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List of Plates, etc v 

Contributions of Photographs, etc vi 

Annual Report for 1899 ... vii 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet for 1899 x 

Curators' Report for 1899 xiii 

Gifts to Museum in 1899 xiii 

Council arid Officers for 1900 xv 

Honorary Members ... .. ... xvi 

Ordinary Members ... xvii 

Societies exchanging Publications xxvi 

Statutes ... s . xxviii 

Certificate of Registration xxxiii 

I. Notes on Four Basket-hilted Swords belonging to the Society. 

By Parker Brewis ... ... ... ... 1 

II. Jean Bart's Descent on the Coast of Northumberland in 1691. By 

William Weaver Tomlinson 12 

III. An Old Local Family's Estate. By Philip E. Mather 20 

IV. Jarrow Church and Monastery. By the Rev. H. E. Savage, Hon. 

Canon of Durham, and Vicar of St. Hild's, South Shields ... 30 

V. Coquetdale Notes on the Old Northumberland Militia. By D. D. 

Dixon ... ... 61 

VI. Obituary Notices of Deceased Members : 

1. The late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, V.P. By F. W. Dendy ... 72 

2. The late R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle. 

By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., etc 75 

VII. Ednmndbyers. By the Rev. Walker Featherstonhaugh, rector 

of Edmundbyers 79 

VIII. Proofs of Age of Heirs to Estates in Northumberland in the 
reigns of Henry IV., Henry V., aDd Henry VI. By J. C. 
Hodgson, F.S. A ... ng 

Index ... 131 


I. Four Old Swords in the Castle of Newcastle ... ... facing 1 

II. The East View of Widdrington Castle in Northumber- 
land (Buck's) 16 

II. Plan of Green's Estate at South Shields 26 

III. St. Paul's Church, Jarrow, looking west 38 

IV. Plan of Section of St. Paul's Church, Jarrow, 1769 ... 42 

V. Buck's View of Jarrow Monastery ... ... ... 50 


VIII. Portrait of the late Sheriton Holmes, V.P ,. 72 

IX. Portrait of the late Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A. ... ., 75 

Y Bench Ends in Jarrow Church ... 58 


The Descent of Green of Wilby, Suffolk .. 28 



Belsay Castle ... ... xxvii 

Old Swords in the Castle, Newcastle 2,3,4,9 

A Schiavona 1 

A ' Ferara ' Sword-mark ... ... ... ... ... 5 

A Shotley Bridge Sword-mark 5 


Roman Inscriptions 31 and 32 

Dedication Stone ... ... 34 

Pre-Conquest Inscriptions 35 

Baluster Shafts in North Porch of Church 40 

Pre-Conquest Sculptured Stones 46,47,48 

' Bede's Chair ' 50 

Tower of Church 60 

Window in Tower ... 52 

South-west Corner of Chancel 56 

Remains of Monastery 57 



Thanks are given to the following : 

Brewis, Mr. Parker, for the photographs illustrating his paper on Swords, 
pp. 1 11 ; and for those from which the blocks on pp. 40 and 50 
are taken. 

Dean and Chapter of Durham, for permission to use the illustration at top 
of p. 46. 

Mather, Mr. Philip E., for plan facing p. 26. 

Petree, Mr. J., for photographs from which the blocks on pp. 34, 35, 46, 47, 
56 and 60, and plates 3, 6 and 7, have been taken. 

Ruddock, Mr. R., for photograph of the late Mr. Sheriton Holmes, and 
permission to reproduce it. 

Savage, Rev. H. E., for photograph and reproduction of Jarrow dedication 
stone, p. 34, and for photograph of plate IV. 

Scott, Messrs., of Carlisle, for permission to make use of their photograph 
of the late Chancellor Ferguson. 

The illustrations on pp. 47 and 48 are from photographs by Mr. W. 



^ocietg of 




Our last annual report contained the announcement that the 
society had held its meetings for fifty years within the walls of the 
tower of the castle of Newcastle- upon-Tyne, and suggested a suitable 
commemoration of the event. This was fittingly celebrated on the 
first of August last, and the occasion was not only memorable in 
itself, but was made especially interesting by the presence, for the 
first time as our president, of his Grace the Duke of Northumber- 
land, E.G. The pleasure manifested throughout, and the successful 
character of the gathering were largely due to the interesting presi- 
dential address and to the cordiality which characterized the conduct 
of the proceedings following it. These included a technical descrip- 
tion of the structure by our vice-president, Mr. Bates. 

In addition to the regular monthly meetings of the society, a 
successful series of out-door meetings has b,een held. They have 
included visits to (1) Croft, Hurworth, Sockburn, Dinsdale, and 
Middleton ; (2) Rothbury, Alnham, and Whittingham ; (3) Stam- 
fordham, Belsay, Whalton, and Ponteland ; besides afternoon meetings 
at (1) Jarrow and South Shields ; (2) Hirst, Woodhorn, and New- 
biggin ; and (3) the armoury at Southdene Tower. Members present 
were further indebted to the excellent leadership and instructive 
papers contributed by Dr. Eastwood, Mr. D. D. Dixon, the Rev. John 
Walker, Mr. W. W. Tomlinson, and Mr. R. 0. Clephan. 

The issue of Archaeologia Aeliana during the year comprises an 
entire volume of 354* pages of text. Its contents embrace (1) an illus- 
trated catalogue of the recent exhibition of Newcastle plate, enhanced 
by an explanatory introduction from the pen of Mr. Thomas Taylor 

* xxxiv. and 320 (including index). 



and Mr. L. W. Adamson ; (2) Mr. Hodgkin's striking reading of the 
Caervoran inscription ; (3) the Eev. H. E. Savage's elucidation of the 
early history of Northumbria ; (4) a description of Doddington bastle- 
house by Mr. W. H. Knowles ; (5) a biography of the Eev. E. H. 
Adamson by our vice-president, Mr. "Richard Welford ; and (6) the 
three important papers bearing upon local history in the period of 
the Civil War by Mr. C. S. Terry. The publication carries the new 
series of the Archaeologia Aeliana to its twenty-first volume. 

The society's publications include 186 pages of Proceedings, with a 
further issue of such sheets of Elsdon parish register as were already 
in type at the beginning of the year. The visitors' Guide to the Castle 
and Black Gate has also been issued, and has met with a gratifying 
success, about one-half of the edition having already been sold. 

The publications by individual members possess a noteworthy 
interest in the past year. They include the second and concluding 
volume of the Records of the Merchant Adventurers of 'Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, edited by Mr. F. W. Dendy for the Surtees Society ; the 
extracted records and the scholarly introduction appeal to the local 
historian and genealogist, and not to them only, for the student of 
our merchant guilds and trading systems will find these volumes 
indispensable to his pursuit. Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson has com- 
pleted the fifth volume of the Northumberland County History. The 
fact that "Warkworth is the centre of the district dealt with in this 
section of the work is of itself sufficient to arouse the keenest interest. 
Such high anticipation has been more than realized in the indefatigable 
and excellent work of its editor, who is to be congratulated upon the 
progress made in this great undertaking. In the description of Wark- 
worth castle, Mr. Bates has been able to supplement the account which 
he had already given to us in Border Holds by interesting details from 
the Percy archives. Mr. Hodgkin, too, has completed his Italy and 
Her Invaders. The eight volumes of this work represent the arduous 
labour of its author extended over a period of nearly a quarter of a 
century, and, notwithstanding this protracted strain, the effort has 
been sustained to the end with unflagging vigour and vivid interest. 
The acclamation with which Mr. Hodgkin has been welcomed to a 
place in the front rank of living historians is a tribute to which the 
members of your council join their hearty congratulations. 


It is with deep regret that your council has received an intimation 
from the treasurer of the society that it is his intention to resign his 
post in consequence of ill health. Of Mr. Sheriton Holmes's services it 
is impossible to speak too highly. They have extended over ten years, 
during which he has devoted unceasing attention to the administra- 
tion of the finances of the society. On his accession to the office, the 
method of account-keeping was of a primitive character, and he 
not only reorganized this, but made his annual statements models of 
lucidity and accuracy. It is our earnest hope that the well-earned 
rest may bring alleviation by which the presence and prompting of 
our honoured vice-president may long be spared to us. In this connex- 
ion the council has received a letter from Mr. Holmes containing some 
valuable suggestions for the future working of the treasurer's office. 
The letter itself will appear, in the usual course, in the Proceedings, 
but it may be mentioned that Mr. Holmes has introduced the following 
improvements in the society's book-keeping : (1) A book containing 
the list of the members complete to date, with the payments columned 
and dated so that it may be seen at a glance what members have paid, 
for what year and at what date ; (2) a register of the deliveries by Mr. 
Gibson of the parts of the Archaeologia Aeliana ; (3) a record of our 
stock of publications ; and (4) the issue to the members of printed 
slips soliciting payment of the subscriptions through their bankers. 

The following is the 

to 31st December, 1899, presented to us : 

" The number of members is now 350, the losses during the year 
having been 18 and the gains 14. The number of life members is 
four, including Mr. Bertram Savile Ogle, who has paid his composition 
of twelve guineas for the same. This sum has been paid into the 
Post Office Savings Bank to the credit of the capital account, in 
accordance with the council's order of the year 1890 to that effect. 

The total revenue for the year has been 538 15s. 9d., and the 
expenditure 552 7s. 4d., showing an expenditure over the receipts of 
13 11s. 7d. This condition of accounts seems to have become of a 
normal character, for with one exception the expenses have overrun 
the receipts every year since 1893, and the total sum so over expended 
in that time is 219 18s. 4d. 

The book balance at the present time shows on the debtor side 
550 2s. Od. and on the creditor 552 7s. 4d., so that instead of 
being, as in former years, in possession of good balances at the year's 
end, we now stand indebted to the bank for 2 5s. 4d. 

The Castle receipts have been 120 3s. Id., about 10 more than 
last year, but the expenses show an increase of about the same sum. 
The Black Gate receipts have been 25 5s. lid., about 20s. more 
than last year, but there has been considerably less expended upon 
it, so that taking the two places together there is a balance to the 
good of 26 16s. 5d. 

The printing of the Archaeologia Aeliana has cost 141 14s. 6d. 
This is 41 14s. 6d. over the amount allotted for it by the council, 
and there is also an over expenditure on the Proceedings of 20. The 
item for illustrations is, however, considerably less. 

The item of sundries, 116 12s. 10d., includes the cost of the 
conversazione held in the Castle on the first of August last, viz., 
20 6s. 5d., on account of which there was received only 8 4s. 6d. 
from the sale of tickets. Also there is an item of 14 11s. 9d., the 
cost of the overprints of the Plate Catalogue for distribution to 
exhibitors. The printing of the Castle and Black Gate Guide cost 
11 15s. Od. These have had a ready sale, 500 of the 1,000 printed 
having been sold during the past nine months. 

Another edition of this work will probably become necessary, in 
which case the charge for it should be raised to 6d., as the 4d. now 
charged does not quite meet the cost. The price was kept small so as 
to induce a ready sale, and by that means bring the Black Gate more 
into public notice. As yet, however, the receipts for entrance do not 
appear to have responded to it." 

Sheriton Holmes, treasurer, in account with the Society of Antiquaries 
of Neivcastle-upon-Tyne. 

DECEMBER 31sT, 1899. 

Receipts. Expenditure. 

s. d. s. d. 

Balance on January 1st, 1899 11 6 3 

Members' Subscriptions 352 14 

Books 32 8 3 30 8 7 

Carried forward ...396 86 30 8 7 


Brought, forward 

... 396 
... 120 






Black Gate 






1 1 

Archaeolooia Aelianct 













Sundries ... ... ... ... ... 










Secretary (clerical assistance) 












Capital Hccoimt. 

1899, December 31. Invested in Consols 
Dividends and Interest 

... 42 
... 23 









Examined with the Vouchers and found correct, 

Chartered Accountants. 
13th January, 1900. 

s. d. 

21 12 

2 15 



1 15 2 


37 7 11 


of Bspen&fture. 

















Water Rate ... 


Water Rate 










Book Closet 




Income Tax ... 



Sundries : Brushes, 

Candles, etc. 



Coal ... 








Subscriptions to Societies 

s, d. 

Surtees Society 


Harleian Society 


Parish Register Society 

...... 110 

North, and Durham Parish 

Register Society ... 010 6 

Oxford English Dictionary and English Dialect Dictionary 
Amateur Antiouarv 

s. d. 

3 13 
5 2 

Carried forward 

7 12 1 


Brought forward ... 

7 12 


Ephemeris Epigraphica (vol. viii. pt. 3) 



Roman Ribchester 


Laing's Calendar... 

1 2 

Feudal Aids (vol. i.) .. 


Antiquary ... ... ... ... ... ... ' ... 


Imperial German Archaeological Society's year-book 



Year-book of Societies ... 



Gardener's Armour 


Bateson's Records of Leicester ... 

1 5 

Hodgkin's Walls of Rome 


Catalogue of Sculptured Stones in Durham Cathedral Library 


Atkinson, Memorials of Old Whitby ... 



Calendar of State Papers Clias. I. (vols. xvii.-xviii.) 1 10 

Do. do. Cromwell (vols. viii.-xi.) 300 

Do. do. William III. (vol. ii.) ... 015 

Do. do. Geo. III. (vols. ii. and iii.) 1 10 

Home Office Papers 15 



7 10 


30 8 7 


A. Reid & Co., for sundries 61410 

G. Nicholson, for general printing ... 29 9 6 

Dotchin, for sundries ... ... ... ... ... ... 064 

Postage and carriage of parcels ... ... 10 10 

Secretary's out of pocket expenses ... ... ... ... 15 8 8 

Treasurer's do. do. ... ... 310 

Brass Plate for the Woodman Case 1 10 6 

Aesica Excavation rent to tenant (for two years) 220 

Chequebook 050 

Catalogue of Silver Plate for distribution to exhibitors ... 14 11 9 

Simpson, printing Guide Book to Castle and Black Gate ... 1115 

95 5 5 

Expenditure attendant upon the Conversazione held in the 

Castle on 1st August, 1899 : s. d. 

Pumphrey, for provisions, coffee, etc. ... ... .. 800 

Simpson, for dais, etc ... ... ... ... ... 10 2 11 

Lettering of direction cards .; 15 

Sundry payments by Mr. Heslop ... ... ... 156 

Police 030 

20 6 5 


The following is the 


for the year 1899 : 

The museum of the society has, in the past year, received contri- 
butions from fourteen donors. Four of the objects presented are 
of prehistoric character, two belong to medieval times, and the 
remainder may be described as antique. Compared with the acces- 
sions of the previous year, when six presentations only were made, the 
list appended shows a satisfactory increase. It will also be seen that 
the names of donors include many who are not members, a fact which 
affords a gratifying example of the wide public interest shown in the 
operations of our society. 

By permission of Mr. J. B. Clayton a loan collection of miscel- 
laneous articles, found during the recent excavations at Housesteads 
(JBorcovicuB)) has been exhibited during the past year, in the Black 
Gate museum. In this the society is under an obligation to Mr. 
Clayton for a privilege which has been greatly appreciated. Thanks 
are also due to Mr. E. 0. Bosanquet, who arranged and classified 
these relics of the Roman occupation of which he was the discoverer. 
The show case in which the objects are exhibited has been added 
to the possessions of the society. Two similar cases had already been 
placed on the floor of the Roman room, and this one completes a set 
of three table-stands with air-tight cases for the preservation and 
display of fragile and valuable Roman antiquities. All these have 
been specially designed for their purpose and presented to the society 
by Mr. C. J. Spence, a vice-president. 

Your curators gladly acknowledge the services rendered by Mr. 
J. Gibson, the warden of the Castle, to whom they are indebted, not 
only for his unremitting supervision but for the assistance which his 
experience renders most valuable. 


Jan. 25. From Mr. ROBERT NEWTON, Gosforth : A stone axe-hammer, found 
at the Whaggs, Whickham, in an excavation made in August, 1898 
(Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 2). 
From Mr. ROBERT BLAIR, F.S.A., secretary : An eighteenth-century 

dress-sword of Chinese origin (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 2). 

Mar. 29. From Mr. D. D. DIXON, Kothbury : A leaden mould for making a 
single candle ; a tin grouped-mould for six candles ; two scythe 


cradles, used in mowing ; a hearth spit for cooking collops ; bake- 

sticks, formerly used for ' soaking ' barley bannocks (Proceedings, 

vol. ix. p. 18). 
Apr. 26. From Mr. LAURENCE JOHNSON: A celt of polished syenite, found 

at Greenfield, Northroe, Northmavine, Shetland ; length, 9 inches ; 

greatest width, 3 inches (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 23). 
May 31. From Mr. G. H. THOMPSON, Baileygate, Alnwick : An iron trap, for 

large animals (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 39). 
From Mr. W. H. KENWICK : An illustration of early steam-tug on 

the river Tyne, with an account of the originator of steam towage 

framed (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 39). 
From Mr. CHARLES CARVER : A leaden badge, for house front, used 

by the Newcastle Fire Office, taken from Old Windmill, Windmill 

Hills, Gateshead (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 39). 
From Mr. SHERITON HOLMES, treasurer : Patten ring clogs and 

jointed clogs, formerly worn below the shoes (Proceedings, 

vol. ix. p. 39). 
Aug. 30. From Mr. G. FORSTER, 27 Orchard Terrace, Lemington-on-Tyne : 

A bronze socketted celt, 3^ inches long by 2 inches across the 

cutting face, dredged from the river Tyne at NeTvburn (Proceedings, 

vol. ix. pp. 102 and 139). 
,, From Mr. SHERITON HOLMES, treasurer : A sculptured stone 

pedestal, of unknown origin, purchased by Colonel Swan in North 

Shields. The sculptured panels on three of the faces are suggestive 

of its use as part of a tombstone or as the shaft of a sundial 

(Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 140). 
Sep. 27. From Alderman T. G. GIBSON : An axe of jade, measuring 5 inches 

long by 2| inches wide, found on the farm of Mr. P. H. Gibson 

at Pahi, in the Southern island of New Zealand (Proceedings, 

vol. ix. p. 149). 
From Mr. JOHN GIBSON, warden of the Castle : A pair of steel 

spurs, formerly used for attachment to the legs of fighting-cocks 

(Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 149). 

Oct. 25. From Mr. T. W. MARLEY : Cast of seal of Henry, earl of West- 
morland, attached to an indenture dated 1564 (Proceedings, 

vol. ix. pp. 96, 102, 152). 
From Mr. PARKER BREWIS : A sword hilt, with fragmentary blade, 

of seventeenth or early eighteenth century date, from the collection 

of the late J. R. Wallace of Distington, Cumberland (Proceedings, 

vol. ix. p. 152). 



patron an& president 











































1ST MARCH, 1900. 


Date of Election. 
1855 Jan. 3 

1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1888 Jan. 25 
1892 Jan. 27 

1892 May 25 
1896 Oct. 28 

J. J. Howard, LL.D., F.S.A., Mayfield, Orchard Road, Blackheath, 


Professor Emil Hiibner, LL.D., Ahornstrasse 4, Berlin. 
Professor Mommsen, Marchstrasse 8, Charlottenburg bei Berlin. 
Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 
Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 

Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 
Gerrit As"sis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 
Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 
David Mackinlay, 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow. 
General Pitt- Rivers, F.S.A., Rushmore, Salisbury. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c., &c., Nash Mills, Hemel 


Professor Karl Zangemeister, Heidelberg. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confrerie 5, Ghent, Belgium. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1900.) 



The sign * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, 
f that the member is one of the Council. 

Date of Election. 
1885 Mar. 25 

1883 Aug. 29 

1873 July 

1892 Aug. 31 
1885 Oct. 28 

1895 July 31 

1885 June 24 

1886 Jan. 27 

1898 Mar. 30 

1899 May 31 

1893 Sept. 27 
1885 Dec. 30 
1899 Oct. 25 

1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 
1897 Nov. 24 

1896 July 29 

1893 Feb. 22 

1894 July 25 
1892 April 27 

1874 Jan. 7 
1892 Mar. 30 
1888 Sept. 26 

1896 Dec. 23 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 June 29 

1897 July 28 
1883 Dec. 27 

1898 July 27 
1883 Dec. 27 
1883 June 27 
1892 May 25 

1899 Aug. 30 
1888 Sept. 26 
1894 Feb. 28 

Adams, William Edwin, 32 Holly Avenue, Newcastle, 
f Adamson, Rev. Cuthbert Edward, Westoe, South Shields, 
f Adamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Adamson, Lawrence William, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle. 

Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road. Gateshead. 

Allan, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Allgood, Anne Jane (Miss), Hermitage, Hexham. 

Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 

Allison, Thomas M., M.D., 22 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Angus, William Henry, 3 Stockbridge, Newcastle. 

Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 

Armstrong, Lord, Cragside, Rothbury. 

Armstrong, Mary (Miss), The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, William Irving, South Park, Hexham. 

Arnison, William Drewitt, M.D., 2 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
fBaily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton. 
f Bates, Cadwallader John. M.A., Langley Castle, Langley-on-Tyne. 

Baumgartner, John Robert, 10 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Bell, W. Heward, Seend, Melksham, Wiltshire. 

Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon Hall, near Sunderland. 
fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

Blenkinsopp, Thomas, 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 

Blindell, William A.', Wester Hall, Humshaugh. 

Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Butler Hospital for the Insane, Provi- 
dence, N.J., U.S.A. 

Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Boot, Rev. Alfred, St. George's Vicarage, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Bosanquet, Robert Carr, The Greek School at Athens. 

Boutflower, Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 

Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, John Bos worth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, Richard, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Boyd, George Fenwick, Moor House, Leamside, Durham. 
Boyd, William, North House, Long Benton. 


Date of Election. 

1891 Itec. 23 
1898 Mar. 30 
1896 Nov. 25 

1892 Aug. 31 

1896 July 29 

1897 Nov. 24 
1860 Jan. 4 

1892 Feb. 24 
1891 Dec. 23 

1893 June 28 
1884 Sept. 24 
1897 Nov. 24 

1891 Sept. 30 

1889 April 24 
1888 Nov. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 

1897 Jan. 27 
1887 Nov. 30 

1885 April 29 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 July 27 

1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Feb. 27 

1894 Jan. 31 

1887 Oct. 26 

1885 Nov. 25 
1896 Aug. 26 

1892 Feb. 24 

1885 May 27 

1895 Novo 27 

1896 Jan. 29 

1898 Aug. 27 
1883 Dec. 27 

1893 July 26 

1892 Aug. 31 

1886 Sept. 29 

1893 July 26 
1898 Feb. 23 
1892 Oct. 26 
1898 Nov. 30 

1888 Feb. 29 

Braithwaite, John, 20 Lansdowne Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Bramble, William, New Benwell, Newcastle. 

Brass, John George, The G-rove, Barnard Castle. 
fBrewis, Parker, 32 Osborne Koad, Newcastle. 

Brock-Hollinshead, Mrs., Woodfoot House, Shap, Westmorland. 

Brooks, Miss Ellen, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Brown, Kev. Dixon. Dnthank Hall, Haltwhistle. 

Brown, George T., 51 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 

Brown, The Rev. William, Old Elvet, Durham. 

Browne, Thomas Procter, Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Bruce, The Hon. Mr. Justice, Yewhurst, Bromley. Kent. 

Bryers, Thomas Edward, The Cottage, Whitburn, Sunderland. 

Burman, C. Clark, L.R.C.P.S. Ed., 12 Bondgate Without, 

Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Coxhoe, Durham. 

Burton, William Spelman, 19 Claremo|t Park, Gateshead. 

Burton, S. B., Jesmond House, Highworth, Wilts. 

Butler, George Grey, Ewart Park, Wooler. 

Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Carlisle, The Earl of, Na worth Castle, Brampton. 

Carr, Frederick Ralph, Lympston, near Exeter. 
tCarr, Sidney Story, 14 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Carr, Rev. T. W., Long Rede, Banning, Maidstone, Kent. 

Carr-Ellison, H. G., 35 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Carr-Ellison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 

Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Charleton, William L., Muskham Grange, Muskham, Notts. 

Charlton, Henry. 1 Millfield Terrace, Gateshead. 

Charlton, Oswin J., B.A., LL.B., 1 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 

Clapham, William, Park Villa, Darlington. 

Clayton, John Bertram, Humshaugh, Northumberland. 

Clayton, Mrs. N. G., Chesters, Humshaugh. 
f Clephan, Robert Coltman, Southdene Tower, Saltwell, Gateshead. 

Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 

Corder, Herbert, 10 Kensington Terrace, Sunderland. 

Corder, Percy, 41 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Corder, Walter Shewell, 4 Rosella Place, North Shields. 

Crawhall, Rev. T. E., Vicarage, North Shields. 

Cress well, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W. 

Cresswell, Lionel, Woodhall, Calverley, Yorks. 
fCrossman, Sir William, K.C.M.G., Cheswick House, Beal. 

LIST OF MEMBEUS. (1st March, 1900.) 


Date of Election. 

1896 Feb. 26 

1897 Dec. 15 
1889 Aug. 28 
1888 Mar. 28 
1900 Jan. 31 
1891 Nov. 18 
1844 about 
1887 Aug. 31 
1893 July 26 
1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Mar. 9 

1883 June 27 

1884 July 2 

1898 Aug. 27 
1884 July 30 
1900 Jan. 31 
1897 May 26 
1884 Mar. 26 

1891 Aug. 31 
1886 May 26 

1883 Oct. 31 

1886 Aug. 28 
1865 Aug. 2 

1894 Nov. 28 

1884 Jan. 30 

1900 Jan. 31 

1899 Oct. 25 
1894 May 30 
1896 Aug. 26 

1887 Dec. 28 
1894 Oct. 31 

1894 Oct. 31 

1895 Jan. 30 

1892 April 27 
1859 Dec. 7 
1883 Oct. 31 


1886 June 30 
1886 Oct. 27 
1895 Sept. 25 

Cruddas, W. D., M.P., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 
Culley. Francis John, 5 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
Culley, The Kev. Matthew, Tow Law, co. Durham. 
Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 
Dawes, Arthur William, 42 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Deacon, Thomas John Fuller, 10 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 
Dees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 
Dendy Frederick Walter, Bldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Denison, Joseph, Sanderson Road, Newcastle. 
Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 
Dickinson, William Bowstead, Healey Hall, Riding Mill. 
Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead. 
Dixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 
Dodds, Edwin, Low Fell, Gateshead. 
Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Dowson, John, Morpeth. 

Drummond, Dr., Wyvestow House, South Shields. 
Dunn, William Henry, 5 St. Nicholas's Buildings, Newcastle. 
Durham Cathedral Library. 

fBmbleton, Dennis, M.D., 19 Claremont Place, Newcastle. 
Emley, Fred., Ravenshill. Durham Road, Gateshead. 
Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Blackhill. 
Fen wick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 
Fenwick, John George, Moorlands, Newcastle. 
Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Ferguson, Richard Saul, F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle, Lowther 

Street, Carlisle. 

Findlay, James Thomas, Gazette Office, South Shields. 
Forbes, Rev. E. E., Chollerton Vicarage, Wall, R.S.O. 
Forster, Fred. E., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Forster, George Baker, M.A., Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 
Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 
Forster, Robert Henry, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 
Forster, Thomas Emmerson, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 
Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle. 
Francis, William, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. 
fGibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 

Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Glendinning, William, 4 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 
Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Gough, Rev. Edward John, Vicar and Hon. Canon of Newcastle. 


Date of Election. 
1894 Aug. 29 

1886 Aug. 28 
1896 Dec. 23 
1883 Feb. 28 
1891 Oct. 28 
1845 June 3 

1883 Feb. 28 

1877 Dec. 5 

1891 Jan. 28 
1893 Mar. 8 

1883 Aug. 29 

1887 Mar. 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Aug. 30 
1898 July 29 

1889 Feb. 27 

1894 May 30 

1886 April 28 
1884 Feb. 27 
1891 Oct. 28 
1883 Feb. 28 

1883 Feb. 28 

1888 April 25 

1865 Aug. 2 

1895 Jan. 30 

1890 Jan. 29 

1884 April 30 

1898 Aug. 27 

1887 Jan. 26 

1899 June 28 
1895 July 31 

1891 Oct. 28 
1877 July 4 

1892 June 29 

1895 Dec. 18 

1896 April 29 
1896 July 29 

Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 

Graham, John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Graham, Matthew Horner, 3 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Green, Kobert Yeoman, 11 Lovaine Crescent, Newcastle. 

Greene, Charles K., North Seaton Hall, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. 
fGreenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A,, Hon. 
F.S.A. Scot., Durham. 

Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester, co. 

fGregory, John Vessey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Haggie, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Hall, Edmund James, Dilston Castle, Corbridge. 

Hall, James, Tynemouth. 

Halliday, Thomas, Myrtle Cottage, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Harrison, John Adolphus, Salt well ville, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 

Haswell, F. R. N., Monkseaton, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Haverfield, F. J., M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

Hedley, Edward Armorer, Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Corbridge. 

Henzell, Charles Wright, Tynemouth. 

Heslop, George Christopher, 8 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
fHeslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Princes Buildings, Akenside Hill, 

Hicks, William Searle, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 

Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 
fHodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., F.S.A., Barmoor, Northumberland. 

Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bank, Newcastle. 
fHodgson, John Crawford, Abbey Cottage, Alnwick. 

Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, T. Hesketh, Newby Grange, Carlisle. 

Hodgson, William, Westholme, Darlington. 

Hodgson, George Bryan, 41 Trajan Avenue, South Shields. 

Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 

Holmes, Ralph Sheriton, 8 Sanderson Road, Newcastle. 
{Holmes, Sheriton, Moor View House, Newcastle. 

Hopper, Charles, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Holdsworth, David Arundell,2 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Hoyle, William Aubone, The Croft, Ovingham. 

Hudson, Robert, Hotspur Street, Tynemouth. 

Hulbert, Rev. C. L., Brathay Vicarage, Ambleside. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1900.) 


Date of Election. 
1888 July 25 
1894 May 30 
1897 Dec. 15 
1894 Feb. 28 

1886 May 26 
1900 Jan. 31 

1883 Aug. 29 

1883 Feb. 28 

1899 June 28 

1900 Jan. 31 

1884 Oct. 29 
1899 Feb. 22 

1896 Dec. 23 

1897 July 28 

1896 Sept. 20 
1894 Sept. 26 
1899 Nov. 29 

1897 Jan., 27 

1885 April 29 

1887 June 29 
1899 July 26 

1894 July 25 

1896 Nov. 25 
1899 Nov. 29 
1885 Nov. 6 

1888 June 27 

1899 Mar. 29 
1884 Mar. 26 
1884 Aug. 27 
1891 May 27 

1899 Aug. 30 

1895 Sept. 25 
1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Oct. 25 

1900 Jan. 31 
1891 Mar. 25 
1899 June 28 
1888 Sept. 26 

1894 July 25 

Hunter, Edward, 8 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Hunter, Thomas, Jesmond Koad, Newcastle. 

Hutchinson, Edward, The Elms, Darlington. 

Ingledew, Alfred Edward, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Irving, George, West Fell, Corbridge. 

Jobling, James, Morpeth. 

Johnson, Eev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Eiding Mill. 

Johnson, Kev. John, Hutton Eudby Vicarage, Yarm. 

Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 

Keeney, Michael John, 9 Eectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Kitchin, The Very Eev. G. W., Dean of Durham. 

Knowles, William Henry, 37 Grainger Street Newcastle. 

Lamb, Miss Elizabeth, Newton Cottage, Chathill, 

Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

Laws, Dr. Cuthbert Umfreville, 1 St. George's Terrace, Newcastle. 

Lee, Eev. Percy, Birtley Vicarage, Wark, North Tynedale. 

Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Leeson, Eichard John, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Lightfoot, Miss, 5 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 

Lockhart, Henry F., Prospect House, Hexham. 

London Library (c/o Williams & Norgate, Henrietta Street, Covent 

Garden, London). 
Long, Eev. H. F., Hon. Canon of Newcastle, The Glebe, Bamburgh, 


Longstaff, Dr. Geo. Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S. W. 
Lowry, Miss Evelyn Mary, Humshaugh House, Humshaugh, E.S.O. 
Lynn, J. E. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 
Macarthy, George Eugene, 9 Dean Street, Newcastle. 
McDowell, Dr. T. W., East Cottingwood, Morpeth. 
Macaulay, Donald, Clive Cottage, Alnwick. 
Mackey, Matthew, Jun., 8 Milton Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 
Maling, Christopher Thompson, 14 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Manchester Eeference Library (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 
Markham, E. M., 9 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 
Marshall, Frank, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Martin, N. H., F.L.S., Eavenswood, Low Fell. Gateshead. 
Mather, Philip E., Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Matheson, Thomas, Morpeth. 
Maudlen, William, Dacre House, North Shields. 
May, George, Simonside Hall, near South Shields. 
Mayo, William Swatling, Eiding Mill, Northumberland. 
Mearns, William, M.D., Bewick Eoad, Gateshead. 


Date of Election. 
1891 Jan. 28 

1897 Mar. 31 

1898 Mar. 30 

1891 Aug. 26 
1896 Jan. 29 
1883 Mar. 28 
1883 May 30 
1883 Oct. 13 
1886 Dec. 29 
1896 Oct. 28 

1883 June 27 
1896 April 29 

1884 July 2 

1895 Feb. 27 

1898 May 25 

1883 Jan. 31 

1899 Oct. 25 

1900 Feb. 28 

1896 May 27 

1885 May 27 

1893 Feb. 22 

1892 Nov. 30 
1889 Aug. 28 

1897 Oct. 27 

1898 June 28 

1898 June 28 
1891 Feb. 18 

1894 Dec. 19 

1899 Oct. 25 
1889 Aug. 28 
1896 Oct. 28 

1884 Dec. 30 
1898 Nov. 30 
1898 Jan. 26 

1893 Mar. 29 

1891 Feb. 18 

1884 Jan. 30 

1884 Sept. 24 


1888 Jan. 25 

Melbourne Free Library (c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 
12 Ludgate Square, London, E.G.) 

Milburn, Joseph, Highfield, Marlborough, Wilts. 

Milburn, J. D., Guyzance, Acklington. 

Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Mitchell, Charles William, Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 

Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 

Morrow, T. R., The Cave, Fulford, York. 

Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 

Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Neilson, Edward, Brandling Place, Newcastle. 

Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 

Newcastle Public Library. 

Newton, Robert, Brookfield, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

New York Library (c/o Mr. B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar Square, 
London, W.C.). 

Nicholson, George, Barrington Street, South Shields. 

Nicholson, Joseph Cook, 7 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Nightingale, George, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
fNisbet, Robert S., 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent. 
fNorthumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.D., 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Ogle, Capt. Sir Henry A., bt., R.N., United Service Club, Pall 
Mall, London. 

Ogle, Newton, 59 Green Street, Grosvenor Square, London. 
*0gle, Bertram Savile, Mill House, Steeple Aston, Oxon. 

Ord, John Robert, Haughton Hall, Darlington, 
f Oswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Palmer, Rev. Thomas Francis, 25 Grosvenor Road, Newcastle. 

Park, A. D., 11 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John S., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 

Patterson, Thomas, 155 Stratford Road, Newcastle. 

Peacock, Reginald, 47 West Sunniside, Sundeiiand. 

Pearson, Rev. Samuel, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Pease, John William, Pendower, Benwell, Newcastle. 

Pease, Howard, Bank, Newcastle. 

Peile, George, Greenwood, Shotley Bridge. 

Phillips, Maberly,F.S.A.,Pevensey, Bycullah Park, Enfield, London. 

Philipson, George Hare, M.A., M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., Prior's Terrace, Tynemouth. 

LIST OP MEMBEES. (1st March, 1900.) 

XX Ul 

Date of Election 
1898 Feb. 23 

1896 Mar. 25 

1887 Aug. 31 
1883 June 27 

1888 May 30 
1894 Feb. 28 

1897 April 28 
1883 Sept. 26 
1891 April 29 
1894 May 30 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Jan. 31 

1891 July 29 

1895 July 31 

1898 Jan. 26 

1892 Mar. 30 

1889 July 31 

1883 Jan. 31 

1884 July 30 

1894 Mar. 25 

1897 Sept. 29 

1893 April 26 

1892 Sept. 28 

1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 

1888 July 25 

1898 April 27 
1900 Feb. 28 

1899 Nov. 29 

1893 Nov. 29 

1891 Sept. 30 
1886 Feb. 24 
1888 June 27 
1899 June 28 


Porteus, Thomas, 182 Lee Bank Koad, Birmingham. 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Rev. George, Grange Rectory, Jarrow. 

Pybus, Robert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Ravensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 

Reavell, George, jun., Alnwick. 

Redpath, Robert, 4 Bentinck Road, Newcastle. 

Reed, The Rev. George, Killingworth, Newcastle. 

Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 

Reid, C. Leopold, Wardle Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 

Reynolds, Charles H., Millbrook, Walker. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Elwick Hall, Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Miss Alice M., Sunderland. 

Richardson, Frank, Clifton Cottage, Clifton Road, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thornholme, Sunderland. 

Richardson, William, Rosehill, Willington Quay. 

Riddell, Edward Francis, Cheeseburn Grange, near Newcastle. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 

Ridley, Bart., M.P., The Right Hon. Sir M. W., Blagdon, Northum- 

Robinson, Alfred J., 55 Fern Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robinson, John, Delaval House, 3 Broxbourne Terrace, Sunderland. 

Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 

Robson, Lancelot, York House, West Hartlepool. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., 17 Pulteney Street, Bath. 

Runciman, Walter, jun., Ashleigh, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Ayre's Terrace, South Preston, North 

Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle, 

Ryott, William Stace, 7 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Sanderson, Richard Burdon, Warren House, Belford. 

Sanderson, William John, Heathdale, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Sanderson, William John, jun., Heathdale, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Savage, Rev. E. Sidney, Rectory, Hexham. 

Savage, Rev. H. E., Hon. Canon of Durham and Vicar of St. Hild's, 
South Shields. 

Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle 

Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 

Sedcole James, Barker Terrace, South Shields. 



Date of Election. 

1883 Feb. 28 

1891 July 29 

1888 Oct. 31 
1895 May 29 

1889 May 29 

1892 Oct. 26 
1898 Mar. 30 
1891 Nov. 18 

1893 Mar. 29 
1883 June 27 
1866 Jan. 3 
1883 Dec. 27 

1891 Jan. 28 

1883 Dec. 27 


1887 Mar. 30 

1898 Nov. 30 

1897 Jan. 27 

1866 Dec. 5 

1895 Feb. 27 
1860 Jan. 6 

1892 April 27 

1884 Oct. 29 

1896 Nov. 25 

1896 Dec. 23 
1883 Jan. 31 

1888 Aug. 29 

1899 June 28 

1898 Dec. 21 
1892 June 29 
1891 Jan. 28 
1888 Feb. 29 
1888 Oct. 31 
1888 Nov. 28 

Sheppee, Lieutenant- Colonel, Birtley House, Birtley, co. Durham. 

Sidney, Marlow William, Blyth. 

Simpson, J. B., Bradley Hall, Wylam. 

Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields. 

Sisson, Richard William, 13 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Skelly, George, Alnwick. 

Smith, George, Brinkburn, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Smith, William, Gunnerton, Barrasford. 

Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street, South Shields. 

South Shields Public Library. 
*fSpence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

Spencer, J. W., Newbiggin House, Kenton, Newcastle. 

Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 

Steel, The Rev. James, D.D., Vicarage, Heworth. 

Steel, Thomas, 51 John Street, Sunderland. 

Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 
fStevenson, Alexander Shannan, F.S.A. Scot., Oatlands Mere, 
Weybridge, Surrey. 

Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 

Strangeways, William Nicholas, Breffni Villa, Eglinton Road, 
Donnybrook, Dublin. 

Strangeways, Rev. B. P., 14 Regent Terrace, Newcastle. 

Sunderland Public Library. 

Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Swinburne, Sir John, Bart., Capheaton, Northumberland. 

Taylor, 1 Rev. E. J., F.S.A., St. Cuthbert's, Durham. 

Taylor, Hugh, 57 Gracechurch Street, London. 

Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 

Taylor, Rev. William, Catholic Church, Whittingham, Alnwick, 

Temperley, Henry, LL.M., Lambton Road, Brandling Park, New- 

Temperley, Robert, M.A., 18 Grainger Street West, Newcastle. 

Tennant, James, The United Alkali Co., Ld., City Road, New- 

Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 

Thompson, Mrs. George, Hollyhirst, Winlaton, co. Durham. 

Thompson, John, Cradock House, Cradock Street, Bishop Auckland, 

Thomson, James, jun., 22 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Thome, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle. 

Thorpe, R. Swarley, Devonshire Terrace, Newcastle. 

Todd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
tTomlinson, William Weaver, 6 Bristol Terrace Newcastle. 

i Elected originally Jan. 31, 1S76, resigned 1887. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1900.) 


Date of Election. 
1894 Mar. 28 
1897 April 28 

1897 Mar. 31 

1889 Oct. 30 
1896 July 29 

1894 May 30 

1884 Feb. 27 

1891 Mar. 25 

1896 Nov. 25 

1890 Aug. 27 
1896 Oct. 28 

1889 Mar. 27 
1896 Aug. 26 

1892 Oct. 26 
1887 Jan. 26 

1895 May 29 
1899 May 30 
1879 Mar. 26 
1889 Nov. 27 

1898 Oct. 26 
1886 June 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1893 Aug. 30 

1896 May 27 

1891 Aug. 26 

1897 Sept. 29 

1885 May 27 

1898 May 25 
1891 Sept. 30 

1896 Feb. 26 

1898 Nov. 30 

1899 Nov. 29 
1898 April 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Oct. 31 

Toovey, Alfred F., Ovington Cottage, Prudhoe. 

Toronto Public Library, c/o C. B. Cazenove & Sons, Agents, 

26 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, VV.C. 
Townsend, Brian, Snowsgreen House, Shotley Bridge. 
Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepool. 
Ventress, 2 John, Wharncliffe Street, Newcastle. 
Vincent, William, 18 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 
Waddington, Thomas, Eslington Villa, Gateshead. 
Walker, The Rev. John, Hon. Canon of Newcastle, Whalton 

Rectory, Morpeth. 

Walker, John Duguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wallace, Henry, Trench Hall, near Gateshead. 
Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Square. 


Watson-Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 
Watson, Henry, West End, Haltwhistle. 
Watson, Mrs. M. E., Burnopfield. 

Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Welburn, William G., Clapham & Co., Dean Street, Newcastle. 
fWelford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Wheler, E. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 
White, R. S., 121 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 
Wilkinson, The Rev. Ed., M.A., Whitworth Vicarage, Spennymoor. 
Wilkinson, William C., Dacre Street, Morpeth. 
Williams, Charles, Moot Hall, Newcastle. 
Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 
Willyams, H. J., Barndale Cottage, Alnwick. 
Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 
Windle, Rev. H. C., St. Chad's, Bensham, Gateshead. 
Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Wood, Herbert Maxwell, Baltic Chambers, John Street, Sunderland. 
Wood, C. W., Wellington Terrace, South Shields. 
Wood, William Henry, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Wooler, Edward, Danesmoor, Darlington. 
Worsdell, Wilson, Gateshead. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 
Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., Tortola, Nairn, N.B. 

Elected originally Aug. 6, 156. 



Antiquaries of London. The Society of, Burlington House, London. 

Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of, Museum, Edinburgh. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The, 20 Hanover 

Square, London, W. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, The, 7 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. 
Royal Society of Ireland, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The 
Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania, Norway. 
Aberdeen Ecclesiological Society, 42 Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, The, Museum, Berwick. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, The, c/o Secretary, The Rev. W. 

Bazeley, Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, George Patrick and Rev. 

H. J. Dukiafield Astley), 16 Red Lion Square, London. W.C. 
Cambrian Antiquarian Society. The, c/o J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., 28 Great 

Ormond Street, London, W.C. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The, c/o Secretary, T. D. Atkinson. St. Mary's 

Passage, Cambridge. 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The 
Clifton Antiquarian Club, The, c/o Alfred E. Hudd, 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, 

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, The, 

Tullie House, Carlisle. 
Derbyshire Archaeological Society, The, c/o Arthur Cox, Hon. Sec., Mill Hill, 


Heidelberg Historical and Philosophical Society, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Huguenot Society, The, c/o Reg. S. Faber, Secretary, 90 Regent's Park Road, 

London, N.W. 

Kent Archaeological Society, Maidstone, Kent. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The, c/o R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., Hon. 

Secretary, Old Swan, Liverpool. 
Literary and Scientific Society, Christiania, Norway. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The, London Institution, Fins- 
bury Circus, London. 

Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The (Verein fur 
nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte forschung), Wiesbaden, 
Numismatic Society of London, The (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head), 

22 Albemarle- Street, London, W. 

Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A. 
Powys-land Club, The, c/o Secretary, T. Simpson Jones, M.A., Gungrog, Welsh- 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Shrewsbury. 
Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, U.S.A. 


Socie'te' d'Arche'ologie de Bruxelles, La, rue Ravenstein 11, Bruxelles. 

Societ^ d'Archeologie de Namur, La, Namur, Belgium. 

Societe" d'Emulation d' Abbeville, France. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Castle, Taunton, 


Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Ipswich. 
Surrey Archaeological Society, The, Castle Arch, Guildford. 
Sussex Archaeological Society, The, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 
Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, Jena, Germany. 
Trier Archaeological Society, The, Trier, Germany. 
Trier Stadtbibliothek (c/o Dr. Keuffer), Trier, Germany. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society, The, 10 Park Street, Leeds. 

The Proceedings of the Society are also sent to the following : 

Dr. Berlanga. Malaga, Spain. 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London, W.C. 

The Rev. Dr. Cox, Holdenby Rectory, Northampton. 

W. J. Cripps, C.B., Cirencester. 

Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 

Robert Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 

The Bishop of Durham, Bishop Auckland. 

The Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Witton-le-Wear, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 


31ST JANUARY, 1894. 

Constitution I. This Society, under the style and title of ' THE SOCIETY 
E the Society. Qp ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE,' shall consist 
of ordinary members and honorary members. The Society 
was established on the 6th day of February, 1813, when the 
purport of the institution was declared to be l inquiry into 
antiquities in general, but especially into those of the North of 
England and of the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and Durham in particular.' 

Election of H. Candidates for election as ordinary members shall be 

Members. proposed in writing by three ordinary members at a general 
meeting, and be elected or rejected by the majority of votes of 
ordinary members at that meeting, unless a ballot shall be 
demanded by any member, which in that case shall take place 
at the next meeting, and at such ballot three-fourths of the 
votes shall be necessary in order to the candidate's election. 
The election of honorary members shall be conducted in like 

Obligations HI. The ordinary members shall continue to be members 

of Members. go lon g ag tne y ^d& conform to these statutes, and all future 
statutes, rules, and ordinances, and shall pay an annual 
subscription of one guinea. The subscription shall be due on 
election, and afterwards annually in the month of January in 
every year. Any member who shall pay to the Society twelve 
guineas in addition to his current year's subscription shall be 


discharged from all future payments. A member elected at or 
after the meeting in October shall be exempt from a further 
payment for the then next year, but shall not be entitled to the 
publications for the current year. If the subscription of any 
ordinary member shall have remained unpaid a whole year the 
Council may remove the name of such person from the list of 
members, and he shall thereupon cease to be a member, but 
shall remain liable to pay the subscription in arrear, and he 
shall not be eligible for re-election until the same shall have 
been paid. 

IV. The officers of the Society shall consist of a patron, a Officers of 
president, vice-presidents (not to exceed twelve in number), two 
secretaries, treasurer, twelve other members (who with the presi- 
dent, vice-presidents, secretaries, treasurer, and librarian shall 
constitute the Council), an editor, a librarian, two curators, and 
two auditors. These several officers shall be elected annually, 
except the patron, who shall be elected for life. 

V. The election of officers shall be out of the class of Election of 
ordinary members. Any ordinary member may nominate any 
ordinary member or members (subject to statute VI) (not 
exceeding the required number) to fill the respective offices. 
Every nomination must be signed by the person nominating, 
and sent to the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, addressed to 
the secretaries, who shall cause it to be immediately inserted on 
a sheet-list of nominations, which shall be exhibited in the 
library of the Castle, and notice shall forthwith be given to the 
person so nominated. Any person nominated may, by notice in 
writing, signify to the secretaries his refusal to serve, or if 
nominated to more than one office, may in like manner, signify 
for which office or offices he declines to stand, and every 
nomination so disclaimed shall be void. The list of nomina- 
tions shall be finally adjusted and closed ten days before the 
Annual Meeting, or before a Special Meeting to be held within 
one month thereafter. If the number of persons nominated for 
any office be the same as the number to be elected the person or 
persons nominated shall be deemed elected, arid shall be so 




Meetings of 

declared by the chairman at such Annual or Special Meeting. 
If the number of persons nominated for any office exceed the 
number to be elected then the officer or officers to be elected 
shall be elected from the persons nominated and from them 
only ; and for that purpose a printed copy of the list of nomina- 
tions and one voting paper only shall be furnished to each 
ordinary member with the notice convening the Annual or 
Special Meeting. If the number of persons nominated for any 
office be less than the number to be elected, or if there be no 
nomination, then the election to that office shall be from the 
ordinary members generally. Whether the election be from a 
list of nominations, or from the ordinary members generally, 
each voter must deliver his voting paper in person, signed by 
him, at the Annual or Special Meeting. The chairman shall 
appoint scrutineers, and the scrutiny shall commence on the 
conclusion of the other business of the Annual or Special Meet- 
ing, or at such earlier time as the chairman may direct, if the 
other business shall not have terminated within one hour after 
the commencement of the Annual or Special Meeting. No 
voting paper shall be received after the commencement of the 

VI. Those of the 'twelve other members' (see statute IV) 
of the Council who have not attended one-third of the meetings 
of the Council during the preceding year, shall not be eligible 
for election for the then next year. 

yjj ^ general meeting of the members of the Society shall 
be held on the last Wednesday of every month, in the Castle of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The meeting in January shall be the 
Annual Meeting, and shall be held at one o'clock in the after- 
noon, and the meeting in every other month shall be held at 
seven o'clock in the evening. But the Society or the Council 
may from time to time appoint any other place or day or hour 
for any of the meetings of the Society. The presence of seven 
ordinary members shall be necessary in order to constitute the 
Annual Meeting, and the presence of five ordinary members 
shall be necessary in order to constitute any other meeting. A 



Special General Meeting may be convened by the Council if, 
and when, they may deem it expedient. 

VIII. The ordinary members only shall be interested in the Property of 
property of the Society. The interest of each member therein 
shall continue so long only as he shall remain a member, and 
the property shall never be sold or otherwise disposed of (except 
in the case of duplicates hereinafter mentioned) so long as there 
remain seven members ; but should the number of members be 
reduced below seven and so remain for twelve calendar months 
then next following, the Society shall be ipso facto dissolved, 
and after satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities the property 
of the Society shall be delivered unto and become the property 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, if that Society be then in existence and willing to receive 
the same ; and should that Society not be in existence or not 
willing to receive the same, then the same shall be delivered to 
and become the property of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. No dividend, gift, division, or 
bonus in money shall be made unto or between any of the 

Reading of 

IX. All papers shall be read in the order in which they are 
received by the Society. A paper may be read by the author, 
or by any other member of the Society whom he may desire to 
read it, or by either of the secretaries ; but any paper which is 
to be read by the secretaries shall be sent to them a week 
previous to its being laid before the Society. 

X. The Council shall be entrusted with the duty and charge Publications 
of selecting and illustrating papers for the publications of the ( :iety ' 
Society (other than the Proceedings} ; and that no paper be 
printed at the Society's expense before it be read in whole or 
in part at a meeting ; and that no paper which has been 
printed elsewhere be read at any meeting unless it be first 
submitted to the Council at a meeting of the Council, or 
printed in the Society's transactions except at the request of 
the Council. Two illustrated parts of the Archaeologia shall 



Removal of 

Donations to 
the Society. 


entitled to 

The use of 
the library. 

be issued to members in the months of January and June in 
each year, such parts to be in addition to the monthly issue 
of the Proceedings, and the annual report, list of members, etc. 

XI. That the Society, at any ordinary meeting, shall have 
power to remove any member from the list of members. The 
voting to be by ballot, and to be determined by at least four- 
fifths of the members present and voting, provided, neverthe- 
less, that no such removal shall take place unless notice thereof 
shall have been given at the next preceding ordinary meeting. 

XII. All donations to the Society shall be made through 
the Council, and a book shall be kept in which shall be regularly 
recorded their nature, the place and time of their discovery, and 
the donors' names. All duplicates of coins, books, and other 
objects, shall be at the disposal of the Council for the benefit of 
the Society. 

XIII. Every ordinary member, not being in arrear of his 
annual subscriptions, shall be entitled to such publications of the 
Society as may be printed for the year of his first subscription 
and thereafter if in print ; and he may purchase any of the 
previous publications of which copies remain, at such prices as 
shall be from time to time fixed by the Council. 

XIV. Each member shall be entitled to the use of the 
Society's library, subject to the condition (which applies to all 
privileges of membership) that his subscription for the current 
year be paid. Not more than three volumes at a time shall be 
taken out by any member. Books may be retained for a month, 
and if this time be exceeded, a fine of one shilling per week 
shall be payable for each volume retained beyond the time. All 
books must, for the purpose of examination, be returned to the 
library on the Wednesday preceding the Annual Meeting under 
a fine of 2s. 6d. ; and they shall remain in the library until after 
that meeting. Manuscripts, and works of special value, shall 
not circulate without the leave of the Council. The Council 
may mitigate or remit fines in particular cases. 



XY. These statutes, and any statutes which hereafter may Repeal or 
be made or passed, may be repealed or altered, and new, or 
altered statutes, may be made or passed at any Annual Meeting, 
provided notice of such repeal or alteration, and of the proposed 
new or altered statutes, be given in writing at the next preced- 
ing monthly meeting. 

RAVENSWORTH, President. 





Three Members 
of the Council. 


Newcastle, 27th April, 1898. 

Register No. 705, Nbld., Sc. and Lit. 

It is hereby certified that this Society is entitled to the 
benefit of the Act 6 and 7 Viet., cap. 36, intituled : " An Act 
to exempt from County, Borough, Parochial, and other Local 
Rates, Lands and Buildings occupied by Scientific or Literary 

This 6th day of May, 1898. 

E. W. B. 

ffSeal of the 
Registry of 

Societies. / 

Copy sent to the Clerk of the Peace, 

E. W. B. 

Arch. Ad. xxii. ; to face p. 1. 

Plate I 


3. I. 4. 2. 




[Read on April 26th, 1899.] 

This type of sword is commonly known as 'claymore,' which is 
the English phonetic of two Celtic words meaning ' great sword.' It 
was originally applied to the 
great two-handed sword of 
Scotland, but when the true 
claymore was gradually su- 
perseded by the basket-hilted 
weapon, the old name, as 
conveying the idea of a 
Highlander's sword, was re- 
tained, owing to long habit, 
notwithstanding that it is 
somewhat inappropriate. It 
was in Venice that the basket 
hilt came first into regular 
use in the sword named 
schiavona (see fig. 1), from 
its having been worn by the 
* Schiavoni,' the Dalmatian 
body-guard of the doge of 
Venice. In this hilt the 
first finger is always passed 
over the quillon, and has a 
superadded guard to protect 
it, thus giving the hilt an 
elongated or flattened ellipti- 
cal shape. 

The Scotch, renowned 
before the middle of the 
sixteenth century for their FIG. i. 

excellent choice of weapons, took up this model, and in the course 



of a generation or two had so amalgamated it with the mortuary 
hilt as to produce the well-known basket hilt, which has ever since 
passed as the national arm of Scotland, and is still used in our High- 
land regiments. The mortuary hilt was so called from a number of 
this type having been made in memory of Charles I. ; they are 

frequently painted black and bear 
his likeness. This was the popu- 
lar broadsword hilt in England 
during the Commonwealth, and 
consists of counter-curved quil- 
lon, expanded into a broad plate 
round the base of the blade, and 
connected with the pommel by 
a knuckle bow and on either 
side a similar bow, which in 
their turn are usually connected 
by one or more diagonal bars 
coalescing with the knuckle bow. 
(See fig. 2.) This triple bow is, 
I think, the origin of the triple 
termination in the Scottish 
basket hilt, for the schiavona 
invariably terminates in a single 
point at the pommel. The two 
earlike projections, so character- 
istic of the Scottish basket hilt, 
are frequently termed 'sword- 
breakers,' but are more probably 
a remnant of the schiavona 
origin representing the dimin- 
ished pas d'ane diverted from 
their original purpose, which was 
FlG - 2 - that of guarding the first finger, 

and their retention may be due to the fact that they might prevent an 
adversary's blade slipping past the rounded surface of the hilt and catch- 
ing the arm near the elbow ; in fact, acting somewhat like a quillon, 
which they frequently resemble, but growing only out of the front 


of the hilt in two branches turned upon themselves. (See figs. 3 and 
4.) The island of Islay was famous for the manufacture of these 
hilts, and numbers were also made in Edinburgh they were not 
made by the bladesmiths, but by the gairdmakers, a separate guild. 


No. 1. This sword weighs 
2 Ibs. 9 oz., and is three feet 
seven and seven-eighths inches 
over all. 

The blade is two-edged, and 
three feet one and seven-eighths 
inches in length, one and one- 
eighth inches broad at the base, 
tapering to three-quarters of an 
inch at three inches from the 
point. It is slightly fluted, 
having one shallow central 
groove on each side in which 
is barely legible FERARA, and 
beyond the groove, with feet to 
the same edge as the tops of 
the letters, is the running wolf 
mark. This mark (see fig. 5, 
p. 5) is of frequent occurrence 
on excellent Ferara blades, and 
is probably imitated from the 
more ancient wolf blades of 
Passau and Solingen, which 
came to be known in England 
during the sixteenth century 
as ' foxes.' These blades were 
largely imported into this 
country, where this mark was 
taken for a fox, and the use of 
this word in our Elizabethan literature shows that it was then so 
familiar that a sword was popularly known as a fox. 

It is generally assumed that all wolf or fox blades were made in 

FIG. 3. 


Germany ; but this is questionable, for in Webster's White Devil we 
have : 

O ! what a blade is't ? 

A Toledo or an English Fox ? 

FIG. 4. 

And this mark occurs on the Shotley Bridge sword now in the Black 
Gate museum (see fig. 6, p. 5), where you will observe that it is also 
beyond the name, has its feet to the same edge as the tops of the 


letters, and that it has a rectangular turn at the end of the tail, which 
we find on many Solingen wolf blades. It may perhaps be accounted 
for in this case by the German origin of the Shotley Bridge sword 
makers. There is another type of this fox mark which conforms to 
the same rules as to position, etc., but is really more like a fox, for 
instead of this rectangular termination to the tail, it has a truly 
bushy one, as on a * Putta ' or gauntlet-hilted Indian sword shown, of 
which the blade is European. There are also other types of this 
mark differing slightly in detail. 


FIG. 5. 

Inscriptions on sword blades usually read from hilt to point, when 
the hilt is held in the left hand, no matter on which side of the blade 
the inscription may be, but when so held the fox is always upside 
down. The reason may perhaps be that it was originally an assay 

FIG. 6. 

mark, which of course would not be put on by the sword-smith as 
were the inscriptions. This mark is believed to have been granted 
by the archduke Albert in 1349 to the armourers' guild at Passau, 
a Bavarian town on the Danube, but it was much used, from the 
fifteenth century to the eighteenth, on arms made at Solingen. The 
wolf or fox is usually engraved or scratched in, whereas the inscrip- 
tions are usually punched or struck with incised chisel-blow letters. 
Mr. 0. J. Spence once kindly lent me a Ferara blade, on which what 


should have been the top stroke of the F was at the bottom which 
shows that not each letter but each stroke of the letters was struck by 
a separate punch. 

The hilt probably dates about 1690, and is of distinctly Scottish 
type, formed partly of bar work and partly of plates pierced with the 
usual heart-shaped openings and terminates in three unconnected 
points at the pommel. This was found to be weak, so in later hilts 
the points are usually connected by a ring which encircles the pommel. 
The Highlander required great strength in this portion of the hilt, 
because his method of fighting was rushing into close quarters where 
frequently there was not room to wield his blade. When this was the 
case, he would deal his adversary a severe blow in the face with the 
hilt. This blow was taught by George Silver (1599), who may be 
considered the father of English broadsword play, and was in use till 
the end of the eighteenth century. 

No. 2. Weighs 2 Ibs. 13 oz., and is three feet three and one-eighth 
inches long over all. 

The blade is single edged, and two feet nine and a quarter inches 
in length, the breadth diminishing from one and a half inches at the 
base to thirteen-sixteenths of an inch at three inches from the point, 
and has a maximum thickness of one-eighth of an inch. Three 
shallow channels extend about seven inches along each side of the 
blade and in the centre one (on the inside) are the letters : 

A [N] D [REA] [F] A [RA] RA, 

from the spacing, etc., of which I have no doubt that it was once 
ANDREA [or IA] FARARA, and on both sides beyond the channel is 
deeply engraved the orb and cross mark (see fig. 5), that on the inside 
being partly filled with some white material. 

This orb and cross mark is probably the most frequently recurring 
of all marks on Ferara blades, but it is not an armourer's mark in the 
sense of being the mark of any particular armourer, nor was its use 
confined to any one country, century, or particular type of sword. 
It is on the blade found at Rothbury, and now in the Black Gate, 
orb to hilt and cross to point, as I believe is always the case. This 
mark appears to be a representation of the orb surmounted by a cross, 
which forms part of the regalia of emperors and kings. Just as the 
sword was, amongst other things, emblematic of secular jurisdiction, 


BO this orb and cross was emblematical of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 
and subsequently came to signify the triumph of Christianity over the 
world. Its so frequent occurrence on sword blades is said to have 
originated from the Crusader having used the cross formed by the 
blade and guard of his sword, as a crucifix, from which it became 
customary to bring the hilt to the lips whenever the sword was 
drawn. Subsequently the blade became the special object of venera- 
tion, and was frequently inscribed with a representation of some 
special saint, this orb and cross mark, or some pious device 
* cutlery poetry,' as Shakespeare calls it ; thus, upon one of the 
castle rapiers there is EN TE DOMINE SPERAVI, and the orb and cross 
mark on the sword saved the carrying to war of a separate crucifix. 
This orb and cross was also a symbol of perpetuation of life in one 
aspect, and in another a potent amulet against the evil eye. This 
superstitious aspect may assist in explaining its frequent appearance. 

The hilt (see fig. 3) is somewhat similar to no. 1, and is probably 
about the same date. It may be described as of conventional 
Scottish type, has an * acorn shaped ' pommel, also a tassel and small 
lining which consists of a piece of stout leather covered at one time 
with red silk, fragments of which remain where it was bound to the 
edge of the leather. Most of these hilts had originally a leather 
lining or guard, either of this type or the more complete, as in the 
sword given by Mr. Charlton. There is a depression on the upper 
surface of this hilt, as if it had originally held the shoulders of a 
much broader blade. 

Unless there is evidence that the blade and hilt are contemporary, 
it is always well to consider that they may not be so, for good blades 
were handed down from generation to generation, and frequently 
rehilted in what was the then prevailing fashion. Occasionally too, 
if the blade was broken, another was put into the old hilt, so that 
there is at times a wide difference in their dates. 

No. 3. This sword weighs 2 Ibs. 7 oz., and is three feet two 
and three-quarter inches long over all. 

The blade is two-edged, and two feet nine inches long by one and 
nine-sixteenth inches broad at the base, tapering to seven-eighths of 
an inch at three inches from the point. On each side there are 
three grooves extending about eight inches up, the centre one being 


much the broadest, and is inscribed (on the outside) FERARA, 
the tops of the letters being yet clear, but the lower portions worn 
away ; there is also a flaw at the final letter. About eleven inches up 
on this side there is an armourer's mark of a crescent with a face 
in it, and on the other side of the blade are three such crescents. 
This was a Toledo mark and subsequently that of a German 

Brett gives 'no. 123, a basket-hilted broadsword, signed Andrea 
Farara, of the seventeenth century,' as having an armourer's mark of 
three moons with a face in each. 

The hilt (see fig. 4) measures five and five-eighth inches across 
the inside, which is exceptionally wide. It dates about 1700, but 
the grip seems to be of a later date, and is four and a half inches long, 
of wood, with a deep spiral groove ; a piece has also been riveted on, 
lengthening the quillon to the rear to the extent of three and a quarter 
inches from the false edge of the blade. 

The termination of the pommel is a ring of which I spoke in no. 1, 
but the peculiarity of this hilt is the oval opening on the inside (left), 
and where there is a leather lining to this type of hilt it also has a 
corresponding opening. The two sides of a basket hilt are usually 
symmetrical, although frequently so fashioned as to have a little less 
projection on the inside, because less was required, and it also enabled 
the sword to lie more closely to the side of the wearer. But this oval 
opening was clearly for some other purpose. Mr. Maclntyre North, 
in his Book of the Club of True Highlanders, says i it was to put the 
long barrel of a pistol through ;' but there is a tradition that it was 
for the left hand to grasp here when desiring to use both hands to 
deal a heavy blow ; in fact, making it a one or two-handed sword at 
will. I think this is the more likely use. Mr. T. Taylor kindly lent 
me a sword having this feature. 

No. 4. "Weighs 2 Ibs. 6 oz., and is three feet two and three- 
quarter inches over all. 

The blade is two-edged and two feet nine inches long. It is one 
and five-sixteenth inches broad at the base and tapers to three-quarters 
of an inch at three inches from the point. There is a single central 
groove on each side which runs to within six inches of the point, and 
is inscribed ANDRIA xux FERARA, but there is no other mark. 


The hilt (see fig. 7) is probably English and dates about 1720. 
It is all open bar work, and terminates with a ring at the pommel. 

The pas d'ane is a 
separate plate fixed on 
with three screws, and 
the form it here takes 
is certainly not well 
adapted to gripping an 
opponent's blade. 


In Trattato Mili- 
taire, published in 
Venice in 1583, from 
which there is an ex- 
tract with English 
translation and notes in 
the- GornMll Magazine 
for 1865, we learn 
that Andrea Ferara 
had then (1583) made 
a reputation for blades, 
and was working with 
his brother in the town 
of Belluno ; that he 
came of a family of 
armourers which had 
existed in Italy at least 
two generations before 
his time, of whom the 
first derived his name 
from the place of his 
nativity, the ducal city 
of Ferara ; and that 
he, Andrea, was the 
pupil of one styled 
the Barcelonian. 

This is about all that we really know of him, the numerous 
legends of him having slain his son for the discovery of his secret 


FIG. 7. 


process of tempering blades, his flight to Scotland in consequence, 
etc., are all without foundation in facts, we must, therefore, look to 
weapons bearing his name for further information ; and the first 
thing which strikes us is that they are rare in Italy where he lived, 
yet so numerous in Scotland, that, at one time, the number must 
have been phenomenal. 1 Originally, however, Ferara blades were 
also common in all the western and southern countries of Europe, 
whilst the broadsword was a popular arm, and only became more 
numerous in Scotland, because this weapon was retained amongst the 
Highlanders and Borderers more than one hundred years after it had 
been supplanted in other nations by the rapier and the small sword. 
Under these circumstances, the Highlander, a good judge of blades, 
would naturally acquire the best specimens considered obsolete else- 
where, and who knows but that his choice may have been influenced 
by the apparent rebus of Andrea Ferara and St. Andrew's iron. 
There is, at any rate, one example : 


with St. Andrew's cross at the beginning and end of each word, 2 
certainly suggestive of having been made in Scotland or at least for 

Mr. G. V. Irving, F.S.A. Scot., in 18G5, 3 gave an analysis of 
twenty-five Ferara blades, which contained fifteen types, including 
seven different spellings, as follows : 


Besides the variations caused by the Andrea being sometimes above 
the Ferara, sometimes on a line with it, sometimes both repeated 
twice on each side, and sometimes only the Andrea on one side and 
Ferara on the other. 

Baron de Cosson 4 says, 'It is certain that comaion as blades 

1 Large numbers were destroyed by the enforcement of the disarming Acts 
of 1716, 1725, 1746, and after Culloden a garden trellis was made of broadsword 
blades, many of them Feraras. 

2 See Scottish National Memorials. 

3 Journal of Brit. Arch. Assoc. for 1865. 

4 Arsenals and Armouries in South Germany and Austria. 


bearing the signature Andrea Ferara are in this country, scarcely any 
of them are the work of Andrea Ferara who gained such great renown 
for the superb temper of the blades which he produced at his workshop 
at Belluno, in the second half of the sixteenth century.' Experts 
agree that the majority of blades commonly attributed to him date 
about the seventeenth century, being mostly made in Solingen or 
Spain, though perhaps a few in Scotland, and there are examples on 
which the name of the town of Solingen or that of Lisbon occurs in 
addition to his signature. There are also many bearing a crowned 
king's head at every second letter 5 this was the mark of Johannes 
Wandes of Solingen, 1560-1610. 

I think we may conclude from these facts that at Ferara's death, 
about 1584, his blades had made such a reputation and the demand 
for them was so great that subsequent makers adopted his name as a 
sort of Al mark not, perhaps, intending to pass them off as his work, 
or why should they have put on their own marks ? but just as now 
the best household coal is sold in London as Wallsend, although it is 
well known that none of it comes from that colliery, but merely 
supplies a demand and trades on the name which Wallsend made. 

5 There is a fine specimen now in South Kensington museum lent by Seymour 
Lueas, R.A. See also Egertou Castle's Schools and Master of the Fence and 
Lord Archibald Campbell's pamphlet. 



[Read on the 27th of September, 1899.] 

The incident dealt with in my paper to-night has been almost 
entirely overlooked by our historians. Macaulay, it is true, alludes to 
it in very general terms, but places it in the autumn of 1692. ' Jean 
Bart,' he says, * even ventured to land in Northumberland, and burnt 
many houses before the train-bands could be collected to oppose him.' 1 
Details of the occurrence have been accumulating in my hands for some 
time, and I now feel justified in putting before you with some par- 
ticularity the story of the almost forgotten descent of Jean Bart on 
our coast. 

In the spring and summer of 1691 a large squadron of English 
and Dutch warships, under the command of Yice-Admiral Sir Ralph 
Delaval, 2 one of our Northumbrian men of mark, was engaged in 
blockading Dunkirk. In the harbour lay nineteen large men of war, 3 
recently refitted for service, three of sixty-four guns, one of sixty- 
two guns, and the rest, with two exceptions, of from thirty-six to 
fifty-two guns a-piece, which, it was supposed, were intended to 
convey munitions to Ireland and co-operate with Tourville's fleet 
in an attack on some part of the British coast. The commander 
of this squadron was the redoubtable Jean Bart, the son of a 
Dunkirk fisherman, whose deeds of daring had made him the naval 
hero of his time. He was brilliantly supported in his adventurous 
projects by an officer sprung from a very different station in life 
Claude de Forbin, who, five years earlier, had accompanied the French 
ambassador to Siam, and been appointed admiral of the king of that 

1 Hist, of England, vol. iv. pp. 292-3. 

2 March 12, 1690-91. Sir Ralph Delavall is sail'd from the buoy in the Nore 
with a squadron of 15 men of warr, and is ordered to cruize off Dunkirk to 
prevent a squadron of French men of war that are there from joineing the Brest 
fleet. Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, vol. ii. p. 194. 
May, 1691. Sir Ralph Delavall continues with his squadron to block up Dunkirk. 
Ibid. p. 224. 

3 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, from September 1678 
to April 17H, vol. ii. p. 253, and London Gazette for July 6th, 1691, 


country, general of his armies, and governor of Bangkok. Bart and 
Forbin were the two French captains who, in May 1689, had made so 
sensational an escape from Plymouth by filing through the bars of 
their prison and then rowing across the Channel in a small ship's boat. 
Such men were capable of any enterprise, however hazardous. 

After successfully checkmating Bart for two months, Sir Ralph 
Delaval seems to have been recalled, and, early in July we find 
Captain Bokenharn in command of the squadron off Dunkirk. 

The number of vessels engaged in the blockade has been greatly 
exaggerated by the French historians. One authority gives thirty- 
two, 4 another thirty-seven, 5 and a third forty. 6 According to Burchett 
there were twenty-one, viz., eight English (six men of war of from fifty 
to sixty guns, one fire-ship, and one sloop) and thirteen Dutch (one of 
fifty -four guns, one of fifty-two, five of fifty, and six of from twenty 
to forty). 7 

On the 14th of July Bart made an attempt to get out to sea with 
sixjbeen of his ships, but the blockading squadron drew into a line, with 
fire-ships at each end. A few shots were exchanged, and the French 
retired again into the harbour. 8 Clearly these large vessels, which 
could only be taken out in daylight, had little chance of getting past 
the allied fleets. But Bart was not the man to remain passive at a 
juncture like this. Seven light frigates and a fire-ship had been fitted 
up in Dunkirk in pursuance of a plan which he had recently submitted 
to the Comte de Pontchartrain, minister of the navy, for ruining the 
trade of the Dutch. With this small squadron he determined to make 
his escape. Taking on board five months' provisions 9 he made his 
final preparations, and on Wednesday, July the 15th, in the night, he 
sailed out of the harbour at the spring tide. 10 

Silently forward through the darkness sped the skilfully handled 
frigates, steered by men who knew every inch of the roadstead, and, as 
they neared the blockading fleets, the gunners stood with their lint- 

4 Description Historigue de Dunkerque, by Pierre Faulconnier, 1730. Book 
viii. p. 101 ; and also Jean Bart, by Adolphe Badin. Paris, 1882, p. 111. 

5 Ilccueil des noucelles ordinaires et extraordinaire.?, relations et refits 
des clioses avenues tant en ce royaume qitfaillcurs pendant I' an nee 1691. 

6 Me moires du Comtc de Forbin, vol. i. 

7 Burchett's Remarkable Transactions at Sea (1720), book iv. chap. vii. 
pp. 440-1. 

8 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, vol.ii. p. 265. 

9 Cal. of State Papers (Dom.), 1690-1, p. 456. 10 Ibid. p. 457. 


stocks in their hands n ready to pour in a broadside at the first sign of 
alarm. According to Colonel Austin, speaking in the House of 
Commons, 'they came out on the Dutch side and not on ours' 12 a 
statement confirmed by Luttrell 13 afterwards ' sailing along shore as 
far as Ostend before they set out to sea.' 14 Their escape being at length 
discovered, eighteen or twenty ships went in pursuit of them, but at 
daybreak the bold Dunkirk corsairs were out of sight. 15 Towards the 
evening Bart fell in with three large merchantmen bound for Russia, 
convoyed by a man-of-war of forty-four guns. He had received infor- 
mation about these ships ten days before they left London, and it was 
part of his project to intercept them. 16 Forbin hovered near them all 
night, making them believe he was English and came from Flushing. 
About five o'clock the next morning July the 17th being then ten 
leagues W.S.W.from Yarmouth, Forbin hoisted the white flag, and after 
a short engagement, in which he lost six men and the English forty, the 
ships were taken and sent off to Bergen, in Norway, under the escort 
of one of the frigates of the squadron. 17 It is gratifying to learn that 
three days later one of the largest of these prizes, the ' Tiger/ valued 
at from 40,000 to 50,000, and a Danish buss, containing the 
prisoners, were recaptured by an English galley from Elsinore. 18 
Another prize taken by Bart on the 17th was a Dutch collier, which 
he sank. 19 Two days later he captured on the Dogger Bank ten or 
twelve Dutch herring-busses with a small man-of-war convoying 
them. 20 Eighty is the number given by the French authorities. 

11 Letter from M. Patoulet, Governor of Dunkirk, to A. M. de Villermont, 
dated Dunkirk, the 26th (? 16th) July, 1691 : ' En accusant Monsieur la 
reception de la lettre que vous m'avez fait I'honneur de m'ecrire je vous donnerai 
avis du passage de 1'escadre de M. Bart, cette riuit a travers de trente sept 
vaisseaux des ennemis, dont dix-huit ou vingt lui donnent a present chasse, et, je 
crois, assez inutilement. M. Bart a ete pres de quinze jours dans la rade sans 
que les ennemis aient juge a propos de venir 1'attaquer ; les vaisseaux de son 
escadra n'etant que de quarante pieces de canon (les plus forts) ils sont sortis du 
port le boutefeu a la main.'- Histolre de la Marine Frangaisc, by Eugene Sue, 
vol. iv. p. 290. 

12 Parl. Hist, of England, vol. v, p. 657. 

13 Passing by the Dutch squadron that were to block them up.' Luttrell, 
vol. ii. p. 268. 

14 Cal. of State Papers (Dom.), 1690-1, p. 457. 

15 Memoires du Comte de Forbin, vol. i. 

16 Cal. of State Papers (Dom.), 1690-1, p. 455. 

17 Me moires du Comte de Forbin, vol. i. 

ls Cal. State Papers (Dom.), 1690-1, p. 455. 19 Ibid. p. 458. 

20 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relati on of State Affairs, vol. ii. p. 270. 


These he burnt as being of little value, and their crews he shortly 
afterwards landed on the English coast. 21 Ranging along towards 
Newcastle, with designs no doubt on the fleets of colliers, which: he 
fortunately does not seem to have encountered, he found himself on 
Tuesday, the 21st of July, off the Northumberland coast, with a 
stately castle and some small villages in sight. 22 

Forbin erroneously surmised that they were off the coasts of 
Scotland. 23 It was decided to land some men and burn the villages 
Such a deed would make no little stir in the country, and the fame 
of the squadron would be noised abroad. An English renegade of the 
name of Chetworth or Thetford piloted the French ships into Druridge 
Bay 24 : these were the'Alcion,' a frigate of forty-four guns, which 
Jean Bart had commanded at the battle off Beachy Head the previous 
year, the ' Conte,' the 'Heureuse,' the 'Seux' (?), the 'Tigre,' the 
'Aurore,' the Ttailleur,' and the ' Sorciere,' the latter being the fire- 
ship. 25 Some privateers seem to have accompanied the squadron out 
of_ Dunkirk, and probably were also present, for the captain of one of 
these vessels, a renegade Scotchman of the name of Melford or Milford, 
was afterwards charged with having taken part in this affair. 26 Bart 
left Forbin to carry out the plan of the expedition. The latter having 
landed somewhere in the neighbourhood of Druridge Links no doubt, 
stationed twenty-five men in a suitable position for protecting the 
boats and covering his retreat in case he were driven back, and advanced 
through the fields at the head of his party. 27 They first pillaged and 
set fire to the village of Widdrington, and then forced their way into 
Widdrington Castle, the seat of the third Lord Widdrington. After 
carrying away all the valuables they found there the money, plate 
and household goods, they burnt the barns, stables and outhouses, with 

21 Memoires du Comte tie Forbin, vol. i. 22 Ibid. p. 315. 23 Ibid. p. 315. 

24 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of Mate Affairs, vol. ii. p. 152-3. 

25 Cal. of State Payer* (Dom.), 1690-1, p. 458. 

26 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, vol. ii. p. 435. 
Capt. Jas. Wishart, commander of the Mary galley, in a letter dated July 23rd. 
1691, gives the strength of Bart's squadron as seven men-of-war, one fire-ship, 
and twelve privateers {Cal. of State Papers (Dom.), 1690-1, p. 458). and Burchett 
reduces this number somewhat, 'About this time fifteen or sixteen Privateers got 
out of Dunkirk, and ranging along the northern coast, under the command of 
Monsieur Du Bart, landed in Northumberland, and there they burnt a House of 
Lord Widdr ing ton's and did some other mischief.' Remarkable Transactions at 
Sea (1720), book iv. c. vii. p. 444. 

27 Memoir es du Comte de Forbin. vol. i. p. 315. 


several cottages thereabouts. 28 Forbin afterwards regretted this sacking 
of the castle, for he discovered from the ornaments taken from the 
private chapel that the house belonged to a Eoman Catholic. 29 The 
marauders then proceeded to Chibburn and Druridge, burning a farm- 
house at the former place the old preceptory of the Knights 
Hospitallers and three or four houses at the latter. 30 They had 
only just completed their work of destruction when a small body of 
cavalry and infantry, hastily gathered together in the neighbour- 
hood, and, consequently, very badly equipped, arrived on the scene. 
The French retired in good order and the cavalry dashed forward 
to the boats. However, the officer in charge of the detachment 
already referred to fired upon them and obliged them to retire. Forbin 
and his men then embarked with their 'loot,' and regained the 
squadron without further molestation. One man only was missing, 
and he lost his life through his cupidity, for having loaded himself 
with more booty than he could carry, he fell behind and was overtaken 
by the cavalry and killed. 31 

Most of the French accounts of the descent state that about two 
hundred houses were burnt, 32 but this is clearly an exaggeration. From 
the briefs authorising collections in churches for the inhabitants of the 
devastated villages we learn that the damage done was estimated 
at 6,000. 33 Before leaving the northern coasts Bart captured 
several fishing-boats, which he scuttled or burnt, 34 and so, having done 
as much damage as possible in a comparatively short period, he made 
his way back to Dunkirk, rich in booty and fame. As Forbin had 
anticipated, the news of the landing quickly spread throughout the 

2S London Gazette, July 23-27, 1691. Quoted by T. P. Armstrong in Notes 
and Queries, 9 ser. iv. p. 152 ; also Gazette de France, August 25th, 1691, p. 539. 

29 Memoir es du Comte de Forbin, vol. i. p. 317. 

30 London Gazette, July 23-27, and Gazette de France, August 25th, 1691, 
p. 539. 

S1 Memoir es du Comte de Forbin, vol. i. p. 317. 

3 " Richer in his Vie de Jean Bart, p. 118, improves on this number. 
According to this author Bart burnt ' environ cinq cents maisons.' 

33 '1692-3. Druridge, Widdrington, and Chibburn. Damaged by fire and 
by the French. Loss estimated at 6,01)0.' W. A. Bewes' Church Briefs (1896). 

34 'II y a plusieurs armateurs Francais sur les costes d'Ecosse qui ont pris 
depuis peu quarante deux bastiments Hollandois occupez a la pesche du 
harang, pres de Montrosse. Us ont coule les bastiments a fond et mis a terre 
les matelots.' De Londres le 24 Aoust, 1691. Recueil des nouvelles ordinaires 
et cxtraordinaircs, etc., 1691. 

Arch. Afl. vol. xxii. To face p. 16. 



/ - <:>/ 

? (/ea' 


Sdnwrt/ j. A 
j m^ 


Plate II. 


country. Robert Harley, writing to Sir Edward Harley, July 25th, 
1691, informed him, 'an express brought tidings last night that the ships 
which got out of Dunkirk had landed some men in Northumberland, 
who plundered and then burnt the house of Lord Widdrington, a 
papist'; 35 and Sir William Hamilton of Whitelaw, in a letter to 
William, earl of Annandale, dated July 30th, 1691, wrote, * The 
privateers of Dunkirk burned a gentilman's house of Northumberland. 
The council of Scotland sent a boat after the privateers to discover 
their whereabouts.' 36 For two years after the affair collections 
continued to be made in the churches for the benefit of the sufferers 
Billingham Church, Co. Durham, contributed three shillings and seven 
pence on July 31st, 1692, 37 and Ormesby St. Margaret's three shillings 
and four pence on April 3rd, 1693, 38 and research would no doubt 
bring to light many other instances. Echoes of the affair were also 
heard in the assize courts two years and more afterwards. From Lut- 
trell we learn that ' Captain Melford, taken on board the French priva- 
teer on the G-oodwin Sands, with other English, were examined yesterday 
[April 27th, 1692] before councill ; he is charged for burning the 
lord Widdrington's house in Northumberland, and is thereon committed 
to Newgate, and will be speedily tryed.' 39 He is referred to again, 
on November 29th, 1692, this time as 'Captain Milford, a sea-officer, 
supposed to be captain of the French privateer who burnt the lord 
Widdrington's house in the north,' 40 and then he drops out of sight. 
In August, 1693, however, Nemesis overtakes another miscreant. 
Under date of August 3rd Luttrell records, ' One Chet worth, who 
pilotted in the French privateers that burnt the lord Widdrington's 
house 2 years since, being taken in a privateer and sent prisoner to 
Newgate, is sent prisoner to Newcastle to be tryed.' 41 

The assizes began Tuesday, August 15th, before Sir Edward 
Nevill and Sir John Powell, and being brought to trial, Chetworth, 
or, as he is afterwards called, Thetford, 'pleaded guilty to the 

35 MSS. of the Duke of Portland, Hist. MSS. Comm. IJfili Rept., app. ii. p. 471 . 

36 MSS. of J. J. Hope Johnstone, esq., of Annandale, Hist. MSS. Comm. 15th 
Rept. app. ix. p. 57. 

37 Proc. Soc. Ant. of Newcastle, vol. iv. p. 150, 

38 Notes and Queries, ii. series, vol. ii. p. 223. 

39 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, vol. ii. p. 435. 

40 Ibid. p. 627. 41 Ibid. vol. iii. p. 152-3. 



indictment.' 42 The depositions in York castle for this period are 
unfortunately in some disorder or further particulars might have been 
gleaned from them respecting this landing of the French on the coast of 
Northumberland. What we naturally suppose would be the sequel to 
the affair is given by Luttrell under date of September 14th. ' Thetford, 
who pilotted in the French privateers, has been executed at New- 
castle.' 43 But five days later he adds, * Thetford, the pilott, said to 
be executed at Newcastle, proves a mistake.' 44 What eventually 
became of Thetford I have not been able to discover. 

In 1694 we narrowly escaped having another visit from Jean 
Bart in these parts, for in the instructions given to him by the 
king, on August 19th, his majesty recommends him, not only to 
destroy all the English and Dutch fishing along the coasts of 
England and Scotland, but to take steps to capture some fleet of 
Newcastle colliers (' quelque flotte de charbonniers de Neufchatel '), as 
such an expedition, he knows, would make the people of London cry out 
very loudly, and this would be exceedingly opportune at the particular 
juncture. 45 It may possibly have been two of Bart's privateers which, 
in October 1695, landed some men near Shields and burnt two houses. 
They, however, had not the good fortune or adroitness of the famous 
Dunkirk captain, for on putting to sea with their booty they were taken 
by two Dutch privateers. 46 

The descent of Jean Bart on the coast of Northumberland forms 
the subject of a small engraving by Yves le (louaz it is one of a series 
depicting the chief sea-fights of the Dunkirk hero but as this Breton 
engraver was not born till 1742, and in all probability was never in 
the north of England, the dim undulating line of coast represented, 
with the frigates lying off it, may safely be assumed to be an imagi- 
nary sketch. 

42 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, vol. iii. p. 174. 
48 Ibid. vol. iii. p. 185. 44 Ibid. vol. iii. p. 188. 

45 Histoire de la Marine Frangaise, by Eugene Sue, vol. iv. p. 295. 

46 Luttrell's A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, vol. iii. p. 540. 



A quelques jours de la, comme nous 6tions sur les cotes d'Ecosse je proposal a 
Earth de f aire une descente et de bruler quelques villages qui etoient a vue, 
parmi lesquels il y avoit un tres-beau chateau. Cette expedition, me parut 
d'autant plus convenable que vraisemblablement elle devoit faire du bruit dans 
le Pa'is et donneroit de la reputation a Tescadre. Earth approuva ma proposition, 
et me laissa toute la conduite de cette affaire. Apres avoir mis pied a terre, je fis 
retrancher vingt-cinq Hommes, dans un endroit propre a couvrir les chaloupes et 
les canots, et a favoriser la retraite en cas que je fus repousse par les Ennemis. 
Je m'avanyai ensuite dans les terres, a la te"te de tout mon Monde, et je com- 
men9ai mon attaque. Les Villages furent brulez et pillez, aussi bien que le 
Chateau, auquel j'eus grand regret, car jeconnus par les Ornemens qui avoient 
e'te enlevez a la Chapelle que la Maison appartenoit a un Oath clique Romain. 
Au bruit de cette expedition, les Ecossois qui s'e" toient assemblez des environs, 
formerent a la hate, un petit corps de Cavalerie, et un autre corps d'infanterie 
le tout assez mal ordonne. Informe de cette demarche des Ennemis je me retirai 
en bon ordre ; la Cavalerie ennemie voulut nous poursuivre, et s'aprocher de la 
Marine mais 1'officier retranche ayant fait un decharge sur eux les obligea de se 
retirer. Je ne perdis qu'un seul Homme dans cette expedition ; encore ne 
perit-il que par son trop d'avarice; car s'e"tant charge de butin au dela de ce qu'il 
pouvoit en porter, il resta derriere et fut tue" par la Cavalerie qui 1'atteignit. 
Avant que de quitter ces Cotes, nous flmes encore plusieurs autres prises de 
Pe"cheurs que nous brulames. M6moires du Comte de Forbin, chef d'escadre, 
chevalier de V ordre militaire de Saint Louis. Amsterdam, 1730, vol i. pp. 



[Read on the 25th October, 1899.] 

The subject of this paper is an estate in the township of "Westoe, 
county Durham, of the Green family, formerly of Westoe, the interest 
in which is enhanced by the fact of its having originally been 
acquired by purchase about the middle of last century from one William 
Blythman Adamson, who was second cousin of Blythman Adamson, 
an ancestor of our esteemed member, the rev. Cuthbert Edward 
Adamson of Westoe. The history of this estate, moreover, affords 
another illustration of the open or common field system of husbandry 
once prevalent in England. 

The customary tenants- in the township of Westoe held their 
lands under the prior and convent of Durham by entry on the 
court rolls for life or term of years. These possessions were trans- 
ferred in the early part of the sixteenth century to the dean and 
chapter of Durham, by which body the customary tenants' claim 
of right of renewal on payment of a fine was at first disputed, 
but eventually recognized, one year's improved rent every seven years 
being thereafter accepted as a renewal fine until these estates became 
vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In this connexion a 
large portion of the land within the borough of South Shields formerly 
belonged to the dean and chapter, under whom it was held on leases 
for husbandry of twenty-one years, renewable every seven years, on 
payment of a fine, and the old tenants were acknowledged to hold a 
beneficial interest in their leases, which were objects of sale and other 
dispositions. There was a division of Westoe township in 1618, 
whereby five tenants (including one Edward Blythman) were 
responsible for the rent and the proper working of the northern 
portion of the township and four for that of the southern portion 
the Lay (to which the Lay gate gave access) being the five northern 
tenants' common pasture, and the Deans being that of the four 
southern tenants. The well in the Cold well Batts (called Cad well* in 

* Still known as ' Cadwell." ED. 


the division deed of 1618) was reserved for all the five north farms, 
the well being in the three south ones. 1 In the year 1667 the Lay 
farm was separated from the other four farms, which Lay farm 
belonged to Lewis Frost, Ra. Milburn, Michl. Coatsworth, and Robt. 
Linton, and by articles 13th June, 1668, this one-fourth farm was 
awarded and severed and then belonged to Ralf Milburn, whilst about 
this time the southern tenants divided their common field. These 
divisions were made with the consent of the dean and chapter. 
Disputes ultimately arose amongst the four tenants holding the 
undivided portions of the northern portion of the township, in relation 
to their several shares. In 1715 legal proceedings were instituted 
in, the Court of Chancery at Durham by Mary Eden, widow, Robert 
Eden, a minor, by Mary Eden his mother as his guardian, 2 Adam 
Bentley and Barbra (sic) his wife, against, George Harle, 3 gentleman, 
and Robert Adamson, 4 gentleman, resulting in an order for the 
division of the lands and grounds called Westoe common fields for 
the better settling and assuring the shares of the several persons 
concerned in proportion to their several farmholds in the township 
of Westoe, and the issue of a commission, dated 1st December, 1715, 
directed to certain commissioners. The award under such commission, 
dated 25th February, 1716, commences with the following recital 
(so far as material), viz. : 

The Honourable John Montague Doctor of Divinity Dean and the Chapter of 
Durham of the Cathedral Church of Christ and Blessed Mary the Virgin Mary 
Eden Widow Robert Eden her son and Infant by the said Mary Eden his 
guardian Adam Bentley and Barbra his wife as complainants Did lately 
exhibit their bill of complaint unto the Court of Chancery at Durham against 
George Hall gentleman and Robert Adamson gentleman defendants Thereby 
setting forth that the said Dean and Chapter being seised in Fee in right of 
their Church of and in certain fields or closes called Westoe Common Fields, 

1 Vide Terrier of Survey of Westoe Township by Richardson in 1768, infra. 

2 This Mary Eden, about 1714, took a farmhold or ninth part of Westoe, 
formerly the property of William Blythman, a son of Edward Blythman, the 
younger, named in accompanying copy of the Blythman family pedigree. She 
was possibly the widow of Robert Eden, mayor of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1699, 
a younger brother of the husband of her namesake Mary Eden named in same 
pedigree. She, moreover, had a son Robert, who matriculated at Brasenose, 
Oxford, 21st February, 1716 or 1717, at the age of 15, and who was after- 
wards D.D. and archdeacon of Winchester. 

3 A connexion by marriage of above-named Robert Adamson. 

4 Vide accompanying copy of the Blythman family pedigree. 


(vizt) one Great Field 5 and three lesser Fields hereinafter mentioned containing 
by estimation Four hundred and eighty four acres or thereabouts subject to such 
right and interest as is claimed therein by the Defendant Adamson. They 
the said Dean and Chapter by several leases did demise the premises with several 
other Grounds at Westoe for the term of twenty one years yet in being as 
followeth (vizt) one fourth part thereof to the Complainant Mary Eden which 
was to be in trust for the complainant Robert her son when he should attain the 
age of Fifteen years. Another fourth part to the Defendants Adamson and 
Elizabeth his mother 6 since deceased 7 whom he survived and so became entitled 
to such fourth part by survivorship. One fourth part thereof to the defendant 
George Harle and the remaining fourth part to the said Barbra (sic) wife of the 
said Complainant Adam Bentley. And that the said Defendant Adamson doth 
also hold and enjoy about an eighteenth part of the Great field as his Freehold as 
Tenant in common with the said Dean and Chapter and their tenants and that 
the remainder of the Great Field and the three lesser Fields are enjoyed under 
such Leases as aforesaid. And that when any part of the said Grounds have been 
ploughed the owners usually agreed to avoid the inconveniences of sowing and 
reaping in common. That each of them should hold some particular Ridge 
or parcels of Ground themselves. But for the residue of the said ground and 
also the arable Ground after the corn thereof is reaped or when the same is 
laid down to Grass the same was and is used and enjoyed in common as 
aforesaid. And that a division of the said Grounds would tend much to the 
improvement thereof notwithstanding which the Defendants refuse to consent 
thereunto and hereby prayed that the Defendants might set forth what Interest 
they claim and why they refuse to consent to such division and that a com- 
mission might issue out of the Court for the division of the said Grounds to be 
held by them and their respective Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns 
respectively according to the nature of their said several Estates and Interest in 
severalty. To which said Bill the said Defendants severally appeared and 
answered and the Defendant Adamson by his answer claimed the Inheritance 
of part of the said Lands and the mines and Quarries therein but he believes 
his share to amount to more than an eighteenth part thereof. And as to 
such part thereof as is the Inheritance of the said Dean and Chapter each of the 
said Defendants claimed a fourth part thereof under such Leases as aforesaid 
and both of them consented that an equal division might he had therof. But 
the Defendant Adamson hoped that upon such division a part and share of the 
said Lands with the Mines and Quarries therein should be allotted to him in lieu 
of his said Freehold Interest to be held by him and his heirs as well as his share 
in lieu of his said Leasehold Lands. And afterwards the cause came to a hearing 
upon bill and answer. 

And so forth. 

5 The Great Field extended from Westoe Town to Fowler's close (i.e. to Ogle 
Terrace), and from the boundary of the Lay farm (i.e. Laygate Lane) to the 
Sea. Vide Brief Notices of Westoe and South Shields by the Rev. C. E. Adamson 
(privately printed). 

8 Nee Blythman, see pedigree. 

7 In this connexion vide note under ' Henry Eden ' in Blythman pedigree. 


The following is the operative part of the award, so far as is 
material, to the subject of this paper : 

Item. We do order allot and award unto the said Defendant Robert Adamson 
for his leasehold Farmhold Right in the said Westoe Common Fields 109 acres of 
Ground parcel of the said Common Fields viz. Sixty nine acres parcel of 
the said 109 acres Boundering on the said Defendant George Harle's allotment 
on the East on Fowlers Closes aforesaid and an enclosed piece of Ground called 
the New Close 8 hereinafter mentioned to be also allotted to the said Robert 
Adamson on the North The Town of Westoe aforesaid on the south and the 
Grounds hereby allotted to the complainants Mary and Robert Eden on the West 
as the same is now dowled out And we do further award unto the said Robert 
Adamson an enclosed piece of Ground called New Close parcel of the said 
Common Fields containing 40 acres of Ground or thereabouts to be the residue of 
of the said 109 acres of Ground so allotted to him as aforesaid To hold the said 
several parcels of Ground unto the said Robert Adamson his Executors Adminis- 
trators and Assigns for all such term and Estate for years as the said defendant 
Robert Adamson hath or had in his said Leasehold undivided part of the said 
premises and the Fee and Inheritance of the said Leasehold allotment to be and 
remain to the said Dean and Chapter and their Successors to be held and enjoyed 
in severalty, 

Item. We do order allot and award unto the said Robert Adamson for his 
freehold Tenement in the said Common Fields all that piece or parcel of Ground 
as it is now fenced out called the Ox Night fold parcel of the said premises 
containing Seventeen acres of ground or thereabouts Together with the mines 
and Quarries and other Royalties therein To hold to the said Robert Adamson 
his heirs and assigns for ever in severalty. 

Unfortunately, no plan appears to have accompanied this award. 

By his will dated 7th March, 1732, the above-named Robert 
Adamson gave all his lands, tythes, tenements, and hereditaments, 
as well freehold as copyhold and leasehold, to Nicholas Lambton, 
Robert Blakiston, John Hutton, and Martin Dunn upon trust out of 
the rents and profits or by mortgage or sale to pay his debts, legacies, 
and funeral expenses, and subject thereto and to certain other therein 
mentioned trusts upon trust for his son William Blythman Adamson, 
then a minor, absolutely. For the discharge of his father's debts, 
William Blythman Adamson. on his attaining twenty-one, sold to 
Robert Green, of South Shields, gentleman, in 1738, for 3,185, 
certain closes of ground at Westoe, viz., Ox Night fold, containing 
about twenty-one acres, the old Dean close, the New Dean close, and 
the Lay Gate, and a house and garth in Westoe, and all other the 

8 New close lay to the west of Fowler's close (now covered by Charlotte 
Street, St. Hilda's pit, etc.). Vide Brief Notice* of Westoe and South Shields 
by Rev. C. E. Adamson. 


freehold messuages, lands, and tenements to which he, William Blyth- 
man Adamson, was entitled in the township of Westoe, together with 
certain leasehold lands and tenements at Westoe, then the estate of 
his said late father. 9 The above pedigree of the Blythman family 
contains the following note of the sale : ' William Blythman of 
Durham Gent : of age in 1737, in 1738 sold the Blythman lands to 
Robert Green of South Shields Gent : for 3,185 to pay the great 
debts of his father.' 

This Robert Green was a son of a member of a Suffolk family, 
named Green, whose family house was at Wilby in that county. His 
father, Thomas Green, became connected with South Shields through 
his trading as a ship master between Ipswich and the Tyne, and his 
marrying, in 1686, Sarah Frost, a daughter of the above-named Lewis 
Frost, under whose will (dated 6 January, 1693, he (Thomas Green) 
obtained a considerable portion of that gentleman's estate, including 
his fourth part of his farm in the township of Westoe. 10 Thomas 
Green's son, the above-named Robert Green, married his cousin Alice 
Frost in 1732. According to local tradition, that lady and her brothers 
had, previous to her marriage, raised a troop of horse at or in the 
vicinity of South Shields in 1715 in aid of the Pretender, James 
Edward, which made it necessary for her to take eventually the oaths 
of allegiance to George I. at London. That she took such oaths is 
borne out by the certificate of her taking the oaths at London in 1723 ; 
which certificate has, I understand, been in the Green family's 
possession more or less since her marriage with Robert Green. 

The following is a copy of this certificate : 

Middls. THESE are to Certify that at the General Quarter Sessions of the 
Peace held for the County of Middlesex by Adjournm* at Hirkshall in 
St John Street in and for the said County on Friday the Eighteenth 

9 Vide Wm. Blythman A damson's conveyance of such freehold property to 
Robert Green, dated 25th August, 1738, and the undermentioned plans and 

10 ' Also I give and devise unto my said son Thomas Green my fourth part of 
my farm in the Township of "Westoe and all houses and buildings thereunto 
belonging and all my tenant right benefit of renewall title or interest whatso- 
ever of in or to the land (excepting a wayleave and liberty for my son Henry 
Wilkinson his heirs or assigns for cart or carriage to carry or bring what he 
hath occasion for through my two middle fields adjoining to my son Henry 
Wilkinson's own lands so as the said wayleave be settled and appointed in the 
most convenient part where least damage may be done by Henry Woolfe and 
Henry Blackitt within twelve months after my decease) to hold to him the said 
Thomas Green his exors admors and assigns for ever.' Extract from an old 
draft of the will of the above-named Lewis Frost. 


day of October in the tenth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord 
George King of Great Britain &c Alice Frost of Ratcliff in the Parish 
of St Dunstons Stepney in the said County Spinster personally 
appeared in open Court, and then and there did take and subscribe 
the three several Oaths appointed to be taken in and by an Act of 
Parliament made in the First Year of his said now Majesty's Keign, 
entitled, An Act for the further security of His Majesty's Person and 
Government, and the succession of the Crown in the Heirs of the 
late Princess Sophia being Protestants, and for extinguishing the 
hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and his open and secret 
Abettors, according to the direction of one other Act of Parliament, 
made in the Ninth year of his said now Majesty's Reign, entitled an 
Act to oblige all persons, being Papists, in that part of Great Britain 
called Scotland, and all persons in Great Britain refusing or neglect- 
ing to take the Oaths appointed for the security of His Majesty's 
Person and Government, by several Acts herein mentioned to register 
to their Names and real Estates. Dated this Eighteenth day of October 
1723 and in the tenth year of his said now Majesty's Reign &c 
g S. M. Harcourt, 01. Pacis Corn' Midd. 

q [Endorsed] Certificate of Mrs Alice Frosts taking the Oaths 

Octo 18th 1723. 

It will be remembered that the birth of the Pretender, James 
Edward's son, Charles Edward, in 1720, caused a revival of Jacobitism, 
involving the discovery in 1722 of a Jacobite conspiracy and the 
arrest of several of the conspirators. 

The above-named Robert Green died in 1744, when the estate 
passed to his son, Robert Green the younger, who died in 1777. 
There still exists a plan of Westoe township, drawn by one R. 
Richardson in 1768, on a copy of which the lands then of the Green 
family are, from the information I have obtained from the terrier of 
this survey and other sources, shown, as to the freehold portion, by 
being coloured by me round with red, and, as to the leasehold portion, 
with blue. 

Indications of the open or common fields system of husbandry are, 
it will be observed, shown on this plan, such as ' The Butts/ ' The 
Ox Close/ and * The Night Fold/ as also in the terrier, e.g. the 
following reference to the Butts : 'These freehold butts being 17 in 
number are very conspicuous, tho' they have never been fenced off 
from the leasehold they are ploughed the contrary way to the other 
ridges, as represented in the plan by the red dotted line.' 



There are also two exceedingly interesting Green family property 
plans : one, an old estate plan of 1769, and the other an old building 
plan of the Laygate portion of the estate. 

At this period, 1768 and 1769, the contest about Wilkes and 
parliamentary privilege and the quarrel between England and the 
North American colonies were the great questions of the day. The 
county of Durham appears to have been a very neglected agricultural 
district at that time. It was, however, famous for a breed of cattle, the 
Durham shorthorns, which has eventually become the most esteemed 
English stock. As regards South Shields during this period, the 
manufacture of salt, to the introduction of which, about 1499, the town 
owed its earlier increase, was then very extensive, in which trade, it 
may be mentioned, the above named Lewis Frost appears to have been 
largely engaged, whilst the manufacture of glass and shipbuilding 
appear to have been also extensive then. The following are, more- 
over, interesting contemporaneous local events, viz., the town hall, 
situate in the market place, was erected in 1768 by the dean and 
chapter, the school was founded in 1769 by bequest of one Christopher 
Maughan in 1749 and Anne Aubone in 1760, whilst the fairs 
held at South Shields were granted by charter of bishop Trevor in 
1770. In this connexion the views at the corners of the old estate 
plan of 1769 of Saint Hild's church, South Shields, with the town 
hall, the ancient churches of Jarrow and Boldon, and especially the 
then remains of Tynemouth castle and priory with the governor's 
house, the lighthouse, and the additional fort at the mouth of Tyne- 
mouth haven, apparently erected on the castle being put into a 
complete state of defence in 1642, are especially interesting. It will, 
moreover, be observed that South Shields Mill Dam was then still 
covered by water at high tide. 

To return to the Green estate, the above-named Robert Green the 
younger died, it will be recollected, in 1777. On his death the estate, 
with the exception of the leasehold farm at Westoe, passed to his 
eldest son, Robert Green, whilst the leasehold farm at Westoe, then or 
eventually, passed to his other son, Thomas Green. The last-named 
Robert Green died in 1819, having by his will given all his property 
to his wife, Sarah Green, absolutely for her life. She in her lifetime 
conveyed her property to her son, the rev. Robert Green, for many 

Arch. Ael. vol. xxn. To face page 26. 

Hemmel Field ....... 

#<]/ Field ........... 

To/ton Field .......... 

Sandtforcf Lo/>d.> ____ 

Hit/ C/ose ........... 

C/iurch Koaa Close. 
Brewers f/e/cf. ..... 

/ft/n C/ose .......... 

Square C/ose ........ 

LonyF/e/d. ........ 

toy Gafe r/e/d. ..... , 

Boor. ......... 

G,nnC/oc.e ...... .".'. 

Ctiapple C/ose ....... 

Sun fan C/ose 
Dean Bridye 
Mint /Tcres 
S/a#e Low fields... 
5 ouffi Meado*. 
Tryany/e C/ose 
ndsides ..... 

Plate Ha. 



Sifuate at nfestoe in the 

CouNry of DURHAM 1769 

by M//? Bruce 

iV|kes and 


;-.'ou\ o-\ 

. .^\*. s^vvsi 


' . . i, .>D\3vV SMiV 1 * 


I <^>Vvtt tVOI<\ 

-^jV*. 9rx\VV ! 

..oi^t>\?. I 


the dean and 
:ic Christopher 
iitw the fairs 
v<y. T>wor in 
v.- '.tM estate 
8 h the town 
I specially the 
the governor's 
teoiith of Tyne- 
ij pub iiito a 
H^inp. It will, 
H n"sw U:on still 

pyfe6/ r 


|gJR!^ ': : - ::;v **f^ : " 


years vicar of Longhorsley, Northumberland, upon trust for conver- 
sion, whilst the whole of her estate eventually passed to him under her 
will upon trust for himself and her numerous daughters. As trustee, 
he effected the enfranchisement of much of the leasehold portion of 
the estate. The shares of the majority of his sisters eventually passed 
to the rev. Eobert Green, resulting in his ultimate acquisition of 
five-sevenths of the realty and about one-half of the personalty, the 
remaining two-sevenths of the realty and remainder of the personalty 
eventually belonging to his surviving sister, Mrs. Augusta Benning 
of South Shields, widow. The surface of that portion of the land, 
which passed to this branch of the family, was sold as building sites 
during the rev. Robert Green's lifetime and after his death. On his 
decease his real and personal residuary estate passed under his will, 
after the death, on llth of June, 1892, of the surviving life tenant, 
Mrs. Benning, to his great-nephew, Mr. Marshall Yeoman Green, of 
the'Lodge, Eynsford, Kent, gentleman, whilst Mrs. Benning's estate 
ultimately became vested in trust in Mr. Cleveland Masterrnan, of 
South Shields, gentleman, as the surviving trustee of her will, by 
whom and Mr. M. Y. Green the minerals under the freehold land were 
sold within the last few years to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

Reverting to the leasehold farm at Westoe, it passed on the last- 
named Thomas Green's death, to his son, the rev. Robert Green, 
formerly vicar of All Saints', Newcastle, on whose death it passed to his 
family, which included his eldest son, the late rev. Thomas Robinson 
Green, formerly vicar of Byker, Newcastle, and chaplain to the Trinity 
House, and father of the above-named Marshall Yeoman Green, our 
fellow townsman, Mr. Robert Yeoman Green, and the late Mr. Charles 
Henry Green, a member of the former banking firm of Dale, Young, 
& Co. This leasehold property was eventually sold to the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, and by them laid out for building sites. A consider- 
able portion of the town of South Shields is accordingly built on this 
Green family's estate. 

A copy of the Green family pedigree, so far as material, is 

For valuable help in compiling this paper my cordial thanks are 
due to the rev. C. E. Adamson, Mr. F. W. Dendy, Mr. Masterman, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Henry Wilson, of Westoe. 




This was Edward Blythman's at the division in 1618. 


Name of the 


State in 1768. 




Frontstead !.. 
House and garth 

A. R. P. 

- 1 8 

To build or repair, etc., on this frontstead No. 45, 
Mr. Green has a right to enter into Mr. Bowlby's 
garth, No. 31, and set ap ladders, scaffolds, etc. 



5 26 




8 3 11 



Nightfold . . 

7 3 28 



2 27 



Dean or Gin close 

5 1 24 



New Dean close 


When tLe Lay farm was separated from the other 
four farms in 1667, this freehold farm belonged to 
William Blythman. 

36 2 8J 


Name of the 


State in 1768. 



Homestead garth . . 

A. R. P. 



Cottage and garth 
Common garth 

3 36 


A smith's shop 



Watering stripe 



Back field . . 




Hill field 




Leoinon side 

7 3 16 



Ewe bouts 

10 2 



Sandyf ord lane 

10 3 16 


Do. J 

Arable. ( 

This quantity includes Mr. Suggett's carriage 
road to his bents farm. 
Do. do. do. 


Churchway close 

10 2 16 



Fat field 

7 3 36 



7 3 18 



Beer Brewers Well 




Mill dam head 
Plan close . . 

4 2 16 

9 24 

Do. (except out of this j 
lease to Mr. Green). { 
Do. ( 

This includes the 1J acres taken off the lands 
ends of Mr. Fairless' Tilery close, and ex- 
cepted out of Mr. Fairless' lease. The dotted 
line shows where the old fence stood. 


.. .. .. 

10 3 24 


Meadow. / 
Do. \ 

The 9a. Or. 24p. includes the tenant's home- 
stall. At the north-west corner is a burying 
place, and a meeting house in ruins. 


Bishop stobb 



Ballast is now laying upon this 8a. 3r. 8p., 

and 2a. 3r. Op. were a i part of Lay farm 
divided in 1667 from the other four farms. 


Lay Simonside 



A i of the Simonside, which belonged to the 

Lay farm. 


Homestall . . 



Corner close . . 




Highfield . . 

10 24 








8 2 24 


182 18 

: v r ;t \: v;c PEN 

I iLtii 


ARMS : Party per pale azure and gules, a chevron betwe 
CREST : A stag's head erase! azure, attired or. 

.... GREEN ==.... 

born 1678 ; married at Wilby, 28th July, 1608 ; died 21st May, 1658 




Richard, bap- = Elizabeth Robert, = .... Francis, 



tised 28th 

..*, bap- bap- 



Mar., 1613; 





buried 25th 




Sept., 168?. 






Richard = Alice, daughter of 
John Wareyn 
of Kenton. 

Thomas, baptised . . ; married = 
at South Shields, 24th June, 
1686; buried at North 
Shields, 12th Sept., 1725. 

= Sarah, daugt 
Lewis Frost* 
Shields, esq. 

15th July, 

Richard, John, 
baptised baptised 
6th Dec., 19th Nov., 
1682. 1683. 

Katherine, James, Robert, of 
baptised baptised married 
6th Nov., 19th Jan., 17th M 
1684. 1685. Shields, 


^MCXU, of Westoe, baptised at South Shields, 9tl 
married at St. John's, Newcastle, 22nd Nov., 
at South Shields, 21st Jan., 1777. 

Robert, of Cleadon, baptised at South = 
Shields, 12th Dec., 1756 ; married at All 
Saints', Newcastle, 8th Nov., 1781 ; buried 
at South Shields, 18th June, 1819. 

= Sarah, daughter of 
Nicholas Fairies 
of South Shields, 

George, baptised at Isabella, bap 
South Shields, 13th South Shiel 
Feb., 1758 ; buried Dec., 1761 
12th Feb., 1759. 80th July, 

Isabella,bap- Robert ; 
tised 7th buried 
Nov.,1782; 24th 
died 29th April, 
Oct., 1864. 1784. 

I | 
Maria.baptised Robert, baptised 
27th July, 6th May, 1787; 
1786; died buried 2nd 
14th Jan., March, 1789. 

Robert, A.B. of St. John's college 
bridge ; vicar of Longhorsley, c 
of Northumberland ; baptised 
May, 1789 ; married 16th May, 
died 5th Sept., 1877. 

Sarah, baptised 23rd 
May, 1795; died 
&'d June, 1857. 

Emma; buried George Henry, baptised Louisa, baptised 6t 
5th April, 25th Sept., 1798; buried June, 1796 ; die 
1797. 15th July, 1802. 20th Dec., 1864. 

Robert, A.M.. Trinity college, Cambridge ; in- 
cumbent of All Saints', Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne; born 24th March, 1793; baptised 
4th March. 1794; married at Norham, 12th 
Jan., 1819 ; died 16th Aug., 1858. 


Agnes, daughter of the Rev. C. Frances, born 6th , 
Robinson, A.M. of Trinity 1796 ; christened 
college, Cambridge, and in- Jan., 101. 
cumbent of PainshaW, county 
of Durham. 

Thomas Robinson of Lin- = 
coin college, Oxford, 
born 26th and baptised 
31st Jan., 1820; died 
29th Aug., 1871. 

= Ann, daughter 
of William 
Marshall of 

Robert Yeoman, bom 
10th Dec., and bap- 
tised 17th Dec., 
1821 (living). 

Agnes Isabella, born 
26th April, and 
baptised '29th May, 
1823; did 14th 
April, 18W. 


Marshall Yeoman Green, B.A., Christ church, Oxford, born 31st Jan., 1867. 

* From the Registers of Wilby, in the count 

To face p. 28. 


chevron between three backs trippant or, 
9d or. 

t May, 1658 = Thomazien Haughe ; buried 10th March, 1668. 

Francis, John Hannah Deborah, = 
bap- bap- .... bap- 
ti~ed tised tised 
Snd 7th 12th 
April, May, Dec., 
1617. 1620. 1622. 

* 1 * 1 
= Thomas James, George, 
Jacob bap- bap- 
of tised tised 
Lax- 10th 24th 
field. Feb., Oct.. 
1624. 1626. 

arah, daughter of Thomazine. Elizabeth, born 1655 ; = Randolph Wyard 
Lewis Frost of South buried 1677, at of Brandish. 
Shields, esq. Laxfield. 

Robert, of Westoe, born 20th August, 1692 ; = 

I | 
Alice Frost. John. Frost. 

married at St. Catherine Cree, London, 
17th March, 1732; buried at South 
Shields, 23rd May 1744. 

bh Shields, 9th April, 1733 ; = Isabella, daughter of Thomas Yeoman 
le, 22nd Nov., 1755 ; buried of Whitby, esq. 

Isabella, baptised at 
South Shields, 26th 
Dec., 1761 ; buried 
80th July, 1762. 

Thomas, of Westoe, baptised at South 
Shields, 16th Dec., 1762 ; married at 
Jarrow, 10th March. 1792 ; buried at 
South Shields, 20th August, 1809. 

Mary, daughter of 
Richard Black- 
burn of South 
Shields, esq. 

ohn's college, Cam- 
onghorsley, county 
d ; baptised 15th 
d 16th May, 1832 ; 

= Isabella, daughter of Anna, baptised 
George Hall of 22nd March, 
Stannington Vale, 1791 ; died 
county of North- 15th Dec., 
umberland, esq. 1871. 

Thomas, bap- 
tised 25th 
April, 1792 ; 
buried 8th 
Feb., 1827. 

a, baptised 6th 
ic, 1796 ; died 
h Dec., 1864. 

Emma Yeoman, born 8th March, Augusta, baptised 28th 
1799 ; baptised 12th May, 1802 ; Sept., 1800; died 
died 1st May, 1892. llth June, 1892. 

, 1-01. 

* 1841) Vicar of Bam- tised' 13th 
burgh and nnfrock- 1801. 
ed. His son was 
Father Rawes, R.C. 

, u<*i>- uttiuesij raster. 
Jan., ^ 

born Mary Prances, born Charles Henry, born 
and 21st and baptised 10th Nov., and 
Vtay, 26th August, baptised 22nd 
I4ta 1825; died 2nd Dec., 1826- died 
Feb., 1887. 16th Feb., 1880. 

in the county of Suffolk. 

William Blackburn, born 
17th Dec., 1831 : bap- 
tised 6th Feb., 1832 
died 28th August, 

LIIW TO m&so TO xraoaaa 3RT 

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(*} eo c3 

EH 12 

s as 



{H *r.9 3 


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PQ ii 

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a . 



By the Rev. H. E. SAVAGE, Hon. Canon of Durham and Vicar of 

St. Hilds, South Shields. 
[Read on the 28th June, 1899.] 

The history of Jarrow virtually begins with the arrival, in the 
autumn of 681 A.D., of Ceolfrid and his company of monks from Wear- 
mouth. The Romans indeed may have had a subsidiary station there, 
on the knoll between the Tyne and the mouth of the Don, to support 
the termination of the great Wall on the opposite side of the river, and 
to link it with the camp on the Lawe ; but if so, it is singular how few 
traces of their occupation have been found. The rev. J. Hodgson was 
the first to suggest that this was the site of a Roman fort. He says : l 

At Jarrow, an oblong square of about three acres, with its corners rounded 
off, overlooking the estuary of Jarrow-slake, and fronting on the south the bank 
of the navigable stream called the Don, is, on good grounds, supposed to have 
been the site of a station or fortified town of the Romans. Under-ground 
foundations of a wall of strong masonry mark out its area on every side, and 
include within them the site of the present church and church-yard, and some 
ragged remains of the ancient monastery of Jarrow. In digging up part of the 
remains of these walls in 1812, a silver denarius of Aulus Vitellius was found 
embedded in mortar in the heart of the wall ; and when the road was formed past 
Jarrow-row, in 1803, two square pavements of Roman brick were discovered. 

When Brand visited Jarrow in November and December, 1782, he 
made a careful and thorough search, as his notes show, for all discover- 
able remains ; but he only found three fragments of Roman stones, 
which had been taken from the walls of the old nave, then recently 
pulled down ; and he seems to have had no suspicion of a Roman 
station on the spot, for he adds : * These stones may have been brought 
to Jarrow at the first building of the monastery, from the adjoining 
Roman station near South Shields.' 2 

These three broken stones, which are still the only Roman relics 
recorded from Jarrow, are (1) a figure of an archer and a stag, 3 

(2) part of an inscription, OMNIVM FIL . . HADRIANI, etc., 4 and 

(3) part of a second inscription, DIFFVSIS PROVINCIIS, etc. (see p. 32). 

1 Quoted by Bruce, The Roman Wall (1851), p. 323. 

2 History and Antiquities of . . . Newcastle-upon-Tyne, vol. ii. p. 63. 
1 See Arch. Ael., vol. i. (N.S.) p. 248, xii. p. 6. 

4 XUd. vol. i. (N.S.) p. 248, xii. p. 2. 



This latter inscription, which may be taken as referring to the com- 
pletion of the great Wall, 5 seems naturally to belong to one or other of 
the two great terminal stations, at Wallsend or at the Lawe ; and it is 
not very probable that such a memorial would be set up at an inter- 
mediate situation like Jarrow. The cubical stones of which the 
chancel walls of the church are built are sometimes said to be of 
Roman workmanship ; but they show no particular indication of 
this, and it is more than doubtful. 

It has indeed been suggested more than once 6 that some ships of 
the emperor Julian's corn-fleet, which he fitted out for carrying 

supplies from Britain to the famine-stricken people in the Rhine 
provinces about the year 360, may perhaps have sailed from the 
harbour at the mouth of the Don (subsequently known as the ' Portus 
Ecgfridi regis ' 7 ) ; but this appears to be merely a conjecture. 

The monastery at Jarrow owed its foundation to the energy of 
Benedict Biscop. He had already received, some years before, from 
king Egfrid a site at the mouth of the "Wear, where he built his first 
stone church, with the assistance of Gallic masons, whom he 
obtained through the good offices of his friend abbat Torthelm. 
The king was so much gratified at the zeal manifested in the 

5 See Arch. Ael., vol. viii. p. 243. 6 Ibid. vol. x. p. 225. 7 Sym. Dun. ii. 5. 


development of the Wearmouth house, that he gave a further site 
at the mouth of the Don for a second establishment. The exact 
date of the foundation of this second monastery is involved in 

some confusion. 
Its story is re- 
corded in two 
accounts, both 
written by con- 
temporaries : one 
in an anonymous 
Life of Ceolfrid 8 
by one of his 
monks, and the 
other in Bede's 
History of the 
Abbats of Wear- 
mouth and Jar- 
row. They both 
agree in stating 
that Wearmouth 
was begun in A.D. 

674, ' indictione secunda,' and therefore before September 24. 9 They 
both also say that after eight years Ceolfrid was appointed to start 
the new house at Jarrow, which would seem to point to the year 

8 Harleian MS. 3020. Printed by Stevenson in his edition of Bede, Opp. 
Minor a, pp. 318-334 ; and by Dr. Giles in the appendix to vol. vi. of his edition 
of Bede's works, pp. 416-432, under the somewhat misleading title of Historia 
Abbatum Girrensium. The sub-title corresponds more exactly to the subject of 
the tract, Vita sanctissimi Ceolfridi abbatis. In his list of ' Contents,' p. 355, 
Dr. Giles gives yet a third, and a curious, heading : Vita Abbatum Wiremuthen- 
siwn et Girvensium. The trustworthiness of this account is strongly vindicated 
in an interesting way by the dedicatory verses on the back of the first -leaf of 
the ' Codex Amiatinus ' in the Laurentian library at. Florence, which correspond 
with the lines recorded in this Vita Ceolfridi as having been inscribed in the 
'Pandect' which he took with him on his last journey to the continent, and 
which was carried on to Rome by some of his monks after his death at Langres. 
Four words have been erased and others substituted by a Lombard abbat, Peter, 
at the beginning of the tenth century, to designate the Codex as his gift to the 
' Coenobium Salvatoris ' at Monte Amiata (whence the present name of the 
Codex). For the identification of this Codex with Ceolfrid's pandect by M. 
Rossi and others, which is described by M. Delisle as ' une decouverte paleo- 
graphique de premier ordre,' see Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate, pp. 37-8, and 
the Church Quarterly Review, for January, 1888, pp. 435-448. 

9 ' Incipiunt autem Indictiones ab viii Calendas Octobris, ibidemque termin- 
antur.' Bede, De temporum ratione, 48 ; ed. Giles, vol. vi. p. 244. 


682. But from other allusions it seems clear that he actually 
began his work there in 681, and that the inauguration of the 
community (but not of the formal building) at "Wearmouth had 
been in 673. For (1) in his notice of Ceolfrid's death in 716, 
Bede says he had been abbat for thirty-five years (viz. from 681), 
or rather forty- three years since his association with Benedict in 
his first foundation (which is therefore carried back to 673). (2) 
Moreover the Life of Ceolfrid dates his abbacy over both houses, ' tertio 
anno regis Alfridi, indictione prima, quarto iduum Maiarum die, qui 
erat annus octavus ex quo monasterium beati Pauli fundaverat.' 
Aldfrid succeeded Egfrid in 685, so that his third year brings the date 
to 688 ; and 'the first indiction' was 688, not 689. 10 Sigfrid died in 
the same summer, and Benedict in the following January, which is 
defined by both authorities as being in the sixteenth year from the 
first foundation of his monastery, which again carries back the date to 
673. (3) This also agrees with the dates given in the dedication 
inscription at Jarrow, viz. the fourth year of Ceolfrid and the fifteenth 
of Egfrid. For Egfrid came to the throne after the death of Oswy in 
670, so that his fifteenth year points to 685 ; n and the Life of Ceolfrid 
states that the church at Jarrow was begun in the third year from the 
foundation of the monastery, and was completed and dedicated in the 
second year from its beginning. 

In 681 A.D., therefore, Ceolfrid was appointed by Benedict Biscop 
to take charge of the new establishment ; and arriving in the autumn 

1- ' Hoc autem argumento quota sit anno quocunque computare volueris 
Indictio reperies : sume annos ab iiicarnatione Domini quotquot fuerint in 
praesenti : verbi gratia, DCCXXV, adde semper tria, quia quarta Indictione 
secundum Dionysium natus est Dominus, fiunt DCCXXVIII : haec partire per 
XV ... remanent octo : octava est Indictio. Si vero nihil remanserit, decima 
quinta est.' Ibid. 49. 

11 Oswy died 15th February, 670 (A.S.Chron. s.a. ; Bede, H.E. iv. 5.), 
and was succeeded by his son Egfrid. If, therefore, Egfrid's regnal years were 
calculated with strict accuracy, 23 April, 685, would fall in his sixteenth year. 
But the regnal years were computed roughly according to the dated years of the 
Christian era, and not according to the exact date of accession. There is an 
exactly analogous case, e.g., in the Relatio de Sancto Cuthberto, 6, ' Ordinatus 
est autem Eboraci a Theodore Dorobernensi archiepiscopo, septimo Kalendas 
Aprilis, ipso die Paschae, convenientibus ad consecrationem eius vii tem episcopis, 
praesente rege Egfrido, quintodecimo anno regni ipsius, sexcentesimo octogesimo 
quinto incarnationis Dominicae.' (Sym. Dun. vol. i. ed. Surtees Soc. p. 225). 
This is not a contemporary authority ; but it is in agreement with Bede's com- 
putation in his notice of the death of Egfrid : ' Anno post hunc (viz. 685) . . 
exstinctus anno aetatis suae quadragesimo, regni autem quinto decimo, die 
tertiadecima Kalendarum Juniarum.' H.E. iv. 26. 


with a band of twenty- two brethren, ten priests and twelve laymen, 
he hastily put up the necessary buildings for their shelter, and at once 
devoted himself to training them in the monastic discipline. Three 
years later he commenced the church, the king himself marking out 
the site for the altar, and it was ready for dedication on April 23 in 
the following year. The original inscription recording the dedication 
is still preserved. It has often been transcribed, but almost as often 

inaccurately. The true reading will be seen at once in the accompany- 
ing block from a photograph of the original. 

It is noticeable that this inscription is incised on two separate 
stones of equal dimensions. 12 They are now built into the west wall 
of the tower, facing the nave, above the arch, one immediately on the 
top of the other ; but this is not likely to have been their relative 
position originally : for if it had been, it is difficult to account for the 
use of two stones where a single one would have been at once more 

12 These are shown very distinctly in the accompanying illustration, which is 
reproduced from a copy of a photograph taken in 1866, when the stones were 
taken down during the repair of the tower. The letters have obviously been 
darkened in : but even so, it is a great advantage to have a photographic copy 
of the original stones. There is a plaster cast in the vestry in one piece, which 
has misled some writers into supposing that a line had been erased between 
lines 3 and 4. 


natural and more convenient. In all probability the two were placed 
on either side of some intervening memorial stone ; just as Orm's 
(eleventh century) inscription at Kirkdale is cut on two equal panels 
on either side of Haward's sun-dial. 13 But if so, what was the central 
stone ? It is at least possible that it was the head of the cross, the 
shaft of which is preserved in the porch with an inscription running 
on both sides beneath 
the arms. The letters 
of this inscription are 
of the same size and of 
the same character as 
those of the dedication 
inscription. The arms 
of the cross are cut on 
the edge of the slab 
. which bears the Eoman 
inscription o M N I v M 
FIL, etc. (p. 31), as 
Mr. J. E. Boyle pointed 
out. 14 Both these stones 
were taken out of the 
walls of the old nave in 
1782, but the head of 
the cross has not been 
recovered. The legend 
of the Christian in- 
scription is : 

GVLA R . . . 



"Bishop G. F. Browne's Conversion of the Heptarchy, p. 195. 14 Arch. AeL, 
vol. x. p. 210. 

15 Mr. Boyle (I.e. and Guide to Durham, p. 588) omits the D at the end of the 
third line, giving an impossible EEDITVK. But the letter is plainly traceable 
on the stone. In this he followed Brand, whose account of his examination of 
the stone is worth recording : ' On a stone built up at present with the letters 
inwards at the bottom of the east jamb of that south window which is next to 
the west door of the lately erected body of Jarrow church, copied December 10th, 
1782, when at my most earnest request the master builder was prevailed upon to 
open it out from within, I read, etc.,' vol. ii. p. 64. 


with a band of twenty- two brethren, ten priests and twelve laymen, 
he hastily put up the necessary buildings for their shelter, and at once 
devoted himself to training them in the monastic discipline. Three 
years later he commenced the church, the king himself marking out 
the site for the altar, and it was ready for dedication on April 23 in 
the following year. The original inscription recording the dedication 
is still preserved. It has often been transcribed, but almost as often 

inaccurately. The true reading will be seen at once in the accompany- 
ing block from a photograph of the original. 

It is noticeable that this inscription is incised on two separate 
stones of equal dimensions. 12 They are now built into the west wall 
of the tower, facing the nave, above the arch, one immediately on the 
top of the other ; but this is not likely to have been their relative 
position originally : for if it had been, it is difficult to account for the 
use of two stones where a single one would have been at once more 

12 These are shown very distinctly in the accompanying illustration, which is 
reproduced from a copy of a photograph taken in 1866, when the stones were 
taken down during the repair of the tower. The letters have obviously been 
darkened in : but even so, it is a great advantage to have a photographic copy 
of the original stones. There is a plaster cast in the vestry in one piece, which 
has misled some writers into supposing that a line had been erased between 
lines 3 and 4. 


natural and more convenient. In all probability the two were placed 
on either side of some intervening memorial stone ; just as Orm's 
(eleventh century) inscription at Kirkdale is cut on two equal panels 
on either side of Haward's sun-dial. 13 But if so, what was the central 
stone ? It is at least possible that it was the head of the cross, the 
shaft of which is preserved in the porch with an inscription running 
on both sides beneath 
the arms. The letters 
of this inscription are 
of the same size and of 
the same character as 
those of the dedication 
inscription. The arms 
of the cross are cut on 
the edge of the slab 
which bears the Roman 
inscription o M N I v M * 
FIL, etc. (p. 31), as 
Mr. J. E. Boyle pointed 
out. 14 Both these stones 
were taken out of the 
walls of the old nave in 
1782, but the head of 
the cross has not been 
recovered. The legend 
of the Christian in- 
scription is : 

GVLA R . . . 



"Bishop G. F. Browne's Conversion of the Heptarchy, p. 195. 14 Arch. AeL, 
vol. x. p. 210. 

15 Mr. Boyle (I.e. and Guide to Durham, p. 588) omits the D at the end of the 
third line, giving an impossible REDITVB. But the letter is plainly traceable 
on the stone. In this he followed Brand, whose account of his examination of 
the stone is worth recording : ' On a stone built up at present with the letters 
inwards at the bottom of the east jamb of that south window which is next to 
the west door of the lately erected body of Jarrow church, copied December 10th, 
1782, when at my most earnest request the master builder was prevailed upon to 
open it out from within, I read, etc.,' vol. ii. p. 64. 


At the end of the second line a socket hole has been cut in the stone 
when it was basely used as building material. It is a debated 
question whether the missing letters are IAN or ISIG, giving anno or 
signo. 16 If this inscription was associated with the dedication stones, 
signo would obviously be the more appropriate word. 17 

There can be little doubt that the present chancel represents the 
church thus built by Oeolfrid in the seventh century. A glance at 
the exterior of the north and south walls shows that they were built 
before, and independently of, the tower ; for they*are not bonded into 
it, but are finished off at their western ends with angle quoins exactly 
similar to those at the eastern corners. Moreover during the altera- 
tions in 1866 the base of a wall was found running across the western 
end of the chancel immediately contiguous to the tower; and at the 
west end of the north wall, on the interior, the mutilated ends of the 
bonding stones of this west wall are clearly traceable. In the middle 
of the north side there is an original doorway, measuring two feet 
three inches between the jambs, which has been filled up at an early 
date, perhaps when the lower stage of the tower was built, and the 
entrance made at the west end. On the south side one jamb of a 
similar doorway still remains, but farther to the west than the north 
door. On the inner side of the east wall there is a distinctly visible 
break in the masonry on each side, at the distance of two feet seven 
inches from the north and south walls respectively. A corresponding 
break appears also on the outside. This would seem to indicate an 
original rectangular presbytery, as at Escomb. The opening into it 
was ten feet eleven inches (unless, indeed, it was reduced by sculptured 
stones on the faces of the jambs) ; but the depth cannot now be 
ascertained, owing to the modern construction of a large vault outside 
the eastern [gable. The presbytery was, however, probably square, or 
nearly so. At Escomb the presbytery measures ten feet by ten feet. 
The general plan of the church at Escomb and that of the (present) 
chancel, which was the original church, at Jarrow, bear a curious 
similarity to each other. Each of them originally had doorways on 
the north (in the centre) and on the south (more to the west). Each 

16 Arch. Ael. vol. xi. pp. 27-8, 32. 

17 Compare William of Malmesbury's statement in his account of Aldhelm : 
* Tune moris erat, ut in novarum Ecclesiarum dedicatione, ad honorem Sponsi 
coelestis, et Ecclesiae matris, aliquod honorificum Epigramma poneretur.' In 
Gale's Scriptores xv. vol. i. p. 340. 


had small windows of the same type, except that at Escomb there are 
no imposts between the jambs and the heads. 18 The respective internal 
measurements are : Escomb, forty-three feet six inches by fourteen 
feet six inches ; Jarrow, about forty feet by fifteen feet ten inches. 19 

Three of the very small original windows are left, high up in the 
south wall. They are splayed internally, but not on the outside. 
The jambs have single upright stones on either side, and plain 
horizontal stones for imposts. The heads are cut out of single stones. 
In two of the three windows stone slabs have been inserted in the 
openings, and through these smaller lights are cut ; of which one is 
circular with a diameter of seven inches, while the other is eleven 
inches high and eight inches across. The introduction of these slabs 
in windows already so small and so high up cannot have been intended 
for purposes of defence, as has been suggested, 20 but was probably due 
to the great difficulty and expense of procuring glass. For although 
Benedict Biscop brought over glassmakers from the continent to 
Wearmouth, in the next century Outhbert, the abbat of Jarrow, and 
Bede's disciple, to whom we owe the account of his master's death, 
writes to Lul, archbishop of Mainz, asking him to engage and send 
over to him a glassmaker, ' quia eiusdem artis ignari et inopes 
sumus.' 21 This may indicate the time, as well as the reason, of the 
insertion of these slabs. In his report on the church in May 1852, 22 
Sir (then Mr.) G. Gilbert Scott actually proposed to remove the slabs: 
* I think that the little Romanesque windows which remain should be 
opened out and glazed:' but happily this treatment was averted 
when he had the church in hand fourteen years later. An almost 
exactly similar window to these at Jarrow occurs in the south side o 
the tower at St. Andrew's Bywell. 

To the west of the westernmost of these three windows, and higher 
up in the wall, there are the remains of the eastern jamb and part of 

18 This refers to the windows on the south side only. Those in the north wall 
at Escomb have square heads, with the jamb-stones mortised into the head- 
stones ; a survival of the older wooden construction. The original north win- 
dows at Jarrow have all been replaced by later work. 

19 The exact measurements are : length (including space originally occupied 
by west wall) 41 feet 11 inches ; breadth, 15 feet 8 inches at west end, 16 feet 
1 inch at east end. 

20 Sir Gr. Gf. Scott, Lectures on the Rise and Development of Mediaeval 
Architecture, vol. ii. p. 47. 

21 See Arch. AeL vol. xxi. p. 266. 22 Printed in the preface to Jarrow 
Account Rolls (29 Surtees Soc.), pp. xxviii-xxx, n. 


the head of a somewhat similar window. The head, however, was 
more lofty and apparently wider than the other three, and the 
whole opening therefore must have been considerably larger than 
in the other cases. This window in such a position, so high up 
in the wall (if this be its original position), might seem to lend some 
countenance to the theory which is maintained by some experts, that 
'high side windows' (and, in some cases at least, even the very much 
later 'low side windows') were for the purpose of burning lights to 
scare away evil spirits from the churchyard, like the lanterms des 
morts of French cemeteries. But if this was the object of this 
opening at Jarrow, the monastic buildings cannot have been on 
the south side of the church. 

At the east end of the south wall there is a round-headed aumbry 
of uncertain date. The head is cut out of a single stone, with 
carelessly bevilled edges, and of a much rougher character than the 
window heads. The diameter is seventeen inches. 

The tower is the great problem of the church. That it was added 
to the west of the already completed church has been already 
shown. But when was it added ? The upper stages clearly belong to 
a comparatively late period, perhaps as late as the eleventh century ; 
and at first sight there appear to be some reasons for assigning the 
lower part to the same date. Thus, for instance, the imposts of the 
great supporting piers of the two arches, with their hollow chamfers, 
exactly correspond to the similar, but smaller, imposts in the stage 
above, which evidently belong to a later work. But the occurrence of 
exactly similar imposts on the piers of the presbytery arch at Escomb, 
in a church of the same type as the earliest work at Jarrow, makes 
any argument as to exact date founded on this one feature extremely 
precarious. On closer examination these imposts are found to be part 
of a reconstruction, or rather reparation, of earlier work. For in the 
eastern arch the distinction between the new and the old is clearly 
seen from the chancel. The greater part of it has been renewed with 
dressed voussoirs of wider proportions than in the original work, 
some of which has been retained on the north side. This is built of 
long narrow stones, which are left rough and unfinished at the apex, as 
though they were intended to be covered with an inner facing of some 
kind, such as the strong cement lining which is found in "Wilfrid's 

A rch. Ael. vol. xxii. To face p. 38- 

Plate III. 



1 confessio ' at Hexham. Mr. Petree points out that in the chamber 
immediately above these arches the walls inside show joints all down 
the four corners, while on the outer faces the masonry has no such 
break, but is continuous. This indicates that an inner casing was 
inserted to strengthen the lower walls when the upper part of the 
tower was added ; they could not be stiffened outside because of the 
buildings between which the stage below was wedged in, and that 
these inner walls were put in when the later work was undertaken is 
clear from the fact that in them are arched openings of that date. 
There can, therefore, be no reasonable doubt that the two lower stages 
of the tower are considerably earlier than the upper ones ; and they 
may well be even of the seventh or the eighth century. The lines of 
slightly projecting stones which are clearly traceable immediately 
above the second stage on the exterior faces, both north and south, 
seem to mark the tabling of the original building, before the upper 
stages were added. 

A very close parallel to this tower is found in the tower at Monk- 
wearmouth, in several particulars. In each the original entrances were 
by north and south doorways ; in each there is a larger opening on the 
east into the church, and another on the west giving access to some 
other building, the foundation courses of which may still be traced at 
Monkwearmouth ; each has been added to a pre-existing church, 23 
but added so early that it may still be regarded as practically an 
original feature, that is, as belonging to the occupation of the first 
community in the seventh or the eighth century, before the Danish 
irruptions ; in each the building has been carried up to contain a single 
chamber above the porch, with a window opening 'into the church ; 
each has been extended upwards into a complete tower at a considerably 
later date, perhaps as late as the eleventh century ; in each the 
supporting arches rest on broad piers of masonry. At Monkwear- 
mouth these piers in the western arch are ornamented in a curious 
way. The jambs are faced with sculptured slabs, on which are carved 
curious intertwined snakelike creatures with bird beaks interlocked ; 
resting on these, and supporting in turn other roughly squared stones, 
which serve as imposts, there are two baluster shafts on either side, 

23 At Monkwearmouth, however, the west wall of the church has been utilised 
as the east wall of the ' porticus.' 



set back in a recess in the pier, so that they have a constructional 
function. 24 Their outer edge is in line with the front surface of the 
stones above and below. There is of course no question that this 
treatment of the jambs is early Saxon work, and that it carries with it 
the early date of the lower stages of the tower. Now at Jarrow the 
broad faces of the piers would exactly lend themselves to such 
treatment. There are preserved in the porch sixteen whole, and parts 
of four other, baluster shafts, which were recovered in 1866 from the 
walls of the nave erected in 1782. It is possible that these were used 


in a similar manner to those in the jambs at Monkwearmouth. Their 
larger size, twenty-seven and a half inches by eleven inches diameter, 
as compared with twenty- two inches by ten inches diameter at Monk- 
wearmouth, would correspond 'proportionately with the larger piers at 
Jarrow, which measure six feet seven inches in height by three feet 
across as compared with five feet six inches by two feet seven inches 
in the sister church. If these were so used at Jarrow, they were 

24 These jambs have at last been protected from the weather, quite recently, 
through the care of the present vicar, the rev. D. S. Boutflower, by the erection 
of a glazed wooden porch. 


removed when the piers were rebuilt with dressed masonry, for the 
present pier- faces come right forward to the under edge of the imposts. 

These baluster shafts have been turned in a lathe. They mark the 
period of transition from the use of wood to that of stone in building; 
possibly also the adoption in the new material of patterns and arrange- 
ments which were in vogue in the days of wooden churches. At 
Monkwearmouth there are also similar but slightly smaller baluster- 
shafts on either side of the foot-splay in the two west windows, beneath 
the through jamb-stones. They are only twenty inches in height. 
There is one similar shaft at Jarrow, which is eighteen inches in 
height, by eight inches diameter ; but no smaller ones have been found 
like those now collected together in the vestry at Monkwearmouth, 
which measure only eleven and a half inches by six inches diameter. 

The shape of the tower, which is more than twenty feet from north 
to south, but only thirteen feet from east to west, would seem to point 
to its having been pushed in between two already existing buildings. 
And this may account for the fact that it is not rectangular ; the arches 
below and the walls in the chamber above are six inches further apart 
on the north side than on the south. To some extent the exigencies of 
this position may also account for the unusually wide arches opening 
east and west. But it should be borne in mind that these would not 
appear disproportionate when compared with the presbytery arch, for 
they are practically equal in measurement. The eastern opening of 
the tower is ten feet ten inches, the opening into the presbytery was 
ten feet eleven inches. 

But what was the westward building to which this central 
' portions ' gave access ? It has been suggested, 25 in the case of Monk- 
wearmouth, that it was a baptistery. Such baptisteries were certainly 
not uncommon in Italy before the seventh century, and so must have 
been familiar to both Benedict Biscop and Oeolfrid. 26 With regard to 
Jarrow, however, Mr. Boyle, since he wrote his account of the church 

25 By bishop G. F. Browne, Notes on Mo nkwear mouth Church (1886), p. 7 ; 
and by Mr. Micklethwaite, in the Archaeological Journal for December, 1896. 

26 A separate baptist'ery was added at the east end of Christ Church. Canter- 
bury (which perhaps at this time had the altar at the west end, see Proc. vol. 
viii. p. 23), by archbishop Cuthbert in 750 A.D. See Edmer, Vita S. Bregwini 
(Angl. Saor. vol. ii. p. 86). It also served as a burying place for the archbishops. 
See Gervase (in Twysden's Decem Scriptores, col. 1641) : ' construxit eciam 
basilicam prope Ecclesiam Christi quam in honorem sancti lohannis Baptistae 
consecravit. ubi ipse et omnes successores sui honoriilce sepelirentur.' 

VOL. xxii 6 


for Archaeologia Aelianam 1884, has advanced an ingenious theory, 27 
that the old nave taken down in 1782, which is shewn in the accom- 
panying plan and elevation of 1769, was Ceolfrid's (or, as he expresses 
it, ' Biscop's ') work ; and that there were thus two churches of the 
same date and on the same axis standing scarcely thirty feet apart ; 
and further that they were ' united unquestionably . . . when the 
lower stages of the tower were built ; ' at which time also he supposes 
the walls of the western church were extended so as to come up to the 
tower. But it is impossible to accept the whole of this suggestion as 
it stands, for it would make the insertion of the lower half of the 
tower not only unnecessary but quite meaningless. Moreover it is 
difficult to imagine that the earlier portion of the tower was built for 
any other purpose than the closely similiar ' portions ' at Monkwear- 
mouth. Whatever the one was designed for, the other must have been 
also. If, therefore, Monkwearmouth had a western baptistery, Jarrow 
may be assumed to have originally had the same. Mr. Boyle finds 
evidence of the extension eastwards of the walls of the western church 
as far as the tower in the view given by the brothers Buck ; but if 
their somewhat erratic drawing may be taken at all as a guide in such 
a matter, it seems to indicate by the small window at the extreme east 
of the nave, that there was a small building of the same early date 
immediately contiguous to the western side of the tower ; and that 
when the building to the west was joined on by new walling to the 
eastern church it was attached to this annexe and not directly to the 

But again, what was this further building to the west ? and to 
what period does it belong ? The first glance at the arcade in the 
north wall, as shown in the elevation, at once of course suggests a 
comparison with the well-known arcade at Brixworth, and therefore an 
early date ; but, on the other hand, the voussoirs of the arches, if 
rightly drawn, seem to point to a much later time of building, 
coincident with the secondary work in the tower arches. The drawing, 
however, cannot be trusted for such close accuracy in detail ; as, for 
example, is proved by the position assigned in the ground plan to the 
south-west window of the chancel, which in fact comes quite close up 
to the tower. And there are other considerations which make strongly 

27 Guide to Durham, pp. 583-4. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xxii. To face p. 42. 



-Plan <** tfection oftfie Cfturcb a. t ^farrow for 

of JPUTbam . fktetrr' 1760 . 

Gtr*vir &YTWY ;~ a* 

British Jlfuseitw, MS. Plan, A". 12 (47 j b. 

Photo. L. B. Flemin 


for the earlier date. The small windows high up in the wall, as seen 
in the Bucks' drawing, both by their size and by their position indicate 
eighth rather than eleventh century work. Moreover it is not difficult 
to assign a reason for this second church under Oeolfrid's abbacy. It 
is stated in the Life of Ceolfrid that when he started on his last 
journey towards Rome he left in the monasteries of Wearmouth and 
Jarrow *a band of soldiers of Christ more than six hundred in 
number.' At Wearmouth there were at least two churches to serve so 
large a community, for on the morning of his departure mass was sung 
in the church of St. Mary as well as in the church of St. Peter; and 
at Jarrow too the numbers would require additional church accommo- 
dation : just as Aldhelm at Malmesbury, when his house grew, added 
church after church within the walls of the monastery. 28 

Mr. Boyle suggests that the 'arcades were inserted, and the corre- 
sponding side chapels added, at some period after this church was 
built : but there is nothing to justify this distinction of the arches 
from the walls in which they are set; especially as he assigns his 
assumed alteration in any case to the time of Ceolfrid. He thinks that 
Bede's statement regarding Ceolfrid, i plura fecit oratoria,' may refer 
to the side chapels of this church. But * oratoria ' were apparently 
not attached to a church. Indeed, the only one of Ceolfrid's time 
which can be definitely located, at Monkwearmouth, was not. For the 
Life of Ceolfrid speaks of ' oratorium beati Laurentii martyris, quod 
est in dormitorio fratrum.' 29 The term may include also such district 
chapels as that at He worth, on the site of which Egfrid's stycas were 
found in 1814; just as Bede speaks of the 'villulae oratorium' at 
'Incuneningum.' 30 

28 ' Caput Monasterii, ut dixi, in sancti Petri ecclesia erat ; veruntamen, ut 
est animus nobilis iudustriae operandi ferias ponere nescius, alteram in ambitu 
eiusdem Coenobii Bcclesiam in honorem Genetricis Dei Mariae facere intendit. 
Fecit ergo Ecclesiam, eidemque alteram contiguam in honorem Sancti Michaelis, 
cuius nos vestigia vidimus.' Will. Malmesb. De Pontificibus, v. (Gale, vol. i. p. 
349). There were also four churches at Glastonbury, of which the fourth was 
built by Ina c. 720 A.D. Will. Malmesb. De Antiq. Glaston. EccL (Gale, vol. i. 
p. 310). And Alcuin's description of York under archbishop Egbert (De Ponti- 
ficibus et Sanctis Eccl. Ebor. 1488-1520) seems to imply two separate churches 

29 Comp. Bede, H.E. iv. 3. ' Cum . . . digressis ad ecclesiam sociis 
. . . episcopus solus in oratorio loci lectioni vel orationi operam daret ' : and 

iv. 14, 'celcbrent ergo missas per cuncta monasterii oratoria huius . . . 
et cunctis convenientibus ad ecclesiam fratribus communicent, etc.' 
H.E. v. 12. 


The sequence of the several buildings, then, would seem to have 
been (1) the eastern church (= the present chancel), with presbytery at 
the east, and possibly a small baptistery or chamber at the west, corre- 
sponding to that of which distinct traces remain at Bscomb ; 31 (2) 
the western church with aisles, built when the monastery largely 
increased in numbers ; (3) the western ' portions ' of the earlier church, 
with chamber above, replacing the original small baptistery and 
opening into a new baptistery on the west, as at Monkwearmouth, the 
ground plan being crowded in by the already standing western church; 
(4) at a later date (as to which see below, p. 53) the western church 
and the baptistery were thrown into one nave. If this were the true 
sequence it seems probable that the dedicatory inscription would be 
first placed in the western chamber of the original church ; then when 
that was replaced by a ' porticus ' and a baptistery, it would be pre- 
served in an analogous position in the latter. This would account for 
its location in the north-east corner of the modified nave, as shown in 
the plan of 1769. It was built in to the west face of the tower in 
1782, 32 and was replaced there again, after removal, in 1866. 

As soon as Ceolfrid's (first) church was finished, Benedict Biscop 
set off for his fifth journey to Rome. On his return he brought with 
him a double set of pictures for the walls of the church, representing 
Old Testament types and New Testament antitypes, such as Isaac 
bearing the wood for the sacrifice, and our Saviour bearing the Cross ; 
and the Brazen Serpent and the, Crucifixion. 

Wearmouth had already obtained through Biscop a letter of 
privilege from pope Agatho, but this apparently did not cover the 
sister foundation at Jarrow. Ceolfrid accordingly sent a deputation 
of his monks to Rome, and secured a similar protection for Jarrow 
from pope Sergius, which was produced in synod and confirmed by the 
signatures of the bishops present and of king Aldfrid. 33 

31 To this chamber at Escomb the curious oblong font, which may be con- 
temporary, exactly corresponds proportionately. 

32 Brand, vol. ii. p. 50 n. 

33 So Agatho's earlier letter of privilege was, 'cum licentia, consensu, 
desiderio, et hortatu Egfridi regis accepta,' and confirmed by the bishops in 
synod. Bede, Hist. Abb. 5, 12. Without such sanction a papal direction, 
whatever its prestige, was nugatory. Compare Egfrid's treatment of Agatho's 
letter on behalf of Wilfrid, and Aldfrid's answer to pope John's letter. Eddi, 
Vita S. Wilfridi, 33, 56 (Gale, vol. i. pp. 69, 81). 



It was to this monastery that Bede was attached from his child- 
hood until his death. The story told in the Life of Ceolfrid of the 
boy who with abbat Ceolfrid alone sang the services during the time 
of the plague is commonly taken as referring to him ; here certainly 
he passed all his life, worshipping, studying, teaching, writing ; and 
here he died. A ' portions ' was consecrated to his memory on the 
north side of the church, 34 and the epitaph was put up which after- 
wards so excited the ire and the contempt of William of Malrnesbury : 

Presbyter hie Beda requiescit carne sepultus. 
Dona Christe animam in coelis gaudere per aevum, 
Daque illi sophiae debriari fonte, cui iam 
Suspiravit ovans, intento semper amore. 35 

The story of the great 
manuscripts which are 
associated with Ceolfrid's 
abbacy, and which bear 
striking witness to the 
resources and the ability 
which the Jarrow scrip- 
torium commanded, is 
too full of detail to be 
treated of here, especially 
in the light of recent 
investigations. They 
deserve a separate paper 
to themselves. 

On Ceolfrid's death Huetbercht was unanimously elected abbat of 
the two houses, and was invested, ' with the customary benediction,' 
by bishop Acca. He was succeeded by Cuthbert, who wrote the 

34 Sym. Dun. Hist. Eccl. Dun. i. 14. 

35 ' Magnum ignaviae testimonium dabunt versus epitaphii, pudendi prorsus 
et tanti viri mausoleo indigni . . . poteritne ulla excusatione hie pudor 
extenuari, ut nee in eo monasterio, ubi illo vivente totius litteraturae 
exultabat gymnasium, potuerit inveniri homo qui memoriam ems formaret 
nisi exili et miserabili stilo ? ' Gesta Regum Angl. i. 62, 63. The verses seem 
'to be based on Bede's own words, with which he closes his History (v. 21) : 
'Teque deprecor, bone Jesu, ut cui propitius donasti verba tuae scientiae 
dulciter haurire, dones etiam benignus aliquando ad te fontem omnis sapientiae 
pervenire et parere semper ante faciem tuam.' The phrase ' sophiae debriari 
fonte ' too recalls Bede's expression about the intercourse of Cuthbert and 
Herbert, ' qui dum sese alterutrum coelestis sapientiae poculis debriarent,' 
Vita S. Cutkberti, 28 ; (which is repeated in H.E. iv. 29, with the substitution 
of ' vitae ' for ' sapientiae '). 


account of Bede's death. And later in the eighth century the names 
of Ethelbald and Friduin occur as abbats of the two houses. 36 

There are a few broken 
remnants of sculptured 
stonework of this earliest 
period : (1) an arm of a 
memorial cross (in the 
museum at Newcastle), with 
an inscription which seems 

to commemorate the names 
of several of the brethren 
who were carried off by some 
common fate; 37 (2) a frag- 
ment of a cross (in the 
chapter library at Durham) 
with vine leaves and grape 
bunches ; 38 and (now within 
glass-doored cases) in the 
north porch at Jarrow, (3) 
part of a cross shaft, with 
two interlacing patterns ; 
(4) two stones, possibly arms 
of a cross, excellently carved 
with intertwined branches, 
and figures; (5) parts of a 
string-course on which are 
represented continuous rows 
of miniature baluster- 
shafts ; 39 (6) a stunted cross 
head with square bosses at 

36 See Arch.Ael. vol. xxi. p. 261. 

37 Arch. Ael. vol. xi. pp. 28-30. The stone was fouud 10th December, 1782 ; 
Brand, vol. ii. p. 64. When Surtees wrote his History it was ' preserved at the 
rectory of Kyton.' Vol. ii. p. 68. 

38 See the recently published Catalogue of the Sculptured and Inscribed 
Stones in the Cathedral Library, Durham, p. 70. 

39 Parts of a somewhat similar string-course have been found at Hexham. 
But there the represented baluster shafts are not in continuous rows, but are 
relieved by inserted groups of horizontal or diagonal layers of stones. Ibid. p. 61. 


the centre and at the four extremities, of somewhat similar character 
to the arms of the cross on the edge of the OMNIVM FIL, etc., stone, but 

(4) (4) 

without inscription, enclosed within a semicircular head (in the Black 
Gate museum, Newcastle) ; (7) a long stone with scroll work enclos- 
ing vine leaves and 
bunches of grapes 
(also in the Black 
Gate museum). 

Does the tradi- 
tional ' Bede's chair ' 
(see p. 50), now in 
the chancel, also date 
from this period ? 
The two sides, which 
with the seat and 
(probably) the cross 
bar at the top, are the 
only ancient parts, 
are made of very 
old hard oak, and 
have the appearance 
of having been par- 
tially burnt ; and 
the charred edges have afterwards been worn down to a compara- 
tively smooth surface. They, at least, do not show signs of having 



been chipped for relics. It will be remembered that the old church was 
at least once fired, in 1069 (see below, p. 50) ; and such a mere wreck 
of a chair is scarcely likely to have been preserved, as it has been, with 
assiduous care unless some special associa- 
tion had marked it out for peculiar interest. 
At all events it is very old, and its tradi- 
tional name is not a new invention ; but 
beyond this nothing can be said with 
certainty. Hutchinson thus describes it 
as he saw it in 1782 : 

What was shown as the greatest curiosity, and 
is carefully kept in the vestry-room, is a great 
two-armed chair, said to have been the common 
seat of Bede, and which has remained there since 
his time : It is of oak, and appears as rude as if 
hewn out with an ax. except that at the top of 
the back the cross piece is mortised to the stand- 
ards or upright parts, which also serve for legs ; 
these with the seat and sides are very ancient, 
but the back, according to the information of 
the person who shewed ir, is modern : It is now 
become very rough and uneven from the super- 
stition of people, who, by carrying away a chip 
from it, presume they have obtained the saint's 
protection. 40 

There is a curious earlier reference to 
this chair. 41 In the excitement of the re- 
bellion scare of 1745-6 a mob, chiefly 
composed of sailors, wrecked a ' Popish 
mass-house' at Suriderland. Among the 
priest's papers was found a list of adherents, 
at the foot of which was written, ' This 
piece of wood I cut off an old chair in 
Jarrow church, which was the chair St. 
Cuthberfc sat in to hear confessions. 
Nicholas Taylor.' 42 

40 Vol. ii. p. 477. 

41 Newcastle Courant, Jan. 18-25, 1745-6. Reprinted in Richardson's Table 
Book, vol. i. p. 416, and in Sykes's Local Records, vol. i. p. 179. Mr. Tomlinson 
has kindly pointed out this reference. 

42 The chair was sent up to London in 1898 for exhibition at the Society of 
Antiquaries. In describing it, ' Mr. Micklethwaite said that the Jarrow chair 


After Bede's death Jarrow still preserved something of its literary 
fame, and apparently attained also to some reputation for metal work, 
and especially for bell-founding. 43 But in 794, the year after they 
had sacked Lindisfarne, the Danes swept down upon * Egfrid's 
harbour,' and pillaged the monastery. No doubt, however, it rallied 
from this blow as rapidly as Lindisfarne seems to have done. 44 In the 
ninth century it was again harried by the Danes. Not much reliance 
can be placed on the statements of Roger of Wendover, and of 
Matthew of Westminster, that it was destroyed by these corsairs in 
870. 45 But in 875-G (the year of the final abandonment of Lindis- 
farne) these relentless foes wintered on Tyneside ; 46 and for some 
years about that time, there can be no doubt, there was no stable 
peace for the harried monks. 

But when Guthred became king, in or about 880, 47 a long period 
of security and increasing prosperity dawned for the church. In this 
Jarrow, of course, had its share ; but it was now overshadowed by 
the new diocesan centre close at hand at Chester-le-Street, and 
subsequently at Durham. For a long time it passes out of notice 
altogether; but that it was still regularly occupied 140 years later is 

had been cut down from some larger piece of furniture, but that only the seat 
bolrd and the dexter standard can be said with confidence to have been part of 
the original, though some of the frame of the back may have been. The sinister 
end of the seat board shows that it has been sawn off from something larger, 
and it is fastened to the standard by iron spikes only. On the dexter side the 
seat has been properly tenoned into the standard . . . [The standard] and 
the seat board probably belonged to a settle which was cut down and rudely 
made into its present shape at some time which cannot be very recent. . . . 
The original settle may perhaps have been as old as the fourteenth century.' 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. Lond. vol. xvii. p. 238, These remarks are very interesting, 
but they are not entirely convincing; for (1) the sinister standard appears to 
be, if anything, older than the dexter ; (2) both standards are equally charred ; 
and (3) the cross bar at the top is made for a seat of the present dimensions ; 
but it may of course not have been part of the original seat. 
43 Arch. Ael. vol. xxi. p. 266. * Ibid. p. 263. 

45 (a) ( In hac quoque persecutione diabolica destructa referuntur nobilissima 
monasteria in margine maris sita . . . Gyrwense monachorum et Were- 
muthense in quibus Beda presbyter legitur educatus.' Koger of Wendover 
[Lond. 1841], vol. i. p. 302, under the year 870. (Z>) < Anno 870 . . . destructa 
referuntur nobilissima monasteria in margine maris sita . . . Coenobium 
. . . G-irwense . . . monachorum et Wiremuthense in quibus Beda presbyter 
legitur educatus,' Matthew of Westminster [ed. Francofurti, 1601], p. 162. 

46 Sym. Dun. ii. 6. What was really involved in an attack on a monastery 
by the Danes, and the atrocities committed by them, may be seen in Ingulph's 
account of the sack of Croyland and Medeshamsted in 870. (Rerum Ang 1 
Script. Vet. vol. i. pp. 22-3.) 

47 Arch. Ael. vol. xix. p. 57. 


Arch. A el. vol. xr/V. To face p. 50. 


^nij Prolpect 44 



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TORE COOT3ITORIS ANTKO Hit . S?i#rv /fa^ts?Kt>&tf<x&> ??saj 

,/>// fau 




And so the church at Jarrow became responsible for parochial 
provision for the surrounding district. Shortly afterwards the same 
bishop also gave the monks the ruined church at Wearmouth, with the 
vill of Wearmouth ; to which, after 1080, his successor, William of 
St. Carilef, added that of Southwick. 52 But in May 1083, bishop 
William, finding that at Jarrow and Wearmouth alone in his diocese 
there were regular monks (for Aldwin and his subordinates were 
Benedictines), transferred them to Durham, to form the nucleus of 
his new Benedictine foundation there, 53 of which Aldwin became the 
first prior ; and from that time until the dissolution Jarrow was a 
subordinate cell under Durham. 

It is evident that the remains of the monastic court to the south of 
the church belong to the period of Aldwin's restoration between 1075 
and 1083. The general arrangement of the various parts may readily 
be gathered from the known plan of Benedictine buildings elsewhere. 
Thus the dormitory occupied the upper storey of the west side of the 
quadrangle; and the entrance doorway from the court has happily been 
preserved intact, with its nook shafts, ball capitals, abaci, and circular 
head in two orders, with plain tympanum enclosed. The refectory 
was on the south side, with the common room below, of which the fire- 
place still remains. On the east side was the chapter house, of which 
the entrance doorway was still standing in 1728, when the brothers 
Buck made their drawing of the church and the adjacent ruins. In 
the centre of the court is a well (recently boarded over), which was 
perhaps connected with the lavatory. 54 At the south corner of the 
western range of buildings is a doorway with a triangular head 
composed of two slabs supported against each other. There is also a 
window (now blocked up) with a similarly constructed head on the 
west face of the tower; with which may be compared the two windows 
of a like pattern on the sides of the tower at Norton; as also the head 
of a recess in the west wall of the chamber immediately adjoining the 
chapter house at Durham, on the south side, in the stretch of walling 
that is anterior to bishop William's work. 55 These triangular heads 
for doorways and windows occur throughout the country in pre- 

52 Sym. Dun. iii. 22. 53 Ibid. iv. 2. 

54 See Rites of Durham (15 Surtees Soc. p. 70) for the lavatory in the centre 
of the court at Durham. 

55 Green well, Durham Cathedral, ed. iv. (1892) p. 17 n. 



Norman work, or in buildings erected (as at Jarrow) after the Nor- 
man occupation, but in the old-fashioned style and by local workmen. 
To Aldwin's time must also be assigned possibly both the upper 
stages, but certainly the top or fourth stage, of the tower, the belfry 
windows of which belong to a style of building which passed away before 
the close of the eleventh century (p. 60). The triangular headed window 
on the west side of the third stage, already referred to, links that part of 
the tower with Aldwin's work ; though it may have been an insertion, 
as the round-headed window, with square billet moulding in the label, 
on the north side of the stage below certainly is ; but the windows on 

the north and south faces of the same stage are earlier in design, if not 
in execution, than those in the stage above ; though, of course, there 
need not have been any very considerable interval of time between 
them. In each case the familiar late Anglo-Saxon form of belfry 
window appears, with two semicircular headed lights divided by a 
baluster-shaft supporting a plain oblong impost, or abacus, which 
extends through the thickness of the wall, and from which one side of 
the head of each light springs. But in the lower windows this impost 
rests immediately on the shaft ; 5(i in the upper ones a rough capital is 

56 In Billings's drawing of the tower capitals are shown on the shafts of the 
lower windows as well as on those of the upper. It is, however, as difficult to 
accept this representation as true, as it is in any point to impugn the accuracy of 
Billings as a draughtsman. For the imposts in the lower windows are bevilled 
down on their under sides so as to adapt themselves to the top of the plain shafts 
without any intervening capitals. It is easier in this instance to doubt Billings's 
accuracy, in that he has exaggerated the lines of the ridges in the setting back of 
the wall between the third and fourth stages into definite overhanging tablings, 
which are certainly not there, and apparently never have been. 


inserted between them : the lower ones come out to the face of the 
wall, without any enclosing arch ; the upper ones are enclosed in a 
semicircular arch, which is again sunk within a square panel (see p. 60). 
The upper window of the tower at Monkwearmouth comes between 
these two patterns ; for it has no capital between the shaft and the 
abacus, but it is embraced within an enclosing semicircular arch, 
though it is not sunk in a panel, but is flush with the face of the wall. 

Between the third and fourth stages the north and south walls are 
set back considerably in a series of sloping ridges. In the top storey 
there are no less than six windows : one each on the north and south 
faces, and two each on the east and west. The work in these windows 
is only rough. The shaft and capital in the south-west window are 
out of proportion with the rest ; and all the bases of the shafts are poor. 

It is reasonable to suppose that it was at or about the same time 
that the originally separate building to the west of the tower was 
adapted as a nave for a single church embracing the whole range of 
buildings from east to west. The walling of the western part was 
continued up to the side walls of the baptistery, or chamber, between it 
and the tower. In the first floor tower chamber there is a fine arch of 
this date, measuring eight feet three inches in diameter, which when 
open to the nave above the western tower arch would be very effective, 
with the side lights from north and south, aud the glimpse into what 
was now the chancel beyond through the earlier window of this 
chamber. But it can have had but a short life ; for its head was 
badly broken in, almost immediately it would seem, by the weight of 
the building above, and it was walled up. 

If the chancel was used as the monastic, and the nave for the 
parochial church, the altar for the latter would stand beneath the 
tower. This would account for the square recess on the interior of the 
blocking of the south tower door, which might well be the socket 
of an aumbry. The filling of this doorway as seen from the outside is 
interesting. A tympanum has been brought from elsewhere and set in 
the head, and an attempt has been made to adapt the voussoirs of the 
door head to its curve, but not very successfully. Two of these 
voussoirs remain at the western spring ; they have been padded to fit 
them to the new line, but then this plan has been abandoned and 
new voussoirs substituted which fit the tympanum, and which no doubt 


belonged to it before. They are of appropriate date, with a hollow 
chamfer running round the inner edge. The two missing stones of 
this set are now amongst other remnants on the west side of the 
north porch. 

Aldwin's buildings were strong enough to withstand a determined 
assault by William Cumin the younger, when he attacked bishop 
William de St. Barbara at Jarrow on the Saturday in Rogation week, 
1144. 57 

In 1313, Jarrow was assigned to prior William de Tanfield, who 
had been obtruded upon the abbey five years before, as a retiring 
dower ; 58 but he died within the year. 59 Again in 1394 it was 
granted to ex-prior Robert de Walleworth in lieu of Finchale, with the 
proviso that if his tenure was disturbed by a foreign (Scottish) incur- 
sion, he was to have Ooldingham instead. 60 

In the contest between the prior and the archdeacons of Durham 
and Northumberland as to jurisdiction over the dependent churches 
belonging to the abbey, which lasted from 1323 to 1333, Jarrow and 
Monkwearmouth, and their chapelries, were expressly reserved to the 
prior, 61 who always exercised archidiaconal control over them. This 
special jurisdiction lasted on after the dissolution, even though these 
two churches had then passed from the hands of the chapter, under 
the scheme by which the churches in the patronage of the chapter 
were visited by their 'official' and not by the archdeacons. This 
system came to an end, under the provisions of an Order in Council, 
on the death of archdeacon Prest, the last 'official,' in 1882, and 
the several churches, including Jarrow and Monkwearmouth, were 
then merged in their respective archdeaconries. 

At intervals during the time in which Jarrow was a cell of 
Durham various alterations were effected in the church. First of all 
a rood-screen was erected, and a doorway on to it opened through the 
blocked up arch in the west wall of the tower chamber. At the same 

57 Contin. of -Sym. Dun. 6. 

5S Rob. de Graystanes, 36 (9 Surtees Soc. p. 95). 

59 Jarrow Account Roll for 1313-14 (29 Surtees Soc. p. 9). 

60 Hist. Dun. Scriptores Tres (9 Surtees Soc.), app. no. civ. pp. clxxiv-v. 
William de Chambre says (ibid. p. 137) that he died in 1391. But that was the 
date of his resignation (ibid. p. clxiii.). A payment was made to him by the 
Wearmouth cell in 1394 (29 Surtees Soc. p. 181). 

61 Rob. de Graysianes, 40 and 43, pp. 103, 110. 


time an access to this chamber from the chancel was opened, between 
the window and the south wall. It must have been approached by a 
staircase from the chancel. The jamb-work of these two doorways in 
the east and west walls of the chamber is identical, and the round 
head of the latter fixes the date as not later than the twelfth century. 62 
Later again, apparently in the thirteenth century, two heavy diagonal 
ribs were inserted to support the vaulting of the lowest stage. The 
arches have been cut back at each corner to give these ribs impact on 
to the imposts of the piers. 

Of the windows, the narrow light above the blocked up north 
doorway of the chancel was an early insertion. Then came the two- 
light early English window at the south-east of the nave ; followed, 
probably towards the end of the thirteenth century, by the east and 
north-east windows of the chancel, each with three lights and inter- 
secting mullions, cusped certainly in the east window and apparently 
also' in its companion, though the cusps have there been cut away. 
The side window to light the altar was in this case on the north side 
instead of the south, because the eastern range of the monastic court 
abutted on the south-eastern part of the chancel. When the east 
window was inserted, if not earlier, the now unnecessary small Saxon 
presbytery was removed, for the original nave provided a chancel more 
in accordance with the fashion and requirements of the later age. 
Towards the west end of the chancel on the north side there is a 
large square-headed window of three lights, with a trefoliated circle 
above the head of each light. It is not an attractive production. 
Immediately next the tower on the south side of the chancel is a 
three-light decorated window. The date of this insertion is fixed by 
an entry in the Jarrow account rolls as 1350. 63 

62 There was a rood-screen in Lanfranc's church at Canterbury (sc. before the 
fire of 1174). See Gervase (in Twysden's Decem Scriptores, col. 1293) : 'Pulpitum 
vero turrem praedictam a navi quodammodo separabat . . . supra pulpitum trabes 
erat, per trans versum ecclesiae posita, quae crucem grandem et duo Cherubin et 
imagines sanctae Mariae et sancti lohannis apostoli sustentabat.' 

63 ' Item cuidam cementario, pro una f enestra in cancello faeta, cum aliis 
necessariis emptis, xxiijs. xd.' (p. 35). The account for glazing was paid in the 
following year : 'In una fenestra in cancello vetriata cum stipend! o vitriatoris 
xvs. vijd.' (p. 36). The sum mentioned, however, seemed so small for this 
window as to suggest the doubt whether it did not refer to the small 'low 
side' window opposite. Accordingly I asked an architect friend to roughly 
estimate the probable present cost of inserting a window like that on the 
south-west, and he placed it at '50 or a little less.' Now in the same roll 


The pattern of the tracery of this window was a special favourite 
in Durham abbey during prior Fossor's incumbency, and elsewhere in 
the neighbourhood. The plan is mainly geometrical : the heads of 
the two outer lights are semicircular, the central one is ogee-shaped : 
above these are two figures, technically known as ' horizontal con- 
vergents,' in which the earlier design of unbroken circles is modified 
by the removal of that part of the circumference of the circle between 


the points where it touches the head of the outer light and the outer 
frame of the window arch respectively ; thus marking a transitional 
development from a purely geometrical design. In the Jarrow 
window these figures are slightly compressed. The head of the 
window is filled with a quatrefoil. When Billings made his drawings 
of Durham cathedral church in 1842 there still remained no less 

there is a payment : ' In si. bidentibus emptis, aetatis unius anni, xliijs. iiijd.' 
Prices ran exceptionally high in 1350, owing to the scarcity caused by the Black 
Death. In 1899, also a year of higher than ordinary prices, shearlings have 
mounted to 45s. or even more. For a rough comparison, then, taking 13d. in 
1350 as equivalent to 45s. in 1899, the cost of the window, 23s. 10d., would 
represent 49 10s. of present money. The only other building entries referring 
to the church in the Account Rolls are (1) ' In emendacione fenestiae in fronte 
ecclesiae vs.' 1378-9 (p. 67) ; (2) ' Et in emendacione et reparacione chori de 
Jarowe hoc anno vs. ijd.' 1452-3 (p. 113). 



than six windows of this pattern, of which now but two are left. 
Moreover in Grimm's sketch of the (undestroyed) chapter house at 
Durham the three central windows of the apse are similar. The 
like pattern also occurs, for instance, on the south side of the 
chancel at Stranton, and in the north transept at Brancepeth. 

The position of this window, crushed in as it is so closely to the 
tower that the quoins of the chancel wall have been cut away to make 
room for the window jamb, is probably accounted for by the original 
doorway, the western jamb of which is seen close to the east of the 
line of the eastern jamb of the window. The built-up square headed 
doorway, which was in use when Billings visited the church in 1845, 
is a later insertion. 

Immediately opposite to this window, at the extreme west end of 
the north side of the chancel, is a fourteenth-century 'low side 
window.' The usual traces of the hinges of the shutter, and the socket 
into which it fitted, are clearly visible. 

The only bit of Perpendicular work of which any trace has been 
preserved is the west window of the southern range of the monastic 
quadrangle over the triangular-headed doorway already referred to. 
Even that has now disappeared, but when the sketch of Jarrow for 
Surtees's History of Durham was drawn and engraved by E. Blore at 
the beginning of the present century the tracery still remained. It is 
from this sketch that the above illustration has been taken. It shows 



that it was an insertion within a Norman window, very much after the 
manner of the Perpendicular insertions in the Norman windows of the 
aisles of the nave at Durham. 

There are four very fine bench ends, now on the north side of the 
chancel. One of them bears the winged heart pierced by a sword, which 
is the sign of prior Thomas Castell of Durham (1494-1519). It occurs 
on a shield on the central boss of the western compartment of the 
abbey gateway at Durham, which was built by him. In an extremely 
interesting paper, written in 1864 and printed in Archaeologia Aeliana 
(vol. vi., pp. 201-5), Mr. Longstaffe points out how prior Castell, like 
his contemporaries, priors Lechman and Smithson of Hexham, and 
Gondibour of Carlisle, deliberately revived geometrical tracery in his 
work. These bench ends were not his only contribution to Jarrow 
church ; he also replaced the earlier rood screen (or rather, screen 
beneath the rood) by a new and elaborately carved screen. This 
screen was still in situ when Hutchinson visited the church in 1782 
(see below, p. 59) ; but it was removed when the nave was rebuilt, 
and parts of it at all events came into the possession of Mr. Bippon 
of North Shields, and eventually passed by purchase, after his death, 
into Mr. Longstaffe's own hands. The somewhat imaginative 
representation of the pulpit at Jarrow in Scott's Antiquarian 
Gleanings in the North of England wrongly introduces some of the 
panels of this screen into the pulpit, into which they do not fit. 

At the dissolution Jarrow was treated as an independent monastery, 
and was suppressed ; the property of the church being alienated to 
William lord Eure of Witton. It remained in the possession of the 
Eure family until 1616 : it then began to be divided up amongst 
different owners, until at last it was broken up into one-eighth shares, 64 
which changed hands from time to time. But there seems to have 
been, at any rate by tradition, though practically repudiated by ihe 
holders of the property, some responsibility for maintenance of the 
glebe house resting upon the impropriators. For in 1711 the church- 
wardens in their presentment at Easter report : l We present y e 
ministers house at Jarroe (to be Repaired by the Impropriators) as 
very Ruinous & neither Wind nor Water Thite.' But nothing came 
of their complaint, for in 1715 their successors repeat : ' The Parson's 

64 Surtees, History of Durham, vol. ii. p. 72. 


House . . . is in such very 111 Condition that he cannot live in it, 
"but is forced to Rent another.' 65 

The church became an ordinary parish church ; and under its new 
conditions it eventually fell into hopeless disrepair. Throughout 
the greater part of the eighteenth century there are continual 
references in the annual presentments of the churchwardens to its 
ruinous state. Thus, e.g., at Easter, 1728 : 'Wee do present our 
parish Church y* although y e Parishoners have done very well 
towards y e Repairing of it, yet by Reason of its antiquity y e walls are 
like to- become very Ruinous & being supported by two Cross beams 
has kept y e walls uncoined together for sev 1 . years. Thomas Tayler, 
Matthew fforster, Churchwardens.' 66 Hutchinson thus describes 67 
the old nave shortly before it was taken down : 

The entrance into the Church was by a low porch with a circular arch, on 
the north jamb of which was the figure of a crosier staff, stripped from some of 
the antient tombs : The descent into the nave was by three deep steps, on the 
side walls of which were two pointed arches, that to the north built up, the 
other opening into a porch used as a vestry room ; the groins were sprung from 
brackets, and the span was about twenty feet : The nave was twenty-eight 
paces in length, and only six in width ; so that from the height of the side walls, 
which were nearly thirty feet, and the small irregular windows scattered on 
each side, the edifice had a very singular appearance : Some of the windows 
were under circular arches, others pointed, and all the walling so patched and 
irregular, that it was not to be distinguished to what age any particular part of 
it belonged : The congregation had deserted the nave for some years, perhaps 
from dread of being buried in its ruins, and the chancel alone was used for 
divine service. Fixed in the south-east corner of the nave was a mount, 
whereon a stone pulpit formerly stood. 

The rood loft remained, being a gallery of wood work across the church, above 
the entrance into the chancel, on which were the remains of gaudy painting. 

In April, 1782, the parishioners applied for and obtained a faculty 
for rebuilding the nave, and the scheme was forthwith carried out, at 
a total cost of 626 14s. 9d. 68 This nave was in turn removed in 

65 It would be interesting to know if this was the house in the north-east 
corner of the churchyard, now let in tenements. A small rectory house was 
afterwards built to the south-west of the remains of the monastic court. It 
was taken down about 1877. 

6d The visitation returns and presentments for the Officialty of the Dean and 
Chapter disappeared after archdeacon Prest's death. After searching for them 
for three or four years, I at last found them, through the always ready help of 
Mr. J. Gibson, the Chapter clerk, in an unused room of the Chapter office. They 
contain many curious items of information, relating chiefly to the last century. 

(ir Vol.ii. p. 475. 

bB See the useful Handbook to the Church of Jarrow. published (anonymously") 
in 1887, by the rev. W. K. Egerton. 



1866, when the existing nave, with its wide north aisle, was erected 
from Sir G-. Gilbert Scott's plans. At the same time the supporting 1 
piers of the tower arches were largely rebuilt, and two heavy interior 
buttresses were attached to the western side of the tower, the western 
piers of which had both apparently split rather badly down the centre 
of their faces. A vestry also was added on the north side of the 
tower, with a connecting passage running along the east gable of the 
new north aisle. 

There are two pre-Reformation bells in the steeple, on one of 
which is the confused legend SANCTE PALVS ORV PUO NOBIH, intended 
for SANCTE PAVLE ORA PRO NOBis ; the other has no inscription. 
These are no doubt the ' two bells in the stepell ' referred to in the 
inventory of the commissioners of Edward vi. in 1553. 69 

For the communion plate of the church, which includes an 
Elizabethan cup of 1571, see Proc., vol. iii., p. 222. 


NOTE. Thanks are due to the Dean of Durham for permission to use the 
block from which the illustration on page 46 (2) is reduced ; to Mr. P. Brewis 
for photographs reproduced on pp. 40 and 50 ; to Mr. J. Petree for those on 
pp. 34, 35, 46 (3), 47 (4), and 56 and 60, and plates 3, 6, and 7. The 
illustrations on pp. 47 (6) and 48 (7) are from photographs by Mr. W. Kenwick. 

All representations of inscribed or sculptured stones are reduced to a uniform 
scale of one eighth. 

69 22 Surtees Soc. p. Ivii.; see Proc. vol. iii. p. 6. 



By D. D. DIXON. 
[Read on 28th February, 1900.] 

By way of introduction leading up to the real subject-matter of 
the paper in my hands to-night, I shall endeavour to give a sketch of 
the militia in its earlier days. This will be brief, but as it is a 
branch of our military service respecting whose history few appear 
to trouble themselves, the information, however scant and frag- 
mentary, may perhaps be of some use. But, when treating of the 
old militia movement in Northumberland and Coquetdale, I shall give 
more minute details, flavoured with a little local colouring, which, I 
-trust,, will not be altogether distasteful to the members. 

Our constitutional force, the militia, is in principle, if not in 
name, the oldest military organization England possesses, and repre- 
sents the train bands of early English history. During the ninth 
century king Alfred made levies for men in the various hundreds to 
assist in repelling the incursions of the Danes. He thus established 
something like a regular army consisting of two divisions the one 
half tilling the lands around their homesteads ; the other half being 
with the king in the field. After the Conquest came the long cen- 
turies of the feudal age with its military system, of which I shall not 
attempt to speak. Towards the end of the sixteenth century is 
found, at least in Northumberland, a large force raised on something 
like the old lines, the obligation of all freemen, or probably of 
all the inhabitants, between certain ages, to arm themselves for the 
preservation of the peace within their respective- counties, and for the 
protection of the kingdom from invasion. A muster of this force 
a kind of militia took place in Northumberland in 1538, when there 
assembled on Abberwick moor, near Alnwick, and on Robert's law, 
near Trewhitt, in the parish of Rothbury, all the able men with 
horse and harness within the four divisions of Coquetdale. 

Then came the Act of 1662, when a troop of horse to the number 
of 105 was raised in Northumberland ; 27 troopers were furnished by 
the peers, levied according to the respective value of their estates. 

VOL. xxn. 9 


These were called the l Lords' Horse,' whilst 78, raised by other lords 
and gentlemen, were termed the ' Light Horse.' The troopers were 
paid two shillings a day. The duke of Newcastle was responsible for 
2 ; the earl of Northumberland, 6 ; the earl of Carlisle, 3 ; Lord Grey, 
10 ; Lord Widdrington, 2 ; Lord Derwentwater, 4. 1 The Port- 
land papers contain the following reference to this body of horse : 

Sir Wm. Forster. Daniel Collingwood, and others, to the Duke of Newcastle 
and the Earl of Ogle ; 1670, October 6th, Alnwick. Sending the names of the 
former officers of the Northumberland Militia. Of the horse, John Fenwick of 
Wallington, and Colonel Forster of Etherston. Of the foot, Sir William Forster 
of Bambrough, John Koddam of Little Houghton, and Tristram Fenwick of 
Keulver. 2 

In 1689 another militia bill was passed an amendment of the 
Act of 1662 for the better ordering of the forces in the several 
counties in this kingdom. Clause 14 contains an interesting descrip- 
tion of their arms and accoutrements : 

And that at a general muster and exercise of regiments, no officer or soldier 
shall be constrained to stay for above six days together (from their respective 
habitations). And that at every such muster and exercise, every musketeer 
shall bring with him half-a-pound of powder, and three yards of match (if a 
matchlock), and every horseman (a quarter of) a pound of powder, and bullets 
proportionably, at the charge of such person or persons as provide the said horse- 
man or foot-soldier ; and the arms, offensive and defensive, with the furniture 
for horse, are to be as followeth : The defensive arms, a Back, Breast and Pot, 
to be pistol proof ; the offensive arms, a sword, a case of pistols, a carbine, with 
belt and swivel ; the barrels of the pistols not to be under twelve inches in 
length, the furniture for the horse to be a great saddle or pad with burrs, a bit 
and bridle, with a pectoral and crupper. For the foot, each musqueteer to have 
musquet, the barrel whereof not under three foot and two inches in length, the 
gauge of the bore to be twelve bullets to the pound, with a sufficient cartridge- 
box or bandileer, which may contain twelve bullets at least, with a sword. A 
pikeman's arms, a pike made of ash not under fifteen foot in length, the head 
and foot included, and sword ; and every horseman to have a cloak, and each 
footman a coat of such colour as shall be appointed by the Lord Lieutenant or 
deputy Lieutenant, which colour so appointed shall not be altered by the same 
or any other Lord Lieutenant or Deputy. 3 

The following proviso was made, and as it includes our own hilly 
county, I shall quote it ; ' Provided always that it shall be lawful in 

1 Extracts from Notices of the Services of the 27th Northumberland Light 
Infantry Militia, by Wm. Adamson, sen. Capt., and Honry. Major, (1877.) 

2 Historical MSS. Commission, Portland Papers, vol. ii., p. 149. 

* Historical MSS. Commis ion, House of Lords, 1689, 1690, p. 210. 


the several counties of North and South Wales, and the counties of 
Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Cornwall, if it be 
found convenient by the Lord Lieutenants and Deputies thereof, in 
stead of horsemen to find Dragoons.' 4 At that period there was 
a firelock called 'The Dragon,' which resembled a small blunder- 
buss, with the muzzle ornamented with a dragon's head. From 
this, according to the most probable conjecture, the troops called 
dragoneers and dragoons take their name, but Bailey tells us in his 
dictionary that 'a dragoon is a soldier who fights sometimes on 
horseback and sometimes on foot, so called because at first they 
were as destructive as dragons.' 

The Redesdale volume of Hodgson's Northumberland contains an 
interesting note on ' Militia or Trained Bands.' In an account of the 
number of horse, which each large proprietor, and of footmen, which 
the occupiers of less properties had to raise in the county in 1697, 
Sir Charles Howard of Redesdale is returned for one horse, with this 
observation : 

NOTE. Yt all Reddesdale finds but one horse, but ought to find 5, or 54 
foote/ And the same authority says : ' Every 3 2s. 6d. in the book of rates 
finds, or ought to find, a light horse.' By Stat. 13, Car. 2, c. 6, 500 a year 
found a horse, horseman, and arms ; and 50 a foot soldier and arms.' 5 

At this time there were the following armed men in Northum- 
berland : Horse, 91 (and 11 wanting) ; foot, 296 ; effective, 387 ; 
Capt. Coulson, Capt. Grey, and Capt. Percy being three of the 
officers mentioned. 6 

During the Jacobite rising of 1715, the Northumberland Militia 
appears to have been called out, for we read in a letter from John 
Johnson, esq., to Henry Liddell, esq., Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Oct. 
9th, 1715, that 

A great many Gentlemen and Others, to the number of 300, or thereabouts 
(most whereof are Papists), are now in Arms, And last Night lay at Warkworth. 
We are informed they are for seizing the Militia at Killingworth Moor, on Tues- 
day next, and take from them their Horses and Arms, for my Lord Scarborough 
giving so long Notice as 14 Days for the Militia and Train-bands to rise, they 
took this opportunity of rising first. " 

4 Historical MSS. Commission, House of Lords, 1689-1690, p, 217. 
* Hodgson's Hist. Northumberland, part II., vol. i., p. 161. 
' Notices of the Services of the Northumberland Militia, by Major Adamson, 

7 Diary of Mary Countess Cowper, p, 18o. 


The militia system constructed in 1662 underwent several 
slight amendments in 1699, 1714, and 1743, but it was not until 1757 
that the militia organization on the general lines as we know it, was 
brought into force. The practical application of the ballot, however, 
created much discontent and local disturbance, of which in North- 
umberland we had a tragic example at Hexham. During the next 
year (1762), the system was much improved, and the ballot grievance 
appears to have been remedied ; therefore, after some other minor 
alterations made in 1802, the Militia Act stands much the same as it 
did a century ago. The militia enactment of the present day pro- 
vides as follows : ' The Secretary of State is to declare the number 
of militiamen required, whereupon the Lord Lieutenant is to cause 
meetings to be held of the lieutenancy of each sub-division. To these 
meetings the householders of each parish are to send in lists of all 
male persons between the ages of 18 and 30 dwelling in their respec- 
tive houses. Before the ballot, however, the parish may supply 
volunteers to fill up a quota, every volunteer so provided and approved 
counting as if he were a balloted person. If a deficiency still exists, 
the persons on the lists shall be balloted for, and double the number 
of those required to supply the deficiency shall be drawn out. Any 
balloted man becoming liable to serve may, however, provide a sub- 
stitute who has the requisite physical qualifications, and is not him- 
self liable to serve.' The ballot statute is only temporarily suspended, 
and can at any time be put in force, as it was in the days of our 
grandfathers. The requisite physical qualification is to be the mini- 
mum height of five feet two inches. This may be considered a low 
standard, but as a matter of fact, out of 92,677 militiamen in 1881, 
more than half of them were between five feet five inches, and five 
feet seven inches, only 20 per cent, were under five feet five inches, 
and about 600 were over six feet. 

I shall now speak with special reference to the militia of our own 
county. It was in 1759 that the Northumberland Militia proper was 
first embodied, the number being 560 men, under the command of 
the Earl of Northumberland, lord lieutenant of the county. No. 9 
Company (Ooquetdale) was commanded by Capt. Alexander Colling- 
wood of Unthank, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 3 sergeants, 2 drummers, 60 
rank and file. The uniform then, as now, was red with buff facings. 


The militia had pipes on its first establishment, and the pipes are still 
amongst the old band instruments. The Northumberland Militia 
was first embodied during the ' Seven Years' War,' from February 25th, 
1760, to December, 1762. 8 It was at this time that the enforcing of the 
ballot caused a serious disturbance throughout Northumberland. On 
the 9th of March, 1761, a mob of some 5,000 persons assembled in the 
market place at Hexham, to protest against balloting for the militia. 
A conflict ensued an officer was shot the militia fired on the popu- 
lace and a large number of people were killed and wounded. 

* In the April of 1780. the Northumberland Militia were under 
orders for London. Marching by way of Hull, they arrived in Lon- 
don late on the evening of June 7th, and proceeded to their quarters 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Scarcely had they halted, after a march of 
40 miles, than the order was given by their colonel, Lord Algernon 
Percy, to proceed at once to Holborn. Here they found the Fleet 
prison and several mansions in flames, and a huge bonfire of furniture, 
taken from the pillaged houses, surrounded by an excited mob. On 
the rioters attacking the militia they delivered a volley of blank 
cartridge to try and intimidate them. The insurgents, however, con- 
tinued their attack, and one of the officers being very much hurt, it 
was found absolutely necessary to fire with ball ; yet the fire was very 
prudently conducted, for the soldiers were not permitted to fire along 
the street.' 9 Having related the quelling of the Gordon riots, accord- 
ing to the written records of that event, may I be permitted to add 
another account of it as related by one of the old militiamen : ' The 
militia was drawn up on the north side of Holborn, where the men 
were assailed on all sides by the rioters, and amongst other troubles 
they were much harrassed by bricks being thrown amongst them, 
from some height overhead, to the injury of several of the men and 
officers. At last one of our men observed a sweep, sitting astride 
on the roof of a house, briskly engaged in taking the bricks from off 
a chimney stalk, and deliberately throwing them down into the street 
below amongst the soldiers. Quickly raising his ' Brown Bess,' 10 

8 Notices of the Services of the Northumberland Militia, Ibid. 

8 Ibid. 

10 A flint and steel musket, so called from the brown colour of the barrel 
and the stock, this weapon was in use from about 1745 to 3845 : total length of 
a fine specimen exhibited when this paper was read, 71 inches, (kindly lent by 
Mrs. Band of Heckley House, Alnwick). 


the militiaman fired and brought the mischievous sweep down from 
his lofty perch in a manner best described in the militiaman's own 
words : ' Man, he cam' tummellin' doon just like a craw.' ' 

There lived in Rothbury in those days a clockmaker named Thomas 
Pape, and go where you will throughout the parish, you will find at 
the present time numerous eight-day clocks bearing the name of 
Thomas Pape of Rothbury. 11 At that period the population of country 
places had more time for harmless gossip, and the quizzing of one's 
neighbours, than we have in this age of hurry. Some of the sayings 
of the past generation have been preserved, and are handed down to 
us by local tradition as fragments of folk-lore. Thomas Pape 
was with the militia when it marched into London during the Gordon 
Riots, and in after years, owing no doubt to a little boasting on the 
part of the old clockmaker, the village wags said : * directly 
Lord George Gordon heard that Tommy Pape was coming, he threw 
down his sword and fled.' James Elliott, an old weaver, who lived 
at Harbottle, was another of the old militia. He was known as 
* Jimmy the Brave,' and often fought his battles over, sitting at his 
own fireside, so his village friends would sometimes try to rouse the 
ire of the old ex-militiaman by telling him ' as soon as the news 
reached London that the Northumberland Militia was on the march 
to relieve the city, the cry was raised ' stand clear, for here's the 
crowdie suppers comin' up." 12 The sweep episode was kept fresh in the 
memories of the Northumberland Militia for many years by the youth 
of Alnwick greeting them as follows : 

The Northumberland Militia, 
The owld and the bould, 
Never did nowt 
But shut [shoot] a sweep. 

After having quelled the disturbances in London, the regiment 
went into camp at Ramnor, and afterwards into winter quarters at 

11 Nov. 1st, 1843. 'At Rothbury, on the 1st inst., aged 88, Mr. Thomas Pape, 
a very eminent clock and watchmaker. He was one of the Northumberland 
Militia, who, under Lord Lovaine, in 1780, put an end to the riots in London.' 
Newcastle Journal. 

12 ' At Harbottle. 7th ult., aged 87, at the house of Mr. G-. R. Turnbull, mer- 
chant, Mr James Elliott, weaver. Upwards of 50 years ago, deceased served 
in the Northumberland Militia under the late Col. John Reed., Esq. of Chipchase 
Castle, and was highly and deservedly respected by all who knew him, for his 
sterling worth and upright character.' Alnwick Mercury, May 1st, 1856. 


Andover. . . . The following is an extract from the Neivcastle 
Journal, of Saturday, Dec. 22nd, 1781 : * Nearly seventy fine young 
fellows, recruits for the Northumberland Militia, came in here 
on their route to join that Regiment at Southampton.' At that 
period the Northumberland Militia was really and truly a territorial 
regiment, composed of Northumbrians, stalwart sons of the soil, 
officered by the county gentlemen. Standing shoulder to shoulder 
on parade, they were said to have covered more ground than any 
other county militia. This may have been the case, but the wag of 
the day said that * it was owing to the size of their feet.' The 
three commissions I now lay on the table are as follows : 

The commission of Lieutenant William Davison of Chatton, signed by 
Hugh, first Duke of Northumberland, dated from Northumberland House, 3rd 
April, 1776, Gabriel Selby, Esq., of Paston, Lieut.-Colonel. 

The commission of Lieut. Alexander Davison, Esquire, of Lanton, signed 
by Hugh, first Duke of Northumberland, given at Northumberland House, Oct. 
22nd, 1784, Lord Algernon Percy being then Colonel of the regiment. 

The commission of Major William Davison, Esquire, of Branxton, signed by 
Hugh, second Duke of Northumberland, given at Syon House, Sept. 14th, 1798, 
John Eeed, Esquire, of Chipchase Castle, Colonel of the regiment. 1211 

The officers of the militia were not balloted for; they were 
appointed by the lord lieutenant of the county, and the qualification 
required at that time was, a colonel to have a rent roll of 1,000 a 
year, a lieutenant colonel, 600, and the other officers in proportion. 
During the great French war, the militia, raised entirely by ballot, 
was embodied for twenty-one years from 1793 until 1814. In the 
year 1810, the local militia was spoken of as : ' An excellent Regi- 
ment, nearly 1,000 strong, and eminently distinguished for its high 
state of discipline.' 13 At the present time the Northumberland Militia 
is stationed at Malta. It may be of interest to the members if I 
briefly explain how the business of balloting for the militia was con- 
ducted during the early part of the present century, and of the schemes 
organized in each parish for the purpose of assisting poor householders 
who were unfortunate enough to be drawn for the militia, for what 
with bad times and low wages, the ballot pressed sore on the working 
classes. The lord lieutenant of the county having first issued his 

12a Commissions kindly lent by Mrs. Dand, of Heckley House, Alnwick, 
13 Mackenzie's History of Northumberland, 


orders, the constables or the schoolmasters in every parish were re- 
quired to return lists of all males between the ages of eighteen and 
forty-five within their respective parishes, schedules being left at each 
dwelling house, which had to be returned, correctly filled up, within 
fourteen days, under a penalty of 5. Then on a certain day the 
4 drawing for the militia ' (as it was termed) took place, when the men 
to be enrolled were chosen by ballot, the number required being 
according to the number returned as liable to serve. At that time 
the minimum height was as low as four feet six inches. Suppose a 
man was balloted, but did not wish to serve, he could, by paying a 
fine of 10, provide a substitute, to whom he would have to pay a 
bounty for going. Therefore, in country districts, various clubs and 
societies existed, kept up by weekly payments, besides an arrangement 
by which, with the consent of the inhabitants, volunteers, remunerated 
by parish assessments', were substituted for balloted men. The ballot 
has not been in force since 1829. In the parish vestry books 
of Rothbury and Alwinton in Coquetdale, there are numerous entries 
relating to these parish assessments. Out of some twelve or eighteen 
entries, I shall quote only one or two, which will suffice to show 
how the funds were raised : 

April 2nd, 1795. Alwinton. This day the vestry met, proper notice being 
given for that purpose, and after settling the parish accounts, &c. 

do order that three whole ancients be immediately collected through the parish 
and Kidland Lordship, in order to hire a seaman for his Majesty's navy . . . 
and we, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do agree to take a council's 
opinion, whether or not the inhabitants of Kidland Lordship are liable to con- 
tribute their proportionate share of what the parish may have to pay in hiring 
substitutes for the Militia, and for maintaining their wives and families . 

In 1801, 27 18s 3d was expended in payments to the militia- 
men's wives and families. 

September 6th, 1804. At a Vestry meeting this day of the churchwardens, 
overseers of the poor, and principal inhabitants, for the purpose of considering 
of the most eligible method of collecting the money necessary for defraying the 
expenses attending the (old) Militia, Supplementary Militia, and Army of 
Eeserve in this parish, it was agreed that the money be collected by the Ancient 
book of rates, and that eleven ancients be collected immediately to discharge 
the same. 


1809. Collected for Military Concerns, in the parish of Allenton and Kid- 
land Lordship : 

51 Ancients ............ 83 14s. 9d. 

Paid to men balloted for the Militia ... 83 3s. 8d. 14 

Rothbury. Vestry, January 1st, 1813. At a Meeting of the Curate,. 
Churchwardens, and Four and Twenty, holden this day, in pursuance of Notice 
given, it was unanimously resolved that three half-pence in the pound be 
collected throughout the whole of the Parish, for the purpose of paying the bal- 
loted Men, and towards paying the Militiamen's Wives and Families. 

Kothbury. Vestry, January 12th, 1817. At a Meeting of the Kector r 
Churchwardens, and Four and Twenty, holden this day, it was resolved that the 
Churchwardens and Overseers of the Parish should be directed to hire Men 
wanted for the Militia, by an equal rate upon all the inhabitants of the said 
parish, and the sum of five shillings to be paid by all the young Men liable to be 

L. Vernon, Eector. 

} Churchwarden, 

The amount of the premium paid for a substitute appears to have 
varied according to circumstances, the exigency of the case, or 
the demand for men at the moment, as well as the social status 
of the balloted man. I have been told of a man in Coquetdale 
who received twenty guineas from a well to do farmer. The 
substitute shortly after absconded to America, leaving the 
principal to meet the authorities as best he could. Another 
Coquetdale man bargained for 9, to go instead of a fellow villager . 
On the two proceeding to Alnwick to arrange matters, and 
pass the doctor, the principal found he could get a man for 5 r 
so when the disappointed candidate for military honours returned 
home, he informed his neighbours ' that a dirty shoemaker body that 
could hardly pull the sark ower his heed had offered for 5.' The 
following are bona-fide instances of one man going as a substitute 
three times: There lived in Rothbury (within the last ten years) an 
old man, named George Rogerson, who in his 90th year walked 
from Rothbury to Alnwick a distance of twelve miles. He was 
born in 1799, and during his early manhood served as a substitute 
no less than three different times. He had the good fortune never 
to be drawn for the militia, but being fond of military life, he 

14 Extracts from the Alwinton church books, kindly supplied by the vicar, 
the Rev. B. Binks. 

VOL. xxii 10 


proffered his services as a volunteer substitute. In 1816, he was 
enrolled in the Northumberland Militia, instead of a William 
Appleby, a hind living at Togston Barns, for which he received 
a bounty of twelve guineas and a crown. In 1821 he went as 
a substitute for a Thomas Barclay, joiner, of Warkworth, and got 
nine guineas and a crown. Again in 1826 he joined the ranks of the 
Northumberland Militia for Thomas Brown, of Spy law, near Aln- 
wick, and was paid the sum of seven guineas and a crown. This old 
veteran boasted that he had served under three kings of England, George 
III, George IV, and William IV, and he also told me that as a militia- 
man he got a shilling to drink the health of George IV. on his 
coronation day, and the same on the coronation of William IV. 

Various are the schemes now being brought forward as to the best 
means of procuring a sufficient number of men for the purpose of 
increasing the strength of our army at home and abroad. Our fore- 
fathers, at a great crisis in our history, also had this same difficulty, 
which was much lessened by the number of volunteers from the ranks of 
the militia. In the county of Northumberland alone, between the years 
1803 and 1814, upwards of 100,000 men of the militia were drafted 
into the army. About this period the militia itself was embodied, 
and stationed in the south of England for several years. We read in 
Sykes's Local Records, ' [1813], November 15, and the following 
day,' the Northumberland militia passed through Newcastle, on its 
route to Scotland. The van division of the regiment, which was 
headed by lieut. -colonel Coulson, was, on its entrance into the town, 
greeted with a salute of guns from the old castle, the bells of St. 
Nicholas' church rang a peal, and every demonstration of joy was 
displayed, in compliment to the ' Lads of the Tyne' The crowds of 
people assembled to meet them were immense ; Dean street was com- 
pletely blocked as they marched up. The regiment had not been in 
Newcastle for upwards of ten years. June 24th, 1814, this regiment 
was disembodied at Alnwick ; they had been in actual service upwards 
of eleven years.' How different does the following paragraph read, 
taken from the columns of one of our daily papers only last month : 

The Militia is a force that is always neglected by the public, and gently 
snubbed by the officials, and no exception is made to the rule at the present time. 
The Militia Infantry regiments going out to iSouth Africa are most of them 
splendid bodies of men, but their departure makes little stir, whereas crowds 


shout themselves hoarse for the Kegulars and the Volunteers. The Militia has 
always been the Cinderella of the forces, and seeing how regiment after regi- 
ment has in its entirety volunteered for the front, it is rather a reproach to us 
all that it should go unrecognized. 15 

In conclusion, I shall quote Dryden's satirical lines : 

And raw in fields the rude Militia swarms : 

Mouths without hands : maintained at vast expense ; 

In peace a charge, in war a weak defence : 

Stout once a month they march, a blustering band, 

And ever, but in times of need, at hand. 

Whatever may have been the case in Dryden's day, I am sure 
those of us who witnessed the review on the town moor, last year 
must have been struck by the excellent physique, martial bearing, 
and steady marching past of the Durham Militia and of the 3rd 
Northumberland Fusiliers our own County Militia. 

15 The Daily Telegraph, Jan. 15, 1900. 


shout themselves hoarse for the Regulars and the Volunteers. The Militia has 
always been the Cinderella of the forces, and seeing how regiment after 
regiment has in its entirety volunteered for the front, it is rather a reproach to 
us all that it should go unrecognized. 15 

In conclusion, I shall quote Dryden's satirical lines : 

And raw in fields the rude Militia swarms : 

Mouths without hands : maintained at vast expense ; 

In peace a charge, in war a weak defence : 

Stout once a month they march, a blustering band, 

And ever, but in times of need, at hand. 

Whatever may have been the case in Dryden's day, I am sure 
those of us who witnessed the review on the town moor last year, 
must have been struck by the excellent physique, martial bearing, 
and steady marching past of the Durham Militia and of the 3rd 
Northumberland Fusiliers our own County Militia. 

15 , The Daily Telegraph, Jan. 15, 1900. 

VOL. XXII . 11 



1. The late SHERITON HOLMES, a vice-president, and for many 
years the treasurer of the society. 

By F. W. DENDY. 
[Read on the 30th of May, 1900.] 

On the 2nd of May, 1900, the members of the society lost by 
death one of their most valued and esteemed colleagues, the late Mr. 
Sheriton Holmes, who became a member in 1877, was elected on the 
council in 1883, served the society as its honorary treasurer from 
1890 to 1900, and was appointed a vice-president in the year preced- 
ing his death. Sheriton Holmes was born at 35, Wellington Street, 
South Shields, on the 17th of March, 1829. He was the son of Ralph 
Holmes of that place and of Elizabeth, his wife, formerly Elizabeth 
Sheriton of Pinnington, whose sister, Anne Sheriton, married William 
Swan of Walker, and was the mother of a numerous family, including 
our member, Mr. Henry F. Swan of North Jesmond, and his sister, 
the late Mrs. Charles Mitchell of Jesmond Towers. 

Mr. Holmes was educated at a private school in Wharfedale, 
whither he travelled by coach, the railway, at that time, having been 
only completed as far north as Darlington. 

He was articled in 1845 to Mr. John Bourne, formerly of 
Newcastle and afterwards of Leeds, civil engineer and land agent, a 
connection of his mother's family. The growth of the railway system 
was at that time extending throughout the north of England and in 
the south of Scotland, and, during his articles, he was employed in 
surveying portions of the Newcastle and Berwick railway, the 
Caledonian line, the branch railway to Langholm, and the line from 
Norihallerton to Stockton. After serving his time he became 
connected with many railway and engineering enterprises in York- 
shire, and in the north of England, and he then went to London for 
a time and assisted Sir George Bruce in various undertakings in 
different parts of England, including railways in Wiltshire and 
Gloucestershire. In 1863 he laid down buoys off Whitley to mark 
the measured knot. He was resident engineer for a portion of the 
Border Counties line (now the Waverley route of the North British 

Arch. Ad. vol. xxii. To face p. 72. 

Plate VIII. 




railway) and subsequently for the line from Scotsgap to Rothbury, 
which, though not designed by him, was completed under his super- 
intendence. This line, as originally projected, was to extend from 
Newcastle to the north of Northumberland under the title of the 
Northumberland Central Railway, and was designed to be independent 
both of the North Eastern and the North British railways, but only 
the short section from Scotsgap to Rothbury was ever constructed, 
and this was from the first worked by the North British company 
and has for many years formed a part of their system. Subsequently 
he designed and carried out the slipway of the Wallsend Slipway 
Company, and waterworks at Guisborough, Exmouth and other places. 
In 1883, he designed the Els wick shipyard of Sir W. G. 
Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., Limited, including the berths from 
which H.M.S. Victoria and many other warships have since been 
launched. In 1892 he designed and carried out the large graving 
dock' of the Wallsend Slipway Company, and after that was finished 
in 1894, although still consulted about works on which he had 
formerly been engaged, he practically retired from the active exercise 
of his profession. 

He was always keenly interested in art matters, was a critic whose 
opinions were valued, and was himself a sketcher of no mean ability 
in water-colours and in black and white. He was one of the founders 
of the Arts Association, which had several notable exhibitions in 
the Westgate Road Assembly Rooms about 20 years ago, and was 
a member of the arts committee of the jubilee exhibition of 1887. 

He was, however, best known in later years from his connection 
with our society. He took a great interest in its proceedings, and 
many articles and sketches by him appear in the pages of its trans- 
actions. The following is a list of his contributions to the 
Archaeologia Aeliana : 

1882. An account of recent investigations at the ruined chapel of 
North Gosforth, Arch. Ael. vol. ix. p. 205. 

1886. On a building at Cilurnum supposed to be Roman, Ibid. vol. xii. p. 124. 

1891. Memoranda relating to the King's Meadows, Ibid. vol. xv. p. 208. 

1894. The Roman Bridges across the North Tyne River near Choller- 
ford, Ibid. vol. xvi. p. 328. 

1895. The Walls of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Ibid. vol. xviii. p. 1. 

1897. 'An obituary notice of the late John Crosse Biooks, Ibid. vol. xix. 
p. 143. 


All these articles, except the last one, he illustrated by careful 
and complete plans and sketches, which considerably enhanced their 
value and interest. The last of his many sketches for the Proceedings 
is one of Belsay castle, which will be found at p. 191 of the current 

At the request of the history committee, Mr. Holmes revised and 
extended his article on the Roman bridge at Chollerford for the 
fourth volume of the new Northumberland county history, and the 
excellent partly coloured plans and the illustrations of the details of 
the bridge, which appear opposite p. 166 of that volume, are his work. 
He had read a paper on the same subject at a meeting of this society 
as early as ] 873, and that was his first introduction to the antiquaries 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The Roman "Wall excavation committee, of which he was a 
member, is indebted to him for plans and surveys of the transverse 
cutting of the vallum at Heddon-on-the-Wall and of the work done at 
Down Hill. He also made plans of the ruins laid bare at Aesica in 
1894 and 1895, and assisted in the supervision of the excavations 
there, and in the drawing up of the report upon the subject, which has 
not yet been presented to the members. His engineering knowledge 
made him an expert at excavations, and his experience as a constructor 
and his long acquaintance with the Wall enabled him to appreciate the 
skill of its ancient builders, and to recognise more clearly than others 
the ends which they had in view. 

In 1899 he wrote, in conjunction with Mr. Heslop, a short, popular 
illustrated guide to the Castle and the Black Gate, for the use of 
visitors to those buildings. 

Throughout the ten years during which he acted as treasurer 
of the society he exercised a most careful supervision over its 
finances : he systematized the books used for the accounts ; and 
he constructed with much labour and research, and handed over to 
his successor for future use, an interesting diagram to scale, recording 
for each year from 1856 the total income and expenditure of the 
society, the number of its members, and the income and expenditure 
of the Castle and the Black Gate, adding notes which give the reasons 
for excessive results in certain years. 

Owing to failing health, he resigned his post as treasurer at the 

Arch. AeL vol. xxii. To face p. 75- 

Plate IX. 



end of 1899. The heart disease of which he died four months later 
had already impaired his physical powers, but it happily left his mind 
unclouded to the end. Many of the members of the society joined in 
paying him the last token of their respect when his body was com- 
mitted to the earth at St. Andrew's cemetery on the 5th of May, 

Mr. Holmes was married on the 6th of July, 1859. His wife died 
before him on the 19th of January, 1899, and at his death he left sur- 
viving him two children a son, Mr. Ralph Sheriton Holmes, who is a 
member of tjiis society, and a daughter, who is unmarried. 

The memory of those who knew him the best, and therefore loved 
and respected him the most, turns, not so much to the work he did, as 
to the man he was kindly, upright, generous, fearless, and companion- 
able, with a keen sense of humour, a strong love of nature, and an 
appreciation both of what was beautiful and fair in the life around him 
and of what was memorable and sacred in the days of old. 

One by one the members of our society depart this life. The 
place which once knew them so well knows them no more for ever. For 
a time their memory lingers in the hearts and minds of their contem- 
poraries, and then nothing is left but the more shadowy, although 
more lasting, written record of their labours. May the task which 
thus falls to the survivors, of holding up the light which glimmers on 
by-gone times, find in the future as able and as willing hands as those 
now laid to their eternal rest. 

2. The late R. S. FERGUSON, LL.D., F.S.A., and chancellor of Carlisle. 

By T. HODGKIN, D.C.L., F.S.A. 
[Read on the 28th March, 1900.] 

The cause of archaeological science in the North of EC gland has 
sustained a heavy los^ by the death of Richard Saul Ferguson, 
chancellor of the diocese of Carlisle, and a member of our own and 
many other antiquarian societies. 

Mr. Ferguson, who was descended from a family which has for 
several generations held a high position as manufacturers in Carlisle, 
was born in that city on the 28th of July, 1837. After spending his 
schoolboy days at the Grammar Schools of Carlisle and Shrewsbury, 


he went up to Cambridge and became a student at the College of St. 
John. Like the majority of students at that college he directed his 
chief attention to mathematics, and with such success that in the 
year 1860 he came out as twenty -seventh wrangler. In 1862 he was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and practised for some years as a 
Chancery barrister, being also examiner in law for the University of 
Cambridge. He was, however, compelled by ill-health to retire from 
the practice of his profession at the early age of thirty-five. A long 
journey which he took in Egypt, Australia, and America seems to have 
in some measure restored his health, but he continued to be a delicate 
man, suffering much in the later years of his life from asthma. 

Eeturning thus with somewhat recruited health to his native city, 
he abandoned the idea of a professional life and devoted himself to 
archaeological pursuits, in which he had already attained some 
proficiency. In 1862 he had joined in founding the Cumberland and 
Westmorland Antiquarian Society, of which he became eventually 
President, and he was from the beginning editor of their transactions, 
contributing to them a great number of articles and impressing on all 
its publications the mark of his own accurate though manifold 
learning, sound judgment, and enthusiasm for the past history of his 
native county. 

In 1878, when he had entered upon the fifth decade of his life, Mr. 
Ferguson began to take an active part in municipal affairs, entering 
the Town Council of Carlisle as representative of St. Cuthbert's ward : 
and first as town councillor, afterwards as alderman, he played a con- 
spicuous and most useful part in the management of the affairs of the 

His helpful service in these two very different branches of work, 
archaeological research and civic administration, was fittingly 
rewarded when in 1882 he officiated as mayor of Carlisle at the 
meeting of the Royal Archaeological Institute in that city. The 
writer, who was one of the guests on that occasion, well remembers 
the dignity with which, clad in his robe of office and looking like a 
mediaeval burgomaster, Mr. Ferguson presided at some of the meetings 
of the institute. Equally vivid is his remembrance of the efficient 
services which he rendered as guide to the various excursion parties 
organised in connection with the meeting, and especially of the 


admirable little handbook which he prepared for the use of visitors, 
and which was itself almost a county history in miniature. 

In 1887, Mr. Ferguson was appointed by the late Bishop Harvey 
Goodwin chancellor of the diocese of Carlisle, an office which he held 
till his death, and for the duties of which he was exceptionally 
qualified by his legal training, his enthusiasm for archaeology, and 
his intimate acquaintance with the ecclesiastical history of the 
County of Cumberland. 

Mr. Ferguson's careful study of the Roman antiquities of the 
North of England of course necessitated a minute examination of 
the Roman Wall throughout its entire course, and thus brought him 
into connection with the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. We can 
recur to many occasions when we have had the benefit of his 
company, and have sometimes heard his voice in animated debate at 
joint-meetings of our two societies at Housesteads and elsewhere. 
Perhaps his most conspicuous services to archaeological science were 
rendered in connection with the Roman stations west of AMBOGLANNA. 
It is well known that these cannot be identified with anything like 
the same certainty as those east of that part ; and to Mr. Ferguson is 
due the clever suggestion that the list in the Notitia is compiled of 
two lists, furnished perhaps to some official at Eburacum who may 
have in ignorance transposed the names in the western or Cumbrian 
list, inserting the names arranged from west to east as if they were 
still following the previous order from east to west. 

We must leave to our brethren in Cumberland the honourable 
task of enumerating the various papers on archaeological subjects 
which proceeded from the diligent pen of their late president. It 
will be sufficient here to allude to the two admirable county histories 
of Cumberland and Westmorland which he contributed to the series 
published by Mr. Elliot Stock. He had collected materials for a 
much larger and more complete history of his native county as a 
part of the great Victorian history of England now in course of 
publication by an influential committee. Of the Cumberland and 
Westmorland volumes of this history he had been appointed editor. 
It will be a somewhat formidable undertaking for any younger 
archaeologist to bend the bow of Ulysses. 

Mr. Ferguson, who, as we have said, had for many years suffered 


terribly from asthma, was attacked with serious illness of the heart 
early in February, and died at his residence in Carlisle on Saturday, 
the 3rd of March, in the sixty-third year of his age. He leaves 
two children surviving, Captain- Spencer Charles Ferguson, now serving 
with Lord Methuen in South Africa, and Margaret Josephine, wife of 
the Rev. F. L. H. Millard, vicar of Aspatria. 

Mr. Ferguson was a very voluminous writer and no genuine 
remnant of antiquity was beneath the notice of his ready pen. 
Amongst his contributions to the transactions of our society are the 
following : 

On a Roman inscribed tombstone found at Carlisle. Arch. Ael. vol. xi. 
p. 127. 

Report of Excavations in Cumberland per line am Valli. Ibid. vol. xii. 
p. 159. Proceedings vol. ii. p. 315. 

On a Roman inscription. Arch. Ael. vol. xii. p. 289. 

On Hadrian's Great Barrier. Ibid. vol. xiii. p. 86. 

On the Wall and Vallum. Ibid. p. 181. 

On Roman potters' marks. Ibid. p. 198. 

On a Roman sepulchral inscription from Carlisle. Proceedings vol. ii. p. 25. 

Notes on the Lapidarium. Ibid. p. 142. 

On two Roman inscriptions. Ibid. p. 251. 

On a forged figure of Saturn. Ibid. p. 328. 

On Heworth Paten and Chalice. Ibid. vol. iii. p. 48. 

On the site of the Roman bridge over the Eden. Ibid. p. 157. 

On an unknown Percy medal. Ibid. p. 200, and Arch. Ael. xiii. p. 69. 

On Uses of Roman Wall and Vallum. Proceedings vol. iii. p. 228. 

On Roman potters' names found in Carlisle. Ibid. p. 250. 

On the Retreat of the Highlanders in 1745. Ibid. p. 278. 

On Roman inscriptions in Cumberland and Westmoreland. Ibid. vol. v. 
p. 16. 

On a stockade discovered in Carlisle. Ibid. p. 156. 

On a gold coin of Beneventum found at Carlisle, and on Discoveries at 
Tullie House, Carlisle, and at Hardknot. Ibid. p. 185. 



By the Rev. WALKER FEATHERSTONHAUGH, rector of Edmundbyers. 
[Eead on the 30th of May, 1900.] 

The parish of Edmundbyers, of which I am about to endeavour 
to give some account, lies in the north-western division of the county 
of Durham, thirteen miles from Hexham, nineteen from Durham and 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and seven miles from Stanhope in Weardale. 
It is separated from the county of Northumberland by the river 
Derwent, an affluent of the Tyne, which forms its boundary on the 
northern and eastern sides ; being of a somewhat triangular shape, 
the apex of which, pointing to the east, lies at the influx into the 
Derwent of the Burnhope or Burdonhope burn, which for some 
distance bounds the parish on the southern side ; the ancient road 
front Stanhope to Corbridge being in great part the boundary on 
the western side. The southern boundary, that is, the ancient 
boundary (for a new one was laid down by the Ordnance surveyors 
about fifty years ago) leaves the Burdonhope burn where it is crossed 
by the road from Edmundbyers to Stanhope, and is coincident with 
the ancient road which mounts to the top of Harehope fell, and joins 
the present turnpike road at the ' Cross,' about four miles from 
Edmundbyers ; which I identify with ' Barnard's Cross,' named 
in the Feodarium 1 of the prior and convent of Durham, and of 
which the socketted base still remains, lying on the side of the 
road. The boundary here leaves the road and runs in an arbitrary 
line north-westward along the summit of the watershed, joining the 
western boundary on the Stanhope and Corbridge road, near the 
* Dead Friar's Curruck.' Authentic notices of a parish like Edmund- 
byers, remote in situation and consisting very greatly of unreclaimed 
moorland, are, as regards the early history of the district, necessarily 
but scanty. Charters and other documents coeval with the formation 
of the ecclesiastical foundation, which might have given us information 
as to the original proprietors who made their settlement here, who 
gathered around them a number of cultivators of the soil, and who 
built for themselves and their people the still existing church, these 
have either disappeared or lie unrecognised in neglected hoards of 
1 58 Surt. Soc. Publ. 

VOL. XXII. 12 


ancient deeds. We are therefore thrown back for information, or 
rather conjecture, on surviving names, local traditions, and a few 
ascertained facts, which shew that, even in the earliest ages of the 
history of our country, this locality was visited and traversed, 
and had become the habitation of men. The parish comprises an 
area of about 7,000 acres, of which about 2,000 are in cultivation, 
principally grass, the remainder being unenclosed moorland ; and 
rises gradually from about 600 feet above sea level at the junction of 
the Derwent and the Burnhope burn, to 1,660 feet on the western side, 
the rise being prolonged beyond the parish to the summit of Bolt's- 
law, at 1,774 feet. Geologically, it is of the Millstone-grit formation, 
between the Carboniferous strata and the Great Limestone, an upper 
bed of which, the ' Fell Top Limestone,' appears in the bottom of the 
valley which intersects the parish and carries the Burnhope burn. The 
surface is mainly devoid of trees, which are confined to small stunted 
oaks in the valley, tracts of Scotch fir and larch planted in recent 
years, and small patches of birch, remains of the ancient forests of the 
district ; and affords pasturage to numbers of hardy black-faced sheep, 
which maintain a spare existence on the heather and moor-grasses, 
which they crop in summer. The millstone-grit strata furnish 
quarries of sandstone slates for roofing, of flag stones, and of a fine 
grained freestone, admirable for building purposes, whilst many parts 
of the fells are dotted abundantly with boulders of vitrified sandstone, 
locally called 'bastard whin,' the result, doubtless, of some explosion 
of volcanic force, of which many traces are to be found in the counties 
of Northumberland and Durham. The whole subsoil is traversed by 
veins of lead ore, which have been extensively worked, from time 
immemorial, by levels and adits driven into the hill sides in all direc- 
tions. The millstone-grit lies to the day on the top of the hills 
between Edmundbyers and Stanhope, and dips rapidly towards the 
east ; the carboniferous strata do not appear, having been entirely 
swept away ; whilst the present Burnhope burn is only a feeble repre- 
sentative of a mighty stream that once filled the valley and left a 
deposit of upwards of sixty feet of clay of the finest texture and 
quality, the upper surface of which has furnished many nodules of 
stone foreign to the district, as granite from Criffel in Scotland, 
Chiastolite slate from Skiddaw, and other trap rocks of volcanic 


origin. The sides of the hills retain in many parts, from Bolt's-law 
downwards, the lines of ancient sea beaches, at various altitudes, at 
levels parallel to one another and of corresponding height on the 
opposite sides of the valley ; the whole valley of the Derwent above 
Shotley Bridge having been at one time apparently blocked 
by ice, causing an accumulation of water, which has found 
its outlet at Hownes gill near Consett. The parish contains 
two townships, Edmundbyers and Roughside, the former on the 
southern, the latter on the northern side ; Edmundbyers itself 
being a village of about forty houses lying on the gentle slope of the 
Burnhope valley, on its northern side ; whilst Roughside (or Ruffside, 
as it is often spelt) is a hamlet of only about a dozen houses, on the 
southern side of the valley of the Derwent, two miles from Blanchland 
in Northumberland. Edmundbyers lies at an elevation of nine hun- 
dred feet above sea level, the ground rising gradually to the west ; 
where the valley, not without a certain grandeur, is closed by the 
prominent elevation of Bolt's-law, a hill forming a striking feature 
in the landscape, and, as already said, rising to 1,774 feet above the 
sea. The situation is remote, and, until a comparatively recent date, 
had been cat off, from any but the scantiest intercourse with the 
surrounding world, by lofty hills, unbridged streams, and roads of 
very primitive character. It might have been a matter of doubt 
whether human dwellings were likely to be set down in a situation 
so secluded and elevated as this which I have described ; were it not 
that evidence exists of its settlement in British times, either earlier 
than, or coeval with, the occupation of the district by the Romans. 
Those great conquerors and colonizers, in their scheme of reduction 
of a wild and hostile country, inhabited by tribes whose fierce though 
undisciplined valour they had so often experienced, not unfrequently 
at heavy cost to themselves, invariably pursued the plan of laying 
down numerous roads, as pioneers of civilisation, and especially as 
channels of communication between important towns, and means of 
passage for troops from point to point. It is now understood that 
these Roman roads were much more numerous than was at one time 
supposed ; often remaining unrecognised owing to the circumstance 
that many of them have continued in use from the time of the 
Romans until now, and have always formed the public highways ; for 


which they have been found admirably adapted, from the excellence 
of their engineering and the solidity of their construction. The 
county of Durham was intersected by many such. Crossing the river 
Tees at several points, as Pounteys, Piercebridge, and elsewhere, they 
traversed the county to the sea on the east, and to the mountainous 
district on the west ; whilst the great central road from York, 
after passing the Tees at Piercebridge, and reaching Binchester, 
near Bishop Auckland, branched off from there to the great 
stations and towns of Ohester-le-Street, South Shields, Newcastle, 
and Corbridge ; with numerous cross roads, forming a network of 
communication over the county. One of the main roads continued 
from Binchester through Lanchester and Ebchester to Corbridge, and 
is still in great part in use, passing about seven miles to the east of 
Edmundbyers ; whilst another ran at a similar distance on the west 
from Binchester through Auckland and Stanhope to the head of the 
river Wear. But two other Roman roads passed nearer to Edrnund- 
byers than these, on the high ground at the east and west ends 
respectively of the valley in which the village lies ; one three miles on 
the east, running from Auckland by Eowley, Allansford, and Minster- 
acres to Corbridge ; the other crossing the head of the valley four miles 
to the west, at an elevation of 1,600 feet, from Stanhope by Bale 
Hill, Bay Bridge, and Slaley, also to Corbridge ; where the Roman 
road crossed the river Tyne by a bridge, of which numerous remains 
are to be seen when the river is low, a little to the west of the town. 
Abundant evidence exists of the presence of the Romans in upper 
Weardale an entrenched camp near Westgate, altars from Bollihope 
and Eastgate, coins, and smelted lead in the crannies of the rock 
where the operations were carried on, and in terraces of culti- 
vation around Stanhope. It is therefore not improbable that they 
may have extended their researches beyond the valley of the Wear, 
and that some of the slagheaps of imperfectly reduced lead-ore, which 
cover in numbers the sides of the Burnhope valley, may owe their 
origin to Roman industry. But whether this be so or not, proof is 
not wanting that the valley was more or less inhabited in very early 
times, coeval with or anterior to the Romans ; possibly of the period 
to which may be referred the cave-dwellers who occupied Heatheryburn 
cave in the neighbouring valley of the Stanhope burn ; where were 


found, about forty years ago, a number of articles, partly the refuse 
of human domestic consumption, as bones of animals of the chase, and 
partly personal ornaments, as bronze armlets, pins, &c., with worked 
wood and bone, amber beads, and perforated shells from the sea-shore, 
all of which have been fully described by the Rev. W. Greenwell. 2 The 
men of that date seem to have inhabited the valley of the Burnhope 
also ; for when a bridge was built, some sixty years ago, to carry the 
road over the burn, at a point near Edmundbyers, in a mound which 
was near at hand and was cut down to furnish material for an 
embankment, was found a square burial cist of the usual British 
type, formed of flat stones set on edge, and covered with a 
large slab. Further details are wanting, as unfortunately the 
circumstance passed almost unnoticed, no one then resident taking an 
interest in such matters. Again, it was reported to me, now many 
yeadrs ago, that a similar cist had been found at an elevated spot on 
the fell by a shepherd, who, however, jealously concealed the spot, 
either from superstitious fear or from a belief that it covered 
treasure. An extensive mound of large stones, probably a grave 
barrow, stands on high ground in Muggleswick park, overlooking the 
Edmundbyers valley ; two curious and mysterious earthworks exisc 
in the parish, not far from the village ; and two large grassy mounds, 
lying close together and plainly artificial, may be seen by travellers 
to Blanchland, on the western side of the Acton burn, north of the 
Derwent. Several flint-flakes have been found by myself and others 
at and near Edmundbyers ; and a few years ago a ' thumbflint ' or 
* scraper,' and also a large rough flint core, were found by the tenant 
of one of the glebe farms, about a mile above the village, on the side 
of the valley facing the south. From this we may conclude that the 
Edmundbyers valley was not unknown to settlers in those early times. 
It is a long leap from A.D. 410, when the Roman occupation ceased, 
to about A.D. 1100, to which date, or very soon after, the building of 
the church at Edmundbyers must be referred. We have in the county 
of Durham not a few parish churches which, admittedly, lay claim to 
a Saxon origin, as Jarrow, Monkwearmouth, Escomb, and Ebchester ; 
and as the church of Edmundbyers possesses features entirely in 
common with the last of these, I do not hesitate to claim for its 
* Archaeologia, vol. liv. pp. 87-114. 


original plan a Saxon date. If, as I have endeavoured to show is 
probable, the locality was settled in British times, it is most likely 
that the occupation was continuous, the hills being found profitable 
for lead-mining, and the lower lands for agricultural pursuits. The 
name of the place points to the same conclusion, denoting that it was 
the 'byers,' settlement, location, or building, of one Edmund, 
doubtless the Saxon proprietor, probably a contemporary of the Saxon 
Mocla, from whom the adjoining parish of Muggleswick takes its 
name. The name is spelt variously and indifferently, ' Edmund- 
byers,' ' Edmundbyres,' ' Edmundbires,' < Edmundbyrez,' ' Ed- 
mundbiers,' and in later documents, ' Edmondbyers,' all pointing 
to the proprietorship of Edmund. Having then established 
himself at Edmundbyers, a locality which he considered favourable 
for agriculture, the occupation of the time, Edmund would soon draw 
around him a number of dependents, whose interests must be attended 
to, in return for the service rendered to himself. This would 
include arrangements for the due performance of the rites of religion ; 
a church was, therefore, a necessity. At first, probably, it would be 
only a humble, wattled, mud-plastered building, only a degree above 
the ' bothies' of the husbandmen around ; but afterwards, as the 
settlement became more established, with a prospect of permanence, 
better provision would be made and a stone church erected. In 
casting about for a design, and an architect to carry it out, he would 
not have far to seek ; he would soon learn that a church was at that 
time in process of building at the hamlet of Ebchester, seven miles 
down the Derwent valley, for which a site was found in the abandoned 
Roman station of Vindomora ; where, as in many other instances, 
the Christian religion had taken the place of the worship of the 
heathen gods, and a Christian church was being reared on the site of 
the abandoned heathen temple. In an age when a new style of archi- 
tecture was in process of formation, as the Gothic was succeeding 
and displacing the Classical, new ideas would rapidly be adopted and 
as rapidly disappear ; so that the characteristics of one decade, even 
of one year, might be obsolete in the next ; whereas the small round- 
headed windows of Edmundbyers church are precisely the same as 
those in the chancel of Ebchester, which possesses a still earlier form 
of window in its nave. The work would doubtless proceed rapidly, 


as mig:ht well be in the case of a little church to hold only 150 
people at the most. Materials in abundance would not be wanting in 
the locality itself. The geological formation of the Edmundbyers 
valley is, as I have mentioned above, that known as the millstone grit, 
a very durable stone, of which blocks of every variety of size are found 
all over the surface. Of this, and the vitrified sandstone blocks 
found in great quantity on the fell, the walls of the church are com- 
posed ; the former, the millstone grit, being used wherever chiselling 
was required, as for arches, door and window jambs, as well as base 
and string courses, for which the length of the blocks in which it is 
found peculiarly fitted it ; whilst of the latter, the vitrified sandstone 
being unworkable by the mason's chisel, the blocks were roughly 
squared by the hammer and so built into the wall. The mortar 
available was of excellent quality, being procured from a narrow bed 
of limestone called the ' Fell-top limestone,' a band that underlies 
the ' Millstone grit ' and is found in the sides of the hills around, 
and in the immediate neighbourhood of the village. It furnishes a 
mortar of brown colour, of particularly strong and binding character, 
contrasting favourably in this respect with the limestone of the lower 
beds so extensively quarried at Stanhope. This latter can only be 
used to advantage in the manner adopted by the Romans, grinding 
up the quicklime and mixing and using it fresh. The ' Fell-top ' 
limestone mortar more resembles that made from the 4 Magnesian 
limestone ' of the east coast, in its binding and durable character, 
and where it has been in contact with in the repairs of Edmundbyers 
church, was found to be in fact harder than the stone with which it 
was used. There would be no lack of timber about Edmundbyers in 
those days. The oaks which now clothe the sides of the valley below 
Edmundbyers are only feeble and stunted representatives of the noble 
trees which once existed there, of which one or two decaying speci- 
mens still remain, whose trunks are now and then found in the peat 
mosses, and of which the last examples were cut down to furnish 
timber for old England's wooden walls, her stately and picturesque 
ships of war, now passed away. Stone slates for the roof and flag 
stones for the pavement would be found all around, in the upper strata 
of the beds overlying the millstone grit, where they have been worked 
up to the present day. Thus the principal materials for the church, 


the stone, the lime, and the timber, were not far to seek, and the 
carriage would be supplied by the lord's own dependents, using the 
rude means of traction of the day, rough carts, or may be only 
sledges drawn by oxen. The plan of the church, when adopted, prob- 
ably differed in no appreciable degree, if at all, from St. Ebba's 
church at Ebchester, and from what it itself presents at present ; 
indeed all the churches on Derwent side would seem to have been 
arranged on a uniform plan, as far as can be ascertained. The 
churches of U unstan worth, Edmundbyers, Muggleswick, Shotley, 
Whittonstall, Medomsley and Ebchester appear to have possessed the 
same features in common, a small chancel and nave, with south porch 
and western bell-gable, and to have had their origin in the same 
architectural mind. Even the large Premonstratensian abbey church 
of Blanchland 3 presents only the same idea on a larger scale, a chancel 
and nave without aisles, lighted by plain single Early English lancet 
windows ; the north transept and tower, with porch opening into it on 
the eastern side, being additions of slightly later date. For the wants 
of the district that acknowledged Edmund as lord a small church only 
was sufficient ; the chancel of Edmundbyers church measures twenty- 
four feet in length by twenty -two in width, external measurement ; 
the nave forty-two feet by twenty-four feet six inches. The walls 
are three feet thick. The chancel communicated with the nave by a 
single round-headed arch, not so high as Escomb, nor so low as- 
Ebchester. Some stones of this arch remain, built up into the walls, 
shewing a face eighteen inches wide, with a plain roll moulding at 
each angle. At the south-west side of the chancel still remains one 
jamb of a priest's doorway, probably also round-headed, destroyed, at 
a date of which I shall have to make mention further on, for the 
insertion of a pseudo-Norman window, doubtless in order to procure 
additional light. East of this, in the three-feet-thick wall, remain 
two small windows, round-headed lancets (if such a term may be used) 
four feet in height, six inches in width, with very deep internal splay r 
and the glazing almost flush with the external surface of the wall : 
another exactly similar, in the north wall of the chancel, was removed 
on the erection of a vestry : whilst another, similar in every respect, 
remains near the east end of the north wall of the nave. All these 
3 See ' Blanchland' by the Kev. A. Johnson. Arch. Ael. xvi. 295, et seq. 


are very similar to the windows of the chancel of Ebchester 
church. The south entrance doorway of the nave, with plain semi- 
circular arch, has never been moved, having been spared when much 
else was altered or removed. The north wall of the nave is apparently 
of original work, of rude workmanship, built with stones probably 
gathered off the site when cleared for building, and roughly squared 
with the hammer. In the south wall of the chancel, near the east 
end, remain the ancient aumbry and piscina, the drain of the latter 
still perfect. The ancient stone slab of the altar was found at the 
east end, and is now in use ; and in the wall of the porch are set up 
two mutilated cross coffin lids, one, from the chalice carved on it, 
having doubtless covered the remains of a priest who served the 
church. Outside, under the wall plate on the south side of the nave 
lies a corbel table about six inches deep, into which run from the base 
-course five flat pilaster buttresses, about two feet six inches wide by 
six and a half inches deep. These buttresses are returned at the 
east and west angles of the nave. The corbels on which rests the 
water-tabling that terminate the gables of the east and west ends of 
the nave, are carved into rude representations of the human face, 
apparently of date coeval with the erection of the church. The chancel 
walls on the east and south sides are supported by four stunted 
buttresses, graduated in two steps, of later date than the original 
church, two on the east and two on the south side. In selecting a 
patron saint for his new church, Edmund the Saxon would seem to 
have been influenced by the coincidence of his own name with that of 
the sainted martyr king of the East Angles ; it was therefore dedicated 
to St. Edmund. Of the clergy to whom was committed the ministra- 
tion of the offices of religion in St. Edmund's church we have for a 
considerable period no record at all : they and their people lived, 
worked, and died ; Edmund himself was gathered to his fathers, and 
would be buried in his own church, where probably his dust at present 
lies. The first that we hear of as a cleric in charge of the church of 
Edmundbyers is * Willelmus diaconus et persona de Edmundesbires,' 
who appears in the Feodarium edited by the Rev. W. Grreenwell 
for the Surtees Society, 4 as giving evidence in a dispute 
between the bishop of Durham and the prior and convent, respecting 
the right of presentation to the living of St. Oswald's in Durham. 
4 58 Suit. Soc. Publ., p. 250. 

VOL. XXII. 13 


That was in 1228. The next name mentioned is Eichard de Kirkeley, 
in 1275 ; then Sir John de Cotum, in 1325 ; from which time the 
clerics in charge run down in regular order, apparently, and with 
scarcely a break, until the present time. They are as follow, derived 
from Surtees, and from other sources : 

01228 William. 
1275 Eichard de Kirkely. 
1325 Sir John de Cotum. 
1333 Lawrence. 
1343 John de Allerton. 5 
1348 John de Bamburgh. 
1357 John de Seham. 
1392 Thomas de Gathril, p.m. Seham. 

Thomas Annerley. 
1399 William Hyndeley al. de Lam- 

esley,^?.?. Annerley. 
1401 William de Malteby. * . 

1401 John de Hexham, p. resign. 


1402 Henry Hinton, p. rex. Hexham. 
1411 Robert Aukland, jp.?w. Hinton. 
1419 Robert Baker, p.m. Aukland. 
1421 Richard Walworth. 

1456 William Denton. 

1468 John Wouldhave, 6 p. res. Den- 

1504 William Fabyane, 7 p. res. 

1508 Robert Sprague,j?. res. Fabyane. 
1557, 17 Dec. John Forster. 
1570, 6 Feb. Thomas Benson. 
1575,20 March John Green well, 

A.B., 8 p.m. Benson. 
1609, 22 June Mark Leonard, A.B. 

p.m. Greeuwell. 

1628, 21 July Michael Walton, A.M. 

p. res. Leonard. 

1629, 2 July John Durie, A.M., p.m. 

1684, 20 Nov. Christopher Smith, 

p.m. Durie. 
1735, 27 Sept. Francis Hunter, A.M. 

p.m. Smith. 
1743 Thomas Coulthard, A.M., p.m. 


1779 William Stephenson, A.M. 
1787 James Deason. 
1811 Joseph Dawson, p.m. Deason. 
1837 Joseph Forster, p.m. Dawson. 
1856 Walker Featherstonhaugh, M.A. 

p.m. Forster. 

With regard to this list of clergy, it may be observed that John 
Greenwell was remarkable for his learning amongst his contemporary 
neighbours ; that John Durie was dispossessed during the rule of the 
Puritans and replaced at the Restoration ; Christopher Smith lies 

5 On the 2nd Jan., 1343, John de Allerton, the rector, was granted leave of 
non-residence for one year, and during his absence to farm the living. Reg. 
Pal. Dun. iii. 520. 

6 At the visitation of 12 Nov., 1501, 'dom. John Woodhaie,' the rector, was 
infirm ; Robert Oliver and Edward Blumer, ' parochiani,' were present and said 
all was well. Bp. Barnes, Eccl. Proc. (22 Surt. Soc. Publ.) xiv. 

7 This rector was present in 1507, at a Synod in the Galilee of Durham 
Cathedral church. Hist. Dun. Scrip, tres, ccccv. 

8 In 1578 ' John Grinivell,' the rector, Robert Snowball, the parish clerk, and 
Christopher Hurde and George Lumley, the churchwardens, were present at a 
visitation. Bp. Barnes, Eccl. Proc., 52. The same rector performed the task 
(Gospel of St. Matthew) at the visitation of 22 July, 1578. He was also present 
at that of 29 Jan., 1578 [-9]. Ibid. 72, 96. 


under a flat stone in the churchyard at the east end of the church ; Mr. 
Hunter was laid under the black marble stone in the chancel of the 
church ; and that Mr. Deason was also vicar of Pittington as well as 
rector of Edmundbyers, and was resident at neither place. Mr. 
Dawson also lies in the churchyard, at the east end of the church. 

As to the way in which the vill and advowson of Edmundbyers 
became the property of the prior and convent of Durham, I cannot do 
better than quote the remarks of Canon Greenwell in his note to 
the article ' Edmundbirez.' 9 

" Edmundbyers, at the compilation of Boldon Buke, belonged to 
Alan Bruncoste, nor is there any evidence to show how it passed from 
him or his representatives. The earliest instrument in connexion 
with the vill, amongst the muniments of the Dean and Chapter of 
Durham, is the following confirmation, which dates about the middle 
of the 13th century. ' Gilbertus filius Radulphi de Rugemund . . . 
Adae de Bradley et heredibus suis totum jus et clamium quod habui 
vel habere potui in villa de Edmundbyres, et in donacione seu 
advocacione ecclesiae ejusdem villae, cum homagiis, releviis et 
excaetis et omnibus aliis pertinenciis suis. Habendum et tenendum 
sibi et heredibus in perpetuum. Et pro hac concessione . . . dedit 
michi dictus Adam quamdam summam pecuniae in mea necessitate.' 
The following charter is no doubt from the son of the grantee in the 
former one, and he is probably the same person who alienated the 
manor by the instrument which follows this. ' Joulanus filius Adae 
de Bradeley dedi, concessi et praesenti carta mea confirmavi Johanni 
de Schelis, pro homagio et servicio suo, ij tof ta in villa de Eadmundbiris, 
cum xij acris terrae, in territorio ejusdem villae, scilicet, ilia ij tof ta 
cum eisdem xij acris terrae quae data fuerunt Petro de Middilham, 
cum Oriota sorore patris mei, in liberum maritagium. Tenenda et 
habenda sibi et heredibus suis ... in perpetuum. . . . Reddendo 
inde annuatim michi et heredibus meis vel meis assignatis Id. in villa 
de Eadmundbiris, scilicet, die apostolorum Petri et Pauli, pro omni 
servicio.' . . . ' Jolanus de Bradeley. . . . Johanni de Insula manerium 

9 Feod. Prior. Dun. (58 Surt. Soc. publ.) 179. In 1311 the bishop (Kellawe) 
of Durham confirmed by charter to the church and canons of St. Mary de Giseburn 
lands including 'totam terram suam in Edmundbyres, quam habent ex dono 
Petri Brouncost.' Reg. Pal. Dun. ii. 1135. Bishop Beaumont [1317-1343] gave 
to the prior and convent licence to hold the mediety of the vill. Hist. Dun* 
Scrip, tres, 119. 


meum de Edmundbires, cam advocacione duarum partium ecclesiae 
ejusdem villae, et omDibus aliis pertinenciis suis, ut in dominicis^ 
dominiis, serviciis libere tenencium, et vilenagiis, cum villanis efc 
eorum sequelis et catallis, sine aliquo retinemento. Habendum et 
tenendum sibi et heredibus suis vel suis assignatis de Domino 
Episcopo Dunelmiae et successoribus suis libere.' In 1325 ' Walter 
de Insula miles ' granted to Sir John de Cotum, chaplain, all lands,, 
tenements, etc., which he held in the vill and territory of Edmund- 
byres, together with the advowson of the church. In 1328 
the same John de Cotum conveyed to the prior and convent of 
Durham ' manerium meum de Edmundbyers, cum advocacione 
ecclesiae dicti manerii, videlicet, quicquid habui in dicto manerio 
cum advocacione praedicta, una cum serviciis liberorum, bond- 
orum, et aliorum quorumcumque.' Bishop Beaumont in the 
same year gave license to the said John de Cotum to convey 
the same manor and advowson to the Convent, the Statute of 
Mortmain notwithstanding ; Cotum's instrument, though more gener- 
ally worded than Insula's, would only convey his two-thirds of 
the advowson, a ad their particular manerium might well be two-thirds 
only of the vill. The following instrument shows that at the time of 
Cotum's grant, the Convent was already in possession of the other 
third part of the will and advowson. i Johannes Gylett de Eggesclyf 
venerabilibus viris Domiais Hugoni Priori Dunelm. et ejusdem loci 
Conventui . . . totam terciam partem villae de Edmunbyris, cum 
tercia parte advocacionis ecclesiae ejusdem villae, et com tercia parte 
molendini de eadem, et cum omnibus villanis meis ibidem habitantibus 
et eorum sequela, et cum catallis omnibus, et cum homagio et servicio 
Alani de Slykeburne de toto tenemento cum pertinenciis, quod de me 
tenet in eadem villa de Edmunbyres, et cum homagio et servicio 
Roberti praepositi de toto tenemento quod de me tenuit in eadem 
villa, et cum omnibus aliis pertinenciis suis, tarn in dominicis quam 
in villenagiis et serviciis, sine aliquo retinemento, quae omnia insimul 
emi pro xl marcis argenti a Johanne filio Alani de Hedlum, et per 
cartam suam michi inde confectam in curia Dunelm. plenarie inves- 
titus fui. Tenendam . . . de me et heredibus meis in perpetuum 
in feodo et hereditate, libere . . . reddendo inde annuatim michi et 
heredibus meis Id. ad natale Domini, et Priori et Conventui de 


Gysburne, nomine meo et heredum meorurn, 5s. tantum, . . . . et 
faciendo forinsecum servicium quantum pertinet ad terciam partem 
ejusdem villae, scilicet, terciam partem duodecimae partis feodi 
umus militis.' . . . The two following charters refer to land which 
ultimately centered in the Prior and Convent. ' Alanus Bruncoste 
. . . Eanulfo Bruncoste, pro horn agio et servicio sno iij acras terrae 
et dimidiam, cum tofto et crofto et omnibus aisiamentis ad villam de 
Hedmundebires pertinentibus, infra villam et extra, illas, scilicet, 
quas Aldredus molendinarius tenuit, illi et heredibus suis tenendas de 
me . . . libere et quiete et honorifice ; reddenclo annuatirn michi et 
heredibus meis dimidiam libram cimini ad festum Sancti Cudberti in 
Septembri, pro omni servicio . . . salvo servicio forinseco '. . . * Eadul- 
fus de Eubeo Monte . . . Deo et Sancto Outhberto et domui Ele- 
mosinariae Sancti Cuthberti de Dunelmo . . . ij bovatas et j acram 
terrae arabilis in villa de Edmundebires, in excambium ij bovatarum 
terrae quas habuit dicta domus Elemosinaria in villa de Holm, ex dono 
Bernardi molendinarii, videlicit, illas ij bovatas terrae quas Eicardus 
de Falderleya tenuit in villa de Edmundebires, cum tofto et crofto 
dicti Eicardi, et j acram terrae arabilis ex additamento juxta Trute- 
burne.' " 10 The process of acquisition appears to have been as follows : 
John Gylett of Eggesclyf had, by purchase from John, son of Alan of 
Hedlum, for forty silver marks, become possessed of one-third of the 
vill, one-third of the advowson, and one-third of the mill, of 
Edmundbyers, with all the villains living thereon and all the rights 
appertaining thereto, which he made over to the prior and convent of 
Durham ; who, shortly after, in 1328, received from Sir John de 
Cotum i capellanus ' also the remaining two-thirds of the vill and 
advowson, which he had received in 1325 from Walter de Insula, 
whose relative John had acquired it from Joulanus de Bradley, who 
in turn, through his father Adam, had received it from Gilbert de 
Eugemund, to whom Adam had advanced money. Further than this 
we have no certainty. Alan Bruncoste under Boldon Buke held 
Edmundbyers for his service in the forest ; and before the date of 
Hatfield's survey the whole estate (with a small exception), including 
the advowson, had accrued under charter to the prior and convent of 
Durham, with whom, represented now by the dean and chapter, it 

10 Feud. Prior. Dim. 180. 


still remains. The exception relates to the manor of Pethumeshake 
or Pethmoshake (now ' Pedom's Oak ') in the western part of the 
Burnhope valley, which belongs to Sherburn hospital ; ' Magister 
Hospitalis de Shirburn tenet libere totam terram ad Pethuneshake,, 
quam Alanus de Brumptofte [sic, in the charters ' Bruncoste '] 
dedit Magistro Arnaldo de Aukeland, pro homagio et servicio suo et 
pro xvj niarcis argenti, salva communi pastura villae de Edmundbyres, 
reddendo inde per annum heredibus dicti Alani et postea Priori Dunelm. 
j bisancium vel 2s., ad festum Sancti Outhberti in Septembri. 2s.' n 

I must now endeavour to put together some account of the social 
condition of a village like Edmundbyers ; and for this I shall be 
indebted to the labours of Mr. John Booth, deputy registrar of the 
diocese, who edited for the Surtees Society what remained of the early 
Halmote Court Rolls of the prior and convent of Durham. These do 
not, it is true, extend nearly so far back as the period we have been 
considering, when Edmund the Saxon gathered together the village 
community and built the church ; but those that remain to us (for 
they are very imperfect) overlap the date when the entire vill and 
advowson came into the possession of the prior and convent by the 
gift of Sir John de Cotum in 1328. I may here remark that the 
manor of Roughside appeal's also to have been, at this date, under 
the lordship of the prior and convent, but to ha^e been, at 
some period not long subsequent, transferred to the lordship 
of the bishop. The court is always called the court of the 
prior ; he represented the convent ; acted independently of it ; and 
alone stood in the relation of lord : in him were embodied the 
rights and authority of the convent, and their consent, or even 
knowledge, does not appear to have been necessary in his dealings 
with the tenants. His present representative, the dean, seems, by 
statute, to have the same power ; ' Licebit etiam Decano . . . 
terras . . . dimittere . . . secundum consuetudinem 
maneriorum ecclesiae praedictae, etiam non-requisito consensu 
capituli.' The vills subject to the jurisdiction of the halmote 
court in the County Palatine of Durham numbered thirty-five, 
of which a list is given by Mr. Booth in his edition 
of the Court Rolls : of these Edmundbyers was one. The 

11 See Feod. Prior. Dun. p. 72, for charter. 


courts appear to have been held three times in each year, numbered 
first, second, and third ' turnus ' ; of which the first, on account of 
the legal year beginning on the 25th March, was counted to be held 
in the summer ; the second in the autumn ; and the third in the 
spring of the next year, as we should reckon it. They were presided 
over by the officials of the convent the steward, bursar, and terrar, 
usually ; sometimes only two of these ; sometimes the prior himself 
was present, in which case one of the others was absent ; and there 
were usually, perhaps always, others sitting as assessors, probably some 
of the principal inhabitants of the vill. The business with which they 
-dealt included I. Questions relating to demises of land, etc., held by 
the tenants of the several classes and of the demesne lands; II. In- 
junctions and bye-laws for the regulation of the community and the 
-due enjoyment of rights ; III. Penalties for the breach of the 
regulations, and for other offences against social well-being. For 
the determining of these questions, and especially for the fixing of 
penalties, in each vill jurors were elected by the common voice, 
chosen at one court to sit at the next, and sworn to perform their 
duties. They had duties both in and out of court ; the latter being, 
when directed, to report on and assess damages of tenements out of 
repair, to view and report on encroachments and other infringements 
of land regulations, to define and adjudge disputed boundaries, and to 
set up ' merestanes ' or boundary stones. The penalties inflicted were 
usually of a very mild nature, and were not unfrequently remitted alto- 
gether. The jurors themselves were sometimes fined for refusal to sit, 
or for non-performance of their duties. As revealed in these rolls, the 
government of the prior, the lord, seems to have been of a truly paternal 
character, and a real home government ; for the adjustment of differ- 
ences and settlement of questions, the inhabitants of the vill were 
not obliged to go to a distance in order to appear before the court, 
but the lord came to them, and set up his court amongst themselves, 
and took the greatest pains that matters should be fairly and amicably 
settled, and by the voice of the people themselves. These halmote 
courts, as thus constituted, give us much interesting information 
respecting the various vills, the conditions on which the land was 
held and the methods of its cultivation, as well as the condition and 
manners of the inhabitants. We see their several ranks, and their 


relation to the prior as their lord ; we see how they managed the 
internal affairs of their village by their locally elected officers ; and 
how, in the halinote court, local questions were discussed and settled, 
how their trespasses and wrong doings were punished, usually gently, 
how their strifes and contentions were repressed, and endeavours 
made to promote peace and quietness in the community. In vills 
like Edmundbyers, the villagers came under four classes, with varying 
rights, privileges, and duties. They were I. the free tenants, who had 
a recognised estate of inheritance, descending from father to son ; 
who owed and paid homage and fealty to the lord in his court, and 
were subject, in some cases at least, to rent and fines on entry, with 
other incidents of manorial tenure. II. The tenants of the demesne 
lands, who held for terms of years or life, and whose rents were pay- 
able to the prior's exchequer. III. The villeins (husbandi] and cot- 
men (cotarii) probably the more numerous class, who held for life, 
and whose tenant right gradually became a customary right of 
tenure ; the only limitation being the tenant's inability, from poverty 
or some other cause, to pay rent or perform the usual service. But 
here much consideration seems to have been shown for the circum- 
stances of the tenants, as payments were often allowed to be post- 
poned or were abated, on proof being given such as satisfied the 
court. IV. The last, and lowest class, were the neifs (nativi) of the 
lord, who were tied to the land (glebae adscripti) and could not leave 
the vill without the licence of the lord. For the privilege to do 
so a payment was required. If they held bondage tenements, as they 
often did, they held them not for life (as other tenants), but at the 
will of the lord, ' quia nativus,' as is often expressed in hb form of ad- 
mission. On the other hand, they do not appear to have /.....en subject to 
fines on entry. They appear to have been sensitive of their abject condi- 
tion, which seems to have often been cast up to them by the superior 
tenants. The last two classes supplied the labour necessary for the 
cultivation of the demesne lands, being bound to supply a certain 
amount as the condition of their holding. They appear to have 
been indulgently treated ; and the customary right which they gradu- 
ally came to claim has been a bone of contention even up to very recent 
years, and is not, as far as I am aware, authoritatively settled even yet. 
In the case of inability to pay, the holding was formally seized into the 


lord's hand ; but some concession was usually made, by which the 
holding was transferred by family arrangement, and was not absolutely 
lost to the tenant. If this was not done, the tenant was not re- 
admitted, except on payment of a fine. The position which the free 
tenants held in relation to the halmote court is somewhat indefinite 
and obscure. Although they had their own free court, they appear 
to have sometimes attended the halmote court, done homage and 
service there, and acknowledged orders and injunctions issued there. 
Possibly it was a matter of choice ; they might not be bound to 
attend : but if they did attend, they probably thereby placed them- 
selves under the jurisdiction of the halmote court. The class of 
' husbandi ' and ' cotarii ' engrossed a great par;: of the business of the 
court : in the letting to them of houses and land ; seeing that the 
houses were properly kept in repair and justice done to the land ; 
- settling disputes that arose ; and, often, assessing penalties for trans- 
gression. The condition of the houses was very strictly looked after. 
The tenant was bound to keep his toft in as good repair as he received 
it ; not infrequently receiving permission from the lord to cut timber 
for repairs, but not allowed to take it for that or any other purpose 
without such permission. The houses of this class would not be very 
grand affairs : some that have survived to our day in Edmundbyers 
probably pretty accurately represent the cotmen's houses of the 14th 
century. One yet standing may suffice for an example. It is a 
rectangle of twenty-seven feet by twenty-one outside measurement, 
the frame supporting the roof consisting of a stone gable at each end, 
of rough stones mortared with clay, and in the interval two ' fores ' 
of solid oak. These, set up together at a more or less acute 
angle, had their feet either resting on the ground or sunk a 
few inches below the surface, being kept in their places by an 
oaken ridge-timber, the ends of which rested on the gables. 
These main timbers thus resembled pairs of gigantic compasses set 
upright with their points in the earth. Then broad walls were built up, 
front and back, of rough stone with clay for mortar, so as to enclose 
the feet of some portion of the timbers, and to form a small rectangular 
room. A ceiling, if at all, was formed by placing across from front to 
back rude planks of riven oak ; first ribs and then rafters of the same 
laid on the principal timbers above formed a support for two or three 


feet of heather thatching, and the house was complete. A wide and 
rough chimney was run up inside, or sometimes outside, against one of 
the gables ; and a small door and a tiny window back and front 
were left, to give entrance and light. This, the chief house of the 
holding, was sometimes called the ' firehouse,' as distinguished from 
other buildings where no fire was used. The village of Cassop, in 1414 r 
gives us the order, probably, of most of the villages of the county of 
Durham at that date. On the south side were a firehouse and a byre. 
At the east end there was a grange in a garth, with a stable at one 
end, a pigeon house and a pigstye. At the west end of the village 
was a firehouse and a grange, and on the north side a sheepfold 
(which very likely also answered for a pound), and a tenement con- 
sisting of a firehouse, a byre, and a grange. Besides these there would 
also be the common bakehouse and the common forge. To each 
vill would be attached a common pasture ground, and the tillage 
land would lie around, parcelled out in strips divided by lines of 
turf called 'baulks,' the portions belonging to the several tenants 
being indiscriminately and very singularly mixed. It will easily be 
seen that this system of common and unenclosed fields (if they may 
so be called) would frequently give rise to disputes and bickerings, 
often rising to serious breaches of the peace, which were brought before 
the court by officers appointed by the inhabitants themselves, and 
sworn to perform their duties. Besides the jurors, who have been 
already mentioned, each vill had also a bailiff (praepositus) elected at 
the court and sworn ; a harvestman (messor), a collector of rents and 
fines, a punder or keeper of the village pound, ale-tasters, and con- 
stables, all of whom also were elected by the jury at the court, 
and sworn. Sometimes the bailiff received an assistant, who also was 
sworn. The vill possessed also a common forge, a common oven, 
and a common pound ; and they co-operated in many works for the 
common good, such as repair of highways and lanes, setting of 
landmarks and guideposts, and cleaning out of streams, springs, wells, 
and water-courses. To these duties they were summoned by the 
bailiff, on the order of the court. For the more perfect adjustment 
of local matters, the free tenants seem to have been frequently willing 
to co-operate with the other tenants, attending the Halmote court, 
submitting to its orders, joining in the consideration of matters 


brought before the court, and meeting outside to discuss questions 
submitted to them. These matters were then named as determined 
*ex communi assensu,' and the work to be done was 'injunctum 
omnibus tenentibus villae.' Of matters affecting the relations of the 
tenants to the lord, the more frequent orders concern encroachments 
on the lord's demesne lands, waste, or timber ; the protection of the 
tenants of the lord's mills, brew-houses, and ferries ; the upholding 
of the jurisdiction of the lord's court, by prohibiting pleas being taken 
elsewhere ; the obligation to supply the lord's wants in priority to 
those of any one else ; the due performance by the tenants of such 
services as they were bound to render, either in working the demesne 
lands or in carriage of corn and victuals beyond the vill ; the repair 
of mills and mill-pools and the buildings on the tenants' holdings ; 
regulations for the orderly cultivation of the land, and for ensuring 
the' tenants' leaving the tillage lands in the same state as on entry, in 
regard to ploughing, manuring, and fallowing. The duties which 
the village communities owed to their lord and to their own members 
are well illustrated by the record of penalties and fines inflicted and 
damages assessed for breaches of condition of tenure, and of those 
rules and regulations of the community which they themselves took 
part in framing, and to which they were bound to conform. The 
first surviving record of the holding of the prior's halmote court is 
of the date 1296 (that is 1296-97), when the three sessions were held 
in the eastern part of the county ; the first at Hebburn on May 23, 
the second at Pittington on October 26, and the third at Hesleden 
on March 4, 1297 : then a gap occurs up to 1300 : and for some 
years the series is irregular, until 1365, when the record becomes 
regular. The first mention of Edmundbyers occurs in 1364, 
November 4 ; when some business from there seems to have been 
brought specially before the court then sitting at East Merrington. 
Robert Souter, the bailiff, is fined 6d. for not summoning Margaret, 
widow of William of Allenschellys (Allanshields in Hunstanworth 
parish), to do homage for a messuage and twenty acres of 
land which she held in Roksyd (Roughside or Ruffside). At 
the same time he is ordered to summon Isabella, sister and heir of 
William Hunter, tenant of a messuage and eight acres of land ; also 
Agnes, widow of William Sadeler, tenant of a messuage and fifteen 


acres ; and Dominus Alanus de Schittlyngton, master of Sherburn 
Hospital, tenant of ' a certain place called Pethmosak (Pedomsoak) ' 
to do homage respectively. In 1367 we find a court held at Edmund- 
byers itself * Curia tenta apud Edmundbyers . . . fesfcum S. Andreae 
apostoli (Nov. 30) anno etc, Ixvij.' ' Oompertum est per jur,' that a 
cottage in the tenure of John Huker, burnt down, was of the value of 
30s. and for that sum could be made as good as he received it ; for 
which purpose the bailiff was ordered to seize all J. H.'s goods and 
chattels, and have them conveyed to the grange at Muggleswick 
(manerium de Mugleswyk). This was a country house of the prior 
and convent, standing in Muggleswick park, of which considerable 
remains may yet be seen, including a chapel on the upper story, also 
the fish pond, stew for holding fish convenient to the house, and also, 
in FLysehope dene, part of the paved road by which the monks made 
the journey from Durham. In this entry, also, ' Johannes Rogerson 
cepit ... del Westyait ad Dominicam prox' futur' capiendo qualibet 
septimana vij panes spendabels et . . . omnes transgressores infra 
boscum et camp' domini.' In 1368, apparently before ' dominis Ricardo 
de Birteley terrario Thomas Surtays seneschallo Johanne de Beryngton 
bursario et aliis,' the second session was held at Edmundbyers on Oct. 
24. John Edeson was fined for swearing at Robert Souter, the 
bailiff, ' in officio suo pacis ' ; and that his servants had rescued a pot 
which had been seized by the lord. The dispute appears to have 
arisen about some land and a house held by John Edeson, which 
belonged to one Adam Barbour, who died ' in the first pestilence.' 
b'rom these words it would appear that even a small and remote place 
like Edmundbyers did not escape the invasion of the great plague 
(' Black Death ') which ravaged the land, and gathered its victims 
from China to the shores of Greenland. Coming to us from France 
in 1348, it broke out first in the county of Dorset, from which it 
spread rapidly all over England, in which it is reported by contem- 
poraries that 'only one-tenth part of the inhabitants remained alive.' 
4 The great mortality,' as it was styled, was in 1348 ; but it occurred 
also in 1 360, and again in 1 373 and 1382. In London 100,000 are said 
to have perished, and in Norwich upwards of 50,000. As a consequence, 
many tracts of land lost their cultivators, and the ground remained 
untilled. On the death of Adam Harbour, in the plague, the care of his 


two-year-old son Richard, was committed to John Barbour of Hexham, 
and his land let to John Edeson, who is required by the court to show 
his authority for holding it. A court was again held at Edmundbyers 
in 1369, July 2, when the case of John Huker was brought up again 
from the court of 1367. The bailiff was ordered to seize 6s. belonging 
to Huker which was due to him for three sheep sold to Richard de 
Heswell 'capellanus'; the jury finding that he had no other goods 
to place against his burnt house. The matter of the land of Adam 
Barbour was again brought before the court ; and it was incidentally 
mentioned that the lord had received no profit from it since the death 
of Adam ; the land having probably lain waste more or less since that 
time. A court seems to have been held at Edmundbyers, either in the 
third 'turn' of 1369 or the first of 1370, when a place in Roughside 
is named as held from the prior ; also fines are fixed for shepherds 
pasturing on the ' park ' more stock than allowed by custom. At a 
court held at Edmundbyers on November 28, 1370, the forester was 
ordered to seize for the lord two ' dales ' of land containing 1^ acres, 
being some ground which 'Johannes de Edmundbires ' had unlawfully 
enclosed from the lord's waste, as his son, ' Thomas del Schels,' con- 
fessed on his death-bed, desiring that it should be restored ; and the 
jurors were ordered to set up boundaries. Hugh Sadler and the 
jurors were ordered to view some land held by John de Heswell, and 
some formerly held by Ralph Jolibody. John appeared to be in 
possession of more than his share ; on which account the land could 
not be let. The matter was now to be settled and the land divided 
into proper proportions. In the matter, again, of John Huker's 
burnt house, the forester was ordered to distrain on Richard de 
Hessewell * capellanus ' (of Muggleswick) for 6s. owing to Huker for 
sheep sold, to be applied to the re-building of the house. The bailiff 
was ordered to seize for the lord some land at Roughside formerly 
belonging to Alicia de Alaynscheles, deceased, leaving an heir under 
age; the land being let to ' Robert de Hidewyn' for 6s. 8d. an acre ; and 
the rent to be distrained for at the Pentecost and Martinmas terms. 
The bailiff was ordered to summon all the tenants of the vill, women as 
well as men, to the next court, to answer for cutting down trees in the 
' Allers,' to the lord's great loss. John Edeson was fined for cutting 
down an oak, and taking honey and wax, for the honey 14d., for the 


tree 12d. All the tenants of the prior's vill were ordered 
to grind their corn at the Muggleswick mill (the prior's). 
A court was held at Edmundbyers on November 27, 1371, no 
business recorded. At the court held in 1373, a peculiar entry 
appears, which I shall transcribe in the original : ' compertum est 
per jur ' quod panis benedictus solebat dari de omnibus tenuris villae 
et quod ille qui haberet iij tenuras solveret pro aliqua tenura panem 
benedictum ut turnus suus acciderit, et quod ista consuetude solebat 
dari a tempore quo non existat memoria. Et injunctum omnibus 
tenentibus villae quod faciant de cetero sub poena di. marcae.' This 
passage appears to refer to a long-established custom that the bread 
for the Holy Communion should be furnished by the villagers in turn. 
Then an order is made that steps should be taken for fixing the 
quantity of stock to be put upon the Edmundbyers common field. 
This field I have not been able to identify. The next order is very 
peculiar that all the tenants, each on his own portion, should extirpate 
'herbam vocatam gold,' the herb called 'gold.' I suggest that this 
refers to a troublesome perennial weed, common ragwort, Senecio 
Jacobaea, with a bunch of bright yellow flowers, which prevails greatly 
in the pastures at Edmundbyers, and is undoubtedly a great nuisance. 
Another court was held here in 1374. No record of business. Also 
in 1377. In 1379, at Edmundbyers, John Edson takes a cottage and 
six acres of land, lately held by Alan Hird, for life, at the rent of 
three shillings a year, and the usual service to lord and neighbours. 
At a court held here in 1380, more business was transacted than 
usual. Houses and land were let to seven persons, four of them in 
Roughside ; John Edson was fined for cutting brushwood in the park; 
and sixteen were fined for cutting brushwood in the common field, 
five shillings and sixpence ; three women were fined for incontinence 
(leyr) ; and three for breach of the assize of ale. The sale of ale was 
generally in the hands of women, who were obliged periodically to 
send for the sworn aletasters, from whom, no doubt, they received a 
certificate. The offences seem to have been, as to be expected, short 
measure, overcharge, and bad quality ; sometimes refusal to supply 
people out of the house ; sometimes refusal to supply particular 
persons at all. Another very usual offence in the vills, besides ' leyr,' 
or incontinence of women, seems to have been ' merchet,' marrying of a 


nief s daughter without the consent of the lord. These are not much 
noticed in Edmundbyers, though they no doubt existed (in many 
other vills they are very frequent indeed) ; some serious offences 
of violence, such as drawing knives, swords, axes, arrows, and 
clubs at one another, do not appear at Edmundbyers at all. 
At a court held in 1382, many of the same appeared as at the last 
court, charged with unlawfully cutting green brushwood within the 
prior's bounds without his licence, and were again fined in various sums 
from 2d. to 2s. The business at the court of Edmundbyers seems never 
to have been extensive, and we have reason to conclude that the 
inhabitants were an orderly and quiet-going community, as might be 
expected from people living much apart from the world, and little 
affected by its turmoils and commotions. The few notices that have 
survived of the work at the courts at Edmundbyers may very well be 
supplemented from the records of other courts ; for whilst the business 
brought before the courts would vary greatly according to locality and 
peculiar circumstances villages near the sea, for instance, furnishing a 
totally different class of cases from those further inland still, a certain 
class of business would be common to all. The tenants of Edmundbyers, 
in common with all others, would be required to attend the court at the 
summons of the bailiff ; to come in time and behave themselves whilst 
there ; to elect from their own body a number to act as assessors and 
jurors ; to give faithful service as jurors when sworn, both in and 
outside the court ; to meet out of court at the summons of the bailiff 
to discuss matters of public interest ; to elect village officers and find 
their salaries ; to view, where required, and assess, damages to 
buildings, etc. ; to provide a common pound, forge, carpenter's shop, 
brewhouse, bakehouse, and swinehouses, and keep them in repair ; to 
provide and keep in repair stocks, branks, ducking-stool, and whipping 
post ; to set boundary stones and guide posts ; to pay cost of villagers* 
compulsory journeys to Durham ; to compensate substitutes for war 
service ; to furnish carriage in time of war ; to furnish carriage when 
required by the prior ; to carry victuals and provide beds for officers of 
the halmote court ; to work for lord according to class and at specified 
times ; to mow lord's meadow ; to work for lord in autumn ; to grind 
their corn at the lord's mill ; to keep buildings in repair ; to assemble 
at the sound of the ' messor's ' horn ; to repair highways, mill-dams,, 


&c.; to clean out mill-races, and to keep clean ponds, springs, and wells ; 
to provide guard, * hirsell,' for stock outside the village ; to help 
constables in keeping peace. Besides these duties enjoined, the 
tenants were forbidd-n generally to hold land without leave ; to 
exchange land without leave ; to leave land untilled, except in due 
course, as fallow ; to trespass on the lord's land ; to cut down the 
lord's trees and brushwood ; to carry causes before the court of 
another lord ; to sell manure out of the vill ; to pay higher wages 
than neighbours ; to buy ale and other things outside the vill, to be 
sold in the vill ; to keep more stock than agreed upon by common 
consent of the vill ; to break pound and seizure ; not to hunt nor 
keep hunting dogs ; not to entertain vagabonds ; nob to pasture 
horses diseased with scab ; husbandmen not to encroach on cotmen's 
pasture ; not to use, for washing clothes, cooling irons from the 
forge, &c., the springs or other waters reserved for brewing or 
baking ; not to apply to any the term ' nativus ' or ' rusticus ;' not to 
shift boundary stones ; not to make new tracks across other people's 
ground ; not to allow stock of any kind to trespass on the sown corn ; 
cotmen to keep their stock to the common pasture ; not to refuse 
capons, pullets, &c., to the lord, when they had them to sell ; not to- 
let pigs go out without rings ; not to quit service when engaged ; not 
to dig to the injury of the highways ; brewers not to sell beer at more 
than Id. a pot (lagena] ; none to sell beer except those licensed ; not 
to abuse the bailiff or other servant of the lord ; not to use violence 
to other people's servants ; the workmen of the vill not to leave so 
long as any of the neighbours have any work to be done ; tenants not 
to cut down trees standing in their gardens ; ' cotmanni ' and 
4 laborarii ' not to refuse to work for the tenant of the ' manerium ' at 
a due wage ; not to leave the village under those circumstances ; 
villagers not to do, themselves, the work of the common 'fabri'; 
tenants not to allow their wives to quarrel with or vilify their 
neighbours ; corn and herbs gleaned in the field not to be brought 
furtively behind the gardens, but openly through the middle of the 
village ; not to play at ball ; lodging-keepers not to refuse lodging to 
strangers passing on foot, nor on horseback ; tenants carrying corn 
of the lord to Durham not to bring unsound and torn sacks, and not 
to carry by night; not to allow the goods of felons or other 'fugitivi* 


to be removed from the vill ; not to place stones on other people's 
land ; a special order is issued * by assent of the lord and all the 
tenants within his lordship ' that no one living within the same, draw 
knife or raise staff for evil purposes under a penalty of 40d. Any- 
one striking another with staff, knife, or sword, to pay to the lord half 
a marc. Also (perhaps as conducing to the same) that women 
restrain their tongues, not using bad or irritating language, under 
penalty of 12d. 

Besides this catalogue of things ordered and forbidden, it would be 
of interest, as illustrating the manners of the district generally at the 
period with which we are concerned at present, to note a few of the 
more unusual circumstances recorded in these halmote rolls, as they 
came before the court, sometimes the prior himself, more usually his 
seneschal, bursar, and terrar, with the assessors and sworn jury ; 
but these would not immediately relate to Edmundbyers. 

With the year 1384, unfortunately, the records of the prior's 
halmote court, as published by the Surtees Society, come to an 
end ; unfortunately, since for very many subsequent years the 
history of Edmundbyers is a total blank. From what is 
published, the prior and convent appear to have been good 
masters, and to have done their duty towards their people ; 
they seem to have done their best to bring it about that the 
villagers should have justice, and live a life of comfort, respectability, 
and peace. They endeavoured to have all their wants properly 
supplied ; but if one thing stands out more prominently than another, 
it is their care that the villagers should be properly supplied with ale ; 
which might seem a small matter, but was really a necessary of life in 
those days, before tea and coffee had been introduced. As far as they 
could, they secured that the villagers should be able to get it when 
they wished, and in quantity convenient to them ; that they should 
get it of proper measure, the vessels being stamped, and at a just 
price ; and that they should have it good. Transgressions on 
these points by the retailers were frequently and rigorously 
punished. I may finish this only too meagre account of the 
earlier history of the parish by setting down the surnames 
which are found on the halmote rolls as belonging 
to inhabitants of Edmundbyers, and which differ very materially 

vo),. xxii. 15 


from those now existing here. The first that occurs, in the year 
1364, is the name of Souter, the owner of which was, in that and 
many subsequent years, the head man of the place, holding 
the honourable office of ' praepositus ' or bailiff ; also Hunter and 
Sadeler. In 1367 occur Huker and Rogerson. In subsequent years, 
Edeson, Barbour, Browne, Milner, Jolibody, Hird, Layborn, Walle- 
worth, Prentys, Redding, Heswell, Brecaldoun, Smith, Tailliour, 
Heued, G-rys, Skinner, Walker, appear as surnames of tenants and 
inhabitants, of various classes, and under the jurisdiction of the 
halmote court. The more modern history of Edmundbyers does not 
open so early as is the case with many parishes, which possess registers 
of baptisms, marriages, and burials running back to the end of the 16th 
century, and often books recording parish transactions almost as far 
back ; for the register books of Edmundbyers do not contain a single 
entry older than 1700, and even these, up to the middle of the century, 
are very imperfect and unsatisfactory. The earliest, which are entries of 
baptisms and burials, have been copied by my predecessor Mr. Forster 
(as appears from the handwriting) from an earlier and apparently 
imperfect book, which, however, has unfortunately not been pre- 
served. There exists in the village a tradition that the register 
books were much injured by fire during the incumbency of the Rev. 
Francis Hunter, rector from 1735 to 1743. The only break in the 
silence of the parish down to quite modern times occurs in the will 
of the Rev. Thomas Benson, who was rector from 1570 to 1575, made 
in December and proved in January 1575 (old style). The follow- 
ing is the will : 

Thomas Benson, clerici testamentum. In the name of God, amen. The 
xixth day of December, in the yeare of oure Lord God, a thousand f yve hundrethe 
seaventie and fyve. I, Thomas Bensoune, clarke parsoune of Edmundebyers, 
beinge of whole mynde and in goode and perfect remembrance, laud and 
prayse be unto God Allmightie, make and ordayne this my presente testament 
concerning hearin my last will in manner and forme folowinge, first, I geve and 
bequeath my soule unto Almightie God my creator and redeemer, trustinge in 
his grace and mercie to be one of his electe childeringe. Also I will yt John 
Foster (bayse begotten sonne of Johne Foster, clarke, layt parson of 
Edmondebyers, who was given unto me and his goods by his father John 
Foster, clarke, the which goods are conteaned and specified in his father's last 
will. I geve and bequeathe unto Richard Fetherstoune, of Stanhope, one bushell 
of rye. I geve to Margerie Collinge one kennynge of rye. I geve to Widow 
Whitfield of Edmundbyers, one kennynge of rye. I geve and bequeathe to 


Widow Blomer (alias Ward) of Edmoundebyers, one kennynge of rye. I geve 
and bequeathe to Robert Blomer (alias Warde), the which was the sonne 
of Thomas Blomer (alias Warde), xij yeawes. I geve and bequeathe to 
Margaret Ellisonne, the doughter of Robert Ellisoune, one lambe. I geve to 
Thomas Lomelie, the sonne of George Lomelie, one lambe. I geve and bequeathe 
to Thomas Maithwhen, the sonne of Xtofer Maithwhen, one lambe. The rest of 
all my goods with the owande unto me, my detts and legacies being paid and 
my funerall expensis beinge discharged, I geve and bequeath unto Katherin 
Blomer (alias Warde), the layt wyffe of Thomas Blomer (alias Warde), and 
unto William Bensonne my baise begottenne sonne, whome I make to be true 
and lawfull executors, supervisors of this my last will and testamente, I make 
Mr. Barnard Gilpinue (clarke), parsoune of Houghtoune in the Springe. 
Witnesses of this my last will and testamente Robert Ellisonue, Ustn Whitfeilde 
and William Starthop clarke with other moo. 
Prob. 21 January U75. 

This will gives a few additional surnames as of that date, Colling, 
Whitfield, Blomer, Ward, Ellison, Lumley, Mathwin ; all of Edmund- 
byers ; also a Featherston, one of the large clan of that name settled 
in Upper Weardale; and Bernard Grilpin, the saintly rector of 
Houghton-le-Spring, often called the ' apostle of the north.' It also 
gives testimony to the loose and irregular way in which even educated 
people spelt words at that date ; and it also introduces the much- 
vexed question of clerical marriages in those times, and the social status 
of the children of such unions. Was Mr. Benson, rector of Edmund- 
byers, a married man ? Was his son, though in a legal document 
like a will he was obliged to describe him as ' base-born,' was the son 
so regarded by his father's parishioners ? or was he looked on as the 
off-spring of an honest, though irregular, union ? Mr. Benson's 
predecessor, Mr. Foster, was in the same position. 12 

12 Chaucer, in the Miller's Tale, seems incidentally to show that the popular 
view of the children of a cleric was not unfavourable; and other evidence goes 
to prove the same. There is, I suppose, no doubt that, up to the llth century, 
a great number of the clergy were and considered themselves to be legally 
married men ; and that in many cases the tenancy of their incumbencies 
descended in hereditary succession to their sons. It was only then that, in 
great measure from political motives, and in order to detach them from 
secular ties, it was proposed to deny marriage to the clergy ; removing them 
more from the influences of the world, and making them more distinctly a 
religious order. To this idea the great body of the secular clergy, in England 
as well as other countries, opposed for many years a determined resistance, on 
the grounds of both history and expediency ; that for ten centuries bishops and 
priests of the church had been able to marry if they chose ; and that, as 
married men, they were more in sympathy, and had interests more in common 


Mr. Durie's incumbency of Edmundbyers fell upon evil days, 
when king and archbishop were sent to the scaffold, and when the 
clergy who refused to acknowledge the abnormal state of things were 
deprived of their means of living, and turned out of their incum- 
bencies, to seek maintenance as they could in the cold world outside. 
Mr. Durie was one of these, and his place was filled by an intruder, 
until the happier times of the Restoration arrived, when he was 
replaced in charge of his church. But not to find things as he had 
left them. On my promotion to the living in 1856, I was able to 
gain some idea, in the process of restoration of the fabric and 
belongings of the church, of the extent to which dilapidation had 
proceeded during this melancholy interval of Puritan ascendancy, 
making it evident that the church had gone through a period of 
passive neglect and intentional dismantlement. The north and east 
walls of the chancel were bulging outwards and dangerous. They 
had at one time been down almost altogether, and rebuilt from the 
stones on the ground, set with mud instead of mortar of lime. It 
was a matter of wonder to me why this should be, until I came to the 
conclusion that the rector, Mr. Durie, on his return, and wishful to 
rebuild his church, had found himself with scant funds to do it ; for 
a great part of the tithe, from which the income of the living was 
derived, had been made away with by granting moduses. The church 
had at one time been roofed with lead, of which I found many frag- 
ments in the debris of ruined masonry, heaped up to a height of 
three feet outside the northern wall ; and the archstones of a small 

with those amongst whom they laboured. The rule of celibacy was, nevertheless, 
gradually forced upon the church, but was unwillingly obeyed, and evaded in 
every possible way. However, it had the effect of making the sons of priests 
legally illegitimate, and preventing the descent of clerical offices from father 
to son ; though at the same time it is certain that, for centuries after the pro- 
mulgation of the order for celibacy, priests were married, and their children were 
not viewed by the people in the light in which confessedly illegitimate children 
would have been regarded, though in the eye of the law they were 
' base-born.' It is probable that Mr. Benson's son may have been in this 
position, that he was the son of a real though unrecognised wife ; for his father 
does not seem ashamed to acknowledge the relationship, though obliged to allow 
its irregularity : which he would probably have hesitated to do had he been 
only the son of a concubine. That celibacy did not prevent scandal is evident 
from the not very infrequent entry in the Halmote court rolls, of a woman 
fined for " leyr cum capellano." 


window on the north side were recoverel from the wall when taken 
down, having been built into the interior, and the head of the window 
supplied by a wooden lintel. I believe that the principal roof timbers 
were intact, being of a more ancient date than that repair. The 
wood of which they consist is a matter of uncertainty. At a meeting 
of the Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland, held 
at Edmundbyers not very long after I came, these timbers were 
examined. Naturally supposed to be of oak, they were found not to 
be so. Chestnut was suggested ; but it was finally decided that they 
are of larch, grown at a high elevation, and therefore slowly, and 
consequently of close grain and hard substance. There are trees now in 
the woods on the banks of the Derwent in Muggleswick parish which 
might supply such beams. The south wall of the chancel had not 
suffered from dilapidation like the north, the masonry being very hard 
and sound, and the two narrow round-headed windows, with very deep 
splay, being perfect. Whatever Mr. Durie did, in the way of repair, 
being his bounden duty as rector, I do not suppose that the nave 
was then touched ; for at a subsequent and comparatively recent 
period, extensive repairs were done to the nave at the expense, I 
believe, of the dean and chapter of Durham, the patrons. In the 
repairs of that date, the west, and parts of the north and south 
walls were taken down and rebuilt; the east wall of the nave 
entirely so ; and a new chancel arch was built, with a centre 
and two side arches in Norman style. A contemporary example 
of this exists in the diocese, in the small Norman church 
of Elton, near Stockton-on-Tees, probably known to the architect 
who conducted the repairs at Edmundbyers. The wall was not 
continued of full thickness up to the roof, but as the ends of 
the ribs of the roof, being decayed, required support, rude 
pillars were run up, unsightly but not visible, as being above the 
ceiling ; a fortunate arrangement, as, the centre arch being badly 
built, if the wall had been continued of the same thickness the whole 
would have come down. In the south wall, the windows two on the 
east, and one on the west of the entrance doorway whatever they 
may have then been, were taken out and re-placed in Norman style ; 
and a similar window was inserted towards the west of the south 
chancel wall, destroying what was probably an early priest's door, the 
eastern jamb still remaining. The north wall of the nave, of rude 


massive work, was mainly left untouched ; the entrance archway on 
the south side was spared; but a new porch was erected, smaller than 
the original, of which the foundations remain under the surface, 
shewing an internal area of seven feet square. The walls of the 
whole building were then covered with a thick coating of plaster, 
hiding all defects, and they were many. When I was presented to 
the living in 1856, I found that considerable repairs were necessary 
in the chancel ; not only the walls were decayed and dangerous, but 
the roof required immediate attention, the ribs being rotten at the 
ends and threatening to fall ; the flooring of both chancel and nave 
was in holes ; and the ceilings, with which both were covered, were 
falling to pieces. When the outside pointing of the chancel was 
removed, the mud mortar ran out from the inside of the walls like 
sand ; but when, in process of removal, the south-east corner of the 
church was reached, the original wall was found standing as sound as 
when built, the mortar, of Fell-top limestone, as hard as the 
millstone -grit stones of which the wall is composed. Corbels were 
built into the west wall to support the shortened ends of the ribs of 
the roof, which itself, both chancel and nave, was removed, repaired, 
and re -placed. The plaster was taken off the whole church ; the 
ceilings were removed and the flagging re-laid. A gallery at the 
west end was taken away, by permission of Miss Hall of Ruffside, the 
proprietor ; as were also the pulpit and reading desk from the centre 
of the south side, the two small chancel arches being utilized in their 
place ; the square pews were worked up into open benches, and the 
chancel furnished with benches for the choir. A ,new font was 
substituted for the ancient one, of Early English date, which was. 
much damaged ; the ancient stone altar slab, found in the pavement 
at the east end, six feet three inches in length, three feet in width, 
eight inches in thickness, and perfect, was mounted on dressed 
stones found about the church; and an Early English grave-cover 
of a priest, with incised cross and chalice, lying in the chancel,, 
one of the rectors doubtless, was inserted in the wall of the porch, 
with part of another found among the rubbish on the north side. 
The grave of Mr. Hunter, rector from 1735 to 1743, under a 
black marble slab now lying in the chancel, was found to have 
been disturbed, probably in the former restoration; and the whole 


chancel was found full of human bones. Mr. Hunter deserves 
to be gratefully remembered in connexion with Edmundbyers ; 
for during his short incumbency he did much for the living. I 
have no doubt that it was he who gave this silver communion cup 13 to 
the church, as shewn by the date of the hallmark ; and he greatly im- 
proved the rectory house. The houses attached to the livings in the 
district were only very humble affairs ; thatched cottages, little better 
than the dwellings of the cottagers around ; an example of which, now 
a cowbyre, still exists at Muggleswick. Such was the rectory at 
Edmundbyers, to which Mr. Hunter added the present main building, 
which bears the date of 1738. The thatched cottage still remained 
until removed by my predecessor, Mr. Forster. The house was in a 
very dilapidated state, when it came into my hands, and received very 
extensive re-construction. It is now in very good repair ; and the 
church, if not all that I could wish it, is at least in sound state and 
decent condition for the celebration of the Divine Mysteries and other 
services. In the churchyard, besides the gravestone of Mr. Christopher 
Smith, rector from 1684 to 1735, there lies the grave-cover of Mrs. 
Ann Baxter, a member of the family of Ord of West Ruffside, who 
died in 1744, and left a sum of money, of which the interest was, on 
the anniversary of her burial, to be divided amongst a certain number 
of poor persons. This money, as in many other similar cases, has 
disappeared, having, probably, been placed in the hands of some 
apparently responsible person, who, honestly or dishonestly, has failed 
to fulfil his trust. I can find out nothing of it. In other grave- 
stones there is nothing remarkable, except the great age to which had 
attained many whose names are recorded ; a consequence, probably, of 
the healthfulness of the district, which, in a great degree remains as 
the hands of the Creator left it, unaltered by the hand of man, and 
uncontaminated by the smoke which shrouds the greater part of the 
county of Durham. 

A few notes may be added as to the more modern history of 
the parish. Its elevation above sea level, from 600 to 1,600 feet, in 
great measure precludes the cultivation of wheat ; to which con- 
duces also the nature of the soil, mostly reclaimed moorland ; barley 
-and oats especially are grown, but the area of their cultivation is 
13 See Proceedings, iv. 276. 


diminishing year by year, the greater part of the land being laid down 
to grass, pasture and meadow. This results in a lowering of the 
population, which has for many years been gradually diminishing ; 
the lessened demand for agricultural labourers and the gradual failure 
of the lead-mining industry driving all the young men to the great 
centres of industry, where they settle and seldom return. The popula- 
tion of the parish, which by the census of 1851 was 485, appeared in 
that of 1891 as only 252 : of whom 121 were males, and 131 
females ; the number of houses in the parish was seventy-one, 
of which forty-one contained less than five rooms. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of the village, a considerable portion of what is now 
moor and covered with heather, has at one time grown corn, and is 
laid in rig and furrow. This, according to tradition, may be referred 
to the time of the great war with France, at the beginning of the 19th 
century, when the high price of corn made it profitable to plough out 
the moorland and grow oats on the fresh soil ? the fall of the price of 
corn on the conclusion of peace, and also the exhaustion of the soil, 
making it unprofitable to continue the culture. Within the memory 
of a few people yet living, oxen were used in ploughing, shod with 
what were called ' cleets,' a small shoe for each division of the hoof. 
The flail is still used in the village, though rarely, being almost 
ousted by the threshing machine ; the scythe is now little used for 
mowing grass, being almost superseded by the mowing machine, 
which is also used for mowing corn, the sickle having now disappeared ; 
As a consequence, we have not now the yearly visits of the Irish 
labourers in the corn fields. Peats are now never used for fuel, 
though many parts of the moor are covered with what are called 
* peat-pots/ where they were at one time extensively dug ; coal being 
now preferred, though a more expensive fuel. Cheese-making was 
once, not very long since, an industry at Edmundbyers ; cheese- 
presses and heavy stones belonging to them, are still to be seen in the 
village. Up to nearly the time when I came, the boundaries of the 
parish used to be yearly traversed by the churchwardens and over- 
seers ; a custom dropped on the rearrangement of the boundaries by 
the Ordnance surveyors, when a considerable part of the parish was 
cut off and added to Muggleswick. I endeavoured to get the 
parishioners to move to have this rescinded, but they declined to take 


any action ; and as a consequence a large amount of rates, paid by the 
Consett Water Company and the lessee of the shooting rights, has been 
lost. The shooting, which was at one time little regarded, is now a valu- 
able source of income to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, with whom 
are now lodged all the rights of the dean and chapter of Durham, with 
the exception of the patronage of their livings. This was not affected 
by the division of the diocese ; and their patronage of livings in 
Northumberland also still remains in the hands of the dean and chapter 
of Durham. Edmundbyers moor is now a fine tract of shooting, and 
with the cultivated land in it and in the adjoining parishes of 
Muggleswick and Hunstanworth, affords to the sportsman grouse, 
black game, partridges, pheasants, woodcock, snipe, wild duck, hares, 
and rabbits, whilst the river Derwent and tributary streams, now un- 
contaminated by the poisonous leadwashings, contain trout and gray- 
ling,^ the latter lately introduced. The moors are famous for the 
purity of their water, and at present furnish the main supply for the 
Consett waterworks. The road to Stanhope, 7 miles of desolate moor- 
land, crossing the watershed at a height of 1,600 feet above the sea, is 
still bordered by guide-posts, placed at intervals, the ' dols ' of former 
times, intended to mark the road during snow-storms, with three 
huts on the side of the road, for shelter to travellers or shepherds 
overtaken and unable to proceed : but for which, deaths by exposure 
would be more frequent than they are. Two or three of such occur 
every winter on these fells ; and a reminiscence of an occurrence of 
the kind is found in the ' Dead Friar's Curruck,' a stone which lies 
near the road from Stanhope to Blanchland crossing the head of the 
valley, a very exposed and desolate spot ; and which in all probability 
marks the place where one of the community of Blanchland abbey 
had met his death by being caught in a snow storm in that very 
elevated and exposed region. In the valley about a mile above the 
village may be seen the ruins of an abandoned lead-smelting mill, which 
was established by the Blackett family in the reign of Charles II., 
and which for a long time did much work, until superseded by 
others in more accessible situations. The lead industry has now 
altogether died out, principally owing to the great fall in the price of 
lead ore. The last experiment was made, some years ago, in the 
* Burnhope ' mine, a short distance up the valley, which promised 

VOL. XXII. 16 


well and yielded many tons of lead ore from a north and south vein,, 
but which eventually failed, from the vein dispersing and becoming 
' blind.' This trial revealed an extraordinary state of things below 
the surface, in the shape of a mighty stream, which had, in some 
long past geological era, run down the valley and left a deposit of fine 
clay, 60 feet in depth ; the quality of which is such that only 
deficiency in means of transit prevents it from being removed and made 
available for the manufacture of fine moulded bricks, terra cotta 
coloured when burnt. The same drawback prevents the development 
of an industry in building-stone of the finest quality from one of the 
strata of the millstone grit, of which a quarry has been worked a 
little to the north of the village, supplying stone of uniform and 
admirable colour for several important houses in the neighbourhood, 
and for the entire fabric of the church of St. Ignatius at Sunderland. 
In addition to its colour and quality, this stone possesses the valuable 
property of being soft and easy to cut when newly quarried, and 
hardening afterwards when becoming dry. From a bed overlying 
the stratum of this quarry, but on the opposite side of the 
valley, are obtained the grey slates with which the church 
and many of the houses in the parish are roofed ; these were 
formerly hung on the timbers with sheep-shank bones, which 
possessed the advantage of never pining and decaying, and could 
not drop out ; to all which defects the wooden pegs used in 
later years were liable. The grey slates are now never used 
in the modern dwellings, principally on account of their requiring 
heavier roof timbers than the thin Welsh slates ; which, however, are 
much more liable to be blown off in the heavy winds which sometimes 
prevail here. Thatched roofs are never now used ; and in cases of 
repairs required it is with the greatest difficulty that a thatcher can 
be found. A thin seam of impure coal has been, not long ago, worked 
near the head of the valley, not of quality to be used for household 
purposes, but with just sufficient burning power to make into lime the 
' fell top ' limestone, which forms the bed of the burn close by, and 
which it overlies. In some parts of the district, and indeed in the 
parish, a very low class coal has been at one time worked, a little 
better than that which I have just described. It used to be mixed 
up with clay and made into balls, which, when dried, placed in the 


grates, and ignited (a difficult matter) threw out a strong heat and 
remained long alight. These were also used for heaping, when red-hot, 
on the top of the old-fashioned ovens, like broad, deep, flat sauce-pans 
with lids ; which are still in use in some of the dales of Cleveland. 
The Ruffside property, in the township of that name on the north 
side of the parish, has been greatly improved of late years, by planting 
-extensive belts of larch trees on the moor, not only affording shelter 
to the tracts enclosed, which are now good pasture and meadow land, 
but also bringing in a handsome return from the timber itself. The 
dean and chapter of Durham at one time had entertained the idea of 
pursuing this plan with their Edmundbyers moor, and had made the 
beginning of an enclosing plantation ; but this was soon dropped and 
the plan never carried out, a circumstance much to be regretted. 
Many fine oak trees have been found buried in the mosses, showing the 
capabilities of the soil ; and some parts of the moor have been 
covered with extensive tracts of birchwood ; of which in some parts 
the stumps still remain above the surface of the moor. In the village 
still remains (but soon, I expect, to be removed) an example of what 
are known as ' pele houses,' a survival of the arrangement adopted in 
the pele towers, where the lowest floor was independent of that above ; 
the upper storey being reached by an outside stair. Superstition still 
survives and comes to light in unexpected quarters : it is not many 
years since that, with one of the principal men of the place, the illness 
of a horse and the belief that it was bewitched, gave occasion to send 
for a well-known witch doctor ; when the regular course of incantation 
was gone through, the heart of the black cock stuck with pins 
and roasted, and all the rest. A cottager who was present and took 
part told me that he certainly saw a black figure, which he considered 
to be that of the * evil one,' pass the window. The horse began to get 
better, but as the farmer tried to evade the payment of his full fee to 
the witch man, it fell back and the whole process had to be repeated. 
Oharms are still used for many complaints ; and certain persons are 
undisguisedly marked as able to use them. This tendency of the 
district seems to have been pretty well known ; for, shortly after I 
was presented to the living, the late archdeacon Thorp asked me if 
I had ever yet found any witches at work. He was very fond of this 
little church, and frequently, on passing ( through on visits to his son, 


who was then vicar of Blanchland, called to see how the restoration 
was going on. He sent, at his own expense, the chapter clerk of the 
works, Mr. Henry, to view the church and advise as to the work ; he 
gave the masonry of the east window ; recommended me to take off 
the plaster from the whole church ; and suggested the replacing of 
the ancient altar slab. ' It appears to me,' he said, ' from the number 
of altar slabs still remaining, many of them unmutilated, that the 
English people, and especially those of the north, did not cordially 
accept, nor readily act upon, the decree for the degradation and 
mutilation of their altars. Their obedience to the injunction 
ordering their removal satisfied itself with removal only, and lowering 
to the level of the pavement, without proceeding further to 
destruction.' I think that the wise archdeacon was right ; so it was 
at Edmundbyers, and the sacred table with its five crosses was saved. 
It was so at Ebchester, and many another I have seen. I can 
remember the high altar slab of Hexham abbey, a splendid stone, 
nine feet long with five cross crosslets, lying in front of the then com- 
munion table, up to the time of the ' restoration ' (or spoliation) of 
the Abbey in 1860, when tombs were rifled, venerable monuments 
thrust into corners, and the Lady chapel at the east end swept away. 
At that time the sacred slab was doubtless broken up. 14 

Pleased as the archdeacon was with the church then, he would have 
been much more so now ; for it would have been a delight to him to see 
the church of God made, if not ' glorious,' at least decent, orderly, and 
reverent in fabric and furnishings. A vestry, not common in ancient 
churches of small size, has been built on the north side of the chancel; 
an organ has been added ; and all the windows have been filled 
with stained glass. The east window contains a picture of the 
Resurrection ; whilst the three nave windows are filled with glass 
representing the angelic guardianship of the Christian, in infancy, 
during life, and at death. All are by Baguley of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Around the church much has been done of late years in the way of 
improvement. Instead of only the large plane and ash trees round 

14 1 know a church in York, Holy Trinity in Goodraragate, a tiny Early 
English church with a perfect gem of an east window, the finest glass in York 
(and that is much to say, where stained windows are so plentiful and beautiful), 
which contains three, the high altar slab and those of two chantries. Howden 
church, in the East Hiding of Yorkshire, also has preserved three, in the Saltmarsh 
chantry chapel, the high altar slab and those of two chantries. 


the churchyard, plantations have been made and have sprung up, 
affording not only beauty and shade, but also a very much required 
shelter from the frequent violent winds. It might have been 
supposed that the high elevation would be accompanied by a very low 
winter temperature ; but it is not so. True, that in hot summer 
weather there is always a coolness, tempering the heat; but the 
winter's cold is neither so great nor so destructive to evergreens and 
other shrubs as in places at a lower level. Judging from the 
published returns, the temperature is not so low in winter at 
Edmundbyers as at Hexham, Riding Mill, or other places in the 
valley of the Tyne. This is caused, doubtless, by the dryness of the 
soil. Were it not for the difficulty of access, Edmundbyers would be 
admirably suited for a sanatorium or a convalescent home. Even 
when covered deep with snow, the moors look beautiful ; and the 
climate is very fine. Altogether, though much separated from the 
world, Edmundbyers has much to recommend it ; with an ancient 
history, an interesting church, a fine bracing climate, an uncon- 
taminated atmosphere, and a beautiful landscape, though lowly, it is 
not to be despised by lovers of the ' North Countrie.' 


Edmundbyers thus appears in the ' old taxation ' of one mark in forty : 
' 10 marcae Ecclesia de Edmundbirs, ins. iiiid.' Reg. Pal. Dun, iii. 89. 

The communion plate is described in the Proceedings (iii. 276) of the society. 
On 18 Aug. 6 Ed. VI., Edmundbyers had ' one challice, weying vi. unces, iii. 
quarters, two bells in the stepell : Eccl. Proc. JBp. Barnes, Iv. Now there is 
only one modern bell, without inscription, in the turret. 

For the people infected with the plague v and pestilence, generally known as 
4 the Great Plague,' there was collected in Aug. 1665, in Edmundbyers and 
Muggleswick, the sum of Is. 6d. Bp. Cosin's Corr. (Surt. Soc. Publ.) 325 ; 
and on the fast day, Oct. 10, 1666, collected at Edmundbyers for the sufferers 
in the Great Fire of London, 3s. 8d. Ibid. 331. 


[Read on the 29th August, 1900.] 

The fourth volume of the quarto series of the Archaeologia Aeliana 
contains abstracts from a very valuable and interesting class of docu- 
ments known as Proofs of Age of Heirs to Estates. The series, as there 
set out, comprises abridged translations of such of these documents 
as relate to Northumberland during the reigns of Edward III. and 
Richard II., and of two others of the reign of Henry IV. 1 Those 
documents furnish the name and parentage of the heir, his relation- 
ship to his predecessor, the time of his birth and place of baptism, 
etc., and are, therefore, of the first importance for genealogical pur- 
poses. They incidentally cast side lights upon the ecclesiastical and 
civil customs of the period, and afford so much curious information 
that further abstracts have been procured so as to continue the series 
to the close of the reign of Henry VI. in 1461. In these Proofs of 
Age the events by which the jurors testify to the heir's age always 
took place on the day of birth or baptism, but, to economise space, 
this has not in every case been put into the abridgement. It will be 
noticed that in two of the inquisitions all the jurors, except one, are 
the same, although they were taken on different days. 

Inquisitio post mortem, 2 Henry IV. No. 62. Proof of age of Thomas 
Surteys, knight, son and heir of Alexander Surteys, deceased, who held of 
Richard II., taken at the king's castle of New-castle upon Tyne, 28 October, 
3 Henry IV. [1401]. The jurors say that the said Thomas was aged twenty-one 
years on Monday, in thequinzaine of Easter last past [11 April, 1401 J. John 
Corbet, aged 54 years, Adam de Seeton (53) 2 , William Holgreve (60), William 
Hydewyn (62), Robert de Hedle (49), and Robert de Belyngham (48), were all 
at Durham about an inquisition before the sheriff of Durham to enquire con- 

1 The Proof of Age of Margaret, daughter and co-heir of Sir Henry de Heton, 
12 Henry IV. No. 47, and that of William de Carnaby, 13 Henry IV. No. 52, 
although printed in Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. iv. (quarto series), pp. 329-330, are 
reprinted in the present series in order to correct some inaccuracies and to 
furnish some additional details. 

A Proof of Age of William Heron, knight, Newcastle, 9 Henry V. No. 70, is 
calendared as ' wanting.' 

2 The figures within brackets denote the age of the witness. 


ceding the death of John Benkyn, of Gateshede, and there William Bowes, 
knight, came and told them how Alexander Surteys had a son born, and baptized 
in the church of Detynsale, and that Thomas Surteys was his godfather, and 
they, and many others, rejoiced thereat ; and they know his age by the date of 
the said inquisition, which is in the keeping of William de Chester, coroner. 
William Benet (48), Kobert Heburn (51), William de Wodeburn (43), John 
Prestewyk (47), John Bykerton (55), and John Yongur (45), say that Alice, wife 
of the said William Benet, was in the said Alexander's house at Detynsale when 
Thomas was born, and went to the church of Detynsale on Monday when he 
was baptized, and \vis his godmother: William Benet and John Pykdene took 
him to Sylton in Yorkshire to the keeping of a nurse there on the morrow of 
Holy Trinity, when he wa six weeks old : John de Dalton, chaplain to the said 
Alexander, wrote his name and the day of his birth in a missal of the said 
church, and thus by the date of the writing they know his age, and also by an 
inquisition previously taken concerning the death of Alexander. 3 

Ing. p. in. 8 Henry IV. No. 80. Proof of age of Nicholas Heron, son and 
heir of Thomas Heron, deceased, taken at the king's castle of New-castle upon 
Tyne, 4 March, 8 Henry IV. [1406/7]. The jurors say that the said Nicholas 
was born at Meldon and baptized in the church of the said vill, and was aged 
twenty-one years on the feast of the Conveision of St. Paul, last past [25 January, 
1406/7.] Nicholas Turpyn, aged 42, heard mass in the said church, and waited 
long to hear it [by reason] of Nicholas's baptism, and the chaplain who cele- 
brated mass would not suffer Nicholas's father to be present at the divine offices 
in the said church. John Wattcn (41) : his mother lifted Nicholas from the font 
and was his godmother. Simon Weltden junior (38), hunted a hare, and met 
the said godmother returning from the church, who told him that she had lifted 
Nicholas from the font arid had named him Nicholas. John de Lee (45) : 
William his son was born. Thomas Schafthowe (35) : John his brother was 
buried. John Wetewod (29) struck himself on (cum) his left hand with his 
own knife, for which cause he carried his hand in linen cloth for a year after- 
wards, round his neck. William Hydwyn (60), was betrothed to his first wife. 
John Cambowe (56) : his elder brother died, after whose death ten marks of 
rent [descended] to him by right of inheritance. John Doune (38) : a white 
canon of Blaunchelande, baptized Nicholas. Ely Rathbery (57) : Nicholas 

Raymes, esquire, was [Nicholas's] godfather. Robert Hedlee : 

[illegible] .... Nicholas's godfather told him that he had lifted him from 
the font and had given to him 20s. Robert Pethe : . . [illegible] . . 
his father came to the father of Nicholas . . . [illegible] . . . for his 
redemption, and Nicholas's father said he could not help him therein. 4 

3 Sir Alexander Surtees of Dinsdale, knight, died about the month of 
September, 1380 (Inq.p. in. 4 Ric. II. No. 50), seised of North Gosforth and 
many other states. His son Thomas, born at Dinsdale on the 11 April, 1380, 
had livery of his lands on the 10 Oct., 1392, was hi^h sheriff of Northumberland 
10 Hen. V., and, dying at York 12 April, 1435, was buried there in the 
church of St. Nicholas in Walmgate. 

4 Thomas Heron of Meldon (second son of Sir William Heron of Ford), 
dying about the year 1403 (Inq.p. m. 5 Hen. No. 3), was succeeded in Meldon, 
Whalton, Rivergreen, Fenrother, Tritlington, Denom, and other estates, by his 
son Nicholas Heron, who was born at Meldon on the 25th January, 1385/6 


Inq. p. in. 8 Henry IV. No. 82. Proof of age of Joan, wife of Kobert de 
Rotherford, and Elizabeth, wife of William Johnson, sisters and heiresses of 
William, son and heir of Henry de Heton, knight, deceased, their said brother 
having died under age ; taken at Alnewyk, 25 June, 8 Henry IV. [1407.] The 
jurors say that Joan is aged eighteen years and more, and was born in the 
manor of Chevelynham, on the feast of St. Peter, which is called ' ad Vincula,' 
13 Richard II. [1 August, 1389.], and baptized in the church of the same vill 
on the same day : and that Elizabeth is aged fifteen years and more, and was 
born in the said manor, 13 September, 15 Richard II. [1391], and baptized in 
the church of the same vill on the same day. John del Throp, aged 63, was sent 
to the abbot of Alnewyk on the day on which Joan was born, to ask him to be 
her godfather : on the day on which Elizabeth was born he was sent to the prior 
of Brenkeburn to ask him to be her godfather. Robert Burnegyll (60), carried 
a lighted torch to the church before Joan at the time of her baptism : he was 
sent to Lady de Horton when Elizabeth was born, to ask her to be her god- 
mother. William Wryht (62), was butler to the said Henry, and delivered 
bread and wine at the baptism of Joan and of Elizabeth. Thomas Spofford 
(65), at the time of Joan's birth, was sent to Berwick by Isobel her mother, to 
enquire for the said Henry : at the time of Elizabeth's birth, he was present in 
Chevelyngham. Robert Paxston (60), on the day on which Joan was born, 
took a husband-land of the said Henry, in the said vill : he saw Elizabeth 
wrapped in a red cloth on the day of her baptism. Henry Dunstan (60), had 
a daughter Katherine betrothed to William Morton at the time of Joan's 
baptism : he rode to New-castle upon Tyne, on the day on which Elizabeth 
was born, to buy three gallons of wine. Robert Soppath (62), was present in 
the church when Joan was baptized : he rode to Norham to Thomas Gray, on 
business of the said Henry de Heton, on the day on which Elizabeth was born. 
Henry Chester (60). underpinned anew a house in Chevelyngham on the day on 
which Joan was born : he was chamberlain to the said Henry on the day on 
which Elizabeth was born. Alan Hyndmars (65), was Joan's godfather at the 
time of her baptism : on the day on which Elizabeth was born he was with the 
said Henry at Berewyk. Roger Gibson (66), married Joan, daughter of John 
Holand, at Alnewyk, on the day on which Joan was baptized: he was 
Elizabeth's godfather on the day of her baptism. John Porter (64), married 
Isabel, daughter of Robert Wellys, at Emyldon on the day on which Joan was 
born : he sold a grey horse to the said Henry, for twenty marks, on the day on 
which Elizabeth was born. John Ryll (60), carried a bason and ewer to the 
church before Joan at the time of her baptism : he rode to Lady de Ogle on the 
day on which Elizabeth was born, to ask her to be her godmother. 5 

Inq. p. m. 8 Henry IV. No. 86. Proof of age of Henry de Lylburn, son and 
heir of John de Lylburn, knight, deceased, taken at Corbrygge, on Saturday, 

5 Sir Henry de Heton, knight, died about 1399-1400 (Inq. p. in. 1 Hen. IV. 
No. 4), leaving William de Heton, his son, and Joan, Elizabeth and Margaret, 
his daughters, seised of Chillingham castle, lands at Hethpool, Doxford, 
etc. William de Heton did not long survive his father, and dying s.p. (Inq. 
p. m. 5 Hen. IV. No. 18), his sisters Joan, wife of Robert de Rotherford, born 
1 August, 1389 ; Elizabeth, wife of WiMiam Johnson, born 13 Sept., 1391 ; and 
Margaret, born 13 January, 1394/5, were his coheirs. 


-eve of the Ascension, 8 Henry IV. [4 May, 1407]. The jurors say that the said 
Henry is aged twenty-one years and more, and was born in the manor of 
Shawden on Friday, in the first week of Lent, 10 Eichard II. [22nd February, 
1386/7], and baptized in the church of Bolton on the same day. John Eryngton, 
aged 61, rode to Shawden with Henry Percy, late earl of Northumberland. 
Simon de Weltden, senior sic (62) was at Shawden. 

Richard Crawcester (60), was present at Bolton. John Lysle (65), was at 
Prudhowe, and there saw a robber hanged. Nicholas Turpyn (62), saw Henry 
at the time of his baptism, wrapped in silken cloth. John del Lee (67), saw 
him bound with a gilt girdle at the time of his baptism. Robert Elryngton 
(63), saw Henry de Percy, late earl of Northumberland, be his godfather. 
John Herle (69), saw the abbot of Alnewyk be his other godfather. Roger 
Fenwyk (60), saw Lady de Graystok be his godmother. Roger Wotton (65), 
saw the said John Lylburn riding to Alnewyk. Simon de Weltden, junior 
sic (69) was serving in the buttery in the said John's household. John Whytfeld 
(60), rode to Alnewyk, with the said John Lylleburn. 6 

Inq. p. m. 8 Henry IV. No. 87. Proof of age of Thomas Gray, knight, son 
and heir of Thomas Gray, knight, deceased, taken at Alnewyk, on Monday, 
18 AP ril > 8 Henry IV. [1 407]. The jurors say that the said Thomas is aged twenty- 
two years and more, and was born in Alnewyk castle on the least of St. Andrew, 
Apostle, 8 Richard II. [30th November, 1384], and baptized in St. Michael's 
church of the same vill, on the same feast. John Midlame, aged 55, was in the 
church at the time of Thomas's baptism. John Clerke of Nesbet (56), saw him 
carried to church. William Asplion (57), was in the castle. John Etall (58), 
saw him bound with a gilt girdle on the day of his baptism. Thomas Clerke 
(60), was in Alnewyk. John Holand (50), saw Thomas Watton, Thomas's god- 
father, riding to Werkworth. William Midlame (53), saw him wrapped in a 
red cloth at the time of his baptism. John Hyndley (49), saw Thomas de 
Ilderton, knight, Thomas's godfather, riding to Dunstanburgh. Robert Soppath 
(60) : Thomas was born in ' le Midyllgathouse ' of the castle when the said 
Robert was present there. Robert Burnegyll (63), was in Alnewyk abbey at 
the time of Thomas' baptism. Robert Lawe (56), rode to Morpath. Henry de 
Chester (59), rode to Rugley. 7 

Inq. p. m. 12 Henry IV. No. 47. Proof of age of Margaret, one of the sisters 
and heiresses of William, son and heir of Henry de Heton, knight, deceased, 
taken at Morpeth, 12 February, 12 Henry IV. [1410/11]. The jurors say that 
the said Margaret was aged sixteen years on the feast of St. Hilary last past 
{13 January, 1410/11], and was born in Chevelyngham castle and baptized in 

6 Sir John Lilburn, knight, married Margaret de Presson, widow of Sir 
Thomas Grey of Heton, and died about 1399-1400, seised of Lilburn, a moiety 
of Belford, Shawdon, etc. (Inq_. p. in. I Henry IV. No. 3), and was succeeded 
by his son, Henry de Lilburn, who was born at Shawdon on the 22nd Feb 
1386/7. (Inq. p. in. 12 Henry IV. No. 45.) 

r Sir Thomas Grey, .who was born in the Middle Gate-house of Alnwick 
-castle on the 30th Nov. 1384, married Alice, daughter of Ralph, Lord Neville 
of Raby ; but entering into conspiracy against Henry V. he was arrested and 
beheaded at Southampton on the 5th August 1415. He is immortalized by 
Shakespeare as ' Thomas Grey, knight of Northumberland.' 

VOL. XXII. 17 


the church of the same vill on the same clay. John Whytfeld (62), was in the 
church and saw John Bolton, canon of Alnewyke, her godfather. John Corbet 
(47), met Margaret Fox and Margaret Scryfwyn, her godmothers, at the church. 
John Horsly (60) was taken by the Scotch. 

Wyland Mawdit (62), was sent by Henry, her father, to New-castle to buy 
wine. William Cramlyngton (64), sold a white horse to Henry, her father, at 

John Serjant (66), was betrothed to Alice, daughter of William de Wyndgates, 
in the said church. William Cotis (65), killed a doe in a field of Chevelyngham. 

John Wytton (67), took Thomas Turnebull, Scot, and led him to Chevelyngham 
castle. John Belasise (68), rode to Alnewyk, and carried a letter to the earl 
of Northumberland. Nicholas Heron (69), was betrothed to Katharine, 
daughter of John Gybson of Chatton, in the said church. Thomas de 
Throkelawe (49), kept the obit of Alice, his wife, in the said church. Robert 
Homer (50), was taken by Thomas Gray of Heton, knight, against his will, and 
led to Norham castle. 8 

Inq. p. m. 12 Henry IV. No. 52. Proof of age of John, son and heir of 
Thomas de Clifford, knight, deceased, who held of Richard II., taken at the 
king's castle of the vill of New-castle upon Tyne, 9 June, 12 Henry IV. [1411]. 
The jurors say that the said John was born at Hert and baptized in the church 
of the said vill on the feast of St. George, 12 Richard II. [23rd April 1389], and 
is aged twenty-two years and more. William Whitchestre, knight, aged 50, 
saw him baptized. Robert Lysle, knight (60) : Robert Lysle, his son, was born 
within three days after the birth of John. Richard Crawecestre (51), married 
the daughter of William de Urde at the said church. John Lysle (56) : 
Thomas his eldest son died on the third day after the birth of John. John 
Strother (54), Thomas Middelton (58), John Whitfeld (61), Eldomar Heryng 
(47), Weland Mawedit (62), and John Wettewodd (56), stood hearing mass in 
the said church, in the choir of Blessed Mary, on the said St. George's day on 
which John was baptized there, and they offered to him various gifts. Thomas 
Schaftowe, (52), John Belyngham (64), were godfathers of John, son of 
John Golde, who was baptized on the same St. George's day in the font of the 
same church. The jurors would give other noteworthy proofs of the said age, 
if necessity should demand it. 9 

Inq.p, m. 13 Henry IV. No. 52. Proof of age of William de Carnaby, son 
and heir of William de Carnaby, deceased, taken at Corbrigg on the feast of the 
Invention of the Holy Cross, 13 Henry IV. [3 May, 1412]. The jurors say that 
the said William was aged twenty-one years on Thursday next before the feast 
of Easter last past [31 March, 1412], and was baptized in the church of Halton 
on the same day. John de Lisle, aged 50, bought a horse of the said William, 
the father, at Halton, where he saw William the son baptized in the church. 

8 Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry de Heton and sister and co-heiress of 
William de Heton, was born at Chillmgham castle on the 13th January 1394/5. 

9 The history of the Cliffords, lords of Ellingbam, is given in the new History 
of Northumberland down to the year 1366 when that estate was alienated. It 
is|probable that from this family sprang Sir Thomas de Clifford, knight, whose 
son J John was born at Hart on the 23rd April, 1389. 


John Eryngton (53), on the day of William's baptism, was present in the 
church, and had a meal with William the father. Richard Crawecestre (48), 
was present in the church at the time of his baptism, and in riding to his house 
his horse fell on him and badly hurt him. Nicholas Turpyn (47), was likewise 
in the church at the time of his baptism, and in returning to his house in 
Whytchester he met various hunters chasing a fox from his own wood. 

John Strother (45) was chasing a hare with his neighbours, and met various 
women carrying William to the church to be baptized. Thomas Hesilrygg (49) 
was hunting with the said John Strother when they met the said women 
carrying William to the church to be baptized, and the said Thomas spent the 
night with William, the father. John Belasis (54), was in the same hunt, 
chasing a hare, and met the said women, amcng whom was Katharine, his niece, 
who told him that Isabel, William's mother, was in great clanger of death. 
Nicholas Heron (46), met Thomas Ormesby, vicar of the church of Corbrigg who 
told him that he had baptized William on the same day, in the aforesaid church. 
William Car (58), was William's godfather, with William Laweson his other 
godfather, and lifted him from the font. William Laweson (46), is his 
other godfather, and with William Car, lifted him from the font, and 
waited to dine with William de Carnaby, the father. John Hoggesson (47), in 
returning from the court of Corbrigg to his own house met William carried to 
the church of Halton to be baptized. William Richardson (48), coming to 
Corbrigg to arbitrate between William Raa and Nicholas Skelly in various 
matters, met William Car, one of William's godfathers, who told him that he 
had lifted William, on the same day, from the font. 10 

Inq.p.m. 13 Henry IV. No. 54. Proof of age of Gilbert de Umframville, 
son and heir of Thomas de Umframvile, knight, deceased, who held of Richard 
II., taken at the king's castle of New-castle upon Tyne, 5 March, 13 Henry IV. 

The jurors say that the said Gilbert was of full age, namely, twenty-one 
years, on the feast of St. Luke, Evangelist, last past [18 October, 1411] and was 
born in Herbotyll castle and baptized in the church of Herbotyll. Robert 
Lisle, knigbt, aged 50, rode for Gilbert de Acton to be his godfather. 
Wyncellan (Wyneellanus) Borstanour, knight (42), rode for Gilbert, abbot of 
Mewros, to be his other godfather. Robert Tempest (43), rode for Elezabet 
Heron to be his godmother. Richard Craucester (50), carried a bason and ewer 
before Gilbert to the church on the day of his baptism. 

John Lysle (44), built a new house at Herbotyll. Hugh Galon (45), met 
Elizabeth Heron at Routhebury, going to Herbotyll to Gilbert's baptism. 
Nicholas Turpyn (46), rode to Kemylispath to meet George, earl of March. 
William Galon (47), met Gilbert de Acton at Felton going to Herbotyll to Gilbert's 

John Ourde (48), rode to New-castle to buy wedding clothes (sponsalia) for 
the marriage of Katharine his daughter. William Cramlyngton (49), was in 

10 Sir William de Carnaby, knight (Inq.p. m. 9 Henry IV., No. 14), apparently 
a Yorkshireman from the East Riding, obtained the manor of Halton in 
marriage with Margaret (called Isabel in the text), widow of Thomas de Lowther, 
daughter and co-heiress of Sir John de Halton, and their son, named William 
de Carnaby, after his father, was born at Halton on the 31st March, 1391. 


the said castle as house-steward to Gilbert's father. William Butecom (50), 
was betrothed to Mary his wife. Edward Wetewang (51), rode to Scotland 
with Eobert Umframvylle, Gilbert's uncle, with a large force. " 

Inq. p. in. 6 Henry V. No. 54. Proof of age of William Heron, son and heir 
of John Heron of Thornton, taken at the king's castle of New-castle upon Tyne 
on Thursday, 6 June, 6 Henry V. [1418]. The jurors say that the said 
William was born in Whityngham and baptized in the church of the said vill, and 
was aged twenty-one years on the feast of St. Gregory, pope, last past. [12 March, 
1417/8]. John del Stroyther, aged 60, and William Rodom, one of William's 
godfathers, rode to Whytyngham. William Chesman (51), was at Whityngham 
in the church concerning a love-day between Thomas Hesylrygg and John Swan. 
John de Mitteford of Pouiiteland (f>2), rode from Bolton to Whityngham with 
Edmund Heron, master of Bolton, William's other godfather, to his baptism, 
William de Cartyngton (54), was at Whittyngham to hire Patrick Garre to serve 
him for a year as ploughman. Richard Wettewang (53), was with John de 
Lylleburn, knight, and they rode to Whityngham, and in a field there they 
killed a hare. Edmund de Selby (56), rode from Shawden to Whityngham with 
Elizabeth, daughter of Alan del Stroyther, William's godmother, to his baptism 
in the said church. 

Thomas Rede (65), was at Whityngham, and there bought a grey horse for 
lOli. of John Claveryng, knight. Roger Usher (56), was [there] to speak with 
John Clerke, clerk of the church of Whityngham, for a bond against John Lang 
binding him to pay to him ten marks on the feast of Whitsunday then next 
following. John Hogysson (58), was at Whityngham for the burial of Robert 
Croxton in the churchyard of the said church. John Belyngham (66), saw 
John Burn, parish chaplain, baptizing William in the said church. Thomas 
Maynevyll (59), rode with Hugh Galone, one of the King's coroners in Northum- 
berland, from Whityngham to Cartyngton, to view the body of John Mayre, who 
was killed by Robert Forster. Robert Carlell (69), rode with John Heron, 
William's father, from Whityngham to Alnewyk, to speak with Henry Percy, 
late earl of Northumberland. 12 

Inq. p. m. 2 Henry VI. No. 49. Proof of age of John Mitf ord, son and 
heir of William Mitford, esquire, deceased, taken at New-castle upon Tyne r 
1 October, 2 Henry VI. [1423.] 

The jurors say that the said John was born at New-castle upon Tyne and 
baptized in St. Nicholas's church of the same vill, and was aged twenty-one years 
8 April last past. 

11 Sir Thomas Umframvill knight, died, on the 12 Feb. 1390/1 (Inq. p. m. 10 
Ric. II. No. 43), leaving Gilbert de Umframvill his infant and only son. The 
latter, born at Harbottle on the 18 October, 1390, married Anne, daughter of 
Ralph Nevill, 1st earl of Westmorland, and was slain on Easter eve 1421, at 
Baugy in Anjou (Inq. p. m. 9 Hen. V. No. 56 : 26 Ap. 17 Bp. Langley.) 

12 William Heron, eldest son of John Heron of Ford and of Thornton in 
Islandshire (Inq. p. in. 10 Hen. IV. No. 11. and 1 Ap. 3 Bp. Langley), was born in 
the parish of Whittingham, on the 12 March, 1396/7, and is stated to have been 
'maliciously slayne' before Ford castle by his neighbour, Sir John Manners of 
Etal. (Inq. p. in. 6 Hen. VI. No. 15.) 


John Broun aged 45, saw John Wedryngton, knight, and Robert Lisle, 
knight, treating together in the said church for agreement concerning matters 
in dispute between them, of which agreement an indenture was made, dated the 
same day, and was delivered at the same time to him to keep, and yet remains in 
his keeping. John Cotom, barker (48), bought of Robert Flesshewer three cow- 
hides, at the same time at which John was carried to church to be baptized., 
John Parlebyn (50), sold to William Mitford one ell of woollen cloth, called 
' clathe of lake,' to make a ' crissom-cloth ' for John. John Colman (44), saw 
John Wedryngton, John's godfather, give to him when he had been baptized, a 
cup of silver gilt. Thomas Fox, skinner (47), sold to Robert Lisle, knight, 
John's grandfather, at New-castle upon Tyne ' fururam de puro gresio,' for 
100s., in which fur John was wrapped when he was Carried to church to be 
baptized. Robert Vere (53), met Henry Percy, knight, at the church-door, who 
asked him whose was the child then lifted from the font. He told him that he 
was the son of William Mitford, whereat the said Henry rejoiced greatly. 

John Talbot (51), saw Thomas Galon, parish priest of the said church, 
baptizing John. William Gray (53), was in the church hearing Robert Kirkeby 
chaplain, celebrating mass of Blessed Mary, Virgin, at the altar of the Holy 
Trinity, and immediately after mass, the said William and Robert, talking to- 
gether at the said altar, saw John carried from the font where he had been 
baptized, and Robert Kirkeby asked him whose son he was ; to whom he 
answered that he was the son of William Mitford, and the said priest 
said to him ' Thanks be to God for now has William Mitford his own heir of his 
own name.' John Dunstan (46), saw John Mitford, knight, John's grandfather 
meet a woman in the churchyard, carrying John from the church where he had 
been baptized ; he said to the woman ' I ask thee, shew me the child's face,' 
she showed him, and he kissed him and said to him ' My son, God bless thee 
and give thee good strength on earth (bonam vigenciam in terra). ,' John Scale- 
by (49), carried a bason and ewer of silver from William Mitf ord's house in 
Scein Joncheir I or Sceinroncheir] in New-castle upon Tyne, to the church, to 
give water to John's godfathers and godmother to wash their hands when he 
had been baptized. Thomas Hautewesyll (48), was in the church and saw a 
chaplain called Thomas Galon baptizing John in the font when he fell from the 
chaplain's hands into the font, and John Wedryngton, knight, his godfather, 
said to the chaplain, ' Prest, prest, fond be thi heued.' William Stodhyrd (44), 
met many men and women coming from the church rejoicing, and among them 
a woman carried John ; he asked them who was the boy and they told him that 
he was the son of William Mitford. 13 

13 John de Mitford, who was, apparently, the only son of William de Mitford, 
was born at Newcastle on the 8 April, 1402. His grandfather, Sir John de Mit- 
ford, an influential man in the second half of the fourteenth century, represented 
the county as knight of the shire in several parliaments in the reigns of Edw. 
III., Ric. II., and Henry IV., died on the 16 July, 1409, seised of estates of 
Mitford, Molesden, Espley, Benridge, &c. (Inq.p. m,. 10 Hen. IV. No. 26), and 
was succeeded by his son William de Mitford (Inq. p. m. 1 Hen. VI. No. 40). 
The latter married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Lisle of Woodburn and 
Felton, and died during the minority of his son John de Mitford, who attained 
his full age on the 8 April, 1423. John de Mitford married Constance, daughter 
of Sir Robert Ogle, and died on the 6 May, 1437. 


Inq. p. m. 5 Henry VI. No. 74. Proof of age of Henry de Fenwyk, son and 
heir of Alan de Fenwyk, knight, deceased, son of Elizabeth, who was wife of 
John de Fenwyk, knight, deceased, and kinsman and heir of the said Elizabeth 
who held of Henry IV., taken at the king's castle of New-castle upon Tyne, 
31 October, 5 Henry VI. [1426]. The jurors say that the said Henry was born 
at Alnewyk on Christmas day, 3 Henry IV. [1401], and baptized in the church 
of the said vill, called ' Seynt Michel Kirk,' on the morrow, and was aged 
twenty-one years on the feast of Christmas last past. Robert Swynburn, aged 
50, came into the church and prosecutus fuit unam billam Henrico cottiiti 
Nortkumbrie, last deceased, one of Henry's godfathers, at the time of his 
baptism. Laurence de Acton (48), was in the church and saw Henry Percy 
d'Athell, his other godfather, give to him directly he had been baptized, a silver 
cup with a cover, and to his nurse 6s. 8d. Simon Welden (50), was elected one 
of the king's coroners in Northumberland. 

John Herbotell (45), carried a bason with a ewer of silver from Alnewyk 
castle to the church, to give water to Henry's godfathers and godmother to 
wash their hands when he had been lifted from the font. 

Henry Trollop (48) : so great and strong a wind arose, that all the men and 
women of the said vill greatly feared for the shaking of their frail houses, 
immediately after Henry was baptized. John Mitford of Coupon (50), carried 
a lighted torch from Alnewyk castle to the church before Henry, and held it 
while he was baptized. Thomas de Throklawe (60), met many men and women 
coming from the church who told him that Henry had been baptized. William 
Laweson (50) : Alan de Fenwyk, knight, Henry's father, was sheriff of 
Northumberland for the same year in which Henry was baptized. Adam 
Heggman (50), was elected the king's bailiff in the county. William Benet, 
(48), carried two pewter pots with wines of ' clerrey ' and ' malvesy,' and four 
silver cups, from Alnewyk castle to the church for refreshment of the god- 
fathers and godmother and others present. William Elison (50), saw Thomas 
Percy, knight, give to Henry, directly he had been baptized, 40s., and to his 
nurse 6s. 8d., for joy of his birth. Kobert de Neweton (45), was at the 
betrothal at Alnewyk of Katharine, daughter of Thomas Clerk, to Richard 
Mitford. 13 

Inq. p. in. 7 Henry VI. No. 83. Proof of age of Thomas Hesilrig, son of 
Thomas Hesilrig, of Eselyngton, deceased, held within the castle of New-castle 
upon Tyne, on Tuesday next before the feast of Easter, 7 Henry VI. [22 March, 
1428/9]. The jurors say that the said Thomas was born at Eselyngton and 
baptized in the church of Whityman [Whittingham], and was aged twenty-one 
years on the feast of St. Michael, last past. Thomas Lilleburn, aged 46, had a 
daughter born, called Joan. Adam Kyllyngworth (47): Andrew, his son, died of 
an illness which had held him for a long time. John Mitford, senior (45), was 
present in the church when Thomas was baptized, and saw Thomas Bunker, his 
godfather, give to him 40s. John Herle (51), married Katharine, daughter of 

13 Sir John de Fenwick married Elizabeth (Inq. p. m. 2 Hen. VI. No. 39) 
daughter and coheir of Sir Alan de Heton, and had with other issue an eldest 
son Sir Alan de Fenwick, whose sou, Sir Henry de Fenwick, knight, was born 
at Alnwick on Christmas day 1401. Sir Henry de Fenwick died without issue 
male and left his six daughters his coheiresses. 


Richard Hobson. Roger Fenwyk (44), rode to Morpath and on the way fell 
among robbers who plundered him. James Buk (48), was hunting in the forest 
of Rothebery, and a stag running at him, struck him to the ground and broke his 
left arm. 

Robert Vaux (49), held a bason with a ewer in the church. William 
Rotherf ord (50), saw Katharine Heron, Thomas's godmother, give to him 20s. and 
a gold ring. John Babyngton (52), met Thomas's godfather and godmother at 
the end of the vill of Eselyngton, and there fell into a deep hole so that he was 
nearly drowned. 

Robert Langwath (53), held a candle in the church when Thomas was 
baptized. Henry Robson (46), had a son born, named Richard. Richard 
Heppell (44), held a torch in the church. 15 

Inq. p. m. 10 Henry VI. No. 56. Proof of age of Thomas Lumley, son and 
heir of John Lumley, knight, deceased, who held of Henry V., taken at Morpath, 
26 November, 10 Henry VI. [1431.] The jurors say that the said Thomas was born 
at Morpath on the feast of St. Michael, Archangel, 1408, and baptized in the 
church of Blessed Mary, of the same vill, on the morrow, and was aged twenty- 
two years on the feast of St. Michael, last past. 

Robert Swynburn, aged 60. was in the church and saw Thomas Surtes, knight, 
one of Thomas's godfathers, give to him there when he had been baptized, a 
silver cup with a cover. Adam Killyngworth (50) : Margaret, his daughter, was 
.asked to nurse Thomas. Simon Welden (50), was elected one of the king's 
coroners in Northumberland. 

Nicholas Turpyn (50), so great and strong a wind arose that all the men and 
women of the said vill greatly feared for the shaking of their frail houses 
immediately after Thomas was baptized. William Roth erf ord (50), carried a 
bason and ewer of silver from Morpath castle to the church, to give water to 
the godfathers and godmother to wash their hands when Thomas had been lifted 
from the font. William Bedenhall (50), carried a lighted torch from Morpath 
Castle to the church before Thomas and held it during his baptism. Robert 
Musgrave (50), met many men and women coming from the church, and they 
told him that Thomas had been baptized, whereat he had great joy. John 
Herle (50) : John Lumley, knight, Thomas's father, was sheriff of Northumber- 
land for the same year in which Thomas was baptized. Roger Fenwyk (50), 
carried two pewter pots with wines of ' clerrey ' and ' malmesy,' and four silver 
cups from Morpath castle to the church for refreshment of the godfathers and 
godmother and others present. William Benet (50), was at the betrothal, at 
Morpath, of Katharine, daughter of John Galon, to William Cutour. Robert 
Neuton (50), saw Henry Percy d'Athell, knight, give to Thomas directly he 
had been baptized, 40s., and to his nurse, 6s. 8d., for joy of his birth. John 
Elison (50), was elected [The MS. is torn away]. 16 

18 Thomas Hesilrig of Eslington (Inq. p. m. I Hen. VI. N 7 o. 18), was probably 
a son of that John Hesilrig who obtained Swarland on marriage with Agnes, 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas Graper. His son, Thomas Hesilrig, was born at 
Eslington on Michaelmas-day, 1407, He was married to a certain Agnes before 
December, 1429, and with his son John was party to a deed, dated 4 March, 
1444/5 ; he died about 1468. (Inq. p. m. 7 Edw. IV. No. 25). 

16 Sir John Lumley of Lumley, knight, was slain on Easter Eve, 1421, at 


Inq. p. in. 13 Henry VI. No. 45. Proof of age of Thomas Lisle, son and 
heir of John Lisle, son of Kobert Lisle, knight, deceased, and kinsman and heir 
of the said Robert, taken in the king's castle of New-ca'stle upon Tyne, 

I February, 13 Henry VI. [1434/5]. The jurors say that the said Thomas was 
born at Nafreton and baptized in the parish church of Ovyngeham, and was 
aged twenty-one years on the feast of St. Barnabas, Apostle, last past. [11 June, 
1434]. Simon Weltden, aged 60, said that William Forster, of Ovyngeham, was 
betrothed to Alice, his wife, at the door of the said church. John Belyngeham 
(70), set out on his journey to the city of London, on business of Kobert Lisle, 
knight, then his master. Adam Kelyngworth (67), buried Alice, his wife. 
Robert Musgrave (50) : John Taillour, of Nafreton, was killed accidentally by 
the wheel of a wagon. 

William lot (?) (67), was in the church when Thomas was placed in the font. 
Robert Langwath (65), held a lighted candle when he was baptized. John 
Babyngton (48), set out on his journey to Berwick in Scotland, to fight with the 
Scotch, the king's enemies. William Rotherfeld (44) : John, his brother, was 
drowned in the water of Tyne. 

William Sabram (69). John Enoteeon was parish chaplain of the said church 
of Ovyngeham. Roger Fenwyk (56) : Elizabeth, his wife, was Thomas's god- 

William Benet (47), bought of Robert Lisle, knight, Thomas's grandfather, 
a white horse for 20s. John Herle (44) : the vill of Altonburn was burnt by 
the Scotch, the king's enemies. 17 

Inq. p. in. 14 Henry VI. No. 47. Proof of age of Thomas, son and heir of 
John Wetewode and Margaret his wife, deceased, taken at New-castle upoa Tyne 
15 January, 14 Henry VI. [1435/6]. 

The jurors say that the said Thomas was aged twenty-two years, 23 November, 
last past, and was born in the said vill and baptized in the church of All Saints 

Robert Hauson (54), and John Halton (52), bought a horse called ' Morel 
Gray,' of the said John Wetewode, Thomas's father, for ten marks payable at 
Easter then next, and were bound by a bond made the same day ; the sum was 
faithfully paid at the said feast, and John Wetewode gave back to them their 
bond in place of an acquittance, and thus they remember the day by the date 
of the said writing which is still in their keeping. John Dey (59), Robert Reade 
(55), John Litster (56), William Howetson (57), Robert Holbek (59), John 
Alnewyk (60), Thomas Swan (54), William Gudeneghbur (56), Robert Penreth 
(58), and Thomas Bamburgh (62), were assembled in the said church, standing 

Baugy in Anjou, whence his body was carried to Durham cathedral for burial. 
His will, dated 24 April, 1418, was proved on the 2 September, 1421. His son. 
Sir Thomas Lumley, knight, born at Morpetri on Michaelmas-day, 1408, had 
livery of his lands in 1430, and in the first year of Edward IV. petitioned for, 
and obtained, the revisal of the attainder of his grandfather. Ralph, Lord Lumley. 

17 Sir Robert Lisle, of Wood burn and Felton, knight, was high sheriff of 
Northumberland in 1414, and died on or before 1426. (Iny. p. in. 4 Henry VI. 
~o. 5). Having survived his son John, he was succeeded by his grandson, 
Thomas Lisle, who being born at Nafferton. was baptized at Ovingham on the 

II June, 1413. 


there among other persons to hear a solemn sermon by master Kobert Hardyng, 
Doctor in Theology, and saw Thomas Woller, chaplain, Thomas's godfather, 
immediately after he was baptized, writing in a missal of the said church, the 
day and year of his birth ; they know also by inspection of the said writing in 
the missal. 18 

Inq. p. in. 17 Henry VI. No. 66. Proof of age of John Hibburne, son and heir 
of Thomas Hibburne, deceased, who held of Henry V., taken at New-castle 
upon Tyne, 5 May, 17 Henry VI. [1439.] The jurors say that the said John 
was aged twenty-two years and more, 4 May last past, and was born in New- 
castle and baptized in All Saints' church in the said vill, 28 October, 5 Henry V. 
[1417], and that John de Hall deceased, and John Hall, chaplain, still living, 
were his godfathers. Thomas Chirden, aged 60, was at the funeral of John 
Hall, senior, John's godfather, who died within six days after John's birth. 
William Raynaldson (66), carried a- \vax candle and held it until John had been 
baptized. Robert Langwath (64) : John Rodys, the King's justice of the peace, sat in 
' le Gildhall ' of the said vill, to examine inquisitions concerning the keeping of 
the peace, 4 November next following the said 28 October. John Hunter (60) : 
a day of truce between England and Scotland was kept at Hawdenstank, 3 
November next following the said 28 October. William Stoddart (66), paid in 
the church of Blessed Nicholas of the said vill, 10 November next following the 
said 28 October, 20li. to Thomas Langton for lead bought of him. William 
Enmath (49) : his ship loaded with wheat was in clanger at Hertilpole, 9 
November next following the said 28 October. John Sainpyll (50), came from 
hunting, and met John carried in a woman's arms to All Saints' church to his 
baptism. John Welles (60) : Robert Welles, his brother, was betrothed to 
Margaret his wife in the church of Blessed Nicholas, 14 January next following 
the said 28 October. Henry Webster (67) : John Hunt, his wife's kinsman, was 
acquitted of an indictment of trespass delivered before the King's justices 
sitting in the King's castle in New-castle, 8 August next following the said 28 
October. William Plummer (70) : Joan his daughter was baptized in St. 
Andrew's church of the said vill, 2 March next following the said 28 October. 
John Alnewyk (62), took his tenement in fee, in which he now lives, of 
Lawrence Acton, esquire, 4 April next following the said 28 October. William 
Rede (62), was elected by the mayor and sheriffs of New-castle, keeper of the 
prison called ' le Newgate,' 16 January next following the said 28 October. 
John Seman (60) : Joan his daughter was buried in St. John's church in the 
said vill 6 May next following the said 28 October. William Zote (60), impleaded 
John Dale of Alnewyk, for a debt of 10R, 7 March next following the said 28 
October, before the mayor in the ' Gildhall ' of New-castle. 19 

18 John de Wetewode. (/#. p. m. 8 Hen. V. No. 41), as heir to his second 
cousin, John de Bradford, succeeded to the barony of Bradford in Bamburgh- 
shire in 1398. His son, Thomas de Wetewode, born at Newcastle 23 November, 
1413, assumed the name of Bradford, married Eleanor, daughter of John Horsley, 
of Outchester, and died an aged man on the 12 August, 1494. 

19 Robert Hebburn, mayor of Newcastle ' being sick in body but sound in 
mind, considering the deceitfulness of this world, the imminent peril of death 
.and that here we have no abiding city but seek the future,' made his will on 
Friday, 8 August, 1415, and appointed his eldest son Thomas to be one of his 

VOL. XXII. 18 


Inq. p. m. 22 Henry VI. No. 2. Proof of age of Robert Gabefore, son and 
heir of Alice who was wife of Nicholas Gabefore, deceased, taken at the Guild- 
hall of New-castle upon Tyne, 20 June, 22 Henry VI. [1444.] The jurors say 
that the said Robert was born in New-castle upon Tyne, in the parish of All 
Saint's church, and baptized in the same church, and was aged twenty-two 
years on the feast of St. Peter which is called ' Ad Vincula,' last past 
f 1 August, 1443]. John Clerk, aged 56, was in the church, and saw John Rodes, 
Robert's godfather, give to him directly he had been baptized, one mark of 
silver. Edward Bartram (52) : Joan his daughter was born, and was baptized 
in the same church. Robert Wingates (60), carried a bason with a ewer to the 
church, to give water to the godfathers and godmother to wash their hands 
when Robert had been lifted from the font. Robert Wetwang (68) : Joan 
his daughter was buried in the churchyard of the said church. 

William Medecrof t (66) : John his son was born, and was baptized in the same 
church. John Rae (66) : there was a great rain so that the water of Tyne 
opposite his door, through the great abundance of rain and overflow of the sea, 
entered his house in New-castle upon Tyne. Robert Laverok (58), married 
Katherine his daughter to John Whitehede, and they were married in the said 

Thomas Barbour (60) : Joan his wife was Robert's godmother, and he gave 
to her a silver cup to give to him when he had been baptized, and Thomas gave 
to his nurse 20d. Thomas Lyncoln (60), carried a towel and a silver salt-cellar 
before Robert to the church. Robert Swynburn (66) : Robert his son made 
affray with Nicholas Horton who struck him on the aim and gave him a great 

John Lytster (58) : John his son was betrothed to Joan, daughter of John 
Cotour, in the same church. John Wotton (56) : held a torch in the church 
while Robert was baptized. 20 

2nq. p. in. 24 Henry VI. No. 52. Proof of age of John Orde, son and heir 
of William Orde, esquire, taken at the Guildhall of New-castle upon Tyne, 28 
April, 24 Henry VI. [1446.] 

The jurors say that the said John was born in New-castle upon Tyne in the 
parish of the church of St. John the Baptist, and baptized in' the same church, 
and was aged twenty-two years on the feast of St. Martin in winter, last past 
[11 November, 1445]. John Musgrave, aged 50, was in the church and saw John 

executors. The testator died shortly afterwards and was buried in the church 
of All Saints, his will being proved on the 27 September following. Thomas 
Hebburn (Inq. p. in. 1 Hen. VI. No. 38) being desirous of marrying Isabel, 
widow of William Strother, who was nearly related to him, in 1417 obtained a 
dispensation from the bishop of Durham for that purpose. Their son, John 
Hebburn, was baptized on the 28 October of the same year. 

20 Robert Gabefore was one of the merchants named in the Letters Patent 
dated 7 July 1400, by which Henry IV. granted certain privileges to the town 
of Newcastle. He owned property in Gateshead, and was probably the father 
of Nicholas Gabefore, who was one of the jurors before whom Roger Thornton's 
inquest was taken on the 27 May 1430. The latter married a certain Alice 
(Inq. p.m. 17 Henry VI. No. 1) and their son Robert was born at Newcastle on 
the 1st August 1422. 


Fitz Henry and John Layng, John's godfathers, give to him directly he had 
been baptized two marks of silver. Edward Bartram (52) : Joan, his daughter, 
was born, and was baptized in the same church. Kobert Wyndgates (60), 
carried a bason with a ewer to the church to give water to John's godfathers 
and godmother to wash their hands when he had been lifted from the font. 
Robert Wetwayng (68) : Joan, his daughter, was buried in the churchyard of 
the same church. William Medecroft (62) : John, his son, was born, and was 
baptized in the same church. John Raa (60) : there was a great rain so that 
the water of Tyne opposite his door, through the great abundance of rain and 
overflow of the sea, entered his house in New-castle upon Tyne. Robert 
Laverok (62), married Katherine, his daughter, to John Whithede, and they 
were married in the same church. Thomas Barbour (50) : Joan, his wife, was 
John's godmother, and he gave to her a silver cup to give to him when he had 
been baptized, and Thomas gave to his nurse 20d. Thomas Lincoln (60), carried 
a towel and a silver salt-celler before John to the church. Robert Swynburn 
(60) : Robert, his son, made affray with Nicholas Horton, who struck him on the 
arm and gave him a great wound. John Litster (50) was betrothed to Joan, 
daughter of John Cotour, in the same church. Robert Witton (50) held a torch 
in the church while John was baptized. 2 x 

Inq.p. m, 31 Henry VI. No. 49. Proof of age of Edmund Hastynges, son and 
heir of John Hastynges, knight, deceased, taken at Lynton, 22 April, 31 Henry 
VI. [1453.] The jurors say that, the said Edmund was born at Braunspath and 
baptized in the church of the same vill, and was aged twenty-two years on the 
feast of Easter last past [1 April, 1453.] William Rede (aged 57) carried a 
lighted torch from Braunspath manor to the church before Edmund and held it 
while he was baptized. John Norton (50), was in the church and saw William 
Elmeden, knight, Edmund's godfather, give to him directly he had been 
baptized, a silver cup with a cover and to his nurse 6s. 8d. Richard Horsle (46) : 
John Horsle his son was born. Robert Unthanke (66) : Richard his son 
celebrated his first mass in the said church. 

Thomas Durham (48), carried a bason with a ewer from the said manor to the 
church to give water to Edmund's godfathers and godmother to wash their 
hands when he had been lifted from the font. Robert Strother (56). 
married Katherine his daughter to John Dey, and they were married in the same 
church. John Furde (46), was in the service of John Hastynges, Edmund's 
father, as his butler, and carried a silver pot with wine to the church, to give to 
Edmund's godfathers and godmother when he had been baptized. Robert 
Straung[wayes] (50), saw John Claxton, Edmund's godfather, give to him a 
piece of silver with a cover, and to his nurse 6s. 8d. Gilbert Rotherford (57) : 
John his son was born and baptized. Henry Smyth (46), held a torch in the 
church while Edmund was baptized. William Ogle (42) : Alice, his mother, 
was Edmund's godmother, and he was present with her on the day on which 

21 William Ord of Newbiggen, in Norhamshire, died on the 18 June 1441, 
(Inq. p.m. 19 Henry VI. No. 13), leaving a son, John Ord, who was born at 
Newcastle on the 11 Nov. 1423 and died in or before the year 1482 (Inq. p. m. 22 
Edward IV. No. 22). 

Compare this inquisition with the last one. 


Edmund was baptized. Robert Rydell (58), met Edmund's godfathers and god- 
mother going to the church, and they told him of his birth, whereat he rejoiced 
with great joy. 22 

22 Sir Edmund Hastings, knight, died about the year 1449, seised of estates- 
at Ellingham, Lemington, Newton, Rugley, Bolton, Thirston, Nafferton (Inq.p.m. 
27 Henry VI. No. 24). By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Felton, 
and sister and heir of John Felton, esq., he had an eldest son, Sir John 
Hastings, knight, who died in his father's life-time about midsummer, 19 
Henry VI. The latter left an only son, born at Brancepeth 1 Apiil 1431, who 
succeeded to his grandfather and grandmother's estates. 





Abberwick Moor, muster of force on, in 

1538, 61 
Acca, bishop, invested abbat Huetbercht 

' with customary benediction,' 45 
Acton, Gilbert de, 121 ; Laurence de, 

124, 127 
Adamson, Blythman, 20 ; Kobert, and 

another, action against, 21 ; will of, 

23 ; William Blythman, 20 
Agatho, pope, Biscop's letter of privilege 

from, 44 
Age, proofs of, of heirs to estates in 

Northumberland, 116 
Alaynscheles (see Allenschellys) 
Alcuin's description of York, 43 n 
Aldfrid, king, 33 
Aldwin of Winchcombe brought to 

Jarrow, 50 ; first prior of Durham, 51 
Alfred, king, raised levies to repel Danes, 

Allenschellys, Alicia de, 99; Margaret, 

wife of William, 97 
Allers,' The, Edmundbyers, 99 
Allerton, John cle, rector of Edmundbyers, 

88 ; granted leave of absence, 88 n 
Alnham, etc., country meeting at, vii 
Alnwick, inq.p.m. taken at, 118 et seq. 
Alnwick, John Bolton, canon of, 120 ; 

Henry de Fenwyk born at, and baptized 

in St. Michael's church, 124 ; Thomas 

Gray, knight, born in castle of, 119 ; 

baptized in St. Michael's church at, 

119 ; youth of, and Northumberland 

militia, 66 

Alnewyk, John, 126, 127 
Altar slabs, ancient, Edmundbyers church, 

87; Hexham, 114 

Altonburn, vill of, burnt by Scots, 126 
Alwinton, parish books of, and militia, 

Ancient British, burial near Edmundbyers, 

83 ; Heathery-burn cave, Weardale, 83 
Andover, Northumberland militia in 

quarters at, 67 

Annerley, Thomas, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Athell, Henry Percy d', 124 
Aubone, Anne, 26 
Aukland, Kobert, rector of Edmundbyers, 


Aumbry, Edmundbyers church, 87; round- 
headed, Jarrow church, 38 


Babyngton, John, 125, 126 

Baker, Robert, rector of Edmundbyers, 

Ballot, the, for the militia, 64 

Baluster shafts, Jarrow and Monkwear- 
mouth churches, 46 

Bamburgh, John de, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 ; Thomas, 126 

' Baptistery ' (?), Monkwearmouth, 41 ; 
Christ church. Canterbury, 41 n 

Barbour, Adam, of Edmundbyers. died of 
' Black Death,' 98 ; John, 99 ; Richard, 
99 ; Thomas, 128 

* Barnard's cross,' near Edmundbyers, 79 

Bart (Jean), descent of, on Northumber- 
land coast in 1691, 12 ; escape from 
Plymouth, 13 ; his fleet in Dru ridge 
bay, 15 ; pillaged and set fire to Widd- 
rington and castle, 15 

Bartram, Edward, 128 

Basket-hilted swords, notes on, 1 ; first 
came into regular use at Venice, 1 

Baugy in Anjou, Gilbert de Umframvill, 
slain at, 122 n ; sir John Lumley , knight, 
slain at, 125 n 

Baxter, Mrs. Ann, left money to poor of 
Edmundbyers, 109 

Bede's chair, Jarrow church, 47 ; epitaph^ 
45 ; festival, 50 ; bones purloined by 
Elf rid Westowe, 50 ; notice of Ceolf rid's- 
death, 33 

Bedenhall, William, 125 

' Beer brewer's well,' Westoe, 28 

Belasise, John, 120, 121 

Bell founding, reputation of Jarrow for, 

Bells of Edmundbyers church, 115 ;. 
of Jarrow church, 60 

Belyngham, John, 120, 122, 126 ; Robert 
de, 116 

Belsay, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Bench-ends, carved, Jarrow church, 58 

Benedictine foundation at Durham, 51 ; 
plan of, 51 

Benet, William, 117, 124, 125, 126 

Benkyn, John, of Gateshead, death of, 117 

Benning, Mrs. Augusta, of South Shields,27 



Benson, Thomas, rector of Edmundbyers, 
88 ; will of, 104 ; was he a married man ? 
Bentley, Adam, and Barbara, his wife, 

21 ' 

Bertram (see Bartram) 
Beryngton, John de, ' bursar/ 98 
Billingham church, county Durham, col- 
lections for sufferers from French 
descent on Northumberland coast, 17 
Birtley, Kichard de, ' terrar,' 98 
Biscop, Benedict, founded Jarrow monas- 
tery, 31 ; death of, 33 
Biscop's fifth journey to Rome,44; brought 
pictures for Jarrow, 44 ; letter of 
privilege from pope Agatho for Wear- 
mouth, 44 

* Bishop slob,' Westoe, 28 
' Black Death,' the, 98 

Blair, Robert, donation to museum, xiii 
Blakiston, Robert, and others, grant of 

land to, 23 
Blanchland abbey church, 86 ; John 

Donne, a white canon of, 117 ; arch- 
deacon Thorp, vicar of, 113 
Blumer, Edward, parishioner of Edmund- 

byers in 1501, 88 n 
Blythman, of Westoe, pedigree of, 29 ; 

Edward, 21 n ; William, 21 n 
Boldon church, 2(> 
Bollihope, Roman altar from, 82 
Bolton, Edmund Heron, master of, 122 
Bolton, John, canon of Alnwick, 120 
Borstanour, Wyncellan, knight, 121 
Bowes, William, knight, 117 
Bradford, Northumberland, barony of, 

Bradford, Thomas de Wetewode, assumed 

name of, 127 n ; John de, of Bradford, 

Bradley, Joulanus de, held land in Ed- 

mundbyers, 91 
Brancepeth, Edmund Hastynges, born at, 

and baptized in church there, 129 ; 

manor, 129 ; Decorated window in 

church, 57 
Brewis, Parker, donation to museum, xiv ; 

notes on four basket-hilted swords 

belonging to the society, 1 
Briefs for sufferers from descent of French 

on Northumberland coast, 17 
Browne, bishop G. F., notes on Monkwear- 

mouth church, 41 n ; John, 123 

* Brown Bess,' 65 and n 

Bruncoste, Alan, at time of ' Boldon Buke,' 
Edmundbyers belonged to, 89 

Brushwood at Edmundbyers, fines for 
cutting, 100, 101 

Bucks' drawing of Widdrington castle, 16 ; 
of Jarrow church, 43 

Buk, James, 125 

Burn, John, parish chaplain of Whitting- 

ham, 122 

Burnegyll, Robert, 118 
Burnhope lead mines, 111 
Butecom, William, 'betrothed to Mary, 

his wife,' 122 
Byker, rev. Thomas Robinson Green, 

vicar of, 27 
Bykerton, John, 117 
Bywell St. Andrew's church, pre-Conquest 

window in, 37 


' Caldwell butts,' Westoe, 20 

Cambowe, John, 117 

Canterbury Christ church, baptistery in, 
41 n 

Car, William, 121 

Carlell, Robert, 122 

Carlisle, the earl of, 62 

Carlisle, R. S. Ferguson, mayor of, 76 

Carnaby, William de, son and heir of 
William de, 120 ; baptized in Halton 
church, 120 ; sir William de, 121, married 
Margaret, widow of Thomas de Lowther, 
121 n ; obtained manor of Halton with 
her, 121 n. 

Cartyngton, William de, 122 

Carver, Charles, donation to museum, xiv 

Cassop, village of, 96 

Castell, prior, bench-end at Jarrow, bear- 
ing winged-heart pierced by sword , sign 
of, 58 ; revived geometrical tracery, 58 

Ceolfrid, and his monks, arrival of, at 
Jarrow, 30 ; Bede's notice of his death, 

Charles I., the mortuary hilt made to 
commemorate, 2 

Charms still in use at Edmundbyers, 

Cheese-making at Edmundbyers, 110 

Chesman, William, 122 

Chester, Henry, 118 ; William de, coroner, 

Chester-le-Street, new diocesan centre at, 

Chetworth, pilot of Jean Bart in his 
descent on Northumberland coast, taken, 
17 ; he pleaded guilty, 17 

Chibburn, the French under Jean Bart, 
at, in 1691, 16 

Chillingham, Joan and Elizabeth, daugh- 
ters of Henry de Heton, knight, born 
and baptized at, 118 ; Margaret de 
Heton, born at castle and baptized in 
church of, 119 

Chirden, Thomas, 127 

Churchway close,' Westoe, 28 



Clark, Katherine, daughter of Thomas, 
betrothed to Richard Mitford, 124 (See 
also Clerk. 

Claveryng, John, knight, 122 

Claxton, John, 129 

* Claymore,' two Celtic words signifying 

' great sword,' 1 
Clayton, late J. B., loan of objects, xiii 

* Gleets, 5 a small shoe for oxen, 110 
Clerk, John, 128; [Clerke] John, clerk 

of Whittingham church. (See also 

; Clerrey, wine of,' 124, 125 

Cliffords, the, of Ellingham, 120 n 

Clifford, proof of age of John, son and 
heir of Thomas de, knight, 120 ; born 
at, and baptized in church of , Hart, 120 

Clockmaker, a, at Kothbury, 66 

Coatsworth Michael, 21 

Coins, Roman, discovery of, 30, 82 

Coldingham, Robert de Walleworth, to 
have, if disturbed at Jarrow by a 
foreign incursion, 54 

Collmgwood, Captain Alexander, com- 
mander Coquetdale company of North- 
umberland militia, 64 ; Daniel, 62 

Colman, John, 123 

Common pasture at Westoe, 20 

Communion bread furnished by villagers 
of Edmundbyers, 100 

Communion plate, Edmundbyers church, 
109, 115 ; Jarrow church, 60 

Coquetdale, muster of men of, with horse 
and harness, in 1538, 61 

Coquetdale, notes on the old Northumber- 
land militia, 61 ; company of North- 
umberland militia, commanded by 
Captain Alexander Collingwood of 
Unthank, 64 

Corbet, John, 116, 120 

Corbridge, inq. p. m., taken at, 118 ; 
Thomas Ormesby, vicar of, 121 

Coroners for Northumberland, Hugh 
Galon, 122 ; Simon de Weltden, 124 

Cotis, William, 120 

Cotour, John, 128 (See also Cutour) 

Cotom, John, 123 ; [Cotum], John de, 
chaplain, grant of lands to and by, 90 ; 
Sir John de, parson of Edmundbyers, 

Coulson, captain, 63 

Coulthard, Thomas, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Country meetings, vii 

Cramlyngton, William, 120, 121 

Crawcester, Richard, 119, 121 ; married 
daughter of William de Urde, 120 

Crescent with face, mark of Toledo 
armourers, 8, and also German, 8 

* Crissom cloth,' a, 123 

Croft, etc., country meeting at, vii 
Croxton, Robert, burial of, at Whitting- 
ham church, 122 

Croyland, sack of, by Danes, 49 n 
Cumin, Robert, death of, 50 ; William, 

the younger, attack on Jarrow, 54 
Curators' report for 1899, xiii 
Customary tenants at Westoe, 20 
Cuthbert, arc hbishop, 41 n 
Cuthbert, saint, flight of bishop Egelwin, 

with body of, 50 

Cutour, William, Katherine Galon 
betrothed to, 125. (See also Cotour) 


Dale, John, of Alnwick, 127 

Dalton, John cle, chaplain to Alexander 
Surteys, 117 

Danes sacked Lindisfarne, Jarrow monas- 
tery, etc., 49 ; Croyland and Medeham- 
sted, 49 n ; king Alfred raised levies to 
repel, 61 

Davison, lieut. Alexander, of Lanton, 67 ; 
lieut. William, of Chatton, 67 ; major 
William, of Branxton, 67 

Dawson, Joseph, rector of Edmundbyers, 
88 ; buried in churchyard at east end 
of church, 89 

' Dead Friar's Curruck,' near Edmund- 
byers, 79, 111 

Dean close, old and new, Westoe, 23 

Deason, James, rector of Edmundbyers, 
88 ; also vicar of Pittington, 89 

Delaval, sir Ralph, blockade of Dunkirk 
by, 12 

Dendy, F. W., on the late Sheriton 
Holmes, 72 

Denton, William, rector of Edmundbyers, 

Departed members, obituary notices of, 

Derwentwater, lord, 62 

Descent of Jean Bart on Northumberland 
coast in 1691, 12 * 

Dey, John, 126 ; Katherine Strother, 
married to, 129 

Dinsdale, etc., country meeting at, vii; 
a son of Alexander Surtees baptized in 
church of, 117 

Dixon, D. D., donation to museum, xiii ; 
' Coquetdale Notes on the Old North- 
umberland Militia,' 61 

Don, the river, at Jarrow, 31 

Donations to museum, xiii 

Donne, John, a white canon of Blanch- 
land, 117 

' Dragon, the,' a small blunderbuss, 63 

Dragoons to be formed in hilly country 
instead of horsemen, 63 



Druridge bay, French war-ships piloted 
into, 15 

Dryden's lines on the. militia, 71 

Dunker, Thomas, 124 

Dunkirk blockaded by vice-admiral sir 
Kalph Delaval, 12 

Dunn, Martin, and others, grant of land 
to, 23 

Dunston, Henry, 118 ; John, 123 

Durham, halmote court rolls, extracts 
from, 93 ; first surviving record of, 97 

Durham, monks of Jarrow transferred to, 
and became subordinate cell to, 51 ; Aid- 
win, first prior of, 51 ; prior and convent 
of, customary tenants of, 20; Jarrow 
and Monkwearmouth, and their 
chapelries reserved to prior of, 54 ; 
contest between prior of. and arch- 
deacons, 54 

Durham, dean and chapter of, land belong- 
ing to, at South Shields, 20 ; chapter 
library, pre-Conquest stone from Jarrow 
in, 46 

Durham cathedral church, synod in Gali- 
lee of , in 1507, 88 11; sir John Lumley 
buried in, 126 n ; Bede's bones pur- 
loined and carried off to, 50 ; early 
window, 51 ; lavatory in centre of 
cloister court, 51 

Durham, Thomas, 129 

Durie, John, rector of Edmundbyers, 88, 
106 ; dispossessed by Commonwealth 
and replaced at Restoration, 88 


Eastgate, Roman altars from, 84 

Ebchester, 84 

Edeson, John, fined for swearing, 98 

Eden, Mary, widow, 21 ; Robert, 21 ; 
mayor of Newcastle, 21 n 

Edinburgh, sword hilts made in. 3 ; 
' gaird-makers,' guild of, 3 

Edmundbyers, 79 ; boundaries of, 79 ; 
' Barnard's Cross,' near, 79 ; ' Dead 
Friar's Curruck,' 79; geological note 
of, 80 ; description of village, 81 ; 
Roman roads, etc., 81 ; discovery of 
ancient burial, 83 ; barrow near, 83 ; 
flint flakes, etc., found, 83 ; Durham 
halmote court rolls and, 93; tenants 
of manor, 95 ; cotmen's nouses in, 95 ; 
R. Souter, bailiff of, 97 ; the ' Allers ' 
at, 99 ; tenants of, 99 ; communion 
bread furnished by villagers in turn, 
100 ; fines for cutting brushwood, 100; 
aletasters, etc., 100 ; stocks, branks, 
etc., 101; surnames in parish, 102 ; water 
supply, 111 ; shooting on moor, 111 ; 
deaths by exposure on fells, 111; charms 

Edmundbyers continued. 
still in use, 113 ; painted glass by 
Baguley, 114 ; value in 'old taxation, 
115 ; belonged to Alan Bruncoste, 
temp. ' Boldon Buke,' 89 ; granted to 
church and canons of Guisbrough, 89 n ; 
grant of lands, to and by John de 
Cotum, 90 ; bequest to poor, 109 ; oxen 
used for ploughing, 110 ; flail still in 
use, 110 ; the sickle, 110 ; industries of 
110 ; various spellings of name, 84; ex- 
tracts from Feodarium Prior. Dunelm., 
87, et seq. 

Edmundbyers church, 84 ; dedicated to 
St. Edmund, 87 ; windows in, 84 ; 
dimensions of, 86 ; aumbry and 
piscina, 87 ; medieval grave covers, 87, 
108 ; stone altar slab, 87, 108 ; rectory 
house, 109 ; rectors, etc., of, 87 et seq. ; 
parishioners of, 88 ; Robert Snowball, 
parish clerk of, 88 n ; Christopher 
Hurde and George Lumley, church- 
wardens, 88 n ; communion plate, 115; 
bells, 115 ; collected for ' Great Plague,' 
115; registers of, 104; chancel arch 
of church, etc., 107 ; font, 108 

Edmundbyers, John de, 99 

Egbert, archbishop of York, 43 

Egelwin, bishop, flight from Lindisfarne, 

Egfrid, king, granted site at Wear mouth 
for monastery, 31 ; stycas of, found at 
Heworth, 43 

' Eldomar,' a Christian name, 120 

Elison, John, 125 ; William, 124 

Ellingham, the Cliffords of, 1*20 n 

Elliott, James, of Harbottle, ' Jimmy the 
brave,' 66 

Elmeden, sir William, knight, 129 

Elryngton, Robert, 119 

Elton church, near Stockton, 107 

England and Scotland, a day of truce 
kept between, 127' 

Enmath, William, J27 

Enoteson, John, parish chaplain in 
Ovingham church, 126 

Eryngton, John, 119, 121 ; his horse fell 
on him, 121 

Escomb pre-conquest church, 36 

Estates, proofs of age of heirs to, in 
Northumberland, 116 

Ethelbald, abbat of Jarrow and Wear- 
mouth, 46 

Eure, of Witton, William lord, pro- 
perty of Jarrow church, granted to, 

Evesham, Aldwin of Winchcombe 
brought to Jarrow from, 50 

' Ewe bouts,' Westoe, 28 

Exchange of publications, xxvi 




Fabyane, William, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 ; present at synod in 1507, 
88 n 

' Fat field,' Westoe, 28 

Featherstonhaugh, reverend Walker, on 
Edmundbyers, 79 ; rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Felton, Elizabeth, daughter of sir John, 
married sir Edmund Hastings, knight, 
130 n 

Fenwick [Fenwyk], Alan de, knight, 
sheriff of Northumberland, 124 ; proof 
of age of Henry de, son and heir of 
Alan de, 124 ; born at Alnwick and 
baptized in St. Michael's church, 124 ; 
sir Henry de, knight, 124 ; John, of 
Wallington, 62 ; sir John married 
Elizabeth de Heton, 124 n ; Roger, 119, 
125, 126 

Feodarium Prior. Dunelm., extracts from, 
relating to Edmundbyers, 87 

Ferara, Andrea, 9 

' Ferara/ sword blades, 3 

Ferguson, Richard Saul, F.S.A, etc., 
obituary notice of, 75 ; mayor of 
Carlisle, 76 ; his travels in Egypt, etc., 
76; contributions to transactions of 
society, 78 

Field names at Westoe, 23 

Finchale, Jarrow granted to Robert de 
Walleworth in lieu of, 54 

Fitz Henry, John, 129 

Flail still in use in Edmundbyers, 

Flesshewer, Robert, 123 

Flint flakes found in Edmundbyers, 

Forbin, Claude de, 12 ; escape from Ply- 
mouth, 13; capture of English mer- 
chantmen by. 14 

Ford, sir William, of Ford, 1 17 n ; [Furde] 
John, 129 

Ford castle, sir John Manners slew 
William Heron before, 122 n 

Forster, colonel, of Etherston, 62 ; George, 
donation to museum, xiv ; John, rector 
of Edmundbyers, 88 ; Joseph, rector of 
Edmundbyers, 88 ; Robert, killed John 
Mayre, 122 ; William, 126 ; sir William 
62 ; of Bamburgh, 62 

Fossor, prior, windows of time of, 56 

' Fowler's Close.' South Shields, 22 n 

Fox. Margaret, 120 ; Thomas, 123 

' Foxes,' sword blades of Passau and 
Solingen known in England as, 3 

Friduin, abbat of Jarrow and Wear- 
mouth, 46 

Frost, Alice, 24 ; Lewis, 21 ; Sarah, 24 



Gabefore, proof of age of Robert, son 
and heir of Alice, wife of Nicholas, 
128; born in Newcastle and baptized 
in All Saints church, 128 ; owned pro- 
perty in Gateshead, 128 n 

' Gairdmakers,' makers of sword hilts, 
a guild in Edinburgh, 3 

Galon, Hugh, 121 ; king's coroner for 
Northumberland, 122 ; Katharine, 
daughter of John, betrothed to William 
Cutour, 125 ; Thomas, parish priest of 
St. Nicholas's church, Newcastle, 123 : 
William, 121 

Gateshead, Robert Gabefore owned pro- 
perty in, 128 

Guthrie, Thomas de, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Geology of Edmundbyers district, 80 

Gibson, John, donation to museum, xiv., 
alderman, T. G., donation to museum, 
xiv; Roger, 118 

Gilbert, abbat of ' Mewros,' 121 

Gilpin, Bernard, parson of Houghton, 

Glass works, etc., at South Shields, 26 

Glastonbury, four churches at, 43 n 

Golde, John, 120 

Gondibour, prior of Carlisle, revived 
geometrical tracery, 58 

Gordon riots and Northumberland militia, 

Gosforth, north, sir Alexander Surtees 
died, seised of, 117 n 

Graper, Agnes, daughter of Thomas, 
married John Hesilrig, 125 n 

Gray, proof of age of Thomas, knight, 
son and heir of Thomas, knight, 119 ; 
born in middle gate house of Alnwick 
castle, and baptized in St. Michael's 
church there, 119 and n ; married Alice, 
daughter of Ralph, lord Neville, 119 n ; 
beheaded for conspiracy against Henry 
V., 119 n ; immortalized by Shake- 
speare, 119 n ; Thomas, of Heton, 
knight, 120 ; William, 123 (See also 

Graystok, Lady de, 119 

' Great Plague,' collected in Edmundbyers 
and Muggleswick for, 115 

Green's Estate, South Shields, 20 

Green of Wilby, Suffolk, pedigree of, fa- 
cing page 28 

Green, Charles Henry, 27 ; Marshall Yeo- 
man, 27 ; Robert of South Shields, 23 ; 
vicar of Longhorsley, 26 ; vicar of All 
Saints, Newcastle, 27 ; Robert Yeoman, 
27 ; Thomas, 26 ; Rev. Thomas Robin- 
son, vicar of Byker, 27 




Greenwell, John, rector of Edmundbyers, 

88 ; present at visitations, 88 n ; Rev. 

William, on Edmundbyers, 89 
Grey, Captain, 63 ; lord, 62 (see also Gray) 
Gurleneghbur, William, 126 
Guisbrough, Edmundbyers granted to 

church and canons of, 89 n 
Guthred, king, 49 
Gybson, Katharine, daughter of John, of 

Chatton, 120 
Gylett, John, of Egglescliffe, owned land 

in Edmundbyers, 91 
Hall, George, 21 ; John de, chaplain of All 

Saints, Newcastle, 127 
Halmote court rolls, Durham, extracts 

from, 93 
Halton church, William de Carnaby 

baptized in, 120 
Halton, John, 126; Sir John de, Sir 

William de Carnaby married Margaret, 

daughter of, 121 
Haltwhistle (see Hautwesyll) 
Harbottle, Gilbert de Umframvill born in 

castle of, 121 ; baptized in church of, 

121 ; John Lysle built a new house 

at, 121 
Hardyng, master Kobert, doctor in 

theology, a solemn sermon by, 127 
Harle. George, and another, action against, 

21 (See also Herle) 
Hart, Thomas de Clifford born at, 120 
Hartlepool, a ship in danger at, 127 
Harton vill granted to Jarrow, 50 
Hastynges, proof of age of Edmund, son 

and heir of John, knight, 129; born at 

Braunspath, and baptized in church 

there, 129 

Haswell (see Heswell) 
Hauson, Robert, 126 
Hautewesyll, Thomas, 123 
Hawdenstank, a day of truce between 

England and Scotland, kept at, 127 
Heathery-bum cave, the, Weardale, 82 
Hebburn vill granted to Jarrow, 50 
Heburn, Robert, 117 ; [Hebburn], Robert, 

mayor of Newcastle, 127 n ; will of, 

127 n ; buried in All Saints, Newcastle. 

128 n ; Thomas, obtained dispensation 
for his marriage with Isabel, widow of 
William Strother, 128 n (See also 

Hedle, Robert de, 116,117 
Hedwin (See Hidewyn, Hydewyn) 
Hed worth vill granted to Jarrow, 50 
Heggman, Adam, king's bailiff for North- 
umberland, 124 

Henry IV., his grant of privileges to 
Newcastle, 128 n ; IV. V. and VI., proofs 
of age of heirs to estates in North- 
umberland in the reigns of, 116 

Heppell, Richard, 125 

Herbotell, John, 124 (See also Har- 

Herle, John, 119, 125, 126 ; married 
Katharine Hobson, 124 (See also 

.Heron, Edmund, master of Bolton, 122; 
Elizabeth, 121 lis ; Katherine, 125 ; 
Nicholas, 120, 121 ; son and heir of 
Thomas, 117 ; born at Meldon and 
baptized in Meldon church, 117 ; proof 
of age of William, son and heir of John, 
of Thornton, 122; born in Whyttyngham 
and baptized in church there, 122; slain 
before Ford castle by Sir John Manners 
of Etal, 122 n 

Heryng, Eldomar, 120 

Hesilrig, John, married Agnes, daughter 
of Thomas Graper, 125 ; Thomas, 121 ; 
proof of age of, son of Thomas, 124 ; 
born at Eselyngton and baptized in 
Whittingham church, 124 ; son of 
John, married Agnes, 125 

Hesylrigg, Thomas, and John Swan, a 
' love day ' between, 122 

Heswell, Richard de, ' capellanus,' 99 

Heton, Elizabeth de, daughter of sir Alan 
de, married sir John de Fenwick, 
124 n ; Henry de, knight, two daughters 
of, coheiresses, 117; proof of age of 
Margaret, daughter of Henry de, knight, 
119; born at Chillingham castle and 
baptized in Chillingham church, 119 

Heworth chapel, 43 ; stycas of Egfrid, 
found at, 43 

Hexham, John de, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Hexham, St. Wilfrid's ' conf essio ' at, 38 ; 
altar slab of priory church of, 114 ; 
spoliation of, 114 ; militia riot at, in 
1761, 64, 65 

Hibburne, proof of age of John, son and 
heir of Thomas, 127 ; born in New- 
castle, and baptized at All Saints, 127 

Hidewyn, Robert de, 99 

' High-side ' windows, 38 

Hinton, Henry, rector of Edmundbyers, 

Hirst, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Hobson, Katharine, daughter of Richard, 
married John Herle, 124 

Hodgkin, Thomas, obituary notice of late 
chancellor Ferguson, 75 

Hodgson, J. C., ' Proofs of age of heirs to 
estates in Northumberland in the 
reigns of Henry IV., Henry V., and 
Henry VI.,' 116 

Hoggesson [Hogysson], John, 121, 122 

Holand, Joan, daughter of John, 118 

Holbeck, Robert, 126 



Holgreve, William, 116 

Holmes, She ri ton, resignation of, as 
treasurer, ix ; donations to museum, xiv, 
bis ; obituary notice of, 72 ; born in 
Wellington street, South Shields, 72; son 
of Ralph Holmes, 72 ; educated in 
Wharfedale, 72 ; articled to John 
Bourne, 72 ; contributions to Arcliaeo- 
logia Aellana. 73 

Homer, Thomas, taken and led to Norham 
castle, 120 

Horsley, Eleanor, daughter of John of 
Outchester, Thomas de Wetewode, 
married, 127 n ; John, 129 ; taken by 
the Scots, 120; Richard, 129 

Horton, Lady de, 118 

Houghton, Bernard Gilpin, parson of, 105 

Hurde, Christopher, churchwarden in 
1578 of Edmund byers, 88 n 

Housesteads, loan of antiquities from, xiii 

Howard, sir Charles, of Redesdale, 63 

Howetson, William, 126 

Huetbercht, elected abbat of Jarrow 
and Wearmouth, 45 ; invested by bishop 
Ac6a, 45 

Huker, John, 99 

Hunstanworth church, 86 

Hunter, Francis, rector of Edmundbyers, 
88 ; buried in chancel of church, 89 ; 
registers said to have been burnt, temp,, 
104 ; gave communion cup, 109 ; 
Isabella, sister and heir of William, 
tenant of land at Edmundbyers, 97, 127 

Hurworth, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Hutchinson's description of Jarrow 
church, 59 

Hutton, John, grant of land to, 23 

Hydewyn, William, 116, 117 

Hyndeley, William, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Hyndmars, Alan, 118 

' Incuneningum/ 43 

Inscriptions, Roman, from Jarrow, 30 ; 

pre-Conquest, Jarrow, 45 et seq. 
lot, William, 126 
Islay island, famous for sword hilts, 3 

Jacobite rising of 1715, Northumberland 

militia called out in, 63 
Jarrow, etc., country meeting at, vii 
Jarrow, probable site of Roman fort but 

few traces, 30 ; arrival of Ceolf rid at, 30 ; 

obtained letter of privilege from pope 

Sergius, 44 ; ' Bede's chair,' 47 ; J. T. 

Micklethwaite's description of chair, 

Jarrow continued. 

48 n ; monastery sacked by Danes, 49; a 
reputation for bell-founding, 49; 'passes 
out of notice for a long time,' 49; church 
burnt by William of Normandy, 50 ; 
Aldwin of Winchcombe brought to, 50 ; 
with its chapelries reserved to prior of 
Durham, 54 ; vill of Jarrow, etc., granted 
to church at, 50 

Jarrow church, 26 ; chancel of, little 
doubt represents Ceolfrid's church, 

36 ; original pre-Conquest windows, 

37 ; archbishop Lul asked to send glass- 
maker to, 37 ; round-headed aumbry 
in, 38 ; baluster shafts, 40 ; sequence of 
buildings at, 44 ; Biscop's journey to 
Rome, 44 ; ancient pictures, '44 ; 
tower, 60 ; 'a great problem,' 28 ; 
window in, 52 ; belfry windows, 53 ; 
later windows, 55 ; rood screen, 54 ; 
' low side ' window at, 57 ; traces of 
hinges, 57 ; carved bench ends, 58 ; 
carved screen, now removed, 58 ; frag- 
ments in private possession, 58 ; faculty 
obtained by parishioners for rebuilding 
nave, 59; taken down in 1866, and pre- 
sent nave built, 60 ; bells, 60 ; com- 
munion plate, 60 ; William Cuming, 
the younger, attack on, 54 ; assigned 
to prior William de Tanfield, 54 ; 
granted to ex-prior Robert de Walworth, 

Jarrow, monastery founded by Biscop, 
31 ; story of foundation, 32 ; dedica- 
tion stone, 34 ; pre-Conquest stones at, 
35, 46 et seq. ; monks of, transferred to 
Durham, 51 ; became subordinate cell 
to Durham, 51 ; suppressed at dissolu- 
tion. 58 ; property granted to William 
lord Eure, 58 ; glebe house to be re- 
paired by impropriators, 58 ; in bad 
repair in 18th century, 59; Hutchinson's 
description of, 59 ; church and monas- 
tery, 30 

Jarrow and Wearmouth, Huetbercht 
elected abbat of, 45 ; Cuthbert, abbat 
of, 45 ; Ethelbald and Friduin, 46 

' Jimmy the brave,' 66 

Johnson, proof of age of Elizabeth, wife 
of William, 118 ; John, letter of, 63 ; 
Lawrence, donation to museum, xiv 

Jolibody, Ralph, 99 

Kellawe, bishop, grant by, of land at 
Edmundbyers to church and canons of 
Guisbrough, 89 

Kelyng worth [Kyllyngworth], Adam, 
124, 126 



Kemylispath, Nicholas Turpin met earl 

of March at, 121 
Killingworth moor, militia on, in 1715, 63 

(See also Kelyng worth). 
Kirkeby, Robert, chaplain of St. Nicholas, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 123 
Kirkdale pre-Conquest inscription, 35 
Kirkely, Richard de, parson of Edmund- 

byers, 88 


Lambton, Nicholas, and others, grant of 
land to, 23 

Lang, John, 122 

Langwath, Robert, 125, 126, 127 

Lanternes des marts, 38 

Lavatory in centre of cloister court at 
Durham, 51 

Laverok, Robert, 128 

Laweson, William, 121, 124 

Lawrence, parson of Edmundbyers, 88 

Lay farm, Westoe, 20, 21 

Lay gate, the, Westoe, 23 

Lead Mining near Edmundbyers, 111 

Lee, John del, 117, 119 

Leonard, Mark, rector of Edmundbyers, 88 

Leschman, prior, revived geometrical 
tracery. 58 

Liddell, Henry, letter to, in 1715, 63 

' Light Horse,' the, in Northumberland in 
1662, 62 

Lilburn, sir John Lilburn, died seised of, 
119 n 

Lilburn, sir John, knight, married Mar- 
garet de Presson, widow of sir Thomas 
Gfey of Heton, 119 n\ died seised of 
Lilburn, 119 n\ Thomas, 124 (See 
also Lylburn) 

Lindisfarne sacked by Danes, 49 ; bishop 
Egelwin's flight from, with body of St. 
Cuthbert, 50 

Linton, Robert, 21 

Lisle, John de, 120 ; treaty with John 
Wedryngton, knight, about matters in 
dispute, 123 ; sir Robert, of Woodburn 
and Felton, 121, 126 n ; William de Mit- 
ford married Margaret, daughter of. 
123 n ; high-sheriff of Northumberland, 
126 n ; Thomas, proof of age of, son 
and heir of Robert Lisle, knight, 126 ; 
born at Naffreton and baptized in 
Ovingham church, 126 (See also Lysle) 

Litster [Lytster], John, 126, 128 

Longhorsley, Robert Green, vicar of, 26 

'Lord's horse,' the, in Northumberland 
in 1662, 62 

' Love-day,' a, between Thomas Hesyl- 
rygg and John Swan, 122 

'Low-side' windows, 38; in Jarrow 
church, 57 

Lowther, Margaret, widow of Thomas de, 
married Sir William de Carnaby, a 
Yorkshireman, 121 

Lul, archbishop of Mainz, asked to send 
a glass-maker to Jarrow, 37 

Lumley, George, churchwarden in 1578 
of Edmundbyers, 88 n ; sir John, 
knight, sheriff of Northumberland, 125; 
slain on Easter eve, 1421,125 n; Thomas, 
son of John, knight, proof of age of, 
125 ; born at Morpeth, and baptized in 
St. Mary's church, 125 ; obtained revisal 
of attainder of his grandfather, 126 

Lylburn, proof of age of Henry de, son 
and heir of John de, knight, 118; 
[Lylleburn] John de, knight, 122 

Lysle, John, 120, built a new house at 
Harbottle, 121 ; saw a robber hanged 
at Prudhowe, 119 ; sir Robert, 120 ; 
Robert, junior, 120 (See also Lisle) 

Lyncoln, Thomas, 128 

Lynton, inq. p.m. taken at, 129 


Mainz, Lul, archbishop of, 37 

Malmesbury, 43 

Malta, Northumberland militia stationed 

at, in 1900, 67 

Malteby, William de, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 
'Malvesy' [' Malmesy '], 'wine of,' 124, 

Manners, sir John, of Etal, slew William 

Heron before Ford castle, 122 
March, earl of, Nicholas Turpin met, at 

Kemylispath, 121 

Marley, T. W., donation to museum, xiv 
Marriage of priests, 105 n 
Masterman, Cleveland, 27 
Mather, Philip E., on 'An old local 

family's estate,' 20 
Maudit [Mawdit], Weland [Wyland], 

Maughan, Christopher, of South Shields, 


Maynevyll, Thomas, 122 
Mayre, John, killed by Robert Forster, 


Medecroft, William, 128 
Medehamsted, sacked by Danes in 870, 

49 n 
Medieval grave covers, Edmundbyers 

church, 87, 108 
Medomsley church, 86 
Meldon church, Nicholas, son of Thomas 

Heron, baptized in, 117 
Melrose, Gilbert, abbat of, 121 
Members, honorary, xvi ; ordinary, xvii- 

xxv ; deceased, obituary notices of, 72 



Micklethwaite, J. T., on Monkwearmouth 
church, 41 n ; his description of ' Bede's 
chair,' 48 n 

Middleton, Thomas, 120 

Milburn, Ralph, 21 

Milford, captain, charged with burning 

c lord Widdrington's house and com- 
mitted to Newgate, 17 

Militia or trained bands,' 63 

Militia, bill of, 1689, 62; ballot, 64; 
Dryden's lines on the, 71 ; riot at 
Hexham of, in 1761, 64 ; Coquetdale 
notes on the old Northumberland, 

Mitford, proof of age of John, son and 
heir of William, 122; born at New- 
castle arid baptized in St. Nicholas's 
church there, 122 ; fell into font, 123 ; 
John, senior, 124 ; sir John, 123 ; 
John of Coupon, 124 ; married Con- 
stance, daughter of sir Eobert Ogle, 

123 n; [Mitteford] John de, of Pont- 
eland, 122 ; sir John de, knight of 
the shire for Northumberland, 123 n ; 
Richard, Katherine Clark betrothed to, 

124 ; William de, married Margaret, 
daughter of sir Robert Lisle of Wood- 
burn and Felton, 123 

Monkton, vill of, granted to Jarrow, 50 
Monkwearmouth church, tower of, 39 ; 
window of, 53 ; baluster shafts, 40 ; 
baptistery (?), 41 ; bishop G. F. Browne's 
notes on, 41 n ; J. T. Micklethwaite 
on, 41 n 

Monkwearmouth and its chapelries re- 
served to the prior of Durham, 55 

* Morel Gray,' a horse called, 126 

* Mortuary hilt,' the, 2 ; popular during 

Commonwealth, 2 

Muggleswick, collected in, for sufferers 
from ' Great Plague,' 115; large barrow 
in park, 83 ; grange, 98 ; mill, 100 
Museum, donations to the, xiii 
Musgrave, John, 128 ; Robert, 125, 126 

Nafferton, Thomas Lisle, born at, 126 

Nevill, Ralph, first earl of Westmorland, 
Gilbert de Umfravill, married Anne, 
daughter of, 122 

Newbigin, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Newcastle, duke of, 62 

Newcastle, flooded by ' great abundance 
of rain and overflow of the sea,' 128 ; 
grant of privileges to, by Henry IV., 
128 n ; inquisitions post mortem taken 
at king's castle of, il6 et seq. ; Rodys, 
king's justice of the peace, sat in le 
Gildhall,' 127 ; William Rede, keeper of 

Newcastle continued. 
' le Newgate,' 127; ' Scein Joncheir,' 123; 
agreement concerning matters in dis- 
pute between John Wedryngton, knight, 
and Robert Lisle, 123 ; mayors of : 
Robert Eden, 21 n ; Robert Hebburn, 
127 n 

Newcastle Black Gate museum, pre- 
Conquest stones from Jarrow in, 46 

Newcastle All Saints church, a solemn 
sermon by master Robert Hardyng in, 
i27 ; Thomas Woller, chaplain at, 127 ; 
Thomas Wetewode, baptized in, 126 ; 
also John Hibburne, 127; John Hall, 
chaplain, 127 ; Robert Hebburn buried 
in, 127 7i ; Robert Gabefore baptized 
in, 128 ; reverend Robert Green, vicar 
of, 27 

Newcastle, St. Nicholas's church, John 
Mitford born at, and baptized in, 122 ; 
Thomas Galon, parish priest of, 123 ; 
Robert Kirkeby, chaplain, chantry of 
the Trinity in, 123 

New Dean close. Westoe, 23 

Newton, Robert, donation to museum, 
xiii ; [Neuton], Robert, 125 ; [Neweton], 
Robert de, 124 

Norham castle, Robert Homer taken 
and led to, 120 

Northumberland, earl of, 62 ; commander 
of Northumberland militia, 64 

Northumberland, proofs of age of heirs 
to estates in, 116 

Northumberland, high sheriffs of, sir 
Robert Lysle, 126 n ; Thomas Surtees, 
117 ; sir Alan de Fenwyk, 124 ; king's 
bailiff of, Adam Heggman. 124 ; king's 
coroners for, Hugh Galon, 122; Simon de 
Weltden, 124 ; sir John de Mitford, 
knight of shire for, 123 n 

Northumberland coast, descent of Jean 
Bart on, in 1691, 12 ; destroyed about 
200 houses, 16 

Northumberland Fusiliers, the, 71 

Northumberland, levy of, 1662, 61 ; 
muster of force on Abberwick moor in 
1538, 61 

Northumberland Militia, Coquetdale notes 
on the old, 61 ; called out in 1715, 63 ; 
embodied in 1759. 64; under command of 
earl of Northumberland, lord-lieutenant, 
60 ; pipes of, 65 ; lord Algernon Percy, 
colonel, 65 ; the Gordon riots and the, 65; 
Thomas Pape and, 66 ; youth of Alnwick 
and, 66 ; in quarters at Andover, 67 ; 
officers' commissions, 67 ; now [1900] 
stationed at Malta, 67 

Norton, pre-conquest windows in tower 
of, 51 

Norton, John, 129 



Officers, etc., of society for 1900, xv 

Ogle, the earl of, 62; Lady de, 118; 
Alice, 129 ; William, son of, 129 ; sir 
Kobert, John de Mitford married 
daughter of, 123 n 

' Old Dean close,' Westoe, 23 

Oliver, Kichard, parishioner of Edmund- 
byers in 1501, 88 n 

Orde, proof of age of John, son and heir 
of William Orde of Newbiggin in 
Norhamshire, 128 ; born in New- 
castle and baptized in St. John's church, 
128 (See also Hurde, Ourde, Urde) 

Orm's inscription at Kirkdale, Yorkshire, 

Ormesby St. Margaret's, collection in, for 
sufferers from French descent on North- 
umberland coast, 17 

Ormesby, Thomas, vicar of Corbridge, 

Oswy, king, 33 and n 

Ourde, John, 121 

Ovingham church, John Enoteson, 
parish chaplain of. 126 ; Thomas Lisle 
baptized in, 126 

'Ox Night fold,' Westoe, 23 


Pape, Thomas, clockmaker, of Rothbury, 
66 and n 

Parish books of Rothbury and Alwinton, 

Parlebyn, John, 123 

'Pas d'a~ne,' sword guard for first finger, 

Passau, sword blades of, 3 ; armourers' 
gild at, 5 

Paxston, Robert, 118 

Pedigree of Green of Wilby, Suffolk, 
facing p. 28 ; of Blythman of Westoe, 

' Pedom's oak,' near Edmundbyers, 
belonging to Sherburn hospital, 92, 98 

Penreth, Robert, 126 

Percy, captain, 63 ; lord Algernon, colonel 
of Northumberland militia, 65 ; sir 
Henry, 123 ; Henry de, earl of North- 
umberland, 119 ; late earl, 119, 122 ; 
sir Thomas, 124 

Percy d'Athell, Henry, 125 

Pethe, Robert, 117 

Pipes of Northumberland militia, 65 

Piscina, Edmundbyers church, 87 

Pittington, James Peason, vicar of, 89 

Plummer, William, 127 

Plymouth, escape of Jean Bart and 
another prisoner from, 13 

' Popish masshouse ' at Sunderland, 
wrecked by mob in 1745-6, 48 

Porter, John, 118 

* Porticus,' Monkwearmouth church, 39 

Pre-Conquest stones at Jarrow, 46 et seq. 

Pre-Conquest churches, By well Saint 
Andrew, 37; Canterbury, 41 n ; Escomb, 
36 ; Hexham, 38 ; Jarrow, 26 ; Monk- 
wearmouth, 39 ; Norton, 51 

Presson, Margaret de, widow of sir Thomas 
Grey of Heton, sir John Lilburn 
married, 119 n 

Prestewyk, John, 117 

Preston [Simonside], granted to church 
of Jarrow, 50 

Pre- Reformation bells, Jarrow church, 

Pretender, troop of horse raised at South 
Shields for, in 1715, 24 

Priests, marriage of, 105 n 

Proofs of age of heirs to estates in 
Northumberland, 116 

Prudhoe, John Lisle saw a robber hanged 
at, 119 

Publications, societies exchanging, xxvi 

Pykdene, John, 117 


Raa, William, 121 (See also Rea) 
Ralph, lord Neville of Raby, sir Thomas 

Grey married Alice, daughter of, 119 n 
Rathbery, Ely, 117 
Raymes, Nicholas, 117 
Raynaldson, William, 127 
Rea, John, 128 (See also Raa) 
Reade, Robert, 126 ; [Rede] Thomas, 

122; William, 129; keeper of 'le 

Newgate/ Newcastle, 127 (See also 

Redesdale found but one horse in 1697, 

Reed, colonel John, of ' Chipchase castle, 

66 n (See also Reade) 
Registers of Edmundbyers said to have 

been injured in fire, 104 
Registration, certificate of, xxiii 
Renwick, W. H., donation to museum, 


Reports, annual, vii et seq. 
Richardson, William, 121 
Robert's law, Northumberland, muster on, 

in 1538, 61 
Robson, Henry, 125 
Roddam, John, of Little Houghton, 62 ; 

[Rodom] William, 122 
Rodes, John, 128 ; [Rodys] John, king's 

justice of peace, 127 
Rogerson, George, 69 ; John, 98 
Romans in Upper Weardale, 82 



Roman altars from Bollihope and East- 
gate, 82 ; coins, etc., from around 
Stanhope, 82 ; coin found at Jarrow, 

Roman fort at Jarrow. few traces 
of, 30 ; at Wallsend, 31 ; at South 
Shields, 31; inscriptions from Jarrow. 

Rome, Benedict Biscop's fifth journey to, 

Rothbury, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Rothbury, parish books of, and militia, 
68 ; Thomas Pape, clockmaker at, 66 ; 

Rotherfeld, John, drowned in Tyne, 
126 ; William, 126 

Rotherford, Gilbert, 129 ; proof of age of 
Joan wife of Robert de, 118; William, 
125 Us 

Roughside township, near Edmundbyers, 
81, 113 

Rydell, Robert. 130 

Ry 11, John, 118 

Sabram, William, 126 

Sadler. Agnes, widow of William, tenant 

at Edmundbyers, 97 ; Hugh, 99 
St. Edmund, church of Edmundbyers 

bears name of, 87 

St. Ignatius church, Sunderlancl, 112 
Saintpyll, John, 127 
SANCTE PALVS (sic) ORV (sic) Pao (sic) 

NOBia (sic), bell inscription, Jarrow 

church, 60 

Sandyford lane, Westoe, 28 
Savage, Rev. H. E., ' Jarrow Church and 

Monastery,' 30 
Scaleby, John, 123 
Scarbrough, lord, 63 
' Scein Joncheir,' Newcastle, 123 
Schaftowe, Tnomas, 120 
Schels. Thomas del. 99 
'Schiavona,' name of Venetian basket- 

hilted sword, 1 
'Schiavoni,' Dalmatian body guard of 

duke of Venice, 1 
Schittlyngton, dom. Alan de, master of 

Sherburn hospital, 98 
Scotch, John Horsley taken by the, 120 
Scotland, England and, a day of truce 

kept between, 127 
Scott, sir Gilbert G., built nave of Jarrow 

church in 1866, 60 
Scryfwyn, Margaret. 120 
Seeton, Adam de, 116 
Seham, John de, rector of Edmundbyers, 


Selby, Edmund de, 122 
Seman, John, 127 

Sergius, pope, granted letter of privilege 

to Jarrow, 44 
Serjant, John, 120 
' Seven Years War,' the, 65 
Shafto, Thomas, 117 (see also Schaftowe) 
Shakespeare immortalized sir Thomas 

Grey, knight, 119 n 
Shawden, Henry de Lylburn, born in, 119 

Sherburn hospital, dom. Alan de Schitt- 
lyngton, master of, 98 ; Pedom's Oak,' 
near Edmundbyers, belonged to, 92 

Shields, South, country meeting at, vii ; 
Roman camp at, 31 ; an old estate at,, 
20 ; school founded at, in 1769, 26 ; 
fairs at, 26; St. Hild's church, 26; 
troop of horse raised at, in 1715, for 
Pretender, 24; glass works, etc., at, 26; 
town hall erected in 1768, 26 

Shotley church, 86 

Shotley Bridge make, sword of, with 
wolf mark, 4 

Sigfrid, 33 

Skelly, Nicholas, 121 

Smith, Christopher, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 ; buried in churchyard at east 
end of church, 89 ; [Smyth] Henry, 129 

Smithson, prior, revived geometrical 
tracery, 58 

Snowball, Robert, parish clerk of Ed- 
mundbyers, present at visitation, 88 n 

Societies exchanging publications, xxvi 

Sockburn, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Solingen, sword blades of, 3 

Soppath, Robert, 118 

Souter, Robert, bailiff of Edmundbyers, 97 

Southampton, Sir Thomas Grey beheaded 
at, for conspiring against Henry V., 
119 w 

Southdene tower, Gateshead, armoury at, 

South Shields (see Shields, South) 

South wick vill given to Jarrow. 51 

Spofford, Thomas, 118 

Sprague, Robert, rector of Edmundbyers, 

Stamf ordham, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Statutes of the society, xxviii 

Stephenson, William, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 88 

Stocks, etc., Edmundbyers, 101 

Stoddart, William, 127 ; [Stodhyrd], 
William, 123 

Stranton church, Decorated window in, 57 

Straungways, Robert, 129 

Strother [Stroythei], Elizabeth, daughter 
of Alan del, 122 ; Isabel, widow of 
William, married, by dispensation, 
Thomas Hebburn, 128 n ; John, 120, 121; 
John del, 122; Robert, 129; his daughter, 
Katherine, married to John Dey, 129 



Stycas of Egfrid found at Heworth, 43 

Substitutes for militia, 68 

Sunderland, 'popish masshouse' wrecked 
at, in 1745-6, 48 ; St. Ignatius church, 

Surnames in Edmundbyers, 105 

Surtees, sir Alexander, knight, 116, 117 n; 
John de Dal ton, chaplain to, 117 ; 
Thomas, 117 ; seneschal, 98 ; [Surteys] 
proof of age of Thomas, son and heir 
of Alexander, 116 

Swan, John, a 'love-day' between Thomas 
Hesylrigg and, 122 ; Thomas, 126 

Swords, notes on four basket-hilted, be- 
longing to the society, 1 

Swynburn, Kobert, 124, 128 


Taillour, John, of Naffreton, killed by a 

waggon wheel, 126 
Talbot, John, 123 
Tanfield, William de, prior of Durham, 

Jarrow assigned to, 54 
Tempest, Kobert, 121 
Terraced cultivation in Weardale, 82 
Thompson, G. H.. donation to museum, 


Thornton, Roger, inquest, 128 n 
Thorpe, archdeacon, 113 
Throkelaw, Thomas de, 120, 124 
Throp, John del, 118 
'Tiger,' the, captured by Claude de 

Forbin, and recaptured, 14 
Toledo mark of crescents and face, 8 
Tomlinson, W. W., 'Jean Bart's descent 

on the coast of Northumberland in 

1691,' 12 

Torthelm, abbat, 31 
Treasurer's report for 1899, ix ; balance 

sheet, x 
Trevor, bishop, grant of fairs by charter 

to South Shields in 1770 by, 26 
Trollop, Henry, 124 
Turpin [Turpyn], Nicholas, 117, 121 ; 

met earl of March at Kemylispath, 121 
Tynemouth castle and priory, 26 ; gover- 
nor's house, etc., 26 ; haven, fort at, 



Umframville, proof of age of Gilbert de, 
son and heir of Thomas de, knight, 121 ; 
born in Herbotyll castle and baptized 
in Herbotyll church, 121 ; married 
Anne, daughter of Ralph Nevill, 1st 
earl of Westmorland, 122 n ; slain at 
Baugy in Anjou, 122 n 

Unthanke, Robert, 129 

Urde, William de, Richard Crawcestre 

married daughter of, 120 
Usher, Roger, 122 


Vaux, Robert, 125 

Venice, basket-hilted sword first used at, 1 
Vere, Robert, 123 

Vitellius, Aulus, coin of, discovered at 
Jarrow, 30 


Walcher, bishop, brought Aldwin to Jar- 
row, 50 ; endowed it with vills of 
Jarrow, etc., 50 
Wallis (see Wellys, Welles) 
Wallsend, Roman station at, 31 
Walton, John, 117; Michael, rector of 

Edmundbyers, 88 

Walworth, Richard, rector of Edmund- 
byers, 89 ; Robert de, Jarrow granted 
to, in lieu of Finchale, 54 
Wear, site at mouth of, for monastery, 

31 ; first stone church built at, 31 
Weardale, upper, Romans in, 82 
Wearmouth, ruined church and vill of,, 
given to Jarrow, 51 ; Jarrow and, 
Huetbercht elected abbat of, 45 ; 
Cuthbert, abbat, 46 ; Ethelbald and 
Friduin, 46 
Webster, Henry, 127 

Wedryngton, John, knight, and Robert 
Lisle, treating in church, about matters 
in dispute, 128 

Weetwood (see Wetewode, etc.) 
Wellys, Robert, of Emyldon, 118 
Welles, John, 127 ; Robert, 127 
Welden, Simon, 126 ; king's coroner for 
Northumberland, 124; sen. 119 jun. 
117, 119 

Westgate, entrenched camp at, 82 
Westoe, vill granted ' to Jarrow, 50 ; field 
names at, 23 ; customary tenants, 20 ; 
township of, division of, in 1618, 20 ; 
common pasture at, 20 ; common fields, 
action concerning, 21 ; order for div- 
ision of, 21 ; award, 21 
Westowe, Elf rid, the relic collector,' 

50 ; purloined Bede's bones, 50 
Wetewod, John, 117 ; and Margaret his 
wife, 126 ; heir to John de Bradford, 
succeeded to barony of Bradford, 
127 n ; proof of age of Thomas, son 
and heir of John, and Margaret his 
wife, 126 ; born at Newcastle and 
baptized in All Saints Church, 126 ; 
assumed name of Bradford, 127 n ; 
married Eleanor Horsley of Outchester,. 
127 n ; [Wettewodd] John, 120 



Wetwang [Wetewang, Wettewang], Ed- 
ward, rode to Scotland with- a large 
force, 122 ; Richard, 122 ; Robert, 128 

Whitchester, Nicholas Turpyn's house at, 

Whitchestre, Sir William, 120 

Whitfield [Whytfeld] John, 119, 120, Us 

Whittingham church, John Clerke, clerk 
of, 122, Robert Croxton, buried in 
churchyard, 122 ; John Brown, parish 
chaplain, 122 ; William Heron, born in 
and baptized in church of, 122 ; 
Thomas Hesilrig, baptized in, 124 

Whittonstall church, 86 

Widdrington village and castle, burnt by 
Jean Bart, 15 ; castle, Captain Milford 
charged with burning, and committed 
to Newgate, 17 

Widdrington, lord, 62 

Wilby, Suffolk, Greens, natives of, 24 

Wilfrid's ' confessio ' at Hexham, 38 

William the Conqueror burnt Jarrow 
church, 50 

William de St. Barbara, bishop of Dur- 
ham, attacked at Jarrow by William 
Cumin the younger, 54 

William of St. Carilef gave vill of South- 
wick to Jarrow, 51 ; transferred Jarrow 
monks to Durham, 51 

William, deacon and parson of Edmund- 
byers, 87 

William, lord Eure of Witton, property of 
Jarrow church granted to, 58 

Windows, 'low-side' and 'high-side,' 38 

Wingates, Robert, 128 (See also Wynd- 

Witches, 113 

Witton (see Wytton) 

Wodeburn, William de, 117 

Wolf, running, mark on swords, 3 ; of 
IShotley Bridge make, 4 

Woller, Thomas, chaplain, All Saints 
church, Newcastle, 127 

Wotton, John, 128; Roger, 119 

Woodhorn, etc., country meeting at, vii 

Wouldhave or Woodhaie, John, rector of 
Edmundbyers, 88 ; present at visita- 
tions, 88 n 

Wryht, William, 118 

Wyndgates, William de, 120 (See also 

Wytton John, captured a Scot, 120 


Yongur, John, 117 

York, Alcuin's description of, 43 n ; Eg- 
bert, archbishop of, 43 n 


Zote, William, 127 
















List of Plates ... ... ... ... ... ... vi 

Other Illustrations vii 

Contributions of Plates, etc viii 

Errata et Corrigenda ... ... ... ... ... ... ... viii 

Annual Report for 1900 ix 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet for 1 900 ... ... ... ... xiv 

Curators' Report for 1900 ... ... ... ... ... xiii 

Gifts to Museum in 1900 xvii 

Council and Officers for 1901 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xviii 

Honorary Members ... ... ... ... ... ... xix 

Ordinary Members ... ... ... ... ... ... xx 

Societies exchanging Publications ... ... ... ... ... ... xxix 

I. Obituary Notice of Dennis Embleton, M.D., a Vice -President of 

the Society. By F. W. Bendy, V.P 1 

II. Excavations at Chesters in September, 1900. By F. Haverfield. 

F.S.A 9 

III. Tynemouth Priory to the Dissolution in 1539, with Notes of 

Tynemouth Castle. By Horatio A. Adamson, V.P, ... 22 

IV. On 'Low Side Windows/ By the Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Vicar of 

Witton-le-Wear 42 

V. Researches into the Origin of the name Ogle. By Sir Henry A. 

Ogle, Bart 236 

VI. Local Muniments. By Richard Welford, V.P 247 

VII. Note on the Excavations at Chesters, September, 1900. By 

F. Haverfield 268 

VIII. The Boutflowers of Apperley. By the Rev. D. S. Boutflower, 

Vic^r of Monkwearmouth ... 269 

Index 287 



I. Portrait of the late Dr. Bmbleton, V.P , facing page 1 

II. Ruins of Tynemouth Priory from the west, showing the 

stone screen 25 

Ila. Interior of Chapel at east end of Choir of Tynemouth 

Priory Church 30 

III. 'Low Side Window,' Crosby Garret Church, Westmorland ., " 43 

IV. Light Pillar, Klosterneuberg ,,171 


V. Barnard Castle and Easington Churches ., 206 

VI. Cockfield and Haughton-le-Skerne Churches ,,208 

VII. Jarrow Church ,, 216 

VIII. Norton and Kedmarshall Churches 220 

IX. Ryton and Old Seaham Churches 226 

X. Stanhope and Whitburn Churches 229 

XL Trimdon Church 230 

XII. Winston Church... 232 

\<t7ba/f years 

duty for 6 c Q /T*?~~V Eiwiwrlhs- ** 
his Houfe fa/ ^ %/ (TO 
due And ended At Michaelmas loft 






Barber Surgeons Arms ... ... ... ... ... xxx 

Plans of Camp at Chesters, etc 9,14,15,20 

Plan of Camp at Birdoswald ..; 10 

Roman Altar inscribed DISCIPVLINAE AVGVSTI 21 

Tynemouth Priory Church : East end from S.E 28 

Tynemouth Priory Church : Plan of Chapel at East end of Choir ... 30 

Tynemouth Priory Church : the Ruins from the Castle Gateway before 1852 35 

Tynemouth Priory Church : the Ruins from the S.E. before 1852 ... 39 
' Low Side Windows ' : 

Acaster Malbis, Yorkshire ... ... ... 51 

Berkeley, Gloucestershire 49 

' Dalton-le- Dale, county Durham 209 

Durham St. Giles 

21 1 


Durham St. Margaret ... ... 

Etton, near Peterborough ... ... ... ... 60 

Flintham, Notts 48 

Jarrow, county Durham 58 

Medomsley, county Durham ... ... ... ... 218 

Melton Constable 65 

Othery, Somersetshire ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Pittington, county Durham 222 

Raydon, Suffolk 45 

Salford Priors, Warwickshire 44 

Staindrop, county Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... 228 

Wensley, Yorkshire ... ... ... 46 

Wiggington, Oxfordshire 66 

Winston, county Durham 233 

York, St. Cuthbert, Peasholme Green .. 54 

'High end' Window, Auckland St. Andrew's Church 206 

Tomb in Abbey, Church of Longpont, France 106 

Hearse in Church of Villeneuve, near Nantes 128 

Round Towers : 

Ardmore, Waterford 155 

Devenish, Fermanagh ... 155 

Kilree, Kilkenny 156 

St. Kevin's Kitchen, Glendalough 167 

Window, Donoughmore, Meath ... ... ... ... ... ... 159 



Thanks are given to the following : 

Antiquary, the Editor of the, for loan of block on p. 65. 

Curry, H. S., for plan of Chapel, p. 30, and drawing of east end of 

Tynemouth Priory, p. 28. 
Fowler, C. Hodgson, of Durham, for drawings of Flintham and Etton 'low 

side windows,' pp. 48 and 60. 
Hall, James, of Tynemouth, for loan of wood blocks of Tynemouth Priory, 

pp. 35 and 39. 

Haverfield, F., for plans of Camps, pp. 9, 10, 14 and 15. 
Hodgson, Mrs. E. H., of Newby Grange, for plan, etc., of Camp, p. 20. 
Hodgson, The Rev. J. F., for the numerous beautiful drawings illustrating 

his ' low side window ' paper, and for the blocks of Crosby Garret 

window (facing p. 43), Longfont tomb (p. 106), Villeneuve hearse 

(p. 128), and Klosterneuberg pillar (facing p. 171). 
Ruddock, R., of Newcastle, for the fine photograph of the late 

Dr. Embleton, plate I. 
Sussex Archaeological Society, for the loan of block, p. 66. 


Page 61, eighth line from top, for 'But besides, the' etc. read 'But besides 

the ' etc. 

Page 70, eighth line from top, for ' immemdorum ' read ' immundorum.' 
Page 70, tenth line from top, for ' euim ' read ' enim.' 

Page 71, seventh line from top, for ' Ixxiv, dorso 1 read 'Ixxiv, p. 224 dorse' 
Page 72, twelfth line from top, for ' lachymosum ' read ' lachrymarum.' 
Page 75, second line from top, for 'nobis cum ' read ' nobiscum.' 
Page 84, eighth line from top, for ' Loudres' read 'Londres.' 
Page 85, fifteenth line from top, for ' remanant ' read ' remaneant.' 
Page 88, eighth line from bottom, for 'feuille sou' read 'feuilles ou.' 
Page 89, sixth line from bottom, for { procession' read ' possession.' 
Page 92, fifth line from top, for 'castraejicerunt' read 'castra ejicerunt.' 
Page 92, second line from bottom, for 'dicentis. Ego,' etc. read 'dicentis, Ego,' etc. 
Page 93, sixth line from top, for cirei ' read ' cerei.' 
Page 93, nineteenth line from top, for * sere ' read ' sese. ' 

Page 93, fifteenth line from bottom, for ' quern ad modum ' read ' quemadmodum.' 
Page 95, first line of note, for ' Mr. Perret ' read * M. Ferret.' 
Page 103, third line from bottom, for ' abbey ' read ' abbacy.' 
Page 105, fifteenth line from bottom, for 'display ' read ' displays.' 
Page 112, thirteenth line from top, for ' egesti ' read egistiS 
Page 166, ninth line from top, for ' " after that," ' read ' after that.' 








Your Council presents its report under the shadow of the death of 
our late beloved sovereign, Queen Victoria, and in the midst of the 
demonstrations of loyalty exhibited in the proclamation of the 
accession of His Most Gracious Majesty, King Edward the Seventh. 

The beginning of a new century may afford opportunity to recall 
the- fact that our society, now entering upon its eighty-ninth year, 
has reached what may already be called a venerable age, for it is only 
eleven years short of being itself a centenarian. 

At its foundation, on the 6th day of February, 1813, the purpose 
of its institution was declared Co be : ' Inquiry into Antiquities in 
general, but especially into those of the North of England, and of the 
counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Durham in particular/ 
In pursuance of this object the Rev. John Hodgson, secretary of the 
society at that time, remarked: ' If any real gratification is to arise 
to us as individuals, or respectability is to attach to us as a body, 
they can only be effected by every member zealously contributing his 
portion of knowledge ; and each of us certainly has it in his power, 
by adding something to the common stock of information, to further 
the designs of the institution.' In how far that exhortation has been 
acted upon in the past might form an instructive topic for review, 
and if a retrospect of the past century shows that the design of the 
founders has been taken up from time to time by members whose 
eminent services have contributed to make the annals of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne worthy of their origin and 
intention, it will add to our responsibility as successors to such an 
inheritance and incite us to renewed effort in maintaining the 
efficiency of the institution committed to our care. 


In looking back upon our past achievements we shall realize how- 
great a field of enquiry remains unexplored notwithstanding the work 
already achieved. If much has been done, much more lies before us ; 
for the scope of our investigations has widened vastly with the 
process of the years ; and the specialization of pursuits has continually 
opened out fresh avenues for discovery. With such considerations we 
may confidently anticipate the prospect before us in the new period 
of time upon which we now enter. 

During the past year two parts, forming volume xxii of Archaeologia 
Aeliana, have been published, containing papers on swords in the 
society's possession, by Mr. Parker Brewis ; on a hitherto little known 
landing by the French on the coast of Northumberland, by Mr. W. W. 
Tomlinson ; on the descent of the Town Fields of South Shields, by 
Mr. Philip E. Mather ; and a very important paper on Jarrow, by the 
Bev. H. E. Savage. Coquetdale in its relation to the county militia 
forms the subject of a paper by Mr. D. D. Dixon ; the rector of 
Edmundbyers records the history of his parish ; and Mr. J. Crawford 
Hodgson, F.S.A., contributes some of the fruits of his research as 
editor of the new County History in J,he Proofs of Age produced at 
enquiries into heirships to estates in the fifteenth century. The 
volume also contains biographical articles on the late Mr. Sheriton 
Holmes, and the late Chancellor of Carlisle, respectively contributed 
by Mr. F. W. Dendy and Dr. Hodgkin. The ninth volume of the- 
Proceedings has also been completed, and one or two additional instal- 
ments of the Elsdon Parish Registers have been printed. 

26 new members have been elected and 354 are now enrolled ; but 
your Council has to deplore losses sustained by deaths during the 
year. These include the names of Sheriton Holmes, Alex. Shannon 
Stevenson, and Dr. Dennis Embleton, all three vice-presidents of the 
society. Their genial presence at our meetings and their continuous 
interest in our pursuits are now deprivations which will long be felt. 
In the death of the worshipful Chancellor Ferguson a loss well nigh 
irreparable has been sustained. Works of varied character, historical 
and archaeological, have followed each other from his pen in prolific 
succession, whilst his character and presence at once animated and 
linked together the two northern societies of Cumberland and 


Further losses in our membership include the names of the late 
Lord Armstrong, who welcomed our visits to his castles of Barn- 
borough and Cartington, and who received our members so hospitably 
at Cragside ; the late Mr. Joseph Oowen, whose interest in our 
proceedings never flagged, and of whom a happy recollection remains 
in the reception given to the society at Stella hall and the address to 
which we listened on that occasion. We have further to lament 
Mr. J. B. Clayton, the Rev. R. W. Dixon, and our genial friend and 
-colleague the late Mr. Hugh Taylor. Nor can we pause even here, 
for by the death of General Pitt- Rivers, an honorary member of our 
;society, the loss to archaeology is a national one. 

Our monthly meetings in the castle have been continued through- 
out the year with unabated interest and on more than one occasion 
our noble president has occupied the chair. Our meeting on 
April 25th was opened in the castle and adjourned to the lecture 
room of the Literary and Philosophical Society, courteously granted 
for the occasion, where Mr. J. P. Gibson exhibited his series of views 
illustrating recent discoveries on the Roman Wall, accompanying 
them with a most interesting personal description of each scene. Our 
July meeting was held at 2 p.m. with a view to meet the convenience 
of country members, but the numbers present hardly justified the 
innovation. Our out-door meetings have been held at Harbottle, 
Mount Grace, and at Norton. At Harbottle the excursion was most 
genially and ably conducted by Mr. D. D. Dixon who not only acted 
as guide throughout but read most valuable papers descriptive of the 
places visited. These included the castle of Harbottle, Alwinton 
church, Hepple Woodhouses pele and Hepple. The second meeting 
included visits to Kirk Levington, Orathorne, and Mount Grace 
priory, where members were met by Sir Lowthian Bell, the owner, 
and the remains were described by Mr. William Brown, F.S.A., 
the former owner. At the third meeting Norton, Billingham and Great- 
ham were visited under the guidance of the Rev. J. F. Hodgson and 
the Rev. G. W. Reynolds, whose valuable remarks will be found in 
our Proceedings. 

The important question of continued excavations on the line of 
the Roman Wall has occupied the attention of your council, and in 


order to ensure efficiency in future operations the excavation com- 
mittee has been re-constituted and a consideration of further 
investigations has been remitted to their special oversight. 

Cuttings made privately within the station of Cilurnum, across 
the axis formed by the junction of the line of the Wall with the walls 
of the camp, appear to reveal the existence of an earlier fosse. 

Since our last annual report Mr. Robert Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., 
one of our colleagues, has published an important treatise on The 
Defensive Armour and the Weapons and Engines of War of Medieval 
Times and of the Renaissance. We have been indebted to Mr. Clephan 
for directing special attention to this important subject of research 
and to its examples in the collection in possession of the society. 
In the present volume the lucid exposition in the text and the 
abundant illustrations with which it is accompanied contribute to 
a work on the accomplishment of which Mr. Clephan is to be 
heartily congratulated. 

During the year 1901 our district will be visited by the British 
Archaeological Association, when its members will be received by his 
Worship the Mayor of Newcastle -upon-Tyne. The event will be 
anticipated with pleasure by our members and it is hoped that by it, 
and by the participation and presence of distinguished archaeologists, 
a renewed impulse may be given to the study of antiquity in general 
and t) the elucidation of objects presented so abundantly in our own 
district in particular. 

Your council's record would be incomplete without an expression 
of the regret with which they have heard of the lamented death of 
the bishop of London. Although not latterly connected with our 
society, his reputation as a historian of itself claims our regard ; and 
his treatise on the tenures of the Northumberland Border brings 
home to us researches of the utmost value. To most of us, however, 
he will continue to be remembered by his long residence in North- 
umberland when, as the Rev. Mandell Creighton, he held the living of 
Embleton during a period of ten years, from 1874 to 1884. By his 
birth in the adjacent county of Cumberland, his education at the 
Durham Grammar School, and his long attachment to our own 
Northumberland Border we may well claim him as a conspicuous 
example of a north countryman. 


The following is the 


The number of members is now 354, comprising 349 ordinary 
and 5 life members. During the year 16 members have resigned, and 
we have lost 9 by death. The number of new members elected during 
the year is 26, including one life member. The new life member is the 
Trinity College Library, Dublin, and the composition of twelve 
guineas paid by it has been paid into the Post Office Savings Bank to 
the credit of the capital account, in accordance with the Council's 
order of the year 1890 to that effect. 

The total revenue for the year is 541 2s. 3d. (including the 
twelve guineas received from the Trinity College Library, Dublin), 
and the expenditure has been 503 8s. lOd. (adding the debit balance 
of 2 5s. 4d. brought forward from last year), leaving a balance in 
hand of 37 13s. 5d. In this connexion it is only right to point out 
that the printers' account for the printing of the 55th part of the 
Archaeologia Aeliana was not received in time to be passed at the 
November meeting of the Council, otherwise the balance would have 
been reduced by about 33 Os. Od. 

The amounts paid for printing the Archaeologia Aeliana and the 
Proceedings have been considerably less than last year: viz., for the 
former 45 7s. 3d., as against 141 14s. 6d., and for the latter, 49 
2s. Od., as against 75 7s. 6d. But there has been an exceptionally 
heavy outlay for the printing of Parish Registers, viz., 65 11s. 9d. 

The illustrations have cost 7 7s. 3d. more than last year. 

The Castle receipts show a falling off to the extent of 4 lls. Id., 
while those of the Black Gate are practically the same as last year. 
The increase in the expenditure on the Castle is accounted for by the 
purchase of three new bookcases, which cost 33 Os. Od.; while the 
extra outlay on the Black Gate arose from the necessity of putting 
the drains in proper order, which has cost the Society 10 16s. lid. 

The item of sundries shows a considerable reduction this year, 
being 76 6s. lOd., as against 95 5s. 5d. for 1899. A detailed 
statement is attached to the balance-sheet. 

R. S. Nisbet, hon. treasurer. 


R. S. Nislet, treasurer, in account with the Society of Antiquaries, 
Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 

31ST DECEMBER, 1900. 

Receipts. Expenditure. 

S. d. s. d. 

Balance 1st Januury, 1900 254 

Members' Subscriptions ... ... ... 382 4 

Books 17 15 3 20 8 4 

Castle ... 115 12 105 4 

Black Gate 25 11 41 19 


ArcJiaeologia Aeliana ... ... 45 7 3 

Proceedings ... ... ... ... ... 49 2 

Parish Registers 65 11 9 

Illustrations 35 7 7 

Museum 10 5 9 

Sundries 75 5 10 

Secretary, for Clerical Assistance 40 

Amount invested in Post Office Savings Bank 1212 

Balance in Bank 34 2 6 

Do. Treasurer's hands... 31011 

37 13 5 

5_41_2 __3 541 2 3 

2| per cent. Consuls ... .. ... ... ... 42 18 5 


As at 31st December, 1899 23110 

> Deposit this year 1212 

Interest '. 1 15 8 14 7 8 

37 18 8 

80 17 1 

Examined with Vouchers and found correct, 


Chartered Accountant. 
18th January, 1901. 


2>etatls of 

s. d. 



Carried forward 65 7 6 

Salaries ... 

Carried forward 24 7 


Brought forward 65 7 6 
Rent ......... 026 

Water rate 

Gas ......... 

Repairs ... .., ... 
Bookcases ...... 

Sundries : brushes, fire- 
wood, candles. &c. ... 

Coal ......... 

Income Tax ...... 


12 1 

1 10 6 

Brought forward 24 7 0- 


Water Rate 

Income Tax 

10 16 11 
1 2 6 

41 19 

105 4 


Subscriptions to Societies s. d. s. d. 

Parish Register Society 110 

Harleian Society 110 

Surtees Society 110 

' National Trust Society ... 110 


Terry's Campaigns of Alexander Leslie ... ... ... 0131 

County History of Northum berland, vol. 5 ... ... ... 160 

Calverley's Early Sculptured Crosses in tlie Diocese of Carlisle I 1 

Gilbank's Cistercian Abbey (Holme Cultrum) ... ... 050 

Lang's Scotland 015 

Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist 010 

Antiquary and Notes and Queries ... ... ... ... 104 

Clephan's Medieval Armour, &c. ... ... ... ... 076 

Feudal Aids 15 

Calendar of State Papers Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, vol. iii. 0150 

Tear Book of Learned Societies 076 

Wilson's Ancient Sculptured Crosses ... ... ... ... 10 

Asher & Co. for Transactions of Imperial German Archaeo- 
logical Institute 1 10 6 

Holmes' s Town Walls of Newcastle (60 copies) .. 200 

Elworthy's Evil Eye and Horns of Honour ... ... ... 180 

Phillips' s Token Money of Sank of England ... 026 

Murray's Dictionary (S. 3, part 3) 010 6 

English Dialect Dictionary, parts 9 and 10 ... ... ... 110 

German Roman Wall (parts 11 and 12) 078 

J. C. Wilson for bookbinding 18 9 




Debit Balance from 1899 

A. Keid & Co., Ltd., for sundries 

G. Nicholson, for general printing ... ... ... 

Kilgour & Liddell, repairing chair 

J. A. Dotchin & Co., brushes ......... ... 

Hy. Watson & Son, plumbing work for conversazione 
Postage, and carriage of parcels... ... ... 


Railway carriage on Cheese- Press 

Index to vol. xxii. Arcliaeologia Aeliana ... ... 

Fire insurance premium on ' Brooks Collection ' ... 
Secretary's out of pocket expenses 
Treasurer's do. do. 

75 5 10 

The following is the 


for the year 1900 : 

' The donations to the Museum have been five in number, received 
from four contributors, and particulars of the objects presented are 
given below. 

The public interest in the Old Castle and in the Society's collection 
of antiquities has been continuous, and the visitors have included 
numerous members of the Church Congress and of the Congregational 
Union, whose assemblies were lately held in Newcastle. Other 
societies, including the Northern Architectural Association, and the 
Throckley Co-operative Beading Society, visited the Castle and 
Black Gate by special arrangement, and were conducted by your 

The popular Guide Book, published by the Society, has now 
been sold out. As many objects in our Museum have been recently 
rearranged, it will be necessary to rewrite the brochure should the 
publication of a new edition be decided on by the society. 

Your curators have to acknowledge their indebtedness to the 
unremitting services rendered them by Mr. John Gibson, custodian 
of the Castle, whose life-long and invaluable co-operation in the work 
of the society cannot be too highly appreciated.' 



Feb. 28. From Mr. D. D. DIXON, Rothbury : (1) A pair of hand wool-carders, 
called ' floughters,' used in Upper Coquetdale early in the nineteenth 
century. (2) A shepherd's staff with iron crook, used by flockmasters 
in the Vale of Whittingham. and dating between the years 1810 
and 1820 (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 205). 

May 20. From Mr. T. GLOVER : A smoke-jack for roasting meat, taken from 
the chimney of an old house in Wellington Street, South Shields. 
In this contrivance the ascending current of air in the flue acted 
upon a circular fan and gave the rotary motion for turning the 
spit, which worked by a pulley and chain (Proceedings, vol. ix. 
p. 226). 

July 25. From Mr. C. CARVER, 4 Prince Consort Road, Gateshead: A heavy 
hunting rifle of German make, circa 1820 or 1830 (Proceedings, 
vol. ix. p. 262.) 

,, From Mr. FOGGIN, Main Street, Corbridge: A Roman bas relief on a 
fragmentary slab, measuring fourteen and a half by twelve inches, 
with a sculptured figure of Mercury wearing thepetasus and carry- 
ing the ~bursa in his right hand and the caduceus on his left arm. 
The stone was found in excavating for a drain in the road between 
Halton Castle and the neighbouring colliery in the month of 
July (Proceedings, vol. ix. p. 263.) See illustration below. 





IPatron ant) president 












































Date of Election. 
1865 Jan. 3 

1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1883 June 27 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1886 June 30 
1892 Jan. 27 

1892 May 25 
1896 Oct. 28 

J. J. Howard, LL.D., F.S.A., Mayfield, Orchard Road, Blackheath, 


Professor Mommsen, Marchstrasse 8, Charlottenburg bei Berlin. 
Dr. Hans Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, Stockholm. 
Ernest Chantre, Lyons. 

Ellen King Ware (Mrs.), The Abbey, Carlisle. 
Gerrit Assis Hulsebos, Lit. Hum. Doct., &c., Utrecht, Holland. 
Professor Edwin Charles Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., &c., Cambridge. 
David Mackinlay, 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c., &c., Nash Mills, Hemel 


Professor Karl Zangemeister, Heidelberg. 
Professor Ad. de Ceuleneer, Rue de la Confrerie 5, Ghent, Belgium. 


The signs * indicates that the member has compounded for his subscription, and 
f that the member is one of the Council. 

Date of Election 
1885 Mar. 25 

1883 Aug. 29 

1873 July 

1892 Aug. 31 
1885 Oct. 28 

1885 June 24 

1886 Jan. 27 

1898 Mar. 30 

1899 May 31 

1893 Sept. 27 

1899 Oct. 25 

1884 Jan. 30 

1892 Mar. 30 
1897 Nov. 24 
1896 July 29 

1893 Feb. 22 

1894 July 25 
1892 April 27 

1900 May 30 

1874 Jan. 7 
1892 Mar. 30 
1888 Sept. 26 

1896 Dec. 23 

1892 Dec. 28 
1892 June 29 

1897 July 28 
1883 Dec. 27 

1898 July 27 
1883 Dec. 27 
1883 June 27 
1892 May 25 

1899 Aug. 30 
1888 Sept. 26 
1894 Feb. 28 

Adams, William Edwin, 32 Holly Avenue, Newcastle. 
fAdamson, Rev. Cuthtert Edward, Westoe, South Shields. 
fAdamson, Horatio Alfred, 29 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
fAdamson, Lawrence WT.iliam, LL.D., 2 Eslington Road, Newcastle- 

Adie, George, 46 Bewick Road. Gateshead. 

Allgood, Miss Anne Jane, Hermitage, Hexham. 

Allgood, Robert Lancelot, Titlington Hall, Alnwick. 

Allison, Thomas M., M.D., 22 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Angus, William Henry, 3 Stockbridge, Newcastle. 

Archer, Mark, Farnacres, Gateshead. 

Armstrong, Miss Mary, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, Thomas John, 14 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle. 

Armstrong, William Irving, outh Park, Hexham. 

Arnison, William Drewitt, M.D., 2 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
fBaily, Rev. Johnson, Hon. Canon of Durham and Rector of Ryton.. 
fBates, Cadwallader John. M.A., Langley Castle, Northumberland.. 

Baumgartner, John Robert, 10 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Bell, W. Heward, Seend, Melksham, Wiltshire. 

Bell, Thomas James, Cleadon, near Sunderland. 

Blair, Charles Henry, 32 Hawthorn Road, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
fBlair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields. 

Blenkinsopp, Thomas, 3 High Swinburne Place, Newcastle. 

Blindell, William A., Wester Hall, Humshaugh. 

Blumer, G. Alder, M.D., Butler Hospital for the Insane, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

Bodleian Library, The, Oxford. 

Bolam, John, Bilton, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

Boot, Rev. Alfred, St. George's Vicarage, Jesmond, Newcastle, 

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., Rock, Alnwick, Northumberland. 

Bosanquet, Robert Carr, The Greek School at Athens. 

Boutflower, Rev. D. S., Vicarage, Monkwearmouth. 

Bowden, Thomas, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, John Bos worth, 18 Hawthorn Street, Newcastle. 

Bowes, Richard, Monkend, Croft, Darlington. 

Boyd, George Fenwick, Moor House, Leamside, Durham. 

Boyd, William, North Hcuse, Long Benton. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1901.) 


Date of Election. 

1891 Dec. 23 Braithwaite, John, 20 Lansdowne Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle.. 
1898 Mar. 30 Bramble, William, New Benwell, Newcastle. 

1892 Aug. 31 fBrewis, Parker, 32 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

1896 July 29 Brock-Hollinshead, Mrs., Woodfoot House, Shap, Westmorland^ 

1897 Nov. 24 Brooks, Miss Ellen, 14 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 
1860 Jan. 4 Brown, Eev. Dixon, Unthank Hall, Haltwhistle. 

1892 Feb. 24 Brown, George T., 51 Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 
1891 Dec. 23 Brown, The Rev. William, Old Elvet, Durham. 

1893 June 28 Browne,' Thomas Procter, Grey Street, Newcastle. 

1884 Sept. 24 Bruce, The Hon. Mr. Justice, Yewhurst, Bromley. Kent. 

1897 Nov. 24 Bryers, Thomas Edward, Sunderland. 

1891 Sept. 30 Burman. 0. Clark, L.R.C.P.S. Ed., 12 Bondgate Without,. 


1889 April 24 Burnett, The Rev. W. R., Kelloe Vicarage, Coxhoe, Durham, 

1888 Nov. 28 Burton, William Spelman, 19 Claremont Park, Gateshead. 

1884 Dec. 30 Burton, S. B., Jesmond House, Highworth, Wilts. 
-1897 Jan. 27 Butler, George Grey, Ewart Park, Wooler. 

1887 Nov. 30 Cackett, James Thoburn, 24 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

1885 April 29 Carlisle, The Earl of, Naworth Castle, Brampton. 

1892 Dec. 28 Carr, Frederick Ralph, Lympston, near Exeter. 
1892 July 27 fCarr, Sidney Story, 14 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

1882 Carr, Rev. T. W., Long Rede, Banning, Maidstone, Kent. 
1896 Oct. 28 Carr-Ellison, H. G., 15 Portland Terrace, Newcastle. 

1884 Feb. 27 Carr-Ellison, J. R., Hedgeley, Alnwick, Northumberland. 
1901 Feb. 27 Carrick, Frederick, 1 Sedgewick Place, Gateshead. 

1894 Jan. 31 Carse, John Thomas, Amble, Acklington. 

1887 Oct. 26 Challoner, John Dixon, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

1885 Nov. 25 Charleton, William L., Muskham Grange, Muskham, Notts. 

1892 Feb. 24 Charlton, Oswin J., B.A., LL.B., 1 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

1885 May 27 Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 

1895 Nov. 27 Clapham, William, Park Villa, Darlington. 

1898 Aug. 27 Clayton, Mrs. N. G., Cheaters, Humshaugh. 

1883 Dec. 27 fClephan, Robert Coltman, Marine House, Tynemouth. 

1893 July 26 Cooper, Robert Watson, 2 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 

1892 Aug. 31 Corder, Herbert, 10 Kensington Terrace, Sunderland. 

1886 Sept. 29 Corder, Percy, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle. 

1893 July 26 fCorder, Walter Shewell, 4 Rosella Place, North Shields. 
1898 Feb. 23 Crawhall, Rev. T. E., Vicarage, North Shields. 

1892 Oct. 26 Cresswell, G. G. Baker, Junior United Service Club, London, S.W. 

1898 Nov. 30 Cresswell, Lionel, Woodhall, Calverley, Yorks. 

1888 Feb. 29 fCrossman, Sir William, K.C.M.G., Cheswick House, Beal. 

1896 Feb. 26 Cruddas, W. D., Haughton Castle, Humshaugh. 

Date of Election. 

1897 Dec. 15 
1889 Aug. 28 
1888 Mar. 28 
1891 Nov. 18 
1844 about 
1887 Aug. 31 
1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Mar. 9 

1883 June 27 

1884 July 2 

1898 Aug. 27 
1884 July 30 

1900 Jan. 81 
1897 May 26 
1884 Mar. 26 

1891 Aug. 31 
1883 Oct. 31 

1886 Aug. 28 

1901 Feb. 27 
1865 Aug. 2 
1900 Oct. 31 

1894 Nov. 28 
1900 Jan. 31 

1899 Oct. 25 
1894 May 30 
1896 Aug. 26 

1887 Dec. 28 
1894 Oct. 31 

1894 Oct. 31 

1895 Jan. 30 

1892 April 27 
1859 Dec. 7 
1883 Oct. 31 


1886 June 30 
1886 Oct. 27 
1895 Sept. 25 

1894 Aug. 29 
1886 Aug. 28 
1883 Feb. -28 
1891 Oct. 28 

Culley. Francis John, 5 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Culley, The Rev. Matthew, Thropton, Rothbury. 

Darlington Public Library, Darlington. 

Deacon, Thomas John Fuller, 10 Claremont Place, Newcastle.. 
fDees, Robert Richardson, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, 
f Dendy Frederick Walter, Eldon House, Jesmond, Newcastle- 
Dickinson, John, Park House, Sunderland. 

Dickinson, William Bowstead, Healey Hall, Riding Mill. 

Dixon, John Archbold, 5 Wellington Street, Gateshead. 

Dixon, David Dippie, Rothbury. 

Dodds, Edwin, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Dotchin, J. A., 65 Grey Street, Newcastle. 

Dowson, John, Morpeth. 

Drummond, Dr., Wyvestow House, South Shields. 

Dunn, William Henry, 5 St. Nicholas's Buildings, Newcastle. 

Durham Cathedral Library. 

Emley, Fred., Ravenshill. Durham Road, Gateshead. 

Featherstonhaugh, Rev. Walker, Edmundbyers, Blackhill. 

Fen wick, Featherston, County Chambers, Westgate Road, Newcastle. 

Fenwick, George A., Bank, Newcastle. 

Fenwick. Miss Mary, Moorlands, Newcastle. 

Ferguson, John, Dene Croft, Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Findlay, James Thomas, Gazette Office, South Shields. 

Forbes, Rev. E. E., Chollerton Vicarage, Wall, R.S.O. 

Forstir, b'red. E., 32 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 

Forster. George Baker, M.A., Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 

Forster, John, 26 Side, Newcastle. 

Forster, Robert Henry, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 

Forster, Thomas Emmerson, Farnley, Corbridge, R.S.O. 

Forster, William Charlton, 33 Westmorland Road, Newcastle.. 

Francis, William, 20 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 

Gibb, Dr., Westgate Street, Newcastle. ' 
fGibson, J. Pattison, Hexham. 

Gibson, Thomas George, Lesbury, R.S.O., Northumberland, 

Glendinning, William, 4 Lovaine Place, Newcastle. 

Gooderham, Rev. A., Vicarage, Chillingham, Belford. 

Goodger, C. W. S., 20 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 

Gough, Rev. Edward John, D.D., Vicar and Canon of 

Gradon, J. G., Lynton House, Durham. 

Graham. John, Findon Cottage, Sacriston, Durham. 

Green, Robert Yeoman, 11 Lovaine Crescent. Newcastle. 

Greene, Charles R., North Seaton Hall, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1901.) 


Date of Election. 
1845 June 3 

1883 Feb. 28 

1877 Dec. 5 

1891 Jan. 28 

1893 Mar. 8 

1883 Aug. 29 

1887 Mar. 30 
1900 May 30 

1892 Aug. 31 

1884 Mar. 26 

1893 Aug. 30 

1898 July 29 

1889 Feb. 27 

1894 May 30 
-1886 April 28 

1891 Oct. 28 
1883 Feb. 28 

1883 Feb. 28 

1888 April 25 

1865 Aug. 2 

1895 Jan. 30 

1899 June 28 

1890 Jan. 29 

1884 April 30 
1898 Aug. 27 

1887 Jan. 26 

1900 July 25 

1895 July 31 

1895 Dec. 18 

1891 Oct. 28 

1892 June 29 

1896 April 29 

1896 July 29 

1888 July 25 

1894 May 30 

1897 Dec. 15 

fGreenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. 
F.S.A. Scot., Durham. 

Greenwell, His Honour Judge, Greenwell Ford, Lanchester, co. 

^Gregory, John Vessey, 10 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Haggie, Robert Hood, Blythswood, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 

Hall, Edmund James, Dilston Castle, Corbridge. 

Hall, James, Tynemouth. 

Halliday, Thomas, Myrtle Cottage, Low Fell, G-ateshead. 

Hardcastle, Dr., 5 Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle. 

Harrison, John Adolphus, Saltwellville, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Harrison, Miss Winifred A., 9 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 

Hastings, Lord, Melton Constable, Norfolk. 

Haswell, F. R. N., Monkseaton, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
"Haverfield, F. J., M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

Hedley, Edward Armorer, Windsor Crescent, Newcastle. 

Hedley, Robert Cecil, Corbridge. 

Heslop, George Christopher, 8 Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
fHeslop, Richard Oliver, 12 Princes Buildings, Akenside Hill, 

Hicks, William Searle, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Hindmarsh, William Thomas, Alnbank, Alnwick. 

Hodges, Charles Clement, Hexham. 

fHodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L.. F.S.A., Barmoor Castle, Northumber- 

Hodgkin, Thomas Edward, Bank, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, George Bryan, 41 Trajan Avenue, South Shields, 
f Hodgson, John Crawford, F.S.A., Abbey Cottage, Alnwick. 

Hodgson, John George, Exchange Buildings, Quayside, Newcastle. 

Hodgson, T. Hesketh, New by Grange, Carlisle. 

Hodgson, William, Westholme, Darlington. 

Hodgson, William George le Fleming Lowther, Dee View, Trevor, 
Llangollen, N. Wales. 

Hogg, John Robert, North Shields. 

Holdsworth, David Arundell,2 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Holmes, Ralph Sheriton, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Hopper, Charles, Monkend. Croft, Darlington. 

Hoyle, William Aubone, The Croft, Ovingham. 

Hudson, Robert, Hotspur Street, Tynemouth. 

Hulbert, Rev. C. L., Brathay Vicarage, Ambleside. 

Hunter, Edward, 8 Wentworth Place, Newcastle. 

Hunter, Thomas, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

Hutchinson, Edward, The Elms, Darlington. 


Date of Election 
1894 Feb. 28 

1886 May 26 
1900 Jan. 31 

1883 Aug. 29 

1883 Feb. 28 

1899 June 28 

1900 Jan. 31 

1884 Oct. 29 

1901 Feb. 27 
1899 Feb. 22 

1896 Dec. 23 

1897 July 28 

1896 Sept. 20 

1894 Sept. 26 
1899 Nov. 29 

1897 Jan. 27 

1885 April 29 

1887 June 29 
1899 July 26 

1896 Nov. 25 
1885 Nov. 6 

1888 June 27 

1899 Mar. 29 
1884 Mar. 26 
1884 Aug. 27 
1891 May 27 

1899 Aug. 30 

1895 Sept. 25 
1884 Mar. 26 
1893 Oct. 25 

1900 Jan. 31 
1891 Mar. 25 
1899 June 28 
1888 Sept. 26 
1891 Jan. 28 

1897 Mar. 31 

1898 Mar. 30 
1891 Aug. 26 

1896 Jan. 29 

Ingledew, Alfred Edward, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
tlrving, George, West Fell, Corbridge. 
Jobling, James, Morpeth. 

Johnson, Rev. Anthony, Healey Vicarage, Riding Mill. 
Johnson, Rev. John, Hutton Rudby Vicarage, Yarm. 
Joicey, Sir James, Bart., M.P., Longhirst, Morpeth. 
Keeney, Michael John, 9 Rectory Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Kitchin. The Very Rev. G. W., Dean of Durham. 
fKnowles, William Henry, F.S.A., 37 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Kyle, Robert, 11 Prudhoe Street, Alnwick. 
Lamb, Miss Elizabeth, Newton Cottage, Chathill. 
Lambert, Thomas, Town Hall, Gateshead. 

Laws, Dr. Cuthbert Umfreville, 1 St. George's Terrace, Newcastle. 
Lee, Rev. Percy, Shilbottle Vicarage, Alnwick. 
Leeds Library, The, Commercial Street, Leeds. 
Leeson, Richard John, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Lightfoot, Miss, 5 Saville Place, Newcastle. 
Liverpool Free Library (P. Cowell, Librarian). 
Lockhart, Henry F., Prospect House, Hexham. 
London Library, c/o Williams & Norgate, Henrietta Street, Covent 

Garden, London. 

Longstaff, Dr. Geo. Blundell, Highlands, Putney Heath, London, S. W. 
Lynn, J. R. D., Blyth, Northumberland. 
Macarthy, George Eugene, 9 Dean Street, Newcastle. 
McDowell, Dr. T. W., East Cottingwood, Morpeth. 
Macaulay, Donald, Clive Cottage, Alnwick. 
Mackey, Matthew, Jun., 8 Milton Street, Shieldfield, Newcastle. 
Maling, Christopher Thompson, 14 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 
Manchester Reference Library (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 
Markham, R. M., 9 Eldon Square, Newcastle. 
Marley, Thomas William, Netherlaw, Darlington. 
Marshall, Frank, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Mather, Philip E., Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Matheson, Thomas, Morpeth. 
Maudlen, William, Dacre House, North Shields. 
May, George, Simonside Hall, near South Shields. 
Mayo, William Swatling, Riding Mill, Northumberland. 
Melbourne Free Library, c/o Melville, Mullen, and Slade, 

12 Ludgate Square, London, E.G. 
Milburn, Joseph, Highfield, Marlborough, Wilts. 
Milburn, J. D., Guyzance, Acklington. 
Mitcalfe, John Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
Mitchell, Charles William, LL.P., Jesmond Towers, Newcastle. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1901.) 


Date of Election. 

1883 War. 28 
1900 Aug. 29 
1883 May 30 
1883 Oct. 13 
1900 April 25 
1886 Dec. 29 
1896 Oct. 28 

1883 June 27 
1900 May 30 
1896 April 29 

1884 July 2 
1895 Feb. 27 
1898 May 25 

1883 Jan. 31 

1899 Oct. 25 

1900 Feb. 28 

1896 May 27 
1885 May 27 
1893 Feb. 22 
1892 Nov. 30 
1889 Aug. 28 

1901 Feb. 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1898 June 28 

1898 June 28 
1894 Dec. 19 
1901 Jan. 30 

1899 Oct. 25 
1889 Aug. 28 
1896 Oct. 28 
1884 Dec. 30 
1898 Nov. 30 
1898 Jan. 26 
1893 Mar. 29 

1891 Feb. 18 

1884 Jan. 30 

1884 Sept. 24 


1888 Jan. 25 

1898 Feb. 23 

Moore, Joseph Mason, Harton, South Shields. 

Morrison, Rev. William Wilson, Greatham Vicarage, Stockton. 

Morrow, T. R., The Cave, Fulford, York. 

Motum, Hill, Town Hall, Newcastle. 

Mundahl, Henry S. 18 Grainger Street West, Newcastle. 

Murray, William, M.D., 9 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Neilson, Edward, Brandling Place, Newcastle. 

Nelson, Ralph, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 

Newbigin, Edward Richmond, 15 Chester Crescent, Newcastle. 

Newcastle, The Bishop of, Benwell Tower, Newcastle. 

Newcastle Public Library. 

Newton, Robert, Brookfield, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

New York Library, c/o Mr. B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar Square, 
London, W.C. 

Nicholson, George, Barrington Street, South Shields. 

Nicholson, Joseph Cook, 7 Framlington Place, Newcastle. 

Nightingale, George, Whitley, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
jNisbet, Robert Sinclair, 8 Grove Street, Newcastle. 

Norman, William, 23 Eldon Place, Newcastle. 

Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger, Kent, 
f Northumberland, The Duke of, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

Oliver, Prof. Thomas, M.TX, 7 Ellison Place, Newcastle. 

Ogilvie, Frank Stanley, Rosella House, North Shields. 

Ogle, Capt. Sir Henry A., bt., R.N., United Service Club, Pall 
Mall, London. 

Ogle, Newton, 59 Green Street, Grosvenor Square, London. 
*0gle, Bertram Savile, Mill House, Steeple Aston, Oxon. 
fOswald, Joseph, 33 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Page, Frederick, M.D., 1 Saville Place, Newcastle. 

Palmer, Rev. Thomas Francis, 25 Grosvenor Road, Newcastle. ' 

Park, A. D., 1 1 Bigg Market, Newcastle. 

Parker, Miss Ethel, The Elms, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Parkin, John S., 11 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 

Patterson, Thomas, 155 Stratford Road, Newcastle. 

Peacock, Reginald, 47 West Sunniside, Sundeiiand. 

Pearson, Rev. Samuel, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 

Pease, John William, Pendower, Benwell, Newcastle. 

Pease, Howard, Bank, Newcastle. 

Peile, George, Greenwood, Shotley Bridge. 

Phillips, Maberly, F.S.A., Pevensey, Bycullah Park, Enfield, London. 

Philipson, Sir George Hare, M.A., M.D., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Plummer, Arthur B., Prior's Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Porteus, Thomas, Office of H.M. Inspector of Factories, 35 Paradise 
Street, Birmingham. 



Date of Election 
1901 Jan. 30 

1896 Mar. 25 

1900 April 2,5 

1887 Aug. 31 
1883 June 27 

1888 May 30 
1894 Feb. 28 

1897 April 28 
1883 Sept. 26 
1891 April 29 
1894 May 30 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Jan. 31 

1891 July 29 

1895 July 31 

1898 Jan. 26 

1892 Mar. 30 

1889 July 31 
1900 Aug. 29 

1883 Jan. 31 
1900 Aug. 29 

1884 July 30 

1900 Mar. 28 

1894 Mar. 25 

1901 Jan. 30 

1893 April 26 

1892 Sept. 28 

1891 Dec. 23 

1887 Jan. 26 

1888 July 25 

1898 April 27 
1900 Feb. 28 

1899 Nov. 29 

1893 Nov. 29 

Pritchett, James Pigott, Darlington. 

Proud, John, Bishop Auckland. 

Pybus, Rev. George, Grange Rectory, Jarrow. 

Pybus, Robert, 42 Mosley Street, Newcastle. 

Radford, H. G., Stonehill, East Sheen. 

Ravensworth, The Earl of, Ravensworth Castle, Gateshead. 

Reavell, George, jun., Alnwick. 

Redpath, Robert, 5 Linden Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reed, The Rev. George, Killingworth, Newcastle. 

Reed, Thomas, King Street, South Shields. 

Reid, C. Leopold, Wardle Terrace, Newcastle. 

Reid, William Bruce, Cross House, Upper Claremont, Newcastle. 

Reynolds, Charles H., Millbrook, Walker. 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., Rector of Elwick Hall, Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Rich, F. W., Eldon Square, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Miss Alice M., Sunderland. 

Richardson, Frank, Clifton Cottage, Clifton Road, Newcastle. 

Richardson, Mrs. Stansfield, Thornholme, Sunderland. 

Richardson, William, Rosehill, Willington Quay. 

Riddell, Edward Francis, Cheeseburn Grange, near Newcastle. 

Ridley, John Philipson, Bank House, Rothbury. 

Ridley, J. T., Gosforth, Newcastle. 

Ridley, The Right Hon. Viscount, Blagdon, Northumberland. 

Robinson, Alfred J., 55 Fern Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robinson, Rev. F. G. J., Rector of Castle Eden, R.S.O. 

Robinson, John, Delaval House, 3 Broxbourne Terrace, Sunderland. 

Robinson, John David, Beaconsfield, Coatsworth Road, Gateshead. 

Robinson, William Harris, 20 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle. 

Robson, John Stephenson, Sunnilaw, Claremont Gardens, Newcastle. 

Rogers, Rev. Percy, M.A., 17 Pulteney Street, Bath. 

Rudd, Alfred George, Ivy Croft, Stockton. 

Runciman, Walter, jun., 11 Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 

Rutherford, Henry Taylor, Ayre's Terrace, South Preston, North 


Rutherford, John V. W., Briarwood, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 
Ryott, William Hall, 7 Collingwood Street, Newcastle. 
Sanderson, Richard Burdon, Warren House, Belford. 
Sanderson, William John, Heathdale, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Sanderson, William John, jun., Heathdale, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Savage, Rev. E. Sidney, Rectory, Hexham. 
Savage, Rev. H. E., Hon. Cancn of Durham and Vicar of St. Hild's, 

South Shields. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. (1st March, 1901.) 


Date of Electio 

1891 Sept. 3 
1886 Feb. 2 
1888 June 
1899 June 2 

1888 Oct. 
1895 May 2 

1889 May 2 

1892 Oct. 2 
1898 Mar. 3 
1891 Nov. 1 

1893 Mar. 2 
1883 June 2 
1901 Jan. 3( 
1866 Jan. 
1883 Dec. 

189* Jan. 
1883 Dec. 

1887 Mar. 

1897 Jan. 27 

1866 Dec. 5 

1900 Aug. 29 

1895 Feb. 27 
1892 April 27 
1884 Oct. 29 

1896 Nov. 25 

1896 Dec. 23 
1888 Aug. 29 
1899 June 28 

1898 Dec. 21 
1892 June 29 
1891 Jan. 28 
1888 Feb. 29 
1888 Oct. 31 
1888 Nov. 28 

Scott, John David, 4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle. 
Scott, Walter, Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Scott, Walter, Holly House, Sunderland. 
Sedcole James, Barker Terrace, South Shields. 
Simpson, J. B., Bradley Hall, Wylam. 
Simpson, Robert Anthony, East Street, South Shields. 
Sisson, Richard William, 13 Grey Street, Newcastle. 
Skelly, George, Alnwick. 

Smith, George, Brinkburn, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Smith, William, Gunnerton, Barrasford. 
Smith, William Arthur, 71 King Street, South Shields. 
South Shields Public Library. 
Spain, George R. B., Victoria Square, Newcastle. 
'fSpence, Charles James, South Preston Lodge, North Shields- 
Spencer, J. W., Newbiggin House, Kenton, Newcastle. 
Steavenson, A. L., Holywell Hall, Durham. 
Steel, The Rev. James, D.D., Vicarage, Heworth. 
Steel, Thomas, 51 John Street, Sunderland. 
Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn, R.S.O. 
Straker, Joseph Henry, Howdon Dene, Corbridge. 
Strangeways, William Nicholas, Lismore, 17 Queen's Avenue, 

Muswell Hill, London, N. 
Sunderland Public Library. 
Swan, Henry F., North Jesmond, Newcastle. 
Swinburne, Sir John, Bart., Capheaton, Northumberland. 
Tate, William Thomas, Hill House, Greatham. 
Taylor, 1 Rev. E. J., F.S.A., St. Cuthbert's, Durham. 
Taylor, Thomas, F.S.A., Chipchase Castle, Wark, North Tynedale. 
Taylor, Rev. William. Tyneholm, Haltwhistle. 
Temperley. Henry, LL.M., Lambton Road, Brandling Park, New- 

Temperley, Robert, M.A., 18 Windsor Terrace, Newcastle. 
Thompson, Geo. H., Baileygate, Alnwick. 
Thompson, Mrs. George, Hollyhirst, Winlaton, co. Durham. 
Thompson, John, Cradock House, Cradock Street, Bishop Auckland. 
Thomson, James, jun., 22 Wentworth Place. Newcastle, 
'home, Thomas, Blackett Street, Newcastle, 
horpe, R. Swarley, Devonshire Terrace, Newcastle, 
odd, J. Stanley, Percy Park, Tynemouth. 
omlinson, William Weaver, Lille Villa, The Avenue, Monkseaton. 

Elected originally Jan. 31, 1S76, resigned 1887. 


Date of Election. 
1894 "Mar. 28 
1897 April 28 

1897 Mar. 31 
1900 Oct. 31 

1900 May 25 
1889 Oct. 30 
1896 July 29 

1894 May 30 

1901 Jan. 30 

1884 Feb. 27 

1891 Mar. 25 

1896 Nov. 25 
1896 Oct. 28 

1889 Mar. 27 
1896 Aug. 26 

1892 Oct. 26 
1887 Jan. 26 

1895 May 29 

1899 May 30 
1879 Mar. 26 
1889 Nov, 27 
1898 Oct. 26 
1886 June 30 

1893 Aug. 30 

1896 May 27 
1891 Aug. 26 

1897 Sept. 29 

1885 May 27 

1900 April 25 

1898 May 25 
1891 Sept. 30 
1900 Nov. 28 

1896 Feb. 26 

1898 Nov. 30 

1899 Nov. 29 
1898 April 27 

1897 Oct. 27 

1886 Nov. 24 

1894 Oct. 31 

Toovey, Alfred F., Ovington Cottage, Prudhoe. 

Toronto Public Library, c/o C. B. Cazenove & Sons, Agents,. 

26 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Townsend, Brian, Snowsgreen House, Shotley Bridge. 
*Trinity College Library, Dublin. 
Turnbull William, Whin Bank, Eothbury. 
Vick, R. W., Strathmore House, West Hartlepool. 
* Ventress, 2 John, Wharncliffe Street, Newcastle. 
Vincent, William, 18 Oxford Street, Newcastle. 
Waddilove, George, Brunton, Wall, North Tyne. 
Waddington, Thomas, Eslington Villa, Gateshead. 
Walker, The Rev. John, Hon. Canon of Newcastle, Whalton 

Rectory, Morpeth. 

Walker, John Duguid, Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wallis, Arthur Bertram Ridley, B.C.L., 3 Gray's Inn Square, 


Watson-Armstrong, W. A., Cragside, Rothbury. 
Watson, Henry, West End, Haltwhistle. 
Watson, Mrs. M. E., Burnopfield. 

Watson, Thomas Carrick, 21 Blackett Street, Newcastle. 
Weddell, George, 20 Grainger Street, Newcastle. 
Welburn, William G., Clapham & Co., Dean Street, Newcastle, 
Welford, Richard, Thornfield Villa, Gosforth, Newcastle. 
Wheler, E. G., Swansfield, Alnwick. 
White, R. S., 121 Osborne Road, Newcastle. 
Wilkinson, Auburn, M.D., 14 Front Street, Tynemouth. 
Wilkinson, William C., Dacre Street, Morpeth. 
Williams, Charles, Moot Hall, Newcastle. 
Williamson, Thomas, jun., Lovaine House, North Shields. 
Willyams, H. J., Barndale Cottage, Alnwick. 
Wilson, John, Archbold House, Newcastle. 
Wilson, J. A. E., Archbold Terrace, Newcastle. 
Windley, Rev. H. C., St. Chad's, Bensham, Gateshead. 
Winter, John Martin, 17 Percy Gardens, Tynemouth. 
Winter, Charles, 30 Brandling Park, Newcastle. 
Wood, Herbert Maxwell, 66 John Street, Sunderland. 
Wood. C. W., Wellington Terrace, South Shields. 
Wood, William Henry, Bank Chambers, Mosley Street, Newcastle. 
Wooler, Edward, Danesmoor, Darlington. 
Worsdell, Wilson, Gateshead. 

Wright, Joseph, jun., Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle. 
Young, Hugh W., F.S.A. Scot., Tortola, Nairn, N.B. 
2 Elected originally Aug. 6, 1856. 



Antiquaries of London. The Society of, Burlington House, London. 

Antiquaries of Scotland, The Society of, Museum, Edinburgh. 

Koyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The, 20 Hanover 

Square, London, W. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, The, 7 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. 
Royal Society of Ireland, Dublin. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen, The 
Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Royal Society of Norway, The, Christiania, Norway. 
Aberdeen Ecclesiological Society. The, 42 Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, The, Museum, Berwick. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, The, c/o Secretary, The Rev. W. 

Bazeley, Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 
British Archaeological Association, The (Secretaries, George Patrick and Rev. 

H. J. Dukinfield Astley), 16 Red Lion Square, London. W.C. 
Cambrian Antiquarian Society, The, c/o J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., 28 Great 

Ormond Street, London, W.C. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, The, c/o Secretary, T. D. Atkinson. St. Mary's 

Passage, Cambridge. 
Canadian Institute of Toronto, The 
Clifton Antiquarian Club, The, c/o Alfred E. Hudd, 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton,, 

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, The, 

Tullie House, Carlisle. 
Derbyshire Archaeological Society, The, c/o Arthur Cox, Hon. Sec., Mill Hill, 


Heidelberg Historical and Philosophical Society, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Huguenot Society, The, c/o Reg. S. Faber, Secretary, 90 Regent's Park Road,, 

London, N.W. 

Kent Archaeological Society, Maidstone, Kent. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, The, c/o R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., Hon. 

Secretary, Old Swan, Liverpool. 
Literary and Scientific Society, Christiania, Norway. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, The, London Institution, Fins- 
bury Circus, London. 
Nassau Association for the Study of Archaeology and History, The (Verein fur 

nassauische Alterthumskunde und Geschichte, Wiesbaden, Germany. 
Numismatic Society of London, The (Secretaries, H. A. Grueber and B. V. Head),. 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

Peabody Museum, The Trustees of the, Harvard University, U.S.A. 
Powys-land Club, The, c/o Secretary, T. Simpson Jones, M.A., Gungrog, Welsh- 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Shrewsbury. 
Smithsonian Institution, The, Washington, U.S.A. 
Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles, rue Ravenstei 11, Bruxelles. 


Socie'te' d'Arche'ologie de Namur, Namur, Belgium. 

Soci^te" d'Emulation d' Abbeville, France. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The, Castle, Taunton r 


Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Ipswich. 
Surrey Archaeological Society, The, Castle Arch, Guildford. 
Sussex Archaeological Society, The, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 
Thuringian Historical and Archaeological Society, Jena, Germany. 
Trier Archaeological Society, The, Trier, Germany. 
Trier Stadtbibliothek (c/o Dr. Keuffer), Trier, Germany. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society, The, 10 Park Street, Leeds. 

The Proceedings of the Society are also sent to the following : 

Dr. Berlanga, Malaga, Spain. 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London, W.C. 

W. J. Cripps, C.B., Cirencester. 

Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle. 

Robert Mowat, Rue des Feuillantines 10, Paris. 

The Bishop of Durham, Bishop Auckland. 

The Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Witton-le-Wear, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

T. M. Fallow, Coatham, Redcar. 

Arch. Ael. xxii. to face p. 1. 


(From a photograph by Mr. R. Ruddock of Newcastle.) 


F.R.C.S., F.R.C.P., L.S.A., a vice-president of the Society. 

By F. W. DENDY. 
[Read on the 28th November, 1900.] 

Dr. Dennis Embleton, an honoured and respected vice-president 
of this society, died at his residence, 19 Claremont place, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, on the 12th November, 1900, at the great age of 90 years. 
He only joined the society as late as 1886, but he had, for many 
years before he became a member, taken a warm interest in anti- 
quarian subjects. He had assisted our distinguished vice-president, 
Dr. Greenwell, in excavating barrows, and in verifying the human and 
animal remains which they contained, and he had contributed articles 
on dialect and local topography to the other publications enumerated 
at the end of this notice. 

Dr. Embleton was born in Newcastle on the 1st October, 1810. 
He was a son of Thomas Embleton, a native of East Chevington, and 
of Anne, his wife, whose maiden name was Anne Cawood. His father 
died in 1820, and after his death Dennis Embleton and his elder 
brother, Thomas William Embleton, were brought up and educated 
under the guardianship of their uncle, Mr. George Hill of Kenton, 
colliery viewer. He sent the lads to Witton-le-Wear school, where 
they were educated under the rev. George Newby. 

The brother, Thomas William Embleton, was trained by his uncle 
as a mining engineer, and left Newcastle in 1831, to become viewer 
of Middleton colliery, near Leeds. 

Dennis Embleton, after leaving Witton school, was, on the 23rd 
April, 1827, bound apprentice for five years to Mr. Thomas Leighton, 
a surgeon in Newcastle. 

Mr. Leighton was then a vice-president of the Newcastle Medical 
Society, and the senior surgeon of the Infirmary. He practised and 
died in his house in Westgate Road. This house was pulled down in 
1889, and its site now forms part of the Post Office. Before his term 


expired, Dennis Embleton left Newcastle, with Mr. Leighton's 
consent, to complete his studies in London, and entered himself at 
Guy's and St. Thomas's hospitals, and at Grainger and Pilcher's 
School of Anatomy and Physiology. 

According to an article written by Dr. Embleton for the North- 
umberland and Durham Medical Society's transactions, upon the 
Newcastle Medical Society, the duties of himself and his fellow- 
apprentice, J. J. Garth Wilkinson, were to make the necessary 
tinctures and juleps, to dispense the medicines ordered in the day 
book by their master, and deliver them at the houses of the patients. 
The first things they had to learn, after the making up of medicines,, 
were how to perform venesection and to draw teeth. His description 
of Newcastle, at the time of his apprenticeship, taken from the same 
article (p. 54), is sufficiently interesting to bear reproduction : 

' The town at that date,' he says, ' had a somewhat mediaeval appearance. 
The Castle Garth was overcrowded with mean streets and houses ; King 
Street and Queen Street were there, and you could almost shake hands from 
house to house from the upper stories across the head of the Side ; the Maison, 
Dieu of Sir Koger Thornton stood at the east end, and St. Thomas's Chapel at 
the west end of the Sandhill, on which was the Fish Market, in the open air ; 
the New Gate was standing, and the town wall extended thence eastward as 
far as the north end and west side of Grainger Street ; Eldon Square was non- 
existent ; the town wall from Pink Tower extended to the Postern across 
Neville Street and the site of the railway station to beyond Paradise Row ; the 
Forth, its tavern, and the Lime Trees Avenue, enclosed by a low brick wall,, 
surrounded the square of grassy lawn ; the open space where now is the Sheep 
Market, and green fields all round the Infirmary, where partridges and rabbits 
were found and shot at times, Anderson Place in Pilgrim Street, the old 
Butcher Market, the Post Office at the top of Dean Street, and the old Theatre 
opposite to it ; all these, and much more, existed, awaiting the operation of 
improver and of the tooth of edaac rerum.' 

On the 18th June, 1834, Dr. Embleton was admitted as a mem- 
ber of the Royal College of Surgeons, and on the 16th April, 1835,. 
as a Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries. 

In May, 1835, he went to Paris, and from there, in company with 
another medical student named William Croser, he set off on a 
journey, performed in great part on foot and in other part by dili- 
gence, from Paris to Strasburg, then through Baden to Switzerland,. 


and afterwards by the Simplon Pass to Milan, Genoa, Eome, Pisa, 
Florence, Venice,, and Trieste. From Trieste they went to Vienna, 
and returned thence, through the Tyrol and by way of Chur, again 
to Paris. 

The journey lasted nearly two years, and besides seeing all the 
places of ordinary interest on their route, the two students visited 
numerous medical schools and hospitals, especially at Strasburg, 
Milan, Pavia, Pisa, and Vienna. At Pisa, where they remained 
some time, they petitioned the authorities of the Imperial and Royal 
University to be admitted to examination for the doctorate of medi- 
cine. The request was granted, and on the 14th September, 1836, 
Dr. Embleton and his companion passed the ordeal, and were granted 
their diplomas. The event was evidently one of considerable interest 
in the town, for, after they had received their degrees, a band of 
music accompanied them back to their hotel, and a local poet recited 
-a short laudatory poem of which he gave them an illuminated copy. 

In 1836-37, Dr. Embleton attended medical courses in Paris in 
connexion with hospitals there, and in the latter year he returned to 
practise in his native town. In 1838 he was appointed lecturer on 
anatomy and physiology to the Newcastle-upon-Tyne School of 
Medicine ; in 1852, reader in medicine at the Durham University ; 
in 1853 that university admitted him to his M.D. degree by 
diploma, and in 1857 he became a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians. In 1870 the School of Medicine became closer con- 
nected with Durham University, and he was appointed the first 
professor of medicine and of the practice of physic. He was also, 
from 1858 to 1872, the representative of Durham University on the 
General Medical Council. He held the position of physician, and 
afterwards that of consulting physician, to the Infirmary and of 
physician to the Dispensary. 

In 1882 he occupied the presidential chair of the section of 
Sanitary Science and Preventive Medicine during the meeting of the 
Sanitary Science Congress in Newcastle. 

Dr. Embleton took a keen interest in the erection of the new 
museum at Barras Bridge, and presented many valuable specimens of 
natural history to its shelves. He took an active part in the British 


Association meetings held in Newcastle in 1863 and 1889. He was 
from 1828 a member, and from 1878 to his death a vice-president of 
the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society. He joined our 
society, as has been said before, in 1886, and was elected a vice- 
president in 1895. 

He contributed to medical literature a large number of articles 
relating to his profession, and for the Magazine of Natural History 
and the Natural History Transactions of Northumberland, Durham, 
and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he wrote many important papers on 
natural history and biographical notices of several distinguished local 
naturalists, including memoirs of the lives of his life-long friends, 
Albany and John Hancock. He gave two lectures on Madeira 
(which he visited in the winter of 1880-81) to the members of the 
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, and he was in later 
life a frequent contributor to the Archaeologia Aeliana and the 
Proceedings of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. A list of some 
of his published writings is appended to this notice. The list is 
voluminous, but it has been found difficult either to make it 
complete or to indicate in every case where the contribution can be 
found. It may be useful, however, to add that many of the papers 
bound together in one volume are to be found in the library of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, under the title of Papers by Dr. 
Embleton, Miscellaneous Tracts, No. 382. 

He was married in 1847, at Whickham, to Elizabeth Turner, who 
died in 1869. He had three children. His only son, Dr. Dennis 
Cawood Embleton of Bournemouth, predeceased him. At his death, 
Dr. Embleton left two daughters, one of whom, the elder, is married. 
A grandson, Dennis Embleton, is an undergraduate studying medicine 
at Christ's College, Cambridge. 

The members of this society who could speak of Dr. Embleton 
from intimate personal knowledge left this world before him. We, 
who belong to a later generation, can only look back to this long 
extent of useful life, stretching through very nearly the whole of the 
nineteenth century, with respect and admiration for so much work 
so well done. 


Arcliaeologia Aeliana. 

1885. Unde derivator Corstopitum ? Vol. xi. p. 137. 

1887. On certain Peculiarities of the Dialect in Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
and Northumberland. Vol. xiii. p. 72. 

1892. The Barber Surgeons and Wax and Tallow Chandlers of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, with extracts from their records. Vol. xv. p. 228. 

1894. The ' Quigs buring Plas in Sidgatt/ Newcastle, the Swirle and the 
Lort Burn. Vol. xvii. p. 84. 

1896. Ruins of Buildings once existing on the Quayside, Newcastle. 
Vol. xviii. p. 258. 

Reports of the Newcastle and Gateshead Medical Society. 

On tenderness and pain of the pneumo-gastric nerves. Three parts ; 1855- 


Two cases of insufficiency of abdominal wall. Plate. 1856. 
On mesenteric disease ending in fatal hemorrhage. 1857. 
A case of extroversion of bladder, etc. 1857. 
A case of diphtheria operation death. 1858. 
A case of cancer of stomach sarcina ventr. 1858. 
Three cases of ' dropped hands' from lead. 1859. 
Oase of hydrothorax paracentesis recovery. 1860. 
A case of cancer of the stomach. 1361. 
A case of schirrhus of oesophagus. 1861. 
A case of stricture of oesophagus. 1861. 
Two cases of hydro-pneumo thorax. 1861. 
Two cases of diseased kidney. 1862. 
Annual report of Fever Hospital for 1857-58. 

ditto. ditto. for 1861-62. 

A case of cyanosis. 1862. 
A case of diseased spleen. 1863. 
On the use of chlorate of potass. 1863. 
An account of apost mortem examination of an inveterate smoker of tobacco, 

circa 1670. Translated from the Latin of Kerkringius. 1864. 
Report on a Turin monstrosity for Dr. Ellis. 1864. 
Report (annual) of Fever Hospital. 1864-65. 
On the cattle plague or typhus in Newcastle. 1865. 
A case of rupture of median line of abdomen in a male. 1867. 
A case of two fractured and united femora of an Ancient Briton. 1867. 
A case of occlusion of ductus comm. choledocus and rupture of gall bladder. 



Case of aortic aneurism, pressing on the vena cava clescendens and on the 

vena azygos. 1868. 

Case of fractured skull with re-union in an Ancient Briton. 1868. 
A case of aneurism of abdominal aorta. 1869. 
A case of epilepsy paralysis recovery. 1870. 
A case of salivary calculus. 1870. 

Notes of a case of death from hydrate of chloral. 1870. 
A case of hemiplegia and partial aphasia. 1871. 
Sequel of a case of epilepsy. 1871. 
A case of locomotor ataxy. 1872. 
A case of hypertrophied heart. 1873. 
Two cases of diabetes mellitus. 1873. 
Oases of hydrophobia with remarks, etc. 1873. 
Magnetic iron ore in tea instead of iron filings. 1874. 
Case of tumour (intracranial) at the base pressing on pons varolii, medulla 

oblongata and cerebellum. 1875. 
What is a generation of men ? 1875. 

Microscopical demonstration of Favus (Achorion Schonleinii). 1875. 
A case of recto-vesical fistula in the male. 1877. 
A case of psoriasis generalis. 1877. 
A case of pyloric obstruction, etc. 1877. 
A case of acute pleuritis hydrothorax paracentesis injection recovery. 


A case of aneurism of the aorta. 1880. Dr. R. Elliot's. 
Notice of the life of T. M. G-reenhow, M.D., with list of his publications. 


Vivisection and the Anti- Vivisection Acts. 1881. 
Sea-sickness. 1883. 

Address on the opening of the Durham College of Medicine. 1890. 
The Newcastle Medical Society One Hundred Years ago, with biographical 

notices of the members, etc. 1891. 

Annual and Magazine of Natural History. 

On the 'Anatomy of Eolis, Nudibranchiate Mollusk. Part 1, by Albany 

Hancock and D. Embleton. Five plates. 1845. 
On the Anatomy of Eolis. Part 2. Two plates. 1848. 
do. do. Part 3. do. 1849. 

do. do. Part 4. do. 1849. 

An Osteological Study. By D. E. and G. B. Richardson. 1846. Summary 

of, in Archaeological Journal. 

On the Anatomy of Scyllaea, Nudibranchiate Mollusk. Report British 
Association. 1847. Albany Hancock and D. Embleton. 


Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club. 

Vol. I. p. 288. Account of a Ribbon Fish (Gymnetrus). Two Plates. By 

A. H. and D. E. July, 1849. 
Vol. II. p. 1. Address to the members of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field 

Club on March 22, 1851. 

Vol. II. p. 103. On the two Species of Rat in England. Two plates. 1850. 
Vol. II. p. 110. On the short Sunfish (Orthragoriscus Mola). One "plate. 

Vol. II. p. 119. Summary of Observations on the Anatomy of Doris, a. 

Nudibranchiate Mollusk. By Albany Hancock and D. Embleton. 

Vol. IV. p. 50. Memorandum of the Occurrence of the Skeleton of the 

Bottle-nose whale (Hyperoodon Butzkoff, Lacepede), and of the 

Skull of the Grampus (Delphinus Orca, Cuvier), in the Bed of the 

Tyne. 1858. 
Vol. V. p. 196. On the Skull and other Bones of Loxomma Allmanni.. 

By D. E. and T. Atthey. 1874. 
Vol. VI. p. 34. Notes on a Tumulus at Grundstone Law, Northumberland. 

By the Rev. W. Greenwell and D. Embleton. 

Natural History Transactions of Northumberland, Durham, and 
Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 

Vol. I. p. 143 On an Ancient British burial at Ilderton, with Notes on the 

Skull. By the Rev. W. Greenwell and D. Embleton. 
Vol. I. p. 324. Notice of the Life of the late Joshua Alder, Esq. 
Vol. V. p. 118. Memoir of the Life of Albany Hancock, F.L.S., etc. 
Vol. V. p. 146. On the Vendace. 
Vol. VII. Presidential Address on May 7, 1879. 
Vol. VII. p. 43. A Paper on Eges. 

Vol. VII. p. 223. Memoir of the Life of Mr. W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. 
Vol. VIII. Note on the Birds seen at Nest House, Felling Shore, in May 

and June, 1884 ; Note on the occurrence of Shrimps in the Tyne ; 

and Note on the capture of Tunnies and of a fine specimen of the 

' Bergylt ' off the Tyne. June, 1884. 
Vol. VIII. The Tyne, The Lort Burn, and The Skerne. 
Vol. VFII. On the Spinal Column of Loxomma Allmanni. 
Vol. IX. A Catalogue of Place-names in Teesdale. 
Vol. X. Description of Stump- Cross Cavern [quoted in president's address,. 

pp. 190-1.] 

Vol. XL Memoir of the Life of John Hancock. 1891. 
Vol. XI. p. 255. On the Egg : lecture with introduction. 1893. 


Other Publications. 

1847. On the anatomy of Scylloea. British Association Reports, 1847. 

Part ii., p. 77. 
1868. Notes on whale caught at Newbiggin-on-Sea. [This is listed a& 

being in the Nat. Hist. Trans., vol. vi., but cannot be found in that 


1859. The microscope and its uses : a newspaper report. 
1864. Notes on anatomy of Chimpanzee. Nat. Hist. Review. 
1869. Anniversary address of President, Northern Branch of the British 

Medical Association at Newcastle, 1869. 
1870. Introductory address, section of medicine, annual meeting British 

Medical Association, Newcastle, 1870. 
1872. Anomalies of arrangement, muscular, aiterial, nervous. Journal of 

Anatomy and Physiology, vol. vi. p. 216, 1872. 

1870. On the Shoulder Tip Pain, and other Sympathetic Pains in Diseases 
of the Pancreas and Spleen, and on the symmetry of these organs. 
Letter from physicians to governors of Fever Hospital. 

1877. Case of univentricular or tricoelian heart; with Dr. Rob. Elliot. 
1882. Address delivered at the anniversary meeting of the Northern Branch 

of the British Medical Associaticn in Newcastle, July 13th, 1882. 
1882. On the treatment of sea-sickness. Journal of Medicine, No. 32, 1882. 
1882-3. Address of President to section of sanitary science and preventive 

medicine. Trans. Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, 1882-83. 
1889. The ' Three Indian Kings/ on the Quayside, Newcastle. A paper 

read at the inaugural dinner at the Quayside Restaurant, Limited, 

December 17th, 1888. 

1890. History of the Medical School, from 1832 to 1872. 
1890. Address at the Opening of the Durham College of Medicine, on the 

1st day of October, 1890. 

1890. Newcastle Medical Society a hundred years ago. 
1890. Biographical notices on members of the Philosophical and Medical 

Society one hundred years ago. 
1890, Oct. The Ahd Pitman's Po'try tiv ees Marrah. 

Local Dialect Dialogues. 
1891 . Barber-surgeons and chandlers of Newcastle. Journal office (different 

from that in the Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xv. p. 228). 
1880-81. A Visit to Madeira in the Winter of 1880-81. Two lectures 

delivered before the members of the Literary and Philosophical 

Society of Newcastle. 

[Read on the 31st October, 1900.] 

The forts which guard the eastern portion of Hadrian's Wall 
have one very remarkable characteristic. They all or nearly all stand 
across the line of the Wall ; their areas extend both north and south 
of it. On the central and western portions of the Wall this feature 
seems not to recur. Either the forts are detached from the Wall, 
as at Ohesterholm, Carvoran and Castlesteads, or their northern 
ramparts coincide with the Wall, as at Carrawburgh, Housesteads, 
Great Ohesters and Birdoswald. But Chesters, Halton, Rutchester, 
Ben well, Wallsend, and perhaps Newcastle, are different from these. 
Their areas reach out beyond the line of the Wall, and the Wall, 
instead of coinciding with their northern ramparts, meets some point 
in their eastern and western sides. The reason for this arrangement 
has often been discussed and especially in connexion with Ohesters, 
which is by far the best known and the most frequently visited of the 
six forts. Among other guesses, the conjecture has been occasionally 
propounded that the northern part of the fort which projects beyond 
the Wall may be a later addition. According to this idea, the first 
position of things at Ohesters, or any similar fort, would have been 
that shown in fig. 1 ; then the north wall of the fort would have 


i^=^^^- 1 *r 




^CoJbM ' ^336 

been pulled down, the ditch in front of it filled up, and the area of the 
fort extended out northwards as it appears in fig. 2, which shews 



in outline the fort and the adjacent Wall as they now exist at 

The idea of such extension is not, in itself, improbable. We 
know that the Romans did enlarge forts when they thought fit. We 
know, too, that the vicinity of a fort, to the south of the Wall, 
was often occupied by buildings, so that an enlargement south of the 
Wall might in some cases have brought the ramparts inconveniently 
close to baths or temples, and, therefore an enlargement northwards 
would be preferable. Moreover, the excavations at Birdoswald, made 
in 1895-8, revealed one definite case of reconstruction, which, though 
not precisely parallel to the supposed enlargement of Chesters fort, 
is at least very striking. At Birdoswald (fig. 3) two distinct lines 


of defence were found to have existed, the one the stone wall, and the 
other, slightly south of it, a wall of turfs, each wall with a ditch in front. 
The turf wall is the earlier ; its line crosses the area of the fort now 
visible at Birdoswald, and the spade has shown that the north guard- 
chamber of the north-east gate is planted on its ditch. When it was 
in use, the fort in its present shape was obviously not yet built, though 
possibly there existed, instead, a smaller fort with earthen ramparts. 
Subsequently the Romans destroyed this earlier line at Birdoswald 
and for a couple of miles near it. They substituted a new stone wall 
a little to the north of it and they erected a stone fort, the northern 
rampart of which coincides with the Wall. Whether the Vallum is 
contemporaneous with the first or the second of these two lines, is not 


quite clear and fortunately does not now concern us. The important 
point is that two lines can be traced at Birdoswald. The one is an 
earlier wall of turf, and perhaps a fort, now recognizable only by 
excavation. The other is a wall and fort of stone which superseded 
the earlier work and can be seen above the surface. 1 

With these facts in mind, I seized an opportunity which 
happened to offer itself last September, and carried out a 
small excavation at Chesters, in order to see if the spade 
would yield there, as at Birdoswald, any definite evidence about an 
earlier and a later line. Mrs. Clayton most kindly granted per- 
mission for the work and showed the excavators much kindness 
during it. We are also indebted to her tenant, Mr. Hall, for his 
consent. Mr. E. C. Bosanquet and Mr. T. Hesketh Hodgson, both 
of whom are familiar with the particular kind of excavation proposed, 
came to aid in the supervision and the verification of results, and 
- Mr. 'Hodgson surveyed the ground. Both Mr. Bosanquet and Mr. 
Hodgson also revised these notes for printing. 

The idea of the excavation was as follows : If there is any sort 
of truth in the conjecture above mentioned, that the existing fort at 
Chesters (,fig. 2) is a later construction, superseding an originally 
straight line, that original line ought to be discoverable by 
the spade. Its wall or rampart would, of course, have been totally 
destroyed, but the ditch in front, although filled up, ought to be 
recognizable with absolute certainty. For, be it observed, there is no 
more effective way of leaving your mark upon this earth than the very 
literal one of digging a hole or ditch. The ditch may be filled up, and 
the grass grow over it, and all visible traces disappear, and yet it 
will remain recognizable to the end of time. The ' forced soil ' with 
which it has been filled is 'disturbed' or mixed in substance, and 
distinct in texture and coherence from the undisturbed sub-soil 
round it : it contains bits of freestone, for instance, where no free- 
stone could come by nature, and, if human habitations be near, it 
may contain also bits of pottery and bones, and other traces of 
mankind. If, moreover, the ditch was open for any length of time, 

1 See the Reports of the Cumberland Excavation Committee in the 
Transactions of the Cumb. and Westm. Arch. Society, xiv. and xv. 


vegetation will have sprung up along its bottom, and objects will 
have fallen in from above, and the excavator finds at the bottom of 
the forced soil a thin or thick layer of dark matter, which is decayed 
vegetation, with here and there an alien object in it. The precise 
features, of course, vary with the circumstances of each case, and 
their determination sometimes present considerable difficulties, 
demanding minute supervision and laborious observation of details. 
But there are always features of some sort wherever there has been a 
ditch, and we had, therefore, good reason to expect that we could 
prove whether there was or was not a buried ditch at Chesters. The 
line of the search was, of course, fixed for us. The points where the 
Wall meets the east and west sides of the fort have been laid bare in 
earlier excavations. These points are at the north-eastern and north- 
western gateways. The Wall itself comes up to the south guard- 
chamber of each gateway, and its ditch is slightly in advance of that. 
We had only to join these points, and trench across the line thus 
given. If we found undisturbed soil underneath, we should conclude 
that there was no earlier Wall and ditch running continuously straight 
across. If, on the other hand, we found disturbed soil and the 
resemblances of a ditch, we should conclude with equal confidence 
that there had been such an earlier line of defence. 

Our results may be briefly summarised at once, before proceeding 
to details. At both gateways, and at two points close to the * forum' 
and the centre of the fort, we found clear evidence of an original 
depression, in all respects like a ditch, occupying exactly the line of 
the supposed ditch, dating from the Roman period, but unquestion- 
ably older than the existing fort. The width of this ditch, as we may 
confidently call it, was found to exceed twenty-seven feet from lip to lip, 
and its deptli to exceed six feet, while in shape it resembles the ditches in 
front of the Birdoswald Turf Wall, of the Great Wall, and of the 
Vallum of Pius in Scotland. No serious doubt remains, I think, that 
the original line of defence at Chesters was continuously straight, and 
that the existing fort, which sits across that straight line, is of later 
date. That is, we have at Chesters, as at Birdoswald, an earlier and 
a later line. On the other hand, two points remain quite uncertain. 
We found no evidence to show whether the Wall of the earlier line was 


constructed of earth or turf or stone. Nor did we find evidence to 
show whether an earlier fort existed at Ohesters corresponding to the 
earlier line. There are a priori probabilities in both matters, which 
are fairly obvious, but we may add that we doubt whether anything 
but a lucky accident will ever give us direct evidence. 

I pass on to the details of the excavation. Trenches were dug at 
five points indicated on the plan on the next page. I shall describe 
them from east to west, which is, in the main, the order in which they 
were dug. 

(1) As a preliminary precaution we commenced a little distance 
outside the fort, at about fifty yards east of the north-east gate. Here 
we dug a trench to ascertain the exact position of the ditch, which, 
on any hypothesis, would necessarily be present in front of the wall 
outside the fort. The berm, that is, the level space between the wall 
and its ditch, was found to be about twenty-two feet wide. The scarp 
of the ditch, and the mixed soil filling it, were recognized with clearness, 
the mixed soil contained debris from the Wall and some bits of Koman 
pottery. The subsoil here is, as all our trenches proved, gravel, 
with much water flowing through it, and this, we were assured, is the 
general subsoil of the large field or park in which the fort stands. 

(2) The position of the ditc-h indicated by the preceding trench 
would take it, if prolonged, through the north guard chamber of the 
north-east gateway. Accordingly we dug across the gateway and the 
face of the guard chamber. A small trench, right in front of the 
southern exit, showed undisturbed gravel at two feet below the present 
surface, and a second trench in front of the northern exit showed an 
appearance of disturbed soil suggesting the edge of the ditch, but 
inflow of water prevented our examining this and an attempt to sink 
a hole in the middle of the guard chamber was similarly frustrated. 
A large trench was dug at thirteen feet east of the guard chamber on the 
line of the ditch and, beneath much surface debris, revealed disturbed 
soil, mixed with freestone fragments, bones, and Roman pottery, and 
below that, eight feet under the present surface, the black matter 
which indicates vegetable growths. Water hindered us much, but it 
was plain that our trench went down into the middle of a filled-up 
ditch. This ditch cannot have been in use when the gate and guard 




chamber were constructed. It would have blocked all access to the 
gate, and, even if it went no further west than our trench, it would 
have left the guard-chamber wall without its berm. 

(3) We next dug a trench forty-one feet long across the line of the 
supposed ditch in the middle of the fort, just north of the north-east 
angle of the forum. Here the ground, to a depth of three or three- 
and-a-half feet, consists of broken stone and debris, and beneath that 
is the untouched gravel which represents approximately the old Roman 
level though the actual grassy surface which the Romans found, 
would, of course, be some inches, or perhaps a foot, above this gravel sub- 
soil. This undisturbed subsoil was apparent at either end of our trench, 
but in the middle we found a gap, twenty-seven feet wide from lip to lip, 
filled with mixed soil (fig. 4). Across the middle of this, resting on 


. Av A 

the mixed soil at about the old Roman level, we found a Roman drain 
or gutter, lying in situ : its course is oblique to the streets of the 
fort and nearly parallel to its diagonal, being from south by east to north 
by west. On digging down into the mixed soil we were able to clear 
out the two slopes ; the northern singularly clear and having a descent 
of rather more than ' one and a half upon one' (33), the southern 
less well preserved but having apparently the same steepness. The 
mixed soil filling the gap between these slopes was mainly gravel till a 
depth of about six and a half feet below the present surface: below was a 
stratum of grey clay, and below that again, a substantial layer of moss, 


peat and decayed vegetation, containing also evidence of man. The 
vegetation included decayed leaves and bits of alder and of birch, retain- 
ing still its silver bark and looking as if it had been cut by a knife : the 
evidences of man were a leather object which was probably a bag, a 
bronze nail, and some animal bones, including a deer's antler. It 
may seem strange at first sight that wood should have kept its bark 
and leather its shape ever since Eoman days, but it is to be 
remembered that a damp soil, to which the air has no access, preserves 
such objects with great perfection. Roman objects of leather have 
often been dug up : in 1897 we found a Roman leather shoe in the 
buried ditch of the turf wall at Birdoswald and a branch of birch 
with its silver bark was discovered in the same year by the Scottish 
antiquaries under the earthern rampart of the Roman fort at Ardoch. 2 
Beneath the peat, at the depth of nine feet from the present surface, 
we came to the ordinary gravel subsoil. The points thus ascertained 
gave us with sufficient accuracy the shape of the ditch (fig. 4). It 
was not a flat-bottomed ditch like that of the Vallum, but one of the 
kind called Y-shaped though, in fact, the name is misleading for the 
sides are never really so steep nor the angle so definite as in a V. The 
ditches of the turf wall, the stone wall, and the Scottish wall of Pius 
are all of this shape, and the steepness of their sides, so far as it has 
been measured, agrees with the slopes observed at Ohesters, and 
mentioned above. When originally constructed, our ditch must have 
been at least twenty-seven feet in width from lip to lip, and 
probably more, for twenty-seven feet is the distance of the 
two edges of untouched subsoil, and, in Roman times, this 
subsoil must have been covered with mould and soil so that 
the actual lips of the ditch must have been higher and further 
apart. Similarly, its depth probably exceeded six feet. Our trench 
reached the bottom at about six feet below the Roman level as 
indicated by the gravel, but, as we have just said, this level is a 
little below the probable truth, and allowance must also be made for 
the fact that, owing to the existence of the drain in situ, which we 
did not wish needlessly to disturb, our trench did not perhaps reach 
the bottom of the ditch at quite its deepest part. 

2 Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, xxxii., 435, 


The history of the whole is clear enough. The ditch was dug 
along this line, and while it was open, peaty vegetation grew in its 
damp bottom, and bits of wood, a leather bag, and other objects 
tumbled in. Probably it was open for some while since the layer 
of peat is substantial. Finally it was filled in, principally with gravel 
of the spot, a new fort was built over it, and in particular a drain 
or gutter was taken at this point obliquely across it. One would 
like to know whence came the gravel with which it was filled. The 
most natural supposition is that it came from the early rampart 
behind it, which must have been demolished when it was filled up. 
In this case, that rampart was constructed in part at least of gravel. 
But it might also have come from the new ditch which had to be dug 
round the new northern face of the stone fort. 

(4) A small trench, eight feet long, and eight feet deep at its 
deepest, was dug thirty-eight feet west of the large trench just described, 
in rfrder to test the continuance of the ditch. The point selected 
was over the line of the north side of the ditch and the results were 
quite satisfactory. The north side of the ditch was easily 
distinguished by the difference between the bank of untouched 
gravel and the mixed soil lying against it. The mixed soil was 
principally gravel, and below the gravel, darker matter, as in No. 3, 
but the steepness of the slope seemed slightly greater. This, of 
course, may be an accident, due to a little of the original bank 
having fallen off. 

(5) Finally, a hole was sunk immediately against the outer wall 
of the north guardchamber of the north-west gateway. This, like 
the corresponding guardchamber of the opposite gateway, mentioned 
above (No. 2), stands on the line of the supposed ditch. We found 
the face of the wall of the guardchamber piled up with large 
1 cobbles ' to a depth of forty inches below the present surface. This 
present surface has been obtained by excavation, and is some inches 
apparently below the Roman surface. Similar cobbles were found also 
to underlie the stones of the wall, and the whole arrangement obviously 
represents the filling of a ditch across which heavy masonry was to be 
erected. We found almost exactly the same feautres at the guard- 
chamber of Birdoswald which is built over the filled-up ditch of the turf 



wall. A similar piece of work was found in 1897 at Carrawburgh, at 
the point where the east rampart of that fort crosses some sort of 
hole or depression. 

The net results of the work have already been summarized in a 
preceding paragraph. It remains to indicate a few possibilities or 
probabilities which it suggests in relation to the history of the Wall 
as a whole. I may premise that I have no new idea to promulgate 
or conjecture to sustain. During the course of protracted excavations 
on the Wall, I have seen too many ideas and conjectures destroyed by 
the spade to care very much about such things. But, if the problem 
of the Wall is ever to be solved, it is imperatively necessary that its 
students should eagerly note the indications provided by each new 
discovery, and deduce suggestions thence for fresh research. Such 
suggestions must not be mistaken for articles of faith : still less must 
they be called theories, which I find archaeologists apt to consider 
even more sacred than creeds themselves. They are simply clues to- 
wards the solution of a great difficulty, which no sensible man will 

In the present case, it is important to note that we now possess 
definite evidence at Chesters of two periods, an earlier wall of unknown 
character (either stone or turf or earth), and a later wall of stone 
connected with the fort of stone. We meet precisely the same two 
periods at the North Tyne bridge, close by the fort of Chesters. 
There we find an earlier bridge and a later bridge, and the earlier 
bridge is earlier than the wall of stone, while the later bridge, if not 
demonstrably coeval, is a least in complete harmony with that later 
wall. 3 We find two periods again at Birdoswald, ail earlier wall of 
turf, and a later wall of stone with its own fort of stone. We find again 
a series of forts on the eastern part of the Wall, planted across it in 
precisely the same position at Chesters, and, perhaps, possessing the 
same history. These instances cannot be neglected. So long as 
Birdoswald stood alone, it was impossible to base upon it any sort of 
conclusions, however tentative. But we have now added to it one, 
and perhaps several other cases, and the idea that there were two 
walls, one before the other, becomes an idea of which the researcher 
may take note, as supported by real facts. 

3 See the results of the latest examination of the bridge, described by the late 
Mr. Sheriton Holmes in this series, xvi., 328:338. 


The problem of the Wall has, in short, changed considerably 
during the last six years' excavations. The old controversy concerned 
the Wall and the Vallum. Were they of the same date, men asked, 
or was the Vallum older than the Wall ? Was the Vallum the work 
of Agricola, and the Wall the work of Hadrian ; or the Vallum the 
work of Hadrian, and the Wall the work of Severus ? But recent 
excavations have shown, with some approach to conclusiveness, that 
the Vallum and the Wall are coeval, as Hodgson and Bruce main- 
tained. The controversy now concerns the Wall. We meet now 
some reasons to believe there were two walls, and we shall have to 
ask : Are these reasons conclusive ? and if so, who built which wall ? 
Did Agricola build the first and Hadrian the second, or Hadrian the 
first and Severus the second ? I must confess that I find a difficulty 
myself in ascribing anything to Agricola on our existing evidence. 
It is likely enough that he held the country across which the Wall 
runs, and there is no inherent improbability in the idea that he built 
some of its forts, but direct proof is still wanting to connect him 
with either Wall or forts. The excavations and discoveries of the last 
ten years, much as they have contributed to illustrate the Wall, have 
thrown no light on Agricola, and this consistent absence of evidence 
is becoming a serious argument. One thing alone is plain : the testi- 
mony of ancient historians, and ancient coins and ancient inscriptions, 
combine to prove that Hadrian built a wall from Tyne to Solway. 
Amid all the mists and shifting lights of controversy, we may still 
continue to use that phrase. 

By way of postscript, I desire to mention one point more. I have 
heard regrets expressed, and I share those regrets myself, that the 
trenches at Chesters could not have been kept open for the inspection 
of antiquaries who might wish to see them. But it is a matter 
which nature and not man decides. The subsoil at Chesters contains 
much water, which flowed into our trenches with great rapidity, and, 
where it did not wholly hinder our diggin g, obliterated in a very few 
hours the more important features, which were necessarily those at the 
bottom. Indeed, I fear that very little is to be gained in general by 
leaving open the trenches of excavations such as those which I have 
just described. Those who, from hour to hour, watch the actual 



-n tr-'-'- :i: v 



digging out of earth, may see the evidence produced before their eyes in 
the most definite and unmistakable fashion. But the colours of fresh 
soil soon loose their vividness, and the most striking proofs may 
easily be obscured by an inflow of subsoil water, or a passing shower 
of rain, or the careless footstep of a cow or an antiquary. 

I have re-examined this inscription and have to confirm the reading of 
Bishop Bennet. The original inscription was DISCIPVLINAE AVGGG. Later 
AVGGG- was altered to AVGrVSTI. Probably therefore the stone was put up in 
A.D. 209-211. and altered in 212 A.D. [F.H.] 


BY HORATIO A. ADAMSON, a vice-President of the Society. 
[Read on the 26th September, 1900.] 

When I read a paper in December, 1895, on ' Tynemouth Castle 
after the Dissolution of the Monastery,' it was suggested that I should 
deal with the monastery from the earliest times to the dissolution. I 
have often thought of the subject, but hesitated to approach it as it 
had been so exhaustively dealt with by the late W. Sidney Gibson in 
his great work on the monastery, published in 1846 and 1847. Much 
information on the subject of our monasteries having however come to 
light during the last fifty years, I am emboldened to lay before the 
members of the society an outline of the history of the venerable ruins 
which stand upon the bold promontory at the mouth of the river Tyne, 
at the foot of which the North Sea beats with, too often, a loud ' ship- 
wrecking roar.' 

The history of the monastery is an eventful one, and carries' us 
back to the time when Edwin, the first Christian king of Xorthumbria, 
was converted to Christianity through the efforts of Paulinus the 
Roman missionary. Edwin was married to a Christian princess, 
Ethelburga, daughter of Eadbald, king of Kent, and was baptized 
on Easter eve in 627 1 at York. 

It is stated that in the year 626 the first Christian church at 
Tynemouth was built of wood by Edwin ; but as he was not baptized 
until the following year it is probable the erection of the church would 
not take place until after his baptism. He was slain at Hatfield or 
Heathfield on 12th October, 633, 2 by Penda, king of the Mercians. 
His queen and her children escaped by sea to Dover with Paulinus, 
then bishop of Northumbria. Oswald ascended the throne in the 
year following the death of Edwin. He built a church of stone at 
Tynemouth. In 647 he was slain at Maserfield by Penda, who has 

1 Leaders in the Northern Church, by Dr. Lightfoot, bishop of D urharo. 

2 J. R, Green, The Making of England, p. 271, 


been described as the anti-christ of his time. At his death he was in 
his 38th year. His head was struck off and afterwards it was placed 
in St. Outhbert's coffin by the monks of Lindisfarne. St. Outhbert is 
invariably represented as holding in his hands the head of St. Oswald. 
On the death of St. Oswald, Oswin who, it is stated, was born at 
South Shields was elevated to the throne of Deira, which consisted 
of that portion of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria which lay 
between the Tees and the Humber, the capital of which was at York. 
He was betrayed, by earl Hunwald and murdered by Oswy, king of 
Bernicia, on the 13th September, 651, at Grilling, near Richmond, in 
Yorkshire. His body was brought to Tynemouth and buried in the 
oratory of the Virgin Mary. It is from this king and martyr that 
Tynemouth obtained its great reputation as a place of pilgrimage. 

The monastery at Tynemouth, from its formation until Norman 
times, had a separate existence and was not subject as it became in 
after years to any other religious house. In 685, 3 Herebald is 
spoken of as abbot of the monastery. Although it ceased to be an 
abbey when it was made subject to Jarrow, afterwards to Durham, 
and lastly to St. Albans in Hertfordshire, the name of ' abbey ' still 
clings to it. In songs which have been written about it, it is always 
spoken of as * Tynemouth Abbey.' 4 Old customs and traditions die 

During the Saxon period, the monastery suffered terribly at the 
hands of the Yiking hordes who constantly made descents upon our 
shores. The close proximity of the monastery to a tidal river and 
standing on a bold promontory at the mouth of the Tyne, it was a 
conspicuous object to the Danish marauders. It was plundered by 
them in 788, 794, and in 800. 5 In 865 the church and all the monastic 
buildings were destroyed by fire in an incursion by the Danes under 
Hinguar and Hubba, and the nuns of St. Hilda at Ilartlepool, who had 
taken refuge in the church, were massacred. In a paper on * S. Hilda's 
Church, Hartlepool,' by the rev. J. P. Hodgson (Arch. Ael. vol. 
xvii. p. 205) he doubts the story of the nuns of St. Hilda being burnt 

3 History of Northumberland, by C. J. Bates, p. 73. 

4 ' Where yon Abbey ruin stands hoary, 

Nodding o'er the silent deep.' Stobbs. 

5 The Monastery at Tynemouth, by W. S. Gibson, vol. ii. p. 96. 


with the monastery, and says it rests on the unsupported testimony of 
the lafce W. Sidney Gibson, although he does not think he in- 
vented the occurrence. The story is told in vol. i. p. 15 of Gibson's 
history of the monastery. If Mr. Hodgson had referred to p. 1 8 he 
would have found the authority for it. At this page is a condensed 
translation of the narrative given by Matthew of Westminster, who 
appeared to have derived his information from the ancient treatise of 
the life and miracles of S. Oswin, which has been attributed to a monk 
of St. Albans, who had taken up his abode at Tynemouth in 1111. It 
is preserved among the Cotton MSS. The passage reads : 

' In process of time the holy Virgins of the Nunnery of St. Hilda, the Abbess 
hoping by his (St. Oswin's) intercession to escape the persecutions of the Danes 
led by the brothers Hinguar and Hubba, took refuge in the church of the Holy 
Mother of God. In this rage of persecution the Nunnery was, with the others 
in the same (country) as it is believed, demolished, the holy Virgins being 
translated by marterdom to Heaven/ 

In the years 870-876 and 1008 6 the church was ravaged and wasted 
by the Danes. 

In the year 1065 an event occurred which was fraught with great 
consequences to the monastery. The relics of St. Oswin were discovered 
in consequence of a revelation to a monk named Edmund, who was 
sacrist of the monastery. Tosti, or Tostig, Saxon earl of North- 
umberland, 7 to whom the earldom had been given by king Harold, 
commenced the rebuilding of the monastery, and the relics of St. Oswin 
were placed in a shrine in the new church, which was dedicated to St. 
Mary and St. Oswin. In the year 1075 the independent life of the 
monastery came to an end. The church of Tynemouth was given, 
with the body of St. Oswin, by Waltheof (son of Siward, the great 
earl of Northumberland) to Aldwine, the prior, and brethren at 
Jarrow, and the relics of the saint were removed there ; but were 
afterwards brought back and placed in the shrine. 

Albery, or Alberie, earl of Northumberland, 8 confirmed the grant 

6 The Monastery at Tynemouth, vol. ii. p. 96. 

7 He was a son of Earl Godwin, and brother of Harold. History of 
Northumberland, by Cadwallader J. Bates, p. 101 ; Conquest of England, by 
Green, p. 560. 

8 History of Northumberland, by Cadwallader J. Bates, p. 110. 


to the monks at Durham, who had then removed from Jarrow. 
While the monastery was annexed to Jarrow and Durham, the monks 
at Durham made provision for the service of the church at Tyne- 
mouth, from which circumstance it may be concluded there were no 
resident monks at Tynemouth. In 1085 the gift was confirmed by 
the bishop of Durham. 

Robert de Mowbray, Norman earl of Northumberland, who had 
come over with the Conqueror, was allied to the best families in the 
land, and had inherited, in addition to his patrimony, 280 manors 
from his uncle, the bishop of Coutances, expelled, in 1090, the 
monks of Durham from the church at Tynemouth, and granted the 
monastery to the Benedictine abbey of St. Alban the premier abbey 
in England for ever, and it remained a cell to St. Albans until the 
dissolution in 1539. This act of Robert de Mowbray was the cause 
of much strife between the convent at Durham and the abbey of St. 
Albans. In the year 1174 pope Alexander III. appointed com- 
missioners, consisting of Roger, bishop of Worcester, Robert, dean of 
York, and master John de Saresbury, treasurer of Exeter, delegates to 
enquire into and settle the dispute between the convent at Durham 
and the abbot of St. Albans as to Tynemouth monastery, and the 
dispute was settled by the prior and convent of Durham giving up all 
claim to the church at Tynemouth, and the abbot and brethren of St. 
Albans giving up to the church at Durham the churches of Bywell 
St. Peter and Edlingham. (See Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xiii. p. 92.) 

Robert de Mowbray completed the church at Tynemouth, which 
had been commenced by earl Tosti. The portions of the Norman 
church which are now standing are all that remain of the church 
commenced and finished by these renowned men. (See plate III.) 

The church consisted of nave, transepts, and choir. The choir 
was terminated by an apse. A tower surmounted the intersection of 
nave, transepts and choir. The foundation of the apse was uncovered 
a few years ago by the late Mr. R. J. Johnson, architect, during some 
excavations. The length of the Norman church, it is stated by 
Gibson, was one hundred and forty-five feet, and the breadth between 
the walls was forty-six and a half feet, but from the position of the 



apse, as discovered by Mr. Johnson, the church was about one 
hundred and ninety feet in length. The position of the apse in 
Gibson's map is incorrect. The nave consisted of seven bays, with an 
aisle on each side. 

In 1093 Malcolm Canmore, king of Scotland, was slain at 
Alnwick on St. Brice's day (November 13), and his eldest son, Edward, 
fell in the same expedition. They were both buried at Tynemouth in 
the chapter house. Queen Margaret died at Edinburgh of grief four 
days later. The bodies of Malcolm and his son were afterwards 
removed to Dunfermline, and buried in front of the high altar of the 
abbey, which was founded by king Malcolm and his queen. The date 
of the removal of the bodies is given by Gibson as 1247, but another 
and more recent writer gives the date as 1115. 9 

Since this paper was written, a correspondence has appeared in the 
Glasgow Herald about an article entitled * The Royal Dust of 
Scotland,' and the question has been asked * Where lies the dust of 
Malcolm Canmore ?' It is stated that when the Scots arrogantly 
demanded the body of their king from the prior of Tynemouth, the 
body of a man of low birth of Sethune (Monkseaton), was given to 
them, and so the arrogance of the Scots was met. The writer of 
1530, may be correct that the body still lies at Tynemouth in some 
unknown spot. 

After Tynemouth became a cell of St. Albans, it was subjected to 
pastoral visits from the abbots. Abbot Simon, in the reign of Henry 
II., committed grievous havoc on the food supplies of the priory during 
his visit. It is said that when the abbot had swept away every- 
thing, oxen with the plough were brought to him, and he was told, 
with tears, that all had been devoured, and that these were the last 
that remained of the oxen of the prior's ploughmen, and they were 
offered to be devoured ; whereupon the abbot, justly rebuked, 
prepared to depart with his retinue from the priory, leaving it 
despoiled of all its supplies for that year. The extent of the 
hospitality to be received from the prior was subsequently limited. 

9 In the ' Heraldic Visitation of the Northern Counties,' by Thomas Tonge, 
Norroy King of Arms, in the year 1530, it is said that ' Malcolyn, Kyng of 
Scotland, lyeth buried jn the saii Monastery of Tynmouth, in the Chapiter 
House.' (41 Siirt. Soc. Publ. p. 36.) 


Matthew Paris, the historian of St. Albans from 1217 to 1257, 
mentions the following decree of the convent of St. Albans : 

' If the Abbat were to go to Tynemouth with 20 men he might stay 15 
days at the expense of the Priory ; but if the cause of the Abbat's going 
should be on business of the Brethren he should travel and stay at the cost 
of the Priory accompanied by certain Feudatories who of right and custom 
ought to perform the part of Esquires, whom he enfeoffed and appointed for 
that purpose.' 

The same writer gives a very quaint account of the manner of 
the abbot's journey from St. Albans to Tynemouth : 

' When the Abbat goes thither he is to be attended by six Esquires who to 
this effect have extraordinary feofs of the land of the Church. These six shall 
be at the Abbat's charge both going and coming but upon their own horses, the 
which shall be sightly and strong enough to carry according to custom, if need 
be, the habits of a Monk behind each Squire. If any horse belonging to those 
Squires should happen to dye by the way, the Abbat is to give him ten shillings 
for his loss. It is to be observed that the Abbat is to ask the King's licence to 
go to such remote parts of the kingdom and so neare Scotland whensoever he 
designs to repair to Tynemouth. When arrived there he is to behave himself 
modestly correcting the family : not to be a tyrant, not squandering the pro- 
visions and stores of the house ; but considering he is come thither to reform all 
that requires it and to visit his flock with Fatherly affection.' 

The tenants of the prior of Tynemouth, holding lands within the 
manor, contributed, by the ancient custom on the first visit of a new 
abbot of St. Albans, forty shillings which was called the ' Abbot's 
Welcome. ' 

In 1294, 10 the abbot of St. Albans having heard that the prior of 
Tynemouth with others wished to render himself independent, went 
to Tynemouth secretly, and receiving assistance from the mayor of 
Newcastle was introduced by Henry Scott of Newcastle to the prior, 
and he was arrested and sent beyond the sea. 

The crowning glory of Tynemouth is the beautiful Transitional or 
Early English choir which was built between 1190 and 1200, of which 
the east end and part of the south wall are the principal remaining 
portions. The triple lancet windows are unrivalled. The choir was 
carried eastward of the transepts of the Norman church one hundred 

10 . Gibson's] Monastery of Tynemouth, vol. ii. p. 32. 




(From a Drawing by Mr. H. S. Ourry of Newcastle.) 


and fifteen feet and the width of the choir, including the north 
and south aisles, was sixty-six feet, being much wider than the 
nave of the Norman church. The whole of the church eastward 
of the transepts was covered by a groined vaulted roof, having 
moulded ribs, parts of the springers of which are visible from the 
string course above the first tier of windows in the southern wall. 
Over the east end of the church was a room with a window in the 
upper part of the east gable and large windows at the sides. 
In an article in the Builder of 5th December, 1896, p. 463, it is 
suggested that this room was for the treasures connected with the 
shrine of St. Oswald, king and martyr. This should read St. Oswin. 
Another theory is that the room was intended for a beacon fire to 
guide ships to the Tyne, but as the fires used in these old beacons 
were wood or coal fires I think it is extremely unlikely a fire would be 
placed in such a position as the danger of setting fire to the church 
would be very great. If a beacon fire were lighted in these early days 
it is probable a separate tower would be used for the purpose as was 
done three hundred years ago. The first suggestion is, I think, 
the more likely one, unless there are other theories as numerous 
as those about 'low side' windows. In a letter written by the 
late sir Gilbert Scott about twenty-five years ago he says, ' I 
have visited and sketched the ruins of the priory church several 
times and I always think the eastern bays of the choir are the 
finest specimen I know of the earlier phase of the early pointed 
style.' At the time the choir was built a stone screen was inserted 
between the western piers of the tower, 11 and it divided the parochial 
church from the priory church. In this screen are two low and 
narrow doorways giving access from the parochial church to the 
priory church. In the centre of the east wall of the choir is a deeply 
recessed doorway opening into a small chapel. In the year 1336 there 
is mentioned in the chartulary of the priory the ' New Chapel ' of our 
Blessed Lady within the priory. This is not the beautiful chapel 
which is commonly known as the 'Lady chapel,' although it may 
have stood upon the same site. 

The present chapel dates from about 1400 and is Perpendicular in 
11 The Plate facing p. 22 shews the west side of this screen. 



style. It is eighteen feet ten inches in length and eleven feet four inches 
in breadth. The richly vaulted roof is unique. It contains fifteen large 
bosses. Upon the central boss is a representation of the Almighty 
enthroned in Judgment, his feet resting upon an orb. On each side 
of the principal figure are two angels. On the rim of the boss is 
inscribed ' In die judicii libera nos Domine.' 

Twelve of the larger bosses contain effigies of the Apostles ; the 
name of each is inscribed on the rim with the invocation ' Ora pro 
nobis.' Another boss at the eastern extremity of the centre line 
contains the figure of Our Lord bearing the Cross and Banner, and, 
kneeling at his feet, Mary Magdalene. On the rim is the inscription 
' Eabboni,' ' Noli me tangere.' The boss at the other extremity of the 
same line contains the figure of St. John the Baptist bearing a lamb. 
Each of the apostles bears his peculiar symbol. Twelve minor bosses, 
six on either side of the centre line, contain several devices, among 
them, on a shield, a fetter-lock within a crescent, a badge of the Percys ; 
a monogram P.L. on a cross, the monogram P.L. repeated on the 
other side. On the south side of the door, at the west end of the 
chapel, is a shield bearing the arms of VESCY (or, a cross sable), and 
on the north side of it another shield bearing the arms of Percy 
(quarterly, or, a lion rampant azure, for the ancient dukes of BRABANT, 
and gules, three lucies or, for LUCY). In a paper read before the 
Society of Antiquaries in 1852, it is stated there were grounds for 
the belief that the chapel was founded by one of the Percy family. 
The shield and the monogram P.L. (read as Percy and Lucy), 
together with the Percy badge of the crescent and fetterlock, the 
only armorial badge on the roof, seem to offer strong corroboration of 
this interesting surmise. Over the door is a figure stated to be that 
of the Virgin Mary, and, kneeling at her feet, is the founder of the 
chapel ; in a drawing in Brand's History of Newcastle the figure of 
the Virgin looks more like that of St. Oswin with the founder of the 
chapel kneeling at his feet ; beneath the figures was an inscription 
1 St. Oswinus ora.' It is now illegible. 

At the four corners of the roof are the emblems of the four evan- 
gelists bearing scrolls. In the east wall was a quatrefoil window 
which was replaced in 1852 by a rose window. Why Mr. John Dobson, 


who restored the chapel, did not retain the original design of which 
there was ample evidence it is difficult to conceive. On each side of 
the chapel are three windows. These windows were built up by the 
Ordnance authorities while they had possession of the chapel, when it 
was used as a receptacle for government stores. In the year 1850 
possession of the chapel was given back to the parish of Tynemouth. 
A subscription was raised and Mr. Dobson of Newcastle was entrusted 
with the restoration of the building. Successful as a railway station and 
domestic house architect, he lacked the spirit of the early church 
builders. He placed a stone altar in the chapel, and opened out 
four of the windows, in which stained glass was placed by Mr. 
Wailes of Newcastle. The remaining two windows on the north side 
had never been pierced and remain so to this day. The vaulting 
shafts of the roof were carried to the ground as they had been cut off 
by the string course to make more room for casks while the chapel 
was in the possession of the Ordnance department one of many 
disgraceful acts of vandalism for which government departments are 

Other alterations were made in the interior but happily the 
beautiful roof was not touched. Some years ago some person with a 
meretricious love of colour studded the roof with blue and gold which 
is a great disfigurement to it. At the east end of the chapel on the 
exterior and above the rose window is the sacred monogram and on 
either side of it were shields bearing the arms of the abbey of St. Albans 
and of the priory of Tynemouth, but the arms are no longer discernible. 
Mr. E. Ridsdale Tate in 1895 described the priory in the Builder, 
and in speaking of the choir says ' There is a bold simplicity about 
the exterior which harmonises well with its bleak situation being 
exposed to the fury of the gales from the North Sea.' 

In the fifteenth century monasticism was losing its hoid upon the 
people, the dwellers in the monasteries not having maintained the high 
ideal of the founders of their orders and laxness in discipline was a 
growing feature in the system. In addition there was, more or less, 
a feeling of antagonism between the monastic orders and the 
parochial or secular clergy. In the early part of the century 
king Henry V. dissolved one hundred and forty alien priories. 


They had always been a source of weakness in the monastic 
system. The people objected to so much money being collected 
and sent out of the country for the aggrandisement of foreign 
monasteries. In 1485 Selborne priory in Hampshire was dissolved 
by the bishop and prior and the dissolution was confirmed by pope 
Innocent VIII. The revenues were granted to Magdalen College, 
Oxford. Towards the close of the century it was difficult to keep up 
the numbers of the monks in the abbeys and priories and gradually 
the spirit of the old race of monks was departing. In the next century 
the end was approaching. In 1528 pope Clement VII. granted king 
Henry VIII. permission to suppress monasteries to the value of eight 
thousand ducats, provided there were not six religious in them and 
that the inmates were placed in other religious houses ; and in 
November in the same year permission was granted by the pope to 
suppress monasteries where there was not the proper number of 
monks or nuns (twelve) and to unite them to other religions houses. 12 
The manner in which the monasteries were suppressed, in 1536 and 
1539, by Henry VIII., is one of the blackest pages in our annals. By 
their suppression the king gathered a harvest of spoil in the shape of 
land and plate and jewels such, as a writer says, ' had not fallen to the 
lot of a king since Alaric, the Goth, sacked Rome.' The chief inquisi- 
tors appointed by the king to ^isit the monasteries were unworthy of 
credit, and the brutal treatment of the mitred abbots of Eeading and 
Glastonbury has left an undying stain upon the memory of Thomas 
Cromwell, the too-willing agent of the king. The notes which have 
come to light, which are in his own handwriting, show the merciless 
nature of the man. One reads thus : ' Item, the Abbat of Reading 
to be sent down to be tried and executed at Reading with his complices.' 
Another reads : ' Item, the Abbat of Glaston (Glastonbury) to be tried 
at Glaston and also executed there with his complices.' The vener- 
able abbot of Glastonbury was executed in a most barbarous manner 
and his head was placed over the abbey in which so many years of his 
exemplary life had been spent. The lesser monasteries were suppressed 
in 1536 and the greater ones in 1539. Among the latter was the priory 

12 Henry VIII. and the English Monasteries, by F. A. Gasquet, monk of the 
Order of S. Benedict. 



of Tynemouth. The last prior was Robert Blakeney. Before he and his 
convent surrendered the priory he endeavoured to purchase exemption 
from the payment of an annuity which the convent was legally bound to 
pay. His predecessor in office had paid some 200 marks in fees and al- 
though the value of the priory had diminished he still professed his 
willingness to compound with Cromwell for that amount, provided the 
abbot of St. Albans were made to secure the office to him for life * by 
convent seal.' He also desired to escape the payment of an annuity 
which ' my Lady Mary Carey, now Stafford, had granted to her by my 
predecessor under convent seal. It was for 100 marks yearly for 
what cause I know not.' The person addressed is asked, ' To take it 
into your hands and for your panes as your L p has an annuity 
from me of 20 nobles, it shall be 20 marks and that not only to 
yourself but to William your son if it chance him to survive." 13 

On the 12th January, 1539, in the thirtieth year of king Henry 
VIII., the priory and all its valuable possessions were surrendered to 
the king. The deed of surrender is signed by the prior, fifteen 
presbyters, and three novices. The prior retired to Benwell, the 
summer residence of the priors. In my paper on 'Tynemouth 
Castle, after the Dissolution of the Monastery,' I have dealt with the 
subsequent history of it. 

Whatever may have been the shortcomings of the abbots, priors, 
and monks, nothing can justify the brutal manner in which they were 
treated at the dissolution of the monasteries. The splendid 
churches which they built, the ruins of which add so much beauty 
to our land, are imperishable memorials of their work. 

In an account of the downfall of the Monastic Order of Black 
Monks or Benedictines in England is a quotation from W. H. Hart's 
introduction to the History of the Monastery at Gloucester. It, in 
well chosen language, expresses what was probably the feelings of 
many of the abbots, priors, and monks as they took leave for ever of 
the houses which had sheltered them so long. It is as follows : 
' Having existed for more than eight hundred years under different 
forms, in poverty and in wealth, in meanness and in magnificence, in 

13 See R. 0. Crum. (Croni.) Corr. xiv., 63 vol. xlv., No. 37 ; quoted by 
Gasquet in his English Monasteries. 


(Woodcut lent by Mr. James Hall of Tynemouth.) 


misfortune and in success, it finally succumbs to the roya. will ; the 
day came, and that a drear winter day, when its last mass was sung, 
its last censer waved, its last congregation bent in lowly adoration 
before the altar there, and doubtless as the last tones of that day's 
evensong died away in the vaulted roof, there was not wanting those 
who lingered in the solemn stillness of the old massive pile, and who, 
as the lights disappeared one by one, felt that for them there was now 
a void which could never be filled, because their old abbey, with its 
beautiful services, its frequent means of grace, its hospitality to 
strangers, and its loving care for God's poor, had past away like an 
early morning dream and was gone for ever.' 

Benwell, to which the last prior of Tynemouth retired, after 
passing through the hands of seven or eleven laymen has, in 
accordance with a supposed tradition, come back to the church 
through the munificence of Mr. J. W. Pease, and is now the residence 
of the bishops of Newcastle. 


Robert de Mowbray, who made the gift of the church at Tyne- 
mouth to the abbey of St. Albans, fortified the place, and, it is stated, 
built a castle. He and William Rufus, the Red King, were at feud. 
He was thrice summoned by the king to appear at his court ; but 
paid no regard to the summons. The king proceeded north and 
besieged the castle for two months, when it was taken and apparently 
dismantled. Mowbray escaped to Bamburgh, but afterwards returned 
to Tynemouth, where he was, after two days, taken prisoner and 
conveyed to Durham. 14 He died a monk at St. Albans in 1106. It 
was important for the protection of the priory at Tynemouth that the 
fortifications should be maintained. The position was almost inac- 
cessible from the sea, but owing to repeated inroads of the Scots the 
castle was found to be insecure from the land. In 1296 a licence to the 
prior and convent to crenellate the castle was granted by king Edward 
I. while he was at Berwick. The prior of Tynemouth, who was also 
lord of the manor, exercised the rights of hospitality not only to his 
over-lord the abbot of St. Albans, but also to the kings of England in 
their frequent journeys to and from Scotland. In 1293, 1296, 1299, 

14 History of Northumberland, vol i., and Bates's Northumberland, p. 113. 


and 1300, the warrior king, Edward I., was at Tynernouth priory. 
On the last occasion, he was there with his youthful bride Margaret, 
the 'Flower of France/ from the 22nd to the 2(Uh June. In 1303 
queen Margaret resided at the monastery while king Edward was 
on his way to Scotland, at the head of his army. In the following 
year the king was at the priory, and the prior obtained a licence or 
grant to hold a fair annually on the eve of St. Oswin (20th August) 
and for thirteen days afterwards, but, in the following year, on the 
petition of the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle, the grant was 
revoked. For a long series of years the prior and the mayor and 
burgesses of Newcastle were at feud. The first great fight between 
them was in the years 1291-2 and the struggles continued at intervals 
until the dissolution of the priory. It was taken up in later times by 
Ralph Gardner of Chirton, the river reformer. 

In 1312, king Edward II. was at Tynemouth, and his queen 
was left there. The king, who was accompanied by his favourite, 
Piers Gaveston, or Peter de Gaveston, on hearing that his nobles 
were approaching, fled by sea to Scarborough with his favourite, 
and left his queen (then unable to travel) at Tynemouth. In 1316 
and 1322 the king was again at Tynemouth. In August and 
September in the latter year queen Isabella remained at the priory. 
In 1335, king Edward III. was at Tynemouth. 

While the kings of England were at the priory they and their 
queens made offerings of great value at the altar in the priory and at 
the shrine of St. Oswin. Early in the reign of king Edward II., the 
prior maintained eighty armed men for the defence of his monastery. 
There is a tradition that after the battle of Neville's Cross, in 
October, 1346, Douglas, the Scottish leader, was a prisoner at 
Tynemouth. In 1 380 there was a confirmation by king Richard II. 
of the charters. It is said the defences of the castle had become 
weakened by the encroachments of the sea. In 1389, the monastery 
was plundered by the Scots under the earl of Moray. Thomas 
Woodstock, duke of Gloucester and youngest son of king Edward III., 
resided for a few days in the castle in 1391. In August, 1415, 
Tynemouth castle was stated to be in the care of the prior of 
Tynemouth (castrum de Tynmouth, priori de Tynmouth). 


An inquisition was held at Newcastle in January, 1447, about 
encroachments by the prior of Tynemouth, and the proceedings 
give some information about the rising town of North Shields. The 
jury found that a certain place called North Shields, which erewhile 
was called Shields, was contiguous and adjacent to the Tyne. That 
for sixty years last past the prior of Tynemouth, having demesne 
lands of his priory adjoining the said water at a place called North 
Shields, had added to his lands four acres of land within the ebb and 
flow of the water, and had newly erected two hundred messuages, and 
permitted common inns for men and horses, taverns of wine and ale, 
stalls, shops, booths and shambles for the sale of victuals and other 
vendable articles to be brought together, and also herring houses and 
fish houses, and had called that place the town of North Shields, 
where, beyond the water, namely upon its bank there had been of old 
time only three cottages, called fisher lodges. The rent stated to be 
received by the prior and his convent amounted to fifteen hundred 
marks, and it is stated they baked one thousand quarters of wheat in 
the ovens, and brewed two thousand quarters of malt per annum. 
The jury found that the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle had 
sustained an annual loss of 340. 15 

In October, 1462, Margaret of Anjou, queen of king Henry VI., 
attempted a landing at Tynemouth, but she was repulsed and went to 
Bamburgh and Dunstanborough. On the 24th July, 1503, princess 
Margaret, eldest daughter of king Henry VII., was on her way to 
Scotland to marry king James IV. She was met three miles from 
Newcastle by the 'prior of Tjnemouth well apoynted and in hys 
company xxx horsys. Hys folks in hys liveray. 16 Under date 1510, 
is a paragraph there in Bourne's description of Jesmond to the following 
effect, ' To this village it was that a great number of the people of 
Newcastle, headed by some of the aldermen and principal men of the 
town, came, to kill the prior of Tynemouth, in the first year of the reign 
of King Henry the Eighth.' 17 Mr. Welford adds that the prior's name 
was John Stonewell, and he had been but recently appointed. Lands 

15 Newcastle and Gateskead in the 14th and 25th Centuries, by Kichard 
Welford, p. 317. 

16 Ibid. p. 14. 17 Ibid. p. 30. 


at Jesmond belonged to the monastery, and as the men of Newcastle 
were always quarrelling with the priors about alleged encroachments 
upon their privileges, they may have taken the opportunity of 
Stone well's visit to his Jesmond property to make a demonstration. 

In an interesting document recently communicated to the society 
by Mr. F. "W. Bendy, and printed at p. 263, of the Proceedings, vol. 
ix., is the explanation of the quarrel between the town of Newcastle 
and the prior. In this document it is alleged among other things, 
that about five hundred men * forcibly armed in hernays, with speres, 
gleyves, bowes & arrows,' by the exhortation of the prior assembled at 
Tynemouth with great numbers of the inhabitants of Tynedale and 
Reddesdale to whom as it is supposed the riot was committed. The 
prior gave wages of vjd per day to the intent that the said persons 
should murder the mayor, aldermen, and other inhabitants of 

On the 9th September, 1513, the battle of Flodden Field, which 
was so disastrous to the Scots, was fought. The prior of Tynemouth 
had sent his armed men to the battle, but the account of their 
behaviour in the battle is not pleasant reading ; at the first boom of 
the Scottish cannon the men of Tynemouth and Bamboroughshire, in 
the wing of the rearguard that lord Dacre was bringing up to support 
Edmund Howard, son of Thomas Howard the lord Admiral, took to 
their heels. Edmund's Cheshire followers, already half mutinous at 
not being led by a Stanley, and cowed by the fall of the heroic 
sir Brian Tunstall, followed their example. This stampede it is 
understood largely contributed to the success of the battle, as it 
caused king James to leave his vantage ground and charge madly 
down the hillside with the Scottish centre who were mercilessly raked 
by the English artillery. 

The castle did not possess a keep but consisted merely of the 
gateway, which until 1783 presented an imposing appearance. In 
that year the upper portion of the gateway, with the picturesque 
turrets at its corners, was removed, and the unsightly structure which 
now presents itself was built over the old archway. In my paper 
on the Castle is an illustration of the gateway as it existed before the 
War Office laid its heavy hand upon it. 



When the Transitional or Early English addition was made to the 
priory church and it was carried eastward, as already described, it was 
.also carried westward to the extent of forty feet. The deeply recessed 
west doorway which meets the eyes of the visitor as he approaches the 
ruins, after passing through the entrance to the castle, was then inserted. 
The screen separating the priory church from what was to become the 
parish church was also inserted but not bonded. The length of the 
parish church was one hundred and twenty-six feet, and the breadth 
forty-six feet six inches. As was too often the case disputes arose be- 
tween the bishop of Durham and the prior of Tynemouth as to the 
rights of the former with respect to the parochial church. In 1247 the 
bishop claimed the right to visit in his episcopal character the parish 
church of Tynemouth, and the dispute was settled that the bishop 
should exercise the office as visitor of the parish church, but he was 
not, to interfere with the conventual church. The vicars of the church 
of Tynemouth were to be appointed by the prior and convent with 
the assent of the abbot of St. Albans, and to be presented to the 
bishop for institution. The great tithes were, as usual, received by 
the prior and convent. 

Among the vicars of Tynemouth was John of Tynemouth, a 
native of the place, and an eminent writer. He afterwards became a 
monk of St. Albans and dedicated his great work, the Sanctilogium 
Britanniae, to Abbot de la Mare of St. Albans. The latter became 
abbot in 1349 and died in 1396. The church at Tynemouth continued 
to be used until the time of Oliver Cromwell, when the castle was 
taken by the Scots. After the restoration the church was used for a 
short time, until the consecration of Christ Church at North Shields 
in 1668, after which it crumbled into ruins. 


Annexed to the priory was the hospital of St. Leonards, which was 
placed in a secluded and well-sheltered spot at the Spital dene. The 
site of the hospital is now enclosed in the Northumberland park 
-a place of sylvan beauty ; but little frequented by visitors to 
Tynemouth. The hospital is first mentioned in the year 1320. 17 
17 See Proc. iii. 35, for Mr. Adamson's account of the hospital. 

VOL. xxiu; 6 


In forming the park, about the year 1885, two stone coffins and 
a medieval grave cover were dug up, and also a tiled pavement, but 
this was again covered up. 


The earliest plan of the priory, of which I am aware, is one of the 
time of queen Elizabeth. 18 The priory church and the monastic and 
other buildings are shewn. In Fryer's map of the Tyne, published in 
1773, the church has three windows on its south side. In a drawing 
made by "Waters in 1786 five bays are shown westward of the three win- 
dows these bays are also shown in Bucks' crude and inaccurate drawing 
of the monastery published in 1 728. In Vivares's drawing, published in 
1747, the five bays are not shewn. It is difficult to reconcile these 
drawings. The drawing by Waters was taken from a painting by his 
father, Ralph Waters. The son was born in 1750. It is probable the 
father's drawing was made when he was quite young, and before so 
much of the ruins had fallen down. It is improbable that the drawing 
could have been made except from the building as it stood, or perhaps 
it was copied from that of the brothers Buck, which it greatly 
resembles. There is a ground plan from actual survey by Dobson, but 
in this the apse of the Norman church is incorrectly shewn. Some years 
ago, Mr. R. J. Johnson, carried out some excavations and discovered 
the foundations of the apse much farther eastward than shewn 
in Dobson's plan. The actual position is shewn on the ground plan 
prepared by Mr. E. Ridsdale Tate for the Builder in 1895. In a plan 
prepared by sir Gilbert Scott in 1876, the position of the foundations 
of the Norman pier at the north-east angle of the nave are incorrectly 
shewn. He made drawings for the restoration of , the choir of the 
priory church, but beyond the preparation of these drawings nothing 
was done, nor is it likely the priory will ever be restored. The War 
department is rapidly curtailing the space around the ruins. For 
the last thirty-five years the authorities have been constructing 
batteries, taking them down and reconstructing them, and at present 
they are erecting batteries for heavy guns. The lighthouse, after an 
existence of nearly three hundred years, is a thing of the past, and 
upon its site are being constructed batteries which it is hoped will 
never be required for the defence of the Tyne. 
18 See Arch. A el. xviii. 76. 

Arch. Ael. vol. xxiii. ; to face p. 43. 

Plate III. 

c^jr- 2 ':r~--2c;:~^\c__^^c~: 




By the Rev. J. F. HODGSON, M.A., vicar of Witton-le-Wear. 

[Read on the 25th of July, 1900.] 



Of all the questions which have exercised the ingenuity of 
archaeologists during the last half century and more, none has, pro- 
bably, elicited fewer approximately satisfactory replies, or still remains 
so thoroughly * open ' as that relating to the true use and purpose of 
what are commonly called ' low side windows.' Preposterous as the 
definition whether invented by the late Mr. J. H. Parker, or only 
brought into general use by him may be, it has now become so far 
convenient that, however exceptionable, everyone knows exactly what 
is meant by it. And hence, probably, the hold which it still retains, 
both in writing and conversation. Save on the lucus a non lucendo 
principle, however, it would tax the skill of a very ingenious person to 
devise one more thoroughly misleading. For, in the first place, though 
these apertures are often, perhaps generally, low, they are by no means 
always so, being often, on the contrary, high ; then, secondly, though 
they are most frequently found on the sides, they yet occur also at the 
ends, of churches ; and, thirdly, though frequently combined with, 
they are, strictly speaking, never, under any circumstances, windows 
at all. Yet here, as elsewhere, it is easier to criticize than to perform, 
and when it comes to supplying a scientifically accurate definition, the 
difficulty of doing so becomes speedily apparent. For, indeed, they vary 
so greatly, and in so many ways, that one which should be at the same 
time both accurate and universally applicable, would be little, if at all, 
short of impossible. Roughly, they may, perhaps, be classified under the 
following heads, viz. : I. Those which are either built or inserted, for 
one purpose only and none other, as at North Hinksey, Berkshire, and 
Salford Priors, Warwickshire (see next page). These are commonly 



square, or arch-headed openings of small dimensions, say from 
a foot by six inches, to three feet by one foot, wide and high, 
set quite apart, and for the most part below, the level of the 
windows proper. II. Those which are combined with a window 

opening, in the same- 
detached and separate 
way, having the lower 
part only fitted for a 
door or a shutter, while 
the upper part, whether 
provided with a stone 
transom or not, is glazed, 
as at Somerton, Oxford- 
shire. III. Those 
which, forming part of 
the regular series of 
fenestration, have the 
lower part of the light 
divided by a transom 
with, or without, an 
arched head, and pro- 
vided with a shutter, as 
at Rnydon, Suffolk,* and 
Wensley, Yorkshire.! 
IV. Those in which 
two or more narrow slits 
or openings are found 
close together, like panes 
in a lantern, and cut 
through a small stone 
slab, as at Weekly 

church, Northamptonshire, and Landewednack, Cornwall. V. Those 
which are combined with windows proper, of two or more lights, by 
having the western one divided in its lower part by a transom, or by 
having it brought down below the proper level of the sill, as at Othery, 
Somersetshire, J and Downton, Wiltshire, respectively. VI. Those 
* See next page. t See page 46. J See page 47. 




which, save for some special difference of size, or design, or level, 
have, at the present time at least, little or nothing to distinguish 
them from other windows, being glazed throughout, as at Jarrow* 
and Winston, co. Durham ; Flintham, Notts.f ; and Lancing and 
Patcham churches, Sussex. VII. Those which, though connected 
through apposition with a window, form 
really no part of it ; and are clearly de- 
signed to serve a wholly different pur- 
pose, as at Barnard Castle church, co. 
Durham, and Berkeley, Gloucestershire. J 
VIII. Those of two or more lights, 
whose sills, set at a much lower level 
than the rest, have a transom carried 
uniformly through the lower parts of all 
of them, beneath which the openings 
are,, or till lately were, usually, though 
not always, fuund blocked, as at Beck- 
ford, Gloucestershire ; Harwell and 
Uffington churches, Berkshire ; Arclley, 
Garsington, and Checkendon, Oxford- 
shire ; as well as Crosby G arret, Westmor- 
land (see plate III.), and Goldsborough, 
Yorkshire, respectively ; in the last two 
of which both of the lower openings 
were provided with shutters, whether 
glazed or otherwise. 

And now, following directly upon 
such attempted classification of these 
apertures, the question presents itself : 
For what definite and special purpose 
were they devised ? As to any secondary uses to which they might 
in some cases, perhaps, be occasionally applied, we need not trouble 
to enquire, as being quite irrelevant, and leaving the real subject 
practically untouched. 

Of the wildly fantastic theories from time to time put forth by 
way of answer, there has been simply, as in the making of many books,. 
* See page 58. t See page 48. J See page 49. 


(see preceding page.) 



no end. That they should, one and all, have been purely speculative 
and imaginary, is due to the fact that we have, unhappily, not only 

WENSLEY, YORKSHIRE (see page 44). 

no historical evidence on the subject whatever, but no lingering- 
remnants of tradition to serve as guides even blind ones. And thus- 



the sole effect of such few, poor, faint scraps of seeming reference to 
them as have now and then turned up, has been either to start, or 
strengthen, some new, or already existing speculation, as really un- 
founded, as impossible. Among the several titles and uses ascribed to 
them are : 

I. ' Lychnoscopes.' For a long time this favourite term held a 
very first and foremost place. Pseudo-ecclesiologists, indeed, may be 
said to have fairly revelled in it. The name was bestowed with the 


idea that they were designed to command a view of the light burning 
before the high altar. To apply such a simple test as that of 
experiment to their theory, however, would seem never to have 
occurred to its authors, for out of the countless numbers I have 
myself examined, I cannot though such exceptional instances may, 
perhaps, here and there exist call to mind a single instance in which 
anyone unprovided with a neck, at least as long and flexible as that 



of a swan, could succeed in doing so. And then, even if they could, 
why such rampantly eccentric curiosity should exist and be 
encouraged, when those concerned could far more easily have gone 
inside the church to see, was unexplained. So the day of lychno- 
scopes, though for long, even jet, perhaps, in some quarters, enjoying 
a sort of twilight, or after-glow existence, ceased and determined. 

II. ' Hagioscopes.' This too, enjoyed an equally enthusiastic, 
though transient reputation. Instead of watching the light, a vast 
class of people of whose existence history knows nothing, was 

FLINTHAM, NOTTS (see page 45). 

supposed to be everywhere anxious to see the elevation of the Host 
from the outside, instead of the inside, of the church, whose doors 
were open to them, and whence they could far more effectually 
have attained their desire. But there was a good deal in a name, 
which, at once mystical and euphonious, was not only fascinating, 
but seemed to imply recondite learning on the part of those who used 
it. And then, were it false, it was, perhaps, just as true as any other. 
III. * Yulne windows.' This term whether originating with 
the now long extinct Cambridge Camden Society or not, I cannot 
say would seem, among all others, to cap the climax of absurdity. 



It was imagined that these openings, which are most frequently 
found in the south-west corners of chancels, were made, not for any 
practical use whatever, but only to represent in a way certainly 
' not understanded of the people ' generally the wound in our Lord's 


side, and, for a while, they were regarded with a due amount of 
ignorant, if sympathetic, awe. But, apart from the sheer lunacy of 
such a notion, the position was wholly misplaced, since in any church, 
whether cruciform or not, the head would, proportionately, occupy 



that position, 1 while the place of the spear- wound would be found some 
quarter way westwards down the nave. So, after a brief stay, the 
' vulne ' theory, smothered with ridicule, disappeared. 

IV. Then the term 'leper windows,' which 'caught on' with 
amazing tenacity, was evolved, as is thought, from the inner con- 
sciousness of the late Dr. Rock. But such a conjecture, it is clear,, 
must have rested on an exceedingly slight and imperfect acquaintance 
with the subject, since in untold numbers of cases, the administration 
of the Holy Eucharist through such apertures must have been, to say 
the least, extremely unbecoming and difficult, while in others it would 
have been physically impossible. 2 Add to this the further 
considerations, viz., that there is simply no record of such a use ever 
having obtained ; that lepers were so much as admitted within the 
precincts of the churchyard ; 3 and that leper houses and hospitals 

1 ' Dispositio autem ecclesiae materialis, modum humani corporis tenet. 
Cancellus namque sive locus ubi altare est, caput representat : 6* Crux 
ex utraque parte brachia 6- manus : reliqua pars ab occidente, quicquid 
corpori superesse videtur.' Rationale Dimnorum Officiorum A.R.D. Gulielino 
Durando Mimatensi Episoopo. Venetiis, Apud Gratiosum Perchacinum, 1568. 
Lib. I. cap. I. p. 4 dorso. 

2 There are two classes of these so-called windows to which the above ex- 
pressions apply. First, those which are on, or all but on, the level of the ground- 
and secondly, those which are so far above it as to render the 'manual acts' of 
giving and receiving quite impracticable. Of the first class we have several 
local examples, as at S. Martin's, Micklegate, and S. Cuthbert's, Peasholme 
Green, York (see page 54) ; Elwick Hall, and Kedmarshall, co. Durham ; and 
Middleham in the North Riding, where there are two, one at each end of the high 
altar, and the sills of which, if there were but a single step of six inches to the altar 
platform above the floor of the nave, would be on a level with it ; and, in the case 
of two such steps, as most usually happened, six inches below the upper one 
arrangements which, one and all, render the idea of communicating absurd. 

Of the second, without taking account of 'high side windows/ but with 
reference to such only as are placed at a moderate height, we find interesting 
examples at Golds borough, near York, where the sill of the window, set in a 
wall nearly three feet thick, is five feet seven inches above the surface ; at 
Winston church, co. Durham, where the two windows, south and north, in walls 
of the like thickness, are nine feet nine inches, and eight feet six inches above it 
respectively, and at Raydon church, Suffolk (see page 45), where the height, 
though a trifle less, is nearly the same. 

3 ' Houses for lepers,' says Mr. T. I. Pettigrew, ' were evidently framed on the 
ideas of infection, and the necessity which therefore existed of separating the 
diseased from the healthy.' And so we find Edward III., in the twentieth year 
of his reign, commanding that all leprous persons in the city of London ' should 
avoid within fifteen days next,' that 'no man should suffer such to abide within 
his house,' and that the said lepers ' should be removed into some out places of 
the fields from the haunt and company of sound people.' But, though the 
regulations respecting them varied in different parts, and at different times, 
they were in no case, it would seem, so severe as in Scotland. In the Greenside 



were* not only scattered abundantly all over the land (Dugdale, when 
the whole population fell far short of that of London at the present 
day, giving an imperfect list of no fewer than one hundred and 


twenty- three), but quite near to, as well as actually within, the 
parishes where such openings are found. Such, among other 

hospital, at Edinburgh, they were not permitted to quit the house, under 
penalty of death, and a gibbet was erected in front of the hospital to show that 
this was no idle threat. In other places they were, however, allowed to wander 
about, but only with rattles and clappers, so as to attract attention to their 
wants, which could then be relieved without incurring contact. Subject to 
perpetual seclusion, they were deprived of all rights under the civil law, and 
looked upon as virtually dead tanquam inortuus Tiabetur. The church also, 
as Dr. Simpson shows, regarded the leper as defunct, and performed the service 
for the burial of the dead over him when, on the day of his separation from his 
fellow-creatures, he was consigned to a leper house. In France, the mass for 
the dead was said over him. Before leaving the leper, the priest interdicted 
him from appearing in public without his leper's garb ; from entering inns, 
churches, mills, and bakehouses, from touching anything in the markets except, 
with a stick ; from eating and drinking with any others than lepers ; and 
specially forbade him from walking in narrow paths, or from answering those 
who spoke to him except in a whisper, so that they might not be contaminated 
by his pestilential breath. The Sarum use also, among ourselves, formally pro- 
hibited lepers from resorting to any places where they might meet their fellows, 
and excluded them from even burial in the churchyards. 


illustrations, may be seen at Acaster Malbis (see page 51), about, five 
miles from York, where in the small cruciform church, standing all 
alone in the fields, there are two contemporary ones, exactly opposite 
each other in the chancel, notwithstanding the fact that in the city 
there were no fewer than four leper hospitals. And then, in York 
itself, although so many of the churches there only about half the 
original number are but mere fragments of their former selves, 
chancels without naves, and naves without chancels, and that the rest 
have been so cruelly knocked about and destroyed as to render their 
witness exceedingly fragmentary, 4 a diligent search has disclosed to me 
no fewer than five still surviving illustrations. 5 

4 In the city of York there were at the time of the dissolution of religious 
houses, no fewer than forty-one parish churches, besides seventeen chapels, of 
which last two only are left. Of the churches, no fewer than twenty have been 
wholly destroyed ; while many of the remainder, fallen into varying stages of 
squalor and decay, have been miserably mutilated and curtailed. Thus, of 
those still standing, All Saints', Pavement, had its chancel destroyed in 1782, in 
order to enlarge the market-place ; the fine priory church of Holy Trinity, 
Micklegate, having, at an earlier date, suffered the loss of its choir, transepts, 
nave aisles, and central, and south-western towers. S. Helen's, Stonegate, has 
had the ends of its aisles cut off to widen the pavement ; while S. Michael's, 
Spurriergate, originally one of the finest of all, has had its beautiful Transitional 
nave and aisles very largely pulled down for a like purpose. S. Olave's, Mary- 
gate, which was greatly injured during the Civil Wars, and extensively rebuilt 
in 1722, has lost much of its ancient character ; as has also S. Lawrence, 
without Walmgate Bar, which, wholly ruined at the same time, and in part 
patched up in 1699, is now but a mere fragment. Of S. Denys, Walmgate. only 
the chancel with its aisles, and a rich Norman doorway, removed from the nave, 
are left ; the latter, together with the original tower and spire, having been 
pulled down in 1798. Besides all which, the church of Holy Trinity, King's 
Court, commonly known as Christ Church, in addition to having its northern 
chapel destroyed, suffered the loss of all the eastern parts of the chancel in 
1830, in order to widen Colliergate. 

Of the two chapels, viz. : those of the Merchants' Hall, and Holy Trinity, 
Bederne, the latter, a singularly interesting fourteenth century building, to the 
east of the Minster, has had all its external windows built up, and is now used 
only for churchings and christenings ; S. Mary Bishophill Senior, and Holy 
Trinity, Groodramgate, being abandoned altogether, and having service said in 
them but once a year. 

Most infamous of all the ravage and spoliation that has befallen the city 
churches, however, has been the wanton destruction of S. Crux, beyond 
comparison the finest of them all quite unique, indeed, in the scientific skill 
and beauty of its details, and this but a few years since, under pressure of 
archbishop Thomson, and during the incumbency of the then secretary of the 
Surtees Society, the late Canon Raine. 

What further evidence this multitude of destroyed and mutilated churches 
might have yielded in respect of ' low side windows,' cannot now, of course, 
be said. 

5 Of these, two are to be found in the church of S. Cuthbert, Peasholme Green ; 
one on the south side of the chancel, and the other at the east end. towards the 
north the latter on, the former (see page 54), which cuts into the base-mould, 


At Atcham church, near Shrewsbury, there are also two at the 
east end of the chancel, although there was a leper hospital only 
three miles off. At Mitton church, Lancashire, where another so- 
called ' leper window ' occurs, there was a leper hospital in the parish 
itself ; while at St. Stephen's church, St. Albans, where there is said 
to be another, the leper hospital of St. Julian was within a distance 
of five hundred yards. Nor is that all. To accept a theory like this, 
is to presuppose the existence of shoals of lepers drifting perpetually, 
not only along all the high roads, but also the obscurest by-roads of 
the country day by day ; and, as though that were not enough, 
besieging all the parish churches as they passed, and clamouring to be 
communicated. Even the ' Ages of Faith ' can scarcely, one would 
think, be credited with achieving such results as this. 

Y. k For excommunicated persons to do penance at, previous to 
their being readmitted into the church,' an equally preposterous and 
. unhis.toric ' use.' 

YI. 'Offertory windows.' A term applied to them by Mr. 
Paley, of k Manual ' fame, through an entire misapprehension of a 
passage in Martene (lib. L, cap. iv., art. vi., sect, vii.), which applies, 
not to the church at all, but to the cells of anchorites, each of whom 
per fenestram ejusdem oratorii possit ad missas per manus sacerdotis 

all but on, the level of the ground. A third, of two large trefoliated ogee- 
headed lights the sill of which must be at some little depth below 
the present surface, for I could not reach even the top of it is on the 
north side of the chancel of the church of S. Martin, Micklegate. Both 
here and at S. Cuthbert's, the late Mr. J. H. Parker, in a highly character- 
istic way, ascribes the use of these windows to the lighting of purely 
imaginary and non-existent crypts! The fourth example which has been so 
scrupulously walled up as to be almost obliterated is immediately above 
the basement, on the south side of the chancel of S. Margaret's, Walmgate ; 
while the fifth, which cuts through the upper base mould altogether, occurs 
directly westwards of the south porch of S. Mary's, Castlegate. Besides these, 
there exists, although in a ' restored ' state, a square-headed window of three 
lights at the west end of the north aisle of S. Saviour's, beneath the sill of the 
west window proper ; as well as one of five lights, in a similar position, beneath 
that of the north aisle of S. Mary's. Castlegate, the north-west angle of which 
has portions of projecting masonry indicating, apparently, the existence of a 
former portico, since a blocked doorway remains between the south end of the 
window and the respond of the north arcade. What the precise use of these 
two windows may have been, whether that of the class under consideration or 
not, seems doubtful. At Wighton church, Norfolk, there were no fewer than 
five such distinct windows at the east end of the chancel, under a lean-to, 
which was, however, ruinous so far back as 1847. 


oUationes offerre. As may well be supposed, this blunder expired in 
its infancy. 

VII. ' For acolytes to pass the thurible through,' so as to obtain 
a greater degree of heat before the incense was applied. But, besides 
there being no directions found in any ancient office for such a 
practice, the window openings in question were commonly so ill 
adapted to it, as to render all attempts that way practically 

ST. CUTHBERT, PEASHOLME GREEN, YORK (see page 52, note 5). 

VIII. 4 To enable a watcher to discern the approach of the priest, 
and then ring the sanctus bell to announce it to the people.' But 
comparatively few churches had sanctus bell-cots : 6 nor is there any 
authority for supposing those bells to have been ever rung for such a 
purpose. Besides which there is hardly one of these lateral openings 
anywhere which could possibly have been utilized in that way. This 
idiotic notion, naturally, never took much hold. 

6 In the county of Durham there were, I think so far as existing remains 
shew but two examples of such sanctus bell-cots, viz. : those of Billtngham 
and of Brancepeth. 


IX. ' For the distribution of alms.' But, here again, besides there 
being no record of any such practice anywhere ; or of alms to be dis- 
tributed in the places where such openings exist ; though some of 
them would, doubtless, be suitable enough for that purpose, vast 
numbers would be wholly unsuitable, being either much too high, or 
too low, for it. 

X. 'To give light to the reader of the Lessons.' This was the 
idea of the late M. Viollet le Due, led away by the circumstance of 
there being in the Sainte Chapelle, at Paris, a little window glazed 
with white glass, which was set low down, and, when not in use for 
that purpose, closed with a wooden shutter. But the resemblance 
was purely accidental, and on the surface only. The use of this 
particular window was, no doubt, that which the very distinguished 
architect attributed to it, and which was precisely that of such as are 
found in the monastic refectory 7 pulpits, as also in that well known 
instance (which has puzzled so many), at prior Crauden's chapel at 
Ely, viz., throwing light upon the reader's book from behind. Such, 
however, it is clear, was not the case with these variously placed, and 
multiform openings of ours, which, for the most part, neither did, 
nor could, serve any such end at all. This view, therefore, also 
fled swiftly ' like a shadow that departeth.' 

XI. 'Ventilation.' That they might occasionally be used, to 

7 Owing to the wholesale destruction of our ancient monastic buildings 
these pulpits are very rarely to be met with nowadays. The remains of a very 
fine one of late thirteenth, or early fourteenth century date, may be seen, however,. 
in the ruins of the magnificent refectory of Easby abbey, near Richmond ; of 
another, very slightly later, in the fratry of Walsingham priory, Norfolk ; and a 
very early one, of the close of the twelfth century, in that of Lilleshall priory, 
Salop. One of the earliest and finest of all, however, is that of highly en- 
riched Early English character, in the parish church of Beaulieu, in Hampshire, 
originally the refectory of the Cistercian abbey there ; another, of much the 
same period, remaining in what was once the refectory of the abbey of S. 
Werburgh, at Chester. This last, with its entrance doorway, arcaded staircase, and 
projecting pulpit, is wonderfully well preserved, its window being merely blocked. 
A little later, of pure decorated work, is that at Carlisle, happily quite perfect. 
The late Mr. Billings, who gives an admirable view of it in his Carlisle 
cathedral following the common Protestant hallucinations of his day 
imagined it, as almost all inexplicable things were then imagined to be, a 
' confessional,' and, consequently, introduced the figures of a shaven monk, 
seated in the upper part, while a ' veiled lady ' on her knees, ' said,' or shouted, 
as best she could, ' her say ' from the floor below. Ludicrous as the idea is, it is 
yet as sane common sense, compared with that theory of these apertures, 
propounded further on, for both were, at least, inside, and under cover. 


some extent, for this purpose, would seem likely enough. Indeed, one 
can hardly doubt but that, in many instances, they were. The very 
curious little aperture at Berkeley church, Gloucestershire,* helps to 
do this so admirably in connexion with the south door (it occurs in the 
north-west chapel of the chancel), that the vicar thinks it can have 
been designed with no other object. That, however, cannot have been 
the case elsewhere, any more than there really, indeed, and so does 
not touch the primary reason for their introduction in the least. 
Owing, possibly, to its entire lack of romance, as well as for more 
efficient reasons, the ventilation theory, too, went duly the way of all 
the rest. 

XII. ' For the exposition of relics.' This might seem almost as 
impossibly ridiculous as the ' vulne ' theory. Where the relics were 
to come from, and whence the crowds of credulous folk so anxious to 
see them, that, even in remote country churches, a single window 
would not suffice for the purpose, was not so much as hinted at. 
Neither the self-evident circumstance that they could be so much 
more conveniently and reverently exposed to the veneration of the 
faithful, with the necessary accompaniment of lighted candles, when 
assembled inside the church, than standing, one or two at a time, 
outside in the churchyard ; and thence, either mounted on a ladder, 
or lying prone upon the ground, peeping at them through a thick 
stone wall. This fiction also died a natural, and deservedly speedy, 

XIII. ' For the ringing of the hand-bell through, at the eleva- 
tion of the host.' Here, at length, we emerge from the dreary region 
of wild and untempered imagination, into one of comparative reason 
and common sense. In defence of this theory has been quoted the 
following from the ' Constitutions ' of archbishop Peckham, 1281 : ' In 
elevatione vero ipsius corporis Domini pulsetur campana in uno latere, 
ut populares, quibus celebration! missarum non vacat quod idie 
interesse, ubicunque fuerint, seu in agris, seu in domibus flectant 
genua.' But, the very quotation, it will be seen, carries the refutation of 
the theory it is advanced to prove, along with it. When we bear in mind 
the diameter of many of these openings ; the close proximity of so many 
of them to the ground; the fact that great numbers of them are still 

* See page 49. 


fenced with their original stone or iron grilles, through which it would be 
simply impossible to pass a bell of any audible size whatever; the appli- 
cation of the injunction to these windows, as a class, is seen at once to be 
quite out of the question. At Berkeley church, for instance, the 
window* a little quatrefoil, only seven inches diameter in the full, 
is, from point to point of the cross, through which the bell would 
have to pass, no more than three inches wide. Moreover, as the 
vicar writes, ' a tall man standing on a chair,' would not be able to do 
so, even if the width of the aperture permitted such an act. So too 
at Llandewednack, and Weekley churches, where there are two 
narrow lights, some four inches wide, by about eight high, pierced 
through thin slabs of stone; and at Atcham, Shropshire, where there 
are two single square-headed lights, only seven inches high, and three 
inches wide, at either end of the high altar. But, narrow as these are, 
they are, nevertheless, twice as wide as those at Acaster Malbis, 8 near 
York, where the iron grille, which still remains perfect, reduces the 
passage-way to just about an inch and a half!\ It has been urged, 
however, with regard to the impediment offered to the transmission of 
sound by the iron grilles so commonly met with, as at Ludlow and 
Downton among others, that it amounts to no more than that caused 

8 The little church of Acaster Malbis, as well in structure as in situation, 
is of very exceptional interest. Set a little back from the north bank of the 
Ouse, some five miles below York, it stands quite alone in the midst of fields, 
apart from all human habitation. It is of one date throughout, c. 1330-40, 
aisleless, nearly an exact Greek cross on plan, sixty-nine feet three inches, by 
sixty-one feet, and with a wooden spired bell-cot at the intersection of the high- 
pitched roofs. All its windows are square-headed, the western one of five, the 
eastern of seven, and all the rest of three, very narrow, ogee-topped, tref oliated 
lights, only eight inches wide, and with the remarkable peculiarity of being 
recessed from the outside, and having their mullions flush with the inside 
surfaces of the walls. Two very fine effigies of the founder, and, presumably, 
his son, are preserved within; and there are some good, and considerable, remains 
of contemporary glass in well nigh perfect condition, across the entire centre of 
the east window. 

Inside the porch, which is towards the south, hangs the following framed 
and glazed notice : 

{# The memory of the Just is Blessed. 
John Sharp, Archbishop of York, A.D., 1691 to 1713. 

' The parish church of Acaster is within a little mile of the Archbishop's 
palace. It stands by itself in the fields. Thither he frequently retired alone 
and made the little porch of that church his Oratory, where he solemnly addressed 
and praised God. And here it was that, for some years, he resorted as he had 
opportunity, to perform his Thursday thanksgivings.' Newcome's Life of Arch- 
bishop Sharp, v. ii. p. 78. 

* See page 49. t See page 51. 





by the luffer-boards in belfry windows quite regardless of the 
difference between a great church bell hung high up in a tower with 
large windows, often double ones, on all sides, and a little tinkling 
handbell inside the church, and rung within an opening often but a 



few inches in diameter, and, times out of number, near, if not all 
but actually upon, the surface of the ground. That they could not 
have been used for this purpose for the sake of convenience in being- 
situate generally, near the high altar, is also further shown by the 
fact that in very many cases these openings are found in connexion with 


both sanctns bell-cots and central towers, of dates contemporary with, 
or earlier than their own, as at Ludham, Norfolk; Uffington, 
Berkshire ; Beckford, Boxwell, and Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire ; 
Bucknell, Oxfordshire ; Jarrow, co. Durham; St. Lawrence, Ludlow, 
Salop; and Acaster Malbis, Yorkshire; which would render their intro- 
duction, under such conditions, utterly absurd, since the rope of the 
church bell proper would be within arm's length, and its use 
infinitely more effectual for the purpose. 9 And this consideration 
brings us at once to a further, and possibly still more cogent argument 
against the adoption of this otherwise improbable, not to say 
impossible, theory. 

Documentary evidence, let me say, such as this adduced from 
archbishop Peckham's ' Constitutions,' is always when really bearing 
upon a subject of an interesting, oftentimes of a convincingly conclusive 
character. But what is the exact value of that now before us ? It is 
quoted as though its meaning were as clear as daylight, and could not 
be gainsaid swallowed, in fact, so to say, whole and without 
previous mastication. Be it remembered, however, that Peckham was 
a very learned man, and a great lawyer to boot, and therefore, in the 
composition of a legal instrument, would be sure to use legal and 
technical expressions. And it will be observed, on reference to this 
particular injunction, that he not only makes use of the word 
' campana,' but also of a further one, viz., ' pulsetur,' to which last, by 
way of explanation, are added, ' in uno latere.' Now Durandus, and his 
master, Dom Johannes Beletn, from whom he quotes, tells us that 
there were no fewer than six recognized kinds of bells in ecclesiastical 
use, each several one of which had its own distinguishing and technical 
name. Writing of these, the latter says : ' sciendum est sex esse 
instrumentorum genera, quibus pulsatur : tintinnabulum, cymbalum, 
nola, nolula, campana, & signa' Durandus, who gives them in the 
same order, calling only the first by the equivalent name ' squilla.' 

9 A further objection to this alleged reason is, that so many are found quite 
away from the high, or any other altar, whatever ; as at S. Margaret's church. 
Durham, where the opening on the level of the ground is at the west end of 
the south aisle ; at S. Mary, Castlegate, York, .where it is to the west of the 
south porch ; as is also the case at Staindrop, and Barnard Castle churches, 
whence t'la high, or parish, altars cannot even so much as be seen. 



' Tintinnabulum,' continues Beleth, * pulsatur, iii triclinio &* in 
refectorio : cymbalum in choro, nola in monasterio, nolula in horo- 
logio, campana in turribus, cujus diminutivum Hieronymus ad 
Eustochium in coenobium esse ait. Quousque campanula in claustro 
pulsabitur. Signa antem pro quibus pulsandis instrumentis accipi 
possunt, ut quibus quipiam significetur.' From all which it is 
perfectly clear that the ' campana ' of the injunction could have no 
reference whatever to that class of small handbells which could be 

ETTON, NEAR PBTEBBOROUGH (see next page). 

carried about and rung through any of our * low side windows,' 
more especially such as are only a few inches in diameter. Nor 
would such a use explain in any way, or be at all consistent with, 
the existence of those many instances in which, as at Goldsborough, 
near York, S. Martin, Micklegate, and S. Cuthbert, within the city, 
among others, these openings are double, that is, so to say, of 
two lights, separated only by a mullion ; nor yet of those others 
where the two openings, as at Middleham and Atcham, are separated 


by the space of the high altar only, or at Patrick Brompton, near 
Bedale, where the two, though some twelve feet apart, are yet both 
on the south side of the chancel ; still less at Etton, near Peter- 
borough (see preceding page), where, in the same position, the two, of 
different dates and sizes, are within a couple of feet of each other ; 
since, whatever the size of the bell, there could be no possible use in 
ringing it through two closely adjacent apertures. 

But besides, the technical word, campana, which applied expressly 
to great bells hung in towers, we have also another equally technical 
one in that which defines the manner of the ringing pulsetur. Now, 
here again, both Beleth and Durandus tell us that there were three ways 
in which bells were to be rung. These were * compulsari,' ' depulsari,' 
and 'simpulsari' or ' simpliciter pulsari.' By the first was meant 
violent ringing, with the mouth upwards ; by the second, a less violent 
kind of ringing, backwards and forwards, as in the case of bells of 
moderate size, hung in open bell-cots ; and by the third, simply tolling, 
knolling, or knelling, in which the clapper merely strikes the bell, as 
the injunction expresses it * in uno latere.' 

Now, in the case of handbells any such method of ringing as that 
prescribed by tho word 'pulsetur,' would, as is clear, be altogether 
absurd, and out of the question, since such bells never are, nor, 
indeed, ordinarily can be, so rung. And thus we see how these two 
apparently simple, but really highly technical, words ' campana ' and 
' pulsetur,' so far from upholding, serve not only to condemn, but to 
exclude, the much vaunted handbell theory completely. 

And then, further comes the reason why the great bell, or ' campana,' 
hung aloft in the tower was to be tolled like the usual ' death bell,' 
viz., in order that the people, being in their houses, or labouring far 
off in the fields, might know what was then taking place in the 
church, i.e., ' Shewing the Lord's death till he come,' and wherever 
they were, or however occupied, might reverently bend their knees. 

The methods of carrying out the injunction, as explained by itself, 
are seen, in short, to be just as technical, clear, and practically 
efficient as considering their authorship might be expected, and 
the ends for which it was issued, laudable. To suppose that 
such could be met by tinkling a little ' squilla ' or ' tintinnabulum ' in 


the chancel sufficient as this, of course, would be for a congregation 
actually assembled in the church is surely nothing short of an 
endeavour to empty words of their meaning, and to turn the simplest 
common sense into sheer nonsense. Yet, this theory, I have reason 
to think, is, at the present moment supposed to be the scientific 
one ; and consequently, among the * better informed,' may be said to 
' hold the field.' 

XIV. For * Confession.' This view also holds a position which, 
if not quite, is yet well nigh as strong, perhaps, as that of the ' hand- 
bell.' To which of them the palm of absurdity should be awarded, 
would require, I think, an acutely critical, and finely balanced judg- 
ment to decide. And the curious, not to say amazing, thing about 
both of them, as also of that propounded by Mr. Paley, is this, viz., 
that all three alike rest their claims upon historical documents,, 
thoroughly authentic and trustworthy in themselves, but which are 
found, on examination, to have absolutely nothing whatever to do 
with the subject. On what basis of the kind then, does this last 
theory of ' Confession ' that strangely fascinating word, which has 
served to bewitch, and deprive of their senses, so many generations 
repose ? At first, it might seem to have been, as usual, simply 
assumed, on the old and well established 'omne ignotum pro con- 
fessione ' principle, without further enquiry. And then, by and bye, 
there turned up, whether by pure accident, or otherwise, * confirma- 
tion strong as oracles of Holy Writ,' in the shape of a letter from 
Bedyll to Cromwell, relating to the state of affairs, not of any parish 
church, or churches, whatever, but within the Monastery of Swn* 
Yet this letter it is, which, wholly disconnected with the subject, we 
are asked to accept as clinching it conclusively. Here it is : Bedyll 
to Cromwell. From MS. Cott. Cleop. E. IV. fol. 109. 

Right worshipful, after my moost hertie commendations, pleace it you to 
understand that maister Leighton and I, have had muche busines with this- 
house sythens your departing hens; and as for the brethern, they stand stif in 

their obstinacy as you left thaim I handled Whitford after 

that in the garden, bothe with faire words and with foule, and showed him that 
throughe his obstinacy he shulde be brought to the greate shame of the world 
for his irreligious life, and for his using of bawdy wordes to diverse ladys at the 
tymes of their confession, whereby (I seyed) he myght be the occasion that 
shrift shalbe layed downe throughe England : but he hath a brasyn forehed, 


whiche shameth at nothing We have sequestered 

Whitford and Litell from hering of the ladys confessions ; and we think it 
best that the place wher thes frires have been wont to hire uttward confessions 
of al commers at certen tymes of the yere be walled up, and that use to be 
f ordoen for ever ; ffor that hering of utward confessions hath been the cause of 
much evyl, and of muche treson whiche hath been sowed abrode in this mater of 
the Kinges title, and also in the Kinges graces mater of his succession and 

mariage We purpose this after none, or els tomorrow 

mornyng to waite on the king grace, to know his plaisir in every thing, and 
specially towching the muring up of the howses of utterward confessions . . . 

From Sion, the xvijth day of December, 

By yours, as your servant, 


Now, consider, in the first place, the simple matters of fact stated 
in this letter, and then, after that, the inferences, which, purely in 
support of this theory, have been drawn from them. Sion, be it 
remembered, was a Brigittine house in which monks and nuns, 
-though separately, lived under a common rule. The visitors, after 
examination had, sequestrate the two confessors, Whitford and Little, 
from their office, and then proceed to say that ' we think it best that 
the place wher thes frires have been wont to hire uttward confessions 
of al commers at certen tymes of the yere be walled up, and that use 
to be fordoen for ever.' That is to say, that, in that house of that 
special order, the place where those two men had been used, at certain 
times, to hear the confessions of all comers, should be walled up, in 
order to put a stop to a practice which they were turning to treason- 
able account. In the concluding sentence it will be noted that they 
speak of the muring up of the ' houses,' not ' windows,' of outward 
confessions, that is, of outsiders, or non-members of the community, 
as though there were more than one such in that monastery; for 
there is no mention of, neither were they concerned with, any other. 
But could anything wilder or more inconsequent than the application 
of these expressions be conceived ? Transferring the references from 
the two individuals concerned, and who were not, be it said, friars at 
all, to all the friars of the whole four orders, from the 13th to the 
16th centuries inclusive; the locus in quo is similarly transferred 
from the single Brigittine house of Sion not, as parity of reason 
would require, to all the monasteries or friaries, but, miralile dictu, to 


all the parish churches in the land! Further, we are asked to believe, 
though history is wholly silent on the subject, that the friars of all 
orders were invested with such power that, in spite of the several 
incumbents, they .themselves, who had no such legal rights, could 
forcibly enter their churches to hear the confessions of the parishioners, 
who, notwithstanding they had such legal rights, were compelled to 
remain outside. Then, still further, by implication, that the sins of 
these latter, paralleled only by a consuming desire to confess them, 
were such that, even in the smallest village, two confessors and con- 
fessionals were needed for their accommodation at the same time. 4 
And finally, that the arrangements to this end were carried out in such 
a blundering way that while, in very many cases, both priest and peni- 
tent would have to lie down flat upon their bellies in order to converse; 
in many others they would have to mount ladders from ten to twenty 
feet high, for the purpose ; and in all cases, and in all weathers, would 
have to do so in a public and exposed manner, when the church doors 
were open to both alike, and they had nothing to do but go inside, and 
shrive and be shriven, in peace and privacy. Nor is this all : for 
what shall be said to the existence of certainly one, if not two of these 
windows in the choir of the church of Jarrow ; one, an early fourteenth 
century insertion, at the usual height to the north-west ; the other, 
nearly opposite, towards the south but about fifteen feet above the 
ground, and of the original Saxon construction of 685 ? For this, be 
it remembered was no ordinary parish church, but that of a Bene- 
dictine monastery, and cell of the great mother house of Durham. 
Will it be pretended that the friars armed with bulls to hear confessions 
in parish churches, which no one has seen and which cannot be pro- 

4 Thus of the two ' low side windows ' in the chancel of Edburton church. 
Sussex, it has been said (Journal, Brit. Arch. Assoc. xvii. pp. 206,7.) : ' The 
rebate in the aperture, evidently intended for the usual shutters instead of glass, 
has been noticed by Mr. Bloxam and Mr. Brock as indicating the uses to which 
these windows were applied. The friars, protected by papal bulls in their in- 
vasions of the rights of the parochial or secular clergy, sat here to receive the 
confessions of all who came, till the windows were half closed up (as now usually 
seen) by an order, the date of which is given by Bloxam, that they should be no 
longer used. The shutters used by the friars were then removed, the windows 
glazed, and the practice discontinued.' In connexion with which calmly 
confident assertions, two simple, but pertinent, questions may be asked, viz : 
1st, Where are the bulls ? And 2nd, Where is the order ? Up to the present 
both are absolutely unknown to history. 



duced, were privileged to enter the churches of the established 
religious orders, and despite the abbots or priors hear confessions there 
also ? The inventors of these bulls have not as yet, I think, had the 
hardihood to venture quite so far as this. But, it is urged again, that 
in some instances we find seats and book desks in close proximity to, and 
in evident connexion with 
these openings ; followed by 
the enquiry, for what pur- 
pose could such have been 
supplied, save for the use of 
a confessor? Well! most 
choirs, we know, were pro- 
vided not merely with one, 
but many stalls and book 
desks, yet quite indepen- 
dently of confessors. And 
then, these instances of seats 
and desks are so very few 
and far between, that only 
some half dozen or so have, 
I think, anywhere been 
noticed. One such, of which 
an illustration is here ap- 
pended, exists at Melton 
Constable, Norfolk, while 
two others are instanced at 
Elifield, Oxon., and Ailing- 
ton, Wilts. At Wigginton, 

Oxon.,* again is another of a very exceptional and extraordinary 
character indeed, having a richly decorated stone canopy, in close 
connexion with a low side window formed by a transom cutting off 
the lower part of the western division of one of two lights. There is 
no desk however, and what its precise purpose may have been, and 
why it should be so elaborately enriched seems difficult to say. But 
whatever its object may have been it could clearly have no necessary 
connexion with the opening, since nothing of the kind has, so far as I 

* See next page. 





know, been noticed in any other instance whatever. In two instances 
only, indeed, have I ever met with any provision for a book: one, possible 
only, at Patrick Brompton an exceedingly rich and beautiful example, 
contemporaneous with the chancel, where the inner part of the flat 
sill, slightly sloped away, might accommodate a book ; the other at 

WIGGINGTON, oxoN (see preceding page). 

Crosby Garret (see plate III.), where there is a similar arrangement 
but accompanied by a ledge, about an inch in depth, to prevent the 
book from slipping. But the explanation is simple enough without 
calling in the aid of a wholly unnecessary and impossible confessor. 
Lights alone were not of themselves deemed all-sufficient. They were, 


besides symbols of the divine presence, mute calls for prayer, and 
meant to be supplemented by it, as well for the souls of the dead 
from purgatorial pains, as for their bodies from demoniacal pollution ; 
and whether the seat and desk were occupied by the parish priest, or 
members of guilds, or private persons, mattered nothing. Their 
prayers would be directed equally to one and the same end, and be 
offered in the same place where the light was set. ' Eternal rest give 
unto them, Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them.' In 
some of the French fanaux, as in those of Antigny and Ciron for 
example, a small altar was attached to the lower part of the shaft, 
shewing that not only prayers but the sacrifice of the mass also, were, 
at stated times, offered on the spot. The very rare occurrence of such 
seats and desks, therefore, need cause no surprise, or if any at all, only 
that they are not met with more commonly than they are. 

In spite of misunderstood and misapplied texts, then, the ' con- 
fessional ' theory so manifestly impossible of application in cases out 
of number, as in those which are too high, or too low, or within a few 
feet of each other, or so close together that there is only the thickness 
of a mullion between them, to say nothing of its inherent absurdity, 
must, like the scientific hand-bell one of certain superior people, 
be relegated to the limbo of ' imagined ' but utterly * vain things.' 

XV. ' For the exhibition of lights, wherewith to dispel evil 
spirits.' Here we come, at length, to a theory which, though 
advanced many years ago, would seem, like all the rest, to have been 
nothing better than a piece of mere guess-work, unsupported by any evi- 
dence drawn either from literature or analogy. Whether for this reason 
or not, however, it fell flat, and was seldom, if ever, heard of again. 
Very possibly it might be thought to savour too strongly of ignorant, 
and childish superstition, to be worth serious attention. At any rate, 
it got none. Yet an ordinarily careful study of the subject must 
certainly have led to very different conclusions, and, though direct 
and positive evidence was not forthcoming, shew in a morally 
convincing way that, from whichever side approached, whether of 
analogy, or the offices of the church, this was the one and only theory 
which, when subjected to such tests, could stand, and be, in fact, the 
true one. But, in order to prove this, it will be necessary to take a 


wide and comprehensive, though necessarily very slight, view of the 
subject in its several bearings. For it is one which is far reaching, 
and many sided; and though some of its aspects can be no more than 
glanced at, yet there are others which can be taken more in detail; 
and the more thoroughly this is done, the clearer and more convincing 
will this evidence appear. 



With many, perhaps most, people, nowadays, it is to be feared the 
bare mention of evil spirits to say nothing of their expulsion will 
be likely to raise only a laugh, or smile, of pitiful contempt. While 
quite prepared to admit the presence of ' evil,' they will, probably, 
draw a line at ' spirits,' or direct, personal agencies of evil. Nor need 
this, perhaps, be wondered at, for when such ' superior people ' as the 
late Mr. Matthew Arnold, rejecting more or less completely the idea 
of a personal God, are only willing to admit in His stead ' a stream of 
tendency which makes for righteousness,' what more consistent than 
equally to reject the idea of a personal Devil, for a corresponding 
stream of tendency making for unrighteousness the subordinate, 
ministering spirits, on either side, disappearing naturally with their 
respective principals. But then, the question is one, not at all of the 
belief or unbelief of the present, but of the faith and practice of the 
past, with which modern thought, while wholly unsympathetic, is, 
for the most part, just as wholly unacquainted. The intensely 
subjective points of view of to-day find themselves confronted by others 
equally intense but objective, of a yesterday which stretches back 
beyond the realms of history, into the very womb of time. Every- 
thing, animate or inanimate, falls within their scope the spirits of 
the living, and the bodies of the dead alike. Hence the complexion of 
so many prayers, exorcisms, and ceremonies of the Church, exhibited in 
her divers offices from baptism to burial, and even afterwards. Indeed, 
it is only through a detailed study of these several rites and offices 
that the full force and extent of the belief in the all-pervading 
presence of such individual spiritual agencies can be realized ; the 


several uses of the cross, whether formative or material, of holy water, 
incense, salt, chrism, oil, and fire, all equally and alike pointing, not 
fancifully, but deliberately and confessedly, in that direction. What, 
for example, was one of the first and most important acts to be 
performed before building a church ? Let Durandus, the highest of 
all ancient authorities on the Eationale of the Divine Offices, tell us : 
* Est autem ecclesia,' says he, ' sic aedificanda. Parato namque 
fundamenti loco, juxta illud : bene fundata est domus domini super 
firmam Petram, debet episcopus, vel sacerdos de ejus licentia ibi aquam 
aspergere benedictam ad abigendas inde daemonum phantasias, & 
primarium lapidem cui impressa sit crux infundamento ponere. 1 (Dur. 
lib. i., cap. i., p. 4.) 

Why again, after being built, were churches dedicated ? ' Tertio 
dicendum est,' he proceeds, ' quare ecclesia dedicatur, & quidem propter 
v. causas. Primo, ut diabolus, el ejus potestas inde penitus expetlatur, 
unde refert Gregorius in dialogo lib. iij., c. xxj. quod cum quaedam 
ecclesia Arrianorum fidelibus reddita consecraretur, & reliquiae 
sancti Sebastiani, & beatae Agathae illuc delatae fuissent 
populus ibi congregatus porcum repenie inter pedes hue illuc discurrere 
senserunt, qui fores ecclesiae repetens a nullo videri potuit omnesque in 
admiratione commovit. Quod idcirco dominus ostendit, ut cunctis 
patefieret, quod de loco eodem immundus habitat o, exiret. Sequenti 
autem nocte magnus in ejusdem Ecclesiae tectis strepitus factus est, 
ac si in eis aliquis errando discurreret. Secunda vero nocte, gravior 
sonus increpuit. Tertia quoque nocte tantus strepitus insonuit, ac si 
omnis ilia ecclesia fundamentis fuisset eversa, statimque recessit, nee 
ulterius apud illam antiqui hostis inquietudo apparuitS (Dur. lib. 
i., cap. vi. p. 17, et dor so.} 

We also learn further, for what purpose the twelve consecration 
crosses which even yet, in some instances, as at Exeter and 
Salisbury cathedrals, for instance, remain more or less perfect were 
carved or depicted upon the church walls. ' Sane christmate altari 
xij Cruces in parietibus ecclesiae depictae chrismantur. Deping- 
untur autem ipsae cruces : Primd propter daemonum terrorem, ut 
scilicet daemones, qui inde expulsi sunt, videntes signum Crucis 
terreantur, et illuc ingredi non praesumant.'* (Dur. lib. i., cap. 
6, p. 19.) 


Again, when met together for public worship on Sundays, why 
were the holy table, the church, and people asperged with holy water ? 
For a mere figuratively expressive and symbolic reason, to denote 
the clean hands and pure hearts with which they should draw near to 
God ? Far from it. * Sacerdos in dominicis diebus celebraturus, 
alba et stola paratus, priusquam planetam induat, ut liberius vacare 

possit ; aquam benedicit, altare, Ecclesiam, & 

populum aqua benedicta conspergit, ut omnis spirituum immemctorum 
spurcitia tarn de habitaculo, quam de cor dibits fldelium propellatur. 
Hanc euim virtus aquae exorcizatae inest & etiam, quia omnis 
Christianorum populus baptismatis sacramento renatus ; ita minis- 
terio aquae lota renatorum corpora diluit, sicut sanguis agni a prisco 
populo, ad repellendum percussorem, in postibus ponebatur, unde in 
canone Alexandri ita legitur : Aquam sale aspersam populis bene- 
dicimus : ut ea Cuncti aspersi sanctificentur et purificentur, quod 
& omnibus sacerdotibus faciendum esse mandamus ; nam si cinis 
vitulae aspersus populum sanctificabat, atque mundabat, scilicet a 
venialibus, multo magis aqua sale aspersa, divinisque precibus sacrata, 
populum sanctificat atque mundat a venialibus, & si sale aspersa per 
Elisaeurn sterilitas aquae sanata est, quanto magis divinis precibus 
sacratus sal, sterilitatem rerum aufert humanarum, & coinquinatos 
sanctificat, & purgat & caetera bona multiplicat, & insidias diaboli 
aver til; & ct, phantismatis versutiis homines defendUS (Dur. lib. iv., 
cap. 4, p. 63.) 

But these several acts and offices of defence against the ' fraud 
and malice of the devil,' which attended both the corporate and 
individual life of the church's children up to, and beyond its close, 
commenced at the very beginning from the time when, as 
catechumens, they had not as yet even entered her fold. 

Thus, of the oil of the catechumens, and its double use, we read 
* Yalet etiam hujus olei unctio ad duo, scilicet ad purgationem et ad 
tutelam. Ad purgationem, ut si quae catechumino postquam venit in 
scrutinium, adhaesere maculae, recedant ad tutelam : ut diabolus 
expulsuSj redire non audeat, verba orationis hoc demonstrant dicendo : 
Si quae illius adversantium spiritualium adhaeserunt maculae, re- 
cedant ad tactum hujus sanctificati olei. Haec de purgatione. De 


tutela sequitur. Nullis spiritualibus nequitiis locus, nulla refugis 
virtu tibus facultus, nulla insidiantibus mails latendi licentia relin- 
quatur. Quia vero diabolum se damnandum maximS in futuro 
judicio novit : et inde tremit, idcirco exorcismus terminatur. Per 
eundem dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, qui venturus est judicare 
vivos et mortuos, & seculum per ignem. Exorcismus enim estadjuratio. 
Nam in ea adjuratur diabolus ui recedat? (Dur. lib. vi., cap. Ixxiv, 
dor so.) 

Then again, when the sacrament of baptism comes to be 
administered : ' Post interrogationem et responsionem sacerdos ter in 
faciem baptizandi exsufflat : ad notandum, quod saeva potestas, id est 
malignus spiritus ab eo exsufflatur, id est ex sufflando expellitur, seu in 
proximo expellenda signincatur^ ut per pium sacerdotis mysterium 
Spiritui sancto cedat fugiens spiritus malignus. Hinc autem ait 
Augustinus, Ergo parvuli exsufflantur et exorcizantur, id est, in- 
-crepantur, seu adjurantur, ut expellatur ab eis diaboli potestas 
inimica quae decipit hominem, ut possideat homines. Haec autem 
exsufflatio sive exorcizatio, & si non prosit aliquid ad vitam, quia 
adhuc in eis mors manet : prodest tamen, ut inimicus minus et nocere 
possit. Adest enim Spiritus Sanctus, non solum verbis, quae di- 
cuntur in nomine suo : verum etiam significationibus, quae sunt in 
honore suo. Et est notandum, quod exorkismos graece, latine dicitur 
adjuratio, ut est illud. Exi ab eo immunde spiritus.' (Dur. lib. 
vi., cap. 82, p. 238 dorso.) 

Afterwards also, in the office of confirmation, we read : 
' Bis ergo ungitur chrismate baptizatus, scilicet in vertice et in f ronte : 
nam et ipsis Apostolis bis fuit datus Spiritus Sanctus. Primo in terra 
quando Ohristus exsufflavit in eos dicens : Accipite Spiritum Sanctum. 
Secundo a coelo in die pentecostes sed et ipsi Apostoli receperunt 
Spiritum Sanctum in baptismo .... Subsequenter episcopus 
confirmatum percutit in faciem. Primo, ut tenacius memoriae teneat, 
se hoc sacramentum recepisse. Secundo, quia hoc sacramentum datur 
baptizato ad robur fidei, ut praemissum est : ut videlicet sit ita fortis 
in fide in baptismo suscepta, quod ulterius coram quocunque confiteri 
nomen Chris ti non erubescat. Tertio, haec percussio representat 
manuurn impositionem, quoniam Apostoli per manus impositionem 


confirmabant. Quarto, ad terrendum malignum spiritum, ut fugiat, et 
ne redire audeat.' (Dur. lib. vi., cap. 84, pp. 241 dor so, 242 and 
dor so.) 

Again, in connexion with the consecration of churches or altars, 
we learn in what, among others, one chief cause of rejoicing, at least, 
consisted. ' Post completam vero ecclesiae, vel altaris consecration em 
cantatur allelu-la : quoniam exclusa daemonum phantasia Deus ibi 
laudaUtur, etc. Secundo circa aquae benedictionem notandum est, 
quod hujusmodi aquae exorcizatio fit ad effugandum inde inimicum. 
In qua benedictione quatuor necessaria sunt, videlicet, aqua, vinum, 
sal, et cinis. Et hoc propter tria. Primo, quum quatuor sunt quae 
inimicum expellunt. Prinium, est lachymosum effusio : quae per 
aquam. Secundum, est spiritualis exultatio, quae per vinum. Tertio 
naturalis discretio, quae per sal. Quartum, profunda humilitas, quae 
per cinerem significatur.' (Dur. lib. i., cap. vii., p. 22.) 

Further, in the Eucharistic service, we are told why the altar is to 
asperged. ' Altare enim aspergitur propter reverentiam sacramenti, 
quod ibidem consecrandum est, ut inde omnium malignorum spirituum 
praesentia arceatur, quemadmodum Christus per altare quod esse debet 
lapideum, significatur, secundum illud Apostoli : Petra autem erat 
Christus : & fides nostra de uno Christo & non de pluribus est : 
idcirco ut signum signato respondeat, unico altari asperso, universus 
aspergitur populus, quid ipse solus est, qui tollit peccata mundi.' 
(Dur. lib. iil, cap. 4, p. 63 dorso.} 

And then, still further, during the same service, why incense is 
used in regard to both sacrifice and altar alike : * Maria ergo, scilicet 
Magdalena,' says he, ' accepit libram unguenti nardi, pistici pretiosi, 
& unxit pedes Jesu, & impleta est domus ex odore unguenti. Et sacerdos 
in modum crucis superducit et circumducit incensum super sacrifieium, 
et altare, ut & crucis signaculo & turis incenso diabolicae fraudis 
malignitas extricetur, et effugiat? (Dur. lib. iv., cap. 81, p. 95, 
dorso.) The previous incensing of the altar being explained in cap. 
10, p. 70 : ' Praeter mysticam etiam rationem ob hoc incensatur 
altare ut omnis ab eo nequitia daemonum propellatur. Fumus enim 
incensi valere creditur ad daemones effugandos? 

Again, as regards the use of the cross and ringing of bells, whether 


during processions, or in times of storm and tempest, the fullest and 
clearest explanations are offered. Thus, of the cross in processions we 
read 'Crux ergo, quasi regale vexillum et triumphale signum in 
processionibus praemittitur. Primo, ut fugiant, qui oderunt eum, a 
facie ejus. Ps. Ixvij. Est enim signum victoriae Christi. Juxta illud : 
Vexilla regis prodeunt, etc., quo daemones vicli sunt, wide illo viso 
timmt et fugiunt? (Dur. lib. iv., cap. 6, p. 67.) And again, in those 
of rogation tide * Caeterum in processione ipsa praecedunt crux et 
capsa reliquiarum sanctorum, ut vexillo crucis et orationibus sanctorum 
daemones repellantur' (Ibid, vi., cap. 102, p. 259 dor so.) 

Of the use and purpose of bellringing, and the benefits accruing 
therefrom, the witness is equally full and unequivocal. Nothing, 
indeed, could be more directly to the point, or show how thoroughly 
the belief in the all-pervading presence and interference of evil spirits 
in the worlds of nature and of grace alike, was held by, and exhibited 
in, the daily life and offices of the church. ' Pulsatur autem et bene- 
dictitur campana,' we are told, ' ut per illius tactum et sonitum. . . . 
procul pellantur hostiles exercitus, & omnes insidiae inimici . . . spiritus 
procellarum, & aereae potestates proslernantur, & ut hoc audientes con- 
fugiant ad sanctae matris Ecclesiae gremium ante sanctae crucis 
vexillum, cui flectitur omne genu,' etc. (Dur. lib. i. cap. 4, p. 13 
dorso.) And yet still further, in the same chapter, on the subject of 
bell-ringing during processions - - ' Caeterum campanae in 
processionibus pulsantur, ut daemones timentes fugiant. Timent 
enim auditis tubis ecclesiae militantis, scilicet campanis, sicut 
aliquis tyrannus timet audiens in terra sua tubas alicujus potentis regis 
inimici sui. Et haec etiam est causa quare ecclesia videns concitari 
tempestatem, campanas pulsat, scilicet, ut daemones tubas aeterni 
regis, id est, campanas audientes, territi fugiant, & a tempestatis concita- 
tone quiescant, & ut ad campanae pulsationem fideles admoneantur, & 
provocentur pro instanti periculo orationi insistere.' (p. 14 dor so.) 

But belief in the universal presence, and malignity of these 
satellites of the * Prince of the power of the air,' reached far beyond 
the creation of tempests, or blight and pestilence among cattle, and 
fruits of the field. It attached to the minutest and most trivial 
details connected with the events of everyday life ; and that not 



merely among the illiterate and superstitious, but the most learned 
and devout teachers and rulers of the church. 

* Nullus debet etiam unquam aliud comedere,' writes Durandus, 
' nisi prius saltern signo crucis facto. Unde legitur in dialogo Greg. 
Papae, lib. j., c., iiij., quod cum quaedam monialis iret per hortum,. 
latucam, sine benedictione comedit, & simul daemonem, qui super 
erat, suscepit, qui etiam multum vexavit? ' Nos quoque,' continues he,. 
* vidimus in civitate Bonon. puellam a duobus spiritibus immundis, & 
malignis triennio vexatam. Gumque a quodam perito volente illos 
cum exorcismis & abjurationibus ab humano corpore pellere 
interrogarentur, qualiter corpus mulieris intrassent, responderent, quod 
sedebant in quodam melogranato, quod ipsa puella comederat, qui 
tandem virtute adjurationum nobis praesentibus ab humano corpore 
recesserunt.' (Dur. lib, vi., cap. 86, p. 245.) 

We see then, from the several rites and ceremonies of the church, 
as interpreted, not by any process of modern guess-work, but by the 
very highest contemporary authority, how strong and universally 
prevailing this belief, not only in the existence, but in the constant 
active interference of evil spirits in the affairs of human life really 
was ; and shall, therefore, be all the less surprised to find how the 
same malignant powers, which pursued men through life, were 
believed to follow and defile them even after death. For this, be it 
noted, is the precise point in our enquiry to which the quotations 
above given all gradually and systematically lead up. They exhibit, 
as such extracts only can, the depth and reality of those convictions 
which alone could make such issues, as we find them ultimately 
terminating in, possible. For Durandus, in his exposition of the office 
of the burial of the dead, writes : ' Adhuc licet in missa pro vivis 
debeant omnes turificari ad significandum : quod illorum orationes 
ad coelestia diriguntur, in missa tamen pro defunctis non debet tus 
per chorum portari, nee offerri, id est altare turificari, sed circa corpus 
tantum quia hoc in lege prohibitum fuit. Nullus ergo in hoc officio 
turrificatur, ad notandum, quod mortui nil, amodo valent orationibus 
suis promereri, unde Psal. Non inortui laudebunt te Domine. Ipsa 
auiem aefunctorum corpora turrificantur, & aqua benedicta aspurguntur, 
non ut eorum peccata tollantur : quae tune per talia tollinequeunt, sed ut 


omnis immundorum spirituum praesentia arceatur, & fiunt etiam 
In signum societatis, et communionis sacramentorum quam nobis cum 
dum vixerunt habuerunt.' (Lib. vii., cap. 35, p. 300 dorso.) And then 
finally, after the body has been brought to the grave side : ' Deinde 
ponitur in spelunca, in qua, in qmbusdam locis,ponitur aqua benedicta et 
prunae cum ture. Aqua benedicta ne daemones qui multum earn timent 
ad corpus accedant. Solent namqm desaevire in corpora mortuorum ut 
quod nequiverunt in vita, saltern post mortem agant.' . . . Et in 
quocunque loco extra coerneterium,' he continues, ' Christianus 
.sepeliatur, semper crux capiti illius apponi debet, ad notandum ilium 
Christianum fuisse, quia hoc signum diabolus valde veretur, & limet 
accedere ad locum crucis signaculo insignitum? (Lib. vii., cap. 85, 
p. 301 dorso.} 

In face then of the possibility, however remote, of such hideous 
-desecration befalling the bodies of the passive and defenceless dead, 
what wonder that all possible care which either natural piety or 
affection could devise, should be resorted to for their defence ? And 
such, altogether apart from, and beyond the ordinary and prescribed 
ritual of the church, we shall find to have been commonly exercised by 
all sorts and conditions of men, everywhere. And our evidence for 
this, like that supplied by the offices themselves, and their con- 
temporary expounders, comes to us, fortunately, at first hand. I refer 
to those little known, and less generally read, but invaluable docu- 
mentsthe medieval Wills. Though differing, toto coelo, as they 
do, both in form and substance, from those of the present day ; in no 
single particular, perhaps, is the contrast so strikingly apparent as in 
the elaborate provision made therein for the rites to be observed 
during the times following directly upon 'death, and afterwards. Far 
more thought, indeed, is bestowed upon the temporal and eternal 
welfare of the dead than of the living ; first for the treatment of the 
body, then for that of the soul ; for the funeral accessories in the 
church and churchyard, in addition to, while forming part of, the 
prescribed service ; and after these, for masses, whether for a fixed 
time, or in perpetuity. 

Among these observances, by far the most striking and persistent 
were those connected with the ' ceremonial use of lights ! ' Following 
hard upon the dutiful commending of their souls to God and all the 


company of heaven, the first clauses are, almost without exception, 
devoted to the place of sepulture, and the number, weight, or cost of 
the candles and torches to be burnt about their bodies, directly after 
death, as well as during, and after, the funeral solemnities. Then the 
number of masses to be celebrated for their souls of the priests to be 
engaged, and the term of years over which their services were to 
extend. When not in perpetuity, these last commonly varied between 
one and two, or twenty. 

Generally speaking, the wealth and status of the testator may be 
fairly guaged by the extent of these provisions only. In most cases 
little or nothing is said as to the lights to be burned in the house 
while the body was being watched, between the days of death and 
burial, the ordinary custom in such cases following as a matter of 
course, and calling for no special directions in the will. Sometimes, 
however, their cost may have been included in the lump sums 
occasionally bequeathed for the entire funeral expenses, and implied 
in connexion with the amount provided to be paid to the ' clericis 
psalteria psallentibus et viduis vigilantibus et orantibus,' for the soul 
of the deceased during that period. What we find commonly referred 
to in these documents is the precise number, weight, or cost of the 
tapers and torches to be burnt at, and after, the time of the public 
exequies in the church. For these, the provision made, though in a 
few cases rigidly limited, in order to avoid all appearance of pomp or 
vain glory was always abundant ; in many cases, as might seem, 
extravagant. Thus, though Thomas de Buckton, canon of York, 1346, 
enjoins two candles only to be burnt about his body, one at his head and 
the other at his feet, Master Thomas de Walkington, rector of Houghton- 
le-Spring, 1410, leaves a hundred shillings equal to about 75 of 
our money for the like purpose ; while at the burial of Ealph, lord 
Nevill, at Durham cathedral, in 1355, the church, we are told, had 
no less than nine hundred and fifty pounds of wax, and sixty torches ; 
and at his wife's, in 1373, fifty pounds of silver, together with three 
hundred pounds of wax, and fifty torches. 

What then was the end and object of all this expenditure, and 
what the meaning to be attached to the corresponding ceremonies ? 
For that they not only had a meaning, but a very important one, 
cannot be doubted, however much it might, in process of time, have 


become obscured through the ceremonies being perverted to purposes 
of mere social ostentation and display. Of that meaning, there 
cannot be a doubt. ' Lumen quid, in ecclesia accenditur,' writes 
Durandus (lib. i. cap. i. p. 6). ' Christum significant juxta illud : Ego 
sum lux mundi. Illuminatur autem ecclesia ex praeceptis Domini, 
unde in Exo. legitur, Praecipe filiis Aaron, ut offerant oleum de 
arboribus olivarum purissimum, ut ardeat lucerna semper in taber- 
naculo testimonii. Fecit quoque Moses lucernas septem, quae sunt 
septem dona spiritus sancti quae in nocte hujus seculi tenebras nostrae 
caecitatis illustrant quae super candelabra ponuntur, quia requievit 
supra Christum spiritus sapientiae, & intellectus, spiritus consilii, & 
fortitudinis, spiritus scientiae, & pietatis, spiritus timoris Domini, 
quibus praedicavit captivis intelligentiam.' And again (lib. vi. cap. 
Ixxxix. p. 251). ' De septem dwbus post Pascha^ he says, ' In quibusdam 
etiam Ecclesiis in his diebus quando descenditur ad fontes, antefertur 
quidam serpens imaginarius, super vergam, et candela novo lumine 
accensa super caput serpentis retorta affigitur, ex quo cereus paschalis, 

et omnes aliae ecclesiae candelae accenduntur Nam 

serpens in palo, est Christus in patibulo.' Further (lib. vii. cap. vii. 
p. 287 dorso & 288), ' Debemus quidem portare non tantum deitatem 
vel humanitatem, sed utrumque, sicut fecit Symeon, quod significatur 
per candelam, quam ferimus in processione. Per ceram enim per apes 
opere virginali, cum melle productam : nulla enim libidine resolvuntur 
humanitas sive caro Christi ex virgine sumpta : per lumen, deitas, 
quia Deus nosier ignis consumens estS 10 In these, as in all other 

10 Again, during the service of the mass ' Acolyti .... cereos ferunt 
accensos, dum legitur evangelium, aut offertur sacrificium, non ut tenebras 
aeris, sed cordis illuminent, cum sol forte eodem tempore rutilet, & ut proximis 
opera lucis ostendant, atque ad signum laetitiae demonstrandum, ut sub typo 
luminis corporalis, ilia lux ostendatur, de qua in evangelic legitur: Erat lux 
vera quae illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum . . . 
Dominus autem hoc officium se habere testatur, cum dicit, Ego sum lux 
mundi, qui sequitur me, non ambulat in tenebris sed habebit lumen vitae.' 
Dur. lib. ii. cap. 7. p. 37. 

And yet again : ' De officio sabbati,' we read of the newly lighted paschal 
candle ' Caereus & renovatus & illuminatus significat, quod Christus 
resurgens a mortuis, in carne gloriosa versus Deus apparuerit. Atque ita 
caereus illuminatus exprimit Christum divinitatis splendore illuminatum. 
Quod autem ex igne maximi caerei duo minores ac caetera Ecclesiae lumina 
incenduntur, declarat non solum Prophetas & Apostolos, qui per minores duos 
caereos, intelliguntur, igne Sancti Spiritus fuisse illuminatos sed qu6d omnes 
etiam Ecclesiae fi.deles eodem igne illustrentur.' Div. Offic. D. Johannis Beleth, 
brevis explicatio. Cap. 110. p. 355 dorso. 


instances, one or two lights are declared to represent, or stand for 
Christ in one person or two natures ; or when more, then of those who, 
illuminated by Him, * brought life and immortality to light through 
the gospel.' Burnt about the bodies of the dead, they put them, by 
such act of faith, under the direct and immediate protection of Him 
who said : ' I am the light of the world : he that followeth Me shall 
not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.' 

All these, however, were included in those exequies 'in die 
sepulturae ' for the due celebration of which, as well as for the 
subsequent masses and other observances, the following extracts from 
some of our northern wills make such interesting and varied 



JOHANNES DAUDBE miles. ' Sepeliendum in Cimiterio Beatae Mariae de 

Seggefeld Item in cera xl s . . . . Item clericis salteriam 

dicentibus et viduis vigilantibus xiij 8 iiij d Item cuidam capellano 

idoneo celebranti pro anima mea per sex annos in Ecclesia de Seggefeld xx. 

NICHOLAS LB MOTTNER of Medomsley. ' In cera comburenda circa corpus 
meum ijV Prob. 13 kal. Maii 1346. 

DOMINUS EADULPHUS DE NEVILL. ' Item Sacrista habuit nongentos et quin- 
quaginta libras cerae, et sexaginta torgys, circa corpus ejusdem.' A.D. MDCCCLV. 

' Item Alicia uxor ejusdem Radulphi ... in Testamento suo dedit 

Priori et Conventui quinquaginta libras cerae Item habuit sacrista 

trescentas libras cerae et quinquaginta torgys.' A.D. 1374. Hist. Dun. Script, 
tres (9 Surt. Soc. puU.}, 135. 

THOMAS DE RIDELL, senior, Burgensis Villae Berwici super Twedam, 1358. 
' Item lego in cera comburenda circa corpus meum iiij libras. Item lego circa 
exequias meas faciendas die sepulturae meae et in elemosinis pauperibus 
erogandis viij libras.' 

WILLIAM DE FELTON, 1358. ' Item pro lumine circa corpus meum in die 
sepulturae meae c solidos.' 

WILLIAM MENNEVILL, 1371. ' Corpus meum ad sepeliendum in ala Beatae 
Mariae in EcclesiS, de Esyington juxta tumulum Dionisiae consortis meae . . . 
Item lego ad sustentandum quinque cereos in perpetuurn coram altari Beatae 
Mariae Virginis in capella Ecclesiae de Esyngton x marcas .... Item 
volo quod quinque cerei stent circa corpus meum, in quorum quolibet sint tres 
librae cerae, et non minus.' 


The references in this, and in the two preceding extracts, are 
worthy of note as shewing the different provisions made, in each case, 
with respect to the use of lights. In the first case, Thomas de Ridell 
directs four pounds of wax in the shape of as many candles, probably 
to be burnt about his body, in accordance with common custom, as 
it would seem, between the time of his death and burial. For the 
ceremonies, and alms on that day, however, he leaves eight pounds 
sterling. William de Felton, while giving no direction as to what 
should be done during the intermediate stage, contents himself with 
making the very large bequest of c s equal to about 75 Os. Od. of 
our money for lights to be burnt about his body on the day of his 
burial alone. William Mennevill, on the other hand, while directing 
that five lights of three pounds weight each, at the least, should be 
burnt about his body, without specifying whether before, or at the 
time of, his burial, provides for five others to burn perpetually before 
the,altar in the chapel of St. Mary. This chantry whether of his 
own, or some earlier foundation, does not appear was, as the archi- 
tectural arrangements clearly show, contrived in the eastern part of 
the south aisle ; and thus the lights, as is evident, would burn, not 
only before the altar, but also before the tombs of himself and his wife, 
which were in front of it. They stood for the five wounds of Christ. 

DOMINUS ROBERTUS O&ILL, 1410. ' Infra ecclesiam parochialem de Whalton, 
videlicet in porticu Beatae Mariae, quern volo ut plumbo cooperiatur meis 
sumptibus et expensis. . . . Volo eciam quod duo honesti et idonei capellani 
per xij. annos ibidem pro anima mea et Johannae uxoris meae, ac omnium 
parentum et benefactorum nostrorum, et pro animabus quibus teneor, celebraturi 
inveniantur, horas canon icas cum placebo et dirige singulis diebus a canone 
licitis praemissa dicturi,' etc. 

He would therefore, be buried before the altar of the B.V.M. ; and 
the daily mass, with lights, would accordingly be celebrated before 
his grave for the time specified. This, together with a great many other 
similar bequests, forms an interesting connecting link between the 
usual provision made for such solemnities at the time of burial, and 
those on behalf of the permanent chantries which were to last while 
' the world should stand.' 

MAGISTER THOMAS WALKYNGTON, rector of Hough ton-le- Spring, archdeacon 
of Cleveland, and chaplain to the Pope, 1410. To be buried in the collegiate 
church of St. John of Beverley. * Item lego in cera comburenda circa corpus 
meum die sepulturae meae c 9 .' 


RALPH DE BROMLEY, vicar of Norton, 1415. ' Corpusque meum ad sepelien- 
dum in choro Ecclesiae de Norton. Item lego iiij 1 cerae ad ardendum circa 
corpus meum ad exequias meas in die sepulturae meae.' 

MATILDA, wife of WILLIAM DEL BOWES, 1420. ' Corpus meum sepelien- 
dum in ecclesia de Dalton in le Dale. . . . Item do et lego Ecclesiae de Dalton 
vj torches, et in quilibet torche vj libras cerae. Item do et lego Luminari 
Beatae Mariae de Dalton ij quarteria f rumenti.' 

These great torches would, doubtless, be burnt before the Bowes 
vault in the choir of Dalton church, which faces the high altar on the 
north side. The present altar tomb was constructed, either for the 
husband of the testatrix, Sir William Bowes, knight, or for her son, 
Sir Robert Bowes, knight, who was slain at the battle of Baugy Bridge, 
in 1421, the year after the making of the will, and is still in good 
preservation. Most probably, however, it was for the latter. 

ELIZABETH, LADY FITZHUGH, 1427. ' My body may be caried to Jeruaux, 
and y r to bee biryed afore the hegh Auter beside my lord's body. And as for 
myn enterment I will yat y r ben at myn exequises & atte messes vpon ye morow 
xxiiij torches brennyng .aboute myn herse and xv tapers ychon of a pond 
brennyng afore y e hegh aut r in y e same messes tyme.' 

ROBERT CONYERS DE SOCKBURN, 1431. ' Corpusque meum sepeliendum in 
Ec'3lesia Parochiali Omnium Sanctorum de Sokburn, cum mortuariis meis 
debitis et consuetis. Item lego in cera cremanda circa corpus meum, in die 
sepulturae meae, iiij libras. Item lego summo altari iij s iiij d .' 

THOMAS LYNDLEY of Scutterskelf, 1529. * Corpus ad sepeliendum in 
ecclesia de Rudby in choro coram sedem clerici parochialis, quinque serie duarum 
librarum sint ardentes supra corpus meum tempore missali, quilibet cerius 
continens unam libram cerae. Capellanus meus celebret unam missam in 
septimani annuatim de quinque vulneribus xp'i pro anima mea in Ecclesia de 
Rudby in diebus dominicis/ 

To the above extracts, taken from the Surtees Society's Northern 
Wills and Inventories, may be added for the sake of ampler informa- 
tion, and the strong light which they throw upon the mortuary obser- 
vances of former days divers others from those of York, where the 
wills of early date far more numerous than at Durham are of the 
utmost interest and importance. 

RICARDUS KELLAWE, 11 Episcopus Dunelmensis 1316. ' Item lego sexaginta 
libras cerae ad sexaginta cereos faciendum circa funus meum.' 

11 Bishop Kellawe was buried, according to his own direction, in the chapter 
house at Durham, ' above the step,' where his remains were discovered, in a stone 
coffin, during the excavations there, in 1879. 

On the morning after his death, which took place at Middleham, ' in minori 
camera,' when the monk who had attended to, said mass for him, he had a 


MAGISTER JOHANNES DB WODEHOUS, quondam Hector ecclesiae de button 
super Derwent, MCCCXLV. ' Corpus meum ad sepeliendum in cimeterio sancti 
Michaelis de Sutton praedicta juxta crucem sancti cimiterii. Item lego in 
luminaribus circa corpus meum xxx s . Item lego clericis psalteria psallentibus 
et viduis vigilantibus et orantibus pro anima mea xiij s iiij d .' 

HUGO DE TUNSTEDE, rector ecclesiae de Catton, MCCCXLVI. ' Sepeliendum 
in choro ecclesiae predictae, juxta magnum altare ad latus aquilonare. Item volo 
quod circa corpus meum sint quatuor personae pauperes, induti tunicis nigris 
cum capuciis, tenentes quatuor torticeos, quorum quilibet sit pondiris vij librarum 
cerae. (Persons named). Item volo quod feretrum meum cooperiatur panno 
nigro ejusdem sectae, tantae longitudinis et latitudinis quantae fuerit pannus 
pro personis predictis, et post sepulturam meam dividatur inter quatuor viduas 
per equales porciones. (Persons named).' 

EDMUNDUS DE PERCY, Civis Ebor, MCCCXLVI. < sepeliendum in ecclesia 
Sancti dementis Ebor. Item do et lego unum lectisternium 12 meum melius ut 
ponalur super feretrum, super corpus meum, et post sepulturam meam remaneat 
ecclesiae Sancti dementis predictae. Item lego vj libras cerae comburendas 
circa corpus meum.' 

A&NES nuper uxor Domini ROGERI DE BURTON militis, MCCCXLVI. 
sepeliendum in ecclesia Fratrum Predicatorum Ebor. Item legavit xiij pauper- 
ibus portantibus xiij cereos die sepulturae suae xiij tunicas de nigro cum 

HUGO DE HASTINGS miles, MCCCXLVLL < Sepeliendum in ecclesia 
parochiali de Elsyng. Et lego ad fabricam dictae ecclesiae quadraginta libras. 
Item lego pro omnibus expensis f aciendis a tempore mortis meae usque sepulturam 
meam totaliter finiendam xxx 1 . Item lego Domino Ricardo Capellano meo x 
marcas. Et volo quod idem Dominus Ricardus celebret pro anima mea per decem 
annos proxime sequentes post diem sepulturae meae in ecclesia parochiali de 
Elsyng, et non alibi, capiens per annum de executoribus meis quinque marcas. 
item lego Domino Thomae capellano meo x marcas. Et volo similiter quod idem 
Dominus Thomas celebret pro animS, mea similiter in eadem ecclesia per decem 
annos, capiens per annum quinque marcas.' 

The testator built the church in 1347, and, therefore, as founder, 
would have the most honourable place of sepulture before the high 
altar, where lights would burn, and masses be sung for ten years 

vision, as G-reystanes tells us, of the bishop, as if saying with his latest breath, 
4 1 am of the household of Christ/ which made him remember the passage in St. 
John, 'where I am, there shall also my servant be.' 

la Lectisternium was a feast offered to the gods, in which their images were 
placed on couches before tables covered with viands. In the Christian period 
a feast held in memory of a deceased person. From the nature of the context, 
it seems clear that, in the present instance, the term is used only in respect of the 
drapery which was spread upon the couches, and must, therefore, be taken to 
mean the best coverlet. 



afterwards. The remains of his magnificent brass may still be seen 
there, with eight of the chiefest men in England on it as ' weepers.' 
Carter, Cotman, Waller, and Boutell all describe and illustrate it. 

JOHAN Counte de Warenne de Surrey et de Strathorne, Seigneur de Bromfeld 
et de Yal, MCCCXLVII. mon corps d'estre enterre en 1'eglise Saint Pancratz 1 * 
de Lewes en une arche pres del haut autier a la partie senestre quele jeo ay fait 
faire. Jeo voile que touz les draps d'or et de saye qui serront offortz pour mon 
corps, et que tout la cire de la herce qui serra faite entour mon corps demoergent 
a la dit esglise ou mon corps serra enterrez. Jeo devys as friers Minours de 
Lewes cynquantz marc. Et jeo voile que une mesne herce soit faite en lour 
esglise et q'ils chauntent une messe de Kequiem pour alme et que toute la cire de 
la dite herce demoerge devers eux. 

ISABELLA quae fuit uxor Domini Willielmi filii Willielmi de Emelay militis, 
MCCCXLVIII. ad sepeliendum in capella sancti Thomae Martiris in ecclesi 
de Sprotburgh. Item lego luminari circa corpus meum, die sepulturae meae, viij 
torches cerae, una cum viij vestibus pro octo hominibus ilia portantibus. 
Item quatuor presbiteris ad celebrandum pro anima mea in ecclesia de Sprot- 
burgh primo anno xx marc. 

AGNES PERCEHAY relicta domini Walter! Percehay Militis, MCCCXLVIII. 
sepeliendum in prioratu de Malton juxta corpus mariti. Item volo quod 
executores mei exhibeant sex sacerdotes per unum annum ad celebrandum pro 
anima mariti mei quondam et pro anima mea. Item lego xxxvj ulmas panni 
nigri sive albi pro vestura xiij pauperum corpus meum circumstantium. Et 
volo quod apponantur circa corpus meum tresdecim magnae candelae de cer& 
sine pluribus. 

AGNES DE SELBY, MCCCLIX. in cimiterio sancti Michaelis de Berefrido 
Ebor. Item lego et volo quod quinque librae cerae et dimidia comburantur circa 
corpus meum in quinque cereis factis die sepulturae. Et volo quod quinta cerea 
sit ponderis unius librae et dimidiae cerae, et post sepulturam meam ponatur 
coram altare beatae Mariae ad comburendum tempore majoris missae omnibus 
diebus festivis quamdiu duraverit. 

18 The site of the church of St. Pancras at Lewes, or of a very considerable 
part of it, including the testator's place of sepulture, now /hangs in air;' a 
cutting of the Brighton and Hastings railway, forty feet wide and twelve deep, 
having swept it utterly away^ The plan of the church was remarkable, 
consisting of a pair of western towers, a nave, with north and south aisles, a 
short transept with an apsidal chapel on each side eastwards, and a semi- 
circular choir with five similar radiating chapels. In a line with the centre of 
the transept, and on the left, or south, side of the high altar precisely in the 
spot indicated in the will was found a skeleton, with the nails of a coffin, and 
some remains of grave clothes. Beneath the skull was a leaden bull of Pope 
Clement VI., inscribed Clemens P.P. VI. He was elected in 1342, and died in 
1352. Midway between these dates, died and was buried, John, eighth and last 
earl of Warenne, and of whose plenary absolution, probably, this was the sole 
surviving relic. 

In many other graves, thin plates of brass, much corroded, are said to have 
been found upon the breasts of the deceased, during the same operations. See 
Fosbroke, Brit. Mon., p. 213. 


WILLIELMUS DE NEUPOBT, rector ecclesiae de Wermouth, MCCCLXVI. 
sepeliendum in medio chori ecclesiae de Wermouth. Item do et lego decem 
libras cerae, ut in quinque cereis ardendis circa corpus meum eodem die sepul- 
turae meae cum sex torchis. Item do et lego novae fabricae** ecclesiae Ebor. xl l . 

MABMADUKE LE CONSTABLE, miles MCCCLXXVI. sepeliendum in cancello 
ecclesiae sancti Oswaldi Regis de Flaynbuigh. Item lego xxv. libras cerae ad 
faciendum in quinque candelas ad comburendum circa corpus meum die 
sepulturae. Item lego sex libras argenti pro xij. torchis emendis et comburendis 
circa corpus meum die sepulturae meae. Et volo quod xij. pauperes portant et 
teneant illos circa corpus meum induti tunicis et caputiis de russeto, quousque 
sepeliatur, de quibus xij. torches finita' sepultura mea, volo quod quatuor 
torches remaneant ad summum altare in ecclesia de Flayneburgh pro reverentia 
corporis Christi. Et ij torches remaneant ad altare sanctae Mariae in eadem. 
Et ij remaneant ad altare sanctae Katherinae in eadem. Item lego ij ad summum 
altare in ecclesia de Holm et ij ad deserviendum in capella sancti Nicholai in 
eadem. Item lego domino Johanni German, ad celebrandum divina pro anima 
mea per ij annos post decessum meum, in loco ubi sepelietur corpus meum xij 1 . 

JOHANNES DE MEUX DE BEWYK in Holderness miles. MCCCLXXVII. sepe- 
/iendum in ecclesia sancti Bartholomei in Aldeburgh, videlicet in insula Beatae 
Marjae in ecclesia predicta et volo quod corpus meum sepelliatur in habitu 
Fratrum Minorum, quia eorum f rater sum in eodem ordine, et volo quod corpus 
meum tegatur nigro panno die sepulturae meae, et circa illud corpus quatuor 
magnos torgeos ardentes. 

ROBEBTUS DE SwYLYNGTON, miles, MCCCLXXIX. sepeliendum in ecclesia 
de Swilyngton, videlicet in capella beatae Mariae ante altare ex parte boreali 
Christianae uxoris meae. Item lego xx. libras cerae ad comburendum circa 
corpus meum tempore exequiarum mearum. Item lego Capellanis (etc.) xiij. 8 
iiij d . Item volo quod sex pauperes vestiantur in russet, et sedeant ad orandum 
circa corpus meum quousque sepeliatur. Item volo quod expensae faciendae 
circa exequias meas fiant tantum pauperibus et egenis. 

KOGEBUS DE MOBETON civis et mercerus Ebor. MCCCXC. sepeliendum in 
Ecclesia sancti Martini in Conyngstrete in Ebor. Item lego xx. libras cerae in 
quinque cereis conficiendis et circa corpus meum comburendis in die sepulturae 
meae. Item lego ij torcheas- cerae precii xiij s . iiij d . ad ardendum ad missam, in 
die sepulturae, et extunc ad ardendum et deserviendum in ecclesia predicta ad 
summum altare. Item lego cuidam capellano honesto et ydonep, divina 
celebraturo pro salute animae meae per duos amnos integros in ecclesiil 
memorata x 1 . 

beatae Mariae de Brandesburton, in medio chori, coram summo altari predictae 
ecclesiae. Item do et lego viginti marcas ad emendum quandam petram de 

14 The ' nova f abrica ' above referred to, was that of the presbytery, including 
the lady chapel, and comprising the four easternmost bays of the choir of York 
minster, commenced by archbishop Thoresby, July 30th, 1361, and completed by 
him, probably, before his death in 1373. 


marble, super corpus meum, et corpora Lorae nuper uxoris meae et Agnetis 
uxoris meae jacendam, cum tribus ymaginibus de laton 15 supra dictam petram 
parietis. Item do et lego ij cereos cerae ponderantes xij libra s ad comburendum 
circa corpus meum, die sepulturae meae, videlicet unum ad capud et alterum ad 
pedes roeos. Item lego et constituo octodecim torches ad comburendum circa 
corpus meum die sepulturae meae. 

estre ensevelez en 1'esglise cathedrale de Saint Poal de Loudres, pres de 1'autier 
principals de mesme 1'esglise, juxte ma treschere jadis compaigne Blanche 
illoques enterree. Jeo vueille et devise que apres mon trespassement mon, 
corps demoerge desur la terre nemy enterrez pour quarante jours. Item jeo- 
devise en ciere pour arder entour nom corps le jour de ma sepulture^ 
primerement dis grosses cierges, en nom des dis comandementz de nostre 
Seigneur Dieu, contre les quelx j'ay trop malement trespassez, suppliant a 
mesme nostre Seigneur Dieux que ceste ma devocion me puisse remedier de tout 
cela que encountre les ditz comandentz ay moult sovent et trop malement fait et 
forfait ; et que desuis yceulx dis soient mys sept cierges grosses, en memoir de 
sept eovres de charite, esqueulx j'ay este necgligent, et pour les sept mortiels 
peches ; et dessus y ceux sept je vueille que soient mys cynk cierges grosses en 
1'onur des v plaies principalx nostre Seigneur Jehsu, et pour mes cynk scens, les 
quelx j'ay moult negligemment despendu. dount jeo prie a Dieu de mercy, et 
tout amont yceulx cierges jeo voille que soient mys trois cyerges en 1'onur de la 
Benoite Trinitee, a le quele je me rende de tres.toutes les malx qui fait ay, en 
suppliant de pardon et de mercy pour la mercie et pitee que de sa benigre grace 
il a fait pour la salvacion de moy et d'autres peechours. Et vueille bien que 
parentre les suis ditz cierges, soient mys entour mori corps morters de cire. 
tieulx et a tantz corne a mes ditz executours il plerra de y mettre mes 
executeurs f acent ordenner et establie en 1'avant dit esglise de Seint Poul un 
chanterie de deux chappellains, a celebrer divine service en ycell a toutz jours 
pour m'alme et 1'alme de ma dite nadgairs compaigne Blanche, et que a ceo 
sustenir perpetuelement soient donez et amortizaz certein terres et tenementz en 
Londres, des queulx la reversion est pourchasez a mons eops. 

WILLIELMUS DE MELTON, miles, MCCCXCVIII. ad sepeliendum in ecclesia 
omnium Sanctorum de Aston. Item lego xl libras cerae et vj torches circa 
corpus meum ardendas, et vestimenta alba pro vj hominibus tenentibus dictas 
torches et cuilibet capellano venienti ad exequias meas iiij d . 

JOHANNA, quae f uit uxor Donaldi de Hesilrigg, MCCCC. Ad sepeliendum in. 
ecclesia mea parochiali. Item lego xxv libras cerae in quinque cereos con- 
ficiendas ad comburendum circa corpus meum ad exequias meas, et die- 

14 This brass, though mutilated and largely covered by a pew, still exists in 
the choir of Brandesburton church. Notwithstanding the provisions of the will, 
it contains two figures only, viz. : those of the testator aud his first wife Lora,. 
whose effigy, as sometimes happened, was made to do duty both for herself and 
her succsssor. The figures are of life-size, but the head of sir John is gone, as is 
also nearly all of the inscription. 


sepulturae meae. Item lego xiij torches, quolibet per se ponderante xiij libras 
cerae rosyn et weke, ad ardendum similiter ad exequias meas circa corpus meum 
in die sepulturae meae. Item lego pauperibus eosdem torches portantibus r 
videlicet cuilibet eorum per se iij ulnas panni russeti, precium ulnae xij d . 

JOHANNIS DEPEDEN, miles, ac dominus de Helagh, MCCCCII. corpusque 
meum sacrae sepulturae jacere in ecclesia abbathiae de Helaghpark, si Deus 
orclinaverit, in medio chori ecclesiae ejusdem, videlicet juxta Elizabethan! uxorem 
meam, cujus animae propicietur Deus. Et volo et ordino, quod tempore 
sepulturae meae et ministracionis corporis mei, sint ardentes circa corpus meum 
quinque cerei, et quod quilibet cereus continet in se quinque libras cerae. Et 
volo quod tempore predicto sint ardentes circa corpus meum viij torches, et quod 
octo homines pauperes sint ibidem tenentes dictos torches, et quod dicti 
homines sint vestiti in panno nigro, empto et facto sumptibus meis. Et volo 
quod dictae viij torches distribuantur in form sequenti, videlicet quod ij 
remanant dictae Abbathiae, et ij ecclesiae parochiali dc Helagh, et ij ecclesiae 
parochiali de Thorparche, et alii ij ecclesiae parochiali de Burghwalays, ad divina 
servicia in eisdem ornanda. Et volo et ordino quod feretrum meum sit co- 
opertum cum panno nigro laneo, et quod dictus pannus remaneat dictae domui 
de Helaghpark. 

And now, in direct connexion with, and sequence to, such proofs 
of the universal custom of burning lights about the bodies of the 
deceased from the time of death to that of burial, as we have seen 
witnessed to by ' Offices ' and ' Wills ' alike, it may be well, perhaps, 
as pointing clearly to the underlying beliefs which led up to, and 
maintained those practices to turn from the actual torches and 
candles of which we have heard so much, to the i instrumenta ' in 
which some of them, at least, and especially those serving at the altar 
during the office of the mass, were fixed. 



In no department of ancient metal-work, probably, shall we find 
more striking evidence of artistic skill, inventive genius, or symbolic 
expression displayed, than in that pertaining to the ' luminaria ' of the 
church services. Most unhappily, however, scarce a single example 
of this once abundant class, of native manufacture, would seem to be 
remaining to us in England. We know, historically indeed, of some^ 


few particular instances, but of the great bulk of those which once 
served and adorned our sanctuaries in well nigh incalculable profusion, 
the very memory has perished. Examples of ancient candelabra are 
now, for the most part, to be met with only in our museums, 
or in foreign galleries and churches, where many such, dating 
from the twelfth century, have not only been preserved, but 
remain in use. Of these, many beautiful and highly instructive 
illustrations may be seen in the Annales Archeologiques, of the 
late M. Didron ; the Bulletin Monumental, of the late M. de 
Caumont ; and the Dictionnaire Raisonnee du Molilier Francais, 
of the late M. Viollet le Due. However differing in other 
respects these may be, they will all be found to agree in this one 
particular, viz. : That the several monsters represented thereon 
lions, dragons, or other figures symbolical of the powers of darkness 
are shewn as vanquished, and striving to flee away, and escape from y 
the presence of the light. ' Thou rnakest darkness that it may be 
night, wherein all the beasts of the forest do move. The lions,, 
roaring after their prey, do seek their meat from God. The sun 
ariseth, and they get them away together, and lay them down in their 
dens: Ps. civ., 20-22. 

One of the very finest existing works of this kind is the magni- 
ficent altar candlestick of the cathedral church of St. Yitus at Prague, 
described and illustrated in vol. i., 197-200 of the Mitt. Kunst- 
denkmale des Osterreichischen Kaiserstaates (Heider, Eitelberger und 
Hieser, Stuttgart, 1858). Of early thirteenth century date, apparently, 
its plan consists of a circular base, out of which rises an equilateral 
triangle with a projecting semi -circle applied to each face, the whole 
of which it so nearly absorbs as to leave only the points of the 
triangle visible. All these mouldings are very simply, but boldly and 
beautifully treated. Above this smooth and lustrous pediment rises 
a living mass of men and monsters. Three huge winged dragons, 
with heads and necks depressed and prone in pain and terror, 
rear their lizard-like bodies towards the central nozzle of 
acanthus leaves, which forms the socket for the candle ; while sir 
others, of less size, resting on their shoulders, with upturned and 
reversed heads, regard angrily three naked men who, seated astride of 


them, in calm and assured confidence, place their hands in the mouths 
of as many lions. Above each point of the triangle, and between the 
dragons, three other figures, young, beautiful, sandaled, and clothed in 
richly girded tunics, place their feet with perfect unconcern within 
the jaws of two other dragons' heads, while resting their outstretched 
arms and hands upon their bodies. The aspect and attitude of all 
three figures is that of absolute fearlessness and domination. ' Super 
aspidem et basiliscum ambulabis, conculcabis leonem et draconemS 
Ps. xci. 13. 

Very similar, in respect of its decorative and symbolic features to 
this of Prague, was the lower part of the great Paschal candlestick at 
Durham, i esteemed,' as we are told, ' to bee one of the rarest monu- 
ments in England.' This says the author of the Rites** i was wont to 
be sett upp in the Quire, and there to remain from the Thursday called 
Maundye thursday, before Easter, untill Wednesday after the Assention 
day,' that did stand uppon a foure-square thick planke of wood against 
the first grees or stepp, hard behind the three basons of silver that hung 
before the High Altar. In the midst of the said greese is a nick 
wherein one of the corners of the said planke was placed, and at every 
corner of the planke was an iron ringe, wherunto the feete of the 
Pascall were adjoyned, representinge the pictures of foure flyinge 
dragons, as also the pictures of the four Evangelists above the tops of 
the dragons, underneath the nethermost bosse, all supportinge the 
whole pascall ; and in the four quarters have beene foure christall 
stones, and in the four small dragons' four heads four christall 
stones, as by the holes doth appeare. And on everye side of the four 
dragons there is curious antick worke, as beasts and men, uppon 
horsbacks, with bucklers, bowes and shafts, and knotts, with broad 
leaves spred uppon the knotts, very finely wrought, all beinge of most 
fine and curious candlestick mettall comminge from it, three of everye 
side, wheron did stand in everye of the said flowers or candlestick a 
taper of wax. And on the height of the said candlestick or Pascall of 
lattine was a faire large flower, beinge the principall flower ; which 
was the seventh candlestick. The Pascall in latitude did containe 

1S 15 Surtees Society publ. p. 8. 


almost the bredth of the Quire, in longitude that did extend to the 
height of the vault, wherein did stand a long peece of wood reachinge 
within a mans length to the uppermost vault roofe of the church, 
wheron stood a great long square taper of wax called the Pascall, a fine 
conveyance through the roofe of the church to light the taper with all.' 
And this account of the great ' Paschal ' at Durham the obscurity 
of its concluding words notwithstanding brings us, at once, to the 
examination of that which, very similar, apparently, both in general 
design and decoration, is known as 


This famous work of the founder's and goldsmith's art, unquestion- 
ably the very finest of its kind, either at the present, or any 
previous period existing, is still preserved in beautiful perfection in 
the cathedral of Milan. It is of bronze gilt, and strengthened with an 
inner frame, or skeleton of iron. M. Didron, gives the following 
account of it. (Annales ArcMologigues xvii., 243.) 'Get arbre de 
metal a six metres de hauteur ; il est en fonte de bronze que 
couvre une patine comparable a celle des medailles antiques. L/adora- 
tion des Mages y occupe le noaud principal, comme on le voit ; tous 
les autres sujets, signes du zodiaque, fleuves du paradis, creation et 
chute de 1'homme, expulsion du paradis terrestre, arts liberaux, vertus 
et vices, deluge, sacrifice d' Abraham, Moi'se delivrant les Hebreux, 
David tuant Goliath, Assuerus couronnant Esther, tous sont a la 
racine de 1'arbre, dans ces broussailles qui gardent, comme autrefois le 
jardin des Hesperides, les dragons qui servent de base a tout le monu- 
ment. Malgre les admirable finesses de la gravure de M. Sauvageot, on 
ne voit pas, on ne peut pas voir une foule de petites tetes ou de petits 
animaux qui sortent de 1'aisselle des feuille sou s'elancent a la pointe 
des rinceaux. C'est tout un monde en miniature. L'oeuvre de fonte 
appartient surtout au pied et au nceud principal ; 1'oeuvre d'orfevrerie 
est distribute sur les autres nceuds, sur le tronc et toutes les branches. 
Sur cette ecorce de me'tal, dans ce cannelures festonnees et dorees, sont 
serties par 1'orfevre ou plutot par le bijoutier un grand nombre de 
pierres precieuses de toutes couleurs, rondes ou plates, mais toutes 
sous forme de cabochons ; du reste, le noeud de 1'adoration des Mages, 


qui nous avons donne au tiers de grandeur, montre parfaitement la 
forme de ces pierres precieuses et la maniere dont elles sont enchassees 
. . . . Ce chandelier etale sept branches, bien entendu, et porte sept 
larges plateaux sur lesquels on pose de gros cierges ou des lampes. 
Mais a chaque plateau principal, quatre plateaux plus petits font une 
espece de collerette et portent quatre petits cierges. En tout, sept 
grosses lumieres, ou sept planetes, pour ainsi dire, et vingt-huit etoiles 
plus petites. Pour un arbre aussi considerable, ce n'esfc pas une masse 
bien forte de lumiere, et cependant, surtout aux office des morts, ainsi 
que je 1'ai vu un jour dans le Cathedrale de Milan, cela brille comme 
le buisson ardent qui vit Moise dans le desert.' 

Of far more frequent occurrence, however, naturally, than the 
great and costly Easter candlesticks of the cathedral, and abbey 
churches, were those small, and comparatively speaking, inexpensive 
portable ones, belonging either to shrines for the exposition of relics, 
or to the several altars of churches of all kinds even the humblest. 
Of these, many ex imples of early date have been happily preserved, 
varying, of course, greatly in respect of detail, but all following one 
general plan ; all, more or less, admirable as illustrations of artistic 
skill and symbolical expression, and, perfectly adapted as they are to 
their special uses, offering the best possible models, or rather types, 
either for adoption, or adaptation among ourselves. Among those of 
this class, one of the earliest, and finest, perhaps, is that described by 
M. Didron in the tenth volume of his Annales Ar ' , p. 141, 
belonging to a village church on the banks of the Moselle. Writing of 
it, he says * Rien de plus commun que les reliquaires, m^me les 
chandeliers, poses sur des corps d'animaux, lions, dragons, aigles, 
griffons. Aujourd'hui, nous publions precisement un chandelier de 
Tepoque romane, dont les trois pattes sont faites de trois serres d'aigles 
qui saisissent une portion de sphere ovale. Si cette patte est bien la 
serre de 1'aigle, la griffe de 1'animal souvrain prend procession du 
globe des empereurs. Quant au pied proprement dit du chandelier 
c'est un compose de lezards, de dragons ailes qui se mordent et 
s'enlacent. II y en a douze autour de ce petit triangle qui a juste 
10 centimetres de cote. La bobeche est soutenue ellememe 
pas trois dragons, qui 1'escaladent, sont a jour et forment comme 



de petites anses. 11 est probable que ce petit chandelier accom- 
pagnait, avec un ou trois autres, un reliquaire, quand on exposait et 
eclairait ce reliquaire sur un autel. On voit, en effet, grave autour 
de la bobeche, entre les dragons a jour, I'inscription suivante, qui 
est mutilee malheurensement : MARTYR TRANSLATIO DE VASE 
CRUORE s . . . . 

Two more examples only, designed more strictly for ordinary altar, 
or eucharistic service, however, than the preceding one, need here, I 
think, be noticed in illustration of this branch of the subject. Of 
much the same early character, they display, if with somewhat 
less artistic excellence, perhaps, not only the same general arrange- 
ment of parts, but a similar treatment of the same general, and 
universally dominant, idea. These too are given by M. Didron in the 
Annales Archeologiques, xviii. 160, 4 Comme on le voit,' he says, 'la 
forme de ces chandeliers varie peu : un pied sur trois pattes de lion ou 
trois corps de dragon ; un nceud de feuillages ou de dragons enroulis ; 
une bobeche assez evasee arcboutee par trois ou quatre petites betes 
fantastiques qui resem blent a des dragons ou a des lezards ailes ; du 
pied au nceud et du nceud a la bobeche, tige absente ou tres-courte.. 
Telle esfc la forme generate des chandeliers, petits, moyens, et grands, de 
1'epoque romane ; forme charmante et qui a nieme seduit le xiii e siecle 
mais en si simplificant. Les deux chandeliers ne manque pas 
d'interet, cependent ils ne valent pas, a beaucoup pres celui qui a paru 
dans le volume x.' 

But, to whatever class these various candelabra may belong and the 
few examples above referred to, be it remembered, stand only as typical 
instances of countless others whatever their respective artistic merits, 
or individual scheme of decoratively symbolic design may be ; the one 
clear, unmistakable lesson which they all alike, though in necessarily 
varying degrees, convey, is this, viz. : The absolute and eventual 
triumph of light over darkness, of good over evil, of life over death, 
of God over 'the Dragon, that old serpent which is the Devil, and 
Satan.' That ' God is Light ; ' and that all those who, having been 
'delivered from the power of darkness, and translated into the 
Kingdom of His dear Son,' are now ' no longer darkness but light in 
the Lord ' ' all children of the light, and of the day,' and who * walk in 


the light,' shall, in like manner 'go upon the lion and adder, and 
tread the young lion and dragon under their feet.' 

These various symbolical representations of the personal spiritual 
agents of the ' father of lies,' to whom ' the blackness of darkness is 
reserved for ever,' and not the servants of the '* true light that lighteth 
every man that coineth into the world' as the heathen of old so 
calumniously alleged -are seen in short, to be the true ' Lmifugax 
natio? l For every one that doeth evil, hateth the light, neither 
cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. But he that 
doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest 
that they are done in God.' 

In this connexion, however, it is very necessary to remember that the 
fire of the lights, thus used ceremonially in the divers offices of the 
church, was derived from no common or haphazard source ; but, on 
the contrary, reverently produced and hallowed for the several 
purposes to which they were applied. No strange fire was allowed ; 
only that which having beforehand been ' sanctified by the word of 
God and prayer,' exhibited thenceforth in figure the person and office 
of the Lord * a light to lighten the Gentiles and the glory of His 
people Israel.' All other lights were derived from the great * Paschal,' 
the emphatic emblem of that ' true light which lighteth every man 
that cometh into the world.' So Durandus ' Secundo loco paschalis 
cereus benedicitur. Circa quod sciendum est, quod in principio officii 
totus in Ecclesia debet i^nis extingui, & novus de lapide percusso 
cum calibe, vel ex crystallo soli objecto debet elici, & de sarmento 
foveri. Ignis vetus, veterem significat legem, cujus figurae in morte 
Christi completae fuere, et ideo velut extinctae cessare debuerunt : 
sed de lapide, id est, de Ohristo qui est lapis angularis, qui verbere 
crucis percussus. Spiritum sanctum nobis effudit, vel de crystallo 
inter solem & lunam mediante, id est, de Ohristo qui fuit mediator inter 
Deum & hominem, qui sicnt ipse testatur, ignem in terram mittere 
venit, novus ignis elicitur, dum per ejus passionem vel resurrectionem 
Spiritus sanctus nobis effunditur, cui praebet alimentum sacramentum, 
id est, Ohristus qui est vitis vera Crystallus quoque perlucida est 
Christi, humanitas resurrectione splendidissima. Adhuc novus ignis 
ideo benedicitur, ut sicut ille, qui est lumen indeficiens, illunrnans 


omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum igne illuminavit 
Mosen : ita illuminefc sensus & corda nostra, ub ex his tenebris ad 
lumen & vitam aeternani, meriamur pervenire. Nee est vana religio 
solenni processione, ad hujus ignis benedictionem exire, in quo meminisse 
debemus exeundum nobis esse ad ilium quern Judaei extra castraejicer- 
unt. Exeamus (inquit Apostolus) ad eum extra castra, improperium ejus 
portantes, & benedicimus ilium cum cruce & aqua, ut nos in passione 
ejus per quern Spiritum sanctum accipimus totos esse significamus. 
Rursus extinctis Ecclesiae luminaribus, & igne de petra cum calibe 
excusso ignis aqua aspergitur benedicta, quia extinctis Apostolis, qui 
lumen mundi a Christo dicti sunt, de Christo petra excussus est ignis 
charitatis cum calibe lanceae vulnerantis, dum sanguis & aqua de ejus 
corpore sacro emanaverunt, a quibus habent efficaciam sacramenta qui- 

bus mediantibus in amore Domini inflammamur aqua gratiae perfusi 

Subsequenter benedicitur cereus ex institutione Zozimi, & Theodori 
primi Papae. . . . Benedicitur autem ideo quoniam ex simplici sui 
natura absque benedictione, non potest transire ad significationem 
mysterii columnae ignis de qua jam dicetur. . . . 

Porro cereus, super columnam illuininatus, significat primo 
columnam ignis, quae praecedebat in nocte populum Israel, extinctus 
vero significat columnam nubis, quae praecedebat in die, prima quidem 
de nocte illuminans, & secunda in die refrigerans in qua Spiritus 
sanctus significabatur. Tenuit quidem in nobis columna nubis figuram 
humanitatis : columna ignis figuram divinitatis. . . . 

In cereo etiam affigitur tabula seu charta scripta, quae significat 
tabulam, in qua Pilatus scripsit : Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judaeorum, 
quam vidimus Parisiis in capella Illustris Regis Francorum, una 
cum spinea corona, & ferro, & hastea lanceae, & cum purpura, 
qua Christum induerunt, & cum sindone, qua corpus fuit involutum, 
& spongia, & ligno crucis, & uno de ex clavis, & aliis reliquiis multis. 
Et cum cereus Christum significet, merito in dicta tabula inscribitur 
annus Domini tune currens, cum ejus incarnatione, quia in cereo notat 
quod Chris tus est annus antiquus, & magnus, plenus dierum. . . . 

In quibusdam Ecclesiis additur alter cereus minor : primus major 
consecratur in personam Christi dicentis. Ego sum lux mundi, 
alter in persona Apostolorum, quibus ipse dominus inquit : Vos estis 


lux mundi ; uterque cereus praecedit cathecuminos, ad baptisrnum, 
& Apo<=toli nos ad terram promissionis. Item Christus per se illuminat 
ecclesiam, illuminat etiam illam per Apostolos, quorum praecepta 
diligenter intueri & observare debenius, quod ostenditur ex illumina- 
tione aliorum cereorum, qui ab aliis duobus illuminantur. In plerisque 
vero ecclesiis duo alii parvi cirei accenduntur a majori, & statuitur 
unus ab una parte cerei benedicti, alius ab alia, qui significant sanctos 
novi & veteris testamenti qui per Christum illuminati sunt, and per 
doctrinam Apostolorum & Prophetarum, qui cum Christo concordant. 
Ecclesiae luminaria ex igne majoris cerei accenduntur, ad figurandum 
quod ignis Spiritus sancti a Christo procedit, & quod non solum 
Prophetae & Apostoli, qui per duos cereos significantur, verumetiam 
omnes eeclesiae fideles a Christo illuminati sunt.' (Dur. lib. vi. 
c. Ixxx. pp. 232 dorso and 233 dorso.) In connexion with which 
extracts from Durandus, may be taken the following from his master, 
Dom. Johannes Beleth ' Cereus a diacono benedici & consecrari 
oportet, non autem a sacerdote vel Episcopo, etiam si sint presentes, 
quantumvis majoris sint ordinis, & dignitatis. Per quod quidem 
intelligitur, quod Christus resurgens ex mortuis, primo sere obtulerit 
& ostenderit mulieribis, per quos. utpote quae erant sexus debilioris, 
gloriam suae resurrectionis Discipulis suis nunciavit. Sed nee illud 
temere fecit Dominus. Nam quern ad modum principium mortis per 
foeminam in mundum intravit, ita quoque necessarium fuit, ut 
initium, nostrae restitutionis & salutis per mulierem mundo annunci- 
aretur. (c. 102.) 

Again (' in baptismo ') (r. 110), we read ' Caereus in aquis ponitur, 
quod contactus corporis Christi in baptismate aquas sanctificaverit, & 
vim regenerandi illis contulerit. Representat autem caereus super 
oolumnam positus & accensus columnam ignis, quae nocte praecedebat 
filios Israel, quando Aegypto exeuntes intrarunt mare rubrum, in quo 
praefigurabatur baptismus, ut per desertum venirent in terram 
promissionis. Extinctus vero ostendit columnam nubis quae item 
eosdem praeibat interdiu. Columna enim tria praeibabat, protegebat 
namque, illos a sole, ab hostibus, & nocte eis lucem praebebat. Pari 
ratione Christus praecedens baptizatos, obumbrat eos contra in 
-citamenta vitiorum, & protegit ab hostibus, scilicet a daemonibus, 

94 ON 

& a mundanis cupiditatibus, atque illuminat per charitatem. Unde 
dicitur. Ignis consumens in nobis vitia.' 

But helpful to the dead, and consolatory to the living, as such 
exhibition of the symbols of the Divine presence and protection 
attaching to lights might either be, or be esteemed as well at, as 
after, the obsequies of the deceased they constituted by no means 
the only way in which it was sought to protect them. They were to 
be both incensed and asperged. 'Adhuc licet in missa pro vivis 
debeant omnes turificari ad signiticandum, quod illorum orationes ad 
coelestia diriguntur, in missa tamen pro defunctis non debet tus per 
chorum portari, nee offerri, id est altare turificari, sed circa corpus 
tantum quia hoc in lege prohibitum fuit. Nullus ergo in hoc officio 
turrificatur, ad notandum, quod mortui nil amodo valent orationibus 
suis promereri unde Psal. Non mortui laudebunt te Domine. Ipsa 
autem defunctorum corpora turrificantur, & aqua benedicta asperguntur, 
non ut eorum peccata tollantur : quae tune per talia tolli nequeunt, 
sed ut omnis immundorum spirituum praesentia arceatur, & fiunt etiam 
in signum societatis, & communionis sacramentorum quam nobiscnm 
dum vixerunt habuerant.' (Dur. lib. vii. cap. 35, p. 300 dorso.) 

And the same protective care and watchfulness, which had so 
diligently waited on them hitherto, attended them to their graves. 
Apart from such at all times comparatively very few in number 
.as were interred within the church itself, those buried without, were 
not, as happens so commonly among ourselves nowadays, laid in some 
plot of common ground, merely fenced in and set apart for that 
purpose. Nor was it thought enough to accompany the act of separa- 
tion by the performance of some such religious ' exercises,' merely, as 
might seem, in a general way, decorously ' appropriate to the occasion.' 
Something far more serious and practical in its import than functions 
of this sort were deemed needful. ' Coemeterium, quod eisdem 
gaudet privilegiis cum ecclesia,' says Durandus, ' consecratur, & 
benedictur. Benedictus autem ut ulterius desinat illic immundorum 
spirituum habitatio esse, et fidelium corpora ibi usque ad diem judicii 
requiescant in pace' (Lib. i. cap. 8, p. 27.) 

Nor was this general consecration and benediction of the cemetery 
at large allowed to suffice. Whatever benefits might accrue therefrom 


to the company of the faithful dead collectively, a special, personal 
protection was sought to be obtained for each one of them in 
particular. The separate graves were to be hallowed individually. 
The dead body, after being brought thereto, and other preliminary 
service said i Deinde ponitur in spelunca, in qua in quibusdam locis 
ponitur aqua benedicta and prunae cum ture. Aqua benedicta ne 
daemones, qui multum earn timent ad corpus accedant . . . . Et 
in quocunque loco extra coemeterium Christianus sepeliatur, semper 
crux capiti illius apponi debet, ad notandum ilium Ohristianum fuisse 
quia hoc signum diabolus valde veretur, & timet accedere ad locum 
crucis signaculo insignitum.' (Dur. lib. vii. cap. 35, p. 301 dorso.) 

But, hallowing and protective as the presence of the great cemetery 
cross, like that of the cemetery, and church itself, might be to all at 
rest around it, still those whose means enabled them to do so, sought 
further means of defence against their ghostly foes by the erection of 
others, special and peculiar to themselves. To this large, varied and 
most interesting class of monuments, therefore, before proceeding 
to an examination of the further, and final, use of lights in this 
connexion, we will now betake ourselves. 




Of the cross itself, as a sufficiently protective device, whether 
simply, or carrying the effigy of Christ, or sculptured with scriptural 
subjects as well, we have instances innumerable, from pre-Augustinian 
times 17 downwards. Its virtue was universally understood, and as 

17 Thus, Mr. Ferret, in his line work on the Roman Catacombs, gives the 
chi-rho as cut upon the stone of the martyr Marius, A.D. 117 ; as also on 
that of the martyr Alexander, in 161. And then, in our own country, among 
the gravestones of Wales and Cornwall, we find this sign occurring 
apparently before the departure of the Romans in 410 on that of the tribune 
Honemimorus. Mr. Lysons also notes a highly curious and interesting one 
found at Pen Machno, in Caernarvon, with the chi-rho surmounting the 
commemorating possibly, as some have thought, the famous usurper of that 
name, A.D. 287-293. Another, equally interesting, and supposed to be that of 
Sellyf, duke of Cornwall, A.D. 325, has the chi-rho very clearly cut, above the 
words SBLIVS 1C IACET. Then again, among those found on the west 


universally applied. So Durandus (lib. v., cap. 2), ' sacerdos cum 
dicit: Deus in adjutorium meum intende, signo crucis se munit, ad 
effugandum illius virtutem scilicet quamlibet diaboli versutiam, & 
potestatem. Yalde enim timet signum crucis. 18 Unde Chrysostomus : 
Ubicunque daemones signum cracis viderint, fugiunt, timentes 
baculum, quo plagam acceperunt.' In some form or other it hallowed 
and defended the graves of the dead in Christ, whether in the church- 
yard only, or in the church itself. For such as were too poor to erect 
a special grave stone for themselves, the shelter of the great cemetery 
cross sufficed, or was held to suffice, as a common family protection. 19 

coast of Scotland, is that existing at Stranraer, and which Scottish archae- 
ologists attribute, with probable justice, to the fifth century. Within a large 
sunk circle, occupying the full breadth of the stone, and surmounted by the 
letters Alpha and Omega, is a boldly cut chi-rho above the inscription, HIC 

Of those immediately succeeding the days of Augustine's mission, and dating 
from the seventh century onward, we have remains in abundance everywhere ; 
one of the earliest, and for the present purpose, most interesting, being that of 
Owini, steward of queen Ethelreda, c. 680-90, now in Ely cathedral church, 
and thus inscribed : ' Lucem Tuam Ovino da Deus et requiem.' 

18 In the oaken lintel of the fireplace in Shakespeare's house at Stratford-on- 
Avon, was discovered about 1860, secreted in a deep augur hole carefully 
plugged, a little cross carved with a knife. It was embedded in coarse tow, 
among which were several grains of barley. The cross consisted ' of a plain 
quadrangular shaft, supported on a flat plinth, reached by four steps encompassing 
it on either side. It measured one and a quarter inch in height, and eight- 
tenths in diameter at the base, which retained traces, of the cement where- 
with it was probably once attached to some woodwork. Professor Quekett 
pronounced the material to be willow a fact which at once established the 
origin, purpose, and, possibly, the date of the relic,' as witnessed by a rare tract, 
entitled : A Dialogue or Familiar Talke betweene two Neighbours, from Roane, 
by Michael Wodde, the 20 February, 1554, 12mo. After mentioning the various 
ceremonies practised in the church on Palm Sunday, it goes on to say ' the 
priest at the altar al this while, because it was tedious to be unoccupied, made 
crosses of palme to set upon your doors, and to beare in your purses, to chase 
away the divel But tell me Nicholas, hath not thy wyf e a crosse of palme 
aboute her? (Nich.~) Yes, in her purse. (Oliver} And agoon felowshippe tel 
me, thinckest thou not sometyme the devil is in her tongue ? Syghe not man. 
(Nich.} I wold she heard you, you might fortune to finde him in her tong and 
fist both. (Oliver} Then I se wel he cometh not in her purse, because the holi 
palme crosse is ther ; but if thou couldest entreate her to beare a crosse in her 
mouth, then he would not come there neither/ Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc., vol. 
xvi., p. 330-32. 

19 So sweeping has been the obliteration of these beautiful and impressive 
monuments of ancient Christian faith and piety, that in the whole county of 
Durham, the broken shaft of one only, so far as I know, viz., that in my own 
churchyard of Witton-le-Wear, remains ; though part, if not the whole, of 
another survived in that of the mother church of S. Andrew Auckland for 
some time after their general destruction, one Thomas Perkins, of Coundon, 
having, according to Hutchinson, desired burial in the churchyard there ' beside 


But as we see, all the land over, those less closely restricted, sought 
habitually for some more purely personal and intimate defence to lie 
more directly and immediately beneath its shadow. Nay, not even 
beneath, as usual, but occasionally within its sheltering arms. Of 
the many forms which the simpler and commoner grave crosses took, 
those of this class constitute one of the happiest and most expressive 
imaginable. Instead of the limbs simply intersecting, they are seen 
to expand at the point of junction into flower-like forms, which en- 
fold, as it were, with a close embrace, the effigies of the deceased to 
their very heart and centre. Among the many examples of this sort 
may be instanced those at: 

AUCKLAND S. ANDREW, DURHAM, now a matrix only, but which 
once contained the figure of an early dean. 

TORMARTON, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, c.1350, in memory of Sir John de 
la Riviere, who, as founder, carries the model of a fine cruciform church, 
with tower and spire, in his hands. This again, is, unhappily, merely 
a matrix. 

EAST WICKHAM, KENT, where John de Bladingdone and his wife 
have their busts enclosed in the cusped and octofoiled head of the 
cross, c. 1325. 

CHINNOR, OXFORDSHIRE, c.1320, where the tonsured head, neck, 
and hands only, of a priest are shown within a very beautifully floriated 
cross, the eight points of which are expanded into triplets of vine 

the cross.' Very few unmutilatcd examples can now be met with anywhere, 
though an exceptionally fine and perfect one, with the scene of the crucifixion 
fully displayed, may be seen at Ampney Crucis, near Cirencester. It is of great 
height, and such importance as to have added its distinguishing suffix to the 
present name of the village. Still more striking and impressive than even this 
imposing monument, however, is the perfectly simple cross in the churchyard of 
Bag Enderby, Lincolnshire a cluster of some six or eight thatched cottages, 
embowered among the grandest trees imaginable. The church a small, but 
oharming and untouched fourteenth century structure, sinking slowly to decay, 
lies close at hand, and by the pathway leading to its porch, which it adjoins 
so nearly that all who enter in must pass beneath its shadow, stands the cross. 
Untouched, save only by the hoary tints of time, grey, solemn, awe-inspiring 
colossal, indeed, in comparison with the adjoining lowly fane, it stands out like a 
4 strong rock and defence,' a very ' horn of salvation and refuge,' to all 
the unrecorded and forgotten dead that sleep around. It is only, perhaps, in 
the profound stillness and repose of such a spot as this, that all the peace and 
power of the churchyard cross can be fully felt felt, but not expressed. 



WOODCHURCH, KENT. Here the cross takes the form of a simple 
medallion a circle containing the inscription, whose outer lines 
curve off, ogee-wise into four fleurs-de-lys at the cardinal points, while 
the inner form a quatrefoil, within which is the diminutive effigy of 
a priest, Nichol de Gore, in eucharistic vestments, c. 1320. 

HEREFORD CATHEDRAL, where there is, or was, a small figure of a 
civilian, within the open head of a richly cusped and floriated octofoil 
cross, c. 1300. 

STONE, KENT. An exceedingly fine, perhaps the very finest, 
example of monuments of this class. From a stepped base rises a 
stem with leaves springing from either side, while the octofoil, ogee- 
arched head, which is very large and richly cusped, has its points 
terminated in bold and diversified tufts of foliage. Within, is the 
finely drawn figure of John Lumbarde, rector, 1408. The Auckland 
brass has very closely resembled this. 

TAPLOW, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. In S. Nicholas's church, here, is an 
elegant brass cross, with a long stem resting on a dolphin. It terminates 
in a head composed of eight ogee arches, alternately large and small, 
with beautiful finials, and enclosing a small male figure habited in hood, 
cape, and tunic reaching below the knees. The inscription runs: 
4 Nichole de Aumbedine iadis Pessoner de Londres gist ici. Dieu de 
Salme eit merci. Amen.' 

Another, somewhat similar, but with the opening quatref oiled 
instead of octofoiled, remains at BUXTED, SUSSEX, containing the 
three-quarter effigy of a priest, Britellus Avenel, c. 1375 ; and the like 
arrangement is found at MERTON college chapel, OXFORD, c.1310 ; at 

In the centre of the simple, but very beautiful grave-slab cross, 
laid down by Archbishop Ohichele to his father and mother, at 
HIGHAM FERRARS, Northamptonshire, and where the extremities dis- 
play the evangelistic symbols, the point of intersection is occupied by a 
medallion containing a seated figure of our Lord in glory, giving the 


At CHELSFIELD, KENT, the grave cover of Robert de Bran, priest, 
has, instead of an effigy of the deceased, a small crucifix, with figures 
of SS. Mary and John on either side, and above a scroll inscribed 
' Salus mea xpe est.' 

In each of the above cases types only of many others we see 
the salutary power of the cross emphatically appealed to as the sole 
defence of the deceased, in full accordance with Durandus's sentence : 
* In quocunque loco Ohristianus sepeliatur semper crux apponi debet, 
ad notandum ilium Christiannm fuisse, quia hoc sigaum diabolus valde 
veretur et timet accedere ad locum crucis signaculo insignitum? Lib. 
vii. cap. 35. 



Besides the sign of the cross, an immense variety of hallowing and 
protective devices are found both here and abroad. Among these is a 
very solemn and expressive one which, though seldom seen upon our 
English tombs, is yet common enough on those of France and Belgium 
the Hand of Providence, or ' Dextera Dei,' seen issuing from clouds 
in benediction, and taking the bodies of those below, as it were, under 
its immediate protection. ' Whoso dwelleth under the defence of the 
Most High, shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty.' An 
extremely fine and early example of this treatment occurs at 

SECLIN, near Lille, c. 1150, on the incised slab commemorating St. 
Piat, a companion of St. Denis, who was martyred about 286, by 
having the upper half of his head struck off, which he is shewn carry- 
ing in his hands. 

JAKEMINS DOXNEN, his wife and son, 1344, at Brussels, are shewn 
all three lying side by side, beneath a rich triple canopy. The son, 
who was a priest, is in full eucharistic vestments, and carries the 
chalice on his breast. The Divine Hand appears above the head of 

JOHAN and ARNOTT DE PARFONDRIEU, Fremalle Grande, 1413. A 
much injured, but once very fine slab, in memory of two brothers 


german, of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, the white cross of 
which appears upon their breasts, while the Hand of God, again 
surmounting the head of each, bestows His benediction. 

Another class of these defensive symbols is found both in- 
sculptured and incised tombs, though, from the nature of the case, 
much more frequently in the latter than -the former, in the shape of 
censing angels, about, or above, the heads of the deceased. 20 In the 
earlier and simpler monuments, these angels are always shown censing 
the effigies exhibited thereon : in the later and more elaborate, the 
Divine Personages whether of the Holy Trinity, God the Father, or 
our Lord, who occupy the centre part of the tabernacle work overhead.. 
One of, if not the earliest, of our English examples, may be seen in 
the sculptured monument of 

BISHOP BARTHOLOMEW ISCANUS, 1159-1184, in the Lady chapel of 
Exeter cathedral, where they appear in the spandrils of the sharply 
pointed arch which forms the canopy of his head, on a very small and 
insignificant scale. That of 

ARCHBISHOP WALTER GREY, 1215-1255, in the south transept of 
York minster, also sculptured, has censing angels at the head, while 
the end of his staff pierces the dragon at his feet. 

BISHOP BRIDPORT, 1256-1262, whose sculptured effigy, like that of 
Archbishop Grey, reposes beneath a most beautiful canopy, in the south- 
eastern transept aisle of Salisbury cathedral, has also his head 
supported by two censing angels. 

BISHOP WILLIAM DE KILKENNY, 1255-1257, in the choir of Ely 
cathedral, again, has his head similarly supported. 

KING JOHN'S effigy, 1216, in the choir of Worcester cathedral, has- 
the head supported on either side by the figure of a bishop, holding a 
thurible or censer, and, doubtless, intended to represent SS. Oswald 
and Wulfstan, between whose shrines he was interred. Although 
shewn in effigy vested, as he was actually buried, in royal robes, 

20 ' Ipsa autera defunctorum corpora turrificantur . . . . ut omnis 
immumdorum spirituum praesentia arceatur.' Dur. lib. viii. c. 35. ' Fumus 
enim incensi valere creditur ad daemones effugandos/ Lib. 4. c. 10. The 
actual censing took place during the burial office, the pictorial representation, 
afterwards, and as a further and abiding safeguard. 


and with the crown upon his head, the latter, as appeared upon the 
opening of the tomb, was really enveloped in the cowl of a Benedictine 
monk, buckled beneath the chin with straps. Like those afterwards 

* Who to be sure of Paradise, 
Dying, put on the weeds of Dominic, 
Or in Franciscan, thought to pass disguised.' 

The effigy of a LADY of the HACCOMB family, under the first mural 
arch on the north side of Haccomb church, Devonshire, c. 1330, has 
also the head similarly supported. 

Of the second, or incised class, whether in brass or stone, we have 
examples on the grave covers of 

BISHOP WILLIAM DE BITTON, probably, Wells cathedral, south side 
of choir, 1267-1274. 

THIEBAUZ RUPEZ, c. 1260, at S. Memmie, near Chalons-sur-Marne, 
who is shewn riding out hawking, and accompanied by dogs, while 
. overhead, and above the crocketed canopy, are two angels of consider- 
able size, holding incense boats and swinging censers. 

HUES LIBERGIEE, 1263, the famous architect of the church of St. 
Nicaise at Reims, esteemed to have been the culminating work of Gothic 
art in France, as well as probably also, more or less, of the great 
cathedral there, where his grave slab, removed from the former 
building, now lies, and on which two large censing angels appear in the 
uppermost corners above the canopy an exceedingly fine and 
impressive work. 

LEWIS BEAUMONT, bishop of Durham, Durham cathedral, 1318- 
1333. ' Under a most curious and sumptuous marble stonn, which 
hee prepared for himselfe befor hee dyed, beinge adorned with most 
'excellent workmanshipp of brasse, wherein he was most excellently 
and lively pictured with two angells very finely pictured, one on the 
one side of his head, and the other on the other side, with censors in 
theire hands censinge him, &c.' Rites of Durham (Surt. Soc. publ.), 
pp. 12-13. 

AGNES DE SAINT AMANT, 1296, Rouen. A very rich and fine work. 
Beneath a tref oiled canopy are two angels attending her, one on either 
side the head, while above are two others of much larger size, holding 


In all the preceding examples, be it noted, the angels are shewn- 
censing the effigies of the deceased. In the following, and later ones, 
where rich masses of tabernacle work, in one or more stages, appeal- 
above their heads, the angels are censing the figure of the Holy 
Trinity, God the Father, or our Lord, either singly, in His mother's 
arms as a child, or, as in a Pieta, dead, and laid across her knee as 
just taken down from the cross. ' Let my prayer be set forth in thy 
sight as the incense.' 

EUDELINE DE CHAUBRANT and her two daughters, 1338, Chalons- 
sur-Marne. A very fine and elaborate work. The three effigies 
are shown under as many traceried canopies. In the spandrils 
between the canopies is seen, to the left centre above the clouds of 
heaven, God the Father, holding the three souls in a sheet ; 2l to the 
right a kneeling angel holding three crowns ; and in the half spandrils 
at the sides, angels swinging censers in mid-air. Beneath the 

21 This scene, which is commonly, but quite erroneously, described as Abra- 
ham's bosom, is variously represented on monuments. Thus, on that of Marie 
de Mondidier, 1317, at Evreux, two kneeling figures, neither winged nor nimbed 
hold up the soul of the deceased, which is fully vested, in the apex of the canopy ,- 
while two winged and nimbed angels of much larger size swing censers on either 
hand, no divine personage whatever appearing. 

In that of Berger Petersen Brahe and his wife, the parents of the famous S. 
Birghitta or Briget, 1828, at Upsala, God the Father, who occupies the central 
niche above the head of each, holds their respective souls in a sheet, while two 
attendant angels in either case swing their censers before Him. A similar 
treatment is seen on that of Gile de Pegorre, canon and subchanter of Reims 
cathedral, 1377 ; of Katherine van Nethinem, 1459, at Louvain ; and of Johan 
Mingen and his wife, 1486, at Chalons sur Marne. 

In the magnificent brass of king Eric Menved and queen Ingdeborg, 1319, 
in the cathedral of Ringstead, the souls of each, fully robed, are held in large 
sheets by two angels respectively, two others swinging censers, standing to the 
right and left of them ; but again there is no divine personage represented. 

In the equally splendid brass of bishops Ludolph and Henry de Bulowe, 
1339-1347, at Schwerin, the souls of the two brothers are shown respectively as 
two small naked figures, standing in the lap of God the Father, who holds them 
with his left hand, while the right is raised above their heads in blessing. 
Censing angels again appear on either side. 

On the corresponding brass of the two other brothers, viz. : Godfrey and 
Frederic de Bulowe, 1314 and 1375, also at Schwerin if possible, still more 
elaborate, perhaps, than the other their souls appear naked, and held between 
the clasped or folded hands of the Almighty, adoring angels accompanying, one 
on each side. 

On that of the two bishops, Burchard de Serken, 1317, and John de Mul, 
1350, at Liibeck perhaps the most elaborately magnificent brass ever executed 
the souls, which occupy the central canopies, immediately above the heads of 
each effigy, are held in long sheets, or webs of linen, passing over the shoulders 
of two saints at either end, and which are so depressed in the centre as to appear 
like funnels or jelly-bags. Two other saints, with musical instruments, are also- 
shown, one on each side, beyond. Above, in the highest row of tabernacles^. 


mother's feet, in the midst, are shewn a coffin covered with a rich 
pall, with tall candles at the head and feet, and in the midst, a cross. 
To the left and right, beneath the daughter's feet, six priests chanting 
the funeral service. 

GILE DE PIGORRE, 1377, Reims, canon and subchanter of the 
-cathedral. He is shewn in simple eucharistic vestments : God the 
Father, in the central tabernacle of the canopy, holding his soul in a 
sheet, while two angels, occupying the highest niches of the supports 
on either side, swing their censers upwards to his feet. 

WALTER PESCOD and his wife, 1398, Boston, Lincolnshire. His 
gown is powdered with peas-cods and flowers. Effigies beneath a 
large square canopy, the central niches of which contained figures of 
our Saviour and attendant angels, with censers, now lost. 

ABBOT DE LA MARE, presbytery of St. Alban's abbey church. The 
rich canopy of this ' by far the finest ecclesiastical brass in England ' 
is surmounted by tabernacle work containing the figure of our Saviour 
enthroned and attended by angels carrying thuribles and instruments 
of music. Becoming prior of Tynemouth he was translated thence, 
in 1349, to the abbey of the mother house of S. Albans, where he died 
in 1396. His tomb was prepared under his own superintendence, 
during his lifetime. 

those in the centre are occupied by enthroned figures, either of our Lord, or of 
the Almighty Father ; on each side of whom are censing angels, while others, 
bearing candles, appear outside of all. 

In the very fine brass of Proconsul Albert Hovener, 1357, at Stralsund, the 
soul, naked, is supported by the right hand of the Father, upon His right knee. 
Censing angels attend, as usual, to the right and left. 

On that of Johan von Zoest and his wife, 1361, at Thorn, the souls of each 
are represented as naked, and standing in sheets, which are also, as in the case 
of bishops Serken and Mul, at Liibeck, exceedingly depressed towards the 
middle, as to resemble bags or pockets. Each is sustained at the extremities by 
two angels, two others, holding candles, being placed outside them. In. each 
case, the figure of God the Father occupies the central niche of another row of 
tabernacles overhead. 

The souls of John de Heere, 1332, and Gerard de Heere, 1398, commemorated 
on the same brass at Brussels, are seen held, respectively, in a sheet by a figure 
seated in the central niche of their several canopies, and who, in each case, is 
supported by SS. Peter and Paul, two angels and two other saints appearing in 
the niches next adjoining. Here, from the absence of the customary censing 
angels, Abraham's bosom may, perhaps, very naturally be intended. 

Finally, in the very rich and fine brass of bishop Andreas, 1479, at Posen, 
God the Father (or the Son ?) with a cruciform nimbus, is shown seated on a 
throne beneath a rich canopy, and holding the naked soul in a small napkin 
with both hands, while kneeling angels, swinging censers, worship on either 
side. ' The souls of the righteous are in the hands of God, and there shall no 
torment touch him/ 




In addition to the cross, either separately, or in connexion with 
it, other representations of sacred persons, or things, were frequently 
introduced with the object of still further defending the sepulchres of 
the dead from the pollution of evil spirits, thus: 

On the canopy of the tomb of the BLACK PRINCE, in Canterbury 
cathedral, and looking down upon his effigy, is seen a picture of the 
Holy Trinity, reverenced by him always, we are told, with ' peculiar 
devotion,' and on whose feast day he died. 

On that of BISHOP STAPLEDON'S tomb, in Exeter cathedral, is a 
vast figure of Christ with pierced hands raised to bless, and his 
wounded feet resting on the globe of the earth. The sculptured 
effigy of the bishop, fully vested, lies immediately below. 

In BREDON church, Worcestershire, is an obtusely pointed grave 
cover of a man and his wife, probably of the Keede family. From a 
stepped base rises a cross ragulee supporting the canopies which sur- 
mount the busts of the deceased, and carrying the crowned and 
crucified figure of our Lord. On the transverse bar, which cuts short 
the busts, are seen their souls in the shape of two doves. 

At STOKE CHARITY church, Hampshire, the brass of Thomas Hamp- 
ton and his wife has above their effigies a representation of the Holy 
Trinity ; the Father, enthroned, beneath a canopy, holding with His 
left hand the cross with the Saviour, and blessing with the right ; 
while, resting on the cross to the left of our Lord's head, appears the 
Holy Spirit like a dove. On scrolls proceeding from the mouths of 
the deceased are engraved : ' Pat. de celis de. miserere nobis,' ' and 
4 Sea tintas un. de. miserere nobis.' 

Within the SALISBURY shrine or chapel, in the choir of Christ Church 
priory, Hampshire, on the great central boss of the vaulting, is a sculp- 
tured figure of the Holy Trinity, in the form of God in three Persons, 
surrounded by cherubim, and with the foundress kneeling humbly in 
the front. Her carefully constructed grave, together with that of 
her son, cardinal Pole, lies directly underneath. 


At EXETER cathedral, in the small chapel of S. Radegund, con- 
structed by bishop Grandisson in the thickness of the screen of the 
west front, is sculptured in the roof, above the site of his now de- 
stroyed tomb, a figure of the Saviour in low relief with the right hand 
raised in benediction. From holes in the stone vault, lamps were 
formerly suspended. Owing to the peculiar nature of the position, 
the altar stood, in this case, towards the south. 

In WIKE church, near Winchester, the brass of William Complyn, 
1499, is surmounted by a gigantic figure of S. Christopher, who, staff 
in hand, is shown crossing the river. The infant Christ upon his 
shoulder appears, through the mistake of the engraver, holding the 
cross in His right hand, and with His left raised in benediction. 
'When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and 
through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee.' 

In HEREFORD cathedral, the canopy of the fine early tomb of bishop 
Peter de Aquablanca, 1239-1268, which has three sharply-pointed 
traceried gablets lengthways, has the two exterior ones finished with 
rich floriated crosses only. That in the centre differs from them in 
displaying the crucifix in high relief. 

In the RIVERS chapel, S. Nicholas's church, Macclesfield, the brass 
of Roger Legh and his wife, 1506, display labels proceeding from the 
mouths of each, and inscribed respectively: 'Adamnatione perpetua 
libera nos Domine,' and, ' In die judicii libera nos Domine.' Above 
their heads is shown an altar on which are a chalice and missal. 
Before it kneels a figure wearing a triple crown encircled by a nimbus, 
and clad in eucharistic vestments; while behind, appears the majestic 
figure of the Saviour rising from the tomb, and, with uplifted hands, 
displaying the wounds of His passion. (The scene is known as the 
Mass of S. Gregory.) 

At S. LAWRENCE'S church, Ludlow, in the south aisle of the nave, is 
a grave cover which had a brass inscription round the edge, with the 
evangelistic symbols in the corners. Up the centre was a cross 
carrying the image of Christ crucified, with a label over; and at the 
bottom, two kneeling figures with labels proceeding from their mouths, 
with others containing prayers scattered on each side. 




Somewhat similar, in general design and intention, was a very fine- 
and interesting tomb to the north of the high altar of the abbey 
church of Longpont, figured by M. Y. le Due, in his Dictionary of 
French Architecture, ix., p. 51, and here reproduced. Nothing could 
show more conclusively than this the protection sought for the dead) 
body from the presence of the crucifix, which covers it completely,. 


and beneath which the effigy, forming the actual coffin lid, is laid. 
'(Test celui d'une femme. L'effigie de la morte n'est plus placee 
sur la credence qui recouvre la place de la sepulture, mais sous cette 
credence ajouree, tandis qu'un crucifix richement decore est depose sur 
la credence. Voyez la collection de Gaignires. Bill. Bodleienne 


' Dans le cimetiere qui entoure encore 1'eglise de Montreale (Yonne), 
on rernarque,' says M. V. le Due, 'plusieurs tombes clont voici la 
forme. Cette pierre, en fagon de comble croise, recouvre, sur 

des cales, la sepulture Quant au pignon de I'extremite 

;anterieure, il est muni d'une petite niche avec coupelle formant 
benitier.' vol. ix., p. 45. Another, and striking proof, of which we 
would seem to have few, if any, examples in England, of the anxiety 
<of the dead for the preservation of their bodies from demoniacal 
defilement. * Aqua benedicta,' says Durandus, ' ne daemones qui 
.multum earn timent, ad corpus accedant.' (Lib. vii., c. 35.) 

At S. ALB AN' s abbey, the vault beneath the monument of 
Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, has its eastern wall painted with the 
-.subject of the crucifixion in front of the body of the defunct. Here 
then, we see a still further step the protective symbols being trans- 
ferred into the grave, and thus serving as a connecting link between 
those above the surface, and such as are found either upon, or within, 
the coffins themselves. Of this further class, there have, of late years, 
been discovered, both at home and abroad, but especially in the north 
of France, many very curious examples ; though, of course, the great 
bulk of the simpler and more perishable kinds have left no traces of 
themselves behind whatever. We come then, in natural sequence, 
ito an examination of instances of this further class. 



Of this, a very simple and natural illustration common, probably, 
to all sorts and conditions of men, but especially among the poor 
was discovered at Canterbury cathedral. Here, when in 1832, the 
tomb of king Henry IY. was partially opened, the workmen came 
upon the outer of the two leaden coffins in which the royal body was 
enclosed. On sawing through this they came upon a * thick layer of 
hay, on the surface of which lay a rude cross of twigs.' Below, and 
within the inner coffin, the king's face the only part which was 
exposed was seen. It remained unfallen, fresh, full, and perfectly 


In the minster close at LINCOLN, there was found in 1847, within 
a stone coffin, a cruciform plate of lead, thus inscribed: 'corpus: 
sifordi : presbiteri : see : elene : et see : margarete : titvlatvs : hie : jacet.' 
The forms of the letters indicated the end of the tenth or the beginning ot 
the eleventh century. Besides this English example, a considerable 
number of similar cruciform leaden plates have been discovered in the 
graves of the bishops of Metz. 

In the cathedral of BRUGES, the magnificent brass of Joris de 
Munter and his wife, 1439 and 1423, shews them both wrapped in 
winding sheets with large thin crosses of equal limbs laid upon their 
breasts. These crosses represent others of like size and proportion, 
formed of metal, which were placed upon the bodies after they were 
laid in their brick graves. 

At LACOCK abbey church, Wiltshire, when the tomb of the 
foundress, the famous Ela, countess of Salisbury, was violated, there 
were found, among other things, her cross and beads, buried with her. 
These have now been, after long exposure, lost or stolen. 

At BURY S. EDMUND'S abbey church, in 1772, the embalmed body 
of Thomas Beaufort, third son of John of Gaunt, half-brother to 
King Henry IV., duke of Exeter, K.Gr., Lord Chancellor, and High 
Admiral of England, was discovered in a leaden coffin, as freshly pre- 
served as on the day of its interment. The precious golden crucifix 
enclosed with the body was stolen. 22 

22 The circumstances attending the discovery of the body of this great prince 
and warrior, who commanded the English rear-guard at the battle of Agincourt, 
exhibit, as we learn from a contemporary authority resident on the spot, a degree 
of callous and disgusting brutality well nigh incredible. He died in 1427, and 
his leaden coffin was discovered on February 20th, 1772, at the entrance to the 
Lady chapel. " On the 24th, the remains were enclosed in an oak coffin and 
buried close to the north side of the large north-east pillar which formerly 
supported the belfry. 

Before its re-interment, the body was cut and mangled with the most savage 
barbarity by Thomas Gery Callum, a young surgeon in this town, lately 
appointed Bath king at arms. The skull sawed in pieces (where the brain 
appeared, it seems, somewhat wasted, but perfectly contained in its proper 
membranes) ; the body ript open from the neck to the bottom ; the cheeks cut 
through by a saw entered at the mouth ; his two arms chopt of below the 
elbows, and taken away one of the arms the said Callum confesses to have in 
spirits ; the crucifix, supposed a very valuable one, is missing. 

It is believed the body of the duchess was found within about a foot of the 
duke's, on the 24th of February. If she was buried in lead, she was most likely 
conveyed away clandestinely the same night." 


At HEREFORD cathedral, when the wooden coffin of Johanna de 
Bohun, who died in 1327, was exposed to view in the Lady chapel, 
linen crosses of cross-crosslet form were, it is stated, found laid upon 
the lid of it. 

But, by far the most ancient and curious protective devices of this 
:sort were those discovered in the earlier part of last century, at 
HARTLEPOOL, in the graveyard of the ancient monastery, and dating 
from the seventh century. There, the heads all rested on small flat 
atones, as upon pillows, while above them were others of a larger size 
marked with crosses and inscriptions in Saxon and Runic letters. 

Very similar, in all respects, to these at Hartlepool, were two 
found at S. BRECAN'S, in the Isle of Arran. On one is shown a cross 
in a circle, with the inscription, ' ci brecani,' inscribed between the four 
limbs. On the other, which has a cross of similar design, is cut ' uii 
romani,' in memory of seven Roman ecclesiastics, there interred. S. 
Brecan is thought to have died early in the sixth century, and the 
stone of the Romans is evidently of the same date as his. 

At WENSLEY church, Yorkshire, is another stone, very similar to 
those at Hartlepool, found many years ago in the churchyard. It 
has, in slight relief, a fimbriated Maltese shaped cross, with two birds 
and two fantastic animals between the four limbs, while underneath 
is the name Donfrith. This stone measures 15^ by 9 inches ; while 
.the Hartlepool ones range from llj by 10, to 1\ by 5 \ inches, and 
vary in thickness from one inch to 4| inches. 

Of still greater interest even than these, however, were the con- 
tents of the coffin of S. CUTHBERT, as disclosed on the opening of his 
grave in 1827.* Besides the original coffin within which the body 
was placed in 698, and which was itself covered all over with figures 
of our Lord and other sculptures, there were found inside, a small 
wooden altar plated with silver, richly engraved with cruciform 
devices, and a burse, or small linen bag, for containing the sacramental 
elements, laid upon his breast. About his neck, and suspended by a 
cord of silk and gold, was, moreover, his pectoral cross of gold set 
with garnets. 

* See Raine's Saint Cutlibert. 


No sooner had S. Cuthbert expired according to the anonymous 
monk of Lindisfarne than the brethren washed his body from head 
to foot, and wrapped it in a cere-cloth, enveloping his head with a 
face cloth, or napkin. Thereupon they clothed him in priestly 
vestments, placing the sacramental elements upon his breast * oUatis 
super sanctum pectvs positis ' and sandals upon his feet. Although, 
in strictness, the word oblata refers to the species of bread only, Dr. 
Lingard is of opinion that both elements were deposited in the coffin. 
(Antiq. Anglo-Saxon Church, p. 268). 

When on August 29th, 1104, the relics of S. Cuthbert were 
solemnly translated to his new shrine within the apse of the Norman 
cathedral, the monks, we are told by an anonymous author, ' replaced 
in his coffin the other things which they had found along with him, 
namely, an ivory comb and a pair of scissors, still retaining their 
freshness, and as became a priest, a silver altar, a linen cloth for 
covering the sacramental elements, a paten, a chalice, small in size, 
but from its materials and workmanship, precious, its lower part 
representing a lion of the purest gold, which bore on its back an onyx 
stone, made hollow by the most beautiful workmanship, and by the 
ingenuity of the artist, so attached to the back of the lion that it 
might be easily turned round with the hand, although it might not be 
separated from it.' Reginald also corroborates this evidence. ' More- 
over he has with him, in his coffin, an altar of silver, a cloth for 
covering the sacramental elements, a golden chalice with a paten, and 
a pair of scissors retaining their original freshness. These are placed 
in his coffin, upon a tablet standing in a transverse direction at his 
head, where, along with his ivory comb, they are hitherto preserved.' 
Reginald. Dunelm. cap. xlii. (Surt. Soc. publ.). 

At HEXHAM abbey church, Lingard tells us, when the grave of 
bishop Acca was opened about the year 1000, a similar altar to that 
found within the coffin of S. Cuthbert, made of two pieces of wood 
fastened with silver nails, and bearing the inscription: ' Alme Trini- 
tati, agie sophie, sancte marie,' was found deposited upon his breast 
in precisely the same way. 

At YORK minster, sometime in the early part of the last century, 
three graves of early archbishops were opened. From them were 


abstracted as many chalices and patens of silver, now gilt. Of these, 
while one is plain, the second has both chalice and paten engraved ; 
the one on the foot, with the crucifixion ; the other with the ' Dextera 
Dei ' superimposed upon a cross within a circle, in the centre. The 
third set was distinguished by a remarkable addition a partially 
burnt wax taper, broken in two, and laid cross-wise on the archbishop's 

In S. SEPULCHRE'S churchyard, Norwich, was found, some years 
since, a small silver cross, with cells for relics, the face engraved with 
the crucifixion, and, on the back, the symbol of the passion. 

In CHICHESTER cathedral, June, 1829, were found, between the- 
piers of the north and south arches of the choir, two coffins of Sussex 
marble with flat polished lids, on which appeared croziers placed 
diagonally, with the volutes to the left shoulder. Within that on the 
north side lay a skeleton amidst the remains of episcopal vestments. 
' A silver chalice, gilt inside, and a paten, in the centre of which was 
engraved a hand in the gesture of benediction, between a crescent and 
a star, lay on the right shoulder ; the head of the actual crozier, as on 
the lid, resting on the left. This was supposed to be the tomb of bishop 
Seffrid, who died in 1151. In the other coffin were the remains, as 
was supposed, of his successor, bishop Hilary, who died in 1169. The 
crozier was placed as in the preceding case ; and again on the right 
shoulder was found a silver chalice parcel-gilt, and a paten, in the 
centre of which was engraved an Agnus Dei. In a third coffin, on 
which the crozier was represented as erect, it lay parallel to the right 
side, but there was neither chalice nor paten. 

A fourth bishop, Godfrey, who died in 1088, and was buried in 
the Paradise, within the cloisters, trusted rather to a Papal absolution 
engraved on a leaden plate, measuring seven and a half by five inches, 
which was buried with him, and, expanded, read as follows : 
'Absolvimus te Godefride episcope vice Sancti Petri principis 
apostolorum cui dominus dedit ligandi atque solvendi potestatem, ut 
quantum tua expetit accusatio et ad nos pertinet remissio sit tibi deus 
redemptor ompnis salus omnium peccatorum tuorum pius indultor. 
Amen. vii. kal. Octobris in Festivitate sancti Firmini episcopi et 
martiris obiit Godefridus episcopus Cicestrensis. Ipso die v. lunae 


At BOUTBILLES, in Normandy, the late M. Tabbe Cochet found r 
during his explorations, in 1857, five crosses of this description, hi& 
account of which, (Bull. Mon. xxv. p. 274) is here reproduced : 
* Cette croix, que nous reproduisons a moitie de sa grandeur, etait 
placee sur la poitrine du mort, le haut d'inscription dirige vers la 
tete, et le cote" ecrit tourne vers le ciel. Ella contenait la formule- 
suivante : 

" Dominus lehesus Christus, qui dixit discipulis suis quodcumque 
ligaueritis super terram erit ligatum et in cells et quodcumqm soluerltis 
super terram erit solutum et in cells de quorum numero licet indignos 
nos esse voluit ipse te absoluat, Berrengarine, per ministerium nostrum 
ab omnibus criminibus tuis quecumque cogitatione locutime, operatione 
negligenter egesti atque nexibus absolutum perducere dignetur ad regna 
celorum qui uiuit et regnat, Pater, et Filius> et Spiritm Sanctus per 
omnia secula secular um. Amen. 11 

La seconde croix, trouvee sur la partie haute de la poitrine d'un 
defunt, est d'une forme plus soignee et plus elegante que les 

autres Le plomb etant d'une qualite inferieure, 1'inscrip- 

tion s'est fort mal conservee ; M. L. Delisle n'a pu dechiffrer que ces 
quelques mots : " In nomine Patris. . . que dixit discipulis. . .. 
nos esse voluit ipse te absoluat. . . " 

La troisieme croix, trouve etait sur la poitrine, le haut del'inscription 
dirige vers la tete, et le cote de le 1'ecriture tourne vers le ciel. . . 
Nous la reproduisons en entier: Absolve, Domine, animam famuli tui 
B. ab omni vinculo delictorum ut in resurrectionis gloria inter sanctos 
et electos tuos ressuscitatus respiret. 

La quatrieme . . . contient la formule d'absolution qui suit : 

" Dominus lehesus Christus qui dixit discipulis suis quodcumque 
ligaueritis super terram erit ligatum et in cells et quodcumque solueritis 
super terram erit solutum et in celis, de quorum numero licit indignos 
nos esse voluit ipse te absoluat per ministerium nostrum ab omnibus 
peccatis tuis quecumque locutione, cogitatione negligenter egisti ipse te 

La cinquieme est veritablement la plus originale et la plus re- 
marquable sous tous les rapports ; car ici, ce n'est plus seulement une 
formule d'absolution, ou d'oraison quelconque c'est aussi une formule 


-de confession a laquelle vient s'ajouter une priere absolutoire. . . . 
Comme nous 1'avons deja dit, cette croix contient un Confiteor, dont 
voici la formule parfaitement dechiffree par M. L. Delisle. 

" Confiteor Deo et omnibus sanctis ejus et tibi pater, quid peccavi 
nimis in legem Dei quecumque fed cogitando, loquendo, operando, 
in pollutione, in meditatione, in opere, in consensu et in omnibus vitiis 
meis malis, ideo precor, pater, ut ores pro me ad Dominum Deum 

Le Misereatur, qui suit le Confiteor, ne s'est pas laisse lire aussi 
completement. . . Voici done ce que 1'on a pu dechiffrer : " Misereatur 
<tui omnipotens et dimittat tibi peccata tua preterita, presentia et 
futura, liberet te ab omni malo conservet et confirmet in omni opere bono 
<et ad vitam perducat aeternam " 

Toutes sout en plomb et decoupees a 1'aide de ciseaux, a meme une 
f euille de ce metal ... . Toutes ont le type general de Malte.' 

Now, in all these cases of written and engraved forms of plenary 
absolution interred with the body, and laid on the breast, face upper- 
most, * towards heaven,' what was, and, indeed, could be, the only 
possible nay conceivable, end and object ? For the weal and 
salvation of the soul, they could manifestly avail nothing, since 
spiritual effects must necessarily flow from purely spiritual causes. The 
pronounced absolution was clearly all that either was, or could be, 
available in such respects. Why then, the written form engraved 
upon a cross that figure which evil spirits so greatly feared and 
laid upon the breast of, and interred along with the dead body why, 
'but to secure the same defence and protection to that body, which 
the spiritual sentence did to the spirit departed thence ? Could 
clearer or stronger proof of motive than that afforded by these, and 
other kindred instances, be either asked for, or desired ? 

Other historical notices of the like practice are also adduced by M. 
1'abbe Oochet in the same treatise. Thus he adds : * Dans la Vie de 
saint Ansbert eveque de Rouen (689-95 ou 707), on lit que ceux qui 
ouvrirent son tombeau " invenerunt in brachiis ejus signum Dominicae 
crucis similitudinem germs " .' 

'En 1856 on trouva une croix de plomb, dans le cimetiere de 
Teglise de S. Martin de Louviers. Cette croix rappelle assez bien celles 



d'Edmunds-Bury ou Ton trouve : " Crux Christi pellit hostem : Crux 
Christi triumphal" 

Le 3 decembre 1850, on a trouve dans la cathedrale d' Angers, 
tout pres du maitre autel, le cercueil de plomb de Marie de Bretagne, 
epouse de Louis l er ., due d'Anjou, et grand mere du roi Rene, 
decedee en 1404. Le cercueil etant ouvert, on apergut une croix, 
dont le pedoncule etait en bois et la traverse en cuir ; elle reposait sur 
la poitrine et s'elevait jusqu'au milieu du visage. Cette croix avait 
cinq taches rouges : Tune a ses bras, les autres a son sommet, sur son 
milieu et au pieds. 

Le celebre Lebrun des Marettes. racontant, dans ses Voyages 
Liturgiques, les coutumes pratiquees a Fontevrault, a propos des 
sepultures, dit que Ton enveloppait le corps dans un long voile, ou 
suaire, qui etait cousu depuis les epaules jusqu'au bout des pieds ; en 
suite, 1'abbesse prenait un cierge benit qu'elle faisait degoutter, en 
forme de croix, depuis la tete jusqu'au nombril ; " a summo Capitis 
usque ad umbilicum ventris, in modum crucis." De la, continue le 
vieux liturgiste normand, de la est venue cette croix de cire qu'on 
met, a Rouen et ailleurs, sur les cercueils.' 

Have we not here a full and striking explanation of the burnt wax 
taper, broken, and laid upon the breast of the archbishop of York 
above referred to, viz. : that after being lighted, and caused to gutter 
a cross upon the corpse, it was then broken in two, and in company 
with the sacramental instruments and elements also laid cross-wise 
upon it ? 

At ROMSBY abbey church, in 1846, on the removal of a large 
grave cover, originally decorated with a fine floriated cross of brass, 
was found the body of a priest in eucharistic vestments. In his 
right hand was a chalice covered with a paten, of pewter, the latter 
much corroded. Singular to say, though the covering slab of Purbeck 
marble was nearly twelve feet long, the coffin was only about half 
that length, while the skeleton was but five feet four inches. 

At LINCOLN minster are preserved a silver chalice and gold 
pontifical ring, said to have been found with the remains of the 
famous bishop Grossetete, 1254 ; a silver chalice and paten from the 


grave of bishop Benedict de Gravesend, 1280 ; a paten, on which appears 
a hand in the act of blessing ; a chalice, much decayed, said to have 
been found in the tomb of Simon de Barton, archdeacon of Stowe, 
who died in 1330 : and another chalice of pewter, from some grave 
now unknown. In addition to these were found, so recently as 1 889, 
in the coffin of bishop Oliver Button, 1299 who built the cloister a 
silver-gilt chalice, with a paten laid upon it, and covered with a piece 
of fine linen. These, as usual, were placed to the right of the body. 
* I have set God always before me ; he is on my right hand, therefore I 
shall not fall.'' 

A chalice and paten of pewter, and a crucifix of jet, were, now a 
good many years since, found in a stone coffin at OLD MALTON ; and a 
silver chalice found in Lincolnshire together with a paten, and large 
cup of crystal, silver gilt with a cover, taken out of a stone coffin at Hill 
Court, Gloucestershire, in connexion with a skeleton which at once 
fell, to dust, were exhibited, on the visit of the Archaeological Institute 
to Bristol, in 1851. 

On taking up the floor of the choir of EXETER cathedral in 1703, 
the large slab covering the grave of bishop Bitton, 1307, was removed. 
Within the leaden coffin underneath, the skeleton was found nearly 
entire. On the right side stood a small chalice, covered with a paten, 
and having a piece of silk or linen wound about the stem. Among 
the dust was also discovered a gold ring with a large sapphire, and 
some fragments of a wooden crozier. 

During the very difficult task of underpinning and consolidating 
the ruinous tower of S. DAVID'S cathedral in 1869, it became 
necessary to disturb the tombs within the choir screen, as well as 
certain others adjoining. Among the several articles thence removed 
were the head of a crozier, bronze gilt, and two chalices. A silver 
paten was also found during the restoration of 1861, in the stone 
coffin of bishop Walter de Cantelupe, at Worcester cathedral. 

At ROCHESTER cathedral, when the tomb of the famous bishop 
Walter de Merton, 1277, was opened in 1598, his body was found 
pontifically vested, and accompanied by a crozier and chalice. The 
latter ^was removed, and is now preserved in his college at Oxford. 


From another grave, in the south-east transept of the same church r 
and covered with a stone bearing a floriated cross, a crucifix and chalice 
were also taken, it appears, during the Commonwealth spoliations. 

In the cathedral of TROYES, on October 81, 1844, M. Arnaud r 
inspector of monuments in the department of the Aube, opened the 
coffin of bishop Hervee 'mort en 1228, et inhume avec ses orne- 
ments pontificaux, sa crosse, son calice et son anneau pastoral. Dans 
le calice, on a trouve une fiole de verre blanc, dont le col allonge avait 
ete casse vers son orifice afin qu'elle put y etre contenue. Un 
sediment blanchatre residu d'une liqueur existe encore dans cette 
fiole. On voit des traces de la meme substance, repandues dans le 
calice, et c'est sa lente evaporation qui aura fixe au bord de la patene 
quelques parcelles d'un linge blanc et fin qui y sont restees attachees.. 
. . . . Nous sommes portee a supposer que cette fiole e'pis- 
copale contenait du chreme ou des huiles saintes. Nous lisons dans 
la Vie de saint Komain, eveque de Rouen au VII e siecle, qu'il portait 
1'huile sainte aux fonts baptismaux dans une fiole de verre ' vitream 
testam ad fontes.' Casalius, dans son ouvrage intitule : De veterwn 
sacris christianorum ritibm, parle d'une fiole d'huile sainte que Ton- 
pla9ait avec les morts ! ' (Bull. Mon. xxii., p. 354). 

This mention of holy oil interred with the bodies of the dead, as 
a still further protection against demoniacal pollution the first I have- 
met with is certainly interesting, especially when taken in connexion* 
with the chalice ; for, since the vial containing it would certainly 
not be placed there, while either or both of the consecrated species 
were present, it might seem probable that in this case, as in so many 
others, they had previously been administered to the corpse direct. 

Yet once more, at HEREFORD cathedral, within the tomb of bishop 
Swinfield, 1316, were found buried, circa 1860, a chalice and paten, as 
usual. What might, perhaps, be thought unuusal, was the fact of 
there being as the Rev. F. T. Havergal, an eye witness, declares * a 
trace of wine in the chalice. ,' At the back of the coffin, which lay 
within a recessed mural arch, was a picture of the crucifixion. 

Now, this discovery in the grave of bishop Swinfield opens up a 
strange and highly curious enquiry. All these chalices commonly 


found in the coffins of ecclesiastics, of which those above specified 
form but a small part, are nowadays, usually spoken of as grave 
chalices, whether fashioned of silver, pewter, or gilt wax, just as 
though they had never been used for sacramental purposes, and were 
merely meant to point to the office of the deceased. Such, however, 
might seem to have been, and probably was really, very far indeed 
from being the case. This discovery at Hereford points clearly to- 
the persistent use, even among the hierarchy, of a superstitious, 
though, perhaps, natural and intelligible, custom of defending the 
bodies of the dead by the sacramental presence of the Body and 
Blood of Christ. It was one of very old standing, and which, from 
time to time, long continued to crop up in the church, though 
expressly forbidden by the highest authorities, and council after 
council. Thus, the third council of Carthage, 397, at which S. 
Augustine was present, decrees ' Placuit ut corporibus defunctorum 
eucharistia non detur. Dictum est enim a Domino, Accipite et 
edite : cadaver a autem nee recipere possunt nee edere.' And the 
same decree, with a slight variation, is repeated in the African Code, 
where the cause is ascribed to the ignorance of the presbyters mis- 
guiding the people. A like canon also was made in the council of 
Auxerre in France, in 578. S. Chrysostom (399-407) also speaks 
against it, asking ' To whom did he say,' ' Except ye eat my flesh 
and drink my blood, ye have no life in you ?' Did he speak to the 
living or to the dead ? ' But the practice, it seems, still continued, 
notwithstanding, for the council of Trullo (692), repeats the pro- 
hibition in the words of the council of Carthage, 4 Let no one impart 
the eucharist to the bodies of the dead; for it is written, " Take and 
eat" but the bodies of the dead can neither take nor eat.' 

Cardinal Bona, though not defending this practice, yet does 
uphold another and similar one, viz, that of burying the eucharist 
with the dead ; and this, because it was followed by S. Benedict, 
with the approval of Gregory the Great. According to the latter, 
S. Benedict ordered the communion to be laid upon the breast of 
one of his monks, and to be buried with him. And the practice was 
undoubtedly persevered in, for both Balsamon and Zonaras speak of 
it in their time, and Ivo says that : 4 when the body of S. Othmar 


was translated, the sacrament was taken up out of the dormitoiy 
with him.' And a learned man, now living, says Bingham 
(Antiquities of the Christian Church), assures us, that he himself 
(Dr. Whitby) with many others have seen the chalice in which the 
sacred blood was buried, dug out of the graves of divers bishops 
buried in the church of Sarum. So that whatever the laws might 
prohibit, the profanation continued under pretence of piety amongst 
the greatest men, but without any foundation or real example in the 
practice of the primitive church.' (Vol. ii., b. xv., c. iv., s. 20.) 

But whether the consecrated elements were deposited on a 
portable altar, within a chalice, upon a paten, or inserted in the 
mouth of the corpse, was after all, of little moment ; since, in neither 
case, could any spiritual benefit be derived from their mere proximity 
to, or even actual contact with it. The sole possible advantage of 
their interment must, therefore, have been regarded as a corporal 
one : the ' supernatural ' presence of the body and blood of Christ 
affording so perfect a defence to the k natural body ' of the deceased, 
that ' the enemy should not be able to do it violence, nor the son of 
wickedness to hurt it.' 23 

23 In the case of ecclesiastical effigies sculptured in relief, the chalice is, T 
think, very rarely represented. In that of bishops although such vessels were 
frequently, if not generally, interred with them never, under any circumstances. 
As on the sculptured tombs of archbishop Gray at York, 1255 ; bishops 
Bartholomew, 1191, Marshall, 1206, and Simon de Apulia, 1223, at Exeter ; on 
the brasses of archbishop Greenfield at York, 1315 ; archbishop Cranley. 1417, and 
bishop Young, 1526, at Oxford ; and on the incised slab of bishop Bitton, 1274, 
at Wells ; they are usually shown as holding the cross, or crozier, in the left 
hand, and blessing with the right, though this is far from being always so. 
Thus, on the brass of bishop Ysowilpe, at Verden, 1231 the earliest one 
known he is depicted as carrying a church in his right hand, and a castle in 
his left ; while bishop Otto of Brunswick, at Hildesheim, 1279, carries a model 
of the castle of Wolsenburgh in his left hand, and his crozier in his right.. 
Bishops Godfrey and Frederic de Bulowe, 1314 and 1375, at Schwerin, have their 
hands simply crossed downwards, as has also cardinal Cusanos, 1464, at Cues ; 
while bishop Kupert of Paderborn, 1369, like bishop Wyvill at Salisbury, 1375,. 
William of Wykeham at Winchester, 1404, and bishop Stafford at Exeter,. 
1419, have theirs 

' in resignation pressed, 
palm against palm on each tranquil breast.' 

as usual with all classes. Bishops Theodericus at Naumberg, 1466 ; Vriel de * 
Gorka at Posen, 1498 ; and cardinal Casmiri at Cracow, 1510 ; all hold the 
gospels in the left hand, and the crozier in the right ; bishop Goodrich at ly r 
1544, reversing the order by holding his crozier in the left hand, and the gospels,, 
below which hangs the Great Seal, in his right. Bishop Boothe of Exeter, 1478, 
is shewn in profile, kneeling, and with his hands raised before him ; while bishop- 



And now, this custom of interring portable altars and sacramental 
Yessels within the coffins of the deceased, brings us by natural transition 
to the consideration of that further use of such instruments which pre- 
vailed so largely in the later portion of the Middle Ages, and trans- 
formed a prohibited and superstitious practice into one wholly agree- 
able with the faith and teaching of the church. I refer to the 
subject of private chantries, and their accompanying chapels. 

Varying very greatly in character, size, and splendour, these last, 
as their grievously mutilated remains still show us, were established 

Schomberg at Naumburg, 1516 who caused his tomb to be made in his life- 
time appears as a miserably shrivelled * cadaver,' standing, and with his hands 
clasped in the same position. Besides which, we have bishop John Tydeman at 
Liibeck, 1561, holding his mitre in his right hand, and crozier in his left ; 
while the beautifully sculptured demi-effigy of bishop Ethelmar de Valence at 
Winchester, 1261, shews him with both hands raised, and ' lifting up his heart.' 
But, in no single instance, anywhere, do we meet with the chalice, which would 
seem to have been everywhere regarded as the peculiar and distinguishing mark 
of priests only. This, though of very rare occurrence on their effigies in relief, 
is found, however, so frequently even in the few instances of their brasses and 
incised slabs that remain as to lead us to suppose that, originally, its 
appearance on that class of monuments was very common indeed. Thus, 
among others, we see it in the fine Flemish brass at Wensley, where it appears 
above the crossed hands, and upon the breast of the deceased ; and on 
another of the same class at North Mimms, and by the same artist, beneath the 
hands, which are pressed together and elevated. On that of a priest at 
Broxbourne, Herts., the chalice is shown as supported, not grasped, between 
his two upraised hands upon his breast ; as is also the case in that of Henry 
Denton, at Higham Ferrars, where it is surmounted by the priest's wafer 
marked with a cross crosslet. The brass of William Curtes, at South 
Burlingham, consists, beside the inscription, of a chalice only, containing the 
wafer ensigned with the sacred monogram a very common fashion throughout 
Norfolk, and which appears also on the tomb of William Langton, rector of S. 
Michael's York, 1463. On an incised slab at Petit Andelys, the beautifully 
drawn figure of the priest holds the foot of the chalice with his left hand, while 
his right supports the stem. At Middleton church, Lancashire, Edmund 
Appleton also grasps the foot of a rich and immense chalice with his left hand ; 
his right, supporting the bowl, with an ensigned wafer. At Chalons-sur-Marne, 
;also, an unknown priest, while holding the foot of the chalice in his left hand, 
maintains the rim of its bowl with his right. At Brussels, on the effigy of a 
priest, named Doxnen, as in the case of that at North Mimms, we see the chalice set 
below the upturned hands. At Melsele, on the effigy of Ian Van Den 
Couteren, 1500 ; and at Ghent, on that of Willem Symoens, 1570, it is also 
shewn in the same position. At Nordhausen, Jacob Capillan, 1395, who is 
kneeling, holds the cup aloft before him, grasping its foot with both hands. At 
Erfurt, the priest, who appears to be standing under a very rich octagonal 
<janopy, holds the knob of the chalice in his left hand while the first two 
fingers of his right are laid upon the brim. At the same place, John de Heringen 


throughout all the land, in well nigh countless numbers, and in 
churches of every description: cathedral, collegiate, monastic, and 
parochial alike. Among these generally, perhaps, the most distinct 
.as well as beautiful are, or rather were, those founded by bishops and 
other magnates in the cathedral and abbey churches. Of these we 
have happily, even yet, notwithstanding all the havoc they have under- 
gone, many exquisite remains. From the peculiar nature of the case, 
many of them, both in form and dimensions, differ greatly from such 
as are usually met with elsewhere, as possessing not only a personal, 
but structural isolation ; that is, in commemorating the individual 
founders only, and in their detachment from the structures in which 
they stand, by being placed between the pillars of their arcades. They 

holds the foot of a tall chalice with his left hand, and the stem with his right ; 
while at Bamberg, Eberard de Rabenstein holds a book in his right, and a chalice 
by its stem, in his left hand. 

At Damme. Johan de Fonte, 1531, has the chalice, as at Wensley, laid above 
his crossed hands, upon his breast. Again, at Erfurt, Eobanus Ziegler, 1560, 
while grasping the cup with his left hand, blesses it and not the people 
generally like a bishop with his right. 

On the simple grave covers of priests which have no effigies, the chalice, with 
or without other accessories, occurs indeed, constantly. Thus, at Barnard 
Castle, for example, we find to the left of an exceedingly rich floriated cross, a 
book ; to the right, a chalice, immediately over which, and crossing the cross 
stem, is a forearm vested in an alb, with hand extended in benediction. At 
Gainford, the chalice appears alone. At Blanchland, with the wafer over. 
At S. Andrew's, Newcastle, with a hand in benediction to the left, and a paten 
to the right of the cross shaft, of which the cup forms part. At S. Mary's 
Hospital there, both chalice and paten form part of the cross stem, to the left of 
which is the wafer. At Sproatley, Yorkshire, the cup is to the left of the cross 
stem, which it partly overlaps, while a hand holds a quatrefoiled paten 
overhead. At Marrick, the cup is to the right of the cross, and accompanied by 
what looks like a pax ; a book and paten appearing to the left. At Great 
Salkeld, and S. Mary's, Leicester, are a chalice to the right, and a book to the 
left. At Ampleforth, Southwell Minster, and Clixby, Lincolnshire, the cup 
alone appears to the right. At All Saints, York, beneath a short and equal 
limbed floriated cross. At Well, Stainton-le-Street, and Oorbridge, the cup, 
singly, forms part of the cross shaft ; while on a second stone there, as also 
at Newcastle, the paten appears as well. In this last instance, the wafer is 
also introduced to the left. At Jervaux abbey too. not further to multiply 
examples, a chalice, containing the wafer, is shewn to the left of an exceptionally 
rich and beautiful floriated cross. 

Now, without either asserting, or even assuming, any necessary connexion 
between the representation of the sacramental vessels upon these, and many 
other grave covers, and the deposition of the consecrated species in the graves 
beneath, it may certainly be held knowing what we do of the practice that 
they not only render such a supposition far from improbable more especially 
where the host, either plain, or ensigned with the cross, or sacred monogram 
appears in addition but serve greatly to strengthen the conviction that, in 
every case where the so-called ' grave chalices ' occur, there, at least, the 
sacramental elements must, all but certainly, have accompanied them. 


exhibit, in fact, a simple development of the ordinary canopied tomb 
by having its enclosing members advanced just so far beyond the 
limits of the actual sarcophagus as to admit a passage way all round, 
as well as the introduction of a small altar at the east end. 

Of this, WINCHESTER cathedral possessed by far the most 
numerous and magnificent collection, viz., those of bishops Edington, 
1354-1366, between the second and third pillars of the nave, to the 
south-east; Wykeham, 1367-1404, between the seventh and eighth, 
proceeding in the same order westwards; Beaufort, 1405-1447, be- 
tween the two central pillars of the eastern choir aisles, southwards; 
Waynflete, 1447-1480, exactly opposite, between the corresponding 
pillars northwards; Fox, 1500-1528, on the south side of the feretory, 
behind the reredos; and Gardner, 1531-1555, on the north, in the 
like position, beneath the inclined arches forming the quasi-apse. 
Saving perhaps the last; the whole of these were of the most ornate 
character masses of gorgeous ornament, tabernacle work, and 
imagery, and painted and gilded so profusely as to resemble mounds 
of glittering jewellery. 

Still larger and more magnificent than even these, however, were 
the private sepulchral chapels of bishops Alcock and West (1486-1500, 
and 1515-1533), at the eastern ends of the choir aisles of ELY 
cathedral ; and of bishop Langton, at the eastern extremity of the 
south aisle of the Lady chapel, at Winchester; all three unsurpass- 
able in the richness, profusion, and delicacy of their sculptured stone, 
and wood work, as well as of the polychromatic decoration with which 
they were originally all ablaze. 

At EXETER cathedral, those of bishop Brantyngham, 1369-1394, 
on the north side of the nave, and of Hugh Courtney, earl of Devon, 
1377, on the south side, have save the high tomb of the latter been 
utterly destroyed. 

At SALISBURY cathedral, two such chantry chapels still remain in 
generally fair preservation. They are those of bishop Audley, 1502- 
1524 ; and of Walter, lord Hungerford, c. 1429, set exactly opposite 
-each other in the second bay north and south of the choir, counting 
from the east ; the former in its original place, the latter removed from 



the nave in 1778. That of the bishop, though all its statuary has 
been destroyed, still retains its rich fan vault, as well as much brilliant 
colouring. The Hungerford chapel has all its upper parts, which are 
wholly of iron, richly painted and gilded. 

At WELLS cathedral, three of these rich and beautiful structures are 
also to be seen. Two of them, viz., those of bishop Bubwith. 1407- 
1424 ; and dean Sugar, 1489 ; occupy the second bays of the nave, 
counting from the east, respectively, and remain, as to their stonework, 
tolerably perfect. The third, that of the great builder and benefactor, 
both of the church and city, bishop Beckington a work of the most 
sumptuous and elaborate splendour has been deliberately pulled to 
pieces in a late * restoration,' and, while the tomb has been left in the 
choir, the enclosing canopy has been relegated to the east aisle of the 
south transept. Parts of the latter, with all their wealth of painted 
and -'gilded sculpture, may be seen, admirably reproduced, by Mr. 
Collings in his Gothic Ornaments. 

In TEWKESBURY abbey church are two. One of them, viz., that 
erected by Isabel, countess of Warwick, in 1438, in honour of S. 
Mary Magdalene, beneath the first arch of the choir, westwards, 
towards the north, exceedingly rich and beautiful ; the other, that 
of Sir Edward de Spencer, in honour of the Holy Trinity, beneath the 
second arch of the choir westwards, on the south. The remarkable 
feature in the case of the countess's chapel is that, though constructed 
a year before her death as a mortuary chapel, probably, it was really 
but a cenotaph ; the inscription, carved in black letter, stating that 
she died in London, in the Minories, in 1439, 4 et sepulta in choro, in 
dextram Patris sui, cujus animae Parcat Deus. Amen.' As a 
chantry for the celebration of daily mass for her soul it was, however, 

One of, if not now, perhaps, the most perfect and best known 
chantry chapels of this class, is that splendid one of polished brass 
erected by king Henry VII. in the east central part of his recon- 
structed Lady chapel at Westminster, where, though the covering has 
gone, and the altar along with it, the effigies of himself and his queen 
remain practically intact. Gone, too, are all the splendid plate and 


jewels, with the services to which they ministered, notwithstanding 
the covenant for their continuance ' whilst the world shall endure.'' 
Alas ! for the truth that ' a man's foes shall be they of his own house- 
hold.' ' Within fifty years of the king's death the last flickers of the 
tapers at his shrine had died out.'' 

A.nd now, not further to multiply instances, it will suffice to notice 
more particularly one of three others still remaining at St. Alban's 
abbey church. Two, viz., those of abbots Ramryge and Wallingford, 
which respectively occupy the north and south arches immediately 
west of the high altar though still very rich and beautiful, need not 
detain us, the chief interest centring, as it does, in the third. It is 
that of the famous Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, uncle to king 
Henry VI., and Protector of the Kingdom during his minority. This 
magnificent work stands under the easternmost arch of the feretory, 
southwards of the shrine of the saint, and is of the most elaborate 
character, having been constructed for him at his own expense, and 
during his lifetime, by abbot John of Wheathamstead. The vault 
below was opened in 1703, when the duke's body was found entire ; 
a crucifix being painted against the eastern wall. A peculiar value 
attaches to this chapel, not only on account of its singular richness 
and historic interest, but because of the detailed account that has been 
preserved of its cost, and of the uses to which it was applied. This is 
contained in the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum, marked Claud. 
A. 8, 195, and is as follows : 

In this sedule be conteyned the charges and observances appointed by the 
noble Prince Humfrey, late Duke of Gloucester, to be perpetually boren by the 
abbot and convent of the monasterie of Seint Alban : 

s. d. 

First, the Abbot and Convent of the seid monasterie have 
payd for makynge of the tumbe and place of sepulture of 
the seid duke, within the said monasterie above the 
sume of ccccxxxiii 1 vi 8 viii d ... ... ... 433 6 8 

Item, two monks prests dayly saying masse at the Auter of 
Sepulture of the seid Prince, everych taking by the day 6 d 
summa thereoff by one hole yere, xviii 1 v s ... ... 18 5 

Item. To the abbot ther yerly the day of the anniversary 

of seid prince attending his exequyes ... .. 10 

Item. To the priour ther yerly, the same day in likewise 

attending . ... ... ... ... 10 


Item. To 40 monks not priests, yerely, the said day, to 

everych of them the same day 6 s 8 d , summa thereof ... 13 6 8 

Item. To ii Ankresses at St. Peter's Church and St. Michael, 

the seid day, yerely to everych ... ... ... 020 

Item. In money, to be distributed to pore people ther the 

seid day ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Item. To 13 pore men berying torches about the sepulchre 

the seid day ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Item. For wex brennyng daily at his masses and his seid 

anniversary, and of torches yerely ... ... ... 6 13 4 

Item. To the kichen of the convent ther yerely, in relief of 
the grete decay of the livehode of the seid monasterie, 
in the Marches of Scotland, which befo retime hath he 
appointed to the seid Kechyn ... ... ... 40 

But then, besides these, and many others which, if less isolated' 
and sumptuous, were still splendid, and of a distinctly personal and 
individual character, we have also that vast and quite incalculable 
host of other, and less wholly personal, private chantry chapels, built 
and endowed, not for the individual founders only, but for their 
families and descendants, and of which our ordinary town and village 
churches afford such an infinite variety of examples. Differing, as- 
these necessarily do, in so many ways, that is, as to size, position,, 
form, and general architectural character, there is nevertheless one 
particular in which they all agree, and that is the possession of 
separate and distinct altars, where, with lights burning, the daily 
sacrifice should be offered continually, so that of those interred 
therein also, it might be said, as of those of old: i Their bodies are 
buried in peace, but their name liveth for evermore.' 



This * brennyng of wex ' daily at his mass and anniversary, and' 
torches yearly, set forth in the schedule of the charges and observances 
to be perpetually borne in respect of duke Humphrey's chantry at S. 
Alban's, introduces us again to that kindred, but far commoner, 
because cheaper, custom all traces of which have now well nigh 
disappeared of placing ' herses ' over and around the graves and 


monuments of the dead. These were of two kinds, temporary and 
permanent : the former, as less costly, being, doubtless, in most 
general use. They consisted of ' frames, covered with cloth, and 
ornamented with banners and lights, set up over a corpse in funeral 
solemnities,' and so continuing, as it would seem, for a longer or 
shorter time, according to circumstances. Temporary hearses were, 
apparently, in special vogue among members of the divers guilds, 
which were at one time so numerous throughout the country. Thus, 
in the constitutions of that of S. Margaret and S. Catherine, at 
Leicester, among others, we read : ' Also it is ordained that if 
anyone of the brethren or sisters die within the town of Leicester, he 
should have a hearse with torches in the church of the same parish 
wherein he may die, and that all the brethren and sisters should be 
present at his obsequies, and on the morrow at mass, if they should 
be forewarned by the superiors.' ' Also, if any brother or sister should 
die within the space of twelve leagues around the city of Leicester, 
his confreres shall bring him or her to the town of Leicester with 
torches, and he shall have a mass and a hearse in the aforesaid 
church of S. Margaret.' 

But, besides these light and movable structures which would, 
doubtless, take to pieces', were others of a more enduring and fixed 
sort ' standing herses ' of metal fixed over tombs, to hold lighted tapers 
on anniversaries, and as a sort of cradle to receive the pall. Of these, 
says the late A. W. Pugin, in his Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament 
and Costume, ' I have seen only two examples remaining, the well 
known brass one in the Beauchamp chapel, Warwick, which is 
composed of brass rods with enamelled ends ; and one in wrought 
iron, over a tomb of the Marmions in Tanfield church, near Eipon, 
Yorkshire. But Mr. Bloxam, in his Glossary, mentions another in* 
Bedale church, in the same county. These herses serve at once for a 
protection to the tomb, and a frame for lights or hangings, and when 
furnished with bannerols of metal, shields and cresting, they produced, 
a most solemn and beautiful appearance.' 

Then again, apart from the lights attached to these hearses, 
whether movable or fixed, as well as from those used in the daily 
masses within the chantry chapels, there are others holding a some- 


what different place forming part of, or connected more or less- 
intimately with, certain tombs or chapels, and designed for use, perhaps, 
only on anniversaries, or other ' solemn days.' Thus the tomb of bishop 
Hotham, 1316-1367, in the choir of Ely cathedral, which was in two- 
storeys, had on the top, a lofty * branch ' for seven great tapers. His 
effigy, originally in the lower one, has now been removed. 

The fine canopied tomb of king EDWARD II., in the north choir 
aisle of Gloucester cathedral, was originally, and is still, furnished 
with a large and handsome bracket midway on the side to serve as a 
stand for a lamp. 

At HACCOMB church, Devonshire, under the first mural arch in, 
the north aisle, is a female effigy, holding in her hand a heater shaped 
shield upon her breast, on which are the Haccomb arms. Between 
this and the next mural arch, which contains a slab with a curious 
truncated cross raised on a stepped base, and supposed to be the 
memorial of Robert de Pyle, clerk, ' there projects from the wall about 
six feet from the ground, the remains of a vested arm ; this once 
sustained a light.' 

At EXETER cathedral, in the chantry chapel of S. Eadegunde 
constructed in the thickness of the western screen as the place of his 
sepulture, by bishop Grandisson, the principal builder of the church 
in addition to the lights which burnt upon the altar, were others 
suspended from the roof, the holes for which still remain. 

At WESTMINSTER, the chantry chapel of Henry VII., was also 
provided with four immense and magnificent bowls for sustaining 
vast tapers of wax, in the centre of each side. They are still perfect, 
and consist of great roses surmounted by royal crowns, which project 
boldly beyond the cornice. 

In the cathedral of S. BAVON, at GHENT, may now be seen four 
magnificent candelabra of wrought copper, no less than eleven feet 
high, of the richest workmanship, and bearing the royal arms of 
England. These are traditionally said to have once been in S.. 
Paul's, whence they were taken and sold during the times of the 
Commonwealth, for the benefit of the exchequer. But, however this 
may be, it is certain that, originally, they formed part of that sump- 


tuous tomb which "Wolsey began to erect for himself at Windsor, and 
which Henry VIII., afterwards appropriating for the same purpose 
to himself, never lived to finish. They would be designed, therefore, 
to stand, either at the four corners of the contemplated monument, or 
;as in the case of his father's, in the centre of each face. 

In the south aisle or Nevill chantry of STAINDROP church, co. 
Durham, built and endowed by Ralph, lord Nevill, of Nevill's Cross, in 
1343, lies, beneath a mural arch, the effigy of his mother, Euphemia 
-de Clavering. Above the arch rises a tall, triangular pyramid, or 
canopy, terminating in a large bracket, doubtless intended to support 
the image of some saint, probably that of the B.V.M. Between the 
arch and canopy the wall surface is filled in with beautiful flowing 
tracery, richly cusped, in the centre of each lateral compartment of 
which may be seen holes plugged with lead, evidently intended for the 
support of metal branches carrying lights to burn above the effigy of 
the 'deceased, as well as before that of the tutelary saint. This par- 
ticular instance may probably serve to illustrate one only, of many 
similar methods of illuminating tombs, the evidences of which are 
now, for the most part, either obscured or destroyed. 

Besides these examples, the abbey church of S. DENIS, near PARIS, 
furnishes us with some early, and very interesting ones of a like kind, 
erected by the care of S. Louis. In order to prevent their unduly 
encumbering the transept in which they were placed, the effigies of 
the several kings and queens set up by his order were arranged on 
low bases, two and two; the heads of the one at the feet of the other. 
Behind the heads of each pair a kind of low reredos extended from 
side to side, with arched niches forming shallow vertical canopies for 
the heads of each, while the ends, carried up into lofty pillars with 
foliated capitals, formed bases for candelabra. Between each pair of 
these pillars, again, and surmounting the reredoses, was set a fringe or 
cresting of small candlesticks. Viollet le Due, Die. Raissonne de V Archi- 
tecture Francaise, vol. ix. p. 48. 

But, perhaps, one of the most splendid and perfect works of this 
class was that to be seen before 1793, in the church of VILLENEUVE, 
near Nantes. It combined, in a very remarkable way, the two 



systems of hearses without provision for lights, and tombs with pro- 
vision for them. The monument, a double one, was that of the two 


princesses, Alix, countess of Bretagne, who died in 1221, and her 
[daughter, Yolande de Bretagne, who died in 1272. The effigies 
themselves, as well as the couches on which they lay, were of copper, 


gilt, and enamelled, and on the armorial bordures, which surrounded 
and separated them, were twelve sockets for receiving sconces for 
candles. Outside of all, at the four corners, were four rich and 
lofty standards of metal supporting the framework of the herse, on 
which were hung the cloths displaying the armorial insignia of their 
house. Viollet le Due, Diet., vol. ix. p. 64. 



Such being the methods adopted for safeguarding the remains of 
the richer and more distinguished classes, inside the churches, whether 
laid in simple graves, or within purely personal or family chantries, 
it behoves us now to enquire into those taken to protect the bodies 
of the great bulk of the people whose means and position, forbidding 
any such honours, were laid to rest in the common cemetery without. 
And first of all, as a matter which admits of no dispute whatever, 
and serves at the same time to illustrate and explain the less well- 
known and understood methods practised with the same object 
amongst ourselves in England, it will be desirable to direct our 
attention for awhile to France, and examine, so far as their existing, 
or rather recorded, evidences permit, those commonly pursued there. 
Owing to their isolated and detached character, their exposed position, 
and the ready mark which they offered to the rabid violence of the 
revolutionary mobs of the last century ; as well as, perhaps, to their 
gradual disuse throughout the country generally, these monumental 
witnesses are, nowadays, but few and far between, even in the districts 
wherein they were once most plentiful. Being, moreover, so widely 
scattered, they failed to exercise the speculative instincts of the 
people, and thus, the few of them which had escaped extinction 
ceasing, by degrees, to be either talked about or thought of, became 
at length, forgotten and unknown. And in this state of con- 
temptuous oblivion they remained till the second quarter of the last 
century ; the late M. de Caumont of Caen, being the first to call 
attention to them in part iv. of his Cours d'Antiquites Monu- 



mentales, which appeared in 1838, and in an advanced notice of the- 
same published in vol. iii. of the Bulletin Monumental, the year- 

Speaking therein of his forthcoming treatise he says : ' Je crois 
devoir signaler aux lectures du Bulletin une espece de monuments, 
que j'ai decrite et sur lesquelles il n'existe aucun renseignement ; 
je veux parler des colonnes creuses ou des fanaux qui se rencontre 
encore dans quelques-uns de nos cimetieres.' And he thereupon 
proceeds to describe the very remarkable one at Fenioux (Charente 
Inferieure) of which he supplies an illustration. ' Oe petit monu- 
ment,' he says, * est place a cent pas de 1'eglise, vis-a-vis le portail 
sud ; et le style qui domine dans les details annonce le xii e siecle. 
. . . II offre une agglomeration de onze colonnes engagees, ayant 
d'abord une base commune, et ensuite des bases particulieres. Oes 
onze colonnes qui ont chaque leur chapiteau portent une architrave 
sur laquelle s'elevent en forme d'attique onze petits piliers carres- 
ayant entre eux autant de petits intervalles pour laisser penetrer le 
jour. Sur ces petits piliers repose une pyramide quadrangulaire 
terminee par une croix. 

* On a menage dans 1'interieur de la colonne, un escalier auquel on 
parvient par un corridor. Le monument est place sur un tertre,. 
et c'est dans ce tertre qu'est creuse le corridor : le socle est en 
partie cache sous la terre ; cependant le cote de Test face du monu- 
ment, est plus a decouvert. C'est dans ce soubassement qu'est situee- 
la porte du corridor, 

' Un autre escalier de huit a neuf marches existait exterieurement 
en avant de la porte. On voit encore les pierres qui formaient la 
rampe ; celles des marches enlevees, quelques-unes se trouvent au pied 
du monticule. 

' Get escalier exterieur ne conduisait pas au corridor ; car la porte 
est au-dessous : il menait vers le haut du socle ; peut-etre dressait-on 
dans certaines ceremonies sur la table de ce socle, un autel portatif,. 
des chandeliers, des offrandes, un crucifix. . . .' 

He continues : ' Le monument de Fenioux offre une parfaite 
ressemblance de style avec celui de Quineville (Manche), dont j'ai 
parle dans la v e partie de mon Cours ' . . . and then goes on : 


* II existe en Poitou plusieurs fanaux semblables . . . d'autres 
sont cites dans plusieurs departements du centre de la France. J'ai 
visite celui du cimetiere de Chateau Larcher pres Poitiers : il 
presente, autant qu'il me souvient, une colonne creuse, et nne espece de 
socle ou de soubassement en forme de tombeau d'autel ; et quoique 
moins remarquable que celui de Fenioux, il meritait d'etre 
dessine. . . . 

' Ces monuments etaient plus communs dans le centre de la France 
que dans 1'ouest et le nord. II y en a plusieurs dans la Haute- 
Vienne, dans le Puys-de-Dome, dans le Cantal ; et 1'usage d'allumer 
ces fanaux subsistait encore dans plusieurs endroits de ces de- 
partements au siecle dernier. 

'"II existe," dit M. le Cointre, "une donation faite en 1268 a la 
>cure de Mauriac par un de ses cures pour allumer tous les saniedis 24 une 
chandelle dans la lanterne qu'il avait fait elever au milieu du 
cim'etiere. Nous ne pouvions desirer un document plus precis. 

4 Je ne serais pas surpris quand la petite colonne qui supporte la 
croix de 1'ancien cimetiere de Seez, aurait ete autrefois surmontee 
par une lanterne. 

1 L'usage de ces fanaux dans les cimetieres chretiens est bien ancien, 
puisqu'il en existait un a Saint Hilaire-de-Poitiers, lors de la bataille 
>de Clovis contre Alaric. Ce fanal est designe dans les historiens par 
les mots pharus ignea. L'eglise de Saint Hilaire etait au milieu 
d'un champ de sepulture fort considerable : tout le quartier est pave 
de trois et quatre rangs de sarcophages superposes." ' 

In a letter addressed to M. de Caumont by M. Tailhand in vol. v. 
of the Bulletin Monumental, pp. 433-5, the writer says : 

'Le premier de ces monuments qui m'apparut est celui de 
Felletin, departement de la Creuse ; il est place dans le cimetiere au- 
'dessus et un peu a Test de la ville. C'est un prisme octagonal 
surmonte d'un toit pyramidal de la hauteur totale de 26 pieds. A 12 
pieds, a partir de la deuxieme marche circulaire qui 1'enveloppe a la 
base, est une legere corniche sur laquelle reposent huit croisees 
'd'environ 2 pieds de hauteur, a plein cintre. Une seule ouverture 

84 Note the lighting of the candle on Saturdays (like the Greeks) the day 
when the Lord's body lay in the tomb. 


percee a 2 pieds de la me me base, et ay ant 4 pieds de hauteur sur 15 
pouces de largeur laisse penetrer dans 1'interieur qui est absolu- 
ment vide.' 

He then proceeds to describe with illustrations, as in the pre- 
ceding example, two others, viz., those of Montaigu, arrondissement 
of Eiom, department of Puy-de-D6me, and Cullent, the former square, 
the latter round, and proceeds : 

* Us sont aussi vides dans leur interieur. Les ouvertures de chacun 
d'eux regardent 1'orient. On ne voit dans leur interieur aucun moyen 
pour s'elever jusqu'aux fenetres.' 

Besides these, he says, in answer to M. de Caumont's enquiries : 
'II en existait aussi dans le meme departement a Abajut et a 
Montf errand. Ce dernier n'existe plus ; sa forme nous a ete conservee 
par un dessin de M. le comte de Laizer, il etait surmonte d'une croix 
qui a du y etre placee posterieurement a sa construction. 

' Je pourrais en citer beaucoup d'autres, et la tour octagone pres 
la chapelle du St. Sepulcre, a Aigueperse (Puy de Dome), m'en 
parait encore un avec quelques modifications. II y en avait beaucoup 
dans la Marche. II y en a un pres Roen-en-Forez.' 

Then he proceeds to enquire into the uses of these structures, and 
supplies various speculative solutions which have been offered by 
divers persons, most of which are sufficiently extravagant, but which, 
with others, equally imaginary, if less absurd, may be summarily 

In vol. vi. of the Bulletin Monumental, as a further answer to M. de 
Caumont's invitation, M. A. de la Yillegille sends a description of 
two other monuments of the same class. He says : 

'Les deux colonnes creuses, que j'ai visitees, sont situees, comme 
les fanaux dont M. le Oointre fait mention, au milieu de cimetieres 
qui bordent des chemins de grande communication. La premiere 
colonne, celle d'Estrees, arrondissement de Chateauroux, occupe a 
peu pres le centre d'un grande terrain vague, qui s'appui, au midi, 
sur 1'ancienne route de Buzan9ais a Palluau, et se trouve limite au nord 
par les restes de 1'eglise paroissiale d'Estrees, monument du xi e 
siecle dont le choeur est encore de bout. Ce terrain, autrefois le 
cimetiere de la paroisse, a ete fouille sur presque toute sa superficie. 


. . . L' elevation totale du fanal d'Estrees est de 8 m 30". . . .' 
He then proceeds to give a lengthy and minutely detailed account 
of the structure which is, or was then, in an exceedingly ruinous 
condition, and concludes by saying : ' Quant a 1'usage auquel il 
etait destine, il est vraisemblable qu'il a du elre employe comme 
fanal. La tradition locale confirme d'ailleurs cette conjecture. Elle 
rapporte qu'on placait une lumiere dans la colonne pour eclair er les 
moines lorsqu'ils revenaieni des vignes. Le cimetiere se trouve en 
effet entoure de vignobles, qui dependaient sans doute du monastere 
de St. Genoux, situe dans la vallee, a peu de distance.' . . . 

' La seconde colonne, est situe'e dans la commune de St. Georges 
de Ciron, a 15 kilometeres du Blanc, et sur 1'ancien chemin qui 
conduisait de cette ville a Argenton. Elle est eloignee de 1'eglise 
du village d'environ 150 metres, et comme celle d'Estrees, elle se 
trouve au milieu d'un vaste cimetiere abandonne depuis longtemps. 
. . ' . Le fanal de Ciron est assis sur un large piedestal en 
magonnerie ayant 5'80 m de long, sur 4*80 m de large, et 1-20 1 
-de hauteur. On y monte, du c6te du couchant, par un escalier de 
six marches. Les autres faces avaient egalement des degres dans 
1'origine, mais il y a environ quatre-vingts ans (vers 1760), un cure 
les fit elever pour construire une petite sacristie pres de 1'eglise. La 
colonne proprement dite, dont le diametre exterieur est de 0'85 m , et 
qui a une elevation de 7*20 m , n'occupe precisement le centre du 
piedestal. La base est ornee de plusieurs moulures, et le vide qu'elle 
renferme ne commence qu'a r20 m de la plate-forme. A cette 
meme hauteur, une pierre d'une largeur egale a celle de la colonne, 
fait saille vers 1'ouest, et forme une table plane de 43 centimetres de 
longeur sur 18 d'epaisseur. A la partie opposee, on aperc,oit les 
traces d'une autre saillie plus etroite que la premiere, mais descendant 
beaucoup plus bas. La pierre ayant e'te brisee, il est impossible de 
reconnaitre actuellement ce qui existait de ce cote. 

* L'edifice se termine, a sa partie superieure, par un toit aigu, 
en pierre, surmontee d'un boule au-dessus de laquelle etait placee 
anciennement une croix aussi en pierre . . . la colonne est percee 
de six fenetres ogivales, etroites et allongees, comme celles a qui 1'on 
.a donne le nom de lancettes. Une petite ouverture quarree, qui 


regarde le sud, se trouve a la naissance de la cavite interieure et 
communique avec elle. . . . 

' Dans la commune de St. Hilaire, non loin de Oiron, il existait 
egalement une colonne du meme genre, mais un peu moins elevee. 
Elle etait au milieu d'une prairie, et la procession de la Fete-Dieu 
s'y rendait aussi chaque annee. Le proprietaire du terrain a mal- 
heureusement fait demolir cette colonne en 1833 ou 1834. 

' Enfin, une quatrieme colonne m'a ete signalee comme existant 
encore dans le hameau de Yercia, dans le voisinage de la Sonterraine 
(Oreuse). Elle parait etre plus riche en ornaments que les precedentes.' 

The foundations of another fanal, now otherwise wholly destroyed, 
existed some few years since also on the south side of the cemetery of 
the abbey of Parthenay in Poitou, where they were explored by M. de 
Caumont. In respect of this it is recorded that ' une rente etait 
constitute pour subv&nir aux frais d'entrelien de la lampe qui y etait 
anciennement aUumee? 

An account of yet another, at St. Pierre d'Oleron, is supplied by 
M. Moreau, Inspector of the Charente (Bulletin Monumental, vol. vi. 
pp. 331-2) * Oe monument, dit-il, qui a des rapports avec celui de 
Fenioux, peut avoir eu la meme destination ; cependant les deux 
monuments ne sont pas de la meme epoque. J'attribue 1'erection du 
fanal de Fenioux au xii e siecle ; celui de St. Pierre d' Oleron me parait 
posterieur d'environ deux cents ans, le premier est une construction 
romane, celui de 1'ile d'Oleron est dans le style ogivale du xiv e siecle. 
Je ne parle que de la partie octogone, car le prisme et la pyramids 
quadrangulaire qui la surmontent sont encore moins ancienne. Comme 
a Fenioux, le monument est place sur un tertre ; un escalier de 
pleusieurs marches est situe a 1'exterieur et conduit au pied d'un 
escalier interieur. Mais I'ornamentation est fermee d'arcades 
simulees appliquees sur chaque face de 1'octogone. L'archivolte 
est une ogive etroite et les pieds droits sont des groupes de tores qui 
.s'elevent de la base du monument jusque vers son extremite superieure.' 

M. Godard is also reported (Bulletin Monumental, vol. vii. p. 544) 
to have discovered a further, and very curious example in the middle 
of the town of Saumur. 

Of that still remaining at Parigne 1'Eveque (Sarthe) M. F. Etoc. 


Demazy says : ' La colonne de Parigne 1'Eveque est la seule que je 
connaise dans notre departement, la seule, peut-etre de notre province^ 
Personne, que je sache, ne 1'avait indiquee . . . Cette tour de 
forme cylindrique, elegante et gracieuse, s'e'leve sur un perron 
circulaire compose de trois marches, haut de 0*80 m . De ce point,, 
au commencement du toit, j'ai compte 9'40 m , et du larmier a la 
pointe du cone, 2*50 m ; total de la hauteur: ll'70 m ou 40 de nos 
anciens pieds . . . Le diametre interieur de la tour, pris a sa 
base, est de l m ; le diametre total de 2'26 m ., et de l'80 m sous le 
larmier . . . Les fenetres, a pleine centre et au nombre de 
quatre, sont disposees dans le sens des principaux points de 1'horizon.. 
. . .. On monte dans la tour au moyen de vingt huit ouvertures 
carrees, sans issues a 1'exterieur, dont quatorze de chaque cote de la 
porte ... La lanterne de Parigne est dans un etat presque 
parfait de conservation . . . 

' Je n'ai pu me procurer sur la tour de Parigne FEveque que se 
seul renseiguement : elle fut construite par les Anglais, qui 
1'eclairaient la nuit, afin de guider leurs soldats revenant d'expeditions. 
nocturnes.' Bulletin Monumental, vol. vii. pp. 349-352. 

M. Lambert is mentioned as the discoverer of another of these 
'lanternes des morts' at Bayeux, which M. de Caumont had 
originally described owing to its then surroundings as a chimney. 
Bulletin Monumental, vol. vii. p. 540. 

In vol. viii. of the same work (p. 598), is figured the fanal of 
lournet. It has a square base, to one side of which is attached an 
altar slab supported at the back by an engaged column of thirteenth 
century design. Above it rises the circular, and apparently tapering, 
shaft of the column which terminates in a lantern with square- 
headed openings. The usual conical, or pyramidal head would seem 
to be nearly destroyed. Others are said to exist also at Chateau 
Larcher, and Antigny, but of these no illustrations are supplied. 

A representation of another of these ' lanternes des morts,' of late 
twelfth, or early thirteenth century date, which exists at Celfrouin in 
the department of the Charente, is given in vol. xii. p. 444. It is of 
very striking and monumental aspect, closely resembling that already 
described at Fenioux. The shaft consists of a clustered column 


having a polygonal base, and terminating in a conical cap surmounted 
by a cross. Like that at Fenioux too, it is approached by a flight of 
steps. The general character of the shafts with their capitals, 
strongly recalls those in the choir pillars at Ripon, with which indeed 
they are almost identical. 

In the Limousin these structures are said to be still numerous : 
' Quant aux lanternes des morts, elles sont encore nombreuses et 
variees de formes ; rondes, octogones, carrees, ces colonnes ont toutes 
un autel orientee a sa base. Le fanal de S. Gousseau presente cette 
peculiarite que Ton fait encore aujourd'hni la quete pour y entretenir 
la lampe qui pourtant n'est plus allumee.' 

The most elegant of all, however, is perhaps that figured in vol., 
xiii. as occurring in the isle of Re in Saintonge. It is of the 
thirteenth century, and composed of a long octagonal shaft, the angles 
of which, wrought into reed-like stems, are connected at their caps 
with pointed arches. This panelled shaft is surmounted by an open 
octagonal lantern of sharply pointed arches resting on slender pillars, 
and capped by a lofty spirelet which terminates in a cross. 

Though instancing but a few of these once numerous structures 
still surviving in France, the examples given above may yet be taken, 
I think, as fairly representative of all the rest, and to point, as one 
might well imagine, with sufficient clearness, to their former use and 
origin. Such however, strange to say, is, or, at any rate, for a long 
time was, as far as possible from being the case. Even among the 
best informed archaeologists, the wildest and most preposterous ideas 
were entertained as to their purpose so entirely, and in so short a 
space of time as that between the middle of the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries, bad all real knowledge of them died out. Precisely as in 
the case of our own, so called, ' low side windows,' there prevailed 
everywhere a state of blank, abysmal ignorance ; and ' ingenious 
people,' of whom, both at home and abroad, there was never any lack, 
amused themselves, from time to time, in ventilating whatever theory 
their passing fancy could suggest. Entirely unrestrained by historic,, 
or other trammels, their perfervid imagination was allowed full scope, 
and, spurning all impediments, ran riot accordingly. 

Dismissing this mass of ' clotted nonsense,' however, let us rather 


turn to the rational and scholarly explanation offered by that most 
able architect and antiquary, the late M. Yiollet le Due, in vol. 
yi. of his Dictionnaire raisonne de V Architecture Fran^oise, pp. 
154-161. Speaking of them under the term of 'Lanterne des Morts, 
Fanal, tourniele, phare,' he gives their structural definition as : 
* Pile creuse en pierre terminee a son sommet par un petit pavilion 
^ajoure perce a sa base d'une petite porte ;' and then, more specula- 
tively, if less accurately, proceeds to explain their use as : ' Destined 
a signaler au loin, la nuit, la presence d'un etablissment religieux, 
d'un cimetiere,' in illustration of which, perhaps, partially correct 
view, he adduces from the Chronique de Rains (xiii e siecle), the 
following interesting, if not strikingly apt quotation : ' Adont 
moru Salehedins li miudres princes qui onkes fust en Paienie et fu 
enfouis en la cymitere 8. Nicholai d'Acre de jouste sa mere qui moult 
ricement y fut ensevelie : et a sour eaus une tourniele biele et grant, 
OU il'art nuit et jour une lampe plaine d'oile d'olive : et le paient et 
font alumer cil del hospital de S. Jehan d'Acre, qui les grans rentes 
tienent que Salehedins et sa mere laissierent.' 

Then, turning to France, and such remains of this class of monu- 
ments as are still to be found there, he says : ' Les provinces du 
centre et de 1'ouest de la France conservent encore un assez grand 
nombre de oes monuments pour faire supposer qu'ils etaient jadis fort 
communs. Peut-tre, doit on chercher dans ces edifices une tradition 
antique de la Gaule celtique. En effet, ce sont les territories ou se 
trouvent les pierres levees, les menhirs, qui nous presentent des 
examples assez frequent de lanterne des morts. Les mots lanterne, 
fanal, phare, pharus ignea, ont des etymologies qui indiquent un lieu 
sacre, une construction, une lumiere. Later, laterina, en latin, 
signifient brique, lingot, bloc, amas de briques : <fravos, en grec, 
lumineux, flambeau ; <ai/?js, dieu de lumiere ; fanum, lieu consacre ; 
par, en celtique, pierre consacre"e ; fanare, reciter des formules de 
consecration. Le dieu celte Cruth-Loda habite un palais dont le toit 
est parseme de feux nocturnes. Encore de nos jours, dans quelques 
provinces de France, les pierres levees dont on attribue, a tort selon 
nous, 1'erection aux druides, passent pour s'eclairer, la nuit, d'elles- 
memes, et pour guerir les malades qui se couchent autour la nuit 



precedent la Saint Jean. La pierre des Erables (Touraiue), entre 
autres, previent les terreure nocturnes. II est bon d'observer que le 
menhir des Erables est perce d'un trou en part, ainsi que plusieurs 
de ces pierres levees. Ces trous n'etaient-ils pas disposes pour 
recevoir une lumiere ? et s'ils devaient recevoir une lumiere, ont-ils 
ete perces par les populations qui primitivement ont eleve ces blocs, 
ou plus tard ? Que les menhirs aient ete des pierres consacrees a la 
lumiere, au soleil, ou des pierres preservatrices destinees a detourner 
les maladies, a eloigner les mauvais esprits, ou des termes, des bornes, 
traditions des voyages de 1'Hercule tyrien, toujours est-il que le phare 
du moyen age, habituellement accompagne d'un petit autel, semble, 
pai ticulierement dans les provinces celtiques, avoir ete un monument 
sacre d'une certaine importance. II en existait a la porte des abbayes, 
dans les cimetieres, et principalement sur le bord des chemins et 
aupres maladreiies. On peut done admettre que les lanternes des 
morts erigees sur le sol autrefois celtique ont perpetue une tradition 
fort antique, modifiee par le christianisme. 

4 Les premiers apotres des Gaules, de la Bretagne, de la Germanie 
et des contrees scandinaves, eprouvaient des difficultes insurmont- 
ables lorsqu'ils pretendaient faire abandonner aux populations certaines 
pratiques superstitieuses. Souvent ils etaient contraints de donner 
a ces pratiques, qu' ils ne pouvaient detruire, un autre but et de les 
detourner, pour ainsi dire, au profit de la religion nouvelle, plutot que 
de risquer de compromettre leur apostolat par un biame absolu de ces 
traditions profondement enracinees. M. de Oaumont pense que les 
lanternes des morts, pendant le moyen age, etaient destinees parti- 
culierement aux servi r des morts qu'on apportait de tres loin et qui 
n'etaient point in f oduits dans Feglise. II admet alors que le service 
se faisait dans le cimetiere que le fanal remplafait les cierges. Cette 
opinion est partagee par M. 1'abbe Cousseau. "Les eglises mere 
(ecclesiae matrices} seules," dit M. Cousseau, "possedaient sans restric- 
tions tous les droits qui se rattachent a 1'exercise du culte. Cela resultait 
de ce que souvent le seigneur, en faisant donation d'une eglise a un 
corps religieux, apportait a sa liberalite cette restriction, que le droit 
de dime, le droit de sepulture, &c., ne seraient pas compris dans la 
donation." Que les lanternes des morts aient ete utilisees pour les 


services funebres dans les cimetieres, le fait parait probable ; mais 
qu'on ait e'leve des colonnes de plusieurs metres de hauteur pour 
placer a leur sommet, en plein jour, des lampes allume'es dont personne 
n'aurait pu apercevoir 1'e'clat, et cela seulement avec 1'intention de 
remplacer 1'eclairage des cierges c'est douteux. Si les lanternes des 
morts n'eussent e'te destine'es qu'a tenir lieu de cierges pendant les 
enterrements, il eut e'te plus naturel de les faire tres-basses et disposers 
de maniere que la lumiere put etre aperyue de jour par 1'assistance. 
Au contraire tout, dans ces petits monuments, parait combine pour 
que la lampe que renferme leur lanterne supe'rieure puisse etre vue de 
tres-loin et de tous les points de 1'horizon. M. Lecointre, archeologue 
de Poitiers, " remarque que les colonnes creuses ou fanaux etaient eleves 
particulierement dans les cimetieres qui bordaient les chemins de 
grande communication ou qui etaient dans les lieux tres-frequentes. 
II pense que ces lanternes etaient destine'es a preserver les vivants de 
la peur des revenants et des esprits de tenebres, de les garantir de ce 
timore nocturne, de ce negotio perambulante in tenebris dont parle le 
Psalmiste, enfin de convier les vivants a la priere pour les morts." 
Quant a 1'ide'e qu'on attachait a ces monuments, au xii e siecle par 
example, M. Lecointre nous parait etre dans le vrai ; mais nous n'en 
sommes pas moins dispose a croire que ces colonnes appartiennent, 
par la tradition, a des usages ou a des superstitions d'une tres-haute 
antiquite. II est a regretter qu'il ne nous reste plus de lanternes des 
morts anterieures au xii e siecle ; il n'y a pas a douter de leur exist- 
ence, puisqu'il en est parfois fait mention, entre autres a la bataille 
livree entre Clovis et Alaric, mais nous ne connaissons pas la forme de 
ces premiers monuments Chretiens.' 

In every case without exception, indeed, so far as is known, the 
cross formed the terminal of these lanternes des morts, which thus 
practically, and to that extent, took the same place as the great 
churchyard crosses did among ourselves. So much so, that Durandus 
refers to the light proceeding from them under the designation of 
cross, only. And it is not a little interesting to note how exactly 
parallel the fate which has befallen both these classes of monuments 
has been, the one, at the hands of blaspheming French atheists, the 
other, at those of their counterparts in sacrilegious havoc, the English 


Puritans, the same rabid hatred of the symbol of salvation inflaming- 
both alike. As to our own churchyard crosses, though some few,,, 
here and there, have escaped unscathed, the great majority of them 
have perished. Nay ' ipsae periere ruinae? and in the whole diocese of 
Durham, the base and mutilated shaft of that at Witton-le-Wear are- 
the only relics of the kind I know of. 

But the cross did not constitute the only point in common between- 
these several classes of monuments. Their position, for the most 
part, was identical always southwards of the church, inclining 
sometimes to the west, sometimes to the east, but always southwards. 
Nor was that all. For just as the fanaux, though primarily light^ 
pillars, were yet furnished with a cross, so our corresponding church- 
yard crosses, though primarily crosses, were yet, in many instances,, 
furnished with lights. And then again, though for the most part, on. 
a much larger scale, the Irish round towers so exactly reproduce in* 
form, these French light-pillars, that, when drawn to different scales, 
one might very easily be mistaken for the other. Both these variants- 
will need taking account of : and first of all, as bearing, perhaps, the 
closest analogy to these lanternes des morts, it will be convenient to- 
notice briefly some of those churchyard crosses provided with niches 
whose scanty remains are still left to us, and of which I have been, 
able to obtain some slight account. 



If, as is only too evident, churchyard crosses are, nowadays, scarce- 
and hard to meet with all the country over, it goes without saying 
that those possessing receptacles for lamps are much scarcer still. 
Whether the fashion prevailed generally, or, as might seem to be the- 
case, was confined, more or less strictly, to certain districts, is not 
easy, with such scanty and imperfect notices of them as are readily 
accessible, to say. From such evidences as I have been able to meet 
with so far, however, it appears to pertain more particularly to the- 
south-western counties of "Worcester, Gloucester, Hereford, 
Somerset, and Devon. Whether this be owing solely or chiefly,. 


however, to the circumstance that the crosses thereabouts have rnore- 
frequently escaped destruction than elsewhere, or that the percentage 
of these niched crosses was greater there than in other parts, is 
more than I can say. But, however that might be, their presence 
may very well help to explain a difficulty which constantly meets us, 
viz. : that while, in so many cases, we find ' low side windows ' in 
the smallest village churches, not only singly, but in pairs, we fail to- 
find any trace of them in others of far greater importance, and where 
they might naturally be looked for. Not, of course, that the two- 
systems might not quite naturally go together ; but that in those 
cases where the more usual one of low side windows was, for some 
reason or other, not adopted, recourse might be had to the other as 
being equally effectual. 

Indeed, the only difference between the lanternes des morts, and' 
the niched churchyard crosses not in principle, be it noted, but in 
degree is that the i elative importance given to their two constituent 
elements is reversed, the light being accorded the chief place in the 
one, the cross in the other. For though in both the cross, as of 
right, dominates the structure ; the light, which in the case of the 
lanternes des morts is always elevated, and commonly occupies the 
whole capacity of the shaft, in that of the churchyard crosses holds an* 
exactly contrary position, being set not merely in, or just above the 
base, but confined to a comparatively small aperture. As the crosses, 
however, were always solid, and not hollow like the French lanternes 
and German Todtenleuchten, in which the lamp could be elevated by 
means of a cord or chain, this was a matter of necessity ; such 
position, at the same time, corresponding closely, as may be remarked, 
to that occupied by it in the low side windows generally, more 
especially in those numerous instances in which they were almost, if 
not quite, on the very surface of the ground. And thus, though the 
niches in the bases of the cross shafts were, in general, as proportion- 
ately smaller than the lanterns of the fanaux, as the crosses themselves 
were larger, yet this was not always so, since that at Cellefrouin, for 
instance, the earliest, and, in some respects, finest of all, has but one 
minute and narrow slit in its pyramid capable of emitting, and that 
in one direction only just like the cross lamps a very thin stream of 


light indeed. So long as the light itself, however, the symbol of the 
divine power and protection, was there, its simple presence might,, 
perhaps, be deemed sufficient, as well for the particular graves which 
it illuminated, as for those which it did not. But, whether this were,, 
or were not, so, one conspicuous advantage possessed by the light in 
the cross, in common with the fanaux and Todtenleuchten, was that, 
being quite detached, its rays would, in many cases, be less liable to- 
interruption, and could, therefore, command a far wider range than 
those placed within the church. 

And here a highly curious and interesting example, perhaps 
unique, and occupying an intermediate place between the detached 
churchyard cross and low side windows, may be referred to, 
which occurs in the west wall of the south transept of Romsey 
abbey church, Hants. It consists of a large structural crucifix 
built up in the wall, of which it constitutes an integral part. 
Beside it southwards, and like itself, forming also part of the 
structure, is a niche quite as large as many of the 'low side 
windows ' in the upper part of which is a flue or chimney for 
carrying off the smoke of the lamp, or other fire which burned from 
time to time within. That it was provided with a shutter whether 
glazed or otherwise is shewn by the perforations for the hinges. 
Originally, this niche and crucifix were contained in the eastern, 
walk of the cloisters now wholly destroyed. It is thought on the 
spot that the niche formerly held a brazier from which fire was 
obtained for the incense, but whether this were so or not and the 
idea seems sufficiently unlikely it would not in the least interfere 
with the nocturnal burning of a lamp, as elsewhere, in connexion 
with both the crucifix and cemetery, to the uses of which cloisters 
were so commonly applied. 

Another, and very singular combination of the cross with a 
tabernacle and lantern for a light, is seen surmounting the gable of 
the south porch of Elkstone church, Gloucestershire ; where the 
cruciform gabled saddle-stone, instead of being solid, and capping the 
water-tabling in the usual way, is not only hollow, but raised 
vertically to a height of six or eight inches, and open at both ends, so< 
as to form a canopy for the reception of a lamp, at an elevation of 


about eleven feet above the ground. Thus, the light, which would 
be raised to much the same level as that commonly obtaining among 
the fanaux and Todtenleuchten, would, though issuing as at 
Odenburg and Mattersdorf, among other instances from two of the 
four sides only, diffuse its rays quite as effectually. How far, if at 
all, similar arrangements were adopted elsewhere, I cannot say. It is 
certainly interesting, however, in shewing by what a variety of ways 
the same end was reached. 

A still further and more curious example, intermediate between 
the niched churchyard cross, andthe ' chapelles isolees,' or * des morts,' 
occurs in the churchyard of Kinlet, Shropshire. It stands midway, 
and immediately eastward of the footpath leading from the gate to 
the south porch, and thus in close proximity to all passing to and fro. 
On plan it is a square, with gables surmounting four recesses. These 
latter are quite shallow towards the north, south, and east, and all are 
five feet four inches high, by three feet broad. The western recess 
is much more important. Here the arch is chamfered, and six feet 
and a half high, by three teet and a half broad, while no less than 
two feet eight inches deep. In the back of this recess, about half- 
way up, is a small niche, one foot nine inches high, by nine inches 
broad, and about six deep. There is also another niche over the 
large arch, which was doubtless designed as a canopy or shelter for 
those who knelt beneath. The entire structure serves to support the 
base of the churchyard cross proper, which, planted on the inter- 
section of the four-gabled roof, rises there at an elevation of about 
ten feet above the ground. On a much larger scale, this remarkable 
erection, though perforated only on one side instead of two, repro- 
duces almost exactly the little stone lantern at Elkstone. 

Of the number of niched churchyard crosses, pure and simple, 
still existing, I am unable either to speak, or form any kind of 
estimate. But the examples which, so far, have come under my 
notice are sufficiently numerous and important to shew that they 
have constituted part of a distinct, and by no means unimportant, 
-class once, doubtless, very much more numerous than now. Of 
these, or rather their remains for they are all more or less frag- 
mentary one of the most important is in the churchyard of 


Colwall, Herefordshire, where the three massive steps, square base 
changing into an octagon, and part of the shaft, remain well pre- 
served. The niche, which is crocketed and supported by pinnacles, 
is worked in the base as usual. 

At Raglan, Monmouthshire, is another, the highly enriched and 
moulded square base of which is also worked into an octagon. Here, 
the niche, which has a segmental-pointed head, is in width eight 
and a half inches, by six and three quarters high, and three deep. 

At Newland, Gloucestershire, where the broached base of the cross, 
two feet square, only remains, the cinquefoiled niche is ten inches 
high, eight wide, and five deep. 

At S. Weonards, Herefordshire, where the base, supporting part 
of the shaft, is unprovided with steps, the shallow trefoil-headed 
-niche occurs in one of the smaller sides, close upon the level of the 

At Lydney, Gloucestershire, the similarly-shaped niche, which is 
worked in the simple square base of the cross, is raised on an 
elevation of no fewer than seven steps. 

At Broadwas, Worcestershire, the niche, which is quite plain, is, 
.as at Newland and S. Weonards, placed just above the ground. 
The lower part of the cross shaft, worked, like the base, into an 
octagon, remains above. 

At Brampton Abbots, Herefordshire, the churchyard cross, which 
has a sort of double, or two-staged base, has the niche placed in the 
lower one, just above the level of the two steps. 

At Kingdon, Herefordshire, where the massive square base of the 
cross, and the lower part of the shaft remain, there is a plain, tri- 
angular headed niche, surrounded by a raised edging, and, apparently, 
about a foot high, by eight inches broad, and six deep. Unless 
originally placed upon a sub-base, the bottom of this niche would be 
all but level with the soil. 

At Wonastow, Monmouth, the same plan is pretty nearly repeated. 
The massive square base worked into an octagon, and supporting the 
lower part of a flattened octagonal cross shaft, has a triangular niche, 
quite plain and square-edged, one foot three inches in height, by nine 
inches in width, and four deep, coming down to the very bottom, and 
level with the surface of the soil. 


At Whitchurch, Herefordshire, the massive base stone is circular 
in two stages ; and here again we find the same triangular headed 
niche, though with raised edgings as at Kingdon, coming down, in 
general outline, to the ground ; but with the platform or footing for 
the lamp inside raised to the extent of about six or eight inches. 
This niche is one foot three inches high, in the full, one foot ten 
inches wide, and four and a half inches deep. 

And here, I think, account may, perhaps, most conveniently be 
taken of another class of monumental details bearing more or less 
directly on the subject of ' low side windows.' Writing of the various 
ceremonies peculiar to Maundy Thursday and the two following days, 
Durandus says : 

' Consequenter candelae & lumen extinguntur, nainhae tenebrae 
tribus noctibus celebratae, significant tenebras quae tribus horis fuerunt 
Christo in cruce pendente, vel ideo tribus noctibus lumen extinguitur, 
_ quia yerum lumen triduo jacuit in sepulchro. Circa quod advertendum 
est, quod quidam accendunt septuaginta duas candelas, quidam viginti 
quatuor, quidam quindecim, quidam duodecim, quidam novem, quidam 
septem, & secundum quosdam non est numerus certus, omnes tamen 
non sine mysterio agunt. Septuaginta duae candelae quae extingun- 
tur, designant septuaginta duos ducipulos, quorum praedicatio in 
morte Christi pene extincta est significant efciam quod Dominus 
septuaginta duobus horis iacuit in sepulchro per synecdochen 
intellectus, vel tot accenduntur, propter Ixxij. nationes seu genera 
linguarum. Yiginti quatuor candelae accenduntur, Primo quia sol 
iste, qui mundum xxiiij. horis diei & noctis illuminat, significat 
Christum verum solem, qui extinguitur, quia Christus occubuit vespere 
passionis, & tenebrae factae sunt super universam terrain. Secundo, 
dies cujus majus lumen Christus est, nox vero cujus lumen Ecclesia 
est, luminaria sunt Apostoli, & alii viri Apostolici, qui sunt quasi xxiiij. 
horae, quae diei Christo, & nocte Ecclesiae famuluntur. Viginti 
quatuor luminaria ergo extinguntur, quia Apostoli in unoquoque 
die per viginfci quatuor horas latuerunt, &c. Quindecim candelae 
significant xij. Apostolos & tres Marias, quae sequebantur Dominum, 
quae extinguntur quoniam tune omnes laudes Dei tacuerunt &c. 

' Duodecim candelae accensae repraesentant duodecim Apostolos, 



quae extinguntur, ad notandum quod Apostoli tune siluerunt & 
fugerunt, & pene extincta est fides in eis. Novem Candelae significant 
genus humanum, quod per peccatum se a novem ordinibus angelorum, 
& a vera luce exclusit. Septem candelae significant gratiam spiritus 
septiformis, quae in cordibus discipulorum pene fuit extincta . . . 
Porro omnes candelae non simul, sed una post aliam extinguntur, 
quia discipuli non simul a Christo, sed successive unus post alium 

discesserunt In quibusdam quoque Ecclesiis candelae 

quadam manu cerea extinguntur, quae significat manum Judae, de 
qua Dominus dixit. Qui intingit manum mecum, &c. Quae fuit 
quasi cerea, id est, ad malum flexibilis per quam Ohristus rex noster, 
& vera lucerna, traditus fuit, & quantum in illo fuit extinctus. 
Candela antem, quae, in medio est* non extinguitur, sed infenestra vel area 
accensx servatur occulte, ut posted, reveletur, & Ecdesiam illuminet. 
Sane candela quae ultima extinguitur, est major coeteris et significat 

Christum qui fait Dominus prophetarum Et ad canticum 

evangelicum candela ipsa extinguitur quia Christus evangelizans 
occiditur.' Lib. vi. cap. 72. p. 219 dorso 220. 

Here then, during the ante-paschal ceremonies, we see a lighted 
candle set in a low side window sill looking towards the church- 
yard, and, beyond all dispute or question, representing the Person of 
the Lord. That of itself is a point sufficiently striking, and . one 
which, in this connexion, cannot fail to attract attention. Nor does 
it stand alone, or without support ; for in many French churches, low 
side windows are found, within which the light was placed, not alone, 
but accompanying the reserved sacrament ; and thus, though in a far 
more solemn and striking way, acting as a lanterne des morts. 

Of this, a very distinguished architect and archaeologist of Paris, 
M. Oamille Enlart, writing in answer to my enquiries, mentions one at 
Bar-sur-Aube, with a photographic illustration of which he also kindly 
supplied me. It occurs beneath the westernmost of the very lofty two- 
light windows of the pentagonal apse on the south side of the choir, 
and in a little lean-to projection contrived beneath its sill and between 
the apse buttresses of the choir and of a similarly planned, but lower 
chapel towards the south. Two others of which he also kindly sent 
photographs, are fonnd in the churches of S. Peter at Yilliers, near 


Montme'dy, and "Warangeville near Nancy. Another is mentioned by 
him as occurring at Neufchateau ; and this arrangement, of which 
he goes on to say he has sketched many examples, is frequently 
met with in Lorraine, where, indeed, it is quite common and habitual. 
Referring to our English low side windows, he continues : ' Si toute- 
fois certaines de ces fenetres e'taient accompagnees d'une appareil de 
luminaire, ce seraient soit des tabernacles analogues a ceux de Lorraine 
soit des u lanbernes des morfcs " regardant le cimetiere de 1'e'glise. En 
Autriche les lanternes des morts prennent souvent la forme d'une 
niche ou gucrite sur le mur exte'rieure de 1'e'glise, et a, Agen 
(Oorrezs), la lanterne des morts dcmolie receminent, etait une niche 
pratiquee dans une contrefort du choeur de Feglise.' 

Now besides the fact of the lanterne des morts referred to at 
Agen being placed, not, as usual, in a detached pillar, but in the wall 
of the church itself one only, as can hardly be doubted, among many 
others- of a similar class this special form of ' windowed tabernacle ' 
looking upon the churchyard, opens an interesting question as to 
whether some, at least, of our own low side openings may not have 
been devoted to the same purpose. I refer more especially to such 
as that at Berkeley, where the little quatrefoil, though internally 
connected with the window over it, is yet separated by the space of 
about a foot, and has evidently been designed to serve some other 
purpose. At Salford Priors too, among others, we have a similar 
example, and at Coombes, Sussex, another ; where, though the two 
are connected, the separation is quite clear. But however this may 
be, the important fact remains that, not only is the circumstance 
of the lighted candle, representative of our Lord's person and 
office, being reserved in the sill of one of the church windows, during 
the Passion tide services witnessed to by Durandus ; but that, in 
divers parts of France certainly and therefore, probably elsewhere 
also, the consecrated Host, with a light burning before It, and 
serving as a lanterne des morts, occupied a similar position ; and 
the inference consequently seems clear, viz., that what happened there 
might, under varying conditions, happen here too. In other words, 
that our diversified forms of low side windows played, as I have all 
along been contending from analogy that they did, the same part which 


the fanaux, lanternes des inorts, windowed tabernacles and Todten- 
leuchten did in France and Germany. 



Of these, though for the most part undescribed, at any rate, 
collectively, there would still seem to be great numbers existing in 
various parts of France. Two of special interest, but of widely different 
date and character, however, are given by M. Yiollet le Due in vol. ii. 
of his Dictionnaire Raisouiw de V Architecture Franpaise ; while of 
others, mention may be found in various volumes of the Bulletin 
Monumental, and in M. de Caumont's Cours d' Antiquites, vol. vi., 
accompanied by many illustrations. 

Of these, the earliest by far, if only the date given by M. V. le 
Due be accepted, is that of Sainte Croix in the monastic cemetery of 
Montmajeur near Aries. This, he states, on the strength of 
documentary authority, to have been built in 1019, but the evidence 
of his own drawings and description shews clearly, I think, that it 
must be a full century later at the least. ' C'est un edifice,' says he, 
; compose de quatre culs-de-four egaux en diametre, dont les arcs 
portent une coupole a base carree; un porche precede Tune des niches 
[the western one] qui serb d'entree .... L'interieur n'est 
oclare que par trois petites fenetres percees d'un seul cote. La porte 
A [in the centre of the southern semicircle] donne entree dans un 
petit cimetiere clos de murs. La Chapelle de Sainte Croix de 
Montmajeur est bien batie en pierres de taille, et son ornamentation, 
tres-sobre, executee avec une extreme delicatesse, rappele la sculpture 
des eglises grecques des environs d'Athenes. Sur le sommet de la 
coupole s'eleve un campanile . . . Les seules fenetres eclairent 
cette chapelle s'ouvrent toutes trois sur 1'enclos servant de champ de 
repos. La nuit, une lampe briilait au centre du monument, et, con- 
formement a 1'usage admis dans les premieres siecles du moyen age, 
ces trois fenetres projetaient la lueur de la lampe dans le charnier. 
Pendant i'office des inorts un frere sonnait la cloche suspendue dans 


le clocher du moyen d'ime corde passant par un ocil, reserve, a cet 
effet, au centre de la coupole.' 

In this last statement, M. V. le Due is, however, surely mistaken. 
The square open turret, surmounted by a spirelet which crowns the 
central cupola externally, would seem from all analogy far more likely 
to have served as a lantern than a belfry. Besides which, his section 
shews that the opening in the centre of the vault is altogether too 
small for the passage of a bell, though quite sufficient for that of a 
lamp, which, by means of a cord, could be raised or lowered from the 
floor at will. The idea here enunciated was precisely that arrived at 
I find, by the ' Oongres Scientifique de France ' on the occasion of its 
thirty-fifth session held at Montpellier in 1868. In the account of 
its proceedings, given by M. de Caumonfc (Bulletin Monumental, 
vol. xxxiv., p. 907), it is said : * La partie centrale de la pyramide 
en pierre qui forme la toiture a du etre percee pour donner passage 
'a une' lampe qu'on allumait vraisemblablement autre fois dans la 
lanterns qui forme le couronnement de Tedifice. Cette chapelle 
au milieu de tombes nombreuses creusees dans le roc devait eifec- 
tivement etre une chapelle funeraire avec son fanal comme celle de 
Fontevrault.' Should ' it have been as he supposes, however, as 
well it might, that a lamp hanging in the centre of the chapel 
before the altar also projected its rays through the three small 
windows to the east and south, then the arrangement might serve 
to explain that of other sepulchral chapels where external lanterns 
do not occur, and illustrate, in the directest way possible, the uses of 
our own so called ' low side windows.' 

The other sepulchral chapel described and illustrated by M. V. le 
Due is of strikingly different character and of later date. It occurs at 
Avioth (Meuse) and belongs to the fifteenth century. 'Cette 
chapelle est placee pres de la porte d'entrce du cimetiere ; elle s'eleve 
sur une plate-forme clevee d'un metre environ au-dessus du sol ; 1'autel 
est enclave dans la niche A ; (at the back) a cote est une petite 
piscine. ... On remarquera que cette chapelle est adroitement 
construite pour laisser voir I'officiant a la foule et pour 1'abriter autant 
que possible du vent et de la pluie. Au-dessus des colonnes courtes 
qui, avec leur base et chapiteau n'ont pas plus de deux metres de 


haut, est posee une claire-voie, sorte de balustrade qui porte des 
fenetres vitrees. II est a croire que du sommet de la voute pendait 
un fanal allume la nuit, suivant 1'usage ; la parfcie superieure de la 
chapelle devenait ainsi une grande lanterne.' 

The chapel, which is of the richest detail throughout, is on plan a 
hexagon. The upper part, forming a splendid lantern of large glazed 
windows, and terminating in a spire of open work, is carried on low, 
detached columns ; the whole, save a niche at the back which 
contains the altar, and the lower part of one of the adjoining sides, 
being open to the air. In this case, however it may have been in 
the preceding one, the light of the lamp was certainly distributed 
through the windows to the cemetery. 

An example also of the highest interest, as well on account of its 
architectural character as of its ascertained history, is that of the 
chapel of S. Catherine, described at great length by the late Abbe 
Martin (Bulletin Monumental, vol. vii., p. 540-4), and which formerly 
occupied the centre of the parish cemetery at Fontevrault. * Son plan,' 
says he, 'est carrc, mais chacun des angles est enveloppe par un contre- 
fort legerement saillant, ce qui lui donne en petit 1'aspect d'un chateau 
fort flanquc de quatre tours. . . . . Le haut du monument est 
couronnc par une legere saillie coupce en biseau, qui tourne aussi 
autour des contreforts. G'est sur cette saillie comme sur sa base qui 
vient s'appuyer la pyramide quadrangulaire en pierre qui sert de toit a 
cette chapelle. Chaque contrefort est aussi surmonte de sa pyramide 
quadrangulaire, mais plus aigue que la grande. La partie la plus 
curieuse de ce petit edifice est au sommet de la grande pjramide. 
De ce point s'eleve une tour octogone d'un petit diametre, et de 4 a 5 
metres d'elevation. Elle porte a son sommet une charmante lanterne 

du plus gracieux effet Entrons dans 1'edifice .... 

rien ne pent etre compare a la grace, a la legerete, je dirais presque a 
la prevention de la charmante coupole qui forme la voute . . . les 
nervures . . . s'arretent a la naissance de la petite tour qui 
couronne tout 1'edifice, pour laisser apercevoir son interieur et le jour 
mysterieux qui 1'eclaire. C'est une heureuse pensee d'avoir entr'ouvert 
cette voute de pierre sur la tete du chretien agenouille aux pieds des 
autels comme pour 1'inviter ;i lever les yeux vers le ciel,' etc. 


The date of this chapel with the name of its founder, and the 
amount of its endowment are all set forth in the following 
charter of Bertha, tenth abbess of Fontevrault : 

* Bertha Dei gracia Fontis Ebraudi abbatissa omnibus presentes 
litteras inspecturis salutem in Domino. Noveritis quod venerabilis 
Ala quondam ducissa Borbonii post vero multum tempore religiosa 
monialis et benefactrix nostra, dedit nostro consilio et assensu in 
puram et perpetuam eleemosinam capellam quam adstrui fecit de suo 
proprio in medio cimiterii nostri, in honore beatae Catherinae, XLTX. 
solidos quatuor denarios minores singulis annis percipiendis . . . 
Dedit iterum octo solidos dictrc capellre ... In festo Sancti 
Michaelis percipiendos . . . et 30 sectaria frumenti . . . 
ad luminare praefatae capellae faciendum ... in eodem festo 
similiter recipienda. . . . Ut autem haec donatio firma et 
stabilis in perpetuum perseveret ad petitionem snpradictae Alae 
.presentes litteras sigilli nostri munimine facimus roborari. Actum 
anno gratiae MCCXW (Gallia Christ. II. instrumenta, col. 363). 

M. A. Saint Paul mentions briefly (Bulletin Monumental, vol. 
xxxi. p. 143), the occurrence of another of these cemetery chapels 
at Sarremezan, in the pays de Comminges. He says it is of the 
thirteenth century, and adds : ' Get edifice est fort simple, mais 
construit en pierres de taille ; on y voit le melange du style roman 
et du style ogival. Souvent, dans nos campagnes, on rencontre ainsi 
des chapelles plus ou moins anciennes, soit dans les cimetieres, soit 
au milieu des champs.' 

Of that at Jouh6 in Poitou, M. de Cougny says : ' Bien que 
depourvue de tout caractere architectural, la chapelle de Jouhe nous 
a semble rernonter au xvi e siecle. Elle est situee sur le bord de la 
place qui precede 1'eglise paroissiale, et qui doit etre un ancien 
cimetiere . . . Au fond de 1'abside de forme rectangulaire, sont 
representees la Creation, la Chute originelle, et dans un angle 
1' Annunciation. A la voute, on voit notre Seigneur accompagne des 
quatre Evangelistes . . . Les tableaux figures sur les murs 
lateraux forment deux zones superposees, et separees par une bande 
orne"e de quatre-feuilles. Us representent le Dieu, les trois morts et 
les trois vifs, le Jugement dernier, la Nativite, 1'Annonce aux bergers 


eb 1'Adoration des Mages. Dans le zone infe'rieure toutes les figures 
sont noires, mais on s'apersoit qu'elles ont ete prealablement esquissees 
en traits rouges, etc.' 

In the cemetery of Rochechouart is another, thus briefly described 
by M. 1'abbe Arbellot : ' Hors de la ville, dans un angle du cimetiere, 
on trouve la chapelle de Beaumossau (autrefois Moumossou, mauvais 
chemin). C'est une simple nef, a contreforts plats, avec un portail a 
1'ouest et une porte ogivale au sud-est. Elle fut batie vers 1280, par 
Foucard de Rochechouart, chanoine de Limoges, qui etait le sixieme 
fils d'Aimeric viii. vicomte de Rochechouart, et de Marguerite de 
Limoges.' Bulletin Monumental, vol. xxxiv. p. 411. 

M. de Oougny speaks thus of that at Vignemont in Touraine : 
'Sitiiee dans 1'ancien cimetiere du Pestiferes. C'etait dans cette 
chapelle que Ton deposait autrefois les corps des personnes mortes 
de contagion, et qu'on celebrait pour elles 1'office des defunts. Elle 
appartient au xii e siecle et est aujourd'hui converte en grange.' 
Bulletin Monumental, vol. xxxv., p. 145-6. 

Another of much interest is mentioned by M. de Caumont as still 
standing at Montmorillon in Poitou. ' L'octogone de Montmorillon,' 
says he. i monument du xii e siecle termine par un toit pyramidal 
. . . etait une chapelle sepulchrale. Avant 1772 cette chapelle 
etait, comme celle de Fontevrault, termine par une lanterne ou fanal.' 
M. de Coigny, however (Bulletin Monumental, vol. xxxiv.), gives a much 
fuller account of this monument, the erection of which, it appears, 
was ascribed by the antiquaries of the 18th century, to the Druids ! 
Like nearly all the German examples, to which attention will be 
called presently, it was provided with a subterranean chamber or 
crypt, which served the purpose of a charnel, or bone-house. 
' La chapelle superieure,' he tells us, ' est voutee en coupole surhausse"e, 
renforce'e de nervures toriques retombent sur des chapiteaux a 
crochets. Ohaque pan de Toctogone est orne d'arcatures ogi vales. 
Vis-a-vis la porte d'entree se trouve une abside rectangulaire, eclairee 
par une petite fenetre. Cette abside occupe un des pans de Toctogone. 
A 1'exterieure cette exedre est surmontee d'un petit cloches-arcade 
a simple fronton, imitant une haute lucarne. A gauche de cette 
partie de 1'octogone un escalier etroit, a marches elevees, menage 


dans 1'epaisseur du mur, descend dans la crypte. De cette crypte, 
suivant Montfaucon, un chemin large de plus d'une toise, et long 
d'environ cent, conduit a la riviere. Dans la chapelle superieure, et 
a gauche de la porte d'entree, un escalier pratique, comme le 
precedent, dans 1'epaisseur du mur, sert a monter sur le sommet de la 
coupole. De la sans doute, on pouvait elever et descendre le fanal 
place dans la lanterne. La colonne supportant cette lanterne etait, 
suivant Montfaucon, un tuyau de grandeur toujours egale, long de 
quatre toises.' 

In Mr. R. J. Johnson's fine folio on Early French Architecture 
is given (pi. xxxi.) a view of another early chapel of this kind 
standing in the cemetery of Breteuil (Oise). It is a small building 
thirty-eight feet seven inches long, by twenty- three feet three inches 
wide in the full externally, and resembles in all respects the detached 
chancel of a village church, only loftier and more dignified. Rect- 
angular on plan, and two bays in length, it is supported at the sides 
and ends by broad flat pilaster buttresses in stages, and a short 
intermediate one in the centre of the east gable. It is lighted by 
simple round-headed windows, one in each bay, and three towards 
the east, between and above which are two circular lights or oculi, 
another being placed above the westernmost of the two south 
windows. Here, as in many other instances, there would seem to 
have been no external lantern, and the light of the nocturnal 
lamp, if such were burnt, must therefore necessarily have been 
diffused by means of one or more of the windows. 

M. du Chatelier, writing on the subject of this class of structures 
(Bulletin Monumental, vol. xxxiv. pp. 94-5) mentions the curious 
example of one near the cathedral church of Quimper, which was 
devoted almost exclusively to the double purpose of a mortuary and 
baptismal chapel. He says : 'dans une copie des statuts de Fancien 
chapitre de Kemper (Quimper), siege de 1'eveche de Oornouailles, on 
trouve un capitulaire date de 1354, ou il est parle de plusieurs 
dispositions a suivre par les parents du defunt, qui portaient sa depouille 
mortelle dans la chapelle du baptistere, voisine de la cathedrale, pour 
la veille et la nuit : per noctandum et vigilandum ; que cette meme 
chapelle, affectee aux bapte'mes et a la vsillee des morts, etait pour 



la ville et la banlieue a pen pres exclusivement reserves aux veillees- 
dont nous parlons. 

' Malheureusement, quand un de nos eveques, M. de Rosmadec, en 
1426, jeta bas 1'ancienne eglise pour la reconstruire, le pauvre baptis- 
tere fut sacrifie efc avec lui les veillees des morts probablement. 

' Get usage cependant n'etait pas isole, et les deux eveches de Corn- 
ouailles et de Leon, qui forment aujourd' hui le territoire du deparfce- 
ment du Finisterre, possedent encore plusieurs chapelles mortuaires- 
du genre de celle que les statuts du chapitre de Kemper mentionnent 

' Nous pouvons citer entre autres les paroisses de Loutudy et de 
Pleyben, dans 1'eveche de Cornouailles ; celles de Comana, de Guic- 
millian, de Lampaul, de Goulven, dans I'eveche de Leon. 

' La plupart de ces chapelles, dont la fondation remonte au xiv e 
siecle, portent exterieurement et sur les rampants de leurs toitures, des 
signes non equivoques de leur destination. Toutes sont placees dans 
les cimetieres, cela va sans dire ; et quelques-unes, comme celles de 
Guicmillian et de Pleyben, sont accompagnees, outre 1'ossuaire de 
rigeur, de beaux calvaires ou la sculpture a developpe par des groupes 
nombreux les scenes de la passion et de la vie du Seigneur.' 



Following that ultimate development of the ' fanaux,' or 
' lanternes des morts,' the * chapelles isolees ;' it will be convenient, 
next in order, and before examining their counterparts, the German 
' Todtenleuchten ' and ' Rundcapellen,' to take account of another 
class of buildings to which, in some respects, the 'fanaux' seem 
more intimately allied ' the round towers of Ireland.' 

Of these, though many would seem to have perished, there are 
still very considerable remains, most of them in wonderfully good 

Their history, as a whole, has been thoroughly investigated by the 
late Dr. Petrie ; and their construction, and geological peculiarities,. 



toy Mr. Geo. "Wilkinson, the two best authorities who have treated the 
subject from those several points of view respectively. 

The following is the list of those still standing, as supplied by the 

Aghavuller, Kilkenny. Only about thirty feet remaining. 

Antrim. Perfect ; over ninety feet high ; door about ten feet above ground. 

Ardmore, Waterford. Nearly perfect ; conical cap ; door about ten feet 

above ground. See view annexed. 

Cashel, Tipperary. Nearly perfect ; conical top ; four openings below it. 
Clondalkin. Dublin. Conical top ; four square openings below. 



Castledermot, Kildare. Less than usual height ; connected by passage with 

church ; has upper openings only. 

Clones, Monaghan. Imperfect and ruinous ; holes for floors inside. 
Cloyne, Cork. Lofty tower ; stones wonderfully fitted, as though filed. 
Devenish, Fermanagh. See illustration above. 

Donoughmore, Meath. No top windows. For doorway, see illustration, p. 159. 
Fortagh. Above usual height ; top imperfect. 
'Glendalough, St. Kevin's Kitchen. See p. 157. 
Kells, Meath. Usual height ; five windows at top. 



Keneith, Cork. Top wanting ; hexagonal base. 
Kilcullen, Kildare. Considerable height, but wanting top. 
Kildare. Above usual height ; five openings at top ; late twelfth century. 
Killala, Mayo. Perfect ; usual height ; with four angle-headed top windows. 
Killmallock, Limerick. Less than usual height ; three doorways, one on 
level of church, with which the tower is connected ; one a few feet 
above the church, from which there are high steps ; the third about 
level with the parapet of the church. 

Kilree, Kilkenny. Above usual height ; 
Tipper openings square-headed. See 
Lusk, Dublin. Considerable height ; four 

square-headed openings at top. 
Meelick, Mayo. Nearly perfect ; but top 

Monasterboice, Louth. Top gone, with many 

feet of walling. 
Rathmichael, Dublin. Only a stump ; 

thought to have been left unfinished. 
Eattoo, Clare. Usual height ; conical top ; 

four large openings below. 
Eoscrea, Tipperary. Perfect, except 


Swords, Dublin. Conical top ; door about 
twenty feet from ground ; four large 
openings at top. 

Timahoe, Queen's County. Nearly one 
hundred feet high ; conical top ; and 
almost perfect. 
Turlough, Mayo. Usual height ; with 

conical top, and four upper lights. 
Tighadoe, Kildare. Less than usual height ; 

and top without usual opening?. 
S. Canice, Kilkenny. Eather above usual 

Large tower. Usual height ; openings at 


Seven Churches, King's County. 

top square. 
Seven Churches, Do. Small tower ; less than usual height ; and nearly 

perfect ; door on ground, and opens into a small chapel. 
Seven Churches, Wicklow. Average height ; top wanting ; four large 

square-headed windows below it. 

The foregoing embraces nearly the whole of the round towers 
which remain. At Killossey, in Kildare, is one of peculiar form, 
having a larger base, and being of less than the usual height. At 
Kilmacduagh, Galway, is one of usual height, but leaning consider- 



.ably. At Ram's Island, on Lough Neagh, and at Tory Island, on the 
western coast of Donegal, are also round towers. There would 
seem, therefore, to be at least, some six and thirty of these round 
towers still standing, in a more or less perfect state, all placed in 
cemeteries, and in connexion with, or attached to, churches. 

And now, as to the origin and uses of these towers. Exactly as 
in the case of the 'low side windows,' and of the 'fanaux,' or 
^lanternes des morts,' speculation has had a 'fair field'; and the 


wildest of wild guess-work, every 'favour.' Local antiquaries were 
for the most part long divided as to the source of their introduction, 
one section attributing it to the Danes ; the other, and more 
ambitious, to the Phoenicians ! And then as bo their uses all 
kinds, possible and impossible, were advanced from time to time, with 
the utmost confidence, and backed by arguments as endless as unin- 
telligible. They were fire temples places from which to proclaim 
Druidical festivals gnomons, or observatories phallic emblems, or 


Buddhist temples anchorite, or stylite columns penitential prisons 
belfries keeps, or monastic castles and finally, beacons, or watch 

Foremost, as well as most voluminous, of all these busy theorists, 
was the renowned General Yallancey, who, with an overwhelming 
display of Old Irish, Persian, Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, Chaldee, Perso- 
Scy&hian, Hindoo, and Syriac quotations, endeavoured to prove their 
Phoenician, Persian, Indo-Scythian, Formosian, or African sea- 
champion, origin the last named dating from shortly after the 
Noachian deluge ! Seduced by all this show of pseudo-learning, he 
secured, naturally enongh, a considerable following to change with 
him in all his changing moods. His first contention, propounded in 
1772, was that they were Phoenician, or Indo-Scythian fire-temples, 
in which the Irish Druids kept the holy fire with which, every 
recurring May-day, all the people were required to supply themselves. 
Then came the discovery that they were introduced by the ' African 
sea -champions.' After that, that they were sorcerers' towers ; and 
after that, again, observatories, where, after the manner of the 
Canaanites of old, the Irish Druids observed the revolution of the 
year, festivals, &c., by dancing round them. Then again, discarding 
all his former theories, he finds they were not African, or Phoenician 
towers at all, but those of the Persian, or Chaldaean Magi. No longer 
towers for celestial observations, or for proclaiming anniversaries, or 
sorcerers' towers, or towers for Druids to dance around they are now 
4 fire towers,' for the restored religion of Zerdust, or Zoroaster ! 

And so on, and so on, with interminable speculations and 
wranglings as to the precise force and scope of (generally unintelligible) 
ancient Irish terms charges, and counter charges of ignorance, 
disingenuousness, perversion, fraud, invention and falsehood, more 
Hibernico, to the utter 'weariness of the flesh.' Alas, for poor 
General Yallancey and all the tribe of contemporary, and later dis- 
putants ! Had they but possessed the faintest knowledge even of 
their own home architecture, what cataracts of ink, and what amount 
of heart, and head achings, might they not have spared both 
themselves, and other people too ! Marvellous weavers of fancies, 
but, all the while, blankly ignorant of facts, which, staring them in 



the face, falsified them all completely. For that these towers are not 
only of Christian origin, but of dates varying, in some few cases, from, 
perhaps, the seventh to the thirteenth centuries, is shown, by the internal 
evidence of style alone, beyond dispute. Not only do Christian emblems 
occur upon several of them (as in the accompanying illustration), but 
in that of Kildare, for example, though thought even by Dr. Petrie, to 
to have been reckoned of great antiquity in the twelfth century, the 
details, so far from supporting any such idea, belong to quite the 
latter part of it, i.e., to the Transitional Norman style, simply frisked. 
And, moreover, it is worthy of note that, though some few may be, 
and possibly are, to some small extent, perhaps, of as early a date as 
that claimed for them by Dr. Petrie, 
yet the first authentic notice of their 
existence is one which refers to the 
burning of that at Slane, in 950 ; 
while the earliest authentic record of 
the erection of such a tower is in 
connexion with that of Tomgrancy, 
in Clare, by bishop Cormachus Hua- 
Killene, in 964. As to that at Arrna- 
down, in the county of Galway, now 
destroyed, the Annals of the Four 
Masters fixes the date of its con- 
struction as late as the year 1238. 

The questions of origin, and date 
therefore, being clearly established, 
it remains to take account, first- of their construction, and then 
of the purposes to which they were applied. 

They are found, according to Dr. Petrie's account of them, to be 
' rotund, cylindrical structures, usually tapering upwards, and varying 
in height from fifty to, perhaps, one hundred and fifty feet ; and, in 
external circumference, at the base, from forty to sixty feet, or 
somewhat more. They have usually a circular projecting base 
consisting of one, two, or three steps, or plinths, and are finished at 
the top with a conical roof of stone, which, frequently, as there is 
every reason to believe, if not always, terminated with a cross formed of a 



single stone. The wall, towards the base, is never less than three feet 
in thickness, but is usually more, and occasionally five feet, being 
always in accordance with the general proportions of the building. 
In the interior they are divided into storeys, varying in number from 
four to eight, as the height of the towers permitted, and usually 
about twelve feet in height. These storeys are marked either by 
projecting belts of stone, set-offs or ledges, or holes in the wall to 
receive joists on which rested the floors, which were almost always of 
wood. In the uppermost of these storeys the wall is perforated by 
two, four, five, six, or eight apertures, but most usually four, which 
sometimes, though not always, face the cardinal points. The lowest 
storey, or rather its place, is sometimes composed of solid masonry, 
and when not so, it has never any aperture to light it. In the second 
storey the wall is usually perforated by the entrance doorway, which is 
generally from eight, to thirty feet from the ground, and only large 
enough to admit a single person at a time. The intermediate storeys 
are each lighted by a single aperture placed variously, and usually of 
very small size, though in several instances, that directly over the 
doorway is of a size little less than that of the doorway, and would 
appear to be intended as a second entrance/ 

In this last particular, however, Dr. Petrie's conjecture would 
seem to be altogether beside the mark, the use of the larger opening 
immediately overhead, being much more probably that of the 
machicoulis above the entrances of castles, and other fortified 
places, viz., to enable those inside to protect themselves by lowering, 
or precipitating therefrom beams, stones, or other missiles on the 
heads of the besiegers. And this, at once, brings us to the considera- 
tion of the several purposes which these towers were meant to serve. 
For that unlike the 'fanaux' and ' Todtenleuchten,' of France and 
Germany they had, and, from the first, were meant to have, more 
uses than one is clear ; just as clear, indeed, as that those structures 
had, and could have had, but one, and one use only. In either case, 
the structural peculiarities leave no doubt on this point whatever. 
As compared with these Irish towers, both ' Todtenleuchten ' and 
4 fanaux,' are for the most part, of very small and slight dimensions 
indeed ; varying, as regards the former more especially, from simple 


pillar-lanterns, some ten or twelve feet high, to richly decorated 
shafts of thirty the < fanaux/ which are usually of more equal 
height, ranging between twenty and thirty, or somewhat more. But, 
whatever the actual size of either one or other may be, it is evident 
that their purpose was a single one, viz. : that of light-houses, 
.accompanied commonly, in the case of the * fanaux,' by a small altar 
slab projecting from the base. Simple hollow shafts or tubes of 
stone, with one or more openings for light above, and a small door 
with wooden shutter, just sufficient for trimming and adjusting the 
lamp below, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to conceive their 
serving any other use than that for which they were so manifestly 
designed, and which the names they have always borne ' perpetual,' 
or ' poor souls' lights,' ' lanterns,' or ' light-houses of the dead,' 
describe so well. For this they sufficed perfectly for nothing more. 

As to the round towers, it is quite otherwise. Striking as their 
-similarity to the fanaux is so striking, indeed, that, if drawn to 
different scales, the one might often be readily taken for the other their 
dissimilarity is just as striking. And this comes out most strongly 
and readily, perhaps, with respect to bulk. Though, like both 
fan aux and Tcdtenleuchten, varying considerably in this respect, yet 
the smallest of these towers by far exceeds, both in height and 
breadth, the largest of either class of those structures. From fifty to, 
perhaps, a hundred and twenty or thirty feet high; with strongly 
built walls, averaging about four feet in thickness, and having, in 
many instances, the lower storey filled in solid ; with single, narrow, 
doorways placed at heights varying from eight or ten , to about 
thirty feet above the ground ; divided into several storeys com- 
municating with each other, and all of them with the top ; it becomes 
obvious at a glance, that they were needed to meet requirements of 
which the fanaux and Todtenleuchten were incapable. And what 
those requirements were, is made as clear from their own internal 
evidence of design as again like the fc Todtenleuchten ' and * fanaux ' 
from the names by which they have all along been known. 

Their isolated position, though always in close connexion with 
churches ; their not only relatively, but actually, great height ; their 
massive construction, internal capacity and fittings ; the character 



of their doorways and other openings, declare at once, and in a way 
there is no mistaking, that defence of the persons and property of 
the ecclesiastics, as well as of others, was at least one of the primary 
objects of their erection. Otherwise, such arrangements could have 
no meaning. 

But then, these very arrangements point to something more than a 
merely defensive purpose, however admirably designed to that end. 
The single small aperture which was deemed sufficient for the lighting 
and ventilation of each of the lower storeys, gives place in the upper one 
to others of larger size, varying from as many as eight to four, the usual 
number, and commonly facing the cardinal points. Such, in England, 
and, as a rule, everywhere else, is, as need hardly be said, the number 
of windows in all square-towered belfries of whatever size ; and that 
this also was another primary use, may be safely inferred, not merely 
from inherent fitness and analogy, but from their original and universal 
designation of ' cloictheac,' a bell-tower. And such, as Dr. Petrie 
tells us, is the name they go by at the present day ; and not without 
reason, since, in some of them, bells are hung still. Yet, for all that, 
their compound use as keeps has never been lost sight of, either 
traditionally or historically ; as witness, among many other notices 
of a like kind, the following from the Annals of the Four Masters : 
4 A.D. 948. The cloictheach of Slane was burnt by the Danes, with its 
full of reliques and good people, with Caoinechair, Eeader of Slane, 
and the crozier of the patron saint, and a bell, the best of bells.' 

Nor, yet again, would the uses for which they were designed seem 
to have been limited to those of keeps and belfries, as, in disturbed 
districts happened so frequently, both at home and abroad. As Dr. 
Petrie so well points out, the mistakes of all the Irish antiquaries at, 
and up to his time, was that of confining the purpose of those towers 
to one single issue exclusively ; a course which involving them, as it 
necessarily did, in endless altercations while failing altogether in the 
establishment of any one theory, proved only the inability of their 
several authors to understand the many-sided aspects of their subject. 

Besides being meant for belfries and keeps, he distinguishes a 
further intention in their design, viz., that of watch-towers or 
beacons. This view he bases on the fact of their having been used 


as places of defence and refuge, coupled with their aptitude for such 
purposes, and which would lead to their being used at night time to 
attract and guide travellers to places of hospitality and prayer. And 
he felt himself confirmed in the belief by the authority of Dr. Lingard, 
whose opinion was * that the Irish round towers were chiefly, if not 
exclusively, intended for this purpose.' This opinion he would seem 
to have founded largely upon Wolstan's description of the new tower 
of Winchester cathedral, as built by bishop Elphege, the successor of 
Athelwold, who had commenced, but not finished, the work at the 
time of his death, in 984. In his poetical letter to Elphege, he gives, 
among other details, a particular account of the great central tower 
as constructed by that prelate, as follows : 

' Insuper excelsum fecistis et addere templum 

Quo sine nocte manet continuata dies 
Turris ab axe micat, quo sol oriendo coruscat 

Et spargit lucis spicula prima suae. 
Quinque tenet patulis segmenta oculata fenestris 

Per quadrasque plagas pandit ubique vias 
Stant excelsa tholis rostrata cacumina turris 

Fornicibus variis et sinuata micant. 
Quae sic ingenium docuit curvare perituum 

Quod solet in pulchris addere pulchra locis 
Stat super auratis virgae fabricatio bullis 
Aureus et totum splendor adornat opus.' 

' Additur ad specimen stat ei quod vertice gallus 
Aureus ornatu grandis et intuitu. 

Impiger imbrit'eros qui suscipit undique ventos 
Seque rotundo suam praebet eis faciem.' 

Thus Englished, by the late Professor Willis, in the Winchester volume 
of the Arch. Institute, p. 14, 1846 : 

' Moreover, you have added a lofty temple, in which continual day remains, 
without night' (to wit) ' a sparkling tower that reflects from heaven the first 
rays of the rising sun. It has five compartments pierced by open windows, and 
on all four sides as many ways are open. The lofty peaks of the tower are 
capped with pointed roofs, and are adorned with various and sinuous vaults, 
carved with well-skilled contrivance.' ' Above these stands a rod with golden 
balls, and at the top a mighty golden cock which boldly turns its face to every 
wind that blows.' 

Dr. Lingard, it may be added, understood the expression, 'Quo 
sine nocte manet continuata dies,' to imply distinctly that the windows 


of the tower were illuminated all night through ; and such would 
certainly seem to be its natural meaning, though I am not aware of 
any other instance of a central tower being used for such a purpose. 
But that it could not have been intended for use as a pharus, or 
light-house to guide belated travellers over dangerous wastes, as, to- 
some extent, owing to their sites, and the normal condition of the 
country, might not improbably have been the case with most of the 
Irish round towers, seems evident from its wholly converse 
circumstances. For such as might possibly have obtained there, and 
which here, certainly in some instances, as in the great plain at York 
and the fens at Lincoln, led to the erection of the well-known lantern 
towers of All Saints Pavement, in the one case, and of S. Botolph's 
Boston, in the other, find no place at all in that of Winchester. Its 
main purpose must evidently have been of a more restricted kind, viz., 
that of a fanal, for the use, not so much of the absent as of the 
present ; not for travellers, but for those at rest ; not for the living, 
but for the dead. 

Such was certainly the nature of the light pillar referred to by 
Mabillon in his Iter Germanicum and not a little interesting in this 
connexion as occurring in the Irish monastery of S. Columbanus 
at Luxovium, or Luxeuil. in Burgundy, and of which he says : 
4 Luxovium. Cernitur prope Majorem Bcclesiae Portam Pharus r 
quam Lucernam vocant, cujus omnino consimilem vidi aliquando apud 
Carnutas. Ei usui fuisse videtur, in gratiam eorum, qui noctu 
ecclesiam frequentabantur.' 

But Mabillon, it is clear, knew no more of the fanaux than- 
M. de Caumont, and the generality of the French antiquaries of his 
day. To whatever uses this at Luxeuil might happen to have been 
applied at the time of his visit ; whatever ideas as to its original 
purpose may then have existed ; and by whatever name it may have 
been known to those upon the spot, there cannot be the least doubt, 
either from its character or position, that it was simply one of the- 
old ' lanternes des morts ' neither more nor less. 

The idea of these pillar lights, however, being intended primarily 
to guide wayfarers, entirely unhistorical and absurd as it is, has yet, 
all along, taken strong hold of the imaginations of French antiquaries,. 


as offering, perhaps notwithstanding their utter unfitness some 
sort of practical solution of their meaning. To shew a light to those 
purely imaginary people who, declining for some occult reason, to- 
* frequent ' the church like everybody else by day. were supposed to do 
so by night instead, ' seemed,' it appears, superficially, and to such as 
took no pains to enquire, quite a rational explanation of their raison 
d'etre. But then the single word ' videtur ' which implies, and with 
perfect truth, real ignorance of the case, gives it away, as will be 
observed, completely. The connexion of this fanal with the Irish 
monastery at Luxeuil, however, is sufficiently interesting. There 
under wholly altered conditions, we see a corresponding change of 
plan. No longer needed as places of refuge or treasure houses ; 
inadequate as belfries where many bells existed ; the other use of the 
round towers still remained, and to such, and such only, this one at 
Luxeuil was naturally applied. Had it at all approached those of the 
mother country, either in height or other particulars, Mabillon would, 
doubtless, have taken due notice of the fact ; but he does nothing of 
the kind. On the contrary, he states precisely that it was just 
such another as he had observed at Carnutas, in other words, one of 
the usual French type. 

The true explanation of these ' fanaux,' be it said, must be sought 
elsewhere than at Luxeuil, and in earlier and better informed author- 
ities on such matters than Mabillon. And it will be found, ready to 
hand, in the cemetery of the abbey of Cherlieu, and in the account of 
the ' fanal' there given by Peter the Venerable, abbot of Oluni, who- 
dying in 1156, lived, consequently, while the earliest of those which 
have come down to us were being built, and when the uses to which 
they were applied were not only thoroughly understood, but practised. 
In his description of that place, he says : ' Obtinet medium cimeterii" 
locum structura quaedam lapidea habens in summitate sua quanti- 
tatem unius lampadis capacem, quae ob reverentiam fidelium ibi 
quiescentium, totis noctilus fulgore suo locum ilium sacratum illustrat, 


Not a syllable, be it observed, about its lighting the way for those 
afflicted with the strange desire of visiting churches in the dark, to 
whom both Mabillon and De Caumont refer so confidently. Nothing 


whatever about belated travellers, pilgrims, delayed funerals from 
' over the hills and far away ' putrescent corpses too far gone to be 
allowed inside, bands of marauding soldiery, vine dressers, or other 
such like figments of uninformed imagination, but contrariwise 
and simply the surrounding dead. 

And here, let me call attention to the force of the singularly 
appropriate not to say technical word, ' reverentiam,' adopted in 
his explanation. Now, the first and chief sense of the verb l revereor,' 
as given by Dr. Smith is ' to stand in awe or fear of ; " after that," 
to respect, honour, or revere.' And it need hardly be urged, I think,, 
how the presence of the dead both is, and ever has been, accompanied 
by feelings of awe nay, in some mysterious way, of fear. What 
wonder then that such feelings should find special expression and 
intensity in these places where the dead of centuries lie interred ! and 
how naturally do they become increased and magnified at night time, 
and in the dark, when all things living are absent and we are left 
alone in the midst of that silent and solemn company ! How instinct- 
ively does everyone, without exception, under such circumstances, 
crave eagerly for light as a protective in some sort against that 
undefined, but very real and very present ' timore nocturne ' and that 
negotio perambulante in tenebris, of which the Psalmist as all experi- 
ence teaches tells so truly. 

Here then, in the first place, and merely from the standpoint of 
the spectator, may we see a reason for the use of the word ' reverentiam/ 
in the sense of awe, or fear. The cemetery light served, it is clear, 
more purposes than one ; it not only ' helped to protect, as with a 
shield,' those who ' were alive and remained ' upon the earth, but 
those also who had left it and lay below. But, though doubtless 
affording comfort to the living, such use was still wholly subordinate 
to that other, and fundamental one of succouring and defending the 
dead. If it helped to preserve the one from that natural fear of 
apparitions and 'phantoms of the night,' which has haunted all 
mankind at all times, apparently ; it was held to preserve ' the bodies 
of the saints which slept,' from infinitely greater and more dreadful 
terrors, viz : those of demoniacal possession and defilement. That, 
we learn, was the chief end and object of the existence of those 


Manternes des morts,' the besfc, and most practical way in which 
those who had been dear to them, and to whom their memory was 
still dear, could exhibit their respect and ' reverence.' 

Considering then, the close and striking similarity observable 
in so many points between these ' lanternes des morts ' and the 
* round towers of Ireland,' how, it may well be asked, is it possible 
to doubt their main identity of purpose ? Found constantly in close 
proximity to churches, while yet detached from them ; always, and 
without exception, in the midst of cemeteries, pillar-like and rotund 
of form, terminating in conically shaped roofs surmounted by the 
cross, and pierced normally at their summits with four (or some- 
times more) openings facing, commonly, the four cardinal points ; 
built by people of cognate race who held constant intercourse with 
each other ; holding the same faith, possessed with similar super- 
stitions, it would be strange, indeed, if coincidences so striking and 
various, were purely accidental, and disconnected with the one central 
fact which would lead up to, and explain them all. The only and 
wholly unimportant differences which exist between the * f anaux ' and 
the ' round towers ' are due simply to those developments demanded 
by the special and peculiar circumstances of the latter, and in no way 
affect the primary purpose common to them both. What that 
purpose was, as regards the former, the highest and most unquestion- 
able contemporary authority has told us, and there cannot, I think, 
on the most searching and dispassionate view of the case, be any 
reasonable doubt but that the same ' reverentiam fidelium %bi 
quiescentium, was the real and constraining motive in both instances 



Turning now from that branch of our subject as exhibited in the 
Around towers of Ireland' which, though so much loftier and 
bulkier than the French 'fanaux,' most nearly resemble them in 
general outline we arrive at length at that final and specially 
interesting group of monuments of the like kind, the German ' Tod- 
tenleuchten,' ' Armenseelen ' or ' Ewigelichte.' Together with their 


associated ' Rundcapellen ' and ' Karner,' they present in principle 
.as strikingly close a parallel to the French 'lanternes des morts,' and 
' chapelles isolees,' as could well be imagined. In respect of form, 
however, they display, generally some distinctive features. For 
-example, the early German form of ' Rundcapellen,' or circular grave- 
yard chapels, is seldom, if ever, seen in France, while the ' Licht- 
saulen,' or ' Todtenleuchten,' instead of being circular like so many of 
the French 'fanaux,' would seem, as a rule, never to be so by any 
chance whatever. 

Though many of these perpetual lights still remain, great 
numbers as in the case of the 'fanaux' owing to their isolated 
position and comparative slenderness and unimportance, appear to 
have perished. For, though some of them were as lofty as, and much 
more highly enriched than, any of the fanaux of which any evidence 
exists ; very many, on the other hand, would seem to have been plain, 
simple, pillar-lanterns, only some ten feet, or so, in height, and of 
little or no architectural pretension at all. 

Whatever remains of these light-pillars of an earlier date may 
happen to be found in divers out of the way places as is every way 
likely to be the case it is yet not a little remarkable that the earliest 
of which any generally accessible account is obtainable, dates only 
from the latter part of the fourteenth century. The fanaux, on the 
contrary, are, for the most part, far earlier, ranging from about the 
middle of the twelfth, to that of the fourteenth century, when chapels, 
in some shape or other, began to supersede them. But, though only 
beginning so far as recorded examples witness where the lanternes 
des morts left off, the Todtenleuchten continued to hold their own all 
along till the use of such appliances commonly 'ceased and 

As to the mortuary or graveyard chapels, they would seem to 
have existed, both in France and Germany, from a very early period, 
that of S. Croix, near Aries, dating, as we have already seen, from 
the year 1019 ; while their generic German name of ' Kundcapellen,' 
which points to their circular form, wherein all the details are in the 
early round arched style, points, with sufficient clearness, to the 
primitive period to which the more ancient of them belong. In 


later times, these ancient circular chapels gave place to others of 
polygonal shape, and more elegant and ornate character. Of 
these a very beautiful example may be seen in that known 
as the Anna chapel, attached to the church of Heiligenstadt. 
Though now called a baptistry, there cannot, I think, be any 
doubt, judging as well from its form as from the lantern which 
so conspicuously crowns its summit, that it was originally, as the late 
Mr. Fergusson, in whose fine work a view of it appears, was fully 
convinced, really one of the later graveyard chapels, a more typical 
illustration of which it would be difficult to find. As to the earlier 
fashion, the diagrams given in vol. vii. of the Mittheilungen 
of the Austrian Government, p. 319, may serve to show the typical 
character of those commonly erected during the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries throughout Bohemia. In all examples of this class, the 
everlasting light which burnt before the altar, must either have hung 
so hi'gh as to project its rays directly from the lantern ; or, which 
would seem far more likely, been supplemented by another in that 
position, the usual, and, comparatively, feeble altar light shining only, 
so far as it could do so at all, through the east and two side windows. 

To the west of the Benedictine abbey church of S. lak, in 
Hungary a somewhat small, but magnificent, tri-apsal, two-towered 
building in the German transitional style of the early thirteenth 
century is a so-called * round-chapel ' of the same character and 
period. On plan, a spherical quatrefoil, and in two storeys, its entrance 
doorway is in the centre of the southern apse, where the cloister formerly 
stood, with a small window on each side of it. The western apse, 
which contains a winding staircase in the thickness of the wall, is 
windowless, while the east and north limbs, or apses, are each lighted 
by three windows, those in the upper storey being double, and with 
the lights divided by a shaft. The central pyramid, which is of the 
same form as the main building, is small and windowless, so that the 
rays of the light, or lights, before the altar must have been diffused 
solely through these windows, and not, as commonly, through the 
central pyramid or lantern. 

Another of these graveyard chapels may be instanced in that of 
Our Lady's church at Wiener Neustadt. Like so many others, it lay 



towards the south, and was under the invocation of the Archangel S. 
Michae). The priest, Johann Putchmann, is recorded to have 
bestowed 4000 florins wherewith to provide a yearly requiem on the 
patronal festival, in 1613, and it still continued in use in 1776. As 
in the case of some of the pillar-lights, its plan is a hexagon with a 
semicircular apsis attached to' the eastern face. Slender buttresses 
project from each angle ; and each face, or side of the hexagon 
originally terminated upwards, German fashion, in high pointed gables. 
At the present day these have been truncated, and a plain tiled roof 
applied to the entire body of the chapel. Like that at S. lak it 
belongs to the time of the transition. The interior has a richly 
groined stone vault, supported on shafts with capitals of overhanging 
foliage, and is lighted by two deeply recessed round-headed windows. 
Two others of similar form, but larger, light the apse. The original 
roof being destroyed, it is now impossible to say whether it terminated 
in an open lantern or not, or whether all the light displayed externally, 
proceeded, as at S. lak, through the altar, and other windows of the 
chapel proper. 

In the earlier period of the Middle Ages, says Herr Von A. 
Essenwein, in his very interesting and well-illustrated account of 
certain ' Todtenleuch ten' in Austria, published in vol. vii.of the Govern- 
ment Mitthleilungen zur Erforschung und Erhaltung der Bavdenkmale, 
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, when the ' Earner ' were mostly of 
round form, it may be that the everlasting light burning before the 
altar may have fulfilled the purpose of the Todtenleuchten. The 
light must have been hung so high that it would be visible outside, 
viz., in a lantern on the top of the building, whence also rightly the 
name of this part of the building. Indeed the lantern attached to 
the many round churches of Bohemia at that time had no other 
meaning. The transition between them and the pillar lights 
constitutes the ' Karner,' on whose point a very high and slender 
attachment was placed as a lantern a distinct light-pillar. 

With the thirteenth century the ' Karner ' became scarcer, the 
light-pillars more numerous ; the lantern also partly disappeared 
from the ' Earner,' and it is therefore to be supposed that both uses 
came into vogue about the same time ; the polygonal rectangular 

Arch. Ael. vol. xxiii. ; to face p. 171. 




chapel also came into use instead, when it did not suit to use the 

Speaking of the * Todtenleuchten ' or light-pillars, he says, ' There 
are none known to us in Germany earlier than the end of the 
thirteenth century, although such doubtless have existed, though 
none have been preserved. The oldest in Germany that I can at the 
moment remember are the remains of the dead-lights inside the 
cloisters of the cathedral of Magdeburg ; that beautiful little early 
Gothic light-house in the cathedral of Ratisbon ; and the one at 
Puttrich, built outside the school gate, etc. The last is still a formal 
chapel with high lantern which also exemplifies very clearly the 
transition from one kind to the other. The Earner with lanterns 
may, however, have been erected later, but they are for the most part 
simple towers of masonry of greater or less height, four-cornered or 
polygonal, with openings at the top through which the light shone. 
A pretty little pillar stands also in the churchyard of Schwaz, 
near Innsbruck. It consists of a round column, upon which is a 
quadrangular little lighthouse closed by four gables, and supporting 
a pyramid. The everlasting light, it may be added, burns within it 

Finest of all the Todtenleuchten, however so far, at least, as I 
have yet seen is the beautiful one, about thirty feet in height, at 
Klosterneuburg. Hexagonal in form, and standing with well 
developed base upon a platform of three steps, which serve to give an 
air of sufficient stability to the work, nothing more exquisitely 
proportioned, or admirably decorated than all its seven stages, could 
be imagined, or more perfectly suited to their purpose. Scenes 
from the Lord's Passion among which the scourging and the 
crucifixion appear clearly in the illustration are exhibited in the 
fourth, or central band of sculpture, immediately above the lantern : 
thus again, as in others of its class, together with the French fanaux 
and the Irish round towers, enabling it to play the further part of 
churchyard cross. Tall and slender as a candle, like that famous, 
though now destroyed monument of the Sainte Chandelle at Arras, it 
was built, as appears by an inscription on the upper part of the shaft, 
in the year 1381 ; and, what is very much to the point, and worth 


noting, after a visitation of pestilence, and in memory, and for the 
benefit, of those wlio died therein, and slept below. 

Another six-sided perpetual light also stood formerly, it seems, in 
front of the south side of the cathedral of S. Stephen, at Vienna, not 
far from the tower. All that is now known about it, however, is 
found in a small, and not very accurate view by Merian, which shows 
it to have been in two stages, the uppermost somewhat plain and 
simple, and crowned by a rectangular spire. 

One of the simplest plan may be seen at Gurk in Carinthia, in the 
churchyard, near the cathedral. It is four-square, capped with a 
pyramid pierced by four pointed trefoliated lights at the top of the 
shaft, and with the usual little opening for trimming, lighting, and 
regulating the lamp. It is about fifteen feet high. 

Another, only about ten feet high, and, consequently, so low that 
the lamp could be trimmed and placed in its niche by hand, without 
any assistance of chain or pulley, occurs in the cathedral yard at 
Brixen. With a four-square base and lantern, connected by a banded, 
octagonal shaft, it terminates in a stout, short spire, and bears date, 
1483. In the year 1488 a beautiful five-sided light-pillar, about 
thirty feet high, was erected in the churchyard of Freistadt, in Upper 
Austria. From a circular base, set upon two pentagonal steps, rises 
a long slender column enriched with deeply cut angle mouldings, 
each of which has its own proper base and sub-base dying into the 
splayed surface of the common one below. Above this lower half 
comes the lantern, with slender angle shafts supporting five inter- 
lacing, ogee-shaped, crocketted and finialled canopies, each of which 
embraces two sides of the lantern. The lower part of each face of it 
only is perforated for light. Above these openings the solid surfaces 
are enriched with pointed trefoliated heads, so that each pair presents 
the appearance of an ogee-headed and crocketted window of two 
lights with a quatrefoil over, whose mullions and tracery, instead of 
lying in the same plane as the jambs, project forward, like the enclosing 
arch above them, towards the centre. The opening for the lamp, as 
well as the stand to set it on, appear below at the usual level, and 
the whole is crowned with a rich spire and finial, surmounted by a 
metal crucifix. 


Another interesting and characteristic light-pillar is that at 
Penzing, near Vienna. Twenty-six feet in height, it stands upon a 
stepped quadrangular base, in which the aperture for raising the light 
is worked at somewhat less than the usual level. Above this square 
base, the shaft, canted into a concave octagon, rises straight to the 
lantern, which is fashioned by simply cutting away the faces of the 
shaft, and leaving their extreme angular points as supports to the 
pyramid, which finishes in a finial. Immediately below the lantern 
appears a projecting gabled tabernacle, supported on moulded 
brackets, and bearing upon its face the picture of the crucifixion 
sculptured in relief. In this case, again, we see the office of the 
everlasting light combined with that of the churchyard cross ; just 
as it sometimes is with the Karner, and as were formerly also the 
Karner and the cross. 

Leaving the subject of the detached light-pillars, however, of 
which we have now had ample illustration, let us retrace our steps to 
Vienna, and the great cathedral church of S. Stephen, where others 
of somewhat different form, though precisely the same nature, await 
us. There are said to be no fewer than ten such still remaining 
there, and they are of the utmost interest in our present enquiry as 
supplying the all-important connecting link between the lanternes 
des morts, Irish round towers, and Todtenleuchten, and our own, so- 
called, low side windows. Todtenleuchten still, to all intents and 
purposes, they appear, notwithstanding, under entirely different forms 
and conditions. No longer standing free in the churchyard, and at 
considerable height above the ground, they are now discovered like 
our own low side windows not only to form part and parcel of the 
cnurch itself, but as with such vast numbers of them to be set 
quite low down in the walls, close upon, and even ivithin, the basement. 
We see these Todtenleuchten, in fact, passing at a single step into 
veritable low side windows, pure and simple, more especially in 
those cases where the wall of the church is thoroughly perforated, so 
that the lamp could be trimmed either from within or from without. 

Of these, the majority are said by Von Essenwein to be again, just 
like so many of such openings among ourselves quite unimportant, 
little quadrangular stone lanterns built into the wall in any kind of 


nook or corner, and open sometimes on one side only, sometimes on 
two. Some of them, he adds, may have stood, in part, quite open, 
like the detached light-pillars, so that the light could be placed 
within them, protected partly by rails, and partly by glass ; in which 
case openings were provided for the passage of smoke. In the present 
(1862) restoration of the cathedral, he says, are stone heaps all round, 
enclosed in barriers of planks, so that it is not possible to make a 
sufficiently close examination either of the number, or details, of these 
light-houses. He gives an interesting illustration of one of the 
simplest sort on the west side of the cathedral. It is constructed 
partly above, and partly below, the basement mouldings, just as at 
S. Outhbert's, and S. Mary's Castlegate, York. 

Among the more highly enriched and important ones, the same 
writer states, were three, previously unknown to him. The most 
ornate stood on the south side of the chapel of S. Eligius. From a 
slender round stem, rose, above a massive corbel, a polygonal lantern, 
and out of this, another and still loftier one, highly enriched with 
niches, buttresses, finials, mouldings and other architectural enrich- 
ments, the whole of which closely resembled a Sacramentshaus ; but 
all so enveloped in scaffolding as to render the making of a drawing 
impossible. Such was also the case with a four-square one carried on 
a column on the north side in the angle of the tower. The third on 
the east side in the corner could be drawn. Above a slender round 
column with a polygonal base sprang an alternate quadrangular and 
octagonal corbel, over which stood the square-shaped lantern with 
round columns in the corners. A steeply sloping roof surmounted 
the horizontal cornice, and terminated in a lofty finial. It was 
formerly covered with freely designed ornament, parts of which, 
however, only now remain. The scroll gives the names of the 
builders, and the date, 1502. 

Many, perhaps most, if not all, indeed, of these little light-houses 
would seem to have been constructed by private individuals on behalf 
of their own proper, or, at least, family burying places, since they are 
frequently found embellished with figures, names, and coats of arms. 
By way of illustration he gives one from the parish church of 
Botzen. It rests on a console which springs from the head of an 


apparently evil spirit, and bears the busts of a man and woman, whose 
shield of arms appears between them. The lantern, which is quad- 
rangular, and open on the three external sides, is pierced at the back 
through the substance of the wall, so that the lamp as in the case 
of so many of our own low side windows could be managed from the 
interior. Behind the window opening stands a baldachino, supported 
on pillars, underneath which is an angel who grasps them with his 

There are three more of these light-houses at Botzen one close 
to that just described. In all four instances, however, there is only 
one in which the lamp is regulated from the outside ; the light in the 
other three being transmitted, just as with us, from the inside of the 

In conclusion, I may mention the side-window of the cemetery 
chapel at Oppenheim. Access to it is gained by a little stair-case 
insicle the chapel. Thence a torchlight could either be displayed 
straight forward, or a lamp placed within a lantern, and set upon 
the platform carried by the detached shaft, whence, protected by 
the canopy overhead, its rays would be projected, as in some other of 
these instances, to both right and left as well. 

And thus, we have now at length come, step by step, to trace, not 
only the existence of a certain similarity or parallelism between the 
probable uses of the low side windows, as developed in England, and 
those attaching to the lanternes des mortes, Irish round towers, 
and Todtenleuchten, but a far closer and more intimate relationship. 
That the uses of all must have been more or less alike, it was only, 
prima facie, reasonable to suppose. The same faith, the same rites, 
ceremonies, and religious observances practised by our own ancestors, 
were held and observed equally, and by all alike. And not only the 
same faith as regarded in its deeper and more essential aspects, but 
the same ideas, views, and manner of regarding spiritual things 
generally ; ideas that, to many of the present day, perhaps, are apt to 
seem so full of childish credulity and superstition. That they should 
rightly or reasonably, seem so, however, is quite another thing. 
Indiscriminating and uncritical generally, as the beliefs of our fore- 
fathers may have been to some extent, and in sojne directions ; a.s 


regards the existence and operations of spiritual powers angels and 
evil spirits, they simply accepted the plain and positive statements of 
the scriptures of the old and new testaments, and the teaching of 
the universal church of Christ, without let or hindrance. To such 
as, nowadays, can with difficulty bring themselves to believe in the 
existence, or even probable existence of a personal God, the simple, 
unquestioning acceptance of even that belief, may seem to more than 
savour of superstition. In the Middle Ages, however ' ages of faith ' 
as our own * superior people,' with fine irony, are pleased to call 
them the prevailing Herodianism of the present day found no 
acceptance. To our forefathers the spiritual world was a very sure, 
and ever present reality. It entered into every relation of life and 
death. Angels, good and evil, were then no mere artistic or poetical 
abstractions as now, to so many among ourselves purely fanciful 
conceptions, with allowed, or tolerated places in picture books, or 
church windows, but not to be taken too seriously. Spirits, good 
and bad, were with them, on the contrary, omnipresent, * about their 
path, and about their bed, and spying out all their ways,' interesting 
themselves everywhere and unceasingly, in the affairs of men. Then, 
at any rate, neither death nor the grave itself was esteemed the end 
of all things. Supernatural ministrations, begun and maintained 
through life, were continued when life was passed. Untroubled by 
* higher critics ' they doubted not that God, ' who maketh his angels 
spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire,' made them, moreover, ' all 
ministering spirits,' 'sent forth to minister to them which should 
be heirs of salvation.' They believed that after death the souls 
of the righteous, as in the case of Lazarus, should be 'carried by 
the angels into Abraham's bosom,' and looked to them for that 

But as to their bodies, the story of the demoniac, * who had his 
dwelling in the tombs, exceeding fierce,' and that of S. Michael 
' contending with the devil about the body of Moses ' troubled them. 
They dreaded such unclean indwelling or rapine of their own, or other 
bodies after death. For, whether in death or life, the angels of dark- 
ness were just as real, as personal, and as present as those of light, 
and so it was that in the sacrament of baptism, when with the most 


solemn and impressive ceremonial, they accepted the yoke of Christ, 
they no less solemnly and emphatically and, with every expres- 
sion of abhorrence and contempt, such as turning to the west, 
stamping with the feet, stretching forth the arms, percussion of the 
hands, exsufflation and expectorating, renounced * the devil, his pomps, 
and his angels.' 

Now, as to these angels, * their works and ways,' we get, at once, 
at the teaching of the church in the great commentary of Cornelius 
a Lapide, on this particular case of the Gadarene demoniac. 'Nota 
Primo,' says he, * Jndaeos sua sepulchra . . . habuisse . . . 
extra civitatem, in agris et rnontibus. Erant autem sepulchra eorum 
alta et lata quasi camerae, ut multi simul in iis sepeliri, quin et 
vivi illud ingredi et defunctorum suorum corpora inferre possent, 
ut patet ex sepulchre Christi, Sarae, Abrahae et aliorum. Sic 
ergo daemoniacus hie habitabat in sepulchris quia ea a daemonibus 
agebatur . . . Secundo quia daemon spurcissimus et foetidissimus, 
spurcissima et foetidissima assumit corpora ac similia incolit loca, puta 

sepulchra plena ossibus et cadaveribus Tertio ut 

significetur daemones delectari hominum morte, ac inter mortuos, 
puta damnatos in gehenna, versari. Addunt Quarto Chrysostomus, 
Euthymius, et Theophylactus eum id fecisse, ut hominibus persuaderet, 
hominum mortuorum animas in daemones commutari, qui proinde cor- 
poribus sepultis in sepulchro assideant. Unde daemoniaci, ait Chrysos- 
tomus, subinde clamant, Anima Petri, vel Pauli, vel Johannis, ego sun. 
. . . Ex hoc et similibus locis liquet, multos daemones non esse in 
inferno, sed versari in hoc acre, terra, aqua, montibus, cavernis, silvis 
(ubi olim ipsi seFaunos et Satyros vocabant ; Isaias cap. xiii. 21, et 
cap. xxxiv. 14, pilosos vocat) idque usque ad diem judicii, praemittente 
Deo, ut homines tentent. Ita S. Athanasius in Vita S. Ambrosii, et 
S. Augustinus, lib. ii. de Civit. 33. Unde pia est Ecclesiae 
consuetude, ut fideles in coemeteriis et locis sacris ab Episcopo 
benedictis sepeliantur ut scilicet per benedictionem hanc ab illis locix 
arceantur daemones, utque ibidem fideles Deum pro ibidem sepultis 
orenfc. Hac ratione abiguntur daemonurn larvae et spectra, uti mihi 
narrarunt Attrebati in Belgio, viri graves et experti. Gum enim 
vesper e obirem coemeterium vidi in eo multas incensas ardere candelas, 



ac perplures ibidem orantes. Causam sciscitatus audivi, solere ibi 
noctu terras apperere larvas, sed post usum luminum ac precum pro 
defunctis, illas evanuisse 

* Addifc Gregorius Nyssensis, Daemones, inquifc, imitantes legiones 
angelicas, dicunt se legionem, imo imitantes legiones et simulantes 
Deum ipsum, qui vocatur Dominus Sabaoth, id est exercitiuum efc 
legionum angelicarum. Lucifer enim est simia Dei. Disce hie 
quanta est multitude et malignitas daemonum.' 

So, everywhere, the bodies of the dead were kept with all respect 
and reverence ; everywhere, all possible precaution was taken to preserve 
them from pollution. That there should have been some variations 
in the way of doing so, may be taken as a foregone conclusion. Unity 
is to be sought where it will be found in purpose, not in the minute 
and trivial details attending its accomplishment. In this case they 
were trivial indeed. Here in England, we placed the lights within 
the church, either using or adapting, one or more of the existing 
windows, or providing others, whether in connexion with, or separate 
from, them, as lanterns, whose rays, symbolical of the Divine 
presence, were held to protect sufficiently the graves of all, whether 
actually illuminated by them or not. In France, Ireland, and 
Germany we see only slightly different ways of arriving at the same 
result. There, in many cases, the lights were wholly separate from 
the fabric, being placed in detached structures of varying elevation, 
some high, some low, whence the rays could be distributed equally, 
and in all directions. Such, as we have seen, were the lanternes des 
morts, round towers, and Todtenleuchten, generally. But this, 
though normally, was not always so. One of the earliest and finest 
of the French fanaux, viz., that at Celfrouin, has but a single, 
and very small opening a minute slit in one direction, far less 
efficient for the distribution of light than any of our low side 
windows that I have met with anywhere. So, too, some of the 
round towers, like that at Donoughmore, have not the usual four 
openings at the top at all, while, though some others have more, 
others again have but two or three. And so with the ' everlasting 
lights.' While many, like the beautiful example at Klosterneuberg, 
stand quite detached in the midst of cemeteries, projecting their 


radiance in all directions, some, placed in the angles of churches, do 
so only in two, while still others, of perhaps more private origin and 
purpose, give out theirs only in one. So that, even in these several 
classes, there is nothing like uniformity to be found. 

And then again, as regards the ' chapelles des cimetieres,' or ' Rund- 
capellen.' In some of these, as in that of S. lak, for instance, there 
would seem never to have been any central lantern, all the light being 
transmitted through the side, and end windows, just as through our 
own, with this difference only, viz., that while in our English 
examples, the lamps if not always, were yet, as it might seem, 
commonly set in the sills of the particular windows prepared for 
their reception, in these cases it was probably central only, and 
sent its light through more than one. 

And yet here again, there may, very possibly, have been less 
difference than might be thought. For in the very common case of 
two-Hght windows, where, as at Goldsborough and Crosby Garret, 
each one has, or had, its own wooden shutter, it does not at all 
necessarily follow that there were two lamps one to each light ; nor 
yet, where, as at Norton and Uffington, for example, there were three, 
is it necessary to suppose that there were as many lamps as lights ; 
so it may quite possibly, not to say probably, have happened that a 
single lamp, placed centrally, may have shone through both or all of 

Yet, in other of these grave yard chapels, there were certainly 
central light-houses, rising well above the roofs, and illuminating the 
burial-grounds, either independently, or in addition to the light 
transmitted by the altar lamp through the windows down below. 
But, whether or no, there would at least, be the altar light which, in 
cases where no central light-house was provided, might then, very 
probably, owing to the double part it would have to play, be of much 
larger size than usual, when it simply burned before the sacrament. 
Under any circumstances, however, the apsidal, or lateral windows of 
the chapel would, thereupon, ipso facto, become low side windows, 
just as truly, if not quite so distinctly, as when the lamp was placed 
on the flat sill of one of them, as with us. 

A.n intermediate example, of much richness and beauty, as well as 


interest, is seen in the semi-chapel, semi-lantern of Avioth (Meuse) 
where the lamp, suspended centrally, before the altar, shone during 
the night, through the traceried windows, just as, on a larger scale, 
through those of the ordinary chapelles de cimetieres, and on a 
smaller, through those of the fanaux, or Todtenleuchten. See V. le 
Due, Diet. R. ii. 148-50. 

And then again, as to ' low,' ar,d * side,' and ' windows,' we have 
all three in closely similar fashion, in such instances as those at 
Botzen, Brixen, Oppenheim, and S. Stephen's, Vienna, where the 
lamps are not only set low down, but placed in window openings, 
either flush with the walls, as with us, or, more efficiently, in 
projecting bow-window fashion, so as to ensure a more copious and 
wide spread diffusion of their light. In other words, 'low side 
windows,' as they are so commonly, but incorrectly, called, are found 
to be, by no means, special and peculiar to ourselves, of unknown 
and practically unknowable, use and origin, but as might naturally 
be expected of distinctly kindred purpose with, and analogous to, those 
other and contemporary grave yard appliances which we meet with so 
abundantly elsewhere, and with which they have the closest possible 
affinity. Apertures, contrived, not for the admission but emission, 
of light for the convenience, not, in any sense, of the living, but foi 
the defence and consolation of those who, all around, 'lie in 
darkness, and the shadow of death.' 

How great the concern of Christian people formerly was to 
provide all manner of defence against the powers of evil, we have 
already had striking proof in the various precautions taken by them, 
as well at the hour of death, as afterwards in the house, in the 
church and at the grave itself. These ' lanterns of the dead,' 
these ' poor souls', or ' everlasting lights,' came after a final, and 
fond resource of loving care and sympathy, to ask, not merely the 
survivors' prayers for the souls' weal of the departed, but, more 
particularly, to serve as safeguards to the bodies on which they 
cast their beams a symbol, not vain, but efficient, of His Presence 
who is the Light of the world, and whom all who follow ' shall not 
walk in darkness, but have the Light of Life.' 

Whence this striking, and, as I cannot but think, beautiful, 


custom was derived, how it maintained its place throughout so many 
ages, and among so many people, whether with, without, or in spite 
of, the voice of the church ; and how its hold is even yet retained 
both in east and west, remains still to be enquired into. 



The fundamental purpose and use of fire in connexion with the 
burial, and other, offices of the dead, would seem to be lost in the dim 
and shadowy recesses of the past. It found its chief expression, 
however, apparently, in the act of cremation ; but when, and where, 
this custom arose, seems, as yet, wholly unknown. One thing only, 
in the midst of so much uncertainty, seems clear, and that is that, 
whenever, and wherever, it originated, and with whatever precise 
"object', it must have been long subsequent to the simple and primeval 
process of interment. By far the earliest methods of disposing of 
the bodies of the dead of which we have any evidence the Egyptian, 
shews that practice to have been not only thoroughly established 
among that people some three thousand or more years before Christ, 
but from their practice of embalming to have been ancient, even then, 
in other words, of the most remote and primitive antiquity. 

That such, too, was the case during the earliest historical period 
in Palestine, we learn from the account of Abraham making choice, 
B.C. 1860, of the. cave of Machpelah, as a burial place for himself and 
Sarah, from among those of the children of Heth, and which he 
bought of its owner, Ephron the Hittite, for four hundred shekels 
of silver. 

Of Moses also it is said that when, B.C. 1451, 'he died in the 
land of Moab, according to the word of the Lord, he buried him in a 
valley in the land of Moab, over against JBeth-Peor, and no man 
knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.' And such hallowed as it 
was, by the Divine sanction continued to be the Jewish practice to 
the last, the regular scriptural formula on the deaths of all the kings, 
running ' He slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers, 
in the city of David his father.' I. Kings xxii. 50. 


Interment of their dead, would seem also to have been the 
common, not to say, universal, practice among the ancient inhabitants 
of Babylonia and Assyria from what may be called the earliest 
historical period of two thousand years and more, before our era, to 
the destruction of Babylon, B.C. 538. 

' Among the most curious remains,' says Rawlinson (Ancient 
Monarchies, vol. i. p. 107), found in the lower plain are the 
tombs, which so encircle the old cities as to suggest the idea 
that both the Babylonians and the Assyrians may have made 
the sacred land of Ghaldaea the general depository of their dead. 
At Warka, for instance, excepting the triangular space between 
the three principal ruins, the whole remainder of the platform, 
the whole space within the walls, and an unknown extent of desert 
beyond them, are everywhere filled with human bones and sepulchres. 
In places, coffins piled upon coffins, certainly to the depth of thirty, 
probably to the depth of sixty feet ; and for miles on each side of the 
ruins the traveller walks upon a soil teeming with the relics of ancient, 
and now probably extinct, races. 

' The tombs which seem to be the most ancient are of three kinds. 
The first are vaults, about seven feet long, three feet seven inches broad, 
and five feet high ; the pavement, walls, and roof being of sun-dried 
bricks, laid in mud. The walls slope slightly outwards, as far as the 
spring of the roof, which is a false arch, formed by layers of bricks, each 
projecting inwards over the next below, and closed at the top by a 
single brick. A similar construction is seen in the Scythian tombs ; 
and on a larger scale, in Egyptian architecture. These vaults appear 
to have been family sepulchres, the number of skeletons contained in 
them being often, three or four, and, in one case as many as eleven. 

' The second form resembles a hugh dish-cover, in one piece of 
terra-cotta, covering the body, which lies on a platform of sun-dried 
brick. No more than two skeletons and, when two, always male 
and female are found beneath these covers ; children were buried 
separately under smaller covers. In both these forms of burial the 
skeleton is laid upon a reed mat, generally upon its left side, with 
the right arm across the body, its fingers resting on the edge of a 
copper bowl, which lies on the palm of the left hand. Besides the 


copper bowl, the tombs contain a variety of articles, among which 
are always vessels for the food and drink, which the deceased was 
supposed to need for his long journey. 

' In the third form of burial a single corpse was laid in an earthen- 
ware coffin, formed by two bell-jars placed mouth to mouth, 
and sealed at the joint with bitumen, an opening being left at one 
end for the escape of the gases resulting from decomposition. 
Another precaution, which shews the care bestowed on the remains, 
was an elaborate system of drainage by earthenware pipes, from top 
to bottom of the mounds in which the coffins were deposited.' 

Another form of coffin found in large numbers by Mr. Loftus at 
Warka is a single piece of earthenware, coated with a blue vitreous 
glaze, nearly in the shape of our coffins, only largest at the head, 
where the body was inserted through a hole in the upper surface. 
Implements of flint and bronze are said to have abounded in these 

The earliest tumuli in Asia Minor, again, such as those at 
Tantalais, on the northern shore of the gulf of Smyrna ; those still 
remaining on the plain of Troy ; the vast number of others, anterior 
to that of Alyattes, B.C. 561, near Sardis ; the ancient Pelasgic 
sepulchres or 'treasuries,' as the Greeks called them, of Mycenae and 
Orchomenus, some, perhaps, earlier than, some more or less 
contemporary with, the earliest of those in Etruria, all take us back 
to a period some ten or twelve centuries before Christ. These last 
are especially valuable as having in great part, and more particularly 
as regards the most important examples, remained undisturbed till 
quite recent times, when both their structure and contents could be 
scientifically examined and described. 

Of these, one of the most remarkable is that opened in 1836 at 
Cervetri, the ancient Pelasgic Agylla, or Etruscan Cerae, a city 
founded more than thirteen centuries before Christ, and known as 
the Regulini Galeassi. All the treasures of gold, silver, and bronze 
being in the earliest style of Etruscan art, led Canina to attribute to 
them an age of, at least, three thousand years. Many others, of 
similar age and character, have also been discovered from time to 
time in the same district, all containing the bodies of the deceased, 


clad in armour, and lying at full length, either on stone benches, 
or in sarcophagi. 

In the necropolis of Tarquinii, founded nearly 1200 years B.C., 
immense numbers of ruined tumuli have been met with Signor 
Avvolta, the chief recent explorer there, calculating its extent at over 
sixteen square miles, and the number of bodies at not less than 
2,000,000. On digging into the first of those which served of late 
to draw attention to these tombs, 'I beheld,' he says, 'a warrior 
stretched on a couch of rock, and in a few minutes I saw him vanish, 
as it were, under my eyes, for as the atmosphere entered the 
sepulchre, the armour, thoroughly oxidised, crumbled away into the 
most minute particles ; so that in a short time scarcely a vestige of 
what I had seen was left upon the couch.' 

The tombs at Vulci and Tuscania, all of the same early type and 
character, shew with what elaborate care and circumstance 
precisely as in life, the bodies of the dead were preserved, and how 
uniform and persistent this method or' interment was. With what 
literal truth might it not then be said that ' Man goeth to his long 
home ' those on, and under, the earth being, practically, alike. 

And this system of burial, as opposed to cremation, would seem 
to have extended everywhere ; for if the ancient Mexicans, as has 
been thought, were of the same Turanian stock as the Egyptians, 
and the modern Chinese and Japanese races, then we have * at three 
nearly equidistant points, 120 degrees apart, and under the tropic of 
Cancer, burial firmly established, as the universal and unbroken 

To come, again, to those later, but still early, times of the Persian 
and Median kingdoms, we see the primitive custom of interment 
prevailing everywhere throughout, as the structural tomb of Cyrus, 
at Pasargadae, B.C. 529, the rock cut one of Darius, at Naksh-i 
Rustum, B.C. 486, four more uninscribed, and therefore unknown, 
ones at the same place, together with three of the Achaemenian 
kings at Persepolis, remain to shew. But this, of course, was only 
natural, especially after the renewed impetus which the Zoroastrian 
religion received throughout the reign of Darius. For as a symbol 
of the all pure, all holy Ormuzd, ' Bright effluence of bright essence 


uncreate,' fire was esteemed so sacred as to be polluted by contact 
with the bodies of the dead, the burning of which could only have 
been regarded as a species of sacrilege. With the Medes and Persians, 
therefore, cremation must have been impossible. 

When, where, and with what specific object, this once so prevalent 
and wide-spread custom sprang up and diffused itself, remains, then, 
still a question, and one to which no satisfactory or conclusive 
answer has, as yet, been returned. We simply arrive, in course of 
time, and in different localities, at the fact of its existence, but 
without being able to assign any sufficient reasons for it. 

'The Greeks,' says Lucian, 'burn, while the Persians bury, 
their dead'; but, as regards the former, modern writers are much 
divided as to the more usual practice. Wachsmuth will have it that, 
in historical times, the dead were always buried, which is clearly an 
overstatement, since there are many known instances to the contrary. 
Hoiner tells of the burning of the dead ; but interment was also used 
in very ancient times, the dead, according to Cicero, having been 
buried at Athens in the time of Cecrops. They were commonly 
buried among the Spartans and the Sicyonians, and the prevalence 
of the practice is proved by the great number of skeletons found in 
coffins in modern times, which have evidently not been exposed to 
the action of fire. Both burning and burial appear to have been 
always used to a greater or less extent, relatively, at different periods, 
and just according to fashion, or individual choice. 

The Eoman methods, though in general resembling the Greek, had 
yet certain peculiarities of their own. In the earliest times, according to 
Pliny, they buried their dead, though they also adopted, to some extent, 
the custom of burning, which is mentioned in the Twelve Tables. 
Burning, however, did not become common till the later Republican 
period. Under the empire it was almost universal, but declined with 
the spread of Christianity, so that in the fourth century it fell into 
disuse. By the time of the younger Theodosius, indeed, it would seem 
to have died out altogether, since Macrobius, writing about the year 
420, says expressly, that the custom of burning the bodies of the dead 
was quite abandoned at that time, and that all he knew about it was 




derived from history. Under Constantine and his successors, the 
decline had naturally been both rapid and general, since the church, 
though no laws were then enacted against the practice, had all along 
resolutely opposed it. Thenceforward, it became distinctly and 
exclusively heathen. 

All these, however, are mere matters of historical record, more or 
less accurate statements of fact, but without anything to explain or 
account for them. We are still as far as ever from knowing for what 
exact reason a custom which sprang up, no one, apparently, knows 
where or when, had its beginning. It was one, not only costly and 
inconvenient in itself ; but, in those early times, entirely deprived of 
the modern pretence of sanitary necessity. We cannot doubt, 
therefore, that there must have been some very efficient reason both 
for its introduction and its continuance. What then, was that 
reason ? In the absence of all evidence we are once more, as in the 
case of the ' low side windows,' driven to seek, and, perchance, to find 
it, in analogy. 

From the very nature of the case, its unnaturalness, and the 
expense necessarily attending on it, it seems hardly possible to escape 
the conviction that the constraining motive for cremation, whatever 
its precise object, must certainly have been a religious one. Now, of 
all the elements, we know that fire, has at all times, and among all 
people, ever been regarded as the purest and most sacred. Water, 
however effectual for cleansing the surface, could do no more ; fire 
penetrated and purified the substance, consuming- all corruption. 
And thus, we read how the world, cleansed, at first, ' by the waters 
of a flood,' is ' kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of 
judgment, wherein the elements shall melt with fervent heat, and 
the earth, with the works that are therein, shall be burned up.' 
Further, how death, and the bodies of the dead were universally held 
to convey pollution both to men and things, we learn from sacred 
and profane history alike. Among the Jews, the laws relating to it 
the most ancient of which we have any knowledge were, as might 
be expected, of the most exact and rigorous character. Thus, he 
who touched the dead body of a man, was to be unclean for a week ; 
when a man died in a tent, all that came into it, and all that was in 


it, were likewise to be unclean for the same time. And whoever 
' touched one that was slain with a sword in the open fields, or a dead 
body, or a bone of a man, or a grave, was to be unclean seven days.' 

For all such cases provision was made by purification by water, yet 
not by water only. With it were to be mingled the ashes of a red heifer 
of three years, without spot or blemish, which was to be burnt without 
the camp, and whose blood the priest was to sprinkle ' with his fingers 
directly before the tabernacle, seven times.' While the heifer was 
burning, cedar wood, hyssop and Scarlett, were to be thrown upon it, and 
to their mixed ashes, running water added in a vessel. With this, ' the 
water of separation,' the purification of every man and thing polluted 
was to be accomplished : ' a clean person ' was to ' take hyssop, and 
dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the 
vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that 
touched a bone, or one slain, or one dead, or a grave.' And the ' clean 
person was to sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the 
seventh day : and on the seventh day he was to purify himself, and 
wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be clean at even.' 
Nor was this all, for the priest also that led forth the heifer, as well 
as he that burned it, and the man that gathered the ashes and put 
them into a clean place, were to wash their clothes, and bathe their 
flesh with water, and ' afterward come into the camp and be unclean 
until the even.' 

Regulations, similar in character, if less solemn, and rigidly 
enforced, prevailed among the Greeks and Romans. With the former, 
the body, after death took place, was washed, and after being 
anointed with perfumed oil, laid out upon a bed. Before the door was 
placed a vessel of water, in order that those who had been in the 
house, might purify themselves by sprinkling it upon their persons. 
All who had been engaged in funerals, moreover, were held to be 
polluted, and could not enter the temples of the gods till they had 
been purified. 

And, as with the Greeks, so with the Romans ; the body was first 
washed, and then anointed, but by slaves. After the burial, those 
present were thrice sprinkled with pure water from a branch of olive 
or laurel, for the purpose of purification. Then, on their return 


home, the friends underwent a second purification, called suffit-io, 
which consisted in being sprinkled with water, and stepping over a 
fire. The families of the dead also underwent purification on special 
days appointed for that purpose, and styled Feriae denicales. 

But, as regards the dead, the treatment was altogether different. 
In their case water, save only in the natural, and, indeed, necessary 
initial act of washing after death, had neither use nor office. Fire 
took its place. For the dead it was no longer a mere temporary and 
external, but permanent and complete purification that was needed. 
And its aspects and character were wholly sacrificial. Thus, to take 
in the first place the exceptional cases of those struck by lightning 
the thunder-bolts of Jove both Greeks and Romans deemed their 
bodies sacred, ordering them to be interred apart, and in the places 
where they fell. And in all other cases of cremation, in the usual 
sense of the term, and as commonly observed, sacrifice would seem to 
have been the essential and dominating idea. 

Thus, as in the case of the most ancient sacrifices of animals, the 
body was burnt whole and entire. It was also decked with flowers, 
as in the case of ordinary victims, as well as in those of living human 
victims, at Athens, in the sacrifice of the Thargelia. Next, the pyra, 
or funeral pile, on which the corpse was to be burnt, was built in the 
form of an altar with four equal sides, whence it was called ara 
sepulcri, oY/tmeris ara. Moreover, the sides of the pile were, accord- 
ing to the Twelve Tables, to be left rough and unpolished, though 
sometimes covered with leaves. Then, after the corpse, along with 
the couch on which it was carried, was placed upon the pile, the 
nearest relative, with averted face, set fire to it. Again, as with 
animal sacrifices, when the flames began to rise, wine and incense 
were cast into them ; oil and perfumes, together with clothes, food, 
and other offerings, were likewise burnt, for the gods delighted 
chiefly in the smoke of the burning victims. Sometimes also, animals 
were slaughtered at the pile, and in ancient times captives and slaves, 
since the Manes, or departed souls, were supposed to delight in 

Then, when the pile was burnt down, the embers were soaked 
with wine, and the bones and ashes of the deceased collected by the 


nearest relative, who sprinkled them with perfumes, and placed them 
in an urn of marble, alabaster, or other material, which was finally 
deposited in a sepulchre constructed without the city. 

The Romans, as well as the Greeks, were also accustomed to visit 
the tombs of their relatives at stated periods, in order to offer them 
sacrifices and gifts, called Inforiae and Parentalia ; for they appear 
to have regarded their Manes as gods, whence the practice of presenting 
such oblations as victims, wine, milk, garlands of flowers, and other 
things. On these occasions the tombs, it seems, were sometimes 
illuminated with lamps. 

At the end of February, also, was a festival called Feralia, in 
which the Romans carried food to their sepulchres for the use of the 
dead. Feasts also, as upon a sacrifice, were given in their honour, 
sometimes at the time of the funeral, sometimes on the Novendiales, 
or ninth day after it, and sometimes later. 

Though naturally accompanied with much greater pomp and 
display, the apotheosis, or deification of the dead emperors, was yet, 
as would seem, of essentially the same character as the ordinary rite 
of cremation. The pile, erected in the Campus Martius, was in four 
storeys, diminishing in size upwards, like a pharus. In the second 
was placed a couch with a waxen effigy of the deceased upon it, and 
accompanied by all manner of aromatic gums and incense. The 
whole structure, which was of massive timber filled with faggots, was 
then, after divers ceremonies, fired, when from the topmost height an 
eagle was let loose to fly skywards as the flames ascended, and bear 
with it, as the Romans believed, the dead emperor's soul, who thence- 
forward was worshipped with the other gods. 

In all which how forcibly is the story of Manoah, as told in the 
book of Judges, brought back to us. How the * man,' the ' angel of 
God,' when asked by him, i What is thy name ?' answered, ' Why 
askest thou after my name, seeing it is wonderful ?' and then, when 
told that if he would ' offer a burnt offering, he must offer it ,to the 
Lord,' after he had taken a kid with a meat offering and offered it 
upon a rock, ' the angel did wondrously, and Manoah and his wife 
looked on. For it came to pass when the flame went up toward 
heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the 


flame of the altar .... and Manoah said unto his wife, We 
shall surely die, because we have seen God.' 

All that was carnal and corrupt in those cremated, therefore, 
being consumed, as in a sacrifice acceptable to the gods to whose 
company their souls had ascended nothing thereafter remained for 
spirits of evil to occupy or pollute. 

Coming to later and more barbarous times, cremation whenceso- 
ever derived, would seem to have been beyond all doubt, originally, 
the universal practice of all Teutonic races, as well as of most others 
in the north of Europe Goth, Scandinavian, Herulian, Thuringian, 
Frank and Saxon, Alamann and Baiowarian for reasons deep seated in 
the national heathendom all acting alike, at first, in this respect. As 
to the causes which led to the abandonment of so universal and national 
a custom there were two, apparently, one physical, the other moral. 
The first consisted in the difficulty of obtaining means to practise the 
rite, which by gradually leading to its abandonment led, as certainly, 
to its desecration. In districts where wood was scarce, the practice 
soon became too costly for the bulk of the population to indulge in. 
and there it ceased sooner than Paganism. Then having ceased as a 
religious rite, it soon fell into dishonour. ' No sooner,' says Kemble, 
' did the people cease to burn, not only its heroes, but its own children 
in Scandinavia, than it began to burn its malefactors. The want of 
wood alone served to wean the heathen from his ancient customs. 
He reserved cremation for trolls, witches, and such, as, having been 
buried, rose again and walked, to the horror and amazement of men.' 

The next is the moral cause. In Asia, there are those who will not 
defile fire with the task of burning matter corpses ; these throw 
their dead anywhere, except into the flames. But in Europe, 
heathendom, as long as it was free to do so, committed its dead to a 
sanctifying and purifying fire. Hence the hostility of Christendom 
to cremation. Wherever Christianity set foot, cremation ceased. 
Nay, in A.D. 785, we find Charlemagne making it a capital offence 
' Se quis corpus defundi hominis secundum ritum paganorum flamma 
consumi fecerit et ossa ejus ad cinerum redigerit, capite punieturS 
Christians naturally preferred burial, because Christ was buried. 
The heathen, just as naturally, adhered to cremation, since he 


believed his gods, not only to have instituted the rite of burning, but 
themselves also to have mounted the funeral pile. Fire was the 
purifier, the medium of communication with the gods. 

A striking proof of the hold which the practice maintained while 
the Christianizing process was still in progress, came to light some 
sixty years since, when on the removal of a barrow at Elzen near 
Hildesheim, an interment was disclosed in which fire appeared to have 
been introduced almost by stealth, as though the bodies had not been 
exposed to its full power. Upon its base were found six holes or 
kists of which five were nearly filled with wood ashes, and over each 
lay a skeleton at full length upon its back. The sixth hole was not 
occupied, but close to it was a small urn. It was supposed that this 
was a transitional interment of Christians who had not yet entirely 
relinquished their pagandom ; or of pagans, who, though dread of the 
law prevented them from raising a pile to consume the bodies entirely, 
had 'been content to burn at least a part of the flesh by means of fire 
lighted underneath, and fed with heath and ferns whose flame could 
not be seen from far. In a similar way the abbe Cochet describes 
finding several skeletons at Parfondeval, lying upon a stratum of 
ashes and charcoal. ' L'orientation la plus generate,' says he (La 
Normandie Souterraine, p. '308), 'etait le sud-est pour les pieds, le 
nord-ouest pour les tetes. Parmi les tombes quelques-unes n'avaient 
pas de matieres noires, d'autres en presentaient beaucoup autour du 
corps, deux ou trois squelettes paraissaient avoir ete deposes dans une 
couche de braise et meme sur des cendres. ' 

In a vast number of burials where interment is the rule, there are 
said to be signs of cremation, as at Elzen and Parfondeval ; the body 
was not reduced to ashes, but only singed. It might have been 
dangerous to make a fire large enough to consume it ; but by a little 
management, the advantages of Christian and heathen burial might 
be combined. This may probably best account for the fact of a few 
remains of charcoal only, often exceedingly minute, which are said to 
have been so offcen found in tumuli where skeletons are deposited 
entire. A little fire was thought enough to symbolize the ancient 
rite, and if any doubt remained in the mind of the new convert, or 
the ancient superstitions still lingered, as to far later times we know 


they did, he took care to be on the safe side, and make all sure in 
both quarters. 'Aqua lenedicta, et prunae cum thure,' bcth of which, 
Durandus bells us were, even in his day, placed, in some quarters in 
the grave, ensured the safety of the deceased completely. 

Writing of the graves of the Merovingian period in France and 
their several contents, the abbe Cochet (La Normandie Souterraine, 
pp. 25, 26), says : * Souvent, j'en conviens, il est mal aise de 
discerner la religion de ces barbares au milieu des formes si simples 
et si rudes de leur mobilier ; mais on voit deja qu'ils ne croient plus a 
Caron, a Latone, aux Manes, ni aux besoins materiels des morts dans 
1'autre vie. On ne voit plus ce luxe de cuillieres, de vases aux 
libations, de oraches, d'assiettes, de plateaux, de soucoupes, de verres 
et de bouteilles. Le vase aux pieds rfest Id qua contre ces possessions, 
ces obsessions demoniaques dont la croyance fut commune d tons les 
peuples de I'antiquite pawns ou Chretiens, et dont la pensee a traverse le 
moyen-age. O'est une pratique pa'ienne, j'en conviens, mais que le 
Christianisme a sanctifiee, car nul ni vaudra accuser de paganisme 
les plus saints pretres et les plus savants cve'ques du moyen-age dont 
le cercueil renferme tou jours un vase au charbon ou a 1'eau benite, 
par plus que Ton ne voudra soupgonner d'idolatrie ou de superstition 
la pieuse Blanche de Castille qui fit mettre a Poissy, quatre vases en 
terre dans les tombeaux de les jeunes fils, Jean et Philippe, freres de 
saint Louis, ni la bienheureuse Marie de 1'Incarnation dansle cercueil 
de laquelle les Carmelites de Pontoise placerent encore des vases in 

Again, when describing in the Bulletin Monumental (vol. xxv., 
p. 289) the many sepulchral vessels unearthed by himself personally, 
he writes : ' Au premier coup d'ceil, j'ai reconnu environ vingt 
especes ou varietes parfaitement appreciables ; mais dans toutes ces 
categories, si incompletement representces, j'ai surtout distingue 
quatre especes qui je puis appeler entieres, et qui je vais essayer de 
definir. La premiere categoric . . . se compose de vases en 
terre rougeatre d'une couleur et d'une argile analogues a celles de nos 
briques modernes. Ce vase, epais de 3 millimetres, est haut de 8 
centimetres et large de 10 a la panse . . . sa forme, assez 
gracieuse, est celle d'une petite urne romaine, . , , Evidemment 


la piece avait ete predestinee au r61e de cassolette . . . nous 
croyons qu'il n'esfc pas posterieur au xiii. e siecle.' (Fig. p. 290.) 

' La deuxieme categorie se compose de vases noirs dont la terre 
cendree a reu une legere cou verte ardoisee au moyen de la mine plomb. 
Oes vases sont tournes avec gout et leur pate est fine et legere ; tous 
sont munis d'anses et portent des cous qui represented le tiers de la 
piece. Oe col est recouvert de raies horizontales. En general, on 
peut dire que la forme de ces vases est celle de la quatrieme categorie, 
avec une capacite moindre et un faire de meilleur gout. 

' La trace du feu n'est pas apparente sur les fragments, mais ils 
etaient meles a des charbons de bois. On ne saurait d'ailleurs douter 
de leur destination comme cassolettes, car la panse presente cette 
particular! te que, primitivement, elle fut munie de trous pratiques 
dans la terre molle avec un poincon circulaire ; puis, au moment du 
service, ces trous ayant ete reconnus insuffisants pour Pevaporation, 
ils furent violemment agrandis avec un outil de fer. . . . Leur 
forme, leur forage, et le milieu dans lequel ils se trouvent les font 
descendre jusqu'au xiii. e et au xiv. e siecle.' 

* La troisieme categorie, c'est un genre de vases dont la terre est 
blanche, fine et bien choisie, le fagonnage leger et la forme gracieuse. 
Ils possedent une anse et un cou court, mais evase ; 1'interieur 
presente un vernis jaunatre jaspe de vert, mais seulement au fond et 
sur les bords. . . . Plusieurs echantillons m'ayant presente un 
rang de trous fores a la panse apres la cuisson, j'ai tout lieu de croire 
que tous en ont possede. Tous les vases de cette categorie paraissent 
neufs et semblent n'avoir jamais servi a aucun usage domestique. 
C'est a peine si Ton surprendrait, sur leurs parois interieures, quelques 
traces du feu qui brula le jour de funerailles.' (Figs. p. 293.) 

' La quatrieme espece des vases etait veritablement dominante, et 
dans des proportions telles qu'elle nous a donne trois cents morceaux 
sur quatre cents. Ces vases sont de cenx que Ton appelle en 
Normandie pintes, chopines, ou pickets. La couleur de la terre et du 
vernis varie beaucoup. Toutefois si 1'on en trouve en terre rougeatre 
et en terre jaune, on peut affirmer que la terre blanche domine. 
Quelques-uns sont lourds et epais, mais le plus grand nombre sont 
fins et legers ; ces derniers sont tournes avec assez d'elegance. Ces 
vases, qui ont tous une anse, n'ont ni bee ni goulot. 

VOL. xxiii. 25 


* La plus grande partie de ces vases ont contenu du charbon, 
quelques-uns en etaient encore remplis. Tons presentent a I'interieur 
des marques de feu ou de fumee. Presque tous sont perces a la panse 
d'un rang de trous pratiques apres la cuisson. II est evident que la 
raison pour laquelle ils sont ici vient du role qu'ils ont joue dans les 
funerailles des Chretiens. 

1 Toutefois leur terre, leur forme et leur vernis nous font penser 
qu'ils peuvent appartenir au xiv. e et au xv. e siecle ; mais nous doutons 
qu'ils soient posterieurs a cette epoque. Ce qui nous fait pencher pour 
le xiv. e siecle, c'est que, sur une miniature et cette epoque repro- 
duisant 1'office des morts, on voit, ranges autour du corps, des vases 
allumes entierement semblables aux notres.' (Figs. p. 294.) 

' Maintenant on nous demandera quel nombre de vases on plagait 
dans chaque sepulture chretienne, et quelle place ils y occupaient. 
Nous dirons volontiers le peu que nous savons. 

' Nous avons etabli qu'a 1'epoque merovingienne et peut-etre aussi 
carlovingienne, le vase, ordinairement seul, etait generalement place* 
aux pieds. Oette regie n'admettait que peu d'exceptions. Nous 
sommes moins rensignee sur 1'epoque capetienne. . . . 

' Les sepultures de Ste. Genevieve de Paris, donnees par M. Lenoir, 
presentent dans chaque cercueil quatre vases places a chacun des angles. 
Les cercueils des deux jeunes freres de saint Louis, decouverts a 
Poissy, en 1714, ont fourni la me'me observation, mais pour le caveau 
settlement. A Troyes le comte de Champagne, Henri I er , mort en 
1180, n'avait qu'un seul vase place au cdte droit : 1'eveque Hervee 
inhume en 1223, n'avait non plus qu'un fiole de verre. 

4 Le baron Taylor ne cite que deux vases trouves dans le cercueil 
d'un abbe de Jumieges du xii. e siecle. M. Feret n'en a egalement 
rencontre que deux, en 1827, dans la tombe de Renaut de Calletot, 
mort vers 1310. L'un etait au pieds et 1'autre a la tte. On n'en 
cite qu'un seul dans la fosse d'un cure de St. Aubin-sur-Mer (Seine 
Inferieure), enterre en 1307 et visite en 1850. M. Viollet le Due 
parle de trois seulement, rencontres dans le sarcophage d'un eveque 
d' Amiens de 1325 : 1'un etait au pieds et les deux autres pres des 

1 En 1853, ce savant architecte, travaillant a la restauration de la 


cathedrale d'Amiens, dont il est charge par le gouvernement, 
decouvrit, dans la chapelle de la Sainfce Yierge, le cercueil de pierre 
de Simon de Gourcans, eveque de ce diocese, mort in 1325. 

' Ce sarcophage renfermait trois vases, dont deux aux epaules et un 
aux pieds. To us trois etaient perces de trous et contenaient du 
charbon dans leur interieur ; ils etaient blancs, legers et fins. Leur 
panse est ornee de ces lignes rouges efc perpendiculaires dont nous 
avons beaucoup parle et qui nous semblent faites avec de la sanguine. 
Oe tombeau toutefois avait deja efce visite, car on n'y a trouve que le 
baton de bois de la crosse. Le vase etait entier ; mais son couvercle, 
qui etait plat, a etc trouve brise en plusieurs morceaux. 

' Le 18 decembre, 1854, la Societe archeologique de VOrleanais a fait, 
dans 1'eglise de Notre- Dame-de-Clery, 1'examen des sepultures des 
Dunois-Longueville. Voici quelques details concernant les vases qu'elle 
y a rencontres. 

1 Le caveau du celebre Jean, batard d'Orleans, comte de Dunois, 
decede le 24 novembre, 1468, avait etc viole a la Revolution ou 
auparavant. On a trouve, parmi la terre qu'il contenait, sept vases 
funeraires qui n'etaient pas en place. 

* Le cercueil de Frangois I er , de Longueville, ne en 1447 et mort en 
1491, n'avait pas etc viole dans son caveau. On a trouve, des deux c6tes, 
dans le sens de la longueur de cercueil, douze petits pots de terre rouge 
commune, contenant du charbon qui a etc allume ; quelques-uns de ces 
vases ont etc brises. Ils ne sont pas vernis a 1'interieur, et ils portent 
des anses. Les plus forts ont 12 de haut, 10 C de diametre a 
1'ouverfcure, 40 C de tour au plus renfle de ventre, et T a la base. 

' Dans le caveau d' Agnes de Savoie, duchesse de Dunois, morte le 16 
mars 1508, le cercueil en plomb n'avait pas etc viole. Pres de lui 
etaient quatre pots a anse, de poterie rouge commune, sans vernis, 
d'une dimension double de celle des pots qui precedent. Ils 
renfermaient du charbon ; deux etaient a droite, et deux a gauche.' 
Bull. Mon. xxii. pp. 428-429. 

Not further to prolong the interminable list of such like discoveries 
it may suffice to mention a further one made some years ago at 
Morienval (Oise) where were found ' autour d'un cercueil du xvi. e ou 
xvii. e siecle plusieurs vases, places sur le couvercle, et trente-huit autres 
ranges autour du sarcophage. 


4 Sous la legislation si profondement catholique de cette partie du 
moyen age qui va depuis le xi. e jusqu'au xvii. e siecle,' continues the 
abbe Cochet, ' la vase lunebre durera encore, et plus vivace que les 
siecles et que les eres qu'il traverse, il survivra au moyen age, et 
il faudra toutes les lumieres du siecle de Louis XIV. pour deracinerdes 
moaurs cette vieille plante qui naquit au berceau de I'humanite. 

* . . . . Mais je m'arrete, parce que je crois avoir suffisament 
demontre ma these et avoir eleve a 1'etat de loi ce qui, par le defaut 
d'ensemble, n'apparaissait guere que comme un accident ou un cas 
isole. J'ai prouve, je 1'espere, que, sous 1'empire de la pensee 
catholique, 1'usage des vases funeraires avait persevere par mi les 
Chretiens du moyen age. J'ai fait plus, j'ai rattache cette coutume 
a sa source primitive, montrant qu'elle decoulait de la haute antiquite 
et qu'elle avait pris naissance au berceau du monde.' 

' Nous ne terminerons pas ce travail tout archeologique sans ajouter 
un fait moderne et contemporain qui, malgre son actualite, a tout 
I'interet d'une antiquite bien conservee. Le lecteur croirait-t-il, si nous 
ne le lui attestions, que la coutume de placer des vases dans la fosse des 
morts subsiste encore au sein de notre France ? C'est pourtant ce 
que nous sommes en mesure de prouver, pieces en main. 

' Dans mon memoire, Sur la coutume de placer des vases dans la 
sepulture de Vhomme, je disais au debut : " Get usage, qui remonte au 
berceau de I'humanite, a traverse les siecles avec la grande famille 
humaine et il y a 200 ans a peine qu'il a quitte le sol de la France. 
Peut-etre meme y existe-t-il encore cache en quelque endroit obscur, 
et nous ne serions nullement surpris d'apprendre qu'au fond d'une des 
provinces, au sein d'une paroisse reculee, vit et prospere la coutume 
des vases funebres, aussi chere aux premiers Chretiens qu'a ceux du 

i Cela etait ecrit a la fin de 1856. 

' Et le 7 mars, 1857, je recevais de M. I. Chevrier, de Chalons-sur- 
Saone, la lettre suivante : " Je suis heureux, Monsieur, de vous 
fournir 1'occasion de justifier un pressentiment que vous exprimez dans 
le Bulletin Monumental de 1856, relatif a Tusage des vases funeraires. 
En effet, notre Bresse et notre Mon an continuent encore aujourd'hui 
1'usage de placer dans le cercueil ou dans la fosse un vase ayant servi 


au defunt." Puis, dans son memoire sur les fouilles a St. Jean-des- 
Vignes, pres Chalon, en 1855 et en 1856, le meme archeologue 
s'exprime ainsi : ' Dans le Morvan, et notamment a Anost, les 
paysans continuent encore de nos jours 1'usage des vases funeraires, 
ils jettent sur le cercueil, au fond de la fosse, une ecuelle ou un vase 
de terre ayant servi ordinairement au defunt ; et dans certaines 
parties de la Bresse, on jette dans la fosse le vase a eau benite qui fut 
place aux pieds du defunt avant la ceremonie de 1'inhumation." Bull. 
Mon. xxv. pp. 301-304. 



Having now, therefore, as a necessary preliminary, treated of the 
subject of k low side windows ' generally, and in a fashion as thoroughly 
- exhaustive as the materials at my command would allow ; it remains, 
in conclusion, to present such illustrations of it as remain within a 
given and well-delined portion of that district with the antiquities 
of which it is the object of this society to deal the county palatine 
of Durham. 

Though not comprising any very special, or peculiarly striking, or 
exceptional examples, perhaps, they may still serve, probably, like 
most others within a like area, to bear sufficiently clear witness, as 
well positive as negative, to the real, though now forgotten uses to 
which this mysterious class of openings was applied. If somewhat 
deficient, possibly, in that kind of direct and pointed evidence supplied 
in certain individual instances elsewhere, they will yet, 1 think, be 
found, in general character, fully representative of those usually met 
with in other parts of the country : fair average specimens, that is, of 
their class, taken as a whole. All of them, I think, will be found to 
point more or less directly to that continued and general use of lights 
in cemeteries, which the church from the very beginning of the fourth 
century, though it did not encourage, at least permitted to be burnt, 
lor the satisfaction of the living, if not for the benefit of the dead, r.t 
night. For the famous thirty-fourth canon of the council of Eliberis, 
A.D. 305, which refers directly to this practice, and was enacted to 


regulate, since it could not suppress it, says expressly i Cereos per 
diem placuit in coemeterio non incendi. Inquietandi enim sanctorum 
spiritus non sunt. Qui haec non observaverint, arceantur ab ecclesiae 
communione.' Where we see that the prohibition, which involved 
the penalty of excommunication, had reference to the burning of such 
candles in the daytime only ; thus plainly, and by implication, allow- 
ing the custom to be followed after dark. And this concession in 
various ways, as we have already seen, was taken the fullest advantage 
of throughout the whole of Europe till the close of the Middle Ages ; 
nay in some parts indeed, continues to be so still. Moreover the 
reason assigned by the canon itself for its promulgation is, as will be 
seen, plain enough, viz. : ' Because the spirits of the saints, or of the 
dead in Christ, are not to be disturbed ' that is, troubled by the 
thought that their bodies, which had been made * temples of the Holy 
Ghost,' were, after their departure, being outraged and profaned by 
devils. But even then, though as being in the ' hands of God,' where 
no such ' torment ' could ' touch them,' it did, for all that, touch the 
living most acutely, and hence their care and anxiety that the ' earthly 
tabernacles' of those dear to them, which had been ' put off,' and were 
being ' dissolved,' should, by every means in their power, be protected 
from such possible defilement. And hence the universal burning of 
these lights. So deeply rooted, tenacious, and ineradicable were these 
primeval and apparently universal beliefs or, as so many nowadays 
would prefer to call them, superstitions in the hearts of all men 

The evidence of the practice is, unfortunately, in this particular 
locality, very largely discounted by the great number of old churches 
which have been either utterly destroyed, or so mutilated and dis- 
figured, that their testimony, whatever it may once have been, or indeed 
may even now be, is not obtainable. And this is, perhaps, all the more 
to be regretted because in comparison with those in so many other 
parts of England the ancient Durham churches are in themselves, 
for the most part, so poor, and few, and far between. Such as it is, 
however, and it is quite enough for my present purpose, a full account 
of them is here presented, arranged, for comparison, in three separate 
groups, viz., firstly, those ancient churches in which, for divers reasons, 


it is now impossible to determine whether such features ever existed 
or not ; secondly, those in which, in varying conditions, they exist 
still, and are hereinafter, illustrated and described ; and thirdly, 
those in which they neither do, nor, apparently, ever did exist. Taking 
them in this order then, we have : 



Aycliffe. Hur worth. 

Billingham. Longnewton. 

Bishopton. Merrington. 

Coniscliffe. Middleton-in-Teesdale. 

Denton. Monkwcarmouth. 

Dinsdale. Muggleswick. 

S. Mary-le-Bow. Durham. S. John's Chapel. 

S. Nicholas, Durham Sedgefield. 

Eggleston. Sockburn. 

Esh. South Shields. 

Greatham. Stainton, Great. 

Hartlepool. Wearmouth, Bishop. 

Houghton-le- Spring. Whorlton. 

Hunstanworth. Wolsingham. 

Of these, Aycliffe had, at the time of its late careful restoration, 
only one side of its south-western lancet of the chancel remaining, 
and the sill is, consequently, new, so that all witness in that, the 
usual quarter, is destroyed. Billingham chancel was expensively, but 
very inartistically rebuilt from its foundations many years ago. 
Bishopton church has been largely, if not wholly, rebuilt. Coniscliffe 
church has had the whole of its single north aisle, or chantry, rebuilt 
circa 1846. Denton was utterly destroyed, and rebuilt in a miserably 
poor and mean fashion, during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. Dinsdale church, though still standing, has, at various times, 
been grievously mutilated and * restored.' S. Mary-le-Bow and S. 
Nicholas, in the city of Durham, have both been annihilated and 
rebuilt from the ground, the one in the seventeenth, the other in 
the nineteenth century ; while the chancel of S. Oswald's, which, 
when ISurtees's History was published, contained a large inserted ' low 
side window ' in the usual place, has now lost all traces of it. The 


little church of Eggleston has been rebuilt upon another site. 
Grreatham church has, externally, also been rebuilt in the vulgarest 
sham Gothic manner conceivable, nothing but the singularly fine and 
interesting arcades being left of it. At Hartlepool, the magnificent 
chancel, which had hardly, I might say, any, rival in England, fell 
down, through continuous neglect and decay, in the latter part of 
the eighteenth century. The chancel of Houghton-le-Spring has the 
lower pnrt of the south side of its western portion covered with 
plaster, so that its evidence is hidden. Hunstanworth has been 
destroyed. Hurworth church, as regards its outer walls, has also well 
nigh wholly perished. Longnewton church is chiefly modern. 
Merrington was wickedly destroyed, down to the ground, during the 
latter half of the nineteenth century, all its claims to reverent treat- 
ment notwithstanding. The church of Middleton-in-Teesdale, 
though in excellent condition, and, as regards its chancel especially, 
of singular interest and dignity, was wantonly, and without any rational 
cause whatever, utterly swept away, and a brand new one built upon 
another site near at hand, some thirty years since. Monkwearmouth 
church, though its chancel still remains intact, and without any sign 
of a * low side window,' has had the south wall of its nave pulled down 
and rebuilt twice over. Since no fewer than six of the Durham 
churches, however, have, or had, their openings of this kind in the 
nave, and four of these towards the south, the evidence is, in this 
case, necessarily inconclusive. Muorgleswick has wholly perished. S. 
John's Chapel, in Weardale, also, was long since destroyed and rebuilt. 
At Sedgefield, the chancel has been plastered all over with a coat of 
Roman cement, so that its witness, for the present, lies buried. 
Sockburn church has long lain in ruins ; while the chapel of Sherburn 
hospital has been destroyed by fire. At South Shields, the church 
of S. Hild, save, I think, a small fragment at the base of the tower, has 
perished utterly. Great Stainton church, like that at Middleton, has 
been pulled down, and rebuilt upon a fresh site. Of Bishop Wearmouth 
church, only the eastern parts of the chancel are left standing, the 
western having long since been destroyed, and the space occupied by 
them thrown into the nave. At Whickham, the church, which till 
lately retained, either in great part or altogether, its Mow side 


window ' towards the west end of the south aisle, has now been so 
enlarged and altered that, outside, hardly a vestige of antiquity is 
left. Wolsingham church has, save the lower part of the tower, been 
wholly rebuilt and enlarged ; while at Whorlton, the ancient chapel, 
with its twelfth- century chancel arch and other interesting features, 
was swept away entirely during the latter part of the forties. 

In none of the above-mentioned instances, therefore, is it 
possible to say, at present, whether the churches do, or ever did, 
possess such features as * low side windows ' or not. 



Auckland, S. Andrew's. Medomsley ? 

Barnard Castle. Norton. 

, Bishop Middleham. Pittington. 

Cockfield. Redmarshall. 

Dalton le Dale. Ryton. 

Durham, S. Giles. Seaham. 

S. Margaret. Staindrop. 

S. Oswald. Stanhope. 

Basington. Trimdon. 

Elwick Hall. Whickham. 

Haughton le Skerne. Whitburn. 

Jarrow. Winston. 
Kelloe ? 



Auckland, S. Helen's. Gateshead. 

Boldon. * Grindon. 

Brancepeth. Hamsterley. 

Chester-le-Street. Heighington. 

Croxdale. Lanchester. 

Darlington. Middleton S. George. 
Durham, S. Mary in the S. Bailey. Monk Hesleden. 

Elton. Stranton. 

Ebchester. Wit ton Gilbert. 

Edmundbyers. Witton le Wear. 

It may, perhaps, be well to state that, in the above group of 



churches, it is by no means meant to assert that none of the windows 
were used as ' low side windows,' but only that there is no structural 
proof that any of them were so used. At Ebchester, for instance, the 
whole of the windows were thoroughly adapted to such purpose, 
having flat-stepped sills, on which a lamp could be set with perfect 
propriety. And the east window of the south aisle, or Hansard 
chantry, at Heighington, could also have been used equally well in 
the same way. But there is nothing either to indicate, or even 
suggest, the fact. All that can be said is that, in the whole of the 
above-named churches, there are no remains of any specially contrived 
apertures of the kind, whether detached, or in connexion with, i.e., 
forming part, either by elongation or subdivision, of any one or more 
of their windows. If ' lanternes des morts,' or graveyard lights, were 
really used within the buildings, it must have been in some slightly 
different way, of which we have now no existing evidence : or, if not, 
then, probably, as in many other cases, after the French and German 
fashion, in connexion with the destroyed churchyard crosses, 'of 
which we cannot now speak particularly.' For it would seem far 
more reasonable to suppose that so widely prevailing a custom should 
have been observed with some little variety of detail, than that in so 
many and important instances, where we should naturally expect to 
find some proof of it, it should not have been observed at all. 

Now, the first superficial comparison of these three groups reveals 
the very striking fact that, with respect to numbers, they are very 
nearly equal. What the proportion between the two remaining ones 
would be, could we but accurately divide the doubtful, or uncertain 
one into its component parts, would be as interesting, as it is, 
unfortunately, impossible, to know. It may not be unreasonable or 
extravagant, perhaps, to imagine at any rate, that it might prove to 
be pretty equally divided between such as had, and such as had not, 
these contrivances : in which case the result would be that one 
half of the old Durham churches would turn out to have been 
provided with ' low side windows ' of a structural character, while the 
other half, whatever methods may have been taken to achieve the 
same end, were unprovided with them. It would hardly seem likely, 
however, considering the oneness of the belief and practice which 


prevailed in connexion with matters pertaining to death and burial 
both at home and abroad, that a similar, if somewhat different, form 
of expression should not have obtained in those churches where such 
structural evidences are wanting, as in those where they are found. 
For so long as the light was actually exhibited, it would seem to 
matter little or nothing, whether it were so either in shuttered, or 
unshuttered windows ; or, as in Ireland, France, Germany, and 
various places here in England, outside in the churchyard. But it 
would be difficult to suppose, in face of the general witness, that there 
were any graveyards where, unless only private lights were placed for 
a time upon particular graves, as in Greece and Italy at the present 
day, there were none at all. Thus it by no means follows, and it 
would, moreover, probably, be quite as wrong as illogical to conclude 
that because, even in the case of a practically unmutilated church, 
there is no structural evidence of the existence of such lights, they 
were" not provided for in some, perhaps, only slightly different, while 
yet analogous, fashion. And this, for more reasons than one. In the 
first place, it is by no means clearly evident what the exact use of 
shutters, the evidences of which, if not, as sometimes happens, the 
actual shutters themselves, meet us in nearly, if not quite, all examples 
of these structural openings, really was. In the example of the 
* Todtenleuchter ' at Klosterneuburg, among others, it will be seen 
that the lamp hangs aloft simply protected by the glass lights of the 
lantern, though, of course, the wooden door giving access to it and its 
connected mechanism, is placed within easy reach of the ground. 
And, unless these shutters were meant to facilitate access to the 
lanterns set upon the inner sills of these ' low side windows,' from the 
churchyard, and could then, after they were extinguished, be shut to 
again, it is not easy to say what their precise purpose could have been. 
Were this really their object, however, then the difference might seem 
to resolve itself simply into this, viz., that these structural openings 
with shutters indicate only such as were meant to be utilized from the 
outside, while in other cases, the lamp, or lamps, could either be 
placed upon the sill, or else suspended, like the ' lanternes des morts ' 
and ' Todtenleuchten,' from a chain or cord within. 

And another and very cogent reason for supposing that a differ- 


ence of fashion in exhibiting the lights prevailed all along, is this : 
viz., that by far the greater proportion, nay, nearly all, of these 
structural apertures, and especially in the county of Durham, perhaps, 
are clearly not original, but later, and often very much later, insertions. 
How then, considering the remote, not to say primeval, antiquity of 
the practice, is this very singular and striking fact for such it 
undoubtedly is to be acccounted for ? Of all the twenty-five existing, 
or till lately existing, Durham examples, four only, viz., two at 
Winston, one at Trimdon, and one at Middleham, are of the same 
date as the walls in which they stand ; for the somewhat doubtful one 
at Kelloe, which differs from its fellows only in having its sill a few 
inches lower down, is not only almost entirely modern, but even in 
its small ancient portion no earlier than the middle of the four- 
teenth century (when the church was largely recast), while the actual 
walls in which it and the rest were inserted are at least a 
full century earlier. What, then, were the methods adopted for 
exhibiting lights both at, and after, the period when the churches, 
where by far the larger proportion of these * low side windows ' are 
found, were built ? Since it seems impossible to suppose that the 
practice was abandoned, we are forced to conclude that some other older 
and still existing fashion then held sway, and that the introduction of 
'low side windows' early as some few examples doubtless are was 
yet of very slow and gradual development, and only adopted here and 
there, in preference to the ordinary way as occasion served. Thus, we 
may see clearly enough, I think, how the older and probably simpler 
methods, whatever they may have been, were never wholly, or anything 
like wholly, displaced, but continued, just as they were before, con- 
currently with, as well as after, the introduction of these shuttered 
insertions commonly known and spoken of as ' low side windows.' 

And this consideration will serve to explain in a perfectly satis- 
factory way the, at first sight, somewhat perplexing problem, how it 
happens that in so many comparatively large and important churches, 
as those of Darlington, Ohester-le-Street, Gateshead and Lanchester 
for instance, we should find no signs of them whatever ; while such 
small and obscure structures as those of Seaham, Redmarshall, 
Dalton-le-Dale, and especially Cockfield, one of the very least in the 
whole county, where there are two, should all have them. 



Coming now to the examination of those examples of which either 
the historical or material evidences remain, we arrive, in the first 
place, at the church of S. Andrew Auckland, where we shall find two, 
both possessing features somewhat out of the common. The first, 
which occurs in the usual position at the south-west corner of the 
chancel looks, from the outside, mean and poor enough. As the 
character of the work shews, it is a palpably late insertion introduced 
amidst the disturbed masonry occupying the place of the original 
priest's door. Now, since the sole reason for the removal of this door 
was, as is clear, the introduction of the stalls by cardinal Langley in 
1416, when a new place was contrived for it by the destruction of the 
westernmost sedile, we get the date of this aperture exactly. Seeing 
that it possesses no architectural character, however, that is not a point 
of much interest. What is of some interest, is the curiously recessed 
position it occupies, so suggestive of those thinnings or hollo wings 
of the wall occasionally, though rarely met with, and which, descend- 
ing to the ground, terminate there in a low step or platform. 
Their obvious purpose would seem to have been to afford more con- 
venient access to the lamp, or shutter, from the inside. But in this 
case, since the stalls continue in an unbroken line, flush with the 
general surface of the wall, no such purpose could be served. Since 
the interior stonework, however, which, though new, appears to be an 
exact reproduction of the original, has its sill level with the backs 
of the stalls, it may probably have been contrived merely to 
allow more space for the lamp and its accessories. The height of this 
opening to the glass, from the ground level outside, is about five feet. 

The other, which, to adopt a similar nomenclature, may rather be 
called a ' high end,' than a ' low side,' window, is much more remark- 
able, for it is not only of the original thirteenth century-construction, 
but placed in the west face of the tower, and at an elevation of about 
eighteen feet from the grass. Structurally, it is interesting from the 
point of internal evidence. Built originally with its sill just clear of 
the head of the northern of the two lancets which light the ground 
storey of the tower, it at once became plain that the latter were too 
short, when by way of sacrificing the less to the greater the sill- 



stone was thereupon taken out bodily, the head of the lancet raised to 
the desired height, and the lower part of the curtailed light roughly 
filled up against it with small rubble. It is now, unfortunately, 
blocked throughout the entire thickness of the wall ; but it was 
widely splayed, as its lintel, still distinctly visible on the inside, 
remains to shew. The west, the region of darkness, was held, it will 

be remembered, to be especially 
significant, and under the 
dominion of the devil. Hence, 

f perhaps, the establishment of this 

beacon light in that direction, 
which would throw its beams, not 
only on the churchyard below, 
but far up the narrow valley of 
the Gaunless, on whose banks the 
deanery, and one, at least, of the 
old prebendal houses stood. 


The church of Barnard Castle 
furnishes us with an exceptionally 
interesting instance of a 'low 
side window,' really 'low,' and 
really ' side,' though its interest, 
which is three-fold, lies in other 
directions. In the first place, its 
position is an unusual one west 
of the south porch, and between 
it and the south-west angle of 
the aisle ; in the second, it has 
had an internal recess of access 
contrived in the interior of the 
wall, of which there are now, 
however, only slight remains; and in the third, King Richard 
III., of bloody and unhappy memory, as lord of the place, 
was a chief contributor to the works (of which this open- 
ing, and the three-light window over it formed part), and on 


N.W. Window of Tower, and High End Window 


which his badge and crowned head may yet be seen. It is 
not, let me say, as might at first sight, perhaps, be thought, the 
remains of an earlier window, the head of which had been destroyed 
to make way for the sill of the larger one above, but, on the contrary, 
of the same late Perpendicular character, and contemporary with it. 
Why its upper part should have been mutilated in the elaborately 
wanton and deliberate way we now see, would be difficult to under- 
stand, did we not find the same misdirected energy employed in an 
equally remorseless way elsewhere, as at Old Seaham, and S. 
Margaret's, York, for instance. That, occupying such a position as 
this, as far removed as possible from all altars, and even beyond the 
range of the chief door, it should have been constructed for the 
purpose of ringing a hand-bell through at the * Sanctus ' in the mass 
as the latest 'scientific' theory would have it is, of course, even 
supposing such a practice ever to have existed, altogether absurd. 
Among other local examples, occupying precisely similar positions, 
may be mentioned one in the adjoining parish of Staindrop ; another, 
quite recently destroyed, at Whickham, near G-ateshead ; and a third, 
an early one of the thirteenth century, at St. Mary's, Castlegate, 
York, still open, and perfectly preserved. 


The parish church of Cockfield, unless, perhaps, those of Elton, 
Middleton S. George, and S. Mary in the South Bailey, Durham, beex- 
cepted, is probably the smallest, as it is certainly among the smallest, in 
the county of Durham. It possesses also the somewhat rare distinction 
of having been built all at one time, as well as of remaining save 
for the loss of its original roof, now, however, well restored almost 
untouched. Yet, small as it is, it had, besides the high, or parish 
altar, two others, one on each side of the chancel arch, whose piscinas 
remain to bear witness to them. All is of the simplest kind a little 
rude, perhaps, but what is of more importance, solemn, quiet, and 
impressive. It had, and, indeed, has yet, two Mow side windows,' 
one, the larger, on the south, the other, opposite, on the north side. 
Like the church itself, both are small and perfectly simple. They 
are, however, as almost always happens, insertions of much later, 
though uncertain, date. During the operation the southern one has 


slightly broken in upon the hoodmould of the priest's doorway. It 
is about two feet three inches high, by rather less than a foot wide, 
but unfortunately remains blocked, so that its internal arrangements 
cannot be seen. The other, which is much smaller, being only about 
a foot and a half long by six inches wide, is turned towards the 
village ; thus making it all the less suitable for the purpose of that 
hand-bell ringing which someone or other, with more imagination 
than scholarship, and through sheer ignorant blundering, supposed to 
be enjoined in the Constitutions of archbishop Peckham. Its 
internal evidences are now, worse than hidden lost. 


This interesting and somewhat peculiar church must once have 
enjoyed a charmingly sequestered and beautiful situation. Seated in 
the deep declivity of a narrow vale beside a babbling stream, all its 
accessories of shelving wood and water were calculated to enhance 
its impressions of simple, unaffected dignity. It is aisleless, with 
unusually lofty walls and long, narrow, chamfered lancets north and 
south, with a single one to the west and a triplet to the east. There 
is a fine large south doorway with jamb-shafts, of early character, and 
another, still earlier, of late Transitional date and richly zig-zagged, 
to the north. The latter would seem to have been, originally, the 
chief or south door of an older and smaller church, but removed to its 
present place, on the erection of what was practically a new one, some 
forty or fifty years later. Such at least, since no other feature in the 
same style occurs in the existing fabric, seems to be the likeliest 
explanation of its presence in the place it now occupies, viz., close to 
the base of a precipitous bank where it could never have been of much 
more use than now, when it is built up. 

The chancel arch has entirely vanished ; and the whole interior, 
fitted with mean, deal seats, plastered ceilings, and pink- washed walls, 
presents the most wretched and forlorn appearance imaginable. 

The ' low side window ' occupies here, as at S. Giles's, Durham, a 
very unusual position the north-east corner, or what, before the 
destruction of the arch and its supports, would have been the north- 
east corner, of the nave. Again, in confusion of the preposterous 
hand-bell theory it is set, as the drawing shows, close down upon the 

Arch. Ad. vol. xxiii. ; to face p. 208, 

Plate vi. 


J. F. H. mens. et delt. 

HAUGHTON LE SKERNE (see page 214), 


basement near the bank side, where the bell ringing, though it might, 
perchance, startle some stray sparrow, could do little more. Again, 
too, as in the preceding examples, it is seen to be an insertion 
possibly as early as the middle of the fourteenth century, though 
hardly earlier, and, probably, somewhat later. But, whatever explora- 

J. F. H. metis, et delt. 


tion might show its proximate date to be, it must clearly have 
consisted of two lights, as similar, perhaps, in character as in size and 
form, to those of the still happily remaining, though long buried one 
at Easington. But the presence of the large blocking stones would 
seem to show that its filling in, or tracery, of whatever kind, had been 



effectually destroyed before they could have been introduced. It 
craves an opening, which some local society might do worse than 


Of the six ancient parish churches of the city of Durham two, viz., 
those of S. Mary-le-Bow and S. Nicholas, were utterly destroyed and 
re-built, the one in the seventeenth, the other in the nineteenth, 
century, and, consequently, all their witness went with them. But 
of the remaining four, it is interesting to note, that no fewer than 
three are, or were, provided with l windows ' of this class ; two of 
them, indeed, being so still, though all evidence of the third was 
carefully expunged, now more than sixty years since. The two 
remaining instances are seen at S. Giles's and S. Margaret's. The 
destroyed one at S. Oswald's, of which the sole remaining evidence is 
to be found in the view of the church given in Surtees's History, 
occupied the usual position at the south-west corner of the chancel, 
and was a late insertion of large size, plain, square-headed, transomed, 
of two lights, and quite domestic character. Like it, the other two 
are also late insertions, plain and square-headed, but like the 
churches themselves much smaller. Unlike it, however, they both 
occupy very exceptional positions : that at S. Giles's, like the one at 
Dalton-le-Dale, at the north-east angle of the nave ; that at S. 
Margaret's, at the west end of the south aisle. Of the two, the 
S. Giles's opening is the larger, but is completely blocked, so that it is 
impossible to say how it was fitted. But, as the opening in the clear 
was no more than fourteen inches, it must have been of a single light 
only, and probably quite plain. The sill is three feet four inches 
above the ground ; and the eastern jamb about a foot and a half from 
the east buttress of the nave. Whether there was a corresponding 
opening at the other side cannot now certainly be said, as the church, 

* When the late Mr. Billings published his Architectural Antiquities of the 
County y in 1846, the chancel arch, which he describes as ' a circular one without 
ornament,' was still standing. Like the doorway, it doubtless formed almost the 
only part of the older building suffered to remain when the present church, 
which is throughout of distinctly early English character, was undertaken in 
the early part of the thirteenth century. Little more than restoration of the 
ancient form of the roof would be needed to make this a very striking and 
impressive village church indeed. 


formerly aisleless, had, some years since, a broad aisle, nearly 
equal in dimensions to the nave, added on to it towards the south. I 
feel pretty sure, however, that there was not one. 

That at S. Margaret's is still more remarkable, since it is not only 
at the end of the south aisle, facing west, but actually on the level of 
the ground a position at once negativing the 'hand-bell,' 'confession,' 
and ' leper ' theories as completely as can be conceived. Its breadth is 
almost the same as that at S. Giles's, though its height is much less, 
for, even were the grass and soil at its base cleared away, it could 

J. F. H. mens. et delt. 


hardly exceed fourteen inches, thus bringing it to about a square. The 
earth table, which has apparently been stepped to accommodate it, is 
of late date, like the tower, and forms no part of the original structure 
of the church, which reaches to Norman times. 

But another, and as yet unreferred to, remains to mention, viz., 
that which appears in the usual place in the church of S. Mary in the 
South Bailey. This is, perhaps, notwithstanding the number already 
mentioned, the only real, genuine 'low side window,' justifying the 


name, that I have met with. For, though many 'are * low,' and most 
of them * side,' this is, perhaps, the only one of all which in strict 
sense can be called a ' window,' that is, an opening contrived for the 
admission of external and natural, as opposed to the transmission of 
internal and artificial, light. It is, moreover, unlike any, so far 
noticed in this account, strictly contemporary with the ancient fabric 
of which it forms so striking a feature as to have obtained a special 
archaeological record. 

Yet, alas ! that it should prove an absolute and unmitigated fraud. 
Originally the west window of the nave gable, it was taken out during 
the general restoration of the church under the late Dr. Raine, now 
more than fifty years ago, to make room for one of larger size, and 
then, possibly without any deliberate intention to deceive, inserted in 
the place so commonly occupied by these openings the south-west 
corner of the chancel. How often does partial truth prove the worst 
form of falsehood ! 


By far the most interesting and perfect of our Durham cemetery 
lights is that which, though long known to exist, remained completely 
blocked, up to 1895, by the grave stone of archdeacon Pye, who died 
in 1808. After a lengthened waiting this obstruction has now been 
completely cleared away, and the opening, happily intact, again 
revealed to sight. Occupying the usual position near the south-west 
angle of the chancel, from which its western jamb is but five inches 
distant, and set at the average height of four and a half feet above 
the ground, its special peculiarity lies in this, viz., that small and 
low set as it is, it is yet not only arch-headed and of two lights, but 
transomed. And a further and very remarkable point is that the 
entire inner plane of the aperture, sill, jambs, arch tracery, mullion 
and transom, are all cut out of a single stone slab about four and a 
half inches thick. This, however, is set in an unusally deep and well- 
proportioned casement, which gives the glass plane a recess of not less 
than nine inches from the surface. Now, there are many arch-headed 
and transomed ' low side windows ' as they are called, no doubt, in 
divers parts, as at Crossby Garret and Goldsborough, to take two fine 
local examples ; but then, these are all large church windows of 


normal size, of which one or both of the openings below the transom 
set commonly in a line with the sills of the other windows have been 
provided with shutters. Here, however, the case is altogether differ- 
ent, for we find this, the usual type, reproduced, not in the ordinary 
dimensions, but in miniature, the whole composition, including the 
arched head, coming bodily beneath the other window sills. Again, 
though all four compartments are grooved for glass, only the lower 
western one is rebated for the reception of a shutter, of which the 
hinge, and fastening marks, remain still. Like all hitherto described, 
it is an insertion, a fourteenth-century one, in a thirteenth-century 
wall, through which it has been somewhat roughly broken. Inside, 
its appearance is simply that of a rude square hole. Some little while 
since, it was happily filled with excellent stained glass in memory of 
the late rev. T. H. Chester, the subjects represented being the four 
chief saints of Northumbria. 

Hut, though the most interesting and important, this is not the 
only ' low side window,' apparently, in Easington church. For, on 
the north side, and towards the west end of what, to all appearance, 
was originally a chantry, but is now a vestry, may be seen the remains 
of another, plainer, and much smaller. It is set at about the 
same height from the ground as the other, but has been only of a 
single, square-headed, chamfered light, about two feet high, and 
probably about one broad ; but its eastern side has been destroyed, 
and the remaining one, towards the west, blocked up. 


In the usual place, the south-west corner of the chancel, but un- 
usually low down upon the ground line indeed may still be seen the 
fragmentary remains of a small, plain, square-headed, ' low side ' 
opening, in all respects similar to that at Redmarshall (described and 
illustrated farther on) but only about a quarter of its size, or about 
one foot square instead of two. It is so mutilated and hidden away 
however, that, except on very close investigation, its existence would 
never so much as be suspected. It is of course blocked as usual, and 
all its interior evidence thereby effectually obscured. But it is inter- 
esting as shewing the extraordinary pains taken here, as elsewhere, not 
merely to do 'away with, but obliterate, all traces of these apertures. 


Such a fanatical amount of zeal as they elicited would seem in many 
cases, indeed, to have approached, even if it did not touch, something 
closely akin to madness. 


The church of Haughton, much as of late years it has been 
tampered with and altered, possesses still many interesting features : 
notably the early Norman work of the south, west, and (blocked) 
north doorways of the nave ; the contemporary remains of the south 
and east windows of the chancel ; and the plain, low, narrow chancel 
arch. How far the existing building retains any portions of its 
Saxon predecessor cannot certainly be said, perhaps ; but part of the 
quoining of the south-east angle of its chancel may readily be detected 
about midway in the length of the present one, southwards. This, 
together with one of the, apparently, inserted Norman windows, is 
shown in the drawing. The point of special interest in the present 
enquiry, however, is the 'low side window' shown in the usual 
position. Its sill is at the usual height, about four and a half feet 
above the surface ; and its full general dimensions about seven feet 
by a little over four. Like all the foregoing, it is a palpable insertion, 
but differs from them in these particulars, that we can, in this 
instance, point, not only to its proximate date, but to its probable 
donor. From a comparison of its tracery with that of the sedilia in 
Darlington church, as also of the tower and aisle windows there, 
there can be little or no doubt whatever that it must be referred to 
the days of rector Ingleby, whose arms, as one of the canons, appears 
upon one of the shields on the sedilia, and who died in 1375. With 
his period the work agrees perfectly. And a very singular point of 
resemblance, as regards detail, may be noticed between the cusping of 
the ogee-heads of the lights and that of the window arcading in the 
Darlington tower, and especially at so late a period in the style, viz., 
that it is, as in the transition from Early English to Geometrical, 
soffit cusping, springing, that is, from the soffit, and not from the 
chamfer plane. And even in the sedilia and aisle windows where, 
owing to the size of the openings, it springs in the usual way from the 
chamfer, it does so in a very delicate and subdued manner, having a 
bold roll and fillet moulding, defining the main lines in front of it. 


Till lately, the window was blocked up, and so far mutilated that it 
has needed very extensive restoration. This, however, so far as can 
be judged, has been effected in a minutely exact and conscientious 
manner. Inside, the sill, as at Easington, Dalton-le-Dale, and 
Auckland, is quite flat, and suitable for the placing of a light. The 
interior, being almost entirely new, calls for no particular remarks. 


The famous monastical church of Jarrow, whether from a historical 
or architectural point of view, cannot fail to be regarded as one of the 
most precious and instructive in the kingdom, especially in North- 
umbria. For, though ten years later in respect of its foundation than 
that of Wearmouth ; while only the tower and attached gable of the 
latter remain, the entire church of Jarrow still stands practically 
perfect. And in no way is its witness more interesting, perhaps, than 
in connexion with that class of antiquities which we have more 
immediately under review. For it presents us, as there seems every 
reason to believe, with the very earliest example of these openings in 
the kingdom, if not, as by no means improbable, seeing it is of the 
original construction of 685, in the world. Nor is this all ; for on 
the north side directly opposite is another, a single-light insertion of 
early fourteenth century date ; while below and to the west of the first 
is a large three-light window of flowing-pointed character, introduced 
probably circa 1350-60, and which may, not improbably, have formed 
a third. 

The first and earliest of these apertures can never, apparently, 
have been intended ^to serve the same uses as the other three windows 
of similar size and character which light the church towards the 
south, since, as the elevation shows, it is wholly and markedly 
dissociated from them, its sill being above the level of their heads, 
just as, conversely, the heads of the later ' low side windows' are placed 
below the sills of those adjoining to them. Moreover, while the three 
south windows proper are equally spaced at a distance of about ten 
and a half feet apart, this is set so close to the westernmost of them 
that in the interior the jamb, base, and headstones of their splayed 
faces are in contact. The sole constructive difference between the higher 


set opening and the rest, and which, like its position, might seem 
designed to indicate a difference of purpose, consists in its head being 
composed of voussoirs, while theirs are cut out of single stones. And 
what is not a little curious also is the circumstance that it occupies, 
though at a higher level, precisely the same position which in after 
times became the normal one for this class of apertures, the south-west 
angle of the choir. Placed at such a height in the walls, which 
themselves stand on a considerable elevation, the light of a lamp 
must have shone conspicuous far and wide across the dead swampy 
level of the Don, and served as a well-defined beacon for the living, 
as well as a protection for the dead. 

We come next to the early fourteenth century insertion opposite, 
at the north-west angle of what originally the oratory of the 
Saxon monastery forms now the chancel of the parish, or in 
later medieval times, of the monastic, church. This again, as the 
masonry itself sufficiently shews, is of quite another date than the 
wall through which it has been broken. The inner sill, as in all 
previous instances, is flat ; the stonework of the light itself rebated 
for the reception of a wooden frame ; while the holes for the bolt and 
the hinge fastenings are still perfect. The aperture, in the clear, is 
about a foot wide by about three and a half feet high, and four above 
the outside surface of the ground. 

As to the large three-light window towards the south, it would 
seem far from improbable that, after the destruction, whether 
accidental or deliberate, of the primitive Saxon one, it would be 
used for the same purpose, and, probably, in the same way, viz., 
by the suspension of a lamp from above, exactly as in the case of 
the ' lanternes des morts ' and ' Todtenleuchten.' 


Kelloe church indissolubly associated with the pious, but un- 
fortunate bishop of that place-name like that of Dalton-le-Dale, is 
situate, not in what was once, but is even yet, a pretty little valley, 
plentifully besprinkled and relieved with trees. With a small squat 
tower of, apparently, Norman date at the west end, and a Norman 
south door with cushion-capitaled shafts, it presents, in other 
respects, a far more profuse display of Decorated work in its buttresses 

o S 



- ll 


and windows than can, perhaps, anywhere else be met with in the 
county, a result due, as can hardly be doubted, to its connexion with 
the bishop, whose parish church it was. While the large east window 
of the chancel remains nearly perfect, those of the nave, as well as 
the other chancel windows, have been very largely renewed ; among 
them that with which we are more particularly concerned the 
south-westernmost one of the chancel. 

If of somewhat doubtful character, it is yet, on the whole, not 
improbably, perhaps, an example of that section which in some other 
cases, as here, possibly, may rightly be styled windows ; that is, a 
window, pure and simple, though applied to a particular, and sub- 
sidiary use. Whether its tracery exactly reproduces the original or 
not though I think it probably does so is more than I can say, 
for not only is the whole of the inner order new work, but the greater 
part, indeed, I think all, save three stones, perhaps, of the outer one 
also. ' The inside sill is flat, as are the adjoining ones, but then they 
are all modern, and provided with ventilators, so that nothing can be 
argued from that circumstance. The only one pointing to the 
original having, perhaps, belonged to the class we are considering is, 
that its exterior sill is at a lower level than the rest, being only five 
feet above the surface, while that of the adjoining lancet, east of 
it, is no less than six feet eight inches. Such as it is, however, and 
though at the best, perhaps, but of ' doubtful character,' I here 
mention it for whatever it may be worth. 


Though containing portions of earlier walling, Medomsley church, 
like that of Dalton-le-Dale, may yet be said to have been built, 
practically, all at one time and in one style that of the early 
thirteenth century. Indeed, prior to its comparatively recent restora- 
tion and enlargement by the addition of a new north aisle and vestry, 
the two churches bore a striking resemblance to each other ; the one 
only, as planted on a hill top, being of less lofty proportions than the 
other, planned for the deep seclusion of a vale. Till then it consisted 
simply of a long nave and chancel, with a little open bell-cot on its 
western gable. As to the chancel, the eastern two-thirds have very 
clearly been added on to the western third, since the string course 

VOL. xxm. 28 



which runs beneath the fine eastern triplet, and is continued along 
the south wall, stops abruptly at that point just at the west side of 
the central of the three southern lancets. The character of the 
masonry also differs somewhat not much, indeed, but visibly. Half 
under, and half westwards of the western lancet (modern, since the 
original had been destroyed) we come upon evidences of what may not 
impossibly have been a 'low side window.' At first sight, it might 
be taken for the remains of the priest's door ; and such, from the 


j. P. H. mens. et delt. 

fact of the jambs running straight up to a thin course of flagstones, 
which extends both above and on either side of it, might seem the 
most probable explanation. At any rate, the lintel, which has been 
removed, must have been higher than the remaining jambs, whether 
it were that of a doorway or any other opening. If of a doorway, 
then considerably so, as the height of the jambs is only three feet 
seven inches. Previous to the introduction of the present lancet 
which exactly reproduces the two ancient ones to the east of it 


there was a long, seventeenth century window of two round-headed 
lights, the insertion of which, unless it were already gone, must 
necessarily have caused the destruction of the head of this opening, 
of whatever kind it may have been. Its western jamb is four feet five 
inches from the south-west angle of the chancel ; and its width 
exactly suited to a doorway two feet nine inches. But then, on the 
other hand, it has been blocked, partly with large stones, in the same 
elaborate and purposeful manner that we see both at Dalton-le-Dale 
and Seaham, where there can be no question as to the character of the 
openings ; and it is further provided at its base, not with a regular 
thirteenth-century sill, as at Auckland, Cockfield, and elsewhere, gener- 
ally, built into, and forming part of the jambs, but with what can only 
be described as a projecting shelf, of its full width inserted between 
the jambs, which is now broken away obliquely towards the ends, but 
which, in the centre, is sfcill no less than ten inches broad, and eight 
and a half inches thick. And this, let me say, is no ordinary step, 
detached from the wall, and simply resting on the ground ; but built 
into the wall, and having its under surface raised three or four inches 
clear of the ground. Now, on the north side of the chancel of 
Kirkburton church, Yorkshire, there was shewn to the members of the 
British Archaeological Association, by the late W. Fairless Barber, 
in 1874, what was described by him as a ' hagioscope,' having 'a stone 
seat fixed in the wall, upon which the leper, or other infected person 
sat.' That, of course, was all nonsense, but, however vain the theory, 
the solid fact of the stone remained, as, in a somewhat different form, 
it does yet at Seaham, where it appears as a low seat formed of 
rubble, immediately at the foot of the blocked and almost obliterated 
' low side window ' there. 

Now, failing the possibility of exploring this quondam aperture, 
and thus ascertaining the fact with certainty, it might seem a not 
irrational working theory to suppose that, having, perhaps, in the 
first instance, been a priest's door as both its position and remain- 
ing dimensions apparently indicate it was at some later though 
uncertain time converted to other, or mortuary, purposes ; that on 
their abandonment it was, as usual, elaborately blocked up ; and 
then, on the insertion of the seventeenth, or it may be later, window, 


was still further and finally mutilated by the removal of its lintel, and 
the breaking away of the ends of its shelf or sill. 

Such, judging, as I am unfortunately compelled to do, superficially, 
is the only explanation, however impotent, that I can offer of what is 
certainly as interesting, as doubtful, a fragment. The drawing, in 
which every stone is carefully measured, must bear its witness to be 
interpreted just as each one will. 


Next after Jarrow, the church of Norton viewed in respect of its 
earlier, as well as of its later features is certainly one of, if not, 
perhaps, the most curious and valuable of all within the county of 
Durham. Originally a cruciform, aisleless, Saxon structure, it was 
largely recast in the days of Pudsey by an entire rebuilding of its 
nave, with the important additions of arcades, aisles and clearstoreys ; 
the reconstruction of the west and east arches of the tower ; and a 
lengthening of the choir eastwards, by the erection of another bay, 
forming the sanctuary. As early as 1082, when the seculars were 
expelled from the church of Durham by William of S. Calais, it 
became collegiate ; and hence, doubtless, the alterations and improve- 
ments it underwent both in Pudsey's time, and still later under Fox. 
In 1496, we find that famous and exemplary prelate sequestrating the 
income of the canons for the purpose of rebuilding the choir, and 
assigning as a reason for his so doing, that ' the canons, prebendaries 
of the same church had permitted the chancel of the said collegiate 
church, which had been decently and richly constructed for the praise 
and worship of God, to fall into ruin and desolation, as well in the 
roof, main walls, and windows, as in divers other respects.' To this 
very proper and necessary act of * visitation ' the chancel bears living 
witness to the present day, especially as regards the roof and windows. 
Besides the eastern one, hardly, it must be confessed, 'a thing of 
beauty, and a joy for ever,' there are two others towards the south, all 
of which owe their existence to this action of the bishop who thus 
1 being dead, yet speaketh.' The two latter are both alike in point of 
design, the sole difference being that the western one is placed at a 
lower level than the other, its internal sill, which is flat, being no 
more than three feet above the floor. As the drawing shows, the 

I I 




TO n 


work though as simple as possible in respect of the tracery if, indeed, 
the mere arched heads of the lights can rightly be termed such is yet 
well and deeply moulded, both sides being alike, and with the glass, as 
usual at the time, set exactly in the centre. Beyond its flat sill and 
lower level, however, there are no distinct evidences of its having ever 
served as a mortuary window ; but it might seem, very probably, to 
have belonged to a class, of which we can hardly doubt there would 
be many as well after, as before the introduction of separate and 
distinct apertures for the exhibition of such lights exclusively which 
were naturally utilized for the same purpose, and for which, so far as 
we can see, they were equally well adapted. 


In the wall of the north aisle of Pittington church, and opposite 
the easternmost bay of the original Norman arcade, are to be seen two 
small*, narrow, square-headed openings, now blocked, and about seven 
feet apart. The wall itself was rebuilt many years ago, when these 
two features are said to have been reinserted in their former positions. 
They have been imagined (though fondly) to have formed two of the 
original lights of the added late Norman aisle. But this, whatever 
their origin, they certainly did not. That, at any rate, goes without 
saying. To what precisely later period they should be referred, how- 
ever, is not so readily determined. For though possibly of the 
thirteenth, they are more probably of the fourteenth, or perhaps 
fifteenth, centuries. As the annexed carefully measured elevation 
shews, they are simply and very slightly chamfered, not so broadly as 
we should expect to find in the advanced fourteenth, or fifteenth, century 
period, but more probably at some date between about 1280 and 1330. 
Every vestige of their inner parts is, however, gone, and we can 
therefore only judge of their former use by analogy. They would 
certainly seem to have belonged to the class of so-called ' low side 
windows,' though their arrangement is, to some extent, unusual. At 
Middleham church, Yorks., there are two openings, somewhat broader, 
and six feet or more apart, below the east window of the chancel ; and 
two others, considerably less than these at Pittington, at the east end of 
Atcham church, Salop. Quite recently, however, and indeed while 


these last pages were passing through the press, I came upon a very 
curious, but externally much mutilated example at Riccall church, 
near Selby, in a position very similar to that of these, viz., in the 
north aisle wall of the nave, and nearly opposite the south door. 
Internally, there is a perfectly preserved four-centred arch, very nearly 
flat, about six feet wide, and, together with its jambs, four and a half 
feet high. These, up to the surface of the present ashlar blocking, 
are about fifteen inches deep ; the front part of the sill being sloped, 
while the back, next the blocking, is flat. Outside, unfortunately, the 
same careful obliteration has been resorted to as is observable at Elwick 
Hall and Old Seaham only one stone, and that partly covered up, 
being left in position in the eastern corner, which still reveals its 

PITTINGTON. j. F. ii. mens. et delt. 

chamfer. More interesting and curious by far, however, than even 
this, is an accessory attached to it in the shape of a well-designed, 
semi-octagonal bracket, of earlier date than the recess, and but ten 
inches in diameter too small apparently for a statue, of which indeed 
there is no indication, and which therefore, I think, can only have been 
intended, as at Elkstone and elsewhere, for an external lamp. Of 
some such arrangement as this we seem also to have an indication at 
the west end of the north aisle of the church of S. Mary, Castlegate, 
York. There, below the sill of the great west window, is a highly 
curious ' low end ' one, square-headed, and of five lights, the two 
northernmost of which are distinguished from the rest by being not 
only more highly enriched, but grouped together by an enclosing arch. 


Its sill is one foot nine inches above the ground ; its height three feet 
seven inches ; and its length seven feet eight inches. But the special 
peculiarities in this case, or rather perhaps one of them is, that the flat 
sill for the lamp, or lamps presumably, is on the outside, not inside ; the 
window itself having evidently once been enclosed within some kind of 
portico or chamber, remains of which may still be faintly traced to 
the north, west, and south, and into which a doorway at the south end of 
the window, but now blocked, opened originally from the church. But 
whatever its nature or uses, the roof of this structure must have been 
quite flat, as there is but the space of eight inches between the head 
of the Mow,' and sill of the ' high,' end window over it. In point of 
height and length, as well as provision for outside light, this window 
at S. Mary's would seem to have had some kind of analogy with that 
at Biccall, though how far that extended cannot now, perhaps, 
be said. Anyhow, both are valuable as helping to shew in 
how ' many now forgotten and varying ways provision was 
once evidently made for the good estate and protection of the 
faithful dead. 


The miniature village of Redmarshall enjoys vastly greater 
advantages of prospect and situation than most others in the county. 
And its church, a small, aisleless building, consisting of chancel, nave, 
with a transeptal chapel to the south, and a little pinnacled west 
tower, is interesting, and stands well. Essentially Norman, it 
possesses still a very high and narrow Norman tower arch of a single 
square-edged order ; a chancel arch of similar description, though 
much lower and broader ; and by far the finest and richest of the 
Norman doorways yet extant in Durham. In the fifteenth-century 
chapel, known as the Olaxton porch, is the fine alabaster tomb of 
Thomas de Langton, lord of Wynyard, and Sybill, his wife, the one in 
a suit of plate mail, the other wearing the horned head-dress ; but 
now, through modern stupidity, or worse, made to lie, not Christianly, 
as of old, east and west, but heathen-wise, north and south. East of 
the chapel come the sedilia, which may be best described, perhaps, as 
a long, low, rectangular recess, presenting exactly the front aspect of 
window with mullions and tracery, the latter taking the form of three 


uncusped ogee-headed lights or apertures with pierced trefoils in the 
spandrils, and all enclosed within a label which terminates eastwards in 
the head of a king, and westwards in that of a bishop. Whether the 
ecclesiastics may have intended to afford a practical lesson in humility, 
as those who, though ' sitting by themselves,' were yet ' lowly in their 
own eyes,' or not, I cannot say ; but the stone seat, after a fashion 
which I never either saw, or heard of, elsewhere, is only six and a half 
inches above the floor an arrangement which, since the canopies 
themselves are unusually low, gives the whole a very singular and 
surprising appearance. The head of the bishop, with its deep scowling 
brows and great mouth, protruding like that of a baboon, is well 
worth notice on account of its phenomenal ugliness. Like two other, 
but much smaller, label terminations on the outside, however, it shews 
very considerable, if untutored, skill and power of expression. 

Immediately opposite, to the north, is another very unusual and 
also very well preserved recess of another kind, a combined tomb, and, 
as I think can hardly be doubted, Easter sepulchre. Beneath a hooded 
roll and filleted circular-segmental arch is the flat grave-cover of a 
priest, sculptured in very low relief, with an extremely narrow shaft 
carrying a chalice, and terminating in a perfectly plain cross within 
a sunk circle. Altogether, a very striking and unusual arrangement, 
for the grave slab lies flat upon the floor. 

But chiefly interesting as regards this enquiry, is that to which 
the foregoing constitute but a mere prelude the mortuary light, in 
the usual south-west corner of the chancel. Outside, it is absolutely 
perfect, though, unfortunately, blocked. Like all above described, it 
too is a late insertion, yet, in its way, quite as exceptional as the