moat and encircling wall. Mackenzie informs 
us that Tarset was a place of considerable strength, being almost 
surrounded by a deep moat ten yards broad ; and Hutchinson records 
the fact that it possessed turrets at each corner. 

With this information, and the evidence afforded by the ruin still 
existing, it is not difficult to imagine the general aspect of this fortalice 
of Adam of Jesmond, which was doubtless as large as most manor 
houses of the period. The main structure, with its angle turrets and 
battlements, would be surrounded by subordinate erections for the 

21 See \Patent Rolls, 52 Hen. III. m. 31, quoted by C. J. Bates, Arch. Ael. 
vol. xiv. p. 7. 



88 'KING JOHN'S PALACE.' 

accommodation of the dependents, stabling for horses and cattle, and 
stores for the harvest produce. The whole was enclosed by a strong 
wall, which in its turn was encompassed by a wide moat. 22 

Such a stronghold was a necessity to all men of position and 
wealth in the thirteenth century. Even when peace reigned between 
England and Scotland, there were frequent feuds between neighbours, 
sometimes provoked by the confiscation of lands by the ruling power, 
and at others by jealousy and rivalry, quickly matured by fighting 
men who lacked occupation and were ever ready to take sides in any 
quarrel. Sheriffs, who were occasionally unscrupulous, had particular 
need of the shelter of such fortresses. 

The remains of the camera of prior Derlington at Muggleswick, 
in the county of Durham, 23 built after the middle of the thirteenth 
century, very much resemble those of the camera of Adam of Jesmond, 
and the Blackgate of Newcastle, erected about 1250, is also similar in 
character to the ruin under consideration. It is, however, unnecessary 
to quote examples whereby to fix the date of its erection, as the refer- 
ence already mentioned in the licence for the crenellation of Tarset, 
given to John Cumyn in the year 1267, makes it clear .that Heaton 
preceded that castle. 

It is most desirable that this interesting ruin should be diligently 
preserved. At present it is constantly overrun by children, who climb 
the trees and damage the stone work. The ivy, which now strikes its 
roots into the joints and cracks in the masonry, and so tends to dis- 
locate and ruin the walls, ought to be entirely removed. The north 
window should be opened out, the tops of the walls should be cemented, 
in order to protect them from rain and frost, and a light fence should 
be fixed around the building. These protective measures could be 
undertaken by the city council at very trifling cost, and would help 
to preserve from destruction the remaining fragment of this once 
important dwelling. 

22 A chapel existed at Heaton in 1299, the wardrobe accounts of Edward I. 
for that year containing the following, viz. : ' On the 7th day of December, 
[paid] to a certain boy-bishop saying the vespers of St. Nicholas before the king 
in his chapel at Heton, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and to certain boys coming 
and singing with the aforesaid bishop, out of the alms of the king, by the hand 
of lord Henry the almsgiver, to be divided amongst the aforesaid boys, 40s.' 

23 Transactions of the Architectural and Archaelogical Society of Durham 
and Northumberland, vol. iv. p. 287. 



39 



IV. BOOK OF EASTER OFFERINGS, SMALL TITHES, AND 
'OUTEN' TITHES OF THE PARISH OF RYTON. 

By the Rev. JOHNSON BAILY, hon. canon of Durham, 
and rector of Ryton. 

[Read on the 28th October, 1896.] 

Ryton is a parish singularly fortunate in the possession of a long 
and unbroken series of registers and other books bearing on parochial 
matters. 

The registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials, begin on 17th 
December, 1581. One volume of the register of marriages is lost, 
that containing entries from llth May, 1767, to 3rd February, 1776 ; 
with this exception the series of registers is complete. Archdeacon 
Thorp (rector 1807-1862) in a catalogue of the registers drawn up by 
him on 1st January, 1813, speaks of the volume above referred to as 
having been lost since 1794. He adds a note that the names of the 
persons married in the parish church during that period are regularly 
entered in the general register of this parish, and are found in volumes 
4, 5, and 6. The ancient mode of registering marriages was continued 
down to the end of the year 1808, so that the break in the marriage 
registers from 1767-1776 is supplied from the general register, and 
from 1776-1808 there are duplicate entries of all marriages. 

A perfect series of the account and minute books of the vestry is 
preserved beginning with the year 1598. 

There is also another series of books, of which I propose to give 
some account in the present paper, containing a record of Easter 
offerings, of certain small tithes, and a statement of the Outen tithe 
paid annually on ' Saynt Marke's daye,' April 25th. 

Nine volumes containing these records have been preserved ; they 
are for the years given below : 

Volume 1 1593, 1594. 

2 1695. 

3 1609, 1610. 

Here there is a break of a century in the series : 



40 RYTON PARISH BOOKS : 

Volume 4 1711, 1712, 1713. 

5 ... 1714 to 1723, both inclusive. 

6 1724 to 1729 

7 1730 to 1740 

8 1741 to 1747 

9 1748 to 1758 

There is also a very defective and carelessly written abstract of 
the S. Mark's books for the years 1693-1700, both inclusive. 

These books are, as a rule, and specially so in the earlier years, 
remarkably well kept, and furnish amongst other information lists of 
the inmates of the houses in the ancient parish of Ryton, divided now 
into the four parishes of Ryton, Winlaton, Stella, and Greenside, for 
the years with which they have to do. 

The lists are made for the four quarters into which the parish was 
at that time divided Ryton, Winlaton, Chopwell, and Crawcrook. 

Each page is ruled in columns, the first containing the names of 
the inmates of the various houses, followed by columns in which are 
charges under the headings of ' Ester book,' of ' Breeving,' of ' Hens,' 
of * Lambs,' of ' Wooll.' Then comes a column for totals, and two 
supplementary columns for geese and bees. In 1593, there are no 
entries in the first of these supplementary columns, and only one or 
two in the second. 

In the column headed 'Ester book' the following charges are 
entered : 



Caelebs 2d. 

Man and wife 3d. 

Children and servants ... Id. each. 



Plow Id. 

Reek Id. 



- Under the second column, headed ' Breeving,' come : 

Nuckled cow IJd. each. | Farrow cow ... Id. each. 

In the earlier years there are also entered in this column : 

Foles 4d. each. | Ewes ... 4d. every 20. 

Hens are charged 6d., apparently without regard to the number 
kept, as the charge is in all cases uniform. An analysis of the Easter 
book for 1593 supplies some statistical information for that year : 

In Ryton quarter there were ... .. 79 houses. 

In Winlawton 122 

In Chopwell 52 

In Crawcrook 55 

Total 308 



CHRISTIAN NAMES AND SURNAMES. 41 

indicating, if we allow five persons to each household, a population for 
the whole parish of 1,540. Probably the actual population may have 
been somewhat in excess of this number, as the very poorest class of 
cottages may not have been chargeable. 

In 1781 the rev. J. Mirehouse, curate, gives, as the result of a 
census taken on the 24th of November, 970 houses, containing 1,125 
families in all equivalent to a population of 5,625. In 1801 the 
population is set down at 5,423. The population of the same district 
at the census of 1891 was returned at 22,679, and has since that time 
increased considerably. 

The total number of cattle, exclusive of calves, paid for in 1593 
was 329, and of ewes 718. 

At Bladon Arthur Swinburne paid for a great boat ij d . Was this 
a ferryboat ? If so, it is possible that it was in connexion with the 
ferry at Blaydon that a terrible catastrophe happened nearly a century 
later, when on May 27th, 1682, 18 people (three men and fifteen 
women), belonging most of them either to Blaydon or Winlaton, were 
drowned, and buried the next day in Ryton churchyard. 

The names of most frequent occurrence are those of Saunder, 
Newton, Swinburne, Greeney, Hedley, Merriman, and Dod. 

Ohristabel occurs no less than seven times as a Christian name. 
Allis and Allison, Agnes and Annes, Ellinor, Janet and Jinney are of 
frequent occurrence. 

Among other noteworthy Christian names there are of men 
Launce, Eaife, Arthur, Gerard, Anthony, Allan, Oliver, Clement, 
Patrick, Rowland, Victor, Harvy, Bartram (frequently written 
Bartye), Michael, and Oswyne. Arche, a contracted form of Archi- 
bald, also occurs. 

Of women we have, in addition to those already cited, Mally, 
Madg, Phillis, Betrix, Dina, Susanna, Barbara, Dorothy, and Mariery 
(Margery). 

At the end of the Easter book comes a second part, headed 
' The Outen tyth booke of Ryton perishe payable on S. Mark's Day 
(April 25th).' 

I do not possess such knowledge of the tenure of land and the 
customs appertaining to it as will enable me to give a full account of 
the charges contained in this record, but I may take the definition 

VOL. XIX. 6 



42 RYTON PARISH BOOKS : 

appended to the copy of the bill in an action Blackett against Finney 
tried in 1723 as a brief statement of the scope of this book, ' 8*. 
Mark's book is modus for hay or corn or other things payable on 8. 
Mark's day 25 Apr.' The other things mentioned in this definition 
include : 

' John Robson for fishing of Stella, iij 9 iiij d , Holme Milne ij" ; and the Win- 
lawton Milnes Thos. Atchesons Milne iij 8 and Bartye Bowes Milne ij 8 .' 

In Ryton, Crawcrook, and Winlaton quarters the payment is for 
hay only, in Chopwell for hay and corn. The payment of a modus 
in lieu of tithe in Chopwell quarter is explained by a note at the end 
of the bill already referred to ' Chopwell pays no Tyth.' Following 
this statement there is another explaining the payment of 4d. a score 
for sheep, which appears in the Easter book ' anciently and within 
memory they milked Ewes in Gayers field, & the 4d. was for Tyth 
milk, the same p d in other parts of the parish & also Tyth wool, 
& Lamb.' 

In Crawcrook quarter ' The ffermers of Crawcruck pay iij s ' and 
' The ffermers of Kepier xix d .' 

A note at the end of the accounts for outen tithe for the years 
1714-1723 enumerates twenty-four farms at Crawcrook. 

Memorand. That every farm in Crawcrook pays 3d. Tot. : 24 Farms, 
which at 3d. per Farm yearly makes 6s. 

The 12 Farms besides Mr. Stephenson & Surtees, Anno 1724, as given in by 
Nic. Greenoe & now Farmed. M r Bowes 4 Farms, Ann Hedley 1 F., Jo. 
Weatherly 1 F., Tho. Eltringham sen r & Tho. Eltringham jun r each F., Mat. 
Weatherly F. & Tho Greenoe Farm. 

Four farms called Ryton 4 Farms. Eliz. Jolly 1 F. ; Tho. Bell 1 F. for 
M r Surtees, Geo. Sanders 1 F., & Vicars for Frenches 1 F. 

Four more Farms. Gawen Naseby 1 Farm called Coulson's Farm, Rob. 
Newton & Vicars a Farm & called Newton's Land for which Vicars pays 2f d , 
Newton l^ d , Geo Weatherley two-thirds is to pay 2 d , Tho. Eltringham sen r a 
third, Tho. Newton a third, Newton Mill 2 thirds. 

M r Bowes Kepier Lands pay 1 s 8 d per Annu. (the Kepier farms are charged 
19 d in the earlier books). Tenants Ann Hedley a \ pt. Tho. Eltringham jun r 
& sen r \. John Weatherly , Mat. Weatherly J & Tho. Greenoe . 

The remaining twelve farms required to make up the total number 
of twenty-four consisted of one hundred acres taken in from Ryton, 
or rather Crawcrook common, by one of the Carnabys, at a rental of 
4d. an acre, payable to the bishop as lord of the manor. 

Robert Surtees, gent., in his will dated 10th June, 1700, leaves to 



' FARMS ' IN RYTON. 43 

his son, Edward Surtees, his undivided lands in Crawcrook, which 
himself and John Stevenson, gent., bought of .Ralph Carnaby of 
Chollerton, gent. 

These twelve farms are, in 1706, described as Surtees and 
Stephenson's land, and were then in the hands of sixteen tenants. 



Tho. Eltringham jun r held 1 Farm. 
Nich. Greenoe 1 Farm & F. 
Two Robert Eltringhams 1 Farm 

&i- 

John Craswell 1 Farm. 
Will. Atkinson 1 Farm. 
Tho. Newland Farm. 
Mary Humble F. 



Wm. Maughan J Farm. 

Tho. Greenoe Farm & Will. 

Anderson & Tho. Cowan 2 

Farms. 

John Hauxley Farm. 
Tho. Urwin Tho. Chambers 

Edward Grey Farm partner 

Newby. 



In Winlaton quarter the names of the common lands on which the 
modus for hay was paid are given. These lands are evidently divided 
into strips of equal area ; in a few cases two or more strips are 
assigned to one occupier, and rarely a smaller area than the one strip 
is assigned. 

As an example, fifteen occupiers hold between them 'Darwen 
Haugh,' of this number eleven pay a modus of 2d., two of 4d., one of 
Id., and one of a ^d. 

The other common lands in the Quarter are : 

The Bancks. 

Highfield Com'on. 

West Haugh Lees. 

Nyne Roods for wh. a sole holder Jeffrey Trotter pays 12 d . 

The flashes for wh. John Barle > pays 9 d . 

Gibbes Medow for wh. John Green well pays 16 d & M r Selbee 16 d . 

Long Medow for which Thomas Wilkyson pays 18 d Roger Hall 10 d & 

M r Selbee 16 d . 

The fleets for which M r Selbee pays 6 s & 6 d . 
Porke or fride medow John Pickering l d . 
Little Strothers John Pickering 5 d , Robt. Joplin 5 d . 
The West gate Will'm Tempest l d . 
Four Acres, assigned to Robt. Joplin, Rowland Turners ferine & M rs Blunt 

of Blaydon on payment of 6 d , 2 s & 2 d & 6 d respectively. 
The Estfleets are charged to Will'm Turner's ferme & Roger Walker's ferme 

at 2-8| each. 

Although it is stated that the payments in Winlaton quarter are 
for hay only, there is a marginal note opposite the payments of 
Will'm Tempest for the year 1594 that shows that occasionally a strip 



44 RYTON PARISH BOOKS : 

of land was ploughed and a crop of corn grown upon it. The note 
runs, ' no[n] solvit pro high feild Oom'o quia aratur. Rog. Hall teste 
qui solvit.' Manifestly this did not imply that the land was taken 
permanently under the plough as the payments for 1595 are simply 
for hay. 

The total receipts for the Easter book and the S. Mark's book 
amount for 1609 to 14 4s. 3d. for the Easter book, 6 6s. lOd. for 
the S. Mark's book ; making, in all, 20 11s. Id. 

Here and there interesting notes relieve the monotony of long 
columns of names and figures. 

At the end of the Easter book for 1593 the rector, Francis 
Bunnye, gives vent to his feelings of relief at the conclusion of what 
must have been a very wearisome work in the not altogether faultless 
hexameter : 

Sic faciens finem jubeo te bene valere. 

In a vacant space he gives the number of communicants for Holy 
week and Easter, 1593 : 



April xiiij. Easter Eve 60 

xv. Easter Day 460 

xvj. Easter Monday ... 22 



April viij. Palm Sunday 170 

ix. Monday in Holy Week 10 

x. Tuesday 30 

xij. Thursday 88 

xiij. Good Friday 38 878 

A similar list is given for 1594 ; but the most interesting record 
is for 1595. Bunnye, who was a very strong Puritan, ' very zealous 
in the way he professed, a great admirer of Jo. Calvin, a constant 
preacher, charitable, and a stiff enemy to Popery,' records under this 
year the use of tokens 1 in connection with the holy communion, and 
gives one evidence of his care for his parish by the way in which he 
went about in Holy week communicating at convenient centres those 
who, presumably from failing health or advanced age, were unable to 
attend the parish church. His record runs thus : 

Upo' Palme Sunday rec d 80 tokens, and then of Chopwell house & such as 
gaue in no tokens aboue 20 p'sons. 

1 My attention has been drawn by two friends to passages in vol. xxxiv. of 
the Surtees Society Publications, which throw light on the use of these tokens. 
It seems (p. 96) that they were of the nature of receipts for payment of Easter 
offerings, which were to be produced ' at the tyme of the administration of the 
sacrament,' so that defaulters might then and there be made to pay their dues. 

At pp. 6-8 this custom is illustrated by the description of an extraordinary 
scene which occurred in the parish church of Alwinton in connection with the 
payment of Easter dues at the time of holy communion. 



LISTS OF COMMUNICANTS. 45 

Rec. in mony then of Edw. Dodde xiiij d and of Robt. Saunder vij d . 

At John Jollyes upon Tuesday after 8 tokens. 

Wedinsday. At Cuthbart Swinburns xiij Com'unicants. Att Winlawton 
milne ix Com'unicants. At John Greenwells viii Com'unicants. At Thorn's 
Halydaies v Com'unicants. 

Thursday. Rec. 96 tokens. 

ffryday. Att Stocoes vij & at Blaydon ix & at the Communion Iv 1 '. 

Satterday. At Ryton w th Margaret Sharde v. At Crawcrook w th Oswine 
Newton vj. At the Communion xxxviij 40 . 

Easter Day. Com'unicants iiij 2 lacking 5 tokens & Rec. in mony ij s ij d . The 
names of those that receyved at hebshest'r (Ebchester?) Andrewe hedley & 
his wife. Wydow Smithe. Wydow Wilkinson. Dorathye Laburne. 

The last enumeration of communicants is given for 1609 : 

Aprill ix th (Palm Sunday) 380 

Aprill 13 (Maundy Thursday) 90 

Aprill 14 (Good Friday) 52 

Aprill 15 (Easter Eve) 22 

Ester daye 468 

1,012 

The following memorandum seems scarcely to merit the import- 
ance with which the writer invests it : 

M dnm March 31 8t 1719. 

For y e Information of the succeeding Rectors of Ryton that Henry Hearst of 
Ryton afores d paid for the half a Tithe-calf due to the Rev d D r Finney Rector 
thereof in y e year 1718. Attested by Tho 8 Simpson Curat de Ryton. 

Here is a curious little record of the way in which the curate tried 
to benefit an old dependent at the expence of the endowment of the 

living : 

171 7. Memorand. 

That the following Memorand. writ by M r Simpson, Curat, is wrong & Tho. 
Heath's wife was formerly servant to M r Simpson aforesaid & is excused for that 
reason and no other. 

Mem dum . That M rs Stephenson's Farm now in the possession of y e above 
mentioned Tho. Heath at Hooker gate pays no Easter reckonings as being a part 
of Chopwell Demesne. 

We are incidentally told that Winlaton mill, which became a part 
of sir Ambrose Crowley's ironworks in 1691, was originally ' a Fulling 
Mill.' 

A short note in rector Lloyd's handwriting is interesting, as 
showing the wage paid to a labourer in 1740. It is as follows : 

2 A sign follows the figures iiij, which, I presume, is intended to denote a 
hundred. 



46 RYTON PARISH BOOKS. 

Brrington, Lanclot, came to work for me June 30, 1740 by agreement made 
by him the day before with John Lampson for 10 d a day. On Monday June 30 
in the evening he sent me word that he would work no longer without 12 d a 
day & drink. My answer was I would consider of it & he might come to work 
next Day. he worked afterwards the 1 & 2 July and I detained all his 3 days 
wages on account due for Easter Keckonings. 

One other note, and I will tax your sorely-tried patience no longer. 
The cover in which the book is stitched is of no little interest. It is a 
folio leaf of MS. on parchment. I do not profess to be skilled in 
palaeography, and venture, therefore, with great diffidence to express 
an opinion that the leaf in question may have been written in the 
middle of the fourteenth century. On examination, it is seen to be a 
fragment of a commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. The frag- 
ment contains the portion allotted to verses 1-5 of the 8th chaDter of 
the epistle. 

Following a hint from the rev. canon Savage, I consulted bishop 
Westcott's commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, and on turning 
to the 8th chapter was fortunate enough to find in the notes on verse 
2 a fairly long quotation identical with the parallel passage in my 
fragment. This fortunate find enabled me to identify my page of MS. 
as a portion of a commentary, the authorship of which is ascribed by 
some authorities to Prirnasius, an African bishop, said to have been a 
disciple of S. Augustine, who flourished A.D. 440 ; and by others to 
Haymo, bishop of Halberstadt, who died in that city in the 
year 834 A.D. 



47 



V. ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE. 
By the Rev. H. E. SAVAGE, M.A., 

Vicar of St. Hilda's, South Shields, and hon. canon of Durham. 
[Read on the 29th July, 1896.] 

The story of the early Northumbrian church is more generally 
studied and appreciated at the present day than it ever has been 
before, and it certainly has an interest that is all its own. The heroic 
leaders, who stand out as living personalities from the far past, 
especially in Bede's artless narrative ; the variety of methods adopted, 
and of work accomplished, in the short space of some three or four 
generations ; the numberless local associations still lingering on in 
place-names and buildings and traditions ; the scanty but invaluable 
treasures of art and devotion which have been preserved through 
successive iconoclasms to our own day ; above all the unbroken 
heritage of faith and worship which links the nineteenth with the 
seventh century ; these all constitute an attraction which is irresistible. 
To antiquaries and students of church history the record has of course 
always been familiar ; but the widespread and growing popular 
interest in it which has been roused of late years in the north has in 
turn stimulated the experts to a closer examination of details. Thus 
it happens that the whole picture of the planting and organization of 
the church in Northumbria, and by Northumbrian missionaries in 
almost every part of Saxon England, in the seventh and eighth 
centuries, is year by year being filled in more completely ; and so that 
even what might appear at first sight to be quite trivial points are 
well worth a careful investigation, as tending in their degree to make 
the realization of the whole more accurate. It is with one of these 
minor details that the present paper is intended to deal, viz., the 
situation of the first religious house over which bishop Aidan com- 
missioned Hilda to bear rule as abbess. 

The character and capacity of Aidan can scarcely be said to have 
received adequate recognition in the many sketches which have been 
drawn of him from the account given in Bede. His great simplicity 
of life, his love and self-sacrifice, his freedom from personal ambition, 
his earnest and untiring missionary zeal, are all rightly enough dwelt 



48 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

upon, but that is all ; so that he has come to be generally regarded 
as an amiable and devoted but wholly unpractical man. And indeed 
it must be confessed that to modern ideas the quaint personal 
anecdotes which Bede tells of him 1 seem at first to corroborate this 
estimate, until due allowance is made for the different standard of 
thought in his day from that of our times. But if this were really 
all, it would utterly fail to account for the results of his sixteen years' 
episcopate. For apart from his personal attractiveness and the 
influence of his own saintly life, he manifested a genius for 
organization, a quick perception of new methods, a fearless readiness 
to adopt them, and a power to achieve their success and to ensure 
their acceptance, which were all but unique. His first scheme of the 
training school for his twelve boys at Lindisfarne, 2 in which he did 
not shrink from including alike the sons of nobles and children 
redeemed from slavery by the alms of the faithful, 3 by its conduct 
and its issues proclaims a more than ordinary founder. He knew 
how to utilize the goodwill of the king for the strengthening of the 
church, and at the same time with singular tact could draw the people 
to recognize the king as their direct benefactor. He planted religious 
houses as centres of work in an ever-widening range, until from 
Melrose to Tadcaster the chain was complete, yet did not confine 
himself to this one plan, though to a former monk of lona it must have 
been the familiar ideal, but side by side with them he raised wooden 
churches, 4 and appointed priests to serve them, in every part of his 

1 e.g., his reckless gift of the horse presented to him by king Oswin, with its 
rich trappings ('ita ut erat stratus regaliter'), to the first beggar he met. Bede, 
H. E. iii. 14. 

2 Bede, H. E. iii. 26 : ' Eo quod esset idem Eata unus de duodecim puoris 
Aidani, quos primo episcopatus sui tempore de natione Anglorum erudiendos in 
Christo accepit.' 

8 Bede, H. E. iii. 5 : ' Denique multos quos pretio dato redemerat, redemptos 
postmodum suos discipulos fecit, atque ad sacerdotalem usque gradum erudiendo 
atque instituendo prouexit.' On the other hand, Wilfrid, ' ubi quartum decimum 
aetatis contigit annum, monasticam saeculari uitam praetulit. . . . Venit ergo 
ad insulam Lindisfarnensem, ibique monachorum famulatui se contradens.' p.tc. 
v. 19. This was in the year 648. 

4 Bede, H. E. iii. 3 : ' Construebantur ergo ecclesiae per loca.' Compare the 
churches consecrated early in the eighth century by bishop John, which were 
built by the 'comites' Puch and Addi on their respective vills. v. 4, 5. That 
Aidan's churches' were of wood is shown by the marked emphasis with which 
Bede refers to any stone churches which were raised ; e.g., Edwin's church at 
York, ii. 14 ; Ninian's at Whithern, iii. 4 ; the second church at Lastingham, iii. 
23 ; etc. Compare also the notice of Finan's church at Lindisfarne, iii. 25 : 
' Qui in insula Lindisfarnensi fecit ecclesiam episcopali sedi congruam ; quam 
tamen more Scottorum non de lapide sed de robore secto totam composuit, atque 
harundine texit.' 



49 

huge diocese. He proved himself again and again a shrewd judge of 
men and of their special capacities for particular posts ; and he was 
ready to trust his workers in their several spheres of labour. 

But one of the most remarkable features even of Aidan's ad- 
ministration is the position he boldly assigned to women in his 
organization of church life. In a rough age of constant warfare, 
when the amenities of home life seemed to be impossible except in the 
strongly guarded castles of the great, he brought the softening and 
refining influence of women to bear directly on the common life of all 
his people by placing specially gifted women in charge of double 
religious houses, for men and for women. 5 It is obvious that for the 
pioneers of this scheme there were required in the first instance 
women whose social status would at once establish the dignity of the 
calling, while it had already accustomed them to command, and 
prepared them to set the best standard of management and influence. 

The first to be vested with this authority was Heiu, 6 of whose 
parentage and family nothing is known, 7 but whose ability as an 
organizer and administrator is vouched for by Aidan's selection of 
her not only as the practical foundress of the new system, but after- 
wards as the leader of the new house planted, almost as an outpost of 
the church, in 649 A.D. in the far south of Deira at ' Kselcacaestir,' 8 
near Tadcaster (where Healaugh is said still to bear her name 9 ), 
practically at the utmost limit of his diocese on the dangerous 
borderland towards the turbulent Mercians. 

Soon after the investiture of Heiu as abbess, news reached bishop 
Aidan that the princess Hilda was anxious to devote herself to the 
monastic life, and that she was only waiting for an opportunity to 
cross the sea and join her sister Heresuid in the house at Gale 10 (or 

5 This system, said to be originally Celtic, was adopted by the Anglo-Saxon 
church. Theodore's Poenit. II. vi. 8. It was not restored after the Danish inva- 
sions. The Celtic missions carried it also to the continent, where, however, it 
soon died out. See Diet. Chr. Antt. vol. i. p. 6 b, s.v. Abbat. 

8 Bede, H. E. iv. 23 : ' Heiu, quae prima feminarum fertur in prouincia Nor- 
danhymbrorum propositum uestemque sanctimonialis habitus consecrante Aidano 
episcopo suscepisse.' 

7 See page 60 ; and Diet. Chr. Biog. vol. ii. p. 879. 

8 Bede, H. E. iv. 23 : ' Secessit ad ciuitatem Calcariam quae a gente Anglorum 
Kjelcacaestir appellatur, ibique sibi mansionem instituit.' 

9 See Diet. Chr. Biog. s.v. Heiu. 

10 Bede, H. E. iv. 23 : ' Proposito peregrinandi annum totum in praefata pro- 
uincia (sc. Orientalium Anglorum) retenta est : deinde ab Aidano episcopo in 



50 



ABBESS HILDA S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 



Ohelles), near Paris. He immediately sent an invitation to her in 
East Anglia, where she had been staying for a year past at the court 
of her nephew Aldwulf, Heresuid's son, offering her the opening she 
desired in her own native Northumbria, where her connexion with 
the royal family would give her an exceptional influence. This 
invitation she at once accepted, and so became the second, and 
eventually the greatest, of the Northumbrian abbesses. 

It was a masterly stroke of policy on Aidan's part thus to secure 
Hilda for work in Northumbria under his episcopate ; and he further 
emphasized his attempt to utilize her influence as a bond of peace 
between the rival kings, by assigning her a post in Oswin's territory 
of Deira, while she was closely connected with Oswy's branch of the 
royal family (as may be seen by reference to the accompanying 
genealogical table, drawn up from Bede's Ecclesiastical History}. 

THE NORTHUMBRIAN ROYAL HOUSE 

(From Bede's Ecd. History). 

[Yffl] 



Aelli (ii. 1) 


1 
Aelfric 
(111. 1) 

Osric 
(iii. 1) 
Jregusuid 
Osuini 
(iii. 14) 


Quoenburg 
(a 14) 


a = Aeduini - 


- Aedilberga Acha (iii 6) AHiMii (?> 


(U. 9) 




Hererio 


Osfrid (ii. Eadfrid 
11 20) (ii.14,20) 

Yffl (ii. 14, 20) 


(iv. 23) 


1 
Heresuid Hild 
(iv. 23) (iv.23) 

Alduulf (iv. 23) 


Aeanfled = 
(ii.9) 


= Osuiu A 

(iii. -'4) 
A 

V 


1 1 1 
edilhun 
ii. 14) 


edilthryd 1 
ii. 14) Eanfrid Osuald Osuiu (iii. 11) = 
uscfrea (iii. 1) (iii. 1,6) 
(ii. 14) 
Oidiluald Aldfrid(illeg.) 
iii. 14, 23) (iv. 26) 

Oared (v. 18) 


1 
= Aeanfled Aebba 
(iii. 24) (iv. 19) 

.24) 

21) 


M 1 I 
Osthryd (iii. 11, iv. 21) Alchfleda (iii. 21) Aelffleda (iii 
Alchfrid (iii. 14) Ecgfrid (iii. 24) Aelfuini (iv. 



To explain this motive it is necessary to briefly glance at the 
story of the Northumbrian dynasty; and as it has a somewhat import- 
ant bearing on the question of the location of Hilda's first house, it 
is worth while to do so. 

patriam reuocata,' etc. She therefore never actually crossed the sea ; yet bishop 
Forbes, in Diet. Chr. Biog., referring to this passage, strangely says : ' When St. 
Hilda returned from Gaul (Bede, Eccl. Hist. iv. c. 23),' vol. i. p. 304, n.v. Begha. 



THE NORTHUMBRIAN EOYAL HOUSE 51 

Edwin's father Aelli (whose name is familiar from the pun made 
upon it by Gregory in the slave-market at Rome 11 ), king of Deira, 
died in 588 A.D., when Edwin was only three years old. Ethelric of 
Bernicia at once seized Deira, 12 dispossessing Aelli's children, and 
uniting the whole of Northumbria under his own sway ; but his son 
Ethelfrid, by his marriage with Aelli's daughter Acha, 13 obtained 
some sort of right to the throne of Deira, which he held, after his 
father, with that of Bernicia. In 617 A.D., however, Redwald 
championed Edwin's cause, and overthrew Ethelfrid, who was killed, 
in the battle of Retford ; 14 and so Edwin not only recovered his own 
kingdom of Deira, but secured Bernicia as well. Thus, under the 
three successive reigns of Ethelric, Ethelfrid, and Edwin, the whole of 
Northumbria was united as one kingdom. Edwin on his accession 
at once retaliated for his own long exile by ' driving out the Athelings, 
sons of Ethelfrid,' including Eanfrid, Oswald, and Oswy. 15 He 
reigned over Northumbria for sixteen years. After his death, at the 
battle of Hatfield, in 633 A.D., the kingdom was again divided, his 
cousin Osric taking Deira, while Bernicia fell to Ethelfrid's son, 
Eanfrid. But in the following year both kings were slain by 
Caedwalla ; 16 and when he in turn was vanquished and killed by 
Oswald at Heavenfield shortly afterwards, Bernicia and Deira were 
once more united under Oswald, 17 who represented the Bernician 
dynasty on his father's side and the Deiran on his mother's. His 
reign and life came to an end at Maserfield in 642 A.D. 18 His next 
brother Oswy might also have seemed to hold the same claim to both 
thrones, but not long after his accession Osric's son Oswin, the direct 

11 Bede, H. E. li. 1 : ' Rex prouincise illius quomodo appellatur ? Responsum 
est quod Aelli diceretur. At ille adludens ad nomen ait, Alleluia ! laudem Dei 
Creatoris illis in partibus oportet cantari.' 

12 See Bright, Early English Church History, p. 106, n. 2. 

13 Bede, H. E. iii. 6 : ' Erat autem (Osuald, Ethelfrid's son) nepos JSduini 
regis ex sorore Acha.' 

11 Bede, H. E. ii. 12. 

15 A. S. Chron. s.a. DCXVII. See Bright, E. E. Ch. Hist. p. 108. The four 
younger sons were Oslac, Oswudu, Oslaf, and Offa. 
18 Bede, H. E. iii. 1. 

17 Bede, H. E. iii. 6 : ' Huius industria regis Derorum et Berniciorum pro- 
uincias, quae eatenus ab inuicem discordabant, in unam sunt pacem et uelut 
unum compaginatae in populum.' 

18 Bede, H. E. iii. 9. 



52 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

male representative of the southern royal family, obtained by 
popular vote the kingdom of Deira. 19 This arrangement gave rise to 
continual friction between the two neighbouring kings, which 
eventually resulted in Oswin's murder by Hunwald, with Oswy's 
connivance, in the >ear 6 5 1. 20 

It was during the height of this vexed rivalry that Aidan, who 
was devotedly attached to Oswin, so much so in fact that the shock of 
the news of his murder apparently brought on his own fatal illness, 
invited Hilda to come north. She was the daughter of Oswy's cousin 
Hereric, 21 and so by relationship was connected with the Bernician 
house ; but her direct descent from Aelli, and still more her close 
association with Edwin, by whom she seems to have been practically 
adopted after her father's death, linked her even more intimately with 

19 Vita Oswini (Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 8), p. 3 : ' Obseruans tempus congruum 
redeundi ad patriam, ecce tandem post actum in exilio de9ennium, audiuit 
regem Oswaldurn de medio in ore gladii sublatum, fratretnque eius Oswi pro eo 
in regnum sublimatum : initoque cum suis consilio, Deyrorum prouinciam 
reuertitur, ibique cum summo honore ab omnibus suscipitur : paruoque 
temporis interuallo, principes primatesque regni illius conuenerunt in ununi, 
communicatoque unanimiter consilio, Beatum Oswinum hasreditarii iuris 
successions Deyrorum dominum in regem sublimantes, regia purpura ornauerunt.' 

20 Bede, H. E. iii. 14. 

21 Hereric was a nephew of Edwin ' nepos Eduini regis,' Bede, H. E. iv. 23 
but not a son of his sister Acha, for his name does not occur in the list of her 
seven sons given in the A. 8. Chron. DCXVII. Florence of Worcester, apparently 
mistaking the sense of ' nepos' for 'grandson,' three times speaks of him as the 
son of Eadfrid, Edwin's son by his first wife, Quenburga (Monumenta Hist. 
Brit. pp. 532, 632, 639). But Edwin was born in 585, and Hilda in 614 A.D. 
It is clearly therefore impossible that she could have been his great-grand- 
daughter. That Florence derived his information from Bede is shown by his 
verbal quotation from H. E. iv. 23, under the year DCLXXX. (p. 536). Canon 
Raine's notice of Hereric in the Diet. Chr. Biog. is strangely confused. He 
first describes him as ' a nephew of Edwin,' and then goes on to speak of him 
in the same sentence as ' son of Eadfrith.' Moreover, he adds that ' he was 
baptized with Edwin by Paulinus at York on Easter Sunday -A.D. 627,' whereas 
Hereric was poisoned by Cerdic ten years before that date (' ueneno periit,' 
Bede, II. E. iv. 23), in revenge for which Edwin expelled Cerdic from Elmet 
(near Loidis, or Leeds), (see app. to Nennius. Ixvi. Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 76), and 
took Hilda under his own protection. It was she, not her father, who was bap- 
tized with Edwin (Bede, H. E. iv. 23 : ' Filia nepotis Eduini regis, uocabulo 
Hererici ; cum quo etiam rege (sc. Edwin) . . . Mem et sacramenta Christi 
suscepit).' So, too, Montalembert (Monks of the West, ed. Gasquet, 1896, vol. 
iii. p. 320), with equal confusion, transferring the account of Hereric's death 
to his wife Bregusuid, and making Cerdic a West Saxon, writes of Hilda : ' Born 
in exile, during the sovereignty of Ethelfrid, among the Saxons of the west, 
where her mother died a violent death, she had returned with her father on the 
restoration of his race in 617.' But Bede's statement is clear enough : ' Quae 
(Bregusuid) cum uir eius Hereric exularet sub rege Brettonum Cerdice, ubi et 
ueneno periit, uidit per somnium quasi subito sublatum eum quaesierit,' etc. 
The constant inaccuracy of references to the various characters in Northumbrian 
history renders it necessary thus to draw attention to the actual facts. 



THE COMING NORTH OF HILDA. 53 

the royal house of Deira. She was therefore of all persons the most 
likely to form a bond between the two estranged families. Accordingly 
Aidan assigned her a post within Oswin's territory, and (as will appear 
presently) actually in his own home, or at least his birthplace, 22 but 
on the very border of Bernicia, which was separated from Deira by 
the river Tyne. 23 

The site thus selected is described by Bede 24 in vague and general 
terms : ' deinde ab Aidano episcopo in patriam reuocata accepit locum 
unius familiae ad septentrionalem plagam Yiuri fiuminis, ubi geque 25 
anno uno monachicam cum perpaucis sociis uitam agebat.' The 
expression 'ad septentrionalem plagam Viuri fluminis' has unfortun- 
ately been the victim of a careless and persistent mistranslation which 
has obscured the whole question of the actual situation of the house. 
Indeed it is not too much to say that but for the misinterpretation of 
the one word plaga in this passage there never could have been any 
uncertainty as to the real locality. Thus Montalembert writes (iii. 
321) : 'Bishop Aidan authoritatively recalled her to her own country, 
and settled her there, obtaining for her a small estate sufficient to 
support a single family, and situated on the banks of the Wear' So 
again professor Bright, in his charming book on early English church 
history (page 163), says: 'He had invited Edwin's grand-niece 
Hilda from East Anglia into Northumbria, where, after dwelling for 
a year, with very few companions, on the north bank of the Wear, she 
became in 649 the superior of a nunnery near Hartlepool.' "So too, 
to quote but one other instance, professor Mayor, in the edition of the 
third and fourth books of Bede's Ecclesiastical History which he issued 
in conjunction with professor Lumby in 1879, states in his summary 
of iv. 23, ' Bishop Aidan recalled her to her own country and she for 
one year lived the monastic life on the north bank of the Wear.' But 
in the glossary at the end of this edition he plunges yet deeper by 

22 See pp. 69, 70. 2S See p. 75. 

24 //. E. iv. 23. The translation of this passage in Dr. Giles's edition of 
Bede is a startling illustration of the need of Mr. Bates's caution (Arch. Ael, 
vol. xvi. p. 82, n. 3) that ' no trust should be placed in the English 
translation added by Dr. Giles,' for it is as follows : 'Afterwards, bishop Aidan 
being recalled home, he gave her the land of one family on the north side of the 
river Wire, where for a year she also led a monastic life, with very few com- 
panions.' 

a Sc. in reference to the ' annus totus' spent in East Anglia. See p. 49, n. 10, 



54 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

the following entry: 'plaga 'a bank' Fr. plage 136 29 fluminis.' 
In his preface he explains that ' the examples given in the glossary 
are intended to be supplementary to those stored in the lexicons ; ' 
but this singular interpretation is not supplementary, it is antagonistic. 
For it ignores the consistent use of plaga by Bede, who uses it only to 
describe a tract or district, not a river bank (which is expressed in the 
usual way by ripa). There are actually three other instances of the 
regular use of plaga in the very books contained in professor Mayor's 
edition, which however he conveniently passes by without notice. 

To make this point, which is of some importance, clear, it will be 
well to refer to other passages in Bede where plaga occurs. In ii. 5, 
he thus describes the Northumbrians : ' quintus ^Eduini rex Nordan- 
hymbrorum gentis, id est, eius quae ad borealem Humbrse fluminis 
plagam inhabitat ;' and again in ii. 9, he repeats his definition : 
' gens Nordanhymbrorum, hoc est, ea natio Anglorum, quae ad 
aquilonalem Humbrae fluminis plagam habitabat.' Now, though in 
both these extracts plaga is used in close conjunction with fluminis, it 
is obvious that the people under Edwin's sway, and Paulinus's 
episcopal jurisdiction (to which the second of these references alludes), 
could by no stretch of imagination be supposed to be limited to the 
mere riverside population on the north bank of the Hurnber. Again 
(in iii. 3), speaking of the grant of the island of Hii to the Scottish 
monks, he defines the Picts who gave it as those 'qui illas Brittanise 
plagas incolunt ;' just as afterwards (v. 21), when referring to Naiton, 
he calls him ' rex Pictorum, qui septentrionales Brittaniae plagas 
inhabitant ;' or as in his account of the ravages of the plague in the 
year 664 he mentions its progress before it reached Northumbria : 
'depopulatis prius australibus BriLtanise plagis ' (iii. 27). Further, 
in denoting the position of islands lying off the coast, he makes use 
of plaga to mark their situation. Thus (i. 25), Tanatos is described 
as lying ' ad orientalem Cantige plagam,' and (iv. 4) Inisboufinde as 
'ad occidentalem plagam ab Hibernia procul secreta.' And yet 
once more, referring (i. 1) to the short summer nights in Britain, he 
accounts for them 'utpote nocturne sole non longe sub terris ad 
orientem boreales per plagas redeunte.' Now it is clear in all these 
cases that plaga means a tract or district, and nothing else. The only 
instance of its use in Bede's history which seems at first sight to lend 



THE MEANING OF ' PLAGA.' 55 

some countenance to professor Mayor's translation in the passage 
about Hilda's first location in Northumbria, is in ii. 12, where Ethel- 
frid's death at the battle of Retford is said to have taken place * in 
finibus gentis Merciorum ad orientalem plagam amnis qui uocatur 
Idlse ;' but here the clue to the understanding of the phrase lies in 
the words ' in finibus gentis Merciorum,' showing that the description 
refers to the district, (as, indeed, it must do, if there is any consistency 
OB meaning in language), and not to the bank of the river Idle. 

But the interpretation of the word does not depend upon Bede's 
use of it alone, though that in itself would be quite sufficient to 
decide the question. For example, for purposes of comparison it is 
interesting to observe the application of the word in the Vulgate, as 
representing the standard Latin of Bede's day. From the passages 
tabulated in Dutripon's concordance it appears that plaga occurs 116 
times. 2 ^ It will have been noticed that in every instance adduced 
above from Bede (except one, where the vaguer definition ' illas ' is 
employed) plaga is used in conjunction with an adjective denoting 
one of the cardinal points, north, south, east, or west. This 
peculiarity is abundantly borne out by the Vulgate idiom. For out 
of the 116 times the word occurs, it is used in exactly the same 
conjunction clearly in 104, and practically in 115 cases. 27 It is, 
therefore, a not unnatural inference that Bede drew the inspiration 
for his use of the word from the Vulgate ; and this would make it 
doubly certain that he could not have used it as a synonym for ripa. 
It thus becomes evident that in his reference to Hilda's first house, the 
expression ' ad septentrionalem plagam Viuri fluminis ' means ' in 
the district north of the Wear.' 

Now, this 'district north of the Wear' was, some centuries later, in 
early Norman times, a well-defined territory under the name of 
' Werhale.' 28 Thus, in the spurious charter ' Venerabilibus patribus,' 

26 Dutripon gives 117 instances; but one of them, Is. x. 26, is wrongly 
included. The word there is plaga, not plaga. It is noteworthy that the word 
occurs only in the Old Testament, and there, not in the Psalms : that is to say, 
it is only used in the books newly translated by Jerome, not in those merely 
revised by him. 

27 The phrase ' plaga maris ' is repeated eleven times in Ezech. xlviii., where, 
however, ' mare ' is used for the ' west,' so that these cases really fall under the 
same head as the rest. The one variant instance is the obviously hyperbolical 
expression ' plaga lectuli' in Amos iii. 12. 

28 See Surtees, Hist, and Antt. of DurJuim, vol. ii. p. 59 ; and Symeon of 
Durham, Surtees Soc. Ptibl. vol. 51, p. 143 n. Leland, Itin. vol. vii. p. 64, fol. 



56 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

which purports indeed to date from 1093 A.D., but is probably a 
fabrication of the next century, and cannot in any case be later than 
1229 A.D. (when the final agreement between the bishop and the prior of 
Durham, known as ' Le Convenit ' was ratified), 29 it is referred to by 
name as a separate district : ' In Werhale, the whole of the land near 
the Tyne in wood and in plain on the eastern side from Mareburn 
as far as to the sea, and the fisheries which are on the south side of 
the river Tyne, etc.' 30 In this reference it is noticeable that Werhale, 
which takes its name from the Wear, is described as stretching 
along the Tyne. Moreover, in bishop Hatfield's survey of 1345-1382 
A.D., it is recorded that John de Hedworth collected the rents of 
' Werehall.' 31 Again, in Symeon's Historia Ecclesice Dunelmensis, the 
story is told how St. Cuthbert appeared in a dream to abbot Eadred 
after the death of king Haldene, and directed that Hardecnut's son 
Guthred should be redeemed from slavery, and elevated to the throne. 
This was accordingly carried out, and Guthred did not fail to prove 
his natural gratitude to the saint and his representatives who had 
brought about his good fortune. For shortly afterwards Eadred again 
came forward with a further vision of St. Cuthbert, claiming a cession 
to the church of the whole district between the Wear and the Tyne, 
with perpetual right of sanctuary ; and Guthred cheerfully acquiesced 
in this demand, with the approval of his suzerain Alfred, and with 
the consent of his people, 32 which was necessary for a grant of 

78 : ' From Darrvent Mouthe to Wyre Mouthe the low country betwixt is 
cawlyd Wyralshire. Parte, or moste Parte of Chester, is in Wyrale.' 

29 See Dr. Greenwell's Feodarium Prioratiis Dunelmensis, Surtees Soc. Publ. 
vol. 58, pp. xxv. xxxi. Ivi. 

30 ' In Werhale ; totam terrain in boscho et piano iuxta Tinam, ex orientali 
parte de Mareburne usque ad mare, et piscarias, quas ex australi parte sunt 
fluminis Tini, scilicet Hildeiare,' etc. Ibid. p. Iv. For the position of Mareburn, 
ibid. p. 110 n. 

S1 'Johannes de Hedworth ten j. mess., et xxxvj acr. terras, quondam Ricardi 
de Hedworth, et uadit in legationibus Bpiscopi, et adducit redd, de Werehall 
apud Dunolm. per librum de Boldon ibid., et red. p.a. ad iiij term, usuales 6s. 8d.' 
Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 32, p. 98. 

82 ' Interea . . . abbati Eadredo . . . ipse beatus Cuthbertus per somnium 
astitit, iamque suorum quieti prouidens, ei haec facienda iniunxit. Pergens, 
inquit, ad exercitum Danorum mea te ad illos missum legatione dices, ut scilicet 
puerum quern uiduas illi uendiderant, uocabulo Guthredum, filium Hardecnut, 
ubinam sit tibi ostendant. Quo inuento et pretio libertatis eius uiduae persoluto, 
ante totius exercitus frequentiam producatur, atque ab omnibus, me uolente ac 
iubente, in Oswiesdune, hoc est monte Oswiu, electus, posita in brachio eius 
dextro armilla, in regnum constituatur. Euigilans ergo ahbas rem sociis retulit, 
moxque profectus iussa' per ordinem compleuit ; productoque in medium iuuene, 



' WERHALE.' 57 

folcland. 33 There seems to be no reason to doubt the reality of this 
gift, which was apparently made soon after 880 A.D. 34 And the 
magnitude of the donation finds a parallel in Coinwalch's earlier gift 
to the church of Winchester of all the lands within seven miles of that 
city. 35 Possibly however the distinctive and formal definition of 
'Werhale' as a separate territory dates from this benefaction of 
Guthred, and does not therefore reach back as far as Aidan's, or even 
Bede's time ; and if so it can hardly be technically identified with 
Bede's ' septentrionalis plaga Viuri fluminis.' But it is by no means 
unlikely that the tract between the two rivers was treated informally 
as a separate territory long before Guthred's time, and that this fact 
in the first instance suggested the demand for its cession as a whole 
to the church. 

Indeed the eastern portion of this Wear-Tyne district was very 
distinctly marked off by its physical conformation as an insulated 
strip, surrounded on all sides by natural barriers. With the sea on 
the east, and the two main rivers on the north and south, it was also 
protected on the west partly by the outcrop ' in boldest escarpment ' 

tarn barbari quam indigenae reuerenter iussa sancti Cuthberti suscipiunt, atque 
unanimi fauore puerum ex seruitute in regnum constituunt. . . . Nee parum 
honoris et donorum illi ecclesias (sc. Cuncacestre) rex Guthredus contulit, eique 
qui ex seruo se in regem promouerat deuota deinceps humilitate subditus fideliter 
seruiuijt. Unde cuncta quas pro priuilegiis ecclesias suae ac libertate atque pro 
sibi ministrantium sustentatione mandauerat, ille ut promptus minister mox 
adimplere festinauit. Denique memorato abbati per uisum astans ipse sanctus, 
DicitOj inquit, regi ut totam inter Weor et Tine terram mini et in mea ecclesia 
seruientibus perpetuae possessionis iure largiatur, ex qua illis ne inopia laborent 
uitas subsidia procurentur. Prascipe illi praeterea ut ecclesiam meam tutum pro- 
fugis locum refugii constituat, ut quicunque qualibet de causa ad meum corpus 
confugerit pacem per triginta et septem dies nulla unquam infringendam occa- 
sione habeat. Haec per fidelem internuntium abbatem audita tarn ipse rex 
Guthredus quam etiam rex potentissimus . . . Elf redus declaranda populis pro- 
palarunt ; eaque, toto non solum Anglorum sed et Danorum consentiente atque 
collaudante exercitu, in perpetuum seruanda constituerunt.' Symeon, Hist. 
Eccl. Dun. ii. 13, ed. Arnold in Rolls series, vol. i. 

83 See Lingard, Anglo-Saxon Church, vol. i. pp. 230, 413. 

34 The date is thus arrived at : It was shortly after the removal of the 
'series episcopalis' to Cuncacestre that this grant was made. In 899 A.D., 
according to the Hist. Tranl. S. Cuthberti, Alfred died (' anno ab incarnatione 
Domini DCCCXCIX. idem piissimus rex Anglorum Alfredus . . . defunctus 
est '), and in the same year, which is further marked as the nineteenth from the 
removal of the see to Cuncacestre (Chester-le-Street) bishop Eardulf also died 
('eodem anno quo rex Alfredus mortuus est ille saspe memoratus antistes 
Eardulfus . . . ab hac uita migrauit, anno scilicet nonodecimo ex quo 
sacrum beati patris Cuthberti corpus in Cuncacestre translatum f uerat ') ; the 
settlement at Chester-le-Street must, therefore, have been in 880 or 881 A.D. 

83 Lingard, Anglo-Saxon Church, vol. i. p. 238. 

VOL,. XTX. 8 



58 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

of the magnesian limestone, and partly by the river Don and the 
great bog through which it flowed. 36 That the Don was in ancient 
times considerable enough for ships to pass up it is clearly stated by 
Leland : 37 and this statement has lately received a singular confirmation. 
For in June, 1894, when a deep drain was being laid near Brockley 
Whins, by the bed of the Don, the workmen came upon the un- 
mistakable framework of an ancient ship, apparently of Scandinavian 
building, at a depth of some eight feet below the present surface. Now 
this strip of definite territory was in Bede's time strongly dominated 
by the first position within it which the church had occupied in force, 
Benedict Biscop's foundation at Wearmouth ; and therefore not 
unnaturally it would as a whole be regarded and described as from 
that position. 

But even if there were no special ' district north of the Wear ' in 
Bede's day to which he might naturally refer in general terms, still 
the vague form of his expression will cause no surprise or difficulty to 
a careful student of his writings. It is, in fact, exactly after his 
usual manner. 38 For example, if clear and accurate description of 
the site of any religious house were to be expected, it would be 
looked for obviously in the case of his own life-long home at Jarrow 
above all others. Yet in the whole of his Ecclesiastical History 
Jarrow is only once mentioned by name, and that is in the account 
of Ceolfrid's correspondence with Naiton (v. 21). There is no notice 
whatever, in the history, of the foundation of that monastery by 
Benedict Biscop. Moreover, in his special History of the Abbats of 
the Monastery at Wearmouth and Jarrow, this vagueness, or rather 
absence, of description is still more remarkable. For, except 
in the title of the work, he does not once mention the name of 
Jarrow; 39 and when he tells of the foundation of Biscop's second 
house (at Jarrow), his narration is so worded as to give the distinct 

38 See Heslop's ' The Permian People of North Durham,' Arch. Ael. vol. x. . 
p. 100. 

87 Collectanea (ed. Hearne, 1770), vol. ii. (i.) p. 328, n. : ' Portus Ecfridi sinus 
qui a Tina ad Girwi penetrat. Penetrabat et interius usque ad Bilton, pene 3 
pas. millibus super Girwi, quo antiquitus et nauiculse peruenerunt.' 

88 Compare the dearth of place-names in his Life of St. Cuthbert. See Bates, 
Arch. Ael. vol. xvi. p. 82. 

39 The same strange omission of the name of Jarrow is noticeable also in the 
anonymous Life of Ceolfrid (printed as Ilistoria Abbatum Giruensium, auctore 
anonymo, in Giles's Bede, vol. vi. pp. 416-432). 



BBDE'S VAGUENESS OF DESCRIPTION. 59 

impression that it was on Wearside. This at least would be the only 
natural inference to be drawn from his account taken by itself, if no 
further knowledge of the institution were available from other sources. 
For having described ( 1) how Biscop ' built a monastery in honour 
of the most blessed chief of the Apostles, Peter, near the mouth of 
the river Wear on the north side, through the help of Egfrid, the 
worthy and most religious king of that nation, who gave the land,' 
he afterwards goes on to say ( 6) that this same king, in his great 
regard for Biscop's character and energy, and seeing the fruitful 
result of his original gift, subsequently augmented his grant of land 
by a ' further gift of a site of forty holdings, where . . . Benedict 
. . . built the monastery of blessed Paul the Apostle ;' but there is no 
word of reference to Tyneside, or to the actual distance between the 
two houses. And yet no misinterpretation of this passage is ever 
suggested, though it lends itself to misunderstanding far more readily 
than Bede's description of the position of Hilda's first house ; for in 
this case no mistranslation would be involved, such as does occur in 
the other. 

There remains yet one word more to add about Bede's diction. 
His habitual phrase for expressing a site on a river bank, when he 
desires to define it accurately, is ' iuxta/ or ' ad ostium.' So, e.g., St. 
Peter's monastery at "Wearmouth is twice described as having been 
built by Biscop 'iuxta ostium 'fiuminis Viuri (Vyri),' 40 twice as 'ad 
ostium Viuri amnis (fluminis Viri) ad aquilonem ;' 41 Jarrow was 
' iuxta amnem Tinam ; ' 42 Biscop exchanged two silk robes for an 
additional site of three holdings, ' ad austrum Vuiri fluminis iuxta 
ostium ;' 43 and Ceolfrid bought of king Aldfrid, for a copy of the 
Cosmographers which Biscop had brought from Eome, a parcel of 
land of eight holdings, ' iuxta fluuium Fresca ;' 44 and so forth. 
But all these expressions are different from, and by no means 
synonymous with, that which has caused so much unnecessary trouble, 
' ad septentrionalem plagam Yiuri fluminis.' 

Here, then, the question of the interpretation of Bede's phrase 
may be dismissed. It was inevitable to deal with it at some length 
on account of the persistent misunderstanding with which it has been 
beset, and for which there can be no pretence of justification. 

40 H. E. iv. 18, Hist. Abb. 1. H. E. v. 21, Hist. Abb. 4. 
42 H. E. v. 21. Hist. Abb. 8. 44 Hist. Abb. 12. 



60 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

The main point, however, still remains to be discussed, where the 
actual site was of Hilda's house in the ' district north of the Wear.' 
Three places only have been suggested, and it will be convenient to 
take them in order. 

(1) First, on the north bank of the "Wear. It has already been 
shown that in modern histories this opinion is merely an inference 
from Bede's statement, and is founded upon a mistake as to the 
meaning of his words. But there is one other earlier allusion to this 
locality which must be further considered. Leland in his Collectanea^ 
quoting from a Life of St. Bega (which he apparently found at 
Whitby), says that she (Bega) was born in Ireland, and that she first 
founded a small and humble monastery in Caupland, which is 
commonly called ' Saynct Beges.' ' Next, she built a monastery on 
the north side of the river Wear (ad septentrionalem partem Wirse 
fluminis). Thirdly, she migrated to Herutey, . . . and established a 
nunnery of virgins there, and a little after ceded it to the holy virgin 
Hilda. . . . But Bega, leaving the island of Herutey, betook herself 
to Calcaria, where she built herself a new monastery. . . . She died at 
Hacanos.' Now it is clear that in this account Bega is identified, or 
rather confused, first with Heiu, of whom Bede gives an exactly 
corresponding account, 46 so far as Heruteu and Calcaria are concerned ; 
secondly with Begu of Hacanos, who had the vision of Hilda's 
death ; 46 and thirdly with Hilda herself, inasmuch as the notice of 
the house ' ad septentrionalem partem Wira3 fluminis ' is evidently 
adapted from Bede's words about Hilda. Indeed, the whole of the 
Life of St. Bega seems to be a mere farrago from the lives of other 
saints ; 47 even the miracles ascribed to her read like adaptations of 

45 Vol. iv. (iii.) p. 39 : ' Bega nata in Hybernia. Bega primum humile 
monasteriolum construxit in Cauplandia, ubi nunc sunt aliquot monachi 
Mariani urbis Ebor. et uulgo uocatur Saynct Beges. Deinde ad septentrionalem 
partem Wirae fluminis monasterium construxit. Tertio Herutey . . . commi- 
grauit, coenobiumque uirginum ibi condidit, pauloque post Hildas, sacrae uirgini, 
cessit. . . . Bega autem relicta insula de Herutey contulit se Calcariam . . . et 
nouum sibi monasterium condidit. . . . Bega tandem a Calcaria peregre pro- 
ficiscens obiit apud Hacanos monasterium uelatarum uirginum.' 

H. E. iv. 23. 

47 This confused story appears also in the Legend for Oct. 31, in the Aberdeen 
Breviary (Bright, E. E. Ch. Hist. p. 322, n. 4). See Montalembert, vol. iv. pp. 
384-7. A like confusion is admitted into the Diet. Chr. Biog., which has two 
independent articles on ' Bega ' and ' Begha.' Leland, in his quotation from Bede 
(Coll. vol. iii. (ii.) p. 150), goes so far as to substitute 'Bega' for ' Heiu.' 



WEARMOUTH OB SOWTEE ? 61 

similar well-known achievements of other holy women. Probably the 
similarity of the name of Begu, the nun of Hackness, with that of 
Bega led to the identification of the two, and then, in order to bring 
her from the west coast to the east, Bega was further identified with 
Heiu. 48 It is clear, therefore, that this reference is worthless as 
evidence of the existence of a house on the banks of the Wear before 
Biscop's first monastery there a generation later. Moreover, Egfrid's 
gift of the site 'desuo' 49 in 674 A.D. seems to preclude altogether the 
idea of an earlier foundation on the spot. 

(2) Next, in a note, ascribed to Greveson, in the margin of 
Leland's summary of St. Bega's life in his Collectanea, 50 it is stated 
that ' there is between the mouths of the Tyne and the Wear a small 
church dedicated to the lady Hilda, and it lies farther from the Wear 
than from the Tyne. It is situat'ed on a certain promontory, which 
the people call Sowter. Perhaps here was formerly Bega's small 
monastery.' 

Who Greveson was, who is responsible for this statament, it seems 
impossible to ascertain. Leland does not quote him again either in 
his Collectanea or in his Itinerarium ; nor does he refer to him in 
his Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicisf 1 in which he identifies 
most of his informants. From his minute knowledge of the locality 
shown by his allusion to Sowter Point, it may with some probability 
be inferred that Greveson was a local informant whom Leland met in 
the neighbourhood. If so, his statement is of course the more 
deserving of attentions But is there any confirmation of it to be 
found elsewhere ? Mr. Eobert Allison of Whitburn says he remem- 
bers that when he was a boy the old inhabitants of Whitburn had a 
tradition that a church had once stood on the edge of the coast, 
which has since been eroded by the sea, opposite a post which now 

48 An ingenious attempt to justify these identifications may be seen in the 
anonymous and undated Notes on the History of S. Sega and S. Hild, published 
by J. Procter at Hartlepool. 

49 Bede, Hist. Abb. 4 ; Lingard, Anglo-Saxon Church, vol. i. p. 240, n. 

50 Vol. iv. (iii.) p. 39 : ' Est humilis ecclesia inter ostia Tini et Wedrae D. 
Hildas dicata, atque longius distat a Vedra quam a Tina. Sita est autem in 
quadam prominentia, quam uulgus Sowter uocat. Forsan hie olim fuit Begae 

. monasteriolum.' Mr. F. Madan, sub-librarian of the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford, has kindly referred to Leland's original M S., in which, as printed in 
Hearne's edition, the note is ascribed to ' Greueson.' It was, therefore, added by 
Leland himself, and not by Hearne. 
41 Ed. by Antony Hall, 1709. 



62 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

marks the boundary line between the river jurisdictions of the Tyne 
and the "Wear. This tradition, however, may be simply derived from 
the note in Leland. For there seems to be no mention whatever of 
such a church in any of the multitudinous records of various kinds 
preserved at Durham. Moreover, Surtees, with all his careful 
investigation, could not trace any allusion to it other than Leland's 
note on Greveson's authority ; he heard of no local tradition about it ; 
for he writes, after translating Greveson's words : ' The description, 
though accurate as to neither, may be better referred to Shields than 
to Wearmouth ;' and again, ' It is extremely probable that the church 
(sc. St. Hild's, South Shields) is of high antiquity, and it is not 
perhaps without some claim to be considered as the " humble church 
dedicated to St. Hilda, which standeth nearer to the Tyne than to the 
Wear." ' 52 And further, early in the eighteenth century John Smith 
wrote, with reference to Greveson's note, 53 ' This spot has disappeared, 
unless we are to understand by it the church of St. Hilda. Nowhere 
have I been able to find a monastery in " the district north of the 
Wear," except that which was founded by Benedict Biscop.' 

If, therefore, any such chapel ever existed at all, and was not an 
invention of imagination, it can never have been of any importance, 
and indeed can hardly have been more than a small way-side chapel, 
without any cure attached to it. In any case it cannot seriously be 
regarded as the site of an ancient religious house. 

(3) There remains, then, as the only possible one of the three 
suggested positions, the site of St. Hild's church at South Shields ; 
and several different lines of evidence converge to point to this spot, 
until it becomes at last a practical certainty that this is the actual 
site of Hilda's first house under Aidan. 

(a) It has been more than once pointed out by Mr. Bates in the 
Archaeologia Aeliana, 54 that what he calls 'proprietary dedications' 
were especially common in Celtic countries, and were prevalent in 
Northumbria. In these dedications ' churches were called after the 

52 Hist, and Antt. of Durham, vol. ii. pp. 2, 98. 

53 ' Interiit . . . hie locus, nisi per eum intelligamus ecclesiam S. Hildas, cuius, 
certa initia sunt sequiorum temporum, et quse in australi Tinas fluminis potius 
quam septentrionali Viuri plaga sita est . . . Nusquam inueriire potui Monas-f 
terium a septentrionali plaga Viuri nisi illud quod Benedictus Biscop f undauit.' 
Bede, ed. 1722. It is clear that Smith too misinterpreted plaga, 

54 Vol. xiii. p. 324 Vol. xvi. p. 86. 



DEDICATION NAME OF ST. HILD'S. 63 

names of the saints who founded them,' by constant custom, if not in 
virtue of their original designation. Besides the instances of the 
various churches of St. Cuthbert, other examples of this practice in 
the north are found in the titles of the churches of St. Aidan at 
Bamburgh, 55 St. Boswell at Tweedmouth, 56 and St. Hilda at Hartle- 
pool, and in the name of Ebchester, 57 all of which are memorials of 
the personal labours of their eponym saints. A remarkable case, too, 
is the persistency with which to this day the old church at Jarrow, con- 
secrated in honour of St. Paul, 58 as the inscription on the still extant 
dedication stone indicates, and as Bede records, is commonly spoken of 
in the neighbourhood as 'BedeV or 'St. Bede's' church. Now to no 
place or church has the name of a local saint clung in this way more 
tenaciously than has that of St. Hilda to St. Hild's chapel (or church) 
in South Shields* It is universally referred to in all official documents 
by the name of its dedication, and not merely of its location. 59 In 
this respect it is unique among the churches in the diocese ; for the 
only other instances of the regular 60 use of the dedication title are the 

45 Not to be confused with the church of St. Peter at Lindisfarne, as it very 
often is. See Bede, S. E. iii. 17 : ' Cum fabricata esset ibi (sc. in insula 
Lindisfarnensium) basilica maior atque in honorem beatissimi apostolorum 
principis dedicata ;' of, iii. 25 ' qui (Finan) in insula Lindisfarnensi fecit eccle- 
siam episcopali sedi congruam . . . quam tempore sequente reuerentissimus 
archiepiscopus Theodorus in honore beati apostoli Petri dedicauit.' In Arch- 
deacon Singleton's visitation notes, 1828, it is cited strangely as ' St. Bartholo- 
mew.' Arch. Ad. vol. xvii. p. 256. 

56 Arch. Ael. vol. xiii. pp. 326, 342. 

57 Boyle, Comprehensive Guide to the County of Durham, p. 599. Diet. Chr. 
Biog. vol. ii. p. 22 b. 

58 Moberly, in the introduction to his useful edition of Bede's Ecclesiastical 
History, speaks of ' the abbey of St. Paul at Wearmouth ' (p. xiii), and of ' the 
monks of St. Peter's, Jarrow ' (p. xiv.), though he quotes (p. 376), but quotes 
inaccurately, the inscription on the dedication stone of St Paul's, Jarrow. 

59 In the Jarron Account Rolls (Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 29), after 1409 A.D., 
the reference is always to 'the chapel, or chaplain, of Schellis, or Sheles.' 
Before that date, it is always ' the chapel, or chaplain, of St. Hilda,' except 
once in 1355 A.D. and once in 1408 A.D. In the Detections, Comperts, and 
Injunctions of Bishop Barnes (Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 22, p. 118), Thomas 
Meslet is described as ' Curate of Sowthsheilds ' (though in the visitation lists he 
is always entered as ' Curate of St. Hild's 'see pp. 63, 73, 97). But such 
references, without mention of St. Hild's. are very rare. 

60 There are very occasional instances of reference to the dedication title of 
other churches ; e.g., ' Ferie, ecclesiam Sancti Johannis cum uilla sua,' Carta 
Johannis Regis, printed by Dr. Greenwell, Feodarium Prioratus Dunelinensis, 
Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 58, p. 94. Also, ' Ecclesiam Sancti Pauli in Gyrue et 
ecclesiam Sancti Petri in Wiremutha,' in one of the spurious charters of bishop 
William. Ibid. p. xlviii. 



6 i ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

city churches of Durham and Newcastle, where such differentiation 
was rendered necessary by the fact of there being several parish 
churches in the same town. So marked indeed is this that it is 
constantly even officially designated simply as ' St. Hild's chapel,' 
without any mention of Shields at all, or any reference to its situation, 
and ignoring altogether the possibility of confusion with St. Hilda's 
church at Hartlepool. The church on the Tyne is par excellence the 
St. Hild's of the diocese of Durham. Thus, to cite but a few 
instances at various dates : the charter granted to the church of 
Durham by king John, and dated 2 February, 1204, specifies in 
the list of the rightful possessions of the priory of Durham ' Jarrow 
with its church and the fisheries of the Tyne, the church of St. 
Hilda,' etc. ; 61 and the same words occur also some thirty years 
earlier in the charter of Henry II. 62 In the collation of William Cuke 
as chaplain 63 in 1327 A.D., the phrase runs, 'laudabilis conuersacio 
tua nos inducit ut capellam nostram Sanctse Hyldse tuae custodiae 
committamus,' etc. ; a phrase which is repeated in the collation of 
John de Gyseburn in 1402 A.D. 64 At prior John Fossor's first visita- 
tion, as 'Archdeacon in the churches belonging to the church of 
Durham,' in 1343 A.D., the clergy" and representatives of ' Jarowe, 
Monketon, Heberine, Folesceby, lower Heword, upper Heword, the 
Felling, Wylington, and Walleshend,' were cited (through the chaplain 
of Jarrow) to attend at the ' chapel of Heword ' (Heworth), while 
those from ' Hetheword, Simondset, Schelles, Wy vestowe, and Herton,' 
were summoned to 'the Chapel of S. Hilda the Virgin.' 65 The 
commissioners of Edward VI. in May, 1553, reported that they 
found at Jarrow 'one challice, with a paten, embost with lead, 
weying xxv unces, one challice at St. Hyldes, with a paten, weying 

61 ' Girwuum cum ecclesia sua et piscariis de Tine, ecclesiam Sanctae Hildas,' 
etc. Ibid. p. 94. See also p. iv. 

82 Ibid. p. Ixxxiii. See pp. iv-v. Bishop Hugh, one of the witnesses, died in 
1173 A.D. 

83 Printed in the appendix to the Jarrorv Account Rolls, p. 234, but with a 
wrong reference to the original record, which should be ' Reg. I. Parv. 37 ' (not 
Reg. II.). 

84 Printed by Hutchinson, vol. ii. p. 483, from a copy at the end of St. Hild's 
Burials Register, 1718-1740. Again the reference is wrongly given as ' Reg. V. 
fo. 126, 6 ' for Reg. II. fol. 126 b.' 

45 Printed in the appendix to the Jarrow Account Rolls, p. 235. John 
Fossor became prior in 1342. 



OFFICIAL USE OF TITLE ' ST. HILD's.' 65 

xi unces, two bells in the stepell at Jarrow and one at St. Hyldes.' 66 
In the year 1568 Thomas Blackeston was nominated 67 to the 'capella 
de lez Sheles uulgo uocata St. Hildes.' On 8 October, 1755 'William 
Radley, clerk, M. A., was licensed 68 to serve the cure of St. Hild's in 
the county of Durham, and to receive a salary of forty pounds a year.' 
In 1768 an Act of Parliament was passed for 'vesting in the Dean 
and Chapter of Durham a certain piece of ground, 69 adjoining the 
town of South Shields, in the county palatine of Durham, and for 
making an adequate compensation to the curate of the chapel of 
Saint Hild's in the said county,' etc. In 1775 the appointment of an 
incumbent for the first time omitted the claim of the dean and 
chapter to ' collate ' to the living, and the reverend Kichard Wallis 
was nominated to ' the perpetual curacy or chapel of St. Hild's in the 
county and diocese of Durham.' 70 And to the present day the 
incumbent of the church is described in the affidavit required in 
chancery before he receives a certain payment due to the living as 
' the present perpetual curate or incumbent of Saint Hilda in the 
county of Durham.' And it is not without significance that locally 
the usual popular designation of the church is ' Hilda church,' or 
simply ' Hilda.' 

Buti further, Hilda's name is associated also with the place in 
other ways. For example, in the supposititious charter ' Venerabilibus 
Patribus ' referred to above, the first name in the list of fisheries on 
the south side of the Tyne is ' Hildeiare.' Moreover, in the collations 
of William Cuke, in 1327, and of John de Gyseburn, in 1402, 
already quoted, one of the sources of stipend allotted to the chaplain 
is the 'pisces uocati Saynt Hyldesfyssche (or Sainthildefish) ;' 71 a 

68 List of ' Church Goods, etc., within the Countie of the Byshopricke of 
Duresme.' Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 22 (Ecclesiastical Proceedings of Bishop 
Barnes), p. Ivii. See also note 150, p. 88. 

67 Reg. C. fol. 2, in the Treasury of the Dean and Chapter at Durham. A 
note is added at the side of the entry, ' nondum emanauit sub sigill. capitulare ;' 
and Randal adds to the name, in his MS. list of the clergy of St. Hilda's, 
' N.B. this p'sentac'on is cancell'd.' But on 24 October, 1583, William Bramall 
was presented to the chapel of St. Hilda then vacant ' per cessionem Thomas 
Blaxton.' Reg. E. fol. 16. 

68 Acts of Bishop Trevor, at Auckland castle. 

69 On which were laid out the Market Place, West Street, Dean Street, Thrift 
Street, Queen Street, King Street, East Street, and Chapter Row. 

70 Reg. Dampier. Pars II. fol. 58. 

71 Probably a tithe in kind. 

VOL. xix. 9 



66 ABBESS HILDA'S Fms^f RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

right which is not apparently mentioned in subsequent collations, but 
which is returned as still payable, under the title of ' St. Hild's fish,' 
by the reverend Thomas Simpson in his answers to bishop Chandler's 
visitation articles in 1734. 72 

Of course these instances are but a few, taken almost at random, 
out of the vast number of references to the church of various kinds 
which might be quoted; but they are typical cases, and they are quite 
sufficient to indicate the extraordinary persistence with which Hilda's 
name has clung to this church. This tenacity of association is all the 
more remarkable when account is taken both of the great breach of 
continuity in the life and tradition of the Northumbrian church, 
which was caused by the repeated devastations of churches and 
monasteries by the Danes, and also of the better known and much 
longer maintained connexion of Hilda with Hartlepool and Whitby. 
In itself it would afford a very strong presumption that she had 
personally been connected with the place. 

(b) But this presumption does not stand alone. There is definite 
evidence of the existence of a religious house on this spot during 
Hilda's lifetime. In Bede's poem, ' De miraculis S. Cuthberti,' the 
well-known story is told, in chapter 3, 73 of the five boats coming down 
the river Tyne with wood for the monastery, which were swept out to 
sea by a sudden squall, to the cynical delight of their neighbours on 
the opposite side of the river, and which were restored in safety by a 
change of wind brought about by Cuthbert's prayers. Cuthbertis 
here spoken of as a boy, 

Seruatur sed et hsec puero uictoria lecto ; 

and it is not until the next chapter that his vision of bishop Aidan's 
soul being borne up to heaven on the night of his death (31 August, 
651) is recorded; so that, if the chronological order is to be trusted, 
the monastery was already in existence before Aidan's death in 651 
A.D. The actual position of the house to which the distressed brethren 
belonged is only stated somewhat indefinitely in the poem : 

Est locus insignia fluuii super ostia Tini, 
Eximio iam tune monachorum examine pollens. 

72 ' An answer to y e several Queries of y e R* Rev d y c Lord Bishop of Durham 
in his Circular letter to y e Clergy of his Diocese, w ch came not to my hands till 
about y e month of July, 1734, otherwise they had bin answered at his Lord- 
ship's Visitation of 1732.' 

71 Ed. Giles, vol. i. p. 5. 



NOTICES IN LIFE OF ST. CUTHBERT. 67 

But in his prose ' Vita S. Cuthberti,' Bede, in telling the same story, 
describes the site accurately as not far from the mouth of the Tyne 
on the south side of the river: 74 ' Est denique monasterium non 
longe ab ostio Tini fluminis ad meridiem situm, tune quidem uirorum, 
mine autem mutato ut solet per tempora rerum statu uirginum, 
Christo seruientium nobili examine pollens.' Moreover, the sequence 
of events as chronicled in the poem is repeated in the prose life, 
which places this scene immediately before the vision of the passage 
of Aidan's soul, which determined Cuthbert to seek admission to the- 
monastic life. Bearing in mind the extraordinary care which Bede 
took to verify all the details of this narrative, as he himself explains 
in his preface, there is no room left for doubt as to the occurrence of 
this perilous expedition of the boats, and, therefore, also as to the 
existence of the monastery, from which they set forth and to which 
they returned, before Aidan's death. Now as this happened in 651 
A.D., and as Hilda's one year in her first religious house before she 
was removed to Hartlepool was 648-9 A.D., it follows that the time of 
the incident must have, if not exactly at all events very nearly, 
coincided with the brief period of her rule there. 

In the Life of St. Cuthbert, in English verse, 75 written about the 
year 1450, the position of the house is definitely identified with the 
site of St. Hild's chapel : 

Als when he prayed for othir men, 
Grace and helpe God sone thaim len. 
In takenyng of this thing we rede, 
Be the telling of Saint Bede, 
How some tyme was a monastery 
That ef tir was a nonry, 
Bot a litil fra Tynemouth'. 
That mynster stode in to the South' ; 

Whare Saint Hilde Chapel' standes nowe, 
Thar it stode some tyme trewe. 

By the year 686 the change of constitution of the house, referred 
to in the last two extracts, had already taken place ; for in his final 
visitation of his diocese bishop Cuthbert 'came 76 at last to the 

74 Ed. Giles, vol. iv. p. 214. 

74 Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 87. Bk. ii. 11. 1121-1130. 

76 ' Inde peragratis ex ordine superioribus locis, uenit ad monasterium 
uirginum, quod non longe ab ostio Tini fluminis situm supra docuimus ; ubi a 
religiosa et ad seculum quoque nobilissima famula Christi Verca abbatissa 



68 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

monastery of virgins, which, as has been shown above, was situated 
not far from the mouth of the river Tyne, where he was honourably 
welcomed by the religious and, in a worldly sense, most noble 
handmaid of Christ, the abbess Verca.' It was this same Verca who 
presented him with the linen in which, at his own request, his body 
was wrapped after his death. 77 

(c) Again, the sites chosen for the establishment of religious 
houses in the early days of the Northumbrian church were necessarily 
selected with a view to their natural defensive strength. Before the 
final overthrow of Penda, and with him of a dominant Paganism, 
by Oswy, at WinwEedfield, in November, 655 A.D., 78 the greatest 
danger threatened from Mercia, not from the sea ; for the Danes had 
not as yet appeared upon the coast. The sea was regarded, therefore, 
as at once a protection and a way of escape in case of need ; not, as 
afterwards under altered circumstances, as the probable side 'of attack. 
Accordingly the earlier houses are found either in strong and semi- 
insular positions on the coast, as at Hartlepool (and no doubt the 
associations of lona and Lindisfarne encouraged the choice of this 
type of locality) ; or on the bend of a river, as at Melrose ; 79 or in 
fortified Roman camps, as at Calcaria (' Kaelcacaestir '). Now both 
these conditions were united in the case of the house ' near the 
mouth of the Tyne on the south side.' Protected on the east by the 
sea, and on the north and west by the river, it also had its southern 
face guarded by water by the tidal channel which then, and for many 

magnifies susceptus,' etc. Bede, Vita S. Citthberti, cap. xxxv. ed. Giles, vol. iv. 
p. 316. The only reference to a ' monastery near the mouth of the Tyne ' in the 
earlier chapters is that quoted above, p. 67, where it is described as 'ad 
meridiem situm ; ' and yet canon Raine, in his article on Cuthbert in the Diet. 
Chr. Biog. (vol. i. p. 726 a) speaks of Verca as ' Abbess of Tynewovth.' 

17 ' In hoc (sarcophago) meum corpus reponite, inuoluentes in sindone'quam 
inuenietis istic. Nolui quidem ea uiuens indui, sed pro amore dilectse Deo 
feminae, quas hanc mihi misit, Vercae uidelicet abbatissae, ad obuoluendum 
corpus meum reseruare curaui. 1 Ibid. cap. xxxvii. p. 324, of. Reginald Dunelm. 
cap. xli. (Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. i. p. 86). 

78 Bede, If. E. iii. 24. 

79 ' Not the Cistercian Melrose, with the name of which Walter Scott has 
made us familiar . . . but a more ancient and more holy Melrose. . . . 
It was situated on a kind of rounded promontory, almost completely encircled 
by the winding current of the Tweed, the banks of which at this part of its 
course are very abrupt and thickly wooded,' Montalembert, vol. iii. p. 317. The 
site, which is still called Old Melrose, is about three miles from that of the 
later foundation. Cf. Bede, //. E. v. 12, 'ad monasterium Mailros, quod Tuidi 
fluminis circumflexu maxima ex parte clauditur, peruenit.' 




55 --^ 

w ""- 

as 



? < 

r 

** </J 

- C/3 

Si 

W 



o i 

a. 



THK ROMAN CAMP ON THE LAWE AND CAEB, URFE. 69 

centuries afterwards, ran from the river, close by where the Custom 
house now stands, towards the sea, to the south of the Lawe. 80 This 
channel ' is shown in a plan of Tynemouth in the Cottonian Library,' 
as Mr. Longstaffe has pointed out in his Durham before the Conquest* 1 
The last and widest portion of it remained in the 'Mill Dam' until 
the years 1816-18, when it was filled up through the action of the 
Newcastle corporation. 82 It is now, of course, all built over. More- 
over, on the high ground at the north-east of this small virtual island 
there was one of the largest of the northern Roman camps, extending 
over an area of five acres, 83 and of exceptional importance, not only as 
flanking the Wall, but as the terminus of the great Ryknield way; 84 a 
camp which must still have retained at least a considerable propor- 
tion of its original strength in the seventh century. The general 
position, therefore, at once both insular and fortified, was exactly 
suited to the exigencies and the custom of the times. 

(d) But there was a further reason for its selection as the site of 
Hilda's first house, Which was probably the principal factor that 
determined the choice. Leland again and again refers to this place 
as Oswin's birthplace. Thus, ' E regione Tinemuthse fuit urbs uastata 
a Danis Urfa nomine, ubi natus erat Oswinus rex,' and he adds in 
the margin ' Caire Urfe.' 85 The locality is certainly not very clearly 
defined here, but other allusions fix it with absolute certainty. In a 
marginal note to his excerpts from the first book of Henry of 
Huntingdon, 86 he adds ' Caerurfe ' to the 28 principal ' Caers ' in the 

80 ' The Tyne at that time entered the sea by two mouths. The northern 
channel, then as now, poured through the narrows, swept past the high bluffs of 
diluvial clay, then projecting far out into the tideway. The southern outlet 
passed by what is now the Mill Dam, flowed through the present Waterloo Vale, 
and thus to sea. Between these circling arms rose an island stronghold, crested 
by the ruins of the Roman city, which flanked the . eastern terminus of the 
Roman Wall. This was no mere delta, but a ridged height, worthy site of a 
great city, at full flood or at ebb standing out the key of the position.' Mr. 
Heslop in Arch. Ael. vol. x. p. 100. The natural contour of the whole situation 
can be clearly seen from the top of the ballast hill immediately west of the 
South Shields railway station. 

81 Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute, 1852, Newcastle, vol. i. p. 46. 
See also note 151, p. 88. 

82 Salmon's South Shields ; its Past, Present, and Future, 1856, p. 17. 

83 Bruce, The Roman Camp on the Lawe, South Shields, p. 11. 

84 See Leland's quotation from the ' Historia Ranulphi, alias Radulphi, 
Hygdeni, Monachi Castrensis ' (Collectanea, vol. iii. (ii.) p. 390) : ' Cap. 45. 
Rekenildstreate tendens ab Aphrico in boream Vulturnalem. et incipit a Meneuia 
praedicta, tenditque per Wigorniam, per Wicombe, per Brimingham, Lichefeld, 
Darbe, Chesterfeld, Eboracum usque ad ostium Tinse flu.' 

K Collectanea, vol. iv. (iii.) p. 43. 88 Hid. vol. iii. (ii.) p. 290. 



70 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

country enumerated by his author : ' Monachi Tinenses dicunt 
ciuitatem fuisse in ulteriore ripa ostii Tinas flu : Caerurfe nomine, 
ubi natus erat rex Oswi.' Here * Oswi ' is obviously a mistake for 
' Oswin.' For in his Itinerary, Leland gives an authority for the 
statement about Oswin which is apparently independent of the 
tradition preserved by the monks at Tynemouth. He cites from a 
work, which he calls * Historia incerti auctoris de paucis Northumbr. 
regibus & episcopis Transhumbranis ' 87 the following statement : 
* Ferunt quidam S. regem Oswinum natum in quodam castro Burgh 
antiquitus nuncupato, cujus fundamenta pro parte ad hue manent ex 
australi parte aquae de Tina prope Southesheles in territorio quod nunc 
est Prioris Dunelmi ;' ' there are some who say that the holy king 
Oswin was born in a certain camp anciently called Burgh, the 
foundations of which still partly remain on the south side of the Tyne 
water, near South Sheles, in the territory which now belongs to the 
prior of Durham,' and he adds in the margin, ' Burgh Castellum ad 
australem partem Tini. vide num sit Cairuruach.' Now, though the 
name is given differently, as Burgh not as Urfe, the description of the 
situation and its association with Oswin are quite definite, and all the 
stronger as evidence in that this statement is not a mere repetition of 
the Tynemouth tradition. 

Oswin's father, Osric, would seem to have taken the Roman camp 
as a royal residence, as was often done by the Northumbrian princes, 
as for example at Campodonum, 88 the Cambodunum of Antoninus. 

Assuming, then, the truth of this tradition that Oswin was born at 
Caer Urfe (and indeed there seems to be no ground whatever to doubt 
it), there is at once apparent a strong reason for Aidan's placing 
Hilda there at her first arrival in Northumbria on her return from 
East Anglia. The position of his own house, placed under the 
protection of the royal castle at Bamburgh, furnished a precedent for 
another case where a close connexion with the reigning family was 
desirable ; and, as has already been shown, this was especially the 
case with Hilda. 

87 Itin. ed. 1769, vol. vi. fol. 34, p. 32. This work seems to have disappeared 
since Leland saw it. It is not the ' Life of St. Oswin,' published by the Surtees 
Society, in the Miscellanea Biographic a (vol. 8), which is very fairly sum- 
marised by Leland in his Collectanea (vol. iv. (iii.) p. 113). It is not given by 
the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum for August (vol. iv. pp. 62, 63) where 
there are only ' Acta ' from Bede, and ' Acta altera ' from Capgrave. 

Bede, II, E.\\. 14. 



THE SITE IN HILDA S DAY. 71 

It is not possible now to determine the causes which led to her 
removal farther south by Aidan only a year later to Hartlepool, which 
was also of course in Oswin's kingdom of Deira. It may have been 
that the growing intensity of the feud between Oswy and Oswin 
precluded her from acting as a bond of amity between them ; or even 
rendered it advisable that she should not remain on the very border 
line of the two 'kingdoms ; it may have been that the larger establish- 
ment at Hartlepool offered fuller scope for her powers, which had 
already declared themselves ; or it may have been that the change 
was merely due to Aidan's policy of pushing the outposts of the 
church farther and farther to the south. But the critical point in 
Hilda's career was when she first returned to Northumbria to take up 
work as abbess of a religious house, and at this juncture the right 
place was found for her at Caer Urfe. 

It is not difficult to realize the character and surroundings of the 
site thus placed at her disposal for the service of the church. The 
greater part of the virtual island at the mouth of the Tyne was 
occupied by the high ground, on the eastern side of which lay the 
ancient Roman camp, and in Hilda's day probably a royal residence, 
with its ' vill ' spreading to the west over what was known in later times 
as the ' Shele Heugh.' 89 Below it to the south-west between the high 
ground, the tidal channel, and the river, lay a small plain, the greater 
part of which to the extent of some fifteen acres 90 was assigned to the 
church. The religious house itself was situated in this plain on the 

* Compare, e.ff., the Rentale Bursarii of 1539 A.D. (printed in Dr. Greenwell's 
Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis, p. 310), where ' Shelhowgh ' is entered 
separately from ' Shelles,' and p. 329 ' De decimis uillarum de. Hertone, Westow, 
et Shelehowgh nichil, quia in manu Domini.' See also the collation of Thomas 
Blackeston (p. 65, n. 67), 6 October, 1568, 'ad effectum ut inhabitatoribus 
incolis et parochianis de lez Sheles Shelehughe Harton et Westowe diuina 
sacrameata celebres ac ministres in eadem,' etc. 

90 In the* year 1768 the Dean and Chapter of Durham obtained an Act of 
Parliament, with the connivance of the pluralist non-resident incumbent of St. 
Hild's, the reverend Samuel Dennis, by which eight acres of glebe land now 
the heart of the business part of the town were alienated to them in return for 
a perpetual payment of 30 a year to the living. Again, in 1801, another Act 
(41 Geo. III. Cap. 112) enabled the then incumbent, the reverend Richard 
Wallis, to let on a building lease of 999 years three more acres of the glebe. If 
the churchyard, which has been increased at various dates [1631, 1707, 1784] 
by additions taken from the glebe, be added, say some three acres, the total 
amounts to 14 or 15 acres, which corresponds very closely in measurement with 
the portion round the church shown on Mr. Richardson's plan of 1768 (of 
which a copy is included in Mr. Salmon's first lecture on South Shields) as not 
divided into farms. 



72 ABBESS HILDA'S FIRST RELIGIOUS SOUSE 

top of a steeply sloping bank 91 above the river end of the tidal channel 
at its broader part, where it opened out into a small lake, and near 
the point where the old Roman road, known as the Rekendyke, coming 
from the west, 92 crossed the water to ascend to the camp. The house 
looked across the broad bay of the Tyne, called a generation later 
* Portus Egfridi ' to the wooded promontory on which Benedict Biscop 
was afterwards to build his second church, of St. Paul's, Jarrow. 93 

But it was not destined to have a distinguished or peaceful, 
perhaps not even a long, history as a monastic establishment. The 
stone church, with its glazed windows, and the more elaborate and 
extensive buildings raised at Jarrow by Benedict Biscop and Ceolfrid, 
and the rich treasures of art collected there by them, above all the 
pre-eminent personal fame of Bede, must have made the neighbouring 
monastery to altogether eclipse the glory of the humble nunnery (as it 
had then become) of St. Hild by the beginning of the eighth century. 
Then, in 794 A.D., the Danes swept down upon the monasteries on the 
Tyne ; and though they lost their leader in the attack on Jarrow, and 
though their fleet was subsequently shattered in a gale and the 
survivors ruthlessly slain as they were cast up on the sands, 94 the 
respite was only temporary. The Danish corsairs again came in over- 
whelming force in 867 and in 875 A.D., and finally devastated the 
whole district, burning the churches, and plundering and murdering 
without pity. 95 From that time, the monasteries on the Tyne were in 

91 In 1816 there were many men out of work in South Shields after the close 
of the French war. Employment was found for them in digging down an old 
ballast hill, and spreading the ballast, not only over the site of the old Mill Dam 
lake, where the Glass Houses afterwards stood, but also over the lower part of 
the churchyard, which was then again used for burials. The present level, 
therefore, of the south side of the churchyard, though still much below the 
church, is considerably higher than it was originally. 

92 Hutchinson, vol. ii. pp. 487-8. 

93 ' The prospect from the churchyard southward is worth thfe traveller's 
attention, where Jarrow and its ruined monastery, on a fine point of land, are 
particularly beautiful' (in 1787 A.D.) Ibid. pp. 483-5. 

94 ' Anno DCC xc nil praedicti pagani portum Ecf ridi regis uastantes, 
monasterium Doni amnis praadarunt . . . post exigui temporis spatium 
uis tempestatis eorum naues quassauit contriuit, et perplurimos mare operuit. 
Nonnulli itaque ad littus sunt eiecti et mox interfecti absque misericordia ; et 
haec recte illis contigerunt quoniam se non lasdentes grauiter lasserunt.' Chronica 
Rogeri de Hoveden, vol. i. p. 14 (Rolls series). 

95 ' Anno DCCC LX Vli praedictus paganorum exercitus de Orientalibua 
Anglis ad Eboracum ciuitatem migrauit, omnia uastando usque ad Thine- 
mutham.' Ibid. p. 38. Compare Reginald's description (Surtees Soc. Publ. 
vol. 1. pp. 16-17, cap. xii.) ' Anno ab incarnatione Domini DCCCLXXV transacto, 



DANISH AND NORMAN INVASIONS. 73 

a depressed, probably in some cases almost ruinous, condition for 
nearly two centuries ; but that they were neither actually defunct nor 
totally deserted is shown by the case of Jarrow, where Elf rid of Westoe 
attended the commemoration of Bede's festival year after year before 
he at last found the opportunity in 1022 A.D. to carry out his mean 
design of stealing the saint's bones and carrying them off to Durham; 96 
where bishop Egelwin took refuge on his flight from Durham to 
Lindisfarne with the body of St. Cuthbert (and presumably also the 
relics of St. Bede) in 1069 A.D.; 97 and where, later in the same year, 
king "William himself appeared to attack and fire the church, 98 which 
he certainly would not have done if it had been a desolate ruin. 

Then came the gift of Jarrow to Aldwine by the first Norman 
bishop of Durham, Walcher, in 1075 A.D., and his endowment of that 
church with the neighbouring 'vills' of Preston, Monkton, Hedworth, 
Hebburn, Westoe, and Harton, 99 which more than ever made Jarrow 
overshadow St. Hild's. But though the whole surrounding district 
was thus made dependent on Jarrow, and afterwards, by Carilef's 
transference, on Durham, 100 there is reason to believe that the 
ancient church land attached to St. Hild's was exempted from this 
donation. There is no mention of it in the record of bishop Walcher's 
gift, though all the townships round it are carefully enumerated. 
Moreover, the wording of the collation of Robert de Dalton in 
1321 A.D. as the first permanent incumbent of St. Hild's is signifi- 
cant ; for while it speaks of the chapel as in some undefined way 
dependent upon Jarrow, it seems to rest the connexion on the ground 
that certain of the parishioners of Jarrow were accustomed to resort 

contigit Anglias fines lata strage uastari et sseuienti pyratarum predonumque 
mucrone populos circumquaque ex internecione deficiendo deperire. Nam 
ciuitates ignibus conflagrando consumebant, ecclesias et cymiteria multimedia 
sacrilegiorum pollutionibus prophanabant,' etc. 
98 Symeon Dunelm. cap. xlii. 

97 Symeonis Duiielm. Historice Continuatio. (Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 51, p. 85). 
' Cum haec Eboraci circum circaque rex ageret, Agelwinus Dunelmensis episcopus 
et optimates populi . . . unanimi consilio tollentes Sancti patris (Juthberti 
incorruptum corpus fugam ineunt iij. idus Decembris, feria vj. Primam 
mansionem habuerunt in Giruum,' etc. 

98 Ibid. p. 86. ' Interea regis exercitus etiam per loca quaeque inter Tesam et 
Tine diffusus, uacuis ubique domibus solam inuenit solitudinem, indigenis fugse 
presidium quasrentibus, uel per siluas et abrupta montium latitantibus. Tune 
et ecclesia Sancti Pauli in Giruum flammis est consumpta.' 

99 Symeon, Hist. Dunelm. iii. 21. 

100 Ibid. iv. 2. 

VOT.. *TY 10 



74 ABBESS HILDA S FIRST RELIGIOUS HOUSE : 

for worship to it as being within more convenient distance than their 
own parish church. 101 No doubt this refers to the inhabitants of the 
townships of Harton and "Westoe ; for six years later, when William 
Cuke was appointed as Dalton's successor, he was specially com- 
missioned to ' celebrate divine service and administer the sacraments 
of the church for the parishioners of Scheles, Herton, and Wyves- 
tow ;' 102 and from that time onwards these three townships (with the 
corresponding portions of the common land at Preston, or Simon- 
side) 103 seem to have been definitely attached as a parochial district to 
St. Hild's chapel. 

The appointment to the cure of souls in this chapelry was certainly 
in some way acquired, if not by Jarrow, at all events by Durham ; 
but it was a separately endowed charge. The revenues from the glebe, 
small as they were, were not accounted for in the annual Jarrow 
account rolls. Whether the priests who served St. Hild's were 
engaged year by year (' conductitii annuatim '), or were appointed as 
permanent incumbents, the church lands belonged indefeasibly to 
them, and not to Jarrow or to Durham. 

Moreover, Sheles never was a part of Westoe township. Its land 
was not included in the ancient division of Westoe into 13 104 ' farms,' 
as so many aliquot parts of the township as valued for rating purposes 
a method of valuation which continued in vogue until the year 
1787, both for Harton and for Westoe. 

Again, a further instance of the complete independence of St. 
Hild's as a parochial chapelry is found in the fact that from time 
immemorial it has had a select vestry of twenty-four. The earliest 
parish book now extant dates from 1653. At that time the twenty- 
four were in office. 

101 Printed in Jarrow Account Rolls. App. p. 234. ' Reputantes honestius 
quod capellse Sanctae Hyldae Virginis, infra parochiam ecclesiae de Jarow 
situatae et dependent! ab eadem, in qua propter distanciam locorum quidam de 
parochianis dictae ecclesias de Jarow consueuerunt audire Diuina, per unum 
capellanum perpetuum, dummodo f uerit ydoneus, deseruiatur quam per sacer- 
dotes conductitios annuatim, Tibi, etc.' 

102 < Ad effectum ut parochianis de les Scheles Herton et Wyvestow diuina 
celebres in eadem ac ministres sacramenta ecclesise, etc.' Ibid. p. 234. 

108 See Dr. Greenwell's note, Feodarium, p. 116. 

m In 1760 the various assessments total up to 12 ^ farms. The loss of 
rather more than half a farm, which may here be inferred, is illustrated by 
several parishes in Northumberland, e.g.. Lesbury and Hawkhill. See Lord 
Percy's paper on ' The Ancient Farms of Northumberland,' Arch. Ael. vol. xvii. 
pp. 18, 22. So, too, in the rating of Harton township, the list of 1766 shows 
91 farms, while in that of 1778 it is further reduced to 9f . 



THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA. 75 

In the year 1814 the reverend John Hodgson, incumbent of 
Jarrow (and one of the founders of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne), had a dispute about the collection of Easter 
dues at South Shields. In a rough memorandum of his case, in his 
own handwriting, 105 he notes : ' The township of South Shields has 
immemorially enjoyed preveleges which the rest of the parish of 
Jarrow never has. It has never paid any church cess to Jarrow, and 
both Harton and "Westoe, to the utmost extent of their boundaries, 
always have. They, too, have always sent churchwardens to Jarrow, 
which South Shields never did.' 

And so it appears that the grant of land originally made to bishop 
Aidan, probably by king Oswin, and certainly not later than 648 A.D., 
has remained ever since the peculiar property of the church of St. 
Hild's, with the exception of the miserable diversion to the Dean 
and Chapter of Durham of one-half of it in the year 1768. And 
thus there is more than a nominal or even traditional association, 
there is a definite historical link between the St. Hild's of to-day 
and abbess Hilda's first religious house in the seventh century. 



APPENDIX. 

THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA. 

[Read on the 25th November, 1896.] 

The boundary -line between the two kingdoms, or provinces, of 
Bernicia and Deira, into which Northumbria was subdivided, both in 
early Anglo-Saxon times, and also again for a brief period under the 
Danes in the ninth century, has been variously placed by various writers 
at the Tees, the Tyne, or even the Tweed. Moreover, it is not only a 
case of conflict of opinion between different authorities ; but in not a 
few instances the same author, actually in the same work, will speak 
of the frontier now as at the Tyne, and now as at the Tees. Thus, 
for example, Camden in speaking of the Brigantes says : 106 * The 

Ios Now preserved amongst the parish records of St. Hild's. 

io Britannia, ed. 1607, p. 558. ' Saxones enim has regiones Nordanhum- 
brorum regnum dixerunt, et in duas partes diuiserunt : Deiram, Deir-land ilia 
aetate uocarunt, scilicet, qufe nobis proxfmior cis Tinam fl. & Berniciam quse 
ulterior, a Tina ad Fretum usque Scoticum pertinuit.' 



76 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA : 

Saxons called this district the kingdom of the Northumbrians, and 
divided it into two parts, Deira (Deir-land was their name for it), 
which lies nearer to us on this side of the river Tyne, and Bernicia, 
which is beyond, and stretched from the Tyne to the Scottish Frith ; ' 
but when he comes to the Ottadini 107 he speaks of ' the kingdom of the 
Bernicians, whom the Britons call Guir a Brinaich, or mountaineers, 
which stretched from the Tees to the Scottish Frith.' So, too, 
Montalembert (iii. 311) describes the Tyne as 'a river which was 
then (sc. in 651 A.D.) the boundary-line between the two Northumbrian 
states of Deira and Bernicia, 108 and which is now one of the principal 
arteries of the maritime commerce of England ;' but only a few 
sentences later on (p. 319) he virtually places the division at the Tees : 
' The first of these monasteries was built on the borders of Deira and 
Bernicia, on a wooded promontory where the deer then found a covert, 
and which has since become, under the name of Hartlepool, one of the 
most frequented ports on the coast.' And yet once more, in the map 
of ' The English kingdoms in 600 ' given in Green's History of the 
English People, at page 32 of vol. L, the dotted boundary line is 
marked at the Tyne in accordance with the description in the text 
(p. 37) of ' the coast district between the Forth and the Tyne which 
bore the name of Bernicia ; ' but the lettering on the map extends the 
name ' Bernicians' from the Forth to the Tees. 109 

The difficulty has no doubt arisen mainly from the fact that there 
is no direct statement by a contemporary writer as to where the 
boundary was fixed. Bede, quite in his usual vague way, merely 
states 110 that * the Northumbrian people was in ancient times divided 
into these two provinces,' of Bernicia and Deira, but he does not 
define their limits ; nor is there any definition of them in Nennius, or 

107 Ibid. p. 674. ' Cum regnum Berniciorum, quos Britanni Guir a Erinaich, 
id est, quasi Mowtanos dicunt, constitutum esset, quod a Tesi ad Scoticum 
fretum pertigit,' etc. 

108 This was practically Montalembert's settled verdict, for again and again 
he repeats it ; as, e.g., in his notice of Verca (iv. 152) : ' Her convent was at the 
mouth of the Tyne, the river which divided the two Northumbrian kingdoms, 
Deira and Bernicia.' See also iii. 252 (ed. Gasquet). 

109 To cite one more instance ; professor Mayor, in the Onomasticon to his 
edition of Bede, s.rr. 'Bernicii' and 'Deiri' makes the Tyne the dividing 
boundary ; but in his note on iii. 1 , he places it at the Tees. 

110 H. E. iii. 1. ' At interfecto in pugna Aeduino suscepit pro illo regnum 
Deirorum . . . Osric . . . porro regnum Berniciorum, nam in has duas prouin- 
cias gens Nordanhymbrorum antiquitus diuisa erat, suscepit . . . Eanfrid.' 



THE TWEED THEORY. 77 

in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is not until after the Norman 
Conquest that any precise description occurs. But it must be borne 
in mind that the chroniclers who do treat of this question had access 
to earlier information which is no longer directly available. 

It will help to make the matter clearer if reference is first made to 
the opinions which have least to support them. 

I. The view that the Tweed formed the boundary between the 
kingdoms may be somewhat summarily dismissed. It has nothing 
whatever to recommend it, and it is difficult to understand how it can 
ever have been seriously entertained at all. Professor Mayor, in his 
note on the passage of Bede cited above, quotes Smith's note : ' The 
boundaries of the two kingdoms appear to have varied, for some 
authorities make Deira reach to the Tweed and Bernicia to the Frith 
of Forth, while others confine Deira to the south of the Tees, but 
make the northern kingdom extend to the Frith.' 111 Who Smith's 
' authorities ' were for the Tweed theory to whom he refers may 
probably be gathered from the following note in Elstob's English- 
Saxon Homily : 112 ' The Learned and Judicious Editor of the Saxon 
Chron. . . . carries it farther. ... To the kingdom of Deira he 
alots all that lies between ffumber and Twede, and includes by Name 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, 
and Bishoprick of Durham: to the Beornicas he assigns all that 
lies between the Twede and the Frith of Edenburrow.' Thus Edmund 
Gibson 113 is pointed out as the original promulgator of this idea. 
Perhaps its conception was' due to a confusion with the later divisions 
of the land in the tenth century, by which the country north of the 
Tweed came to be eventually separated from England, and assigned 

111 Smith's words are worth quoting for the oddity of his Latin : ' Harum 
tamen Prouinciarum Terminos longe aliter dederunt quidam. Deiros ad 
Tuedam, Bernicios ad fretum Edinburgicum extendentes : Et Bernicios quidem 
ad Fretum inueniamus ; Deiros uero non ultra Tesam fluuium.' Dr. John 
Smith, who was prebend of the seventh stall in Durham cathedral, and rector 
of Bishopwearmouth, died in 1715. His edition of Bede, which was not com- 
pleted at the time of his death, was prepared for the press and published in 
1722 by his son George Smith, the nonjuror, of Burnhall, near Durham. 

112 An English-Saxon Homily on the Birthday of St. Gregory, by Elizabeth 
Elstob ; London, 1709 ; p. 13. For a notice of Elizabeth Elstob, see Richardson's 
Table Book, vol. ii. p. 64 (30th May, 1756). 

11S Chronicon Saxonicuw, ed. Edmund Gibson, A.B. ; published at Oxford in 
1692; s.vv. 'Beornicas' and ' Deerna rice' in the ' Explicatio ' at the end. 
Gibson was afterwards bishop of London, 1723-1748. 



78 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA. : 

to Scotland. Edward the Elder in 924 A.D. received the oath of 
fealty 'not only from the Danes of York, but also from the 
English kingdom of Bernicia, which had never been overran by 
the Danes, 114 from the Welsh of Strathclyde, and even from 
the king of the Scots.' 115 So the way was prepared for Edred's 
organization thirty years later, when ' instead of dividing his new 
dominions (in Northumbria) into shires, as had been done with 
the southern parts of the Danelaw, the region north of the Humber 
was divided into two earldoms, one of which, now or a little later, was 
entrusted to the king of the Scots ; the other, from the Tweed to the 
Humber, was given to Osulf, an Englishman.' 116 Now this division 
corresponds exactly with that ascribed to the earlier Anglo-Saxon 
Northumbria by Gibson. A century later, when Malcolm 'became 
king William's man' in 1072 A.D., the Scottish hold of the district 
north of the Tweed became finally fixed, especially through Malcolm's 
marriage with Margaret. 'Henceforward his English earldom of 
Lothian was recognized as the most important part of his dominions.' 117 

II. Next, as regards the Tees as constituting the boundary 
between the two kingdoms. There are two champions of this view 
whose opinions deserve careful consideration. 

The learned archbishop Ussher, in his Britannicarum Ecclesiarum 
Antiquitates et Primordia, 118 published in 1639 A.D., after quoting the 
statements of Ralph of Chester, Thomas of Malmesbury, Richard of 
Hexham, Humphrey Lhuyd, William Camden, John of Tynemouth, 
and John Fordun, of whom Richard of Hexham and Humphrey 
Lhuyd alone declare for the Tees as against the Tyne, proceeds to give 
his own judgment, after all, in favour of the Tees. Fortunately, after 

1U A remarkable illustration of this fact was brought forward by Mr. R. 
Oliver Heslop at the meeting of the Society on 25th November, 1896. He 
pointed out that there are practically no Danish place-names in the present 
county of Northumberland ; and that while there are not a few instances in the 
south of the county of Durham (except in upper Weardale, where there is 
none), they become fewer and fewer towards the Tyne. See also Arch. Ael. 
vol. xiii. p. 224. 

115 Ransome's Advanced History of England, 1895, vol. i. p. 63. 

116 Ibid. p. 65. This southern earldom was again subdivided during Edgar's 
reign (959-975 A.D.) ' Commissa prouincia Osulfo comiti : qui regnaute post- 
modum Eadgaro, socium accepit Oslacum ; deinde Osulfus ad Aquilonalem 
plagam Tinae, Oslac uero super Eboracum et eius fines curas administrabat.' 
Chronica Rogeri de Hoveden, Rolls series, vol, i. p. 57. 

117 Ransome, I.e. p. 96. 

118 Ed. Ebrington, 1847, vol. v. c. xii. pp. 452-453. 



THE TEES THEORY. 79 

his careful wont, he states his reason. Finding the secondary 
authorities not agreed, he goes back past them, as a true historian, to 
Bede as a primary informant. But in Bede, of course, he can find no 
categorical statement ; he can only trace an inference. And the 
inference is this : when, according to Bede, the episcopal see of the 
Northumbrians was divided into two in 678 A.D. Bosa became bishop 
of the Deirans at York, and Eata bishop of the Bernicians at Hexham 
or at Lindisfarne. 119 But as Hexham is on the south side of the 
Tyne, Ussher argues that the debatable territory between the Tyne 
and the Tees must therefore have been part of Bernicia. That is all 
he has to urge for it ; and it cannot be said to amount to much. For, 
to argue as to the limits of an earlier subdivision of a kingdom from 
a later arrangement of a diocese, a generation after that kingdom had 
been finally welded into one, falls very far short of proof, or even 
probability. The subordinate kingdoms of Northumbria were perma- 
nently united after Oswin's death in 651 A.D. : the see of Northumbria 
was first subdivided in 678 A.D. Twenty-seven years of a single 
secular government had thus intervened before the ecclesiastical 
rearrangement took place. Moreover, the original bishopric of Lindis- 
farne, out of which the two new dioceses were taken, was never merely 
the see of the Bernicians, but had the episcopal control of North- 
umbria as a whole. For forty-three years the bishops had spiritually 
supervised the whole kingdom, whether as separated into Bernicia and 
Deira, or as united under one king ; their jurisdiction was entirely 
independent of the secular subdivision. "When Chad was consecrated 
bishop in 665 A.D. it was as bishop of York, but he took over the 
whole diocese of Lindisfarne, or Northumbria ; and after his brief 
tenure of the see his successor, Wilfrid, ' administered the diocese of 
the whole province of the Northumbrians.' 120 An ecclesiastical 
division, therefore, of this great unity would be obviously independent 
of obsolete civil areas of administration. And further, Ussher's argu- 

119 Bede, H. E. iv. 12. ' Quo etiam anno orta inter ipsum regem Ecgfridum 
et reuerentissimum antistitem Vilfridum dissensione, pulsus est idem antistes a 
sede sui episcopatus et duo in locum eius substituti episcopi, qui Nordanhym- 
brorum genti praeessent, Bosa uidelicet qui Derorum et Eata qui Berniciorum 
prouinciam gubernaret : hie in ciuitate Eboraci, ille in Hagustaldensi siue in 
Lindisfarnensi ecclesia cathediam habens episcopalem.' 

120 ' Totius Northanhymbrorum prouinciae pontificatum non paruo tempore 
administrauit. 3 Sym. Dun. i. 9. 



80 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA : 

ment has a further defect, in that it rests on the assumption that if 
the Tyne was the boundary it must have been so along its whole 
course. But at the present time, and ever since Durham has been 
a separate county, the south side of the Tyne west of the parish of 
Ryton 121 belongs to Northumberland ; yet no one would maintain on 
that account that the Tyne, generally speaking, is not the division 
between the counties of Northumberland and Durham, or between the 
dioceses of Newcastle and Durham. The inference drawn by Ussher 
from this single circumstance is altogether too precarious and vague 
to be admitted even as evidence. 

But in addition to archbishop Ussher there is another supporter 
of the Tees theory, whose words carry peculiar weight from his 
special knowledge of northern antiquities. Mr. Longstaffe in his 
paper on Durham before the Conquest, contributed to the Newcastle 
meeting of the Archaeological Institute in August, 1852, 122 pronounces 
for the Tees boundary practically on two grounds : partly on account 
of the territory of the Hexham bishopric, both on the occasion of its 
severance under Bosa from York, and also with special reference to 
the subsequent subdivision of the northern diocese between Lindis- 
farne and Hexham in 681 A.D. ; m (but this line of argument has 
already been shown to be quite inconclusive) ; and partly on the 
ground that in the time of the later division of the earldom of 
Northumberland three hundred years later, 'in 969, by means of 
the Tees, it is remarked by "Wallingford 124 that the two kingdoms 

121 The river Derwent for some twenty miles forms the boundary of the 
county, and would naturally form the division to its junction with the Tyne. 
The only part of the county to the west of it is the original parish of Ryton. 
The rev. C. J5. Adamson suggests that this is included as being one of the 
ancient manors of the bishop of Durham. These were all regarded formerly as 
parts of Durham, e.g. Bedlingtonshire, which was counted as part of the Chester 
Ward of the county of Durham (Mackenzie, Northumberland, ed. 1825, i. 344) 
until it was annexed to Northumberland in 1845 by Act of Parliament (7 & 8 
Viet. cap. 61). But Ryton, as being actually contiguous to the county of 
Durham, remained undisturbed as part of it. 

122 Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute, Newcastle, vol. i. [London, 
1858] pp. 42, 43. 

12S See Bede, H. E. iv. 12. ' Qui etiam post tres abscessionis Vilfridi annos, 
horum numero duos addidit antistites, Tunberctum adecclesiam Hagustaldensem, 
remanente Eata ad Lindisfarnensem, et Trumuini ad prouinciam Pictorum, 
quae tune temporis Anglorum erat imperio subiecta.' 

124 Chronica Joannis \Vallingford, in Gale's Script. XV. But see Wright's 
Biographia Britannica Literaria, vol. ii. p. 471. 'John de Wallingford, abbot 
of St. Alban's [A.D. 1199] is described by Matthew Paris as a man of learning : 



MR. LONGSTAFFE'S THEORY OF THE TEES. 81 

became two earldoms or counties ; and during the Danish division 
and a temporary division by the Tyne of the earldom, the historians 
describe the northern portion as " beyond Tyne," not as " of the 
Bernicians." ' But surely the mere fact that the old name of the 
seventh century province of ' Bernicia ' is not applied in the tenth 
century to the portion of it lying between the Tyne and the Tweed, 
under completely altered conditions of government, can have no 
bearing whatever on the exact southern boundary of the ancient 
division. Indeed, if there was any definite reason for avoiding the 
name of ' Bernicia,' it was on account of the narrowing of its northern, 
not of its southern, extent. In the very passage of ' Wallingford ' to 
which Mr. Longstaffe refers, the district north of the Tweed is referred 
to as ' Louthion.' Moreover, the text of the reference, as printed by 
Gale, is obviously corrupt ; but if it proves anything, it seems to show 
that the writer actually applied the title of Deira to the territory north 
of the Tees, and so far to tell against Mr. Longstaffe's position. The 
words are : ' From the Humber to the Tees he assigned to Oslach. . . 
but from the Tees to Mireforth, that is the seaside part of Deira, to 
Eadulf, surnamed Ewelthild.' 125 

Of other scattered writers who allege that the Tees was the boundary 
of Bernicia and Deira no serious notice need be taken. For example, 
William Somner in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary so states it on the 

but that historian does not ascribe to him any writings, and it is more than 
probable that the Chronicle printed under his name by Gale, and other works 
which go under the same name, were the composition of a monkish writer who 
lived at a later period.' And compare Hardy, Descriptive Catalogue of 
Materials, etc., No. 1229, p. 625. ' The author seems frequently desirous of 
examining and comparing authorities, and yet the result is only error and 
absurdity, as he confounds persons and places, and sets chronology at defiance.' 
The only known MS. of the work is Cott. Julius, D. vii. 6. 

12i Gale, vol. iii. p. 544. ' At rex Eadgarus sub eodem tempore [sc. the time 
of Dunstan's appointment to the archbishopric of Canterbury in 960 A.D.] 
Barones Northumbrenses in consilium conuocans apud Eboracum, capitula 
multa ad regni negotia spectantia bene ordinauit. Inter quae etiam Osulfi 
comitatum, quern auunculus eius Eadredus toti Northimbriae sub nomine comitis 
praefecerat, in duos diuisit comitatus. Ipso Osulfo iam mortuo, noluit sub 
nomine hsereditatis rex earn partem terras alicui prouenire soli, ne ad antiquam 
libertatem aspirantes (?) Northimbriae, hoc est ab Humbria usque ad Theisam 
Oslach, et comitis gladio eum cinxit. A Theisa uero usque ad Mireforth sub 
nomine etiam comitatus, partem uidelicet maritimam Deirae dedit Eadulf 
cognomento Ewelthild. Sicque duo regna ad duos comitatus deuenerunt, 
permanseruntque omni tempore regum Anglorum sub ditione et donatione 
eorundem.' 

'* Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum, Oxonii, MDCLIX. 
VOL. xix. 11 



82 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DETRA : 

authority of Camden ' in Ottadinis ; ' but if he had referred to the 
same author ' in Brigantibus ' he might on the same authority have 
adopted the Tyne. 

The originator of all the confusion about the Tees is Richard of 
Hexham, who was prior there in 1143 A.D. He writes, in his History 
of the Church of Hexham : ' The territory of the Northumbrians in 
the time of the kings included under one general title all the tract 
from the river Humber to another river which was called the Tweed. 
But this was subdivided into two provinces, namely, Deira, which, 
beginning at the Humber, was bounded by the river Tees, and Ber- 
nicia, which extended from the Tees to the Tweed.' 127 Here he betrays 
himself as resting on a wrong basis for Anglo-Saxon times by placing 
the northern limit of Bernicia at the Tweed, instead of the Forth (as 
has been shown above in the case of Gibson and of Smith). Perhaps 
it may be urged in his excuse that the unity of the church 
administration of the one mighty palatinate bishopric on both sides of 
the Tyne in his own time, and the marked separation between that 
territory and Yorkshire, might easily mislead him into supposing that 
that division was a fundamental and an ancient one. 

In addition to Richard of Hexham, Ussher also quotes Humphrey 
Lhuyd in support of the Tees boundary. This writer seems to have 
been a native of Denbigh, 128 who wrote in Latin a Britanniae 
Descriptio^ which was published at Cologne in 1572, a few years 
before Camden's Britannia. His statement is : ' The kingdom of 
Deera embraced the whole district from the Humber and the Trent to 
the river Tees ; and Bernicia from the Tees to the Scottish sea, which 
now they call Fyrthe. . . . That tideway now called Forthe used 
to be called the Pictish, and afterwards the Scottish sea. Moreover, 
the kingdom of the Northumbrians extended as far as this.' 129 This 
indeed appears to be 'the only account which, while it covers rightly 

127 Printed in Twysden's Historic Anglicance Scriptores X. 1652, fol. 285 a. 
' Generali nomine regio Northanhymbrorurn tempore regum uocabatur, quicquid 
erat ab Humbra flumine usque ad alium fluuium qui uocabatur Tweda. Haec 
autem subdiuisa erat in duas prouincias scilicet in Deiram quae ab Humbra 
incipiens ad Tesam nuuiurn terminabatur ; et in Berniciam quae a Tesa usque 
ad Twedam protendebatur.' 

128 Watts, s.n. in BMiotlieca Britannica. 

K * Fol. 2i. ' Deerae regnum continebat totam regionem a Humbro et Trenta 
ad Tyssam flumen, Bernicia uero a Tyssa ad mare Scoticum, quod nunc Fyrthe 
uocant.' Fol. 40. 'Aestus ille nunc Forthea dictus mare Picticum et postea 
Scoticum dicebatur. Et hue usque Northumbrorum reguum extendebatur.' 



THE TYNE, THE TBUE BOUNDARY. 83 

the whole extent of Anglo-Saxon Northumbria, yet places the 
boundary between the two sub-kingdoms at the Tees. But its late 
date and obscure origin deprive it of any weight as an original 
authority. 

III. There remains, therefore, to be considered only the case for 
the Tyne as having formed the dividing frontier ; and here the 
evidence rests on a surer basis, both of direct statement and of 
inference from known facts. 

The Vita S. Oswaldi, by one of the Keginalds of Durham, which 
is printed (for the first time) in the appendix to the first volume of 
Arnold's edition of Symeon of Durham in the Rolls series, was written, 
as chapter Iv. shows, in 1165 A.D. 130 In this work, when speaking of 
king Ida and his successors, the writer says : ' The kingdom of the 
Deirans was in ancient times from the river Humber to the bed of the 
beginning (? mouth) of the Tyne ; while that of the Bernicians 
extended its bounds and circuit from the opening of the Tyne as far 
as Scotwad, which in the Scottish tongue is called Forth.' 131 This 
description is afterwards adopted and transcribed, with a simplification 
of its turgid Latinity, by John of Tynemouth (about 1336 A.D.) ; 132 
and is again appropriated, according to Ussher, a few years later by 
John of Fordun, in his Scotichronicon. l ' iZ 

130 ' Anno quidem instant! millesimus centesimus sexagesimus quintus ab 
incarnationis tempore est.' 

131 c.i. ' Regnum Deirorum antiqnitus erat de flumine Humbre usque Tinas 
principii alueum ; Berniciorum autem de Tinas exordio usque in Scotwad 
[? Scoticum uadum],quod in Scottorum lingua Forth nominatur, dilatabat simul 
terminum et ambitum.' 

132 ' Regnnm Deirorum a flumine Humbrias usque ad Tynam fluuium quondam 
se extendit. Regnum uero Berniciorum a flumine Tyne usque ad mare Scoticum, 
quod Scotorum lingua Forth nominatur, porrigebatur,' in Regis Osnaldi Vita 
(quoted by Ussher, I.e.).' That he copied from Reginald of Durham is shown by 
the next sentence, in which he describes the district between Tyne and Tees as 
having been a wilderness, and the haunt of wild beasts, at that time. This pas- 
sage is all but a word for word transcription, with a few slight modifications. 

13 Ussher, I.e. ' Quod ipsum etiam in Johannis Fordoni Scotichronico sim- 
iliter annotatum ihuenimus.' This reference seems to be a confused memory of 
three passages in the Scotichronicon : (i) 'Huius autem Albania regionis pro- 
uincias, qusecunque fuerint, quas sunt inter Ilumbnim & mare Scoticum, olim 
Britones dominio tantum, & nihil unquam possessionis in Albione uersus 
Boream, habuerunt,' ii. 6. (ii) ' Scotia quidem a Scotonim gentibus quibus in- 
colitur appellatur. Ad f return quoque Scoticum Scotia prius initium sumpsit, 
ab Austro deinde quidem ad Humbri flumen. a quo cospit exordium Albania. 
Postmodum uero iuxta murum incoepit Thirlwal, quern Sever us extruxerat ad 
amnetn Tynam, 1 ii. 7. (iii) ' Igitur irruptiones Fulgentii crebras grauiterfereus 
Imperator, fieri iussit uallum inter Deiram &L Albania, ut eius impetum 
propius accedere prohiberet,' ii. 34. Printed in Gale, vol. i. pp. 590, 606. 



84 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA : 

Moreover, other chroniclers of the fourteenth century agree in this 
view. Thus, for example, Ralph Higdenof Chester (1342 A.D.) writes 
in his Polychronicon : 'This kingdom of the Northumbrians was 
originally divided into two provinces, Deira to the south and Bernicia 
to the north ; and these two kingdoms the river Tyne divided at that 
time. For the kingdom of the Deirans extended from the river 
Humber as far as the river Tyne ; and the kingdom of the Bernicians 
stretched from the river Tyne as far as the aforementioned Scottish 
sea ;' 134 and he refers to Alfred of Beverley as his authority. 135 And 
similarly Thomas of Malmesbury, in his Eulogium Historiarum (about 
1370 A.D.) : ' The kingdom of the l)eirans extended from the river 
Humber to the river Tyne, and the kingdom of the Bernicians from 
the river Tyne to the Scottish sea, where the town of St. John's 
now is.' 136 

Again, Leland, in his Collectanea, gives some excerpts from the 
work of an anonymous author, De Episcopis Lindisfarnensibus ; and 
these include the statement that ' Northumbria was divided into the 
kingdom of the Deirans and (the kingdom) of the Bernicians. The 
limit of the Deirans was from the Humber to the Tyne ; that of the 
Bernicians from the Tyne to the Scottish sea.' 137 Again, he quotes 
later from the chronicle of another anonymous author which he found 
at Whitby : ' The kingdom of the Deirans from Humber to Tyne. 
The kingdom of the Bernicians from Tyne to the Scottish sea, where 
the town of St. John's is.' 138 

134 ' Hoc autem regnum Northimbrorum primitus diuisum f uit in duas 
prouincias ; in Deiram ad austrum, et in Berniciam ad aquilonem, quae duo 
regna flumen Tyne tune temporis diuiserat. Nam regnum Deirorum a fluuio 
Humbriae usque ad flumen Tyne extendebatur : regnum uero Berniciorum a 
flumine Tyne usque ad mare Scoticum praedictum porrigebatur,' lib. i. c. 51. 

135 ' The fifty-first chapter, on the succession of kingdoms in Britain, is 
taken, according to most MSS., from Alfred of Beverley. . . . Both versions, 
however, as well as MS. B., omit the reference. The words do not occur, I 
believe, in Alfred.' Prof. Churchill Babington, Introduction to Higden's 
Polychronicon, Kolls series, vol. ii. p. xiv. 

136 ' Nam regnum Deirorum a fluuio Humbre usque ad flumen Tyne se 
extendebat ; regnnm uero Berniciorum a flumine Tyne usque ad mare Scoticum, 
ubi nunc est uilla Sancti Johannis porrigebatur ; totum enim intermedium ad 
regnum Berniciorum pertinebat.' Vol. ii. p. 165, Rolls series. The description 
seems to be borrowed from Ralph Higden, or from the same source as that from 
which he derived it. 

137 i Northumbria diuisa in regnum Deirorum & Berniciorum. Deirorum 
limes ab Humbro ad Tinam. Berniciorum limes a Tina ad mare Scotticum.' 
Vol. ii (i.) p. 366. 

138 . Northumbria olim continebat totam terram quse est inter Humbrum & 
Tuedam fluuios. . . . Regnum Deirorum a Humbro ad Tinam. Regnum 



EVIDENCE OF THE CHRONICLERS. 85 

The witness of the monastic chroniclers is strongly in favour of 
the Tyne boundary. And it is in their writings that the primary 
sources lie for all subsequent utterances on the subject ; it is to them 
mainly that recourse must be had for information and guidance about 
the 'old times before them.' For they had access to many records 
which have since perished, and they were in touch with many local 
traditions which still lived on when they wrote. 

In modern times Dr. Lappenberg says : ' The country to the 
north of the Humber had suffered the most severely from the inroads 
of the Picts and Scots. It became at an early period separated into 
two British states, the names of which were retained for some 
centuries, viz., Deifyr (Deora rice),' afterwards Latinized into Deira, 
extending from the Humber to the Tyne, and Berneich (Beorna rice), 
afterwards Bernicia, from the Tyne to the Clyde.' 139 But it would be 
as useless as it would be tedious to enumerate lists of modern writers 
who have declared for the Tees or for the Tyne as the Bernicia- 
Deiran boundary. While their opinions are interesting, and in some 
cases valuable on account of the critical judgment of the authors, 
they really add nothing to the actual evidence on the point, for they 
do not adduce the arguments on which they base their opinions, nor 
do they quote any references from early authorities. 

But there are other indications which tend to support the testimony 
of the monastic chroniclers in favour of the Tyne ; especially two, 
which may be cited, one from before, and the other from after, the 
time of the Anglo-Saxon dynasty of Northumbria. 

(i.) When this dynasty was founded by Ida in 547 A.D., 140 it was 
little more than a century since the Eoman garrisons had been 

Berniciorum a Tina ad mare Scoticum, ubi oppidum S. Joannis est.' Vol. iv. 
(iii.) p. 40. Mr. Longstaffe cites (I.e. p. 42) three references from Leland in 
support of ' the statement that the land between the Tyne and th$ Tees com- 
posed part of Bernicia.' Of these, however, two are, to say the least, incon- 
clusive. Leland's actual words are : (1) ' In Bernicia est Hexham, Richemont, 
Carlel, & Copland' Coll. vol. iv. (iii.) p. 99 where Hexham proves nothing, 
and Richmond proves too much ; and (2) ' Regnum Deirorum ab Humbro ad 
Thesim Beverle olim dicebatur. 1 Ititt. vol. vii. p. 68 (from Stowe's transcript, 
the original being lost), where again the allusion seems to be only to part of 
Deira. The third reference is remarkable as being the one instance where 
Leland speaks on his own authority only, and not on the evidence of any earlier 
writer : ' Deiri. Incolebant latam regionem ab Abri flu. ripis ad ripas Tyssae. 
Beruicii uero sedes habuerunt a Tyssa ad Tuesim flu. & ultra.' Comment, in 
Cygneam Cantionem, printed in Itin. vol. ix. p. 54. 

139 History of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings, tr. by Benj. Thorpe, 
London, 1845, vol. i. p. 117. 14 Bede,. H. E, v. 24. 



86 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA : 

finally withdrawn from Britain. But the marks of their organization 
and administration were deeply stamped on the country. Now the 
district north of the Humber formed under the Romans two adminis- 
trative provinces, divided by the Great Wall ; Maxima Caesariensis 
on the south, with its capital at York, and Valentia between the two 
Walls of the Tyne and the Forth. 141 Of these two provinces Maxima 
Caesariensis was held in a much firmer grasp than Valentia. 142 Ida 
fixed his royal residence and base of operations at Bamborough in the 
centre of Valentia ; while Aelli reigned at York over the southern 
province. But the tract between the Tyne and the Tees, which is 
the debatable region as between Bernicia and Deira, was part of the 
earlier Maxima Caesariensis, and was by all association of the past 
connected with it in every way, and not with the district north of the 
Wall. The Roman roads connected the Wall, and the stations on the 
Wall, with the south by a close and well ordered network of ways. 
Although there were, of course, the three main roads running north 
through Valentia from the Wall, two of these were to the west of the 
Bernician territory ; so that in the Anglo-Saxon times there was only 
one main artery between the north -and the south of the Tyne in the 
kingdom of Northumbria. But to the south of the river there were 
several roads, all linking that riverside and its neighbourhood with 
Deira. The great Ryknield way, after traversing almost the whole 
island, ended at the mouth of the Tyne ; 143 another branch led direct 
to Pons Aelii ; and further west there was the great Watling street. 
Moreover, south of the wall the camps clustered comparatively thickly, 
as Mr. Longstaffe himself points out : ' The Romans erected some of 
their finest northern fortresses between the Tees and the Tyne ;' 144 at 
Caer Urfe, Chester-le-Street, Lanchester, Binchester, and Piercebridge, 
at Wearmouth and Seaton Carew, were posts which were all in touch 
with the south of the Tees, but not with the north of the Tyne. The 

141 ' Maxima ab extremis Flauiae finibus oritur, pertinet ad inferiorem partem 
Muri, qui totam ex transuerso percurrit insulam, spectatque in septemtriones. 
Spatium inter ambos, hunc et alium qui ab imperatore Antonino Pio inter 
Bdoram et Clyddam extructus est Murum, occupat Valentia.' Richaid of 
Cirencester's Da Situ Britannia, c. vi. 2 (ed. Giles, 1841). 

142 See Burton, History of Scotland, vol. i. p. 60 : 'The book known as the 
Itinerary of Antoninu*, the most distinct topography of the empire which we 
have from a contemporary source, brings up the roads, towns, and stations to the 
southern rampart from the Solway to the Tyne, and stops there as abruptly as 
any modern map does at the boundary of the territory to which it applies.' 

143 See p. 69, n. 84. l44 I.e., p. 51. 



THE ROMAN PROVINCES, 87 

presumption is very strong therefore that the boundary-line between 
the two Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the sixth century would naturally, 
and even inevitably, follow the previous and long-established boundary 
between the Eoman provinces of Yalentia and Maxima Caesariensis. 145 

And this probability is incidentally supported by two statements in 
Bede which are apparently contradictory to each other, but which on 
this supposition become easily intelligible. In the second chapter of 
his third book he writes with reference to the church built hard by 
the spot where Oswald raised the cross before the battle of Heavenfield : 
'No sign of the Christian faith, as we have' ascertained, no church, no 
altar was erected among the whole people of Bernicia. before the new 
leader of the army, at the suggestion of a devout faith, planted this 
standard of the holy cross, when preparing to fight against a cruel 
foe ;' 14G but only two chapters later he describes Whithern in Galloway 
as belonging to the province of Bernicia, and as commonly called, 
* Ad Candidam Casam ' because of the stone church which Ninian had 
built there. 147 Now the Roman provinces penetrated from the east to 
the west coast, so that "Whithern would be in Valentia, which Bernicia 
roughly represented ; but the Anglo-Saxon Northumbria did not touch 
the western sea, at least so far north as this, but was shut off from it 
by the great Strathclyde. It therefore is possible that there might be 
no church in Bernicia as it actually ranged in the Northumbrian 
kingdom ; and yet that Whithern might be regarded as belonging to 
that province as in some sense the representative of Valentia. 

(ii.) In the ninth century, when Guthred was raised to the throne 
from slavery, and made in gratitude his great gift of the Werhale to 
St. Cuthbert, under the sanction of his suzerain and with the concur- 
rence of his subjects, it is clear that this was part of his own kingdom. 
But the Melrose chronicle states that 148 Guthred's authority extended 

144 As Montalembert perceived : ' The wall anciently raised by the emperor 
Severus from the moutn of the Solway to that of the Tyne, to check the 
Caledonian incursions, was their boundary.' iii. 252. 

146 ' Nullum, ut comperimus, fidei Christianas signum, nulla ecclesia, nullum 
altare in tota Berniciorum gente erectum est, priusquam hoc sacras crucis 
uexillum nouus militias ductor, dictante tidei deuotione, contra hostem 
immanissimum pugnaturus statueret.' 

147 ' Qui locus, ad prouinciam Berniciorum pertinens, uulgo uocatur Ad 
Candidam Casam, eo quod ibi ecclesiam de lapide, insolito Brettonibus more, 
fecerit.' 

148 ' Regnauit super Eboracum ; Egbertus uero ultra Tinam. Chronica de 
Mailros, s.a. DCCCLXXXIII. (Edinb. Bannatyne Club Publ. 1835). 



88 THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN BERNICIA AND DEIRA. 

only to the Tyne, while Bernicia was assigned to Egbert. 149 There- 
fore the district south of the Tyne, when a division was to be made in 
the ninth century under the Danes, was regarded as belonging to the 
southern, not to the northern, part of the whole ; and so far this 
affords an inferential suggestion of a similar association in the Anglo- 
Saxon past. 

Thus, while there is little or nothing in the nature of evidence to 
support the view that the Tees separated Bernicia from Deira, beyond 
Richard of Hexham's statement, which has been shown to be faulty in 
fact in other respects, and probably a mistaken assumption from a 
later ecclesiastical organization, everything of moment tends to 
confirm the supposition that the Tyne was the actual meeting line of 
the two kingdoms. It is difficult to resist the impression that many 
modern writers have been unconsciously misled in their support of the 
Tees theory by the association in their mind of the medieval and 
modern diocese of Durham, as separated from Scotland by the Tweed, 
and from Yorkshire by the Tees. 



149 This division of territory is quite distinct from that of Edgar's reign 
mentioned above (p. 78, n. 116). 

ADDITIONAL NOTES to pp. 65 and 69. 

150 Mr. R. Blair points out an interesting reference to St. Hild's, which well 
illustrates both the use of this name as the regular title of the place and also 
the vague description of its situation given by Bede. In the second volume of 
Bishop Cosines Correspondence (Surtees Soc. Publ. vol. 55. p. 134) part of a 
letter from the rev. George Davenport, bishop Cosin's resident chaplain at Auck- 
land castle, to dean Bancroft of St. Paul's, is given (from Tanner MSS. xlv. 22), 
in which he writes, 14 August, 1665 : ' The sickness hath been a fortnight at St. 
Hild's (commonly called Sheelds), which is a town belonging to the Dean and 
Chapter betwixt Gateside and the sea mouth.' 

151 The small islet shown on the map at page 68 as dividing the two mouths 
of the Tyne, is taken by Mr. Longstaffe {Durham before the Conquest, p. 46) 
and by Dr. Bruce {The Roman Camp on the Lawe, p. 5) to represent the Shields 
Heugh, and the river current to the south of it the second river bed from the 
Mill Dam to the Herd Sand. On the original map it is certainly coloured as 
land. And if, taken by itself, it does not afford very conclusive evidence, it 
should be borne in mind that the proof of the existence of this southern mouth 
of the Tyne by no means depends alone, or even mainly, on the witness of this 
map; but there are some strong natural indications that the river formerly had 
an outlet through this depression to the sea. Even as late as in 1855 A.D. the 
ordnance map shows a watercourse extending from the site of the old Mill Dam 
lake as far as to the edge of the sands. 



89 



VI. THE EPISCOPAL CHAPEL OF AUCKLAND CASTLE. 

By the Eev. J. P. HODGSON, vicar of Witton-le-Wear. 

ADDENDA to vol. xviii., pp. 113-240. 

I. 

It has been objected to my remarks upon the late bishop Lightfoot's 
reflections on the words, ' In non morituram memoriam,' occurring in 
bishop Cosin's monumental inscription, that they are absolutely 
intolerant of the modified and softened sense which, in my account of 
' The Chapel of Auckland Castle,' in the last volume, I have endeavoured 
to attach to them. The phrase, owing to the inherent force of the 
future participle in ' rus,' will not, it is alleged, admit of appeal to the 
loving sympathy of future readers, as I tried to show ; but is, on the 
contrary, distinctly self-assertive, prophetic, and declaratory of the 
belief that the memory of the writer will not, or is not likely to, die 
out. And it must unhesitatingly be admitted that the words, ' In 
non morituram memoriam,' literally construed, do beyond question 
mean in memory, or, for a memorial, not about to, or that shall not, 
perish. But equally beyond question may we feel assured, I think, 
that the great prelate who penned them, and whose sepulchre they 
cover, never contemplated the possibility of their being understood 
in the boastful and offensive sense imputed to them by bishop 
Lightfoot. For what is it that they do actually say, and what, 
therefore, is the interpretation, strictly and rightfully to be attached 
to them ? 

Cosin, be it noted, does not assert, as suggested, his belief that the 
memory of himself and of his doings was so deeply and universally 
established, that the time would never come when either he or they 
should be forgotten. Far from it ; nay, on the other hand, something 
so very far from it as to imply the exact contrary. For what were 
the circumstances of the case ? The inscription which, as we learn 

VOL XIX. 12 



-90 THE EPISCOPAL CHAPEL OF AUCKLAND CASTLE. 

from his will, was written by himself, was directed to be cut upon the 
vast blue marble slab covering the vault which he caused to be con- 
structed for his last resting place during the closing years of his life. 
It was composed in the near prospect of death, when the brief and 
transitory nature of all things earthly must have been vividly present 
to his mind. It was meant to be read and pondered, not only of the 
few who had seen and known him, but of the many who should come 
after, when his body had gone to dust and his memory was forgotten. 
Living, as all his life long he had done, in the midst of the bitterest 
civil and religious strife, there were doubtless many who said of him, 
as aforetime of the Psalmist : ' When shall he die and his name perish ;' 
who trusted that, as in the case of the 'destroyed cities,' his 
* memorial should perish with him.' How, then, he may have re- 
flected, should it be preserved ; and what, when he himself was gone, 
should abide to bear witness to him ? Left to mere human recollection, 
his memory, so far from being likely to endure, would, in the ordinary 
course of things, more or less swiftly disappear. Something less 
transient, therefore, must be utilized to preserve it. But what must 
that something be ; and what form should that memorial take, which, 
after he himself had ' passed away, should not pass away ; ' and which, 
after he had ' perished, should remain ? ' What, but this very inscrip- 
tion which, penned by himself, and placed above his dust, he had, for 
that special purpose, caused to be ' written and engraven with an iron 
pen in the rock for ever ? ' He places, as is perfectly clear, his own 
poor perishing remains which lay below, and his memory ' writ,' as 
it were, 'in water,' in direct contrast and opposition to that which, 
enclosing and protecting them, bore his name and record. So far 
from being inflated with the vain conceit that his fame was fixed in 
human memory for all time, he knows better, and trusts only to the 
material means employed by himself for that purpose. 

Viewed in this, their natural and true light, these words are seen to 
display as from the character and position of their writer, we might 
expect them to do a spirit and a meaning altogether different from 
that arrogant and vain-glorious one endeavoured to be fastened on 
them ; one that is, as I have ventured to suggest, practically the same 
as ' perpetual,' and which, issuing from the tomb, asks only, as of old, 
and however indirectly, for the reader's prayers. 



THE EPISCOPAL CHAPEL OF AUCKLAND CASTLE. 91 



II. 

How the erroneous statement that the tivo larger central compart- 
ments of the roof of the ante-chapel contained the arms of Cosin, found 
its way into the note on page 182, I can only explain as follows : 
The examination of that part of the roof was, as I remember, made, 
on one of my visits, at the last moment, when just on the point of 
leaving the chapel ; and a reference to my note book shows that, as 
usual, I sketched the plan of the whole twelve panels, but only filled in 
the details of half of them; all the rest, except these two, being 
symmetrically balanced by corresponding designs. On the southern of 
the two larger central ones I drew the arms of Cosin, leaving the other 
the difference of whose bearings I cannot at the time, I think, have 
noticed blank. Afterwards, when writing the note, I must have 
assumed that the designs of these two panels were identical. That I 
should have failed to notice the difference in the first instance must be 
attributed, 1 think, to the fact that, as no other arms than those of 
Cosin and the See are to be found in the entire roof, and as the latter 
were certainly not upon the other one, I imagined, in ' my haste,' that 
both of them were ' my Lord's.' My attention was, for the first time, 
and only quite lately, drawn to the subject by the bishop, who pointed 
out that one only of the two coats was that of Cosin ; the other consist- 
ing, not of a fret, but of a S. George's cross, charged at the inter- 
section with a ducal, or royal, crown. 

The question, then, naturally arises as to the intent and meaning 
of this device. The simple fact that no private arms whatever are 
displayed in any part of the chapel at once precludes the idea that 
it can have any personal or individual significance. As in the 
eastern bay above the altar, all the symbols mitres and cherubic 
heads point to things spiritual, so here in the ante-chapel, they 
seem to speak of that 'warfare' which must be 'accomplished' by all 
who would reap the ' rewards of the righteous,' or enter into that 
' rest which remaineth to the people of God.' Kibboned wreaths of 
victory occupy the four corner panels; the four other intermediate ones, 
which are filled with winged heads of angels, pointing to those sources 
of spiritual strength from which alone such trophies can be won. In 
the outer central panels, mitres, with a more special purpose, direct 



92 THE EPISCOPAL CHAPEL OF AUCKLAND CASTLE. 

attention to him whose personal cognizance, in conjunction with the 
shield (of faith) in question appears in the two actually central 
ones, and declare jointly that to him, as to all else who enter, the 
way to the crown of life lies, and must be sought, only in and 
through the cross ; that in every case there is one rule, ' no cross, no* 
crown.' 



ERRATA, CORRIGENDA, ET ADDENDA, TO VOLUME xvm. 

Page 117, line 6 from top, for ' qua ' read ' quae.' 
Page 143, note, for ' HDD, etc.' read 'MD, etc.' 
Page 178, line 17 from top, for ' plate xxv.' read ' plate xxvi.' 
Page 179, top line, for ' plate xxv.' read 'plate xxvi.' 
Page 182, note, for 'two central larger ones' read 'one of the two- 
central larger ones.' 

Page 205, line 5 from bottom, for ' haec ' read ' hae.' 
Page 209, line 11 from top, for ' anglg ' read ' an 010.' 
Page 213, line 12 from top, where the tracery of the windows of 
Exeter college chapel, Oxford, is referred to, that of the seventeenth- 
century chapel is meant. This has now been destroyed, and replaced 
by another from the designs of the late sir G. G. Scott. 



93 



VII. GLEANINGS FROM THE RECORDS OF THE PARISH 
OF TYNEMOUTH. 

By HORATIO A. ADAMSON, a vice-president of the society. 
[Read on the 23rd December, 1896.] 

When the priory at Tynemouth was dissolved in 1539 by king 
Henry VIII., the western portion of the ecclesiastical buildings was 
used as the parish church. It had been the parish church from about 
1200, after the beautiful eastern portion of the priory church was 
built. Whether the chartulary of the priory, which is in the possession 
of the duke of Northumberland, contains any information about the 
parish church I know not. When the county history deals with 
Tynemouth, we may discover something of interest. From the dis- 
solution of the priory until the beginning of the records of the parish 
church, in the vestry of Christ church, in 1631, we know little of the 
parish church except the extraordinary proposal of sir Henry Percy, 
governor of the castle, in 1566, that it should be removed. 

From 1631 until the restoration of monarchy in 1660, the records 
of the parish are in a mutilated condition. During the Common- 
wealth, there are no entries for several years. 

When the records begin, there were four churchwardens, whose 
names were John Cramlington, Umphrey Johnson, Thomas Otway, 
and Richard Hodghan. The accounts of the churchwardens for the 
year 1630-31 are set out in the vestry-book, and the disbursements of 
each churchwarden are separately detailed. The disbursements of 
John Cramlington contain, among other items, the following : 

Imprimis. To the Glasier for 6 Stone of Iron for the great window. 

To the Smith for making the barrs. 

To the plumer for the Lead. 

To the Masons for banking the stones. 

The great window referred to in the account was the large per- 
pendicular window over the deeply recessed Early English doorway at 
the west end of the church, of which only the outline now remains. 

The disbursements of the other churchwardens were of an ordinary 
character. The page of the book which contains the entries is so 

vnr.. YTX 13 



94 TYNEMOUTH PARISH BOOKS : 

worn away that the sums paid are indistinguishable. In the earliest 
parish records the four and twenty are mentioned as forming part 
of the vestry. From time to time they exercised important functions ; 
they, with the minister, made rates, appointed churchwardens, exam- 
ined the churchwardens' accounts, and generally appear to have con- 
trolled the parish officers. For what purpose, and when, this body 
was first created I have not been able to discover ; I believe it is a 
north country institution. 

In the year 1638 is a copy of the cessment made in that year, 
amounting to 30, which was made up thus : 

a. d. 



Cessment of 4/- per farm 55 farms 11 

Sault pannes 30 at 4/- 06 

Taverns 04 at 4/- 00 

Coubles 10 at 2/- 01 

Wherrys 20 at 2/- 02 

Alhouses 100 at 2/- 10 

Of every mill 00 



oo 

00 

00 
00 
On 
00 
00 



Deduct for the outshire farm, for each l/S" 1 pt. of their cesse, 
being 18 farmes for a whole cess, 24/-. 

In this assessment the large number of farms in the parish is a 
striking feature, and so is the number of salt-pans. Of the latter only 
one remains, which is at the Low Lights, North Shields, and was for 
many years carried on by the late Mr. Joseph Ogilvie. 

In 1640, two of the churchwardens were elected for the country 
and two for Shields. This mode of election was continued until 1840, 
when one of the churchwardens was appointed by the vicar, and the 
others were elected by the parishioners. From 1843 to the present 
time one churchwarden has been elected by the vicar and three by the 
parishioners, without any distinction as to the country and the Shields 
portions of the parish. 

In 1638, and for many years afterwards, four assistants for the 
churchwardens were elected. 

From Easter Monday, 1641, to the 29th of July, 1645, there are 
no entries in the records. During these years the country was in a 
most unsettled state, and Tynemouth castle was alternately in the 
possession of the Scottish army on behalf of the parliament, and of the 
Royalist forces. In the latter year is the first list of the four and 
twenty, but it is incomplete ; it contains the following names : 



RALPH GARDNER, ONE OF THE ' TWENTY-FOUR.' 95 



1. Sir Nicholas Tempest, knight. 

2. Ralph Eeede. 

3. George Milburne. 

4. George Ottway. 

5. Michael Spearman. 

6. John Morton. 

7. Thomas Dove. 

8. John Cramlington. 



10. John Hills. 

11. Thomas Hall. 

12. John Eutherfoord. 

13. John Bowe. 

14. Pereth Robinson. 

15. William Gray. 

16. John Hudleston. 

17. John Shelton. 



9. Thomas Mills. 

Among these names are some men of note in their day. Sir 
Nicholas Tempest was high sheriff in 1632. Ralph Eeede and George 
Milburne lived at Chirton, and a daughter of the former was married 
to Ralph Gardner, the ' great river reformer. The Spearmans 1 of 
Preston were a well known family, and the Hudlestons were associated 
with Cullercoats. In an entry under date the 29th July, 1645, we 
obtain an idea of the unsettled state of the times : 

Memoranda it is agreed by the Minister and 24 of the Parish of Tinemouth 
that there shalbe a Cessment laid on the whole parish for prosecuting of the 
business concerning a place for preaching and house & maintenance for our 
minister to be given to him by reason of his great distresse at this time. 

It was agreed to ask the governor of Tynemouth castle to assist 
in performing the orders for the good of the church. The minister 
at this time was James Hume. In the following year the name 
of Ralph De Laval appears in the list of the four and twenty, 
and also that of Ralph Gardner in the place of George Milbourne. 
On the 19th April, 1647, the vestry passed a resolution that pro- 
phaners of the Lord's day, or being absent from, the church, drink- 
ing in time of preaching, being drunken and swearing, were to be 
severely punished, according to the penalty laid on by the minister 
and churchwardens, acquainting the twenty-four with it. 

From the 19th April, 1647, to the 22nd January, 1651, there are 
no entries in the book. No pages appear to have been torn out ; and 
I think the circumstance of there being no entries is owing to the 
continued unsettled state of the times. 

In 1651, the name of Ralph Gardner appears at the head of the 
list of the twenty-four. He was churchwarden in the following year. 

1 John Spearman, of the city of Durham, gentleman and under sheriff of the 
county of Durham, by his will dated about 1703, bequeathed to the parish of 
Tynemouth, in which he was born, a silver flagon for the Communion service 
there for ever. It is still in use. 



96 TYNEMOUTH PARISH BOOKS : 

In the year 1653 the four and twenty petitioned parliament for 
means to buy a piece of ground, and for a church, by reason that their 
church was for many years, and was then, converted to the use of the 
state in the castle of Tynemouth, by which the parish was wholly 
debarred by reason of the late troubles. In the paper which I read 
last year on ' Tynemouth Castle after the dissolution of the Monas- 
tery,' I gave an account of the disturbed state of the times. A kill or 
malting-house at Chirton was rented of Ralph Gardner, at 8 a year, 
for Mr. Dearsley to preach in on the Lord's day. At this time the 
parishioners despaired of being able to build a church to supply the 
loss they had sustained by being deprived of their beautiful church in 
the castle. In the Oliverian survey of church livings, made in 1652, it 
is stated that the earl of Northumberland, and Ralph Delaval, esq., had 
the presentation in course, and that the parish church of Tynemouth 
was quite ruined ; and it was recommended that a parish church 
should be built at North Shields, and the towns of Tynemouth, Pres- 
ton, East and Middle Chir' , Whitley, and Morton (Murton) annexed 
to it. Earsdon was then a chapelry in the parish of Tynemouth, and 
it was recommended to be made a parish church. The ecclesiastical 
parish of Tynemouth then comprised the townships of Tynemouth, 
North Shields, Chirton, Preston, Cullercoats, Monkseaton, Whitley, 
Murton, Earsdon, and Backworth, with some outlying portions of 
Holy well. It consisted of the eight first-named townships, until 1860, 
when it was divided, and it has since been further divided. 

In the year 1652, the commissioners who were appointed for pro- 
pagating the gospel in the four northern counties of Northumberland, 
Cumberland, Westmorland, and Durham, appointed a Mr. Francis 
Gibson, minister of Tynemouth, with a stipend of 97, including 20 
from By well Andrew and Slaley. These commissioners were appointed 
by parliament. 

In the vestry book are receipts, signed by Ralph Gardner and 
Katherine his wife, for the rent of the preaching place at Chirton, 
which was paid to them by the churchwardens. I am not aware that 
the name of Ralph Gardner appears in any other book. 

On the 8th December, 1658, is the following entry : 

Whereas M r . Frederick Simpson, preacher of God's Word, was invited from 
London, and presented by Ralph Gardner, Esq r ., to be Minister of the parish of 
Tynmouth, in the County of Northumberland, where he did for severall Lord's 



BUILDING OF CHEIST CHURCH. 97 

days preach wholsom orthodox devinitie ; but, for want of a laudable people, 
through the indisposition of his body, they are desirous to chuse another. 

Early in the following year a Mr. John Paye was selected as 
minister, and Mr. Ralph Fenwick, Mr. John Blackiston, Mr. Edward 
Hodgson, Mr. Richard Walker, and Mr. William Taylor, were selected 
to take him to Newcastle before the commissioners for propagating the 
gospel. He was examined before Mr. Samuel Hammond, Mr. William 
Durant, and Mr. Thomas Weld, three of the commissioners, in several 
matters touching the history of the Bible, and other things relating to 
the ministerial functions, and was found very weak and ignorant, and 
altogether unfit to preach or exercise in the work of the ministry. He 
was accordingly discharged by the four and twenty, and notice was 
given to the house in which he lodged that he should be no longer 
there upon the parish account. 

In 1658 the four and twenty were divided into two portions 
twelve for the country and twelve for Shields. In the country list 
appear the names of captain John Topping, governor of Tynemouth 
castle, and Ralph Gardner. In the Shields list is the name of captain 
William Collinson, one of the officers at the castle, also the name of 
William Collingwood. 

In the month of January, 1658, 2 14s. 3d. was collected for the 
distressed Protestants in Poland, and other families banished out of 
Bohemia. 

On the 4th April, 1659, Mr. Alexander Gordon was chosen as 
minister, on the recommendation of the commissioners, and remained 
until the restoration, when he was ejected for nonconformity. 

From 1658 until 1668, the building of Christ church, North 
Shields, to take the place of the church in the castle, was in progress. 

In the list of the four and twenty in the year 1659, is the name 
of Ralph Gardner, and opposite to it is a memorandum that he had 
' removed to London.' After his removal thither we lose all trace 
of him. 

From the 22nd April, 1659, to the 24th October, 1662, there are 
no entries in the vestry book ; but on the latter date there was a meet- 
ing, and there is the following entry : 

Whereas in these late times ye Bookes, Vestments, furniture, and Ornaments 
belonging to our Church have either been plundered, purloyned, imbezzled, or 



98 TYNEMOUTH PARISH BOOKS : 

made away, so that none of them (of any consequence) are remaining to be found 
for ye performance of divine officis there ; and Whereas John, by divine provi- 
dence Lord Bishop of Durham, hath ordered that all such things be provided and 
had in the Church as formerly. A rate was made for providing the Articles which 
were required. 

After the restoration of monarchy, and during the building of 
Christ church, the parishioners appear to have returned to their old 
parish church within the castle, and continued to use it for divine 
service until the consecration of Christ church on the 5th of July, 
1668. Of the struggles to raise funds to complete the church the 
records give ample evidence, and read much like what we know so 
much of in the present day, with the exception that there is no men- 
tion of questionable variety entertainments. Eobert Trowlop raised 
the roof and plastered the walls inside for 90. The masters of ships 
resorting to the harbour, who had largely contributed, were asked to 
give more. The justices of the peace at Hexham granted a certificate 
to the king for his letters patent for a contribution or collection in 
some of his majesty's counties for carrying on and finishing the 
church ; but they were refused, as the sum necessary to finish the 
church was not mentioned in the certificate. The consecration of the 
church took place on Sunday, the 5th of July, 1668, and the follow- 
ing is the entry in the records : ' The New Church (afores d ) was 
Consecrated by ye Right Keverend Father in God John Lord Bpp of 
Durham, and named Christ's Church.' 

The church was consecrated by bishop Cosin. In the Calendar of 
State Papers is an account of the ceremony. In a letter written by 
John Fitzherbert to secretary Williamson he says : 

The Bishop of Durham, being at Newcastle on his visitation, went to Tyne- 
mouth, and with the assistance of D r [Isaac] Basire, Archdeacon of Northum- 
berland, and half a dozen more of the Clergy, consecrated a new church, erected 
there upon a piece of ground given by the Earl of Northumberland. Mr. Clarke, 
the Earl's Officer, delivered up possession of the edifice and land in the name of 
his Master to the Bishop, who dedicated it Christ Church, and at the offering 
gave 5 towards the better beautifying and adorning the Church. D r [Thomas] 
Dockwray held the first service ; D r Basire and [Rich.] Wrench, a prebendary of 
Durham, the second. M r [George] Davenport, 2 the Bishop's Chaplain, preached 
the consecration sermon. 

2 He was rector of Houghton-le-Spring. He refused any additional prefer- 
ment, saying that he had more preferment, and a better worldly estate, than he 
could show good husbandry, and he feared to die with any of the church's goods 
in his hands. 



CONSECRATION OF CHKIST CHURCH. 99 

There is a further account from Richard Forster of Newcastle to 
secretary Williamson, in which he says the bishop, with his chancellor, 
archdeacon, and chaplains, entered by the south door. 

It has been stated that the church was built of bricks, but I believe 
there is not the slightest foundation for the statement. The original 
ground plan of the church is in my possession, and from it I gather 
that the church was built in the puritan romariesque style. It was 
slightly cruciform. There were north and south doors and also a west 
door. Entering by the west door on the south side of the nave was 
the font, and a short distance beyond it were the pulpit, reading place, 
clerk's desk, and the parson's pew. Then came the north and south 
passages. There is no trace of an altar or communion table. At the 
east end of the church were the pews of the duke of Somerset 3 and sir 
Ralph l)elaval, with pews for their servants. There were pews for the 
officers at Tynemouth castle, viz., captain Thomas Love, captain Airey, 
and captain Collinson. The pew system that prolific source of parish 
strife was then in full operation. Two days after the consecration of 
the church there was a meeting at Chirton, at which it was agreed that 
those persons who had been most forward, active, careful, and diligent 
in promoting the building of the church by payment, subscriptions, 
pains, or otherwise, should have their choice of seats according to their 
disbursements, care, and pains. A square seat was allotted to Mr. 
John Gray of London, a good benefactor to the church. In the 
following year there were differences about the seats. The system of 
buying and transferring pews in the church was rife until the year 
1849, when the practice was stopped by the late vicar, the reverend 
Christopher Reed, and the register of pews, commenced in 1793, was 
closed, but not without a certain amount of heartburning. I have in 
my possession several assignments of pews. The pews were dealt with 
like shares in a company, and were either transferred by deed or left 
by will'. 

After the consecration of Christ church, the church in the castle 
was abandoned and soon fell into decay. The chapel known as 
the Lady chapel at the east end of the choir of the priory church 

8 As lady Elizabeth Percy was not married to the duke of Somerset until 
1682, the plan must have been prepared a few years after the consecration of 
the church. 



100 TYNEMOUTH PARISH BOOKS : 

was used for baptisms and for reading a portion of the burial service 
when any of the parishoners were buried in the ancient burial ground. 
In 1810 the Board of Ordnance having occasion for a depdt for 
powder until the magazine was put into order, borrowed the chapel, 
which they filled with powder. They built up the windows and cut 
away a portion of the vaulting shafts to make more room for the 
powder casks. In 1850 the parishioners addressed a memorial to the 
Lords of the Treasury asking that their chapel should be given up to 
them, and in June of that year it was restored. 

The first vicar of Christ church was the reverend Thomas Dock- 
wray, D.D., who was chaplain to the earl of Sandwich, and was slain 
with him on the 28th May, 1672, in a great naval engagement with 
the Dutch. 

In 1682 the old church bible was lent to John Thomson, church- 
warden. It wanted all Genesis, and Exodus to the twenty-first chapter, 
and all the latter end from Romans the twelfth. It was to be 
returned upon demand. 

The governors of Tynemouth castle took an interest in parish 
matters. Colonel Henry Yilliers, only brother to the earl of Jersey, 
headed the list of the four and twenty in 1705. The records of the 
parish from 1717 to 1773 are lost, and it is believed they were burnt. 
The earliest churchwardens' account book commences in 1733. Some 
of the entries contained in it are rather quaint. 

B. d. 

1733. To treating Stranger Ministers 01.05.00 

To sack sent to the Church 00 . 12 . 06 

To these items is a note that they were to be no more allowed 
for the future. 

s. d. 

1734. Removing 2 Women with Child out of town 00 : 08 : 00 
Robert Lidel thaching ye Church Stable, 

14 days 00 : 06 : 04 

1735. Removing several Women and a Saylour 

out of town 01:12:00 

1741. To the Duck [Duke] Rent Church yard... 00 : 01 : 04 
1743. To Money for advertising ye Church rob- 
bery : 02 : 06 

The robbery referred to is probably that mentioned by Brand. 
It consisted of three surplices, a pulpit cushion of crimson velvet, 



SALE OF PEWS IN CHRIST CHURCH. 101 

with gold tassels, a black silk hood, etc. A new hood was purchased 
for 1 17s. 6d. 

a. d. 

1748. To burning ye Beef by order 00 : 05 : 10 

1752. To Whipping a Vagrant 2:0 

1754. putting a Woman in the Stocks ... 2:0 

1759. Charges putting 3 Women in the Stocks 4: 6 

In 1764 an addition was made at the south-east corner of the 
church, and the pews contained in the added area were disposed of by 
public sale. 4 The highest price obtained for a pew was 77 10s. The 
total amount realized at the sale was 781 12s. Various additions 
were, from time to time, made to the church. 

The churchwardens' accounts for 1769 contain some eccentric 
spelling brums (brooms) sweaping ye lum (chimney), redchester 
(register) book, surpliths (surplices), sellry (salary), gustis (justice), 
cundy (conduit), Mute hawl (Moot Hall), stoks (stocks), cote (coat). 

In 1786 the steeple or tower at the west end of the church was 
built, and a ring of bells, 5 the gift of James Storey, esq., Low Lights, 
was placed in it. The bells were rung for the first time on the 18th 
January, 1788, in honour of the queen's birthday. 

At a meeting of the magistrates at Tynemouth, on the 22nd 
January, 1788, it was ordered that the churchwardens should see the 
constables paid one shilling each for every Sunday they were upon 
duty examining that no barbers nor hair dressers, nor others, follow 
their occupations on a Sunday, and that no publicans suffer tippling 
in their houses during the time of divine service. 

In 1792 Christ church was largely reconstructed. The north, 
south, and west galleries were erected. The walls were heightened, a 
new roof put on, and the east end of the church was terminated by an 
apse. A pulpit, reading desk, and clerk's desk (usually styled a ' three 
decker'), were placed in the church. They stood a short distance 
from the centre of the communion rails. A flight of steps led to the 

4 The following advertisement appeared in the Newcastle Courant of 6th 
October, 1764 : ' To be sold at Mr. Ker's, the sign of the Bee Hive in North 
Shields, to the highest bidders, the seats or pews, separately as they are num- 
bered, in the newly erected addition to the Parish Church of Tynemouth. The 
sale to begin at two o'clock in the Afternoon. 

* See full details of the bells, Proceedings, iii. p. 21. 

vor,. xix. 14 



102 TYNEMOUTH PARISH BOOKS : 

pulpit, over which was suspended from the ceiling a huge sounding 
board which was the terror of nervous clergymen. In front of the 
pulpit, but at a lower level, was the reading desk, the approach to 
which was by a flight of steps which moved on a quarter circle. "When 
the clergyman entered the desk he was shut in by the sexton, and 
remained there until the sexton came to let him out. Below the read- 
ing desk was the clerk's desk on the floor level, and in front of it was 
the font. The font was removed in 1857, and placed near to the west 
door of the church. 

The ground floor of the church was reseated in 1792-93, and on 
the 1st July, 1793, a sale of pews took place, and realized 735 6s, 
Mr. Thomas Tinley purchased two pews for 91, and Mr. Mitcalfe, 
jun., one for 75. 

The church remained as it was rebuilt in 1792-3 until 1869, when 
a chancel and an organ chamber were built, the old family pews 
removed, and the ground floor was reseated. 

On 9th April, 1795, a vestry meeting was held to take into con- 
sideration the most effectual means of raising men for the township of 
Tynemouth agreeable to an Act of Parliament made in that year for 
raising men in the several counties for the navy. It was agreed that 
the overseers and churchwardens should be allowed to offer a bounty 
of thirty guineas, or any further sum they might deem necessary for 
each recruit or volunteer to be raised for the township. From this 
entry we can judge of the spirit of alarm which was abroad in conse- 
quence of the disturbed state of France at that period. 

In front of the west gallery, until 1869, were the royal arms. In 
1807 there is an entry of 3 8s. as paid to James Cowley for painting 
the arms. 6 

Before the introduction of railways the four churchwardens drove 
by coach to Newcastle to attend the archdeacon's visitations. In 
1816 there is an item of 12 Is. 3d. for the coach hire and dinner. 
It must have been a festive day for the churchwardens. For many 
years it was the custom of the parish to appoint an afternoon lecturer. 
The last election took place in 1817, when the rev. William Mark was 
elected. The following was the poll : 

' The custom of placing the royal arms in churches was introduced in the 
time of king Henry VIII. 



RIGHT OF BURIAL IN THE PRIORY GRAVEYARD. 103 

The rev. W. Mark 254 

M. Terrot 173 

M. Dawson 11 

438 

In 1819 a curious resolution was passed that no wine or spirituous 
liquors should be charged to the parish except such as should be 
actually expended at the administration of the sacrament or in the 
vestry. In the churchwardens' accounts for that year is an item of 
19 9s. 4d. for wine, which may account for the resolution being 
adopted. In the following year we come across an item connected with 
the Resurrectionists. Henry Gillies, suspected of abstracting bodies 
from the churchyard, was arrested in Edinburgh, brought to New- 
castle, and tried and sentenced to twelve months' imprisonment. 
The constable's journey to Edinburgh for Gillies cost the parish 
22 8s. 

In 1823 there was an appointment of town crier or bellman, and a 
blue coat with a red cape, and a three-cocked hat with lace were pur- 
chased for him. The bellman of to-day is a very insignificant person, 
compared with his predecessors in office. 

In 1794, lord Adam Gordon, governor of Tynemouth castle, set up 
a claim for fees for erecting head stones in the ancient burial ground 
within the castle, which was resisted by the parishioners, and it was 
abandoned. In 1826 another claim was made by general Wemyss, 
governor of the castle for a fee of ten shillings for permitting the 
ground to be broken for each interment of a parishioner. A lengthy 
correspondence ensued, and was continued for nearly six years. The 
parishioners resisted the claim. The late Mi 1 . John Tinley, vestry 
clerk, carried on the correspondence on behalf of the parish with 
great vigour. Efforts were from time to time made to induce the 
parishioners to abandon their right to bury within the castle, and to 
accept a piece of ground for burials outside of it ; but the parish- 
ioners unanimously refused to give up their rights. At last, in 
December, 1832, the secretary to the Board of Ordnance abandoned 
the exaction, and it has never been renewed. "We must commend the 
spirit which actuated the parishioners in refusing to give up the 
burial ground of their forefathers to the control of a Board of Ord- 
nance. We can well understand the spoliation and desecration which 
would have occurred if the parishioners had relinquished their rights. 



104 TYNEMOUTH PARISH BOOKS. 

As an instance of the longevity of the vicars of Tynemouth, I may 
mention that in one hundred and forty-two years there have only been 
four vicars. 

40 years the rev. Emanuel Potter... 1749-1789 

36 Charles Charleton 1789-1825 

38 Christopher Reed 1830-1868 

28 Thomas Brutton 1868-1896 

142 

The rev. George Dixon was vicar from 1825 to 1830, but he re- 
signed the living. 



105 



VIIL THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL 
AND THE EOMAN NAMES OF ITS FOETRESSES. 

By CADWALLADER J. BATES. 
[Read on the 24th February, 1897.J 

It is very generally supposed that the Roman turf- wall between 
the Clyde and the Forth presents no historical or geographical 
difficulties of importance. We, in Northumberland, are accustomed 
to envy the antiquaries of Scotland this serene certainty, while our 
poor brains are being racked by the giant puzzle of the great ditch 
and its double ramparts, commonly called the vallum, and by the 
hitherto unreconciled discrepancies between the evidence of manu- 
scripts and the evidence of inscriptions on the subject of the stone 
murus, to say nothing of the impudent intrusion of the turf -wall near 
Burdoswald. 

We possess no real knowledge as to who it was who first laid the 
foundations of the fortresses embraced by our Northumbrian Wall, 
but it is a positive fact that a chain of forts was thrown across the 
more northern isthmus by Gnaeus Julius Agricola in A.D. 81. Equally 
explicit is the account of the building of a turf -wall there by Quintus 
Lollius Urbicus about sixty years later, during the reign of Antoninus 
Pius. The elaborate excavations of the Glasgow Archaeological 
Society have proved the wall between the Clyde and the Forth to be 
indeed formed largely of turves, built-up brick-fashion, and the en- 
gineering skill shown in tracing its course is little open to criticism. 
One inscription found near it ' that most invaluable jewel of anti- 
quity,' as Sandie Gordon called it has preserved the name of Lollius 
Urbicus himself, and a great many others recall the style and title of 
Antoninus Pius, who is moreover the one emperor named on them. 
From the insignificant centurial stones of our Tyne-and-Solway Wall, 
the most patient study can extract but little information. In Scotland, 
on the contrary, large slabs, several of them of no mean artistic merit, 
record the names of the three legions who contributed to the fortifica- 
tion of the isthmus, with the exact lengths of the different sections of 
work that each undertook. 



106 THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 

It is, however, precisely this exuberant wealth of mathematical 
detail that forces to the front many problems and perplexities, that, so 
far as I am aware, have received no satisfactory solution. 1 The chief 
reason for this is, I believe, the fact that our epigraphists have failed 
to notice a great metrical distinction that divides these slabs into two 
groups ; the distances in one group being expressed in Koman paces, 
those in the other in Roman feet. A Roman pace, of course, is one of 
two steps and contains five Roman feet. 

British antiquaries of the old school regarded all the numbers on 
these distance-slabs as so many Roman paces. Horsley, in his Britannia 
Romana, added together those given on the eleven inscriptions extant 
in his day, and made a grand total of 39,726 Roman paces. He 
then measured the Wall from Old Kilpatrick on the Clyde to Caerridden 
on the Forth, and found that it was 39,717 Roman paces in length. The 
agreement was so strikingly close that, without much heeding the fact 
that the most of these distance-slabs had been found in the westernmost 
quarter of the limes, he pronounced them to represent eleven con- 
secutive sections composing the whole Antonine turf -wall. This had 
the beauty of simplicity, but like many other things, it was too good 
to be true. It was based on the assumption that the entire series of 
mensural tablets had been found, and in due time two or three more 
examples ill-naturedly turned up. 

It was, it seems, principally with a view of getting over the diffi- 
culty of the exaggerated length given to the Wall by the addition of 
the numbers inscribed on these new tablets, coupled with the certainty 
that we do not yet possess anything like the whole series, that professor 
Hiibner, in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, proposed in expand- 
ing these inscriptions to invariably read pedes instead of passus. 
This reduced the length of the sections, supposing them to be conse- 
cutive, to one-fifth. The substitution of miUia pedum for millia 
passuum has, however, been rightly denounced by Mr. Long in his 
admirable edition of Caesar's Commentaries as ' contrary to the usage 

1 ' Itaque haec omnia, mensurae titulorum, spatia a singulis numeris confecta, 
operis progressus incerta manent. 1 Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vii. p. 
194. I desire to acknowledge the kind criticisms I have received from Mr. 
George Neilson and Dr. James Macdonald, which have proved indirectly of 
the greatest assistance. Dr. Macdonald contributed some interesting articles on 
The Roman Room of the Hunterian Museum to Scots Lore (pp. 130, 211, 316), a 
Glasgow magazine, in 1895. 



THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 107 

of the Latin language.' 2 When we meet with M p on distance-slabs, 
we are bound to read the figures following as Roman miles and paces ; 
it is only when there is p or p p before the figures that we are entitled 
to treat these as feet. Happily, a distance-slab of the twentieth legion 
(C.I.L. 1122), 'found in 1789, three-quarter mile to the east of 
Kirkintilloch, in the hollow of the Eoman ditch at the part of the 
line where it traverses the farm of Eastermains,' clearly shows this 
cardinal distinction. It is inscribed -M- p- III p- in ccciv:' that is 
to say, miles 3, feet 3304. The epigraphy is faulty at the best : the 
change from a higher to a lower scale of mensuration is possibly 
unique in inscriptions (though sometimes met with in medieval 
account rolls), but there it is. 3 

When we ask between what several points these distances were 
measured a very natural question that appears, however, to have 
suggested itself to few antiquaries our difficulties begin in grim 
earnest. It cannot be that the second legion took the trouble to record 
its execution of 3,666| paces of work or, a detachment of the twentieth 
legion 4,411 feet, unless these distances were predetermined by exist- 
ing circumstances and punctiliously measured. Otherwise, the work 
would surely have been set out in round numbers of Roman miles, 
with, at most, one or two fractional exceptions. Instinctively, we 
expect the distances recorded to be either those between certain definite 
geographical features, like streams or hill-tops, or between the several 
forts, or the several angles in the line of demarcation. 

On the numerous tablets from the western portion of the limes there 
is really only one distance expressed in Roman paces, though it is four 
times repeated. Two inscriptions of the second legion and one of a 
detachment of the sixth, each speak of 3666^ paces of work, while 
there is another, similar to this last, with 3665 paces. According to 
major-general Roy's computation of 1,610 yards to the Roman mile 
(more accurately 1,618 yards), 3,666^ Roman paces are equal to 

2 C. Julii Caesaris Commentarii de Bella Gallico, with notes by George Long, 
1862, p. 136 n. Mr. Long's contention that the circumvallation of the stronghold 
of the Aduatuci was fifteen Koman miles in circuit is, if it needed it, supported 
by Caesar's unquestioned statement that that drawn by him round Alesia was 
fourteen Koman miles in circuit, lib. vii. . 74. 

s As I was correcting the proof of this passage my addition at a Paris 
restaurant was rendered verbally as im franc et vingt-six sous. 



108 THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 

5,902 yards, and he gives the distance between the forts of Duntocher 
and East Kilpatrick as 5,900 yards. 

The duplicate character of some of these tablets has long been 
remarked. We may suppose that one of a pair was placed on the 
inside of the wall, and the other on the outside; or one on one side of 
a bridge or gateway, and the other opposite it. Indeed, there may 
have been two pairs at each end of the distance. 

When, however, we find the soldiers of two different legions both 
claiming to have constructed 3,666 paces, the question naturally 
arises, do these refer to the same piece of work ? 

Now, I cannot bring myself to believe that the three legions mainly 
engaged in the construction of the Cloto-Bodotrian limes worked, so to 
say, conglomerately. The esprit-de-corps that led each legion to set up 
its own distance-slabs seems clearly to show that they did not work 
indiscriminately together. Two stones, both commemorating the 
labours of the sixth legion, differ from all the rest in having inscribed 
on them the words ' OPUS VALLI,' thus denoting specifically, in con- 
tradiction to some other something or some things else, that it was a 
vallum that had been the object of their toil. The limes, we now 
know, consisted of three perfectly distinct members a great fosse, a 
turf- wall, and a well-formed military road. It seems possible, then, 
that the three legions were employed concomitantly in pushing on 
these three works. This hypothesis would account for a much greater 
number of distance-slabs being found in the same region than seems 
practicable, if they all related to the turf-wall only. It would also 
explain slight variations in measurements that apparently belong to 
the same sections. 

The two ' OPUS VALLI ' slabs of the sixth legion one (C.I.L. 
1140) first noticed at Erskine, on the south side of the Clyde, opposite 
West Kilpatrick, the other (C.I.L. 1135) found at Bradfield, near 
Duntocher, in 1812 evidently refer to a portion of the limes to the 
west of the stretch of 3,666^ paces, that we have every reason for 
locating between Duntocher and East Kilpatrick. One of these stones 
records 4,141 feet, the other 3,240 ; that is to say, 7,381 feet in all, 
much about the distance from the Sandyford burn, where traces of the 
Wall are first met with on the west, to Duntocher bridge. The triple 
series of slabs on this stretch seems to be made up by two erected by 



THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 109 

the second legion and two by the twentieth. The number of feet on 
the single stones is different, but the sum of the pairs is the same : 

Sixth Legion, ' OPVS VALLI." Second Legion. Twentieth Legion. 

Feet. Feet. Feet. 

C.I.L. vii. 11404,141 C.I.L vii. 11384,140 C.l.L. vii. 11414,411 

11353,240 11363,271 11333,000 

7,381 7,411 7,411 

The mums caespiticius lying between these fortresses may well 
have been shorter than either the ditch or the road ; the ditch would 
be left out in crossing streams ; the road, again, may have been made 
longer where the gradients of the line exactly parallel to the Wall were 
too steep. All this depends on minute local data that I do not at 
present possess. 

The suggestion is that the Wall was begun from the west the 
direction from which we can gather that Agricola began his chain of 
forts. As they were accustomed to do in the construction of camps 
and forts, the legions recorded the work they accomplished in so many 
feet ; by the time they got to Duntocher they saw that in a great 
work like the limes it was more practical to talk of so many paces. 

Whether the turf-wall was continued farther west than Sandyford 
burn, and if so, how far, there seems nothing certain to show. A gloss 
in Nennius says that it extended to the mouth of the river Cluth and 
Cairpentaloch, whatever that may mean. 3 The Venerable Bede, as is 
well known, makes it finish so far west as Dumbarton, 4 an opinion that 
deserves more consideration if we rightly understand what Bede really 
meant as to its easternmost extremity. This he states to have been 
two miles to the west of the monastery of Abercorn. 5 Now, we know 
very well where the village of Abercorn is ; but where was the monas- 
tery ? Judging from the analogy of Whitby, Hartlepool, Tynemouth, 
Ooldingham, and Tyningham, more especially Coldingham, the most 

s ' Ad ostium fluminis Clutha et Cairpentaloch, quo munis ille finitur rustico 
opere.' ' Cairpentaloch ' can hardly be Kirkintilloch. Another gloss, ' a flumine 
Kaldra usque ad Rimindu,' is equally enigmatical. By the former the Kelwyn 
may be meant, and by the latter Caerridden or Cramond. 

4 ' Tendens ad occidentem terminatur iuxta urbem Alcluith.' Hist. Eeel. I. 
c. 12. 

s ' Incipit autem duorum ferme millium spatio a monasterio Aebercurnig.' 
Ibid. 



VOL. XIX. 



15 



110 THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 

probable site for an early Northumbrian monastery near Abercorn was 
the promontory now occupied by the castle of Blackness. Almost ex- 
actly two miles to the west of this sea-washed rock (Bede's miles were 
just a little longer than our statute miles; he calls the twenty-six 
miles from Canterbury to Rochester almost twenty-four) 6 is Bridgeness, 
where, in 1868, a very fine distance-slab of the second legion (CJ.L. 
1088) was found. 7 The 4,652 paces inscribed on it lead us, more or 
less satisfactorily, to the banks of the Avon, where there may have 
been a Roman fortress, and where there must have been a Roman 
bridge. 

The important distance-slab found at Eastermains (C.I.L. 1122), to 
which I have already alluded as having 3 Roman miles and 3,304 feet 
inscribed on it, may possibly have been placed at that distance west of 
the fortress of Bar hill, which commands views both of the Clyde and 
of the Forth, and which, from its central situation, seems to be Medium 
the middle fortress of the eleven, the names of which are given in 
that delightfully mysterious compilation of the Ravenna cosmographer. 
This, I have endeavoured to show in treating of our Northumbrian 
"Wall, was pre-Aelian in so far as relates to Britain, although it 
received its present guise so late as the seventh century. 8 The names 
given Velunia, Volitana, Pexa, Begesse, Colania, Medio, Nemeton, 
Subdobiadon, Litana, and Credigone should then be regarded rather 
as those of the forts of Agricola than of the Antonine fortresses. The 
term una alteri connexae, that the Ravenna writer predicates of them, 
may merely mean that they formed a chain. It was, I am reminded, 
Horsley (Britannia Romana, p. 505) who was the first to notice that 
these names belonged to the Cloto-Bodotrian limes; that clever im- 
poster, Bertram, in the skit he wrote under the name of Richard of 
Cirencester, evidently alludes to them as the ' eleven towers built by 
Aetius.' 9 Major-general Roy, that melancholy instance of what a 
most capable military engineer can write on Roman antiquities for 
want of sufficient historical ballast, actually placed these eleven forts 

Hist. Eccl. II. c. 3. 

7 The block of this stone has been kindly lent by the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland. It appears in the Proceedings of that society, and also in the cata- 
logue of the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

8 Hiftory of Northumberland, Elliot Stock, 1895, p. 18. 
v See Roy's Military Antiquities, p. 151. 



112 THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 

between the Tweed and the Clyde. 10 Hodgson again assigned them 
their correct position. 11 Professor Hiibner is mistaken in claiming 
the original honour of this discovery, 12 and also, I think, in sup- 
posing the fortresses to have been only ten in number. 13 This 
hinges on whether Medio-Nemeton be one word or two words ; there 
is authority for each reading. 14 Medium, as the sixth of eleven, 
would be really the middle-fortress, and in the instances of Ne- 
metacum 15 (Arras) in Gaul, and Nemetotacium 16 in Devonshire or 
Cornwall, 'Nemet' occurs at the beginning and not in the latter 
half of place-names. The identification of the middle-fortress is 
comparatively easy in the striking case of Bar hill ; but this, unfor- 
tunately, leaves us as much in the dark as ever as to whether the 
eleven names are given in their order from west to east, or from east 
to west. I own to a feeling in favour of the former, and think it 
possible that a trace of Credigone may survive in Caerridden, near the 
Forth. Professor Hubner's opinion in favour of the contrary direc- 
tion seems to have rested, to some extent, on his confusion of Credi- 
gone with the Rerigonium of Ptolemy, which was clearly on Loch 
Ryan, miles and miles out of the way, down the west coast in 
Galloway. 17 

If the list of the Ravennas does really begin at the west end, and 
we take only those larger fortresses of whose existence we have positive 
evidence, except the two terminal ones, then 



Velunia may be West Kilpatrick. 
Volitana Duntocher. 
Pexa ., East Kilpatrick. 

Begesse Bemulie. 
Colania ,,. Auchindavy. 



Medium may be Bar Hill. 
Nemeton Westerwood. 
Subdobiadon Castle Gary. 
Litana Rough Castle. 

Credigone Caerridden. 



Castle Hill I have left out as being much smaller than the rest; it 
was passed by in the 3,366| paces recorded between Duntocher and 

10 See Roy's Military Antiquities, p. 151. 

11 History of Northumberland, II. iii. p. 258. 

12 ' Id quod ab antiquariis Britannis omnibus video neglectum esse.' C.I.L. 
p. 194. 13 find. " Ibid. 1S Long's Caesar, pp. 110, 405. 

16 Ravennatis CosmograpMa. On the other hand, there is Augustonemetum 
(Autun.) As Mr. Haverfield tells me, it is more to the point to notice that 
'nemet' occurs alone as meaning a grave or a sanctuary, in a charter of A.D. 1031 
(referred to by Zeuss, Gramm. Celtica, p. 161) and elsewhere. Medium alone 
may be an odd name, but so is Magnae. I7 C.I.L. vii. p. 194. 



THE DISTANCE-SLABS OP THE ANTONINE WALL. 113 

East Kilpatrick, and the peel of Kirkintilloch is apparently medi- 
eval. The absence of any certain signs of fortresses in the long 
stretches between Bemulie and Auchindavy and between Rough 
Castle and the Forth may be due to the extra protection afforded 
on the north by the rivers Kelwyn and Carron respectively. A similar 
gap occurs in the western half of the southern Wall between Castle- 
steads and Stanwix. There is in Nennius a wild tradition of the 
addition of seven fortresses to the wall by Carausius. 18 It was, of 
course, at the best calculated to keep back bands of raiders and cattle- 
lifters, and not to resist a regular army, even of Caledonians. 19 

What I have sketched is rather an outline of what we wish to 
know than of anything we do know. It is impossible to get at the 
truth without having the courage to hazard guesses at truth. It was 
by starting from Seghill and Appleby that we reached the true 
SEGEDUNUM at Wallsend and the true ABALLABA at Papcastle. I 
believe most of the theories I have broached are novel, and I may well 
apply to them the warning l hoste vicino,' at the end of that brilliant 
little essay, Per Lineam Valli, which through its main position proved 
ultimately untenable, had the great merit of setting us really a-thinking 
about the problems of our own Wall. 20 I not only expect attacks, but 
I invite them. I may be accused of temerity in charging in among 
the caltraps of a Bannockburn ; every proposition I have advanced 
may be overthrown, yet I cannot help hoping that I may have done 
something to give a new impulse to the study of the Antonine Wall, 
with whose history that of the Wall of Hadrian is so closely inter- 
woven. 



18 ' Carutius postea imperator reaedificavit et VII. castellis munivit inter 
utraque ostia: domumque rotundum politis lapidibus super ripam fluminis 
Carun, quod a suo nomine nomen accepit, fornicem triumphalem in victoriae 
memoriam erigens, construxit.' Nennius, Hist. More probably, of course, the 
name of the river Carron suggested Carausius's connection with the Scottish Wall. 

19 In Western* Russia it is the custom to throw up a mound of earth round a 
forest, not so much to prevent wood-stealers driving their waggons in as to show 
whether they have done so or not : if there are no tracks across the mound the 
forester can return home, if there are he can follow them up. Intercepting 
forays on their return formed a regular part of Border warfare in the middle 
ages. 

20 Per Lineam Valli ; by George Neilson, of Glasgow. 



114 



THE DISTANCE-SLABS OF THE ANTONINE WALL. 



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115 



IX. THE WASHINGTON AND COLYILLE FAMILIES. 

By DR. Gf. ALDER BLUMER, of Utica, N.Y., U.S.A., in a letter dated 
3rd February, 1897, addressed by him to Mr. Richard Oliver 
Heslop, one of the curators of the Society. 

[Read on the 24th February, 1897.] 

I have been working at the Washington-Oolville matter for some 
time past, and am now able to send you copies of the wills of Thomas 
Colvill, John Oolvill, and Frances Colvill, which, I am sure, will 
interest you. In order to the further elucidation of the matter, I took 
the liberty of reprinting the "Washington letters as they appeared in 
the Archaeologia Aeliana? and I send you several copies herewith for 
such distribution as may seem to you proper. I hope I did not take 
too much for granted in reprinting these letters for cis- Atlantic distri- 
bution without the permission of the society. In my enquiries I have 
been able to enlist the interest and co-operation of genealogists and 
antiquaries in Virginia and elsewhere, especially Dr. Lyon Gr. Tyler, 
the editor of the William and Mary college Quarterly, published at 
Williamsburg, Virginia. The next issue of the Quarterly will probably 
contain some reference to the subject. The editor is also president of 
William and Mary college, which, by the way, next to Harvard uni- 
versity, is the oldest institution of learning in this country ; it was 
chartered in 1693. It is situated in the most historic portion of the 
United States Jamestown, the seat of the first English settlement on 
this continent, and Yorktown, where lord Cornwallis surrendered in 
1781, being only a few miles distant. Dr. Tyler's journal has con- 
tained references to the earl of Tankerville matter, under ' Personal 
notes from the Maryland Gazette? as follows : 

1760, June 6. ' Fairfax Co., in Virginia, June 6, 1760.' To be let, a choice 
tract of land, several thousand acres, belonging to Charles, Earl of Tankerville, 
etc. (This is the Colville estate.) 

1764, Sept. 6 More about the Earl of Tankerville and the Virginia lands. 
John Colville and Thomas C., brothers, the Earl is one of the executors of John 
C., and T. C., deceased. 

1 Vol. ii. (n.s.) p. 120. 



116 THE WASHINGTON AND COLVILLE FAMILIES : 

1764, September. The Colville estate in Md., to be sold by Thomas Colville. 
He is in controversy with the Earl of Tankerville, dates his advertisement 
' Clish, near Alexandria, Va., Sept. 22.' Has waited nine years for the Earl to 
come to some determination. 

You will notice in the will of Thomas Colville that he refers to the 
near relations in Durham of his mother, Catherine Colville, persons of 
the name ' Stott, Wills, Richardson, and a woman named Catherine 
Smith.' These were the English litigants whose claims led to this 
correspondence. It may be that there are members of tjie Society of 
Antiquaries to whom this matter is of interest. 

As regards the umbrageous Thomas Washington referred to in 
Mrs. Addison's letter, I am still much mystified. General Washington 
had no brother named Thomas. Recently, however, I have obtained 
from a clergyman in Nevis, where Thomas Washington is alleged to 
have been a planter, a copy of the register of the baptisms of the 
children of Robert Washington and Elizabeth his wife, as herewith 
enclosed. 2 This I regard as a very interesting discovery. There was 
an intimate connection, as you know, between the West Indies and 
Virginia in the early colonial days. The original immigrant, John 
Washington, is supposed to have gone first to Barbadoes, and the will 
of Theodore Pagiter refers to ' Cousin John Washington ' in a manner 
which suggests the former being at Barbadoes about 1655. 

Not long ago I addressed a letter to Mr. William Green, jun., Findon 
cottage, near Durham, that being the name and address of the gentle- 
man who communicated the last letter to the society in 1857. Mr. 
Green's reply comes from Dendron lodge, Leamington. He tells me 
that he left Findon cottage forty years ago, and that the original letter 
he would probably find among the papers of his uncle, T. C. Granger, 
Q.C., a member for the city of Durham at the time of his decease in 
the year 1852. He has no doubt that the Smirk family had been 
legally consulting him upon their claims. He thinks he must have 
seen Washington Smirk about 1840, but not at Butterknowle colliery, 
of which he (Mr. Green) had charge for some years between 1851 and 
1861. He thinks, as I do, that the N ... wick in the reprint (see 
page 7) refers to the Nunwick hall estate. He remembers a family of 

Smiths living at Haughton castle. 

*********** 

Mr. Green informs me that, singularly enough, sir William Appleby 
2 See p. 125. 



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JOHN COLVILL'S WILL. 117 

of Durham, the correspondent of Mr. Eumney, who died in 1796, was 
uncle to his grandmother Green, formerly Jane Appleby. 

If as the result of the circulation of this reprint more light should 
be thrown upon this, to me, extremely interesting subject, I should be 
pleased and grateful to hear from you again. Is it not possible to 
ascertain definitely whether or not one Thomas Washington, planter, 
did as a matter of fact die in Gateshead ? 

JOHN COLVILL'S WILL. 

I, John Colvill, late of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, but now of Fairfax County, 
Virginia, being of perfect sense and memory & mindfull of the uncertainty of 
this transitory life, do make, ordain & appoint this to be my last will and 
testament revoking all other wills by me at any time heretofore made. 

1st Imprimis I render my soul to Almighty God who gave it, hoping through 
and by the mediation of my blessed Saviour & Redeemer Jesus Christ, to receive 
pardon & remission of my sins & my body to be decently interred at my 
Executors discretion. 

Item. I give and bequeath to my loving Brother Thomas Colvill all the 
residue of that tract of land upon the branches of Accotink in the said County 
of Fairfax not before granted him commonly called the hither Quarter, together 
with all the Negroes and Stock of all kinds thereon it, making up the whole 
tract I bought of Edward Emms and the Surplusses adjoining taken up by deed 
from the Lord Proprietary with all the rents services and appurtenances 
thereon, to him the said Thomas Colvill his heirs or Assigns forever. 

3. I give also to my said Brother Thomas Colvill for and during the term 
of his natural life my now dwelling plantation called Cleesh on Great Hunting 
Creek in said County containing one thousand acres together with the mill and 
appurtenances thereto near adjoining, and all the houses, utensils, Negroes and 
Stock that shall be on or belong to the said Plantation at the time of my decease 
ordering however, and it is my will and intent that the said Negroes be kept to 
work on the said Plantation by my said Brother or Executors, and that the 
profits of which an account shall be kept arising from their labour in Crops of 
any kind or otherwise shall be subject for the term of three years or three Crops 
to be applyed by my Executors hereafter named towards the payment of my 
just debts, but at the decease of my said Brother, then my will is, and I do 
hereby give and Bequeath the said plantation called Cleesh Mill, houses, 
utensils, Negroes and Stock unto the right Honorable, the present Earl of 
Tankervile and his heirs forever. And I do hereby appoint him, the said Earl 
of Tankervile, and my Brother Thomas Colvill, Executors of this my last will 
and testament. 

4. And also on consideration of my near Relation and Alliance to the said 
present Earl of Tankervile, son of my Father's Brother's Daughter, I give and 
bequeath to the said Earl of Tankervile, with the free consent and approbation 
of my said Brother, my heir at law, all that tract or parcel of land lying on both 
sides Catacton Creek in said County of Fairfax, Virginia, which I purchased 
from Francis Aubrey together with the Surplus lands adjoining and about the 

VOL. xix. 16 



118 THE WASHINGTON AND COLVILLE FAMILIES : 

same and added thereto by deed to me from the Lord Proprietary containing 
sixteen thousand acres together with all my Negroes and stock of horses, 
Cattle, hogs &c., that shall be thereon at the time of my decease to him the said 
Earl of Tankervile and his heirs forever. But Excepting one thousand acres of 
the said tract near John Hough's which I allot for immediate sale and which 
sale if not perfected by me I do hereby impower either of my said Executors 
to perfect and that either of their deeds shall be good and valid in law to any 
Purchaser whatsoever and excepting my Bequest hereafter mentioned of one 
other thousand acres of the said tract and Negros as my Executors here may 
find necessary to be sold towards the paying and satisfying my just debts in the 
manner hereafter expressed but subjecting the profits that may arise from the 
labour of the said Negroes on the said land or on what other land of mine they 
may be settled for and during the term of three years or three Crops after my 
decease, to be applyed towards paying and Discharging my Debts as aforesaid. 

5. I also give and Bequeath to the said Earl of Tankerville all my tract or 
Parcel of land lying on & about the Branches of Difficult in said County con- 
taining about Fifteen hundred acres as also my two ninth shares of the Copper 
mine and two hundred acres of land belonging to it in Company with others 
lying contiguous and adjoining to the said tract to him the said Earl of Tanker- 
vile and his heirs forever. 

6. And that the Negroes and stock may be preserved and improved in the 
best manner as well on the said land at Catacton as at my dwelling Plantation, 
I leave the sole management thereof to my said Brother on whose care and 
Fidelity I can assuredly depend to keep account of and receive the profits aris- 
ing from the labour of the said Negroes in their Crops of Tobacco or Grain, the 
Brewery, Distillery or any other manner retaining for his reasonable expense & 
trouble and the residue for the term of three years or three crops after my 
decease to be applyed towards paying my debts as aforesaid, but that my said 
Brother shall not be answerable for the natural death or casual loss of any the 
said Stock or Negroes. 

7. And for the more certain Enabling my said Executors towards paying 
my said debts and any legacy I may hereafter mention, I do hereby appoint and 
direct that my tract of land lying on the Maryland side of Potomoke river by 
Pattent called Merryland and said to lye in Prince George's but is now in 
Frederick County, Maryland, containing six thousand three hundred acres be 
sold by my Executor or Executors to be applyed towards paying the same but 
that in case the said tract of land called Merryland together with the Profits 
arising from the Plantations subjected as afsd., should fall short of paying all 
my said debts when Ascertained and legacy's, then my will is anything herein 
to the Contrary notwithstanding that my Executor acting and residing in this 
Colony of Virginia shall and is hereby impowered to raise any deficiency that 
may happen by the further sale of such part of my Catacton or Negros or any 
other land or Negros herein given and Bequeathed to the said Earl my dwelling 
Plantation and Negros excepted as shall seem to my said Executor most 
expedient except the said Earl of Tankervile choosing rather to prevent the 
sale of any part of the said Virginia land or Negros will assume upon himself 
the discharge of such deficiency and wholly quit exonerate and indemifye my 
said Executor therefrom. 



JOHN COLVILL'S WILL. 119 

8. And I leave all my tracts or parcels of land lying on or about four mile 
run in said County containing about fourteen hundred acres to be disposed of 
by my Executors in such manner as may most tend to the benefit and 
advantage of my estate in Behalf of the said Earl of Tankervile his heirs &c. 

9. And whereas, Mary Foster who came into the Country in my ship and 
when free continued to live with me several years, I do therefore in full con- 
sideration of all her services and demands give and Bequeath unto the said 
Mary Foster my tract of land or Plantation lying on the branches of Tuscarora 
in said County which I bought of Middleton Shaw containing one hundred and 
seventy-eight acres together with one-half of the horses, Cattle and hogs that 
shall be on the said Plantation at the time of my decease. And I also further 
give and Bequeath to the said Mary Foster in and for the full consideration 
aforesaid, the sum of sixty pounds currt. money to be paid her by my said 
Executors in nine months after my decease. 

10. I give and Bequeath to my Daughter Catherine by the said Mary and 
now the wife of John West, Jun., and to the said John West one thousand acres 
of my Catacton tract of land to be laid off adjoining to John Hough's land 
which he bought of Amos Jenny in such manner as my said Executors shall 
approve together with fifteen Negros old and young to be set off in as equal 
manner as may be at the discretion of my said Executors to them the said 
Catherine and John and their heirs forever. 

11. I give and Bequeath to or among the heir or heirs of my Brother in law 
George Colvill late also of Newcastle upon Tyne where or wheresoever they may 
be the sum of forty pounds sterling meaning and intending thereby to cut off 
all the Descendants from the said George Colvill or any claiming or deriving 
from him or them or any claiming or deriving from the first Venture of my 
Father from inheriting or enjoying any other part of my estate. 

12. I give and Bequeath unto the Trustees or managers of the Charity 
school of All Saints Parish in Newcastle aforesaid the sum of forty pounds 
sterling to be used and disposed of for the Benefit of the said Charity school and 
scholars in such manner and to such uses as other the like Benefactions are used 
and put by the said Trustees. 

This Instrument of writing contained in three pages was signed and sealed in 
each Page by the within mentioned John Colvill and declared by him to contain 
and to be his last will and Testament this sixth day of May Anno Domini one 
thousand seven hundred and fifty-five. 

John Colvill (Seal). 
In presence of us Danl. French, Wm. Sewell, Thos. Harrison, Jun., G. West. 

At a Court held for the County of Fairfax 20th January, 1756. This will 
was presented in Court by Thomas Colvill Gent., one of the Executors herein 
named who made oath thereto and the same being proved by the oaths of 
Daniel French, William Sewell, and George West three of the Witnesses, is 
admitted to record. And the said Executor having performed what the laws 
require Certificate is granted him for obtaining a probate thereof in due form. 

Test. P. Wagener Cl. Cur. 
A copy Teste : F. W. Richardson Clerk. 
Jany 6, 1897. 

(Copy John Colvill's Will) 
(Recorded in Will Book B. No. 1, folio 97 & Ex.) 



120 THE WASHINGTON AND COLVILLE FAMILIES : 

THOMAS COLVILL'S WILL. 

In the name of God, Amen. I, Thomas Colvill, originally from Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, late of Cecil County, Maryland, but at Present of Fairfax County, 
Virginia, being at this present very near Seventy-eight years of age, but in 
perfect & sound memory, do make this my Last Will and Testament, Resigning 
my soul to its Creator in hopes through Christ of future Happiness, and my 
Body to be decently buried, as I may hereafter mention, or my Executors think 
fit. 

But in the first place, for the better understanding, this my said Will here- 
after to be mentioned, it may be necessary to Premise, viz. : 

That my Brother, John Colvill, late of the said County of Fairfax, did by 
his last Will and Testament dated 1755, therein give and bequeath 

unto the Eight Honorable the present Earl of Tankerville, and his heirs forever, 
a large and valuable Estate in Lands and Negroes, lying in Virginia, but with 
all subjecting the said Land and Negroes (his dwelling, Plantation and Negroes 
Excepted) towards the payment of all his just debts, & appointing me acting 
Executor to his said last Will, but the Bulk of said Debts being Chiefly owing 
and due to persons in England and to myself in Sterling money, full power was 
therefore given me by the said Will for my Security, to sell and dispose of a 
large Tract of Land in Maryland with full power to raise the deficiency by a 
Sale of any of the Virginia Lands or Negroes (not before Excepted) that I 
should think fit for the full satisfaction and paiment of all his just Debts, 
except his Lordship would take upon himself the payments thereof, and fully 
exonerate and indemnifie me as Executor therefrom. But which he has hitherto 
refused or neglected to do even to this day. Whereupon, as I have above 
mentioned, the Estate of my said Brother John Colvill being justly indebted to 
me for many years Services, and Commissions, in September Court 1761, held 
for Fairfax County before whose Justices when I produced the Accounts of my 
Administration of the said Estate, I inserted and exhibited therein my Amount 
of the said debt so due to me to the amount of Eight hundred & Twenty-nine 
pounds, seventeen shillings Sterling, which said Account was then and there 
allowed and adjudged due to me by the said Court. But his Lordship's Agent 
maliciously opposing me herein, appealed from the said Judgment to the 
General Court at Williamsburg. where to my very great aggrievance and 
expense, he got it hung up by the arts of his Lawyers in the General Court of 
April, 1765, when on a hearing before the said General Court, the Judgment of 
Fairfax County Court as aforesaid was thereby confirmed. And Whereas, my 
mother Catharine Colvill died at Newcastle aforesaid about May, 1719, at which 
time I was in Virginia ; and by her last Will leaving the Chief of her Estate 
Eeal and Personal between my said Brother and my Sister Esther, then the 
wife of Capt. Mathias Gills but leaving me a Legacy of One Hundred pounds 
in the said Will, making him, the said John Colvill Sole Executor thereof : But 
the said John Colvill through neglect or carelessness never gave me the least 
hint of my said Mother's Will, nor of any of her affairs, nor my said Sister 
neither, so that it was kept entirely from my knowledge for forty odd years, till 
accidently I examined a box of old Papers many years ago left in my possession 
by the said John Colvill and therein found a Correspondence of Letters between 
my said Brother at London and my said Sister at Newcastle dated about the 



THOMAS COLVILL'S WILL. 121 

months of May and June 1719. which contained a Copy of the said Will, and all 
other matters relative to my said Mother's Estate, on which account at Fairfax 
County Court for 1765, 1 produced to the said Court the evidence of the 

letters of Correspondence aforesaid. Judgment was given for my recovery of 
the said legacy of One Hundred Pounds Sterling, together with interest thereon 
from the time of my said Mother's death, amounting at that time to about three 
hundred and thirty Pounds Sterling. In the mean time the Agent (for the 
surer furthering of his ill designs and purposes) had been of a long time foment- 
ing disputes and Differences between Lord Tankerville and myself by false re- 
ports, til by a letter I wrote her Ladyship (The Lady Tankerville) dated Dec. 
10th, 1764, matters became better understood and explained in such manner 
that in answer to my said letter, her Ladyship wrote me a long letter dated the 
5th March 1765, wherein the Villiany of the Agent is discovered, my Lord 
declared innocent from all the Causes of my Complaints (which were not few or 
small) and a reconciliation is desired, which through her Ladyship's great 
Prudence, my belief that his Lordship had been imposed upon by his Agent, 
when he was so long sick and abroad : And for that my first inclinations to serve 
him was not quite effaced, I was willing to accept, and to render his Lordship 
my future Services, as her Ladyship in his name earnestly requires. 

Whereupon in a letter I wrote the Countess of Tankerville, dated the 16th 
Sept. 1765, I enclosed to his Lordship through her hands my stated accounts 
against the Estate of my Brother John Colvill containing among other articles, 
the Two Judgments before mentioned, wherein on a Ballance Struck there 
appeared to be due to me from the Estate of my said Brother, the sums of 
1142. 16s. lid. Sterling and 163. 11s. lOd. Current money of Virginia, and to 
which letter and Account her Ladyship answered by his Lordship's orders, in a 
letter dated 9th Dec., 1765, wherein his Lordship is pleased to approve of 
and acknowledge my said Sterling Debt of 1142. 16. 11. aforesaid, & also of 
my Current money Charge, adding himself thereto 37. 10. Sterling by his 
own Settlement making the Ballance due to me from the Estate 1180. 6. 11 
Sterlg. And also his Lordship reminded me that I had omitted Charging 
Interest of the said 829. 17. 0, which he desired should be added to the said 
1180. 6. 11, and which said Interest from Sept. 1761, to September 1766, 
being five years amounts to 207. 10. added to the said 1180. 6. 11 makes the 
whole Sterling account or Debt due to me from the Estate of the said John 
Colvill amount to 1387 16. 11 Sterling: and also in the said letter signifying 
his Lordship's directions to me immediately to sell such part of the Lands as 
will satisfy me for the Debts and Interest aforesaid. But I begin now with 
relation to this my last Will and Testament, & therefore now in regard of his 
Lordship's generous and ready Settlement of my Accounts, and as an acknow- 
ledgment of the very great respect and regard I entertain for her Ladyship, 
together with my own inclinations to the Family, I do hereby give and bequeath 
unto the Honorable Henry Bennet, Esquire, younger son to the said Lord and 
Lady, the sum of Seven Hundred Pounds Sterling, to be Struck off from my 
above mentioned Ballance of 1387. 16. 11 due to me from the Estate as afore- 
said, and to be paid by his Lordship, his Heirs, Excrs. or Administrators unto 
the said Henry Bennet, Esqr., his son at such time as the said Henry shall arrive 
at proper age to receive the same, with lawful interest thereon, and which said 



122 THE WASHINGTON AND COLVILLE FAMILIES : 

sum of 700. 0. for the use of the said Henry so struck off from my account 
as aforesaid, will then leave a Ballance of 687. 16. 11 Sterling being the 
remainder of the said Debt of 1387. 16. 11 for his Lordship to account of my 
Excrs. on account of the said estate & which said sum of 687. 16. 11 I will 
that it shall be raised by my Executors out of the first money arising from the 
Sale of any of the Lands to the said John Colville's Estate belonging to be 
applied together with the rest of my Estate hereafter to be mentioned to the 
Payment of all my just debts & Legacies hereafter expressed. 

I Give and devise to my Beloved wife Francina, alias Frances Colvill, the 
Plantation whereon I lately lived and the Plantation called & known by the 
name of Tom's Quarter near it, to include Four hundred and fifty acres in the 
whole together with the following Negroes (viz) : Tom, Isaac, Young Tom, Fan, 
Jenny, Sue, Nancy, Sterling and Nace together with all the Stock of every kind 
on the said Plantation, for and during her Natural Life, or widowhood : But at 
the decease of my said wife or widowhood, then my Will is that the said four 
hundred and fifty acres of Land together with the before-mentioned Negroes and 
Stock, shall fall and belong unto her niece Sarah Savin, and her heirs forever. 

I leave the use of my negro man George unto my wife during her life or 
widowhood, and after that Term is expired, I give the said negro George unto 
John West Jr., and his heirs forever. 

I leave my negro man Ben (at present an apprentice learning the Trade of a 
Blacksmith) between my said wife and John West Jr., to be hired out, dividing 
the Profits between them, but at the decease of my said wife, then my will is 
that the said John West have full Property in the said Negro Ben forever. I 
Give & bequeath the use, benefit and Advantage of Negroes old Abney, Ned, 
Dinah and her Children, unto my wife during her natural life or widowhood, 
after that Term is expired to be disposed of as will be expressed hereafter in 
this Will. I give and bequeath unto my wife my negro woman named Moll to 
her, her heirs or assigns forever. I Give & bequeath unto Benjamin Moody Two 
hundred Acres of Land out of my Accotink Tract, to be laid out to him as my 
Executors shall adjudge reasonable & right, to him & his heirs forever. I Give 
and Bequeath unto the said Benjamin Moody and his heirs forever, my youn 
negro woman named Daphne. I Give and bequeath unto my wife's all my 
household furniture including my Clock. I also give her my horse Chair & 
harness, and any Two horses of mine at Clish which she shall choose. I Give 
and bequeath unto my wife's niece Sarah Savin Two hundred and fifty Pounds 
Current money and my negro Girl named Teenz to her and her heirs forever. I 
Give and bequeath unto Ann and Daughter of Capt. William fiamsay, & to her 
heirs forever, a negro Girl named Sarah now in her own possession. I Give and 
bequeath unto Sarah Johnston the daughter of Capt. Geo. Johnston, and to her 
heirs forever a negro Girl named Monica. I Give and bequeath unto Catharine, 
the daughter of John West, Junr., and to her heirs forever my negro Girl named 
Nan. I give and bequeath unto Thomas, the son of John West Jun., and to his 
heirs forever, my negro Boy named Spencer. I Give and bequeath unto 
Isabella Hollingsbury, the sum of Twenty Pounds Current money and the use 
of my Tract of Land containing one hundred and fifty-eight acres, lying near 
Pimnicks' Bun, for and during the Term of her natural life. I Give and 
bequeath unto the youngest daughter of Mr. William Anderson, Merchant in 



THOMAS COLVILL'S WILL. 128 

London the sum of Eighty Pounds Sterling. My will & desire is that my 
Executors do sell so much of the Landed Estate of my deceased Brother John 
Colvill, as will satisfie and pay all his just debts in the same manner that I 
myself have power to do by his Will. My will and desire is that all the 
remainder of my Lands at Accotink not herebefore disposed of, be sold by my 
Executors, together with the Remainder of my Negroes not mentioned before in 
this my Will : in the first place towards the payment of my debts, afterwards to 
be applied to the payment of Legacies mentioned already, or to be mentioned 
hereafter in this Will. 

I do hereby appoint my Beloved wife Francina Colvill, George Washington, 
Esqr., and John West Jun., Executors of this my last Will and Testament, and 
do by these Presents utterly revoke my other Will or Wills by me herebefore 
made. 

I Give and Bequeath unto John West Jun., the sum of one hundred Pounds 
Current money : & whereas in all probability my Executors will have consider- 
able Trouble in settling and adjusting my affairs towards their encouragement. 

I Give and Bequeath unto George Washington Esqr., the sum of one hundred 
Pounds Current money and I Give and bequeath unto John West Jun., a further 
sum of one hundred Pounds Current money. I Give & bequeath unto my 
wife my Bay Mare that was raised at Mr. Digge's. My will and desire is that at 
the Death of my Wife, my negro woman Dinah and her Children be sold, and 
that the money arising by the Sale do go as will be hereafter expressed. My 
will and desire is that my two negro men Ned and old Abner after the 
decease of my Wife, I give & bequeath unto my wife Eighty pounds Current 
money. And Whereas, my mother Catharine Colvill had several near Relations 
in Durham, of the names of Stott, Wills, Richardson & a woman named 
Catharine Smith, it is my will and desire that the Overplus or residue of my 
Estate when sold as aforesaid, (if any overplus there be) be divided into four 
Equal Parts, and that each of the before-mentioned Stott, Wills, Richardson & 
Smith have one fourth part of the said overplus of my Estate. My meaning is, 
that those of these names the nearest related to my said mother, or to their 
direct descendants, have each their fourth Parts of the said residue, after having 
made sufficient Proof of their respective relationship to my said mother, and 
they enter their several Claims, and make the Proper proofs as aforesaid to my 
Executors within five years after my decease, and if they neglect or refuse to do 
so within that t time, then my will & desire is that the said residue descend unto 
the Child or Children of John West Jun., in such manner as he, the said John 
West, shall think fit to order and appoint. My will is that my Executors as 
soon as convenient after my death do send Letters to Durham to inform the said 
Stott, Wills, Richardson & Smith of this part of my Will that relates to them. 

In Testimony of this being my last Will & Testment I have hereunto set my 
hand & affixed my seal this Eighth day of October, one thousand seven hundred 
and sixty-six. Thomas Colvill. (Seal.) 

The above will was signed, sealed & acknowledged to be the last Will & 
Testament of Thomas Colville Gent., by him in the presence of us. John Dalton, 
Harry Piper, Jno. Kirkpatrick, Wm. Rumney. 

At a Court held for the County of Fairfax XlXth January 1767. 



124 THE WASHINGTON AND COLVILLE FAMILIES : 

This Will was presented in Court by Frances Colvill, George Washington, 
Esqr., and John West, Jun., Executors herein named, who made oath thereto, 
and the same being proved by the oaths of Harry Piper, John Kirkpatrick, & 
William Rumney, three of the Witnesses hereto, is admitted to Record, and the 
said Executors having performed what the Laws require, a Certificate is granted 
them for obtaining a Probate thereof in due form. Teste. P. Wagener. Cl. Car. 

A copy. Teste : F. W. Richardson, Clerk. 
Jan'y 6, 1897. 

(Copy of Thos. Colvill's Will.) 
Recorded in Liber B. No. 1, folio 424 & Ex. 

FRANCES COLVILL'S WILL. 

In the Name of God Amen. I Francis Colvill widow of Thomas Colvill, Gent, 
deceased, being in perfect sense and memory at this time, thanks be to God for 
do make ordain constitute and appoint this to be my last will and testament 
utterly Revoking any will or wills heretofore by me made. 

Imprimis I give my Soul to God who gave it me, hoping for a joy full Resur- 
rection through the Merits of Jesus Christ my Saviour. 

Item. My will is that all my just debts be punctually paid. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto Sarah Bernard five pounds for a Ring. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto Catharine West the half Dozen Silver table 
spoons marked F. C. also one half of my Bedding, one half of my China, My 
close Stool chair My Scarlett Gown, a covered basket and whatsoever Shall be 
in the upper Drawer of the case of Drawers in my bed chamber at the time of 
my death. 

Item. I give unto John West Junr. Hogarth's Prints. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto Doctor Rumney a mare colt now in his 
possession. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Ramsay My Spinnet now in her 
possession. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto my Nephew Benjamin Moody all the residue 
of my Estate desiring him to take care of negro Moll for my Sake and I do 
hereby appoint the said Benjamin Moody to be my whole & Sole Executor of 
this my last will and Testament. 

Item. I desire No Inventory of my Estate may be made nor any funeral 
Sermon. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto Set my hand & seal this 29th day of 
March 1772. Fras. Colvill. (Seal.) 

Signed, Sealed and published as the last will and Testament of Frances 
Colvill in presence of us. John Rhodes, Richard Lake. 

At a court continued & held for the County of Fairfax, 16th March 1773. 

This will was presented in Court by Benjamin Moody Executor herein named 
who made oath hereto & the same being proved by the oaths of the witnesses 
hereto is admitted to record & the said executor having performed what the law 
requires a certificate is granted him for obtaining a probate thereof in due form. 

Teste : P. Wagener Jr. Clk. Ct. 

A Copy. Teste : F. W. Richardson, Clerk. 

(Copy Will of Frances Colvill.) 
(Recorded in Will book C. No. 1, on page 148 & Ex.) 



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THE FAMIL 
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BAPTISMS OF WASHINGTONS. 125 

REGISTERS. 

Extracted from the Register of St. George's church, Nevis, West 
Indies, January 7, 1897, by the Eeverend John Jones, rector. 

Feb. 9, 1794. Baptized Mary Blackmore Washington, daughter of Robert 
Washington & Elizabeth his wife. 

May 20, 1795. Baptized Robert Washington, son of Robert Washington & 
Elizabeth his wife. 

Oct. 23, 1796. Baptized William Washington, son of Robert Washington & 
Elizabeth his wife. 

Dec. 3, 1797. Baptized Thomas Washington, son of Robert Washington & 
Elizabeth his wife. 



X. PEDIGREE OF THE FAMILY OF DOVE, OF TYNE- 
MOUTH, CULLERCOATS, AND WHITLEY, FROM 

1584. 

By MABERLY PHILLIPS, F.S.A. 

See vol. xvL, p. 281, for account of the family. 



17 



126 



XI. OBITUAKY NOTICE OF THE REV. JAMES 
RAINE, D.C.L., 

CHANCELLOR OF YORK MINSTER AND A V.P. OF THE SOCIETY. 

By RICHARD WELFORD, a vice-president of the society. 

[Read on the 31st March, 1897.J 

One by one the links which unite present day archaeology to that 
of a past generation disappear ; one by one veterans in the widening 
field of archaeological investigation fall out of our ranks. Since 1890 
death has erased from our muster roll the honoured names of John 
Clayton, Dr. J. Collingwood Bruce, the rev. Geo. Rome Hall, William 
Woodman, and, lastly, the subject of this paper, the rev. James 
Raine, chancellor of York. Thus, ever, 'the old order changeth, 
yielding place to new.' For us, who represent the newer generation, 
it remains to imitate the patient zeal of these venerable and venerated 
men, and, in the paths which they have marked out for us, to walk 
with earnest desire and reverent fear. 

Chancellor Raine was the only son of the rev. James Raine, better 
known in later years as Dr. Raine, historian of North Durham, author 
of St. Cuthbert (a work which arose out of the discovery of the 
saint's remains in 1827), and editor of numerous books and papers 
illustrating medieval life, customs, and manners in St. Cuthbert's 
patrimony. Dr. Raine, if not a founder of this society, was one of its 
early and constant supporters, for he joined it in 1815, two years after 
it had been formally established, and he continued to be an active and 
honoured member till his death in December, 1858. James Raine 
the younger, born at Crook hall, near Durham, and cradled, as it 
were, in archaeology, imbibed his father's tastes, adopted his father's 
cult, and, joining our society soon after he had arrived at man's estate, 
remained with us, as member of council and a vice-president whom we 
delighted to honour, until his lamented decease last year. Believers in 
heredity may perhaps find in the mental characteristics and literary 
pursuits of the two Raines support for their theories and confirmation 
of their views. 

Having received preparatory training in the Grammar school, the 
younger Raine matriculated at University college, Durham. His 



Arch. Ael. zix. to face p. 126. 



Plate II 




THE LATE REV. JAMES RAINE, D.C.L., 
CHANCELLOR OF YORK. MINSTER, AND A VICE-PRESIDENT or THE SOCIETY. 



THE REV. JAMES RAINE, D.C.L. 127 

collegiate career was successful, his promotion rapid and substantial. 
For, having taken his degree of B.A. in 1851, he obtained a fellowship 
in 1852, proceeded M.A. in 1853, and was sent to Newcastle as prin- 
cipal of Neville hall in 1854, being also about the same time elected 
secretary of the Surtees Society. Mr. Raine's Newcastle appointment 
was in succession to his friend the rev. Wm. Greenwell, who for two 
years had directed the fortunes of Neville hall the residential depart- 
ment of a reconstructed college of medicine to which the university 
of Durham had extended its beneficent arms. 

Shortly after his settlement in Newcastle, viz., on the 4th of 
October, 1854, Mr. Raine was elected a member of our society, and 
at the May meeting following he read his first paper to the members. 
At that time the Archaeologia Aeliana was in a state of transition. 
The old quarto series had been condemned as cumbrous and incon- 
venient, and the younger members, thirsting for reform, were advo- 
cating a change to octavo. Mr. Raine joined the reformers, and when, 
at the annual meeting of the society in 1856, the alteration was 
sanctioned, he was elected a member of the council, and one of a 
committee appointed to superintend the printing of the Archaeologia 
and all other the society's publications. By a happy coincidence the 
paper selected to inaugurate the new series was that which he had read 
in 1854 : ' A Memoir of Anne, Countess of Pembroke, Dorset, and 
Montgomery, and daughter of George, third Earl of Cumberland.' 

The commendation with which this, his first contribution to anti- 
quarian literature, was received encouraged the principal of Neville 
hall to further enterprise in the same direction. He read to this 
society in 1855 a biography of sir Edward Radclyffe, second baronet 
of the house of Dilston, and contributed to the Archaeological Journal 
some notes upon ' A Remarkable Sepulchral Brass of Flemish Design 
in the Church of Wensley, Yorkshire,' followed, a year later, in the 
same journal, by a paper on ' Divination in the Fifteenth Century by 
aid of a Magical Crystal.' These maiden efforts of his, if not very 
elaborate or recondite, show very thoroughly the bent of his mind and 
the lines within which his literary career was destined to run. 

Neville hall was closed in 1856, and after a period of retirement 
with his father at Crook hall Mr. Raine accepted, in 1857, the curacy 
of All Saints with St. Peter the Little, in the city of York. There, 



128 OBITUARY NOTICE OF THE 

favoured with leisure and opportunity, he was able to pursue the 
studies that lay nearest to his heart. There, archives, rich and full- 
laden, awaited exploration ; vast treasures of history and archaeology 
invited examination and disclosure. Mr. Raine explored, examined, 
and disclosed. The first-fruits of his research were given to the society 
in whose publications he had flushed his pen. The second volume of 
our octavo series contains two contributions from his store : a genea- 
logical article on the Pudsays of Barf ord and a selection of nuncupative 
wills from the Yorkshire registries, both dated ' York, January, 1858.' 
Volume five opens with a more elaborate paper, the longest with which 
he favoured us a history of the Swaledale village of Marske. With 
its pedigrees and family notes, its concise evidences and references, the 
account of Marske may be cited as an admirable example of the 
manner in which the history of a parish ought to be written, 
everywhere and always. 

Meanwhile Mr. Raine's researches among York records were 
revealing themselves in another channel. The Surtees Society had 
assigned to the elder Raine the editing of several of their volumes, 
among them being collections of wills and inventories from the 
registries of York and Durham. These publications, in which new 
light was thrown upon the history, manners, and language of the 
upper and middle classes in the northern counties at an interesting 
period of national life, were of exceeding interest and value. Shortly 
before the death of his father, Mr. Raine edited for the society a 
volume of wills, etc., from the registry at Richmond, and afterwards 
continued the Testamenta Eboracensia down to a fifth volume, inter- 
spersing them with many other useful compilations. For, as secretary 
during forty years, his was not only the discerning eye that selected 
fit subjects for publication, but the working hand that contributed to 
accurate production. He also edited for the society the Fabric Rolls 
of York Minster ; a Memoir of Mr. Justice Rokeby ; a selection of 
Depositions in Criminal Oases, from the originals in York Castle ; 
that most valuable addition to the history and literature of Tyneside, 
The Priory of Hexham : Its Chronicles, Endowments, Annals, etc., in 
two volumes ; the Register of Walter Gray, Archbishop of York, 
1215-55 ; a Selection from the Poems of Lawrence, Prior of Durham, 
in the twelfth century ; and a collection of English Miscellanies. 



REV. CANON RAINE, D.C.L. 129 

Another volume of the Miscellanies, and some Account Eolls of St. 
Leonard's Hospital, York, which he had undertaken to edit, remain to 
be completed. 

All these books, it may be observed, are of direct and distinct 
utility to the church historian, the compiler of county history, the 
collector of parochial records, the genealogist and biographer to all, 
indeed, whose investigations cover the northern counties in medieval 
times. Thus they fulfil in a very notable degree the intention with 
which the Surtees Society was founded namely, to illustrate the 
intellectual, the moral, the religious, and the social condition of that 
region which, extending from the Humber to the Forth, and from the 
Mersey to the Clyde, constituted the ancient kingdom of Northumbria. 

' From ancient scribe, old tome, and manuscript, 
From church and cloister, and from garrulous crone 
Brought forth, with painful lore and curious art, 
Into the sunshine of the present day.' 

Outside of his editorial labours in connection with the Surtees 
Society, Mr. Eaine found time for literary work of some magnitude 
and considerable responsibility. In 1863 he published an instalment 
of a work entitled, Lives of the Archbishops of York, founded upon 
MSS. collected by the rev. William Henry Dixon, a deceased canon 
of York cathedral. Only one volume was issued, containing memoirs 
of forty-four archbishops, extending from A.D. 627 to 1373. Yet, as 
Mr. Raine relates in the preface, he had made on account of this 
work collections on the same scale for biographies of some seventeen 
hundred other persons, spreading over a period of twelve centuries ; 
had ransacked almost the whole range of the history, biography, and 
topography of England, and in part of other countries ; and, finally, 
to make his book as complete as possible, had given up nearly a whole 
year to daily toil among original evidences in the public offices. 
Small wonder that the second volume of a work so tedious and 
exacting has not yet found its way to the printer. 

To the official publications issued under the direction of the 
Master of the Rolls, with the general title of ' Chronicles and 
Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages.' 
Mr. Raine contributed in 1873, a volume of Historical Papers and 
Letters from the Northern Registers, illustrative of the general history 



130 OBITUARY NOTICE OF THE 

of the North of England, particularly in its relation to Scotland ; 
and, later, two volumes dealing with The Historians of the Church 
of York and its Archbishops. In these, as in all other compilations 
of his, one sees evidence of plodding industry and indefatigable 
research, the result of natural aptitude and cultured taste. Every- 
thing to which he set his pen bears marks of that patient genius 
which, in its fullest development, consists of an infinite capacity for 
taking pains. 

Among the literary and antiquarian institutions of York Mr. 
Raine moved as the guiding spirit, the wise counsellor, the generous 
benefactor. He was vice-president of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, and curator of its antiquities ; the librarian of York minster ; 
an active member of the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical 
Society; and chaplain to the Merchant Guilds of the city. These 
occupations gave him control over muniments of great value 
historical, ecclesiastical, and commercial and enabled him to restore, 
preserve, and utilise them to public advantage. The librarianship of 
the minster was a position which his training, acquirements, and 
amiable manners specially qualified him to fill. For he was essentially 
an amiable man bland, placid, and cheerful ever ready to assist the 
enquirer and to guide the student through the toil and weariness 
which are inseparable from antiquarian research. He made an 
elaborate catalogue of the literary treasures preserved in the minster, 
and by his influence added to those treasures the wonderful collection 
of Yorkshire books, acquired during many years' patient search by 
that enthusiastic bibliophile the late Edward Hailstone. To his 
assiduous care York owes the preservation and restoration of her 
ancient records, damaged by flood and dilapidated through neglect and 
the ravages of time. At a great meeting held in the city shortly after 
his death the dean of York, summarising his services to the citizens, 
described him as ' pioneer, guide, and fellow-labourer in many complex 
and obscure fields of work one who has supplied many a missing link, 
who has found the clue to many a tangled skein, who has kindled a light 
in many dark places, who has dissipated many baseless traditions and 
theories, and has brought into prominence much which was unknown 
before. ... He gave to all who asked him freely, indiscrimin- 
ately, from his store of hardly-acquired knowledge ; he gave readily 



REV. CANON RAINB, D.C.L. 131 

and cheerfully of what was the fruit of years of study and enquiry 
the harvest of long seasons of careful reading.' 

Next to the Surtees Society and the minster library, the institu- 
tion which secured Mr. Raine's most attentive consideration was the 
Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Society. To the members 
of that organization he was at all times a judicious adviser and a 
helpful ally. He contributed to their ' Transactions ' papers (1) ' On 
the Materials for Topography of the Wapentake of Agbrigg'; (2) 'An 
Original Grant from Edmund de Lacy, Constable of Chester, to his 
tenants at Westchep, near Pontefract'; (3) 'A Notice of Henry 
Jenkins the Yorkshire Centenarian'; (4) 'On the Dedications of 
Yorkshire Churches ' ; (5) ' The History of Marske,' reprinted from 
our Archaeologia ; and (6) 'Notices of Scoresby and the Family of 
Blake.' It was for this society that, in 1888, he edited and enlarged 
from the MSS of Thomas Burton, a local antiquary and collector, a 
history of the ancient manor, town, and collegiate church of Heming- 
brough, near Selby, originally parcel of the possessions of the priors 
of Durham. 

Mr. Raine joined the committee appointed, in 1891, at the suggestion 
of Dr. Hodgkin, to superintend the production of a complete history 
of Northumberland. His father had been the rev. John Hodgson's 
friend and biographer, and this was a project which appealed to his 
earliest and tenderest sympathies, for it promised the realization of Mr. 
Hodgson's plans, and the termination of that comprehensive under- 
taking which the historian, single-handed, vainly strove to accomplish. 
Placing at the disposal of the committee an invaluable collection of 
wills, copied by his father and himself from the registry at Durham, 
he added, later on, the great stores of material relating to the town 
and shire of Hexham which he had gathered together at York when 
compiling for the Surtees Society his two volumes on Hexham priory. 
Throughout the new history of Northumberland run quotations from 
Raine's Testamenta, and the greater part of the third volume of the 
series is his entirely. His last appearance among us we owe to the 
unflagging interest which he manifested in the proceedings of the 
history committee. On the 26th September, 1894, he came from a 
meeting of that committee to our monthly gathering in the castle, 
over which he presided, and after that evening many of us saw his 
face no more. 



132 THE REV. CANON EAINE, D.C.L. 

Upon Mr. Raine's clerical activities this is not the fittest place to 
dilate. We knew him chiefly as scholar, historian, and antiquary. 
Yet it may be permitted to describe his ecclesiastical progress if only 
to show that the church does not always withhold honour and emolu- 
ment from those who combine archaeological pursuits with the study 
of theology and the cure of souls. Mr. Eaine's preferments were 
these : In 1866 he was made canon and prebendary of Langtoft in 
York minster ; in 1888 canon residentiary ; in 1891 he exchanged the 
prebendal stall of Langtoft for that of Laughton, to which is attached 
the chancellorship of the cathedral. Meanwhile, in 1885, by a 
re-arrangement of parishes, he had become rector of All Saints with 
St. Crux, and in the same year was elected a member of convocation. 
This latter post he continued to fill until his death, and with so much 
acceptance that the lower house had commissioned him to compile 
from past records a history of their privileges, claims, and proceedings. 
In 1882 his alma mater, the university of Durham, in recognition of 
his services to antiquarian literature, conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. ; and upon the passing of the Clergy Discipline Act, 
in 1892, he was appointed one of the assessors for the dean and chapter 
of York. Curate, rector, canon residentiary, member of convocation, 
and chancellor these are preferments which reflect the honour they 
convey. 

It has been remarked that although an accomplished editor and 
compiler, Mr. Raine published but one original work a condensed 
history of York, which appeared in Longman's series of Historic 
Towns. To most of us this imputed defect constitutes Mr. Eaine's 
chief merit. Between authorship and editorship there is no wide gulf 
fixed. But, if comparison be challenged, it may fairly be asserted that 
he who brings to the light that which has been hidden, and with toil 
and sacrifice presents it to the world, vivified and serviceable, achieves 
much more for posterity than the man who merely re-writes, with his 
own gloss, that which was easily accessible. Compared with the 
literary bovril so plentifully supplied to us in these days, a book of 
Mr. Raine's editing is a luxurious feast, nay, a banquet of delights. 



133 



XII. SIR CHAELES BROWN. 

By the Rev. E. H. ADAMSON, a vice-president of the society. 
[Read on the 31st March, 1897.] 

I propose in this paper to give some account of a northern worthy 
little known and now almost forgotten sir Charles Brown, M.D., 
chief physician and privy councillor at the court of Berlin to two 
kings of Prussia, Frederick William II. and Frederick William III., 
the latter of whom conferred upon him the order of the Red Eagle of . 
Prussia. Although he spent his youth and early manhood in New- 
castle, he was not a native, having been born in the Highlands of 
Scotland soon after the battle of Culloden. His father was under- 
stood to be prince Charles Edward Stewart, commonly known as the 
young chevalier or the young pretender. His mother's name was 
Cleghorn, but for obvious reasons she preferred to remain incognita, 
and in Newcastle assumed the name of Mrs. Brown, by which sur- 
name her son and his family were afterwards known. The mother 
came to Newcastle whilst her son was still an infant. Being ill and 
requiring medical treatment on her arrival she was attended by Mr. 
Nathaniel Bayles, a well-known practitioner in the town, and the 
acquaintance thus begun ripened into a friendship which lasted for 
the remainder of her life. Mr. Loggan, grandson of Mr. Bayles, in a 
letter to Mr. John Adamson, 1 states that he had heard his mother say 
that Mrs. Brown was one of the most amiable and ladylike women she 
ever knew. She died about 1785, leaving hardly enough to pay the 
funeral expences, although at one time she had a comfortable annuity 
which she had gradually sold for the benefit of her son. 

From a reference in his diary recording a visit to Newcastle at the 
beginning of this century, it would appear that he attended the 
grammar school at Newcastle, and there he was probably the class- 
mate of his two famous contemporaries, Lords Stowell and Eldon, 
with the former of whom at any rate he was intimate at a later day. 

1 My father, the late Mr. John Adamson, has added to his MS. a note : 
N.B. I gave the originals to the Rev. Ed. Coleridge, who married a grand- 
daughter of Sir Chas. Brown, P.A. 



134 A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 

He was afterwards bound apprentice to Mr. Bayles, and, on the com- 
pletion of his indentures, he proceeded to London to pursue his 
studies. 

During his residence in London he was at one time assistant to 
the popular surgeon, Robert Perreau, who lived in Golden Square, 
enjoyed a large practice, and occupied a good position in society, but 
who in January, 1776, was hanged with his brother, having been 
convicted on a charge of forgery of which he was probably innocent. 2 

But some time before this happened Dr. Brown had established 
himself in practice at Carmarthen in South "Wales. Here he brought 
his bride in 1772, and here his children were born. 

The bride was Mary, daughter of George Huthwaite, 3 of Gateshead, 
by his wife Isabel Smith, of Whickham. It was not known where 
they were married (and some trouble was caused thereby) until quite 
recently an entry was noticed in his diary for 1798 stating that he 
had visited Kingston-upon-Thames for the first time since his mar- 
riage twenty-six years ago. A reference to the register there showed 
that the marriage had taken place in that town, near which the bride's 
uncle, William Huthwaite, a London merchant, had a country house. 
He is described as ' of Carmarthen, M.D.' 

About the year 1787 he appears to have taken his family to 
Berlin, where he continued to reside until 1806. "We do not know 
what it was that induced him to go abroad. We believe that at first 
he held some subordinate post in the royal household, but afterwards 
he was promoted to be chief physician, and at the same time that he 
held the court appointment he was engaged in a considerable private 
practice. One of his early patients was the duchess of Courland, wife 
of Peter, the last duke of the Biron-Sagan line. Mrs. Brown, in one 
of her letters, says that the duchess ' has been very genteel to the 
doctor for his attending her. She gave him a gold box with his 

a The popular opinion at the time was that although he had presented the 
document with the forged signature he was not aware that it was not genuine, 
and that both he and his brother were the dupes of Mrs. Rudd. his brother's 
housekeeper. See Annual Register, 1775, pp. 222-233 ; Gent.'s Mag. vol. xlv. 
pp. 148, 278, 603, vol. xlvi. pp. 23-44 ; Chronicles of Newgate, chap. xii. p. 310 
(1884 edition) ; Wheatley's London, Past and Present, vol. 2, p. 122. All quoted 
or referred to in Notes and Queries, 8th S. March 20, 1897, p. 232. 

s Mr. George Huthwaite was at this time dead, but Mrs. Huthwaite survived 
until 1799, when she died at Gateshead, aged 88 years. 



A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 135 

name set in diamonds, and the words " a gift of friendship " and a 
hundred touis d'or.' The babe (born 21st August, 1793) was 
Dorothy, afterwards wife (1809) of Edmond due de Talleyrand- 
Perigord, nephew of the famous Talleyrand, over whose household she 
presided and did the honours when he came to London as ambassador 
from the king of the French. 

Dr. Brown's introduction to his prominent position at the court is 
said to have been due to his skill in vaccination. 

He has been a lucky fellow this Dr. Brown. Some 12 or 13 years ago he held 
a subordinate appointment as one of the medical advisers of the royal family, 
when he was called upon to perform the operation of inoculating the Prince 
Royal with cowpox. He succeeded perfectly, and the king was so well satisfied 
that when the prince recovered, his majesty not only thanked Dr. Brown in the 
most gracious and condescending manner, but wrote him a very handsome letter 
and requested his acceptance of 2,000 louis of this country, about 1,500 
sterling, added a hundred a year to his salary, appointed him sole physician to 
the king and his court, and gave him the title of privy councillor, with the 
promise of a house as soon as it could be built and got ready for him. His 
majesty could hardly have shown more gratitude and generosity had Jenner 
himself performed the operation. I believe he intended by it to show also his 
sense of the value of Jenner's discovery, and to encourage his subjects to avail 
themselves of it. Dr. Brown has of course since become eminent, influential, 
and rich. 4 

In Mrs. Brown's next letter, dated April 28, 1795, Dr. Brown's 
new house at Charlottenburg is mentioned as finished but not yet 
quite fit for occupation. Evidently the court physician was required 
to move from town to country and back again with the court. 

On Saturday, when the doctor was with our good queen, she made some 
enquiry when we went to Charlottenburg. He answered it was not yet 
furnished. She immediately begged to take the liberty of sending paper and 
curtains, which in the afternoon she sent. But such a royal present ! I was 
astonished at 130 yards of beautiful, rich yellow India damask, with 200 yards 
of rich striped and figured silk for furniture for two rooms, and superb India 
paper of a yellow ground to fit up two apartments. It is all a great deal 
too elegant for us, but we shall be obliged to put it up, as her majesty says she 
shall certainly visit us. 

In the letter of October, 1793, already quoted, Mrs. Brown 
mentions the approaching marriage of the crown prince Frederick 
William and his brother Ludvig. The brides were two sisters, 
daughters of prince Charles grand duke of Mecklenberg-Strelitz. 

4 Diaries and Letters of Sir George Jackson, vol. i. p. 113. 



136 A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 

Thus they were nieces of the English queen, Charlotte, and cousins of 
the bridegrooms. The sister whom the crown prince married was the 
amiable Louisa, whose memory is even yet dear to the Prussians, and 
who held Dr. Brown in very high esteem as a physician and also as a 
friend. In October, 1795, Mrs. Brown writes : ' Our amiable princess 
requires his constant attendance. . . . The doctor has at present the 
two princesses upon his hands, as her sister, princess Loui, was like- 
wise brought to bed of a prince.' ... In November, 1797, on the 
death of his father, the crown prince succeeded to the throne, and 
soon after this event queen Louise addressed a warm letter, which is 
without date except the endorsement, ' Billet de la Heine, ce 24 
Janvier, 1798, a 1 h,' to Dr. Brown, of which the following is a 

translation : 

\ 

According to my promise, my dear Mr. Brown, I write to you to inform you 
of everything that has happened to us since we have met. Mr. Sell had been 
called in before I was up, and he having arrived this very moment, has found 
the invalid as well as possible, but he is really undecided whether it is 'cenopon' 
or the measles. I feel it my duty to inform you, as I am accustomed to see you 
and to look upon you as my friend. At the same time I look upon it as 
unnecessary to say to you, my dear Mr. Brown, that the reason why another 
doctor was called in was not any want of confidence in you ; but my consort 
has given way to the urgent requests of those who surrounded him. So kings 
have less of their own way than royal princes. If you will come at 7 o'clock 
you will find Sell here according to appointment. I am your friend, 

LOUISE. 

Show this letter to no one. 

On November 17, 1796, the empress Catherine II. of Russia died, 
and I have been informed by the doctor's grandson, the rev. J. C. 
Keate, that he was summoned to attend her sometime before her 
death. Her granddaughter, the princess Helene, second daughter of 
Paul, emperor of Kussia, and wife of the crown prince Ludwig 
Frederick of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1803 was seriously ill, and, 
at the urgent request of the king and queen. Dr. Brown proceeded to 
Ludwigslust to consult with the local physicians and with those from 
St. Petersburg as to the possibility of her being able to make a voyage 
to her old home and to her relations. This visit led to a very 
interesting correspondence between the queen and Dr. Brown, which 
has recently excited some attention on appearing in a German peri- 
odical, Vom Pels zum Meer. At the request of queen Victoria and 



Arch. Acl., vol. xix. , to face p. 133. 



Plate Ila. 




SIR CHARLES BROWN, M.D. 
KNIGHT OF THE RED EAGLE OF PRUSSIA. 

' Charles Brown. M.D. (of the County of Northumberland), Member of the Royal Colleges 
of Physicians of London, St. Petersburg, and Berlin ; I'rivy Counsellor and First Physician 
to His Majesty the King of Prussia.' (MS. note in Dr. Brown's handwriting.) 



(From a photograph by the Rev. G. Pybus, of a miniature in the possession of the 
Rev. E. H. Adamson.) 



A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 137 

of the empress Frederick the original letters of queen Louise were 
sent to Osborne for their majesties' inspection, and lady Biddulph 
wrote expressing the interest which they took in the letters. 

The queen Louise writes, in the first instance, without date : 

The king charges me to tell you, my good Mr. Brown, that he desires you to 
betake yourself, with all expedition, to Ludwigslust. The princess (thank God) is 
better ; that is to say, the improvement continues, and one hopes that she will 
be able to undertake a sea voyage. I lay before you a letter of his majesty, from 
which you will see that the emperor Alexander I. and the dowager empress 
Maria have consulted their physicians, who believe that it will do her good; 
but she will not undertake it without consulting with you and Bockler, and the 
empress has especially mentioned you. Do not, therefore, delay to set out, and 
give me news of the interesting angel immediately upon your arrival, that I may 
be able continually to address my prayers to the Most High. A good journey, 
my dear Mr. Brown. If you find the Princess in a condition to make the 
voyage, have the goodness to hand her this letter ; if not, bring it back to me. 
Give her my tenderest greetings. LOUISE. 

Dr. Brown made three visits to Ludwigslust during 1803, and the 
experienced eye of the physician was not deceived as to the real nature 
of the sickness which he had been sent to combat. He clearly 
expressed his opinion that the poor princess would never recover nor 
be in a position to leave this dreadful place. The journey of Helene 
to Petersburg to her mother and brothers and sisters was altogether 
impossible. ' A journey to the south of France or Italy, of which 
mention was made on the 30th July, was not less impossible. The 
companion of the princess, Fraulein Simms, agreed with the view of 
the doctor, that the sickness would take a worse turn. On 7th August 
Dr. Brown returned to Berlin, but already, on the 15th, he had to 
return to Ludwigslust at the wish of the royal pair. The journey, 
owing to the bad carriages of the crown prince and the wretched 
horses which the rascal of a postmaster gave him, took two whole 
days, one to Ferbeld and one to the castle itself. On the 23rd the 
royal Prussian pair arrived at Ludwigslust, and stayed until the 25th. 
Dr. Brown mentions three visits by them to the poor princess, who 
was treated in the most loving way, and so at least had two happy 
days before the fearful illness carried her away. The journey to 
Kussia was again mooted, and couriers went constantly backwards 
and forwards between Petersburg and Ludwigslust. On the 18th 
September the princess went for her last drive, for which, as usual, 



138 A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 

Brown lifted her into the carriage. She became so weak on the way 
that the doctor would not have been surprised had she died there and 
then. Since the 4th September he had been of the opinion that she 
could not last very long. The night from the 22nd to the 23rd Dr. 
Brown was obliged to stay with her. On Saturday, 24th, the death 
struggle began. ' I passed a dreadful evening, and the whole sorrow- 
ful scene of the day became impressed upon me through the curiosity 
of all the horrible people who belonged to the court, and who made 
the occurrence into a spectacle. Exactly at 9*30 the sorrowful life 
was ended, and the poor patient one was released from her pain.' 

In November, 1805, Dr. Brown received a very flattering letter 
from the king offering him the highest medical appointment in the 
Prussian army. He says: ' I must naturally make a point of having a 
chief surgeon whose known skill and long experience as a practising 
physician promise real assistance and who also possesses my personal 
confidence. These requirements are fully found in you, and, there- 
fore, I can entrust the office of first surgeon general of the army to no 
one better than yourself. . . . Your proved attachment to my person 
leads ine to believe that you, if it is possible, will gladly meet the 
wishes of your gracious king.' 

In answer, Dr. Brown expressed his gratitude to the king for 
conferring upon him so great an honour, which he did not hesitate at 
once to accept. His health was then pretty good ; he devoted it to 
the service of the king and of the army, and he awaited the king's 
further commands with the deepest respect. 

On 14th October, 1806, queen Louise wrote a letter to 'privy 
counsellor' Brown from Heiligenstadt : 'I beg .you, my dear Mr. 
Brown, immediately to depart to the army of the king. If money 
fails you, show this letter to general von Gensau or to general von 
Schulenbourg, who will provide you with everything. Go to Halle 
where you will learn whither you must betake yourself. Do me the 
service of starting as soon as possible to join the king, who has no one 
equal to you in skill about him. I embrace my children and my 
sisters. Tell them this, and add that I will see them soon. Adieu, 
LOUISE.' 

On the very date which this letter bears the double battles of Jena 
and Auerstadt were fought, and, therefore, it seems impossible that 



A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 189 

Dr. Brown should have been (as has been asserted) on the field of 
Jena ; but he seems to have been engaged in the arrangement for the 
flight of the queen, and he accompanied her until she was joined by 
the king at Kustrin. Here the final parting between the royal couple 
and their favoured physician took place. The king and queen were 
lodged at the Golden Star. There were only ten or twelve at dinner, 
the fare was very humble, and the wine very bad. Officers were 
coming in all dinner-time with reports of the surrender of fortresses. 
There was a cover set next the doctor for Hangwitz, the Prussian 
envoy to Napoleon, but he did not put in an appearance. Poor Buch, 
the chamberlain, was in tears, expecting they would all be made 
prisoners then and there. The doctor was much affected at the 
change of circumstances which had overtaken his royal patients, who 
in their turn were very civil and kind to him, and warmly thanked 
him for this last proof of his attachment to them. After coffee Dr. 
Brown got his passport and dispatches and set out on his way to 
England. 

Dr. Brown's house in Berlin seems to have been the rendezvous of 
all the English either residing in or visiting that city, most of whom 
were, of course, connected with the embassy. Amongst the visitors 
mentioned in Mrs. Brown's letters and elsewhere were prince 
Augustus of England (afterwards duke of Sussex) (December, 1798), 
Lord Talbot, Lord Spencer, Mr. Harris (afterwards Earl of Malmes- 
bury), as well as the minister of the United States of America, Mr. 
Adams and his wife. At a later date Lord Carysfort and Lord Elgin 
are mentioned. His chief personal friend in Berlin was Mr. Eichards, 
a banker. 

Dr. Brown visited England from time to time. In 1798 he appears 
to have been a guest at Oatlands, 5 the residence of H.R.H. the duke 
of York, who gave his son "William a commission in the 13th 
regiment of light dragoons, with leave to prosecute his studies in 
Prussia for a year. On another occasion, in 1805, he had audience 
of the queen at Weymouth, accidentally meeting there his wife's 
cousin, Capt. John Huthwaite, of the 31st foot. His chief friend in 
England was Dr. Goodall, provost of Eton, at whose house he often 
stayed. 

s This is the house now owned and occupied by Mr. Alexander S. Stevenson, 
one of the vice-presidents of the society. 



140 A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN. 

Some time after his final return to England, Dr. Brown bought an 
estate at Clenchwarton, near King's Lynn, in Norfolk, where he lost 
much money in an attempt to reclaim fen land, or in some such 
operations. Besides the son William already mentioned, he had three 
daughters, Margaretta, whom queen Louise requested to undertake 
the instruction of the royal children, a duty declined for some now 
unknown reason ; Isabella, who died unmarried at Berlin, March 24, 
1801 ; and Frances, who married the rev. John Keate, D.D., head 
master of Eton, canon of Windsor, and rector of Hartley Wespall. 
Margaretta and Frances both died at Hartley Wespall, and were 
buried there. Major William Brown died in 1812, the same year in 
which his mother died. Dr. Brown himself died May 11, 1827, at 
Clenchwarton. He left behind him a long series of diaries, which 
show that he was a shrewd observer and a good friend as well as a 
good hater. He was an affectionate husband and father. It has been 
stated that Dr. Brown was made a baronet by the prince regent, but 
it seems more likely that his foreign title was recognized, and that 
thus he became 'Sir' Charles Brown. 

The voluminous diaries and the other memorials of Dr. Brown 
have passed through his daughter (Mrs. Keate) and his grandson (the 
rev. J. C. Keate) to their present owner, Mr. Durnford, a great 
grandson. 6 The writer, who is the grandson of Mrs. Brown's cousin, 
Mr. Samuel Huthwaite, possesses a miniature of the doctor and a very 
handsome enamelled snuff box (no doubt one of many similar gifts of 
friendship and esteem from his royal patients) given by him to 
Mr. Samuel Huthwaite in acknowledgment of his friendly offices in 
looking after some business for the doctor during the latter's residence 
in Berlin. The letters quoted above were written by Mrs. Brown to 
my grandmother, Mrs. S. Huthwaite, and are also in the writer's 
possession. 



6 This gentleman kindly furnished a copy of the German periodical in which 
the letters of queen Louise appeared. 



A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN : APPENDIX. 141 



APPENDIX. 

Copy of letter from'Mr. Loggan, with will of the late Mrs. Brown. 

Shieldfield, July 2nd, 1832. 

Dear Sir, Inclosed is a copy of Mrs. Brown's will, the lady whose son 
married your aunt [i.e., mother's cousin]. 

It was never proved, the little remaining after discharging the funeral 
expences would be of course disposed of as pointed out, but I think from 
memory (for she died, I think, about 1785, when I was a child) I have heard my 
mother say there was hardly enough to pay the expences, for she had literally 
subsisted by selling her furniture, &c., for some years before her death. She 
once possessed a comfortable annuity, which she sold piece meal and gave her 
son the produce. 

Her maiden name, or rather real name, was Cleghorn j her family respectable 
and once opulent in Edinburgh. I think they were distillers and brewers. 

It was always understood that Charles Stuart was the father of Dr. Brown. 
She (Mrs. Brown) had been extremely beautiful. She was, I have heard my 
mother say, one of the most amiable and ladylike women she ever knew. Some 
slight inaccuracies in her will do not, in my opinion, at all take from my 
mother's estimate of her. The ladies were not so welJ educated as to book 
learning 100 years ago as they are now. 

Dr. Brown was, I have heard my mother say, born in 1746, in the Highlands, 
much about the time of the battle of Culloden, but after that event. 

He was quite an infant when Mrs. Brown came to Newcastle to reside. 

My grandfather's acquaintance with her arose from his having been sent for 
to attend her, then ill, at the inn she had taken up her temporary residence at. 
This would be, I believe, about the year 1747 or 1748. Their friendship 
continued until her death (nearly 40 years after). Dr. Brown served an 
apprenticeship of 7 years to my grandfather, as a surgeon. He then went to 
London, and was actually for some time assistant to the unfortunate Robert 
Perreau, who then kept a carriage and moved in high sphere as to practice and 
society. 

Dr. Brown, I am almost certain, was made a baronet about the year 1811. 
He had been chief physician and privy counsellor to the king of Prussia, and 
was on the field of battle of Jena when that king was entirely defeated by 
Napoleon. 

My mother always spoke of Dr. Brown as a man of the highest talent, 
touchy and fiery as to matters of honour, and punctilious as could be imagined. 

In compliance with my promise, I have given you all the particulars I can 
collect or remember. I regret they are so few. I am, my dear sir, yours 
faithfully, T. LOGGAN. 

John Adamson, Esq. 

[Copy of Mrs. Brown's will.] 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, May 20. 

I, Margaret Brown, having given to my son Charles Brown, physician in 
Carmarthen, South Wales, all my capital, and now nothing remaining but my 
furniture and linen, and after disposing of few things to some of my best friends, 

VOL. xix. 19 



142 A MEMOIR OF SIR CHARLES BROWN : APPENDIX. 

after paying my debts . (if I should leave any) and my funeral charges, then 
whatever remains of furniture, linen, or if any money be in my possession at my 
death, all shall go to my son Charles Brown. To my good friend Mr. Bayles 1 
leave my checked dining room carpet with the border belonging to it, a promise 
I long ago made him, he having the best right to it as he collected most of the 
materials that made it. I desire also that Mr. Bayles may have a present of five 
guineas for the trouble he may likely take at my death, but I can never repay 
the trouble his friendship has prompted him to take for both my son and me. 
After all is discharged as I have ordered, whatever remains then my son may 
have it in his choice either to have sent him or sold here. And I give Mrs. 
Huthwaite power to act in these matters as she and my son pleases. As I have 
little to leave I need not mind the form of a will, and will only mention the few 
trifles to be returned which I got as presents and some very small remembrances 
from me to friends. But to make more secure, I shall seal and sign it before 
witnesses. I do hereby appoint Mr. Nath. Bayles my sole executor of this. I may 
call my last will and testament, and do hereby subscribe my name. 

w ., ( DEBORAH ALLEN. MARGARET BROWN. 

( JOHN BOWES. 



A rcli. Ael. lix. to face p. 143. 



Plate III. 




THE LATE JOHN CROSSE BROOKS 
A VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 



XIII. THE LATE JOHN CROSSE BROOKS, 

A VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 

By SHEEITON HOLMES, hon. treasurer. 
[Read on the 28th April, 1897.] 

The subject of this memoir, the late Mr. John Crosse Brooks, was 
born at Chatham on the 30th of May, in the year 1812, where his 
father held an appointment under government in the naval yard of 
that place. Mr. Brooks was the second son of a family of six, which 
consisted of four boys and two girls. 

In 1822, when ten years of age, he was sent to be educated at the 
Bowes hall school, near Greta Bridge, Yorkshire, on the line of the 
Roman way leading over Stainmoor into Westmorland. The school 
was kept by a Mr. Clarkson, a rival school at the place having for its 
proprietor a Mr. Shaw, who, unfortunately for his reputation and wel- 
fare, became identified with the monster depicted by Charles Dickens 
under the name of Squeers in his novel Nicholas Nickleby. In his 
scathing description of the treatment and education at these York- 
shire schools, Dickens must have drawn largely upon his very fertile 
imagination, for, in a communication to the local press in 1886, 1 Mr. 
Brooks speaks in a very kindly manner of his old master, Clarkson, 
and says that harsh treatment in the school was certainly not the rule, 
though in a ' theme ' which he afterwards wrote when he had been 
removed to a school at Chatham, occurs this passage : 

The house in which I was to become a pupil was called Bowes hall. It was 
large, and exhibited a noble appearance ; but as to its inside comforts I must 
remain silent. 

The dieting and accommodation at these schools could not have 
been upon a luxurious scale, seeing that a remuneration of twenty 
guineas a year covered board, education, clothing, and all other 
necessaries, and there were no holidays unless at the express desire of 
the parents. Few, indeed, of the poor boys seem to have had parents 
or anyone who cared for them. The letters which arrived at the Hall 

1 Newcastle Weekly Courant for 24th and 31st December, 1886. 



144 OBITUARY NOTICE OF 

school were chiefly for the Chatham youth, and these kind remem- 
brances from mother and sisters were handed about and eagerly 
devoured by the poor little friendless boys who got no such things. 

His school life at Bowes was brought to a summary close within a 
year of his entering, for, on his visiting friends in Newcastle, his body 
was found to be covered with scars and unhealed sores produced by 
the excessive punishments he had received. But this again he 
palliates, for he writes that corporal punishment was the exception in 
the school, and that he had never been so punished until a merciful 
head usher had been superseded by one of an opposite tendency when 
the treatment became brutal in the extreme. 2 

After his removal from the Bowes school he was sent to one at 
Chatham kept by a Mr. Giles, and it was by contact with him whilst 
at this school that the attention of the future novelist was first 
directed to the question of Yorkshire education. Dickens had just 
previously been educated at the Chatham school, and paid occasional 
visits to his old friends, selecting Brooks for a chatting companion 
in country walks, who, doubtless, instilled into his companion's mind 
the kind of life experienced at his former school. Of these interviews 
Mr. Brooks writes : 

On two occasions when he was a visitor at school, and the boys went into the 
country on an excursion, he selected me as a companion to walk with. Dp to 
that time he had never heard of education in Yorkshire schools, and as every- 
thing was then fresh in my memory, and he took great pleasure in hearing what 
I had to relate, it was no great wonder that after the first day we were together 
that he took me for his companion on the second. 

After the completion of his education at Chatham in 1830 he 
again journeyed northwards, but this time to the banks of the Tyne, 
where he occupied the double office of clerk and draughtsman in the 
timber-ship building yard of Mr. Win. Rea at Walker, then situated 
upon the banks of a delightfully smokeless stream meandering 
amongst its sand spits, the banks being adorned by villas nestling in 
foliage, and having broad stretches of waving corn fields beyond. 

But this condition of things had soon to give place to a manu- 
facture of a different kind, for iron began to assert its superiority over 
timber as a building material for ships, and the yard came into 
possession of Mr. Coutts, an Aberdonian, whose whole staff consisted 

2 Communication to the local press in 1886. * Local press, 1886. 



JOHN CEOSSE BROOKS, V.P. 145 

of Mr. Brooks as book-keeper, the late Mr. Charles Mitchell as 
draughtsman, loftman, and engineer, and the late Mr. William Swan 
of Walker as assistant clerk. 4 The first vessel launched was the 
'Prince Albert,' which was followed by the 'Q.E.D.,' the first screw 
collier designed to convey the coal of our northern river to the 
metropolis. Of this vessel Mr. Brooks became part owner, and in 
the year 1844 she performed her first voyage to the Thames, though 
from various causes her success was not great. The engine (built by 
Messrs. Hawthorn & Co.) was only a supplementary power to the 
canvas, and the speed of the vessel when driven by it alone did not 
exceed four to four and a half miles an hour. A careless outlook 
threw them hard aground on the Gunfleet sand off Harwich, where 
the crew had to jettison part of the cargo and wait until the following 
day's tide lifted them off. 

We next find Mr. Brooks part owner and manager of a number of 
sailing vessels, which traded chiefly to the Seine, Havre, Rouen, etc., 
to which places he necessarily paid frequent visits ; and in later life, 
when he had retired from more active duties, he became largely 
interested in steam shipping. For very many years he resided at the 
quiet village of Wallsend, but in 1882 he purchased the house No. 14, 
Lovaine place, Newcastle, to which he removed, and where he died on 
the 13th of March, 1897, at the ripe age of 85. Mr. Brooks remained 
a bachelor through life. 

It remains to speak of Mr. Brooks as an antiquary. From early 
youth he had been a collector, and the taste was strengthened on 
receiving from an uncle a collection of autographs made by him. 
This, during the course of a long life, Mr Brooks added to as oppor- 
tunity served, until it gained very considerable dimensions; and a 
few years before he died he presented this valuable collection to our 
society. 

But he was also a collector of various other objects. Coins and 
tradesmen's tokens occupied his attention, as also did pictures, old 
and quaint engravings, and works of art of various kinds ; and his 
house became a repository of things in general. 

Respecting his collection of coins, etc., Mr. Wm. Norman (himself 

4 The yard now forms a portion of the premises occupied by Messrs. Wigham 
Richardson & Co. 



146 JOHN CR08SE BROOKS, V.P. 

a well-known numismatist, who was well acquainted with Mr. Brooks' 
collection) has kindly furnished the following particulars respecting 
it: 

When I became acquainted with him in 1880 he was very anxious to 
complete a collection of the tokens of the eighteenth century as engraved in 
Pye's work published in 1787, and in this he continued some years, and 
eventually succeeded, with one or two exceptions, in accomplishing. 

In the British regal coinage he always manifested interest, and amongst his 
choicest treasures might be named some five siege pieces of Charles I. He also 
became interested in our colonial currencies, and the coins and tokens of Canada 
were thoroughly investigated in conjunction with Mr. Nelson. 

But medals of eminent persons most certainly commanded his profound 
admiration, and in this he did not confine his attention to those of this country ; 
talent, genius, and eminence of character having always a great charm for him 
in any age or clime. To the Greek and Roman coinage he appeared never to 
attach much importance, and of late years autographs appear to have absorbed 
most of his time, and numismatics thus became almost, if not entirely, neglected. 

He became a member of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle 
on March 7th, 1866, and was elected a vice-president of the society on 
the 22nd February, 1890. 

He was an intelligent and kindly companion, and a good friend 
where friendship was deserved. Exact and punctilious in all his 
dealings, methodical and neat in all which concerned him, and devoted 
to a quiet, uneventful life, he cared little for the bustle of political or 
municipal matters. 



147 



XIV. THE BBOENICAS AND THE DERAS. 

By CADWALLADER J. BATES. 
[Read on the 31st March, 1897.] 

The question of the exact limits of the northern and the southern 
kingdoms or provinces of the ancient Northumberland is one of those 
complications in regard to which nearly all the so-called authorities 
may be said to be equally right or equally wrong, according to the 
point of view chosen. 

To begin with, we are probably all of us wrong (I plead guilty, most 
guilty, myself) in using the terms Bernicia and Deira at all, and still 
more wrong, if it be possible, in employing those of ' Bernicians ' and 
' Deirans.' The idea that there were two British states previous to 
the English conquest called Deifyr and Berneich seems to have arisen 
partly from a late Celtic mistranslation, and partly from a confusion 
with the states of Brecknock and Dyfed, in South Wales. 1 Neither the 
Venerable Bede, nor Eddi the biographer of St. Wilfrid, knows aught 
of a Bernicia or a Deira. With St. Bede the uniform expressions are 
' the kingdom (or the province) of the Bernicii ' and ' the kingdom 
(or the province) of the Deiri ' ; so, too, Egfrid and Alfrid are by 
Eddi styled kings, not of Bernicia and Deira, but of the Deiri and the 
Bernicii. 

It is certain that the name ' Deira ' cannot have been current in 
St. Bede's time, otherwise he surely would have used it to give greater 
point to St. Gregory's prophetic pun in the beautiful story of the 
English boys in the Roman slave mart. ' What is the name of the pro- 

1 The gloss in the Hutoria Nennii, cap. Ixvi. ' Ida . . . junxit arcem, id est, 
Dinguerin et Gurbirneth : quae duae regiones fuerunt in una regione, id est 
Deur a Berneth, Auglice Deira et Bernicia' (M.H.B. p. 74), is both corrupt and 
comparatively modern. It confuses the building of Bamburgh with the consolida- 
tion of the three separate states, ' Dynguayrdi, Guuerth, and Berneich,' mentioned 
in a subsequent gloss {M.H.B. p. 75). In the Book of Aneurin we meet with 
passages like 'pym pymwnt . . . o wyr deivyr a brennych' ('five battalions of 
the men of Deivyr and Brennych ') in connection with the battle of Catraeth 
(Skene, The Four Ancient Boolts of Wales, ii. p. 64) ; but ' deivyr' and ' brennych' 
may refer simply to rivers and mountains, and these poems can hardly establish 
points that are against the weight of more definite historical evidence. 



148 THE BEORNIOAS AND DERAS. 

vince from which they have been carried off ?' asked the future pontiff, 
then a simple monk of his own foundation in honour of St. Andrew. 
'The inhabitants of the province are called Deiri,' was the reply. 
'And rightly Deiri,' he continued, 'since they are plucked from 
wrath and called to the mercy of Christ Deiri, de ira eruti et ad 
misericordiam Christi vacati? Now, had the name Deira been in 
existence, St. Gregory would at once have been told that the name of 
the province was Deira, without any cumbrous circumlocution, and he 
would have said that it was well called 'De-ira.' 2 Possibly the 
eventual coining of the name may be traced to this famous incident. 

We should then speak in the Latin of the kingdoms of the Bernicii 
and of the Deiri, and in English of those of the Beornicas and of the 
Deras. It is extraordinary that Professor Freeman, who would either 
have swooned or committed manslaughter if anyone had spoken in 
his presence of Chlodovech or Charles the Great as kings of France, 
should have laid down a territorial Bernicia and a territorial Deira in 
his map of Britain in 597. 3 The terms Bernicia and Deira were not in 
use, I believe, to the east of the Severn till after the Norman conquest. 
Those of ' Bernicians ' and ' Deirans ' have absolutely no contemporary 
authority, and as they merely mean * the inhabitants of the kingdoms 
of the Beornicas or the Deras,' why not say ' Beornicas ' and ' Deras ' 
at once? 4 The word 'Beornica' may have a queer look before we 
get accustomed to it ; after that it seems no more uncouth than 
' Berseker,' or ' Bernese.' 

It may be urged, and urged rightly, that we have no more early 
authority for the terms 'Northumbria' and 'the Northumbrians' than 
for those of ' Bernicia ' and ' the Bernicians.' Bede always speaks of 
the provinces, race, tribe, kingdom, etc., of the Nordanhyinbras, 

2 This becomes all the more accentuated when we find that Bede, in all proba- 
bility, altered the more simple setting of the story that he had before him in the 
old Whitby life of St. Gregory ' Tribusquoque illius nomen de qua erant proprie 
requisiuit. Et dixerunt : ' Deire.' Et ille dixit : ' De ira Dei confugientes ad 
fidem.' Plummer, Baedae Opera, ii. p. 390 ; Paul Ewald. Historische Aufsaetze 
dem Andenken an Georg Waitz geicidmet, pp. 17-54. It is, no doubt, due to 
this story that Britain is called ' Deirorum insula ' in the eleventh-century 
chronicle of the monastery of Watten, near Calais. Plummer, Baedae Opera, 
ii. pp. 23, 72 ; Pertz, xiv. 164. 

1 Norman Conquest, i. p. 35. Bede, it will be remembered, often speaks of 
'Oantia,' and would have used the expressions Deira and Bernicia had they 
existed. 

4 'Beornicum' and 'Derum' occur as datives plural in the Chronicle (Laud 
MSB. E), A.D. 678.- Earle, Two of tlie Saxon Chronicle* Parallel, p. 41. 



THE BEORNICAS AND DERAS. 149 

provincial, progenies, gens, regnum, etc., Nordanhymbrorum, never 
of Northumbria or Northumberland. ' Northumbria ' steals in as an 
adjective in Ethelwerd's chronicle 5 at the end of the eleventh century, 
and perhaps its first use by an English pen as a noun is in the entry 
relating to the year 948 in Symeon of Durham's Historia Regum. 6 
'Northumberland' makes its belated appearance in the line of 

Gaimar's lay : 

Ida rescut Northumberland. 7 

It may be doubted whether it is derived immediately from its position 
to the north of the river Humber, or indirectly through the tribal 
name as signifying ' the land of the Northanhymbras.' ' Northum- 
bria' is, of course, mere monkish Latin for 'Northumberland,' and its 
use can only serve to break the historical continuity subsisting be- 
tween the ancient kingdom and the modern, county. The noun 
' Northumbrian ' has become part and parcel of our every-day English 
vocabulary ; and though we are learning to speak of ' Bulgars,' ' Val- 
lachs,' etc., instead of 'Bulgarians,' ' Wallachians,' etc., it will be long 
before we can return to the use of ' Northanhymbra ' in ordinary 
conversation. With ' Bernician ' and ' Deiran ' it is different : those 
terms are only employed by persons with some pretensions to 
historical knowledge, and the sooner they can be supplanted the 
better. 

This is not mere pedantry. In order to understand the character 
of the English conquest of Britain, it is essential to remember that we 
are concerned with tribes and nations, and not with countries and 
districts. Ethnology, and not geography, should be our guiding 
study. During the great epoch of the VoelTcerwanderung, of which 
the English conquest supplies a subsidiary chapter, no definite physical 
boundaries are to be expected, and a search for them is misleading. 
In the Northumbrian kingdom we should understand that there were 
two English tribes : the Beornicas, who came south, and the Deras, 
who came north. Like the Gewissas (or "West Saxons), with whose 
royal house their own was most nearly connected in mythical 

5 ' Provincia quae dicitur Northamhymbra,' M.H.B. p. 504 ; cf. ' Northym- 
brias partes,' ibid. p. 619. 

6 ' (Edredus) Northumbrian! circuiens totam possedit.' Symeon of Durham, 
Rolls ed. ii. p. 94. 

7 L'Estorie des Engles, 1. 930 ; M.H.B. p. 776. 

VOL. xix. 20 



150 THE BEORNICAS AND DEE AS- 

genealogy, the Beornicas seem to have derived their name from a 
common ancestor : 

Woden. 



Waegdag. 


Baeldeg. 




Siggar. 
Swaebdaeg. 
Siggaet. 


Brand. 




1 
Beorn. 

Beornd. 


1 
Frothegar. 

Freawine. 
1 


d. 

Saefugol. 
si/ 
Kings of the DERAS. 


Waegbrand. 

Ingebrand. 
si/ 
Kings of the BEORNICAS. 


Wig. 

Gewis. 
^ 
Kings of the GEWISSAS. 



The cardinal point in the history of Ida his 'timbering' Dinguaroy 
(the future Bamburgh) is coupled in Celtic tradition with the state- 
ment that he joined Dinguaroy, Guarth, and Berneich, 9 which shows 
that the land of the Beornicas was something different from Bamburgh- 
shire, at any rate. We gather indirectly that at the time of the mission 
of St. Paulinus, Glendale, although subject to the Beornicas, in pro- 
vincia Berniciorum^ was not yet actually colonised by them. This 
explains the passage in St. Bede's account of the battle of Hefenfelth, 
that until the uplifting of St. Oswald's cross no cross or altar had 
been erected among the tribe, in tola gente Berniciorum. 11 In this 
there seems to be a careful avoidance of any territorial limits. Edwin 
extended his suzerainty, no doubt, to the Forth (though Edinburgh 
may derive its name from some later Edwin), but the Beornicas had 
remained obdurate pagans. 

8 Florence of Worcester, M.H.B. p. 631. I have seen no notice of the fact 
that many of the names of the ancestors of the Deras seem to have maritime 
associations. ' Siggaet' sounds like sea-goat, ' saefugol ' like sea-fowl, etc. 

9 ' (Ida) uncxit Dynguayrdi Guuerth Berneich.' Historia Nennii, M.H.B. 
p. 75. If this refers merely to the ' timbering ' of Bamburgh, the meaning may 
be that Dynguayrdi was the ' worth ' or palace of the Beornica kings ; if it refers 
to a union of minor states, Guuerth may be Warkworth. In either case the 
passage cannot be translated ' Anglice Deira et Bernicia,' as in cap. Ixvi. M. H. B. 
p. 74. See above, note 1. 

10 Baedae, Hist. Eccl. ii. cap. xiv. These English 'provinces' should not be 
confounded with the Eoman provinces. In lib. iii. cap. xx. for instance, Bede 
speaks of the ' provincia Gyruiorum,' and of the ' provincia Cantuariorum,' and 
no one will argue that Worcestershire and Kent formed two of the five Roman 
provinces in Britain. The position of the Roman provinces is a most complicated 
question, and the ordinary spick-and-span delineations of them in 'ancient 
atlases ' are perfectly baseless. An appeal to the apocryphal ' Richard of Ciren- 
cester,' will certainly not identify Valentia with Bede's 'province of the 
Beornicas.' 

11 The distinction is marked between ' the province ' and the gens to which it 
was subject. The gens refers to a ruling race like that of the Magyars in Hungary. 



THE BEORNICAS AND DERAS. 151 

With respect to Candida Oasa (Whitherne) the reasoning is the 
same. Like Glendale, it belonged to the province of the Beornicas^ 
but the population of the surrounding country was confessedly Pictish, 
and the stone church of St. Martin had long been in existence there. 

As to the Deras, we know that the site of Beverley was especially 
called Derawudu, the wood of the Deras ; 13 and that even after Edwin 
was firmly established in York, the chief temple of the tribal gods still 
remained at ' Grodmundingham. ' 14 

There is, to my mind, one and only one piece of real evidence as 
to the usual division between the two tribes after they finally met, 
and that is the passage in Bede which tells us that Bosa, at York, 
was bishop in the province of the Deras, while Eata, at Hexham or 
Lindisfarne, was bishop in the province of the Beornicas. 15 The posi- 
tion of the town or cathedral of Hexham proves nothing, since, except 
near their mouths, neither the Tees, nor the Tyne, nor the Aln was 
a rigid boundary, but the extent of the diocese of Hexham seems to 
prove much, especially when, during its union with that of Lindis- 
farne, it is definitely included in the province of the Beornicas. 16 

12 ' Qui locus, ad prouinciam Berniciorum pertinens, uulgo uocatur Ad Candid- 
am Casam.' Baedae, Hist. Eccl. iii. cap. iv. ; ed. Plummer, i. p. 133. 

13 ' In Dera uuda, id est in silva Derorum.' Baedae, Hist. Eccl. v. cap. ii, vi. 

14 Ibid. ii. cap. xiii. Goodmanham, near Market Weighton, is about twenty 
miles south-east of York. This points to the advance of the Deras from the south- 
east, possibly from Flamborough, where the tract, De Primo Saxonum Adventu, 
makes Ida land in the first instance. Symeon of Durham, Rolls ed. ii. p. 374. 

15 ' Substituti episcopi, qui Nordanhymbrorum genti praeessent ; Bosa, uide- 
licet, qui Derorum, et Eata qui Berniciorum prouinciam gubernaret ; hie in 
ciuitate Eburaci, ille in Hagustaldensi siue in Lindisfarnensi ecclesia cathedram 
habens episcopalem.' Baedae, Hist. Eccl. iv. cap. xii. ; ed. Plummer, i. p. 229 ; 
cf. ' man gehalgode ii biscopas . . . Bosan to Derum and Eatan to Beornicum.' 
Saxon Chronicle (E), ann. 687, ed. Earle, p. 41. 

16 Richard of Hexham states that the diocese of Hexham extended from the 
Aln to the Tees, and from Wetheral to the sea. Kaine, Hexham Priory, i. p. 20. 
That Wearmouth and Jarrow were in the diocese of Hexham is borne out by the 
fact that Bede received both deacon's and priest's orders from St. John of 
Beverley while bishop of Hexham. See Plummer. Baedae Opera, i. p. x. n. The 
consecration of the church of Edlinghara by Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, 831- 
847 (Hist. S. Cuthbert. 7, Symeon of Durham, Rolls ed. i. p. 203), may mark 
the extinction of the see of Hexham and the southern extension of that of Lindis- 
farne ; but the Coquet, not the Aln, was the old dividing-line between the north 
and south parts of the county of Northumberland, and the fact that the immense 
multitude who assisted at the building of Durham and its first cathedral came 
' a flumine Coqued usque Tesam,' points to this having been the true limit of the 
diocese of Hexham. Symeon of Durham, Rolls ed. i. p. 81. Like Eata, Egred 
probably administered the two dioceses of the Beornicas. On the southern bound- 
ary of that of Hexham he not only built the church of Gainford, on the north 



152 THE BEORNICAS AND DERAS. 

The difficulty really is as to the condition of the present county of 
Durham in early North umbrian times. Except for the religious 
settlements along the coast it appears to have been often a complete 
waste, 17 whether king Finch ruled there or not. 18 St. Cuthbert and 
his horse would have been starved to death in traversing it if he had 
not providentially found some food left by the herdsmen in their 
' shielings ' near Chester-le-Street. 19 It is not until a late period that 
the three national assemblies held, in all probability, at Finchale, 20 
point to this having been a central point, if not a common ground, 
where the Beornicas and the Deras could meet on equal terms. 

Such secondary evidences as we do possess are by no means hostile 
to St. Bede's indication of the Tees as the boundary between the 
Beornicas and the Deras. The birth of St. Oswin, if it took place at 
South Shields, affords no evidence of that place possibly the Eoman 
AKBEIA 21 and probably the British Caer Urfe 22 having been in the 
province of the Deras. Edwin must have been king at the time, and 
the acknowledged supremacy of the Deras over all Northumberland in 
his reign makes it possible that St. Oswin's father, the future king 

bank of the Tees, but the towns of Ileclif (Cliffe) and Wigeclife (Wycliffe) south 
of the river. He also built the town of Billingham, in Hartness, which was soon 
afterwards taken away from the church by king Aella, in about 867. The fact 
that Aella, though he claimed the rule of all Northumberland, was mainly sup- 
ported by the Deras, points to Billingham having been in their province. This, 
however, does not affect Richard of Hexham's general statement as to the line of 
the Tees. There may have been something peculiar about Billingham, as there 
was about Cliffe and Wycliffe. I have seen a note of a much later period to the 
effect that ' Billingham in civilibns ad Eboracum spectat,' but have, unfortu- 
nately, lost the reference. 

17 ' Quicquid vero inter Tine vel Tesam flutnina exstitit, sola heremi vasti- 
tudo tune temporis f uit, et idcirco nullius ditioni servivit.' Vita Osmaldi, in 
Symeon of Durham, Rolls ed. i. p. 339. 

18 Finchale Priory, 20 Surtees Soc. Pub. w Vita 8. Cuthberti. 

20 Symeon of Durham,, Rolls ed. ii. pp. 43, 51, 50. 

a By an error similar to that which made the Danes sail from the sack of 
Lindisfarne to the Yorkshire Don, instead of to the little stream of that name at 
Jarrow, the Roman station of DAKVM at Jarrow. the Dancaster of Leland, has 
been confused with one of the same name at Doncaster. All ideas of the second 
line of defence behind the Wall have thus been vitiated. Chester-le-Street was 
clearly CONCANGII. ABBEIA, with its numerus of bargemen from the Tigris, was 
probably at the mouth of the Tyne. A bilingual inscription found at South 
Shields connects it with the far east (see Arch. Ael. x. pp. 238-243; also 
History of Northumberland, Elliot Stock, p. 41), I am inclined now to place 
hypothetically PEAESIDIVM at Piersebridge, and MORBIVM at Greta Bridge 
(but not on account of the resemblance of the names PRAKSIDIVM and Pierse- 
bridge, and MORBIVM and Mortham). There are reasons for placing DICTIVM 
on Shields Law. 

22 Leland, Collectanea, 



THE BEORNTCAS AND DERAS. 153 

Osric, may have been only, so to speak, an alien governor among a 
conquered people. On the other hand, the circumstances connected 
with St. Oswin's death point to the Tees having been the northern 
boundary of the kingdom of the Deras in his time, and to his having 
disbanded his army on reaching it instead of advancing into the 
territory of Oswi, then king of the Beornicas. 23 The trouble taken 
to transport St. Oswin's body from Gilling to the fortress-monastery 
of Tynemouth, where, as in the later cases of the burials of king Osric, 
brought from Maryport, and of Malcolm Caenmore brought from 
Alnwick, miracles might be forbidden par ordinance du roi, suggests 
that Tynemouth was well within Beornica territory. 

THE ROYAL HOUSE OP THE DEBAS. 24 

YFFE. 

! 

Ella. Elfric. 



I I I I 

Edfrid (?). Quenburg = Edwin = Ethelburg. Acha = Ethelfrid = Bebba Osric. 





suid. 


frid. 


melth. 






Ethelhun. 


Os 


, 
















Ethelryd. 




















Vscfrea. 




Hilda. Here- = Ethel- Yf 


fe. 


1 1 1 
Alcfrid. Aldfrid. Eg- 


Osth- Elfled. 


Elf- 



I I Oswin. 
Enfrid. Oswi. 
Oswald. Ebba. 



Ethelwold. 

|(?) 

Aldwulf. Osred. 

So, too, the position of St. Hilda as the heiress of the eldest line 
of the royal house of the Deras makes it unlikely that her presence was 

2S Oswin dismissed his army ' a loco, qui uocatur Uilfaraesdun, id est mons 
Uilfari, et est a uico Cataractone X ferme milibus passuum contra solstitialem 
occasum secretus.' Situated about ten of Bede's miles to the north-west of 
Catterick, Wilfaresdun must have been near Barnard Castle, although there is 
no place of a similar name in the neighbourhood. Historians are too much in 
the habit of supposing that places never change their names. War had not 
actually broken out between Oswi and Oswin, and the latter would seem to have 
sent home his troops instead of leading them across the Tees into the Beornica 
kingdom. 

24 Founded chiefly on the authorities given in Lappenberg (Thorpe's trans- 
lation, vol. i. pp. 289. 290), but corrected by Nennius, the Liber Vitae, etc., 
especially by comparison of dates of births, marriages, etc. Canon Savage's 
table, p. 50, is most useful so far as actual statements in Bede are con- 
cerned ; but it avoids most genealogical difficulties, especially those connected 
with the double marriages of Ethelfrid and Oswi. The chronology proves 
that St. Hilda's grandfather must have been an elder brother of Edwin : if his 
name was Edfrid, it will doubly account for the old mistake that made Hererie 
the grandson, instead of the nephew, of Edwin. 



154 THE BEOENICAS AND DERAS. 

desired, even by the saintly Oswin, in a kingdom to which she had a 
better hereditary title. It was not until after the battle of "Widwid- 
field had dissipated for ever her nephew Aldwulf's pretensions to the 
throne of Ella that she was permitted to settle among her own people 
at Whitby. Her recall to Northumberland and her location at South 
Shields by St. Aidan was, if it belonged to the Beornicas, as politi- 
cally wise as it was ecclesiastically advantageous. 

"With regard to later times, if the Tyne had been the stereotyped 
boundary between the two sovereign tribes we should have expected 
to hear that the Danes left Egbert to be the puppet king of the 
Beornicas, instead of which we read that he was king ' beyond the 
Tyne.' 25 The question of the creation of the Northumbrian earldom 
is not a simple one. In my small History of Northumberland I have 
pointed out that the statement of Wallingford requires to be inter- 
preted in conjunction with that of Hoveden. 26 Oswulf's earldom was 
restricted to ' beyond the Tyne,' Oslac was established at York, and 
the bishop of Chester-le-Street appears as an important factor in 
politics, so that we must look for the new earldom created for Edwulf 
Evilchild in 'the maritime parts of Deira between the Tees and 
Mirforth ' in Cleveland, the name of which first occurs about this 
time, and which extended in the direction of York as far as Birdforth. 

In all of this I may be wrong ; if so, I hope to be put right. 



3 ' Secundus Ecgbertus regnat super Northumbros ultra amnem Tynae.' 
Hist. Regum, A.D. 876, Symeon of Durham, Rolls ed. ii. p. 111. The Danish 
ravages had laid waste all the country as far north as Tynemouth, which accounts 
for this new division. 

26 History of Northumberland, Elliot Stock, pp. 98. 99. 

27 ' (Rex Eadgarus) Osulfi comitatum, quern avunculus ejus Eadredus toti 
Northimbrire sub nomine comitis prafecerat, in duos divisit comitatus. Ipso 
Osulfo jam mortuo, noluit sub nomine hrereditatis Rex earn partem terras alicui 
provenire soli, ne ad antiquam libertatem aspirantes Northimbrias, hoc est ab 
Humbria usque ad Theisam Oslach et comitis gladio eum cinxit. A Theisa vero 
usque ad Mireforth sub nomine etiam comitatus, partem videlicet maritimam 
Deirae dedit Eadulf cognomento Ewelthild. Sicque duo Regna ad duos comita- 
tus devenerunt.' Chronica Johannis Wallingford; Gale, jRerum Anglicarum 
Scriptores, iii. p. 544. ' Deinde Osulfus ad aquilonem plagam Tinas, Oslac veto 
super Eboracum et ejus fines, curas administrabat.' Chronica Rogeri de Hovea- 
den, Rolls ed. i. p. 57. On any hypothesis, the passage in Wallingford is corrupt, 
and is of very late date. 'Mireforth' is, of course, identified with the Firth of 
Forth, but Birdforth may have been confused with it. 



155 



XV. THE HOME OF ST. CUTHBERT'S BOYHOOD. 

By CADWALLADER J. BATES. 

[Read on the 28th April, 1897.] 

In treating of the place-names connected with the life of St. 
Cuthbert, in a paper read before our society in October, 1892, 1 I 
allowed myself to be carried away, with the traditional fondness of a 
mother for her last child, by the new reading of Rutlingaham that I 
had found in a thirteenth-century manuscript of the town library at 
Treves. I seize the present opportunity for recanting much that I 
then wrote in consequence, though I believe the fundamental propo- 
sition which I advanced, namely, that, so far as we have means of 
judging, St. Cuthbert was no more a Scotsman in the modern sense 
than he was in the ancient, remains not only unshaken but confirmed. 

All that we really know of the origin of the greatest of our 
Northumbrian saints is that he was brought up from the age of eight 
(which would probably be from about A.D. 640) by a widow named 
Kenswith at a village called Hrnringaham or Ruringaham? The so- 
called Irish Life purporting to give an account of his birth and child- 
hood, whatever Celtic legends from other sources may be worked up 
in it, 3 must rank on the whole with the Arabian Nights and Amadis of 
Gaul. The rev. George Phillips has most ably demonstrated its 
historical worthlessness in the pages of the Ushaw Magazine. 4 " The 
harrying of all Northumberland by Cadwalla and Penda after the 
death of Edwin in 633 may easily have left Cuthbert an orphan and 
Kenswith a widow. 

Now, where was this Hruringaham, the home of St. Cuthbert's 
boyhood ? About six miles east of Melrose there was a village 

1 Arch. Ael. vol. xvi. pp. 84, 85. 

2 Vita lAndisf. 8. Cuthberti (MS. Bibl. S. Vedasti ap. Atreb. 812), ii. s. 7 ; 
Patres Ecclesiae Anglicanae, Miscellaneous Works of the Venerable JBede, ed. by 
Dr. Giles, 1843, iv. p. 202. 

3 Some of these, especially that in which the little Xulloc forestalls Professor 
Rontgeu by detecting the red calf with a white star on its forehead while still 
in its black dam, are too quaint to have been developed ab ovo in the 14th 
century. It seems possible that the compiler may have taken these very Irish 
legends from some life of a St. Nulloc, whom he most wrongly identified with 
St. Cuthbert. 

4 Usham Magazine, June, 1892 ; see also Plummer, Baedae Opera Historica, 
ii., p. 265. 



156 THE HOME OF ST. CUTHBERT'S BOYHOOD. 

of the name of Wrangholin, generally called Wrangham in the 
muniments of Dryburgh, 6 and there is a farm called Wrangham 
situated on high ground about a mile and a half to the north- 
east of Doddington in Glendale on the way to Lindisfarne. The 
claims of the former to be Hruringaham have been advanced 
without contradiction by Scottish writers, but from a passage in the 
Venerable Bede's prose life of St. Cuthbert, it would seem to have 
been much more natural if he had entered the monastery of Lindis- 
farne from the very first instead of that of Melrose. ' He knew that 
the church of Lindisfarne possessed many saintly men from whose 
lives and lessons he might profit, but influenced by a report of the 
high character of Boisil as a monk and as a priest, he preferred to 
proceed to Melrose.' 6 This, surely, implies that Hruringaham lay 
within the sphere of Lindisfarne rather than that of Melrose. 7 ' No,' 
say the Scots, ' St. Bede was writing for the monks of Lindisfarne, 
and he merely wished to show that St. Cuthbert's noviciate at Melrose 
was no reflection on the state of their own house at the time.' Had 
this really been St. Bede's object, and had St. Cuthbert really been 
brought up at Wrangholm, what could have been easier than to say 
that he naturally entered a monastery which was close to his own 
home instead of one that was more than thirty miles away ? 

The Scots' appeal to local tradition is little happier. Local 
tradition is in any case a fungus of rapid growth, and here it is in 
conflict with negative evidence of the strongest order. Close to Wrang- 
holm, immediately under the ruined tower of Smailholm, stands the 
farm-house of Sandy Knowe, where Sir Walter Scott passed his early 
years, and where every legend and tradition of the neighbourhood was 
indelibly engrafted in his marvellous memory. 8 His romantic 
devotion to the history of St. Cuthbert is well known. Marmion is 
full of it, and in Harold the Dauntless Sir Walter confesses that it 

5 Dryburgh Chartulary, a reference kindly given by Mr. John Ferguson of 
Duns. 

6 ' Quidam Lindisfarnensem ecclesiam multos habere sanctos viros, quorum 
doctrina et exemplis instrui posset, noverat, sed fama praeventus Boisili 
sublimium virtutum monachi et sacerdotis, Mailros petere maluif Bedae, Vita 
Cuthberti, s. 6. 

7 I am glad to be supported in this view by the rev. Charles Plummer of 
Corpus College, Oxford, and the rev. H. E. Savage of South Shields. 

* Lockhart's Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott (Edinburgh 1839), 
vol. i. pp. 7, 109, 209. 



THE HOME OF ST. CUTHBERT'S BOYHOOD. 157 

gave rise to an intention that otherwise no one ever thought of 
ascribing to him. Apostrophising ' the grey towers of Durham,' he 

writes : 

There was once a time 

I view'd your battlements with such vague hope, 
As brightens life in its first dawning's prime ; 
Not that e'en then came within fancy's scope 
A vision vain of mitre, throne, or cope ; 
Yet, gazing on the venerable hall, 
Her flattering dreams would in perspective ope 
Some reverend room, some prebendary's stall, 
And thus Hope me deceived as she deceiveth all. 

If there had been any shred of ancient tradition respecting the boy- 
hood of St. Cuthbert current near Smailholm in the seventies of the 
eighteenth century, in all human probability Sir Walter must have 
heard of it, and must have alluded to it in some one of his numerous 
writings. 

The fantastic ' traditions ' of St. Outhbert's childhood alleged to 
have been extant in Lothian in the fifteenth century are, indeed, 
concerned not with Wrangholm but with Ohildekirk (Channelkirk). 9 
This was more probably the scene of his vision of the beatification of 
St. Aidan. No argument can, however, be founded on the proximity 
of "Wrangholm to Channelkirk, as St. Cuthbert was in early life a 
regular Wandergesett. 10 His earlier appearance on the bank of the Tyne 
at North Shields, interceding for the monks being swept out to sea in a 
westerly gale speaks rather for Wrangham, in Northumberland. 
Scottish writers, it should be remembered, vainly strove to place this 
scene on their own Tyne at Tyningham, 11 with the same persistency 
that they endeavour to locate Hruringaham at Wrangholm. 

' ' That place is knawen in all' Scotland, 

For nowe a kirk thar on stand, 

Childe Kirk is called commounly 

Of men that er wonand thar by.' 

Metrical Life of St. Cuthbert (Surtees Soc. 87), pp. 27, 28. The St. Meldane 
mentioned in this, as in the Irish Life, was no doubt meant for St. Modon of 
Dryburgh. 

10 If any further corroboration of the locality was required it has been given 
in canon Savage's scholarly essay on 'Abbess Hilda's First Religious House,' 
Arch. Ael. vol. six. p. 66. 

11 Mr. Joseph Robertson attributed this error to ' the inexact information given 
to Mabillon by a priest of the Scottish College at Paris, who, though a learned 
man, had the mania so common among the Scotch of claiming for his country 
both places and personages belonging to Ireland and England.' Montalembert, 
Monks of the West, ed. Gasquet, iv., p. 153n. 

VOL. xix. 21 



158 THE HOME OF ST. CUTHBERT'S BOYHOOD. 

It is curious that while Wrangholin, near Melrose, is shown on 
old maps and not on modern ones, Wrangham, near Doddington, only 
appears on the latter. This has caused doubts to be thrown on the 
antiquity of the name. The site formed part of Doddington moor, 
and, notwithstanding its marked physical character, lay for a 
long time as waste and desolate as that of Wrangholm is at 
the present time. At the end of the last century the lord of the 
manor enclosed the moor with only legal regard for the rights and 
customs of the inhabitants of Doddington, and built a farm-steading 
at Wrangham. According to local tradition, the name was due to the 
belief of the Doddington folk that the lord of the manor did ' wrang 
em.' 12 This pretty piece of popular etymology is as good evidence as 
could be desired to show that the name had existed long beyond the 
memory of man, and that its real origin had long been forgotten. 

One of the wells at Doddington is called after St. Cuthbert, and 
his name has also been given, though, it would seem, without sufficient 
authority, to a cave on the hill to the south-west of the village. 13 The 
real ' Cuddy's Cave ' which, ' according to uniform tradition, was at 
one period inhabited by the saint,' 14 was near the hamlet of Holburn, 
in a direct line between Wrangham and Lindisfarne. Raine 
acknowledged that he was mistaken in supposing this to have been St. 
Cuthbert's retreat when he first withdrew from Lindisfarne in 676, as 
Thrush Island is the spot meant. Nor is there any period except 
during his early life as a herdsman to which we can refer the tradition. 
Here it seems to fall naturally in, and we can picture him purposely 
driving his flock that way from Wrangham and passing the night in 
the cave in order to eujoy the glorious view of dawn and sunrise 
over the Holy Island of Lindisfarne. 

I have myself suggested that Bettyfield, near Smailholm, may have 
been the Redesfeld where St. Cuthbert gave some land for the settle- 
ment of certain nuns driven southwards by the Picts after the battle 
of Nechtansmere in 685. 15 I have hitherto failed to discover whether 

12 I have to express my thanks to Mr. R. G. Bolam of Berwick-on-Tweed for 
information on this point, as also to Mr. F. Grocock of Heddon-on-the-Wall. 

13 Murray's Handbook, Durham and Northumberland, 2nd ed., p. 319. 

14 Raine's St. Cuthbert, p. 21. 

18 History of Northumberland, Elliot Stock, 1895, p. 67. 



THE HOME OF ST. CUTHBERT'S BOYHOOD. 159 

Bettyfield be an ancient name or not. Even if it be verily Bedesfeld, 
this will no more prove that St. Cuthbert's early home was near 
Smailholm than St. Aidan's similar donation to St. Hilda, at South 
Shields, proves him to have been brought up at that place. 

On the whole, then, the balance of probability seems to be 
decidedly in favour of "Wrangham, near Doddington, and not Wrang- 
holm, near Melrose, being the ancient Hruringham, the home of St. 
Cuthbert's boyhood. 



160 



XVI. THE ESCAPE OF TWO FRENCH PRISONERS OF 

WAR FROM JEDBURGH IN 1813. 

By MABERLT PHILLIPS, F.S.A. 

[Read on the 28th April, 1897.] 

The year 1813 was locally noted for two interesting events. First, 
the formation of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; 
and second, the trial of some Northumbrians for aiding and abetting 
French prisoners of war to escape. 

The purport of the society was declared to be ' inquiry into 
antiquities in general, but especially into those of the north of 
England and of the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and 
Durham in particular.' Its continuance and development affords me 
the opportunity of bringing the subject of the French prisoners before 
you to-night, and it is interesting to think that this society has now 
attained such an age that events which occurred during the year of 
its birth may be considered to come under the head of ' antiquities in 
general.' 

The subject of the confinement of French prisoners of war in this 
country during the unhappy strife with France from 1756 to 1763, 
and again from 1793 to 1815, I am under promise to treat of in a 
general way in another publication, and to-night only propose to 
bring before you a short notice of two French officers, who, in 1813, 
were prisoners at Jedburgh, from whence they made their escape, 
worked their way by upper Coquetdale to Whitton by Rothbury, then 
on to Newcastle, where they remained some days, and eventually were 
conveyed on board a Swedish ship at Shields, from which port we 
trust they had a fair voyage to their native land, and did not abuse 
the assistance given them by again fighting against us. 

Subsequently sundry persons implicated in aiding the prisoners to 
elude the vigilance of the authorities were prosecuted for so doing. 
One of them retained the services of Mr. Scarlett, a celebrated 
barrister of the day. The brief that he held on that occasion has 
been lent to me by a friend, and from it much of my information is 
gained. 







BENOIT POULET AND JACQUES GIROT. 161 

It would appear that at times we had as many as twenty to thirty 
thousand French prisoners located in various parts of the country. 
In many places large prisons were erected for their accommodation, 
while in others it would seem that they were farmed out among 
private individuals with an inspecting officer to guard them in general. 
In most cases the common soldiers were kept close prisoners, while 
the officers were on parole within certain defined boundaries. At 
Jedburgh, a Mr. George Bell was the agent and commissary. From 
evidence that he has left it appears to have been the custom in that 
locality to advertise in the town and neighbourhood for persons who 
would lodge prisoners of war. When the prisoners arrived, certain 
printed papers were signed, presumably containing conditions of 
parole, and these were read to the persons who housed them. Mr. 
Bell states that two men, named Benoit Poulet and Jacques Girot, 
came into his district on July 24th, 1812. The former is described 
as between thirty and forty years of age, of fresh complexion, rather 
light hair, oval countenance, and the stouter man of the two height, 
five feet six inches or five feet six and a half inches. Girot not so 
round in the countenance, and marked with the small pox. 

Bell records that he had upwards of one hundred prisoners in his 
care and mustered the men twice a week, namely, on Tuesdays and 
Saturdays at 11 o'clock in the forenoon, that these men were present 
at the muster on June 1st when he paid them up to June 4th inclusive 
(unfortunately the amount of pay is not recorded), that he had con- 
tinued the regular musters since then, but had never seen the prisoners 
in question present. From the evidence before me there is no doubt 
that after the muster on June 1st, these two men bade adieu to Jed- 
burgh, breaking their parole and literally taking ' French leave.' They 
made their way into Coquetdale, where they had previously arranged 
with one James Hunter, who resided at Whitton, near Rothbury, to 
meet them with a conveyance. 

This is borne out by the evidence of Mr. John Ord, who states : 
' I am a farmer in Coquet Water, between Jedburgh and Alwinton, 
have known Hunter twenty years; he came to my house on the 31st 
May in a gig, betwixt four and five in the afternoon there was 
another man with him at the time. Hunter came first. There were 
two carriage carts. They staid with me an hour and a half, had a lot 
of corn and went off.' 



162 ESCAPE OF TWO FRENCH PRISONERS : 

One of our members, Mr. D. D. Dixon of Rothbury, has kindly 
sent me some notes locally gathered concerning several people named 
in the narrative. He says : 

Mr. John Ord was of Shillmoor, a large hill farm above Alwinton, about six 
miles, close on the Coquet. The Ords are still there, a most respectable and 
influential family. A Miss Ord farms Warton, and there are several families of 
Ords amongst the hills well-to-do people. 

The next evidence is gathered from Margaret Balmer, who stated 
that she lived at Whitton, that she knew Hunter well as he and his 
wife lodged with her, occupying the upper rooms of her house that 
she remembered seeing Hunter go from home one morning just before 
Stagshaw bank fair 

He took a pony with him, he said he was going to the fair, also that he was 
going up the water for two gentlemen to go to fish did not see if he took any 
fishing rods. When Hunter returned he had two strange gentlemen with him, 
one of them had on a long blue coat and pantaloons of the same colour, the 
other had a dark-coloured coat. They stayed all that night until next evening. 
They went out of the court of the premises where Hunter lived and went into a 
gig. The gentlemen were carrying a fishing rod and a creel, they went towards 
Morpeth, and I never saw them again. Hunter returned in about a week or 
nine days, but he had no gig with him. Coquet water is good to fish in, many 
gentlemen come from different parts of the country have known Hunter go 
with gentlemen a fishing at different parts of the water. 

Of this witness Mr. Dixon says : ' Several elderly folk in Roth- 
bury can remember Peggy Balmer. She lived in late years in the 
village of Rothbury and died here. She was not in the best repute, 
having had three illegitimate children one of these, Tommy Balmer, 
I can recollect nicely. He was an inveterate poacher of black game 
and salmon.' 

Robert Waller, whose evidence we have next, says : 

I keep a pot-house at Coal-rife, about five miles from Whitton, on the way 
to Newcastle. I know Hunter ; he came to my house the beginning of June, 
the day before Stagshaw bank fair. It was held the Saturday before the Whit 
Sunday. He was riding in a gig drawn by a pony ; two men were along with 
him ; the men were strangers to me ; he told me they were going to Stagshaw 
bank fair. They had two tankards of ale, which they drank together. One of 
them had a fishing creel on his back and a rod in his hand ; they stayed about 
ten minutes. They had on blue pantaloons, but I did not notice their boots or 
shoes. 

The ' pothouse ' referred to was abolished about twenty-five years 
ago. 



THEIR JOURNEY TO NEWCASTLE. 163 

James Robinson, who gives the next evidence, says that he lives 
near Belsay castle and works upon the Turnpike road that he 
remembers Hunter passing the Friday before Stagshaw bank fair. 
Two men were with him, one in the gig and the other walking at the 
side ; he had a blue coat and pantaloons. 

Ann Charlton says that her husband keeps a public-house at 
Belsay red house on the road to Newcastle. A lame man came with 
two gentlemen ; one had on a long blue coat and blue pantaloons, but 
she took no notice of the other. She wished them to go into the 
kitchen, but they wanted a room to themselves. They got some 
bread and cheese and ale and remained an hour. She asked the lame 
man what countrymen they were. He said they were two relatives of 
his, two ship-captains, and he was setting them along the road. 

Robert Wilson, the toll-gate keeper at Ponteland, says that on 
Friday, the 4th of June, between five and six in the evening, some 
persons passed in a gig through the gate, Hunter and another gentle- 
man. Four or five minutes after they passed, another gentleman 
came on foot. He saw him looking over the battlements of the bridge. 
He had a fishing-rod in his hand and looked at the water. 

About 10 o'clock at night on June 4th the party arrived in 
Newcastle and made their way to the 'Bird-in-Bush' inn, Pilgrim 
street, kept by Simon Brown, where Hunter had previously announced 
their coming to the landlord in a letter, of which the following is a 

copy : 

Whitton, 
Mr. BROWN, June, 1, 1813. 

SIR, I expect to be at your house on Thursday or Friday night with two 
gentlemen to stop a few days, and as they wish a quiet apartment by themselves 
where they can eat and sleep and be by themselves, hope you can provide and have 
a situation of that kind ready for us to go into. I cannot say positively whether 
it will be Thursday or Friday night, but likely one of them, and as they are and 
have been here upon a fishing excursion it will likely be probably ten or eleven 
o'clock before we reach your place, as they will probably fish all the forenoon 
before they come away. 

I am, Sir, yours sincerely, 

JAMES HUNTER. 

P.S. I want a stiff, short-legged horse or mare that can either ride or go in 
a gig when I come, if you know of one. J. H. 

The evidence is then given of John Storey, ostler ; Alice Gibbs, 
servant ; Mary Foster, chambermaid ; Edward Robinson, waiter all 



164 ESCAPE OF TWO FRENCH PRISONERS : 

on the staff of the 'Bird-in-Bush' (unlikely as it may appear from 
modern remembrances of that establishment). From their statements, 
and from the text of the brief, it appears that on their arrival Hunter 
told Brown, the landlord, that his two friends were Germans, that they 
had been on a fishing excursion in his neighbourhood, that they wanted 
to go home if they could find a ship sailing from Newcastle, and in 
the meantime they would stay with Brown. Upon their arrival they 
went into the general room, but asked for a private one the next day. 
After breakfast, Hunter got Brown to go on the Quay with him ; they 
met Charles Charlton, a broker, who, Brown said, was a likely man to 
know what foreign ships were in, and when they would be sailing. 
Charlton made enquiries at the Custom-house, and said that there was 
a ship ready to sail. They then went to the house resorted to by 
foreign captains ; and here Brown left them, and did not see them 
again till the afternoon. Charlton then told Brown he feared he might 
get into trouble over the matter, as he suspected they were French- 
men. Brown said, if that were so, he would get rid of them at once. 
Charlton pretended to go and consult his law-books, and came back 
and told Brown there was no fear, as he, being the keeper of a public- 
house, had no right to question his customers. 

The strangers therefore remained with Brown at the ' Bird-in-Bush * 
until Saturday, June 12th ; but on that day his waiter, Edward 
Robertson, told him he believed the police-officers were seeking Hunter. 
The waiter was at once despatched to find Hunter, and tell him he 
must not come back to the house ; Hunter therefore went to the 
waiter's rooms in Silver street, and subsequently the waiter's wife 
arranged for all the party to be accommodated in the same house, 

Hunter, Charlton, and the waiter got the Frenchmen from the 
' Bird-in-Bush ' the same evening. The waiter's wife, it is understood, 
led them out one at a time. Brown was not present when they left 
his house, but on Sunday morning he went with one Michael Robson 
to Silver Street to try and get payment of his account for the keep of 
the horse. A quarrel ensued, but early payment was promised. About 
twelve o'clock on the same day a Mr. Thompson, a merchant in New- 
castle, and another gentleman, called at Brown's house and asked to 
see the foreigners, as he had brought a captain to see about their 
passage. Brown said that they had left his house. The visitors 



THEY SAIL FROM SHIELDS. 165 

expressed much surprise, and could not believe it, as they were 
arranging for their passage. Brown again asserted that they had left 
him the night before, and he believed that they had gone to Sunder- 
land, as they had to go in a ship from there. They then went away. 
In about an hour Mr. Thompson came back, ordered some cold beef 
and porter, and told Brown the mayor would likely call upon him that 
night, remarking that he told Brown this out of kindness, and 
suggested that he should go with him to Mr. Thomas Brown, partner 
with the town clerk and manager for him during his absence. They 
accordingly went, when the town clerk's deputy questioned the 
landlord very closely upon every point regarding his late visitors. 
Brown stated that he believed they had gone to Sunderland (well 
knowing they were in Silver Street), but if he were in any danger on 
their account he could produce them, he was sure, by Tuesday. Mr. 
Thomas Brown said that what had happened might occur to anyone 
who kept a public house, as he had no right to question his customers. 
Brown saw nothing more of the foreigners until the 16th, when 
Charlton came about ten o'clock at night, and said the two gentlemen 
were going away that night, and he must come with him and get his 
account. He went, and did not get the money, but arranged that 
Charlton was to take it for him. Then Oharlton proposed that they 
should all go to the Carpenter's Tower. This they did, Brown walking 
arm-in-arm with Charlton, the others following. When they got there 
it was quite dark. Here they met a man named Glover, with whom 
the Frenchmen went off to Shields, where, by his aid and that of 
Eobert Topping and James Taylor,] they were placed on board a 
foreign vessel. Charlton went back with Brown to the ' Bird-in-Bush ' 
and had ale and cold beef, and remained there till two o'clock in the 
morning. When at Silver Street Charlton appears to have most 
kindly assisted the foreigners to divide the money they had (namely, 
60) into three lots. One 20 was given to Glover for the captain. 
When Brown came away the other two parcels of 20 each were on the 
table, but when the Frenchmen got to Shields they only had 20 
between them. It is surmised that Charlton appropriated the missing 
20 to his own use. 

Then came the sequel. The police authorities took up the matter 
and commenced a prosecution against all the parties concerned. 



166 ESCAPE OF TWO FRENCH PRISONERS : 

Oharlton looked up Hunter and told him that if he did not get out of 
the way he would be the means of ' putting the business out,' and 
advised him to be off or he would be ' necked,' as the officers were in 
pursuit of him and would be sure to catch him. This advice Hunter 
took by making arrangements for the ostler to meet him with his 
pony and gig opposite the grand stand on the moor. 

In a short time all the other persons implicated (Robert Nichol, 
Robert Glover, Robert Topping, Temple Taylor, and Charles Charlton) 
were arrested and charged with felony under Act 52, Geo. III., cap. 
156, which had only become law the previous year. It is entitled : 
'An Act for the more effectual punishment of persons aiding prisoners 
of war to escape from His Majesty's dominions.' The preamble says 
that so many prisoners of war confined and on parole have escaped 
that it is necessary to repress such practices, etc., etc. A copy of the 
warrant of commitment for Simon Brown, landlord of the ' Bird-in- 
Bush,' is before me. It reads : 

Town and County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
To the Keeper of the Common Gaol in the said Town and County. 

Eeceive into your Custody the Body of Simon Brown, late of the Town of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the County of the same Town, Victualler, whom I 
herewith send you, he having been apprehended and brought before me, one of 
His Majesty's Justices of Peace in and for the said Town and County of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, charged upon oath with having on the 15 day of June last, at 
the Town and County aforesaid, feloniously, knowingly, and wilfully aided and 
assisted the Alien Enemies of his Majesty, being Prisoners of War in His 
Majesty's Dominions and at large upon their Parole (that is to say) Benoit 
Poulet and Jacques Gir6t, to escape from His Majesty's Dominions contrary to 
the Form of the Statute in that Case made and provided. 

I do therefore command you to keep the said Simon Brown safely in Custody 
in the said Prison until he shall from thence be delivered by due course of Law. 

Given under my Hand and Seal the 2nd day of July, 1813. 

EGBERT CLAYTON, Mayor. 

At the time of the arrest of these prisoners, Hunter, who had 
brought the Frenchmen to Newcastle, was still at large, but prior to 
the assizes being held he was apprehended at Softlaw smithy by 
Robert Aimers, one of the constables of Kelso. He was brought to 
Newcastle and was imprisoned to await his trial with the other 
offenders. Some time prior to the day of hearing, three of the 
prisoners turned king's evidence. The Courant of August 28th 



TRIAL OF ACCOMPLICES. 167 

Charles Charlton, Robert Topham, and Temple Taylor, committed as 
accomplices with Hunter and others in aiding the escape of the French prisoners 
(and admitted to King's Evidence) were severally discharged by proclamation. 

The trial of the remaining prisoners came on for hearing on 
August 28th. It appears that the general impression was that they 
would be convicted, but from the able pleading of Mr. Scarlett, the 
counsel retained for Simon Brown, or from other causes, a verdict of 
Not Guilty was returned. The Courant of that day says : 

The trial of James Hunter occupied the whole of Monday, and the court was 
excessively crowded ; when the verdict of Not Guilty was delivered, clapping of 
hands and other noisy symptoms of applause were exhibited, much to the 
surprise of the Judge, Sir A. Chambers, who observed that he seemed to be in 
assembly of Frenchmen, rather than in an English court of justice. The other 
prisoners charged with the same offence were merely arraigned, and the verdict 
of acquittal was recorded without further trial. 

There can be no doubt that the popular feeling was greatly in 
favour of the unfortunate foreigners, who were such unwilling guests 
in our country. An extract from Wallace's History of Blyth gives 
interesting evidence of this : 

One Sunday morning in the year 1811, the inhabitants were thrown into a 
state of great excitement by the startling news that five Frenchmen had been 
taken during the night, and were lodged in the guard-house. They were officers 
who had broken their parole at Edinburgh Castle, and in making their way 
home had reached the neighbourhood of Blyth ; when discovered they were 
resting by the side of Plessy wagon-way beside the ' Shoulder of Mutton ' field. 1 

A party of countrymen who had been out drinking hearing some persons 
conversing in a strange tongue, suspected what they were, and determined to 
effect their capture. The fugitives made some resistance, but in the end were 
captured, and brought to Blyth, and given into charge of the soldiers then 
stationed in the town. This act of the countrymen met with the strongest repro- 
bation of the public, the miscarriage of the poor fellows' plan of escape through 
the meddling of their captors, excited the sympathy of the inhabitants ; rich and 
poor vieing with each other in showing kindness to the strangers. Whatever 
was likely to alleviate their hapless condition was urged upon their acceptance ; 
victuals they did not refuse, but though money was freely offered them, they 
steadily refused to accept it. The guard house was surrounded all day long by 
crowds anxious to get a glimpse of the captives. The men who took the prisoners 
were rewarded with 5 each, but doubtless it would be the most unsatisfactory 
wages they ever earned, for long after whenever they showed their faces in the 
town they had to endure the upbraiding of men, women, and children ; indeed 
it was years before public feeling about this matter passed away. 

1 This field is immediately outside of Blyth, on the west, leading to Newsham. 



168 ESCAPE OF TWO FRENCH PRISONERS : 

This strong sympathetic feeling would be strengthened by the 
remembrance of the number of Englishmen who were captives in 
French prisons. To alleviate the sufferings of their fellow-country- 
men, subscriptions were given in various parts of this country. 
Although this side of the subject hardly comes within the scope of 
my paper, I cannot refrain from giving some interesting extracts, 
kindly favoured by Canon Savage from St. Hilda's vestry book, South 
Shields, which speak well for the patriotism and generosity of the 
town : 

Collected for British Prisoners in France. B , <j. 

1807. Sept. . At church, 39 6s. 10d.; at Mr. Toshach's,135s.6d.; 
Oct. V at the Methodists, 10 10s. ; at Mr. Mathew's, 
Nov. ' 4 13s. 6d. ; and at Dr. Thorburn's, 1 11s. 6d. 69 7 4 

The Dean and Chapter of Durham 20 

From door to door 99 16 8 



189 4 
Printing, etc., etc 154 



187 18 

Eeceipt of a play, 44 2s. 6d. ; expenses, printing, etc. (the per- 
formers having play'd gratis), 5 13s. 6d 38 9 



226 7 8 

Remitted to the committee at Lloyd's to be sent with theirs to France. 
NOTE. From 140 to 150 prisoners, belonging to this chapelry. 

1805. Instead of illuminations for the glorious battle of 
Trafalgar, and the battle off Cape Ortegal, it was determined to raise 
a subscription and transmit to the patriotic fund at Lloyd's for the 
wounded, and relatives of die brave men slain, which was begun 
29th November, 1805, and amounted to 450 14s. 8d. 2 

We have records of French prisoners escaping in our own locality. 
Mr. Horatio Adamson, in his interesting paper on ' Tynemouth Castle,' 
says : ' I find that in 1745 French prisoners were confined in the 
castle, and in 1759 the Trinity House of Newcastle subscribed two 
guineas towards the relief of the French prisoners confined in the 
stronghold.' 

In October, 1811, two French prisoners, Jean Smith and Nicholas 
Kembrune, broke from the House of Correction at Tynemouth. A 

2 A printed list of the subscribers is pasted into the book. 



ANOTHER JEDBURGH PRISONER. 169 

reward of one guinea was offered for the apprehension of each prisoner 
by Robert Kobson, keeper of the House of Correction. 

In reply to an enquiry made in the Weekly Chronicle for any 
particulars regarding French prisoners in the north, a correspondent 
from Crieff who signs " W. S." sends the following amusing account: 

Jedburgh had its share of French prisoners. They were for the most part 
kindly treated, and many of them were permitted a great amount of liberty. 
One of these, an officer, was allowed on parole to walk about the town, and he 
made many friends. He had a taste for archaeology, and visited all the ruins 
within the precincts of his radius, namely, a mile from the cross. There is a 
tradition that on one of his excursions he was directed to a ruin about a quarter 
of a mile beyond his appointed mark, which happened to be a mile stone. Since 
the Fall, forbidden fruit has always tempted man, and this French gentleman 
succumbed to temptation. He asked the Provost for permission, that worthy, 
however, refused, but he quietly added, ' If Mr. Combat did walk a short dis- 
tance beyond the mile, and nobody said anything, nothing would come of it.' 

But the Frenchman had given his word of honour, and he could not break it. 
A happy thought struck him. He borrowed a barrow one afternoon, and with 
it, and the necessary implements, proceeded out to the obnoxious milestone. 
Having, as the sailors say, unshipped the milestone, he raised it on to the 
barrow, and triumphantly wheeled it to the required distance, where he fixed it, 
and hurried back to be within doors at the prescribed time. The same authority 
for the story asserts that he made many visits to the old castle he wished to see. 
For a generation the stone stood where the Frenchman placed it, no one being 
any the worse for the extra extent of this Scoth mile. 

In conclusion, a few words may be said regarding some of those 
who were indirectly interested in the case. Robert Clayton, the 
mayor, who signed Brown's committal warrant, was agent to the 
marquises of Bute and Hereford, as well as being a timber merchant 
and coal fitter. He forms one of Mr. "Welford's Men of Mark, and a 
slight sketch is given of his life. He was elected sheriff of Newcastle 
in the municipal year 1777-78, and mayor in 1804-5, 1812-13, and 
1817-18. He held for some years the office of chamber clerk to the 
corporation, and was appointed an alderman, March 3rd, 1797, on the 
death of Charles Atkinson (one of the partners in the Commercial 
Bank, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who met his tragic death by falling down 
the shaft of a coal pit). On this occasion the aldermanic gown is said 
to have been offered to several Newcastle notables, all of whom declined 
it. In a satirical song, entitled ' Gotham Corporation,' attributed to 
the caustic pen of Thomas Davidson, attorney, the difficulty and its 
removal were hit off in the following lines : 



170 ESCAPE OF TWO FRENCH PRISONERS. 

When the aldermanic gown was hawk'd about town, 

Seeking a back for to lay't on ; 
Up step'd Brother Bob, and finished the job, 

For he was dubb'd Alderman Clayton. 

Jaines Scarlett, to whose brief we are so much indebted, was one of 
the most remarkable men of his day. He was born in Jamaica, Decem- 
ber 13th, 1769. He was admitted to the Inner Temple 1785, called 
to the Bar July 28th, 1791, and graduated M.A. in 1794. He soon 
afterwards joined the Northern Circuit, though without professional 
connections. For many years he represented Peterborough in parlia- 
ment. He became attorney-general under Canning in 1827, and was 
knighted the same year. In 1835 he was created baron Abinger of 
Abinger in Surrey, where he had purchased considerable estates in the 
year in which he held the brief for Simon Brown. He was one of the 
most popular advocates of the time. One of his biographers says : 
' His tact in the management of a cause was unrivalled. Some of his 
extraordinary success as a verdict-getter was undoubtedly due to abun- 
ance of clever artifice, but much more was due to the exquisite art he 
possessed of putting the whole facts of the case before the jury in the 
clearest possible manner, and in the most efficacious way for his client 
. . . . His one object was to get a verdict, and he never showed 
any desire to produce a brilliant effect or to win cheap applause.' He 
died suddenly at Bury, April 7th, 1844, aged seventy-four years. 

Some of our legal friends may be interested to hear that the brief 
is endorsed ' Mr. Scarlett 4 guineas, retainer 1 guinea ; total 5 guineas, 
with you Mr. Raine consultation 1 guinea. (Signed) J. Scarlett.' 



Arch. Ael. vol. xix. ; to face p. 171. 



Plate Ilia. 




C. C, HODGES, PHOTO. 



THE VICAR'S PELE, CORBRIDGE. 



171 



XVII. THE VICAR'S PELE, CORBRIDGE. 

By W. H. KNOWLES, a member of the council. 

[Read on May 26th, 1897.] 

Corbridge, one of the great manors appertaining to the earldom of 
Northumberland, was a place of early importance. It was made the 
headquarters of David king of Scotland during his advance south- 
ward ; and on the assumption of the earldom by his son Henry, when 
the castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle were as yet exempted from his 
jurisdiction, it appears to have been maintained for a time as the 
capital of the earldom. Its position on Watling Street, and its prox- 
imity to Hexhamshire, gave it prominence as a frontier town, but 
rendered it at the same time particularly liable to the precarious con- 
ditions of such a site in times of warfare. 

It appears to have possessed the character of an open town, depend- 
ing for its safety upon the presence of a large defending force. With 
the withdrawal of this its history became a record of repeated devas- 
tations, both in times of serious invasion and during the chronic minor 
incursions which ensued. 

These raids were equally injurious to the church and the com- 
munity, and compelled the ecclesiastic to seek protection in a fortified 
place of abode similar to that of his neighbour. Such are the lurres 
still to be seen contiguous to the churches of Embleton, Alnham, 
Elsdon, and elsewhere. 1 

The Corbridge pele stands on the north side of the market place, 
which here forms part of the main road now connecting two portions 
of Watling Street since the disuse of the Roman bridge across, the 
Tyne at Colchester (Corstopitum). It is about fifty feet from the 
south side of the chancel of S. Andrew's church, and now intercepts 
the churchyard wall, which abuts on its east and west sides. No doubt 
the original boundary wall enclosed the pele. 2 

1 Occasionally church towers were requisitioned and afforded the necessary 
protection for the rector, as at Longhoughton in Northumberland, Burgh-on- 
Sands in Cumberland, and Bedale in Yorkshire. 

2 Mr. E. 0. Heslop has kindly lent me a survey, made by Fryer in 1776-1777, 
of which the block plan on p. 178 is a portion. On this the pele is without 
the Kirkgarth enclosure. Since 1777 the cottages to the west of the pele have 
been removed (see the basement plan"). 






/ PELE: 

CORBRIDGEI. 



RAMCH 



8CAUt 8r ffcCT 



W/1KNOHI.C. 

fee toy*. 



THE VICAR'S PELE, COKB&IDGE. 



173 



The tower is mentioned as the vicar's property in the list of 
fortalices drawn up for Henry V. in 141 5. 3 

Although there is no record of its erection, the architectural 
features clearly indicate that it was built circa 1300. It is of one 
date and well constructed, the sandstone of which it is built being laid 
in courses, which diminish in size as they ascend ; the lower courses 
are unusually large. 4 It is a very good example of the smaller pele, 
and comprised a vaulted basement and two other floors, which yet 
exhibit, in a very complete manner, the details of the interior arrange- 
ments, only the timber floor and roof and a portion of the parapet 
having suffered destruction. 

The tower is rectangular on plan, and measures on the exterior 
twenty-seven feet four inches from east to west, and twenty-one feet 
from north to south. From the ground level to the parapet walk is 
thirty feet, and to the top of the parapet five feet more. 

On the exterior the four elevations are generally alike. They are 
perfectly plain, without string or offset courses, 
and are finished with an embattled parapet, 
which is carried round the four angles of the 
tower on projecting corbels, forming machi- 
colations of equal dimensions on each side. 

The entrance doorway is on the east side, 
and at the ground level. It has an acutely 
pointed arch formed of two stones only. In 
it is an old wooden door covered on its 
outer face with an iron grate. 5 Two small 
loops are the only other features on the 
east side. On the south elevation is a loop 




DOOR. 



3 At that time John Bryg was vicar. Hunter MSS Arch. A el. xv. p. 181. 

4 Some of the large stones have cramp or lewis holes. They were doubtless 
obtained from the Roman city of Corstopitum, as were also the arch stones of 
the opening between the tower of the church and of the nave. 

5 The grate at Corbridge, which is similar in workmanship to that at Bywell 
castle (see illustration of this, Arch. Ael. xiv. 376, and Proceedings, v. 69-71), is 
not now filled with planks, but secured to the front of the wooden door. It 
comprised five vertical and nine horizontal bars, within a frame, which is shaped 
to fit the arched opening. The standards and rails now measure one and three- 
quarter inches by three-eighths of an inch, they are bound together at the inter- 
sections, alternately, with rivets and a kneed clasp welded on the back, as shown 
on the sketch, and hung on two band hinges. As the Bywell example appears 
to be of the date of the castle, i.e. fifteenth century, and that at Corbridge is 
identical in design, we may attribute both grates to the same period. 

VOL. xix. 23 



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THE VICAR'S PELE, CORBRIDGE. 175 

lighting the basement, and above it at the first floor level, a window 
with a round trefoiled head, worked in one stone. To the east 
of this window are two small openings, the lower one three inches 
square, is the sink waste water outlet, and the upper one six 
inches square, is to admit light. There are three other square- 
headed windows on this elevation, two at the first, and one at the 
second floor level. The projecting hollow moulding supporting the 
parapet, between the machicolations, is pierced in two places, and 
probably contained a spout of gargoyle form to throw off the roof 
water. The coping to the merlons and embrasures is chamfered only. 

The north elevation has a trefoil-headed window at the first floor 
level, similar to that on the south side, and above it a square-headed 
window. There is also a projection carried on corbels containing the 
smoke-flue from the first floor fireplace. 

The west elevation is pierced by a square-headed window at the 
level of the second floor and a loop at the basement. 

All the windows are chamfered on the exterior face, and rebated 
within for shutters, the crooks on which they hung remain in many 
places. The basement or ground floor was entered by the door already 
described ; it was three feet three inches wide and was secured on the 
inside by a stout bar. Opposite the entrance door, another, arched in 
two stones chamfered but not rebated, leads into the semi-circular 
barrel vault, eighteen feet nine inches by twelve feet two inches, which 
occupies the basement, and is lighted by two loops, one on the west 
and the other on the south side. The walls on the north and south 
are each four feet five inches, and on the west three feet eight inches 
in thickness. On the left of the entrance a stone stair two feet three 
inches wide, having a ceiling of large flat stones, ascends to the first 
floor in the thickness of the east wall, which here measures five feet. 
It is lighted by a small loop and finishes in the thickness of the south 
wall. 

On the first floor landing there is a stone sink and table, formed 
in the wall as shown on the plan. The sink stone is dished out on the 
top, and the outlet discharges through a small opening, above which 
is the aperture for light previously mentioned, both cut through 
stones only four inches thick. A pointed doorway, chamfered but 
not rebated, opens into an apartment nineteen feet three inches by 



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THE VICAR'S PELE, CORBRIDGE. 177 

thirteen feet four inches, lighted by three windows, one small and two 
larger with trefoil heads placed opposite each other in the north and 
south walls. They are set in large square shouldered recesses with 
side seats. In the west wall are two lockers, and in the north wall 
a moulded square-headed fireplace, four feet six inches wide, now built 
up. A small pointed door, two feet wide, leads on to a staircase, 
which rises above that below, in the thickness of the east wall. It is 
lighted by a small loop. Near to the door and at the foot of the stair 
is a latrine, the drain from which is in the thickness of the wall. 

The timbers supporting the second floor were carried by an offset 
on the south wall, and by a wall plate which rested on seven corbels, 
rounded on the under side, on the north wall. 

The upper apartment is entered by a pointed doorway, in the east 
wall, formed by oversailing the horizontal ashlar courses as shown on 
the section, and not by arch stones ; it is chamfered and rebated. 
This chamber is lighted by three windows, one on the west and two 
opposite each other in the north and south walls, each one foot wide 
by five feet nine inches high ; they have widely splayed internal 
jambs and stepped sills. In the north wall, near its west end, is a 
sloping panel set in a recess, two feet ten inches by one foot ten inches; 
it was undoubtedly intended for, and formed a very convenient book 
rest, 6 on which fell the light from the west window. This window 
and the one in the north wall enabled the occupant engaged at the 
reading desk to command a view of the church and its approaches. 

The roof timbers were supported by chamfered stone corbels, 
which yet remain on the north, south, and west sides. The pitch of 
the roof is not indicated ; it would not much exceed the height of the 
battlements. It is not apparent how the roof and parapet walls were 
gained most probably from the east end, where the masonry has 
been rebuilt. 

The parapet walls are one foot thick and stand five feet two inches 
above the level of the walk. The embrasures are two feet six inches 
wide and the jambs of the merlons have sunk holes for hanging 
shutters. At each of the four angles is a series of machicolations 

6 Stone desks, both recessed and projecting, are met with in churches ; there 
is one on the north side of the chancel at Etwall, Derbyshire, and another in 
the same position is in Paul church in Holderness. 



178 



THE VICAR'S PELB, CORBRIDGE. 



thrown out on five corbels, two on each side and one set anglewise, all 
of three projections rounded on the underside. 

Conceivably the first floor was used as the living room, a portion 
of which may have been screened off at its west end, where are the 
two lockers and the small window. The second flooor was apparently 
the private chamber, and the vaulted basement an excellent store. 

Among the large lintel stones, many grave covers may be observed. 
The fireplace dotted on the basement plan is of recent introduction. 







BLOCK FLAK OF PORTION OP COBBRIDQE (from Fryer's Map). (See Note 2, p. 171. 




QC 

D 
J 

O ~ 

s I 

UJ J 

I y. 

CO S 
UJ S 

51 

CQ S" 



179 



XVIII. A NEW ROMAN INSCRIPTION FROM CHESTERS. 1 

By F. HAVERFIELD. 
[Read on the 26th May, 1897.] 

This inscription records the provision of a water supply for the 
fort at Chesters while the Ala ii. Asturum was in garrison there, and 
Ulpius Marcellus was governor of Britain. It seems to possess two 
points of interest, both depending on Ulpius Marcellus. 

The name Ulpius Marcellus occurs several times in Roman history. 
An Ulpius Marcellus was a distinguished jurist and statesman in the 
reigns of Pius and Marcus Aurelius a period when lawyers frequently 
won high political advancement. An Ulpius Marcellus, consularis, is 
mentioned on a Benwell altar dedicated to Anociticus, 2 and now in 
the Black Gate museum {Lapid. Sept. no. 21, and pp. 24 and 25 ; 
C.I.L. vii. 504) : the inscription implies, though it does not actually 
say, that this Ulpius was governor of Britain, and appears to have 
been erected between A.D. 161 and 169. A L. Ulpius Marcellus was 
governor of Pannonia inferior, probably somewhere between circa A.D. 
105 and 180, and perhaps in the latter part of this period (C.I.L. iii. 
3307). 3 An Ulpius Marcellus a man, it would seem, of some 
eminence and ability was sent specially by Commodus to crush a 
rising in Britain, a mission which lie carried out successfully, pro- 
bably about A.D. 183-184. Lastly, a Marcellus was consul in 158. 
These personages, it will be noted, were all active about, or after, the 
middle of the second century A.D., and it is impossible not to connect 
them together. In particular, the man mentioned on the new Chesters 
inscription seems to be identical with the Ulpius Marcellus who 
governed Britain about A.D. 161-169, and with the special emissary of 
Commodus in 184 ; for Commodus, no doubt, selected for the crisis a 
man who already knew Britain. The relations of this Ulpius Marcel- 

1 The slab was found in a room to the west of the north guard chamber of the 
smaller east gate of the camp. It was turned upside down, and made use of as 
a step. Ed. 

2 See woodcut of this altar on the next page. See also Lapid. Sept. nos. 
124 and 146. 

3 The inscription is certainly later than circa A.D. 105, because it mentions 
Pannonia inferior, a division created about that date. Its dedication, Honori et 
Virtuti, rather resembles some coin legends of Pius and Aurelius, so that it would 
naturally fall within their reigns. Thirdly, the governor is mentioned as legatvs 
Avgusti pro praetore only. After about 165, the governors were consulars. 
This, however, proves very little, as governors with consular rank often describe 
themselves simply by the simple and ordinary formula. 



180 



A NEW ROMAN INSCRIPTION 



lus to the governor of Pannonia and the jurist-statesman cannot be 
determined ; the latter, however, would have been an old man, if alive 




at all, in the reign of Commodus, and the British governor may, per- 



DISCOVERED AT CHESTERS (CILURNVM). 181 

haps, be his son. It should be remembered, in making these guesses, 
that although Marcellus is a common name, and Ulpii were frequent 
in the second century, it is improbable that many Ulpii Marcelli rose 
to really high office at the same period. We might demur to identify- 
ing two or three Ulpii Marcelli who were common soldiers : we need 
not demur when they are men of the first rank. 

I conclude, then, that the new Chesters inscription was set up 
about A.D. 161-169, and I add it to the number of mural inscriptions 
which we can date to the period between Hadrian and Septimius 
Severus (A.D. 138-193). Such inscriptions are not rare. There is a 
Chesters military diploma of A.D. 146, a dated dedication to Cocidius 
at Birdoswald of about A.D. 154, a notice of repairs at Halton Chesters 
in A.D. 158, two or three fragments, probably relating to building or 
rebuilding at Chesters and Carrawburgh, and a rudely cut inscription 
from the Bankshead mile-castle all belonging to the reign of Pius 
(138-161). There is, further, the dedication to Anociticus, 4 and the 
doubtless contemporary one to Antenocifcicus from Benwell, the new 
Chesters inscription, a dedication to the Dea Syria, and one or two 
fragments from Caervoran, and a dedication ( ?) from Great Chesters 
all belonging to the reign of M. Aurelius (161-180). One sees, there- 
fore, that, notwithstanding the erection of the Antonine Wall, the line 
of Hadrian's Wall was held, and apparently held in force. Indeed, 
one finds, perhaps not without surprise, that the inscriptions which 
belong to the reigns of Pius and Aurelius are more numerous, or, at 
least, no less numerous, than those which can be assigned to the era of 
Septimius Severus. 

One further point may be noted. The new inscription gives us 
our earliest allusion to the Ala ii. Asturum at Chesters. Inscriptions 
indicate its presence there about 221 (Lapid. Sept. no. 121, C.I.L. vii. 
585 ; Ephemeris iii. p. 133), and the Notitia testifies that it was still 
there whenever the British section of that work was compiled, perhaps 
about A.D. 300. The new find enables us to date its presence back to 
about A.D. 165. In all probability both it and most of the other 
auxiliary regiments on the Wall were placed there by Hadrian, and 
remained where he had fixed them until the fourth century ; but this 
conclusion is rather conjectural, and we may welcome any fresh 
evidence, such as that provided by the new find. 

VOL. xix. 4 See woodcut on opposite page. 24 



182 



XIX. WINWEDFIELD : THE OVERTHROW OF ENGLISH 

PAGANISM. 

By CADWALLADER J. BATES. 
[Read on the 26th May. 1897.] 

On Sunday, the 15th of November, A.D. 655, 1 there was fought on 
the banks of the ' Winwaed ' one of the most important battles of 
English history. It was there that, as Freeman 2 says, the strife 
between the creeds of Christ and of Woden was finally decided. On 
Hefenfield the issue had lain between two Christian kings. However 
great its ultimate effect, the real import of the uplifting of St. Oswald's 
cross was at the moment subjective ; it was conditional recognition of 
Celtic Christianity in the Beornica camp. But on the ' Winwaed ' the 
Cross stood out in distinct antagonism to the Valhalla as it had done 
on Hatfieid and on Maserfield, only now at last it was victorious ; the 
deaths of Edwin and Oswald were avenged on their destroyer Penda, 
and the triumph of the Northumbrian Church was definitely assured. 

1 ' prope fluuium Uinuaed .... bellum rex Osuiu in regione Loidts tertio 
decimo regni sui anno, xvii a die Kalendarum Decembrium .... confecit.' 
Baedae, Hist. Eccl. lib. iii. cap. xxiv. Mr. Plummer, in the notes to his excel- 
lent edition of Bede's text, has raised what seem needless difficulties with respect 
to the chronology of Oswi's reign, etc. The rule, ' le roi est mort, vive le roi.' 
did not hold in the elective monarchy of the Beornicas. An interregnum of four 
or five months may easily have occurred between the defeat and death of St. 
Oswald, 5th August, 642, and the election of Oswi in preference to St. Oswald's 
own son, the boy Ethelwald. Indeed, it would seem to have been during this 
time that Penda made his attempt to burn Bamburgh, and it was not until a 
year after Oswald's death that his successor, ' coming down with an army,' 
recovered his head and arms ('post annum deueniens cum exercitu successor 
regni eius Osuiu '). Hist. Eccl. iii. xii. Lothian is called ' provincia Loidis ' in 
Flor. Wig. and Chron. Mailr., and Syin. of Durham speaks of the Tweed, 'qui 
Northymbriam et Loidem disterminat.' Leeds was also called ' regio quae voca- 
tur Loidis' (Baedae, Hist. Eccl. ii. 14), but as Skene remarks (Celtic Scotland, 
i. p. 254 n.), there is a slight variation between this expression and the simple 
'regio Loidis' or Lothian. Nennius (Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 76) specifically 
states that Oswi reigned twenty-eight years and six months ; this would be 
reckoning from the death of St. Oswald, according to the ideas of hereditary 
succession prevalent among the Britons. According to the plain literal inter- 
pretation of St. Bede's words, Oswi became king in February, 643-4 (see Vita 
Osmaldi, cap. xli. in Syin. of Durham, Rolls Series, i. p. 366), and after a reign 
of twenty-eight years, died on February 15th, 670-1. In his recapitulation (lib. 
v. cap. xxiv.), Bede definitely fixes the date of the battle of the Winwed as 655. 
2 Norman Conquest, i. p. 37. In the preceding sentence Freeman dogmatic- 
ally calls ' Winwedfield,' Wingfield (apparently Wingfield in Derbyshire). For 
this there is no shadow of evidence. 



THE OVERTHROW OF ENGLISH PAGANISM. 183 

In the whole annals of Christendom no one battle perhaps, except chat 
of the Milvian Bridge, has had such far-reaching consequences ; yet 
the circumstances of the campaign that led to it, nay even the very 
locality of the fight itself, have been allowed to fade from our national 
memory. 

The endless revolutions and counter-revolutions inherent in a 
monarchy half-elective by two rival tribes and half -hereditary among 
three or four rival dynasties caused all early Northumbrian writers to 
be extremely guarded in their allusions to contemporary politics. 
That which was loyalty one day became treason the next. St. Bede 
especially is most careful to keep within the strictest limits of 
ecclesiastical history. With regard to the campaign of A.D. 655 he 
only drops the hint that Ethelhere, king of the East Angles, was the 
author of the war, 3 leaving us to read the rest between the lines. Now, 
Ethelhere was the husband of St. Hilda's sister, Heresuid, and their 
son, Aldwulf, was, on pure legitimist principles, the rightful heir to the 
throne of the Deras, then occupied by St. Oswald's son, Ethelwald. 4 
In his turn Ethelwald had the best hereditary claim to the throne of 
the Beornicas, on which, in his minority, his half-uncle, the powerful 
Oswi, had been placed. 5 For Oswi, the maintenance of Ethelwald as 
king of the Deras was a politic method of keeping dormant his preten- 
sions to the allegiance of the Beornicas. Ethelhere, however, who owed 
his own crown to Penda, persuaded that stalwart heathen, despite his 
eighty years, to champion the claims of Aldwulf. The murderer of 
Oswin, Oswi was ready to sacrifice Ethelwald in his turn ; he sent 
his young son, Egfrid, to the Mercian court as a hostage 6 for his 
benevolent neutrality in the event of an attack being made on his half 
nephew by the two southern kings. In this extremity Ethelwald, we 
may gather, adroitly turned the tables on Oswi by offering to give up 
York to Aldwulf if the Mercians and East Angles would aid in estab- 
lishing himself at Bamburgh. The three confederate kings, Ethelhere, 
Peiida, and Ethelwald, were readily joined by Catgabail, king of 

3 ' Aedilheri . . . auctor ipse belli.' Hist. Eccl. iii. xxiv. 

4 See genealogical table of the royal house of the Deras, ante p. 153. 

8 This is very clearly put in Vita S. Oswaldi, cap. xix. in Symeon of Durham, 
Rolls series, i. pp. 358, 359. 

4 'alius films eius Ecgfrid eo tempore in prouincia Merciorutn apud reginam 
Cynuise obses tenebatur.' Hist. Eccl. iii. xxiv. 



184 WINWEDFIELD! : 

North Wales, and other British princes, and their immense host 
advanced against Oswi, who could offer no adequate resistance. The 
whole land of the Beornicas 7 was soon laid waste ; of the church and 
village of Bamburgh, the wooden stay against which St. Aidan had 
leant in his last illness was all that there was left standing. 8 Oswi 
himself fled to the city of Judeu. 9 

Owing to a mistaken interpretation of a passage in St. Bede's 
ecclesiastical history, 10 this city of Judeu which he calls Giudi has 
been located on Tnchkeith, an island in the very middle of the Forth 11 
instead of at Inveresk in the centre of the fine bay that forms the 
southern side of the firth. Judeu is evidently the same city as the 
Roman EJUDENSCA mentioned in the Ravennas. 12 It requires little 
etymological subtlety to detect in the termination of the word a 
reference to the river ISCA or Esk. Of the three places inserted by the 
Ravennas between Alnmouth and the east end of the Antonine Wall, 
apparently along the coast, EJUDENSCA follows OLEICLAVIS, which, as I 
have before suggested, is probably Ulchester (now miscalled Outchester) 
near Bamburgh, 13 and precedes JRUMABO, which seems to be a variant 
or a corruption of the Celtic Rimindu^ and to be the same as the 
Roman settlement at Cramond. The Roman remains at Inveresk have 
been celebrated ever since the discovery in 1565 of the altar dedicated 
to Apollo Grannus by the proconsul Quintus Lucius Sabinianus, 15 
and their extent and grandeur have received quite recent confir- 
mation. 16 It is possible that EJUDENSCA may have remained a Roman 
'factory' on the coast after the interior of the Lowlands had been 
abandoned. In Celtic times, the Forth appears to have been called 

7 ' Penda ... in Berniciam ad debellandum regem Oswium ascendit.' Flor. 
Wig. in Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 531. 

8 Hist. JEccl. iii. xvii. ' Historia Nennii in Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 76. 

10 ' Orientalis (sinus) habet in medio sui urbem Giudi, occidentals supra se, 
hoc est ad dexteram sui, habet urbem Alcluith. 1 Hint. Eccl. i. xii. 

11 Skene, Celtic Scotland, i. p. 71. 

12 ' Bremenium. Cocuneda (Cocenneda). Alauna. Oleiclavis (Oleaclavis). 
Ejudensca (Evidensca). Kumabo.' Mon. Hist. Brit. p. xxvi. 

u History of Northumberland, Elliot Stock, pp. 20. 21. 

14 ' The wall of Severus' is said to extend 'a fiumine kaldra usque ad 
Kimindu.' Historia Nennii. car. lect. Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 60 n. 

14 Corpus Inscript. Lot. vii., No. 1082 ; Scots Lore, Glasgow, 1895, p. 212. 
16 Proceedings of Soc. Ant. Newc., vol. viii., p. 14. 



THE OVERTHROW OF ENGLISH PAGANISM. 185 

the Sea of Giudan 17 or lodeo, 18 and the name lingered on under the 
English form of ludanbyrig 19 till immediately before the fall of 
Edinburgh, in the tenth century. 20 The city was probably destroyed 
during the Scottish conquest and its very name forgotten. 

The name Judeu is so peculiar that it is not surprising that an 
ignorant translator mistook it for Judea, and rendered Caer Judeu 
by Jerusalem. I have several times pointed out that the legends of 
Arthur's battles with Romans, Spaniards, Moors, and Dacians may 
rest on a historical foundation if we suppose him to have encountered 
the remains of the cosmopolitan garrisons cantoned in the neighbour- 
hood of Carlisle. 21 The tradition of his journey to Jerusalem is 
satisfactorily explained if he did really resort to the city of Judeu on 
the Esk. He is said to have made and hallowed a cross of wood 
of the same size as the Holy Kood, and to have prayed before it for 
three days that God would grant him victory over the heathen. 22 
Then, we are told, he sallied forth with a cross and a figure of Our 
Lady painted on his shield, and routed the pagans with great slaughter 
at Castell Guin, 23 in Wedale, on Gala Water, about six miles to the 
north of Melrose. Fragments of the figure of the Blessed Virgin were 

17 ' Muir n-Giudan.' Book of Lecan, quoted by Reeves, Culdees, p. 124. 

18 ' merin iodeo.' Book of Aneurin, in Skene, Ancient Books of Wales, ii. 
p. 103, see Archezologia Cambrensis, 1889, pp. 230-2, and Rhys, Arthurian 
Legend, p. 241. 

19 ' 952. Her on thyssum geare het Eadred cyning gebringan Wulstan arce- 
biscop in ludan byrig on thaem faestenne.' Saxon Chronicle D, Earle, p. 118. 
' ludan byrig' cannot be Jedburgh, which was then called ' Geddewrd ' or ' Gedde- 
werde,' Symeon of Durham, Rolls series, ii. pp. 101, 198, and can scarcely be 
the Roman OTHONA in Essex, afterwards known as ' Ythancaestir.' The general 
idea conveyed by the passage is that Wulstan was intriguing against Edred in 
his own province when he was seized and confined in the chief English frontier 
fortress of the North. 

20 It is important to note that Judeu could not have been Edinburgh, as this 
seems clearly distinguished as ' Eiddyn, the lofty hill,' in the Gododin poems 
(Skene, Ancient Books of Wales, i. p. 425), while the name ' Edwinesburch ' 
appears already in 854 (Symeon of DurJiam, ii. p. 101). 

21 History of Northumberland, Elliot Stock, p. 51. 

22 ' Arthur lerosolimam perrexit, et ibi crucem ad quantitatem salutiferae 
crucis fecit, et ibi consecrata est ; et per tres continuos dies jejunavit, vigilavit, 
et oravit coram Cruce Dominica, ut ei Dominus victoriam daret per hoc signum 
de paganis.' Hist. Nennii, cap. Lxiv. ; Mon. Hist. Brit., p. 73. 

23 ' Octavum fuit bellum in castello Guin (Gunnion) ; in quo Arthur portavit 
imaginem crucis Christi et Sanctae Mariae semper virginis super humeros suos : 
et pagani versi sunt in fugam in illo die.' Ibid. A Welsh original has been 
mistranslated : ysgnydd, a shield, being mistaken for ysgnyd, a shoulder. Skene, 
Ancient Books of Wales, vol. i. p. 55. 



186 WINWED FIELD : 

long shown in the church of St. Mary at Stow, in Wedale ; 24 a rock* 
with a foot-print, as evidence of her miraculous interposition, was sacri- 
ficed to the exigencies of road-making, but St. Mary's Well still 
exists. 25 

It is now a question whether, in the case of Oswi's flight to Judeu, 
we have an example of the well-known tendency of history to repeat 
itself, or whether, as a consequence of the Celtic re-occupation of the 
Lowlands, the traditions of Oswi at Judeu and his defeat of the 
heathen English on the ' Winwaed ' were not transferred to Arthur, 
just as the death of Egfrid at Nechtansmere appears to have been 
remembered locally as the death of Arthur. 26 

At any rate, Oswi did take refuge in Judeu. In vain he promised 
to deliver all the riches he had with him in the city to Penda if the 
vigorous old pagan would withdraw into his own country. He seems 
even to have offered all the treasures he had between Judeu and 
Manau ; and if we may believe the British account he actually sent 
this ' Atbret Judeu ' or ' Ransom of Judeu ' to Penda, who distributed 
it among his allies. 27 Still, according to Bede, Penda was not to be 
appeased, but vowed the destruction of every Northumbrian, young or 
old. Then said Oswi, ' Since the heathen contemns our gifts, let us 
offer them to One who will accept them to the Lord our God.' He 
accordingly bound himself in case of victory to devote to religion a 
daughter who had just been born to him, and to give twelve estates 
for monastic purposes. At the head of a small army he issued from 

24 ' (Arthur) secum imaginem S. Mariae detulit, cujus fracturae adhuc apud 

Wedale in magna veneratione servantur Wedale est villa in provincia 

Lodonesie, nunc vero juris episcopi S. Andreae Scotiae, VI. milliaria ab occidental! 
parte, ab illo quondam nobili et eximio monasterio de Meilros.' Hist, flennii, 
cap. Ixiv. in Hon. Hist. Brit. p. 73. 

25 New Statistical Account of Scotland, quoted in Ancient Books of Wales, 
vol. ii. p. 412. Skene there suggests that the rock in question may have been the 
white stone of Galystem, mentioned in the poem on the battle of Gwenystrad. 

26 ' A confused tradition of a great battle having been fought on the East 
Mains of Dunichen [in Forfarshire], between Lothus, king of the Picts. or his 
son, Modred, and Arthur, king of the Britons, in which that hero of romance was 
slain.' Nero Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xi. p. 46 ; Rhys, Arthurian 
Legend, p. 46. 

27 ' Tune reddidit Osguid omnes divitias quae erant cum eo in urbe (Judeu) 
usque in Manau Pendae, et Penda distribuit ea regibus Britonum ; id est Atbret 
Judeu.' Hist. Nennii, Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 76. Manau is identified by Skene 
with Slamanann ; Nennius speaks of the ' regio ' ' Manau Guotodin.' The idea 
conveyed is that Oswi gave or offered to Peuda all the riches in the country still 
left to him along the shore of the Forth ; he possibly had the command of the 
sea. 



THE OVEETHROW OF ENGLISH PAGANISM. 187 

Judeu with his son Alcfrid, and fell unexpectedly by night a Sunday 
night on the host of Penda, thrice larger than his own, as it lay 
encamped on the banks of the ' Winwaed.' 28 

Catgabail took advantage of the darkness to withdraw from the 
battle. Better known as Cadavael, son of Cynfedw, this usurper is 
said to have murdered lago, a former king of G-wynedd. A traitor to 
the last, he now disappears again from history branded with the sur- 
name of Catguommed ' or 'the Runaway.' 29 Cowardice is contagious ; 
and Ethelwald, unmindful of his promises to Penda and Ethelhere, 
also led his forces out of the field and awaited the issue in a place of 
safety. 30 We know nothing of the after-fate of this royal founder of 
Lastingham, but there is reason to think that his descendants cropped 
up again to kill and be killed in the continuous massacre of Northum- 
brian kings. Penda and Ethelhere both perished with nearly all the 
thirty princes who had joined in their campaign, more of their follow- 
ers losing their lives in the swollen torrent than in the battle itself. 
Like Brunanburh, the 'Winwaed' had its epic : 

In Winwaed stream was 'venged the slaughter of Anna, 
The slaughter of the kings Sigebert and Egric, 
The slaughter of the kings Oswald and Edwin. 31 

28 The phrases ' se certamini dedit ' and ' Christo duce confisus, occurrit,' in 
Bede's account, show that the attack was made by Os wi. 

29 ' Solus autem Catgabail, rex Guenedotae regionis, cum exercitu suo evasit, 
de nocte consurgens ; quapropter vocatus est Catgabail Catguommedd.' Hist. 
Nennii, Man. Hist. Brit. p. 76. On Cadavael, see Skene, Ancient Books of 
Wales, i. p. 68 ; ii. p. 368. No writer on this hazy period has been able to free 
himself completely from the fatal influence of Geoffrey of Monmouth, just as the 
taint of ' Richard of Cirencester' still infects nearly every map of Roman Britain. 
Catgabail has generally been confounded with Cadwallon or with Cadwallader. 

30 ' Oidiluald tempore pugnandi sese pugna subtraxeret, euen- 

tumque discriminis tuto in loco exspectabat.' Hist. Eccl. iii. xxiv. Mr. 
Plummer (ii., p. 182) remarks that the Anglo-Saxon version substitutes '& feaht 
and wonn with his ethle and with his fcedran.' This surely means that ' he 
fought and won with his people and with his uncle.' A very beautiful cross- 
slab, with the runes Kununc Oithilwalde, was found during the restoration of 
' St. Gregory's minster ' at Kirkdale, about six miles to the south-west of the 
monastery of St. Mary at Lastingham, This grave-cover has been ascribed to 
Ethelwald, son of Oswald, though it may, with equal probability, be the tomb 
of king Ethelwald Moll, deposed in 765. By a train of reasoning that it is 
difficult to follow, it was copied for bishop Lightf oot's memorial at Auckland ; 
the original has been allowed to perish. Conversion of the Heptarchy, by Dr. 
Browne, now bishop of Bristol, p. 151. 

sl ' In Winwed amne vindicata est caedes Annae 
Caedes regum Sigbert et Egrice 

Caedes regum Oswald et Edwine.' Hen. Hunt. (Mo>i. Hist. Brit. p. 717). 
The Anglo-Saxon version of Bede translates ' prope fluuium uinuaed,' ' neah 
Winwede streame.' 



188 WINWEDFIELD : 

In Penda, who was already a man at the time of St. Augustine's 
landing, the gods of the North lost their last champion ; henceforward, 
except in the wilds of Sussex, there was no material bar to the progress 
of Christianity in the island. 

With the locality of Judeu fixed at Inveresk, the scene of this 
ever-memorable victory falls naturally at Stow in Wedale. The names 
Guinion and Wedale taken together give back to us the long-lost 
' Winwaed.' The pass through which the Gala Water runs was a natural 
route for an army marching from Bamburgh on Inveresk to choose ; 
and the local traditions clearly prove that a heathen host was there 
signally annihilated. The Scottish conquest of northernmost North- 
umberland in the tenth century fully accounts for the name of the 
'Winwaed,' like that of Judeu, having fallen into desuetude. 

By the Britons the battle of the Winwed was called in Latin the 
Strages Gai Campi, or the Slaughter of ' Gai ' Field. 32 This would 
appear to be connected with the Winwed's alternative name of Gtola 
Water. It has been suggested that the Celtic equivalent of 'Gai 
Campus' was 'Gal-traeth' or 'Ca-traeth,' and that the battle of 
Catraeth, so celebrated in the old Welsh poems, was in reality Win- 
wedfield. 33 This opens a large and burning question, which it is 
impossible to fathom here. History cannot be built on popular 
poetry, though popular poetry supplies the most valuable illustrations 
of history. To suppose that every detail in a poem like that describ- 
ing the battle of Catraeth will square with the plain truth recorded in 
prose chronicles is to have no critical knowledge of ballad literature. 
When we remember the errors, accidental and intentional, that have 
crept into the ballads of Otterburn, Chevy Chase, and Flodden Field, 
we may naturally expect a still greater confusion of incidents and 
substitution of persons in poems dating from the seventh or eighth 
centuries. Especially is this the case with poems which, relating the 
tragic events of the English conquest of Central Britain, were pre- 
served in distant Wales, where the original scenes were unknown and 
where the heroes celebrated had left no practical mark in the national 
life. The text of these poems is, no doubt, extremely corrupt and the 

32 Hist. Nennii (Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 76). 

33 Cambrian Journal, 2nd series iv. p. 1 ; Skene, Celtic Scotland, i. p. 255 ; 
Ancient Books of Wales ii. pp. 365, 366. 



THE OVERTHROW OF ENGLISH PAGANISM. 189 

translations unreliable. Gododin is possibly the region of Judeu, and 
it appears, as in Nennius, in juxtaposition with Manau. The battle 
was fought on one side in defence of Christianity, 34 and that, too, on 
a Sunday. 35 If Caeawg be the same as ' Gaius,' 36 Mynyddawg may be 
a synonym of Penda, 37 and the hereditary appellation of Fflamddur 
may denote the victorious Oswi. 38 

In accordance with his vow, Oswi gave twelve farms of ten 
families each, freed from military service, for monastic purposes. Of 
these, six were in the province of the Deras and six in the province of 
the Beornicas. 39 This singularly coincides with the grant of the twelve 



31 ' With blades full of vigour in defence of Baptism.' Ancient Books of 
Wales, i. p. 377. 

35 ' On Sunday their blades assumed a ruddy hue ; 

On Monday was seen a pool knee-deep of blood.' Ibid. p. 398. 

36 ; Caewg the combatant, the stay of his country. 

. . .he retreated not 

Before the host of Gododin, at the close of day. 

With confidence he pressed upon the conflict of Madawyd. 

He was the foremost part of the advanced division in front of the hosts. 

Before his blade fell five battalions. 

Of the men of Deivyr and Brenneich, uttering groans, 

Twenty hundred perished in one hour.' Ibid. pp. 374-376. 

' Caewg, the poem tells us, was Hyfaidd Hir, of whom it is said, in one of the 
Triads : ' Three kings, who were of the sons of strangers : Gwryat, son of 
Gwryan yn y Gogled (the North) ; and Cadafel, son of Cynfedw in Gwynedd 
(North Wales) ; and Hyfeidd Hir, son of Bleidic in Deheubarth (the South).' ' 
Ibid., ii. p. 368. The identification of Cadafel with the Catgabail of Nennius 
shows that Mr. Skene was wrong in placing the period when these three inter- 
lopers reigned before 603. Indeed, Catgabail (Cadavael, Cadafel) of Gwynedd 
seems to be the same personage as Cydywel, mentioned in connection with 
Gwynedd, in stanza xix. As to the third king, Gwyryen and Gwyryad both 
occur in stanza xxx. line 6. Mr. Skene has inserted ' Gwrien,' against all 
authority, in line 11 of his translation. These considerations appear to me to go 
far towards identifying Catraeth with Winwedfield, as Mr. Nash suggested in the 
Cambrian Journal, 1861. Professor Rhys, of course, inclines to give Catraeth a 
mythical origin ; even Oxford may be regarded as a mere hierophantic concep- 
tion of a place where the ox Apis passes through the mysteries of Isis. 

37 'Mynydd' and 'Pen' seem both to mean 'mountain' in Celtic. Penda, as 
the acknowledged leader of this mixed army, was both the Bretwalda and the 
Guledig. 

' It is incumbent to sing of the illustrious retinue 
That went on the message of Mynyddawg, sovereign of the people. 

Of the retinue of Mynyddawg there escaped none 

Except one frail weapon, tottering every way. Ibid. pp. 398, 401. 

38 ' A successful warrior was Fflamddur against the enemy.' Ibid. p. 401. 

39 ' E quibus uidelicet possessiunculis sex in prouincia Derorum, sex in 
Berniciorum dedit.' Hist. Eccl. iii. xxiv. 

VOT. -XTK 25 



190 WINWEDFIELD : 

vills on the Bolbend (Bowmont), said to have been made by Oswi, 
after the death of St. Aidan, to Cuthbert, then a monk of Melrose, 40 
a grant that, if genuine, was the real root of the palatine power of 
the bishops of Durham. 

NOTE. 
THE NAMES OF THE ROMAN FORTRESSES BETWEEN THE CLYDE AND 

THE FORTH. 

The identification of the Roman EJUDENSCA (the Celtic Giudi or 
Judeu and the English ludanbyrig) with the ancient remains at 
Inveresk, and the consequent location of RUMABO at Cramond make it 
tolerably certain, after all, 41 that the names of the fortresses between 
the Forth and the Clyde are given in the Ravennas in order from 
east to west, like those between the Tyne and the Ellen. VELUNIA 
was thus at the east end of the chain, and CREDIGONE at the west 

40 ' Tune rex et omnes meliores Angli dederunt sancto Cuthberto omnem 
hanc terram quae jacet juxta fluvium Bolbenda, cum his villis, Suggariple, et 
Hesterhoh, et Gistatadun, et Waquirton, et Cliftun, et Scerbedle, et Colwela, et 
Eltherburna, et Thornburnum. et Scotadun, et Gathan, et Minethrun. Et ipse 
sanctus abbas sub testimonio ipsius regis monasterium Meilros cum omnibus 
suis appenditiis, ut haberet illud proprium post diem obitus sui.' Hist, de S. 
Cuthberto, 2 (Sym. of Durham, Rolls Series i. p. 197.) The usual account 
which makes St. Cuthbert enter Melrose immediately after the death of St. Aidan 
is, of course, inaccurate, as omitting his period of military service when ' in 
castris contra hostem cum exercitu sedens,' he had a vision of the beatification 
of a 'gerefa' ('praefecti '), and his return north through the desert country 
round Chester-le-Street. See Arch. Ael., vol. xvi., p. 88. Mr. Plummer, in his 
edition of Bede, evades this difficulty, but soon involves himself in others. 
It seems clear that three years elapsed between the return of SS. Eata and 
Cuthbert from Ripon to Melrose, which Mr. Plummer places in 661, and St. 
Boisil's death, which falls naturally in 664, the year of the great plague : then, 
too, the Lindisfarne life, section ix. expressly says that St. Cuthbert was prior of 
Melrose in succession to Boisil ' aliquot annos ' (cf. ' multos in Mailrosensi 
monasterio degens annos.' Hist. Eccl. iv. xxv.), so that to invent a special 
pestilence for St. Boisil to die of in 661, and to take St. Cuthbert to Lindisfarne 
in 664 is to do violence to the earliest and only true authorities. The proba- 
bility is that St. Cuthbert did not leave Melrose till nine years before his death 
in 687, as the Historia de Sancto Cuthberto evidently confuses Fame and Lin- 
disfarne (as also does Nennius, Hon. Hist. Brit. p. 76), making him proceed 
direct to Fame from Melrose and live there ' per novem annos.' Sym. of Dur- 
ham, i. p. 197.) This agrees with the statement of the Lindisfarne biographer, 
that St. Eata, consecrated in 678, was already bishop, when Cuthbert reluctantly 
came to Lindisfarne (see Arch. Ael., vol. xvi., p. 88), and explains that it was his 
introduction of a modified rule, consequent on archbishop Theodore's visitation, 
that gave rise to his difficulties with the brethren. Mr. Plummer has relied too 
much on secondary authorities, like the so-called Lindisfarne Annals, and 
Florence of Worcester, where the dates have only been inferred and inferred 
wrongly. 

41% See p. 112 above. 



THE OVERTHROW OF ENGLISH PAGANISM. 191 

end. The striking position of the fort of Bar Hill, with both the 
Forth and the Clyde in view, justifies (in the opinion of some lead- 
ing Scottish antiquaries) our regarding it hypothetically as MEDIUM 
(CASTRUM), the central fortress of the eleven. Five altars found 
carefully buried near Auchindavy, 42 the fortress immediately west of 
Bar Hill, prove a ' nemet ' or shrine to have existed there, and make 
the name NEMETON, an apposite one. There are still further west the 
traces of four Roman fortresses, Bemulie, East Kilpatrick, Castle Hill, 
and Duntocher, to which the names of SUBDOBIADON, LITANA, CIBRA, 
and CREDIGONE may be tentatively applied in the order given in 
the Ravennas. There seemed to be no real evidence of any fortress 
having existed to the west of Duntocher. 

For the eastern half of the chain we are even less fortunate. 
Westerwood may be COLANICA, Castle Cary BEGESSE, and Rough 
Castle PEXA, 43 leaving us to imagine a fortress at Falkirk or at 
Mummerils, near Polmont, for VOLITANA, and another at Inneravon 
or Carriden for VELUNIA. We are probably dealing with a period 
anterior to the erection of the Antonine wall, so that Duntocher and 
Inneravon may have been the termini of the earlier chain of forts. 



42 Corp. Insc. Lot., vii., p. 119, nos. 1111-1114. Were it not that the name 
MEDIUM (CASTRUM) so exactly fits Bar Hill, I should agree with Mr. Haver- 
field in preferring the reading MEDIONEMETON, and should place this at 
Auchindavy. A place called Nemhtur (Neutur or Nevtur), Ancient Books of 
Wales, ii. p. 321, apparently the same as Nyved, ibid., i. p. 398, occurs as in 
the region of the Antonine Wall in Fiech's Life of St. Patrick written in the 
eighth century. It would be more satisfactory if COLANICA could be associated 
with the river Kelwyn. 

43 An antiquary of the old school would probably have suggested that the 
modern Seabeg was only BEGESSE inverted and have connected PEXA with 
Dunipace. 



192 



XX. A PRE-CONQUEST CEOSS SHAFT AT NUNNYKIRK, 

NORTHUMBERLAND. 

By MABERLY PHILLIPS, F.S.A. 

[Read on the 25th August, 1897.] 

A short time ago, the Rev. E. J. Bell, rector of Alderley, Cheshire, 
drew my attention to a carved stone that had lately been shown to him 
in the grounds of Mr. William Orde, at Nunnykirk. Finding that 
several of our members, whom I consulted, had no knowledge of it, I 
took an early opportunity of examining it with a friend. Fortunately, 
Mrs. Orde was at home, and we were soon shown the object of our visit, 
of which we took rubbings and measurements. The stone proved to be 
the shaft of a Saxon cross. Its base is said to be about ten inches in 
the ground. From the base to the first moulding it measures two feet 
ten inches. Above this moulding there is a projecting band six inches 
deep, and above that an uneven and broken surface of about seven 
inches. The face of the shaft above the base measures sixteen- 
and a half inches across, tapering to fifteen inches under the projecting 
band ; the ends are eight inches across. All four sides of the stone are 
beautifully carved. Upon what I take to be the principal side, a 
beautiful scroll of vine leaves and fruit divides the field into two 
panels ; in the upper, two birds are nibbling at the fruit, and, in the 
lower, two quadrupeds are similarly engaged. A cable-moulding runs 
down the sides. The other face is entirely covered with a vine scroll, 
the stem worked into two small panels, the centre of each being a leaf 
or bunch of fruit. Upon the sides, the same vine scroll is displayed, 
but the pattern is varied. Above this, upon the face of the pro- 
jecting band, a row of bosses is chiselled, five on each face and four 
upon each side. Above this projecting band, on the faces and sides, 
the vine is shown, but in some cases the carving is much defaced. 

Many details upon the stone will be clearly seen on the rubbings now 
exhibited. I submitted these to the Rev. Dr. Greenwell. He considers 
the stone to be a beautiful example of early Saxon work, and suggests 
the date as the eighth century, or possibly the seventh. Under his 
guidance I carefully examined the valuable collection of Saxon stones 



Arch. Afl., vol. xix.; to face p. 192. 



Plate V. 




,,. 





PRE-CONQUEST CROSS SHAFT AT NUNNYKIRK, NORTHUMBERLAND. 
(/rowz photographs by Mr. W. S. Carder, of North Shields.) 



THE NUNNYKIRK PRE-CONQUEST CROSS SHAFT. 193 

in the chapter library at Durham. On several notably the Hex- 
ham ones the vine is displayed, but there was no example so perfect 
or profuse in the working of the pattern. 

In some respects the birds and animals feeding upon the fruit 
correspond with one of the faces of the renowned Saxon crosses at 
Bewcastle and Kuthwell. Upon this matter the Rev. G. F. Browne, 
now bishop of Bristol, in his interesting little work, The Con- 
version of the Heptarchy (p. 191) says that the east face of the Bewcastle 
cross ' has a conventional trunk or branch of a tree (Prof. Stephens 
calls it a grape-bearing vine) running in graceful curves from bottom 
to top, passing across nine times, and each time throwing off a spiral 
tendril to occupy the semi-ellipse, ending in fruit at which a beast or a 
bird is nibbling. The whole is drawn in a very bold and skilful 
manner, and the animals and birds are full of life. Leaves and seeds 
and tendrils are thrown off freely in alternate directions, so as com- 
pletely to occupy the field with ornament It represents, in 

all probability, the idea of a tree of life. The animals and birds are 
peaceful and happy. This is in sharp contrast with similar repre- 
sentations on pre-Norman stones of later date.' The writer then 
quotes several cases in support of his argument, and continues : ' The 
whole idea of peace has perished (p. 192) in the idea of sport or of 
slaughter.' I would submit that many of his remarks upon this 
feature of the work upon the Bewcastle and Ruthwell crosses (which 
are known to date from 670) would apply with equal force to the 
stone in question. 

To one other feature I would call attention, namely, the bosses, 
five on each face and four upon each side ; they are very boldly cut 
and fairly well preserved. We could find no exact example of this 
work in the collection at Durham. Upon the top stone of the Acca 
cross a boss ornament is introduced, but in a very modified degree. 

The monument at Nunnykirk is a monolith of four feet six inches, 
including the base. The top is much jagged and broken. There can 
be little doubt that the arms and head of a cross surmounted it, all 
traces of which have been unfortunately lost. 

When complete the whole would stand about six feet or six feet 
six inches, and was most probably a memorial cross erected in honour 
of some distinguished personage. The value of such monuments 



194 A PRE-CONQUEST CROSS SHAFT AT NUNNYKIRK : 

cannot be over-estimated. Bishop Browne says : ' The fifty-fifth 
parallel of latitude passes near the present or original home of all the 
three greatest monuments of the kind which we English possess, and no 
no other nation in Europe has such. They are the great cross at Ruth- 
well in Dumfriesshire, once Northumbrian, the great cross at Bewcastle 
in Cumberland, and Acca's cross at Hexham in Northumberland, now at 
Durham.' Although the monument in question cannot lay claim to 
a place alongside these three lordly crosses, still I think it may rank 
as a humble member of the same family. The question naturally 
arises, where was this cross originally erected ? Was it at Nunnykirk, 
or was it brought there from some other locality ? 

Regarding the modern history of the stone, Mrs. Orde writes : 
' I regret that I have been able to get no more definite information 
for you about the cottage from which the stone was removed. It was 
on the site of one of the present cottages, and those who remember it 
being pulled down say it was "very old and tumbling down." It 
was taken down about forty years ago and the stone was built visibly 
in the outside corner. It was even then asumed to be connected with 
the nunnery, but not much interest appears to have been taken in it, 
and it was left lying where I found it eighteen months ago when we 
returned here to live, i.e., in a corner of the stack yard, perhaps fifty 
yards from the site of the cottage. I suppose we should feel thankful 
that it was not broken up for road mending.' I was also informed 
that during its sojourn in the stack yard it was used as a sharpening 
stone. Mrs. Orde had it removed to the ' mossy walk,' and has since 
my first visit kindly had it placed in a better position for the purposes 
of photography. 

For many years the estates of Nunnykirk have been in the hands 
of the Ordes, who inherited them from the Wards of Morpeth. The 
Wards purchased the estates from the representatives of the Grey 
family, who received them by grant from the crown in 1610. In 
1138, Newminster abbey was founded upon the banks of the Wansbeck, 
not far from Morpeth, and at some subsequent date Nunnykirk was 
comprised in Ranulph de Merley's grant of Ritton to Newminster. 
Hodgson, the historian of Northumberland, writing about 1830, 
says : ' The Abbot of Newminster, with the love for seclusion and 
taste for sweet river-side scenery, which were common to his order, 



MRS. ORDE'S ACCOUNT. 195 

built a chapel, tower, and other edifices here (Nunnykirk), all traces 
of which are now entirely gone, and of which no book or record I have 
seen has left a description. Underground remains of buildings have, 
indeed, been found, and human bones dug up lately in sinking for 
new foundations, and when the crown granted it in 1610 to sir Ralph 
Grey, the letters patent described it as a tower and other buildings 
called Nunnykirk.' 

In the present day the only memorials of the ecclesiastical 
occupation are the fish-ponds and the abbess's well. The cartulary 
of Newminster abbey has been printed by the Surtees Society. 1 In the 
appendix the editor quotes the assignment by Eichard Tyrrell to sir 
Thos. Grey of the site of Newminster abbey and other lands belonging 
to it for a term of years, in which Nunnykirk is described as ' all that 
Grau'ge called Nonnykyrke together w 1 a Towre there, and w 4 all 
lands, medowes & pastures to the seyd Grau'ge p'teynyng in the 
seyd co'ntye to the seyd late Monast'y belongyng & p'teynyng.' 

Although from this we have clear evidence that Nunnykirk from 
soon after 1138 to the dissolution of the monasteries was in ecclesias- 
tical hands, we gather no solution of the presence of the stone 
monument in question, which appears to have been chiselled some 
centuries prior to the foundation of Newminster. 

Can the cross have been brought from any other quarter ? No 
doubt, in many cases, such stones were removed considerable distances 
for building or other purposes. One writer 'hazards the conjecture' 
that the Ruthwell cross formerly stood at Bewcastle, and that the two 
crosses really form one monument. Part of the Acca cross was found 
over a door at Dilston, some distance from Hexham, where it was 
originally erected. So far as I am aware, Eothbury is the only place 
within reasonable distance where Saxon crosses have been discovered. 2 
Various fragments that have been found there were broken up and 
built into the early church. Their date is ascribed to a later period, 
the tenth or eleventh century. 

Hodgson gives various spellings of Nunnykirk, but quotes nothing 
earlier than 1542, when it was written Noniche Kirke, in 1568 
Nunny Kyrke, in 1592 Newin Kirke, in 1610 Nunkirke, and in 1663 
Nunnakirke. He adds, ' I can give no satisfactory derivation of the 
word.' 

1 66 Surtees Soc. Publ., p. 311. 2 Fragments of pre-Conquest Crosses have 
been discovered at Bothal. See Arch. AeL, vol. XVI. p. vi., and Proc. III. 234. 



196 A PRE-CONQUEST CROSS SHAFT AT NUNNYKIRK. 

In the face of these difficulties, considering the early date of the 
monument under consideration, may I ' hazard the conjecture ' that 
the name of the place may be taken literally, Nunnykirk, the kirk of 
the nuns, and that at some very early period in the history of ecclesi- 
astical houses, perhaps contemporary with Hartlepool (641) and 
"VVhitby (658), a religious house was established upon the banks of the 
Font, all traces of which have been entirely lost, except in the name, 
and that the monument in question is a testimony to this suggestion. 
I simply throw out the idea, trusting that others more versed in the 
matter will do justice to the stone and its origin. 

I feel that our thanks are due to the Eev. canon Bell for drawing 
attention to the monument, and to Mrs. Orde for having rescued it 
from oblivion and having so readily afforded every assistance in the 
investigation of the matter. Since writing this account I have had 
another opportunity of visiting Nunnykirk. My friend Mr. Walter 
Corder accompanied me, and to him we are indebted for the admirable 
photographs from which the illustrations have been prepared. 



197 



XXI. TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS. 

By HOKATIO A. ADAMSON, V.P. 
[Read on the 29th September, 1897.] 

Parish registers were introduced into England in 1538 by a royal 
injunction issued by Cromwell, vicar-general in the reign of Henry 
the eighth, which required that ' a book of register should be provided 
and kept in every parish church wherein should be written every 
wedding, christening, and burying within ye same parish for ever.' 
The dissolution of the monasteries in 1536 and 1539 deprived the 
country of the sole depositories of the accumulated facts of domestic 
history. In an article in the Antiquary some years ago, written by 
Mr. B. L. Lewis, he says, ' After 300 years of clerical custody, out of 
about 11,000 parishes, half the registers, prior to the year 1600, had 
utterly disappeared, and not above 812 registers commenced in 1538, 
the year of their institution.' In the diocese of Newcastle there are 
only six churches in which the registers commenced in the sixteenth 
century, viz. : 

St. Nicholas, Newcastle 1558 

Berwick 1572 

Morpeth 1584 

St. John's, Newcastle 1587 

Earsdon 1589 

St. Andrew's. Newcastle ... ... 1597 

The parish church of Tynemouth has existed from about the year 
1200, and it is difficult to understand why the registers, which com- 
menced in 1607, do not date back as early as those of St. Nicholas, 
Newcastle. The seventieth canon of the canons of 1603 (James the 
first) ordered that every parish was to provide itself with a parchment 
book, in which the entries from the old paper books were to be fairly 
and legibly transcribed, each page being authenticated by the signature 
of the minister and churchwardens. A true copy was to be transmitted 
every year to the bishop of the diocese, within a month after Easter, 
to be preserved in the episcopal archives. Shortly after the date of 
this canon about 2,500 registers were commenced. It is probable that 
the Tynemouth registers were commenced in 1607, in consequence of 
the canon to which I have referred. 

VOL. xix. 26 



198 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

The first register is headed ' The Eegister Booke of Ohristnings, 
Weddings, and Burialls begunne the 10 th daye of December, Anno 
Domini One thousand Six hundred and Seaven.' It is a quarto volume 
and is marked A, and contains the entries to the year 1703, embracing 
nearly one hundred years. 

The second volume is marked B, and contains the baptisms, 
marriages, and burials from 1703 to 173|. 

The third volume is marked C, and contains the 'Baptisms, 
Burialls, and Wedings' from 173| to 1754. 

The fourth volume is marked D, and contains only baptisms and 
burials from January, 1754, to July, 1774. 

The baptisms from 1774 to 1862 are contained in fifteen volumes ; 
the marriages from 1754 to 1860 are contained in seventeen volumes. 
From the 2nd July, 1837, to the 5th September, 1860, the marriage 
registers are kept in duplicate. The burials from 1774 to 1868 are 
contained in fourteen volumes. The total number of volumes to the 
division of the parish in 1861 is fifty, and these volumes contain many 
thousand entries. 

In the registers of a parish extending over a period of 250 years, 
there must be entries of general interest. In a parish like Tyne- 
mouth, girt by the North Sea, some of the entries from the burial 
registers possess a pathetic interest. Within the parish is Tynemouth 
castle, and many of the entries in the registers in the earlier years 
centre around it. It has occurred to me that it may be of interest to 
give extracts from the volumes. Some are accordingly added. 

In the olden times, the clergy and parish clerks exercised much 
greater freedom in the entries they made in the registers than they 
have been able to do since the act of 1812 was passed. Some of the 
entries are discursive, and read like newspaper paragraphs. The 
spirit which imbued Dr. White Kennett, bishop of Peterborough 
(1718-28), seems to have prevailed long before his time. In his first 
visitation of his clergy, he gave the following advice : 

One thing more I would intimate to you that you are not obliged to enter 
the day and year of every Christening, Wedding, or burial; but it is left to your 
discretion to enter down any notable incident of times and seasons, especially 
relating to your parish and the neighbourhood of it, such as storms and lightning, 
Contagion and mortality, drought, scarcity, plenty, longevity, robbery, murder, 
and the like casualties. If such memorable things were fairly entered, your 



EOSE'S ACT OF 1812. 199 

parish registers would become Chronicles of many strange occurrences that would 
not otherwise be known, and would be of great use arid service for posterity to 
know. 

The act of 1812, commonly known as ' Rose's Act,' which came 
into operation on the 1st January, 1813, is called 'An Act for better 
regulating and preserving Parish and other Registers of Births, 
Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials in England (52 Geo. 3, cap. 146).' 
By this act the only information required to be entered in the regis- 
ters was, as to baptisms: (1) when baptized; (2) child's Christian 
name; (3) parent's name; (4) abode; (5) quality, trade, or profession; 
(6) by whom the ceremony was performed. In the case of marriages : 
(1) the names of the persons and the parish in which they lived ; (2) 
whether by banns or licence ; (3) and with the consent of the parents 
or guardians ; (4) date of the ceremony; (5) signatures of the officiat- 
ing minister and of the persons married and of the witnesses present. 
In the case of burials : (1 and 2) name and abode ; (3) when 
buried ; (4) age ; (5) by whom the ceremony was performed. 

Prior to this act coming into operation, much information was 
contained in some of the registers. In the case of baptisms, the 
names of the parishes in which the father and mother were born were 
given. This information was of material use to the genealogist in 
assisting him to trace families. 

Although the canon of 1603 required that a true copy of the 
register was to be transmitted every year to the bishop of the diocese, 
I find that in the registry for the diocese at Durham there are no 
copies of the Tynemouth registers prior to 1762, nor since 1849. For 
155 years prior to 1762 the only registers for the parish of Tynemouth 
are in the vestry of Christ church, the mother church of the parish. 
Since the Registration Act came into operation in 1837, duplicates of 
the marriage registers have been sent to the superintendent registrar 
of the district, but not of the baptisms or burials. 

In the year 1861 the old ecclesiastical parish of Tynemouth, 
which comprised the eight townships of Tynemouth, North Shields, 
Chirton, Preston, Cullercoats, Whitley, Monkseaton, and Murton, 
was divided, and in recent years further divisions <5f the parish have 
taken place. 

In an appendix to this paper I have given the period covered by 
each volume of the registers. The district parishes formed out of the 



200 TYNEMOUTH PABJSH REGISTERS : 

old parish of Tynemouth are the following, with the dates of the 
commencement of their registers : 

1. The Priory, Tynemouth (Holy Saviour church) 

Baptisms, 12 May, 1861. 
Marriages, 18 May, 1861. 

2. Percy, Tynemouth (St. John's church) 

Baptisms, 21 July, 1861. 
Marriages, 24 Nov., 1864. 

3. "Western Town, Tynemouth (Holy Trinity church) 

Baptisms, 27 June, 1861. 
Marriages, 23 July, 1861. 

4. Low Town, Tynemouth (St. Peter's church) 

Baptisms, 7 April, 1861. 
Marriages, 6 Sept., 1864. 

5. Cullercoats, Tynemouth (St. Paul's church) 

Baptisms, 31 March, 1861. 
Marriages, 15 October, 1864. 
Burials, 4 Sept., 1861. 

6. St. George's, Cullercoats 

Baptisms, 30 Dec., 1880. 
Marriages, 22 April, 1885. 

7. St. Augustine's parish 

Baptisms, 1 May, 1885. 
Marriages, 2 May, 1885. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE REGISTERS OF BAPTISMS. 

The first entry is the following : 

1607, December 16. Edwarde, Sonne of Thomas Rawlynge of Sheales, bap. 
1609, August 6. Jane, ye Daughter of Peter Delaval of Tynmouth, bap. 

NOTE. There are many entries of the baptisms of children of the 

Delavals. 

1625, August 29. Ralph, Sonn to Mr. Deavrex Gardner of Newcastle, in St. 
John's, bap. 

NOTE. This entry is at the foot of the page, and comes after 18th 

November in the same year. It is in a different handwriting, and 

in different ink. It is the baptism of the great river reformer. 

1633, March 24. John, S to John Heslop, vicker of Tinmouth. 

1636, November 5. Henry and George, twines to Henry fenwick of Tinmouth 

castle, bap. 
November 20. Edward, Son to Richard the fidler of Sheles, bap. 



EXTRACTS FROM BAPTISMS. 201 

1639, April 8. Alexander, the base begotten Sonne of John ffenwick of Tin- 
mouth Castle. 

1650, February 20. John, the Sonne of Raph Gardner of Chirton, was 

Baptised. 

1651, February 4. George, ye Sonne of same. 

1652, September 15. Ralph, ye Sonn of same. 

NOTE. These are three of the children of the river reformer. 

On the 24th August, 1653, an act was passed by the Praise- 
God Barebones Parliament, by which the clergy were required 
to give up their register books to laymen, who were to be called 
the ' Parish Registers.' By this act the new officials were re- 
quired to enter publication of banns, marriages, births, and 
burials ; but it does not mention baptisms. In a great number 
of parishes births only were recorded. In the Tynemouth regis- 
ters, after a baptism on the 25th September, 1653, there is a 
break in the entries, and the next entry is headed, ' According 
to the New Act of Parlement, 1653.' 

1653, October 25. William, ye Sonn of Capt. William Collinson of Tynmouth, 

Born. 

1655, July 23. Ann, ye Daughter of Mr. Ralph Gardner, Sheeles. 
NOTE. In ; 1659, the register of baptisms was resumed. 
1662, September 17. Dorothy, ye Daughter of Sir Ralph Delavall of Seaton 

Delavall, bap d . 
1664, June 30. Elizabeth, ye Daughter of William Anderson of the No : 

Sheelds, bap d at Ovingham, for his wife being there sick. 
1664, July 23. Jane, ye Bastard Daughter of Geo. Hilton (appntice to Mr. 

, Marchant in Newcastle), by Anne Gamesby of Chirton, bapt. 

M a he denied it. 
October 25. Magdalen, the D. of Mr. Henry Ashburnham, vicar of 

Tynemouth, bap d . 
166|, February 11. Edward, ye S. of James Reed of Chirton, bap d . 

NOTE. In the margin of the register is written' the time of ye 
plague :' and in the margin, opposite the date 'April 22, here 
pmted to goe to the Church again, ye plague being ceased.' 

1666, November 29. Anne, ye Daughter of Bulmer Watson, bap. 

The same day a poore Woman yt laid in at Morton, whose hus- 
band was in his Maties Service, had a child called Jane, bapt. Ye 
Midwife nor Woman w h her knew not ye father's name. 

1667, August 8. Isabell, ye D. of Mr. Edward ffrench of Tin. castle, bap. 

NOTE. In the margin opposite the entries for October and 
November, 1667, is the following entry in red ink : ' About 
this time severall were bap d away, Mr. Ashburnham being re- 
moved to Newcastle.' 

December 10. George, ye S. of Mr. John Butler of Chirton, Merchant, 
bap d . 

1 668, July 5. Dorothy, ye Da. of William Wilson of Munck Seaton, bap., 

being ye first child yt was bapt. in Christ's Church (being ye very 
day ye s d Church was Consecrated). 



202 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

1669, October 26. Eliza, ye D. of Mr. Robert Wouldhave, Sheelds, bap. 
167f, March 11. Delavale, ye Son of Mr. Edward Spearman of Preston, 

baptized Robt. Delaval, Esq., Nicholas Whitehead, Esq., and Mrs. 

Jane Butler, Sister to George Milbourne, Esq., were Witnesses. 

1674, September 8. Mr. Dockwray (Vicar) sailed this day for London. 

1675, Aprill 13. Richard, ye Son of Richard Hudson of Tinemouth, bapt., ye 

first bapt. in Tin. Church after it was rebuilded. 

NOTE. It is probable the church within the walls of the castle 
had sustained damage, and large repairs had been effected to 
render it fit for service. 

May 11. Marke, ye Son of James Cooper of Preston, bap. Mr. 
Dockwray at Newbourne and Mr. Brodley at Durham, bapt., p. Mr. 
Musgrave of Benton. 

1675, August 9. Love, ye Daughter of Robert Allison, bap. Capt. Love, 

Mr. Blakiston, and Mrs. Wilson, witnesses. 
November 9. Jane, ye Daughter of Richard Nicholson of Tin. (Free 

Mason, housewright, and Joyner, and or (our) Gunner of Cliffords 

ffort, bap., borne ye 31 of October, betwixt one & two of ye clock 

in the morning. 
November 23. Milbournella, ye Daughter of John Butler, Esq. of East 

Chirton, Esq., bapt. in ye house. 

1676, April 14. Thomas, the Son of Mr. Stephen Dockwray, Vicar of Tine- 

mouth and Min r of Christ's Church, bap d , 
167 J, February. Margaret, ye Daughter of Mr. Edward Spearman of Preston, 

bap d . John Delaval, Esq., Mrs. Margaret Chapman, and Mrs. 

Margaret Luck, witnesses, bap d at home. 

April 22. ... ye ... of Robt. Thomson (alias hob in ye hole) bap. 
July 30. Rebecka, ye Daughter of Christopher Blake (of Hull) bap. at 

Yarmouth Armes (ye first after Mr. Dockwray removed to Tyne- 

mouth, for he removed or shifted yesterday, bng : ye 29 th ). 
1678, October 1. ffrancis, ye Son of Capt. ffrancis Collingwood of Tyne- 

mouth Castle, bap. (he is now at present in fflanders) Sir Jonathan 

Jenings, Capt. Bickerstaffe, and Mrs. Mary Collingwood were 

witnesses. 

1680, July 5. Easter, y e Da. of William Milbourne of Sh. bap d . 

1681, October 13. Jane, ye Dau. of Mr. Nicholas Errington of Sh. bap. 

Jo. Blakiston, Esq., Maddam Bickerstaffe, and Mrs. Jane Butler, 
were witnesses. 

1684, April 22. M a . this day, John Hargrave, of Shields, caused his Child 

to be brought to Church to signifie to ye Congregation that it was 
formerly bap. (viz : at home, being sick). 

1685, May 20. Mary, Daughter of Capt. Henry Villiers, Governor of Tyne- 

mouth Castle, bap. 

1686, May 12. Barbara, D. of same, bap. 

1691, June 14. William, S. of same, bap. 

1692, June 24. Sharlott, D. of same, bap. 

1693, July 20. Edward, S. of same, bap. 

1697, August 26. Josiah, Son of Mr. Thomas Dockwray, Vicar of Tinmouth, 
bap. 



EXTRACTS FROM BAPTISMS. 203 

1699, September 27. Winifridd, D. of Mr. John Roddam, of Chirton, bap. 

1700, December 10. Mary, D. of same. 

1702, August 19. Winifrid, D. of same. 

1703, July 20. James, Son of ye Honble. Coll. Henry Villiers, Govern 1 ", of 

Tin. bap. 

1704, January 12. Anne, Daughf. suppose to Thomas Rose (my Lord 

Argyles Sarvt) bap. 

NOTE. The first duke of Argyle had a house at Chirton, where a 
considerable establishment was kept. After his death the horses 
and stock were sold and dispersed. 

1707, March 4. Robert, the Son of Robert Lawson of Chirton, Esq., bap. 
170f, January 8. Elliner, D r . of S r (Sir) Warren Crosby. Lt. of the Souldiers 

T. Castle, bap. 

1708, September 20. Isabell, Da. of Jo. Metcalfe of Tin. bap. 
171|, Feby 9. Isabell, Da. of Tho. Hewson Goldsmith. 

1720, October 11. Ralph, S. of Ralph Waters of Chirton, bap. 

172|, February 18. Jane Dixon, a Quaker of Shields, bap. and five of her 

children, viz.: Robert Dixon, William Dixon. Jane Dixon, Hannah 

Dixon, Sarah Dixon. 
24. Robert Dixon, a Quaker of Sh., bapt., husband to the above named 

Jane Dixon. 

1727, December 10. James, Son to Mr. Mansfealdt, Cardonnal Coll r of ye 

Salt, bap. 

1728, April 28. Edward, Son to Philip Browning of ye Low Lights, Bap. 

An Invalid. 
J.731, May 26. Gilfrid Lawson, Son to Mr. Ralph Reed, Riding Surveyor of 

His Majesties Customs in Cullercoats, bap. 
1732, November 26. John Shields, a Child dropt in Shields by an unknown 

person, bap. 

1734, April 22. John, Son to Thos. Man of Tinmouth, bap. Will m Mitcalfe, 

Dority Mitcalfe, John Reed and Isabell Reed, all greatt Grandfathers 

and great Grandmothers stod up witness to ye said Child, all in 

pearfect health. 

NOTE. Of these great-grand parents, one died in the same year 

and the rest had died before the close of 1742. 

August. Edward, Son of Edward Collingwood, Esq r of Chirton. He 
was born and privately baptised July the 8th and Scartified one 
Aug* the 10, 1734. 
1736, May 14. Charls S. W m Daglish. which was found buried alive in ye 

feild. 

August 10. John Packer, att Raper [riper], years and marred. 
1739, June 11. Mary d. Peregrine Henzal, Glash Maker. 
August 19. John Tyzack, Tin., Glas Maker. 
November 15. Lazarus S. Rich d Paterson, Smith, of Shields. 
1741, April 26. Easter D. Will m Reed of Tynemouh. 

In the register is the following entry : 

1749, June 7. The Reverend Emanuel Potter was inducted into the Vicarage 
of Tinmouth the eighth day of June in the year of our Lord one 



204 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

thousand seven hundred & forty nine, being presented thereto by 

Francis Blake Delaval, Esq. 

1760, January 3. William, Son of Thomas Wouldhave, Shields. 
1751, April 9. William, S. of Thomas Wouldhave, Shields. 

NOTE. He was the inventor of the lifeboat. 
1756, May 24. Edward, Son of Lucius O'Bryen, Esq., Commander of His 

Majesty's Ship of War the Colchester, born July 19, 1755. 
1779, January 27. Armorer, Son of Mr. Armorer and Mrs. Rachel Donkin 

of the Low Lights, Raff merchant. 

1789, March 17. John, Son of Thomas and Susanna Tinley of Dockwray 

Square, Master Mariner, born the 29th of June, 1788. 

1790, May 5. Dorothy, D. of Robert & Esther Corpse, N. Shields, marr. 
1794, February 27. Alexander Hilton, Son of A. M. Lawson D e Cardonnel 

of Chirton, Esq r ., and Mary his Wife, born the 8th day of January 
last past. 

1806, January 5. George Balmer, 2 nd Son of George Balmer (born 3 March, 

1805). 

February 5. George Wakefield of Wakefield House, Esq., and 6 children 
were baptized this day. 

1807, December 25. William Linskill, 1 st Son of William Linskill, Esq., 

Tynemouth Lodge, N. of this Parish, by his Wife Elizabeth Grey, 
n. of Backworth. 

NOTE. He was the first mayor of Tynemouth, and is still alive ; 
he was born 28th August, 1807. 

1808, January 31. Thomas Haswell, 2 nd Son of George Haswell of N.S. mar. 

n. of Tanfield, by his wife Alice Corlett, n. of the Isle of Man ; born 
9 December, 1807. 

NOTE. His life-work and times are described in ' The Maister,' 
published in 1895. 

1809, June 4. Wesley Stoker Barker, 1 st Son of Paul Woolhouse, by his wife 

Margery Lloyd, n. of Earsdon Chap y . He was well known in late 
years as a mathematician. A sketch of his life is contained in the 
third volume of Men of 3fark 'twixt Tyne and Tweed. 
October 18. George Percy, found in the Newcastle Road, in the 
Township of Chirton, in the month of December, 1805. 

MARRIAGES. 
The first recorded marriage is the following : 

160J, January 31. Raphe Burrow and Maryi hys Wife were nlaryed. 
1611, December 3. Edward Lee and Mary Delaval were married. 
1627, September 4. John Heslop and Grace Delavale weare taaryed. 

NOTE. He was vicar of Tynemouth from 1623 to 1637. The 

entry of his marriage is in red ink. 
Between August, 1644, and 10 May, 1646, no marriages are 

recorded in the register. 
1648, September 9. Ral. Gard : and Cath. Red : Chir. marit. 

NOTE. This is the entry of the marriage of Ralph Gardner, the 
river reformer, with Catherine, daughter of Ralph Reed of Chirton. 



EXTRACTS FROM MARRIAGES. 205 

After a marriage on the 29th September, 1653, is the following 
entry in the register : 

' According to a Act of Parliament.' 

Some of the marriages which follow this heading have initials after 
them (' E. H.') 
166f, February 28. Abraham Ash worth and f ranees Reed married at 

Newcastle. 
1663, May 4. Mr. Edward Spearman and Anne Perkin, mar. Licentia. 

October 15. Henry Ashburnham, Vicar of Tynemouth, & Mrs. Mary 
Lambe, married in Walsend Church, p. Mr. Dockery, Licencia. 
NOTE. The word ' Mrs.,' which precedes Mary Lambe's name, 
does not indicate that she had been previously married. It was 
a term of social rank applied to unmarried ladies as well as 
to married ones. 

In the year 1663 several marriages took place at Earsdon, 
Wallsend, and Newcastle. 

1674, January 1. Will. Metcalfe & Allice Armstrong, mar. 

August 11. Mr. Stephen Dorkwray and Mrs. Jane Lawson, mar., but 
not set down till now. 

NOTE. He was vicar of Tynemouth from 1672 to 1681. 

1675, October 24. Capt. Phillip Bickerstaffe and Maddam Jane Clarke, 

married p. Licentia. I at court yt day. 

1678, December 16. Geo. Yasser & Isabella Pattison (asked here) but mar. 

elsw e . Couple beggars in Xmas hollidaying. 

1679, March 25. Robert fforest & Isabella Thompson, mar. at Jarrow. 

They were asked here, but neglected mar. till Lent time, so Mr. 
Dockwray would not marry y m , but gave y m a Certificate and he p d 
us o r fees. 

1683, June 3. Cuthbert Collingwood of ye Parish of Wark worth and Jane 

Reed of Tynemouth, married. 

November 3. Cliffe Clarke and Jane Brown, married (in Ra. Brown's 
house) per Mr. David Halsell. 

1684, July 8. Mr. William Collingwood and Mrs. Marg* Clarke, married. 
1687, July 25. Mr. Thomas Toll and Mrs. Ursula Arey, married. 

1689, June 4. Mr. Thomas Dockwray and Mrs. Elizabeth Love, married p. 

Licentia. 
1695, November 26. John Hall and ffrances Harrison, married at London, 

July 25, 1695. 

1697, April 6. Mr. Ralph Clarke and Mrs. Elizabeth Browne. The entry of 

this marriage is in red ink in large letters. 

1698, July 4. John Roddam of Little Houghton, Esq., and Madd. Winnifrid 

Milbourne, Junr., of Chirton, married. 

1706, September 17. Thomas Dove and Anne Smalpage, of Tinmouth, mar. 

p. Lycen. 

1707, July 15. John Metcalfe and Dora. Reed, Tinm., mar. 

1708, November 11. Paul Tittery and Esther Burton of Shields, mar. p. L. 

1709, May 18. Mr. Robert Bland of Whitby and Mary Atkinson of Culler- 

coats, mar. 
VOL. xix. 27 



206 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

171J, February 9. Mr. John Atkinson and Mrs. Margery Compton of Culle- 

cots, mar. p. L. 

1724, January 18. Deminicant Grey and Jane Cooper, married. 
1726, September 8. Mr. Mansfeldt Cardonnel and Mrs. Ann Hilton, mar. X. 
November 10. Mr. Samuel Lacy and Mrs. Anne Clarke, mar. 

NOTE. She was a daughter of Ralph Clarke, vicar of Long Benton. 
1732, September. John Waters and Mary Fairley, mar. 
1734, May 11. John Collingwood and Eliz. Smith. 
173f, February 2. John Thew and Ann Armstrong by Mr. Richardson of 

Morpeth, who went off with ye fee. 

173J, February 14. Hylton Lawson, of Chirt", Winnifred Roddam. 
1743, October 23. Stephen Wright, Margaret Reed. 
1747, September 24. Edw d Henzell, Sarah Dale. 

1751, September 3. Alexander Bartleman and Margaret Murray. 

1752, July 25. Mr. Robert Clarke and Mrs. Dorothy Vanholt of Newcastle. 

1754, October 13. Mr. William Linskill of Whitby and Mrs. Jane. Pearson. 

1755, March 22. Mr. Henry Mitcalfe and Mrs. Elizabeth Bell. 

1760, May 22. Mr. Daniel Edward Stephens and Mrs. Elizabeth Wailes. 

July 15. Thomas Babington Pulleine of Sunderland by the Sea, Esq., 

and Mrs. Winifrid Collingwood. 
1760, November 5. Mr. Thomas Potter and Mrs. Hannah Manser. 

NOTE. In the Newcastle Courant of 21st November, 1760, is the 
following paragraph : ' Last week was married at North Shields 
Mr. Thomas Potter, an eminent surgeon there, to Miss Manser, 
an agreeable young lady, endowed with every accomplishment 
to render that state truly happy.' 

1765, July 30. Mr. Henry Metcalfe and Mrs. Dorothy Anderson. 
1771, April 15. Mr. John Kelso and Mrs. Margaret Wright. 

1773, April 8. Mr. Davis Hewson and Miss Ann Fall. 

1774, August 18. Robert Wemyss Spearman and Mary Featherstonhaugh. 

1775, December 8. Alexander Crighton and Anne Bartleman. 

1776, February 17. William Dundas, Esq.. and Mrs. Isabella Waters. 
April 22. Henry Hudson, Esq., and Mrs. Elisabeth Ellison. 
August 12. Mr. William Metcalfe and Mrs. Margaret Kelso. 

1779, May 26. Mr. William Apedaile and Mrs. Ann Fawdon. 

NOTE. In the Newcastle Chronicle of 8th May, 1779, is the 
following paragraph : ' Sunday evening last returned to North 
Shields from a matrimonial trip to Gretna Green Mr. Apedaile, 
a young gentleman of the law, and Miss Fawdon, only daugh- 
ter of Mrs. Fawdon, at the Half-Moon. North Shields, a most 
accomplished and agreeable young lady. The reception she met 
with from the most indulgent of parents was highly commend- 
able, who, after passing a proper censure on the rashness of her 
conduct, became prudently reconciled, and hoped the rectitude 
of her future life would amply atone for that single act of 
juvenile indiscretion.' The Gretna Green marriage was appar- 
ently not considered satisfactory, as on the 26th of the same 
month the couple was again married as stated in the register. 



EXTRACTS FROM BURIALS. 207 

1.779, October 10. William Coppin and Elisabeth Monkhouse. 
1780, January 6. Mr. Samuel Hurry and Mrs. Mary Hunter. 
May 9. Robert Mitcalf and Catharine Stanley. 

1783, March 17. Thomas Tinley and Susanna Powditch. 

October 21. Walter Spencer Stanhope, Esquire, of the Parish of Silk- 
stone in Yorkshire and Mrs. Mary Winnifrid Pulleine of this Parish. 

1784, September 7. Mr. John Blackburn and Mrs. Margaret Linskill. 
17. Ananias Murray and Mary Gardner. 

NOTE. The Puritans gloried in names of this kind, as bearing 
testimony to the triumph of grace over original sin in the 
Christian dispensation. This notion made Ananias and Sapphira 
favourite names with the Presbyterians. Waters on Parish 
Registers. 
1786, September 5. Edward Martin Greenhow and Mary Powditch. 

1788, February 4. Joseph Pollard of Newcastle and Eleanor Hutchinson of 

this Parish. 

12. Mr. John Mathews of the Parish of Whitby to Mrs. Ann Wright 
of this Parish. 

1789, October 26. Robert Hodshon Cay, Esq., and Mrs. Elisabeth Liddell. 

1790, March 8. Henry Mitcalfe, Esq., of this Parish and Miss Ann Bird 

of the parish of Bishopwearmouth. 

1792, February 14. Thomas Stephens and Jane Cunningham. 
June 9. William Harrison, Junr., and Jane Wright. 

1795, 26 November. John Mansel, Capt. in His Majesty's 3 Regmt. of 
Dragoon Guards, to Maria Antonia Linskill. 

1798, 30 May. Matthew Bell and Isabella French. (This Couple did not 
pay their Marriage Fees.) 

1800, 22 February. James Justice of Justice Hall in the County of Berwick 

in Scotland, Esq., and Elizabeth Sarah Campbell, married. 
27 September. Sir Wharton Amcotts, Bart., of the Parish of Kittle- 
thorp, in the county of Lincoln, Widower, and Amelia Campbell of 
this parish, Spinster, aged 21 years. Married by Special Licence at 
Whitley by Thomas Craster, Prebendary of Lincoln. 

BURIALS. 
The first recorded burial is the following : 

1607, December 17. John Guye of Sheales was buryed. 
1611, August 10. Peter Delavale of Tynmouth, Gent., was buried. 
1615, December 12. Edward Tate, George Pattison, Henry Hodgshon, and 
Edward Henry were cast awaie in a Coble. 

1617, October 8. Bradeley, Servant to Mr. John Morrey of His Majesties 

Bed Chamber, was buried. 

1618, November 16. Robert Dove of Whitley was buried. 

1623, February 13. William Robinson, Vicar de Tynmouth, Sepultus fuit, 

xiii die Feb r Ano dm. 1622. 

1628, November 23. Sir Raph Delavale was buryed. 
1633, June 5. King Charles was at Tinmouth Castell. 



208 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

NOTE. These two last entries are out of order of date, and follow 
24th April, 1624, and precede one dated 20th July, 1626. It is 
probable they were inserted later. It was the custom, when a 
landowner had large landed possessions in different places, that 
his burial should be recorded in the registers of the church of 
each place. The burial of Sir Ralph Delaval probably took 
place at Seaton Delaval, the family seat, where many members 
of the family were buried. In Waters, on Parish Registers, it 
is stated it was not unusual, when persons of consequence died, 
to have the funeral service performed with a corpus Jictum, or 
effigy, of the deceased in all the different churches with which 
they were connected, and such funerals were entered in the 
parish registers as if they were actual burials, although the 
body was interred elsewhere (see p. 47). 

The visit of King Charles the first was the last visit of any 
of our kings or queens to the castle. 

162-f, February 12. William Midcafe of Sheles was buryed in the Church. 
1636, October 9. Raph Reed of Chirton was buryed. 

1642, October 4. Thomas Hume, the Learned parish Clerke, was buryed, and 
nephew to James Hume, Vicar of Tinemouth, 1642. He lived well ; 
he dyed well ; his soule praises God. Amen. 

NOTE. From 30th November, 1643, to 10th May, 1646, there are 
no entries of any burials. They are resumed on the same page. 
A line is drawn across the page, but no space is left. Written 
along the outer edge of the page is the following entry: ' Anne, 
the Wiffe of Thomas Cliffe of Sheeles was buryed the 14th of 
August, 1646.' In Gardner's England's Grievances Discovered 
is an account of the injuries she received at the hands of two 
sergeants sent by the Mayor and burgesses of Newcastle to 
Shields, with some free carpenters of Newcastle, which resulted 
in her death. At page 74 is an engraving of the sanguinary 
attack made on the defenceless woman. 
1646, November 24. Ralph Reede of Cbirton was buryed. 

NOTE. He was the father of the wife of Ralph Gardner. From 
23rd January, 1648, to 17th April, 1650, there are no entries of 
any burials. A line is drawn across the page and the entries 
are resumed. 
1650, May 13. John, the Sonne of Ralph Gardner of Chirton was buryed. 

NOTE. This was a son of the river reformer. After the entry 
of a burial on 15th August, 1653, a line is drawn across the page 
of the register and the entries which follow are headed 'Act 
of Parlemt.' On the 24th of August, 1653, an act was passed 
by the Praise God Barebones Parliament which required the 
clergy to give up the register books to laymen, to which I have 
referred in the extracts from the register of baptisms. 

1655, August 5. Anne, ye Daughter of Mr. Ralph Gardner of Sheeles. 

1656, July . , ye Sonne of Gabrial Coulson of Sheeles Church, buried 

Spittell. 



EXTRACTS FROM BURIALS. 209 

NOTE. This is the first entry of a burial at the Spital dene on 
the road from Holy Saviour's church, Tynemouth, to Preston 
road. It is the site of the hospital of St. Leonard which is 
mentioned in 1320. See an account of the hospital in vol. iii. 
of the Proceedings, p. 35. 
1658, August 24. Mrs. Prudence Toppinge of Castle Buried. 

NOTE. She was the wife of the governor of the Castle. 

1662, Sep. 25. Ellinor, Wife, was to Jno. Otway of North Sheilds (drowned) 

and after she was found and Coroner's enquest past on her, buried at 

ye Spittell. 

June 14. A Sea Boy yt lay Mr. Hockins house, buried Spitle. 
November 24. Stephen Henricks of Linn and 3 more buried (all in 

one grave) yt was shipwrackt ye 23 rd last in ye Eagle of Linn. 
November 25. Thomas Holley, Mr. of ye Eagle of Linne, buried. 
December 9. George Phillips, one of Capt. John Guillems Souldiers, 

buried, being kild ye 7 th instant by Christo Litle one of Capt. Tho. 

Love's Sould r w h a Durke. 

1663, August 21. John Sparrow of North Shields, Carpenter, buried, being 

kild ye 19 th instant with a Ship called ye Nightingale of Linne, 
Simon Armorie, Master, and she found by ye Jury a Deodand. 
NOTE. A.deodandwas a personal chattel which had been the 
immediate cause of the death of a person, and was forfeited to 
the Crown, to be applied to pious uses and distributed in alms 
by the high almoner ; but the right to deodands had been for 
the most part granted out to the lords of manors to the per- 
version of their original use. They were abolished by 9 th & 
10 th Vic. c. 62. 
166|, January 7. George Linton of North Shields buried, excommunicate. 

NOTE. See paper on ' Tynemouth Castle after the Dissolution of 

the Monastery.' Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xviii., p. 74. 
16&|, February 4. Eleanor, ye Daughter of William Bencks, Robt, ye Son 
of Robert Hall, both buried. They died of ye contagion (or sick- 
ness) and was ye first yt was taken notice on. 

NOTE. Several persons died of the sickness. In the margin of 
the register is the following note : ' The sickness was discovered 
ye 4 th of ffebr., only 14 psons yt died of it from yt time untill 
& with March ye 4 th . 

1665, June 4. Matthew Huzing of Hasting & Robert .... 2 of Capt. John 
Swiston's Men, Capt. of ye St. John, both slane ye 2 nd instant 
by a Cannon bullet shot out of Mr. Blacket's Ship Xpofer (Christo- 
pher). Dawson, Master (buried in one grave wh. their Clothes on). 
166y, March 3. Mr. Robert Otway, of Preston, buried in ye midle of ye 

Chancel at Tinemouth. 

March 7. Mr. William Collingwood of Sheilds buried near Mr. Otway. 
May 31. Mrs. Margaret Hurlestone, alias Hudlestone, buried in 

Chancell. 

1667, August 4. Gabriell, ye Son of Gabriel Coulson, buried in Tin: Church, 
on ye left hand as ye goe into ye body of ye Church. (He lies now, 
since ye Church was altered, nere ye Com. table.) 



210 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

September 30. Mr. flabbuckuk Wills, M r aud Marriner, buried. The 
Ships fired their guns all ye time they brought him up to ye Church, 
and all ye time he was burying. 
1668. December 27. Prudence, ye Daughter of John Topping, Esqre., buried 

in Chancell. He was then Govn r of Tinemouth Castle. 
16f, February 28. Eobert Dove, Jun r , buried in Tin. Church. 

Mary, ye Wife of Mr. Bobert Wouldhave buried. 
1670, April 25. Three Seamen belonging to Mr. Rich d Cable buried. 

April 26. Mr. Richard Cable and five more of his men buried, all at 

Tinmouth. 

July 22. A beggar was this day buried. 
September 4. Dame Clapinson buried at ye Spitle. 

167, February 12. Mr. John Blakiston of ye North Sheilds dept d this life 
ye 10 th instant, and buried in ye midle of ye Chancell of Christ's 
Church, of w h he was one of the flounders. 

1672, March 13. George Milbourne of East Chirton, Esq r ., died ye 10 h 

instant, buried ye 13 h in ye quire of Christ's Church. 

1673, October 29. Mr. Edward Josceline buried at Tinemouth in y* place 

that was the Chancell there. 

December 19. John Brown (alias flowry Brown) bur. 

167|, January 28. Dorothy Craister (alias Dame Dorre) buried, she died 
suddenly (reports says some did her wrong). 

February 2. Old John Hall of Whitley buried at Spitle. 

March 5. John Harestones (late of Dumfresh 8 in ye Kingdom of Scot- 
land (a rich Chapman), buried, he died in John Thomson's in ye 
North Sheilds. 

1675, May 10. John Clarke of East Chirton, Esq., depted this life May ye 

6 th (1675), buried at Allhallowes in Newcastle (in ye Chancell there) 
May ye 10 th , 1675. 

NOTE. He was one of the auditors of the earl of Northumber- 
land's estates, and built a house at Chirton. He obtained a 
gift of the materials of Warkworth castle from the widow of 
Josclin, last earl of Northumberland. His house at Chirton was 
in later years sold to the first duke of Argyle, who died there 
in 1703. After the duke's death the house was sold to Robert 
Lawson, esq., and it remained in possession of the family until 
it was pulled down in 1811, and some of the oak fittings were 
removed to Cramlington, where Mr. Lawson had a house. 
July 9. Jane, ye Da of Mr. Jo Smith, buried p. Mr. Bordley (Mr. Dock- 
wray away with ye Collonell) 15 weeks old. 

NOTE. Stephen Bordley was appointed minister of St. Hild's on 
the 27th July, 1664. His last signature in the South Shields 
vestry book is on 8th September, 1689. 
December 6. Milbournella, ye Da of Jo Butler of Chirton, Esq., buried. 

1676, July 13. John fflourday and Joseph belonging to Mr. Joseph Spackam 

of Great Yarmouth, buried, ye ship lost last night. 
December 15. M a . Tho. L d Witherington [Widdrington] brought on 
shore at ye Low Lights this day, and carried on a coach, &c., to 
Witherington to be interred there. He died at London, and was 
brought down in one of his Mat' 69 Catches. 



EXTRACTS FROM BURIALS. 211 

16T7, August 8. Mr. Thomas Lorraigne (or Lorrane) kild by ye fall of a 
great Tree (or Mast) at ye peer at Culvercoats erecting for a Beacon, 
buried at Tynemouth. 

1677, October 28. William, ye Son of Lancelot Rutler of Preston kild by a 

fall out of a waine (he was put into a grave but lay untouched till 

ye next day being Sunday, and ye Coroner not coming, he was 

before prayers began. 

1678, Aprill 18. William Collinson of Tynemouth, Esq., buried in ye 

Chancell at Tyn. 
August 6. Elizabeth, ye Daughter of Alexander Brodenstones buried, 

the first buried in Wooling according to ye act pt. [parliament]. 
NOTE. In 1665 an act was passed for burying in woollen only. 
The object of the act was to discourage the importation of linen 
from beyond the seas and to give encouragement to the woollen 
manufacturers in the kingdom ; but as the object had not been 
obtained for want of sufficient penalties, another act was passed 
in 1677 (30 Charles II. cap. 3), by which it was enacted that 
after the 1st of August. 1678, no corps of any person should be 
buried in any shirt, shift, sheet or shroud, or anything what- 
soever made or mingled with flax, hemp, silk, hair, gold, or 
silver other than what was made of sheep's wool only, or be 
put in any coffin lined or faced with any sort of cloth or stuff, 
or any other thing whatsoever that was made of any material 
but sheep's wool upon pain of the forfeiture of 5. The act 
was repealed in 1814 (54 Geo. 3 c. 108) after having been in 
disuse for many years. 

1679, August 10. Elizabeth, ye wife of John Thompson, wherriman, buried. 

She was very long ill in a Tympany. 

1679, October 6. Mr. Anthony Stiles, a Gent., y* died at Capt. Bickerstaff's 
of Chirton, buried in Christ Church. 
NOTE. Capt. Bickerstaffe married the widow of John Clarke, the 

auditor of the Northumberland estates. 

December 7. Mistress Barbara Delavale was this day buried. 
16g, January 11. Ann Robson, but a poor Girle, burnt by the fire in Will 
Ball's, being then lodged there, and upon (or by reason of) yt 
burning dyed. She had a Coffin at ye townes charge and above 100 
Girls were at her buriall. 
March 2. Nicholas Ward (alias Wouldhave) (o r Anchient Sexton) 

buried. 

October 8. Robert, Currey of Sheilds, Skinner and Glover, buried in 
Dove's buriall place, near Culvercoats. He was drowned in Mr. 
Lawson's sumpe. 
1681, July 25. Elizabeth, ye Daughter of Charles Graham of Tynemouth, 

buried. M a . She took a bleeding and bled to death. 
September 9. Robert Thomson (alias Hob with ye hole) buried, kild 
yesterday at ye Blackmiddens by ye Bank and a great stone y* fell 
down upon him when he was houcking for coales. 
September 22. Stephen Dockwray, Vicar of Tynemouth, buried in the 
Chancell of Christ's Church. Vivat post funera virtus. 



212 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

1683, June 19. Mrs. Mehitophell Lomax (Mr. Jo. Lomax, his Da.), buried. 

NOTE. See an account of her father below. 

August 21. Margaret, ye wife of Mr. Christopher Dobson of North 
Shields, buried in ye Chancell at Christ's Church. Mr. Bordley 
preached ye ffunerall Sermon and buried her (or Vicar being at ye 
Bpps Trienniall Visitation). 

1683, September 8. John Mardaugh, belonging to Mr. Alexander, Master of 
ye Elizabeth and Rebecka of Yarmouth, buried (late at night). He 
lived at Burrodennesse, near Leeth, in Scotland. He fell of ye 
yard's end into ye water and was drowned, and afterwards found 

and buried as aforesaid John Brown and George Charles, 

witnesses of his ffaling, drownding, findeing, and buriall. 

1688, November 13. Mrs. Mary Villiers, Daughf of Capt. Hen. Villiers, 

Gov. of Tin. Castle, bur 11 . 

1689, May 25. Ralph Milbourne of Chirton, Esq., buried. 

NOTE. The oldest mural tablet in Christ church is erected to his 
memory. 

1690, November 3. Edward Hodgson of Shields bur 11 . 

NOTE. He was one of the first founders of the church. 

The following entry appears in large letters : 
1691 September 1. S r Ralph Delavall, Kt. and Bart., buried. 
169, February 4. John Young (a fool man y* was drownd) buried. 

1693, May 27. Mr. John Lomax of Shields buried. 

NOTE. The Rev. John Lomax, M.A., of Emanuel college, Cam- 
bridge, being ejected by the Act of Uniformity in 1662 came to 
North Shields, where he preached. His salary as minister was 
only 4 per annum. He also practised physic and surgery and 
also kept an apothecary's shop, there being then no other in the 
place. The shop was at the west end of Liddell Street, in 
North Shields, being part of the High Street of the old town. 
The title deeds are in my possession. He died on 25th May, 
1693, and was buried in the Priory burial ground at Tynemouth 
and a small and partly hidden tombstone still stands over his 
grave. It bears the following inscription: 'Here lyeth ye 
body of M r John Lomax, who departed this life, May ye 25, 
1693.' The inscription is almost illegible. I copied it about 25 
years ago. He was the first minister of the Scotch church at 
North Shields. He was held in high estimation by bishop 
Cosin. 

1694, May 31. Maddam Jane Bickerstaffe, wife of Phillip Bickerstaffe, Esq., 

of Chirton, buried. 

December 10. Mrs. Jane Dockwray (widdow) of Tinmouth buried in 
the chancel in Christ Church. 

1695, October 30. Widdow Greathead (a poor woman) dyed on ye Ten-pan 

Ground. 

1 69, January 6. Mrs. Catherine Lomax of North Shields buried. (She was 
the widow of John Lomax before mentioned.) 

1696, August 30. S r Ralph Delavaile, K* & Bart., buried. 



EXTRACTS FROM BURIALS. 213 

November 29. Mr. Thomas Otway of Preston buried. 

December 26. Maddam Delavale (of ye Lodge) buried. 
1697, March 31. Jaques Herbert, docter to his Maties Shipp ye Surloyne, 

Capt. Cotton, Comander (who was drowned and then buried). 
1699, September 29. Winnifrid, da of Mr. John Roddam of Chirton, buried. 
1702, September 2. John Spearman of Preston buried. 

October 1. Mr. John Roddam of Chirton buried. 

170f, January 19. Mrs. Charlett, Daughter of Coll. Henry Villiers, Tin- 
mouth Castle, buried. 

February 26. James, son of the Honble Coll. Henry Villiers, buried. 

1705, September 18. Tho., the son of Geo. Gibson Salter of Cullercotts 

buried at the Spittle. 

1706, February 18. Margery Bond, a poor lame Lass, bur" 1 . 

1707, August 22. The Honble Henry Villiers, Governor of Tinmouth Castle, 

buried. 
171 f. January 10. Mrs. Ann, the Daughter of Robert Lawson, Esq., of 

Chirton, buried. 
1715, June 21. William Whitehead, parish clerk, bur. 

1717. May 1. John Campian, a Soldier shot for desertion. 

1718, July 3. Margaret, wife of John Delabene, Esq., Lieut. -Go vernour of 

Tinmouth Castle, bur. 
1720, April 2. Mrs. Winifred Milbourn, widow, of Chirton, bur. 

1722, February 25. Mr. Anthony Mitchell of Cullercoats bur. He was 

riding Surveyor of the Customs between Newcastle and Newbigon, 
the 20 th he was found dead betwixt Hartley and Cullercoats, sup- 
posed by many to be murdered by two villains that used to run 
brandy. 

December 18. John Delabene, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor of Cliffords 
fort, buried. 

December 29. Mrs. Winifrid Roddam of Ohirton, widow, buried. 

1723, June 25. Mr. Robert Colt, Lieutenant of the Invalids Company at the 

Fort, buried. 
August 15. William Robson of Sh : the D. of Somerset's bayliffe, bur. 

NOTE. The duke of Somerset married Lady Elizabeth Percy. 
172, February 24. The Rever" 1 Mr. Thomas Dockwray, Vicar of Tinmouth, 
buried. 

1732, December 13. John Shields, a child dropt in Shields, bur. 

1733, July 12. Mrs. Hannah Reah, wife of Mr. Henry Reah, Alderman of 

Newcastle, bur. 
173f, January 25. Daniel, Son to Mr. Mansfieldt Cardonnel, Collector of ye 

Salt, Sh. bur. 

March 7. The Rev* Mr. Ralph Clarke, buried. 
October 21. Henry Reay, Esq., Alderman of Newcastle, burd. 
1737, June 19. Henry Hudson, Esq., Whitley. 

1743, August 7. A Wife of one ye Highland Regiment now in Flanders. 
174, February 4. Albert Michael. Dutch soldier. 

NOTE. The burials of other Dutch soldiers are recorded. 



214 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

February 20. Conrad Swalor, Swiss soldier. 

NOTE. The burials of other Swiss soldiers are recorded. 
1747, July 21. Chr Teron, Frenchman. 

NOTE. The burials of other Frenchmen are recorded. 
1752, September 18. Mr. John Stephenson, Roper, Shields. 
1754, September 11. Mr. Rowley Bowyer, Collector of the Salt Duty, N. 

Shields. 

1757, September 10. Bernard Mackinis, a French prisoner at Tinmouth. 
1760, January 5. Robert Holland, Drumer in Capt. Forbes Company of 

Invalids. 
November 21. Peter Pewh of Tynemouth Barracks, Soldier, found dead 

in the Fields. 

1765, February 1. Sarah, Wife of Edward Henzell of Howdon panns, Glass- 
maker. 

May 30. Mary, dau. of David Mutiny, of No. Sh. Mar. 
June 2. Walter Killbreath of No. Shields, Cordwainer. 
1769, February 10. Anthony Pearson of No. Shields, Gentleman. 
1772, March 13. Elizabeth, Wife of William Potts of No. Sh. Aged 104. 

May 27. Joseph Dacre, Son of Richard Lacy of Newcastle, Esq. 
1778, January 28. Thomas Wouldhave of No. Shi., Painter. (Father of the 

inventor of the lifeboat.) 
1783, April 24. William Linskill of Chirton, Esquire. 

May 23. Edward Oollingwood of Chirton, Esq e , buried at All Saints, 
Newcastle. 

1787, January 31. Thomas, Son of Elias Durnford, Esq., Major Ingineer. 

1788, March 27. James Mills of Cullercoats, Fisherman. Aged 105 years. 

1789, February 26. James Storey of the Lowlights, Esq r . 
1792, May 14. Mr. John Collingwood of Chirton, Gentleman. 

1795, December 7. Thomas Newall, private of the North York Militia, was 

murdered on the 29 th day of November, by some person or persons 
unknown. 

1796, October 18. Charles Denis Laperelle pretre rector de Sainte Marie. 
October 11. Monsieur Lesens seigneur de la parroisse de Neumesnil 

province de Normandie. 
1813, January 26. Mary Costellow of Chirton Barracks. Aged 25 years. 

NOTE. The house at South Preston belonging to Mr. Charles 
J. Spence was part of the Chirton Barracks. 



APPENDIX. REGISTERS. 

A. Baptisms, 1607, to 21 August, 1703. 

Weddings, to 21 September, 1703. 

Burials, to July, 1703. 

1 page loose, 
B. Baptisms, 1 October, 1703, to 10 September, 1733. 

Marriages, to 26 February, 173|. 

Burials, to 7 March, 173f. 



LIST OF VOLUMES. 215 

C. Baptisms, 11 September, 1733, to 31 December, 1753. 

Burials, 10 March, 1733, to 30 December, 1753. 

Weddings, 15 April, 1734, to 24 February, 1754. 
D. Baptisms, 1 January, 1754, to 31 July, 1774. 

Burials, 4 to 12 

The above registers close the joint register books. 

REGISTERS OP BAPTISMS. 



No. 1. 


1st 


Aug., 


1774, 


to 


29th 


April, 


1795. 


H 


2. 


1st 


May, 


1795, 


to 


30th 


Dec., 


1804. 


M 


3. 


1st 


Jan., 


1805, 


to 


30th 


Dec., 


1812. 


>J 


4. 


1st 


Jan., 


1813, 


to 


5th 


Jan., 


1817. 


> 


5. 


5th 


Jan., 


1817, 


to 


13th 


Dec., 


1820. 


>J 


6. 


13th 


Dec., 


1820, 


to 


20th 


Oct., 


1824. 


|> 


7. 


22nd Oct., 


1824, 


to 


15th 


June, 


1828. 





8. 


18th 


June, 


1828, 


to 


17th 


Jan., 


1832. 


M 


9. 


18th 


Jan., 


1832, 


to 


27th 


Nov., 


1835. 


if 


10. 


27th 


Nov., 


1835, 


to 


1st 


Sept., 


1839. 


11 


11. 


1st 


Sept., 


1839, 


to 


26th 


Jan., 


1844. 





12. 


26th 


Jan., 


1844, 


to 


12th 


July, 


1848. 


H 


13. 


12th 


July, 


1818, 


to 


30th 


Jan., 


1853. 


H 


14. 


30th 


Jan., 


1853, 


to 


26th 


July, 


1857. 


W 


15. 


26th 


July, 


1857, 


to 


22nd June, 


1862. 


MARRIAGES. 


No. 1. 


22nd April, 


1754, 


to 


17th 


Dec., 


1762. 


l 


2. 


12th 


Jan., 


1763, 


to 


8th 


March, 


1784. 


II 


3. 


14th 


March 


, 1784, 


to 


12th 


Aug., 


1794. 





4. 


16th 


Aug., 


1794, 


to 


30th 


Dec., 


1802. 


n 


5. 


3rd 


Jan., 


1803, 


to 


1st 


June, 


1811. 


II 


6. 


2nd June, 


1811, 


to 


30th 


Dec., 


1812. 


II 


7. 


2nd Jan., 


1813, 


to 


7th 


Dec., 


1817. 


l 


8. 


8th 


Dec., 


1817, 


to 


12th 


April, 


1823. 


II 


9. 


13th 


April, 


1823, 


to 


18th 


Feb., 


1828. 


II 


10. 


23rd 


Feb., 


1828, 


to 


20th 


July, 


1833. 


91 


11. 


20th 


July, 


1833, 


to 


23rd 


June, 


1837. 


! 


12. 


24th 


June, 


1837, 


to 


24th 


July, 


1841. 


II 


13. 


31st 


July, 


1841, 


to 


7th 


March, 


1846. 


|] 


14. 


8th 


March 


, 1846, 


to 


12th 


Feb., 


1850. 


II 


15. 


22nd Feb., 


1850, 


to 


29th 


Aug., 


1853. 


l 


16. 


30th 


Aug., 


1853, 


to 


26th 


Oct., 


1856. 


> 


17. 


26th 


Oct., 


1856, 


to 


5th 


Sept., 


1860. 


BURIALS. 


No. l. 


14th 


July, 


1774, 


to 


30th 


Sept., 


1793. 


D 


2. 


3rd 


Oct., 


1793, 


to 


30th 


Dec., 


1805. 


H 


3. 


3rd 


Jan., 


1806, 


to 


30th 


Dec., 


1812. 



216 TYNEMOUTH PARISH REGISTERS : 

No. 4. 2nd Jan., 1813, to 4th Feb., 1818. 

5. 4th Feb., 1818, to 4th Feb., 1823. 

6. 6th Feb., 1823, to 27th Dec., 1827. 

7. 28th Dec., 1827, to 30th Dec., 1831. 

8. 30th Dec., 1831, to 18th March. 1836. 

9. 19th March, 1836, to 23rd Aug., 1840. 

10. 25th Aug., 1840, to 25th May, 1845. 

,,11. 25th May, 1845, to 27th March, 1849. 

12. 27th March, 1849, to 20th Sept., 1852. 

13. 20th Sept., 1852, to 29th June, 1856. 

14. 30th June, 1856, to 30th Dec., 1868. 

The baptisms recorded from 1805 to 1862 are 33,048. 
The burials recorded from 1812 to 1868 are 28,782. 
The marriages recorded from 1803 to 1862 are 11.765. 

In some of the later registers there are unusual Christian names. In the 
registers of baptisms occur the following names : Absalom, Magdalen, Kezia 
Maria, Derwick, Appalinea, James Rupert, son of Prince Rupert Morris, bap- 
tized on the 29th May (Royal Oak day), Euphans and Mary Magdalen, Pamela 
Idelia, Tamen, Unice, Apollonia, Majoyne Woodana, Romeo. Adoris, Luther, 
Jerusha, Honor, Hendrina, Benjamina, Albion Donna Maria, Phatual, Hepziphah, 
Iris, Miriam, Lycette, Charlesina, Isidore, Hannah Marquis, Bailiff, Lazarus, 
Easter [Esther], Mehitable, Quintin. In remembrance of the great election of 
1826 twin children were called Wentworth Beaumont and Thomas Liddell, and 
another child was named Henry Thomas Liddell. 



217 



XXII. 'DARGS AND DAYWORKES.' 
1. By THE EARL PERCY, F.S.A. 
[Read on the 29th October, 1897.] 

In the second volume of the History of Northumberland, now in 
course of publication, in the account of the township of North 
Charlton (vol. ii. p. 295), a quotation from a survey of 1578 is made 
to the effect that ' the moore of North Charleton . . . contains 
of due measuring MMOCCXXXXVIII acres, 3 roods and vii days 
worke.' To this the editor has appended a note : ' another passage in 
this terrier states that a plot of land containing 71 a . 1 rood, 5 dayes 
worke and 2 perches. See p. 128 where the letter D stands for a 
unit of measurement on an estate map made in 1599. Cf. Heslop, 
sub cap. "Darg," Northumberland Words, "in ancient terriers dagg is 
used as an equivalent for a certain portion of land, probably as much as 
can be ploughed in one day's work, or a day's work of mowing " ' etc. 

Turning to page 128 we find a survey of the manor of Rock 
employing the letter D to represent a unit of measurement, and a 
note pointing out that this D may represent the tenth part of a strip 
measuring 2,200 yards, or % of an acre. I believe I am responsible 
for having made this suggestion to the editor. I am convinced, how- 
ever, on further consideration, that 'D' stands not for -% of acre, 
but for $. 

The terms in question are used in two ways : as measures of time 
and as measures of space. 

I. A 'day work' (not 'day's work') is sometimes, and a 'darg' is 
generally, if not always, used to describe the work or service to be 
rendered. Thus 'the tenants of Hawkle pay yearly for iiij precarious 
plough dargs, at the feast of St. Cuthb 1 , in March only, viiij d ' ('pre- 
carious' is, of course, the translation of the Latin 'precariae'), 'The 
aforesaid tenants pay yearly for xij harvest day workes, at the feast of 
St. Cuthb*, in September, xij d ,' 'The heirs of William Herrison rent 
by the year for 6 harvest day-workes,' ' The tenants of Byllton pay 
yearly for xviij p'carious plough darges, at the feast of St. Cuthb*, in 
March, xvj d .' From these entries it would appear as if 'darg' was the 



218 ' DARGS AND DAYVVORKES.' 

appropriate word for service with the plough, harvesting being de- 
scribed as 'day worke;' but 'day worke' might include ploughing. 
' The towne of Shilbottle payeth yearely to the lord of Alnewicke for 
xxvj dayworkes ; y 4 is to say, for ploughing and shearing day workes, 
at the feast of St. Cuthb 1 , in the moneth of September only, viiij 3 xj d .' 
'Darg' is still, or was till recently, used in the vernacular in Scotland. 
In the Heart of Midlothian, Jeanie Deans tells Dumbiedykes that she 
has ' a long day's darg afore ' her. 

II. But a day-worke was also formerly as definite a unit of men- 
suration as an acre, a rood, or a perch. Leonard Digges, in his Tec- 
tonicon, published in the year 1556, says: 'It is requisite, also, here 
to open what a Pearche, a Day Woorke, a Roode, and an Acre is. 
Although there are diuerse opinions engendred, through long custome, 
in many places, of the length of a Pearche (upon whiche our chiefe 
matter dependeth), yet there is but one true Pearche by Statute ap- 
pointed to measure by, wherein is ordained three Barly cornes, dry and 
rounde, to make an Inche, 12 Inches a Foote, S Foote a Yarde, five 
Yardes and J a Pearche, 40 Pearches in length and 4 in breadth an 
Acre j 1 so an Acre by Statute ought to contain 160 Pearches, the halfe 
Acre 80 Pearches, a Roode, commonly called a quarter, 40 Pearches, 
a Day worke 4 Pearches.' And in the subsequent pages of the book 
the problems are regularly worked out in perches, day works, roods, 
and acres. 

Norden also, in his Surveyor's Dialogue, published in 1607, gives 
us the following conversation between the surveyor and the bailiff 
'Sur, You must know that there go 160 perches to one acre, 80 
perches to halfe an acre, 40 perches to one roode, of foure parts and a 
halfe of an acre, ten day-works to a rood, foure perches to day-worke, 
18 foote and a halfe to a perch. Bayly Then I perceive, that as 
many times as I find 160 perches in 400 perches, so many acres 
the peece is, and if the overplus come to 80 perches, it makes halfe 
an acre more, if to forty, one roode, if to foure perches, a day- 
worke : and so according to the odde perches it maketh parts of an 
acre. Sur. You take it rightly. Bayly Then I divide 400 by 160 
and I find 160 twice in 400 and 80 over : so it amounts to two acres 
and a halfe. Sur. It is well done : but I would have you to observe 

1 This statement, with regard to the theoretical shape of an acre, is curious. 



'DARGS AND DAYWORKES.' 219 

a form in setting down your quantities : for as the parts are foure, so 
set them down in foure columnes : as for example : 2-2-0-0 : the 
first is acres, the second is roodes, the third is day-workes, and the 
fourth perches.' 

There is abundant evidence that this form of mensuration was in 
vogue in Northumberland, as the survey above quoted shows ; e.g. y 
'This same containes by measure 18 foot to the perche 3063 ac. 6 ro. 
11 day workes, per : nul.' 'There be in the said p'kes iiij or Keep's 
which have allowed them .... pasture for iiij or kyne w th their 
followers .... and iiij or day workes of meadow ground towards the 
finding and feeding of the said Oattell in Winter,' etc. * The Lorde 
hath alsoe in the said Parkes one Grayser or Joyster w ch .... hath 
allowed him likewise for his Fee, for the exerciseing of his said office, 
.... pasture for ij kine and their Calves, .... ij dayworkes of 
meadow towards the feeding the said Cattell in Winter,' etc. ' Thomas 
Riccoby Carpenter and menteyner of all the pales in both P'kes afore- 
said who hath allowed to him as a Fee for the same Pasture for ij 
kyne & ij dayworkes of Meadow,' etc. 

On this system the demesne lands of Rock are easily calculated. 
The scale is 'statit measure, vidzt : 16 foot & a haKe to the pearch.' 
The account should stand thus : 

Acres. Roodes. Dayworkes. Pearches. 

In arrable 165 3 

In medow 52 1 

In pasture 150 

In moore pasture 455 000 

Lady close 16 

Mill closes 0060 

John Lyle 5350 

Total 845 1 

The surveyor has made a slight error in putting the ' 1 ' of the total 
in the ' roodes ' column instead of in that of the ' dayworkes.' 

I cannot resist the temptation of pointing out a somewhat curious 
arithmetical or geometrical coincidence which follows from the re- 
insertion of the day worke in the scale of land mensuration, though it 
would be idle to attach much weight to it. If the hide of Domesday 
contained 120 acres, then by dividing it by 4 we get the virgate, or 
normal holding of the villein. Under a three field system the amount 



220 ' DABGS AXD DAYWOBKE8. 

of land held by the villein in any one field would be represented by a 
square furlong. Divide this area by 10 and we get the acre. Divid- 
ing the acre by 4 gives us the rood. Divide the rood by 10 and we 
obtain the dayworke. Divide the dayworke by 4 and we find the 
perch. Thus the perch may be derived from the hide by successively 
dividing it by 4 and 10 alternately. 



2. By F. W. DENDY. 

My impression was that the word 'darg' (or 'dargue' as it is 
sometimes written) was derived from the Scandinavian word 'dag,' 
a day ; but Mr. Heslop has called my attention to Dr. Murray's expla- 
nation in the New English Dictionary, which I have no doubt is more 
correct. Dr. Murray says the word is 'a syncopated form of day- 
iverk, or day-tvark, day work, through the series of forms dawark, 
da 1 ark, dark, darg, the latter being now the common form in Scotland.' 

Earl Percy has done good service in unearthing the meaning 
which was given to the word day-work as a unit of mensuration by 
Digges and Norden, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His 
explanation undoubtedly clears up the difficulty which was felt by 
Mr. Bateson in construing the areas given in the schedule attached 
to the map of the manor of Eock, preserved in the Bodleian library, 
and extracted in the second volume of the History of Northumberland. 
Another authority to the same effect is cited by Dr. Murray under the 
head of 'Day's work,' dated in 1610, from W. Folkingham Art of 
Survey, ii. vii. 59. ' Foure square Pearches make a Daiesworke, 10 
Daiesworkes a Roode.' 

It is, however, difficult to believe that so small an area as that 
definition includes, namely, 4 rods by 1 rod or 22 yards by 5^ yards 
could ever have been considered a day's work in actual ploughing. I 
am inclined to think that that definition only came into use after the 
custom had grown up of receiving from the tenant a recognised money 
equivalent in lieu of the actual services which had been formerly 
rendered, and that the term was then used either as a convenient 
division for assessing the rent payable or perhaps for plotting out the 
common field strips on their re-distribution. 



1 DARGS AND DAYWORKES.' 221 

Earl Percy has since suggested that this day-work of four square 
rods may represent the spade-work of a cottager (who, as is well 
known, had no cattle or plough), on his small plot of arable land. 

There is considerable evidence that the word or similar words were 
also used conventionally to express the larger area of an acre. Mr. 
Heslop, in his Northumberland Words, mentions that Mr. Dand 
possesses a field at Amble Moorhouse called 'the four-and-twenty darg' 
containing 24 acres. Last year my firm sold a meadow in North 
Yorkshire held under a lease granted in the sixteenth century in which 
the quantity it contained was expressed to be 'nine day's mowing.' 
When we sold it, it contained 9a. Ir. Op. 

The terms journal, tagiverk^ and morgen, used on the Continent 
also denote an acre strip. 

The definition of ' Dawach,' quoted in Spelmarfs Glossary from 
Skene, is to a somewhat different effect 'Apud priscos Scotos one 
daivach of land quod continet quatuor aratra terrae quorum unum- 
quodque trahitur octo bobus : Alii quatuor aratra duplicia intelligunt, 
quae sunt octo simplicia : Sed servari debet usus & consuetudo 
locorum. In nonnullis libris hie legitur Bovatae terrae contra fidem 
veterum codicum authenticorum. Bovata autem terrae continet 13 
acras, cujus octava pars comprehendit unam acram dimidiam acrae et 
octavam partem acrae.' 

The much smaller area given by the authorities cited by earl Percy 
can be very clearly shown in the diagrams used by Mr. Seebohm to 
explain the constituent parts of an acre. As they do not seem to be 
familiar to all our members they are here reproduced, with additions. 

PLAN OF THE CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THE NORMAL ACRE STRIP IN THE OPEN 
FIELDS AFTERWARDS ADOPTED AS THE STATUTE ACRE. 

A furlong or furrow long 
containing 40 rods and forming the 8th part of a mile = 220 yards. 

10 20 30 40 

I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I i I I i I I I I I I I I I 



A furlong rodded or a rood containing 40 square rods. 
VOL. xix 29 



222 



'DAKGSAND DAYVVORKES.' 

10 20 30 



40 



I I i I I I I 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



I I 



I I 



An acre containing 4 roods side by side = 160 rods = 220 x 22 yards. 



1 1 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


J{ '- 
1 1 1 

1 1 1 



An acre containing 10 square chains, each' chain containing 16 square rods, i.e., 
22 x 22 yards each square chain. 



I I 1 I 



10 



A rood containing 10 day-works of 4 rods each. 



10 



30 



40 



An acre containing 40 dayworks of 4 rods each. 

Earl Percy has observed that these divisions are all multiples or 
dividends of the figures 10 or 4. He might have carried that multipli- 
cation on to the three-field carucate of 160 acres, and also to the 
square mile of 640 acres, by multiplying the 160 acres by 4. 
I am inclined to thing that the rod, pole, or perch, the actual 
measuring tool (which varied in length in different places, and thus 
produced varieties in the area of the acre), was the unit of measurement, 
and that the larger areas were produced by multiplication, rather than 
that some larger area was the unit, and that these smaller areas were 
produced by the division of it. 

Mr. Pell has pointed out in Domesday Studies, and it is a curious 
fact, although apparently unconnected with the present subject, that 
the Egyptians combined their weights by a binary or joint duodecimal 
and decimal system, .., 2 x 10 x 10 or 4 x 10 x 10, etc., a system which 
has some of the conveniences incident to each method of calculation. 



223 



XXIIL WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE. 

By RICHARD WELFORD, M.A., a vice-president of the society. 

[Read on the 15th December, 1897.] 

At the beginning of the present century two houses of considerable 
size and importance occupied a prominent position in the lower part 
of Westgate street, Newcastle. They stood side by side, facing the 
end of Pudding chare, with garden plots in front and ornamental 
grounds behind. The grounds in the rear were boundered by the 
town wall at that point in its course where, after running fairly 
straight up from the river, it took a wide sheer to the west, protected 
at the point of departure by Denton or Nevill tower. 

The easternmost of these two houses, that is to say the one nearest 
the entrance to Denton chare, was removed in 1822 to make way for 
the library of the Literary and Philosophical Society. The other, 
which, at its western end, abutted upon the grounds of the hospital of 
St. Mary the Virgin, survived till 1870, when it gave place to the 
Mining Institute and Wood Memorial Hall. 

For convenience of reference, these respective houses may be 
designated no. 1 and no. 2 no. 1 being the predecessor of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, no. 2 the forerunner of the 
Mining Institute. Upon the margin of Corbridge's map of Newcastle, 
published in 1723 or 1724, is a picture of no. 1, with the name of 
its owner, 'Mr. Thos. Orde.' Among the etchings of T. M. 
Richardson the elder, re-issued a few years ago, with the title of 
' Memorials of Old Newcastle,' is an admirable sketch of no. 2. 

The site of one of these houses had undoubtedly belonged to the 
great and powerful family of Nevill. Local history contains frequent 
reference to the. residences of the old nobility within the strong walls 
of Newcastle. The earls of Northumberland had a house in the Close ; 
the Nevills, a mansion in the Westgate ; the Scropes, a messuage, if 
not a home, in Pilgrim street. The house of the Nevills was originally 



224 



WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : 



called Bolbec hall, from the barony of Bolbec or Styford, which, with 
the adjoining barony of Bywell and other fair lands and manors in 
the northern counties, the family held by customary service of the 
crown. Later on, when the Nevills obtained the earldom of 
Westmorland, Bolbec hall became Westmorland place. 




HOUSE No. 1. SITE OF THE REAL WESTMORLAND PLACE. 
(From Corbridge's Map of Newcastle.) 

How long the mansion existed after the flight of the sixth earl of 
Westmorland, attainted for participation in the rebellion 'of 1569, is 
unknown. At that date it was held in free soccage from the earl by 



WM. GRAY'S ACCOUNT. 225 

James Bartram, 1 of j Newcastle, at a yearly rent of 6s. 8d., and we 
find James Bartram's descendants in possession down to the end of 
the seventeenth century. It is open to conjecture that the old house 
of the Nevills, if not demolished, was suffered to decay, and that the 
building which stood upon the site at the beginning of this century 
was a replacement, or a reconstruction of the original. 

Howsoever that may have been, the name of Westmorland place 
survived. From the time when Bolbec hall dropped out of local 
records down to our own day there was always a Westmorland place at 
the foot of Westgate street. Yet by one of those curious permutations 
which occasionally happen in topographical nomenclature, the name 
became detached from its original location, wavered for a time 
between these two adjoining houses, and finally settled upon the 
wrong building. 

When the patient antiquary desires to fix the site of an ancient 
edifice of which every vestige has been removed by the effacing fingers 
of modern improvement, he naturally turns to the re-vivifying pages 
of the local annalist and historian. But whosoever should attempt to 
identify the site of Westmorland place by consulting the histories of 
Newcastle would meet with considerable discouragement. 

Our earliest historian, Wm. Gray, merely states the fact that the 
Nevills had a house in Westgate street. In the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, when he published his Choroyraphia, the question of 
identity had not, perhaps, arisen. At all events he does not mention 
it, but limits himself to the following statement : 

Upon the West of the Town is Denton Chaire, which goeth into West- Gate- 
Street, which is a broad street, and private ; for men that lives there hath 
imployment for Town and Country. The Earl of Westmorland had his house 
in this street, and other gentlemen. 2 

Bourne devotes a whole chapter to ' the Earl of Westmoreland's 
House,' and labours the point of identity at considerable length, 
thus 3 : 

14 Jacobus Bertram tenet unum tenementum in villa Novi Castri in vico 
vocato West-Gate, quod quidem tenementum dictus Jacobus tenet libere de 
Comite Westmoreland in libero socagio. Et reddit inde per annum ad Fest. 
Pentecostes & Martini in hieme, equal. 3s. 4d.' From a survey of the possessions 
of Charles, sixth earl of Westmorland, June 10, 1569, quoted by Brand, vol. i. 
p. 66. * Gray's CharograpMa (1649), p. 20. 

3 Bourne's History of Newcastle (1736), p. 35. 



BOURNE'S DESCRIPTION. 227 

NEXT to St. Mary's [Hospital], on the Same side of this Street [Westgate 
St.] is a very old Building, which was lately the Dwelling-house of Sir Robert 
Shaftoe, K l , Recorder of this Town, now the Property and Dwelling-house of 
Mr. Charles Clark, Jun r . It has the Magnificence and Grandure of Antiquity 
in it's Looks ; but what it has been formerly I could never find out. Grey tells 
us, That in this Street the Earl of Westmoreland had his House, which indeed 
is true. It was built by the Baron of Bywell and Bolbeck, about the 9 th of 
Edward the Third. . . . This House in Westgate was called Bolbech-Hall ; 
but, afterwards, upon it's Founder's being created Earl, which was in the Reign 
of Richard the Second, in the Year 1398, when Ralph Nevil, Lord of Raby, was 
created Earl Marshall, it got the name of Westmoreland-Place in Westgate. 
Some have conjectured that Sir Robert Shafto's House, above-mentioned, was 
part of it ; and, indeed, it looks much liker a Part of such a Building, than any 
other Thing remaining thereabouts. I am sure much more so than the House, 
which is supposed to have been it, which I am told was the House opposite to 
the West End of Denton Chair, which the Rev. Mr. Cowling lately lived in, and 
which belongs to Mr. Ord. 

HOWEVEK, be this as it will, whether it was this House now mentioned, or 
whether Westmoreland- Place reached from this House to Sir Robert Shafto's, 
including it, which some have conjectured ; yet this is certain, that it must 
have been hereabouts : For Nevil Toner is directly behind this Piece of Ground 
we are speaking of, which is a sure Token this must be the very Place ; because, 
whoever in the Town built a Tower at their own Expence, it was generally nigh 
them for their own security. . . . But what I think puts it out of Dispute, 
that Sir Robert Shafto's House was no Part of it, is that in the Eleventh of 
Queen Elizabeth, upon the Attainder of Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, this 
House, where Mr. Cowling lived, was in Charge, which the other never was, 
before the Auditors ; and in the Third of Charles the First, was sold to the 
Citizens of London.* 

It was afterwards in the Tenure of James Bertram, and after that in the 
Tenure of Robert Bertram. 

Bourne, it will be seen, gives preference to no. 1 the Literary 
and Philosophical Society site. 

Brand, writing fifty-three years later, ignores the arguments of 
Bourne, and states that Westmorland place * is now the property of 
Mr. George Anderson, master builder,' adding that 'a remarkable 
wall, about 8 feet broad, passes the garden it has been converted 
into a terrace under this there is a vaulted passage made of very old 
bricks, and leading to Nevil-Tower.' 6 

Then comes Mackenzie with a history of Northumberland, in 
which, after quoting Brand, he states that ' this ancient mansion- 

4 Of this alleged sale to the ' citizens of London,' no corroboration appears, 
and Bourne does not give his authority for the statement. 

5 Brand's History of Newcastle (1789), vol. i. p. 66. 



228 WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : 

house was lately purchased by Mr. Thomas Anderson, master builder, 
of George Anderson, Esq.' 6 

Taken by themselves, these extracts from Brand and Mackenzie do 
not throw much light upon the question of identity. But, in his 
History of Newcastle, Mackenzie makes it evident that the house to 
which Brand and he attached the name of Westmorland place was 
no. 2, for he is describing the building of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society the ' new Library,' as he calls it which had 
then replaced no. 1, and he tells us that 

Adjoining the north side of this commodious structure is Westmoreland 
Place, which was called Bolbeck Hall before the founder was created an earl, 
which took place in 1398. It was built according to Bourne by the Baron of 
Bywell & Bolbeck about the 9th of Edward III. . . . That this is the scite 
of Westmoreland Place he thinks is certain from the circumstance of Neva's 
Tower being directly behind. ... It was purchased some years ago, of 
George Anderson, Esq., by the late Mr. Thomas Anderson, builder. 7 

Here we find Mackenzie quoting Bourne's arguments in favour of 
no. 1, and transferring them to no. 2. And in order that there may 
be no mistake about his meaning, he states that the house no. 1, 
which was purchased for the ' new Library,' belonged to Mr. Angus. 8 

Which, then, of these three respectable authorities is correct, and 
where was the real Westmorland place ? 

Some years before his departure from Newcastle in 1854, the late 
Mr. George Bouchier Richardson had had access to the deeds of the 
house no. 2. He made careful abstracts of them, and was able to 
show, without the shadow of a doubt, that Bourne was right in his 
conjecture. The deeds go back to 1370, and they prove that the 
property to which they relate had not from that date been in the 
possession of the Nevills, but of the family of Tailbois and others. 
Further, the boundary clauses in these documents show that the 
adjoining property, no. 1, did belong to the Nevills, and therefore, by 
clear inference, was the true site of Bolbec hall and Westmorland 
place. In a paper which he read to this society in 1852 9 Mr. Richard- 
son stated this fact ; it was repeated in the ' Memoirs of the Life of 
Mr. Ambrose Barnes,' edited for the Surtees Society by Mr. W. H. D. 

6 Mackenzie's History of Northumberland (1811), 8vo. vol. ii. p. 646. 

7 Mackenzie's Hiatory of Newcastle (1827), p. 170. Ibid. p. 476. 

8 Arch. Ael. old series, vol. iv. p. 138. 



G. B. RICHAEDSON'S ABSTRACTS OF DEEDS. 



229 



Longstaffe, 10 and in Dr. Brace's Handbook to Newcastle? 11 Yet the 
name Westmorland, sometimes prefixed to ' house ' and sometimes to 
' place,' adhered to the property no. 2 until its removal. 

Mr. Bouchier Richardson's abstracts, with their careful tracings of 
signatures and drawings of seals, are interesting apart altogether from 
their value in determining 
the site of the Newcastle 
home of the Nevills. For 
they show the transmission 
and descent of a fine old 
mansion from the latter part 
of the fourteenth century, 
and contain the names of 
persons who figure more or 
less in local history during 
the succeeding two hundred 
years. It seemed desirable 
that these abstracts, which 
are now in my possession, 
should be epitomised, and 
that a summary of their 
contents should be added to 
the valuable collection of 
local muniments which ap- 
pear in early volumes of our 
Archaeologia. Reduced to 
simple statements of fact, 
they read as follows : 




SEAL 1. 



1370, June 28. Grant from Margaret, widow of John de Eineldon 1 - of New- 
castle, to Roger de Woderyngton, Wm. de Hesilrigg, and Hugh de Brandon, of all 
that messuage, etc., situate in Newcastle, in the Westgate, ' in which he, the said 
John, and I lived together,' situate between the mansion of the Hospital of Blessed 
Mary in the Westgate on the one part, and the great mansion of Lord John de 
Nevill on the other. Seal of Margareta de [? Denton] (seal 1). Witnesses : 
Robert de Angerton, now mayor, Dns. Robert de Mordon, M r of the Hospittal of 

10 Surtees Society's Publications, vol. 50, p. 98. 
" Handbook to Newcastle (1864), p. 96. 
14 One of the bailiffs of Newcastle, 1346-67. 

VOL xix. 30 



230 



WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : 



St. Marie in the Westgate, 1 * John de Bulkham, 14 John Blacklambe, Adame de 
Bulkham, 15 John de Neubiggyng, 16 John de Norton, and others. 

1370, July. Release from Roger de Woderyngton, and Hugo de Brandon to 
Wm. de Hesilrigg and his heirs of all their right and claim to the said messuage. 

Witnesses as before, and dated Newcastle, 
Monday next after the feast of SS. Peter 
and Paul, 1370. Seal of ' Hugonis de 
Brandone' (seal 2). Woderyngton's seal 
' defaced. 

1486-7. March 2. Release from John 
Telba to Thomas Hesilrigg of all his right 
and claim in that tenement in the West- 
gate, Newcastle, between the land of St. 
Mary's Hospital on the west, and the land 
late of Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, 17 
on the east, extending from the king's high 
street, on the north, to the king's highway, 
near the king's walls, on the south, which 
said tenement, inter alia, the said John 
Telba lately had of the gift and feoffment 
of Wm. Hesilrigg. One seal affixed. 

1487, April 2. Feoffment from Thomas 
Hessylrig, esquire, to William Carr of New- 
castle, 18 merchant, of all that tenement, etc. 
(as before), paying a yearly rent of four- 
pence. One seal, nearly effaced. 
1538, June 3. Feoffment from William Carr, in consideration of 20, to 
Matthew Baxter, 19 of all that tenement (as before). June 4. Release from Carr 
to Baxter of all right, &c. June 5. Deed of defeasance from Carr to Baxter 
for reconveyance on repayment of 20, &c. 

1559, June 11. Lease for thirty years, at 20s. a year, from John Baxter, esq. 
son of Matthew Baxter of Newcastle, merchant, deceased, to Thomas Chaytor of 
Newcastle, weaver, of all that his house, etc. ' with a garden and an orchearde 
with the best pere tree in the said orchard e [near?] to ye heye roade' in the 
Westgate, between a tenement now or late in the tenure of Margaret Bartram, 
widow, on the south, 20 unto the West Spyttell north, the king's street east, and 

ls Appointed prior of the hospital by bishop Hatfield, August 13th, 1369. 

14 One of the bailiffs of Newcastle, 1369-74 ; mayor, 1376-78. 

15 Mayor of Newcastle, 1386-88. 

u One of the bailiffs of Newcastle, 1395-97. 

17 Ralph, second earl of Westmorland, died in 1484 ; Ralph, third earl, in 
1523. 

18 In the Muster Rolls of 1539, three persons of this name were able to pro- 
vide arms for the defence of Newcastle. 

19 Son of Edward Baxter, lord of Hebburn, and four times mayor of New- 
castle. 

20 Here, and in some of the deeds which follow, south is substituted for east, 
north for west, and so on. The frontage of both houses was slightly east of north. 




232 WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : 

the town wall west. Signed : John Baxter. Witnesses : Laurence .... and 
John Huchynson, 21 clerk. 

1577, April 23. Feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, from John Baxter 
of Newcastle, gentleman, and Henry Wicliffe of Vfferton in co. Dur. gentleman, 
to Ralph Tailbois, of Thornton, co. Dur. esquire, 22 and Jane his wife, of all that 
burgage, etc. with a parcel of waste garden and one orchard in the Westgate, 
Newcastle, between a tenement then or lately in the tenure of James Bar tram 23 
on the south, the West Spittle on the north, and extending from the king's street 
called Westgate on the east to the Walls of Newcastle on the west. Signed 
John Baxster (seal 3), Henry Wicliffe (seal 4). Witnesses : W m . Pretie (scr.), 
Robert Lewen, 21 Henrye Taillor, Hen. Selbey, and Will m . Watson, with Francys 
Witherington. Indorsement witnessed by Thomas Warne (or Warne), Xpofer 
Waldhame, Humfrie Tayllor, and the witnesses above named, except Lewen. 

Michaelmas Term, 26 and 27 Elizth. Exemplification of a fine between 
Ralph Tailbois and Jane his wife plaintiffs, and Jno. Baxter and Jno. Wickliff 
deforceants, of 3 messuages, 2 cottages, 2 tofts, 2 gardens, and 2 orchards, in 
the Westgate, Newcastle. 

1586, July 27. Indre between Rauff Tailboys of Thornton (seal 8) and 
Jane his wife (seal 6), 1st part ; Edward Lewen, gent. 25 (seal 5) and Francis 
Gyriyngton (seal 9). gent, of Newcastle, 2nd part ; John Baxter of Newcastle 
(seal 7), 3rd part ; whereby it was agreed to suffer a common recovery of the 
lands, etc., in the Westgate before named (Lewen and Gyriyngton demandants, 
Tailboys and wife tenants, and Baxter vouchee), to enure to use of Tailboys 
and wife forever. Severally sealed and delivered in the presence of Christopher 
Wiseman, William Tailboys, and W m . Hall. 

1591-2, January 20. Conveyance from Robert Tailboys of Thornton, esq., 
to Tobie Mathewe, Dean of Durham, of all that capital messuage, with garden 
or orchard and other ground thereunto adjoining in Westgate, Newcastle, ' as 
they be now inclosed with a stone wall,' betwixt the hospital called the West 
Spittle on the west, a messuage belonging to said hospital and now in the 
tenure of James Bartram on the east, the common street of Westgate on the 

81 A prominent Gateshead cleric. See Chronological Hist. Newcastle and 
Gateshead, vol. ii. pp. 206, 215, 237, 257. 

22 Ralph, son of Robt. Tailbois of Thornton, married, 1st, Eleanor, dau. of 
Henry Killinghall of Middleton St. George ; 2nd, Jane, dau. of ... Bartram. 
Buried at Coniscliffe, March 31, 1591. His eldest son, Robert, died a prisoner in 
Durham gaol, circa 1606, leaving a widow Elizabeth, dau. of bishop Barnes 
but no surviving issue. Surtees, Hist. Durham, vol. iii. p. 382. 

2S Member of a well-known family of merchant adventurers, hostmen, master ] 
mariners, etc., in Newcastle. Jane, second wife of Ralph Tailbois, the subject of 
the preceding note, may have been one of them daughter or sister of this James , 
Bartram who owned the house adjoining, and was buried at St. John's, April 16, 
1599. 

24 Sheriff of Newcastle in 1541-42; mayor, 1544-45 and 1552-53; M.P. for the 
town from 1558 to 1563. Interesting wills of him and his second wife are in 
Durham Wills and Inventories, pt. i. pp. 210 and 305. 

25 Son of Robert Lewen, mayor of Newcastle, 1587-88 ; M.P., 1586-88. For 
his character, with that of his brother Christopher, described by the friendly 
hand of Henry Sanderson, queen's customer in Newcastle, 1597,' see Chronol. ; 
Hist, of Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. iii. p. 113. 



G. B. RICHARDSON'S ABSTRACTS OF DEEDS. 



235 



north, and the great wall of Newcastle on the south. Covenant that grantor 
and W m . Tailbois of West Auckland will enter into recognisance in 700 marks 
conditioned for faithful performance. Signed ; Robert Tailboys. Witnesses : 
H. Ewbancke. 26 Geo. Lightfoot, Tho. Radcliff, Oswold Baiker, 27 Jo. Barnes, 
Willm. Tailboys, John Hedworthe. Same date, a bond in 700 marks as above, 
signed and sealed by Robt. and Wm. Tailbois. 

1591-2, January 21. 'Feoff ment, with livery and seisin, from Robt. Tailboys to 
Tobie Mathew. Executed by feoffee. Same date, letter of attorney from Dr. 
Mathew, empowering certain persons therein named to receive livery, etc. 
Liverj and seisin indorsed thereon. At Michaelmas 
Term, 1592, exemplication of a fine, etc. 

1591, April 5. Feoffment, with livery and seisin, 
indorsed from Tobie Matthew to John Lisley of the 
city of Durham, gent., of all that capital messuage 
(as before), to use of said Tobie and Frances his 
wife, for the jointure of the said Frances. Signed, 
Tobie Matthew (seal 10). Indorsement witnessed by 
Antho : Morpeth, 28 Roland Tempest, 29 John Rand, 30 
Andrew Daveson, Edward Waistell, Henry Newtonn, 
George Nichollsonne, S1 Oswald Chaiitor, K Wm. 
Sotheron (his mark), Thomas Appilby (his mark) 
with others. 

1595, August 7. Release from Margt., widow of 
John Baxter, gent., deceased, and Cuthbert Proctor, 33 

24 Another of the masters of the Virgin Mary 
hospital, appointed 1585, and confirmed in office by 
letters patent, refounding the hospital, in 1611 ; 
resigned 1615 ; rector of Washington, 1583, of Win- 
ston 1588, of Whickham 1620. Prebendary of Lich- 
field. Died in 1628. 

27 Oswald Baker of the city of Durham, father of 
sir George Baker, who was recorder, and one of the 
defenders of Newcastle during the Civil War. 

28 One of the hostmen named in queen Elizabeth's 
charter, 1600, and one of the burgesses cited to answer 
a complaint of the attorney general in 1620 respect- 
ing the condition of the castle of Newcastle. At the 

inquisition following he is named as having a small SEAL 10. 

garden in the castle precincts. 

29 Another Newcastle hostman, named in Elizabeth's charter ; a warden of 
the Merchant's company, etc. F. W. Dendy's Merchant Adventurers, vol. i. 
pp. 105, 107, 110, 112. 

30 Another hostman and one of the common council nanied in Elizabeth's 
charter ; for some time deputy customer of Newcastle. Residing in Gateshead 
he was ordered by the hostmen's company (July 8, 1600) to live in Newcastle or 
forfeit 10, ' which order,' according to the hostmen's books, ' he hath broken.' 

31 Notary public and deputy town clerk of Newcastle. Died February 16, 
1625. M.I. St. John's. See Brand, vol. i. p. 115. 

32 Weaver and for 38 years parish clerk of St. John's. (See Chron. Hist. 
Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. iii. index.) Buried at St. John's, July 21, 1623, 
' Oswald Chater, clerk of this church and weaver.' 

M See a curious petition against Cuthbert Proctor, Ibid. vol. iii. p. 288. 




236 



WESTMOELAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : 



of Newcastle, gent., to Tobias, bishop of Durham, and Robt. Tailbois, of all 
claims, dower, etc., in said capital messuage. Signed (the mark of) Mrgret 
Baxter, Cuth. Proctor. Witnesses : Will Tailbois, Thomas Arrowsmithe, 34 
Thomas Sparke, and Hen. Anthony, not, pub. 

1608-9, January 2. Feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, from Tobias 
Matthew, Archbishop of York, and Frances, now his wife, to Timothie Draper, 34 
of Newcastle, gent., and Frances, his wife, whereby, in consideration of 230, 
all that messuage, etc., is conveyed to Draper. Feoffors give power of attorney 
to 'their well beloved in Christ, Henry Maddison, 36 and Frauncis Belgrave'; 
feoffees give same power to William Bonner 37 and Michael Milburne, 38 of 
Newcastle, merchants. Signed, Tobias Eboracen. (with seal of the archbishopric), 
Fran. Matthew (with seal, a demi lion guardant, collared, and holding in the 
forepaw a cross crosslet), T. Drap r , ffran: Draper. Witnesses to the various 
attestations : Will" 1 Turnbull, Benjamin Belgrave (his mark), Will Blakeston, 

Tho : Dakett, Anthony Proctor, 
Thomas Pattison, John Jack- 
sonn, 39 Christopher Consett, 
Eobt. Haryson, Tho : Rogers, 
Henrye Maddison. 

1610, September 8. Feoffment with 
livery and seisin indorsed from George, son 
and heir of James Bartram, merchant, 
deceased, to Timothy Draper, esq., for 20, 
of all that parcel of ground 14 yds. in 
length and 5 yards and 2 inches in breadth, 
being part of certain waste ground belong- 
ing to the mansion or dwelling house of 
said George Bartram, and Eliz th Bartram, 
widow, his mother, bounded by Westgate 
St. on the north, by 'a gavell end of an 
old decayed house theare behind ' on the 
south, ' upon the courting belonging to 
that greate messuage or tent 8 nowe the 
inheritaunce of the said Timothy Draper,' 
on the west, and upon a waste there, 
belonging to said Geo. Bartram, "on the 

M Probably Thomas Arrowsmith of Gateshead, whose rhyming epitaph in 
Gateshead church amused Surtees (Hist. Durham, vol. ii. p. 121), though he 
misread the date of Arrowsmith's death, which occurred in September, 1632, and 
not in 1637. 

35 Queen's customer in Newcastle ; a conservator of the Tyne ; one of the 
hostmen named in queen Elizabeth's charter ; brother-in-law of John Speed, 
the chronologer. See the pedigree of him and his three wives, one of them a 
Liddell of Ravensworth, in Surtees' Hist. Durham, vol. iv. p. 31. 

3J Father of sir Lionel Maddison. Biography in Men of Mark, vol. iii. p. 121. 

37 Founder of the local family of that name. Ibid. vol. i. p. 348. 

38 Merchant. See Dendy's Merchant Adventurers, vol. i. pp. 135, 146, 178, 184. 

39 Father of Wm. Jackson, town clerk of Newcastle, and grandfather of sir 
John Jackson, treasurer of the Inner Temple and recorder of Newcastle. 




SEAL 11. 



G. B. RICHARDSON'S ABSTRACTS OF DEEDS. 237 

east, at yearly rent of a peppercorn. Covenants that if feoffee desires to build 
upon said piece of ground he may place his timber ends in said wall, or said 
gavel end of old decayed house, and if feoffor desires to alter the gate, or old 
door, 'that he now hath neare to the said parcel of ground,' to the fore street, 
he may break such part of the wall as shall be needful for laying ' the chekes or 
lyntells' of the said gate or door. Signed, George Bartrame (seal 11). Wit- 
nesses : ffrancis Belgrave, Robert Lawson, Robert Harysonn, Edward Bartram, 
Anthony Normann, ffrauncis Leighton, scr. (and others). 

1612, September 26. Feoffment with livery and seisin indorsed from Elizabeth 
Bartram, of Newcastle, widow, and Robert Bartram, of same town, merchant, to 
Timothy Draper, esquire, in consideration of 16, all that piece of ground 
1 4 yds. long and 3 yds. wide, part of waste ground belonging to the house of the 
said Elizabeth, boundering between Westgate St. on the north, and a gavel end 
of an old decayed house on the south, upon another piece of ground lately 
purchased by Draper, of George Bartram, merch*, dec d , 40 son of the said Eliz th , 
and elder brother to said Robert, toward the west, and upon a waste belonging 
to said Eliz th and Rob* on the east. Signed, Eliz th Bartram (her mark) ; Rob* 
Bartram. Witnesses : Peter Riddell, 41 Oswold Chaiitor, Henry Wouldhave, 42 
Nicholas Errington, Rob* Haryson, and Francis Leighton, scr. Indorsement 
witnessed by Oswald Chaiitor, Thomas Crages, 43 Andrew Ainsley, and Frances 
Leighton, scr. 

1613, October 13. Release from Robert Bartram of Newcastle, merchant, to 
Timothy Draper and his heirs of all right in the said two pieces of ground. 
Signed, Robt. Bartram. Witnesses : Christofer Mitford, 44 Oswald Chaytor, 
Henry Wouldhave, Thomas Dackett, and Francis Leighton, scr. Taken and 
acknowledged in open court before Hen. Anderson, 45 maior ; Lyonell Maddi- 
son. 46 Thomas Lyddell, 47 Hen. Chapman, 48 vie. ' Inrolled in the Book of Inroll* 9 
rems in Guildhall by Willm. Jackson, clr. pacis ibm ac com'ne dr.' 

1642, April 15. Indre between Henry Draper and Timothy Draper, his 
brother, of Headlam, co. Dur. gent, and Mark Shafto 4fl of Newcastle, esquire, 
whereby for 600 said Drapers convey to said Shafto all that burgage in West- 
gate, and a stable, with hayloft over it, situate right over against the said 
burgage and then in possession of said Shafto. Signed, Hen. Draper, Mark 
Shafto. Witnesses : G. Vane, 50 John Mitchell, and ffrancis Walker, scr. 

40 Buried at St. John's, Newcastle, September 1, 1612. 

41 Afterwards sir Peter Riddell, knight ; several times mayor and M.P. for 
Newcastle. 

42 See a curious suit against Oswald Chaytor and Henry Wouldhave in the 
Consistory Court of Durham. Chron. Hist. Newcastle and Gateshead, vol. iii. 
p. 228. 

43 At a visitation in St. Nicholas', Newcastle, February 4, 1608, Chris. Paxon 
and Thomas Craggs, of the parish of All Saints, were presented ' for casting 
coals on the Sabbath day,' and ordered to pay 12s. fine to the poor box. 

44 Grandson of alderman Christopher Mitford, who was sheriff of Newcastle 
in 1551-52, and mayor 1556-57 and 1569-70. 

45 See Men of Mark, i. 74. 48 Ibid. iii. 124. 47 Ibid. iii. 37. * Ibid. i. 516. 

49 Recorder of Newcastle, 1648-59, father of sir Robt. Shafto, recorder of 
Newcastle, 1660-85 and 1688-1705. Pedigree in Surtees' Durham, iii. 294. 

50 Of Long Newton, knighted 1640 ; married Eliz th dau. of Sir Lionel Maddi- 
son. 

VOL. XIX. 31 



238 



WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : 



1642, April 23. Feoffment, with livery and seisin indorsed, of the said bur- 
gage, from Henry Draper to Mark Shafto. Signed, Hen. Draper (seal 12). 
Witnesses : Kaphe Clauering, Aaron Abdale, Nicholas ffenwicke, Thomas Colepitts 
(his mark). Indorsement witnessed by the same persons. 

x7 1642, April 23. Indre tripartite between 

Henry Draper of Headlam, co. Dur. and Ellinor, 
his wife, 1st part ; Mark Shafto of Grayes Inn, 
co. Midd* esq r . and Eobert Shafto, son and heir 
apparent of the said Mark, 2nd part ; Eobt. 
Shafto of Newcastle, gent, and James Clavering 
of Axwell Houses, co. Dur. 3rd part, whereby 
Draper and wife convey to Mark and Robert 
Shafto all that capital messuage (as before). 
Signed, Henry Draper. Same witnesses as in 
last document. 

1731, November 4 and 5. Indres of lease 
and release from John Shafto, of Whitworth, 
co. Dur. esquire, to Charles Clarke, jr., of New- 
castle. gent.* 1 (for 550), of all that mansion 
house, with garden or orchard and certain 
other grounds adjoining, now in the tenure of 
the said Clarke and late in posses" of Thomas 
Clennell, esquire, and Mrs. Sarah Barnes, 52 
widow, and sometime heretofore in the tenure 
of Mark Shafto, esquire, and Robert Shafto, 
esquire, afterwards Sir Robert Shafto, knight, serjeant at law, grandfather of the 
said John Shafto, situate in the Westgate, inclosed, as formerly, by a stone wall, 
boundering betwixt the hospital called the West Spittle on the west, a messuage 
heretofore belonging to George Bartram and now belonging to Mr. Thomas 
Ord on the east, Westgate Street on the north, and the great wall of the town 
on the south. And also a stable with a hayloft above, in the occupation of the 
said Charles Clarke, and late in the occupation of W m Cooper, doctor of 
physic, 53 and heretofore in the occupation of the said Sir Robt. Shafto, situate 
on the east side of Pudding Chair, near unto the said street called Westgate. 
And also all that coach house, hayloft, and stable now in the occupation of said 
Chas. Clarke, formerly in the occupation of the said Sir Robt. Shafto, on the 
west side of Pudding Chair. Signed, John Shafto. Witnesses : Tho. Hind-, 
marsh, John Wills. 

1731, December 20. Charles Clarke, by his will of this date, devised all the 
said premises to his wife, Jane Clarke, 54 and her heirs in fee simple. 

51 Son of Charles Clarke of Newcastle, attorney, who purchased the glebe 
lands and tithes of Ovingham from the Addison family. Hodgson's Northd. 
pt. ii. vol. 2, p. 98. 

52 Widow of Joseph Barnes, recorder of Newcastle and Berwick, eldest son of 
Ambrose Barnes. 53 Father of sir Grey Cooper. Men of Mark, vol. i. p. 623. 

54 One of the daughters of Edward Colville of the White house, Gateshead, 
and sister of Camilla Colville, who married, under romantic circumstances, 
lord Ossulston, afterwards second earl of Tankerville. See the whole story in 
Longstaffe's Hist, of Darlington, p. iv. See also present volume, ante, p. 115. 




AL 12. 



G. B. RICHARDSON'S ABSTRACTS OF DEEDS. 239 

1739, June 14 and 15. Indies of lease and release, between Jane, widow of 
Charles Clarke, jr. 1st part ; Robert Fenwick of Newcastle, merchant, 2nd part ; 
Thos. Allan, 55 of Allan's Flats, co. Dur. and W ra . Fenwick of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, 3rd part. Reciting that a Chancery suit had been commenced by W m . 
Bigge, 56 gent, and Mary his wife, dau. and one of the two coheirs of Chas. Clarke, 
sen. of Newcastle, deceased, and only surviving sister of Chas. Clarke, jr. under 
pretence that the premises were purchased with the moneys of Chas. Clarke, 
sen. ; also, that a marriage was intended between said Robert Fenwick and Jane 
Clarke ; she therefore, the said Jane, in consideration of said marriage, conveyed 
to Allan and W m . Fenwick all that great house, etc. boundering on the tenement 
of John Ord, esquire, on the east [and the rest as before], upon trust, to the uses 
therein specified ; but if Mr. Bigge's suit should prevail, then these presents to be 
void. Executed by the said parties. Witnesses : John Airey, Robert Jackson, 
W m . Cuthbert, Mary Pearson, and John Spoor. 

1739, November 27. Indre tripartite between William Bigge of Lincoln's 
Inn and Mary his wife, one of the coheirs and residuary legatees of Chas. Clarke, 
sen. 1 st part ; Margaret Fenwick of Newcastle, spinster, granddaughter, and one 
of the residuary legatees of said Chas. Clarke, sen. 2nd part ; Robert Fenwick of 
Newcastle, merchant, and Jane his wife, widow of Chas. Clarke, jr. 3rd part ; 
reciting the Chancery suit, etc. and that to put an end to the same the said Bigge 
and w'ife and Margaret Fenwick, in consideration of 50 apiece, released to said 
Robert and Jane all right, title, and claim to said house and premises. Executed 
by the said parties. Witnesses : Chris: Den ton, Gray's Inn ; Peter Consett, jr. of 
Stockton-on-Tees ; Nicho: Fenwick, Saml. Gurlenent. 

1746, March 26. Will of Jane, wife of Robert Fenwick of Newcastle, 
merchant, whereby, after reciting the marriage settlement, she directed the 
trustees of same, should she die without surviving issue, to invest 1,500 out of 
her estate at 4 per cent., and pay the interest 60 a year ' unto my sister the 
right honourable the Countess of Tankerville ' for life, free from the control of her 
husband the earl, and upon the death of the Countess, 1,000 out of the 1,500 
to be paid ' to my nephew the honble. Geo. Bennett,' and the remaining 500 
' to Lady Camilla Bennett, my niece/ To sister Susanna, wife of Lyonel 
Allan 57 of Rotterdam, merchant, the same yearly sum for life, and on her death 
the principal, 1,500, to be divided between her children, share and share alike. 
To husband [R. Fenwick] the messuage in Westgate St., ' wherein we now 
live,' with the stables, etc., in Pudding Chare, for life ; after his death, sister 
Rosamond, wife of Roger Pearson, of Titlington, esq., to have the rents, 
etc., of said premises for life ; the premises themselves and the pew in St. 
John's Church, held with the same, to go to her nieces, Rosamond, Jane, and 

55 One of the principal coal owners on the Wear; introduced waggon or tram 
ways into the coaltrade of that river. Father of Lionel Allan of Rotterdam, 
named in note 57, below. 

56 Of Benton. High sheriff of Northumberland, 1750. Pedigree in Hodgson's 
Hist, of Northumberland, pt. ii. vol. 2, p. 98. 

57 Son of Thomas Allan, coalowner, of Allan's Flatts, near Chester-le-Street. 
Married another sister of Camilla Colville. To his house in Rotterdam Camilla 
was sent in the hope that her absence would cure her lover's passion, and 
thither lord Ossulston followed her. Longstaffe's Darlington, p. v. 



240 WESTMOBLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE : , 

Susannah Pearson, three of the daughters of Roger and Rosamond Pearson. To 
said sister Rosamond Pearson 24 a year for life, and after her death the 
principal 600 to Sarah Pearson, another daughter of same. [Various other 
directions follow.] Executors : Michael Pearson and John Stephenson, both of 
Newcastle, esqrs. Signed, Jane Fenwick. Witnesses : Christopher Denton, 
Gray's Inn, and Henry Burdon and Robert Wilson of Stockton, his clerks. 
Testatrix died October 6, 1749, her husband died February 14. 1759. Administra- 
tion, with will annexed, granted to Rosamond, wife of Roger Pearson, the 
executors having refused to act. 

1760, January 11 and 12. Indre of lease and release between Thomas 
Fenwick of Earsdon, esq., only son and heir of Wm. Fenwick, dec d ., who was 
brother and heir of Wm. Fenwick, of Newcastle, mercht., 1st part ; Roger 
Pearson, of Titlington, esq., and Rosamond, his wife, 2nd part ; George Dick 
of Mid Calder, North Britain, gent., and Rosamond, his wife, George Potts, of 
Whitehouse, Alnwick, gent., and Jane, his wife, and John Sample, of Rockmoor- 
house, Northumberland, and Susannah, his wife (which said Rosamond Dick, 
Jane Potts, and Susannah Sample, were three of the daughters of Roger and 
Rosamond Pearson), 3rd part ; the hon. George Bennett, one of the sons of the 
rt. hon. Chas. Earl of Tankerville, dec d ., 4th part ; and William Gibson* 8 of 
Newcastle, esq., 5th part, whereby, for 1,000, said parties convey to said Wm. 
Gibson, the mansion house, etc., in the Westgate, and the stable, etc., in Pudding 
Chare ; the Westgate mansion being boundered on the east by a messuage 
formerly belonging to George Bartram, then to Thomas Ord, and now to John 
Stephenson,* 9 esq. Executed by all the parties. Witnesses : Hannah Fenwick, 
Jacob Lambert, Coll : Forster, Wm. Moey Darwin, Gray's Inn, and Jos. Porter. 

1760, Sept. 26 and 27. Indres of lease and release between W m Gibson and 
Matthew Stephenson, 60 esq., of Newcastle, reciting the previous conveyance, 
and that Gibson's name was only used in trust for Stephenson. 61 Trust declared, 
and premises conveyed to Stephenson. Signed, W m Gibson. Witnesses : John 
Rotheram and Jacob Lambert. 

1768, April 29 and 30. Indres of lease and release between Matthew 
Stephenson of Walworth, co. Dur., esq., and George Anderson 62 of New- 
castle, whereby for 900 Stephenson conveys to Anderson all the premises 
(as before) subject to a lease to John Rotheram 63 for eleven years from Sep. 29, 

58 Town clerk of Newcastle, 1756-85. 

58 John Stephenson, alderman of Newcastle ; sheriff, 1728-29 ; grandfather cf 
Bessy Surtees, afterwards lady Eldon. Biography in Men of Mark, vol. iii. p. 445. 

60 Second son of alderman John Stephenson ; sheriff of Newcastle, 1759-60 ; 
purchased the estate of Walworth from the Jenison family. Ibid. p. 447. 

61 By this and the preceding deed it would appear that alderman John 
Stephenson acquired from Thomas Ord house No. 1, and his son, Matthew, 
purchased from the Fenwicks house No. 2. After the alderman's death in 
April, 1761, No. 1 appears to have been bought by William Gibson, who, in the 
purchase of No. 2, had acted as trustee for Matthew, the son. 

62 Ancestor of the Andersons, of Little Harle tower. Biography in Men of 
Mark, vol. i. p. 59. 

63 Dr. John Rotheram, an eminent physician and natural philosopher. Died 
' at his house in Westgate St.,' March 18, 1787. Biography in Men of Mark, 
vol. iii. p. 328. 



G. B. BICHARDSON'S ABSTRACTS or DEEDS. 241 

1760, with power of renewal for other five years. Signed, Matthew Stephenson. 
Witnesses : Philip Gibson, Jas. Murray. 

1796, February 23. Will of George Anderson of Newcastle, architect 
whereby he gave his son, George Anderson, all his real and personal estate, 
subject to a life annuity to his wife of 300 gs. in bar of dower, to whom also he 
gave a life interest in the house in Westgate St., ' now in the occupation of 
Mr. Fearon,' half of the pew in St. John's Church, the stable in Pudding Chare, 
'now in the occupation of M rs Jane Coulter,' and as much plate, linen, and 
furniture from the house in Pilgrim St., ' in which I now live,' as she shall choose, 
for furnishing the said house in Westgate St. To the five children of his son 
in law, Dr, Pemberton, 100 apiece, and to his daughter, their mother, after 
the death of his wife, a clear annuity of 100 to her own use. Signed, George 
Anderson. Witnesses : Chr. Robson, James Henderson, John Robson. 

1805, April 10 and 11. Tndres of lease and release whereby, for 1,300, 
George Anderson of Colney House, co. Hertford, esq r , only son and heir of 
George Anderson, late of Newcastle, deceased, gent, conveys to Thomas Anderson 
of Newcastle, builder, all that messuage, etc. in Westgate St. boundering on 
hereditaments late belonging to W m . Gibson ' and now to Caleb Angas ' ** on 
the south, the town walls on the west, Westgate St. on the east, and the Spittle 
orchard, etc. of St. Mary's Hospital on the north, ' now occupied by Jonathan 
Sorsbie, merchant, and : Edward Humble, as tenants,' also the site of a stable on 
the east side of Pudding Chare, and a stable on the west side of that chare, 
heretofore described as a coachhouse, etc. Signed, George Anderson. Wit- 
ness : Jno. Brumell, attorney. 

1832, February 2. Indre between Thomas Anderson of Newcastle, esq r , a 
bachelor, 85 eldest son and heir of Thos. Anderson, late of Newcastle, who died 
intestate, Sep. 9, 1821, and of whose goods, etc. letters of administration were 
granted to Ann Anderson, his widow, 1st part ; Robert Leadbitter of Newcastle, 
gent. 2nd part ; and James Kirsop of the Spital, Hexham, 3rd part ; whereby 
Anderson, for 3,500. sells to Leadbitter all that capital messuage in Westgate 
St. boundered on the south by hereditaments formerly belonging to W m . Gibson, 
and late to Caleb Angas, and now to the members of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society, etc. etc. Also a coachhouse and stable on the west side 
of Pudding Chare, now in the tenancy of John Shield, and another stable 
recently erected by Thos. Anderson on part of the garden ground of the house 
of said Thomas, with a yard to said stable adjoining ; also a pew in St. John's 
Church. Signed, Thomas Anderson. Witness : Peregrine George Ellison. 

Here, then, we have a clear and unimpeachable record of the two 
properties. The sham Westmorland place is seen in process of 
transmission from the widow of John de Emeldon in 1370, through 
Hesilrigg, Carr, Baxter, Tailbois, Tobias Matthew, Draper, Shafto, 

64 Coachbuilder ; father of George Fife Angas, the ' merchant prince,' 
who founded the colony of South Australia. 

" Purchased Kirkharle and Little Harle in 1833 ; married in April, 1841, 
Emily, dau. of rev. John Fisher ; father of the present George Anderson, esq., of 
Little Harle tower. 



242 WESTMORLAND PLACE, NEWCASTLE. 

Clarke, Fenwick, Stephenson, and Anderson to Leadbitter, who, as 
most of us know, owned and occupied the property before its 
appropriation to the use of the coal trade. In like manner the real 
Westmorland place is traceable from its ownership by lord John de 
Nevill of Eaby, in 1370, and a hundred years later by Ralph, third 
earl of Westmorland, through members of the families of Bartram, 
Ord, Stephenson, Gibson, and Angas to the trustees of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society. 



[NOTE. All the illustrations to this paper are from drawings by G. B, 
Richardson in the possession of Mr. Welford, who has been at the cost of the 
blocks. ED.] 



243 



XXIV. THE OGLE MONUMENT IN BOTHAL CHUECH, 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 

BY W. H. KNOWLES. 
[Read on the 26th October, 1897.] 

Monumental effigies in Northumberland are few in number. 1 One 
of the best is the alabaster monument of Ralph, third lord Ogle, who 
died March, 15 13, 2 and lady Margaret his wife, daughter of sir 



[ARMS : 1 and 4, argenti 
a fesse between three cres- 
cents gules (Ogle) ; 2 and 3, 
or, an orle azure (Bertram). 
CREST : A bull's head or, 
gorged with a coronet gules. 
Armed azure.*] 



William Gascoyne of Gawthorpe, Yorkshire, which now stands at the 
east end of the south aisle of the nave of St. Andrew's church at 
Bothal. 

The two recumbent figures are placed on a tomb measuring six 
feet five inches in length, four feet four inches in width, and two feet 
three inches in height. The sides and west end are occupied by a 
series of shallow crocketted and pinnacled niches of varying width, 
divided by buttresses with crocketted terminations. 

Both the effigies and tomb are of alabaster, but are much 
mutilated and broken, some portions being wanting. The execution 

1 The only one of equal importance is that of sir Ralph Grey [d. 1443] and 
his widow Elizabeth, in Chillingham church. It is of superior work to the Ogle 
monument, and is described by Mr. Bates, Arch. Ael. vol. xiv. p., 298. See also 
Proc. vii. p. 106. 

2 See appendix for abstract of inquisition post mortem of Ralph, lord Ogle. 

3 Northumberland Visitation, 1615, p. 19. Sir Robt. Ogle, whose ina. p.m. 
was taken in 1355 (deputy keeper of public record's Reports, vol. xlv. p. 245), 
married Helen, daughter and heiress of Robt. Bertram of Bothal. 





32 



246 THE OGLE MONUMENT IN BOTHAL CHURCH. 

of the figures and the workmanship of the architectural details are 
alike feeble. The monument, however, is of interest on account of 
the rarity of such work in Northumberland, and because it belongs 
to a member of the ancient and important family of Ogle. 

The effigy of lord Ogle is bareheaded. The hair is rounded over 
the crown and cut straight over the forehead, and has large side curls. 
The face is much broken. The head rests on a tilting helmet with 
mantling, wreath, and crest of a collared bull's head. 4 The body which 
is armed in plate with scalloped tuiles has a plate gorget. Over all is a 
surcoat fitted to the waist, and open for a width of three inches down 
the sides. The flaps at the shoulder fit round the arm but do not 
cover the arm pit. The hands are covered with plate mitten-gauntlets 
having gads and cuffs ; the fingers not being divided. The elbows have 
plate caps, the left one showing the lace points. Round the neck is a 
chain of square links with a cross pendant, and the sword, now 
wanting, was suspended from a horizontal belt by a chain of square 
links. The belt is ornamented with studs in the form of a flower. 
The lace for the dagger, which is broken away, remains on the right 
side of the belt. The legs are in plate with articulated knee caps 
having rounded fan terminations. The feet, which rest on what 
appears to be a dog or lion, are cased in articulated sollerets ridged 
down the front and rather narrow at the toes. 

The effigy of lady Margaret is on the left side of her husband. 
Her head dress, shaped like the frustrum of a cone, has lappets 
down the side, and a knob on the top. The head rests on two 
cushions which have tassels at the corners. Two angels, one on 
each side, and each wearing a stole which crosses to the right over 
the left shoulder, support the corners of the cushions. The lady is 
clothed in a cote-hardie with tight sleeves, which is fastened round 
the waist by a narrow strap buckled on the right side, looped and 
pendent ; a rosary hangs from the strap. Over the cote-hardie she 
wears a kirtle which conceals the feet. A mantle, which is fastened 
with a cord across the breast, having the ends pendent with tassels, 
covers the whole. A small greyhound lies on the dexter side of 
the kirtle lap. 

4 It is clearly a bull's head. See an engraving in Hutchinson's View of 
Northumberland, 1776, vol. ii. p. 313. 



248 



THE OGLE MONUMENT IN BOi'HAL CHURCH: 



The monument is formed of a number of vertical slabs five inches 
thick which reach from the floor to the top of the cornice. The 
moulded base, and the embattled cornice partly enriched with shields, 
project beyond the buttress shafts which divide the niches. The latter 
are sunk one and a half inches, and the weepers, buttresses, and 
crocketted portions are all carved on the solid. The weepers, which 
stand in bold relief on the surface of the tomb, are all full faced, and 
are placed on projecting brackets worked on the base. The east end 
and the eastern parts of the north and south sides have 
entirely disappeared. The panels which remain are made 
up of a number of fragments which do not occupy their 
original positions. On them are placed, on the south 
side, beginning at the west, a mutilated niche, followed 
by three niches containing figures wearing salades, with 
tabards and armour, similar to that on the effigy of lord 
Ogle ; they have each a dagger on the right side, but no 
sword. Beyond these are four niches in which are angels 
holding shields upon their breasts with both hands. 

On the north side are five figures in mutilated niches, 
identical with those already described. 
On the west end are three niches with female 
figures, dressed similarly to the effigy of lady 
Margaret, except that on their heads they wear 
mourners' veils, with a circlet round the forehead. 
The fourth niche has a similar female figure, but 
larger ; and the fifth (under lord Ogle's head), 
an armorial shield couche hanging by the sinister 
chief angle, supported on the dexter side by 
an antelope, collared and chained, and on the 
sinister side by a monkey chained round the 
waist. Only the principal charges, which were 
carved in relief, are now visible ; the other coats, which were 
merely blazoned in colour, have long since disappeared. There can 
be no doubt that the shields bore the arms of Ogle impaling 
Gasgoyne, as follows : 





THE ARMS ON THE MONUMENT. 



249 



<9 








Quarterly: 1st grand quarter 1 and 4 \_arg., a fesse between}, 

three crescents \_gu.~], for Ogle ; 5 
2 and 3 [or~] an orle [az.~\, for 
Bertram. 6 2nd and 3rd grand 
quarters \arg., two bars gu., on 
a canton of the last"] a cross 
moline [or], for Kirkby. 7 4th 
grand quarter 1 and 4 [erm], 
an inescutcheon within a lordure 
[engrailed gu.~\, for Hepple; 8 
2nd and 3rd, per chevron \_gu. 
and arg.~], three crosses crosslet 
counterchanged, for Chartney. 9 

Impaling, quarterly: \_arg.~], 
on a pale [sa.~\ the head of a conger eel [or], for Gasgoyne ; 10 2 [y/w.], 

5 ' Mons. Ric. de Ogle d'argent, a vne fees et 3 cressantz de goulz.' From 
'Mr. Thomas Jenyns' Booke of Armes,' published in the Antiquary, vol. ii. 
p. 238 

* Roger Bertram, de goules et ung faux escucion et croiselle d'or. Nicholas, 
Roll of Arms, temp. Henry III. p. 13. Sire Robt. Bertram, de or, a un escuhoun 
percee de azure, ibid. temp. Edward II. p. 87. 

7 Robt. de Ogle, first lord, married Isabella, daughter and heiress of sir 
Alexander Kirkby of Kirkby, Lancashire. 

8 Sir Robt. Ogle, knight, married circa 1331, Joan, daughter of sir Robt. 
Hepple, knight, of Tosson, Trewhitt, Hepple, etc., was father to Robt. de Ogle, 
junior, who married the daughter and heiress of sir Robt. Bertram. 

9 These arms appear on the Ogle coat given in Tonge's Visitation, 41 Surt. 
Soc. Publ. p. ii.,' but without name. The quartering comes in thus : 

Richard de = Matilda, daughter and coheiress of William Fitz William, 
Chartenay. of Hephal (MS. Dodsworth*). 

Chartenay, lord of Hephall = 



Sir Luke de Tailboy, = [Alice 

lord of Hephal, 19 struck 
Edward I. out]. 



Robert de Hephal = Margaret, a widow 



(See 2nd voL of 
Pedigrees,f ol . 1 5 (>) . 



in 17 Edward II. 
MS.Dodsworth,U7. 



Robert de Hephal, 15 Edward II. = 



Robt. de Ogle, 5 Edward III. = Joan, his wife. 
15 Edward III. 



Robert de Ogle, junior, with his father in 
25 Edward III. No. 10. 



Thomas, his son, 24 
Edward III. No. 9. 



10 For the Gascoyne arms and quarterings, see Tonge's Visitation, 41 Surt. Soc. 
Publ. pp. 14 and iii. ; also, the Yorkshire Visitation in 1584-5 and 1611-12. 



250 THE OGLE MONUMENT IN BOTHAL CHURCH : 

a lion rampant \arg. within a bordure engrailed company arg. and 
vert], for Mowbray ; u 3 \_gu., a fesse counter company arg. and sa. 
between'] six crosses patty fitchey [or], for Boteler ; 12 4 \_gu.~] a saltire 
\_arg.~], for Neville 18 of Onseley. 

The various mouldings of the slabs which form the sides and end 
of the tomb do not line with each other, indicating that the existing 
arrangement of the niches and weepers is a ' restoration ' made by the 
putting together of fragments. 

It is not likely that the small figures represent members of the 
family, or have any association therewith, and their number and 
variety have apparently been determined by the judgment of the 
sculptor. 

It seems probable that the east end originally consisted of the four 
niches, with angels holding shields, which are now on the south side, 
and that niches of similar width to those containing the male figures 

11 In the Yorkshire Visitation of 1563-4, p. 133, the bordure is company or 
and sable. This quartering came by the marriage of sir Wm. Gasgcoyne of 
Gawthorpe, chief justice of England, and Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Alex. Mowbray. The chief justice was buried at Harewood, in the West Riding, 
where there was a shield impaling with Gascoyne, gules, a lion rampant argent 
within a bordure gobony argent and sable, or, in another MS. or and argent. 
Foster's Visitation of Yorkshire, p. 467. 

12 This quartering comes in thus (Visitation of Yorkshire, Flower, 1563-4, 
p. 223) : 

Robert, son and heir of = Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Ralph Butler, 
William Ferrers. second son of Will. Butler, baron of Wem. 



Sir Robert Ferrers, = Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lan- 



knt., baron of 
Ouseley. 



caster, by Katherine Swinford, and widow of Ralph, first 
earl of Westmoreland (the earl's second wife). 

Mary, daughter and = Ralph Neville, second son of Ralph, first earl of West- 
co-heiress. moreland, by Margaret Stafford, his first wife. 

John Neville, son and heir == Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Newmarch, and 

heiress of her brother Ralph. 



Jane, daughter and heiress = William Gascoigne of Gawthorpe. 

Nicholas's Roll of Arms, temp. Henry III. p. 15, Rauf le Botellier, de goules 
a ung fesses cheque d'argent et de sable, et croiselletts d'or the same arms 
assigned in the Roll, temp. Edw. II. p. 82, to sir William le Botyler ; but, curi- 
ously, the arms of sir William of Botiler of Wemme are : azure, a bend or between 
six cups of the second. However, in the Roll of Edw. III. p. 26, Monsire Botiller 
of Wem : port gvles une fes chequere d'argent et sable, crolsele d'argent. 

13 Gules, a saltire argent (Neville). In Tonge's Visitation, p. 14, it is differ- 
enced by a blue flower resembling a lily ; but in the appendix, p. iii. the difference 
is a black crescent, as it is in the Visitation ot 1563-4, p. 133. 



A GENEALOGY OF THE OGLES. 251 

occupied one side of the tomb, whilst niches with female figures 
occupied the other side. The west side no doubt has always contained, 
with other decoration, the shield and supporters now remaining in 
that position. 

On the south wall of the chancel, there existed, previous to its 
destruction circa 1850, a 'Genealogie of the Ogles' 14 painted in black 
letter. 15 Mr. Bates has discovered a transcript of it among the papers 
at Craster tower. Although it has frequently been referred to, an 
exact copy has never before been printed. 16 Some inaccuracies are 
remarked upon in the footnotes. 

The Genealogie, or descent of the Noble Family of the Ogles. Humphrey 
Ogle Esquire lived at Ogle castle at the Conquest, to whom William the 
Conqueror by his deed without date did confirm unto him all his Liberties and 
Royalties of his Manoer and estate of Ogle ; in as ample manner as any of his 
Ancestors, enjoyed the same before the time of the Normans, 

And from Humphrey Ogle Esq r did descend seven Lords and Thirtie 
Knights. 

Robert the first Lord Ogle" married Isabel, daughter and Heir of Alexander 
Kirby Knight. 

Owen second Lord Ogle 18 marryed the daughter of Sir William Hilton 
Knight. 

Ralph the third Lord Ogle" marryed the daughter of Sir William Gascoine 
Knight. 

Robert, the Fourth Lord Ogle," marryed the daughter of Thomas Lumley, 
the son and heir to George. 

Robert Ogle, 21 son and Heir to Robert, the Fourth Lord Ogle, married Mary, 
the daughter of Sir Cuthbert Bartrim, Knight. 

14 There are various pedigrees of the Ogle family in Hodgson, Northumber- 
land, and in the Yorkshire Visitation (Flower), 1563-4. Harleian Soc. 1881. 

14 Mr. Sample of Bothal informs me that when the plaster work was removed 
it was discovered that the genealogy had been twice painted, firstly in red 
letters, which was covered by a coat of white wash and traced through in black 
letters. 

16 The 'table' given in Grose, Antiquities, vol. iv. p. 79, is very inaccurate. 

17 Created baron Ogle 1461 ; aged 30 in 1436, when his father sir Robert 
Ogle died (deputy keeper of public records, Reports, xlv. p. 247) ; died 1469. 

18 Owen, second lord, died March 3, 1479-80. Ibid. xliv. p. 479. Married 
Alienora, daughter of William, baron of Hilton. 

19 Ralph, third lord, aged 24 in 1495. Ibid. xliv. p. 479. Inq. p.m. 1513. Ibid. 

20 Robert, fourth lord, aged 23 in 1513. Ibid, married Anne, daughter of 
Thomas, lord Lumley. 

21 Robert, the fifth lord, fell in the battle of Ancrum, 1545, married first 
Dorothy, daughter of sir Henry Widdrington, knight, and second Jane, eldest 
daughter of sir Cuthbert Radcliffe, knight. Wills and Inventories, Surt. Soc. 
vol. i. p. 119. 



252 THE OGLE MONUMENT IN BOTHAL CHUECH : 

Robert, the Sixth Lord Ogle, 22 marryed Jane, daughter and Heir of Sir 
Thomas Manners, Knight, who died without issue. 

Cuthbert, 23 the seventh Lord Ogle, marryed Catherine, one of the Co-heirs of 
Sir Renol Carnaby, Knight ; being mother to the sixth Lord Ogle, who had issue 
two daughters, Jane, Elder daughter co-heir, Catherine, second daughter. 

Jane Ogle. Catherine Ogle. 

Jane Ogle was married to Edward Talbot, Earl of Shrewsberrie, 24 who dwelt at 
Bothal Castle. Catherine Ogle was married to Sir William 24 Cavendish, who, 
being General in the civill wars, was raised to be Lord and marquis, and after 
King Charles 2d. Restauration was created Duke of Newcastle. 

This is a true coppie as they were formerly inscribed upon the Walls within 
the Chancell of Bothall Church, and transcribed by your humble servant, William 
Hannay. 28 

On the death of the second duke of Newcastle in 1691, through 
default again of male heirs, the Bothal property passed, together with 
the barony, to Margaret, countess of Clare, and has, through her, 
descended to the duke of Portland. 



APPENDIX A. 

A.D. 15^|. Chancery Inq. p.m. 4 Hen. VIII. No. 126, vol. 27. 

Ralph, lord Ogle of Bottell [Bothal]. 

Inquisition taken at Morpeth 16 March 4 Hen. 8 (15 }f) before George 
Muschame escheator in the county of Northumberland. 

Ralph Ogle lord of Bottell died seised in feetail, viz. to him & the heirs 
male of his body begotten of Botell with its members, to wit ; 

Whitworth worth per ann. (clear) ... 10 

Pegsworth 10 14 6 

Trytlyngeton 794 

Lanhyrst 734 

and twelve shillings fee-farm of Esshendeue ; which are held of the king in 
chief by three knights' fees of the old feoffment. 

He was also seised in feetail (as above) of third part of Angraham 
(4 3*. 4d.) held of George Taylboys knt. (service not known) ; also 5s. fee- 

22 Robert, the sixth lord, married Jane, daughter of Thos. Maleverer of 
Allerton Maleverer, in the county of York, esq. Died without male issue, 1st 
August, 1562. Wills and Inventories, Surt. Soc. vol. i. p. 202. 

2S Cuthbert, son of sir Robert, fifth lord, and Jane Radcliffe, 1597, his estates 
descended to his two daughters, the abeyance of the barony being terminated in 
favour of the younger one, Catherine, in 1628. 

24 Was afterwards earl of Shrewsbury. 

25 Married to sir Charles Cavendish, of Welbeck, co. Nottingham, knight, 
whose son, William, became earl of Ogle and duke of Newcastle in 1664. 

28 The person who made the original transcript was probably William 
Hannay, son of David Hannay of Kelso. He left Scotland in 1703, and settled 
at Bothal, where he died circa 1729, aged 89. 



APPENDICES OF DOCUMENTS. 253 

farm in Little ToSene & 4s. in Bykerton & 6s. Id. in Warton likewise in 
fee-farm. They are held of the Barony of Heppell (service not known) ; also 
the town of Saltwyke (7 13*. 4rf.) held of Thomas lord Caere (service not 
known) ; also two messuages in Horsle (15,?.) held of Lord Dacre ; a messuage 
in Stanton Sheylles (9s. 4rf.) held of Nicholas Thornton ; a messuage in Morpeth 
(3*. 4d.) held of Lord Dacre ; a messuage in Bolsdon (2s.) held of the heirs of 
Kalph Grey knt. ; a messuage in Ponterland (26s. 8d.~) held of the same ; a 
messuage in Wodhorn Seton (40s.) held of Henry Wedryngton knt. ; a messuage 
in ley Hewgh (6s. 8d.~) of whom held, or by what service, it is not known. 

Moreover the said Kalph long before his death enfeoffed Thomas Forster of 
Edderstone esq. and John Heron with others of the manor & town of Ogle 
with appurtenances & a tenement in Whaltou to the use of Margaret Ogle his 
(Ralph) wife for term of her life, which are held of Lord Scrope of Upsale ; 
and with forest Fenrother' ley Cleyfern and of a tenement in ley Auld More & 
a close called ley Wellclosse with all their appurts to the use of the said 
Margaret for term of her life, which are held of Botell aforesaid ; and in like 
manner of Floterton held of the Barony of Heppell ; Sharpton Shypbankes 
held of the same Barony ; Thyrnham and Foxdene held of the lord of 
Kyddesdall ; and Folbery held of the earl of Northumberland. 

And the said Thomas Forster & John Heron were also seised to the use of 
Margaret for term of her life of Midilton Morell held of Lord Dacre; two 
tenements in Dru[ridge] & Newham held of Lord Scrope; Lanewytton held 
of the Earl of Northumberland in frank marriage ; moiety of Hyrst held of 
Henry Wedryngton knt. to the use of said Margaret for term of her life. 

Moreover Ralph Ogle gave to William Ogle his son Twyssyll (held of Lord 
Dacre) for term of his (Win.) life ; and in like manner a fourth part of Sowthe 
Dysshyngton (held of the Prior of Tynmouth) ; Toffen or Tosfen with cornmill 
(held of the Barony of Heppell) for term of his (Wm.) life. 

Also the same Ralph gave to John Ogle his son (as by his writing sealed 
with his own seal more plainly appears) a fourth part of South Dysshyngton 
(held of the Prior of Tynmouth) for term of his (John) life. 

Further the same Ralph gave to John Heron for life the office of Forester of 
Cokke Park with a fee of 46s. 8d. 

He (Ralph) died 16 January last (15^f), and Robert Ogle is his next heir 
aged 22 years & more. 



APPENDIX B. 

Know all present and to come that I, Richard de Chartenay, have given to 
Robert de Chartenay, my brother, my manor of Hephale, and all the lands which 
I had in the same vill, as well in demesnes as in villenages, and cottages with the 
villeins belonging to those villenages, and their chattels and issue. I have also 
given and granted, &c., to the said Robert all the lands and tenements that I had 
in the vill of Great Tossyn, as well in demesnes, &c., with a mill and the suit 
belonging to the same mill, also the advowson of the Hospital of Alrybarne 
with meadows, woods, moors, &c., together with all other appurtenances, 
liberties and easements, in any manner whatsoever to the aforesaid lands 

VOL, xix. 33 



254 THE OGLE MONUMENT IN BOTHAL CHURCH: APPENDICES. 

and tenements of Hephale and Tossyn, belonging, with the homages and 
services of all my free tenants within the Barony of Hephale, namely, the 
homage and entire service of Robert, son of Sir Gilbert de Umfranville, for all 
the land which he holds of me in Flatewayton, and the homage and entire ser- 
vice of Philip de Chartenay for all the lands which he holds of me in the vill of 
Great Tyrwith, and the service of Thomas Leestok for all the lands which he 
holds of me in the vill of Warton, and the service of Gilbert de Edlingham for 
all the lands which he holds of me in Little Tossyn, and the homage and service 
of William Patrick of Tossyn, for the lands which he holds of me in Great 
Tossyn, &c. Rendering therefor yearly one penny, &c. Witnesses, Sir Guiscard 
de Charron, Sir Luke Tailboyes, Sir Walter de Buroden, Sir Richard de Horseley, 
Sir Robert de Glantingdon, &c. Among the charters at Welbeck, MS. Dods- 
morth, 49, No. 95. 



APPENDIX C. 

. Ethama [or Ethania ?], wife of the late Sir Richard de Chartenay, has given 
to Robert de Hepehale whatever he asked, in the name of her dowry, in the 
county of Northumberland, 26 Edw. I. Among the papers at Welbeck, MS. 
Dodsworth, 49, f ol. 16, No. 45. 

Ethama que fuit vxor domini Richardi de Chartenay dedit Robarto de Hepe- 
hale quicquid petebat nomine dotis in comitatu Northumberland, anno 26 Edw. I. 
In cartis apud Welbec, G 66. No. 45. 



APPENDIX D. 

Margaret, wife of the late Robert de Hephale, quit claimed to Robert, son 
of Robert de Hephale, all the right that she had in the name of a dowry, in the 

vills of Newton Hakkeford, of the inheritance of the same Robert and 

Danaby, in Richmondshire, at the feast of the ascension, 17 Edward II. Among 
the charters at Welbeck, JUS. Dodmorth, 49, fol. 66, No. 41. 

Margareta que fuit vxor Roberti de Hephale quietum [MS. que etium] 
clamabat Roberto, filio Roberti de Hephale, totum ius quod habuit nomine dotis 
in villis de neuton Hakkeford de hereditate ipsius Roberti . . . . , et Danaby 
in [MS. comitatu] Richemundshire, in festo ascensionis, 17 Edw. 2. In cartis 
apud Welbec, G, f. 66, No. 41. 



NOTE. The writer is indebted to the kindness of Capt. Sir Henry Ogle, bart., 
for the Appendices B, C, and D. 



255 



XXV. CHOPWELL WOODS. 

By WILLIAM WEAVER TOMLINSON. 

[Read on November 24th, 1897.] 

Stretching northward from the banks of the Derwent between 
Lintzford and Blackball Mill, and making of the whole hillside a 
sylvan labyrinth in which a stranger might wander long in foggy 
weather before finding an outlet, are the well-known Ohopwell woods. 
Attractive to the naturalist as the habitat of the adder's tongue and 
other rare ferns, and the breeding-place of the kestrel and the wood- 
cock, they are also of interest to the antiquary on account of their 
association with some of the principal strongholds and towns of 
Northumberland, and with the British navy at an eventful period of 
its history. They occupy a great part of the manor of Chopwell, 
which, in the first half of the twelfth century, belonged to the priory 
of Durham, but, sometime between 1153 and 1159, was granted by 
bishop Pudsey to the first abbot of Newminster in exchange for 
Wolsingham. At this early date the name was spelt 'Cheppwell,' 
which Mr. Boyle derives from the A.S. ceap (cattle) and tvell (a 
well). 1 

It is interesting to follow the old boundaries as given in Pudsey's 
grant 2 : 

' From the spring which is called Milkewelle where it runs into the 
Derwent, and from the upper part by the road which is called Lede- 
hepes weye 3 to the wood called Fulscaleside 4 where the field and wood 
adjoin Lynneburn 5 and by the same stream to Rudeforde 6 and thence 

1 The County of Durham : Its Castles, Churches, and Manor-houses, 4to ed. 
appendix xxii. 

2 Nereminster Chartidary (66 Surtees Society Publ.), p. 45. 

3 Now known as the ' Lead road.' 

4 No doubt, the wood called ' The Guards.' 

5 The Clinty burn, on which is a small waterfall or ' linn.' This burn seems 
to have been called, in 1315 and 1317, ' the Wodclouk' or ' Wodechik.' 

8 Rudeforde ; probably identical with the Cottage burn ford on the Red burn, 
near its junction with the Stanley burn. 



256 CHOPWELL WOODS : 

by a way to Hangandeswell 7 and thence to Grladenhefde, 8 to Fifakes 9 
and thence by the road which is called Lincestrete 10 to Lintzford ; and 
on the south side of the Derwent, in length from Birdene 11 to the water 
which is called Pont, and in width from the said Derwent to the ditch 
which they made by our leave, so that the cross-line (transversum) 
of the actual breadth is two furlongs in these places : viz., the first 
cross-line is taken from Birden up, the second opposite Histlihalch, 12 
the third where the scroggy brae (rupes rubea) descends to the Der- 
went and thence by the aforesaid ditch to the Pont, where the fourth 
cross-line is of two furlongs.' 

Several other place-names occur in a description of the boundaries 
which is given in a quit claim of common right in Chopwell by John 
de Horseley, lord of Graucroke (Crawcrook), in 1313. 13 From the 
eastern side, ' where the Estcotlesche" falls upon the Stockstall, 15 and 

7 Hangandeswell ; possibly ' Holly well,' in the bankside close to the lane lead- 
ing from West Pit house to Buck's nook, about 650 yards from the latter place 
and one furlong from the Lead road. It has been much affected by the working 
of the neighbouring collieries. It owes its present name to a holly bush which, 
till recently, grew above it. Very old people remember it being called the 
' hanging well. ' 

8 Gladenhefde ; the head of the Barlow, or Blaydon burn, near Coalburns. 
Half an acre of land on the east side of ' Gladen,' in a certain place called the 
' Strete ' on the Tyne, was granted to the monks by Kobert de Nevill, lord of 
Raby, early in the fourteenth century. 

9 Fifakes ; probably the ' five oaks,' from the A.S. fif (five) and ac (oak). 

10 Lincestrete : the paved road leading to Lintzford. 

11 Birdene. A part of the southern boundary line seven furlongs in all 
appears on the south side of the Derwent, cutting across bends of the river, etc. 
It occurs in four places, which are no doubt identical with those mentioned in 
the old grant. Birdene I take to be a narrow little dene, through which runs 
a slender thread of water called in the district ' the Howlet Hall burn,' adjoining 
Westwood colliery on the east, and just opposite to the mouth of the Milkwell burn. 

12 Histlihalch (? Thistlyhaugh, a name that also occurs in Northumberland, 
near Weldon bridge) from the A.S. thi-ttel (thistle) and haugh (a low lying 
meadow near a river) may be the same as Silly haugh, near Armonside, which 
was sold by John Duck and John Heslop in 1671 to Robert and George Surtees. 
The brae referred to I would place a little east of Armonside. The fourth piece 
of the boundary line, nearly three furlongs in length, terminates about a furlong 
from the Galley burn, and this streamlet, I think, must be the one meant, and 
not the Pont, which is a mile further east of it. 

13 Newminster Chartulary. Surtees Society, vol. 66, p. 51. u Escotlesch. 
15 Stockstall. These various place-names, conveying the notion of enclosures, 

clearly point to the fact of the abbots of Newminster having a sheep farm a little 
to the north of Leadgate. The stockstall A.S. stocc (a stock or stake) and steel 
(a place, or stall) was a stockaded place surrounded with stocks or piles. The 
estcot, or east cote A.S. cote (an enclosure for sheep) seems to be identical 
with the ' bercariam orientem ' [Bercaria : locus berbicibus alendis idoneus, alius 
tamen ab ovili. Du Cange] past which the boundary ran, as indicated in a 
quit claim of common right by liobert, earl of Angus, in 1317, before coming to 
the streamlet called the Wodechik. 



OLD BOUNDARIES. 257 

from the Stockstall towards the north up to the northern side of 
Sticeley-dike, 16 and from Sticeley-dike by Heddeley wai 17 into the 
Spenstrete 18 and to the ford of Lynce (Lintzford), and so from Milk- 
well by the western side to that place where the Milkewelburn falls 
into the Derwent, and so by Milkewelburn to the spring which is 
called Milkewell, and so from Milkewell by the Eauenside dike towards 
the north to the road which is called Heddeley wai, and so from 
Heddelei wai by the Eauenside dike towards the east to the gate 
which is called Prodow iet, 19 and so from Prodow iet by the ancient 
ditch around the Tunesteddes 20 to the Estcot of Cheppwell.' 

The place-names thus mentioned lie beyond the site of the present 
woods. Certain others, however, which appear in a quit claim of 
rights in Chopwell by Eobert Fitzmeldred of the twelfth or thirteenth 
century may be located in the eastern part of the woods. ' From 
Standandestan 21 " thus runs the boundary," descending by Lynches- 
trete to the head of Gaunlisker, 22 and so descending where the water 
falls from Gaunlisker into the streamlet of Lyncheclough, 23 and so by 
the same streamlet into the Derwent, and so by the stream of Derwent, 
descending to Lynches forde, and so ascending from Lynchforde by 
the great road of Lynchestrete to Standandestan.' 24 

The manor was let in 1527 to John Swinburne, esq., a bastard of 
the house of Edlingham, for 26 13s. 4d. per annum. He devised his 
farm at Chopwell in 1545 to his second son, John, who obtained a 

" Sticeley-dike ; probably a dike overgrown with whins A.S. sticels (pricks). 
It might, however, be a dike called after Robert de Stichell, bishop of Durham, 
1261-74. " Heddeley wai : the Lead road. 

18 Spenstrete ; the paved road leading to the Spen. 

10 Prodow iet, now Leadgate, from which place there is a road leading to 
Prudhoe. 

50 The Tunesteddes A.S. tun (a place surrounded by a hedge) and stede (a 
place, site, position) probably represented the rudely fortified dwelling of the 
shepherds. A wood and a cottage still bear the name of the ' Guards,' which is 
derived from the A.S. geard, denoting a yard or enclosure. The Tunesteddes 
with the Estcot, and probably the Stockstall, may, I think, be identified with 
the ' messuage and seven acres of land with appurtenances ' wrongfully seized 
by Gilbert de Umfravill, earl of Angus, in 1305, on the ground that these were in 
the township of Hedley, but to which Robert, earl of Angus, his son, relinquished 
all claim in 1307 (Neicminster Chartulary, Surtees Society, vol. 66, p. 50). 

21 Standestan ; probably a prehistoric monolith. 

22 Gaunlisker, like Gaunless, a streamlet in the S.W. part of Durham, appears 
to be of Celtic origin. It may possibly be derived from Gwan, (weak, feeble) 
and rcysg (a stream or current). 

M Lyncheclough ; probably the streamlet now called ' Pallinsburn.' 
s * Newminster Chartulary, Surtees Society, vol. 66, p. 48. 



258 CHOPWELL WOODS : 

fee simple of the manor from the crown. In 1562, this John 
Swinburne, who had been working coals in Ryton common, had a 
dispute with Pilkington, bishop of Durham, about his boundaries in 
connexion with which he roughly used some of the bishop's servants, 
Robert Saunders and Robert Hedworth being 'sore bett and hurt.' 
The matter was submitted to arbitrators, who, on October 10th, 1563, 
delivered their award in regard to the boundaries deciding that the field 
in dispute called the 'Kyefield' was within the manor of Ryton, and 
further that John Swinburne should 'cause to be payed to Saunders, 
40s. sterling, to Hedworth, 20s., in recompence of their hurts.' 25 

As several of the places named in the old descriptions of the 
boundaries were not well known at this tune, and fresh disputes were 
likely to arise in consequence, the descriptions were revised and brought 
up to date by the arbitrators. 28 

John Swinburne forfeited his estates in 1569 by his participation 
in the great northern rebellion. The manor of Chopwell, thus vested 
in the crown, was, in 1578, granted by queen Elizabeth to sir Robert 
Constable 27 of Flamborough, for the services he had rendered as a spy 
and informer, the woods, however, being reserved. At his death, 12th 
November, 1591, it was found that accounts for provisions delivered 
into the stores and wages, for which, as lieutenant of ordnance (1588- 

24 Surtees, Hist, of Durham, vol. ii. p. 281. 

26 First, according to the old. bounder, the same begynneth at a place or foun- 
tayne called Mylkwell as it runnyth into Darwent and so by the head of the 
way called Chappellway, and by the river or becke runynge along the woodside 
called Falcalside, and so along by the said water, still runynge betwixt the 
head mores and groundes, and a passage or waye leadynge over the said water 
commonly called Roderforde or Rudyforde, and from thence turnynge upward 
toward the East by a little greene platte or waye to the south-syde of a greate 
rounde hill like a wynde mylne hill [near Frenche's close], and then streght 
from the said hill up to a grene way or grene pece of ground leadyne eastward 
derectlye to the northe syde of a pece of grounde caste aboute with a greate old 
diche, by some called the Arbour [? a very small field, two hundred feet square, 
three furlongs east of the footbridge over the Stanley burn], and from thence east- 
warde dyreclye over the old holowe waye eynde up to the toppe or highte of the 
more or hill there, and from thence dyrectlye to the diches of Kyefielde [adjoin- 
ing Buck's Nook lane], and so dyrectlye to folow the dyche of Kyefielde south- 
wardes, and by the south eynde thereof unto the head of a rivell or sike [the 
Coal-burn] about a hundreth yeardes from the south east corner of Kyefeld, and 
from thence to turne downwarde by the said sike or rivell, as the same runyeth 
or goyth downewards unto a gayt called Ruelay-gait [? Rogue's lane ; a farm- 
house to the north-east is called Reeley Mires]. Great stones shall be laid from 
Roderford untill the head of the siche that descendeth to Ruley-gayt, not above 
twelve score one from another ; and upon every stone on crosse of a speciall 
marke to be hewen. Surtees, Hist* of Durham, vol. ii. p. 281. 
id. p. 277. 



MANOR LEASED TO AMBROSE DUDLEY. 259 

91), he had received the money, viz. 1,707 Os. 2d., were unpaid. 
His lands were thereupon seized and a lease of them granted, Sept. 
18th, 1595, to Ambrose Dudley. 28 

A grant, on February 8th, 1604, to the heirs of sir Robert Con- 
stable, of pardon and discharge of debts due by him to the crown, 
was followed on November 26th, 1607, by a grant in fee-farm to sir 
William Constable 29 (son of sir Robert), afterwards notorious as one of 
the regicides, of the manor of Chopwell, certain woods excepted, with 
a proviso for coal mines if discovered, etc.; and, on March 25th, 1608, 
the manor, mines, etc., were leased to Ambrose Dudley, 80 who, however, 
on 22nd November, 1613, purchased the estate from Anthony Aucher, 
to whom sir William Constable had sold it on the same date. 81 

Ambrose Dudley died in June, 1629, 32 and the manor passed to his 
son, Toby Dudley, whose daughter and heiress, Jane, married Robert 
Clavering, a younger brother of the first sir James Clavering of 
Axwell. The male issue of Clavering failed in his grand-children, and 
Sarah, the sister and eventual heiress of John and Dudley Clavering, 
became wife of the lord chancellor, William earl Cowper. 83 The estate 
has since been sold in parcels, the Cowper family, however, reserving 
the mines of coal. 

But to return to the history of the woods. It is probable that, 
after the dissolution of monasteries in 1536, when the crown must 
have made some arrangement with the tenant of the monastery, John 
Swinburne, the woods were reserved ; for, two years later, Bellasis, 
Collingwood, and Horsley, the royal commissioners, in their report 
on Dunstanburgh castle, suggest that certain timber required for a 
new roof and floors to one of the towers of the great gateway, and for 

28 Cal. of State Papers, James I. Domestic, addenda 1580-1625, p. 452. 
i9 Ibid. 1603-10, p. 384. Ibid. 1603-10, p. 418. 

31 Surtees, Hist, of Durham, vol. ii. p. 277. 

52 He was buried at Ryton, June 24, 1628-9. Ambrose Dudley seems to have 
been a man of considerable business aptitude, but perhaps a little unscrupulous 
in his methods, if we may read between the lines of a letter from his father to 
lord Salisbury in 1610, complaining of his son's 'unnatural dealing with him' 
in regard to his estate. As early as 1595 we find Dudley in conjunction with 
Peter Delaval obtaining a grant of a lease of the coal pits in Bebside and 
Cowpen, and in 1597 he had a grant of the stewardship of Bywell lordship. On 
January 29, 1620, a grant for life was made to Ambrose and Toby Dudley of the 
office of collecting the subsidies and customs in the port of Newcastle. 

33 Surtees, Hist, of Durham, vol. ii. p. 277. 



260 CHOPWELL WOODS : 

other purposes, should be obtained from Ohopwell woods and carried 
by water to Dunstanburgh. 84 They also made a similar suggestion in 
regard to the timber required for the roofs of several decayed buildings 
at Bamburgh castle. 35 In the grants to the Constable family, we know 
definitely that this portion of the manor was reserved, the description 
of it being * all wood and woody grounds called the East Wood, the 
Moore Close, Deane, and the Carres ' (Confirmatory grant to sir "Wm. 
Constable, 14th November, 6 James I.). 83 

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Chopwell woods 
furnished large quantities of bark to the tanners of Newcastle. 87 

Most of the timber used in the reparations of the ' longe bridge ' 
at Berwick and the pier at the haven mouth, and for the gun-carriages 
on the walls, for over a quarter of a century came from Chopwell. It 
was the ' nearest place convenient,' according to the officers there. 88 

As may be imagined, the cost of transport was considerable. In 
1593 the land and water carriage of sixty tons of timber from Chop- 
well woods to 'the watersyde' at Blaydon, at 4s. a ton, was 12. 
1 6s. 6d. was the charge for bringing forty tons of this timber from 
Blaydon to Newcastle. The freight of two ships, each of forty 
chaldrons burden, from Newcastle to Berwick was 20. The fees of 
two pilots amounted to 3 15s. 2d. To this cost had to be added the 
'riding charges' of the master carpenter of Berwick between Berwick, 
Newcastle, and the woods, forty-seven days at 2s. 6d. per day, 
5 17s. 6d., so that the transport of forty tons from Chopwell to 
Berwick cost nearly 1 a ton. 89 

Before the crown had gained possession of Chopwell woods, the 
controller of Berwick, sir Valentine Brown, paid as much as 54s. to 
60s. a ton for the transport of timber to Berwick from other places, 
but in 1595, as John Carey informed Burghley, the cost was not more 
than 14s. or 15s. 40 

st Border Holds, p. 183. The compiler of the index to vol. ii. of the new 
County History has erroneously concluded that Chopwell woods were near 
Dunstanburgh, see p. 518. 

35 Ibid. pp. 259-261. 3i Surtees, Hist, of Durham, vol. ii. p. 277. 

87 Newcastle Courant, March 2nd, 1877. Newcastle Incorporated Companies, 
Tanners, article iii. by W. Pickering. 

38 Cal. of Border Papers, vol. 1, pp. 10, 243, 462. 

39 Ibid. vol. 1, pp. 471 and 503. * Ibid. vol. 2, p. 67. 



JOHN EUTHEEFOED, ' BAYLEY.' 261 

In 1595, it was recommended that one hundred tons of timber 
should be brought from Chopwell to Norham to be used in the repairs 
of the castle, at that time in a state of great decay. 41 

Berwick obtained forty tons of ash timber from Chopwell in 1597 
for making carts, cart wheels, hand-spikes, etc., 42 and on September 
30th, 1620, a licence was granted to the mayor and burgesses to cut 
down two hundred and fifty tons of timber in Chopwell woods for the 
bridge. 43 

The conduct of those who had charge of the woods at the time was 
far from exemplary. John Carey and Richard Musgrave, writing from 
Berwick, the one on October 31st, 1595, 44 and the other on July 22nd, 
1597, 45 gave Burghley strong hints that things were not all right at 
Chopwell, bidding him beware of those who, under colour of a lease of 
the underwoods, were carrying off the timber ; and lord Willoughby, 
on June 4th, 1598,' 6 definitely informed him that the 'bayley' (John 
Rutherford) had ordered 100 oaks to be cut down for his own profit, 
saying that they had been given to him by the surveyor of woods. 
' Knowing,' says Willoughby, ' the great use of these woods for the 
service of Berwick, Newcastle, etc., it may please you to give charge 
to your servant, Mr. Ambrose Dudley, who dwells thereby, to inform 
your lordship of any such default hereafter.' Possibly in consequence 
of reports made by Dudley to his detriment, John Rutherford appears 
to have been removed a few years later from his position of trust. On 
November 24th, 1613, Henry Sanderson, the constable of Brancepeth 
castle, who had charge of the woods there, received orders to take care 
of Chopwell as well. 47 Either on account of the action he had taken 
in this matter or in connexion with some question of rent or boundary, 
the new lord of the manor seems to have made a very bitter enemy of 
the old bailiff, for in 1615 the latter, accompanied by Charles Ruther- 
ford of the Blackball, Hugh and Gawen Rutherford, and William 
Shafto entered forcibly into the manor of Chopwell and made a 
murderous attack on Ambrose Dudley, George Gifford, and others at a 
place called the Westwood. In the affray George Gifford was wounded 

41 Cal. of Border Papers, vol. 2, p. 92. 42 Ibid. p. 365. 

4S Cal. of State Papers, Jas. I. Domestic, 1618-23, p. 182. 

41 Cal. of Border Papers, vol. 1, p. 67. tt Ibid. vol. 2, p. 365. 

48 IHd. p. 535. 47 Cal. of State Papers, Jas. I, Domestic, 1611-18, p. 332. 

VOL. xix. 34 



262 CHOP WELL WOODS : 

in the thigh with an iron lance by William Shafto, and died shortly 
afterwards. 48 For the part they had played iu the affair the Ruther- 
fords were outlawed. 

In 1620 the bailiff of the woods was stated to be 'cutting down 
and selling wood for his own advantage,' 49 and a few years later 
Ambrose Dudley, who held the office of keeper of the woods, though 
described by the bishop of Durham in 1597 as 'an honest gentleman 
and forward enough,' 80 seems to have succumbed to the temptation of 
' converting timber trees to his own use.' 51 

Charles I., on the 19th of December, 1631, appointed Robert 
Worral of London keeper and forester of Chopwell woods, and this 
officer in his turn appointed Roger Fenwick of Meldon his deputy. 62 
In 1634 sir Henry Yane is stated to have been in charge of the 
woods. 53 

In 1634, the eyes of the naval authorities were directed to 
Ohopwell as one of the crown estates from which could be obtained 
the timber required for the construction of new war-ships, and orders 
were given by the lords of the admiralty, December 23rd, 1634, 54 that 
as many of the trees as were fit for this purpose should forthwith be 
marked. This was the time when Phineas Pett, the great naval 
architect, in pursuance of the far-seeing policy of Charles I., was 
remodelling and strengthening the navy, and when the plans were 
passed for a great new ship, 55 greater even than the ' Prince Royal,' 
launched in September, 1610, Chopwell was one of the woods selected 
by the king himself 66 to furnish the necessary timber. Shipwrights 
were accordingly sent down in February, 1635, to view the woods, 

48 Surtees, Hist, of Durham, vol. ii. p. 282. 

4!) Col. of State Papers, Jas. I. Domestic, 1619-23, p. 158. Henry Sanderson 
to sir Root. Naunton, June 29th, 1620. 

50 Cal. of Border Papers, vol. 2, p. 459. 

51 Cal. of State Papers, Chas. I. Domestic, 1631-33, p. 458. 

52 Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, part ii. vol. ii. p. 7. 

53 State Papers, Chas. I. Domestic, 1634-5, p. 367. 54 Ibid. p. 367. 

53 On the 26th of June, 1634, says Pett, 'his majesty came to Woolwich to 
see the frame of the " Leopard," then half built, and, being in the ship's hold, 
he called me aside privately and told me his resolution of building a great, new 
ship, which he would have me undertake, and said, you have made many 
requests to me, and now I will make it my request to you to build the ship".' 
(Arcliaeologia, vol. xii. p. 278.) The model of this ship was finished on October 
29th, 1634. * Cal. of State Papers, Chas. 1. Domestic, 1634-5, p. 499. 



'THE SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS.* 268 

and out of 11,083 trees they marked 1,610 as * useful for his Majesty's 
service,' which number, however, they thought might be brought up 
to 2,000. 57 The timber they reported could be conveniently laden 
into barges at Blaydon and ' thence transported to Newcastle at about 
16d. a load, and from Newcastle to Woolwich, Deptford, or Chatham 
at about 14s., so that the timber being valued at 10s. per load the 
plank will stand his Majesty in 42s. the load, and the other timber at 
36s. per load.' 58 

It was decided at first to obtain the whole of the timber required 
from Chopwell for an order was signed by the king [February 24th, 
1635] for 2,500 trees from these woods to be cut down before the sap 
should come into them. 58 However, in the early part of June, the 
great Phineas Pett himself arrived at Chopwell, 60 and found that the 
woods came far short of his expectation, 61 and therefore he made 
arrangements for getting 1,400 choice trees from Brancepeth West 
Wood, where there was ' excellent provision of long timber.' ^ Under 
the direction of Pett's son, rapid progress was made with the felling 
and squaring of the timber, and soon a large collier was on its way 
to Woolwich with a portion of the framework. Pett remained in 
the north till July 22nd, when he left Newcastle on his homeward 
journey. 

The great ship, which was thus built from timber out of Chopwell 
and Brancepeth woods, was the celebrated ' Sovereign of the Seas,' 63 
the first three-decker, remarkable not only for its size it was 232 
feet long, from stem to stern, and 48 feet in width, a gross tonnage 
by depth 1,466, by draught 1,661, and by beam 1,836 but for its 
gorgeous decorations, its elaborate carving and gilding. It cost 
nearly 41,000, exclusive of guns, which cost 25,000. 

A historic interest attaches to this ship, for the ship-money levied 
to pay for it was one of the prime causes of the Civil War. Launched 
October 13th, 1037, it was in almost all the great actions with the 

57 Gal. of State Papers, Chas. I. Domestic, 1634-5, p. 512. 

68 Ibid. p. 512. M Ibid. pp. 523 and 592. 80 See appendix. 

61 Cal. of State Papers, Chas. 1. 1635, Domestic, p. 113. Letter from New- 
castle, June 8th, 1635. 62 Ibid. 

63 There is a splendid model of this ship in the museum at Greenwich 
hospital. A good illustration of the ship will be found in Green's Short 
History of the English People [edition 1894], p. 1098, and in Commander 
Robinson's The British Fleet, p. 229. 



'THE SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS.' 265 

Dutch, and after being renovated in 1684, when the name was changed 
to the ' Royal Sovereign,' it was accidentally burnt at Chatham in 1696. 

After having yielded the best of their timber to the ' Sovereign of 
the Seas,' the woods, with the exception of 187 trees marked for 
ship-timber by the purveyor of the navy, were granted, August 19th, 
1637, to sir Henry Vane, 6 ' comptroller of the household, father of 
sir Harry Vane who called forth a famous exclamation from Cromwell, 
and was addressed by Milton in a well-known sonnet. Sir Henry 
was licensed to remove the trees granted within the space of twenty- 
one years, and in 1640 we find sir Lionel Maddison negotiating 
on his behalf for the sale of the timbet. "When surveyed by Joseph 
Pett, purveyor of the navy, and his assistants in September, 1636, 
there were 10,407 trees, valued at 2,547 12s. 2d. (inclusive of 187 
valued at 83 13s. 4d.) 65 In April, 1640, however, there were only 
standing 9,741. 66 

Charles I. having made a grant of timber from Chopwell woods 
for the reparation of Tyne bridge, the town council of Newcastle in 
1649 directed that application should be made to the parliament for 
40 trees for this purpose. 67 

It is doubtful whether the woods, after the wholesale felling that 
went on during the latter years of Charles the First's reign, ever 
recovered their former importance. On account of the quantity of 
coal in the district, the wood does not seem to have found a ready 
sale, and a good many trees continued to be stolen by the country 
people round about, as they had been about the time of the grant to 
sir Henry Vane. 68 

During the first quarter of the present century, about 900 acres of 
land at Chopwell were planted with the object of raising oak timber 
for naval purposes. The rapid diminution of oak in the forests of 
the country was causing alarm. It was feared that material for the 
oaken walls of old England might fail at no distant date. Lord 
Collingwood, we know, shared this apprehension. At Morpeth he 
raised with much care some seedling oaks, and, at Heathpool, had a 
plantation of oaks growing to provide 'knee-timber' for his ships. 

M Cal. of State Papers, Chas. I. Domestic, 1637, p. 378. 6S Ibid. 1636-7, p. 96. 
66 Ibid. 1640, p. 5. 67 Brand's Hist, of Newcastle, vol. i. p. 47. 

88 Cal. of State Papers, Chas. I. 1636-7, Domestic, p. 95. 



266 CHOPWELL WOODS : 

The first portion of these crown lands planted was a tract of four 
hundred and fifty-four acres in 1813-, 1814, and 1815. A hundred 
of these acres consisted of 'woodland and wet bogs, growing 
alder, birch, and other wood peculiar to such land.' The 
other portions of the lands were planted in 1820 and 1821, 
under the direction of William Billington, who had superintended 
the enclosing and planting, etc., of eleven thousand acres of land in 
the Forest of Dean. In a little work published in 1825 he gives 
an account of his ' experiments on the different modes of raising Young 
Plantations of Oaks for future navies from the acorn, seedling, and 
larger plants, showing the difficulties and objections that have occurred 
in the Practical Part, with remarks upon the Fencing, Draining, 
Pruning, and Training Young Trees.' He relates what trouble he 
had with the field mice, which he found more destructive than the 
hares and rabbits. 'Since I have been at Chopwell,' he says, 
'previous to the great storm of 1823, the mice were pretty numerous, 
and had done considerable damage by biting off several very large 
oaks ; and though after that winter I found none for two years, yet I 
perceived they were again increasing. It is said by naturalists that 
the beaver will fell trees with his teeth, but I have never seen an 
account of mice felling oak trees. Yet have I found oak trees cut 
down by them of seven and eight feet high and an inch and a half in 
diameter at the place bitten off, which was just at the root.' 69 A 
successful plan was devised of trapping the mice by means of holes 
twenty yards apart, these being from eighteen inches to two feet long, 
sixteen or eighteen inches deep, about ten inches or the breadth of a 
spade at the top, fourteen or fifteen inches wide at the bottom, and 
three or four inches longer at the bottom than the top. 

A memorable day in the history of the woods was ' Windy Monday,' 
viz., January 7th, 1839, when, it is computed, upwards of twenty 
thousand trees were uprooted. Since this time the history of the woods 
is simply a series of experiments in forestry. 

69 A series of facts, hints, observations, and experiments on the different modes 
of raising young plantations of oaks, etc., p. 44. 



DIARY OF PHINEAS PETT, NAVAL ARCHITECT. 267 

APPENDIX. 

PHINEAS PETT IN THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

[Extensive extracts are given from Pett's diary in vol. xii. of the ArcJiaeologia, 
but, as those relating to Pett's visit to the North of England are much condensed 
and contain slight inaccuracies, I have had this portion of the diary carefully 
transcribed.] 

May Sunday morning we gott horse with some difficulty & rode to Whiteby, 

where we were kindly entertained & lodged at one Cap* ffoxes hous then lying 
sick there we found much kindness at y e hands of one M r Bagwell a Shipwrite 
& Yardkeeper this was the 31 day of May Munday morning we parted thence & 
came to Gisborough a great Markett Towne where we baited from thence we 
went to Stockdome where we found but mean entertainment being lodged in 
the Maiors house being a poor thatched Cottage. On Tuesday we came to 
Durham where we baited from thence we came to New Castle about five of y" 
Clock lodgeing this night at the Post house where we were very homely used 
but the next day we removed thence to M r Leonard Carrs house where we were 
very well accomodated & neatly lodged in which house we lay all y e time of 
our abode at New Castle, this was y c 3 d of June 1635. 

June After our Comeing to New Castle & had lodged our selves Conveniently we 

advised together how to proceed in our businesse & that no time might be lost 
& first viewed the Places from whence we were to make Choice of our frame 
& other provisions w ch were Chopple woodes & Bramespeth Park a good way 
from one another then having marked such Trees as were fittest our purpose 
our Workmen were disposed of to their severall Charges and began to fell 
square & saw with all the Expedition we could that work being setled my 
Sonne Carefully followed that businesse whilst I my self attended the Lord 
Bishopp of Durham with my Commission & Instructions whome I found 
wonderfully ready & willing to give all furtherance to us assisted by other 

f^ e Knights & Gent. Justices of the Peace in the County who with all Care & dilli- 
gence took order with the Country for present Carriage God so blessed us in 
our proceedings that in a Short time as much of y e frame was made ready as 
laded away a great Collier belonging to Woodbridge which was safely landed at 
Woolwich & as fast as provisions could be made ready they were shipped 
away that from Chopple woods was laded from New Castle that which came 
from Bramespeth from Sunderland. 

Having ordered all our business both for Carriage moneyes & all other 
needfull things to sett forward the businesse leaving my loving son Peter to 
oversee all I took my leave of my friends at New Castle the 22 d day of July 
being Wednesday & came to Durham where we lodged that night at the 

July Post house next morning I waited upon my Lord of Durham with whome T 
dined, & after dinner took leave & returned to my lodgeing. 

Fryday morning, being the 24 day I parted from Durham accompanyed 
with son Christ Charles Bowles & the Guide we mett alsoe bound our way 
for London three Scottish Gentlemen and their attendants who very kindly 
accepted of our Company & we rode together to North allerton, where [we] 

lodged that night at the Post Masters next day we rode to York 

[Extract from Life of Phineas Pett, 1570-1638. Harl. MS. 6279, British 
Museum.] 



268 




XXVI. ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FROM AESIOA. 

By F. HAVERFIELD. 
[Read on the 29th September, 1897.] 

The excavations which were carried out last summer at Great- 

chesters (Aesica) resulted in 
the discovery, among other 
objects, of seven inscribed 
stones, of which three are 
tolerably perfect and four 
fragmentary. All were found 
in the same quarter of the 
fort, in some. rooms immedi- 
ately south-west of the arched 
chamber opened in 1894, and 
nearly in the centre of the 
fort, though perhaps outside 
the actual praetorium to 
which that chamber doubtless 
belonged. The three most 
perfect stones, and one of the 
fragments (nos. 1-4), and 
a large illegible altar, were 
found inserted as building . 
material into walls of Roman 
construction. The following 
readings rest on copies made 
by myself : 

1. Red sandstone tomb- 
stone, twenty-four inches wide 
by fifty inches high with two 
and a half inch letters : the 
inscription is perfect, but the 
top, on which is an urn in 

low relief, is broken. It had 

NO. i. 4' 2" x 2' o". b een use( } as building material 

to foim the foundation of a wall and the roof of a drain : the next 
two inscriptions were lying side by side with it, all of them face 








ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FROM AESICA. 



269 



upwards. Nos. 1 and 2 seem to have been more or less protected 
from damage, especially no. 2. No. 3 has apparently been exposed 
to the tread of feet, and formed part of a pavement. 

D M 
AVRELIAE 
CAVL . . . 
AVR . LIA 
S . . . ILLA 
SORORI . . 
RISSIME 
VIXIT AN 
XV M IIII 

D(is) M(anibus) Aureliae 
Caul . . . . , Aur[_e]lia S . . ilia 
sorori [ca~]rissim(a)e viocit 
an(nos) xv m(enses) iiii. 

' Erected by Aurelia S . . . . 
to the memory of her dear sister, 
Aurelia Cau . . . who lived 15 
years and 4 months.' 

The two cognomina cannot 
be supplied with certainty. The 
first may have been Caulia, 
though that is properly a nomen, 
not a cognomen; for the second 
several choices are possible, 
Salvilla, Sextilla, Sporilla, Syr- 
ilia, and others. 

2. Red sandstone tomb- 
stone, twenty-four inches wide by 
sixty-three inches high, broken 
at the top. The inscription, in 
a panel twenty inches square, is 
perfect: the letters, which are 
very clear and well shaped, are 
three inches high in line one, two and one-eighth in the other lines. 
The stone was found lying between nos. 1 and 3, utilized in the same 
way as no. 1. 

VOL. xix. 35 




No. 2. 5' 3" X 2 



270 ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FROM AESICA. 

Dis manib(us) L. Novel(lius) Llanuccus ? c(ivis) R(pmanus), 

an(norum) Ix. Novel(lia) lustina ftl(ia) 

ff . -, , f . A DIS M A N I B 

/(*"*) *ravU). L. NOVEL- LLAN 

' To the memory of L. Novellius VCCVS C R AN L 1 

Llanuccus, Roman citizen, aged 60: NOVEL- IVSTINA 

erected by his daughter, Novellia 

T F C 

Justma. 

Novellius Llanuccus was probably a barbarian who acquired the 
Roman franchise, and retained, with his Roman nomen, his barbarian 
name as cognomen. The exact spelling of that name is open to a little 
doubt. According to the punctuation of the stone, it is Llanuccus. 
The initial double 'LI' is familiar enough in modern "Welsh, but I 
can find no ancient parallels, except two ogams from South Ireland, 
to which professor Rhys has called my attention. Ogams, however, 
are hardly near enough to Roman inscriptions to give certainty, and 
it is possible that the sculptor of our stone put his point wrong, writing 
'Novel Llanuccus,' but meaning 'Novell Lanuccus.' Whatever 
the initial, the name appears to be Celtic : ' -uccus ' is a common Celtic 
ending, seen, for example, in the potters' names Caratuccus, Uniuccus, 
and comparable, probably, with the ending ' -iccus,' which appears in 
the correct spelling of Boadicea's name, Boudicca. Lanus, as Dr. 
Holder tells me, occurs on a Rhenish inscription. 

The lettering of the stone is good, and (if a guess be permitted) 
can hardly be later than the middle of the second century. Two other 
indications agree with, if they do not suggest, an early date. The 
name Novellius, common in Cisalpine Gaul, occurs often, perhaps 
most often, in the first century (see e.g. C.I.L. v. 2452, 5875), and the 
mention of Roman citizenship implies that the tombstone was erected 
at a date when Roman citizenship had not become universal or nearly 
universal in the provinces ; that is, that it is earlier, rather than later, 
than the second half of the second century. 

3. Fragment of a large ansate slab in red sandstone, now thirty- 
two inches long by sixteen inches at its highest. It once bore an im- 
perial inscription in letters one and one-eighth inches high, but 
is now almost illegible. It was found lying next to No. 2 ; it IM 
had been utilized like it and No. 1, but belonged to the floor of pi 
the room more than to the wall. It can hardly be earlier in 
date than Pius, if PI is part of that name. 



ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FROM AESICA. 



271 



4. Red sandstone altar, forty inches high, twenty inches wide, 
having, in addition to other ornamentation at the top, a line of ' dog- 
tooth' ornament. The letters (two and one-eighth and two and one- 
fourth inches high) are in a panel of twenty by sixteen inches ; they 
are very slender, IELT 
being almost identical, 
and the stops, if I 
have read right, are 
promiscuous. Mr. J. P. 
Gibson tells me he saw 
this stone unearthed : 
it formed part of the 
south wall of the room 
in which nos. 1, 2, and 
3 had also been utilized 
as building material. 

I O M 

DOLICENOLV 
CIVS- MAXIM 
IVS GAE T VLIC 
VSo LEG -XX -VV 

V . . M 

I(ovi o(ptimo} 
m(aximo) DolicQi)eno 
Lucius Maximius Gae- 
tulicus (centurio) leg(io- 
nis) xx v. v., v(pturri) 
[s(olvit} l(ibens)~] 
m(erito). 

'Dedicated to lup- 
piter Dolichenus by L. 
Maximius Gaetulicus, 
centurion of the Twen- 
tieth legion.' 

I do not think it possible to date this inscription. Maximius 
is a moderately common name occurring in many places in the second 
and third centuries. The worship of Dolichenus belongs mainly to 
the same two centuries. 




No. \. 3' 4" X 1' 8". 



272 ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FROM AESICA. 

5. Fragment of an imperial dedication, fifteen inches high by 
eighteen inches broad, with fairly well shaped letters : p CAES 
found lying loose near the room containing no. 1 4. MAX 

Im\ p Caes . . . Max[imus . . . p(ius} f(elix} A\ug? PFA 
The inscription is plainly later than the middle of the second 
century : it might belong to Caracalla for instance, or to Severus 
Alexander, both of whom are well represented among the Wall inscrip- 
tions. Septimius Severus, of whom some might think, does not appear 
to have born the title ' Felix.' 

6. Top right-hand corner of an imperial dedication, now five and 
a half by five and a half inches, found lying loose near the other 

inscription. The stone is the local mill- 

'""'."" T--N stone grit. Some marks on the top sug- 

' V-V T o est taa ^ ^ was tne ^ ase f a ^atuette, 
or similar object. The sur- EVER I 
viving letters, one and five- . . . . SAR 

eighth inches high, are : SE 

Severi is plain in line one ; SAR may 
be the end of Caesar or beginning of 
j^P Sarmaticus. The inscription plainly be- 
No, e. longs to the first part of the third century, 
w x 5 * " but whether to Septimius Severus, or to 
Caracalla (Severi fil), or to Severus Alexander, cannot be determined. 
The third line is uncertain. 

7. Fragment of millstone grit, thirteen inches by fifteen inches, 
forming the lower right-hand part of an altar, with four lines of not 
very legible letters two and a half inches high. It was found lying 

loose inside a room a few feet west of the arched 
, , NVS D LEG 

chamber. AGENS CVRVA 

~]nus (centurio) leg(ionis) [. . . curarn] agens RAM DICAVIT 
curua . . . a\ram dicavit ... / / / / / M 

The legionary centurion whose name ended in -nus was apparently 
in charge of the auxiliary troop garrisoning Aesica, according to a 
practice not uncommon in the second and third centuries (see Arch. 
Ael. vol. xvi. pp. 79, 80). The letters after agens are not quite 
certain, and their sense is obscure. 

The most interesting feature in this epigraphic find is the occur- 



ROMAN ALTAR AT SOUTH SHIELDS. 273 

rence of Roman tombstones and altars inserted as building material 
into walls of Roman construction. When the group of buildings near 
the centre of the fort, which was excavated this summer, was erected 
or re-erected, tombstones were brought in from the cemetery outside 
the fort, probably south of it, and, with stray altars, were used for 
walling and flooring. This use of tombstones is by no means unparal- 
leled. The examination of the north city wall at Chester (Deva), 
some years ago, revealed the fact that the interior of the lower courses, 
which are of Roman construction, was full of Roman sepulchral slabs. 
Tombstones seem also to have been built into the Roman walls of 
London and Ohichester. As M. Schuermans has told us, they have 
undoubtedly been utilized for the Roman walls of several continental 
towns in Gaul, and at Neumagen, near Trier, they have helped to 
provide material for a fourth-century fortress. Most of these instances 
belong to the end of the third and of the fourth century, when the 
barbarians were overrunning the western world ; but Deva and Aesica 
may be earlier. With respect to Deva, epigraphic evidence shows 
that the use is not earlier than about A.D. 150, and prof. Hiibner and 
myself have independently assigned it to Septimius Severus. This, of 
course, is little more than a guess : the one certainty is the terminus 
a quo of circa 150. With respect to the Aesica finds, there is 
even less evidence. The imperial inscription (No. 2) is tantalizingly 
illegible, as the important parts of inscriptions usually are, and the 
various indications noted above do little more than suggest that the 
inscriptions, as a whole, may belong to the second century. For the 
present, at any rate, it is safest to conclude that the building for which 
these stones were utilized was erected, or, it may be, re-erected, 
perhaps at the end of the second century, perhaps in the first half of 
the third century, for example under Severus Alexander, when building 
was undoubtedly done at Aesica. A later date, such as the age of 
Constantine, seems, under the circumstances, to be less probable. 



ROMAN INSCRIPTION AT SOUTH SHIELDS. 
Mr. Blair has asked me, as an appendix to my notes on the Aesica 
inscriptions, to describe a small inscription lately found at South 
Shields, of which he has sent me a drawing and a squeeze. It is an 



274 



ROMAN INSCRIPTION AT SOUTH SHIELDS. 



altar, about two feet high and eleven inches wide, apparently perfect 
at the top and sides, but broken below, with three lines of well-shaped 
letters two and three-eighths inches high. 

It was found last December (1897), at the end of Vespasian 

avenue, to the south of the fort, and 
is now in the free library at South 
Shields. It reads : 




IVLIVS 

VERAX 

)LEGV[I] 

Verax centurio 



Legionis 



lulius 
F[7. . . 

From its shape, I take the stone 
to be a dedication, with dedicator's 
name preceding the name of the deity. 
This is an unusual order ; but we 
have parallels at Ellenborough (Uxel- 
lodunum), Helstrius Novellus prae- 
fectus numini Volcano (Lapid. Sept. 
no. 871, 0. I. L. vii. 398) ; at 
Bath, Peregrinus Secundi ftlius civis 
Trever Loucetio Marti, etc. (ib. 36), and 
elsewhere. It occurs in some of the 
very earliest known inscriptions of the 
Roman republic, and instances occur 
throughout the republic and the first two or two and a half centuries 
of the empire. The latest dated example known to me belongs to 
the reign of Gordian III. (A.D. 238-244). It appears never to have 
been the custom, but always an admissible alternative for persons 
who liked, as persons are apt to like, small variations in unimportant 
things. 

NOTE. The illustrations of the Aesica inscriptions are from photographs by 
Mr. J. P. Gibson of Hexham, that of the South Shields altar by Mr. F. Downey 
of South Shields. 



2' 0" x ll' 



INDEX. 



275 



INDEX. 



A. 



Abdale, Aaron, 238 

Abercorn, monastery of, where was it ? 
109 

Abinger, James Scarlett, created 
baron, 170 

Acca's cross, 194 

Acha, daughter of Aelli, 51 

Adamson, rev. C. E., on the vicars of 
Haltwhistle, 14 

Adamson, rev. B. H., on sir Charles 
Brown, 133 

Adamson, H. A., Gleanings from the 
Records of the Parish of Tyne- 
?nouth, 93; Tynemouth parish 
registers, 197 

Aelli, king of Deira, 51 ; children 
of, 51 

Aesica, Roman inscriptions discovered 
at, 268 

Agricola threw chain of forts between 
Tyne and Solway, 105 

Aidan, character of, 47 ; training 
school at Lindisfarne, 48 ; his 
churches of wood, iSn ; his organi- 
zation of the church, 49 ; invited 
Hilda north, 52 ; fatal illness of, 52 

Aimers, Robert, constable of Kelso, 
166 

Ainsley, Andrew, 237 

Airey, John, 239 

Ala ii. Asturum, inscription record- 
ing, 179 ; earliest mention of, 181 

Alcfrid, son of Oswi, 187 

Aid wine, Jarrow given to, by Walcher, 
73 

Aldwulf , 50 ; rightful king of Deras, 
183 

Allan, Lionel, of Rotterdam, 239; 
Camilla Colville, sent to house of, 
239; Thomas, of Allan's FJatts, 
county Durham, 239 

Alnham tower, 171 

Alwinton, Easter dues at, 44 

Amcotts, bart., sir Wharton, of ' Kittle- 
thorp,' marriage of, 207 

' Ananias,' a Christian name, 207 

Anderson, George, of Newcastle, 240 ; 
will of George of Newcastle, archi- 
tect, 241 ; George, master builder, 
Newcastle, 227 ; George, of Corney 

f house, Hertford, 241 ; Henry, mayor 

' of Newcastle, 237 ; Thomas, of New- 
castle, builder, 241 



Angas, Caleb, coach builder, 241 ; 
father of Fife, 241w 

Angerton, Robert de, mayor of New- 
castle, 229 

Annual meeting, ix 

Anociticus, Benwell altar with name 
of, 180, 181 

Anthony, Henry, 236 

Antonine Wall, distance slabs of, and 
Roman names of fortresses on, 105 

Apollo Grannus, Roman altar dedi- 
cated to, 184 

Appleby, Thomas, 235 ; sir William of 
Durham, 116 

Arbroath, church of Haltwhistle 
granted to, 14 

Argyle, first duke of, 203 

Armitage, Margaret, 5;t 

Arrowsmith, Thomas, of Gateshead, 
236 ; rhyming epitaph of, 236?i 

Arthur's battles, 185 

Ashburnham, Henry, vicar of Tyne- 
mouth, 201 ; marriage of, 205 

Astell, Thomas, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
18; vicar of Mitford, 18; suit 
against for stealing chest, 19 

Auckland castle chapel, appendix, 
89 

Auckland church, prebend of 'Tytchys' 
in, 17 

Auchindavy, 113 

Australia, South, colony of, founded 
by Fife Angas, 241?i 

Averner, Robert de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 15 

B. 

Babington, Henry, purchased estate 
of Heaton and Jesmond, 34 ; re- 
ceived king James l.,and knighted, 
35 

Baily, rev. Johnson, on Ryton book of 
Easter offerings, etc., 39 

Baker, Oswald, of Durham, 235; sir 
George, recorder of Newcastle, 235 

Balmer, Peggy, of Rothbury, 162 ; 
Tommy, 162 

Bamburgh castle, timber for repair of, 
260 ; church and village destroyed, 
184 

Barbadoes, Thomas Rotherham, pro- 
fessor of Codrington college at, 23 ; 
John Washington originally went to, 
116 



276 



INDEX. 



Barbers not to follow occupation on 
Sundays, 101 

Bar Hill, 111 

Barnes, Joseph, 235 ; recorder of Ber- 
wick, 238 ; Mrs. Sarah, 238 ; widow 
of Joseph Barnes, recorder of New- 
castle and Berwick, 238 

' Barrett, Charming Mrs.,' an inscrip- 
tion scratched on a pane, xvi 

Barton, Richard de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 16 

Bartram, George, 236 ; seal of, 236, 
237 ; James of Newcastle, 225 and n ; 
Robert, 227 

Basire, Dr., 98 

Bates, C. J., ' Proprietary Dedications 
of Churches,' 62 ; ' The Beornicas 
and the Deras,' 147 ; ' The Home of 
St. Cuthbert's Boyhood,' 155 ; 'On 
the Distance-slabs of the Antonine 
Wall,' etc., 105 ; ' Winwedfield, the 
Overthrow of English Paganism,' 
182 

Bates, Thomas, dispute with vicar of 
Haltwhistle concerning Eidley hall, 
26 

Bathelspitel, near Darlington, chantry 
at. 15 

Baxter, Edward, lord of Hebburn and 
mayor of Newcastle, 230; Mat- 
thew, son of, 230 ; John, 232 ; seal 
of, 231, 232 ; Margaret, 235. 

Bedale, Yorks, churc.h tower, 171 

Bede, no trust to be placed in Dr. 
Giles's translation of, 53 ; confuses 
Bega with Heiu and Begu, 60 ; ' De 
Miraculis S.Cuthberti 1 of, 66; knows 
nothing of ' Bernicia ' and ' Deira,' 
147 ; indication of boundary be- 
teen, 152 

Begu, nun of Hackness, confused by 
Beda with Bega, 61 

Belgrave, Benjamin, 236 ; Francis, 
236, 237 

Bellasis, and Alice his wife, licence 
for oratory at Willimoteswyke 
granted to, 17 

Bells of Christ church, North Shields, 
101 

Bellman, 103 

Beltingham chapel, 17 ; irreverent be- 
haviour in, 17 ; ; a domestic chapel 
to Willimoteswick,' 24 ; notice of, 
25 ; restored, 27 ; rev. Mr. Benson, 
officiating curate at, 26 

Bemulie, 113 

Bennett, lady Camilla, 239 ; George, 
240 ; Henry, bequest to, by John 
Colvill, 121 

Benson, rev. Mr., officiating curate at 
Be tingham, 26 



Benwell altars, 187 

Bernicia, kings of, 51 ; and Deira, 
terms wrong, 147 ; neither Bede nor 
Eddi knows anything about, 147 ; 
theories as to boundary between, 
75, 76 et seq. ; Camden's opinion, 
75 ; Montalembert's, 76 

Beornicas, genealogy of, 150 ; Glen- 
dale in province of the, 150 ; whole 
land of, laid waste, 184 

1 Beornicas ' and ' Deras,' the, 148 

' Bernicii ' and ' Deiri,' kings of the, 
147 

Bertram, arms of, 249 

Bertram, the inventor of ' Richard of 
Cirencester,' 110 

Berwick, sir Valentine Brown, con- 
troller of, 260 ; bridge and pier, 
timber for repair of, 261 

Bettyfield, near Smailholm, may have 
been ' Bedesfeld,' 158 

Bewcastle cross, 193 

Bickerstaffe, capt. Phillip, marriage 
of, 202,205 

Bigge, William, 239; Mary his wife, 
239 

Biscop built St. Peter's monastery on 
Wear and St. Paul's at Jarrow, 59 

Bishopswood-on-Wye, Roman coins 
from, presented, xv 

Blackgate museum, donations to the, 
xv 

Blacklambe, John, 230 

Blackness, probable site of monastery 
of Abercorn, 110 

' Blair collection ' of Roman anti- 
quities, xiv 

Blakiston, Toby of Newton hall, etc., 
Eleanor, daughter of, married Wil- 
liam Cramlington, 7 ; married, se- 
condly, Sowerby, 7 ; Lancelot, son 
of, 7 ; married Ann Wharrier, 8 ; 
will of, 8; William, 236 

Blenkanshop, Thomas de, 15 

Blumer, Dr. G. Alder, on the Wash- 
ington and Colville families, 115 

Blyth, Wallace's History of, 167 ; 
French prisoners taken at, 167 

Bohemia, collection for distressed pro- 
testants in, 97 

Bolbec hall, Newcastle, house of 
Nevilles, 224 

Bolbend (Bowmont), villa on the, 190 

Bonner, William, 236 

Bordley, Stephen, minister of St. 
Hilds, 210 

Bosa, bishop of Deirans at York, 79, 
151 

Bosco, Ralph de, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
14, 15 

Boteler, arms of, 250 



INDEX. 



277 



Bothal church, Ogle monument in, 
243 ; a genealogy of the Ogles in, 
251 ; Mr. Johnson, parson of, 5?t 
Boudicca, not Boadicea, 270 
Boulder, cup-marked, presented, xv 
Brancepeth castle. Henry Sanderson, 
constable of, 261 ; and Chop well 
woods, ' Sovereign of the Seas ' built 
of timber from, 263 
Brandling, Ralph, of Felling, 5 
Brandon, Hugh de, and others, grant 

to, 229 et seq. 
' Breeving,' 40 

Bregusuid, wife of Hereric, 52w 
Bridgeness, Roman distance slab found 

at, 110 

Bright, prof., referred to, 53 
Britannia, Camden's, quoted, 75n 
Britannia, Romana, Horsley, 106 
Brockley Whins, discovery of frame- 
work of old ship at, 58 
Brooks, John Crosse, obituary notice 
of, 143 ; born at Chatham, 143 ; at 
Bowes hall school, 143 ; his collec- 
tion of coins, 145 ; his collection of 
autographs presented to the society, 
145 

Broughton, Stephen de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 16 
Brown, Mr., presented cup-marked 

boulder, xv 

Brown, sir Charles, physician to king 
of Prussia, etc., 133 ; born in Scot- 
land, 133 ; spent youth in Newcastle, 
133; resident in London, 134; 
married Mary Huthwaite, 134 ; 
diaries of, 140; miniature of, 140 
Brown, Margaret, will of, 141 
Brown, Simon, landlord of ' Bird-in- 

Bush ' inn, Newcastle, 166 
Brown, sir Valentine, controller of 

Berwick, 260 

Bruce, Dr., monument to, ix ; his 
Roman camp at the Lane, South 
Shields, SSn 

Brumell, John, attorney, 241 
Brunton, Thomas, purchase of part of 

Southwick, lln 

Brus, IV., Robert de, lord of Annan- 
dale, 32 
Brutton, rev. Thomas, vicar of Christ 

church, North Shields, 104 
Bryg, John, vicar of Corbridge, 17, 

173w 

Buckham, John de, bailiff and mayor 
of Newcastle, 230 and n ; Adam de, 
mayor of Newcastle, 230 and n 
Burgh, name of site of Roman camp 

at South Shields, 70 
Burgh-on- Sands church tower, 171w 
Burgh Sands, death of Edward I. on, 14 



Burial in woollen, 211 

Burne, John, vicar of Haltwhistle, 17 

Burnett, rev. W. R., presented in- 
scription scratched on glass, xvi 

Buston, Roger, of Buston, 11 

Butchers close, Earsdon, 5 

Butler, Mr. John, of Chirton, 201 

Byker, manor of, 34 

Byrdale, Thomas, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
17 

Bywell castle, grated door at, 173w 

C. 

Cadavael (see Catgabail) 

Cadwalla slew Osric and Eanfrid, 61 ; 
killed at Heavenfield, 51 

Caerridden, 112 

Calcaria, 68 

Cale, house at, 49 

Callaly castle museum, Roman gold 
bulla in, xvi 

Camden, William, 78 ; doubtful as to 
the boundary between Bernicia and 
Deira, 76 

Candle mould, a, presented, xvi 

Cardonnel, A. M. Lawson de, 204 ; 
Mr. Mansfeldt, collector of salt, 
203 ; marriage, of, 206 

Carey, John, 261 

Carhawe [Crawhall, Crasshall, Craw- 
hawe], Nicholas, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 17 

Carliol, Nicholas de, mayor of New- 
castle, 33 

Carr, William, merchant of Newcastle, 
230 

Castell Guin, 185 

Castle Gary, 112 

Catgabail, king of North Wales, 184 

Catgabail, better known as Cadavael, 
surnamed ' Catguommed,' or ' the 
runaway,' 187 

Catherine II., of Russia, death of, 136 

Cerdic, expelled from Elmet for mur- 
der of Hereric, 52n 

Chad, bishop of Fork, 79 

Chandler, bishop, notes of visitation of 
Haltwhistle, 22 

Channelkirk (Childekirk), traditions 
respecting St. Cuthbert's birth, con- 
nected with, 167 

Chapman, Henry, 237 

Charles I. at Tynemouth castle, 207 

Charleton, Charles, vicar of Christ 
church, North Shields, 104 

Charlton. North, township of, 217 

Chartney, arms of, 249 ; deed of 
Richard de, 253 

Chaytor, Oswald, parish clerk of St. 
John's, Newcastle, 235 et seq.; curi- 
ous suit against, 237 n 

36 



278 



INDEX. 



Chaytor, Thomas, of Newcastle, 230 

Chelles, near Paris, 50 

Chesters, a new Roman inscription 
from, recording supplying of water 
to, 179 

Chirton, first duke of Argyle had house 
at, 203 

Chopwell, 40, 42 

Chopwell woods, 255 ; old boundaries 
of, 255 ; forfeited by sir John 
Swinburne, 258 ; granted to sir 
Robert Constable, 258 ; timber for 
repair of Dunstanburgh and Bam- 
burgh castles from, 259, 260; 
Berwick bridge, etc., 261 j timber 
for warships from, 262 ; ' Sovereign 
of the Seas' built of wood from, 
263 ; 'Windy Monday/ 266 

Chorof/raphia, Gray's, 225 

Christabel,' Christian name at Ryton, 
41 

Christian names at Ryton, 41 ; 
curious, 216 

Churchwardens' accounts, Tynemouth 
parish church, 93 

Clarke, Charles, of Newcastle, 238 ; 
will of, 238 ; Jane, his wife, daughter 
of Edward Colville, 238 ; Charles, 
jun., 239 ; John, of East Chirton, one 
of the auditors of the duke of North- 
umberland, burial of, 210 

Clavering, James, of Axwell houses, 
238; Ralph, 238; Robert, held 
Chopwell, 259. 

Clayton, Robert, mayor of Newcastle, 
169 ; and sheriff, 169 

Clennell, Thomas, 238 

Cliffe, Anna, wife of Thomas Cliffe, 
burial of, 208 

Clyde and Forth, names of Roman 
fortresses between the, 190 

Cockfield, Robert Dixon, rector of, 18 

Coins, Roman, presented, xv 

Colepitts, Thomas, 23S 

Collectanea, Leland's, 84 

Collingwood, lord, and planting of 
oak trees, 265 ; Cuthbert, of Wark- 
worth, marriage of, 205 ; capt. 
Francis, 202 ; William, 97 

Collinson, William, 97 ; capt. William, 
207 

Colville families, Washington and, 
115 

Colville, pedigree of, 116 

Colville, Camilla, married lord Ossul- 
ston, 238n ; Edward, of White house, 
Gateshead, 238; Frances, bequest 
to, by John Colville, of negroes, etc., 
122 ; will of, 115, 124 ; bequests, 124 ; 
George, of Newcastle, bequest to 
heirs of, 119; John, late of New- 



castle, but then of Fairfax County, 
Virginia, will of, 115, 117; gave 
negroes, etc., to earl of Tankerville, 
117 ; gave land, etc., to his daughter, 
Mary, ' now wife of John West, jun.,' 
119 ; gave cash to heirs of his 
brother George of Newcastle, 119 ; 
gave to charity school of All Saints, 
Newcastle, 117 ; Thomas, 'originally 
from Newcastle, but at present of 
Fairfax County, Virginia,' will of, 
115, 120; relations in Durham, 
116; recital of his brother John's 
bequest to earl of Tankerville, 
120 ; appointed executor by his 
brother John, 117; his mother 
Catherine, 120 ; refers to her will 
and bequest to his sister Esther, 120 ; 
bequest to Henry Bennet, 121 ; 
bequest of negro man Ben between 
his wife and John West, jun., 122 ; 
other bequests of negroes, etc., 122 
etseq.; appoints wife, George Wash- 
ington, and John West, jun., execu- 
tors, 123 

Communion plate, Tynemouth, 75 

Communion tokens, 44 

Consett, Christopher, 236 ; Peter, 
jun., of Stockton, 239 

Constable, Robert, of Wallington, 
grant of pardon to, 34 ; married 
widow of Sir Roger Fenwick, 34 ; 
Sir Robert, Chopwell, granted to, 
258 

Corbridge's Map of Newcastle, 223 

Corbridge, headquarters of David, 
king of Scotland, 171 ; plan of, 
1 78 ; the vicar's pele at, 171 ; 
sections, etc., 172, 174, 176 ; 
mentioned in list of fortalices 
temp. Henry V., 173 ; grille at, 173; 
stone desk in, 1 77 ; Roman bridge 
'across Tyne at, 171 ; medieval 
grave covers used as lintels, 178 ; 
John Bryg, vicar, 17, 173 

Cosin, bishop, his monumental inscrip- 
tion in Auckland castle chapel, 89 ; 
extract from his correspondence, 
88re ; arms of, on roof of Auckland 
chapel, 91 ; consecrated Christ 
church, North Shields, 98 

Council and officers of society, xvii 

Craggs, Thomas, 237 and n 

Cramlington, manor of, a member 
of barony of Gaugy, 1 ; lands at 
given to St. Cuthbert, 1 

Cramlington of Cramlington and 
Newsham, notices of family of, 
1 ; pedigree, 12 ; Alice, 11 ; 
death of, at Birling, 11 ; will 
of, 17 ; Edward, 5n ; George, of 



INDEX. 



279 



Newsham, 2 ; dispute with Dela- 
vals, 2 ; Henry, 5 ; marriage bond 
of, 5 ; son of Lancelot, married 
Elizabeth Watson of Warkworth 
Barns, 10 ; John, 5 and n, 93 ; 
assaulted William Urwin of Mor- 
peth, 4 ; arrest of, 4 ; Lancelot, 
receiver of land tax for North- 
umberland and Durham, 6; married 
Jane Mills, 7 ; gave lands at West 
Hartford, 7 ; of Blyth Nook, 3, 5 ; 
married Mary, daughter of John 
Ogle, 3 ; buried at Earsdon, 3 ; 
Margaret de, 2 ; Nicholas, ap- 
prentice to Merchants' Company, 
5 ; Philip, 5 ; Richard de, 1 ; 
Robert, 5 ; Stephen, of Mor- 
wick, 6 ; Thomas, married Grace 
Lawson,4 ; Walter de, 1 ; John and 
Richard, sons of, 2 ; Alianor, wife 
of, 2 ; William, married Eleanor 
Blakeston, 7 ; will of, 7 ; holds 
salt pans at South Shields, 8 ; 
married Anne, daughter of William 
Scott, of Newcastle, half-sister to 
lords Eldon and :Stowell, 8 ; 
married, secondly Ann Hick of 
Newcastle, 9 ; Alderman, extracts 
from letter of, 9 ; tomb-stone 
inscription, All Saints' church, Wn'; 
portrait of, 1 

Cramlington. grant of market and 
fair. 32 

Cramond = Rumabo, 184 

Crawcrook, 40, 42 ; ' farms ' in, 42 

Crawhall, Beatrix, irreverent beha- 
viour of, 17 ; [Carhawe] Nicholas, 
17 

Crosby, sir Warren, 203 

Crowley, sir Ambrose, ironworks, 45 

' Cuddy's cave,' near Holburn, North- 
umberland, 158 

Cuke, William, collation of, as chaplain 
of St. Hild's, 64 ; incumbent, 74 

Cullercoats, Dove's burial place near, 
211 

Cup-marked boulder from Wooler, xv. 

Curators' report, xv 

Cuthbert, William, 239 

D. 

Dacres, Humphrey, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 19 ; prosecuted by church- 
wardens for being drunk, 20 

' Dagg,' use of, in ancient terriers, 
217 

Dakett, Thomas, 236 

Dalton, Robert de, first vicar of St. 
Hild's, South Shields, 73 

Danaby in Richmondshire, lands at, 
254 



' Darg,' used in Scottish vernacular, 
218 

' Dargs and Dayworkes,' 217 ; used as 
measures of time and of space, 217 

Darwin, William Moey, 240 

Davenport, rev. George, rector of 
Houghton-le-Spring. 98n ; letter 
from, referring to St. Hild's, 88w 

Davidson, Thomas, author of ' Gotham 
Corporation,' 169 

Davison, Andrew, 235 

' Dawach,' 221 

Dearsley, Mr., preached at Chirton, 96 

Dedications, proprietary, in Northum- 
berland, 62 

Deeds, abstract of, relating to West- 
morland place, Newcastle, etc., 228 

Deira, kings of, 51 ; and Bernicia, 
theories as to boundaries between, 
75, 76, et seq. ; Camden's opinion, 
75 ; TMontalembert's, 76 

Deiri and Bernicii, kings of the, 147 

Delabene, John, lieutenant-governor of 
Tynemouth castle, 213. 

Delavals, entries of, in Tynemouth 
parish registers, 200 et seq. 

Delaval, Sir John, will of, 3 ; Thomas 
Cramlington married Anne, daugh- 
ter of, 3 

De Laval, Ralph, 95 

Dendy, F. W., on ' Dargs and Day- 
workes,' 220 

Dennis, rev. Samuel, incumbent of 
St. Hild's, South Shields, 7ln 

Denton, Christopher, 239, 240 

Deras, the royal house of the, 153 ; 
kings of the, 183 

Deodand, a, 209 

Derlington, prior, remains of camera 
of, at Muggleswick, 38 

Deyvill, John, vicar of Haltwhistle, 16 

Dinguaroy (Bamburgh), Ida's ' tim- 
bering' of, 150 

Dinning and Cooke present metal 
fire-back, xvi 

Distance-slabs of Antonine Wall, 105 

Dixon, rev. George, vicar of Christ 
church, North Shields, 104; Robert, 
vicar of Haltwhistle, 18 ; previously 
rector of Cockfield, 18 

Dockwray, Dr. Thomas, 98 ; first vicar 
of Christ church, North Shields, 
100; chaplain to, and slain with 
earl of Sandwich, 100 ; marriage of, 
205 ; Thomas, burial of, 213 ; 
Stephen, vicar of Tynemouth, 202, 
ct seq. 

Doddington pele, fall of portion of, x 

Doddington, St. Cuthbert's well at, 
158 

Dolichenus, Roman altar to, 271 



280 



INDEX. 



Don river, near Brockley Whins, dis- 
covery of framework of old ship in 
bed of, 58 

Donations to the museum, xv 

Donkin, Armorer, 204 

' Dotheboys hall,' Bowes, 143 

Dove of Tynemouth, Cullercoats, and 
Whitley, pedigree of, 125 

Dove's burial place, near Cullercoats, 
211 

Draper, Henry, 237 et seq.; seal of, 
238 ; of Headlam, 237 et seq. ; Elli- 
nor, his wife, 237 ; Timothy, host- 
man of Newcastle, 236; brother-in- 
law of John Speed, 236 ; Frances, 
wife of, 236 

Dudley, Ambrose, held Chopwell, 259 

Dumbarton, Bede makes Antonine 
Wall finish at, 109 

Dunichen, East Mains of, tradition of 
battle at, 186 

Dunstanburgh castle repaired from 
Chopwell woods, 259 

Duntocher and East Kilpatrick, dis- 
tance between, 108 

Durham before the Conquest, Long- 
staffe's, referred to, 8Sn 

Durham, Bede's bones taken to, 73 

Durham, ' the grey towers of,' 157 

' Dust-little mill,' Heaton, 34 

Dutripon's ' Concordance ' referred to, 
55 

Dyghton, Robert de, parson of Halt- 
whistle, 14, 15 

E. 

Eanfrid, king of Bernicia, 51 ; slain 

by Cadwalla, 51 
Earnshaw, Abraham, of Haltwhistle, 

excommunicated, 22 
Earsdon, lands in parish of, 5 
Eastermains, Roman distance slab 

found at, 110 
Easter offerings, etc., book of, at 

Ryton, 39 
Eata, bishop of Bernicians at Hexham, 

79, 151 
Eddi, knows nothing of ' Bernicia ' 

and ' Deira,' 147 
Edinburgh castle, escape of French 

prisoners from, 167 
Edred, abbot, St. Cuthbert's appear- 
ance to, 56 

Edward I., death of, 14 
Edwin, 51 

Egbert, Bernicia assigned to, 88 
Egelwin, bishop, rested with body of 

St. Cuthbert at Jarrow, 73 
Egfrid, son of Oswi, sent as hostage to 

Mercian court, 183 ; death of, at 

Nechtansmere, 186 



' Biddy n, the lofty hill,' 185 



, 184 
Elfrid of Westoe, carried Bede's bones 

to Durham, 73 

Elishaw, Redesdale, hospital of, 16 
Ellingham, church of, given to St. 

Cuthbert, 1 

Ellison, Peregrine George, 241 
Elmet. Cerdic expelled from, 52 
Elsdon tower, 171 
Embleton tower, 171 
Emeldon, grant from Margaret, widow 

of John de, 229 ; Richard, mayor of 

Newcastle, 33 

English paganism, overthrow of, 182 
Errington, Nicholas, 202, 237 
Esyngton, 16 
Ethelfrid, son of Aelli, 51 ; overthrown 

by Redwald, 51 
Ethelhere, king of East Angles, 183 ; 

husband of Heresuid, Hild's sister, 

183 
Ethelric Of Bernicia seized Deira, 

51 

Ethelwald, king of the Deras, 183 
Ethelwald Moll, king, grave-cover 

probably of, 187 
Ethel werd's chronicle, first use of 

' Northumbria ' in, 149 
Etwall church, Derbyshire, stone 

desk in chancel, 177w 
Ewbank, H., master of Virgin Mary 

hospital, Newcastle, 235 and n 
Excommunication of Abraham Earn- 

shaw of Haltwhistle, 22 

F. 

Fabiane, Robert, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
17 

' Farms ' in Tynemouth, 94 ; at Wes- 
toe, 74 

Farnedale, Walter de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle 16 ; master of Lazenby 
chapel, Allertonshire, 16 ; of Eli- 
shaw hospital, Redesdale, 16 

Farrer, John, curate of Haltwhistle, 
24 

Featherstonhalgh, Alexander, grant 
of land in Wydon, 14 

Fenwick, Hannah, 240 ; Margaret, 
239 ; Nicholas, 238, 289 ; Robert, of 
Newcastle, 239 ; will of Jane, wife 
of, 239 ; Roger, of Meldon, deputy- 
keeper, etc., of Chopwell woods, 
262 ; Thomas, of Earsdon, 240 ; 
William, 239 

Finchale, three national assemblies 
probably held at, 152 

Finney, Dr., rector of Ryton, 45 

Fire-back, metal, presented, xvi 

Fitzherbert, John, 98 



INDEX. 



281 



Flint and steel in case for pocket, 

presented, xvi 
Fordun, John 78 
Forster, of Fleetham, 6 ; Coll., 240 ; 

Nicholas, ledger of, 6 ; Richard, of 

Newcastle, 99 
Forth, named in Celtic times ' Sea of 

Guidan ' or ' lodeo,' 185 
Forth, Clyde and, names of Roman 

fortresses between, 190 
Fossor, prior John, archidiaconal 

visitation. 64 
Foster, Mary, bequest to, by John 

Colvill, 119 

Fox, Thomas, vicar of Haltwhistle, 16 
Freeman, Norman Conquest, 182 and n 
French : priests buried at Tynemouth, 

214 ; prisoners of war, escape of two, 

160 
Fryer's map, plan of Corbridge from, 

178 

G. 

Gaetullicus, L. Maximus, 271 

Gala water, 185 

Galystem, white stone of, 186n 

Gardners, entries of, in Tynemouth 
parish registers, 200 et seq. 

Gardner, Ralph, 95 ; presented Fred- 
erick Simpson to living of Tyne- 
mouth, 96 ; marriage of, 204 ; 
Katherine, wife of, 96 

Gascoyne, arms of, 249 

Gateshead church, rhyming epitaph 
in, 236 71 

Gaugy, Ralph de, 31 

Genealogy of the Ogles, 251 

Gibson, Edmund, boundary between 
Bernicia and Deira, 77 ; Francis, 
minister of Tynemoutb, 96 ; John, 
presents objects to museum, xvi ; 
Phillip, 241 ; William, of Newcastle, 
240 

Giles's translation of Bede, no trust to 
be placed in, 53n 

Gillies, Henry, convicted for abstract- 
ing bodies from Christ church-yard, 
North Shields, 103 

Gills, capt. Mathias, 120 ; Esther 
Colvill, wife of, 120 

Girot, Jacques, a French prisoner of 
war at Jedburgh, 167 

Godmundingham, chief temple of the 
Deras at, 151 

Gold bulla, Roman, xvi 
Golightly, Jacob, parish clerk of Halt- 
whistle, 18 

Gordon, Alexander, minister of Tyue- 
mouth, 97 ; ejected for noncon- 
formity, 97 ; lord Adam, governor 
of Tynemouth castle, 103 



'Gotham Corporation,' 169 

Granger, T. C., Q.C., and M.P. for 
Durham, 116 

Gray's Chorographia, 225 

Gray, John, of London, 99 

Green, the, Earsdon, 5 

Green's History of the English People, 
boundary between Bernicia and 
Deira different in map and text, 76 

Green, Robert, of South Shields, 27 ; 
Sarah, daughter of, married rev. 
W. Ives, 27 ; rev. Robert, bequest 
to, 11 ; William, jun., of Findon 
cottage. 116 

Greenhead chapel built through exer- 
tions of Rev. M. J. Hollingsworth, 
25 

Gregory, pope, pun about Deira, 147 

Grenville, Nicholas de, gave lands at 
Cramlington to St. Cuthbert, 1 ; 
Heaton and Jesmond granted to, 
31 ; Walter, 31 ; daughter Mabel 
married Ralph de Gaugy, 31 

Greta Bridge, Roman station at, 152 

Greveson, note to Leland, 61 

Gurlenent, Samuel, 239 

Guthred, 87 ; gave Werhale to St. 
Cuthbert, 87 

Gyseburn, John de, collated to St. 
Hild's, South Shields, 65 

H. 

Hackness, 60 ; Begu, nun of, 61 

Hagwerthingham, Hugh de, vicar of 
Haltwhistle, 16 

Haltwhistle, given to Arbroath, 14 ; 
the vicars of, 14 ; vicarage in 
' Oliverian Survey,' 19; Mr. Nevill 
of ' Cheat,' impropriator, 20 

Hamerton, Frances, of Brotberstone, 5 

Harreys, David de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 15 

Harriman, Thomas, clerk, keeper of an 
ale house, 18 

Harrison, Richard, of North Shields, 
beer brewer, 8 ; Robert, 236, 237 

Hartford, West, lands at, given to 
William Reed, 7 

Hartlepool, 68 

Harton, vill of, given to Jarrow, 73 

Hatelaw (? Wytelaw), 2 

Hatfield, bishop, survey, 56 

Hatfield, battle of, 51 

Haverfield, F., on a new Roman in- 
scription from Chesters, 178 ; on 
Roman inscriptions, 268, 273 

Hautwysill, John de, and Thomas de, 
acolyte and priest, 15 ; William de, 
acolyte, 15 

Heart of Midlothian, Scott's, quoted, 
218 



282 



INDEX. 



Heaton and Jesmond, 31 ; granted to 
Nicholas de Grenville, 31 ; passed 
to Ralph de Gaugy, 31 

Heavenfield, battle of, 51, 87, 150, 
182 

Hebburn, vill of, given to Jarrow, 73 

Hedworthe, John, 235 

Hed worth, John de, collected rents of 
' Werehall,' 56 

Hedworth, vill of, given to Jarrow, 73 

Hefenfield, Hefenfelth, battle of (see 
Heavenfield) 

Heiu, abbess, selected by Aidan, 49 

Henzal, Peregrine, glassmaker, 203 

Hepple, arms of, 249 ; Eobert de, 254 ; 
Margaret, wife of, 254 

Berber tower, Newcastle, x. 

Hereric, canon Raine's notice of, con- 
fused, 52w; poisoned by Cerdic, 
52/t; Bregusuid, wife of, 52w 

Heresuid, 49 ; sister of Hild, 183 

Hesilrigg, Thomas, 230 ; William de, 
and others, grant to, 229, et seq. 

Heslop, John, vicar of Tynemouth. 
200 ; R. Oliver, presents a farm- 
house candle-mould, xvi 

Hexham diocese extended from Aln 
to Tees and from Withern to sea, 
151; Eata, bishop of, 79 

Hexham, Thomas de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 16 

Hick, Ann, widow of Lewis Hick of 
Newcastle, married William Cram- 
lington, 8 

Higden, Ralph, of Chester, 84 

Hild, abbess, her first religious house, 
47; incited to come north, 52; 
daughter of Hereric, 52 ; Heresuid 
sister of, 183 

Hindmarsh, Thomas, 238 

Hodgson, rev. John, incumbent of 
Jarrow, 75 ; J. Crawford, notices of 
family of Cramlington, 1 ; Colville, 
pedigree, 116 ; rev. J. F., on the 
chapel of Auckland castle, appendix, 
89 ; Richard, 93 

Holburn, Northumberland, ' Cuddy's 
cave' near, 158 

Hollingsbury, Isabella, 122 

Hollingsworth, Nathaniel John, of 
Battersea, vicar of Haltwhistle, 25 ; 
rector of Boldon, 25 ; married Lucy 
Compton Neve, 25 ; Greenhead 
chapel built through exertions of, 
25; dispute with Thomas Bates, :6 

Holmes, Sheriton, presents seven- 
teenth-century earthenware, xv ; 
obituary notice of John Crosse 
Brooks, a vice-president of the 
society, 143 

Honorary members, xviii 



Hopper, John, presents pocket flint 

and steel, xvi 
Horseley, John de, lord of Crawcrook, 

256 

Horsley, Britannia Romana, 106 
Houghton-le-Spring, George Daven- 
port, rector of, 98 

' Hruringaham,' or ' Ruringaham,' St. 

Cuthbert brought up at, 1 55 ; where 

was it? 155; at Wrangham, near 

Melrose, or near Doddington, 156 

Huchynson, John, clerk, of Gateshead, 

232 

Hudlestous of Cullercoats, 95 
Huddleston, Joseph, 5 ; Mary, 5 
Hume, James, minister of Tynemouth, 
95 ; vicar of Tynemouth, 208 ; 
Thomas, ' the learned parish clerk ' 
of Tynemouth, buried, 208 
Hunwald murdered Oswald, 52 
Huthwaite, Mary, daughter of George, 
of Gateshead, sir Charles Brown 
married, 134 

I. 

lago, a king of Gwynedd, 187 

Ida, his ' timbering ' Dinguaroy, 150 

Inchkeith, wrongly supposed site of 
Judeu, 184 

Ingledew, A. B., presents objects to 
museum, xv 

Inscriptions, Roman, 268 et seq. 

Inveresk, site of Judeu, 184 

lona, 68 

Irreby, William de, Christiana, daugh- 
ter of, married Adam de Jesmond, 
32ft 

Ives, William, of Bradden, Northants, 
vicar of Haltwhistle, 26 ; married, 
first, Mary Ann Richmond ; second, 
Sarah Green of South Shields ; 
third, Ann Mewburn of Acomb, 
27 

J. 

Jackson, John, 236 ; Robert, 239 ; 
William, town clerk of Newcastle, 
236ra; sir John, recorder of New- 
castle, 236 

Jarrow, Roman station at, 152; mon- 
astery built. 59 ; church, 72 ; Elf rid 
took Bede's bones from, 73 ; bishop 
Egelwin rested with body of St. 
Cuthbert, 73 ; king William fired, 
73 ; given to Aldwine, 73 ; plate at, 
temp. Edward VI., 64 ; rev. J. Hodg- 
son, incumbent of, 75 

Jedburgh, escape of French prisoners 
from, 160 

Jennings, sir Jonathan, 202 



INDEX. 



283 



Jesmond, Adam of, camera of, 29 ; 

sheriff of Northumberland, 32 ; 

reparation of Tyne bridge, 32 ; 

Christiana, widow of, became second 

wife of Robert de Brus, iv 
John of Tynemouth, 78 
Johnson, Mr., parson of Bothal, 5n ; 

Humphrey, 93 
Judeu, Oswi fled to, 184 ; Inveresk, 

true site of, 184 
Julius Verax, 274 
Justina, Novel., 269 

K. 

' Kselcacaestir,' near Tadcaster, 49 

Kellawe's register, 14 

Kelloe vicarage, a pane of glass from, 
with scratched inscription, xvi 

KelsD, constable of, 166 

Kenswith brought up St. Cuthbert, 
155 

' King John's palace,' Newcastle, x ; 
Mr. Knowles on, 29 

Kirkby, arms of, 249 

Kirkdale, cross slab found at. 187 

Kirkintilloch, Roman distance-slab dis- 
covered at, 107 

Kirsop, James, of the Spital, Hexham, 
241 

Knowles, W. H., on 'King John's 
palace,' Newcastle, 29 ; on the 
vicar's pele, Corbridge, 171 ; on 
the Ogle monument in Bothal 
church, 243 

Kyofield, 258 

L. 

Lambert, Jacob, 241 

Laperelle, Charles Denis, a French 
priest, buried at Tynemouth, 214 

Lastingham church, 48 ; Ethelwald, 
founder of, 187 

Lawes, Nicholas, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
17 ; prebend of ' Tytchys ' in the 
church of Auckland, 17 

Lawson, sir Ralph, 34 ; Robert, 237 ; 
Thomas, 2 ; of Cramlington, etc., 2 ; 
pedigree of, 12 ; Hilton, 12; Anne 
of Raskelf, Thomas Cramlington 
married, 3 ; Grace married Thomas 
Cramlington, 4 

Lazenby, chapel and manor of, 16 

Leadbitter, Robert, of Newcastle, 241 

' Le Convenit,' 56 

Ledecombe, John de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 16 

Leg. vi, 274 ; xx, distance-slab of, 
107 ; xx w, 271 

Leighton, Francis, 237 



Leland, Collectanea, 58n, 60, 69n, 84 ; 

Itin., 55, 70 and n 
Letters of Washington, 115 
Lewen, Robert, sheriff, mayor, and 

M.P. of Newcastle, 232 and ; 

Edward, seal of, 233 
Lhuyd, Humphrey, 78 ; a native of 

Denbigh, 82 

Liddail, Martin, curate of Halt- 
whistle, 18 
Liddell, Thomas, 237 
Lightfoot, George, 235 
Lindisfarne, 68 ; Aidan's school at, 

48 ; St. Finan's church at, 48w 
Linskili, William, 204 ; first mayor 

of Tynemouth, 204 
Lintz ford, 256 
Lisley, John, of Durham, 235 
Llanuccus, L. Novel (?), 269 
Loggan, T., letters of, relating to Mrs. 

Brown, 141 
Lollius Urbicus built turf wall 

between Tyne and Solway, 105 
Lomax, Rev. John, burial of, 212 ; 

Mrs. Mehitopel, buried, 212 
Longhoughton church tower, 17 In 
Longstaffe, Mr., ' Durham before the 

Conquest,' 88; in favour of Tees 

as boundary between Deira and 

Bernicia, 80 
Loraine, Captain Anthony, 4 ; John, 

son of, 4 ; baptized at Earsdon, 

in 

Lorraine, Thomas, killed at Culler- 
coats, burial of, 211 
Lothian = ' regio Loidis,' 182n 
' Love,' a Christian name. 202 
Lowe, Joseph, vicar of Haltwhistle, 

27 ; vicar of Holy Trinity, Bolton, 

27 
Lowes, John, of Whitshields, will of, 

22 

M. 

McCalmont, Hugh, presents Roman 

coins, xv 

Mackey, M., jun., presents a ring sun- 
dial, xv 
Maddison, Henry, 236 ; Lionell, 237 ; 

Elizabeth, daughter of, married G. 

Vane of Long Newton, 237re 
MSS., gift of books and, x 
Marcellus, Ulpius, on Chesters slab, 

179 

Mareburn, 56 
Mark, rev. W., appointed lecturer at 

North Shields, 102 
Marmion, 156 
Marriages, registration of, at Ryton, 

39 



284 



INDEX. 



Marshall, Mary, In ; Thomas, vicar of 

Haltwhistle, 17 
Maserfield, 182; Oswald, killed at, 

51 

Mathew, Toby, dean of Durham, 232 ; 
archbishop of York, 236 ; seal of, 
235 ; Frances, wife of, 235 
Mayor, professor, quoting Smith's note 
on boundary between Bernicia and 
Deira, 77 and n 

Medieval grave-covers used as lintels, 
178 

' Mehitopel,' a Christian name, 212 

Melrose, 68 ; chronicle of, 87 

Members honorary, xviii ; ordinary, 
xix 

Merley, Ranulph de, 194 

Merton, Walter de, had preferment at 
Haltwhistle, 14, 15 

Metal fire-back presented, xvi 

Mewburn, Ann, 27 ; Simon, of Acomb, 
27 

Midilton, John de, 34 

Middleton, Thomas, of Rivers Green, 
Northumberland, 24 ; Barbara, 
daughter of, married Hugh Nanney, 
24 

' Milbournella,' a Christian name, 202 

Milburn, George, 95 ; Michael, 236 

Milkwell burn, 255 

' Millia pedes', or ' millia passuum,' (?) 
106 

Mills, Jane, married Lancelot Cram- 
lington, 7 

Mirehouse, rev. J., curate of Ryton, 
41 

Mitchell, John, 237 

Mitford Christopher, 237 ; bought lands 
at Heaton, 34 ; grandson of Chris- 
topher, mayor and sheriff of New- 
castle, 237; Henry, 34 

Mitford, Thomas Astell, vicar of, 18 

Monkton, vill of, given to Jarrow, 
73 

Monkwearmouth, monastery in 
honour of Peter built at, 59 

Montalembert, referred to, 53 ; says 
in one place Tyne boundary between 
Bernicia and Deira in another 
Tees, 76 

Mordon, Robert de, master of Virgin 
Mary hospital, Newcastle, 229 

Morpeth, Anthony, hostman of New- 
castle, 235 

Mowbray, arms of, 250 

Muggleswick, remains of camera at, 
38 

Murray, James, 241 

Musgrave, Richard, 261 



N. 

Names, curious, 216 

Nanney, Hugh, of Dolgelly, vicar of 
Haltwhistle, 24 ; married Barbara 
Middleton of River Green, North- 
umberland, 24 ; his son Lewis, 24 

Navy, raising men for the, 102 

Nearne, Margaret, 5 

Nechtansmere, death of Egfrid at, 
186 

Negroes, bequests of, 117 et seq. 

Neve, Timothy, D.D., Margaret pro- 
fessor of Divinity, Lucy Compton, 
daughter of, married rev. N. J. 
Hollingsworth, 25 

Neville, arms of, 250 

Nevill, Mr., of ' Cheat,' impropriator of 
Haltwhistle, 20 

Nevilles, house of, in Newcastle, 223 ; 
originally ' Bolbec hall,' 224 

Neville tower, Newcastle, 227 

Nevis, West Indies, Washingtons of, 
116 ; certificate of baptisms of 
Washingtons in St. George's church, 
125 

Newbigging, John de, bailiff of New- 
castle, 230 and n 

Newcastle, earthenware found in town 
wall presented, xv ; coffin handles 
from Nonconformists' burial-ground 
in Percy street, xv ; metal fire-back 
from old mansion house, presented, 
xvi ; ' Bird-in-bush inn,' 163, 164, 
166; hostmen, 235 and n; 'king 
John's palace,' x, 29 ; Corbridge's 
map of, 223 ; Society of Antiquaries, 
formation of, in 1813, 160 ; mayors, 
33 Henry Anderson, 237 ; Robert 
de Angerton, 229 ; Edward Baxter, 
230w; Robert Clayton, 169 ; Adam 
de Bulkham, 230 and ; John de 
Bulkham, 230 and n; Robert Lewen, 
230 and n; Christopher Mitford, 
237w; sir Peter Riddell, 237 ; bailiffs 
of John de Bulkham, 230 and n ; 
John de Newbigging, 230 and n ; 
masters of Virgin Mary hospital 
H. Ewbank, 235 ; William de Mor- 
don, 229 ; Joseph Barnes, recorder 
of, 238 ; tower on walls of, x ; 
churches All Saints, Cramling- 
ton tombstone, lOn ; bequest of 
John Colville to charity school of, 
117 ; St. John's, Oswald Chaytor, 
parish clerk of, 235 ; St. Nicholas's, 
monument to Dr. Bruce in, ix ; 
extracts from registers of, 67* 
Newminster abbey, founded in 1138, 
194 ; cartulary of, 195 



INDEX. 



285 



Newsham demesne in parish of Ears- 
don, 5 ; conveyed to Richard Ridley 
and Matthew White, 5 

Newton, Henry, 235 

Newton Hakkeford, lands at, 254 

Nicholson, George, deputy town clerk 
of Newcastle, 235 

Nixon, Martin, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
20 ; curate of Brancepeth, 21 ; 
called Dan in bishop Chandler's 
visitation notes, 22 

' Nordanhymbras,' proper term, 148 

Norman, Anthony, 237 

Northumberland sessions records, 5 

Northumberland, duke of, owner of 
Tynemouth chartulary, 93 ; earls 
of, their house in Newcastle, 223 

' Northumbria ' and ' Northumbrians,' 
no authority for these terms, 148 ; 
first use of, 149 

Northumbrian royal house, genea- 
logical table of the, 50 

Northumbrian earldom, creation of, 
154 ; Oswulf 's earldom ' beyond the 
Tyne,' 154 

Northumbrians tried for aiding escape 
of French prisoners, 160 

Norton, John de, 230 

Nunnykirk, a pre-Conquest cross shaft 
at, 192 ; various spellings of name, 
195 

O. 

Officers of society, council, etc, xvii 

Ogle, arms of, 248 ; monument in 
Bothal church, 243 ; a genealogy of 
the family of, 249 ; Eleanor, mar- 
ried George Oramlington, 2 ; articles 
of agreement concerning, 2 ; Lance- 
lot Cramlington married Mary of 
Backworth, 3 ; petition of, 6 ; Oliver, 
husband of, 6 ; Phillis, of Ogle 
castle, George Cramlington mar- 
ried, 3 ; Ralph, lord, 244 ; an in- 
quisition, 252 ; lady Margaret, 246 ; 
sir Robert, 249 

Oleiclavis, probably Ulchester, near 
Bamburgh, 184 

' Oliverian survey,' the, 19, 96 

' Opus valli ' slabs inscribed, 108 

Ord, John, a farmer on Coquet water, 
161 

Orde, Thomas, his house in Newcastle, 
223 

Ordinary members, xix 

Osric, king of Deira, 51 ; slain by 
Cadwalla, 51 

Ossulston, lord, married Camilla Col- 
ville, 238w 

Osulf, earldom of Northumberland, 
' beyond the Tyne,' 154 

VOL. xix 



Oswald killed Cadwalla at Heaven- 
field, 51 ; killed at Maserfield, 61, 
182 ; murdered by Hunwald, 52 

Oswi, king of the Beornicas, 153 ; 
election of, 182w; death of, 182 

Oswin, born at Caer Urfe, 69 

Otway, Thomas, 93 

Outchester, near Bamburgh (see 
Ulchester) 

' Outen ' tithe books, etc., at Ryton, 39 

Ovingham, glebe lands and tithes of, 



P. 

Paganism, overthrow of English, 182 

Pagiter, Theodore, will of, names his 
cousin, John Washington, 116 

Pate. Thomas, vicar of Haltwhistle, 
20 ; built schoolhouse, 20 ; Eliza- 
beth, wife of, 20 ; Barbara, daughter 
of, 20 ; Judith, daughter ot, 20 ; 
death of, 20 

Pattison, Thomas, 236 

Paul church, Holderness, stone desk in 
chancel of, 177 

Paulinus, in time of, Glendale in 
province of the Beornicas, 150 

Paye, John, minister of Tynemouth, 97 

Pearson, Mary, 239 ; Robert, vicar of 
Haltwhistle, 18 ; Roger of Titling- 
ton, 239, 240 ; Rosamond, wife of, 
239, 240 

Peirson, John, vicar of Haltwhistle, 27 

Pele, the vicar's, at Corbridge, 171 

Percy, the earl, on ' Dargs and Day- 
workes,' 217 ; sir Henry, governor of 
Tynemouth castle, 93 

Perreau. Robert, surgeon, hanged for 
forgery, 134 

Pett, Phineas, the great naval archi- 
tect, 262 ; diary of, 267 

Pews, sale of, 101 and n 

Phillips, M., ' Escape of two French 
prisoners of war from Jedburgh in 
1813,' 160; pedigree of Dove of 
Tynemouth, etc., 125 ; on discovery 
of a pre-Conquest cross shaft at 
Nunnykirk, 192 

Piersebridge, Roman station at, 152?i 

' Pilgrimage ' along Roman Wall, ix 

Pipe, Great Roll of the, 1 

Plaga, meaning of, 54 et seq. 

Plague, the, at Tynemouth, 209 

Poland, collection for distressed Pro- 
testants in, 97 

Polyckronicon, Higden's, 84 

Porter, Joseph, 240 

Potter, A. L., Beaton, etc.. sold to, 35 ; 
rev. Emanuel, vicar of Christ church, 
North Shields, 104 ; induction of, to 
vicarage of Tynemouth, 203 
37 



286 



INDEX. 



Potts, George, of Whitehouse, Aln- 
wick, 240 ; Jane, his wife, 240 ; of 
Mid-Calder, North Britain, 240; 
Rosamond, his wife, 240 

Poulet, Benoit, a French prisoner of 
war at Jedburgh, 161 

Pre-Conquest cross shaft at Nunny- 
kirk, a, 192; description of, 192 

Preston, vill of (now Simonside), 
given to Jarrow, 73 

Pretie, William, 232 

Priestman, Robert, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 20 

Primasius, an African bishop, 46 

Prisoners, escape of two French, in 
1813, from Jedburgh, 160 ; evidence 
of witnesses, 161, 162, 163 ; trial of 
accomplices, 166, 167 ; escape of, 
from Edinburgh, 167 ; from Tyne- 
mouth, 168 

Proctor, Anthony, 236 ; Cuthbert, 
235 ; curious petition against, 235re 

Profaners of the Lord's day, 95 

Protestants, distressed, in Poland and 
Bohemia, collection for, 97 

Pulleine. Thomas Babington, of Sun- 
derland, marriage of, 206 

Pulpit sounding-board, Christ church, 
North Shields, 102 

Pykwell, Robert de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 15 ; licence to lease vicar- 
age to pay ransom to Scots, 15 

Q. 

Quintus Lucius Sabinianus, 184 

R. 

Badcliff, Thomas, 235 

Radley, William, licensed to St. 

Hild's, South Shields, 65 
Railton, Mr., vicar of Knaresdale, 22 ; 

excommunicated Abraham Earn- 

shaw of Haltwhistle, 22 
Raine rev. James, death of, ix ; 

obituary notice of, 126 ; joined 

society, 127 ; papers by, 127 ; and 

Neville hall, 127; curate of All 

Saints, York, etc., 127 ; rector, 132 ; 

secretary of Surtees society, 129 ; 

a member of Northumberland 

history committee, 131 
Ralph of Chester, 78 
Ralph, earl of Westmorland, 230 
Ramessey, John, vicar of Haltwhistle, 

17 
Rand, John, hostman of Newcastle, 

235 

' Ransom of Judeu,' 186 
Raper, John, curate of Haltwhistle, 

19 



Ravennas, 184 ; list of stations in the, 
112 

Rawling, Henry, Nicholas Cramling- 
ton, apprentice to, 5n 

Raymond, archdeacon, visitation notes 
of Haltwhistle, 27 

Redwald overthrew and killed Ethel- 
frid, 51 

Reed, rev. Christopher, vicar of Christ's 
church, North Shields, 99, 104 

Reed, William, of Newcastle, lands at 
West Hartford given to, 7 

Reede, Ralph, 93 

Reginald, of Durham, 83 

' Regio Loidis ' = Lothian, 182w 

Rekendyke, the, 72 

Registers, parish, of Tynemouth, 197 ; 
extracts from, 199 

' Richard of Cirencester, 5 110 

Richard of Hexham, 79 ; originator of 
confusion about boundary between 
Bernicia and Deira, 82 

Richardson, George Bouchier, 228 

Richmond, Henry, of Humshaugh, 27 ; 
Mary Ann, daughter of, married 
rev. W. Ives, 27 

Riddell, Peter, mayor and M.P. of 
Newcastle, 237 and n 

Ridley hall estate, Haltwhistle, dis- 
pute concerning, 26 

Ridley, Christopher, unlicensed curate 
of Haltwhistle, 18 ; John, vicar of 
Haltwhistle, 17 ; suit against, 19 ; 
Richard and Matthew White, News- 
ham conveyed to, 5 

' Rim-houlan,' 12 

Ring sundial, a, presented, xv 

Robinson, William, vicar of Tyne- 
mouth, burial of, 207 

Rock, survey of manor of, 217 

Roddam, Mr. John, 203 ; John, of 
Little Houghton, marriage of, 205 

Rogers, Thomas, 236 

Rokeby, Agnes de, 16 

Roman altars from Benwell, 181 

Roman bridge across Tyne at Cor- 
bridge, 171 

Roman gold bulla in Callaly castle 
museum, xvi 

Roman coins presented, xv 

Roman fortresses between Clyde and 
Forth, names of, 190 ; names on 
Antonine Wall, 105 

Roman inscription, portion of, pre- 
sented, xvi; discovered at Chester, 
179 ; discovered at Aesica, 268 ; at 
South Shields, 273 

Roman provinces of Britain, the, 86 

Roman Wall, pilgrimage along the, 
ix 

' Rose's Act/ 199 



INDEX. 



287 



Rotherham, John, rector of Houghton- 
le-Spring and vicar of Seaham, 23 ; 
Dr. John, 240; Thomas, vicar of 
Haltwhistle, 23 ; professor of Cod- 
rington college, Barbadoes, 23 ; 
curate of Great Stainton, 23; vicar 
of Griudon and chaplain of Sher- 
burn hospital, 23 

Hough castle, 113 

' Royal Sovereign,' the, 265 

Rumabo, probably the Roman name 
of Cramond, 184 

' Ruringaham ' (see Hruringaham) 

Rushlights, etc., presented, xvi' 

Russia, Western, custom to throw up 
mound of earth round a forest, 113 

Ruth well cross, the, 193 

Ryknield way, the, 86 

Ryton, book of Easter offerings, etc., 
39 ; registration of marriages, etc., 
at, 39; 'farms' in, 43; communi- 
cants at, 44 ; communion tokens, 44 

Ryton common, coals on, 258 



Sabinianus, Quintus Lucius, altar 
dedicated by, 184 : 

' Sack,' 100 

St. Aidan locates St. Hild at South 
Shields, 154 ; Haltwhistle church 
dedicated to, 24 

St. Begu, life of, 60 : confused by 
Bede with Heiu and Begu, 60 

St. Cuthbert on Tyne-river, 66 ; 
appearance to abbot E ad red, 56 ; 
life of, in English verse, 67 ; Wer- 
hale given to, 87 ; home of his boy- 
hood, 155 ; place-names connected 
with life of, 155 ; not a Scotsman, 
155 ; brought up at ' Hruringaham,' 
155 ; Irish life of, not trustworthy, 

155 ; traditions as to his birthplace 
connected with Childekirk, 155 ; 
early appearance of, on banks of 
Tyne, 157 ; Scottish writers vainly 
strove to make this the Scottish 
Tyne, 157 ; well of, at Doddington, 

156 ; his retreat on Thrush island, 
158 ; church of Ellingham, etc., 
given to, 1 

St. Finan's church at Lindisfarne, 48w 
' St. Gregory's minster,' at Kirkdale, 

187w 
St. Hild located at South Shields by 

St. Aidan, 154 
St. Hild's ('commonly called Sheelds'), 

88y official use of title, 64, 65; 

chapel of high antiquity, 62 ; 

probable site of Hild's monastery, 

62, 67 ; William Cuke, chaplain, 

64 ; John de Gyseburn, 65 ; Robert 



de Dalton, first incumbent of, 73; 

Stephen Bordley, minister of , 210 ; 

William Radley, incumbent, 65 ; 

Richard Walli?, 65 ; ancient vestry 

of, 74 ; bells at, 65 ; exempted from 

donation to Jarrow, 73 
' Saynt Hyldesfyssche,' 65 
' St. Mark's books,' Ryton, 40 
St. Mary at Stow, in Wedale, church 

of, 186 ; well, 186 

St. Ninian's church at Whithern, 48w 
St. Nulloc, wrongly identified with St. 

Cuthbert, 155 
St. Oswald's cross, uplifting of, 150 ; 

import of uplifting of, 182 
St. Oswin's body removed from Gilling 

to Tynemouth, 153 ; said to have 

been born at South Shields, 152 
Sanderson, Henry, constable of Brance- 

peth castle, 261 
Sample, John, of Rockmoor house, 

Northumberland, 240 ; Susannah, 

his wife, 240 
Sandy Knowe, near Wrangholm, 156 ; 

sir Walter Scott at, 156 
Savage, rev. H. E., ' Abbess Hilda's 

first Religious House,' 47 
Scarlett, James, Q.C., 167 ; M.P. for 

Peterborough, 170 ; created baron 

Abinger, 170 
Scott, William, Anne, daughter of, 

wife of William Cramlington, 8 ; 

half-sister to lords Eldon and 

Stowell, 8 
Scottish vernacular, 'darg,' used in, 

218 

Scropes, house of, in Newcastle, 223 
Seaton Delaval, Thomas Cramlington 

desires to be buried at, 3 
Selby, Henry, 232 
Sessions records for Northumberland, 

5 
Shafto, John, of Whitworth, 238 : 

Mark, recorder of Newcastle, 237 ; 

sir Robert, son of, 237 n ; Robert, 

238 
Sharp, archdeacon, notes of, visitation 

of Haltwhistle church, 21 ; arch- 
deacon John, visitation notes, 23 ; 

visitation of Haltwhistle, 23 
Shields, North, town crier of, 103 ; 

Christ church built, 97 ; Robert 

Trollop, 98 ; consecration of, by 

bishop Cosin, 98 ; tower built, 101 ; 

robbery at, 100 ; bells, 101 ; bodies 

abstracted from graveyard, 103 ; 

sale of pews in, 101 ; gleanings 

from records of, 93 ; ancient vestry, 

93 ; vicars of, Dr. Thomas Dock- 

wray, chaplain to earl of Sandwich 

(first vicar), 100 ; E. Potter, Charles 



288 



INDEX. 



Charleton, George Dixon, Christo- 
pher Reed, 99, 104 ; Thomas 
Brutton, 104; rev. W. Mark, after- 
noon lecturer of, 102 ; John Spear- 
man of Durham gave flagon to, 95?i 
(see also Tynemouth) 

Shields, South, Roman camp at, of 
exceptional importance, 69 ; Bruce's 
' Roman camp at the La we ' referred 
to, 88 ; Roman altar at, 274 ; 
bilingual inscription found at, 152/j; 
St. Hild at, 154 ; birth of St. 
Oswald at, no evidence of being in 
province of Deras, 152 ; plague at, 
88w; vestry books, extracts from, 
168; William Cramlington held salt 
pans at, 8 

' Shele Heugh,' 71 

Shilbottle, the ' towne ' of, 218 

'Ship money,' 263 

Simonside, formerly known as Preston, 
74 

Simpson, Frederick, to be minister of 
Tynemouth, on presentation of R. 
Gardner, 96 ; Robert, vicar of 
Haltwhistle, 18 ; Thomas, curate of 
Ryton, 45 

Singleton, archdeacon, visitation notes 
of Haltwhistle, 26 

Smirk, Washington, 116 

Smiths of Haughton castle, 116 

Societies exchanging publications, 
xxvii 

Solway, Tyne and, Roman works 
between, 105 

Somerset, duke of, 99 

Somner, William, Anglo-Saxon Dic- 
tionary, 81 

Sotheron, William, 235 

Souter point, 61 ; tradition that 
church stood on, 61 

' Sovereign of the Seas,' built of timber 
from Chopwell and Brancepeth 
woods, 263 

Sparke, Thomas, 236 

Spearmans of Preston, 95, 202 

Spearman, John, of Durham city, 
gave silver flagon to Tynemouth, 95w 

Speed, John, 236 

Spelman's Glossary, 221 

Spoor, John, 239 

Stanhope, Walter Spencer, of Silk- 
stone, Yorkshire, marriage of, 207 

Stephenson, John, of Newcastle, 240 ; 
sheriff of Newcastle, 240 and n ; 
grandfather of Bessie Surtees, 240re ; 
Matthew, sheriff of Newcastle, 240 
and n ; purchased Walworth estate, 
240 

Stevenson, Robert, priest and seneschal 
of Haltwhistle, 17 ; William, 17 



Stikelawe, William de, 33 

Stocks, putting women in the, 101 

Stone desks, 177 and n 

Stow in Wedale, probable site of Win- 

wedfield, 188 
' Strages Gai < 'ampi,' 188 
Sundial, a ring, presented, xv 
Surtees, Robert, will of, 42 
Surtees's Durham, referred to, 55 
Surveyor's Dialogue of 1607, 218 
Swinburne, John, 257 ; held Chopwell, 

257 ; forfeited same, 259 
Swiss soldiers buried at Tynemouth, 

214 
Symeon of Durham, 55n 



T. 

Tailbois, Ralph, of Thornton, county 

Durham, 232 and n ; seal of, 233 ; 

Jane, his wife, 232 ; seal of, 232 ; 

Robert, 235 ; William, 235 ; of West 

, Auckland, 235 

Taillor (see Taylor) 

Tankerville, earl of, bequest of negroes, 
etc., to, by John Colvill, 117; ap- 
pointed executor, 117 ; second earl 
of, who married Camilla Colville, 
238; countess of, and John Col- 
vill's will, 121 

Tarset, crenellation of, 38 

Taylor, Henry, 232 ; Humphrey, 232 

Tayllor (see Taylor) 

Tectonicon, 218 

Tees, theory of boundary between 
Deira and Bernicia, 75, 79 ; accord- 
ing to Longstaffe, 80 

Telba, John, 230 

Tempest, sir Nicholas, high sheriff, 95 ; 
Roland, hostman of Newcastle, 235 

Thockrington, a candle-mould from, 
presented, xvi 

Thomas of Malmesbury, 78 et seq. 

Thorp, archdeacon, rector of Ryton, 39 

Thrunton tithes, half of, devised, 3 

Thrush island, St. Cuthbert's retreat 
on, 158 

Tittery, Paul, marriage of, 205 

Tokens, communion, at Ryton, 44 

Tomlinson, William Weaver, on Chop- 
well woods, 255 

Topping, John, governor of Tyne- 
mouth castle, 97 ; burial of Pru- 
dence, wife of, 209 

Tosson, Great, grant of lands in, 253 

Treasurer's report, xi ; and balance- 
sheet, xii 

Trewick, Margery de, 33 ; William 
de, 33 

Trollope, Robert, and Christ's church, 
North Shields, 98 



INDEX 



289 



Tughall, Thomas de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 14, 15 

Turnbull, William, 236 

Turner, John Crichloe, one of auditors 
of Greenwich hospital, married 
Miss Cramlington, 9 ; knighted, 9 

Tweed, said by some to be boundary 
between Bernicia and Deira, 75 

Twenty Riggs, parish of Barsdon, 5 

Tyne bridge repaired of timber from 
Chopwell woods, 265 

Tyne, the dividing frontier between 
Bernicia and Deira, 75, 83 ; Regi- 
nald of Durham in favour of, 83 ; 
chroniclers also, 84 

Tyne at Corbridge, Roman bridge 
across, 171 ; at North Shields, early 
appearance of St. Cuthbert on banks 
of, 66, 157 

Tyne and Solway, Roman Wall 
between, 105 

Tynemouth castle, Charles I. at, 207 ; 
governors of, sir Henry Percy, 93 ; 
lord Adam Gordon, 103 ; claim of, 
for fees for tombstones resisted, 103 ; 
escape of French prisoners from, 
168 ; Henry Villiers, governor 
of, 202, 213 ; John Delabene, 
lieutenant-governor of, 213 

Tynemouth, ' farms ' in, 93 ; plan of, 
69 ; plague at, 209 ; William Lin- 
skill, first mayor of, 204 ; priory 
church, dissolved by Henry VIII., 
93 ; converted to use of State, 96 ; 
in ruins, 96 ; the lady chapel, 99 ; 
filled with gunpowder, 100 ; 
windows built up, etc., 100 ; restored 
to parishioners, 100 ; duke of North- 
umberland and Ralph Delaval, had 
presentation to, 96 ; ministers of 
Francis Gibson, 96 ; Alexander 
Gordon, 97 ; James Hume, 95, 208 ; 
John Paye, 97 ; F. Simpson, 96 ; 
church, rev. Emanuel Potter, vicar 
of, 203; William Robinson, 207; 
parish registers, 197 

'Tytchys,' prebend of, in church of 
Auckland, 17 

Tyzack, John, glass maker, 203 

U. 

Ulchester probably Oleiclavis, 184 
Ulpius Marcellus, name of, on Chesters 

inscription, 179 

Urfa, Caer, birth place of Oswin, 69 
Frwin, William, of Morpeth, assaulted 

by John Cramlington, 4 
Ussher, archbishop, argument con- 
cerning boundary between Deira 
and Bernicia, 78, 79 



V. 

Vagrant, whipping a, 101 

Vane, G., of Long Newton, county 

Durham, 237 and n / married 

daughter of sir Lionel Maddison, 

237re ; sir Henry, 265 
Verax, Julius, 274 
Vesci, William de, 31 
Vestry, ancient, of Tynemouth, 94 
Villiers, Henry, colonel, 100 ; captain, 

governor of Tynemouth castle, 202 

et seq. ; burial of, 215 
Virgin, figure of the, at Stow in 

Wedale, 186 

Visitation notes, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27 
Vita Oswini, quoted, 52 

W. 

Waistell, Edward, 235 

Walcher, bishop, gave Jarrow to 
Aid wine, 73 ; and vills of Preston, 
etc., 73 

Waldam, Christopher, 232 

Walker, Francis, 237 

Wall, Grace, bond of marriage of, 5n 

Waller, Robert, keeper of a pot-house 
at Coalrife, 162 

Wallis, Richard, collated to St. Hild's, 
South Shields, 66 

Wallsend, fragment of a Roman in- 
scription from, presented, xvi 

Walworth estate purchased by 
Matthew Stephenson of Newcastle, 
240% 

Warne, Thomas, 232 

Washingtons, baptismal certificates 
of, 125 

Washington : letters, 115, and Colville 
families, 115; George, and others, 
appointed executors of Thomas 
ColvilTs will, 123 ; will proved by 
them, 124; John, planter, 117; 
John, original emigrant to Barba- 
does, 116; Robert, of Nevis and 
Elizabeth his wife, children of, 116; 
Thomas, general Washington had 
no brother named, 116 

Watson, William, 232 

Wear, Hilda wrongly said to have 
settled on, 53 ; district north of, 
known as Werhale, 55 

Wedale on Gala water, pagans routed 
at, 1 85 ; fragment of figure of virgin 
in church of St. Mary at Stow, 186 ; 
St. Mary's well, 186 

Welford, Richard, obituary notice of 
the rev. J. Raine, D.C.L., 126 ; on 
Westmorland place, Newcastle, 223 

Well, St. Mary's, at Wedale, 186 



290 



INDEX. 



Werhale, district north of Wear 
known as 55, et seq. ; given to St. 
Guthbert, 87 

West, John, 122 ; Catherine, his 
daughter, 122 

Westerwood, 112 

Westgate, Newcastle, tenement in, 
230 

Westgate street, Newcastle, house of 
Nevilles in, 225 

Westmorland place, Newcastle, 223 

Westoe, etc., given to Jarrow, 73 ; 
' farms' of, 74 and n 

Westwyk, Thomas de, 17 

Wharrier, Anne, daughter of William, 
of Birling, married Lancelot Cram- 
lington, 8 

Whinny Loop, parish of Earsdon, 5 

Whipping a vagrant, 101 

White, Margaret, of Blagdon. New- 
sham conveyed to Richard Ridley 
of Newcastle and, 5 

Whithern in Galloway, 87, 151 ; stone 
church of St. Martin at, 151 ; St. 
Ninian's church at, 48w 

Wickliffe, Henry, of ' Ufferton,' 232 ; 
seal of, 231 ; John, 232 

Widdrington, Francis, 232 ; Roger de, 
and others, grant to, 229 et seq. ; 
Mr. Thomas, 210 

Wilkinson, John, vicar of Halt whistle, 
18 

William and Mary college, Williams- 
burg, Virginia, 115 

Williamson, secretary, letters to, re- 
lating to consecration of Christ 
church, North Shields, 98, 99 

Willimoteswyke, licence for oratory 
at 17 

Will's, John, 238 



Wilson, Edward, of Heversham, vicar 
of Halt whistle, 22 ; rector of Wad- 
dington and Stockton-upon-Tees, 
22 ; married Mary, daughter of 
preceding vicar, 22 

Winlaton, common lands, etc., 43 

Winlaton mill, originally a fulling 
mill, 45 

Winwaed, banks of the, 182 

Winwedfield, overthrow of Penda and 
English paganism at, 68, 182 ; 
probable site at Stow in Wedale, 
188 

Witherington (see Widdrington) 

Wodryngton (see Widdrington) 

Wood, William, 6 

Woodman, Miss, gift of books and 
MSS., xi 

Wooler, cup-marked boulder from, 
presented, xv 

Woollen, burial in, 211 

Worrall, Robert, keeper and forester 
of Chop well woods, 262 

Wouldhave, Henry, 237 ; curious suit 
against, 237w; Mr. Robert, 202 

Wrangholm, near Melrose, 156; near 
Doddington, 156 ; Hruringaham ' 
claimed for former by Scottish 
writers, 156 ; balance of, probably 
in favour of the latter, 159 

Wydon, grant of land in, 14 

Wyersdale, Nathaniel, of London, 5 

Wynstone, Walter de, vicar of Halt- 
whistle, 16 

Wytelaw = White Hall, 2 

Y. 

York, Edwin's church at, 48; Bosa, 
bishop of, 79 ; Chad, bishop of, 79 ; 
Tobias Matthew, archbishop of, 236 




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