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Arch. A el. vol. xx. 



A Vice-President of the Society. 



|ftt*cellaneou0 tracts 






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List of Plates, Woodcuts, etc. vi&vii 

Contributions of Photographs, etc ... viii 

Errata, etc. viii 

Annual Report for 1897 ix 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet xiii 

Donations to Museum during 1897 ... ... ... ... ... ... xvi 

Council and Officers for 1898 .. ... ... ... xvii 

Honorary Members xviii 

Ordinary Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xix 

Societies with which Publications are exchanged ... ... ... ... xxvii 

Statutes . xxix 

I. Obituary Notice of William Hylton Dyer Longstaffe, a Vice- 

President. By Eichard Welford, V.P 1 

II. The Villiers Family as Governors of Tynemouth Castle and 

Owners of the Lighthouse. By Horatio A. Adamson, V.P.... 15 

III. The Church, of St. Andrew Auckland, commonly called South 
Church. By the Rev. J. F. Hodgson. Vicar of Witton-le- 
Wear 27 

IV. Obituary Notice of John Philipson, a Vice-President. By 

Richard Welford 207 

V. Notes on the Defensive Armour of Medieval Times and of the 

Renaissance. By Robert Coltman Clephan 211 

VI. Picture Board Dummies at Raby and Callaly Castles. By 

Richard S. Ferguson, F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle 278 

VII. A Lease of Property in Corbridge dated 1517. By William 
Brown, F.S.A., Secretary and Editor of the Yorkshire 
Archaeological Society 283 

VIII. Three Additional Miracles Attributed to St. Acca of Hexham. 

By Cad wallader J. Bates, V.P 289 

Index , 295 




Frontispiece Portrait of the late W. H. D. Longstaffe facing 1 


I. St. Andrew Auckland Church, West End 27 

II. -IV. Pre-Conquest Sculptured Stones in same Church ... ,,29,31,35 

V. Pre-Conquest Cross Shaft in Jedburgh Abbey Church ... 36 

Va. Initial letter from Augustinus super Psalterium in the 
MS. in the Durham Chapter Library, with figures of 
bishop William of S. Calais and Kobert Benjamin 

(the scribe) ... ... 57 

VI. St. Andrew Auckland Church : Basement of 2nd Bay of 

Chancel 85 

VII. Basement of Chancel, showing 'Low Side' Window ., 86 

VIII. Chancel from South-west ., 87 

Vllltf . Window Arcade, South Side of Chancel as origin- 
ally constructed 86 

IX. Interior from South ... ,. 95 

X. South Doorway 97 

XI. ., Base Moulds of Tower Arch, etc ,, 103 

XII. Brass of a Priest ... ... 175 

XIII. Portrait of the late John Philipson ,. 207 

XIV. Effigies in Whitworth Churchyard ., 228 

XI Va. Gothic Suit at Southdene Tower 266 

XIV J. Tyrolese Skirted Armour, 1550-1560, at Southdene Tower 266 

XV.- Armour of ' Belted Will' at Na worth Castle 275 




Roman Sculptured Stone from Aesica ... ... ... ... ... xxxiv 

Bench End, Darlington Church ... ... ... 14 

Governor's House and Lighthouse in Tynemouth Castle in 1784 17 

Pre-Conquest Sculptured Stones in St. Andrew Auckland Church .. ...30, 31 
Pre-Conquest Sculptured Stone in Jarrow Church ... ... ... ... 36 

Plan of St. Andrew Auckland Church ... ... ... ... 76 

West Side of South Transept of Egliston Abbey Church 83 

Mouldings in St. Andrew Auckland Church, Egliston Abbey, Kipon 

Minster, etc. ... 84, 85, 87, 88, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 109, 113 

South Porch, St. Andrew Auckland Church 99 

Seal of Bishop Stichill 105 

Benatura, St. Andrew Auckland Church ... ... 158 

Matrices of Brasses, St. Andrew Auckland Church . 179, 180 

Window and Door of Deanery, South Church ... ... ... 190 

'High End' Window in Tower of St. Andrew Auckland Church ... ... 195 

Chain Mail in Castle, Newcastle 219 

Effigy of Peter le Marechal in St. Nicholas's Church, Newcastle 225 

Sigmaringen Suit of Armour ... ... ... 252 

' Maxmiliau ' Armour 254 

Bishop of Salzburg's Suit of Armour 257 

Armour at Southdene Tower, Gateshead 259,261,263,265,266 

Armour at Brancepeth Castle ... " 268,269 

Armour at Alnwick Castle 272,273 

Salade in Hexham Priory Church ... ... 277 

Armet in Beverley Minster ... ... ... ... 277 

Picture Board Dummy, Callaly Castle 281 




Thanks are given to the following : 

Blomfield, Sir Arthur, for loan of plan of Auckland St. Andrew Church, 

on p. 76. 

Browne, the late Major, block on p. 281. 
Carlisle, the Earl of, for photograph for plate XV. 
Clephan, Eugene E., for drawing on p. 225. 
Clephan, R. Coltman, for all the photographs and blocks to illustrate his 

paper on armour. 

Clephan, Mrs. R. Coltman, for drawing on p. 219. 
Church Monthly, the Editor of the, for loan of wood block on p. 158. 
Hodgson, the Rev. J. F., for all the drawings illustrating his paper on 

St. Andrew Auckland Church, and for rubbing of brass (plate XII.). 
Reliquary, the Editor of the, for the loan of block on p. 36. 
Steavenson, A. L., for photographs for plates II., III., IV., and XIV., and 

for blocks on pages 30 and 31. 

Plate XV. is from a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis. 


Page xv., line 21, for ' Baedae,' read ' Baeda.' 

60, plate VIII., the line of the floor coincides with the bottom of the 

tinted part. 
61, the section of the hood-mould of the chancel windows has been 

printed upside down. 

69, for 'cap. 1st pillar from E.,' read 'cap. 2nd pillar from E.' 
78, lines 8 and 9 from top, for ' see margin,' read ' see p. 77.' 
77, note, for ' 115,' read ' 1154.' 
100, note, for ' It is not a little curious that bishop Hatfield's,' read ' It is 

not a little curious that, with the exception of that of Ruthall, 

bishop Hatfield's,' etc. 

118, line 18 from top, for ' portem,' read ' partem.' 
170, line 3 from bottom, for ' pretendent,' read ' pretendaient.' 
170, line 6 from bottom, for ' perpetuees,' read ' perpetue.' 
171, line 9 from top, for ' oublier,' read ' oublier.' 
221, line 12, for ' surcoat,' read ; breastplate.' Of course the rings came 

through the surcoat. 




j&ocfetg of 




THE monthly meetings of the society have been well attended 
throughout the year, and several interesting papers contributed by 
members, some of which will be of permanent value as preserved in 
the Archaeologia Aeliana. Your council, however, think it right to 
point out that good and interesting as the papers have been, they 
were contributed by only a very few of our members ; and they would 
urge all the members of the society to take part in its primary work, 
by reading notes or papers on matters of local history. 

Though very inadequately supported by the Northumbrian public, 
the Northumberland Excavation Committee has continued its opera- 
tions this year and has achieved some interesting results. The 
Roman camp of Aesica (Great Chesters) has again been the scene of 
the excavators' labours. A large building outside of the camp on the 
south-east has been excavated and reveals several chambers, some of 
them furnished with hypocausts ; this was probably the home of one 
of the officers of the garrison with his family, or, from the size of 
the building, we may conjecture that more than one distinguished 
family has here taken up its quarters. Excavations have also been 
made in the centre of the camp which have at last brought to light 
some inscribed stones. Three fine examples have been discovered, 
one of them bearing an interesting inscription to the memory of a 
young Roman lady who probably died at Aesica* 

* Vide Arch. Ael. vol. xix. p. 268. 

Other Roman inscriptions recently discovered, include the slab at 
Chesters recording the supply of water to Cilurnum while Ulpius 
Marcellus was governor of Britain and the second cohort of Asturians 
in garrison, and an altar at South Shields naming Julius Yerax, a 
centurion of the sixth legion.* 

The eastern portion of the late sixteenth century pele of Dodd- 
ington the most prominent object in the village, and a picturesque 
building, ' one of the most charming remains of border architecture,' 
fell down during a storm in the early part of the year ; the re- 
maining portion is in danger of sharing the same fate. It has been 
asserted that there is neither written history nor tradition about the 
tower, but as has been truly said, its history 'was clearly written on 
its walls. In 1584 Sir Thomas Grey was obliged to build a strong 
house of this description for the protection of his tenants at Dodd- 
ington, but art and industry had so decayed on the Border that he 
was unable to build it of better masonry. It is of great importance 
to keep up this unique building now that its counterpart at Kilham is 

The members of the Armourers' company have granted a repairing 
lease of the Berber tower to the corporation of Newcastle for a long 
term, so that this interesting and valuable building, the most complete 
of the few wall towers remaining, is now saved from destruction. 

The corporation of Newcastle, at our suggestion, has placed the 
old camera of Adam de Gesmuth in Heaton Park, locally known as 
' King John's Palace,' in a condition of repair sufficient to resist the 
action of the weather. 

The corporation of Newcastle, under the direction of the city 
engineer (Mr. W. G-. Laws), has remounted the ordnance on the 
battlements of the keep, and the new gun-carriages restore the 
carronades to the embrasures where they once more present an 
effective feature of the parapets of the Old Castle. 

During three days in May last an exhibition of silver plate 
manufactured in Newcastle was held under the auspices of the society 
in the uppermost room of the Black Gate museum. It was in every 
way successful ; it was highly appreciated by the public, as every class 
of work, ecclesiastical and civil, was represented in the collection. A 

* Vide Arch. Ael. vol. xix. p. 273. 


catalogue of the different objects is being prepared and will be ready 
shortly for issue to the members. It will be fully illustrated, 
several of the exhibitors having given illustrations of their respective 

The banners in the great hall of the Castle yet require the arms 
of Sir Ralph de Neville, Radcliffe, Lord Derwentwater, Sir Robert 
Bertram, Sir William de Montagu, Sir William de Tyndall, Robert 
de Raymes, Sir William de Herle, the Countess of Pembroke, Sir 
John d'Arcy and Clavering (all to be of silk and four feet six inches 
square, except the Neville banner, which is to be six feet square), to 
make up the number of baronial feudatories who served in castleward 
the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, etc. An appeal is made, especially 
to the lady members of our society, for assistance in rendering this 
highly decorative feature of the building complete. Any member 
wishing to present one of the banners may obtain particulars of the 
arms from Mr. Blair one of our secretaries.* 

Country meetings during the year were held at Corbridge and 
Dilston, at Easington, Dalton-le-Dale and Seahain, and at Elsdon, 
Otterburn and Bellingham, and were well attended. The respective 
parties were hospitably received at Dilston castle by our member, 
Mr. James Hall, who, with Mr. Heslop, described the building, and 
at Seahara vicarage, where the vicar, the Rev. A. Bethune, pointed 
out the objects of interest in and about his church. Our thanks are 
due to them. 

Under the scheme adopted by the society in 1894, as much 
progress has been made in the printing of our parish registers as the 
small sum allocated for that purpose would permit. The registers of 
Esh down to 1813 and Dinsdale baptisms and burials to the same 
year are in the hands of the members, as are also instalments of the 
registers of Elsdon and Warkworth. To Mr. Crawford Hodgson and 
to one or two of his friends the society is indebted for a contribution 
of 15 towards the cost of printing the Warkworth register, and to 
Dr. Longstaff of 5 towards that of the Dinsdale register. Mr. D. D. 
Dixon, one of our members, is continuing the printing of the 
Rothbury registers in the Rothbury Parish Magazine, and Dr. 
Burman, another member, has commenced to print the Alnwick 

* V. Proo. III. 10, 17, 42, 49, 134, 177, 216, 248; and IV. 178. 


registers at his private press. An appeal has been made to our 
members for assistance in printing local parish registers, and it is 
hoped that the favourable terms on which a local organization is 
enabled to co-operate with the Register Society will induce a cordial 
response to the invitation to send names of subscribers to Mr. H. M. 
Wood of Whickham. 

We have entrusted Mr. Sheriton Holmes with the task of 
compiling a short guide for visitors to the keep of the castle, and 
congratulate the members on having secured the services of one whose 
knowledge of the structure and whose literary and artistic accomplish- 
ments are a guarantee that this desirable work will be satisfactorily 
carried out. 

The printing of the general index to the transactions of the 
society ( Archaeologia and Proceedings) has been completed, and it is 
now in the hands of the subscribers. 

The fourth volume of the great County History of Northumberland, 
concluding the account of Hexhamshire, has just been completed, and 
our fellow-member, Mr. J . Crawford Hodgson, under whose editorship 
it has been produced, is to be congratulated on the admirable manner 
in which he has carried out his arduous and honorary task. 

Another work of historical interest has been published by our 
fellow-member, Mr. William Weaver Tomlinson, whose Life in 
Northumberland during the Sixteenth Century is not only a descrip- 
tion of contemporary history but a work of literary ability. 

Amongst the members whose loss by death during the year the 
society has to regret are Mr. John Crosse Brooks, one of the vice- 
presidents and the generous donor to the society of the large collection 
of valuable autographs, portraits, etc., and Sir Augustus Wollaston 
Franks, the president of the Society of Antiquaries of London, an 
honorary member. 

During the year three deaths have occurred, including that of our 
late vice-president, Mr. J. 0. Brooks. There has otherwise been a 
loss of twenty-two members, which has been equivalented by the 
election of twenty-two new members. The total number of ordinary 
members now stands at 344, of whom five have compounded for their 


The total revenue has been 538 3s. 8d., and the expenditure 
510 2s. lid., showing a balance of income over expenditure of 
28 2s. 9d. The receipts from members' subscriptions have been 
356 18s. 

There has been a considerable falling off in the number of publica- 
tions sold at the Castle, due possibly, in some measure, to the absence 
for some weeks of our warden, Mr. Gibson, who has had a serious 
illness. He is now, I am happy to state, sufficiently recovered to be 
able again to attend to his duties. The amount paid for books stands 
at 16 18s. 8d. The second part of the general index has cost 26. 

The repairs to the Castle and Black Gate buildings have been 
heavy, and the balance of receipts and expenditure on the two build- 
ings therefore shows a profit of only 9. 

The printing of the Proceedings and registers has cost 76 17s. 6d., 
but of this sum 20 is borne by Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson and a few 
friends and by Dr. Longstaff, who have subscribed, the former 15 
towards the Warkworth, and the latter 5 towards the Dinsdale, 

The expenditure upon the Archaeologia Aeliana has amounted to 
81 17s. 6d. only, as against 116 11s. 6d. last year. The cost of 
the illustrations has also been less. 

The expenditure on account of the museum amounts to 21 8s. lid., 
20 of which is due to a contribution of the society towards the cost 
of the various articles of antiquity found in making the excavations at 
the station of Aesica, on the Roman Wall. 

The expenditure under the head of sundries has been 81 7s. 8d., 
but this includes a sum of 12 9s., the cost of insurance and watching 
at the Black Gate during the exhibition of Newcastle plate in that 

The balance carried forward to 1898 is 100 9s. 8d., and the 
capital account with interest now stands at 51 Is. 8d. 

Sheriton Holmes, Hon. Treasurer. 


Sheriton Holmes, Treasurer, in account with the Society of Antiquaries 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

DECEMBER 31si, 1897. 

Receipts. Expenditure. 

s. d. s. d. 

Balance on January 1st, 1897 72 811 

Members' Subscriptions ... ... ... ... ... 356 18 

Books 15 17 9 16 18 8 

Castle 116 4 7 89 6 9 

Black Gate 27 8 4 45 12 8 

Printing: Archaeologia Aeliana ... ... ... ... 8117 6 

Proceedings and registers ... ... ... 20 76 17 6 

General Index (part ii.) ... ... 26 

Illustrations ... 28 18 3 

Museum ... 21 8 11 

Sundries 1 15 83 2 8 

Secretary (clerical assistance) ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Balance 100 9 8 

610 12 7 610 12 7 

NOTE. The cost of printing the Warkworth and Dinsdale registers is in- 
cluded in the item Proceedings and registers, but the cost to the society of 
this is lessened by the following donations : 

Mr. Crawford Hodgson, towards cost of Warkworth register ...15 
Dr. Longstaff, towards cost of Dinsdale register 500 

Examined and approved, 

20th January 1898. p.p. JOHN M. WINTER, ROBT. P. WINTER. 

Capital Bccount. s. d. s. d. 

Invested 111 2f per cent. Consols 42 18 5 

Dividends and interest to December 3 1st, 1897 ... 833 

51 1 8 

51 1 8 

CASTLE ^Details of Bjpenoiture. s. d. 

Salaries 69 16 

Insurance 076 

Rent 026 

Water Rate 060 

Gas 4 10 

Poors Rate 19 2 

Property Tax 1 10 6 

Incandescent Gas Burners ... ... 400 

Gas Fittings 11 6 

Repairs to Building 900 

Coal and Sundries 289 

89 6 9 


BLACK GATE s - d - 

Salaries 21 6 

Insurance ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 15 

Rent 100 

Water Rate 100 

Gas 2 7 10 

Poors Rate 15 5 

Property Tax 150 

Repairs to Building ..: 15 1 9 

FloorCloth 018 

45 12 8 

MUSEUM s. d. 

Carriage of Stones from Aesica ... ... ... 7 11 

Two Diamond Jubilee Medals 050 

Frames and Glasses for Pictures 16 

Contribution towards the Payment for the Antiquities found at 

Aesica 20 

21 8 11 

BOOKS, &c,, BOUGHT s. d. 

Drawings by the Rev. W. Darnell 330 

Bourne's History of Ryton 036 

Leland's Collectanea ... ... ... 1 15 

Plummer's Baedae ... 110 

Macdonald's Sirrens and its Antiquities ... ... ... ... 036 

Transactions of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute 17 

Cocks's Church Sells of Sucking ham shire ... .. ... 116 

History of Doddington, Lincolnshire 8 10 

Year-book of Societies ... ... ... ... ... ... 076 

Austin Canons 12 6 

Der Obergermanisch-Raetisclies Wall ... ... 036 

Bedford's Blazon of Episcopacy ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 

Prescott's Register of the Priory of Wetherall ... ... ... 15 5 

Macgibbon & Ross, Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland, 

vol. iii 1 15 

Catalogue of the Edinburgh A ntiquarian Museum v 1 5 

Tuer's History of the Horn Booh 050 

Northern Genealogist ... ... 10 6 

Tomlinson's Guide to Northumberland 039 

Waters, for Binding 299 

16 18 8 


Reid & Co., for general printing, etc. ... ... 787 

Nicholson, for general printing ... ... ... 33 18 5 

Gibson, postage and carriage ... ... ... ... ... 891 

Secretary's expences ... ... ... ... 14 8 7 

Treasurer's do 160 

Carried forward .. 65 10 8 


SUNDRIES (Continued) s. d. 

Brought forward 65 10 8 

Cheque Book 050 

Subscription Harleian Society ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 

Do. Surtees Society 110 

Do. Register Society ... 110 

Expences attending the exhibition of Newcastle plate in Black 

Gate : 
Insurance against fire ... ... ... ... 300 

Do. do. burglary ... 2 10 

Watching expences ... 8 14 

14 4 

Less Balance received from Plate Committee 1 15 

12 9 

81 7 8 

The curators reported that the following donations to the museum 
had been made during 1897 : 

Feb. 24. From Mr. A. D. PARK : (i.) A sand-glass, with a run of two hours' 

duration, formerly attached to the pulpit of a church ; (ii.) pair of 
Mexican spurs, with long-pointed rowels of antique pattern ; (iii.) 
a fabricated heirloom belonging to the stock of the quasi ' Countess 
of Derwentwater ' ; this is a German hunting knife, the maker's 
stamp on which is 1810; an inscription has been cut 'From the 
isle of Derwent, 1310,' in order to give to it a fictitious antiquity; 
(iv.) a horn lantern, which was formerly in the possession of Mr. 
John Hancock (Proc. vol. viii. pp. 13 and 32). 

April 28. From Mr. WM. OLLIFF, Newcastle : A bicycle, made in 1864, of the 
type now commonly known as ' a boneshaker ' (ibid. p. 32). 

July 28. From Mr. H. W. YOUNG, F.S.A. Scot. : Plaster cast of an early 
Christian inscription discovered at Burghead, Moray Firth (ibid. 
vol. viii. p. 62). 

Aug. 25. From Mr. JOHN VENTRESS : Plaster cast of the Newcastle goldsmiths' 
punch-plate (ibid. p. 84). 

Sept. 29. From Mr. JOHN BRAITHWAITE, Gosforth, Newcastle : Flail from 
Hall Flat farm, Irton, Cumberland (ibid. p. 88). 

Nov. 24. From Mr. JOHN GOOLDEN, ex-Mayor of Newcastle : Iron key from 
the Old Gaol, Newgate, Newcastle (ibid. p. 98). 

Dec. 15. From Mr. W. J. SANDERSON, Gosforth, Newcastle (per Messrs. Oliver & 
Leeson) : Two sculptured stones of medieval date, found in 
demolishing houses in the Crown and Thistle yard, Pudding chare, 
immediately behind the west end of Collingwood street, Newcastle, 
one a grave cover, the other a gable cross (ibid. pp. 98 and 105). 

Jan. 26. From Dr. G. ALDER BLUMER, Dtica, U.S.A. : A small Roman coin of 

the Constantine period found during the restoration of Monkwear- 
mouth church several years ago. The inscription on the obverse is 
CONSTANTINOPOLIS, and on the reverse the letters TR p. in the 
exergue (ibid. p. 1 10). 















THOMAS HODGK1N, D.C.L., F.S.A., &c. 
































IST MARCH, 1898. 


Date of Election, i 
1855 Jan. 3 



June 27 
June 27 
June 27 
June 27 
June 30 
June 30 
June 30 
June 30 
Jan. 25 
Jan. 27 

1892 May 25 
1896 Oct. 28 

J. J. Howard, LL.D., F.S.A., Mayfield, Orchard Road, Blackheath, 


Professor Emil Hiibner, LL.D., Ahornstrasse 4, Berlin. 
Professor Mommsen, Marchstrasse 8, Charlottenburg bei Berlin. 
Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 
Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 

Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 
Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 
Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 
David Mackinlay, 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow. 
General Pitt-Rivers, F.S.A., Rushmore, Salisbury. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c., &c., Nash Mills, Hemel 


Professor Karl Zangemeister, Heidelberg. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confre"rie 5, Ghent, Belgium. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1898.) 


The sign * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, 
f that the member is one of the Council. 

Date of Election. 
1885 Mar. 25 

1883 Aug. 29 
1843 April 4 

1873 July 

1892 Aug. 31 
1885 Oct. 28 

1895 July 31 

1885 June 24 

1886 Jan. 27 

1893 Sept. 27 
1885 Dec. 30 

1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 
1897 Nov. 24 

1896 July 29 

1894 Mar. 25 

1893 Feb. 22 

1891 July 29 

1894 July 25 

1892 April 27 

1874 Jan. 7 
1892 Mar. 30 
1888 Sept. 26 

1896 Dec. 23 
1892 Dec. 28 
1892 June 29 
1888 April 25 

1897 July 28 

1883 Dec. 27 
1883 Dec. 27 
1883 June 27 
1892 May 25 
1888 Sept. 26 

Adams, William Edwin, 32 Holly Avenue, Newcastle. 
'rAdamson, Rev. Cuthbert Edward, Westoe, South Shields. 
rAdamson, Rev. Edward Hussey, St. Alban's, Felling. R.S.O. 
fAdamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Adamson, Lawrence William, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle. 

Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road. Gateshead. 

Allan, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Allgood, Anne Jane (Miss), Hermitage, Hexham. 

Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 

Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 

Armstrong, Lord, Cragside, Rothbury. 

Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, William Irving, South Park, Hexham. 

Arnison, William Drewitt, M.D., 31 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 

Baily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. ] Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton. 
j-Bates, Cadwallader John. M.A., Langley Castle, Langley, North- 

Bates, Stuart Frederick, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Baumgartner, John Robert, 10 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Bell, John E., The Cedars, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Bell, W. Heward, Seend, Melksham, Wiltshire. 

Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon Hall, near Sunderland. 
fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

Blenkinsopp, Thomas, 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 

Blindell, William A., Wester Hall, Humshaugh. 

Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Utica State Hospital, New York State, U.S.A. 

Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Bolam, Robert G., Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

Boot, Rev. Alfred, St. George's Vicarage, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Booth, John, Shotley Bridge. 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Boutflower. Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 

Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, John Bosworth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 

Boyd, George Fenwick, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 


Date of Election. 
1894 Feb. 28 
1891 Dec. 23 

1891 Oct. 28 
1896 Nov. 25 

1892 Aug. 31 

1896 July 29 

1897 Nov. 24 
1860 Jan. 4 

1892 Feb. 24 
1891 Dec. 23 
1891 July 29 

1893 June 28 
1884 Sept. 24 
1897 Nov. 24 

1891 Sept. 30 

1889 April 24 
1888 Nov. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 
1897 Jan. 27 
1887 Nov. 30 

1885 April 29 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 July 27 

1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Feb. 27 

1894 Jan. 31 
1887 Oct. 26 

1885 Nov. 25 
1896 Aug. 26 

1892 Feb. 24 

1895 Sept. 25 

1885 May 27 

1895 Nov. 27 

1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Dec. 27 

1893 July 26 

1892 Aug. 31 

1886 Sept. 29 

1893 July 26 

Boyd, William, North House, Long Benton. 
Braithwaite, John, 19 Lansdowne Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Branford, William E., 90 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Brass, John George, The Grove, Barnard Castle. 
Brewis, Parker, 32 Osborne Eoad, Newcastle. 
Brock- Hollinshead, Mrs., Woodfoot House, Shap, Westmorland. 
Brooks, Miss Ellen, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
Brown, Rev. Dixon, Dnthank Hall, Haltwhistle. 
Brown, George T., 17 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 
Brown, The Rev. William, Old Elvet, Durham. 
*Browne, A. fl., Callaly Castle, Whittingham, R.S.O. 
Browne, Thomas Procter, Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Bruce, The Hon. Mr. Justice, Yewhurst, Bromley. Kent. 
Bryers, Thomas Edward, The Cottage, Whitburn, Sunderland. 
Burman, C. Clark, L.R.C.P.S. Ed., 12 Bondgate Without, 


Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Coxhoe, Durham. 
Burton, William Spelman, 19 Claremont Park, Gateshead. 
Burton, S. B., Ridley Villas, Newcastle. 
Butler, George Grey, Ewart Park, Wooler. 
Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 
Carr, Frederick Ralph, Lympston, near Exeter. 
Carr, Sidney Storey, 14 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Carr, Rev. T. W., Banning Rectory, Maidstone, Kent. 
Carr-Ellison, H. G., 21 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 
Carr-Ellison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 
Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 
Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Charleton, William L. 

Charlton, Henry, 1 Millfield Terrace, Gateshead. 
Charlton, Oswin J., B.A., LL.B., 36 a Victoria Road, Kensington 

Palace, London, W. 

Chester, Mrs., Stamfordham, Newcastle. 
Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester (Walter T. Browne, 


Clapham, William, Park Villa, Darlington. 

Clayton, John Bertram, Chesters, Humshaugh, Northumberland. 
j-Clephan, Robert Coltman, Southdene Tower, Saltwell, Gateshead. 
Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 
Corder, Herbert, 10 Kensington Terrace, Sunderland. 
Corder, Percy, 41 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Corder, Walter Shewell, 4 Rosella Place, North Shields. 

LIST OF MEMBBES. (1st March, 1898.) 


Date of Election. 

1887 Jan. 26 
1898 Feb. 23 

1892 Oct. 26 

1888 Feb. 29 

1896 Feb. 26 

1897 Dec. 15 

1889 Aug. 28 
1888 Mar. 28 

1891 Nov. 18 
1844 about 

1887 Aug. 31 

1893 July 26 
1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Mar. 9 

1883 June 27 

1884 Aug. 27 
1884 July 2 
1884 July 30 
1897 May 26 

1892 Nov. 30 
1884 Mar. 26 

1891 Aug. 31 

1888 June 27 

1886 May 26 

1883 Oct. 31 

1886 Aug. 28 
1865 Aug. 2 

1894 Nov. 28 

1884 Jan. 30 

1894 May 30 
1896 Aug. 26 

1887 Dec. 2f 
1894 Oct. 31 

1894 Oct. 31 

1890 Mar. 26 

1895 Jan. 30 

1892 April 27 
1892 Aug. 31 
1859 Dec. 7 
1883 Oct. 31 

Cowen, Joseph, Stella Hall, Blaydon. 

Crawhall, Rev. T. B., Wall Vicarage, North Tynedale. 

Cresswell, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W. 
fCrossman, Sir William, K.C.M.G., Cheswick House, Beal. 

Cruddas, W. D., M.P., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 

Culley. Francis John, 5 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Culley, The Rev. Matthew, Tow Law, co. Durham. 

Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 

Deacon, Thomas John Fuller, 10 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 
fDees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
f Dendy, Frederick Walter, Eldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Denison, Joseph, Sanderson Road, Newcastle. 

Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

Dickinson, William Bowstead, Healey Hall, Riding Mill. 

Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead. 

Dixon, Rev. Canon, Warkworth Vicarage, Northumberland. 

Dixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Drummond, Dr., Wyvestow House, South Shields. 

Drury, John C., 31 Alma Place, North Shields. 

Dunn, William Henry, 5 St. Nicholas's Buildings, Newcastle. 

Durham Cathedral Library. 

Bast, John Goethe, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

Edwards, Harry Smith, Byethorn, Corbridge. 
fEmbleton, Dennis, M.D., 19 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 

Emley, Fred., Ravenshill, Durham Road, Gateshead. 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Blackball. 

Fen wick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 

Fenwick, John George, Moorlands, Newcastle. 

Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Ferguson, Richard Saul, F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle, Lowther 
Street, Carlisle. 

Forster, Fred. E., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Forster, George Baker, M.A., Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 

Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

Forster, Robert Henry, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 

Forster, Thomas Emmerson, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 

Forster, William, Houghton Hall, Carlisle. 

Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle 

Francis, William, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Gayner, Francis, King's College, Cambridge. 

Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 

Gibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 



Date of Election. 



1896 Jan. 29 

1886 June 30 

1886 Oct. 27 

1895 Sept. 25 
1894 Aug. 29 

1886 Aug. 28 

1896 Dec. 23 
1883 Feb. 28 
1891 Oct. 28 
1845 June 3 

1883 Feb. 28 

1877 Dec. 5 

1891 Jan. 28 
1893 Mar. 8 
1883 Aug. 29 

1883 Aug. 29 

1887 Mar. 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Aug. 30 

1889 Feb. 27 

1894 May 30 
1893 Aug. 30 

1886 April 28 
1884 Feb. 27 
1891 Oct. 28 
1883 Feb. 28 

1883 Feb. 28 

1888 April 2& 

1865 Aug. 2 

1895 Jan. 30 

1890 Jan. 29 

1884 April 30 

1887 Jan. 26 
1895 July 31 

1891 Oct. 28 

Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Glendinning, William, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Glover, Rev. William, 48 Rothbury Terrace, Heaton, Newcastle. 

Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 

Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Gough, Rev. Edward John, Vicar and Hon. Canon of Newcastle. 

Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Graham, Matthew Horner, 61 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Green, Robert Yeoman, 11 Lovaine Crescent, Newcastle. 

Greene, Charles R." North Sea ton Hall, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. 
fGreenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. 
F.S.A. Scot., Durham. 

Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester, co. 

j-Gregory, John Vessey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Haggie, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Hall, Edmund James, 9 Prior Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Hall, James, Tynemouth. 

Hall, John, Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Halliday, Thomas, Myrtle Cottage, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Harrison, John Adolphus, Saltwellville, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 
*Haverfield, F. J., M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

Haythornthwaite, Rev. Edward, Felling Vicarage, Gateshead. 

Hedley, Edward Armorer, 8 Osborne Villas, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Ralph, 19 Bellegrove Terrace, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Cheviot, Corbridge. 

Henzell, Charles Wright, Tynemouth. 

Heslop, George Christopher, 8 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
fHeslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Princes Buildings, Akenside Hill, 

Hicks, William Searle, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 

Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 
fHodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., F.S.A., Bank, Newcastle. 

Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bamburgh Castle, Belford. 
fHodgson, John Crawford, Warkworth. 

Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, William, Rockwood, Shinfield Road, near Reading. 

Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 

Holmes, Ralph Sheriton, 8 Sanderson Road, Newcastle. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1898.) 


Date of Election. 

1877 July 4 fHolmes, Sheriton, Moor View House, Newcastle. 
1892 June 29 Hopper, Charles, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 
1882 Hopper, John, Grey Street, Newcastle 

1895 Dec. 18 Houldsworth, David Arundell, 2 Eectory Terrace, Gosforth, New- 

1876 Hoyle, William Aubone, Normount, Newcastle. 

1896 April 29 Hudson, Robert, Hotspur Street, Tynemouth. 

1896 July 29 Hulbert, Rev. E. C., Grange Clergy House, Jarrow. 
1888 July 25 Hunter, Edward, 8 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 
1894 May 30 Hunter, Thomas, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

1897 Dec. 15 Hutchinson, Edward, The Elms, Darlington. 
1894 Feb. 28 Ingledew, Alfred Edward, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

1886 May 26 Irving, George, West Fell, Corbridge. 

1882 Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 

1883 Aug. 29 Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 

1883 Feb. 28 Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 

1884 Oct. 29 fKnowles, William Henry, 38 Grainger Street West, Newcastle. 

1896 Dec. 23 Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

1897 July 28 Laws, Dr. Cuthbert Umfreville, 65 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

1896 Sept. 20 Lee, Rev. Percy, Birtley Vicarage, Wark, North Tynedale. 
1894 Sept. 26 Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

1897 Jan. 27 Lightfoot, Miss, 5 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

1885 April 29 Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 

1887 June 29 Lockhart, Henry P., Prospect House, Hexham. 

1894 July 25 Long, Rev. H. F., Hon. Canon of Newcastle, The Glebe, Bamburgh, 


1896 Nov. 25 Longstaff, Dr. Geo.Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S.W. 
1850 Nov. 6 Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 

1888 June 27 Macarthy, George Eugene, 9 Dean Street, Newcastle. 
1877 McDowell, Dr. T. W., East Cottingwood, Morpeth. 

1884 Mar. 26 fMackey, Matthew, Jun., 8 Milton Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 
1884 Aug. 27 Maling, Christopher Thompson, 14 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
1891 May 27 Manchester Reference Library (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 

1895 Sept. 25 Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 
1884 Mar. 26 Marshall, Frank, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

1882 Martin, N. H., F.L.S., 8 Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 

1893 Oct. 25 Mather, Philip E., Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
1891 Mar. 25 Maudlen, William, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

1888 Sept. 26 Mayo, William Swatling, Riding Mill, Northumberland. 

1894 July 25 Mearns, William, M.D., Bewick Road, Gateshead. 

1891 Jan. 28 Melbourne Free Library (c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 
12 Ludgate Square, London, E.G.) 

1897 Mar. 31 Milburn, Joseph, Highfield, Marlborough, Wilts. 


Date of Election. 
1891 Aug. 26 
1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Mar. 28 
1883 May 30 
1883 Feb. 28 
1883 Oct. 13 

1886 Dec. 29 
1896 Oct. 28 

1883 June 27 
1896 April 29 

1884 July 2 

1895 Feb. 27 

1883 Jan. 31 

1896 May 27 

1885 May 27 

1893 Feb. 22 

1889 Aug. 28 

1897 Oct. 27 

1891 Feb. 18 

1894 Dec. 19 
1889 Aug. 28 
1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 

1898 Jan. 26 
1893 Mar. 29 

1891 Feb. 18 
1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Nov. 30 
1884 Sept. 24 


1888 Jan. 25 

1898 Feb. 23 


1896 Mar. 25 


1887 Aug. 31 

1883 June 27 

Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Mitchell, Charles William, Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 

Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 

Morrow, T. R., 2 St. Andrew's Villas, Watford, Herts. 

Morton, Henry Thomas, Twizell House, Belford, Northumberland. 

Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 

Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Neilson, Edward, 172 Portland Road, Newcastle. 

Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 

Newcastle Public Library. 

Newton, Robert, Brookfield, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Nicholson, George, Barrington Street, South Shields. 

Nisbet, Robert S., 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent, 
f Northumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Ogle, Bart., R.N., Capt. Sir Henry A., United Service Club, Pall 
Mall, London. 

Ord, John Robert, Haughton Hall, Darlington. 

Oswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Park, A. D., 11 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John S., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 

Peacock, Reginald, 47 West Sunniside, Sunderland. 

Pearson, Rev. Samuel, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Pease, John William, Pendower, Benwell, Newcastle. 

Pease, Howard, Bank, Newcastle. 

Peile, George, Greenwood, Shotley Bridge. 

Percy, The Earl, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 
fPhillips, Maberly, F.S.A., 12 Grafton Road, Whitley, R.S.O. 

Philipson, George Hare, M.A., M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
f Philipson, John. Victoria Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., Prior's Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Porteus, Thomas, 3 Poplar Crescent, Gateshead. 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Rev. George, Grange Rectory, Jarrow. 

Pybus, Robert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
fRavensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 

Reavell, George, jun., Alnwick. 

Redmayne, R. Norman, 27 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Redpath, Robert, 4 Bentinck Road, Newcastle. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1898.) 


Date of Election. 

1888 May 30 
1894 Feb. 28 

1897 April 28 
1883 Sept. 26 
1891 April 29 
1894 May 30 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Jan. 31 

1891 July 29 

1895 July 31 

1898 Jan. 26 

1892 Mar. 30 

1889 July 31 

1883 Jan. 31 

1884 July 30 

1894 Mar. 25 
1897 Sept. 29 

1893 Mar. 8 
1893 April 26 

1892 Sept. 28 
1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 

1888 July 25 

1893 Nov. 29 

1891 Sept. 30 

1892 Aug. 31 
1886 Feb. 24 
1888 June 27 
1883 Feb. 28 

1891 July 29 

1888 Oct. 31 

1895 May 29 

1889 May 29 

1892 Oct. 26 
1891 Nov. 18 

1893 Mar. 29 

1896 Dec. 23 
1883 June 27 

Reed, The Rev. George, Killingworth, Newcastle. 

Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 

Reid, C. Leopold, Wardle Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 

Reynolds, Charles H., Millbrook, Walker. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Elwick Hall, Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Miss Alice M., Esplanade, Sunderland. 

Richardson, Frank, South Ashfield, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thornholme, Sunderland. 

Richardson, William, Rosehill, Willington Quay. 

Riddell, Edward Francis, Cheeseburn Grange, near Newcastle. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 

Ridley, Bart., M.P., The Right Hon. Sir M. W., Blagdon, Northum- 

Robinson, Alfred J., 136 Brighton Grove, Newcastle. 

Robinson, John, High Street, Sunderland. 

Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 

Robson, Lancelot, 12 Stockton Street, West Hartlepool. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., Simonburn Rectory, Humshaugh. 

Rowell, George, 100 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

Runciman, W., Fernwood House, Newcastle. 

Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Blyth. 

Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Ryott, William Stace, 7 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Sanderson, Richard Burdon, Warren House, Belford. 
fSavage, Rev. H. E., Hon. Canon of Durham and Vicar of St. Hild's, 
South Shields. 

Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Scott, Owen Stanley, Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle. 

Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 

Sheppee, Lieutenant- Colonel, Birtley House, Birtley, co. Durham. 

Sidney, Marlow William, Blyth. 

Simpson, J. B., Bradley Hall, Wylam. 

Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields 

Sisson, Richard William, 13 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Skelly, George, Ainwick. 

Smith, William, Gunnerton, Barrasford. 

Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street, South Shields. 

Sopwith, Henry Thomas, 2 Tankerville Terrace, Newcastle. 

South Shields Public Library (Thomas Pyke, Librarian). 


Date of Election. 
1866 Jan. 3 
1883 Dec. 27 

1891 Jan. 28 

1883 Dec. 27 

1885 June 24 

1887 Mar. 30 

1897 Jan. 27 


1866 Dec. 5 

1887 Nov. 30 

1895 Feb. 27 
1860 Jan. 6 

1892 April 27 

1884 Oct. 29 

1896 Nov. 25 

1896 Dec. 23 
1883 Jan. 31 

1888 Aug. 29 
1892 June 29 
1891 Jan. 28 
1888 Feb. 29 
1888 Oct. 31 
1888 Nov. 28 
1894 Mar. 28 

1897 Mar. 31 
1897 Aug. 25 

1895 Dec. 18 
1884 Mar. 26 
1889 Oct. 30 

1896 July 29 
1894 May 30 
1884 Feb. 27 

*fSpence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

Spencer, J. W., Millfield, Newburn, Newcastle. 

Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 

Steel, The Rev. James, D.D., Vicarage, Heworth. 

Steel, Thomas, 51 John Street, Sunderland. 

Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 

Stephenson, Thomas, 3 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 
fStevenson, Alexander Shannan, F.S.A. Scot., Oatlands Mere, 
Weybridge, Surrey. 

Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 

Strangeways, William Nicholas, Breffni Villa, Eglinton Road, 
Donnybrook, Dublin. 

Sunderland Public Library. 

Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Swinburne, Sir John, Bart. , Capheaton, Northumberland. 

Tarver, J. V., Eskdale Tower, Eskdale Terrace, Newcastle. 

Taylor, Rev. E. J., 1 F.S.A., St. Cuthbert's, Durham. 

Taylor, Hugh, 57 Gracechurch Street, London. 

Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 

Taylor, Rev. William, Catholic Church, Whittingham, Alnwick. 

Temperley, Henry, LL.M., Lambton Road, Brandling Park, New- 

Temperley, Robert, M.A., 18 Grainger Street West, Newcastle. 

Tennant, James, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 

Thomson, James, jun., 22 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Thome, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Thorpe, R. Swarley, Devonshire Terrace, Newcastle. 

Todd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
fTomlinson, William Weaver, 6 Bristol Terrace, Newcastle. 

Toovey, Alfred F., Ovington Cottage, Prudhoe. 

Toronto Public Library, c/o C. B. Cazenove & Sons, Agents, 
26 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Townsend, Brian, Snowsgreen House, Shotley Bridge. 

Trotter, Dr. James, Bedlington. 

Turner, S. C., 5 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Tweddell, George, Graiuger Ville, Newcastle. 

Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepool. 
*Ventress, John, 2 WharnclifEe Street, Newcastle. 

Vincent, William, 18 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 

Waddington, Thomas, Eslington Villa, Gateshead. 

Elected originally Jan. 31, 1876, resigned 1887. 

Elected originally Aug. 6, Ia56. 


Date of Election. 

1891 Mar. 25 

1896 Nov. 25 

1890 Aug. 27 
1896 Oct. 28 

1889 Mar. 27 
1896 Aug. 26 
1887 Mar. 30 

1892 Oct. 26 
1887 Jan. 26 

1895 May 29 
1879 Mar. 26 
1889 Nov, 27 
1886 June 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1893 Aug. 30 

1896 May 27 

1891 Aug. 26 

1897 Sept. 29 

1885 May 27 
1891 Sept. 30 

1896 Feb. 26 

1897 Oct. 27 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Oct. 31 
1896 Dec. 23 

Walker, The Rev. John, Hon. Canon of Newcastle, Whalton 

Vicarage, Morpeth. 

Walker, John Duguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wallace, Henry, Trench Hall, near Gateshead. 
Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Square. 


Watson-Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 
Watson, Henry, West End, Haltwhistle. 
Watson, Joseph Henry, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
Watson, Mrs. M. E., Burnopfield. 

Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
fWelford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Wheler, E. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 
Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 
Wilkinson, The Rev. Ed., M.A., Whitworth Vicarage, Spennymoor. 
Wilkinson, William C., Dacre Street, Morpeth. 
Williams, Charles, Moot Hall, Newcastle. 
Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 
Willyams, H. J., Burndale Cottage, Alnwick. 
Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 
Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Wood, Herbert Maxwell, The Cottage, Whickham, R.S.O. 
Worsdell, Wilson, Gateshead. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 
Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., 36 Coates Gardens, Edinburgh. 
Young, William, 15 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 


Antiquaries of London. The Society of (Assistant Secretary, W. H. St. John 
Hope, M.A.), Burlington House, London. 

Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of (c/o Dr. J. Anderson, Museum), Edin- 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The, 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W. 

Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, The (c/o Robert Cochrane, 7 St. 
Stephen's Green, Dublin). 

Royal Society of Ireland, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The 

Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania, Norway. 

Aberdeen Ecclesiological Society, c/o F. C. Eeles, Mnnross, Stonehaven, N.B. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, The (Secretary and Editor, James Hardy, LL.D., 
Oldcambus, Cockburnspath, N.B.) 


Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, The (Secretary, The Rev. W. 

Bazeley. Matson Rectory, Gloucester). 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., 

British Museum, and G. Patrick, 16 Red Lion Square, London, W.C.) 
Cambrian Antiquarian Society, The (c/o J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., 28 Great 

Ormond Street, London, W.C.) 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The (Secretary, T. D. Atkinson. St. Mary's 

Passage, Cambridge). 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, The, 

Tullie House, Carlisle. 
Derbyshire Archaeological Society, The (Arthur Cox, Hon. Sec., Mill Hill, 


Heidelberg Historical and Philosophical Society, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Huguenot Society, The (c/o Reg. S. Faber, Secretary, 10 Primrose Hill Road, 

London, N.W.) 

Kent Archaeological Society, Maidstone, Kent. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The (R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., Hon. 

Secretary, Old Swan, Liverpool). 
Literary and Scientific Society, Christiania, Norway. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The (8 Danes Inn, London). 
Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The (Verein fur 

nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte forschung), Wiesbaden, 

Numismatic Society of London, The (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head), 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A. 
Powys-land Club, The (Hditor, Morris C. Jones, F.S.A., Gungrog Hall, 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The (Secretary, Francis 

Goyne), Shrewsbury. 

Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, U.S.A. 
Society d'Archeologie de Bruxelles, La, rue Ravenstein 11, Bruxelle. 
Societe" d'Archeologie de Namur, La. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The (c/o Curator, 

W. Bidgood), Castle, Taunton, Somersetshire. 
Surrey Archaeological Society, The (c/o Hon. Sec., Mill Stephenson, 8 Danes Inn, 

Strand, London, W.C.) 
Sussex Archaeological Society, The (C. T. Phillips, Hon. Librarian and Curator"), 

The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 

Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, Jena, Germany. 
Trier Archaeological Society, The, Trier, Germany. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society, The (c/o Hon. Librarian), 10 Park Street, 


The Proceedings of the Society are also sent to the following : 

Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London, W.C. 

The Rev. Dr. Cox, Holdenby Rectory, Northampton. 

W. J. Cripps, C.B., Sandgate, Kent, and Cirencester. 

J. Hardy, LL.D., Sec. Berw. Nat. Club, Oldcambus, Cockburnspath, N.B. 

Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 

Robert Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 

The Bishop of Durham, Bishop Auckland. 

The Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Witton-le-Wear, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 

T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 


31ST JANUARY, 1894. 

I. This Society, under the style and title of ' THE SOCIETY Constitution 
OF ANTIQUARIES OP NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE,' shall consist of the Societ y- 
of ordinary members and honorary members. The Society 
was established on the 6th day of February, 1813, when the 
purport of the institution was declared to be 'inquiry into 
antiquities in general, but especially into those of the North of 
England and of the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and Durham in particular.' 

II. Candidates for election as ordinary members shall be Election of 
proposed in writing by three ordinary members at a general Members - 
meeting, and be elected or rejected by the majority of votes of 
ordinary members at that meeting, unless a ballot shall be 
demanded by any member, which in that case shall take place 
at the next meeting, and at such ballot three-fourths of the 
votes shall be necessary in order to the candidate's election. 
The election of honorary members shall be conducted in like 

III. The ordinary members shall continue to be members obligations 
so long as they shall conform to these statutes, and all future of Members - 
statutes, rules, and ordinances, and shall pay an annual 
subscription of one guinea. The subscription shall be due on 
election, and afterwards annually in the month of January in 
every year. Any member who shall pay to the Society twelve 
guineas in addition to his current year's subscription shall be 


discharged from all future payments. A member elected at or 
after the meeting in October shall be exempt from a further 
payment for the then next year, but shall not be entitled to the 
publications for the current year. If the subscription of any 
ordinary member shall have remained unpaid a whole year the 
Council may remove the name of such person from the list of 
members, and he shall thereupon cease to be a member, but 
shall remain liable to pay the subscription in arrear, and he 
shall not be eligible for re-election until the same shall have 
been paid. 

Officers of IV. The officers of the Society shall consist of a patron, a 

the Society. president, vice-presidents (not to exceed twelve in number), two 
secretaries, treasurer, twelve other members (who with the presi- 
dent, vice-presidents, secretaries, treasurer, and librarian shall 
constitute the Council), an editor, a librarian, two curators, and 
two auditors. These several officers shall be elected annually, 
except the patron, who shall be elected for life. 

Election of V. The election of officers shall be out of the class of 

ordinary members. Any ordinary member may nominate any 
ordinary member or members (subject to statute YI) (not 
exceeding the required number) to fill the respective offices. 
Every nomination must be signed by the person nominating, 
and sent to the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, addressed to 
the secretaries, who shall cause it to be immediately inserted on 
a sheet-list of nominations, which shall be exhibited in the 
library of the Castle, and notice shall forthwith be given to the 
person so nominated. Any person nominated may, by notice in 
writing, signify to the secretaries his refusal to serve, or if 
nominated to more than one office, may in like manner, signify 
for which office or offices he declines to stand, and every 
nomination so disclaimed shall be void. The list of nomina- 
tions shall be finally adjusted and closed ten days before the 
Annual Meeting, or before a Special Meeting to be held within 
one month thereafter. If the number of persons nominated for 
any office be the same as the number to be elected the person or 
persons nominated shall be deemed elected, and shall be so 


declared by the chairman at such Annual or Special Meeting. 
If the number of persons nominated for any office exceed the 
number to be elected then the officer or officers to be elected 
shall be elected from the persons nominated and from them 
only ; and for that purpose a printed copy of the list of nomina- 
tions and one voting paper only shall be furnished to each 
ordinary member with the notice convening the Annual or 
Special Meeting. If the number of persons nominated for any 
office be less than the number to be elected, or if there be no 
nomination, then the election to that office shall be from the 
ordinary members generally. Whether the election be from a 
list of nominations, or from the ordinary members generally, 
each voter must deliver his voting paper in person, signed by 
him, at the Annual or Special Meeting. The chairman shall 
appoint scrutineers, and the scrutiny shall commence on the 
conclusion of the other business of the Annual or Special Meet- 
ing, or at such earlier time as the chairman may direct, if the 
other business shall not have terminated within one hour after 
the commencement of the Annual or Special Meeting. No 
voting paper shall be received after the commencement of the 

VI. Those of the * twelve other members ' (see statute IV) Members not 
of the Council who have not attended one-third of the meetings council 
of the Council during the preceding year, shall not be eligible 
for election for the then next year. 

VII. A general meeting of the members of the Society shall Meetings of 
be held on the last Wednesday of every month, in the Castle of iety ' 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The meeting in January shall be the 
Annual Meeting, and shall be held at one o'clock in the after- 
noon, and the meeting in every other month shall be held at 
seven o'clock in the evening. But the Society or the Council 
may from time to time appoint any other place or day or hour 
for any of the meetings of the Society. The presence of seven 
ordinary members shall be necessary in order to constitute the 
Annual Meeting, and the presence of five ordinary members 
shall be necessary in order to constitute any other meeting. A 


Special General Meeting may be convened by the Council if, 
and when, they may deem it expedient. 

Property of VIII. The ordinary members only shall be interested in the 

property of the Society. The interest of each member therein 
shall continue so long only as he shall remain a member, and 
the property shall never be sold or otherwise disposed of (except 
in the case of duplicates hereinafter mentioned) so long as there 
remain seven members ; but should the number of members be 
reduced below seven and so remain for twelve calendar months 
then next following, the Society shall be ipso facto dissolved, 
and after satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities the property 
of the Society shall be delivered unto and become the property 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, if that Society be then in existence and willing to receive 
the same; and should that Society not be in existence and 
willing to receive the same, then the same shall be delivered to 
and become the property of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. No dividend, gift, division, or 
bonus in money shall be made unto or between any of the 

Reading of IX. All papers shall be read in the order in which they are 

Papers. received by the Society. A paper may be read by the author, 

or by any other member of the Society whom he may desire to 
read it, or by either of the secretaries ; but any paper which is 
to be read by the secretaries shall be sent to them a week 
previous to its being laid before the Society. 

Publications X. The Council shall be entrusted with the duty and charge 
of Society. o f se i ec ti n g and illustrating papers for the publications of the 
Society (other than the Proceedings) ; and that no paper be 
printed at the Society's expence before it be read in whole or 
in part at a meeting; and that no paper which has been 
printed elsewhere be read at any meeting unless it be first 
submitted to the Council at a meeting of the Council, nor 
printed in the Society's transactions except at the request of 
the Council. Two illustrated parts of the Archaeologia shall 



be issued to members in the months of January and June in 
each year, such parts to be in addition to the monthly issue 
of the Proceedings, and the annual report, list of members, etc. 

XL That the Society, at any ordinary meeting, shall have Removal of 

. Members, 

power to remove any member from the list of members. The 

voting to be by ballot, and to be determined by at least four- 
fifths of the members present and voting, provided, neverthe- 
less, that no such removal shall take place unless notice thereof 
shall have been given at the next preceding ordinary meeting. 

XII. All donations to the Society shall be made through Donations to 
the Council, and a book shall be kept in which shall be regularly 
recorded their nature, the place and time of their discovery, and 
the donors' names. All duplicates of coins, books, and other Duplicates, 
objects, shall be at the disposal of the Council for the benefit of 
the Society. 

XIII. Every ordinary member, not being in arrear of his Members 
annual subscriptions, shall be entitled to such publications of the publications. 
Society as may be printed for the year of his first subscription 
and thereafter if in print ; and he may purchase any of the 
previous publications of which copies remain, at such prices as 
shall be from time to time fixed by the Council. 

XIV. Each member shall be entitled to the use of the 
Society's library, subject to the condition (which applies to all 
privileges of membership) that his subscription for the current 
year be paid. Not more than three volumes at a time shall be 
taken out by any member. Books may be retained for a month, 
and if this time be exceeded, a fine of one shilling per week 
shall be payable for each volume retained beyond the time. All 
books must, for the purpose of examination, be returned to the 
library on the Wednesday preceding the Annual Meeting under 
a fine of 2s. 6d. ; and they shall remain in the library until after 
that meeting. Manuscripts, and works of special value, shall 
not circulate without the leave of the Council. The Council 
may mitigate or remit fines in particular cases. 

The use of 
the library. 



Repeal or 
alteration of 


XV. These statutes, and any statutes which hereafter may 
be made or passed, may be repealed or altered, and new, or 
altered statutes, may be made or passed at any Annual Meeting, 
provided notice of such repeal or alteration, and of the proposed 
new or altered statutes, be given in writing at the next preced- 
ing monthly meeting. 




By RICHARD WELFORD, M.A., a vice-president of the society. 

[Read on the 30th day of March, 1898.] 

On the 6th of November, 1850, the roll of members of the 
Newcastle Society of Antiquaries was inscribed, for the first time, 
with the name of William Hylton Longstaffe a young man of four 
and twenty, who had already given proof of precocious devotion to 
archaeological research, and promise of notable success in that 
absorbing pursuit. 

Eldest son of a family of nine, Mr. Longstaffe was born at 
Norton, near Stockton-on-Tees, on the 2nd of September, 1826. 
His father and grandfather were surgeons, his great-grandfather was 
a clergyman who had married a descendant of the Hyltons of Durham 
lawyers and doctors in the county palatine for several generations. 
His mother was a great-granddaughter of Dyer the poet. 

Endowed with intelligence befitting this intellectual ancestry, Mr. 
Longstaffe was sent at the proper age to the free grammar school of 
his native village. In our day, when educational machinery is run at 
high pressure, the old grammar schools of the country are too often 
regarded as relics of the past interesting, but obsolete. In Mr. 
Longstaffe's boyhood they were the mainsprings of intellectual pro- 
gress, the mechanism by which the children of all but the poorest 
were prepared for the active pursuits of commerce and industry, or 
started on the highway to learning and scholarship. Intended for 
a professional career, young Longstaffe struck the higher path. 
Mingling devotion to the classics with excursions into heraldry and 
genealogy his father's favourite studies and occasional deviations 
into botany and natural history, he made rapid progress. A brilliant 
future seemed to be opening out before him ; he was already upon its 
threshold, when the death of his father arrested his steps and threw 


him back upon his own resources. Longstaffe senior died, a victim 
to adverse fortune, on the 1st of November, 1842, a few weeks after 
his eldest boy had completed the sixteenth year of his age. 1 

Deprived thus suddenly of the means of completing his studies, 
young Mr. Longstaffe sought temporary employment in the office of 
a family friend, Mr. Peters, a law stationer, in the city of York. 
Thence, after only a few weeks' trial, he entered upon the duties 
of clerk with a solicitor at Thirsk. In 1845 he came to Darlington 
under a similar engagement with Mr. John Shields Peacock, an 
attorney in good practice, whose wife was the daughter of Mr. Francis 
Mewburn, chief bailiff of the town. 

While at Thirsk Mr. Longstaffe had followed the pursuits of his 
boyhood, and had increased their number by the study of church 
architecture. He came to Darlington with a collection of notes, 
drawings, and sketches which excited the interest of Mr. Mewburn 
(himself a careful annalist and collector), and brought about an 
introduction to Mr. Eobert Henry Allan of Blackwell Grange, the 
descendant of munificent contributors with press, pen, and purse to 
local history and local authors. Seeing the bent of his mind, these 
gentlemen gave Mr. LongstafFe access to their libraries, their local 
muniments, and their collections of ancient records. 

One evening in January, 1848, the assembly room of the ' Sun Inn,' 
at Darlington, was crowded by townspeople, assembled, under the pre- 
sidency of the chief bailiff, to hear a lecture on the ancient history of 
their town by the young man from Mr. Peacock's office, then in 
his twenty-second year. The lecture was successful, so successful, 
indeed, that everybody wanted more. In this way was laid the 
foundation of Longstaffe's History of Darlington, or, as it was then 
more modestly designated, Darlington : Its Annals and Characteristics. 
With the assistance of Mr. Allan and Mr. Mewburn the youthful 

1 Mr. Longstaffe describes his father as 'a minute amateur etcher, collec- 
tor, and illuminator of coins, shields, book plates, and seals.' ' The grass grows 
green on his unrecorded grave, and some may only name him as the vendor of 
ancient family possessions. But I knew him as a man so full of curious inform- 
ation that we never walked without my returning struck with something new 
and attractive.' ' An arrangement for his admittance into the Heralds' College 
fell through, but his collection of some 1,200 book plates, mostly original, from 
old books, but many gorgeously illuminated designs from his own pencil, form a 
volume of no ordinary beauty, and prove him to have been most fitted for such 
an office.' 


historian began his great enterprise, 2 and in the Den lint/ton and 
Stockton Times of February 26th, 1848, declared his intentions as 

The desire expressed by many for the publication of the author's recent 
lecture on the fleeted days of Darlington has led him to believe that a work of 
greater scope will be acceptable to its residents and to antiquaries at large. 
The local naturalist will hail a category of the productions of its fields, its woods, 
its waters : and the student of statistics has long looked for a faithful picture of 
the manufacture and trade supporting the prosperity of his earthly home. 
Darlington, moreover, is now an important locality as the centre of several 
railways. She numbers among her inhabitants a gentleman (Edward Pease, 
Esq.), in the absence of whose energy and perseverance the present system of 
locomotive enterprise would, in the ordinary course of human calculations, have 
been deferred for many years, and it is thought that a copious chapter devoted 
to its first fruit, 'The Stockton and Darlington Railway' .... will be 
found an interesting addition in every commercial library. 

Part i., consisting of about one-fourth of the volume, was issued 
within a few months ; part ii., extending into the third chapter of the 
ecclesiastical division, made its appearance towards the end of 1849 ; 
the remaining parts were delayed from various causes, and it was not 
until 1854 that the work was completed. 

While part ii. of the history was slowly passing through the press, 
Mr., afterwards Sir, John Bernard Burke, Ulster king at arms, 
projected a new monthly magazine. The subjects to be treated in 
this serial were heraldry, genealogy, biography, folk-lore, and matters 
that belong rather to the by-paths than the beaten tracks of history. 
Under the name of the St. James's Magazine, with Mr. Burke as 
editor, the new venture made its appearance in the early part of 1849. 
It lasted a couple of years, and among its contributors was Mr. 
Longstaffe. His name is attached to a series of sketches, entitled 

2 At the memorable meeting in the ' Sun Inn,' Mr. Longstaffe was introduced 
to a large and appreciative audience as the coming historian of Darlington. 
The manner in which he treated his subject had a delightful effect. It was 
shortly after this meeting that I made Mr. Longstaffe's acquaintance, and on 
May 20th. 1849, as is recorded in the journal of my dear father, Mr. John Ord, 
of Newton Ketton, is an entry : ' Mr. Longstaffe here, seeing old coins.' It was 
a dreary wet Sunday, but a walk of five miles in the rain .did not damp the 
young man's ardour. Such was the beginning of a staunch friendship extending 
over the remaining twenty years of my father's life, during which Mr. Longstaffe 
w<as a frequent and always welcome visitor at Newton Ketton. Of those who 
accompanied him on such occasions, I may mention his brother-in-law (Mr. J. T. 
Abbott), Canon Greenwell, Canon Eade, and Mr. Henry Maddison. Note by 
Mr. J. H. Ord, Haughton Hall, who also kindly provided from his local collec- 
tions a copy of the prospectus of the History of Darlington. 


' Gatherings for a Garland of Bishoprick Blossoms,' sketches which, 
it is not too much to say, exhibit remarkable ability, and disclose a 
marvellous acquaintance with the traditions, legends, and superstitions 
of the county palatine. They are not, the writer points out in a pre- 
fatory note, ' solemn history.' That must be sought in the splendid 
folios of Surtees, or the careful quartos of Hutchinson. These papers 
are ' devoted to the lighter illustrations of private biography, and the 
legends, proverbs, popular poetry, and heraldic curiosities of my native 
county. The massive church, the ornate castle, the comfortable manor 
house, the old fashioned farmstead, and rude cottage, the gliding 
stream, its grassy leas, the golden fields, the soft woods, the rugged 
rock, and sable pit ; all will afford me matter. The soil of the pala- 
tinate is drowned in story. "We cannot move a mile without coming 
on some new legend or association.' 

The people of Darlington were proud of their youthful historian 
and of his literary achievements. "When the queen and royal family 
made their first visit to the north of England in the autumn of that 
year, 1849, who but he could prepare an address to the royal visitors ? 
His father had taught him to draw, to sketch, and to emblazon, and 
he had profited by the parental tuition. 'It was beautifully 
illuminated on vellum by Longstaffe the historian, a large paper copy 
of part i. of whose work was also presented and accepted.' So writes 
the author of a Memoir of Francis Mewlurn. Longstaffe himself 
describes the incident in a foot note to his history, thus : ' It was on 
vellum in the fullest decoration of medieval art I could combine with 
chastity of effect. In an initial letter hung the arms of England. 
In the copy of my work presented I inserted a blank page containing 
a rich cross of foliage, which wreathed round four shields 1 and 4, 
England ; 2, Scotland ; and 3, Ireland. " Humbly presented to her 
most gracious majesty Queen Victoria upon the occasion of her first 
royal progress through the county palatine of Durham by her most 
dutiful subject, the author." ' 

In the spring of 1850, being in indifferent health, Mr. Longstaffe 
came to stay for a while with his father's cousins, Mrs. Taylor of 
Cleadon (widow of John Brough Taylor, F.S.A., a well-known local 
collector and antiquary), and her brother, the rev. Edward James 
Midgley, perpetual curate of Medomsley recreating himself among 
what he playfully calls ' kind companions, rills, woods, hills, and 


parish registers.' Under the title ' Notes from Northumbria,' he con- 
tributed to the St. James's Magazine a graphic account of his journeys. 
First of all, he notes ' the deep grace of the green fields and quiet 
streams ' in spring time ; ' the feathery, bursting, glowing appearance 
of every thing in its proud, young beauty ;' then, giving further flight 
to his poetical fancy, he adds : 

Beautiful as our wild flowers are, they must be improved by horticulture, 
and antiquaries must aid the progress. We must rise higher than to a charter 
or painted escutcheon. We seek to raise architecture, and the more exquisite 
the profile of the petal and the leaf, the more delighting will our sculpture be. 
The winter style of our Norman ancestors was partially brushed up by massive 
fronds the Early English had all the crispness of spring herself, with its wiry 
stems, curled foliage and drooping blossoms . . . the Decorated at its birth 
assumed such flowery lightness as charmed the eye and sunk into beds of roses 
and ivy in wanton summer profusion ; while the last school of those powerful 
designers of the middle ages, the Florid, with the cunning of autumn, clothed 
its deformed leaves and unnatural distortions with acres of rich brown screen 
and tabernacle and arched roofing work. All this may appear fanciful, but we 
must spiritualize art, whether in forming or looking back. The Egyptian copied 
his lotus and palm ; the Greek adored his acanthus ; the Jews repeated their 
'pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet,' their 'bowls made like 
unto almonds with a knop and a flower,' their 'palm trees and open flower?,' their 
'flowers of lilies' ; and I would perpetuate all our fair favourites, be they rose, 
or fern, or moss. 

About Newcastle and its antiquaries he writes some appreciative 
lines, as follows: 

The Newcastle people have their Literary and Philosophical Society, Natural 
History Society, and Society of Antiquaries. . . . The last have, in all proper 
taste, taken up their abode in the deserted keep. There they have their Roman 
altars, their armour, and relics of all sorts ; there, in the great chamber, have 
they caused the banners and the pennons of the Fenwyke, Hylton, Percy, and 
all the great houses of the North, once more to float over fair foreheads and 
devoted squires. The literati of the metropolis of the North have their own 
peculiar style of literature. They love red lettering and creamy tracts. Their 
most unimportant imprints are brochures. The liichardsons have carried this 
taste to the extreme of country perfection, and in a private way sir Cuthbert 
Sharp, John Trotter Brockett,and John Fenwick. have exercised no small influence 
over the printers of their minutiae. . . . I spent the day in the company of John 
Fenwick, esq., G. Bouchicr Richardson, the young and ardent topographer of the 
town, and that ' vary moral of a man ' as Tcasdale folks say Mr. Robert White, 
the Scottish minstrel of ballad fame. 1 was also introduced to Collingwood 
Bruce, the learned discusser of the Roman Wall, whose book I long to dip into 
. . . and John Bell, a wondrous collector of all things hand-bills, ballads, and 
MSS., gooil, bad, and indifferent; picked up in the street or sent from gentle 
fingers ; clean, dirty, and of neutral tint, 


Mr. John Fen wick, the Newcastle host of the Darlington historian 
during these joyous wanderings, had been an old friend of the Long- 
staffe family, and his remembrance of the father found expression in 
hearty recognition of the budding genius of the son. He was at this 
time one of the council, and, in after years, the treasurer of our society, 
a leading solicitor, identified in many directions with the public life 
of Newcastle. Among his colleagues on the council was Mr. William 
Kell, town clerk of Gateshead. Shortly after the visit recorded above, 
Mr. Kell needed assistance in the management of an increasing busi- 
ness. Who could be better qualified to render it than one already 
versed in the routine of a lawyer's office, with literary abilities and 
antiquarian tastes to boot ? Before the summer of that eventful 
spring had run its course, Mr. Longstaffe had transferred his services 
to Mr. Kell, and his residence to Gateshead. 

Congenial as may have been his surroundings on the banks of the 
Skerne, it cannot be doubted that the young antiquary found his 
opportunities vastly increased by his settlement upon the shores of 
the Tyne. Here was the society he had admired a few months 
before ; here were the men who had made it famous Adamson and 
Raine, Clayton and Bruce, Fen wick and White, Hodgson Hinde and 
Sidney Gibson, Dr. Charlton and Bouchier Richardson. What would 
not most of us give for an evening with these departed worthies, 
assembled once more within these venerable walls that so often echoed 
and re-echoed the sound of their voices ? 

Mr. Longstaffe became a member of our society, as already 
related, in November, 1850, very shortly after his removal. Two 
months later at the ordinary meeting of the society in January, 
1851 he read a paper on ' The Sun of the Plantagenet, the Crescent 
of Percy, and the Star of Vere.' Then began a career of activity in 
antiquarian pursuit and of contribution to antiquarian literature 
which finds no parallel in local annals. No matter what the topic 
might be heraldry, numismatics, church architecture, local history 
and biography, ancient land tenure, local muniments, folk-lore 
points relating to these and similar subjects that were curious, 
abstruse, or obscure, received fresh elucidation from his vigorous and 
facile pen. Thus we find him in that same year (1851) writing a 
series of papers which, first appearing in the Gateshead Observer, were 


afterwards issued, with additions, under the title of Hylton Chaplets ; 
next publishing an illustrated booklet on Martial Mottoes* in con- 
tinuation of M. A. Denham's 'Slogans of the North of England'; 
and thirdly, preparing and reading at the Mechanics' Institute of 
Gateshead two elaborate papers on ' Old Gateshead and its Associa- 
tions.' During the following year he published an illustrated hand- 
book Richmondshire ; Its Ancient Lords and Edifices : A Concise 
Guide to the Localities of Interest to the Tourist and Antiquary ; ivith 
Short Notices of Memorable Men; and prepared for the annual meeting 
of the Archaeological Institute, held in Newcastle that year, the 
exhaustive paper which appears in the Proceedings of the Institute, 
on ' Durham Before the Conquest.' By 1854 he had completed his 
History of Darlington, delayed until then by superabundance of 
material, and the natural hesitation of the faithful historian to with- 
hold so much that is useful and attractive from the expectant reader. 
Whosoever glances through these books and papers, with their 
elaboration of detail the work of three years only will appreciate 
the diligence and admire the ardour of the writer. 

When Mr. Longstaffe came to Newcastle a 'burning question' 
had arisen in our society : it related, as already explained in the 
sketch of the late canon Raine, 4 to the size and form in which the 
society's publications should be issued. The older men cherished the 
unwieldy quarto, issued at long intervals, to which they had been 
accustomed ; the younger ones wanted a handy octavo, frequently pub- 
lished. For six years the question lingered in the lap of sentiment 
through dread of change ; then Mr. Longstaffe drove the wedge that 
eventually broke down the opposition of the veterans, for he induced 
the society to arrange with his friend, Mr. James Clephan, editor of 
the Gateshead Observer, to report the proceedings at their monthly 
meetings, and with the proprietors of that paper to publish the reports 
every month in the coveted octavo. That step achieved, the forward 
movement became comparatively easy. One year's experience of the 
monthly reports converted the objectors, and in 1856 the derided 
quarto was finally abandoned. 

3 The introduction to this booklet is curious : 'Entereth W. Hylton, of the 
Long Staffe, and striking at the flagstaffs of chevaliers and squires, museth on 
their mottoes.' 

4 Arch. Ael. vol. xix. p. 127. 


While the question was burning, Mr. Lougstaffe allowed none of 
the papers which he had prepared for the society to appear. But as 
soon as the change was effected he began to print abundantly. The 
first volume of the new series contains six papers from his pen, and 
volume two, at the commencement of which he was appointed editor, 
comprises two of his contributions. It is not necessary to enumerate 
them, nor to particularize those which follow. A reference to our 
general index discloses a crowded column and a quarter of subject 
headings attached to his name, ranging from a mere note of half a 
dozen lines to a valuable paper like that upon the building in which 
we are assembled, occupying nearly half a volume. Calculating 
roughly, and excluding annual reports and business matters, his con- 
tributions to our first nine volumes, in octavo, cover 660 pages, equal 
to two volumes and a half. In none of them is quality sacrificed to 
quantity. There is not a paragraph or a foot note too much. In 
reading them one is struck by the industry and acuteness in research 
which they disclose, the painstaking accuracy of statement that is 
evident in every line, and the style in which they are written clear, 
masculine, and direct terse, pointed, and impressive. 

Next to our own society, the organization which bears the name of 
the great Durham historian, Surtees, held the highest place in Mr. 
Longstaffe's affections. He became a member of it in 1855, was 
elected a vice-president in 1859, and so remained till his death. 
Three of the society's volumes were issued under his editorship, and 
of two others he was part editor. The three for which he alone is 
responsible are vol. 34, The Acts of the High Commission Court 
ii'ithin the Diocese of Durham (1857) ; vol. 41, Heraldic Visitation 
of the Northern Counties, by Thomas Tonge, Norroy King of Arms 
(1862) ; and vol. 50, in which he printed that most curious and 
valuable manuscript, the Memoirs of the Life of Mr. Ambrose 
Barnes (1866). The two in which his name is associated with those 
of other editors are, vol. 37, a volume of Miscellanea (1860) ; 
his contribution being Nathan Drake's journal of the Sieges of 
Pontefract Castle, and vol. 82, Extracts from the Halmote Court or 
Manor Rolls of the Piior and Convent of Durham, A.D. 1296-1384 
(1886). Another volume was anounced to be edited by him in colla- 
boration with the rev. Dr. Greenwell, viz : ' The Lords of the Soil of 


the County of Durham, from the earliest period to the Reformation, 
comprising the descent of the estates, with engravings of seals, etc.' 
But this, if begun, was never completed. 

The books above quoted as bearing his name are, in themselves, 
contributions to local history of great interest and utility ; but his 
editing added enormously to their value. For upon nearly every page 
are notes illustrating and expanding the text, with biographical and 
genealogical detail in luxuriant abundance. Even these annotations, 
copious as they are, do not exhaust his editorial resources. Each 
volume is enriched by the addition of important documents pertinent 
to the subject matter. Thus, to Tonge's Visitation he appended what 
had been known as ' The Oarr MS.,' being ' A Cathelogue of all the 
Maiores and Sherifs of His Maiestie Towne and Covntye of 
Newcastell-vpon-Tyne, with they're Cotes of Armes' etc., from 1432 
to 1634, with a continuation to 1730. To the Memoirs of Ambrose 
Barnes he added a voluminous appendix of evidences illustrative of the 
history of religion in Newcastle and G-ateshead between the Eeformation 
and the Revolution. Merit, in this case, accompanies chronology. 
The Barnes Memoirs last in order of date is far away the best book 
of the three. Indeed upon the subject to which it relates it is probably 
the most important local work that has been issued in our generation. 
North country historians, genealogists, bibliographers, and even 
polemics, find it a happy hunting ground swarming with quarry. 

Of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and 
Northumberland, started in 1861, Mr. Longstaffe was a co-founder. 
At their first meeting, held at Darlington on the 3rd of June in that 
year, he read a valuable paper on ' Bishop Pudsey's Buildings in the 
Present County of Durham,' in which he announced his discovery of 
the name of Pudsey's architect Gulielmus Ingeniator. For some 
years, sharing with Dr. Greenwell, the president, and the rev. J. F. 
Hodgson the heat and burden of conductorship, he accompanied the 
society on its periodical outings, and helped to describe the objects of 
interest which the members went to see. Between 1869 and 1879, for 
example, he read papers or gave viva voce descriptions to his fellow 
members at Lumley, Norham, Medomsley, Ebchester, Hylton castle, 
Walworth, Thirsk, Hexham, Auckland palace, Sheriff Hutton, and 
Durham castle. Some of the papers are printed in the society's 


Transactions ; of the descriptions only remembrance remains. While 
his health permitted he performed similar service for our society 
whenever we rambled among places that he cared to visit. Upon these 
occasions he was seen at his best a real 'guide, philosopher, and 

To the study of that interesting branch of archaeology which reads 
history, biography, and the progress of the arts upon the faces of 
coins and medals, Mr. Longstaffe devoted himself with considerable 
success. He had a faculty of minute observation, and a soundness of 
judgment which, applied to the workmanship of the old minters and 
moneyers, enabled him to establish new definitions, and to shed upon 
ancient controversies fresh light. His abilities, in this direction, are 
exemplified in a series of articles which he contributed to the Numis- 
matic Chronicle. The first of them (2nd series, vol. iii. p. 162), 
entitled 'Northern Evidence on the Short Cross Question,' deals with 
the length of the cross which, during many successive reigns, appeared 
on the reverse of English pennies. In the long cross pennies the arms 
of the emblem reached to the verge of the coin and the name and place 
of the moneyer around it were thus divided into four parts by the 
arms of the cross, while in those which bore a short cross the inscrip- 
tion was continuous. Mr. Longstaffe showed, by comparison with coins 
struck at Durham, that pennies stamped with the name 'Henry' only, 
and no numerals (which had been ascribed to Henry III.), were not 
only made in the reign of Henry II., but also in the reigns of Eichard I. 
and John, of whose coinage no English examples, bearing the names 
of those monarchs, have been found. The second and third papers 
(2nd series, vols. vii. p. 21, and ix. p. 256) are headed, 'On the 
distinctions between the pennies of Henry IV., V., and VI.' Here 
also, although no numerals follow the royal name, the writer, .by 
pointing out slight differences in mint marks, styles of portraits, 
weights, etc., allocated to each king his own coins, and evolved order 
out of chaos. In the fourth article (2nd series, vol. xi. p. 193) he 
answers his title-question, 'Did the kings between Edward III. and 
Henry VI. coin money at York on their owu account ' in the 
negative. All these articles, treating as they do of abstruse questions 
of identity, were exceedingly valuable contributions to numismatology. 

In connexion with this subject it may be noted that two or three 
of the papers which he read to our society relate to the same branch 


of study, and that his one special contribution to the Proceedings of 
the Berwickshire Naturalists Club, of which body he was elected 
a member in 1862, describes a 'find of groats at Embleton in 
Northumberland, ranging from Edward III. to Edward IV.' Some 
time before his death he had nearly finished a paper on the coinage 
of Durham, founded on the work of Mark Noble, 5 but declining 
health prevented its completion. 

Whether life-long devotion to antiquarian pursuits has the effect of 
modifying human form and feature may be questioned. Yet in the 
very appearance of Mr. Longstaffe there was something, intangible and 
unexplainable it is true, but still something which suggested the 
antiquary, a man who lived in the past. His features seemed to be 
moulded from the antique, and everything about him appeared to say 
in Goldsmith's phrase, ' I love everything that's old old friends, old 
times, old manners, old books, old wine,' to which those who saw his 
garden-plot at Gateshead might add, ' old herbs likewise, and flowers 
of ancient fame.' This love of everything that's old was the one 
absorbing passion of his life. It began, as we have seen in childhood, 
grew with his growth, and attained its highest development ere he had 
reached his prime. Blest with a vigorous understanding and a correct 
judgment, he was able to grasp whatever of ancient lore came within 
the range of his knowledge, while his skill in assimilating it, his 
dexterity in weaving scattered facts and figures into clear and con- 
secutive narrative, were special gifts vouchsafed to few. His posses- 
sion of these rare gifts led some of his friends to hope that he might 
take up the pen that had fallen from the hands of Surtees, and 
complete that magnificent work the history of Durham. Among 
the most hopeful of them was his early friend and patron, Mr. Robt. 
Henry Allan, who, dying in October, 1879, bequeathed to him the 
sum of 1,000, conditional upon his undertaking the task, and carry- 
ing it to a successful issue. At the time Mr. Longstaffe was disposed 
to fulfil the conditions, but upon consideration he deemed the bequest 
inadequate and allowed the legacy to lapse. 

Outside of his historical and archaeological pursuits, Mr. Longstaffe 
occupied a prominent position as a lawyer, and interested himself 

5 Two Dissertations upon the Mints and Coins of the Episcopal-Palatine of 
Durham. 4to. Birmingham, 1780. 


in various phases of public life. He came to G-ateshead, as we have 
seen, in the summer of 1850, as managing clerk with Mr. William 
Kell, senior partner in the firm of Messrs. Kell & Apedaile, solicitors. 
A few months afterwards, on the 4th of January, 1851, he was 
articled to Mr. Kell, and in due course passed his examination and 
was admitted to practice. While serving articles, he added to his 
baptismal designations the name of his maternal ancestor, the poet 
Dyer, and, having obtained the necessary leave from the Court of 
Queen's Bench, he signed the roll of attorneys in January, 1857, as 
William Hylton Dyer Longstaffe. As soon as these formalities had 
been completed, Mr. Apedaile retired, and Mr. Longstaffe taking his 
place, carried on the business, under the style of Kell & Longstaffe, 
till the death of his friend and partner, in June, 1862, left it entirely 
in his own hands. 

Into the details of his professional career, this is neither the time 
nor the place to enter. But it may be said of Mr. Longstaffe that he 
was a sound lawyer, specially versed in ancient rights, customs, and 
tenures, and often consulted about matters relating thereto. Upon 
one very delicate and difficult question he concentrated his time and 
attention for years. That was the claim of leaseholders under the 
dean and chapter of Durham, who had been accustomed to obtain 
leases for twenty-one years, renewable every seven years upon payment 
of certain fines, but who, upon the transference of the church estates 
to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, were confronted by a refusal to 
renew. Mr. Longstaffe, with others, contended that the estates had 
been originally copyhold, and that the tenants were entitled to even 
better security than twenty-one years' leases. He fought this battle 
with great energy and tenacity, and after a prolonged controversy 
secured, or helped to secure, from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
at annual rentals based upon the old fines, leases for 999 years, the 
equivalents, almost, of freeholds. 

The public life of Mr. Longstaffe was chiefly official. For civic 
honours he had no desire, and he cared as little for those of learned 
societies. He did, for a time, use the initials of the London Society 
of Antiquaries F.S.A. but no other. His public life, in so far as it 
was not professional, was literary and philanthropic. Upon his 
coming to Tyneside he joined the Gateshead Mechanics' Institute, at 


that time a flourishing institution, having for its leading spirits Mr. 
William Hutt, the member for the borough, James Clephan, William 
Kell, William Lockey Harle, George Crawshay, W. H. Brockett, and 
James Guthrie, all of them men of mark, and earnest promoters of the 
public welfare. Within a year he was elected a member of the 
committee, and from 1864 to 1868, was one of the secretaries of the 
institution. He succeeded Mr. Kell as honorary secretary to Gateshead 
Dispensary in 1862, and so continued till 1875. Twice he was chosen 
rector's warden at the Easter vestry meetings, and in 1865 he became 
a member of the Gateshead ' Four and Twenty,' an ancient body 
with prescriptive rights and privileges, in the investigation and 
elucidation of which, for the rest of his life, he took great interest. 
Under the Local Government Act, 1858, he assisted in creating the 
local boards of Felling and Hebburn, and was clerk of the former from 
1868 to 1878, and of the latter from 1873 to 1875. Finally, during 
the parliamentary elections of 1868 and 1874, he acted as agent in 
Gateshead for the North Durham liberal candidates, and in the latter 
year, and again in 1880, represented the interests of the present lord 

It has not been found practicable to include in this rambling 
obituary a full list of Mr. Longstaffe's contributions to local history. 
Although most of his literary work is described, or its whereabouts 
indicated, in the preceding paragraphs, there is a residuum, more or 
less valuable, that eludes the search and defies enumeration. It is 
known, for example, that he wrote many interesting articles on local 
institutions for the Gateshead Observer. Sometimes a few copies were 
separately printed from the Observer type for private distribution, but 
the majority remains entombed in the files of that long defunct news- 
paper. Occasionally, too, he issued in pamphlet form a paper which 
had been prepared for our society, and not read such as The Old 
Official Heraldry of Durham or one that was read and not printed by 
us, e.g., A Leaf from the Pilgrimage of Grace. Other pamphlets bear- 
ing his name are reprints, or reprints with emendations, (1) from the 
Archaeologia Aeliana, viz., The Old Heraldry of the Percies, and Some 
Account of Francis Radcliffe, First Earl of Derwentwater ; (2) from 
the History of Darlington, such as Parentalian Memoranda, which 
contains the pedigrees of the Hyltons and other ancestral families ; 


(3) from a Worcestershire newspaper, a series of articles on churches, 
etc., at Droitwich and Dodderhill ; and (4) a paper on The Reading 
Penny, apparently from the Numismatic Chronicle. 

Mr. Longstaffe died, after a prolonged illness, on the 4th of 
February, 1898. He had been unable to join our gatherings, or to 
contribute to our literature, for nearly eight years. Few of us, indeed, 
can remember him in the fulness of his intellectual activity, and to 
some of our younger members he can be known only by repute. But 
to us and to them those who knew him, and those who knew him 
no t he has left an example of earnest application in research, and of 
generous promptitude in communicating results, which we may 
profitably try to imitate. His work remains, his writings survive, and 
over the door of our council chamber, the benevolence of his friends 
and the skill of the artist help us to keep his memory ever green. 

(From Longstaffe's History of Darlington.) 



[Read on the 30th March, 1898.] 

In the paper which I read to the society in 1895 on ' Tynemouth 
Castle after the Dissolution of the Monastery ' (Archaeologia Aeliana, 
vol. xviii. page 61), I stated that the War office had, in the year 
1828, furnished a list of the governors of Tynemouth castle and 
Clifford's fort. In the list were the following names : 

Date of Appointment. 
Sir Edward Villiers ... ... ... ... Unknown. 

Col. Henry Villiers 2 nd February, 1702. 


Henry Villiers 7 th May. 1713. 

Henry Villiers 20 th June, 1 727. 

Although the War office could not give the date of the appoint- 
ment of sir Edward Villiers as governor of the castle, I was able, from 
information in my possession, to fix the date as having taken place in 
the year 1661, shortly after the restoration of king Charles the 
second. Sir Edward Villiers was baptized at Richmond in 1620, and 
during the Civil War he took an active part in the royalist cause. 
He married lady Francis Howard, youngest daughter of the second 
earl of Suffolk, and had issue (1st) Edward, his heir, born in 1656, 
who was created earl of Jersey in October, 1697 ; (2nd) Henry, born 
in 1658, who was a colonel of a foot regiment, and succeeded his 
father as governor of Tynemouth castle. In addition to the two sons, 
there were six daughters. 

While sir Edward Villiers was governor of the castle, England was 
at war with Holland. In the Calendar of State Papers, there are 
many interesting letters about Tynemouth castle. On the 1st of 
July, 1667, colonel Edward Villiers wrote to secretary Williamson as 
follows : 

1 On 5th September, 16(52, colonel Edward Villiers was presented with the 
freedom of Newcastle (Brand). 


The Two Lords [Carlisle and Ogle] join happily in the service. One performs 
the active part, as having a General's experience in the Chatham expedition ; 
the other a General's interest in raising forces. Lord Ogle's regiment has 
rendezvoused at Killingworth Moor, and the number could have been easily 
doubled, that being the best part of England for raising foot. 

It is probable it was during the time sir Edward Villiers was 
governor of Tynemouth castle that the governor's house was built. 
It stands to the westward of the lighthouse in the castle. Part of it 
is used as a hospital for soldiers, and upon the ground floor are two 
rooms used as a residence by one of the non-commissioned officers. 
These rooms are panelled and are interesting links between the 
present and the past of the castle. The governor's house and the 
lighthouse as they appeared in 1784 are shown in the illustration on 
the opposite page. 

A lighthouse in the castle has existed for a very long time. 
Whether there was one in monastic days I have been unable to trace, 
but it is very probable there was. In 1537, two years before the 
dissolution of Tynemouth priory, the Trinity house of Newcastle 
(then a religious guild) was granted by Henry VIII. power to build 
two towers on the north side of Le Shelys (North Shields) and to 
maintain on each a good and steady light by night for the guidance 
of passing ships. The earliest historical mention of the lighthouse in 
Tynemouth castle is in 1608, when there was a warrant from king 
James the first granting sir Allan Percy 40 a year in lieu of the 
profits from the lighthouse which had been received by his brother 
the earl of Northumberland. I find no further mention of the light- 
house in the castle until 1656, when there is a letter dated 15th 
December in that year from captain John Topping, deputy-governor, 
addressed to the parliament. In this letter he says : 

T have beene often aboute to acquaint y r hounors that here is one M ra 
Ffenwicke, widoe to the late Capt. Ffenwicke, who first kept Tinmouth Castle 
against the Parlimint and upon Sir Thomas Riddell having commission from ye 
late King to be Governor of this Castle, the Erie of Newcastle commanded the 
fore-said Capt. Ffenwicke into his Army, who was slayne in Yorkshire, the 
said widoe was turned out of this Castle by the Scots when they tooke it, and 
the Sea Lightes which are kept upon a tower within this Castle every night 
through ye yeare ware then taken from the said widoe and enjoyed by the 
severall Governors (viz.) Col. George Ffenwicke had the profit of the said 
Lightes and also Capt. Blunt for one year, fourpence of each ship that anchors 
in the river he received, after which time the said widoe received the profit of 




(From att old engraving by W. Byrne, published in 1784.) 

VOL. xx. 


the said Lightes. Severall honest people in these partes have blamed me for 
continuing her to have the Lightes. Shee still remaining as Caveleerish and 
malignant as ever. Therefore I desire to know y r Hounors pleasure about 
premises, that if the said widoe have noe order from y r Hounors. be pleased to 
return it into the sucksesive channell. I humbley crave y r answer and pardon 
for this bouldness. and am 

Yr Hounors very 

humble servant, 

Tinmouth Castle, Jo. TOPPING. 

Dec. loth, 1656. 

Among the records of the Trinity house at Newcastle are several 
important letters about the lighthouse in the castle. On the 10th 
May, 1660, the Trinity house addressed a letter to the members of 
parliament for Newcastle in the ' Healing Parliament,' in which they 
complained of the insufficiency of the fire light in Tynemouth castle, 
and stated that about Martinmas then last past, the stairs and passage 
up to the light being fallen down, the governor of the castle since 
that time had kept and placed a light, near the east end of the castle, 
upon a piece of old stone work not above four or five yards high, 
which was so low that it was imperceivable for the navigation, so that 
there was a great necessity of having a new lighthouse. The Trinity 
house asked that they might have the charge of the lighthouse, and 
stated they had two other lights at North Sheeles, and they would be 
at any necessary cost to build and provide a sufficient light and keep it 
well and sufficiently for the service. Other letters were written by the 
Trinity house, without any satisfactory result. 

On the 30th of June, 1665, by virtue of letters patent under the 
great seal, the lighthouse in the castle was granted to Edward Yilliers, 
esquire, his heirs and assigns. The letters patent recited that the king 
(Charles the second) had been given to understand that there had been 
a long and constant toll of fourpence per ship paid by his majesty's 
subjects and twelvepence by strangers and foreigners for the mainte- 
nance of a light house at Tinmouth, which being wholly decayed and 
fallen down, another had been then lately rebuilt by Edward Villiers, 
esquire, therein described to be lieutenant of the king's castle of Tin- 
mouth, at his own proper costs and charges, to the great benefit and 
advantage of his majesty's subjects and others trading to those parts. 
And further recited, that the king had been informed that a late 
contract had been made on behalf of the said Edward Villiers with 


divers masters of ships belonging to Newcastle, as also others trading 
and coasting that way, whereby they had voluntarily submitted to 
increase the said toll of fourpence to twelvepence, and to continue the 
payment thereof for the perfecting the said work, which had cost one 
thousand pounds already. His majesty approving the said contract, 
and for the encouragement of this necessary and useful work, of his 
special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion did for him, his 
heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said Edward Villiers, his 
heirs and assigns, the custody of the said lighthouse and the ground 
and soil whereupon the same was situate, and all rights and powers, 
that he and they should and might continue, renew and maintain the 
said lighthouse, with lights to be continually burning therein in the 
night season whereby the said ships might the better come to their 
harbours and ports without peril. 

By the same letters patent authority was given to the said Edward 
Villiers to demand, collect, have, and take the sum of twelve pence 
for every ship belonging to any of the subjects of his majesty passing 
by the said lighthouse and belonging or trading to the ports of New- 
castle and Sunderland, and three shillings for every ship belonging to 
any foreigner or stranger coming or passing by the said lighthouse. 
For the privileges granted by the letters patent a rent of twenty 
marks was reserved to the king, which was payable after the death of 
sir Edward Villiers. Ample powers were conferred by the letters 
patent for collecting the tolls granted. 

In 1680, sir Edward Villiers (who in that year had been knighted), 
petitioned the king and asked for an increased toll of a farthing per 
ton on all foreign and strange ships coming to and passing the light- 
house. The ground of his application was that the existing toll did 
not pay the interest on the money he had expended in building the 
lighthouse and the charges for keeping and maintaining it. The 
Trinity house at Newcastle strongly opposed the suggested increased 
exaction, and pointed out that a light equal to the one maintained by 
sir Edward Villiers, for which he received twelve pence per ship, had 
formerly been maintained at a charge of only four pence per ship. 

Sir Edward Villiers died in 1689, and was buried in Westminster 
abbey on the 2nd July in that year. 

In the list of governors of Tynemouth castle, before alluded to, it 


is stated that colonel Henry Yilliers was appointed governor of Tyne- 
mouth castle on the 2nd of February, 1702. His father, sir Edward 
Villiers, died, as before stated, in 1689. In 1685, colonel Henry 
Villiers was living at Tynemouth castle, and on the 20th May, in that 
year, a daughter was baptized in the parish church of Tynemouth. 
The entry reads thus : ' 1685, May 20. Mary, Da. of Capt. Henry 
Villiers, Gov r . of Tyn. Castle, bap.' 

I think it may be assumed that sir Edward Villiers had resigned 
his appointment as governor of the castle, and that his son had 
been appointed governor in his place. There are other entries of 
baptisms of the children of col. Villiers, and on every occasion he is 
described as governor of the castle. In the last baptism, in 1703, he 
is described as the * Honble. Col. Henry Villiers,' governor of the castle. 
His only brother, Edward, had been created earl of Jersey in 1697. 

In going over the Treasury papers some time ago, I discovered an 
extraordinary charge of smuggling brought, in 1706, against colonel 
Henry Villiers, governor of Tynemouth castle. These papers are 
described as ' a State of the proceedings att Law ag l Col 1 Henry 
Villiers, Governor of Tin-mouth Castle,' and contain the following 
information : 

On the first of January last an Informa'con was exhi'ted ag* him in ye Court 
of Excheq r by way of Devener 2 for the value of a great Quantity of Wyne 
Brandy Pepper Lynnen some Doe Skynns & two Scotch pladds w h came to 
Tryall the Sitting after the last Terme when her Ma ty had a verdict for 
536 : 16 : 0. The proofe upon the Tryall was in substance as follows : viz* 
Thomas fforest who was formerly the Coll 9 Servt deposed that in June last 
Capt. Gourdon Com'ander of a Scotch shipp of warr arrivid nere Tynmouth 
Barr from whence was taken on shore in the night by y e direc'on of the Coil's 
Lady 5 Casks of Brandy & 4 hhds of Clarrett Wyne which were Landed att a 
place called the Sally port & carry'd from hence to y c Coll 9 Coach horses to his 
own Cellar in ye ffort. 

That in July was taken out of ye same shipp in ye night tyme 8 Caskes of 
Brandy six hhds of Clarrett six dozen Bottles of White Wyne 10 Bagges of 
Pepper 8 Casks of Scotch Diaper Lynnen one pack of Doe Skinns and two 
Scotch Plades, all which were landed att ye same place in the same manner as 
the fformer. The CollinelPs Lady receiving the goods & paid to each of her 
owne Serv t9 for their trouble Eighteene pence & to others whoe were not her 
Serv u two shillings a peece. 

2 The only writ I have been able to discover is that of fcrenemnt, an 
obsolete one, which was directed to the escheator on the death of the heir 
of the king's tenant under age and in custody, commanding the escheator to 
enquire what lands and tenements, by the death of the tenant, came to the king. 
It does not appear to have any application to the present case, 


David Scotland who is a Gunner in the ffort deposed that hee had a Boat of 
his own and that he brought on shore part of y e goods Landed the last night. 
Upon this evidence the Jury withdrew for about a Quarter of an hour and then 

brought in a verdict for her Ma^ as aforesaid. 

G. Medcalf. 
Custo : h Lond: 17 th June 1706. 

In addition to the foregoing document, there is the following pre- 
sentment : 

Custome house, To the R* Honble Sidney Lord Godolphin 

London, Lord High Trea'r of England. 

18 June, 1706. Presentment 

By the Comm rs for Manageingand Causing 
to be Leavied and Collected Her Ma ties 
Customs, &c. 

The Comm" having proceeded to Tryall the Sitting after last terme. On the 
Information of Thomas Forrest Inclosed to them by his Lord? 9 direc'ons in M r 
Lowndes's Letter of the 12 th of January last against Col 1 Henry Villiers Govern r 
of Tinmouth Castle. For Wine and other Goods run by him out of a Scotch 
ship of warr and obtained a verdict against him for Five hundred thirty & six 
pounds sixteen shillings the value of the said Goods, as is more particularly 
contained in a Memorial from their Solicitors Assistant they think themselves 
oblig'd Humbly to Lay the same before his Lord? For his Lordi" Information. 

T. Hall. 
Sam Clarke. 
T. Newport. 
Will Culleford. 
Jo Werden. 
W. Dudley. 
(Endorsed) Presentm nt 18 th June, 1706 

Touching the verdict ag* Col 1 Villiers 
Gover r of Tinmouth Castle. 

read 2 nd July 1706. 

There is another document ; but it contains much the same inform- 
ation as is contained in the two papers I have set out, with the addition 
that the Scotch ship of war was called ' The Royal Mary.' I have been 
unable to trace whether the whole fine was paid, or a portion of it 

Colonel Villiers took part in the proceedings of the vestry of Tyne- 
mouth church. To the minutes of a meeting, held on the 30th March, 
1703, his name is appended, and is followed by that of the vicar. In 
1705, his name appears at the head of the list of the gentlemen of 
the Four-and-twenty. In the month of August, 1707, he died, and 
was buried in the priory burial ground. In a small History of 
Tynemouth: the Castle and Priory, with an account of their Possessors, 
and the Reduction of the Monastery to a Fortress, published at North 


Shields in 1804, it is said there is a stone with the following inscrip- 
tion upon it : 

Hie sitae sunt mortales reliquiae 
Henrici Villiers, armigeri, 
Stirpe antiqua prognati 

Honoratissimi Comitis de Jersey 

Nee non hujus presidii 

circiter 20 Annos 
Fidelis et perquam dilecti 


Vixit Annos 49. Obiit 11 Aug. a 
Anno domini 1707. 

This stone I have not been able to discover. It is possible the 
hand of time has pressed heavily upon it, and that the inscription is 
now quite obliterated. It is clear, from the inscription, that colonel 
Villiers could not have been appointed governor of the castle in 1702, 
as stated in the letter from the War office. His official appointment 
may have dated from 1687, and the actual appointment from 1685. 

On, or shortly before, the death of colonel Villiers, Thomas Meredith 
was appointed governor of the castle. The son of colonel Villiers was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of the castle on the 7th May, 17 13. 4 

Among the Treasury papers is a memorandum that there was 
granted, in 1708, to the widow and children of colonel Henry Villiers 
(late governor of Tinmouth castle) a pension of 300, which was 
vested in the earl of Jersey. The widow afterwards, with her youngest 
son, had 100 of it apart, and it is stated she was dead, and it 
was hoped the 100 might be again joined to the 200 and vested 
in the countess of Orkney for the children's use. In September, 
1721, there is a petition from Henry Villiers to the lords of the 
Treasury, in which it is stated a year and three-quarters was due upon 
the king's bounty of 100 a year, that he had nothing else to depend 
on, and by the death of his brother, the earl of Jersey, and the growing 
charges of his education at the university, he was put to great distress, 
and prays for the arrears. It is minuted on the 12th September, 
1721, that the arrears were to be paid to him. 

3 In Brand's History of Newcastle (vol. ii. p. 122) the inscription on the 
tombstone is given, and the date of the death is stated to be the 18th August, 
which is probably correct, as the burial was on the 22nd August. 

4 The appointment of Henry Villiers in 1727 was probably a reappomtnient, 
in consequence of the death of the king in that year. 


Henry Villiers, the grandson of sir Edward Villiers, who was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Tynemouth castle, married, firstly, 
Arabella, daughter of John Rossiter, esquire, of Somerby, in the 
county of Lincoln, and secondly, Mary, sister of lieutenant-general 
Thomas Fowke. 

In 1728, Henry Villiers made an attempt to obtain an additional toll 
of one penny per chaldron towards the erection of a new light at Tyne- 
mouth. This was opposed by the owners and masters of ships, and the 
toll was not imposed. In July, 1747, a release was granted by him to 
the Trinity house at Newcastle of all dues collected at Newcastle for his 
lighthouse, reserving to himself a return of one moiety of the net sum 
collected. On the 29th May, 1753 the anniversary of the restoration 
of the king, by whom his family had been enriched Henry Villiers 
died. His widow by her will, dated 22nd October, 1766, devised the 
lighthouse to her brother admiral Thorpe Fowke, Charles Palmer, and 
William Leigh ; it was described in her will as 'all that her freehold 
Estate at Tinmouth Castle called Tinmouth Great Lights,' to hold the 
same subject to the payment of an annuity of 40 to Catherine 
Craster, widow, for life, in trust to receive the rents and profits until 
her godson William Fowke, then an infant of eleven years, should 
attain the age of twenty-one years, keeping the lights in good repair, 
sufficiently supplied with coals. After giving various directions as to 
the lights, she directed that none of the gentlemen, her then collectors, 
should be displaced, and from and immediately after the said William 
Fowke should have attained to his said age, then to his use for his 
natural life, with limitations over in tail as mentioned in the will, 
which are too numerous to mention. She died 7th January, 1767. 
William Fowke attained twenty-one on 26th November, 1775, and 
became seised of the lighthouse. 

In 1802, George Fowke, of Tamertou, in the county of Devon, a 
captain in the royal navy, was tenant in tail male in remainder 
expectant on the estate for life of his uncle, William Fowke. 

At this time the lighthouse was lighted, as it had always been, 
with a coal light. It was then agreed with the Trinity house of New- 
castle, and a great number of merchants, traders, owners and masters 
of ships, and others, that a portion of the lighthouse should be taken 
down and altered, and a copper lighthouse lantern and an oil light 


substituted, with a revolving machine having patent lamps and highly 
polished silver-plated reflectors. It was estimated that these altera- 
tions and improvements would cost 2,500; and to reimburse the 
owners of the lighthouse for this cost, parliament, by an act passed 
4th May, 1802, granted certain dues, mentioned in the act, and power 
was conferred on the Trinity house of Newcastle-upon-Tyne to inspect 
the lighthouse, to see whether it was maintained and conducted in a 
due and sufficient manner. In 1836, an act was passed for vesting 
lighthouses, lights, and sea marks on the coast of England in the cor- 
poration of the Trinity house of Deptford Strond, and among these 
lighthouses was that at Tynemouth. Under this act the Trinity house 
purchased the lighthouse in the year 1840 of the Fowke family. 
The family showed that the net annual profit of the lighthouse was 
5,305 9s. 8d., which, at twenty-three and a-half years' purchase, 
amounted to 124,678 17s. 2d., and this very large sum the Trinity 
house paid for the purchase of the lighthouse, which then passed into 
their hands, and the connexion of the family of Villiers and their 
descendants with the lighthouse ceased. For 175 years they had 
enjoyed the benefit of the royal benefaction granted in 1665. 

From 1840 the lighthouse pursued the even tenor of its way until 
1871, when Souter Point lighthouse was lighted on the llth January 
for the first time, and Tynemouth was changed from a bright white light 
to a red one. In making this change there was a waste in light in the 
proportion of twenty-one to nine, but by increasing the power from 
nine to twenty- one both the old and new lights were visible at the same 
distance. In 1887 the lighthouse was terribly shattered by the firing 
in the castle of twenty-three ton guns, brought from Woolwich. It 
has never recovered the shock. The lighthouse-keepers' houses have 
been removed, and the lighthouse stands, with the ruins of the priory, 
the connecting link between the present and the past. For nearly 
300 years, or it may be a much longer period, its beneficent light has 
been shed along our coast, but the days of the lighthouse are numbered. 
Upon the little island of St. Mary, which stands midway between the 
Tyne and the Blyth, where, in early days, stood a cell belonging to 
Tynemouth priory, a lighthouse has been erected, which, in a short 
time, will give forth its light, as tradition says it did in the monastic 
days but in a humbler way. When this has been accomplished, Tyne- 


mouth lighthouse, and probably the governor's house, with which it is 
intimately linked, will be removed, and one more change will have 
taken place in the well-known and cherished features of Tynemouth. 


As a desire has been expressed that I should show the connexion 
of the Villiers family, who were governors of the castle, with George 
Villiers, first duke of Buckingham, this I shall now do. 

. Sir George Villiers, knight, of Brokesby, in Leicestershire, by his 
first wife had issue 

(1) William (sir), created a baronet in 1619 ; 

(2) Edward; 

And also three daughters. 

He married, secondly, Mary, daughter of Anthony Beaumont, esquire, 
of Glenfield, county of Leicester. By her he had issue 

(1) John, created viscount Purbeck ; 

(2) George, created duke of Buckingham ; 

(3) Christopher, created earl of Anglesey ; 

(4) Susan, married to the first earl of Denbigh. 

Sir Edward Villiers (before mentioned) married Barbara, eldest 
daughter of sir Oliver St. John of Tregoze, co. Wilts, and by her he 
had five sons and three daughters : 

(1) William, second viscount Grandison, who left an only daughter 

Barbara ; 

(2) John, third viscount Grandison ; 

(3) George, fourth viscount Grandison ; 

(4) Christopher, who died young ; 

(5) Edward, who was born 15th April, 1620, was knighted by 

Charles the second on 7th April, 1680. He was appointed 
governor of Tynemouth castle in 1661. He was nephew by 
the half-blood to George Villiers, first duke of Buckingham, 
and uncle to Barbara Villiers, who is spoken of as the 
'splendid termagant,' and was one of the mistresses of 
Charles the second. She was created countess of Castle- 
maine in 1661, and duchess of Cleveland in 1670. It was 
probably owing to her connexion with the royal family that 
the lighthouse at Tynemouth was made over to her uncle, 
sir Edward Villiers. 


G-eorge Villiers, first duke of Buckingham, was born at his father's 
seat 20th August, 1592. He was brought under the notice of king 
James the first, was knighted, raised to the peerage as viscount Villiers 
in 1616, and became earl of Buckingham and afterwards marquis. 
He went to Spain with the king's son Charles to prosecute his suit, 
which was unsuccessful. He was made duke of Buckingham and lord 
warden of the Cinque Ports, and negotiated the marriage of Charles 
with Henrietta Maria of France, and after a most eventful and 
extraordinary career, was assassinated on the 23rd of August, 1628, 
at Portsmouth by John Felton, who was hanged for the crime at 
Tyburn. His son, the second duke of Buckingham, was educated with 
the children of Charles the first, and in later years took part in the 
royalist cause, fought under the royal standard, and, like many others, 
suffered for his loyalty to the house of Stuart. He married the 
daughter of lord Fairfax, to whom his forfeited estates had been 
granted. At the Restoration his estates were restored to him, he was 
brought back to court, and after a career of the wildest description, 
he retired to his estates at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, and died on 16th 
April, 1688, at Kirkby Moorside, 'in the worst inn's worst room.' 
He was the author of several comedies. 

Arch. Ail. vol. xx. To face p. 27. 

Plate J. 





By the Rev. J. F. HODGSON, M.A., vicar of Witton-le-Wear. 
[Read on the loth December, 1897.] 


Though doubtless of very considerable antiquity, the origin of the 
Aucklands is quite uncertain. But that it stretches back to a period 
as remote as that of the neighbouring Roman station at Binchester, as 
some have supposed, there is simply nothing, I think, either to show 
or to suggest. As to the original place-name, which might go far 
towards settling the point, we are, I regret to say, not only still, but 
likely to continue, in complete ignorance. Indeed the only thing 
certain about the present form of it seems to be that it has been 
gradually developed from one, the meaning of which had in process 
of time ceased to be intelligible, into another which, in some measure, 
was so. 1 What the original form of it was, however, is apparently lost 

1 That this was the case, not only long previous to, but during Leland's time, 
he leaves us in no doubt, and his account of the places bearing the name and their 
then pronunciation are of considerable interest (Itin. vol i.pp. 72 and 74) : 

' From Darlington to Aclieland' says he, ' 8 good Miles by resonable good 
Corne and Pasture. 

' A Mile a this side Akeland Castelle I cam over a Bridgof one great Arch on 
Gaundelcsse, a Praty Ryver rising a vj. Miles of by West ; and renning by the 
South side of Akeland Castelle goith a litle beneth it to the great streame of 

' Gaitndeles rising by West cumming by Westakeland, by S. Helenes 
Akeland, by S. Andreas Akeland, and by Bishop Akelande. 

' The Towne self of Akeland is of no Estimation, yet is ther a praty Market of 

' It standith on a praty hille bytween 2. Ryvers, wherof Were lyith on the 
North side, and Gaundlexse on the South, and a narow (sic) shot or more benethe 
they meete and make one Streame, and ren to the Este, and ech of these Rivers 
hath an Hille by it. So that Bishops Castelle Akeland standith on a litle 
Hille bytwixt 2. great. 

' There was of very auncient a Manor Place logging to the Bisshop of Duresme 
at Akeland. 

' Weredale lying as Pece of the West Marches of the Bisshoprick toward 
Westmorland is well wooddid : and so be the Quarters of Akeland : for by the 
Name it apperith to have been ful of Okes.' 

VOL. xx. 4 


irrecoverably. The highest living authorities I have been able to 
consult agree perfectly in two particulars the extreme difficulty 
surrounding the case, and their inability to solve it. In the earliest 
documentary evidence we possess the name is written Alclit. But to 
what tongue or people does it point, Saxon or Celtic, and what is 
the meaning to be attached to it ? Well, those are precisely the points 
which are both indeterminate, and, as should seem, indeterminable ; 
for while Teutonic scholars of such standing as canons J. C. Atkinson 
and Isaac Taylor of York are inclined to think it is not Teutonic, but 
pre-Teutonic, i.e. Celtic or Cymric, Professor Rhys, the highest 
authority on Celtic literature, inclines equally to think that it probably 
is Teutonic, i.e. ' English, in some form or other.' In this very 
unsatisfactory and hopeless state, therefore, we must be content, I fear, 
to leave the question ; one which, nevertheless, I had greatly hoped to 
be able to settle, but which, however interesting, has fortunately no 
direct bearing upon our subject. 

From uncertain, and more or less pre-historic, we must needs, then, 
pass on to certain, and historic, times. The step, it is true, is a long 
one, for our earliest documentary evidences date only from the tenth 
century, when, as Symeon tells us, Alclit ij the two Aucklands were 
included in those many territories of the see which bishop Ealdhun 
and the congregation of S. Cuthbert gave in pledge to ' Ethred eorle, 
and Northman eorle, and Uhtred eorle,' in time of necessity, and of 
which many were never recovered by the church. Nor is the period of 
the first ecclesiastical foundation much more clearly ascertained. That 
it existed anterior to the Conquest, however, is proved abundantly by 
several exceptionally interesting remains of Anglo-Saxon or ' Anglian ' 
sculpture still existing on the spot. Of these, the earliest structural 
evidences, we will therefore, in the first place, take account. 


As usual, these remains consist of portions of grave-crosses, most 
of which came to light during the 'restoration' of 1881. The two 
principal ones have formed parts of shafts, to the head, or upper part 
of one of which a third small fragment enriched with pellets and 
foliage has probably once belonged ; and two square grave-stones 
one nearly perfect ornamented with flat and shallow strip-work. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xx. To face p. aj. 

Plate II. 

(From a photograph by Mr. A. L. Steavenson of Holywell Hall, Durham ) 


Of these, the first and bulkiest (plate II.) has formed the 
socketed base of a very stout and massive structure. It has a total 
height of three feet four inches ; the sloping panel occupying two feet, 
and the vertical plain part beneath, one foot four inches, with a 
breadth of two feet seven and a half inches, and a present thickness 
from back to front of ten and a half inches ; but as the stone has 
been split in two from side to side, its original thickness must have been 
about a foot and a half. 2 The edges, which have a flat surface of one 
and a half inches, are left square, with a narrow roll moulding inside 
forming the panels. 

The subject of the front, or principal one, displays three three- 
quarter length nimbed figures. Of these, the central one, which is 
shown full-face, has the features worn nearly smooth. The ears are 
prominent, while all traces of the hair, which may once, perhaps, have 
appeared, are gone. The right hand is raised in benediction, and the 
left, which is not visible, holds what is most probably meant for a 
book, though the lines of the drapery give it quite the appearance of 
the square head of an upright cross. 

The figure to the right (spectator's left) has the right arm and 
hand extended across the body towards the central one, on whose right 
shoulder the fingers rest. Here, again, the features are almost gone, 
but the face is turned towards the centre figure, and the hair is shown 
in stiff, round curls, like little balls, about the head. The left-hand 
figure, which is much the same as that to the right, has the left hand 
extended in the like fashion, the fingers resting upon the left shoulder. 

The right-hand edge-panel has once shown another nimbed figure 
of the same size as those in front, but it is now split off through the 
centre vertically. The corresponding panel to the left has also had a 
large nimbed figure with stiff curled hair, accompanied, apparently, by 
a second one, part of whose head is just visible. This large fragment, 
besides having been split in two from side to side as stated, has also 

2 Compare this breadth of two feet seven and a half inches with that of 
the famous Gosforth cross fourteen and a half feet high which, though 
cylindrical, is only one foot, one and a third inches thick at the base, and but six 
inches, by five inches, at the top, immediately beneath the cross. It is probably 
the slenderest of all crosses either remaining entire, or of which we possess frag- 
ments. Sometimes the shafts are found of square, or nearly square section, 
instead of oblong, as at Leeds, Raistric, Neverne, etc. ; but they varied, as need 
hardly be said, both in size and proportion, as infinitely as in detail and artistic 


been broken in half from top to bottom ; and, not only so, but has 
had the whole of the lower, or uncarved, portion towards the left 
knocked off bodily. 

What the particular subject intended to be set forth in this panel 
may be there are no details sufficiently conclusive now left to 
show. That the central figure is the chief one, to whom the 
others are bearing witness is, however, perfectly clear, and it may 
therefore, pretty certainly, be taken to represent our Lord. But the 
scene itself whether, as, perhaps, not unlikely that of the Trans- 
figuration, with Moses and Elias, 'the Law and the Prophets,' 
testifying to Him, or not remains mere matter of conjecture. 
The one certain point is the grace and dignity of the figures, 
which, their thick and massive draperies notwithstanding, is very 


Then comes a small fragment about eleven 

inches broad, by ten high, and about eight 
thick, with cable moulded edges towards the 
front, but which, being split in two like the 
other, is consequently without a correspond- 
ing face behind. It displays a piece of bold 
and well-cut scroll work, together with the 
feet, lower parts of the legs, and bottom of the tunic of a man 
ascending it. Another, and rather larger, fragment shows the two 
feet and lower part of the legs of a 
second figure also apparently ascend- 
ing, though the tree, or scroll-work, in 
connection with it has been destroyed. 
The next page shews one of the head- 
stones displaying an upright cross in 
relief, and measuring two feet six and 
a half inches in height, by one foot 
eight and a half inches in breadth. 

This was a far from uncommon form of memorial, falling as it did 
well within the reach of the many to whom the cost of the detached 
monumental crosses would be prohibitive. Another, but very small 
local example of this class of grave-stones remains perfectly preserved 
in the adjoining parish of Escomb, and yet another, and larger one, 

Arch. Atl. vol. xx. To face p 31. 

Plate HJ. 

a. b. 


(From photographs by Mr. A. L. Steavenson.) 


at Gainford. Though much weathered and worn down, it is, never- 
theless, an interesting illustration of this once, doubtless, very numerous 
class of monuments. 

We come now, at last, to by far the finest of these fragments. 
This is, fortunately, on the whole, wonderfully well preserved. It 
measures three feet three inches in height, by, if perfect, one foot 
four inches in breadth at the bottom, but one foot two inches at 
the top ; and one foot and ten inches in depth correspondingly 
from back to front. As the illustration (plate III. a) shows, it has 
on its chief face two nearly perfect 
panels, edged vertically and hori- 
zontally with cable, and roll, 
mouldings. The arched upper 
panel contains two three-quarter 
length nimbed and winged figures 
habited in stiff, but gracefully dis- 
posed vestments : the one with the 
right, the other with the left, hand 
extended on the breast. That to 
the right, whose hair is arranged in 
stiff curls, as in those on the other 
stone, carries no emblem, and has 
the hand unoccupied. The left- 
hand figure is differently treated, 
with the hair flat towards the 
middle, but breaking out into curls 
at the side about the ear. The 
special distinction, however, is that in the left hand he holds a slender 
sceptre, tipped with three balls. What part of the entire shaft we have 
in this fragment cannot, perhaps, certainly be said. But as the breadth 
of the shaft at the top of the panel seems far too great for it to have 
formed the summit, its position was, probably, a more or less central, 
or lower central, one. However this may be, interest undoubtedly 
centres in the subject of the lower panel. What that subject exactly 
is, may, no doubt, be open to question, seeing that from the un- 
accustomed treatment it is, at first sight, far from self-evident. 

It will be seen to have consisted, when perfect, for the lower part 
is now wanting, of three, probably, full length figures, each having a 


nimbus, and with the central one standing out in advance of the other 
two, which are evidently inferior to, and attendant on, it. The two 
subsidiary figures are clearly those of either saints or angels : the 
central one, just as clearly, that of our Lord. At the bottom of the 
right-hand figure, nearly the whole of which is now broken away, may 
be seen part of the head, and upper portions of the wings, of an angel. 
It is not a little unfortunate that (the greater part of the left-hand 
figure should have been flaked off by the blow which has destroyed 
the lower part of the edge mouldings ; and for this reason, that the 
limb or tablet, which there can be no doubt once occupied a corre- 
sponding position to that still remaining on the right, is no longer 
visible. Had it but been so, then the meaning of the sculpture would 
have been at once suggested, to say the least, even to the most 
unimaginative. In striking contrast to that of all the rest, the attitude 
of the nobly conceived and impressive central figure, as cannot fail 
to be observed, is one of severe and rigorous constraint. The feet 
and lower parts being broken off, their treatment cannot now, of 
course, be known. But the upper parts leave little room for doubt 
as to what that treatment must have been. Behind and above the 
nimbus encircling the head is seen, in relief, a rectangular limb or 
tablet ; at the right hand side, and on a line with the arms, another 
similar, but slightly longer one, against both of which the Lord's head 
and body are shown as being firmly fixed. Singularly enough, no 
arms, or portions of arms even, are shown ; but the arm holes of the 
upper robe, which are of large size, and bordered so as to prevent 
tearing, are strongly emphasized. Straight through the right-hand 
one, the limb, or elongated tablet, passes onward behind the back, 
against which it presses tightly. Now, it needs only to restore in the 
mind's eye the destroyed, but once, certainly, corresponding, limb or 
tablet on the left hand, to see at a glance how exactly the three would 
represent the three upper extremities of the cross, to which the body 
of the Lord is so evidently attached. The arms, which the exigencies 
of space forbade being shown in the customary way, must, of course, 
be regarded as being drawn tightly back, so as to allow of the hands 
being nailed to the central stem, 3 the top of which bears the syllable, 

8 Though the restrictions of space necessitated the peculiar disposition of the 
arms of our Lord on the ci'oss shaft above described, such an arrangement is, 
nevertheless, not unknown to art where no such restrictions existed. In the 


' PAS.,' an abbreviation for ' PASSUS EST,' showing how He ' suffered 
under Pontius Pilate.' If, indeed, the actual scene of the crucifixion 
be not deliberately intended to be set forth, as would certainly seem 
to be most probable ; the fact must, at any rate, be very distinctly 
referred to, and that in a far more direct and expressive way than by 
the conventional cruciferous nimbus. 4 

What the inscription upon the right-hand tablet, or cross limb has 
been, is somewhat difficult to determine, as the first letters have been 

famous picture of the Crucifixion, by Antonello da Messina, in the museum at 
Antwerp, painted in A.D. 1445, while the Lord's figure is extended upon a lofty 
cross of squared wood, those of the two thieves are suspended on two young trees 
or saplings. That to the left, though somewhat sinuous, is nearly straight, and 
has all its branches lopped off. To it the writhing body of the impenitent male- 
factor is shown attached, with one foot nailed to the stem, the other being either 
free, or fastened to it higher up. His arms are stretched high above his head, 
and the hands, which are bound tightly together at the wrists, fastened firmly 
to the very top. The treatment of the penitent thief to the right is slightly 
varied. Here the upper part of the stem of the tree inclines outwardly, away 
from the Lord, towards whom the gaze of the penitent has been directed. The 
chained legs are secured to the extremity of a projecting branch, while the arms, 
drawn forcibly back, like those of our Lord in the cross shaft, are tightly tied 
together above the elbows ; and in that position, behind the back, made fast to 
the upper portion of the stem. The treatment of the arms, in fact, is seen to be 
absolutely identical with that suggested in the sculpture. 

An excellent account of this picture, beautifully illustrated, may be seen in 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle's Early Flemish Painters, pp. 215-17. 

4 In the famous Baldr-Odin crucifixion panel of the Gosforth cross, no cross 
at all is shown : the out-turned feet rest on the cable-moulding forming the 
panel, which the horizontally outstretched arms and hands also either touch 
or grasp. Again, on a gravestone at Kirk Michael, in the Isle of Man, on which 
an imitative upright monolithic cross, ornamented with strip work, appears in 
relief, the figure of the Lord, which occupies only about as much space in the 
centre as a boss would do, is shown with the feet similarly turned out, as are 
also the arms beyond the elbows, but unattached to any proper cross of its own, 
or that could be supposed to belong to it, the attitude only being suggestive of 
the actual crucifixion. 

On another upright grave-stone, in the Calf of Man, more realistic, but still 
highly idealized, is seen another crucifixion scene. In this case, though the 
cross does indeed appear, it is not only disproportionately broad and flat a 
cruciform backing rather than a cross but of barely sufficient size to fit the 
figure, which, though attached to it by nails through hands and feet, evinces no 
sign of suffering. On the contrary, it is fully vested in excessively rich apparel, 
covered with embroidery, which reaches down to the feet, and wears, altogether, 
an expression of serene majesty. In short, the Lord is shown, 'reigning from the 

On one of the chapter house stones at Durham, we have the fact referred to 
in a purely symbolical way, the central space of the head being occupied, not, 
as was commonly the case afterwards, by a lamb bearing a cross tipped banner 
(lamb and flag), but by a lamb passing in front of an upright stone cross fixed 
in a square base. And the same subject is repeated on the reverse side of 
another of those crosses ; but the obverse, where the actual scene is shown, 
instead of dispensing with the arms altogether as here, at Auckland, shows 
them of most exaggerated length, each one nearly equalling that of the entire 
body from head to feet. But then, the work is of the feeblest and most 
miserable character throughout. (See illustrations in the Transactions of the 
Dur. and Northd. Architect. Socy., vol. iv.) 


flaked off. The remaining four, however, read either KIEL or NIEL. 
If the former, then it would seem to point to Gabriel ; but for this, 
it will be noted, there is not sufficient room, at least without some sort 
of contraction. The latter would therefore seem to be the more 
probable reading ; and this for more reasons than one. In the first 
place, the letters could all be easily got in ; in the second, Daniel 
would stand as a universally accepted type of the resurrection, and of 
the Lord's triumph over death ; and, in the third, there would be a 
sufficient explanation of the absence of wings, which, as will be seen, 
occur not only in the case of the two angels shown above, but in that 
of the one below as .well. 

Should this right-hand attendant be really intended for Daniel, 
then that to the left would doubtless be of similar import, and 
represent, probably, either Isaac or Jonas, the one as having been 
directly referred to in this connection by S. Paul, the other, by our 
Lord Himself. Left, as we are, entirely to conjecture in the matter, 
however, the remains of the figure should perhaps be more safely 
regarded as those of the Prince than of the Prophet. Scenes from the 
lives of both Daniel and Isaac are, it may be added, depicted upon one 
of the faces of the cross at Castledermot, co. Kildare, where Daniel is 
shown in the midst of four lions in the panel immediately above the 
base ; while the sacrifice of Isaac is displayed in a precisely similar 
position to that occupied by the destroyed figure here the left hand 
of our Lord. 

The mutilated nimbed figures on the other side of the shaft (see 
plate III. #) have no distinguishing emblems unless, indeed, that to 
the left be holding, as is possible, the handles of two mutilated keys, 
in which case we should have the effigies of SS. Peter and Paul and 
therefore call for no remark ; their chief, indeed only, claim to notice 
being that they show both faces of the cross instead of having the 
usual allowance of fantastic, mythological monster, and ribbon work 
to have been occupied, exclusively, with large-sized scriptural person- 
ages and incidents, in bold relief. 

But more remarkable and noteworthy, perhaps, than the figure 
subjects, including the probably unique crucifixion scene, is the scroll 
work which decorates the narrow, or edge, sides of this cross shaft (see 
plate IV. a and V). For beauty and freedom of design, for depth of 

Jirch, Ael. vol. xx. To face p. 35. 

Plate IV. 

N L / V 

kS" 4 ifes* 


(From photographs by Mr. A. L. Steavenson.') 


undercutting, for force of drawing, and intense vitality of movement 
and expression, they are probably quite unequalled. 

Apart from artistic qualities, however, there are two points to be 
noted. First, the upper parts of the figure of an archer (plate IV. a), 
whose body and lower limbs have been broken off ; and the birds and 
beasts, which, turning to left and right alternately and devouring the 
fruit which terminates each branch, fill all the upper portions of the 
scroll. At these, with bent bow and adjusted arrow, the archer takes 
careful aim. The meaning of divers similar presentments which, else- 
where, occur profusely, has been variously interpreted. Some 5 have 
professed to see in the huntsman or archer the spirit of evil endeavour- 
ing to wound or destroy the children of light ; others, the exact contrary. 
'We offer to God the spoils of our chase,' says the Hortus Deliciarum, 
'when, by example or precept, we convert the wild beasts, that is to 
say, wicked men. The chase of the Christian is the conversion of 
sinners. These are represented by hares, by goats, by wild boars, or 
by stags. The hares signify the incontinent ; the goats, the proud ; 
the wild boars, the rich ; and the stags, the worldly-wise. These four 
beasts we smite with four darts, by our example of continence, humility, 
voluntary poverty, and perfect charity ; we pursue them with dogs 
when we arouse their fears by the preaching of the word.' As both 
birds and beasts are, in the present instance, of a distinctly predatory 
and ferocious type, the archer, who in no way answers such descrip- 

* As, apparently, for example, Dr. G. F. Browne, who, writing of the Bewcastle 
cross {Concersion of the Heptarchy, 192), says of 'the conventional trunk or 
branch of a tree running in graceful curves from bottom to top,' that ' It 
represents, in all probability, the idea of a tree oE life. The animals and the birds 
are peaceful and happy. This is in sharp contrast with similar representations 
on pre-Norman stones of later date. I have found, by removing some of the 
earth at the foot, that the great cross in Bakewell churchyard has at the bottom 
of all a man with a bow taking aim at the little creature nibbling the fruit at 
the top. At Bradhourne, in Derbyshire, there are the fragments of a cross 
equally noble with that at Bakewell ; and there, again, on more than one side, 
is a man at the foot taking aim at the squirrels or little foxes in the tree or vine. 
The great cross at Sheffield has remarkable examples of the same kind. After 
tho Conquest this jarring note becomes still more conspicuous. Thus on the 
slight columns of the portals at the west front of Lincoln Cathedral you have in 
alternate circles animals and men with spears attacking them. The whole idea 
of peace has perished in the idea of sport or slaughter.' 

And then again, in an Appendix (p. 223) 'We are familiar with the idea of 
hunting and slaughter in connection with Roman scroll work. My impression 
is that the peaceful instinct of early Christian art eliminated this idea, and that 
our earliest monuments in England were produced under that influence. Then 
the influence of the pagan work asserted itself, and the idea of peace was lost in 
the more mechanical copying of ancient examples which we find in 
" Romanesque " art.' 

VOL. xx, 6 



tion, must therefore probably be interpreted in the latter sense the 
Christian soldier or missionary who, by the influence of a holy and 
consistent course, ' emollit mores nee sinit esse feros." 1 

But here, in this connexion, it may not be without interest to 
note, on the other hand, a beautiful example of very early (perhaps 
seventh century) date from Jedburgh (see plate V.), which presents 
us with birds and beasts of a purely innocent and peaceful kind. 
Sporting and feeding amid fruit and flowers, they are all enjoying 
themselves in tranquil happiness, quite careless of the human foe who, 

at the very moment, mounts the branches of their 'world tree' to 
capture or destroy them. Another charming piece of sculpture from 
Jarrow church, (illustrated by Mr. Hodges in the Reliquary), * here 
also added by way of further illustration, is too fragmentary, perhaps, 
to enable us to judge clearly of the general purport of the complete 
design, though what is left might seem to show that its point of view, 
or moral, agreed rather with that of the Auckland, than of the Jed- 
burgh, sculpture. For here again the man, guarded by the ' shield of 
faith,' would seem to be attacking, as ' a good soldier of Jesus Christ,' 
the powers of evil as represented by the wild beast ravening in the wood. 
6 The block has been kindly lent by Messrs. Bemrose & Sons of Derby, 

Arch. Ael. vol. xx. To face />. ;>f. 

Plate V. 

' I '"Sjljtah 



That in the very few and fragmentary Auckland stones we should 
find remains of no less than three distinct hunters is certainly not a 
little remarkable, and serves to make us regret the more deeply the 
missing portions of the designs, and the parts that they were made to 
play in them. 

And now, as to the proximate age of this exceptionally fine and 
remarkable fragment ; though we have neither inscription nor historical 
record of any sort to help to fix it, the internal evidence of style alone 
will quite suffice to do so, I think, within reasonable limits. 

With the crosses of the earliest period that is, of the seventh and 
eighth centuries it has clearly nothing in common. Of these, broadly 
speaking, there may be said to be two distinct groups, viz. first, those 
which are covered, more or less completely, with elegant and refined 
scroll-work of fruit and foliage, full of classic grace and feeling, and 
derived, as can hardly be doubted, from those on Samian, and other 
Roman wares, and of which the Hexham and Nunnykirk* remains 
afford such remarkable examples ; and secondly, those which, largely 
occupied with scenes from Scandinavian mythologies, like the crosses 
of Leeds, Collingham, and Gosforth, for example, have the intervening 
spaces filled with zoomorphic monsters and endlessly repeated varieties 
of knot-work. Nothing suggestive of either one or other of these 
groups is to be met with here. Nor with the later, and generally 
inferior, mixed designs and workmanship of the immediately succeed- 
ing periods is there any more affinity, still less, indeed. Least of all, 
with that feeble and degraded kind of decoration which characterizes 
so largely the work of the ninth and tenth centuries, and of which we 
have such conspicuous and well authenticated examples as those dis- 
covered at G-ainford, and in the chapter house at Durham. Of all 
these the dates are accurately ascertained : those at Gainford being 
necessarily later than 821, when Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, built 
the first church there ; while those at Durham must just as necessarily 
range between 995, when the body of S. Cuthbert was brought from 
Chester-le-Street to its new resting place by bishop Ealdhun, and 
1083, when his 'congregation,' whose members they commemorated, 
were dispersed by bishop William of S. Calais. 

* See Arch. Ael., vol. xix. facing p. 192, for a representation of the Nunnykirk 


And yet, with the remains both of the earliest and latest schools it 
may, in some sense, be said to be in touch : with the first, in point of 
artistic merit ; with the last, in that of time. Free from all trace of 
mythological admixture, then evidently ceased, and, if not forgotten, 
at least abandoned ; equally free from the spell of those persistent in- 
terlacing and geometric patterns, sometimes, in the earlier instances, 
as in the manuscripts, of the most elaborate and exact beauty, as, 
usually, in the later, only coarsely and rudely imitative ; we see here 
nothing but strictly Christian subjects, set forth with well nigh unpre- 
cedented skill and boldness, and accompanied by decorative details of 
unsurpassable force and vigour. Whatever its shortcomings, they are 
attributable, it is clear, not to decadence, but immaturity ; not to the 
worn-out powers of an expiring school of art, but to the untutored 
energies of a new one. We see in it, in short, as striking a proof, 
perhaps, of that great revival which took place in the early years of 
the eleventh century as can anywhere be met with. To what particular 
part of that century it should be referred is more than can be safely 
said, nor need we enquire too particularly ; but we shall not be far 
wrong, perhaps, in connecting it, more or less closely, with the days of 
Ealdhun, when Auckland, with which he may have had personal, as 
well as proprietary, connexion, appears for the first time in history ; or 
with those of his successor Eadmund, when king Cnut made his famous 
pilgrimage to Durham, that is to say, broadly speaking, between the 
years 1000 and 1050. 

Should it, however, be objected that the Durham sculptures, 
which must, to a large extent, be contemporary with this Auckland 
one, are as wholly different from it in style as they are miserably, 
nay ludicrously, inferior to it both in design and execution, then it 
may be said that the spirit of life, and especially of reviving life, does 
not influence all alike ; that men abreast, and in advance, of the art of 
their day, and lagging dullards, are ever found side by side, and that 
good and bad workmen, like good and bad fishes, are constantly taken 
in the same net. In this case, the inspiration like most other 
inspirations, perhaps has been personal ; nor, save in the Escomb 
fragment which has manifestly proceeded from the same hand, would 
it at present be possible to point to a second instance of parallel, or 
even proximate, merit. The carver and designer, whoever he may 


have been, was unquestionably a man of very exceptional ability, who 
took full measure of all his age could teach him ; and who, in making 
this monument for another, has left one to himself which is absolutely 
unequalled. 7 


What the character of the original Saxon church to which this, and 
the rest of the early sculptured stones pertained may have been, 
nothing visible remains to show. Nor yet of that which either 
succeeded it, or into which itself, in course of time, may have 
developed, or been transformed. Only a few insignificant details, 
chiefly small heads which have formed part of a corbel-table, remain 
to witness that either the primitive, or some other, structure continued 
to occupy the spot in post-Conquest days. 

But more interesting, perhaps, than any other circumstance con- 
nected with them was the site. In the first place, as the parish 
church of what were afterwards known as the two Aucklands, 
it was built, in a fashion very common in Eichmondshire, and not 
unknown nearer home at Hamsterley, at a considerable distance, in 
this case fully a mile, from both villages. 8 Whether or not any 

7 That such expression of opinion is neither exaggerated, nor due to local pre- 
judice, may be inferred from the following passage in a paper by that very 
competent archaeologist, the late Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., hon. sec. of the 
Archaeological Association, and which only fell under my notice since the above 
account was written. After summing up the results of their visit to the district in 
1886, and referring to the various examples of pre-Conquest work that they had 
seen, he proceeds (vol. xliv. p. 177) : ' It was, however, at St. Andrew's Auckland, 
that the finest examples of these early works were met with. Here we found 
portions of the shafts of crosses, carved with figures so admirably as to excel 
anything which we had seen elsewhere, the character of the work being very 
similar to that of Roman date. Other fragments were ornamented with 
sculptured foliage so deeply undercut and so elaborately carved, as to approach 
very nearly to Early English work of the middle of the thirteenth century.' 
And, in conclusion, he adds further on: 'The sculpture and carving at St. 
Andrew's Auckland, also indicate that their sculptors were well acquainted, 
not only with the chisel, but that they could use it with good effect.' 

8 Of this practice many illustrations might be adduced ; Startforth church, 
near Barnard Castle, being one, which, though at no great distance from the 
village, is yet quite apart from it, on the sloping bank of the Tees. The old 
church of Rokeby, a little lower down the stream, and in a very similar 
situation, would seem to have been another ; but both church and village, if 
there ever was one, have now for many years past been destroyed, in order to 
isolate the Hall. It lay in a most peaceful and retired spot, close to the 
confluence of the Tees and Greta. Then, a little lower down still, there is the 
exquisitely beautiful old church of Wycliffe, close to the water's edge, to which 
the churchyard lies open, and with only the rectory house and old mill beside it. 
The little parish church of Easby, too. still nestles, as of yore, beneath the shelter 


habitations began gradually to cluster round it, as about the episcopal 
manor-house at Bishop's, or North Auckland, cannot now be said ; 
but, following those precedents, such was very probably not the case, 
and it would then, like so many other ancient sanctuaries, stand quite 
alone. The intense silence, the calm and peaceful beauty of the spot, 
might, indeed, almost seem to demand such isolation. Crowning the 
gentle eminence of a peninsula formed by the then limpid waters of 
the Gaunless, which, still and silent, wound their devious way beneath 
the foliage of great forest trees, no more fitting or solemn site for the 
worship of the living or the burial of the dead, could be desired. But 
now, alas ! how changed. Of all that was once so fair, ' Fuit ' is the 
brief, sad epitaph. The trees are gone : the grubbed up or rotten 
stumps of some, the blackened and decaying trunks of others, remain 
alone like mourners in the churchyard, the last, long-lingering relics 
of the ancient woods. The primrose spangled turf, and bosky dells, 
dim with 'the nodding violet,' have long since ceased to be, a squalid 
village, with all its unsavoury accompaniments, encroaching on, and 
hemming in, the very church itself. The perfume of hawthorn and of 
eglantine, the hum of vagrant bees, 'the beetle's noonday boom, 
athwart the thicket lone.' which served but to accentuate the solitude 
and make the stillness more profound, are passed and gone. In place 
of them, the smoke and stench, the discordant shriekings, the daily 
and nightly roar and rattle of two convergent lines of railway. 
Beyond, a howling wilderness of Welsh-slated pit rows and murky 
chimneys pouring perpetual smoke ; while the bright, joyous stream 
which lent such life and beauty to the scene, is now a loathsome ditch, 
as black as ink, the recipient of all sorts of filth an unabashed and 
open sewer. 

Such shortly, as regards the site, are the changes brought about 
between the eleventh, and the nineteenth, centuries. 

of the abbey, far away from any village ; and that of Coverham, not far from 
the abbey buildings, though on higher ground, stands all alone. But by far the 
most remarkable instance within my knowledge, is that of the old church of 
Brignal, near Greta bridge. Like some ancient hermitage, far from the haunts 
of men, it lies in still and deep seclusion by the very brink of Greta, shut in by 
miles of steep and densely wooded banks on either side the small scattered 
village to which it belonged being on the higher level, far out of sight and 
sound, and about a mile away to the north-west. A most impressive picture of 
the old fane and its surroundings, from one of Turner's finest drawings, and 
admirably engraved, may be seen in Whittaker's Richmondshire, where the 
whole spirit and poetry of the scene are realized to perfection. 


As to the church, it must, in some fashion or other, have survived 
not only the stormy days of the Norman Conquest, but those terrible 
times of post-Conquest vengeance which, more than once, swept the 
Palatinate as with a hurricane of blood and fire. 

Then, when things temporal and spiritual seemed to have reached 
their worst, the dawn of a better day, however slowly and fitfully, 
began to break. And, indeed, the time was come. Egelwin, the 
last of the long line of Saxon prelates who, whether seated at 
Lindisfarne, Chester-le-Street, or Durham, had ruled the see from A.D. 
635 to 1056, had, after the murder of Comyn and his followers, fled 
with his clergy from the Conqueror's wrath to seek refuge at 
Lindisfarne. Thence he had not long returned before his diocese was 
once more ravaged by Malcolm of Scotland, when, despairing of the 
situation, he embarked with much treasure for Cologne. Being 
driven, however, of a tempest upon the Scottish coast, he determined 
to cast in his lot with the earls Edwin and Morcar, and returning 
again to England, was soon afterwards, with the rest of the con- 
spirators, taken captive in the Isle of Ely. There and then his tenure 
of the see of Durham terminated, for from that day forward he was 
imprisoned at Abingdon, where, in the winter of the same year, 1071, 
he died. Thus miserably and ingloriously was the rule of the native 
episcopate brought to a close, 9 and in this forlorn condition the 
church and diocese lay waste for about a year. 

9 To all who love to look back to the days of their Saxon ancestry and who 
does not? the history of the last three Saxon bishops who occupied the see 
affords but melancholy and humiliating reading. Of Eadred (1042), Symeon 
writes (Hist. Dunelm. Eccles. lib. iii. c. ix.) : ' Eadredus, qui post episcopum 
secundus fuerat, praesulatum illius ecclesiae primus ex ordine clerical! 
festinabat obtinere. Siquidem sumpta ex thesauris ecclesiae pecunia non modica, 
a rege, scilicet Hardecnut, episcopatum emit, sed episcopale officium facere ilium 
divina ultio non permisit. Intraturus quippe ecclesiam subita infirmitate 
corripitur, decidensque in lectum, decimo mense moritur.' Nor was his successor, 
Egelric, much, if at all, better. Expelled in the third year of his episcopate 
from his see by the clergy on the ground of his being an alien and elected 
against their will, he sought the all-powerful aid of Si ward, earl of Northumbria, 
and, by bribery, obtained his support against them. Overawed and cast down 
by his power, they were thus forced, willingly or unwillingly, to accept and 
submit to him. Then there was his brother Egelwin, a monk, who ruled the 
whole diocese under him, and who, with some other monks, endeavoured, along 
with the bishop himself, to embezzle and carry off the treasures and ornaments 
of the church. He had already, as it might seem, purposed to destroy the old 
wooden cathedral of Chester-le-street, and to re-build it of stone. But in 
digging the foundations they came upon a great hoard of treasure which, on 
account of the tyranny and avarice of his predecessor, Sexhelm (947), the 
secretary and others had there hidden a r ay ' grandis ibidem thesaurus est 
inventus, quern dudum propter avaritiam et tyrannidem Sexhelmi, secretarius et 



Then the king made choice of Walcher of Lorraine, a man well born 
and educated ' natu nobilis, divina et secular! scientia non mediocriter 
institutus' as Symeon describes him (c. xviii.), to be consecrated to 
the see. With the single exception of Eadred who, on the death of 
bishop Eadmund in A.D. 1042, had simoniacally purchased the bishopric 
of king Hardecnut, but the duties of which, dying in the tenth month 
afterwards, he never discharged, Walcher was the first secular priest 
who had ever occupied the throne of SS. Aidan and Cuthbert. With 
him commenced a new era. 'Noble by birth' he was, as Symeon 
elsewhere tells us, ' in prudence and honesty of life still nobler,' 
a man who, 'venerable alike in age and self-discipline, was well 
worthy of such honour.' Nor, was any circumstance of honour 
wanting on his introduction to the diocese, Eilaf, the huscarl, with 
other chief personages of the royal household escorting him as far as 
York, where earl Cospatric, who, at the Conqueror's special orders, 
there awaited his arrival, received, and thence in person accompanied 
him to Durham. 

pauci cum eo ibidem dicuntur abscondisse.' Seeing his opportunity therefore, 
he at once seized and despatched it with other plunder to the monastery 
(Peterborough), whence he had come, and whither he proposed to follow it. 
This done, he determined on quitting the see, and substituting his brother 
Egelwin in his place a scheme which the help of Tosti, the then earl, enabled 
him. to effect. With the treasure so acquired, Egelwin, it is true, constructed 
ways through the fens, and erected churches arid other buildings ; but, being 
denounced to the Conqueror as a spoliator of the church of Durham, and 
declining to make restitution, he was taken to London, and there died in 

As to Egelwin. he followed closely in his brother's footsteps as a ' robber of 
the church ' of Durham. ' Suscepto episcopatu Egelwinus, nihilominus ecclesiae 
nihil inferre, immo multo magis quam frater ejus ante ilium ornamenta resque 
alias aatagebat auferre,' writes Symeon (o. xi.) ; but, as the event proved, he adds, 
' nee ipse hoc impune fecit.' The treasure with which he fled to Cologne was 
stolen, he tells us. from the church, and this, or part of it, he had about him 
when captured in the Isle of Ely. ' Frequently admonished to restore the things 
which he had taken away, he denied upon oath that he had taken anything/ 
' Sed dum quadam die manducaturus manus lavaret, ex illius brachiis armilla 
usque manum cunctis intuentibus delabens, manifesto perjurio episcopum 
notabat. Itaque jubente rege in carcerem detruditur, ubi, dum ex nimia cordis 
anxietate comedere nollet, fame ac dolore moritur.' (0. xvii.) 

It was not so much for sacrilege as treason, real or imaginary, however, that 
the last two bishops fell under the jealous wrath of the king, and ended their 
lives in the way they did. But, whether involved in treasonable enterprise or 
not, and there can be but little or no doubt as to the fact, both of them were 
thieves, and, to all appearance, more or less tainted with that open simony which 
procured their predecessor, Eadred, the bishopric. However regrettable from the 
sentimental standpoint, the Norman Conquest, for the church especially, did not, 
it is clear, come a day too soon. 


But there he found things little to his mind. The clergy of his 
cathedral church were neither monks, nor yet canons of his own order ; 
while as to discipline, it was either lax, or altogether absent. It was 
the ultimate, but natural perhaps, too natural result of those 
Danish devastations of the latter part of the ninth century, when 
' the army of king Halfdene, mad with fury, everywhere cruelly 
depopulated the whole province of Northumbria, burning monasteries 
and churches in all directions, slaying the servants and handmaids of 
God for sport, and, in brief, spread incendiarism and massacre from 
the eastern to the western sea.' For then it was, in A.D. 875, that 
bishop Eardulph, foreseeing the coming troubles, bethought him of 
flying from Lindisfarne within the close confines of which island 
they could all be caught as in a trap to the comparative security of 
the mainland. But he was perplexed about ' the sacred body of 
S. Cuthbert, for without that treasure he was nowhere willing to 
abide, either within or without the church.' Consulting then with 
Eadred, abbot of Luel, what had best be done, they remembered those 
last words which S. Cuthbert had delivered to 'his disciples before his 
death : ' If necessity should compel you to choose one of two evils, I 
would much rather that taking my bones out of the grave and carrying 
them with ijou, you should retire from those places and dwell whereso- 
ever God shall provide, than on any account consent and submit your- 
selves to the iniquitous yoke of schismatics' Beading the words over 
again therefore, 'they judged that their father Cuthbert when he 
uttered them had, in the spirit of prophecy, foreseen the perils of those 
days, and issued such commands to themselves.' So they rendered 
them the promptest and most exact obedience. For, as Symeon pro- 
ceeds, 'bearing the sacred and uncorrupt body of the father, and 
along with it, in a compartment of the same chest, the associated 
relics of the saints, to wit, the head of Oswald, king and martyr, 
beloved of God ; part also of the bones of S. Aidan, together with the 
venerated bones of those reverend priests, the successors of the same 
father Cuthbert, that is to say, of Eadbert, Eadfrid, and Ethelwold, 
they abandoned in their flight that noble and first church of the 
Bernician nation, which had witnessed the conversation of so many 
saints, in the year of the incarnation of the Lord 875, and of the 
episcopate of Eardulph, the 22nd.' 


And well indeed was it for them and for those who came after 
that what they did they did 'quickly,' and 'with their might,' for 
there was not a minute to spare ; the storm burst instantaneously. 
Thus it happened that ' the bishop and those who together with him 
accompanied the body of the holy father were nowhere able to obtain 
a place of rest, but from place to place, hither and thither, going and 
returning, fled continually before the face of the cruel barbarians.' 
Speaking elsewhere of Eardulph, Symeon adds, ' None, surely, of his 
predecessors or successors up to the present time laboured so greatly in 
presence of the most holy body of Cuthbert as did he, who, fleeing 
with him from one quarter to another for the space of seven years, 
everywhere amidst savage swords, among the ferocious assaults of 
barbarians, amid conflagrations of monasteries, and the carrying off 
and butchery of men, stuck closely to him in the inseparable devotion 
of his love.' 

But such experiences, as can readily be understood, were far from 
conducive to the preservation of monastic discipline, even if existing 
at the outset, which in the present instance was far from being the 
case. For this, though the last, was neither the first, nor yet the 
deadliest, of the Danish visitations. In A.D. 793, and the llth of the 
pontificate of Higbald, ' a most miserable devastation, amounting 
almost to extermination, destroyed the church of Lindisfarne, filling it 
with blood and rapine. Then the pagans of the north, with a naval 
army coming into Britain, dispersing and plundering hither and 
thither, slew not only beasts of burden, but also priests, deacons, and 
choirs of monks and nuns. On the seventh of the ides of June, i.e. 
June 7th, they came to the church of Lindisfarne, destroying every- 
thing by miserable pillage, spurning sacred things with polluted feet, 
digging beneath altars, and seizing all the treasures of the church. 
Some of the brethren they slew, some they dragged away captive, great 
numbers of the wounded they cast forth naked with opprobrious 
taunts, others they drowned in the sea. The church of Lindisfarne 
being thus wasted and its ornaments despoiled, the episcopal seat 
remained there notwithstanding, and the monks who had contrived to 
escape the hands of the barbarians for a long time afterwards 
continued persistently about the body of S. Cuthbert.' 

This, however, being the eighty-third year since the occurrence of 
such events, all those monks were in the meanwhile necessarily 


deceased ; ' but they who from childhood had been nourished and 
brought up in the clerical manner, whithersoever the body of the 
holy father was carried, followed it, and ever afterwards preserved 
exactly the customs delivered to them by their monastic teachers in 
the offices of daily and nightly praise.' 

This second destruction of the monastery and final dispersion of 
those who for the most part were not monks at all, but clerics who 
had merely enjoyed monastic instruction in the performance of divine 
service, led naturally in course of time to great decay of discipline. 
By degrees, themselves and their successors began, first to relax, and 
then to relinquish, its rigours, and thus it came to pass that during the 
intervening two hundred years the congregation of S. Cuthbert lapsed, 
not merely into a married, but, as might seem, into a hereditary, priest- 
hood. ' Though called clerics, they made no pretence,' says Symeon, 
1 either to clerical habit or conversation.' The chanting of the psalms, 
indeed, at the appointed hours was the one and only rule of S. Benedict 
that had traditionally been handed down to, and observed by, them. 10 
Secular though he was, such a state of things grieved Walcher deeply, 
the more so as he found himself unable to amend their lives or change 
manners. Nor did the study of Bede's writings, wherein the ancient 
customs of the church were described, induce him to regard those then 
practised with more favour. Thinking earnestly thereon, he prayed 
God both for direction and assistance in his line of conduct. And 
then, as though in answer to his prayer, a strange thing happened. A 
certain Mercian priest named Aldwin, prior of the monastery of 
Winchcomb, had also, like Walcher, been studying the ecclesiastical 
history of Northumbria, when, urged by a divine impulse, he resolved 
on visiting and seeing with his own eyes the places, then waste and 

10 ' Peremptis autem, ut dictum est, memoratae ecclesiae monachis,' says 
Symeon, in his preface, or rather epitome, ' parvuli qui inter illos nutriebantur 
et instituebantur sub disciplina diligenter, quoquo modo evadentes manus 
hostium, corpus quidem sancti confessoris comitati sunt ; sed tradita sibi 
districtione paulatim postposita, ecclesiasticam disciplinam odio habuerunt, 
remissions vitae illecebras sequuti. Nee erat qui eos sub ecclesiastica censura 
coerccret. utpote cultura Dei destructis monasteriis et ecclesiis poene deficiente. 
Seculariter itaque omnino viventes, carni et sanguini inserviebant, filios et 
filias generantes. Quorum posteri per successionem in ecclesia Dunelmensi 
f uerunt nimis remisse viventes, nee ullam nisi carnalem vitam quam ducebant 
scientes, nee scire volentes. Clerici vocabantur, sed nee habitu nee conversatione 
clericatum praetendebant. Ordinem psalmorum in canendis horis secundum 
regulam Sancti Benedicti institutum tenuerunt, hoc solum a primis institutoribus 
monachorum per paternam traditionem sibi transrnissam servantes.' (Rolls 
Ed. p. 8.) 


desolate, but which were once so glorious through the lives and 
labours of the saints. There, he determined, ' for he was a good man, 
and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith,' to spend his days and follow 
their example. 

Proceeding then, we are told, to Evesham, he declared his purpose 
to the brethren, two of whom, Elfwy, a deacon, and Reinfrid, a lay 
brother, agreed to accompany him. And so, with one little ass only 
carrying the books and vestments necessary for divine service, they 
set out on foot. Arriving at the Tyne, they settled at a place upon 
its northern bank called ' Munecaceastre', whence, since it was under 
the rule of the earl, and not of the bishop, Walcher sent to fetch 
them, and receiving them with great joy and honour, gave them the 
monastery of S. Paul at Jarrow, of which the roofless walls were still 
standing. There, after getting those of the church covered in with 
shapeless trunks of trees and hay, they commenced to celebrate the 
divine offices ; constructing for themselves a hovel beneath the walls 
in which to eat and sleep, and wherein they passed a poor life on 
charity. And thus, in cold and hunger, they continued suffering the 
loss of all things for Christ's sake. And not in vain, for 'mean- 
while, many provoked by their example, renouncing the world, 
accepted at their hands the monastic habit, and, under the institution 
of regular discipline, learnt to serve Christ.' Gradually their fame 
spread far and wide. Though but few Northumbrians joined them, 
many from the south, attracted by the life and conversation of 
Aldwin. came to place themselves beneath his guidance. Such a 
result, indeed, was hardly to be wondered at, for his character, as 
drawn for us by Symeon, was a noble one. ' A singular despiser of 
the world, very humble in mind and habit, patient in adversity, 
modest in prosperity, acute by nature, prudent in counsel, grave in 
speech and action, a companion of the lowly, fervent in zeal against 
insolent despisers of justice, ever longing after heavenly things, and 
striving to draw all others with him thitherwards.' 

Great, accordingly, was the bishop's joy and thankfulness at seeing 
the number of those serving God there thus daily increasing ; and 
the lamp of monastic life, which had been extinguished for so many 
years, once more rekindled. He lent them both a ready and effectual 
hand ; and knowing well their wish to rebuild the church, and 
destroyed domestic offices, bestowed on them the vill of Jarrow 


with its appurtenances, to wit, ' Preostun, Munecatun, Heathewurthe, 
Heabyrm, Wivestou, Heortedun,' so that they might not only 
achieve those objects, but live free from want. 

Having, then, prospered thus exceedingly at Jarrow, Aldwin was 
moved to set out for other such like places, and there, from separate 
centres, continue and extend the work he had begun. Meanwhile 
Elfwin, the first of his associates, was, by common and unanimous 
consent, elected prior in his stead. Reinfrid, the second, animated 
by a like spirit, set off for the forsaken site of Whitby where he 
founded a new brotherhood, which, after his decease, migrating to 
York, established the famous abbey of St. Mary ; while Aldwin 
himself, together with the priest Turgot, afterwards so famous, who 
had been sent to him by bishop Walcher, proceeded to the ruined 
sanctuary of Melrose. 

Thence, however, after suffering prolonged and bitter persecution 
at the hands of king Malcolm to whom the place belonged, they were, 
after many fruitless entreaties, at last peremptorily recalled by bishop 
Walcher who gave them the monastery of S. Peter at Wearmouth, 
' once,' as Symeon puts it, ' sufficiently eminent and noble, but then, 
owing to the ruin of the buildings, hardly to be detected.' There 
Turgot took the habit ; and there again, as at Jarrow, they constructed 
for themselves huts of twigs and branches, persuading all whom they 
could influence to enter ' the way of life.' Nor were their teaching 
and example less effective than of old, for again converts from far off 
places, attracted by the monastic methods, came to swell their ranks ; 
but the place itself was in a pitiable plight. From the days of the 
Danish incendiarism to that in which Aldwin entered the province, 
two hundred and eight years had elapsed. The church of S. Peter, 
says Symeon, was overgrown with trees, and its whole interior filled 
with thorns and brambles. These they first of all cleared away, and 
then a new roof ' quale hodie cenritur' being set up, they had all 
their work cut out to restore it for the performance of divine service. 11 

11 ' Monasterium beati Petri Apostoli in Wiramuthe donavit, olim, sicut 
habitator ejus ab infantia, Beda describit, egregium satis ac nobile ; tune autem 
quid antiquitus fuerit, vix per ruinam aedificiorum videri poterat. 
Tune ecclesiam Sancti Petri, cujus adhuc soli parietes semiruti s'tet'eranf;' 
succisis arboribus, eradicatis vepribus et spinis, quae totam occupaverant' 
curarunt expurgare : et culmine imposito, quale hodie cernitur. ad agenda 
divinae laudis officia sategerant restaurare.'-- Symeon, Hist. Dnnelm, cclex 
Jib. iii, c. xxii. 


To Aldwin and Turgot, however, the bishop ' exhibited the tenderest 
and most fatherly affection, calling them to his presence, admitting 
them to his councils, and freely submitting to their judgment. As 
before at Jarrow, so here again at Wearmouth, in order that they 
might have wherewith to live and carry on their work, he gave them 
the whole vill of "Wearmouth, to which afterwards his successor added 
that of Suthewic ; so under his protection they led a quiet and peace- 
able life, the bishop, as a most benignant father, cherishing them with 
his whole heart, oftentimes envying their lot, and bountifully provid- 
ing all things that they were in need of.' He himself, indeed, had 
determined, if his days were prolonged, to become a monk and build 
a monastery to S. Cuthbert, and of this he had both laid the founda- 
tions and commenced the superstructure ; but, death preventing the 
accomplishment of this purpose, it was left to be dealt with by 
bishop William of S. Calais. 12 

Thus were those two ancient abodes of piety, the monasteries of 
Wearmouth and Jarrow, occupied again with inmates, and the prayers 
and praises of the church, which for two hundred years had ascended 
thence unceasingly, and for another two hundred been quenched in 
blood, heard within their walls once more. Nor, with the single 
exception of that brief period of rebellion when the 'Cromwellii 
flagitiosus grex,' like the heathen before them, ' entered on her inherit- 
ance, and laid waste her dwelling-places,' have those revived voices 
ceased for a moment to connect us with that distant past. 

As to the remaining events of bishop Walcher's pontificate the 
gifts of the town and church of Waltham, and of the earldom of 
Northumberland conferred on him by the king ; the tyrannical oppres- 
sion of his officials whose evil doings, like Eli, 'he restrained not'; 
and his own unjust and cruel murder at the church of Gateshead in 
consequence they belong more properly, perhaps, to the domain of 
general history than to that of the church at Auckland, and may 
therefore be sufficiently referred to in a note. 13 What, in this con- 

12 ' Interim circa parietes Dunelmensis ecclesiae jactis f undamentis coepit 
aedificare habitacula monachorum habitationi fcongrua. Sed priusquam ea 
perficeret, crudeli suorum manibus morte praeventus est.' 

13 The death of Walcher and the causes which led up to it are far better and 
more fully set forth by Symeon in his History of the Kings than in that of the 
Church of Durham, and, in a condensed form, are as follows : Under the date 
1080, he tells us that he was slain in vengeance for the death of Ligulf ' nobilis 
generosique ministri' who, having vast possessions throughout England of 


nection, we are more particularly concerned with is, to continue 
tracing, step by step, the course of those events which in due time so 
largely affected its destinies, and served, in the strictest and most 
literal sense, to lay the foundations of the actual structure which we 
see to-day. 


Six months and ten days having elapsed since the tragic death of 
the first Norman bishop, the Conqueror, in A.D. 1080, elected to the 
vacant see William of S. Calais so called from the bourg and abbey 

hereditary right, was driven, through the lawless violence of the Normans, to 
seek refuge with S. Cuthbert at Durham. His wife was Algitha, daughter of 
earl Aldred of the blood royal of Northumbria, and sister of Elfleda, the mother 
of earl Waltheof. So high in favour, moreover, was this Ligulf with the bishop 
that, without his counsel, he would on no account transact any secular matters 
of importance. But this favour roused the bitter envy of the bishop's chaplain 
and archdeacon Leobwin, who, arrogantly opposing him, treated his counsels 
with contempt, and, as far as possible, frustrated them. Nor were his habitually 
insolent words, mingled with threats, restrained even in the bishop's presence. 
One day in particular, when called upon to advise, Leobwin opposed, and 
exasperated him with more contumelious speech than ever. And then, because 
he answered more roughly than his wont, he straightway went out, and sending 
for Gilbert, the bishop's kinsman, to whom the secular government of the 
county had been committed, begged that he would avenge him, and get rid of 
Ligulf as speedily as possible. This he readily undertook to do, and sending a 
force of his own, the bishop's, and Leobwin's men by night to Ligulf s house, 
they there deliberately murdered, not only himself, but almost all his family, in 
cold blood. Greatly distracted at the news, the bishop, who foresaw but too clearly 
what the upshot of the deed would be, ' uncovering his head and prostrating 
himself upon the earth, thus upbraided its author : " Tuis, Leobwine, 
factionibus dolosis acta sunt haec et insiliis stolidissimis. Idcirco volo te 
scire pro certo, quia et me, et te, omnemque familiam meam tuae linguae 
peremisti gladio." Then, dispatching messengers throughout the whole 
province, he protested his ignorance of the slaughter; moreover, that Gilbert 
and his accomplices had been outlawed, and summoned to judgment before 
himself.' A meeting of the two parties being then agreed upon, it took place at 
Gateshead. But the bishop refused to hold it in the open only in the church, 
where he, together with his clerks and the higher ranks of soldiers, were 
assembled ; and whence, once and again, he sent forth messengers to treat of 
peace with those outside. This, however, they steadfastly refused to do, being 
fully assured that Ligulf's murder had been perpetrated by the bishop's own 
orders. For Leobwin had not only entertained Gilbert and his companions the 
night after the murder in a friendly and familiar way, but the bishop himself 
had received him into the same favour as before. Accordingly all those of the 
bishop's party who were outside they slew at once, a few only escaping by flight. 
Which, when the bishop understood, he, in order to appease their fury, com- 
manded his kinsman Gilbert, whose life they sought, to go forth of the church. 
Passing out, therefore, both he and all the soldiers who followed at his heels 
were instantaneously cut down and destroyed by swords and spears. Two of 
them, however, being English, were spared for kinship sake. The like fate befel 
the clerics, who perished the moment they appeared. Then the bishop, finding 
that nothing but the life of Leobwin. the author and source of all the mischief, 
would satisfy their fury, besought him also to go forth. But when he should 
have gone, being wholly unable to part from him, he went himself to the church 


of S. Calais, or S. Carileph, where he was either born, or first took his 
monastic vows then abbot of S. Vincent in Normandy, and who was 
consecrated at Gloucester by Thomas, archbishop of York, the king 
himself and all the bishops of England being present at the ceremony. 
Whatever may be thought of the monarch's conduct in general, there 
cannot be two opinions as to his having ' faithfully and wisely made 
choice of fit persons to serve in the sacred ministry of the church ' of 
Durham ; more especially as regards the latter prelate. Equally 
devout and desirous of fulfilling the duties of the high station to 

doors, and earnestly entreated them to spare his life. This being refused, he 
thereupon, ' covering his head with the border of his robe, went forward, when, 
pierced with swords, he fell and immediately expired.' Then Leobwin was bid 
to follow, but declining, they at once set fire to the walls and roof of the church. 
Thence, after enduring the torment of the flames as long as possible, he was at 
last driven out, half roasted, to seek relief amidst the swords of his enemies, 
with which, being hewn instantly to pieces, ' he paid the penalty of his wicked- 
ness, and so perished miserably.' 

Symeon's own, and shorter, account of the death of Walcher, in his History 
of the Church of Durham (lib. iii. c. xxiv.), through coming to much the same 
thing in the end as that given above from the History of the Kings, by his 
continuator, differs from it, nevertheless, so much in respect of details, as to 
render its insertion here, something more, perhaps, than desirable almost 
necessary. Briefly given, it runs as follows : The bishop, in order that both 
those who had done, and those who had suffered, wrong might be brought into 
unity and concord, convened a meeting on a certain day at Gateshead 'ad 
locum qui Ad Caput Caprae dicitur' at which both he himself and his 
attendants would be present ; and to which ' all the chief men north of Tyne, 
as well as an infinite multitude of the whole people, united by the worst 
counsels, gathered themselves together. Declining the tumult, the bishop 
entered the little church ' ecclesiolam ' of the place, where, calling before him 
the leaders, he discoursed to them of the advantages accruing to both sides from 
mutual friendship. Which done, the bishop, with a very few of his people 
remaining in the church, all those who had been invited as though about to 
consult together went outside ; when, after a little while, a great shout being 
set up by the tumultuous crowd, an inhuman butchery at once took place in all 
directions. For divers of the bishop's soldiers who, all unsuspicious of evil, were 
here and there sitting or lying about, were slain by those nearest to them ; while 
some, mounting the church, set it on fire ; and others, drawing their swords and 
brandishing their spears, formed a dense phalanx about the door, allowing none 
to come out alive. So, when those within, after humbly confessing their sins 
and receiving absolution, were driven by the fury of the flames to attempt a 
passage, they were instantaneously cut down. The bishop remained till last of 
all, suffering greater anguish in his heart than death itself. For it was intoler- 
able to him to see his servants, with the priests and deacons, put to death before 
his eyes ; knowing that he, too, would not be spared. To one or other of these 
kinds of death he was compelled, and knew not which to choose. The fire drove 
him into the weapons of his enemies ; their weapons drove him back into the 
fire. A prolonged death seemed to be the worst ; the quickest, the best. So 
when he could no longer endure the fierceness of the fire, commending his soul 
to God, he proceeded to the door, where making before them with his fingers 
the sign of the cross, after he had covered his head and eyes with his pallium, 
he was in the very doorway itself, transfixed with spears, and his dead body 
gashed with many wounds. Such was their bestial cruelty, that they could not 
remain satisfied even with his death.' 


which, by virtue of their merits alone, they had been called, both, 
however, as the event proved, were not equally capable of discharging 
with efficiency the varied and, in some respects, opposite requirements 
attaching to it. Such offices as those of chief pastor of the flock of 
Christ, and earl of the vast province of Northuinbria, demanded 
qualities but seldom centred in a single man. And it was in the latter 
that Walcher, his personal piety notwithstanding, failed so con- 
spicuously. Trusting the administration of secular affairs to the 
hands of those of whose uprightness and capacity he, doubtless, felt well 
assured, he would seem to have confined himself well nigh exclusively 
to things spiritual, letting all others take their course. Contemplative 
rather than active, his success and failure in his compound office were 
proportionate accordingly. By his clergy, especially the monks, he 
was beloved and revered as a saintly and tender father ; by the people 
at large, though solely through the faults of others, detested as a 
cruel tyrant. But with bishop William it was different. A very 
'all-round' man, thoroughly competent in matters monastic, episcopal, 
political, and administrative, he was singularly fitted to fill a place at 
once so unique and difficult as that of prince palatine of Durham. 
' Solum Duuelmense stola judicat et ease.' 

Of his natural gifts and acquirements, and the diligent application 
which he made of them from his youth up, Symeon gives us full 

' From first entering the monastery,' says he, ' he was distinguished 
above all others in his love and devotion to duty ; and so, step by 
step, gained promotion, first to the post of claustral prior, next to 
that of prior, and after that to the abbacy of the adjoining monastery. 
Not long after which, the king, seeing how his skill in the conduct of 
matters of the greatest difficulty had frequently been proved, advanced 
him to the episcopate. ' For indeed,' he continues, ' he was well fitted 
for the office of a bishop, being nobly skilled in ecclesiastical and 
secular literature, very diligent in things human and divine, and so 
composed in manner that, in his day, he had no superior. Of such 
innate subtlety of intellect was he, moreover, that those who sought 
him could nowhere find profounder counsel. Along with the grace of 
wisdom went also great powers of eloquence, the tenacity of his 
memory being no less wonderful. His vigour and prudence had 

VOL XX. 7 


attracted the favourable notice, not only of the kings of England and 
of France, but of the pope also, who from time to time were pleased 
to recognize and listen to such a man, discoursing as he did with so 
much eloquence and wisdom. Temperate, both in meat and drink, 
and moderate in his apparel, he was catholic in faith and chaste in 
person. And forasmuch as he was very familiar with the king, he 
ever took care, as far as possible, both to protect, and cause to be pro- 
tected, the liberties of monasteries and churches.' 

Such was the bishop, and such also was the state of the diocese as 
to demand the full and immediate exorcise of all his great qualities. 
Nothing more deplorable, indeed, than the condition to which it had 
been reduced could well be imagined. No less than three times within 
fourteen years had it been deluged with blood and fire ; first, by the 
conqueror himself ; then shortly afterwards by king Malcolm ; and 
lastly, by Odo, bishop of Bayeux, who, coming with a great force to 
avenge the murder of bishop Walcher, ' terram pene totam in solitudi- 
nem redegerunt.' 1 ' Of the wretched inhabitants who, relying on their 
innocence, remained at home,' says Symeon, 'they caused great 
numbers either to be beheaded or mutilated, as though guilty. Many 
others they accused falsely in order that they might redeem their lives 
and liberties at a price. Even the ornaments of the church,' he adds, 
'including a pastoral staff (baculum pastorale) marvellous alike for 
material as well as workmanship, for it was of sapphire (lapis lazuli ?) 
did that bishop plunder and carry off.' 

The scene presented to the eyes of William of S. Calais by the 
patrimony of S. Outhbert, on his first coming to it, must, in truth, 
have been a dreary one. As to the country, it lay wild and waste 
' terram illius paene desolatam invenitj writes Symeon, ' and the place 
illuminated by the presence of his sacred body, through unbecoming 
neglect of service, contemptuously forsaken ' despicabiltter desti- 
tutumS He found there neither monks of his own order, nor yet 
regular canons. Deeply grieved, therefore, he sought help of God, 
and enquiring diligently of the elder and more prudent men of his 
diocese concerning S. Cuthbert, learnt from them how, whether living 
or dead, he had ever been served by monks. This answer determined 
him. He would restore the original order and reinstate the monks. 
But an enterprise of that kind was not to be lightly ventured on, nor 


executed out of hand. It was an easy matter for his predecessor to 
grant the sites of the two ruined monasteries of Wearmouth and 
Jarrow to pious wanderers seeking a new home and sphere of labour ; it 
was quite another to forcibly dispossess a powerful chapter which, 
under a long line of bishops, had for nearly two centuries acquired 
prescriptive rights, and which in Durham itself had borne rule from 
the first foundation of the place. 

To this end, therefore, and lest there should be any doubt as to the 
validity of his action, he sought the counsel of the king, of the queen 
Matilda, and of Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury. Which done, 
the Conqueror, in order that no kind of authority might be wanting, 
despatched him at once to Rome, there to consult, and secure the 
approval of pope Gregory VII. To all his desire, viz., that, since the 
size of his diocese forbade the existence of three monasteries, the monks 
of Wearmouth and Jarrow should thereafter be united in one single 
congregation before the body of the saint, the pope accorded a full 
consent. Nor was that all, for not only did he, ' with great devotion, 
confirm the scheme by apostolic authority, giving the bishop letters to 
the king and archbishop to that effect, but, in behalf of G-od and 
8. Peter, bestowed his benediction on them and all those who should 
aid, coupled with an eternal anathema against all others who should 
oppose, it.' 

Highly gratified with this result, the king queen Matilda, arch- 
bishop Lanfranc, and the rest of his barons being present as witnesses 
granted his royal licence, commanding the bishop at the same time to 
carry it into effect forthwith. Thus, through the exercise of those 
two great dominant characteristics which Symeon throughout 
attributes to him, viz., promptitude and prudence, was William of 
S. Calais enabled at length to subvert what, both by himself and 
others at that time, must have been esteemed the scandalous state of 
things ecclesiastical at Durham, and to work his will. 

Accordingly, in A.D. 1083, the tenth from the time of Aldwin's 
coming with his two companions into Northumbria, and the third of 
his episcopate, on ' vii kal. Junii, feria sexta' i.e. Friday, May 26th, 
'a day much to be remembered,' the bishop introduced the monks of 
Jarrow and Wearmouth into Durham. 'Then, on the third day 
afterwards, to wit, Whitsunday, he exhibited, both to them and to the 


people there gathered together, the papal and royal missives, after 
which, commending the brethren to the protection of the most blessed 
mother of God and S. Cuthbert, he committed the care of the church 
to them, and of them to the church. Immediately afterwards, during 
the solemnity of the mass, after the accustomed manner he blessed 
those making the monastic profession and promising to abide in it, 
and bound them inseparably to the sacred body of the most blessed 
father Cuthbert. To those, however, who had dwelt there aforetime, 
having the names of canons only, but following no canonical rule, he 
directed that, if they would continue to abide in that church, they 
must, along with the monks, consent for the future to live a monastic 
life ; but this they steadfastly refused to do, preferring to leave, 
rather than enter, the church on such terms all save one, to wit, their 
dean, whose son, himself a monk, could hardly persuade him to 

'Then, three days after the profession of the monks, all being 
gathered together in one place, the bishop, with the fear of God before 
his eyes, and great discretion, proceeded to distribute the offices of the 
monastery amongst those whom he perceived to be gravest and most 
fitting ; and in becoming order, beginning from the head, that is, from 
the altar, he committed the care of the church and custody of the 
incorrupt body of S. Cuthbert to a certain one, to wit, Leofwin, a 
prudent man, and one fearing God greatly, constituting him keeper. 
Then to Aldwin, whose strength of natural prudence, discretion in 
government, and honesty of life, he was well assured of, he delegated 
the care and management of the whole monastery, both within and 
without, ordaining that nothing whatever should be done save by his 
prudent counsel and advice. Lastly, he separated the lands of the 
monks from his own in such sort that they should hold theirs for their 
proper support in food and clothing, free and quit of all manner of 
service to the bishop ; for the ancient custom of the church required 
that those who served God about the body of S. Cuthbert should have 
their lands severed from the bishop's lands ; and thus king William, 
both before, and now after, the monks had come to Durham, gave for 
his own and his children's weal Billingham, with its appurtenances, 
for the special support of those ministering in the church to God and 
to His holy confessor. Indeed, the bishop himself also had given 


them a small portion of land ; nevertheless, in order that they might 
serve Christ without indigence or penury, he, together with the king, 
had provided, and was immediately about to give them more, sufficient 
for their food and clothing ; but, first, the king's death, and then the 
bishop's, prevented its being done.' Before, then, however, many 
things happened. 

Aldwin, the first prior, and reintroducer of the Benedictine rule 
into the north, himself died towards the end of the fourth year of the 
establishment of the monastery at Durham, ' pridie Idus Aprilis,' i.e. 
April 12fch, 1087, when he was succeeded by Turgot ; king "William 
also dying the same year. Then, the year following, the bishop, 
' owing to the machinations of others,' was driven into Normandy, 
where, ' not as an exile, but as a father, he lived for three years in 
great honour.' Meanwhile, the monks, the king having taken them 
into his protection, set about building their refectory ' quale hodie 
cwnitur? At length, after having made his peace with Rufus, the 
bishop, all whose possessions were restored to him, returned home. 
* Nor,' adds Symeon, ' did he by any means return empty, but was 
careful in bestowing, as well, numerous gold and silver vessels for the 
altar, as also very many books for the church, i.e. the Saxon cathedral. 

' Not long afterwards,' he continues, ' in 1093, he commanded that 
church to be destroyed, in the ninety-eighth year after its foundations 
had been laid by Ealdhun, and in the year following began to 
construct another on a befittingly nobler and grander scale noliliori 
satis et majori opere. It was commenced, ' tertio Idus Augusti, feria 
v.,' i.e. Thursday, August llth, 'A.D. 1093, in the 13th of his 
pontificate, and the llth from the entry of the monks. For on that 
day, the bishop, and he who was next to him in the church, the prior 
Turgot, together with the rest of the brethren, laid the first stones in 
the foundation. For, a little while before, on the fourth of the 
kalends of August, ' feria sexta, ' i.e. Friday, July 29th, ' the same 
bishop and prior, alter prayer had been made, and the benediction 
given, began to dig the foundations.' 

Then, the monks went on with the erection of their own buildings 
at their own expence ; the bishop taking that of the church entirely 
upon himself. And, as the fabric itself remains to witness, the work 
was .pushed forward with all that vigour 'strenuitas' which had 


throughout been such a distinguishing characteristic of William of 
S. Calais. In this way it proceeded for the next three years under his 
guidance, till the Christmas day of 1096, when, having for some time 
been in failing health, he was suddenly seized at Windsor with mortal 
sickness, in the pangs of which he lingered for eight days. ' During 
which time many came to him, some to seek counsel in their need, 
for he was weighty in counsel, others that, grieved as he was with 
sickness, they might be consoled by the word of pious visitation 
ut vexatum infirmitate piae visitationis verbo consolarentur. Chief 
among whom was the venerable Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury 
who, greatly strengthened by his secret colloquy on the salvation of 
the soul, declared with joy the grace of consolation and blessing which 
he had received of him.' Then, on the Feast of the Circumcision 
New Year's day as eventide crept on, and he felt that his last hour 
was come, he asked for the viaticum, which, after making his 
confession of the Catholic faith, was with great devotion administered 
to him by Thomas, archbishop of York, Walkelin, bishop of Win- 
chester, and John, bishop of Bath, to whose care and protection he 
committed both himself and his sons, the monks of Durham, whom 
he had always greatly loved. 

Lying thus, therefore, at the point of death, ' it seemed to the 
bishops, consulting on the matter, that the body of one who, with so 
much solicitude, had established a congregation of monks in perpetual 
and well pleasing service to God about the body of S. Cuthbert, 
should, not as a matter of fitness merely, but of right, be buried in his 
church. But this the bishop utterly refused. " God forbid," said he, 
" that the custom of the church of S. Cuthbert which from of old till 
now has been kept so religiously should be broken on my account." 
Whereupon they resolved that he should be buried in the chapter 
house, seeing that in the place wherein the brethren assembled daily, 
and with his sepulchre before their eyes, the memory of their dearest 
father would daily be renewed.' Meanwhile, being contracted with 
acuter pains, the ashen hues of death began to overspread his face, and 
so, at daybreak on the morning of Wednesday, January 2nd, quarto 
nonas Januarii, feria quarfa, 109f, he departed this life. 

Clothed in pontifical vestments, his body was accordingly carried 
by the monks attending him to Durham, where, on the xvii. of the 

Arch, Ael., vol. xx.; to face p. 57. 

Plate Va. 

EUIS, photo. 


From AuKUstinus super Psalteriuin, a manuscript in the Durham Chapter Library. 

(See note on opposite page.) 


kalends of February, i.e. January 16th, in the place appointed by the 
bishops, they buried it with befitting honour. 14 ' How much their 
mourning at the loss of such a father, how great their grief, how 
copious their tears, I think it better,' says Symeon, ' to refrain from 
saying, lest to any it should seem to pass belief. For not one was 
there among them,' he concludes, ' who, if it had been possible, would 
not have purchased his life with the sacrifice of his own.' 

14 In the mortuary roll of prior Wessington (1416-1446), preserved in the 
treasury of the dean and chapter of Durham, and which commences with that 
of bishop William of S. Calais, we read, according to the late librarian, Dr. 
Raine's account in his Auckland Castle, p. 8, as follows : 

'The ornaments of bishop William the first (1081-1096). In the first place, 
at the exequie? of the lord bishop William, the first of that name, who died on 
the 4th of January, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord, 1096, the church 
(of Durham) obtained the vehicle (literam*) and the horses which brought the 
body of the said father from Windsor to Durham ; and from his chapel the 
church obtained very many ornaments, to wit, five copes, of which three were 
white and two black ; three chasubles, two white and one black, with a large 
stole and maniple embroidered at the ends only ; a cloth for the altar ; a small 
censer of silver ; a small silver pitcher ; two candlesticks of brass gilt, and a 
small candlestick of silver. When the report of his death arrived his seals were 
broken and offered to S. Cuthbert. The church also obtained, by the gift of the 
said bishop William the first, a bible in two volumes and many other books, as it 
is written in the beginning of the second part of the said bible, under this 
form : Those are the names of the books which bishop William gave to 
S. Cuthbert.' And then follows a long list of the costly and splendid offerings, 
commencing with the ' Bibliotheca, id est Vetus et Novum Testamentum in 
duobus libris,' aforesaid. 

' But,' as Dr. Raine says, ' of bishop Carileph we have another very interest- 
ing memorial. In one of the books given as above (Augustinus super 
Psalterium, pars secunda B. ii. 13), which is as perfect as in the day it was 
written, is contained, in the initial letter of one of its chapters, a portrait of the 
bishop himself, arrayed in his episcopal robes as they were worn in his day. 
The background is red. Over his alb is a chasuble of green. His stole (no 
maniple is visible) is red and white, the termination green, fringed with red. In 
his left hand he holds a long red pastoral staff, and his right is elevated in 
blessing. Upon his head, which is unmitred, there appears the tonsure, and the 
hair which remains is blue. Over his head are the words " Willelmus Episcopus." 
Above is a half-length figure of our Saviour, in a blue background, with green 
hair, in his peculiar nimbus, giving a blessing with his right hand, and holding a 
closed book in his left. Beneath the bishop is a kneeling figure, having the 
tonsure, clothed in a blue gown, and raising his hands in supplication, with the 
words " Robertus Benjamin" over his head. The whole letter measures seven 
and a half inches in height, three and a half of which are occupied by the figure 
of the bishop.' 

It will be observed that prior Wessington has made a mistake in the date of 
bishop William's death, of which not only the day, but the hour, are given by 
Symeon : ' Instante hora gallicantus, quarto nonas Januarii, feria quarta, vitae 
terminum habuit.' Now, the fourth of the nones of January is January the 
2nd, not the 4th, and the day of the week, Wednesday. 

' During the partial demolition of the chapter house, in 1795, upon opening 
the grave of bishop Carileph,' adds Dr. Raine, 'there were found the bones of a 
tall man, portions of sandals, and fragments of a robe richly embroidered in 
gold, ornamented with griffins 2>ass(int, and other quaint devices." These were 
presented to the library, and, as it appears, are still preserved there. 


Such, on the testimony of Symeon, a contemporary monk of the 
house, and intimately acquainted through personal knowledge and 
experience of the truth, was that famous prelate, William of S. Calais, 
at once the great reformer and refounder, moral and material, of the 
cathedral church of Durham. Of his introduction of the Benedictine 
order there, Symeon gives us full particulars ; of the expelled seculars, 
hardly a single word. Not by any means, however, because there 
was nothing for him to say, but because, through feelings of pity or 
prudence, he afterwards as an erasure of some twenty lines in the 
Durham MS. of his history, and which probably contained details of 
their lives, remains to show suppressed what he had said. But, un- 
like some infinitely better men, for infinitely worse reasons in our own 
day, they were not turned out to starve. Scandalized as bishop, 
William may have been at their life and conversation, he was not the 
man to do a thing like that. Nor, even if willing, would he have 
been allowed to do so, since pope Gregory, as it seems, had taken the 
matter entirely into his own hands. Such, at any rate, as an inserted 
passage of very early, but uncertain, date at the end of the erasure tells 
us, was the current and universal belief of the day. Of great general, 
but far greater local, interest and importance especially for the pur- 
pose of our present enquiry it runs, ' ipsum quoddicitur quod prebende 
de Aukland, Darlington, Norton, Ekington \_Heighingtori], factae fuerunt 
tantum pro illis canonicis, ex provisions domini papae, ut haberent unde 
viverent suo perpetual 

Expelled from the centre, they were yet, as we thus learn, through 
the papal clemency, allowed ' to live and move and have their being ' 
within the circumference, of the palatinate ; and those amply endowed 
parishes were accordingly selected for their maintenance and minis- 
trations. Thenceforth, at least for a season, and till the members of 
the late ' congregation ' died out, the churches of those parishes became 
collegiate, being served no longer by single, but, as the late professor 
Freeman styled them, ' multiplied ' rectors. How long that state of 
things precisely lasted, there is, apparently, nothing to show ; but it 
would seem probable since, with the single exception of Heighington, 
those churches continued to remain collegiate till the general suppres- 
sion under Edward VI. that, as their places gradually became vacant, 
they were filled up by other outside seculars in the ordinary way. 


Foremost among them, it will be noted, comes the bishop's own 
parish church of Auckland. Here at length then though not a stone 
of the existing fabric takes us further back than the middle of the 
thirteenth century we come upon the link which connects it so 
indissolubly with those famous events in our diocesan history, the 
expulsion of the seculars from the anciont Saxon cathedral of Ealdhun; 
and its destruction, and rebuilding as that of the great Benedictine 
monastery of Durham by William of S. Calais. And not with those 
events and prelates only but through them, with those far different 
and remoter days of S. Cuthbert and S. Aidan, when the lamp of life, 
carried forth by S. Columba to lona and thence to Lindisfarne, began 
to throw its first faint, flickering gleam upon the dense, illimitable 
darkness of the heathen night. 


Above a century had passed since those terrible days in which, ere 

the rude Danes burned their pile, 
The monks fled forth from Holy Isle, 

till that happier point in S. Cuthbert's story was reached, when 

After many wanderings past, 
He chose his lordly seat at last, 
Where his cathedral, huge and vast, 
Looks down upon the Wear ; 

and well nigh two more had to elapse from the time of their descendants' 
expulsion thence, till the occurrence of that event to which both the 
two preceding directly, and in due course, led up the erection of the 
present church of S. Andrew Auckland. 15 

Of the earlier one, the church which was contemporary with 
William of S. Calais, Walcher, and Ealdhun, we know nothing save 
what the few fragments already referred to have to tell us, and that is 
little more than the bare fact of its existence ; but that it was a rela- 
tively mean and insignificant structure may be inferred from the fact 

IS The last flight of the monks from Lindisfarne took place in A.D. 875 ; the 
completion of Ealdhun's cathedral, in A.D. 999 ; the expulsion of the ' congrega- 
tion' therefrom by William of S. Calais in 1083 ; the foundation of the existing 
cathedral by the same prelate in 1093 ; and the re-edification of the church of 
S. Andrew Auckland, to which divers members of the ' congregation ' were rele- 
gated, at some undated period of the thirteenth century. What that period was, 
will be seen further on. 

TOL. xx. 



of its entire destruction when the building of the present church was 
determined on ; for such a method of procedure as examples without 
number, all the country over, serve to show was of the rarest occur- 
rence. No matter how superior the later buildings might be, some 
portions or other of the original ones will almost always be found to 
have been incorporated in them, and that very frequently to an extent 
never so much as suspected till of late, and since the detestable practice 
of stripping off the plaster has brought the long concealed evidence to 
light. 16 But in this case, just as in those of the Saxon cathedral church 
of Ealdhun, of Darlington church, and of that at Hartlepool, there were 
special, and very sufficient reasons why the ordinary practice should 
not be followed. It was about to be rebuilt for a purpose wholly 
different from that for which the original was intended. No longer a 
mere humble parish church, adapted for a season, ' tant lien que malj 
to collegiate, or quasi-collegiate uses, it was designed from the first for 
the service of a regular body of canons under the rule and governance 
of a dean. 17 

*" Darlington, Hartlepool, Gainford, the little church of Cockfield, and possi- 
bly that of Ryton, are, as far as I can call to mind, about the only other 
examples of churches thus entirely rebuilt in the county of Durham, and they 
afford, probably, a far larger proportion than can be found elsewhere. That such 
should be the case may be explained by the fact of the Durham churches having 
been, as a rule, even to the last, of an exceptionally mean and rude character; so 
that when great men like Pudsey, De Brus, or others of equal rank were minded 
to re-edify, there were no parts of the old, worthy of being incorporated into 
the new, buildings. 

The amount of Saxon walling remaining in unsuspected places is shown very 
remarkably at Staindrop, where, besides portions around the chancel arch, two 
long strips about three feet in height above the crown of the inserted twelfth 
century arcades have been left on both sides, which it would have been far 
easier and less troublesome to take down. Much the same thing may be seen 
on the north side of Billingham church, where very extensive remains of Saxon 
walling have been left. So, too, at Hart, and again at Norton, where a large 
amount of remarkably bold Saxon walling was, till quite recently, to be seen in 
the choir, but which has, now, I understand, been most wantonly and brutally 
destroyed. Perhaps as remarkable an instance as any, in a church which could 
not otherwise be supposed to retain one stone upon another of earlier work, is 
to be seen in the familiar instance of the embedded cap and pier of the twelfth 
century, preserved in the heart of the north-west, fourteenth-century, one at S. 
Nicholas's, Newcastle, a fragment, so far as can be known, unaccompanied 
by any other. 

17 As against Darlington and Auckland, entirely rebuilt, Staindrop, Lan- 
chester, Chester-le-Street and Norton may all be instanced as local examples of 
simple parish churches adapted to collegiate uses without undergoing such 
process. And this was usually the case where the buildings were deemed 
worthy of that honour. But very often, whether from inherent deficiency or 
love of ' making all things new,' they were rebuilt upon a different, and specially 
designed, plan. Among such may be instanced those of Glaseney or Fenryn 
built by Walter Bronescomb, bishop of Exeter, about 1270 ; Arundel, Sussex, 


To this end, therefore, a complete sweep was made of the existing 
building: not necessarily, or probably, all at once, but gradually, as the 
new work went on, though not a vestige of it was ultimately allowed 
to stand ; for the new structure, as is perfectly clear, was designed on 
a very much larger scale than the old (it is said to be the largest parish 
church in the county) and as far beyond it, doubtless, in architectural 
character as in point of size. Indeed, the new chancel could, probably, 
to a large extent, have been built outside the original one while yet 
standing, and without interfering with its continuous use at all. 

Now, for a work of this kind, it is clear that very considerable 
funds would be required, far beyond what the parochial income would 
supply ; all the more so, when it was no longer, as at first, applied to 
the maintenance of a single priest, but to that of an entire collegiate 

built by Richard, earl of Arundel, in 1386 : Fotheringay, Northants., by Edward, 
duke of York, and his son, king Henry IV., in 1411 ; Tattershall, Lincolnshire, 
by sir Richard Cromwell, 17 Henry VI. ; Ingham, Norfolk, built for the use 
of the order of the Holy Trinity by sir Miles Stapleton of Bedale, in 1360 ; 
Tong, Shropshire, by dame L-abel, widow of sir Fulke Pembridge, knt., 
in 1410 ; Ruthin, Denbighshire, by John, son of Reginald de Grey, in 1310; 
Rushford, Norfolk, by sir Edmund de Gonville, priest (founder of Gonville college, 
Cambs.), in 1340-50, in connexion with his new college of S. John- the Evange- 
list ; Norhill, Bedfordshire, built by the executors of sir John Tragely, knt., and 
Reginald, his son, temp. Henry IV. ; Llanddewi-Brefi, Cardiganshire, by Thomas 
Beck, bishop of S. David's, in 1287 ; Astley, Warwickshire, by sir Thomas de 
Astley, in 1343 ; Titchfield, Hants., by Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester, 
in 1231 ; and Shottesbrooke, Berks., built by sir William Russell, in 1337, a 
small, but singularly beautiful aisleless cruciform church, with limbs of nearly 
equal length, and surmounted at the intersection by an exceedingly fine tower 
and spire. This is a perfect model of such a building ; with spacious chancel for 
the canons ; nave, sufficient for the few parishioners ; and transepts, devoted to 
their proper function of mortuary chapels for the use of the founder and his 
descendants. It has been admirably illustrated, in small folio form, by Mr. 

To the foregoing may be added several very fine and interesting Scottish 
examples, such as those of Restalrig, Carnwath, Biggar, Crichton, S. Monans, 
Easter Foulis, Dunglass, Seton, Bothwell, Holy Trinity Edinburgh, Roslyn, 
Grail, and Dalkeith. A very remarkable peculiarity of most of these Scottish 
churches is that, notwithstanding they were all of royal and illustrious founda- 
tion, hardly one of them was ever finished. Intended to be cruciform, like that 
of Shottesbrooke, they were almost all left off at the crossing incomplete. Most 
are aisleless, while that of Easter Foulis, an exceptionally curious structure, 
consists only of a long parallelogram, without any external division between 
nave and choir. In conclusion, two or three curious instances may be noticed in 
which, though the churches were rebuilt for collegiate use, the canons, owing to 
divers causes, were never introduced. Such were those at North Cadbury, 
Somersetshire, built by dame Elizabeth Bottreux about 1417, 'per ipsam de now 
aedificata et conitructa ;' Ashford, Kent, re-edified by sir John Fogg, temp. 
Edward IV., where, owing to his attainder, on that king's death, the foundation 
lapsed ; and Knoll, Warwickshire, where Walter Cook, canon of Lincoln, built 
a fair chapel for a rector and ten priests, a scheme which fell through, as in 
temp. Henry VIII., there were only two chantry priests there, with a slender 


body. But one such source was to be found, viz.: the bishop and patron 
for the time being, whose parish church it was. For just as at 
Durham, it was bishop William of S. Calais who, after the introduc- 
tion of the monks into Ealdhun's church of canons contemning its 
humble character proceeded to pull it down entirely, and then com- 
menced the present mighty structure in its place ; and just as at Dar- 
lington, also, it was bishop Hugh Pudsey who, for the use of those 
canons or their successors sweeping away every fragment of the an- 
cient church which he found there commenced, ' efundamentis? the 
noble collegiate church seen there to-day; so here, at Auckland, too, 
when the time came for the same process to be repeated, it is unques- 
tionably to the same quarter that we must look, I think, both for the 
same will, and power to carry it into effect. 

But here, at the very outset, we are met with the capital difficulty, 
which will attend our enquiry throughout, as to which of the bishops 
we must look ? For here very differently from those cases, where 
not only the names of the authors of the works, but the very years in 
which they were commenced have been recorded we have no mention 
at all either* of one or of the other, nor any direct clue, save that sup- 
plied by the internal evidence of style. Nor is even this, by any means, 
so clear and decisive as could be wished, for exceUent as the details are 
in their way, they are yet, for the most part, such as might very well 
range over a wide period, and one including the reigns of many bishops. 
Practically, then, where nothing seems certain either way, we must 
endeavour so to balance the two uncertainties as to arrive at a con- 
clusion which, if not absolutely, may at least be practically, certain. 
The task, as will be seen, is not an easy one ; nor such conclusion by 
any means to be arrived at, per saltum, or in a moment. 

As the whole structure of the church in its original state was 
of simple, but perfectly developed thirteenth-century style, though 
with little or nothing to limit it to any definite period of that century, 
it becomes necessary to take account of the contemporary bishops, 
and, keeping the witness of the building well in view, endeavour to 
discover which of them was most likely, on historical grounds, to have 
been the builder. 

Turn we then, at once, to this external side of the subject. 

On the death of Pudsey in 119|, the see remained vacant for two 


years, when it was filled by the election of Philip de Pictavia, or of 
Poitou, a counsellor and favourite of king Richard L, who held it till 
1208. Proceeding to Rome, he was there confirmed and consecrated by 
pope Celestine, on the twelfth of the kalends of May (April 20th), 1197. 
A bosom friend both of Richard I. and John, this foreign satellite, 
during the whole of his episcopate was at deadly feud with the prior 
and convent of Durham, whom he not only closely besieged, but 
surrounding the church with soldiery, endeavoured, by fire as well as 
famine, to reduce to submission. 18 Nor was he happier in his 
foreign, than in his domestic, relations ; with those above, any more 
than with those below, him in the hierarchy. A zealous supporter of 
John in his struggles with the Roman see, he would seem to have 
fallen under a double stroke of condemnation, viz., that of excom- 
munication pronounced by Geoffrey, archbishop of York, against all 
such clergy as complied with the king's levy of thirteenths, 19 and 
that of interdict fulminated by pope Innocent III. against the 
whole kingdom. Dying under these sentences, he was buried by 
laymen in an unconsecrated place outside the cathedral precincts. 20 
Addicted to secular affairs, absorbed in court politics and intrigues, 
at open and constant war with the ecclesiastical authorities of his 
day, bishop Philip was little likely to concern, still less to occupy, 
himself in church building. 

18 ' Torquebatur itaque animo Episcopus, [et] hoc in suatn deducens igno- 
miniam, tantam irae concepit vesaniam, quod ecclesiam videretur convertisse 
in carcerem, dum custodiam ann[at]orum circumponeret, ignem et fumum 
hostiis et fenestris adhiberi praeciperet, cybum inclusis inferri, ut vel fame 

cederent, prohiberet ' Gaufridus de Coldingham, cap. xiii. ' Posticum, 

itaque, qui ad molendinum ducebat, ne quid ad sustentationem inferretur, 
lapidibus obstruxit ; piscariam novam confregit; furnos in Elvete subvertit ; 
stangnum sancti Godrici apud Finchale dissolvit; portam aquilonalem, ne 
ingredientibus vel egredientibus libere pateret, obserari mandavit ; aquam. 
quam a longe in planitiem castelli fratres conduxerant, in castellum transverti 
fecit. In averia quoque monachorum inmani crudelitate grassabatur, reputans 
quae fecisset bestiis intulisset et monachis.' Gal. de Coldingham, c. xvi. 

19 ' Interea regio per regnum Angliae promulgatum est edicto, tarn a monasteriis 
quam ecclesiis tertiam decimam exigi, et quosque reluctantes ad solvendum 
laica violentia compelli. Venerabilis vero Archiepiscopus Bboracensis Gaufridus. 
ecclesiasticae libertatis statum nutare conspiciens, et manum sublevationis 
apponere cupiens, solvi a suis prohibuit, et solventes anathematis interdicto 
supposuit. Cumque clerici, regio praevalente metu, solution! instarent, et volun- 
tati res non cederet, Gallias secessit, et pro domo Domini ?pontaneum exilium 
subiit.' Gal. de Coldingham, c. xvii. 

20 'Inter haec mala mortuus est Philippus Dunhelmensis episcopus, decimo 
kalendas Maii, anno pontificatus sui undecimo ; et extra septa ecclesiae in loco 
non consecrato a laicis sepultus est.' Ibid. c. xix. This was during the first 
year of the interdict, which, as a contemporary marginal note informs us, 


Then followed a long vacancy caused by the several, but abortive 
elections of Richard, dean of Salisbury, John, bishop of Norwich, and 
Morgan, provost of Beverley, 21 when, according to Graystanes, about 
the feast of 8. Nicholas (December 6th), 1214, Gualo of Vercelli, the 
papal legate, ' after the lapse of five years ten months and twenty days 
from the death of bishop Philip, conferred the bishopric on Richard de 
Marisco, or Marsh, the king's chancellor, who was consecrated to it by 
Walter Gray, archbishop of York, about the feast day of S. John 
Baptist (June 24th), of the year following.' Bishop Richard, how- 
ever, like his predecessor, was at constant strife with the prior and 
convent of his cathedral church, whose rights and liberties he is said 
to have constantly invaded, and who accused him to the pope of 
simony, sacrilege, and bloodshed. During this state of things, and 
while the contest was still at its height, it was brought in the eighth 
year of his episcopate to a sudden end by his death at the abbey of 
Peterborough, whence his body was brought to Durham, and interred 
in the chapter-house. Clearly, therefore, the work of rebuilding the 
church of Auckland on a vastly greater and costlier scale than before, 
would seem no more probable on the part of bishop Richard of the 
Marsh, than on that of Philip of Poitou. 

began on the vigil of the Annunciation ' Anno Dominicae incarnationis 
MCCVII, interdicta est tota terra Angliae, vigilia Annunciacionis Beatae 
Mariae.' 'A relaxacione ejusdem anno Domini MCCXIII, vill. idus Julii.' 
Gal. de Coldingham, c. xviii. 

Coldingham thus describes the effect of it : ' Nudata stabant altaria et 
lugubvem desolationem praef erebant ; non assuetorum devota cantuum resonabat 
modulatio, nee consolatoria campanarum audito est dulcedo. Nulla sanctarum 
solempnitatum frequentia : silebant omnia quae a patribus ad laudem Dei 
fuerunt instituta : non morientibus singulare salutaris viatici subveniebat 
remedium : non denique mortuis Ohristianae sepulturae impensum est bene- 
ficium.' Gal. de Coldingham, c. xviii. 

Thus, since the year was reckoned from the Feast of the Annunciation, March 
25th, nearly a month must have elapsed before bishop Philip's death, which 
took place April 22nd next following. 

21 In connexion with the election of this last, Graystanes affords us the follow- 
ing remarkable illustration of papal morality. He was brother of Geoffrey, arch- 
bishop of York, and after his election proceeded to Rome in order to receive 
consecration : ' Sed, Rege Angliae hoc procurante, cassatus rediit, quia spurius 
fuit; de uxore vero cujusdam militis, dicti Radulphi Bloeth, Henricus pater ejus 
genuerat eum. Dominus tamen Papa, electo compatiens, obtulit ei, quod si 
Ilium militis se diceret et non Regis, cum eo dispensaret, et electionem con- 
firmaret. Super quo, consulto quodam clerico suo, magistro Willielmo de Lanum, 
respondit expresse, quod propter nullam dignitatem sequendam regium sangui- 
nem subticeret : et sic cassatus recessit.' Truly a pretty spectacle! A pope 
tempting a man to commit perjury with the bait of a bishopric ; and the 
tempted refusing, not through any objection to such an act, but because, 
' glorying in his shame.' he preferred his bastardy. Robertus de Graystanes, 
Hist. c. i. 


Then again, with weary iteration came another halt in the appoint- 
ment of a successor. For two years and four months, less two days, as 
Graystanes tells us, the see remained vacant, when William de Stichill, 
archdeacon of Worcester, was chosen by the unanimous vote of the 
prior and monks. But the pope quashed the election. They thereupon 
nominated Richard Poor, bishop of Salisbury, and to this choice the 
pope, after some difficulty, yielding a final assent, he was invested with 
the temporalities by king Henry III. on S. Magdalen's day (July 
22nd), 1226, and enthroned on the day of S. Cuthbert (September 
4th), next following. 

In this famous prelate we come at length upon a man of a wholly 
different type. Pious and placable, no stirrer up of strife, or destroyer 
of the church's peace, we see in him, on the contrary, a strenuous and 
wise master-builder of God's house, not only spiritual but material. 
Consecrated to the see of Chichester in 1215, he was advanced two 
years later, in 1217, to that of Sarum. But the site of Old Sarum, 
however well adapted for the purposes of a fortress, was altogether 
unsuited to those of an episcopal residence, and of a cathedral church. 
The whole of the narrow area within the line of entrenchments, one 
quarter of which was occupied by those buildings and their depen- 
dencies, was under the jurisdiction of a lay castellan, the insolent 
interference of whose rude soldiery with the canons in the discharge of 
their various duties had become provocative of long and bitter 

To obviate, at once and for ever, so scandalous a state of things, the 
bishop, abandoning the place altogether, determined on the erection of 
a new cathedral church and city upon land of his own in the meadow 
of Merryfield, where the three streams of the Upper Avon, the Bourne, 
and the Wily unite. There, accordingly, the first stone of the existing 
cathedral church of Salisbury, among the noblest and most beautiful in 
England, was laid by him, on the festival of S. Vincent (April 28th), 
1220, and the work zealously carried on till his translation to Durham 
in 1226. 

And precisely similar opportunities for exercising those self-same 
talents of peace-maker and builder were afforded him in his fresh, as 
in his former, sphere. The feuds, so long drawn out between his 
predecessors and the prior and convent, were, with equal promptness 


and permanency, terminated by him. By means of a solemn pact or 
instrument, known as the ' convenit,' he found as effectual a way of 
closing those unseemly strifes, as by the removal of his cathedral site 
from Old Sarum to Salisbury, the scandals which had so grievously 
afflicted his church and clergy there. 

And thus, in this case as in that, the moral and spiritual 
difficulties being overcome, he would be free to devote himself to the 
furtherance of those other works of material edification which here, as 
well as there, required his help. For it was during his somewhat brief 
episcopate that the costly task of bringing the fabric of the cathedral 
church of Durham to completion, was undertaken. The foundations of 
the new chapel of the Nine Altars the crowning glory of thirteenth- 
century architecture in the north, as is Salisbury cathedral in the 
south were then being laid, and though the aid afforded by the 
bishop is nowhere definitely recorded, we can hardly doubt that the 
same spirit of devotion which both dictated the inception, and with 
such singular zeal carried forward the construction of the one 
cathedral, would be exhibited in the achievement of the other. 
Indeed, we have clear proof that such was actually the case. 

For, from an indulgence issued by Hugh, bishop of Ely, and dated 
1235, we learn that the work, which was designed to remedy the ruin 
threatening the eastern part of the church through the failure of the 
apse vault, not only received his active support, but to such an extent 
as to be styled his own. After reciting the glories of S. Cuthbert, and 
the imminent danger to which his shrine and body ''thesaurus super 
aurum et topazion preciosus' were exposed, he proceeds : ' Cum 
autem Venerabilis Frater Dominus R. Dunelmensis Episcopus tarn 
manifesto desiderans obviare periculo auxiliante Domino apud 
orientalem supradictge Ecclesise partem novum opus extruere in quo 
ipsius sancti Confessoris corpus valeat tutius pariter et honestius 
collocari,' etc., where we see the entire undertaking referred to the 
bishop personally, as the prime mover and author of it. 

Nor was his love of church building by any means limited to the 
inception or completion of his two cathedrals. Humbler structures 
shared, equally with them, his bounteous and loving care. At 
Tarrant, in Dorsetshire, his native village, we find him building and 


endowing a convent of Cistercian nuns, wherein, and not in either 
of his cathedral churches, he was, according to his own instruc- 
tions, interred. 22 

How natural then, on the showing of such external evidence, to 
regard him, whether singly or conjointly, as the probable rebuilder of 
the parish church of his new home. And the witness is not external 
only. The internal evidence of style, generally, is quite sufficient to war- 
rant the ascription of the chancel, at any rate, to Poor's period, with the 
architectural character of which it entirely accords. Yet it only needs 
further examination to show that such ascription would, to an almost 
absolute certainty, be wrong. For notwithstanding the fact that its 
chief details are in perfect harmony with the style then prevalent, they 
are none the less so with those earlier and later phases of it which 
obtained in the days of Richard de Marisco, 1217-26, of Nicholas de 
Farnham, 1241-49, Walter de Kirkham, 1249-60, and Robert de 
Stichill, 1260-74. In other words, there is next to nothing in the 
chancel, taken strictly by itself, to enable even the acutest and most 
hypercritical expert to fix its date precisely within any given portion 
of that very considerable period. The uniformity and simplicity of 
the work, rich as in a sense it is, would seem to make it just as likely, 
indeed, apart from the rest of the building, to belong to one decade as 
to another. As the solution of the chronological difficulty then is not 
to be found altogether in this part per se, we must seek for it beyond, 
and outside, such limits, and in connexion with those other works 
which, in due course, followed on more or less consecutively. And 
here, I think, we may at length succeed in finding it, if not indeed in 
quite so conclusive a way as could be wished, yet in one which, practi- 
cally, leaves no room for doubt, since, as nearly as may be, it touches 
absolute demonstration. We shall find at once how, viewed in this 
way, the evidence points distinctly to a late, rather than to an early, or 
middle, period of the 'first pointed style,' as that to which the building 
of the chancel, unquestionably the earliest part of the church, should 
be referred. Nay, rather, I should say, to the very latest, just pre- 

22 It is stated in Murray's Handbook of the Cathedrals of England, Northern 
Division, part II. p. 347, that, dying at Tarrant, his heart was buried there, 
while his body was brought to Durham. What the authority for such assertion 
may be I know not, but Graystanes's witness is in flat contradiction to it. It 
runs : ' Et obiit . . . apud Tarentum : et ibidem 'in Abbathia Monialium, 
sicttt i-ivens praeceperat, est numatvt.' Rob. dc (rraystanex, c. iii. 

VOL. xx. 9 


vious, indeed, to the general introduction of the ' second pointed,' or 
'Geometrical.' And thus' we find ourselves once more cast back to 
that history of the church of Durham, which has throughout, and so 
closely, attended our enquiry into the origin of the building. 

That bishop Poor found sufficient scope for his architectural 
proclivities in the erection of his two cathedrals, and the monastic 
foundation at Tarrant, would, I think, so far as its witness goes, seem 
certain ; and we must, therefore, still cast about beyond the date of 
his death, in 1237, for the author of its reconstruction. And we shall 
find that the oft-repeated story repeats itself again. No sooner was 
Poor's place vacant than the usual disputes between convent, king, 
and pope commenced afresh, and with, perhaps, more than common 
intensity. The bishop's obsequies duly celebrated, certain brethren 
were at once despatched to the king, at Windsor, to request licence for 
the election of his successor. Meanwhile, however, the king sends the 
archbishop of York and the earl of Lincoln to Durham with letters 
desiring the prior and convent, for love of himself and welfare of the 
kingdom, to make choice of the procurator of Valence. To compliance 
with this request they deliberately demurred, as being, for obvious 
reasons, quite contrary to the three ways only in which such election 
could properly be effected, viz. : those of scrutiny, compromise, and 
inspiration. But, added the prior, when the day of election should 
arrive, they, having the fear of God before their eyes, would make 
choice of one who should be serviceable both to God and the church, 
faithful to king and country, and who should, moreover, be acceptable 
to men for his careful administration of affairs, as well ecclesiastical 
as episcopal. And with this answer the messengers returned. Then, 
the day of election being come, and all concerned assembled, 
Thomas de Melsanbi, the prior, was chosen, by way of compromise, to 
the vacant see, a dignity which, overcome only by the prayers and 
tears of the brethren, he was at length, and with difficulty, persuaded 
to accept. But the king would have none of him, and backed his 
refusal by a string of charges, as many as they were monstrous. The 
incident affords, perhaps, as characteristic an example of the ' freedom 
and purity of election,' as understood and practised in those days, as 
could be wished. ' In the first place, he was alleged to be illegitimate, 
the bastard son of a former rector of Melsonby and a servant maid.' 


'Then, he was a declared enemy of the king and kingdom, having, 
while prior of Coldingham, done homage to the king of Scots, ever a 
capital enemy of the king and kingdom, being his special counsellor, 
by whose advice many evils were wrought upon the English people. 
Further, that having strong castles on the border, since the Scottish 
kings and people were always in opposition to those of England, it 
would be most dangerous to prefer him to such a post, the more 
especially, as having maritime possessions, he might aid the invasion of 
the French, Flemish, and other enemies of the king and kingdom. 
Besides, he should be refused as a homicide, inasmuch as with his 
permission a certain mountebank having ascended a rope stretched 
from tower to tower, fell and was killed, when he, so far from allowing 
such performances, should have strictly forbidden them.' 

'Then again, he had impugned the episcopal liberties of the church 
of Durham, since all the strife between Richard de Marisco and the 
convent had been stirred up by him : and, further, he had usurped 
its rights of jurisdiction in the churches of Allertonshire, which the 
bishop had possessed up to the time of bishop Richard, of late 
deceased. Wherefore, having so robbed the church in these and other 
matters, it was unfit that it should be committed to his charge. 
Moreover, he was diseased, being afflicted with the gravel ; so, that 
even if he had already received the preferment, he ought rather to 
seek to divest himself of, than be confirmed in, it. In addition to all 
which, he was a manifest transgressor, since, in the first place, he 
personally eat flesh of swine, since the new prohibition and before, 
and because he also gave leave to his monks to eat it. Moreover, he 
was guilty simony, seeing that he had admitted Richard of Sherburn 
as a monk, for money, as well as a certain "William, for lands bestowed 
upon the house. He was also a simoniac, for the further reason that, 
when strife was begun between bishop de Marisco and the prior and 
convent, it had been so settled in the time of bishop Richard II., 
that he had conceded to them the advowsons of all his Yorkshire 
churches, with many other liberties, on the understanding that they 
should not bestow any on anyone without his consent had been first 

'Then, that he had conferred the church of Brentingham on master 
Odo of Kilkenny, in order that he should aid him in the cause of his 


' Farther, that he had promised, and bestowed vast sums of money 
on divers great men, to the end, that they should so manage matters 
with the king as to procure the royal assent to his election. Also 
that he had broken the canon ' latae sententiae,' because by his order, 
master Lawrence of Tunbridge was flogged.' 

' And lastly, he was not sufficiently learned, whereas it was essential 
that one promoted to the episcopate should be skilled in the rules of 
the holy Fathers, and learned in the sacred scriptures.' 

A further reason for the king's opposition, which Graystanes also 
mentions, was this, viz. : that when he objected to the election, or to 
admit the elect, while the monks were pressing for his consent, one of 
them regarding the elect as safe, and the election rightly made, broke 
out ' domine, non egemus gratia rnagna,' received the curt reply 
' Ex quo gratia non indigetis, sine gratia recedetis.' So the king, he 
adds, instead of relaxing, became only the more obstinate. Thus the 
strife was continued before the archbishop, who, doing nothing 
effectual to help them, let it drag on indefinitely for fear of the king. 

Then at length, the unhappy prior and convent wearied with 
repeated delays the king meanwhile applying the revenues of the see 
to his own use make the inevitable appeal to Rome, begging the pope 
to order the archbishop to conclude the case within three months, 
failing which, they pray that it should be decided by the venerable 
father, the lord 0. cardinal deacon of S. Nicolo in Carcere Tulliano. 
In furtherance whereof the sub-prior, Robert de Efden, Lawrence de 
Upsedlington, and Alan the chamberlain are despatched to the papal 
court, where Robert of Hexham awaited them. Master Robert de la 
Hay is also sent along with them, but all die upon the way, a sad 
prelude of misfortune, for when prior Thomas himself, the bishop- 
elect, with the king's permission presented himself at the court at 
Dover, he was forbidden to proceed farther. Then, despairing of 
success, and anxious for the widowed church at home, he turned back 
again to Durham, and freely and fully renounced his position. 23 But 

23 It was under the rule of prior Thomas de Melsonby, with the assistance of 
bishop Richard Poore, that the glorious work of the Nine Altars was begun in 
A.D. 1242. Two years later he resigned, and retiring to Fame, there, in com- 
pany of one Bartholomew, a devout man of God, passed the residue of his days 
in religious exercises and profuse alms-giving. ' Qui cum in extremis ageret,' 
says Graystanes, ' in excessu positus, vidit candidorum chores in superiore parte 
domus ambulantes, portantes quasi libellos in manibus, ad suscipiendum eum 
cum jubilo praeparatos ; mirique odoris fragrantiam se traxisse naribus testatus 


not so the king, who, hearing what had happened, forthwith sent 
certain to Durham to appeal against the election of such as were likely 
to be chosen, as the dean of Lincoln, the vicar of Auckland, master 
Simon of London, and divers other religious. After such an experience, 
the wretched ecclesiastics, not to prolong the hopeless contest further, 
chose, or rather nominated, Nicholas de Farnham the queen's physician, 
when since he was probably all along the man of his choice the 
king it is said, kept quiet 'Quievit Rex.' 

But another incident, the only satisfactory one in the whole 
transaction, remains to mention, viz. : the pope's order that the 
whole of the expences incurred by the convent, should come out of the 
pocket of the successful favourite. 

Such is the chapter of local ecclesiastical history unfolded to us in 
connexion with the origin of this church, in which, moreover, as will 
be noted, one of its old, though unnamed, vicars is found to occupy 
neither an undignified, nor uninteresting, part. 

Meanwhile, the church of Durham lay waste and desolate for the 
space of nearly four years, Nicholas de Farnham, who was not elected 
till January 2nd, being consecrated at Gloucester on Trinity Sunday, 
June 9th, and enthroned at Durham on the feast of the translation of 
S. Cuthbert, 1241. But his reign was neither a long nor a prosperous 

est. Cumque corpus defuncti, Dunelmum differendum, in vehiculo poneretur, 
equus, qui ante claudicabat, obsequio ejus submissus, a claudicatione cessabat. 
Cum etiam in ecclesia sanctae Mariae de Gatesheved corpus ejus pernoctaret, 
versus Dunelmum, quidam bonae vitae diaconus columbam niveam toto noctis 
tempore circa loculum volitare vidit, et alarum plausibus sacris obsequiis coeleste 
obsequium praestitisse. Cum etiam sepulturae esset tradendus, duorum episco- 
porum, Edmundi et Etheldredi, corpora in loco sepulturae ejus reperta ; quorum 
sepultura ante illud ignorabatur : quod aliqui, ad commendationem interpretantes, 
quod quamvis ab episcopatu malitiose repulsus erat, episcopal! tamen honore eum 
dignum indicat, quod inter episcopos meruit sepeliri.' R. de Graystanes, c. v. 

A popular error has long attributed the vaulting of the nave of Durham 
cathedral to this prior. It may not improbably, perhaps, have arisen from a 
statement of Leland in his Collectanea, which runs thus : ' Nic. Fernham, 
episcopus, fecit testudinem templi 1242.' Melsonby was doubtless prior at that 
time, and Farnham bishop ; but that either of them should have erected the 
vaulting is not only against all analogy, but too utterly preposterous to deserve 
notice. Invaluable as a witness of what he saw. Leland is never to be trusted 
as to what he ' hard,' beyond the mere fact that he did hear it. That Farnham 
may have covered the nave roof with lead, instead of temporary shingles, is pos- 
sible enough, and hence, perhaps, the confusion. But his name has, latterly at 
any rate, been allowed to drop, and the vaulting, as by Mr. Billings in his 
Architectural Illustrations and Description of Durham Cathedral, been boldly 
attributed to prior Melsonby, though, as will not fail to be observed, Leland 
makes no mention either of the vaulting, or yet of Melsonby. 


one, for in the course of eight years, ' worn out by long support of the 
pontifical dignity, and broken down with age and weakness, he, at 
length yielding to the burden, resigned his see, February 8th, 1249, 
receiving for his support the entire manors of Howden, Stockton, and 
Easington, with all their members, liberties, and appurtenances.' 
Indeed, so far as can be judged, he might seem to have received the 
appointment, not for any special fitness for it, but chiefly, perhaps 
solely, as a rich and dignified provision for old age. Dying at 
Stockton in 1258, he was buried at Durham, when the church, as 
usual, received his chapel. To him, however, personally, though the 
general architectural character of the work is quite consistent with 
that prevailing during his episcopate, there seems, I think, no reason 
whatever for assigning the erection of the chancel. Our quest there- 
fore, though necessarily not far off, lies still before us. 

This time there was no interregnum, since the vacancy caused by 
the cession of Nicholas de Farnham was promptly filled up by the 
unanimous election of Walter de Kirkham, dean of York, to the see, 
who, receiving the royal assent, September 27th. was consecrated by 
archbishop Walter Gray, in York minster, on Sunday, December 5th, 
1249. Though somewhat longer than that of his predecessor, his rale, 
albeit distinguished by the very highest personal characteristics, was 
yet but a short one, lasting only till August 9th, 1260, when he died 
at Howden. Nor was there anything during its continuance to 
connect him, any more than Nicholas de Farnham, with the rebuilding 
of the church of S. Andrew, the evidences of which point, far more 
directly, I think, to the days of his successor, bishop Robert de Stichill, 
than to his. 

As related by Graystanes, his story is a singularly curious and 
striking one. From an early period, practically all his life, he 
would seem to have been intimately connected with the church and 
monastery of Durham, of which, when apparently quite a young man, 
he became a monk. At first he is said to have been greatly addicted 
to light and frivolous conduct, as a punishment for which, as well 
as for divers acts of rebellion, he was enjoined on a particular 
Sunday to sit alone during divine service upon a stool set in the midst 
of the choir, in order that, being overcome of shame, he might for the 
future behave himself becomingly. But this result was not realized, 


for, passion playing the part of penitence, he seized the stool by one 
of its legs and, casting with all his strength, sent it flying among the 
congregation in the nave. 

Afterwards, scandalized no less himself, perhaps, than his brethren 
and all others, at this miserable exhibition, he is said to have con- 
templated apostacy. Not that by this term, probably, we should 
understand a profession of open atheism, but only a breaking away 
from the bonds of monastic discipline. Nor, the resolve once made, 
was he long in putting it into execution, for endeavouring to make 
his escape at night time by way of the cross on the north side of the 
choir, he was warned by a heavenly voice to return, a promise being 
given him at the same time that if he would do so and abide, he should 
receive the bishopric. Whereupon, instantly forsaking his follies, he 
settled down to a sober life, and becoming what nowadays would, 
probably, be called ' converted,' devoted himself thenceforward to the 
diligent study of holy writ. 'In knowledge of which, and in the 
practice of all claustral duties, he speedily made such progress as 
seemed to his associates nothing short of miraculous. Whence it 
happened that one of them, Henry de Horncastre, afterwards prior of 
Coldingham, a man well skilled both in temporal and spiritual affairs 
Robert himself being ignorant of the fact that he was the bastard 
son of a priest procured privily a dispensation qualifying him for 
election to the episcopal dignity.' Which, strangely enough, in due 
time came to pass, for having in the meantime become prior of 
Finchale, he was, on the death of Kirkham, forthwith elected to the 
throne of Durham, September 30th (the month following), and having 
received the royal assent, October 25th, and the temporalities, December 
23rd, was duly consecrated at Southwell, by Godfrey, archbishop of 
York, on February 13th, 1260. 

The church of Howden was made collegiate by this bishop with 
consent of the convent ; and he was also founder of the hospital of 
Greatham, which place he had bought of a certain Bertram. Dying, 
after a reign of fourteen years, on his return from the council of 
Lyons, August 12th, 1274, at the castle of Arbreules, his body was 
interred in a neighbouring Benedictine monastery, but his heart was 
brought to Durham, where it was buried in the chapter-house. 

And now, in the person of Robert de Stichill, we arrive at the very 


last of the bishops to whom, as its own internal evidence distinctly 
shows, it is possible to refer the rebuilding of that old and inadequate 
fabric which, for nearly two centuries, had done duty as a collegiate 

As a local man, and one with such a record, 24 the re-edification of 
the parish church of the chief manor of that bishopric to which he had 
been called in so wonderful a way, might seem, on historical grounds 
alone, not only a natural and becoming, but very probable, act. But 
we are not left to draw our conclusions, indirectly and conjecturally, 
either from history or likelihood. We shall see very clearly, I make 
bold to say, as we proceed, that, just as on rigidly architectural grounds, 
we cannot go later than Stichill's days for the beginning of the work, 
so neither can we go earlier for its ending. In other words that, 
taking the building as a whole, his is the only episcopate in which 
such work could have been both commenced and completed, and 
that so far as can be known, whether singly, or otherwise he, and 
none other, was both the author and finisher of it. 


That the general work of re-edification was, as usual, com- 
menced with the chancel, is so self-evident as to admit of no dispute 
whatever. Taken by itself, however, there is nothing, let me repeat, 
generally speaking, in its architecture to show towards which end of 
the forty years intervening between 1220 and 1260, or to what inter- 
vening portion of those years it should be assigned rather than to any 

24 A pleasing trait of the bishop's character, as well as an amusing incident 
connected therewith, are thus narrated by Graystanes : ' Iste, dum vixit, 
semper, quando commedit in castro, solebat de vino suo mittere ad conventum ; 
et quodam die, dum pincernae suo diceret, quod suppriori et conventui de vino 
suo mitteret, veniens ille cum vino, suppriori ad suam justiciam in refectorio 
resident! vinum praesentavit. Prior vero H. [Hugo de Derlyngton] ad magnatn 
mensam praesidens, ex hoc indignatus, mensam percussit ; et sic prandium in 
medio prandii finivit.' R. de Graystanes, c. xiv. 

But for Graystanes stating expressly that on this particular occasion the 
cup-bearer was sent to the sub-prior, it might have seemed probable that the 
man, in the language of the ' commercial traveller,' had set the liquor before 
' Mr. Vice ' instead of before ' The Chair,' unintentionally, and through sheer 
absent-mindedness. As such, however, was clearly not the case, we can only 
conclude that the bishop had not wholly left off his early ' levity,' but, bent on 
a practical joke, had determined to take a ' rise ' out of the prior. If so, the 
latter certainly proved himself equal to the occasion by not only depriving his 
flattered subordinate and his brethren of their drink, but of their meat as well. 
After which experience the joke was probably not repeated. 


other. All that can be said in this connexion is that, it is undoubtedly 
of fully matured thirteenth-century, or Early English, style ; and 
that, whenever undertaken, it was carried on without pause till it was 
finished. Further, that it was wholly unfettered in its dimensions by 
whatever had preceded it ; as also that, at whatever point commenced, 
it was certainly completed at the north-west angle where, instead of 
stopping abruptly, the work was continued along the eastern wall of a 
new north transept without a break. Now, as will shortly be seen, 
this point of continuation is just that on which the whole subject of 
date practically depends. Was the western extension of the church 
proceeded with uninterruptedly, or was there, after the completion of 
the new chancel, anything in the nature of a stoppage, and, if so, for 
how long ? Careful anH exact comparison of details can alone supply 
the necessary data ; and to this, after the chancel itself has first been 
examined, we must, in due course, betake ourselves. Meanwhile, as 
to that, originally, most interesting and stately feature of the church. 

As the ground-plan* shows, it is, as compared with those of most 
of the other Durham churches, of quite exceptional size, measuring, 
internally, not less than fifty feet ten inches in length, by twenty-two 
feet six inches in breadth ; 25 and with a height, from the floor, of 
twenty-one feet six inches to the springing of the original, open, 
high-pitched roof, which, forming a nearly equilateral triangle, 
would give it a total internal elevation of about thirty-eight feet. 
Such dimensions, it is clear, would not only suffice to meet the 
collegiate requirements of the day, but allow also for such develop- 
ments as future times might be expected to, and actually did, bring 

* The plan from which the illustration on the next page has been prepared 
was kindly lent by Sir A. W. Blomfield. 

25 The dimensions stated above are the result of my own very carefully-taken 
measurements. Mr. Billings, however, in his Durham County gives the length 
as being only forty-eight feet and the breadth as twenty-two feet. The chancels 
most nearly approaching it in size are, according to the same author, those of 
Houghton-le-Spring, fifty-one feet by fifteen feet; Staindrop, forty-eight feet 
by eighteen feet ; and Sedgefield, fifty-three feet by twenty feet five inches. It 
is, however, distinctly broader than any other in the county. Three, viz., those 
of Dalton-le-Dale, Darlington, and Ryton have, according to Mr. Billings, a 
breadth of twenty-one feet : one, that of Brancepeth, of nineteen feet ; three, 
viz., those of Chester-le-Street, Easington, and Staindrop, of eighteen feet ; one, 
that of Coniscliffe, of seventeen feet ; six, viz., those of Billingham, Houghton- 
le-Spring, Heighington, Jarrow, Lanchester, and Stranton, of fifteen feet ; while 
that of Pittington, with a length of forty-four feet, reaches but to thirteen feet. 

VOL.. xx. 10 






Apart from its scale, one of the first and most striking points 
about this chancel is the unquestionable evidence it affords of having 
been designed by no mere rustic builder, but by what would nowadays 
be called a professional architect, in which respect it agrees remark- 
ably with those of Darlington, Sherburn, and Middleham, all 
intimately connected with other occupants of the see. 

Then, notwithstanding the mischievous effect of later and most 
grievous alterations, 26 the perfect harmony and uniformity of its 
design, so unlike that of our Durham churches generally, will 
no less speedily strike us than the well-considered variation of its 
northern and southern schemes of fenestration, the one forming a 
continuous arcade leading up to the great eastern window which, 
filling the entire gable, terminated the vista ; the other, though 
repeating the same details, discontinuous, having but half as many 
openings, massive, stern, and rock-like. And further, unlike almost 
all the rest, its walls were of excellent, well-dressed ashlar through- 
out; 27 so that, taken altogether, it must, in its original condition, 
have occupied, as well in size as in character, a position pretty nearly 

Unhappily, that condition can nowadays be seen only in the mind's 
eye, not in actuality, for the degradations have been so deadly and 
extensive as to blot out its pristine excellencies altogether. Putting 
all such aside, however, let us see how Stichill's architect conceived 
and executed it. 

Beginning with the exterior, then, we find that he divided it into 
four practically equal bays, 28 separated by exceedingly well proportioned 

28 A detailed account of these will be given farther on as the history of the 
building develops itself ; but the special point to be noted here is the fact that, 
brutally destructive as they are, they were perpetrated, not by puritan malignity, 
or improving churchwardens of the Georgian period, but by Bek the ' mag- 
nanimous,' and cardinal Langley ; the first, and worst, within a few years after 
the completion of the work ; the latter, at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. Anything more ruinously destructive of the original design, or cheaper 
and nastier, than the messification of these two prelates, separately or combined, 
it would be simply impossible to conceive. 

" The only other Durham chancels so constructed, I think, were those of 
Hartlepool, now, in the main, destroyed, Darlington, and Brancepeth as sump- 
tuously reconstructed by John Lord Nevill in the latter part of the fourteenth 
century. To which, in a roughish sort of way, may perhaps be added that of 
Medomsley, an interesting bit of thirteenth-century work. 

28 A very unusual, and, at present, all but unique number among the ancient 
churches of Durham county. Besides this, the only other examples I know of 
are, or were, to be found at Brancepeth, built by John lord Nevill personally, 


buttresses in two stages, of which those at the end were of combined, 
or compass form, embracing the angles. All have steeply sloping 
heads, weathered in every course, 29 and the same plain, but very bold 
and effective bases as those of the walls, which are in fact carried 
round them. 

How the eastern gable was completed originally for the present 
window, though a copy, is modern is far from self-evident, and by 
no means to be determined as readily as might be thought. The 

and for special uses ; Hartlepool, built by another great ' baron of the 
bishopric,' Robert de Brus IV., also personally, and for similar uses, but 
now nearly destroyed ; Bishopwearmouth, also like Hartlepool, now nearly 
destroyed the western end of the one and the eastern of the other only being 
left ; and possibly S. Oswald's, Durham, which had four two-light traceried 
windows towards the south, and an inserted, late, 'low-side window' of consider- 
able size to the west of them. But it seems more than doubtful, perhaps, 
whether they could be reckoned as true bays, i.e., in the same sense as those at 
Auckland, which consist of well-defined structural divisions, each containing 
two windows and separated by massive buttresses. 

Of our earliest and smallest churches, such as those of Escomb (unique), 
Witton-le-Wear, Stainton-le-Street, Middleton S. George, Sockburn, Iledmar- 
shall, Elton, Long Newton, Grindon, Whorlton (destroyed), Friarside, Trimdon, 
Croxdale, Hamsterley, Cockfield, Marwood (desecrated), Hilton (desecrated), 
S. Mary in the South Bailey, S. Mary Magdalene, and S. Giles, Durham 
(originally), Walworth (desecrated), Ebchester, and Whitworth, the chancel 
consists, or did consist, of only one or two small compartments, an altar plat- 
form, and a space, more or less small and structurally undefined, westward 
of it. 

Then, after these, come the great bulk of our parish churches, where much 
the same rule applies, only that they are generally on a larger scale and with 
better and more clearly marked dividing lines. Of these I could hardly adduce 
a more thoroughly typical example, perhaps, than that of Egglescliffe (or 
' Eaglescliffe,' as the railway people have absurdly named it), where, 
towards the south, we have two, three-light, traceried windows, one serving 
for the altar platform, and separated from the priest's door and the other 
window by a boldly projecting buttress, a feature only found occasionally. 
Other examples of the same class are, or were, found at Gainford, Winston, 
Coniscliffe, Dinsdale, Hart, Stranton, Elwick hall, Hurworth, Wolsingham 
(destroyed), Stanhope, Heighington, Haughton-le-Skerne, Norton, Greatham, 
Barnard Castle (destroyed), Auckland S. Helen's, Bishop Middleham, Whickham, 
Seaham, Dalton-le-Dale, Aycliffe, S. Mary-le-Bow, S. Giles and S. Margaret, 
Durham, Witton Gilbert, Jarrow, Monkwearmouth, Bishopton (destroyed), 
and Medomsley. 

In striking contrast with these we find but the few following churches, 
the chancels of which have, or had, probably as many as three distinct bays, 
viz., those of Merrington (destroyed), Ryton, Whitburn, Boldon, Middleton-in- 
Teesdale (destroyed), Staindrop, Darlington, Lanchester, Pittington (destroyed), 
Gateshead, Sedgefield, Chester-le-Street, Billingham (destroyed), and Easington. 
How very exceptional the position of those with four bays was may, therefore, 
be readily understood. 

a A special and peculiar characteristic of the best class of work, and even 
then very frequently wanting. Conspicuous illustrations of its use may be seen 
in various parts of the cathedral of Salisbury ; as well as in the oldest parts of 
the episcopal palace at Wells, built by bishop Joceline 1 205-44; and in the 
chapel and great hall of his successor, bishop Burnell, 1271-92. 


first, and very distinct impression so distinct, indeed as to admit, 
apparently, of no dispute is that the existing window is the copy of 
one inserted in Stichill's wall towards the very end of the century. 
And I suppose that hardly a single architectural critic, on the general 
view, would hesitate for a moment in coming to this conclusion, 
the evidence seeming, prima facie, so clear as to render any other 
impossible. The two narrow intermediate buttresses dividing the 
wall space into three equal compartments between the broad exterior 
ones, must, it would seem, have been carried up between the central, 
and side lights of a great eastern triplet, the natural and becoming 
finish of the lines of lancets on either side, just as at Hartburn, 
Holy Island, and many other places. 30 And such, superficially, I am 
free to confess was, for a time, my own opinion. A more careful and 
detailed examination, however, has led me to an entirely contrary 
conviction. That there is, or was, abundant space for lancets of the 
amplest dimensions in the several compartments, each of which was 
five feet nine inches wide, is clear enough ; but nothing remains to 
show that such were ever there. On the contrary, there appears the 
clearest proof that they were not. For on either side the central 
part is, of course, wholly gone the original ashlar work remains 
absolutely untampered with to the extent of two feet eight inches from 
the angle of the outer buttresses, so that the lancets which, from the 

80 This, though by no means a rare, is yet far from being a common arrange- 
ment, and with the single exception of Whitburn was, I think, the only example 
in the county. Locally, very interesting and noteworthy instances of the same 
treatment occur in the chancels of the parish church of Holy Island, as also in 
those of Hartburn and Bamburgh the latter, like the whole of the noble five- 
bayed chancel, which was also one of canons, being of exceptional height and 
dignity. Of simple eastern triplets, without divisional buttresses, we have still 
some, and must once have had many, examples. They remain at Marwood, now 
a farm-house, Winston, Gainford, Sockburn, Medomsley, Cockfield, Lanchester, 
and pretty certainly at Hilton, now also a farm-house, but, as the whole is at 
present covered with rough cast, the fact cannot be determined. The remains of 
a Norman triplet are still, or were lately, to be seen at the east end of the 
chancel of Haughton-le-Skerne church, the moulded splays of which were 
enriched with nook shafts. Apart from parish churches, that of Finchale 
priory had its choir terminated by a fine triplet of tall lancets, richly moulded 
and carried on shafts internally ; as had also the mother church of Durham ; 
the former, however, without, the latter with, dividing buttresses. Gainford 
affords the only instance where the rear arches of the triplet were moulded and 
carried on banded shafts with bases and capitals in the proper way. Medomsley, 
which might, perhaps, be thought to supply another, exhibits only the very 
singular mistake of the builder who, not knowing what to do with his shafts, 
set them against the face of the wall strips between the splays, where they were 
quite useless, having neither mouldings nor anything else to carry, instead of in 
nooks within, and apparently supporting, the splays. 


necessity of the case, must have been one foot nine inches, or two feet 
wide at the glass line, and so, with chamfers similar to those of the 
side lights, have had a full moulded width of three feet, must not only 
have been pushed quite out of centre, but, u'ithout making any allow- 
ance at all for the necessary ' in and out' bands of the jambs, have been 
driven into the very angles of the inner buttresses, which is, practically, 
absurd. Or, to put the case in another, and, perhaps, clearer way. The 
undisturbed, primitive masonry extends, as I have said, for two feet 
eight inches from the angles of the outer buttresses, inwards ; that is 
to say, up to two and a half inches from the centre line of the com- 
partments. But, if the eastern lancets had been even only of the same 
width as the side ones, they would have measured two feet six inches 
from edge to edge of their chamfers, to which another ten or twelve 
would have to be allowed for the banding of their jambs on either side, 
and which would make up a total of three feet four inches, or three 
feet six inches. Now, the half of this, instead of being two and a 
half inches merely, would be one foot eight, or one foot nine, inches. 
That is to say, the masonry which still extends undisturbed for two 
feet eight inches inwards would have to be cut away to the extent of 
one foot five and a half inches at the least, in order to the introduction 
of even such narrow lights as these. Being as it is, however, intact, 
it proves, incontestably, that no lights of any kind could ever have 
occupied the space at all. 

Another piece of evidence, leading to the same conclusion, is this, 
viz., that the string course below the sills of the side windows, after 
turning the eastern angles, is stepped up to that of the eastern one in 
a way that would clearly never have happened had there been lancets 
in the centre of the side compartments ; for instead of rising just out- 
side of, and including, their sills, as universally happens, it would have 
risen, as nearly as possible, in the very centre of them, which, of course, 
is quite out of the question. 

But what then, it may be asked, is the explanation of the two 
intermediate buttresses, and what purpose, save that of running up 
between, and separating, the three eastern lights, could they possibly 
have been intended to serve ? Well, that such was the original design 
of the architect there cannot, I think, be the shadow of a doubt. But, 
by the time the level of the window sills was reached, that design was 


abandoned, and the buttresses, in consequence, abruptly cut short and 
headed off in the way we see to-day. Whether the change were owing 
to the very natural and just fear that the lancets at the sides would 
prove insufficient for the due lighting of the building, or from pure 
love of the new fashion of grouped lights forming a single window 
within a circumscribing arch may, perhaps, be doubtful. What there 
can be no doubt at all about, however, is that such change was then 
and there made, and a great window of five lancet lights under a single 
arch introduced instead. 

Nor is this at all to be wondered at, seeing that the immediate 
district furnishes us with three highly curious illustrations of such 
practice. The first, and earliest, earlier by a few years than this at 
Auckland, is found at the east end of the choir of the abbey church 
of Egliston above referred to. It is probably, nay, pretty certainly, I 
think, the most remarkable instance of the kind to be seen anywhere. 
The side windows consist of two moulded lancet lights, with solid 
tympana set within beautifully enriched and shafted enclosing arches. 
But the great east window of five lights goes a step further. Under 
a very rich and massive head, like a vast pier arch, spanning the whole 
width of the choir, four massive mullions, or rather moulded columns, 
a foot or more in thickness, run straight up from the sill to the intrados 
of the arch, which their upper stones are mitred into, and form part 
of. Nothing but its noble proportions, massive construction, and rich 
detail, however, save this most interesting experiment if indeed they 
do save it from absolute ugliness. But it had no imitators, and was, 
therefore, probably, not regarded as a success. 

More nearly, if not actually, contemporary with this Auckland 
window are the other two, viz., that inserted in the south transept of 
Finchale priory, and the great north window of the Nine Altars at 
Durham. Of the first which was erected above the shrine of S. 
Godric, and reproduces the exact design of that before us mention 
is made in an indulgence granted by Archibald, bishop of Moray, 
to all who should contribute to its erection, dated on the vigil of 
S. Leonard, abbot, 1266. It serves to fix, therefore, if not the exact 
year, at least the period, to which this eastern choir window should be 
referred, about as accurately as could be wished. The other, very 
slightly later, perhaps, reproduces the circumstances, though not the 


details, of the work here, just as exactly. As first designed and com- 
menced, the north end of the Nine Altars was meant to repeat, with 
more or less accuracy, that towards the south, coupled lancets in two 
pairs, and in two storeys, separated internally by a central group of 
vaulting shafts, and externally by a lofty staged buttress. But here, 
again, the desire for a single large window led to a superseding of the 
original scheme, and so the great central buttress was brought to a 
sudden stop, precisely like those at Auckland, immediately beneath its 
sill. And well was it for art that the change was made, for this window 
is by far the largest and finest composition of its period in the king- 
dom. That the relative gain at Auckland was at all proportionate 
cannot, I fear, be said. Indeed, whether looked at internally or 
externally, the alteration was clearly a mistake ; since, however great 
the gain of light, the loss of solemnity and power was greater. But, 
then, it had the charm of novelty, and that, as usual, carried all 
before it. 

Though similar in all other respects to that on the south, the north 
side had but half its number of windows ; that is, one, instead of two, 
lancets in each bay. 

As the masonry sufficiently shows, the old high roof sprang from 
the course of ashlar immediately above the window heads, completing, 
beyond doubt, the finest thirteenth-century chancel of the kind in the 
county. Its distinguishing qualities will be seen to have been'those of 
size, solidity, excellence of construction, and rich simplicity, all which 
combined served clearly to denote it purpose ; thenceforth marking it 
off unmistakably as that of a collegiate, instead of a mere parish, 

Turning to details : one of its best and most telling features is the 
basement, as noteworthy for its rich and massive effect, as for the 
perfect simplicity of the means used to attain it. No less than two 
and a half feet deep, it has no mouldings, strictly speaking ; all its 
effect resulting from the use of perfectly plain chamfers, and the skilful 
way in which they are proportioned and applied. 

And here, let me say, we come at the very outset, to what, 
whether historically or architecturally considered, is unquestionably 
the most important feature of the building. For striking and effective 
as it is, this basement is of infinitely more value in determining the 



date of the chancel, and by consequence, the personality of the builder 
than in imparting architectural character to it. It constitutes, 
indeed little, as would generally be suspected the one feature which 
not merely justifies, but demands, a date very considerably later than 
that which could otherwise, either safely, or naturally, be assigned to 

(Basement obscured.) (See next page.) 

it. The crucial point is found in its upper and more important 
member. This, as will be noted, does not, like the one below, and as 
in similar Early English basements generally, consist of a simple 
chamfer, whose salient and re-entering angles coincide with the upper 

VOL. XX. 11 


and lower surfaces which they adjoin, but overhangs the lower one 
considerably. Well, it is just this seemingly simple circumstance which 
enables that ' snapper up of unconsidered trifles,' the architectural 
expert, to determine the age of the work to a nicety. For it belongs 
to that special period of thirteenth century transition, when the Early 
English style was both developing, and had already developed, into the 
intermediate phase between itself and the Decorated the early 
Geometrical, and which, though not simultaneous in all parts of the 
kingdom, may pretty accurately be fixed as occurring in these northern 
parts of it between 1260-70. Though unrecorded, we have perhaps as 
striking and conclusive a proof of the date of this basement in the 
neighbouring abbey church of Egliston as could be wished for. In 
the nave and north transept, the earliest parts of the building, dating 
from the latter part of the twelfth century, we have a single, and 
simply chamfered earth-table. In the choir, rebuilt on a much larger 

and richer scale, about 1250-60, we see a 
basement in two stages, like this at 
Auckland, save that the broad chamfered 
upper member, like the narrow one below 
it, does not overlap. In the south tran- 
o J sept, or lady-chapel, a distinctly later 

piece of work carried out after an in- 
terval of some years in continuation of 
the new choir, and in the still later south 
side of the nave in completion of it, both 
of the most beautiful early Geometrical 
character, we have exactly the same base- 
ment moulds, in all respects, as we have 
here. Nothing could serve to fix the date 

Egliston S. Andrew 

Abbey - Auckland. O f ^ Auckland work more clearly, I 

think, within the limits of Stichill's episcopate, 1260-74, than this 
local example, the age of which cannot be gainsaid. 31 

And another equally simple, but effective feature is found in the 

31 In the ' Church Reports' of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of 
Durham and Northumberland, it is stated that the building was ' erected 
apparently about the year 1200'; but this conjecture is palpably wrong by more 
than half a century, and could only have been formed after a very hasty and 
superficial view of the building, not after a detailed and critical examination 
of it. In the latest History of the County : its Churches and Castles, etc., the 
same mistake is also taken over and repeated by Mr. Boyle. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xx. To face p. 85. 

Plait VI. 

J F. H.. MEN8. ET DELT. 


Showing inserted priests' door, with disturbed, and original masonry. 

Jambs ancient, with modern arch. 


deep torus moulding which is carried as a string-course beneath the 
window sills and continued round all the buttresses of the south, east 
and north sides without a break. It served to impart just that amount 
of strength and cohesion, which the somewhat peculiar nature of the 
design required. For here, since the windows were 
planned with a special eye to internal, rather than to 
external effect, they were not, as commonly happened, 
grouped together centrally in each bay, but set separ- 
ately, and within a few inches of their extremities. 
They were, moreover, unusually narrow, only one 
foot four, to one foot six, inches in the clear, and, as 
a consequence, did not catch the eye, and produce 
that effect of unity, and centralized balance, which 
those of greater width, and grouped in the middle 
of each compartment would do. Here, indeed, the exact contrary 
is the case, all the central parts, instead of being so accentuated, 
having mere bare walling. In the absence of |any distinct middle 
feature, therefore, some such bold and massive tie as this was needed 
in order to bind the whole composition, otherwise too scattered, more 
visibly together; the more so, as the hood-moulds, instead of being, as 
usual, in better class work, continued as an upper string throughout, 
are here discontinuous, and stopped at the springing of each head. 

A singular point in connexion with the south side of the chancel 
is that, in the westernmost bay, the basement, which gives so striking 
an effect to all the rest of the structure, has been omitted, the wall 
going straight down to the earth table. Why this should be so was far 
from apparent. The priest's door (see plate VI.) is found, at present, in 
the second bay from the east ; not, as is clear, in its original position, 
since one of the stone sedilia has been destroyed to allow of its in- 
sertion. Though the position would have been far from usual, the 
presumption was that it had originally occupied the western bay, 
and hence, perhaps, the absence of the basement. But, though a 
good deal disturbed, not the least trace of its ever having been there 
was to be seen. At last, after the closest search, I fancied that, on a 
longish stone immediately above the earth table, and much obscured 
by blackened lime and dirt, I saw a faint trace of a vertical line, about 
an inch long. An extemporized chisel and hammer showed that my 


suspicions were correct, and the sill of the old priest's doorway presently 
stood revealed. However inadequately, therefore, its presence doubtless 
serves to explain the non-continuance of the basement which stops 
short at the adjoining buttress (see plate VII.). 

INTERIOR. Equally simple with the outside, the interior must 
have been equally effective, and from the same causes, dignity of 
scale, justness of proportion, and that sober richness of constructive 
detail which belonged to both alike. To the nave it opened by a large 
and well moulded equilateral arch, springing on either side from foliated 
corbels. The walls, twenty-one feet six inches in height above the floor 
line, were finished above in a very simple and effective way, but one 
almost unique among our Durham churches, by having a sort of cornice 
moulding carried along their summits, which made a fitting break, or 
line of distinction between them and the timbers of the roof 32 . Slight 
and insignificant as it may seem, it is, nevertheless, just one of those 
finishing touches, noticeable everywhere else throughout the work, 
which, in all cases, make so much for perfection. 

But what, if only the original design had been adhered to, would 
have been the best seen, and doubtless the finest feature, the east end, 
is now, unfortunately, more utterly gone than even on the outside ; for 
there, at least, the basement and lower parts of the buttresses are left 
to give some indication of what was once intended, while here there is 
simply nothing. The three great lights would, of course, have been 
deeply splayed like the rest, but unlike them, not improbably, provided, 
as at Medomsley and Gainf ord, with banded shafts carrying arch-moulds 
of greater or less richness. Be this as it may, however, the special 
peculiarity of the windows, generally, lay in the treatment of their 
internal splays. During the Early English period various methods of 
dealing with this part of the windows were adopted, according to their 
position, and the general character of the work. In aisles, or wherever 
there was a limitation of height, the rear arches were, commonly, more 
or less flat and plain. In gables, or wherever, as here, the wall space 
allowed it, then the lines of the rear arches followed more or less closely 
the sweep of the window heads themselves, as at Finchale and the 

n The only other instances, I think, of this kind of finish occur at Darlington 
and Hartlepool churches, which in this respect, as in many more, stand quite 
alone. But in both cases the buildings are clear-storeyed throughout, while that 
of Auckland is not. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xx. To face p. 87. 

Plate VII 1. 



A rch. Ad. vol. xx. To (ace />. 86. 

Plate Villa. 

J. f. H. MENS. ET OELT. 



Nine Altars at Durham. There was also the utmost conceivable 
variety of treatment, from that of the rudest and sternest severity to 
the most refined richness, but all equally telling and effective in their 
several ways. Of the one, we have a local illustration in the northern 
triplet of the north transept of Staindrop church, where the fully occu- 
pied thick wall is worked into three deep cavernous compartments, 
tref oiled, but with all the edges, both of arches and jambs, left square. 
The eastern wall had four such openings, and the west two, till it 
joined the aisle all continuous. Plain, to the last degree of plainness 
as they were, the effect, when perfect, must, as cannot be doubted, have 
been very fine indeed. 

Another local illustration, but of considerable richness, is found on 
the south side of the choir of Houghton-le-Spring church, where is a 
fine continuous arcade, carried on shafts, with well-moulded segmented 
pointed arches. In the choir of Darlington church the very early 
arcades, which are also carried on shafts, have only the alternate 
spaces perforated, but here the rear arches are concentric with those of 
the lights, the blank intermediate ones following a similar curvature. 

Now, this arcade at Auckland and herein lies its speciality 
differs from all these three examples, which may be taken as generally 
representative types, in being neither square-edged, shafted, segmental 
headed, nor alternately perforated ; for, while pierced 
in each compartment, its arches, which are concen- 
tric with those of the lights, in place of being carried 
on shafts with bases and capitals, have their rich 
mouldings carried down the jambs without a break. 
(See Plate VIII.). All are surmounted by a delicate 
hood-mould, which the flat space of four inches 
between the splays allows very nearly to descend 
to the springing. ' j fuii size. 

From the great length of this arcade, extending unbrokenly through 
all the four bays ; the narrowness of the lights, and consequent depth 
and breadth of the splays ; the mingled boldness and refinement of the 
mouldings, at once so rich and simple ; it must, in these parts at any 
rate, have been unrivalled, and altogether sui generis. We have 
simply nothing like, or at all approaching, it. 

But few other original features are left to claim attention. Among 


them, the first, perhaps, to be noticed is the recurrence of the same 
striking torus moulding which there, as on the outside, runs round all 
three sides beneath the window sills ; and which, besides its special 
office of binding the several parts together in a united whole, tends 
largely to increase and emphasize the perspective effect. 

Then we have the sedilia, or rather, their remains ; for when, as 
we have seen, the priest's door was at a subsequent period shifted 
eastwards, the westernmost of them had to be cut away to receive it. 
Without any special excellence of detail, and consisting of three 
simply moulded and obtuse pointed arches carried on shafts, these 

sedilia, instead of being, as usual, 
recessed in the thickness of the 
^J wall, have the peculiarity of pro- 
^| jecting six and a half inches in 

^f front of it, and so avoiding un- 

W due penetration. And another 

^^ noteworthy point, and one which 

I never remember to have either 
seen, or heard of, elsewhere, is 
that whereas the two end re- 
cesses were, as commonly the 
case, square in section, and only 

m one foot five inches deep, the 

Base moulds ot shafts of sedma. central one, which is rather 

i full size. 

broader, was semicircular, like 
the back of an easy-chair, and one foot ten inches deep. 

And then comes the most remarkable feature of all, in the shape of 
another sedile adjoining these, but in all respects perfectly separate 
and distinct from them, both in size, design, and plane, and evidently 
designed for the use of some other than the usual priest, deacon, and 
sub-deacon. It is set back from the line of the sedilia proper, being 
wholly recessed within the wall, is nearly half as broad again as they, 
and covered with a once richly moulded, but now, owing to brutal 
usage during restoration, almost destroyed cinquefoiled (not cinque- 
foliated) arch. 33 Though nothing can at present, perhaps, be certainly 

** That a clearly- marked line of distinction between this sedile and the rest 
was intended from the first, admits of no more doubt than that it was nut a more 
makeshift substitute for the destroyed western one, as asserted by Mr. Boyle. 


said as to its use, there would seem little doubt but that it must have 
been designed for that of the bishop, or dean, when engaged officially 
in the service of the mass. 

Still further east than this again, come the pisinae, the one, sex- 
foiled, the other, cinquefoiled ; both set within a deep recess, the head 
of which was destroyed not long after their erection by the lowered 
sill of a newly inserted window. 

Such are the remains of the chancel, inside and outside, as erected 
by the original architect, whoever he may have been, and by whomso- 
ever employed. That bishop Stichill did so, I would not assert dogma- 
tically, and as an established fact. Only, that the whole evidence 
points irresistably in that direction ; more so, incomparably, than 
in any other, including that of his immediate predecessor, Kirkham, 
who, if he ever began the general work of re-edifying the church 
of which there is not, however, the slightest proof certainly did not, 
as Stichill, on the irrefragable witness of the building itself, cer- 
tainly did, finish it. In either case, the chancel was a truly noble work, 
far more so than can now, in its present hideously maltreated state, 
be understood by any save the architectural expert, and formed a 
fitting climax of a singularly noble and exceptional design. 


That the chancel was no independent work, begun and completed 
by itself, without reference to any further re-building connected with, 
and in continuation of it, is fully disproved by the fact of its basement 
being carried on to the north-west angle of the north transept, where 
it stops at the west side of the western buttress. 34 

This is sufficiently evidenced, not only by the several particulars enumerated 
above, but by the fact that it is structural, built at, or if the work was com- 
menced at the east end before, the Fame time as the sedilia proper ; also, by 
the further fact that the destruction of the sedile, for which it is said to form a 
substitute, did not take place till necessitated by the erection of Langley's stalls 
in the fifteenth century a hundred and fifty years afterwards ! 

3 * At this point the lower member, or earth table, is stepped up to the height 
of the chief, or upper one. and thence continued southward. The various 
points of similarity and difference between the work of the chancel and 
that of the transept are most numerous and best observed at their angle of 
junction. For the length of about four feet northward the basement mouldings 
of the chancel are continued evenly along the east wall of the transept. Then 
a hitch occurs where there is a rise of about two inches in the levels. For about 


Nor is this all, for we have the same torus moulding which runs 
beneath the window sills of the chancel inside, continued here also in 
a similar position along the eastern and northern wall till it stops at 
the north-west angle. Then, again, the three east windows reproduced, 35 
both inside and outside, those of the chancel with the most absolute 
fidelity. And still further, the end, or north window has precisely the 
same edge mouldings to its splays as they have, and has the same hood- 
moulding carried over it till it, too, stops at the north-west angle. 
With this window, however, comes what might, perhaps, but for the 
evidence already adduced in respect to the plan of the great eastern 
one of the chancel, be thought the first distinct development, or step 
in advance, of the simple lancet forms to which, with that exception, 
all the preceding ones have been confined. 

Though at present, and now for a long time past, consisting only 
of two plain, broad, bifurcated lights branching off into a pointed 
arch, such would not seem to have been the primitive arrangement. 
Hutchinson, whose architectural descriptions are of the minutest and 
most exact accuracy, tells us (History of Durham, iii. 330), that in his 
day, now a hundred years since, this window had three lights ; and 
this, I think, may unhesitatingly be accepted as fact. They would, if 
original, and not insertions of Bek's time, be probably either of three 
long lancets with solid tympana under a circumscribing arch, as in 

the same distance of four feet from the angle and just above this hitch, the 
masonry of the transept, like that of the choir, is of ashlar up to the top all 
the rest of the transept walling being of rubble, as though, in the first instance, 
the intention had been to make both alike in that respect, but was then 

35 In speaking of the three east windows, I am assuming that originally 
there were three. And such would seem to be not only the natural, but 
inevitable, conclusion. As a matter of fact, however, there are only two, similar 
to those of the chancel, which are placed within the transept proper, i.e., towards 
the north, and out of line with the aisle. The southernmost window, which 
terminates the vista of the aisle, is of three lights, and similar in character to 
the east window of the chancel. But as it, too, surmounted an altar, a doubt 
not unnaturally arises as to whether one of this form for the present one is 
a copy did not occupy the place from the first. Unfortunately, there is no 
structural evidence to prove whether this was the case or not, for all traces of 
the hood-mould of the other two which was continued as a string, and might 
have settled the point decisively, are lost in the disturbed masonry above the 
head of the lower three-light one. As its own internal evidence is altogether 
inconclusive, 1 think, however, keeping the general effect and nature of the 
case in view, there can be little or no doubt but that, in the first instance, 
there were three uniform lancets in the eastern wall of this transept; and that 
the original of the three-light one now found there was an insertion, made to 
balance those erected at a somewhat later date in a new, and corresponding, 
transept, then built for the first time towards the south. 



the neighbouring example of the west window of the south aisle at 
Staindrop church ; in the four western south choir aisle windows of 
Carlisle cathedral ; and western nave window at S. Helen's Auckland ; 
or, perforated, as in the east window of the chancel of that same 
church, all of practically the same date. Such grouping of lights, 
however, be it observed, would be quite sufficiently accounted for 
by its position in the gable, and be no evidence whatever either of 
subsequent insertion or of later date, due to any pause in the 
progress of the works, of which, up to this point, at any rate, 
there is no room for suspicion. The reason for the 
stoppage of the torus moulding at the north-west 
angle and its change into one of another form, though 
of the same depth, is explained by the fact of its 
having fulfilled its office as a well-proportioned base 
line to the range of long lancets in the choir and tran- 
sept ; and because, at that point only, the change into 
one less massive and more suitable for continuation 
along the lower walls and windows of the aisle could 
be effected without either violence or observation. A j1u e n sSe Uld< 

But that the transept was not left off incomplete at that angle, or 
that the change in the section of the interior string-course does not, as 
might, perhaps, be supposed, point to any temporary cessation of work, 
and difference of date, is proved by the exterior string-course being 
continued round the whole structure till it stops against the wall of the 
north aisle. And similar proof of uninterrupted continuity is afforded 
by the two adjoining eastern arches of the nave, whose mouldings repro- 
duce those of the chancel arch with perfect accuracy ; the easternmost 
of them springing, moreover, in just the same way as it does, and from 
a similar kind of corbel. 36 As this arch opens to the transept, whence 

38 The actual corbels, though new, reproduce, I think, with tolerable, if not 
perfect, accuracy, the originals which had been much mutilated. The most 
remarkable point about these arches is that their mouldings are almost exact 
copies of those in the bishop's chapel, originally Pudsey's great hall, and 
nearly a hundred years earlier. As incapacity of invention could hardly be 
alleged against the architect, we can only suppose that either a strong admira- 
tion for those fine arcades, the proportions of which, however, are widely 
different, must have influenced him, or else some similar feeling on the part of 
the bishop or other ecclesiastical authorities. It may be observed further, that 
the proportions, though perfectly adapted to the height and span of the arcade 
arches, are insufficient for those, very much greater, of the chancel arch, which 
suffers accordingly. In this respect, that of Hartlepool leaves it far behind. 

VOL. xx. 12 


its mouldings could not fail to be plainly seen, they are of the same 
pattern both back and front ; those of the next one westward, which 
opens only to the aisle, having the outermost one in that direction, 
like those in the bishop's chapel and elsewhere, simply chamfered (see 
below). These two arches, as is perfectly clear from the similarity of 
their mouldings and general curvature and expression, were built at 
the same time as the transept, but these two only ; the work, for some 
reason or other, now impossible to specify, there stopping abruptly. 

Arch moulds, two N.E. arches of nave. 
One-sixteenth full size. 

They raise some interesting, though difficult, questions. For, 
though speaking of the general curvature and expression of these 
two arches in their present state, I am, to some extent, assuming 
what is probable only, since they are both so hideously distorted that 
their true curves can only be known by reconstruction. Many causes 
might seem to have contributed to this result : the difficulty lies in 
determining to which one or more, and in what proportion severally, 
it may be due. 

Mr. Billings, in his admirably illustrated Architectural Antiquities of the 
County of Durham, speaks of it as 'a noble equilateral pointed arch, the whole 
width of the nave.' This, however, is a mistake, as it is only the whole width of 
the chancel, the nave bein^r wider by four feet. 


In the first place, the construction of the arcade was certainly dis- 
continuous, and stopped, for a considerable period, on the completion 
of the western arch. Why it ended there, and how it was abutted in 
the first instance, cannot now be said, though, most probably, it would 
be built up to, and stopped against, the north wall of the previous 
structure. Nor can it be known, precisely, when the settlements and 
distortion first took place. It seems pretty clear, however, that they 
must have occurred at a very early period indeed, practically as soon 
as the two arches were built, a circumstance which might, perhaps, 
account for the temporary abandonment of the work. A recent 
restoration, undertaken in consequence of extensive settlements due 
to pit workings, serves to show at least two very efficient causes for 
their occurrence, whether primarily or later on. The first of them is 
the alleged existence of a quicksand. The second, the evidence of no 
fewer than something like one hundred and fifty interments within the 
limited area of the transept. Both of these might account for a good 
deal of the mischief, for certain it is that the pillar on which the two 
crippled arches rest has been driven two inches into the ground, 
and to the extent of If inch in a length of 7 feet 9 inches out of the 
perpendicular, causes which cannot fail to have contributed greatly 
to such a result. 

But there is another circumstance which seems to me to point, not 
only to the particular time when, but to the way in which, the mischief 
was brought about. I have said that the work of the arcade, com- 
menced at the east end, was abruptly stopped after the two arches 
had been built, and it was not finished till long afterwards, and then 
at the very point where it had been left off. Now, the jointing of the 
masonry at the point of junction shows that the distortion of the 
western arch had then already taken place, for the extrados line of its 
voussoirs, which are thrust out far beyond the line of springing, is 
exactly met, and fitted, by the corresponding one of the new arch. 
Thus, save for the action of the alleged quicksand for the interments 
could not then have taken place it might seem that, in building up 
to this point, the necessary precaution of centring the arch had been 
neglected, and that, in consequence, a further spreading had there- 
upon taken place. But whatever the precise cause, or causes, of such 
deformation, it must be referred to a period not later than the comple- 


tion of the arcade, of which, account will be taken by and bye. And, 
unfortunately, the mischief did not end there, for the spreading of the 
western, led to the jamming of the eastern, arch, the lower half of 
which, westward, was forced into an almost upright, crooked, and most 
unsightly line. Nothing, I think, calls so loudly for amelioration as 
the state of these two arches, which, disfiguring the appearance of the 
church so intolerably, could yet be re-set at little cost and with the 
greatest ease. 

Whether this transept was built in connexion with the collegiate 
body, and as a Lady chapel, like the southern one at Darlington, or 
by some private person for mortuary purposes, cannot now be said ; 
but since there is no mural monumental recess to denote such origin, 37 
the exact reproduction of the chancel windows and other details in it 
might seem to point rather to the former, than to the latter, source. 
But one thing is certain, and that is, that it was complete in itself, 
and not intended, as afterwards happened, to be balanced by any 
corresponding limb 38 on the other side of the church. 

37 Such was very commonly the case in transeptal mortuary chapels, the 
founder's effigy lying east and west within the recess, while the altar occupied 
the eastern part. Local illustrations of this practice may be seen in the north 
transept of Barnard Castle church, where there are two such recesses ; in the 
south transept of Houghton-le-Spriner church, where there is, as usual, but one ; 
and in that of Egglescliffe, where there is another. At Brancepeth, Sedgefield, 
Norton (Saxon), and Hamsterley, all with two transepts, there is none ; 
neither are there any at Kelloe, Grindon, Dinsdale, and Sockburn, where the 
transepts, or transeptal chapels, are single, i.e., on one side only. Nor, though 
there were two chantry altars, is any such to be found in the north transept of 
Staindrop church any more than, almost certainly, in that towards the south, 
whence, on its destruction, the effigy of the foundress was removed and placed 
in one contrived in a new south aisle in the fourteenth century. This is pn-tty 
clearly proved by the fact that the slab, out of which it is cut, tapers towards 
the feet, while the section of the recess, like those of the contemporary effigies, 
is square, and which, of course, this one does not fit. Thus we see that, though 
the presence of these recesses proves clearly the private origin and use of such 
chapels, their absence affords no such proof, or even presumption, whatever. 

38 When will our architects and church builders, whether private or societary, 
learn the very plain and palpable fact that, save in churches of cathedral, con- 
ventual and collegiate character, transepts, which were provided solely for the 
accommodation of extra altars, never, under any circumstances, formed part of 
the plan of our ancient churches ? Because, either single or double, they are 
often found attached to simple parish churches, it is assumed offhand, and with- 
out further thought or question, that they are, and always were, integral parts of 
them ; whereas the very least enquiry would show that such was most distinctly 
not the case. So far from forming parts of the parish churches, they were in all 
cases simply joined on to them by individual parishioners for their own proper 
use and benefit, being invariably screened off and having their separate altar 
and chantry priest. Yet, because nowadays these screens are very generally 
destroyed, and the monuments of the founders whenever not recessed in the 


This special use then, once presumably secured to the dean and 
canons, may perhaps sufficiently account for the arcade being then 
stopped for a time on that side, while after a brief interval, or possibly 
none at all, the work of rebuilding was continued on the other. 


From the close similarity identity, indeed of the mouldings of 
the southern arcade with those of the chancel arch and two eastern 
ones towards the north, there seems no reason for thinking that any 
appreciable delay took place in continuing the task of rebuilding, 
undoubtedly commenced, and for a while concluded, in that quarter. 
This will appear more clearly by a 
comparison of the several arch 
mouldings, which will be found 
almost, if not quite, identical. 
Yet, that there might be some 
little pause seems not improbable, 
from the circumstance that, though 
the arch-moulds are uniform, the 
curvature and expression of the 
arches vary somewhat. True, the 

Cap. Eastern pillar. Cap. 1st pillar from E. 

N. j fuii size, two northern ones are now so dis- N - ifuiisize. 
torted by twisting and settlement (see plate IX.), that their proper 
contour cannot accurately be known, yet their effect would seem to 
have been at once slightly different from, and of earlier type than, 
that of the southern ones. That the easternmost of these latter 
springs from a demi-column instead of a corbel, like the northern 
one, may be due simply to love of variety ; but again, the mouldings 
of the two capitals differ from those opposite, not only in design, 
but, like the arches, also somewhat in character. And the same 
difference is observable in the base-moulds ; those on the north side, 

thickness of the wall, either turned out into the churchyard, as at Egglescliffe 
and Heighington, or bundled into some obscure hole and corner, as at Auckland 
and Staindrop, they are regarded as being as indisputably parts of the parish 
church as the tower or chancel. And the practical mischief is, that in new 
churches, where these transepts are filled with pews, the occupants are altogether 
cut off from sight, not to say sound, of the altar, and thus deprived of that 
common point and centre of devotion which should, be free and open to all 


especially of the easternmost column, having a distinctly earlier look 
than those towards the south. But it is perfectly clear that, once 
begun, the south arcade went forward continuously without let or 
hindrance to completion, the same style and character pervading every 
detail, varying though they do, from one extremity to the other (see 
plate IX. and preceding page). 

Base, 2nd from east. N. Base, 4th pillar from east, S. 

J full size. J full size. 

That this was so, that it was designed, moreover, as a whole, and 
did not result from the mere repetition of an initial bay, is shown also 
from the very curious fact, which I cannot remember to have met 
with elsewhere, that the two extreme arches, east and west, though 
of the same, or practically the same, span as the three intervening 
ones, are not only somewhat lower, but balance each other sym- 
metrically by being of the same height. The difference, it is true, is 
not very great, and has probably never been noticed by one in a 
thousand, but for all that, is easily noticeable by all who have eyes to 
see, and is certainly not accidental. 

Whether the effect is improved by it or not, is not easy, perhaps, 
to say ; but it produces variety, and more or less of that beauty 
which all well-considered variety, so universally met with in old work, 
produces ; moreover, it saves the design from that dead, unimagin- 
ative, and mechanical insipidity, so suggestive of machine work, 
which is the bane of almost everything new. The whole of the arches 

Arch. A el. vol. xx. To face p. 97. 

Plate X. 

4. F. H., MENS. ET DELT. 

With sections of arch, and jamb moulds, and of caps and bases of shafts. 

THE SOtfTflERtf AfcCADE. 97 

have exactly the same mouldings, and their hood-moulds are also of the 
same section from end to end on each side ; those towards the aisle, 
however, which are plainer, differing from those facing the body of the 
church. 39 And the arch-moulds all follow the pattern of the second 
arch, the first that is, which opens to the aisle towards the north. 
The arcade finishes westwards on , 

a corbel which differs from those of 
the chancel-arch and that of the 
north transept, in being quite plain, 
and without either foliage or mould- 
ings. Another thing to be observed 
about it is, that it has preserved the 
curvature of its arches remarkably 

well, so that there is no such fright- 
Hood moulds, nave, s. 

Huii size. f u i distortion to be seen among them H ^Huiis^ 

as in the two eastern ones northward. 

But the aisle to which this arcade opens has been greatly altered ; 
its outer wall raised, and nearly all its original details destroyed, so 
that, save for the great south doorway, there is little left to be said 
about it. The latter, however, is a very fine and noble feature of 
imposing dimensions and rich detail, and, what is more, it exactly 
repeats the strictly Early English characteristics of the chancel. Evi- 
dently, therefore, there had been no prolonged, or even appreciable, 
pause in the continuation of the rebuilding westwards. An interesting 
point to notice, too, is that the hood-mould terminates in two heads, 
not of bishops or canons, but of a knight in a coif of chain-mail, and 
of a lady, now a good deal decayed, but showing that however large a 
contributor the bishop may have been towards the rebuilding, he was 
certainly not the only one. 

This exceptionally fine doorway (see plate X.) opens from what 
was in all respects one of the most striking and unusual features of 
the building the south porch. This was, and is, of great depth and 
height : a sort of narrow transept, indeed, consisting of a lower storey 

38 That the easternmost arch towards the south has not the same mouldings 
on both sides, like that towards the north, seems proof, so far as it goes, that at 
first no transept was designed in that direction, whence the details could, as in 
that case, be distinctly seen, but that the aisle was continued straight on to the 
east end of the nave. 


which forms the porch proper, and an upper one communicating 
by a broad newel staircase and separate doorway, just west of 
the main one, as well as by a window, now blocked, with the south 
aisle. Its presence would serve to break the long horizontal lines 
of the south side of the building as effectually as did that of the 
actual transept towards the north. The lower stage is covered by 
two bays of semicircular quadripartite vaulting, with well-moulded 
roll and fillet, diagonal and transverse ribs, and lighted by three 
broad and short lancet lights, two to the east and one to the 
west, the place of the second being occupied by the staircase. The 
sides are, as usual, provided with stone seats, now much mutilated, 
and on these the vaulting shafts are set. The whole is admirably 
designed and built, save in a single particular, which betrays either 
ignorance or carelessness in the science of vaulting, or both. It 
occurs in the side compartments of the cells, where they adjoin the 
walls l formerets,' > as they are called which should have been formed 
symmetrically and in regular curves, whether with, or without, ribs, 
but which, in fact, are utterly irregular and shapeless. The plan of 
the side lights is peculiar. Perfectly simple, short lights externally, 
their hooded and moulded splays are divided half way, internally, by 
the introduction of moulded and pointed trefoil arches carried on 
shafts, with distinctly Geometrical capitals an extremely novel and 
telling arrangement, and one which I cannot recall having met with 
elsewhere. An excellent view of this porch, showing the general 
effect both of the vaulting and of these windows (reproduced on the 
opposite page), is given by Mr. Billings in his Durham County. 

The room above remains equally perfect as the porch below ; its 
chief interest centring in the beautiful little two-light Geometrical 
window which lights it from the south. This is composed of two 
charmingly moulded, not chamfered, pointed trefoil lights, with an 
inverted circular trefoil in the head, all set within a moulded arch and 
hood-mould. In connexion with the base and cap-moulds of the 
nave arcades, it enables us to fix the date of the building with far 
greater certainty and precision than any of the other details which, by 
comparison, help but very little, indeed, next to nothing at all to such 
end. It proves, in fact, for it is all of a piece with the original side 
aisles, and the inner archway opening into the church, that though 






many, nay most of them might, for anything that appears to the 
contrary, be some forty or fifty years earlier ; they are yet really of a 
period when the simple Early English style was everywhere ' waxing 
old and ready to vanish away.' As its northern and lateral walls rose 
high above the low original ones of the aisle, it must, consequently, 
from the first, as at present, have been gabled to the north, as well as 
to the south, and thus had its upper parts detached. 40 It would, 
doubtless, be occupied by one of the chantry priests or chaplains, 
for whose use, as a small blocked loophole in the north-east angle 
seems to show, it was at that point provided with a mural garderobe. 
But since the whole interior is thickly encrusted with countless coats 
of dirty whitewash, which greatly detract from the architectural effect, 
the garderobe arrangements are, for the present, effectually concealed. 
Notwithstanding, it is still, as it must all along have been, by far the 
finest and most remarkable porch of any church in the county. 

As to the tower, though sufficiently interesting and distinctive, so 
much cannot be said. (See plate I.) It has, however, one or two 
points of singular excellence, which deserve notice. First and chiefest, 
perhaps, is the beautiful hooded arch of three chamfered orders by 

which its lower storey, lighted by two long lancets, 

JBBH^^ opens to the nave. Simple as it is, nothing finer or 

^^ juster than the proportions of this arch in admirable 

contrast to all the rest could be imagined, and it has 

^^^| not suffered the slightest deformation. In common 

^p with those of the porch, its details, too, serve to prove 

[ f that the works, of which it formed the western extremity, 

were carried on up to that point without appreciable 

Hood mould, stoppage. For as a comparison of the base moulds of 

iTuusizV its responds with those of the second pillar from the 

east in the south arcade (see plate XI.) shows that the two are 

practically identical ; while a similar comparison of those of the 

westernmost pillar in the same range with the corresponding moulds 

of the two eastern pillars towards the north (page 70) exhibit a like 

identity clearer or more convincing proof of the unbroken continnity 

of the whole could hardly be desired. 

40 If proof of this be desired, it may be found at once in the interior of the 
south wall of the aisle, where the quoin stones of the original north gable, which 
rose above the wall level, are distinctly visible. 


The other point of special interest is found in the stair-turret 
which rises at the south-west angle. Though the tower itself, like the 
body of the church, is only built of rubble, this turret is of the most 
beautiful ashlar work throughout, and as admirable in bold simplicity 
of design as in execution. And here, too, on the outside, we find 
still further proof of that uninterrupted continuity which we have 

seen within; a comparison 

of the base-mouldings, both 

of the buttresses and of this 

turret, with those to the east 

of the chancel the two ex- 
tremities of the building 

(see margin), showing all to 

be of the same type, and 

practically identical. 

Slightly narrower than 

the nave, the tower itself 

rises in three stages ; the 

lowest, occupied by two 

large, perfectly plain Ian- 
Base mouldB, tower J . 

buttress, and stair-turret. np f s fnwarrle rViP wpf HIP Base moulds or 

One-twenty-fourth Cet8 Awards MIC W6SI , II1G buttresses, east 

full size. T 11 i i end of chancel. 

middle, by a ringing cham- 
ber with single, square, trefoil-headed lights ; and the third, or belfry, 
stage, by two small lancets carried on a central column, beneath a 
semicircular enclosing arch, and of very simple and early looking 
type. High above the last rose the beautifully built stair-turret, from 
which access was gained to the base of the original wooden, and lead- 
covered spire, of which, on its subsequent destruction, the corbel 
tables were allowed to remain. As at Ryton, on a much smaller scale, 
that lofty adjunct would naturally gather up into itself, in heaven- 
soaring fashion, the long aspiring lines of the various high-pitched 
roofs of nave and chancel, porch and transept, which lay below, and 
thus bring all to a becoming climax. 

And now, with the completion of the tower and spire, we come to 
the end of that which, though doubtless very late, has yet, throughout 
been pure, Early English work. From the very commencement of the 
chancel, throughout the north transept, and the north-eastern bays 



of the nave, through the whole of the south aisle, nave arcade, porch, 
and tower, the details, albeit adhering generally to earlier forms, and 
only in the east window of the chancel and gable window of the porch 

Section, 2nd pillar from west, N., one-sixteenth full size. 

giving evidence of a really later period, are, as we have seen, perfectly 
uniform, and prove that the work, once begun, was carried forward, 
practically without interruption, up to that point. But there, this 
Early English work stops suddenly and altogether. Not that there 

was any stoppage of the work, how- 
ever. Of this there is not the least 

proof ; such as there is, indeed, going 

quite the other way. But the curious 

fact which meets us here is this, viz., 

that the remaining portion, the filling 

up, that is, of the gap between the 

tower and the two eastern arches on 

the north side, is not, and makes no 

pretence of being, in the early English 

style at all. These three western bays 
which, though in general harmony with, and, indeed, actually repro- 
ducing the inner order of the mouldings of the rest, copied exactly, 
strange to say, from work nearly a century older than themselves, are 

Cap., Geometrical, 

west pillar, N., 

i full size. 

Cap., Geometrical, 

2nd pillar from 
west, N., i full size. 

e g 
i a 



of the purest and most unmistakable Geometrical character. Save in 
respect of the inner order, reproduced clearly for uniformity sake, all 
the mouldings are in that style. 

Arch moulds, 2nd and 3rd arches from E., north aide of nave 
(enclosing those from south side of Bishop's chapel). 
One-sixteenth full size. 

This is seen most conspicuously, perhaps, in the bases of the two 
western columns, the one octagonal, the other clustered (for section, 
see page 76), but both exhibiting the same remarkable ogee upper 

Hood mould, two western 
arches, N., J full size. 

Hood mould, eastern arches, 
4 full size. 

Hood mould, eastern arch, 
i full size. 

moulding which, as need hardly be said, has no affinity with those of 
the Early English style whatever (for elevation, see plate XI.). 
And then come the capitals, where mouldings of just as strongly 
marked a geometrical character as those of the bases (see page 76) 


occur again. After these, the next change to be observed is the outer 
order of the arch-moulds, where the ' roll and fillet,' which all aloner 

f 7 o 

has played so conspicuous a part in the chancel arch, the two eastern 
Early English arches of the north, and the whole of those of the 
south, aisle, is changed into the characteristic ' wave mould ' of the 
Early Decorated (see page 77, where the junction of the two above 
the second pillar from the east is shown) ; and, finally, in the hood- 
moulds which, of the most pronounced geometrical section (see 
margin), may be compared with those of the often quoted, and purely 
Early English arches which join them to the east. 

And not only the details, but the general expression and effect are 
different. The new work bears an impress of vigour, which is all the 
more intensified by the crippled condition of that to which it is 
attached. This is most clearly seen, perhaps, in the curvature of the 
arches, for while the two earlier eastern ones appear now, through 
distortion, as though their centres had been struck from the above 
springing line, imparting to the western one especially a Saracenic, or 
horse-shoe, form, the centres of the three western ones lie, apparently, 
a little below that line, a circumstance which not only serves to 
accentuate the contrast, but to impart to them a look of wonderful 
life and power. 

How the difference of treatment is to be accounted for, whether 
through the original master-mason, with whom detail would hardly 
seem to have been a strong point, having suddenly made a forward 
movement,' or to the advanced, ' up-to-date ' knowledge of his possible 
successor, is more than can now, perhaps, be said. There, however, it 
is, and ' writ large,' for all who have eyes to see. And most fortunately, 
for it is just this last remaining section of the continuous work which 
enables us to fix its close with a degree of precision otherwise 
unattainable. In this case, 'its' not 'dogged,' but mouldings, 'as 
does it.' For these mouldings are, as nearly as it is possible for the 
closest criticism to fix them, those of 1270-74 the closing years of 
bishop Stichill's life. 

And here a singular and highly curious fact remains to mention, 
viz., that directly above the second pillar from the west, in the very 
midst of this new work, there occurs as a stop, or terminal to the early 
Decorated hood- moulds, the one single portrait head to be found in 


all the length of the arcades. Not in itself, as may be thought, 
perhaps, a very remarkable circumstance, seeing that it is introduced 
where two dissimilar moulds unite, and so serves to mask the point of 
junction. But then for the question forces itself upon us was this 
its sole object ? Had it no further and better end to serve than this 
purely utilitarian one ? Was there not some historical fact or other 
then engaging men's minds, and which it was designed to emphasize 
and perpetuate ? I cannot but 
think so. For the head is that 
of none other than the king of 
England, young, resolute, beauti- 
ful, and wearing the crown royal, 
the first Edward who, succeed- 
ing his father Henry III., after a 
reign of no less than fifty-three 
years, in 1272, was, along with 
queen Eleanor, whose portrait also 
faces the aisle, crowned at West- 
minster, in 1274 the year of 
Stichill's death, and that which, 
as it would seem, marked also the 
completion of the works. 

Commenced and finished, there- 
fore, on the showing of its own 
internal evidence, within the com- 
pass of his rule ; to him, I think, 
more or less personally, we may 
safely ascribe the reconstruction 
of the fabric, the one, a church 
among churches, the other, a bishop 
among bishops, with peculiarities all their own. 

And what a noble and impressive work it must have been ! Simple 
as no doubt it was on the exterior, where the effect must have 
depended chiefly upon the justness of its proportions, and the contrast 
presented by the grand scale and superior excellence of the chancel, as 
well in construction as in detail to the body of the church, its chief 
excellencies lay elsewhere. Like the king's daughter,' it both was, 


and was meant to be, 'all glorious within.' Whatever it had of 
modest dignity or splendour was concentrated there. Its great breadth, 
enhanced by the spacious transept ; the long extended lines of the 
vast chancel, stretching far beyond the great rood, which, with its 
screen and loft, occupied the broad entrance arch ; the rich massive- 
ness of the arcades ; the low walls of the aisles, and general gloom of 
the nave, intensified by the 'vast valley of the high-pitched roofs' 
which stretched in well-nigh unbroken line from end to end ; all this, 
seen in prolonged vista through the deep archway of the tower, must 
have presented an aspect of the most satisfying, as well as severe and 
solemn grandeur. 


With respect to imitative or assimilated work, of which we have 
such curious illustration, not only in the Early English, but Geometrical, 
arches of the church, I have, since writing the foregoing chapter, and 
while it was still in the press, examined what would seem to be as 
remarkable examples of the practice as could well be conceived, in 
that singularly interesting and instructive storehouse, the choir of 
Ripon minster. As is well known, the entire structure was built 
originally by Roger de Pont 1'Eveque, archbishop of York (1154-81), 
who, dying in the latter year, left ' operi beati Wilfridi de Ripon, ad 
aedificandam basilicam ipsius quam de novo inchoavimus mille libras 
veterae monetae.' How far the choir, as erected by archbishop Roger, 
extended eastwards, may, perhaps, be open to question. At present 
it consists of six bays beyond the central tower. Of these, the first 
on either side westwards are now blocked with solid masonry, intro- 
duced after the partial fall of the eastern and southern walls of the 
tower in 1454, when the two next bays on the south side were rebuilt 
from the foundation. That archbishop Roger's choir included four 
bays is, at any rate, certain. This is proved beyond doubt by the 
group of vaulting shafts which, on the north side, still remains above 
the third pillar from the west. They are, I think, the most remark- 
able examples to be found in all England, and quite unique. For 
they are not English at all, but purely and wholly French. Strange 
to say, not one of the writers who have touched upon the church has 
taken the least notice of them, or, apparently, understood the purpose 


for which they were primarily introduced. Neither Mr. Sharpe, in 
his Seven Periods of English Architecture, nor Sir Gr. G. Scott in his 
Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture, delivered at the Royal Academy, 
nor yet that very able archaeologist, Mr. R. J. King, the author of 
Mr. Murray's English Cathedrals (now all deceased), have so much as 
a single syllable to say upon their strangely French design and use. 
Instead of consisting of one, or at the most of three, as in English 
work, they are no fewer than Jive in number ; and rise, not as English 
shafts would do, either from the ground, as at York and Lichfield, or 
from corbels, as at Exeter and in other cases generally, but from bases 
planted on square projecting blocks which occupy the entire capitals 
of the three front shafts of the clustered pillars below. From which 
it happens that just as in contemporary French examples the 
mouldings of the pier-arches, instead of being of the full diameter of 
the pillars and extending through the thickness of the walls as 
invariably happens in English work are reduced to little more than 
the size of vaulting ribs, and occupy only the single capitals of the 
eastern and western shafts. Anything more utterly un-English or 
more intensely French could not possibly be conceived. 41 But, since 
all these shafts remain above the third pillar, it is perfectly clear that 
there must have been at least one bay further eastward on which the 

41 The planning of the arcade, and vaulting shafts is, as is usual in all French 
work, of the most uncompromisingly logical kind. Of the former, the three 
front shafts are given to carrying the corbelled block whence rises the group' 
of vaulting shafts above. The central main shafts, east and west, are given 
to the pier-arches; the smaller pair to the diagonal ribs of the aisle vaulting, 
and the main central one to the transverse rib. The five vaulting shafts above 
have each, in like manner, their own proper and allotted function to discharge, 
the chief central one, that of carrying the transverse rib of the choir vaulting ; 
the two next it, the diagonal ribs ; and those next the wall, the formerets, or 
ribs determining the outlines of the cells. This contemplated vaulting for 
which, as we see, the completest provision was thus made, was, notwithstanding, 
never carried out. By the time the level of the clearstorey was reached, very 
well founded doubts would seem to have arisen as to the ability of the walls to 
resist its thrust, and the scheme was consequently abandoned. But the change 
of plan, with its attendant difficulties, was very cleverly got over ; so cleverly, 
indeed, that not one out of the tens of thousands who either visit, or ever have 
visited the place, would seem to have observed it. Owing to their height above 
the eye, the utter uselessness of the capitals of these groups of shafts is not 
observed ; all the more so since the base of another single shaft is though, of 
course, recessed placed apparently upon the cap of the central one, while 
those of the slender coupled columns of the side openings of the clearstorey 
seem to stand, in like fashion, upon the capitals of the smaller vaulting shafts 
on either side of it. Seen from below, the difference of surface levels is 
altogether imperceptible, and, indeed, unsuspected, and thus, owing to the 
seeming continuity of the lines, the whole composition appears perfectly 
harmonious, and as though designed as it now appears from the first. 

VOL. xx. 14 


wall, and diagonal, ribs of the contemplated, though never executed, 
vaulting were designed to rest. This, then, as is clear, would give 
us an original choir of, at least, four bays. The question of special 
interest in the present connexion, however, as will presently be seen, 
is whether there were, in the first instance, more than four such bays. 
In other words, whether the two easternmost bays on either side are, 
as would seem to be the case, absolutely, and in every detail, thirteenth- 
century additions or not. 

The choirs of the cathedral churches of Winchester, Wells, Here- 
ford, St. David's, St. Patrick's Dublin, and of the great Benedictine 
abbeys of Gloucester and G-lastonbury, as well as that of the fine 
Cistercian abbey of Netley, among others, had but four bays, while 
those of Sherborne, Byland, Great Malvern, Melrose (including 
sanctuary), Romsey, Bath, and Bristol, had no more than three. The 
author of the account of Ripon contained in the Builder's ' Cathedral ' 
series (if not in the best of English) says : ' The two eastern bays 
of the eastern arm of the church are of Decorated date, with a very 
fine eastern front, with bold buttresses and generally severe treatment 
on the exterior. . . . The piers of the Decorated work have been 
very closely copied from the Transitional work which was found 
remaining, giving this portion of the church an earlier look than it 
really is.' And consequently, in accordance with this view, the 
easternmost pillars on each side are shown upon the very carefully 
prepared plan as belonging to the Decorated period. But later on, 
and in direct contradiction of his previous statement, he continues : 
'The choir of the church of archbishop Roger was evidently co- 
extensive with the existing one, so that the cathedral has not been 
materially lengthened since he completed it ; but most of the south 
side of his choir was destroyed by the fall of the tower, and the three 
eastern bays, excepting the arcade piers, had been rebuilt in the early 
Decorated style about 1288-1308.' The intricate and perplexing 
character of the work being duly allowed for, however, such confusion 
of opinion may, I think, well be pardoned. Why archbishop Roger's 
east end should have been taken down to the very foundations, and after- 
wards rebuilt towards the close of the thirteenth century, save for the 
customary purpose of lengthening his choir, is not easy to understand. 
To say nothing of parish churches, it was that for which the choirs, or 


eastern walls of the choirs, of nearly every cathedral and monastic 
church in the kingdom were taken down. And such, one would 
naturally imagine, must have been the case here. Be that as it may, 
the facts of the case are these. For whatever reason, the original east 
end, wherever it stood, was completely destroyed, and, together with 
the two eastern bays on each side, rebuilt from the ground upward on 
the exterior, and in magnificent fashion, between the years 1288 and 
1297. The clearstoreys of the third bays were also rebuilt, and two 
massive flying buttresses between the three new windows on each 
side erected at the same time. In the interior, the triforia of the 
third bays from the east were likewise rebuilt, as were also the three 
pier-arches on each side. The difficulty lies in determining whether 
the two pillars, north and south, which support those arches, are of 
Eoger's time or not. If so, they constitute the only fragments of his 
work which were suffered to remain. If not, then they are unquestion- 
ably the most remarkable instances of imitative or assimilated work I 
have ever come across. 

It is a common thing to take such a well-known and typical 
illustration as that of Westminster to follow the main lines and 
general proportions of the earlier work, such as those of pillars, arches, 
window openings, etc., for uniformity's sake ; but the details, whether 
of foliage or mouldings, are almost invariably, without any exception 
whatever, those of the period when the new work was done. Here it 
is not so, every detail of the pillars from the sub-basement to the 
abacus reproducing with the minutest exactitude those of the earlier 
and untouched work. Only on the easternmost pillars on either side 
and the variation, slight as it may appear, is of the utmost importance 
the abacus mould is changed (see below), and of the same form as those 

Eipou Cathedral Church, 

Ripon Cathedral Church, abacus moulds of east- 

abacus moulds of cap- ernmest pillars of choir, 

itals, north and south north and 8Outh and of 

arcades of choir (repro- Geometrical responds 

duced in 15th cent). in eas t wa n 


of the Geometrical responds of the eastern wall, while the entire capital of 
the south-eastern one, though retaining the square abacus and sharp 
edges of those of Roger's time, is worked with bold, but simple Geo- 
metrical mouldings underneath. 42 Moreover, the vaulting shafts of the 
aisles, corresponding to the two eastern pillars on both sides are, 
together with those immediately west of them opposite the third pillars 
from the east, as well as the vaults they carry, all of the later, or 
Geometrical, period. And the ribs of this Geometrical vaulting are 
also of precisely the same section as those of the twelfth century, with 
the single exception that the central pointed bowtel is worked with a 

41 The plan of the abaci of the pier capitals of archbishop Eoger's choir con- 
sists of a square intersected by the arms of a cross, which latter surmount the 
four main shafts, leaving the angles of the square which are about only half 
their size for the four smaller shafts. There are thus no fewer than twelve 
salient right angles, all of which, with their severe square edges, are, though 
utterly alien to the style then in vogue, faithfully reproduced in the abacus of 
the south-eastern capital, which belongs in its entirety to the Geometrical 
period. In the north-eastern capital the only point of difference from those to 
the west of it is seen in the abacus, which is identical with that of the Geomet- 
rical capital opposite, and with those of the responds, also Geometrical, which, 
north and south, are incorporated with, and parcel of, the east wall. 

If, as many might be inclined to think, the pillars, together with the 
immense circular footings on which, like those at Hartlepool, the bases of their 
shafts are set, are really of Roger's work, it is not easy to understand why, when 
all the other parts were, and are yet. in absolutely perfect condition, the abacus 
of the one and the capital of the other should have been removed, apparently for 
no cause whatever, and replaced by new ones almost identical in the thirteenth 
century. On the other hand, it is, perhaps, no more easy to realize the 
alternative conclusion that the architect of the Geometrical period, against the 
universal practice of his day, should, through love of rigorous uniformity, have 
designed every portion of his pillars, down to the smallest details, in a fashion a 
full century and more out of date. 

In all the ground plans I have seen, viz., those contained in The JSuilder, 
Murray's Cathedrals, and the Manual of the Archaeological Institute, prepared 
by the late Mr. Walbran, the two easternmost pillars are figured as Geometrical, 
and belonging wholly to the two new bays of the east end. Not, of course, that 
such a coincidence proves anything, either one way or the other. At the same 
time, however, it shows either too little or too much. As we have already seen, 
archbishop Roger's choir certainly contained four bays ; therefore the fourth 
pillar from the west (the second, that is, from the east) must, if it ended there, 
as the plans above mentioned would make it do, and the two eastern bays are, as 
they show them to be, wholly new, be either altogether, or at least in half, of 
thirteenth-century date also. For, if his choir ended at the fourth bay, then it 
is clear that no more than the western half of the pillar which might have 
formed the respond, could possibly have belonged to the earlier work ; and the 
eastern half ought, consequently, to have been figured as belonging to the later. 
If, however, his work extended to the present east end, then there would be no 
authority for figuring, as they do, the easternmost columns, which, as to their 
shafts and bases, are in all respects identical with the rest, as Geometrical. But 
in none of the accompanying accounts is any explanation of the difficulty 
offered, or indeed so much as any reference whatever made to its existence. So 
infinitely easier is it to ignore or overlook perplexing points than to perceive, 
and grapple with, them. 


fillet. Nor is this, by any means, all. As I have said above, arch- 
bishop Koger's pier-arches were but little deeper in section than mere 
vaulting ribs, and rested in their entirety upon the two eastern and 
western capitals of the eight shafts which compose the group. But 
such a disposition, at the time of the new work, was felt to be a defect 
which it was determined to get rid of. The two eastern arches on 
each side were, therefore, for the first time, perhaps, Milt, and the third 
certainly rebuilt, on the English plan of occupying the whole depth of 
the capitals, notwithstanding this system, broke the surface levels of 
the walls. The difficulty was very simply surmounted, however. The 
group of five vaulting shafts which rose from the capitals of the third 
pillars was allowed, to continue as before, while the walls eastward, 
together with the arches which carried them, were advanced to the 
level of the central, and most prominent, of the shafts. The two 
eastern shafts which were also allowed to remain were consequently 
cut into and intersected at the height of about three feet by the 
additional mouldings of the new arches, the point of junction being 
masked by three heads one, of a lion, the other two, of men. And 
then the triforium arcades were designed on the same levels as, and in 
harmonious continuation of, the original ones, with round arches and 
blank pointed panels on either side, though with details of their own 
date. But what is most remarkable, the inner order of the new arches 
on the north side are exact replicas of those of archbishop Roger to the 
west of them, their mouldings corresponding to a nicety. And such is 
also the case on the south side, the only difference being that the 
central soffit mould, instead of being a pointed bowtel, as on the north, 
is, like that of the vaulting ribs, worked with a fillet. Not only the 
forms and proportions of the new pier-arches, but the details also of 
their inner orders the only ones of which the earlier twelfth-century 
arches consist are thus seen to be closely reproduced in those of the 
closing years of the thirteenth. 

As to the slightly different treatment of this member for the two 
sides, both the plain pointed bowtel and the roll and fillet moulds, it 
may be observed, are seen confronting each other in the arcades of 
Pudsey's great hall at Auckland of exactly comtemporary date. Still 
stranger reproductions of earlier details than even these, however, 
remain to mention. In the blocked north-western arch of the choir, 


both on the south and north sides, the twelfth-century abacus mould 
of archbishop Roger is seen copied exactly and continued as a string 
across the face of the fifteenth-century walling, finishing towards the 
north as the abacus mould of a corbel supporting a massive Perpen- 
dicular transverse rib then introduced, along with another longitudinal 
one, to strengthen the vaulting of the westernmost bay of the aisle. 
And the same exact copying is seen again towards the west, where 
the southernmost bay of the transept has been similarly blocked and 
a curiously early-looking doorway introduced. And then, finally, 
when, after leaving the interior, we come to examine the outside, 
precisely the same copying of mouldings with exact and scrupulous 
fidelity meets us face to face again. In walking round the south side 
of the choir, we are at once astonished to find the intensely Transitional 
string course which runs beneath the windows of archbishop Roger's 
chapter-house carried in perfect facsimile round the deep and massive 
buttresses erected in the middle of the fourteenth century to support 
the walls of the Lady-loft above. Whatever may be the case with 
respect to the eastern pillars, this, at any rate, like the inner order 
of the choir arches, and abacus mould, is clearly not a case of assimi- 
lated, but faithfully and exactly facsimilated, work. 

Another point intimately connected with the Auckland mouldings, 
and corroborative of the date assigned to them in the foregoing 
chapter, remains to be mentioned. Throughout the whole church 
from the sedilia westwards, the prevalence of a triple roll moulding in 
the bases of nearly all the columns, great or small, can hardly fail to 
have been observed. We see it, not only in that of the earliest eastern- 
most pillar of the north arcade, but in nearly all those of the southern 
one also. Outside the church, it meets us again in the bases of the 
vaulting shafts of the porch, and in those of the nook-shafts of the 
south doorway as well. It is an arrangement distinctly characteristic 
of very late Early English, and Early Decorated work, and widely 
prevalent, some of the latest and most remarkable examples 
extant, perhaps, being those of the great clustered arcade piers and 
vaulting shafts of the nave of Exeter cathedral, erected by bishop 
G-randisson, inter 1327-69 ; again, curiously enough, in such close 
imitation of the earlier work of his predecessors, Bronescomb 
(1258-80), and Quivil (1280-91), that he is said, and no doubt 



truly, to have carried out the designs of the latter prelate, 'to all 
appearance, with little or no alteration.' 1 The bases of the Geometrical 
vaulting shafts in the choir aisles at Ripon, erected inter 1288-97, 
furnish us, however, with as characteristic examples of this treat- 
ment as could be wished. Slightly later than those at Auckland, they 
show the prevalence of a fashion which, not only till then, but for a 
considerable while afterwards continued in general use (see below). 

S. Andrew Auckland 
Church, base mould, 

Ripon Cathedral Church, 
bases of vaulting shafts 
of choir aisles, Geome- 
trical, 1288-97. 

S. Andrew Auckland 
Church, base moulds 
of S.W. pillar. 

And a still further point worth noticing appears in the vertical portions 
beneath these mouldings, which at Eipon, as in one of the last, if not 
the very last, in Stichell's work here the base of the second pillar 
from the west northward are no longer, like the mouldings and shafts 
above, of circular, but multangular, section. 


No sooner was Robert de Stichill dead than, leave being granted by 
the king, Robert de Insula, his successor in the priorate of Finchale, 
was chosen to follow him also in the episcopate of Durham, to which 
dignity he was consecrated by archbishop Walter Gifford, in York 
minster, on the Sunday after the feast of S. Nicholas (December 6th), 
A.D. 1274. 


* Happy,' it has been said, ' is the people,' and we may add, the 
church, 'which has no history.' Interesting as the personality of 
bishop Robert II. was in many ways, his peculiar claim to our regard 
in the present connexion is this, viz. : that during his whole tenure of 
office he was content ' to let well alone,' and to allow the singularly 
beautiful and unique structure, erected in his predecessor's days, to 
remain intact. It was the one and only episcopate, let me add, in 
which it was allowed to do so, when its ' history,' for a little while, 
was happily a blank. 

How far these two bishops may have been influenced, in respect of 
the design, as well as preservation, of the building by their connexion 
with Finchale, is a question which, if it cannot be answered with 
certainty, may at least offer interesting matter of conjecture. 

Singularly pure and chaste in style, yet staidly rich withal in its 
severe monastic way as is the priory church, these are precisely the 
characteristics which, due regard being had to the changed conditions 
of the case, we find so strikingly reproduced in the collegiate-parish 
church of Auckland. The early thirteenth- century character of the 
one and this connexion may, perhaps, explain what otherwise might 
seem so inexplicable finds itself almost literally reproduced in the 
other, though separated by an interval of nearly forty years. 43 Nor 
is the similarity one of character only ; it applies to details also. 
The same long, simple, lancet lights which still remain at the east 
end of the choir, the west side of the north transept, and the west end 
of the nave, all that now remain of the original work at Finchale as 
the two bishops saw and knew it, are found faithfully reproduced 
throughout the choir, the north transept, the nave (originally), and 
west tower at Auckland. And that notwithstanding the fact that 
traceried windows of the most perfect development, as may still be 
seen, were being, or had already been, erected in the small local 
abbeys of Easby and JEgliston. 

43 An indulgence of the bishop of Candida Casa, dated in 1239, shows that he 
had then dedicated the high altar there in honour of S. John Baptist, another 
in that of the Blessed Virgin, and a third in honour of S. Cuthbert, the bishop. 
This, however, owing to the apparently slow progress of the works, might have 
taken place some nine or ten years after their inception, the brethren in the 
meanwhile being content with temporary makeshifts both as regards sanctuary 
and altars. 


Such points of resemblance may, quite possibly, of course, be mere 
coincidence and nothing more ; but the historical and architectural 
connexion of the two buildings, seems, to my mind, far too close for 
such results to have ensued through pure accident. The pity of it is 
that bonds of union, at once so interesting and beautiful, should in 
both cases, have been so soon and ruthlessly destroyed. For Robert 
de Insula's reign was not a long one, extending only from 1274 to 
1293, when he was succeeded by the most powerful prelate who ever 
filled the see, and in whose person the palatinate dignity reached its 
utmost pinnacle of splendour, Anthony Bek. 


This famous prelate, ' the proudest lord in Chrestientie ' ' le plus 
vaillant clerk du roiaume,' a son of Walter Bek, baron of Eresby, in 
Lincolnshire, and brother of Thomas Bek, bishop of S. David's, was at 
the time of his election, the seventh of the ides of July (July 9th), 
1283, archdeacon of Durham, and secretary to the king. Two causes, 
Graystanes tells us, determined the choice of the prior and convent 
the royal importunity, and the controversy then raging between them- 
selves and William of Wickwaine, archbishop of York. Tor they 
knew well,' says he, ' that no one elected by them would receive con- 
secration at his hands unless supported by the king's favour.' 44 Backed 
by this, he was consecrated accordingly in York minster by the 
archbishop, January 9th, 12|f , in presence of king Edward I., his 
queen, Eleanor, and a vast concourse of dignitaries. 45 But not even 

44 As usual, the cause of all the strife was to be found in that eternal source of 
squabbling and discord rights and privileges. On the vacancy of the see, caused 
by the death of bishop Robert de Insula, on the seventh of the ides of June (June 
7th), 1283, the prior and chapter, assuming jurisdiction, appointed their own 
officers and servants, turning out those chosen by the archbishop, and refusing 
him entry when, coming personally to Durham, he attempted to hold his visita- 
tion. Turning aside, therefore, to the church of S. Nicholas, he was minded, 
after addressing the people, to excommunicate the heads of the chapter; but 
certain young townsmen so terrified him that he was glad to make his escape 
privily down a flight of steps to the water side, and so along to Kepier. Besides 
all which, they not only grossly insulted him by cutting off his horse's ear, but 
would further, as was thought save for the intervention of Wycard de Charrons 
and Peter de Thorsby have murdered him. 

45 Opportunity was taken to make the occasion one of great and imposing 
magnificence, through a circumstance not mentioned by Graystanes the transla- 
tion of the relics of the sainted archbishop, William Fitzherbert. His canonization 
by pope Nicholas III. had been effected by means of 'the money and urgent 



then without considerable difficulty, ' for though many at the royal 
command mediated between the archbishop and the convent, they 
made but little progress,' so resolute was he that ' at the time of con- 
secration he should compel the prior to leave the church, and on the 
morrow require the new bishop, by virtue of his obedience, to excom- 
municate the heads of the chapter.' That, however, when the time 
came, Bek steadfastly refused to do. ' Yesterday,' said he, ' I was 
consecrated their bishop, and to-day shall I excommunicate them ? 
No obedience shall force me to such an act.' ' Forsooth,' continues 
the historian, ' this Anthony was magnanimous ; after the king second 
to none in the kingdom in apparel, carriage, or military power ; more 
occupied in state, than in episcopal, affairs ; powerfully aiding the king 
in times of war and in counsels full of prudence. At times in the 
Scottish wars he had among his household troops twenty-six standard 
bearers, and commonly in his suite a hundred and forty knights, so 
that he might rather be taken for a lay prince than a priest or bishop. 
And although he delighted to be thus encompassed by a crowd of soldiers, 
he nevertheless held himself as though he cared nothing for them, 
counting it a small thing that the chief earls and barons of the king- 
dom should bow the knee, and knights, like servants, stand long time 
before him while he himself remained seated. Indeed, he counted 
nothing dear to him that could magnify his glory.' On one occasion 
he paid forty shillings (equivalent to as many pounds of modern 
currency) for the like number of fresh herrings, other magnates then 
in parliamentary session not caring to buy at so extravagant a price. 
' Impatient of rest, and hardly requiring more than a single sleep, he 
said that he was not worthy of the name of man who turned himself 
from side to side in bed. Never continuing in one place, he was 
constantly moving about from one manor to another, from south to 
north, and conversely ; a lover of dogs and birds. And though 

entreaties' of Bek, who also bore the entire cost of the translation, and of the 
magnificent new shrine. The head, which was kept by itself in a reliquary 
of silver gilt, and covered with jewels, was esteemed the greatest treasure of 
the church of York, and when Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., visited the 
minster, was brought for her to kiss. Layton, one of Henry VIII. 's commis- 
sioners, who was dean of York, obtained a special grant of this reliquary for the 
use of the cathedral. Bek's brother, Thomas, had, in a like characteristic fashion, 
glorified himself by translating, at his own cost, the relics of S. Hugh of Lincoln, 
on the octave of S. Michael, 1280, on which day he was consecrated in Lincoln 
cathedral to the see of S. David's. 


lavish in many ways, yet was he never in straits, but had, all his life 
long, all sufficiency of all things. Never eating to satiety, he lived 
in perfect chastity ; hardly ever with steadfast eyes beholding the face 
of any woman. Whence it happened that, during the translation of 
S. "William of York, when the other bishops feared to touch his bones, 
their conscience accusing them of lost purity, he boldly laid hold of 
them, and reverently did that which was required.' 

He was enthroned at Durham on Christmas eve, 1284, by his 
brother Thomas, of S. David's, the claim of the prior to perform that 
act being by consent of both parties allowed to stand over without 
prejudice. On Christmas day he officiated at high mass ; on the next, 
S. Stephen's day, he and all those attending him were feasted by the 
prior ; and on the following one, viz., that of S. John the Evangelist, 
on entering the church he bestowed on it two pieces of cloth of gold, 
representing the story of the Lord's nativity, which he appointed for 
the Christmas decoration of the high altar. 

In 1300, a grave dispute arising between the bishop and the then 
prior, Richard de Hoton, with respect to the number of those who 
should attend him in his visitation of the chapter, led at last to the 
excommunication and formal deprivation of the latter. Whereupon 
the bishop, forcibly entering the park of Beaurepaire, made havoc of 
the game there as though he would extirpate it ; his men, moreover, 
furiously attacking the prior and his followers, imprisoning his 
servants, and preventing either vehicles or victuals entering the priory. 
And once, when the prior came to protest against such conduct they 
seized, and endeavoured to drag him to prison. But the monks, then 
at vespers, hearing these things, immediately liberated him. Mean- 
while, the king acting as mediator, effected a verbal peace between the 
two ; ordaining that the prior should continue in office as long as he 
lived ; that the bishop, in his visitation, should be attended by three 
or four clerics ; and that all offences on either side should be mutually 
overlooked. For the king being well affected towards both of them, 
while proceeding to Carlisle turned aside towards Durham in order to 
make peace ; promising that he would take part against whichever of 
them should break it ; and this promise he kept. For the bishop, 
quickly breaking it, he thenceforth sided with the prior, supporting 
him as long as he lived. This greatly helped his party ; the more so 


since, by bestowing prebends of Howden and pensions on them, he had 
made friends of the royal chaplains who, in his interest, stirred up the 
king's mind against the bishop. 

Another matter also that helped the prior's party was the dispute 
which arose between the bishop and his followers concerning the 
bishopric. For the bishop had twice compelled the men of the 
bishopric to proceed with him to the Scottish wars with horses and 
arms ; and when, on the second occasion, they had returned home 
without his leave, had imprisoned them at Durham. Disgusted at 
such treatment, they took part against the bishop saying that they 
were ' Haliwerfolk,' holding their lands for the defence of the body 
of S. Cuthbert, and ought not to go beyond the bounds of the bishopric, 
to wit, beyond Tyne and Tees for either king or bishop. And the 
leaders of this opposition were Ralph de Xeviil and John Marmaduke. 
Moreover, almost all the soldiers and free tenants of the bishopric took 
part with them ; and thus, while proceedings were prosecuted at the 
common expence both in parliament and in the king's court, hatred of 
the bishop made them all the more zealous partizans of the prior. 

Then, three months having elapsed since his suspension and deposi- 
tion, the bishop, calling together the monks and their adherents, 
enjoined them to elect another ; else he himself would do so for them. 
Whereupon, since they could not agree, he preferred Henry de Luceby, 
prior of Holy Island, to the priorate of Durham. And then, in order 
to induct him, as also to remove prior Richard, who as yet retained 
possession, he despatched thither his foresters of Weardale and men of 
Tynedale, who shut up the prior and monks in the abbey : so closely, 
indeed, were they invested that no food was allowed to reach them ; 
the aqueduct was smashed ; the gates of the priory broken to pieces ; 
then those of the cloister ; and thus, for three days they imprisoned 
the prior and monks in the church, where they endured great want of 
victuals. Yet, though in such straits, the monks none the less, yea 
rather the more, solemnly celebrated the divine office. At length, on 
the day of S. Bartholomew, the prior was dragged from his stall by a 
certain monk adhering to the bishop. For though they had brought 
in a certain Tynedale man, at sight of the prior he sprang back, 
declaring that for no amount of gold would he do such a thing. But 
what he abhorred to do, the monk did. Being thus ejected, the other, 


to wit, Henry de Luceby, was installed in his place, and to him, 
moved partly by force, partly by fear, almost all the monks submitted 
themselves. Prior Richard, however, was imprisoned by the bishop, 
first in the cloister, afterwards in the abbey ; and with him two brother 
monks, to wit, John de Castro and H. de Montalto. 

Being inducted into the priorate, Henry de Luceby retained in his 
service the more honourable personages of the bishopric in great 
numbers that he might thereby acquire the goodwill of the country ; 
and he also carried on the affairs of the convent with sufficient 
splendour. But others of the country who were not in his service, 
held him, notwithstanding, in contempt, calling him Henry walde le 
priur. Being compelled thereto, however, he only undertook the 
priorate because bishop Anthony had sworn that if he would not enter 
into it, he would confer the office on an alien. This Henry had, afore- 
time, admirably administered the duties of sacristan, renewing the 
roof of the nave, constructing the revestry from its foundations, pro- 
curing also bells and ornaments, copes and many other things for the 
service of the church. In the priorate of Holy Island, and afterwards 
at Durham, so prudently did he conduct himself, indeed, that in the 
opinion of many, had he but received the latter appointment canoni- 
cally, a better prior there would not have been for long. 

Meanwhile, prior Eichard, being detained in prison, studied how 
he might escape, and so obtained leave to go out one day to take the 
air, but in safe custody. When, therefore, he was come to Shincliffe 
bridge, there appeared eight horsemen having with them a palfrey, 
which they made him mount. At sight of whom his guards were so 
terrified, imagining more armed men to be concealed in the wood, 
that they at once turned and fled. With him was William de Couton, 
his chaplain, afterwards prior of Durham, who protested that rather 
than be left behind he would follow him on foot, but a horse being 
quickly forthcoming, they went both together. Eichard therefore 
remained in Cleveland till Christmas, and about the feast of the 
Purification next following (February 2nd), attended the parliament 
of Lincoln. Wherein, making bitter complaint to the king of his 
imprisonment, and of the injuries inflicted on him by the bishop, he 
obtained royal letters commendatory addressed to the pope on his 
behalf, and so set forth for the Eoman curia. In the same parliament 


the men of the bishopric also complained of the bishop in respect of 
his conduct in the Scottish wars. Moreover, the king was greatly 
offended with him because, when he asked whether he would take his 
part against the earl marshal, the earl of Hereford, and other 
magnates of the kingdom who, gathered there in arms, were minded 
to take him captive, the bishop replied that they all laboured for 
the profit and honour of the kingdom and of the king, and therefore 
he would take his stand with them, and not with the king agains 
them. "Whereat the king, greatly indignant, though forced to dis- 
semble with the earls, thenceforth thoroughly detested the bishop he 
had come attended by a suite of a hundred and forty men at arms. 

At the instance of prior Richard, therefore, bishop Anthony was 
cited to appear personally before the Eoman curia. Arrived there 
himself, he found the pope and cardinals well disposed towards him, 
for he was a man sufficiently learned, eloquent, and personable. 
Asked to tell his tale, it excited general sympathy ; when the pope, 
after due enquiry, revoked, conditionally, his deprivation, and restored 
him to his office the third of the kalends of December (November 
29th), 1301. 

Bishop Anthony not appearing to his citation, the pope thereupon 
pronounced him contumacious, and suspended him from his ponti- 
ficate, again citing him to appear within six months on pain of 
deprivation of his episcopal dignity. Being thus summoned the 
second time, the bishop appeared before the curia, but with such 
apparel and gesture, that all were amazed at his retinue and 
sumptuous prodigality. One day as he was riding towards the curia 
at Rome, a certain count of those parts meeting his cavalcade and 
marvelling longwhile at the multitude of his attendants, enquired of a 
citizen, ' Who is this that passes ?' To whom the man replied, ' An 
enemy of wealth.' To a certain cardinal who admired one of his 
splendid palfreys he sent two, in order that he might take his choice, 
when the cardinal, enticed by their beauty, kept both. Which when 
the bishop heard he said, ' So help me God, but he has not failed to 
choose the best.' So magnanimous was he that he thought he could 
do whatsoever pleased him without reproach, not hesitating to bless in 
the presence of cardinals, nor to amuse himself with birds in that of 
the pope. While on his way to Rome, and he was being entertained 


in a certain city, a quarrel broke out between his servants and the 
townsfolk. The whole town being at length aroused against him, and 
his servants overpowered, the magnates of the place, breaking into the 
chamber where he was, rushed in upon him as upon a thief, with 
swords and clubs, crying out, ' Yield thee, yield !' To whom, neither 
rising nor paying the least regard, he exclaimed, ' So help me God, 
but you hav'nt said to whom I should yield not to any of you.' His 
followers looked for nothing but death ; but he spoke with as much 
unconcern as though there were no cause of fear. During the same 
journey, one of his company, enquiring the price of a very precious 
piece of cloth, the merchant replied that he didn't think even the 
bishop could afford it, which, when he heard, he purchased forthwith, 
and, before the man's face, had it cut up into saddle-cloths. 

Because of this profuseness he was much honoured of the pope 
and cardinals ; and the pope, rejecting as irrational that exception of 
the prior that the bishop should visit his chapter alone and un- 
attended, even by a single cleric, and the Bonifacian Constitution 
being cited, wherein it was ordained that a bishop should visit with 
two clerics, one notary, and one religious of the same order, he 
thereupon, being thus licensed by the pope and cardinals, returned to 
England with ' honour.' 

Not to find ' peace ' along with it, however. For the king, on the 
ground of his having left the country without licence, seized the 
temporalities, 46 which were not restored to him till the year following. 
The same process was repeated again in 1303, when the new pope, 
Clement V., advanced bishop Anthony to the titular patriarchate of 
Jerusalem. He also, at the bishop's suggestion, suspended the prior as 
well from spiritual as temporal administration, and, in spite of an 
unfriendly and adverse chapter, committed to him the care of the 

46 The forfeited possessions of the Bruces and Balliols Barnard Castle and 
Hartlepool, which Bek had acquired, were also taken from him by the king. 
His son, Edward II., restored the episcopal lands and honours, except Barnard 
Castle and Hartlepool, in lieu of which he bestowed on him the unsubstantial 
title of King of Man. for life. Barnard Castle first came into Bek's possession 
on the forfeiture of John Balliol, in 1296, and, with the exception of a single 
year, so continued till 1305, when .it was granted to Guy Beauchamp, earl of 
Warwick. During that interval, Bek would seem, beyond all doubt, to have 
built what is by far the finest and most striking feature of the place, the round 
tower, an admirable piece of work, and in strong contrast with the rest of 
faultless construction. 


house in both respects. Then, while the prior was waiting at Canter- 
bury on his way to Rome, the bishop committed the care of the house 
to Henry de Luceby, whom he had before preferred to the priorate ; 
but when Stephen de Mauley, archdeacon of Cleveland, and R. de 
Morpath were sent to Durham to induct him, they not only found the 
gates shut and entrance denied them, but themselves also apprehended 
and fined a hundred pounds apiece by the king. 

Meantime, the pope writes to the king, begging of him the cell of 
Coldingham for his nephew. 47 ' For he had a certain nephew, Ray- 
mond de la Goth, whom he too much loved. He had created him a 
cardinal, and preferred him to the deaneries of Lincoln and London, 
as well as given him many rich livings in divers parts of England. 
He was a well natured youth enough, though too luxurious ; and it 
was only through hatred of the prior that the bishop had suggested 
that the pope should confer the priorate of Coldingham upon him.' 
But the king, like a good and prudent man, replied to the papal 
nuncios, ' I wonder how it is that the pope loves his nephew so much 
as to wish to make a black monk of him.' And when they answered 
that he had no such thought the king returned, ' But, by the holy 
God, he shall not have that priorate unless he become a monk, for 
then the pope might bestow any abbey in England he pleased upon 
seculars, and thus both our own and our ancestors' benefactions would 
be brought to naught.' ' Beata terra,' exclaims Graystanes, * cujus 
rex nobilis.' 

Arrived at the curia, the prior, he tells us, met with a favourable 
reception, both from the pope and cardinals. ' For when the pope saw 
the elegance of his person, the staidness of his manners, his knowledge 
and eloquence, he confessed that, not only had he erred badly, but as 
badly as possible, in his suspension, and therefore restored him, the 
eighth of the kalends of November (October 25th), 1306. But for 
that restoration he exacted the sum of a thousand marks ! The prior 
thus restored, however, dying there on the fifth of the ides of January 
(January 9th), 1307, all his goods, horses, silver vessels, books, and 

47 A stereotyped synonym, as need hardly be said, for bastard. It is not a 
little curious to note how, amid the open and unabashed profligacy of the 
Roman court, the last lingering traces of conventional propriety should be dis- 
coverable in such a well understood, and therefore perfectly transparent and 
innocuous misnomer. 


jewels were confiscated to the papal chamber.' Nor, bad as this was, 
was it by any means the worst of the shameful story, for, Graystanes 
continues, ' The prior being thus dead and buried, choice was given to 
the three monks who accompanied him to the curia to nominate a 
prior, whom the pope would prefer to the office. When one of them 
had been pitched upon, however, so provoked was he that he shed 
bloody tears from both eyes and no,strils, saying, 'Would you bring 
such a scandal upon me that it should be said I had poisoned my prior 
in order that 1 might rule in his stead ?' 48 Disputing thus, and unable 
to make a choice either from among themselves or any other, the king 
of England and the patriarch of Jerusalem wrote on behalf of the 
prior of Wetheral, William de Tanfield, upon whom the pope bestowed 
the priorate on S. Matthew's day (September 21st), or rather sold it, 
because for Hunt collation the pope had three thousand marks, and the 
cardinals a thousand ' vel potius vendidit ; quia pro ilia collatione 
habuit Papa tria millia marcarum, et cardinales mille.' As a direct 
participator in such a transaction prior William's character was con- 
sistent enough. Graystanes sums it up thus : ' Sumptibus largus sed 
in providendo minus sciolus. Lsetabatur in magnitudine familiae, in 
multitudine et frequentia convivantium ; et unde talia sustineret, non 
satis provide cogitabat.' It suited his patrons, apparently, well enough, 
however, for, he adds, ' when the king abode at Carlisle with his son, 
to wit, Edward of Karnarvan, and the patriarch, he so conducted 
himself that they were ever afterwards graciously disposed towards 

But all these infamous transactions fell heavily upon the church 
and convent of Durham, in whose annals, along with many other 
accompanying and associated evils, they are set forth at great length. 
Only one agreeable, if pathetic, incident is to be found in connexion 
with them. ' On the morrow of the Purification, 1308, bishop Anthony,' 

48 What a ghastly comment and sidelight does not such an exclamation all 
the more so from its being wholly undesigned cast upon the ordinary, every- 
day practices of the* Roman court and people, as though it were the first and 
most natural thought that would enter men's minds, and escape their lips ! S. 
William of York, whose relics were translated by Bek, was said, like so many 
more, to have been poisoned in the chalice only a month after his restoration 
to the see, in 115; and cardinal Bainbridge, his successor, erewhile bishop of 
Durham, whose exquisitely beautiful portrait statue and tomb of white marble, 
perfectly preserved, I remember to have seen in the hall of the English college 
at Rome, met with a similar fate at the hands of a servant whose ears he is said 
to have boxed at dinner-time. 

VOL. XX. 16 


we are told, 'visited the chapter of Durham after the form of the 
Bonifacian Constitution " Debent." Then, many severe sentences were 
passed by him upon the heads of the house, which, after his death, 
were annulled by archbishop Grenfeld.' But these, in Graystanes's 
belief, were brought about by others, rather than of the bishop's own 
proper motion. ' For in the beginning of the visitation,' he says, ' the 
laymen and seculars having retired, immediately the whole convent 
prostrated themselves on bent knees to the earth before the bishop, and 
desired that, if any of them in the late strife had transgressed against 
him in any way he would mercifully forgive them, when bursting into 
tears, he promised them solemnly that he would do so.' 

After breaking the peace effected by the king between the prior 
and himself, Bek would seem never to have recovered the favour of 
Edward I. ' For that, and for other causes,' Graystanes tells us, ' he 
took from him Barnard Castle with its dependencies, and conferred 
them on the earl of Warwick ; Hart and Hartness, on Robert de 
Clifford ; Kewreston (Keverston), on Galfrid de Hertilpol ; which he 
had through the forfeiture of J. de Balliol, R. de Brws, and Chris- 
topher de Seton. Nevertheless, in his charter, the king added this 
sentence, Salvo jure Ecdesiae Dunelmensis, And these three collations 
of the king were confirmed by the chapter. The king also took from 
him Werk in Tyndal, Penereth, and the church of Symondborne, 
which he had appropriated for the use of his table.' 

In his concluding chapter, ' De appropriatis ecclesiae per Antonium, 
et aedificiis ejus et morte,' he tells us how ' he attached the manor of 
Evenwood, which he had bought of J. Haunsard, to the church, and 
built the manor-house of Auckland with its chapel and chambers in 
the most sumptuous fashion, appropriating thereto the church of Mor- 
peth for the pension of the chaplains. But after his death, Ralph, 
son of William, lord Greystock, recovered the patronage of that church 
by legal process, and thus, his presentee being admitted and instituted 
by the bishop, the chapel remained unendowed. 

He built the castle of Somerton near Lincoln, and the manor of 
Eltham near London, in most curious wise ; but bestowed the 
first on the king, and the second on the queen. The castle of Alnwick, 
which W. de Vesci had bestowed upon him in trust that he would 
keep it for the benefit of his young illegitimate son, William, and 


estore to him when he should be grown up, he sold to Henry de 
Percy. He had the Isle of Man, by gift of the king, for life. Dying 
at Eltham on the 3rd of March, 1310, in the 28th of his episcopate, 
but the 5th of his patriarchate, he was buried in the church of 
Durham, contrary to the custom of his predecessors, at the head of 
the church (infronte ecclesiae, i.e., the east end), on the north side, on 
the feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross (May 3rd), next following, 
as is yet manifest, with sufficiently great honour. 49 For before his days, 
for reverence of the body of S. Cuthbert, it was not permitted that 
any dead body should enter the church. And although that bishop 
had been most sumptuous in buildings, apparel, servants, and other 
things, he, nevertheless, died rich and full of goods, precious stones, 
silver vessels, horses, and costly vestments ; deceasing in possession of 
which, he honoured the church of Durham beyond all his predecessors, 
and made his memory famous.' 

From the Patent Rolls, 5 th Edward II. p. i. m. 20. 

Rex omnibus ad quos, etc., salutem. Noveritis nos teneri Executoribus 
Testament! Antonii quondam Episcopi Dunelmensis defunct! in mille trescentis 
quater viginti et sex libris tresdecim solidis et quatuor denariis pro ciphis et 
ollis aureis, tentoriis, et uno panno broudato ab ipsis Executoribus emptis ad 
opus nostrum, solvendis eisdem Executoribus, una videlicet medietate in festo 
Purificationis B. Mariae Virginis proximo futuro, et alia medietate in festo 
Nativitatis S. Johannis Baptistae proximo sequenti. In cujus, etc. Teste Rege 
apud London, xxviii. die Augusti. 


49 It will be observed that Graystanes makes no mention of the story 
circulating in the time of Henry VIII., stated as a fact in the Rites of Durham, 
and repeated, and given currency to as such by the late Dr. Raine, of ' the wall 
beinge broken at the end of the allye for bringinge him in with his coffin.' So 
far as appearances go they belie such a statement altogether. The interior arch 
of the northern doorway, like that of the other towards the south, with which it 
exactly corresponds, is of original construction, and occupied the place long 
before the days of Bek. The exterior archway, however, curiously enough, not 
only is, but for time immemorial has been, utterly obliterated. Whether it were 
thus destroyed and blocked before Bek's death, and then broken through to 
admit the entrance of his body, cannot now positively be said ; but such would 
seem far from likely to have been the case, since a precisely similar pair of doors 
in the same relative positions may be seen in the corresponding eastern transept 
at Fountains abbey, and their use, in either case, would be the same. 

In Murray's Cathedrals, it is stated in the late Mr. R. J. King's excellent 
account of Durham that ' No monument was erected to this great prelate. A 
brass alone recorded that " Praesul magnanimus Antonius hie jacet imus." ' But 
this seems to be a mistake, for we read in the Rites ' Betwixt the last two 
Altars lyeth buryed Anthony Beake, Bishopp of Durham and Patriarch of 


Such is the account given us of bishop Anthony by his contem- 
porary Graystanes, doctor in theology, and sub-prior of the house, who 
had himself also not only been elected, but consecrated and enthroned 
bishop of Durham ; but who, being prevented by injustice and intrigue 
from occupying the see, continued rather than stir up strife to 
occupy, with admirable patience, the place of a humble monk therein. 

As might be expected, from the position of the writer, it deals 
chiefly with such circumstances of his government as affected the 
monastery, and led to those miserable squabbles and wranglings which, 
throughout the whole of his episcopate, never ceased to trouble it. 

Among many other matters, consequently, unrecorded by him, is 
that which, most of all, concerns our present enquiry, viz., his settle- 
ment of the collegiate church of Auckland. For this we must turn 
to the Monasticon, where, after casting about vainly in many 
directions, including the Public Eecord office and British Museum, I 
at last happily discovered his statutes incorporated in an Inspeximus 
of bishop Langley (Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. Caley, Ellis, and 
Bandinel, 1830, vol. vi. p. 1334). Dugdale's own account of the 
church, and collegiate foundation, which precedes it, is as follows : 

College at JBlsbop's Bucfclanfc, in tbe Counts of Durbam. 

The church or chapel of St. Andrew at Bishop's Auckland was made 
collegiate and well endowed by Anthony Beke. bishop of Durham, (a) At the 
time of pope Nicholas's taxation, A.D. 1291, there were twelve portionaries or 
prebendaries here, and their revenues were then rated at 249 13s. 4d. But the 
founder, in his statutes made the next year, appointed a dean and nine 
prebendaries only, and of that number there was some alteration made by 
Thomas, bishop of Durham, A.D. 1348 ; but there was again a dean and eleven 
prebendaries, 26 th Hen. VIII., when the deanery was valued at 100 7s. 2d., 
and the eleven prebends at 79 16s. 8d.(5) 

(a) Lei. Collect, torn. i. p. 123. Tanner says there seems to have been some 
foundation here before ; for 'A.D. 1239, Robertus de Courtney habuit literas de 
presentatione ad Decanatum de Aclent ratione vacationis Bpiscopatus Dunelm.' 
Pat. 24 Hen. III. m. 5. 

(J) Tann. Notit. Monast. Durh. I. ; William Sherwode, dean of Aukland, 
was buried at Eome, where he died 11 th Oct., 1497. 

Jerusalem, in afaire marble totnbe under neath a fair e marble stone, beinge the 
first bishopp that ever attempted to lye so neare the saccred Shrine of Saint 
Cuthbert.' It is not a little curious that bishop Hatfield's is the only sculptured 
monumental effigy of a pre-Reformation bishop of Durham ever erected either in 
the cathedral or elsewhere. 


That Bek himself was the founder of the college, as alleged by 
Leland and Dugdale, is, however, plainly disproved, not only by the 
fact referred to by Tanner, but by the statutes themselves. As will 
there be seen, Bek's work consisted simply in revising the order, and 
augmenting the endowment, of an already established institution 
that, in short, which had never ceased to exist upon the spot since the 
days when the seculars were expelled from Durham. Detached from 
Langley's context, his statutes run thus : 

' Universis S. matris ecclesiae filiis, ad quos praesentes literae pervenerint, 
Antonius permissione divina Dunelmensis episcopus salutem in Domino sem- 

Pastoralis officii debitum Domino credimus exhibere, cum ad ecclesiae suae 
non solum circa temporalia commoda procuranda, sed etiam circa divini cultus 
augmentum, nostrae sollicitudinis studium et curam extendimus diligentem, ut 
dum divina obsequia majori veneratione Domino persolvuntur, fidelium devotio 
erga ecclesiam ferventius excitetur, et ipsum divinum obsequiura cum suis 
ministris ampliori reverentia extollatur pariter et honore. Cum igitur ecclesiam S. 
Andreae de Aukland collegiatam nostrae dioecesis, quae ad nos pleno jure dinosci- 
tur pertinere, non solum numero praebendarum set etiam facultatibus habundan- 
ter noverimus decrevisse ; nullusque canonicorum seu praebendariorum ejusdem 
.ecclesiae in eadem ecclesia residere hactenus sit inventus, vel qui alium pro se 
curaret ponere servitorem, quanquam utilitas et honestas id exposcerent, et 
ipsarum praebendarum ad hoc suppeterent facultates ; hoc solum pro excusa- 
tionis velamento praetendentes, quod domos ibidem non habeant, vel areas 
competentes, in quibus sibi possent construere mansiones, propter quod nos 
meditationis assiduitate augemur et pulsamur, qualiter ejusdem ecclesiae honori 
prospicere valeamus, de consensu magistri Roberti de Albuwyke perpetui vicarii 
de Aukland, et omnium canonicorum seu praebendariorum ejusdem, ad ordina- 
tionem infrascripta decernimus procedendum. 

' In Dei nomine, amen. Cum infra limites parochiae de Aukland temporibus 
nostris quaedam fuerunt novalia et terrae de vasto nostro, ad culturam noviter 
sunt redactae ; quarum terrarum seu novalium decimae ordinatio et assignatio 
ad nos tarn de jure, quam de ecclesiae nostrae consuetudine pertinere noscun- 
tur, de dictis decimis novalium seu terrarum vasti nostri, ad culturam tempore 
nostro noviter redactarum ultra Gaunles in forest^ nostra versus occidentem, et 
circa Gaunles infra Wydepmore unam erigimus et ordinamus praebendam, usque 
ad valentiam decem librarum ; decernentes illas decimas. usque ad aestima- 
tionem praedictam integram perpetuo fore censendam. Et quia cum dignitatis 
praerogativa et personae eminencia rei conjunguntur excellent!, summum con- 
stituit officii gradum, nomen vicariae, quod in ipsa ecclesia hactenus est 
optentum in nomen decanatus ecclesiae collegiatae decrevimus perpetuo fore 
transmutandum, attendentes ex hoc non solum personam magistri Roberti 
dudum vicarii, nunc autem decani ejusdem, et successorum suorum ; verum 
etiam ipsam ecclesiam congru6 honoribus exaltare : et sicut nomirii honoris 
tribuimus augmentum, sic etiam eidem reale accedere volumus incrementum, 


ipsumque decanum praebendam novalium seu decimarum, usque ad summam 
praetaxatam annectimus antedictam : statuentes et ordinantes, quod dictus 
decanus et omnes successores sui post ipsum, omnes obventiones, terras, redditus, 
jura, et libertates percipiant, quas et quae in statu vicariae hactenus percipere 
consueverunt : et quod in dictS, ecclesia residentiam faciat vel faciant con- 
tinuam, prout officii sui cura requirit, et quod in capella manerii nostri de 
Aukland unum inveniet sacerdotem qui singulis diebus, pro nobis et praede- 
cessoribus nostris, ac eorum successoribus missam celebret congruentem : et 
nichilominus, quod in ipssi majori ecclesia et capellis suis in quibus perceperit 
proventus, sacerdotes et alios clericos habeat competentes, prout hactenus in 
eisdem fieri consuevit. 

1 Et ut canonicis ipsius ecclesiae, qui hactenus ibidem non residerunt, nee 
vicarios vel alios clericos servitores pro se ibidem statuere curaverunt, quanquam 
non modicum praebendarum suarum creverit facultates, praedictam excusationis 
materiam amputemus quandam aream ex parte australi ipsius ecclesiae eisdem 
canonicis assignamus, inter eos certis regionibus per nos dividendam, pro man- 
sionibus suis ibidem de novo constituendis, eisdem canonicis omnibus et singulis, 
in virtute obedientiae firmiter injungentes, quod infra biennium proximum 
sequens mansiones ibidem in areis sibi assignatis construi faciant ; in quibus se 
recipere valeant cum honore. 

' Statuimus etiam et ordinamus, quod quilibet canonicus, qui residentiam 
ibidem non fecerit personalem, vicarium idoneum pro se habeat, qui cotidianis 
psallendis, horis, processionibus. et missis intersit in habitu canonical! et 
decenter officiet in eadem. Et quia non debet ligari os bovis triturantis, set 
qui altari servit de altari vivere debet, statuimus et ordinamus, quod quinque 
primi canonici ; videlicet, magister Eobertus Avenell, Walterus de Langton, 
Galfridus de Vezano, Johannes de London, magister Adam de Brampton, et 
eorum successores in praebendis suis, singuli, singulos vicarios suos habent 
ortodoces, quibus de suis proventibus teneantur quinque marcas annuas assignare. 
Quatuor vero alii canonici, videlicet, Johannes de Lacy, dominus Eicardus de 
Insula, Johannes de Wytham, Alanus de Kyrkham, diaconos habeant vicarios, 
quorum quilibet pro suis stipendiis quadraginta solidos percipiat annuatim. 
Reliqui vero subdiaconos vel alios clericos idoneos habeant vicarios, quibus 
singulis pro suis stipendiis xxx 9 . annuos solvi volumus et mandamus. Dictae 
ver6 solutiones fiant vieariis antedictis, juxta praedictum statum suum, ad 
quatuor anni terminos, in nostra dioecesi communiter usitatos. 

' Volumus insuper et mandamus, quod hujusmodi vicarii, per canonicos seu 
praebendarios dicto decano praesententur, qui ipsos, dum tamen idoneos recipere 
teneantur. Cum autem aliquis dictorum vicariorum in fata decesserit, vel alias 
amotus fuerit quoquomodo, canonicus vel praebendarius, cujus fuerit vicarius, 
infra unum mensem a tempore mortis vel amotionis hujusmodi, alium praesen- 
tare teneatur ; quod si non fecerit, omni excusatione cessante^ dictus decanus de 
alio vicario idoneo, pro anni residuo non differat ordinare. 

' Statuimus etiam et ordinamus, quod omnes horae canonicae in choro dictae 
ecclesiae per totum annum cantentur cum nota : et quod dictus decanus et 
vicarii aut alii ministri ecclesiae antedictae, modum psallendi secundum usum 
Eborum vel Salesberiae teneant et observent : magna autem missa de die 
singulis diebus hora tertia,- vieariis et aliis ministris con venientibus cum nota 


congrue celebretur. Missa siquidem de beata Virgine, per magistrum Adam de 
Brampton supradictum, vel suum vicarium, et suos successores, post ipsum bora 
competent! solempniter praecipimus celebrari. Presbyteri vero qui per dictum 
decanum in eadem ecclesia praeficiuntur, ad curam parocbiae supportandum, et 
caeteri ecclesiae ejusdem ministri in habitu canonical! caeteris vicariis canoni- 
corum per omnia se conferment. 

' Singuli vero vicarii canonicorum siut ebdomadarii, secundum gradum et 
ordinem vicis suae, juxta dispositionem decani ; qui sicut in cura parochiali, sic 
in hiis quae ad divinum spectant omcium ordinet et corrigat, chorum regat et 
disponat; ac etiam in hiis puniat transgressores. Matutinas insuper mane dici 
propter parochianos volumus et mandamus. 

' Ne autem de ordine sedendi vel procedendi contentio oriatur, statuimus ut 
primus stallus ex parte australi chori nobis et successoribus nostris specialiter 

' Ex parte autem boreali decanus ecclesiae retineat primum locum. Canonic! 
quidem qui vicarios inveniunt sacerdotes, loca sequentia habeant ex utraque 
parte chori^ secundum ordinem gradus sui. Deinde canonici qui diaconos 
habeant vicarios, habeant loca sua. Postremo canonici, qui subdiaconos, vel 
alios clericos habent vicarios collocentur. 

' Et eandem ordinem observent invicem, procedendo canonici memorati. 

' Hanc igitur ordinationem nostram, concurrente consensu capituli nostri 
Dunelmensis, ac praedicti magistri Roberti et aliorum canoDicorum, ad 
honerem Dei et ecclesiae Christifactam, statuimus perpetuis temporibus inviola- 
biliter observandam, auctoritate, dignitate, et potestate ecclesiae nostrae 
Dunelmensis et successorum nostrorum in omnibus semper salvis. In cujus 
rei perpetuam firmitatem sigillum nostrum praesentibus est appensum. Acta et 
data apud Auckland in crastino Octab. Epiphaniae anno Domini M.CCXCII et 
consecrationis nostrae decimo.' 

Had bishop Anthony but confined himself to the enactment of 
these statutes, he might justly have been regarded as in every way a 
benefactor. But that, unhappily, was not the case. In order, as 
they doubtless thought imagining a vain thing to adapt the 
beautiful choir of the new church the better to collegiate uses, he and 
the blundering mason, architect we cannot call him, whom he 
employed, deliberately set about its complete, and artistically 
speaking hideous, destruction. And that in the meanest and most 
miserable way. Inside and outside alike, the work spelt 'ruin' 
unqualified and absolute. The whole scheme, in fact, was conceived 
and carried out with a degree of callous violence and stupidity which 
needs inspection to be understood. 

That a prelate so profuse and prodigal in his own personal 
expenditure should have been thus niggardly in respect of things 
offered to God save that such spectacles are of daily occurrence 


might seem well nigh incredible. Had but a tenth of the tithe of 
the wealth squandered in vainglorious ostentation been bestowed upon 
what he would seem to have considered the necessary alterations of 
the collegiate church, what an enduring and glorious monument of 
utmost art considering the days in which he lived instead of sordid 
penuriousness, might it not have come down to us in his honour? 
But here, as elsewhere, we may read a meaning into the boastful 
' magnanimous ' of his epitaph not contemplated of the scribe. His 
magnanimity, it is clear, had some stringent limitations. For what, 
on examination, does it seem to have amounted to but the constant 
application of his vast wealth, and the enormous power, civil, military, 
and ecclesiastical, at his command, to his one fixed object of self- 
exaltation, untroubled by any considerations either of honour or 
honesty? Witness, for example, his shameful breach of trust in 
respect to the sale of Alnwick ; his unjust and illegal seizure of the 
church of Morpeth for the endowment of his domestic chaplains ; and 
the aid afforded by him, out of pure spite to prior Eichard de Hoton, 
towards the advancement, through open simony, of so unworthy a 
subject as William de Tanfield to the priorate of Durham. As to the 
furtherance of his cause in the Roman curia by means of gifts and 
bribes, he doubtless understood the character of the gang of ravenous 
miscreants he was dealing with perfectly, and the case was simply one 
of diamond cut diamond. And as to the pope, he might think, 
. perhaps, and not unnaturally, that it was ' enough for the disciple to 
be as his master, and the servant as his lord.' At Eome, at any rate, 
his 'greatness of mind' would be measured by that of the appetites of 
his ecclesiastical superiors, and his ability if that which was always 
insatiable, could be satisfied to satisfy it. 

But, so far as the fabric went, it had been well if the * Magnanimous ' 
had never been born. As left by him it continued, apparently 
untouched, till the first quarter of the fifteenth century, when, under 
cardinal Langley, it entered on a fresh chapter of its chequered, if 
uneventful, history. 



Dugdale, as will be seen, states above that at the time of pope 
Nicholas's taxation, A.D. 1291, there were twelve portionaries or 
prebendaries here at Auckland. He then goes on to say that, in 
the year following, Bek, whom he styles the founder, appointed 'a 
dean and nine prebendaries only.' But in this last particular, equally 
as in the first, he is shown, on the evidence of the statutes themselves, 
to be distinctly and altogether wrong. His error, however, as is plain, 
can only have originated from a hurried and careless reading of the 
text. Bek, it will be observed, after specifying, and naming, the first 
five canons, ' quinque primi canonici,' ordains that they should main- 
tain as many vicars, 'ortodoces,' or in priest's orders. And then he 
proceeds to specify, and name, in like fashion, the four other canons, 
'quatuor vero alii canonici,' who were also to maintain the like 
number of vicars in deacon's orders. With these, therefore, we have 
Dugdale's 'nine canons only' complete. Bek, however, goes on, 
4 Reliqui vero, subdiaconos vel alios clericos idoneos habeant vicarios,' 
for whose adequate endowment he also makes provision. Now it is 
clear from this that there must, at the very least, have been two in 
this last group of canons whose vicars were to be in subdeacon's, or 
other minor orders. And thus, these, with the dean, would bring 
up the establishment to twelve as before ; the bishop, perhaps, as 
patron, part founder, and head, occupying the highest place, and so 
completing the ideally ', and normally perfect number of thirteen. (See 

Besides reconstituting the college at Auckland, Bek founded, or 
constituted, two others also in the palatinate. They were as follows : 

LANCHESTBR, founded in 1283, for a dean and seven canons ; the 
dean, who was to be in priest's orders and have the cure of souls, to 
provide two suitable chaplains. 

The three principal prebendaries to find each a vicar chaplain, and 
each of the four other prebendaries to have a vicar in holy orders to 
minister in the church in canonical habits, and to follow the use of 
either York or Sarum. 

The first stall on the south side is reserved to the bishop and his 
successors, the first prebendary sitting next him ; the first stall on the 

VOL. xx. 17 


north side to the dean, with the second prebendary next him ; the 
third next the first, and so on, the seventh prebendary coming last on 
the bishop's side. 

CHESTER-LE-STREET, founded in 1286, also for a dean and seven 
canons ; the dean, who was to be in priest's orders and continually 
resident, with cure of souls, to provide two suitable chaplains and 
others in minor orders for the efficient service of the church. Each 
of the three chief prebendaries to have his vicar chaplain, and the 
other four each his vicar deacon, ministering in canouical habit, and 
following the use of York or Sarum, with the same order of occupying 
stalls as at Lanchester. 


Among the first results of the resettlement of the collegiate body, 
as it was certainly the most disastrous, was the general recasting of 
the church. As in so many other cases, the chief reason for this 
mischievous meddling would seem to have lain in some real, or 
imaginary, lack of light. 50 It is that from which nearly every early 
building in the country has suffered more or less severely. But none, 

40 It is not a little curious to observe how, from the 12th century to our own, 
there has been a steadily growing love for more and more light both in our 
churches and domestic buildings, accompanied by a corresponding determination, 
at all costs, to secure it. Hardly an ancient church in the land can be found in 
which evidence of the fact, more or less conspicuous, does not exist. There can 
be no doubt but that the extreme costliness of glass in the earliest periods led as 
well to the fewness, as smallness, of the windows. These, as at Staindrop, in pre- 
Conquest days, were often left unglazed, set as high in the walls as possible, and 
of just sufficient size to ' make darkness visible.' Where no new parts were 
added, then larger windows were broken out in the original walls as occasion 
required and means allowed, as in the choirs of Jarrow, Staindrop, Barnard 
Castle, Cartmel, and others without number. But, universally, where there 
were aisles, then, as here at Auckland, space for getting more light was most 
readily gained by raising the walls and inserting windows, not only of much 
greater breadth, but height also. And the feeling and fashion still went on 
developing to the very latest days. Nowhere, perhaps, can more interesting or 
instructive illustration of its growth during three successive periods be found 
than in the great metropolitan church of York ; first in the transept, then in 
the nave, and finally in the presbytery and choir. Yet even the latest of those 
developments failed to reach the utmost limits of the movement. Such magnifi- 
cent churches as those of S. Mary's, Nottingham, and Long Melford, Suffolk, 
are simply all window, both above and below ; the stonework forming a mere 
skeleton framing to hold the glass together and sustain the roofs. The chapels 
of S. Qeorge, Windsor ; King's college, Cambridge ; and Bath abbey church, 
the very latest example of native English Gothic in the land, not having 
been completed till 1616 (or, more correctly, till oar own day when the vaulting 
and flying buttresses of the nave were erected), continue and complete the 
system, which, it might be thought, could then no further go. But yet we see 
it did, for in the Lady chapel at Westminster (known commonly as Henry 


I imagine, more so than this. Indeed it would be no easy task to 
name a case in which the subsequent alteration was so utterly 
destructive, or the original work so worthy of sympathetic and 
respectful treatment as it was here. But it found none. Rather it 
was treated as a mere corpus vile unworthy of any regard at all. As 
brutally direct of purpose, as regardless of architectural effect, the new 
work in the chancel played havoc with all that had gone before, being 
carried out in a way that simply spelt ruin. ' Poverty,' as the 
proverb tells us, ' makes strange bedfellows.' But no such explana- 
tion, save poverty of will, can be found here. Had what was done 
been effected by any other prelate than Bek, some sort of excuse, 
however lame, might possibly have been found for it. But it is 
difficult, not to say impossible, to conceive even ' extenuating circum- 
stances,' in such a case as his. ' Rich,' in his day, ' beyond the 
dreams of avarice;' profuse, with the most lavish prodigality, in 
everything that pertained to his own personal popularity and position; 
when it came to the partial alteration of his parish church, what a 
pitiful reversal of the picture do we see. Meanness for magnificence, 
penuriousness for prodigality ; brutal destruction of his predecessor's 
works, the baldest and most barbarous qualities in his own. Well, as 
we look at them, may we exclaim with Westmoreland when reviewing 
Falstaffs vicarious recruits ' tattered prodigals lately come from 
swine keeping, from eating draff and husks,' 'Ay, but sir John, 
methinks they are exceeding poor and bare, too beggarly !' Destruc- 
tive as they were, however, they may be enumerated readily enough. 
The first and most miserable interference was that made with the 
southern windows of the chancel. These, as we have seen, were 
planned, more especially in the interior, continuously ; and in this 
continuity lay their chiefest charm. But all such considerations were 
set at naught. Every second window was destroyed, and another, 
utterly unlike it, and of the meanest and shabbiest kind possible, 
thrust into its place. Of these the easternmost, moreover, cut away 
the arched head of the fine double piscina. Outside, of course, the 

VII.'s), not content with filling all the space between his buttresses with 
window openings, the architect determined on making them bow-windows, 
standing out from the lines of the walling in semi-circles. And the same idea 
was also carried out, at the same period, in secular buildings, such as Thornbury 
and Windsor castles, Richmond palace, and Nonsuch house, which latter were, 
literally, such 'glass-houses' as might well originate the proverb about the 
inmates 'throwing stones.' 


effect was bad enough, producing, instead of the previous harmony, 
complete irregularity and confusion. But inside it was infinitely 
worse, since the windows, instead of being widely separated as they 
were there, formed here a long drawn out and uninterrupted line of 
deep and richly moulded arcading of the most beautiful character, the 
effect of which depended above all else on continued repetition. A 
more ruthless act of vandalism could hardly be conceived. Towards 
the north the evil was only less in proportion as there was less scope 
for it. Otherwise it was just the same. But the chancel was, and is 
still, artistically ruined. Then the outer walls of the nave aisles were 
raised. In this respect, probably, the appearance of the church, as 
seen from without, would not suffer at all, as the originals were very 
low indeed no higher, in fact, than the springing line of the present 
window heads. And though the details were just as mean and poor 
as those introduced into the chancel, yet was there no contrast of 
anything better to be injured by them as was the case there. 
Another addition also, which though poor enough in itself yet 
perhaps served to improve the appearance of the building as a whole 
exiernally, was that of the south transept. 51 For it had the effect of 
completing the cruciform character of the design, which till then had 
been incomplete. And then at the same time, as there can, I think, 
be little or no doubt, the southernmost of the three north transept 
lancets which originally formed a wide-spaced triplet was also 
destroyed, and replaced by a low and broad window of three plain 
pointed lights under a single head, in all respects similar to those of 
the new work opposite. 52 And with that the work of recasting was 
apparently brought to an end a piece of barbarism which, till worse 
followed, might, perhaps, have been thought as bad as bad could be. 

51 As the following notes from Tlutchinson will show, this south transept was 
known, anciently, as ' S. Cuthbert's Porch ' ; later on, and simply from the cir- 
cumstance of the Lilburns having acquired some sort of proprietary rights or other 
there, and used it as a burial place, ' Lilburn's Porch ' : 

'Earth. Lylborne, of Shyldon, 20th March, 1561, orders to be buried in S. 
Cuthbert's porch of S. Andrew's. This porch is near the chancel door.' Randal's 
MSS. Hutchinson. Durham, III., 334. ' The family burial ground [of the 
Lilburns] in S. Andrew's church, called Lilburn's porch.' Ibid., 341, note. 

42 The north transept, as was suggested, supra, would seem to have been 
known and used as the Lady chapel from the first ; for. since the south transept 
was known as S. Cuthbert's porch, the ' Lady porch,' as there was no other porch 
or transept, must necessarily have t>een that towards the north. That it was so 
known we learn from the following : 

1 Robert Person, of Middleston, orders to be buried in the church of S. 
Andrew, ny to the ladi Porche.' ItandaVs MSS. Hutchinson, III. 334. 



Bishop Bek was succeeded in the episcopate by six prelates, of 
whom none would appear to have been in any special way connected 
either with the college, or the church, of Auckland. Of these, the first, 
viz., Richard of Kellaw had, like Stichill, been a monk of Durham. 
He is described by Graystanes as being ' vir utique sufficienter literatus, 
rnoribus et vita dignus, cujus eloquentia species et statura digna erant 
imperio.' His election and confirmation being despatched with 
unusual celerity, he was consecrated in York minster within three 
months of Bek's death, on the 30th of May, 1311. But not without 
some disturbing circumstances. Much as we are accustomed, nowadays, 
to hear exception taken to the appointment of bishops by the crown, 
we may at least be thankful (whatever theoretical basis for such 
exception may exist) that such open and horrible scandals as constantly 
attached to, and vitiated, them in medieval days, are in ours unknown. 
The history of the church of Durham has already supplied us with 
more than a sufficiency of such scandals, and another awaits us here. 
The day of election being come, Graystanes tells us how the king, 
Edward II., sent the earl of Gloucester to Durham, desiring the monks 
in his name to choose a certain kinsman (consanguineum) of his own, 
Antolini de Pysana, to the see a foreigner, utterly unknown to them, 
and, as it was alleged, under age. The king's favour went for much ; 

Of this three-light inserted window, Hutchinson gives the subjoined interesting, 
though lamentable, information : 

' In the large window to the east, in this limb of the cross (north transept), 
are remains of an inscription painted on the glass ; the date appears 1386 ; 
beneath the inscription are the arms of Bellasys, and in a belt round them the 
following words: 

' Bellysys Belly sys base was thy sowell 
When exchanged Belysys for Henknowell.' 

This is now called Kennet's porch. Hutchinson, III. 330. 

He also adds as follows, which may be taken in explanation : 

' Close adjoining the church of St. Andrews, on the west, lies Henknoll : in 
the old records this is called a manor ; and in the fifth year of Bishop Hatfield, 
Galfrid de Henknoll died seized thereof, as being held of the bishop in capite, 
by homage, fealty, suit at the county, and eight shillings and sixpence rent at 
the exchequer ; he left Margaret, his daughter and heir. Soon after his time 
Henknoll became part of the possessions of the convent of Durham, and a 
licence was had to enable the convent to exchange the same with John de 
Belasys for Belasys, and lands in Wolviston. The exchange was favourable to 
the Church; John having made a vow to go upon the crusades, and a strong 
affection for his native place of Belasys prevailing, likely to stagger his 
resolution, he determined to shake off that yoke, root out partialities, and part 
with the estate of his ancestors, the regard for which stood in competition with 
his imaginary virtues. The exchange took place in the year 1380.' 


money, it was hoped, would go for more. ' Habuit iste,' we are told, 
* promotorem suum, qui multis de conventu dona obtulit, si accipere 
voluissent. Promittebantur etiam Petro de Gaverston, tune Regi 
familiarissimo et Comiti Cornubiae, multa librarum millia, eo pacto ut 
procuraret eum Episcopum fieri Dunelmensem.' 1 But the monks, having 
the fear of God before their eyes, rather than the king's gifts and 
favourites, chose one of their own brethren. Inflexibly just, humble, 
pious, none ever ruled the palatinate more firmly or admirably than 
he. But his reign was both brief and disastrous. In his second year 
the suburbs of Durham were burnt by the Scots, and great part of 
the bishopric consumed by fire and sword. Never had it suffered so 
grievously since the days of the Conquest. Famine and pestilence 
swept the land. Women, driven mad with hunger, devoured their 
young children. Floods succeeded fire and famine ; crops were sub- 
merged ; mills and houses swept away, and men, women and children 
drowned. No such inundation or dearness of provisions had been 
known within living memory, nor such murrain among cattle. A 
quarter of wheat fetched forty shillings (equal to about as many 
pounds of our money), and ' through excess of hunger such multitudes 
died in the fields, and roads, and lanes, in towns and outside, that 
there was hardly any left to bury them.' Dying at Middleham, on 
the feast day of S. Dionysius, 1316, bishop Kellaw who, unlike Bek, 
would not presume to be laid beside S. Outhbert was buried beneath 
a marble slab before the episcopal seat in the chapter house, 83 the 
earl of Lancaster, who attended his funeral, offering three cloths 
embroidered with his arms, and the king, who was at York, sending 
his almoner with others enwoven with gold to do him honour. 

After which, we find history repeating itself. The earl of 
Lancaster, whose motives apparently had not been single, begged the 
see for his chaplain, John de Kynardesley, promising, in case of his 
election, ' to be a shield to the bishopric against the Scots and at the 

53 When the site of the destroyed eastern part of the chapter house was 
excavated in 1874 the grave of bishop Kellaw was. amon-jr divers others, laid 
bare. From the marks left upon the sides of the stone coffin, he had evidently 
been a man of short stature and very stout. The skeleton was in a very fairly 
perfect state, and I remember being very much struck by the pitiful sight of the 
toes, in particular, lying in two compact heaps just as they had fallen to pieces. 
His head, which was taken for a short time into the deanery, showed patches of 
short, silvery, grey hair behind, and above the ears. 


same time to pacify the king.' The latter, meanwhile, was pressing 
for Thomas de Carleton, D.C.L., keeper of his privy seal, while the 
queen clamoured vehemently for her relative Lewis de Beaumont, 
both king and queen being so instant in their endeavours ' that there 
was hardly a monk in the house of any name who was not the recipient 
of their begging letters.' And then, as though that were not enough, 
the earl of Hereford petitioned for his chaplain, John "Walwayn. But 
again the monks stood firm, mindful of their duty, and in the fear of 
God, chose Henry de Stanford, prior of Finchale, 'virum utique 
moribus sincerum, aetate maturum, vultu placidum, sufficienterque 

For such as would know what freedom and purity of election 
meant in those happy days, no more interesting or instructive picture 
than that of the one in question could be desired. The result, as 
Graystanes, himself a contemporary and eye-witness, tells us, was 
awaited 'in the church by the earls of Lancaster, Hereford, and 
Pembroke, the lords de Eos, de Hastings, de Montalto, de Holland, 
Paynel, and a great multitude of other nobles ; also by Henry de 
Beaumont and his followers on behalf of his brother, and others, who 
threatened to cut off the head of the elect, should he prove to be a 
monk !' 

And then, the old, old story, with variations, is rehearsed again. 
The king, his disappointment notwithstanding, would have received 
the elect willingly, but the queen was not to be gainsaid. Throwing 
herself on her bare knees before him, she cried, ' Sire, never have I 
asked anything for anyone belonging to me. If you love me, procure 
that my kinsman Lewis de Beaumont be made bishop of Durham.' 
So the king, overcome by her entreaties, and, refusing to admit the 
elect, wrote on Lewis's behalf to the curia, suggesting to the pope, 
that if he was made bishop he would form a brazen barrier between 
himself and his enemies the Scots. Making no progress with the 
king and the chapter of York, the see being then vacant, becoming 
luke-warm in his cause through fear he then, with three companions, 
betook himself to Some, believing that he would find the new pope, 
John xxii., favourably disposed towards him. But before he got 
there, at the request of the kings and queens of England and France, 
the pope had bestowed the bishopric on Beaumont. Not for nothing, 


however. He had to pay such a price for it ' as he was hardly able to 
discharge during the next fourteen years ! ' 

Well, indeed, with modern Roman claims before his eyes, might 
the late cardinal Manning declare appeal to history to be ' heresy and 
treason,' for surely no more explicit or damning witness could be 
found. Empty of purse, therefore, through expences incurred upon 
the way and in the curia, the elect returned to his cell of Stamford 
like Graystanes afterwards, who tells the tale, to Durham where 
cheerful and unrepining, he continued till his death on the feast of 
S. Gregory, in 1320, when he was buried before the high altar in the 
church of S. Leonard. There ' a heavenly light was seen of many to 
play at night time upon his tomb, and thence to pass to other parts of 
the church, in sign of his salutary example, and of the aid which, while 
living, he had so freely bestowed on others.' 

Having thus, in the usual fashion, openly bought the see of the 
pope and curia, Lewis de Beaumont was consecrated to it at West- 
minster, on the feast of the Annunciation, 1318. He had intended, 
for his greater glorification, it seems, that the solemnity should have 
taken place at Durham the year previous, in presence of the two 
cardinals who had been sent to establish peace between the English 
and Scottish kingdoms. But this design had been frustrated by a 
Northumbrian thief, Gilbert de Middleton, who attacking and robbing 
the cardinals and their followers of all they possessed at Rushyford, 
took Beaumont and his brother prisoners, and shut them up in 
Mitford castle. This outrage proved a further trial for the unhappy 
prior and convent, who, at their own cost, had not only to ransom the 
man so scandalously forced upon them, but, through fear of the spite 
and malignity of the cardinals, to bestow a pension of a hundred 
florins a year upon one of them for life. Nor was even that all, for 
they had to become bound, on the bishop's account, in a sum of no 
less than three thousand pounds (something like sixty thousand of 
modern currency) in such sort, that any deficiency of payment on the 
part of the bishop should be made good by them. For all which, 
Graystanes assures us, they got small thanks. 

Of Beaumont's lack of learning, vanity and petulance, the monks 
had much to tell. Yet he was not all bad. Though a layman, we are 
told, he was like his predecessor Bek chaste, a virtue which as 


things went then, might be thought to make some amends for his 
ignorance of Latin, and difficulty in pronouncing it. 

Whence it came to pass that, notwithstanding 'he had for many 
days previous to his consecration been receiving instruction, he could 
not read ; and when, with much difficulty he had got to the word 
Metropoliticae, and, after much puffing and blowing, was unable to 
pronounce it, he exclaimed in French, ' Seyt pur ditej greatly to the 
grief and scandal of all present. And once, at an ordination, when he 
stuck fast at the words in aenigmate, he said to the bystanders, ' Par 
Seynt Lowis, il nefupas curtays, qui cest parole icy escrit' Through- 
out his whole episcopate he tried to extort money from the convent ; 
replying to every petition of the prior, that in all their dealings, they 
did nothing for him, and he would do nothing for them ; and bidding 
them pray for his death, because as long as he lived, they should never 
have anything.' At Middleham, he built a kitchen, and commenced 
a halt and chapel sufficiently large and fair, but dying before their 
completion, at Brantingham, on the viu. of the kalends of October, 
1333, was buried, October vi., of the same year before the high 
altar of the church of Durham, 'ubi superpositus est sibi lapis 
marmoreus, curiosus et sumptuosus, quern ipse [sibi] dum vixerat 
fecerat praeparari.' 54 (p. 119.) 

After the death of Beaumont came the election of Graystanes, the 
historian, and sub-prior of the house. And again the shameful story 

34 The author of the Rites gives a full and interesting account of this once 
magnificent tomb, the largest, I believe, as it was certainly one of the most 
splendid of its kind, either in England or in the world. It was, he says, ' prepared 
for himself e before hee dyed, beinge adorned with most excellent workmanshipp 
of brasse, wherein he was most excellently and lively pictured, as hee was 
accustomed to singe or say masse, with his mitre on his head and his crosiers 
staffe in his hand, with two angells very finely pictured, one of the one side of 
his head and the other on the other side, with censors in theire hands sensinge 
him, conteining most exquisite pictures and images of the twelve Apostles 
devided and bordered of either side of him, and next them is bordered on either 
side of the twelve Apostles in another border the pictures of his ancestors in 
theire coat armour, beinge of the bloud royale of France, and his owne armes of 
France, beinge a white lyon placed uppon the breast of his vestment, beneath 
his verses of his breast, with flower de luces about the lyon, two lyons pictured 
one under the one foote of him and another under the other of him, supportinge 
and holdinge up his crosier's staffe, his feete adjoyninge and standing uppon the 
said lyons, and other two lyons beneath them in the nethermost border of all, 
beinge most artificially wrought and sett forth all in brasse, maveilously beauti- 
fyinge the said through of marble ; wherin was engraven in brasse such divine 
and celestial sayinge of the Scripture which hee, had peculiarly selected for his 
spirituall consolation, at such time as it should please God to call him out of his 
mortalitie, wherof some of them are legeable to this clay (circa 1593), as theise 
that follow : 

VOL. xx. 18 


of intrigue is repeated. The king refuses his consent to the unani- 
mous vote of the chapter, on the pretence that he understood the 
pope, whom he was unwilling to offend, had already provided for the 
appointment of his private chaplain, Eichard de Bury, in whose 
interest he himself had not only petitioned the pope, but the prior and 
convent as well. In spite of this, however, after consultation had, the 
dean and chapter of York, and the prior and convent of Durham con- 
senting, he was confirmed in the abbey of S. Mary on the Sunday 
next following, consecrated by the archbishops of York and Armagh 
and the bishop of Carlisle in the palace chapel, and, during the course 
of the same week, enthroned at Durham. But all was of no avail ; 
the king refused the temporalities ; the pope, to please the king, as 
well as, probably, for more solid considerations, bestowed the see on 
the royal favourite ; and the poor bishop had once more to seek the 
retirement of his cloistral cell, where he abode till death. 

With this account of his own sufferings and wrongs the history of 
Graystanes closes ; and William de Chambre, our third historian, 
takes up the tale. 

Eichard de Bury, 55 who had been a monk of Durham, tutor to 
Edward III., when prince, and filled many other offices about the 
court, was consecrated to the see on the 19th of December, 1333, by 

Epitaphium ejus. 

$n (Sallfa natus 

2>e JBellomonte jacet bic Xufcovfcus bumatus 
ftobilis er. fonte recjum comitumque creatue 
praesul in bac se&e coeli lactetuc in e&e 
jpreteriens stste memorans quantus fuit iste 
Goelo quam Mcinus Justus plus atquc benicjnus 
2>apsilis ac bilaris inimicus semper avarts. 

Super caput. 

Gre&o quoD IRefcemptor meus vivit quf in novissfmo Die me resit* 
scitabit aD vitam eternam et in carne mea viDebo Deum salvatorem 

In pectorc. 

TReposita est baec spes mea in sinu meo. Domine miserere. 

Ad d extra in. 

Censors sit sanctis XuDovicus in arce Gonantfs. 

Ad sinistrain. 

Spiritus aD Cbristum qui sanguine liberal ipsum. 

Rites of Durham (15 Surt. Soc. Publ.), p. 13. 

53 His father was sir Richard de Aungerville, a Norman knight ; but, like so 
many other clerics, including his predecessors, William of S. Calais, Richard de 
Mariso. Nicholas de Farnham, Walter de Kirkham, Robert de Insula, and Richard 
de Kellaw, he took the name by which he was commonly known from the place 
of his birth, St. Edmundsbnry. 


John de Stratford, archbishop of Canterbury, in the Benedictine 
abbey of Chertsey, all the expences attending the ceremony being de- 
frayed by the king. Shortly afterwards he was created treasurer of 
England, and enthroned at Durham. On which occasion he made a 
great feast, the king and queen of England, together with the king's 
mother, the king of Scotland, two archbishops, five bishops, seven 
earls and their wives, all the magnates on this side Trent, many 
knights and gentlemen, abbots, priors, and religious, with an innumer- 
able multitude of common people being present and entertained by 
him. The same year he was made chancellor of Eugland, and for the 
nine next following, much occupied in foreign service. Taking great 
pleasure in clerical society, he had ever many clergy in his household, 
among them being the famous Thomas Bradwardyn, afterwards arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Eichard fitz Ealph, archbishop of Armagh, 
with many more, who, later on, attained high distinction. 

Every day reading took place at dinner, unless interrupted by the 
advent of any magnates ; and, after dinner, disputations among the 
clergy and other members of his family. ' Every week, moreover, he 
distributed eight quarters of flour among the poor, besides the 
customary broken victuals of the house. And when more arrived, 
after such distribution had been made, they received a halfpenny 
apiece. Besides which, whenever going or returning between New- 
castle and Durham, he bestowed twelve marks in alms, and from 
Durham to Stockton eight marks, and from Durham to Auckland five 
marks, and from Durham to Middleham a hundred shillings.' Bury 
ranks as the first English bibliomaniac. 'He was,' says Chambre, 
' sufficiently well read, discreet in the ruling of his house, bountiful in 
entertaining strangers, ever anxious in almsgiving. He cultivated 
kindly relations between himself and the gentlefolks of the country, 
and held always the monks of Durham in the highest honour.' Easily 
provoked, he was still more easily pacified, ' faciliter provocatus, sed 
facillime revocatus.' But 'his chief delight was in the multitude of 
books. Indeed, as was commonly reported, he had more books than 
all the bishops of England put together. And besides those which 
were severally bestowed in his divers manors, wheresoever he resided 
with his household, such a quantity of books lay littered about in his 
bed-chamber that those who entered could hardly either stand or 
walk without kicking some one or other with his feet.' 


' He bestowed very many and fair ornaments on the church of 
Durham, and fully intended, had he lived, to give many more. After 
peacefully ruling the diocese for eleven years two months and twelve 
days, worn out by long sickness, he died at Auckland, April 14th, 
1345, and on the 21st of the same month was decently, though not 
with becoming honour, buried before the altar of S. Mary Magdalene, 
in the southernmost corner of the cathedral.' 56 

Thomas de Hatfield, keeper of the privy seal, elected on the 8th of 
May, was consecrated to the see on the feast of the Translation of S. 
Benedict, July 10th, and enthroned on the Christmas Day next follow- 
ing : ' Erat autem iste Thomas dapsilis valde,' says Chambre, (p. 137) 
' sed ad habendum aliqualiter cupidus, statura et canitie venerabilis, 
hospitalitatis obsequio deditus, et quotidianis eleemosynis, ut pauperum 
necessitatibus subveniret, intentus. Monachis aut comprovincialibus 
molestiam nullam intulit, neque ecclesiae possessiones injuste abstulit ; 
venientes ad se monachos honorifice semper excipiebat, et familiariter 
erga eos se habuit, laetus de illorurn praesentia ; erat ecclesia in quiete 
et familia : honorificos viros diligens habere, et non pueros, equos pro 
vectura non equulos. Fuit enim in oculis spectantium, in gestu et 
incessu, sublimis et excelsus, in infirmitate quamvis fragilis in parte et 
lubricus. . . . Pauperibus vero modo rogatus, modo ultraneus, 
larga manu fuit munificus et beneficus.' He erected the existing 
episcopal throne the most remarkable one in Christendom with his 
tomb, and effigy of alabaster beneath, on the south side of the choir of 
his cathedral church and eastwards of the stalls of the monks 'et 
ibidem unum monachum, divina celebrantem, pro cujus pensione annua 
Cuknoll juxta ecclesiam de Auckland dedit et assignavif 

' With the gentlefolk of the district he cultivated the friendliest 
relations, and ever held the monks of Durham in honour. At Durham 
castle he renewed whatever parts had become ruinous or decayed 
through age, building the halls of the bishop and the constable 
therein ; and strengthened the fortifications of the city by erecting at 
his own cost a strong tower adjoining the castle. He built also the 
manor-house or hospice of the see in London, with its chapel and 
chambers, in the most sumptuous manner. And in other parts, where 

56 That is, the south-east corner of the chapel of the Nine Altars, which was 
occupied by the altar of S. Andrew, and S. Mary Magdalene. 


the buildings belonging to it were ruinous or unsuitable, he rebuilt 
them magnificently, esteeming it the highest form of honesty not to 
leave them in such condition as to be a source of anxiety to his 
successors.' Moreover, he founded at Oxford a college for eight monks, 
and students in arts belonging to Durham, for all time to come ; and 
instead of lands, possessions, and churches, provided for the perpetual 
sustenance of the said eight monks, viz. : ten pounds to be procured 
and appropriated for each monk yearly, and for the seven youths, to 
each youth five marks yearly ; and assigned three marks for habitations 
fitting and to be extended for the uses of the said monks and scholars ; 
and caused to be paid during his life to Dan John de Berrington, 
monk of Durham, 500 marks. 

Falling at length into mortal sickness, he died at his manor of 
Alford near London, on the 8th of May, 1381, after bestowing pro- 
fuse benefactions on the poor, and greatly enriching his church of 
Durham with vast sums of money and variety of costly gifts, among 
the latter being 'unam spinarn de corona, quam Christus habuit 
super caput suum in die passionis suae, quam habuit ex dono domini 
regis Edwardi III.' He was buried beneath the tomb and monument 
' quern ipse sumptuosissime construxit ; cujus animae pro magna sua 
pietate propitietur Deus.' 57 To which we may all add Amen. 

Licence for a fresh election having then been obtained, the choice 
of the chapter, after long debate, fell at last upon John de Fordham, 
canon of York, and secretary to the king, ' on the fifth ferial next 
after the feast of S. Augustine the apostle of England, 1381.' He 
was consecrated in the chapel of Lambeth palace, by the bishop of 
Exeter, on the 5th of January, 13|^, and enthroned at Durham on 
the 21st of September of the same year. Fordham was one of the 
evil counsellors of Eichard II., who consented with much reluctance 
to his deprivation in 1388, when, by papal bull he was translated to 
the see of Ely. He survived till 1425, but next to nothing is 
recorded of him. 

57 ' Thomas Hattfeild, Bishop of Durham, lyeth buried over against the 
Eevestorye doore, in the South Allye of the Quire, betwixt two pillars under 
the Bishopps seate, which hee did make before hee died, his tomb beinge all of 
alabaster ' [only the effigy is so], ' whereunto was adjoyned a little Altar which 
hee prepared for a Monke to say masse for his soule after his death, the Altar 
beinge invironcd with an iron grate.' Rites of Durham, pp. 16, 17. This last 
has now, of course, long since been destroyed. 


Walter Skirlawe, who had been educated at Durham house at 
Oxford, became bishop of Lichfield in 1385, of Bath and "Wells in the 
year following, and was translated to Durham, by papal bull dated the 
3rd of April, 1388. 58 ' Iste pontem de Shinkley [Shincliffe], et pontem 
de Yarom construxit,' says Chambre, (p. 144), ' pro quo quasdem terras 
emebat, quas postea pro reparatione ejusdem pontis dedit ; pontemque 
de Auckland construxit ; niagnas etiam lapideas Auclandiae portas a 
fundo usque ad suminitatem ejusdem aedificii proprio sumptu erexit. 
Construxit etiam campanile de Houldon [Howden], in Comitatu 
Eboracensi, summae magnitudinis, quod quidem pro incolis ejusdem 
loci de Houldon, si fortuito aquarura inundatio eveniret, tanquam 
refugium fecit. Magnos sumptus in reparatione praedictae ecclesiae 
effundebat ; ubi quoque domum capitularem perpulchram, eidem 
ecclesiae conjunctam, construxit. Totam etiam aulam manerii de 
Houldon aedificavit, et magnos praeterea sumptus in aedificiis de 
eodem manerio expendit. Hie etiam magnam partem campanilis, vulgo 
lantern, Minsterii Eboracensis construxit, in medio cujus operis arma 

sua posuit Iste quoque magnam portem Clausterii in 

Monasterio Dunelinensi fieri fecit ad summan 600 1 . Hie praeterea dedit 
ad constructionem Dormitoriae 330 marcas, et ejus executores dederunt 
ex praecepto ejus ad constructionem Clausterii 400 1 . et ipse prius 
dedit 200 1 . De quibus omnibus aedificiis arma sua, viz., 6 virgas 
vicissim flexatas in forma cribri, imposuit. Iste semper sutnino in 
honore cum Principe suo habebatur. Obiit anno Domini MCCCCVI., 
sepultusque jacet in boreali plaga chori ecclesiae Dunelmensis inter 
binas coluinnas, coram altare sanctae Blesiae, quod postmodum 
dictum erat altare de Skirlaw, sub lapide marmoreo, admodum curioso, 
multisque aeneis imaginibus surnptuosis circumspicuo, cum ipsius 
imagine in medio ejusdem tumbae artificiose in aere coelata. Super 
pectus inscribitur tale dictum : " Credo quod redemptor meus vivit, 
et in die novissimo de terra surrecturus sum, et in carne mea videbo 
Deum salvatorem meum." Et circa utramque partem istius sepulchri 
in altum erigebatur [ferreutn] clatrum curiose compositum, in quo missa 

68 He was said, and the tradition is mentioned by Leland, to have been the 
son of a sieve, or basket, maker. There is not, however, the slightest foundation, 
in fact, for such assertion, due only, as it would seem, to some 'ingenious' 
persons discovering the ' fact ' in his coat of arms, which consisted of a cross 
composed of six osier wands interlaced. 


quotidie pro illius anima dicebatur ; et ex opposite ejusdem tumbae, 
in parfce aquilonari, factum erat sedile lapideam longitudine columna- 
rum distans, in quo arma illius a termino ad terminum ordinatim 

Such is the full, precise, yet condensed account of bishop Skirlaw 
given us by Chambre ; and it remains only to make a few, and brief 
remarks upon it. 

Of the bridges built by him at Shincliffe and Yarm, the former 
has long since been utterly destroyed ; while of the latter very 
interesting structure but a small part is left. Its arches, as was usual 
at the time, as indeed long before and afterwards, were ribbed and 
pointed. Of that at Auckland it is by no means easy to speak 
positively. While undoubtedly ancient, it looks at least a full century 
later than Skirlaw's time ; and is not, like what remains of that at 
Yarm, and all others of similar age which remain in the district, 
ribbed. Judging from internal evidence only, we should feel inclined 
to date it from the first quarter, or perhaps half, of the sixteenth 
century, and in the days of Euthall or Tunstall. Yet in face of the 
historical evidence, there seems nothing either in its design or con- 
struction (ivkich is almost entirely of rubble} to render its attribution 
to Skirlaw impossible, however prima facie improbable such attribu- 
tion might appear. 59 As to his great entrance gateway, not a 
stone remains to tell its tale. At Howden, however, it is happily 
different, the campanile and chapter-house ruined as the latter is, 
and for so long has been being still in admirable preservation. And 
so too, heaven be praised, is the glorious lantern (not campanile, as 
Chambre styles it) of York minster ! 

59 The singular fact of its being throughout almost entirely of rubble build- 
ing, is quite enough in itself to account for the soffits of its arches being plain 
and flat instead of ribbed. Though well and strongly built, it is quite clear 
that strict economy dominated its construction. In the whole structure there is 
hardly any squared stone to be found. Now in all ribbed bridges, such as those 
of Durham, the ' New bridge,' Chester-le-Street, Croft, Barnard Castle, and that 
across the Balder, higher up the Tees, to take some local examples, not only the 
external arches are of ashlar work, but the ribs also, as well as the intermediate 
spaces of the soffits between them. But all that, of course, means expence, 
which in this case was evidently a consideration, and a thing as far as possible 
to be avoided, even the external faces of the arches, which consist of three 
courses, the two inner ones slightly recessed, being merely of rubble, and 
without having so much as their edges chamfered. It is this which, with the 
consequent absence of ribs, serves to cast suspicion upon the whole structure 
and give it a later look. Bearing this fact in mind, however, there is simply 
nothing, so far as I can see, to impugn its claim to be of Skirlaw's time and 


The stone bench, with his arms, still remains in the north aisle of 
the choir, immediately in front of which some years ago, when the 
removal of the organ necessitated the disturbance of the flooring, his 
body was discovered, swathed in lead. Much to the credit of the late 
dean Waddington who, though greatly pressed to allow it to be 
examined, refused permission it was reverently reinterred as nearly as 
possible to the place where it was found. A strange but utterly 
erroneous statement is made in the Rites of Durham, where we read 
(p. 16) : [' The place of his sepulcher was in antyent tyme invyrond 
with irons, artificially wrought, but of late tyme his body was taken 
upp and interred before the High Alter, and the same stone layde over 
hym, and a stall or pewe placed theire for gentlewomen to sitt in. 
His body was not removed, onely the stone. H. 45 and marg. note.'] 
The magnificent slab, however, still lying in front of the altar, and 
which, on the strength of the foregoing statement, has been by many 
taken for Skirlaw's, is, beyond all question, that of bishop Beaumont 
who caused it to be laid down during his lifetime, since part of the 
inscription on it was legible as late as 1672. 


We come now, after a brief account of the six intervening prelates, 
to cardinal Langley, the second refounder or reorganizer of the church 
and college of Auckland. Thomas Langley, dean of York and 
chancellor of England, was a zealous Lancastrian, who in 1405 was 
elected to the see of York on the death, or rather judicial murder, of 
archbishop Scrope, but had never been installed there. On May 17th, 
1406, he was elected bishop of Durham, to which see he was consecrated 
on the feast of S. Laurence (August 10th) of the same year by the 
archbishop of Canterbury, when he ceased to be chancellor. In 1411 
he was created a cardinal by pope John XXIII. In 1414 he was sent 
as ambassador to France, and in 1417 was again made chancellor, 
retaining the office till 1425. Langley, during the thirty-one years of 
his rule, was a great builder. ' Iste cantariam ex marmore in Galilaea 
fundavit,' says Chambre, 'in perpetuum, ex duobus capellanis ad 
missam sacrificandam, cum armis artificiose in summitate ejusdem 
ostii in marmore insculptis ; cujus sumptibus tota Galilaea reparabatur 


ad summam 499?. 6s. Sd. Hie duas domos scholares, unam scilicet 
grammaticalem, alteram musicalem, fundavit in loco, qui dicitur 
vulgariter The Place Giene et duos praefatos capellanos sive presby- 
teros ordinavit fore ludimagistros earundem scholarum, videlicet 
grammaticalis et musicalis, et eisdem dedit, et continuare decrevit, 
annuas pensiones sive stipendia ; qui quidem presbyteri pro anima 
dicti Thomae Langley jugiter missa celebrabant. Structuram novae 
coquinae tempore Roberti Berington, anno Domini MCCCLXVIII. 
ad summam 180L 18s. Id. Ab anno Domini MCCCCVIII. usque ad 
annum MCCCCXCVIII. expendebantur ad aedificationem claustri Dunel- 
mensis 838/. cujus surname praedictae iste Thomas dedit ad hanc 
structuram, id est claustri Dunelmensis, 238/. 17s. ob. praeter et 
caetera. Iste totam Dunelmensem gaolam, gaolaeque portas lapideas 
sumptuosissimas fundavit, ubi priscis temporibus porta fuit antiqua 
tune temporis dilapsa. Iste autem, dum vixerat, apud manerium de 
Houldon construxit totas portas occidentales opere coementario, per 
quas transivit ad hortum vel pomarium ; et cubicula quaedam 
perpulchra eisdem portis adjuncta aedificavit, super quibus arma illius 
collocantur. Iste Thomas Episcopus fuit Dunelmensis tempore 3 
regum, . . . quorum omnium temporibus summo in honore pro 
sua singulari sapientia habebatur, et pro rebus publicis summa in 
autoritate versatus. Hie etiam libertates quasdam a Papa procuravit 
pro lavacro, quod collocavit in Galilaea in ecclesia Dunelmensi cui, 
virtute praedictae concessions, omnes excommunicati ad filios bapti- 
zandos, cum nullibi per totum filios baptizare liceret, et ad reliquorum 
omnium sacramentorum administrationem accederent. Obiit autem 
in festo sancti Edmundi regis et martyris, viz. xx die mensis 
Novembris, anno Domini MCCCCXXXVII, sepultusque jacet in cantaria 
in Galilaea ecclesiae Dunelmensis sub tumulo marmoreo artificiose 
erecto, in cujus fine arma illius insculpuntur, coram altari beatae 
Mariae Virginis, ubi Missa pro sua anima quotidie celebratur.' 60 

60 Bishop Langley's work at the Galilee is both interesting, instructive, and 
valuable, in many ways. In the first place, it had the effect of saving that 
unique structure from impending and imminent ruin, since, but for such timely 
aid, it would, through inherent defects of design, have precipitated itself ages 
ago into the bed of the Wear. As others of his works remain to show, the 
original architect, Ricardus Ingeniator, might seem to have been so styled rather 
in delicate irony than for any other reason, since in all of them engineering 
capacity is only conspicuous by its absence. Here, quite independently of faulty 
foundations, the work had the fatal defect of instability, for the active thrust of 

VOL. XX. 19 


At Auckland also, as well as at Durham and elsewhere, he was a 
benefactor, and, most unhappily at any rate, in an artistic sense a 
builder. Bad and mischievous as Bek's alterations had been as far as 
they went, Langley's, which went much farther, were proportionately 
worse. They were indeed about as bad as anything of that time well 
could be, and put the finishing touch of ruin and disfigurement upon 
the church. For they altered and degraded its whole general contour 
and character ; the work, both in kind and degree, being just as 
common, and cheap, and nasty, as Bek's. Nastier it could not possibly 
be ; and to that extent, therefore, it enjoyed a certain impunity. But, 
as a whole, the glory of StichiU's building was gone, and gone 
completely. All its aspiring lines were swept away as with a stroke. 
The lofty roofs of chancel, nave, and transepts vanished simultane- 
ously, and, with them, the contemporary spire. Brutal as was the 
treatment of the chancel under Bek, that which it received under 
Langley if not indeed actively destructive of original details, as in 
the former case was, to say the least, equally injurious in effect 
through the erection of a bald, dead wall unrelieved by any archi- 
tectural feature whatever upon the top of the original one, and about 
as high as the ridge of the primitive roof. It is a simple incubus, 
than which weighing as it does upon the mutilated and disfigured 
window range below nothing more abominable could be imagined. 
And then the plain, flat roof which it was designed to carry is, like its 
supporting walls, of the poorest and meanest character, simply 

its three arcades had absolutely nothing to resist it. But, by means of massive, 
rock-like buttressing, Langley, though with unavoidable obscuration of the 
beautiful wall surface decoration, stayed the process of disintegration, and so 
rescued the fabric. His own work, in itself, too, is worthy both of note and 
commendation. Broad and simple in its general scheme, it harmonizes well 
with the massive grandeur of the great church to which it is attached, while 
imparting at the same time quite a new and different, though by no means bad 
or incongruous, effect to the earlier work. But, somehow, this art of blending 
alien characteristics, and producing general effects as though the result of 
spontaneous growth, was peculiar to our medieval builders, and seems 
unhappily, to be a lost one. Another point, interesting in connexion with the 
Auckland work, and that at Ripon above referred to, is the remarkable evidence 
of assimilation afforded in the bases and capitals of his added shafts, which 
reproduce those of the original in the exactest fashion, and so lend no little 
weight to the presumption of the easternmost columns at Ripon being also 
imitative. Langley's doorways and their doors, with his arms, as also his tomb, 
still remain intact ; but the relics of the reredos of his altar, which I well 
remember, are now, alas ! destroyed and gone. The late dean Waddington, like 
' sir Visto,' was unfortunately afflicted with a ' taste,' and the same spirit which 
prompted the removal of Cosin's screen in order to obtain a view of the choir, 
impelled the destruction of this reredos and the opening out of the great west 
doorway behind it, so as to obtain another of the nave ! 


utilitarian, and without any architectural character to recommend it. 
A like increased height of walling was at the same time given to the 
transepts, and for the same reason to make up for the loss sustained 
through the removal of the old high pitched roofs. Here, however, 
owing partly to their less extent as well as to their being partly 
pierced by two or three clearstorey windows, the effect is not quite so 
bad. In the nave, where the raising of the walls led, as usual, to the 
introduction of ranges of tolerable, if poor, clearstorey windows, six to 
the south and live to the north, the effect is passable ; but again, the 
roof is a very poor and trumpery affair, as cheap, and mean, and com- 
monplace as can be, and save that it makes no pretence, as in modern 
examples without merit of any kind. 

The final alteration consisted in the removal of the old timber 
framed and leaded spire, and the substitution in its place of an 
additional storey, or belfry stage, to the tower. If not, perhaps, quite 
so mean and bald as the rest, this was yet just about as cheap and 
commonplace as it ^well could be ; and here, finally, as in the case 
of all the other alterations, whether previous or contemporary, an 
excellent opportunity was let slip. Save for the single fact that the 
belfry windows are recessed in two orders, while they might have had 
only one flush with the wall, not a single halfpenny has been spent 
upon it beyond what the barest necessity required. Without pinnacles, 
its poor, rude, irregular, hap-hazard battlements, instead of being of 
ashlar as almost invariably happens are merely of rubble, mean and 
paltry to the last degree. 61 Curiously enough, we know exactly in 
what year this belfry stage was built, and how much it cost. For in 
the account roll of William Chauncellor, constable and receiver 
general, in the eleventh year of Langley, 1416, there occurs this 
entry : ' Solut. p'positis ecclie S. Andree de Auckland et pero' canis 
ad edificac'onem campanilis ejusd. Ecclie. de dono dni. per literam 
dni. de warrant, vi?. 13s. 4(/.' (Hutchinson, Durham, iii. 332, note.) 

81 It is interesting to note that a belfry stage of precisely the same pattern, 
save that the battlements are of ashlar, was erected by the same man, at pre- 
cisely the same period, and for precisely the same reason, on the tower of the 
neighbouring church of Staindrop. But, while in both instances the corbels at 
the base of the old spires were carefully preserved, his treatment of them 
differed. At Auckland he removed the tabling which they carried entirely, and 
left the corbels themselves standing out all round like bosses. At Staindrop he 
left the tabling alone, battering out the walling of his new belfry till it reached 
its surface, and thus made the uppermost storey of the tower broader than either 
of those below. 


. But if, as we have seen, Langley's stonework was mean and poor, 
his woodwork, as shown in the choir stalls, was much better. From 
its close similarity amounting, indeed, to practical identity of style 
and design to that of the same period (1412) at Staindrop, there 
cannot be the least doubt of their having emanated from the same 
source ; the Staindrop work, however, being somewhat the richer and 
better. Both, so far as they go, are wonderfully well preserved, 
though both are in some respects imperfect. And in both cases the 
injury, let it be said, has been inflicted in quite recent times, and so 
'to give the devil his due' cannot, as usual, be attributed to the 
Puritans. At Staindrop, where there were twenty-four, the four 
easternmost stalls, along with the back panelling of two of them on the 
north side, were relentlessly destroyed to make room for a staircase 
leading to a great pew or gallery which was erected across the chancel 
arch, and furnished with stove, sofas, chairs, curtains, etc., precisely 
as in a sitting room, in the early part of the present century ; and the 
easternmost one on the south, only some forty years ago, to provide 
space for a poor monument. Here, at Auckland, still more scandalous 
wreckage has taken place, and within the same period. Hutchinson, 
writing in 1794, says (iii. 329): 'The chancel is neatly finished 
with oak, having fourteen seats or stalls on each side.' At present 
there are but twelve ; the two return stalls on either side having, like 
the lower part of the screen, to which they were attached, been made 
away with in the interval. So, too, has the wall panelling, the sole 
evidence of whose former existence occurs in the traceried end return 
of the south range, which, as at Staindrop and elsewhere, would be of 
precisely the same height. Only the lower parts of the other three 
returns one of which would be fixed at the east end of the north 
range, and the other two at the north and south ends of the return 
stalls, and attached to the side posts of the chancel gates are extant, 
the whole of their upper traceries having been destroyed along with 
the screen and panelling. 

According to present arrangements there are on each side, to the 
west, four desks with passage way, then three more, with another 
passage way, and then a final three ; all supported by the ancient bench 
ends. The whole of the panelling to the south follows one pattern, 
and that to the north another ; all of it, however, especially that of the 


four southern ones, which is very very ill drawn and irregular, some- 
what rude and poor : and all of it, notwithstanding its strongly 
marked likeness, distinctly inferior to that at Staindrop. 

The tracery patterns of the bench ends, which are enriched with 
gabled, banded, and based buttresses, are all exact reproductions of 
those at Staindrop. All are more or less effective, very massive, four 
inches thick, and well moulded. 

The misereres, though varied, well designed, and full of life, 
have little or nothing specially noteworthy about them, save that the 
fourth on the south side bears a S. George's cross surmounted by a 
coronet of fleurs-de -lys and trefoils alternately, and that the fifth has 
the arms of Langley surmounted by a like coronet. The knees of 
each stall seat, too, are almost entirely formed of roses variously 
treated. 62 

Another point in common between the two sets of collegiate 
stall-work here and at Staindrop is the fact that in both cases the 
original priest's doorway of the respective chancels has been removed 
farther eastwards to receive them. That at Staindrop remains still 
blocked up and built over by a buttress which leaves one of its edges 
only visible. At Auckland, save its sill, which may still be seen in 
the westernmost bay, the doorway would appear to have been 
taken out and removed to a point just eastwards of the stalls, 
when the western sedile was destroyed to make room for it. The 
jambs of this doorway are very curiously, and quite contrary 
to ancient usage, each composed of a single stone only. And the 

82 Besides the stall-work at Staindrop and Auckland other very similar, and 
of much the same period and character, remains in the churches of Coniscliffe, 
Darlington, Lanchester, and S. Oswald's, Durham. These, I think, with some 
slight remains in the chapel of Durham castle, and Brancepeth and Jarrow 
churches, comprise all that we possess of this kind of work in the county. This 
is the more regrettable, especially as regards that formerly in the cathedral 
which was destroyed by the Scotch after the battle of Dunbar in 1650, for, as 
both that at Jarrow, Brancepeth, and Durham castle, taken from the chapel of 
Auckland castle, testify, the local woodwork of the very latest period was of the 
most vigorous, imaginative, and admirably original character. Amidst the 
general and wholesale destruction which has taken place from time to time, the 
most infamous and abominable is that which, within quite a recent period, befell 
the magnificent wooden wall panelling in the south chapel of the choir of 
Brancepeth church, which, with the exception of the traceried heads, or part of 
them now stuck partly into the panels of Cosin's screen and partly into his 
reredos has been brutally torn out and demolished for no conceivable reason 
whatever. The atrocity of this act of unprovoked and well nigh incredible 
vandalism is deepened by the fact of the panelling having been erected by the 
third earl of Westmorland around the tomb of his only son, and who died 
broken-hearted at hia loss. 


evidence of their having been removed is found in the fact that their 
chamfers are not, as at Staindrop, of Langley's time, but of the 
thirteenth century, that is to say, narrow and flat, instead of broad 
and slightly hollowed. 

With this item we may, I think, take our leave of Langley's 
generally speaking unhappy meddlings, than which hardly anything 
could have been worse. 


His works of moral renovation were, however, of a very different 
kind ; and of these we must now take account. His new statutes, 
which speak for and explain themselves in the amplest way, run as 
f ollows : 

jBccleafa Gollegiata fce HufclanD, in Bpiscopatu Sunelmenet 

Universis Christ! fidelibus praesentibus et futuris praesentes nostras literas 
visuris vel audituris, Thomas permissione divina Dunelmensis episcopus ad per- 
petuam rei memoriam. Deo gratum et acceptum obsequium tune opinum 
impendere, cum per nostrae sollicitudinis pastoralis officinm divinus cultus in 
locis nobis subjectis melioratur et augetur ; et praesertim ubi statuta praede- 
cessorum nostrorum circa ordinationes ecclesiarum nostrae dioccesis. olim proinde, 
juxta ipsorum praedecessorum nostrorum intentionem piam, in toto non poterint 
observari eadem statuta, annuente Domino, per nostri laboris studium in melius 
reformantur. Inspieientes igitur registrum recolendae memoriae domini Antonii 
quondam episcopi Dunelmensis praedecessoris nostri contineri in eodem quaedam 
ordinationes et statuta ecclesiam collegiatam de Aukland, nostrorum patronatus 
et dioecesis, concernentia, per ipsum pie et salubrit'er edita, invenimus, in haec 

Then follow Bek's statutes, ut supra, after which he continues : 

Quaequidem ordinationes et statuta, licet per praefatum praedecessorem 
nostrum, deliberatione maturS,, et perpenso consilio tune edita et promulgata 
f uissent ; vicariisque in praedictS, ecclesia collegiate ministraturis esset secundum 
temporis illius usum, salarium satis competens et sufficiens assignatum, jam 
tamen ad nostrum notorie pervenit intellectum, quod propter varietatem 
temporum, in deterius semper vergentium ; et praecipue propter caristiam 
victualium, et aliorum necessariorum ad sustentationem humanam pertinentium, 
ordinatione? et statuta hujusmodi, ad hoc quod officia divina in ips ecclesia", ut 
ordinatum tune exstitit supportentur, non sufRciunt hiis diebus, pro eo quod 
vicarii idonei, qui juxta moderationem dicti antiqui salarii per ipsum praede- 
cessorem nostrum, ut praefertur, limitati ibidem ministrari deberent, jam haberi 
non possunt ; nee ut est verisimile, unquam habere poterunt in futurum ; cum 
exinde, secundum usum moderni temporis non valeant sustentari unde divinus 


cultus, de quo dolemus, diminuitur, praedecessorum nostrorum ejusdem collegii 
fundatorum intentio pia frustratur, ipsa ecclesia collegiata magnum in spirituali- 
bus patitur decrementum, et quasi finalem desolationem pati formidatur, nisi de 
remedio congruo in hac parte celerius sit provisum : quocirca nos intenta medi- 
tatione praemissa pensantes, et remedium eis congruum apponere capientes, de 
vero valore annuo fructuum et proventuum omnium praebendarum hujusmodi 
inquisivimus diligenter, invenimusque, ex informatione fide digna, quod quaedam 
sunt iu praedicta ecclesia praebendae, quae ad hue diebus istis dupliciter ; 
quaedam quae vix, et quaedam quae nullatenus sufficiunt sua onera debita 
supportare : volentes igitur ut ex officio nostro tenemur, cultum divinum in 
ecclesia praedict&, juxta intentionem piam dictorum praedecessorum nostrorum, 
quatenus melius fieri poterit, erigere et sublevare, quasdam earundem praebend- 
arum pinguiores dividere ; quasdam verb exiles annectere et unire, et quibusdam 
earum onus novum imponere, salarium competens, juxta moderni temporis 
usum, praedictis vicariis assignare ; ordinationesque et statuta praedicta corri- 
gere et emendare, eisdem addere, et ab eis subtrahere, prout melius coram Deo 
viderimus expedire, de consilio juris peritorum habito in praemissis, disposuimus 
et decrevimus, Domino annuente, ad quorum expeditionem processimus et proce- 
dimus in mine modum, Christi nomine primitus invocato. 

Quia invenimus f ructus et proventus unius praebendae sacerdotalis dictae 
ecclesiae collegiatae nuncupatae hoc tempore de Aukland Episcopi, ad viginti 
libras ; et secundae praebendae quae vocatur de Eldone Major ad vigenti libras ; 
tertiaeque praebendae quae appellatur de Eldon Minor etiam ad xx 1 sterlingorum, 
secnndum communem aestimationem se extendere suificienter hiis diebus ; 
statuimus et ordinamus, quod ipsis tribus praebendis, simul vel successive 
qualitercunque vacantibus, et earum qualibet vacante ; deinceps earum quaeli- 
bet sic vacans in duas praebendas sacerdotales dividatur, et sint exinde duae 
praebendae imperpetuum ; ut sic, postquam omnes tres vacaverint, de caetero 
sint exinde sex praebendae omnes sacerdotales imperpetuum ; et tot canonici 
praebendarii in eisdem canonice instituendi. Dictasque praebendas de Aukland 
Episcopi in duas ; de Eldon Major in duas ; et de Eldon Minor etiam in duas 
praebendas sacerdotales, cedentibus vel decedentibus praebendariis earundem, 
qui nunc sunt, simul vel successive, ut praefertur ; vel eas ex causa permutationis, 
aut alias quomodilibet dimittentibus, exnunc prout extunc ; et extunc prout 
exnunc dividimus, sicque imperpetuum dividi volumus et decrevimus per 
praesentes ; ita quod postea non sint tres praebendae simplices, seu tria bene- 
ficia simplicia, prout hactenus extiterunt ; set sint sex praebendae integrae, sex 
beneficia integra, ex sex nova jura : dictaeque duae praebendae de Aukland 
Episcopi extunc nominibus primae et secundae, ac quatuor praebendae de 
Eldone praedictis, primae, secundae, tertiae, et quartae nominibus censeantur. 

Statuimus quoque et ordinavimus, quod omnes fructus et proventus ad 
unicum praebendarium de Aukland Episcopi, qui nunc est pertinentes, ad prac- 
dictos duos praebendarios de eadem extunc pertineant, in quibusdam locis inter 
eos aequaliter dividend! ; ita quod hujusmodi eorum praebendae in omnibus ct 
per omnia sint aequales, et in onere, et valore. 

Statuimus itaque quad fructus et proventus ad duos praebendarios prae 
bendae de Eldone Majori, et Minori etiam in quibuscunquc locis jam spectantes, 
extunc ad praefatos quatuor praebendarios de Eldone pertineant, et pertinere 
debeant imperpetuum dividendos aequaliter inter eos. 


Et licet praebenda de Eldone Major ad xii 1 . et praebenda de Eldone Minor ad 
xi 1 . sterlingorum jam taxatae sint, ut .... fuerint ab antique; volumus 
tamen et ordinamus quod quam cito fuerint exinde juxta formam et effectum 
hujus nostrae ordinationis quatuor praebendae et quatuor praebendarii earun- 
dem ; extunc omnes dictae quatuor praebendae, tarn ad taxam cum solvi 
contigerit, quam ad alia onera omnia ordinaria, et extraordinaria eis incum- 
bentia subeunda, per omnia et in omnibus sint aequales. 

Comperimus etiam, quod septem sunt praebendae in ecclesia antedicta, 
quarum f ructus non sufBciunt ad onera earum debite supportanda ; etiam omnes 
fructus et proventus praebendae de Shildone sacerdotalis ad xii. marcas vi". et 
viii d . Praebendae de Bires etiam sacerdotalis ad xxxiii 8 . iiii d . Praebendae de 
Fichefache diaconalis ad lx 9 . Praebendae de Morlegh subdiaconalis ad xl 8 . 
Praebendae de Wittone subdiaconalis ad Ixvi". et viii d . Praebendae de Wodfeld 
etiam subdiaconalis ad xxv s et viii d . Et praebendae seu portiones de Bedburne 
ad sex solidos et octo denarios vix hiis temporibus se extendunt. Et idcirco, ut 
in ea parte remedium necessarium apponamus, statuere et ordinare decrevimus 
statuimusque et ordinamus ; quod ipsis praebendis, sive ex causa permutationis, 
give alias quomodolibet vacantibus, ut praefertur praebendae de Shildor.e et de 
Bires praedictae ad invicem uniantur, et sint ambae deinceps una sola prae- 
benda sacerdotalis simplex per se et pura, quae tune ad decem libras per aestima- 
tionem se extendit. Praebendasque de Fichefache et Morleghe etiam sint unitae, 
et extunc una simplex praebenda subdiaconalis permaneat, cujus fructus ad 
centum solidos tune ascendent : et praebendae de Witton et Wodifeld, necnon 
portio seu praebenda de Bedburne consimiliter uniantur, et sint omnes tres 
deinceps una sola praebenda subdiaconalis simplex, ut praefertur, et pura, 
cujus etiam fructus tune valebant centum solidos sterlingorum. 

Quas quidem septem praebendas, prout simul vel successive, per mortem, 
cessionem, permutationem, vel alium modum quemcunque, ut praedictum est, 
vacabunt sic ut praemittitur duximus uniendas, easque exnunc, prout extunc ; 
et extunc prout exnunc unimus et annectimus, unirique et annecti tenore prae- 
sentium decernimus et mandamus : statuentes et ordinantes, quod cedente, vel 
decedente, aliquo praebendario, qui nunc est, hujusmodi praebendarum, sic ut 
praemittilur per nos unitarum, seu praebendam suam ex causa permutationis, 
aut alios quomodolibet dimittente, liceat praebendario alterius praebendae non 
vacantis, cui dicta praebenda vacans est unita, possessionem corporalem ejusdem 
juriumque et pertinentium suorum quorumcunque auctoritate sua propria 
apprehendere, et perpetuo retinere, dum tamen onera ambabus praebendis 
hujusmodi incumbentia subeat et supportet. 

Et quia fructus et proventus praebendae diaconalis de West Aukland ad 
decem libras sterlingorum sufficienter hiis diebus, ut asseritur, se extendunt ; 
volumus et ordinamus, quod cedente, vel decedente praebendario ipsius qui nunc 
est, vel earn quomodolibet alias dimittente, sit ipsa praebenda extunc sacer- 
dotalis imperpetuum, eamque in sacerdotalem praebendam extunc erigimus et 
creamus; duasque praebendas diaconales praedictae ecclesiae collegiatae, videlicet 
de Aukland S. Elenae, et de Estcombe, quarum utriusque fructus per se ad 
septem libras et amplius hodie se extendunt, volumus in eodem gradu diaconali, 
quo prius f uerunt, et nunc sunt imposterum remanere. 

Statuimus insuper et ordinamus, quod quilibet praebendarius ecclesiae colle- 


giatae praedictae resideat personaliter in eadem ecclesia, ac cotidianis psallendis 
horis, missis, et processionibus intersit, et ibidem secundum gradum suum in 
hujusmodi canonicali oflScio, et ministret decenter et honeste, vel habeat ibidem 
pro se unum vicarium sufficientem ei idoneum in eodem gradu, tarn in literatura, 
rectura, et cantu quam moribus et vita, per decanum ibidem, qui pro tempore 
fuerit approbandum, in habitu habitibus vicariorum ecclesiarum cathedralium 
conformi, in divinis officiis ut praefertur continue ministrantem. Et quoniam 
non solum personis praebendariorum hujusmodi, set potius dictae ecclesiae colle- 
giatae et divino cultui in eadem intendimus per hanc nostram ordinationem, 
annuente Domino, providere ; statuimus, et ordinamus per praesentes, quod 
quilibet canonicus praebendarius habens in eadem ecclesia praebendam sacer- 
dotalem. si residentiam personalem ibidem non fecerit, solvat, seu solvi faciat 
singulis annis vicario suo presbytero de fructibus praebendae suae decem marcas 
legalis monetae Angliae, ad duos anni terminos ; videlicet ad festa S. Cuthberti 
in Martis, et S. Cuthberti in Septembri, per aequales portiones, primo et princi- 
paliter antequam ad usum suum proprium fructus aliquos extra parochiam de 
Aukland ferat quomodolibet vel asportet. 

Canonicique qui praebendas habent diaconales, si ibidem personaliter non 
fuerint residentes, habeant pro se vicarios idoneos in ordine diaconali, ad minus 
legitime constitutes pro evangeliis percantandis, et aliis oflBciis exequandis quae 
ad officium diaconale pertinere noscuntur, quibus singulis solvant seu solvi 
faciant primo et principaliter, ut praefertur, de fructibus praebendarum suarum 
septem marcas annuatim. 

Et canonici qui subdiaconales obtinent praebendas, et residentiam ibidem 
personalem non fecerint, habeant pro se vicarios subdiaconos, vel saltern clericos 
non conjugates, habiles et idoneos tarn moribus quam scientia, ut praefertur, et 
aetate ; quibus singulis annuatim primo etiam et principaliter quinque marcas 
solvere seu solvi facere teneantur. Quod si canonici praebendarii antedicti in 
solutionibus hujusmodi praedictis vicariis, ut praemittitur, faciendis negligentes 
fuerint aut remissi, volumus ac statuimus et ordinamus, quod omnes fructus et 
proventus cujuscunque canonici sic negligentis et remissi per decanum ipsius 
ecclesiae sequestrentur, ac sub arto et tuto custodiantur sequestro, donee prae- 
dictis vicariis de eorum stipendiis, quatenus ad uuumquemque ipsorum canoni- 
corum spectat, fuerit plenarii satisfactum ; dictoque decano qui pro tempore 
fuerit, ad hujuosmodi sequestrum interponendum et custodiendum, custodirique 
mandandum et faciendum ; ac violatores ejusdem sequestri puniendi vices 
nostras et auctoritatem committimus per praesentes, cum cujuslibet coercionis 
canonice potestate. 

Item volumus et ordinamus, quod vicarii hujusmodi non sint aliunde, cum 
cura vel sine cura beneficiali, sed de stipendiis suis hujusmodi, eis ut praemittitur 
assignatis, sint pro eorum victu, vestitu, et habitibus contenti, et sic eorum 
quilibet sit contentus. Mansiones enim in quibus dicti canonici et eorum vicarii 
debeant cum honore hospitari, volumus quod iidem canonici ordinent in suis 
areis sibi antiquitus limitatis, prout per eundem dominum Antonium praede- 
cessorem nostrum olim statutum extitit ; nisi pro habitatione eorum communiter 
facienda fuerit alio modo infra biennium vel triennium ad majus, volente 
Domino meliiis ordinatum. 

voi,. xx. 20 


Et ne per diutinam vacationem, seu absentiam canonicorum, vel vicariorum 

suorum praedictorum, divinus cultus in praedicta ecclesia, quod absit, subtra- 

hatur, seu plus debito minuatur statuimus et ordinamus, quod canonici praeben- 

darii praedicti, qui in praedicta ecclesia collegiata residentiam personalem 

facere non curabunt, vicarios idoneos decano pro tempore existenti praesentent 

realiter infra mensem ; quos idem decanus, si idonei fuerint, recipere teneatur. 

Cum autem ipsorum vicariorum aliquis in fata decesserit, vel cesserit, aut alias 

amotus fuerit quovismodo, canonicus praebendarius, cujus ille fuerit vicarius, 

alium vicarium idoneum, etiam infra unum mensem a tempore obitus, cessionis, 

vel amotionis hujusmodi dicto decano praesentet cum effectu ; vel veniat 

ipsemet personaliter et resideat, ut est dictum. Quod si forsan neutrum horum 

duorum cum effectu facere curaverit, extunc uno mense lapso dictus decanus, 

omni excusatione cessante, de alio vicario idoneo ordinet ilia vice ; cui quidem 

vicario praebendarius ille pro quo erit vicarius, stipendium seu salarium plenum 

de fructibus praebendae suae persolvat, prout est superius ordinatum. Vicari- 

osque hujusmodi, vel eorum aliquem, sub forma praemissa" semel receptos vel 

receptum volumus praeter et contra eorum voluntates de caetero amoveri, nisi 

aut contra haec nostra statuta et ordinationes, aut contra regulas et constitu- 

tiones honestas praedictae ecclesiae collegiatae hactenus editas, voluntarie et 

maliciose venire praesumpserint, vel nisi canonicus praebendarius ejusdem 

praebendae voluerit ibidem per seipsum cum effectu personaliter residere ; et 

hunc vicarium ejus rationabiliter praemuniat erga festum Pentecostes vel S. 

Martini in yeme proxima tune futurum, quod sibi de serviciis provideat aliunde. 

Volentes itaque praefati praedecessoris nostri, in hiis quae pie et laudabiliter 

statuit, et ad hue servari poterunt vestigiis inhaerere, statuimus et ordinamus, 

quod missae et omnes horae canonicae, per totum annum in choro ejusdem 

ecclesiae collegiatae, cum nota secundum usum Bborum aut Sarum, prout 

hactenus ordinatum extitit percantentur, excepto quod matutinas, non in media 

nocte, sed in mane, propter parochianos dici volumus et mandamus : et quod 

singuli canonici vel eorum vicarii praedicti, secundum gradum et ordinem vicis 

suae, sint ebdomadarii, juxta dispositionem decani ; qui, sicut in parochiali cura 

sic et in hiis quae ad divinum spectant officium praesit, ordinet et corrigat, 

chorum regat et disponat, ac etiam in hiis puniat transgressores. 

Volumus etiam, quod omnes et singuli canonici antedicti, vel eorum vicarii 
pro eis missis, matulinis, et vesperis, ac certis horis canonicis quibuscunque in 
choro dictae ecclesiae percantandis teneantur in habitu suo honesto personaliter 
interesse, et juxta gradum suum debite ministrare, si justo et legitimo impedi- 
mento per d'ecanum ipsum vel suum locumtenentem approbando non fuerint 
impediti ; eidemque decano, cum praesens fuerit, et in ejus absentia ipsius 
locumtenenti, seu alteri cuicunque per eum ad chori regimen deputato, tarn in 
legendo quam in cantando, et observantiis chori custodiendo obediant et iuten- 
dant humiliter et devote. Caetera vero omnia et singula per praefatum nostrum 
praedecessorem ordinata, ut praemittitur, et statuta in suis permanere volumus 
robore et vigore. 

Haec quoque nostra ordinationes et statuta, divisionesqueetunionespraeben- 
darum, et novorum onerum impositiones, caeteraque universa et singula per nos, 
ut praemittitur, ad honorem Dei et ecclesia suae edita, ut superius declarata, de 
consensu et assensu prioris et capituli ecclesiae nostrae Dunelmensis ; prae- 


habito, super hiis, inter nos solempni et diligent! tractatu, futuris temporibus 
perpetuis iuviolabiliter obscrvanda esse decrevimus et decernimus per 
praesentes ; praesertim cum urgens necessitas quare sic fieri debeat, et evidens 
utilitas notorie sint in causa ; potestatem vero ea interpretandi, corrigendi, et 
mutandi, ipsisque addendi, et ab eis subtrahend!, quotienscunque opus erit, nobis 
et successoribus nostris specialiter reservamus, juribus nostris episcopalibus, ac 
ecclesiae nostrae Dunelmensis et successorum nostrorum praedictorum, auctori- 
tate, potestate, et dignitate in omnibus semper salvis. In quorum omnium et 
singulorum testimonium, fidem, et firmitatem praesentes nostras literas, sive 
praesens publicum instrumentum per magistrum Thomam lobur clericum 
London, publicum, auctoritate apostolica notarium, scribumque et registra- 
torem nostrum, ad aeternam rei memoriam subscribi et publicari mandavimus, 
nostrique sigilli appensione fecimus communiri. Data et acta sunt haec, prout 
subscribuntur et recitantur, in capella manerii nostri de Stoktone, xx. die 
mensis Septembris, anno Domini MCCCCXXViii ., indictione sexta, poutifi- 
catus sanctissimi in Christo et patris domini Martini divina providentia papae 
quinti anno undecimo, et nostrae consecrationis anno xxiii . 


Robert Nevill, bishop of Salisbury, and fifth son of Ralph Nevill, 
first earl of Westmoreland, by his second wife, Joan Plantagenet, 
half-sister of king Henry IV., succeeded Langley, by papal provision, 
in 1437. For some reason or other, as Chambre informs us, he was 
not enthroned till four years afterwards, the inveterate squabbling 
between the ecclesiastical authorities of Durham and York having 
again broken out, this time as regarded the right of installation, 
claimed equally by the prior on the one hand, and the archdeacon of 
York on the other. Bishop Nevill built the exchequer offices on the 
Palace green at Durham, on the grievously mutilated and disfigured 
front of which the arms of the see, as well as his own, surmounted by 
his crest of the bull's head, may still be seen. 63 

83 The whole of the architectural decorations of this structure have 
unhappily, perished, save the decayed remains of this armorial achievement and 
a little bit of groined vaulting within. The windows have gone utterly, and of 
the entrance doorway only the decayed core of the stonework is left. The slight 
fragments of the original details which have escaped will be found in the bases 
of the jambs, which owe their preservation to having been long buried beneath 
the surface. These, instead of being, as what remains above would suggest of 
the poorest and baldest sort, are seen, on the contrary, to have been not only of 
refined, but ornate, design. Of the two shields, one of the bishop's own proper 
arms, the other of the see, which appear beneath the bull's head crest, it is 
remarkable that the latter displays, for the first time, I believe, the four lions 
within the arms of the cross, which is shown plain ; the whole, as is also 
remarkable, appearing within a bordure. The plain cross, but without the lions 
it will be remembered, appears upon a shield surmounted by the palatine 


In the church of Auckland he is commemorated by the singularly 
interesting benatura formed out of a Roman altar upon which is seen 
his personal shield consisting of the Nevill saltire differenced at the 
intersection by a gimmel ring, or couple of interlaced annulets. At 
the manor-house of Auckland also, after making his will, he died on 
the 8th of July, 1457, in the twentieth year of his translation. In 
his will he desired burial ' in Galilea ecclesiae 
Cathedralis Dunelmensis juxtra feretrum sive 
tumbam Venerabilis patris sancti Bedae, ante 
altare ad honorem ejusdem sancti construc- 
tum,' bequeathing to the church for that 
purpose, * unum integrum et optimum meum 
vestimentum de panno aureo rubei coloris ; 
videlicet unam capam, unam casulam, duas 
tuniculas, cum toto apparatu ejusdem sectae.' 
But he was declared, notwithstanding, to have 
died intestate, and was interred, not in the 
place indicated, but with his ancestors in the 
Nevill porch. And there his moderately sized blue marble grave 
cover containing the despoiled matrix of his effigy, pontificially 
vested, and surmounted by a rich canopy, remains still near the tomb 
of his grandfather, John lord Nevill of Raby. 

To Nevill succeeded, September 25th, 1475, Lawrence Booth, who 
was appointed by papal bull through the influence of Queen Margaret. 
Being a zealous Lancastrian, Edward IV. seized, more than twelve 

coronet on one of the stall seats on the bishop's side here at Auckland, while on 
the next is seen the arms of Nevill's immediate predecessor, Langley, sur- 
mounted by a similar one. 

During bishop Nevill's episcopate, his relative, Henry VI., visited the shrine 
of S. Cuthbert, and remained for some time his guest in the castle of Durham. 
Seventeen days afterwards the king wrote to master John Somerset that ' We 
have been right merry in our pilgrimage, considering iij causes ; one is how that 
the church of y c province of York and diocesse of Durham be as nobill in doing 
of divine service, in multitude of ministers and in sumptuous and gloriouse 
buildinge, as anie in our realme. And alsoe how our Lord has radicate in the 
people his faith and his law, and that they be as catholike people as ever wee 
came among, and als good and holy, that we dare say the first commandement 
may be verified right well in them. Diligunt Domirtum Deuin ipsorum ex totis 
aniinis suis ex tota mente sua. Also they have done unto us als great herty 

reverence and worshipp as ever .we had eaven as they had becne Mlitu-s 

inspirati Wherefore the blessing y* God gave to Abraham, Isack, and 

Jacob, descend upon them all. &c. Wryten in oure citty of Lincolne in Crastino 
S. Lucae Evang. 1448.' 


months after the battle of Towton, the temporalities of the see, which 
he retained for two years. Like his predecessors he had a long reign 
of nearly twenty years, when he was translated to York. 64 Ohambre 
writes : ' Iste portas Mas lapideas Colkgii apud Auckland, aliaque 
aediftcii eidem portae in utramque partem annexa proprio sumptu 

This statement is especially interesting as giving a clue to the 
date of the transference of the college from the precincts of South 
Church to those of the manor-house, or episcopal palace of Auckland 
an incident nowhere else either mentioned, or even incidentally 
referred to. Whether the rest of the quadrangle were erected by 
Booth, or one or both of his immediate predecessors, Langley and 
Nevill, we have now no means of ascertaining ; but as the gateway 
would pretty certainly constitute the finishing touch of the new 
structure, it should fix its erection, and occupation by the canons, 
at about the middle of the fifteenth century, clearly enough. From 
the particular mention of the gateway and the parts immediately 
adjoining it on either side only, having been erected by Booth, 
however, the natural inference would seem to be that he did no more 
in the way of building than the parts specified, and, by consequence, 
that he simply completed what his predecessors had begun. 

The greater part, if not the whole of this work, however, like that 
of Skirlaw at the manor-house or castle, is now destroyed. The 
gateway above referred to faced the west, and the annexed portions of 
the college building did not probably extend very far. What is left 
of them now greatly disguised and obscured lies to the south and 

64 Through the marriage of his sister Margaret, Booth became brother-in-law 
to his new neighbour (whether at Brancepeth, as regards Durham, or Eaby, as 
regards Auckland) of Ralph Nevill, third earl of Westmoreland. He was the 
builder of the south chancel chapel at Brancepeth church, wherein his wife, 
himself, and their only son were interred ; the latter, who died during his parents' 
lifetime, in a plain altar tomb of Tees marble in the midst of the chapel ; the 
former, in a larger and more ornate one, with square panels containing quatre- 
foiled circles enclosing shields of Nevill impaling argent, three boars' heads 
sable, Booth, beneath the arch opening to the chancel. The whole chapel, with 
its lovely stall work and tombs, was preserved, till a few years since, well nigh 
intact. Will it, or can it, be credited that within so short a space it should have 
been ruthlessly and brutally wrecked ; the exquisite fittings cut to pieces and 
destroyed ; the tomb of the founder and his wife cast out, and that of their son 
smashed to pieces, and either carted away, or buried beneath where it stood 1 
And for what, as may well be asked, was such a piece of sacrilegious vandalism 
as this perpetrated ? The answer is to make room for a miserable little, 
rubbishy, second-hand organ ! 


east of the parts in question, closely adjoining, and indeed forming 
the western boundary of, the castle buildings. 

William Dudley, the first dean of king Edward IV.'s new chapel 
of S. George at Windsor, and archdeacon of Middlesex, was, on 
Booth's promotion, also appointed by the pope. He was uncle to 
Henry VII.'s notorious minister, and founder of the house of Dudley. 
After a short pontificate of six years he died, November 29th, 1483, 
and was buried in the chapel of S. Nicholas, in Westminster abbey. 

The remains of his monument, which was formerly a very rich and 
fine one, exist there still. It is surmounted by a beautifully designed 
canopy of stone, and once exhibited his effigy, pontifically vested, and 
engraved in brass, upon the slab, or mensa of the altar tomb below. 
This, however, has now, of course, as usual, been stolen. The monu- 
ment is fully described in vol. ii. of Neale and Brayley's Westminster 
Abbey, and an engraving of it given in vol. i. of the same work, of 
which it forms the pictorial title page. 

John Sherwood, apostolic notary, archdeacon of Richmond, chan- 
cellor of Exeter, and English ambassador at the court of Rome, a 
friend and confidant of king Richard III., was provided to the see by 
the pope, on January 30th, 1484. He was watched with suspicion by 
Henry VII., but taking no part in public affairs, died at the English 
college at Rome, January 12th, 1494. 

Richard Fox, translated from Bath and Wells, and an ardent 
adherent of Henry VII., succeeded Sherwood, and had the temporali- 
ties restored on the 8th December of the same year. ' Iste aulam in 
castro Dunelmensi transmutavit,' says Chambre, speaking accurately, 
' quod ibidem duae f uere regalitatis sedes, una in suprema parte, altera 
in infima parte aulae ; modo autem unam in parte superiori reliquit, et 
loco inferioris sedis fecit penum cum pantaria, et super idem opus duas 
collocavit sedes pro buccinatoribus, aut aliis musicis, tempore servitii, 
cubiculumque computatorium, et amplam coquinam, omnesque domus 
officiales ad earn spectantes, cum cubiculis illas suppositis officiales, et 
novo omni illo opere ex occidental! parte aulae et coquinae collocato, 
proprio sumptu erexit. Hie erexit et construere incepit iu alta turre 
ejusdem castri aulam, coquinam, aliaque nonnulla aedificia ; sed prius- 
quam perficiebantur, translatus erat ad Winchester, ratione contro- 
versiae ortae inter eum et comitem Cumberlandiae pro jure dc Hartil- 


poole. Collegium apud Oxford, vocatum Collegium Corporis Christi, 
fundavit ; cui possessiones plurimas dedit. Deinde capellam apud 
Winchester magnificis sumptibus constructam erexit ; 65 et ibidem 
honoratissime sepultus jacet ; cujus imago summo cum artificio in 
lapide efformata ibidem conspicitur.' 

Of the goods and utensils belonging to the college of Auckland 
in the time of this famous prelate his register supplies the following 
interesting particulars : 

Reg, Fox. 1499. 

Indenture 20 July 5 th year of Transl. of Richard bp. of Durham, between 
William Thomeson S.T.B. dean of Auckland and Robert Dykar clerk or registrar 
of said Reverend Father, witnessing that W. T. received of R. D. the foils 
articles, viz. j Almery, j Bord w* ij Trest', j choppyng 5 knyfe, j Counter, j ymage 
of o r lady, iij mete bordes remoueable, iij payre trestes, iij fourmys, j Cobberd, 
j hangyng of Grene say, ij old latyne basynges, ij Ewers to the same, x old 
Standis of tre, ij old brewyng' leddes, j copper pane, iij colyng leddes, j maske- 
fate, j Gylefate, j Bultyng toone, v Sakkes, j ffleshe Axe, j Grete Standyng 
kyste, ij Wode Axes, viij Standyng beddes, j Salt parcell gilt w* a cover Weyng 
xiij vnc' & di. j Salt parcell gilt W*out cover Weyng' ix vnces, j Salt Wrethed 
w* a cover Weyng' vij vnces et di., j Whit Standyng pece parcelle gilt w* a 
cover Weyng' xij vnces & di. j pounced pece w* a cover parcell gilt Weyng xiiij 
vnces & di., j pece parcell gilt Weyng vj vnces, j pounced pece Weyng' iij vnces 
et di. xiij sponys Weyng a xj vnces et di., j Standyng maser covered Weyng' xv 
vnces & di., vj Brassepottes, j Chafer for the fyre, j ketill, iij litille brase 
pannys, ij chaf yng dishis, j frying pane, iij Spittes, ij Rostyng' yrons, j latoun 

5 Fox's work at Durham remains very perfect, and may be seen any day, as 
also at Winchester, where his chantry, the most magnificent of all the series of 
magnificent episcopal chantries, has been restored by the members of the Oxford 
foundation. The stone screens of the choir of that cathedral, surmounted by the 
very curious carved, painted, and gilt mortuary chests containing the mingled 
bones of the West Saxon kings and bishops originally buried in the crypt of 
the old Saxon cathedral, but desecrated, and thrown about the church like 
rubbish by the Puritans, are also largely due to bishop Fox, whose device of the 
' Pelican in her piety,' together with his mitre, shield of arms, and motto, ' Est 
Deo Gratia,' are repeated continuously along the cornice. The admirable blending 
of Classic and Gothic feeling throughout this composition, which bears date 
1525. is in the highest degree noteworthy and instructive. 

The wooden vaulting of the choir, displaying on its bosses a mass of 
heraldry, besides the emblems of the Passion, and the faces of many personages 
connected with it, such as those of Pilate and his wife, Herod, Annas and 
Caiaphas, Judas Iscariot, Malchus, S. Peter, etc., is also due to the liberality of 
Fox. So too, is, or was for it has now been mutilated and tampered with 
the magnificent east window of the choir, which displays his arms, four times 
repeated, and impaling those of each of the sees which he held successively, 
viz., Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, accompanied with his 
device of ' Est Deo Gratia.' This window was declared by the late Charles 
Winston to have been ' in point of execution as nearly perfect as painted glass 
can be. In it the shadows have attained their proper limit. It was at this 
period that glass painting attained its highest perfection as an art.' 


ladyl, j Scorner, j Brasyn morter w* a pestell, iij lesyng' knyves, j brecle grate, j 
fflesche Crooke, ij Raken Crokes, j Stone morter w* a pestell, xx pewder platers, 
xij pewder dishes, yiij Salsers, ij payre of potclyppes, j garnyshe of vessell', j 
Shavyng' Basyn. 

Reg. Fox. 2499. 

Similar indenture of same date concerning ' omnes et singulos libros 
subscriptos pro usu, commodo, et vtilitate dictas eccl'ise sive capellae collegatae 
prasdictaa ac in libraria eiusdem perpetuis futuris temporibus remanendos & 
salue custodiendos.' 

Inprimis, j Biblie cum exposicione d'ni Nicholai de lira, in quatuor volumi'- 
bus, 2 fo. Nolui. 6S Secundum volumen, 2 fo. erit sacerdos. Volumen 
tercium, in quo continentur libri prophet Tsaiae, Jheremiae, Trenorum, Baruch, 
Ezechiel, Danyell, Osias, Joelis, Amos, Abdiae, Jonae, &c. ; iiij tnm volumen, iiij or 
evangelistarum, Mathei, Marci, &c. liber Sentenciarum cum tabula secundum 
ordinem librorum, 2 fo. quare pr'. Vocabularium . . . ." super Bibliam 
vocatum ... ,** 2 fo. mediarn, et super sacram scripture (sic) in vniuer- 
sali ecclesia vsitatum. Distinct'ones, cum caateris contentis theologiae, 2 fo., 
distinct, in terr. Sermones discipuli de tempore et de sanctis, et promptuarium 
eiusdem cum tabula conueniente, 2 fo. corpus Phillippi depergamo. Speculum 
Regiminis animae cathomorole, 2 fo., a veritate. Sermones dominicales per 
annum et de sanctis, 2 fo., est de propriis. Boicius de consolatione cum 
comment et tabul' in pergameno, 2 fo. Relatione. Tabula exemplorum (?), 2 
fo. laborar'. Petri Marci interpretacio in officia ciceronis 2 fo. Sed eciam. 
Epistolse ciceronis eum commento, qui cum imperio et cilius ytalicus super 
bella punica in eodem libro, 2 fo., orare fatali. Sermones de litio de laudibus 
sanctorum, 2 fo. de nobilitat. Item boicius impressus, de consolacione 
philosophise, [cum commentario. Sanctus Thomas. 2 fo. vera securicas. Item 
boicius de disciplina scolarium 2 fo. q a re opus est, cum commento, et est 
impressus. Tractatus fratris Egidii de peccato originali, 2 fo. secundum ; habet 
epistolae lilij quas correcto a vocantur, 2 fo. hijs ep'lis, concord anciae Bibli et 
canonum et tocius iuris canonici, 2 fo. Orilegium Sapienciae de vilitate 
condicionis humanas, 2 fo. parabolas, liber pergameni ligatus in asseribus 
diuersos libros continens ; in principio Kalendarium. Secundo manuale, 2 fo. 
dominical, et caetera. Exposicio beati Augustini de Sermone in monte, 2 
fo. diligat. Decreta cum glosa 'bartholomasi Brexensis, 2 fo. Natiualem. 
Decretales Gregoriani cum glossa bernardi, 2 fo. so, liber sextus cum glosa 
Johannis Andreae, 2 fo. extollit, liber dementis cum glossa Jo. Andreas, 2 
fo. vt fertur. Alius liber dementis cum glossa Johannis Andreas, et cum glossa 
Willelmi de monte haudino, 2 fo. clement. Item in eodem libro constitu- 
cionum dominorum othonis et otoboni cum glossa Johannis de Atona, 2 fo. 
glose q m c (?) Item d'ns Innocencius super quinto libro decretalium 2 fo. 
in medico. Item Willelmus in speculo in tribus voluminibus, prima pars d'ni 
Willelmi duranti in speculo, 2 fo. accessor. Secunda pars d'ni Willelmi 
duranti in speculo, 2 fo. nunt. Tercia et quarta pars d'ni WilPi sub vno 

c6 It was usual to mention the first word on the second leaf of a MS. book 
for the purpose of identification. 
87 Words not made out. 
68 This, being a printed book, could not be identified by the second leaf. 


volumine, 2 fo. possu'. Item Reportorium vtriusque iuris Reverend! patris d'ni 
Petri brixensis Episcopi, 2 fo. Scriberes p't. Secunda pars [et vltima 
Reportorii vtriusque iuris Reverend! patris d'ni Petri brixensis Bpiscopi, 2 fo. 
temporalibus. Item Constituciones secundum vsum cantuariensis provinciae 
cum glossa Willelmi Sherwode, in pergameno, 2 fo. sub specie sacr'i. Sum- 
marium textuale et conclusiones super Elementum in eodem libro cum tabula 
tituloruin, 2 fo. in dei. D'ni panormitani practica de modo procedendi in 
iudicio. Ars inveniendi Themata. Vocabularium vtriusque iuris, 2 fo. vt in 
iuribus. D'ns Willelmus duranti speculator super Reportorium aureum cum 
casibus tocius iuris in quibus castbus aliquis est ipso facto suspensus, 2 fo. 
sciend. quorum exposiciones siue declarationes vtriusque iuris titulorum, 2 fo. 
in nomine. Item liber Belial ^ et constituciones cantuarienses in pergameno, 
2 fo. cu' tant. Glossa d'ni Digni super regul. iuris, 2 fo. cu' ad rebz. Ortus 
sanitatis, impressus et ligatus; primus tractatus eiusdem de herbis, 2 fo. effunder' 
aqua'. Secundus tractatus de animalibus, 2 fo. confert palpita. Tercius 
tractatus de Auibus, 2 fo. A chant, quartus tractatus de piscibus, 2 fo. aquae 
elirnento. quintus de lapidibus, 2 fo. Alabandina. Sextus de vrinis, 2 fo. 
imul (?) primus liber unam .... vocabulorum, secundum ordinem 
Alphabeticum, 2 fo. Abigere. 

There is also, No. 131, a licence to acquire lands, etc., in augmentation for 
the support of six choristers. 

William Sever, Sinowes, or Senhouse, warden of Merton college, 
Oxford, and provost of Eton ; afterwards abbot of S. Mary's, York, 
and bishop of Carlisle, was thence translated to Durham by papal 
bull ; the temporalities being restored to him on October loth, 1502. 
He did nothing important, and dying May 14th, 1505, was buried at 
the abbey of S. Mary. After which, with characteristic greed, the 
king seized the revenues of the see for two full years, when 

Christopher Bainbridge, dean of York, was consecrated to it in 
1507. ' Erat Episcopus anno uno, et fuit translatus in Archiepisco- 
patum Eboracensem anno Domini MDVIII. Qui paulo post factus 
Cardinalis, missus erat internuntius per Henricum vm Angliae 
Regem ad Romam ; qui, ut fertur, veneno illic consumptus erat.' 70 

** So apparently in the MS. 

TJ Bainbridge was a native of the village of Hilton, near Appleby, and was 
educated at Queen's college, Oxford, where he became provost in 1495. Prefer- 
ments flowed in quickly on him. He was made dean of York in 1503, dean of 
Windsor in 1505, as also Master of the Rolls and Privy Councillor. The last 
years of his life were passed in Italy, as ambassador from Henry VIII. to pope 
Julius II., who in March, 1511, gave him a cardinal's hat with the title of S. 
Praxede. In a sudden fit of passion he struck his house-steward, Renald of 
Modena, who forthwith poisoned him, and then committed suicide. Archbishop 
Bainbridge was buried in the HOW destroyed English church of S. Thomas the 
Martyr founded in 775, by Offa, king of the East Saxons whence his beautiful 
tomb of white marble was, some years since, removed into the entrance hall of 
the adjoining college, where it still remains. 

VOL. XX. 21 


Again the see remained vacant from September 21st, 1508, till June 
23rd, 1509, when 

Thomas Euthall, dean of Salisbury, was appointed by papal bull, 
dated 12th June, 1509, consecrated June 24th, and had the temporali- 
ties restored on the 3rd of July in the same year. ' Hie totum a f undo 
Aucklandiae cubiculum, in quo prandetur, erexit ; pro cujus operis 
perfectione reliquit quendam suum horninem, nomine Stranwich, advo- 
catorem suum, cui satis thesauri ad opus istud conficiendum dedit ; 
propterea quod ipsemet fuit a consiliis Eegi Henrico vui, necnon 
patri suo Henrico vn., a quo summus habebatur ; et continue in 
curia sua pro sua singular! sapientia detentus, adeo ut res suus episco- 
patus Dunelmensis illic agere non potuit. Hie reparavit tertiam 
partem Pontis de Tyne versus austrum. Ditissimus habebatur subdi- 
tus per totam Angliam.' 

Ruthall is said to have died of chagrin through having in- 
advertently shown to king Henry VIII. a book containing an 
account of his own wealth instead of another in which was entered 
one of all the lands and revenues of the crown in England ; both 
volumes being of the same size, and bound to the same pattern, in 
white vellum. But the story, which is told also of Wolsey, who was 
the king's messenger on this occasion, is an old one, and may be 
taken for what it is worth. Bishop Ruthall died at Durham palace, 
London, on 4th February, 1523, when he was buried in S. John's 
chapel, Westminster abbey. 71 

A fine engraving of his tomb is given in Neale and Brayley's 
Westminster Abbey, vol ii. p. 184, together with the annexed account 

71 Thomas Ruthall was a native of Cirencester, towards the very rich and 
remarkable church of which place both himself and relatives were great 
benefactors. With two of its most striking features, viz., the south porch, and 
chapel of S. Catherine, they were closely connected as chief contributors and 
builders. To the former a unique and magnificent structure, comprising not 
merely an entrance to the church, but a town hall and other offices, above and 
around it, rising in three divisions, four stories high, and covered throughout 
with the richest panelling, bay windows and traceried battlements his aunt, 
Aveline Ruthall, gave a hundred marks, his mother also helping largely. 

S. Catherine's chapel, on the north side of the chancel, was built entirely by 
the bishop as a place of family sepulture, though dying in London, he himself 
was buried there. Fifty-four feet long, by thirteen in breadth, it has a 
magnificently groined roof of fan tracery, and had once the whole of its walls 
covered with the most splendid frescoes, of which the remains, even at the 
present day, are, or at any rate, some years since, when I saw them were, not 
only very lovely, but extensive. 


of it : ' Some years after ' (his death), says Anthony "Wood (Athenae, 
vol. i. p. 566) ' was a fair tomb built over his grave, with his statua 
mitred and crested, and a small inscription on it, but false as to the 
year of his death.' The inscription now upon the tomb is painted 
on the southern verge, and cannot without difficulty be read ; it is 
as follows, but the date is gone : Hie jacet Thomas Rvthall, Epis- 
copus Dunelmensis et Regis Henrici Septimi Secretarius, qui ob. . . . 

Euthall's 'statua,' which is of soft freestone, has been so wantonly 
mutilated as almost to become a shapeless mass ; his pillow is sup- 
ported by two angels, and at his feet is a lion, all which are alike 
defaced. Over the figure was originally a handsome canopy, nearly 
resembling abbot Fascet's, but more elaborately groined, every part of 
which has been destroyed, except two shields, surmounted by helmets 
and crests (sculptured in full relief), that ornamented the centres of 
its respective sides ; one of these is now placed upon the stone coffin 
on Fascet's tomb, the other is affixed over the west end of Ruthall's 
tomb, and has the following sentence below the arms : 
' Dat' Ano Dni 1524. 

At the head of the tomb, See of Durham, Imp. Ruthall. Crest, 
on a helmet plumed (with mantling) a mitre rising from a ducal 

Thomas Wolsey, cardinal of S. Cecilia, archbishop of York, legate 
of the Apostolic see, primate and chancellor of England, appointed by 
papal bull, followed him, and held the see of Durham, together with 
that of York, for six years, but never visited his diocese. In 1528 
he resigned, on the death of Fox, when he too, in his turn, was 
translated to Winchester. 72 After a vacancy of nearly a year 

* z It was Fox who first introduced Wolsey to the notice of Henry VII., after 
which dignities poured in fast upon him. But there was still one, viz. : the 
bishopric of Winchester, which eluded his grasp. ' All, 1 says Fuller, ' thought 
bishop Fox to die too soon, one only excepted, who conceived him to live too 
long, viz., Thomas Wolsey, who gaped for his bishopric, and endeavoured to 
render him to the displeasure of King Henry VIII., whose malice this bishop, 
though blind, discovered, and in some measure defeated.' There is a fine and 
very interesting portrait of bishop Fox at Auckland castle, copied from the 
original in Corpus Christi College, Oxford. It is that of an ancient man, with 
smooth, parchment-like face, utterly colourless, very grave and wise of aspect, 
habited in a square black cap, black cassock, rochet of white linen gathered into 
a narrow band at the throat, with short, tight sleeves, ending some four or five 
inches above those of the cassock, and with a full gathered scarf of black silk or 
other material round his neck. In fact, the original and purely domestic form 
of the episcopal magpie costume of the present day. By the side of the face to 
the left, is inscribed : 


Cuthbert Tunstall succeeded. He was, most probably, the son of 
Thomas Tunstall, of Hackforth, near the village of Tunstall, in 
Richmondshire, and brother of sir Brian Tunstall, who fell at 
Flodden. In 1508, when only sub-deacon, he became rector of 
Stanhope, and in 1516, master of the rolls. In the same year he went 
on embassy to Charles V., at Brussels, where he lodged under the 
same roof as Erasmus, whose close friend he ever afterwards remained. 
In 1519, he was made dean of Salisbury ; in 1522, bishop of London, 
and keeper of the great seal. On February 21st, 1530, he was pro- 
vided to the see of Durham by papal bull. Of this, the last of oar pre- 
Reformation bishops, Chambre (p. 155) writes : ' Construxit a fundo 
porticum valde speciosum, et capellam ei annexam opere caementario, 
in castro Dunelmensi. Construxit etiam portas ferreas ejusdem castri 
cum opere lapideo ab utraque parte. Aquae etiam canalem, scilicet a 
Water Conduit, ad lavandum, fundavit, a sinistra parte introitus 
ejusdem castri. Construxit quoque porticum apud Auckland ; ubi 
etiam cubiculi, in quo prandetur, summitatem magnae fenestrae 
perfecit, per Thomam Ruthall quondam episcopum prius incoeptum ; 
aliasque reparationes circa domum praedictam fecit. Castrum etiam 
apud Norham diversis in locis reparavit. Telonium, Anglice, the 
Towle Booth, in foro Dunelmensi opere caementario, cum aliis domibus 
officialibus in posteriori parte ei annexis ; quas etiam civibus Dunel- 
mensibus postea donaverat. Tertiam partem, versus austrum, pontis 
de Novo Castro, vocati Tyne Bridge, opere lapideo et ligneo, binis 
sejunctim temporibus, proprio sumptu reparavit : sed accusatus per 
Rinianum Mennill, in fine regni Edwardi vi., turri erat intrusus apud 
Londoniam, et deprivabatur Episcopali omni autoritate ; ad quam, 
cum prinium ad regalem accessit Regina Maria, in dignitatem summo 
cum honore iterum restaurabatur. In omni suo tempore pati noluit 
ne lapidem ab aedificiis suis antiquis in ruinam dilapsis auferri. 
Familiam honorificam semper secum tenuit, honorificeque attendebatur 
a generosis et hominibus plebeiis ; quocunque enim loco residebat, 

R. Fox 


Below, on a while panel, and in large black letters : 



honorificam mensam, valdeque largam, semper secum habuit. In 
elemosynis erat abundans, in omni vitae genere praeclarus Praesul. 
Deprivatus fuit tempore Elizabethae, anno Domini MDLIX., qui 
cum ad mandatum esset cum Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi apud Lam- 
beth, illic piissimum et gratiosissimum vitae suae exitum fecit ; 
sepultusque jacet in ecclesia de Lambeth, ubi primo consecratus fuit 

With Tunstall expired the glories, not only of the palatinate and 
of the great cathedral, and monastic, church of Durham, but those 
minor ones of Auckland college too. It was after the suppression of 
the ' Pilgrimage of Grace ' that Henry, fearing the great powers of the 
count palatine, swept away all the more important of them by Act 
of Parliament. Then, in 1540, the monastery with all its possessions 
was surrendered to the crown ; Tunstall, however, who had accepted 
the royal supremacy, maintaining considerable influence during the 
remainder of the king's reign. But he could not conscientiously 
accept the infamous measures of uncatholicizing and ruining the 
church, both temporally and spiritually, which marked the accession 
of Edward VI. ; and though he remained unmolested for a while, the 
duke of Northumberland (Dudley) had cast far too covetous eyes upon 
the emoluments of the see for his continuous enjoyment of them. His 
deprivation followed, consequently, in 1552, when it was proposed 
to suppress and spoliate the bishopric altogether ; Northumberland 
having in the meanwhile seized Durham house in the Strand, and 
obtained the 'stewardship,' as it was euphemistically called, of the 
remaining revenues of the see. 

But, before all this, in common with other hospitals, chantries, 
and colleges throughout the land, this of Auckland S. Andrew, had 
been suppressed and pillaged in 1547, when, as Hutchinson says, 'this 
church was left neither rectorial nor vicarial, but became a donative, 
or curacy, very meanly provided for, considering the parish was so 
opulent, extensive, and populous, and remains so to this time ; bishop 
Cosin's grant of a moiety of the prebend of Bondgate making a 
considerable part of the present revenue.' 

It was Tunstall's unhappy fate to live throughout the whole of that 
time still commonly spoken of as the ' Reformation,' and occasionally, 
though less frequently than aforetime, with the prefix ' blessed.' 


That things material were, on a email scale, even here at Auckland, 
as elsewhere, diseased and out of joint, may be learnt from the steps 
which the bishop took to correct them. Among other entries in his 
Register, there occurs one on p. 4, for the ' Sequestrac'o omnium 
fructuum prebend, de Aucklande : 'Cancel. Eccl. collegiate de Awke- 
lande pati ruinam et magnos def'cus in tecto fenestris et pariete ipsius 
cancelle,' etc. 

But that reformation of partial and temporary abuses should be 
sought in wholesale and sacrilegious confiscation of endowments was a 
method which, however pecuniarily profitable to certain self-styled 
Reformers, fell heavily on the reformed, and still more so on the poor, 
whose patrimony was thus plundered. Yet it was exactly that which 
the ravening and insatiable vampires of the day applied shamelessly in 
every quarter, and from which the church has never yet ceased, and, 
what is more, never will cease, to suffer. Surely nothing more 
scandalous, more utterly and openly without excuse than the spoliation 
of the hospitals, colleges, and unattached chantries, save, possibly, the 
hypocritical pretences under which such villainy was attempted to be 
masked, could enter into man's heart to conceive. Whatever justifica- 
tion for the suppression of the monasteries under Henry VIII. might 
be alleged and then, as now, where plunder was in view, they were 
to be found in plenty there neither was, nor could be, any for that 
of such foundations as these under Edward VI. In the wicked 
destruction of the latter was delivered, as has been well said, ' the last 
and most deadly blow against the establishment and propagation of 
the reformed religion ; and numerous districts, especially in the 
extensive parishes of the north, were left, through their distance from 
the parish church, as many of them still remain, wholly unprovided 
for in spiritual matters ; but, as Bale justly observed, " couvitousnesse 
was at that tyme so busy aboute pryvate commodite, that publique 
wealthe was not anywhere regarded." ' 73 

73 'The positions of the unattached chantries,' as Mr. Walbran, in his Antiqui- 
ties of Gainford, very truly observes, ' were generally well chosen, and their en- 
dowments respectable ; and had their structures been allowed to remain, and 
their revenues been made available for the diffusion and maintenance of the re- 
formed doctrine instead of having been diverted, under the most iniquitous 
pretences, to fawning parasites and secular purposes too many persons, looking 
round in their respective parishes, may discover how much infidelity and im- 
morality from the absence of religious pastors, how much fanaticism and 
schism, from the presence of improper and unauthorized ones, would have been 
prevented or suppressed.' 


Like Erasmus, bishop Tunstall was fully alive to the disorders and 
abuses which affected the church in his day, and desired earnestly 
their removal. But if, as Surtees says, ' he wanted the firmness and 
constancy of a martyr, he yet possessed qualities scarcely less rare or 
valuable. "With mild and scholarlike scepticism, he refused to persecute 
others for opinions on which he had himself felt doubt and indecision, 
and during the heat of the Marian persecution not a single victim 
bled within the limits of the church of Durham.' A gentle and noble 
life, truly, with which closed worthily the long line of pre- Reformation 
prelates, and patrons of the collegiate church of S. Andrew Auckland. 

Of the buildings and appurtenances of the college, dissolved and 
brought to naught under T (install, though there is little to be said, 
that little is sufficiently characteristic. After that saintly man's 
deprivation on September 29th, 1554, and death during imprisonment, 
on November 18th following, James Pilkington 'the first Protestant 
bishop' was consecrated to the see on March 2nd, 1561, the crown, 
meanwhile, as usual, receiving the income. 

How the services in the parish church of S. Andrew had been 
affected by the transference of the collegiate establishment from that 
spot to the precincts of the castle there seems nothing to show. But 
that the episcopal chapel became thenceforth the collegiate church 
or chapel seems plain enough : and thus Bek's original scheme of 
having it served by a staff of chaplains, for whose maintenance he 
endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, to expropriate the revenues of the 
church of Morpeth, became at length, though in a somewhat different 
fashion, an accomplished fact. 

Speaking of Pilkington, an anonymous writer says : ' Likewise 
he .... brust in peaces the college bells of Auckland, and 
sould and converted them unto his use ; and in the lower part of the 
saide colledge ' (church, which was a double one, i.e. in two storeys), 
' where divine service had been duly celebrated, he made a bowling 
alleye, and in the howse above the said colledge ' (that is, the upper 
chapel), ' which before tyme had been used by the said churchmen for 
Divine service upon generall festivall daies, he builte here a paire of 
buttes, in the which two places he allowed both shooting and bowling.' 

' Pilkington left two daughters, for whom he is said to have saved 
such large fortunes as to have provoked the jealousy of Queen 


Elizabeth, who "scorned that a bishop's daughter should equal a 
princess ;" and, if Fuller may be credited, deprived the bishopric in 
consequence of 1,0001. a year, which she settled on the garrison of 

He is said to have been buried without religious service ; and, like 
Mrs. Barnes, the wife of his successor in the unhappy see, to have had 
his body covered with a gravestone stolen from the college. 74 

But though for a time desecrated in so infamous a fashion, the 
chapel continued undestroyed, and being again restored to divine 
service, so continued till the great Eebellion, when, by authority of 
Parliament, it was sold, with the rest of the castle buildings, in 1647, 
to sir Arthur Haslerigg. Less disgustingly profane than Pilkiugton, 
this man, instead of daily defiling, with more decency perhaps, pulled 
it bodily down, and appropriated its materials towards the erection of 
a new house. And thus, at last, was the story of the college and its 
chapel closed : yet not quite, since Cosin, with poetic justice, on the 
Eestoration, destroyed and utterly effaced the building so impiously 
constructed by the intruder. 

71 This practice of destroying the tombs, and not only that, but profaning the 
remains of the peaceful dead a species of demoniacal possession, as it might 
seem forms one of the most repulsive, as well as inhuman, of the Puritan 

Pilkington, as has been aptly remarked, would look with no disfavour upon 
the rabid iconoclasm of his contemporary, dean Whittingham,at Durham, whose 
acts of wholesale desecration and plunder are thus referred to in the Rites : 
' Att the easte end of the Chapter howse,' we read, ' there is a garth called the 
Centrie Garth, where all the i'riors and monnckes was buryed : all which Priors, 
when thei diede, had every one a goodlie fair throwgh stone layd upon ther 
toumbes, which stones Deane Whittingham did cause to be pulled downe and 
taken away, and dyd breake and deface all such stones as had any pictures of 
brass or other imagerie worke, or challices wroughte upon theme. And the 
residewe he caried them all awaie, and did occupie theme to his owne use, and 
did make a washinge howse of many of them for women landerers to washe in, 
so that yt cannott be deemyd at this present that ever any hath bene buried in 
the Centorie Garth, yt is maid so plaine and streight. For he could not 
abyde anye anncyent monuments, nor nothing that apperteyned to any godlie 
religiousnes or monasticall liffe. By which act he shewed the hatred that he 
bare to the memories of his predecessors, in defacinge so rudely theire ancient 
and harmlesse monuments.' 

' And also,' we read, ' within the said Abbey Church of Durrisme ther was 
two Holy-Water Stones, of fyne marble, very artificially made and graven, and 
bost with hollow bosses upon the outer sydes of the stones, verie fynly and 
curiouslie wrowghte. The stone of the north dore of the Church was a fair grete 
large one ; the other, at the south dor, was not halfe so great, nor so large, but of 
the same worke that the other was of. Which two holie-water stones was taken 
awaie by Deane Whittingham, and caryed into his kitching, and put unto pro- 
fayne uses, and ther stoode during his liffe. In which stones thei dyd stepe ther 
beefe and salt fysh in, havinge a conveiance in the bottomes of them for letting 



Though not without interest, the monumental remains, albeit 
numerous enough, are, with a single exception, of no great importance. 
I use the word 'remains' advisedly, since, for the most part, they 
consist of matrices of brasses only. Of these there are several, while 
of the brasses themselves, one only the detached and mutilated effigy 
of a priest has escaped that ravenous greed of plunder which here, as 
elsewhere, during the much vaunted days of Puritan ascendancy, has 
overtaken all the rest. Besides these, there are also two life-sized 
figures one of a knight, in wood ; the other, of a female, in stone. 

To begin with the first and earliest that of the knight. Of the 
individual intended to be represented we have no record, either 
literary or traditional. The date is clearly that of about the end of 
the first quarter of the fourteenth century ; and the effigy, in all 
probability, that of a Pollard, a local family mentioned among the free 
tenants in the great survey known as ' the Boldon Book,' and which, 
in the days of bishop Hatfield, had attained to very considerable wealth 
and position. As a work of art, though passable enough as that of a 
local craftsman, much cannot be said. Like almost all ancient monu- 
ments of the kind, it possesses, however, that quality of tranquil, 
dignified repose so sadly conspicuous by its absence in later works, and 
the armour is rendered with considerable skill and effect but that 
is all. 

furth the water, as thei had when they weare in the church. And after his 
deathe, the greater holie-water stone is removed into the lower end of the Deanes 
buttrie, where the water connditt is sett, and next unto the wyne seller, wher in 
now thei wash and make cleane ther potts and cuppes, before they serve theme 
at the table. 

' Moreover Mrs. Whittingham, after the death of her husband, toke awaie 
the lessor holie-water stone out of the Deanes kitching, and browght yt into 
her howse in the Bailye, and sett it there in her kitchinge, and also did carrye 
awaie dyverse grave-stones, of blew marble, and other throwgh stones, that did 
ly upon the Priors and Monnkes, out of the Centrie Garth, when she buylded 
her house in the Baley. which stones some of theme ar laid in the threshold of 
the dores, and two great ones lyeth without the doures, over against the walle 
before her dor. For the which facte she was complayned upon, and so laid those 
two without the dour that before was maid wall-fast within her house, which 
howse came after to Mr. Jo. Barnes, and after to Mr. Jo. Richardson, who lived 
theire a longe season : but, in his tyme, ther came an olde man with comly gray 
hayres to begg an almes, and lookeinge aboute hym upon the tombe stones, 
which lay in the court yard, saide to the party that came to hym, that whilest 
those stones were theire nothinge wolde prosper aboute the howse ; and, after, 
divers of his children and others dyed. So he caused them to be removed into 
the Abbey yard, wher now they are : but before the almes came to serve the 
man he was gone, and never seen after.' 

VOL. xx. 22 


Hutchinson, who tells us that in his day the effigy was said to be 
that of one of the Pollards, continues, ' Mr. Pennant describes it as a 
" cross-legged knight, armed in mail to his finger ends, with a skirt 
formed of stripes, reaching to his knees ; a short sword and conic 
helm ; " and then proceeds : ' The author of the sepulchral monu- 
ments adds : " Is not this the common plated surcoat ? " 75 The hood 
is united with the vest or waist and sleeves of the mail, and the sleeves 
are continued and form mitts or covers for the hands. The figure is 
of wood ; the right leg is uppermost ; the feet rest on a lion ; the 
hands are elevated ; and the sword is sheathed.' 

Thus far, our worthy old historian and his authorities. Now for 

The effigy, which is of oak, now almost as hard as iron, measures 
from the point of the helmet to that of the toes seven feet four inches 
in length, by one foot eight inches in breadth across the shoulders. 
The head rests, as usual, on two cushions, the upper placed diagonally. 
It is protected by a sharply-pointed chapel-de-fer or cerveliere of steel 
plate, with a border an inch deep, to which is attached, underneath, a 
coif of chain-mail, exceedingly well wrought. This covers, and rests 
upon the upper part of the surcoat, which, somewhat shorter in front 
than behind, falls in narrow folds, with the edges of its front part slit 
to the depth of about eighteen inches turned back. Beneath the sur- 
coat appears a hawberk of chain-mail, whose sleeves, terminating in 
mittens provided with thumb-pieces, encase the hands. Crossing the 
right shoulder, but extending only as far as the hands, which, pressed 
' palm against palm,' point horizontally upwards, is a belt or strap an 
inch and a half wide, which must once have supported, or been 
intended to support, the shield, of which, however, there are no 
remaining traces. Eound the waist is a narrow horizontal band con- 
fining the surcoat, which is crossed diagonally by the sword-belt, two 
and three-quarter inches broad. Both are perfectly plain, and 
connected at the left side by a narrow, vertical strap. The upper and 
lower ends of the sword, which were detached from the figure, are 
broken off ; whence Mr. Pennant's description of it as being short. 
Below the surcoat and hawberk are seen, to the extent of about three 

75 This is quite a mistake, the camail is perfectly distinct, and has no con- 
nexion whatever with the hawberk or shirt of mail, which appears below, as the 
hood, or camail does above, the surcoat. 


inches, the narrow vertical quiltings of the liaqueton, a padded under- 
garment which was not only worn as an additional defence, but to 
protect the body from the pressure of the steel links. This is Mr. 
Pennant's ' skirt formed of stripes,' and the other author (Gough's) 
* common plated surcoat.' The knees and lower legs are encased with 
genouillieres and jambarts of plate or cuir bouilli, entirely without 
ornament, the latter being connected and kept in position by straps 
which pass beneath the feet. These last, which are shown perfectly 
smooth and plain, rest upon an animal doubtless intended for a lion, 
but which has a little sharp pointed snout like a pig. 76 The legs are 
crossed, the right uppermost ; and the depth of the figure from top to 
bottom, is about one foot. The date is clearly circa 1320-30. 

The stone effigy, like the wooden one, is now displaced and stowed 
away in the north-west corner of the north aisle. As in that case, the 
effigy is shown probably of life size x measuring in length five feet 
seven inches, and in breadth across the shoulders one foot one and a 
half inches. The head also rests upon two cushions, which, here, 
however, are furnished with tassels. The head-dress, which remains 
in very perfect preservation, is square, and consists of a reticulated 
caul, with bosses at the intersections, and the interstitial spaces filled 
with four petalled roses. 77 Three of larger size and more enriched 
character surmouut the forehead. Beneath the caul is seen the edge 
of a close-fitting cap of silk or linen. 78 Above, and upon the crown 

76 It has somewhere or other been described as such, but this is certainly not 
the case. Ill drawn as no doubt it is, the bushy mane and crest of the lion are 
evidently intended to be shown. Hutchinson tells us (iii. 350), that one of the 
Pollard estates, ' Newfield, bears the appellation of Pollard's Den, or Dene;' and 
adds in a note : ' We find nothing to confirm the old tradition, that Pollard, a 
champion knight, for slaying a wild boar, had as much land granted to him by 
one of our prelates as he could ride round whilst the grantor dined.' Perhaps 
the porcine snout of the animal depicted on the monument, may have given rise 
to the tradition in much the same way as the figure of a ship in the arms of 
Nevill Ancient (a piece of mere canting heraldry) did to the fiction of the ' homo 
praapositus ' of the family having been an admiral of the fleet of William the 

77 This head-dress may be compared with those of the two countesses of 
Ralph, first earl of Westmoreland, in Staindrop church, circa 1412, where, though 
not coming so low down the sides of the face, the decorative details are very 
similar ; with that of Lady Gassy, 1400, Deerhurst church, Gloucestershire; and 
those of Maria Stourton, 1404, Sawtrey All Saints, Hunts.; of Philippa By- 
schoppesdon, 1414, in Broughton church, Oxon. ; and Millicent Meryng, circa 
1415, in East Markham church, Notts. 

78 The presence of this close-fitting cap next the skin, which, in the head- 
dresses of this period, constitutes so striking and curious a feature, concealing, 


of the head, is a short veil or handkerchief which descends no further 
than the neck. The figure is vested in a plain gown, cut low and 
square across the breast. Midway between the shoulders and the 
elbows the tight, short sleeves are terminated by those extraordinary 
and absurd appendages known as lappets or tippets, consisting of a 
narrow band or belt around the arms, from which a long tail or 
ribbon, an inch and three-quarters wide, falls nearly to the feet. 79 
Where detached from the body these are now broken away. Below 
the sleeves of the gown appear those of the undergown or kirtle, the 
edges of whose sleeves, which form mittens reaching to the knuckles, 
are ornamented with rows of minute buttons scarcely as large as small 
peas. 80 In front, and below the hands, which are pressed together in 
prayer, are seven large roundels reaching to a little below the waist, 
an inch and three-quarters in diameter, and quite flat. 81 

The nose, as usual, is broken, but the face, which is a long oval, 
has been very comely, not to say beautiful, and with fine, large, full 
and expressive eyes ; now, however, much defaced. The mouth too 
has been very well rendered, and the general expression is that of 
serene and dignified repose. The throat, long and slender, is without 
ornament, as is also the gown, which falls in graceful folds upon the 
feet. The latter, cased in pointed shoes, rest upon the curiously 
bowed and crouching figure of a dog. The date of the effigy, which 
in all likelihood represents, as Hutchinson supposes it to do, one of 
the Bellasys, is that of the end of the fourteenth, or beginning of the 
fifteenth, century. 

as it frequently does, all appearance of the front hair whatever, naturally raises 
the question as to how the latter was disposed of. It must certainly have been 
very rigorously confined ; rendering the idea ' probable that false hair, or some 
other similar material was used for stuffing their head-dresses.' Nineteenth- 
century experience alone, will, I think, amply suffice to justify such a supposi- 

79 An interesting illustration of this fashion, but probably of somewhat 
earlier date, may be seen in the brass of Isabel Beaufo, Water-pery, Oxon. Here 
the frilled or zig-zag head-dress comes down as far as the shoulders. See 
Haines's Monumental Brasses, part i. clxviii. 

8a These rows of buttons as edgings for the senms of the sleeves continued 
in vogue for a very considerable period. They may be seen, among others, in 
the effigies of Joan de Cobham, circa 1320, in Cobham church, Kent; of 
Euphemia de Clavering, 1343, in Staindrop church, Durham ; Lady Cobham, 
circa 1370, in Lingfield church, Surrey ; Lady Harsick, 1384, Southacre church, 
Norfolk ; and Lady Drury, Rougham church, Suffolk, 1405. 

81 Similar roundels, or large flat buttons, appear also on the brasses of Isabel 
Beaufo, and Lady Cobharu, above referred to. 

Arch. Atl. vol. xx. To face p. 175. 

Plate XII. 

(From a finished rubbing taken by the Rev. J. F. Hodgson.) 


Next to these personal presentments, in respect alike of preserva- 
tion and interest, is the mutilated effigy of an ecclesiastic probably 
one of the deans which, now detached from the slab and matrix, is 
set upright against the adjoining wall. It measures about five feet in 
length, by one foot five and a half inches in breadth across the 
shoulders, and is very well and boldly engraved. The upper portion 
of the head has been destroyed, but the rest of the figure is in very 
good preservation, showing that, whatever position in the church it 
may formerly have occupied, it had escaped the wear and tear of feet. 
The deceased is shown vested in a very unusual and peculiar way. 
In the first place comes a cassock with tight sleeves edged with small 
buttons, very like those seen on the female effigy above described, and 
terminating like them in mittens reaching to the knuckles. Over 
this is shown a surplice with long sleeves ; then an almuce with its 
pendent lappets ; and over all, what would seem to be a very early 
version of the cope ; not, as usual, of cloth of tissue, or velvet, 
embroidered down the sides with enriched border patterns, and reach- 
ing only to the ankles; but, apparently, of thin material silk, or 
otherwise gathered in at the neck like a surplice, and touching, 
not to say trailing, on the ground. (See plate XII.) The marginal 
or other inscription being now gone, we have consequently no means 
of determining to whose memory the monument was laid down ; but 
the date of the work, judging as well from the costume as from the 
style of the engraving, may be referred pretty accurately, I think, to 
about the end of the fourteenth century. 

Nearly adjoining these effigies is now to be seen a large slab of 
blue Tees marble, removed like them from the grave it once covered 
in another part of the church, and turned during the process the 
wrong way about, i.e., with the head, instead of the feet, towards the 
east. It measures nine feet two inches in length, by four and a half 
feet in breadth, and has at the top the matrices of two heater-shaped 
shields of arms. Between, and below them has been an oblong plate 
bearing an inscription. Below this again is the matrix of a knightly 
effigy in a pointed bascinet, four feet ten and a half inches long, by 
one foot four inches across the elbows, but much levelled up with 
cement. The stone is now, owing probably to its removal, broken in 
two transversely. 


Alongside this, southwards and westwards, is a magnificent slab, 
no less than ten feet long, by four and a half feet wide, also removed 
and reversed, but which has only had a single small strip of inserted 
brass inscription. 

Near at hand, in the north-west corner of the nave, is a small 
rough slab of about four feet and a half, by two feet, with two head 
lines in black letter, now all but entirely obliterated. The second 
and shorter line commences with a capital Q, followed, apparently, 
by the letters 1 1. 

Southwards, on a large Tees marble slab, measuring six feet four 
inches, by two feet nine inches, is inscribed on a narrow strip of brass : 82 

btc iacet lantlotus Clapton qf obift r.t Die met februarij 
anno Cmi dBCGCCGv>j cut' ale ppfciet' Deus amen 

Three others of considerable size, but perfectly plain, have also, 
doubtless, like this last and all the preceding, been torn in the same 
iniquitous manner from the sepulchres of those whose bodies they once 
covered, and packed away at the extreme west end of the church. 

In the chancel, on the north side westwards, is a Tees marble slab 
seven feet nine inches long, by three feet two inches broad, which bears 
upon a roughish surface, the matrix of the brass of a priest vested, 
apparently, in a cope, and five feet long, by about one foot nine 
inches broad. Several rivets and some lead plugging still remain 
attached to it. 

East of this, and measuring six feet nine, by three feet four inches, 
is another blue marble stone, containing within a large circle, and 
beneath crest and mantling, an impaled coat of arms, all very deeply 
cut. Inscribed in great letters below : 








82 Hutchinson, and also Boyle give the reading ' Lancelotus,' which, however 
right orthographically, is wrong in fact. The initial letters of both lines, it 
may be added, are embellished with a human face faintly engraved in profile 
a pretty piece of pleasantry, all the more refreshing, nowadays, as being some- 
thing over and above what was bargained for. 


This stone has pretty certainly been what ' the wise do call,' ' con- 
veyed,' ' annexed,' ' appropriated,' or, in plain English, stolen. 

Then to the west, on the south side, we have another, but smaller, 
blue marble stone, bearing the matrices of two roundels at the top or 
west corner ; in the centre a longitudinal oblong panel ; and below 
this, but above another and transverse one, the kneeling figure of a 
priest, facing south, and with a long scroll proceeding upwards from 
his lips. The height of the figure is ten inches, and the breadth at 
the feet, six and a half inches. 

East of this is the last of these slabs, whose effigies and inscriptions 
have now, through sacrilegious rapacity, so unhappily perished with 
those who erected them. It is that which, in queen Elizabeth's time, 
was 'appropriated' by the Puritan bishop Barnes 83 among whose 
Ecclesiastical Proceedings, however, as might naturally be expected, 
no mention of the transaction occurs as a grave cover to his wife, 

88 Though the infamous practice of plundering the dead was more greedily 
pursued and widespread in the Commonwealth times than in those of Barnes, 
still a vast amount of similar spoliation, it must be remembered, had taken 
place on the suppression of the monasteries and chantries in the, preceding days 
of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. And the appetite for this species of 
sacrilegious rapine once aroused was none so soon or easily appeased. Neither 
Pilkington, nor his less disgraceful successor, Barnes, would seem to have felt 
the least shame or compunction in gratifying it. Having none to help him, the 
rightful owner, it was felt, could be ' expropriated ' with impunity. And so, 
since Mrs. Barnes's plate necessitated the destruction both of part of the shaft 
and of the cross head, and since the arms and accompanying inscription if 
suffered to remain would have proclaimed his theft to all, it seems impossible 
to doubt but that all the rest of the inlay, which could so readily be con- 
verted into cash, would be made away with at the same time. Truly a nice 
object lesson to his diocese 1 But then, uf what wickedness, and especially 
sacrilegious wickedness, has not the thoroughpaced Puritan ever shown himself 
capable? In early days the laws against such practices, whether Pagan or 
Christian, civil or ecclesiastical, were exceptionally severe. ' Another great 
crime,' says Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, book xvi. chap, vi., 
; condemned and punished under the name of sacrilege, was robbing of graves, 
or defacing and spoiling the monuments of the dead. These were always 
esteemed a sort of sacred repositories and inviolable sanctuaries even by the 
very heathen. And the violation of them was always esteemed a piacular 
crime and sometimes punished with death. The imperial laws made it capital, 
and therefore when the Christian emperors at Easter granted their indulgence 
or pardon to criminals in prison they still excepted robbers of graves among 
these other flagitious criminals which were to have benefit from their indul- 
gence. Gregory Nyssen says, the Fathers teach us to place the violation of 
burial places among those sins which are to be expiated by public penance. 

* Mr. J. G. Waller, in Arch. Ael. vol. xv. p. 81, where there is a reproduc- 
tion from a rubbing of this brass, says it is of 'very remarkable and unique 
design.' ED. 


The slab is a noble one, measuring eight feet four by three feet 
seven inches, and has had a border fillet of brass two inches broad all 
round. "Within this, at the head, have been two heater-shaped shields. 
At the base, rising from a calvary which surmounts a horizontal panel 
once containing the inscription, is the long narrow stem of what must, 
originally, have been an exceedingly beautiful and elaborate open cross, 
the head of which, consisting of eight ogee-shaped foiled and finialled 
canopied compartments, and measuring no less than four feet four 
inches, by two feet eight inches, contained within its centre the figure 
of a priest, doubtless that of one of the early deans. The matrix of 
his effigy, measuring two feet, by five inches, would seem to indicate 
that he was vested as might naturally be expected from the architec- 
tural character of the details, which are those of about the middle of 
the fourteenth century in an alb and chasuble. 84 Of Mrs. Barnes's 
intruded plate, I need take no further notice than to add that it has 
cut off the lower part of the cross head, and a portion of the shaft, 
which last has been enriched, in a fashion not uncommon at the 
period, with leaves growing out of it on either side alternately. 

We come now, finally, to the most interesting and curious of all 
these sepulchral remains, displaced, like almost all the rest from its 
proper position, and now set up against the west wall of the north 
aisle. It is very probably unique, and is, in some respects, I think, 

And the fourth council of Toledo makes it a double punishment for any clergy- 
man to be guilty of this crime : " If any clerk is apprehended demolishing 
sepulchres, forasmuch as this is a crime of sacrilege punishable with death by 
the public laws, he ought by the canons to be deposed from his orders, and after 
that do three years' penance for such his transgression" Sidonius Apollinaris 
and S. Chrysostom justly represent it as one of the most unnatural and 
inhuman barbarities that can be offered to the nature of man, because the dead 
are altogether innocent and passive, and in a condition to excite pity and 
compassion only ; being destitute and without ability to resist or right them- 
selves against invaders.' 

81 Very interesting examples of this class of inlaid brasses among the most 
beautiful and effective of any may be seen in the matrix of that of Sir John de 
la Riviere, circa 1350, at Tormarton church, Gloucestershire, of which he was the 
founder, and a model of which he is represented as supporting ; of John de 
Blendon and his wife, circa 1 325, in East Wickham church, Kent ; of a civilian, 
name unknown, circa 1300, formerly in Hereford cathedral, where the cross head 
containing his effigy appears alone, without either stem or base ; and in the 
magnificent brass, happily still quite perfect, of John Lumbarde, rector, 1408, at 
Stone church, Kent. Somewhat later in date, this splendid work represents, in 
nearly every particular, an almost exact replica of this at Auckland, the only 
difference being that the foliage is of a later type, and the head of the cross 
exactly proportioned as regards length and breadth, instead of being, as in the 
present instance, oblong. 



perhaps, the most singular I have ever either seen, or heard of. As 
the annexed illustration shows, it is formed into three steps or gradines, 
the lowest containing the inscription and shield of arms ; the middle 
one, the effigy of the priest commemorated ; and the third, or upper- 
most, what, at first sight, looks like the matrix of a second ecclesiastic 
laid the reverse way, '.&, with the head, instead of the feet, towards 
the east. And such, for awhile, and till a closer examination com- 
pelled a different conclusion, I imagined it to be. For though, with 

a tolerably wide experience, I have never once met with them, effigies, 
or symbols of priests so represented, are, I am aware, said to be met 
with in divers places ; the idea being that, at the general resurrection, 
they should meet their people face to face. 86 But whether there be any 

85 Ma'skell, Man. Rit. (1846) I. ccxlvii. says : ' The rubric of the revised 
and modern Roman ritual orders, "Corpora defunctorum in ecclesia vel 
coemeterio ponenda sunt pro situ et loco, ut sint versa ad altare majus; vel si 
conduntur in oratoriis vel capellis, ponantur cum pedibus versis ad illarum 
altaria. Presbyteri vero et Episcopi habeant caput depositum versus altare, et 
pedes versus populum." Such, however, does not appear from any record to 
have been ever a distinction allowed in the medieval Church of England, and 
Catalani confesses that he has found no example of it in any ritual or council 
previous to this last review of the ritual of the church of Rome.' 

VOL. xx. 23 



foundation, in fact, for such an assertion or not, is quite another thing. 
That grave covers may, in some instances, have been reversed, and 
their effigies and symbols, such as chalices, etc., appear at the present 
time, consequently, turned the wrong way about, is conceivable enough. 

Indeed, we have a striking local illus- 
tration of the fact in the adjoining 
parish of Ayoliffe. Until the recent 
restoration of the church there, 
under the direction of the late Mr. 
Ewan Christian, a singularly in- 
teresting grave cover of a quondam 
'village blacksmith' and his wife 

converted, at some later medieval period, into the slab, or mensa 
of an altar, and having the usual five crosses of Maltese form, deeply 
cut in it might be seen at the east end of the chancel, on the north 
side, adjoining the steps of the sanctuary, and placed in the customary 
way. Then, however, not only was its position shifted from the north- 
east to the south-west corner, but the slab itself turned round in the 
process, and the unfortunate man and his wife thus made to appear as 


though they had apostatized, and to be lying like Ancient Britons, or 
modern Roman priests, facing due west. And such transposition may, 
far from improbably, have taken place elsewhere. 86 At any rate, if any 
medieval examples to the contrary do really exist, they must be of the 
rarest possible occurrence, and form individual exceptions to a rule 
otherwise universal, both for bishops, priests, and people. The only two, 
indeed, of which I have seen specific mention, are said to be found 
at Tintagel in Cornwall, and Iron Acton in Gloucestershire. And 
even these two, are not, after all, effigies, but only chalices and wafers, 
an entirely different thing, and the evidence of which, so far from 
substantiating such asserted custom, goes quite the other way ; for, 
though instruments of the priestly office, they are symbols of the body 
and blood of Christ, and point to His personal presence. They repre- 
sent, that is to say, not the position in which the bodies of the deceased 
are placed beneath, but the quarter from which He, whom they served, 
was looked to come. The bodies would, therefore, necessarily face in 
that direction, i.e., east, as usual. 

But closer study has convinced me that the figure, of which, 
unhappily, we have now nothing but the indent, was not that of any 
ecclesiastic at all. On no conceivable hypothesis, either of attitude or 
dress, could any such figure be made to fit it. It must necessarily, 
therefore, be that of some saint or Divine personage towards whom 
the deceased is directing his gaze, and whose aid he is supplicating. 
At first it seemed possible that the figure might have been that of 
S. Andrew the patron of the church carrying his symbol, the 
saltire cross ; but this idea was soon found to be untenable. The 
only remaining alternative, and that which I have little or no doubt 

88 Since writing the above words, I have met with as singular a verification 
of them as can, perhaps, be found. On recently visiting the church of Spofforth, 
near Harrogate a large and interesting Transitional building, wholly recast in 
the Perpendicular period I was not a little startled at seeing in the north wall 
of the chancel, near the west end, a fine recessed and canopied tomb of early 
fourteenth-century date, with richly cuspidated arch, containing the effigy of a 
knight in armour, lying with his head to the east, and facing westwards. The 
mystery, however, was soon solved. On going outside and walking round the 
church, the chancel was seen to be wholly new from the foundation upwards, 
only the magnificent Perpendicular basement of the old chancel which was of 
vast size, and twice the length of the present one having been preserved. The 
tomb, with its effigy, was thus at once seen to be merely a modern resetting ; in 
what relative position to its original one there was nothing to show; and the 
reversal of the effigy to be due entirely to the ignorant caprice of the restoring 
architect of some thirty years ago a man from York, as I was told, who ought 
to have known better. 


is the correct one, is that the matrix contained the seated and enthroned 
effigy of the Blessed Virgin Mary carrying the infant Christ. The 
outlines of the veiled head, inclining towards the south, would at once 
and convincingly have suggested such a subject, had there but been 
as is almost universally the case even the slightest indication of the 
head of the Divine child. As this is not shown, however, His whole 
figure must in this case have been backed by that of His mother, and 
does not therefore appear in the matrix at all. 

The nearest approach to this position of a sacred Person in an 
English brass that I know of is that occupied by the figure of 
the Holy Trinity on the monumental slab of Joan Strangbon, in 
S. Catherine's chapel, Childrey church, Berkshire. Though, as usual, 
flat, this, like the Auckland monument, is arranged in three horizontal 
divisions. At the bottom, and lying at full length across the stone, 
is the figure of the deceased, habited in a shroud. At the top are two 
shields of arms one in each corner and in the centre, figured on a 
large scale, the enthroned figure of God in three persons the Father, 
with uplifted hands, giving the benediction with the right ; the 
crucified figure of the Son between His knees ; and the Holy Ghost, 
in the form of a dove, hovering above His head. In the middle 
division is an oblong tablet bearing the following inscription : 

/toafcer of mankind, <5od in Giynyte 

f tbtm biflb meres 0rant me tbte bon 

abat for m$ sowle segtbe a pat'nost & aue 

Baugbt' to Gbom's TKHalrond baptists bB fi name of 3one 

TKatfe wben B in tbe world leviD to TRobt Strangtbbon 

Gbe second Dag of Bp'le bens passid & lego ber i sue 

Gber alder sowlis mercg Xord grant bem to bave ame. 

And beneath the figure, on the very bottom verge of the slab 

bitus anno dn! mfllim septimo. 

Against the south wall of the same chapel are brass plates with figures 
of a man and woman, each kneeling at a desk, above them again 
being a representation of the Blessed Trinity. Proceeding from the 
man's mouth is a scroll : 

Sanct beata trinitas miserere nobis. 
From the woman's : 

beata et gloriosa trinitas miserere nobis. 


Two other monuments in the same church have also invocations to 
the Holy Trinity above the heads of the effigies, on one of which the 
Three Persons are again represented. 

But the figures of the Blessed Virgin and her Divine Child, 
whether shown as an infant, or laid across her knees as dead, and 
just taken down from the cross, are far more frequently met with. 
Such is the case in the very rich and beautiful brass of prior Thomas 
Nelond (1433), at Cowfold, in Sussex, where, supported on either side 
by figures of S. Pancras and S. Thomas of Canterbury, they occupy a 
tabernacled niche above the head of the deceased, from whose hands, 
pressed together on his breast, issue three scrolls addressed severally to 

But in very many cases, as here, at Auckland, they occupy a 
different position not over the head, but above, and in front of, the 
suppliant effigies of the deceased, who are commonly shown as being 
presented by their patron saints as objects for the Divine favour. 

Thus, on the brass of Isabella, duchess of Burgundy, daughter of 
Philippa, sister of king Henry IV., and her husband, duke Philip the 
Good (1450), now fixed against a wall of the cathedral of Basle in 
Switzerland, both are represented as kneeling before the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, who is shown sitting at the foot of the cross, and sup- 
porting the dead body of the Lord. Both are attended by their 
patron saints : the duke (with his son Charles the Bold behind him), 
by S. Andrew, who is bearing his cross ; and the duchess with her 
two daughters, by S. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

Again, in the brass of bishop John Avantage (1456), in the 
cathedral of Amiens, we see the effigy of the prelate attended by his 
patron, S. John the Evangelist, kneeling, with his mitre on the 
ground, before the Blessed Virgin Mary and child, who are seated on 
a rich throne in front of him. 

Another interesting example of the like kind occurs in the mural 
brass of Arnoldus de Meroide, in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Here the deceased, supported by his guardian angel, is shown kneeling 
before the Virgin standing in a meadow and carrying her child, 
who, naked, holds in his left hand the suppliant's petitionary scroll : 
! dfcater Dei, miserere met. To the right is his patron saint 
carrying a book. 


In another mural brass in the church of Termonde, engraved 
during their lifetime to the memory of Pieter Esscheric and Margriete 
his wife, the Blessed Virgin Mary is shown seated on a throne nursing 
the Divine child on her knee, before whom, to the right, and presented 
by his patron, S. Peter, is the kneeling figure of the deceased, from 
whose hands, pressed together in prayer, proceeds a scroll inscribed : 
Sancta dftarfa ora pro me; and on the left that of his wife, pre- 
sented in like manner by her patroness, S. Margaret, the inscription 
on whose scroll continuing, apparently, that of her husband runs : 
jt pro nobts omnibus. 

The mural brass of Willem, Margrite, and Carel de Clerk (1597- 
1600), at Mechlin, though designed with the same idea of exhibiting 
the deceased addressing one in front of, or facing them, shows the 
two chief personages kneeling, one behind the other, before a draped 
family altar supporting a crucifix. And much the same method of 
treatment is observable in that of the priest Jacob Capillan, in the 
chapel of the Hospital of Ohriaci at Nordhausen, where he is shown 
kneeling under a richly groined canopy, vested in a wide sleeved 
surplice, and elevating with both hands a chalice towards which his 
gaze is directed. 

Then, again, there is another class which, following the same 
method of treatment, shows the objects of adoration, not as though 
materially present, but appearing, as it were, in vision. 

Thus, in the brass of John Pael (1560), a canon of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, we see him kneeling on a paved floor before the figures of 
the Blessed Virgin who, carrying the Infant Christ, is clothed with 
the sun and has the moon beneath her feet, which the open-mouthed 
head of the serpent is endeavouring to invade: He is being presented 
towards the left by S. Mary Magdalene, who carries a covered cup ; 
S. John the Evangelist, who holds his Gospel, on which reclines a 
lamb, and who also accompanies him, occupying a similar position to 
the right. 

Of similar character is the memorial of Henricus Oskens (1535), 
originally in the church of Nippes, near Cologne, but now in the 
South Kensington museum. In the centre is the Blessed Virgin 
Mary standing on the moon, clothed with the sun, and holding the 
Holy Child, carrying a tall cross in his right hand. He looks towards 


the kneeling figure of the deceased, who is presented by the emperor 
S. Henry, royally robed, crowned, and carrying a drawn sword, while 
S. Peter, with his keys, supports them on the other side. 

That of Bartholomew Penneman and his wife (1560), at Ter- 
monde affords also another instance of precisely the same treatment. 

But two other illustrations, differing as greatly in subject as in 
arrangement from all the foregoing, need here be mentioned. They 
agree equally with them, however, in this particular, viz., that of 
placing the object of prayer or veneration, not over the head or heads 
of the deceased, as in the vast majority of English brasses, but as here 
at Auckland, directly in front of them. The first is a very large and 
fine mural brass fixed against the south wall of the church of S. Mary 
at Lubeck, and erected to the memory of the senator Gothardus de 
Hoveln, and Margaret his wife, in 1571. The highly picturesque 
scene represented is that of our Lord's Ascension, who, accompanied 
by angels, leaves behind his footprints on the ground. On either side 
are grouped the ' Company of the Apostles,' with many others, the 
central foreground being occupied by the senator and his wife 
kneeling in worship, and with their crests and coats of arms upon the 
ground between them. The whole forms a very vigorous, animated, 
and religious composition. 

The other brass, erected to the memory of one whose name does 
not appear, is a round-topped mural one (circa 1600), in the church of 
S. Gertrude, at Nivelles, near Waterloo. Like the preceding, the 
scene is a scriptural and historic one, representing the crucifixion, 
with a landscape, and the Holy City in the distance. Our Lord upon 
the cross, with the two thieves, one on each side, occupies the central 
space. Above Him in an aureole of glory, and, attended by angels, 
appears the demi-figure of God the Father. The skull and part of the 
bones of Adam ' the first man, of the earth, earthy ' lie at the foot 
of the cross. Towards the left, kneeling in adoration, is the figure of 
the deceased apparently a canon in a full-sleeved surplice, with the 
cape thrown over his left arm, and attended by S. John the Evangelist, 
who presents him to the dying Saviour ; while opposite, at the foot of 
the penitent thief's cross, and facing the suppliant, stands the figure 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The picture is exceedingly well designed, 
and tells its solemn story in a very devout and impressive way. 



The following notices respecting the church and college of 
Auckland, may not be without interest. 

Of the dignitaries connected with it, Hutchinson, vol. iii. p. 334, 
quoting from Randal's MSS., supplies the following list : 

RECTORS. Uthred, 1085. Meldred de Aclet, 1129, Mon. Angl. 
Maldredus, cl. et Gregorius, 1147. Walter de Kirkham, 1253. 
Adam de Breniton, or Brempton, 1270. He was the last rector. 

VICARS. Magister Eob. de Albuwyke was the last vicar, and 
first dean. 

The true value of the deanery, Reg. Tunstal, 66Z 13s. 4d. 

DEANS. Rob. de Albuwyke, 1292. Stephen de Mauley.* Tho. 
de Clyfford, S.T.P. 1311. He was provost of Beverley, 1305, and 
preb. of Line. John de Insula, time uncertain. One Joh. de Insula 
was preb. of Bramham, Y. [for York] ch. an. 1328-1331 ; Mag. Joh. 
de Insula, R'r de Boldon, 5 Mar. 1312. Hamon de Belers,* 1340. 
Johannes de Houton*, 1343. Johannes Mauduyt*, 1343, p. res. Hou- 
ton. Westlie, 1350. John Kyngeston, 1362. Rich, de Castro 
B'nardi, 1369, p. res. Kyngeston; was coll. archd. of Northum., 
30th Sept., 1862. Joh. de Newthorp de Pontefracto. Will, de 
Walworth, 1378, p. res. Newthorp. Hugh de Westwyk, 1888. 
Joh. Burgeys, 1395. Tho. Lyes, 1409. Tho. Hebbeden, LL.D., 
1431, p. res. Lyes. Will. Doncastre, S.T.P. Robert Thwaites, 
S.T.P. Wood's Hist, and Antiq. Ox. lib. ii. p. 73. M'r Rob. 
Thwaytes el. M'r collegii Balliolem, 28th Hen. VI. 1451, cancellar. 
universitat. et Dec. Auklandensis emersit, librosq. plures MS. Biblio- 
theca Balliolem donavit. El. cane. Oxon. circa natalem Dni 1445. 
Bartholomew Radclyff, 1466. Joh. Kelyng, 1476. Joh. Newcourt. 
Will. Sherwode, 1485, p.m. Newcourt. Will. Thomeson, S.T.P. 
1498, p.m. Sherwode. W. Thomeson, S.T.P. and Edmund Couper 
lioentia in decret. were Bishop Fox's proctors, 1501, at York in 
convoc. cleri. Reg. Fox, p. 31. Thomas Patenson, 1511, p.m. 
Thomeson. Will. Strangways, Dec. 1520, p.m. Patenson. V. Wolsey's 
Life, p. 165. Collect. Ruthall. Preb. Holme, Archie'pi in Y. ch. 

* Mauley, Belers, Houton, and Mauduyt are added from Kellawe's Register. 


1582 ; and also Preb. of Beverley. Vid. Cop. Book, marked m. p. 
174. A.D. 1534. Rob. Hyndmer, LL.D., 1541, p.m. Strangways. 
He was the last dean. 

There is no regular succession of canons, though scattered notices 
of them as witnesses, etc., occur here and there. The only one of 
much interest that I have met with, however, is that of the famous 
William of Wykeham, afterwards bishop of Winchester, but then 
clerk of the chamber to king Edward III. who, besides having 
canonries and prebends at Salisbury, Lincoln, and Shaftesbury, held 
one also here at Auckland. 

From a survey of all colleges, deaneries, chantries, etc., within 
the county of Durham, with their yearly values, possessions, endow- 
ments, etc., 2nd Edward VI., in the Augmentation Office, there 
appears under the heading of 


The Parishe Churche of Awkeland, having vj. curates, of howseling people 

The Chauntrie of O r Ladie in Aukelande, Alexander Metcalf , of the age of 
Ixxx. yeres. The yerelie valewe, viijZ. xijs. vjd. ; reprises, xvjs. xjd. ; remayne, 
vijZ. xv*. vii]d. Stocke, &c., none. 

The Chauntrie of Saincte John Baptiste in the saide churche, William Stott, 
Ix. yeres. The yerelie valewe, vijZ. xvj<Z. ; reprises therof, xvijs. i]d. ; remayne, 
vjZ. iiijs. i]d. Stoke, &c., none. 

The Guylde of Seyncte Anne in the Chapell of Seincte Anne within the saide 
parishe. Roger Willy, of the age of 1. yeres, Incumbent. Yerelie valew, xlvs. ; 
reprises, iiijs. xjd. ob. ; remayne, xls. ob. ; cum, xiiijs. viijd. ob. ; de terr. cast. 
Stocke, &c., none. 

The Guylde of the Trenitie withein the saide churche. Michell Myres, of the 
age of xl. yeres. Yerelie valewe, xx-y. ; reprise, i]d. ob. ; remayne, xix*. ix.d. ob. 
Stocke, &c. none. 

The Guylde of Saincte Hughe in the churche afforesaid, founded within the 
Chappell of Evenwood there. Incumbent, &c. none. Leade upon the seyd 
chapell, conteyninge Ixxxix. square yerdes of webb, ponderis by est. after Lib. 
di., ij.ff. and xiiij. lib. 

Landes gyven for the mayntenaunce of a light there. The yerelie valewe, 
iiijs. Stocke, &c., none. 

The Gyld of Hamstreley in the Paroche of Saincte Androwes in Aukelande. 
Incumbent. Valewe, &c. none. 

The Deanery of Aucklande, with the prebends belonging to the same. 
Robert Hynedemer, Deane, and having cure of sowles of the parishe there as 
vicar. Willm. Franklyn, Anthony Bellases, Richard Robson, John Gretehed, 
Leonard Melmerbye, John Phillipson, Lancelot Thornton, Richarde Lyntall, 

VOL. xx. 24 


Edmond Nateres, Henry Eglionbye, Prebendaryes. The yerelie vale^e of the 
said deanrie, with the prebendes, clxxijZ. xiiijd. ; the reprises, x.s. xd. ; the 
clere remane, clxxjZ. xs. iiij^. Stocke, &c. none. 

From an inventory of the plate, vestments, bells, etc., relative to 
the county of Durham, in the same office, temp. 6 Edw. VI., we learn 
that there were in the church of 


Two challices of silver, weying xxij. unces, thre bells in the stepell, a hand 
bell, a sance bell.* 

From the First Fruits Office. 
The names of the eleven prebends, and their yearly value. 



Aukland and Binchester 

9 6 


Second Preb. of Auckland 

8 13 


First Prebend of Eldon 

8 13 


Second Prebend of Eldon 

... 10 

Third Prebend of E Idon 

8 13 


Fourth Prebend of Eldon 

8 13 


Shildon Preb 

8 16 


Witton Prebend ... . 

4 13 


West Auckland Prebend 


St. Helen Auckland Prebend ... 

Hamster ley Prebend 

4 6 


Pensions paid in 1553 to Auckland College. 

a. d. 

To Robert Hendmere, Dean ............ 50 

John Greathead, Prebend of Eldon ...... 268 

Edward Narrasse (als. Nottres) Preb. of West 

Auckland ................. 3 10 

William Frankland, Prebend of Auckland ... 138 

Lancelot Thornton, Prebend of Shildon ... ... 1 5 8 

Tho. Keye, Will. Parler, Edw. Cokerell, Rich. 

Bankes, & An th. Johnson, each ...... 500 

Matthew Nayler ............... 300 

,, Edward Greathead, incumbent ... ... ... 413 4 


s. d. 

William Scott, incumb. S. John Bap. Chaunt. ... 500 
Roger Willie, incumb. St. Anne's Guild ...... 200 

* For note of bells see Proc. Son. Antiq. Nerve, vol. iii., p. 192 ; and for com- 
munion plate, the same volume, p. 218. ED. 


With respect to the ancient collegiate buildings, Hutchinson 
writes, iii. p. 336, ' Some of the prebendal houses and the dean's house 
remain, converted into farm-houses, without anything curious about 
them ; their situation is to the west of the church, on dry and 
elevated ground. Sir Arthur Hazelrig having purchased the deanry 
lands, on his attainder they came to the crown, and were granted to 
Bishop Cosin, who annexed them to the see for ever.' Bat it is 
perfectly clear from this statement that our worthy old historian can 
never have examined the deanery buildings with anything like care or 
knowledge of the subject. They lie, indeed, to the west of the church, 
but on the far, or south side of the Gaunless, where the main building, 
now, as then, converted into a farm-house, exists in its entirety. It 
forms a long and somewhat narrow parallelogram running north and 
south, and still retains, on its east, or principal face, nearly all its 
ancient features though in part blocked up and obscured in well 
nigh perfect preservation. Towards the south end are two square- 
headed three-light windows one above and the other below with 
arched tops and hood-moulds, and a doorway, all three insertions of 
late Perpendicular or Tudor date, and quite perfect. Then comes a 
tall, well-proportioned fourteenth-century buttress the whole height of 
the building which is throughout in two unbroken storeys and 
beyond this an external flight of steps leading to the principal 
chamber, 23 feet long by 17 feet 3 inches wide, which was on the first 
floor northwards. Below, the ground storey is covered with a semi- 
circular barrel vault of stone. This is at present, by means of a wide, 
flat arch of brick, converted into a cart-shed ; the chamber above 
which still retains the two massive oaken tie-beams of its original 
roof being occupied as a granary. The entire building indeed, which 
is all of one date, so far from not having anything curious about it, 
constitutes not only one of the very earliest, but most interesting, 
pieces of domestic architecture in the north of England. Of this we 
have proof in the two original windows of the upper storey, one of 
which lights the principal chamber above referred to, and in the door- 
way which originally gave access to it. The windows, which form the 
most striking features, are square-headed, of two lights, one of them 
transomed, and having the tops of the upper ones foiled in the same 
very peculiar and singular fashion as is seen at Raby, and which I 




have never met with elsewhere. This consists of a rounded and 
pierced trefoil inserted, without the intervention of any arched head, 
immediately below the soffit, or horizontal line of the lintel, and pro- 
ducing a very striking and original effect. That they proceed from 
the same man who was employed by John Lord Nevill in the erection 
of his castle there in 1379 cannot, I think, be doubted. And, what is 
still more remarkable, the same peculiar treatment is discovered in the 
details of his tomb in Durham cathedral, of which they form one of 
the most distinguishing characteristics. (See illustrations on opposite 
page of one of these windows and of the doorway the latter restored.) 
As to the other houses referred to, only one, or part of one, known 
as the west deanery, remains at the distance of a single small field 
westwards, and at the same level. 


There remains, by way of conclusion, to take account of some few 
points relating to the fabric of the church, as yet untouched upon, and 
which are not without interest. And first, of the 

Ancient Stained Glass. 

It is pitiful to think that, up to a comparatively recent time, so 
much of this should have remained in a more or less perfect condition ; 
and then, as it would seem, been not only wantonly, but officially, 
destroyed. Hutchinson, besides his reference to that still remaining 
in his day in the three-light window of the north transept, already 
mentioned, adds 'The east window (of the chancel) is of five 
compartments under a pointed arch : by the fragments of coloured 
glass, it seems the windows were formerly highly decorated ; paintings 
of our Saviour's sufferings still remain in the north windows.' And 
then, in a note, he writes, ' These have lately been removed, and the 
windows glazed with plain glass.' From which it would seem that 
the same depraved and hideous love of universal drab, and whitey-grey 
which led to the scraping off of the gold and colour from the roof and 
walls of the bishop's chapel, and was not happy till it had yellow- 
washed even its marbled pillars, could find no peace till it had, in like 
fashion, torn out and destroyed the last lingering fragments of 


pictorial art in the windows of the parish church. But then, as we all 
know 'imitation is the sincerest form of flattery,' and, 'like master, 
like man.' The act, however, has been amply avenged, for what has 
taken its place, is fearful beyond expression a simple gallery of 
horrors. We come next to 

The Bells. 

As we have already seen, in the 6th Edward VI., there were ' thre 
bells in the stepell.' This was the usual number possessed at that 
date by those of the Durham churches which had towers, as, for 
example, S. Giles, S. Oswald, S. Margaret and S. Mary, in the 
city of Durham, G-ainford, Barnard Castle, Coniscliffe, Staindrop, 
Heighington, Easington, Egglescliffe, Houghton-le-Spring, Pittington, 
Bishop Wearmouth, Gateshead, Lanchester, Whickham, Sedgefield, 
and Billingham. 

There are now eight, five of which, if not ancient, are at least old, 
dating as they do from the first quarter of the last century. 

They are as follows, with a band of scroll-work between each 
word, and all with 4 SS | Ebor ' on shield below : 


CLANGOREM <** 1720 

Then come three modern bells, the tenor, and two trebles, which 
are thus inscribed : 




A.D. 1881. 

7._ .Treble CAST BY JOHN WARNER & SONS, LONDON, 1881. 


IN 1881. 

More interesting by far, however, than the bells themselves is the 
view, or rather peep, obtained from the bell-chamber down the steep 


and narrow diagonal flight of steps which leads up to it from the 
summit of the spiral staircase. It would scarcely be possible to 
imagine anything more strikingly picturesque, and I may add (for the 
thought occurred simultaneously with the sight) more difficult to 
draw, than the rough and steeply descending stone roof and steps, 
lighted up at their point of junction with those of the vertical newel, 
by the topmost loophole immediately beyond the bleached and 
weather-worn old oaken door, as seen from the all but wholly 
darkened belfry. It was more than worth all the wind and dirt, and 
grease and discomfort of the enterprise put together a perfectly 
charming architectural study, not readily to be forgotten. The stair- 
turret, I may add of the original construction, and admirably built 
is covered in at the top by a fine quadripartite stone vault. 

Then, another interesting, though obscure point which deserves 
attention is found in 

The West End of the North Aisle. 

This has, in all likelihood, I suppose, remained generally, as little 
noticed as understood. And yet it is one of the most interesting 
points about the building, since it contains as valuable and clinching a 
proof of the way in which it was brought to a conclusion as could be 
wished. I have already expressed the opinion that, on the evidence of 
the architectural detail only, the three western arches of the north 
aisle together, of course, with their dependent parts were built after 
all the rest of the church was finished. Why this should have been 
so, we have no present means of knowing ; and need not, therefore, 
concern ourselves. I have simply stated the fact on the indisputable 
evidence supplied by the interior details. 

That afforded by the outside, however, will be found to confirm 
this conclusion convincingly. 

The diameter of the tower, as will be seen on reference to the 
ground plan, though considerable, is yet less by about seven feet and 
a half than that of the nave, thus leaving the western wall of the latter 
projecting like a buttress, three feet nine inches deep, on each side of 
its eastern face. Unlike the tower itself, these projections are like 
the stair turret also attached to it built of fine, close jointed ashlar 
masonry. They are, of course, contemporary with the tower, of 


whose structure indeed they form essential parts, and which, as we 
have seen, followed on naturally after the completion of all east of it. 
But though really part of the west end of the nave, there was clearly 
no continuation of the walling northwards in the shape of a west wall 
to the aisle, since the face of this ashlar projection is carried up in a 
straight line from the ground to the roof. Now, had the building of 
the west wall of the aisle that is, practically, the west part of the aisle 
itself been contemporaneous with the tower, this would not have 
happened, for the two would, of course, have been carried on con- 
tinuously without a break. As this, however, is not the case, it is clear 
that the north aisle has begun, as we have seen, at the east end, and 
carried on no farther than the two easternmost bays, could only after 
the building of the tower, and not till then, have been prolonged west- 
wards, since its western wall is simply built up against the face of 
this projection, beyond which its upper portions advance in a very 
ragged and uneven fashion to the extent of one or two inches. So 
that if further evidence as to the course of the construction were 
needed, we find it here. 

And now we come at last to what might, perhaps, be thought the 
most trivial and minute item of all, yet nevertheless, the rarest 
and most exceptional feature in the whole church, a 

High-end Window. 

We have often heard of what, for want of a better name, are 
commonly called ' Low-side windows,' of which the present building 
furnishes us with an example in the usual place, viz., the south- 
west corner of the chancel. But in this most remarkable little 
opening we see what, by a like use of terms, may be styled a ' High-end 
window.' It is of the customary size and form, but set at an 
elevation of no less than seventeen feet above the ground, and at 
the top of, and in immediate contact with, the northernmost of the 
pair of broad and lofty lancets that light the west end of the 
nave. Inside, the jambs and long lintel stone, though now built 
up flush with the rest of the walling, are distinctly visible in close 
connexion with the rear arch of the window head, which breaks 
into the southern corner of the sill. As the annexed illustra- 
tion will show, there has evidently been an initial blunder in the 



setting out of the two openings. That the smaller one is not, as 
so generally, I might almost say universally, the case with ' Low-side 
windows,' an insertion, but built along with the tower itself, is 
shown by the long jamb stones 
which instead of being mere nar- 
row uprights, as in the case of the 
chancel, and other inserted examples 
are bonded far into the wall on 
either side. But, as will be observed, 
the sill is wanting, and the bottom 
parts of the northern and southern 
jambs are filled up with small 
stones. In other words, they have 
been cut into and destroyed by the 
intrusion of the window head. 
Now, as the jambs and lintel could 
not have been built without the 
sill having previously been set, 
and that could not have been done 
without a foundation whereon to 
set it, it follows of necessity that 
the window head which now so 
interferes with them, must, in the 
first instance, have been placed 
about a foot or so lower down, so 
as to allow of such foundation being 
laid. But the effect, as may readly 
be perceived, not proving satisfac- 
tory for the window would be far 
too short for its breadth it was 
evidently, and while the works were still in hand, raised to its present 
height a process which, involving as it did, the destruction of the sill 
and lower part of the south side of the opening, they were then filled 
up in the makeshift way we see to-day. 

What then, it may be asked, was the raison d'etre of this extra- 
ordinary aperture ? That it was not designed for the admission of 
light is a fact so plain and palpable as to render argument needless. 

VOL. xx. 25 

J. F. H. MENS. & DELT. 



Equally so, that it could not have been intended for the hearing 
of confessions, or administering the holy eucharist to lepers, or for 
ringing a hand, or ' sanctus ' bell through at the elevation of the 
Host in the mass the latest and most generally approved guess, and 
which, I think, may at present be said to ' hold the field.' For all 
such uses it is evidently as much too high as many others, such as 
those at Hart and Elwick Hall for instance, on, or near the surface of 
the soil, are too low. 

As it is no part of my intention to enter here at any length into 
the intricate and long vexed question of the uses of 'Low side 
windows,' on which, after thirty or more years of diligent study both 
in, and out of England, I have come to very definite conclusions, 
which would require at least a volume to elucidate, I will content 
myself with quoting the following remarks of the late eminent archi- 
tect, M. Viollet le Due, on what I conceive to be the kindred subject of 
' Fanaux,' or ' Lanternes des Morts ' the exact French equivalent of 
the ' Perpetual,' or ' Poor souls' Lights ' of Germany, of which 
examples innumerable still exist, and in every stage of progression 
from 'Low side windows,' or lanterns, to magnificent columnar 
structures of some thirty feet high, and much resembling our well-known 
' Eleanor crosses.' After defining this class of monument as a ' Pile 
creuse en pierre terminee a son sommet par un petit pavilion ajoure, 
percee a sa base d'une petite porte, et destined a signaler au loin, la 
nuit, la presence d'un etablissement religieux, d'un cimetiere,' he con- 
tinues, ' Les provinces du centre et de 1'ouest de la France conservent 
encore un assez grand nombre de ces monuments pour faire supposer 
qu'ils etaient jadis fort communs. Peut-etre doit-on chercher ; dans 
ces edifices une tradition antique de la Gaule Celtique. II en existait 
a la porte des abbayes, dans les cimetieres, et principalement sur le 
bord des chemins et aupres des maladreries. On peut done admettre 
que les lanternes des morts erigees sur le sol autrefois celtique ont 
perpetue"es une tradition fort antique, modifiee par le christianisme. 
Les premiers apotres des Gaules, de la Bretagne, de la Germanic, et des 
contrees Scandinaves, eprouvaient des difficultes insurmontables 
lorsq'ils pretendent faire abandonner aux populations certaines 
pratiques superstitieuses. Souvent ils etaient contraints de donner a 
ces pratiques, qu'ils ne pouvaient detruire, un autre but et de les 


detourner, pour ainsi dire, an profit de la religion nouvelle, plutot 
que de risquer de compromefctre leur apostolat par un blame absolu de 
ces traditions profondement enracinees. Les lanternes des morts 
perdent leur caractere de colonne isolee, pendant le xiv e siecle, et sont 
remplacees pas des petites chapelles ajourees dans lesquelles on 
tenait une lampe allumee. C'est ainsi que les vieilles traditions 
gauloises, qui s'etaient perpetuees a travers le christianisme jusqu'a 
la fin du xiii e siecle, changeaient de forme, peu a peu jusqu'a faire 
oublier leurs origines.' 

That this practice of burning lamps and candles in cemeteries was 
both widespread, and of remote antiquity, even in the church, may be 
gathered from the thirty-fourth canon of the council of Eliberis, A.D. 
305, which directs, 'Cereos per diem placuit in coemiterio non 
incendi. Inquietandi enim sanctorum spiritus non sunt.' Where we 
not only see the practice distinctly referred to, but the reason for its 
discontinuance adduced as well ' because the spirits of the Christian 
dead were not to be disturbed, i.e., according to popular belief, 
through the desecration of their bodies by the entry thereinto of evil 
spirits. As a safeguard and protection against such hideous pollution, 
lights symbols alike of divine worship and protection were burnt, 
not only by night, but, as would appear from this canon, by day also. 
The pseudo-Athanasius indeed, quoted by Durandus, speaks distinctly 
of lighting a mixture of oil and wax at the graves of the dead as a 
sacrifice of burnt offering to God ; and it is against this practice that 
Bingham thinks the canon of Eliberis was directed, notwithstanding 
the fact that the reason alleged in it completely negatives any such 
supposition. That lights were used by the early Christians at funerals 
in the day time is witnessed to in the fullest possible way. Thus, S. 
Gregory Nazianzen, speaking of the obsequies of his brother Caesarius, 
says expressly that his mother carried a torch in her hand before his 
body at his funeral. And S. Jerome, writing of the funeral of the 
famous lady Paula, says : ' Translata episcoporum manibus, et 
cervicem feretro subjicientibus, cum alii pontifices lampadas cereosque 

And so, too, S. Gregory Nyssen gives a similar account of the 
funeral of his sister Macrina, saying that the clergy went before the 
corpse, carrying lighted torches in their hands. And Theodoret 


(lib. v. c. 36), describing the translation of S. Chrysostom's body from 
Comanae to Constantinople, says, there was such a multitude of people 
met him in ships in his passage over the Bosphorus, that the sea was 
even covered with lamps. The writer of the life of S. German, bishop 
of Auxerre says, moreover, that the multitude of lights used at his 
funeral seemed to outdo the sun, and beat back its rays at noon-day. 

Of the common use of such practice during the Middle Ages, there 
is no need to speak, the wills of all wealthy people, such as the Nevills 
for example, bearing constant witness to it. 87 In all such cases, 
however, the ecclesiastical explanation is that it was done for the sake 
of showing honour to the dead. And this, so far as it went, was no 
doubt true enough. It expressed the grounds of the church's formal 
sanction. But, as will be observed, it does not in the slightest degree 
point us to the true original reasons for such methods of showing 
honour. Lamps and candles never, either are, or were, at any time, 
burnt before living people, however exalted. Why, then, after they 
were dead ? We are unquestionably driven back, I think, in seeking 
for an answer to this question, to ages long anterior to Christianity, 
when, as largely at the present day, among all uncivilized and heathen 
people, as well as multitudes of devout Christians more especially, 
perhaps, in Greece and Italy the belief in witchcraft and demonology 
was universal, and every endeavour made to escape, or counteract 
it. 88 God, we know, is described in Holy Writ as ' Light,' in whom 
there ' is no darkness at all ; ' and thus no more effectual symbol 

87 Lights, it will be remembered, were burnt about the bodies of the deceased 
from the time of their death up to that of their burial, when the multitude of 
torches and lighted candles surrounding them offered a fair index to their wealth 
and status. Nor was that all, as the hearses, with prickets for candles about 
the tombs to be lighted on anniversaries, or other occasions, abundantly testif y. 
The poor had to be content with less ; but in every case, as it would seem, the 
quantity of wax or tallow consumed at funerals was as much as the means of 
the relatives would allow. 

w How commonly, albeit generally speaking unknown, this custom of 
burning lights in cemeteries is practised in various parts, even at the present 
time, may be instanced from such casual notices as that supplied by the late 
sir Charles Newton, who, writing some years since in the Archaeological 
Journal on certain excavations he had recently been making in Greece, 
mentions his meeting women on Saturdays carrying lamps in their hands to 
place upon the graves of their dead relatives and children ; and speaks of it as 
being an ineradicable custom of the country, derived from pre-historic times, 
which the church unable to abolish had simply to accommodate tant bicii 
que mal, to Christian teaching. And again, from another, by the well-known 
Peter Lombard,' who, writing in the Church Times, so recently as May 9th, 1890. 
of the Campo Santo at Genoa, says : ' In the open space enclosed by the quad- 


of His presence and power could be devised than that expressed by these 
'Lanternes des Morts,' 'Fanaux,' 'Poor souls,' or 'Perpetual lights' 
of France and Germany, or our own English equivalents of ' low,' or 
' high,' ' side,' or ' end ' windows, wherein, throughout the dark hours 
of night, the symbolic ' Light of G-od's countenance might shine upon 
the resting places of the dead.' A sort of visible and material reflection 
of that most ancient prayer of the Holy Church Universal, ' Eternal 
rest give unto them, Lord ; and let perpetual light shine upon them.' 
For we know that the symbol of light as expressive of the Divine 
presence and protection however it may have been taken up and 

rangle are the graves of the humble poor. One -feature I have never seen else- 
where, though very likely it is common. A common glass lamp stands over a 
grave. At anniversaries it is lighted with a candle, and thus touchingly speaks 
of life and hope, and calls for a charitable prayer.' That such is the sense in 
which the act is there, and at the present day practised, is possible enough. 
But it is certainly not the original sense. As an illustration of this, even in the 
case of the living, an interesting example is given by Mr. Hume Nisbet, who, 
writing of a visit to New Guinea, and after describing divers festivities there, 
says : ' Then the camp fires flare out at night and scare away the evil spirits, 
who fly back to the darkness of the close thickets, and the spirit mediums do a 
thriving trade with their grotesque masks and eerie performances.' And then as 
regards the mediaeval dead, Cornelius a Lapide (in a passage to which I have 
now lost the reference) tells us of a certain churchyard in Belgium where 
horrible apparitions, accompanied by dismal groans and wailings continuing 
night after night, were only dissipated by the burning of lamps and candles, 
and the earnest prayers of the faithful a combination of remedial measures 
which fully explains the occasional presence of stone desks and seats inside 
diverse 'low side windows,' as, for instance, at Sherringham, Wickhampton, 
and Melton Constable in Norfolk, Doddington in Kent, Elsfield, Oxon., and 
Allington, Wilts., etc. 

Whether the famous round towers of Ireland, which, it will be remembered, 
are always placed in grave-yards, were designed among other uses to be em- 
ployed as ' Fanaux ' or ' Lanternes des Morts,' is, I think, though perhaps un- 
certain, more than probable, and such is the opinion of Mr. Hodder Westrop, of 
which the late Mr. J. Fergusson says that it seems to be the most plausible 
suggestion yet made. Instancing also the parallel German ' Todtenleuchter.' of 
which so many are still to be met with, he proceeds ' besides numberless little 
niches in which lamps were placed in churches (that is the outside walls of 
churches) showing a prevalence in Christian countries of a custom which now 
only prevails among Mahometans, of placing lights at night in the tombs of 
saints, or of relatives, so long as their memory is preserved.' In the cathedral 
church of St. Stephen at Vienna, if I remember rightly, there are no fewer than 
eleven such window lanterns contrived in the walls. They form, in fact, the most 
perfect connecting link between our own English ' side,' or ' end,' windows, 
' high,' or ' low,' as the case may be, and the detached ' Todtenleuchter,' or 
' Lanternes des Morts ' that can be conceived. 

But there was another way of achieving the same end by a different means 
which remains to be mentioned in confirmation of the view that the primary 
motive for placing these lights was that of protecting the bodies of the dead 
from the defilement of demoniacal possession. It must often, I think, have 
seemed passing strange to those interested in the subject.. that, notwithstanding 
the incalculable number of our so-called ' low-side windows,' we have no certain 
record, either written or traditional, as to what their primary use and purpose 
was. Strange as it is, however, such is undoubtedly the fact. And what is 


adopted among the heathen is no outcome of mere human invention, 
but, on the contrary, of Divine order and appointment. The lamps of 
the golden candlestick we read were 'to burn always. In the 
tabernacle of the congregation without the vail which is before the 
testimony, Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening to morning 
before the Lord over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle 
southwards.' And so, as we are told, * he lighted the lamps before the 
Lord? And then, as symbol and evidence of the Divine presence, we 
read how ' the cloud of the Lord was upon the tabernacle by day, and 
fire was on it ~by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel.' As it 
is said in the Psalms ' In the daytime also he led them with a cloud, 
and all the night through with a light of fire' Could parallelism be 
more perfect or appropriate ? Or what words more fitting for either the 
living or the dead than those familiar ones of the collect ' Lighten 
our darkness, we beseech thee, Lord, and by thy great mercy defend 
us from all perils and dangers of this night (whether of sleep or death), 
for the love of thy only Son our Lord Jesus Christ.' In this connexion 
then, we are brought, at length, to that final place of separation the 
cemetery. And so premising merely that all vestiges of the 
structure, which once sanctified and adorned it, have, like Stichill, and 
the various deans, canons, and chaplains connected with the church, 
long since disappeared we will take our leave of it with the following 
extract from Randal's MSS. quoted by Hutchinson, iii. p. 334, 
' Thomas Perkinge, of Coundon, wills to be buried in the Churchyard 
beside the cross." 

still stranger is that, in France, a parallel, and probably quite as general a 
custom should have been practised, not merely down to the sixteenth century, 
but to about the year 1750, and yet that all memory of it should have perished 
so completely that it was only discovered and brought to light through a diligent 
and systematic examination of certain graves made a few years since. I refer 
to the practice of protecting the bodies of the deceased by means of incense and 
holy water cups. In the Bulletin Monumental may be seen illustrations without 
end of the vessels used for the purpose, accompanied by the fullest details of 
the several interments, which range, for the most part, from the sixteenth, to 
about the middle of the last century. Briefly stated, these vessels, which are 
usually of the commonest domestic kind, taken from the kitchen, and not made 
for the purpose of interment, surround the body more or less completely, inside 
the coffin. Some have only two, one at the head, the other at the feet. Some 
a^ain have four or six, while in others, these vessels, some for incense having 
holes roughly pierced through their sides with nails, and others whole for 
holding holy water, surround the corpse like a close fence. Their purpose, as I 
need hardly say, is far too clear to admit of a moment's doubt. In another 
fashion, it was simply that of the ' Fanaux,' ' Todtenleuchter,' and as I cannot 
but think, of our own variously placed, shuttered window openings whether 
' high,' or ' low,' ' end,' or ' side,' also. 



As commemorative of our Lord and the Twelve, thirteen would seem to have 
been the normal, or, at any rate, a very common, number for the brethren in 
collegiate foundations when of medium size and dignity, though not always to 
be reckoned in quite the same way. In the more important of them we see it 
confined to the dignitaries, i.e., the dean, rector, master or custos, and the twelve 
canons or prebendaries. In some, to the master, priests, and clerks. In others 
again, extended to the entire number, including choristers. Sometimes, where 
there were only twelve canons, or canons and clerks, as at Higham Ferrers 
(founded by Chichele, archbishop of Canterbury), the place of the thirteenth 
might seem to be reckoned to the founder or patron, as in the case of Bek's 
collegiate churches of Auckland, Lanchester and Choster-le-Street, where the 
first stall on the south side of the choir was reserved for himself and his 
successors. Sometimes, on the other hand, we have thirteen canons or preben- 
daries independently of the dean or master, as at Stafford, where in the 
Conqueror's time the king is said to have had thirteen canons, prebendaries, but 
who were afterwards, in the time of Henry VI. and that of the suppression, 
presided over by a dean. In illustration may be taken the following : 
Spilsby, in the parish of Eresby, Lincolnshire, founded by sir John Willoughby, 

22 Edward III., for a master and twelve priests. 

S. Edmund's, Salisbury, founded in the parish church of S. Edmund there by 
Walter de la Wyle, bishop of Salisbury, before 1270, for a provost and 
twelve secular canons. 

S. Mary and the Holy Angels, commonly called S. Sepulchre's chapel, adjoining 

the metropolitical church of S. Peter, and opening into it, founded by 

Roger, archbishop of York, before 1161, for a master, warden or sacrist, and 

twelve prebendaries. 

Llandewi Brevi, Cardiganshire, founded by Thomas Bek, bishop of S. David's, 

in 1287, for a precentor and twelve prebendaries. 

S. Stephen's, Westminster, founded in 22 Edward III., 1348, by that king for a 
dean and twelve secular canons, the same number of vicars, and other 
sufficient ministers. 

S. George's, Windsor. In the beginning of Edward II.'s reign there was, it 
appears, in the park of Windsor castle a royal chapel for thirteen chaplains 
and four clerks, which was afterwards removed to a new site within the 
castle, and greatly augmented by king Edward III. in honour of S. George. 
In 1351 the new establishment was made to consist of a custos or warden 
and twelve secular canons thirteen, there being also thirteen priests or 
vicars, besides clerks, choristers, poor knights and other officers. 
Cotterstock, Northants, founded circa 1336, by John Giffard, canon of York, in 
the church of S. Andrew at that place for a provost, twelve chaplains 
thirteen, and two clerks. 

Glaseney or Penryn college, Cornwall, founded by Walter Bronescomb, bishop of 
Exeter, in a church erected by himself, about the year 1270, on a moor called 
Glasenith, at the bottom of his park at Penryn, in honour of the B.V.M. and 
S. Thomas of Canterbury. It also consisted of a provost, sacrist, and eleven 
prebendaries thirteen; and seven vicars and six choristers, another thirteen. 


Penkridge college, Staffordshire. The advowson of the church and manor of 
Penkridge having been granted by one Hugh House to the archbishop of 
Dublin and his successors, which grant was confirmed by king John in his 
seventeenth year, those prelates were, in process of time, always deans of 
that college, having also collation of all the prebendaries, who were in 
number thirteen. From the necessity of the case, however, these deans 
must always have been non-resident. At Gnoushall, Leicestershire, the 
bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, similarly circumstanced, were accounted 
titular deans, but enjoyed no profits. 

Arundel college, Sussex, founded by Richard, earl of Arundel in 1386, for a 
master and twelve secular canons or fellows, priests thirteen; and three 
deacons, three subdeacons, two acolytes, two sacrists, and seven choristers. 

The college of Newark, or S. Mary the Greater, Leicester, founded in the first 
instance, in 1330, by Henry, earl of Leicester and Lancaster, but completed 
by his son and grandson, Henry, and John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, in 
honour of the annunciation of the B.V.M., for a dean and twelve secular 
canons or prebendaries. Besides these, were twelve vicars, three clerks, 
and six choristers, as well as fifty poor men, fifty poor women, and ten 
nurses, with proper officers and attendants. 

Fotheringay college, Northants. ' In this town,' says Tanner, upon a parcel 
of ground containing six acres, between the castle and the parsonage, pro- 
cured from Edward, duke of York, king Henry IV., in the year 1411, began 
a noble college in honour of the B.V.M. and All Saints, for a master and 
twelve chaplains or fellows thirteen ; eight clerks and thirteen choristers. 
But the buildings and endowment beins: chiefly owing to the said duke of 
York, he is to be accounted co-founder, and is here buried. 

Tattershall college, Lincolnshire, founded by sir Ralph Cromwell, knt., 17 
Henry VI., to the honour of the Holy Trinity, S. Mary, S. Peter, S. John 
Evangelist, and S. John Baptist, for a master or warden, six priests and six 
clerks thirteen ; and six choristers, together with an almshouse next the 
churchyard for thirteen poor persons. 

S. Mary's college, Stafford, was in existence at the time of the doomsday survey, 
when it is said the king had in the royal free chapel there thirteen canons, 
prebendaries. In the 24 Henry VI. the patronage of the church of S. Mary at 
Stafford was granted to Humphrey, duke of Buckingham, who proposed to be 
a benefactor to the sum of one hundred marks. It was an exempt jurisdic- 
tion, and consisted, 26 Henry VIII., of a dean and thirteen prebendaries. 

The college of Barnard Castle, Durham. Though never carried into effect, 
licence to found a college within the castle here was granted in the 17 
Edward IV., to Richard, duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. 
It was to have been dedicated ' in honore Domini nostri Jhesu Christi, et 
beatissimae Virginis Mariae, sanctorumque Margaretae et Niniani,' and 
to have consisted 'de decano et duodecim capellanis,' thirteen, et 'decem 
clericis, et de sex choristis, ac uno clerico.' It is interesting to note that 
among those whose good*estate was to be prayed for during life, and their 
souls after death, occurs the name of the unhappy Anne of Warwick, the 
founder's as is said, afterwards, murdered wife. Of much the same nature 
was the same king's projected, and in part accomplished, foundation of 


Middleham college, Yorks., where, as Tanner says, he ' had licence of his 
brother, king Edward the Fourth, A.D. 1476, to found a college for a dean, 
six chaplains, and six choristers, and other clergymen officiating in the 
parish church, to be dedicated to the honour of the blessed Jesus, S. Mary, 
and S. Alkilda, which he never finished.' The licence mentions a dean, six 
chaplains, and six choristers thirteen, as well as 'quatuor clericis' 

' ac uno clerico,' ' divini servicia in ecclesia parochiali ibidem 

celebraturis imperpetuum,' etc. ; again mentioning the founder's wife 
Anne, by name, besides that of his father, Richard, duke of York, but as in 
the case of Barnard Castle, making no mention of that of his mother 
Cicely, the famous, but still more unhappy, ' Rose of Raby.' 

College of S. Martin the Less, Leicester. ' There was afore the conqueste,' says 
Leland, ' a collegiate churche of prebends intra Castrum,' which was, during 
the wars in the time of William I., destroyed, together with the city and 
castle, but was reedified, in 1107, by Robert, earl of Mellent and Leicester, 
for a dean and twelve prebendaries thirteen and dedicated, as the old 
church was, to S. Mary. 

College of Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire. 'In the chapel of S. Mary,' says Tanner, 
' within the parish church of S. Peter here, was begun, temp. Edward II., a 
chantry of several priests by Geoffrey le Scrop, which, in the beginning of 
the next reign, was augmented to a considerable collegiate body, consisting 
of a warden and eight or nine chaplains, with three clerks, etc., by the 
munificence of Thomas de Sibthorp, rector of Beckingham, in Lincolnshire.' 

The college of Pleshey, Essex, founded circa 1393 by Thomas, duke of Gloucester, 
for a master, and eight secular priests, two clerks, and two choristers 
thirteen altogether to the honour of the Holy Trinity. 

The college of Newton, Cambridgeshire, founded in the chapel of S. Mary, super 
Costeram Maris, within this parish, by sir John Colvill, knt., temp. Henry 
IV., and consisting, actually, of a warden and several chaplains, whose 
numbers are, however, not stated ; but it is interesting to know that ' he new 
built the chapel of S. Mary in the place of the old one in A.D. 1401, his first 
design being to erect near it a hospital of one chaplain and twelve poor old 
people thirteen in all ' as appears from the register of Henry Bowet, arch- 
bishop of York. 

Collegiate church of Bablake, Coventry. Leland, speaking of Coventry, says : 
' There is also a collegiate church at Bablake, dedicated to S. John. In this 
college is nowe a maister and eight ministers, and lately twelve ministers 

S. Elizabeth college, Winchester, founded in the meadow of S. Stephen, circa 
1300, by John de Pontoys. bishop of Winchester, for a provost, six chaplains, 
priests, and six choristers, to the honour of S. Elizabeth of Hungary. 
' Noverint universi quod nos Johannes de Pontisaria ordinamus in dicta 
capella tria construere altaria ; majus, viz., de Sancta Elizabetha ; et duo 
minora collaterals, unum de S. Stephano et S. Laurentio martyribus, et 
aliud de sancto Edmundo rege, et de beato Thoma Cantuariensi archiepis- 
copo martyribus : ac etiam septem ponere capellanos, cum six clericis. in 
sacris ordinibus constitutis, quorum tres sint diaconi, et tres subdiaconi, 
imperpetuum pro vives ac defunctis celebrature, etc. De quibus septem 

VOL. xx. 26 


capellanis unus in praepositum praeficiatur ; cui tanquam praesidenti 
caeteri intendant et obediant reverenter.' Here, it will be observed that of 
the thirteen in all, one of the seven chaplains was provost, while the six 
choristers or clerks were all in holy orders. 

College of S. Kauntoc, near Padstow. Here was a college of secular canons in 
the time of Edward the confessor, which continued till the universal plunder 
under Edward VI., when it consisted of a dean, nine prebendaries, and four 
vicars-choral. Hence it might seem probable that, as at Winchester, 
Crediton, and Norton Soupecors, the dean held one of the nine prebends : 
otherwise the foundation must have consisted of thirteen members besides 
its head. 

College of Norton Soupecors, or Raveningham college, Norfolk, founded circa 
17 Edward III. by sir John de Norwich, knight, in honour of the B.V.M. 
for eight secular priests, one of whom was to be warden, and who were 
to perform divine service in the parish church of S. Andrew. But not 
long afterwards this college was removed to the neighbouring village of 
Norton Soupecors, where a fine new chapel and all other necessary build- 
ings were erected for the priests, whose number was increased, in 1387, to 

The college of Ingham, Norfolk. This, the first house of the order of the Holy 
Trinity for the redemption of captives, was founded in 1360, in the parish 
church there which had been rebuilt and appropriated for the purpose 
by sir Miles Stapleton of Bedale, in Yorks. The society consisted actually 
of a prior, sacrist, and six canons only, but this number was designed to 
have been made up to thirteen, if the revenues should so increase as to allow 
the sum of ten marks yearly being paid to each religious. For a beautifully 
illustrated account of the church and its remarkable monuments, and of the 
scandalous state of neglect and dilapidation into which it had been allowed 
to fall by a wealthy parish so far back as the first quarter of the present 
century, see Neale and Le Keux's Churches, vol. i. 

The college of S. Lawrence Poultney. founded by sir John Poultney (several 
times mayor of London), circa nineteenth Edward III., for a master or 
warden, thirteen priests, and four choristers, to the honour of the Holy 
Jesus and Corpus Christi. Here, the thirteen priests were apparently 
reckoned separately from the warden, who, unless one of their number 
might possibly, like the founder himself, be a layman. With respect to the 
number of thirteen, we have an interesting illustration in the case of 

Lambeth college, Surrey, contemplated and partly carried into effect by Baldwin, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and his successor, archbishop Hubert. Tanner 
tells us that Baldwin, being obliged to desist from building a college for 
secular canons at Hackynton, near Canterbury, endeavoured to do so at a 
greater distance from the Benedictines established there, and began accord- 
ingly to found a fine chapel at Lambeth, which he purposed to make 
collegiate in honour of S. Thomas the Martyr, about 1191. This was carried 
on by his successor archbishop Hubert ; but when it was finished, in 1199, 
he was forced to pull it down in obedience to papal bulls procured by the 
monks of Canterbury who, though so far removed from themselves, were 
jealous of its being so near the archiepiscopal palace. At last it was 


allowed that the archbishop might here, or at any other spot than that of 
the destroyed chapel, build an ordinary church and place therein not more 
than twenty, nor less than thirteen, praemonstratensian canons, endowing 
the same with 100 a year. But this last proposal does not seem to have 
taken effect. 

The college of Tonge, Shropshire, founded in 1410 by dame Isabel, widow of sir 
Fulke Pembridge, knight, in the parish church of S. Bartholomew, rebuilt 
for the purpose, and consisting of five secular priests, one of whom was 
custos or master, and thirteen poor persons. The very striking and hand- 
some collegiate church, with its fine stall- work, remains in excellent preser- 
vation, as well as the ruins of the college and of the almshouses of the poor 
brethren, which forms a detached structure. 

The Vicars' college, Wells. ' Walter de Hull, canon of Wells,' says Tanner, ' gave 
two messuages and lands in Wells that the thirteen chantry priests who 
officiated in the cathedral might live in common together. In 1348 bishop 
Ralph de Salopia began a fair college for them, and augmented their pos- 
sessions, the college being afterwards much improved by bishop Beckington.' 
Its buildings, which remain in a wonderfully perfect state, are excellently 
illustrated in the late Mr. J. H. Parker's Architecture of the Qity of Wells. 

Staindrop college, Durham, founded by Ralph Nevill, first earl of Westmoreland, 
in the parish church there, which he had remodelled for that purpose, in 
1412. Cardinal Langley's licence describes it as quoddam collegium unius 
custodis, octo capellanorum, et quatuor clericorum seculorum thirteen 
officiants, together with six gentlemen, six valets, and six other poor 
persons thirty-one in all, the figures being thus, as will be noticed, trans- 

Tamworth college, Staffordshire. Leland speaks of this as ' The collegiate 
church, having a dean and six prebendaries, and every one of these hath 
his substitute there .... The king, at this present, is taken as patron 
of the college.' 

Wingfield college, Suffolk, founded by the executors of sir John Wingfield, 1362, 
in the parish church, at first for a master or provost, and three priests only, 
but afterwards increased to nine priests and three choristers in all, 

Wimborne collegiate church, Dorsetshire, refounded, after its suppression in 
1547, through the instrumentality of archbishop Laud, by king Charles I., 
for three priests, three clerks, four choristers, two singing men, and an 
organist in all, again, thirteen. 

Wallingf ord college, Berkshire. ' There were a dean and prebendaries in the 
king's free chapel within the third dyke of the castle here,' says Tanner, 
' in the beginning of king John's reign', and probably before, which Edmund, 
earl of Cornwall, tenth Edward I., endowed with lands and rents for the 
maintenance of six chaplains, six clerks (thirteen with the dean), and four 
choristers.' The words of the charter are : ' Deo, etc., et Rogero de Draytone 
decano dictae capellae ... ad sustentationem sex capellanorum, sex 
clericorum, et quatuor ceropherariorum ' (candlebearers), etc. 

Collegiate church of Ripon. 'Herein,' says Tanner, 'were seven prebends' (all 
rich and of varying values) ' and six vicars-choral, each worth 1 ' 
thirteen in all. 


The hospital of S. Cross, near Winchester, may also be mentioned as having been 
founded in 1132 by Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester, for thirteen poor 
men, with chaplains, clerks and choristers. Afterwards being much in- 
creased, and having among other members thirteen clerks, it still, though 
greatly decayed, comprises ten resident brethren and three out-pensioners 
thirteen, together with a chaplain and master 

At Northallerton the Maison Dieu was founded by a certain Richard de Moore, 
a draper of that town, about the year 1476, for thirteen poor men and 
women. And in memory of the benefactions of the famous Walter de 
Stapledon, bishop of Exeter, the abbot of Hartland, caused the day of his 
death, October 15th. to be solemnly observed, decreeing that on that day, 
'for all future times Xlii pauperes in aula abbatis, pro ipsius anima, 

It is interesting to note that where the number of thirteen could not be 
provided for, a large proportion of the smaller colleges will be found to have 
consisted of about half that number, viz., of a dean or custos, and five or six 
canons or chaplains, though sometimes, and but rarely, there were seven. In those 
of the humblest rank only about half, or occasionally less than half of these, 
again are found, consisting of but two canons, or a dean and two, or perhaps 
three, canons. Thus, there were at 

Wingham, a provost and six canons ; Ruthyn, seven regulars ; Sudbury, 
warden and five seculars ; Bunbury, master and six chaplains ; Irthlingborough, 
dean and five canons ; Clovelly, warden and six chaplains ; Rushworth, master 
and six priests ; Bolton, master and five priests; North Cadbury, rector and six 
chaplains ; Battlefield, master and five chaplains ; Stoke-by-Clare, dean and six 
prebendaries ; Greystock, rector and six chaplains ; Ax minster, seven priests ; 
Haccombe, archpriest and five fellows; Slapton, rector and five priests ; Rother- 
ham, provost and five priests ; Wolverhampton, dean and five prebendaries ; 
Shottesbrook, warden and five priests ; Chumleigh, rector and five preben- 
daries ; Barking, dean and six canons ; Bridgenorth, dean and five or six 
prebendaries ; Bury S. Edmunds, warden and six priests ; Bosham, dean and 
five prebendaries ; Laysingby, master and six chaplains ; and Lowthorpe, rector 
and six chaplains. 

Among those ot the humblest rank were S. Teath, two prebendaries; Astley, 
dean and two canons ; Hemingbrough, warden and three prebendaries ; 
Bradgare, master and two clerks ; S. Burian, dean and three prebendaries ; 
Endellion, three prebendaries ; Layer Marney, warden and two priests ; Brom- 
yard, three canons ; All Saints, Northampton, two fellows ; Towcester, two 
chaplains ; Clifton, Notts., warden and two priests ; Manton, master and two 
stipendiary brethren ; Burford, three prebendaries ; Guy's Cliff, two priests ; 
and Acester. provost and two or three fellows, one of whom had to teach a 

On page 103, sixth and last lines, for 'page 76' read 'page 102.' 

ARCH ALL., Vol. xx., to face p. 207. 

Plata xiu. 



A Vice- President of the Society. 





[Read on the 31st August, 1898.] 

At the adjourned annual meeting of this society in February, 
1890, the number of vice-presidents was increased from six to twelve. 
Among the members who were promoted upon that occasion to a 
place in the extra half-dozen was Mr. John Philipson. 

It is a fact to be noted that in the eight years which have passed 
since then death has taken heavy toll of those whom we delighted 
to honour. We have lost John Clayton (1890), Dr. Bruce (1892), 
Richard Cail (1893), William Woodman (1895), James Raine (1896), 
John Crosse Brooks (1897), W. H. D. Longstaffe (1898),' and now 
John Philipson. Of the original twelve but four survive the Rev. 
E. H. Adamson, 1 the Rev. W. Greenwell, R. R. Dees, and A. 8. 

Mr. Philipson came from a good old north-country family, 2 which, 
for many generations, had its home among the English lakes. 
Among its prominent members figure (1) a hero of the Civil War, 
whose deeds of daring 3 earned for him the soubriquet of ' Robert 
the Devil ;' (2) a knighted representative in parliament of the 
county of Westmorland ; and (3) a celebrated lawyer and politician, 
known to most of us as the ostensible * guide, philosopher, and 
friend ' of the corporation of Newcastle, but, in reality, the con- 
troller, governor, and ruler of that august body. 

Son of George Hare Philipson, an eminent coachbuilder in New- 
castle, our friend first saw the light on the 19th of October, 1832. 
He was educated at Bruce's far-famed school in Percy street, served 
an apprenticeship under his father to the arfy craft, and mystery of 
coach and carriage building, married the daughter of his great 
teacher, Miss Williamina Bruce, in 1862, and a couple of years 
later succeeded his father in the management of the business. 

1 Since the above was written the Rev. E. H. Adamson has died. 

2 Men of Mark 'Twixt Tyne and Tweed, vol. iii, p. 259, 

3 Rokeby, canto vi. stanza 32. 


Thus intimately associated with Dr. Bruce, it was but natural 
that he should be attracted by the antiquarian pursuits to which 
the doctor's life was devoted. He became a member of our society 
in 1871, and soon afterwards accepted the post of honorary auditor 
of the society's accounts an office which, with a short interval, he 
occupied till his death on the 24th of June last. In 1876, he was 
elected one of the council of the society, and in 1890, as already 
stated, a vice-president. 

Mr. Philipson's mercantile activities left him but little time for 
the study of archaeology or for indulgence in antiquarian research. 
He was ' a man of affairs,' interesting himself, first of all, and rightly 
so, in the history and progress of the ancient craft with which his 
name is identified. Next to that, perhaps, the work of our society 
claimed his attention. Although unable personally to take a pro- 
minent part in our investigations, he was a regular attender at 
our meetings, kept a watchful eye upon our business transactions, 
occasionally presided with dignity and tact over our deliberations, 
and was always in hearty sympathy with those fortunate fellow- 
members whose gifted leisure enabled them more fully to elucidate 
the story of the past and rehabilitate the wrecks of time. 

Twice during his membership Mr. Philipson contributed to our 
literature. At the meeting in November, 1885, inspired by a 
discovery in the Roman camp at South Shields of objects that 
suggested certain appendages of saddlery, he read a paper entitled 
'Roman Horse Trappings, compared with Modern Examples.' 
Copiously illustrated, it appears in the Archaeologia Aeliana (vol. xi. 
p. 204), and forms a useful guide down a bypath of discovery which 
had remained comparatively untrodden. His training and experience 
gave him special qualifications for this work. He was able to explain 
and exemplify, as few other antiquaries could have done, the historic 
continuity of horse trappings, and to trace a resemblance between 
equine adornments in our May Day processions and those which 
bedecked the equipage of Roman soldiers, and, possibly, the steeds of 
Jehu, son of Nirnshi. 

Two years later, when capt. T. W. II . Robinson presented us with 
a box of wheat and, barley taken from the enfoldings of an Egyptian 
mummy, Mr. Philipson revived the old question of the vitality of 


so-called mummy seeds. Like the case-hardened toad that lives for 
indefinite periods in the heart of a rock, these tough old seeds found 
among the debris of the Pharaohs are a lively source of assertion and 
debate. There are those who believe that grain, buried in ancient 
tombs and dormant for two or three thousand years, has not only 
germinated, but grown and ripened in this country. Mr. Philipson 
ranged himself among the believers. At the same time, in fairness to 
sceptics and unbelievers, he quoted numerous examples of failure 
and expressions of doubt or incredulity. A perusal of the paper 
(Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xv.) will probably induce the reader to 
think that whatsoever may be the condition of the object, the subject 
still remains in a state of suspended animation. 

In the literature of his calling Mr. Philipson's pen was more 
prolific. Thoroughly at home in every branch of his handicraft, he 
wrote with that practical knowledge which comes from daily 
experience and lifelong study. He was the author of the following 
works : 

Harness: As it has been, as it is, and as it should be, with Remarks on 
Traction and the Use of the Cape Cart. 24 plates and 8 woodcuts. 8vo. 
Newcastle : A. Reid, 1882. 

The Technicalities of the Art of Coach-body Making (with numerous plans, 
drawings, etc.). 8vo. London, 1885. 

Reports on the Carriages in the Paris Exhibition, 1889. By Artisan 
Reporters. Edited and revised by John Philipson, J.P., M.I.M.E. 8vo. 
Newcastle : Mawson, Swan, & Morgan, 1890. 

A prize essay on The Humane Method of Harnessing. Read before the 
Animals Institute, London. With Portrait of the Author and Woodcuts. 8vo. 
Newcastle : J. M. Carr, 1891. 

The Art and Craft of Coachbuilding one of a series of technological hand- 
books edited by Sir Henry Trueman Wood. 

Mr. Philipson's public career, apart from his antiquarian pro- 
clivities, was active and conspicuous. He was a member of the 
Society of Arts and of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, a livery- 
man of the Worshipful Company of Coach and Coach-harness Makers, 
an honorary member of the Carriage Builders' National Association in 
the United States, ex-president of the Institute of British Carriage 
Manufacturers, and a member of the court of arbitration for settling 
disputes in the carriage building industry. Locally, he was a justice 
of the peace for the city of Newcastle, held office as one of the 


council of the Durham College of Science and of the Newcastle and 
Gateshead Chamber of Commerce, was a member of the Newcastle 
Diocesan Society, and a governor of the Infirmary, the Newcastle 
School for the Blind, and the "Whitley Convalescent Home, and had 
been president of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club and a church- 
warden of St. Andrew's. One of the notable achievements of his 
public life was a modification of the carriage tax, at which he 
laboured, in season and out of season, for ten years. His services in 
this direction were acknowledged at the annual meeting of the 
Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers in 1891 by the presenta- 
tion of an address and testimonial from representatives of the 
carriage building trade and its affiliated industries throughout the 

An 'In Memoriam' sketch of our friend, reprinted by the 
family from the columns of the Newcastle Daily Leader, contains a 
paragraph in which most of us will recognize a faithful portrait, 
worthy to be preserved among our records : 

With the death of Mr. John Philipson there passes away one who was 
probably the finest representative of the best type of the vanishing generation 
of Newcastle citizens. Strongly individualised, he had come to seem almost 
singular in that old-world courtesy which was so natural to him, and so 
characteristic of him in all situations. Outside of Newcastle the typical 
Novocastrian is supposed, not always unjustly, to be brusque, abrupt, 
peremptory, and even rude, in manner. Mr. John Philipson, on the contrary, 
was an embodiment of gentleness, refinement, and self-respecting modesty of 
demeanour. He was a Newcastle man through and through, nevertheless, and 
was proud of the fact. Highly cultivated, prosperous, socially on a level with 
those who would choose to be regarded as gentry, he was proud of being a 
tradesman, as he had good right to be, for taking all England over he was at 
the head of his trade. Te was wont to recall with satisfaction the more dis- 
tinguished achievements of his firm, which, when stage-coaches were threatened 
by railways, took the bodies of these vehicles off their wheels, placed them on 

railway trucks, and thus turned out the earliest first class carriages 

Mr. Philipson had a high enthusiasm for his calling, and to his initiative many 
of the most pronounced improvements in carriage building are due. Personally 
he was from all points of view estimable. 

Let me add, from a personal acquaintance of over thirty years, 
that in Mr. John Philipson were combined a warm and generous 
heart, a sanguine and cheerful temperament, and easy and natural 
manners ; that he was a pleasant companion, a considerate employer, 
and a steadfast friend. 



[Read on the 23rd February, 1898.] 

The main object of these notes is to illustrate and determine, as 
far as I can, the defensive armour in my possession, most of which is 
now before you ; and to describe in detail any armour in the district 
that I have had time and opportunity of examining, as well as several 
typical suits of various periods, among some of the most remarkable 
European collections. I cannot attempt to give any account of 
offensive weapons in these notes, as such would render them far too 
long and involved for my present purpose ; but I am busy on a 
supplement dealing with weapons, covering the same period. 

We owe the inception of much of the arms and armour of 
European countries to the ancient civilizations of Asia and Egypt, 
and much also to the Etrurians, Greeks, and Romans, but into such 
very far-off questions I cannot go in these notes. I will, however, 
preface the analysis of the suits I bring before you by a short and, I 
hope, concise sketch of medieval and renaissance armour in general. 
This, I trust, will be helpful in making my explanations clearer as 
regards nationality, fashion, and chronology. During the earlier 
periods, and, in fact, throughout the entire time covering the use 
of defensive armour to its decadence, great difficulties constantly arise 
regarding the precise antiquity and nationality of specimens preserved 
and consequently the fashions generally prevailing in a given country 
at a particular time. This uncertainty is greatly owing to immigra- 

VOL. xx. 27 


tion, invasions, and to the importation of both artificers and armour 
from the more advanced countries to others less forward in mechanical 
skill, as applied to armour making. 

Some of the manuscripts, effigies, brasses, and illuminated missals 
preserved, afford great help in deciding doubtful points, but this 
kind of evidence practically goes no further back than the ninth 
century, besides being sometimes of a more or less fanciful and in- 
accurate character ; and it is only by closely weighing and comparing 
that some reasonable degree of certainty can be got at. 

In brasses we have the best consecutive representation of armour 
extending from the Crusades to the reign of Charles II. There was 
formerly a brass in St. Paul's church, Bedford, of sir John Beauchamp 
(1208) ; this would have been the oldest brass known had it been 
preserved. The earliest extant is, however, of the reign of Edward I. 
It must be borne in mind that the date on ancient monuments is 
that of death, so that the armour indicated may be a quarter of a 
century earlier ; besides it may have been inherited by the defunct. 
Suits were also sometimes ' restored ' by the armourer to correspond 
with a later fashion, and cases of this kind naturally give rise to 
some perplexity. Later in these notes will be found a chapter headed 
k Details of Defensive Plate Armour.' This section deals as fully, 
as a reasonable regard for space will allow, with each important 
piece of armour, as regards its form, history and chronology. This 
section will serve also, to some extent, as a glossary of terms. 


Remarkably little is known of Britain in the centuries immedi- 
ately following the Roman occupation, and the question as to when 
real chain-mail was first used in Europe is both difficult and obscure. 
There is a representation of armour on the column of Trajan that 
looks remarkably like chain-mail, and it is almost certain that the 
Romans used iron chain-mail in Britain. The bronze scales of a lorica 
or Roman cuirass found at Aesica, which have been so deftly arranged 
by Mr. Gibson, the worthy custodian at the Castle, and which are 
now on exhibition at the Black Gate museum, do not help us j 1 but 

1 A similar fragment was found at Cataractonium (see Archaeological 
Journal, vol. iii. p. 296). 


interlinked bronze rings, of Eoraan origin, have also been found ; and 
if in bronze, why not in iron ? This question is adequately answered 
by the masses of corroded iron rings of Eoman times, found at 
Chester-] e-Street, and referred to in a report of a meeting held by our 
Society as far back as 1856. 2 These rings could hardly be massed 
together, as they are, without having been interlinked. The extract 
from the report of this early meeting of the society runs thus : 
'The Eev. "Walker Featherstonhaugh had presented two pieces of 
chain armour, corroded into lumps, from Chester-le-Street.' Similar 
masses of rings, of Roman date, have been found at South Shields, 
and may be seen in 'The Blair Collection' at the Black Gate museum. 
These are of a date certainly not later than the fourth century. 
We may then, I think, conclude that these masses of corroded iron 
rings were once loricas of iron chain-mail. 

The Anglo-Saxon epic poem of Beowulf, written doubtless during 
the second half of the eighth century, has frequent reference to the 
hero's arms and armour : 

Beowulf maoelode Beowulf spoke (or sang ?) 

On him byrne scan He bore his polished byrnie 

Searonet seowed The war-net sewn 

smipes or-pancum by the skill of the smith 

This poem has been cited as proof that chain-mail was in use in 
early Saxon England, and by the Vikings also, and there is some sup- 
posed confirmation of this idea as regards the latter, in the finds of 
chain armour in the peat mosses of Denmark, which have been freely 
ascribed to the fifth and sixth centuries, but this mail is of such 
excellent workmanship and so similar to that made in the thirteenth 
century, as to cast grave doubts on the earlier dates. Every ring 
of the Danish mail is interlinked with four surrounding rings, and 
so on throughout the garment. This is the prevailing fashion of 
all periods and there is a great variety of mesh. I am inclined to 
think that the ' war-nets' alluded to were not chain-mail at all, but 
leathern or quilted armour with pieces of iron, shaped like the drawn 
meshes of a net, or steel rings sewn on to it, that this combination 
constituted the 'bright byrnie' 3 referred to in the poem, and that 

2 See Proc. SJG. Antiq. Neivc. (o.s.) p. 155. 

3 In old German ' brunne.' 


the chain-mail found at Vemose and other places was really thirteenth- 
century armour or thereabouts. Quite independent of other evidence, 
the line in the poem, ' the war-net sewn by the skill of the smith,' 
would point to the leathern or quilted tunic being fortified with rings 
or scales sewn on to the garment, and this was the general method up 
to and even beyond the time of William the Conqueror. 

There are, however, other words in the poem referred to, such as 
' hand-locen ' (= hand-locked), and ' handum gebroden.' The latter 
might well read either twisted or embroidered with hands. These 
words may point to interlinked mail ; so it clearly cannot be affirmed 
with any certainty that there were no instances of real chain-mail in 
use in Britain at this very early period after the Romans ; but if there 
were any hauberks of the kind it would point to much greater con- 
tinuity from the Roman occupation than our historians of those times 
have hitherto imagined. 

The sizes of the links of chain-mail vary considerably, extending 
from one-sixth of an inch to an inch and three quarters in diameter, 
and they were soldered, welded, or butted in the earlier times, and 
often rivetted in the later. Most of the earlier Oriental mail I have 
seen is rivetted. It is said that the art of wire drawing was dis- 
covered by Rudolph of Nuremburg in 1306. At all events its 
application at this time rendered chain-mail much cheaper and more 
generally used than when each ring was separately wrought. This 
discovery was probably only the revival of an ancient art. Very 
much was lost during the ' dark ages ' which followed the disruption 
of the Roman empire, when so many landmarks were swept away ; 
and the same kind of thing has happened often before in the cycles 
of ' dark ages ' that preceded it. Much was preserved in Chronicles, 
as was also the case in the earlier periods of obliteration, when 
hieratic writings on stone, papyrus, or parchment restored so much 
to the newly-awakening times. Double-ringed mail is mentioned by 
some authorities, but I have never seen any, and think the indistinct 
drawings on manuscripts, brasses, or tapestry give rise to the idea 
very small ringed mail might easily be taken for double ; still many 
effigies show what looks very like double-ringed mail. 4 The Anglo- 

4 Where the rings are hammered flat a decidedly double appearance is given 
to the mail. 


Danes of the eighth century adopted the Phrygian tunic, reinforced 
with steel rings, probably obtained through their intercourse with the 
Byzantine empire; and both Meyrick and Strutt agree that such a 
tunic was then in use. The paladins of Charlemagne wore an 
armour of strongly marked Roman characteristics, and according to 
the monk of St. Gall, the emperor's panoply consisted of helmet and 
cuirass of iron, with leg and arm armour. 

The real coat of chain-mail was probably somewhat of a rarity in 
the tenth century, but that it was in general use by the greater knights 
late in the eleventh is clear from the testimony of the princess Anna 
Comnena, daughter of the emperor Alexius Comnenus, who says, in 
describing the body armour of the knights of the first crusade, 'it was 
made entirely of steel rings rivetted together.' She further remarks 
that this kind of armour was unknown at Byzantium up to the time 
of the first crusade. Mail armour is mentioned by a monk of Maire- 
montiers (temp. Louis VII., a contemporary of Stephen, 1137), in a 
description of the armament of Geoffrey of Normandy. 5 

The Bayeux tapestry, worked, there is little doubt, in the middle 
of the eleventh century, shows that the Conqueror's chivalry wore 
conical helms with the noseguard and hood of mail for protecting the 
neck, shoulders, and part of the face. The tunics reached down over 
the thighs, with a slit in the middle of the skirt for convenience on 
horseback ; and the mail on the arms came nearly to the elbows. 
The Norman knights had pear-shaped shields, with a point at the 
bottom, large enough to cover the body from the shoulders to the hips; 
some with a rough device ; while the Saxon shields on the tapestry 
are round "or oval, with a central boss. Maces are shown in the 
hands of some of the figures. With the exception of William 
himself, whose legs are encased in jambs, probably of leather, with 
reinforcing plates or rings, the limbs of his knights were simply 
swathed with thongs. Probably only the richer knights wore chain- 
mail, the majority having tunics of cuir-bouilli, strengthened by 
continuous rings sewn on to it, side by side or overlapping. Some 
also had the pieces of lozenge-shaped metal already mentioned, or 
scales fixed on to the leather. It is impossible to determine these 
details absolutely, as all the armour looks very much alike on the 

5 Demmin. 


tapestry in its present condition, and this is especially the case where 
rings were used ; and it is only by careful comparison with other con- 
temporary evidence that any reasonable certainty can be assured. The 
knights wore no surcoats over their mail. The great seal of William 
the Conqueror shows him in a hauberk coming down to the knees, 
with short sleeves, and no leg armour. The Germans were probably 
before us in the general use of real chain-mail, for the epic poem of 
Gudrun, written in the tenth century, states how Herwig's clothes 
' were stained with the rust of his hauberk.' 

The panoply of the Conqueror's knights was very much the same 
during the century preceding his time, as shown in the illuminations 
of the ' Biblia Sacra,' a manuscript of the tenth century. Helms with 
rounded crowns were worn then ; and this is all confirmed by another 
MS. in the library at Stuttgard of the same period, the well-known 
' Martyrologium.' 

Defensive armour continued much the same during the reign 
of Eufus, whose seal shows him in a long-armed hauberk without 
gloves of mail, and a low conical helm with the nasal ; but in the 
reign of his successor, Henry I. (1100-1135), the reinforcing rings of 
the hauberk were sometimes oval and set on edgeways, ' rustred ' mail 
as it was termed ; and this fashion became common in the next reign. 
The seal of Henry I. shows a conical cap without nasal, and that of 
Stephen a kite-shaped shield with a sharp point in the centre. The 
king wears a hauberk of scales sewn or rivetted on the gambeson. 
The nasal first appeared in England at the end of the tenth century, 
and the Bayeux tapestry shows it to have been common in the 
eleventh. Among the seals of the English kings that of Henry II. 
is the first to show the hood of mail. The hauberk of the Norman 
kings was in one piece from the neck. Under Richard I. the hau- 
berk was somewhat lengthened and armorial bearings became general. 
A plastron-de-fer (breast-plate) was worn under the mail and some- 
times over it. The sleeves of the hauberk were lengthened, and 
terminated in gloves of mail. The first seal of Richard Coeur-de-Lion 
shows the king on horseback in a hauberk of mail with a plastron- 
de-fer underneath. His shield, which is shaped like half a pear cut 
lengthwise and pointed at the bottom, is ensigned with a lion 
rampant. The arm is mail-clad to the finger tips and brandishes a 


simple cross-handled sword ; the chausses, separated from the tunic, 
are of mail, and terminate in a spurred solleret. Over the hood, 
which is in one piece with the hauberk, he carries a high conical helm 
without flaps or nasal, bound round with iron bars. On Eichard's 
second seal he bears the great helm with a fan crest, ensigned with a 
lion ; his hauberk is rather longer than in the first seal. The shield 
on this seal is ensigned with three lions passant gardant, and this is 
still retained on the royal escutcheon of England. There is a good 
example of an undoubted suit of chain-mail on an effigy of Eobert de 
Vere (died 1221) in Hatfield Broad Oak church. This suit was 
probably made in the reign of king John. Heraldic bearings first 
became generally hereditary in the reign of Henry III. His seal 
shows the king with the fingers of his chain-mail gloves articulated, 
and wearing the great helm. In the Tower collection is a figure on 
horseback clad entirely in chain-mail. To the hood is attached a 
fillet of iron round the head. The hauberk has long arms terminating 
in gloves of mail. A leathern belt with strong iron clasps encircles the 
waist. Excepting the legs the horse is covered with leathern armour, 
fortified with iron scales. The armour on the figure is labelled 
' Indian ' and the horse ' Persian.' Since I saw the Tower mail I have 
examined many Indian and other Oriental tunics. Two at Carlsruhe 
are rivetted chain-mailhood and tunic in one piece but the head 
bears no fillet. On the breast, over nipples and navel, are three small 
palettes inscribed with oriental characters, and inscribed clasps at the 
waist to fasten the tunic. These suits are chiefly remarkable for the 
presence of the hood, and I should judge the date of the mail to be 
fourteenth century. There are two shirts of mail at Brancepeth 
castle, Durham, which are rivetted, and I think early fourteenth cen- 
tury. It was not uncommon for hauberks to be provided with 
reinforcements of leather thongs which were intertwined through the 
rings ; there is an example of this kind in the Rotunda at Woolwich. 
An effigy of a knight in the Temple church, that of Geoffrey de 
Mandeville, earl of Essex (1144) in the reign of king Stephen, 
engraved by Stothard, shows the warrior armed completely in chain- 
mail, having hood of mail over the head and shoulders, surmounted by 
a cylindrical helmet without nasal. Tunic is in one piece with the arms 
and gloves, the last without any articulation ; this form of gauntlet 


is the earliest. Chausses going above the knee, in one web with the 
demi-poulaine or slightly-pointed sollerets, globular triangular shield 
extending from the shoulder to the hip, and the belt of knighthood 
above the hips. There is a singular point in connexion with this 
and two other effigies in the church, viz., that the sword is worn on 
the right side. I have noticed this peculiarity in other figures of the 
period. The figure of another Templar in the same church, that of 
William Longespee, earl of Salisbury (1200-1227), wears mail gloves, 
the fingers of which are all articulated the sword is on the left side. 
Both figures wear surcoats. Like most of the helmets, early in 
the thirteenth century, this example is flat at the top. The tops 
were usually rounded in the second half of the century. A knight in 
Walkerne church, Hertfordshire, wears the great helm, rising slightly 
at the crest, pierced with eye-slits, and showing breathing holes over 
the mouth. 


The example of chain-mail in the library of the Castle here, which 
was presented to our society long ago by sir E. Ker Porter, is very 
interesting, though a somewhat perplexing piece of armour. I have 
been in great difficulty about it, because in its present condition it is 
short in the body, with the sleeves coming barely to the elbows. 
These features taken alone would point to its being simply a ' haber- 
geon,' sufficiently described in a quotation from Chaucer later in these 
pages under the heading of ' Plate Armour ; ' but the jagged state of 
the extremities and general aspect of the mail led me to think that 
both sleeves and body had once been long ; and the slit in the skirt 
for convenience on horseback confirmed me in this belief. I have now 
ascertained, beyond all doubt, that I was right in my supposition, 
and that the garment in question is really a mutilated hauberk, in one 
piece from the neck. 

This mail is of the make already described, every hammered 
ring being interlinked with four others. The rings are soldered. 
The headgear is composite, consisting of an iron skull cap rudely 
engraved, with a camail or fringe of mail falling over the neck, 
shoulders, and part of the face, the helmet being provided with 
holes for attachment. The rings of the camail are much smaller 



than those of which the tunic is composed, and give it some- 
what of a double appearance. There is of course no trace of there 
having been any reinforcing plates, which when present were generally 
at this period attached to the mail by straps and buckles. It is 

showing the actual mesh of the hauberk. 

extremely difficult to fix an approximate date for the mail in its 
present condition, but taking the general characteristics of the head- 
gear into consideration, and assuming it to have formed one panoply 
VOL. xx. 28 


with the hauberk, I should be disposed to put it in the first half of 
the thirteenth century, in the reign of Henry III. The hood of mail 
separate from the hauberk does not appear before the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. The illustration (fig. 1) shows the hauberk in 
its present condition, the headgear, and actual mesh of the body 

A spirited drawing of a medieval water ewer of bronze is given 
in the Archaeologia Aeliana, old series, vol. iv. p. 76, plate xxii. This 
ewer, which was found about four miles west of Hexham, represents a 
knight of the thirteenth century on horseback, wearing chain-mail, 
and over it a sleeveless chequered surcoat. The figure wears a flat- 
topped cylindrical helm. 

The epoch of chain-mail armour pure and simple may be said to 
close about the reign of Edward I., although in more remote and less 
advanced countries, such as Ireland and Scandinavia, it was to be met 
with very much later. The surcoat is rare in the twelfth century, but 
it becomes common in the thirteenth and fourteenth. Among the 
seals of the kings of England this garment first appears on that of 
John. Chaucer, writing in the reign of Edward III., says : 

And over that a fin hauberk 
Full strong it was of plate, 
And over that his cote-armoure. 

There is an admirable example of a thirteenth-century surcoat on 
the figure already referred to. The surcoat is long and sleeveless, 
with a slit in front. It is embellished by a chequered pattern in 
diagonal lines, interspersed withfleurs de Us and stars of six rays. 
The garment has an ornamental border. Sleeves rarely appear in 
England till the fifteenth century, but a local example, referred to in 
Surtees's History of Durham (vol. iii. p. 155) shows that there were 
earlier cases of surcoats with sleeves, as evidenced by the figure 
of an unknown knight in Norton church. There is also one in 
the Temple church, London. The character of the armour indicates 
a date towards the end of the thirteenth century. The surcoat 
early in the fourteenth century was long, but became gradually 
shortened and tightened. There are, however, earlier examples of 
the short surcoat as shown on the Whitworth effigy (plate xiv.)- 
The garment was variously fastened, being buttoned, laced, or 


buckled. On an effigy engraved by Hollis in his plate ii., it is held 
together by a fibula. The fabrics were rich and costly, and usually 
ornamented with heraldic devices. The surcoat of the fifteenth 
century presents such devices on the front and arms, both before 
and behind, indeed it was a 'tabard of arms,' and so it continued 
in the sixteenth century as a herald's tabard. During the first 
half of the fourteenth century, English knights wore a garment under 
the surcoat, called ' upper pourpoint ' the true * pourpoint ' was the 
surcoat itself. 

It is impossible to go very much into detail in these notes, but 
some mention ought to be made of the ' mamelieres.'- These were 
circular plates on the surcoat, with rings affixed. Chains passed 
through the rings, one being usually attached to the sword and the 
other to the sheath. I am informed that there have been cases where 
one chain has been attached to the helmet. 

Mamelieres prevailed during the fourteenth century, more especially 
in the first half. Examples are rare. These plates are present on an 
effigy in Tewkesbury abbey church, the date of which is doubtless 
about the middle of the century. A beautiful instance may be seen on 
an effigy at Alvechurch, Worcestershire (1346), showing clearly the 
one chain connected with the scabbard and another with the hilt. 
There is a brass in Minster church, Isle of Sheppey, which represents 
an armed figure with only one ' mameliere ; ' it is on the left breast, 
with the chain going up over the left shoulder early fourteenth 
century. The derivation of the word is interesting, being from 
mamitta, the breast. Its origin was a leather band worn by the 
Roman ladies to support the breasts. 

We reach the highest point of medieval culture during the four- 
teenth century, and broadly the * renaissance ' towards its close. Like 
all periods of transition, it presents many points of interest, especially 
in armament. It was not before the middle of the century was 
reached that arms and armour approached to anything like uniformity. 
In the first moiety the greatest possible irregularity prevailed. Scale 
armour was still largely used throughout the century, and splint 
armour also, though to a less extent. An example of the latter may 
be seen on the effigy in Ash church. 

A combination of mail and plate or white armour, the latter 
strapped on, was in general use in England late in the reign of 


Edward the second, when the helm, cuirass, or rather breastplate, and 
gauntlets were all of plate, and sometimes the cuisse and jamb also ; 
but the leg armour was often of cuir-bouilli. Chaucer says : ' His 
jambeux were of cure-buly.' An inventory dated 1313 of the armour 
which belonged to Piers Gaveston, includes breast and back plates and 
two pairs of 'jambers ' of iron ; but most of the monumental figures 
are still in chain-mail and genouillieres. These ' jambers ' were only 
front plates for strapping on. An effigy of sir William de Eyther, 
who died in 1308, shows genouillieres of plate on a suit of chain-mail, 
with the hood covered by a bassinet. This was probably thirteenth- 
century armour, although somewhat early for an example of the 

Another effigy (in Bedale church, Yorkshire) of somewhat earlier 
date, that of Brian lord fitz Alan, wears genouillieres over chain-mail. 
He died 1302. The most ancient brass we have, that of sir John 
D' Aubernon, is similar in character the figure wears a rounded hood. 
Mixed armour continued longer in use in England and Belgium than 
in Germany, which latter country always led the way in defensive 

An effigy in Hereford cathedral church of Humphrey de Bohun, 
earl of Hereford and constable of England (died 1321), engraved by 
Hollis, wears the camail which falls like a curtain over the shoulders, 
surmounted by a bassinet ; hauberk of mail to the knees ; rerebrace ; 
vambrace and gauntlets of plate, the fingers covered with laminated 
plates, genouillieres, jambs with hinges, and very slightly pointed 
sollerets, all of steel, with roundels to protect the inside of the 
elbow. Here we have a good example of the transition to full 
plate armour, as attaching plates are now replaced by rounded ones, 
fitting round the limbs, but still strapped on. An inventory of the 
earl's effects, dated 1322, appears in the Archaeological Journal, vol. ii. 
p. 349. The bassinet is mentioned as being covered with leather. 
A figure, standing in the nave of the same cathedral, of sir Richard 
Pembridge, K.G., who died a year before the Black Prince, wears 
mixed armour camail and bassinet with the great helm. 

Both the rowel and goad spurs were in use throughout the four- 
teenth century. The figure of the Black Prince (1376) in Canterbury 
cathedral is clad almost entirely in plate, and shows the prince wear- 


ing a conical bassinet with camail attached. Breastplate, epaulieres, 
rerebrace, vambrace, coudieres and leg armour, including gauntlets, all 
of plate his great crested helm has a mantling or lambrequin and cap 
of maintenance, and is surmounted by a gilded leopard ; besides the 
ocularium it has a number of holes on the right side in front in the 
form of a crown, for giving air. There are gadlings on the knuckles 
for the melee. The surcoat is quilted. 

A brass in Wotton-under-Edge church, Gloucestersh., shows a figure 
in mixed armour of Thomas lord Berkeley, who died in 1417. The 
sollerets are a la poulaine, though not in the extreme, the gauntlets 
have articulated fingers and a sharp gadling (knob) over each knuckle. 
The figure wears a collar of mermaids, the family cognizance. We 
now get very near full plate armour on an effigy of sir Robert Har- 
court, E.G., into Stanton Harcourt church, Oxfordshire. The figure 
wears a horizontally fluted bassinet ; gorget of mail ; coudieres sharply 
pointed at the elbow ; cuirass with lance rest ; laminated taces ; and 
long triangular tuilles (strapped half-way up) ; sollerets slightly 
laminated and pointed. There is a great crested helm with the figure. 
Sir Robert died in 1471, and the armour was probably made in the 
first half of the fifteenth century. This is a late example of the use 
of the mail gorget, but it probably covered a defence of plate. 
Several of these effigies and brasses have been engraved by Hollis. 

It may profitably be mentioned again here that dates on monu- 
ments are those of demise. The armour, therefore, may be much 
earlier, perhaps a generation or so before the date of death, and it 
was common, nay usual, for a knight to bequeath his suit or suits to 
his sons or other persons. For instance Guy de Beauchamp, who died 
in 1316, bequeathed to his eldest son his best coat of mail, helmet, 
etc., and to his son John his second suit. Mixed armour in France 
went well into the fifteenth century. 

Broadly speaking mixed armour was used in England during the 
last quarter of the thirteenth to the end of the fourteenth century, 
but nearly full white armour began to be seen there towards the end 
of that century. It had, however, been in vogue in Germany and 
Italy for some decades, and it is probable that the earlier suits in 
England were imported from Germany, which country set the fashion. 
The effigy of Gunther von Schwarzburg, king of the Romans (1349) 


shows the body armour to have been of mail, with reinforcing plates 
for the arms and legs, on which blank and studded lengths are inter- 
spersed. He wears the bassinet with camail. The following examples 
will show to some extent the progress of the evolution in Belgium. 
A figure in the library at Grhent of Willem Wenemaer wears genouil- 
lieres and jambs of plate, otherwise clad in mail (1325). This figure 
is remarkable for the sword being covered with a Latin inscription. A 
brass at Porte de Hal, Brussels, shows John and Gerard de Herre 
(1398) in mixed armour. On a brass in the cathedral at Bruges, 
dated 1452, Martin de Visch has a full armament of plate, excepting 
the gorget which is of mail. 

This continuous strengthening of defensive armour was clearly 
rendered necessary by the ever increasing power and temper of 
weapons of attack. We have the same sort of thing to-day in the 
constant competition between armour and heavy guns. 

The shoulder-pieces called 'ailettes' first appeared in France. 
They were in use in England late in the thirteenth century, but, 
as they fell into disuse in the fourteenth, there are not likely to 
be any actual examples preserved, and they very rarely occur on 
monuments. These pieces assume various shapes, but the usual one 
is a rectangular figure, longer than it is broad, standing over the 
shoulders horizontally, perpendicularly, or diagonally, rising either in 
front or from behind ; there are, however, instances of their being 
round, pentagonal, and lozenge formed. The use of these curious 
appendages is not very apparent, but the most natural explanation is 
that they were applied as a defence against strokes glancing off the 
helmet. They were usually ensigned with a device or crest, and, 
when worn in front, were often large enough to protect the armpits 
instead of palettes or roundels. They are mentioned in the roll of 
purchases for the Windsor tournament in 1278. There is an 
interesting letter in our Proceedings, vol. iv. p. 268, concerning these 
somewhat puzzling pieces of armour. It is addressed to our valued 
colleague, Dr. Hodgkin, by Captain Orde Browne. The writer refers 
to the ailettes which he noticed on the effigy of Peter le Marechal 
in our cathedral church of St. Nicholas (fig. 2). This highly 
interesting figure lies immediately behind the monument to Dr. Bruce. 
Captain Orde Browne mentions examples of ailettes in the churches of 



Ash, Olehongre, and Tew, and quotes two authorities that these three 
are the only churches in which effigies with these appendages have 
been found ; the names, however, of these authorities have not been 

preserved in the letter. At all events the authorities in question had 
overlooked our local example, on whose shield there seems to be a bend. 
I refer to this effigy (fig. 2) as attributed to Peter le Marechal. Brand 


believed it be the effigy of the founder of St. Margaret's chantry, 
Peter de Manley, a baron who bore, according to Guillim, or, a bend 
sable. He was associated with the bishop of Durham and others for 
guarding the East Marches, and died in 1383. His arms therefor 
correspond with those on the shield of the effigy. Mr. Longstaffe, 
however, ascribes the figure to Peter le Marechal who died in 1322. 

As to the question between Peter de Manley and Peter le Marechal, 
I think there can be no doubt whatever, as the presence of ailettes 
and the general character of the armour undoubtedly date the figure 
about the end of the thirteenth century or very early in the four- 
teenth, and there is an interval of sixty-one years between the deaths 
of the two knights. Peter le Marechal was sword-bearer to Edward I. 
and is buried in St. Nicholas's church. It appears from the king's 
wardrobe account that a sword was placed on the body by the king's 
command. According to M. Viollet-le-Duc, this innovation, the 
employment of ailettes, dates from the end of the thirteenth century, 
but M. Victor Gay cites an example of the employment of ailettes in 
1274. There is, however, one of a still earlier date occurring in a 
MS. dated 1262, in which is a figure of Georges de Niverlee. This 
manuscript does not say where this figure is or was. There is an 
ailette on the right shoulder only, and we may perhaps infer that this 
piece was first used singly. We see from the roll of purchases made 
for the tournament of Windsor park ( 1 278) that the ailettes specified 
for were to be of leather and carda. 6 Ailettes were worn by sir Eoger 
de Trumpington in the Windsor tournament but these were of leather, 
and are figured on his monumental brass rising from behind the 
shoulders. An incised monumental slab in the church of St. Denis, 
Gotheim, Belgium, shows a figure of Nenkinus de Gotheim (1296) 
with these appendages. These are remarkable for their diagonal pose. 
If any device existed it has been worn off. There is another example 
of another Gotheim (1307), which is charged with a rose, and a 
couple in the Port de Hal museum at Brussels, dated 1318 and 1331 
respectively. A very elaborate pair of ailettes appears in the inventory 
of Piers Gaveston (1313) : 'les alettes garniz et prettez de perles.' 
There is a German example on the statue of Kudolph von Hierstein 
at Bahl (died 1318). 

6 A kind of cloth. 

HELMS. 227 


Helms with horns were worn by the Vikings, and in all proba- 
bility the headpiece with these appendages, dredged up, with a 
shield, in the Thames, and now deposited in the British museum, is 
of early Scandinavian origin. Horned helms were probably originally 
emblematic of the goddess Hathor or Isis, and came to Northern 
Europe through the Greeks. We have an example of an Etruscan 
helm with horns, and Meyrick says that such were worn by the 
Phrygians, though rarely. Diodorus Siculus refers to this form as 
used by the Belgic Gauls. There are instances of helms with horns 
as late as the thirteenth century. The early Anglo-Saxons wore four- 
cornered helms with a fluted comb-like crest. 

The great variety in medieval and renaissance headgear is some- 
what bewildering, but it may all be brought down to a few types 
with certain salient characteristics, which, however, greatly interweave. 
The knights of chivalry or their armourers seem to have given as great 
a rein to their fancy and imagination as the constructors of feminine 
headgear of all time ; still the change and application of weapons of 
attack played the most important part in the constant modifications 
of warlike head-pieces, as of other defensive armour. 

I have referred in my sketch of the Castle example to the use of 
the shallow iron skull cap, or sort of rude chapel-de-fer without its 
broad brim, which, when worn with the camail, was provided with 
holes for attachment either directly or by laces. Staples were generally 
applied for this purpose with bassinets. 

Both Normans and Anglo-Saxons used the word 'helm' 7 (of Gothic 
or Scandinavian derivation) in the eleventh century, as applied to the 
conical steel cap with the nasal then in use. The equivalent in French 
was ' heaume.' The word ' helmet ' is, of course, the diminutive of 
' helm,' and was specially applied to the close-fitting casques, first used 
in the fifteenth century, of which more anon. The seal of Henry I. 
shows that monarch as wearing a conical helm. 

The form of the helm of the Bayeux tapestry is a quadrilateral 
pyramid with a narrow strip of iron extending over the nose ; but 
this nasal is but rarely met with after the twelfth century. The 
Norman helm was probably wholly of iron. 

7 The words ' helm ' and ' varhelm ' appear repeatedly in the epic poem of 

VOL. xx. 29 


The great helm or heaume without a movable visor to meet the 
bevor is of English origin. It first appeared about the end of the 
twelfth century, and was worn over the hood of mail, which was then 
found inadequate to resist either the lance, or a heavy blow from a 
battleaxe or mace, or even a stroke from the greatly improved sword. 
The helm had the effect of distributing the force of the blow. The 
second seal of Richard I. shows him in the great helm. It is either 
flat-topped or conical, with the nasal, and obviously derived from the 
antique. There is an example of the conical form in the museum of 
Artillery at Paris, and one of the nearly flat-topped variety rising very 
slightly towards the centre, in the Tower of London. The next form, 
which is in great variety, the knight's early tilting helm, was used pre- 
eminently for jousting ; the visored bassinet being worn generally in 
battle. It was introduced to resist the heavy lance charge. This 
form was hemispherical, conical, or cylindrical, with an aventail to 
cover the face, and an ocularium or slits for vision, and sometimes a 
guard for the back of the neck. It formed a single structure with 
bands of iron in front constituting a cross, very heavy, and in 
the earlier forms the head bore the whole weight ; 8 but later it was 
constructed to rest on the shoulders, and the cross bands disappeared. 
It was fastened to the saddle bow when not in use. The great 
helm is often represented as a pillow for the head in effigies. ATI 
excellent example may be seen on the male effigy in Whitworth 
churchyard, which is described in our Proceedings, vol. iv. p. 250. 
The illustration (plate xiv.) shows the two recumbent figures male 
and female. We are concerned with the male effigy, and have the 
authority of Mr. Longstaffe that it represented a member of the 
family of Humez of Brancepeth. The character of the armour would 
indicate a date in the second quarter of the thirteenth century. The 
helm is cylindrical and flat-topped. Baron de Cosson mentions two 
other local effigies of about the same date, the one at Pittington, the 
helmet of which is round-topped, and the other at Chester-le-Street. 

A very early thirteenth-century helm may be seen on an effigy in 
Staunton church, Nottingham, and a flat-topped cylindrical helm sur- 
mounts the figure on the curious water ewer shown in plate xxii. of 
Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. iv. (o.s.). There are instances of this form 
as early as the last quarter of the twelfth century. 

8 See helm on an effigy in Staunton church, Nottingham, about 1216. 


De Oosson gives drawings of several of these helms in his admirable 
resume of the specimens exhibited in 1880 (for which see Proceedings of 
the Royal Archaeological Institute). That on the seal of Henry III. 
has breathing holes, and that of Edward II. shows his helm to have 
been cylindrical, with grated aventail. The helm formerly hanging over 
the tomb of sir Eichard Pembridge, K.G-., in the nave of Hereford 
cathedral, and now in the possession of sir Noel Paton, 9 is a good 
example of the reign of Edward III. The great jousting helm of the 
fifteenth century will be described later. The bassinet, lined with 
leather, bason-shaped as its name implies, was lighter and close-fitting ; 
and in England usually provided with staples for a camail. It was often 
used under a crested helm of large size, but, as mentioned before, when 
the bassinet became visored it was worn heavier, and then largely 
superseded the great helm. The bassinet was generally worn in 
England in the fourteenth century and late in the preceding. This 
helmet is more fully described later. 

The chapel-de-fer is an iron helmet of the twelfth century, with or 
without a broad brim. The one without brim is often termed a chape- 
line, and is, I take it, the small bassinet. 


It was late in the reign of Edward II. when comparatively rare 
instances of nearly complete plain armour appeared in England, but, 
as shown in the section of this paper headed ' Chain-mail,' etc., the 
use of the gorget of mail survived up to the beginning of the 
fifteenth century. It is in fact impossible to lay down any arbitrary 
dates, or anything like a clear line of demarcation in respect to the 
relative proportions of chain and plate armour used by the English 
knights up to the beginning of the fifteenth century, but the fortunate 
preservation in our churches of a series of effigies and monumental 
brasses helps us greatly ; there is, however, very little evidence of 
this kind before the middle of the thirteenth century. Breastplates, 
as distinguished from the old plastrons-de-fer, were to be met with in 
the reign of Edward II., but the general rule was still a hauberk of 

9 This helm was, I believe, given to sir S. Rush Meyrick by the dean, a 
flagrant instance of how such trust property was treated in his day. 


mail, with epaulieres, coudieres of plate, with some splint plates on 
the arms, all fastened with straps and buckles ; the legs were still 
generally encased in mail, with, of course, genouillieres at the knees. 

The long reign of Edward III. (1327-1377) saw great strides in 
the direction of full plate armour. The lance rest (a hook of iron for 
supporting the lance shaft) was introduced about 1360. 

We find full plate armour in use in Germany and Italy earlier 
than in England. There is ample evidence of this, but we must 
be careful in sifting the testimony of old chronicles. In the 
'Tristan and Isolde' MS., by Godfrey of Strasburg, of the second 
half of the thirteenth century, the German knights are represented 
in white armour, helms with the bevor attached to the cuirass, 
the upper part of the face open, jambs of plate and sollerets a la 
poulaine. These knights appear with horse armour. An Italian MS. 
refers to the year 1315 as remarkable for the introduction of full 
plate armour 'every knight wore helm, cuirass, gauntlets, cuisses 
and jambs all of iron.' 

These statements, however, must not be taken as conclusive. On 
the contrary, they really represent what we consider to be a late stage 
of mixed armour. We have an Italian example figured in Hewitt 
(plate xxvii.), the statue of a knight in a church at Naples (1335). 
He wears a hauberk of mail, with roundels at the shoulders and 
elbows, rounded plates strapped over the upper arm and jambs of 
iron. The sollerets are in chain-mail. 

The reason for the introduction of the cuirass proper was the 
exceeding weight of the hauberk of chain-mail, in conjunction with 
the heavy plates often rivetted on to it and the quilted gambeson, etc., 
underneath ; and also by reason of the inefficient protection it 
afforded against the lance in full career, or strokes from the greatly 
improved and heavier swords, or blows from the deadly battle-axe ; 
indeed, it often happened that a portion of the chain-mail itself was 
driven into a wound. It was, however, far from uncommon early 
in the fifteenth century for a hauberk of chain-mail to be worn 
under the cuirass. The gambeson is a quilted tunic, often worn 
in battle in early times without other armour, having been made 
tough enough to turn a sword stroke, but on the introduction of 
plate armour it was of quilted linen, foitified with rings under the 


arms and breastplate. I saw a most interesting gambeson of the kind 
in the national museum at Munich, an example of late fourteenth 
century date, and I believe the only one surviving ; it covers the legs, 
and has mail over the knees. The underclothing varied greatly at the 
different periods, and there is often some confusion of terms among 
the Chroniclers regarding these garments. Chaucer calls the 
gambeson a 'haketon,' the habergeon or small hauberk in his day 
being a shirt of chain-mail, sometimes worn over plate armour. He 
says : , 

Next his shirt an haketon 

And over that an habergeon. 

And over that a fin hauberke, 

Full strong it was of plate. 

A MS. of this period says that esquires were not allowed a sautoir 
(stirrup) to their saddles. The order had a distinct status, even to 
its costume. 

Early representations of bards are very rare ; they probably 
originated in the twelfth century, when they were most likely of 
fortified leather. Wace says that the horse of William fitz-Osbert 
was housed in chain-mail at the battle of Hastings, but this is 

As already mentioned, German knights appear with bards in 
the second half of the thirteenth century, but it was towards its close, 
or at the beginning of the fourteenth, that it became common. The 
earliest official mention occurs in the statute of 27 Edward I., when 
housings were of chain-mail, leather, or quilted material. Nothing 
like a full equipment in steel plate for horses was attained before the 
second quarter of the fifteenth century, when according to a picture in 
the imperial arsenal at Vienna, ' Der Bitter sitzt auf seinem, bis auf 
die Hufe, verdeckten Hengst.' The material of the harness differs 
very much in the fifteenth century, being of full plate, fortified 
mail, quilted cloth, or cuir-bouilli. 

Bards comprised the chamfron or chanfrein for the face, worn 
sometimes with a crest ; piciere, breast ; flanchiere, flanks ; croupiere, 
hinder parts ; estivals, legs. The crinet, neck, appears first in England 
on the seal of Henry V. The horses were gaily caparisoned. 

Broadly we reach the period of full plain body armour in England 


early in the fifteenth century, when bevor and gorget or mentonniere, 
palettes, cuirass, taces and tuilles, garde de reine, epaulieres, coudieres, 
rerebrace, vambrace and gauntlets, cuisse, genouillieres, jambs and 
sollerets were all of plate. The ingenious application of overlapping 
or lobster-tail plates, first applied to the solleret and rerebrace, had 
now extended to the shoulder and taces, and we find this system fuller 
developed in the fine ridged and escalloped armour, which originated 
in Germany late in the second quarter of the fifteenth century. The 
shell or tile-formed tuilles, after having been in use for nearly a 
century, gave place to tassets of overlapping plates. New tactics in 
battle had to be parried by the armourer with changes and modifica- 
tions in armour, for instance at the battle of Crecy the knights fought 
for the first time in foot formation. This innovation in tactics having 
been copied by the French, the armourer had to meet the occasion, 
and different harnesses began to be made for foot-fighting and horse- 
back ; and somewhat later additional pieces were added to screw on 
to the other armour, for further protection in tilting and in battle. 
These pieces were devised for the protection of the most vulnerable 
places, on the principle that energy always takes the line of the least 
resistance. The great helm was now rarely used, giving place to the 
visored bassinet, the visor to be raised or lowered at pleasure. The 
bassinet was in its turn superseded by the sallad in the middle of the 
fifteenth century, and the latter towards its close by the armet. A 
monument in the cathedral at Posen gives a good idea of the armour 
in use in Germany in the first half of the fifteenth century it is a 
figure of Lucas de Corta who died in 1475. The armament consists of 
the great helm with mentonniere of several laminated plates to be 
raised or lowered, cuirass with palettes, taces of six overlapping plates, 
going right across the lower body, but no tuilles, cuisse with genou- 
illieres and hinged jambs ; laminated rerebraces, and large pointed 
coudieres. The fingers of the gauntlets are articulated, with a sharp 
gadling over each knuckle and sollerets a la poulaine. A brass in the 
church at Altenberg gives a figure of Gerart, duke of Gulich, who died 
in 1475, with a similar armament excepting that he wears an early 
form of armet ; and tuilles are attached to the taces. The armour of 
this period, with its pretty shell-like ridgings, is both graceful and 
practical, and also lithe and supple. 


The armour of the second half of the fifteenth century is by far 
the most graceful of all the periods, combining beauty of form and 
contour with excellence of material and workmanship, together with 
an admirable adaptability for defence against the then existing weapons 
of attack. The main features of this remarkable period are the 
escalloped and shell-like form of some of the pieces. The coudieres 
are excessively large, and channelled with a view to the lance glancing 
off them. Sollerets are a la poulaine ; and the tuille is present. 
The helmet of this armour was the sallad with the mentonniere. 
An excellent English example may be seen on the brass of sir 
Eobert Staunton at Castle Donnington (1458). There is a very in- 
structive series of monumental effigies at Meissen, engraved by Hollis, 
of successive dukes of Saxony, showing the continuous advances in 
armour. Albert, who died in 1500, wears the armet, pauldrons with 
passegardes, 10 and broad laminated sollerets. Another duke, who died 
seventeen years later, shows tassets of five lames, and 'bear-paw' 
sollerets. Duke Frederick, who died in 1539, shows mitten gauntlets 
of numerous narrow lames. Scale armour is but very rarely found in 
the fifteenth century. 

Monograms are not often to be found on armour of English make, 
but they were common in Germany towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, when armour was occasionally inscribed with the year. The 
comparatively few instances of dated armour are intensely valuable, 
as we have then no inferences or doubtful ancestral legends, but the 
actual year of make. There is an idea I find generally prevailing that 
the stature of the men of the middle ages was shorter than now-a- 
days. After comparing many suits, both at home and abroad, I have 
come to the conclusion that this is not the case, but certainly the calf 
development is greater now. I could not fit my leg into any of the 

From this time, end of fifteenth century, the changes were greatly 
matters of detail, the differences in suits being principally differences 
of form. Epaulieres developed into pauldrons, which gradually in- 
creased in size, covering both shoulders and upper-arm, and at length 
extending over each breast, and then diminishing again in size. Passe- 
gardes were introduced to protect the neck from pike thrusts. There 

10 Passegardes will be referred to fully under the section ' Maximilian Armour.' 


are instances of them as early as the middle of the century. Some- 
times they are double on each shoulder see the brass at Qui, Cam- 
bridgeshire. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, or a few years 
earlier, the so-called ' Milanese ' Maximilian armour superseded that 
termed ' Gothic ' by the Germans this armour (the Maximilian) was 
fluted everywhere except the jambs ; pauldrons, with passegardes, and 
great ' bear-paw ' or ' cow-mouth ' sollerets. This style became & la 
mode in imitation of the prevailing fashion in dress, which was then 
largely puffed. The cuirass is shorter, globose, and the top cut 
straight. The head-piece was the armet. Sliding rivets (Almayne) 
gave increased elasticity to armour of this period. 

It was soon found that arms of attack would not glance so well 
off the fluted suits, and smooth armour was again reverted to. 
Perhaps the only brass that is to be seen in Spain is a beautiful 
specimen of inlaid armour ; the figure is of Don Parafan, duke of 
Alcola, who died in 1571. The passegarde has ceased, pauldrons extend 
almost over each breast, sollerets are the shape of the foot, and he 
wears a morion. The morion and cabasset were late sixteenth and 
seventeenth century helmets, while armets and burgonets were worn 
in the sixteenth. 

By the end of the fifteenth century heavy tilting suits had attained 
their greatest strength, and as the sixteenth century advanced so did 
ornamentation. Under the emperor Maximilian skirts or petticoats 
of plate began to be worn another illustration of the influence 
exercised on armour by the prevailing fashion in dress. These skirts 
were called bases or lamboys. There is an example in the Tower of 
London in a suit, I believe, presented to our Henry VIII. by Maxi- 
milian, and another on the Hertford tomb (1568). Horse armour 
had become highly decorated. Towards the end of this century, 
defensive armour had reached its highest point of development. 
Tassets gradually became lowered to cover the knee in a series of 
lobster shell plates. Jambs and sollerets were at length laid aside in 
favour of jack boots, and plate armour fell gradually into disuse, 
mainly owing to the new tactics rendered necessary by the general use 
of firearms and the growing desirability of lightly-armed squadrons and 
companies. There is almost nothing of plate armour of the fourteenth 
century remaining and but little of the fifteenth. 


Now that the period of foil white or plain armour has been roughly 
covered, I will, as already foreshadowed, follow the evolution of each 
important piece to its decadence, when hand-to-hand combats were 
rarer, and strategy in masses more developed ; as the proud knight 
had at length become of minor importance as against the organized 
infantry which was now the strength of the battle ; and when the 
use of various offensive weapons, especially the arquebus, became 
general. I have endeavoured to show the great influence exercised 
on defensive armour by the prevailing fashion in dress, by which some 
important pieces were sometimes rather weakened than otherwise. 
This mode of treating the subject will, I think, be clearer than any 
attempt made at elaborate contemporary classification as a whole. 
The suits before you and representative suits from local and foreign 
collections will be taken more or less in detail, thus showing the 
combinations of the various periods they represent ; leaving a separate 
section for tilting suits, extra tilting pieces, and the tournament 

In speaking of English armour, it must always be remembered 
that even up to the time of Henry VIII. and the Field of the 
Cloth of Gold, this, monarch and his predecessor, imported principally 
through the agency of Jews, or received in presents, numerous 
suits of armour, both for foot and horseback, from other countries, 
and notably from Germany ; indeed, the trade in harnesses and 
arms formed a not inconsiderable item in the importations of the 
Hanseatic League. Not only was armour imported, but foreign 
smiths and artificers, principally of German nationality, known as 
Almaine armourers, were introduced. Exportation from England was 
not allowed without royal licence. 

"While gratefully acknowledging much information and infinite 
assistance from standard works, I have found many manifest errors, 
which have been both inherited and perpetuated, handed down, so to 
speak, through long, generations of bookmakiug. I have taken as 
little from books as possible, but have endeavoured by visiting many 
important collections, both at home and abroad, to compare, as far as 
I could, the types of fashion prevailing at the different periods, which, 
however, interweave among European nations, from the causes already 
referred to. The almost constant warfare, both in Germany and 

YOL. xx. 30 


Italy, during the middle ages naturally made the manufacture of 
armour more of a speciality in these countries than in England, and 
the effect of the Italian renaissance was especially seen in profuse and 
artistic ornamentation, which became at length more to be regarded 
even than strength itself it was, in fact, a fine art. Much of the 
armour was covered with embossed figures, engraved, chased, and 
damascened with gold. The work of the Augsburg, Nurenaburg, 
and Innsbruck armourers was nearly, if not quite, equal, both in 
design and workmanship, to that of Italy, and many historic suits 
until recently classed as Italian have been proved to be of German 


The word is derived from the Trench ' tournoyer,' to wheel round. 
Tournaments were first instituted as a training school for the practice 
of arms. Jousts or justs of peace (hastiludia pacified} were single 
combats on horseback, and practised generally, especially in the 
earlier times, with blunted lances, for a prize or trial of skill, while 
the tourney was troop against troop. The sword was blunt and 
pointless, being often of whalebone covered with leather and silvered 
over. The length of the lance was about fourteen feet, the shaft 
being of ash. An ordinance of the thirteenth century provides that 
the lance should be blunted, but this being systematically evaded, 
another ordinance in the century following required the lance head 
to be in the form of a coronal. An early example of the coronal 
may be found in the Journal of the Archaeological Association, vol. 
iv. p. 272. The courses to be run were generally three in number. 
'Joustes a outrance' were to the death. They had their birth in 
Germany, in which country 'tilting' and 'passages of arms' pre- 
vailed as early as the ninth century ; indeed, there was an important 
tournament at Strasburg in the year 842. 11 These warlike games, 
in spite of all precautions, were often attended with great loss of 
life, and as many as sixty knights have been put hors de combat 
at one passage of arms. They were always popular in France, and 
held there on a large scale. An excellent description of the arms 
and armour employed may be found in the Tourney Book of 

11 Nithard. 


King Rene d'Anjou. The first regular tournament in England, as 
far as I have been able to ascertain, was held very early in the reign 
of Henry II., but its consequences were of such a nature as to induce 
that monarch, at the pressing instance of the priesthood, to forbid 
these games. So great, however, was their popularity that they con- 
tinued to be held in spite of the king's fiat, but it was not before the 
reign of his heroic son that they became common, and were then kept 
in strict bounds by royal ordinances. Henry III. charges his subjects 
that they offend not by tourneying, and even as late as 1299 edicts 
were issued against the games. There were only five authorized 
centres for lists in England, and these were all south of the Trent. 
Tournaments in the northern counties required a special licence. 
Earls competing were obliged to pay twenty marks to the king, 
barons ten marks, and knights two to four marks, according to 
estates. Pluvinel, who wrote at the close of the reign of James I., 
says : ' There ought to be at each end of the lists a little scaffold, 
the height of the stirrup on which two or three persons can stand, 
viz., the knight, the armourer to arm him and his assistant, and 
hence he mounts his steed.' Froissart, who wrote towards the end 
of the fourteenth century, gives a graphic account of the tourna- 
ment in his day. Judicial combats were common throughout the 

I must confess to a lively partiality for sir Walter Scott's history, 
in spite of his facile imagination, and I think the graphic picture of 
' The Gentle and Joyous Passage of Arms ' at Ashby-de-la Zouche, 
with ' La Royne de la Beaulte et des Amours ' gives as delightful an 
account of a tournament in the times of Richard Coeur de Lion, as 
needs be wished for. The gallant knights are distinguished by their 
belts and gilded spurs. 

The knights are dust, 

And their good swords are rust, 

Their souls are with the saints, we trust. 

Two grades of knights were instituted somewhat later the 
banneret and the bachelor. The retinue of the former consisted of a 
minimum following of fifty men-at-arms, and the banneret had his 
banner as well as pennon. In the specification for arms and armour 
for the tournament of Windsor park (1278) we see what each suit 


consisted of, viz., ' one coat of fence, one surcoat, one pair of ailettes, 
two crests (one for the horse), one shield (heraldically ensigned), one 
helm of leather (gilded or silvered), and one sword made of whale- 
bone.' The cost of each armament varied in price from about ten to 
thirty shillings. The shields were of wood, costing fivepence each. 
The total cost of the combined 38 armaments was about 80. 
Hewitt, in vol. iii. p. 509, refers to an elaborate treatise on tilting, 
written in the reign of the emperor Maxmilian I., to distinguish the 
various modes ' where we have the Italian joust, the German joust, 
the joute a la haute barde, the joute au harnois de jambe, the course 
italienne, the course appelee,' etc., and there was the round-table 
game, etc. Tournaments had long ceased to be mere war games, 
but soon became even more dangerous than the battlefield. 

Tilting continued in unabated vigour through the middle ages 
and the renaissance, and until the general use of firearms rendered 
such exercises no longer desirable. 

The necessary limits of this paper will not admit of any detailed 
description of the many and curious rules, usages, and limitations, 
which were absolutely necessary for carrying on these dangerous games 
without great and unnecessary bloodshed and the loss of many valu- 
able lives. Tournaments and tilting generally, were, however, 
rendered less dangerous than might have been expected by the addition 
of reinforcing armour, which pieces were screwed on over the more 
vulnerable places, mainly on the left side which received most of the 
blows ; indeed, these extra pieces constituted a double-defence of iron, 
for the head, chest, and left shoulders. This was obviously necessary, 
when one considers the terrible impact of the lance in full career 
with the breastplate or helmet. These extra tilting pieces made their 
appearance in the reign of Edward IV.; the garde-de-bras was also 
added in his reign. It was early when suits of armour were made 
differently for battle and for tournaments, as William lord Bergavenny 
bequeathed to his son ' the best sword and harness for justs of peace 
and that which belong to war.' 

Late in the fifteenth century there were complete tilting harnesses 
of such immense weight that a knight once unhorsed lay on the 
ground absolutely helpless, and often could not rise without assistance. 
His movements when on horseback were very restricted. These suits 


were of such resisting power as to give practical immunity to the 
wearers so far as wounds were concerned ; they were far too heavy to 
be used in the melee, as being hurled from the saddle in such an 
armament was dangerous to life itself. A tilting harness with the 
Nuremburg mark, in the splendid collection at that city, is of immense 
weight and strength, and the example is specially valuable, as the 
date 1498 is inscribed on the cuirass. It has a volant-piece with 
placcat or grande-garde, garde-de-bras for the lower arm and gauntlet 
in one piece, large spiked roundels (indicating exactly the period), 
lance rest, abdominal pieces and an extra heavy piece to protect the 
leg in collision with the barriers of the lists, taces, garde-de-cuisse, very 
heavy and solid, all attachable by screw and nut, great helm with 
horizontal bars. The tassets are laminated in this suit, and solid 
in another alongside of it. These harnesses are very easily recogniz- 
able by their great weight and thickness, and especially by the 
ponderous lance rest. The breastplate is flat on the right side to 
make room for it. The lower portion of this heavy armour was 
often fastened to the saddle. The pieces were fastened together by 
very strong screws. The knight could barely move in the saddle, and 
could only guide his horse and aim his lance. There is an account of 
a tournament held in the reign of Henry VIII. in the tournament 
roll preserved in the Heralds' college. The challengers (Les Tenantz), 
among whom was the king, numbered four. The challenged (Les 
Venantz) were nine in number. 

There is an instructive series of reinforcing pieces for the tourna- 
ment in the national museum at Munich. These belong to a splendid 
suit that was worn by the prince bishop of Salzburg (Wolf Dietrich 
von Eaitenau), which will be described later. The pieces are for man 
and horse, the former were to screw on to the ordinary armour, to 
protect the body from the lance charge. The grande-garde, which 
is the placcat, protects breast and left shoulder ; while the large 
vamplate of the lance shields the right side. The earliest form was 
simply a small roundel for the hand. The large vamplate was intro- 
duced in the fourteenth century. The heavy volant-piece is to screw 
on in front of the helmet holes for vision exist on the right side only. 
The garde-de-bras is an additional protection for the left arm to the 
elbow-piece, to which it is fastened by a screw ; and the garde-de- 


cuisse renders the upper leg absolutely invulnerable. The cabasset 
with the suit is a light helmet without flaps. The chanfrein, the steel 
mask for the horse's face, is strong and heavy. A projection called the 
queue, screwed on to the back plate, supports the butt-end of the lance. 
The suit and all the pieces are richly inlaid with gold, with the 
bishop's arms engraved on the breastplate. A representation and 
further description of this beautiful harness will be found later in these 
pages. There is a suit very similar in form and details of the pieces, 
in the Toihus, Copenhagen ; but the ornamentation is much bolder, 
having the thistle as its theme throughout. It is of French make. 
As in the Alnwick suit, the cuisses are in two parts, one being detach- 
able ; and if I remember rightly the taces bear evidence of missing 
detachable portions. An interesting feature of this suit is that the 
lance rest is so adapted as to be capable of being either raised or 


The real great helm dates from the last quarter of the thirteenth 
century, but was rarely seen except in tournaments after the 
fourteenth century. It has been described in a previous section. It- 
was replaced for fighting purposes by the visored bassinet, the 
movable aventail being added about the reign of Edward II. 

The great jousting helm of the fifteenth century was made wide, 
very strong, heavy and large, and generally had an aperture on the 
left side, as in their career the knights passed each other on that side. 
It was crested, and rested on the shoulders, being attached to the body 
armour by screws front and rear. Many were very fantastic in shape. 
The top is flatter, and ocularium wider, than in the older forms. It 
fitted close to the scalp. The plates meet sharply in front, producing 
a ridge, the higher end forming a beak-like projection. It fell into 
disuse during the reign of Henry VIII. 


This helmet was round or conical, with a pointed apex. The 
large bassinet of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was very 
similar in all the countries of chivalry. It fitted close to the head, 
and was covered by the great helm in tilting. Before the visor 
appeared it was of ten. fitted with a detachable nasal. As soon as the 


helm became visored, say in the first half of the fourteenth century 
(see an example in Alvechurch, Worcester) it assumed a great 
variety of form, and often projected to a point like a beak. Other 
forms were concave, convex, and angular. Most of these forms 
may be seen in Stothard. There was also the small bassinet or 
cerveliere, sometimes called cerebrerium. It was sometimes worn 
under the hood, with a small quilted cap next the head. In the reign 
of Henry V., the bassinet became more like the sallad. The effigy 
of the Black Prince shows how the camail was attached to the bassinet 
by a silken lace through staples. 


Visored sallads with a peak behind and slits for vision appear in 
the reign of Henry VI. The form is a low obtuse oval, ridged in the 
middle it was never used as an under helmet. It was generally 
associated with armour of the second half of the fifteenth century, 
and always used with the mentonniere. The distinguishing feature 
is the neck guard, which rests between the shoulders. It was worn at 
an angle so that the ocularium came in the direct line of vision, and 
had often a movable visor. An example of the time of the Roses 
hangs in St. Mary's hall, Coventry. The earliest example of this form 
of helmet in England, that I know of, may be seen on a brass of sir 
Robert Staunton, at Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, who died in 


A small helmet without bevor or visor, with a projecting umbril 
and flexible plate to protect the neck the term is often applied to the 
part of an armet or close helmet going round the head. 


This is the most perfect form of helmet and the most familiar, so 
much so indeed as to render any description almost unnecessary. Its 
form is globular with a guard for the back of the neck, and in front 
round the chin is the bevor. This space between this piece and the 
rim of the casquetelle is filled in by a movable visor, which is pierced 
with narrow openings for vision and air. It thus consists of three 
pieces the skull piece, the visor, and the bevor the visor was either 


in one piece or two. English armets date from the last decade of the 
fifteenth century, perhaps a little later. They were to be met with in 
Germany as early as the middle of that century. It is impossible to 
make much distinction between the armet and close helmet, which 
latter was the improved armet of the sixteenth century. Camails 
were sometimes used with the earliest form of armet. 


This is a helmet of the sixteenth century with a hollow ledge at 
the bottom, which fitted into the corresponding part of the gorget. 
It was made in close imitation of the head, and in either three or 
four parts. It is in fact a conical cap, with a laminated neckpiece 
and oreillettes. This helmet was designed to meet a defect in the 
armet, for there was a weak place, where the casque came in contact 
with the body armour. 


The morion first appeared in England in the reign of Henry VI. 
It was introduced into Europe by the Spaniards, who got the design 
from the Moors. It is an oval helmet, and has a large comb-like 
crest and almost semicircular brim, peaked at both ends. The 
cabasset is a helmet similar in character to the morion ; it is some- 
times with and sometimes without back and front peaks and oreillettes 
or ear flaps of steel. Both varieties were worn for foot fighting, and 
are often lighter than earlier helmets, and usually richly engraved. 
The baron de Cosson says* that "the cabasset first appears in an 
ordonnance of Francis I., who orders that men at arms wear the 
armet, light horse the sallad, and 'les arquebusiers seulement le 
cabasset pour viser mieux et avoir la tete plus delivre.' The cabasset 
did not impede the aim, and was therefore the proper head piece of 
the musketeer." Casques are open helmets like the others, and of 
classical design. 


The mentonniere was used specially with the sallad it fastens 
on to the breastplate by a staple and cusped catch. The upper 
portion, to cover the mouth and chin, is of laminated plates, which 

* Helmets and Mail, p. 84. 


move up and down at pleasure, but always from below. This piece is 
generally omitted in effigies, for obvious reasons, but there is an 
example on a brass already referred to at Qui, Cambridgeshire, of a 
date near the middle of the fifteenth century. The actual piece is 
of course to be seen on almost any suit of the period. A necklace 
of mail, called a standard of mail, was often worn over the plate at 
the neck at this period. Its object seems to have been to prevent 
the penetration of a lance. 

The gorget, first of mail or scale work, and later of plate, is the 
piece for the neck, going all round towards the shoulders and closing 
with sliding rivets. This piece prevailed up to the decadence and 


The cuirass consists of breastplate and backplate, which are 
usually fastened together by straps and buckles, but they are sometimes 
fastened by screws, especially for the tournament. It was probably 
introduced into England in the reign of Henry V., and its form is an 
excellent guide as to date. The word itself, or rather its prototype, 
' quirettae,' occurs in a roll of purchases preserved in the Tower of 
London (1278). The armour for the breast was considered next in 
importance to that for the head, and inventories of the fifteenth century 
frequently refer to ' pairs of plates, large, globose,' which sufficiently 
indicate the period. The breastplate of the fourteenth century was 
without the salient ridge in front called the tapul. My friend the 
rev. T. N. Roberts, vicar of Cornforth, co. Durham, to whom I am 
indebted for several hints, reminds me that it is difficult to say 
whether it is correct to speak of the fourteenth century breastplate as 
a cuirass or not. In effigies, brasses and illuminations this part of 
the armour is always concealed by the jupon. When the jupon dis- 
appeared (temp. Henry V.) the breastplate is revealed always in two 
pieces ; afterwards (temp. Edward IV.) in only one piece, as a true 
cuirass. Baron de Cosson says that on a monument in Ash church, 
Kent (dating about 1335), the lacing of the surcoat at the side 
permits the body defences to be seen, ' rectangular plates like tiles 
rivetted into a flexible garment.' He also says that the only remains 
of an actual cuirass of fourteenth century date were found at the castle 

VOL. XX. 31 


of Tannenberg. The figure of St. George in the cathedral square at 
Prague has a flexible garment covered with very small rectangular 
plates like tiles, and over this a breastplate not a complete cuirass. 
All this leads one to suppose that fourteenth-century breastplates 
were not cuirasses so much as additional plates of various shapes over 
the hauberk, the skirts of which always appear below the jupon on 
effigies, etc., of the fourteenth century. The tapul first appeared in 
the fifteenth century this ridge after being discontinued reappears 
later, when it often swelled out to a hump, either over or below the 
navel. This indeed was a decided feature of the second half of the 
sixteenth century, when it had often one overlapping plate under the 
arm. Occasionally it was provided with transverse bars, forming a 
cross. The German type is very beautiful, and is usually in three 
plates, the second rising to a point in the middle of the breast, and 
the third running nearly parallel with it and converging to a point 
below it. At the top of the breast is a socket for attachment to the 
mentonniere by a cusp-headed bolt. The English form of the 
fifteenth century is usually in two plates, as in the Eedmarshal and 
Downes effigies. 

The lance rest is on the right breast, and on the left are screw 
holes for the tilting placcate or grande-garde when this is used. 
The Maximilian form, which followed the Gothic, is sometimes 
in one piece with the taces and more globular in character. In 
the sixteenth century the cuirass is lower and flatter, and cut straight 
at the top, with the tapul already mentioned. It is also provided 
with a ridge along the top and armholes for turning a stroke, and has 
often a single lamination round the arm holes. In the seventeenth 
century the breastplate becomes very flat and very short. 


It is not easy to follow the development of epaulieres in the earlier 
stages, as the shoulders on monumental effigies about the middle of 
the fourteenth century are usually draped by the surcoat, but the 
principle of laminated or overlapping plates, so early applied to 
sollerets, was not long in being extended to the upper arm and 
shoulder, where special mobility for striking and parrying was so 


needful, indeed we have instances of articulated epaulieres before the 
close of that period. These pieces, at their highest development, were 
admirably adapted for giving great freedom to the arm. Plates over 
the shoulders, as distinctive from ailettes, first appeared in England 
very early in the fourteenth century, but they were merely roundels or 
discs. Articulations, as already mentioned, came a little later. A 
brass of a knight of the Cuttes family in Arkesdon church, Essex 
(1440), is a good example of what may be termed the development of 
epaulieres into pauldrons. Passe-gardes, generally applied to 
' Maximilian ' armour, are really to be found occasionally much 
earlier, as an example in Southerly church (1479) shows. 12 The 
Beauchainp brass figure at Warwick (1439) shows the passe-garde, but 
the general character of the armour indicates a later date of make. 
Pauldrons were attached to the gorget or cuirass by straps and 
buckles, and consisted of shoulder plates in successive lames over the 
shoulders and upper arm. In armour of the second half of the 
fifteenth century the upper plate scarcely reached beyond the shoulder, 
while in ' Maximilian ' and later armour, they came well over the 
chest, assuming a resting-wing-like form before and behind. They 
were sometimes very large and uneven in size, that for the right arm 
being the smaller, for using the lance. There are instances in the 
sixteenth century where gorget and pauldrons are joined together in 
one piece. This is the case in armour called 'allecret.' In the 
second half of the sixteenth century pauldrons were often smaller and 


were plates attached to the armour, variously applied for the shoulders 
or any weak places, later specially to defend the armpits, and leave 
the arms free to parry or strike. They appear very early and 
may be seen freely and beautifully applied on a figure in Alvechurch, 
Worcestershire, of the earlier half of the fourteenth century. They 
vary very much in size, and in armour of the next century were 
very handsome, being ridged throughout, with escallopped flutings, 
and often charged with a heraldic rose, and sometimes spiked in 
the centre. They became very large in tilting suits, little short of 
a foot in diameter. The earliest application of these discs was to 
the elbow guard. 

12 Hewitt 



These pieces are the armguards the rerebrace for the upper arm, 
and vambrace for the lower they first appear in plate in the second 
quarter of the fourteenth century, and this became general a quarter 
of a century later. The coudieres, for the elbows, first appeared early 
in the thirteenth century, about the same time as genouillieres for the 
knees : and these pieces exhibit the earliest application of plate to 
body armour. Both may be seen on an effigy of William Longespee 
the younger (1233) in Salisbury cathedral. The coudieres are 
elementary in the early stages, with roundel, then cup-formed and 
laminated both above and below the elbow with shell-like side 
expansions to protect the inner bend of the arm, and later going all 
round the elbow joint. This was the completed form, but all these 
improvements did not come at once. The De Bohun effigy exhibits 
the second mentioned form. The outer guard assumes many forms, 
fan-shaped, bivalve, escallopped, etc. The rerebrace and vambrace do 
not appear in England before the fourteenth century. The effigy of 
the Black Prince at Canterbury exhibits these pieces. The garde-de- 
bras, an additional protection for the left arm for tilting, attachable 
to the elbow plate by a screw, was introduced in the fifteenth century. 


The earliest form after chain-mail was of cuir-bouilli, both plain 
and fortified with scale work, and such largely prevailed in the thir- 
teenth century. The earliest form of plate gauntlets occurs in the 
middle of the fourteenth century, and had articulated fingers ; after 
which mitten gauntlets of laminated plates, with a separate thumb 
guard and peaked cuffs, prevailed. Early in the fifteenth century we 
find an attempt made to copy the finger nails. Late in the fifteenth 
century the earlier form with articulated fingers was reverted to. 
Cradlings, or knuckle and finger spikes, were in vogue throughout 
the century (fifteenth) a truly dangerous weapon of offence for the 
melee. Again, later we have the fingers covered with overlapping 
plates, very narrow and flexible. Another form is the elbow gauntlet. 
"We have a pair in our collection at the Castle. A locking gauntlet 
was invented in the latter part of the sixteenth century, the object 


of which was to prevent the weapon from being knocked out of the 
hand, to which it was fastened by a hook and staple. This gauntlet 
was often barred in single combats. There is an example of this 
contrivance in a suit in the Tower of London. 


Taces were the laminated plates at the bottom of the cuirass, and 
to these the tuilles or upper thigh guards were attached by straps and 
buckles. Before the introduction of tuilles it was common to wear 
mail below the taces often with escalloped edges, but there was often 
the lower portion of a shirt of mail still worn beneath the cuirass. Taces 
usually consisted of three and sometimes of five and even of eight 
lames, as noticeable in the brass of sir John Lysle (died 1407), whose 
armament is entirely of plate ; but early examples are in one piece, 
and indeed late examples also. In the centre was a space for the 
brayette or cod piece ; but this was mostly used after the introduction 
of tassets. An early example with taces only is to be found on the brass 
of sir John Drayton, but part of the lower portion is missing. 
Laminated taces first appear late in the fourteenth century; the 
brass of Nicholas Hawberk (died 1406), at Cobham, is an example. 
Almayne rivets gave great elasticity to the armour. The tuille is 
peculiar to armour dating from the second quarter of the fifteenth 
century ; it is a pointed and an escalloped shell or tile-like plate 
in one piece, extending down so as to cover the top of the cuisse, 
and was attached to the taces as a guard against an underthrust of the 
sword. There is an early example in the brass of John Leventhorpe, 
in Sawbridgeworth church, Hertfordshire (1433). It lingered long in 
England, as shown in the Stanley and Lementhorp brasses in West- 
minster abbey and Great St. Helen's church, 1505 and 1510 
respectively. The Beauchamp effigy (1439) shows four tuilles. 
Tassets followed on these pieces, though for a time contemporaneous. 
They were practically the same piece as the tuille in laminated plates, 
but were generally attached directly to the bottom rim of the cuirass, 
taces being then usually dispensed with, unless in one plate, forming 
the connecting link. It was not uncommon to find them in two parts 
during the second half of the sixteenth century, as shown in the 


Alnwick example (fig. 13). Tassets gradually increased in length as 
time went on until they reached over the knees, forming then the 
cuisse itself of laminated plates. This was the last stage before the 
introduction of the jackboot. The garde-de-reine was a projecting 
piece attached to the rim of the backplate it was of overlapping 
plates, and protected the rump and small of the back. 


Up to and somewhat beyond the Conquest there was probably 
little or no leg armour in England other than thongs, but there are 
early German examples. Soon after the Conquest cuir-bouilli was 
largely used, and this was followed by stockings of mail and sollerets 
of the same, as may be seen on the seals of Richard I. Even up to 
the middle of the fourteenth century it continued common in England 
to wear these pieces in chain-mail with attachable genouillieres. 
An example of this kind may be seen on the effigy of Eobert de Vere 
(died 1221) in Hatfield Broad Oak church. 

The cuisse was the piece going round the front of the lower 
thigh, fastened by strap and buckle. It first appeared in France and 
England in the second quarter of the fourteenth century and became 
general towards the close. In armour of the latter half of the 
fifteenth century it was often embellished by consecutive triangular 
laminations at the top. In the second half of the sixteenth century 
it was sometimes in two detachable pieces. 

Genouillieres (defences for the knee) were the first body pieces of 
plate, except perhaps the plastron-de-fer or breastplate, and coudiere. 
They first appear in the thirteenth century an example about 1250 
is figured in plate xxx. of Stothard. The side of the knee became 
further protected by roundels late in the century, and from that time 
these appendages become more ornate and comprehensive. As soon as 
plate armour was completed genouillieres became articulated both 
above and below the knee. In armour of the second half of the 
fifteenth century they are specially beautiful, assuming a shell-like 
form, often bivalve, with escalloped edges and flutings. The chausse 
or shin piece was used in chain-mail, indeed earlier still in fortified 
leather, and early in the fourteenth century it became plate and was 
termed jamb, first only in front attached by strap and buckle, and 


later going round the leg hinged and fastened by sliding rivets. The 
inventory of Piers Gaveston (1313) catalogues ' three pairs of hinged 
jambs.' These pieces were generally plain. Both they and sollerets 
disappeared with the advent of the jackboot. 


Sollerets are a better guide as to date of armour than gauntlets, 
particularly after the fourteenth century, for reasons given under 
the head of the last named. The first sollerets of overlapping 
plates were of extravagant length. This form followed the pre- 
vailing fashion in shoes, and hence the name 'a la poulaine,' from 
'souliers a la poulaine.' The long form was much modified 
during the last quarter of the fourteenth century and well into 
the fifteenth, but it reappeared later in the century again with 
enormous tips, the length from toe to heel being up to twenty- 
four inches. The instep of chain-mail was not uncommon in the 
fourteenth century. The sollerets of the Black Prince were of 
enormous length. The tips could, however, be disconnected at 
pleasure. The shorter form was styled ' demi-poulaine,' or 'ogivale 
lancette.' A variety called ' ogivale tiers-point ' largely prevailed in 
the second half of the fifteenth century. When ridged and escalloped 
armour was replaced by Maximilian, sollerets were wide and short, in 
fact the shape of a bear's paw or cow's mouth, spreading out at the 
sides, and requiring very broad stirrups ; but when fluted armour 
was discontinued the shape became gradually narrower, and at last 
more like that of the foot. This variety was styled ' bec-de-cane,' 
which differs, however, from the ' tiers-point ' of the fifteenth century. 
Sollerets disappeared altogether with the jamb, the jackboot taking 
their place. 13 


The triangular shield appears in the twelfth century. Shields of 
the thirteenth century and later have been briefly referred to in the 
text, but some further reference to these defences cannot properly 
be omitted ; though this subject is far too voluminous for more 

13 Like many classifications of the kind, this is rather arbitrary, as we have 
many late instances of ' bear-paw ' sollerets. 


than the very roughest outline in these already far too extended 
pages, written for a publication in which space is necessarily very 
limited. Pavises were very large shields to be placed before the 
bowmen as a defence ; and were provided with an inner prop to 
hold them upright on the ground. As to ordinary shields, most 
of the thirteenth-century forms extended into the fourteenth ; when 
the bouche, or hole cut in the right corner as a spear rest, was 
introduced. They were pear-shaped, triangular, heart-shaped, 
circular, and sometimes nearly square. The material was generally 
of wood or leather, or both combined ; the latter often embossed. 
They were more or less fortified, and sometimes partly or wholly of 
iron. For tyros, basket-work was used. Shields generally bore a 
heraldic device, or other cognizance ; and were frequently curved, 
bossed, and spiked. The usual shield of a knight of the fifteenth 
century had the bouche ; was convex, and about two and a half feet 
long, by about a third of that broad, and pointed at the bottom. In 
the sixteenth century ordinary shields were seldom used, but an im- 
mense amount of fine artistic work was lavished on the pageant 
shields of that period. 

' GOTHIC ' ARMOUR 1450-1500. 

The Gothic 14 school, as the Germans term it, exhibits the highest 
embodiment of artistic beauty as applied to defensive armour. The 
armourers' best efforts were directed not only to give increased pro- 
tection to the limbs and make the armour flexible and impenetrable, 
but also to produce beauty of form and outline. "We owe the initiation 
to Germany, in which country it reached its highest pitch of excellence. 
Gothic armour is greatly associated with the sallad, large mentonniere, 
tuilles, sollerets a la poulaine and ogivale lancette. The cuirass 
is decorative and long it has been fully described under the heading 
devoted to this piece. There is an English example of this style of 
armour on a brass in St. Mary's church, Thame, Oxfordshire, about 
1460 ; and another on the effigy of sir Eichard Beauchamp, earl of 
Warwick, in St. Mary's church, Warwick ; and there are some suits 
in the Tower of London. There are only few Gothic suits pre- 

14 The designation ' Gothisch ' (Gothic) seems as ridiculous and inappropriate 
when applied to armour as to architecture. 


served in this country ; our practical people having used so many up 
as old iron, just as they let the weather into our fine abbeys and 
churches by tearing off the roof-lead for the melting pot. I shall 
describe in detail, and give an illustration of this style in its greatest 
purity from an example in the collection at Sigmaringen castle, the 
cradle of the Hohenzollerns. 

Transitional Gothic, where laminated tassets replace tuilles and 
merge into the next stage in various ways, is also very beautiful. In 
both varieties you have lovely escalloped and fluted roundels, often 
charged with a heraldic rose. A fine example of this description may 
be seen in the national museum at Munich. In other countries, 
especially England, France, and Scandinavia, armour of this period of 
home manufacture, if it may be called so, was plainer, with the 
details more mixed and uncertain. In the English form the cuirass 
is usually either in one or two plates. A description and illustration 
of such a suit in my own collection follows in its order. 



This beautiful Gothic suit (fig. 3) is said to have belonged to 
one of the counts of Hohenzollern-Eitel. Demmin refers to it as 
being erroneously ascribed to Eitel Frederick I. of the thirteenth 
century. This must be a mistake, as there were no counts of 
Hohenzollern-Eitel then ! There were two Eitel Fredericks in the 
fifteenth century. On consulting the Smmmbaum at Hohenzollern I 
found that : 

Eitel Frederick I. reigned 1426-1439. 
Jost Nicolaus I. 1439 1488. 
Eitel Frederick II. 1488-1512. 

And the character of the armour conforms to the reign of the last 
named. There was no later ' Eitel Frederick.' 

The sallad is very heavy and of the usual German form. There 
are traces of leather lining, and besides the ocularium are two small 
holes above the forehead. The'mentonniere is fastened to the breast- 
plate by a cusped clasp ; it can be raised or lowered at pleasure, and 
there is a spring catch for the purpose. The cuirass is most elegant 
in shape, consisting of three plates, the two lower slightly overlapping, 
leaving a decorative margin and converging to points along the tapul 

VOL. xx. 32 



'MAXIMILIAN' ARMOUB, 1493-1540. 253 

at the breastbone and below. The lower plates are rivetted and add 
both strength and elasticity to the piece. There are holes on the 
right breast for fixing the lance rest ; and on the left are two holes 
for fastening on a grande-garde for tilting. The taces consist of three 
lames, and to these the tuilles are attached by straps and buckles. 
The tuilles are very graceful, with angular flutings, and terminate 
in a point. The cuisses are decorative, and the jambs hinged. 
The genouillieres are small, with bivalve guards. The pauldrons and 
rerebraces are laminated ; the coudieres pointed and held in their 
places by straps. The roundels are unfortunately missing. The 
gauntlets are articulated, with sharp gadlings over the knuckles and 
first finger joints. The garde-de-reine consists of three lames. The 
sollerets are a la poulaine in an extreme form, but the tips can be 
disconnected at pleasure for foot fighting. The lower part of the 
body is protected by a skirt of mail. I could find no armourer's 
mark, but judge the suit to be of either Nuremburg or Augsburg 


Gothic armour underwent a great change about the end of the 
fifteenth century, during the reign of the emperor Maximilian (died 
1519), when fluted armour came into general use. The helmet, the 
armet, is nearly as much associated with Maximilian armour as 
the sallad is with Gothic. There are suits of this armour in the 
Tower of London presented by the emperor Maxmilian to our Harry 
the eighth. As already mentioned, a very distinctive feature of this 
period, which lasted only four decades, is the skirt of mail called 
'bases' or 'lamboys,' which resembles a full gathered petticoat 
or kilt. 

I give an illustration (fig. 4) of a typical suit in the Munich 
collection. The details are as follows, and bear out the general 
description of the class already given in these notes : 

The suit is fluted throughout, except the jambs, which are nearly 
always plain. The helmet is the armet, and this example sufficiently 
indicates the date of the armour ; both form and workmanship are 
good. Instead of the large Gothic mentonniere, there is a gorget 
and throat guard. The pauldrons, which are uneven in size, are sur- 




DEFENSIVE ARMOUR, 1550-1620. 255 

mounted by passe-gardes ; the left pauldron is the larger. These 
pieces consist of front and back plates, an innovation of the sixteenth 
century. The cuirass is shorter than the Gothic form, globular and 
cut straight at the top. The backplate terminates in a garde-de-reine 
of three lames. Gauntlets are of the mitten type, with narrower 
lames than in the form immediately preceding. The coudieres are 
pointed over the elbow joint, with bivalve guards. Taces and tassets 
are in one piece and laminated, with a space in the centre for the 
insertion of the brayette or cod piece. The armet collar is laminated 
behind. The sollerets are of the ' bear-paw ' form. The armour bears 
the Augsburg mark. 

There is a remarkably fine suit of Maxmilian armour in the 
' Konigl. Bayer. Armee-Museum ' at Munich. It is not, however, quite 
such a characteristic example as the one already given, inasmuch as 
the pauldrons, besides not being winged, are without passe-gardes. 
The armpits are protected by spiked roundels. In all other respects 
this suit is identical with the one preceding. 


Defensive armour underwent a great change about the middle of 
the sixteenth century, viz., in the casting aside of fluted armour, for 
the reasons already stated, and the resumption of plain steel. The 
second half of the century was specially remarkable for profuse and 
artistic ornamentation. Armour was engraved by hand and manipu- 
lated with aquafortis, as well as embossed and damascened with gold, 
in a manner that has never been surpassed in any work of the kind 
whatever. I give descriptions in detail and illustrations of inlaid and 
repousse suits, as well as of a plain suit, all of the second half of the 
sixteenth century. During this half century (sixteenth) defensive 
armour may be said, in many respects, to have reached the highest 
point of excellence ; but towards its close unmistakable signs of 
decadence began to appear, and cap-a-pie suits fell gradually into 
disuse. This was caused by the inability of the armour to resist the 
then more penetrating firearms, or perhaps even still more, because 
the newer tactics demanded fighting more in masses and less from 
individual efforts hand to hand. Tassets were gradually lengthened 


until they became cuisses of laminated plates, extending over the 
knees ; and the jackboot replaced the jamb of steel and solleret. 
A style of armour called the ' allecret ' largely prevailed during the 
second half of the sixteenth century. The name is a corruption of 
' alle-kraft ' (all strength). The peculiarities of this fashion will be 
shown in an example from my own collection, which will be fully 
described later in these notes. This half armour was often worn by 
household troops and leaders of companies. It is very common to 
find, especially in family collections, some particular suit or suits 
ascribed to a great ancestor, but this is nearly always romance. It is 
an uncommon advantage to find a harness dated with the year, as some 
few are. There is a typical suit of this kind in the national museum, 
Munich, with the date 1597 inscribed. The burgonet of the suit 
has perpendicular bars, tapul with a hump over the abdomen, 
tassets transformed into cuisses to the knees. The more I see of 
armour, 1560-1600, the more I become impressed with the difficulty, 
in many cases, of fixing any approximate date, or arriving at any 
standard for suits covered by the period. Many suits were restored 
again and again, and this naturally gives rise to great perplexity. 
The change in armour during the first half of the seventeenth century 
was very great. The breastplate became flat and very short, and 
open helms were much worn. 

Plate armour fell into discredit during the seventeenth century, 
and gradually disappeared. The cuirass was the last piece generally 
worn, and this in time gave place, except in the case of the cuirassiers, 
to the buff coat and jerkin. 


The harness already referred to (fig. 5) worn by the prince 
bishop of Salzburg about 1600 is a beautiful suit by the Milan 
armourer, Lucio Piccinino. It is profusely inlaid with gold and the 
ornamentation is most chaste and elegant. Space will not admit 
of full details, indeed as regards form there is no special feature 
the helmet and suit throughout is closely in touch with the elegant 
Italian school of the end of the sixteenth century. About this 
time many suits were made for both battle and tilting a suite of 





reinforcing pieces being added for the latter as in this instance. 
Mention has already been made under the head of ' Tournaments ' of 
these pieces for screwing on to the other armour. You will observe 
that the general details of the illustration justify the date. The 
prince bishop's arms are engraved on the cuirass, and its historic 
character lends to it special interest and importance. The armourer's 
name is on the harness. 

PLAIN SUIT, 1490-1520. 

This suit (fig. 6) is severely plain, the only ornamentation 
being a ridged piping. Like almost all harnesses of its period it 
must tell its own tale, as there can be little else to guide us. The 
armet is in three pieces the casquetelle, visor and bevor. The visor 
works on large brass rosettes it projects out in front to a sharp edge 
down the centre and is bevelled in four slightly concave sections, in 
each of which are four narrow slits for air and vision. The ornamen- 
tation on the rosettes is cut unevenly, the section on one being much 
the smallest. In outline the headpiece closely resembles one in the 
collection of the baron de Cosson, Xo. 43, fig. 42 in the catalogue of 
helmets exhibited in the rooms of the Royal Archaeological Institute 
in 1880. The baron dates his helmet about 1515, but this would be 
somewhat late to correspond with the general character of the suit 
under discussion. Round the edges of the casquetelle are a series of 
small twin holes, similar to those present on some bassinets, for 
attaching the rings of a camail. The gorget has two lames for the 
neck, and opens and closes by a slip-hole and rivet. Around the rim 
are two rows of string-like piping. The breastplate is slightly 
globular, and the tace, which is in one piece, is rivetted to the bottom 
of the cuirass. The tace has a narrow piping at the top, and the 
tuilles are attached to it by straps and buckles. The tuille is in 
four shell-like bevils and terminates in a point. The pauldrons are 
attached to the cuirass by straps, and piping goes all along the edges : 
the chest ends are bent outwards. The rerebrace is freely laminated. 
The coudieres are round over the elbow joints, and have a straight 
heart-formed guard. The gauntlets have a long wrist guard and are 
of the mitten type, without finger articulation, but with a separate 






thumb guard. Across the knuckles is a broad fluted projection. 
The lower body is protected by a skirt of chain-mail. Cuisses, 
genouillieres, and jambs are plain, without special features. The 
sollerets are those called ' ogivale tiers point,' being nearly the shape 
of the foot, which variety was greatly worn 1460-1500. The general 
aspect of the suit is of late fifteenth century, but the tuille lingered 
long in England, so that the harness is quite possibly of early sixteenth- 
century make. 


This perfect little suit has doubtless served as a model in the 
workshop of some great Italian armourer, and the style and finish 
could not do otherwise than reflect the greatest credit on his work. 
The harness is profusely and tastefully engraved with a foliated style 
of ornamentation. The helmet is flat-topped, with a grated visor and 
has a collar. There is a heraldic device, on a shield ground, in the 
centre of the tapul. The figure has a triangular shield. The style 
of engraving fixes the date within narrow limits. 


This is highly characteristic of the period it represents. The 
armour is freely ornamented in repousse or hammered work, and 
bears traces of gilding. The suit was probably made in Italy, is 
very handsome, and has seen much service. I say ' probably made in 
Italy,' because, as previously mentioned, recent investigations have 
shown that several of the finest European suits, formerly classed 
as Italian, have since been proved to be the make of Nuremburg, 
Augsburg or Innsbruck armourers. Being well authenticated it has 
a special interest ; and forming part of a local collection as well, 
a full statement of the details will not be out of place. The suit 
belonged to Don Pedro Fellez de Giron, duke of Osuna and Infantado, 
knight of the Black Eagle order, etc., viceroy of Sicily about 1600, 
and later of Naples (about 1610). It was saved from the fire at 
the old Giron family seat in Belgium the castle of Beauraing, in 
the province of Namur, not far from Dinant. The place was burnt 
on the 3rd December, 1890, at half-past ten in the morning. 


The whole suit (fig. 7) is freely ornamented with arabesques, 
banded in the Italian style, interspersed with human heads, some of 





them grotesque ; and a series of armed figures, which demand a much 
closer examination than I have yet been able to give them. The 
helmet is a remarkable piece of workmanship, and forged in a single 
piece it weighs seven pounds It is an Italian casque of a most 
graceful and classic form. The repousse ornamentation on it is 
banded like the rest of the armour. The comb is very high and 
fluted all over the crest. There are remains of a leather lining inside, 
fastened all round with gilded rivets. The plume socket has two 
holes for adjustment ; and there is another hole in the comb for 
firmly securing the plume of feathers. The oreillettes are provided 
with six holes on one side and three on the other for hearing ; and 
have each a round projecting eye, with fluted edges, presumably an 
attachment for keeping the flaps up when not required, or for fastening 
them across the throat. Both peaks are of overlapping plates, with 
fluted borders. A very similar helmet, in the possession of the baron 
de Cosson, was ascribed by him to 1530-1540. He writes concerning 
it : ' Many rich suits had one of these light open helmets as well as 
a close helmet, a fact proved by existing examples at Madrid and else- 
where.' I have myself quoted an example in the description of the 
suit of the prince bishop of Salzburg, which has a close helmet 
and a kind of morion. The gorget has an ornamental border. Both 
breastplate and backplate are freely decorated. An illustration fol- 
lows (fig. 8) of a part of the ornamentation of the former, which 
is provided with a tapul ridge. This tapul affords excellent 
data 'for approximating the date of the suit. You will observe 
that there is a hump projection near the bottom. In the 
middle of the sixteenth century there was sometimes a pro- 
jection of this kind near the centre of the breastplate, but one lower 
down is rather characteristic of the third quarter of the century ; 
this particular form was termed the 'peascod' in England. Both 
these pieces are bordered round the chest and arms with a thick ridged 
piping. This piping was a contrivance to stop the lance instead 
of its possibly penetrating below the gorget. The tassets consist 
of six lames, and are attached to the tace, which is in one piece, by 
straps and buckles ; the rivets have all gilded heads. The lower body 
is protected by chain-mail. The left pauldron is the larger ; both 
have free laminations at the shoulder and upper arm. The coudieres 





are cup-formed over the elbows, and go round the arm. The gauntlets 
have highly rounded articulations for the fingers, with a separate 
thumb plate. Both leg armour and sollerets are freely decorated in 
'banded' ornamentation, with enclosed medallions, besides gilded 
rivets. A sharp ridge runs down the front of the cuisse, genouilliere, 
and jamb. The genouillieres are fastened round the back of the knee 
by straps, and on to the jambs by a reversible turning pin on the 
latter, passing through a hole in the former ; and a turn of the screw 
secures the attachment. Jambs, which are hinged, and sollerets are 
rivetted together, with lames above the ankle. The sollerets are 
' bear-paw.' All these pieces are held together by gilded rivets. The 
valuable series of figures interspersed among the arabesques will repay 
some study. The suit was probably made in the third quarter of the 
sixteenth century, or possibly as late as the fourth quarter, though the 
shape of the sollerets would point to a somewhat earlier period. 


You will notice that this harness (fig. 9) exhibits many points of 
contact with the Osuna suit ; but what a contrast in material, taste, 
and finish ! Both suits have seen much service, and to judge by the 
casque, tassets, and other features, should belong to nearly the same 
period ; but it seems likely that this suit was made by an English 
armourer at a later date, copied probably from an imported suit. 
During the latter part of Elizabeth's reign, and in that of her unwar- 
like successor, the native armourers turned out rough work ; and most 
of the fine suits of this period still left to us were imported from 
Germany or Italy. The casque is barely half the weight of the 
Osuna helmet ; it is ungracefully tall, with the usual oreillettes and 
plume socket. The gauntlets are curiously alike in the two suits, in 
the rounded finger plates and nail pieces. The tapul is the ' peascod.' 
The genouillieres and jambs are very similar to those in the Osuna 
suit, and there is the same catch attachment for the leg pieces. The 
sollerets are large, broad, and clumsy. There is a family tradition 
that this suit was last used in 1650, at the battle of Worcester. 


This description of armour was largely used by the Swiss and 
German infantry during the second half of the sixteenth century. 






The suit under discussion (fig. 10) is probably of English make, 
of the latter part of Elizabeth's reign. The gorget and epaulieres 
form one piece, being rivetted together. The cuirass is strong and 
flexible, and highly characteristic of the period ; the tapul projects in 
a hump below the centre, fixing the date of the suit within narrow 
limits. The taces consist of three and the tassets of five lames. The 



gauntlets are of the long elbow type, local examples of which may be 
seen in the collection in the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and at 
Naworth castle. The umbrilled helmet conforms to the period named. 
Leathern boots were worn with the suit, a common feature of the 
period. The brayette is missing, which is generally the case. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xx. To face p. 252. 

Plate XIV a. 


(From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis.) 

This plate given by Mr. Clephan. 

GOTHIC SUIT, 1460-1500. 

This suit, like so many of its period, is incomplete. The armet 
with it, when I acquired it, never belonged to the suit, and there is 
no mentonniere. The sallad, shown on the figure, I had made for 
giving as good an effect as possible The suit is otherwise complete 
and of fine material, proportions, and workmanship. The steel of 
the period is, I think, better than any later. 

The details, with a few exceptions, closely resemble those of the 
Sigmaringen suit, fully described on page 251. There are roundels at 
the armpits on my suit ; and these, together with the elbowguards, 
are beautifully ridged and bevilled. The tuilles are larger and 
squarer than those on the ' Sigmaringen ' suit, and the sollerets are 
not so long in the tips. The cuirass is in two plates. The general 
details greatly resemble those of a suit at Vienna, attributed to 
Sigismund of Tyrol, which is also an incomplete suit. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xx. To face p. 252. 

Plate XI Vb. 


(From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis.) 

This plate given by Mr. Clephan. 


This suit is said to have come from a castle in the Tyrol, but I 
could only trace it back some seventy years. The general pose is 
excellent and characteristic. The armet is fluted and ' Maximilian,' 
and in three pieces. There is a small crest on the casquetelle and a 
plume-socket. The visor moves on rosettes of nine petals, and it 
projects sharply forward to a point ; the front consisting of four 
deeply indented bevils, with two broad lights above them, and two 
smaller slits in each bevil. There is a spring-catch for closing the 
visor. The bevor has a small collar, and it is attachable to the 
casquetelle by a similar catch. The casquetelle has a collar of three 
lames. The helmet weighs five pounds, and is almost identical in 
form with one catalogued no. 47, fig. 45, among the helmets exhibited 
at the rooms of the Royal Archaeological Institute, in July, 1880. 
The date given is 1515-1530. In all probability the helmet before 
you was made somewhat earlier than the date I have fixed upon for 
the suit. The cuirass has a tapul with a projection near the base, like 
the 'peascod ' and this feature seemed to me to be indicative of a rather 
later date than 1550-1560. I noticed, however, the same form on a 
suit with lamboys in the Ambras collection, which is attributed to the 
archduke Ferdinand, count of Tyrol. This armour, like that before 
you, is for fighting on foot. The lamboys consist of nine lames, the 
lowest much broader than the others ; with a band, studded with 
rivets for an inner lining, terminating with an ornamental string-like 
piping. These skirts are attached to the lower rim of the cuirass by 
adjustable screws ; and each lame is provided with a similar screw on 
both sides for attaching the back and front portions together. The 
back of the lamboys is the same as the front. The pauldrons are 
very large and of equal size both back and front ; while the rerebrace 
is freely laminated. The coudieres are cup-formed and go nearly 
round the elbow joint. The heart-shaped guards, the tops of the 
pauldrons, and bottom of the rerebrace are enriched by a small piping. 
The gauntlets are ' rniton,' quite complete and of fine workman- 
ship. The cuffs have their upper edges adorned with a similar piping 
to that on the other pieces, and the same design is repeated at the 
base of the last finger plate. Over the knuckles is a bold twisted 
piping, and the laminated plates over the back of the hand consist of 
five plates above the ridge, while those below are the same in number. 
The gauntlet is of the type prevailing about 1535-1540. The cuisses 
and jambs have a ridge running down to the sollerets, while the 
genouillires are ornamented with a double bevil in the centre 
The knee guard is oval and bevilled in the centre. The sollerets are 
small and of the bec-de-cane type. 



This collection is large in the number of suits, and consists 
principally of late sixteenth and seventeenth-century armour. 

Entrance Lolly. This small room, which opens out into the 
great hall, contains two suits. 

No. 1. A suit of blackened armour for a youth. The upper and 
lower portions do not belong to quite the same period. There is no 
special feature, and the date is generally from the end of the sixteenth 
to rather early in the following century. 

No. 2. This is an important suit (fig. 11) and of rather an earlier 
period than the bulk of the collection. It is that of a knight, and 
dates about the end of the sixteenth century ; luckily this beautiful 
armour has escaped the brush. The helmet has an umbril over the 
eyes. Immediately under this peak is the ocularium of two very 
broad slits the visor is grated. The suit is freely studded over with 
rather large-headed rivets, the gorget is pointed, cuirass short with 
lance rest, but no garde-de-reine. To a broad rim at the bottom, 
tassets, consisting of nine lames, are attached by straps and buckles. 
Such long tassets clearly foreshadow the next stage, when these 
pieces were abolished altogether, being in fact merged into the cuisse 
to the knee. A pauldron on the left shoulder, none on the right, 
coudieres sharply pointed at the elbow. The most remarkable and 
distinctive feature in connexion with this suit is the protection given 
to the inner arm by a series of small and very mobile laminated 
plates, attached to the rerebrace and vambrace by rivets. The 
gauntlets are articulated, with gadlings over the top knuckles. Cuisse 
and jamb have a high ridge running down the centre in front, the 
genouillieres having a thicker projection, bevelled at the sides, in a 
line with the ridge on the other two pieces. 

The Great HalL This noble hall is spacious and lofty, lending 
itself in everyway to the exhibition of the suits of armour arranged 
along the walls, as well as to their preservation from rust, owing to 
the thickness of the walls, and the free current of air running 
through the hall. For the easier identification of the various suits, I 
continue the numbers, beginning with those on the right side from 
the lobby, facing down the hall. 





No. 8. A cap-a-pie suit, blackened. The helmet weighs twelve 
pounds. I should consider it to date rather earlier than the rest of 
the suit, which is late sixteenth century. The suit is quite plain, and 


of English workmanship. The sollerets are the variety known as 
' bec-de-cane.' Fig. 12 is a representation of this suit. 

No. 4. A suit of half armour, black and white. The burgonet is 
open the gorget and armour for the upper arms are in one piece. 


This arrangement has already been described under the head of 
' Allecret armour.' The date is 1580 to 1610. 

No. 5. A suit similar in character to the last, excepting that the 
helmet is visored and umbrilled. 

No. 6 is an inlaid suit, but incomplete, dating from early in the 
reign of Charles I. The casque has an adjustable nasal, with a socket 
for a plume of feathers. The pauldrons are in their places, but the 
armour for the elbows and lower arms is missing. The cuisses are in 
very narrow laminations to the knee. The tapulled cuirass and the 
pauldrons are inlaid in a very bold style of ornamentation, I should 
say decidedly French. I do not think that the helmet belonged 
originally to the suit. The character of the workmanship, finish, 
and ornamentation contrasts unfavourably with that of the century 
preceding, when Germany and Italy turned out work of such incom- 
parable delicacy and finish. 

No. 7. This suit is described as ' Maximilian,' and I had some 
difficulty in finding out which armour was referred to. The only 
fluted portions are the pauldrons, rerebrace and vambrace. The cuirass 
is plain, with a tapul ; the taces are of four lames, while the tassets 
come down to the knees, and there are no jambs at all. The helmet 
is late sixteenth century, and the ocularium is in one slit ; just below 
it the plates project out to a long point. The pauldrons have passe- 
gardes. As the armour has been black varnished over, it is impossible 
to affirm that all the pieces belong to one suit. I should say un- 
doubtedly that they do not, and that the only ' Maximilian ' portions 
of the armour as it stands consist of the pauldrons and arm guards ; 
the other pieces are very much later, neither the cuirass with tapul 
nor long tassets conforming at all to ' Maximilian ' armour. 

No. 8. A pikeman's suit, seventeenth century. 

No. 9. Cavalier's armour, seventeenth century. 

No. 10. A bright suit of cavalier's armour. 

No. 11. A black suit of cavalier's armour. 

No. 12. A pikeman's suit, seventeenth century. 

No. 13. A half suit, seventeenth century, with elbow gauntlets 
similar to the example in the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

High up on the walls of the great hall are several suits of very late 
armour, mostly pikeman's, and the walls are tastefully arranged with 


a large collection of weapons, jackboots, etc. Some of these T hope to 
describe on a future occasion, in a paper which I contemplate on 

Grand Staircase. On the landing are two suits of bright half 
armour. One is that of a knight, with the lance rest, late sixteenth 
century, and the other a plain suit of a still later date. In a room 
connecting the great hall with the long gallery is a suit, the parts of 
which belonged originally to different suits part late sixteenth, part 
seventeenth century. 

The Long Gallery contains eighty pairs of breast and back plates 
of a troop of harquebussiers, of the seventeenth century. There are 
corresponding helmets, accoutrements, and flint lock weapons. 


This is a very chaste and elegant Italian suit (fig. 13), dating 
from the last quarter of the sixteenth century. It is ornamented in 
the banded Italian style ; the ground of the repousse work, with its 
rich minute foliations in low relief, are gilt, while the rest of the steel 
remains bright. The general style of the ornamentation is alternate 
chevrons of bright steel and repousse work. (Fig. 14.) The 
decorative work on the pauldrons and genouillieres is, however, much 
bolder in character than on the rest of the armour. A very similar 
style of ornamentation may be seen on a tilting suit given in 
Skelton, vol. i., plate viii., and dated by him 1543. The Alnwick 
harness is freely studded with brass-headed rivets. 

The helmet is in four pieces, and highly characteristic of the 
Italian school of the period. 

The gorget is comparatively modern, but conveys the idea that it 
was copied from the original piece owing to dilapidation, and but for 
the ornamentation it would pass even with close observers when the 
suit is set up. 

The pauldrons are very beautiful and laminated at the shoulders 
and upper arm. The rerebrace and vambrace are finely formed and 
ornamented, the former with laminations. 

The coudieres are pointed at the elbows, with side guards which 
continue round the arms. 








The gauntlets are articulated, with thumb plates ; and a salient 
ridge runs across the knuckles. One of them, like the gorget, is of a 
more recent date than the main portion of the suit. 

The cuirass is specially long and handsome. A broad piping 
borders the top and arm holes. A tapul runs down the centre, 
projecting to a hump towards the middle. On the right side is the 
lance rest, and on the left holes for affixing a grande-garde. The lower 
portion of the cuirass consists of three narrow laminated plates, 
running almost horizontally, and fastened together by brass rivets. 
The tassets are rivetted to the bottom rim of the cuirass. These 
pieces consist of ten lames, with brass-headed rivets. A special 
feature is that the tassets can be shortened or lengthened at pleasure, 
the last four lames being detachable clearly an arrangement for 
fighting on foot or on horseback. The upper section is complete in 
itself with an ornamental rim, as is the lower one. This is a 
contrivance often met with in the second half of the sixteenth century. 
The attachment is accomplished by a screw catch and sliding rivet. 

The backplate has a piped border round the top and shoulders and 
there are two lames at the bottom, which terminate in a garde-de-reine. 

The cuisse, like the tasset is in two sections, with a similar means 
of attachment. The genouillieres are attachable to the jambs by catch 
and sliding rivets. The knee-guards are small. The jambs are 
banded down the centre, in a line with the genouillieres and cuisses. 
The sollerets are the variety styled ' bee de-cane,' being almost the 
shape of the foot. Both jambs and sollerets must be classed with the 
gorget and one gauntlet as restorations they are all most beautifully 
done. Some details will be seen on fig. 14. 


This collection of defensive armour consists mainly of three fine 
cap-a-pie suits ; besides two others without jambs or sollerets. I 
have classed the first mentioned suits in their order as they stand 
along the wall of the great entrance hall from the doorway. 

No. 1 is a blackened suit, said to have been worn by lord William 
Howard (plate xv.). The helmet has a large laminated collar and 
an umbril or peak over the ocularium, which latter consists of two 
broad slits. The cuirass is short, with tapul, and is cut round at the 

Arch. Ad. vol. xx. To face p. 274. 

Plate XV. 



top, and bordered with a piping. The backplate has a projecting 
garde-de-reine of several lames. The tassets are prolonged down the 
leg to the knees and attached to the genouillieres, forming in fact 
cuisses of a series of overlapping plates. The jambs are hinged, and 
feet clad in shoes or rather clogs of plate one cannot dub them 
sollerets. I should imagine from their form and appearance that both 
jambs and sollerets are of recent construction, and that really jack- 
boots had been worn with the suit. The pauldrons are large and of 
equal size, freely laminated at the shoulders, and charged with a star 
on each breast. The rerebrace is also freely laminated, and the 
coudieres are pointed at the elbows. The gauntlets have large lamin- 
ated lower arm -guards, and are semi- articulated, with separate 
thumb-guards. The suit is freely studded with round-headed rivets. 
Taking the harness generally, I consider the date of make well into 
the seventeenth century, perhaps even as late as 1630. On sub- 
mitting the foregoing to the right hon. the earl of Carlisle, he in- 
formed me that lord William Howard died in 1 640. It is therefore 
quite possible that what can hardly be more than a legend may be 
true in fact. The earl thinks that the suit had been worn with 
boots, and that the leg armour had been added comparatively 
recently, merely for effect. 

Suit no. '2 is unvarnished, and exhibits many points of contact 
with no. 1, the main difference lying in the sollerets, which are a 
common type of late sixteenth and early seventeenth-ceiitury make. 
They are narrow and round at the toes, being in fact the variety 
known as ' bec-de-cane.' The gauntlets have articulated fingers, with 
a salient ridge across the knuckles. This beautiful suit has also an 
umbril over the eyes, and is somewhat slightly and crudely orna- 

Suit no. 3 is very rich and handsome, being freely engraved and 
inlaid with gold the gilding has, however, been greatly worn off. 
The ornamentation is somewhat rude both in character and execu- 
tion and vastly inferior to either Italian or German work. There is 
the same feature in the upper leg armour as in the other suits. The 
helmet has a narrower collar, and the bevor is united to the 
casquetelle by a hook and eye ; and there is a similar attachment for 
the visor, besides the spring on the right top. The cuirass is 


ornamented with a medallion on either side. The subject is Saint 
George and the Dragon the execution is good and reminds one of 
Milanese work. The genouillieres are attachable to the jambs by 
reversible catches, which pass through the plate they are the same 
catches as shown on the Osuna and Sele House suits. There is 
a tapul and a garde-de-reine. The sollerets are square toed, but very 
narrow, not 'bear-paw,' like the Maximilian. The armour seems 
to me to date from Elizabeth's reign. Regarding the medallion the 
earl writes, suggesting that it is a 'George' badge, indicating a 
knight of the Garter, doubtless the ' Lesser George.' He also 
suggests the possibility that this suit may have belonged to the 
last lord Dacre, who died in 1566. This would of course make 
an even earlier date for the armour, but I cannot reconcile the 
transformation of the tassets into laminated cuisses with so early 
a date, though the sollerets being square toed would point in that 
direction; still this narrow form looks more like an armourer's 
freak, as the sollerets of the Maximilian period and after are broad 
and splayfoot. 

There are two other suits hanging on the wall, with no jambs or 
sollerets, worn with jackboots, and probably late sixteenth or early 
seventeenth-century armour ; and besides these, some pieces of a con- 
siderably older suit, which I had not time to examine. 

There is an Oriental panoply of unrivetted fine mesh. The helmet 
has an adjustable nasal, with a bolt running down the front through 
a staple, and a screw for adjustment. Besides a long spiked crest are 
two sockets on either side for plumes. Two similar headpieces were 
exhibited in the rooms of the Royal Archaeological Institute in 1880, 
and are catalogued no. 162, fig. 123, and no. 164, fig. 124. These 
helmets are almost identical with the Naworth specimen, having the 
spike crest, plume sockets, nasal and camail attachment. They are 
described as Persian of seventeenth century, and we may attribute the 
Naworth suit to the same period and nationality, always assuming 
that the combined armour formed one harness, which is far from 
certain. There are arm-guards of plate, gloves fronted with mail, and 
a camail directly attached to the helmet, the uppermost links going 
through small holes as in our own specimen in the Castle library. The 
shield has four copper bosses and a fine foliated ornamentation in low 



relief. The rest of the suit is freely ornamented, and most interest- 
ing. With it is an embroidered leather apron, worn with the chain 
armour by the man, and an ornament for the front, of a camel made 
of silver plate. The panoply was purchased at Delhi by the earl. 


The chain-mail harness has been already described in these notes ; 
and with the exception of a couple of early skull caps, holed for the 
camail, a very interesting brayette and a few fragments, the remainder 
of the collection consists mainly of seventeenth-century armour. 
Among it is a notable example of a pikeman's harness of the reign of 
Charles I., and a pair of elbow gauntlets. As armour of this later 
period is rather beyond the scope of these notes, and as I have been 
obliged to pass over such among other local collections for want of 
space, I will not dwell longer on the Castle armour on this 



1. Late fifteenth-century Sallail in Hexhani Priory Church. 

2. Late fifteenth-century Arinet over tomb of the fourth earl 

of Northumberland in Beverley Minster. 

[NOTE. The illustrations to this paper are all from photographs taken 
expressly for it with two exceptions. The drawing on page 219 was made by 
Mrs. R. C. Clephan and that on page 225 by Mr. Eugene E. (Jlephan. The writer 
of the paper has been at the cost of all the illustrations.] 




By R. S. FERGUSON, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A., chancellor of Carlisle. 
[Read on the 25th May, 1898.] 

In December, 1890, 1 read a paper before the Royal Archaeological 
Institute on the two well-known picture board dummies, representing 
two grenadiers, which occupy positions on the main staircase of the 
County hotel, Carlisle. I showed that these figures represented 
grenadiers of the 2nd or Queen's regiment of Foot, now the Royal 
West Surrey regiment. 1 In writing of these picture board dummies I 
dealt with them as evidence of the uniforms, equipments, and positions 
at drill of the British army at particular dates, as milestones in military 
history, and not particularly as specimens of picture board dummies. 
Kind friends, however, sent me photographs and descriptions of other 
dummies, which I put upon record in a paper read before the Royal 
Archaeological Institute in December, 1894. 2 Further information 
continued to come in, and in April of this year I laid before the Royal 
Archaeological Institute a third paper, 3 which has just found its 
way into print. Among the many friends who interested themselves 
in the subject was our energetic secretary, Mr. Blair, who sent me 
photographs and drawings of picture board dummies at Raby and 
Callaly castles with a request that I would write an account of them 
for this society. This I readily consented to, and, beyond mere men- 
tion of their existence, I have excluded them from the papers I laid 
before the Institute. 

Into the general subject I do not propose to go, beyond quoting a 
sentence from a paper by Mr. Syer Gaming in vol. xxx. of the Journal 
of the British Archaeological Association: 

Among other old whimseys which sprang up during the period indicated (the 
seventeenth century), was that of depicting different devices on flat boards 
shaped according to the contour of the subject represented, and placed in such 
situations as would most readily lead the beholders to believe that they were 
gazing on realities instead of mere artistic deceptions. Holland appears to have 
been the natal land of this tricky conceit, which found a ready reception in 
England and manifested itself in a variety of forms and ways. 

The deception was much increased by these figures being made 

1 Archaeological Journal, vol. xlvii. pp. 321-333. 

- Ibid., vol. lii. pp. 1-24. 3 Ibid. vol. lv. p. 183. 


feather-edged from the back to the front. Thus, when placed a few 
inches from a wall, they cast a shadow which might well be mistaken 
for that cast by a living person. 

There are four picture board dummies at Raby castle. Two of 
them represent grenadiers, but the figures are so dark that they photo- 
graph but badly, and the details are difficult to make out. The 
following is a detailed description of the grenadier : 

No. I., 4 a grenadier, total height to top of the tuft or pompon of his mitre- 
shaped cap, seven feet. His cap is less in height than those of the Carlisle 
grenadiers, being only one foot two inches against their one foot five inches. 
He is dressed in a long broad-skirted red coat, piped or edged with white, now 
turned by age or varnish into yellow ; it is double breasted, with two rows of ten 
or twelve buttons each running from the shoulders to the waist, but whether of 
white or yellow metal cannot now be discerned. Some (or all) of them are set 
at the ends of loops of lace. The coat buttons over on the left breast, but the 
lappets are turned back, showing the facings of dark blue or black (as Mr. Blair 
describes them) no doubt dark or royal blue, denoting a royal regiment. 
There is a well-marked seam down the front of the coat. The cuffs are of the 
colour of the facings ; they are much smaller than those of the Carlisle grenadiers, 
and, like them, have an ornamental band of broad white lace, but in the shape 
of a parallelogram, on the front of the cuff. Above the left cuff (the right is 
invisible being turned backwards) are five or six buttons set on a piece of lace 
going up the sleeve to the elbow ; these have on each side of them a loop of lace, 
thus rather resembling a palm branch. There are no pockets in the skirts, as is 
the case at Carlisle. Below the waist belt the skirts are open, showing the red 
under-waistcoat, and below that the dark blue breeches. The lappets of the coat, 
turned back at the neck, show there again the red under-waistcoat. A white cravat 
is round the man's neck, but its ends are concealed by the under-waistcoat. 

He wears long white leggings or- gaiters coming high up the thighs, 5 buttoned 
up the sides, and strapped under the feet. 6 

The mitre-shaped cap, one foot two inches high, is of cloth, but the colour is 
difficult to make out. It has a red flap or frontlet over the brow. The colour 
of the tuft or pompon is not to be made out. On the frontlet is the figure of a 
white galloping horse, the white horse of Hanover. Round the edge of the 
frontlet is the motto, NEC ASPEKA TERUENT. 

4 This description is written from a very dark photograph and a coloured 
sketch by Mr. Blair, F.S.A., hence the details are difficult to make out. R. S. F. 

5 An old man. until quite recently employed at the castle as a joiner, has (if 
I remember right) told me that the logs were repainted by the duchess' order 
not very long ago. I believe they were then in very bad condition. Probably, 
however, the old pattern was copied. B. 

8 The Carlisle grenadiers wear stockings. It is clear that during the last half 
of the seventeenth century and the early part of the eighteenth the English army 
did not wear leggings or gaiters over their stockings ; but by the middle of the 
eighteenth century they had adopted long white leggings or gaiters coming high 
up the thighs, buttoned up the sides, strapped under the feet, and garteied 
under the knees with black garters. In 1767 the mitre-shaped caps and the 
white leggings were superseded by bear-skin caps and black leggings. R. S. F. 


Above the frontlet is a star like unto the star of the Order of the Garter, with 
a red cross in its centre, and a motto of which the last letter, N, is alone to be 
made out. It is probably the last letter of ICH DIEN. Above the star is a crown. 

The accoutrements consist of waist belt of buff leather, with plain buckle in 
front ; slings from the front and side carry the sword and bayonet. A buff 
leather cross belt passes over the left shoulder, under the waist belt, and carries 
a large leather pouch on the grenadier's right side, so that it cannot be seen 
whether it is plain or bears the royal cypher and crown, as on the pouches of the 
guardsmen in 'The March to Finchley in 1745.' A plain buckle is in the cross 
belt a little above the waist belt, and the cross belt has upon it what resembles 
the whistle now carried by officers of rifles, or it may be something connected 
with his fusil. 

The arms consist of a fusil without sling, socket bayonet, and short basket- 
hilted sword. The details of the fusil cannot be made out. 

Three royal regiments, i.e., regiments with dark blue or royal 
facings, have the white galloping horse as their badge, with the motto 
NEC ASPERA TERRENT, namely, the VII. (Royal Fusiliers), the VIII. 
(the King's), and the XXIII. (the Royal Welsh Fusiliers), but the 
last alone bears the motto ICH DIEN. We may therefore set this figure 
down as that of a grenadier of the 23rd Welsh Fusiliers, of about the 
middle of the last century ; certainly later than the Carlisle grenadiers, 
say latter part of the reign of George II., in whose reign the white 
horse of Hanover was first put on the frontlets of the grenadiers' caps 
instead of the colonel's crest or badge. 

Of No. II. 7 I cannot at present write so full an account ; the photograph is 
very dark, and Mr. Blair has only given me a pencil sketch. The original figures 
themselves are, I understand, so dark that the details can hardly be made out. 
The same description will almost serve for him as did for No. I., with the follow- 
ing differences: His cross belt goes over his right shoulder, and his 'grenada 
pouch ' hangs on his right side, well to the f rorit, so that it can be seen that it has 
on it the royal cypher G R under a crown and something above the crown. The 
cross belt has upon it no whistle or jigger, or whatever the object may be that is 
upon the cross belt of No. I. The sword and bayonet (if there are both) hang 
from the waist belt on the right side. Mr. Blair does not name the colour of the 
facings, but he marks the frontlet of the mitre-shaped cap as 'yellowish,' 8 and 
from his sketch I gather that No. II. has a plastron of buff. 

This man may possibly belong to the Buffs (3rd Foot). The date 
would be the same as that of No. I, possibly a little earlier. No his- 
tory is known of these figures. Lord Barnard thinks they have been 

7 No. II. is. I should say, not the work of the same artist. It is inferior in 
style and very indistinct. I should not be surprised if it were a mere fancy 
sketch intended as a pair to No. I. B. 

8 I have no information as to what else may be on his cap. The Buffs carry 
a white horse, that of Kent. R. S. F. 


a long time at Raby castle. It would be interesting to ascertain if 
any member of the Vane family served in the Buffs or the Welsh 
Fusiliers in the first half of the last century. 9 


One of the other two dummies at Raby represents a peasant woman 
with a basket of fruit. She is five feet 6 inches in height, wears a red 

9 Henry (second earl of Darlington) was gazetted captain and lieut.-colonel, 
Coldatream Guards, in February, 1749. His uncle, Hon. Gilbert Vane, served in 
the 1st regiment of Foot Guards from 1732 to 1745, when he was appointed 
colonel of the earl of Berkeley's regiment of Foot. B. 


hat or cap, and two rows of beads round her neck. The colours of her 
dress are now so black that it is impossible to make them out. The 
figure of the man is five feet ten inches in height. He wears a slouch 
hat, a long brownish grey coat open so as to show a white or whitish 
shirt, knee breeches and stockings, and has round his waist an apron 
or cloth, in which he carries a live (very lively) goose. It is an 
interesting figure, and I have no doubt that it is intended to represent 
one of the Irish dealers, who bring over in the autumn to the north of 
England large flocks of Irish geese for sale to the farmers, who fatten 
them up for Christmas in the stubbles. I exhibit photographs of these 
two figures and also coloured sketches by Mr. Blair, but these two 
figures and the two Raby grenadiers would profit much by being put 
into the hands of a competent picture restorer. 10 The Ruby dummies 
are all feather-edged from back to front. 

I also exhibit a photograph 11 and a coloured sketch by Mr. R. Blair, 
F.S.A., of a picture board dummy, the property of the late major A. H. 
Brown of Callaly castle in Northumberland. It stands three feet two 
inches in height, is feather-edged from back to front, of canvas glued 
on board, and represents a partridge-plump little Dutch girl in a rich 
costume, holding in her left hand a small green parrot with a red head. 
Her underskirt is richly embroidered. Parti-coloured flowers some 
roses, others woodbine adorn her green overskirt, bodice, and cape, 
which last has a narrow white binding. Her cap, falling collar, and 
cuffs are all of rich lace. A gold chain passes four times over her left 
shoulder, and other chains are round her wrists. Her hair is tied up 
upon the top of her head with red ribbon under her cap, and her feet, 
small for her stout little person, are encased in white shoes. Her 
hands are well formed and well painted. Take her in all, she must 
represent a very well-to-do and important little personage, one quite 
sensible of her own position. I do not know of any history attaching 
to this charming dummy. 

10 The four figures were restored by a picture clexner last year, but the result 
is not satisfactory. B. 

II See representation of this on preceding page. 



By WILLIAM BROWN, F.S.A., secretary of the Surtees Society 

and of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society. 

[Read on the 29th June, 1898.] 

The original of the document abstracted below belongs to Mr. 
"William Grey Robinson of Silksworth, in the county of Durham, now 
residing at Quedgley hall, Gloucester, by whose kind permission it is 
here printed. 

The lease is a somewhat unusual one, as it is perpetual, though 
containing the usual proviso for re-entry in case of the rent being in 
arrear for twenty days. The rent is merely nominal, five shillings a 
year. There is nothing to show why the property was leased in this 
peculiar manner. It is hardly likely that the incursions of the Scots 
could have been the reason, as the battle of Flodden, fought less than 
four years before, must have discouraged them from attacking their 
neighbours. The position of the lessors is also unexplained. They 
were all connected with Durham. The first mentioned was a member 
of the family of Billingham, long settled at Crook hall, just outside 
Durham, endeared to the northern antiquary from having been the 
residence of the rev. James Raine, the historian of North Durham. 
Thrillesden is now Tursdale, near Croxdale. 

It is possible that the lessors were trustees, and that the property 
demised belonged to some institution, either a chantry or gild con- 
nected with the church of St. Margaret in Durham, which would 
account for the rent being payable at the altar of St. Thomas in that 
church. The lessee, Roger Heron, lived at Halydene, now Hallington, 
in the parish of St. John Lee, near Hexham. He was probably a 
younger son of John Heron of Chipchase, to whom the archbishop of 
York granted a lease of Hallington in 1495 for forty years. 2 

The parcels leased by this deed are so numerous and so minutely 
described that they deserve careful attention. They are the more 

1 I have to return thanks to Mr. R. Oliver Heslop for much information, part 
of which appears in the notes and part is embodied in the text. 

2 History of Northumberland, vol. iv. p. 240. 

VOL. xx. 36 

284 LEASE OF 1517 OF 

worthy of note as they lay both in the urban and the rural parts of 
the township. The house or messuage was called Gorrnor-hal. 3 It 
lay on the south side of St. Helen's lane, called lower down quedam 
venella, vocata Seynt Eleyn. A number of lanes and roads are men- 
tioned : Scamylgate (Shamble-gate), where the fishmongers lived ; 4 
Sidgate, Long-gate, as distinguished from the ordinary narrow lanes 
like Colwell-chare, 8 where the chare may be collated with the wynd 
(pronounced weend) in the common fields, as both chare and wynd 
convey the same idea, that of the turning or winding of the lane. 
The road leading out of the town to Stagshaw was called Stagshaw- 
strett. On the way there it passed through a ford called Stagshaw- 

The bridge across the Tyne, as was the case at Warkworth, had 
an endowment for its support and repair, and twice mention is made 
of a burgage belonging to this bridge. The other public bodies 
referred to were both connected with the church, the chantry of St. 
Mary, 6 and the gild of St. Andrew. 

The Barkhous was the place where the bark was stored till needed. 

The amount of land demised in the common field was twenty-three 
and a half acres, in plots varying in size from three acres to half an acre. 
These parcels consisted of long narrow strips, scattered throughout the 
common field. It was only necessary to give the boundaries on the two 
sides, as at either end there was the headland, finis terre, on which the 
teams turned in ploughing. As the team consisted normally of eight 
oxen, this headland which ran along the end of the narrow strips was 
of some size. Two headlands are mentioned, one containing an acre, 
and the other half that amount. Very precise indications are given 
of the position of the smaller headland. The part of the field in 

s Gormire row was, until recently, the name of the street running north from 
Tyne bridge through the village to Princes street. The parish council has 
now dropped the name iormire row, and called the whole thoroughfare Princes 
street. R. O. H. 

4 Called elsewhere Fish-shambles-gate, the street leading to the Fishers' mar- 
ket. ' Willelmus Hogg tenet unum burgagium in Fischambler-gat.' Priory 
of Hex ham, Surtees Society, vol. ii. p. 29. A tenement in vico forl piaaatorvm. 
Archaeologia Aeliana, new series, vol. ii. p. 35. R. O. H. 

5 Tenent etiam j burgagium in Colwell-chare, ex parte australi ejusdem 
juxta venellam quae ducit ad Tynam. Priory of Ilexham, vol. ii. p. 30. 

8 As a church of St. Mary has been alleged to have existed in Corbridge, it 
may be well to note that the chantry of the Blessed Mary is here stated to be 
' in ecclesia predicta,' that is, within the church of St. Andrew. R. 0. H. 


which it lay was known as le Flutes, 1 so called from its being very 
level. Its boundary on the west side was Thomas Carnaby's strip of 
land, and on the east some selions or strips of land, called ' Flurez, 
buttes, and wyndes,' or mounds of unploughed turf left between the 
strips. Where the strips abutted upon a roadway or upon unenclosed 
land they appear to have been called butts. Some of the strips at the 
Floors abutted upon the large holdings. Others ended at right angles 
to the long narrow strips. These last may possibly be the wyndes 
mentioned in the document. In the 1776 survey no narrow lanes are 

Interspersed amongst these strips were the demesne lands of the 
chief lord, the earl of Northumberland. The only other important 
landowners named are the priors of the houses of Austin Canons at 
Hexham and Carlisle. 

There was a kiln for burning the lime needed for the proper culti- 
vation of the land, and a mill for ginding the corn, which could be 
sold in the menmerket (main-market). 

Many of the place-names are of very great interest. Historically 
the most important is Colchestre, marking the site of the Roman 
station, Corstopitum. The first part of the word, as in the case of the 
more famous place of the same name in the south, comes from the 
Latin colonia. Other of the names bring before us the chief features 
of the country near Corbridge. The lime trees by the burn gave rise 
to the name Lyndburnflat. 8 There was still wood enough standing to 
harbour a stag when Stagshaw received its name, 9 but a clearing had 
been made elsewhere on a hill, which was termed Lowridyng, 10 the 
ridding or clearing in the lower part of the common field. Any piece 
of rising ground formed a prominent feature in the landscape, and 
each kind of hill was called by a different name. Besides law, as in 

7 In survey, 1776, Floors. In this survey the floors are divided into fifteen hold- 
ings, ten of which are narrow strips and five are comparatively wide pieces. Query : 
Are the former the butts and the latter the wyndes 1 Floors was also the name 
of another part in the West Field. R. 0. H. 

8 Lintburn-flat was the flat land lying on the Lint burn. There were also 
Lintburn-hope and Lintburn-sheath. The Lint burn flowed out of the west side 
of Shildon Lough, running into the Tyne through Howden Dene. R. 0. H. 

9 The popular name, however, is Stane-shaw (or Stainchy). Stainchy-bank 
is always spoken of. R. O. H. 

10 High Riding and Low Riding are giving in survey, 1776. There is a pre- 
cipitous escarpment (now quarried) between them. 


Rughlaw, the terms bank and hill occur in Langbank and Hughishille. 
For a road or path there were different expressions ; gate in Scamyl- 
gate and Sidgate, wind in Flureswyndes, loaning in Lonyngdiksyde, 
way in Willedikwey, lane in Seynt Elyiiglayne, chare in Colwel-chare, 
and street in Stagshawstrett. The uncertainty about the aspirate, 
which still prevails amongst us, is exemplified by the forms Ayburne 
and Hayburne, 11 now Aydon burn, and Trollop and Throllop. 
Throthoppeys, Lillesaw, 12 Kiplingland, and Didiriche, now Deadridge, 
seem to defy explanation. 


July 8, 9 Hen. viii. (1517). Perpetual lease from Cuthbert Billyngham of 
Crukehalle by Durham esq., John Bentley of Thrillesden, Thomas Marnduke 
chaplain, Hugh Wakerfelde chaplain, Kobert Hervy of Durham, Hugh Rowlle 
of the same, John Colson of the same, Robert Crake of ths same, Richard 
Merley of the same, and Robert Wilffett of the same, to Roger Heron of 
Halydene, gentilman, to hold of the chief lords of the fee by the customary 
services, and by paying a yearly rent of 5s., payable halfyearly at Martinmas and 
Whitsontide at the altar of St. Thomas in the chapel of St. Margaret in Durham, 
with a proviso for reentry if the rent were in arrears for twenty days and bond of 
20 U from the lessee for due payment of the rent, of the following property in 
Corbridge : Unum mesuagium in Corbrige in comitatu Northumbrie, vocatum 
Gormorhal, prout jacet inter burgagium Willelmi Baxter ex parte austral! et 
quandam communem stratam ibidem, vocatam Seynt Elynglayne ex parte 
boriali, nunc in tenura Johannis Ladley ; unum burgagium jacens ibidem in 
quadam venella, vocata Seynt Eleyn, ex parte boriali ville ibidem, inter bur- 
gagium Comitis Northumbrie ex parte orientali et burgagium prefati Willelmi 
Baxter ex parte occide[n]tali; unum aliud burgagium vastum jacens super 
finem cujusdam venelle inter burgagium gilde S. Andree in ecclesia de Corbrige 
predicta ex parte orientali et communem stratam, ducentem versus Stagshawe, 
ex parte occidentali ; duo alia burgagia jacentia in Seamy Igate ex parte boriali 
ville ibidem inter burgagium Prioris de Hexham ex parte orientali et burgagium 
Rogeri Heron ex parte occidentali, nunc in tenura Jaoobi Robson ; unum aliud 

11 There was a ' Hay-street ' in the West Field. 

Iz In the survey of 1776 the names High Lilly Lows and Low Lilly Lows 
occur. Probably the lilly lea of the ballad, ' They laid him low on lilly lea.' 
Herein lies an amusing piece of etymological humbug. John Ray gives 
'Lillylow, a comfortable belly bleeze,' whatever that may mean. Dr. Mackay 
compiled a dictionary in which he manages to find a Celtic etymon for almost 
every English word. This Lilly Low he finds has to do with a ' bleeze,' so he 
drags in a Gaelic word like it in sound, which happens to mean flame. So there 
you are at once. These Lilly Lows were the hills, he infers, on which the fires 
of Beltane were lighted. Q.E.D.R. U. H. 


burgagium in eadem strata jacens inter burgagium Johannis Elrynston, 13 in 
tenura Willelmi Homer ; duo alia burgagia jacentia in fine oriental! ville ibidem 
super le Northraw, inter burgagium Thome Elryngton ex parte orientali et 
burgagium Willelmi Baxter ex parte occidental!, nunc in tenura Willelmi 
Richerdson ; unum aliud burgagium vastum jacens in Colwelcbare ex parte 
boriali ejusdem ville inter burgagium Prioris de Hexham ex parte australi et 
burgagium cantarie B. Marie in ecclesia predicta ex parte boriali; unum aliud 
burgagium jacens in Sidgate ex parte boriali ville ibidem, inter burgagium 
Gilbert! Huddispath 14 ex parte occidentali et burgagium pertinens ponti de 
Corbrige ex parte orientali ; unum aliud burgagium jacens iu. Sidgate ex parte 
boriali ville ibidem inter burgagium Johannis Chestre ex parte orientali et 
burgagium pertinens predicto ponti ex parte occidentali, nunc in tenura Gilbert! 
Huddispath ; unum aliud burgagium, quondam vocatum Barkhous, jacens in 
Scamylgate ex parte boriali, inter burgagium Jobannis Elryngton ex parte 
orientali et burgagium Comitis Northumbrie ex parte occidentali. nunc in tenura 
Edwardi Huddispath; unam acram terre jacentem in Lyndburnflat, prout jacet 
inter terram Rogeri Heron ex parte australi et terram pertirientem cantarie 
B. Marie in ecclesia predtcta ex parte boriali, nunc in tenura dicti Rogeri ;.tres 
rodas terre jacentes apud Throthoppeys, prout jacent inter terram Rogeri Heron 
ex utraque parte, nunc in tenura Johannis Harlle ; unam rodam terre jacentem 
in Menmerkett inter terrain dicte cantarie B. Marie ex parte oriemali et terram 
dominicam 15 Comitis Northumbrie ex parte occidentali, nunc in tenura Ricardi 
Huntley ; quandam parcellam terre, vocatam a hedland, continentem dimidiam 
acram terre, jacentem in le Flurez, inter terram Thome Carnaby ex parte 
occidentali et quosdam seliones terre vocat' Flurez buttes et wyndes, ex parte 
orientali, nunc in tenura Robert! Belle ; unam acram terre jacentem in Lonyng- 
diksyde inter terram Willelmi Baxter ex parte australi et terram Rogeri Heron 
ex parte boriali, nunc in tenura Wilielmi Richerdson ; unam acram et dimidiam 
terre jacentes in Colchestre inter terram Rogeri Heron ex utraque parte, nunc in 
tenura Edwardi Huddispath ; unam acram terre jacentem ultra quendam rivulum, 
vocatum Ayburne, inter stangnum molendini ex parte orientali et terram Comitis 
Northumbrie ex parte occidentali, nunc in tenura Thome Trollop ; dimidiam 
acram terre jacentem inter dictum rivulum ex parte australi et terram Johannis 
Chestre apud Stagshawf urde ex parte boriali, nunc in tenura Willelmi Dalton ; 
duas acras et dimidiam terre, quarum due jacent apud Langbank inter terram 
dominicam Comitis Northumbrie ex parte orientali et terram Johannis Chestre 
ex parte occidentali, et dimidiam acram terre jacentem in quodam loco, vocato 
Sandyrod, inter terram Gilberti Huddispeth ex parte australi et terram Rogeri 
Heron ex parte boriali, nunc in tenura Henrici Broune; dimidiam acram terre 
jacentem in fine occidentali de dicta Sandyrod, inter terram Prioris de Karlille 
ex parte australi et terram Gilberti Huddispeth ex parte boriali ; unam acram 
et dimidiam terre jaceutes in Langbank, in fine occidentali ejusdem, inter 
terram Willelmi Baxter ex parte orientali et diversos fines terrarum diversorum 
dominorum ex parte occidentali, nunc in tenura Rogeri Heron ; unam acram et 
dimidiam terre supra le Lillesaw Reynneys, inter terram Willelmi Baxter ex 

13 An omission here. 14 Also spelt Huddispeth. 

15 Ten-' d'nic\ and so belo\v. 


utraque parte, modo in tenura Rogeri Heron ; dimidiam acram terre jacentem 
inter terram cantarie B. Marie ex parte boriali et terram Rogeri Heron ex parte 
australi, et abuttantem super fossatum strate, vocate Stagshawstrett, modo in 
tenura Edwardi Huddispath ; tres acras terre jacentes ex parte occidentali de 
Willedikwey inter terram Rogeri Heron ex parte boriali et terram Gilberti 
Huddispeth ex parte australi, vocatas Kiplingland, modo in tenura Gilberti 
Huddispath, Willelmi Dalton, et Johannis Harlle ; unam acram et dimidiam 
terre jacentes apud Hayburnsid, inter Hayburne ex parte boriali et terram 
Rogeri Heron ex parte australi, modo in tenura Edwardi Huddispath ; dimidiam 
acram terre de Rughlaw, inter terram Rogeri Heron ex parte occidentali et 
terram Willelmi Baxter ex parte oriental!, mcdo in tenura Alicie Thomson; 
dimidiam acram terre jacentem super le Lymekilles, inter terram Rogeri Heron 
ex parte boriali et terram Willelmi Baxter ex parte australi, modo in tenura 
Thome Throllop ; unam acram terre jacentem super Lawridyng, inter terram 
Rogeri Heron ex parte occidentali et terram S. Margarete in Dunelm. ex parte 
orientali, modo in tenura dicte Alicie Thomson ; unam acram terre jacentem 
apud Lymekilles inter terram Prioris de Karlille ex parte australi et terram 
Willelmi Baxter ex parte boriali, modo in tenura Johannis Harle; unam acram 
terre, vocatam a hedland, jacentem super terram dominicam vocat' Hughishille, 
modo in tenura Johannis Ladley, et inter terram S. Margarete ex parte occiden- 
tali ; dimidiam acram terre apud pedem et finem australem de Lawridyng et 
terram Rogeri Heron ex parte australi, modo in tenura Rogeri Chestre; et unam 
acram terre jacentem apud Didiriche inter terram Willelmi Baxter ex utraque 
parte, modo in tenura Willelmi Richerdson. One tag for seal, which has been 
destroyed. Endorsed ' Corbridge.' 



[Read on the 27th July, 1898.] 

Saint Wilfrid who founded Hex-ham and chose it as the haven 
of his closing years, died after all at Oundle on the Nen. The body 
of the intrepid champion of the Northern Church, buried in the first 
place at Ripon, is said ultimately to have been carried captive to 
Canterbury. His successor St. Acca although he seems to have ended 
his days in exile was laid to rest at the foot of his splendid cross at 
Hexham, and consequently came to hold the foremost place in the 
traditions of that church. The aureole of St. Eata who had occupied 
the Tyneside see during Wilfrid's banishment and who was buried in 
a small stone chapel to the south of the sacrarium, must have been to 
some extent dimmed by his intrusion. 

Acca was trained under Bosa whom Theodore of Tarsus by 
a stretch of legatine power had placed in the despoiled chair of 
Eborius at York. On Wilfrid's restitution by king Alfrid, Acca 
passed into the metropolitan's service and remained his most faithful 
henchman to the very end. He accompanied him to Friesland and 
Rome in 704 ; it was to him that the wayworn saint first con- 
fided his vision of the Archangel Michael at Meaux. Acca's love of 
literature won for him from Bede the Venerable an admiration that 
the sublimity of Wilfrid had failed somehow to inspire. To Acca, as 
his diocesan, the great doctor of the Northumbrian church dedicated 
most of his theological works. 

The ' miracles ' attributed to St. Acca form a considerable portion 
of those relating to the saints of Hexham that were collected by St. 
Aelred, abbot of Rievaux, in the twelfth century. Aelred's tractate 
was printed by the late Rev. James Raine in his Priory of Hexham 
from a manuscript in the Bodleian library. Raine knew of the 
existence of another manuscript which had been in the possession 


of the Savile family and sold in 1861, and lamented that it had 
not been in his power to obtain access to it. 1 Circumstances that 
would once almost have been deemed miraculous have recently 
given me a conditional sight of this precious manuscript ; the present 
owner has most ably collated it for our Society with Eaine's printed 
text, and has also furnished the translations. 

The chief divergence is the addition of three ' miracles ' in the 
Savile manuscript in a hand much clumsier but probably only slightly 
later than the rest ; the earlier portion, at any rate, claims to have 
been written at the dictation of St. Aelred himself. 2 From its minor 
variations we learn that the bones of St. Acca were found at the time 
of their translation in 1154 in a coverlet which it had taken much 
work to make, 3 and that the size of the bones proved the bishop to 
have been a tall man. 4 Other relics too are said to have been placed 
at this translation in the third shrine beside those of St. Babylas of 
Antioch and some of St. Acca's dust, and are specified as those of 
the martyrs SS. Marcus and Marcellinus of the Theban legion, of 
the martyr Felicissimus, of the martyr Irenaeus and one of his com- 
panions, of St. Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, of St. Faith, virgin and 
martyr, and of the martyr St. Felicitas. 5 It is interesting to note 
that in all probability Wilfrid and Acca passed the scene of the 
massacre of the Theban legion at St. Maurice in the Rhone valley 
in returning from Rome. Wilfrid in early life spent more than three 
years at Lyons, where St. Irenaeus taught and suffered, and on 

1 Raine, Priory of Hexham, i.^. 173n. The Savile MS. was sold again in the 
July of this present year (1898) ; an unwarranted criticism on Mr. A. B. Hinds 
for not having referred to it in vol iii. of the History of Northumberland, 1896, 
appeared in the Athenaeum of July 23rd, 1898. 

2 ' Incipiunt miracula sanctorum patrum qui sancta hagustaldensi ecclesia 
requiescunt dictata a venerabili hechelredo abbate.' Savile MS. 1 recto, iu red. 
Cf. Raine, Hexham, i. p. 173. 

3 ' (sacras explorant exuvias) operoso velamine circumamictas.' Savile MS. 
11 verso. Cf. Raine, Hexham, i. p. 194. 

4 ' (reliquiis apposuerunt.) Sicut autem ex qualitate ossium dabatnr intellisi 
procere stature f uit sanctus praesul Acca.' Ibid. ; Raine Hexham, i. p. 195. 

5 ' (cum Sancti Babile episcopi et martyris sacris reliquiis) et sanctorum 
martyrum marci et marcellini de legione thebeorum Felicissimi martyris Yrenei 
martyris et cuiusdam socii eius. sancti German! autisiodorensis episcopi sancte 
Fidis virginis et martyris sancte Felicitatis martyris, partem pulveris de corpore 
Sancti Acce episcopi posuerunt.' Savile MS. 14 recto et verso. Cf. Raine, 
Hexham, p. 200. 


leaving it his way probably led through Auxerre. His collection of 
relics on this 6 and subsequent occasions 7 is especially mentioned by 
his trusty biographer Eddi ; nothing can be more likely than that he 
should have conferred some part of it on Hexham. 

To translate freely the three additional ' miracles ' given in the 
Savile manuscript : 


The Lord in his mercy hath shown forth his loving kindness and hath 
in these our days given unto his people signal evidence of the merits of 
our blessed father Acca. There is in the monastery at Hexham a 
certain craftsman of Hexham 8 usefully employed in constructing the 
conventual buildings. 9 On the solemn festival of St. Acca, 10 when 
the ardent devotion of the brethren caused them to pass the night in 
the praises of God, a little girl, the niece of this person, was suddenly 
taken ill. In the calm of the night's sleep she was seized with 
sudden pains, and unable to bear the acute suffering completely 
disturbed the repose of the others with her immoderate cries and 
moans. Grievously was he put about by his niece's indisposition, 
for he was bringing her up as his daughter. The next morning 
a great swelling appeared over the whole of her body ; her skin 
looking as if it had been burnt with fire. When the vestments of 
the blessed Acca were exposed in the church to be seen and kissed 
of the people, the girl was borne with the rest of the crowd to the 
service in honour of the blessed bishop. At the touch of the healing 
garments all the swelling passed away and her skin was restored to 
its former beauty. 

6 ' cum multiplici benedictione et reliquiarum sanctarum auxilio navera 
ascendens.' Vita S. Wilfridi, vii. Gale, Historiae Britannicae Scriptures, x.v. 
iii. p. 54. 

7 ' reliquiarum sanctarum ab electis viris plurimum ad consolationem Ecclesi- 
arum Britanniae adeptus, nomine singulorum scribens, quae cujusque sancti 
essent reliquiae.' Ibid, xxxii. Gale, iii. p. 68 ; ' moreque suo ab electis viris 
sanctus reliquias nominatim congregans.' Ibid. liii. Gale, p. 83. 

8 ' in monasterio hagustaldensis [sic'] minister ; ' lege ' hagustadensi.' As an 
inmate of the monastery the ' minister ' no doubt would be called a ' lay- 
brother ' nowadays. 

9 The gateway of the monastery may possibly be of this date: 'officmiR' 
would not refer to any important works : Ducange gives ' Architectus' = 'faber 
qui facit tecta.' 

10 St. Acca's day was the 20th of October. 

VOL. xx. 37 



A certain noble, and powerful, William de Yeupunt, 11 was wont 
in his campaignings to resort to the guest-house of Hexham church. 
It chanced once that he came thither, and being hospitably welcomed 
sate him down to dine. His son, a little lad, was with him, who too 
greedily swallowing a piece of apple, it stuck in his throat and he fell 
senseless. The table being removed up sprang the lord ; the lady 12 
also, in a great stew, with frantic cries and womanly lamentings, and 
with her all their household. Snatching up the child they carried 
him in all haste to the church, where neither with thumps nor 
bumps on his back and breast could they ease his choking. Gaining 
admission, after some hours, to the innermost sanctuary, they lay the 
boy beside (or ?upori) the high altar of St. Andrew, under the relics 
of St. Acca and his companions. Earnestly persevering in all prayers 
and supplications, they merited to be heard. For suddenly the boy 
(recovering his powers only by a direct act of God) spat out the piece 
of apple, all stained with blood, and speedily achieved his wholeness 
of health and full wellbeing. 13 


In the early days of his elevation, Roger 14 the archbishop under- 
took many enquiries and much trouble with a view to join house to 
house, and to couple field with field. On this errand he came to 
Hexham and called to him among other of his tenants one Huctred 
de Acum, a man well in years, with whom he long remained in 
converse respecting his estates which lay on all sides of the neigh- 
bourhood, their position, their rents, the terms upon which they were 
held, and the tenants. 'Qui (sic) gloriaris in malicia' 15 fov he 
dared to speak evilly before the ruler, and with wicked craft uttered 

11 William de Vipont (Veteri Ponte) held Elrington, Alston, and Newbrough, 
by a grant of King John. 

12 Maud, the wife of William de Vipont, was the daughter of Hugh de 
Moreville, one of the murderers of St. Thomas of Canterbury. 

11 The boy was probably Ivo de Vipont, who afterwards bestowed the advow- 
son of Alston on the canons of Hexham. 

14 Roger de Pont 1'Bvesque, archbishop of York, 1154-1181. 

15 Cf. Psalm Hi. 51. ' Quid gloriaris in malitia, qui potens es in iniquitate ? ' 


many cavils and slanders against the church of Hexham and the 
brethren. At length, upon the same day, while on his way home 
through the woodland of Akewood, 16 after crossing the river Tyne, 
and in the path that leads to St. John's church, he caught his foot 
and fell headlong face foremost upon a prong, so that one of his eyes 
was torn out and flung far from him. [The pain brought him to a 
sense of his wickedness 17 ] and he, the false accuser, on his way thence, 
stricken to the very heart with woe, pondered amid his groans 111 
hath my mouth spoken against the blessed patron Acca and his house 
and lo ! deserved his wrath from which I suffer. 18 


The following is an accurate transcript, line for line, of the three 'miracles' 
as given in the Savile MS., the many contractions being amplified : 

fo. 15 verso, lin. 9. 
Misericors dominus dedit be 
nignitatem. & in his die 
bus nostris insignia meritorum bea 
ti patris nostri acce populo suo 
innotuit. Habetur enim in mo 
nasterio hagustaldensis minis 
ter quidatn architectus in constru 
endis fratrum officinis utiliter neces 
sarius. In die itaque sollempni sancti 
acce quo fervens fratrum devotio 
in laudibus dei pernoctaverat '. pu 
ella parvula neptis eiusdem 
ministri incurrit egritudinem 
repentinam. Sub silentio enim 
nocturni soporis irruerant in 
earn dolores subiti, unde ipsa 
inpatiens vehementis passionis f 
nimiis clamoribus & eiulatu quie 
tern quiescentium omnino pertur 
bavit. Indoluit graviter praefatus 
minister super hac sue neptis mo 
lestia '. quia earn paterno voto 
aluit. Mane autem facto '. apparuit 
in toto corpore eu is tumor nimius 
& inflatio enormis. & universa 

18 Raine has confused ' Acuudam/ i. p. 58 (Akewood), with Acomb in foot- 
note p, and also in his Index of Places, clxxxv. 

17 Text obscure. 

18 The first miracle seems alluded to in MS. Cotton, Vitellius, A. xxx. 262 b, 
but is there attributed to St. Eata : ' Puella a tumore et inflatione, tactis vesti- 
mentis beati Eatae episcopi, sanatur, et superficies cutis pristine decori redditur.' 
Raine, Hexham, i. p. 219. 



fo. 16 recto. 

superficies cutis quasi combusta 
igni. Cumque vestimenta beati 
acce in ecclesia contuenda & deos 
culanda populo exponerentur '. 
delata est puella praefata cum reliqua 
turba ad officium beati praesulis. 
Ad tactum itaque salutarium in 
dumentorum i tumor omnis & in 
flatio in puella resedit. & superfi 
cies cutis pristini decoris restitu 
ta est indecus. 

Homo quidam nobilis po 
tens in procinctu milicie 

i. de veteriponte 

willelmus de veupunt. hospicium 
ecclesie haugustaldensis frequen 
tare consuevit. Accidit autem ut ve 
niret illuc.' & liberaliter receptus. 
discubuit pransurus. Puer etiam parv 
ulus filius eius delatus est cum eo. 
Qui particulam pomi cum edatior 
gustaret ! hesit in gutture eius. 
unde exanimis cor rait. Amo 
ta igitur mensa '. prosiluit herus. prosi 
luit & hera cum clamoribus & eiu 
latu femineo exestuans. & cum 
ea tota f amilia '. rapientesque pue 
rum citius intra ecclesiam detulerunt. 
ibique nee pugnis nee percussion! 
bus in scapulis in pectore pueri 
quicquam commodi conferre po 
terant suffocato. Post aliquas 
horas admissi in interiora pe 
netraliai secus magnum altare 

fo. 16 verso. 

lum corruit. evulsusque oculus 
eius procul ab eo proectus est. Vexatio 
intellectum dedit auditui. unde 

ad cor 

rediens praevaricator ingemuit '. 
ingeminsns frequenter. Os 
meum maligne locutus est ad 
versus beatum patronum accam 
& domum eius. & ecce iusta ip 
sius indignatione multatus 

sancti andree sub pignoribus bea 


ti acce sociorumque puerum exposue 
runt. Totis itaque votis precibus in 
sistentes '. exaudiri meruerunt. 


Puer enim subito non nisi a deo 
resumptis vite viribus illam po 
mi particulam expuit cruentam. 
& integram salutem & plenam 
sospitatem citius optinuit. 

In primordiis promotionis sue ro 
gerus archiepiscopus multam disquisi 
tionem & sollicitudinem ha 
buit .' quomodo domum ad domum 
coniungeret. & agrum agro co 
pularet. Venit itaque ad hagus 
taldunum. & inter ceteros homi 
nes suos quendam huctredum 
de acum virum grandevum ascivit] 
ad se. Quern conveniens super suis 
circumqnaque circumiacentibus 
terris. & situ terrarum. & reditibus 
earum '. super tenuris & tenentibus. 
cum eo diu contulit. Qui gloriaris 
in malicia ' quia coram potente 
praesumpsit loqui in iniquitate. mul 
tas questiones & calumpnias mo 
vit subdolo ingenio adversus 
ecclesiam hagustaldensem & fratres. 
Denique eadem die per nemus de acuud 
domum reversurus. amne tina trans 
misso. insemita que ducit ad ec 
clesiam sancti iohannis ' offendens pede- 
preceps prona facie subito super f urcu 





Abingdon, bishop Bgelwin imprisoned 

at, 41 

Adamson, Horatio A., ' The Villiers 
Family as Governors of Tynemouth 
Castle and Owners of the Light- 
house,' 15 
Aesica, bronze scales of a Roman lorica 

from, 218 
Ailettes, 224 

Akewood, woodland of, 293 & n ; con- 
fused by Raine with Acomb, 293 
Alan, the chamberlain of Durham, 70 
Alclit,' meaning of name, 28 
Aldwin, prior of Winchcomb, 45 ; Jar- 
row church given to, 46 ; death of, 
55 ; goes to Melrose, 47; St. Peter's 
church at Wearmouth given to him, 
47 ; vills of Southwick and Wear- 
mouth given to, 48 
' Allecret,' armour called, 264 
Alnwick castle, sold to Henry de 
Percy by bishop Bek, 125; suit of 
armour at, 271 
Anglian (see pre-Conquest) 
Anglo-Saxon (see pre-Conquest) 
Antwerp, painting of the Crucifixion 

at, 33/i 

Armet, the, or close helmet, 241 
Armour. mixed, in England, 223; fluted 
suits of, 235 ; plate, 229 ; Gothic, 
250; belonging to K. C. Clephan, 
258, et seq.; called ' allecret,' 204 
Arundel college, Sussex, 202 ; church, 


Ashford church. Kent, 61 n 
Astley church, Warwickshire, 61 n 
Auckland, origin of name, 27; Leland's 
Itinerary concerning, 27; professor 
Rhys. Dr. Isaac Taylor, and others 
on, 28 ; mention of, by Symeon, 28 
Auckland, bishop Bek built manor 
house of, 124 ; appropriated church 
of Morpeth to chapel of, 124 ; manor 
housp, college transferred to, 159 ; 
sold to sir Arthur Haslerigg, 170; 
Pudsey's great hall at, 111 
Auckland college, statutes of, 127 
Auckland St. Andrew's, college trans- 
ferred from, to manor house, 159 ; 
suppressed, 167 

Auckland St. Andrew's church, 27; 
Anglo-Saxon remains. 22 ; on name 
and origin of place, 27 ; Leland's 
Itinerary and, 27 ; ' Alclit ' in 
earliest documentary evidence, 28 ; 
professor Rhys, rev. J. C. Atkinson, 
and Isaac Taylor on name, 28 ; the 
two Alclets given by bishop Eald- 
hun, 28 ; Anglo-Saxon relics at, 28 ; 
site and origin of church, 39 ; at 
a considerable distance from vil- 
lages, 39 : entirely rebuilt, 60 ; built 
by Pudsey, 62 ; simple in its original 
state, 62 ; re-edified by bishop 
Stichill, 74 ; of fully matured Early 
English style, 75 ; ground plan, 75, 
76 ; compared with other Durham 
churches, 75 ; similar to Darlington 
and other churches, 77 ; walls of 
ashlar, 77 ; priest's door, 85 ; interior 
of church, 86 ; sedilia, 88 ; no. transept, 
etc., 89 ; east window originally of 
three lights, 90; two north-east arches 
of nave, 93 ; distortion of, 93 ; tran- 
septs never formed part of plan of 
ancient churches, 94w ; south aisle, 
porch, tower, etc., 95 ; fine south 
doorway, 97 ; 'admirably built,' 98; 
room above, 98 ; occupied by chantry 
priest, 100 ; mural garderobe, 100 ; 
stair turret of tower, 101 ; originally 
spire, 101 ; work carried forward 
without interruption, 102; single 
portrait head, 104 ; probably of 
Edward I., 105 ; damaged seriously 
by bishop Bek, 129; prebendaries in, 
131 ; pope Nicholas's taxation, 131 ; 
Bek's alterations, 1 32 ; south tran- 
sept added by Bek, 134; known as 
' St. Cuthbert's porch,' 134 ; ' Lil- 
burn's porch,' 134 ; ' Lady porch,' 
134w ; arms of Belassis and remains 
of inscription on glass, 135w ; ' Ken- 
net's porch,' 135 ; Langley's altera- 
tion at, 148; stall work of choir, 
151 ; misereres, 151 ; priest's door- 
way, 151 ; Langley's statutes, 152 ; 
benatura in, 158; 'high end' win- 
dow at, 95 ; goods and utensils at, 
temp, bishop Fox, 161 ; oak effigy 
in, 171; stone effigy, 173; brass of 
a priest, 175 ; brass of Lancelot 




Claxton, 176; matrices of brasses, 

175, 179; list of rectors, vicars, and 

deans, 186 ; chantries, etc., in, 187 ; 

plate, 188; bells, etc., 188, 192; 

ancient stained glass, 191 ; the 

deanery, 189 
Auckland St. Helen's church, 78w ; 

western window of nave, 91 
Aunjrerville, sir Richard de, father of 

bishop Bury, 140re 
Aycliffe church, 78ra 


Bablake, Coventry, collegiate church 
of, 203 

Bainbridge, Christopher, dean of York, 
native of Hilton, near Appleby, 
163w ; death and burial, 164 ; car- 
dinal, poisoned by a servant, 1 23 

Bakewell church, Derbyshire, frag- 
ment of a pre-conquest cross at, 

Baldr-Odin crucifixion on Gosforth 
cross, 33 

Bamburgh church, 79 

Bards for horses, 230 

Barnard Castle bridge, 145n ; castle 
granted to Beauchamp, earl of 
Warwick, 121-; taken from bishop 
Bek. 121 ; destroyed church of, 7Sn ; 
college of, 202 

Bassinet, the. 240 

Bates, C. J., on three additional 
miracles attributed to St. Acca of 
Hexham. 289 

Bath abbey church, choir of, 108 

Bayeux tapestry, the, 215 

Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, Barnard 
Castle granted to, 121?t 

Beaumoct, Lewis de, bishopric of 
Durham bestowed by pope on, 137 ; 
see openly bought by, 138 ; conse- 
crated at Westminster, 138 ; taken 
prisoner by Gilbert de Middleton, 
138 ; he could not read, 139 ; built 
kitchen at Middleham, 139 ; died 
at Brantingham, 139; buried at 
Durham, 1 39 ; description of tomb 
of, 139w ; matrix of brass of, 139 

Beaurepaire park forcr-ly entered by 
bishop Bek, 117 

Bedale church, effigy in, 222 

Bek, Anthony, son of Walter, baron of 
Eresby, archdeacon of Durham and 
secretary to king, elected bishop. 
115; consecrated at York in pre- 
sence of Edward I. and his queen, 
115 ; at cost of translation of relics 
of archbishop William Fitzherbert, 
116; enthroned at Durham, 117; 

dispute between, and Richard de 
Hoton, 117; forcibly entered Beau- 
repaire park, 117; compelled men 
of bishopric to proceed with him to 
Scottish wars, 118 ; preferred Henry 
de Luceby to priorate of Durham, 
118 ; at instance of prior Richard 
cited to appear before Roman curia, 
120 ; pronounced contumacious by 
pope and suspended, 120 ; appeared 
before curia, 120 ; advanced to 
patriarchate of Jerusalem, 121 ; 
never recovered favour of king, 124 ; 
Wark, Penrith, and Simonburn taken 
from, 124 ; attached manor of Even- 
wood to church, 124 ; built manor 
house of Auckland, 124 ; built 
Somerton castle, 124 ; and manor of 
Eltham, 124 ; Alnwick castle sold 
to Henry de Percy by, 125 ; Isle of 
Man granted to, 125 ; died at Eltham, 
125 ; buried at Durham, 125 ; be- 
quests to church of, 125 ; monument 
of, in Durham, 125n ; statutes of col- 
lege of Auckla id founded by, 126; 
founded colleges of Lanchester and 
Chester-le- Street, 131 

Belassis, arms of, St. Andrew Auck- 
land church, 135?t 

Belassis, lands at, exchanged for 
Henknoll, 135/i 

Benatura in St. Andrew's Auckland 
church, 158 

Beverley minster, armet in, 277 

Bevor, the, 242 

Bewcastle cross, the, 35 

Bibliomaniac, bishop Bury of Durham 
the first English, 141 

Biggar church, 6 ire 

Billingham church. Saxon walling at, 
60 ; dimensions of chancel of, 75w; 
destroyed chancel of, 78n 

Binchester, Koman station of, 27 

Bishop Auckland, bishop's chapel, 
mouldings of arches in, 91 (see 
also Auckland) 

Bishop Middleham, bishop Kellaw 
died at, 136 ; bishop Beaumont 
built a kitchen, etc., at, 139; church, 

Bishopton. destroyed church of, 78 n 

Bishopwearmouth church, 78- 

Boldon church, 78 

Bondgate, manor of, 167 

Booth, Lawrence, bishop of Durham, 
158; Margaret married Ralph Nevill, 
third earl of Westmoreland, 159 

Bosa, St, Acca trained under, 289 

Both well church, 61 n 

Bradbourne, Derbyshire, pre-conquest 
cross at, 35 



Bradwardyn, Thomas, archbishop of 
Canterbury, 141 

Brancepeth castle, shirts of mail at, 
217; the armoury at, 267 

Brancepeth church, chancel of ashlar 
constructed by John Lord Nevill, 
77 ; dimensions of chancel of, Ion ; 
stall work in, 151 ; Ralph Nevill, 
third earl of Westmoreland built 
south chancel chapel in, 159 ; fit- 
tings in, destroyed to make way for 
organ, 159re 

Brantingham, bishop Beaumont died 
at, 139; church of, conferred on 
master Odo of Kilkenny, 69 

Brass of a priest in St. Andrew Auck- 
land church, 175 ; matrix, 175 

Brayette, 247 

Brignal old church, 39re ; Turner's 
drawing of, 39ft 

Bristol abbey church, choir of, 108 

Brockett, John Trotter, 3 

Brown, William, F.S.A., on lease of 
1517 of property in Corbridge, 283 

Browne, Dr. G. F., on the Bewcastle 
cross, 35/i 

Bruces and Baliols, forfeited posses- 
sions of, acquired by Bek taken 
from him by king, 121?i 

Brus IV., Robert de, built Hartlepool, 

Burgouet, the, 242 

Bury, Richard de, son of sir Richard 
de Aungerville, 140w ; private chap- 
lain to king, appointed bishop of 
Durham, 140 ; consecrated at Chert- 
sey, 141 ; created treasurer of 
England, 14! ; first English biblio- 
maniac, 141 

Byland abbey church, choir of, 108 


Cabasset, the, 242 

Cadbury church, Somersetshire, 61 

Calf of Man, crucifixion on gravestone 

at, 33w 
Callaly castle, picture board dummy 

at, 278 

Cambridge, king's college. 132re 
Carilef, portrait of bishop, 57n 
Carleton, Thomas de, keeper of king's 

privy seal, 137 
Carlisle cathedral church, choir aisle 

windows of, 91 
Carnwath church, 61ft 
Carr MS., the, 9 
Casque, the, 242 
Casquetelle, the, 241 
Castle Dermot, Kildare, cross at, 34 

Cemetery and other lights, 196 

Chain-mail and mixed armour, 212 

Chantries, position of unattached, 

Chester-le- Street, Roman corioded 
iron rings found at, 213 ; 'the new 
bridge ' at, 145ft ; college at, founded 
by bishop Bek, 132 ; prebendaries, 
132; church, 78ft; dimensions of 
chancel of, Ton , pre-conquest cross 
at, 37 ; Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, 
built first church at, 37 

Cirencester, bishop Ruthall of Durham, 
a native of, 164 ; he built St. 
Catherine's chapel inchurch of, 164re 

Claxton, Lancelot, brass of, 176 

Clephan, R. C., notes on defensive 
armour of medieval times and of the 
renaissance, 211; armour belonging 
to, 258 et seq. 

Clifford, Robert de, Hart and Hartness 
conferred on, 124 

Cockfield church, 78, 79 

Coldingham, Henry de Horncastre, 
prior of, 73; Thomas de Melsonby, 
prior of, 69 ; pope begged cell of, for 
his nephew, 122; refused by king, 

Collingham, pre-conquest cross at, 37 

Cologne, bishop Egelwin embarked 
for, 41 

' Colwell-chare,' Corbridge, 284 

Comyn, murder of, 41 

Coniscliffe church, 78ft ; dimensions of 
chancel of, 75 ; stall work at, 151 

Conversion of the Heptarchy, bishop 
Browne's, referred to, 35?* 

Corbridge, streets and roads in, 284 ; 
sixteenth century lease of property 
in, 283 ; St. Mary's church at, 

Cosin's grant of manor of Bondgate to 
St. Andrew Auckland, 167 

Cotterstock, Northants., college of, 201 

Coudieres, 246 

Couton, William de, prior of Durham, 

Coverham church, 40/i 

Crail church, 61 

Craster, Catherine, bequest to, 3 

Croft bridge, 145re 

Croxdale old church, 78ft 

Crucifixion, pre-conquest representa- 
tion of, at St. Andrew's Auckland 
church, 31 ; painting of, at Ant- 
werp, 33ft ; on gravestones at Calf 
of Man and Kirk Michael, Isle of 
Man, 33ft ; Durham chapter house, 
3w ; on Gosforth cross, 33n 

Cuisse, the, 248 




Dalkeith church, 61n 

Dalton-le-Dale church, 7Sn ; dimen- 
sions of chancel of, 76* 

Daniel in den of lions on early 
crosses, 34 

Darliugton church, 78ti; entirely re- 
built. 60 ; dimensions of chancel of, 
75n ; arcades at, 87 ; stall work at, 

Dinsdale church, 78ft 

Dublin, St. Patrick's cathedral church, 
choir of, 108 

Dudley, William, dean of Windsor, 
appointed by pope to see of Durham, 
160; death and burial in West- 
minster abbey, 160; remains of 
monument there, 160 

Dummies, picture board, 278 

Dunglass church, 61 n 

Durham county churches. Saxon wall- 
ing in, 60 ; St. Andrew Auckland 
compared with others, 75 ; dimen- 
sions, 75 ; dimensions of chancels of, 

Durham, monks of Jarrow and Wear- 
mouth removed to, 53; prior and 
convent of, dispute with York arch- 
bishop as to rights, 1 15/t ; archbishop 
excommunicated them, lion; life 
saved by Wycard de Oharrons and 
Peter de Thorsby, 115 ; priors of, 
47 ; Henry de Luceby appointed, 
118; William de Tanfield , 123 ; sub- 
prior and chamberlain of, 70 ; Nor- 
man bishops of, 42 et seq. ; bishop 
Bek buried at, 125; bishop Kellaw 
buried in chapter house at, 136 ; 
grave laid bare in 1874, 136re; heart 
of bishop Stichiil buried at, 73 ; 
bishop Poor not buried, at, but at 
Tarrant, his birthplace, 67re 

Durham cathedral church, vaulting of 
nave wrongly ascribed to Thomas de 
Melsanbi, 71 ; chapter hous", pre- 
conquest stones, 33w 

Durham churches, St. Giles, 7Sn ; St. 
Margaret, 78. ; rent payable at 
altar of St. Thomas in, 283; St. 
Mary in South Bailey, 78n ; St. Mary 
Magdalene, 79; St. Mary-le-Bow, 
7Sn ; St. Oswald's, 78re ; stall work 
at, loin 

Durham bridge, 145 

Durham castle chapel, stall work in, 

Durham ravaged by Malcolm, king of 
Scotland, 41 


Eadbert, bones of, 43 

Eadfrid, bones of, 43 

Eadred, bishop, 41w 

' EaglesclifEe, ' Egglescliffe 'so absurd- 
ly named by railway people/ 78 

Easby abbey, traceried windows of, 
most perfect development in, 114; 
parish church, 39 

Ea^ington church, dimensions of 
chancel of, 75 

Easter Foulis church, 6bt 

Ebchester church, 78 

Ecclesiastical Commissioners, the, and 
Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe, 12 

Edinburgh Holy Trinity church, 61w 

Edward IV. seized temporalities of see 
of Durham, 159 

Efden, Robert de, sub-prior of Dur- 
ham, and others, despatched to papal 
court, 70 

Effigies turned into churchyards or 
'bundled into obscene corners of 
church,' 95; in Auckland St. Andrew 
church, 173 ; in Bedale church, 222 ; 
in Newcastle St. Nicholas's church, 
225 ; in Norton church, 220 ; in 
Whitworth churchyard, 220 

Egelwin, bishop, 41 ; embarks for 
Cologne, 41 ; taken captive, 41 ; 
imprisoned at Abingdon, 41; robber 
of church of Durham, 41 , 42. 

Egglescliffe church, 78 n ; effigy turned 
into churchyard, 95 

Egliston abbey church, 84 ; west side 
of south transept, 83 ; traceried 
windows of, most perfect develop- 
ment in, 114 

Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, built 
first, church at Chester-le-Street, 37 

Elfwin elected prior of Durham, 47 

Eltham, manor of, built by bishop 
Bek, who died there, 124 

Elton church, 7Sn 

Elwick Hall church, 78/t 

Epaulieres and pauldrons, 244 

Escomb church, T9/t: pre-conquest 
cross at, 30 

Ethelwold, bones of, 43 

Even wood, bishop Bek attached manor 
of, to church, 124 

Exeter cathedral church, clustered 
arcade piers of nave of, 112 


Fame, Thomas de Melsonby retired 

to, 70n 
Farnham, Nicholas de, the queen's 

physician, nominated to Durham 


bishopric and consecrated, 71 ; 
resigned, 72 ; died at Stockton, 

Felicissimup, relics of the martyr, 

Felton, John, murdered duke of 
Buckingham, 26 

Fenwick, John, 3, 6 

Ferguson, R. S., F.S.A., picture board 
dummies at Raby and Callaly castles. 

Finchale priory, 86 ; windows, 87 

' Fischambler gat,' Corbridge, 284re 

Fitzherbert, archbishop William, relics 
of, translated, lion; canonization 
of, by pope Nicholas III., lion ; 
head of, kept in a silver-gilt reli- 
quary, 116 

Fordham, John de, canon of York and 
secretary to king, elected bishop of 
Durham and consecrated at Lam- 
beth. 143 ; t-anslated to see of Ely, 
143 ' 

Fotheringay church, Northants., 6ln ; 
college, 202 

Fowke family sold Tynemouth light, 

Fowke, admiral Thorpe, 23 ; George, 
23 ; Mary, second wife of H^nry 
Villiers, 23 ; devised Tynemouth 
lighthouse to her brother and others 
in trust, 23 ; death of, 23 

Fox, Richard, bishop of Bath and 
Wells, translated to Durham, 160 ; 
register of, 161 ; his work at Dur- 
ham, 16 1 ; in chantry at Winches- 
ter, I6ln ; device of, 161/t 

Friarside church, 78 


Gainford, Walbran's History of, 168 
Gainford church, 78w, 79w : pre-con- 

quest cross at, 31. 37 
Garde-de-Reine, the, 247 
Gateshead, murder of Walcher at, 48 ; 

church, 78re 
Gauntlets, 246 
Genouillieres, the, 248 
Glaseney church, Cornwall, 60w ; 

college of, 201 
Glastonbury, choir of abbey church 

of, 108 
Gloucester, choir of Benedictine abbey 

of, 108 

Gorget, the, 242 
Gormor-hal,' Corbridge, 284 
Gosforth (Cumberland) cross, the, 29w, 

33ra, 37 ; Baldr-Odin crucifixion on, 

Gothic armour, 250 

Graystanes. the historian and sub- 
prior, chosen bishop of Durham, 139; 
king refused consent, 140 

Greatham, hospital founded by oishop 
Robert de Stichill. 73 ; church. 78 

Great Malvern abbey church, choir of, 

Grenadiers, picture board dummies of, 
at Raby castle, 278 

Grindon church, 7S 

Gualo of Vercelli, papal legate, 64 

' Gulielmus Ingeniator,' Pudsey's 
architect, 9 


' Haliwerk folk,' men of bishopric not 

bound to go beyond bounds of 

bishopric, 118 
Hallington, lease of, granted to John 

Heron of Chipchase, 283 
Hamsterley church, 78n; a consider- 
able distance from village, 39 
Hart and Hartness conferred on Robert 

de Clifford, 124 
Hart church, 78n ; Saxon walling at, 


Hartburn church, 79 and n 
Hartlepool taken from bishop Bek by 

the king, 121 
Hartlepool church built by Robert de 

BrusIV., 78; walls of, of ashlar, 

Harton bestowed on monks of Durham, 

Haslerigg, sir Arthur, Auckland sold 

to, by parliament, 170 
Hatfield, Thomas de, elected bishop, 


Haughton-le-Skerne church, 78/t, 79/t 
Haunsard, J., manor of Evenwood 

bought by bishop Bek of, 124 
Hay, master Robert de la, despatched 

to Rome, but died on way, 70 
Healing Paiiiament,petition addressed 

to the, by the Newcastle Trinity 

house, 18 

Hebburn bestowed on monks of Dur- 
ham, 47 

Hedworth bestowed on monks, 47 
Heighington church, 78 n ; dimensions 

of chancel of, 75 ; effigy turned into 

churchyard, 95 

Helm, the, 227 ; the great, 240 
Henknoll, Galfrid de, 135 ; Margaret, 

daughter and heir, 135/i 
Henknoll, near Bishop Auckland, 

135/1 ; exchanged by Belassis for 

lands at Wolviston, etc., 135w 
Henry VI. visited St. Cuthbert's shrine. 



Heraldic bearings on armour. 216 

Hereditary priesthood, a married and, 

Hereford cathedral church, choir of, 

Heron, John, of Chipchase, lease of 
Hallington granted to, 283 ; Roger, 
of Halydene, 283 

Hertilpol, Galfrid de, Keverston con- 
ferred on, 124 

Hexham , relics of saints at, 290 ; addi- 
tional miracles attributed to St. 
Acca of, 289 

Hexham church, salade in, 277 

' High end ' window, St. Andrew Auck- 
land church, 194 

Hilton (near Barnard Castle), dese- 
crated chapel of, 78;t, 79re 

History, appeal to, ' heresy and 
treason,' 138 

Hodgson, rev. J. F., on church of St. 
Andrew Auckland, 27 

Holy Island, Henry de Luceby, prior 
of, 118; church, 79 and n 

Hoton, Richard de, dispute between 
him and bishop Bek, 117 

Horncastre, Henry de, prior of Cold- 
ingham, 73 

Hough ton-le- Spring church, dimen- 
sions of chancel of, Ion ; rich arcade 
at, 87 

Howden church made collegiate by 
bishop Stichill, 73 

Hugh, bishop of Ely, indulgence of, 66 

Humez of Brancepeth, effigies in Whit- 
worth churchyard said to be of, 228 

Hurworth church, 79 


Indian armour, 217 

Indulgence for erection of 'Nine 

Altars' in Durham cathedral church, 


Ingham, Norfolk, 61; college at, 204 
Inscription on glass, remains of, St. 

Andrew Auckland church, 135w, 
Insula, Robert de, prior of Finchale, 

chosen for bishopric of Durham, 

113 ; consecrated at York. 113 
Irenaeus, relics of the martyr, 290 
Isaac, sacrifice of, on ancient crosses, 

Italian armour, 257 ; model suit of, 260 


Jamb, the. 248 

Jarrow, monks of, removed to Durham, 
53 ; church, 16n ; dimensions of 
chancel of, 75w ; pre-conquest cross 

at, 36 ; stall work in, 151 ; given to 
Aldwiu, 46 ; vill with its appurten- 
ances bestowed on monks, 46 

Jedburgh abbey, pre-conquest cross 
at, 36 

Jerusalem, bishop Bek advanced by 
pope to patriarchate of, 121 

John, bishop of Norwich, 64 


Kell, William, 6 

Kellaw, Richard de, elected bishop of 
Durham and consecrated at York, 
135 ; died at Bishop Middleham, 
and buried in chapter house at 
Durham, 136 

'Kennet's porch,' St. Andrew Auck- 
land church, 135re 

Keverston conferred on Galfrid de 
Hertilpol, 124 

Kirkham, Walter de, dean of York, 
elected bishop of Durham, 72 ; con- 
secrated in York minster, 72 

Kirk Michael, Isle of Man, sculpture 
of crucifixion at, 33/i 

Kuoll church, Warwickshire, 61 

Kynardesley, John de. 136 


Lady porch, St. Andrew Auckland 
church, 134ft 

Lambeth college, 204 

Lanchester church, 78 ; dimensions 
of chancel of, Ton, 79 ; stall work 
at, 151 ; college, founded by Bek, 
131; prebendaries in, 131 

Langley, cardinal, bishop of Durham, 
146; his work at Galilee, 147ft; his 
alterations at St. Andrew Auck- 
land church, 148; statutes of, for 
Auckland college, 152 

Lawrence of Tunbridge flogged, 70 

Leeds, pre-conquest cross at, 29ft, 37 

' le Flurez,' Corbridge, 285 

Leicester, colleges of St. Mary the 
Greater, 202 ; St. Martin the Less, 

Leigh, William, 23 

Leland's Collectanea quoted, 71tt; 
Itinerary, 27 

Leobwin, 49ft 

Leofwin, body of St. Cuthbert com- 
mitted to care of, 54 

Light, 'growing love for more,' in 
churches, 132ft 

' Lilburn's porch,' St. Andrew Auck- 
land church, 134, 

Lilburn (see Lylborne) 

Lincoln cathedral church, devices on 
portals of, 35ra 



Lindisfarne, destruction of church 
of, 44 

' Lintburn-flat,' Corbridge, 285 and n 

Llandewi-Brefi church, Cardiganshire. 
61 n; college at, 201 

Long Melford church, Suffolk, 132 

Long Newton church, 78n 

Longstaffe, the late W. H. D., obituary 
notice of, 1 ; his History of Dar- 
lington, 2 ; his contributions to 
local history, 13 ; to the Surtees 
Society, 8; to Numismatic Chronicle, 
10 ; discovered name of Pudsey's 
architect, 9 ; and the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, 12 

'Low side ' windows, 196 

Luceby, Henry de, prior of Holy 
Island, appointed prior of Durham. 

Lylborne, Bartholomew, buried in 
*St. Andrew Auckland church, 134w 


Malcolm of Scotland ravaged county 
of Durham, 41 

Mamelieres, examples of, 221 

Man, Isle of, granted to bishop Bek 
by king, 1 25 

Man ley, Peter de, 226 

Manning, cardinal, appeal to history, 
'heresy and treason.' 138 

Marechal, Peter le, effigy of, 225 

Marisco, Richard de, the king's chan- 
cellor, created bishop of Durham, 64 

Marmaduke, John, leader of opposition 
to bishop Bek, 118 

Married and hereditary priesthood, a, 

Marwood, desecrated church of, 78w, 

' Maximilian ' armour, 234, 253 

Medomsley church, 78, 79 ; ' an 
interesting bit of thirteenth-century 
work,' 77 

Melrose abbey church ruined, 47 ; 
choir of, 108 

Melsanbi, Thomas de, chosen by con- 
vent bishop of Durham, 68 ; objected 
to by king, 68 ; for having when 
prior of Coldingham done homage to 
king of Scots, etc., 69 ; guilty of 
simony, 69 ; renounced position of 
bishop, 70 ; retired to Fame, 70 ; 
vaulting of nave of Durham cathe- 
dral church wrongly attributed to, 

Mentonniere, the, 242 

Meredith, Thomas, governor of Tyne- 

mouth castle, 22 
Merrington, destroyed church of, 7Sn 

Messina, Antonello da, picture of 
Crucifixion by, 33ra 

Middleham college, Yorks., 203 

Middleton St. George church, 78n 

M iddleton - in - Teesdale, destroyed 
church of, 78 

Middleton, Gilbert de, took bishop 
Beaumont and others prisoners, 138 

Miracles attributed to St. Acca, 289 

Mitford castle, bishop Beaumont and 
others confined in, 138 

Monasteries, suppression of, 168 

Monkton bestowed on monks of Dur- 
ham, 47 

Monk wear mouth church, 78 n ; given 
to Aldwin, 47 

Morgan, provost of Beverley, 64 

Morion, the, 242 

Morpeth, church of, appropriated to 
chapel of Auckland, 124 ; but re- 
covered by Ralph, son of William, 
lord Greystock, after death of Bek, 

Mortuary roll of prior Wessington, 

Munich, 'Maximilian' armour at, 253 


Naworth castle, armour at, 267 ; 
' Belted Will ' Howard's armour at, 

Netley, choir of Cistercian abbey of, 

Neverne, pre-conquest cross at, 29 

Nevill, John lord, chancel of Brance- 
peth church constructed by, 77 ; 
Ralph de, leader of opposition to 
bishop Bek, 118; Ralph, third earl 
of Westmorland, married Margaret 
Booth, sister of bishop Booth, 159 ; 
built south chancel chapel in Brance- 
peth church, 1 59ra ; Eobert, bishop 
of Durham, 157; built exchequer 
office at Durham, 157 ; benatura 
with arms of, 158 : buried in Galilee, 
158; effigy of, 159 

Newark college, Leicester, 202 

Newcastle antiquaries, 3 

Newcastle castle, armour in, 266, 277; 
chain-mail in, 218 ; elbow gauntlets 
in, 246 

Newcastle St. Nicholas's church, effigy 
in, 225 ; twelfth-century embedded 
cap and pier in, 60/t 

Newcastle Trinity house, built two 
towers at North Shields, 16 ; letter 
addressed to the ' Healing Parlia- 
ment ' concerning Tynemouth light, 

Newfield, one of Pollard's estates, 173/t 



Newton college, Cambridgeshire, 203 
'Nine Altars.' chapel of, in Durham 
cathedral church, 66 ; ' crowning 
glory of thirteenth-century archi- 
tecture in north,' 66; indulgence 
for erection, 66 

Nonsuch house, windows of, 133w 
Norhill church, Bedfordshire, 61w 
Northallerton, the MaisonDieu at, 206 
Northumberland, fourth earl of, armet 
over tomb of, in Beverley minster, 
Norton church, 78rc; Saxon walling 

at, 60//. ; effizy in. 220 
Norton Soupecurs, Norfolk, college of, 


Notes on armour by R. C. Clephan, 21 1 
Nottingham St. Mary's church, 132 
Nunnykirk, Saxon cross at, 37 


Obituary notices : Longstaffe. W. H. 

D., 1 ; Philipson. John, 207 
Old Sarum, site of, 65 ; abandoned by 

bishop Poor, 65 
Osuna suit of armour, 260 
Oswald, king and martyr, head of, 43 


Padstow, college of St. Kauntoc, near, 


Palettes, roundels, or discs, 245 
Palmer, Charles, 23 
Papal morality, 64 
' Pas ' on pre-Conquest cross at St. 

Andrew Auckland church, 33 
' Pelican in her piety,' device of bishop 

Fox of Durham, 16lw 
Penkridge college, Staffordshire, 202 
Penrith taken from bishop Bek, 124 
Percy, sir Alan, 16 
Persian armour, 217 
Person, Robert, of Middleton, buried 

in St. Andrew Auckland church, ' ny 

to the ladi Porche,' 134ra 
Philipson, John, obit uary notice of, 207 
Piccinii.o, Lucio, Milan armourer, 256 
Pictavia, Philip de, bishop of Durham, 

63 ; excommunication of, 63 ; buried 

in unconsecrated ground, 63 
' Pilgrimage of Grace,' 167 - 
Pilkingtou, James, the first Protestant 

bishop of Durham, consecrated, 169 
Pittington church, destroyed chancel 

of, 78 ; dimensions of chancel of, 


Plate armour, 229 
Pleshey college, Essex, 203 
' Pollard's den ' or ; dene,' 173 

Poor, Richard, bishop of Salisbury, 
native of Tarrant, Dorsetshire, 66 ; 
began Salisbury cathedral church, 
65 ; elected bishop of Durham, 65 ; 
built new chapel of ' Nine Altars ' at 
Durham, 66 ; buried at Tarrant, 67- 

' Poor souls lights,' 199 

Pope Clement V. advanced bishop 
Bek to patriarchate of Jerusalem, 
121 ; Innocent III., interdict of, 63 ; 
Nicholas III. canonized archbishop 
William Fitzherbert, 1 15 ; taxation 
of, and Auckland college, 131 

Poultney, college of St. Lawrence, 204 

Pre-Conquest, walling in Durham 
county churches, 60re ; relics at 
church of St. Andrew Auckland. 
28 ; at Bakewell, 35? ; at Bewcastle, 
35 ; at Bradbourne, 3ow ; at Chester- 
le-Street, 37 ; at Durham, 3Hw : 
at Gainford, 37 ; at Gosforth, Cum- 
berland, 29, 33/t ; at Hexham, 
3fi ; at Isle of Man, 33; at Jarrow, 
36; at Jedburgh, 36; at Leeds, 
Raistrick, etc., 29 ; at Nunnykirk, 
37 ; at Sheffield, 35 

Preston (Simonside), etc., bestowed on 
monks of Durham, 47 

Priesthood, congregation of St. Cuth- 
bert, a married and hereditary, 45 

Pysana, Antolini de, a foreigner, 
monks refused to elect, to bishopric 
of Durham, 136 


Raby castle, picture board dummies 
at, 278 

Raistrick, pre-conquest cross at, 29w 

Raymond de la Goth, the pope's 
'nephew,' 122; created cardinal, 
122; king refused to give him cell 
of Coldingham, 122 

Redmarshall church, 78 

Reinfrid, founded brotherhood at 
Wbitby, 47 

Relics of archbishop William Fitz- 
herbert and St. Hugh of Lincoln 
translated, 116 

Reliquary, silver gilt, containing head 
of archbi*hop William Fitzherbert, 
' greatest treasure of church of York,' 

Rerebrace, the, 246 

Restalrig church, 61 

Rhys, prof., on name of Auckland, 28 

Richard, dean of Salisbury, 64 ; fitz 
Ralph, archbishop of Armagh. 141 ; 
prior of Durham and monks 
blockaded by bishop Bek, 118 ; im- 
prisoned by bishop, 119 ; escape of 



119; bishop cited to appear before 
Roman curia, 120 ; pope revoked 
deprivation and restored prior, 120 

Richmond palace, windows of, 133 

Ripon minster, 205 ; built by Koger 
de Pont 1'Eveque, 106 ; group of 
vaulting shafts of choir ' purely and 
whollv French,' 106 ; mouldings in, 
109, 113 

Rokeby church, 39 

Roman station of Binchester, 27 

Romsey abbey church, choir of, 108 

Roslin church, 6ln 

Rossiter, Arabella, married Henry 
Villiers, 23 

* Royal Mary,' the name of a Scottish 
ship, 21 

Rushford, Norfolk, 61 n 

Rushyford, bishop Lewis Beaumont 
and cardinals taken prisoners at, 

Rut-hall, Thomas, dean of Salisbury, a 
native of Cirencester, 164 ; ap- 
pointed by papal bull to see of 
Durham, 164 ; died at Durham 
palace and buried in Westminster 
abbey, 164 ; tomb of, 164 

Ruthin church, Denbighshire, &ln 

Ryton church, 78n ; dimensions of 
chancel of, 7~m 


St. Aidan, bones of, 43 

St. Acca, miracles attributed to, 289 

St. Andrew Auckland church (see 

Auckland St. Andrew) 
St. Babylas of Antioch, relics of, 290 
St. Cuthbert, congregation of, a married 

and hereditary priesthood, 45; his 

body committed to care of Leofwin, 

54; shrine of, visited by Henry VI., 

' St. Cuthbert's porch.' St. Andrew 

Auckland church, Id4w 
St. David's cathedral church, choir of, 

St. Edmundsbury, bishop Bury took 

his name from, 140 
St. Faith, relics of, 290 
St. Felicitas, relics of, 290 
St. Germanus, relics of, 290 
St. Helens Auckland (see Auckland 

St. Helens) 
St. Hugh of Lincoln, cost of translating 

relics of, 116 
SS. Marcus and Marcellinus. relics 

of, 290 

St. Monans church, 6 In 
SS. Peter and Paul, effigies of, 34 
St. Wilfrid, death of, at Oundle, 289 

St. William of York ' poisoned in the 

chalice,' 123 
Salade, 241 ; late fifteenth-century, in 

Hexham church, 277 
Salisbury cathedral church, 78 ; 

erection of, by bishop Poor, 65 ; 

college of St. Edmund's at, 201 
Salzburg, armour of bishop of, 256, 257 
' Scamylgate/ Corbridge. 284 
Scottish churches, a remarkable pecu- 
liarity of, 61 
Screens generally destroyed in 

churches, 94 
Seaham church, 78n 
Sedgefield church. 7Sti ; dimensions of 

chancel of, 75n 
Sele house armour, the, 264 
Seton church, Qln 
Sever, William, bishop of Carlisle, 

translated to Durham, 163 ; death, 


Sharp, sir Cuthbert, 3 
Sheffield, pre-conquest cross at, 35 
Sherborne abbey church, choir of, 


Sherwood, John, archdeacon of Rich- 
mond, etc., appointed to see of 

Durham by the pope, 160 ; death, 


Shields, 249 
Shields, North, two towers built at, 

by Newcastle Trinity house, 16 
Shields, South, iron rings of Roman 

chain-mail found at, 213 
Shincliffe bridge constructed by bishop 

Skirlawe, 144 

Shottesbrooke church, Berkshire, 61n 
Sibthorpe college, Nottinghamshire, 


Sigmaringen, suit of armour at, 251 
Simonburn church taken from bishop 

Bek, 124 
Skirlawe, Walter, translated to see of 

Durham, 144 ; constructed Yarm 

and Shincliffe bridges, 144 
Smuggling, charge of, against colonel 

Henry Villiers, 20 
Sockburn church, 78n 
Sollerets, 248 
Somerton castle, near Lincoln, built 

by bishop Bek, 124 
Souter point lighthouse, 24 
Southwell, Robert de Stichill, bishop 

of Durham, consecrated at, 73 ; 

made Howden church collegiate, 

Southwick, vill of, given to Aldwin, 


Spilsby, college of, 201 
Stafford, college of St. Mary's at, 





Staindrop church, 78w, 87 ; dimensions 
of chancel of, 75 ; Saxon walling at, 
60; stall work at, 151n; college, 

Stainton-le- Street church, 78n 

Stall work in Durham county churches, 

Stanford, Henry de, prior of Finchale, 
chosen by monks bishop of Dur- 
ham, 137 ; not agreed to, 137 

Stanhope church, 78n ; Cuthbert Tun- 
stall, rector of 166 

Startforth church, 39w 

Stichill, Robert de, prior of Finchale, 
73 ; elected bishop of Durham, 72 ; 
consecrated at Southwell, 73 ; 
founded Greatham hospital, 73 ; 
re-edified St. Andrew Auckland 
church, 74; died at Arbreules, 
France, 73 ; heart buried at Dur- 
ham, 73 ; William de, archdeacon 
of Worcester, nominated bishop of 
Durham, t!5 ; quashed by pope, 65 

Stockton, bishop Nicholas de Farn- 
ham died at, 72 

Stranton church, 78w; dimensions of 
chancel of, 75?i 


Taces, 247 

Tamworth college, Staffordshire, 205 

Tanfield, William de, appointed prior 

of Durham, 128 
Tarrant, Dorsetshire, bishop Poor, a 

native of. 66 : he endowed convent 

at, 67 ; buried at. 67w 
Tassets. 247 
Tattershall church, Lincolnshire, 61ft ; 

college. 202 
Taylor, rev. Isaac, on word ' Auck- 

land,' 28 

Theban legion, massacie of the, 290 
' Thirteen,' the number, 201 
Thornbury castle, bow-windows in, 

Titchfield church, Hants., 61w 

Tombs, destruction of, 170-w, 

Tong church, Shropshire, 61w; college 

of, 205 
Topping, captain John, deputy 

governor of Tynemouth castle, letter 

of. 16, 18 

Tournament, the, 236 
Trajan, representation of armour on 

column of, 212 
Transepts ' never formed part of plan 

of our ancient parish churches,' 94 
Transfiguration, pre-conquest repre- 

sentation of , at Auckland St. Andrew 

church, 30 
Trimdon church, 78 

Trinity house of London, act for 
vesting lighthouses in, 24 ; purchase 
of Tynemouth light, 24 

Trinity, representations of the, 181 et 

Tuilles, 247 

Tunstall, Cuthbert. son of Thomas of 
Hackforth, Richmondshire, rector of 
Stanhope, presented to see of Dur- 
ham by papal bull, 166 ; works of r 
166 ; accepted royal supremacy, 167; 
deprived, 169 

Turgot, prior of Durham, 55 ; com- 
menced to rebuild church. 55 

Tynemouth castle, Villiers family 
governors of, 15 ; lieutenant-gover- 
nors of, 15 ; Henry Villiers, governor 
of, 20 ; charge of smuggling against, 
the proceedings, 20 ; Thomas Mere- 
dith, governor. 23 ; Henry Villiers, 
grandson of sir Edward, appointed 
lieutenant-governor of, 23 ; gover- 
nor's house built, 16 ; John Topping, 
deputy governor, letter of, 16 

Tynemouth church, vestry proceed- 
ings, 21 

Tynemouth lighthouse, Villiers family 
owners of, 15; earliest historical 
mention of, 16 ; granted to Edward 
Villiers by letters patent, 1 8 ; Mary 
Fowke devised to her brother and 
others in trust, 23 ; colour of light 
changed, 24 ; shattered by gun firing, 


Upsedlington. Robert de, arid others, 
despatched to papal court, 70 


Vambrace. the, 246 

Vesci, William de, A In wick castle 
bestowed on bishop Bek in trust for 
son of, 124 

Villiers family, the, as governors of 
Tynemouth castle and owners of 
the lighthouse, 15 ; connexion of r 
with Villiers, duke of Buckingham, 

Villiers, first duke of Buckingham, 
murder of, 26 

Villiers, sir Edward, governor of Tyne- 
mouth castle and Clifford's fort, 15 ; 
married lady Frances Howard, 15 ; 
children of, 15; governor's house 
built in time of, 16; by ietiers 
patent Tynemouth light granted 
to, 18 ; applied for increased 
loll, 19; death and burial of, 19; 
Henry, son of. 20 ; Henry, grandson 



of, appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Tynemouth castle, 23 ; married 
Arabella Rossiter, 23; and Mary 
Fowke, 23; his attempt to obtain 
increased dues, 23 ; death, 23 
Villiers, colonel, a son of, appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Tynemouth 
castle, 22 ; colonel Henry, governor 
of Tynemouth castle and Clifford's 
fort, 15 ; appointed governor of 
Tynemouth castle, 20 ; daughter of 
baptized in Tynemouth church, 20 ; 
charge of smuggling against, 20 ; 
took part in proceedings of Tyne- 
mouth vestry, 21 ; death and burial 
of, 21 


Walcher of Lorraine, first Norman 
bishop of Durham, 42 ; murder of, 

Wallingford college. Berkshire, 205 

Walwayn, John, chaplain to earl of 
Hereford, 137 

Walworth chapel desecrated, 78n 

Wark in Tyndale, taken from bishop 
Bek. 124 

Wearmouth, vill of, given to Aldwin, 
49 ; monks removed to Durham, 53 

Welford, Richard, obituary notice of 
W. H. D. Longstaffe, V.P., 1 ; 
obituary notice of John Philipson, 
V.P., 207 

Wells, episcopal palace at, 78w ; chapel 
and great hall, 78/t ; cathedral 
church, choir of, 108; vicars' col- 
lege, 205 

Wessington, prior, mortuary roll of, 

Westminster : abbey, 109 ; remains of 
binhop Dudley's monument in, 160 ; 
college of St. Stephen's at, 201 

Westoe bestowed on monks of Dur- 
ham, 47 

Wetheral, prior of, appointed prior of 

Durham, 123 
Whickham church, 78 
Whitburn church, 78n, 79w 
Whitby, brotherhood founded at, by 

Reinfrid, 47 
Whittingham, dean of Durham,. 

icouoclasm of, 170 
Whitworth church, 78; effigies in 

churchyard, 220, 228 
Whorlton, church destroyed at, 78n 
William of St. Calais, bishop of Dur- 
ham, 49 
Wimborne collegiate church, Dorset,. 


Winchcomb, Aldwin, prior of, 45 
Winchester cathedral church, choir of, 

108 ; bishop Fox's chantry at, 161 ;. 

Elizabeth college, 203 ; college of 

St. Cross, 206 
Windsor castle, bow- windows in, 133 ; 

St. George's chapel at, 132, 201 
Wingfield college. Suffolk, 205 
Winston church, 7Sn 
Witton Gilbert church, 78n 
Witton-le-Wear church, 78n 
Wolsey, cardinal, appointed by papal 

bull to see of Durham, 165 ; trans- 
lated to Winchester, 165 
Wolsingham, destroyed church of, 78w 
Wolviston, lands at, exchanged for 

Henknoll, 135 
Wycliffe church, 39 


Yarm bridge constructed by bishop 

Skirlawe, 144 
York, migration of monks from Whitby 

to, 47 ; college of St. Mary at, and 

the Holy Angels, 201 
Yorkshire churches, advowsons of, 

conceded to king by prior Thomas- 

de Melsonby, 69 


DA Archaeologia aeliana